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Full text of "A compendium of the comparative grammar of the Indo-European, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin languages;"

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Madison Av. and 49th St. New York. 

Beside the main topic this book also treats of 
Subject No. On page Subject No. On page 




A COMPENDIUM 



COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR 



INDO-EFKOPEAN, SANSKRIT, GREEK AND LATIN 

LANGUAGES. 



AUGUST SCHLEICHEE. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE THIRD GERMAN EDITION 
BY 

HEEBEET BENDALL, M.A. 

CHR. COLL. GAME. 



II. 




LONDON : 
TEUBNEE & CO., 57 AND 59, LUDGATE HILL. 

1877. 
All rights reserved. 



HERTFORD: 

STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS, PRINTERS. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



II. MOKPHOLOGY. 



A. BOOTS AND STEMS. 

80. The form of the Indo-European word. 

All Indo-European words originally of one form . . . 161 
81. Boot-formation. 

The different forms of root; transposition of vowel a in 

roots 164 

82. Stem-formation. 

1. Stems from unmodified root 166 

2. Stems formed by means of suffixes 166 

Primary and secondary suffixes 167 

3. Composition 168 

1. The formation of derived verb-stems. 

83. Derived verb-stems in general ; distinction between stem- 
verbs and derived- verbs 171 

84. Verb- stems in origl. -ya- (-a-ya-}. 

Indo-European ..." 173 

Sanskrit 174 

Greek (verbs in -e, -oo>, -a&>) 176 

Latin (verbs in -a-, -e-, -z-) . 177 



999U? 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

85. Noun-stems used as verb-stems, without change. 

Sanskrit 180 

Greek 180 

Latin 183 

86. Yerb-stems, formed by reduplicating the root 

and adding -sa- t except in the present --. 

Sanskrit 184 

2. Those noun-stems most closely allied to verb-stems (participles 
and infinitives), etc. 

87. I. The root without suffix is at the same time 
a noun-stem. 

Indo-European 185 

Sanskrit (infinitive) 185 

Greek (infinitive of the compound aorist) 186 

Latin 187 

88. II. Stems with suffix -a-. 

Indo-European 187 

Sanskrit (infinitive) 187 

Greek 189 

Latin 189 

88a. III. Stems with suffix --. 

Indo-European 190 

Sanskrit 190 

Greek 191 

Latin 191 

88b. IY. Stems with suffix -u-. 

Indo-European 191 

Sanskrit 191 

Greek 191 

Latin 192 

89. Y. Stems with suffix -ya-. 

1. -ya- as a primary suffix . 193 

Indo-European 193 

Sanskrit (part, necessit.) 193 

Greek 194 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. V 

PAGE 

Latin 194 

2. -ya- as a secondary suffix 195 

Sanskrit (participia necessit. in -tavya-, -aniya-} . . . 195 

Greek (part, in -reo-) 197 

Latin 197 

Note 2. Part. nee. in -endo- 198 

90. VI. Stems with suffix -va- (-van-}. 

Indo-European 200 

Sanskrit 200 

Greek 200 

Latin 200 

91. VII. Stems with, suffix -ma-, and suffixes which 
have -ma- as their first element (-man-, -ma-na-, 
-ma-nt-}. 

Indo-European 203 

Sanskrit (-ma-, -man-, -mant-, -min-} 203 

Greek (-ytto-, -pov-, -pev-, -fjuovrj-, -fuv-, -/-tar-) 204 

Latin (-mo-, -men-, -mon-, -mento-, -monio-} 205 

Participial suffix -ma-na- . 206 

Indo-European 206 

Sanskrit (part. med. and pass, in -mdna-, -ana-). . . . 206 

Greek (part, med., inf.) 207 

Latin (2 p. pi. med.-pass.) 209 

92. VIII. Stems with suffix origl. -ra-. 

Indo-European 210 

Sanskrit 210 

Greek . 210 

Latin 211 

93. IX. Stems with suffix -an-. 

Sanskrit 211 

Greek 212 

Latin 212 

93a. X. Stems with suffix -ana-. 

Indo-European 212 

Sanskrit , 212 

Greek (infin. in -evai, eiv) . 213 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Latin 214 

94. XI. Steins with suffix -na-. 

Sanskrit 214 

Greek 215 

Latin 215 

Suff. -na- forming past part, pass 215 

Indo-Eur 215 

Sanskrit 215 

Greek 215 

Latin 216 

95. XII. Stems with suffix -ni-. 

Indo-European 216 

Sanskrit (infin.) 216 

Greek 216 

Latin 217 

95a. XIII. Stems with suffix -nu-. 

96. XIY. Stems with suffix -ta-\ past part. pass. 

Indo-European 218 

Sanskrit 218 

Greek 219 

Latin 220 

Suffixes whose first element is -ta- (-tdti-, -tat-, -tana-'] . 221 

97. XV. Stems with suffixes -tar-, -tra-. 

Sanskrit (n. agentis, part, fut.) 223 

Greek (-rep-, -T^p-, -rop-, -TO/JO-, -rpia-, -rpiS-, -T/JO-, 

-0po-, -T\O-, -T\T/-, -0\o-, -0X?7-) 224 

Latin (part. fut. in -turo- ; secondary formations of -tcur- 

by means of -ya- and -lc-) 226 

Latin suffix -Iro- 227 

98. XVI. Stems with suffix -ti-. 

Indo-European 228 

Sanskrit (inf., gerunds in -tya-, -ya-) 228 

Greek (shortening to -T-, secondary formation into -crta-) 229 

Latin (--, -tio, -tion-) . . . 230 

99. XVII. Stems with suffix -tu-. 

Indo-European 231 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vll 



PAGE 



Sanskrit (inf. in -turn, ger. in -tva, part, necess. in -tva-) 231 

Greek (-TU-, -a-vv^} 233 

Latin (supine ; suff . -tuo-, -tuti-, -tudon-, -tudin-) . . 233 

100. XYIII. Stems with suffix -dhi-. 

Sanskrit (inf. in -dhyai) 234 

Greek (inf. in -<rOai) 235 

101. XIX. Stems with suffix -ant-, -nt-; partic. act. 

Indo-European 235 

Sanskrit 236 

Greek 237 

Latin 237 

102. XX. Stems with suffix -as-. 

Indo-European 238 

Sanskrit (inf.) 238 

Greek 239 

Latin 240 

103. XXI. Stems with suffix -la-. 

Sanskrit 245 

Greek ....'. 245 

Latin 245 

3. Formation of Comparative and Superlative Stems. 

COMPARATIVE STEMS. 

104. 1. Suffix origl. -yam-. 

Indo-European * . . 246 

Sanskrit 246 

Greek 247 

Latin 247 

105. 2. Suffixes -tara- and -ra-. 

Indo-European 248 

Sanskrit . . 248 

Greek 249 

Latin 249 

SUPERLATIVE STEMS. 

106. 1. Suffix -ta-. 

Indo-European 250 



Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Sanskrit 250 

Greek (-TO-, -TCLTO-} 251 

Latin 251 

107. 2. Suffix -ma-. 

Sanskrit 252 

Greek 252 

Latin 252 

108. 3. Suffix -tama-. 

Indo-European 252 

Sanskrit 252 

Latin 252 

4, Steins of the Numerals, 

CARDINAL-STEMS. 

109. Simple numerals 1-10 254 

110. Numerals 11-19 256 

111. Numerals 20-90 258 

112. Numerals 100-1000 ^ 259 

ORDINAL-STEMS. 

113. Numerals 1-10 260 

Numerals 11-10 262 

Numerals 20-90 262 

Numerals 100-1000 , 267 



II. MOBPHOLOGY. 



A. BOOTS AND STEMS. 



THE FORM OF INDO-EUROPEAN WORDS. 80. 

The Indo-European language is one of the highest mor- 
phological regularity, since, besides the adjunction of sounds 
indicating relativity, it is also capable of flexion, that is, of 
regular variation of the root itself for the purpose of express- 
ing relativity ; this variation of the root consists in the step- 
raising of its vowel ( 2). The addition of sounds expressing 
relativity is found at the end only of a root, never at its be- 
ginning (the augment is an originally independent word, which 
only coalesces with the verb, and which can therefore disap- 
pear without detracting from the force of the word). Every 
Indo-European word actually employed in the language has 
a sound expressing relativity after the root, which, moreover, 
can also be reduplicated, e.g. da-da-mi (I give) : naked roots 
do not appear in Indo-European as words (secondary loss of 
sounds expressing relativity naturally does not come under 
consideration here). 

The unique exception occurs in the vocative of those nouns 
which possess no stem-formative-element besides their case- 
suffix, as e.g. stem vak- (speech, \/vak, speak), nom. sg. vdk-s, 
gen. vdk-as, etc., but voc. vak. The vocative is, however, 
no real word, no element of a sentence, but a word which has 

11 



162 ROOT-FORMATION. 

80. assumed the form of an interjection, a gesture translated into 
sound. Yery rarely (and even then due to relatively secondary 
processes) are relativity- sounds found in the root itself. This 
happens in the present form, as e.g. Gk. \afjL/3dvo), <\/\a/3 
(e-\aft-ov), fj, is here a relativity- sound of the present ; Lat. 
iungo, \/iug (cf. iug-um), etc. The earlier forms had here 
also, probably, the nasal after the root-termination, v. post. 
' Conjugation.' From this present- stem with medial nasal the 
nasalization has spread further to noun-stems (e.g. Gk. TV/JLTT- 
-avo-v timbrel, ^/TVTT strike ; Lat. iunc-tu-8, iunc-tura, ^iug, 
etc.). 

It is, therefore, a distinctive characteristic of the Indo- 
European language, that all words belonging to it have one 
and the same morphological construction ; a regularly variable 
root and a regularly variable relativity- sound affixed thereto. 
The morphological formula for all Indo-European words is 
therefore R x s x (v. Introd. II.). 

81. Root-formation. The earliest component parts of the 
Indo-European words are the roots. By ' root ' we gener- 
ally understand the meaning- sound, the sound that conveys 
the force of the word in question (as 'to be ' is e.g. the 
root of as-mi I am, as-ti he is, etc.). But the stem- and 
word-formative suffixes also in Indo-European have arisen 
from originally independent roots by coalescence with other 
roots. Thus every Indo-European word may be treated as a 
whole which has gradually grown out of several roots, at the 
least out of two ; of these roots one (the first) is the root of 
the word (in the narrower sense of the word ' root ' in which 
it is generally used), and bears the meaning unaided, whilst the 
others have sunk to the subordinate position of relativity- 
suffixes to this chief-root, and have become welded on to it ; 
e.g. as-mi (I am), \/as with meaning 'be'; the \/ma, here 
weakened as a suffix to mi, expresses the relation of the 1st 
pers. (ma as an independent root means ' measure/ ' think/ 



ROOT-FORMATION. 163 

'man/ 'I') ; as-ti (he is) ^as+^ta 'that' dem., 'he'; bhara-ti 81. 
(he bears), ^bhar (bear) + v/, here become a suffix, a root of 
demonstrative function, and ta (as in as-ti) ; vdk-s (speech n. 
sg.), VMS^ (speak), -\-^sa demonstrative, here shortened to s, 
etc. In more simply constructed languages we can see the 
early steps still preserved, steps which we must pre-suppose 
in Indo-European (e.g. in the words adduced forms as ma, as ta> 
bhar a ta, vak so). Since the suffixes of the Indo-European 
language arise thus from roots originally independent, it be- 
comes clear why the suffixes, as regards step-formation, are 
treated in precisely the same way as the chief -roots (e.g. bhar- 
-a-mi ' I bear,' with a of stem-formative sf . raised to a, beside 
bhar-a-ti ' he bears/ without step-formation ; ta-nau-ti ' he 
stretches,' beside ta-nu-masi 'we stretch,' etc.). The exact 
formula of the Indo-European word is therefore R x s x . We 
shall now treat of chief-roots, meaning- sounds, alone. 

We have not hitherto any accurate investigation into the 
laws of root-formation in Indo-European. What sound-com- 
binations occur in the roots of the Indo-European ? Could 
roots change from one vowel-scale to another at a date as early 
as that of the Indo-European original language ? What exten- 
sion of meaning is permitted by a root, and in what cases must 
we assume original roots phonetically identical but nevertheless 
distinct ? Several other similar questions hitherto unanswered 
might be proposed in this place. 

Meaning- sounds or roots (chief -roots) are generally separable 
from the words which they now underlie. The Indo-European 
roots seem in the first period of the life of the original language 
to have possessed a sound-form still simpler than that shown 
by roots existing in the actual language, cf. e.g. <Jyu-g beside 
yu (join), ma-t beside ma (measure), etc. In such cases what 
we see is probably the welding of a second root on to the first. 
Original reduplication also appears, e.g. ka-k (cook), gi-g (live). 
The origin of such secondary root-formations is in a great many 



164 ROOT- FORMATION. 

81. cases due to the cohesion of the root and the addition which 
originally formed the present stem, e.g. \{man (think) from ma, 
gan (be born) from ga, bhandh (bind) from bhadh, etc. ; the nasal 
originally characterizes the present stem only. Hence we divide 
roots into primary and secondary. 

It is an invariable rule that Indo-European roots are mono- 
syllabic. 

There is no distinction, as regards form, between the so-called 
verbal-roots (roots conveying a conception) and the so-called 
pronominal-roots (roots expressing relativity) ; the roots i, ka, 
ta, ya, e.g. are pronominal- as well as verbal-roots (i demonstra- 
tive, go ; ka interrogative, be sharp ; ta demonstrative, stretch ; 
cf. Beitr. zur vergl. sprachforschung, ii. p. 92 sqq. 'wurzeln auf 
a im Indogermanischen,' by A. Schleicher. We get the root in 
its fundamental-form when we have taken from a given word 
all sounds expressing relativity and their possible influence 
upon the radical sounds (a process generally easy, but some- 
times scarcely possible), and reduced the root- vowel to its funda- 
mental- vowel, whenever it appears in a raised form in the word, 
e.g. da is the root of da-da-mi (I give), vak of vak-s (speech), 
div of daiv-a-s (shining, heavenly, Grod), dyu = dw of dyau-s 
(heaven), su (bear, beget) of su-nu-s (son), ta of ta-m (him), etc. 

Indo-European roots may be formed in any way provided 
they are monosyllabic. The following are the sound-combina- 
tions of the root : 

1. Vowel, that is, accurately speaking, spiritus lenis-i- vowel, 
e.g. a (dem. pron.), i (go), u (Sk. enjoy oneself, favour, Sclav., 
Lith., and Lat. ind-uere, ex-uere). 

2. Consonant + vowel, e.g. da (give), bhi (fear), bhu (be). 

3. Vowel + consonant, e.g. ad (eat), idh (kindle), us (burn). 

4. Consonant -f vowel + consonant, e.g. pat (fly, fall), md (see), 
bhugh (bend). 

5. Two consonants + vowel, e.g. sta (stand), pri (love), kru 
(hear). 



ROOT-FORMATION. 165 

6. Yowel+two consonants, e.g. ardh (wax), ark (slime ; cele- 81. 
brate). 

7. Two consonants + vowel + consonant, e.g. star (strew), 
stigh (ascend). 

8. Consonant + vowel + two consonants, e.g. dark (see), vart 
(turn). 

9. Two consonants + vowel + two consonants, e.g. skand 
(scandere). 

In the case of roots of the form consonant + + consonant, 
or #+ consonant, even when these forms arise through step- 
formation from u and i, there occurs frequently a transposition 
of the sounds, so that a comes to be final, e.g. gan and gna 
(know, be born) ; mar and mra (die) ; ghar and ghra (shine, be 
yellow or green) ; par and pra (fill) ; ak and ka (be sharp) ; 
i t raised to ai, and ya (go) ; hu raised to hau, hav, and hva (call)> 
etc. Likewise dw and dyu (shine). 

Note 1. Transposition of consonants such as is assumed by 
Alb. Kiihn, liber Wurzelvariation durch Metathesis, Bonn, 1868, 
e.g. in vid (see) and dw (shine), Sk. pag (bind), origl. pak, and 
Lat. cap (take), etc., I cannot consider proved. 

Note2. In a complete grammar of Indo-European this chapter 
ought to contain a full list not only of those roots which can be 
proved to be Indo-European, but also of those which are peculiar 
to individual divisions or families (fundamental languages) of 
the Indo-European language. 

Note 3. Hindu gram-mar, which is in this respect still fol- 
lowed by many European philologists, assumes no verbal-roots in 
a. Hindu grammarians mark roots ending in a either (1) in the 
raised form (e.g. dha put, da give, instead of dha, da), or (2) give 
to the root final n and y, which arise from the formation of the 
present stem, and therefore originally belonged to a suffix 
(e.g. gan be born, instead of ga ; hve cry, instead of hva, hu ; 
rdi bark, instead of ra), or (3) mark them with o, which ob- 
viously does no more than indicate certain peculiarities of these 
roots in forming their tense- stems, since in really existing forms 
o nowhere appears (e.g. co sharpen, for ca, a$). Of. Beitr. ii. 
92 sqq. 



166 STEM-FORMATION. 

82. Stem-formation. From roots arise word-stems 
(themes), i.e. that part of a word which remains after we have 
taken away the terminations of conjugation and declension. 
Stems are formed : 

1. By the bare root raised or not. Since the root vowel 
occupies a certain step in the sound- scale, it may always appear 
as the substratum of a certain relation, and thus even by itself 
express a relation. This often happens in the case of verbs, 
e.g. ai- t i-, present-stem and root (go), 1 sg. ai-mi, 1 pi. i-masi ; 
as-, present-stem and root (be), e.g. 1 sg. as-mi, 3 sg. as-ti, etc. 
This kind of stem-formation is less common in the case of 
nouns, e.g. n. sg. dyau-s, loc. div-i ; dyau-, a raised-form from 
dyu=div (shine), is here a noun-stem (heaven), and likewise a 
root; vdk-s (speech), stem vdk-, is a step-form from <\/vak (speak), 
etc. The expression of relativity by means of step-formation 
of the root-vowel is symbolical. Moreover the reduplication 
of the root (with or without simultaneous step-formation), for 
the purpose of expressing relativity, is of very early date, and, 
like the simple root, suffices to form a stem, e.g. stem da-da- in 
da-da-mi, 1 sg. pres. ; da-da-masi, 1 pi. pres., V 'da (give). 

2. By additions made to the end of a simple or redupli- 
cated root whatever step-formation it may occupy. These 
additions were (as we remarked in 81) originally independent 
roots, which, at an earlier period of development in the life of 
the language, when the language consisted of roots alone, came 
to be joined to other roots as denning elements; these roots 
expressing relation gradually lost their independence, and 
became welded on to those roots which they helped to define 
more accurately, e.g. daiv-a, n. sg. daiva-s (diuos, deus), ^div 
raised daiv, -\-a; bhdra-ya-, causative- stem fr. \/bhar (bhdraya-ti 
he makes to bear), cf. a (pron. demonstr.), ya (relat.) ; vak-ta-, 
n. sg. masc. vak-ta-s (dictus), \/vak+ta, cf. \/ta (pron. dem.) ; 
m(d)vid-vant-, pf. part. act. of reduplicated ^vid (see) + vant, 
etc. Most of these stem-formative elements can be traced as 



STEM- FORMATION. 167 

roots of general and weakened function, that is, as pronominal 82. 
roots (thus e.g. a, i, u, ya, ta, ka, etc.). 

Note. By a hyphen - we indicate that the element with 
which it is used is always in that very place joined to another. 
Stem-formative suffixes are accordingly to be known by - at the 
beginning and end, word-formative sff. by - at the beginning 
(e.g. vark-a-s with sff. -a- and -s). The roots may, we think, 
be left uncharacterized ; it would perhaps be more correct to 
write them with - at the end (e.g. vark-), but by leaving them 
thus uncharacterized we wish to distinguish them from those 
stems which may coincide with them in sound-form. 

These are the methods of stem- formation from roots. The 
language, however, did not remain stationary, but further 
stems began to be developed from these stems which were 
sprung directly from roots. Stems of the former kind we call 
primary stems, and suffixes which are used for their forma- 
tion primary suffixes; stems of the latter kind, which pre- 
suppose other stems for their formation, we call secondary 
stems, and the suffixes used for their formation secondary 
suffixes. The latter partly coincide in form with the primary 
suffixes. In the case of verbs, the same suffixes are added to 
the derived verbal- stems as to the underived, the verbal- stem 
being equivalent to a root, whether it be derived or primitive : 
it is, therefore, right to count all suffixes which are joined 
immediately to the end of verbal- stems (forming participles, 
nomina actionis, nomina agentis) as primary suffixes ; e.g. -nt- 
(-ant-} in bharayant-, pres. part. act. causative stem, is no less a 
primitive suffix than in Iharant-, pres. part. act. of the stem- 
verb. On the other hand, comparative- and superlative- suf- 
fixes, diminutive-formations, etc., which presuppose complete 
noun- stems, are secondary, e.g. Lat. dm-lnu-s stem dmo- (dluos) ; 
facil-ior stemfac-ili-, ^fac; doct-ior- stem doct-o-, ^/doc; whence 
again comes the stem doct-is-simo-, in which form -is- is a com- 
parative-suffix (cf. doct-ius), and -simo- = -timo-, f.f. -tama-, the 
compounded superlative suffix ; the stem doc-t-is-si-mo- has thus 



168 STEM-FORMATION. 

82. four stem-formative elements after the root. Moreover, vowel - 
raising may be combined with secondary stem-formation, e.g. 
Sk. stem ddiv-ika- (n. sg. masc. ddimka-s godlike) stem devd-, 
origl. daiva- (n. sg. devd-s, origl. daiva-s god). 

The identity with pronominal roots of most elements used as 
stem-formative suffixes, including the most common ones, ta y 
ya, ka, etc., arises from the circumstance that this kind of root 
(i.e. a root whose originally more concrete meaning has sunk 
into a more general one, so that its meaning has been reduced to 
a relation), by bearing a general meaning, has become service- 
able for the more accurate definition of other roots which convey 
more concrete meanings. 

A further secondary means of stem-formation one which is 
essentially distinct from those already mentioned consists in 
3. Composition of word- stems to form a new word- stem. 
Composition is much employed in Indo-European languages. 
(Cf . Ferd. Justi, liber die zusammensetzung der nomina in den 
Indog. sprachen. Gottingen, 1861.) 

Stem-formation by attachment of relation- elements is distinct 
from composition in that it originated in the period of the 
growing language, whereas composition does not occur till the 
language is actually formed, presupposing, as it does, ready- 
made word- stems as its materials. Confluence or combination 
of words is likewise to be separated from true composition : in 
the case of the former words (i.e. elements of a sentence pro- 
vided with terminations of case and person) become welded 
together, while the latter compounds word- stems so as to form 
a new stem. 

Naturally this combination has not occurred till a later period 
in particular languages, whereas composition must perhaps be 
ascribed even to the Indo-European original language (the 
archaic stems svastar- sister, svakura- father-in-law, e.g. are 
probably compounded; so, too, must we assign to the com- 
pound stems of the aor. and fut. a date as early as that of the 
original language). 



STEM-FORMATION. 169 

Prepositions and the augment before the verb form the com- 82. 
monest examples of combination or coalition of words once 
independent in our languages ; they are adverbs which have 
grown on, i.e. they were originally cases, e.g. abs-tineo from abs 
and teneo ; abs, like ex, etc., seems to be a gen. case ; the loose- 
ness of the connexion shows itself in all cases, e.g. e/c-Tr/Trro) 
beside e'-e-7re<7oz>, etc. Yet we find combination elsewhere also, 
e.g. Lat. quamuis, quamobrem, etc. ; German frankenland (franken 
is gen. pi.), wolfsmilch (wolfs is gen. sg.), etc. Here the accent 
is the only mark of the combination. 

True composition has the power of expressing a relation ; it 
can give the new word a relation which is foreign to the com- 
ponent parts taken separately, and which originates only in and 
through their composition ; e.g. pa/cpo-xeip, longi-manus, i.e. 
'whose hands are long, long-handed': here the possessive rela- 
tion belongs to the composition; \o<yo-ypd<t)o-s ( word- writing' 
=\6<yov<? <ypd(f)oi)v; iu-dic- (iudex):=^s dicens ' indicating, saying 
justice/ etc. In the latter instances the former element of the 
compound acts as a case, though it has no case- suffix. A fresh 
relation of this kind can never be produced by combination ; 
for combination is nothing but varied and facilitated utterance 
nothing but union, by means of a common accent, of words 
previously separate ; it cannot therefore have anything in com- 
mon with stem-formation. 

An exhaustive statement of Indo-European stem-formation 
does not lie within the range of this compendium, since it is 
intended to embrace only what is indispensable for beginners 
in comparative philology. The science of stem-formation is more- 
over full of difficulties, and requires in parts a more detailed 
discussion than can be contained in a work which is confined to 
the narrowest limits possible. Of this wide range we select 
therefore only a few parts, which we shall now proceed to dis- 
cuss, viz. : 1. derivative verbal-stems ; 2. noun-stems which are 
most nearly connected with the verb, i.e. participles and in- 



170 STEM- FORMATION. 

82. finitives, and a few other noun-stems which, are allied to these, 
or seem to be otherwise noteworthy; 3. comparative- and su- 
perlative-stems ; 4. stems of cardinal- and ordinal-numbers. 
The last section, although of subordinate value for the explana- 
tion of the construction of language, is appended on -account of 
the high interest of the numerals from other points of view. 
Hence under this last head we pass over the morphological 
arrangement, and direct our attention exclusively to the func- 
tion, by discussing the separate numerals one by one irrespective 
of their phonetic expression. 

Note. It is obvious that here, in the chapter on morphology, if 
we had wished to be consistent, no regard should have been paid 
to the functions of stems, and that, since stems are not yet words, 
no distinction should have been made between verbal-stems and 
noun- stems. Likewise, the treatment of stem-formation should 
include the stem-forms of tenses and moods as well as all other 
stem-forms. The formation of verb- stems (in the widest sense 
of the word) does not, of course, belong to the statement of 
word-formation (conjugation), in which only the subject of 
person-terminations is to be treated, because the latter are the 
only elements which make the verb-stem a real member of a 
sentence, a word. However, in order not to divide the subject- 
matter in a way hitherto unusual, thereby rendering this work 
difficult to be used by students accustomed to earlier systems, 
we determine to leave the theory of tense- stems and mood- 
elements to the section 'Word-formation' (conjugation), and 
under ' noun- stems' (in Part II.) to refer now and then to 
similarly formed verbal- stems. 

Hitherto we have no thoroughly scientific arrangement of 
Indo-European stem-forms. As regards Part II. of our frag- 
mentary exposition of Indo-European stem-formations, in which 
we shall have to produce at least a fair number of stem-forma- 
tive suffixes, we shall for the present follow the example of 
Gr. Curtius (De nominum Graecorum formatione, Berlin, 1842) 
in adopting a phonetic principle of arrangement ; that is to 
say, we shall treat successively (1) stems without suffixes ; (2) 
the simplest vowel- suffixes ; and (3) suffixes having one or 
more consonants. Under the last head the suffixes ya and 
va will come first ; after them suffixes with so-called liquids ; 
and, finally, those whose chief element is a momentary sound, 



VERBAL-STEMS. 171 

to which has been added the suffix as. Compound suffixes 82. 
should strictly form the last division and be treated separately ; 
however, since the question whether a given suffix is simple or 
compound cannot always be answered with certainty, and since, 
moreover, compound suffixes often very closely resemble simple 
ones in function and employment, we here treat compound 
suffixes under their first elements. 



1. Formation of Derived Verbal-Stems. 83. 

On derived verb-stems generally. 

Derived verb-stems, though presupposing noun-stems, are 
here treated before the latter, because, like primary verb- stems 
and roots, they frequently underlie noun- stems. 

All verbs which possess no stem-formative elements, except 
those which serve for the formation of the tense- stems, have 
the form of stem-verbs; but those verbs which, in other 
forms than the present, show besides the root such elements as 
were not originally used for the formation of present- or other 
tense- stems, have the form of derived verbs. 

At later periods of language -development, present-stem 
formative elements easily become united with the verbal-root 
so closely, that they even remain in forms other than those 
of the present tense, e.g. iu-n-g-o, ^iug, where n is the present 
infix ; yet perf. is iu-n-c-si for *iuc-si, even iu-n-c-tu-s for 
*ivc-tu-s, cf. iug-u-m: a verb does not however become in any 
way a derived one by this union. 

Intensive verbs in Sanskrit and Zend must be considered as 
closely akin to verbs which are reduplicated in their present- or 
aorist- stems ; as we do not, therefore, hold them to be derived, 
in the stricter sense of the term (they show no constant addi- 
tional element), we cannot deal with them in this place, but 
shall do so later on where we discuss ' present-stem-formation.' 

It cannot be denied that sometimes verbs which are ob- 
viously derived may assume the form of primary verbs, e.g. 



172 



VERBAL-STEMS. 



83. Sk. krmorti (behave like krsna-s), from subst. Krsna-s (proper 
n.) ; Goth., salti-th (he salts), pf. saisalt, from subst. salt (salt), 
whilst at others stem- verbs appear in the form of derived 
verbs, as e.g. Lat. habe-t, Goth, habai-th (3 sg. pres.), Lat. habe- 
-bo (fut.), Goth, hdbai-da (pf.), which we can hardly consider 
derived, is conjugated just like decidedly derived-verbs, e.g. 
Lat. mone-t, f.f. manaya-ti (causes to think), fut. mone-bo, ^man 
(think), Lat. men (cf. Lat. me-min-i, primary verb from same 
root), stem of causative verb manaya-; Goth, veihai-th (hallows), 
pf. veihai-da from veih-s (holy). In fact the forms of undoubted 
stem- verbs and those of clearly derived- verbs are so inter- 
mingled in certain of the existing languages, that from a 
purely morphological point of view a sharp and complete dis- 
tinction between primary and derived verbal- stems is impos- 
sible, and not unfrequently it is still doubtful to which class a 
given verb belongs. Certain tense- stems often have the forms 
of derived-verbs, whilst others show those of the stem-verbs, 
e.g. Lat. vide-mus (pres.) beside vldi-mus (pf.), etc. ; v. l Con- 
jugation.' 

Since we are here considering the form only, not the function 
of the words, we can arrange derived verb- stems only accord- 
ing to stem-formative elements, not according to the relations 
which they express. Hence we speak of stem-formation by 
means of ya, etc., not of intensive, causative, etc., verb-stems. 
We place first those formations which can be proved most 
archaic, and let follow in order those which occur in particular 
languages only of our family, and which must therefore in all 
likelihood, be considered as later formations. 

It is often hard to pronounce with certainty what is the next 
underlying form in the case of derived verb- stems. We could 
not venture to decide off-hand whether, e.g. Sk. bhardya-mi, 
Gk. <opefc)-(/u), stem bharaya-, Gk. fyopeye-, is formed by step- 
formation and by sf . -ya- from verb- stem Sk. bhdra-, Gk. </>e/>e-, 
in Sk. bhdra-ti, Gk. <$>epe-(T)i, (3 sg. pres.), or by means of sf. 



VERBAL-STEMS IN ORiGL. -ya- {-a-ya-}. IXDO-EUR. 173 

-ya- from a substantive stem Sk. bhdra-, Gk. (fropo- (n. sg. Sk. 83. 
bhara-s, Gk. <popo-s). 



. The formation of the present- stem has been considered 
as the formation of a derived verb whenever it expresses an evi- 
dent relation, as e.g. the passive or inchoative. This, however, is 
not admissible, were it only for the reason, that originally every 
kind of present- stem-formation represented a distinct relation. 
If this were not so, all verbs would exhibit one and the same 
present- stem-form. Besides there is no doubt that we count as 
' derived verb- stems' only such formations as are not confined 
to the present-stem; and it would, moreover, be impossible to 
distinguish verbs as stem- verbs and derived- verbs. 

Verbal-stems in original -ya- (-a-ya-} with root-vowel 84. 
raised to first step, when formed from verbal-stems. 

Verbal- stems in non-radical -ya- are found in all Indo-Euro- 
pean languages, and must therefore be ascribed to a period as 
early as that of the original language (their function is mani- 
fold, especially causative, transitive, but also durative and in- 
transitive). They naturally lean to verbal-stems and nominal- 
stems. The formative- element -ay a- is probably to be broken 
up into -a-ya-, a being the final sound of the fundamental 
nominal- or verbal- stem, while ya is a very commonly used 
element in stem-formation (cf . pronominal \/ya, of rel. and dem. 
functions). The root- vowel is regularly raised a step. 

Indo-European original language. Only one kind of 
such verbs, and of this only a few forms can be traced, esp. the 
pres. (and what is akin to it), e.g. 3 sg. pres. bhdraya-ti (=Sk. 
bhdrdya-ti, Gk. *$opeye(T)i, i.e. fopel; in Sk. with causative, in 
Gk. with durative function, from a stem bhdra-, $opo-, origl. 
<J bhar, Gk. </>ep f erre) ; further future bhdraya-sya-ti (Sk. bhd- 
rayi-syd-ti, Gk. fyopri-G-ei^fyopeye-aye-Ti), and lastly the com- 
pound aorist a-bhdraya-sam (e-tyoprj-aa). So too sdda-ya-ti (he 
places) =Sk. sddd-ya-ti, Goth, sat-yi-th, ^ sad (sit); vaida-ya-ti 
(foretells) =Sk. veddya-ti (id.), Goth. (fair-)veiteith (looks to) 
for *veit-yi-th, ^vid (see, know), etc. 



174 VERBAL-STEMS IN ORIGL. -yd- (-d-l/d-). SK. 

84. The correspondence between Gk. and Sk. makes it not un- 
likely that formations such as e.g. maran-ya-ti (dies, durative) 
from an abstract noun, n. sg. marana-m (whose final a, as often 
happens, has dropped out before sf. ya, V mar, die), were not 
foreign to the origl. lang. In the formation of the remaining 
tense-forms languages do not agree. Probably the simple aorist 
was not formed at all, and the perfect expressed by periphrasis. 
Sanskrit. E.g. bhdrdya-ti, 3 sg. pres. causative vb. ^bhar, 
either belonging to a noun- stem bhdra- (load), bhara- (bearing ; 
or the act of bearing), or to a verb- stem bhara- (bhdra-ti he 
bears) ; saddya-ti, in the same way fr. ^/sad (sit), cf. stem sada- 
(m. placing down, setting); veddya-ti (makes to know) similarly 
fr. \/ vid (see, know), cf. veda- (m. knowledge, holy writ) ; 
bodhdya-ti (makes to know), ^budh (know), cf. bodha-, pres. -stem 
and noun-stem, bodha-s (knowledge, instruction). Hoots in -ar 
often have no step-formation, e.g. dardya- and dardya-, <J dar 
(burst, split) ; vardya- and vardya-, V var (cover, choose). 
Further, before two consonants the step-formn. does not take 
place, e.g. kalpdya-, ^/ kalp (be in order; kalpa-, adj. fitted, 
subst. m. order) ; indeed we actually find weakened root-syl- 
lables, e.g. grbhdya-, ^ grabh (grasp, akin to grbhd-s, gripe) ; 
mrddya-, \/mard (grind, both these examples belong to the more 
archaic language). Elsewhere also unraised a is sometimes 
found, e.g. damdya-, V dam (be tame, tame ; cf. dama-s, the act 
of taming, breaking in), etc. Roots in i, u, have the 2nd step, 
e.g. ndyd-ya-ti, V ' ni (lead) ; grdvd-ya-ti, \/ gru (hear). The perf. 
of these verb- stems is periphrastically formed by means of an 
abstract-form in a and the perf. of an auxiliary verb, e.g. vedayd- 
-tiakdra, lit. 'notionem feci' ; the aorist does not belong to these 
stems in -aya-, but was formed from the reduplicated root. 
This reduplication has the force of a causal function, which 
may be taken as a step-formation of the active, e.g. d-mvid- 
-am, pres. veddyd-mi; other forms of these verbs lose ya, thus 
the past formed from the future (the so-called conditional), 



VERBAL-STEMS IN ORIGL. -yd- (-d-yd-}. SK. 175 

e.g. d-ved-i-syam, stem veddya-, etc. This belongs, however, 84. 
rather to Indian special- gram mar, as being peculiar to Sk. 

Amongst stems clearly formed from nouns are yoktrd-ya-ti 
(binds round, embraces), noun-stem y'oktra- (ntr. band); tula- 
-ya-ti (weighs), stem tula-, n. sg. tula (fern, balance, scales), 
etc. 

But before the -ya- the final -a- of the stem is not seldom 
lengthened to a (v. supr. 15, 2, a), e.g. vaspA-ya-U (weeps), 
stem vdspa- (tear), lohitd-ya-ti (reddens), stem lohita- (red), 
a^vd-yd-ti (wishes for horses), stem dgva- (horse), etc. ; cf. 
rdgd-ya-ti (behaves like a king), stem rag an- (n. sg. rag a king), 
thus accompanied by loss of final n from the underlying noun- 
stem. Similar lengthening in the case of i and u before y occurs 
(cf. 15, 2, a), e.g. patl-yd-ti (desires a husband), stem pdti- 
(husband), asu-yd-ti (snarls, is angry), stem dsu- (breath, spirit). 

The a also is weakened to i, and then * is lengthened to 2, 
e.g. putrl-yd-ti (filium cupit), stemputra- (son). 

Moreover the stem- termination drops off altogether, e.g. 
putrakdm-ya-ti (desires a son), stem putrd-kdma- (desiring sons, 
children; putrd-s son, kama-s wish, love). Here we must esp. 
mention the verbs in -any a which occur in the earliest Sans- 
krit (the Vedas) : they are formed from abstract nouns in -ana- 
(n. sg. -ana-m, ntr.), e.g. &aran-yd-ti (he goes), stem Udrana- 
(going) i/Jcar (go) ; bhuran-yd-ti (quivers, is in motion), stem 
bhurana- (adj. active), ^/bhur (quiver, move rapidly). Cf. Gk. 
examples such as [Aapatvei (makes to wither away), i.e. ma- 
ranya-ti, ^/mar origl. (die). 

To stems in s, -ya- is added immediately, e.g. tapas-yd-ti 
(chastises himself), stem tapas- (mortification) ; namas-yd-ti 
(worships), stem ndmas- (worship). Through the analogy of 
such forms arose a denominative-form in -sya-, which comes 
into use also where there is no noun-stem in -as-. In other 
than present forms, generally, the y only remains (e.g. fut. 
namasy-isyd-ti), yet this y also often disappears (namas-isyd-ti). 



176 VERBAL-STEMS IN ORIGL. -yd- (-a-ya-}. GK. 

84. so that these stems then coincide with those to be treated in 
85. 

It is difficult to explain the suffix -paya-, which is added 
regularly to verbal roots in a, more rarely to other roots also, 
and further to monosyllabic, and also less frequently to other 
noun-stems in a ; in function it corresponds perfectly to -aya-, 
i.e. -ya-. Before this sf. a is regularly lengthened to a, or 
raised a step, e.g. dd-payd-ti, 3 sg. pres. caus. vb. V 'da (give) ; 
satyd-payd-ti (speaks truth), st. satyd- (true); ar-payd-ti, caus. 
\/ar (rise, go) ; gna-payd-ti (makes to know), \/gna (learn) = 
gan, origl. gan ; also others show a instead of regular a ; hence 
fms. like gdpayd-ti, caus. V gi (conquer), appear to be formed 
ace. to analogy of the frequent roots in a, and not to assume 
-dpaya- as an element of formation, before which the final of 
the root must have been lost. 

The attempts to prove the existence of this -paya- in other 
Indo-European languages seem to me unsuccessful on the 
whole, so that I prefer to consider it as a new formation in 
Indian, a view which is borne out likewise by the frequent 
occurrence of -paya- in the Prakrt. Probably they are com- 
pound-fms. (Benfey, Id. Sanskritgrammatik, 123), containing 
a <\/pa=.ap, meaning l do, make/ cf. dp-as, Lat. op-us, Grk. 
TTo-ieo), f .f pdyayd-mi, the latter (connected with ^/pa by means 
of a noun-stem *7roto-, i.e. pd-ya- ; cf. Sk. stem dd-ya-, giving, 
masc. gift, \/da) formed from this root ; pa-ya- will then be a 
causative stem of this root, precisely in the same way as the 
causative Mr ay a-, \/ kar (make), often appears in the function 
of the stem- verb. 

Note. Pdldya-ti, 3 sg. pres. caus. \/pa (protect), is not im- 
mediately formed from the root, but from a noun- stem pa- Id (n. 
sg. pd-ld-s watcher, guard), and is therefore perfectly regular. 

Greek. 1 Original -a-ya- has become *-a-ye- 9 *-e-ye, *-o-ye-; 

1 For fuller details on derived verbs of Gk. and Lat., cf. Leo Meyer, Vergl. gr. d. 
Griecli. u. Lat. Sprache, ii. 1 sqq. 



VERB-STEMS IN ORIGL. -yd- (-a-ya-). GK. LAT. ' 177 

according to recognized phonetic laws y is lost between vowels 84. 
(cf. 65, 1, e), e.g. Tipa ( honour s) =Tt,fia6i, fr.*n,fjbaye-Ti, fr. ri^tf 
(honour) ; faira (goes frequently) = *$oiTaye-Ti, fr. <otro-9 
(frequent going) ; Sapa = ^a^aye-Ti (cf. ^dfju-vrj^i) = Lat. 
doma-t, Sk. damdya-ti, Goth, tamyi-th (tameth), etc. ; fyopel 
(bears, durative)=^>o/oeet for *^opeye- r n, origl. bharaya-ti, stem 
(f)6po- in <opo-9, or stem (f>epe- in ^epet, fr. *<e/)e--n-, by raising 
of e to o o^el (carries, lets ride) = Fo^eye-n, origl. form 
vagkaya-ti, cf. 0^0-9 (waggon), f .f. vagha-s, and e%et, f .f . vagha-ti ; 
apiOfjiel (counts) =*apiOfJi6ye-Tt, fr. api6iib-<$ (number); olfcei 
(dwells), f.f. vaikaya-ti, oI/co-9 (house), f.f. vdika-s ; a^povel (is 
senseless) f r. stem a<f>pov- (senseless) : thus also from consonantal 
stems after analogy of vowel-stems, etc. These verbs in -eye- 
are much used in Grk. (in Lat., on the contrary, those in -a-). 
Further, %pv aol (gilds) = f %pva-bei h.^pvaoye-Ti fr. %pvcrd-s (gold), 
etc. The less common verbs in -lye- are mostly formed from 
noun- stems in i, and are not therefore to be traced back to -a-ya-, 
e.g. Kovlw (make dusty) from *KOVLLW, ^Koviywjja, fut. KOV 10-03, stem 
KOVL- (KOVI-S, gen. KOVIOS, Kovews, dust). Some of these derived 
verb-stems form presents also by means of -ska- (v. post. "Con- 
jugation"), e.g. rj/Bd-ffKe-i, (becomes a man, pubescit) beside fjjBa, 
f)IBd-ei (r)(3r] manhood), where nevertheless we may perhaps 
assume that TI^OLGKW is formed direct from stem f){$a- (cf . how- 
ever Lat.) ; d\Sr)-(7KQ) (wax) beside aXSew, etc. 

Since in Gk., after sounds other than origl. a, -ya- is confined 
to the pres., the derived verbal- stems apparently formed by 
means of it will occur hereafter, i.e. where we speak of those 
verbs whose stem is the noun- stem without any further addi- 
tion. 

Note. In Gk. stem- verbs often assume the form of derived 
verbs in certain tense-forms, e.g. TrepSa), but Trap&rj-aojjLai,, v. post. 
165. 

Latin. In Lat., and, so far as we can see, in the other Italic 
languages, we find three forms caused by the splitting-up of 

12 



178 VERB-STEMS IN ORIGL. -yd- (-a-yct-). LAT. 

84. the a of original -a-ya- into a, e, and through its being weakened 
to i. 

1. -aya- is contracted into -a-, e.g. seda-t (sets, settles) iorsedd-t, 
*sedayi-t, f.f. sddaya-ti, cL^/sedin sed-eo (sit) ; doma-t (tames) = 
Gk. Sapa, Sk. damdya-ti ; in 1 sg. -ayo, i.e. -aydmi, becomes *ao, 
by elision of y, retained in Umbrian as au in subocau=Jj8it. 
*subuocao, *subuoco ; this ao was then further contracted to 6, 
like Gk. -aw fr. -aya)(/u) to o>, e.g. secfrj for *sedad-mi,*sedayo-mi, 
f.f. sddayd-mi ; 2 sg. sedd-s, f.f. sdd-aya-si, etc. ; perf . seda-vi, 
part, sedd-tus. This formation is very common in noun-stems, 
also in those which end in * no less than those which end in 
a consonant, e.g. forma-t (shapes) fr. forma (shape) ; planta-t 
(plants) fr. planta (plant) ; fuma-t (smokes) fr. fumu-s (smoke), 
st. fumo- ; dona-t (gives), st. dono- (donu-m gift) ; formations 
from participles and the like in -to- are particularly common, 
e.g. canta-t (sings), st. canto- (cantu-s), past part. pass, of can-it 
(sings) ; facta-t (makes, intensive), st. facto-, part, of fac-it 
(makes) ; quassa-t (shakes, intensive) fr. quasso-, part, of quat-it 
(shakes), etc. Of this class are the forms in -tita-, -ita-, like 

factita-t (makes often), cf. facta-t, dictita-t (says often) beside 
dicta-t, stem dicto- (die-it says, y 7 die) ; uolita-t (flies, flits) beside 
uola-t ; uocita-t (calls often) beside uoca-t (calls), etc. Further, 
pisca-tur (fishes) fr. pisci-s (fish) ; ndmina-t (names) fr. nomen 
ndmin-is (name) ; remiga-t (rows), stem remig- in remex, remig-is 
(rower) [prob. formed fr. stem remo- in remu-s oar, and ig 
weakened from ag (ag-ere)] ; after the analogy of such forms 
arose a verbal-termination -iga-, e.g. cast-iga-t, leu-iga-t, etc., 
even without a corresponding substantive. A list of verbs in 
-a- in Oscan is given by Corssen, Zeitschr. v. 96 sqq. 

Note. In cases like son-ui beside sona-t (sounds) fr. sonu-s 
(sound), the derivational element is lost, cf. monui in 2. 

2. -aya- is contracted to -e-, e.g. mone-mus fr. *moneyi-mus, 
f.f. mdnayd-masi, 1 pi. pres. caus. verb V man (think), moneo 



VERB-STEMS IN ORIGL. -I/a- (-(t-ya-). LAT. 179 

(remind), i.e. mdnaya for mdnaya-mi, 1 sg. pres. ; 1 sg. pf. monui, 84. 
not *mone-ui ; past part. pass, moni-tu-s, not *mone-tus (v. post, 
formation of pf. in Lat.) ; thus e.g. fldueo (am yellow) fr. flauo-s 
(yellow) ; cdneo (am grey) fr. cdnu-s (grey) ; salueo (am hale) 
fr. saluo-s (hale) ; floreo (bloom) for *floseo from consonantal 
stem flds- (flds, gen., flor-is i.Q?*flos-is, blossom), etc. Underived 
verbs have very often assumed this form. 

3. -aya- contracted to -?-, 1 sg. -io = -iyo, -ayd fr. -aya-mi, 
e.g. sopio (make sleepy )=*sdpiyo, f.f. svdpayd for svapaya-mi, 
sdplmus = *sopiyi-mus, f.f. svdp-aya-masi y 1 sg. pi. pres. caus. 
verb V svap (sleep); perf. sopz-ui, past part. pass, sopl-tu-s ; 
mottl-mus (soften) *molliyi-mm fr. molli-s (soft), therefore the 
t is origl. here, as in many other cases, e.g. flm-mus (we end), 
flni-s (end) ; lem-mus (we smooth), leni-s (smooth, mild), etc., 
yet others are by no means wanting where i is not caused by 
the termination of the underlying noun- stem, e.g. saem-mus 
(we rage), saeuo-s (raging) ; equi-t (wants the stallion), f.f. 
akvaya-ti, cf. Sk. a$vaya-ti ; equo-s (horse), origl. akva-s, Sk. 
dgva-s; purii-mus (we punish), poena (penalty), etc. Examples 
like custodl-mus (we guard), stem custod- (custos guardian), may 
likewise be reduced to stems in i (cmtodi-), because in Lat. 
all consonantal stems follow the analogy of ^-sterns in most 
cases. In this way, by means of 2, verbs were formed from 
the part. (nom. agentis) ending in origl. -tar, Lat. -tor-, -turu-s, 
retaining the archaic short form of origl. -tar (still found 
underlying secondary formations such as uic-tr-w-, doc-tr-ma, fr. 
*uic-tor-lc-, *doc-t6r-ma) e.g. esuri-mw (wish to eat), i.e. 
*ed-tur-l-mus, f.f. ad-tar-aya-masi, stem esor-=*ed-tor-, origl. 
ad-tar- (ed-o eat ; cf. 77, 1, b), par-tur-l-mus (wish to bear), 
fr. * par-tor- (par-io bear), etc. 

Note. Lat. has no verbs corresponding to those of Gk. in 
-oco : Gr. Curtius indicates their traces in ' Ueber die Spuren 
einer lateinischen o-Conjugation,' Symbola philologor. Bonnens. 
in honor. Fr. Kitschelii collecta, fasc. i. Lips. 1864, p. 271 sqq. 



180 NOUN-STEMS USED AS VERB-STEMS. SK. GK. 

84. In Lat. the forms of stem- verbs and derived- verbs are mixed 
in many ways. Often stem- verbs take the form of derived 
verbs in the pres. ; under this head come many cases such as 
e.g. uenl-mus beside uen-i, uen-tum, re-pen-mus beside re-p(e)per-i, 
re-per-tum. Verbs in eo show on the contrary a regular loss of 
the derivation-element in all stems except the pres., so that 
here the stem- verbs which assume -e- ( = -aya-) in pres. only 
(as e.g. sed-e-mus beside sed-i, sessum = *sed-tum ; uid-e-mus 
beside uld-i, msum=*utd-tum, 77, 1, b) cannot be distinguished 
from derived verbs which have lost the same element. . 

These derived verb- stems may form (in order to express in- 
choation) their pres. also by means of -ska- (v. post, formation 
of pres.-stem), e.g. in-uetera-sci-t (grows old), stem ueterd- = 
*uetesd- stem ueter- in uetus, ueter-is (old) ; fldue-sci-t, cf . flaue-t 
fr. flduo-s ; ob-dormi-sci-t (grows drowsy), cf. ob-dorml-ui, 
ob-dorml-tu-m, etc. 

85. Noun-stems used as verb-stems without change 
are found here and there in the languages. These formations 
are recent. 

From this class of stems we must separate those verb- stems 
(mostly present- stems) which do not presuppose a noun-stem 
for their formation, though they coincide with one ; e.g. tanu- 
from <v/^> ton (stretch) ; bhara-, ^bhar (ferre), etc. ; an origl. 
tanu-tai, 3 sg. pres. med., bhara-ti, 3 sg. pres. act., are not 
formed from a noun tanu-s (tenuis), bhara-s (^opo?), but both 
are mere coincidences in their stem-formation. If these verb- 
stems had been derived from nouns, the characteristic suffix 
would have remained throughout, whilst in fact it forms only 
the present (or aorist), but does not exist in the other tense- 
stems. On the other hand, the formations now in question are 
closely connected with those treated of in the preceding para- 
graph, from which sometimes they cannot be clearly separated. 

Sanskrit. Hare, e.g. lohitd-ti (is red) fr. Idhita-s (red), etc. 

Greek. Here noun-stems are very often used as verb-stems 



NOUN-STEMS USED AS VERB-STEMS. GK. 181 

likewise, in that the present- stem is formed by means of -ya- 85. 
(our class Y. of Present- stem-formation), while the noun-stem 
appears pure in the other tense-stems. To this kind belong the 
numerous verbs in -o> and -a-aco, e.g. eX-TT/fet (hopes), i.e. *e\7ri8- 
-ye-n, stem e'X-rr/S- (n. sg. eXm? hope, gen. sg. eX-Trt'S-o?) ; epi&t,' 
(strives), stem epiS- (ept? strife ; in these cases, however, f, like 
the 8 of the corresponding noun- stems, might be simply = y, 
and thus *e\7ri-ye-Ti,, *epi-ye-Ti, be assumed as fundamental forms, 
cf . 65, 1, c, note ; yet between vowels = y is in my opinion 
still doubtful) ; 7re/z.7raa (counts by fives), i.e. *7re^7raS-ye-, 
stem Tre/jLTrdS- (Trepirds number 5, collection of five) ; 
(lashes), i.e. *fiacrTi,y-ye-Ti, stem fidcmy- (fidart,^ lash) 
\v^ei> (bubbles), i.e. * -\vy-ye-Ti, st. 7ro/jL(j)6\vy- (Tro/^oXvf bubble); 
apTrd&i, (seizes), i.e. *apTray-ye-Ti, stem apTray* (apTrat; grasp- 
ing), fut. in Horn. dpTrdgco, i.e. *dp7ray-crco, but subsequently 
dpTrda-co, as though a stem *dp7ra$- underlay it, a confusion be- 
tween -8- and -<y- stems not uncommon, caused by the identity 
of the present-tense in each ; crakiri^eL (trumpets), st. 
(o-d\7ri,<yt; trumpet), the nasal falling away before t 
it does before cr, cf. fut. aakiriy^a), i.e. *cra\7ri,rfy-aa) ) etc. From 
such cases arose the common terminations -tfco, -ao>, which 
afterwards came to be used as independent terminations. In 
like manner was developed the termination -acrco, which arose in 
the case of stems in r, 0, tc, % e.g. /3X/TTO) (cut honey), i.e. 
*fi\ir-y(o ( 68, 1, b. f.), *fie\ir-yw, stem//,e?UT- (ytteX^ gen. /xeXir-o? 
honey) ; Kopva-crco (fit with a helm), i.e. *KopvO-ya>, stem /copvd- 
(tcopvs, gen. /copv0-os helm) ; /crjpva-a-a) (proclaim), i.e. *Kt}piHC-y<, 
stem KijpvK- (/crjpvf;, gen. /c^pu/c-o? herald) ; Ipdcrcra) (I lash), i.e. 
*ilJLavT-y(o, stem IfjuivT- (t/z,a9, gen. lfj,dvT-o<$ strap) ; avdaa-a) (am 
king), i.e. *avaKT-y(d t with loss of K in the group *ry, st. avaicr- 
(ava%, gen. ava/cr-os lord), etc. 

Noun- stems in s are seen in reXe/et, reXeet, reXet (completes), 
i.e. *TeXecr-ye-Tt, stem reXe?- (cf. re-reXecr-^at pf. pass.) in reXo9, 
gen. reXoy?, i.e. *TeXecr-o5 (end) ; vei/ceico, veiKea) (wrangle), i.e. 



182 NOUN-STEMS USED AS VERB-STEMS. GK. 

85. *veuceo--ya), stem velicecr- (m/co? ntr. quarrel); euTu^et (is happy), 
i.e. *evTvxe<r-ye-Ti,, stem eurtn^eV- (adj. n. sg. masc. fern, evrv^ 
happy), etc. 

From origl. -ow-stems arise verbs in -ao/o>, i.e. *-avya* y e.g. 
fjieXalvei (blackens), i.e. */j,6\av-i/-Ti, stem fj,e\av- (n. sg. masc. 
/>teXa?, ntr. fj,e\av, gen. fj,e\av-o<; black) ; afterwards this 
termn. extended also to stems which do not end in -av, e.g. 
\evKalvet, (whitens), i.e. *Xeu/eaz>-ye-, stem Xeiwo- (Xeu/eo-? 
white), etc. 

A similar case occurs in verbs in -vvco, i.e. *-viva), *-vvyu> ; 
here, however, v is probably origl. from a present-formation in 
na (v. post., present-stem) ; e.g. ybvvei, (sweetens), i.e. *r)v-vye-Tt, 
f.f. svadu-nya-ti, stem ybv- (^Su-? sweet), f.f. svadu- ; Wvvei 
(straightens), stem Wv- (tOv-s straight) ; evpvvei (broadens), 
stem evpv- (evpv-s broad), etc. This ending also passed over to 
other stems, e.g. fjbeyaXvvei, (enlarges), st. fieyaXo- (great) ; Xa/^TT- 
pvvei (brightens), stem \a/jL7rpo- (bright), etc. 

From r- stems arise e.g. re/cfjialpopai (proclaim, infer), i.e. 
*TKfiap'i/o-fiaL, stem re/cfiap (aim, mark) ; fiaprvpofiai (call to 
witness), i.e. ^i^aprvp-yo-fjiai, stem /Jidprvp- (fidprvs, gen. jjbdp- 
Tup-o? witness). 

After stem-terminations in vowels y is entirely lost (as in 
<ww, earlier (uw ; OTTWW, earlier oTrutw, v. post. 165), e.g. fjueOvei 
(is drunken), i.e. *jji0v-ye-Ti, f.f. madhu-ya-ti, stem f^eOv (ntr. 
mead) ; pa<n\ev-(y)e-(T)i, (is king), stem /SacrtXeu- 
king) ; j3ov\,ev-ei, (counsels) from an unused stem */ 
(formed like <j>opev-$ bearer) and many more. 

Frequently the noun- stem loses as a verb- stem the final 
vowel -o-, e.g. fiaXdcro-o) (soften), i.e. *iia\aic-ya), fut. fjLoXdga) 
= */Jia\afc-(T(D, stem fiaXa/co- (/^aXa^o-? soft) ; Ivty) (scream), 
i.e. *lvy-ya), fut. Iv^co =*lvy-aa), cf. lvyr) (shriek) ; 
(soothe, exhilarate), i.e. *yLte//Xt^-^/ce), stem /xetXt^o- 
mild, friendly) ; KaOaipo) (purify), i.e. *Ka6ap-ya) ) stem 
/caOapo- (Ka6apo-<s pure) ; Sat8aXXo> (work cunningly), i.e. 



LAT. REDUPLICATED VERB-STEMS -f-Sfl-, -S-. 183 

a>, stem Sa/SaXo- (cunningly wrought) ; ajye\\a) (an- 85. 
nounce), i.e. *ayye\-yco, stem ayye\o- (masc. messenger) ; 
7TO/aXX&> (adorn) fr. Trom'Xo-9 (variegated) ; KafJi7rv\\a) (bend) 
fr. /ea//,7ruXo-9 (bent), etc. 

Present- stems of similar derived verbs are also formed by 
means of the stem-formative suffix origl. -ska- ( 165, VI.), 
e.g. /jLeBv-cr/cei, (makes drunk), f.f. madhu-ska-ti, stem fjueOv- 
(mead). 

After labials occurs also the sf. origl. -ta- ( 165, VII.) 
similarly used, e.g. aaTpaTT-ra) (lighten) from ao-TpaTrrj (light- 
ning-flash) ; ^aXe7r-T&> (press hard) from ^aXe-Tro-? (hard), etc., 
with loss of the vowel stem-termination of the noun, provided 
these verbs are really derived. 

As regards the verbs whose present- stem terminates in origl. 
-asnu-, e.g. crropevvvfjii (spread) for ^a-Topea-vv-fjii,, f.f. staras-nau- 
-mi, f.f. of stem staras-nu, stem of remaining tenses o-rope?-, f.f. 
staras-, a stem-form which frequently occurs also among nouns 
(v. post.), for these verbs, which belong here by rights, v. post, 
under * Present- stem-formation' ; they appear as stem- verbs, 
because the noun-forms underlying them do not really exist in 
the language. 

In Latin a few noun-stems are used as verb-stems; the 
present is formed, as in Gk., by means of -ya- ( 165, V.) ; 
but the formation is confined to u- stems, e.g. statui-t (sets up), 
i.e. *statu-yi-t ) f.f. statu-ya-ti fr. sta-tu-s (subst. standing) ; 
metui-t (fears) from metu-s (fear) ; acui-t (sharpens) from acu-s 
(needle) ; tribui-t (assigns) fr. tribu-s (division) ; minui-t (lessens) 
from a non-existent *minu-s (small), of which minus (smaller) 
for *minius, f.f. *manyans, is the comparative. 

Verb-stems, formed by reduplication of the root, 86. 
and addition of -sa- or -s- in other tenses than the 
present (called desideratives from their function). 

8 frequently appears as an element in stem- and word-forma- 
tion, and must be traced back either to the pronominal \/ sa, or, 



184 REDUPLICATED VERB-STEMS + -S#-, -S-. 

. as is more probable in the case in question, to verbal \/ as 
(esse). 

Although these formations occur in Sk. and Zend only, yet they 
depend, like all reduplicated forms, on a very early method of 
expression, arising in that period of the language when the 
invariable roots possessed reduplication alone as a means of 
increasing their power of expressing relativity ; Gk. forms such 
as ryi-yvto-aKco, fju,-fj,vr)-o-fcco, correspond with the Aryan languages 
at least in reduplication, and it is the reduplication of the root 
only that we consider ancient. We doubt therefore whether 
the method of formation belonging to the Aryan language, so 
far as we know it, should be assigned to the origl. language. 
Here perhaps the reduplication alone, without any special suffix, 
served to express desiderative relation. 

Sanskrit (special grammars must be consulted for further 
details of Sk. desiderative- stem-formation). Before the 8 of the 
sf . there is found an auxiliary vowel i after most root-termina- 
tions ( 15, f). The reduplication is completely retained only 
in cases of the simplest kinds of root, e.g. dr-ir-i-sa-ti, 3 sg. pres. 
(he wishes to go), \/ ar (go; 3 sg. pres. r~no-ti\ cf. ap-ap-lo-fcw 
(fit), at least the same root is reduplicated ; otherwise, as is 
usual, only the initial consonant of the root or its representative 
according to sound-laws (v. post, formation of Perfect) remains 
with root- vowel, which is weakened to i whenever it is origl. a, 
e.g. gi-gna-sa-ti (wishes to know), fut. gi-gna-s-i-syd-ti, aor. comp. 
d-gi-gnd-s-i-sat, etc., ^ gna transposed fr. origl. gan (know) ; 
didrk-sa-te (wishes to see), V ' darg, origl. dark, foT*di-dark-sa-tai, 
M-klp-sa-ti and Jci-kalp-i-sa-te, ^/kalp (be in order) ; some verbs 
lengthen the vowel of the reduplication- syllable (weakened from 
), e.g. mz-md-sa-te, i.e. * ml-man-sa-tai (considers, reflects), 
\/ man (think); yu-yut-sa-ti (wishes to fight), *J yudh\ vi-vik- 
-sa-ti (wishes to enter), V^'f, origl. mk ; Jci-ksip-sa-ti (wishes to 
throw), ^/ksip (throw), etc. 



NOUN-STEMS WITHOUT SUFFIX. INDO-EUR. SK. 185 

2. Noun-stems which are most closely connected with verb-stems 87. 
(participles and infinitives) and also certain other noun-stems. 

I. The root without suffix is also a noun-stem. 

This formation occurs in Aryograeco'italic only ; it is foreign 
to Sclavoteutonic. 

Indo-European original-language. To the Indo- 
Eur. origl. lang. have most likely to be ascribed such root-forms 
as e.g. bhar (bear), vid (see), yudh (fight), etc., in the functions 
of nomina actionis and nomina agentis. As verb- stems they 
occur in the simple aorist ( 164), e.g. da- ; in pres. ( 165), e.g. 
as- (I. a), ai- and i- (II. a). Eeduplicated root without sff. is 
either perfect-stem ( 163), e.g. vi-vid-, da-da- ; or pres.-stem as 
dha-dha-, da-da- (III.), or aorist-stem ( 164). 

Sanskrit. The root appears not unfrequently as a nomen 
actionis and nomen agentis, e.g. in infinitives, as drg- (dat. 
drg-e to see), sad- (dat. d-sdd-e to seat oneself), kram- (dat. ati- 
-krdm-e transgress) ; ya- (dat. a-yai iic*a-ya-ai come) ; rabh- (ace. 
rdbh-am desire, do) ; idh- (ace. sam-idh-am kindle), etc. Similar 
roots, acting as verb- stems likewise, are also used in ordinary 
Sk. as nomina actionis, e.g. yudh- (fern, battle), sam-pdd- (fern, 
happiness ; sam- with, pad go) ; roots with a also raise it to a, 
e.g. vak (speech), <\fvati (speak). At the end of compounds such 
stems as coincide in form with roots and primary verb- stems 
are often found used as nomina agentis, e.g. dharma-vid- (know- 
ing one's duty), etc. Hoots in a lose it before most cases, or 
raise it to a, e.g. vigva-p- (loc. vigva-p-i) and vigva-pa- (e.g. instr. 
pi. viva-pd-bhis), f.f. of stem vigva-pa- (all-protecting), ^ pa 
(protect). 

The pure root-forms appear more rarely in this function with- 
out composition, e.g. drg- (eye, i.e. seeing), ^/drg (see) ; vig- (masc. 
cultivator, husbandman, man), ^/vig (enter, settle, cf. veg-a- masc., 
veg-man- ntr. house) ; div-, dyu- (m. f. heaven) with different 
scale-steps, e.g. div-i, dydv-i loc. sg., dyau-s n. sg., ^/ div (shine); 



186 NOUN-STEMS WITHOUT SUFFIX. GK. 

87. mah- (great), \/ mah (mdh wax). Reduplicated roots without 
sf. are seen in Yed. infinitive- stems such as gi^rath- (dat. 
$igrath-(f), cf. reduplicated pres.-stem gi$rath-, ^grath (loosen). 

In the stems vak-s- (dat. vak-s-e), ^ vah (uehere) ; ge-s- 
(dat. ge-s-e) and gi-s- (dat. gi-s-e), ^ gi (conquer) ; stu-s- (dat. 
stu-s-e), \/stu (praise) aorist-stems in s have been rightly de- 
tected (Benfey, kurze Sanskritgrammatik, p. 236, 402, 2) 
partly, indeed, non-existent in these forms, but yet possible; 
cf. e.g. *d-stti-s-ma 1 pi. act. etc. The s is a relic of \/as (be, 
v. post. 169) added to the root. "We adduce here certain other 
similar infinitive- stems formed from tense- stems, belonging to 
the more archaic (Vedic) language, although they partly retain 
suffixes or their remains ; thus vyathisya- (dat. vyathisyai) like 
fut. stem vyathisya-, ^vyath (be vexed, afraid) ; here -ya- is a 
suffix (v. post. 170, Future Tense) ; munK- (ace. munfc-am), 
whose n comes from pres. stem miMa- (e.g. 3 sg. mun/cd-ti), 
^muk (loose, free). 

Grreek . The root appears as a noun in cases like FOTT- (n. sg. 
cty voice) = origl. vdk-, Sk. and Zend vale-, V ' Feir, origl. vak 
(speak) ; (j>\oy- (n. sg. </>Xof flame), \/(j>\ey ((j>\eyei,v blaze) ; 
Zev- =.*Ayev-, AiF- (pr. n. of a god, origl. heaven ; n. Zeu-9, 
gen. A t^-o?), root origl. div, dyu (shine), cf. Sk. dyau-, div-, etc. 
This happens more often at the end of compounds, as xep-vifi- 
(n. sg. xepvi^fr water for hand washing), V^A origl. nig (vi%a), 
wash) ; Trpoa-Qvy- (n. sg. 7rp6cr-<j)vj; fugitive), V <f>vy 
flee) ; ^evai-a-ruy- (n. ^reucrt-o-ruf lie-hating), \/o-rwy- 
(orrvy-ea), e-arvy-ov hate) ; St-^vy- (Bi-fyt; double-yoked), \/ vy 
(^evy-vv^i I yoke, vy-6v yoke) ; airo-pp^y- (n. sg. a7ro-ppd)j; for 
*a7ro-Fpc0y-<; fragment), V Fpay (break ; cf. pijy-vv/jii,, e-ppwy-a), 
etc. 

Further, we might here adduce the infinitives of the compound 
aorist, as e.g. XOcrat, Xefat, which should probably be taken as 
locatives of stemsXOcra-,Xefa-, i.e*\ey-(ra- (cf.^a/^at, stem^a///a-, 
and infin. in -pkvai, 91, and in -era*, 93, a), scarcely as datives 



LAT. STEMS WITH SUFFIX -a-. ORIGL. SK. 187 

of stems Xu-<r-, Xef-, i.e. *\ey-<;- (cf. Sk.) ; in any case however 87. 
they contain the stem of the aorist compounded with origl. ^/as 
(be), (e.g. eXv-aa, e-Aefa, i.e. *e-\ey-cra) as the stem of a nomen 
actionis which is unused except in this particular case. 

Latin. Stems like nee- (nex murder), ^nec ; due- (dux leader), 
^duc\ with step-formation leg- (lex law), \/% ; pac- (pax peace), 
*Jpac\ luc-, old Lat. louc- (lux light), \/luc, origl. ruk\ uoc- (uox 
voice), 1/uoc ; reg- (rex king), <\/reg. Further, stems used at the 
end of compounds, e.g. iu-dic- (iudex judge), ^dic\ con-iug- 
(coniux mate), ^/iug ; prae-sid- (praeses president), \/sed (sed-eo) ; 
tuU-cin (tubicen trumpeter), y/ can (can-o) ; arti-fic- (artifex 
skilled workman), \/fac [on weakening of a to i v. 32, 2 ; on 
e interchanged with i v. 38], and others show the root as a 
noun- stem. 

II. Stems with suffix -a-. 88. 

This is one of the commonest formations ; before the sf . -a- 
the root is sometimes raised, sometimes unraised. 

Indo-European original-language. Already plenty 
of stems in -a- were existent, as yug-a-, cf. Sk. yug-a-, Gothic 
yuk, etc., ^yug ; vid-a-, cf . Lat. vid-o-, e.g. pro-uidu-s ; bhag-a- 
(god), cf. Sk. bhaga-, Zend bagha-, Pers. baga-, 0. Bulg. bogu, 
\/bhag ; bhar-a-, cf. Lat./er-o-, e.g. ensi-feru-m ; vark-a- (wolf), 
^/vark; daiv-a- (shining, god), \/div (shine), etc. 

Amongst verb- stems here belong all conjunctive- stems ( 161), 
e.g. as-a-, pres. stem and \/as ; moreover simple aorist-stems 
( 164), as bhug-a-, -\/bhug; vavak-a-, ^/vak; so too pres. -stems 
( 165) like bhar-a-, \/bhar (I. b) ; srav-a-, \/sru (II. b) ; thus 
here also, as in the case of noun- stems, partly with, partly 
without, raising of root- vowel. 

Sanskrit. Stems in -a-, identical with verb-stems, are fre- 
quently used as nouns, e.g. nomina actionis like bhdv-a- (masc. 
being, origin; cf. 3 sg. pres. bhdva-ti], \/bhu (become, be); 
bhdr-a- (masc. burden ; 3 sg. pres. bhdra-ti), <Jbhar (ferre) ; 
gdy-a- (masc. victory ; pres. gdya-ti), ^gi (conquer) ; bodh-a- 



188 STEMS WITH SUFFIX --. SK. 

(masc. knowledge ; pres. bfidha-ti), ^budh (know); bhdg-a- (masc. 
use, enjoyment; a pres. *bhoga-ti or *bhoga-ti does not occur), 
l/bhug (enjoy) ; bhed-a- (masc. splitting), y/bhid (split), etc. 
The datives of these nomina actionis serve for infinitives, 
e.g. bharaya, etc. ; the accusatives, mostly repeated, for gerunds, 
e.g. gdmdgamam (ever going), fr. gam-a-, ^ gam (go) ; so 
bddh-a-m, ^budh (know) ; bh$d-a-m, ^/bhid (split) ; stdv-a-m, 
^stu (praise) ; kar-a-m, <Jhar (make, e.g. svadu-karam bhunkte 
1 having sweetened he eats '), etc. 

Nomina agentis of similar form are found in e.g. plav-d- 
(masc. boat; pres. pldva-te), \/plu (float) ; &ar-d- (adj. going; 
pres. tidra-ti), \/kar (go) ; vah-d- (adj. carrying ; pres. vdha-ti), 
\/vah (uehere) ; dev-d- (shining, god), ^div, dyu (shine) ; glv-d- 
(living ; pres. giva-ti), \/gzv (live), etc. This kind of stem- 
form is preserved most frequently at the end of compounds or 
words syntactically combined, as arin-damd- (ari-m ace. sg. ; foe- 
subduing), ^dam, etc. 

In composition with su- (ey-) and dm- (8vtr-) adjectives of 
this kind act like participia necessitatis, e.g. su-kdr-a- (easy to 
be made), dus-kdr-a- (difficult to be made), <\/kar (make), etc. 

Feminines of the same kind are e.g. bhid-a (splitting), \/bhid 
(split ; 3 sg. simple aor. d-bhida-t) ; ksudh-a (hunger), \/ksudh 
(hunger) ; mud- a (joy), ^mud (enjoy oneself) ; mrgaya (hunt), 
verb-stem mrgaya-, 3 sg. pres. mrgaya-te (track, seek), etc. 

Such noun-stems in -a- serve for periphrasis of the 
perfect, and in Yed. also of the aorist, in many verbs, 
especially all derived verbs, by being placed, in the ace. sg. 
fern., before the perfect, in Yed. also before the aorist of an 
auxiliary verb (kar make ; bhu become, be ; as be), e.g. st. 
bubodhisa-, 3 sg. pf . babodhisd Sahara or babhuva or asa, cf. 3 sg. 
pres. bubodhisa-ti, intensive ^budh (know) ; st. bodhaya- (e.g. 
bodhayd Jcakdra, 3 sg. perf.), 3 sg. pres. bddhdya-ti, caus. <Jbudh ; 
st. vida- (3 sg. perf. vidd Jcakdra, Yedic aor. viddm akar), 
(see, know), etc. 



STEMS WITH SUFFIX --. GK. LAT. 189 

Greek. Here also nouns in -#- are common, as Fepy-o- (neut. 88. 
work), ^Fepy (Ip^-atp-pai I work) ; (j>op-6- (adj. bearing), <j>6p-o- 
(tribute), <pop-d (fern, payment ; quick motion), V<t> e P (ferre) ; 
r6fjb-o- (masc. cutting, piece), TOfju-ij (cutting, stump), ^/refju 
(re/ji-va), e-Tep-ov cut) ; 17-6- (neut. yoke), \/?^7 (bind together) ; 
<j>vy~r] (fern, flight), \/(j>vy (favy-a), e-(f)vy-o-v flee) ; ir\6F-o- (masc. 
voyage), \/TT\V (7r\eF-(0 sail) ; poF-rj (stream), ^/pv, origl. sru 
(peF-o), origl. srav-dmi flow) ; cnrov^-r) (haste), ^/o-Trvb (o-TrevSco 
hasten) ; Xot7r-o- (adj. remaining), \/\ITT (XetV-Q), -\ITT-OV leave) ; 
CLK-WK-T) (point) reduplicated \/a/c (be sharp), etc. These forms 
are mostly not distinguished from the pres.- stems 6epe-, \ei7re-, 
7r\eFe-, except by the stronger step-formation of the root- vowel 
(perhaps in an unoriginal manner, cf. e.g. Sk. bhara- plava-, 
etc.). 

In compounds also these nouns with suffix origl. -a-, are 
used, as in Sanskrit, e.g. iTrTro-Sap-o- (masc. horse-taming) ; even 
the peculiar relation of these noun-stems after Svcr- and ev- is 
not wanting, e.g. Bvcr-fop-o- (hard to bear)=Sk. dur-bhar-a- 
(cf. supr.). 

Concerning the infinitives of the aorist, as e.g. \vacu, \e%cu, 
which must be taken as locatives from stems like \vaa- and 
\ea-=*\ey-o-a, v. supr. 87. 

Latin. Suffix -a- is found in uad-o- (ntr. uadum ford), 
-\fuad (go) ; fid-o- (fidus faithful), V fid\ iug-o- (iugum yoke) 
^Jiug ; son-o- (sonus sound), \/son; coqu-o- (coquos cook), \/coqu\ 
merg-o- (mergus gull), <Jmerg\ ulu-o- (adj. living), \/uiu (live; 
3 pres. ului-t} ; dlu-o- (godlike), deo- (god) fr. *deii-o-, *deiu-o-, 
origl. <Jdiv (shine) ; ruf-o- (red), ^rub, ruf, origl. rudh (be red), 
etc. 

A great many nouns of this sort occur at the end of com- 
pounds, as causi-dic-o- (causidicus), ^dic ; miri-fic-o- (mirificus), 
V fac\ mak-uol-o (maleuolus), <Juol\ ensi-fer-o- (ensifer), <Jfer\ 
armi-ger-o- (armiger), <Jger, ges, etc. 

Not unf requently stems of this kind appear with lengthened 



190 -a- AS SECONDARY SF. STEMS WITH SF. -J-. SK. 

88. stem- terminations, although expressing masculine relations, as 
collegia beside sacri-leg-o- (sacrilegus), <Jleg\ trans-fug-a beside 
pro-fug-o (prof ugus), ^/fug ; parri-cld-a, ^caed ; ad-uen-a, \/uen ; 
indi-gen-a-, V 'gen ; agri-col-a, ^col, etc. In Gk. a perfectly cor- 
responding formation is e.g. evpv-ojr-a. Feminines oi this sort 
are mol-a (mill), ^mol (molere grind) ; tog-a (upper garment), 
^teg (tegere cover), etc. 

As a secondary suffix -a- occurs, mostly accompanied 
by step-formation of the stem- vowel, e.g. Sanskrit stem dyasd- 
(adj. iron), stem ay as- (iron) ; gawd- (masc. Qiva-worshipper), 
stem giva, (nom. propr. of the god) ; the secondary suffix -a- 
becomes amalgamated with final a when the underlying stem 
ends in a, so that practically no fresh suffix is here added ; 
dauhitrd- (masc. daughter's- son), stem duhiidr- (daughter) ; 
mdnavd- (masc. man), stem manu- (masc. prop, noun of the 
primeval man), etc. 

Greek, e.g. in rjye/jLovrj (leader fern.), stem ^e/zoz/- (masc. 
9776/40)1; leader) ; o-irarpo- (having same father), stem Trarep- ; 
here, as often, shortened to irarp- before suffix -o- ; aar-6- (masc. 
citizen, burgher), da-Tv (city), which has lost its termination 
before suffix --, etc. 

Latin. Here belong cases like decora- (decoru-s graceful, 
decent, adj.) fr. decus, gen. decor-is (ornament, dignity); honoro- 
(honourable) fr. honos, gen. honor-is (honour), and their like. 

III. Stems with suffix -i-. 

Suffix -i- is on the whole rare. In Indo-Eur. ak-i- (eye) is 
capable of proof, V a k (be sharp, see ; cf . Joh. Schmidt, d. 
wurzel AK, Weimar, 1865, p. 38) ; agh-i- (snake ; cf. Sk. dh-i, 
Zend, az-i-, Gk. e%-i-, Lat. angu-i-, Lith. ang-l-), \/agh. 

Sanskrit. Nomina actionis and agentis, without, and more 
rarely with step- formation, also with weakening of root- vowel, 
e.g. krs-i- (fern, ploughing), \/kars (plough) ; sdTi-i- (fern, friend- 
ship), ^/safi (follow) ; lip-i- (fern, writing), ^lip (smear) ; ydg-i- 
(masc. sacrificer), ^ yag (sacrifice); fihid-i- (fern, axe), ^/ tihid 



GK. LAT. STEMS WITH SF. -W-. INDO-EUR. SK. GK. 191 

(split); $uK-i (adj. pure), ^ gul (shine); bddh-i- (adj. wise), 88 a. 
^/budh (know) ; gir-i (masc. mountain), ^/gar (be heavy), etc. ; 
with reduplicated root, e.g. gd-gm-i- (going, hastening), ^gam 
(go) ; ga-ghn-i- (striking, slaying), i/han, i.e. ghan (slay); sd-sah-i- 
(bearing), i/sah (bear), etc. 

Greek, e.g. *6tc-i- (ntr. eye) ; retained in dual 6We=*o/eye, 
*o/ae), \/ origl. ok (be sharp, see) ; TTO\-L- (fern, city), origl. ^par 
(fill, be full) ; r/oo%-t- (masc. runner), V^p e X C 7 "/ 3 ^' I run )> e ^c. 

Latin, scob-i (scobis, scobs, fern, sawdust, shavings), \/scab 
(scabo scrape) ; trud-i- (trudis fern, punting-pole), ^trud (trudo 
push) ; ou-i-*(ouis fern, sheep, cf. oT-t-?, Sk. dv-i-s, Lith. av-i-s) 
fr. a V w > ^^ (perhaps in sense of * clothe/ in which it appears 
in Lat. and Sclavonic), etc. 

IY. Stems with suffix -u-. 88b. 

This suffix, though not very common, is yet on the whole com- 
moner than -i- ; in some languages it is much used, in others 
but little. 

Indo-Eur. origl. -lang. dk-u- (adj. swift), <Jak (be sharp, 
swift); prat-u- (adj. broad), <Jprat\ par-u- (adj. full), V par 
(fill) ; svad-u- (sweet), V svad ; ragh-u- (light), \/ ragh ; pak-u- 
(cattle), \/pah (perhaps 'bind'). 

Sanskrit. The suffix -u- occurs very often, mostly in forma- 
tion of adjectives, e.g. a$-u- (swift), ^ag (reach), origl. ak\ prath-ii- 
usually prth-u- (broad), \/prath (extend oneself, spread) ; pur-u 
(much) for *par-u-, ^ par (fill ; 1 sg. pres. pi-par-mi) ; svdd-u- 
(sweet), \/ svad (taste, smack); mrd-u- (soft), ^mard (crush), 
etc. Similar adjectives from stems of desiderative verbs are 
especially common ( 83), e.g. didrks-u- (wishing to see), cf. 
didrksa-te (wishes to see), <Jdarg (see), origl. dark ; dits-u- (wish- 
ing to give), cf. ditsa-ti for *di-da-sa-ti (wishes to give), ^da, 
etc. Substantives: e.g. bdndh-u- (masc. relative), ^/band/i (bind); 
bhid-u- (masc. thunderbolt), ^ bhid (split) ; tan-u- (fern, body), 
(stretch), etc. 

Greek, w/e-u- (swift) =Sk. ap-w-, origl. i/ak; 



192 STEMS WITH SF. -U-. LAT. STEMS WITH SF. -I/a-. 

88b. (broad) Sk. prth-u-, origl. \/prat; 7ro\-v- (much) = Sk. pur-u-, 
origl. par-u-, \/par; f)$~v-=$k. svdd-ii-, \/svad; /3ap-v- (heavy) 
=Sk. gur-u- for *gar-u- } origl. \/gar (be heavy) ; ve/c-v- (masc. 
corpse) Zend nag-u-, origl. *Jnak (die) ; Opacr-v- (daring), 
\/6ap(r, 6pas (be bold ; cf. 6dpcr-os boldness), etc. 

Latin. These stems have generally been completely shifted 
to the analogy of the 2- declension, by an i having simply been 
added to the originally final u- e.g. tenu-i- (tenuis thin) from 
*ten-u-, f.f. tan-u-, origl. <Jtan (stretch) ; breu-i- (short) for 
*bregu-i- ( 73, 1) from *breg-u-, cf. Gk. /8pa%-v-, root not other- 
wise traced; leu-i (light) for *legu-i- ixom *leg-u-=($k. e-Xa^-v-, 
Sk. lagh-u-, origl. \/rayh (cf. Sk. ^langh spring, despise ; rah 
haste), grau-i- (heavy) prob. for *garu-i- from *gar-u-, Gk. 
pap-v-, Sk. gur-u-, origl. gar-u- ; suau-i- (sweet) for *suddu-i-, 
from *sudd-u-, cf. Gk. f)$-v-, Sk. and origl. svad-u-. The u- 
form has been retained in ac-u- (acus fern, needle), origl. ^ak 
(be sharp) ; id-u- (fem. the 13th or 15th day of the month), 
probably from origl. \/idh (burn, in sense of ' be bright/ thus 
lit. ' full-moon ') and other stems of somewhat obscure deriva- 
tion. 
89. Y. Stems with suffix -ya-. 

This suffix is very common ; it occurs in all Indo-European 
languages. In Sanskrit by means of it the participium 
necessitatis is formed. 

Like most stem-formative suffixes of Indo-European, the 
common primary and secondary relative suffix -ya- appears in 
several functions (cf. pronominal- root ya with demonstr. and 
relative function, e.g. in nom. sg. masc. Sk. ya-s qui, Lith.^V-s 
ille, is). Indeed the stem-formative elements of the more simply 
organized languages are applied in more ways than one; as 
also are the auxiliary roots which are loosely added to the end 
of the meaning- sounds (simple roots) of monosyllabic lan- 
guages. The suffix -ya~ has, of course, belonged, even in early 
times, to the Indo-European. 



STEMS WITH SF. -yd-. INDO-EUR. 193 

t 

In Sk. this suffix forms regularly a participle of necessity ; 89. 
a function of which traces only are found in the other lan- 
guages. It is a frequent phenomenon to find a certain suffix 
developing itself in a particular language, so as to become a 
regular kind of formation, with a peculiar function, whilst in 
the kindred languages it is otherwise employed ; thus e.g. -ya- 
as the formation of the passive in Sk. ; the nasalized present- 
stems in Sclavonian, Lith., and Gothic as intransitives and 
passives ; -la-, origl. -ra-, as past part. act. in Sclav., etc. 

1. -ya- as a primary suffix. 

Indo-European original language. 

It is hard to find examples which can with certainty be traced 
to the origl. lang. A perfectly trustworthy example of this 
suffix -ya- would be seen in madh-ya-, if it were certain that 
madh is the root of Sk. mddh-ya-(;ji\. //.ecrcro- for *fjieO-yo-, 
Lat. med-io-, Goth, mid-ja-. If we may venture to draw an 
inference for the origl. lang. from the correspondence of Greek 
and Sanskrit, we may ascribe to it yag-ya- also (to be revered, 
holy), <Jyag (revere). 

This sf. is common in verb- stems, as e.g. in stems of derived 
verbs ( 84) ending in -a-ya-, e.g. bhara-ya-, ^/Wiar ; here be- 
long all optative- stems in -ya- (mostly raised a step to -ya-), 
e.g. stem as-ya- ( 162), root and pres.-stem as ; moreover many 
present-stems ( 165 Y.), as e.g. svid-ya-, \/svid. 

Sanskrit. The function of this sf . - ya- as a primary sf . is by 
no means exclusively that of a part, necessitatis, cf. e.g. vid-ya 
(fern, knowledge), ^/vid (know) ; vak-yd- (ntr. speech), </<tt ; 
etc. As a rule 1st step-formation of root- vowel occurs before 
this sf. when it forms a part, necessitatis, e.g. tie-ya-, ^Ki 
(gather) ; yog-yd and yog-yd, y/yuy (iungere) ; pdk-yd- and 
pal-yd-, ^pati (cook) ; har-yd- t ^har (take) ; garg-yd-, ^/garg 
(roar), etc. ; but vrdh-ya-, ^/vardh (wax) ; gith-ya- and goh-ya-, 
\/guh (hide), etc. Instead of the regular contraction to e, o, 
there occurs, in many roots in -i, and in all roots in -u, an unusual 

13 



194 piiiMAUY SF. ya. GK. LAT. 



89. loosening of ai, au, into ay, av ; e.g. gdy-ya-, V ' g\ (conquer) ; 
ksdy-ya-, ksi (destroy) and stdv-ya-, stav-ya- (2nd step), ^/stu 
(praise). For details of this formation see special Sk. gramm. 

Stems of derived-verbs in -aya- only show the root-vowel 
raised before sf. -ya-, while the sf. of the verb- stem disappears, 
e.g. tior-ya- fr. verb-stem Tioraya- (steal), etc. 

Greek possesses no regular participle in -ya- ; -ya- as a 
primary suffix, not uncommonly in the same function as in Sk., 
nevertheless occurs in cases like 07-10- (holy), f.f. yag-ya-, cf. 
Sk. yag-yd- (uenerandus), ^/yag (worship); crruy-io- (detestable), 
\/0"Ti>7 (e-arvy-ov I detested) ; Trcvy-io- (firm), ^/Tray (Tnfy-w/u 
fasten ; Trcfry-o?, masc. thing fixed, hill, frost) ; epeiir-Lo- (ntr. 
ruins), ^epiir (in epelTT-w, ep-epiTT-ro destroy) ; yXwcrcra (tongue) 
for *7\o)%-?/a- ( 68, 1, e, ft), cf. 7X0)%-^ g en - 7 x %-^? (point), 
jjioipa = *fjiop-ya ( 26, 3 ; part, share), ^/mar, cf . fjbep-o? (part) ; 
oa-a-a (voice), i.e. *FoK-ya ( 68, e) origl. <Jvdk, etc. 

Latin likewise has no regular participle in -ya-. The suffix 
appears often primarily, e.g. in ad-ag-io- (adagium proverb), 
^ag (say, cf . dio for *ag-io ; 39) ; ex-im-io- (eximius excelling), 
\/em, im (ex-im-o pick out) ; gen-io- (genius), in-gen-io- (ingen- 
ium), pro-gen-ie- (progenies oflPspring), i/gen (gen-us, gi-g(e)no-); 
in-ed-ia (fasting), ^ed (ed-o) ; per-nic-ie- (destruction), ^nec 
(nee-are, noc-ere) ; fluu-io- (river), \/flu (flu-o) ; con-iug-io 
(coniugium wedlock), ^/iug (iung-o, iug-um) ; ob-sequ-io- (obse- 
quium obedience), ^/sec, sequ (sequ-or); od-io- (odium hatred), 
^od (od-i) ; sacri-fic-io- (sacrificium sacrifice), ^/fac; ob-sid-io- 
(obsidium siege) ; in-sid-ia (insidiae ambush), ^/sed (sed-eo), etc. 
These formations are sometimes hard to distinguish from 
secondary ones, e.g. con-iug-io-, which has to be traced back to 
the noun con-iug- (n. sg. con-iux spouse), rather than to *Jiug. 

The suffix -io-ni-, -io-n- is probably a further formation made 
by means of sf. -ni-, e.g. leg-ion-, leg-ioni-, fr. <Jleg (legere) ; 
reg-idn-, reg-ioni- (direction, region), ^ reg (reg-ere make 
straight) ; ob-sid-ion-, ob-sid-ioni-, beside the above-mentioned 



SECONDARY SF. -yd-. SK. 195 

ob-sid-io- ; con-tag-ioni-, -ion-, beside con-tag-io- (touching), 89. 
\/tag (tangere touch), etc. Cf. suffix -tion-, -tioni- under -ti- 
( 98). 

2. -ya- as a secondary suffix. 

-ya- is frequently used as a secondary suffix in every Indo- 
European language, and hence must have existed as early as 
the date of the original-language. 

Sanskrit. E.g. dto-ya- (adj. heavenly), st. div- (heaven) ; 
gun-ya- (canine), st. gun- (dog) ; pttr-ya- (fatherly), st. pitdr- 
(father) ; rahas-yd- (secret), st. rdhas- (ntr. secrecy). Stems in 
-a lose their final a before -ya-, e.g. dhdn-ya- (rich), st. dhdna- 
(ntr. riches), etc. By means of step-formation of the under- 
lying stem are formed stems like rtav-yd- (adj. seasonable) from 
rtu- (season) ; madhur-ya- (ntr. sweetness), st. madhurd- (sweet) ; 
ftdur-ya- (ntr. theft) st. Kord- (masc. thief), etc. 

This sf . is added to a nomen actionis in -tu- (v. post.) ; this 
-tu- is thereupon mostly raised to -tav-, but more rarely remains 
unraised. Thus by the raising of -tu- arises the compound 
suffix -tav-ya- so commonly used ; with unraised -tu- arises the 
form -tvya-, which occurs in the more archaic period ; from this 
latter there arises, by evaporation of the v from the group tvy, 
the sf . -tya- used in certain cases in the ordinary lang. ; by loss 
of the y arises the form peculiar to the Yedic lang. -tva-. 
These sff. -tav-ya-, -tv-ya-, -t-ya-, tv-a-, originally identical, have 
the same function as simple -ya-, namely that of a participium 
necessitatis. 

Before -tav-ya- (or -tdv-ya-) most root- vowels are raised, thus 
all final vowels, and also medial i and u, e.g. da-tavya- y \/da 
(give) ; e-tavya-, <Ji (go) ; sto-tavya-, ^stu (praise) ; Hhettavya- 
for *Khed-tavya-, ^/lihid (split) ; yok-tavya- for *yog-tavya-, ^/yvg 
(iungere) ; but pak-tavya-, i/pati (cook) ; kar-tavya-, <Jkar (make), 
etc., without step-formation of root- vowel, because in Sk. a was 
felt to be a raised vowel, in contradistinction to its weakenings 
( 6). There is found also, in certain cases, the auxiliary vowel 



196 SECONDARY SF. -yd-. SK. 

89. i, I, between the end of the root and the suffix, e.g. bodh-i-tavya-, 
^budh (know) ; grah-l-tavya-, V 'grah (take). Examples of the 
shortened form of the sff. are found in Vedic Tvt-tvya- t later 
kr-tya-, \/kar (make) ; therefore we must probably assume -tya- 
to have arisen from -tvya-, also in forms in -tya-, which have no 
parallel Vedic -tvya-, as e.g. in i-tya-, \/i (go) ; stu-tya-, \/stu 
(praise) ; bhr-tya-, \/bhar (bear), and the like. It is however 
strange to find such root-vowels unraised or weakened. 
Vedic kdr-tva- (faciendus, as ntr. subst. kdr-tva-m opus) is ac- 
cordingly to be explained as formed from *kar-tv-ya-, stem 
kdr-tu- (v. post.) by means of -ya- ; here y has been lost, whilst 
v is retained. The function of this form distinctly points to 
this explanation. 

Since -lya- is identical with -iya-, the vowel being lengthened 
before y, as happens frequently ( 15, 2, a), and since -iya- 
may moreover stand for -ya- ( 15, 2, b), we may confidently 
assume that the participia necessitatis in -anlya- correspond in 
their sf . to a fundamental form -an-ya- from *-ana-ya- (the loss 
of final a in -ana- before -ya- is regular, cf. 14, 1, b), and 
therefore are formed by means of the same sf. -ya-, which we 
have already found used in this function, cf . bhratr-lya- (brother's 
son, origly. ' fraternal') ^n^pitr-ya- (paternal) ; parvat-lya- (hill-) 
from parvata- (hill), and rdth-ya- (waggon-) from rdtha- (wag- 
gon) ; etc. The sf. -lya- is tla.us=-^a-. This sf. -lya-=-ya- is 
added to a nomen actionis in -ana- (as in -tav-ya-, -tv-ya-, it is to 
a similar one in -tu- ; on nouns in -ana- v. post.), which, as afore- 
said, regularly loses its final -a before -ya-. This sf. -anlya- also 
has the root- vowel almost always raised a step, e.g. stav- anlya-, 
\/stu (praise) ; gay-anlya-, \/gi (conquer) ; dd'nlya-=*dd-amya-, 
\/da (give) ; but kar-anlya-, \/kar (make) ; pati-anlya-, <Jpa& 
(cook), etc. Verb-stems in -aya- lose this whole sf. before 
-anlya-, e.g. tidr-anlya-, st. tidr-dya- (steal). 

In the Vedic we find also sf . -en-ya- thus employed ; herein 
we can hardly fail to recognize a variation of f .f . -an-ya- ; en 



SECONDARY SF. -yd-. GK. LAT. 197 

has arisen from an probably through the influence of the fol- 89. 
lowing y, e.g. ug-enya- t ^vag (wish) ; yet we find also vdr-enya-, 
^/var (choose) with accented root. 

Grreek. Here too -ya- as a secondary sf. is very common, 
e.g. Trdrp-io- (paternal), Trarp-id (f. race), from stem Trarep- 
(father) ; crcoT^p-to- (saying), o-corrjp-la (rescue), stem oxwT^p- 
(saviour) ; reXeto- for *reXecr-?/o- ( 65, 2, c ; complete), stem 
reXe?- (ntr. sg. reXo9 end) ; aXrjdeta, i.e. *d\r)9ecr-ya (truth), stem 
d\7]6ecr- (adj. true) ; Oav-fJbdcrio- (wonderful) for *0avfjLar-io 
( 68, 1, c), stem Oav^ar- (ntr., n. sg. Oavpa wonder) ; Si/ca-Lo- 
(just), stem Slfca- (fern., n. sg. Sl/crj justice) ; Tr^v-to- (adj. ell- 
long) from iriyxv- (masc., n. sg. 7r/}%u-9 cubit), etc. Here also, 
before sf. -io-= origl. -ya-, the stem- termination 0= origl. a is 
lost, e.g. ovpdv-io- (heavenly), stem ovpavo- (masc., heayen) ; 
TTOTajji-io- (riyer-), stem irora^o- (masc. riyer), etc. Here belong 
also the stems of participles and other consonantal stems used 
in fern, alone, like fyepovo-a, i.e. *(f)6povr-ya ; \e\onrvla, i.e. 
*\ekonrva--ya,*-VT-ya', Sore ipa, i.e. *$orep-ya ; fj\aiva=*fj\av- 
-ya, etc. 

The form exactly corresponding to the Sk. part, in -tdv-ya- is 
in Gk. -T60-, i.e. *-Te-Fyo-, e.g. So-reo-, Sk. dd-tav-ya-, \/$o 
(giye) ; l-reo-, \/l (go) ; TrXe/c-reo-, \/TT\K (twist) ; OpeTr-reo-, 
\/rpe(f) (rear) ; 7refc(7-Teo-, ^/iTi,6, pres. TreiO-co, aor. e-TriO-ov (per- 
suade) ; etc. Perhaps we ought to place here the forms in -cna 
for -rta, e.g. evepyecrla from -rla, cf. evepyerrj-s ; d/caOapcrla, cf. 
dtcdOapro-s, etc. ; this -rta may in other cases have also been 
developed from origl. sf. -ti- ( 98). 

Latin, -ya- as secondary suffix, e.g. in patr-io- (adj. 
patrius), fern, subst. patr-ia, from pater-, praetor-io- from 
praetor-, victor-ia from victor-, scient-ia from scient- (sciens), 
reg-io- from reg- (rex) ; audac-ia from audac- (audax) ; princip-io- 
from princip- (princeps), nefar-io- from nefas, sacerdot-io- from 
sacerdot-, etc. Here also the origl. final a of stem is lost before 
-ya-, e.g. domin-io- (dominium) from domino- (dominus), somn-io- 



198 SECONDARY SF. -ya-. LAT. -tivo-, endo-. 

89. (somnium) from somno- (somnus), colleg-io- (collegium) from 
collega, etc. 

Note 1. Adjs. in -tluo-, as na-tluo-, ac-tluo-, have been com- 
pared to Sk. -tavya-, though they do not coincide in function. 
From -tavya- is said to have arisen -taivya-, by insertion of 
(from y following) into the preceding syllable, thence -taiva-, 
-teivo-, -tluo-. However there is no very strong reason for 
identifying Lat. -tluo- with Sk. -tavya-, a comparison which is 
moreover phonetically very doubtful. It is possible that they 
are new formations in Latin, from stem ndto-, acto-, etc. ; cf. 
noc-luo- beside nocuo-, and mortuo- for the form *mor-to-, which 
we should have expected. . 

Note 2. In Latin the participium necessitatis ends in -endo-, 
earlier -undo-, e.g. dic-endo-, die-undo-, etc. In the former part 
of this sf., en, un, hence earlier on, we may probably recognize 
the an of the Sk. an-lya- : the -do- is prob. the sf . -do- so com- 
mon in Latin, e.g. call-do-^ uali-do-, timi-do-, etc., beside calere, 
ualere, timere, etc. ; in uiri-di- beside uirere, -di- appears. This 
-do- probably is derived from the same verb-root da (Lat. dare, 
which has, however, apparently become confounded with origl. 
^dha ' facere '), which we see in cre-do, con-do, etc. Cf. forma- 
tions like ira-c-un-do-, rubi-c-un-do-, uere-c-un-do-, fa-c-un-do-, in 
which the relation of necessity is not found, a relation which 
is not really essential to forms in -un-do-, -en-do-, -n-do- (Corssen, 
Krit. Beitr. 120 sqq., and Krit. Nachtr. p. 133 sqq.) ; -bu-n-do- 
\nfur-i-bu-n-do, treme-bu-n-do-, must be treated as a part, necess. 
of origl. ^/bhu, I^at.fu. Accordingly we recognize in -do-, the 
latter part of this sf., a new formation in Latin. We can 
scarcely assume that the f.f. -an-ya- (v. supr.) has in an excep- 
tional way in the first place become *-an-dya- by insertion of d 
before y, as not unfrequently happens in the languages, e.g. 
middle-Lat. madius for earlier mains, Gk. %ir/6v, i.e. *Syvyov, Sk. 
and f.f. yugdm ; from which form *-an-dt/a- the loss of y would 
then have to be assumed in the same way as perhaps in minus 
for * minim, -bus sf. of dat. abl. pi. for *-bius (v. post, declension), 
so that e.g. coqu-en-do- (coquendus) would stand for *coquen-dyo-, 
*coquen-yo-, f.f. kakan-ya-=$k. pa&aniya- (Gr. Curt. Gk. Etym. 2 
590 sqq.). However, as regards Lat., interchange of d and y 
is not capable of proof ; on the contrary, this language shows a 
tendency towards accumulation of suffixes and suffixative com- 
position with verb-roots, as e.g. -cro- (laua-cru-m, sepul-cru-m) , 
(make) ; -bo- (acer-bu-s, mor-bu-s, super-bu-s) for *bhvo- 



STEMS WITH SF. -Vtt-. INDO-EUR. SK. GK. LAT. 199 

from bhu (be) ; here probably we must reckon -bili- (sta-bili-s, 89. 
fle-bili-s, comprehensi-bili-s, flexi-bili-s) and -bulo- (sta-bulu-m, 
fa-bula), further formations of this -bo- (these forms are otherwise 
explained by others) ; -bro-, -bra- (candela-bru-m, light-bearer ; 
in this example probably no one will deny the derivation of -bro- 
from \/ bhar (bear); uerte-bra, late-bra), from \/bhar (bear); 
-gno- (mali-gnu-s), ^/gan (beget) ; -ig- (rem-ig-, n. sg. remex), 
\/ag (drive, do). 

VI. Stems with suffix -va-. 90. 

Stems with sf . -va- are found in every Indo-Europ. language ; 
in Lat. and Sclavonic, amongst others, it is a favourite suffix. 
Stems in -van- are akin to these, and are seen especially in Sk. 
The sf. -vant- we treat hereafter separately. 

Indo-European original language. Certainly demon- 
strable is ak-va- (masc. horse), \/ak (run ; cf. dk-u- quick). 

Sanskrit, dg-va- (masc. horse), \/a$ (cf. dg-u- quick) ; e-va- 
(masc. going), ^i (go) ; pdd-va- (masc. way, waggon), ^ pad (go); 
pak-vd- (adj. cooked), ^/pafc (cook) ; urdh-vd- (directed upwards, 
raised), i.e. *ardhva- ( 7, 2), \/ardh (grow), etc. 

-van- is akin, e.g. pad-van- (masc. way), cf. pdd-va- ; mdd-van- 
(intoxicating), \/mad (become intoxicated) ; rk-van- (praising), 
beside rk-vant and rk-vd-, ^/arJc (praise), etc. 

Greek. On account of the loss of v in Gk. the sff. in ques- 
tion are hard to recognize. Clearly we may place here e.g. 
iTTTTo- (horse) for *lfc-Fo- =Lat. equo-, origl. ak-va-, etc. ; TroXXo- 
(many, collateral form to TTO\V-) from *7roX-fo-, f.f. par-va-, 
\/par (fill) ; in some other cases the root cannot be further 
traced, as e.g. \ai-F6- =Lat. lae-uo- (left) ; 0X0-, Ion. ov\o- 
( whole), f.f. *oX-fo- =Lat. sollo- from *sol-vo-, Sk. sdr-va-, etc. 

The sf. -van- is seen in ai-Fvv- (alcov lifetime, time), a 
lengthening from a presupposed ai-van- (cf. Lat. ae-uo-, Goth. 
ai-va-, Sk. e-va-), <\/i (go) ; perhaps also irkir-ov- (n. sg, masc. 
Treircov ripe) stands for *7T7r-Fov-, cf. Sk. pak-vd-, \/7T7r, origl. 
kak (cook). 

Latin. The sf. origl. -va- is common; besides eq-uo- (horse) 



200 SUFFIX -vant-. SK. 

90. = origl. ak-m- ; ard-uo- (steep) = Zend eredh-wa-, Sk. urdh-vd-; 
ae-uo- (ntr. lifetime, age)=Sk. e-va- (masc. going), occur many 
other formations like noc-uo- (hurtful), -\/noc (noc-ere hurt) ; 
uac-uo- (empty), ^Juac (cf. uacare be empty) ; per-spic-uo- (per- 
spicuous), \/spec (specere see) ; de-cid-uo- (falling off), \/cad 
(cadere fall) ; re-sid-uo- (remaining), ^sed (seder e sit) ; ar-uo- 
(ploughed, ar-uo-m ploughed field), *Jar (ardre plough) ; al-uo- 
(fem. belly), ^al (alere nourish), etc. 

Here belong also formations in -luo-, like noci-uo- (hurtful) ; 
uacl-uo- (empty), captl-uo- (captive), etc., which are formed as if 
there were parallel forms *nocl-re, *uaci-re, *captl-re. 

The suffix -vant-, forming a past part, act., whose original 
existence is proved by the correspondence of the Aryan, Greek, 
and Sclavonic, is probably compounded of -va- and -nt--ant- 
( 101). With -vant- may be compared the origl. sf. -yant-, 
which also probably consists of -ya- and -ant- (v. post. ' Com- 
parative'), and sf. -mant- ( 91), which is similarly formed from 
-ma- and -ant-, so that we have a scale -ant-, -yant-, -vant-, 
-mant-, to which -an-, -yan-, -van-, -man-, and -a-, -ya-, -va-, -ma- 
are parallel. 

The function of this -vant- is (like that of -mant-) that of 
expressing the ' having' the possession of something. The 
perf . part, and the perf . itself are in many languages expressed 
by means of possessive elements (e.g. Finnish, Magyar, the 
Cassia language, etc.), as is indeed the case also in the periphrasis 
by means of the auxil. verb ' have.' A form vi-vid-vant-, lit. 
' having knowing or knowledge/ is not originally different, in 
point of suffix, from arkta-vant- ' bear-having.' 

The sf. -vant-, which, as forming participles, is a primary sf., 
occurs also as a secondary suffix, e.g. Sanskrit dgva-vant- (pro- 
vided with horses ; n. sg. masc. d$va-vdn, ace. sg. d$va-vant-am, 
gen. sg. dgva-vat-as, n. pi. masc. -vant-as, etc.), fern, dgva-vati, 
i.e. -vat-yd (cf. 15, c), with loss of n, as in similar cases ; 
vdsu-vant- (furnished with riches) ; vlrd-vant- (possessed of 



SF. -Vant-. GK. LAT. IN PAST PART. ACT. 20l 

heroes) ; pad-cant- (having feet), stem pad- (foot). The sf. 90. 
-mant- is employed in similar functions, e.g. Sk. agni-mdnt- 
(possessed of fire), v. post. 

The sf. -vant- has also a special use in Sk., that of giving 
active force to past part., e.g. hrtd-, (^/kar, make) ' made/ but 
krtd-vant- ' having made'; bhagnd- (broken), \/bhag, bhang, but 
bhagnd-vant- ' having broken/ etc. 

Greek. The suffix -vant- becomes -Fevr- (the digamma being 
retained; n. sg. masc. -Few, ntr. -Fe.v), fern. -Feacra, i.e. * -Ferry a 
= Sk. -vatl, i.e. -vatya, e.g. a/AireXo-FevT- (having vines), 
(fem. vine) ; l^Ovo-Fewr- (having fish), fyOv- (masc. fish) ; 
-Fevr- (having wisdom), fMrjrt- (fern, wisdom) ; vuj>o-FevT- (snowy), 
st. vi$- (snow, ace. vty-a), etc. Thus all stems follow here the 
analogy of stems in o-, origl. a-, which is also the case else- 
where in Gk. (e.g. in gen. dat., dual, v. post.) ; yet ^api-Fevr- 
(graceful), %/?- (fern, grace), and perhaps some few others. 

In Latin -vant- has become -vans-, and passed over to the 
analogy of ^-sterns, so that we must here assume a f.f. -vansa-, 
from which -vonso- and -voso- must have arisen ; this -vonso- has, 
however, throughout lost its v (the suffix could scarcely have 
been -ans-, since the loss of the v does not occur in this function 
of the suffix, and the existence of the full form of the sf . in the 
S.W. division of the Indo-European languages is moreover 
proved by the occurrence of the well-preserved form in Gk. 
-Fevr-) ; e.g. fructu-oso-, himin-oso-, *forma-oso-, whence ( 37) 
formonso-, later formoso-. 

We must now treat of the employment of the sf . -vant- (-vans-) 
in forming past part. act. 

Indo-European original-language, e.g. vimd-vant-, 
<Jvid (see, know); dadha-vant-, ^ dha (set), etc. These stems 
coincided in the three genders. 

Sanskrit. The origl. sf. -vant- appears before the different 
case-suffixes as -vat-, -vds-, i.e. -vans- and -us- (v. post. Declen- 
sion) ; -vans-, from origl. -vant-, became -vas- by loss of n 



202 SF. -vant- IN P.P.ACT. GK. STEMS WITH SF. -ma-. 

90. before 5, and this was weakened to -us- by loss of a ( 6) ; -vas-, 
i.e. -vans-, is a lengthening or step-formation of -vans-. The 
suffix is added to the reduplicated root, to the perf.-stem in 
its weaker form (v. post. * Conjugation '), e.g. rurud-vdnt-, \/rud 
(weep), fern, rurud-ml, from *-vantyd, *-vamyd, *-vasyd, *-usyd ; 
ten-i-vdnt- from *tatn-i-vant-, with auxil. vowel i, ^Jtan (stretch) ; 
the shortened st.-forms have not this i, e.g. dat. sg. masc. tenus-e\ 
n. sg. fern, teniisl, etc.; vid-vdnt (knowing, origl. ' having seen'), 
with loss of reduplication of ^/vid (see, know), etc. 

Greek. The origl. final t of the sf . has been almost always pre- 
served, while the n is lost ; in masc. and neut. it is -F6r-=-va (n) t- ; 
in n. sg. -fo? for *-For ( 69), masc. -foWfor *-foT-9 with com- 
pensatory lengthening. The fern, is -via, i.e. -myd ( 65, 2, c) 
from -vasyd, and this from -vansyd, f.f. -vantyd. This sf. is 
added to all perf.- stems ending (1) in case of simple perfects in 
the final letter of the root, (2) in the case of compound perfects 
in K ; e.g. (1) XeXonr-oT-, n. sg. masc. XeXoi7r<w?:=XeXoi7r-/"oT-?, 
ntr. XeXotTTo? = *\e\oi7r-FoT, fern, \e\oi7r-vla = *\e\oi7T-vaya, 
<\/\ITT (leave); likewise (2) *\e\vK-FoT- (n. sg. masc. XeXv/eo>9, 
etc.), \/\v (loosen), etc. After roots ending in vowels perhaps 
the v of the sf. held its place longer ; thus eo-Ta-For- (Horn.) 
from perf.-stem eara- (eara-f^ev 1 pi.), ^crra (stand); <yeya-F6r-, 
perf.-stem <ye<ya-, \/<ya, <yev (pres. ryiyvo/jbcu become), etc. We 
must leave undecided the question whether the stems yeya-Fa)T-, 
reOvrj-FcDT-, etc., retain in w a relic of the former n in *-Fovr-= 
-vant-, or whether we should see in it an unorigl. lengthening 
from -For-. 

Archaic forms show the root- vowel still un- raised, especially in 
fern, stems, e.g. FiBvia (usually elbvia, st. *F6i$-For-, from FolSa, 
f.f. vivdida 'I know/ \/vid, see, know), i.e. *vid-usyd=Sk. vidusl 
from *vivid-vant-yd. 

Latin shows no such formation. 

91. VII. Stems with suffix -ma-, and sff. whose first element 
is -ma- {-man-, -ma-na-, -mant-j on secondary sf. -ma- cf. 107, 



STEMS WITH SF. -ma-. INDOEUR. SK. 203 

where also are treated the sff. ma-ma- and -ma-ta-, which all 91. 
of them form superl.) ; and especially the participle in -ma-, 
-ma-na-, of passive and middle use. 

Participles in -ma-na- appear in the Asiatic and S.-European 
division of the Indo-European, in the Sclavo- Teutonic -ma- re- 
places it. Both forms we hold to be original, since it is 
common enough to find a simple and a compound suffix used 
alike. 

-ma- is a frequent element in stem-formation (in word- forma- 
tion it indicates 1 pers.). As a secondary suffix we shall find it 
employed to express the superlative. 

Primarily it occurs e.g. 

Indo-European, ghar-ma- (warm, heat), \/ghar ; dhu-ma-, 
or probably dhau-ma- (smoke), *Jdhu. 

Sanskrit. In tig-md- (adj. sharp, pointed), <\/tig (become 
sharp) ; Wil-md- (adj. fearful), ^bhi (fear) ; idh-md- (masc. fire- 
wood), ^/idh (burn); ghar-md- (masc. warmth), \/ghar ; dhu-md- 
(masc. smoke), \/dhu (move) ; yug-md- (ntr. pair), ijyug (join), 
etc. 

Kindred to this is sf . -man-, which apparently must be sepa- 
rated into -m-an-, i.e. -m(a)-an-, and is accordingly closely 
parallel to the participial -ma-na-. 

Indo-European, e.g. gna-man- (name) , ^ gna = gan (know) ; 
ak-man- (stone), ^/ak, etc. 

Sanskrit. In gdn-man- (ntr. birth), V 'gan (gignere); dg- 
-man- (masc. stone), ^/ag ; veg-man- (ntr. house), <\/vig (enter) ; 
na-man- (ntr. name) for *gna-man-, \/gna=gan (know) ; us-man- 
(masc. summer), ^/us (burn). With auxil. vowel i t in Yed. also 
I ( 15, f), it appears e.g. in star-i-mdn- (masc. bed), <\/star (ster- 
nere) ; dhar-i-mdn- (masc. forma), \Jdhar (hold) ; gdn-i-man- 
(ntr. birth) beside gdn-man-, from which it is distinguished by 
the * alone. Side by side we find dhdr-man- (masc. bearer ; ntr. 
law) and dhdr-ma- (masc. right, duty) ; e-man- (ntr. going) and 
e-ma- (masc. id.), \/i (go), etc. 



204 



STEMS WITH SF. -ma-. GK. 



91. -mant- is a secondary suffix, e.g. ydva-mant- (possessing 
barley), ydva- (barley) ; mddhu-mant- (possessing honey), mddhu- 
(honey) ; gydtis-mant- (shining), gydtis (light), etc. 

-min- also is secondary, e.g. vdg-min- (possessing speech, 
eloquent) for *vdk-min-, stem vale- (speech) ; go-mrn- (masc. cattle- 
owner), go- (cow, bullock) etc. 

ag-man-ta- (ntr. furnace) must not be overlooked, from dg- 
-man- (stone) ; cf. Lat sf. -men-to- and O.H.GK -munda-. 

Greek. Sf. -ma-, e.g. in Oep-^o- (adj. hot), Oep-prj (fem. 
heat), \/6ep (Qep-ofjicu grow hot), origl. ghar ( 64, 2, n) ; (j)\oy-fjuo- 
(masc. brand), \f<j)\ey ((j)\ey-eiv burn); Kevd-^6- (masc. lair), 
^J KV 6 (/cevd-a) hide) ; KOfjL/jLo- (masc. planctus) for *K07r-fj,o- ( 68, 
1, a), \/KOTT (KOTT-TO), ice-wrr-fa strike) ; av-e-po- (masc. wind) 
with an inserted e ( 29) from origl. ^J an (blow) ; xy-fio- (masc. 
sap), <Jyy (ytF-us pour) ; Ov-fjio- (masc. mind, spirit), <\/6v (Ov-co 
fume) ; jvca-pr) (opinion), ^yvo (yi-yvco-a/ca)), origl. gan (to 
know) ; ^V^-IULTJ (memory), ^//jt,va dju,-iivr)-vKw), origl. man 
(think) ; ri-^ (price, honour), <\/TI (ri-co (honour) ; ot-//.o- (masc. 
fem. way, course, stripe), \/l (el- pi go), etc. 

As secondary sf. also -/JLO- occurs, e.g. aXta-po- (strong), aX/a; 
(strength) ; voo-Ti-fio- (belonging to return), VO&TO- (masc. return) ; 
(frvfy-fjio- (whither one can flee, avoidable), <uft- (fem. flight), etc. 

The sf. origl. -man- appears in Grk. as -fiov- and -pev-, e.g. 
a/c-fjiov- (masc. n. sg. dfc-ficov anvil)=Sk. dg-man-, beside a/c-jjirj 
(point, sharpness); IS-pov- (adj., n. sg. masc. iS-fjicov, ntr. I'S-^oz/, 
skilful, belonging to later period), \/Fi,$, origl. md (see, know) ; 
(n. sg. T\T)-IJLWV sufiering, wretched), ^r\a (endure, cf. 
L y T\tf-crofji(u) ; yvw-fjiov- (masc., n. sg. <yva)-fj,Q)v knower), 
Vyvo (yi-yvw-o-KO)), origl. gan (know), cf. yvco-w, pvr\-pov- 
(mindful), cf. ^77-^77, V fj,va, origl. man (think), etc. In the 
form -fjLcov- we recognize an unorigl. lengthening of the same sf., 
cf. K6v0-fji(DV (masc., gen. sg. Kev6-p&v-os lair), \/Kv0, raised to 
KV0 (/cev6-a) t e-fcv0-ov hide), cf. /eeu#-/u>-? ; drj-p&v (masc., gen. sg. 
, heap), <\/6e (ri-07]-/jLi), etc. 



STEMS WITH SF. -ma-. LAT. 205 






Sf. -fjiev-, e.g. in irvO-^iv- (masc., n. sg. Trv0-fj,r)V bottom, foun- 91. 
dation), \/7rvd, cf. O.H.Gf. bod-am; iroi-^kv- (masc., n. sg. wot-fujif 
shepherd) = Lith. pe-men- (n. sg. pe-mu), root accordingly^', 
perhaps a weakening from pa (protect). 

Closely connected is the sf. -/jLovr), e.g. (faey-fiovrf (inflamma- 
tion), \/(f)\ey (0Xe7-< burn) ; ^ap-pavr) (joy), V X a P 
rejoice), etc. 

Here too probably belong sff. -jju-v- and -JM-VO-, e.g. p 
(masc., gen. sg. pyy-iuv-os surf, breakers), \/pa<y (in 
break) ; va--pZv- (dat. sg. var-fuv-i) and vcr-fjbivr) (strife), 
Sk. and origl. yudh (strive) ; also as secondary sf., e.g. in tcvK\d- 
-IJLIVO- (masc. and neutr., name of a plant, cyclamen), from 
KVK\O- (KVK\O-S circle). 

Also the very common sf. -par- (ntr.) is related to the sff. 
above named ; e.g. el-par- (garment), Aiol. /^//-/mr-, i.e. 
V^e? (WVfii, i.e. *Fea--vv^ clothe) ; o^ar-, i.e. 

- (eye), Aiol. OTT-Trar-, VOTT (otyofJbai,, oTr-coTT-a see) ; cf. 

- (bond) beside Secr-po- (masc. id.) and Bea-fjuj (bundle), 
, 8e? (Sew bind) ; /3a$lcr-paT- (going) beside fiaSLa-fjio- (masc. 

id.) from (3atfo (step, go) ; ^dp-par- (joy) beside 
(v. supr.); pfjy-fjuaT- (fracture) beside prjy-fjilv- (v. supr.); 
beside av-el-jjbov- (garmentless) ; TT pay- par- (deed), ^ Trpay 
(7rpda-crco\ beside TroXv-Trpay-^ov- (busybody) ; fjivrj-par- (me- 
morial) beside iivr)-^ and ^vr\-^ov- (v. supr.) ; crTrep-fiar- (seed), 
\7cT7T6p (cfTrelpo) sow), beside cnrep-fjiaivto, i.e. *<T7rep-fJiav-ya) (sow), 
and the like. 

In Latin also the sf. origl. -ma- occurs, as Lat. -mo- (-mu-) 
in an-i-mo- (n. sg. animus spirit), origl. ^/an (blow) ; fu-mo- 
(fumus smoke), origl. ^dhu (move) ; fir-mo- (firmus firm), prob- 
ably Sk. ^/dhar (hold; cf. fre-n-um bridle, from same root); 
for-mo- (formus warm), Vf er> (fer-ueo) ; al-mo- (almus nourish- 
ing), \/al, nourish; an-i-ma (life), cf. an-i-mo-, origl. ^an (breathe, 
blow); fa-ma- (fame) = Gk. ^17-^17, ^ fa (fa-ri say); for-ma 
(form), cf. Sk. dhar-i-mdn- (v. supr.), etc. 



206 PARTICIPIAL SF. -mana-. INDOEUR. SK. 

91. Sf. origl. -man-, Lat. -men-, is common ; e.g. ger-men (ntr. 
germ, shoot), \/ger, origl. ghar (be green) ; *gno-men (no-men, 
co-gno-men name), \/gno, origl. gan (know) ; se-men (seed), ^/sa 
(sow), teg -men, teg-i-men (covering), ^ teg (cover) ; ag-men 
(troop, crowd), *Jag (drive) ; sola-men (solace), verb-stem sola- 
(solari console) ; certd-men (contest, match), verb-stem certa- 
(certare struggle) ; moll-men (effort), verb- stem moll- (moliri 
undertake), etc. 

This sf. is lengthened into -mon-, e.g. in ser-mon- (n. sermo 
masc. speech), \/ ser (arrange, put together; in ser-o, ser-tum) ; 
ter-mon-, cf. ter-men, ter-min-o- (border), \/ter, Sk. and origl. tar 
(exceed, come to the end) ; often moreover increased by -to-, 
e.g. in co-gno-mento-, in-cre-mento, teg-i-mento-, aug-mento- be- 
side aug-men, seg-mento- beside seg-men, etc. ; this -mento- is par- 
ticularly common in case of derived verbs, e.g. armd-mento-, nutrl- 
-mento-, experl-mento-, etc. (ntr., n. ace. sg. -mentu-m) ; to this sf . 
-mon- was added the suffix origl. -ya- also, likewise attended by 
lengthening (or step-formation), whereby consequently arose 
sf. -mdnio-, f.f. -many a-, which is mostly a secondary suffix, 
e.g. quer-i-monia (complaint), quer-or (complain) ; acri-monia 
(sharpness) from stem dcri- (deer, dcri-s sharp) ; testi-monio- 
(testimony) from testi-s (witness) ; mdtri-mdnio' (wedlock) from 
stem mdtri-, from mater-, origl. mdtar- (mother), etc. 

Participial suffix -mana-. 

Indo-European, -mana-, in the function of forming parti- 
ciples, appears originally annexed to the stems of the present, 
future (formed indeed by means of a present), aorist, and per- 
fect, thus e.g. \/dha, pres.-stem dhadha-, dhadha-mana- (nOe-fjievo-}, 
fut. dhd-sya-mana (Orj-ad-fjievo-^, aor. dha-mana- (de-pevo-), perf. 
(from \/dha this part, would coincide with the pres. part, in form), 
e.g. bha-lhar-mana- or bhabhdr-mana- from \/bhar, perfect-stem 
bhabhar-, bhabhdr-. 

Sanskrit. This sf. is here sounded -mdna-, wherein we 
recognize an unoriginal lengthening or step-formation of origl. 






PARTICIPIAL SF. -mana-. GK. 207 

-mana- (cf. Zend -mna-, Gk. -jmevo-, Lat. -mino~, -mno-, all with 91. 
vowel unraised), just as in Lat. -mon-, -mon-ia-, Gk. -/JLCOV- stand 
contrasted with sf. -man-, which is proved to be the original 
form by the correspondence of the languages. It occurs as 
part. med. and pass., added to present- and future-stems as well 
as to the perfect- stem (the latter however almost exclusively in 
the earlier stage of the language) . Instead of this -mana- there 
mostly appears in those present- stems which do not end in stem- 
formative a (except no), and in the perfect, a form -ana-, which 
appears to be a later, secondary form for -mdna-, just as -e for 
-me, origl. -mai, in 1 sg. med., -a for -ma in 1 sg. act. pf. (v. 
post. Personal- terminations of the verb). The possibility that 
-ana- for earlier -ana- may be a sf. distinct from -mana- cannot 
nevertheless be denied, only in that case -na- would be expected 
rather than -ana-. 

Examples. 1. Sf. -mana-, e.g. pres. bhdra-mdna-, pres.-stem 

bhdra- V Wiar (bear) ; nahyd-mdna-, pres.-stem nahyd-, in pass, 
function, med. on the other hand ndhya-mdna-, pres.-stem ndhya-, 

^/nah (tie), etc. Fut. ddsyd-mdna-, fut. stem dd-syd-, ^da (give) ; 

perf . sasr-mand-, perf . stem sasar- \/sar (go) ; iga-mana- (Yed.) 
with stem-termination a affixed to perfect-stem, according to 

analogy of other tense-forms ; perf .-stem here Iga- for Ig- from 

iyag-, yayag- ( 6), </yag (offer, worship). 

2. Forms with -ana-, e.g. pres. lih-dnd-, root and pres.-stem 

lih- (lick) ; gay-ana-, pres.-stem cay-, ge- (ge-te he lies), ^ $i ; 

Jcinv-dnd-, pres.-stem Jci-nu-, \/Jci (gather); yundnd- from*yw-w- 

-dna-, pres.-stem -yuna-, ^yu (join) ; ddddna-, pres.-stem dada-, 

dad-, ^Jda (give), etc. ; perf. dddrg-dna- (Yed.), perf.-stem dadarg-, 

<Jdar$ (see) ; gigriy-dnd-, perf.-stem gigri-, V ' gri (go) ; bubhug- 

-dnd, ^bhug (bend), etc. 

In nom. sing, these sff. are masc. -mdna-s-, dna-s ; ntr. -mdna-m, 

-dna-m ; fern, -mdna, -and. 

In Greek we find everywhere .-^eva- = origl. -mana- (n. sg. 

masc. -/^ez/o-9, ntr. -pevo-v, fern, -pevr)), and this in regular use after 



208 PARTICIPIAL SF. -mana-. GK. 

91. pres.-, fut.-, perf.-, and aor.-stems ; e.g. pres. fapo-jjievo-, pres.- 
stem fape-, $epo-, origl. bhara-, bhara-, V fap, origl. bhar (bear) ; 
SiSd-fjievo-, pres.-stem SiSo-, \/So, origl. da (give) ; Sei/cvv-fjuevo-, 
pres.-stem SGIKVV-, \/ SIK (show), etc. ; fut. SwGo-pevo-, fut.-stem 
Bwo-o-, \/ Bo ; perf. \e\v-fjievo-, perf. - stem XeXu-, \/\v (loose); 
\e\eijji-iJLevo- for *XeXet7r-/*.e^o-, perf .-stem XeXetTT, \/\LTT (leave) ; 
simple aor. So-/-tez/o-, aor.-stem and V$-; Xt7r6-//,ei/o-, aor.-stem 
\L7re-, XtTTo-, \/\i7r ; compound aor. \v-crd-fjLevo, aor.-stem Xucra-, 
VXu, etc. 

The sf. origl. -mana- appears in early Gk. (Horn.) also in the 
function of a nomen actionis or infinitive in loc. sg. fern, -pevai, 
(cf . 'xa^ai loc. from stem ^a/xa-), shortened to -fiev (also in Dor. 
and Aiol. in verbal stems after the root-termination and aor. pass.), 
e.g. pres. eb-pevcu, f.f. of stem ad-mana-, root and earlier pres.- 
stem e$~, origl. ad (eat ; the pres.-stem in use is ee-, e'So-) ; 
afJivvi-fJievaL, apwe-fjiev, pres.-stem apvve- (ward off) ; faptj-pevcu, 
f.f. of stem bharaya-mana-, pres.-stem <j>oprj-, fapee-, f.f. bhdraya- ; 
fut. age-pevai, a^e-^ev, f.f. of stem agsya-mana-, fut.-stem ae-, i.e. 
7<n/e-, f.f. ag-sya-, \/ay, origl. ag (agere); pf. redva-^evai, 
, pf. stem -reOva-, \/6va=6av (die) ; FlS-iievai, with lost 
reduplication, as Foiba, f.f. (vijvdida, f.f. of particip.-stem thus 
vivid-mana-, \/Fi8 (know) ; aor. simpl. So/jievai, aor.-stem and \/&o- ; 
elTre-pevai, elire-iiev, aor.-stem etVe-, f.f. vavaka-, \/Fe7r, origl. 
vok (speak) ; e\0e-fjbevai, e\6e-iiev, aor.-stem e'X^e- (rj\6o-v, 
rjKvOo-v), \/e\v0 (come) ; aor. -pass. 
i, etc. Cf. also 93, a. 



Note. The (Yed.) forms adduced by Benfey (Or. u. Occ., i. 
606 ; ii. 97. 132) in Sk., such as da-man-e, cf. So-nevai, vid-mdn-e, 
cf . A'S-yitemi, as also the Zend gtao-main-e (\/$tu praise), are indeed 
datives of a neut. subst. stem Sk. da-man- (gift), vid-mdn-, Zend 
gtao-man- (praise) ; notwithstanding which we believe that we 
must adhere to our explanation as regards Gk., on account of 
the parallel participles in -fjbevo-, and moreover from want of 
evidence for the dat. sf . at belonging to consonantal stems in 
Gk. It is possible that the Gk. sf . -pava- stands parallel to the 



PARTICIPLE IN -manor. GK. LAT. 209 

Aryan sf. -man-, besides the examples adduced at least the two 91. 
which I have met with (ddmane and gtaomaine) do not by any 
means correspond with the Gk. infin. in function. 

Latin. The sf. origl. -mana- is retained only in relics, 
which yet show that it was once more generally used, and 
perfectly in accordance with Gk. analogy. 

Substantives like alu-mno-, fern, alumna (nursling) ; uertu-mno- 
(Yertumnus, name of a god), probably from early Lat. *alo- 
-meno-, \/al (nourish) ; *uerto-meno-, \/uert (turn), have lost 
the e of -meno-=-/jLevo-=-mana- ; the ending is here regularly 
added to the pres.-stem, just as in Sk. and Gk. The ter- 
mination is added immediately to the final of the root in 
ter-mino- (bound), ^/origl. tar ; also fe-mina (woman) belongs 
here, though there may be some doubt as to the root of 
the word ; further, da-mno- (damnum loss ; Ritschl, Rhein. 
Mus. fur Philol. 1ST. F. xvi. pp. 304-308), pres.-stem and ^da 
(da-mus, etc. ; the change of meaning is shown by Ritschl in 
the passage quoted ; perhaps also <Jda (cut) or dha (set, make) 
and not da (give), may here be fundamental, so that this has no 
bearing on the explanation of the form given by Ritschl). 

The nom. pi. masc. of the sf ., thus -mini- from earlier *-menei, 
*-menci-s (v. post. Declension), has remained as a periphrastic 
2 p. pi. of med. pass., with auxil. vb. lost ; the i for e (cf. Gk. 
-fievo-) is probably caused by following ni ( 38), and here we 
find Lat. i corresponding to Gk. e, as not unfrequently, e.g. in 
forms like homin-is, fldmin-is, and Troi/jiev-os. Accordingly Lat. 
fen-mini corresponds exactly to Gk. fapo-fievoi, f.f. of the stem 
bhara-mana-, pres.-stem feri-, origl. bhara-, \/fer, origl. bhar. 
This -mini is simply added to tense- and mood-stems, also in 
the latest new- formations, e.g. pres. ind. ama-mini, mom-mini, 
audl-mini ; opt. and conj. f era-mini, moned-mini, ame-mini, etc. ; 
ama-bd-mini, ama-re-mini, ama-bi-mini, etc. 

The singular of this kind of the middle form, which in an 
earlier stage of the language probably coexisted with the other 

14 



210 STEMS WITH SF. -ra-. INDO-ETJR. SK. GK. 

91. (v. post.) in all forms (thus e.g. a *feriminos sum, es, etc.), has 
been retained as 2 and 3 p. sg. imper. of the earlier lang., 
where it ends, however, not in os, but in o, probably after the 
analogy of the other real imperative endings in o (final s may 
be lost in Old-Lat., v. supr. 79) ; e.g. fd-mino, frui-mino, pro- 
gredi-mino, arbitrd-mino, prqfite-mino, to which we must supply 
es or esto : thus the underlying forms are probably such as 
*fdminos esto, etc. 

92. VIII. Stems with sf . origl. -ra-. 

Noun-stems with sf . -ra-, -la-, occur in the separate Indo-Eur. 
languages, and consequently it is certain that this formation 
belonged to the period of origl. language. To show that I is a 
particularly common element in sff., it is enough to mention 
the diminutives in / (for Lat. and Gk. cf. L. Schwabe, de de- 
minutivis Graecis et Latinis liber, Gissae, 1859). On -ra- as 
compar. sf., v. 105. 

Indo-Eur. origl. -lang. rudh-ra- (red), ^rudh (become 
red) ; sad-ra- (seat), ^/sad (sit) ; ag-ra- (masc. field), <\/ag. 

Sanskrit. Sf. -ra-, -la-, sometimes occurs with auxil. vowel 
i ( 15, f). rudh-i-rd- (v. supr.) ; dlp-rd- (shining), <\/dlp (shine) ; 
kid-rd- (pierced ; ntr. defect, flaw), \/Kid (split) ; dg-ra- (masc. 
plain, field), \/ag (go, drive) ; an-i-ld- (wind), \/an (blow), etc. 

Greek, epvd-po- (red) ; Xa/^TT-po- (shining), Xa/^Tr-a) (shine) ; 
<j)ai$-p6- (bright), cf. $a&-</to- (gleaming) ; \vjr-po- (grievous), 
VXfTT (\v7T-rj grief) ; a/c-po- (highest, topmost ; ntr. dfc-po-v 
top, point; a/c-pa fern, top), \/ or igl- dk (be sharp); Trre-po- (ntr. 
feather, wing), \/7rer (-Trer-o^at fly) ; dy-pd- (masc. field), 
Sw-/30- (ntr. gift), ^/So (give) ; eft-pa (fern, seat), \/e 
sit), etc. ; Sityrj-po- (thirsty), verb. -stem Sitya- (i<fyda> thirst) ; 
<nyrj-\6 (silent), verb- stem 0-^70-- (be silent) ; aTrarrj-Xo- (deceit- 
ful), verb- stem aTrara- (cheat) ; Set-Xd- (timid), ^8t (fear, e.g. 
Se-Si-fjiev, Se-Soi-Ka) ; fjLey-d\o- (big), ^origl. mag or magh (wax, 
thus origly. ' grown ') ; O/JLL^-\TJ (mist), V migh (moisten) ; 
6- (threshold), \/@a (go) ; ^0-Xo- (ntr. race), <i)-X?7 (tribe), 



STEMS WITH SF. -IY&-. LAT. STEMS WITH SF. -an-. SK. 211 

\/(f)v (beget, grow), etc. As primary and secondary sf. -epo- 92. 
often occurs, e.g. <f>avepo- (clear), \/<f>av (<f>aiva) show) ; Spocrepo- 
(dewy) from fy>6cro-5 (fern, dew) ; foftepb- (fearful), 
(masc. fear), etc. ; also in other sff., e.g. -vpo-, -coprj-, -t 
-w\q-, -Z\o-, we find origl. sf . -ra-. 

Latin, rub-ro- (ruber red), V rub, origl. rudh ; scab-ro- 
(scaber rough), ^scab (scabo scratch) ; sac-ro- (sacer holy), 
\/sac (sancire) ; gnd-ro- (gnarus knowing), \/gna (know) ; ple-ro- 
(full), \/ple (fill) ; ag-ro- (ager field), \/ag (agere) ; sella (stool) 
for *sed-la = eS-pa, V &d (sedere sit) ; sf. -la- is frequently 
added to derived verbal - stems, e.g. cande-la (lamp), stem 
cande- (candere glow, be white) ; mede-la (remedy), stem mede- 
(mederi heal), etc., whose analogy, as in impf . (v. post. 173, 7), 
is followed by the formations of stem-verbs, as e.g. seque-la 
(following), sequi (follow); fuge-la (flight), fugere (flee); loque-la 
(speech), loqui (speak) ; quere-la (complaint), queri (complain). 
Hence we see here, as in the Sclavonic participle, clearly an 
addition to verbal- stems, which occurs in Greek as well, -la- 
is also a common element in Latin in sff. (-ulo-, -ula-, -Hi-). 

IX. Stems with sf. origl. -an-. 93. 

These stems occur in all Indo-Eur. languages, but rarely, it 
is true, in some of them, while in others they are very common 
e.g. Teutonic ; but I know of no example which we may 
confidently ascribe to Indo-European except vad-an- (ntr. 
water), and ak-an- (masc. stone; cf. Sk. dg-an- and Goth, auhna-, 
which may very probably be derived from an older consonantal 
stem). 

Sanskrit, rag-an- (n. sg. rag a, n. pi. rdgdn-as, loc. sg. 
ragn-i, rdgan-i, king), ^rag (rdg-ati shines, rules) ; sni-han- 
(friend), \/snih (love) ; vrs-an- (rainer ; bull), ^/vars (rain) and 
other like nom. agentis; dg-an- (masc. stone, rock), ^/ag (strike) ; 
ud-dn- (ntr. water, not used in all cases), ^/ud (wet), probably 
arising from vad. 

The very frequent Sk. sf. -in- is probably akin, e.g. primary 



212 STEMS WITH SF. -an-. GK. LAT. SF. -ana-. 

93. in math-in- (beside mdnth-an-, churning stick), ^Jmath (move, 
stir) ; exceptionally common as secondary sf., e.g. dhan-m- (rich), 
dhdna- (ntr. possession), etc. 

Greek. The sff. corresponding to origl. -an- are here not 
uncommon, e.g. rep-ev- (n. sg. masc. repijv tender), -\/rep (relp-a) 
rub) ; apyy-ov- (masc., n. aptfy-cov helper), cf. aptfy-co (help) ; 
el/c-dv- (fern., n. elrc-cav image), cf. e-onc-a (perf. am like) and 
the like ; more frequently still is found the sf . -OH/-, which must 
be considered a lengthening or step-formation of -an-, e.g. 
aW-av- (glowing), cf. aW-co (kindle), ^16; K\V-O)V (masc. wave, 
surge), V/c\i>8 (K\VO) rinse, wash) ; TropS-wv (masc. farter), 
i/7rep$ (7rep$-Q) fart), etc. In TrevO-rjv (masc. inquirer), \/7ru# (TTVV- 
Q avo^ai, fut. r jrev(6)-a-ofJbaL inquire) ; Xet^-^v (scale), \/^% (^*%-a> 
lick), etc., we see the rarer -rjv-= origl. -an-. As secondary 
sf. -cov- appears in avp-(ixv (men's apartment), stem dv&p- for 
*avp-, a-vep- (n. dwjp, gen. dvBp-ds man) ; ITTTTCDV (masc. stable), 
ITTTTO- (horse), etc. 

93 a. Latin. Sff. with short vowel are not very common, e.g. n. 
sg. a-sperg-o gen. -in-is (fern, besprinkling), stem thus -sperg-on-, 
-sperg-cn-, \/ sparg (sparg-o sprinkle, scatter ; a-sperg-o be- 
sprinkle) ; com-pag-en- (fern., n. com-pag-o fastening), ijpag 
(pang-o fix, com-ping-o fix together) ; pect-en- (masc. comb ; gen. 
pect-in-is), pect-o (comb) ; on the other hand, -on- is common, 
as in Gk. -wv-, e.g. ed-tin- (masc., n. edo, gen. eddn-is eater), 
com-ed-on- (devourer), \/ed (ed-o eat, com-ed-o eat up) ; com-bib-on- 
(fellow- drinker), cf. com-bib-o (drink with) ; ger-on- (bearer), 
cf. gcr-o (bear, bring) and the like. 

X. Stems with sf. -ana-. 

The sf . -ana-, which in Sk., Zend, Gk., and Gothic forms stems 
used as infinitives, belongs to the period of the Indo-Eur. 
origl. language, in which formations such as bhar-ana-, 
\/bhar (bear) ; mgk-ana-, perhaps vagh-ana- (uectio, ntr. waggon), 
^vagli (uehere), and the like must be presupposed. Cf. more- 
over the med. participles of Sk. and Zend in -ana-,- -ana- ( 91), 



STEMS WITH SF. -ana-. SK. GK. 213 

which perhaps belong here; the Gk. pres.-stems such as itc-ave-, 93b. 
pavO-ave-, and Sk. e.g. is-ana-, grh-dna- ( 165, iv. b). 

Sanskrit. Sf. -ana-, with root-vowel *, u accompanied by 
step-formation of root-rowel, forms nomina actionis and nomina 
agentis (also adjectivals). The dat. and loc. sg. of the abstracts 
in -ana- (-andya-, -ane-) are used as infinitives, e.g. dat. 
gdm-andya, loc. gdm-ane, stem gam-ana-,!*., sg. gdm-ana-m (ntr.), 
\/ gam (go); likewise bhdr-ana- (bear, hold), \/ bhar (bear); 
bhed-ana- (split), <Jbhid; bhdv-ana- (be), ^bhu\ dana- (giving, 
gift), i.e. *dd-ana-, ^da (give) ; kdr-ana- (cause), verb-stem 
kdraya- (caus., ^/kar make), etc. The sf. appears as fern, also 
in this function, e.g. as-and- (stay), ^/ds (sit) ; ydlt-ana (begging), 
\/ydti (beg). 

Nomina agentis of this form are e.g. nay -ana- (ntr. eye 'the 
guiding thing '), \/m (lead) ; md-ana- (ntr. mouth, ' the speak- 
ing thing'), ^/vad (speak) ; vdh-ana- (ntr. waggon, 'the carrying 
thing 7 ), ^/vah (carry); dag-ana- (masc. tooth, 'the biting one'), 
<J dag (bite) ; ndnd-ana- (masc. delighter), verb -stem nandaya- 
(delight), ^/nand (rejoice), etc. Ferns, of this function are e.g. 
gan-anl (genetrix), i.e. *gan-anyd from masc. gdn-ana-, verb- 
stem ganaya- (beget), ^gan (be born; beget), etc. 

As adjs. are used e.g. gval-and- (burning), ^/gval (burn) ; 
gobh-and- (pretty), <J gubh (sparkle), etc. 

Greek. Here belong the nouns in -avo- ; thus neuters Koir-avo- 
(pestle), ^/KOTT (KOTT-TO), Ke-KOTT-^ strike) ; op<y-avo- (tool), V J-epy 
(epy-ov work) ; o%-avo- (handle), V^X (^X'* nave j hold), SpeTT- 
-avo- (sickle), ^/Speir- (SpeTr-o/juai, pluck), etc. ; rvfiTr-avo- (ntr. 
drum, cudgel) with nasalized \/rv7T (rvTr-rco beat), which often 
happens in the stems of this formation used as pres.-stems ; 
masculines, e.g. crre^-ai/o- (crown) \^crre(f> ((rrefy-ew gird, crown) ; 
- (Hesuch. podex), Vx 6 ^ (x^fa caco ) 5 feminines like 
77 (pleasure), -v/aS (avb-dvw, aB-rfcra), e-aS-ov please), origl. 
svad; arf- vr ) (strangling, hanging), V7%> % (7%- w throttle, 
a%-vv-fj,ai, am pained), etc. ; SpeTT-dvr) (id. q. SpeTT-avov) ; 0r)y-dvrj 



214 STEMS WITH SF. -HO,-. INDO-EUR. SK. 



93b. (whetstone, also 0ij<y-avo-v is attested), V^7 (Orfy-w whet) ; 
a-Te^'dvq (encircling, crown), cf. crre^-owo-?, etc. Adjectival, 
e.g. o-K7T-av6- (covering), \/o-rce7r, cf. ovee-Tr-i; (cover) ; iic-avo- 
(sufficient), ^/IK (lic-veo[j,a(,, iic-dfj/qv come), etc. 

As from sf. -as- arises Lat. infin. in -re-, and from -mana- 
Gk. infin. -pei/ai (v. 91), so also from -ana- comes Gk. infin. 
in -even, which we consider as loc. sg. of a fem.-stem. A form 
\e\onr-evai points to a stem origl. rirdikana-, i.e. a nom. 
agentis in -ana- formed from perfect- stem ; <j>epet,v for *<f>pei,vi,, 
*(f>epevi ( 26, 3), with shortened ending for *<j)pevat, to a stem 
bharana- from pres.-stem fape = bhara-, whose termination -a 
serves likewise as initial sound of sf. -ana-. Stems ending 
in a vowel mostly do not assume -ana- t but only -na-, hence 
M, 8et,icvv-vcu ; yet OelvaL = *6eevai, Sovvai = 



Latin. A formation quite corresponding to origl. -ana- 
does not occur to me. As Gk. firj^av^ appears in Lat. as 
mdchina, we may probably place here the Lat. forms with sf. 
-ino- f -ina, whose i therefore, as often in Lat., is weakened 
from a; thus, e,g. pdg-ina (fern, leaf, page), ^/pag (fasten, join, 
pres. pang-o) ; sarc-ina (fern, bundle, load), \/sarc (sarc-io patch, 
repair) ; dom-ino- (lord), fern, dom-ina, <Jdom (dom-o subdue, 
tame), cf. Sk. dam-ana- (taming, subduing). 
94. XI. Stems with sf . -na-. 

These stems, used in all Indo-Eur. languages, are much 
employed as past part, pass., in meaning like those in -ta-. 

As a regular formation this part, occurs only in certain Sk., 
Scl. and Teut. verb- stems, whereby its existence in Indo-Eur. 
is sufficiently proved. 

Indo-Eur. The frequent use of -no- in noun-stems appears 
from words such as svap-na- (masc. sleep), ^/svap (sleep) ; std-na- 
(ground, place), \/sta (stand). 

Sanskrit, svdp-na- (as orig.); yag-nd- (masc. offering, wor- 
ship), ^/ yag (offer, worship) ; anna- (ntr. food) for *ad-na- 



SF. -na~ IN PAST PART. PASS. INUOEUR. SK. 215 

( 59, 1), ^/ad (eat) ; sthd-na- (place, ntr.), ^stha (stand, if 94. 
it belong not to -ana-) ; secondarily in purd-na (adj. old) from 
pura (previous, earlier) ; mali-nd- (adj. dirty), from mala- 
(masc. ntr. dirt) ; phali-nd (bearing fruit), from phala- (ntr. 
fruit) ; the latter exx. coincide in form and function with past 
part. pass. 

Greek. #7r-i>o-=Sk. and origl. svdp-na-', \l%-vo- (adj. dainty, 
greedy), V^X (^X w ^ c ^) '> ^X~ vo ~ ( masc - lamp), \/\VK (\evic-6-s 
clear), origl. ruk (on x f r K before v, v. 68, 1, c; other exx. of 
primary sf. -na- v. post.) ; the sf. is secondary in cases like 
opeivo-=-*bpe(T-vo (hilly), stem 0/369- in 0/309 (ntr. hill) ; a/coreLvo- 
=*aKOTo--vo- (dark), stem a/cores- in <ncdros (ntr. darkness), etc. 

Latin, som-no- for *sop- no- = origl. svap-na-', common as 
secondary sf., e.g. pater-no-, uer-no-, salig-no- (stem salic-), etc. ; 
also often with long a, e, I before -na-, as font-dno-, stem font-, 
equl-no-, stem equo-, alie-no- ( 38) from stem alio-, cam-no-, 
stem cani-, bouz-no-, stem bou-, bom- (conson.-stems change to i- 
forms), doctrl-na, stem doctor-, doctri- from *doctori-, etc. 

Suffix -na- forming past part. pass. 

"We reckon here those languages also which show only a few 
exx. or scattered traces of this use of sf. -na-. 

Indo-Eur. The different uses in the different languages of 
-na- make it almost impossible to find many roots in which we 
can be sure that the p.p. pass, was formed from them by -na- as 
early as the time of the origl. lang. This was however un- 
doubtedly the case with \/par (fill), whose part, par-na- (full), 
masc. parna-s, ntr. parna-m, fern, parnd, was already in ex- 
istence. "We cannot believe that this method of formation was 
confined to this one root. 

Sanskrit. The formation in -na- is used in comparatively 
few roots, e.g. pur-nd- for *par-nd- ( 7), \/par (fill) ; stlr-nd- 
for *star-nd- ( 7), ^star (sternere) ; bhug-nd-, ^bhug (bend) ; 
bhin-nd- for *bhid-nd- ( 59, 1), ^/bhid (split), etc. 

Greek. Not as a regular participial formation. Yet here 



216 STEMS WITH SF. -ni-. INDO-EUR. SK. GK. 

94. belong adjs. like e.g. cre^vo- for *o-efi-v6- ( 68, 1, c) 'revered,' 
<v/<re/3 (ae^-ojjLai revere) ; a/y-vo- (worshipper, hallowed), \/"7 
revere); arvy-vo- (hated, detested), ^/o-rir/in e-crrwy-ov 
hate) ; crrey-vd- ( covered/ ^/arey in crrey-co (cover) ; 
Sei-vo- ( feared/ V& (fear, cf . Set-Xo-9 cowardly, &e-&oi-Ka) ; 
Trodei-vo- ' longed-for/ verb-stem TroOee- (TroOeco long for), etc. 
Substantially used is TZK-VO- ' thing born, bairn/ -y/Te/c (bear, 
cf. e-re/c-ov, re-To/c-a). 

Latin. Not as regular participial formation. Relics are 
e.g. pie-no- (filled) ^/ple=pla, origl. par (fill) ; mag-no- ' in- 
creased/ i/mag=$k. mah (wax); do-no- 'gift/ ^/da (give); 
reg-no- ' ruled thing/ ^reg (rule), etc. 
95. XII. Stems with suffix -ni-. 

Sf. -ni- is much like -ti- in use and function, but rarer. Like 
-ti- it appears added to other sff. (cf. 98, Lat. sf. -tid-ni-). 
Generally speaking, there stand side by side the suffix-scales 
-na-, -ni-, -nu-, and -ta-, -ti-, -tu-. Sf. -ni- is origl. 

Indo-Eur. ag-ni- (fire), i/ag?, is the only trustworthy 
example ; yet it is highly probable that abstracts in -ni- were 
formed before the division of languages, because they occur in 
all Indo-Eur. languages. 

Sanskrit. E.g. gla-ni- (fern, fatigue, exhaustion), ^/gla 
(lose strength) ; h d-ni- (fern, abandonment), \/ha (leave) ; glr-ni- 
( weakness from age) for *gar-ni- (7), ^ gar (to age), etc., 
which all form their p.p. pass, in -nd- : all, however, do not 
take sf. -ni-, the majority take -ti-, e.g. fihin-nd- (splitten), but 
%hit-ti- (splitting, n.), \/Jchid. 

The datives of these abstracts in -ni-, like those in -ti-, can 
serve as infinitives. 

Greek. Sf. -ni- is rare in Gk. ; e.g. ^r\-vi- (yJf\vi-^, g. 
t-o9, fern, wrath), \Sorigl. ma (think) ; vTrd-vi,- (fern, want), 



Note. Benfey, followed by Leo Meyer (Ygl. Gramm. ii. 141), 
explains the much-debated Gk. forms in -co, such as ?;%-<w (echo), 



STEMS WITH SF. -UU-. PAST PART. PASS. IN -ta-. 217 

7ra0-o> (persuasion, earlier w), etc., voc. ireiQol, g. TreiQovs from 95. 
*7T6tdoo$, etc., as stems in -ovi-, f.f. thus -ani- (*7ret#-oz^, whence 
TreiO-oi, as e.g. /Wa> from fiel&va) ; G. Curtius (Erlaute- 
rungen, p. 50 sqq.) on the other hand, as stems in -oA-, probably 
rightly (cf. their Ion. ace. in -ovv). 

Latin. Masculines only, e.g. ig-ni- (ignis fire)=Sk. ag-ni-\ 

pd-ni- (bread), \/pa (cf. pa-sco) ; pe-ni- for *pes-ni- ( 77, 1, a), 

\/ origl. pas (gignere ?), cf. Sk. pds-as (ntr. penis), Gk. Tree? for 

*7recr-o9, M.H.G. ms-ellm (penis) ; probably also cn-ni-, fu-ni-, 

fl-ni- and le-ni-, seg-ni-, the roots of which are difficult to trace. 

XIII. Stems with sf. -mi-. 

Indo-Eur. ta-nu- (stretched; body), y/ta (stretch); su-nu- 95a. 
(one born, son), ^/su (bear, beget). The stems in -nu- are also 
used as pres.-stems ( 165, iv. a), e.g. ta-mi-, \/ta; ar-nu-, ^Jar. 

Sanskrit, ta-nu- (thin; fern, body), ^ta; su-nu- (son), 
\/su; bhd-nu- (sun), ^bha (shine); tras-nu- (fearful), ^/tras 
(tremble) ; grdh-nu- (greedy, eager), ^/gardh (seek, strive), etc. 

Greek. Sf. -nu- is very rare,, e.g. Opr)-vv- (footstool), \/0pa 
(Oprj-craaOat, seat oneself ; 6pa-vo-s seat), origl. dhm, dhar (set, 
fix) ; \t,y-vv- (fern, smoke, mist), root doubtful. 

Latin. Sf. -nu- very rare, as in Gk. ; te-nu-i-, like adj.- 
stems in u- generally ( 88, b), has passed into the s'-form; 
*te-nu-= origl. ta-nu-. Probably ma-nu- (fern, hand) belongs 
here, \/oxigl. ma (measure, shape). 

XIV. Stems with sf . -ta-. 96. 
The participle in origl. -ta-, the past part. pass, comes 

under special notice here. 

The element -ta- (cf. the pronominal root of like sound), one 
of the commonest sff. of our language, is multifariously used 
in stem- and word-formation (for the formation of the 3 pers. 
of the verb, probably also for the ablat. sg., as case-sf.). The 
sf. -ta- forms not only the adj. discussed hereafter, which must 
probably have had a more general meaning originally (cf. e.g. 
Sk. stem sthi-td- ' standing/ \/stha stand, like Gk. a-ra-ro-; gak-td- 
' powerful, mighty/ y/gak 'be able, capable'), and have been 



218 SECONDARY SF. -ta-. SF. -ta-. INDO-ETJR. SK. 

96. hardened into a regular means of expressing p.p. pass, only at 
a later period of the Indo-Eur. lang. but nouns also substan- 
tially used are formed by -la-, e.g. Gk. KOL-TO- (masc. couch, 
bed), /coi-Trj (fern, id.), V ' Ki (/cet-rat lies) ; <j)6p-To- (masc. load, 
burden), \ffap (fyep-w bear) ; TTO-TO- (masc. draught), \/TTO 
(drink) ; apo-ro- (masc. ploughing), stem apo- (plough) ; here 
belong nomina agentis masc., with stem termination raised to 
-Trj-, as /cpi-Ttf- (n. /epm?? judge), \/Kpt, (/cpr-v(o sift) ; Se/c-rr)- 
(receiver), \/ Se/c (Ion. Be/cofiat, beside Sexpfjuu, receive) ; 
jrotrj-Tij- (maker, poet), verb-stem Trow;- (Troieco make) ; irpo- 
-fa-rtf- (prophet), \/(j>a ((ftrj-fjul say) ; Togev-rtf- (bowman), verb- 
stem ro^ev- (ro^evo) shoot arrows), etc., which end in -ra, some- 
times in nom. case, in Horn. ; Latin noxa (hurt), i.e. *noc-ta, 
\/noc (nocere hurt) ; sec-ta (mode of action, sect), i/sec (sequi 
follow) ; and in Zend, Scl., and Lith. 

As a secondary sf. -ta- often occurs, thus in function of 
forming superl. (v. post. 106), moreover in Gk. -rrj- (as pri- 
marily), forming nomina agentis, e.g. ro^o-rrj- (bowman), TOO- 
(bow, ntr.) ; ITTTTO-TTJ- and -ra (horseman), LTTTTO- (horse) ; 
7roA,/-T?7- (burgher), TTO'XA- (fern, city), etc. ; further often form- 
ing fern, abstracts, e.g. Sk. prthu-ta (breadth), prthu- (broad) ; 
Gk. &u>-rn (life), &to- (masc. life) ; Scl. and Goth. 

Sf. -ta- forms moreover one kind of pres.-stem ( 165, vii.), 
e.g. Gk. TU7T-T6-, \/TVTT ; often it stands combined with other sff. 
also added. These combinations will be collected at the end of 
this section. 

Indo-Eur. The sf. -ta-, forming the p.p. pass., occurs 
immediately at the end of the fundamental form of the root in 
case of stem- verbs, in case of derived verbs at the end of the 
verb-stem, e.g. da-ta- (datus), n. sg. masc. da-ta-s, ntr. da-ta-m, 
fern, da-ta, \/da (give) ; kru-ta- (*clutus), ^/kru (hear) ; kak-ta- 
(coctus) \/kak (cook) ; sadaya-ta- (fixed, set), stem sadaya-, \/sad 
(sit), etc. 

Sanskrit. Sf. -td-, n. sg. masc. -td-s, ntr. -td-m, fern, -ta, 



STEMS WITH SF. -ta.- GK. 219 

e.g. gru-td-, <J$ru (hear) ; ma-td-, ^/ma, man (think) ; gna-td-, 96. 
^Jgna (know) ; bhr-td-, ^bhar (bear) ; yuk-td-, <Jyug (join) ; 
bad-dhd- for *badh-ta~, \/badh, bandh (bind) ; lab-dhd- for 
*lab/i-ta- } \/labh (get); vista- for *vt-td-, \/ vi$ (enter), etc. 
The contact of the sf . with consonantal root- terminations brings 
many sound-laws into play (cf . 58, 59, for details a Sk. special 
grammar). Several roots have auxil.-vowel i ( 15, f), e.g. 
pat-i-td-, ^Jpat (fall) ; rarely 1 9 e.g. grh-l-td- 9 ^/grah, grabh, 
(seize, grasp) ; stems in -ay a- always have i, which is probably 
a relic of -ya-, e.g. vedi-td-, stem vedaya-, or perhaps from a 
stem *ved-ya- (make known) ^vid (perceive). 

Hoots ending in nasals, which did not become amalgamated 
with the origl. root vowel-termination till a later date, show their 
shorter primitive form before the sf., e.g. ga-td-, ^ ga (go), 
which appears mainly as gam; ta-td-, i/ta, which appears 
mostly as tan (stretch), etc. On the other hand, e.g. kan-td-, 
with nasal retained and root- vowel lengthened, ^/kam (love). 

Before this sf . weakening or loss of root- vowel a is very com- 
mon, e.g. kr-td-y ^/kar (make) ; prs-td-, i/prd&h (ask) ; sthi-td-, 
\/stha (stand) ; hi-td- for *d/ii-td-, \/ dha (set) ; pl-td-, ^Jpa 
(drink), etc. ; dattd- for *dad-tar retains pres. -reduplication (cf. 
1 pi. pres. dad-mas damus), ^ da (give). Particulars of this 
formation would be out of place here. 

Greek. Sf. -TO-, n. sg. masc. -TO-?, ntr. -rd-v, fern. -TiJ; e.g. 
AcXu-ro'-, <\//c\v (hear) ; step-formn. of root-vowel remains the 
same as in pres.-stem, <pevK-To-, 1 sg. pres. favy-co, \/(f>vy (flee), 
at an earlier period </>U/C-TO- still existed ; Xewr-To-, pres. \ehr-G), 
\/\LTT (leave) ; other pres. formns. however are not retained in 
these forms ; o-Trap-ro-, \/cnrep (sow), pres. cr7r6ipa)=*(r7rep-yco ; 
crra-TO-, ^/ara (stand), pres. forrjfju ; Oe-ro-, \S0e (set), pres. 
Ti-Or^-fJiL ; TIW-TO-, ^^vo (know), pres. <yi-<yvo!)-o-Ka) ; FprjK-TO-, 
V FpaK (break), pres. /pfyf-WfH ; TL^-TO-, verb-stem rifirj- 
(honour), pres. Tt/^aw, etc. Ace. to Leo Meyer (Ygl. gr. ii. 318 
sqq.) in like compound forms there occurs -T- also, instead of 



220 STEMS WITH ORIGL. SF. -td-. LAT. -tu-, ETC. 

96. complete -TO-, e.g. d-yvot)T- (n. ayvws, gen. cuyv&T-os unknown), 
cf. <yvc0-rd- ; aj3\r)s, aj3\r)-T- beside apXij-ro- (unstruck), and a 
few similar cases, wherein T follows a long root- vowel. 

Latin. Sf. -tu-, earlier -to-, n. sg. masc. -tu-s, earlier -to-8, 
ntr. -tu-m, earlier -to-m, fem. -ta, e.g. da-to-, <Jda (give) ; sta-to-, 
\/sta (stand) ; i-to-, ^i (go) ; di-ru-to-> <Jru (destroy) ; in-clu-to-, 
\/clu (hear); but ex-u-to-, \/u (put on; ex-u-o put off), im-bu-to-, 
etc.; coc-to-, ^/coc (cook); rup-to-, ^rup (break); strd-to-, <\/ster, 
stra (spread) ; passo- for *pas-to- for * pat-to-, ^pat (suffer), etc. ; 
(the sound-laws in cases where final consonants of roots come 
into contact with t of sf. -to- are treated of in 77, 1). With 
active function, a tolerably common use of this sf., pd-to- 
(drunken), ^/po, origl. pa; pranso- for *prand-to- (having dined), 
\/prand (prandere), etc. These participles are often used sub- 
stantivally, e.g. stems die-to- (dic-tu-m saying), gnd-to- (nd-tus 
scm),fac-to-, ud-to-, etc. 

Screip-to- (cf. Umbr. screih-to-} may come from the pres. 
screib-o, scrlbo (write), like iunc-to- from iung-o (join). The 
lengthening of vowel in dc-to-, lec-to-, struc-to-, iunc-to-, etc., 
not universally marked in pronunciation (Corssen, Aussprache 
und Betonung, i. 156, 158, sqq.), is a late-formation in Latin, 
or perhaps nothing more than a result produced by the influence 
of grammarians upon the language. In secu-to-, <Jsequ, sec, 
origl. sak, Sk. sa&, etc. (follow) ; locu-to-, \/loqu, origl. rak 
(speak) ; u has been developed out of the v following guttural 
k ( 71, 1), after the analogy of derived verbs ; the origl. 
* sec- to- occurs clearly in e.g. sectari (Pauli, Geschichte der La- 
teinischen Yerba in -uo, Stettin, 1865, p. 17). 

Not unfrequently there occurs the auxiliary vowel i ( 43), 
e.g. in uom-i-to-, \/twm (spue), beside em-p-to-, \/em (buy; for 
-p- v. 77, g); gen-i-to-, ^ gen (produce), 1 sg. pres. gi-g(e)n-o; 
amd-to-, sopl-to-, acu-to-, from verb-stems amd-, sopl-, acu-, but 
mon-i-to-, auc-to-, etc., according to the class of stem- verbs, not 
*mone-to-, *auge-to- (moneo, augeo), yet dele-to- , sue-to-, etc. 






STEMS WITH SF. -fa- IN COMPOUND SFF. SK. GK. 221 

The sf. -fa- often occurs, as we have already remarked, as the 96. 
first element of compound suffixes; thus in -fa- fa-, forming 
superl. in Gk. ( 106); -ta-ti- in the Sanskrit (Yed.) secondary 
sf. -ta-ti- (fern.), in which we have probably to recognize a 
further formation of the above-mentioned sf. -fa-, fern, -td, 
which is used in a similar function to form abstracts, e.g. sarvd- 
-tdti- (totality), st. sdrva- (all) ; devd-tdti- (godhead), stem devd- 
(masc. god) ; vasii-tdti- (wealth), stem vdsu- (possession), etc. 
The rarer sf. form -td-t-, e.g. devd-tdt-= devd-tdti- ; satyd-tdt- 
(truthfulness), stem satya- (true), etc., is clearly a shortening of 
-td-ti-. With regard to sf. -ti- we shall see that even by itself 
it is shortened to -t- in Sk., Zend, Gk., and Lat. 

In Greek this -tat- is much used in a similar function in 
form -TTJT-, e.g. veo-Trjr- (n. sg. vedrrjs fern, youth), stem veo- 
(new, young) ; faXo-rrjr- (love), <pt\o- (dear) ; fipaSv-rijT- (slow- 
ness), {3pa$v- (slow) ; ew-r^r- (oneness), stem ev- ; Travro-TTjr- 
(universality), stem TTCLVT-, etc. Thus here also, as in not a few 
other cases (e.g. gen. dat. dual. ; before sf. -Fewr- 90), the 
consonantal stems follow the analogy of the ^-sterns. In Latin 
the sf. becomes -td-ti-, -td-t-, e.g. duri-tdti- (hardness), duro- 
(hard ; on i for o, v. 40) ; anxie-tdti- from anxio- (on ie for ii, 
v. 38) ; ciui-tdti-, ciui- ; uetus-tdti-, uetus, etc. 

Note. Ace. to Benfey (Or. und Occ. ii. 521 sqq.) Lat. salut- 
is from *saluot-, itself a shortening of *saluo-tdt-, like Zend 
haurvat- from haurva-tdt-. 

A. secondary sf. -ta-na- occurs in Sk. e.g. hyas-tana- (yester- 
day's), hyas (yesterday), to which Lat. -tino- in such forms as 
cras-tino- t serd-tino-, closely corresponds; cf. Iran. -ta-na- t Zend 
-ganh- 9 Lith. -Una-. 

Concerning sf . -ta-ma-, forming superl. like -fa- and -fa-fa-, v. 
108 ; on -ta-ra- used in comp. degree, v. 105. It may be that 
the sff. -far-, -tra-, which will be handled in the next section, are 
likewise contracted forms of -fa- and -ra- combined, for archaic 
abbreviations of the elements of suffixes are undeniable in some 
cases. 



222 STEMS WITH SFF. -tar-, -tra-. , 

97. Stems with sff . -tar-, -tra- ; -tar- forms a nomen 
agentis and fut. part. act. ; -tra- forms nouns which 
mostly signify an instrument. 

That the nouns in origl. -tar- in Indo-Eur. were even at that 
period employed as pres. and fut. participles, we cannot prove 
with certainty, because those functions are found only in the 
Asiatic and S. European divisions of the speech-stem. There 
was no doubt originally only one formation, whose earliest form 
has held its ground in those nouns of this kind which are used 
as words of kinship, i.e. -tar- for all genders, n. sg. masc. and 
fern, -tar-s, neut. -tar-. This sf. is added immediately to the 
root, which mostly is raised one step ; in case of derived verbs 
it is added to the verb- stem, e.g. ma-tar- (the 'female producer/ 
mother), \/ ma (produce, bring forth) ; pa-tar- (father), ^pa 
(protect, rule) ; bhrd-tar- (brother), i/bhar, bhra (bear, preserve) ; 
da-tar- or perhaps da-tar (giver), ^da (give) ; probably su-tar- 
(woman), \/su (produce, bear), whence sva-sutar- (woman re- 
lated, i.e. sister) ; gan-tar- (begetter), \/gan (beget), etc. 

The correspondence between the languages tends to prove 
that already in early times there existed a kindred form in 
* -tar a- (for -tar a- used to form comparative, v. post.), whence 
came -tra- ; whilst -tar- represents persons, this -tara-, -tra- was 
used of things, and hence does not form nomina agentis, but 
usually indicates the instrument. * Formations such as dak-tra- 
(tooth), \/dak (bite) ; gd-tra- (limb), <J ga (go) ; krau-tra- (ear), 
\/kru (hear), etc., can scarcely have been wanting in the origl.- 
language. 

The origin of the suffix -tar-, -tra-, is obscure. "We con- 
jectured ( 96), that it is composed of two suffixes -ta- and 
-ra-, as -mana- from -ma- and -na- ; we might make an equa- 
tion thus, -tar- : *-ta-ra- (tra) : : -man- : ma-na- (mna). As 
-mana-, -man-, is raised to -mana-, -man-, so also 'tara-, -tar-, 
is raised in the languages to -tara- (Lat. -turo-), -tar- (Lat. 
-tor-). 



STEMS WITH SF. -tar-. SK. 223 

Sanskrit. Suffix -tar-, n. sg. -ta for -tar-s ( 15, d), ace. 97. 
sg. -tar-am, in words expressing kinship, e.g. pi-tdr- for *pa-tar- 
(father), md-tdr- (mother), bhra-tar- (brother), etc. The forma- 
tions of this kind which were felt as nomina agentis are 
distinguished by a higher step-formation of -tar- to -tar- (n. 
sg. masc. -td- for -tar-s, but ace. sg. -tar-am) ; this is also 
shared by svdsar- (sister), for *sva-star-, *sva-su-tar- (literally 
kinswoman). The suffix -tar- belonging to nomina agentis is 
added to the end of the root. With the exception of medial a, 
the root vowels are raised one step before this suffix, e.g. da-tdr- 
(dator), *Jda (give). The fern, affixes -ya, e.g. n. sg. dd-tri, i.e. 
* da-try a ( 15, c), from *dd-tar-yd; instead of the primary form 
of the suffix, which has held its ground in words expressing 
relationship (ma-tar- fern., but may be masc. as well) also in 
feminines, a further formation has here worked its way in ; cf . 
forms such aspi-tr-ya- (fatherly), horn pi- tar- (father) ; kar-tdr-, 
^kar (make) ; pak-tdr-, \/paJc (cook) ; boddhdr- for *bodh-tar- 
( 59, 2), i/budh (know), etc. Before this suffix, as e.g. in past 
part. pass, and elsewhere, many roots show an auxiliary vowel 
*, more rarely?, e.g. gan-i-tdr-, ^/gan (beget); grah-l-tdr-, ^grah 
(seize), etc. 

These stems in -tar- serve for a periphrastic future, in such 
a way that the masc. is used for all genders; in pers. 1 and 
2 the nominative form of the singular has become stationary 
(thus passing over likewise into the dual and pi.), and is welded 
together with the pres. of the verb as (be), while the 3rd pers. 
does not require the verbal form, e.g. 

Sing. 1. ddtasmi from data asmi (I am [about] to give). 

2. ddtdsi from data asi. 

3. data (rarely ddtdsti from data asti) . 

Plur. 1. ddtasmas from data (we might have expected 
ddtaras) smas. 

2. ddtdstha from data stJia. 

3. ddtaras. 



224 STEMS WITH SF. -tar-. GK. 

97. In the earliest Sanskrit (Yed.) these forms appear also accent- 
uated on the root, e.g. da-tar-, etc., wherein we ought perhaps 
to recognize an earlier system of accentuation, since the rule is 
for accent and step-formation to go together. 

Suffix -tra-, almost always neut., n sg. -tra-m, rarely fern., 
n. sg. -tra, e.g. fro- tra- (ear), \/$ru (hear) ; gd-tra- (limb), \/ga 
(go) ; vds-tra- (garment), \/ms (clothe) ; vak-trd- (mouth), ijva& 
(speak) ; das-tra- masc., and das-tra fern., ace. to sound-laws 
for *da$-tra-, -tra (tooth), \/dci, dag (bite), etc. Also with 
auxil. vowel i, e.g. khan-t-tra- (shovel), V khan (dig), etc. 
Moreover the root sometimes appears furnished with the stem- 
termination a, as in pres., e.g. pdta-tra- (wing), *Jpat (fly), pres. 
stem pdta- (3 sg. pdta-ti) ; krnta-ta- (plough), ^kart (split), 
pres. -stem krntra- (3 sg. krntd-ti) , etc. 

Grreek. The suffix original -tar- does not serve to express 
the f uture- relation ; it appears as -rep- in words of kinship, as 
-rr)p-, -rop-, when forming nomina agentis, in the latter of 
which formations the feminine is distinguished by the affix -ya- 
here also (cf. 97). 1. Words of kinship, e.g. Tra-rep- (father, 
ace. Trarep-a), prj-rep- (mother, ace. ^rep-a) ; 2. nomina 
agentis, e.g. 0-777/9- (giver, ace. o-r%>-a), also Sco-rrjp, \/&o 
(give) ; the fern, is formed from unraised suffix -tar-, Bo-reipa, 
i.e. *o-rep-ya, f.f. da-tar-yd ; aa)-Trjp (saviour), stem o-o>, fern. 
crco-reipa, etc. Forms like <yeve-rrip, \/yev (beget), must prob- 
ably be held to have stems in original a underlying them (cf . 
Sanskrit). Beside these also is -ro/)-:=origl. -tar-, prj-rop- 
(speaker, ace. prf-rop-a), \/pe = ep (speak); Fla-rop- (la-reap, 
larwp knower, witness), \/Fi,S (know) ; Sw-rop- (Satrap Horn. 
Od.= SomJp), etc.; $pd-Top- (n. pi. (ppd-rop-es), origl. bhrd-tar- 
(brother), has become removed from words of kinship in form 
as well as in meaning (member of a (frpdrpa). In -ropo- we see 
almost certainly a further formation from -TO/O-, after the analogy 
of the a-stem, thus in Bidx-ropo- (guide, Horn.) ; a-\dcr-ropo- 
beside d-\d<r-Top- (malignant, avenger), \/\ad (forget) ; a solitary 



STEMS WITH SF. -trd.- GK. 225 

-rvp-, -rvpo-, is found in pdp-Tvp- (gen. fjudprvpos witness), 97. 
pdp-Tvpo-, v 7 originally smar (remember). 

The feminines in -rpia are distinguished from those in -reipa 
only by the loss of the a of the suffix original -tar- ; from 
-tar-ya came -trya, i.e. -tria, e.g. Trolrj-rpia, verbal-stem TTOLTJ- 
(make). The secondary formation by suffix -ya- is generally 
very common here, as e.g. from stem Tra-rep- is formed a stem 
Trd-rp-io- (paternal), fern. Tra-rp-id (origin, race) ; crw-rrjp-io- 
(saving), stem a-w-rrjp- ; these secondary formations intruded 
into the fern, and supplanted the original stem in -tar- with 
few exceptions. 

The feminines in -rplS- (n. sg. -rpk) are either late-formations 
peculiar to the Greek, formed by means of a later suffix -18-, or 
(cf. G. Curtius Gk. Etym. 3 p. 583 sqq.) -rpiS- is merely a 
phonetic variation from *r/wy-, so that here a suffix -tri- would 
have to be presupposed, e.g. av\rj-rpiS- (flute-player, fern.), 
verbal-stem av\r)- ; ira-rpi^- (fatherland) from stem Tra-rep-, 
etc. 

The suffix origl. -tra- appears as -rpo-, -Qpo- (neut.), -rpa, 
-6 pa (fern.) ; the aspiration is probably caused by the r, e.g. 
viTr-Tpo- (neut. washing-water) for *vt,/3-rpo-, \/w/3, original nig 
(retained in vi^w, wash,=*wy-yw, 63, 1); apo-rpo- (neut. 
plough), from verbal-stem dpo- (plough, in dpd-co, dpo-aco, dpo-o-cu), 
\/dp. In Id-rpo- (masc. healer), verbal-stem la- (idopai heal) ; 
Scu-rpd- (masc. carver), cf. Sai-opai, (divide), nomina agentis 
are formed in -rpo- (cf. -ropo- above). Further fid-Opo- (ntr. 
base, step), <Jj3a, original ga (go) ; ptj-rpa (fern, agreement), 
\/pe ; pdfc-Tpa (kneading-trough), \//jiatc (knead, 
*IMdKyw, generally softened into pay) ; (f>pd-Tpa, Ion. 
(clan), \/(f)pa=6ep, origl. bhra, bhar, cf. (f)pd-Top- = OYigl. bhrd- 
-tar- ; /coifjuj-Opa (sleeping-place), verbal-stem /coipa- (KOi^dw 
put to rest), etc. The suffixes -T\O-, -6\o-, fern. -r\i;-, &\.rj-, 
e.g. %y-r\o- (neut. liquor, fluid), \/X v (P our )> 9vcr-6\o- (neut. 
implement for Bacchus- worship), \/0v, the a- appears in other 

15 



226 STEMS WITH SF. -tar-, -tra-> LAT. 

97. formations also from this root ; %e-T\7; (plough-tail), verbal- 
stem e%e- (cf. e^e-re), \/e^ (have, hold) ; <yeve-6\r) (birth), stem 
<yez/e- (cf. ryeve-cns, <y eve- a Oat,, etc.), ^/<yev, must be treated as 
parallel forms of the above. 

Latin. Words expressing kinship have suffix -ter-, whose 
e is lost in almost all cases ; the nomina agentis in -tor-, with 
step-formation of original -tar-, like Greek -rtjp- ; for the peri- 
phrasis of the future is used the suffix -turo- from *-toro-, f.f. 
-tar a-, raised from original -tar- and -f- suffix -a-, as in suffix 
-tro-, f.f. -tra-, likewise frequently used. The suffix *-turo- 
occurs as fern; -tura in forming nomina actionis as well. The 
fern, -trie- is a further formation by means of -c-, and perhaps 
presupposes -tria- ; a similar further formation is found in 
-trl-no-, -trl-na- ; cf. with -tr-l-c- such formations as -l-uo-, -l-no-. 

1. Words of kinship, e.g. pa-ter, md-ter, frd-ter (but soror- 
f rom *sosor-, and this from *sos-tor-, *svas-tar-, as in Sk. svd-sar-, 
ace. svd-sar-am) ; 2. nomina agentis, e.g. uic-tdr-, ^Juic (uinco, 
uic-tus) ; censor- for *cens-tdr-, ^cens (censeo) ; sponsor- for 
*spond-tdr- ( 77, b), ^spond (spondeo) ; balnea-tor-, verbal- 
stem * balnea, which is not used, however ; mom-tor-, ^/moni-tus 
(monere) ; da-tor-, \/da, etc. 

Suffix -tdra-, forming fut. part., e.g. da-turo-, ^/da; uic-turo-, 
i/uic, etc. ; as a fern., forming nomina actionis, e.g. sepul-tura-, 
cf. sepul-tus (sepelio bury) ; usura (use, interest) for *ut-tura 
( 77, 1, b), cf. ut-or (use) ; censura for *cens-tura, \/cens, etc. 

Suffix -tro- (cf. Corssen, Krit. Beitr. 366 sqq.), e.g. in ros-tro- 
(rostrum beak) for *rod-tro- ( 77, 2), ^rod (rodo gnaw) ; 
claus-tro- (lock, barrier) for *claud-tro- ( 77, 2), \/claud (claudo 
shut) ; ard-tro- (plough), verbal- stem ard- (plough), ^ar, etc. ; 
this suffix seldom appears as fern., as infulge-tra- (PIiii.=fulgor 
brightness), verbal- stem fulge- (shine, gleam). 

Further formations of this suffix original -tar-. 1. Through 
-ya-, esp. -trio- and -torio, e.g. in pa-tr-io- from pa-ter ; audl- 
-tor-io- from audl-tdr- ; lega-tdr-io- from legd-tor- ; uic-tor-ia 



STEMS WITH SF. -ti-. 227 

from uic-tor-, etc. 2. Through -lc-, e.g. uic-tr-lc- from uic-tor-, 97. 
or rather from an older unraised form of the suffix original 
-tar-, which lost its vowel before -lc- ; imperd-tr-lc- from im- 
perd-tdr- ; ex-pul-tr-lc~ likewise from an unused *ex-puttor- ; 
pis-tr-lc- from pis-tor-, ^pis (pinso, pistus), etc. 3. Through 
-ma, e.g. pis-tr-mo- (pistrinum), pis-tr-lna from pis-tor-, ^/pis ; 
doc-tr-lna from doc-tor-, ^doc, etc. 

Note. In some cases at least Lat. -bro- appears to be=Gk. 
-Opo- (medial b corresponds of course by rule to Gk. 0; cf . 77, 
1, c), which, as we saw, arose from -rpo-, -tra- (cf. Leo Meyer, 
Yergl. gr. der griech. u. lat. Sprache, ii. 235, 241 ; Ebel, 
zeitschr. xiv. 77 sqq. ; Kuhn, ib. p. 215 sqq.). If this assump- 
tion is well founded, this -bro-=i.f. -tra- has become mixed in 
Lat. with -bro- f.f. -b/ira- (i/bhar bear; cf. supr. 89, n. 2), 
precisely as in Lat. the root original dha has become confounded 
with root original da ( 73, 2). As examples of Lat. -bro-=-tra- 
we adduce crl-bro- (cribrum sieve), ^/kri (cf. /cpl-va), /cpl-o-{,-s) = 
O.H.G. hrl-tara, M.H.G-. rei-ter, f.f. therefore krai-tra-; tere-bra 
(fern, borer), cf. repe-rpo-v (id.); palpe-bra (eyelid) bes. earlier and 
more vulgar palpe-tra, as in Gk. <pepe-6po-v bes. (frepe-rpo-v ; tene- 
-brae (darkness) for *tenes-brae,*temes-brae ( 77, 1, &), femes-Brae, 
=Sk. tdmis-rd (dark) for *tamis-trd=O.IL.(^. dins-tar, M.H.G. 
dims-ter, dins-ter (Kuhn, Zeitschr. xv. 238), f.f. tarns- tra- from 
ta mas- tra-. The mainstay of these explanations lies in conso- 
brlno- (consobrlnus cousin on mother's side), which is explained 
as from *sosbrmo-, *sos6rlno-, *so-str-mo-, from stem *so-stor- = 
original sva-star- (sister). So that in consobrinus the t of 
srastar- would be retained, which is lost in soror=*sosor. Corss. 
(Krit. Nachtr. 186 sqq.), however, does not allow Lat. -bro- = 
-tro- ; he explains -sobrlno- from *-sor-brl-no- ( 77, 1, a), and this 
from *soror-brl-no- ( 77, 2). This view is supported by the 
Keltic, cf. siur, which points to an Italo-Keltic form *svasar- 
without t. This difficult question has been handled at length 
by Ascoli, Studj. crit. ii. p. 33 sqq. ; he pronounces in favour 
of Lat. -bro-= original -tra-. Cf. 89, Lat. n. 

XYI. Stems with suffix -ti-. 98. 

The suffix -ti- is often used to form verbal- substantives, which 
serve in several languages (Sanskrit, Zend, Sclavonian, Lithu- . 
anian) as infinitives and gerundives in certain cases. The 



228 STEMS WITH SF. -ti-. INDO-EUR. SK. 

08. suffix -ti- has besides like suffix -a the function of forming 

nomina agentis, but is more rarely so employed. The suffix is 
at home in all Indo-European languages, and was therefore 
already in existence in the original-language. It occurs also 
as a secondary suffix, cf. ta-ti- ( 90), tu-ti- ( 99) and the 
numeral ( 109 sqq.). 

Indo-European original-language. From each verbal- 
stem might perhaps have been formed a nomen in -&'-, e.g. 
ma-ti- (thought), <Jma ; bhu-ti- (<f>v-ai-s) , ^/bhu (become, be) ; 
kak-ti- (coc-ti-o), ^/kak (cook) ; mar-ti- (death), \/mar (die), etc. 

In the function of a nomen agentis a certain example in the 
original- language is found inpa-ti- (lord), *Jpa (protect). 

Sanskrit. The suffix -ti- forms : 

1. Nomina actionis feminina, e.g. md-ti- (meaning, thought), 
^ma (man think) ; sthi-ti- (stand), ^stha (stand) ; $ru-ti- 
(hearing), ^ %ru ; bhu-ti- (being), ^/bhu (be); pdk-ti- (coctio), 
\/pak (cook) .; uk-ti- (speech),^ <\/vak (speak) ; yuk-ti- (iunctio), 
\fyug (join), etc. 

Infinitive functions are found in the dative of these 
nomina actionis in -ti-, thus yiik-taye, etc. 

2. Nomina agentis, e.g. pd-ti- (masc. lord), \Jpa (protect) ; 
gria-ti- (masc. kinsman), \/gna from gan (gignere). 

A shortening of this -ti- (cf. suffix -ta-t- -ta-ti- 96) is 
found in suffix -t-, which occurs especially in those roots which 
terminate in a short vowel, e.g. maM-ksi-t- (ruling the land), 
\/Jcsi (rule) ; sarm~gi-t- (conquering all), \/gi (conquer) ; like- 
wise -sru-t- (flowing), \fsru; -kr-t- (making, fashioning), \/kar 
(make), etc. 

In gerundive use we find a shortened instrumental from 
nomina actionis in -ti-, i.e. -ty-a (from -ty-a, v. post. Declen- 
sion), which originally had probably a wider employment, but 
is confined in the actual state of the language to roots in i, u, 
and ar, and is moreover only used where prepositions have 
become welded on before them, e.g. sa-$ru-tya, \/$ru (hear); 



STEMS WITH SF. -tl-. GK. 229 

vi-gi-tya, y 'gi (conquer). If the root end in other sounds, the 98. 
t of suffix -ti- is lost, so that -ya only remains; the cause of 
this loss may possibly be seen in the frequent position of t 
after consonants, and the weakened termination of the word 
due to the prefixed, originally adverbial, elements (the preposi- 
tions). A similar unusual loss of consonants in the case of 
person- terminations (v. post, in loco). E.g. a-da-ya from d-da 
(take), \/da (give) ; ni-vig-ya from ni-vig (settle down), <\/mg 
(go in), etc. Stems in -aya- lose this first a of the suffix, e.g. 
pra-bodh-ya from stem pra-bodhaya- (awaken, remind). Details 
of this formation would be out of place here. 

In the earlier language this formation of the gerundive 
occurs also in case of uncompounded verbal- stems ; on the other 
hand there are traces of the more complete -tya-, even after 
consonantal root- terminations (cf. post, -tvd used with uncom- 
pounded verbal-stems). 

Perhaps -tya-, fern, -tya, is a further formation of the suffix 
-ti-, e.g. in kr-tyd (deed, doing), ^/kar (make) ; i-tya (going), 
V i (g) '> yi-tya (gain, victory), ^ gi (conquer) ; ha-tyd (slay- 
ing), ^Jha, han (kill), etc. 

Greek. The suffix -TL-, regularly -cri- ( 68, 1, c), which 
has arisen from the earlier -T*- (preserved in Doric), is fre- 
quently used, and forms nomina actionis fern, from verbal- 
stems, e.g. fjLrj-rL- (wile), <Jma (think) ; fya-ri,- (speech, report), 
\i(j>a (say), beside <f>d-crt- (speech, saying) ; (f>v-(n- (nature), 
\/<f>v (be, grow) ; ire-tyi-, i.e. *7r67r-<jt- from earlier *7re7r-Tt- 
(coctio), V^TT (cook) ; feOf*-, i.e. *evy-<n- (joining), 1 /? U 7 
(join) ; yvw-o-i- (knowing), \/yvo, etc. 

Nomen agentis, e.g. TTO-G-L- (lord)=Sk. and original pd-ti-, 
\/pa; fidv-Ti- (seer), \/man (think). 

T only has remained in o>//,o-/3/>&)-T- (raw-eating), ^f$po, j3op 
(/3t-/3pw-o-/cft) eat, ftop-d food), and perhaps in a few others. 

-a La fern, is a further formation through combination of a 
with -a-t-='TL', e.g. Ov-aia (sacrifice), \/6v (sacrifice); 



230 STEMS WITH SF. -ti-. LAT. 



98. (test), verbal- stem SoKijuiB- (SoKind^a* for *So/tt/a$^a> test), etc. 
Cf. Sk. -tya. 

Latin. The primary suffix -ti- has mostly been shortened 
to -t- in consequence of the confusion of the i- forms and the 
consonantal stems, e.g. do-ti- (dos dower), V 'da (give) ; men-ti- 
(mens mind), \/men (think, cf. memin-i) ; mor-ti- (mors death), 
\/mor (mori) ; the i is retained e.g. in messi-, i.e. *met-ti- (har- 
vest, 77, 1, b), y/met (metere) ; ues-ti- (cloak), root original 
'cos (clothe). 

Suffix -ti- appears as forming nomina agentis here too, in 
po-ti-j nom. sg. poti-s (powerful, capable), which however serves 
for all genders, Sk. and origl. pd-ti-, Gk. TTQ-GI- ; cf. the com- 
pound of this poti-, com-po-ti- (compos), im-po-ti- (impos) ; 
further in super-sti-t- (superstes remaining over), ^/sta ; sa'cer- 
-dd't- (sacerdos), root probably original dha (set, do), which is 
confused in Lat. with da (give ; thus ' sacrificium perficiens ' or 
' dans ' ; cf. Benfey in Kuhn's Zeitschr. ix. p. 106) ; com-i-f- 
(comes, mate), \/i (go), etc. -ti- is kept whole in uec-ti- (masc. 
lever), which can scarcely have been derived from any other 
root except \/ueh (originally carry), and originally probably 
meant something like uector (bearer, carrier). 

A further formation of -ti- is -tio- neut., -tia fern., both gene- 
rally secondary ; thus here an o, origl. a, has been added to the 
earlier suffix, cf. Sk. -tya; e.g. stem ini-tio- (beginning), primary 
formation from y/i (go) ; but serui-tio- (slavery) from stem servo- 
(slave) ; imti-tia (justice) from iusto- (just) ; duri-tiaanddtiri-tie-, 
stem duro- ( 38 ; on weakening of final -o to -i, 40), etc. 

For the formation of abstracts the suffix -ti- has regular \j 
given way to -tion-, earlier prob. -tioni-, e.g. coc-tion-, colllsion- 
h?om*1ld-tidn- ( 77, 1, b; cf. cottld-o), sta-tion-, nd-tion-, etc. 
^"ote also the diminutives in -tiun-cula formed from these stems, 
e.g. ora-tiun-cula, sessiuncula, i.e. *sed-tiun-cula. 

The suffix -tion-, -tioni-, is probably (Leo Meyer, Or. und 
Occ. ii. p. 586) a further formation from -tyd-, Lat. -tio- t -tia 



STEMS WITH SF. -tu- y ETC. INDO-EUR. SK. 231 

(v. supr.), by means of suffix -ni-, cf. -ta-ti- from -ta- ; the sff. 98. 
-na-, -ni-, often indeed run parallel to -ta-, -ti-. As -ta-ti- was 
shortened to -td-t-, so was -tid-ni- to -tio-n- ; indeed in Latin 
the consonantal- stems are mostly like the i- stems. 

XVII. Stems with suffix -tu- and kindred suffixes. 

Stems in -tu- serve as verhal- substantives in Sk., Lat., Sclav., 
Lith. 

Indo-European original-language. The suffix is 99. 
undoubtedly original, and must probably have been in use in 
the case of each verb, as Sk., Lat., Lithuano-Sclav. testify to 
this employment, e.g. da-tu- or dd-tu-, <Jda (give) ; bhar-tu-, 
\/bhar (bear), etc. These stems in -tu- were nomina actionis 
capable of complete declension. 

Sanskrit. The suffix -tu- forms nomina actionis, with step- 
raising of root- vowel u, i, medially and finally, whilst a is rarely 
raised except when it is final ; after the auxil. vowel i was often 
introduced before this suffix. These stems serve in ordinary 
Sanskrit in the accusative, but in the older language of the 
Vedas, in the dat. and gen. sing, also, as Infinitive, e.g. 
dd-tu-m, ^/da (give) ; sthd-tu-m, \/stha (stand) ; ge-tu-m, \/gi 
(conquer) ; grdy-i-tu-m, \/$ri (enter) ; sto-tu-m, <\/stu (praise) ; 
bhdv-i-tu-m, \/bhu (become, be) ; vet-tu-m, ^vid (see) ; y&k-tu-m., 
<Jyug (join) : pdk-tti-m, \/pa/c (cook) ; kdr-tu-m, ^kar (make) ; 
fifirayi-tu-M, verbal-stem tidrdya- (steal), etc. 

Vedic dat. ; e.g. dd-tav-e, $-tav-e, kdr-tav-e, etc. ; there is 
found a dative form also in di, e.g. yd-tav-di (with two accents, 
a very exceptional circumstance), from *Jya (go) ; hdr-tav-di, 
^/kar (make) ; ydm-i-tav-di, ^/yam (subdue) ; moreover the gen. 
occurs, e.g. stha-to-s, <Jstha; e-to-s, *Ji (go); Kar-i-tos, \/Kar 
(go). 

As ordinary nomina actionis there are in use e.g. r-tu (masc. 
definite time, season), <Jar (go) ; gd-tii- (masc. going, place), 
Vga (go); gd-tu- (masc. singing), \/ga (sing; 3 sg. ga-yati); 
gan-tu- (masc. creation, being), \/gan (beget). 



232 STEMS WITH SF. -tu-, ETC. SK. 

99. From this abstract in -tu- a participium necessitatis is formed 
by means of -ya-, v. supr. 89. 

-tu- rarely forms nomina agentis, e.g. ya-tu- (wanderer), <Jya 
(go) ; bha-tii (sun), <\/bha (shine), etc. 

Suffix -tva-, near akin to suffix -tu-, and perhaps sprung 
from it; cf. -tya- beside -ti-, -tra- beside -tar-, -anta- beside 
-ant-. 

A gerundive in -tva (used in case of verbal-stems not 
compounded with prepositions) shows by its accent, and the 
weakening of the root- vowel, that it is formed from -tva-, not 
-tu-; it is an instrumental of a stem-form in -tva-. In the Yed. 
there appears also -tvi, which must therefore be taken to stand 
for *tvya ( 15, c), and this *-tvya most prob. (Benfey, Kl. gr. 
389) by loss of a from *-tvayd, *tva-y-a is however likewise 
only another form of the instrum. sing., i.e. one formed through 
y according to the frequent stem-extension. In the Yed. also 
occurs the dat. from -tva-, viz. -tvaya. Exx. sthi-tva, ^/stha 
(stand ; cf. infin. sthd-tu-m) ; dat-tva, from present-stem dad, 
i/da (give ; cf. infin. da-tu-m) ; gi-tva, ^gi (conquer, infin. 
ge-tu-m) ; bhu-tvd, i/bhu (be, infin. bhdv-i-tu-m) ; uk-tvd, <\/va& 
(speak; infin. vdk-tu-m) ; kr-tvd, ^/kar (make; infin. kdr-tu-mj ; 
pak-tva, ^paTi (cook) ; the auxil. vowel i occurs, e.g. in vid-i-tva 
\/vid (know ; inf. vet-tu-m) ; likh-i-tvd, or lekh-i-tvd, ^likh 
(scratch, write) ; tidrayi-tva, verbal-stem fibraya- (steal), etc. 

Yedic forms in -tvl are found in e.g. kr-tvi, ^/kar (make) ; 
Yed. dat. e.g. ga-tvaya, ^ ga (go) ; dat-tvdya (cf. supr. dat-ttaj, 
^da (give) ; hr-tvaya, \/kar (make), etc. 

Suffix -tva- appears also in the function of forming a partici- 
pium necessitatis (Benfey, Yolst. gr. 904 ; also in Bohtlingk 
and Roth's Dictionary), e.g. kdr-tva- (to be made; neut. work 
to do, task), \fkar (make) ; ge-tva- (to be gained, captured), ^gi 
(conquer) ; vdk-tva-, V va& (speak) ; snd-tva-, ^ sna (bathe), etc. 

The suffix -tva- (neut., n. sg. -tvd-m) is very frequent as 
secondary suffix, forming abstracts, e.g. nag-na-tvd- (nakedness) 



STEMS WITH SF. -til-. GK. LAT. 233 

from nagnd- (naked) ; pati-tvd- (wedlock), from pdti (lord, 99. 
husband) ; pan&a-tod- (irevrd^) from panKan- (five) ; bahu-tvd- 
(plurality) from bahu- (many), etc. 

In Ved. is also found -tva-nd- (neut.), a further formation by 
means of suffix -na-, in a like employment, e.g. sakhi-tvand- 
(friendship) from sdkhi- (friend) ; vasu-tvand (wealth), stem 
vasu- (id.), etc. 

Also suffix -tvan- occurs in stems which serve as adjectival 
nomina agentis, e.g. kr-tvan- (causing, effective, active), ^kar 
(make) ; another stem, whose f.f. is kar-tva-rya-, serves as fern., 
nom. sing, kr-tvan; both stems occur side by side in gi-tvan-, 
gi-tvara-, fern, gz-tvan, i.e. *gi-tvarya (victorious), *Jgi (conquer) ; 
i-tvan-, i-tvara-, fern, i-tcari (going), \/i (go). 

Greek. Nomina actionis fern, like fipw-rv- (food), \/@po 
(cf. Ppco-ros, ppw-fjia, @i,-/3p(D-(TKco } Ppto-o-o/jiai,) ; fi&rj-rv- (fern, 
crying), verbal-stem ySoa-, (3orj- (/Bodco, /Borjo-ofjiai, cry) ; eSrj-rv- 
(food), \/6$ (eat), originally from a stem e'Se-, which also occurs 
elsewhere ; ^eKacr-Tv- (laughter), stem <yeXa9- (cf. ^eXacj-To?, 
eye\ao--cra) ; Fdv-rv (city), root original vas (dwell), etc. 

-CTV-VTJ stands for *-Tvvrj (like crv for TV ; cf . 68, 1, c) as a 
secondary suffix, cf. Ved. -tca-na-, Zend -thwa-na-, e.g. Siicaio- 
(justice) from Sl/caio- (just) ; /jLvrjiJuo-crvvrj (memory), stem 
- (n. sg. masc. /juvrjficov mindful), which has lost its final n 
before suffix -avvrj, as occurs in other cases also, etc. 

Latin. The suffix -tu- is a very favourite one, and serves 
regularly to form a nomen actionis (masc.), which is called 
supine in ace. and abl. sg., e.g. std-tu-, n. sg. sta-tu-s (stand- 
ing), ace. as supine sta-tu-m, abl. sta-tu, ^/sta (stare, sistere) ; 
i-tu-, iji (go) ; dic-tu- ^dic (say) ; uic-tu- (as subst. victuals), 
y/uiu, uig (uluo live) ; tac-tu- (subst. touch), <Jtag (tango 
touch) ; cur-su- for *cur-tu- (subst. course), ^cur (curro run) ; 
aes-tu- for *aed-tu- (heat, tide), root original idh (burn); usu- 
for *ut-tu- (as subst. use), cf. ut-or (use) ; gressu- for *gred-tu- 
(as subst. going, step), ^/grad, gred (gradior step) ; cdsu- for 



234 STEMS WITH SF. -dhi-. SK. 

99. *cad-tu- (as subst. fall), \/cad (cado fall), etc. Sound-laws of 
combination of t with other consonants are stated 77, 1, b, 
2. appard-tu-, magistrd-tu-, son-i-tu-, audl-tu-, etc., are referred 
to derived verbs, which are moreover partly not in use. 

Suffix -tva- is rare, e.g. mor-tuo- (dead), \/mor (mori die) ; 
mu-tuo- (borrowed, interchanged), probably from a \/mi (ex- 
change), therefore for *moi-tuo-, which may be traced in other 
languages (e.g. Old Bulgarian me-na change, Lith. mai-na-s 
exchange) ; sta-tua (fern, statue), \/sta (stand) ; fd-tuo- (fore- 
telling), y/fl (fari utter). 

As a secondary suffix, in formation of abstracts is found not 
-tu-, but -tu-ti- and -tu-don-, -tu-din-, further formation from -tu- 
(the latter is obscure in its second element), both fern., e.g. 
serui-tuti- (fern, slavery), stem seruo- (slave), gen. pi. serui- 
-tuti-um (Plaut.) ; senec-tuti- (old age), stem senec- (senex old 
man) ; iuuen-tuti- (young age), stem hmen- (earlier than iuueni-s 
youth, cf. Sk. stem yuvan-) ; uir-tuti- (manhood, valour), prob- 
ably from *uiri-tuti-, stem uiro- (uir man). Concerning this 
suffix cf. Karl Walter, Zeitschr. x. 159. -tudin- is more com- 
mon, e.g. alti-tudo (height), alto- (high) ; turpi-tudo (loathsome- 
ness, ugliness), stem turpi- (hateful, loathsome) ; comuetudo for 
*consueti-tudo ( 77 ; wont), stem consueto- (wont), etc. 
100. XVIII. Stems with suffix -dhi-. 

Not vouched for except in Aryan and probably in Greek ; it 
is therefore doubtful whether it can be ascribed to a date so 
early as that of the original-language. 

Sanskrit. In the earliest period of the language only a 
dat. fern. (v. post. Cases) of the suffix -dhi-, -adhi-, i.e. -dhydi, 
-adhyai, is added to the verbal-stem of the present ; where this 
ends in a, -dhydi only is added, in the other cases -adhyai ; e.g. 
yaga-dhydi, pres.-stem yaga-, ^yag (sacrifice) ; sdha-dhydi, pres.- 
stem sdha-, \/sah (subdue, endure) ; piba-dhyai, pres.-stem piba-, 
^/pa (drink) ; m dd ay d- dhydi, verbal- and present-stem mdddya- 
(cheer), \/mad (rejoice) ; prnd-dhydi, present- stem prnd-, \/par 



STEMS WITH SFF. -dhi-. GK. -ant-, -nt-. INDO-EUR. 235 

(fill) ; duh-ddhydi, present-stem duh- (3 sg. med. dug-dhe for 100. 
*duh-te), \/duh (milk); gay-ddhydi, present-stem $e-, gay- (3 sg. 
med. ge-te), \/$i (lie, rest) ; vdvrdh-ddhydi, intensive- stem vdvrdh-, 
y/vardh (wax), etc. 

The suffix appears added to the aorist-stem in gard-dhydi, cf. 
3 sg. aor. d-gara-t, \/gar (become rotten, grow old ; 3 sg. pres. 
glrya-ti, g'rnti-ti) ; huvd-dhydi, aorist-stem huva- (present -stem 
Ved. hava-), \/hu (cry) ; probably also gamddhydi, aorist-stem 
gama- (d-gama-t, present-stem gdJcftka-, \/ga, gam (go). 

These forms serve as infinitives. 

Greek. -<rOai, corresponds to this -dhydi ; it is, however, 
difficult to decide whether the s has here been tacked on at the 
beginning, or whether it has been lost in Aryan, in which case 
-sdhydi would be the general fundamental form ; the y is lost, 
as frequently, in Greek. It is not unlikely that the <r in -0-6 at 
owes its origin to the analogy of the medial forms in aQ (-<rOe, 
-0-00V, -crBrjv, -crBcov) ; besides cr is a very favourite sound before 
dentals in Greek. Also as regards the final at,, which does not 
appear elsewhere in Gk. as the dative suffix of i- stems, we may 
fall back on the analogy of the infinitive -evai, -fjuevcu. This 
form serves for the med. In Greek -aOai only appears as a 
suffix, not -ecrOai (cf. the perfect), as in Sk. -adhydi. This -o-Oat 
is added to the different tense-stems ; e.g. pres. (epe-cr&u=:Sk. 
bhdra-dhydi; TiQe-aOai, Bt&o-<r6cu, aor. Oe-a-dai, b-<j6ai ; fut. Sooare- 
-o-Qai, Sk. *dasya-dhyai ; perf. XeXet0-&u for *\e\ei7r-(r6ai, f.f. 
*riraik-dhyai, etc. 

XIX. Stems with suffix -ant-, -nt-. 101. 

The suffix -ant-, when added to vowel- stems -nt-, forms 
active participles from the present- stems, and therefore 
also from the stems of the future (which is formed by means of 
a present-form of <\/as), and of the aorist. The suffix -ant-, -nt-, 
occurs in all Indo-European languages. 

Indo-European original-language. Pres. as-ant-, 
pres.-stem and \/as (be) ; bhara-nt-, pres.-stem bhara-, y/bhar 



236 STEMS WITH SF. -Ctnt- y -nt-. SK. 

101. (bear) ; starna-nt-, pres.-stem star-na-, ^star (strew, sternere), 
etc. ; future dasya-nt-, future-stem da-sya-, <\/da (give) ; simple 
aorist vavaka-nt-, aorist-stem vavaka- ^/vak (speak) ; compound 
aorist diksa-nt-, aorist-stem diksa-, V 'dik (show), etc. These 
stems served originally for all genders. 

Sanskrit, -ant- is added also to the pres.-stem in -nu-(-u), 
whilst to other vowel-stems -nt- is added. The formation from 
aorist-stems is unknown except to the earliest language. Re- 
duplicated- stems lose the n of the suffix, and thus end in -at-, 
-t-. In fern., as frequently, a stem further formed by -ya- is 
used, and this -ya in fern, therefore -ya is not seldom con- 
tracted to I (cf. 15, c). 

Examples: ad-dnt-, root and present-stem ad- (eat) ; s~ant-, root 
and present-stem as-, the initial a is lost also in other forms of 
this root; &inv-dnt-, ^/ci (gather), present- stem tiinu-; tudd-nt-, 
^/tud (strike), present-stem tudd- ; ndhya-nt-, ^nah (tie), pre- 
sent-stem ndhya- ; yund-nt- t ^/yu (join), present-stem yund- ; 
but dddha-t-, ^dha- (set), present-stem dddha-, etc. The n 
which is lost in most cases never appears at all in neut., e.g. 
ad-dt, etc. ; fern, ad-ati, s-ati, ftinv-ati, tudd-nti or tuda-tf, 
ndhya-ntl, etc. 

Future -syd-nt-, neut. -syd-t-, fern, -syd-nti or -sya-ti\ e.g. 
karisyd-nt-, fern, karisyd-ntl or karisya-ti, \/kar (make), future- 
stem karisyd-, i.e. -y/A^r+auxil.- vowel i ( 15, f) and present- 
stem in -ya- of ^/as (be). 

Examples of 2 aor. are (ace. to Benfey) e.g. vrdhd-nt-, ^vardh 
(wax), aor.-stem wdha- ; sanisd-nt-, ^san (uphold, love), aor.- 
stem sanisa-, i.e. ^san, aux. -vowel i and past tense of \/as. 

In nandaya-ntd-, verbal-stem ncmdaya-, al. lect. nanda-ntd-, 
present-stem nanda-, ^nand (rejoice) ; gaya-ntd (nom. propr. 
and in other meanings), present-stem gay a-, \/gi (conquer, 
capture), is probably a further formation of this suffix by 
means of a ; the same holds good of ddnta- beside dant- (tooth ; 
yet probably from ^da ' cut/ ' part/ not from <Jad ' eat '), and 



STEMS WITH SF. -ant-, -nt-. GK. LAT. 237 

of rag aid (white, neut. silver), cf. argento-, ^ rag, f.f. rag, arg 101, 
(gleam). 

Greek, -ovr- and -VT- ; the v is here fixed, and never lost ; 
fern. *-ovrya, *-vrya, which in obedience to sound-laws becomes 
*-ovaa, -ovaa, -era, with compensatory lengthening of the pre- 
ceding vowel ; e.g. eovr- (later ovr-}, i.e. *eV-oz/T-, fern. eovo-a= 
*ea--ovT-ya, -y/e? (be), present-stem eV- ; (frepo-vr-, fern. $epo-v<ra 
from *(f>epo-v<Ta, *<j>epo-vrya, \/(f>ep (bear), present-stem $epo-, 
<f>p6- ; TiOe-vr-, \/0 (set), present-stem ride- ; SiSo-vr-, \/8o 
(give), present- stem SlSo- ; iVra-z/r-, ^/ara (stand), present-stem 
fora- ; Sei/cvv-vr-, ^/Sitc (show), present-stem Seiicvv-, etc. 

Likewise in the future, e.g. \vo-o-vr-, \/\v (loosen) ; future- 
stem \vo-o-, etc. 

Simple aorist, e.g. 0e-vr-, root and aor.-stem 0e-, (set) ; 86-vr-, 
root and aorist- stem So- (give) ; crrd-ir- root and aorist- stem 
ara- (stand) ; <f>vy6-VT-, \/(j>vy (flee), aorist-stem (j>vyo-, <j)ir/6- t 
etc. 

Compound aorist, e.g. \vo-a-vr- ^/\v, aor.-stem \vo-a-, etc. 

The further formation in -ya which occurs in fern., appears 
also in the noun subst. yepova-la (senate) =*y6povT-i,a, from stem 
yepovr- (v. sqq.). 

These formations have sometimes no corresponding verbs 
extant, e.g. <yep-ovr- (old), -v/7 e p? Sk. gar, original gar (grow 
old); K-6vr-( willing), \/6/c, Sk. vag, original vak (will) ; aic-ovr- 
(masc. dart), ^Joac (be sharp), cf. CLK-IJ, dfc-coK-tf, auc-fuj (point) ; 
o-B6vr- (tooth) =Sk. dant-. 

Latin, -ent-, earlier *-ont-, -tint-, but mostly -nt-, because 
almost all present- stems in Latin end in vowels. The same 
stem serves for all genders; e.g. (prae)s-ent- (present) for 
*-es-ent, root and present-stem es ; i-ent-, -e-unt-, i.e. *e-ont-, 
Vi (g) present-stem ei- ; *uol-ont, uol-unt-, present -stem and 
\Juol (uol-t he wills), is retained in uolunt-arius beside the 
ordinary uol-ent- ; uehe-nt-, \/ueh (carry), present-stem uehe-, 
etc. Like all consonantal stems, these also in most cases revert 



238 STEMS WITH SF. -as-. INDO-EUR. SK. 

101. to the analogy of the z-stems (uehente-s, uehenti-bus, etc.). The 
further stem-form in -ya-, found in Sk., Zend and Gk. as fern., 
and possessing a yet wider range in Sclav, and Lith., is found 
substantively used in Latin, e.g. silent-iu-m, sapient-ia, licent-ia, 
abundant-ia, hibent-ia, prudent-la, Constant-iu-s, Fulgent-iu-s, 
Florent-ia, Leuces-io-s=* Leucent-io-s (present *leuco, \/Zuc, v. 
36), Prudent-iu-s, etc. No verbs are found parallel to such for- 
mations as frequent-, recent-, petulant-, dent-=$k.. dant- (tooth). 
Here belongs also parent-, as the aorist, to which its form and 
function point us (cf. 36), is no longer extant (cf. parient- 
from the present stem). 

The further formation by means of suffix -a-, Lat. -o-, is seen 
in argent-o- (neut. silver)=zSk. raga(n)td- ; unguento- (neut. 
ointment), cf. unguent- part., from present ungui-t, ungi-t (he 
anoints) ; fluento- (neut. stream), beside participle fluent-, present 
flui-t (flows). 
102. XX. Stems with suffix -as-. 

Stems in origl. -as-, common to all Indo-European languages, 
serve mostly as neutral nomina actionis, more rarely as nomina 
agentis. 

This suffix forms Infinitives in Sanskrit and Latin. 
Indo-European original-language, e.g. gan-as (genus), 
-\fgan (beget) ; ap-as (opus), yfap (do) ; man-as (mind), 
(think) ; nab/i-as (cloud, sky), \/nabh; vak-as (voice), 
(speak) ; krav-as (utterance, word), ^kru (hear), etc. 

Sanskrit. Substantives in -as-, before which root- vowels i 
and u are raised a step, e.g. gdn-as (genus), y ' gan (beget) ; 
man-as (mind), ^man (think) ; sdd-as (seat), ^sad (sit) ; m/c-as 
(speech), \/vafi (speak) ; ms-as (garment), ^/vas (clothe) ; Ket-as 
(mind), y/ftit (think) ; rdv-as (ear), i/$ru (hear) ; dp-as (work), 
^ap, etc. 

These substantives are mostly neut., like the above, but there 
occur also nomina agentis, e.g. us -as- (fern, dawn), \/us (burn) ; 
this stem had in the earlier language step-formation of the 



STEMS WITH SF. -(IS: GK. 239 

suffix besides, e.g. ace. sg. us-ds-am (the instr. pi. iisdd-bhis 102. 
arises from another stem of the same meaning, usat-, usant- ; 
101). In the earliest Sanskrit adjectives of this form also 
occur (nomina agentis), e.g. tar- as- (quick) beside tdr-as (neut. 
quick advance), <Jtar (arrive at) ; ap-ds- (active) beside dp-as 
(work), etc. This formation is founded on the present- stems of 
verbs ; if they end in a, -s- only is added for -as-, i.e. the final 
a of the present- stem serves at the same time for the initial of 
the suffix (cf. the formation of pres. participle act., the 3 pi. 
pres., etc.) ; present- stems which do not end in a retain 
-as-. This form in dat. is used as infinitive, e.g. gzvd-se 
from pres.-stem giva-, 3 sg. pres. giva-ti, ^glv (live) ; tidra-se, 3 
sg. pres. &dra-ti, ^Jcar (go) ; dhruvd-se, 3 sg. pres. dhruvd-ti, 
^/dhru (be firm) ; Jcdksas (lustre, glance, eye), dative = infinitive 
Kdksas-e, pres.-stem Jcdksa-, \f leaks (see) ; pusyds-e, 3 sg. pres. 
pusya-ti, \/pus (nourish ; but in the pres. formation adduced, 
' thrive ') ; rngds-e, pres.-stem rnga-, \Jarg (strive), etc. ; but 
dy-as-e, pres.-stem ai-, 3 sg. $ft for *ai-ti, \/i (go). 

Greek. //,eV-e<7-, /Lte^-o? (mind, bravery, anger), \J 'pev, origl. 
man ; yev-ea--, -09 (race), v^ 6 ^ original gan (beget) ; Feir-eG--, 
09- (word), V Ferr, original vak (speak) ; eS-ecr-, -09 (seat), ^/eS, 
original sad (sit) ; K\eF-ecr-, -09 (sound, glory), \//c\v original 
kru (hear) ; TrdQ-ecr-, -09 (sufiering), ^ira6 (e-Trad-ov sufier) ; 
fjiTjfc-eor-, -09 (length), ^//jba/c (in /Aa/c-po- long) ; epevO-ecr-, -09 
(redness), ^epvO (epvB-po- red), original rudh (be red), etc. 

The Sanskrit and Zend stem us-as- } us -as- (dawn), corresponds 
in like function, however, with the raised stem of the Gk. stem 
f .f. aus-os- (fern.), Lesb. Aiol. n. sg. avow, with regular loss of s, 
Dor. aco9, Ep. 770)9 from *a/ r -&>9, av-cos, and this from *<xu<j-ft>9, 
with lengthened a after the loss of the following sound, Att. 
eo>9 without this lengthening, and with the asp. prefixed to the 
beginning ( 65, 2). 

The suffix -ecr- forms adjectives (nomina agentis), e.g. ^6uSe9-, 
n. sg. masc. fern. ^euS^, neut. i/refSe? (untrue), these adjectives 



240 STEMS WITH SF. -dS-. LAT. 

102. appear especially as the second member of compounds, e.g. 
o%v-$epK-(T- (sharp- sighted), ^/Sep/c^ original dark (Sep/c-oftai, 
&e~Soptc-a see) ; d-\r)0eo-- (not hidden, true) beside \fjOeo--, -09 
(forgetfulness), \/\aO (e-\a6-ov, escape notice), etc. 

In a-\j]Qe.ia (truth), i.e. *a-\r}6eo--i,a ; ev-peveia, Ion. ev-pever) 
(goodwill), from *ev-fjbevecr-t,a, f.f. asu-man-as-yd, cf. /j,ev-os, origl. 
man-as, and the like, we see a further formation of the suffix by 
means of -ya-. 

Latin. E.g. gen-us (race), early Lat. *gen-os, Sk. gdn-as, 
V 'gen (gignere) ; op-us (work), early *op-os Sk. dp-as ; corp-us 
(body), root Sk. karp; foed-us, early foid-os (treaty), \/fid (fido) ; 
ius (right), f.f. *iou-os, \/iu (join) ; pus (matter), f.f. *pou-os, 
<\/pu (be foul ; on these formations cf. 36), etc. 

Here also belong rob-ur (strength), early rob-us, gen. rob-or-is 
=Sk. rddh-as, gen. rddh-as-as (vigour, wealth), cf. robus-tus, 
with change of s to r, etc. Ferns. Ven-us, Cer-es, and probably 
also masc. cin-er- (ash), n. sg. tin-is ; pulu-er- (dust), n. sg. 
pulu-is, as also adj. uet-us (old), gen. ueter-is. 

Moreover the numerous masculines in -or, as sop-or- (sop-ire), 
root original svap ; od-or, \/od (ol-ere for *odere 72, 2), with 
lengthening or raising of the suffix (on r=s cf. 77, 1, e), f.f. e.g. 
of sop-or- is therefore svap-as-, etc. This -or- is also used as a 
secondary suffix, e.g. albdr- (whiteness) from albo- (white), etc. 

In aurora (dawn), i.e. *aus-ds-a, the suffix original -as-, 
Latin -os-, -or-, is still further formed through -a- (cf . Greek 
*av-cra)(T-, Sk. us-ds-, us-as-j . 

In nom. sg. alone the suffix is retained in fern, forms like 
sedes (seat), i.e. *sedes-s ( 39, 1), cf. sed-eo ; caed-es (overthrow, 
slaughter), cf. caed-o ; Idb-es (slip, fall), cf. ldb-i, etc. In most 
cases there are ^-sterns underlying these words (e.g. ace. sede-m, 
gen. pi. sedi-um), a very favourite formation in Latin. This 
explanation of the n. sg. is supported above all by the parallel 
sed-es-, Gk. eS-ecr- and Sk. sdd-as-. In Sclav, also and Teutonic 
the as- stems show parallel forms without this suffix ; the Sclav. 



STEMS WITH SF. -CIS-. LAT. 241 

shows suffixes -as- and -i- interchanged in some stems, just as 102. 
in Latin. 

The dative of such nouns in -as no longer felt to be a case, 

and hence shortened serves as an infinitive in Latin ; e.g. 
ueher-e, f.f. vaghas-ai, Sk. vdhas-e, present-stem uehe-, original 
vagha-, root original vagh ; dlcer-e, f.f. daikas-ai, present-stem 
dice-, f.f. daika-, ^/dic; moner-e, f.f. mdnayas-ai, present- and 
verbal-stem mone-, f.f. mdnaya-, root original man, etc. In 
fieri, flerei (also fiere], both from *feies-ei, f.f. dhayas-ai, I has, as 
often, been retained beside e (e) = original ai. This form is in 
nowise distinct from the usual infinitive active (cf. L. Lange, 
iiber die bildung des lateinischen Infinitivus Praesentis Passivi. 
Denkschriften der philos. histor. Classe der Kaiserl. Akad. der 
"Wiss. in Wien, Bd. x., and published separately there) ; fio 
has indeed mainly an active form ; the root of this word is dha 
(set, do), and fio a present formation in -ya- of intransitive- 
passive function ; the f.f. of fio is therefore *dha-ya-mi, in Sk. 
with unoriginal weakening of a to I and middle termination 
dhlya-te from *dhaya-te, or else the final- sound of the root is 
lost in Sk. and -lya- stands for -ya- ( 15, b). In either case 
the Sk. form is late and not original, and useless for the expla- 
nation of the Latin. From dha-yd-mi arose regularly in Latin 
*fe-io-mi, *feio,flo ; f.f. of fieri, fiere, is therefore *dhayas-e; in 
fieri f I has become fi, not an original shortening, the older fieri 
being retained by Naeuius, Plautus, Pacuuius. 

This formation is in Latin so closely joined to the pres.-stem 
that, except where the stem has the stem-addition -a-, it omits 
the -a- of the original suffix -as-, e.g. es-se (posse =pot-esse j , f.f. 
as-s-ai (not *as-as-ai, which would have produced *ese-re, *ere-re) y 
esse for *ed-se, f.f. ad-s-ai, ^ed (eat); fer-re for *fer-se; uel-le 
for *uel-se ( 77, 1, b) ; da-re, root and pres.-stem da; fo-re for 
*f it-re, \/fu, u having become o under the influence of the r ; 
l-re, early *ei-re, f.f. ai-s-ai, pres.-stem I, ei, original ai, <\Ji. 
The analogy of the present has here throughout exercised 

16 



242 STEMS WITH SF. -dS-. LAT. 

102. its influence, and has called forth these new formations 
peculiar to Latin (perhaps the forms cited were at an earlier 
period of the language *eses-e, *edes-e, *feres-e, *ueles-e, *eies-e, 
which would correspond exactly to Sk. forms like asas-e, adas-e, 
bharas-e, varas-e, ayas-e). 

This -se is added also to the perf.-stem in -is-, which is found 
in Latin only (v. post.), e.g. peperis-se, dedis-se, fecis-se, etc. 
Forms like dixe, uexe, seem to be syncopated, like dixti for dixisti; 
possibly however they are older forms from the perf.-stem 
without -is- (v. post.), and thus stand for *didic-se, *ueueg-se. 
Whether the full suffix -es- = -as- (*didic-es-e, *dicsis-es-e) ever 
existed or not, depends on the antiquity of these formations. 

Note. Impetrasse-re, leuasse-re and the like (used only in case 
of derived- verbs in a, and peculiar to the earlier language only) 
are used as fut. inf. ; 1 sg. would be *impetrasso, etc., cf. 
facesso, incipisso, etc. The peculiarity of these forms lies there- 
fore not in the suffix, which is the usual one, but in the verbal- 
stem. 

The infinitive forms of the medio-passive in Latin are hard 
to explain. The assumption of Bopp offends against the sound- 
laws (vgl. Gramm. iii. 855, p. 273 sqq.) ; the form in -i (did) 
is held by Bopp to be a curtailed form of the earlier -i-er 
(dic-i-er), whose er he thinks is a transposition of re=se (ace. 
of the reflexive; cf. amo-r = *amo-se) , thus explaining dici-er 
from *dici-se; *dici would correspond to Sk. forms like drg-e 
( 87), unless dicier were a shortening of *diceri-er from 
*diceri-re, *dicesi-se (i.e. *daika8ai-svam), just as laudari-eris pro- 
duced by dissimilation from *laudare-er, *laudare-re, *laudase-se, 
i.e. from inf. act. with se attached, which forms the middle 
voice in Latin. Notwithstanding that this view recommends 
itself in that it makes the inf. med. to be formed from inf. act. 
precisely as the med. generally was formed from the act. in 
Latin (*amari-se : amare \ \ *amo-se : amoj , it is difficult to see 
the reason of the transposition of se, re, to er (from *laudare-se, 



INF. MEDIOPASS. LAT. 243 

*dici-se, there would have arisen according to Lat. sound-laws 102. 
perhaps a form *laudare-s, *dice-s or dici-s, like laudaris, 2 sg. 
med., from *laudas-i-se ; or also *laudare-re, *dici-re or * dice-re). 
Pott (the last time in 'Doppelung, etc./ Lemgo and Detmold, 
1862, p. 266 sqq.) makes the division laudarie-r, earlier *lau- 
dasie-se, thus assuming no transposition of -se, -re, to -er; -sie he . 
holds to be an earlier termination of the active -re. But how 
is -ie then to be explained ? In legier and the like, Pott 
assumes loss of the first r in consequence of dissimilation ; 
*agerie-r (this -Her is preserved in fer-rier), thence *agrier 
and agier by loss of the first r, finally *agie, agl [or perhaps 
*aglr, agl ? ; cf . sis, Umbr. sir, si, from sies] . Also Leo Meyer 
(vergl. Gr. der griech. und lat. Spr. ii. 124) explains legier 
from *legerie-r, *legesie-se ; laudarier from *lau'dasie~se, which 
-sie, -sye, he holds to be "nothing else than a peculiar early 
infinitive-termination, which may perhaps be closely connected 
with Sk. -syai, in Yed. rauhishydi [in our spelling rdlmyai~] t 
for rauhisyai (increase), and d-vyathishyai, for d-vyathisyai 
(not tolerate)." But we hold with Benfey (v. supr.) these in- 
finitives in -syai to be inf. from fut.-stems rohisya-, vyathisya-. 
Leo Meyer, raising this objection himself, adds : " Possibly this 
infinitival sye or more fully esye is likewise an early dative 
of an old suffix formation asya, a further formation, by means 
of suffix ya, of the old suffix as, well known in the Lat. act. 
infin." Moreover Leo Meyer holds it conceivable that forms 
like ducier may be not shortened from *ducerier, but derived 
from stems like ducio- (f.f. daukya- therefore). We should 
then have to assume fundamental forms perhaps such as *dauk- 
yai-svam [dat.-f ace. of reflexive]. From this very uncertainty 
on Leo Meyer's part it is obvious that none of his conjectures 
are upheld by any decisive arguments. We should scarcely 
venture to maintain datives in I, e (ei) , from a-stems in Latin ; 
in the dative the forms in question could only have been 
*laudario-r, *dndo-r, earlier *laudasio-se, doucio-se. Also the separ- 



244 INF. MEDIO-PASS. LAT. 

102. ation of the med. (pass.) inf. from the act. will not approve itself 
to us. Lange (in his above-named work) takes forms like 
legier as shortenings for *legi-fier, i.e. as compounded of the pres.- 
stem legi- (legi-t), with infin. fiere, fieri; medial loss of /occurs 
e.g. in lupls for *lupois from *lupo-fios (v. post. Case) ; amaui 
for *ama-fui, amasti for *ama-fuisti (v. post. 173, 2). Forms 
like amd-rier, da-rier, he explains from *ama-siere t *da-siere, i.e. 
from the present- stem and an infinitive *siere, f.f. *-syas-ai t for 
*esiere, f.f. asya-s-ai, formed from \/es (be), pres.-stem *asya- 
(with passive function), \\k.Q fieri from ^dha, pres.-stem dhaya-. 
The present-formation in -ya- appears indeed in ^es in Latin, 
but has a future, not a passive relation (v. post. 165 Lat. V.). 
So also according to Lange ferrier is formed (f.f. therefore 
probably *bhar-syasai or perhaps *bharasyasai), whilst in other 
cases this *-sier, -rier, is added to pres.-stems only which end in 
a vowel (amd-rier, mone-rier, molll-rier) . 

The forms legi, amari, are explained by Lange from *legies 
(from *legi-fiese), *amasies (from *ama-siese), with frequent loss 
of final s ( 79), and contraction of ie to i, like later slm y sis, for 
siem, sies. Thus from common fundamental forms have been 
developed (1) legier ', amarier, with the s- of the presupposed 
*-fiese, *-siese, changed into r, and (2) legi, amari, where the s 
has been lost. 

Accordingly in the Lat. inf. pass, also we should see nothing 
but infinitives in -se, because they all would be compounded 
with either infin. fieri, f.f. dhayas-ai, or *siere, f.f. (a)syas-ai. 
This view also is suspicious in some respects ; above all we 
cannot conceive an inf. of y/es (be) with passive function. 

G. Schonberg (Zeitschr. xvii. 153 sqq.) has recently explained 
forms like amdrie-r as dat. of stem *amdsi-}-se, from *amdsiai-se, 
forms like legie-r, on the other hand, as dat. of stem legi- (repre- 
senting stem leges- of the act.)-j-se, from *legiai-se, thus separat- 
ing the latter from as- stems, probably correctly, like Leo Meyer 
(v. sup.) ; he has recourse to an interchange of consonantal- 



STEMS WITH SF. -ka-. SK. GK. LAT. 245 

stems with, ^-sterns, and of suffix -as- with, suffix -i- (adducing 102. 
examples). It must, however, be allowed that the like dat. 
forms of ^-sterns are otherwise unauthenticated. 

Thus Latin infinitives passive (med.) clearly a recent for- 
mation of the language must probably be treated as not 
hitherto explained with certainty. 

XXI. Stems with suffix -ka-. 103. 

The suffix -ka- (cf. pronominal- stem ka-) is not common pri- 
marily, but secondarily is on the contrary a very favourite one 
(e.g. in the function of forming diminutives, cf. Lud. Schwabe, 
de deminutiuis graecis et latinis liber. Gissae, 1859, p. 44 
sqq.). The numerous other suffixes, whose principal element 
is k, need not be considered here, excepting -ska- (whose s, it is 
true, is obscure), because it formed one kind of present- stem as 
early as the original language ( 165, VI.), e.g. ga-ska-. 

Sanskrit. Very rare as a primary-suffix, e.g. in gm-ka- 
(dry) for *sus-ka ( 55, 2, n), ^gus (gus-yati dries), original 
sus (cf . Lith. saus-a-s, Sclav, such-u dry, Zend hus-ka- ; d/id-kd- 
(masc. receptacle), ^dha (set). As secondary suffix common, 
e.g. smdhu-ka- (adj. derived from Sindhu), stem sindhu- (nom. 
propr.) ; putra-kd- (masc. little son), putrd- (masc. son), etc. 

Greek. Primary in 6^-fcrj (store-place), \/Oe (place, lay) ; 
very common secondarily (cf . Budenz, das Suffix /cos im Griech- 
ischen. Gottingen, 1858), e.g. faai-tcd-, (frixn-, 6rj\v-rc6-, 6f)\v-, 
Kap&ia-KO-, icapSia, \O^L-KO- (if rightly separated thus) \6yo-, etc. 
Suffix -icr/co- here forms diminutives, e.g. TratS-tWo-9, 7rat,S-lcr/crj, 
stem TratS-, etc. 

Latin. Here also but few primary formations can be 
pointed to with certainty, as pau-co- (adj. few), cf. Gk. irav-po- 
(small), Goth, fav-a (adj. few) ; lo-co-, early stlo-co- (masc. 
place), from ^stal, stla, further formation from ^sta. Second- 
arily very common, as in Gk., e.g. ciui-co-, stem ciui-, urbi-co-, 
stem urbi-) belli-co, stem bello-, etc. 



: 
246 SF. ORIGL. -yam-. STEMS IN INDOEUR. SK. 

104. 3. Formation of Comparative- and Superlative-Stems. 

COMPARATIVE -STEMS. 

1. Suffix original -yam-. 

This suffix is perhaps a variation from a still earlier -yant-, 
and akin to -ant-, -mant-, -vant- ( 101, 91, 90) ; in these 
suffixes also we see t frequently passing over into s, and this 
change seems to have taken place in the case of -yam- as early 
as the original-language, since a *yant- appears nowhere (e.g. 
vidvdd-bhis, but ydvlyo-bhis, i.e. *yamyas-bhis). The suffix is a 
primary one, and is added directly to the final of the root. 
Like most primary-suffixes it is in its use confined to a few 
particular roots. 

Indo-European original-language. E.g. nav-yam-, 
from nav-a- (new) ; magh-yans-, from magh-ant- or perhaps 
also magh-ara- (great) ; svad-yam-, svdd-u- (sweet) ; ak-yam-, 
dk-u (swift), etc. 

Sanskrit. In later Sanskrit the early form -yam- is re- 
tained as -yas- only after vowels, but in the earlier language 
(Ved.) also after consonants, in which case the later Sk. substi- 
tutes -lyas- for -yas-, y being split up into iy ( 15, b) and the 
short vowel being lengthened before y ( 15, a). The Sk. form 
-lyas- shows its modern date also by the fact that it is still 
wanting in a language so closely akin as Zend. 

Suffix -yas- ; e.g. Ved. ndv-yas- from ndva- (new) ; Sk. 
bhU-yas- from bhti-ri- (much) ; gya-yas- (older) \/ ' gya (grow 
old), positive not used ; sthiycis-, i.e. *stha-iyas- or *sthd-iyas-, 
from sthird- (firm) for *stha-ra- ( 7), <Jstha (stand) ; spheyas-, 
i.e. *spha-iyas-, sphi-rd- (swollen), for *spha-ra-^ ^spha (wax, 
swell) ; pre-yas- from priy-d- (dear), with root- vowel raised a 
step (or perhaps from an older root-form pra), etc. 

Suffix -lyas-; e.g. vdr-lyas- (better), mr-a- (good) and uru- for 
*var-u (broad, wide) ; dragh-lyas-, dlrghd- (long) for *dargh-a- 
(8), \/*dargh (dark), *dragh, and with many other adjectives 



STEMS WITH SF. -yam-. GK. LAT. 247 

formed with suffix -a- ; gdr-lyas-, from gur-ti- (heavy) for 104. 
*gar-u- ( 7), like it, from ^/gar; Idgh-lyas- from lagh-u- (light) ; 
ag-lyas-, Ted. from dg-ii- (swift), and so with other adjs. formed 
with suffix -u- ; ksdd-zyas- from ksud-rd- (small, scanty) from 
^ksudwiih step-formation; ydv-lyas-ixomyiivan- (young), ^yu 
with step -formation ; mdh-lyas- from mah-dnt- t Yed. mah- 
(great), ^/mah. 

As a secondary suffix -lyas- appears in certain cases only, e.g. 
matlyds- from mati-mant- (intelligent), md-ti- (mind, insight, 
y/ma + suffix -ti- + also -mant-), etc. These words are treated 
according to the analogy of the above-mentioned, as if e.g. 
mat were root of mati-. 

Greek. The s of the suffix -yam- (the s is retained in the 
superlative, v. post.) is lost, and the y changed to i or combined 
with a preceding consonant into crcr, f ( 68, 1, d. e), e.g. 
Ka/c-iov- (n. sg. masc. icaicltov) from /caic-6- (bad), <\//caic; eXacro-oi/-, 
i.e. *e\a f x > -yov-, e\a%y (light), ^/e-\a^- ; ri-iov- from f]-v- 
(sweet), \/r)S, d& ; zyQ-iov- from e^fi-po- (hostile), from e%^-, 
which serves here as a root ; pelfyv-, i.e. */-tey-yoz/-, from fiey-as, 
fjLey-d\o- (great), ^pey ; TrXetoz/-, irXeov-, f.f. pra-yans- y TTO\-V- 
(much), f.f. par-u- y <\/pra=par; so too fie-lov- (less), f.f. ma-yans, 
from a root ma, which mostly appears weakened to mi, mi-n (cf. 
Sk. mi-na-mi, mi-nd-mi, pf. ma-md, ma-mdu, fut. md-syami (throw 
down, annihilate). 

Latin, -yans- became -yons- and subsequently -ids- (e.g. 
ma(g)iosibus; 77, 1, a), later -/or- ; in ace. n. neut. the later 
language also shows still the old s in the form -ius, i.e. -yas 
with loss of the n. In Lat. the comparative is regularly formed 
by means of this suffix, which is therefore used as a secondary 
one also. E.g. *mag-ior- t hence md-ior- ( 77, 1, a), n. neut. 
md-ius, but adverb mag-is for *mag-ius, mag-no- (great) ; plm, 
pious (more) from *plo-ius7r\e-loVj f.f. pra-yans-, ^pra=par 
(fill), pleores (carmen Aruale) for *ph-ior-es, <\/ple=plo, original 
pra, compar. of ple-ro- (plerus Cato, pleri-que), pie-no- (full); 



248 STEMS WITH SFF. -tara- AND -ra-. INDO-EUR. SK. 

104. leu-idr-, i.e. *legu-ior- ) can come equally well from *leg-ior- 
( 73, 1), V%-> f-f- lagh, or, though less probably, from adjec- 
tive-stem legu- in leui- (light), i.e. *leg-ui-, a further formation 
of *leg-u-, Sk. lagh-u-, Gk. eXa^-u- ; min-or- (smaller), from a 
root mm, stands for *min-ior-, min-us for *min-ius- 9 f.f. man-yans-', 
doct-ior- from docto- (doctus learned, <\/doc), which loses its final 
vowel only before the suffix, like all adjs. in vowels ; facil-ior- 
ixomfacili- (easy to do ; ^fac), etc. 

105. 2. The suffix -tara- and -ra-. 

The suffix -tara- is the ordinary comparative suffix in Sk., 
Zend, and Greek ; it is also found here and there in the other 
languages. It is a secondary suffix ; primary but rarely. 

The suffix -tara- is very probably compounded of the two fre- 
quent stem-formative suffixes -ta- and -ra-; -ra- occurs also alone 
in the function of comparative formation, e.g. Sk. dva-ra- (lower), 
from dva (prep, of), dpa-ra- (hinder, latter), dpa (prep. of) = 
Zend apa-ra- from apa; cf. Lat. sup-eru-s, sup-er, inf-eru-s, 
inf-er (sup-er-ior, inf-er-ior, add to the older comparative element 
which has lost its comparative force the ordinary compara- 
tive suffix). 

Indo-European original-language. ' 

The suffix -tara- was, it seems, already applied to the function 
of forming comparatives from pronominal- stems and the like ; 
thus an undoubted primitive stem is found in an-tara- (interior) 
from pronominal \/an, stem ana- (demonstr.), where exception- 
ally the suffix is probably primary ; moreover ka-tara- (uter), 
pronominal-stem and i/ka- (interrog.). 

Sanskrit, -tara- (masc. -tara-s, fern, -tara) is added to the 
end of nominal- stems simply (used also in case of substantives) ; 
variant nom.- stems have their shorter stem-forms before this 
suffix, e.g. punya-tara- from puny a- (pure) ; ka-tard- (uter, 
interrog.), ka- (quis) ; ya-tard- (uter, rel.), ya- (rel.) ; i-tara- 
(other), \/i (is) ; giiki-tara- from gtiki- (pure) ; agnimdt-tara- 
from agnimdnt- (being with fire) ; vidvdt-tara-, Yed. also mdus- 



STEMS WITH SF. -tam-. GK. LAT. 249 

-tarn-, stem vidvant-, mdvam-, weakened to mdus- (part. pf. act.; 105. 
knowing, cunning) ; dham-tara-, Yed. also dhanin-tara-, dhanin- 
(rich). In dn-tara- (interior) -tam- is primary, ^J an, stem ana- 
(demonst.) ; -tar a- is found after comparatives in -yam-, and 
after superlatives in -is-tha- also, e.g. $restha-tara- from grestha- 
(best; cf. 'Superlative'). 

Grreek. Suffix -repo- = original and Sanskrit -tar a-, e.g. 
fcov(j)6-T6po- , Kovfyo- (light), TTo-repo- for Ko-repo- (uter) from 
root and pron.-stem TTO-, KO- (quis), but after a short vowel 
preceding, with final o, original a, lengthened, e.g. ao^co-repo-, 
cro</>o- (wise) ; <y\vKv-repo- , ry\v/cv- (sweet) ; %api,Fe<T-Tpo- for 
*Fer-repo ( 68, 2) from %api-FevT-, in shorter form ^a/oi/'er, 
etc. 

Cases like ^/X-repo- from $/Xo- (dear) treat -repo- as primary 
suffix, whilst in ^tTuu-Tepo-, Icrai-repo-, fiecrai-Tepo-, and the 
corresponding superlatives, faXai-raro-, pea-al-Taro-, etc., there 
is an underlying stem different from that of the regularly-formed 
, etc. 



Note. Benfey (Or. u. Occ. ii. 656) assumes as a basis for 
this formation an early locative in at, since in Sk. in certain 
cases before -tara-, -tama-, the locative case occurs instead of 
the stem, e.g. apardhne-tara- beside -na-tara-, from apardhnd- 
(masc. afternoon). 



The termn. -ecr-repo-, e.g. evBatfiov-ear-repo- from 
(fortunate), appears to have been transferred from adjs. in -e<j-, 
e.g. (7a(f)6(r-Tepo, cra<e?- (clear), to other stems ; whilst in 
-L<T'T6po-, e.g. XaX-tcr-repo- from \d\o- (talkative), we can hardly 
be mistaken in seeing a combination of the suffix -yam- in its 
shortest form -is-, with the more recent comparative-ending 
-tara- (cf. superlative -ICT-TO-, and Lat. superlative in *-is-tama-, 
-issumo-, as well as Lat. -is-tero-). 

Latin. The suffix -tara- appears only exceptionally, e.g. 
in u-tero- for *cu-tero- or *quo-tero-, n. sg. masc. u-ter (whether, 
i.e. which of two), neut. u-tro-m, fern, u-tra, e of the suffix 



250 SUPERL. STEMS. SF. -fa-. INDO-EUR. SK. 

105. -tero-, original -tara-, being ejected; dex-ter- (right), cf. Sextos, 
Sk. daks-ina- ; in-ter (between), cf. Sk. dn-tara-, and the like. 

In min-is-tero- (minister servant), Osk. min-s-tro- (lesser ; 
gen. sg. masc. neut. minstreis is attested), and mag-is-tero- 
(magister master), Umbr. mes-tro- (greater) from *ma-is-tro~, 
*mag-is-tro- y and probably in sin-is-tero- (sinister left), the 
suffix -tara- has been added to the comparative suffix -is- from 
-yans-, as in Gk. \a\-ia-repo- ; in Sk. also the comparatives in 
-yam- and -istha- were sometimes further raised by means of 
-tara- and -tata-. 

106. SUPERLATIVE-STEMS. 

For the purpose of expressing the superlative were used the 
suffixes -ta- and its compound -tama-, in Gk. and Erse also 
-mata-, and reduplication -tata-, in Erse also -mama-, all of 
which, as well as the simple -ta-, often appear in other func- 
tions also (cf. 91). These are secondary suffixes often joined 
to the end of comparative- stems. 

1. Suffix -ta-, alone used especially in ordinal-numbers 
(q. v.) ; added to the end of comparatives in original -yans-, it 
forms their superlative. The reduplication -ta-ta- occurs in 
Gk. as the regular superlative-formation beside comparatives 
in -ta-ra-. 

Indo-European original-language. It is not easy to 
decide whether here we must suppose a complete magh-yans-ta- 
(fjiey-Kr-Tos), to which the Goth, -os-ta- would seem to testify, 
and ak-yans-ta- (w/ao-ro?), etc., or magh-is-ta-, ak-is-ta-, with 
-yans- shortened to -is-. The former assumption seems to me 
the best supported. 

Sanskrit. Suffix -ta- added to the word-stem itself, e.g. in 
ordinals sas-thd- (sixth), with -tha- for -ta- on account of the 
foregoing s ( 59, 1), sas (six), Katur-thd- (fourth), with -tha- 
for -ta- ( 52, 2), tiatur- (four). 

After the comparative- suffix -yas- (-lyas-) -ta- appears as the 



SF. -to-. GK. LAT. SFF. -ma-, -ta-. GK. 251 

regular formation of the superlative, -yas- being subsequently 106. 
shortened to -is-, but -is-ta- changed into -is-tha- ( 59, 1) ; 
thus e.g.mdh-istha-, ydv-istha-, ldgh-is-tha-, gar-is -tha-, ksod-is-tha-, 
etc., sthestha-, sphestha-, gyestha- are=*sthd-is-tha-, *spha-is-tha-, 
*gya-is-tha- ; prestha- either stands for pre-istha-, in which 
case the i of -is- would have disappeared in the e, or, as I think 
more likely, an earlier ^/pra is underlying, and it must be 
divided *pra-is-ta- (cf. the comparative, 104, with this superla- 
tive) ; in Wi'tiyistha-, beside the comparative bhti-yas-, -yis- has 
arisen for -is- by an unusual splitting-up of i to yi. 

Greek. Suffix -ro-=Sk. -ta- is common in ordinal numbers, 
thus TTpco-ro- (first), rpi-To- (third), Terap-ro- (fourth), ire^Tr-TO- 
(fifth), GK-TO- (sixth), eva-ro- (ninth), Be/ca-ro- (tenth), elfcocr-To- 
(twentieth), etc. 

-To-=-ta-, when added to -io--=.-yans-, forms superlatives to 
comparatives in -toz>-=origl. -yans-, e.g. /catc-icr-TO-, eXa^-tcr-ro-, 
r/S-t(7-To-, e^#-tcr-TO-, fiey-ia-TO- , 7rXe-t<7-TO-, etc. (cf. 104). 

The reduplicated form of the suffix, -ta-ta- = Gk. -ra-ro-, 
appears as the regular superlative formation beside the com- 
paratives in -ta-ra- ; e.g. Kovtyo-ra-ro-, cro0o>-Ta-TO-, 
%apiFe<T-ra-TO-, <f)l\-Ta-TO-, 0tXat-ra-TO-, 
\d\io--ra-ro-. These superlatives were formed, as the adduced 
examples show, corresponding to the parallel comparative forms 
in -Tepo-, which may be compared ( 105). 

Latin. Suffix -to-, -tu-, = Sk. and original -ta-, rarely serves 
as superlative- suffix in Latin, where -mo-=Sk. -ma-, and. -ti-mo-, 
-si-mo-, f.f. -ta-ma-, is preferred ; e.g. quar-to- (fourth) ; quo-to- 
(which in order or number), stem and \/quo-, original ka-. 

After -is-=-yans- is found not -to-, but only the representative 
of original -ta-ma- (q. v.). 

2. Suffix -ma- and ma-ta- here and there in Gk. 107, 

I have not before me any perfectly certain example of suffix 
-ma- used to express the superlative in the original Indo- 
European; however, as -ma- appears in three divisions of the 



252 SF. -ma-. SK. GK. LAT. SF. -tama-. INDO-EUR. 

107. speech-stem in this function, it must be presupposed as existent 
in the original -language. Perhaps sapta-ma- (seventh) and 
akta-ma- (eighth) must be ascribed to the fundamental-language, 
because in these numbers this method of forming the ordinal is 
almost universal. 

Sanskrit. Suffix -ma- forms the superlative in ava-md- 
(undermost, next, last), from dm- (as prep, 'from'), a prono- 
minal-stem (demonstr.) ; madhya-md-, mddhya- (mid-); para-md- 
(furthest, last, best), para- (removed, excellent) ; ddi-md- (first), 
ddi (beginning) ; sopta-md- (seventh), saptdn- (seven) ; asta-md- 
(eighth), asta- (eight) ; nava-md- (ninth), ndvan- (nine) ; 
da^a-md- (tenth), ddgan- (ten). 

Greek. The superlative suffix -/-to-, f.f. -ma-, is not fre- 
quent, it forms e/38o-/z,o- (seventh) alone, from kirrd, with a 
remarkable softening of TTT to (3$ in the stem of the word. 

In e(3$6-fJia-To- (seventh) we find suffix -ma-ta-, as in Keltic, 
which is seen unmistakably in 'jrv-fjua-ro- (last) also. 

Latin. Suffix -mo-, f.f. -ma-, is a favourite means of forming 
superlatives, e.g. sum-mo- from *sup-mo- (highest), sup-, cf. 
sup-er, comparative; infi-mo-, cf. comparative infe-ro-; mini-mo-, 
cf. min-or-j moreover the ordinals prl-mo-, septi-mo-, deci-mo-. 

In plurimo- (most), earlier plusimo-, plourumo-, ploirumo-, 
pli-si-mo-, a f.f. *pra-yans-ma- seems to be underlying ; between 
s and m the auxiliary vowel u occurs (cf. s-u-m, 43), later i 
( 43) ; thus by the usual shortening of -yam- to -is-, arose 
*plo-is-u-mo-, i.e. ploirumo-, and by coalescence of oi to ei, I (as 
in dat. abl. pi. of the o-stem, e.g. nouls, noueis from *nouois), 
*plmmo- ; in plourumo-, later plurimo-, y may have been lost (as 
in minus for *min-yus), so that this form points back to a form 
*plo-yus-u-mo-, like plus, pious, to *plo-yus. 

108. 3. Suffix -ta-ma- occurs in Sk., Zend, Grk., Lat. and Gothic, 
and dates therefore from the common original-language. 

Indo-European original-language. Although the 
suffix -tama- was in existence, we can hardly point to any 



SF. -tama-. SK. LAT. 253 

word- stems provided with this suffix ; a form nava-tama- (per- 108. 
haps beside nav-yans-ta-) may be merely conjectured. 

Sanskrit, -ta-ma- is the regular superlative formation be- 
side the comparatives in -tara-, thus e.g. punya-tama-, ka-tamd- 
(one of many, interrog.), ya-tamd- (which of many, rel.) gulci- 
-tama-, agnimdt-tama-, vigati-tamd- (twentieth) from viqdti-, etc. 

Suffix -tama- occurs also after comparatives in -yarn-, and 
superlatives in -istha-, e.g. gyestha-tama-. 

Greek. Wanting. 

Latin. The suffix original -tama- occurs somewhat seldom 
added directly to the root or stem of the adj. ; but it is the 
regular means of forming superlatives, in which case it is added 
to the comparative in -yam- ; f.f. -ta-ma-, i.e. Lat. -tu-mo-, 
-ti-mo-, after gutturals -si-mo- ( 77, 1, d) is added to the root 
in maxima- (greatest), i.e. *mag-timo-, cf. mag-is, mag-nus ; 
op-timo-, op-tumo- (best) ; ul-timo- (last) ; in-timo- (inmost), etc. 
Suffix -timo-, or more probably -simo- (cf . mac-simo-}, is directly 
added to adj. -stems only when they end in r or /, stems ending 
in a vowel lose that vowel ; thus ueter-rimo- for *ueter-simo-, 
from *ueter-timo-, stem ueter- (old ; cf . torreo for *torseo and the 
like), pulcher-rimo-, stem pulchero- (beautiful) ; facil-limo- for 
*facil-simo- from *facil-timo-, unless indeed these forms be for 
*ueter-is-timo-, *facil-is-timo-, whence *ueterstimo-, *facilstimo- t 
*uetersimo-, *facilsimo- (cf. uellem from *uel-sem). 

From the f.f. *-is-tama-, the combination of the comparative 
suffix -is-=-yans- with the -tama- of the superlative, arose next 
-is-tumo-, -is-timo-, retained in the archaic soll-is-timo- ; from 
-is-tumo-, -is-timo-, arose -issumo-, issimo-, by regular assimila- 
tion, e.g. doct-is-simo-, etc. Cf. mag-is-ter, min-is-ter, which 
show the combination of the comparative suffix -yam- + -tara- 
(cf. 105), and therefore stand parallel to superlative -yans- + 
-tama-, and the corresponding Sk. superlative formations. Cf. 
the suffix -timo- in other functions, mari-timo- (maritime), stem 
man- (neut. mare, sea) ; fini-timo- (neighbouring), flni- (finis 
masc. bound) ; legi-timo- (lawful), stem leg- t Ugi- (lex, fern. law). 



254 STEM OF FUND. NUM. 1. INDO-EUR. SK. GK. LAT. 
109. 

4. Steins of Numerals. 

STEMS OF FUNDAMENTAL NUMBERS. 

Simple numbers 1-10. 

1. Indo-European original-language. 

The stem for the first numeral cannot be determined with 
absolute certainty, because the several Indo-Eur. languages 
differ greatly in the way they express the number one. Various 
stems in Indo-Eur. indicate the notion of the No. 1, but yet 
they are all alike formed from ^i; ai-na- has most in its 
favour, because it serves to indicate the number one in the two 
European divisions of the Indo-European, and is likewise found 
in the Aryan in another function. 

Sanskrit. eka-, probably a stem- formation by means of 
suffix -ka- from pronominal suffix i, or, what is not very 
different, a compound of ai from i with pronominal ^/ka. 

Greek. Nom. sg. m. el?, i.e. *ez/-9, ntr. /, gen. ej/-o?, fern. 
fita (cf. Leo Meyer, Kuhn's Zeitschr. v. 161 sqq., viii. 129 sqq., 
161 sqq. ; id. vgl. Gramm. der griech. u. lat. Spr. ii. 417 sqq.). 
Stem ez/-, f.f. san-, is considered as standing for sam-, and this 
sam (cf. Lat. sim-plex, sem-el, sin-guli), after losing a final a, as 
corresponding to Sk. samd- (similar, like ; a superlative of 
demonstr.-stem sa-). This view is especially supported by fern. 
pia, which probably stands for * c ^/a, i.e. sm-ya-=sam-ya- (a 
ya-stem, fern, only, as frequently). It cannot well be doubted 
that ev- contains the pronominal-root sa- ; however, we hold 
that the final n is a later formation in Greek, cf. stem T-t-v-=. 
original ki- (pron. interrog.), because a change of suffix -ma- to 
n is unexampled. So we conjecture for masc. neut. a stem 
sa-n-, developed from sa-, but recognize in fern, a f.f. sa-myd, 
thus varying from that of masc. and neut., i.e. a superlative- 
stem in -ma-, fern, -myd, from same \/sa. 

Latin. Early Latin oi-no-, whence u-no-, f.f. ai-na-, is, like 



STEMS OF FUND. NUMERALS 2-6. 255 

Sk. pronominal-stem e-na- (this), a stem in -no- from demonstra- 109. 
tivo-pronominal ^/i. 

2. Indo-European original-language dua- or dva- ; 
Sanskrit dva-; Greek &vo-=dva~; Latin duo-=Svo- (duo-bus 
like ambo-bus is probably caused by the nom. dual duo, ambo, 
f.f. dm, ambhd). 

3. Indo-European original-language tri- ; -i- is a 
suffix and tar, tra, the root (cf. the ordinal) ; tr-i- is therefore 
probably shortened from *tar-i-, or perhaps from *tra-i- by loss 
of the a; the assumption that tri- is an archaic weakening 
from tra- is, I think, less likely ; Sanskrit tri-> the fern, 
having the stem -ti-sar-, in which Bopp conjectures a redupli- 
cation, and which he imagines to have arisen from *ti-tar-\ 
Greek T/oi-; Latin tri-. 

4. Indo-European original -language katvar- ; 
Sanskrit Jcatvdr-, shortened Tiatur-, fern. Katasdr- (clearly 
formed after the analogy of 3, according to Bopp compounded 
with it, in which case ka=- 'unum') ; Greek Terra/)-, rea-crap-, 
for *rerfa/3-, /cerFap-, Dor. rero/o- for *T6rFop-, with r original 
k ( 62, 1), Boiot. Trerra/o-, Horn, and Aiol. Trlavp-, f.f. katur-, 
IT=ZK ( 62, 1), and a before v=r, as in av for ru; Latin 
quatuor-, the best authenticated spelling quattuor is unsupported 
etymologically (inscriptions have also quattor, quator). 

5. Indo-European original-language kanhan-, an 
obviously reduplicated form ; S a n s k r i t panic an-, with p = k 
( 52, 1) ; Greek wei/re, Aiol. ire^ire, TT and r=/c ( 62, 1) ; 
Latin quinque. 

6. Indo-European original-language. By combin- 
ing the Zend khsvas on the one side with the Greek, Latin and 
Gothic form with final ks on the other, the resulting f.f. would 
be ksmks for Indo-European (Ebel, Beitr. iii. 270 ; Zeitschr. 
xiv. 259 sqq.), which likewise seems to be reduplicated, perhaps 
original *ksva-ksm- ; Sanskrit sas, probably immediately from 
*ksaks for *ksa-ks ( 55, 2) ; Greek and Latin with dissimila- 



256 STEMS OF FUND. NUMERALS 7-10 J 11-19. 

109. tion of the initial sound from a f.f. *svaks for *ksvaks, Gk. ef, 
Dor. /"ef, like Lat. sex, both therefore from *sveks (Leo Meyer, 
Zeitschr. ix. p. 432 sqq. ; cf. Lat. se for *sve, etc.). 

7. Indo-European original-language probably sap- 
tan- ; Sanskrit saptdn-, later sdptan- ; Greek en-rot, i.e. *saptan- 
(a=-an 19) ; Latin septem, i.e. *septim. Bopp supposes that 
the m of septe-m has worked its way in from the ordinal 
septi-mo-, because it would be unlikely that n should change to 
m; possibly however an otherwise unusual sound-change is 
found in it, and we should not cut the Latin numeral adrift 
from the Erse and the Greek. 

8. Indo-European original-language. Stem aktu- ; 
Sanskrit as tan-, later as tan-, probably after the analogy of 7 
and 9, and astu- (the latter in the nom. ace. astdu, probably 
shortened from *aktdv-as or *aktav-as, apparently a dual-form, as 
also in Gk. and Lat.) ; Greek OKTQ>, Latin octo, dual-forms 
arising just like Sk. astau through loss of the termination, in 
which respect the notion of 4 + 4 may have assisted ; in oy^oF-o-, 
octdu-o-, the f.f. of the stem aktu- is unmistakable; it occurs also 
in Goth, and Lith. 

9. Indo-European original-language navan-; San- 
skrit ndvan- ; Greek evvea, i.e. *veFa(v) with e prefixed, and 
unoriginal doubling of initial consonant v ; Latin nouem (on 
the m cf. 7). 

10. Indo-European original-language dakan-\ the 
conjecture that ddkan stands for *dva-kan- (Jean for kan-kanj, 
i.e. 2 x 5, is not proved, but it is too tempting to be passed by ; 
Greek Seica, i.e. *Se/caz/; Latin decem, i.e. *decim (cf. 7). 

110. The numerals 11-19. They were formed by joining the 
number 10 to the units ; in some languages we clearly see a 
mere addition. 

Indo-European original-language. Originally the 
two words would probably exist separately, e.g. perhaps 12 
dud dakan ; 13, tray-as dakan, etc. 



STEMS OF FUND. NUMERALS 11-20 ; 20-90. 257 

Sanskrit. 11, ekd-dagan-, with lengthening of final a of 110. 
stem eka- (one) ; 12, dva-dagan-, dm probably must be con- 
sidered a dual ; 13, trdyo-dagan-, later trayo-dagan-, n. pi. 
tray as -\-dagan- ; 14, Jcdtur-dagan- ; 15, pdtilsa-dagan- ; 16, so- 
-dagan-; 17, sdpta-dagan ; 18, c&ta-dagan-, with dual-form asta; 
19, ndva-dagan-. 

Greek. 11, ev-eica; 12, Sco-Serca; from 13 the words origin- 
ally separate are merely joined together, e.g. in Tpicr-icai-SeKa, 
rpt,<$ must be taken as a shorter form for r/aa? ; 14, recrcrapes-Kai- 
-fafca, etc. 

Latin, un-decim for *um-decim; 12, duo-decim; 13, tre-decim, 
perhaps with older stem-form tra-, cf . ter-tim, or else re- is a 
shortening from tres ; 14, qiiatuor-decim, etc. 

The numerals 20-90 (the intermediate numerals do not need 111. 
discussion here ; they are clear in all languages, and mostly 
quite uncompounded). In Aryan and South-European 20-90 
were expressed by means of units compounded with a substan- 
tive formed from daka-, mostly shortened or otherwise altered. 
Whereas in the North-European division units and tens are 
separate words, at most joined together. The contrast between 
the two closely-related branches of the speech- stem Aryan and 
Graeco-italo-keltic and the Sclavo-teutonic is here clearly shown 
(cf. Introduction, IV.). It is scarcely to be supposed that in 
the original-language composition had already taken place ; but 
the tens and units would still be separate words. 

Sanskrit. The tens were originally expressed by daga-ti-, 
daga-ta, the units being prefixed. Of daga-ti, however, -gati- 
and even -ti- only remains, of daga-ta- only -gat- ; so strong is 
the tendency to diminution in words so much used. 

20, vi-gdti- for *dv%-dagati-, the nasal of m = *dm and the 
corresponding nasal of the two following numerals is obscure ; 
perhaps we may detect in it the remains of a case-ending. It 
is shown by the Zend to be a late formation. 30, tri-gdt-, 
probably for *trzni dagatd, whence probably the nasal arose 

17 



258 STEMS OF FUND. NUMERALS 20-90. 

111. which worked its way into 20 and 40 by analogy ; 40, Hatvari- 
-gdt-; 50, panJcd-^dt-y 60, sas-ti; 70, sapta-ti-', 80, agi-ti-, a 
form widely differing from the original; 90, nava-ti-, all with 
-ti- for *da$ati. 

Greek. Except in 20, where likewise a form daka-ti ap- 
pears, -KOVTO, appears as the second part of the compound, 
probably a neut. pi., f.f. dakan-td, from a sg. *dakan-ta-m. 20, 
ei-Kocn,=*el-KOTi, ( 68, 1, c), Horn, e'et'/eocrt, earliest form Dor. 
FeUaTi, Ft/cart, ; Ft Kan stands for *dvl- daka-ti, the length of I 
may have its origin in an earlier case-ending, whence may 
come also el; eel/coat,, i.e. e-Felicoa-t,, with the frequent vowel- 
prefix before consonantal beginning ( 29, 2). 30, Tpia-tcovra, 
i.e. *tr id- dakan-td, similarly with the following ; 40, reacrapd- 
-Koma ; 50, Trevrtj-Kovra ; 60, e^-KOvra ; 70, eftSofjirj-KOVTa, 
formed with the ordinal, like 80, oySorj-Kovra, and probably 
also 90, evevrj-KovTd, Horn, also evvrj-Kovra, which we should 
accordingly take for a shortening of vevr)-fcovra ; vevij-KovTa= 
Lat. nond-ginta ; the ordinal *eve-vo- from *e-veFa-vo-, it is true, 
presupposes a strong shortening ; the suffix -vo-, as in Lat. 
-no-no- (v. Ordinals), we must treat as having arisen from -/JLO- 
through assimilation to the initial sound. 

Latin. Except -gin-ti in 20, -gin-ta generally appears, 
probably a neut. pi. ; -gin-ti and -gin-ta stand for *degin-ti, 
*degin-ta, and these for *decen-ti, *decen-ta, the f.f. of these 
stems is dakan-ti-, dakan-ta- ; c has here become g, even as 
ulcesimm from a form *uicenti has stood its ground beside the 
unoriginal uigesimus. Accordingly 20, n-gintl from *dn-decin-l 
(cf . Gk. ; on the form, which seems to be a neut. dual, cf. 
Corssen, Krit. Nachtr. p. 96 sqq.) ; tri-gin-ta=*trid decintd, 
*trid becoming *trie, and this becoming tn, like s-yd-t, siet, sit 
(3 sg. opt., \/es) ; 40, quadra- gin-ta, with softening of t to d, 
for *quatuord decintd; 50, quinqud-gin-ta ; 60, sexd-gin-ta; 70, 
septud-ginta from a stem septuo-, which does not appear else- 
where ; 80, octo-ginta ; 90, nond-ginta, from the ordinal, cf . the 



STEMS OF FUND. NUMERALS 100-1000. 259 

Greek, with which the Latin essentially coincides in these for- 111. 
mations. 

Numerals 100-1000. 112. 

100. Indo-European original-language. Probably 
stem kan-ta- neutr., ace. n. sg. kan-ta-m, a shortening of *dakan- 
-dakan-ta-, i.e. dakan-+ subst. dakan-ta- which forms the tens ; 
we found it already shortened to kan-ta- (Zend -gata-, Greek 
-Kovra, Latin -ginta). (dakan-da) kanta- thus means *ten-ty, 
*Be/c^Koi>ra, *decaginta. The n of kan-ta is kept in Lat., Kelt., 
Lith. and Goth., but is lost elsewhere. 

Sanskrit gdta-', Greek e-/earo-, e can be nothing else than 
a diminished form of ev- (one) ; Latin cento-. 

200-900. Originally expressed in two words. Sanskrit 
by two words, or by ordinary composition (e.g. dve gate or 
dvigata- neut.) ; Greek from stem tcaro- or KOTO-, f.f. ka(n)ta-, 
cf. Sk. gata-, was formed a derivative in -ya-, before which 
according to rule ( 89) the stem-termination is lost, thus 
*-feario-, *-KOTIO-, f.f. *-kat-ya- ; in Dor. -KCLTIO- remains un- 
changed, whereas elsewhere the *-KOTLO- passes regularly ( 68, 
1, c) into -Koaio-. So from a hypothetical *rpid-Kard or -Kord, 
f.f. trid kantd 300, arose Doric Tpia-Kario-, Attic Tpid-Kocrio-, 
these forms being used as adjs. and in the pi. 

The Latin proceeds in a way similar to the Greek, employ- 
ing as it does the stem cento- as the second member of the 
compound adjectivally in the plural, e.g. 200, du-cento-, du 
shortened from duo ; 300, ire-cento- ; 500, quin-gento- for 
*quinc- cento-, with softening of c to g after n, as in 400, 700, 
800, 900 (cf. -ginta) ; 600, sex-cento- ; 900, non-gento-, from 
ordinal-stem nono-. The numerals 400, quadrin-gento- ; 700, 
septin-gento- ; 800, octin-gento-, show an analogy, which perhaps 
may be traced to septin-genti; septin-, f.f. saptan- ; octin- also 
corresponds to f.f. aktan-, cf. Sanskrit astan-, and so also a 
stem quadrin- has arisen from quadro-, shortened from quatuor 
(cf. quadra- ginta). Pott (Zahlmethode, p. 149) conjectures 



260 STEMS OF NUMERALS. ORDINALS 1-10. 

112. distributive in these forms, thus quaterni (quadrlni), octoni, 
etc. 

1000. The Indo-European original-language seems 
not to have possessed a word to express 1000. 

The two Aryan languages have a common word, Sanskrit 
sahdsra- (masc. neut.), Zend hazanra- (neut.). 

Greek %fXio-, Horn, in compounds %*Xo-, Boiot. ^etXio-, 
Lesb. %eXXfco-, Dor. %??Xtb-, which points to a f.f. *^eXyo-, i.e. 
yharya-, of obscure origin. 

Latin. St. mlli-, mitti- (neut.), obscure. 

STEMS OF THE ORDINAL NUMERALS. 

113. The ordinals are, except 2, superlatives, partly however with 
peculiarities distinguishing them from other superlatives. The 
forms of the Indo-European original-language for the most 
part cannot be restored, because the different languages fre- 
quently do not coincide in the choice of the suffix. 
1-10. 

1. Original-language probably pra-ma-, stem pra- 
(bef ore) ; Sanskrit pra-thamd- from pra- (as prep. ' before') 
+ -thama-, with th for t ( 52, 2) ; Greek TT/OW-TO-, Dor. Trpa-ro-, 
from 7T/30- + suffix -ta- ( 106), and with step-formation or 
lengthening of stem-vowel ; Latin pri-mo-, with suffix -mo- 
( 107), probably from *pro-imo- t so that -imo- not -mo- has 
here been added, according to the analogy of other forms in 
*-timo- ; according to Pott (Etym. Forsch. I. 2 560) from 
*prls-mo- ( 77, 1, a), *pns=prius, f.f. pra-yans, comparative of 
pra-, cf. pris-tino-, prl-die, for *prls-die ; according to Corssen 

(Krit. Beitr., 433) prl- is an archaic form (attested) =prae 
(prep, 'before'), which is however clearly a case form, and 
would scarcely have admitted a superlative formation, cf. 
Umbr. pru-mu- pro-mo- ; it would perhaps be difficult to come 
to a certain decision on this point. 

2. Original-language (?) ; Sanskrit dm-tiya-, i.e. 



STEMS OF NUMERALS. ORDINALS 3-7. 261 

*dvi-tya- ( 15, 2, b), probably therefore a further formation by 113. 
means of -ya- from *dvi-ta- ; Gfreek Sev-repo-, a comparative 
( 105) Sev- appears to be a raised-formation from *du from 
dva; Lat. secundo- is formed not from stem dva-, but from ^sec, 
seq (sequi) ; on the suffix cf. 89, 2, n. 2. 

3. Indo-European original-language probably 
tar-tya- or tra-tya-, -tya- being here also a further-formation of 
-ta- ; Sanskrit tr-tiya, i.e. *tar-tya-, ( 15, 2, b), as it appears 
to belong to the root of the stem tr-i-, i.e. tar or tra (v. sup. 
cardinal 3) ; Greek rpl-ro-, with superlative suffix -ta-, which 
helps to form all other ordinals in Greek except 7 and 8 ; Aiol. 
rep-ro- ; Lat. ter-tio-, like Sanskrit. 

4. Original-language probably katvar-ta- ; Sanskrit 
Jcatur-thd- (tha=ta), also tiir-ya-, tur-iya-, for *%atw<-ya- 9 with 
loss of initial and suffix -ya-, not elsewhere used by itself to 
form superlatives ; we have already noted the combination of 
-ya- with -ta- ; here also we see the frequent phenomenon of 
two suffixes occurring combined, as here -t-ya-, i.e. -ta-ya-, 
either of which can exercise the same functions as the com- 
pound; Grreek rerap-ro- for *rerFap-To- ; Latin quar-to- for 
*quatuor-to-, quator-to- (on these forms cf. Corss. Krit. Nachtr., 
p. 298, 3). 

5. Original- language probably kankan-ta- or perhaps 
already kan-ta- ; Sanskrit panKa-md-, Yed. panJca-tM-, with 
well-known suffixes ; Greek Tre/wr-To- ; Latin quin(c)-to-. 

6. Suffix -ta- throughout, which therefore must be ascribed 
to the original-language with certainty, thus perhaps 
ksvaks-ta- ; Sanskrit sas-thd- ; Greek e/c-ro-, probably for 
*e-ro-, cf. Latin sex-to. 

7. Indo-European original-language sapta-ma-, or 
sapta- ta-, or perhaps saptan-ta-? ; Sanskrit sapta-md-; Greek 
e/3So-/,to- for *7TTo-fjio-, with irregular softening of mutes TTT 
into sonants /38, according to the conjecture of G. Curtius and 
Leo Meyer (cf. Curt. Gr. Et. 3 p. 488), through the influence of 



262 STEMS OF NUMERALS. ORDINALS 8-10; 11-19; 20-90. 

113. the fj,, before which o forced its way as an auxiliary vowel at a 
later date (cf. Old Bulg.'sed-mti for *sept-mu) ; archaic and poet, 
form eft&o-fiaTo- ; Latin septi-mo-. 

8. Original -language perhaps dktu-ma- ; Sanskrit 
asta-md- ; Greek oy&oFo-, with the same weakening as in the 
case of e/3So-yLto-, for *oKToFo-, which, as Curt, conjectures, arose 
from *oKrFo-, and whose weakening of KT to 78 must be ascribed 
to the F (cf. No. 7) ; on the other hand oySoFo- and Latin 
octduo- point to a common f.f. aktdv-a-, which is opposed to 
Curtius' supposition. The suffix here is therefore only -a-, 
which is added to the raised stem aktu- (consequently we must 
not assume either suffix -va- as in *par-va-, or still less -ma- 
changed into -va-J . 

9. Indo-European original-language doubtful 
whether with suffix -ma- (nava-ma-), or with -ta- (navan-ta) ; 
Sanskrit nava-md- ; Greek eva-ro-, evva-ro-, probably 
shortened from *eveFa-To- ; Latin no-no- from *nou-no-, 
*noui-no- > probably from *noui-mo- by assimilation to the 
initial sound. 

10. Original-language doubtful, as in the case of 9, 
whether ddka-ma- or dakan-ta-j Sanskrit da$a-md-\ Greek 
&e/ca-To- Latin deci-mo-. 

11-19. Originally by means of two words. Sanskrit. 
Here, as in other compounds, the final a of the second element 
of dagan-, which has lost its n, serves likewise for an adjective- 
forming suffix, e.g. 11, eM-dagd-, from ekd-da^an-; 12, dvd-dafd-, 
etc. Here consequently we see suffix a also serving to form a 
superlative (as in Gk. Lat. * aktdv-a-, 8). Greek throughout 
-Befca-ro- ; 11, ev-Se/ca-ro-; 19, evvea-Kcu-Sefca-ro-. Latin. 11, 
un-deci-mo- ; 12, duo-deci-mo-, and the remaining numerals by 
separate words. 

20-90. Originally by two words. Sanskrit either 
with -tama-, e.g. 20, vigati-tamd-; 30, tricati-tama-; or by suffix 
-a- like 11-19, with loss of final -t, -ti, e.g. vi$d- t trigd-. Greek. 



STEMS OF NUMERALS. ORDINALS 100-1000. 263 

To -KOTL-, -/coma-, was added suffix -TO-, in such, a way that 113. 
-KOTI- and -KOVTO,- were shortened to -/COT- ; hence arose *-KOT-TO- 
and by rule ( 68, 2) -KOO--TO-, thus 20, elfcocr-ro- ; 30, rpiafcoor- 
-TO-, etc. Latin. Suffix -tumo-, -timo-, added to the suffix 
*-cinti-, *-cinta-> which loses its final ; or rather to an earlier 
*-centi-, *-centa- ; thus *-cent-tumo-, and thence regularly (77, 
1, b) -censumo-, -cesimo-, and -gesimo- with c softened to g. 
E.g. 20, early vicensumo-, hence vicesimo-, vigesimo-, f.f. would 
therefore be some such form as *dm- (da) kanti-tama- ; 40, quadra- 
-gensimo-, -gesimo-, etc. 

100-1000. 100. Sanskrit gatortamd- ; Greek, with 
suffix -CTTO-, apparently through the analogy of -to-To- ( 106), 
formed from -TO-, e/caTo-crTo- ; Latin, according to analogy of 
the tens, cent-esimo-, as though -esimo- were the suffix (from 
*cent-tesimo- would have arisen *cemesimo-, 77, 1, b). 

200-900. Sanskrit with gata-tamd- ; Greek with -oro- 
(v. 100) ; e.g. 200, SiaKoo-io-aro- ; Latin with cent esimo, e.g. 
200, du-centesimo-, octin-gentesimo-, etc. 

1000. Sanskrit sahasra-tamd- ; Greek with -OTO-, 
-O-TO-; Latin with -esimo-, mill- esimo-. 



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Folk-lore extant : being the Jatakatthavannana, for the first time edited in the 
original Pali, by V. FAUSBOLL, and translated by T. W. Rhys Davids. Trans- 
lation. Vol. I. pp. cxvi. and 348. 1880. 18*. 

THE CLASSICAL POETRY OF THE JAPANESE. By BASIL CHAMBERLAIN, 
Author of " Yeigio Henkaku, Ichiran," pp. xii. and 228. 1880. 7*. 6c?. 

LINGUISTIC AND ORIENTAL ESSAYS. "Written from the year 1846-1878. 
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THE MESNEVI. (Usually known as the Mesneviyi Sherif, or Holy 
MesnevT) of Mevlana (our Lord) Jelalu'd-Din Muhammed er-Ruml. Book I. 
With a Life of the Author. Illustrated by a Selection of Characteristic Anecdotes, 
by Mevlana Shemsu'd-Din Ahmed el Eflaki, el 'Arifi. Translated and the Poetry 
Versified in English. By J. W. REDHOUSE, M.R.A.S. pp. xv. and 135, v. and 
290. 1881. 21*. 

EASTERN PROVERBS AND EMBLEMS, Illustrating Old Truths. By the 
Rev. J. LONG, M.B.A.S., F.R.G.S. pp. xvi. and 280. 1881. 6*. 

INDIAN POETRY. Containing " The Indian Song of Songs," from the 
Sanskrit of the " Gita Govinda" of Jayadeva ; Two Books from " the Iliad of 
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ARNOLD, M.A., C.S.I, pp. viii. and 270. 1884. 7*. 6d. 

HINDU PHILOSOPHY. The Sankhya Karika of Iswara\Krishna. An 
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THE RELIGIONS OF INDIA. By A. BARTH. Authorised Transla- 
tion by Rev. J. WOOD. pp.336. 1881. 16*. 



57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 5 

A MANUAL OF HINDU PANTHEISM. The Yedantasara. Translated 
with Copious Annotations, by Major G. A. JACOB, B.S.C. With Preface by 
E. B. COWELL, M.A., Prof, of Sanskrit in Cambridge University, pp. x. and 
129. 1881. 6s. 

THE QUATRAINS OF OMAE KHAYYAM. Translated by E. H. WHINFIELD, 
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THE MIND OF MENCIUS ; or, Political Economy founded upon Moral 
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Mencius. Translated from the Original Text, and Classified with Comments 
and Explanations. By the Eev. Ernst FABER, Rhenish Mission Society. 
Translated from the German with Additional Notes, by the Rev. A. B. 
HUTCHINSON, C.M.S., Hong-Kong, pp. xvi. and 294. 1881. 10s. 6d. 

TsUNI-|IGrOAM, THE SuPBEME BEING OF THE KHOI-KHOI. By THEO- 
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xii. and 154. 1881. 7s. 6d. 

YUSEF AND ZULAIKHA. A Poem by Jami. Translated from the Persian 
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THE INDIAN EMPIEE : its History, People, and Products. By W. W. 
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A COMPEEHENSIVE COMMENTAEY TO THE QUEAN : comprising Sale's 
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COMPAEATIVE HlSTOEY OF THE EGYPTIAN AND MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS. 
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THE SAEYA-DAESANA-SAMGEAHA; or Review of the different Systems of 
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TIBETAN TALES, Derived from Indian Sources. Translated from the 
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from the German, with an Introduction, by W. R. S. RALSTON, M.A. pp. 
lxvi.-368. 1882. 14s. 

LINGUISTIC ESSAYS. By GAEL ABEL, Ph.Dr. pp. viii.-266. 1882. 9s. 

CONTENTS. Language as the Expression of National Modes of Thought The Conception of 
Love in some Ancient and Modern Languages The English Verbs of Command The discrimi- 
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HINDU PHILOSOPHY. The Bhagavad Gita or the Sacred Lay. A 
Sanskrit Philosophical Poem. Translated, with Notes, by JOHN DAVIES, M.A. 
(Cantab.) M.R.A.S. pp. vi.-208. 1882. 8s. 6d. 

THE PHILOSOPHY or THE UPANISHADS and Ancient Indian Metaphysics. 
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UDANAYAEGA : A Collection of Yerses from the Buddhist Canon. Com- 
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Translated from the Tibetan of Bkah hgyur, Notes and Extracts from the Com- 
mentary of Pradjnavarman, by W. W. ROCKHILL. Pp. xvi.-224. 1883. 9*. 



6 Linguistic Publications of Trubner fy Co., 

A HISTORY or BURMA. Including Burma Proper, Pegu, Taungu, 
Tenasserim, and Arakan. From the Earliest Time to the End of the First 
War with British India. By Lieut.-General Sir A. P. PHAYRE, G.C.M.G., 
K.C.S.I., &c. pp. xii. and 312, with Maps and Plan. 1883. 14*. 

THE QUATRAINS OF OMAR KHAYY!M. The Persian Text, with an 
English Verse Translation. By E. H. WHINFIELD, M.A., late of the Bengal 
Civil Service, pp. xxxii. and 336. 1883. 10s. Qd. 

A SKETCH OF THE MODERN LANGUAGES OF AFRICA. By R. N. CTJST. 
Accompanied by a Language Map. By E. G. .RAVENSTEIN. Two Vols. 
pp. xvi.-288, viii.-278, with Thirty-one Autotype Portraits. 1883. 25s. 

OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF RKLIGIONTOTHE SPREAD OF THE UNIVERSAL 
RELIGIONS. By Prof C.P.TiELE. Translated from the Dutch by J.E. CARPENTER, 
M. A., with the Author's assistance. Third Edition, pp. xx. and 250. 1884. 7s. 6d. 

RELIGION IN CHINA ; containing a brief Account of the Three Religions 
of the Chinese ; with Observations on the Prospects of Christian Conversion 
amongst that People. By JOSEPH EDKINS, D.D., Peking. Third Edition, 
pp. xvi. and 260. 1884. 7*. 6c?. 

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA AND THE EARLY HISTORY OF HIS ORDER. 
Derived from Tibetan Works in the Bkah-hgyur and Bstan-hgyur. Followed 
by notices on the Early History of Tibet and Khoten. Translated by W. W. 
ROCKHILL, Second Secretary U.S. Legation in China, pp. x. 274, cloth. 
1884. 9s. 

BUDDHIST RECORDS OF THE WESTERN WORLE. Translated from the 
Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang (A.D. 629). By S. BEAL. Dedicated by permission 
to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. 2 volumes, pp. cviii. 242, and viii. 370, 
cloth. 1884. 24s. 

THE SANKHYA APHORISMS OF KAPILA. With Illustrative Extracts from 
the Commentaries. Translated by J. R. BALLANTYNE, LL.D., late Principal 
of Benares College. Edited by FITZEDWARD HALL. Third Edition, pp. viii. 
464, cloth. 1884. 16s. 

THE ORDINANCES OF MANU. Translated from the Sanskrit. With an 
Introduction by the late A. C. BURNELL, Ph.D., C.I.E. Completed and Edited 
by E. W. HOPKINS, Ph.D., Columbia College, New York. pp. xlviii. 398, 
cloth. 1884. 12s. 



THE FOLLOWING WORKS ABE IN PREPARATION : 

THE LIFE AND WORKS OF ALEXANDER CSOMA DE KO'ROS. By T. DUE A, 
M.D., F.R.C.S. (Eng.), Surgeon-Major, Bengal Medical Service, Retired; etc. 

MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS on Subjects connected with the Malay Penin- 
sula and the Indian Archipelago. Eeprinted from " Dalrymple's Oriental Re- 
pertory," "Asiatick Researches," and the "Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal." Edited by R. ROST, Ph.D., etc., etc., Librarian to the India Office. 
Two Vols. 

THE NITI LITERATURE OF BURMA. By JAMES GRAY, of the Government 

High School, Rangoon. 
THE LIFE OF HIUEN TSIANG. By the SHAMANS HWUI LI and YEN-TSUNG. 

With a Preface containing an account of the Works of I-TsiNG. By S. BEAL, 

B.A., Professor of Chinese University College, London. 



57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 7 

SERIALS AND PERIODICALS. 

Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. JOURNAL or THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, from the Com- 
mencement to 1863. First Series, complete in 20 Vols. 8vo., with many Plates, 
Price 10; or, in Single Numbers, as follows: Nos. 1 to 14, 6s. each; No. 15, 
2 Parts, 4*. each; No. 16, 2 Parts, 4*. each; No. 17, 2 Parts, 4*. each; No. 
18, 6*. These 18 Numbers form Vols. I. to IX. Vol. X., Part 1, o.p. ; 
Part 2, 5s. ; Part 3, 5s. Vol. XI., Part 1, 6s. ; Part 2 not published. Vol. 
XII., 2 Parts, 6s. each. Vol. XIII., 2 Parts, 6s. each. Vol. XIV., Part 1. 
5s. ; Part 2 not published. Vol. XV., Part 1, 6s. ; Part 2, with 3 Maps, 2 2s. 
Vol. XVI., 2 Parts, 6s. each. Vol. XVII., 2 Parts, 6*. each. Vol. XVIII., 
2 Parts, 6s. each. Vol. XIX., Parts 1 to 4, 16*. Vol. XX., Parts 1 and 2, 4*. 
each. Part 3, 7s. 6d. 

Asiatic Society. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT 
BRITAIN AND IRELAND. New Series. Vol. I. In Two Parts, pp. iv. and 
490, sewed. 1864-5. 16s. 

CONTENTS. I. Vajra-chhedika, the "Kin Kong King," or Diamond Sutra. Translated from 
the Chinese by the Rev. S. Beal. II. The Paramita-hridaya Sutra, or, in Chinese, " Mo ho-po- 
ye-po-lo-mih-to-sin-king," i.e. "The Great Paramita Heart Sutra." Translated from the 
Chinese by the Rev. S. Beal. III. On the Preservation of National Literature in the East. 
By Col. F. J. Goldsmid. IV. On the Agricultural, Commercial, Financial, and Military Statistics 
of Ceylon. By E. R. Power. V. Contributions to a Knowledge of the Vedic Theogony and 
Mythology. By J. Muir, D.C.L. VI. A Tabular List of Original Works and Translations, pub- 
lished by the late Dutch Government of Ceylon at their Printing Press at Colombo. Compiled 
by Mr. M. P. J. Ondaatje. VII, Assyrian and Hebrew Chronology compared, with a view of 
showing the extent to which the Hebrew Chronology of Ussher must be modified, in conformity 
with the Assyrian Canon. By J. W. Bosanquet. VIII. On the existing Dictionaries of the 
Malay Language. By Dr. H. N. van der Tuuk. IX. Bilingual Readings : Cuneiform and 
Phoenician. Notes on some Tablets in the British Museum, containing Bilingual Legends 
(Assyrian and Phoenician). By Major-Gen. Sir H.Rawlinson, K.C.B. X. Translations of Three 
Copper-plate Inscriptions of the Fourth Century A.D., and Notices of the Chalukya and Gurjjara 
Dynasties. By Prof. J . Dowson, Staff College, Sandhurst. XI. Yama and the Doctrine of a 
Future Life, according to the Rig-Yajur-, and Atharva-Vedas. By J. Muir, D.C.L. XII. On 
the Jyotisha Observation of the Place of the Colures, and the Date derivable from it. By W. 
D. Whitney, Prof, of Sanskrit, Yale College, U.S.A. Note on the preceding Article. By Sir E. 
Colebrooke, Bart., M.P. XIII. Progress of the Vedic Religion towards Abstract Conceptions 
of the Deity. By J. Muir, D.C.L. XIV. Brief Notes on the Age and Authenticity of the Work 
of Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Bhattotpala, and Bhaskaracharya. By Dr. Bhau 
Daji. XV. Outlines of a Grammar of the Malagasy Language. By H. N. Van der Tuuk. 
XVI. On the Identity of Xandrames and Krananda. By E. Thomas, Esq. 
Vol. II. In Two Parts, pp. 522, sewed. 1866-7. 16*. 

CONTENTS. I. Contributions to a Knowledge of Vedic Theogony and Mythology. No. 2. 
By J. Muir. II. Miscellaneous Hymns from the Rig- and Atharva-Vedas. By J. Muir. III. 
Five hundred questions on the Social Condition of the Natives of Bengal. By the Rev. J. Long. 
IV. Short account of the Malay Manuscripts belonging to the Royal Asiatic Society. By 
Dr. H. N. van der Tuuk. V. Translation of the Amitabha Sutra from the Chinese. By the Rev. 
S. Beal. VI. The initial coinage of Bengal. By E. Thomas. VII. Specimens of an Assyrian 
Dictionary. By E. Norris. VIII. On the Relations of the Priests to the other classes of llndian 
Society in the Vedic age. By J. Muir. IX. On the Interpretation of the Veda. By the same. 
X. An attempt to Translate from the Chinese a work known as the Confessional Services of the 
great compassionate Kwan Yin, possessing 1000 hands and 1000 eyes. By the Rev. S. Beal. 
XI. The Hymns of the Gaupayanas and the Legend of King Asamati. By Prof. Max Miiller. 
XII. Specimen Chapters of an Assyrian Grammar. By the Rev. E. Hincks, D.D. 

Vol. III. In Two Parts, pp. 516, sewed. With Photograph. 1868. 22s. 

CONTENTS. I. Contributions towards a Glossary of the Assyrian Language. By H. F. Talbot. 
II. Remarks on the Indo-Chinese Alphabets. By Dr. A. Bastian. III. The poetry of 
Mohamed Rabadan, Arragonese. By the Hon. H. E. J. Stanley. IV. Catalogue of the Oriental 
Manuscripts in the Library of King's College, Cambridge. By E. H. Palmer, B.A. V. De- 
scription of the Amravati Tope in Guntur. By J. Fergusson, F.R.S. VI. Remarks on Prof. 
Brockhaus' edition of the Kathasarit-sagara, Lambaka IX. XVIII. By Dr. H. Kern, Prof, of 
Sanskrit, University of Leyden. VII. The source of Colebrooke's Essay " On the Duties of a 
Faithful Hindu Widow." By Fitzedward Hall, D.C.L. Supplement : Further detail of proofs 
that Colebrooke's Essay, " On the Duties of a Faithful Hindu Widow," was not indebted to 
the Vivadabhangarnava. By F. Hall. V [II. The Sixth Hymn of the First Book of the Rig 
Veda. By Prof. Max Miiller. IX. Sassanian Inscriptions. By E. Thomas. X. Account of an 
Embassy from Morocco to Spain in 1690 and 1691. By the Hon. H. E. J. Stanley. XI. The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the same. XII. Materials for the History of 



8 Linguistic Publications of Trubner fy Co., 

India for the Six Hundred Years of Mohammadan rule, previous to the Foundation of the British 
Indian Empire. By Major W. Nassau Lees, LL.D. XIII. A Few Words concerning the Hill 
people inhabiting the Forests of the Cochin State. By Capt. G. E. Fryer, M.S.C. XIV. Notes 
on the Bhojpuri Dialect of Hindi, spoken in Western Behar. By J. Beames, B.C.S. 

Vol. IV. In Two Parts, pp. 521, sewed. 1869-70. 16s. 

CONTENTS. I. Contribution towards a Glossary of the Assyrian Language. By H. F. Talbot. 
Part II. II. On Indian Chronology. By J. Fergusson, F.R.S. III. The Poetry oi Mohamed 
Rabadan of Arragon. By the Hon. H. E. J. Stanley. IV. On the Magar Language of Nepal. 
By J. Beames, B.C.S. V. Contributions to the Knowledge of Parsee Literature. By E. Sachau, 
Ph.D. VI. illustrations of the Lamaist System in Tibet, drawn from Chinese Sources. By 
W. F. Mayers, of H.B.M. Consular Service, China. VII. Khuddaka Patha, a Pali Text, with a 
Translation and Notes. By R. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S. VIII. An Endeavour to elucidate 
Rashiduddin's Geographical Notices of India. By Col. H. Yule, C.B.- IX. Sassanian Inscriptions 
explained by the Pahlavi of the Parsis. By E. W. West. X. Some Account of the Senbyti 
Pagoda at Mengfln, near the Burmese Capital, in a Memorandum by Capt. E. H. Sladan, Politi- 
cal Agent at Mandale; with Remarks on the Subject by Col. H. Yule, C.B. XI. The Brhat- 
Sanhita ; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha-Mihira. Translated from Sanskrit 
into English by Dr. H. Kern. -XII. The Mohammedan Law of Evidence, and its influence on 
the Administration of Justice in India. By N. B. E. Baillie. XIII. The Mohammedan Law of 
Evidence in connection with the Administration of Justice to Foreigners. By the same. XIV. 
A Translation of a Bactrian Pali Inscription. By Prof. J. Dowson. XV. Indo-Parthian Coins 
By E. Thomas. 

Vol. V. In Two Parts, pp. 463, sewed. With 10 full-page and folding Plates. 
1871-2. 18*.6rf. 

CONTENTS. I. Two Jatakas. The original Pali Text, with an English Translation. By V. 
Fausboll. II. On an Ancient Buddhist Inscription at Keu-yung kwan, in North China. By A. 
Wylie. III. The Brhat Sanhita; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha-Mihira 
Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. IV. The Pongol Festival in Southern 
India. By C. E. Gover. V. The Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the Right Hon. 
Lord Stanley of Alderley. VI. Essay on the Creed and Customs of the Jangams. By C. P. 
Brown. VII. On Malabar, Coromandel, Quilon, etc. By C. P. Brown. VIII. On the Treatment 
of the Nexus in the Neo-Aryan Languages of India. By J. Beames, B.C.S. IX. Some Remarks 
on the Great Tope at Sanchi. By the Rev. S. Beal. X. Ancient Inscriptions from Mathura. 
Translated by Prof. J. Dowson. Note to the Mathura Inscriptions. By Major-Gen. A. Cun- 
ningham. XI. Specimen of a Translation of the Adi Granth. By Dr. E.'Trumpp. XII. Notes 
on Dhammapada, with Special Reference to the Question of Nirvana. By R. C. Childers, late 
Ceylon C.S XIII. The Brhat-Sanhita ; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha- 
mihira. Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. XIV. On the Origin of the 
Buddhist Arthakathas. By the Mudliar L. Comrilla Vijasinha, Government Interpreter to the 
Ratnapura Court, Ceylon. With Introduction by R. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S. XV. The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the Right Hon. Lord Stanley of Alderley. - 
XVI. Proverbia Communia Syriaca. By Capt. R. F. Burton. -XVII. Notes on an Ancient 
Indian Vase, with an Account of the Engraving thereupon. By C. Home, late B.C.S. XVIII. 
The Bhar Tribe. By the Rev. M. A. Sherring, LL.D., Benares. Communicated by C. Home, 
late B.C.S. XIX. Of Jihad in Mohammedan Law, and its application to British India. By 
N. B. E. Baillie. XX. Comments on Recent Pehlvi Decipherments. With an Incidental Sketch 
of the Derivation of Aryan Alphabets. And Contributions to the Early History and Geography 
of Tabaristan. Illustrated by Coins. By E. Thomas, F.R.S. 

Vol. VI., Part 1, pp. 212, sewed, with two plates and a map. 1872. 8*. 

CONTENTS. The Ishmaelites, and the Arabic Tribes who Conquered their Country. By A. 
Sprenger. A Brief Account of Four Arabic Works on the History and Geography of Arabia. 
By Captain S. B. Miles. On the Methods of Disposing of the Dead at Llassa, Thibet, etc. By 
Charles Hprne, late B.C.S. The Brhat-Sanhita; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of 
Varaha-mihira, Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. Notes on Hwen 
Thsang's Account of the Principalities of Tokharistan, in which some Previous Geographical 
Identifications are Reconsidered. By Colonel Yule, C.B. The Campaign of ^Elius Gallus in 
Arabia. By A. Sprenger. An Account of Jerusalem, Translated for the late Sir H. M. Elliot 
from the Persian Text of Nasir ibn Khusru's Safanamah by the late Major A. R. Fuller. The 
Poetry of Mohamed Rabadan, of Arragon. By the Right Hon. Lord Stanley of Alderley. 

Vol. VI., Part II., pp. 213 to 400 and Ixxxiv., sewed. Illustrated with a Map, 
Plates, and Woodcuts. 1873. 8s. 

CONTENTS. On Hiouen-Thsang's Journey from Patna to Ballabhi. By James Fergusson, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. -Northern Buddhism. [Note from Colonel H. Yule, addressed to the Secretary.] 
Hwen Thsang's Account of the Principalities of Tokharistan, etc. By Colonel H. Yule, C.B. 
The Brhat-Sanhita; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha-mihira. Translated 
from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. The Initial Coinage of Bengal, under the Early 
Muhammadan Conquerors. Part II. Embracing the preliminary period between A.H. 614-634 
(A.D. 1217-1236-7). By Edward Thomas, F.R.S. The Legend of Dipankara Buddha. Translated 
from the Chinese (and intended to illustrate Plates xxix. and L., 'Tree and Serpent Worship '). 
By S. Beal. Note on Art. IX., ant6 pp. 213-274, on Hiouen-Thsang's Journey from Patna to 
Ballabhi. By James Fergusson. D.C.L., F.R.S. Contributions towards a Glossary of the 
Assyrian Language. By H. F. Talbot. 



57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C, 9 

Vol. VI f., Part I., pp. 170 and 24, sewed. With a plate. 1874. 8s. 

CONTENTS. The Upasampada-Kammavaca, being the Buddhist Manual of the Form and 
Manner of Ordering of Priests and Deacons. The Pali Text, with a Translation and Notes. 
By J. F. Dickson, B. A. Notes on the Megalithic Monuments of the Coimbatore District, 
Madras. By M. J. Walhouse, late M.C.S. Notes on the Sinhalese Language. No. 1. On the For- 
mation of the Plural of Neuter Nouns. By R. C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S. The Pali Text 
of the Mahdparinibbdna Sutta and Commentary, with a Translation. By R. C. Childers, late 
Ceylon C.S. The Brihat-Sanhita ; or, Complete System of Natural Astrology of Varaha-mihira. 
Translated from Sanskrit into English by Dr. H. Kern. Note on the Valley of Choombi. 
By Dr. A. Campbell, late Superintendent of Darjeeling. The Name of the Twelfth ImSm on the 
Coinage of Egypt. By H. Sauvaire and Stanley Lane Poole. Thre Inscriptions of Parak 
rama Babu the Great from Pulastipura, Ceylon (date circa 1180 A.U.). B 7 T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Of the Kharaj or Muhammadan Land Tax ; its Application to British India, and Effect on 
the Tenure of Land. By N. B. E. Baillie. Appendix : A Specimen of a Syriac Version of the 
Kalilah wa-Dimnah, with an English Translation. By W. Wright. 

Vol. VII., Part II., pp. 191 to 394, sewed. With seven plates and a map. 1875. 8* 
CONTENTS. Sigiri, the Lion Rock, near Pulastipura, Ceylon ; and the Thirty-ninth Chapter 
of the Mahavamsa. By T. W. Rhys Davids. The Northern Frontagers of China. Part I. 
The Origines of the Mongols. By H. H. Howorth. Inedited Arabic Coins. By Stanley Lan- 
Poole. Notice on the Dinars of the Abbasside Dynasty. By Edward Thomas Rogers. The 
Northern Frontagers of China. Part II. The Origine* of the Manchus. By H. H. Howorth. 
Notes on the Old Mongolian Capital of Shangtu. By S. W. Bushell, B.Sc., M.D. Oriental 
Proverbs in their Relations to Folklore, History, Sociology ; with Suggestions for their Collec- 
tion, Interpretation, Publication. By the Rev. J. Long. Two Old Simhalese Inscriptions. The 
SahasaMalla Inscription, date 1200 A.n.,and the Ruwanwseli Dagaba Inscription, date 1191 A.D. 
Text, Translation, and Notes. By T. W.Rhys Davids. -Notes on a Bactrian Pali Inscription 
and the Satnvat Era. By Prof. J. Dowson. Note on a Jade Drinking 'Vessel of the Emperor 
Jahangir. By Edward Thomas, F.R.S. 

Vol. VIII., Part I., pp. 156, sewed, with three plates and a plan. 1876. 8s. 
CONTENTS. Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit MSS. in the Possession of the R.A.S. (Hodgson 
Collection). By Prof. E. B. Cowell and J. Eggeling. On the Ruins of Sigiri in Ceylon. By 
T. H. Blakesley, Ceylon. The Patimokkha, being theBuddhist Office of the Confession of Priests. 
The Pali Text, with a Translation, and Notes. By J. F. Dickson, M.A., Ceylon C.S. Notes 
on the Sinhalese Language. No. 2. Proofs of the Sanskritic Origin of Sinhalese. By R. C. 
Childers, late of the Ceylon Civil Service. 

Vol. VIII., Part II., pp. 157-308, sewed. 1876. 8s. 

CONTENTS. An Account of the Island of Bali. By R. Friederich. The Pali Text of the Maha- 
parinibbana Sutta and Commentary, with a Translation. By R C. Childers, late Ceylon C.S. 
The Northern Frontagers of China. Part III. The Kara Khitai. By H. H. Howorth. In- 
edited Arabic Coins. II. By S. L. Poole. On the Form of Government under the Native 
Sovereigns of Ceylon. By A. de Silva Ekanayaka, Mudaliyar, Ceylon. 

Vol. IX., Part I., pp. 156, sewed, with a plate. 1877. 8s. 

CONTENTS. Bactrian Coins and Indian Dates. By E. Thomas, F.R.S. The Tenses of the 
Assyrian Verb. By the Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A. An Account of the Island of Bali. By R. 
Friedericb (continued from Vol. VIII. N.S. p. 218). On Ruins in Makran. By Major Mockler. 
Inedited Arabic Coins. III. By Stanley Lane Poole, Further Note on a Bactrian Pali Inscrip- 
tion and the Samvat Era. By Prof. J. Dowson. Notes on Persian Beluchistan. From the 
Persian of Mirza Mehdy Khn. By A. H. Schindler. 

Vol IX., Part II., pp. 292, sewed, with three plates. 1877. 10s. Qd. 

CONTENTS. The Early Faith of Asoka. By E. Thomas, F.R.S. The Northern Frontagers 
of China. Part II. The Manchus (Supplementary Notice). Part IV. The Kin or Golden Tatars. 
ByH. H. Howorth. -On a Treatise on Weights and Measures by Eliya, Archbishop of Nisibfn. 
By M. H. Sauvaire. On Imperial and other Titles. By Si" T. E. Colebrooke, Bart., M. P. Affi- 
nities of the Dialects of the Chepang and Kusundah Tribes of NipSl with those of the Hill Tribes 
of Arracan. By Capt. C. J. F. Forbes, F.R.G.S., M.A.S. Bengal, etc. Notes on Some Anti- 
quities found in a Mound near Damghan. By A. H. Schindler. 

Vol. X., Part I., pp. 156, sewed, with two plates and a map. 1878. 8s. 

CONTENTS. On the Non-Aryan Languages of India. By E. L. Brandreth. A Dialogue on 
the Vedantic Conception of Brahma. By Pramada Dasa Mittra, late Offi. Prof, of Anglo-Sanskrit, 
Gov. College, Benares. An Account of the Island of Bali. By R. Friederich (continued from 
Vol. IX. N.S. p. 120). Unpublished Glass Weights and Measures. By E. T. Rogers. China 
via Tibet. By S. C. Boulger. Notes and Recollections on Tea Cultivation in Kumaon and 
Garhwal. By J. H. Batten, late B.C.S. 

Vol. X., Part II., pp. 146, sewed. 1878. 6s. 

CONTENTS. Note on Pliny's Geography of the East Coast of Arabia. By Major-Gen. S. B. Miles, 
B.S.C. -The Maldive Islands; with a Vocabulary taken from Fran9ois Pyrard de Laval, 1602 
1607. By A. Gray, late Ceylon C.S. On Tibeto-Burman Languages. By Capt. C. J. F. S. 
Forbes, Burmese C.S. Commission. Burmese Transliteration. By H. L. St! Barbe, Resident at 
Mandelay. On the Connexion of the Mons of Pegu with the Koles of Central India. By 
Capt. C. J. F. S. Forbes, Burmese C.C. Studies on the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic 
Languages, with Special Reference to Assyrian. By P. Haupt. The Oldest Semitic Verb-Form. 
Arab Metrology. II. El-Djabarty. By M. H. Sauvaire. The Migrations and Early Historj 
of the White Huns ; principally from Chinese Sources. By T. W. Kingsmill. 



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Vol. X., Part III., pp. 204, sewed. 1878. 8s. 

CONTENTS. On the ill Canton of Salar, the most Easterly Settlement of the Turk Race. 
By Robert B. Shaw. - Geological Notes on the River Indus By Griffin W. Vyse, Executive 
Engineer P.W.D. Panjab. Educational Literature for Japanese Women. By B. H. Chamber- 
lain. On the Natural Phenomenon Known in the East by the Names Sub-hi-Kazib, etc., etc. 
By J. W. Redhouse. On a Chinese Version of the Sankhya KarikS, eic., found among the 
Buddhist Books comprising the Tripitaka and two other works. By the Rev. S. Beal. The 
Rock-cut Phrygian Inscriptions at Doganlu. By E. Thomas, F.R.S. Index. 

Vol. XL, Part. I., pp. 128, sewed, with seven illustrations. 1879. 5*. 

CONTENTS. On the Position of Women in the East in the Olden Time. By E. Thomas, F.R.S. 
Notice of Scholars who have Contributed to our Knowledge of the Languages of British India 
during the last Thirty Years. By R. N. Cust. Ancient Arabic Poetry: its Genuineness and 
Authenticity. By Sir W. Muir, K.C.S.I. Note on Manrique's Mission and the Catholics in the 
time of Shah Jahan. By H. G. Keene. On Sandhi in Pali. By the late R. C. Childers. On 
Arabic Amulets and Mottoes. By E. T. Rogers. 

Vol. XI., Part II., pp. 256, sewed, with map and plate. 1879. 7*. &d. 
CONTENTS. On the Identification of Places on the Makran Coast mentioned by Arrian, Ptolemy, 
and Marcian. By Major E. Mockler. On the Proper Names of the Mohammadans. By Sir T. 

E. Colebrooke, Bart., M.P. Principles of Composition in Chinese, as deduced from the Written 
Characters. By the Rev. Dr. Legge. - On the Identification of the Portrait of Chosroes II. among 
the Paintings in the Caves at Ajanta. By James Fergusson, Vice-President. A Specimen of 
the Zoongee for Zurngee) Dialect of a Tribe of Nagas, bordering on the Valley of Assam, 
between the Dikho and Desoi R vers, embracing over Forty Villages. By the Rev. Mr. Clark 

Vol. XI. Part III. pp. 104, cxxiv. 16, sewed. 1879. 8*. 

CONTENTS. The Gaurian compared with the Romance Languages. Part I. By E. L. 
Brandreth. Dialects of Colloquial Arabic. By E. T. Rogers. A Comparative Study of the 
Japanese and Korean Languages. By W. G. Aston. Index. 

Vol. XII. Part I. pp. 152, sewed, with Tahle. 1880. 5*. 

CONTENTS. On " The Most Comely Names," i.e. the Laudatory Epithets, or the Titles of Praise 
bestowed on God in the Qur'an or by Muslim Writers. By J. W. Redhouse. Notes on a newly- 
discovered Clay Cylinder of Cyrus the Great. By Major-Gen. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B. 
Note on Hiouen-Thsang's Dhanakacheka. By Robert Sewell, M.C.S. Remarks by Mr. 
Fergusson on Mr. Sewell's Paper. A Treatise on Weights and Measures. By Eliya, Archbishop 
of Nisibin. By H. Sauvaire. (Supplement to Vol. IX., pp. 291-313) On the Age of the 
Ajanta Caves. By Rajendralala Mitra, C.I.E. Notes on Babu Rajendrala Mitra's Paper on 
the Age of the Caves at Ajanta. By J. Fergusson, F.R.S. 

Vol. XII. Part II. pp. 182, sewed, with map and plate. 1880. 6s. 

CONTENTS. On Sanskrit Texts Discovered in Japan. By Prof. Max Miiller. Extracts from 
Report on the Islands and Antiquities of Bahrein. By Capt. Durand. Followed by Notes by 
Major-Gen. Sir H. C. llawlineon, K.C.B. Notes on the Locality and Population of the Tribes 
dwelling between the Brahmaputra and Ningthi Rivers. By the late G. H. Damant, Political 
Officer, Naga Hills. On the Saka, Sam vat, and Gupta Eras. A Supplement to his Paper on Indian 
Chronology. By J. Fergusson, D.C.L. The Megba-Sutra. By C. Bendall. Historical and 
Archaeological 'Notes on a Journey in South- Western Persia, 1877-1878. By A. Houtum- 
Schindler. Identification of the " False Dawn " of the Muslims with the " Zodiacal Light " of 
Europeans. By J. W. Redhouse. 

Vol. XII. Part III. pp. 100, sewed. 1880. 4*. 

CONTENTS. The Gaurian compared with the Romance Languages. Part II. By E. L. 
Brandreth. The TJzbeg Epos. By Arminius Vambery. On the Separate Edicts at Dhauli and 
Jaugada. By Prof. Kern. Grammatical Sketch of the Kakhyen Language. By Rev. J. N. 
Cushing. Notes on the Libyan Languages, in a Letter addressed to R. N. Cust, Esq., by Prof. 

F. W. Newman. 

Vol. XII. Part IV. pp. 152, with 3 plates. 1880. 8*. 

CONTENTS. The Early History of Tibet, from Chinese Sources. By S. W. Bushell, M.D. 
Notes on some Inedited Coins from a Collection made in Persia during the Years 1877-79. By 
Guy Le Strange, M.R.A.S. Buddhist Nirvana and the Noble Eightfold Path. By Oscar 
Frankfurter, Ph.D. Index. Annual Report, 1880. 

Vol. XIII. Part I. pp. 120, sewed. 1881. 5s. 

CONTENTS. Indian Theistic Reformers. By Prof. Monier Williams, C.I.E. Notes on the Kawi 
Language and Literature. By Dr. H. N. Van der Tuuk. The Invention of the Indian Alphabet. 
By John Dowson. The Nirvana of the Northern Buddhists. By the Rev. J. Edkins, D.D. 
An Account of the Malay " Chiri," a Sanskrit Formula. By W. E. Maxwell. 

Vol. XIII. Part II. pp. 170, with Map and 2 Plates. 1881. 8s. 

CONTENTS. The Northern Frontagers of China. Part V. The Khitai or Khitans. By H. H. 
Howorth. On the Identification of Nagarahara, with reference to the Travels of Hiouen-Thsang. 
By W. Simpson. Hindu Law at Madras. By J. H. Nelson, M.C.S. On the Proper Names of 
the Mohammedans. By Sir T. E. Colebrooke, Bart., M.P. Supplement to the Paper on Indian 
Theistic Reformers, published in the January Number of this Journal. By Prof. Monier 
Williams, C.I.E. 



57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 11 

Vol. XIII. Part III. pp. 178, with plate. 1881. 7s. Qd. 

CONTENTS. The Avar Language. By C. Graham. Caucasian Nationalities. By M. A. 
Morrison. Translation of the Markandeya Purana. Books VII., VIII. By the Rev. B. 
H. Wortham. Lettre a M. Stanley Lane Poole sur quelques monnaies orientales rares ou inedites 
de la Collection de M. Ch. de 1'Ecluse. Par H. Sauvaire. Aryan Mythology in Malay Traditions. 
By W. E. Maxwell, Colonial Civil Service. The Koi, a Southern Tribe of the Gond. By the 
Rev. J. Cain, Missionary. On the Duty which Mohammedans in British India owe, on the 
Principles of their own Law, to the Government of the Country. By N. B. E. Baillie. The 
L-Poeni of the Arabs, by Shanfara. Re-arranged and translated by J. W. Redhouse, M.R.A.S. 

Vol. XIII. Part IV. pp. 130, cxxxvi. 16, with 3 plates. 1881. 10*. d. 

CONTENTS. The Andaman Islands and the Andamanese. By M. V. Portman. Notes on Marco 
Polo's Itinerary in Southern Persia. By A. Houtum-Schindler. Two MalayMyths : The Princess 
of the Foam, and the Raja of Bamboo. By W. E. Maxwell. The Epoch of the Guptas. By 
E. Thomas, F.H.S. Two Chinese-Buddhist Inscriptions found at Buddha Gaya. By the Rev. S. 
Beal. With 2 Plates. A Sanskrit Ode addressed to the Congress of Orientalists at Berlin. By 
Rama Dasa Sena, the Zemindar of Berhampore : with a Translation by S. Krishnavarma. 
Supplement to a paper, " On the Duty which Mahommedans in British India owe, on the Principles 
of their own Law, to the Government of the Country." By N. B. E. Baillie. Index. 

Vol. XIV. Part I. pp. 124, with 4 plates. 1882. 5s. 

CONTENTS. The Apology of Al Kindy : An Essay on its Age and Authorship. By Sir W 
Muir, K.C.S.I. The Poet Pampa. By L. Rice. On a Coin of Shams ud Dunya wa ud Din 
Mahmud Shah. By C. J. Rodgers, Amritsar. Note on PI. xxviii. fig. 1, of Mr. Fergusson's 
" Tree and Serpent Worship," 2nd Edition. By S. Beal, Prof, of Chinese, London University. 
On the present state of Mongolian Researches. By Prof. B. Julg, in a Letter to R. N. Cust. 
A Sculptured Tope on an Old Stone at Dras, Ladak. By W. Simpson, F.R.G.S. Sanskrit Ode 
addressed to the Fifth International Congress of Orientalists assembled at Berlin, September, 
1881. By the Lady Pandit Rama-bai, of Silchar, Kachar, Assam ; with a Translation by Prof. 
Monier Williams, C.I. E. The Intercourse of China with Eastern Turkestan and the Adjacent 
Countries in the Second Century B.C. By T. W. Kingsmill. Suggestions on the Formation of 
the Semitic Tenses. A Comparative and Critical Study. By G. Berlin. On a Lolo MS. -written 
on Satin. By M. T. de La Couperie. 

Vol. XIV. Part II. pp. 164, with three plates. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

CONTENTS. On Tartar and Turk. By S. W. KOELLE, Ph.D. Notice of Scholars whc have Con- 
tributed to our Knowledge of the Languages of Africa. By R. N. Cust. Grammatical Sketch 
of the Hausa Language. By the Rev. J. F. Schon, F.R.G.S., Buddhist Saint Worship. By 
A. Lillie. Gleanings from the Arabic. By H. W. Freeland, M.A. Al Kahirah and its Gates. 
By H. C. Kay, M.A. How the Mahabharata begins. By Edwin Arnold, C.S.I. Arab Metrology. 
IV. Ed-Dahaby. By M. H. Sauvaire. 

Vol. XIV. Part III. pp. 208, with 8 plates. 1882. 8s. 

CONTENTS. The Vaishnava Religion, with special reference to the Siksha-patrl of the 
Modern Sect called Svami-Narayana. By Monier Williams, C.I.E., D.C.L. Further Notes on 
the Apology of Al-Kindy. By Sir W. Muir, K.C.S.I., D.C.L., LL.D. The Buddhist Caves of 
Afghanistan By W. Simpson. The Identification of the Sculptured Tope at Sanchi. By W. 
Simpson. On the Genealogy of Modern Numerals, By Sir E. C. Bayley, K. C.S.I., C.I.E. 
The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Van, deciphered and translated. By A. H. Sayce. 

Vol. XIV. Part IV. pp. 330, clii. 1882. 14s. 

CONTENTS. The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Van, Deciphered and Translated. By A. H. Sayce. 
Sanskrit Text of the Siksha-Patrl of the Svami-Narayana Sect. Edited and Translated by 
Prof. M. Williams, C. I.E. The Successors of the Siljaks in Asia Minor. By S. L. Poole. The 
Oldest Book of the Chinese (The Yh-King) and its Authors. By T. de la Couperie. 

Vol. XV. Part I. pp. 134, with 2 plates. 1883. 6s. 

CONTENTS. The Genealogy of Modern Numerals. Part II. Simplification of the Ancient Indian 
Numeration. By Sir E, C. Bayley, C. I.E. Parthian and Indo-Sassanian Coins. By E. Thomas, 
Jb'.R.S. Early Historical Relations between Phrygia and Cappadocia. By W. M. Ramsay. 

Vol. XV. Part II. pp. 158, with 6 tables. 1883. 5s. 

CONTENTS. The Tattva-muktavali of Gauda-purnanandachakravartin. Edited and Trans- 
lated by Professor E. B. Cowell. Two Modern Sanskrit slokas. Communicated by Prof. E. B. 
Cowell. Malagasy Place-Names. By the Rev. James Sibree, jun. The Namakkara, with 
Translation and Commentary. By H. L. St. Barbe. Chinese Laws and Customs. By 
Christopher Gardner. The Oldest Book of the Chinese (the Yh-King} and its Authors 
(continued). By Terrien de La Couperie. Gleanings from the Arabic. By H. W. Freeland. 

Vol. XV. Part III. pp. 62-cxl. 1883. 6s. 

CONTENTS. Early Kamada Authors. By Lewis Rice. On Two Questions of Japanese 
Archaeology. By B. H. Chamberlain, M.R.A.S. Two Sites named by Hiouen-Thsang in the 
10th Book of the Si-yu-ki. By the Rev. S. Beal. Two Early Sources of Mongol History. By 
H. EL. Howorth, F.S. A. Proceedings of Sixtieth Anniversary of the Society, held May 21, 1883. 



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Vol. XV. Part IV. pp. 140-iv.-20, with plate. 1883. 5*. 

CONTENTS. The Rivers of the Vedas, and How the Aryans Entered India. By Edward 
Thomas, F.R.S. Suggestions on the Voice-Formation of the Semitic Verb. ByG Berlin, M.R.A. 8. 
The Buddhism of Ceylon. By Arthur Lillie, M.R.A.S. The Northern Frontagers of China. 
Part VI. Hia or Tangut. By H. H. Howorth, F.S.A. Index. List of Members. 

Vol. XVI. Part I. pp. 138, with 2 plates. 1884. 7*. 

CONTENTS. The Story of Devasmita. Translated from the Katha Sarit Sagara, Taranga 13, 
Sloka 54, by the Rev. B. Hale Wortham. Pujahs in the Sutlej Valley, Himalayas. By William 
Simpson, F.R.G.S. On some New Discoveries in Southern India. By R. Sewell, Madras C.S. 
On the Importance to Great Britain of the Study of Arabic. By Habib A. Salmpne. 
Grammatical Note on the Gwamba Language in South Africa. By P. Berthoud, Missionary 
of the Canton de Vaud, Switzerland, stationed at Valde"zia, Spelonken, Transvaal. (Prepared 
at the request of R. N. Cust.) Dialect of Tribes of the Hindu Khush, from Colonel Biddulph's 
Work on the subject (corrected). Grammatical Note on the Simnunt Dialect of the Persian 
Language. By the Rev. J. Bassett, American Missionary, Tabriz. (Communicated by R. N. Cust.) 

Vol. XVI. Part II. pp. 184, with 1 plate. 9s. 

CONTENTS. Etymology of the Turkish Numerals. By S. W. Koelle, Ph.D., late Missionary 
of the Church Missionary Soc., Constantinople. Grammatical Note and Vocabulary of the 
Kor-ku, a Kolarian Tribe in Central India. (Communicated by R. N. Cust.)-The Pariah Caste 
in Travancore. By S. Mateer. Some Bihar! Folk-Songs. By G. A. Griereon, B.C.S., Offl. 
Magistrate, Patna. Some further Gleanings from the Si-yu-ki. By the Rev. S. Beal. On the 
Sites of Brahmanabad and Mansurah in Sindh ; with notices of others of less note in their 
Vicinity. By Major-Gen. M. R. Haig. Antar and the Slave Daji. A Bedoueen Legend. By 
St. C. Baddeley. The Languages of the Early Inhabitants of Mesopotamia. By G. Pinches. 

Vol. XVI. Part III. pp. 74.-clx. 10. 6d. 

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Chinese as a Book of Divination and Philosophy By Rev. Dr. Edkins. On the Arrangement of 
the Hymns of the Rig-veda. By F. Pincott. Proceedings of the Sixty-first Anniversary Meeting 
of the Society, May 19, 1884. 

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CONTENTS. S'uka-sandesah. A Sanskrit Poem, by Lakshmi-dasa. With Preface and Notes in 
English by H. H. Rama Varma, the Maharaja of Travancore, G. C.S.I. The Chinese Book of the 



Odes, for English Readers. By C. F. R. Allen. Note sur les Mots Sanscrits composes avec 

Par J. van den Gheyn, S.J. Some Remarks on the Life and Labours of Csoma de Koros, 
delivered on the occasion when his Tibetan Books and MSS. were exhibited before the R.A.S., 
June 16, 1884. By Surgeon-Major T. Duka, M.D , late of the Bengal Army. Arab Metrology. 
V. Ez-Zahrawy. Translated and Annotated by M. H. Sauvaire, de 1'Academie de Marseille. 

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of Crime in Ceylon. By the Hon. J. Stark. Account of some Ancient Coins. By S. C. Chitty, 
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State of Crime in Ceylon. By the Hon Mr. J. Stark. The Language and Literature of the 
Singalese. By the Rev. S. Hardy. The Education Establishment of the Dutch in Ceylon. By 
the Rev. J. D. Palm. An Account of the Dutch Church in Ceylon. By the Rev. J. D. Palm. 
Notes on some Experiments in Electro-Agriculture. By J. Capper, Esq. Singalo Wada, trans- 
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Gogerly. On the Manufacture of Salt in the Chilaw and Putlam Districts. By A. 0. Brodie. 
A Royal Grant engraved on a Copper Plate. Translated, with Notes. By the Rev. D. J. 
Gogerly. On some of the Coins, Ancient and Modern, of Ceylon. By the Hon. Mr. J. St:irk. 
Notes on the Climate and Salubrity of Putlam. By A. O. Brodie. The Revenue and Expendi- 
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continued). Ceylon Ornithology. By E F. Kelaart. Some Account of the Rodiyas, with a 
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CONTENTS: On Demonology and Witchcraft in Ceylon. By Dandris de Silva Gooneratne 
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Well. On the Air Breathing Fish of Ceylon. By Barcroft Boake, B.A. (Vice President 
Asiatic Society, Ceylon). On the Origin of the Sinhalese Language. By J. D'Alwis, Assistant 
Secretary. A Few Remarks on the Poisonous Properties of the Calotropis Gigantea, etc. By 
W. C. Ondaatjie, Esq., Colonial Assistant Surgeon. On the Crocodiles of Ceylon. By Barcrott 
Boake, Vice- President, Asiatic Society, Ceylon. Native Medicinal Oils. 



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1867-70. Part I. 8vo. pp. 150. Price 10*. 

CONTENTS: On the Origin of the Sinhalese Language. By James De Alwis. A Lecture on 
Buddhism. By the Rev. D. J. Gogerly. Description of two Birds new to the recorded Fauna 
of Ceylon. By H. Nevil. Description of a New Genus and Five New Species of Marine Uni- 
valves from the Southern Province, Ceylon. By G. Nevill. A Brief Notice of Robert Knox and 
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Maples, M.A. ; 7. On the Distribution of English Place Names, by Walter R. 
Browne, M.A. ; 8. Dare, "To Give"; and f-_Dm? "To Put," by Prof. 
Postgate, M.A. ; 9. On som Differences between the Speech ov Edinboro' and 
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Grey, HANDBOOK OF AFEICAN, AUSTEALIAN, AND POLYNESIAN PHI- 
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Schleicher. COMPENDIUM OF THE COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE INDO- 
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Whitney. LANGUAGE AND ITS STUDY, with especial reference to the 
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Whitney. LANGUAGE AND THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE : Twelve Lectures 
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44 Linguistic Publications of Trubntr fy Co. 

GRAMMARS, DICTIONARIES, TEXTS, 
AND TRANSLATIONS. 



AFBICAN LANGUAGES. 

Bleek. A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF SOUTH AFRICAN LANGUAGES. By 
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Bleek, REYNARD THE Pox IN SOUTH AFRICA; or, Hottentot Fables. 
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Callaway. IZINGANEZWANE, NENSUMANSUMANE, NEZINDABA, ZABANTU 
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with a Translation into English, and Notes. By the Rev. HENRY CALLAWAY, 
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Callaway. THE KELIGIOUS SYSTEM OF THE AMAZULU. 
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Christaller. A DICTIONARY, ENGLISH, TSHI, (ASANTE), AKRA; Tshi 
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Fant ; Akra (Accra), connected with Adangme ; Gold Coast, West Africa. 
Enyiresi, Twi ne Nkran I Enlisi, Otsui ke Ga 

nsem - asekyere - nhoma. wiemoi - asisitsomo- wolo. 

By the Rev. J. G. CHRISTALLER, Rev. C. W. LOCHEB, Rev. J. ZIMMERMANN. 
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Christaller. A GRAMMAR OF THE ASANTE AND FANTE LANGUAGE, called 
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Christaller, DICTIONARY OF THE ASANTE AND FANTE LANGUAGE, called 
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Oust. SKETCH OF THE MODERN LANGUAGES OF AFRICA. See " Triibner's 
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Missionary to the American Board, C.F.M. 8vo. pp. 208, cloth. Pietermaritz- 
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Dohne. A ZULU-KAFIR DICTIONARY, etymologically explained, with 
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. HANDBOOK OF AFRICAN, AUSTRALIAN, AND POLYNESIAN PHI- 
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Howse. A GRAMMAR OF THE CREE LANGUAGE. With which is com- 
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Matthews. ETHNOLOGY AND PHILOLOGY OP THE HID ATS A INDIANS. 
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Ahlwardt. THE DIVANS OP THE Six ANCIENT ARABIC POETS, Ennabiga, 
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Jami, Mulla. SALAMAN II ABSAL. An Allegorical Romance; being 
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Morley, A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGTTE of the HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS 
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Muhammed. THE LIFE OF MTJHAMMED. Based on Muhammed Ibn 
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Newman. A HANDBOOK OF MODERN ARABIC, consisting of a Practical 
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Newman. A DICTIONARY OF MODERN ARABIC 1. Anglo- Arabic 
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Palmer. THE SONG OF THE EEED; and other Pieces. By E. H. 

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Schemeil. EL MUBTAKER; or, First Born. (In Arabic, printed at 
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Wherry. Commentary on the Quran. See Triibner's Oriental Series, 
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ASSAMESE. 

Bronson. A DICTIONARY IN ASSAMESE AND ENGLISH. Compiled by 
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ASSYRIAN" (CUNEIFORM, ACCAD, BABYLONIAN). 

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Clarke. RESEARCHES IN PRE-HISTORIC AND PROTO-HISTORIC COMPARA- 
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Cooper. An Archaic Dictionary, Biographical, Historical and Mytho- 
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Lenormant (F.) CHALDEAN MAGIC; its Origin and Development. 
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Luzzatto. GRAMMAR OF THE BIBLICAL CHALDAIC LANGUAGE AND THE 
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Rawlinson. NOTES ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF BABYLONIA. By 
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Rawlinson, A COMMENTARY ON THE CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS OP 
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Rawlinson. OUTLINES OF ASSYRIAN HISTORY, from the Inscriptions of 
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Sayce. AN ASSYRIAN GRAMMAR FOR COMPARATIVE PURPOSES. By 
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Sayce. AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR and Reading Book of the Assyrian 
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Sayce. LECTURES upon the Assyrian Language and Syllabary. 
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4 



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Smith. THE ASSYBIAN EPONYM CANON ; containing Translations of the 
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AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES. 

Grey. HANDBOOK OF AFEICAN, ATJSTEALIAN, AND POLYNESIAN PHI- 
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Ridley. KAMILABOI, AND OTHEE AUSTEALIAN LANGUAGES. By the 
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BASQUE, 

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Browne. A BANG!LI PEIMEE, in Roman Character. By J. F. BEOWNE, 

B.C.S. Crown 8vo. pp. 32, cloth. 1881. 2s, 
Charitabali (The) ; OE, INSTEUCTIVE BIOGBAPHY BY ISVABACHANDEA 

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Mitter. BENGALI AND ENGLISH DICTIONAEY for the Use of Schools. 

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Bellew. FEOM THE INDUS TO THE TIGEIS. A Narrative ; together with 
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See p. 19. 



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Balfour. THE DIVINE CLASSIC OF NAN-HUA. Being the Works of 

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Beal. THE DHAMMAPADA. See "Triibner's Oriental Series," page 3. 
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Bretschneider. See page 21. 

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Chalmers. THE ORIGIN OF THE CHINESE ; an Attempt to Trace the 
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Chalmers. THE STRUCTURE OF CHINESE CHARACTERS, UNDER 300 
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Dennys. THE FOLK-LORE OP CHINA, and its Affinities with that of 
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Douglas. CHINESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF THE VERNACULAR OR SPOKEN 
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Douglas. THE LIFE OF JENGHIZ KHAN. Translated from the Chinese, 
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Edkins. A GRAMMAR OF COLLOQUIAL CHINESE, as exhibited in the 
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Edkins. A VOCABULARY OF THE SHANGHAI DIALECT. By J. EDKINS. 
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Edkins. RELIGION IN CHINA. A Brief Account of the Three Religions 
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Edkins. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 
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PRASADA MISRA, Second Master, Queen's College, Benares. 8vo. pp. xv. and 
1330, cloth. Benares, 1865. 2 2s. 

Palmer. HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. See page 48. 



t4 Linguistic Publications of Trubner & Co., 

HUNGARIAN. 

Singer. SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR or THE HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE. By 
I. SINGER, of Buda-Pesth. Crown 8vo. cloth, pp. vi. and 88. 1884. 4*. Gd. 



ICELANDIC. 

Anderson. NORSE MYTHOLOGY, or the Religion of our Forefathers. 
Containing all the Myths of the Eddas carefully systematized and interpreted, 
with an Introduction, Vocabulary and Index. By R. B. ANDERSON, Prof, of 
Scandinavian Languages in the University of Wisconsin. Crown 8vo. cloth. 
Chicago, 1879. 12s. 6d. 

Anderson and Bjarnason. VIKING TALES OF THE NORTH. The Sagas 
of Thorstein, Viking's Son, and Fridthjof the Bold. Translated from the 
Icelandic by R. B. Anderson, M.A., and J. Bjarnason. Also, Tegner's Frid- 
thjof 's Saga. Translated into English by G. Stephens. Crown 8vo. cloth, pp. 
xviii. and 370. Chicago, 1877. 10s. 

Cleasby, AN ICELANDIC- ENGLISH DICTIONARY. Based on the MS. 
Collections of the late Richard Cleasby. Enlarged arid completed by G. 
ViGFtjssoN. "With an Introduction, and Life of Richard Cleasby, by G. WEBBB 
DASENT, D.C.L. 4to. 3 Is. 

Cleasby. APPENDIX TO AN ICELANDIC -ENGLISH DICTIONARY. See 

Skeat. 

Edda Saemundar Hinns Froda The Edda of Saemund the Learned. 

From the Old Norse or Icelandic. By BENJAMIN THORPE. Part I. with a Mytho- 
logical Index. 12mo. pp. 152, cloth, 3s. 6d. Part II. with Index of Persons and 
Places. 12mo. pp. viii. and 172, cloth. 1866. 4s. : or in ] Vol. complete, 7s. 6d. 

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55. SK!RNER TIDINDI. Hins Islenzka Bokmentafelags, 1878. 8vo. 
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javik, 1878. Price 7s. 6d. 

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6s. 

Skeat. A LIST OF ENGLISH WORDS, the Etymology of which is illus- 
trated by Comparison with Icelandic. Prepared in the form of an Appendix to 
Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icelandic-English Dictionary. By the Rev. WALTER 
W. SKEAT, M. A., English Lecturer and late Fellow of Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge; and M.A. of Exeter College, Oxford; one of the Vice- Presidents of 
the Cambridge Philological Society ; and Member of the Council of the Philo- 
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JAPANESE. 

Aston. A GRAMMAR OE THE JAPANESE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. By "W. G. 
ASTON, M.A., Assistant Japanese Secretary, H.B.M.'s Legation, Yedo, Japan. 
Second edition, Enlarged and Improved. Royal 8vo. pp. 306. 28s. 

Aston. A SHORT GRAMMAR OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE. By 
W. G. ASTON, M.A., H. B. M.'s Legation, Yedo, Japan. Third edition. 
12mo. cloth, pp. 96. 12s. 

Black. YOUNG JAPAN, YOKOHAMA AND YEDO. A Narrative of the 
Settlement and the City, from the Signing of the Treaties in 1858 to the close 
of the Year 1879. With a Glance at the Progress of Japan during a period of 
Twenty-one Years. By J. R. BLACK. Two Vols., demy 8vo. pp. xviii. and 418 ; 
xiv. and 522, cloth. 1881. 2 2s. 

Chamberlain. CLASSICAL POETRY OF THE JAPANESE. See "Triibner's 
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Hepburn. A JAPANESE AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY. With an English 
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Imperial 8vo. cloth, pp. xxxii., 632 and 201. 8 8s. 

Hepburn. JAPANESE-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH- JAPANESE DICTIONARY. By 
J. C. HEPBURN, M.D., LL.D. Abridged by the Author from his larger work. 
Small 4to. cloth, pp. vi. and 206. 1873. 18s. 

Hoffmann, J. J. A JAPANESE GRAMMAR. Second Edition. Large 

8vo. cloth, pp. viii. and 368, with two plates. 1 Is. 
Hoffmann. SHOPPING DIALOGUES, in Japanese, Dutch, and English. 

By Professor J. HOFFMANN. Oblong 8vo. pp. xiii. and 44, sewed. 5s. 

Hoffmann (Prof. Dr. J. J.) JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. Pub- 
lished by order of the Dutch Government. Elaborated and Edited by Dr. L. 
SERRURIER. Vols. 1 and 2. Royal 8vo. Brill, 1881. 12s. 6d. 

Imbrie. HANDBOOK OF ENGLISH-JAPANESE ETYMOLOGY. By W. 
IMBRIE. 8vo. pp. xxiv. and 208, cloth. Tokiyo, 1880. 1 Is. 

Metchnikoff. L'Empire Japonais, texte et dessins, par L. METCH- 
NIKOFF. 4to. pp. viii. and 694. Illustrated with maps, coloured plates and 
woodcuts, cloth. 1881. 1 10s. 

Pfoundes. Tu So MIMI BOKURO. See page 31. 

Satow. AN ENGLISH JAPANESE DICTIONARY OP THE SPOKEN LANGUAGE. 

By ERNEST MASON SATOW, Japanese Secretary to H.M. Legation at Yedo, and 

ISHIBASHI MASAKATA, of the Imperial Japanese Foreign Office. Second 

edition. Imp. 32mo., pp. xvi. and 416, cloth. 12s. 6d. 
Suyematz. GENJI MONOGATARL. The most celebrated of the Classical 

Japanese Romances. Translated by K. SUYEMATZ. Crown 8vo. pp. xvi. and 

254, cloth. 1882. 7s. 6d. 



KANARESE. 

Garrett. A MANUAL ENGLISH AND KANARESE DICTIONARY, containing 
about Twenty-three Thousand Words. By J. GARRETT. 8vo. pp. 908, cloth. 
Bangalore, 1872. 18s. 



KAYATHI. 

Grierson. A HANDBOOK TO THE KAYATHI CHARACTER. By G. A. 
GRIERSON, B.C.S., late Subdivisional Officer, Madhubani, Darbhanga. With 
Thirty Plates in Facsimile, with Translations. 4to. cloth, pp. vi. and 4. 
Calcutta, 1881. 18s. 



76 Linguistic Publications of Trubner & Co., 

KELTIC (CORNISH, GAELIC, WELSH, IRISH). 
Bottrell. TRADITIONS AND HEARTHSIDE STORIES OF WEST CORNWALL. 

By W. BOTTRELL (an old Celt). Demy 12mo. pp. vi. 292, cloth. 1 870. Scarce. 
Bottrell. TRADITIONS AND HEARTHSIDE STORIES OF WEST CORNWALL. 

By WILLIAM BOTTRELL. With Illustrations by Mr. JOSEPH BLIGHT. Second 

Series. Crown 8vo. cloth, pp. iv. and 300. 6s. 

English and Welsh Languages. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ENGLISH 
and Welsh Languages upon each other, exhibited in the Vocabularies of the two 
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Ethnographers, and others, of giving due attention to the Celtic Branch of the 
Indo-Germanic Family of Languages. Square 8vo. sewed, pp. 30. 1869. 1*. 

Mackay. THE GAELIC ETYMOLOGY OF THE LANGUAGES OF WESTERN 
Europe, and more especially of the English and Lowland Scotch, and of their 
Slang, Cant, and Colloquial Dialects. Bv CHARLES MACKAY, LL.D. Royal 
8vo. cloth, pp. xxxii. and 604. 42s. 

Rhys. LECTURES ON WELSH PHILOLOGY. By JOHN RHYS, M.A., 
Professor of Celtic at Oxford. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 
8vo. cloth, pp. viii. and 466. 15s. 

Spurrell. A GRAMMAR OF THE WELSH LANGUAGE. By WILLIAM 
SPURRELL. 3rd Edition. Fcap. cloth, pp. viii. -206. 1870. 3*. 

Spurrell. A WELSH DICTIONARY. English- Welsh and Welsh-English. 
With Preliminary Observations on the Elementary Sounds of the English 
Language, a copious Vocabulary of the Roots of English Words, a list of 
Scripture Proper Names and English Synonyms and Explanations. By 
WILLIAM SPURRELL. Third Edition. Fcap. cloth, pp. xxv. and 732. 8*. 6d. 

Stokes. GOIDELICA Old and Early-Middle Irish Glosses : Prose and 
Verse. Edited by WHITLEY STOKES. Second edition. Medium 8vo. cloth, 
pp. 192. 1872. 18s. 

Stokes. TOGAIL TROI ; The Destruction of Troy. Transcribed from 
the fascimile of the book of Leinster, and Translated with a Glossarial Index of 
the Rare words. By W. STOKES. 8vo. pp. xv.-188, boards. 1882. 18s. A 
limited edition only, privately printed, Calcutta. 

Stokes. THE BRETON GLOSSES AT ORLEANS. By W. STOKES. 8vo. 
pp. x.-78, boards. 1880. 10s. 6d. A limited edition only, privately printed, 
Calcutta. 

Stokes. THREE MIDDLE-IRISH HOMILIES on the Lives of Saints Patrick, 
Brigit, and Columba. By W. STOKES. 8vo. pp. xii. -140, boards. 1877. 
10s. 6d. A limited edition only privately printed, Calcutta. 

Stokes. BEUNANS MERIASEK. The Life of Saint Meriasek, Bishop 
and Confessor. A Cornish Drama. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by 
WHITLEY STOKES. Medium 8vo. cloth, pp. xvi.-280, and Facsimile. 1872. 15*. 

Wright's Celt, Eoman, and Saxon. 

KONKANI. 

Maffei. A KONKANI GRAMMAR. By ANGELUS E. X. MAFFEI. 8vo. 

)p. xiv. and 438, cloth. Mangalore, 1882. 18s. 

Fei. AN ENGLISH-KONKANI AND KONKANI-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. 

8vo. pp. xii. and 546; xii. and 158. Two parts in one. Half bound. 1 10s. 



LIBYAN. 

Newman. LIBYAN VOCABULARY. An Essay towards Reproducing the 
Ancient Numidian Language, out of Four Modern Languages. By F. W. 
Newman, Emeritus Professor of University College, London ; formerly Fellow 
of Balliol College; and now M.R.A.S. Crown 8vo. pp. vi. and 204, cloth. 
1882. 10s. 6d. 



57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 77 

MAHRATTA. 

JSsop's Fables. Originally Translated into Marathi by Sadashiva 

Kashinath Chhatre. Revised from the 1st ed. 8vo. cloth. Bombay, 1877. 5s. 6d. 
Ballantyne. A GRAMMAR OF THE MAHRATTA LANGUAGE. For the 

use of the East India College at Haileybury. By JAMES R. BALLANTYNE, of 

the Scottish Naval and Military Academy. 4to. cloth, pp. 56. 5s. 
Bellairs. A GRAMMAR OP THE MARATHI LANGUAGE. By H. S. ~K. 

BELLAIRS, M.A., and LAXMAN Y. ASHKEDKAR, B.A. 12mo. cloth, pp. 90. 5s. 
Molesworth. A DICTIONARY, MARATHI and ENGLISH. Compiled by 

J. T. MOLES WORTH, assisted by GEORGE and THOMAS CANDY. Second Edition, 

revised and enlarged. By J. T. MOLESWORTH. Royal 4to. pp. xxx and 922, 

boards. Bombay, 1857. 3 3*. 
Molesworth. A COMPENDIUM OF MOLESWORTH'S MARATHI AND ENGLISH 

DICTIONARY. By BABA PADMANJI. Second Edition. Revised and Enlarged. 

Demy 8vo. cloth, pp. xx. and 624. 21s. 
Navalkar. THE STUDENT'S MARATHI GRAMMAR. By G. E. NAVALEAR. 

New Edition. 8vo. cloth, pp. xvi. and 342. Bombay, 1879. 18s. 
Tukarama. A COMPLETE COLLECTION of the Poems of Tukarama 

(the Poet of the Maharashtra). In Marathi. Edited by VISHNU PARASHU- 

RAM SHASTKI PANDIT, under the supervision of Sankar Pandurang Pandit, M. A. 

"With a complete Index to the Poems and a Glossary of difficult "Words. To 

which is prefixed a Life of the Poet in English, by Janardan Sakharam Gadgil. 

2 vols. in large 8vo. cloth, pp. xxxii. and 742, and pp. 728, 18 and 72. Bombay 

1873. 1 11s. 6d. each vol. 



MALAGASY. 

Parker. A CONCISE GRAMMAR or THE MALAGASY LANGUAGE. By G. 

"W. PARKER. Crown 8vo. pp. 66, with an Appendix, cloth. 1883. 5s. 
Van der Tuuk, OUTLINES OP A GRAMMAR OF THE MALAGASY LANGUAGE 

By H. N. VAN DER TUUK. 8vo., pp. 28, sewed. Is. 



MALAY. 

Dennys. A HANDBOOK OF MALAY COLLOQUIAL, as spoken in Singapore, 
Being a Series of Introductory Lessons for Domestic and Business Purposes. 
By N. B. DENNYS, Ph.D., F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S., etc., Author of ''The 
Folklore of China," " Handbook of Cantonese," etc., etc. 8vo. cloth, pp. 
204. 1878. 1 Is. 

Maxwell. A MANUAL OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. With an Intro- 
ductory Sketch of the Sanskrit Element in Malay. By W. E. MAXWELL, 
Assistant Resident, Perak, Malay Peninsula. Crown 8vo. cloth, pp. viii- 
184. 1882. 7*. 6rf. 

Swettenham. VOCABULARY OF THE ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES. 
With Notes. By F. A. SWETTENHAM. 2 Vols. Vol. I. English-Malay Vo- 
cabulary and Dialogues. Vol. II. Malay-English Vocabulary. Small 8vo. 
boards. Singapore, 1881. 1. 

Van der Tuuk, SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE MALAY MANUSCRIPTS BELONGING 
TO THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. By H. N. VANDERTUUK. 8vo.,pp.52. 2s. 6d. 



MALAYALIM. 

Gundert. A MALAYALAM AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY. By Kev. H. 
GUNDERT, D. Ph. Royal 8vo. pp. viii. and 1116. .2 10s. 



78 Linguistic Publications of Trubner & Co. t 

MAORI. 

Grey. MAOEI MEMENTOS: being a Series of Addresses presented by 
the Native People to His Excellency Sir George Grey, K.C.B., F.R.S. With 
Introductory Remarks and Explanatory Notes ; to which is added a small Collec- 
tion of Laments, etc. By CH. OLIVER B. DAVIS. 8vo. pp. iv. and 228, cloth. 12s. 

Williams.* FIEST LESSONS IN THE MAOEI LANGUAGE. With a Short 
Vocabulary. By W. L. WILLIAMS, B.A. Fcap. 8vo. pp. 98, cloth. 6*. 



PALI. 

D'Alwis. A DESCEIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Sanskrit, Pali, and Sinhalese 
Literary Works of Ceylon. By JAMES D'ALWIS, M.R.A.S., etc., Vol. I. (all 
published), pp. xxxii. and 244. 1870. 8s. 6d. 

Beat. DHAMMAPADA. See " Triibner's Oriental Series," page 3. 

Bigandet. GAUDAMA. See " Triibner's Oriental Series," page 4. 

Buddhist Birth Stories. See " Triibner's Oriental Series," page 4. 

Biihler. TEEEE NEW EDICTS OF ASOKA. By G. BUHLEE. 16mo. 
sewed, with Two Facsimiles. 2*. 6d. 

Childers. A PALI-ENGLISH DICTION AET, with Sanskrit Equivalents, 
and with numerous Quotations, Extracts, and References. Compiled by the late 
Prof. R. C. CHILDERS, late of the Ceylon Civil Service. Imperial 8vo. Double 
Columns. Complete in 1 Vol., pp. xxii. and 622, cloth. 1875. 3 3*. 
The first Pali Dictionary ever published. 

Childers. THE MAHAPAEINIBBANASUTTA OF THE SUTTA-PPTAKA. The 
Pali Text. Edited by the late Professor R. C. CHILDERS. 8vo. cloth, pp. 
72. 5*. 

Childers. ON SANDHI IN PALI. By the late Prof. R. C. CHILDEES. 
8vo. sewed, pp. 22. Is. 

Coomara Swamy. SUTTA NIPATA ; or, the Dialogues and Discourses 
of Gotaraa Buddha. Translated from the Pali, with Introduction and Notes. 
By Sir M. COOMARA SWAMY. Cr. 8vo. cloth, pp. xxxvi. and 160. 1874. 6*. 

Coomara Swamy. THE DATHAVANSA; or, the History of the Tooth- 
Relic of Gotama Buddha. English Translation only. "With Notes. Demy 
8vo. cloth, pp. 100. 1874. 6s. 

Coomara Swamy. THE DATHAVANSA ; or, the History of the Tooth- 
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174. 1874. 10s. 6d. 

Davids. See BUDDHIST BLETH STOELES, " Trubner' s Oriental Series," 
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CHAPTER OF THE MAHAVAMSA. By T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 8vo. pp. 30. Is. 6d. 

Dickson. THE PATIMOKKHA, being the Buddhist Office of the Con- 
fession of Priests. The Pali Text, with a Translation, and Notes, by J. F. 
DICKSON. 8vo. sd., pp. 69. 2*. 

Fausboll. JATAKA. See under JATAKA. 

Fausboll. THE DASAEATHA-JATAKA, being the Buddhist Story of King 
Rama. The original Pali Text, with a Translation and Notes by V. FAUSBOLL. 
8vo. sewed, pp. iv. and 48. 2s. 6c?. 

Fausboll. FIVE JATAKAS, containing a Fairy Tale, a Comical Story, 
and Three Fables. In the original Pali Text, accompanied with a Translation 
and Notes. By V. FAUSBOLL. 8vo. sewed, pp. viii. and 72. 6s. 

Fausboll. TEN JATAKAS, The Original Pali Text, with a Translation 
and Notes. By V. FAUSBOLL. 8vo. sewed, pp. xiii. and 128. 7*. 6d* 



57 and 59, Ludgate Hilly London, E.C. 79 

Fryer. YUTTODAYA. (Exposition of Metre.) By SANGHARAKKHITA 
THERA. A Pali Text, Edited, with Translation and Notes, by Major G. E. 
FRYER. 8vo. pp. 44. 2*. 6d. 

Haas. CATALOGUE OF SANSKRIT AND PALI BOOKS IN THE LIBRARY OP 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM. By Dr. ERNST HAAS. Printed by Permission of the 
Trustees of the British Museum. 4to. cloth, pp. 200. 1 1*. 
Jataka (The) ; together with its Commentary. Being Tales of the 
Anterior Birth of Gotama Buddha. For the first time Edited in the! original 
Pali by V. FAUSBOLL. Demy 8vo. cloth. Vol. I. pp. 512. 1877. 28*. 
Vol. II., pp. 452. 1879. 28s. Vol. III. pp. viii.-544. 1883. 28s. For 
Translation see under "Buddhist Birth Stories," page 4. 

The "Jataka "is a collection of legends in Pali, relating the history of Buddha's trans- 
migration before he was born as Gotama. The great antiquity of this work is authenticated 
by its forming part of the sacred canon of the Southern Buddhists, which was finally settled at 
the last Council in 246 B.C. The collection has long been known as a storehouse of ancient 
fables, and as the most original attainable source to which almost the whole of this kind, of 
literature, from the Panchatantra and Pilpay's fables down to the nursery stories of the present 
day, is traceable ; and it has been considered desirable, in the interest of Buddhistic studies as 
well as for more general literary purposes, that an edition and translation of the complete 
work should be prepared. The present publication is intended to supply this want.Athenceum. 

Mahawansa (The) THE MAHAWANSA. From the Thirty- Seventh 
Chapter. Revised and edited, under orders of the Ceylon Government, by 
H. SUMANGALA, and DON ANDRIS DE SILVA BATUWANTUDAWA. Vol. I. Pali 
Text in Sinhalese character, pp. xxxii. and 436. Vol. II. Sinhalese Transla- 
tion, pp. lii. and 378 half -bound. Colombo, 1877. 2 2s. 

Mason. THE PALI TEXT or KACHCHAYANO'S GRAMMAR, WITH ENGLISH 
ANNOTATIONS. By FRANCIS MASON, D.D. I. The Text Aphorisms, 1 to 673. 
II. The English Annotations, including the various Readings of six independent 
Burmese Manuscripts, the Singalese Text on Verbs, and the Cambodian Text 
on Syntax. To which is added a Concordance of the Aphorisms. In Two 
Parts. 8vo. sewed, pp. 208, 75, and 28. Toongoo, 1871. \ 11*. 6d. 

Minayeff. GRAMMAIRE PALIE. Esquisse d'une Phonetique et d'une 
Morphologic de la Langue Palie. Traduite du Russe par St. Guyard. By 
J. MINAYEFF. 8vo. pp. 128. Paris, 1874. 8s. 

Miiller. SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR OF THE PALI LANGUAGE. By E. ~M ULLER, 
Crown 8vo. cloth, pp. xvi. and 144. 1884. 7*. 6d. 

Olcott. BUDDHIST CATECHISM. 

Senart. KACCAYANA ET LA LITTERATURE GRAMMATICALE DU PALI. 
Ire Partie. Grammaire Palie de Kaccayana, Sutras et Commentaire, publies 
avec une traduction et des notes par E. SENART. 8vo. pp. 338. Paris, 1871. 

125. 

PAZAND. 
Maino-i-Khard (The Book of the). The Pazand and Sanskrit 

Texts (in Roman characters) as arranged by Neriosengh Dhaval, in the 
fifteenth century. With an English translation, a Glossary of the Pazand 
texts, containing the Sanskrit, Rosian, and Pahlavi equivalents, a sketch of 
Pazand Grammar, and an Introduction. By E. W. WEST. 8vo. sewed, pp, 
484. 1871. 16. 



PEGUAN. 

Haswell. GRAMMATICAL NOTES AND VOCABULARY OF THE PEGUAN 
LANGUAGE. To which are added a few pages of Phrases, etc. By Rev. J. M. 
HASWELL. 8vo. pp. xvi. and 160. 15$. 



80 Linguistic Publications of Trubner fy Co. 



PEHLEWL 

Dinkard (The). The Original Pehlwi Text, the same transliterated 
in Zend Characters. Translations of the Text in the Gujrati and English 
Languages ; a Commentary and Glossary of Select Terms. By PESHOTUN 
DUSTOOR BEHRAMJEE SUNJANA. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. cloth. 2 2s. 

Hang. AN OLD PAHLAVI-PAZAND GLOSSARY. Ed., with Alphabetical 
Index, by DESTUR HOSHANGJI JAMASPJI ASA, High Priest of the Parsis in 
Malwa. Rev. and Enl., with Intro. Essay on the Pahlavi Language, by M. HAUG, 
Ph.D. Pub. by order of Gov. of Bombay. 8vo. pp. xvi. 152,268,sd. 1870. 28s. 

Hang. A LECTURE ON AN ORIGINAL SPEECH or ZOROASTER (Yasna 45), 
with remarks on his age. By MARTIN HAUG, Ph.D. 8vo. pp. 28, sewed. 
Bombay, 1865. 2s. 

Hang. THE PARSIS. See " Trubner' s Oriental Series," page 3. 

Hang. AN OLD ZAND-PAHLAVI GLOSSARY. Edited in the Original 
Characters, with a Transliteration in Roman Letters, an English Translation, 
and an Alphabetical Index. By DESTUR HOSHENGJI JAMASPJI, High-priest of 
the Parsis in Malwa, India. Rev. with Notes and Intro, by MARTIN HAUG, 
Ph.D. Publ. by order of Gov. of Bombay. 8vo. sewed, pp. Ivi. and 132. 15* 

Haug. THE BOOK or ARDA YIRAF. The Pahlavi text prepared by 
Destur Hoshangji Jamaspji Asa. Revised and collated with further MSS., with 
an English translation and Introduction, and an Appendix containing the Texts 
and Translations of the Gosht-i Fryano and Hadokht Nask. By MARTIN 
HAUG, Ph.D., Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at the Uni- 
versity of Munich. Assisted by E. W. WEST, Ph.D. Published by order of 
the Bombay Government. 8vo. sewed, pp. Ixxx., v., and 316. l 5s. 

Minocheherji. PAHLAVI, GTTJARATL AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY. By 
JAMASPJI DASTUK MINOCHERJI, JAM ASP ASANA. 8vo. Vol. I. pp. clxii. 
and 1 to 168, and Vol. II. pp. xxxii. and pp. 169 to 440. 1877 and 1879. 
Cloth. 14s. each. (To be completed in 5 vols.) 

Sunjana. A GRAMMAR or THE PAHLVI LANGUAGE, with Quotations 

and Examples from Original Works and a Glossary of Words bearing affinity 
with the Semitic Languages. By PESHOTUN DUSTOOR BEHRAMJEE SUNJANA, 
Principal of Sir Jamsetjee Jejeeboy Zurthosi Madressa. 8vo.cl., pp. 18-457. 
25*. 

Thomas. EARLY SASSANIAN INSCRIPTIONS, SEALS AND COINS, illustrating 
the Early History of the Sassanian Dynasty, containing Proclamations of Arde- 
shir Babek, Sapor I., and his Successors. With a Critical Examination and 
Explanation of the Celebrated Inscription in the Hajiabad Cave, demonstrating 
that Sapor, the Conqueror of Valerian, was a Professing Christian. By EDWARD 
THOMAS, F.R.S. Illustrated. 8vo. cloth, pp. 148. Is. 6d. 

Thomas. COMMENTS ON RECENT PEHLVI DECIPHERMENTS. "With an 
Incidental Sketch of the Derivation of Aryan Alphabets, and Contributions to 
the Early History and Geography of Tabaristan. Illustrated by Coins. By 
EDWARD THOMAS, F.R.S. 8vo. pp. 56, and 2 plates, cloth, sewed. 3s. 6d. 

West. GLOSSARY AND INDEX OF THE PAHLAVT TEXTS OF THE BOOK OF 

Arda Viraf, The Tale of Gosht-I Fryano, The Hadokht Nask, and to some 
extracts from the Din-Kard and Nirangistan ; prepared from Destur Hoshangji 
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CONTENTS. 



Vol. I. Preface Treatise on the Dramatic System of the Hindus Dramas translated from the 
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Lazarus. A TAMIL GRAMMAR, Designed for use in Colleges and Schools. 
By J. LAZARUS. 12mo. cloth, pp. viii. and 230. London, 1879. 5s. Qd. 



TELUGU. 

Arden. A PROGRESSIVE GRAMMAR OF THE TELUGU LANGUAGE, with 
Copious Examples and Exercises. In Three Parts. Part I. Introduction. 
On the Alphabet and Orthography. Outline Grammar, and Model Sentences. 
Part II. A Complete Grammar of the Colloquial Dialect. Part III. On the 
Grammatical Dialect used in Books. By A. H. ARDEN, M.A.., Missionary of 
the C. M. S. Masulipatam. 8vo. sewed, pp. xiv. and 380. 14s. 

Arden. A COMPANION Telugu Reader to Arden' s Progressive Telugu 
Grammar. 8vo. cloth, pp. 130. Madras, 1879. Is. 6d. 

Carr. Wooer's JL"^ !^- A COLLECTION OP TELUGU PROVERBS, 

Translated, Illustrated, and Explained ; together with some Sanscrit Proverbs 
printed in the Devanagari and Telugu Characters. By Captain M. W. CARR, 
Madras Staff Corps. One Vol. and Supplemnt, royal 8vo. pp. 488 and 148. 31s. Qd 



TIBETAN. 

Csoma de Koro's. A DICTIONARY Tibetan and English (only). By 
A. CSOMA DE KOROS. 4to. cloth, pp. xxii. and 352. Calcutta, 1834. 2 2*. 

Csoma de Koros. A GRAMMAR of the Tibetan Language. By A. 
CSOMA DE KOROS. 4to. sewed, pp. xii. and 204, and 40. 1834. 25s. 

Jaschke. A TIBETAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY. With special reference to 
the prevailing dialects ; to which is added an English-Tibetan Vocabulary. By 
H. A. JASCHKE, late Moravian Missionary at Kijelang, British Lahoul. Com- 
piled and published under the orders of the Secretary of State for India in 
Council. Royal 8vo. pp. xxii. -672, cloth. 30s. 

Jaschke. TIBETAN GRAMMAR. By H. A. JASCHKE. Crown 8vo. pp. 
viii. and 104, cloth. 1883. 5s. 

Lewin. A MANUAL of Tibetan, being a Guide to the Colloquial Speech 
of Tibet, in a Series of Progressive Exercises, prepared with the assistance of 
Yapa Ugyen Gyatsho, by Major THOMAS HERBERT LEWIN. Oblong 4to. cloth, 
pp. xi. and 176. 1879. 1 Is. 

Schiefner. Tibetan Tales. See " Triibner's Oriental Series," page 5 



TURKI. 

Shaw. A SKETCH OP THE TTJRKI LANGUAGE. As Spoken in Eastern 
Turkistan (Kashghar and Yarkand). By ROBERT BARKLAY SHAW, F.U.G.S., 
Political Agent. In Two Parts. With Lists of Names of Birds and Plants 
by J. SCULLY, Surgeon, H.M. Bengal Army. 8vo. sewed, Part I., pp. 130. 
1875. 7s. Qd. 



96 Linguistic Publications of Trubner Sf Co. 

TURKISH. 

Arnold. A SIMPLE TRANSLITERAL GRAMMAR OF THE TURKISH LANGUAGE. 
Compiled from various sources. With Dialogues and Vocabulary. By EDWIN 
ARNOLD, M.A., C.S.I., F.R.G.S. Pott 8vo. cloth, pp. 80. 1877- 2. 6d. 

Gibb. OTTOMAN POEMS. Translated into English Verse in their 
Original Forms, with Introduction, Biographical Notices, and Notes. Fcap. 4to. 
pp. Ivi. and 272. With a plate and 4 portraits. Cloth. By E. J. W. GIBB. 

1882. 1 1*. 

Gibb. THE STORY OF JswaD, a Romance, by Ali Aziz Efendi, the 
Cretan. Translated from the Turkish, by E. J. W. GIBB. 8vo. pp. xii. and 
238, cloth. 1884. 7s. 

Hopkins. ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE TURKISH LANGUAGE. With 
a few Easy Exercises. By F. L. HOPKINS. M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge. Cr. 8vo. cloth, pp. 48. 1877. 3s. 6rf. 

Redhouse. On the History, System, and Varieties of Turkish Poetry, 
Illustrated by Selections in the Original, and in English Paraphrase. With a 
notice of the Islamic Doctrine of the Immortality of Woman's Soul in the 
Future State. By J. W. REDHOUSE, M.R.A.S. Demy 8vo. pp 64. 1879. 
(Reprinted from the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature) sewed, 
Is. 6d. ; cloth, 2*. 6d. 

Redhouse. THE TURKISH CAMPAIGNER'S VADE-MECUM OP OTTOMAN 
CoLLoauiAL LANGUAGE ; containing a concise Ottoman Grammar ; a carefully 
selected Vocabulary, alphabetically arranged, in two parts, English and Turkish, 
and Turkish and English; also a few Familiar Dialogues; the whole in English 
characters. By J. W. REDHOUSE, F.H.A.S. Third Edition. Oblong 32mo 
pp. viii.-372, limp cloth. 1882. 6s. 

Eedhouse. A SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR or THE OTTOMAN-TURKISH 
LANGUAGE. By J. W. REDHOUSE, M.R.A.S. Crown 8vo. pp. xii.-204, 
cloth. 1884. 10s. 6d. 



UMBRIAK 

Newman. THE TEXT or THE IGUTINE INSCRIPTIONS, with interlinear 
Latin Translation and Notes. By FRANCIS W. NEWMAN, late Professor of 
Latin at University College, London. 8vo. pp. xvi. and 54, sewed. 1868. 2s. 



URIYA. 

Browne. AN URIYA PRIMER IN ROMAN CHARACTER. By J. F. BROWNE, 
B.C.S. Crown 8vo. pp. 32, cloth. 1882. 2s. Qd. 

Maltby. A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK OF THE URIYA OR ODIYA LANGUAGE. 
By THOMAS J. MALTBY, Madras C.S. 8vo. pp. xiii. and 201. 1874. 10*. 6d. 



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