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Full text of "A compendium of the flora of the northern and middle states, containing generic and specific descriptions of all the plants, exclusive of the cryptogamia, hitherto found in the United States, north of the Potomac"

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^ Xortyern an* JWtitrle SsMtn. 












I. A .T. Harper, Pi 




bK IT REMEMBERED, that on the 16th day of September, in 
the fifty-first year of the Independence of the United States of Amer- 
ica, Stacy H. Collins, of the said District, hath deposited in this 
office the title of a hook, the right whereof he claims, as Proprietor, 
in the words following, to wit : 

"A Compendium of the Flora of the Northern and Middle States. 
Containing Generic and Specific Descriptions of all the Plants, exclu- 
sive of the Cryptogamia, hitherto found in the United States, north of 
the Potomac. By John Torrey, M.D. Professor of Chemistry in the 
West-Point Military Academy, President of the Lyceum of Natural 
History of New- York, Member of the Phj siographical Society of Lund, 
SVeden, of the vVerncrian Society of Edinburgh, &c." 

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United Stales, entitled 
i' An Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing tiie copies 
of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors r.nd proprietors of such 
copies, during the times therein mentioned." And also to an Act, 
entitled, "An Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled an Act for 
the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, 
t'h&rts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, 
during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof 
10 the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other 

Ghrh of the Southern District of Ntto-Yotk. 












J o 3 


This little Work, which was announced about 
two years since, in the Preface to the Author's Flora 
of the Northern and Middle States, is at length of- 
fered to the Public. His appointment to the Chair 
of Chemistry, in the Military Academy of West- 
Point, shortly after the first volume of that work 
was published, unavoidably interrupted his botanic 
cal pursuits ; but he has now resumed them with 
unabated zeal. He trusts that with his present 
means of research and accumulated materials, the 
remainder of the work will at least equal that 
which has already been published, and received 
with so much indulgence by our botanists. Con- 
siderable progress has been made in preparing it 
for the press, and it will be completed with all the 
speed that is consistent with its faithful execution. 

This Compendium, which is after the model ol 
Smith's Compendium Florce Britannicce, it is hoped 
will be found useful to students of Botany in the 
Northern and Mfddle States, and also to those who 
have made greater progress in the science, as its 
small size will enable them to use it without incon- 
venience in their herborizations. It contains sy- 
noptical descriptions of all the plants described in 


the author's larger work, together with the habitat,, 
or place of growth of each plant, its time of 
flowering, duration, and such other of the more 
important properties as are not contained in the 
specific character. An Index of the principal 
synonyms with the names to which they corres- 
pond in this work, will be found at the end of the 

West-Point, Sept. 1st, 1826. 


T.UE Abbreviations will probably be understood by most of those 
who will use this work. For the benefit of younger students, how- 
ever, those which might not be readily known are here explained. 

alt. alternate. 





nilth. anther. 





$er. berry. 


. numerous. 



cal. calyx. 





cor. corolla. 

P d. 




f\. flower. 




shrub or tree 

fr. fruit. 





ft. foot. 





T '. rrerri. 




1. SALICORNIA. Cal. turbinate, entire, somewhai 

ventricose, succulent. Cor. 0. Stam. 1-2. Style bi- 
fid. Seed 1, covered by the inflated calyx. 

2. HIPPURIS. Cal. entire, very small. Cor. 0. Style 

received into a groove of the anther. Stig. simple. 
Seed 1. 


3. CALLITRICHE. Cal. inferior 2-leaved. Pet. 0. 

Cap. 2-celled, 4-seeded, compressed. 

4. BLITUM. Cal. 3-cleft. Cor. 0. Seed 1, covered by 

the calyx, which becomes a berry. 


I. SALICORNIA. Atriplices. Glasswort. 
S. herbacea : annual ; stem erect or branched ; joints 

compressed, notched at the summits ; spikes pedun- 
culate ; calyx truncate. 
HAB. Salt-marshes. Aug. — Sept. 0. 6 — 10 in. high, 

fleshy, leafless ; style very short. 
S. ambigua : perennial, procumbent, branching; 

joints crescent-shaped, small ; spikes opposite and 

alternate ; calyx truncate. 
HAB. Salt-marshes. Jul.-Aug. $ or lj- Procumbent 

and assurgent; anth. purplish-yellow. 

2. HIPPURIS. Haloragece. Mare's tail. 

H. vulgaris : leaves verticillate in eights, linear-lan- 
ceolate, acute. 

HAB. Ponds and lakes. Aug. If.. Erect, simple, l- ty 
ft. ; flowers axillary, sessile, minute. 



.3. CALLITRICHE. Haloragece. Water-Chickweed. 

1. C. verna /3. intermedia: upper leaves spathulate- 

obovate, inferior ones lined, obtuse, and emarginate ; 
flowers polygamous; margin of the capsule obtuse. 
HAB. Floating in shallow waters. Apr. — Aug. 0. Up- 
permost leaves stellate, S-nerved ; flowers axillary; 
superior ones stamenif, middle ones perfect, lowest 
ones pistilif. 

2. C. autumnalis: leaves all linear, 1 -nerved, truncate, 

or emarginate ; capsule with an acute margin ; flow- 
ers all perfect. 
HAB. Floating. Aug. — Sept. ©. Somewhat branched: 
superior leaves a little broader, and 3-nerved. 
2. C. terrestris : procumbent, diffuse ; leaves oblong, 
uniform, rather obtuse ; capsule grooved on the 
HAB. On wet ground. Jun. — Aug. 0. Creeping, 
small ; leaves crowded ; flowers polygamous ; capsule 
very short, and broad. 

4. BLITUM. Atriplices. 
1. B. capitatum: procumbent; leaves triangular-ha- 
tate ; heads alternate, in a terminal, leafless spike. 
HAB. Fields and waste places. ©. Jun. Stem branched, 
1 ft. ; heads round, sessile ; flowers crowded, incon- 
spicuous ; calyx red when ripe. 
£. B. virgatum : leaves triangular-hastate ; heads scat- 
tered, lateral. 
HAB. In similar situations as No. 1.0. June. Heads 
all lateral ; calyx red when ripe. 
3. B. maritimum : calyx membranaceous ; clusters axil- 
lary, spiked, naked ; leaves lanceolate, attenuate at 
each extremity, incisely toothed. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug. 0. Erect, much branched . 
1 — 2 ft. ; leaves succulent ; teeth few ; calyx not be- 
coming red ; seed lenticular, vertical. 

y l/- j^iv^tT^^ * I 





* Flowers complete, inferior ; 1 pttalled. 

t Fruit a drupe or nut. 

,. LIGUSTRUM. Cal. 4-toothed. Cor. 4-cleft. Berry 
2-celled ; cells 2-seeded. 

6. CHIONANTHUS. Cal. 4-parted. Cor. deeply 4- 

parted ; segments long and linear. Drupe 1 -seeded. 
Nut striate. 

7. ORNUS. Cal. 4-parted. Cor. 4-parted; petals long 

and ligulate. Fil. 4. JVwMvinged. Fruit a capsule. 
::. VERONICA. Cal. 4-parted. Cor. rotate, 4-lobed, 

unequal ; the lower segment narrower. Caps. 2- 

celled, obcordate ; seeds few. 
■ >. LEPTANDRA . Cal. 5-parted ; segments acuminate. 

Cor. tubular-campanulate ; border 4-lobed, a little 

ringent ; the lower segment narrower. Stam. and 

at length the pist. much exserted. Caps, ovate. 

acuminate, opening at the summit. 

10. GRATIOLA. Cal. 5-parted, often with 2 bracts at 

the base. Cor. irregular, resupinate, 2-lipped ; the 
upper lip 2-lobed ; the lower equally 3-cleft. Stig. 
2-lipped. Caps. 2-celled, 2-valved. 

11. L1XDERNIA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. resupinate, 

tubular, 2-lipped ; upper lip short, reflexed, emar- 
ginate ; the lower lip trifid and unequal. Fil. 4 ; 
the two longer forked arid sterile. Caps. 2-celled. 
2-valved ; dissepiment parallel with the valves. 
■ IIEMIANTHUS. Cal. tubular, cleft on the under 
side : border 4-toothed ; upper lip of the cor. obso- 
lete ; lower3-parted; intermediate segmentligulate, 
much longer, closely incurved. Stam. 2 ; fil. bifid ; 

lateral fork antheriferous. Caps. 1 -celled, 2-valved. 


ATALPA. Cal. 2-parted. Cor. campanulate : 

tube ventricose ; border 4-lobed, unequal. Stam. 

2 fertile ; 2 — 3 sterile. Stig. bilamellate. Caps. 

long and cylindric, 2-valved ; dissepiment opposite 

to the valves, 
i I. JUSTICIA. Cal. 5-parted, often with 2 bracts attfce 


base. Cor. irregular, bilabiate ; upper lip emargi 
nate ; the lower 3-cleft. Anth. 1—2 on each fila- 
ment. Caps, attenuated, 2-celled, 2-valved ; dis- 
sepiment growing from the centre of each valve. 
15. UTRICULARIA. Cal. 2-leaved, equal. Cor. per- 
sonate or ringent ; upper lip erect ; lower lip spur- 
red at the base ; palate subcordate. Fil. incurved . 
bearing the anthers within the apex. Slig. 2-lipped, 
Caps. 1 -celled. 

t t t Seeds 4 j naked. Labiate. 

(6. LYCOPUS. Cal. tubular, 5-cleft, or 5-toothed. 
Cor. tubular, 4-cleft, nearly equal ; upper division 
broader and emarginate. Stam. distant. Seeds 4, 

17. CUNILA. Cal. cylindrical or tubular, 5-toothed. 

10-striate. Cor. ringent ; upper lip short, flat. 
Fertile stam. and style much exserted ; sterile stam 
very short. 

18. HEDEOMA. Cal. 2-lipped, gibbous at the base : 

upper lip 3-toothed ; teeth lanceolate ; lower lip of 
2 subulate teeth. Cor. ringent. Stam. 2 fertile, 
as long as the corolla ; 2 sterile, short. 
1.9. MONARDA. Cal. 5-toothed, tubular. Cor. rin- 
gent ; upper lip linear, involving the filaments : 
lower lip reflexed, 3-lobed. 

20. SALVIA. Cal. subcampanulate, bilabiate ; upper 

lip 2 — 3-toothed ; lower lip bifid. Cor. ringent. 
Fil. transversely affixed to a foot-stalk. 

21. COLLINSONIA. Cal. bilabiate; upper lip 3- 

toothed. Cor. unequal, somewhat campanula^, 
unequally 5-lobed ; lower lobe divided into many 
capillary segments. Seeds 4 ; three of them gene- 
rally abortive. 

* * Flowers superior. 

22. CIRCiEA. Cal. 2-leaved, superior. Cor. 2-petal 

led. Caps. 2-celled, not opening ; cells 2-seeded. 

* * * Flowers incomplete. 

23. LEMNA. Cal. 1 -leaved, entire. Cor. 0. Fruit 

an utricle. Seed 1, lying horizontally, and affixed 
by its lower side.. 


24.CRYPTA. Cal. 2-leaved, inferior. Cor. 2—3- 
petalled, closed. Style almost wanting. Stig. ob- 
tuse. Caps. 2 — 3-celled, 2 — 3-valved ; cells 4 — 5- 


5. LIGUSTRUM. Prim, or Privet. Jasmine*. 

L. vulgare ; leaves elliptical — lanceolate, smooth , 

racemes compound, crowded. 
J-IAB. Hedges and open woods. May. Tj. 6 ft. high; 

leaves opposite; flowers white, panicled ; berries 


♦J. CHIONANTHUS. Fringe-tree. Jasmine*. 

C. virginica: leaves terminal ; peduncles 3-flowered ; 

leaves acute. 

a., montana: leaves oval-lanceolate, coriaceous, 
smooth ; panicles dense ; drupe oval. 

j3. maritima: leaves obovate-lanceolate, membra- 
naceous, pubescent ; panicles very loose ; drupe 
HAB. a. On mountains ; /3. on the sea-coast. May — 

June. T? . 6 — 10 — 20 feet high ; leav. oppos. ; flowers 

i?i panicles. 

7. ORNUS. Flowering-ash. Jasmine*. 

0, americana : leaves broad-ovate, serrate ; the ter- 
minal one obcordate. 

JIAB. Shady woods. T?. Fl. as in Chionantiius : 
seeds small, winged. 

3. VERONICA. Speedwell. Rhinanthacea. 
V. officinalis : spikes lateral, peduncled ; leaves obo- 

vate, or roundish, serrate, hairy ; stem procum 

HAB. Dry woods and meadows. June — July. 1/. Stem 

diffuse; spikes erect, subradical ;fl. blue. 
V. serpyllifolia : raceme elongated, many-flowered ; 

leaves ovate, crenate, smooth ; capsule as long u« 

the style ; stem ascending, 


HAB. Meadows. May. V-. Stem procumbent at base 
fl. pale blue. 

3. V. Beccabunga; racemes opposite ; leaves elliptical, 

obtuse, on short petioles, subserrate, glabrous : 
stem procumbent, rooting at the base. 
HAB. In water ; rare. June. V-. lft. high, terete; ra- 
cemes axillary, many-flow. ; corol. blue ; caps, inflat. 

4. V. Anagallis: racemes opposite ; leaves lanceolate. 

serrate ; stem erect. 
HAB. In water. June— Aug. 2J. Uft. high, subquad- 
rang.; peduncl. subpubescent ;fl. pale blue. 

5. V. scutellata : racemes lateral and alternate ; (rarely 

opposite) pedicels divaricate ; leaves linear, some- 
what toothed ; stem nearly erect. 
HAB. In water. May— June. V-. Root creeping ; stem 
weak, somewhat branched; ft. pale blue, or flesh-col. 

ft. V. arvensis : flowers solitary, subsessile ; inferior 
leaves petiolate, cordate, ovate, serrate ; stent 
leaves crenate ; floral ones lanceolate, sessile, 
longer than the pedicels ; segments of the calyx 
unequal ; capsule obcordate, compressed. 
HAB. Dry hills and fields. Apr.— Aug. 0. Stemassur- 
aent, 2 — 6 in. high ;fl. pale blue ; caps, compres. 

7. V. agrestis : flowers solitary, pedicellate, leaves peti- 
olate, cordate-ovate, serrate, segments of the calyx 
equal, ovate, hairy ; stem procumbent, pubescent 
HAB. Sandy fields. May. Q. Branched, diffuse ;fl. blue. 
veined ; capsule didymous, subventricose. 

3. V. peregrina : flowers solitary, sessile ; leaves oblong*, 
serrate, rather obtuse; stem erect. 
HAB. Wet, clayey soils. May — July. 0. Smooth: stem 
branched at the base; rad. leaves subpetiolate ; fl, 
small, white ; caps, obcordate. 

9, V. hederifolia : flowers solitary ; leaves as long as the. 

petioles, roundish-cordate, 5-lobed ; the upper ones 
3-lobed ; segments of the calyx cordate, ciliate. 
acute ; stem procumbent. 
HAB. Shady rocks. April. 0. Stems diffuse, pubescent; 
leaves somewhat fleshy ; caps, ventricose, with two 
seeds in each cell. 

10. V. reniformis : stem procumbent, hispid ; leaves ses- 


sile, reniform, entire, hairy, villous ; flowers axil- 
lary, solitary, subsessile. 
HAB. Sandy soils. Summer. 0. Stems few, terete, vil- 
lous ;fl. white or pale blue. 

9. LEPTANDRA. Mtirrhineee. 

L. virginica : leaves verticillate, in fours or fives, lan- 
ceolate, serrate, petiolate. 

HAB. Woods and fertile valleys. July — Aug. If. Stew 
3 — 4 ft. high ;fl. white, in a long terminal spike. 

10. GRATIOLA. Hedge-hyssop. Scrophularuc. 

J..G. aurea : smooth ; leaves linear-oblong ; half embra- 
cing the stem, obscurely toothed ; leaves of the calyx 
equal ; sterile filaments minute. 
HAB. Wet, sandy places, and in woods. Aug. — Sept. 
If. Root creeping ; stem 8 — 12 in. ;fl. yellow. 

3. G. virginica : stem pubescent, assurgent, terete; leaves 
smooth, lanceolate, sparingly dentate-serrate, alter- 
nate and connate at the base ; leaves of the calyx- 
equal ; sterile filaments wanting. 
HAB. Wet meadows. July — Aug. If. 6—8 in., branch- 
ed at the base ; leaves smooth ; cor. white ; tube yellow. 

\.G t megalocarpa : leaves lanceolate, serrate, pubes- 
cent ; peduncles opposite, longer than the leaves ; 
segments of the calyx linear, as long as the globose 
HAB. Ditches and pools. July — Aug. If. Cor. pale yel- 
low ; caps, large. 

11. L1NDERNIA. Scrophulariw. 
l.L. dilatata: leaves dilated at the base, amplexicaul, 
remotely toothed ; peduncles longer than the leaves. 
HAB. Overflowed places. July — Sept. ©. 67cm assur- 
gent ; pedunc. altern. andoppos., spreading; cor. pah 
I, L. attenuata: leaves lanceolate and obovate, narrowed 
at the base ; peduncles shorter than the leaves 
11AB. Overflowed places. July — Sept. Q. Stem erect o, 
procumb. ; leaves serrate or dentate ; cor. pale purple. 
'• 1- monticola : stem slender, dichotomous ; radical 


leaves spathulate ; cauline ones linear, small and 
remote ; peduncles very long, at length reflexed. 
II A B. On mountains. If. Leaves denticulate; jfl. pale 

12. HEMIANTHUS. Lijsimachitc. 

H. micranthemoides. 

J/AB. Overflowed banks of rivers. Aug. — Sept ©. Stem 

creeping; leaves oppos ., crowded ;fl. axill. ; cor. bilab. 

tube gibbous ; starn. inserted on the lower lip ; style 

declined, bi/id. 

13. CAT ALP A. Catalpa. Bignonice. 

C. cordifolia : leaves simple, cordate, entire ; flowers in 
HAB. Fields and about houses. July. A large tree . 
leaves in threes ;Jl. in large term, panic. ; caps, line- 
ar, slender ; seeds caudate. 

14. JUSTICIA. Acanthacece. 

F. pedunculosa : spikes axillary; peduncles elongated, 
alternate ; flowers crowded ; leaves lanceolate. 
HAB. In flowing water. July — Aug. If. 2 ft. high: 
leaves long; jl. capitate, on long axillary peduncles, 
pale purp.; anth. 2, altern. 

15. UTRICULARIA. Bladder-wort. Lentibularice. 

\.V. injlata : floating; scape many flowered; radical 
leaves verticillate, inflated, pinnatirid at their extre- 
mities ; lower lip of the corolla 3-lobed ; spur 
deeply emarginate. 
HAB. Ponds. Aug. If. Rad. leaves spongy; scape 
5 — $>-fl. ; cor. large, yellow. 

2. U. virigaris : floating; stems submerged, dichotomous : 

leaves many-parted, vesiculose ; scape 5 — 9-flow- 
ered ; upper lip of the corolla entire, broad-ovate ; 
spur conical, incurved. 
SIAB. In ponds of deep water. Aug. If. Stems 1 — 3ft. ; 
leaves dichot. ; Jl. large, yellow ; lower lip entire: 
spur entire. 

3. U. minor : spur carinate ; upper lip emarginate .; 

palate equal : throat open ; leaves 3-parted, dichoto 


HAB. Swamps and ditches. Aug. 7f. Stems decumbent; 

lower lip of the corol. obovate. 
4. U. setacea : scape filiform rooting, 2 — 3-flowered ; 

upper lip of the corolla ovate ; lower distinctly 3- 

lobed ; spur sub-conical, shorter than the lower lip. 
HAB. Overflowed swamps. June. If. Scap. 4—6 pi., 

rooting in the mud; flowers mostly two, very small ; 

spur rather obtuse, 
o. U. gibba: floating; scape generally 2-flowered ; spur 

shorter than the lower lip of the corolla, obtuse, 

gibbous in the middle. 
HAB. In ponds. July. If. Roots dichot., with few 

utric. ; scape 2 — 3 in. ; lips of the corol. roundish. 
Q, U. cornuta : scape rooting, erect, rigid ; flowers 2 — 3. 

subsessile ; inferior lip of the corolla very wide, 3- 

lobed ; spur very acute, porrected. 
HAB. On wet calcareous rocks. Aug. — Sept. If. Scape 

1 ft., rooting in the mud, bracteolate ; fl. approx. 

large ; palate very prominent. 
7. U. striata : floating ; scape 2 — 3-flowered ; upper lip 

of the corolla ovate-round, sub-emarginate, waved 

on the margin ; lower lip 3-lobed, reflexed at the 

sides ; spur straight, obtuse, shorter than the lower 

HAB. In swamps. June. If.. Stems with few submerged 

branches; cor. yellow, much expanded, striate with 


. purpurea : scapes axillary, generally 1 -flowered : 

involucrum 0; lower lip of the corolla 3-lobed: 

lateral lobes cucullate on the under side ; spur com- 
pressed, half as long as the corolla. 
HAB. Ponds on mountains. Aug. If. Stems very long ; 

scapes often by pairs ; corolla purple ! 

1G. LYCOPUS. Water Horehound. Labiates. 

I. L. europeus /3. august if alius : smooth; stem acutely 
quadrangular ; leaves narrow-lanceolate, with large 
acute teeth ; lower ones somewhat pinnatifid ; seg- 
ments of the calyx acuminate, terminating in short 
HAB. Wet meadows and ditches. Aug. ©. Root crop 
ing ; stem 1 — 2/*., much branched ; leav. puncticul. ; 
fl. verticill. crowded, white. 

: L. virifinicus : leaves broad-lanceolate, serrate. 


row and entire at the base ; calyx shorter than the 
seed, spineless. 
HAB. Shady, wet places. Aug. If. Stem 1 — 1^ ft. ; 
nearly simple, with obtuse angles ; leaves coarsely ser- 
rate, purplish beneath. 
3. L. uniflorus : plant small ; root tuberous ; stem sim- 
ple ; leaves oval, obtuse, obsoletely toothed ; axils 
1 -flowered. 

II AB. Aug. If.. Root tuberous ; stolans leafy ; stem 

2 — 3 in. ; leaves petiolate. 

17. CUNILA. Labial. 

C. mariana : leaves ovate, sessile, serrate ; corymbs 

axillary and terminal ; dichotomous. 
IIAB. On hills. Aug. — Sept. V. Leav. oppos.. punctate ; 

cor. pink : stam. exserted. 

18. HEDEOMA. Wild Pennyroyal. Labiate. 

II. pulegioides : leaves oblong, remotely serrate: 
peduncles axillary, numerous. 

HAB. Dry hills and woods. July — Aug. {•). Plant aro- 
matic ; fl. subverticillate t pale blue. 


* Calyx nearly eqi^al. 

1. M. didyma : leaves ovate, acuminate, subcordate. 
somewhat hairy ; flowers in simple or proliferous 
heads ; exterior bracts large, coloured, lanceolate. 
HAB. River banks. July — Aug. 11. Stem quadrang. 
somewhat pubescent ; flowers large, scarlet. 
jS. angustifolia : leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
and with the stem, pubescent. 
IIAB. Boggy woods. July. If. Stem more slender; heads 
rarely proliferous ; leaves of en attenuate at the base. 
?. M. oblongata : pubescent; heads simple; exterior 
bracts ovate ; calyx short, with the throat bearded, 
teeth divaricate ; stem obtuse-angled, hairy above ; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, rounded at the base. 
HAB. Rocky situations. July. If. Stem 2 — 3 ft. much 
branched ; flowers flesh-colour ; bracts coloured. 
3. M. clinopodia : smooth; heads small, simple, termi- 
nal ; exterior bracts broad-ovate, acute, entire, 
almost smooth ; calyx short, ciliate ; corolla pubes- 


cent, slender ; leaves ovate-oblong, acuminate, 

serrate, a little hairy ; stem obtuse-angled, smooth. 
HAB. Dry gravelly soil. July— *5ept. If. Fl. yellow, with 

purple specks. 
M. Jistulosa : nearly smooth ; heads simple or proli- 
ferous, leafy; exterior bracts oblong, acute, glabrous ; 

calyx long, bearded ; corolla hirsute ; leaves ovate, 

acuminate, serrate ; petioles long, ciliate ; stem 

smooth, obtuse-angled. 
II AB. Among rocks, on river banks. Aug. If . Stem 2 ft. , 

branched ; flowers small, in dense heads, purplish, 

sometimes proliferous. 
M. punctata : somewhat smooth ; flowers verticillate ; 

bracts lanceolate, coloured, longer than the whorl ; 

leaves lanceolate-oblong, remotely serrate ; stem 

obtuse -angled, white, downy. 
HAB. In sandy fields. Sept. If. • $ • Stem branched, 2 — 3 

ft. ; leaves punctate ; fl. yellow, dotted with brown. 

* * Calyx bilabiate. 

M. hirsuta : whole plant very hairy ; flowers small, 
verticillate ; bracts attenuated into awns ; upper 
teeth of the calyx very short, the others setiform ; 
leaves ovate, on long petioles, serrate. 

HAB. On mountains. August. If' Much branched, and 
almost woolly ; fl. pale blue, spotted with purple : 
upper lip very short. 

20. SALVIA. 

. S . urticifolia : viscous and villous; leaves ovate- 
oblong, toothed, narrowed into a petiole at the base ; 
calyx 3-cleft ; the upper division 3-toothed. 
HAB. On mountains. June. If. Leaves punctate beneath : 
spikes naked; whorls remote ; fl. blue. 
. S. lyrata : radical ieaves lyrate-sinuate ; stem nearly 
leafless, retrorsely hairy ; upper lip of the corolla 
very short. 
HAB. Fields and borders of woods. June. If. Stem a 
foot high, very hairy ; whorls about 6-fl. ; cor. blur. 
i. S. Claytoni : leaves cordate-ovate, sinuate, toothed. 
rugose ; teeth of the upper lip of the calyx conni 
HAB. June— Oct. £ and y.. FL violet. 


21. COLLINSONIA. Horse-weed. Labiatce. 
C. canadensis : leaves broad-cordate, ovate, glabrous ; 

teeth of the calyx short, subulate ; panicle terminal. 

HAB. Among rocks, in rich soil. Aug. V-. Smooth: 

leaves on long or short footstalks ; fl. dull yellow. 

22. CIRCiEA. Enchanter's nightshade. Onagroz. 
1. C. lutetiana (Z. canadensis: stem erect ; leaves ovate, 
remotely toothed, opaque, nearly smooth. 
HAB. Shady woods. July— Aug. It. Stem 1—2 feet 
high, simple ; fl. in racemes, pedicellate, reddish- 
white ; fruit hispid. 
I. C.alpina: stem branched, very smooth, often pro- 
cumbent ; leaves broad-cordate, membranaceous, 
acutely toothed, shining. 
HAB. On barks of trees and wet mossy rocks. Aug. %. 
Very s?nooth, 6 — 8 in high ; leaves very broad, sub- 
diaphanous ; fruit pubescent. 

23. LEMNA. Duck's-meat. Naiades. 

1. L. trisulca: fronds thin, elliptical-lanceolate, caudate 

at one extremity, at the other serrate, ; roots solitary. 
HAB. Pure stagnant waters. 0. Fronds laterally proli- 
ferous, and appearing cruciate ; root a solitary fibre, 
caiyptrate at the extremity. 

2. L. minor : fronds nearly ovate, compressed ; roots 

HAB. Stagnant waters. ©. Fronds a line or a line and a 
half long, succulent, aggregated. 

3. L. gibba : fronds obovate, nearly plane above, hemis- 

pherical beneath ; roots solitary. 

HAB. Stagnant waters. 0. Fronds as large as the prece- 
ding, gibbous, pellucid and reticulated beneath. 
I. L. polyrrhiza : fronds obovate-roundish, compressed ; 
roots numerous, fasciculate. 

HAB. On stagnant waters, often with No. 2. ©. 3 — 4 
lines long, rarely proliferous. 

24. CRYPTA. Portulaceaz. 

C. minima. 

HAB. Borders of ponds, and banks of rivers. ? Aug, 
minute, Prostrate and creeping, with the branches 
assurgent; leaves oppos. cuneate ; fl. minute, axill. 




* Flowers superior. 
t Complete. 

16. FEDIA. Cal. 1-leaved, 3 — 6-toothed. Cor. mono 
petalous, equally 5-cleft. Caps, crowned with the 
persistent calyx, 3-celled, only one of the cell? 
usually fertile. 

1 1 Incomplete. 

26. IRIS. Cor. 6-parted ; 3 of the segments reflexed, the 
others erect or connivent. Style short, or 0. Stig. 3, 
petaloid, covering the stamens. Caps. 3-celled, many 

21. LACHNANTHES. Cal. superior, petaloid, externally 
hirsute, deeply 6-parted, nearly equal. Style de- 
clining; stig. minutely 3-lobed. Caps, globose 
3-celled ; cells 3 — 6-seeded. 

* * Flowers inferior. 
| Complete. 

28. COMMELINA. Cal. 3 leaved. Cor. 3-petalled.,S'ta//< 

6 ; 3 — 4 sterile, and furnished with cruciform glands. 
Caps. 3-celled, 3-valved, one of the valves often 

29. XYRIS. Fl. in a roundish or oblong head. Cal. glum 

aceous, cartilaginous, 3-valved. Cor. 3-petalled. 
equal. Stig. 3-cleft. Caps. 1 -celled, 3-valved. 

t | Incomplete. 

30. SCHOLLERA. Spath 1 -flowered, Anth. of 2 forms. Cor, 

tube very long ; limb deeply 6-parted. Caps. 1 -celled 

11. HETERANTHERA. Cal. a spath. Cor. tube long 

and slender; border 6-parted, equah Jfart. of 2 forms. 


Caps. 3-celled, many-seeded, opening at the angles ' 
dissep. contrary. 

32. SISYRINCHIUM. Spath. 2-leaved. Cor. 6-petalled, 

flat, equal. Stam. cohering below. Stig. 3-cleft. Caps. 

* * * Flowers glumaceous. 

33. KYLLINGIA. Fl. distinct, disposed in a roundish, 

sessile, subimbricated spike. Cal. 2-valved, 1 -flower- 
ed. Cor. 2-valved, longer than the calyx. 

34. SCIRPUS. Glum. 1-valved, 1 -flowered, imbricated 
on all sides. Cor. 0. 

35. SCHCENUS. Glum, fascicled into a spike, paleace- 

ous ; the inferior ones empty. Cor. 0. Style decidu- 
ous. Seed 1, (mostly naked at the base.) 

36. RHYNCHOSPORA. Glum, fascicled into a spike; 

the inferior ones empty. Cor. 0. Seed 1, crowned 
with the persistent style ; base surrounded with 

37. MARISCUS. Fl. distinct, in a somewhat imbricated 

spike. Cal. 2-valved, unequal, 3-flowered. Cor. 
1-valved. Style 3-cleft. Seed triquetrous. 

38. DULICHIUM. Spikes somewhat racemose, axillary j 

spikelets linear-lanceolate^ rather compressed. Glum. 
distichous, sheathing. Cor. 0. Style very long, bifid ; 
base persistent. Seed with bristles at the base. 

39. CYPERUS. Spikelets compressed, distinct. Glum. 

imbricated in two rows. Cor. 0. Style deciduous. 
Seed 1. naked. 

40. ERIOPHORUM. Glum. 1-valved, imbricated on all 

sides into a spike. Cor. 0. Seed surrounded with long 
dense wool. 

11. FUIRENA. Glum, awned, imbricated on all sides into 

a spike. Cor. 3-valved, petaloid ; valves cordate, 
awned, unguiculate. 

12. CENCHRUS. Involuc. laciniate, echinate, including 

about 2 spikelets. Cal. 2-valved, 2-flowered ; the 
inferior fl. sterile, the other perfect. Cor. awnless. 
Style 2-cleft. 

13. SPARTINA. Fl. in unilateral spikes, imbricated in 

2 rows. Cal. 2-valved, compressed, unequal. Cor. 
2-valved, awnless, unequal. Nect. collateral. 


44. ORYZOPSIS. Cal. 1-flowerecl, 2-valved ; valves 
membranaceous, nearly equal, loose, obovate. 
awnless. Cor. 2-valved, coriaceous, cylindrical-ovate, 
hairy at the base ; the inferior valve awned at tip. 
JVect. linear, elongated. 


A. Flowers all perfect. 

| Spikelets 1-Jlowered. 

* Cal. 0. 

15. LEERSIA. Cal. 0. Cor. 2-valved, closed ; valves 
compressed, boat-shaped. JVect. obovate, entire, 

* * Cal. 2-valved. 
a. Cor. without abortive rudiments at the base. 
1, Glumes and corolla of dissimilar texture ; the inferior 
valve involving the superior. 

«. Cor. unarmed. 

16. PASPALUM. Ft. in unilateral spikes. Cal, 2-valved, 

membranaceous, equal, nearly orbicular. Cor. carti- 
laginous, of the size and form of the calyx. Stig. 
plumose, coloured. JVect. collateral. 

17. MILIUM. Cal. 2-valved, herbaceous. Cor. 2-valved. 

coviaceous, oblong, concave, shorter than the calyx, 
awnless. Seed 2-hornecl. JVect. collateral. 

/3. Cor. armed or bristled at the tip. 

48. PIPTATHERU >. Cal. membranaceous, longet than 

the corolla. Cor. cartilaginous, elliptical ; inferior 
valve awned at the tip. Nect. ovate, entire. Seed 

19. STIPA. Cal. 2-valved, membranaceous. Cor. 2- 
valved, shorter than the calyx, coriaceous, involute, 
subcylindric ; awn terminal, contorted near the base. 
Seed coated. 

">0. AR1STIDA. Cal. 2-valved, membranaceous, une- 
qual. Cor. 2-valved, pedicellate, subcylindric ; in- 


ferior valve coriaceous, involute, 3-awned at the 
tip ; superior valve very minute, or obsolete. JVect. 

.. Glumes and corolla of nearly similar texture, often ca- 

cc. Panicle more or less spreading. 

51.MUHLENBERGIA. Cal. very minute, 2-valved, 
truncate, unequal. Cor. 2-valved, hairy at the base ; 
inferior valve terminating in a slender bristle. 

52. TRICHODIUM. Cal. 2-valved ; valves nearly 

equal, serrulate on the keel. Cor. 1-valved, smaller 
than the calyx. Stig. nearly sessile. 

53. AGROSTIS. Cal. 2-valved, 1 -flowered, com- 

pressed, herbaceous. Cor. 2-valved, membra- 
naceous, generally larger than the calyx, often hairy 
at the base. JVect. collateral. Seed coated. 

54. CINNA. Cal. 2-valved, compressed, nearly equal. 

Cor. linear, compressed, shortly stipitate, naked at 
the base ; inferior valve enclosing the superior, with 
a short awn near the summit. 

55. POLYPOGON. Cal. 2-valved, 1 -flowered ; valves 

nearly equal, terminating in a bristle. Cor. 2-val- 
ved, shorter than the calyx ; the inferior valve ter- 
minating in a bristle. 

56. TRICHOCHLOA. Cal. 2-valved, 1-flowered ; 

glumes very minute. Cor. much larger than the 
calyx, 2-valved, naked at the base ; inferior valve 
convolute at the base, terminating in a long awn 
not articulated. 

57. ARUNDO. Cal. 2-valved, unequal, membranaceous. 

surrounded with hair at the base ; inferior valve 
mucronate or slightly awned ; superior valve some- 
times with a pencil-form rudiment at the base. 
/3. Panicle more or less contracted into a spike. 

■3'8. PSAMMA. Cal 2-valved, awnless. Cor. shorter than 
the calyx, surrounded with hairs at the base. JVect. 
linear-lanceolate, longer than the seed. Style 3- 
parted ; stig. 3. 

39. CRYPSIS. Cal. valved, membranaceous, carinate. 
Cor. longer than the calyx, which it resembles in 
texture and form. Stam. 2—3. JVect. 0. 


60. ALOPECURUS. Cal. 2-valved, equal ; glum, gene- 
rally connate at the base. Cur. 1-valved, utriculate, 
cleft on one side, awned below the middle. Styles 
often connate. 

Sl.PHLEUM. Cal. 2-valved, much longer than the 
corolla ; glumes equal, boat shaped, rostrate or 
mucronate. Cur. 2-valved, included in the calyx, 
awnless, truncate. 

C. Cor. with 1 or 2 abortive rudiments of Jlorets at th' 

1. Glumes and corolla of dissimilar texture. 

62. CYNODON. Spike* digitate and fascicled. Fl. uni- 

lateral, in a simple series. Cal. 2-leaved ; glum. 
nearly equal, spreading, acute. Cor. 2- valved ; sup. 
valve very narrow, surrounded by the inferior one. 
Rudiment minute, pedicellate. Nect. collateral. 

63. GYMNOPOGON. Cal. 2-valved, carinate, nearlv 

equal, longer than the flower ; valves of the cor. 
nearly equal ; the inferior with a straight bristle 
a little below the tip. Rudiment aristiform, 

2. Glumes and corolla of nearly similar texture. 

ol. PHALARIS. Cal. 1 -flowered, . 2-valved, nearly 
equal, membranaceous, gibbous on the back, cari- 
nate. Cor. 2-valved, coriaceous, hairy at the base, 
shorter than the calyx. Rudiments opposite, ses- 
sile, resembling valves. Nect. collateral. 
.. ANTHOXANTHUM. Cal. 2-valved, 1-flowered. 
Cor. 2-valved, with 2 abortive, 1-valved rudiments 
at the base ; one of them awned frdm near the 
base, the other from near the tip. Stain. 2. 
66. BRACHYELYTRUM. Cal. very minute ; inferior 
glume scarcely perceptible. Cor. with the inferior 
valve terminated by a long bristle ; superior valvr 
with a clavate rudiment at the base. 
+ t Spikelets many-florvcrcd, 
* Florets all perfect. 
a. Flowers panicled. 


1. Corolla unarmed. 

37. PHRAGMITES. Cal. 6— 7-flowered. Florets on 
villose pedicels, except the lowest, which is sessile 
and naked at the base ; inferior valve elongated, 
acuminate and involute ; superior valve somewhat 

G8, GLYCERIA. Spikelets terete, elongated. Cal. 
many -flowered, shorter than the florets ; inferior 
valve of the corolla herbaceo-membranaceous ; su- 
perior valve somewhat conduplicate. Nect. collate- 
ral, connate. Stig. decompound. 

69. UNIOLA. Spikelets compressed, ancipital, many- 

flowered. Cal. 2-valved, shorter than the florets. 
Cor. 2-valved, awnless ; inferior valve boat-shaped ; 
superior valve smaller, concave on the back. Nect. 
collateral, emarginate. 

70. BRIZA. Spikelets cordate-ovate, many-flowered. 

Cal. paleaceous, shorter than the distichous florets. 
Cor. ventricose ; inferior valve cordate ; superior 
nearly orbicular, very short. 

7 1 . POA. Spikelets oblong or linear, compressed, many 

flowered. Cal. shorter than the florets. Cor. 
herbaceous, awnless, often arachnoid at the base ; 
inferior valve scarious on the margin. 

2. Corolla more or less setigerous or mucronate. 
a. Seed free. 

72. KCELERIA. Cal. 2— -4-flowered, shorter than the 

florets. Inferior valve of the corolla mucronate, or 
with a 'short bristle a little below the tip. 

73. URALEPIS. Cal. 2 — 3-flowered, much shorter than 

the florets, which are stipitate and distinct. Cor. 
2-valved ; valves very unequal, distinctly villose on 
the margin ; the inferior tricuspidate ; the central 
cusp produced into a short bristle ; superior valve 
concave on the back, and incurved. Seed gibbous., 

74. TR1CUSPIS. S/n'fce/efs terete, tumid, many-flowered. 

Calyx 2-valved, carinate, shorter than the florets. 
Inferior valve of the Cor. tricuspidate by the pro- 
jecting carina and margins ; base and sides villous ; 
superior valve emarginate. Nect. obtuse, entire, 


/3. Seed adnate. 

15. FESTUCA. Spikelets often more or less terete, at 
length compressed, many-flowered. Cal. unequal, 
carinate, shorter than the florets. Cor. somewhat 
terete ; superior valve acute, mucronate, or with a 
short bristle at the tip ; superior valve bidentate. 

76. CERATOCHLOA. Spikelets lanceolate, subancipi- 

tal, many-flowered. Cal. shorter than the imbri- 
cated florets. Inferior valve of the corolla com- 
pressed, mucronate below the tip ; superior valve 
somewhat conduplicate. Style 2 — 3-parted. 

77. DIARRHENA. Cal. 2-valved, very unequal, 2—5- 

flowered, rigid ; glumes acuminate, mucronate. 
Cor. cartilaginous ; inferior valve entire, broader ; 
superior valve much shorter, emarginate. Seed 
coated, as long as the superior valve of the corolla. 
Ned. ovate, ciliate. 

78. DACTYLIS. Spikelets aggregated in an unilateral 

head, many-flowered. Cal. shorter than the florets : 
one of the glumes larger, carinate and pointed. 
Inferior valve of the cor. carinate, emarginate, mu- 
cronate ; superior valve somewhat conduplicate. 

). Corolla more or less bifid, armed between the divisions, 
a Utile below the tip. 

TO. DANTHONIA. Cal. 2— 5-flowered, longer than the 
florets ; glumes cuspidate. Cor. bearded at the 
base ; inferior valve 2-toothed, with a twisted awn 
between the teeth ; superior valve obtuse, entire. 

: J ,0. TRISETUM. Cal. 3 — 5-flowered, membranaceous 
as long as the florets. Inferior valve of the corolla 
with 2 bristle-form teeth at the tip, awned below the 
division of the teeth. 

'. I. BROMUS. Spikelets oblong, distichous, manyi 
flowered. Cal. shorter than the florets. Inferior 
valve of the corolla bind, with a bristle between the 
teeth a little below the tip ; superior valve subcon- 
iluplicate, ciliate. 

4. Inferior valve of the corolla awned on the back. 
IRRHENATHERUJf. Cal. membranaceous 

flowered, rather shorter than the florets. Inferior 


floret antheriferous : inferior valve 2-cleft, awned 
below the middle. Superior floret perfect ; inferior 
valve cleft, unarmed, or with a short awn a little 
below the tip. 

83. AVENA. Cal. membranaceous, many-flowered, 

generally longer than the florets. Cor. mostly 
bearded at the base : inferior valve bilaciniate, with 
a twisted awn on the back. Seed coated. 

84. AIRA. Cal. 2 — 3-flowered, longer than the florets. 

Inferior valve of the Cor. eroded or many-toothed, 
awned on the back below the middle. 

b. Flowers spiked. 

1. Calyx l-valved. 

35. LOLIUM. Spikelets sessile on a rachis, many-flow- 
ered. Calyx of 1 glume. Inferior valve of the 
cor. herbaceo-membranaceous, mucronate, or with 
a short bristle at the tip. 

2. Calyx 2-valved. 

SG. ELEUSINE. Spikes digitate, unilateral. Cal. mem- 
branaceous^ — 6-flowered ; glumes obtuse,unequal. 
Cor. membranaceous, unequal, unarmed ; inferior 
valve carinate, the superior concave on the back. 
Seed triangular, transversely rugose. 

87. TRITICUM. Spikelets sessile on the teeth of the 
rachis, 3 — 4-ftowered ; the 2 inferior florets oppo- 
site, fertile ; the upper ones often abortive. Glum. 
broad, boat-shaped, mucronate or armed. Inferior 
valve of the cor. terminating in a bristle ; superior 
valve subconcluplicate. 

38. AGROPYRON. Spikelets sessile on the teeth of 

the rachis, 3 — 9-flowered. Glum, lanceolate, 
carinate. Inferior valve of the cor. mucronate, or 
terminating in a subulate bristle. 

39. SECALE. Spikelets sessile on the teeth of the 

rachis, 2 — 3-flowered ; the terminal floret abortive. 
Cal. 2-valved ; glumes subulate, opposite, shorter 
than the florets. Inferior valve of the Cor. terminat- 
ing in a long bristle. 
30. ELYMUS. Spikelets 2 or more at each joint of the 
rachis^ — 9-flowered. Cr/ttm.(involacruHa) geminate. 


subulate. Inferior valve of the Cor. entire, mucro* 
nate, of with a short bristle at the tip. 

* * Terminal florets abortive, or mere rudiments. 

91. MELICA. Cal. 2 — 4-flowered,loose,membranaceous, 

Florets as long as the glumes ; one or more of the 
superior ones abortive and incomplete. Cor. un- 
armed, coriaceo-membranaceous. Nect. connate, 
Seed free. 

92. ATHEROPOGON. Spikes in an unilateral raceme. 

Cal. 2-valved, membranaceous, 2-flowered ; inferior 
glume setiform. Perfect floret 2-valved ; inferior 
valve 3-toothed, or 3-bristled ; superior valve bifid. 
Abortive floret pedicellate, 2-valved, 3-bristled. 

B. Flowers polygamous. 
| Panicled. 

93. PANICUM. Cal. 2-valved, 2-flowered ; the infe- 

rior glume often very small. Florets dissimilar; 
the lower one abortive or antheriferous, 1 — 2-valved ; 
the inferior valve resembling in texture the glumes ; 
superior membranaceous. Perfect floret with car- 
tilaginous valves, unarmed. 

34. HIEROCHLOA. Cal. 2-valved, 3-flowered ; glumes 
scarious. Lateral florets antheriferous, triandrous. 
Central floret perfect, diandrous, (rarely triandrous.) 

15. HOLCUS. Cal. 2-flowered ; glumes membrana- 
ceous, somewhat boat-shaped, mucronate. Florets 
polygamous ; the inferior perfect, sessile, unarmed ; 
superior antheriferous or neuter, pedicellate, awned 
on the back near the middle. 

1 1 Spiked. 
* With an involucrum. 
96. SETAR1A. Spikelets with an involucrum of 2 or 
more bristles at the base Cal. 2-flowered ; glumes 
unequal, herbaceous. Inferior floret abortive, 1 — 2- 
valved, herbaceous. Superior floret perfect, with 
cartilaginous glumes. 

* * Without an involucrum. 
DIGITARIA. Spikes linear, unilateral, generally 


digitate or fasciculate. Spikelets by pairs, on shorJ 
bifid pedicels. Cal. 1 — 2-valved, 2-flowered ; infe- 
rior glume often inconspicuous. Inferior floret 
abortive, 1-valved, herbaceous. Superior floret 
perfect ; valves coriaceous. 

98. ANDROPOGON. Spikelets by pairs, polygamous; 
the inferior one abortive, (antheriferous or neuter,) 
on a bearded pedicel ; glum, and cor. frequently 
very minute or wanting. Superior spikelet sessile, 
1 flowered, perfect; glumes subcoriaceous ; cor. 
2-valved, shorter than the calyx, membranaceous ; 
the inferior valve generally awned. 

09. HORDEUM. Spikelets 3 at each joint of the 
rachis, 1 -flowered, all perfect, or the lateral ones 
abortive. Glum, lateral, subulate. — Perfect fl. : 
Cor. 2-valved ; inferior valve terminating in a bris- 
tle. Seed coated. 


100. HOLOSTEUM. Cal. 5-leaved, coloured within. 

Pet 5, 2-parted. Caps. I -celled, bursting at the 

101. MOLLUGO. Cal. 5-leaved, coloured within, 

Cor. 0. Capsule 3-celled, 3-valved. 

102. LECHEA. Cal 3-leaved. Pet. 3. Style ; stig. 

plumose. Caps, 3-celled, 3-valved, with as many 
interior valves opposite the others ; cells 1-seeded. 

103. PROSERPINACA. Cal. superior, 3-parted, per- 

sistent. Cor. 0. Nut bony, triquetrous, 3-celled. 



25. FEDIA. Valerianae. 

F. radiata : leaves spathulate-oblong, nearly entire ; 

fruit pubescent, somewhat 4-sided, naked at the top. 
HAB. In fields. May. ©. Stem dichotomous, mostly 

erect ; fl. blue, infastigiate corymbs. 


26. IRIS. Flag. Flower-de-lace. Iridece. 

i. I. versicolor: flowers beardless; stem terete, more 
or less flexuous ; germen somewhat triangular ; 
leaves ensiform. 

et. sulcata : stem slightly compressed ; interior petals 
longer than the stigmas ; germen with the angles 
distinctly sulcate ; the sides concave ; capsule 
oblong, ventricose ; angles indistinctly furrowed. 

/3. communis : stem erect, distinctly flexuous ; leaves 
narrow-ensiform ; interior petals a little shorter 
than the stigmas ; angles of the germen not grooved 
when young ; sides deeply concave ; capsule cylin- 

HAB. In water. May — June. If.. Root large, creeping ; 
2 — 3 ft. high ; ft. blue, variegated with yell. 
9. I. virginica ; flowers beardless ; stem solid, terete ; 
leaves very long and narrow ; capsule elongated, 
prismatic, acute at each end. 

HAB. Swamps. June. %.Stem 3— 5ft. high, slender; 
leav. half an in. broad ; angles of the germ, deeply 
>. I. lacustris: flowers without a bearded crest; leaves 
ensiform, much longer than the 1 -flowered scape ; 
petals nearly equal, attenuated on the tube ; capsule 
turbinate, 3-sided, margined ; roots tuberous. 
HAB. Gravelly shores of 1. ikes. June. Leaves 3-5 in. 
long; scape very short, compressed ; pet. emarginate. 

27. LACHNANTHES. Hcemodoracece. 

\a. tinctoria. 

HAB. Sandy swamps, in pine barrens. July. %. Root 

red, fibrous ; stem 2-ft. high simple, woolly above ; ft. 

corymbose, woolly, yellow within. 

28. COMMELINA. Day-flower. Commelinece. 
V. C. angustifolia : assurgent, slender, rather smooth; 
petals unequal, (one very minute ;) leaves linear- 
lanceolate ; bracts peduncled, short-cordate. 
li VB. Borders of swamps. June. V-. Leaves sheathing, 
riliate at the throat ; bracts subfalcate ; ft. blue : 
fertile stam. 2. 
' '. virginica : petals nearly equal ; stem erect, a little 


pubescent ; leaves long-lanceolate, subpetiolate ; 
throat bearded. 
HAB. Shady woods. July. If.. Stem 2 ft. high ; leave? 
sometimes ovate-lanceolate ; fertile stam. 3. 

29. XYRIS. Yellow-eyed grass. Juncea. 
1. X. caroliniana : leaves linear, grass-like; scape 
ancipitous ; head ovate, rather acute ; scales round. 
HAB. Swamps, and wet sandy places. July — Aug. 2/. 
Scape erect simple, 1 ft. high ; fi. yell, in a small 
scaly head. 
3. X. brevifolia : leaves subulate-ensiform, short ; head 
nearly globose ; interior valves of the calyx shorter 
than the exterior, slightly notched. 
HAB. Wet places. V-. Scape 12 — 18 in. high, com- 
pressed above ; leaves twisted. 

30. SC HOLLER A. Narcissi. 

S. graminea. 

HAB. In flowing water. July — Aug. 2{. Floating; 

stem slender, dichotomous ; leaves gramineous ; fi . 

small, yellow, solitary; stam. 4, one of them abortive. 

3 1 . HETERANTHERA. JVarcissi. 
H. reniformis : leaves orbicular-reniform ; spath 

oblong, acuminate, 2 — 3-flowered. 
HAB. Overflowed banks of rivers. July — Aug. V-. 

Stem portly floating ; leaves petiolate ; fi. white, 


32. SISYRINCHIUM. Blue-eyed grass. Index. 
i. S.anceps: scape ancipitous, winged, simple, nearly 
leafless ; spath about 4-flowered, unequal, shorter 
than the flowers ; petals mucronate. 
HAB. In wet meadows. May — June. %. Stem slender: 
leaves grass-like ; fl. small, blue ; caps, globose. 
*. S. mucronatum : scape simple, winged ; scape colour- 
ed ; one of the valves extended into a long marces- 
cent point. 
HAB. In sandy fields. June — July. Ccspitose: spath 
unequal, coloured ; fi. blue. 


33. KYLLINGIA. Cyperoidece. 

K. monocephala : stem filiform, 3-angled ; head 
globose, sessile ; involucrum 3-leaved, very long. 

HAB. — If. Root creeping; clum 3-12 in, high; 
head solitary. 

34. SCIRPUS. Club-rush. Cyperoidece. 

* Seed surrounded with bristles at the base. 

t Style articulated to the seed; base dilated and persistent 
Seed often lenticular. [Spike solitary.) 

%. S. tenuis: culm very slender, quadrangular; spike 

elliptical, acute at each end ; glumes Ovate, obtuse ; 

stamens 3 ; style 3-cleft ; seed rugose. 

HAB, Wet places. July — Aug. U • Culmnaked, 8 — 12 

in. high ; head brown; bristles 2-3, sometimes wanting. 

2. S. glaucus : culm many-angled, glaucous ; spike ovate. 

acute ; glumes ovate, obtuse, or emarginate ; stamens 
3 ; style 2-cleft. 
HAB. Borders of salt marshes. July. U . Culm slender, 
lft. high; spike brownish ; bristles 4. 

3. S. palustris : culm terete, inflated ; spike oblong- 

lanceolate ; glumes somewhat obtuse ; seed roundish, 
punctate and rugose ; bristles scabrous. 
HAB. Wet places. June. If. Cespitose ; culm 1-2 
ft. high, sheathed at the base, leafless; seed crowned 
with a conical tubercle. 
■♦ S. capitatus : stem terete, or somewhat compressed : 
spike ovate, obtuse ; seed oval, compressed, smooth. 
HAB. Wet places. July — Aug. If. Cespitose ; culm 
attenuated below the spike ; spike often globose ; bris- 
tles 6. 
>. S. acicularis : culm setaceous, quadrangular ; spike 
ovate, acute, 3 — 6-flowered ; glumes somewhat ob- 
tuse ; stamens 3 ; style bifid ; seed obovate. 
HAB. Border of ponds. June — July. If. Culm 
almost hair-like ; inf. glume empty , large ; seed stri- 
ate; bristles 4. 
f}. S. pusillus : culm compressed and a little angular; 
spike ovate, compressed ; seed obovate ; stamen* 
Btyle 2— 3-cleft. 



HAB. In salt marshes. July — Aug. If. An inch high, 
growing in patches, like moss. 

7. S. intermedins: culms cespitose, quadrangular, sul- 

cate ; spike ovate-oblong, acute ; glumes rather 
acute ; stamens 3 ; style 2-cleft ; seed broad-obo- 
vate, compressed ; tubercle distinct. 
HAB. Muddy banks of rivers. Sept. If . Ascending, 
3 — 4 i n , high ; bristles 6 ; tubercle very minute. 

8. £. planifolius : culm triquetrous ; radical leaves flat; 

nearly equalling the culm ; spike terminal, oblong, 
compressed, shorter than the cuspidate bracts at the 
HAB. Begs and wet woods. May — June. If. Cespi- 
tose ; leaves carinate ; spike 6-Jl. yellowish ; inf. 
glumes very large, hracte.iform. 

9. S. subterminalis : culm floating, sulcate, inflated, leafy 

below ; spike solitary, somewhat terminal, lanceo- 
late ; style 2-cleft ; seed triquetrous. 
HAB. Ponds and rivulets. Aug. If. Whole plant, 
except the spike, under water ; culm, when dry, much 
roughened by the contracting medulla ; leaves chan- 

10. S. cespitosus, /3. callosus : culm cespitose, terete ; 

spike ovate, few-flowered ; glumes thickened and 
cartilaginous at the tips ; the inferior ones bractei- 
form, as long as the spike ; sheaths with rudiments 
of leaves. 
HAB. On high mountains. July. If . A span high ; 
culm with imbricated sheaths at the base ; spikes yel- 
lowish ; bristles 6. 

t t Style filiform , not bearded, deciduous. 

11. S. americanus: culm nearly naked, triquetrous; 
sides concave ; spikes lateral, (1 — 5,) ovate, con- 
glomerate, sessile ; glumes round-ovate, mucro- 
nate ; seed triquetrous, acuminate. 
HAB. In salt marshes, and on the banks of rivers, 
July— Aug. U . Culm 3-5 feet high, sometimes leafy 
at base. 
12. S. debilis: culms cespitose, deeply striate ; spikes 
about 3, lateral, ovate, sessile ; glumes ovate, 
obtuse, mucronate. 


IIAB. Borders of ponds. Aug. — Sept. 2J. A foot 
high; leaves few, subulate; spikes turgid; seed 
obovate ; bristles 4 — 5. 

13. S. lacustris: culm terete, attenuated above, naked ; 

panicle subterminal ; spikes peduncled, ovate. 
HAB. Ponds and river marshes. June. If.. Culm 
4 — 8 ft. high , sheathed at the base ; spike subpani- 
tied ; glum, ovate, subpubescent ; seed obovate. 

14. S. acutus: culm terete, (not attenuated,) spotted ; 

peduncles numerous, sublateral ; spikes oblong ; 

glumes pubescent, mucronate. 
HAB. Ponds and wet swamps. June — July. If. 

Culm 4 ft. high, with oblong brown spots ; panicle 

proliferous ; glum, dilated, carinate. 
\h. S. atrovirens: culm triangular, leafy ; cyme termi- 
nal, compound, proliferous ; involucrum 3-leaved ; 

spikes conglomerate, ovate, acute ; glumes ovate. 

mucronate, pubescent. 
HAB. Wet meadows. June— July. If. Culm obtusely 

triang. 2 ft. high ; involuc. long ; .spikes dark green, 

in heads of 10 — 12. 

16. S. brunneus: culm leafy, obtusely triangular ; cyme 

decompound ; involucrum 3 — 4-leaved ; spike 
round-ovate, clustered in about sixes ; glumes 
ovate, obtuse. 
HAB. In water. Aug.— Sept. If. Culm 2— 3ft. 
high ; leaves long ; spike brow?i ; seed longer thai, 
the bristles. 

17. S. tnacrostachyos : culm triquetrous, leafy ; corymb 

clustered ; involucrum about 3-leaved, very long ;. 
spikes oblong ; glumes ovate. 3-cleft ; the middle 
segment sububite and reflexed ; style 3-cleft. 
HAB. In salt marshes and ditches. July — Aug. If. 
Culm 3 — Aft. high ; spikes 6 — 10, very large. 

Style filiform, deciduous. Bristles much longer than 
the seed. 

10. S. Eriophorum : culm obtusely triangular, le;m 
pimicle decompound, proliferous, nodding ; spikes 
all pedunculate ; bristles surrounding the seed 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. If. Culm 4—5 ft. high ; in- 


voluc. leafy, very long; panic, much divided ; spike* 
small, ovate, woolly when ripe. 
19. S. lineatus: culm triquetrous, leafy ; panicle termi- 
nal and lateral, decompound, at length nodding ; 
involucrum 1 — 2-leaved ; spikes ovate ; glumes 
lanceolate, somewhat carinate ; bristles longer 
than the seed. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. If.. Culm 2— 3 ft. high; leaves 
subdistichous ; pan. at first erect; bristles inter* 

* * Seed naked at the base. 

f Style simple at the base, not articulated to the seed, 
•0. S. subsquarrosus : culm triquetrous, nearly naked, 
incurved ; spikes 3, nearly terminal, ovate ; glumes 
somewhat squarrose at the tip ; involucrum 2- 
leaved, very long, unequal. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. Aug.©? Cespitose, about 
2 in. high, almost setaceous; spikes turgid, crowded ,- 
glum, ovate, carinate. 

21 . S. capillaris : culm nearly naked, triquetrous, ca- 

pillary ; spikes ovate ; 2-3 of them pedunculate, 
with an intermediate sessile one. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. © ? A span high, cespi- 
tose ; leaves setaceous, short, serrulate ; spikes 
brownish, subumbellate. 

22. S. autumnalis: culm compressed, ancipitous ; umbel 

compound ; involucrum 2-leaved ; spikes lanceo- 
late, acute, somewhat 4-sided. 
HAB. Boggy grounds. July — Oct. If. Culm 8-12 
in. high ; leaves long ; umbel loose ; glumes ovate f 
mucronate, carinate. 

\ j Style bulbous and compressed at the base, ciliate on the 

23. S. ferrugineus: culm compressed, scabrous above ; 

involucrum unequally ciliate ; spikes lanceolate, 
acute, nearly terete ; glumes pubescent. 
HAB. In wet or dry situations. Aug. Culm 2 in. 
— 2 ft. high ; leaves channelled, long ; umbel mostly 
simple, with elongated rays; spikes brown. 


M. S. spadiceus: culm compressed, nearly naked ; um- 
bel terminal ; involucrum rigid, 2-leaved, one of 
the leaves longer than the umbel ; leaves subterete : 
spikes ovate-oblong, terete. 
IIAEL Salt marshes. Aug. If.. Cespitose, tenacious : 
2 ft. high ; culm compressed above; spikes sub- 
eylind.y brown. 

35. SCHOENUS, Bog-rush-. Cyperoidew. 

S. mariscoides : culm terete, or a little sulcate, 
leafy ; leaves channelled, semiterete ;- umbel 
terminal ; fascicles of spikes 8 on each peduncle . 
seed naked, rounded at the base. 

I1AB. Bogs. July. V-. Culm 2 ft. high; fascic. 
about 12-spiked ; spikelets lanceolate ; glum, ovate. 

3G. RHYNCHOSPORA. Cyperoidew. 

1. R. alba : spikes in corymbose fascicles ; culm trian- 
gular above ; leaves setaceous ; seed somewhai 
lenticular ; bristles about 10. 
11AB. Bogs and swamps July — Sept. If. Fasc. 
axill. and terminal, bracteatc ; glum, white ; seed sub- 

I. li.fusca: culm triquetrous ; leaves linear, carinate , 
fascicles of spikes alternate, pedunculate ,\ spikes 
ovate ; glumes ovate, brown ;. seed ovate, with an- 
acute black tubercle. 
H.AB. Bogs. If. Culm 2 ft. high; glum, mucronate 
seed brown, rugose. 

>. R. glomerata : spikes in corymbose fascicles, very- 
distant, by pairs ; culm obtusely triangular ; leaves 
flat ; seed obovate-cuneiform, very smooth, as long 
as the tubercle. 
1IAB. Swamps and bogs. July — Sept. Culm leafy, 
leav. carinate; spik. lat. and-tp.rm. : glum, brown,. 

f. R. capillacca • spikes 3. — 5, nearly terminal ; culm 
triquetrous, somewhat leafy ; leaves setaceous ; 
seed stipitate, a little rugose. 
HYB.. Sandy swamps. July. If. Jl span high, 
glum, brown ; bristles 6, longer than the seed. 

i. R. sparsa: culm triquetrous, leafy ; corymbs axillary 
and terminal, compound, loose 1 peduncles capillary , 

ft 2 


seed obovate, rugose, much longer than the tu- 
bercle. • 

HAB. Bogs. July 1/. Panicles spreading ; the upper 
one larger ; glum, brown ; seed white. 
u. R. cymosa: culm triquetrous, leafy ; cymes terminal 
and axillary ; the terminal one much larger ; seed 
round-ovate, compressed, transversely rugose ; tu- 
bercle conical. 

HAB. Swamps. July. If. A foot or 18 in. high; 
involucr. long, 2 — 3-leaved ; tubercle white ; bristles 
7. R. laxa: culm triquetrous ; corymbs leafy, decom* 
pound,loose ; spikes subulate ; seed obovate, pointed 
with the long persistent style. 

HAB. River swamps. July. If. Culm 3-6 ft. high; 
corymbs very large. 

37. MARISCUS. Cyperoidece*. 
, M. r etrofr actus : umbel simple; rays long ; spikes 
obovate, retro rsely imbricate ; spikelets subulate, 
at length bent backward ; involucrum 3-leaved. 

HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. — Sept. If . Culm nearly 
naked, pubescent; umb. 6 — 8 rayed. 
\ M. ovularis : umbel simple ; rays short ; spikes 
globose ; flowers spreading. 

HAB. Boggy grounds. July — Aug. If. Root bul- 
bous ; culm 6-18 in. high; spikes 3-5-1 ; middh 
one sessile. 

j3. tenellus: culm acutely triangular, slender ; invo- 
lucrum 3 — 5-leaved ; 3 of the leaves many times 
longer than the umbel. 

HAB. Sea-coast. Aug. A foot high; heads of 10- 
1 2 spikelets. . 

38: . DULICHIUM. Cyperoideaz. 

O.spathaceum: culm terete; leaves spreading in 

3 directions ; spikelets spreading. 
HAB. Wet places. Aug. — Sept. U. Culm very leafy, 

terete below ; ochrece cylind. ; racemes axillary. 

39. CYPERUS. Cyprus-grass. Cyperoideaz. 
\. C. infieccus: umbel 2 — 3-rayed, or conglomerate and 
simple ; involucrum 3-leaved, very long ; spikeletsv 


collected into ovate heads, oblong, 8-flowered ;[ 
glumes squarrose at the tip. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. Aug. — Sept. £ ? 2 — 3 in. 
high ; odorous ; heads many-Jl. ; glum, striate, yellow- 
8, C. flavescens : spikes linear-lanceolate, in fascicles oi 
3 — 4; glumes obtuse ; style 2-cleft ; seed lenticular ; 
involucrum 3-leaved, longer than the spikes. 

HAB. Boggy grounds. Aug. — Sept. y . A span 
high ; spikelets 14-20-Jl., yellowish. 
3. C. Kuttallii: culm acutely triangular ; umbel radiate, 
or nearly sessile, loose ; rays short ; involucrum 
4-leaved ; 2 of the leaves very long ; spikelets 
linear-lanceolate, compressed, acute ; stamens 2 : 
style 2-cleft ; seed oblong, obtuse, compressed. 

HAB. Borders of salt-marshes. Aug. — Sept. U . 

Cespitose, 5-12 in. high ; spik. very acute; glum. 

green and brown ; seed smooth. 

\. C. diandrus : culm slender, obtusely triangulav, ; 

umbel sessile, or 1 — 2-rayed ; involucrum 3-leaved ; 

2 of the leaves much longer than the umbel ; 
spikelets lanceolate-oblong, much compressed, 
many-flowered (14-16 ;) glumes margined, rather 
acute, keeled; stamens 2; style 2-cleft; seed oval* 

HAB. Salt marshes. Sept. U.. Culm weak, not ces- 

pitose ; glum, much compressed, with a brown mar- 


>. C. dentalus: umbel compound, (6-10 rayed;) invor 

lucrum 3-leaved, longer than the umbel ; spikelets 

3 on each ray, alternate, ovate, compressed, 8- 
flowered ; glumes acute, nervose, spreading at the 
points ; seed triquetrous. 

1JAB. Banks of rivers and sandy swamps. Sept. U . 
Root tub. ; spik. appearing dentate, brownish ; some- 
times viviparous. 
•i. C. erythrorhizos : umbel decompound; involucrum 
3-6-leaved, very long; spikes alternate, linear, 
horizontal, about 12-flowered, nearly terete ; style 
3-cleft ; seed triquetrous. 
HAB. Wet places. Aug. — Sept. y. . Root fib. red. 
partial umb. naked ; spik. at length terete. 
itrigom : spikelets linear, compressed, acute', 


alternate ; glumes lanceolate, nervose ; umbel sim 

pie, or compound ; involucrum about 6-leaved. 

pubescent on the margin ; root globose. 
HAB. Wet grounds. Aug.— Sept. % . 1 — 2 ft. high: 

umb. ochreate; spik. 10-12 fi. yellowish. 
3. C. tenuis: spikes lanceolate, acute, 10-1 7-flowered ; 

umbel simple ; involucrum 3-4-leaved, longer than 

the rays ; root tuberous. 
HAB. Culm a span high, slender; spik. yellow ; glum. 

9. C. phymatodes : umbel simple or decompound ; invo 

lucrum 3-9-leaved ; 3 of the leaves very long . 

peduncles compressed ; spikelets distichous, linear, 

the lower one branched, about 15-flowered; sidet 

rather convex ; glumes oblong, obtuse ; radicles 

tuberous at the extremity. 
HAB. Wet sand} r places. Aug. U . Root creeping ; 

leav. mostly rad. spreading, carinate ; umb. ochreate. 
)0. C. compressus : spikes digitate, somewhat by fours ; 

lanceolate ; glumes mucronate, broad, membrana- 
HAB. Low meadows. U • Culm 3-8 in. high,ob- 

(us. triang. ; spik. subsessile, 1 6-27 fi. 
iJ. 0. virens : culm acutely triangular ; umbels decom 

pound ; spikelets ovate-lanceolate, in compact 

heads ; involucrum very long. 
HAB. Wet meadows and woods. %. 1 — 2 ft. high : 

spik. 16-fi., laterally compressed ; glum, acute. 
12. C. mariscoides : umbel simple, or with 1 — 2 rays i 

spikelets collected into globose heads, linear,. 7 — 

8-flowered ; glumes loose, obtuse. 
HAB. In dry situations.. July — Sept. If. Root 

tub. ; culm 8 — 1 2 in. long ; head sometimes solitary , 

spik. atfirst terete. 
3 C. odoraius : spikelets corymbed, subulate, remote, 

distichous ; glumes somewhat distant ; smaller 

umbels spreading widely, about the length of then 

HAB. Banks of rivers. -f-« 
1 1, C. flavicomis: culm triquetrous ; umbel compound 

spikes linear-lanceolate, 7-flowered ; glumes o v : 

tuse ; involucrum very long, reflexed. 


HAB. Boggy woods. If.. Involucr. 5-leav.; spike- 
lets distichous, compressed, yellowish; seed black. 

40. ERIOPHORUM. Cotton-grass. Cyperoideae. 
* Spike solitary* 

1. E. alpinum: culm triquetrous, somewhat scabrous, 

naked ; leaves very short, subulate, ; spike oblong ; 
woolly hairs crisped, few. 
HAB. High mountains and bogs. July. If. Culm 
8; — 10 in. high, sheathed; glum, oblong-lanc. : hairs 
white, very long. 

2. E. vaginatum: culm terete below, obtusely triangu- 

lar above, smooth and rigid ; sheaths inflated ; spike 
oblong-ovate ; glumes scarious ; wool straight, 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps. July. If. Cespitose, a 
foot high ; leaves numerous ; glum, livid ; wool 

* * Spikes numerous. 

3. E. polystachyon : leaves flat, triquetrous at the ex- 

tremity ; culm nearly terete ; spikes on scabrous 

peduncles, nodding. 
HAB. Swamps. July. If. Culm 1 — 2ft. high, leafy : 

leav. very long; spik. 9 — 12, subterm. ; wool white 

or reddish. 
\, E. virginieum: culm nearly terete below, obtusely 

triangular above ; leaves flat, very long ; spike? 

clustered, erect, nearly sessile,; involucrum 2 — 3- 

HAB. Swamps. July. Culm 2 — 4 ft. high; spik. 

ovate, somewhat umbelled ; wool reddish. 
/3. gracile: culm very slender ; leaves almost filiform. 
HAB. Cedar swamps. Aug. 
'». E. angustifolium : culm somewhat triangular ; leaves 

channelled and triquetrous ; peduncles very smooth. 
HAB. Wet meadows. If-. A foot or more high , 

leav. very narrow ; spik. 3 — 5 ; wool white. 

41. FUIRENA. Cyperoidece. 

P. squarrosa : spikes clustered, (5 — 6) ovate ; culm 
smooth ; leaves ciliate ; sheaths hairy ; valves ol 
ihe corolla cordate-ovate. 


HAB. Bog-meadows. Aug. If. A foot and ahalj 

high, angul. ; leav. pubesc. ; spik. lateral and term. ; 

brist. 3—4. 
Q. pumila : culm pubescent above ; leaves smooth ; 

throat of the sheaths hairy ; spikes 1 — 3, terminal. 
HAB. Wet sandy places. Aug. Culm 3 — 6 in. high ; 

spikes mostly 3 ; pet. ovate-lanceol. ; brist. 3 — 4. 

42. CENCHRUS. Burr-grass. Graminece. 

C. echinatus : spike with the flowers approximated ; 
involucrum subglobose, villose; culm compressed. 

HAB. Sandy arid soils. Aug. 0. Erect, or pro- 
cumb., 1 — 2 ft. long; involucrum spiny , cartilagi- 

(3. tribuloides : spikes and margin of the sheaths white, 

HAB. Sea-coast and near salt-water. Aug. 0. A 
foot high ; leav. eonduplicate ; rachis and involucr. 
very white. 

43. SPARTINA. Marsh-grass. Graminece. 

I. S. cynosuroides : spikes numerous, (10 — 40,) pedun- 
culate, panicled, spreading; leaves broad, flat, at 
length convolute ; calyx with a short awn on one 
of the glumes ; style 2-cleft at the summit. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug. ^. 4— 9 ft. high; leaves 
2 — 4 ft. long ; fl. closely imbricate ; style bifid. 

i. S. juncea : leaves distichous, convolute, spreading ; 
spikes few, 1 — 3, pedunculate ; peduncles smooth ; 
corolla rather obtuse ; styles 2. 
HAB. Sea coast, and gait marshes. July — Aug. il . 
Root creeping ; culm 18 in high, slender, rigid; cal. 
very unequal ; anth. purple. 

\. S. glabra: leaves concave, erect ; spikes alternate, 
sessile, erect, appressed ; corolla nearly smooth on 
the keel ; style cleft about half way down. 
HAB. Borders of salt-marshes. Aug. — Sept. U 
Very smooth, 3—5 ft. high ; spikes 8 — 14; anth. 

44. ORYZOPSIS. Graminece. 
0. asperifolia : culm nearly naked ; leaves erect 


rigid, pungent at the point ; flowers in a racemose 
IIAB. Mountain meadows. Apr. — May. U . Culm 
18 in. high; rad. leaves long ; culm leaves few, very 
short; pan. very simple; cor. white, hairy ; seed 
large, white. 


45. LEERSIA. Rice-grass. 

L. virginica : panicle simple ; the lower branches 

diffuse ; flowers appressed, monandrous, sparingly 

ciliate on the keel. 
HAB. Wet woods and swamps. Aug. lj. . Culm 2 — 4 

ft.high,genicul.; sheaths scabr. ; flowers clasping 

the pedicels, punctate. 
L. oryzoides : panicle diffuse, sheathed at the base ; 

flowers triandrous, spreading ; keel of the glumes 

conspicuously ciliate. 
HAB. Ditches and swamps. Aug. — Sept. U . Culm 

3 — 5 ft. high ; leav. and sheaths very scabr. ; fl. 



P. cilidtifolium : culm decumbent ; leaves hairy anol 
ciliate; sheath hairy; spikes 1 — 2, rather loose, 
indistinctly 3- rowed. 
IIAB. Sandy fields. Sept. 4. Afoot and a half 
long, simple; term. spik. on a long pedunc. ; jl. 
plano-convex , on bifid pedicels ; rack. flex. 
P. setacevm : culm erect ; leaves and sheaths villose . 

spike generally solitary ; flowers in 2 rows. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Sept. U. Culm \— '2 ft. high 
simple ; rachis convex on the back. 
. P. lave: erect, very smooth ; leaves short; spike*- 
numerous, (3—6,) alternate ; flowers 2-rowed, 
HAB. Banks of rivers. Sept.— Oct. u. • 2 ft. high , 
lea*t$ broad-linear ; spik. a Utile spreading; pedi- 
fj \-jl. subovate, large. 
. r itoloniferum : Bpikes in elongated racemes, -onv 


what verticillate,spreading ; flowers serrulate ciliate, 
transversely rugose ; leaves short, subcordate j 
culm procumbent at base. 
HAB. Cedar swamps. July— Aug. U . Stoloniferous ; 
spik. 3—50^. ; fi. alternate. 

47. MILIUM. Millet-grass. 

4. M. effusum: panicle diffuse, compound; branches 
horizontal ; glumes ovate, very obtuse ; corolla 
awnless, smooth and shining ; leaves broad-linear. 
HAB. Woods. July. U . 5—8/*. high, smooth; 
panic, alternate, loose. 

3. M. amphicarpon : leaves linear-lanceolate, hairy, 
ciliate ; panicle simple, contracted, bearing perfect 
flowers ; fertile flowers in solitary, elongated, radi- 
cal scapes at length subterraneous. 
HAB. Sandy swamps. Aug. — Sept. % . Cespitose r 
1 — 2 ft. high, assurgent ; panic, appress., at 
length ventricose ; glum, acuminate. 

3. M. pungens : culm erect ; leaves lanceolate, very 
short, pungent, at length involute ; panicle con- 
tracted ; branches generally by pairs, 2-flowered j 
flowers awnless, ovate ; corolla hairy. 
HAB. Rocky hills. May. % . 12— 18 in. high, ri- 
gid ; culm leaves very short; panic, few -fi. ; style 
2-parted ; nect. lanceolate. 


P. nigrum: panicle simple ; flowers racemose, ovate- 
lanceolate ; corolla black, hairy ; awn as long again 
as the valves. 

HAB. Mountains and rocky places. Aug. 1J. . Culm 
2 — 3 ft. high, leafy; panic, few-fl.fiexuous ; nect. 

49. STIPA. Feather-grass. 

S. avenucea : leaves setaceous ; panicle spreading. 

somewhat secund ; branches mostly by pairs, a 

little divided ; calyx as long as the seed ; awn 

HAB. Sandy woods. June. ii . 2-ft. high ; leaves 

mostly rad. narrow ; cor. stipit. brownish : awn 2 — - 

3 in. long. 



A. dichotoma : cespitose ; culm dichotomous ; flowers 
racemose-spiked ; lateral awns very short ; the in- 
termediate one contorted. 

HAB. Fields and dry hills. Sept. 0. 8— 12 in 
high, slender; cor. l-vahed ; lat. awns straight. 

A. striata : culm and leaves straight, erect ; leaves pu- 
bescent ; raceme long, somewhat spiked, crowded : 
awns twice as long as the corolla, spreading. 

HAB. Sandy soils, y. . Cespitose,2 — oft. high ; /car. 
long, convolute at the extrem. ; cor, hairy at base. 

A. purpuracens : culm filiform, erect, simple ; leaves 
very narrow, flat ; flowers in a long spiked panicle ; 
awns nearly equal, twice the length of the corolla, 

HAB. Sandy fields and woods. Sept. — Oct. U . 2 ft. 
high; leav. filiform at the ext. ; panic. many-fi.> 


M. diffusa: culm diffuse, (decumbent;) leaves linear- 
lanceolate ; panicle branched, appressed ; awns as 
long as the corolla. 

HAB. Dry hills and fields. Aug. — Sept. U . Culm 
genie, slender; pan. lat. and term.; cal. scarcely 


T. laxijlorum : culm erect; leaves setaceous, ami 
with the sheaths somewhat scabrous ; panicle dif- 
fuse, capillary, with Irichotomous branches ; calyx 
HAB. Dry swnmps and fields. May — June. 11. Jifool 
and a half high, filif. ; pun. at length pyramidal, 
T, scobrum: culm geniculate at the base, assurgent. 
branched ; leaves linear-lanceolate, flat, striate, sca- 
brou : sheaths mostly smooth ; panicle verticillate 
and divaricate ; calyx unequal ; corolla ovate, acute. 
'■-iH'i ved. 

Dry wgods. Aug.— Sept. )J . 12—18 in. 


leaves broad, pale green; panic, concealed at (he 

3. T. elatum: culm erect, firm ; leaves narrow-linear, 

flat, scabrous ; sheaths smooth ; panicle verticillate 
a little spreading ; glumes nearly equal. 
HAB. Sanrly swamps. Aug. % . Cespitose,3ft.high, 
firm; panic, purp. ; cor. shorter than the calyx. 

4. T. montanum: culm cespitose, erect ; leaves invo- 

lute, filiform, and as well as the sheaths, scabrous ; 
panicle capillary, loose, a little spreading ; glume? 
HAB. Mountains. July. %. 8—12 in. high, filiform . 
panic, elongated, semiverticill., flex, hispid; glum, 
nerveless ; cor. longer than the calyx. 

53. AGROST1S. Bent-grass. 

1. A. stricta : panicle elongated, straight ; calyx equal : 
corolla smaller than the calyx ; valves unequal, with 
an awn at the base of the inferior valve, longer thai. 
the flower. 
HAB. Fields. June. Culm erect, with black nodes; 
awn twice as long as the flower. 

'2. A. vulgaris ; branches of the panicle smooth ish, at 
length divaricate ; inferior valve of the corolla 3- 
nerved ; stipule very short and truncate. 
HAB. Meadows and pastures. June — Aug. U . Root 
creeping; culm 12 — 18 in. high; pan. capill. ; fl. 

3. A. alba: branches of the panicle hispid, spreading, 

loose ; inferior valve of the corolla 5-nerved ; sti- 
pule oblong. 
HAB. Fields and pastures. June — Aug. If.. Root 
creeping ; culm assurgent, often sobolif ; panic, ca- 

4. A. lateriflora : culm erect, branched above, sobo- 

liferous at the base ; panicles lateral and terminal, 
contracted, dense ; calyx acuminate ; corolla short- 
er than the calyx, equal, pubescent at the base, 
HAB. Swamps and wet meadows. Aug. — Sept. U . 
Root creeping ; culm 2 ft. high, with swelling nvdcs 
panicles spike form. 


0. jiUformis : panicles very slender ; corolla nearly 

equalling the calyx. 
HAB. Swamps and wet places. Sept. 
>. A. sobolifera ; culm erect, branched ; panicle con- 
tracted, filiform, simple ; branches npprossed , co- 
rolla longer than the equal calyx, hairy at the base ; 
valves equal, awnless, mucronute at the tip. 
HAB. Rocky hills and woods. Aug. — Sept. 4. . Culm 
sobolif, sometimes deai'ib., 2 ft. high; nodes not 
•i. A. tenuijlora: culm nearly simple, pubescent about 
the joints; branches (if any) appressed ; stipules 
obsolete ; panicle contracted, filiform : corolla 
longer than the calyx ; inferior valve with an awn 
twice as long as the flower. 
HAB. Rocky woods. July — Aug. y. . RoA creeping ; 
culm 3 ft. high ; sheaths mostly pubescent. 
',. A. sylvatica : culm erect, much branched, diffuse, 
smooth ; stipules lacerate ; panicle filiform ; corolla 
longer than the calyx ; awns three times as long as 
the flower. 
HAB. Rocky situations. Aug. 4- Root creeping; 
culm 2 — 3ft. high ; sheaths open and smooth. 
'. A. compresso : whole plant very smooth ; culm erect, 
compressed, simple ; panicle oblong, subcontracted j 
with capillary branches ; calyx equal, shorter than 
the corolla, acute ; corolla rather obtuse, smooth at 
the b 
HAB. Sandy swamps. Sept. U . Root creeping ; culm 
sobolif. ; leav. linear, long, compress. ; sheaths cari- 
nate ; pan. pur p. 
'. A. terotina: culm filiform, ranch compressed ; leaves 
very narrow erect; panicle attenuate; 

\ unequal, hall is the awnless corolla. 

HAB. Sandy Bwamps. Sept. If. 12 — 18 in high; 
leav. almost ft I if ; part, glem 
JO. A. juncea: leaves straight and erect, convolutelji 
taceous; panicle oblong pyramidal, vert icilla 
flowers awnless ; calyx half the length of the co- 
HAB. Barren sandy places. Ort.y.. Culm 1 — 2 ft 
high t terete ; Jl. purp. : cal. unequal; nect. oho- 


11. A. virginica: culms numerous, procumbent at the 

base, assurgent ; leaves subdistichous, involute, 
rigid ; panicles lateral and terminal, spike-form ; 
the lateral ones concealed ; calyx equal, about as 
long as the corolla. 
HAB. Sandy soils. Sept.— Oct. © ? A foot high ; 
leav . hairy at base ; sheaths swelled ; stip.O; anth. 

12. A. longifolia: panicle contracted, spiked, generally 

concealed ; corolla much longer than the calyx, 
subequal, smooth and spotless, without awns .; 
leaves very long, filiform and recurved at the apex. 
HAB. Sandy hills and fields. Sept.— Oct. If. Culm 
2 — 4 ft. high; simple, terete; leaves 2 ft. long; 
pan. sometimes exserted ; fl. compress. 

13. A. clandestina: panicle spiked, partly concealed: 

corolla unequal, much longer than the calyx, hairy 
and spotted, slightly awned ; leaves very long. 
HAB. Dry hills. Sept. H . Culm 2 ft. high, terete ; 
pan. often sooty ; glum, carinate. 

54. CINNA. 

C. arundinacea : panicle large, capillary, loose ; 

leaves broad-linear ; culm smooth. 
HAB. Swamps and wet woods. Aug. — Sept. H 

Culm 2—bft. high ; leav. pale green ; fl. green. 


P. racemosus : panicle dense, conglomerate, inter- 
rupted ; bristles of the calyx scabrous ; corolla un- 
armed, hairy at the base ; culm branched. 

HAB. Bog-meadows. Aug.— Sept. If.. Culm 3— 4 
ft. high, compress.; branch, appress. ; leav. flat : 
pan. 2 in. long. 


T. capillaris : leaves convolute, filiform, smooth; 

panicle diffuse, capillary, very slender ; pedicels 

longer than the awns ; awns 3—4 times the length 

of the flower. 
HAB. Sandy pine woods. Sept.— Oct. If. Cespi* 

lose, 2 ft. high, slender; pan. long, purple, very 



57. ARUNDO. 

A. canadensis: panicle oblong, loose ; glumes sca- 
brous, pubescent, as long as the corolla ; corolla 
awned on the back ; hairs at the base equalling the 
valves ; culm and leaves smooth. 

HAB. Bog-meadows. Aug. If. Cnlm3—4ft.high, 
mostly simple ; inf. sheaths pubesc. ; pan. purple. 

A. coarctata: panicle somewhat spiked, conglomerate ; 
calyx a little longer than the corolla, carinate ; co- 
rolla longer than the pappus, awned a little below 
the tip. 

HAB. Bog-meadows. July — Aug. If.. Culm 3 — 5 ft. 
high; pun. straight and erect, never spreading. 

A. brevipilis: panicle diffuse, capillary; calyx un- 
equal, shorter than the corolla, bearded at the base ; 
corolla equal, awnless, hairy ; pappus very short. 

HAB. Sandy swamps. Sept. If. Culm 3—4 ft. high, 
terete ; pan. pyram. loose ; cal. hairy at base. 

58. PSAMMA. 

P. armaria : panicle spiked ; calyx acute ; corolla 
three times as long as the pappus ; leaves involute. 

HAB. Sea-coast. Aug. y.. Roots long, creeping; 
culm 2 — 3 ft. high, rigid; pan. cylind. white ; fi. 


C. virginica : spike oblong-cylindrical, thick and 
lobed ; culm procumbent and geniculate ; leaves at 
length involute, rigid, pungent. 

HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. — Oct. Culm branched, 
spreading ; leav.flat, divaric. ; spik. lat. and term. 

GO. ALOPECURUS. Fox-tail grass. 

A. pratensis: culm erect, smooth ; spike cylindrical, 
obtuse, lobed ; calyx ciliate, somewhat villose, con- 
nate below the middle ; corolla as long as the 

HAB. Fie!. Is. June— July. If. Culm 2— 4 ft. high ; 
leav.jlat; spik. 1 .! in. long; awn twice as long as 
the flower ; sty I. connate. 

niculutus : culm ascending, geniculate ; spik* 


cylindrical ; glumes a little connate at the base ; 

hairy on the back and margin ; corolla truncate ; 

styles free 
HAB. Wet meadows. June, il . Root creeping; 

culm IB in. high, rooting below ; awn as long again 

as the corolla. 
.3. aristulatus : awn scarcely exserted. 
HAB. Wet meadows. June. 

61. PHLEUxM. Cat's-tail grass. 
P. pratense: spike cylindric, calyx mucronate-awned ; 

keel ciliate ; awn shorter than the calyx ; culm 

HAB. Fields and pastures. June — Aug. l|. . Culm 

2 — 3 ft. high; leav. glauc, smooth ; anth. purp. 

62. CYNODON. Bermuda-grass. 

C. dactylon: culm creeping ; spikes digitate, (4 — 5,) 
spreading ; keel of the calyx scabrous ; leaves hairy 
on the margin and towards the base ; sheaths hairy. 

HAB. Sandy soils. Aug. U . Root long, creeping , 
culm stolonif. ; leav. subdistich. ; spik. slender. 


G. racemosum. 

HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. «. . Culm 1— 2 ft. high 

assur gent, leafy ; leav. ovate-Ian., spreading, distich. : 

pan. large, pyram. ; Jl. oppress., sess. 

64. PHALARIS. Canary-grass. 

P. americana : panicle oblong, spiked ; glumes boat- 
shaped, serrulate ; corolla unequal ; rudiments hairy. 

HAB. Bog-meadows. July. lj. . Culm 2 — 5 ft. high, 
terete ; leaves broad-linear ; pan. a little spreading 
when old. 

P. canariensis : panicle subspiked, ovate ; calyx boat- 
shaped, entire at the apex ; rudiments smooth. 

HAB. Pastures. July.©. 18 m. high; sheaths in- 

. ANTHOXANTHUM. Sweet-scented vernal-grass. 

A. odoratum: spike ovate- oblong ; flowers pubes- 
cent, subpeduncled, shorter than their awn=. 


HAB. Meadows, dry woods, &c. May — Aug. ty . 
Afoot high; leav. pubesc. ; pan. spiked ; seed black. 


B. aristatum. 

HAB. Rocky hills. June — July, 1/. Root creeping , 

culm erect> simp., 2 — 3 ft. high ; pan. racemose ; awn> 

twice as long as the fl. 

61. PHRAGMITES. Reed-grass. 

P. communis: calyx about 5-flowered ; florets longer 

than the calyx. 
HAB. Borders of ponds, and swamps. Aug. If.. Culm 

6 — 12 ft. high, thick; leav. 1 — 2 in. broad; pan. 

large nodding ; fl. silky. 


G. Jluitans : panicles secund, slightly branched ; 

spikelets linear, terete, appressed, 8 — 12-flowered ; 

florets very obtuse, 7-nerved ; leaves long, flat. 
HAB. In water. June — July. 2£. Root creeping, 

cidm 3 — 5 ft. high, compress., assurg. ; pan. long, 

G. acutiflora : panicle simple, elongated, appressed ; 

spikelets linear, terete, 4 — 12-flowered ; florets 

attenuate, acute, indistinctly nerved ; leaves short, 

HAB. Wet meadows. June. Culm 2 — 4 ft. high, 

subcompress. ; stip. elongat. ; pan. long, concealed at 

the base. 

69. UNIOLA. Spike-grass. 

U. latifolia: leaves broad and flat; panicle loose, 
nodding ; spikelets all on long peduncles ; florets 
somewhat ialcate, monandrous ; the lowest one 

HAB. Mountains and rocky woods. Au<r. 1/. Culm 
Aft. high ; pan. very large ; spik. an inch long, flat, 

I . gracilis : panicle elongated, racemose, appressed 
spikelets 3-flowered ; florets spreading, straight, 
monandrous; the lowest one abortive. 

1 1 A 13 . Sandy swamps. Aug. 1^. Culm 3 — 1 ft. high, 


very slender; panic, with solitary branches; spik. 
broad-cuneate ; anth. and stig. dark purple. 
3, U. spicata: panicle spiked, straight ; leaves involute, 
distichous, spreading ; spikelets 5 — 9-flowered ; 
florets triandrous. 
HAB. Salt-marshes, and on the sea-coast. Aug.— 
Sept. If. Root long, creeping ; culm 12 — 18 in. 
high ; spik. ovate, yellowish-green ; nect. obovate. 

70. BRIZA. Quaking-grass. 
B. media : panicle erect ; spikelets at length cordate, 

about 7-flowered ; calyx smaller than the florets. 
HAB. Meadows. May. If. Culm 1 Sin. high; stip. 

obtuse ; panic, capill. ; spik. tumid, purplish ; cor. 


71. POA. Meadow-grass. 

1. P. annua: panicle subsecund, divaricate ; spikelets 

ovate-oblong, 5-flowered ; florets free ; culm ob- 
lique, compressed ; root fibrous. 
HAB. Fields, pastures, &c. April— Aug. 0. Ces- 
pitose, 6 — 8 in. long ; panic, rather crowded, at 
length spreading ; cur. pubescent, b-nerved. 

2. P. fasciculata : panicle expanding ; branches straight. 

fasciculate, crowded ; spikelets oblong, 3-flowered ; 
florets free ; calyx minute, unequal ; culm oblique, 
terete ; root fasciculate. 
HAB. Salt-marshes. Aug. If. Culm 1— 2 ft. high, 
firm; panic, at first oppressed; spik. subracemose ; 
cor. smooth. 

.:. P. dentata : panicle loose, somewhat spreading : 
branches capillary, virgate ; spikelets lanceolate, 5- 
flowered ; calyx' free ; florets unequal ; inferior 
glume obtuse, 3-nerved ; inferior valve of the co- 
rolla 5-nervcd, 5-toothed at the apex when old. 
HAB. Shady swamps. June— July. If. Root creep- 
ing ; culm 3 ft. high; leav. and spik. pale green.; 
pan. at first nodding. 

4. P. aquatica j&. americana : panicle erect, semi-verti- 
cillate, diffuse ; branches flexuous, smooth ; spike- 
lets linear, 6 — 8-flowered ; florets ovate, obtuse, 
free ; leaves broad-linear, and as well as the sheaths, 


HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. %. Culm 4 — 5, thick, 

leafy ; pan. very large, at first nodding ; spik. purp. 

5. P. maritima : panicle branched, somewhat crowded ; 

spikelets about 5-flowered, terete ; florets rather 

obtuse, indistinctly 5-flowered ; root creeping. 

HAB. Salt-marshes. June. If. A foot high ; leav. 
involut. ; pan. erect, somewhat flexuous ; spik. linear, 
purplish ; fi. woolly at base. 
G. P. brevifolia : panicle loose ; branches in pairs, hori- 
zontal ; calyx 3 — 4-flowered ; corolla pubescent ; 
leaves very short; stipules, acuminate. 

HAB. Mountains and woods. April. % . Culm 2 ft. 
high, erect, and obliq. ; inf. leav. very short ; spike- 
lets loose ; fl. distant. 
7 P. pungens : culm compressed ; leaves very short, 
cuspidate ; panicle somewhat simple, spreading ; 
spikelets ovate, 3-4-flowered ; florets webbed, 
rather obtuse, obscurely 5-toothed. 

HAB. Rocky situations. April. 2£. Culm 18 in. high, 
subancipit. ; culm leaves about 2, erect ; pan. semi- 
verticil., capill. 
3. P. pratensis : panicle diffuse ; upper leaves much 
shorter than the smooth sheaths ; florets acute, 5- 
nerved, webbed at the base ; stipule short, truncate ; 
root creeping. 

HAB. Meadows and pastures. May — July. y.. Pan, 
pyramid. ; spik. ovate ; glum, unequal. 

9, P. trivialis : panicle equal, diffuse, spikelets oblong- 

ovate, about 3-flowered ; florets webbed at tht 
base, 5-nerved ; culm sheaths roughish ; stipule ob- 
long ; root creeping. 
HAB. Moist meadows. June — Aug. If.. Culm 2-3 ft. 
high, stolonif. ; pan. pyramidal; stipule elongated. 

10. P. compressa: panicle contracted, somewhat secund , 

spikelets oblong, 3-6-flowered ; florets webbed ; 

glumes nearly equal ; culm oblique, compressed ; 

root creeping. 
HAB. Fields and dry hills. June — July. If.. Culm a 

foot high, assurgent ; leav. glauc. ; panicle sub-spiked. 
3. sylvestris : panicle loose, spreading ; spikelets 8-3* 

flowered ; culm slender, nearly erect. 
IIAB. In dry woods. July. 


11. P. serotina: panicle elongated, diffuse, at length 

somewhat secund ; spikelets ovate-lanceolate, 2- 
3-flowered ; florets a little webbed at the base, 
yellow at the tip, obscurely 5-nerved ; root 
HAB. In wet meadows. June. If.. Culm 2-4 feet 
high; pan. ap press, when young > cal. often 2 fl. ; 
anth. yellow. 

12. P. nemorafis: panicle attenuated, weak; branches 

flexuous ; spikelets ovate, about 3-flowered ; 
florets loose, slightly webbed, acute, obsoletely 
nerved ; stipule almost wanting. 
HAB. Rocky woods. July. If. Pale green; pan. 
capillary ; florets at length distant. 

13. P. nervata : panicle equal, diffuse ; branches weak, 

and at length pendulous; spikelets 5-flowered; 
florets free, conspicuously 7-nerved, obtuse. 
HAB. In wet meadows and in ditches. June. ij. . 
Culm 3-4 ft. high; pan. large, many-fl. ; spik. 
ovate ;fl. deciduous ; slam, mostly 2. 

J4. P. elongata: panicle elongated, racemose ; branches 
solitary, appressed ; spikelets ovate, obtuse, tumid, 
3-flowered ; florets free; stipule almost wanting. 
HAB. Wet meadows. June — July. U. . Culm 3 feel 
high, dark green ; pan. nodding ;fl. 5-nerved. 

15. P. obtusa : panicle ovate* contracted ; spikelets 
ovate, tumid, 5-7-flowered ; florets free ; glumes 
scarious ; corolla ovate, smooth, obtuse ; inferior- 
valve indistinctly 7-nerved ; leaves as long as the 
culm, and with the sheaths smooth. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. — Sept. l* . Culm. 3-4 ft. high. 
firm ; leav. long, dark green ; pan. dense, many-fl. : 
spik. large. 

10. P. canadensis : panicle large, eftuse ; spikelets semi- 
verticillate, flexuous, at length pendulous ; spike* 
lets ovate, tumid, 5-8-flowered ; florets free ; infe- 
rior valve somewhat acute, 7-nerved ; superior 
valve very obtuse ; stamens 2. 
HAB. Swamps. July — Aug. y. . Culm 3-4//. high. ; 
leav. long ; pan. at first pyramidal, at length much 
spreading and pendulous. 

17. P. capillaris : panicle very large, loose, expanding. 


capillary ; spikelets 3-flowered, ovate, acute ; flo- 
rets free ; culm branched at the base ; leaves hairy, 
HAB. Sandy fields, and dry hills. Aug. 0. Culm 12- 
18 in. high, branch, at base; stip. bearded; pan. 
pyramidal, branched, not hairy at the base. 

18. P. hirsuta: culm erect, compressed, simple ; sheaths 

hairy ; panicle very large, capillary ; branches 

expanding, at length reflexed, bearded in the axils ; 

spikelets oblong, about 5-flowered ; corolla ciliate 

on the margin. 
HAB. Sandy fields. July — Aug. U . Culm firm, 

straight; leav. longer than the culm ;Jl. purplish. 
3. spectabilis : spikelets linear, 10-15-tlowered. 
HAB. Sandy fields on the sea-shore. Taller than the 

preceding , spik. purp. -*- in. long. 

19. P. pectinacea : culm cespitose, oblique ; leaves hairy 

at the base ; panicle capillary, expanding, pyrami- 
dal, hairy in the axils ; spikelets linear, 5 — 9- 
flowered ; florets free, acute ; superior valve of 
the corolla persistent. 
1IAB. Sandy places — wet or dry. July — Aug. 0. 
Culm 8-12 in. high, genie, or decumb. at the base ; 
pan. large ; fl. purplish. 
10. P. reptans : dioecious ; culm branched, creeping , 
panicle fascicled ; spikelets linear-lanceolate, 12- 
20-flowered ; florets acuminate. 
HAB. Swamps and river banks. July — Aug. 0. 
Culm a span long, slender; leav. subulate ; pan. 1- 
2 in. long ; glum, very acute. 
'). Eragrostis : panicle equal, spreading; the lower 
branches hairy in the axils ; spikelets linear- 
lanceolate, 9-15-flcwered ; florets obtuse ; root 
HAB. Sandy fields, July — Aug. 0. Culm ]V> in. 
high, genie, at base ; spik. large ; lead-colour ; jl. 
often verrucosc on the keel. 


'■ . pennsyhanica : leaves flat, and with the sheaths 
loftl) pubescent ; panicle oblong, slender, rathe; 
loose; calyx 2-flowered; glumes nearly equal; 
the inferior oblong, obtuse and slightly mucronutc. ; 
superior ralve of the con >qs. 


HAB. woods. May— June U . Culm erect. 2 ft, 
high, simple ;fl. shining, 
i. K. truncata : leaves flat, smooth ; panicle oblong, 
racemose ; calyx 2-flowered, with a third abortive 
floret, unequal ; inferior glume a little scabrous, 
obtuse ; corolla glabrous. 
HAB. Dry woods. June If. Culm 2ft. high, slen* 
der ; cal. very unequal ; inf. glum, obliquely trun- 
p. jnajor : panicle large, a little spreading ; leaves 
broad-linear, very long. 


U. aristulata : lateral panicles concealed in the sheaths 
of the leaves ; terminal ones partly exsert ; calyx 
3-flowered ; bristle of the corolla as long as the 
lateral cusps. 
HAB. Sandy sea-shore, and in fields. Aug. 0. 
Cespitose, procumb. at base; leaves subulate, pun- 
gent, hairy ;fl. axill. and term., purple. 


T. seslerioides : panicle expanding and flexuous : 
spikelets all pedunculate, about 6-flowered, lanceo- 
late ; inferior valve of the corolla ovate, 5-toothed. 

HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. y. . Culm 4-5 ft. high, 
erect, smooth ; pan. very large, purp. ; glum, une- 
qual, ovate, mucronate. 

75. FESTUCA. Fescue-grass. 

J. F. Myurus : panicle slender, crowded, equal ; spike- 
lets about 4-flowered ; florets subulate, awned. 
hairy, monandrous. 
HAB. Sandy soils. June © Culm 6-8 in. high, 
genie, at base ; leav. subulate ; awn twice as long as 

I. F. tenella : panicle spiked, very simple, secund ; 
spikelets mostly 9-flowered ; bristles shorter than 
the subulate florets ; culm iilifiorm, angular above ; 
leaves setaceous. 
HAB. Sandy soils and on hills. June. 0. Culms 
numerous, 8-14 in. high, straight: sheaths pubes- 
cent ; cal. decid. 


'-'», F. duriuscula : panicle secund, oblong, contracted ; 
spikelets 5 — 6-flowered, nearly terete ; florets ter- 
minated by short bristles ; root fibrous. 
HAB. Fields and pastures. June. y.. Culm 12—18 
in. high; leav. narrow; stam. 3. 

4. F. rubra: panicle secund, erect, spreading; spike- 

lets somewhat terete ; florets longer than the bris- 
tle at their tips ; leaves, pubescent above ; root 
HAB. Dry soils. June. If.. Culm afoot and a half 
high, erect, pubesc. ; leav. setaceous, very long; 
glum, red after flowering . 

5. P. elatior : panicle spreading, much branched, loose ; 

spikelets ovate-lanceolate, 4 — 5-flowered ; florets 
slightly armed ; leaves flat ; root creeping. 
HAB. Wet meadows. June. If. Culm 3 — 4 ft. high, 
terete, smooth; stip. very short ; pan. large, nodding 
when old. 

.:. F. pratensis : panicle spreading, branched ; spikelets 
linear, many-flowered, acute ; leaves linear ; root 
I1AB. Meadows and fields. June — July. %. Culm 
1 — 2 ft. high, erect, smooth ; pan. subsecund, nearly 
simple; spic. 7 — 8-jfl. ;fl. not mucronate. 

T. F. nutans: panicle diffuse, at length nodding; 
branches long, geminate, naked below ; spikelets 
ovate, 3 — 5-flowered ; florets somewhat obtuse, 
unarmed, nerveless. 
HAB. Woods and shaded rocky places. June. If. 
Culm oft. high, dark green ; stip. very short; pan. 
few-Jl., scab. ; cor. coriaceous. 

■ . P. fascicularis : culm procumbent, geniculate ; pani- 
cle subsecund ; branches straight, spike-like ; spike- 
lets appressed, 8 — 10-flowered; florets armed; 
leaves very long. 

\\'>. Meadows and sandy soils, near the sea. Aug. 0. 
Culm much branch, from the base; leaves attcn. ; pan. 
erect, spreading. 

i. F. clandestina: panicle partly concealed in the 
sheaths ; branches solitary, simple ; 9 10- 

fiowered ; florets awned. 
JIAB. New- York. ( ipan high: leav. Un. : 

rs-.and jicdi 'erm.byathortl 




C. nnioloides : panicle nodding, spreading ; spikelets 
oblong-lanceolate, compressed, 6 — 8-flowered ; flo- 
rets acuminate, unarmed ; sheaths bearded at the 
throat ; the lower ones hairy ; root fibrous. 

HAB. Rich bottom lands. July — Aug. © and U. 
Culm 12 — 18 in. high; leav. pubesc; pan. small: 
branch, geminate, pubesc. 


D. americana. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. U . Culm erect, nearly naked, 
slender; leav. rad. ; broad; pan. racemose; spik. 
about 2-fl. ;fl. diverging ; cor. smooth ; stam. 2 — 3. 

78. DACTYLIS. Orchard-grass. 

O. glomerata : panicle secund, glomerate ; leave* 

HAB. Fields, meadows, &c. May — June. U. Culm 

2 — 3ft. high ; panic, contract, glum, strongly ciliate. 


D. spicata : panicle simple, appressed ; spikelel* 
7 — 9, about 7-flowered ; inferior valve of the co- 
rolla hairy ; leaves subulate ; lower sheaths hairy 
at the throat. 

TIAB. Dry woods and sandy fields. June — July. U . 
Culm cespitose, 18 in. — 2 ft. high ; leav. hairy above ; 
pan. spiked. 


I. T. palustre: panicle contracted, nodding, somewhat 
verticillate ; calyx 2 — 3-flowered ; florets smooth, 
acuminate ; the inferior one swnless ; inferior valve 
of the superior floret bicuspidate, awned below the 
HAB. Wet meadows. June — July. U . Culm 1 — 2 
ft. high, erect ; leav. flat, smooth ; pan. few fl., pah 

1. T. purpurascens : panicle very simple, somewhat 
racemose, few-flowered ; calyx 3-flowered ; glumes 



very unequal, entire ; culm and leaves smooth : 
stipule very short, truncate. 
HAB. Mountain meadows. June. H . Culm 2 ft. high. 
leafy ; pan. sub-racemose ; spik. terete ; cal. purple. 

81. BROMUS. Brome-grass. 

B. secalinus : panicle spreading, a little branched ; 
spikelets oblong-ovate, compressed ; florets about 
10, distinct, rather remote, longer than the flex- 
uous bristles, leaves somewhat hairy. 

HAB. Cultivated grounds. June. 0. Culm 2 — 3 
ft. high ; nodes swelled and pub esc. ; leav. dark green : 
pan. ovate, flat when old. 

B. mollis : panicle erect, contracted ; spikelets ob- 
long-ovate, somewhat compressed, pubescent ; bris- 
tle straight, as long as the corolla; leaves very 
softly pubescent. 

HAB. Fields and pastures. June. $ . Culm 2 ft. 
high, mostly pubesc. ; leav. pale green ; spik. 5 — 10-fl. 

B. purgans: panicle nodding; spikelets lanceolate. 
terete ; florets hairy ; bristle straight ; leaver- 
smooth ; sheaths hairy. 

HAB. Wet meadows and banks of rivers. Aug. U . 
Culm 4 ft. high, smooth; sheaths rctrorsehj hairy; 
spik. 6—8-/. 

B. ciliatus: panicle nodding ; spikelets oblong, terete, 
8 — 10-flowered ; glumes acute, (not mucronate,) 
ciliate ; corolla hairy ; margin villosely ciliatc : 
bristle short. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. June. y. . Culm 3 ft. high, 
pubesc. at the joints ; leav. pale green, hairy both 
sides ; pan. zvith 2 bracts at base. 

B. pubesccns : panicle at length nodding; spikelet- 
lanceolate, terete ; florets pubescent ; leaves and 
lower sheaths pubescent. 

HAB. Woods. June. U. Culm 4 ft. high, hairy 
below ; leaves smooth beneath. 


A. avenaceum: panicle equal, nodding ; nun as long 
again as the flower ; culm geniculate, smooth ; root 

"' u 'une. \\ . Root creeping; culm 


high ; pan. loose ; fi. brownish, hairy at base ; awn 
2. A. pennsylvanicum : panicle attenuated ; awn twict 
as long as the florets ; seed villous. 
HAB. Fields and open woods. July. U. Culm smooth 
branches of the pan. short ; awn genie. 

83. AVENA. Oat-grass. 
A. prcecox : panicle in a dense raceme ; florets i\s 

long as the calyx ; awn exserted ; leaves setaceous. 
HAB. Sandy fields. June. 0. Cespitose, 3 — 4 in. 

high ; sheaths angular ; pan. oblong ; spik. 2-fi. . 

cal. longer than the fi. 

84. AIR A. Hair-grass. 

1. A. Jlexuosa : panicle spreading, trichotomous . 

branches flexuous ; calyx a little shorter than the 
florets, and about the length of the awn ; leaves 
setaceous ; culm nearly naked. 
HAB. Rocky hills. June. U. Culm 1J— 2 ft. high ; 
leav. mostly rad. ; pan. capill. ; cor. hairy at base. 

2. A. cespitosa: panicle diffuse ; florets about the length 

of the calyx ; awn short, straight ; leaves flat. 
HAB. Swamps. June. U . Culm cespit., 18 in. 
high ; leav. very narrow ; pan. capill. ; cal. blueish, 

3. A. arisiulata: panicle capillary, spreading; branches 

verticillate and flexuous ; calyx 2-flowered, shorter 
than the florets ; superior floret pedicellate ; infe- 
rior valve of the corolla truncate, laciniate, with an 
awn a little below the middle scarcely exserted. 
I. A. pumila : panicle small, fasthiiate, few-flowered •. 
pedicels short ; florets awnless, obtuse, twice the 
length of the calyx ; valves with membranaceous 
margins ; leaves flat, smooth ; culm erect, scarcely 
longer than the leaves. 
HAB. In barren clayey soil. June. ty. An inch 
high, growing in tufts. 

85. LOLIUM. Darnel. 

h L. perenne: florets much longer than the calyx, un- 
armed, linear-oblong, compressed ; root perennial. 
HAB. Meadows and road-sides. M,ay— June, U 


Root creeping ; culm 18 in. high, erect ; leaves smooth j 

spike 6 in. long ; rach.Jlex. 
L. temulentum : florets shorter than the calyx, as long 

as the bristle at their extremity ; root annual ; culm 

scabrous above. 
HAB. Meadows. July. Root Jib. ; culm 2 ft. high : 

spikelcts much compress., 5 — 1-fl. 

E. iiidica : spikes straight, erect, in pairs or quarter- 

nate ; rachis linear ; spikelets lanceolate, about b- 

flowered ; culm compressed, declined. 
HAB. Cultivated grounds, and road-sides. July — 

Novem. 0. Culm 8 — 12 in. high ; leav. distichous ; 

$pik. gen. in pairs ; rach. compress. 

87. TRITICUM. Wheat. 
T. (tstivum: spike parallel, compressed ; glumes 4- 

flowered, ventricose ; bristles generally much longer 

than the florets. 
IIAB. In neglected fields. June. 0. Culm 3 — 4 ft. 

high ; rach. articulat. ; brist. 2 — 3 in. long. 


A. repens : spikelets oblong, 5-flowered ; glumes sub- 
ulate, many-nerved ; florets acuminate ; leaves flat ; 
root creeping. 

IIAB. Fields and cultivated grounds. July. U. Root 
artic, white, very long ; culm 2 ft. high ; ft. some- 
times with a short bristle, 

A . caninum: spikelets about 5-flowered, compressed ; 
glumes 3-nerved, and, as well as the florets, armed 
with a bristle at the tip ; root fibrous. 

IIAB. Delaware, li . Culm 9. — 3 ft. high ; spik. some- 
times 6 -ft. : bristle longer than the flowers. 

80. SECALE. Rye. 
S. cereale : glumes and bristles scabrous-ciliate ; co- 
rolla smooth. 
UAB. Neglected fields. June. or $. Culm 3—4 
high : alum, ciliate, subulate ; bristle long 


90. ELYMUS. Lyme-grass. 

1 . E. virginicus : spike erect, coarctate ; spikelets in 

pairs, 2— 3-flowered; florets smooth ; glumes lan- 
ceolate, nerved. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. July — Aug. U. Culm 3 — 4 
ft. high; leav. bright-green ; spik. stiffly erect. 

2. E. canadensis : spike nodding at the extremity, patu 

lous ; spikelets 3 — 5-flowered ; florets hairy ; 

glumes linear-lanceolate. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. Aug. U . Root creeping 

culm 3 — 4 ft. high ; leav. dark-green; spik. gen, 

pendulous at the extrem. 
/3. glaucifolius : leaves glaucous. 
HAB. Rocky shores. Aug. 
:. E. villosus: spike a little nodding at the extremity. 

patulous ; , rachis and florets hispid-pilose ; spikelets 

geminate, 2 — 3-flowered ; glumes linear, pilose-cili- 

ate, 2-nerved, shorter than the florets. 
HAB. Dry hills. July. U . Culm 2—3 ft. high ; 

leaves long, 4 — 5 lin. broad ; spike at first erect. 
V. E. hystrix: spike erect ; spikelets diverging ; caly\ 

HAB. Rocky hills. July. U. Culm 3 ft. high; leav. 

often glauc; rack. flex. ; spik. 3 at each joint ; cal 

sometimes 1 — 2-leaved, or a rudiment. 

91. MELICA. Melic-grass. 

M. speciosa: smooth; panicle loose, erect, few-flow 
ered ; branches simple ; florets obtuse. 

HAB. Mountains. June. U . Cidm 3—4 ft. high 
leav. flat, pub es. beneath; pan. subsecund, 


A. apludoides : spikes racemose, distant, pendulous 
perfect floret with the inferior valve tricuspidate 
lateral bristles of the abortive floret half the length 
of the terminal one. 

HAB. Rocky hills. Aug. U. Culm 18 in. high, assur 
gent ; leav. at length involute ; spik. 20 — 40, oblong 
sess. f a?ith. red. 

93. PANICUM. Panic-grass. 
I P. Cms galli i racemes alternate and in pairs,, com 


pound ; rachis 5-angled ; glumes terminating in his- 
pid bristles ; sheaths glabrous. 
HAB. Along ditches, and in cultivated grounds. Aug- 
— Sept. ©• Culm 2 — 4 ft. high ; leav. broad and 
flat ; pan. dense ; bristles sometimes wanting. 

2. P. hispidum : panicle compound r nodding;, racemes 

alternate ; glumes terminating in hispid bristles 
sheaths hispid. 
HAB. Salt-marshes. Sept.— Oct. Q. Culm 3—4 ft. 
high, thick ; fl. always with bristles. 

3, P. clandestinum : culm with short axillary branches ; 

leaves broad-lanceolate, cordate at the base ; sheathe 
hispid, enclosing the short panicles ; abortive floret 
neuter, 2-valved ; superior valve obtuse. 

HAB. Shady moist places. July — Aug. H . Culm 
2 — 3 ft. high, erect and rigid ; leaves 1 in. broad ; 
pan. term, and lat. 
I. P. pedunculatum : culm dichotomous ; leaves broad- 
lanceolate, slightly hairy above, attenuate ; sheaths 
hispid and papillose ; panicle long-pedunculate, com 
pound, smooth ; spikelets ovate, smooth ; abortive 
tloret 2-valved ; superior valve half the length oi 
the inferior. 

HAB. Moist places in woods. July, U . Culm 3 — 4 
ft. high, much branched above ; leav. very acute ; pan . 
'). P. latifolium : culm mostly simple, bearded at tin 
joints ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, smooth, or with 
the sheaths, somewhat pubescent ; panicle terminal, 
a little exsert, simple, pubescent ; spikelets oblong- 
ovate ; abortive floret antheriferous, 2-valved ; su- 
perior valve subherbaceous, nearly as long as tin 
inferior, acute. 

HAB. Woods and shady thickets. June — July. If. 
Culm 1 ft. high / leav. 1 in. broad; pan. about \b-fl 
y. P. scoparium: whole plant softly villous ; leaves lan- 
ceolate ; panicle erect, compound, setaceous, much 
branched ; spikelets turgid, ovate, pubescent. 

HAB. New-Jersey. H. Culm 2 ft. high, mostly sim 
pie ; leav. somewhat waved ; fl. largest of our species. 
7. P. nervosum : culm simple ; nodes smooth ; leave* 
broad-lanceolate, smooth, a little ciliate on the mar- 


gin ; panicle much branched, smooth, many-flow- 
ered ; spikelets oblong ; abortive floret antherifer- 
ous, with the superior valve subherbaceous, shorter 
than the inferior. 
IIAB. Boggy meadows. July. U. Culm 3 — 4ft. high, 
smooth; leav. sub coriaceous ; pan. pedunc. or sessile ; 
fi. large. 
8. P. macrocarpon : culm erect, simple ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, erect, a little hairy beneath ; joints na- 
ked ; sheaths hispid ; panicle rather compound., 
smooth ; spikelets ovate-globose ; abortive floret 
11 AB. Banks of rivers. July. U . Culm 3 ft. high ; 
pan.few-fi.,flexuous ;fi. strongly nerved, subglobose; 
inf. glume very broad. 
>. P. pubescens : erect, much branched, leafy, softly- 
pubescent; leaves lanceolate, ciliate; panicle small, 
few-flowered, free ; spikelets subglobose-obovate, 
IIAB. Woods and fields. June. U- Culm 18 in. high : 
nodes hairy; sheaths retrorsely ciliate; pan. with 
horizon, branches. 
10. P. involution : culm cespitose, simple, or a little 
branched at the base ; leaves erect, somewhat rigid, 
very narrow, at length involute : panicle simple, 
few-flowered ; florets acuminate ; superior valve of 
the neuter floret very small. 
HAB. Massachusetts. U. Culm 1 ft. high ; leav. a 
little hairy; pan. 10—20-/. ; fi. large. 
H. P. depauperatum : culm cespitose, hairy at the 
joints ; leaves linear-lanceolate, smooth or hairy ; 
sheaths pubescent ; panicle few-flowered ; branches 
in pairs, one of them 2-£owered, the other 1 -flow- 
IIAB. Barren sandy soils. May — June. U . Culm 1 
ft. high ; lower leav. short ; pan. term. ; branches 
i2. P. dichotomum: culm much branched and dichoto- 
mous above ; branches fasciculate ; leaves very 
numerous, lanceolate, smooth, panicle simple, ca- 
pillary, lax ; abortive floret neuter ; superior valve 
minute, bifid. 


HAB. Dry woods. July — Sept. U. Culm erect ,B— 18 

in. high ; joints hairy ; leav. spreading ; fl. minute. 

si. curvatum : culm very tall, rather rigid ; branches 

few and a little curved. 
3. fasciculatum : culm low, erect or decumbent ; 
branches and leaves densely fasciculate ; panicle* 
very small, concealed among the leaves. 
y. gracile : culm tall, slender ; leaves membrana- 
HAB. ». In moist meadows. /3. In sandy fields, y. 
In swamps. 
13. P. nitidum : culm slender, simple, erect, smooth ; 
sheaths bearded at the throat ; leaves very few, 
broad-linear; panicle capillary, rather crowded, com- 
pound, remote, smooth ; spikelets minute, obtuse, 
ovate, slightly pubescent ; inferior glume very small. 
HAB. Meadows and woods. June— July. U . Culm 
18 in. — 2 ft. high, mostly simple ; nodes annulate ; 
leav. a little shilling. 
st. ciliatum : culm hairy ; leaves linear-lanceolate, 
(the lowest ones broader,) sparingly hirsute, ciliate 
on the margin ; panicle with the branches and flow- 
ers pubescent. 

|3. ramulosum: culm more branched; panicle con- 
tracted; branches smooth, 
y. gracile : culm very slender, smooth ; leaves very 
narrow, and with the sheaths smooth ; panicle 
nearly simple, few-flowered, smooth ; superior 
valve of the abortive floret minute, entire. ? 
fc pilosum : culm simple, very hairy ; lower leaver 
approximate, and broad, lanceolate ; upper one? 
linear, rather rigid, somewhat hairy on the upper 
surface, ciliate at the base ; sheaths villose and mi- 
nutely papillose ; panicle sub-contracted ; branches 
virgate, and with the flowers, pubescent. 
l, glabrum : smooth on every part, except the base 
of the leaves, nearly simple ; lower leaves short, 
approximate, sub-cartilaginous ; panicle branched, 
almost verticillate ; spikelets large ; superior valve 
of the abortive floret entire. 
f. barbatum : culm simple, smooth ; nodes hairy ; 
leaves linear-lanceolate ; sheaths smooth, except 
on the margin ; flowers minutely pubescent. 


HAB. ct. In pine-barrens. &. Sandy swamps, y. la 
woods. <$\ Dry woods, e. Meadows. £ WoocU 
and meadows. 

14. P. agrostuides : culm compressed, smooth, erect: 

leaves very long ; panicles lateral and terminal, 
pyramidal, spreading ; branches racemiferous ; 
spikelets appressed ; abortive floret neuter, with 
the valves nearly equal. 
HAB. Wet meadows. July— Sept. U . Culm 2—3 
ft. high ; leaves numerous at the root ; pan. dark 

15. P. virgatum: whole plant very smooth; panicle 

diffuse, very large ; flowers acuminate ; valves of 
the abortive floret nearly equal. 
HAB. Margins of salt marshes. July — Aug. U . 
Culm 3 — 4 ft. high ; leav. long^flat; pan. virgate ; 
spik. large. 

16. P. anceps : culm compressed ; sheaths ancipitous, 

pilose ; panicle with nearly simple branches : 
spikelets sub-racemose, much acuminate ; abortive 
floret neuter, with the superior valve bifid. 
HAB. Infields. July— Aug. U. Culm 3 ft. high : 
leav. very long ; pan. pyram. ; spik. appress. 

J 7. P. rectum : panicle solitary, shorter than the termi- 
nal leaf; branches simple, flexuous ; spikelets al- 
ternate, peduncled, obovate, turgid ; giumes stri- 
ate, acute ; leaves linear, straight, tapering to a 
sharp point, striate and scabrous above, hairy be- 
neath ; sheaths with very long hairs. 
HAB. Banks of rivers, July. U . 

18. P. verrvcosum : culm slender, decumbent and genic- 
ulate, branched below, and with the leaves smooth ; 
panicle much spreading, few-flowered ; flowers 
verrucose ; abortive floret 1-valved. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. U. Culm 18 in. high; nodes 
smooth; leav. bright green; pan. lot. and term.; 
fl. verrucose. 

Id. P. proliferum : culm assurgent, geniculate at base. 

very smooth ; panicles terminal and axillary ; 

smooth; spikelets racemose; abortive floret 1- 


HAB. Wet meadows. Sept. U . Whole plant very 


very smooth ; culm 2 — 4 ft. long, succul, ; leav. 
broad ; pan. large ; anth. orange. 

20. P. capillare : culm nearly simple ; sheaths very 

hairy ; panicle large, capillary, expanding, loose ; 

spikelets on long peduncles, acuminate, smooth ; 

abortive floret 1-valved. 
HAB. Cultivated grounds. Aug. — Sept. H . Culm 

erect, 1 — 2 ft. high; sheaths hispid; branch, of 

the pan. reflex, when old. 
/3. sylvaticum : culm branched at the base, very 

slender ; leaves linear. 
HAB. In dry woods. Aug. 

21. P. longifolium: whole plant very smooth; culm 

compressed, erect, simple, slender ; leaves very 
long and narrow ; panicle simple, elongated, race- 
mose ; spikelets acuminate ; abortive floret neuter, 
1 1 AB. Pine barrens. Sept.— Oct. 1| . Culm 2 ft. 
high ; pan. small, few-fl. ; inf. glume acuminate. 


1 . II. borealis : panicle subsecund, a little spreading ; 
peduncles smooth ; florets unarmed ; inferior valve 
of the corolla ciliate on the margin ; root creeping, 
I.IAB. Bog-meadows. May. U . Sweet-scented ; 
culm IS in. high; leav. smooth and shining; pan, 
few-fl. ; spik. brown and purple. 

1. U. alpina : panicle ovate, contracted ; spikelets com- 
pressed, longer than the branches ; glumes lance- 
olate, almost nerveless : lateral florets triandrous ; 
one of them with an awn about as long as the 
valves : sides almost smooth ; margin ciliate. 
HAB. High mountains. June. U . Culm 8 in. high, 
smooth, firm , fl. not tumid, larger than in the pre- 

95. HOLCUS. Soft grass. 

II. lanatus : panicle equal; florets shorter than the 
calyx, the superior with a recurved awn ; root 

HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. U . Whole plant hoary- ' ; culm 18 in. high • pan. oblong, contract, j 
fl. whitiihi 


I, S. viridis: spike cylindrical ; involucrum of 4 — 10 
fasciculate bristles, scabrous upward; spikelets 
geminate ; perfect floret smooth ; sheaths pubescent. 

HAB. Cultivated grounds. July — Aug. H. Culm \\ 
ft. high, simp. ; leav. smooth ; invoL longer than 
I. S. glauca: spike cylindrical: involucrum of many fas- 
cicled bristles, scabrous upward ; perfect floret 
transversely rugose. 

HAB. Fields and cultivated grounds. July — Aug. 0. 
Culm 2 ft. high ; invoL yellow when old. 

/3. purpurascens : sheaths hairy ; glumes and bristles 
of the involucrum purple. 
). S. verticillata : spike subverticillate ; bristles of the 
involucrum 2, retrorsely scabrous ; spikelets soli- 
tary ; corolla of the perfect floret nearly smooth. 

HAB. Sandy cultivated grounds. July. 0. Culm 
18 in, high, smooth; spike 2 in. long ; rach. hispid ; 
invol. purplish. 
}. S. italica : spike compound, interrupted at the base, 
nodding ; spikelets conglomerate ; involucrum many 
times longer than the flowers ; rachis tomentose. 

HAB. Borders of ditches. July — Aug. 0. Culm 4 ft. 
high, sub-compress.; pan, 6 — 8 in. long; invol. 
1 — 2 in. long. 

97. D1GITARIA. Crab-grass. 

1. D. sanguinalis : spikes numerous, fasciculate, a little 
spreading ; leaves and sheaths somewhat hairy : 
spikelets oblong ; florets pubescent on the margin. 
HAB. Cultivated grounds and waste places. Aug. U . 
Culm decumb. and assurg. ; spik. 4 — 6 ; rach. flex. ; 
spikelets by pairs. 
I. 1). glabra: spikes digitate, sub-alternate, (3 — 4,) 
spreading ; leaves and sheaths smooth ; spikelets 
ovate, crowded ; calyx equal to the abortive floret, 
both hairy. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. — Sept. 0. Culm mostly 
decumbent ; spik. much spreading, 2 in. long. 
.';. D. serotina : decumbent; leaves and sheaths verv 


pubescent ; spikes numerous, setaceous ; spikelels 

all pedicellate ; inferior glume very minute. 
HAB. Fields. U« ft° ut creeping; culm 12 — 18 in. 

D. filiformis : culm erect, filiform ; leaves somewhat 

glabrous ; spikes 2 — 4, filiform, erect ; spikelets in 

threes, all pedicellate ; calyx 1-valved, as long as 

the abortive floret, pubescent. 
HAB. Gravelly soils and sandy woods. Aug. 0. Culm 

simp., 12 — 18 in. high; leav. short ; spik. mostly 2. 

98. ANDROPOGON. Beard-grass. 

A. scoparium : spikes simple, lateral and terminal, 
pedunculate, in pairs ; rachis hairy ; abortive floret 
neuter ; valves awned. 

HAB. Barren soils. Aug. U . Culm 3 ft. high; lower 
sheaths hairy ; spik. slend.,flexuous. 

A. virginicwn • culm compressed ; superior leaves 
and sheaths smooth ; spikes short, 2 — 3 from each 
sheath, partly concealed at the base ; rachis sub- 
terete ; abortive flower a mere pedicel without 
valves ; perfect flower monandrous. 

HAB. Dry swamps. Sept. y.. Culm 3 ft. high ; inf. 
leav. hairy ; rachis pilose. 

A. macrourum : spikes fasciculate, in dense, lateral. 
and terminal fastigiate panicles ; flowers monan- 
drous; awn straight; abortive floret without valves. 

HAB. Swamps. Sept. — Oct. If.. Culm much branched 
above ; spikes vaginate, partly concealed. 

A. furcatum : spikes digitate, generally by fours; 
abortive flowers etaminiferous, awnless, resembling 
the perfect one, the awn of which is subcontorted 

HAB. Rocky banks. Aug. — Sept. 1*. . Culm 4 ft. 
high ; rati. !<dv. very long; cul. brownish. 

,\. nutans : panicle oblong, branched, nodding; spike- 
Lets by pairs; calyx hairy, rufescent; awn con- 

HAB. Fields and hills. Sept.— Oct. 11. CWro3— G 
ft. high; pan. large; abort, ft. a rudiment without 

HORDE! M. Bailey. 

M. y "latum: lateral flowers abortive, n eute J I 



of the calyx and corolla three times as long as the 
IIAB. Marshes. $. Culm 2 ft. high, slend. sim . 
bristles of theft, capillary. 


100. HOLOSTEUM. Caryophyllece. 

II. succulentum: leaves elliptical, fleshy. 
HAB. Coldenham, New-York. -f-. 

01. MOLLUGO. Indian-chickweed. Caryophylleit- 

M. verticillata: leaves verticillate, cuneiform, acute: 
stem branched, depressed; peduncles 1 -flowered, 

IIAB. Fields. July — Sept. 0. Stem prostrate, 
spreading, dichot. ; pedunc. axill. ;Jl. small, white. 

102. LECHEA. Caryophyllece. 

\ . L. major : plant hirsute on every part ; leaves ob- 
long-lanceolate, mucronate ; panicle leafy, pyrami- 
dal ; branches floriferous towards their extremities : 
flowers in fasciculate racemes, secund, on shori 
HAB. Dry woods and hills. Aug. 2£. Stem erect, 
often surculose ; ft. minute, round; stam. 3 — 9. 

2. L. minor: whole plant nearly glabrous ; stem assur* 

gent ; leaves linear-ianceolate, acute ; panicle leafy ; 
branches elongated ; flowers on short pedicels. 
HAB. Dry woods. Aug. — Sept. Stem slender, 8 in. 
high; ft. twice as large as the preceding. 

3. L. racemulosa : plant covered with an appressed pu- 

bescence ; stem erect, with slender, paniculate 
branches above ; leaves linear, acute, ciliate ; 
flowers rather remote, alternate ; raceme naked. 
HAB. Sandy fields. -f. 
1. L. thymifolia : whitish-villose on every part ; stem 
erect ; leaves linear, acute ; panicle leafy, elonga- 
ted ; branches short ; flowers minute, in lateral and 
terminal fascicles ; pedicels very short. 
HAB. Sandy sea-coast. Aug. ii . Stem a foot high, 
erect, firm, much branched; leav. vill. at base. 

103. PROSERPINACA. Haloragece. 

1. P. palustris : leaves linear-lanceolate, serrate: the 
lower ones pinnatifid. 


HAB. In water. July — Aug. lj. . Root creep . ; stem 

partly submerge red ;fi. sm., axillary. 
P. pcctinacea : leaves all pectinately pinnatifid. 
HAB. Sandy swamps. Aug. y. . Leav. finely pec- 

finate; angles of the cap. rather obtuse. 


A. Flowers superior. 
| Monopetalous. 

104. CEPHALANTHUS. Common col ; proper mi- 

nute, angular, 4-cleft. Cor. tubular, slender, 4- 
cleft. Style much exserted ; stig. globose. Cap. 
2-celled, 2-seeded, (mostly 2-partile.) Recept, 
globose, hairy. 

105. DIPSACUS. Flowers in an ovate or roundish capi- 

tulum. — Common cal. (involucrum) many-leaved, 
foliaceous ; proper superior, of one leaf. Cor. 
tubular, 4-cleft. Seed solitary. Recept. conic, 
paleaceous. Pappus cyathiform. 
J 1)6. GALIUM. Cal. 4-toothed. Cor. monopetalous. 
rotate, 4-cleft. Seeds 2, globose. 

i07. SPERMACOCE. Cal. 4-toothed. Cor. infundibu- 
liform, 4-cleft. Cap. 2-celled, not 2-parted ; cells 
1 -seeded, bidentate. Seeds with inflected mar- 

108. DIODIA. Cal. deeply 2-cleft, persistent. Cor. 
tubiilar-infundibuliibrm, 4-cleft. Cap. 2-celled : 
\ cells one-seeded. 

,11) IIOUSTOMA. Cal. 4-toothed. Cor. infundibu- 
liform, '4-cleft. Cap. half-superior, 2-celled. 2 
valved, many-deeded, opening transversely. 

HI. MITOHELLA. Flower.-, by pairs upon the same 
nnen. Cal* 4-toothed. Cor. infundibuliform ; 
tube cylindrie ; limb 4 -parted, spreading, villous 
on the inner side. Slam, scarcely exserted. Stig 
4-cleft. (jerry, by the union of 2 germens, didy- 
mo- led 


112. LINNiEA. Cal. double ; that of the fruit 2-leaved ; 

inferior; of the flower 5-parted, superior. Cor. 
turbinate, subcampanulate, 5-lobed, equal. Stam, 
somewhat didynamous. Stig globose. Berry 
dry, 3-celled, (only one of the cells bearing a per- 
fect seed.) 

t t Polypetalous. 

113. SANGUISORBA. Cal. 2-leaved. Cor. 4-cleft, 

rotate. Caps, quadrangular, between the calyx 
and corolla, 1 — 2-celled. 

114. CORNUS. Flowers sometimes aggregated in a 4- 

leaved involucrum. — '■Cal. 4-toothed. Pet. 4, 
Drupe with a 2-celled nut. 

115. LUDW1GIA. Cal. 4-parted, persistent. Cor. 4- 

petalled or 0. Caps, quadrangular, 4-celled, in- 
ferior, many-seeded. 

1 1 1 Apetalous. 

116. ISNARD1A. Cal. campanulate, 4-cleft. Cor. 0. 

Caps. 4-celled, quadrangular, surrounded by the 
base of the calyx. 

B. Flowers inferior. 
t Monopetalous. 

117. PLANT AGO. Cal. 4-cleft. Cor. 4 -cleft :"; limb re- 

flexed. Stam. mostly exserted, very long. Caps. 
2-cHled, opening all round transversely. 

118. BARTON1A. Cal. 4-parted, appressed. Cor. 

subcampanulate, 4-parted ; segments somewhat 
erect. Stig. thick, glandular, somewhat bifid. 
Caps. 1 -celled, 2-valved, many-seeded, sur- 
rounded by the persistent calyx and corolla. 

119. EXACUM. Cal. deeply 4-parted. Cor. 4-cleft: 

tube globose Caps, bisulcate, 2-celled, many- 
seeded, opening at the summit ; cells 2-seeded. 

120. SWERTIA. Cal. flat, 4— 5-parted. Cor. 4- 

parted ; segments spreading, with 2 nectariferous 
ciliate pores at the base of each. Style short ; 
stig. 2. Caps. 1-cellpd. 2-valved, acuminate. 

121. FRASERA. Cal. deeply 4-parted. Cor. 4-parted, 

spreariing ; segments oval, with a bearded, or- 
bicular gland in the middle of each. Caps, com- 


pressed, partly margined, 1 -celled. Seeds few, 
imbricate, elliptic, with a membranaceous margin. 

122. OBOLARIA. Cal. 2-parted, bracteiform. Cor. 

campanulate, 4 -cleft ; segments entire (orcrenu- 
late.) Stain. subdid}'namous, proceeding from the 
clefts of the corolla. Stig. bifid. Caps, ovate. 
1 -celled, 2-valved, many-seeded. 

t t 4-petalled. 

123. AMMANNIA. Cal. 1 -leaved, campanulate, pli- 

cate, 8-toothed, inferior. Cor. 4-petalled or 0- 
inserted upon the calyx. Caps. 4-celled, man}'- 
J 24. PTELEA. Cal. 4-parted. Pet. 4, spreading. Stig. 
2. Samara compressed, orbicular, 2-celled, 2- 

tit Apeialous. 
lb, RIVINA. Cal. 4-parted, persistent. Pet. 0. Berr,, 
1 -seeded. Seed lentiform, scabrous. Stam. 8 — 
126. ALCI1EM1LLA. Cal. 8-cleft ; segments spread 
ing, alternately smaller. Cor. 0. Style lateral, 
from the base of the germen. Fruit surrounded 
by the calyx. 
SYMPLOCARPUS. Spath ventricose, ovate, acu- 
minate. Spadix subglobose, covered with per- 
fect flowers Cal. deeply 4-parted, persistent : 
segments cucullate, truncate, becoming thick and 
spongy. Pet. 0. Style pyramidal, 4-sided ; stig. 
simple, minute. Seeds solitary, immersed in th» 
spong}' receptacle. 

HAMAMELIS. Cal. 4-cleft, with 3 brads (involu- 
( rum) at the base. Pet. linear, very long. Mut 
roriaceous, 2-celled, 2-horned, cleft at the top. 
Seed 1 in each cell. 


. >9. ILEX. Cal. minute, 4— 5-toothed. Cor. rotate, 4- 
pattftd, or 4-petalled. Style ; stig. 4. Berry 

t i 2 


130. SAGINA. Cal. 4-leaved. Pet. 4. Caps. 4-celled,, 

4-valved, many-seeded. 

131. TILL^EA. Cal. 3— 4-parted. Pet. 3—4, equal. 

Caps. 3 — 4, 2 or many-seeded. Stam. sometimes 
8, 4 sterile. 

132. POTAMOGETON. Cal. 4-leaved. Cor. 0. Anth. 

sessile, alternating with the divisions of the ca 
lyx. Nuts 4, 1-seeded, sessile. 

133. RUPPIA. Cal. and cor. 0. Seeds 4, pedicellate, 


104. CEPHALANTHUS. Button-bush. Rubiacea>< 

C. occidentalis : leaves opposite or ternate. 

HAB. Swamps. July — Aug. V Shrub 4—5 ft. 
high ; leav. ovate-oblong ;fl. wh., in glob, heads. 

105. DIPSACUS. Teasel. Dipsacece. 

D. sylvestris: leaves rarely connate; scales of the 
receptacle straight; involucrum curved upward 

HAB. Old fields. July. $. Stem 3— 4 ft. high, ang. 
and prickly ;Ji. pale blue, in oval heads. 

106. GALIUM. Bed-straw. Rubiacece. 

* Fruit smooth. 

1. G. verum : leaves about 8 in a whorl, linear. 

grooved, scabrous ; flowers in dense panicles. 
HAB. Pastures. June — July. If. Stem erect, slen- 
der ; leav. rejlexed ; ft. yellozv. 

2. G. trifidum : stem procumbent, scabrous downward ; 

leaves linear, obtuse, scabrous on the margin and 
mid-rib ; those of the stem in fives ; of the branches 
in fours ; flowers in terminal fascicles ; pedicels 
short ; corolla mostly 3-cleft. 

HAB. Wet places. June — Aug. If. Stem much 
branch.; leav. broad-linear ; fl. rch., minute. 

p. latifolium : leaves obovate-cuneate. 

HAB. Wet places. 

3. G. tinctorium : stem diffuse, smoothish ; leaves linear, 

somewhat acute, slightly scabrous ; those of the 
stem in sixes, of the branches in fours ; peduncle 5 
elongated, mostly 3-flowered. 


HAB. Low grounds. July. If. Stem afoot high, 
weak;Jl. white, mostly 4-cleft. 
4. G. asprellum : stems diffuse, much branched, re- 
trorsely aculeate ; leaves in fives and sixes, lanceo- 
late, acuminate, aculeate on the nerves and mar- 
gin : pedicels short. 
HAB. Shady wet place*. June — July. 1J. . Stem 1 — 2 
ft. high, very leafy ;fl. terminal, white. 

* * Fruit hispid. 

». G. Aparine : leaves 6 or 8 in a whorl, obovate-lance- 
olate, hispid above ; margin and keel prickly ; stem 
flaccid, relrorsely aculeate ; fruit with uncinate 
HAB. Moist thickets. May— June. ©. Stem 3—4 
ft. long, procumb. or inclin. ; fl. white ; fruit unci* 
nately hispid. 

»'. <r. brachiatum: stem flaccid, elongated, brachiate- 
ramose, hispid; branches short; leaves in sixes, 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, smooth ; margin and 
keel setaceously ciliate ; flowering branches longer 
than the whorls, divaricate and dichotomous ; pedi- 
cels 2-flowered ; fruit with uncinate bristles. 
HAB. Meadows and woods. June — Aug. -}-• 

7. G. micranthum: stem much branched, divaricate, 
retrorsely aculeate ; leaves short, lanceolate, mu- 
cronate, smooth, margin and keel aculeate ; flower- 
ing brandies divaricate ; pedicels 2-flowered. 
HAB. Mountain swamps. July. If. Fl. white, very 
numerous and small; fruit mostly l-seeded. 

'. (1. triflorum: stem procumbent, smoothish ; leave- 
in fives and sixes, obovate-lanceotate, mucronate. 
smooth, scarcely ciliate on the margin ; flowering 
branches elongated, 3-flo\vered at the extremity 
flowers pedicellate ; fruit small, hispid. 
HAB. Moist thickets. July — Aug. If. Stem weak. 
3 — bft. long ; leav. membran. ; flow, branch, axill 
and term. 

' ( i. pilosum : stem nearly simple, elongated, ascend 
iog, with remote joints, bispid ; leaves in fours, oval, 
moeronate, very hairy on every part, nerveless ; 
flowering branches elongated, nearly simple 
flowered at the extremity ; fruit hairy. 


HAB. Dry woods. July— Aug. If.. Stem \ ft. high . 

Jeav. obtuse, punctate ;Jl. purp. ; segments acute. 
10. G. circcezans : stem erect, smooth ; leaves in fours, 
oval, obtuse, smooth ; margin and nerves ciliate : 
peduncles divaricate, few-flowered; flowers re- 
mote, subsessile ; fruit nodding, with hooked bris- 

HAB. Rocky woods. June — July. If. Stem 1 ft. 

high; branch, at base ; leav. 3~nerved ;fl. purp. 

1 1. G. lanceolaturn : stem erect, very smooth ; leaves in 

fours, lanceolate, generally acute, smooth, 3- 

nerved ; margin subciliate ; peduncles divaricate ; 

fruit sessile, nodding, covered with hooked bristles. 

HAB. Rocky woods. July. If.. Stem 1 ft. high: 
leav. 2 in. long, membran. ;Jl. purple. 
\2. G. bermudianum : stem much branched, scarcely 
pubescent ; leaves in fours, ovate, obtuse, 
smooth, with pellucid dots ; margin and nerves 
pubescent ; flowering branches elongated ; fruit 
uncinately hispid. 

HAB. Pennsylvania. June. If. Leav. linear when 
young, 3-nerved; jl. panicled ; seg. of the cor. 
lanceol. -}- . 
.;. G, boreale: stem straight and erect, branched, ver) 
smooth ; branches short ; leaves in fours, linear- 
lanceolate, generally obtuse, 3-nerved ; margin in- 
volute and scabrous ; flowers in a terminal panicle, 
divaricate ; fruit minutely and uncinately hispid. 

HAB. Sandy pine woods. Aug. — Sept. 1J. . Stem 
18 in. high; pan. pyramidal, crowded ; Jl. white. 

107. SPERMACOCE. Rubiaceie. 

S. diodina : stem diffuse, terete, hairy ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, nearly smooth : margin and keel serru- 
late ; stipules with numerous long bristles ; flower.- 
axillary, sessile, solitary, alternate ; fruit hairy. 

HAB. Sandy soils. Aug. 0c Stem procumb., 6 — f! 
in. long; leav. oppos. ; Jl. white or pale purp. 

108. D10DIA. Rubiacece. 

D. virginica: smooth ; stem procumbent, nearly te- 
rete ; leaves lanceolate ; corolla smooth within : 
fruit oblong, smooth. 


HAB. Sandy wet places. Sept % . Stem purp.; 
leav. oppos.;Jl. solitary, oppos., white ; cal. subulate. 

109. HEDYOTIS. Rubiacece. 

H. glomerata: stem assurgent ; leaves lanceolate, 
pubescent, attenuate at the base ; flowers fascicled, 
axillary and terminal. 

HAB. Moist shady places. Aug. 0. Stern 1 — 3 in. 
high, simp, or branch., pubes. ;Jl. white, minute. 

110. HOUSTONIA. Gentian*. 

II. casrulea: stem erect, setaceous, dichotomous ; 
radical leaves spathulate-ovate ; peduncles elonga- 
ted, 1 -flowered ; segments of the corolla acute. 

HAB. Moist rocks. Apr. — May. U . Stems nume- 
rous, 4 — 8 in. high; stern leav. narrow ; Jl. blue. 

2. H. longifolia : leaves narrow-lanceolate, tapering at 

each extremity ; flowers terminal, subsessile ; stem 
branched, smooth. 
HAB. Mountains. June. If.. Stem suhfaslig. ; Jl. by 
threes, purp. ; segments ovate, acute. 

3. H. purpurea: stem erect, branched above, pubes- 

cent at the joints ; leaves sessile, ovate or lanceo- 
late ; fascicles of flowers terminal, corymbose. 
HAB. Dry woods. July. If. Leaves broad, rounded 
at base, 3-nerv. ; Jl.. purp. 
1. H. ciliolata : radical loaves ovale, obtuse, attenuate 
at the base ; margin ciliate ; stem-leaves ovate- 
apathulate, sessile; flowers in terminal corymbs, 
pedicellate ; peduncles trichotomous ; segments of 
the calyx linear-lanceolate ; stem smooth, branched 
HAB. Moist rocks. If. Stem 4 — 5 in. high; rad. 
leav. crowded ; Jl. pale purple. 

"». H. pubescens : leaves cuneiform, acute, pubescent; 
the inferior ones semi-petiolate, lanceolate ; supe- 
rior ones semi-oval, sessile ; panicle trichotomous 
IIAB. Pennsylvania, -f . 

111. MITCHELLA. Partridge-berry. Kubiaco 

M. repent. 


HAB. Woods. June — July. y.. Evergreen, creep- 
ing, branched, leav. oppos., roundish, petioled. 
smooth; Jl. term., white, fragrant. 

112. LINNiEA. Caprifolia. 

L. borealis. 

HAB. Mountain woods. July. U . Evergreen, creep- 
ing ; leav. oppos., ovate-round ; pedunc. erect; fl. 2. 
drooping, wh. or pale rose-col. 

113. SANGUISORBA. Great Burnet. Rosacea:. 

J . S. canadensis : spikes cylindrical, very long ; stamens 

much longer than the corolla. 
HAB. Bog-meadows. Aug. — Oct. If.. Stem 2 ft. 

high, smooth; leav. pinnate ; leofl. ovate, serrate ;fl. 

2. S. media: spikes cylindrical ; stamens longer than 

the corolla ; (calyx subciliate.) 
HAB. Wet meadows. July — Aug. 14. Leafl. ovate- 

lanceol. ; spik. ovate, red. -{-. 

114. CORNUS. Dog-wood, &c. Caprifolia. 
* Flowers capitate, surrounded by an involucrum. 

1, C. canadensis: herbaceous; upper leaves verticil- 

late, veined ; leaves of the involucrum ovate, acu- 
minate : drupe globose. 
HAB. Mountain meadows and swamps. May — June. 
M . Stem 6 in. high; head term., pedunc. ; invol. 

2. C. florida : arborescent ; leaves ovate, acuminate ; 

involucrum large, with obcordate leaflets. 
HAB. Woods. May— June. Tree 15—30//. high: 
leav. oppos. ; invol. very targe, white or pale rose- 

* * Flowers naked, cymose. 
J. C. sericea: branches expanded ; leaves ovate, acu- 
minate, silky-ferruginous beneath; cymes depressed, 
IIAB. Shady moist places. June. Shrub 8— 12 ft. 
high ; cymes pedunc. ; fl. white; drupe ovate, blue, 
4. C. sanguinea : branches straight ; leaves ovate, 
green on both sides ; cymes expanding. 


HAB. Around lakes. June — July. Shrub 8 — 12 ft, 
high ; leav. broad ; drupe dark brown. -}-. 

5. C. circinata : branches verrucose ; leaves broad] 

oval, (orbicular) acuminate, white-downy beneath ; 
cymes depressed. 
HAB. Banks of rivers, woods. June. Shrub 6 — 8ft. 
high ; cyme crowded, nearly smooth ; drupe blue. 

6. C. alba: branches recurved, smooth ; leaves ovate, 

acute, pubescent, hoary beneath ; cymes depressed. 
HAB. Wet woods. — A small tree; branch, slender; 
cymes small ; drupe white. 

7. C. paniculata : branches erect ; leaves ovate, acumi- 

nate, hoary beneath ; cymes panicled. 

HAB. Swamps. June. Shrub 8 — 12 in. high; branch, 
punct. ; cyme loose ; drupe nearly glob., white. 
ft. C. stricta: branches straight, fastigiate ; leaved- 
ovate, green on both sides, somewhat naked ; 
cymes panicled. 

HAB. River banks. June. Shrub 8 — 15 ft. high, sto- 
lonif. ; bran, red, punct. ; drupe blue. 
'». C. alternifolia : leaves alternate. 

HAB. Shady woods and swamps. June. — A small 
tree ; branch, mostly verruc. ; drupe purp., globose. 

115 LUDWIGIA. False Loose-strife. Onagrcc. 

f. L. macrocarpa : stem erect, branched, nearly 
smooth ; leaves attenuate, narrow-lanceolate, pale 
beneath; peduncles axillary, 1-flowered : capsulr 
globose-quadrangular, winged. 
HAB. Swamps. July— Aug. y.. Stem 2 ft. high, 
purp. ;jl. on short pedunc, yellow ; pet. caducous. 

>.. L. pilosa : stem erect, branched, hairy ; leaves al- 
ternate, oblong, sessile; peduncles 1-llowered, ax- 
illary ; capsules globose, quadrangular, winged. 
HAB. Ditches and pools, in sandy soils. July — Aug 
'4 . Stem 2 ft. high ; leav. I in. long ;fl. yellow, 

'•. ] t . unifiora: stem straight, simple ; leaves alternate, 
lanceolate, acute, glabrous ; (lower terminal ; petals 

longer than tlic calyx. 
HAB. New-Jersey, -f-. Probably L. macrocarpa. 

116. ISNARDIA. Onagra: 

I. palustri$: creeping ami shining ; leaves opj 


ovate-lanceolate, petiolate ; flowers axillary, soli- 
tary, sessile ; capsule subovate, slightly angled. 
HAB. Stagnant waters. June. V-. Swimming or 
creeping, succul. ;fl. minute, quadrang. 

7.11 PLANTAGO. Plantain. Plantagines. 

t. P. cordata : leaves ovate, cordate, very broad, sub- 
dentate, smooth ; spike very long ; flowers subim- 
bricated ; the inferior ones scattered ; bracts ovate,, 
HAB. Wet meadows. June. If.. Leav. Gin. long. 
3 — 4 broad; spike 18 in. long; cells of the cap. 2- 

i. P. major: leaves ovate, smoothish, subdentate.. 
generally shorter than the petioles ; scape terete : 
spike cylindrical, slender ; flowers closely imbri- 
cate ; capsules many-seeded. 
HAB. Fields, waste grounds, &c. May — Aug. 2£. 
Leav. spreading ; scape 8 — 12 m. long, pubes.; dis- 
sep. of the cap. plane. 

3. P. media: leaves ovate, pubescent, longer than the 

petioles ; scape terete : spike short, cylindric ; 
cells of the capmle 1 -seeded. 
11 AB. Fields. July. i{ . Leaves spreading ; petiolo 
short; spike 1 — 2 in. long, dense. 

4. P. virginica : hairy-pubescent ; leaves lanceolate- 

ovate, subdenticnlate ; spikes cylindrical, with re- 
mote flowers ; scape angular. 
IIAB. Sandy soils. May — June. $. Plant gray, 2 — 
3 i/i. high ; spike yellowish : cap. 2 - seeded : dissep. 
>. P. lanceolata: leaves lanceolate, acute at each end: 
spike short, ovate-cylindrical ; scape angular ; cap- 
sule 2-seeded. 
11AB. Fields, pastures, &x. May — Sept. U . Scape 

12 18 in. long : spike brownish ; stum, very long. 

♦.;. P. maritima : leaves linear, grooved, fleshy, hairy 
near the base; scape terete; spike cylindrical, 
bracts rather acute. 
IIAB. Salt marshes. Aug.— Sept. U . Scape as long 
as the leaves ;fl. rather remote : caps. 2-sceded. 
7. P. pusilht: minutely pubescent ; leaves linear-subu- 
late, flat, entire, acute : scape terete, slender. 


longer than the leaves ; spike cylindrical, loose ; 

lower flowers distant ; bracts ovate, acute, as long 

as the calyx. 
HAB. Sandy hills and fields. June. 0. Scape 2 — 3. in, 

long ; segments of the cal. subul. ; caps, %-seeded. 
P. maxima: leaves ovate, subdenticulate, 9-nerved : 

spike cylindrical, imbricafe ; scape terete. 
HAB. Wet rocky situations. July — Aug. P. cordata 

118. BARTONIA. Gentiance. 
B. tenella: culm somewhat branched; peduncle** 

opposite, the lower ones branched ; segments of 

the corolla oval, acute, scarcely longer than the 

calyx ; style very short. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. — Sept. 0. Stem 3 — 8 in. high. 

very slend. ; leav. bract-like; Jl. small, greenish-white ■ 

119. EXACUM. Gentiance. 

E. pulchellum : calyx 4-parted ; segments subulate . 
panicle corymbose ; peduncles filiform. 

HAB. Near the sea-coast. Aug. Flowers rose-colour. 

120. SWERTIA. Gentiance. Felwort. 
S. deflexa: corolla campanulate, with deflexed horns 

at the base ; leaves ovate ; branches short. 
HAB. Borders oflakes. Aug. $ . Stem 18 in. high 

nearly simp.; leav, oppos., sess. ; Jl. greenish-yell. 
S. pusilla : corolla rotate, twice as long as the calyx ; 

stem simple, 1 -flowered ; leaves oblong. 
HAB. High mountains. June. H- . One in. high; leav 
1 — 2 pairs ; Jl. large, blue. 

121. FRASERA. 'Gentiance. American Colombo. 

F. caroliniensis. 

HAB. Borders oflakes. July. $ . Stem 3—5/*. high, 
erect ; leav. oppos. andverticdl. ; Jl. greenish-yell. 

122. OBOLAIHA. Gtntianss. 

O. virginiaca. 

Mab. Shady forests. Apr.— May. U . Stem 3- 
high. cespit.; leav. oppos. y obovate ;Jl. sublerm.. 
or reddish, marcescent. 



123. AMMANNIA. Salicarm. 

1. A. raynosior : stem erect, thick, subterete ; leaves 

lanceolate, dilated at the base ; lower flowers com 
pactly verticillate. 
HAB. Brackish meadows. Aug — Sept. 0. Stem 
4-8 in. high, simp, or somewhat branched ; pet. purp* 

2. A.humilis: stem procumbent at the base, branched, 

slender, quadrangular ; leaves lanceolate, alternate 
at Ihe base ; flowers solitary. 
HAB. Borders of ponds. Aug. © and $. Stem 
4 — 7 in. high, rarely simp. ; fl. small, pale purp. 

124. PTELEA. Terebintacece. 

P. trifoliata : leaves ternate ; flowers in panicles 

HAB. Shady moist places. June. Shrub 6 — 8 ft. 

high, spreading ; leuv. petiol. ; fl. greenish-white. 

125. RIVINA. Alriplices. 

R. laevis : racemes simple ; leaves ovate, acuminate., 
glabrous, flat ; stem terete. 

HAB. Pennsylvania ? A shrub with the habit of Phy- 
tolacca decandra. Fi. in axill. racemes. 

126. ALCHEMILLA. Rosacece. Lady's mantle. 

A. alpina : leaves digitate, serrate at the extremity- 
white and sattiny beneath. 
HAB. High mountains. If.. Fl. white. 

127. SYMPLOCARPUS. Aroidece. Skunk-cabbage. 

S. foetida. 

HAB. Swamps and low grounds. Feb. — Apr. If.. 

Plant fetid; leaves large, ovate-cord. ; spath.purp.. 

spotted, cucull. ; spadix pedunc. 


128. HAMAMELIS. Berberides. Witch-hazel. 

H. virginica : leaves obovate, acute, dentate, cor 

date, with the sinus small. 
HAB. Moist woods. Oct.— Nov. Shrub 6— 12 ft. 

high; leav. altern. y large ; fl. axill. , clustered, y el L 


B. parvifolia : leaves oblong-ovate, upper part undu- 
lately and coarsely crenate ; under surface pubes- 
cent, somewhat hirsute ; segments of the calyx 
oblong ; stamens and perigynous filaments often 
nearly equal. 

HAB. Mountains. Smaller than the preceding : jl. 
bright yellow. 


129. ILEX. Rhamni. Holly. 

). I, opaca : leaves ovate, spinous, acute, smooth, flat ; 
fascicles of flowers loose, on the base of the young- 
er branches ; peduncles compound. 
HAB. Sandy woods. June. An er:rgreen tree. 
10 — 40/i!. high ; leav. coriaceous, shining ; Jl. yell.- 
white ; berries red. 

2. I. canadensis : leaves deciduous, ovate, very entire, 
smooth ; peduncles subsolitary, (or fasciculate,) 
very long, 1 -flowered ; fruit obtusely subquad- 
HAB. Rocky hills and mountains. May — June. 
Shrub 3 — 5 ft. high; leav. mucron. ; Jl. dioec. 
minute ; berries red. 

130. TILLiEA. 

T. simplex : stem erect and simple ; leaves connate, 
oblong-linear and somewhat acute ; flowers alter- 
nate, sessile ; petals erect, twice as long as the calyx. 

HAB. Muddy banks of rivers. 0. Plant minute. 

131. SAG1NA. Caryophyllcai. Pearl-wort. 
1. S. procumbens : perennial ; stem procumbent. 

smooth ; petals very short. 
HAB. Near springs. 'July. Spreading, 2 — 4 in. 

long ; leav. linear-subul. ; pel. son^etimes wanting. 
3. apetala : annual; stem erect, pubt scent ; leaves 

cuspidate : flowers alternate ; petals very minute 

or 0. 
HAB. Sandy fields. May — June. Stems numerous 

filif. ; leav. subnl. ; Jl. on long pedunc. 


132. POTAMOGETON. Naiades. Pond-weed. 
* Upper leaves floating. 

I. P. natans : upper leaves floating; coriaceous, ob- 
long-ovate, on long petioles, (subcordate :) lower 
ones membranaceous, lanceolate, tapering to afoot- 
HAB. Lakes and slow streams. July — Aug. V-. Upper 
leav. 2 — 3 in. long, 2 broad, nerved ; spike greenish. 

1. P.Jluitans: upper leaves floating, coriaceous, ob- 
long-lanceolate, petiolate, tapering at the base, 
lower ones linear, sessile. 
HAB. Ponds and slow streams. July — Aug. V-. 
Upper leav. 3 in. long* 1 broad, olive-green ; pedunc. 

). P. heterophyllum : upper leaves floating, petiolate. 
elliptical ; lower ones sessile, crowded, linear. 
HAB. Ponds and slow streams. Aug. U . Half the 
size of the preceding ; submerg. leav. very narrow. 

I. P. diversifolium : upper leaves floating, elliptical, 
petiolate, 5-nerved ; inferior ones filiform ; spike 
axillary, almost sessile, few-flowered. 
HAB. Ponds and slow streams. June. U . Stems 
filif. ; upper leav. not an in. long ; spik. 4 — 6 fi. 

* * Leaves all submerged. 

j. P. perfoliatum : leaves amplexicaul, cordate, ovate. 
HAB. Rivers and lakes. Aug. Stem dichot. ; leaves 
1 in. long, subpelluc. ; spike few-fl. 
£. P. lucens: leaves ovate-lanceolate, petiolate. 

HAB. Rivers and lakes. Aug. V-. Stem terete; 
leav. 2 — 3 in. long, pelluc. reticul. ; spik. cylind. 
7. P. crispum: leaves lanceolate, tapering, sessile, 
undulate and serrate. 
HAB. Lakes. Aug. 1/. Stem subcomp. ; leav. lj in. 
long; spik. 8 — 10 Jl. 
<. P. compressum: leaves linear, obtuse, sessile ; stem 

HAB. Slow streams. July — Aug. 11 . Stem much 
branch., thick; pedunc. compress. ; spikA — §fl. 



'3. P. paucifiorum ; leaves sessile narrow-linear, flat : 
spike capitate, 4-flowered ; stem slender, terete. 

HAB. Ponds and rivers. Jul} — Aug. li . Stem al- 
most Jilif,, much branch. ; spik. on short pedunc. 

P. pectinaceum : leaves setaceous, distichously ap- 
proximate, sheathing ; stipules almost wanting ; 
spike few-flowered, interrupted. 

HAB. Ponds. June. U. Stem Jilif., dichot. ; /ear. 
numerous ; 4 — 6 in. long ; pedunc. elongat. 

133. RUPPIA. Naiades. 
11. maritima. 
HAB. Salt marshes, ditches. July. U . Floating .• 

stem long ; leav. setae, flat ; spadix naked, 2-fl.) 

tuith. large. 



A. Seeds naked. (Asperifoliu.) 
* Seeds fixed to the bottom of the calyx. 

134. PULMONARIA. Cal. prismatic, pentagonal, 6 

toothed. Cor. infundibuliform ; border 5-lobed : 
orifice naked. Seeds imperforate at the base. 

135. LITHOSPERMUM. Cal. 5-parted ; segments 

acute, carinate. Cor. infundibuliform ; border 5- 
lobed ; orifice naked. Stem included within the 
tube of the corolla. Stig. obtuse, bifid. Seeds 
imperforated at the base, indurated, shining. 

136. ONOSMODIUM. Cal. deeply 5-parted; seg- 

ments linear. Cur. subcampanulate ; border ven- 
tricose, half 6-cleft ; segments connivent, acute ; 
orifice naked. Style much exserted. Seeds 
ovate, shining, imperforate at the base. 
ECH1UM. Cal. 5-parted; segments subulate 
ere< t. Cor. subcampanulate ; tube very short ; 
border unequally 5-lobed, the lower segment 
acute and renexed ; orifice pervious. Stig. bifid 
tuberculate, imperforate at the base. 
H 2 


138. MYOSOTIS. Cal. 5-parted, or 5-cleft. Ccr.hy- 

pocrateriform ; segments very obtuse ; orifice 
closed with connivent scales. 

139. LYCOPSIS. Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. infundibuliform ; 

orifice closed with ovate, connivent scales. Seeds 
perforate at the base. 

* * Seeds fixed to a central column. 

140. CYNOGLOSSUM. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. short, in- 

fundibuliform ; orifice closed with connivent 
scales. Seeds depressed. 
. ROCHELIA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. hypocrateriform ; 
orifice closed with connivent scales. Seeds echi- 
nate, compressed. 

B. Flowers 1-petalled, inferior. Seeds in a pericarp- 
* Fruit a capsule. 
a. Capsule I -celled. 
\&. ANAGALLIS. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. rotate, 5- 
lobed. Fil. hirsute at the base. Caps, globose, 
bursting all round transversely, many-seeded. 
143. LYSIMACHIA. Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. rotate, (and 
subcampanulate,) 5-cleft. Caps. l-celled,5 — 10- 
: 14 . PRIMULA. Flowers in an involucrate umbel. Cal. 
tubular, 5-toothed. Cor. hypocrateriform ; tube 
cylindrical ; orifice naked ; border 5-lobed ; lobes 
emarginate. Caps. 1-celled, opening with 10 
DODECATHEON. Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. 5-parted ; 
segments reflexed. Fil. very short ; anth. con- 
nivent. Caps. 1-celled, oblong, opening at the 
MENYANTHES. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. infundibuli- 
form ; border spreading, 5-lobed, equal, hair} 
within. Stig. capitate, sulcate. Caps. 1-celled, 
2-valved ; valves seminiferous on the sides. 
1.4.7. VILLARSIA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. rotate, 5-lobed ; 
segments bearded at the base, with their margins 
indexed. Glands (nectaries,) 5, alternating with 
the stamens. Stig. 2-lobed. Caps. 1-celled. %• 
valved, many seeded. 


148. HOTTONIA. Cal 5-parted. Cor. hypocrateriform. 

5-lobed. Stam. seated upon the tube of the co- 
rolla. Stig. globose. Caps. 1 -celled, globose, 

149. SAMOLUS. Cal. 5-cleft, half superior. Cor. hy~ 

pocrateriform, 5-lobed, with 5 intermediate scales 
(or sterile stamens.) Caps, half inferior, 1 -celled, 
5-toothed, many-seeded ; receptacle unconnected. 

150. SABBATIA. CaL 5-1 2-parted. Cor. rotate, 5-12^ 

parted. Stig. 2, spiral. Anth. at length revolute, 
Caps. 1 -celled, 2-valved. 

151. HYDROPHYLLUM. Cal. 5-parted. Cor.subcam- 

panulate, 5-cleft, with 5 longitudinal, margined, 
melliferous grooves on the insiste. 

/3. Capsule 2-(3-)celled. 

152. PHACELIA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. subcampanulate, 

5-cleft, with 5 longitudinal margined melliferous 
grooves on the inside. Stam. exserted. Style fili- 
form ; stig. 2. Caps. 2-celled, 2-valved, 4-seeded ; 
each of the valves septiferous in the centre. 

153. SPIGELIA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. infundibuliform : 

border 5-cleft, equal. Anth. convergent. Caps, 
didymous, 2-celled, 4-valved, many-seeded. 

154. VERBASCUM. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. rotate, 5-lobed, 

unequal. Stam. declined, generally bearded. Stig. 
simple. Caps. 2-celled, with inflexed valves, 
I.V>. NICOT1ANA. Cal. tubular, 5-cleft. Cor. infundi- 
buliform ; border plicate, 5-cleft. Stam. inclined. 
Stig. capitate. Caps. 2-celled, 2 — 4-valved. 

156. HYOSCYAMUS. Cal. tubular; border 5-cleft. 

Cor. infundibuliform, 5-lobed, irregular ; lobes 
entire. Slam, inclined. Caps. 2-celled, opercu- 

157. CONVOLVULUS. Cal. 5-parted, naked, or with 

2 bracts at the base. Cor. campanulate, plicate. 
Stig. 2. Caps. 2 — 3-celled, with as many valves ; 
cells 1 — 2-seeded. 

158. IPOIVLEA. Cal. 5-cleft, naked. Cor. infundibuli- 

form, campanulate, 5-plaited. Stig. capitate* Caps, 
2 — 3-celled, many-seeded. 


y. Capsule 3 — b-celled. 

159. PHLOX. Cal. deeply 5-cleft ; segments connivent. 
Cor. hypocratenform ; border 5-lobed, flat ; tube 
more or less curved. Stam. very unequal ; fil. 
inserted into the tube of the corolla above the 
middle. Caps, subrotund. 3-celled ; cells 1-seeded. 
Seeds oblong, concave externally. 

J 60. POLEMONIUM. Cal. campanulate, 5-cleft. Cor. 
campanulate ; border 4— 5-lobed, erect ; tube 
short, closed by 5staminiferous valves. Fil. beard- 
ed at the base. Caps, subrotund, 3-celled ; cells 
many-seeded ; valves membranaceo-crustaceous. 
Seeds oblong, somewhat triangular. 

161. DIAPENSIA. Cal. deeply 5-parted, with 3 bracts 
at the base. Cor. hypocrateriform ; border 5- 
cleft. Fil. compressed, inserted into the summit 
of the tube, and alternating with the segments of 
the corolla. Caps. 3-ceiled, 3-valved, many- 

J 62. DATURA. Cal. tubular, angular, deciduous j base 
orbicular, persistent. Cor. infundibuliform, pli- 
cate. Caps, ovate, 2-celled, 4-valved ; cells 2- 

163. AZALEA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. short, campanulate. 
5-cleft. Stam. equal, shorter than the corolla ; 
anih. opening longitudinally. Style straight, in- 
cluded. Caps. 5-celled, 5-valved. opening at the 

* * Fruit a berry. 

vG4. PHYSAL1S. Cal. 5-toothed. Cor. campanulate- 
rotate. Stam. connivent. Berry 2-celled, covered 
by the inflated calyx. 

165. SOLANUM. Cal. 5— 10-parted. persistent. Cor. 

rotate, 1-petalled, 5 — 6-lobed. Anth. oblong, 
opening at the top by 2 pores. Berry 2 — 6-celled. 

C. Flowers \-pelalled, superior. 

* Fruit a capsule. 

166. CAMPANULA. Ca/. mostly 5-cleft. Cor. campanu- 

late, 5-cleft. Fil. dilated at the base. Stig. 3—5- 
cieft. Capsule 3-(rarely 5-) celled, open by late- 
ral pores. 


167. LOBELIA. Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. irregular, 5-parted, 

cleft on the upper side nearly to the base. Anth. 
united into a tube. Stig. 2-lobed. Caps, inferior, 
or semi-superior, 2 — 3-celled, 2-valved at the 

168. DIERVILLA. Cal. oblong, 5-cleft, bracteate at the 

base. Cor. infundibuliform, 5-cleft, spreading. 
Stig. capitate. Stam. a little exserted. Caps, na- 
ked, oblong, 4-celled, many-seeded. 

* * Fruit a berry. 

169. LONICERA. Cal. 5-toothed. Cor. with the tube 

elongated ; border 5-cleft, generally unequal. 
Stam. exserted. Stig. globose. Berries distinct, 3- 
celled, many-seeded. 

170. XYLOSTEUM. I lowers by pairs on the summit 

of the same peduncle. Cal. 5-toothed, with 2 
connate bracts at the base. Cor. 5-cleft, subequal, 
or bilabiate. Berries by pairs, more or less con- 
nate, 2-celled, many seeded. 

171. SYMPHORIA. Cal. minute, 4-toothed, with 2 

small bracts at the base. Cor. subcampanulate, 
short, 5-cleft, nearly equal. Stam. nearly exserted. 
Stig. globose. Berry crowned with the persistent 
calyx, 4-celled, 4-seeded ; 2 of the cells some- 
times abortive. 

172. TRIOSTEUM. Cal. 5-cleft ; segments linear, 

nearly as long as the corolla. Cor. tubular, 5- 
lobed, subequal, gibbous at the base. Stam. in- 
cluded. Stig capitate, lobed. Berry 3-celled, 3- 
seeded, crowned with the calyx. 

D. Flowers 5-petalled, inferior. 
* Fruit a capsule. 

173. ITEA. Cal. minute, 5-cleft. Pet. linear, reflexed, 

spreading, inserted upon the calyx. Stig. capitate, 
2-lobed. Caps. 2-celled, 2-valved, many-seeded. 
Seeds attached to the inflexed margins of the 

174. IMPATIENS. Cal. 2-leaved, deciduous. Cor. ir- 

regular. ./Vec<.cucullate,calcarate. Anth. cohering 
at the apex. Caps, 5-valved, bursting elastically. 


175. VIOLA. Cal. deeply 5-cleft, produced at the base* 

Cor. 5-petalled, irregular ; upper petal cornicu- 
late at the base. Anth. connivent, cohering. Caps. 
1 -celled, 3-valved. 

176. CLAYTONIA. Cal. 2-leaved. Pet. 5, emarginate.. 

Siig. 3-cleft. Caps. 1 -celled, 3-Talved, 3—5- 
seeded. Seeds reniform. 
177 CEANOTHUS. Cal. turbinate, 5-cleft. Pet. 5 t 
saccate and arched, with long claws. Stig. 3= 
Caps, tricoccous, 3-celled, 3-seeded, 3-parted, 
opening on the inner side. 

178. EUONYMUS. Cal. 5-parted, or 5-cleft, its base 

internally bearing a pei ate disk. Pet. 5, spread- 
ing, inserted on tne outside margin of the glandu- 
lar disk. Stam. 5. Caps. 5-angled, 5-celled, 5* 
valved, coloured ; cells 2-lobed. Seeds arillate. 

179. CELASTRU.S. Cal. 5-lobed, flat. Cor. 5-petalled. 

Stam. seated around a 5-toothed glandulous disk. 
Caps, or theca obtusely triangular, 3-celled, 3- 
valved ; valves septiferous in the centre ; cells 
1 — 2-seeded. Seeds covered with a 4-cleft co- 
loured anllus. 

* * Fruit a berry. 

180. RHAMNUS. Ca/.urceolate,4— 5-cleft. Pet A— 5 C 

opposite the stamens, (sometimes abortive.) Stam. 
4_5. Stig. 2—4 cleft. Berry 3— 4-seeded. 

181. VITIS. Cat. minute, 5-toothed. Pet. 5, cohering 

at the apex, deciduous. Siig . sessile, obtuse, capi- 
tate. Berry 1 -celled, 5-seeded. Seeds subcordate. 

182. CISSUS. Cal. minute, 4— 5-toothed. Pet. 4—5, 

unconnected above, spreading, deciduous. Germ. 
surrounded with a glandulous disk. Berry 2 — 4- 

E. Flowers 5-petalled, superior. 

183. RIBES. Cal superior, campanulate, 5-cleft. Pet. 

and stam. inseited upon the calyx. Style 2-cleft. 
Berry many-seeded. 

F. Flowers incomplete. 

184. HAMILTONIA. Polygamous, perfect fl. Cal. 

turbinate, campanuiate, 5-cleft. Cor. 0. A r eet. 


with the disk 5-toothed. Style 1 ; stig. 2 — 3, sub- 
lenticular ; germ, immersed in the nectary. Drupe 
pyriform, 1 -seeded, enclosed in the adhering base 
of the calyx, stam. fl. resembling the perfect, 
except in wanting the pistil. 

185. THESIUM. Cal. 1-leaved, tubular-campanulate, 

4 — 5-cleft. Anth. attached to the calyx by a tuft 
of filaments. Nut 1-seeded, covered with the per- 
sistent calyx. 

186. ANYCHIA. Cal. 5-parted ; segments oblong, con- 

nivent, callous, and subsaccate at the apex. Cor. 
0. Fil. 3 — 5, distinct, without intermediate setae. 
Stig. subcapitate. Utriculus 1-seeded, covered by 
the calyx. 

187. GLAUX. Cal. campanulate, 5-lobed, coloured, 

Cor. 0. Caps, globose, acuminate, 1 -celled, 5 
valved, 5-seeded. 


A. Flowers monopetalous, inferior 

* Follicles 2. 

188. APOCYNUM. Cal. very small, 5-cleft. Cor. 

campanulate ; border with 5 short spreading or 
revolute lobes. Anth. saggitate, connivent, 
cohering to the stigma by the middle. Glandular 
teeth 5, acute, alternating with the stamens, and 
opposite the segments of the corolla. 

189. PERIPLOCA. Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. rotate, flat; 

orifice surrounded with an urceolate, 5-cleft- 
crown ; segments awned. Anth. bearded on the 
back ; pollinia dilated at the apex and united to 
the corpuscles of the stigma, solitary, composed 
of four confluent grains. 

190. GONOLOBUS. Cor. rotate, deeply 5-parted. 

Staminial crown (lepa?ithium or nectary) scutel- 
liform, pentangular. Anth. opening transversely, 
terminated by a membrane. Pollinia 5-pairs, 
not separating into grains. Stig. depressed-. 
Seeds comose. 


191. ASCLEPIAS. Cal. small, 5-parted. Cor. rotate, 

5-parted, mostly reflexed. Staminial crown sim- 
ple, 5-leaved ; leaflets opposite the anthers, with 
a subulate averted process at the base. Slig. 
with the 5 angles (corpuscles) opening by 
longitudinal chinks. Pollinia 5 distinct pairs. 

* * Fruit capsular. 

192. GENTIANA. Cal. 4— 5 parted, or cleft. Cor. 

tubular at the base, campanulate ; border 4 — 6 
cleft ; segments ciliate or entire, spreading, erect, 
or connivent. Stam. included. Styles fi, or very 
short; stig. 2. Caps. 1 -celled, 2-valved ; recept. 
2, longitudinal. 

193. CUSCUTA. Cal. 4—5 cleft. Cor. 4—5 cleft, 

subcampanulate, marcescent. Caps 2-celled, 
opening all round transversely ; cells 2-seeded. 

B. Corolla 5-petalled, inferior. 

194. HEUCHERA. CaL 5-cleft. Pet. 5, small, inserted 

into the margin of the calyx. Caps, birostrate. 
2-celled, many-seeded. 

C. Corolla 5-petalled, superior. 

195. PANAX. Polygamous. Flowers in a simple um- 

bel. Perfect. Cal. 5-toothed. Pet. 5. Styles 
2 — 3. Berry subcordate, 2 — 3-seeded. Sta- 
minif. Cal. entire. 

D. Flowers incomplete. 

196. ATRIPLEX. Polgamous. Perfect vl. Cal. 

5-parted, inferior. Cor. 0. Stam. 5. Style 2- 
parted. Fruit depressed. Pistilif fl. Cal. 
2-parted. Stam. 0. Fruit compressed. Seed 

197. CHENOPODIUM. Cal. 5-parted, obtusely pen- 

tangular. Cor. 0. Style deeply bifid. Seed 
lenticular, horizontal, partly covered by the 
closing calyx. 

198. SALSOLA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. 0. Style bifid. 

Seed 1, horizontal, covered by the connivent ca- 
lyx. Embryo cochleate. 


199. ULMUS. Cat. campanulate, 4— 5-cleft. Cor. 0. 
Samara compressed, with a broad membrana- 
ceous border. 

500. CELTIS. Polygamous. Perfect fl. Cal 
inferior 5-parted. Cor. 0. Styles thick, divari- 
cate. Drupe 1 -seeded, Stamwif. Cat. 6-partpd 
Stam. 6. 

et. Umbels subcapifate. 

201. ERYNGIUM. Flowers capitate. Recept. patea 

ceous. Involucrum many-leaved, subspinous. 
Pet. rcflexed. 

202. SANICULA. Umb. nearly simple, capitate. In- 

voluc. few-flowered, fl. polygamous. Col. 5 
parted, persistent. Fruit oblong, solid, not rib 
bed, armed with uncinate bristles. 

b. Umbels imperfect. Involucrum obsolete or 0. (Leaves 
confluent with the petiole, subsimple.) 

803. HYDROCOTYLE. Umbel simple. Fruit with 
the back and commissure narrow, laterally com- 
pressed, subrotund, 3-ribbod, generally with 
reticulate veins. 

. 1. mbel perfect. Universal involucrum^ and sometime < 
the partial wanting. Fruit ovate, solid, 5- 
costate. [Leaves decompound.) 

204. SISON. Fruit ovate, solid, 5-ribbed on tbe back ; 

intervals convex ; sides contracted ; raphis exca- 

205. CNIDIUM. Involucr. 1 -leaved, or 0. Fruit ovnie. 

solid. Ribs 5, acute, somewhat winged ; interval? 
-ulcate, striate. 

<l. U ml eh perfect. Involucrum generally wanting. 1 
corticate, solid or compressed, utricufatc. 

206. SBfYRNIUM. Involucr. few-leaved, or 0. Fruit 

-olid, ovate ; cortex black, 3-ribbed. Side* con- 
tracted from tbe commissure. Albumen white 
'"7 CICUTA. Involve, almost wanting. Fruit ovate, 
solid, 5-ribbed ; intervals prominent. 


e. Fruit hispid. 
*08. DAUCUS. Involucr. pinnatifid. Fl. somewhat 
radiant ; those of the disk abortive. Fruit ob- 
long, with 5 aculeate ribs; intervals angular- 

f. Fruit pyramidal, rostrate. Involucrum 0. 

£09. MYRRHIS. Fruit crowned with the pistils ; rib* 
5, acute. 

g. Fruit subovatc, costatc, sulcate. Universal and par 
tial involucra various. 

210. SIUM. Fruit somewhat prismatic, with 5 obtuse 
ribs ; intervals subconvex. Involucr. entire. 

2M. CONIUM. Fruit ovate, solid, with 5 obtuse ribs. 
crenulate when immature ; intervals flat. Umbel 
with universal and partial involucra. 

212. LIGUST1CUM. Fruit ovate-oblong, with 5 acute- 
ribs ; intervals sulcate. Universal and partial 
involucra various. 

h. Fruit compressed, fiat, often winged. Involucra va- 

1 1 3. HERACLEUM. Fruit with a membranaceous mar 
gin ; ribs 3, dorsal, obtuse ; intervals and commis- 
sure with clavate spots. Fl. subradiant. Invo- 
lucr. 0. 
PASTINACA. Fruit oval, margined ; ribs obso 
lete ; intervals striate ; commissures 2. Univer- 
sal and partial involucra 0. 

215. ANGELICA. Fruit subcompressed, with 3 acute 

winged ribs; intervals sulcate ; margin membra 

216. THAPS1A. Fruit narrow, slightly compressed, 

nearly ribless, with 2 dorsal and marginal wing? 
Involucra 0. 


* Flowers superior. 

■ill. VIBURNUM. Cal. minute, 5-toothed, superior 
Cor. 5-cleft ; lobes spreading or reflexed. SHg 
nas nearly sessile. Berry K c e?'3.ed. 


US. SAMBUCUS. Cal. minute, 5-cleft. Cor. subro- 
tate, 5-cleft. Stigmas minute, sessile. Berry 
globose, 1 -celled, 3-seeded. 

* Flowers inferior. 

219. RHUS. CW. 5-parted. Pet. 5. £ern/ small, sub- 

globose, with one bony seed. 

220. STAPHYLEA. Cal. 5-parted, coloured. Petah 

5, inserted upon the margin of a glandular, pen- 
tangular disk. Caps. 2 — 3, inflated, partly uni- 
ted. Seeds 1 — 2 in each capsule, subglobcse. 
with a lateral cicatrix. 


221. PARNASSIA. Cal. 5-parted, persistent. Pet. b- 

inferior. JVect. of 5 scales, inserted into the 
claws of the petals, fringed with capitate cilia?. 
Stig. 4, sessile. Caps. 1-celled, 4-valved ; valves- 
hearing incomplete dissepiments in the middle. 
Seeds membranaceously margined. 


J22. ARALIA. Flowers umbelled. Cal. 5-toothed. 

superior. Pet. 5. Stig. sessile, subglobose. 

Berry 5-celled, 5-seeded. 
-J23. STATICE. Cal. inferior, 1 -leaved, entire, plaited. 

scarious. Pet. 5. Caps. 1 -seeded, without valves 

covered with the persistent calyx. 
J 24. LINUM. Cal. deeply 5-parted, persistent. Pet. 

5, unguiculatc. Fit. united at the buse. Caps. 

superior, subglobose, 10-valved, 10-celled. Seed? 

solitary, ovate, compressed. 
!25. SIBBALDIA. Cal. 10-cleft, with the alternate 

segments narrower. Pet. 5, inserted in the 

calyx. Styles proceeding laterally from the ger- 

men. Seeds 5, clustered in the bottom of tlir 



DROSERA. Cal. deeply 5-cleft, persistent. 
5. Anth. ad n ate. Style* »;. Caps, superior, ■'• 
lied, 3 — 5-valved. many' 



til. XANTIIORHIZA. Cat. 0. Pet. 5, Met. b, 

obovate, pedicellate. Caps. 5 — 8 ; 1 -seeded 


134. PULMONARIA. Lung-wort. Boraginea. 

P. virginica : smooth ; stem erect ; calyx much 
shorter than the tube of the corolla ; radical leaver 
obovate-oblong, obtuse ; stem leaves narrower. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. May. If. Leav. smooth, 
subglauc. ;fl. in term, racem., large , bine. 

135. LITHOSPERMUM. Gromwell. Boraginea. 

1. L. arvense : stem erect, branched; leaves linear- 

lanceolate, rather acute, veinless, hairy; calyx 
nearly as long as the corolla, with spreading seg- 
ments ; seeds rugose. 
HAB. Fields. Apr. — May. G- Hispid ly pilose, C— 
12 in. high;fl. solitary, axilL, small, white. 

2. L. officinale . stem erect, much branched ; leaves 

lanceolate, acute, nerved, scabrous above, hair) 
beneath ; calyx as long as the tube of the corolla ; 
seeds smooth. 
HAB. Massachusetts. May. U. Stem. 2 ft. high 
scabr. ;Jl. axill., solit. y pedicell., pale yellow. 

5, L. maritimum: very smooth; stem procumbent, 
branched ; leaves oval, spathulate, fleshy ; corolla 
scarcely twice the length of the calyx. 
HAB. Sea shores. July. U. Stem diffuse ; jiedunc 
lat . \-jl. ; cor. subcampan., blue. 

\. L. canescens : stem erect, simple, villous ; leave* 
oblong, obtuse, silky above, subvillose beneath ; 
tube of the corolla as long again as the calyx. 
HAB. Fairfield, New-York. June. U . Root large, 
red;jl. subterm., bright orange. 

>. L. denticulatum : stem erect; leaves nervose, sub- 
glabrous, acute ; margin scabrous, with minute 
teeth ; radical ones ovate ; those on the stem ob- 
long ; segments of the calyx denticulate on the mar 


HAB. New-York. June. H . Stem. 6— 10 i. 
pedunc. many-Jl. ; cor. purple. 
>j. L. hirtum : plant hirsute ; floral leaves ovate ; stem 
leaves oblong ; calyx with long, lanceolate seg- 
HAB. Pennsylvania. U. Stem 8 — 12 in; high ; ft. 
in a term, raceme, orange. 

136. ONOSMODIUM. Boraginece. 

I. 0. hispidum : plant hispid; leaves obovate-lanceo- 
late, papillose-punctate ; segments of the corolla 
HAB. Dry hills. Aug. U. Stem 1—2 ft. high; leav. 
subtriply nerved; f. in leafy racemes, white. 
-'. 0. molle : whole plant white villose ; leaves oblong- 
oval, somewhat triply nerved ; segments of the co- 
rolla semi-oval 
HAB. Western countries. U« Resembles the prece- 
ding, but has broader segments to the corolla. 

7. ECMIUM. Viper's bugloss. Boraginew. 

E. vulgare : stem tuberculide -hispid ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, hispid ; spikes lateral ; stamens longer 
than the corolla. 

HAB Hillsides. May— July. $. Stem 2— 3 ft 
high; leav. very hispid; sptk, secund, recurved .. ft 

138. MYOSOTIS. Scorpion-grass. 

M. palustris: leaves lanceolate, a little scabious with 
appressed hairs; peduncles divergent when in fruit, 
twice as ! ng i-toothed spreading calyx ; 

border of the corolla flat, longer than the tube. 
UAB. Ditches and rivulets. May— July. U. Stem 
a ft. high, slend. ; racemes long ; fl. small, i. 
'. M. arvensis: loaves oblong-lanceolate, hairy; 

ag ; ped t, spreading when in 

fruil ; cal ' ; limb of the c 

ding, about a^ long as the tube. 
\ B. Sandy woods. June. Q. Plan: 


139. LYCOPSIS. Small Bugloss. Boragine*. 
L. arvensis: leaves lanceolate, semiamplexicaul, re 

pand-denticulate, very hispid; racemes leafy ; calyx 

HAB. Sandy fields. July. 0. Very hispid; Jl. blue , 

seeds reticulate. 

140. CYNOGLOSSUM. Hound's tongue. Boragineu. 

I. C. officinale : leaves broad-lanceolate, attenuate at the 
base, sessile, downy : stamens included. 
HAB. Road sides. June— July. $. Didl green, 
14 — 2 ft. high; jl. panic, pur p. -red ; seeds rough, i 

I. C. "virginicum: leaves oval-oblong, acute, hairy ; up 
per ones cordate and amplexicaul at the base ; co- 
rymb on a long, naked peduncle. 
HAB. Moist woods. May. U • Stem 2— 3 ft. high 
retrorsely hairy ; leaves large ; Jl. blue and white. 

Ml. ROCHELIA. Boragineu;. 
■• Lappula: stem branched above ; leaves lanceo- 
late, with incumbent hairs ; corolla longer than the 
calyx ; border erect-spreading ; seeds with 2 row- 
of hooked prickles on the margin. 
HAB. Road-sides, kc. July — Aug. 0. Stem panic 
above, 1 Jl. high ; J'uwcrs minute, blue. 
>, R. virginiuna : leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
scabrous above ; racemes divaricate ; flowers nod- 
ding when m fruit ; fruit densely covered with 
hooked prickles. 
IIAB. Rocky hills. July. <£. Stem 2 ft. high, hairy ; 
leaves large ; Jl. very small, while. 

142. ANAGALL1S. Pimpernel. Lysimachiw. 

A. arvtnsis : stem procumbent ; leaves ovate, sessile, 
dotted beneath; segments of the corolla dilated., 

HAB. Sandy iielcs, &c. June — July. ©. Stem quad- 
rang. ; leav. oppos. ; ft. solitary, axil I. scai-lei. 

143. LYSIMACHIA. Loosestrife. Lysimachut. 

L. stricta : raceme terminal, very long, lax ; leave 
opposite, lanceolate, sessile. 


HAB. Low grounds. July — Aug. U . Very smooth; 18 
in. high ; axils often bulbif. ; fl. yell. 

2. L. quadrifolia : leaves verticillate, in fours and fives, 

ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; peduncles axillary, 1- 
flowered, by fours ; segments of the corolla oval, 
entire, often obtuse. 
HAB. Low grounds. June — July. H. Stem 12 — 16 
in. high, a little hairy ; leav. punct. ; fl. yell. ; stam, 

3. L. ciliata: stem nearly smooth ; leaves opposite, on 

long petioles, subcordate-ovate, acuminate ; petioles 
ciliate ; peduncles subgeminate ; flowers nodding. 
II A B. Low grounds. July. U . Stem 2 — 3 ft. high . 
leav. large ; stam. nearly equal, with intermed. teeth, 

1. L. hyhrida: stem smooth ; leaves opposite, petiolate, 
lanceolate, acute at each extremity ; petioles ciliate ; 
flowers nodding ; peduncles axillary ; corolla ere 
HAB. Swamps. July — Aug. U . 18 in. high ; inf. 
leav. ovate-Ian. ; stam. nearly equal, with intermed. 
teeth. * 

"j. L. longifolia : stem branched, smooth ; leaves oppo- 
site, sessile, linear, very long ; upper ones in fours . 
peduncles by fours, subterminal, 1 -flowered ; seg- 
ments of the corolla ovate, acuminate, serrulate. 
HAB. Wet woods. U . Stem 2— 3 ft. high ; leav. 2 
I in. broad, flat ; floral ones verticil I. ; stam. subequal. 

o. L. capitata: stem subsimple, punctate ; leaves oppo- 
site, sessile, broad-lanceolate, punctate; peduncles 
axillary, elongated; flowers in dense subglobosr 
heads, G — 7- parted. 
HAD. Swamps. June. U. Stem IQ in. high, terete ; 
leav. punct. ; heads pedunc. ; stam. G — 7, much ex- 

T. L. revoluta : stem quadrangular, branched ; leave- 
opposite, sessile, long linear ; margin revolute ; pe 
duncles I -flowered, Bubterminal, nodding 
HAB. Wet calcareous rocks. Aug. U. I'cry smooth, 
12 — 18 in. high; leaves .'3 in. long, % tin. broad ; 
tinlh. very large. 

ill. PRIMULA. Primrose. Lysiniachur. 

P. forinosa .3. amtricana r leaves oboyate apatho-' 


late, repandly crenate-dentate, pulverulent be- 
neath; umbel many -flowered; peduncles spread- 
ing ; border of the corolla flat, as long as the tube, 
with obtuse, obcordate segments. 
IIAB. Shores of lakes. H. Leaves all rad.witha 
yellowish- green powder beneath; fl. pale purp. 

115. DODECATHEON. American Cowslip. 


I. D. meadia : leaves oblong-oval, repandly toothed , 
umbel many flowered, lax ; bracts oval. 
HAB. Rocky river sides- May. U. Leav. rad., A 
in. long: scape 8 — 10 in. long; Jl, nodding, -purp. 
I. D. integrifotium : leaves oblong-oval, subspathulate : 
umbel few-flowered, straight ; bracts linear. 
HAB. Mountains. U . FL pale blue, smaller than the 

146. MENYANTHES. Buck-bean. Gentians. 

M. trifoliate: leaves ternate. 

(TAB. Swamps. May. H . Stem a span high ; leaflet* 
obovate : fl. reddish-white, in a pyramidal raceme. 

147. VILLARS1A. Gentiance. 
V. lacunosa : leaves reniform, subpeltate, slightly 

crenate, lacuuose beneath ; petioles bearing the 

flowers : corolla smooth. 
HAB. In ponds, floating. Au<;. U . Petioles very long ; 

leav. 1 in. long ; fl. subumbellate, white. 

148. HOTTONIA. Water-feather. Lysimachice. 
B. inflata : scape articulate, with thfi inte modes and 
lower part inflated ; flowers verticillate, peduncu- 
OAB. Swamps, — subaquatic. H. Stem thick ■ tear. 
ctinnte ; fl. white. 

M9. SAMOLUS. Brookweed. Lysimachim. 

>. valerandi: stem erect ; leaves obovate ; raceme? 

elongated, many-flowered. 
HAB. Wet places. June— Oct. U. 8-^10 in. High 
a., minute, a : -. 


150. SABBATIA. Genliance. 

1. S. campanulata : leaves sublinear ; calyx as long as 

the corolla. 
HAB. Wet pastures. Afoot high, terete; fi> subsoil 
tary, purp.; seg. of cal. subulate. 

2. S. stellaris : stem terete ; branches dichotomous.. 

elongated, 1-flowered ; leaves lanceolate, acute , 
segments of the calyx subulate, half as long as the 
corolla ; segments of the corolla obovate. 
HAB. Salt-marshes. Aug. $ . Afoot high, subangular; 
fl. rose-col., with a yell, centre. 

3. S. angularis : stem quadrangular, somewhat winged : 

leaves ovate, amplexicaul ; peduncles elongated, 
corymbed ; segments of the calyx lanceolate, much 
shorter than the corolla. 

HAB. Moist meadows. Aug. ©and $. A foot high, 
branched; fl. rose-col.; seg. obovate. 
\. S. calycosa : stem erect, few-flowered ; leaves ob- 
long ; flowers solitary, 7— 9-parted ; calyx folia 
ceous, longer than the corolla. 

HAB. Wet meadows. £? Afoot high, very leafy ; 
segments of the cal. lanceol. ;fl. rose-col. 
5. S. chloroides : stem weak ; leaves lanceolate, erect ; 
branches 1-flowered; flowers 7 — 12-parted ; seg- 
ments of the calyx linear, shorter than the corolla. 

HAB. Brackish bog-meadows. Aug. £. Stem 2 — 3 
ft. high; fl. mostly 9-parted, 2 in. in diameter, 
bright rose-colour. 

0. S. corymbosa : leaves ovate, closely sessile ; stem 

acutely angled ; flowers corymbed ; segments of the 
calyx subulate, much shorter than the corolla. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug.— Sept. U. A foot high: co- 
rymb, fcw-fl. ; fl. white, sometimes 4-paried. 

151. HYDROPHYLLUM. Water-leaf. Boragincu 

1. H. virginicum : stem nearly smooth ; leaves pinna 

tifid and pinnate ; segments oval-lanceolate, with 
deep serratures ; fascicles of flowers conglomerate 
peduncles longer than the petioles. 
HAB. Woods. May— June. U . Stem U ft. high. 
leav. 2 — 3. large; cor. white, with . purp. reins. 
I. II. canadense: somewhat hairy; leave* angulark 


somewhat 5 lobed, remotely serrate ; peduncle 

shorter than the petioles. 
IIAB. Woods and mountains. June. U . Leav. on 

long petiol., suhcordate ;fi. white and pur p. 
>. H. appendiculatum : very hairy ; radical leaves sub- 

pinnatifid ; cauline ones angularly lobed ; sinuses oi 

the calyx with minute oval appendages. 
HAB. Shady wet rocks. May. $ Almost hispid ; 

fl. subpanic, on short pedunc, hive. 

152. PHACELIA. Boraginece. 

T. P. bipinnatifida : stem erect; leaves pinnatifid ; seg 

ments incisely lobed ; racemes mostly bifid, oblong, 

many-flowered ; divisions of the corolla entire. 
HAB. Mountainous regions. May — June. U ? Hairy; 

j\. in term, subsecund racemes* blue. 

2. P. fimbriata : stem ascending, hairy ; leaves with 

undivided lobes ; segments of the corolla fimbriate. 
HAB. Western countries. U,0. Racemes short, at 
first revolute ; cal. hispid ;Jl. blue. 

3. P. parviflora : stem diffuse, pubescent ; leaves sub- 

sessile, phraatifid , wguHjntS oblong, rather obtuse, 

entire ; racemes solitary ; pedicels short ; segment* 
of the corolla round, very entire. 
IIAB. Pennsylvania. May. 0. Stem 6 — 8 in, high , 

slender ;fl. pale blue or white; stam. short. 

153. SPIGELIA. Carolina Pink-root. Gentiancr. 

S. marilandica : stem simple, quadrangular ; leaves 

all opposite, sessile, ovate-lanceolate. 
HAB. Woods. June. U- A foot high; fl. fusiform. 
crimson, in a secund terminal raceme. 

154. VERBASCUM. Mullein. Solanea:. 

i. V. Thapsus : leaves decurrent, woolly on both sides ; 
raceme spiked, dense ; two of the stamens glabrous. 
HAB. Fields, road-sides, &c. June— Aug. $. Stem 
3 — ft ft. high;fl. bright yellow in very long spikes. 
.'. V. Blaitaria : leaves amplexicaul, oblong, smooth, ser 
rate ; peduncles 1 -flowered, solitary 
HAB. Old fields he. June— July. V 2 fi' hi 8 h > 
ang. ; raceme leafy ; pedicels 1 in. long : stam. uneQ 
«.. alba : leaves toothed ; flowers white. 
H. lutea : leaves doubly serrate ; flowers yellow. 


'. V. Lychnilis : leaves oblong-cuneiform, naked above : 
stem angular, panicled. 
HAB. River banks. $. Leaves very woolly beneath, 
fl. pale yellow. 

155. NICOTIANA. Tobacco. Solanea?, 

N*. rustica: stem terete ; leaves petiolate, ovate, vert- 
entire ; tube of the corolla cylindrical, longer than 
the calyx ; segments round. 

HAB. Borders of lakes. 0. Viscosc-pubes. lift. 
high ;fl. in a term, pan., dull greenish- yellow. § 

156. HYOSCYAMUS. Henbane. Solanece, 

II. niger : leaves amplexicaul, sinuate ; flowers sub 

sessile ; corolla reticulate. 
HAB. Road-sides and rubbish. June. 0, $. His 
pidly-pilose, foetid ; fl. in recurved spikes, dingy yel- 
low. § 
157. CONVOLVULUS. Bind weed. Convolvuli 
1. C. arvensis : stem climbing; leaves sagittate, with 
the lobes acute; peduncles mostly 1 -flowered ; 
bracts acute, remote from the flowers. 
II AB. Fields. V-- June. Stem a little hairy ; leav . 
obtuse ; fl. smalt, white ; stig. linear. 
\ C. Sepium : stem climbing; leaves sagittate; very 
acute ; lobes truncate ; bracts close to the flower, 
acute, longer than the calyx ; peduncles quadran 
gular, 1 -flowered. 
HAB. Hedges ami low grounds. June — July. 2£. 
Lcav. cordate-sagittaie ; pedunc. long ; fl. lar<re f 
I G. panduratus : stem climbing ; leaves cordate, entire 
or lobed, pandunform ; peduncles long; flowers 
fasciculate ; calyx smooth ; corolla tubular-cam- 
HAB. Sandy fields, if.. Aug. Root very large; 
tiem mostly trailing ; pedunc. 1 — I fl. ; tube of th: 
cor. pur p. 

tpithamceus : stem erect or trailing ; leaves oval 
or oblong, subcordate, pubescent ; peduncles l- 
flowered, generally longer than the leaves. 

tods. June. U. Stem 1 — 3 ft. long, 
. obtztsc or acum. ; bracts l:v<rr. 


158. IPOMJEA. ConvolvulL 
I. I. purpurea: leaves cordate, entire ; peduncles 2— 
3-flowered ; pedicels incrassated, nodding ; capsule 
IIAB. Cultivated grounds and waste places. Julj r — 
Aug. 0. Stem hairy, twining ; cor. large, blue 
and purp. 
2i I. lacunosa: stem smooth; leaves cordate, acumi- 
nate, angular at the base ; peduncles short, gene- 
rally 1 -flowered ; calyx hairy ; corolla tubular, 
short ; capsule hairy. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. Aug.— Sept. ©. Flower? 
white, with a purp. rim. 
5, I. Ml: stem hairy ; leaves cordate, 3-lobed ; pe- 
duncles short, 1— 3-flowered ; calyx very vil- 
lous ; segments acuminate. 
HAB. Hedges and gardens. ©. Leaves acuta., 3- 
f lobedwhen old ; cor. infund., white at base. 

159. PHLOX. Polemonia. 
L. P. paniculata: stem erect, smooth; leaves lanceo- 
late, flat ; corymb paniculate ; segments of the 
corolla rounded. 
HAB. Moist meadows. V-. June. Stem 2— 3 ft. 
high; leav. acum. ; cor. purp. ; tube pubes. 
I. P. pyramidalis : erect, smooth ; stem scabrous ; 
leaves cordate-ovate, acuminate ; panicle fastigiate, 
pyramidal; segments of the corolla cuneate ; trun- 
cate ; teeth of the calyx somewhat erect, lanceo- 
late, acute. 
HAB. Mountain meadows. Aug. If.. Stem 2-— 3 
ft. high, spotted with red ; fl. purp. ; teeth of the 
cal. short. 
A. P. maculala : erect ; stem scabrous and spotted ; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, smooth, scabrous on the 
margin ; panicle oblong, many-flowered ; segments 
of the corolla rounded ; teeth of the cahx acute, 
HAB. Rich moist meadows. June. V-. Stem 2 L r 

ft. high, simp. ; upper leav. ovate; Jl. pale purp. 
%. suaveolens : stem not spotted ; corolla white. 
• f. P. aristala : stem erect, weak, viscid -pubescent \ 
leave? linear-lanceolate ; panicle lax. fastigiate : 


segments of the corolla obovate ; tube curved, 
pubescent ; teeth of the calyx very long, subulate. 

MAB. Wet meadows. June. l[. Stem \j ft. high, 
villose-pubes. ; teeth of the cal. aristate ; cor. pale 
purp. or white. 

P. divaricata : stem low, pubescent, decumbent ; 
leaves oval-lanceolate ; upper ones alternate ; 
branches divaricate, loose, few-flowered ; segments 
of the corolla obcordale ; teeth of the calyx subu- 

HAB. Rocky banks. July, li . Stems numerous, 
9 — 12 in. high : fl. in term, pan., blue ; cal. erect. 

P. reptans : pubescent, with creeping stolons ; radi- 
cal leaves spathulate-obovate ; stem-leaves oval- 
lanceolate ; corymb few-flowered, divaricate ; seg- 
ments of the corolla obovate ; teeth of the calyx 
subulate, reflexed. 

HAB. Mountains. June. ii. . Stem 6 — 8 in. high, 
erect; corymb i — 6-/1.; cal. pubes. ;fl. blue- 

P. subulata: cespitose, pubescent; leaves 1'near- 
subulate, rigid, ciliate ; corymb few-flowered; 
segments of the corolla cuneate, emarginate ; calyx 
with subulate teeth about as long as the tube of the 

HAB. Rocky hills. April — May. H. Procumb., 
branching, 3 — 4 in. high ; lower leav. fascic. ; fl. 

P. setacea : cespitose, pubescent : leaves fasciculate* 
subulate, ciliate, rigid ; flowers few, terminal, some- 
what umbelled ; segments of the corolla cuneate, 
emarginate ; teeth of the calyx subulate, much 
shorter than the tube of the corolla. 

HAB. Rocks and sandy hills. May. V-. Stem as - 
surgent ; leav. longer than Ao. 7. ; fl. pale rose-col 

100. POLEMONIUM. Jacobs-ladder. Polcmoma. 

P. reptans : leaves pinnate ; leaflets about 7 ; flow 

ers terminal, nodding. 
HAB. Fertile hills. May U Root creeping; stctn 

f.rcct, 1 ft. high; fl. aubcorymb.. blvc. 


161. DIAPENSIA. Convolvuli. 

J. D. lapponica : cespitose ; leaves spathulate, smooth 

flowers pedunculate ; anthers simple. 
HAB. High mountains. June. U . Evergreen . 

leav. much crowded, a little recurv.;Jl. term., white. 
2. D. barbulata : creeping; leaves cuneate-lanceolate, 

pubescent at the base ; flowers sessile ; anthers 

beaked at the base. 
HAB. Pine barrens and high mountains. May — 

June. Evergreen, forming mats ; fl. solit., term.. 


162. DATURA. Thorn-apple. Solanem. 

D. Stramonium : capsule spiny, erect ; leaves ovate, 

smooth, angular-dentate. 
HAB. Waste-places. July — Sept. 0. Stem 2 — 7 

ft. high, dichot., green ; fl. solitary, axill., white. 
3. Tatula : stem and flowers purple. 

163. AZALEA. Rhododendra. 

A. procumbens. 

HAB. High mountains. July. Tj • Evergreen, ces- 
pitose, 3 — 4 in. long; leav. oppos., ellipt. ; fl. in 
small term, umb., rose-col. 

164. PHYSALIS. Ground-cherry. Solanea. 

1. P. obscura : pubescent ; stems prostrate, divaricate ; 

leaves broad-cordate, subsolitary, unequally and 
coarsely toothed ; flowers solitary, nodding ; calyx 
very hairy. 
HAB. Woods and hills. Aug. © . Stem forked . 
leav. on long petioles ; fl. pedunc, dull yell. 

2. P. vicosa : leaves by pairs, subcordate-oval, repanw. 

obtuse, subtomentose ; stem herbaceous, panicu- 
late above ; fruit bearing calyx pubescent. 

HAB. Road sides, &c. ©. Stem erect, 2—3 ft. 
high, dichot.; fl. yell., spotted at the base. 
}. P. pennsylvanica : leaves ovate, subrepand, obtuse. 
nearly naked ; stem herbaceous, branched ; pedun 
cles solitary, a little longer than the petioles. 

HAB. Road sides and rubbish. July — Sept. U . 
Erect or procumb., 1 ft. high ; fl. yell., not spotted 


.P. lanceolate : leaves geminate, oval-lanceolate- 
entire, narrowed at the base into a petiole ; stem 
herbaceous, dichotomous ; calyx villous. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. V-. Stem 1—2 ft. high, 
densely pubes. ; Jl. pale yell., spotted. 

165. SOLANUM. Nightshade. Solanece. 

i. S. Dulcamara: stem fruticose, flexuous, withoui 
thorns ; leaves ovate-cordate ; superior ones has- 
tate ; corymbs opposite the leaves. 
HAB. Low grounds. July — Aug. T?. Climbing: 
Jl. in lateral clusters, violet; berries red. 

2. S. nigrum }. virginianum : stem herbaceous, with- 

out thorns, angular, toothed ; leaves ovate, ob- 
tusely toothed and waved ; flowers subumbelled. 
HAB. Old fields, &c. July— Aug. © . Stem dif- 
fuse, slightly winged ; Jl. white ; berries black. 

3. S. carolinense : stem annual, aculeate ; leaves ovate- 

oblong, tomentose, hastate and sinuate-angular, 
acuminate ; racemes simple, lax. 
HAB. Fields. June. V- . Erect, branched, 1 ft. 
high, armed with yell, prickles ; Jl. xvhite or pale 
Hue ; berries yell. 

166. CAMPANULA. Bell-flower. Campanula. 

i. C. rotundifolia : glabrous; radical leaves reniform- 
cordate, crenate ; cauline ones linear, entire ; pa* 
nicle lax, few-flowered. 

HAB. Rocky river banks. June. If.. Root creep- 
ing ; stem erect; fl. few, drooping^ blue. 
2. C. amplexicaulis : stem simple, erect; leaves cor- 
date, crenate, amplexicaul ; flowers axillary, sessile., 

HAB. Fields and dry hills. May— July, © . Stem 
8 — 12 in. high, hispid ; leav. veined ; Jl. purp. 
. americana : leaves ovate lanceolate, much acumi- 
nate, membranaceous, uncinately serrate ; lower 
ones subcordate, with the petioles ciliate ; flowers 
subsolitary, nearly sessile, in a terminal leafy ra- 
ceme ; corolla subrotate ; style exserted. 

HAB. Wet rocks. Aug. ^. Stem 2 ft. high, 
simp. ; pedicels short, clavate ; fl. blue, flat. 


I. C. acuminata: nearly smooth ; stem straight, erect, 
leaves lanceolate, attenuated to a long point, sub- 
serrate ; spike fasciculate, many-flowered; corolla 

HAB. High mountains. %. Stem erect, 2 — 3 ft, 
high ; leav. remotely serrate ; ft. by threes, blue. 
5. C. aparanoia'es : stem blender, branched, acutely 
subtriangular ; angles, with the margin and nerves 
of the leaves, retrorsely aculeate ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, smooth above ; peduncles few, terminal, 
filiform, flexuous, 1 -flowered. 

HAB. Wet meadows. June — Aug. © . Erect or 
diffuse, 1 ft. high ; leav. dentic. ; ft. small, white. 

167. LOBELIA. Lobeliucece. 

1 . L. Dortmanna : leaves linear, fleshy, 2-celIed, ob- 

tuse ; scape nearly naked ; flowers racemed, remote. 
HAB. Swamps. — subaquatic. July. If.. Leaves 
immersed : radical ones spreading ; scape long. 
3 — 4-ft ; cor. blue. 

2. L. Kalmii : whole plant smooth; stem slender, 

erect, branched ; leaves linear, remotely denticu- 
late ; radical ones spathulate ; raceme lax, few- 
flowered, leafy ; peduncles longer than the fruit, 
with 2 minute bracts near the flower ; capsule at- 
tenuate at the base. 
HAB. Rocky banks of rivers. July — Aug. $ ? 
Stem 12 — 18 in. high ; pedunc. 1 in. long ; ft. pah 

j. L. Nuttallii : stem erect, minutely scabrous, simple, 
or with filiform branches ; leaves oblong-linear, 
denticulate ; flowers in slender racemes, distant ; 
peduncles coloured, shorter than the flower, with 
minute bracts near the base ; capsule obtuse be- 
HAB. Borders of sandy swamps. Aug. $. Stem 
slender, 2 ft. high ; seg. of the cal. longer than thf 
caps. ; ft. pale blue. 

t. L. Claytoniana : stem erect, simple, pubescent ; 
leaves oblong, pubescent, obtuse, nearly entire ; 
radical ones spathulate : raceme virgate, naked ; 


segments of the calyx subulate ; nearly as long as 
the tube of the corolla. 
HAB. Dry woods and fields. Aug. 2£. Stem 1J — 2 
ft. high; rad. leav. nearly entire ; fi. patt blue, 
o. L. puberula : pubescent ; stem erect, simple ; leaves 
oblong-oval, obtuse, repand-serrulate ; *pike se- 
cund, leafy at the base ; segments of the calyx 
longer than the tube of the corolla, ciliate. 
HAB. Mountains. Sept. M . Stem 2 ft. high: 
rad. leav. obovate ; sinuses of the cal. reflexed ; fi. 
large, blue. 

6. L. siphilitica : stem erect, rather hairy; leaves 

ovate-lanceolate, unequally serrate ; raceme leafy ; 
calyx hairy, with the sinuses reflexed. 
HAB. Wet meadows. Sept. ii . Stem lj— 2 ft. 
high ; fi. on short pcdic, large, bright blue. 

7. L. infiata : stem hairy, branched ; leaves ovate-lan- 

ceolate ; racemes leafy, somewhat paniculate ; cap- 
sules inflated. 

HAB. Fields. Aug. 0. Acrid, a foot or more 
high ; leav. crenate ; fi. pedunc, small, pale blue. 
&. L. Cardinalis: stem erect; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
serrate ; raceme secund, somewhat leafy ; stamens 
longer than the corolla. 

HAB. Wet grounds. July — Aug. y.. 2 ft. high, 
very smooth ; fi. large, bright scarlet. 

168. DIERV1LLA. Caprifolia. 
1). Tournefortii. 
1IAB. Rocky woods. June. ^. Shrub 2 — 3 r f 

high, branched ; leav. oppos., ovate, acum., serraL '. 
pedunc. axilL, 2 — 3-fi. ; cor. yell. 

169. LONICERA. Honey-suckle. Caprifolia. 

i ],. hirsuta: spikes verticillate, terminal, subcapitate, 
L'landular-pubescent ; leaves broad-ovate and obo- 
vate, pubescent and ciliate, glaucous beneath ■ 
upper ones connate-perfoliate, nearly smooth. 
!JAB. Rocky woods. June Tj. Climbing; leav 
decid., nearly scss., sometimes almost smooth ; fi 
veil., pubes. ; berries orange, glandular -pub es. 
K 8 


, L. flava : spikes verticillate, capitate, terminal ; co- 
rolla somewhat ringent ; segments oblong, obtuse ; 
leaves ovate, glaucous beneath, with a cartilaginous 
margin ; upper ones connate-perfoliate. 
HAB. Mountains. June — July. Tj. Climbing; 
leav. decid., smooth, veined ; Jl. bright yell.; tube 

, L. parvijlora: spikes verticillate, capitate; leaves 
deciduous, glaucous beneath, all of them connate- 
perfoliate ; corolla ringent, gibbous at the base : 
filaments bearded. 
HAB. Rocky places. June. ?2. Climbing; glau- 
cous, leav. ovate or oblong ; Jl. yell. ; berries red. 

. L. grata: flowers verticillate, terminal ; leaves pe- 
rennial ; obovate, glaucous beneath ; upper ones 
HAB. Swamps and mountains. Tj. Climbing or 
erect ; Ji. inclining to scarlet, ringent; berries red. 

1. L. sempervirens : spike somewhat naked, verticil- 
late, terminal ; leaves oblong, glaucous beneath . 
upper ones connate-perfoliate ; corolla nearly 
equal, with the tube above ventricose. 
HAB. Dry stony woods. May — Aug. Tj . Ever- 
green ; leav. a little hairy above ; Jl. crimson; ber- 
ries, scarlet. 

170. XYLOSTEUM. Caprifolia. 

, X. ciliatum : leaves ovate and subcordate, ciliate 
the younger ones villous beneath ; lube of the 
corolla calcarate at the base, ventricose above 
segments short, acute ; style exserted. 

HAB. Mountains. May— June. Tj. 3— 4 ft. high 

branch spreading ; leav .on short pet. ; Jl. axill., yell 

I, X. villosum : berries coadunate ; leaves oblong an( 

Oval, obtuse ; the younger ones, with the corolla 

villous ; peduncles much shorter than the flower 

HAB. Mountain swamps. May. T3. 2 — 4 ft, 
high ; young branch, vill. ; jl. axil!. , yell. ; berries rec 
or pur p. 

171. SYMPHORIA. Peter's-wort. Caprifolia. 

■ S. glomerala : racemes axillary, capitate, conglome- 


HAB. Pennsylvania. Aug. T2. 3—4 ft. high; 
bran, erect, pubes.; leav. oppos., ovate, entire; Jl, 
greenish-red, small ; berries purp. 
'2. S. racemosa : racemes terminal ; corolla bearded 
HAB. Rocks. July. V 2— 3 ft. high, branched ; 
fl. small, pale red ; berries large white. 

172. TRIOSTEUM. Fever-wort. Caprifolia. 
T. perfoiiatum : leaves oval, acuminate, abruptly 

narrowed at the base, connate, pubescent beneath ; 

axils 1 — 3-flowered. 
HAB. Rocky woods. June. U. Stem 2— 3 ft. 

high; leav. large ; fl. sess., dull pur p. ; berries 


173. ITEA. Saxifrages. 

I. virginica. 

HAB. Swamps. June. Tj. 4 — 8 ft. high; leav, 

altern., lanceol., acum., serrul. ; Jl. in simp, term, 

racemes, white, pubes. within. 

174. IMPATIENS. Balsam. Papaveracece. 
\. I. pallida: peduncles solitary, 3— 4-flowered ; nec- 
tary obtusely conic, dilated, shorter than the pe- 
tals ; spur recurved, very short ; flowers sparingly 
punctate ; leaves rhombic-ovate, mucronately 

HAB. Wet shady places. Aug. ©. Stem 2 ft. 
high, tender and succul. ; leav. altern. ; fl. {yell. ; 
seeds ellip. 
2. I. fulva : peduncles solitary, 3 — 4-flowered ; nec- 
tary acutely conic, longer than the petals ; spui 
resupinate, emarginate, nearly as long as the galea : 
flowers with crowded spots ; leaves rhombic-ovate, 
obtuse, mucronate toothed. 

HAB. Wet shady places. Aug. ©. Plant glauc . 
and diaph. ; caps, b-ang., 3 — 6-secded ; seeds pri*- 

Mo. VIOLA. Violet. Fiolacecr. 

* Slemless. 

t Flowers blue. 
K V. ptdatei : leaves pedatc, nearly smooth, about 7- 


parted ; segments linear-lanceolate, entire ; stigma 
large, obliquely truncate, and perforate at the apex. 
HAB. Rocky hills and dry woods. May. U . Leav. 
with, obtuse seg. ; slip, ciliate ; Jl. large, pale blue. 

2. V. palmata: pubescent; leaves cordate, (rarely 

entire,) palmate, or hastate-lobed ; lobe9 crenate 
and toothed, the middle one much the largest ; 2 
lateral petals bearded ; stigma margined, depressed. 
HAB. Low grounds. May. U . Leaves never 
smooth ; slip. Ian. ; fl. middle sized; stig. rostrate. 

3. V. sagittata : leaves oblong, acute, cordate-sagittate, 

incised at the base ; flowers inverted ; inferior 
petal bearded, the rest bearded. 

HAB. Hills and fields. April— May. II. Leav. 
pubes. above; stip. lin. ; Jl. middle-sized, purp. ; 
spur short. 

/3. emarginata : leaves almost triangular, lacerately 
toothed near the base ; petals emarginate or biden- 

HAB. Sandy fields and river-banks. 
1. V. ovata : leaves ovate, subcordate, crenate, often 
lacerately toothed at the base, pubescent on both 
sides ; petiole margined ; segments of the calyx 
oblong-lanceolate, hairy. 

HAB. Dry hills. April — May. U. . Leav. gene- 
rally almost woolly ; Jl. middle-sized; stig. recurv.. 
~*. V. cucullata : very smooth ; leaves cordate, cucul 
late at the base, serrate ; stipules linear ; inferior 
and lateral petals bearded. 

HAB. Wet meadows. April— May. U. Leav. 
subrenif, on long petioles ; beard of the pet. rigid. 
i. V. obliqua: smooth: leaves cordate, acute, flat, cre- 
nate-serrate ; flowers obliquely bent; lateral pe- 
tals bearded; inferior ones acute, carinate ; sti- 
pules lanceolate. 

HAB. Wet meadows. U . May. Scape long, -with 
minute bracts ; beard of the petals globose-clavate. 
7. V. villosa : leaves renif'orm-cordate, flat, very pu 
bescent ; segments of the calyx auriculate at the 
base ; stigma deflexed ; margin cupuliform. 
HAB. Rocky hills. U . May. Leav. spreading on 
rite ground, purp. beneath : pet, oblon*. 


3. cordata : leaves cordate, rather acute ; segments 
of the calyx scarcely produced at the base. 

HAB. Hills and dry woods. April — May. U . Leav, 
thickish, smooth below ; sinus small. 

| t Flowers yellow. 

8. V. rotundifolia : leaves orbicular-ovate, cordate ; 
slightly crenate, nearly smooth ; sinus closed ; pe- 
tiole pubescent ; lateral petals bearded ; segments 
of the calyx obtuse ; spur nearly obsolete. 
HAB. Shady rocky woods. May. U . Leav. op- 
press, to the earth, on short pet. ; pet. broad-ovate^ 

t | t Flowers somewhat regular, small, white. 

9. V. lanceola'a : leaves very smooth, lanceolate, 
attenuated into a petiole at the base, rather obtuse, 
subserrate ; petals beardless* 
HAB. Wet meadows. April — May. tf . Leav. 2 
— 4 in. long, very narrow ; Ji. inodorous, veined. 

10. V. acuta: leaves ovate lanceolate, smooth, abruptly 

decurrent at the base ; bracts lanceolate-linear ; 
petals acute, of nearly equal length, beardless. 
HAB. Moist grounds. May. U . Leav. rarely 
biibcord. ; pe' ovate, lowest one veined. 

11. V. prir/iultrfoliri : leaves oblong;, subcordate, ab- 

ruptly decurrent on the petiole ; nerves beneath, 
and the scape, subpubescent ; lateral petals 
HAB. Wet meadows. April — May. U . Leav. 
more or less ob'use ; fl. tidor-us ; pet. obovate. 

12. V. blanda : leaves broad-cordate, slightly pubes- 

cent above ; sinus rounded ; petiole smooth ; flow 
ers beardless. 
HAB. Wet grounds. April — May. U. Leav. 
nearly flat, membran., oftemubrenif. ;jl. odorous, 
J 3. V. clande.itina : leaves orbicular, rather obtuse, 
smoothish, crenate-gerrate, with glandular serra- 
tures ; ?inus closed, cordate ; stolons tloriferous ; 
petals linear, scarcely longer than the calyx. 


HAB. Mountains. June— Sept. U. Leaves large, 
thin ; scape very short ; fl. concealed. A var. oi" 

No. 12? 

* * Caulescent. 

14. V. canadensis : nearly smooth ; leaves cordate : 

acuminate, serrate ; peduncles shorter than the 
leaves ; petals oblong, narrow ; stipules ovate- 
lanceolate, entire. 
HAB. Moist rocky woods. May — July, U . Stem 
6 — 18 in. high> erect, simp. ; fl. large, blue. 

15. V. ochrolevca : stem somewhat erect, branched, 

smooth ; leaves round-cordate ; upper ones a lit- 
tle acuminate ; stipules oblong-lanceolate, dentate- 
ciliate ; stigma tubular, recurved, pubescent at 
the summit. 
HAB. Wet grounds. May. U. Stem 6—8 in. 
long ; fl. yellowish -white, large ; pet. obtuse. 

16. V. Muhlenberghii : stem weak, assurgent ; leave? 

reniibrm -cordate ; the upper ones a little acumi- 
nate, creoate-serrate, smooth ; stipules lanceolate, 
serrate-ciliate ; nectary produced ; stigma tubu- 
lar, rostrate. 
HAB. Swamps. May. U . Stem 6—10 in. long, 
branch, below ; bracts alternate ; fl. blue. 

17. V. rostrata : smooth; stem diffuse, erect; leaves 

cordate, the upper ones acute, serrate ; stipules 
lanceolate, serrate-ciliate ; petals beardless ; nec- 
tary longer than the corolla. 
HAB. Wet rocky places. April— May. U . Stem 
6 in. high ; pedunc. long ; fl. large, blue ; stig. 

18. V. pubescens : villous pubescent ; stem erect, naked 

below ; leaves broad-cordate, toothed ; stipules 

ovate, subdentate. 
HAB. Dry stony woods. April — May. Stem simp.. 

6—8 in. high," br, ideate; leav. 2—3; fl. yellow. 
/3. eriocarpa : capsule densely villous. 

19. V. hastata : smooth ; stem simple, leafy above ; 

leaves hastate, on very long petioles ; stipules 
minute, ciliate-denticulate. 


HAB. Mountains. May. U . Erect, 6—8 in. high; 
leav. acum. ; fi. yell. ; inf. pet. large, sub-3 lobed. 
20. V. tenella: stem triquetrous ; leaves rotund-spathu- 
late ; superior ones lanceolate, entire ; stipules 
large, pinnatifid. 
HAB. Dry rocky hills. May. 0. Stem 2—3 in. 
high ; rad. leav. petiolate ; fi. small, bluish-zvhiie. 
fl. V. concolor : stem straight, erect ; leaves cuneate- 
lanceolate ; stipules lanceolate entire ; peduncles 
very short, 2— 3-flowered ; petals connivent, 
emarginate ; spur 0. 
HAB. Wet shady rocks. April — May. U . Stem 
simp., ang., 1 ft. high ; leav. erect ; fi greenish, 

176. CLAYTONIA. Portulaceoz. 

C. virginica: leaves linear-lanceolate; petals obo- 

vate, retuse ; leaves of the calyx somewhat acute ; 

root tuberous. 
HAB. Moist woods. April — May. U • Smooth, erect 

or procumb. ; leav. few, oppos. ; fi. racem., rose-col. 
(i. latifolia : leaves ovate-lanceolate ; leaflets of the 

calyx obtuse. 
HAB. Mountainous districts. 

177. CEANOTHUS. New-Jersey tea. Rhamni. 
1. C. americanus: leaves ovate-oblong, serrate, triply- 
nerved, tomentose-pubescent beneath ; panicles 
axillary, on long peduncles. 
HAB. Woods and copses. July. V Root large, red ; 
s t em 2 — 4 ft. high; leav. alt. ; fi. minute, white. 
I. C. herbaceus : leaves oval, subserrulate, smooth; 
panicle thyrsoid, axillary and terminal. 
HAB. Rocky banks. Suffruticose; leaves as large a* 
in the preceding. 

178. EUONYMUS. Spindle-tree. Rhamni. 

\ . E. americanus : branches smooth, quadrangular ; 
leaves subsessile, elliptical-lanceolate, smooth, acute, 
serrate ; peduncles 3-flowered, terete ; flowers 5- 
cleft; fruit verrucose-muricate. 
HAB. Shady woods. June. Shrub 3— 4 ft. high ; 
bran, oppos.. spread. : fi. a.rill., greenish: fnri: 


/3. sarmtntosus : stem sarmentose. 
HAB. Rock} moist forests. July. Subsempervirenl 
2 ft. high, acutely quadrang. 

2. E. atropurpureua : leaves perfoliate, oblong-lanceo- 

late, acuminate, serrate; peduncles divaricate, many- 
flowered ; flowers 4-cleft ; fruit smooth. 
HAB. Shady woods. June. Shrub 4 — 5 ft. high : 
pedunc. 3 — 6-Ji. ; pet. dark-purp. ; fruit bright-red. 

3. E. obovatus: stem prostrate, rooting ; surculi erect. 

obtusely quadrangular, with 4 elevated lines ; leaves 
broad-ovate, obtuse, acute at the base, subsessile, 
acutely serrulate ; peduncles 3-flowered ; stamens 
HAB. Shady fir swamps. June. Tj. Nearly simp. : 
leav. often dilated ; ji. purplish-green. 

179. CELASTRUS. Staff-tree. Rhamni. 

C. scandens: stem climbing, unarmed ; leaves oblong. 

acuminate, serrate ; racemes terminal ; flowers 

HAB. Woods and thickets. June. Tj. Leav. alt em.. 

stipui. ; racem. few-fi. ; pet. greenish-yel. ; fruit red. 

180. RHAMNUS. Buck-thorn. Rhamni. 

1. R. alnifolius : unarmed ; leaves oval, acuminate, 

serrulate, pubescent on the nerves beneath ; flow- 
ers dioecious ; peduncles 1 -flowered, aggregate ; 
calyx acute ; fruit turbinate. 
HAB. Rocky hills. May. Shrub small ; leav.altern. : 
fl. small, greenish, in axill. fascic. ; fruit black. 

2. R. catharhcus : spikes terminal ; flowers generally 

4-cleft, polygamo-dicecious ; leaves ovate ; stem 
erect ; berries 4-seeded. 
HAB. Mountains and woods. May. A small tree : 
leav. fascic. and oppos. ; ft. dust., axill.; fruit black. 

181. VITIS. Vine. Vites. 
1. V. Labrusca: leaves broad-cordate, angularly sub- 
3-lobed, cinereous-tomentose beneath ; racemes- 
small ; berries large. 
HAB. Woods and hedges. June — July. Tj. Leav. 
very large, at first fcrriig. beneath ; fl. greenish : 
fruit pur p. 


V. vulpina : leaves cordate, acuminate, incisely 
toothed, smooth on both sides ; racemes loose, 
many-flowered ; berries small. 

HAB. Woods and river-banks. June. T?. Leav 
3 — 4 i n , broad; veins ft little pubes. ; fruit sm., 

V. aestivalis : leaves broad-cordate, 3 — 5-lobed, fer- 
ruginous-tomentose beneath ; sinuses rounded ; 
racemes oblong ; berries small. 

HAB. Rocky river-banks. June. \ . Leav, 
smoothish when old ; fruit deep blue or purp. 

£. sinuata : leaves sinuate-palmate. 

V. riparia: leaves unequally incisely toothed, short 
3-lobed, pubescent on the margin, nerves and pe- 

HAB. Gravelly shores. T2. Fl. very sweet scented. 

182. CISSUS. Vites. 

C. hederacea : stem climbing and rooting ; leaves 

quinate-digitate, smooth ; leaflets petiolate, oblong. 

acuminate, toothed ; racemes cymose, dichoto 

mous ; nectary 0. 
HAB. Woods. July. Tj. Leav. on long pet, : fl. 

greenish; her. small, dark-blue, acid. 
3. hirsuta : leaves pubescent on both sides ; leaflets 

ovate, acuminale, coarsely toothed. 
HAB Mountains. 
C. Ampelopsis : leaves cordate, acuminate, toothed 

and angular ; nerves beneath pubescent ; raceme? 

twice bifid. 
HAB. River banks and mountains. T?. Climbing ; 

leav. petiol. ; raceme few-fl. ; ber. pale-red. 

183. RIB.ES. Currant and Gooseberry. 

* Sterns without thorns. 
R. florid-urn : unarmed ; leaves punctate both side?, 
acutely 3-lobed, pubescent ; racemes pendulous 
calyx tubular ; bracts longer than Jhe pedicels. 
HAB. Woods and hedges. J 1 . April— i^v. Shnd 
1—4 ft. high ; fl. greenish; ber, black. 


2. R. albinervium : leaves short, acutely lobed, smooth* 

ish ; nerves white ; racemes recurved ; berries 
HAB. Mountains. April— May. V Fl. small, 
greenish yell. ; ber. red. 

3. R. trifidum : leaves moderately lobed, smooth above, 

pubescent beneath ; racemes loose, pubescent ; 
flowers rather flat, with the segments of the calyx 
subtritid ; petals spathulate, obtuse ; berries hairy. 
HAB. Mountains. April — May. T?. Leav. with 
subacute lobes; pet. purp. ; ber. red. 

4. R. rigens : branches straight ; leaves acutely lobed 

and dentate, reticulate-rugose, pubescent beneath ; 
racemes rather loose, many-flowered, becoming 
stiffly erect ; berries hispid. 
HAB. Mountains. May. Tj. Leav. on long pet. ; 
raceme 6 — \0-fl. ; fl. purp. ; ber. red, 

5. R. prostratum : branches rechned-prostrate ; leaves 

lobed, smoothish ; the younger ones pubescent ; 
branches somewhat erect ; calyx rather flat ; petals 
deltoid ; bracts minute ; berries hispid. 
HAB. Mountains. May. Tj. Shrub small; leav. 
5-lob. ; raceme erect, S — lO-fl., gland. ; ber. red. 

* * Stems thorny. 

G. R. hirtellum: spines subaxillary ; branches some- 
what hispid ; leaves smail, half 3-cleft ; lobes sub 
dentate; peduncles 1 -flowered; berries smooth. 
HAB. Mountains. May — June. Tj. Berries red 

7. R. gracile: spines subaxillary; leaves on slender 

petioles, pubescent on both sides ; lobes acute, 
dentate, incised ; peduncles slender, erect, about 
2-flowered ; calyx tubuhir-campanulate ; berries 
HAB. Mountains. May. Tj. Spines mostly soli- 
tary; pet. short, white ; ber. green or purp., some- 
times zcith several spines. 

8. R. triflorum: spines subaxillary; leayes smooth. 

3 — 5-lobed, incisely toothed ; peduncles about 3- 
flowered ; pedicels elongated ; bracts very short ; 
petals spathulate, undulate ; style hairy, exserted 
deeply 2-cleft ; berries smooth. 


HAB. Mountains. May. Tj. Branch, spreading ; 
spines sometimes ;fl. purp. -green ; ber. small, red. 
*. R. oxycanthoides : larger spines subaxillary ; smaller 
ones scattered over the stem ; leaves smooth ; 
lobes dentate ; peduncles short, about 2-flowered ; 
berries smooth. 
HAB. Rocks. Tj. Bran, slend. ; leav. sub-3-lobed ; 
fl. solit. or in pairs, pale yell. ; ber. purp., glob. 

10. R. lacustre : subaxillary spines compound ; stem 

on every part hispid-aculeate ; leaves lobed be- 
yond the middle ; petioles villous ; berries race- 
mose, hispid. 
HAB. Mountain swamps. June. Tj . Stem reddish ; 
leav. b-lob.; racem. pend., 5 — 6-Jl. ; pet. white; 
ber. brown. 

11. R. Cynosbati: subaxillary spines by pairs ; leaves 

with short lobes, incisely toothed, softly pubes- 
cent; racemes nodding, few-flowered ; calyx erect- 
campanulate ; berries aculeate. 
HAB. Mountains. Apr.— June. Tj. Fl. green; 
ber. dark brown. 

184. HAMILTONIA. Oil-nut. Santalaceaz. 

H. oleifera. 

HAB. Mountains, near rivulets. May — June. Shrub 
4 — 6 ft. high, very pubes. ; leav. . alter n., ovate, 
entire ; fl. greenish, racemose ; nut oily. 

185. THESIUM. Bastard toad-flax. Santalacece. 

T. umbellatum : stem erect ; leaves oval-lanceo- 
late ; fascicles of flowers terminal, subcorymbed. 

HAB. Rocky hills and woods. July — Aug. If.. 
Stem 1 ft. high ; leav. altern., entire ; fl. white. 

186. ANYCHIA. Illecebrea. 

A. dichotoma : stem erect or spreading, dichoto- 
mously branched ; leaves lanceolate, smooth, 
acute ; flower* about as long as the stipules. 
HAB. Dry woods and hills. June — Aug. 0. Stem 
fllif., pubes. above; leav. oppos. ; fl. solit., very 
.1. capillacea : very smooth ; flowers spreading, 
longer than the stipules at their base. 


HAB. Pine-barrens. Aug. A span high; leav. 
smaller, often obtuse. 

GLAUX. Black Salt-wort. Primulaceoc. 

G. maritima. 

HAB. Sea-coast. V-. Erect, 4 — 5 in. high ; leav. 

oppos., ovate, fleshy ; fl. small, solit., axill., rose 



188. APOCYNUM. DogVbane. Apocinece. 

I. A. androsaemifolium : leaves ovate, smooth on both 
sides ; cymes lateral and terminal, smooth ; tube 
of the corolla longer than the calyx. 
HAB. Fields and hedges. June — July. U . Stew 
2 — 3 ft. high; branch, spread. ; fl. pink; border 
I. A. pubescens: stem erect ; leaves ovate, hoary-pu- 
bescent beneath ; cymes pubescent ; corolla longer 
than the calyx ; border erect. 
HAB. Borders of fields. June — July. U . Branch 
few, erect; peliol. short. ; fl. few, sin., greenish. 
>. A. hypericifolium : leaves oblong, smooth, on ver) 
short petioles, mucronat*?, obtuse and subcordate 
at the base ; cymes shorter than the leaves ; calyx 
nearly as long as the tube of the corolla. 
HAB. Fields and borders of woods. June — July. 1| . 
Leav. subsess., very acute; cor. small, greenish- 
white, erect. 
4. A. cannabinum: leaves lanceolate, acute at each 
end, smooth on both sides ; cymes paniculate ; 
1 calyx as long as the tube of the corolla. 
HAB. Fields and borders of woods. June. U . 
Branch, dend. ; cym. many-fl. ; cor. small, camp an.. 

189. PERIPLOCA. Apocinece. 

P. grceca: flowers hairy within, terminal. 

HAB. New-York. Aug. Tj. Climbing; leav 


vppos., ovate, acuminate; fl. corymb, dark purp. ; 
seg. linear. §. ?. 

100. GONOLOBUS. Apocinece. 

1. G. obliquus : stem climbing, hairy; leaves ovate- 

cordate ; villous, acute ; corymbs axillary ; seg- 
merits of the corolla ovate, acuminate, oblique> 
IIAB. Moist rocks. July. U . Leav. veined ; co- 
rymbs short ; fl. foetid, dark-purp. 

2. O. hirsutus : sarments and petioles very hairy; 

leave? cordate-oval, distinctly acuminate, pubescent 
on both sides ; segments of the corolla oblong, 
obtuse ; follicles oblong, muricate. 
IIAB. Hedges, near rivulets. U- Trailing or 
climbing; umb. 4 — 6-fl. ; pet. dark-purp,; fol. 
with soft spines. 

191. ASCLEPIAS. Silk-weed. Asclepiadex. 
* Leaves opposite. 

\. A. syriaca : stem subsimple ; leaves lanceolate- 
oblong, petiolate, tomentose beneath ; umbels nod- 
ding ; nectary bidentate ; follicles muricate. 
IIAB. Sandy fields, &c. July— Aug. V-. Stem 
2— Aft. high; umb. 2—3, lb— 20-fl. ; fl. large, 
pale- pur p. 
.'■ A. phytolaccoides : stem erect, simple ; leaves broad- 
lanceolate, acuminate, smooth, pale beneath ; um- 
bels many-flowered, lateral and terminal, solitary, 
on long peduncles, nodding ; nectary bidentate. 
IIAB. Shady wet places. June — July. U. Stem 
3 — 4 ft. high; leav. large; umb. 6 — 10-fl. ; fl. 
greenish-pur p. 
:\. varieguta : stem simple, erect; leaves ovate, 
petiolate, smooth ; umbels lateral and terminal, on 
short peduncles, crowded ; pedicels tomentose : 
horn broad-falcate. 
HAB. Woods. July. if. Stem 3—4 ft. high 
pubes. above; umb. mostly 2, ^0 — 30-fl. white, 
rarely purplish. 
r. A. obtusifolia : leaves amplexicaul, oblong, obtuse, 
undulate, very smooth, glaucous beneath ; umbel 


terminal, long-pedunculate, generally solitary , 
nectary slightly 2-toothed ; horns exserted. 

HAB. Sandy fields and hills. June — July. U Stem 
2 — 3 ft. high ; leav. remarkably undulate ; fl. pale- 
pur p. 
5. A. laurifolia : stem erect, smooth ; leaves subses- 
sile, oval-lanceolate, tapering to the summit, very 
acute, smooth ; umbels on long peduncles, terminal 
and axillary. 

HAB. Pennsylvania. Aug. U. Stem 2 ft. high ; 

summit pub es. ; leav. obtuse at base ; fl. green and 

pur p. 
•I. A. incarnata : stem erect, branched above, tomen- 

tose, leaves sub^essile, lanceolate, tomentose, um- 
bels erect, generally by pairs ; nectary entire ; 

horns subulate, exserted. 
HAB, Wet places. U . Stem 2—3 ft. high , 
umb, num., crowd.; fl. pale-purp. ; nect. trun- 

3. pulchra : stem and leaves very hairy. 
7. A. amoena: stem with 2 longitudinal pubescent 
lines ; leaves subsessile, oblong-oval, pubescent 
beneath ; umbels terminal, erect ; nectary entire ,: 
horn subulate, exserted. 

HAB. Swamps and wet meadows. July — Aug. 2£, 
Stem 3 ft. high, nearly smooth ; umb. many -fl., pur p. 
;. A. purpnrascens : stem simple ; leaves ovate, vil- 
lous beneath ; umbels erect ; leaflets of the nec- 
tary resupinate. 

HAB. Wet places. %. Stem lift, high, hairy 
above ; leav. on short pet. ; fl. purp. 

\. debilis: very smooth ; stem erect, weak, sim- 
ple ; leaves petiolate, oval-lanceolate, acute at 
each extremity, membranaceous ; umbels termi- 
nal, loose. 

HAB. Shady rocky places. U . Leaves large; 
flowers white. 

\. acuminata : stem erect, smooth, simple ; leaves 
ovate, subcordate, acuminate, subsessiie ; umbels 
lateral, solitary, erect ; nectary acute ; horn.* 
scarcely exserted. 

HAB. Sandy swamps. Aug. 1/. Root large, tub. ,- 
stem 18 in. high; umb. 2 ; fl. purp. and green. 


11. A. quadrifolia: stem erect, simple, smooth ; leaves 

by four*, ovate, acuminate, petiolate ; umbels 2, 
terminal, erect, loose; pedicels capillary; nec- 
tary bidentate ; hem very short. 
HAB. Dr\ stony woods. June. ty . Stem 18 in, 
high ; leaves mostly 8 ; 2 middle pairs approx. ; 
limb, on '■ ig pedunc. ; fl. small, white. 

12. A. viridiflora : stem erect, simple, hairy; leaves 

oblong, on short petioles, tomentose-pubescent on 
both sides, obtuse ; umbels lateral, solitary, sub- 
sessile, nodding, dense ; horns of the nectary 

HAB. Sandy fields. July. V-. Stem 2 ft. high, 
densely pub es. ; leav. thick; umb. subglob.; Jl. 

£. lanceolata : leaves lanceolate, acute. 

y. obovata : leaves obovate. 

A. verticillata : stem simple, marked with pubes- 
cent lines ; leaves mostly verticillate, narrow- 
linear, revolute ; nectaries short, bidentate ; horns 
falcate, much exserted. 

HAB. Dry hills. July. U- Stem about 3 ft. 
high, very slend. ; zvhorles 5 — G leav. / fl. small, 

* * Leaflets alternate. 

14. A. tuberosa : stem erect, hairy, with spreading 
branches ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, sessile ; um- 
bels numerous, forming terminal corymbs. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. U. Root, large, tub. . 
stem 3 ft. high ; fl. large, bright orange. 

192. GENTIANA. Gentian, Gentian*. 

t. G. Saponaria : leaves ovate-lanceolate, a 

nerved ; flowers', ses-ik: ■ 
corolla ventricose, closed, 10-cleft ; interioi 
ments unequally 3-cleft, as long as the ext 
ones ; segments of the calyx ovate, shorter than 
the tube. 
HAB. Wet meadows. Sept.— Oct. U . Stem 10 
in. high t timp. ; leav. oppos. :fl. very large, brigh* 


2: G. ockroleuca : stem subangular; leaves ovate- 
lanceolate ; flowers in terminal subsessile fasci- 
cles ; segments of the calyx linear-lanceolate ; 
corolla campanulate-ventricose, 10-cleft ; seg- 
ments acute, slightly connivent ; interior ones sub- 
dentate, short. 

HAB. Fields and woods. Sept. U- Stem 1 ft. high, 
subside. ; fl. large, yellowish-white. 
3. G. Pneumonanthe : stem terete ; leaves linear-lanceo- 
late, obtuse ; flowers few, terminal, (and axillary,) 
subsessile ; segments of the calyx linear-oblong, 
rather acute; corolla campanulate,5-cleft; segment* 
acute ; interior plaits short, 1 -toothed. 

HAB. High mountains. U- Stem a foot high, very 
smooth; fl. large, bright blue. 
i. G. angustifolia : stem simple, slender, 1 -flowered; 
leaves linear, spreading ; corolla infundibuliform, 
5-cleft, with 5 interior lacerate segments. 

HAB. Sandy fields. Oct.— Nov. U. Stem 1 ft. high, 
slend. ; leav. long ; fl. 2 in. long, azure-blue. 
~S. G. linearis : stem somewhat scabrous ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, undulate, ciliate, as are also the segments 
of the calyx ; flowers sessile, in terminal crowded 
fascicles ; corolla campanulate, 5-cleft ; segments 
obtuse, with the interior folds denticulate. 

HAB. Mountains. U. Fl. middle-sized, blue ; seg. of 
the cor. very short. 
3. G. quinqueflora : stem quadrangular, branched ; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3-nerved ; flower* 
somewhat in fives, terminal and axillary, pedicellate; 
corolla tubular-campanulate, 5-cleft ; segments se- 
taceously acuminate ; calyx very short. 

HAB. Woods and hillsides. Sept. — Oct. £. Stem I 
ft. high, rarely simp. ; fl. small, pale blue. 
7. G. crinita : stem terete ; branches elongated, 1- 
flowered ; leaves lanceolate, acute ; corolla half 
4-cIeft ; segments incisely ciliate. 

HAB. Wet meadows. Oct.— Nov. $. Stem Win . 
high, quadrang. above; fl. very large, blue. 

193. CUSCUTA. Dodder. Convolvuli. 

1. C. americana : flowers pedunculate, umbellate, j 
cleft ; stigmas capitate ; corolla tubular-campanulate 
with the border small and spreading. 


HAB. Low grounds, June— Aug. 0. Stems filifl, 

orange, parasit., twining ; fl. in dense dust. 
C. europcea : flowers sessile ; corolla 4 — 5-cleft, 

without scales at the base of the stamens ; stigmas 

HAB. Parasitic on flax. July. 0. Stems fllif, red, 

twining ; fl. yell., tampan. 

194. HEUCHERA. Alum. Saxifragce. 

H. americana : viscidly-pubescent ; scape and leaves 
a little scabrous ; leaves with rounded lobes, den- 
tate ; teeth dilated, obtuse, mucronate ; panicle, 
dichotomous ; calyx short, obtuse ; petals lanceo- 
late, as long as the calyx. 

HAB. Shady rocky places. June— July U . Leav. 
rad. on long pet. ; scape 2 — 3 ft. long. ; fl. purp. 

H. pubescen : pulverulent-pubescent ; scape smooth 
below ; leaves somewhat acutely lobed, smooth 
beneath, toothed ; teeth rounded, mucronate ; pe- 
duncles short, with crowded flowers ; calyx large, 
campanulate ; petals longer than the calyx ; sta- 
mens scarcely exsertH. 

HAB. Mountains. V-- Leav. with broad teeth ; scape 
2ft. long, scab above ; pet. red and yell. 

195. PANAX. Ginseng. Araliai. 
P. trifoHum: leaves ernate ; leaflets subsessile ; 

styles o ; bern tricor.cous ; root globose. 
HAB. Moist wood | I- tfay. h . Root tub. r 

stem 4—8 . high; leaf, ob long- Ian. ; fl. white; 

her. gree . 
"P. quinqvefolium : leaves in threes ; leaflets quinate. 

p, tiol ate ; peduncles shorter than the petioles ; 

iooi fusiform. 
HAB. Mountains. July. U. Root long , wrinkled ; 

stern I ft. high ; fl. greenish ; her. renif., scarlet. 

190. ATRIPLEX. Orache. Chenopodea. 
A. hortensis : stem erect, herbaceous ; leaves trian 
gular, dentate, green on both sides ; fructiferous 
vx ovate, reticulate, entire. 
HAB. Waste places, &c. July— -Aug. ©. Stem 3 — \ 
ft. high, green ; fl. green, in interrvp. spike*. 


2. A. arenaria ; stem herbaceous, spreading ; leaves 

oblong-ovate, stibsessiie, silvery-mealy beneath, 
very entire ; upper ones acute or acuminate ; fruc- 
tiferous calyx mnricate, dentate, retuse. 
HAB. Sea-coast Aug. — Sept. 0. A foot high, much 
branch.; leav. 1 in. long ; cal. S-lnbed, large. 

3. A. laciniuta /3. omericana: stem herbaceous, diffuse ; 

leaves triangular hastate, deeply toothed, glaucous, 
a little pulverulent ; perfect flowers tetandrous ; 
fructiferous c;dyx rhomboid, acute, entire. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug. ©. Erect or procumb. ; 
leav. petiol, gray ; fi. in glom. racemes. 

4. A. patula : stem herbaceous, spreading; leaves tri- 

angular-hastate, smooth above, irregularly toothed ; 
the upper ones entire ; fructiferous calyx submuri- 
cate on the sides. 
HAB. New-York. + 

5. A. Halimus : stem frutescent ; leaves alternate and 

opposite, subrhomboid, very entire, 
HAB Ne w- Jersey, -f- 

197. OIENOPODIUM. Goose-foot. Chenopodece. 

1. C. Bonus Henricus : leaves triangular-hastate, very 

entire ; spikes compound, terminal and axillary, 
erect, leafless. 
HAB New-York, &c. June. U. Stem. lft. high; 
leav. large* dark green ; fl. green, polyg. 

2. C. rhombifoliuui : leaves triangular-rhombic, acute, 

repandly toothed ; racemes axillary, erect, leafless ; 
bracts minute, inflexed. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. June. 0. Leav. acutely tooth i ; 
racem. simp., short. 

3. C. album : leaves rhomboid-ovate, erose, entire at 

the base ; upper ones oblong, very entire ; raceme* 
branched, somewhat leafy ; seed smooth. 

HAB. Cultivated grounds, &c. July — Sept. ©. 
Stem erect, 2 — 4 ft. high ; leaves mealy. 

/S viride : leaves greener and more entire ; racemes 
more branched, a little leafy. 
\. C. hybridum : leaves ovate-cordate, acuminate, an- 
gularly toothed ; racemes axillary, paniculate, di- 
varicate, leafless. 

HAB. Waste places, &c. July — Aug. © . Stem. 2 — 
3 ft. high ; leav. large, nearly smooth, bright green, 


5. C. rubrum: leaves rhomboid-triangular, deeply 
toothed and sinuate ; racemes erect, compound, 
HAB. Waste places. July. ®. Stem, reddish ; leav, 
dark green ; glomendes minute. 
(3. C. ambrosoides : leaves lanceolate, remotely tooth- 
ed ; racemes simple, axillary, leafy. 
HAB. Waste places. Aug. — Oct. ©. Much bran., 
often diffuse, strong- scented ; leav. small. 
7. C. Botrys : leaves oblong, sinuate; racemes naked, 
much divided. 
HAB. Sandy waste places. Aug. — Sept. ®. One ft, 
high, sweet-scented, -eiscid-pubes ; fl. distinct. 
£. C. anthelminticum : perennial; leaves oblong-lance- 
olate, toothed ; spikes long, interrupted, leafless ; 
style 3-cleft. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Sept. ©? Strong-scented, 1| — £ 
ft. high, often reddish; racem. axilt. and term. 

9. C. glaucum : leaves oblong, repand, glaucous be- 

neath ; spikes simple, naked, glomerate, axillary 
and terminal. 
HAB. New-York. ©. Stem diffuse, thick; racemes 
short, lobed, leafless. 

10. C. maritimum : leaves linear, fleshy, semicylindri- 

cal ; flowers axillary, glomerate. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug. — Sept. ©. Stem tj- -2 ft. 
high; glomerulcs small ; seed spiral. 

198. SALSOLA. Salt- wort. Chmopodece. 

1. S. Kali: herbaceous, decumbent ; leaves subulate, 
canaliculate, spinose ; flowers axillary, solitary ; 
fructiferous calyx with a scarious margin. 

HAB. Sea-coast. Aug. ®. Stem much bran., pubes. t 
cal. spreading ; leav. subulate. 

i. caroliniana: leaves dilated ; calyx with a broader 

HAB. Sandy fields and waste places, near saltwater. 
Cal. depress., reddish- 

Tragus : herbaceous, spreading, smooth ; leaves 
subulate, fleshy, mucronate-spinous ; flowers sub- 
solitary ; calyx subovatc ; margin flattened, 

H AB, New-Jersey. cVc. July, -f-. 


3. S. Soda : herbaceous, smooth ; branches ascending ; 
leaves semiterete, rather acute ; fructiferous calyx 
transversely carinate in the middle, somewhat mem 
HAB. New- York. + 

199. ULMUS. Elm. Ulmacece. 

I. U. americana : branches smooth; leaves somewhat 
doubly serrate, unequal at the base ; serratures un~ 
cinately acuminate ; flowers pedicellate ; fruit fim- 
HAB. Woods. April. A large tree ; bran, long, re- 
curv. ; leav. altern. ; fl. purplish, small appearing 
before the leav. 
:. V. fulva : leaves oval-oblong, much acuminate, pu- 
bescent on both sides ; buds tomentose ; flowers 
HAB. Rocky hills. April. Tree 20—25 ft. high ; 
fl. conglom., ciliate ; stam. 7. 
3. U. nemoralis: leaves oblong, somewhat smooth, 
equally serrate, nearly equal at the base ; flowers 
HAB. River banks. -\-. 

200. CELTIS. Nettle-tree. Ulmaceaa. 
I. C. occidentalis : leaves ovate, acuminate, equally ser- 
rate, unequal at the base, scabrous above, pubes- 
cent beneath ; flowers subsolitary. 
HAB. Woods. May. Tree middle-sized; leav. 

altern. ; fl. small, greenish-zvhite ; drupe purp. 
■'. crassifolia: leaves ovate, acuminate, unequally 
serrate, subcoriaceous, scabrous on both sides, un- 
equal at the base ; peduncles mostly 2-flowered. 
HAB. River banks. Tree smaller than JVo. 1. 
>. C.pumila: leaves ovate, acuminate, equally serrate, 
unequal at the base ; the younger ones only pubes- 
cent ; peduncles mostly 3-flowercd ; fruit solitary 
HAB. Batiks of rivers. 

201. ERYNG1UM. Eryngo. Umbelliferaz. 

\ . E. aquaticum : leaves linear-lanceolate, remotely 
ciliate-spinous ; inferior ones ensiform, those of 
the flowers lanceolate, dentate ; involucrum shorter 
than the globose capitulum, entire, as are also thr 
scales of the receptacle : stem subdichotomous. 


HAB. New-Jersey ? U . Root tub. ; stem 2—3 ft. 

high, irichot. above ; leav long ; fl. wh. or pale blue. 
E. virgtnianum : leaves long-lanceolate, serrate ; in- 

volucrum longer than the heads ; chaff tricuspidate. 
HAB. Shores of rivers. U- Root tub. ; stem 3 — 4 ft. 

high ; leav. 6 in. long ; heads num. ; fi. wh. or blue. 
E. virgatum : leaves spathulate-ovate, irregularly 

toothed ; leaflets of the invojucrum linear, longer 

than the glohose heads ; chaff tricuspidate. 
HAB. Wet meadows. U- ? Stem 2 — 3 ft. high; leav. 

2 in. long, acutely dent. ; heads small; fi. blue. 

202. SANICULA. Sanicle. Umbelliferce. 
S. marilandica : leaves all digitate ; leaflets oblong. 

incisely serrate ; staminiferous flowers numerous, 

HAB. Woods and thickets. June— Aug. % . Stem 

2 ft. high ; fi. in small capit., umb. white. 
}. canadensis : leaves subternate ; leaflets ovate 

coarsely toothed. 

203. HYDROCOTYLE. Marsh penny-wort, 

H. vulgaris : leaves peltate, orbicular, crenate ; um- 
bels capitate, about 5-flowered. 

HAB. Wet places. 1J. . Root creep. ; fl. in intcrup, 
spikes ; fl. whitish. 

H. vmbellata: leaves peltate, crenate, emarginate at 
the base ; umbel of many pedunculate flowers. 

HAB. Wet places. U . Root creep.; leav. sub renif. : 
umb. 20 — 30-fi., longer than the leav. ; fl. renif. 

H. americana : smooth ; root tuberous ; leaves reni- 
form, somewhat 7-lobed, crenate ; umbels few- 
flowered, sessile. 

HAB. Wet shady places. June — Aug. U • Cre(> 
stemfilif. ; umb. very small, glomerate. 

H. ranuncxiloides: leaves somewhat 5-lobed, cordate 
crenate-dentate ; umbels capitate, 8 — 10-flowered 
Pennsylvania. June. U. Leav. nearly circular , 
I (inc. 1 in. long ; pedicels very slu.rt. 

II. lincata: very smooth, creeping; leaves s. 
cuneate-linear, with transverse nerves ; umbel* 



HAB. Muddy banks. July— Aug. U . Leav. 1% in, 

long, succul., with 5 transv. nerves; umb. 8 — 10-fi* 
£. H? composita: root tuberous ; stem simple, 2-leaved ; 

leaves subternate ; leaflets many-cleft ; umbel 3 — 5- 

HAB. Alluvial soils. April. 2J. Root round; stem 

ascend., 1 -leaved ; scapes 4 — 5 in. high ; fi. white, 

204. SISON. | Honey-wort. Umbelliferce. 

1. S. aureus: stem nearly simple, sulcate ; leaves bi- 

ternate, shining ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, atten- 
uate at the base, incisely serrate ; involucrum 0. 
HAB. Rocky hills. June— July. 1£. Stem 1|— 2 ft. 
high ; umb. comp. ; fl. yell. ; fruit dark- col. 

2. S. integerrimus : stem nearly simple ; leaves bi-tri- 

ternate, glaucous, very entire ; leaflets oval, entire j 
umbel with elongated rays ; involucrum 0. 
HAB. Meadows and mountains. June. V-. Stem 18 
in. high : rays of the umb.filif. ; fi. yell. ; fruit black. 
>. S. capillaceus : leaves decompound, filiform ; stem 
dichotomous, angular ; involucrum subpinnatifid. 
HAB. Brackish meadows. July — Oct. ©. Much bran,? 
1 ft. long ; umb. axil I., pedunc. ; fl. white. 

205. CNIDIUM. Umbelliferie. 

1. C. canadense : stem angular, flexuous ; leaves bipin- 

nate, shining ; leaflets many-parted ; segments lan- 
HAB. Mouths of rivers. + 

2. C. atropurpureum : radical leaves subcordate, sim- 

ple, serrate ; cauline ones ternate ; leaflets ovate, 
acute, subcordate ; middle one petiolate ; partial 
involucra dimidiate, 3-leaved. 
HAB. Rocky banks of rivers. June. 1[. Stem 2 — o 
ft. high ; fl. dark-purple. 

206. SMYRNIUM. Alexanders. Umbelliferce. 

S. cor datum : radical leaves simple, cordate, crenate ; 

stem-leaves ternate, serrate ; umbels terminal. 
HAB. Rocky hills. May —June. It. Stem 2— 8 

ft. high; rad. leav. on long pet.; fl. yell.; fruit 



207. CICUTA. Umbelliferaz. 

t, C. maculaia: stem spotted; leaves tritemate ; 
leaflets subternate, lanceolate, acuminate, mucro- 
nately-serrate ; umbels axillary and terminal ; par- 
tial involucra setaceous. 
HAB. Wet places. July— Aug. ft. Stem 3—6 
ft. high , glauc. ; umb. large, slend. ; fl. white. 
Poisonous ! 

2. C. bulbifera: leaves various, ternate and biternate, 
bulbiferous ; leaflets linear and linear-lanceolate, 
remotely toothed ; umbels terminal, solitary. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. U. Stem 2 — 3 ft. high,, 
slend. ; leav. bulbif. in the axils. ; umb. small ; fl. 

208. DAUCUS. Carrot. Umbelliferx. 

D. Carota : stem hispid ; leaves tripinnate ; leaflets 
incised, linear-lanceolate, acute ; umbel at length 
concave ; fruit bristly. 

HAB. Old fields. June— Aug. £. Stem 2 ft. 
high ; leav. pale green ; fl. white. 

209. MYRRH1S. Umbelliferce. 

i. M. procumbens : stem procumbent, somewhat hairy ; 
leaves bipinnate ; segments lanceolate, rather ob- 
tuse ; umbels 3-rayed, few-flowered ; fruit smooth. 

HAB. Shady rocky places. May. 0. Stem 6—8 
in. long ; fl. all fert., white ; fruit linear. 
?. M. Claytoni : stem hairy, (at first hoary-white ;) 
leaves biternate, pubescent ; leaflets incisely lobed, 
dentate ; umbel 3-rayed ; central flowers abortive ; 
universal and partial involucra 3 — 5-leaved, lan- 
ceolate, ciliate ; fruit attenuate at the base, with 
hispid angles, not rostrate ; style very short. 

HAB. Shady rocky places. May — June. U . Root 
fusif. ; stem 2 ft. hiah ; fruit linear-Ian., blackish. 
'•. M. longistylis : stem smooth ; leaves biternate ; the 
lower ones on short petioles ; leaflets ovate, in- 
cisely lobed and dentate ; umbel 3 — 4-rayed ; cen- 
tral flowers abortive ; universal and partial involu- 
cra 3 — 5-leaved, oblong, acuminate ; fruit attenuate 
at the base, with hispid angles ; styles long, subu- 
late, straight. 


HAB. Wet meadows. June. U- Stem 2—3 ft, 

high ; leav. slightly hairy ; partial petiol. elong. . 
fl. wh. 
i. M. canadensis : leaves ternate, smooth ; leaflet* 
rhomboid-ovate, acute, incisely toothed, acutely 
serrate ; partial involucra minute, subulate ; fruit 
oblong, very smooth. 
HAB. Rocky woods. June. 11 . Stern 1|— -2 ft, 
high, erect, smooth ; umb. num. ; fr. 3 lin. long, 

210. SIUM. Water-parsnip. Umhelliferai. 

1. S. latifolium: stem angular; submerged leaves bi 
pinnatifid ; upper ones pinnate ; leaflets oblong- 
lanceolate, unequal at the base, acutely serrate ; 
umbels terminal - 
HAB. Shady swamps. July. U • Root creep. ; 
stem 1-ang., 18 in. high; leafl. 4 pairs ; ft. white. 
2. S. lineare : stem angular and sulcate ; leaves pin- 
nate ; leaflets 4 — 5 pairs, linear-Ian* utely 
and finely serrate ; involucra many-leaved, linear : 
umbels terminal. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. 1£. Stem l-ang. 9 2— 3 ft. 
high ; leafl. long and narrow ; fl. white ; cat. obsol. 

211. CONIUM. Hemlock Umbelliferce. 

C. maculatum : stem very smooth, spotted ; leaves 
tripinnate ; leaflets lanceolate, pinnatifid ; segments 
lanceolate, nearly entire. 

HAB. Road sides, &c. July. $. Stem 2— 4 ft. 
high; leav. smooth and shin ;fl. white. Poisonous! 

212. LIGUSTICUM. Lovage. Umhelliferai. 

1. L. scoticum : leaves biternate ; leaflets subrhombic- 

ovate, coarsely serrate ; involucrum linear-lanceo- 
HAB. Salt marshes. July. U. Stem \S in. high 7 
smooth ; leav. retic. ; umb. pedunc. ; fl. wh. 

2, L. actceifolium : leaves biternate ; leaflets oval, 

equally toothed ; partial involucra setaceous ; fruit 
©blong-oval, leaves somewhat win«;s. 
HAB. New-York. V-. Stem very tall, smooth; 
petioles long; umb. num., subvert. ) fl. wh. 


213. HERACLEUM. Cow-parsnip. Umbellifem. 

11. lanatum : leaves ternate, petiolate, tomentose 
beneath ; leaflets petioled, round-cordate, lobed j 
• fruit orbicular. 

HAB. Wet meadows. June. U. Stem 3—5/*. 
high, thick, pubes. ; umb. large ; fl. wh. 

214. PASTINACA. Parsnip. Umbelliferce. 

1. P. sativa: stem sulcate ; leaves pinnate; leaflets 

subpubescent beneath, oblong, incised ; terminal 
one 3-lobed. 
HAB. Fields, &c. July— Sept. £. Stem 2 ft. 
high, smooth ; leafl sess. ; fl. yell. 

2. P. rigida: stem terete striate; leaves pinnate, 

smooth ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, entire, or with 
several remote teeth. 
HAB. Swamps. Sept. U. Stem 2—4 ft. high, 
rigid ; leafl. 4 — 5 pairs ; fl. white. 

3. P. ambigua: stem slightly angular ; leaves pinnate, 

smooth ; leaflets linear, entire, subglaucous be- 
neath ; umbels terminal, subsolitary ; partial invo- 
lucra subulate. 
HAB. Swamps. Sept. H . 3 — 5 ft. high, slend. ; 
fl. wh. 

215. ANGELICA. Umbelliferce. 

I. A. triquinata : stem terete, pubescent above ; leaves 
ternate, very smooth ; the partitions quinate ; 
leaflets oblong-ovate, equally serrate ; the inferior 
ones 2 -lobed at the base. 
HAB. Dry woods. Aug. %. Stem 3 — 5 high, 
straight, white above, leav. thick ; fl. while. 
I. A. alropurpurea : stem smooth, coloured; leaves 
ternate ; the partitions subquinate ; leaflets ovate, 
acute, incisely serrate, sublobed ; the 3 terminal 
ones confluent ; petioles very large, inflated. 
HAB. Wet meadows. June. U . Root aromat. ; 
stem 3 — 5 ft. high, thick, purplish ; fl. greenish. 
«. A. lucida : leaflets equal, ovate, incisely serrate. 
HAB. Shady woods. U. Stem 1—2 high} ra 
[eCP. tripi,!.; leafl. dark green, lucid abov ■ 
M ' 


216. THAPSIA- Umbelliferce. 

T. trifoliata : petioles and nodes of the stem pubes- 
cent ; leaves biternate and ternat ; leaflets cu- 
neate and ovate, unequally and incisely serrate, en- 
tire at the base ; umbels terminal ; partial involu- 
era 3-leaved, subulate. 

HAB. Sandy banks of rivers. June. U . Stem 3 
ft. high, ang. and sulc. ; umb. 3 — 4 ; fi. yell. 


217. VIBURNUM. Caprifolia. 
\. V. prunifolium : smooth; leaves round-obovak 
acutely serrate ; petioles margined. 
HAB. Woods and hedges. June. A small tree, 
leav. oppos., lj in. long ; fi. white : her. oval, dark 
v. V. pyrifolium : smooth ; leaves ovate-oblong, acute r 
crenate-serrate ; petiole naked ; cymes subpedun 
culate ; fruit ovate-oblong. 
HAB. Rocky woods. June. Shrub 5 — \Oft. high, 
leav. 2 in. long ; ber. red. 
3. V. Lentago : smooth ; leaves broad-ovate, acumi- 
nate, acutely serrate ; petioles margined, undulate ; 
cymes sessile. 
HAB. Rocky woods. May. Shrub 8—12 ft. high . 
leav. 3 in. long, often subcord. ; ber. black. 
1. V. nudum : leaves oval-oblong ; margin revolute and 
obscurely crenulate ; petioles naked ; cymes pe 
HAB. Swamps. June. Shrv.b 8 — 10 ft. high: 
leav. 4 in. long, punct. and relic, beneath ; ber. blue 
«. V. Lantanoidesi leaves orbicular-cordate, abruptly 
acuminate ; nerves and petioles pulverulent-tomen- 
tose, unequally serrate ; cymes closely sessile. 
HAB. Rocky woods. May— June. Shrub 4—8 fi. 
high; leav. large, •with the nerv. rusty ; cym. often 
;. V. dentatum: nearly smooth; leaves on long petioles, 
orbicular-ovate, dentate-serrate, plicate ; axils of 
the veins pubescent beneath ; cymes pedunculate ; 
Truit subglobose, 


HAD. Woods and hedges. June. Shrub 8 ft. high, 

with straight bran. ; ber. small, blue. 
7. V. pub esc ens : leaves on.very short petioles, ovate, 
acuminate, dentate-serrate, villous beneath ; 
cymes pedunculate ; fruit oblong. 

HAB. Mountains. June. Shrub 6 ft. high; leav, 
and cymes smaller than No. 6. 
"J. V. acerifolium : leaves subcordate, 3-lobed, acute!} 
serrate, pubescent beneath ; lobes acuminate, 
petioles without glands, hairy ; cymes on long 

HAB. Rocky woods. May — June. Shrub 4 — 6 
ft. high ; leav. broad ; ber. oval, compress., black- 
9, V. Oxycoccus : leaves 3-lobed, acute at the base, 
3-nerved ; lobes divaricate, acuminate, remotely 
and obtusely dentate ; petioles glandular ; cymes- 

HAB. Mountain woods. May — June. A small 
shrub ; branch, spread. ; ber. large, red, acid. 
f 0. V. edule : leaves 3-lobed, rather obtuse at the base, 
3-nerved ; lobes very short, with acuminate-den- 
tate serratures ; petioles glandular ; cymes 

HAB. Banks of rivers. Shrub smaller and more 
upright than the last ; ber. large, red, acid. 

218. SAMBUCUS. Elder. Caprifolia. 

; . canadensis : nerves and petioles very smooth ; 

leaflets oblong-oval, about 3 pairs, acuminate.. 

smooth ; midrib subpubescent ; cymes lax ; stem 

HAB. Low grounds. May — July. Shrub 6 — 10 
ft. high ; leav. often bipin. ; fl. white, ber. deep 

; . pvbens : petioles and leaves beneath pubescent 

leaflets oval-lanceolate ; cymes paniculate: stent 


[AB. Mountains. June. Shrub G — 8 ft. high • 

leav. simply pinnate, 3 pairs ; ber. small. 


210. RHUS. Sumach. Terebintacex. 

* Leaves pinnate. 

I. R. glabrum : leaflets lanceolate, smooth, acumi- 
nate, acutely serrate, whitish beneath ; flower* 
perfect ; fruit downy. 
HAB. Hedges and thickets, July. Shrub 6— 12 ft. 
high, with strag. branch. ; leajl. 12 — 15 pairs; her. 

2. R. typhinum : branches and petioles very villous ; 

leaflets in many pairs, lanceolate-oblong, acuminate, 
acutely serrate, pubescent beneath. 
HAB. Rocky hills. June. Shrub 8—15 high: 
leajl. 10 — 15 pairs ; pan. dense, oblong; ber.purp. 

3. R. copallinwn: petiole winged ; leaflets in man} 

pairs, oval-lanceolate, very entire, shining on the 
upper surface ; panicle sessile ; flowers dioecious. 
HAB. Dry woods and hill sides. July. Shrub 4 — o 
ft. high ; leajl. dark-green, 4 — 6 pairs ; ber. red, 

4. R. Vernix : very smooth ; leaflets in many pairs. 

oval, abruptly acuminate, entire ; panicle loose, 
flowers dioiecous. 
HAB. Swamps. June — Jul}'. A small tree; leaf. 
5 pairs, subsess. ; pan. clust. ; ber. smooth, whitish. 

* * Leaves ternate. 

$. R. Toxicodendron : stem erect ; leaflets broad-oval. 

entire or sinuate-dentate, subpubescent beneath : 

flowers dioecious, in sessile axiliary racemes. 
HAB. Dry woods. June — July. Shrub 1 — 3 ft. 

In'zh. s?nooth : leav. shin, above ; ber. smooth. 
/3. radicans : stem climbing. 

HAB. Woods and hedges. Stem climbing very high. 
6. R. aromaticum : leaflets sessile, ovate-rhomboid, 

dentate, pubescent beneath ; flowers amentaceous, 

dioecious ; berries hairy. 
HAB. Mountains. April. Shrub small : f . in ax ill . 

racem. or aments. ; her. dust., red. 


220. STAPHYLEA. Bladder-nut. Celastrince. 

S. trifolia: leaves ternate. 

HAB. Rocky hills. May. Shrub 6— 10 ft. high ; fl. 
in pend. racem., greenish-wk. ; caps, large. 


221. PARNASSIA. Grass of Parnassus. 

1. F. caroliniana: radical leaves orbicular-ovate, cor- 
date ; nectaries 3-bristled. 
HAB. Boggy woods. Aug. — Sept. %. Leav, 
mostly rad., on long pet. ;Jl. sol., term.^yellowish-wh. 
5. P. palustris : radical leaves cordate ; nectariev 
many- bristled. 
HAB. Bog-meadows. -f~. 


222. ARALIA. Aytlice. 

1. A. nudicaulis: nearly stemless ; leaf solitar}', triqui • 

nate ; scape naked, shorter than the leaf; umbel.* 1 
HAB. Among rocks. June — Jury. Root thick. 
creep. ; petiole long ; leajl. oval, serrate ; scape 1 - 
Jl., long, 3-urnbelled ; jl. greenish. 

2. A. racemosa : stem herbaceous, branched ; petioles 

3-parted ; partitions ternate and quinate ; umbels 
compound, in axillary panicles. 

HAB. Rocky woods. July — Aug. U . Root thick, 
aromat. ; stem 3 — 4 ft. high ; umb. num. 
J. A. hitpida : suffruticose ; stem and petioles hispid j 
leaves doubly pinnate ; leaflets ovate, incisely ser- 
rate ; umbels on lonp peduncles. 

HAB. Mountains. July— -Aug. Stem U ft. high, 
very hispid below; pedunc. nxill. and term. 
•I. A. spinosa : arborescent; stem and leaves spinous ; 
leaves doubly pinnate ; umbels numerous, in com- 
pound panicles. 


HAB. Low fertile woods. Shrub 8 — 12 ft. high* 
very prickly ; pan. very large, term. 

223. STATICE. Thrift. Plumbaginecs. 

1. S. Armeria: scape simple, terete, capitate; leaves 

linear, flat. 
HAB. Sea-shore. U- Leav. all rad., cespit. ; 
scape 1 ft. high; fl. rose-col., in a term. head. -f-. 

2. S. Limonium : scope paniculate, terete ; leaves ob- 

long, undulate, smooth and nerveless, mucronate 
below the tip. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug.— Oct. U . Root large : 
scape I ft. high ; pan. large ; fl. secund, blue. 

224. LINUM. Flax. Linece. 

1. L. virginianum: stem paniculate at the summit; 
radical leaves obovate or spathulate ; cauline ones 
lanceolate ; flowers remote, alternate ; segments 
of the calyx acute. 
HAB. Rocky hills. July— Aug. ©. Stem 1±— 3 
ft. high, slend. ; leases scat. ; fl. very small, pale 
h. usitatissimum? segments of the calyx ovate, acute, 
3-nerved ; petals crewate ; leaves lanceolate, alter- 
nate ; stem subsolitary 
HAB. Fields. June— Jaly. ©. Stem 1—2 ft. 
high, bran, above ; fl. large, blue. 

225. SIBBALDIA. Rosacea. 

S. procumbens : leaves ternate ; leaflets cuneate 4 
tridentate, smooth a>>ove, hairy beneath ; flowers 
corymbed ; petals lanceolate, acute, about as long 
as the calyx. 

HAB. High mountains. T? Plant small, procumb. / 
fl. yellow. 


226. DROSERA. Sun-dew. Droseraceoe. 

1 % D. rotundifolia : leaves suborbicular, dilated ; pe- 
tiole elongated, hairy above ; racemes mostly sim 
pie. erect. 


HAB. Bogs. July — Aug. U . Leav. all rad. 9 
spreading, covered with brown viscid Jilam. ; scape 
4 — 8 in. long ; Jl. secund, small, white ; seeds lin. 

2. D. longifolia: leaves crenate, obovate, papering 

below into a long footstalk, erect -spreading, scape 
declined at the base ; stipules many-cleit, capilla- 
ceous ; segments of the calyx ovate-oblong, obtuse. 
HAB. Bogs and sandy swamps. July— Aug. U. 
Caudex sometimes elong. ; scape bent and ascend. ; 
seeds ovate. 

3. D. filiformis : leaves filiform, very long, glandulous 

the whole length ; scape simple or bifid. 
HAB. Sandy swamps. Aug. — Sept. H. Leav, 
6 — 10 in. long ; scape 1 ft. long : Jl. large, purp, 


221. XANTHORHIZA. Yellow-root. Ranunculaceo:, 

X. apiifolia. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. April. Suffruticose ; root 
large, yell. ; stem 2 — 3 ft. high ; leav. bipinn. ; J?, 
in. comp. racem., dark-purp. 



A. Flowers complete, having a calyx and coroliu, 

228. TRADESCANTIA. Cal. 3-leaved. Pet. 

Fil. villous. Caps, superior, 3-celled, many 
LEONTICE. Cal. 6-leaved, caducous. Pet. 6, un- 
guiculate, opposite the calyx. NecU 5, inserted 
upon the claws of the petals. Auth. adnate t* 
the Jilam. ; 2-celled ; cells opening longitudi- 


Per. rupturing at an early period, leaving the large 
naked, drupe-form seed elevated on its funic. 

230. BERBERIS. Cal. 6-leaved. Pet. 6, with 2 glands 

on each claw. Style ; stig. umbilicate. Berry 
1 -celled, 2— 4-seeded. 

231. PRINOS. Cal. minute, 6-cleft. Cor. monopeta- 

lous, subrotate, 6-parted. Berry 6-seeded. 
<?32. FLCERKEA. Cal. 3-leaved. Cor. 3-petalled, 
shorter than the calyx. Style bifid. Utric. 2 — 3. 
united, 1 -seeded, superior. 

B. Flowers spathaceous. 

233. AMARYLLIS. Cor. superior, 6-petalled, irregu- 

lar. Fil. arising from the orifice of the tube, 
declined, or straight, unequal. 

234. ALLIUM. Cor. 6-petalled, spreading. Spath 

many-flowered. Umb. crowded. Caps, supe- 
rior, 3-celled, 3-valved, many-seeded. 

235. HYPOXIS. Spath. 2-valved. Cor. superior, 6- 

parted, persistent. Caps, elongated, narrowed 
at the base, 3-celled, many-seeded. Seeds round- 
ish, naked. 

236. PONTEDERIA. Cor. inferior, 6-cleft, bilabiate ; 

under side of the tube perforated with 3 longi- 
tudinal foramina ; lower part persistent, calycine. 
Stain, unequally inserted ; 3 of them upon the 
summit of the tube. Utric. muricate, 1 -seeded. 

C. Flowers naked. (Without a spath ; peri- 
anth single, petaloid.) 

237. C0N0STYL1S. Cor. semi-superior, 6-cleft, per- 

sistent, woody. Anth. erect. Style conic, tri- 
partite ; stig. simple. Caps, opening at the sum- 
mit, 3-celled, 3-valved, many-seeded. 
338. ALETRIS. Cor. tubulous-ovate, 6-cleft at the 
summit, rugose, persistent. Stam, inserted upon 
the orifice. Style triquetrous, tripartile. Caps. 
semisuperior, many-seeded, opening at the sum- 
HEMEROCALLIS. Car. campanulate ; tube cy- 
lindric. Stam. declined. Stigmas rather small,, 
simple, somewhat villous. 


MO. AGAVE. Cor. superior, erect, tubular or in- 
fundibuliform. Staminif.JiL longer than the co- 
rolla, erect. Caps, triangular, many-seeded. 

241- PHALANGIUM. Cor. 6-petalled, spreading. 
Fil. smooth. Caps, superior, ovate. Seeds an- 

242. NARTHECIUM Cor. inferior, 6-petalled ; 

spreading, persistent. Fil. filiform, hairy. Caps. 
prismatic, 3-celled, many-seeded. Seeds finely 
attenuate at each extremity. Cal. 0. 

243. ORNITHOGALUM. Cor. 6-petalled, persistent, 

spreading above the middle. Cal. 0. Fil. dila- 
ted at the base. Caps, superior, roundish, 3- 
celled. Seeds roundish. 

i44. LILIUM. Cor. 6-petalled, campanulate. Pet. 
mostly reflexed, marked with a longitudinal nec- 
tariferous line. Stam. shorter than the style. 
Stig. entire. Caps, superior, subtriangular ; 
valves connected by cancellate hairs. 

345- ERYTHRONIUM. Cor. 6-petalled, subcam- 
panulate ; petals reflexed ; the interior ones with 
a callous tooth on each side near the base, and 
a nectariferous pore. Caps, superior, substipi- 
tate. Seeds ovate. 

<!4C. UVULARIA. Cor. inferior, 6-petalled, erect; 
petals with a nectariferous cavity at the base of 
each. Fil. very short ; anth. adnate. Stig. re- 
flexed. Caps, triangular, 3-celled, 3-valved ; 
valves septiferous in the middle. Seeds nume- 
rous, subglobose, axillate at the hilum. 

,147. STREPTOPUS. Cor. inferior, 6-petalled, sub- 
campanulate. Stigmas very short. Berry sub- 
globose, smooth, 3-celled. Seeds few, hilum 

248. CONVALLARIA. Cor. inferior, 6-cleft. Berry 
globose, spotted, 3-celled. 

>49. ASPARAGUS. Cor. inferior, 6-parted. Style 
very short ; stigmas 3. Berry 3-celled, cel!> 



D. Flowers incomplete. (Perianth single, re- 
sembling a calyx.) 

250. ORONTIUM. Spad. cylindric, crowded with 

flowers. Cor. 6-petalled, naked. Style and 
stig. scarcely any. Utric. 1 -seeded. 

251. ACORUS. Spad. cylindric, covered with flowers. 

Cor. 6-petalled, naked. Stig. sessile, very mi- 
nute. Caps. 3- celled. 

252. JUNCUS. Perian. 6-leaved, glumaceous. Caps. 

superior, 3-celled, 3-valved ; cells many-seeded. 
Seeds attached to a partition in the middle of 
each valve. 

253. LUZULA. Perian. 6-leaved, glumaceous. Caps. 

superior, 3-celled, 3-valved ; cells 1 -seeded. 
valves without partitions. 


254. MELANTH1UM. Polygamous.— Cal. 0. Cor. 

6-parted, rotate ; segments unguiculate, with 2 
glands at the base of each ; claws staminiferons. 
Caps, subovate, 3-celled ; apex partly trifid. 
Seeds numerous, membranaceously winged. 

255. VERATRUM. Polygamous.— Cal. 0. Cor. 6- 

parted, expanding ; segments sessile, without 
glands. Stam. inserted upon the receptacle. 
Cap. 3, united, many-seeded. 

256. HELONIAS. Cor. 6-parted, spreading, without 

glands. Styles 3, distinct. Caps. 3-celled, 3- 
horned, cells few-seeded. 

257. XEROPHYLLUM. Cor. subrotate, deeply 6- 

parted. Fil. contiguous at the base. Stig. 3, 
revolute, partly united below. Caps, subglo- 
bose, 3-celled ; cells 2-seeded, opening at the 
558. TOFIELDIA. Cal. 3-leaved. Pet. 6. Anth. 
roundish. Styles vertical, short. Caps. 3. su 
perior, united at the base, many-seeded. 


259. SCHEUCHZERIA, Cal. 6-parted. Cor. 0. Anth. 

linear. Stig. sessile, lateral. Caps, inflated, 
distinct, mostly 2-seeded. 

260. TR1GLOCHIN. Perian. 6-leaved, deciduous ; 

leaflets concave ; 3 of the leaflets inferior and 
more calycine. Starn. 3 — 6, very short; anth. 
» turned outward. Stig. nearly sessile, adnate. 
Caps. 3—6, united above by a com. receptacle 
and axis, generally separating at the base, 1- 
seeded, not opening. 
JG1. GYROMIA. Cal. 0. Cor. 6-parted, revolute. Fil. 
and anth. distinct. Styles ; stig. 3, filiform 
and divaricate, united at the base. Berry 3- 
celled ; cells 5 — 6-seeded. Seeds compressed, 

262. TRILLIUM. Cal. 3-leaved. Cor. 3-petalled. 

Stig. sessile. Berry superior, 3-celled ; cells 

263. RUMEX. Perian. 6-leaved. Nut triquetrous, 

covered by the 3 interior valviform leaves of 
the perianth. Stig many-cleft. 


2G4. SAURURUS. Flowers in an ament or crowded 
spike ; «cales 1 flowered. Cor. 0. Anth. ad- 
nate to the filaments. Caps, each 1, or rarely 


ALISMA. Cal. 3-leaved. Pet. 3. Caps, nume- 
rous, 1-seeded, not opening. 

TRADESCANTIA. Spider-wort. Commelinea. 

1. T. virginica : erect; leaves lanceolate, elongated, 
smooth, flowers in a crowded umbel, sessile, 
HAB. Shady woods. May. 11. Stem 1 ft. high 
\tap, ranalic. ; umb. crowd. ; fl. blur. 


2. T. rosea : erect, simple ; leaves linear ; peduncles 
elongated ; calyx smooth. 
HAB. Wet sandy fields. May. %. Stem 1 fi. 
high ; leav. narrow ; fl. small, rose-col. 

229. LEONTICE. Berberidece. 

L. thalictroides : leaves bi-triternate ; leaflets 2 — 3 

lobed ; flowers paniculate, from the centre of the 

HAB. Rocky woods and mountains. Apr. — May. 

1£. Aft. high, smooth, mostly 2-leav. ; fl. sm., 

greenish-yell. ; seed large, dark blue. 

230. BERBERIS. Barberry. Berberideai. 

B. vulgaris h canadensis : branches punctate, armed 
with trifid spines ; leaves oblong-obovate, distinctly 
ciliate-serrate ; racemes simple, subcorymbose. 

HAB. Rocky hills. May— June. Shrub 3—4 ft. 
high ; leav. altern. ; filam. irritable ; fl. yell. ; her. 
red, acid. 

231. PRINOS. Winterberry. Rhamni. 

\. P. verticillatus : leaves deciduous, oval, serrate, 
acuminate, pubescent beneath : flowers 6-parted, 
dioecious ; staminiferous axillary, subumbellate ; 
pistilliferous aggregated. 
HAB. Moist woods and swamps. June. Shrub 6 — 3 
ft. high ; leav. alt. ; fl. white ; her. scarlet, 
a. tenuifolius : leaves obovate, membranaceous, 
smooth beneath ; pistilliferous 4 — 5 cleft, Subsoli- 
HAB. Swamps. Leav. do'tuse, or slightly acum. , 
midrib pube* . 
-. P. Qtf&iguus: leaves deciduous, oval, cuminate ai 
each end ; flowers 4-cleft ; staminiferous ones 
crowded on the lower branchlets ; pistilliferous 
solitary, on long peduncles. 
HAB. Near Philadelphia. A small tree, bark whi- 
tish; leav. smooth, petiolate, 


P. Icevigatus : leaves deciduous, lanceolate, with ad- 
pressed serratures, smooth on both sides, shining 
above ; nerves beneath scarcely pubescent ; flow- 
ers 6-cleft ; pistilliferous axillary, solitary, subses- 
sile ; staminiferous scattered. 

HAB. Swamps. June. Shrub 6— S ft. high ; leav, 
2| in. long ; stam. fl. pedunc, ber. red. 

P. glaber: leaves sempervirent, cuneate-lanceolate, 
coriaceous, smooth and shining, subdentate at the 
extremity ; pedicels axillary, subsolitary, mostly 

HAB. Swamps and pine-barrens. July. Shrub 3—4 
ft. high ; fl. perfect ? pedunc. j ber. black. 

232. FLCERKEA. Juncece ? 

V. uliginosa. 

HAB. River marshes. Apr. — May. Decumb., 
slend., smooth, leav. alt. ; trif. and pinnatif. ; pe- 
dunc. axill. ; fl. small, white. 

233. AMARYLLIS. Amaryllidece. 

A. Atamasco : spath. bifid, acute ; flowers pedicel- 
late ; corolla subcampanulate, subequal, erect, 
short and tubular at the base ; stamens declined, 

HAB. Swamps. June. V-. Root bulb. ; leav. lin. 
concave ; scape 6 in. high ; fl. large, wh. and pink. 

234. ALLIUM. Onion, &c. Asphodclea. 

A. canadense : scape naked, terete ; leaves linear ; 
head bulbiferous. 

HAB. Meadows. May. If. Root bulb. ; leav. long 
flat above ; fl. numerous, pale rose-col. 

A. vineale: cauline leaves rounded, fistulous ; umbel 
bulbiferous ; stamens alternately tricuspidate. 

HAB. Meadows and pastures. May. If.. Bulb 
ovate, stem 2 ft. high ; leav. long ;fl. deep rose-€ol. §. 

A. triflorum: scape naked, terete, shorter than 
the leaves ; leaves lanceolate, nerved, umfcel few- 



HAB. Mountains. May — June. 
4. A. cernuum: scape naked, quadrangular, umbellife- 
rous ; leaves linear, nearly flat ; umbel cernuous ; 
stamens simple ; germen 6-toothed. 

HAB. Pennsylvania. July U. Leav. 8—12 in. 

long, 3-lin. broad; scape 1 — 2/i>. high; fi. rose-col. 

T>. A. tricoccum : scape naked, nearly terete; leaves 

lanceolate-oblong, flat, smooth ; umbel globose, 

seeds solitary. 

HAB. Woods and mountains. June— July. U . Bulb, 
large: leav. 1 in. broad ; fi. white. 

235. HYPOXIS. Star-grass. Asphodelccc. 

IT. erecta: hairy; scape 2— 4-flowered ; leaves li 
near ; segments of the corolla lanceolate-oblong. 

HAB. Woods and meadows. May — June. U . Roof 
bidb. solid ; leav. gramin. ; fi. yell. 

23G. PONTEDERIA. Narcissi? 

P. cor data : leaves oblong-cordate ; flowers in 
crowded spikes. 

HAB. In fresh water. Aug. V-. Leav. subrad., 
3 — 4 in. long, thick; spath. oblong ;fi. aggreg. blue. 

3. angustifolia : leaves elongated-triangular, trun- 
cate and subcordate at the base. 

HAB. Mountain-lakes. 

237. CONOSTYLIS. Hmmodoracccc. 

C. americana: corolla woolly within ; scape corym- 
bose-panicled ; leaves gramineous-ensiform, glau- 
cous ; filaments equal. 

HAB. Sandy swamps. July — Aug. U . Root creep.h 
scape 1 ft. long ; fi. small, yellow within. 

238. ALETRIS. Star-wort. Asphodelew. 

. A. farinosa : flowers pedicellate, oblong-tubular ; 
corolla, when decaying, nearly smooth ; leavoi- 


HAB. Sandy woods. July. V- • Root prcemorse ; leav. 

rad.. spreading ; scape 2 ft. high ;fl. white. 
2. A. aurea : flowers subsessile, short, subcampanu- 

late ; corolla, when decaying, rugose and very 

scabrous ; leaves lanceolate. 
HAB. In pine-barrens. July — Aug. H . scape 2 — 3 

ft. high; pedicels bracteate ;fl. yellow. 

239. HEMEROCALLIS. Day Lily. Hemerocallidece. 

II. fulva : leaves broad-linear, carinate ; interior 
petals obtuse, undulate ; exterior nerves of the 
petals ramose. 

HAB. Wet meadows. June — Aug. U . Leav. very 
long ; scape 3 ft. high ; fl. large, fulvous. §. 

240. AGAVE. Bastard aloe. Bromelice. 

A. virginica : stemless, herbaceous ; leaves with 
cartilaginous serratures ; scape simple. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. Sept. %. Root pr minor se : 
leav. succul.; scape 4 — 6 ft. high;fl. yellowish. 

241. PHALANGIUM. Asphodelex. 

P. esculentum : root bulbous ; leaves all radical, line- 
ar, carinate ; stigma minutely 3 cleft. 

IIAB. Banks of rivers and lakes. Sept. U. Root 
tunic. : scope simp. ; fl. pale blue. 

242. NARTHEC1UM. Juncem. 

N. americanum: raceme sometimes interrupted!} 
spiked, lax ; pedicels with a setaceous bract below 
the flower, and another embracing its base ; fila- 
ments with very short hair. 

HAB. Sandy swamps. Aug. V-. Root creep. ; leav. 
rod., narrow cnsif. ;fl. yellow intern. 

ORNITHOGALUM. Star of Bethlehem. Aspho 

O. -umbellatum : corymb, few-flowered ; peduncle* 
longer ihun the bracts ; filaments subulate 


HAB. Moist meadows. May — June. H . Root bulb. . 
leav, rad., tin. ; fl. while. §. 

244. LILIUM. Lily. Liliaceat. 

1 . L. philadelphicum : leaves verticillate, linear-lan- 

ceolate ; stem 1 — 2-flowered : corolla erect, cam- 
panulate, spreading ; petals unguiculate. 
HAB. Copses. June— July. V-. Stem 2 ft. high ; 
leav. 3-ncrv. ; fl. dark orange. 

2. L. canadense : leaves remotely verticillate, lanceo- 

late ; nerves hairy beneath; peduncles terminal, 
elongated, generally by threes ; flowers nodding ; 
corolla turbinate, campanulate, slightly re volute ; 
petals lanceolate. 
HAB. Moist meadows. June — July. V-. Stem 2 — 4 
ft. high ; fl. about 3, spotted. 

3. L. superbum : leaves verticillate, linear-lanceolate. 

3-nerved, smooth ; the upper ones scattered ; flow-* 
ers in a pyramidal raceme, reflexed ; petals revo- 
HAB. Wet meadows. July. U . Stem 4—Gft. high ; 
fi. 3 — 20, bright orange, spotted. 

4. L. Catesboei : leaves scattered, linear-lanceolate : 

stem 1 -flowered ; corolla erect ; petals with lon^ 
claws, undulate on the margin, reflexed at the rip. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. July. y. . Stem l±fi.high; 
fl. large, scarlet, spotted. 

245. ERYTHRON1UM. Dog's-tooth Violet. Liliace<r. 

3. E. amcricanum : leaves lanceolate, punctate ; petal* 
oblong-lanceolate, obtuse at the point ; interior 
ones bidentate near the base ; style clavate ; stigma 

HAB. Shady moist places. April — May. U • Leav. 
2, rad ;fl. solit. nod., yellow. 
2. E. albidum : leaves elliptical-lanceolate, not punc- 
tate ; petals linear-lanceolate, obtuse ; inner ones 
without dentures, subunguiculate ; style 3-cleft ; 
lobes reflexed. 

HAB. River banks. April. U . Leav. 6 in. long 
fl. large, bluish white. 


246. UVULARIA. Bell-wort. Liliacece. 

1. U. perfoliata : leaves perfoliate, elliptic-obtuse; 
corolla campanulate, granular, scabrous within ; 
anthers cuspidate. 
HAB. Moist shady places. May— June. U. . 8—10 
in. high ; fl. pcnd. pale yell. 

I. V.flava: leaves perfoliate, elliptical-oblong, undu- 
late at the base ; corolla tapering at the base, sca- 
brous within ; anthers awned. 
HAB. Shady woods. May — June. lj. . Fl. larger 
mid brighter yellow than U. perf. 

3. U. grandijlora : leaves perfoliate, oblong, acute; 

petals smooth within ; anthers without awns ; nec- 
taries subrotund. 
HAB. Rocky hills, ty . Fl. large, bright yellow. 

4. U. sessilifolia : stem smooth; leaves sessile, oval- 

lanceolate, glaucous beneath ; petals flat, smooth 
within ; capsule stipitate. 
HAB. Shady thickets. May — June. V-. Stem 6-, 
12 in. high, forked above ; fl. pale yellow. 

247. STREFTOFUS. Liliacea>. 

1. S. roseus : smooth and shining; leaves amplexicaul, 

serrulate ciliate, anthers short, 2-horned. 
HAB. Mountains. May— June. V-. Stem 18 in. 

high, dicliot. ;Jl. rose-col. 

. distorius : smooth ; leaves amplexicaul, smooth on 

the margin ; pedicels distorted and geniculate in the 

middle ; anthers sagittate, acuminate, much longer 

than the filaments. 
HAB. Mountain woods. May. U- Stem 2 ft. high ; 

fl. solit. y greenish yellow. 
*•. S. lanuginosus : hoary-pubescent; leaves sessile, 

subcordatc at the base, acuminate ; pedicels by 

pairs, on a very short foot-stalk. 
HAB. High mountains. May. V-. Leav. abrupt 

acum. ; fl. large, greenish. 

CONVALLARIA, Solomon's seal, kc. lAlia 


* Corolla deeply 4-parted, spreading ; stamens 4 ; 

berry 2-celled. (Flowers in a terminal 

raceme.) Majanthemum. 

1. C. bifolia : Stem 2-leaved ; leaves on short petioles, 

cordate oblong, very smooth on both sides ; raceme 
simple, terminRl ; flowers tetrandrous. 
HAB. Shady woods'. May- June. V-. Stem 4—6 
in. high; Jl. small, white; her. spotted with red. 

** Cor. G-parted, spreading ; filaments divergent, at- 
tached to the base of the segments. (Flowers in 
a terminal raceme.) Smilacina. 

2. C. stellata : leaves numerous, alternate, oval-ianceo- 

late, amplexicaul ; rareme simple, terminal. 
HAB. Wet meadows. May — June. V-. Afoot high, 
terete; fi. small, white. 

3. C. trifolia : stem about 3-leaved ; leaves alternate, 

ovate-lanceolate, contracted at the base ; raceme 
simple, terminal, few-flowered. 
HAB. Mountain swamps. May. 1/. Jl span high : 
ft. sm. white, on short pedicels. 

4. C. racemosa : leaves numerous, alternate, sessile, 

oblong-oval, acuminate, nerved, pubescent ; flow- 
ers in a terminal, racemose panicle. 
HAB. Low grounds. June. % Stem IB in. — 2 ft. 
high, subflex. ;fl. small, while ; ber. red. 

*** Corolla subcampanulate, deeply 6-parted; style elon- 
gated ; berry 2-celled, many-seeded. 

:>. C. umbellulata : subcaulescent : leaves oblong-oval, 
ciliate on the margin, scape pubescent ; umbel, 
terminal ; pedicels nodding, with minute bracts at 
the base. 
HAB. Mountain bogs. May — June. U. Leav. very 
large, about 3, subrad. ; scape 6 — 8 in, long ; umb. 
3 — 4fi. ;Jl. greenish yellow ; ber. blue. 

•#*** Corolla 6-cleft, cylindric ; filaments inserted or 
the upper part of the tube ; berry 2>-celled ; cells 2- 


seeded. (Flowers axillary.) Poly- 

• . C. multiflora: stem terete; leaves alternate, am- 
plexicaul, oblong-oval ; peduncles axillary, many- 
HAB. Rocky hills. June— July. "4- Stem 2— 3 ft. 
high, smooth ;fl. gr. white. 

7. C. hiflora: stem terete, smooth; leaves alternate 

elliptical-lanceolate, 3-nerved ; peduncles axillary, 
solitary, 2- flowered. 
HAB. Rocky places. V-. Fl. yellow white, with 
green lips. -}-. 

8. C. pubescent : stem nearly terete, furrowed ; leaves 

alternate, amplexicaul, ovate, pubescent beneath ; 
peduncles axillary generally 2-flowered. 
HAB. Rock. June. U . Stem 1 8 in. high, smooth ; 
fl. yet. wh. and green. 
.*». C. canaliculaia ; stem canaliculate ; leaves alternate, 
amplexicaul, oblong, pubescent on the margin ; 
peduncles axillary, 2-flowered. 
HAB. Shady woods. U. -f. 
10. C. latifolia : stem angular ; leaves sessile, ovate, 
acuminate ; peduncles one or many-flowered. 
HAB. Rocky banks. June— July. Stem 3—5 ft. 
high ; ped. 3 — 6fl. ; fl. gr. wh. 

249. ASPARAGUS. Asparagece. 

A. officinalis : unarmed ; stem herbaceous, erect te- 
rete, very much branched ; leaves setaceous, fasci- 
culate, flexible ; peduncles jointed in the middle. 

HAB. Rocky and gravelly shores. June. U . Fi. 
gr. while. §. 

250. ORONTIUM. Golden club. Aroideaz. 

O. aquaticum : leaves lanceolate-ovate ; scape cylindri- 
cal, spiked. 
HAB. In water. May. V-. Lcav. rad. large ; spa- 
dix yellow. 


251. ACORUS. Sweet-flag. Aroidece. 

A. calamus : spadix protruding from the side of an 
ensiform leaf. 
HAB. Swamps. June. U. Root creep., arom.: 
leav. rush-like ; spad. greenish. 

252. JUNCUS. Rush. Juncece. 

* Scapes naked ; flowers lateral. 

J . J. ejfusus : scape minutely striate, (soft ;) paniclejloose, 
very much branched, spreading ; leaflets of the 
perianth lanceolate, acuminate, rather longer than 
the obovate obtuse capsule. 
IIAB. Low grounds. June. H • Scape 2 — 3ft high; 
stam. 3 ; seeds attenuate. 

2. J. setaceus : scape filiform, striate, umbel, lateral. 

compound, few-flowered ; peduncles many-flow- 
ered ; leaflets of the perianth subulate. 
HAB. Swamps. H. Scape slend., 2 ft. high; pan. 
small ; caps, acute. 

3. J. acutus : scape naked, terete, panicle lateral ; 

involucrum 2-leaved, spinous ; capsule nearly 
round, mucronate, as long again as the perianth. 
HAB. Sandy sea-coast. U . Stem in subdistich.fas- 
cic, 2 — 3ft. high; seeds ang. 

* Leaves all radical ; {flowers terminal.) 

i. J. squarrosus : leaves setaceous, (rigid,) 'grooved ; 
panicle terminal, elongated, compound ; capsules 
HAB. New- York. +. 

5. J. tenuis : stem erect, filiform, a little dichotomous 

at the summit, nearly terete ; leaves setaceous, 
canaliculate ; flowers solitary, approximate, sub- 
sessile ; perianth longer than the obtuse capsule. 
HAB. Wet or dry places. June — July. 11. Afoot 
high, tenacious ; pan. subcorymb. 

6. J. nodosus : stem somewhat leafy; leaves nodose- 

articulate ; heads mostly 2, globose, one of thena 
lateral and pedunculate, the other sessile ; leaflets 


of the perianth mucronate, shorter than the acu 
minate capsule. 
HAB. Wet places. July. H . Stem 8— -10 in. high : 
heads 8—12/., 1 sess. 

*** Stems leafy. 
t Leaves nearly plane, grooved above. 

7. J. marginatus: leaves flat, smooth; corymb term i 

nal, simple, proliferous ; heads 5 — 10-flowered ; 
flowers triandrous ; leaflets of the perianth about 
as long as the obtuse capsule ; the exterior ones 
and the bracts subaristate. 
IIAB. Low grounds. Aug. U. Stem 12 — 18 in. 
high ; leav. mostly rad.; stain. 3. 

8. J. trijidus : sheaths ciliate ; those at the base of the 

stem leafless ; bracts foliaceous, very long, grooved ; 
heads about 3-flowered, terminal, stem 1 -leaved. 
HAB. High mountains. Aug. U . Six in. high; 
leaf nearly term., setae. 

9. J. bulbosus : stem simple leafy, compressed ; leaves 

linear-setaceous, canaliculate ; panicle terminal, 
compound, subcymose, shorter than the involu- 
crum ; leaflets of the perianth incurved, obtuse or 
acute, generally shorter than the ovate, subglobose 
IIAB. Salt marshes. Aug.— Sept. U . A foot high, 
wiry ; caps, dark brown. 

10. J. bufonius : stem dichotomous above, paniculate; 
leaves filiform, setaceous, canaliculate ; flowers 
subsolitary, sessile, unilateral, leaves of the peri- 
anth very acuminate, much longer than the ellipti 
cal ovate capsule. 

HAB. Wet places. June— Aug. 0. Stem 3-^6 in. 
high ; sheaths membran. 

\\ Leaves rounded or subenmpressed. 

11. J. acuminata*: stem leafy, erect; leaves terou-. 

nodose-articulate ; panicle terminal, compound . 
heads 3 — G-flo\vered, pedunculate and sessile 


leaflets of the perianth linear-lanceolate, suba- 
ristate, shorter than the acute capsule. 
HAB. Bogs. Aug. U . Stem 18 in. high, tenac. ; 
cops, tiiquet. 

12. J. polycephalus : stem leafy, erect; leaves com- 

pressed, nodose-articulate ; panicle decompound ; 
heads globose, many flowered ; flowers trian- 
drous ; leaflets of the perianth subaristate, rather 
shorter than the triquetrous acute capsule. 
HAB. Bog*. Aug.— Sept. 4 . Stem 18 in.— 2ft. high, 
subcotnpress. below; heads 12 — lo-Jl. stam. 3, 
(rarely 6.) 

13. J. subverticillatus : Cauline leaves subulate, nodose- 

articulate ; panicle corymbose ; heads about 5- 
flowered, fasciculate-verticillate ; leaflets of the 
perianth striate, as long as the obtuse capsule. 
I1AB. Bogs. July. 4 . Stem 8 — 12 in. long, slend. : 
heads 3 — ojl. 

253. LUZULA. Juncece. 

1 . L. pilosa : leaves hairy ; panicle subcymose ; pe- 

duncles 1 -flowered, reflexed ; leaflets of the peri- 
anth acuminate, rather shorter than the obtuse 
HAB. Mountains. Apr. — May. U. Stem 6 in. high, 
slend. ; pedic. capill. 

2. L. campestris: leaves hairy; spikes sessile and 

pedunculate ; leaflets of the perianth acuminate, 
longer than the obtuse capsule. 

HAB. Low grounds and woods. Apr. — May. Afoot 
h igh ; sp ik . roun dish . 
-). L. melanocarpa: culm leafy ; leaves sublanceolate, 
smooth ; panicles capillary, loose ; flowers soli- 
tary, distinctly pedicellate ; capsules black. 

HAB. High Mountains. July. If. A foot high ; pe- 
dicels solit. ; caps, oblong. 
\. L. spicata : leaves narrow, hairy at the throat; 
spike cernuous, compound ; leaflets of the peri- 
anth acuminate-aristate, about as long as the round- 
ish capsule. 

HAB. High Mountains. Aug. If. Jl foot high ; spike- 
lets bract, ferrug. 



254. MELANTHIUM. Melanthacece. 

1. M. virginicum : panicle pyramidal, petals oval. 

somewhat hastate, flat ; flowers mostly perfect. 
HAB. Wet Meadows. July- Aug. 4. . Stem 3 ft. 
high ; pan. large, loose ;fl. polygamo-dioic, green- 
ish zvh., at length brown. 

2. M. dioicum : root a tunicated bulb ; leaves glau- 

cous, gramineous, margined ; raceme mostly sim- 
ple, few-flowered ; flowers perfect ; petals round- 
ish, unguiculate, with two spots ; seeds subulately 
HAB. Banks of Rivers. July— Aug. Afoot high, Jl. 

3. M. hybridum: panicle racemose, petals suborbicu- 

lar, plaited, with long claws ; glands connate. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. Stem 2 ft. high; leav. loiig-lin. 
Jl. not changing. 

255. VERATRUM. Green and White Hellebore. 

V. viride : racemes paniculate ; bracts of the bran- 
ches oblong-lanceolate ; partial ones longer than 
the subpubescent peduncles ; leaves broad-ovate, 

IIAB. Swamps. June — July. Root large ; stem3 — i 
ft. high ; Jl. green. 

25G. HELONIAS. Melanthacece. 

1 . H. latifolia : scape leafless ; spike ovate, crowded ; 

bracts linear-lanceolate, leaves lanceolate, mucro- 

nate, nerved. 

HAB. Swamps. May. Fl. pale purp. ; anth. blue. 

_'. H. erythrosperma : scape leafy ; leaves linear, very 

long ; raceme oblong ; bracts short ; capsule 

shortened, with divaricate horns ; seeds ovate. 


HAB. Shady river banks and mountains. June. U . 


Root bulb. ; stem 2 ft. high.fl. wh. ; seeds with a 

scarlet coat. 
\. II. angustifolia : scape leafy ; leaves very long and 

narrow ; raceme oblong, lat. ; capsule oblong ; 

seeds linear. 
HAB. New- York. Rootfibr. ; stem 2ft. high; racem. 

simp. ; Jl. wh. 
1. H. dioica: scape leafy ; racemes dioicous, spiked, 

cernuous ; pedicels very short, without bracts ; 

petals linear ; stamens exserted ; leaves lanceo- 
IIAB. Wet meadows. June. Root prcemorse, stem 

1—2/*. high ; Jl. white. 

257. XEROPHYLLUM. Melanthacece . 

X. setifolium : raceme oblong, crowded ; bracts se- 
taceous ; filaments dilated at the base, as long as 
the corolla ; leaves subulate setaceous. 

HAB. Pine barrens. June. U . Root subbulb. ; rad. 
leav. long, cespit. ; Jl. white. 

258. TOF1ELDIA. Melanthacece. 

T. pubens: flowers on a scape, rachis and pedicels 
scabrous ; spike oblong, interrupted ; capsules 
subglobose, scarcely longer than the calyx. 

HAB. Delaware. U . Leav. narrow-ensif, subradic. : 
scape 18 in. high ; spike gr. wh. 

259. SCHEUCHZERIA. Juncaginece. 

S. palustris. 

HAB. Swamps. V-. July. Root horiz. stem 8—12 

in. high ; leav. lin. ; racem. 5 — 7 jl. ; Jl. pedun- 

cul. gr. yell. ; caps, large. 

iGO. TRIGLOCHIN. Arrow-grass. Juncaginea. 

1. T. maritimum: fruit ovate-oblong, of G united 
HAB. Salt marshes and about salt springs. July- 


Aug. V>. Leav. rad., narrow, rush like ; spike very 
2. T. palustre : flowers triandrous ; fruit of 3 united 
capsules, nearly linear, attenuate at the base. 
HAB. Marshes. July. U. Leav. very narrow ; scape 
slend. ; 12 in, high. 

261. GYROMIA. Indian Cucumber. Asparagece. 

G. virginica. 

HAB. Moist woods. May — June. 1/. Root tub., stem 
simp. ; leav. verticill. ; jl. yell. 

262. TRILLIUM. American Herb Paris. Asparageui. 

1. T. sessile: flower sessile, erect ; petals lanceolate, 
twice as long as the calyx ; leaves sessile, broad 
oval, acute. 
HAB. Shady rocks. U. Root praimorse, and Jib. ; Jl. 
and her. purp. 
1. T. erylhrocarpum: peduncles somewhat erect ; pe- 
tals oval-lanceolate, acute, recurved, nearly as 
long again as the narrow calyx ; leaves ovate, 
acuminate, rounded at the base ; abruptly con- 
tracted into a short petiole. 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps. May. U. Stem 8 in. high ; 
Jl. zvh. with purp. veins. 
i. T. pusillum : peduncle erect; petals scarcely 
longer than the calyx ; leaves oval oblong, obtuse, 
HAB. Pennsylvania. Plant small ; pet. pale Jlesh 
1. T. cernuum : peduncle recurved; petals lanceo- 
late, acuminate, flat, recurved, of the length and 
breadth of the calyx ; leaves dilated-rhomboid, 
abruptly acuminate, on short petioles. 
HAB. Shady woods. May. U. Stem 12—18 in. 

high ; Jl. wh. ; ber. large, purp. 
T. treclum : peduncle inclined; flower nodding; 
petals ovate, acuminate, flat, spreading, broader 
and a little longer than the calyx ; leaves broad- 
rhomboid, acuminate, sessile. 


HAB. Rich soil, among rocks. May. %. Aft. high 
fl. large, dark purp. 

&. album : flowers smaller, petals white. 
•>. T. pendulum: peduncle inclined; flower pendu- 
lous ; petals ovate, shortly acuminate, flat, spread- 
ing, nearly equal to the ovate acuminate calyx : 
leaves roundish-rhomboid ; acuminate subsessile. 

HAB. Mountains. May. U. A foot high; leav. acute 
at base ; fl. wh. veined. 
7. T. grandiflorum : peduncle inclined ; flower some 
what erect ; petals spathulate-lanceolate, conni- 
vent at the base, much longer than the calyx ; 
leaves broadly rhomboid-ovate. 

HAB. Rocky woods. U . May. Stem. 8— 10 m. high ; 
leav. sess ; fl. large, wh. 

263. RUMEX. Dock. Polygonecs. 

•■ Flowers all perfect ; valves graniferous. lapathum. 

t Valves entire. 

R. aquaticus : valves ovate, entire, all of them 
graniferous ; leaves lanceolate, all of them cordate 
at the base. 

HAB. Wet places. June. Root large, astrin. ; stem 
3 — 4 ft. high; grains linear. §? 
2. R. crispus : valves very large, cordate, entire, re- 
ticulate, graniferous ; leaves lanceolate, undulate, 

HAB. Meadows. June. Root yell. ; stem 2—3/'. 
high ; grains unequal, §. 
;. R. sanguineus: valves oblong, small, one of them 
graniferous ; leaves lanceolate, subcordate. 

HAB. Fields. June. Stem 2— 3ft. high ; leav. mostly 
varieg. with red, §. 

4. R. Britannica : valves all entire and graniferous ; 

whorls of flowers leafless ; leaves broad-lanceo- 
late, flat, smooth ; sheaths obsolete. 
HAB. Wet places. June. Root large, dark ext.,yell. 
int. ; stem 2—3 ft. high. 

5. R. verticillatus : valves entire, all of them granift- 


rous ; racemes leafless ; leaves lanceolate ; sheaths 
HAB. Wet places. June. Root large; stem 2 ft. 
high ; fl. semiverticil. 

t | Valves toothed. 

u. R. acutus : valves oblong, somewhat toothed, all of 
them graniferous ; leaves cordate-oblong, acumi- 
nate, whorls leafy. 
HAB. Waste places. May. Stem 2— 3ft. high ; low- 
er leav. large, §. \ 

7. R. obtusifolius : valves dentate, one of them con- 

spicuously graniferous ; radical leaves ovate-cor- 
date, obtuse ; stem somewhat scabrous. 
HAB. Woods and fields. June — July. Root brown 
ext., yell, int.; rad. leav. very large, §. 

* * Flowers dicecious ; valves grainless. acetosa. 

8. R. Acelosella: leaves lanceolate-hastate, with the 

lobes spreading or recurved. 
HAB. Fields. May— July. Stem 4—12 in. high; 
plant acid. §. Pist. Fl. rare. 


261. SAURURUS. Lizard's-tail. Najades? 
6. cemuus. 
IJAB. In water. July— Aug. y.. Stem 1 8 in.— 2ft. 

high ; leav. alt., petiol. cordate, spike 3 — 6 in. long, 

while, cal. tub. 


265. ALISMA. Water-Plantain. Alismacev. 

\. Plantago : leaves ovate-cordate, acute or obtuse, 

9-ncrved ; flowers in a compound verticillate pant 

cle : "fruit obtusely triangular. 
HAB. In water. July — Aug. If. Leav. rad. 9 

nerv. : petiol. ; pan. large ; fl. wh. 
3. parviflora : leaves oval, 5 — 7-nerved, acuminata 

flowers very small. 




206. TRIENTALIS. Cal. 7-leaved. Cor. 7-parted, 
equal, flat. Berry dry, 1-celled, many-seeded. 

267. iESCULUS. Cal. 1-leaved, 4— 5-toothed, ven- 

tricose. Cor. 4 — 5-petalled. Pet. unequal, pu- 
bescent, inserted upon the calyx. Caps. 3- 
cellecl. Seeds large, solitary. 


266. TRIENTALIS. Chick-weed winter-green. 

T. americana : leaves narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, 

serrulate ; petals acuminate.* 
IIAB. Woods and swamps. U . May — June. Leav. 

nhorled ; fl. sol., rvh. 

067. yESCULUS. Horse-chesnut. Aceracece. 

JEt. glabra: leaves quinate, very smooth, corolla 4- 
petalled, spreading, with the claws as long as the 
calyx ; stamens longer than the corolla ; fruit spi- 

IIAB. Woods. May. Tj. A large shrub ; fl. large, 
yel. uh.,panicul. 


* Flowers superior. 

268. RI1EXIA. Cal. urceolate, 4— 5-cleft. Pet. 4. 

inserted upon the calyx. Anth. incumbent, at- 
tached to the filaments behind, naked at the 
base. Caps, setigerous, 4-celled, free in the ven- 

* These characters, pointed out by Dr. Bigelow, I am now satis- 
fied, will distinguish the N. American Trientalis from the European. 


tricose calyx. Recept. lunulate, pedicellate. 
Seeds numerous. 

269. (ENOTHERA. Cal. tubular, 4-cleft; segments 

deflexed, deciduous. Pet. 4. Stig. 4-cleft. 
Caps. 4-celled, 4-valved. Seeds naked, affixed 
to a central, 4-sided receptacle. 

270. GAURA. Cal. 4-cleft, tubular. Cor. 4-petalled, 

ascending. Nut quadrangular 1 -seeded. 

271. EPILOB1UM. Cal 4-cleft, tubular. Cor. 4-petal- 

led. Caps, oblong, inferior. Seeds comose. 

272. OXYCOCCUS. Cal. superior, 4-toothed. Cor. 

4-parted; segments sublinear, revolute. Filam. 
connivent ; Anth. tubular, 2-parted. Berry 

** Flowers inferior. 

J73. MENZIESIA. Cal. 1-leaved. Cor. monopeta- 
lous, ovate. Filam. inserted into the receptacle ; 
anth. awnless. Caps, superior, 4-celled ; dis- 
sepiments formed by the inflexed margins of the 
valves. Seeds numerous, oblong. 

274. ACER. Flowers mostly polygamous. Cal. 5- 

cleft. Pet. 5 or 0. Samaras 2, winged, united at 
the base, by abortion 1- seeded. 

275. DIRCA. Cal. 0. Cor. tubular ; border obsolete. 

Stam. unequal, exserted. Berry 1-seeded. 
27G. JEFFERSONIA. Cal. 4— 5-leaved. Cor. 8-pe- 
talled. Caps, obovate, substipitate 1-celled, 
opening below the summit by a semicircular 
foramen. Seeds numerous, arillate at the base, 


J77. POLYGONUM. Perianth 5-parted, petaloid, in 
ferior. Nut 1-seeded, mostly angular. 


18, R1JEXIA. Melaslomacece. 

I. It. virginica: stem with winged angles, somewhat 
hairy ; leaves sessile, ovate-lanceolate, serrate 


ciliate, sprinkled with appressed hairs on both 
HAB. Wet meadows. July — Aug. U • Stem quad. 
I ft. high ; JI. large , pur p. 

2. R. mariana : very hairy ; leaves lanceolate-acute 

at each end, 3-nerved, subpetiolate ; calyx tubular, 
nearly smooth. 
HAB. Bogs and wet woods. Aug. U. A foot high: 
stem subterete ; Ji. purp. 

3. R. ciliosa : stem subquadrangular, smooth ; leave? 

subpetiolate, oval, smooth beneath, slightly hispid 
above ; margin serrulate-ciliate ; flowers invo- 
HAB. Delaware. A foot high, slend. ; leav. small : 
JI, purp. ; pet. roundish. 

269. OENOTHERA. Night willow-herb. Onagrario'. 
* Capsule elongated, sessile. 

1. (E. biennis: stem villous and scabrous; leaves 

ovate-lanceolate, flat, dentate ; flowers somewhat 
spiked, sessile : stamens shorter than the corolla. 
HAB. Fields. June— Oct. ;?. Stem 3—5 ft. 
high; leav. alt. ;fl. racewi., yellow. 

2. CE. muricata : stem purplish, muricate ; leaves lan- 

ceolate, flat ; stamens longer than the corolla. 
HAB. Fields. Fl. smaller. 

3. CE. parviflora: stem smooth, subvillous ; leaves 

ovate-lanceolate, flat ; stamens longer than the co- 
HAB. Fields and woods. £. -f-. 

4. CE. grandiflora : stem nearly smooth, branched: 

leaves ovate-lanceolate, smooth ; stamens decli- 
HAB. Fields. July— Aug. £. Stem 3— 5 ft. high, 
terete ; JI. large, yellow. 

5. CE. sinuata : stem diffused, pubescent ; leaves oval- 

oblong, sinuate-dentate; flowers axillary, villous"; 
capsule prismatic. 
0. minima: stem humble, simple, 1 -flowered ; 
leaves entire. 


HAB. Sandy fields. 0. 1—3 in. high, 1—2/. small, 
sess. ; caps. lin. 

** Capsule ventricose, angular, mostly pedicellate. 

6. (E. fruticosa : somewhat villous ; leaves linear-lan- 

ceolate, subdentate, acute ; petals broad-obcordate ; 
capsules oblong-clavate, pedicellate, quadrangular ; 
raceme naked below. 

HAB. Hills and woods. June. 0. Stem 12 — 18 in. 
high, purp. ; leav. punc. 

■3. ambigua : more or less pilose; stem simple; 
leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, sub- 
denticulate ; petals obcordate, longer than broad ; 
points of the calyx very short ; capsules subsessile, 
always smooth, oblong and 4-winged ; raceme na- 
ked below. 

HAB. Hills and dry woods. July. Leaves 2J- in. 

7. (E. incana : stem slender, erect ; leaves flat, hoary 

and tomentose, very entire, elliptic-ovate, acute ; 
raceme few-flowered, naked ; capsules subsessile, 
oblong and quadrangular. 
HAB. Dry Woods. Stem 6—8 in. high; fl. bright 
yellow. -{-• 

8. (E. pumila : smooth ; stem ascending ; leaves lan- 

ceolate, very entire, obtuse ; capsule subsessile, 
elliptical-obovate, angular. 
IIAB. Dry fields. June. U • A span high: fi. small ; 
pet. obcordate. 

9. CE. chrysantha: stem slender, pubescent; leaves 

lanceolate, rather obtuse, flat, entire ; segments 
of the calyx as long again as the tube ; capsule 
clavate, sessile, acutely angular. 
IIAB. Mountains. Afoot high;Jl. small, bright 

10. CE. pusilla : subpubescent ; stem nearly simple; 

leaves lanceolate-oblong, somewhat obtuse, en- 
tire ; flowers axillary at the summit ; capsule 
sessile, clavate-turbinate, almost equally 8-angled. 
IIAB. Mountains. Stem \ — 6 in. high, erect. 


270. GAURA. Onagrarioe. 

G. biennis : leaves lanceolate, dentate ; spikes crowd- 
ed ; fruit roundish, subquadrangular, pubescent. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. Aug. $. Stem 1£— ft ft. 
high, hairy ; Ji. num. rose-col. 

271. EPILOBIUM. Willow-herb. Onagrarice. 

1. E. spicatum: leaves scattered, veined, smooth: 

flowers subspicate ; stamens declinate. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. % . Stem 3— 5 ft. high, terete ; 
cal. col. ; ji. large purp. 

2. E. coloratum : stem terete, pubescent ; leaves lan- 

ceolate, serrulate, petiolate,opposite, smooth, with 
coloured veins ; the upper ones alternate. 
HAB. Wet places. July— Aug. U. &m 3-4/t. 
high; upper bran, subquadran. ; ji. axill. purp. : 
caps. 2 — 3 in. long. 

3. E. rosmarinifoliurn : stem terete, pubescent, bran- 

ching above ; leaves linear, Very entire ; those 
on the stem opposite ; on the branches alternate ; 
flowers pedunculate ; petals bifid ; stigma entire. 

HAB. Swamps. Aug. U . Root bulb, and scaly ; ji. 
very small, pale purp. 
\. E. molle: densely and softly pubescent ; stem te- 
rete ; leaves oblong linear, sessile, very entire ; 
the lower ones opposite ; upper ones alternate ; 
flowers pedicellate, subterminal, regular ; petals 
2-lobed ; stigma entire. 

HAB. Wet grounds. Aug. U . Stem 18 in. high, 
^branch, above; silky pubes. ; jl. small, pale purp. 

272. OXYCOCCUS. Cranberry. Vaccinev. 

]. O. macrocarpus : creeping; branches ascending; 
leaves oblong, nearly flat, obtuse, with distant 
obsolete serratures, glaucous beneath ; pedicels 
elongated ; segments of the corolla jincar-lanco- 
• •Iate. 


HAB. Sphagnous swamps. June. 1J. . Stejn long. 
Jilif. ; fl. red ; ber. scarl. 

O. vulgaris ; leaves ovate, entire, revolute ; seg- 
ments of the corolla oval ; stem filiform, creeping, 

HAB. Mountain bogs. U . -f. 

273. MENZIESIA. Ericece. 

M. cozrulea : leaves scattered, crowded, lineal, 
toothed ; pedicels terminal, aggregate, 1 -flowered : 
flowers campanulate, decandrous, 1-flowered, ca 
lyx very acute. 

HAB. High mountains. July. V Evergreen, branch, 
fl. large, pur p. 

M. globularis: leaves lanceolate, glaucous beneath, 
except the nerves, pubescent ; calyx 4-cleft ; flow- 
ers globose, octandrous. 

HAB. Mountains. June. Tj. Stem 4 in. high ; fl 
yell, brown. 

274. ACER. Maple. Aceracece. 

A. rubrum: leaves palmately about 5-lobed, cordate 
at the base, unequally and incisely toothed, glau- 
cous beneath ; the sinuses acute ; flowers aggregated 
in about fives, on rather long pedicels ; germens 

HAB. Woods. April. A large tree ; precocious ; fl. 
red ; slam. 5 — 6. 

A. dasycarpon : leaves palmately 5-lobed ; truncate 
at the base, incisely toothed, smooth and whitish 
beneath ; sinuses obtuse ; pedicels short ; germens 

HAB. Banks of rivers. April. A large tree; fl. gr. 
yel. : pet. ; fruit large. 

A. barbatum : leaves ovate-cordate, with 3 short 
lobes, unequally serrate, glaucous beneath, and pu- 
bescent on the nerves ; peduncles hairy ; those of 
the staminiferous flower* branched : of the pistil 
liferous simple ; wings of the samara?, erect. 

HAB. Cedar swamps. A small tree ; leav. small : fl 
vale green, -f-. 



4. A. saccharinum : leaves palmately 5-lobed, subcor- 

date at the base, acuminate, glaucous beneath ; pe- 
duncles corymbose, nodding. 
HAB. Woods. April. A large tree ; fl. yellowish on 
Jilif. fed. ; wings narrow. 

5. A. nigrum: leaves palmately 5-lobed, cordate, with 

the sinus closed ; lobes divaricate, sinuate-subden- 
tate, pubescent beneath ; flowers corymbed ; sama- 
ras turgid, subglobose. 

HAB. Mountainous regions. April. A large tree ;Jl. 
yellowish on Jilif. ped., apet. 
(?. A. pennsylvanicum : leaves with 3 acuminate lobes, 
rounded at the base, acutely dentate, smooth ; ra- 
ceme simple, pendulous. 

HAB. Mountains. May. Shrub ten ft. high; bark 
striped; fl. gr. yel., large. 

7. A. montanum: leaves somewhat 5-lobed, acute, den- 

tate, pubescent beneath ; racemes compound, 
HAB. Mountains. May. Shrub 6— 10ft. high ; leav. 
small ; fl. greenish. 

t Flowers diozcious. Calyx minute , b-toothed. Petals 0. 
stamens 5 ; anthers linear, sessile, acuminate. Sa- 
maras as in Acer. — Negundium. 

8. A. Negundo : leaves pinnate and ternate, unequally 

HAB. River banks. April. A large tree : leaflets 
5 — 7 ,- racem. pend. 

275. DIRCA. Leather-wood. Thymelece. , 

D. palustris : 

HAB. Woods. April. Shrub 2 ft. high, with tough 
bran. ; fl. and bark yellow. 

276. JEFFERSONIA. Podophyllacece. 

J. diphylla. 

HAB. Fertile woods. V-- Leaf binate,peiiol.; scape 

\ft. high,fl. sol. term., large, white; caps, large. 




277, POLYGONUM. Persicaria, &c. Polygon**. 
* Flowers axillary. 

1. P. aviculare : stamens 8, styles 3, leaves lanceolate, 

scabrous on the margin ; nerves of the stipules dis- 
tant ; stem procumbent, herbaceous. 
HAB. Fields, &c. May— Oct. 0. Much bran. ; 
Jl. very small, wh. or reddish : seed striate. 

2. P. glaucum: flowers octandrous ; styles 3; leaves 

lanceolate, thick and glaucous, revolute on the 
margin ; stipules lacerate ; pedicels exserted ; stem 
diffuse, procumbent ; seed acutely angular, smooth 
and shining. 
HAB. Sandy sea-shore. Aug. © ? Stem long, sub- 
lig. ; Jl. larger than No. 1, rose-col. 

3. P. tenue: stem slender, erect, branched, acutely 

angular ; flowers alternate, subsolitary ; leaves 
linear, acuminate, straight ; stipules tubular, lace- 
rate, with the segments finely attenuate at the ex- 
HAB. Rocks and sandy fields. July — Sept. 0. 
Stem 6 — 10 in. high; ang. scab. 

** Flowers spiked. 

f. Spike solitary, terminal; stamens ; stigmas 3, nut tri- 
angular. BlSTORTA.. 

4. P. viviparum : stem simple ; spike linear,- solitary : 
leaves linear-lanceolate, revolute on the margin ; 
the lower ones elliptical, petiolate. 
HAB. High mountains. Aug. U. Stem 6 — 8 in. 
high; slip, tub., smooth ; Jl. red. 

\] Spikes axillary or terminal; stamens 5 — 8; stigmas 
mostly 2 ; nut ovate. Peksicari \. 

'). P. punctatum: flowers octandrous", glandular-punc- 
tate ; styles 3-parted ; stipules slightly hairy, cili- 
ate ; spike filiform, at first cernueus ; leaves lan- 
ceolate, with pellucid punctures, scabrous on the 
margin and ruulrib. 


HAB. Wet places. Aug.— Oct. U . Stem lift, 
high ; ft. wh. — plant acrid. 

6. P. mite : flowers octnndrous, somewhat crowded : 

styles 3-parted ; leaves narrow-lanceolate, some- 
what hairy ; stipules hairy, with long ciliae. 
HAB. Wet places. Aug.— Sept. U . Stem 18 in, 
high, ft. pale red or white ; plant not acrid. 

7. P. virginianum : flowers 4-cleft, unequal, remote, 

pentandrous ; styles 2 ; spike very long, virgate ; 
leaves oval-lanceolate. 
HAB. Moist shady places. Aug. — Sept. If. Stem 
2 — 4 ft. high, ft white ; fr. birost. 

8. P. amphibium : flowers pentandrous ; styles bifid ; 

spike oblong or ovate ; leaves petiolate, oblong or 

lanceolate, subcordate. 
x. terrestre : stem nearly erect ; leaves oblong-lan- 
ceolate, often cordate at the base, smooth above, 

slightly pubescent beneath ; spike ovate-oblong. 
HAB. Borders of ponds. Aug. lj. . Stemassurg.. 

8 in. high ; spike bright rose-col. 
a. aquaticum : leaves floating, ovate-lanceolate : 

spike cylindrical-oblong. 
HAB. Floating in lakes. Aug. U. Stem 3—10 

ft. long r branch. ; ft. rose-col. 
). P. pennsyhanicum : flowers octandrotts ; style 2- 

cleft ; spike oblong, crowded ; peduncles hispid ; 

leaves lanceolate, slightly hairy ; stipules smooth 

and naked. 
HAB. Fields, and along ditches. July — Oct. 

Stem 2 — 4 ft. high ; feav. pale gr. ; ft. red. 

10. P. lapathifolium : flowers hexandrous ; styles 2; 
spikes oblong, rather crowded, erect ; peduncles- 
scabrous ; leaves ovate -lanceolate, on short pe- 
tioles, hoary. 

HAB. Wet places. Aug. ©. Stem 2— 4 ft. high, 
leav. pale green. 

11. P. Persicaria : flowers hexandrous : styles bifid: 
spikes ovate-oblong, erect ; peduncles smooth : 
leaves lanceolate ; stipules smooth, ciliate. 

HAB. Low grounds. July — Aug. 0. Stem 1 — 2 
ft. high ; spikes dense, rose-col. 


12. P. orientate : flowers heptandrous, digynous, leaves 

ovate ; stem erect ; stipules hairy, hypocrateri- 
HAB. Road sides, &c. Aug.— Sept. 0. Stem 3— 
5 ft. high, pubes. ; spik. subpend, rad. 

*** Flowers in paniculate spikes ; perianth 5-leaved. 


13. P. articulatum: flowers perfect, octandrous, trigy- 

nous, nodding ; spikes paniculate, filiform ; pedi- 
cels solitary, articulate near the base ; bracts im- 
bricate ; leaves linear ; nut triquetrous. 
HAB. Barren sandy woods. Sept. ©. A foot 
high, branched ; bracts trunc. ; fl. rose-col. 

*.#** Flowers in racemose panicles ; {leaves subcordate 
or sagittate.) Fagofyrum. 

14. P. Convolvulus : flowers octandrous ; styles 3-cleft » 

leaves oblong, hastate-cordate ; stem climbing, 
angular, somewhat scabrous ; segments of the pe- 
rianth obtusely carinate. 
HAB. Sandy fields, &c. July— Sept. ©. Leav. 
pctiol. ; raceme interrupt. ; fl. reddish. 

15. P. cilinode : flowers octandrous ; styles 3-cleft ; 

leaves cordate ; stipules rather acute, ciliate at the 
base ; stem angular, climbing or prostrate, pubes- 
cent ; segments of the perianth obtusely carinate. 
HAB. Hills. Aug. 0. Plant minutely pubes. : 
leav. subhast. ; fl. pale rose-col. 

16. P. scandens: flowers octandrous, trigynous ; leaves 

broadly cordate ; stipules truncate, naked ; stem 
climbing, smooth ; segments of the perianth 
11 AB. Hedges, &c. Aug. ©. Stem 4 — 5 ang. : 
pur p. ; fl. large, aggreg. wh. or rose-col. 
k7. P. sagittalum: flowers octandrous, capitate ; style* 
3-cleft ; leaves sagittate, stem retrorsely aculeate. 
HAB. Wet thickets. July— Aug. 0. Stemslend.. 
prost. ; fl. in sm. heads, white. 
18. P. arifolium : flowers hexandrous, distinct ; styles 
bifid ; spikes few-flowered, leaves hastate ; stem 
retrorsely aculeate. 



HAB. Wet thickets. July— Sept. ©. Stem 
slend., prost. t remotely acul. ; fl. rose-col. 



878". LAURUS. Cal. mostly 6-parted, petaloid. Ned. 
consisting of 3 bisetose glands surrounding the 
germen. Stam. 12 ; 6 of them interior, 3 of 
which are sterile and glanduliferous. 


LAURUS. Sassafras, &c. Laurinea*. 

\. L. carolinensis : leaves perennial, oval-lanceolate, 
coriaceous, glaucous beneath ; peduncle simple, 
terminated by a fascicle of few flowers ; exterior 
segments half as long as the interior. 
HAB. Swamps of Cupressus disticha. — A small tree ; 
leav. ent. ; fl. dust., yellow. 

* Euosmus. 

Flowers polygamous or dioecious. Cal. 6-parted. 
JVect. 0. Stam. 9, fertile ; 6 exterior naked ; the 8 
interior augmented by 6 infertile ones attached b) r 
pairs ; anth. of the sterile stam. glanduloid. Berry 
1-seeded. (Leaves deciduous.) 

■I. L. Benzoin : flowers in conglomerate umbels, dioe- 
cious ; buds and pedicels smooth ; segments oune- 
ate-oboval, entire, whitish and subpubescent be- 
HAB. Shady wet places. April. An arom. shrub 
4 — lOft. high,fl. yellow ; berry scarl. 

3. L. Sassafras; flowers in conglomerate corymbs. 

dioecious ; buds, younger branches, and under sur- 

. face of the leaves pubescent ; leaves entire, or 2 — 

3-lobed ; under surface prominently veined. 

HAB. Woods. April. A middle sized tree : fi. gr. 

yellow ; her. bine, on red ped. 




* Flowers monopetalous. 

279. ARBUTUS. Cal. minute, 5-parted. Cor. ovate, 

diaphanous at the base ; border small, 5-cleft : 
revolute. Filam. hairy. Berry superior, 5- 

280. GAULTHERIA. Cal. 5-cleft, with 2 bracts at the 

base. Cor. ovate ; border small, 5-cleft, revo-' 
lute. Filam. hairy. Recept. 10-toothed. Caps. 
superior, 5-celled, covered by the calyx, which 
becomes a berry. 
28*. VACC1NIUM. Cal. superior, 4— 5-toothed. Cor. 
urceolate or campanulate, 4 — 5-cleft. Filam. 
inserted upon the germen. Berry 4 — 5-celled e 

282. ANDROMEDA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. ovate, or 

subcylindrical ; border 5-cleft, reflexed. Anth. 
2-horned. Caps. 5-celled, 5-valved ; dissepi- 
ments from the middle of the valves. 

283. KALMIA. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. hypocrateriform ; 

border on the under side, producing 10 cornute 
protuberances, in which the anthers are con- 
cealed. Caps. 5-celled, many-seeded ; dissepi- 
ments marginal. 

*8<J. RHODODENDRON. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. sub - 
infundibuliform, 5-cleft. Stam. 5 — 10, decli- 
nate ; anth. opening by 2 terminal pores. Caps. 
5-celled, 5-valved, opening at the summit. 

285. RHODORA. Cal. 5-toothed. Cor. 3-petalled : 
petals unequal, slightly united at the base • 
the upper one thrice broader, and 3-lobed. 
Stam. and style declinate. Caps. 5-celled, 5- 
valved, opening at the top ; dissepiments formed 
of the inflexed margins of the valves. 

!86. EPIGjEA. Cal. 5-parted, with 3 bracts at the 
base. Cor. hypocrateriform ; border 5-parted, 
spreading; tube villous within. Caps. 5-celled 
tceptarle 5-parted, 


287. PTEROSPORA. Cal. 5- parted. Cor. monopeta- 

lous, ovate, margin 5-tootherl, reflexed. Anth. 
excentrically peltate, 1 -celled, bisetose. Caps. 
5-celled, imperfectly 5-valved ; dissepiments 
from the middle of the valves ; septa and valves 
uniting toward the base, and coalescing with the 
receptacular axis Seeds very minute and nu- 
merous, each furnished with a terminal wing. 

** Flowers polypetalous, regular. 

288. MONOTROPA. Cat. 3— 5-parted, or 0. Cor. 

5-petalled, cucullate at the base. Anth. 1-celled^ 
bilabiate. Caps. 5-celled, 5-valved. Seeds nu- 
merous, invested with a long arillus. 

289. PYROLA. CaL small, 5-cleft. Pet. slightly uni- 

ted at the base, deciduous. Stam. opening with 
2 pores. Caps. 5-celled, 5-valved. Seeds in- 
vested with a long arillus. 
£90. LEDUM. CaL minute, 5-toothed. Cor. 5-petal- 
led, spreading. Stam. ex*erted ; antli. opening 
by 2 terminal pores. Caps, subovate, 5-celled, 
5-valved, opening at the base ; valves with the 
margins inflexed and approximate ; recept. 5- 
lobed ; colum. 5-angled, pedicellate. Seeds nu- 
merous, flat, linear, scabrous, with a membra- 
naceous wing at each extremity. 

291. LEIOPHYLLUM. Cal. deeply 5-parted, persist- 

ent. Cor. 5-petalled. Stam. longer than the 
corolla; anth. lateral, opening on the inside 
longitudinally. Caps, roundish, 5-celled, 5- 
valved, opening at the top ; valves ovate, with 
the margins inflexed, remote and straight ; co- 
lum. subovate, terete, rugose. Seeds small, 
smooth, not winged. 

292. CLETHRA. Cal. 5-parted, persistent. Cor. 5- 

petalled. Style persistent ; stig. short, 3-cleft. 
Caps. 3-celled, 3-valved, covered by the calyx, 

*** Flowers polypetalous, irregular. 

293. CASSIA. Cal. 5-leaved. Pet. 5, subequal. Stam. 

unequal; 3 superior anth. sterile; 3 inferior 
rostrate, with longer and incurved filaments. 
Legume membranaceous, 2-valved. 


i94. BAPTISIA. Cal. half 4— 5-cleft, bilabiate. Car. 
papilionaceous ; pet. nearly equal in length ; 
vexill. with the sides reflexed. Stam. deciduous. 
Legume ventricose, pedicellate, many-seeded. 

295. CERC1S. Cat. 5-toothed, gibbous at the base. 

Cor. papilionaceous ; wings larger than the vex- 
ill. ; keel 2-petalled. Legume compressed, se- 
miniferous suture margined. 


296. HYDRANGEA. Oil. superior, 5-toothed, Pet, 

5. Caps. 2-beaked, opening by a foramen be- 
tween the horns. 

297. SAXIFRAGA. Cal. 5-parted. Pet. 5. Caps. 

superior or inferior, or half inferior, 2-beaked, 
2-celled, many-seeded, opening between the 

298. CHRYSOSPLENIUM. Cal. superior, 4— 5-cleft, 

coloured. Cor. 0. Caps. 2-beaked, many- 

299. TIARELLA. Cal. 5-parted, persistent. Pet. 5, 

inserted into the calyx, unguiculate. Caps. 1- 
celled, 2-valved ; valves unequal. 

300. MITELLA. Cal. 5-cleft, persistent. Pet. 5, pin- 

natifid ; inserted into the calyx. r aps. 1 -celled, 
2-valved ; valves equal. 

301. SAPONAR1A. Cal. 1-leaved, tubular, 5-toothed, 

naked at the base. Pet. 5, unguiculate. Caps. 
oblong, 1 -celled. 

302. DIANTHUS. Cal. 1-leaved, tubular, 5-toothed, 

with about 4 imbricate opposite scales at the 
base. Pet. unguiculate. Caps, cylindric, 1- 

303. SCLERANTHUS. Cal. 1 -leaved, 5-cleft. Cor. 

0. Stam. inserted into the calyx. Caps. 1-seeded, 
covered by the calyx- 


304. CUCUBALUS. Cal. 1-leaved, inOated, 5-toothed. 

Pet. 5, unguiculate, naked at the orifice. Caps. 


305. SILENE. Cal. 1 -leaved, tubular or conic, 5-tooth- 

ed. Pet. 5, unguiculate, mostly crowned at the 
orifice. Caps. 3-celled, 6-toothed, many-seeded. 

306. STELLARIA. Cal. 5-leaved. Pet. 5, deeply cleft. 

Caps. 1 -celled, opening with 6 teeth, many- 

307. ARENARIA. Cal. 5-leaved. Pet. 5, undivided. 

Caps. 1 -celled, many-seeded. 


308. SPERGULA. Cal. 5-leaved. Pet. 5, undivided. 

Caps, ovate, 5-celled, 5-valved. 

309. CERAST1UM. Cat. 5-leaved. Pet. 5, bifid or 

emarginate. Caps. 1 -celled, bursting at the sum- 
mit with 10 teeth. 

310. AGROSTEMMA. Cat. 1 -leaved, tubular, coriace- 

ous, 5-cleft. Pet. 5, unguiculate ; limb obtuse, 
undivided. Caps. 1 -celled, opening with 5 teeth. 

311. OXAL1S. Cal. 5-parted, persistent. Pet. 5, slight- 

ly connected at the flaws. Caps, pentangular, 5- 
celled, bursting at the angles ; cells 2, or many- 
seeded. Seeds covered with an elastic arillus. 

312. PENTHORUM. Cal. 5— 10-cleft. Pet. 5 or 0. 

Caps. 5-pointed, 5-celled ; cells dividing trans- 
versely, many -seeded. 

313. SEDUM. Cal. 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Caps. 5, with a 

nectariferous scale at the base of each. 


314. PHYTOLACCA. Cal. 5-cleft, petaloid. Berry 

superior, 10-celled, 10-seeded. 


279. ARBUTUS. Bear-berry. Ericece. 

A. Uvaursi: stem procumbpnt ; leaves cuneate-ob- 
ovate, very entire, cori.iceous ; margin convex ; 
flowers fasciculate ; berries 5-seeded. 

HAB. Sandy woods and mountains. Apr. — May. \, 
Evergreen; jl. rose-col.; her. red. 


280. GAULTHERIA. Mountain-tea, &c. Ericeoe. 

G. procumbens : stem procumbent, with the flower- 
ing branches erect ; leaves obovate, cuneate at 
the base, ciliate-denticulate ; flowers few, termi- 
nal, nodding. 

HAB. Wet or dry woods. July — Aug. ^- Root 
creep.; leav. sempervir.Jl. wh. 

281. VACCINIUM. Whortle-berry. Vaccinece. 

% Leaves deciduous. 

t Corolla campanulale. 

. V. stamineum: leaves oval, acute, very entire_. 
glaucous beneath ; pedicels solitary, axillary, 
filiform ; corolla spreading-campanulate ; seg- 
ments oblong, acute ; anthers exserted, awned ; 
berries somewhat pyriform. 

HAB. Dry woods and hills. May — June. Shrub 3 — 4 
ft. high ; fl. wh. ; ber. large, wh. 

■3. album : leaves subpubescent beneath ; berries 

HAB. Pine "barrens. 
. V. dumosum : younger branches, leaves, and ra- 
cemes sprinkled with resinous atoms ; leaves ob- 
ovate, cuneate at the base, mucronate, very en- 
tire, green on both sides ; racemes bracteate ; 
pedicels short, axillary, subsolitary ; corolla cam- 
panulate, segments rounded ; anthers included. 

HAB. Pine barrens and swamps. June. Shrub 12 
— 18 in. high ; fl. large, wh. ; ber. large, depress, 
. V. frondosum: leaves obovate-oblong, obtuse, very 
entire, and sprinkled with resinous atoms beneath, 
glaucous ; racemes loose, bracteate ; pedicel* 
long, filiform ; corolla ovate-campanulate ; an- 
thers included. 

IIAB. Sandy woods and swamps. July. Shrub 3 — - r » 
ft. high, ber. large, blue, pleasant. 


| t Corolla urceolate. 

ec. Flowers racemose, or fasciculate. 

4. V. resinosum : leaves petiolate, oblong-oval, mostly 

obtuse, very entire, sprinkled witb resinous atoms 
beneath ; racemes lateral, secund, bracteate ; co- 
rolla ovate-conic, pentangular. 
HAB. Woods and hills. May— June. Shrub 2 ft. 
high ; fl. reddish ; her. black shining. 

5. V. corymbosum : flonferous branches nearly leaf- 

less ; leaves oblong-oval, acute at each extremity, 
nearly entire ; the younger ones pubescent; ra- 
cemes short, sessile, bracteate ; corolla cylindri- 
cal ovate. 
HAB. Low grounds. May— June. Shrub 4 — 8 ft. 
high ; fl. wh. or purplish; ber. black. 
?.;. V. fuscatum : racemes somewhat naked ; leaves 
elliptical, acute, very entire, with the nerves be- 
neath somewhat villous ; corolla cylindrical-ovate : 
calyx acute. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. + 
7. V. pennsylvanicum : branches angular, green ; ses- 
sile, oval-lanceolate, mucronate, serrulate, shining 
on both surfaces ; fascicles of flowers crowded, 
subterminal, corolla ovate. 
HAB. Rocky hills. May— June. Shrub 12—18 in. 
high; bark andfl. greenish; ber. dark blue. 
;•!. V. tenellum: racemes bracteate, sessile; corolla 
ovate-cylin<(rical ; leaves oblong-elliptic,subcunei- 
form, serrulate, nearly smooth. 
HAB. Mountains. April. 
>. V. ligustrinum: branches angular ; leaves subses- 
sile, erect, lanceolate, mucronate, serrulate ; fas- 
cicles gemmaceous, sessile ; flowers nearly ses- 
sile ; corolla oblong, ovate. 
HAB. Dry woods. Shrub small, slend. ; leaves £ in. 
long ; fl. purp. 

6. Flowers solitary. 
10. V. uliginosum: leaves obovate, very obtuse, en- 


tire, smooth above, veined and glaucous beneath ; 
flowers subsolitary, octandrous ; corolla short- 
ovate, 4-cleft ; anthers awned at the base. 
HAB. High Mountains. Shrub procum. and strag. ; 
leav. andfl. small; ber. obi. 

* * Leaves sempervirent. 

11. V. Vitis idcea : stem creeping; branches erect: 
leaves obovate, punctate beneath ; nearly entire : 
racemes terminal, nodding ; corolla oblong, cam- 
HAB. High mountains. June. Shrub low, strag. ; 
leav. subcoriac. rev.; Jl. mostly 4-cleft, pale red: 
ber. red, acid. 

282. ANDROMEDA. Ericece. 

* Leaves sempervirent. 

i. A. hypnoides : leaves imbricate, subulate, smooth . 
peduncles solitary, terminal, 1 -flowered, corolla 
nodding, globose campanulate. 
HAB. High mountains. A small creeping shrub ; Jl. 
small, wh. and red. 

J. A. polifolia : leaves linear lanceolate, convex ; re- 
volute, glaucous beneath ; flowers in short ter- 
minal racemes. 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps. May. Shrub 18 in. high : 
Jl. wh, urceol., mouth contr. 

'.. A. calyculata: leaves lanceolate-oblong, rather ob- 
tuse, obsoletely serrulate, ferruginous beneath ; 
racemes terminal, leafy, subsecund ; calyx bi- 
bracteate ; corolla oblong-cylindrical. 
HAB. Bog-meadows. Apr. — May. Shrub 3— 4ft. 
high; leaves squamulose-punct. ; Jl. wh. 

* Leaves deciduous. 

A. mariana: leaves oval, somewhat acute, very 
entire, smooth, subcoriaceous ; paler beneath 
flowering branches nearly naked ; pedicels fat 


culate ; corolla ovate-cylindric ; anthers simple 
at the summit. 

HAB. Sandy woods. June— Oct. Shrub 2— 4 ft. ; 
branch, erect; fl. large, wh. or rose-col. 
n. A. racemosa: leaves oval-lanceolate, acute, serru- 
late, membranaceous, pubescent beneath ; ra- 
cemes terminal, secund, simple, (or rarely branch- 
ed ;) corolla oblong-cylindrical ; anthers 4-awned 
at the summit. 

HAB. Swamps. June— July. Shrub 4— 6 ft. high ; 
racem. long ; fl. nod. ; wh. odorous. 

6. A. arborea: branches terete ; leaves oblong, acu- 

minate, acutely serrate, smooth ; panicles termi- 
nal, many-spiked ; corolla ovate-oblong, pubes- 
cent ; anthers unawned. 
HAB. Mountains. A middle sized tree ; leav. shin., 
acid ; pan. large ; fl. wh. 

7. A. ligustrina : pubescent; leaves obovate-lanceo- 

late, acuminate, minutely serrulate, floriferous 
branches terminal, paniculate, naked ; corolla 
subglobose ; anthers unawned. 
HAB. Swamps. June— July. Shrub 4 — 8 ft. high : 
pan. dense ; fl. small, wh. ; cap. glob. 

283. KALMIA. American Laurel. Rhododeudracac. 

1. K. latifolia: leaves on long petioles, scattered and 

ternate, coriaceous, green on both sides ; corymb? 
terminal, viscidly pubescent. 
HAB. Rocky hills. June— July. Shrub 4— \b ft. 
high ; leav. semperv. ; fl. large, rose-col. 

2. K. angustifolia : leaves ternate, petiolate, obtuse. 

slightly ferruginous beneath ; corymbs linear ; pe- 
duncles and calyx glandular-pubescent. 
HAB. Sandy woods and swamps. June — July. 
Shrub 2 ft. high ; fl. smaller, deeper rose- col. 

3. K. glauca: branches ancipitous ; leaves opposite. 

subsessile, oblong, smooth, glaucous beneath, reyo- 
lute on the margin, corymbs terminal and axillary, 
bracteate ; peduncles and calyx very smooth. 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps and mountain bogs. July. 
Shrub 18 in. high ; fl. small, rose-col. 


I. rosmarinifolia : leaves linear, conspicuously revo- 

lute. nearly green beneath. 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps. Shrub low ; ieav. 2 tin. 

broad; umbel, term. 

284. RHODODENDRON. Mountain-laurel. Rhodo- 

* Flowers pentandrous. 

1. R. nudiflorum: flowers somewhat naked; leaves 

lanceolate-oblong, nearly smooth, and green on 
both sides ; the midrib bristly beneath ; margin cili- 
ate ; flowers not viscous ; tube longer than the 
divisions ; teeth of the calyx short, somewhat 
rounded ; stamens much exseried. 
HAB. Woods and copses. May. Shrub 2—6 ft. 
high; fl. in term, dust., red. 

2. R. viscosum: flowers leafy ; branches hispid ; leaves 

oblong-obovate, acute, smooth and green on both 
sides, ciliate on the margin ; midrib bristly ; flowers 
viscous ; tube as long again as the segments ; teeth 
of the calyx short, rounded ; stamens scarcely 
longer than the corolla. 
HAB. Wet woods. June. Shrub 4— £ ft. high ; fl. 

wh.y viscous, sweet-seen. 
/3. glaucum : leaves glaucous beneath. 
K. calendulaceum : flowers : somewhat naked ; leaves 
oblong, pubescent on both sides, at length hairy ; 
flowers not viscous; teeth of the calyx oblong: 
tube ofthe corolla hairy, shorter than the segments. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. May. Shrub 2- 6 ft. high; 
fl. large, flame-col. 
L R. arborescent: flowers leafy; leaves obovate, ra- 
ther obtuse, smooth on both sides, glaucous be- 
neath, ciliate on the margin ; nerves almost smooth. 
flowers not viscous ; tube longer than the seg- 
ments ; calyx leafy, with the segments oblong, 
acute ; filaments exserted. 
HAB, Mountains. Shrub 10— 20 ft. high ; fl. large, 
rose-col. ; scales of the fl.-buds ycll-br., with a cil. 
white bord. 
5. R. nitidum: Bowers leafy; branches somewhat 
«mooth ; leaves oblanceolat«', submucronate, co- 


riaceous, smooth on both side9, shining above 
nerve bristly beneath ; margin revolute-ciliate ; 
flowers viscous ; tube a little longer than the seg- 
ments ; calyx very short ; filaments exserted. 
HAB. Mountain swamps. Leav. dark green, small: 
fl. reddish while. 

6. R. irispidum : flowers leafy ; branches straight. 

very hispid ; leaves long-lanceolate, hispid above, 
smooth beneath, glaucous on both sides ; nerve 
beneath bristly ; margin ciliate ; flowers very vis- 
cous ; tube scarcely longer than the segments : 
teeth of the calyx oblong, round ; filaments ex- 
HAB, Mountains, near lakes. July — Aug. Shrub 
10 — 15 ft. high, bluish, upright; fl. wli., bord. 
and tube red. 

** Flowers campanulate ; stamens 5 — 10. 

7. R. lapponicum : leaves elliptical, roughened with 

excavated punctures. 
HAB. High mountains. July. A small evergreen 
shrub ; fl. in term, dust., large purp., 4 cl.; stam. 8. 

8. R. maximum : arborescent ; leaves oblong, acute. 

paler beneath ; umbels terminal ; segments of the 
calyx oval, obtuse ; corolla campanulate. ' 
HAB. Cedar swamps and mountain bogs. June — 
July. Shrub 10 — 15 ft. high; leav. semperv. ; fl. 
large, rose-col. 

285. RHODORA. Rhododendracecv. 

R. canadensis : 

HAB. Mountain bogs. May. Shrub 2ft. high ; leav. 
oval; fl. in term, limb., purplish; stam. not exsert. 

28G. EPIG^A. Ground-laurel. Ericeai. 

E. repens : branches, nerves of the leaves, and pe 
tioles, very hairy ; leaves cordate-ovate, very en 
tire ; corolla subcylindrical. 

HAB. Rocky woods. April. U . A trailing ever 

green ; fl. dust., reddish wh. 


287. PTEROSPORA. Monotropev. 

P. andromedea. 

HAB. Steril hill-sides. July— Aug. M.1 Steml*— 
2 ft. high, simple, scaly, brownish; leaves ;fl. in a 
long raceme, nutant, reddish white. 

288. MONOTROPA. Bird's-nest Monotropecc. 
* Scapes many-flowered. Hypopithys. 

1 . M. lanuginosa : scape bearing the flowers in a spike ; 

bracts and flowers woolly. 
HAB. Beech woods. Aug. U . ? Scape scaly, ag- 
greg.f 4 — G in. long ; fl. secund, yellowish, parasitic 
on roots. 

2. Uypopithys: scape bearing the flowers in a spike ; 

scales and flowers smooth externally ; lateral flow- 
ers octandrous. 
HAB. Beech woods. July. 2{. ? Plant dingy yel- 
low. Parasitic. +. 

** Scape \-flowered. 

■ >. M. uniflora: scape straight, elongated, 1 -flowered; 
flowers decandrous, erect or cernuous. 
HAB. Woods. June. Root roundish ; plant white ; 
scape 5 — 8 in. high ; fl. large. 

JGP. PYROLA. Winter-green. Monotropecc. 

* Flowers racemed, pointing in various directions. 

1 . P. rotiindifolia : leaves rounded or dilated oval, ob- 
soletely serrulate, subcoriaceous and shining ; pe- 
tiole about as long as the lamina ; scape many-flow- 
ered ; style declinate. 
HAB. Dry woods. July — Aug. U^ Leav. rad. 
semjicrv. : fl. large, reddish white. 
.*. P. elliptica: leaves membranaceous, elliptical-ovate ; 
errulate, rather acute ; lamina longer than the pe- 
tiole ; scape nearly naked ; bracts subulate ; calyx 
o-toothed ; style declinate. 
MAB. Dry woods. July — Aug. V-. Scape 10 in. 
U^ract. : fl. sw. -scent., gr. wh. 


3. P. asarifolia : leaves subreniform, generally emar 

ginate, coriaceous ; lamina shorter than the petiole . 
scape mostly convolute, many-flowered ; calyx ap 
pressed ; stamens slightly ascending ; style decli- 
nate, clavate. 
HAB. Sandy woods. July. U. Leav. small, dark 
gr. ; scape 8- — 10 m. high; bract solit. ; Jl. greenish, 
i no dor. 

4. P. minor: leaves roundish-oval, serrulate; scape 

naked ; style short, straight, as long as the erect 
HAB. New-York, &c. June. If. Fl. small, red- 
dish wh. ; stig. pelt. 

** Flowers racemed, secund. 

5. P. secunda : leaves roundish-ovate, acute, ser- 

rate ; racemes secund ; styles straight. 
HAB. Sandy woods. June — July. V-. Plant a 
span high; stem assurg. ; Jl. gr. wh. 

*** Flower solitary, terminal. 

6. P. unifiora : leaves orbicular, serrate ; scape 1 

flowered ; style straight. 
HAB. Dry woods and sphagnous swamps. July. % , 
Fl. large, red, wh. 

*#** Flowers somewhat umbellate ; styles very short. 

7. P. umbellata : leaves cuneate-lanceolate, acute at 

the base, serrate, uniformly green, scape corymbed. 
HAB. Dry woods. July. U . Stem ascend. ; leav. 

coriac, semperv. ; Jl. purpl. white. 
3. P. macula ta : leaves lanceolate, rounded at the base, 

remotely serrate, discoloured ; scape 2 — 3-flow- 

HAB. Dry woods. July — Aug. If.. Evergreen. :. 

leav. varieg. ; jl. purp. wh., nod. 

290. LEDUM. Labrador tea. Rhododendraceoe. 
I. L. latifoliitm; leaves oblong, replicate on the mar- 


gin, ferruginous-tomentose beneath ; stamens 5, a.> 

long as the corolla. 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps. June. H • A small 

evergreen shrub ; fl. corymb., wh. 
2. L. palustre : leaves linear, revolute on the margin ; 

ferruginous-tomentose beneath; stamens 10, longer 

than the corolla. 
HAB. Borders of mountain lakes. 

291. LEIOPHYLLUM. Rhododendracece. 

L. buxifolium. 

HAB. Pine barrens and high mountains. May. A 

small evergreen shrub, erect; leav. oval, half in. 

long : fl. num. in term, umb., wh. 

292. CLETHRA. Ericece. 

C. alnifolia: leaves cuneate-obovate, acute, coarsely 
serrate, smooth and green on both sides ; racemes 
spiked, simple, bracteate, hoary-tomentose. 

HAB. Swamps. Aug. Shrub 4 — ti ft. high; leav. 
ah. ; fl. wh., sweet-scent. 

293. CASSIA. Wild-pea. Leguminosa . 

1. C. marilandica : nearly smooth ; leaves in G pairs. 

lanceolate-oblong, mucronate ; gland on the petiole 
obovate ; racemes axillary, many-flowered ; legume 
linear, arcuate. 
HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. If.. Stem 2 — 4 ft. 
high; fl. yellow, in large oxill. racem. 

2. C. Chamazcrista : smoothish ; leaves in many pairs. 

linear, with the gland on the petiole subpedicellate ; 
buds 2 — 3-flowered ; 2 of the petals spotted ; le- 
gume pubescent. 
HAB. Sandy fields. June— May. 0. Afoot high, 
leav. somewhat sensitive ; fl. yellow, in bract, fas 
: base of 3 pet. spotted. 
'>. C. nictitans : stem spreading, pubescent; leaves in 
many pairs, linear ; gland on the petiole pedicel- 
late ; peduncles fasciculate, few-flowered : flower* 
pentandrous ; stamens equal. 


HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. ©. Afoot high, slend. . 
fl. very small, axill. 
4. C. fasciculata : nearly smooth ; leaves at the sum- 
mit in 9 pairs ; gland sessile near the middle of the 
petiole ; fascicles lateral, many-flowered ; petals 
and stamens of the same colour ; legume smooth. 
HAB. Dry fields. June — Aug. ©. Fl. smaller 
than No. 2 ; leg. curved. 

294. BAPTISIA. Wild Indigo. Leguminoscc. 

B. iinctoria: very smooth, much branched ; leaves 
ternate, subsessile ; leaflets rounded-obovate ; 
racemes terminal, (flowers yellow ;) legume on a 
long stipe. 

HAB. Sandy woods. July.— Sept. U . Stem 2— 
3 ft. high, much branch. Dries black. 

295. CERCIS. Judas' tree. Leguminosce. 

C. canadensis: leaves roundish-cordate, acuminate, 
villous at the axils of the nerves ; legumes on 
short footstalks. 

HAB. Woods. April. A small tree ; leav. alt., large : 
/?. red, in small lat.fascic, prcecoc. ; leg. compress. 


296. HYDRANGEA. Saxifragece. 

1. H. vulgaris: leaves oblong-ovate, smooth beneath. 

obtuse at the base, acuminate, dentate ; cymes 
HAB. Shady rocks. July. Shrub 3—6 ft. high : 
leav. oppos. ; fl. wh. 

2, H. radiata: leaves ovate, acuminate, serrate, to- 

mentose and white beneath ; cvmes radiate. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. July. Shrub 6 ft. high : ext. 
fl. of the cymes large, vsh. neut. 

297. SAXIFRAGA. Saxifrage. Saxifragece. 

K S. virginica: pubescent; leaves oval, obtuse, cre- 
nate, narrowed at the base into a petiole ; stem 
nearly leafless, corymbose-paniculate ; flowers sub- 


sessile; petals oval, with branched nerves; cap- 
sule half inferior. 
HAB. Rocks and hills. April— May. U . Stem 
succul., 3 — 12 in. high ; leav. thick ; fl. wh. 
I. S. pennsylvanica : pubescent, leaves oblong-lance- 
olate, acute at each extremity, obsoletely denticu- 
late ; stem naked ; panicle oblong ; flowers fascicu- 
late ; petals linear, longer than the calyx ; capsule- 
HAB. Swamps. May — June. U. Leav. rad. y 5 — 
8 in. long; scape 1£ — 2 ft. high; pet. yell, green. 

►98; CHRYSOSPLENIUM. Golden Saxifrage. Saxi- 

C. oppositifolium : leaves opposite, roundish-cordate. 
HAB. Wet places. April— May. U- PL succul., 
yell. gr. y dichot. ; fl. sess., 8-an. 

299. TIARELLA. Saxifragece. 

T. cordifolia: leaves cordate, acutely lobed, den- 
tate ; teeth mucronato ; scape racemed. 

HAB. Rocky hills. May. lj. . Leav. rad., pubes. ; 
fl. in a simp, racem., wh. 

300. MITELLA. False Sanicle. Saxifragece. 

. M. diphylla : leaves somewhat lobed, with the lobes 
acute and dentate ; stern erect, with two opposite 
leaves above the middle. 
HAB. Banks of creeks. May. U. Jl foot high, 
simp, slend. ; racem. simp. ; fl. wh. 

'. M. cordifolia: leaves orbicular-reuifnrm, doubly - 
cren ate, with scattered hairs above ; scape erect 
or prostrate, naked, or with a single leaf. 
HAB. Moist rocks. June. If.. Stem, slend. with 
creeping stolons ; fl. few, wh. 

501. SAPONARIA. Soap-wort. CaryophylUn . 

3. officinalis: leaves ovate-lanceolate; calyx cylin- 

dric, smooth. 
HAB. Watte places, <^c. June — Sept. U. Stem 
. high, scab.; fl. large, rose-col. 


302. DIANTHUS. Pink. Caryophyllece. 

D. Armeria: flowers aggregate 5 fasciculate; scales 
of the calyx lanceolate, villous as long as the tube. 

HAB. Sandy soils. July. 0. Afoothigh,pubcs.: 
leav. lin. Ian. ; fl. red, punct. § ? 

302. SCLERANTHUS. Knawel. CaryophyUea. 

S. annuus: calyx of the fruit spreading, acute ; stem 

HAB. Sandy fields. July. ©. Stem num.; pro- 

cumb ; fl. in axill.fasc, inconspic. §. 


304. CUCUBALUS. Campion. Caryophollecc. 

1 . C. Behen : smooth and glaucous, decumbent ; leaves 

oblong-oval, acute, nerveless ;- calyx membrana- 
ceous, with reticulated veins. 
HAB. Rocky hills. July. y. . Stem 18 in. high, 
panic. ; fl. large, nod. ; pet. wh. 

2. C. niveus : stem divaricate and dichotomous above ; 

leaves oblong-lanceolate, minutely and pulveru- 
lently pubescent ; the uppermost ovate ; calyx ob- 
tuse, campanulate, inflated, subpilose ; petals small, 
reflexed, bifid at the extremity ; claws exserted 
beyond the calyx, nearly naked ; flowers solitary, 
dichotomal, terminal. 
HAB. On an island in the Susquehanna. Fl. re- 
mote, solit. ; pet. wh. 

3. C. stellatus : erect, pubescent; leaves verticillate, 

in fours, oval-lanceolate, long-acuminate. 
HAB. Woods. July— Aug. H. Stem 2— 3 ft. high ; 
pan. term. ; fl. wh. ; cal. not reticul. 

305. SILENE. Catch-fly. CaryophyUea?. 

1. S. pennsyhanica : viscidly-pubescent ; radical leave? 

cuneate ; stem leaves lanceolate ; panicles trichoto- 

mous ; petals slightly emarginate, very obtuse, sub- 


HAB. Rocks and sandy woods. Mav — June. U . 


Stems num., 8 — 12 in. high; ji. in term, trichot. 
panic, purp. 

2. S. virginica: erect or decumbent, viscidly pubes- 

cent ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, scabrous on the 
margin ; panicle dichotomous ; petals bind ; sta- 
mens exserted. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. June. H. A foot high, 
mostly simp. ; jl. few, crimson. 

3. S. antirrhina : leaves lanceolate, minutely ciliate ; 

panicles trichotomous ; calyx ovate ; petals small, 

bifid, stamens included. 
HAB. Hills and rocky banks. June. 0. Stem 

1 — 2 ft. high, slender ; ji. small ; pet. wh. 
1. S. nocturna : flowers spiked, alternate, sessile, se- 

cund ; petals bifid. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. 0. Fl. scss., obov. : pet. wli.. 

bifid, rather large. 

306. STELLARIA. Stitchwort. Caryophyllex. 

1 . S. pubera : pubescent ; stem decumbent ; leaves 
ovate-oblong, sessile, acute, subciliate, somewhat 
undulate, pedicels dichotomal, recurved ; petals 
longer than the catyx. 
HAB. Shady rocks. May— June. H. Stein 6— 
10 in. long ; ji. large, rvh. 
.\ S. media: stem procumbent, with an alternate, pu- 
bescent, lateral line ; leaves ovate, smooth ; petals 
2-parted ; stamens 5 — 10. 
HAB. Cultivated grounds, k.c. 0. Stem weak; 

leav. pctiol. ; pedun. \-fl. 
J. limgifolia : very smooth ; stem erect, quadran- 
gular, weak ; leaves linear-lanceolate ; panicle ter- 
minal ; peduncles divaricate, very long, bracteate ; 
petals broad-obovate, 2-parted, longer than the 
acute 3-nerved calyx ; styles 3 — \. 
HAB. Wet places. June. U. Stem 1 //. high, 
dichot., leav. Ij — 2 in, long ; pan. loose. 
I. P. lanceolata : very smooth, procumbent or ascend- 
ing; leaves lanceolate, acute at each end ; petals 
about as long as the calyx ; stigmas mostly 4, or 
HAB. Mountain bogs. June. U. Stcmdi(r.,6- 


8 in. long, fl. axill. and term., sometimes apet. : 
stam. 8 — 10. 

307. ARENARIA. Sandwort. Caryophyllece. 

* Leaves without stipules at the base. 

1. A. peploides : stem dichotomous; leaves ovate, 
acute, fleshy ; calyx obtuse. 
HAH. Sea-coast. July. U . Stem decumb.; 8—12 
in. long, thick ; fl. subsol. axill. 
1. A. lateriflora: stem filiform, simple or branched, 
pubescent ; leaves ovate, subtriply nerved ; pedun- 
cle lateral, solitarj r , elongated, bifid ; one of the 
pedicels with 2 opposite bracts near the middle ; 
corolla longer than the calyx. 
HAB. Bog meadows. June. U . Stem 5 — 8 in. 
high ; leav. sess., pale gr., punct. 
i. A. serpyllifolia : stem dichotomous, diffuse ; leaves 
ovate, acute, subciliate ; calyx hairy ; exterior 
leaflets 5-ribbed. 
HAB. Sandy fields. May— July. © . Stem 3— B 
in. high ; leav. minute, approx. 
1. A. squarrosa : cespitose ; inferior leaves squarrose- 
imbricate, canaliculate pungent ; stem simple, few- 
leaved ; flowers few, terminal, erect ; petals much 
longer than the roundish calyx. 
HAB. Pine barrens. May — Aug. U. Stem num.. 
G in. long ; leav. crowd. ; fl. large. 
>. A. glabra : very smooth ; stems numerous, erect, 
filiform ; leaves subulate-linear, flat, spreading ; 
pedicels 1 -flowered, elongated, divaricate ; leaflets 
of the calyx oval, obtuse, smooth, shorter than the 
HAB. Mountains. June. II. Stem 4 — 6 in. high; 
leav. remote; ped. trichot. 
;. A. stricta: smooth; stems numerous, filiform, sim- 
ple ; leaves subulate-linear, subfasciculate, spread- 
ing ; leaflets of the calyx ovate, acute, conspicu- 
ously 3-nerved, half as long as the petals. 
HAB. Mountains. May— June. U. Stems 6— 12 
in, high; leav. rather rigid. 


* Leaves with stipules at the base. 

7. A. rubra : stems prostrate ; leaves narrow-Uneai 
acute, flat, somewhat fleshy, mucronate ; stipule- 
sheathing, ovate, cleft ; capsule as long as the ca- 
lyx ; seeds compressed, angular, roundish. 

HAB. Sandy fields. 0. Smooth, spreading; cal 
viscid-jmbes. ; fl. red; stam 5 — 10. 

3. marina : leaves cylindrical, fleshy, unarmed. 

HAB. Salt marshes. May— Nov. $. Stem 
smooth ; fi. dark rose-col. ; seed compr. 


308. SPERGULA. Spurrey. Caryophyllem. 

1, S. arvensis: leaves verticillate : panicle dichoto 

mous ; peduncles of the fruit reflexed. 
HAB. Sandy fields. June— Aug. 0. Stem 6—10 
in. high; leav.Jilif., 8 — 10 zuhorled. §. 

2. S. saginoides : glabrous ; leaves opposite, subulate 

awnless ; peduncles solitary, very long, smooth. 
1IAB. Sandy fields. July. 0. Stem spread., 2— 
3 in. long; ped. axill. and term. 

*09. CERAST1UM. Mouse-ear Chickweed. Caryo 


* Petals not exceeding the calyx in length. 

• . C. vulgatum: hairy and viscid, cespitose, suberect , 
leaves ovate ; flowers capitate, longer than their 
HAB. Fields and dry hills. May— Sept. 0. Plan, 
pale green, viscid -when young. §. 
I. C. viscosum : hairy and viscid, spreading; leavo 
oblong-lanceolate ; flowers somewhat panicled. 
shorter than their pedicels. 
HAB. Fields and road sides. May — Sept. U 

Darker green, spreading, rarely vise. 
C. semidecandrum : hairy and viscid, suberect, 
'eaves oblong-ovate ; flowers somewhat panicle^ 


shorter than their panicles ; stamens 5 ; petal? 

slightly notched. 
HAB. Dry hills. ©. Stems num., assurg. ; pet. often 

shorter than cal. 
!. C. hirsutum: very hairy, diffuse; leaves obtuse 5 

connate ; flowers clustered ; petals 2-cleft, a little 

longer than the acute calyx. 
HAB. New-Yprk, &c. 0. Leav. sub ovate, half 'in. 

long ; fi. in dense dust. 

* Petals longer than the calyx. 

o. C. nutans: viscid and elongated; stems erect, 

straight, deeply striate ; leaves elongated, distant, 
' linear-oblong, acute ; petals oblong, bifid at the 

tip, longer than the calyx ; peduncles at length 

much longer than the flowers. 
HAB. Rocky hills. June. 0., Pale green, 8— 12 

in. high, very vise. ; pan. loose, term. 

0. C. oblongifolium: cespitose, pubescent ; stem erect 5 

terete, even ; leaves lanceolate-oblong, rathei 
acute, shorter than the joints; flowers terminal, 
shorter than the pedicels ; petals obovate, bifid at 
the tip ; twice the length of the calyx. 

HAB. Mountains. June. %. Stem 8 in. high, re- 
irors. pubes. ; ped. bract. ,fi. large. 
7. C. tenuifolium: pubescent, cespitose; leaves nar- 
row-linear, longer than the internodes ; stems 
short, 3-flowered at the summit ; petals obovate. 
emarginate, 3 times as long as the calyx. 

HAB. Mountains. June. U . A span high ; leav. 
long, I line broad : pedunc. elong. 

310. AGROSTEMMA. Corn-cockle. Caryophyllca . 
A. Githago : hairy ; calyx much longer than the 

corolla ; petals entire, without a crown. 
HAB. Corn-fields. June— July. ©. Plant pale 
green, % ft. high ; fl. large, purp. 

311. OXAL1S. Wood-sorrel. Oxalidcce. 

* Skinless. 

1, 0. Acctosdla : stemless ; scape 1-flowered, longer 


than the leaves ; leaves termite, dilated-obcor- 
date, pilose ; styles as long as the interior sta- 
mens ; root dentate. 
HAB. Mountains. June. U . Leav. often purple 
beneath ; fl. large, wh. veined. 

2. O. violacea : stemless ; scape umbelliferous ; flowers 

nodding ; leaves ternate, obcordate, smooth ; seg- 
ments of the calyx callous at the tip ; styles shorter 
than the exterior stamens ; root squamose. 
HAB. Rocky woods. April — June. U . Rout thick, 
with ciliale scales ; fl. violet. 

** Caulescent. 

3. O. corniculata : pubescent ; stem prostrate ; leaves 

termite, obcordate ; umbels as long as the petioles ; 
petals obovate ; slightly emarginate ; styles as long 
as the interior stamens. 
HAB. Cultivated grounds, &c. May — Sept. ©. 
Stem 6 — 8 in. long ; fl. sin., yell. 

4. 0. stricta: hairy; stem erect, branched; leaves 

ternate, obcordate ; umbels longer than the peti- 
oles ; petals obovate, entire ; styles as long as the 
interior stamens. 
HAB. Sandy fields. May— Aug. U.? Stem 4— 
10 in. high, never creeping ; fl. sm., yell. 

)\2. PENTHORUM. Virginia Stone-crop. Semper- 


P. sedoides : stem branched, angular above ; leaves 
lanceolate, subsessile, unequally serrate ; spikes 
simple, secund, recurved, paniculate ; seeds ellip- 

HAB. Wet places. July— Aug. y. . Stem 12—18 
in. high ; leav. alt. ; pet. mostly 0. 

313. SEDUM. Stone-crop. Sempervh 

\. S te malum : creeping; leaves flat, rounded-spathu- 
late, ternate ; cymes mostly 3-spiked ; terminal 
flowen decandrous ; the rest octandrous. 
B. On rocks. May. H • Stem 4— 6 IN 
''ire : fl. wh. ; anth. dark. 


2. telephioides : leaves broad, flat, ovate, acute a? 

each end ; corymbs many-flowered. 
HAB. Rocky hills. U . Afoot high, leafy, pur 

plish ; fl. pale purp. 


314. PHYTOLACCA. Poke. Atriplices. 

P. decandra : leaves ovate, acute at each end; flow- 
ers with 10 stamens and 10 styles. 

HAB. Waste places. June— Oct. U . Smooth 
4— Qft. high, purp. ; fl. racem. wh. ; her. purp, 


• lb. CACTUS. Cal. superior, many-cleft; segments 
imbricate. Pet. numerous, inserted in several 
series ; the interior ones larger. Stig. many- 
cleft. Berry 1-celled, many-seeded. 

•H6. PRUNUS. Cal. inferior, campanulate, 5-cleft, 
deciduous. Pet. 5. Drupe even. jVirt with a 
prominent suture. 

Ml. LYTHRUM. Cal. tubular-campanulate, 6—12- 
toothed. Pet. 6, equal, inserted upon the calyx, 
Caps. 2 — 4-celled, many-seeded. 

$18. CUPHEA. Cal. ventricose, tubular, 6—1 2-tooth- 
ed, unequal. Pet. 6, unequal, inserted into the 
calyx. Caps, with the calyx bursting longitudi- 
nally, 1-celled. 


319. AGR1MONIA. Cal. inferior, 5-cleft, with a lobeti 

calicle at its base. Pet. 5. St am. 12. Achen. 

2, in the bottom of the calyx. 
.",20. CRATAEGUS. Cal. superior, 5-cleft. Pet. 5. 

Styles 1 — 5. Fruit pulpy, closed, with from 2 — 

5 1 -seeded nuts. 
SORBUS. Cal. 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Styles 2 or 3- 

Berry inferior, farinaceous, with 3 cartilaginous 



, SESUVIUM. Cal. 5-parted, coloured. Pet. 0. 
Cups, superior, ovate, 3-celled, opening trans- 
versely all round, many-seeded. 

323. ARONIA. Cal. 5-toothed. Pet. 5. Berry infe- 

rior, 5 — 10-celled; cells I — 2-seeded. Seeds 

324. PYRUS. Cal. 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Apple inferior, 

large and fleshy, 5-celled, many-seeded. Seeds 
SPIRAEA. Cal. inferior, 5 cleft, expanding. Pet. 
5, equal, roundish. Starn. numerous, exserted. 
Caps, numerous, (3 — 12.) 1 -celled, 2-vaived. 
each 1 — 3 seeded. 
.?26. G1LLENIA. Cal. tubular-campanulate ; border 
5-toothed. Cor. partly unequal. Pet. 5, lanceo- 
late, attenuate at. the base. Stain, few, included. 
Styles 5. Caps, 5. connate at the base, opening 
on the inner side, each 2-seeded. 


327. ROSA. Cal. urceolale, fleshy, contracted at the 

orifice ; border 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Seeds nume- 
rous, hispid, attached to the interior side of thr 

328. RUBUS. Cal. 5-cleft, inferior. Pet. 5. Fruit 

composed of many 1 -seeded j'licy acines, on a 
dry receptacle. 
DALIBARDA. Cal. inferior, 8-cleft, spreading. 
Styles 5 — 3, long and deciduous. Seeds dry. 
130. DRY AS. Cal. 8—1 0-cleft, segments equal. Seeds 
5 — 8, with Ions; plumose awns. 
I. GEUM. Cal. 1 0-cleft, inferior ; the alternate 

ments smaller. Pet. 5. Seeds nwned, with the 
awn naked or bearded, mostly geniculate. 
POTENTILLA. Cal. flat, 10-cleft, (rarely 3 or 
12-cleft;) segments alternately smaller. Pet. 5. 
!y 4.) Seed* or acines subovate ; mostly 
rugose, immerged in a common receptacle, which 
is juiceless or Bpongy, more or less hemi- 
I RAGRAR1A. Cat. 10-cleft. Pet, 5. &cin*% 
R 2 


naked, fixed on a large, pulpy, deciduous recep- 
534. CALYCANTHUS. Cal. urceolate, many-cleft 
above ; segments squarrose, coloured, petaloid. 
Cor. 0. Styles numerous. Seech numerous, naked, 
smooth, included in a ventricose, succulent calyx, 



315. CACTUS. Indian Fig, &c. Cacti. 

C. Opuntia: articulately proliferous; articulation^ 
compressed, ovate ; spines setaceous ; fruit suc- 
culent, smooth. 

HAB. Rocks and Sandy fields. June — July. U 
Procumb., leafl., fleshy ; fl. yell. 

316. PRUNUS. Plum and Cherry. Rosacea.'. 

* Floivers racemose. 

i. P. virginiana: racemes erect, elongated ; leaves de- 
ciduous, oval-oblong, acuminate, shining above, 
serrate, smooth on both sides ; petioles with 2 — 4 
HAB. Woods. May. A large tree ; racem. simp. ; 
fl. Teh. ; drupe black. 

2. P. serotina : racemes loose, at length pendulous ; 

leaves deciduous, ovate, with a short acuminatum, 
doubly and very acutely serrate ; midrib bearded 
on each side towards the base ; petiole with 2 
HAB. Woods. May. A small tree ; leav. thin 
drupe red. 

3. P. canadensis: flowers in racemes; leaves decidu- 

ous, without glands, broad-lanceolate, rugose, pu- 
bescent on both sides. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. Branch smooth ; leav. without 
glands ; base atten. +. 

* Peduncles subumbellate or solitary. 

4. P. pennsylvanica : flowers subcorymbed : pedicel? 


elongated ; leaves ovate-oblong, acuminate, erosely 
denticulate, smooth ; petioles with 2 glands ; 
branches punctate ; fruit subovate. 
HAB. Mountains. June. A small tree ; leav. memb. ; 
corymb. 6 — &-JI. ; drupe red. 
>. P. nigra: umbels sessile, solitary, few-flowered; 
leaves deciduous, ovate, acuminate, unequally and 
acutely serrate ; smooth on both sides ; petioles 
with 2 glands. 
HAB. Mountains. June. Shrub 6 — 8 ft. high; 
branch, red; ped., smooth, short. 
& 4 P. pygnum : umbels sessile, few-flowered ; leaves 
ovate, acute, smooth on each side, acutely serrate, 
with 2 glands at the base. 
HAB. New-England, &c. Shrub 3—4 ft. high; 
fruit small, black, indifferent. 
7. P. pubescens : leaves sessile, aggregated, few-flow- 
ered ; peduncles and calyx pubescent ; leaves short- 
oval, serrulate ; drupe spherical. 
HAB. Sandy shores and hill sides. May. Shrub 2— 
3 ft. high ; fruit br. purp.,glauc. 
3. P. pumila : umbels aggregated, sessile, few-flow- 
ered ; calyx acute ; branches virgate, terete ; 
leaves narrow-lanceolate, serrate above, pale be- 
HAB. Banks of rivers. May. Shrub 2—3 ft. high : 
leav. long ; fruit red, acid. 
». P. depressa : umbels sessile, aggregated, few-flow- 
ered ; calyx obtuse ; branches angular, depressed- 
prostrate ; leaves cuneate-lanceolate, remotely ser 
rate, smooth, glaucous beneath. 
HAB. Sandy shores. A shrub, low, spreading ; fr. 
small, black, agreeable. 
10. P. maritima : peduncles subsolitary ; leaves ovate 
oblong, acuminate, doubly serrate. 
HAB. Sea-coast. Fruit large, dark pnrp, 
P. mollis: younger branches, leaves and peduncles 
pubescent; umbels sessile, 2 — 3-llowered ; leaves 
ovate, long-acuminate, doubly dentate-serrate : 
Bttpolei setaceous, denticulate ; calyx nearly 
smooth ; segments linear-lanceolate, serrate. 
HAB. Woods. A small tree; leav. 2—3 in. 
fr. oval, large, nearly black. 


317. LYTHRUM. Loose-strife. Salicaria. 

% Calyx subcampanulate, 10-loothed ; capsuled — 4- 
celled. Decodon. 

I. L. verticillatum : pubescent; leaves opposite and 
ternate, lanceolate, petiolate ; flowers axillary, ver- 
ticillate, decandrous ; petals undulate ; fruit sub- 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. U. Stem 2 ft. high, 6- 
ang. ; fl. in axill. corymbs, purp. 

** Calyx tubular, capsule 2-celled. 

%. L. Salicaria. /3. pubescens : pubescent ; leaves op- 
posite and ternate, sessile, lanceolate, cordate at 
the base ; flowers with 12 stamens, terminal, ver- 
ticillate-spiked ; capsule oblong. 
HAB. Wet meadows. V-. About 2 ft. high;fl. 
purp., very showy, -f-, 

3. L. hyssopifoliv.m: leaves alternate and opposite, li- 
near-lanceolate and subelliptic ; flowers axillary., 
IJAB. New- York. V-. Stem mostly simp., quad- 
rang., submargined ; fl. pale purp. 

318. CUPHEA. Salicarm. 

O. viscosissima : viscous ; leaves opposite, petiolate. 
ovate-oblong; flowers lateral, solitary, on short pe- 
duncles ; stamens 12. 

MAB. Fields and mountains. Sept. 0. Stem 12— 
1 8 in. high, pubes. ; fl. purp. 


319. AGRIMONIA. Agrimony. Rosacea 1 .. 

\. Evpatoria: hairy; cauline leaves interruptedly 
pinnate : leaflets ovate, with the terminal one pe- 
tiolate, acutely dentate, smoothish ; spike virgate ; 
petals twice as long as the calyx : fruit turbinate. 
hispid, smooth at the base. 


HAB. Woods and hedges. June — Aug. U . Stem 
2 ft. high, simp. ; fl. small, yellow. 

/3. hirsute : whole plant very hairy. 

A. parviflora: hairy; leaves interruptedly pinnate, 
with the terminal one sessile ; leaflets numerous, 
mostly linear-lanceolate, incisely serrate ; spike 
virgate ; flowers on very short pedicels ; petals 
one and a half the length of the calyx ; fruit round 
ish, divaricately hispid. 

HAB. Woods. Aug. U . Fl. small, yellow. 

320. CRATAEGUS. Hawthorn. Rosacea. 

C. coccinea: thorny ; leaves on long petioles, ovate, 
subcordate, acutely lobed and serrate, petioles 
and the pubescent calyx glandular ; flowers pen- 

HAB. Woods. May. A large shrub; spines long; 
fl. corymb., wh. ; fr. red, edible. 

C. cordata : thorny ; leaves cordate- ovate, pinnati- 
fid, lobed and angled, smooth ; petioles and calyx 
without glands ; flowers pentagynous. 
HAB. Hedge rows and river hanks. A large shrub ; 
corymbs, comp. ; fr. red, glob. 

C. pyrifolia : thorny or unarmed ; leaves ovate- 
elliptic, incisely serrate, somewhat plicate and 
hairy ; calyx villous ; segments linear-lanceolate, 
serrate, flowers trigynous. 

HAB. Rocky woods, kc. June. Tj. Leav. large, 
sublob. ; pedunc. and cal. toment 

C. elliptica : thorny ; leaves elliptical, unequally 
serrale, smooth ; petioles and calyx glandular ; 
fruit globose, 6-seeded. 

HAB. Copses and dry swamps. 
. C. glanduloium : thorny; leaves obovate-cunei- 
form, smooth and shining; petioles, stipules and 
calyx glandular ; fruit oval, 6-seeded. 

HAB. Mountains. May. T 2 . Fruit jniddle-sizcd 


. C. parvifuliu : thorny ; leaves ol .ovate, subses«ile. 

deeply and obtusely serrate, lubtomentose ; leaflet- 

of the calyx laciniate ; flowers subsolitary, peot*- 



HAB. Sandy woods. June. Shrub 4 ft. high; 
branch, foment. ; fr. large, yellow. 
7. C. punctata: thorny or unarmed ; leaves obovate- 
cuneate, subplicate, smooth, incisely serrate, de- 
current at the base into a petiole ; calyx villous ; 
segments subulate, very entire ; berries subglo- 
bose, with the summit depressed. 

HAB. Woods and swamps. May. A small tree; 
veins of the leav. hairy ; fr. yellow or red. 
3. C. Cms galli : thorny ; leaves obovate-cuneiform. 
subsessile, shining, coriaceous ; corymbs com- 
pound ; segments of the calyx lanceolate, serrate : 
flowers digynous. 

HAB. Woods, &,c. June. A small tree, with long 
spines ; style often solit. ; fr. red. 

321. SORBUS. Service-tree. Rosacece. 

1. S. americana : leaves pinnate ; leaves somewhat 

equally serrate, and with the common petiole very 
HAB Mountains. May. A large shrub; leafl. 7 
pairs ; corymbs term. ; fr.fulv. 

2. S. microcarpa : leaves pinnate ; leaflets acuminate, 

acutely and incisely serrate, and with the common 
petiole smooth ; serratures setaceously mucronate. 
HAB. High mountains. A large shrub ; young branch, 
glossy : fr. sm. scarlet. 

322. SESUVIUM. Ficoidece. 

S. sessile : flowers sessile ; leaves linear-oblong, flat. 
HAB. Sea-coast. Succul. ; leav. oppos. ; fl. axill... 
solit., rosaceous. 

323. ARONIA. Rosacece. 

J. A. arbutifolia : unarmed; leaves ovate-oblong, 
acute, crenulately serrulate, tomentose beneath ; 
flowers in corymbs ; calyx tomentose. 
HAB. Low thickets. May. Shrub 2—4 ft. high : 

fruit scarlet, sweetish and astring. 
<3. melanocarpa : leaves beneath, and the calyx 
smooth :. fruit black. 


HAB. Mountains ; rarely in bogs. Leav. narrower; 
fruit black. 

2, A. Botryapium : unarmed; leaves cordate, oval, 

conspicuously acuminate, glabrous when mature ; 
flowers in racemes ; petals linear-lanceolate. 
HAB. Low woods. May. A small tree; young 
leav. silky ; Jr. purp., eatable. 

3. A. ovalis : unarmed; leaves roundish-elliptical) 

acute, smooth ; flowers in racemes ; petals obo- 
vate ; germens and segments of the calyx pu- 
HAB. Swamps. A small shrub ; her. black and eat- 

324. PYRUS. Apple and Pear. Rosacea:. 

l v . P. coronaria: leaves broadly-oval, round at the 
base, somewhat angular, serrate, smooth ; pedun- 
cles racemose. 

HAB. Woods. May. A small tree ; fl. large, frag. : 
fr. yell., depress., acid. 
I. P. angustifolia : leaves lanceolate-oblong, acute at 
the base, slightly crenate-dentate, shining ; pedun- 
cles corymbose. 

IIAB. Pennsylvania. May. A small tree; leav. 
andfr. smaller than No. 1. 

325. SPIRES A. Meadow-sweet. Rosacea;. 

* Frutescent. 

I. S. salicifolia : leaves lanceolate, acutely serrate, 
smooth ; racemes terminal, compound, panicled . 
flowers pentagynous. 
HAB. Wet meadows. July. Stem 2—4 ft. high ; 
leav. obluse or acute ; fl. uh. 
i. S. tomentosa: leaves ovate-lanceolate, unequall} 
serrate, toraentose beneath ; raceme* terminal, 
compound, crowded ; flowers pentagynous. 
HAD. Low grounds. July — Aug. Suffrut. 2 — 3 ft. 
high ; racem. elong. ; fl. purp. 
, S. hypcricifolia : leaves obovate, very entire, or 
(lontatc at the summit, smooth ; umbels sessile. 
HAB. Ory swamps. May. Shrub 3 ft. high ; I 
nd : fl. num., wh. 


1. S. corymbosa : leaves oblong-obovate, incisely-deh 
tate ; pubescent beneath ; corymb terminal, pe- 
dunculate, compound, fastigiate, somewhat leafy : 
flowers pentag\nous. 
HAB. Mountains. Syffrut. 18 in. high; corymb, 
many-fl., wh. or rose-col. 
•». S. crenata : leaves obovate, acute, toothed at the 
summit, 3-nerved ; corymbs crowded, pedunculate. 
HAB. New-York. -)-. 
G. S. opulifolia: leaves ovate, lobed, doubly toothed 
and crenate, smooth ; corymbs terminal, with the 
flowers crowded and trigynous ; capsules inflated. 
HAB. Rocky banks. June— July. Shrub 3—5 ft. 
high ; corymb simp. ; fi. wh. j 

* Herbaceous. 

'k. S. aruncus. /3. americana: leaves twice or thrice 
pinnate, shining ; spikes slender, in an oblong pani- 
cle ; flowers trigynous, perfect. 
HAB. Mountains. June. U. Stem 4— 6 ft. high ; 
fi. wh. 

8. S. lobata : leaves pinnate, smooth; terminal leaflet 
much larger and 7-lobed ; lateral leaflets 3-lobed ; 
corymbs proliferous. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. June. U. Leafl. subpalm. 
lobed ; fi. rose-col., 3 — 5-gyn. 

326. GILLENIA. Rosacea. 

L G. trifoliata : leaves ternate, lanceolate, serrate r 

stipules linear, entire ; flowers in terminal loose 

HAB. Rocky hills. June. lj. . Stem 2 ft. high, 

red; fi. large, wh. ; pet. elong. 
I. G. stipulacea : radical leaves pinnatifid ; stem leaves 

ternate ; leaflets incisely-serrate ; stipules folia- 

ceous, ovate, incisely dentate ; flowers in loose 

terminal panicles. 
HAB. Mountains. \ . Stem 2—3 ft. high, red , 

slip, very large ; fl. wh. 



327. ROSA. Rose. Rosacea. 

J. R. parviflora : fruit depressed-globose, and 

the peduncles hispid ; petioles pubescent, some 
what prickly ; stem smooth ; stipular prickles 
straight ; leaflets elliptical-lanceolate, simply ser 
rate, smooth when mature ; flowers mostly by 
HAB. Woods and copses. June — July. Shrub 3 fi. 
high ; fl. large red. 
2. R. nitida : fruit subglobose ; calyx, peduncles, and 
branches hispid ; petioles somewhat hairy, un 
armed ; leaflets (7) oblong-lanceolate, onbothsidp* 
smooth and shining. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. -{-. 
: . R. lucida : fruit depressed-globose, and with the pe 
duncles somewhat hispid ; petioles smooth, a little 
prickly ; stem smooth ; stipular prickles straight : 
leaflets ovate-lanceolate, rather obtuse, coarsely 
serrate, smooth and shining; flowers generally bj 
pairs ; segments of the calyx entire. 
II AB. Mountain bogs. July. Shrub oft. high ; fl 
large, red. 
. R. gcmclla: fruit depressed-globose, and with th< 
peduncles glabrous ; flowers mostly by pairs, leaf- 
lets oblong, acute, opaque; petioles and under sur 
face of the veins pubescent ; stipular prickles unci- 
nate, by pairs. 
HAB. Dry hills. June. A tow shrub ;jl. lawge, reu 
». R. Carolina: fruit globose, and, with the peduncles 
somewhat hispid ; petioles hairy, somewhat prickly 
m smooth ; prickles uncinate ; leaflets (5 — 7: 
long-lanceolate, acute, sharply senate, glaucou- 
beneath ; flowers in corymbs. 

iwamps and wet thickets. June— July 
ub 3—8 ft. high; prickles strong; corymbs 5— 
\-f. ; pet. obovate, large. 
]». rubiginosa : fruit ovate; peduncle- and petioles 
qlandular-hi?pid ; stem smooth : branches anfl 


prickles recurved ; leaflets oblong, opaque, pubes 
cent above, ferruginous and glandular beneath. 
HAB. Hedges, &c. Shrub slend., climb. ; leaf,. 5 — 
7, sweet-scent. ; Jl. pale red. 

328. RUBUS. Bramble. Rosacea. 
* Frutescent. 

1. R. Idams: leaves pinnate ; leaflets 3 — 5, rhombic 

ovate, acuminate, white and very downy beneath ; 
petioles canaliculate ; stem nearly erect, prickly. 
HAB. Borders of lakes. 

2. R. villosus : pubescent, hispid and prickly; stem 

angular ; leaflets in fives, .digitate, elliptical, acumi- 
nate, serrate, pubescent on both sides ; calyx short- 
acuminate ; racemes loose, naked ; pedicels solitary. 

HAB. Fields and hedges. June. Shrub 4 — 6 ft. 
high ; fl. wk. ; jr. large, blk. 

(8. frondoms: pubescence simple; racemes leafy 
few-flowered ; the upper flowers opening first : 
petals orbicular-ovate, approximate. 

HAB. Road -sides. Fl. larger. 
\ R. strigosus : unarmed; strongly hispid ; leaflets i> 
threes, or pinnate in fives, oval, obtuse at the 
base, marked with lines,, and whitish-downy be- 
neath : the terminal one often subcordate ; pedun- 
cles and calyx hispid. 

HAB, Rocky hills. May. Shrub vpright ; racemt 
fezv-fl. ; fr. red, agreeable. 
1. R. cuncifolius: branches, petioles, and peduncle.' 
pubescent ; stem erect ; slightly angular ; leaflet? 
ternate, cuneate-obovate, entire at the base, sub- 
plicate, tomentose beneath ; racemes loose ; pedi- 
cels solitary, 1 -flowered. 

HAB. Sandy fields and woods. June. Shrub 2 ft. 
high ; fr. black, ovate, agreeable. 
5. R. canadensis: smoothish ; leaves digitate, in fives 
and threes ; leaflets rhombic-lanceolate, naked on 
both sides, acutely serrate ; stem unarmed, with 
lanceolate bracts ; pedicels elongated, 1 — 3-flow 
ered ; calyx 5 — 7-clefl. 

HAB. Sandy woods and swamps. June. Stem sar- 


ment., procAimb. or reclin. ; leaf., thin; pet. short; 
fr. dark red. 

6. R. occidental : branches and petioles glaucous and 

aculeate ; leaves ternate ; leaflets ovate-acuminate, 
somewhat lobed, coarsely serrate, hoary tomen- 
tose beneath ; petioles terete ; racemes terminal. 
HAB. Rocky places. May — Aug. Sterns long, si end. ; 
racem. long ; fr. black, round. 

7. R. hispidus: sarmentose-procumbent ; stems, peti- 

oles and peduncles very hispid with rigid bristles ; 
leaves ternate ; leaflets incisely serrate, naked ; 
the intermediate one pedicellate. 

HAB. Pennsylvania. June. 
3. R. trivialis :" sarmentose-procumbent; petioles and 
peduncles aculeate-hispid, with the prickles re- 
curved ; stipules subulate ; leaves ternate and qui- 
nate oval, acute, unequally serrate ; pedicels soli- 
tary, elongated. 

HAB. Stony fields. May — June. Stems long ; leav . 
subscmperv. ; fr. large, black. 
.'•. R. odoratus: unarmed, erect, viscidly pubescent: 
leaves simple, acute, 3— 5-lobed ; corymbs termi- 
nal, divaricate ; calyx appendiculate ; petals nearly 

HAB. Rocky places. June. Shrub 3—4 ft. high.: 
fl. large, purp. ; fr. yellow, large. 

** Somewhat herbaceous. 

10. R. saxatilis /3. canadensis: herbaceous, pubescent .; 
stems creeping; leaves ternate ; leaflets rhombic, 
acute, incisely dentate, naked ; the terminal one 
petiolate ; flowers somewhat in threes ; pedicels 

HAB. Mountains. Fruit small, black. 

11. R. obovalis : stem becoming a little woody, hispid 
with stiff hairs ; leaves ternale ; leaflets round- 
obovate, serrate, naked; stipules setaceous; ra- 
cemes subcorymbed, few flowered ; bracts ovate 
pedicels elongated. 

HAB. Mountain swamps. May — July. Fr. with few 
\ black, tweet, 
1? R. ' /-us: herbaceous, small ; stem unarm 


ed, 1-flowered, erect; leaves simple, subreni 
form, with rounded lobes, petals oblong. 

HAB. High mountains. Fl. wh.; Jr. yellow, or 


329. DALIBARDA.* Rosacea?. 

1. D. repens : villous; stolons creeping; leaves sim- 
ple, cordate, crenate ; .peduncles 1 -flowered. 
HAB. Woods and mountains. June. lj. . Scapt 
Jilif. ; Jl. wh. ; pet. ovate. 
•2. D. fragarioides : leaves ternate ; leaflets ovate, in- 
cisely serrate, cuneate at the base ; peduncle? 
HAB. Woods. May. Petiol. 3—4 in, long. ; fl 
small, yellow. 

330. DRYAS. Mountain avens. Rosacea? 

D. integrifolia : leaves elliptical-ovate, entire. 
HAB. High mountains. ij. . Suffrut.; cespit. ; 
sempvir. ; Jl. wh.\ solit. 

331. GEUM. Avens. Rosacea?. 

1 G. strictum : hairy ; leaves all interruptedly pin- 
nate ; the terminal leaflet larger ; leaflets ovate ? 
dentate ; stipules incised ; calyx with 5 alternate 
segments, linear aid short ; flowers erect ; petals 
roundish, a little longer than the segments ; awns 
naked, uncinate. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. %. Stem simp., 2 ft. high- ; 
Jl. large, yellow, dust. 

:?. G. agrimonoides : very hairy; leaves all pinnate, 
leaflets nearly equal, unequally and incisely dent- 
ate ; stipules ovate, nearly entire ; flowers erect ; 
segments of the calyx subequal ; petals oval, a* 
long as the calyx. 
HAB. Rocky banks. U. Fl. wh. Cfr. Poten- 
tilla confertijlora. 

3. G. virginianum : pubescent ; radical and lower cauline 
leaves ternate ; the upper lanceolate ; stipules 
ovate, nearly entire ; flowers erect ; petals shorter 
than the calyx ; awns uncinate, naked, hairy, ant* 
twisted at the summit, 


BAB. Woods and thickets. June— July. H. Stem 
2 ft. high ; fl. pedunc., yell.-wh. 

G. album : pubescent ; radical leaves pinnate ; stem 
leaves ternate, the upper one simple, 3-cleft 5 
lower stipules incised ; flowers erect ; petals as 
long as the calyx ; awns uncinate, naked, hairy at 
the summit. 
HAB. Banks of rivers, &c. June — July. Stem 1ft. 
high ; fl. wh., on short ped. 

G. rivale : pubescent ; stem simple ; radical leaves 
interruptedly pinnate ; cauline ones 3-cleft ; flow- 
ers nodding ; petals as long as the calyx ; awns 
plumose, nearly naked at the summit, minutely 

HAB. Begs. May — June. Stem \\ ft. high ; term, 
leafl. large ; fl. purp. 

G. Peckii : somewhat hairy; slem few-flowered; 
radical leaves reniform ; incisely toothed, and 
somewhat lobed ; petioles elongated, with minute 
leaflets ; petals roundish, longer than the calyx. 

HAB. High mountains. July — Aug. U . A span 
high ; fl. middle sized, yellow. 

332. POTENTILLA. Rosacea. 
* Leaves ternate. 

P. tridentata : assurgent ; stipules subulate ; leaves 
ternate, oblong cuneiform, 3-toothed at the sum- 
mit, smoothish above, pubescent beneath ; corymb 
loose, few-flowered ; petals oblong-obovate, longer 
than the calyx. 

HAB. Mountains. June — July. Cespit., 3 — 6 in. 
high ; leav. coriac. ; fl. wh, 

P. hirsuta : stem erect, simple ; leaves ternate ; 
leaflets roundish, hairy, unequally dentate-serrate ; 
teeth ; petals shorter than the calyx. 

HAB. New-York. July — Aug. ©. Stem purp., 
hairy ; fl. dichot. ; pale ijellozv ; (o,7i.) 

P. norvegica : stem erect, dichotomous above ; 
leaves ternate, petiolatc ; leaflets oblong, acutely 
serrate, with spreading hairs ; pedicels i.mI 1 
petals obovatC; shorter than the calyx. 


HAB. Old fields. June— Aug. 0. Hairy, 8 
high ; stip. large ; Jl. yellow. 

** Leaves digitate. 

P. canadensis: whole plant silky villous ; stem pro 
cumbent and ascending, somewhat branched ; leaves 
quinate-obovate, incisely dentate ; peduncles soli- 
tary, elongated ; segments of the calyx linear-lan- 
ceolate ; petals orbicular, nearly as long as the 

HAB. Fields and woods. April — May. ij. • Stem 
2 — 10 in, high ; Jl. yellow ; receipt, hairy. 
•>. P. simplex : stem sarrnentose ; simple ; leaves qui- 
natc ; leaflets oblong-oval, coarsely serrate, hairy 
beneath ; stipules incised ; peduncles axillary, soli- 
tary, elongated ; petals roundish obcordate, a little 
longer than the. calyx. 

HAB. Fields and woods, Ma}' — Aug. U . Hairy; 

ped. \-Jl; fl. yellow. 
P. argenteo : stem ascending ; leaves quinate ;. leal- 
lets cuneiform, incised, revolute on the margin ; 
white and tomentose beneath ; petals retuse, a little 
longer than the calyx. 

IIAB. Rocks and fields. June— Sept. U- Often 
spi'cading ; leav. gr. above ; Jl. yellow. 

*** Leaves pinnate. 

P. fruticosa: stem fruticose ; leaves pinnaie ; leaf- 
lets oblong-lanceolate, very entire ; petals longer 
than the calyx. 

HAB. Bog meadows. June. A shrub, 2 ft. high , 
much branch. ; Jl. yellow. 
:\ P. Anscrina : stem creeping ; leaves interruptedly 
pinnate ; leaflets numerous, incisely and very 
acutely serrate, silky ; pedicels axillary, solitary, 
as long as the leaves ; stipules many-cleft. 

IIAB. Wet meadows. June. U. Stems long ; leafl 
7 — 10 pairs, wk. beneath ; Jl. yellow. 
9, P. supina : stem decumbent, dichotomous ; leaves 
pinnate ; leaflets oblong, incisely serrate ; pedun 
cles axillary, solitary, 1 -flowered. 

IIAB. Overflowed banks. June— Aug. £>, Ft- 
small j yellow. 


TO. P. palustris : root creeping ; stem ascend;; 

leaves pinnate ; leaflets lanceolate, acutely ser- 
rate ; petals lanceolate, acuminate, much shorter 
than the calyx. 
HAB. Swamps. June. U. Stem 10 in. high, 
pubes. ; leafl. 5—7 ; /. large, dark purp. 

11. P. pennsylvanica : erect, very soft, and somewhat 

whitish villous ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets oblong, 
obtuse, subpinnatifid, woolly ; panicle straight, 
many-flowered ; segments of the calyx snrnioval. 
HAB. Pennsylvania, &c. July — Aug. U. Stems 
num., 18 in. high; Icav. interrupt., pin. 

12. P. conferti flora : viscous and very hairy; stem 

erect, nearly simple ; leaves somewhat interrupt- 
edly pinnate ; leaflets roundish-ovate, doubly and 
incisely dentate, oblique ; stipule* ov;»te, acute, 
entire ; flowers clustered, subsessile ; leaflets oi 
the calyx unequal, oblong, acute ; petals obovate 
longer than the calyx. 
HAD. Rocky hills. June. U- Stem brownish 
pubes., 2 ft. high; fl. ydl.-wh. 

333. FRAGARIA. Strawberry. Rosacecr. 
1\ virginiana : leaflets broad-oval, smoothish above 

the lateral ones distinctly petiolate ; hairs of the 

petiole spreading ; of the peduncles oppressed ; 

fructiferous ; calyx spreading. 
JiAB. Fields and woods. May— June. jj . Stem 

sarment. ; fl. wh. ; jr. red. 

CALYCANTHUS. Carolina Allspice. Rosacea 

C. lorvigatuj: segments of the calyx lance 
leaves oblong or oval, gradually acuminate, some 
what rugose, smooth and green on both side* 
blanches straight, erect. 

HAT.. Mountains. Shrub 4—4 ft. high j lea 
ti large, purp., odor. 


T1LIA, < '«/. inferior, 5-parted. deciduous. 


5. Cap. globose, 5-celled, 5-valved, opening at 
the base ; (by abortion 1 -celled, 1 — 2-seeded.) 

336. HELIANTHEMUM. Cal. 5-leaved; exterior 

leaflets smaller. Pet. 5. Caps, superior, 1- 
celled, 3-valved ; valves septiferous in the mid- 
dle. Seeds angular. 

337. HUDSON I A. Cal. tubular, 5-parted, unequal. 

Pet. 5. Stam. l\5— 30. Caps. 1 -celled, 3-val- 
ved, 1 — 3-seeded. 

338. PORTULACCA. Cal. inferior, bifid. Pet. 5. 

Caps. 1 -celled, opening circularly. Recept. un- 
connected, 5-lobed. 

339. TALINUM. Cal. 2— 5-leaved, inferior. Pet. 5. 

Caps. 1 -celled, 3-valved, many-seeded. Recept. 
globose. Seeds axillate. 

340. CHELIDONIUM. Cal. 2-leaved, deciduous. Pet. 

4. Stig. small, sessile, bifid. Caps, elongated, 
silique-form, 2-valved, 1 -celled, linear. Seeds 
numerous, crested. 

341. MECONOPSIS. Cal. 2-leaved, deciduous. Pet. 

4. Style distinct ; stig. 4 — 6-rayed. Caps, ob- 
long, mostly echinate, 1 -celled, 4 — 6-valved ; 
recept. slender. 

342. ARGEMONE. Cal. 3-leaved, deciduous. Pet, 

4 — 6. Stig. sessile, capitate, 4— 7-rayed. Caps. 
ovate, angular, 1 -celled, opening at the summit 
by valves ; recep. linear. Seeds spherical, scro- 

343. SANGUINARIA. Col. 2-leaved, deciduous. "Pet. 

about 8. Stig. didymous. Caps, oblong, 2- 
valved, 1 -celled, acute at each end; valves de* 
ciduous ; recept. 2, persistent. 

344. PODOPHYLLUM. Col. 3-leaved. Pet. about 

9. Stig. large, crenate, sessile. Caps? 1 -cell 
ed, many-seeded, at length berry-like ; recept.. 
unilateral, large and pulpy. 

345. ACTiEA. Cal. 4-leaved, deciduous. Pet. 4, 

often wanting. Stig. sessile, capitate. Berry 
superior, 1 -celled, many-seeded. Seeds hemi- 

346. SARRACENIA. Cal. double, persistent; exte 

rior smaller, 3-leaved ; interior 5-leaved. Pet 

5, deciduous. Stig. very large, persistent, pel* 


tate, covering the stamens. Caps. 5-ccllcd, 5- 
valved, many-seeded. 
*47, NUPHAR. Cal. 5— 6-leaved. Pet. numerous., 
minute, inserted with the stamens upon the re- 
ceptacle. Stig. disk-form, radiate. ^Pericarp 
berry-like, many-celled, many-seeded. 
NYMPHjEA. Cal. 4— 5-leaved. Pet. numerous, 
inserted upon the germens beneath the stamens. 
Stig. disk-form, radiate. Pericarp berry-like 
many-celled, many-seeded. 


349. DELPHINIUM. Cal. petaloid, deciduous, irre- 


350. ACONITUM. Cal. petaloid, irregular. 

551, AQU1LEGIA. Cal. 5-leaved, petaloid, deciduous. 
Petals 5, terminating below in a spurred nec- 
tary. Cap*. 5, erect, acuminate with the styles,, 

352. CIMICIFUGA. Cal. 4— 5-leaved. Pet. 4— 8;. 

(sometimes wanting.) Caps. 4 — 5, oblong,, 

353. ASCYBUM. Cal 4-leaved ; the 2 interior leaf- 

lets larger and cordate. Pet. 4. Stam. subpo- 
lyadelphous. Styles 1 — 3. Caps. 1 -celled. 
554, HYPERICUM. Cal. 5- parted ; segments equal. 
Pet. 5. Stam. polyadelphous. Styles 1 — 5. 
Caps, membranaceous, 1 — 5-ccllcd. 


MAGNOLIA. Cat. 3-leaved. Pet. G— 9. Cap 
sides 2-valved, I -seeded, imbricated in a cone 
SeeHi berried, pendulous on a verv long funicului 
, LIRIODENDRON. Cal. 3-Ieaved, Pet.6. Sa- 
maras sublanceolate, I — 2-secded, imbricated in 
a cone. 

kSIMINA. Cal. 3-parted. Pet. G, spreading, 
ovate-oblong ; the interior .-miller. Antk. sub- 
sessile. Merries several, ovate, sessile, many- 
' tfATIS. Invol. 0, *T calvcibum Cal. I 


leaved, coloured. Pet. 0, or very short. Seeds 
with a long, mostly plumose cauda. 

359. ANEMONE. Invol. 3-leaved, distant from the 

flower; leaflets divided. Cal. petaloid, 5 — 15- 
leaved. Ptt. 0. Seeds numerous. 

360. THALICTKUM. Invol. 0. Cal. 4— 5-leaved, 

petaloid. Pet. 0. Seeds without awns. 

361. HYDRASTIS. Cal. 3-leaved, petaloid; leaflets 

ovate. Pet. 0. Berry composed of many 1- 
seeded grains. 
•362. CALTHA. Cal. coloured, 5-leaved ; leaflets or- 
bicular, petaloid. Caps. 5—10, compressed, 
spreading, 1 -celled, many-seeded. 

363. COPTIS. Cal. 5— 6-leaved, coloured and peta- 

loid, J, ciduous. Pet. small, cucullate. Capsules 
5 — F. stipulate, diverging, ovate-oblong, 4 — 6- 
seeded, rostrate. 

364. TROLLIUS. Cal. 5— 15-leaved, petaloid, deci- 
. duous. Pet. 5 — 20, small, tubular at the base. 

Capsules sessile, subcylindrical, many- seeded. 
865. HEPATICA. Invol. 3-leaved, near the flower, 
resembling a calyx ; leaflets entire. Cal. 6 — 9- 
leave'i, petaloid, disposed in several series. 
Seeds without awns. 

366. RANUNCULUS. Cal. 5-leaved. Pet. 5, with a 

nectariferous pore at the base, on the inside. 
Capsules numerous, ovate, shortly mucronate, 
1 -seeded, not opening. 

367. BRASENIA. Cal. 3-leaved. Pet. 3—4. Peri- 

carp oblong, 2-seeded. Seeds pendulous. 

368. NELUMBIUM. Cal. petaloid, 4— 6-leaved. Pet 

numerous. Pericarps numerous, deeply im- 
mersed in the upper surface of a turbinate re- 
ceplacie ; {torus.) Seed large, round, solitary 


335. TILIA. Lime, or Linden. Tiliacece. 

I. T. glabra : leaves round-cordate, abruptly acumi- 
oate, acutely serrate, subcoriaceous, smooth ; pe~ 


fals truncate at the apex, crenate ; style as long as 
the petals, equal ; fruit ovate, subcordate. 

HAB. Woods. June. A large tree ; fl. cymose ; 
yell.-wh.,ped. winged. 
2. T. pubescens : leaves truncate at the base, oblique, 
denticulate-serrate, pubescent beneath ; petals 
emarginate ; styles longer than the petals ; fruit 
globose, smooth. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. June. A large tree. 
>. T. laxiflora : leaves cordate, gradually acuminate, 
sparingly toothed, membranaceous, smooth ; pani 
cle loose ; petals emarginate ; styles longer than 
the petals ; fruit globose. 

HAB. Near the sea-coast. June. 


\. H. canadense: without stipules; erect, hairy, 
leaves erect, linear-lanceolate, flat, paler j^eneath ; 
raceme terminal, few-flowered ; segments of the 
calyx broad-ovate ; capsule shorter than the calyx. 

HAB. Dry fields and woods. June. If.. A foot 
high ; fl. yellow ; cal. hairy. 
2. H. ramuliflorum : without stipules, erect, pulveru- 
lent-tomentose ; leaves oblong, acute ; margin a 
little revolute, whitish beneath ; racemes very 
short ; segments of the calyx roundish, pulveru- 
lent ; capsule globose, as long as the calyx. 

HAB. Sandy fields. lj. . July. Fl. yellow; style 
very short ; cal. hairy. 
I 11. corymbosum : suffrutescent, without stipule*, 
erect, branched, pubescent ; leaves alternate, 
lanceolate, hoary-tomentose beneath ; flower- 
crowded, in iastigiate corymbs ; segments of the 
calyx ovate, acute ; capsule scarcely as long as the 

11AB. Sandy fields. June — Aug. Fl. very saw 1 ! 
often apct. 

337. HUDSONIA. Usiinccc. 

1. II. ericoides : pubescent ; suberect ; branches elou 
gated, leaves filiform, sub' newhat imbri- 

cate ; peduncles numeror: ! calyx cy- 


lindrical, obtuse ; capsule pubescent, 1 -seeded : 
valves oblong. 

HAB. Pine barrens. May — June. V Stem 4 — 
6 in. high ; leav. persist. ; Jl. sm. yellow. 

.H. tomentosa : cespitose, hoary-pubescent ; leaves 
minute, closely imbricate, ovate, acute ; flowers 
aggregated, subsessile ; calyx subcylindric ; seg- 
ments obtuse ; capsule smooth. 

HAB. Sea-shore. June. "k. Stem 6 in. high, in- 
tricate : ft. num.) yellow. 

338. PORTULACCA. Purslane. Portulacea: 

P. oleracea : leaves cuneiform, smooth ; flowers 

HAB. Cultivated grounds, &c. May — Aug. <3>. 

Spreading, succul. ; Jl. yellow. §. 

339. TALINUM. Portulaceai. 

T. tcretifolium: leaves terete, subulate, fleshy: 
scape cyraose ; flowers pedunculate, polyandrous ; 
calyx 2-leaved. 

HAB. Rocks. July. $ . Subcespit. ; leav. crowd. ; 
rad. • Jl. pur p. 

340. CHELIDONIUM. Celandine. Papaveracece. 

C. majus: leaves pinnate, lobed ; segments round- 
ed ; umbels axillary, pedunculate ; petals elliptic 
cal, entire. 

HAB. Along fences, &c. May— Oct. U. Plant 
yielding an orange juice, branch. ; leav. glane. ; j\ 
>{ellow. §. 

311. MECONOPSIS. Papaveracev. 

M. diplujlla : leaves 2. sessile, hairy; lobes rounded 
and obtuse, subundulate : capsule 4-valved, echi 

HAB. Shady woods, &c. May. U. JL foot high: 
glauc. and subpilose ; Jl. yellow. 

342. ARGEMOME. Prickly poppy. Papaveraccv: 
A. mexioana. 


HAB. Banks of rivers. July. 0. Leav. pinna- 
tif., spiny ; fl. axill, and term., large, yellow or 

343. SANGUINARIA. Blood-root. Papaveracece. 

S. canadensis* 

HAB. Fertile woods. April — May. U . Root tub. 

■with a bitter juice; leav. rad.,renif. ; fl. large, wh.. 


344. PODOPHYLLUM. May-apple. Podophyllaceo:. 

P. peltatum : stem erect, 2-leaved ; leaves peltate. 
HAB. Woods. May. U . Stem V ft. high; leav* 
lobed; Jl. sol. wh. ; fr. ovate. 

345. ACTiEA. Bane-berry. Ranunculacea. 

A. americana : leaves twice and thrice ternate ; ra- 
ceme ovate ; petals shorter than the stamens ; ber- 
ries ovate-oblong. 

ec. alba : petals truncate ; pedicels of the fruit 
thicker than the peduncle ; berries white. 

/3. rubra : petals acute ; pedicels of the fruit slender ; 
berries red. 

HAB. Rocky woods. May. H . Stem 2 ft. high : 
leafi. ovate-Ian., incis. ; fl. wh. 

346. SARRACENIA. Side-saddle flower. 

S. purpurea: leaves much shorter than the scape. 

inflated; ventral wing arched; appendix erect. 

broad-cordate, undulate, not mucronate. 
HAB, Sphagnous swamps. June — July. Leav. alt 

Tad., large and tubular, open at the top ; scape \ ft 

high; fl. large, sol.,.purp. 
/3. ; flowers yellow. 

•147. NUPHAR. Yellow Pond-lily. .Xymphccacew. 

1. N. advena : calyx G-leaved ; petals numerous ; fruit 
sulcate ; leaves cordate, with divaricate I 
petioles semicylindrical. 


HAB. In water. June — July. U . Lcav. upright 
or floating; fl. large, depress., yellow. 
2. N. Kalmiana : calyx 5-leaved ; stigmas incised, 8 — 
12-rayed ; leaves cordate, with approximate lobes ; 
petioles roundish. 
HAB. In water. July — Aug. ty . Leav. and fl. 
small; cat. equal. 

348. NYMPHiEA. Water-lily. Nymphazacece. 

N. odorata: leaves orbicular-cordate, entire ; nerves 
and veins prominent ; calyx 4-leaved, equal to the 
petals; stigma 16 — 20-rayed ; rays inflexed. 

HAB. In water. June — July. \ . Leav. float. : 
fl. large, wh., odorous. 


349. DELPHINIUM. Larkspur. Ranunculacea:. 

1. D. exaltalum : petioles not dilated at the base: 

leaves flat, 3-cleft below the middle ; lobes cunei- 
form, 3-cIeft at the apex, acuminate ; lateral one? 
often 2-lobed ; raceme straight ; spur longer than 
the calyx ; capsules 3. 
HAB. Rocky woods. July U. Stem 2—4 //. 
high ; fl. bine ; spur straight. 

2. D. azureum: petioles slightly dilated at the base; 

leaves 3— 5-parted, many-cleft; lobes linear ; ra- 
ceme straight ; petals densely bearded ; flowers on 
short pedicels. 
HAB. Woods. May. U- Stem 2 ft. high ; fli 
large, light blue. 

350. ACONITUM. Wolf's-bane. Ranuncularev. 
A. uncinatum : panicle rather loose, with diverging 

branches ; galea conical ; spur inclined, somewhat 
spiral; styles 3 — 5; leaves 3-lobed ; lobes equal. 
HAB. Mountain swamps. Sept. U. Fl. large, 

351. AQUILEGIA. Columbine. Ranunculacea;. 
A. canadensis : spurs straight ; styles and stamens 
exserted; calyx rather acute, longer than the pc- 


lals ; division of the leaves 3-parted, rather obtuse, 
incisely toothed. 
HAB. Rocks. April— May. U- Fl. pend., scarl. 
ext., yell, int.; Jr. erect. 

352. CIMICIFUGA. Black Snake-root. Ranunculaceo:. 

C. racemosa : leaves ternately decompound ; leaflets 
ovate-oblong, incised and dentate ; racemes pani- 
culate, elongated ; flowers with one style ; capsule 

HAB. Rocky woods. June— July. U . Stem 4— 
2 ft. high; ft. wk.; pet. 0. 

353. ASCYRUM. St. Peter's-wort. Hypericinece. 

1. A. Crux ■- Andrew : stems numerous, assurgent, suffru- 

ticose ; leaves lanceolate-oblong, obtuse ; interior- 
leaflets of the calyx suborbicular ; pedicels bibrac- 
teate ; flowers sessile, with 2 styles. 
HAB. Pine barrens. July— Aug. Stems 6 — 3 in. 
highfl. num.. yellow ; pet. narrow. 

2. A. stans : stem fruticose, winged, straight ; leaves 

ovate-elliptical, obtuse, glaucous ; interior leaflets 
of the calyx cordate, orbicular ; stamens united 
at the base, styles 2. 
HAB. Pine barrens. Aug. Stem lft. high ; branch, 
straight ; fl. yellow. 

354. HYPERICUM. St. John's- wort. Hypericinece. 

* Styles 5 ; Stam. numerous, indefinite ; flowers yellow . 

1. H. ascyroides : smooth; stem quadrangular, winged 
at the base ; leaves sessile, oblong-lanceolate, 
acute ; calyx ovate-lanceolate ; styles as long as 
the stamens. 
HAB. Low grounds. July. Stem 2 ft. high, simp. 
or branch. ; fl. and, leav. lame. 
:. II. Kaimianum : frutesccnt, much branched ; branches 
quadrangular ; leaves linear-lanceolate ; flowers 
3 — 7, in a terminal corymb ; calyx lanceolate, ra- 
ther obtuse. 
HAB. Wet rocks. August. Stem 2 — 1 ft. high , 
num.. fascic.f of en revol. 


** Styles 3; stamens numerous, indefinite ; flowers yellow. 

t Frutesnent. 

3. H. prolificum: branches ancipital; leaves lanceo- 

late-linear, rather obtuse, corymbs axillary and 
terminal, few-flowered ; calyx lanceolate. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. July. 

4. H. galioides: branches quadrangular ; leaves linear* 

sessile, revolnte on the margin, punctate ; panicles 
terminal, dichotomous, and divaricate ; calyx linear ; 
styles often united. 
HAB. Wet sandy places. July — Sept. Stem 2 ft. 

tt» Herbaceous. 

j. H. perforatum: stem ancipital ; leaves obtuse, ob- 
long, with pellucid punctures ; flowers paniculate ; 
calyx lanceolate ; styles diverging. 
HAB\ Fields. June— Aug. uT A foot high; 
branch. ; anth. black-punctate. §. 

6. H. punclatum: stem terete, black-punctate ; leaves 

oblong-oval, obtuse, amplexicaul ; flowers co- 
rymbed, punctate ; calyx lanceolate. 
HAB. Meadows and woods. June — Aug. U . Stem 
2 ft. high; branch. ; Jl. small. 

7. H. quinquenervium : erect, much branched, smooth ; 

stem quadrangular ; leaves ovate, subcordate, ob- 
tuse, sessile, about 5-nerved ; corymb dichoto- 
mous ; calyx linear-lanceolate, longer than the 
HAB. Wet places. June— Sept. $. Stem 6— 10 
in. high ; Jl. very small, yellow. 

8. H. canadense : stem erect and straight, 4- winged ; 

leaves linear, attenuate at the base, rather obtuse ; 
panicle elongated, dichotomous ; calyx lanceolate: 
styles very short ; capsule conical. 
HAB. Sandy places. June — July. © . Stem 6— 
10 in. high ; fl. minute ; caps. red. 

9. H. angulosum : erect ; stem qu idrangular ; leaves 

distant, oblong-lanceolate, siibamplexicaul, acute : 
panicle dichotomous, with the flowers alternate 
calyx lanceolate, acute, subcarinate. 


HAB. Cedar swamps. Aug. U. Stem 1—1^ ft. 

high ; jl. copper-colour. 

10. H. Sarothra: erect, much branched above; 

branches setaceous ; leaves minute, subulate, 
appressed ; flowers terminal, subsolitary ; sta- 
mens few ; capsule 1 -celled. 
HAB. Sandy fields. June— Aug. ©. Stem 3—C 
in. high; leav. inconspic. ; Ji minute. 

*** Calyx of 5 equal leaves; styles 3 ; stamens nume- 
rous,' somewhat definite ; (9 — 15 — 18.) distinctly 

11. II. virginicum : stem terete, leaves oblong, am- 

plexicaul, punctate, very obtuse, flowers pedun- 
culate, in terminal and axillary peduncles ; calyx 
lanceolate ; stamens mostly 9. 
HAB. Swamps. July— Sept. H- Stem \ ft. 
high i ji. middle-sized, reddish. 


355. MAGNOLIA. Magnoliacece. 

1. M. acuminata: leaves deciduous, oval, acuminate, 

pubescent beneath ; flowers 6 — 9-petalled ; petals 
obovate, rather obtuse. 
HAB. Mountain valleys. June — July. Tree mid- 
dle-sized ; jl. yell.-gr. 

2. M. tripetala : leaves deciduous, oblong-lanceolate., 

acute, spreading ; pubescent when young, smooth 

when mature ; petals 9 — 12, rather acute, the 

3 exterior ones reflexed. 
HAB. Mountain woods. June. A small tree ; leav. 

and f . large. 

T. glauca : leaves perennial, elliptical, obtuse ; 

glaucous beneath ; flowers 9 — 1 2-pe tailed ; petals 

obovate, concave. 
HAB. Swamps. May — June. A small tree ; leav. 

2 — 3 in. long ; Jl. odor 

■ LIRIODfcNDUON. Tulip tree. Mfignoli 


T i 


IIAB. Woods. July. A large tree ; leav. 4-lobed, 
truncate ; fl. large, sol., yell.-gr. 

357. ASIMINA. Monacece. 

A. triloba: leaves oblong-cuneate, acuminate, smooth- 
ish ; flowers on short peduncles ; exterior petals 
suborbicular, four times as long as the petals. 

IIAB. Banks of rivers. May. A large shrub ; fl. 
dark br. ; Jr. fleshy, large, edible. 

358. CLEMATIS. Virgin's-bower. Ranunculacea. 

t. C. virginiana: climbing; leaves ternate ; leaflets 
ovate, subcordate, incisely toothed and lobed ; 
acute ; flowers paniculate, dioecious. 
HAB. Shady thickets. July— Aug. Tj. Stem long; 
ft. white, i?i large dichot. pan. 
I, C. Viorna: climbing; leaves pinnately compound \ 
segments ovate, entire, or 3-lobed, acute ; flower 
solitary, campanulate ; leaflets of the calyx thick, 
acuminate, reflexed at the apex. 
IIAB. In copses, &c. June. T?. Fl. large, violet, 
nodding; leav. smooth. 
). C. ochroleuca : herbaceous, erect, simple, pubes- 
cent ; leaves simple, ovate, very entire ; the 
younger ones with the calyx silky ; flower termi- 
nal, pedunculate, solitary, nodding. 
HAB. Dry copses. June. U . A foot high; fl. 
yell.-nh. ; jr. erect. 

| Calyx 4-leaved ; petals numerous, minute. Atragene. 

t. C. verticillaris: leaves verticillate in fours, ternate ; 
leaflets cordate, nearly entire ; peduncles 1-flow- 
crcd ; petals ac-ute. 
HAB. Mountains. May— June. 1j. Climbing ;fl. 
rery large, purp. 

350. ANEMONE. Wind-flower. Ranunculacea. ' 

\. A. ncmorosa : £. quinquefolia : leaves ternate ; seg- 
ments 5-parted, incisely dentate, lanceolate, acute ; 
involucrum similar, petiolate ; stem 1-flowered ; 
calvx 6-lcaved ; capsules awnless. 


IIAB. Woods. April — May. U . Root black, tub. ; 
stem 6 in. high; Jl. wh. or purplish. 

2. A. lancifolia : leaves ternate ; leaflets lanceolate, 

crenate-dentate ; calyx 5-leaved, leaflets ovate, 
acute ; stem 1 -flowered. 
HAB. High mountains. May — July. U . Fl. wh. ; 
fr. ovate, with a short uncinate style. 

3. A. pennsylvanica : leaves 3-parted ; lobes oblong, 

incisely toothed at the apex ; involucrum similar, 
sessile, bearing several pedicels, one of which is 
naked and 1 -flowered, the others in volucellate ; 
fruit pubescent. 
HAB. Meadows. June — July. If. A foot high ; 
pedunc. elong. ; jl. yell.-wh., large. 

4. A. virginiana : leaves ternate ; segments 3-cleft, 

acuminate, incisely toothed ; involucrum similar, 
petiolate ; leaflets of the calyx acuminate ; fruit 
HAB. Woods. July. U . Stem2ft.high; 
yell. ; cal. hairy ; caps, woolly. 

3G0. THALICTRUM. Meadow-rue. Ranunculace«. 
* Stamens longer than the calyx. 

1. T. dioicum : very smooth; leaves decompound; 

leaflets roundish, with obtuse lobes, glaucous be- 
neath ; filaments filiform ; flowers dioecious. 
HAB. Rocky woods. April. U . Stem 2 ft. high ; 
Jl. panic, rose-col. ; fr. oval, striate. 

2. T. pubescens : leaves decompound; leaflets ovate, 

3-lobed, minutely and densely pubescent beneath ; 
margin revolute ; filaments filiform ; flowers poly- 
HAB. Wet meadows. June — July. U. Stem A — 
5 ft. high ; Jl. in large pan. ; cal. decid. 

3. T. Cornuti : leaves decompound ; leaflets ovate, ob- 

tusely 3-lobed, glaucous and a little pubescent on 
the veins beneath ; flowers dioecious ; filaments 
cl.ivatc ; fruit sessile, striate. 
HAB. Wet meadows. June — July. Stem 2— 5 //. 
high; Jl. gr. -yell. +. 

4. T. rugosum: leaves decompound; leaflets o\ 

lanceolate, rugose, veined, obtusely lobed ; fl<-\\ 
ious, filaments filiform. 


HAB. Swamps. June— Aug. Stem 3— b ft. high .; 
Ji. in large pan., wh. 

5. T. purpurascens : leaves compound, shorter than 

the stem ; leaflets roundish, 3-cleft and incised : 
panicles nearly leafless ; flowers cernuous ; sta- 
mens coloured. 
HAB. Dry hills. May— June. U . Plant small ; 
stem and flam, purp. -f*» 

** Stamens shorter than the petaloid calyx. 

6. T. anemonoides : root tuberous ; flowers umbelied ; 

floral leaves petiolate, resembling an involucrum ; 
flowers perfect ; calyx 8 — 10-leaved. 
HAB. Woods. April— May. U . Stem 6—8 in. 
high ; leaji. smooth ; Jl. large, wh. 

361. HYDRASTIS. Yellow-root. Ranunculacev. 

H. canadensis. 

HAB. Rocky woods. May. U. Stem 6 in. high, 
1 — 2-leav. ; leav. incis., pubes. ; Jl. solit., red-wh., 
fr. fleshy, red. 

362. CALTHA. Marsh-marigold. Ranunculaceoe. 

}. C. palustris : stem erect; leaves cordate, subor- 
bicular, obtusely crenate. 
HAB. Swamps. April— June. If. Afoot high, 
dichot. ; leav. petiol. ; Jl. large, yellow. 

2. C. integerrima : stem erect, corymbed ; leaves or- 
bicular-cordate, very entire, with the sinus closed ; 
floral ones sessile, reniform, obscurely crenate at 
the base ; leaflets of the calyx obovate. 
HAB. Wet meadows, &c. May— July. U. Fl. 
corymb., smaller than in No. 1. 

:■;. C. parnassifolia : stem erect, 1-flowered, 1-leaved ; 
radical leaves, cordate-ovate, very obtuse ; many- 
nerved ; leaflets of the calyx elliptical. 
HAB. Cedar swamps. June — July. V-. Fl. mid- 
dle-sized, deep yellow. 

U C. Jlabellifolia : stem procumbent, many-flowered; 
leaves dilated-reniform ; lobes widely spreading, 
acutely dentate ; leaflets of the calyx obovate : 
capsules uncinate. 


HAB. Mountain springs. July — Aug. If. Afoot 
high ; fl. middle-sized, yellow. 

363. COPTIS. Ranunculaceoe. 

C. trifolia : leaves ternate ; leaflets obovate, ob- 
tuse, dentate, obscurely 3-lobed ; scape 1-flow- 

HAB. Swamps. May — June. "U. Leav. on long 
pet. ; scape 6 in. high ; fl. wh. 

364. TRGLLIUS. Rununculacea. 

T. laxus : calyx spreading ; leaflets 5 — 10, oblong j 
petals (nectaries) shorter than the stamens. 

HAB. Woods. June. V-. Stem 1 foot high; leaves 
palm. ; fl. large, yellow. 

365. HEPATICA. Liverwort. Ranunculaceee. 

H. triloba : leaves cordate, 3-lobed ; lobes entire ; pe- 
tioles and scape hairy. 

et. ohhisa : lobes of the leaves rounded, obtuse. 

/S. acuta : lobes of the leaves acute. 

HAB. oc. In woods : /3. On mountains. April — 
May. 11. Scape lfl. ; fl. blue. 

366. RANUNCULUS. Crowfoot. Ranunculaceee. 

*. Pericarps transversely rugose.-striate ; petals white. 

1. R. aquatilis : Q. : *tem filiform, floating ; 
leaves all immersed, and filiformlv dissected ; pe- 
tals obovate, longer than the calyx. 
HAB. In brooks, &c. July — Aug. If. Stem long ; 
leav. peliol. ; fl. small ; caL pubes. 

**. Pericarps smooth, short, ovate, collected into a round 
ish head ; flowers yellow. 

]. Leaves undivided. 

1. U. Lingua: leaves lanceolate, subserrate, sessile, 
^miamplexicaul ; stem erect, smooth. 


HAB. Borders of lakes, &c. July. V. Stem 2— 
3 ft. high, succul. ; fl. large, yellow. 

3. R. Flammula : leaves smooth, linear-lanceolate, or 

subovate, nearly entire, the lower oues petiolate ; 
stem more or less decumbent, rooting ; peduncles 
opposite to the leaves. 
HAB. Swamps. June— July. Ifi. Stem 12—18 
in. high, succul. ; fl. smaller than No. 2. 

4. R. pusillus : leaves all on long petioles ; the inferior 

ones ovate, subdentate ; superior linear-lanceolate ; 
stems numerous, erect ; petals mostly 3, as long as 
the calyx. 
HAB. Wet places. July. H. A span high; rad, 
leav. cord. ; fl. minute. 

5. R. Cymbalaria : radical leaves petiolate, smooth; 

somewhat fleshy, cordate-reniform, coarsely cre- 
nate ; scapes naked, elongated, 1 — 4-flowered ; pe- 
tals linear, as long as the calyx. 
HAB. Salt marshes. July — Aug. If. Scapes 2 — 
6 in. high, often stolonif. ; fl. sm. ; fr. oblong. 

6. R. reptans : /3. flliformis : leaves linear-subulate ; 

stems filiform,, creeping, geniculate ; joints 1» 
HAB. River banks. July — Aug. If.. Stems 6— * 
10 in. long ; fl. small ; fr. very smooth. 

It- Leaves divided. 

7. R. abortivus : leaves smooth ; radical ones petiolate, 
cordate-orbicular, crenate ; stem leaves ternate 
and 3-cleft, with linear segments ; calyx smooth, a 
little longer than the petals. 
HAB. Rocky woods. April — June. If. A foot 
high ; fl. small ; fr. ovate, compress. 

3. R. sceleratus : leaves smooth ; radical ones petio- 
late, 3-parted ; divisions 3-lobed, obtuse, subin- 
cised ; superior 3-parted, with oblong-linear entire 
lobes ; calyx pubescent ; fruit linear-oblong. 
HAB. Ditches, &c. May— Aug. If.. Afoot high., 
much branch. ; stem succul. ; fl. small. 


9. R. mukifidus : floating ; leaves all cleft into nume- 

rous capillary segments, with axillary leaflets ; pe- 
tals 5 — 8, obovate, twice as long as the calyx ; nec- 
tary concave. 
HAB. Stagnant waters. May — June. U. Stem 
3 — 4 ft. long ; fl. large, shining. 

10. R. acris : leaves mostly pubescent, 3-parted ; lobes 
incisely toothed, acute ; upper ones linear ; stem 
erect, many-flowered ; peduncles not sulcate ; ca- 
lyx spreading, subvillous. 

HAB. Wet meadows. June. U . Stem 2 ft. high, 
pubes. ; fl. large; cal. reflex. §. 

11. R. hispidus : erect, branched; stem and petioles 

with stiff spreading hairs ; leaves ternate ; leaflets 
acutely lobed ; pubescence of the pedicels ap- 
pressed ; calyx appressed. 
HAB. Wet places. May. 1/. Stem 11 ft. high, 
"very hairy ; fl. large. 

12. R. recurvaius : erect; stem and petioles with 

spreading hairs ; leaves 3-parted, hairy ; segments 
broad-oval, subincised ; the lateral ones 2-lobed ; 
calyx reflexed ; petals lanceolate ; pericarps unci- 
HAB. In woods. May — July. U . A foot high ; 
leav. subpentang. ; fl. very small. 

13. R. pennsylvanicus : erect; stem and petioles very 

hairy ; the hairs rigid and spreading ; leaves 
ternate, villous ; segments subpetiolate, acutely 
3-lobed, incisely serrate ; calyx reflexed ; peri- 
carps with a straight style. 
HAB. Wet meadows. June— Aug. n.? Stem IK 
in. high; branch. ; fl. large ; fr. in obi. heads. 

14. R. fascicularis : erect, branched; leaves pubes- 

cent, ternate ; the middle segment deeply 3-cleft ; 
lateral ones remotely 3-lobed ; calyx spreading, 
villous, shorter than the petals. 
1IAB. Rocky woods. April — May. %. Root fas - 
cic.;fl. large; nect.flat, cuneif. 
15 R. bvlbosus : hairy ; radical leaves ternate ; leaflets 
petiolate, 3-cleft, incisely dentate, stem ererl 
bulbous at the base ; calyx reflexed ; pedtmclej 


HAB. Pastures, &c May— July. U. Stem 12— 
18 in. high ; ji. large ; plant acrid. 
36. R. marilandicus : stem erect, somewhat branched, 
soft-hairy ; leaves smoothish, ternate ; leaflets 3- 
lobed ; lobes oblong, acute, incisely-dentate ; ca- 
lyx smooth, spreading, shorter than the petal?. 
HAB. Woods. May — July. 11 . Pericarps com- 
pres., acum., with a straight style. 
17. R. repens : leaves ternate; leaflets cuneate, 3- 
lobed, incisely-dentate ; middle one petiolate ; 
main stems prostrate ; flowering ones erect ; pe- 
duncles sulcate ; calyx appressed. 
HAB. Wet meadows. June — Sept. H . Stem 
1 — 2 ft. high ; fl. middle sized. 

367. BRASENIA. Water-target. Podophyllaceu. 

B. Hydropeltis. 

HAB. Ponds. July — Aug. 1}. . Floating ; leaves 

oval, centrally peltate, very entire ; purp. and gelat. 

beneath ; ji. sol., purp., on long pedunc. 

3G8. NELUMBIUM. Water-chinquepin. Nympheaceaz. 

N. luteum : corolla many-petalled ; anthers produced 
into a linear appendage at the extremity ; leaves 
peltate, orbicular, very entire. 

HAB. In lakes. July. U . Petioles and pedunc. 
scab. ; ji. very large, yellow. 



* Calyx mostly 5-cleft, subregular. 

369. TEUCR1UM. Upper lip of the Cor. wanting, but 

a fissure in its place, through which the stamens 
• are exserted. 

370. MENTHA. Cor. subregular, 4-lobed ; the broader 

segment emarginate. Stam. erect, distant. 

371. I SAN THUS. Cal. subcampanulale. Cor. 5- 

parted ; tube straight and narrow : segments of 


the border equal. Stam, subequal. Stig. linear, 
172. HYSSOPUS. Lower lip of the Cor. 3-parted: 
middle segment crenate. Stam. straight, distant. 

373. NEPETA. CW. arid, striate. Tube of the Cor. 

rather long, intermediate segment of the lower 
lip crenate, margin of the orifice reflexed. Stam. 

374. LAMIUM. Upper lip of the Cor. vaulted, entire ; 

lower lip 2-lobed, toothed on each side. 

375. GALEOPSIS. Upper lip of the Cor. vaulted, 

notched ; lower lip 3-lobed, 2-toothed above. 

376. STACHYS. Upper lip of the Cor. vaulted, 

lower lip 3-lobed ; the lateral lobes reflexed. 
Stam. reflexed to the sides after flowering. 

377. LEONURUS. Cal. 5-angled. Upper lip of the 

Cor. entire, flat, erect ; lower lip 3-parted ; 
middle segment entire. Anth. sprinkled with 
shining dots. 

378. GLECHOMA. Upper lip of the Cor. bifid. Anth. 

approaching each other in pairs, and forming a 

379. MARRUBIUM. Cal. 10-ribbed. Upper lip of 

of the Cor. linear, straight, cleft. 
379. PYCNANTHEMUM. Heads surrounded by an 
involucrum of many bracts. Cal. tubular, stri- 
ate. Upper lip of the Cor. nearly entire ; lower 
lip 3-cleft. Stam. nearly equal, distant ; cells 
of the Anth. parallel. 

** Calyx bilabiate. 
381. CLINOPODIUM. Whorls surrounded by a se- 
taceous involucrum. — Upper lip of the Cor. flat. 
302. ORIGANUM. Flowers collected into a dense, 4- 
sided spike. Upper lip of the Cor. straight, 
flat, emarginate. 
383. DRACOCEPHALUM. Orifice of the Cor. infla- 
ted ; upper lip concave. Stam. unconnected. 
PRUNELLA. Upper lip of the Cal. dilate.! 

Filam. forked, one of the points antheriferous. 
SCUTELLARIA. Upper lip of the Cal. covering 
the fruit like an operculum. 


386. TRICHOSTEMA. Cal. resupinate. Upper lip 

of the Cor. falcate. Stam. very long, and in- 


*. Calyx 5-cleft. 

387. PHRYMA. Cal. cylindric ; upper lip longer, 3- 

cleft ; lower lip bidentate. Upper lip of the 
Cor. emarginate ; lower much larger. Seed so- 

388. VERBENA. Cal. with one of the teeth truncate. 

Cor. infundibuliform ; limb 5-cleft, unequal. 
Stam. 2 — 4. Seeds 2 — 4, enclosed in a thin 
evanescent pericarp. 

389. ZAPANIA. Flowers capitate. Cal. 5-toothed. 

Cor. 5-lobed. Slam. 4, fertile. Stig. peltately 
capitate, oblique. Seeds 2, at first enclosed in 
an evanescent pericarp. 

390. HERPESTIS. Cal. unequal, bibracteate at the 

base. Cor. tubular, subbilabiate. Stam. inclu- 
ded, all fertile. Caps. 2-valved, 2-celled ; dis- 
sepiment parallel with the valves. 

391. LIMOSELLA. Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. 4— -5-lobed, 

equal. Stam. approximating by pairs. Caps. 2- ' 
valved, partly 2-celled, many-seeded. 

392. SCROPHULARIA. Cor. subglobose, resupinate, 

shortly bilabiate, with an internal intermediate 
scale. Caps. 2-celled. 

393. BIGNONIA. Cal. 5-toothed, cyathiform, partly 

coriaceous. Cor. campanulate, 5-lobed, ventri- 
cose on the under side. Silique 2-celled. Seeds 
membranaceously winged. 

394. RUELLIA. Cal. often bibracteate. Cor. sub- 

campanulate ; border 5-lobed. Stam. approxi- 
mating by pairs. Caps, attenuated at each ex- 
tremity, bursting with elastic teeth. Seeds few. 

395. BUCHNERA. Cal. 5-toothed. Tube of the tor. 

slender ; border 5-cleft, nearly equal ; lobes 
cordate. Caps. 2-celled. 

396. ANTIRRHINUM. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. per- 

sonate or ringent, with a prominent or spurred 


nectary at the base. Caps. 2-celled, bursting at 
the summit, with reflected teeth. 

397. COLLINSIA. Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. bilabiate, ori- 

fice closed ; upper lip bifid ; the lower trifid ; 
intermediate segment carinately saccate, and 
closed over the declinate style and stamens. 
Caps, globose, partly 1 -celled, and imperfectly 
4-valved. Seeds 2 — 3, umbilicate. 

398. GERARDIA. Cal. half 5-cleft, or 5-toothed. 

Cor. subcampanulate, unequally 5-lobed ; seg- 
ments mostly rounded. Caps. 2-celled, opening 
at the summit. 

399. PEDICULARIS. Cal. ventricose, half 5-cleft. 

Upper lip of the Cor. arched, laterally com- 
pressed, emarginate. Caps. 2-celled, oblique, 
mucronate. Seeds angular. 

400. M1MULUS. Cal prismatic, 5-toothed. Cor. 

ringent ; upper lip reflexed at the sides ; palate 
of the lower lip prominent. Stig. thick, bifid. 
Caps. 2-celled, many seeded. Seeds minute. 

401. CHELONE. Cal. 5-parted, with 3 bracts. Cor. 

ringent, ventricose. Sterile filam. shorter than 
the rest ; anthers woolly. Caps. 2-celied, 2- 
valved. Seeds membranaceously margined. 

402. PENTSTEMON. Cal. 5-leaved. Cor. bilabi- 

ate, ventricose. The fifth steril filament longer 
than the rest, and bearded on the upper side. 
Caps, ovate, 2-celled, 2-valved. Seeds nume- 
rous, angular. 

403. MARTYNIA. Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. ringent. Caps. 

ligneous, corticate, 4-celled, 2-valved, each of 
the valves terminating in a long hooked beak. 

** Calyx 4-cleft. 

101. SCHWALBEA. Cal. ventricose-tubular ; upper 
segment shortest ; the lower large and emargi- 
nate. Cor. ringent ; upper lip entire, arched. 
Caps, ovate-oblong, 2-celled, 2-valved ; dissepi- 
ment produced by the inflected margin of the 
valves, and parallel with the longitudinal re- 
ceptacle. Seeds numerous, imbricated, linear, 


405. EUCHROMA. CaL ventricose, 2— 4-cleft. Cor, 
bilabiate ; upper lip very long and linear, em- 
bracing the style and stamens. Anth. linear, 
with unequal lobes, all cohering in the form of 
an oblong disk. Cops, ovate, compressed, 2- 
celled. Seeds numerous, surrounded with a mem- 
branaceous inflated vesicle. 

40G. BARTSIA. CaL 4-cleft. Cor. ringent; upper 
lip concave, entire. Anth. equally lobed, un- 
combined. Caps. 2-celled. Seeds angular. 

407. MELAMPYRUM. Ca/. 4-cleft. Upper lip of the 

Cor. compressed ; margin folded back ; lower lip 
grooved, trifid, subequal. Caps. 2-celled, ob- 
lique, opening on one side ; cells 2-seeded. 
Seeds cartilaginous, cylindric-oblong, smooth. 

408. OROBANCHE. CaL 4— 5-cleft ; segments often 

unequal. Cor. ringent. Caps, ovate, acute. 
1 -celled. Seeds numerous. A gland beneath 
the base of the germen. 

409. EPIPHEGUS. Polygamous.— CaL abbreviated, 

5-toothed. Cor. of the infertile flower ringent, . 
compressed, 4-cleft; lower lip flat : corolla of 
the fertile flower minute, 4-toothed, deciduous. 
Caps, truncate, oblique, 1-celled, imperfectly 2 
valved, opening only on one side, 


369. TEUCRIUM. Germander. Labiate. 

1. T. cana dense: hoary-pubescent; leaves ovate-lan- 
ceolate, serrate, all petiolate ; stem erect ; spike 
verticillate, crowded, long. 
HAB. Low grounds. July — Aug. U. Siem 12 — 
18 til. high ; bracts longer than the cal. ; fl. purp. 

?. T. vireiriicum: pubescent; leaves ovate-oblong, ser- 
rate ; the upper ones subsessile ; stem erect ; 
spikes verticillate, crowded ; bracts longer than 
the calyx. 
HAB. Low grounds. June — Aug. U . Pvesem 
bles the foregoing, + . 


370. MENTHA. Mint. Labiatce. 

1. M. viridis : spikes interrupted ; leaves sessile, lan- 

ceolate, acute, naked ; bracts setaceous, and with 
the teeth of the calyx somewhat hairy. 
HAB. Low grounds. Aug. U. Afoot high; leav. 
smooth; spik. long ; fl. purp. §. 

2. M. canadensis: flowers verticillate ; leaves lance- 

olate, serrate, petiolate, hairy ; stamens as long as 
the corolla. 

HAB. Sandy soils. Aug.— Sept. 14. A foot high; 
fl. pale purp. 
o. M. borealis : ascending, pubescent ; leaves petio- 
late, oval-lanceolate, acute at each end ; flowers 
verticillate ; stamens exsert. 

HAB. Low grounds. July— Sept. H • Stem 2 ft. 
high, hairy backwards. 

371. ISANTHUS. Labiatx. 

S. cceruleus. 

HAB. River shores. July — Aug. © . Viscid-pu- 

bes., 1 ft. high; leav. oval-Ian. , acute, 3-nerved : 

fl. axill., pedunc, blue. 

372. HYSSOPUS. Hyssup. Labiata. 

H. nepetoides: spikes verticillate, cylindric ; leaves 
subcordate, ovate, acuminate, dentate. 

HAB. Woods. July. U . Stem 4—6 ft. high, 
pubes. ; fl. yell.-wh., or pale purp. 

373. NEPETA. Catnep. Labiatce. 

N. Cataria: flowers spiked ; whorls slightly pedun- 
culate ; leaves petiolate, cordate, dentate, serrate. 

HAB. Fields, &c. June— Sept. i|. . Stem 2—3 
ft. high ; fl. ?vh. punc. §. 

374. LAMIUM. Dead-nettle. Labiata, 

L. umplexicaule : floral leaves broadly cordate, ses- 
sile, amplexicaul, crenate, or ia«ised ; lower onc- 

U 2 


II AB. Cultivated grounds. April — Nov. 0. Stem 
6 — 8 in. high, suberect ; Jl. red. §. 

375. GALEOPSIS. Hemp-nettle. Labiatm. 

G. Tetrahit : stem hispid incrassated between the 
joints ; leaves ovate, hispid, serrate ; corolla twice 
as Ions as the calyx ; upper lip nearly straight. 

HAB. Waste grounds. July — Aug. 0. Stem 1 — 
2 ft. high ; Jl. verticilL, purp. §. 

G. Ladunum : stem hairy ; internodes not swollen ; 
leaves lanceolate, subserrate, hairy ; upper lip of 
the corolla slightly crenate. 

HAB. Waste grounds. July. ©. A foot high; 
pet. very short ; Jl. rose-col. §. 

376. STACHYS. Woundwort. Labiates. 

, S. hyssopifolia : scarcely pubescent, erect, slender ; 
leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate, remotely subdent- 
ate ; whorls about 4-flowered. 
HAB. Meadows. July. U . Stem 6— 10 in. high ; 
leav. sublin. ; Jl. purp. 

. S. aspera : stem erect, retrorsely hairy ; leaves 
subpetiolate, lanceolate, acutely serrate, whorls 
about 6-flowered ; calyx teeth divaricate, spiny. 
HAB. Fields and wet places July If.. A fool 
high ; leav. pubes. ; Jl. purp. 

. S. syhatica : leaves shortly petiolate, ovate, sub- 
cordate, acuminate ; whorls 6-flowered ; stem re- 
trorsely pilose-hispid ; calyx hispid, with lanceo- 
late, very acute segments. 
HAB. Woods. Aug. U. Stem 1—2 ft. high, 
erect ; leav. hairy, obtusely ser. ; Jl. purp. 

377. LEONURUS. Motherwort. Labiate. 

L. Cardiaca : inferior leaves ovate, 3-lobed ; up- 
permost ones entire. 
HAB. Waste place?. July— Aug. y. . Stem 2—3 
//. high, bran ; leav. spread. ; Jl. vert., red-col. §. 

378. GLECHOMA. Ground-Ivy. Labiatm. 
G. hederacea : leaves reniform, crenate. 


HAB. Hedges, &c. April — June. U . Root creep. : 
stem decumb. ; fl. axill., in threes, blue. §. 

379. MARRUBIUM. Horehound. Labialce. 

yi. vulgare: stem erect; leaves roundish-ovate, 
dentate, rugose ; calyx with 10 setaceous, uncinate 

HAB. Road-sides, &c. Stem 12 — 18 in. high, whi 
tishpub. ; leav. woolly beneath. §. 

*. Stamens exserted. 

1. P. incanum: leaves oblong-ovate, shortly petiolate, 

hoary-tomentose ; heads of flowers pedunculate, 
compound, lateral and terminal ; bracts setaceous. 
HAB. Rocky hills. July— Aug. U. Plant whi- 
tish, soft t 2 ft. high ; fl. pale red. 

2. P. aristatum: leaves lanceolate-ovate, subserrate. 

on very short petioles, whitish ; heads sessile : 
bracts awned. 
HAB. Dry woods. July— Aug. U . Stem 1—2 
ft. high; tipper leav. hoary. 
'., P. limfolium : stem straight, much branched, some- 
what scabrous ; leaves linear 3-uerved, very en- 
tire, smooth ; heads terminal, in a fasculate co- 
HAD. Dry swamps. Aug. i| . Stem 12 — 18 in, 
fastt 'g. branch ; fl. minute* wh. 

**. Stamens included. 

A. P. lanceoiatnm : stem straight, branched, subpu 
bescent ; leaves subsessile, linear-lanceolate! en- 
tire ; heads sessile, fasciculate-corymbed. 
HAB. Dry bilk. Atig. U. Stem 2 ft. high ; leav. 
long, nerved; fl. minute, wh. 
'. verticillatum : leaves ovate-lanceolate, very en 
tire ; whorls sessile, compact ; bracts acuminate 
HAB. Mountains. July — Aug. U. 
(a i'. tnuticum: leaves ovate-lanceolate, subdentate, 
-othish ; heads terminal ; bracts lanceolate, ra- 
ther acute. 


HAB. Rocky hills. July— Aug. U . Stem 2 ft. 
high; leav. large ; fl. wh. 

381. CLINOPODIUM. Wild-basil. Labial*. 

C. vulgare : leaves ovate, subserrate ; whorls hairy ; 

pedicels branched ; bracts setaceous. 
HAB. Rocky woods. July. U . Stem 2 ft. high, 

hairy ; leav. petiol. ; fl. purplish. 

382. ORIGANUM. Wild marjoram. Labiatce. 

O. vulgare: spikes roundish, panicled, fasciculate, 
smooth ; bracts ovate, longer than the calyx ; 
leaves ovate, entire. 

HAB. Fields, &c. June— Oct. %. Stems num., 
I ft. high; fl. rose-col., crowded. 

383. DRACOCEPHALUM. Dragon's head. Labiatce. 

}. D. virginicum: spikes elongated, crowded; bracts 
subulate ; teeth of the calyx short, subequal ; 
leaves linear-lanceolate, serrate. 
HAB. Mountain meadows. Aug. U • Stem 1 — 2 
ft. high, simp., sm. ; fl. spik., purp. 

3. D. denticulatum : spikes elongated, with the flowers 
remote ; bracts subulate ; teeth of the calyx sube- 
qual ; leaves obovate-lanceolate, toothed above. 
[HAB. Mountains. June. U. Stem 1 ft. high, sm. ; 
leav. subundul. ; fl. purp. 

384. PRUNELLA. Self-heal. Labiate. 

P. vulgaris : leaves ovate-oblong, petiolate ; upper 
lip of the calyx truncate, 3-awned ; stem ascending. 

HAB. Meadows. May — Aug. y.. Afoot high, 
hairy ; fl. in large ovate spikes, purp. 

385. SCUTELLARIA. Skull-cap. Labiata:, 

*. Flowers axillary, solitary. 

r. S. galericulata : somewhat branched ; leaves cord- 
ate-lanceolate, subsessile. crenate ; flowers axil 
lary, solitary. 


HAB. Marshes. Aug. U. Stem 12— 18 in. high, 
minutely pubes. ; fl. large, blue. 

S. gracilis : stem mostly simple ; leaves remote, 
broad-ovate, dentate, smooth and sessile, scabrous 
on the margin ; upper ones smaller, entire ; flow- 
ers axillary. 

HAB. Shady rocks. June. U. Stem 8—12 in. 
high, slend., erect ; leav. veined ; fl. very small, 

**. Flowers racemose. 

P. lateriflora: much branched, smoothish ; leaves 
on long, petioles, ovate, dentate, sometimes cord- 
ate, membranaceous ; racemes lateral, leafy. 

HAB. Wet meadows. July— Aug. U. Stem 1— 
2 ft. high; racem. long ; fl. small, blue. 

S. integrifolia : stem nearly simple, densely pu- 
bescent ; leaves subse«sile, oblong, obtuse, cuneatc 
at the base, obscurely toothed ; racemes loose, 

HAB. Swamps. June. V-. Stem 18 in. high ; fl. 
large, blue. — Plant very bitter. 

S. hyssopifolia : minutely and densely pubescent, 
branched ; leaves lanceolate-linear, very entire ; 

HAB. Swamps. June. %. Stem If t. high ; leav. 
obtuse ; fl. very large. 

S. ovalifolia: nearly simple, pubescent ; leaves re 
mote, rhombic-ovate, obtuse, attenuated at the 
base into the petiole, rounded-crenate ; racemes 
terminal, loose ; bracts lanceolate, entire. 

HAB. Rocky woods. July. U. Stem 1^—2 ft, 
high ; lower leav. cord. ; fl. large. 

S. canescens: branched; leaves ovate, acute, petio 
late, acutely toothe-d, under side, with the bracts 
and flowers hoary- vi Hose ; lower leaves subcord- 
ate ; racemes pedicellate, subpaniculate, axillary 
and terminal ; bracts ovate-lanceolate, longer than 
the calyx. 

IIAB. Woods. July. U. Stem 2—3 ft. high, 
leav. large , whitish beneath ; fl. deep blue. 


386. TRICHOSTEMA. Blue curls. Labiate. 

T. dichotoma: leaves rhombic lanceolate, attenuate 
at the base, pubescent. 

HAB. Dry hills. July — Sept. 0. Plant aroma- 
tic. — Stem 6 — 10 in. high, brach. ; fl. blue. 

0. linearis : leaves linear, smoothish. 

HAB. Sandy fields. Stem viscidly pubescent. 


387. PHRYMA. 

P. leptostachya. 

HAB. Rocky woods. July — Aug. U. Stem 2 — 
3 ft. high; leav. loose, ovate, dent., petiol. ; spikes 
very long, slend. ; fl. purp. ; fr. reflex. 

388. VERBENA. Vervain. Verbenaceoz. 
*. Leaves laciniate. 

1. V. hastata : erect ; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, in- 

cisely-serrate ; inferior ones lobed or subhastate ; 
spikes filiform, erect, panicled ; flowers tetrandrous. 
HAB. Low grounds. July — Aug. H- . Stem 3 — 
5 ft. high ; leav. rough ; fl. purp. 

2. V. spuria : stem decumbent, much branched, diva- 

ricate ; leaves many-cleft ; spikes filiform, loose ; 
bracts longer than the calyx. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. Nov. $. Stem 1 — 2 
ft. long ; leav. scab. ; fl. pink. 

**. Leaves entire. 

3. V. urticifolia : erect, subpubescent ; leaves oval- 

acute, serrate, petiolate spikes filiform, loose, axil- 
lary and terminnl ; flowers tetrandrous. 
HAB. Fields and road-sides. July — Aug. %. Stem 
2 — 3 ft. high ; spik. not imbric. ; fl. wh. 

4. V. angustifolia : erect, mostly simple ; leaves li- 

near-lanceolate, attenuate at the base, remotely 
toothed, with elevated veins ; spikes filiform soli- 
tary, axillary and terminal. 


HAB. Rocky hills. July. U • A foot high, hairy ; 
leav. rugose ; fl. blue. 

389. ZAPANIA. Verbenacete. 

I. Z. nodiflora: leaves ovate-cuneiform, serrate above ; 
spikes capitate-conic, solitary, on long peduncles ; 
stem herbaceous, creeping. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. July. U. Stem 6— 8 in. 
long; pedunc. jilif. ; head small, blue. 

I. Z. lanceolata : leaves linear-lanceolate, acutely ser- 
rate ; spikes capitate-conic, on elongated pedun- 
cles ; stem herbaceous, creeping. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. July. U . Fl. white, 
{Blue ?) 

390. HERPESTIS. Scrophnlarice. 

II. cuneifolia: very smooth; leaves cuneate-obo- 
vate, obscurely crenate bove ; peduncles as long 
as the leaves. 

JIAB. Overflowed banks of rivers. Aug. U . Leav, 
thick , fl. minute, pale blue. 


L. subulata: leaves linear, very narrow, scarcely 
dilated at the apex ; scape 1-flowered, as long as 
the leaves. 

HAB. Muddy shores. Aug. U. An in. high ; leav, 
rad. ; fl. minute, bl. -white. 

SCROPHULARIA. Figwort. Scrophularice. 

1. S. marilandica: leaves cordate, serrate, acute 
rounded at the base ; petioles ciliate below ; pani- 
cle fasciculate, loose, few-flowered ; stem obtuse- 
HAB. Woods. July— Oct. U. Stem 2— 4 ft. 
high, smooth ; leav. thin ; fl. gr.-purp. 

.:. S. lanceolata: leaves lanceolate, unequally and in 
cisely serrate, acute at the base ; petioles naked ; 
fascicles of the panicle corymbed. 
HAB. Woods. Aug. V. Stem 3ft. high, smooth; 
leav, rcpand.'Scrr. ; fl. gr.-purp. 


393. BIGNOMA. Trumpet-flower. Bignoniacea. 

B. radicans: leaves pinnate ; leaflets ovate, dent- 
ate, acuminate ; corymb terminal ; tube of the co- 
rolla three times as long as the calyx ; stem creep- 
' HAB. Banks of rivers. July — Aug. "fo. Stem 
climbing by 'radicles ; fl. very large, scarl. 

394. RUELLIA. 

R. strepens : erect, hairy ; leaves petiolate, lanceo- 
late-ovate, very entire ; peduncles 1 — 3-flowered ; 
segments of the calyx lanceolate, hispid, half as 
long as the tube of the corolla. 

HAB. Woods. July. U. Stern 8—12 in. high; 
leav. opp. ; JI. axill. and term., blue or white. 


B. americana : stem simple ; leaves lanceolate, sub 
dentate, rough, 3-nerved ; spikes with the flower- 

HAB. Sandy woods. Aug. U. A foot high; leav. 
opp. ; ft. blue. — Plant dries black. 

396. ANTIRRHINUM. Toad-flax. Scrophularicr, 
*. Stems procumbent. 

I. A. Elatine : procumbent, hairy; leaves alternate, 
hastate, very entire; peduncles solitary, very long. 
HAB. Sandy fields. July. 0. Stem 1—2 ft. long ; 
pedunc. axill. ; ji. small, bl.-wh. §. 

**. Stems erect. 

1. A. Linaria : leaves linear-lanceolate, crowded ; 
spikes terminal ; flowers imbricate ; calyx smooth, 
shorter than the spur. 
HAB. Road sides, &c. June— Nov. 1/. Stem 1— 
c Zft. high; leav. pale-gr. ; JI. yellow. 

S. A. canadense: assurgent, smooth, mostly simple; 
leaves scattered, erect, linear, obtuse ; flower- 
racemose ; scions procumbent. 


HAB. Wet or dry soils. July — Nov. 0. Afoot 
high, very slend. ; fl. very sm., blue. 


C. verna : leaves ovate-oblong, sessile, obtuse, t\u 
inferior ones attenuated into long petioles. 

TIAB. River banks. July. 0. Afoot high, mi 
nutely pubes. ; pedunc. axill. ; fl. particoloured. 

*. Flowers purple. 

1. G. purpurea : stem angular, much branched ; leaves 

scabrous linear, long and acute ; flowers subse* 
sile ; segments of the calyx subulate. 
HAB. Sandy soils and swamps. August — Oct. ©. 
Stem 1 — 2 ft. high, slend. ; fl. large, axill. 

2. G. maritima : stem angular ; leaves linear, flesh}'. 

short, rather obtuse ; flowers pedunculate ; upper 

segments of the corolla ciliate ; calyx truncate. 

with minute teeth. 
HAB. Salt marshes. July — Sept. 0. Stem G 

12 in. high ; fl. middle-sized. 
.;. G. tenuifolia : much branched ; leaves linear, acute 

scabrous ; peduncles axillary, longer than the flow 

ors ; teeth of the calyx acute. 
HAB. Fields and woods. Aug. — Sept. ©. Slew 

— 10 in. high ; fl. spread., smooth. 
). G. auriculata : subsimple, scabrous; leaves ovat-- . 

lanceolate, auriculata at the base, very entire, 

sessile ; flowers sessile, axillary. 
ilAB. Fields and mountains. Aug. 0. Stem 6 

12 in. high ; fl. middle-sized. 

**• Flowen yellow. 
», (5. flava; pubescent; stem nearly simple; leav. - 
sabsessile, lanceolate, very entire or don 
the inferior ones incised ; flowers subscssihv 
HAB. Woods. Aug.— Sept. M. Stem 2—3 Jt. 
fl. large. 
. U. glauca : smooth ; stem paniculate ; I< 


tiolate, pinnatifid ; upper ones lanceolate ; flowers 

HAB. Woods. Aug.— Sept. Stem 3—5 ft. high, 

glauc ; leav. pale beneath, 
7. G. pedicalaria : stem paniculate, pubescent ; leaves 

smoothish, oblong, pinnatifid ; segments uncinate, 

serrate ; flowers axillary, pedicellate ; segments of 

the calyx leafy, incisely dentate. 
HAB. Woods and mountains. July — Aug. U« 

Stem 2 ft. high, much branch. 

599. PEDICULARIS. Lousewort. Scrophularinte. 

1. P. pallida : stem smooth, branched, with pubescent 

lines ; leaves subopposite, lanceolate ; pinnati- 
fidly toothed and crenate, scabrous on the margin ; 
galea of the corolla truncated at the apex ; calyx 
bifid with rounded segments. 
HAB. Swamps. Sept. U. Stem 1—2 ft. high : 
fl. large, straw-yell, and purp. 

2. P. canadensis : stem simple : leaves pinnatifid, in- 

cisely toothed ; spike leafy at the base, hairy ; 
galea of the corolla with two setaceous teeth : 
calvx truncate downward. 
HAB. Wet meadows. May— July. U . Stem 8—12 
in. high; fl. yell, and purp. 
». P. gladiata: stem simple ; leaves lanceolate, pinna- 
tifid, dentate ; spikes leafy, hairy, with the flowers 
alternate ; capsule terminating in a long flat point. 
TIAB. Wet meadows. May— June. U . Fl. yell. 
and purp. — A var. of No. 2? 

400. MIMULUS. Monkey-flower. 
J . M. ringens : erect, smooth ; leaves sessile, lanceo- 
late, acuminate ; peduncles axillary, longer than 
the flower. 
HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. y. . Stem 2 ft. high, 
ang ; fl. large, pale purp. 
% M. alatus : erect, smooth ; leaves petiolate, ovate, 
acuminate, serrate ; peduncles axillary, shorter 
than the flowers; stem quadrangular, winged. 
HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. H . Stem 2 ft. high : 
teeth of the cal. obi. acum. 


401. CHELONE. Shell-flower. 

C. glabra : smooth ; leaves opposite, lanceolate 
oblong, acuminate, serrate; flowers in dense 

HAB. Wet places. Aug.— Oct. 4 . Stem 2 ft. high, 
simp. ; fl. large, wh. or rose-col. 


1. P. pubescens : stem pubescent; leaves lanceolate - 
oblong, sessile ; repandly serrulate ; flowers pa- 
niculate ; sterile filament bearded above the middle. 
HAB. Mountain meadows. June. 4 . Stem 11 
ft. high, slend. ; fl. pale purp. 

?. P. IcEvigatum : smooth ; leaves ovate-oblong, am- 
plexicnul at the base, denticulate ; the inferior 
very entire ; flowers paniculate ; sterile filament 
bearded above. 
HAB. Low stony grounds. July. 4 . Stem 1 — 2 
ft. high ; fl. pale purp. 


M. proboscidea : stern decumbent, branched ; leaves 
alternate, cordate, very entire, villous. 

HAB. River banks. Au^. — Sept. 0. Stem thick, 
viscid-pub. ; fl. large, wh. f pu?ict. 

404. SCHWALBEA. Scrophularince. 

9. americana. 

HAB. Sphagnous swamps. Sept. 4. Stem 12 — 

18 in. high, simp.; leav. alt. obi. entire ; fl. ra 

cem., subsess., dark-pur p. 

405. EUCHROMA. Painted-cup. Scrophularince, 

E. coccinea : leaves and coloured bracts pinnatifullv 
3-cleft ; segments divaricate ; calyx 2-cleft, nearly 
equal with tho corolla ; segments retuse and 

HAB. Wet meadows. May — June. 4 . Stem G— 1- 
in. high; bracts scarl : cor. yell. 


406. BARTSIA. Scrophularince. 
B. pallida: leaves alternate, linear, undivided: 

upper ones lanceolate ; floral ones subovate. 

slightly toothed at the end ; all 3-nerved ; teeth 

of the calyx entire. 
HAB. High mountains. Aug. H . Stem pubes.; 

Jl. yell., pubes. 

407. MELAMPYRUM. Cow-wheat. Melampyracea; . 
M. lineare : leaves linear-lanceolate ; the floral 

ones with setaceous teeth at the base ; flowers 

1IAB. Woods. June— July. ©. Stem Z— Win. 

high, bran. ; fl.-leav. ovate-Ian. 

408. OROBANCHE. Broom-rape. Orobanchecc. 

1. O. americana : stem very simple ; imbricate with 
oval-lanceolate scales ; spike terminal, smooth ; 
corolla recurved, with the stamens exserted. 
HAB. Woods. July. U. Stem 4—6 in. high, 
very thick, br.-yell., leafless, scaly ; Jl. bract. 

.'. O. vniflora: stem very short ; peduncles 2, elonga- 
ted, scapiform, 1-flowcred, naked ; scales smooth, 
concave ; lobes of the corolla oblong-oval, with a 
pubescent coloured margin. 
HAB. Woods. May— July. U. Pedunc. 4— 6 in. 
long, subpubes. ; Jl. recurv., bl.-wh. 

409. EPIPHAGUS. Beech-drops. Orobanchecc. 

E. virginiana. 

HAB. Beech woods. Sept. U. Leafless, branch 

ed, smooth; 8 — 12 in. high; jl. distant ; abort, ones 

larger, purplish. 


0. CAKILE. Silicle compressed, of 2 single-seedeo 
joints ; superior joint with an erect single 


seed ; inferior with a pendulous (sometimes 
abortive) seed. 

411. THLASPI. Silicle compressed, emarginate, many- 
seeded ; valves carinate, (often winged) Fitam. 
without teeth, distinct. Cal. equal at the base. 

•112. DRABA. Silicle entire, oval or oblong; valves 
flat or convex ; cells many-seeded. Seeds not 
margined ; cotyledons accumbent.* Filam. with 
out teeth. 

413. ALYSSUM. Silicle orbicular, or elliptical ; valves 

flat, or convex in the centre. Seeds 2 — 4 in 
each cell, compressed, sometimes membrana- 
ceously winged ; cotyledons accumbent. Cal. 
equal at the base. Pet. entire. Stam. mostly 

414. LEPIDIUM. Silicle ovate or subcordate ; valves 

carinate, dehiscent ; cells 1 -seeded. Cotyledons 

115. CAMEL1NA. Silicle subovate, many-seeded; 

valves turgid. Cotyledons incumbent. Filam. 
without teeth. 

116. SUBULARIA. Silicle oval, many-seeded ; valves 

convex. Stig. sessile. Cotyledons incumbent, 
linear, biplicate. 


117. DENTARIA. Silique. lanceolate; valves, flat, 

nerveless, often opening elastically ; receptacle? 
not winged. Funiculus dilated. Seeds i?i a sin- 
gle series, ovate, immarginate ; cotyledons ac- 

CARDAMINE. Silique linear, with the margins 
truncate ; valves flat, nerveless, often open 
ing elastically, narrower than the dissepiment. 
Seed not margined, with a slender funiculus. 

ARABIS. Silique linear: valves flat, 1 -nerved. 
ids in a single row. Cotyledons accumbent 
Cal, erect. 

* The cotyledons are uccumbent when the back of one of then. 
ii applied to the curved radicle : incumbent when the ed^es of 
cotyledons arc applied to it. 

\ - 


420. BARBAREA. Silique 4-edged. Cotyledons ac- 
cumbent. Seeds in a single row. Cal. equal at 
the base, erect. Shorter filaments with inter- 
mediate glands. 

■121. NASTURTIUM. Silique subterete, often short ; 
valves concave, nerveless, not carinate. Cal. 
equal, spreading. Cotyledons accumbent. 

422. SISYMBRIUM. Silique subterete. Cotyledons 

incumbent, sometimes oblique, flat. Cal. mostly 
spreading, equal at the base. 

423. HESPERIS. Silique subquadrangular, or ancipi- 

tal. Slig. subsessile, of 2 connivent lobes. Co- 
tyledons incumbent, flat. Cal. closed, sulcate 
at the base. 

424. SINAPIS. Silique subterete, 2-valved ; (some- 

times of 2 articulations, of which the upper one 
is nerveless.) Cotyledons conduplicate. Seeds 
globose, in a single row. Cal. spreading. 

425. RAPHANUS. Silique valueless. Cotyledons con- 

duplicate. Cal. closed. 
42G. CLEOME. Cal. 4-leaved, spreading. Pet. 4, 

unequal. Stam. 6, unequal, often connected at 

the base. Silique stipitate in the calyx. 
127. POLANISIA. Cal. 4-leaved, spreading. Pet. 

4, unequal. Stain. 8 — 32. Silique sessile in the 



410. CAKILE. Sea-rocket. Crucifera . 

C. maritima : /3. americana : leaves cuneate-oblon^ 
obtuse, sinuately toothed ; joints of the silicle 1 
seeded ; the uppermost ovate, acute. 

HAB. Sea-coast. July— Oct. 0. Plant flesh* 
heavy, branch. ; fl. purp., corymb. 

411. THLASPI. Penny-cress. Crucifera?. 
V. ancuse: leaves oblong-sagittate, coarsely tootf. 


ed, smooth ; silicle suborbicular, loDger than the 
pedicel ; its wings dilated longitudinally. 
HAB. Fields. June. 0. Stem erect, 8 — 12 in. 
high ; leav. smooth ; fi. wh. 

2. T. tuberosum : leaves rhombic-ovate, obsolete!} 

dentate, smooth, sessile ; radicle ones on long pe- 
tioles ; stem pubescent ; root tuberous ; silicle 
HAB. Pennsylvania. April — May. Stem 4 — 5 iff* 
high ; fi. rather large, rosaceous. 

3. T. Bursa-pastoris : silicle triangular-obcordate, with- 

out wings ; cells many-seeded ; radicle leaves pin- 
HAB. Pastures, &c. March— Oct. ©. Stem 6— 
12 in. high; fi. small, corymb., wh. §. 

412. DRABA. Whitlow-grass. Crucifera\ 

*. Petals entire. 

1. D. arabisans : stem leafy, somewhat branched, sub 
pubescent ; leaves lanceolate, acutely dentate ; 
silicle linear, smooth, longer than the pedicel. 
HAB. Rocks. $. Silicle elongated, acuminate, 

**. Petals bifid. 

J, D. rerna : scapes naked ; leaves lanceolate, subin 
cised, hairy ; silicle elliptical-oblong. 

HAB. Fields and hills. March — May. ©, leav. 
all rad. ; scape 2 — 6 in. long ; fi. wh. 
'. D. caroliniana : stem leafy at the base, hispid, na- 
ked and smooth at the apex ; leaves ovate-round 
ish, hispid, entire, hispid ; silicle linear, smooth, 
longer than the pedicels. 

HAB. Fields. April. 0. Stem 1—2 in. high; 
silicle 4 — o in. long ; fi. wh. 

. ALYSSUM. Gold-of-PIeasure. Crucifcra. 

\ ! dnitatum : stem erect and herbaceous ; ra< i 
paniculate ; radical leaves subruncioately denl 
-omewhat scabrous; cauline linear-lanceolate, 


sessile, nearly smooth ; silicle elliptical, pubescem 
shorter than the pedicel. 
HAB. Rocks. May. U . Stem 6 in. high ; pules, 
thin ; style long, persist. 

414. LEPIDIUM. Pepper-wort. Cruciferat. 

1. L. virginicum : leaves linear-lanceolate, incisely ser- 

rate, smooth ; flowers with 2 — 4 stamens ; silicle 
orbicular, emarginate ; stem branched above. 
HAB. Sandy fields. June— Oct. 0. Afoot high, 
panic, above ; fl. minute, wh. 

2. L. campestre : cauline leaves sagittate, dentate ; 

silicle ovate, winged, emarginate, scaly-punctate. 
HAB. Hills. May. 0. Afoot high, erect ; leav. 
pules. ; ft. wh. 

415. CAMELINA. Cruciferce. 

C. sativa : silicle obovate-pyriform, margined, tip- 
ped with the pointed style ; leaves subentire, Ian 
ceolate, sagittate. 

HAB. Hills. June. ©. Stem \\ ft. high, branch. : 
ft* yell., corymb. 

416. SUBULARIA. Owl-wort. Crucifem. 

' S. aquatica. 
HAB. Margins of ponds. July. ©. Leav. rad> 
subul. ; scape 1 — 2 in. high ; fl. wh. 


4 IT. DENTARIA. Toothwort. Crucifera. 

1. D. laciniata: leaves in threes, ternate ; leaflets 3- 
parted ; segments oblong, unequally and incisely 
dentate ; root moniliform. 
HAB. Rocky woods. April — May. Stem 8 in* 

high ; root tub. ; ft. purplish. 
/S. pinnatifida: leaflets subpinnatifidly laciniate. 
.', D. diphylla : stem 2-leaved ; leaflets ternate, sub 
ovate, unequally and incisely dentate : root dentate 


IIAB. Woods. May. U . Stem 6—8 in. high; 
leafl. large, fl. yellowish. 

3. D. heterophylla : stem 2-leaved ; leaves ternate, pe- 

tiolate, leaflets liHear, sublanceolate, acute, entire ; 
radical leaflets ovate-oblong, incisely and coarsely 
HAB. Shady woods. June. U. Root tub. ; stem 
low ; leafl. ciliate ; fl. purp. 

4. D. maxima: leaves numerous, alternate, petiolate ; 

leaflets ternate, suboval, incisely dentate ; lateral 
ones lobed ; axils without glands ; racemes lateral 
and terminal. 
IIAB. Woods. U. Stem 1% ft. high; leav. 5—7 : 
leafl. very broad ; fl. purp. 

413. CARDAMINE. Lady's smock. Crucifercc. 
*. Leaves undivided. 

1. C. rhomboidea: leaves ovate-rhomboid, obscurely 

repand-dentate, smooth ; inferior ones on long 
petioles ; root tuberous and fibrous. 
HAB. Wet meadows. May— June. U . Stem 8— 
10 in. high, subpubes. ; fl. large, wh. 

2. C. rotundifolia : leaves suborbicular, nearly entire, 

smooth, petiolate ; stem weak, procumbent ; root 
HAB. High mountains. July. y. . Siliques spread- 
ing, Slend. ; fl. sm., wh. 

**. Leaves divided. 

3. C. pennsylvanica : smooth, branched ; leaves pin- 

nate, often sublyrate ; leaflets roundish-oblong ob- 
tuse, angularly toothed ; stem erect ; petals ob- 

IIAB. Wet places. May. July. U. Stem. 8 — 
12 in. high; term, leafl. large; sil. erect. 

0. gracilis : stem slender, weak ; leaves with few 
and narrow segments. 

IIAB. Wet woods. July. U . Stem subdecumb. 
4 — 6 in. long ; fl. minute, wh. 
I. C. virginica: smooth, erect ; leaves pinnate ; leaf- 
lets lanceolate, subauriculate ; stem erect ; siliques 
long, straight and erect. 


HAB. Moist rocks. May— June. U. Stem 5—8 
in. high ; leajl. small, subpubes. ; fl. uh. 

5. C ? teres : leaves sublyrate-pinnatifid ; segment? 

oval-oblong ; the terminal ones somewhat 3-lobed ; 
siliques short, erect, terete. 
HAB. Wet places. June — July. tt . 

6. C. hirsuta: leaves pinnate, hairy; leaflets of the 

radical ones roundish, petiolate ; those of the 
upper ones oblong, subsessile ; petals oblong ; 
siliques erect. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. May. ®. 

419. ARABIS. Wali-Cress. Cruciferce. 

1. A. sagittata: leaves subdlntate, rough, with the 

pubescence often branched ; radical ones ovate or 
oblong, attenuated into a petiole ; of the stem lan- 
ceolate, sagittate-cordate ; pedicels as long as the 
calyx ; siliques straight ;.nd erect. 
HAB. Hills. June. $. Stem 1£ ft. high, simp. , 
straight ; Ji. small, wk. 

2. A. thaliana : leaves hairy, subdentate ; radical 

ones oblong, petiolate ; stem branched, hairy at 
the base, siliques ascending ; pedicels much longer 
than the calyx. 
HAB. Dry hills. April— May. ©. Stem 2—4 
in. high, erect; siliq. slend. 

3. A. lyrata: stem and upper leaves smooth and glau- 

cous ; radical leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, often pi- 
lose ; stem branched at the base ; pedicels spread' 
ing ; silique erect. 
HAB. Rocky hills. April— July. £. Stem 8— 
12 in. high ; caul. leav. lin. ; Ji. large. 
1. A. laevigata: stem leaves linear, oblong, sagittate, 
smooth ; the lower ones subdentate ; radical ones 
obovate ; pedicels erect ; siliques very narrow 
and long, at length pendulous. 
HAB. Rocky hills. May. U. Stem 2 ft. high: 
siL 2\ in. long ; root nerved. 

4. A. canadensis: stem leaves sessile, oblong-lanceo- 

late, narrow at the base, pubescent, pedicles pu- 
bescent, reflexed in the fruit ; siliques pendulous, 
sub-falcate, nerved. 


HAB. Rocky hills. June. U. Stem 2 ft. high; 
ped. 3 times as long as cal. 

420. BARBAREA. Winter-cress. Cruciferce. 

B. vulgaris: lower leaves lyrate ; terminal lobe 
roundish ; upper ones obovate, dentate. 

IIAB. Old fields. June. U. Stem I— 2 ft. high* 
smooth, leav. very sm. ; fl. yell. 

421. NASTURTIUM. Nasturtium. Crucifer*. 

1. N. officinale: leaves pinnate; leaflets ovate, sub- 

cordate, repand. 
HAB. In water. June — July. U . Stems decumb. 
term, leafl. large ; fl. wh. 

2. N. palustre : leaves lyrate-pinnatifid ; lobes conflu- 

ent, unequally dentate, smooth ; petals as long as 
the calyx ; siliques short, turgid ; root fusiform. 
HAB. Wet places. July. ©. Stem U ft. high, 
fl. yell. ; pedicel short. 
5. N. amphibium : leaves oblong-lanceolate, pinnatifid 
or serrate ; root fibrous ; petals longer than the 
calyx ; siliques elliptical. 
HAB. Wet places. June— July. U. Stem 1—2 
ft. high ; fl. yell. ; sil. subreflex. 

122. SISYMBRIUM. Hedge-mustard. Crucifem. 

'!. S. officinale: leaves runcinate, and with the stem, 
hairy : siliques subulate, appressed. 
HAB. Fields. June— Oct. 0. Stem 1—2 ft. 
high, branch. ; fl. minute, yell. 
J. S. Sophia: leaves bipinnatc ; segments oblong-li- 
near, incised ; petals shorter than the calyx ; 
calyx twice as short as the pedicel. 
HAB. Sandy fields. July. ©. Stem 8—1. 
high ; leav. sm. or pubes. ; fl. yell. 

423. HESPERIS. Dame's violet. Crucifercc. 

II I pinnatifida : leaves acutely serrate ; superior 
ones lanceolate; inferior spinnatifid-Iy rate : pedicel, 
at length longer than the calyx. 


HAB. Woods. July. U. Stem lft. high; JL 
pale purp. ; pet. entire. 

424. SINAPIS. Mustard. Cruciferce. 

S. nigra : siliques smooth and even, subquadrangu 
lar, appressecl ; inferior leaves lyrate ; upper ones 
lanceolate, entire, petiolate. 

HAB. Waste grounds. June — July. 0. Stem 
2 — 4 ft. high ; upper leav. deflex. ; fi. yell. 

425. RAPHANUS. Radish. Cruciferce. 

R. Raphanistrum : silique jointed, 1-celled, striate 

3 — 8-seeded ; style long ; leaves simply lyrate. 
HAB. Fields. June— July. 0. Stem 1—2 ft. 

high, hispid ; leav. scab. ; Jl. yell. §. 

426. CLEOME. Capparidcs. 

0. pentaphylla : smoothish ; leaves quinate ; the 
lower and floral ones ternate ; leaflets entire and 
subserrulate ; stamens inserted on the pedicel of 
the germen. 

HAB. Cultivated grounds. July. ©. Stem 2 ft, 
high, viscid ; pet, wh., onfilif. clams. 

427. POLANISIA. Capparides. 

P. graveolens : viscidly pubescent, leaves ternate ; 

leaflets elliptical-oblong ; stamens 8 — 12 ; tilique* 

oblong, attenuate at the base, muricate with a 

glandular pubescence. 
HAB. Sandy shores. June. U. Stem 1 ft. high : 

Jl. racem., red.-wh. — Plant fetid. 



428. PASS1FL0RA. Cal. 5-parted, coloured. Pet. 5, 
inserted upon the calyx. JVect. a filamentous 
crown. Pepo (berry) pedicellate. 



429. GERANIUM. Cal. 5-leaved, equal. Pet. 5, 
equal. Stam. 10; 5 alternate ones longer, with 
nectariferous glands at the base. Pericarps 5, 
with long awns, united to elongated receptacles, 
at length separating elastically from the summit 
to the base : awns smooth internally. 


130. SIDA. Cal. 5-cleft, simple, often angular. Style 

many-cleft at the summit. Capsules numerous, 
arranged circularly, 1-celled, 1 — 3-seeded. 

131. ALTHiEA. Cal. double ; the exterior 6—d~ 

cleft. Capsules numerous, 1 -seeded, arranged 

432. MALVA. Cal. double .; the exterior mostly 3- 

leaved. Capsules numerous, 1-celled, 1-seeded 

arranged circularly. 
133. HIBISCUS. Cal. double; the exterior many • 

leaved. Stig. 5. Caps, 5-celled ; cells many 



. PASSIFLORA. Passion (lower. Passijlom , 

;. P. lutca : leaves cordate, 3-Iobed, obtuse, smooth ; 
petioles without glands ; peduncles axillary, \n 
pairs ; petals much longer than the calyx. 
HAD. R.tnks of rivers. June — Aug. \\ . Climb., 
slcnd. : jl. small, gr.-yell. 
\ P. iwarnaUt : leaves S-lobed, serrate; lobes ob- 
long, acute ; petioles with two glands; involu 
< rum 3-leaved ; leaflets lanceolate, glandularis 
dentate; rays of the nectary longer than th< 
I1AII. Panks of rivers. Sept. U.tSfcm long, climb.} 
pet. a ' '" . n< 'i. purp. 



429. GERANIUM. Geraniacece. 

1 . G. maculatum : stem angular, erect, retrorsely pu 

bescent, dichotomous ; leaves 3 — 5-parted, in- 
cised ; radical ones on long petioles ; upper ones 
opposite, sessile ; petals entire ; filaments scarcely 
ciliate at the base. 
I-IAB. Woods. May— June. U. Stem 1—2 ft. high ; 
leaves hairy ; fl. large, purp. 

2. G. carolinianum : diffuse, pubescent; leaves 5- 

parted ; segments 3-cleft ; incised peduncles 
crowded, subfasciculate ; petals emarginate, as 
long as the awned calyx ; pericarps hairy ; seeds 
JJAB. Hills and fields. May— June. ©. Stem 12— 
18 in. long, much bran. ; fl. small, wh. 

5. G. pusillum : leaves subreniform, 7-lobed ; lobes 
3-cleft ; petals subemarginate, as long as the point- 
less calyx ; pericarps pubescent, not rugose ; 
seeds smooth. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. May. ©. 

I. G. dissectum : diffuse, pubescent; leaves 5-parted ; 
segments 3-cleft, linear; petals emarginate, as 
long as the awned calyx ; pericarps hairy ; seeds 
11AB. Dry hills. June — July. ©. Stem I ft. high, 
pubes. ; fl. small, pale red. 

">. G. Robertianum : leaves 3 — 5-parted ; segments 
pinnatifidly 3-cleft ; petals entire, much longer 
than the angular awned calyx ; pericarps small, 
reticulate, rugose ; seeds smooth. 
II AB. Rocky places. May — Sept. 0. Stem long, 
red ; fl. small, pale purp. 


430. SIDA. Indian Mallow. Malvacev. 

1. S.spinosa: leaves ovate, lanceolate, dentate, with 
the tubercles" at the base spiny ; pedicels axillary. 


solitary, shorter than the stipules and petioles ; 
capsules 5, birostrate. 

UAB. Pine barrens. July— Aug. © . Stem 1—2 
ft. high, branch.; fl. yell. 

S. Kapuza : leaves palmately 5-lobed, smooth ; lobes 
oblong, acuminate, dentate ; peduncles many- 
flowered ; capsules 10, pointless, acuminate. 

HAB. Shady rocky places. July. U . Stem 3 — 1 

ft. high; fl. small whi 
, S. dioica : leaves palmately 7-lobed, scabrous : 
lobes lanceolate, incisely dentate ; peduncles 
many-flowered, bracteate, subcorymbed ; flowei> 
dioecious ; capsules 10, pointless. 

BAB. Stony ground. Oct. U. Stem 4— 5 ft. high. 

branch. ; fl. small wh. 
, S. Abutilon : leaves roundish-cordate, acuminate, 
dentate, tomentose ; pec'-mcle shorter than the 
petioles ; capsules 15, truncate, birostrate, hairy. 

I1AB. Waste places. July— Aug. © . Stem 2— 5 
ft. high; leav. large; fl. orange. § 

431. ALTHAEA. Marsh Mallow. Malvacea. 

A. officinalis: leaves soft-tomentose, cordate aim 
ovate, dentate, entire or somewhat 3-lobed ; pe- 
duncles axillary, many-flowered, much shorter 
than the leaves. 

HAB Borders of salt marshes. Aug.— Sept. U 
Stem 2 ft. high; Jl. large, purp. § 

432. MALVA. Mallow. Malvacea\ 

31. rotundifolia : stem somewhat prostrate; leave- 
roundish, cordate, obtusely 5-lobed ; fructiferou- 
pedicels bent downward, as well as the petioles, 
pubescent; corolla twice the length of the calyi 

UAB. Waste places. June— Oct. U. Rootfusif, 
pedunc. axill. ; Jl. small pink. 

433. HIBISCUS. Maha< 

. II. Moscheutos : leaves ovate, acuminate, serrate 
tomentose beneath; petioles bearing the pedun 
llyi tomentose ; capsule sue 


HAB. Brackish marshes. Aug. U . Stem 3 — bft, 
high; fl. large, wh., with a crim. centre. 

2. H. palustris : leaves ovate, dentate, somewhat 3- 

Jobed, whitish-tomentose beneath, pedicels axil- 
lary, distinct from the petioles, articulate above 
the middle. 
HAB. Borders of salt marshes. Aug. U . Fl. 
large, entirely red. 

3. II. militoris : leaves 3-lobed-hastate, acuminate. 

serrate, smooth ; pedicels articulate in the middle ; 
corolla subcampanulate ; capsule ovate, acuminate 
smooth ; seeds silky. 
HAB. River banks. July. U. Stem 3 ft. high ; 
fl. solit., axill.s rose-col. 
1. H. virginicus : leaves acuminate, unequally dentate, 
subvillose; inferior ones entire, cordate ; supe- 
rior 0'<es ovate cordate, 3-lobed ; pedicels longer 
than the petioles ; flowers cernuous ; pistils nod- 
HAB. Borders of salt marshes. Aug. H . Stem 
3 ft. high ; fl. sin., -purple. 


434. CORYDALIS. Cal. 2-leaved. Cor. 4-petalleu 
Filam. in 2 sets. Siligue, 2-valved compressed, 
oblong, many-seeded. 

)35. FUMARIA. Ca/. 2-leaved. Cor. 4-petalled, one 
of the petals gibbous at the base. Silicle ovate 
or globose, 1 -seeded, not opening. 


436. POLYGALA. Cal. 5-leaved, persistent; 2 oi 
the leaflets wingshaped and coloured. Caps. 
obcordate, 2-celled, 2-valved. Seeds pube 4 - 

diAdelphia.— decandria. 


* Stamens all connected, (monadelphous.) 
137. AMOKPHA. Cal. subcampanulate, 5-cleft. Cor 

with the vexillum ovate, concave ; wings and 

keel wanting. Legume 1 — 2-seeded, falcate. 
438. LUPINUS. Cal. bilubiate. Anth. alternately 

oblong and roundish. Legume coriaceous, toru- 

139. CROTALARIA. Vexillum large and cordate 

keel acuminate. Filam. united, with a dorsal 

fissure. Legume pedicellate, turned. 
MO. GENISTA. Cal. bilabiate; upper lip with 2 

lower with 3, teeth. Vexillum reflexed. 

* * Stamens diadelphous. 

t Stigma pubescent. 

ill. P1SUM. Cal. with the segments leafy, equal, 
Vexillum with 2 protruding plaits. Style com 
pressed, carinate, villous on the upper side 
Suture of the legume naked. 

142. LATHYRUS. Style flat, villous on the upper 

side, dilated upward. Cal. with the 2 upper 
segments shortest. 

143. VICIA. Style transversely bearded beneath the 

stigma. Cal. with the 3 inferior segment- 
straight and longer. Vexillum emarginate. 
1 \ 1. ERVUM. Stig. capitate, every where pubescent. 

1 1 Stigma smooth. 

115. ASTRAGALUS. Keel obtuse. Legume more or 
less completely 2-celled ; inferior suture in 

\ 1 1 Legume mostly 1-seeded. (J\*ot of the preceding 

MEL1LOTUS. Flowers racemose. Cal. tubu 

lar, 5-toothed. Keel simple, shorter than tin 

ingt and vexillum. Legume longer than tin 

calyx, rugose* 

!47, TRIFOLIUM. Flowers subcapitate. Legumt 

covered by the calyx, without valv- 


MS. STYLOSANTHES. Cal. tubular, very long 
bearing the corolla. Germen beneath the co 
rolla. Lament 1 — 2 -jointed, hooked. 

449. LESFEDEZA. Cal. 5-parled ; segments nearly 

equal. A r c€Mransversely obtuse. Loment \eu 
ticular, unarmed, 1 -seeded. 

•; \ 1 1 Legume mostly articulate. (Not of the preceding 

450. HEDYSARUM. Cal. 5-cleft. foeMransversely 

obtuse. Loment of several 1-seeded joints 
joints truncate, compressed, mostly hispid. 
151. iESCHYNOMENE. Cal. bilabiate. Lomeni 
compressed ; one of the sutures straight, the 
other lobed ; joints truncate, 1-seeded. Stain 
divided into 2 equal sets. 

: j t Legume l-celled, many-seeded. (Not of the pre 
ceding sections.) 

452. PHASEOLUS. Keel, with the stamens and style 
spirally twisted. Legume compressed, falcate. 
Seeds compressed, reniform. 

153. STROPHOSTYLES, Keel, with the stamen* 
and style spirally twisted. Legume terete, 
somewhat 2-celled. Seeds reniform. nearly cy- 

454. APIOS. Cal. subbilabiate, truncate, 1 -toothed 
Keel falcate, reflexing the apex of the vexillum. 
Germen sheathed at the base. > Legume coria- 
ceous, many-seeded. 

4j5. AMPHICARPA. Cal. 4-toothed. Pet. oblong : 
vexillum with the sides appressed. Slig. capi- 
tate. Legume compressed, stipitate, 2 — 4 

456. GALACTIA. Cal 4-toothed, with 2 bracts at th< 

base. Pet. all oblong ; vexillum broad, incum- 
bent. Attth. oblong. Stig. obtuse. Germen 
on a naked stipe. Legume terete, many-seeded. 

457. CL1TORIA. Cal. tubular or campanulate, 5- 

toothed. Cor. resupinate ; vexillum large, ex- 
panding, covering the wings. Legume linear, 
acuminate, many-seeded. 

458. PtOBINIA. Cal. campanulate, 4^cleft; uppei 

segment 2-cleft. Vexillum roundish, expanded 


and re-flexed. Legume compressed, elongated, 
many-seeded. Seeds compressed, small. 

459. TEPHROSIA. Teeth of the calyx subulate, 

nearly equal. Stam. monadelphous. Legunu 
compressed, coriaceous. 

460. MEDICAGO. Keel of the cor. deflexed from 

the vexillum. Legume compressed, spiral. 


434. CORYDALIS. Fumariacea, 

* Corolla with 1 spur at the base. 
1. C. glauca: stem erect, branched; leaves glaucous 
decompound ; segments cuneate, 3-cleft ; bract> 
linear, shorter than the pedicels ; siliques linear, 
HAB. Rocks. May— Aug. ©. £. Stem 8—18 
in. high ; rootfusif. ; fl. red and yell. 
r l. C. aurea: stem branched, diffuse ; leaves glaucous, 
doubly pinnate ; lobes oblong-linear ; bracts lan- 
ceolate; siliques linear, 4 times as long as the pe* 
HAB. Mountains. May. ©. Stem 8—12 in 
long ; Jl. small yell. 

* * Corolla with 2 spurs at the base. 
;. C Cucvllaria: spurs straight, divaricate,- acute 
scape naked ; raceme simple. 
II AB. Shady rocks. Apr.— May. U. Root bulb. : 
leav. 2, decomp. ; jl. large, wh. 
!, C. formosa : spurs slightly curved, obtuse ; raceme 
naked, somewhat compound ; stigma 2-angled. 
IIAB. Shady rocks. May. U. Root bulb. 
scape and pedunc. red ; Jl. large, rose-col. 

* * * Petals united, spongy. 

.. C. fungota: stem climbing; leaves furnished with 
tendrils; racemes axillary, corymbose, nodding 
corolla bigibbous at the base. 
HAB. Rocky hills. July— Aug 
decomp. : Jl. num.,Jlcsh-co' 



436. POLYGALA. Milk-wort. Polygalevt. 

P. vulgaris : leaves linear-lanceolate,rather obtuse 
stem ascending; calycine wings ovate, obtuse, ;t 
little longer than the capsule ; flowers in a termi- 
nal raceme. 

IIAB. River banks. H . Stems num. ; Jl. blue, 
cristate; fructiferous cal. green. + 

P. senega: stems numerous, erect, smooth, simple : 
leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate ; upper ones 
acuminate ; racemes spiked ; calycine wings or- 
bicular ; capsule elliptical, emarginate. 

IIAB. Woods. June — July. U . Stems 1 ft. high . 
leav. pale gr. ; jl. wh. 

P. paucifolia : stem simple, erect, naked below ; 
leaves ovate ; terminal flowers, large, cristate ; 
radical flowers apterous. 

IIAB. Woods and swamps. May — June. U« Stem 
3 — 4 m. high; leav. acute ; fl. 3 — 4, purp. 

P. pohjgama: stems numerous; leaves linear-ob 
long ; attenuate downwards ; racemes terminal and 
lateral, elongated : flowers sessile ; radical ra- 
cemes procumbent, with apterous flowers. 

IIAB. Fields. June— July. V. Stems 4— 8 in. 
high, angular ; Jl. purp. 

V.lutea: stem simple or branched; lower leave- 
^pathulate ; upper ones lanceolate ; spike subca- 
pitate, obtuse; calycine wings ovate, mucronate : 
bracts shorter than the flowers. 

IIAB. Swamps in pine barrens. June — Oct. * 
Fl. deep yell. ; heads oblong. 

P. purpurea: stem fastigiately branched ; leaves al- 
ternate, oblong-linear ; spikes cylindrical-oblong ; 
flowers beardless ; calycine wings cordate-ovate, 
twice as long as the capsule. 

IIAB. Wet pine barrens. July — Aug. © . Stem 
12—18 in. high; fl. subimbric, rose-col. 

P. sanguinea: stem fastigiately branched ; leaver 
alternate, narrow-linear ; spikes oblong; flower. 


beardless ; calycine wings obovate, as long as the 
1IAB. Wet meadows. July— Oct. ©. Stem 8— 
12 in. high ,• fl. loose, dark rose-col . 
3. P. verticillata : leaves verticillate, linear, whorla 
remote ; racemes spiked, acute, pedunculate ; 
flowers cristate ; calycine wings roundish ; stem 
erect, branched. 
HAB. Dry hills. July— Oct. ©. Stem very slend.. 
quadrang. ; fl. small, greenish -zeh. 
0. P. ambigua: leaves linear ; the lowest ones verti- 
cillate ; the rest scattered ; spikes acute on very 
long peduncles; flowers cristate; calycine wings 
round and veined, as long as the fruit ; stem erect, 
virgately branched. 
HAB. Wet woods. ©. Fl. purplish, distinctly 
10. V . fastigiata : stem slender, fastigiate ; leaves al- 
ternate, linear, acute ; spikes subcapitate, pedun- 
culate ; flowers subcristate; calycine wings 
spreading, ovate, acute, scarcely larger than the 
HAB. New-Jersey. © . 
1 f . P. cruciata : stem fastigiate, winged at the angles ; 
leaves verticillate in fours, linear-oblong, punc- 
tate ; spikes dense, sessile ; flowers subcristate ; 
calycine wings cordate, cuspidate. 
HAB. Open swamps. Aug.— Sept. 0. Stem 
often spreading ; fl. greenish-pur p. 
r2. P. brevifolia : stem erect, subfastigiate, winged at 
the angles ; leaves verticillate in fours, oblong- 
linear, short, sprinkled with resinous dots ; 
spikes pedunculate, partly capitate; flowers sub- 
cristate ; calycine wings cordate-ovate, acute 
scarcely longer than the capsule. 
HAB. Sandy swamps. July— Aug. © . Sten 
der ; branch, erect; fl. red. 
1 I. P. corymbosa: stem simple, angular, corymbose 
at the summit, many-headed ; radical leaves spa 
thulate-obovate ; cauline subequal, linear ; caly- 
cine wings oblong, cuspidate. 
HAB. Sphagnooi swamps. Jul) — Aug. Stem \ r ' 
in, high ; fl. yell., dark green when dry. 



•137. AMORPHA. Bastard indigo. Leguminosce. 

A. fruticosa /3. emarginuta: smooth, subarbores 
cent ; leaves petiolate, eraarginate ; spikes aggre- 
gated, long ; calyx hoary, pedicellate, one of the 
teeth acuminate, the rest obtuse ; legume few- 

HAB. New-Jersey? A shrub with spikes of pur}>. 

438. LUPINUS. Lupine. Leguminosv. 

L. peremiis : perennial ; root creeping ; stem and 
leaves smoothish ; leaves digitate ; leaflets 8 — 9, 
obcuneate, lanceolate, obtuse; flowers alternate ; 
calyx without appendages ; upper lip emarginate ; 
the lower entire. 

HAB. Sandy woods and hills. May — June. Stem 
ascend., 12 in. high; leav. digit.; fl. blue. 

139. CROTALARIA. Rattle-box. Leguminosce. 

. C. sagittalis: hairy, erect, branching; leaves sim- 
ple, ovate-lanceolate ; stipules lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, decurrent ; racemes opposite the leaves. 
about 3-flowered ; corolla smaller than the calyx. 
HAB. Sandy fields and woods. July — Aug. ©. 
Stem 12 in. high; fl. yell. ; legum. infl., black. 

. C. parviflora: hairy, erect, branched ; leaves sim- 
ple, linear-lanceolate ; upper stipules decurrent. 
with 2 very short teeth ; raceme? opposite the 
leaves; corolla smaller than the calyx. 
HAB. Sandy fields. June— July. 0. Leaves 2 
— 3 in. long ; fl. yell. 

440. GENISTA. Broom. Leguminoscz. 
G. tinctoria; leaves lanceolate, smooth ; branches 

terete, striate, erect, unarmed ; flowers in a leafy 

raceme ; legume smooth. 
HAB. Dry hills. July. Suffruticose, I ft. high 

branches num. : fl. yell., subsess. §. 


441. PISUM. Pea. Leguminosaz. 

P. maritimum : stem quadrangular, compressed 
petioles flat above ; stipules sagittate ; leaflets nu- 
merous, subalternate, obovate ; peduncles longer 
than the leaves, many-flowered. 

HAB. Sandy shores. May— July: %. Plant 
pale green ; stem decumb. ; Jl. blue ; leg. hairy. 

442. LATHYRUS. Vetchling. Leguminosce. 

L. palustris : stem quadrangular, winged ; stipules 
semisagittate, large, ovate, mucronate ; leaflets 
in 3 pairs, oblong-ovate, mucronate ; peduncles 
4 — 6-flowered, rather longer than the leaves. 

HAB. Wet thickets. June — July. U . Stem weak: 
leav, broad, or narrorv-ovate ; jl, purp. 

L. myrtif alius : stem naked, quadrangular; stipule? 
semisagittate, lanceolate, acuminate; leaflets 4, 
oblong-lanceolate, acute, mucronate, reticulately 
veined ; peduncles longer than the leaves, about 

!IAB. Salt marshes. July — Aug. U. Fl. purp. and 

L. venosus : stem naked, quadrangular; stipules 
semisagittate, ovate, acuminate ; leaflets numer- 
ous, (about 5 pairs,) subalternate, ovate, obtuse, 
mucronate, veined ; peduncles shorter than the 
leaves ; 5 — 10-flowered. 

HAB. Mountains. July. U. Leaflets large ; jl. 

4 13. VICIA. Vetch. Leguminosce. 

V. sativa : flowers mostly by pairs, sessile ; legumes 
erect ; lower leaves retuse ; stipules toothed, or 
laciniatc, with a dark spot beneath. 
HAB. Rocky shores June. ©. Stem \—'2j(. 

long ; leav. pubes. or smooth ; jl. sm., blur. 
. V. americana: peduncle- 4 — 10-flowered, shorter 
than the leaves; Btipules Beraisagittate, denl 
leaflets 8 — 12, elliptical-lanceolate, obi 
HAB. Shady thickets. June, li . Stem ion 
distant ; Jl. large, purp. 


3. V. Cracca: spikes many-flowered, retrorsely imbri 
cate, longer than the leaves; leaflets lanceolate, 
pubescent; stipules semisagittate, mostly entire. 
HAB. Meadows and thickets. Aug. U . Stem 
subpubes.; leav. pinnate; fl. sm.,purp. 

I. V. caroliniana: peduncles many-flowered, as long 
as or longer than the leaves ; flowers distant ; sti- 
pules ovate-lanceolate, entire; leaflets 3 — 10, el- 
liptical-lanceolate, rather smooth. 
HAB. Rocky hills. May— June. U. Stem long, 
climb. ; fl. small, num., white. 

444. ERVUM. Tare. Leguminosai. 

1. E. hirsutum: peduncles many-flowered; legumes 

hairy, 2-seeded ; leaflets linear-oblong, truncate. 
HAB. Rocky places, near salt water. May — June. 
0. Fl. minute, blue. 

2. E. tetraspermum : peduncles mostly 2-flowered 

legume smooth, 4 — 5-seeded ; leaves oblong, trun- 
HAB. With the preceding. May — June. © . 
Stem very slend. ; fl. minute, blue. 

445. ASTRAGALUS. Milk-vetch. Le gummosa. 

\» A. carolinianus : caulescent, erect ; leaflets (41) ob- 
long, pubescent beneath ; spikes pedunculate ; 
bracts lanceolate, as long as the peduncles ; le- 
gumes ovate, tumid, rostrate. 
HAB. Mountains. June — July. U. Spikes dense : 
fl. num., pale yellow. 

I. A. canadensis: caulescent, diffuse; leaflets (21, 
smooth on both sides ; legume subcylindrical, niu 
HAB. Barren fields. June. U . Stem c 2ft. high ; 
legume ovate, tumid? ; fl. yell. 

446. MELILOTUS. Melilot. LeguminosdH. 

M. officinalis: legumes naked, 2-seeded, rugose: 
leaflets ovate-oblong, dentate ; stem erect. 

HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. ©. $. Stem 2 — 3 
ft. high; fl. yell, in long racem. — Plant odor. 


447. TRIFOLIUM. Trefoil. Leguminosoz. 
* Legumes 3 — ^-seeded. 

1. T. repens: heads umbellate ; legumes 4-seedecL 
covered by the persistent corolla ; stem creep- 
HAB. Meadows, &c. May— Oct. U. Stem 6— 
12 in. long ; pet. very long ; fl. wh. 

Z. T. reflexum : decumbent, pubescent ; leaflets ob- 
ovate ; stipules obliquely cordate ; heads many- 
flowered ; flowers pedicellate, all at length re 
flexed ; legumes mostly 4-seeded. 
HAB. Rocky upland. "June. U. Very pubes. ; 
fl. in large heads, red. 

** Legume \seeded. 

t Vexillum deciduous ; {Flowers not yellow.) 

3. T. pratense : heads dense, ovate ; lower tooth ot 
the calyx shorter than the tube of the monopetal- 
ous corolla ; leaflets oval, entire ; stem ascend- 

HAB. Meadows, &c. May— Oct. U. Stem 1— 2 
ft. high ; fl. red, frag. §. 
I. T. pennsyhanicum : ascending; stem much bran- 
ched ; flexuous ; leaflets ovatp-elliptical, obtuse, 
very entire ; stipules awned ; spikes ovate-cylindri- 
cal, solitary, dense; lower tooth of the calyx shorter 
than the monopetalous corolla. 

HAB. Woods and fields. June— Sept. U . Fl. red. 
>. T. arvense : heads very hairy, oblong-cylindrical ; 
teeth of the calyx setaceous, longer than the co 
rolla; leaflets villous, nnrrow-obovate. 

HAB. Dry fields. June— Sept. 0. Stem 6— 12 
in high ; fl. minute, wh. or pink. 

tt Vexillum persistent, scarious. {Flowers yellow. ) 

T. procumbens : heads oval, densely imbricate ; 
vexillum sulcate, reflexcd ; stem procumbent 
middle leaflet petiolate. 


HAB. Sandy soils. June. 0. Stem 2 — 8 in- 
long ; Uafi. obovate ; fl. brown when old. 

7. T. agrarium : erect, subpubescent ; leaflets Ian* 

ceolate-cuneate, obtuse ; intermediate one sessile ; 
stipules lanceolate, acute ; heads oval, imbricate ; 
vexillum deflexed, persistent ; teeth of the calyx 
subulate, smoeth, unequal. 
HAB. Sandy soils. June. ©. Stem 1 ft. high ; fl. 

8. T. campestre : spike ovate, imbricate ; vexillum 

deflexed, persistent ; leaflets lanceolate-ovate, 
middle one petiolate ; stem sub-diffuse ; branches 
HAB. Sandy soils. June. 0. 

448. STYLOSANTHES. Leguminoscn. 

S. elatior : stem erect, pubescent on one side ; leaflets 

lanceolate, smooth, acute ; bracts lanceolate, cili- 

ate, 3 — 4-flowered ; loment indurated, 1 -seeded. 

HAB. Sandy woods. July— Aug. U. Stem 12 

in. high, branch. ; bracts hisp. ; fl. yell. 

449. LESPEDEZA. Bush-clover. Leguminosa>. 

I. L. frutescens ; stem erect; leaflets elliptical, ob- 
tuse, silky-pubescent ; flowers in subcapitate fas- 
cicles, shorter than the leaves, conglomerate to- 
wards the summit of the stem ; loments hairy, 
shorter than the villous calyx. 

HAB. Dry woods. Sept. U. Stem 2— 3 ft. high, 
hairy ; petiol. short ; cor. wh. and red. 
*?. L. angustifolia : stem erect ; leaflets linear-lanceo- 
late, hoary, pubescent ; racemes capitate, longer 
than the leaves ; corolla longer than the calyx. 

HAB. Sandy woods. Sept. U . Stem 2—3 ft. 
high ; leav. 2 — 3 lin. broad ; heads sm.; fl. wh. 
3. L. Stuvei: stem erect, simple, silky-villous ; leaf- 
lets elliptic-oval ; racemes pedunculate scarcely 
longer than the leaves, loose ; loments naked, 

HAB. Sandy fields, U. Stem 2— 3 ft. high, pu- 
hes. soft ; pedunc. 1 in. long ; cor. purp. 


4. L. kirta: erect, branched, very villous; leaflets 
roundish ; racemes capitate, axillary, on pedun- 
cles longer than the leaves ; corolla and loments 
as long as the calyx. 
HAB. Dry woods. Aug.— Sept. U". Stem 2— 4 
ft. high ; racem. ovate, dense ; fl. reddish-wh. 

6. L. sessiliflora : erect, somewhat branched ; leaflet*- 
oblong-oval, obtuse ; fascicles of flowers subses- 
sile ; axillary ones partly racemose ; loment na- 
ked, acute. 
HAB. Dry woods. Aug.— Sept. U . Stem 2 ft. 
high, slend. ; pet. long ; fl. violet. 

6. L. reticulata : stem erect, simple or branched, near- 

ly smooth ; leaflets oblong-linear, hairy beneath ; 
fascicles of flowers subsessile, numerous ; axillary- 
ones sub-racemose ; loment ovate, reticulate, 
HAB. Dry woods. Aug. U . Stem 2 ft. high, 
slend. ; leaves 2-lin. broad ; fl. violet. 

7. L. violacea : diffuse, much branched ; leaves on 

long petioles ; leaflets oval-elliptic, obtuse, sub- 
strigose beneath ; racemes setaceous, longer than 
the petioles, sub-umbellate ; flowers by pairs, dis- 
tinctly pedicellate ; loments rbtoinboidal, reticu- 
late, and smooth. 
HAB. Dry, woods. Aug. U- Stems long, slend.. 
nearly procumb. ; fl. violet. 

8. L. procumbens : slender, procumbent, every where 

pubescent ; leaflets oval ; peduncles very long, 
setaceous ; racemes short ; loments suborbicular : 
IIAB. Sandy fields and woods. Aug. — Sept. U 
Stems 2 — "6 ft. long ; fl. purp. 
'. L. prostrata : smooth, prostrate ; leaves on very 
short petioles ; leaflets obovate-'eliiptir, obtuse : 
racemes axillary and terminal, subpaniculate ; 
peduncles very long ; loments oval, subpubescent. 
I JAB. Sandy soils. Aug. U. Stem very slend. 
branch. ; fl. violet. 

450. HEDYSARUM. Sainfoin. Leguminoscc. 
L II. canadense : leaves ternate, oblong-lanceolute 


stipules filiform ; flowers racemed ; joints of the 
loment obtusely triangular, hispid. 
HAB. Woods. July. U. Stem 3 ft. high ; leav. 
3 in. long ; fl. purp. ; bract, long. 

I. H. canescens : erect, hairy; stem with ciliate an- 
gles, hispid ; leaves ternate, roundish, with ap- 
pressed hairs beneath ; stipules ovate, acuminate ; 
racemes paniculate ; bracts cordate ; joints of the 
loment triangular, hispid. 
HAB. Dry barren woods. June — Aug. U . Fl. 
pale purp. 

t. H. marilandicum : erect, branched, hairy ; leaves 
ternate, oblong, subvillous beneath ; stipules sub- 
ulate ; racemes paniculate ; loments 3-jointed ; 
joints rhomboida). reticulate, a little hairy. 
HAB. Dry woods. July — Aug. U . Stem hairy? 
above ; petiole long ; pan. loose. 

J, H. ciliare : erect, somewhat hairy ; leaves ternate, 
approximate, on very short petioles ; leaflets 
small, oval, obtuse ; stipules subulate ; panicle 
terminal; joints of the loment (2 — 3) semiorbicu- 
lar, hispid. 
HAB. Dry swamps. Aug. U. Stem 2 ft. high, 
slend. ; leav. small, numerous. 

5. H. obtusum : stem erect, very slender, smoothish ; 
leaves ternate, ovate, obtuse, subcordate at the 
base ; stipules subulate ; panicle terminal ; joints 
of the loment semiorbicular, reticulate, hispid. 
HAB. Woods. Aug. U . Stem 2 ft. high, branch. : 
leav. 1 in. long ; lorn. 3-joint. 

S. H. viridiflorum : stem erect, branched, scabrous; 
leaves ternate, ovate, obtuse, scabrous above, vil- 
lous and very soft beneath ; panicle terminal, very 
long, naked ; joints of the loment triangular. 
HAB. Woods:- Aug. U . Stem 3 ft. high, pubes. : 
fl. greenish externally. 

7. H. hnmifnsum: stem prostrate, smooth; leaves 
ternate ; lea&Vk ternate, slightly hairy ; racemes 
elongated ; joints of tne loment subrhomboidal. 
HAB. Woods. Aug. U . Leav. subacute; pan. 
loose ; joints 4 — 5, hisp. 

3. H. rotundifolium : stem .prostrate, hairy ; leaves 
ternate, suborbicular, hairy ; stipules cordate. 


reflexed ; racemes axillary, paniculate ; joints of 
the loment subrhomboidal. 

HAB. Rocky woods. Aug. U . Stem 2—3 ft. 

long; leav. large; racem. few-fl. 

9. H. paniculatum : erect, smooth; leaves ternate, 

oblong-lanceolate, or elliptical, smooth ; stipules 

subulate ; joints of the loment (4 — 5) rhomboidal. 

HAB. Woods. Aug. U. Stem 3 ft. high, slend., 
striate ; leav. long ; loment large. 
10. H. strictum : erect, subpubescent ; leaves ternate ; 
leaflets sublinear, smooth, reticulate ; stipules 
subulate ; racemes axillary and terminal ; loments 
mostly 2-jointed ; joints lunate-triangular, hispid. 

HAB. Pine barrens. Aug. U . Stem slender, 
branch. ; leav. 2 — 3 lin. broad. 
H. H. laevigatum: very smooth ; stem erect, or sub- 
decumbent ; leaves ternate, on long petioles, 
ovate, acute, subcoriaceous, somewhat glaucous ; 
panicle terminal ; bracts ovate, acute, shorter 
than the flower buds ; joints of the loment trian- 

HAB. Woods, Aug. U . Petiol. long ; leav, 
large ; loment 3 — 5-joint, hisp. 

12. H. nudifiorum : leaves ternate, broad oval, acu- 

minate, slightly glaucous beneath ; scape panicled. 
smooth, radical ; joints of the loment obtusely 
HAB. Woods. Aug. U. Stem 8— 10 in. high ; 
pet. long ; scape 2 — 3 ft. long, slend. 

13. H. acuminatum : erect, simple, pubescent ; leaves 
ternate, ovate, conspicuously acuminate, a little 
hairy ; panicle terminal, on a very long naked pe- 
duncle ; joints of the loment roundish. 

• HAB. Woods. July— Aug. U. Stem Q— 12 in. 
high; pan. 1 — 2ft. long. 

14. H. cuspidatum: erect, smooth ; leaves ternate, 

ovate, conspicuously acuminate ; stipules lanceo- 
late ; panicle terminal; bracts large, ovate, acu- 
minate ; joints of the loment subtriangular. 
HAB. Woods. Aug. U. Stem 3— 5 ft. high . 
leaves andjl. large ; loment 3 — 6 jointed. 
H. alpinum 3: erect; leaves pinnate: leaflets 
Z 2 


oval-oblong, hairy ; stipules partly sheathing ; 
joints nearly round, smooth. 
IIAB. Mountains. U . Fl. purp. 

451. JESCHYNOMENE. Leguminosce. 

.£. kispida : stem erect, and with the petioles, pedun- 
cles, and loments hispid ; leaves in many pairs ; 
leaflets linear, obtuse ; racemes simple, few- 
HAB. River marshes. Aug. © . Stem 2 — 3 ft. 
high ; leaf., very num. ; fl- yell, and red. 

452. PHASEOLUS. Kidney-bean. Leguminosce. 

?.perennis: twining, pubescent ; racemes paniculate, 
mostly by pairs ; leaflets ovate, acuminate, triply 
nerved ; legumes pendulous. 
HAB. Dry woods. July. U. Stem long; pan. 
6 — 12 in. long ; leg. broad-falcate. 

453. STROPHOSTYLES. Leguminosce. 

I . S. angulosa : leaves ternate ; leaflets angular, 2— 

3-lobed ; flowers capitate, on peduncles longer 

than the leaves. 
HAB. Rocky banks. Aug. ©. Stem prostrate. 

somewhat hairy ; lower leaves entire. 
I. S. helvolus: climbing or prostrate ; leaves ternate ; 

leaflets oblong-ovate ; flowers capitate, on very 

long peduncles. 
HAB. Sandy fields. July— Aug. U. Stem branch. • 

pedunc. 6 — 8 in. long. 

454. APIOS. Leguminosce. 

\, tuberosa. 
HAB. Shady thickets. July— Aug. U. Root tub. ; 
stem twining ; leaves pinnate ; leafl. 5 — 7 ; racem. 
axill. ; fl. dark purp. 

455. AMPHICARPA. Leguminosce. 

i. monoica: leaves ternate, ovate, smooth ; stem hairy ; 
racemes of the stem pendulous, petaliferous, ste- 


rile ; radical peduncles, bearing apetalous fertile 
HAB. Woods and thickets. July— Aug. U . Stem 
twin., slend. ; fl. racem., pale purp. 

456. GALACTIA. Leguminosce. 

1. G. glabella : leaves ternate. ovate, and elliptic, sub' 

coriaceous, shining, eraarginate at each end, smooth 
above ; racemes pedunculate, as long as the leaves ; 
calyx smooth ; legumes pubescent. 
HAB. Pine barrens. Aug. U. Stem prost. ; fl. 
reddish-pur p., large. 

2. G. mollis: plant villous-hoary; leaves ternate, oval or 

elliptic, pale beneath; racemes axillary, simple, 
elongated, few-flowered ; legumes villous. 
HAB. Pine barrens. July — Aug. U. Fl. ptirp., 
with yell, and white. 

457. CLITORIA. Leguminosce. 

\. C. mariana: leaves ternate, ovate, acute, pale be- 
neath ; calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-cleft, much 
longer than the linear bracts ; legume torulose. 
HAB. Shady river-banks. Aug. U . Erect or 
twin. ; fl. large, pale blue. 

2. C. virginiana : leaves ternate, ovate ; calyx 5-parted, 
scarcely as long as the bracts ; segments subulate, 
diverging ; legumes subensiform. 
HAB. Hedges. Aug. H . Stern twirling ; fl. very 
large, pale violet. 

458. ROBINIA. Locust. Leguminosce. 

11. Pseudacaria : leaves pinnate, with an odd leaflet ; 
stipules prickly ; racemes pendulous ; teeth of the 
calyx unarmed ; legumes smooth. 
HAB. About plantations. May. A large tree ; fl: 
large, wh. in ! mg roc em. 

. TEPIIKOSIA. Leguminosce. 

T. virginica : erect, villous; leaflets numerous, ob 
long-lanceolate, acuminate ; raceme terminal, sub 
sessile ; legumes falcate, villous 


HAB. Dry woods. July. U . Stem 12 in. high . 
leav. pale gr. ; fl. wh. andpurp. 

460. MEDIGAGO. None such. Leguminosae. 

M. lupulina: spikes ovate; legumes reniform, 1- 
seeded. veined and rugose ; stems procumbent. 
HAB. Fields, &c. May— Oct. Q. Stems diffuse ; 
spikes small, yell. 


*' Florets all ligulate. 

461. C1CHOR1UM. Cal. surrounded with ieaiy 

scales. Recept. somewhat chaffy. Pappus 
plumose, sessile, unequal. 

462. APARGIA. Cal. imbricate. Recept. naked 

punctate. Pappus plumose, sessile, unequal. 

463. LEONTODON. Cal. imbricate, with flaccid 

scales. Recept. naked. Pappus simple, stipi- 

464. PRENANTHES. Cal. surrounded with leafy 

scales, Florets few, (5—20.) Recept. naked. 
Pappus simple, subsessile. 

465. LACTUCA. Cal. imbricate, cylindrical; scales 

membranaceous at the margin. Recept. naked. 
Pappus simple, stipitate. 

466. SONCHUS. Cal. imbricate, swelling at the 

base. Recept. naked. Pappus simple, sessile. 

467. HIERACIUM. Cal. imbricate, ovate. Recept. 

nearly punctate. Pappus simple, sessile. 

468. KR1G1A. Cal. many-leaved, simple. Recept. 

naked. Pappus double ; exterior 5 — 3-leaved ; 
interior of 5, 8, or 24 scabrous bristles. 
* * Florets all tubular, forming a hemispherical head. 

469. ARCTIUM. Cal. globose, with the scales hook- 

ed at their extremity. Recept. chaffy. Pappus 

470. ONOPORDON. CaJ. ventricose, imbricate with 


spreading spinous scales. Recept. pitted. Pap- 
pus capillary, deciduous, scabrous. 

471. CNICUS. Cal. ventricose, imbricate with spi- 

nous scales. Recept. hairy. Pappus decidu- 
ous, plumose. 

472. LIATRIS. Cal. oblong, imbricate. Recept. na- 

ked. Pappus plumose, persistent, (mostly co 
loured.) Seed pubescent, striate, obconic. 

473. VERNONIA. Cal. ovate, imbricate. Stig. bi- 

fid. Pappus double ; exterior short and chaffy ; 
interior capillary. 

* * * Florets all tubular, erect, forming a nearly 
level top. 

474. KUHNIA. Cal. imbricate, cylindric. Recept. 

naked. Pappus plumose, sessile. Seed pubes- 
cent with numerous striae. 

475. EUPATORIUM. Cat. imbricate, oblong. Style 

much exsert, deeply cleft. Recept. naked. 
Pappus scabrous. Seed 5-Btriate, or angular. 

476. MIKANIA. Cal. 4— 6-leavecI, 4— 6-flowered. 

Recept. naked. Pappus hairy. 

477. CHRYSOCOMA. Cal. imbricate, oblong or he- 

mispherical. Style scarcely exserted. Recept, 
naked. Pappus hairy, scabrous. Seed pubes- 

478. CACALIA. Cal. cylindric, scaly at the base. 

Recept. naked. Pappus hairy. 

479. SPAKGANOPHORUS. Cal. subglobose, imbri- 

cate ; scales recurved at the point. Recept. 
naked. Seed crowned with a cartilaginous 
shining cup. 


* Florets of the ray obsolete. 

480. TANACETLIM. Cal. imbricate, hemispherical ; 

scales acuminate. Rays oi" the corolla obsolete, 
tritiil. Recept. naked. Pappus somewhat mar- 
161. ARTEMISIA. Cal. ovate, imbricate; scales 
rounded, connivent. Florets of the ray subu- 
late. Recept. subvillous or naked. Pappus 


482. BACCHARIS. Cal. imbricate, cylindric ; scales 

ovate, subcoriaceous. Fertile florets mixed 
with the perfect. Recept. naked. Pappus 

483. CONYZA. Cal. imbricate ; scales often sub- 

scarious. Recept. naked. Marginal florets fer- 
tile, 3-cleft. Pappus simple and capillary. 

484. GNAPHALIUM. Cal. imbricate ; scales scari- 

ous, mostly coloured. Recept. naked. Florets 
of the ray subulate ; fertile florets entire. Pap- 
pus scabrous. 

* * Florets of the ray ligulate. 

485. ER1GERON. Cal. imbricate, subhemisphericaL 

Florets of the ray very numerous and narrow. 
Recept. naked. Pappus double ; exterior mi- 
nute ; interior hairy, of few rays. 

486. INULA. Cal. imbricate. Florets of the ray nu- 

merous, (yellow.) Recept. naked. Pappus sim- 
ple, scabrous ; (sometimes with a minute exte- 
rior chaffy pappus.) 

487. ASTER. Cal. imbricate, with the lower scales 

often spreading. Florets of the ray generally 
more than 10, rarely fewer, (not yellow.) Re- 
cept. naked. Pappus simple. 

488. SOLIDAGO. Cal. imbricate, scales connivent. 

Florets of the ray about 5, (yellow.) Recept. 
naked. Pappus simple, scabrous. 

489. ARNICA. Cal. hemispherical ; leaflets equal, 

longer than the disk. Recept. naked. Pappus 
simple, hairy. Florets of the ray (yellow) of- 
ten destitute of anthers. 

490. SENECIO. Cal. subcylindric, equal, scaly at 

the base ; scales withered at the points. Re 
eept. naked. Pappus simple. (Rays sometimes 

491. TUSS1LAGO. Cal. simple, equal, membrana- 

ceous, swelling. Recept. naked. Pappus sim- 
ple, sessile. (Flowers mostlv discous.) 

492. BOLTONIA. Cal. imbricate. Rays numerous. 

Recept. conic, punctate. Seeds flat and sub- 
marginate. Pappus consisting of many minute 


bristles, with 2 of them opposite, and mostly 

493. CHRYSANTHEMUM. CaL hemispherical, im- 

bricate ; scales with membranaceous margins. 
Recept. naked. Pappus 0. 

494. VERBESINA. CaL many-leaved ; leaflets dis- 

posed in a double series. Rays about 5. Re- 
cept. chaffy. Pappus 2-awned. 

195. ANTHEM1S. CaL hemispherical ; scales near- 

ly equal, with scarious margins. Recept. con- 
vex, with flat rigid chaff. Seed crowned with a 
membranaceous border. 

196. ACHILLEA. CaL ovate, imbricate, unequal. 

Rays 5 — 10, roundish-obcordate. Seeds without 
pappus or border. 

197. HELIOPSIS. CaL imbricate ; scales suborate, 

lined. Rays large and linear. Recept. chaffy, 
conic ; chaff lanceolate. Seed quadrangular. 
Pappus 0. 
490. HELENIUM. CaL simple, many-parted. Rays 
3-cleft. Recept. naked, globose, chaffy on the 
margin. Seed villous. Pappus of 5-awned 


199. HELIANTHUS. Cat. imbricate, subsquarrose.. 
leafy. Recept. chaffy, flat. Pappus chaffy, 2- 
leaved, caducous. 

500. RUDBECKIA. CaL subequal, mostly double. 

Recept. conic, chaffy. Pappus a 4-toothed mar 

501. BIDENS. CaL subequal, leafy or scaly at the 

base. Rays often wanting. Recept. chaffy, flat. 

Pappus consisting of 2 — 4 retrorsefy scabrous 

awns. Seed quadrangular. 
.02. COREOPSIS. CaL double ; each many-leaved ; 

the interior equal, subcoriaceous and coloured. 

Recept. chaffy ; scales flat. Seed compressed, 

emarginate, bidcntate. 
503. ACTINOMERIS. CaL simple, many-leaved, 

foliaceous, subequal. Rays remote, elongated, 

(4—8.) Recept. small and chaffy ; the leaflet? 

*76 SYNGENES1A.— mqjOAUS. 

embracing the margin of the seed. Seed com- 
pressed, margined, crowned with 2 persistent 


504. SILPHIUM. Cal. squarrose ; scales broad and 

leafy. Recept. chaffy. Seed flat, obcordate, 
emarginate, bidentate. 

505. POLYMNIA. Cal. double ; exterior 4—5- 

leaved ; interior 10-leaved ; leaflets concave. 
Recept. chaffy. Pappus 0. 

506. IVA. Cal. about 5-leaved, or 5-parted. Florets 

of the ray 5. Recept. hairy. Seed obovate : 


507. ELEPHANTOPUS. Partial Cal. 4-flowered. 

Florets 5-cleft. ligulate, perfect. Recept. naked. 
Pappus setaceous. 


461. CICHOR1UM. Succory. Composite*. 

C. Intybus : flowers axillary, sessile, in pairs ; leaves 
HAB. Fields. July—Sept. U. Stem 2— 3 ft. 
high, branch., rough ; fi. large, bl. §. 

462. APARGIA. Composite. 

A. auiumnalis : scape branching ; peduncles squamose ; 
leaves lanceolate, dentate or pinnatitid, smoothish ; 
calyx elongated. 
HAB. Fields, &c. June — Nov. U . Leav. rad. } 
scape spread., assurg. ; fl. yell, §. 


463. LEONTODON. Dandelion, Composite. 

L. Taraxacum : exterior scales of the calyx reflexed *, 
leaves runcinate, smooth, dentate. 
HAB. Pastures, &c. April— Nov. U. Smooth; 
leav. rad. ; fl. large , yelU 

464. PRENANTHES. Composite. 

. P. alba : radical leaves angular-hastate, somewhat 

lobed ; stem-leaves roundish-ovate, dentate, petio 

late ; racemes panicled, nodding ; calyx 8-cleftj 

9 — 12-flowered. 
HAB. Low woods. Aug.— Sept. U . Stem 2 — 

3 ft. high ; Jl. white or pur p. 
u. serpentaria : radical leaves palmate-sinuate ; 

those of the stem on long petioles, with the mid- 
dle segment 3-parted. 
HAB. Mountains. Aug. — Sept. FL purp. 
8, nana: stem low ; lower leaves 3-parted ; middle 

ones hastate ; upper ones ovate or lanceolate ; 

sometimes all are entire. 
II AB. High mountains. Aug. Stem 4 — 15 in. 

high; fl. purp., often erect. 
I, P. altissima : stem branched ; leaves 3-lobed, petio- 

late, angular, denticulate, scabrous on the margin ; 

racemes axillary ; flowers nodding ; calyx about 

HAB. Woods. Aug. U. Stem 3- 5 ft. high;fl. 

\. P. cordata : stem paniculate above ; leaves petio- 

late, cordate, denticulate, ciliate ; the uppermost 

ones sessile, oblong, entire ; flowers racemose, in 

a loose panicle, nodding ; calyx G-cleft, 6-flowered. 
HAB. Rocky woods. Aug. U. Stem 3 — 4 ft. 

high ; fl. yellowish. 
k. P. virgata : smooth ; stem simple ; leaves all lyrate 

sinuate ; flowers subsecund, pendulous ; cafyl 

smooth, 8-cleft, 10-flowered. 
HAB. River banks. Sept. U . Stem S— 4 ft. 

high, slcnd. ; fl. purp. 
.. P. racemosa : stem simple; leaves ill undivided, 

tmoothish ; radical ones oral -lanceolate, deol 
A a 


late ; radical ones closely sessile ; raceme oblong ; 
flowers in nodding fascicles ; calyx very hairy. 
8 — 9-parted, 9 — 12-flowered. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug.— Sept. U. Stem 2 ft. high ; 
fl. purp. 

465. LACTUCA. Lettuce. Composite. 

1. L. elongata: leaves smooth ; the lower ones runci* 
nate, amplexicaul ; upper ones lanceolate, sessile ; 
flowers paniculate. 
HAB. Wet woods. U. £. July— Aug. Stem 4— 6 
ft. high ; pan. large, loose ; fl. yell. 
?. L. hirsuta : lower part of the stem and leaves hairy ; 
radical leaves lyrate ; segments truncate, subden- 
tate; upper ones partly runcinate-pinnatifid ; flow- 
ers in racemes. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. Aug. U . Fl. yell, and purp. 
3. L. intcgrifolia : leaves sagittate, entire, unarmed., 
amplexicaul ; flowers panicletl. 
HAB. Roadsides. July. $. Stem 3—4 ft. high, 
smooth ; fl. yell. 
1. L. sanguinea: leaves amplexicaul, runcinate, glau- 
cous beneath; with the midrib filamentous ; flowers 
HAB. Woods. July— Aug. $? Stem 2—3 fl 
high, purp. ; cal. purp. ; fl. crim. 

466. SONCHUS. Sow-thistle. Composite. 

1. S. oleraceus : peduncles tomentose ; calyx smooth 
leaves runcinate, dentate. 
HAB. Waste places. July— Sept. ©. Stem 
2 — 3 ft. high, hollow ; fl. yell. §. 
\ S. arvensis: peduncles and calyx hi?pid, sub umbel- 
late ; leaves runcinate, denticulate, cordate at the 
base ; root creeping. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. U. Stem % ft. high: 
glandular-hairy ; fl. large, yell. §. 
). S. leucophccus : peduncles squ;»mo>e; flowers race- 
mose ; leaves runcinate, acuminate ; stem virgate 
and panicled. 
UAB. Swamps. Sept. U-6*- Stem 2 ft. high : 
fl. yellowish. 


4. S. acuminatus : peduncles subsquamose ; flowers 

paniculate ; radical leaves subruncinate ; cauline 
ones ovate, acuminate, petiolate, denticulate in the 
HAB. Woods. Aug. $ . Stem 4— 5 ft. high ; fl. 
small, blue. 

5. S. pallidus : raceme compound, terminal ; leaves 

lanceolate-ensiform, amplexicaul, dentate. 
HAB. Fields. July. U . Stem 2—3 ft. high ; 
fl. small, yell. 

6. S. Jloridanus : peduncles subsquamose ; flowers pa- 

niculate ; leaves lyrate-runcinate, minutely den 
tate, petiolate. 
HAB. Roadsides. Aug. $. Stem 3—5 ft. high : 
pan. long ; fl. sm., blue. 

7. S. macrophyllus : peduncles hairy, naked ; flowers 

paniculate ; leaves lyrate ; cordate at the base, 
hairy beneath. 
HAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Sept. U. Stem 4 — 7 
ft. hi%h ; fl. large, blue. 

8. S. spinulosus : leaves amplexicaul, oblong, undu- 

late, spinulose ; flower* somewhat umbelled. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug. @. Stem 2 ft. high; 
pedun. smooth, or subpilose ; fl. yell. 

467. HIERAC1UM. Hawk-weed. Composite. 

1. H. venosum: ?cape naked, paniculate, smooth; 
leaves obovate-lanceolate a little hairy above, 
naked beneath, ciliate ; the veins coloured ; calyx 

HAB. Woods. July— Aug. U. Scape 1— 2 ft. 

high ; leav. rad. ; fl. yell. 
\\. Gronovii : scape leafy, paniculate : calyx glandu- 
lar-hairy ; leaves obovate, obtuse, entire, strigose ; 
midrib beneath very villous. 

IIAB. Dry hills. Aug.— Sept. U. Stem 2 ft. 
high, nearly naked ; pedicels gland. 
'. II. pamcutatum : smoothish ; stem erect, lenfy, 
whitish tomnntose ; pedicels capillary ; leaves lan- 
ceolate, naked, dentate, membranaceous. 

HAB. Wood-. Ann;.— Sept. U. Stem 1 ft. high . 
leav. smooth; pedicels long. 


4-. H.Kalmii: stem erect, subvillose ; leaves sessile 
lanceolate, acuminate, acutely and divaricately 
dentate ; panicle subcorymbose ; pedicels to- 
HAB. Rocky woods. Aug. U. SltmZft. high ; 
pedicels thick, 

■). H. marianum : stem erect, villous ; leaves obovate 
or elliptic, strigose and hispid, villous on the mid- 
rib ; the lower ones slightly dentate; pedicels 
and calyx tomentose. 
HAB. Sandy hills. Aug.— Sept. Stem 2 ft. high . 
•pan. dense ; ped. gland. 

468. KRIGIA. Composites. 

1. K. virginica : glaucous; primary leaves roundish 

entire; the rest lyrate, nearly smooth; scape 1- 
flowered, smooth, at length longer than the leaves ; 
calyx smooth. 
HAB," Sandy soils. May — July. 0. Scape 1—6 
in. high ; fl. sm., orange. 

2, K. amplexicaulis : glaucous ; leaves oblong-ovate ; 

radical ones subdentate, spathulate; scape some- 
what leafy, often bifid ; branches 2 — 3-flowered ; 
pappus with many bristles. 
HAB. Woods. June. U. Stem 1 ft. high ; pe* 
dune, elong. ; fl. large, orange. 

469. ARCTIUM. Burdock. Composite/*. 

A. Lappa : leaves cordate, petiolate, without 

HAB. Road sides, &c. July — Dec. U. Leai\ 
large, spread. ; fl. term., purp. §. 

HO. ONOPORDUM. Cotton Thistle. Composite 

O. Acanthium: scales of the calyx spreading, subu- 
late ; leaves ovate-oblong, decurrent, sinuate and 
spinous, woolly on both sides. 

HAB. Waste places. July. £ . Plant white and 
woolly ; fl. large, solit., purp. §. 


471. CNICUS. Thistle. Composites. 
* Leaves decurrent. 

1. G. lanceolatus : leaves decurrent, pinnatifid, hispid ; 

the segments divaricate and spinous ; calyx ovate, 
tomentose ; scales lanceolate, spreading. 
HAB. Waste places. July— Sept. £. Stem 2 — 1 
ft. high; leav. toment. beneath. §. 

* * Leaves sessile. 

2. C. altissimus: leaves sessile, oblong-lanceolate. 

scabrous, tomentose beneath, dentate, ciliate; 
radical ones pinnatifid ; calyx ovate, bracteate ; 
scales ovate-lanceolate, spinous, appressed. 
HAB. Old fields. June— Sept. U . Stem 3—8 
ft. high; fi. subsolit., large, purp. or wh. 

3. C. arvensis : leaves sessile; pinnatifid, spinous; 

stem paniculate ; calyx ovate or globose ; scales 
ovate-lanceolate, mucronate, appressed. 
HAB. Road sides, kc. July. U . Root creep. ; 
stem 2 — 3 ft. high; fi. sm. } purp. § ? 

4« C. horridulus : leaves sessile, pinnatifid, acutely 
laciniate, very spinous, woolly beneath; involu 
crum many-leaved, 1-fiowered, scales acute. 
HAB. Fields. June— Aug. $. Stem 1—2 ft. 
high ; fi. axil, and term., large, yeilozvish. 

>. C. muticus: leaves all pinnatifid, woolly beneath : 

segments spinulous, somewhat acute ; branches 

naked, 1 -flowered ; calyx globose ; scales unarmed, 

HAB. Meadows. Aug. — Sept. g. Stem subsimp.. 

3 — 4 ft. high ; cal. woolly. 

«j. C. discolor: leaves sessile, lanceolate, pinnatifid. 
smooth above, white and tomentose beneath ; seg- 
ments 2-lobed, spinous; calyx subglobose ; scales 
appressed, with reflexed points. 
HAB. Thickets. July— Sept. $ . Stem 3—5 
ft. high, much branch. ; fi. red. -purp. 

7. C. xirginianus: stem simple, attenuated, mostly 1- 
tlowered ; leaves sessile, lanceolate, hoary and 
tomentose beneath, very smooth above, remotely 
dentate ; teeth spinous ; calyx ovate ; scales im- 
pressed, with short points, carinatc. 
A a 2 


HAB. Woods. June. U. Stem 3—5 ft. high , 
slend. ; cal. glutin. ; fl. purp. 
3. C. pumilus : stem hairy ; leaves amplexicaul, green 
on both sides, oblong-lanceolate, pinnatifid ; seg- 
ments irregularly lobed, ciliate and spinous; calyx 
subglobose, naked; scales appressed, spinous. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. $. Stem thick, 1 ft. 
high; fl. few, large, purp. 
9. C. glutinosus: leaves pinnatifid, with divaricate seg- 
ments ; calyx ovate, with unarmed glutinous scales. 
HAB. Damp soils. Aug. — Sept. £. Stem 4 — 6 
ft. high ;fl. small, purp. ; cal. webbed. 

472. LIATRIS. Composite. 

i. L. squarrosa : stem simple, pubescent; leaves linear ; 
very long ; raceme few-dowered, leafy ; calyx 
large, about 20-flowered ; scales leafy, lanceolate., 
mucronate, rigid and spreading ; segments of the 
florets linear, villous internally. 
HAB. Dry woods. Sept. U . Root tub. ; stem 
2 — 3 ft. high ; fl. few, very large. 

2. L. scariosa : stem erect, hairy; leaves lanceolate. 

pubescent, scabrous along the margin ; raceme 
long; calyx 14-flowered ; scales obovate, nearly 
smooth, with the margin scarious ; the lower ones 
HAB. Sandy hills and woods. Sept. ty. Stem 
3 — 4 ft. high ; fl. num., large, 

3. L. spicata : leaves linear, entire, smooth, ciliate ai 

the base, nerved and punctate ; raceme spiked . 
scales of the calyx linear, obtuse. 
HAB. Moist meadows. Aug. U . Stem 3—5 /L 
high, smooth; cal. S-fl. 

4. L. pilosa : stem simple, pubescent ; leaves linear. 

hairy, ciliate ; flowers racemose, loose ; scales of 
the calyx oblong, obtuse ; pedicels bracteate. 
HAB. Pine barrens. Sept.— Oct. U. Root bulb, 
stem. sle7uh; fl. small. 

473. VERNONIA. Composite. 
1. V. noveboracensis : leaves numerous, lanceolate, 
scabrous, serrulate ; corymb fastigiate ; scales of 
the calyx AJiform at the extremity. 


IIAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Oct. U . Stem 4 — 
ft. high; jl. large, purp. 
2. V. prozalta: stem angular, densely pubescent; 
leaves numerous, lanceolate, acutely serrate, pu- 
bescent beneath; corymb fastigiate ; scales of the 
calyx ovate, acute, unarmed. 

HAB. Meadows. Aug.— Oct. U. Very tall ; fl. 

474. KUHNIA. Composites. 

1. K. eupatorioides : smooth ; leaves petiolale, broad- 

lanceolate, serrate, corymb terminal, few-flow- 
ered, crowded. 
HAB. Shady woods. Aug.— Sept. % . Stem 2—3 
ft. high: fl. vtfh.i cal. 10-/. 

2. K. Critonia: leaves linear, nearly entire, punctate 

beneath ; panicle long, expanding. 
IIAB. Rocky banks. Sept. U. Stem slend.. 
striate, pubes. ; fl. wh. ; seed striate. 

Alb. EUPATORIUM. Hemp Agrimony. Composite*. 

* Calyx 3 — 5-flowered. 

1. E. hyssopifolium : stem erect; lowest leaves oppo- 

site, linear, very entire or subdentate, pubescent. 
3-nerved; corymb subfastigiate; style much longer 
than the corolla. 
JIAB. Pine barrens. Aug. U . Stem 2 ft. high . 
leav. punc ; fl. wh. 

2. E. linearifolium : stem subprocumbent, villouV 

above ; stem-leaves opposite, lanceolate-linear, 
rarely dentate, sometimes fasciculate ; style as 
long as the corolla. 
UAB. Sandy fields. Aug.— Nov. U. Stem 1—% 
ft. high, subviscid; fl. wh. 
\ E. sessilifolium : leaves sessile, amplexicaul, dislincr 
ovnte-lanceolate, rounded at the base, ver\ 
smooth; stem smooth. 
HAB. Rocky woods. Aug. — Sept. U. Stem '-' 
ft. high; leav. large; fl. wh. 
A. E. truiKatum : leaves sessile, amplexicaul, distinct, 


lanceolate, truncate at the base, serrate, nearly 
smooth ; stem pubescent. 
II AB. Rocky woods. July — Oct. H. Leav. punci.. 
coarsely serrate; fl. wh. 
5. E. album: leaves subsessile, oblong-lanceolate, 
scabrous, serrate ; interior scales of the calyx 
long, scarious, and white. 
HAB. Pine barrens. Sept.— Oct. U . Stem 18 
in. high, slend., pubes. , cal. gland. 
Q. E. lance.olatum: leaves sessile, distinct, oblong- 
lanceolate, scabrous, deeply serrate at the base ; 
scales of the calyx of one colour. 
HAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Nov. Fl. white. 
7. E. teucrifolium : leaves sessile, distinct, ovate, sca- 
brous, coarsely serrate at the base ; uppermost 
ones entire. 
HAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Sept. H. Stem 2 
ft. high ; leav. subamplex. ; fl. wh. 
3. E. melissoides : leaves petiolate ovate, rather obtuse, 
serrate, veined, smoothish. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. U . Fl. wh. 

9. E. rotundifolium : leaves sessile, roundish-cordate. 

obtusely serrate, veined ; scales of the calyx acu- 
HAB. Sandy fields. Sept.— Oct. H. Stem 18 
in. high ; leav. large ; fl. subfastig. 

10. E. pubescens : leaves sessile, distinct, ovate, sca- 
brous, veined ; the lower ones doubly serrate ; 
tipper ones subserrate ; stem paniculate, pubes- 
cent ; branches fastigiale. 

HAB. Sandy woods. Aug. — Oct. H . Branched: 
leav. acute ; fl. wh. 
H. E. ceanoihifulium : leaves petiolate, ovate, acumi- 
nate, dentate, triply nerved, smooth. 

HAB. Rocky woods. Aug. — Nov. U- . Stem2fl. 
high ] leav. large ; fl. wh. 

12. E. ovatum: hairy, scabrous ; leaves opposite, ses- 
sile ; ovate, obtusely dentate ; corymb fastigiate : 
calyxes about 8-flowered. 

HAB. Low grounds. July— Aug. H . Stem 3 — 4 
ft. high ; fl. wh. ; cal. hairy. 

13. E. altissimum: leaves subsessile, lanceolate, 3- 


nerved, attenuate ?t each end, pubescent ; the in- 
ferior ones serrate about the middle. 
HAB. Sandy woods. Aug.— Oct. U . Stem 3—7 
ft. high ; Jl. white. 

14. E. amcenum : leaves on short petioles, opposite and 
ternate, lanceolate-oblong, acute at each extremity, 
serrate, nearly smooth, subrugose ; reticulately 
veined beneath ; corymb crowded ; scales of the 
calyx acute, coloured. 

HAB. Mountains. Sept.— Oct. U. Stem 2ft. 
high, solid; pedunc. foment. ; Jl. purp. 

15. E. trifoliatum: leaves petiolate, ternate and qua- 
ternate, ovate, acuminate, serrate, subscabrous. 

HAB. Woods. Aug.— Sept. U. Stem 3— 4 ft. 
high, solid; corymb, large, purp. 

* * Calyx more than b-flowered. 

16. E. purpureum : leaves petiolate by fours or fives, 

ovate-lanceolate, serrate, rugosely veined, slightly 
scabrous ; stem hollow. 
HAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Sept. U . Stem 5 — € 
ft. high, purp. ; Jl. purp.; cal. 84eav. 

17. E. maculatum> leaves petiolate, by fours or fives, 
ovate-lanceolate, unequally serrate, pubescent be- 
neath ; stem solid, sulcatc. 

HAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Sept. U . Stem 4 — 5 
ft. high, punct. ; cal. 5 — S-Jl. 

18. E. verticillatum : leaves petiolate, by threes or 
fours, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at each end. 
unequally serrate, nearly smooth ; stem solid 

HAB. Wet woods. Aug. — Sept. U. Stem 3 — 4 
ft. high, slend. ; cal. xvh. ; Jl. purp. 

19. E. punctatum: leaves petiolate, by fours and fives, 
acuminate, serrate, scabrous on both sides ; stem 
solid, terete. 

HAB. Mountains. Aug. — Oct. U . FL purp. 

20. E. perfuliafum ; leaves connate-perfoliate, pubes- 

HAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Sept. U. Stem 2 ft. 
high, branch., vill. ; leav. large; Jl. zvh. 

21. E, celestinum; leaves petiolate, cordate-ovate, ob 


tusely dentate, triply nerved, subscabrous ; calyx 
tnany-leaved, many-flowered; flowers corymbed. 
HAB. Mountains. Aug. — Sept. lj. . Stem 2 ft. 
high ; fl. large, blue, dense, 

22. E. aromaticnm ; leaves petiolate, ovate, acute, ob- 
tusely dentate, subscabrous; stem paniculate above: 
flowers corymbed; calyx simple. 

HAB. Dry woods. Aug. U . Stem 2 ft. high, 
pubes. ; leav. triply nerv. ; Jl. large, wh. 

23. E. ageratoides : leaves on long petioles, subcor- 
date, ovate, acuminate, dentate, nearly smooth, 
triply nerved ; corymb many-flowered ; calyx 
nearly equal. 

HAB. Rocky hills. Aug.— Oct. U. . Stem 2 ft. 
high, smooth; jl. num., wh., small. 

476. , MIKANIA. Composite. 

.1 M. scandens : stern climbing, smooth ; leaves cor- 
date, re pan Edentate acuminate, with divaricate 
unequal lobes; flowers corymbed. 
HAB. -Joist thickets July— Sept. U . Leav. 
oppos. ; corymb. axilL, pink. 

2. M. pubescens : stem climbing, pubescent ; leaves 
cordate, acuminate, angularly dentate, pubescent 
on both si('es; lobes divaricate, equal. 
HAB. Low grounds. Sept. U . Fl. pale purp.; 
odor. ; cah pubes. 

All. CHRYSOCOMA. Goldy-locks. Composite. 

C. virgata : herbaceous, smooth ; leaves all narrow 
and linear ; stem virgately branched ; branches 
corymbiferous, fastigiate ; calyx oblong, 3 — 4- 
flowered; scales glutinous and appressed. 
HAB. Swamps. U . Stem 18 in. high, branch.; 
leav. 1 — 2 in. long ; jl. yell. 

478. CACALIA. Composite. 

1. C. suaveolens : stem herbaceous; leaves petiolate, 
hastate-sagittate, serrate, smooth, green on both 
sides; flowers corymbed, erect; calyx many- 


HAB. Banks of rivers. Aug. U. Stem 3—4 ft. 
high ; leav. large ; fl. wh. ; anth. yell. 

C. atriplicifolia : stem herbaceous ; leaves petiolate, 
smooth, glaucous beneath ; radical ones cordate, 
dentate ; of the stem rhomboidal, subdentate on 
each side; flowers corymbed, erect; calyx 5- 

II AB. Banks of rivers. Aug. U . Stem 3—6 ft. 

high. ; pedunc. wh. ,• fl. sm., yell. 
, C . reniformis : stem herbaceous; leaves petiolate. 
smooth, hairy on the veins beneath ; radical ones 
cordate, reniform, repandly dentate ; of the stem 
oblong, dentate, cuneate and very entire at the 
base ; corymb fastigiate; calyx many-flowered. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. July. lj. . Stem 5 — 7 ft. 
high ; fl. yell.-wh. 

479. SPARGANOPHORUS. Composites. 

S. verticillatus : leaves linear, verticillate ; flowers 

few, terminal; pappus campanulate, 5-toothed. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. U . Stem simp.; I ft. high, 
■whorl. 6 — 8 leav. ; fl. pur p. 


480. TANACETUM. Tansey. Composite. 

T. vulgare : leaves doubly pinnate, incisely serrate, 
HAB. Old fields, &c. Aug. — Sept. H. Plant 
odor. : fl. dense t yell. §. 

481. ARTEMISIA. Wormwood. Composite. 

I. A. canadensis : stem herbaceous, paniculate, mostly 
erect; radical loaves subpinnate, slightly tomeo 
tose; cauline ones pinnate, segments subsetaceous. 
Incised, flat, nearly smooth ; flowers subglobose- 
sessile ; scales of the calyx scarious. 
HAB. Sandy shores. Aag. M . Stcm3—<\ ft. high, 

brownish ; fl. glomerate. 
A. caudata : stem simple, herbaceous, much branch 
ed, pyramidal ; radical and cauline leaves bipin 

nate, pubescent; upper ones pinnate; segment.- 


subsetaceous, alternate, divaricate, somewhat coil' 
vex ; flowers pedicellate, erect, globose-ovate. 

HAB. Seashores. U. Stem 2 ft. high. 
3. A. vulgaris : leaves tomentose beneath ; cauline 
ones pinnatifid ; divisions lanceolate, subdentate, 
acute; floral leaves linear-lanceolate, entire; flow- 
ers subsessile, oblong, erect ; calyx tomentose. 

HAB. Rocky hills. Sept. U . Stem 2 ft. high; 
leav. green above. § ? 

482. BACCHARIS. Ploughman's Spikenard. Cum* 

B. halimifolia : leaves obovate, incisely dentate 
above ; panicle compound, leafy ; fascicles pedun- 

HAB. Sea coast. Sept.— Oct. h • Plant pulve- 
rulent ; leav. thick ; pap. long, silky. 

483. CONYZA. Marsh-fleabane. Composite. 

C camphorata: leaves ovate-lanceolate, somewhat 
pubescent, acute, serrate; the serratures mucro- 
nate ; flowers in crowded corymbs. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug. U. Strong-scented y 
stem 1 ft, high ; fl. purp, 

484. GNAPHAL1UM. Cud-weed. Composite. 

1. G. plantagineum : shoots procumbent ; stem simple; 

radical leaves ovate, 3-nerved, mucronate ; flow- 
ers dioecious. 
HAB. Dry hills and woods. Apr. — Sept. ty . 
Plant downy ; rod. leav. large ; fl. pale purp. 

2. G. polycephalum : herbaceous, erect ; leaves linear* 

lanceolate, acute, smooth above, pubescent be- 
neath ; stem paniculate, tomentose ; corymbs ter- 
minal, crowded. 
HAB. Woods and low grounds. Aug. ©. Strong- 
scented, branch. ; fl. dust., pale yell. 

3. G. margaritaceum: herbaceous; leaves linear- 

lanceolate, acuminate, alternate ; stem branched 
at the top ; corymb fastigiate ; flowers pedicellate. 
HAB. Fields and woods. Aug. ty . Stem 1— t2 
fit. high , woolly ; fl. large, few, wh. 


?. G. uliginosvm : stem much branched; branches 

spreading, woolly; leaves linear-lanceolate; flowers 

in terminal, leafy crowded heads. 
HAB. Low grounds, &c. Aug, ©. Stem low, 

spread. ; cal. yellowish. 
o. G. americanum : stem herbaceous, erect, branched ; 

leaves obovatc-spathulate, pubescent beneath ; 

flowers axillary and terminal, in glomerate spikes. 
HAB. Fields and woods. June. ©. Stem 6 — 8 

in. high ; fl. yell.-wh. 

6. G. purpureum : herbaceous ; leaves linear-spathu- 

late, tomentose beneath ; stem erect, simple : 
flowers sessile, glomerate, axillary and terminal. 
HAB. Fields. June. U . Stolonif. ; atem 8—12 
in. high; Jl. purplish. 

7. G. germamcum : stem erect, proliferously branched 

upward; leaves lanceolate, cottony ; flowers small. 

in dense round heads, axillary and terminal. 
HAB. Fields. July. ©. Stem 6—8 in. high: 

branch, few, horizontal ; fl. yell. 
;. G. decurrens: stem erect, much branched; leaves 

linear-lanceolate, very acute, decurrent, white and 

woolly beneath, naked above ; flowers in dense 

terminal roundish clusters. 
IIAB. Hills and fields. Aug. % . Stem 2 ft. high; 

leav. green above ; jl. yell. 
K G. sylvaticum : stem erect, simple, downy ; flowers 

in a leafy spike ; leaves linear-lanceolate, downy, 

particularly beneath. 
HAB. Woods. July. U. Stem 12 in. high ; basr : 

subdecumb. ; cal. brownish. 

185. ERIGERON. Flea-bane. Composite. 

E. bellidifoliurn : hairy, gray; radical leaves obovate, 
subserrate ; stem leaves remote, oblong-ovate, ;im- 
plexicaul, entire; stern 3 — 5-flowered; rays Dearly 
twice as long as the hemispherical calyx. 
HAB. Hills. May. U. Stem erect, simp., 12— 18 
ill. high ; fl. pale pur p. 
1. E. integrifolium : stem simple, leafy, smooth; leav 6J 
lanceolate, entire, 3-nerved ; flowers corymbe.l ; 
calyx hemispherical ; scales acute. 
B b 


HAB. Woods, &c. June— Aug. U. Stem 2 ft 

high, ; leav. rarely subdent. ; Jl. whi 
3. E. philadelphicum : pubescent ; leaves cuneate-ob- 

long, subserrate ; those of the stem semiamplexi- 

caul ; florets of the ray capillary, as long as the 

disk ; stem branched above, many-flowered. 
HAB. Old fields. June— Oct. U. Stem 2— 3 ft. 

high, slend.; Jl, pale purp. 
i. E. purpureum : pubescent ; leaves oblong, dentate, 

amplexicaul ; upper ones very entire ; peduncles 

corymbed, thick ; the inferior ones elongated ; 

rays twice as long as the calyx. 
HAB. Woods. June. U. Stem 2 ft. high ; Jl. 

large, purp. 
.5. E. strigosum : hairy and strigose ; leaves lanceolate. 

attenuate at each end, with a few coarse teeth in 

the middle, or entire ; flowers in a corymbose 

HAB. Fields and woods. June — Oct. $. Stem 

2 — 3 ft. high, side; rays capill., wh. 
6. E. heterophyllum : radical leaves roundish-ovate. 

with large teeth, petiolate; stem leaves lanceolate. 

acute, serrate in the middle ; corymb terminal. 
HAB. Meadows. June— Oct. $ . Stem 2—3 fv. 

high ; leav. large ; Jl. wh. 

* Subgenus CjENOTUS. Calyx oblong ; rays very 
numerous, minute ; pappus simple. 

7. E. canadense : stem hairy or hispid, paniculate : 
leaves lanceolate ; lower ones subserrate ; rays 
crowded, very short. 
HAB. Fields and cultivated grounds. Aug. — Not. 
0. Stem 4 in. — 5 ft. high. Variable. 

486. INULA. Composite?. 

1. I. Helenium: leaves amplexicaul, ovate, rugose, to- 
mentose beneath ; scales of the calyx. 
HAB. Road sides. July— Aug. U . Stem 3~ 4 
ft. high; leav. large ; Jl. yell. 


* Subgenus CHRYS0PS1S. Calyx imbricated,; rays 
of the corolla mostly yellow ; anthers naked at the base ; 
pappus double ; exterior paleaceous minute ; interior 
scabrous, many-rayed ; seeds obovate, villous. 

2. I. mariana: hairy; leaves oblong-lanceolate, ser- 

rate ; upper ones sessile, acute ; lower spathulate, 
mostly obtuse ; corymb simple ; calyx viscidly pu- 
HAB. Woods. Aug. U . Stem 18 in. high ; rays 
10—12 oblong. 

3. l.falcata : woolly and villous; leaves sessile, linear, 

acute, rigid, subfalcate ; calyx subtomentose. 
HAB. Pine-barrens. Sept— Oct. U . Stem 6—12 
in. high ; ft. small. 

4. I. graminifolia : silky; leaves lanceolate, linear, 

acute, entire, nerved ; corymb compound ; stem 
leafy towards the summit. 
HAB. Sandy woods. Aug.— Oct. U . Stem 2 //. 
high; leav. long, subrigid. 

487. ASTER. Starwort. Composite. 

* Calyx white, green at the summit ; florets of the ray 

about 5, white. 

1. A. solidaginoides : leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, 
scabrous on the margin ; flowers sessile aggre- 
gate ; calyx imbricate, with the scales obtuse, 

HAB. Dry woods. July— Aug. U . Stem 2 ft. 
high ; ft. fastig. -corymb. 
2. A. conyzoides : leaves oval-lanceolate, acute, serrate 
towards the summit, triply nerved ; the lower 
ones attenuate at the base ; upper entire ; scales 
of the calyx oval, obtuse, appressed, slightly re- 
flexed at the summit. 

HAB. Woods and copses. July — Aug. U. Stem 
2 ft. high; leav. thick; cal. cylivd. 

* * Florets of the ray numerous ; pappus single. 

| Leaves eniire. 

\. hyssopifolius : leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved. 
punctate, acute, scabrous on the margin ; branches 


fastigiate, clustered ; florets of the ray about 5 
calyx imbricate, half as long as the disk. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Aug. U . Stem 18 in. high, 
slend. ; Jl. small, wh., or purplish. 

4. A. subulatus : smooth ; stem much branched from 

the base, paniculate ; leaves long and linear, very 
acute; uppermost subulate; calyx subcylindric 
with subulate scales ; radical florets minute. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug.— Nov. ©! Stem 12 
— 18 in. high ; Jl. small, purp. 

5. A. foliolosus : leaves linear-lanceolate, attenuate at 

each end, acuminate ; stem pubescent, paniculate^ 
erect ; branches few-flowered ; calyx imbricate, 
with linear acute appressed scales. 

HAB. Dry fields. Aug.— Oct. U. FL small, 
3. A. paludosus: stem simple ; leaves linear subulate, 
smooth, amplexicaul ; peduncles few, one-flow- 
ered, pubescent, leafy ; calyx squarrose. 

HAB. Open swamps. Aug. U . Stem 3 — 5 Jl. 
Jl. large, blue ; cal. subfoliaceous. 

7. A. tenuifolius : leaves linear-lanceolate, tapering at 

each end, very entire ; margin slightly scabrous ; 

stem smooth, branched, erect, with 1-flowereu 

branches ; scales of the calyx acute, loose. 
HAB. Fields. Sept. U . Stem 2 ft. high, pubes. 

above ; Jl. s/n., pale purp. 
0. dumosus : branches paniculate, with very short 

HAB. Fields. Sept. FL wh. or pale purp. 
y. ericoides : leaves linear ; those on the branches 

short and approximate ; stem smooth. 
HAB. Rocky fields. Sept. Lower leaves long ; 

very smooth : Jl. pale purp. 

8. A. multiflorus : leaves linear, entire, nearly smooth, 

somewhat ciliate ; stem diffusely branched, pu- 
bescent, calyx imbricate squarrose, with oblong, 

Plllfltc SCJllGS. 

HAB. Rocky fields. Sept. U . Stem 2 ft. high. 

very pubes. ; Jl. wh. ; disk yell. 
/3. cilmtus: leaves distinctly ciliate ; those of the 

branches very short. 
HAB. With the preceding. 


9. A. sparsijiorus : very smooth ; stem sparingly 

branched, somewhat flexuou3 ; leaves long and 
succulent ; the inferior ones sublanceolate-linear; 
superior subulate ; branches one-flowered, leafy ; 
scales of the calyx lanceolate, acuminate, ap- 
pressed ; rays numerous, shorter than the calyx. 
HAB. Salt marshes. Aug.— Oct. U. Stem 12 in. 
high;fl. large, purp. 

10. A. concolor : leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire, 
whitish-pubescent on both sides ; stem simple, 
erect, pubescent ; raceme terminal ; scales of 
the calyx lanceolate, silky, appressed. 

HAB. Pine barrens. Oct. U. Root of ten tuber .; 
stem virg. ; Jl. large, blue. 

11. A. salicifolius : leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly 
entire ; stem smooth, paniculate above ; calyx 
loose, imbricate ; scales acute, spreading at their 

HAB. Low grounds. Sept. U. Stem tall; Jl. 
middle-sized, reddish-blue. 

12. A. astivus : leaves lanceolate, subamplexicaul, at- 
tenuated at the apex ; margin scabrous ; stem 
branched from the base, erect, hispid ; branches 
hairy; scales of the calyx loose, linear, acute, 

HAB. Dry swamps. Sept. $. Stem 2 ft. high . 
Jl. middle-sized ; rays blue. 

13. A. novae an glicb: leaves linear-lanceolate, amplexr- 
caul, auriculate at the base ; stem hairy and pani- 
culate ; flowers subsolitary on the branchlets. 
somewhat fastigiate ; scales of the calyx loose, 
linear-lanceolate, rather longer than the disk. 

11AB. Fields. Aug.— Oct. U. Stem 4— 6 ft. 
high;Jl. large, purp.-bl. ; rays numerous. 

14. A. cyaneus : leaves linear-lanceolate, amplexisaul. 
smooth ; stem branched, with the branches ex- 
panding, very smooth ; flowers in paniculate ra* 
cemes ; scales of the calyx loose, lanceolate, as 
long as the disk. 

HAB. Along fences. Sept. U- , Stem 3 ft. high . 
subgfauc. ; Jl. blue, large. 

15. A. phlogifulius : leaves lanceolate, cordate, am 

plexicaul. pubescent beneath, scabrous on tlie 


margin ; stem simple, pubescent ; panicle termi- 
nal, loose, few-flowered; scales of the calyx loose, 
HAB. Sandy woods. Sept. U. Stem 12— 18 in. 
high, slend. ; Jl. violet. 

16. A. patens: leaves oblong-lanceolate, ciliate, cor- 
date and amplexicaul, scabrous and hairy on both 
sides, those on the branches minute ; branches 
spreading, elongated, few-flowered ; scales of the 
calyx spreading, lanceolate. 

HAB. Rocky soils. Sept.— Oct. y.. Stem li— 2 
ft. high; Jl. blue. 

\ j Leaves lanceolate and ovate; the lower ones serrate. 

a Flowers corymbed. 

17. A. Mtdijlorus : stem simple and smooth ; leaves 
sessile, ovate-lanceolate, subacuminate, all sharply 
serrate, scabious above; corymb few-flowered ; 
peduncles pubescent, naked, mostly 1-flowered ; 
calyx hemispherical, closely imbricate ; scales 
linear-oblong, ciliate. 

HAB. Swamps. U . Stem 2 — 3 ft. high ; pedum 
long ; Jl. large , pale pur p. 

18. A. Radula: leaves lanceolate, serrate, acuminate, 

rugous and very scabrous ; stem erect, angular, 
simple ; corymb terminal ; calyx imbricate ; scales 
lanceolate, rather obtuse, subsquarrose. 
HAB. High mountains. Sept. U . Fl. middle 
sized; rays shorty white. 
0. A. strictus : leaves sessile, narrow-lanceolate, ser- 
rate, scabrous ; 6tem one or few-flowered at the 
summit ; scales of the calyx imbricate, appressed 
oblong, acute, about equal to the disk. 
\HAB. High mountains. Sept. — Oct. U . Stem 
4—8 in. high ; Jl. pale violet. 
20, A. svrculosus : stem simple, low, slender, minutely 
pubescent ; lower leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, 
or subserrate, scabrous above ; upper ones linear, 
amplexicaul ; corymb 3 — 5 flowered, somewhat 
naked ; calyx imbricate, subsquarrose ; scales 
ciliate, linear-oblong ; inner ones obtuse ; rays 


IIAB. Margin of swamps. U. . Root stolonif., 
creep. ; Jl. large, pur p. 

21. A. spectabilis- leaves oblong-lanceolate, somewhat 
scabrous, subamplexicaul ; lower ones serrate in 
the middle ; branches corymbed ; calyx hemis- 
pherical, with a subglandular pubescence, folia- 
ceous, and squarrose ; leaflets ciliate, cuneate- 
ovate, partly acute. 

HAB. Sandy swamps. Oct. 1J- . Branch. 2—3-/. ; 

Jl. large, blue. 
j3. bcllidifolius : leaves oblong-obovate, serrate, 

corymb nearly simple, or with the branches mostly 

1 -flowered. 
IIAB. With the preceding. Stem not hairy and 

glandular above. 

22. A. serotinus : leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 

sessile, smooth, scabrous on the margin ; inferior 
serrate ; branches corymbose, smooth ; branchlets 
one-flowered; scales of the calyx lanceolate, acu- 
minate, spreading. 
IIAB. Low grounds. Sept.— Oct. 1J. . Stem 3ft. 
high ; Jl. large, blue. 

23. A. puniceus: leaves amplexicaul, lanceolate, ser- 
rate, somewhat scabrous ; branches paniculate : 
calyx loose, longer than the disk; leaflets linear 
lanceolate, subequal ; stem hispid. 

IIAB. Brackish swamps. Sept. H. Stem 6 ft. 

high, purp. ; Jl. large, purp. 
21. A.fluribundus : leaves subamplexicaul, lanceolate; 

inferior serrate; stem smooth; branches corymbed; 

branchlets many-flowered, hairy ; scales of tin 

calyx loose, lanceolate, imbricate. 
J1AB. Pennsylvania, if. 
J5. A. novi belgii : leaves subamplexicaul, lanceo 

late, smooth, scabrous on the margin ; inferior 

subserrate ; branches subdivided ; calyx loose. 

imbricate ; leaflets linear-lanceolate ; stem terete. 

IIAB. Fields. Aug.— Sept. U. Stem 3 ft. high 

jl. middle sized, purp. 

A. acuminatus : leaves broad-lanceolate, narrowed 

nod entire at the base, unequally serrate above 

long-acuminate ; stem simple, flexuous, angular 


panicle divaricately dichotomous ; scales of the 
calyx loose, linear. * 

HAB. Mountains. Sept. U . Stem 12 in. high ; 
leav. large ; JI. izh. 

27. A. dracunculoides : leaves linear, acuminate, en- 
tire ; lower linear-lanceolate, slightly serrate ; 
branches corymbose ; calyx imbricate ; stem 
nearly smooth. 

HAB. Fields. Sept.— Oct. U. Stem 3 ft. high,; 
JI. small, wh. 

b Flowers panicled. 

28. A. amplexicaulis : leaves ovate-oblong, acute, am 

plexicaul, cordate, serrate, smooth ; stem panicu- 
late, smooth ; branches 1 — 2-flowered ; scales of 
the calyx closely imbricate. 

HAB. Dry woods. Sept.— Oct. U. Stem 18 in. 
high ; JI. blue. 
*9. A. laevigatas: leaves subamplexicaul, broad-lan- 
ceolate, subserrate, smooth; stem much branched, 
smooth ; branches many-flowered ; scales of the 
calyx lanceolate, loose, equal to the disk. 

HAB. Low grounds, Oct. H . Stem 2—3 ft. 
high ; fl. pale pur p. 
3Q. A. versicolor: leaves subamplexicaul, broad-lan- 
ceolate, subserrate, smooth; radical ones serrate in 
the middle ; stem much branched, smooth ; scales 
of the calyx lanceolate, loose, shorter than the 

DAB. Fields. Sept.— Oct. U. Stem 2 ft. high ; 
Ji. pale blue or inhite. 
31. A. mutabilis : leaves subamplexicaul ; upper ones 
lanceolate, acuminate, very entire ; inferior lan- 
ceolate, narrow at the base, serrate ; branches 
virgate ; calyx loose, shorter than the disk ; stem 

11AB. Fields and dry woods. Sept. U. Stem 
2—3 //. high ; JI. pur p. 
£2; A. laevis : leaves subamplexicaul, remote, oblong, 
very entire, shining ; radical oneg subserrate : 
branches simple 1 -flowered, scales of the calyx 
subcuoeiform, acute, thickened at the tip ; stem 
smooth angular. 


HAB. Low grounds. Oct. U . Stem 2 ft. high . 
fl. large, blue. 

33. A. concinnus: leaves lanceolate, subamplexicaul : 
inferior ones subserrate, smooth ; stem simple, 
paniculate above ; calyx closely imbricate. 

HAB. Fields. Sept. U. Stem 2 ft. high; Jl. 

34. A. bellidiflorus : leaves amplexicaul, narrow-lan- 
ceolate, scabrous above ; inferior ones subserrate; 
stem much branched ; scales of the calyx lanceo 
late, spreading. 

HAB. Pennsylvania. A var. of A. spectabalis? 

35. A. tardiflorus : leaves sessile, spathulate-lanceo- 
late, serrate, smooth, attenuate at the base ; margin 
reflexed ; branches divaricate ; calyx loose; scales 
lanceolate-linear, subequal, smooth. 

HAB. Low grounds. Sept. — Oct. H . Fl. middle 
sized, violet. 

36. A. Tradescanti : leaves lanceolate, serrate, sessile,, 
smooth ; branches virgate ; calyx loose, imbricate; 
stem terete, smooth. 

HAB. Fields. Aug.— Oct. Stem 3 ft. high ; fl. 
small, wh. or blue. 

p. recurvatus ; leaves narrow-lanceolate ; stem re- 

37. A. eminens ; leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 
scabrous on the margin ; inferior ones subserrate; 
stem paniculate ; branches one-flowered ; calyx 
loosely-imbricate ; scales lanceolate. 

HAB. Fields. Sept. U. Fl. lilac. 

38. A. laxu* : leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, sca- 

brous on the margin , the lower ones subserrate, 

those of the stem subreflexed, of the branches 

much spreading ; stem loose, paniculate above ; 

calyx imbricate ; scales lanceolate, acute, reflexed 

at the apex. 
HAB. Fields. Sept.— Oct. U. Fl. small, white. 

A. fimplex : leaves lanceolate, acuminate, scabrous 

on the margin, those of the stem serrate at the end. 

•f the branches very entire ; stem quite smooth. 

paniculate above ; calyx loose ; scales linear-subu 

MAI-. Pennsylvania. 1| . Fl. xvh. 


40. A. polyphyllus : leaves linear, very entire ; radical 
ones oblong, subserrate ; stem much branched, 
pubescent ; calyx loose. 

HAB. Pennsylvania. If.. Fl. white. 

41. A. junceus : leaves lanceolate-linear, sessile, 
smooth ; lower ones subserrate ; stem paniculate, 
smooth ; branches virgate ; calyx imbricate. 

HAB. Low grounds. Oct. U . Stem tall, slend. ; 

fl. flesh-col. 
Q. lanceolatus : stem branched, diffuse, rather smooth. 

42. A. fragilis : leaves linear, acuminate, very entire; 
radical ones serrate, oblong ; branches corymbose- 
paniculate ; scales of the calyx appressed ; stem 
nearly smooth. 

HAB. Old fields. Sept. U • Stem 2 ft. high; fl. 
small, wh. 

43. A. miser : leaves sessile, lanceolate, serrate, 
smooth ; scales of the calyx acute ; disk equal to 
the ray ; stem somewhat villous. 

HAB. Old fields. Sept.— Oct. FL small, white. 
a. divergens : leaves elliptical lanceolate, those of 

the stem elongated ; branches spreading. 
/3. diffusus : leaves all proportioned. 
y. pendulus ; leaves of the brunches rather remote : 

branches very divaricate, pendulous. 

c Leaves cordate, serrate. 

41. A. undulatus : leaves oblong-cordate, amplexicauK 
very entire, hairy, somewhat undulate ; inferior 
ones ovate, cordate, subserrate ; petioles winged ; 
stem paniculate, hispid ; branches secund, leafy, 
1 -flowered. 
HAB. Dry woods, &c. Sept. U. Stem 2 ft 
high ; fl. middle-sized, bl. 

45. A. sagittifolius : leaves oblong-lanceolate, acumi- 

nate, sessile, serrate in the middle ; radical ones 
oblong, cordate-sagittate, serrate, petiolate ; stem 
branched, smooth ; scales of the calyx loose, lan- 
HAB. In rocky woods ? Sept. TJ. . Fl. middle- 
sized, blue. 

46. A. paniculatus : leaves ovate-lanceolate, subser- 
rate. netiolate, smooth; radical ones ovate-cordatp 


serrate, scabrous, petiolate ; petioles naked ; stem 
mnch branched, smooth ; branches hairy ; calyx 
loose, subimbricate. 
HAB. Fields and woods. Sept. If:. Stem 2— S 
ft. high; fl. pale blue. Near A. undulatus. 

47. A. cordifolius : leaves cordate, hairy beneatb, 
acutely serrate, petiolate ; petioles winged ; stem 
paniculate, smoothish ; panicle divaricate ; calyx 
loose, subimbricate. 

HAB. Rocky woods. Sept. U. Stem2ft. high; 
jl. rather small, pale blue. 

48. A. corymbosus : leaves ovate, acutely serrate, acu- 
minate, smoothish ; inferior ones cordate, petio- 
late ; petioles naked ; stem smooth, corymbose- 
fastigiate above ; branches hairy ; calyx oblong, 
imbricate; scales obtuse, closely appressed. 

HAB. Dry woods. July — Aug. U . Stein 2 ft. 
high ; Jl. middle-sized, wh. 

49. A. macrophyllus : leaves ovate, petiolate, serrate, 
scabrous; upper ones ovate-cordate, sessile ; infe- 
rior cordate, petiolate ; petioles somewhat mar- 
gined ; stem branched, diffuse ; calyx cylindrical, 
closely imbricate ; scales oblong, ?cute. 

HAB. Woods. Aug. U- Stem 2 ft. high ; Jl. 
pretty large, wh. or pale bl. 

* * * Pappus double ; flowers mostly corymbed. 

50. A. linariifolius : leaves linear, mucronatc, thick, 
without nerves or punctures, carinate, scabrous. 
rigid ; those of the branches recurved ; stem sub- 
decumbent ; branches fastigiate, elongated, 1- 
llowered ; calyx imbricate, as long as the disk. 

HAB. Dry fields, and on rocks. Sept. — Oct. A 
foot high; jl. violet. 

51. A. rigidus : leaves linear, mucronate, subrarinate, 

rigid ; margin scabrous-ciliate ; stem-leaves re- 
flexed, of the branches spreading, subulate ; stem 
erect, somewhat branched above; branches 1- 
flowered, corymbed; calyx imbricate, half the 
length of th<> disk; scales carinate, rather obtuse j 
rays .about 10- flowered, reflexed. 

HAB. Sandy fields. Sept. U. A foot hi- I 
middle-sized, violet. 


52. A. linifoliuB : leaves linear, without nerves or 
punctures, scabrous, reflexed-spreading; branches 
corymbose-fastigiate, leafy; calyx imbricate, short; 
rays equal to the disk. 

HAB. Dry woods, &c. Sept. — Nov. U . Stem 
1 — 2 ft. high ; fl. large, wh. or pale blue. 

53. A. humilis ; leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate, aeute 
at the base, scabrous on the margin ; petiole short; 
stem smooth, dichotomously paniculate above, 
few-flowered ; calyx loose, subimbricate. 

HAB. Woods, &c. Aug. lj. . Stem 1—2 ft. high : 
leav. large ; ft. wh, 

54. A. amygdalinus ; leaves lanceolate, attenuate at 
the base, acuminate, scabrous on the margin; stem 
simple, corymbose-fastigiate at the summit; calyx 
loose, imbricate : scales lanceolate, obtuse. 

HAB. Fields and low grounds. July — Aug. ty . A 
foot high ; fl. zvh. 

488. SOLIDAGO. Golden-rod. Composite. 
* Racemes secund ; leaves triply nerved. 

1. S. canadensis : stem villous , leaves lanceolate, ser- 

rate, triply nerved, scabrous; racemes paniculate, 
secund, recurved : rays short. 
HAB. Old fields, &c. Aug.— Sept. U • Stem 3—4 
ft. high ; leav. large. 

2. S. procera : stem villous, erect ; leaves lanceolate. 

serrate, scabrous, villous beneath ; racemes spi- 
ciform, erect, when young drooping ; rays short. 
HAB. Low grounds. Sept.— Oct. U . Stem 4—6 
ft. high. 

3. S. serotina : stem erect, terete, smooth ; leaves 11 

near-lanceolate ; racemes paniculate, secund ; pe- 
duncles pubescent. 
II AB. Meadows. Sept. U . Stem 4 ft. high . 
young leaves ciliate. 

4. S. gigantea : stem erect, smooth ; leaves lanceolate, 

serrate, scabrous on the margin, obscurely triply- 
nerved ; racemes paniculate, secund ; peduncles 
hairy ; rays short. 
HAB* Low meadows. Sept. — Oct. i{. Stem 4 — 7 
ft. high, purplish. 


>. S.ciliuris: stem erect, smooth ■; leaves lanceolate, 
subtriply nerved, smooth, except on the margin, 
subserrate ; racemes paniculate, secund ; pedun^ 
cles smooth ; bracts ciliate ; rays short. 

HAB. Borders of woods. Aug. U. Stem 3 ft, 
high, angul. ; radical, leav. long, 
tf. S. reflexa : stem erect, villous ; leaves lanceolate, 
subserrate, triply nerved, scabrous, reflexed ; 
branches paniculate, subsecund. reflexed. 

HAB. Fields. Aug. U. 
7, S. lateriflora: stem erect, somewhat hairy ; leaves 
lanceolate, subtriply nerved, smooth, scabrous on 
the margin ; lower ones subserrate ; racemes 
paniculate, subrecurved, secund. 

HAB. Meadows. Aug. U . Stem 2— 3 ft. higfc 
•rays elongated. 

* * Racemes secund ; leaves veined. 

3, S. aspera : stem erect, terete, hairy ; leaves ovate 
and somewhat elliptical, very rough, rugous, ser- 
rate, without nerves ; racemes paniculate, secund. 

HAB. Fields. Sept. 1* . Stem 3 ft. high; leav. 
acute ; racem. dense. 
?. S. altisn/na : stem erect, hirsute; leaves lanceo- 
late, the lower ones deeply serrate, very roughi 
rugous ; panicles secund ; rays short. 

HAB. Old fields. Sept.— Oct. U. Stem 3—5 
ft. high. — Variable. 
fi). S.rugosa: stem erect, hairy ; leaves lanceolate, 
very rough and rugous ; the lower ones with ap- 
pressed serratures ; racemes paniculate, widely 

HAB. Stony fields. Sept.— Oct. M . Stem 4 ft. 

I . S. scabra: stem erect, hairy, sulcate ; Jeaves ob- 
long, attenuate at each end, acuminate, smooth 
above, rugous and scabrous beneath, with ap- 
pressed serratures in the middle ; racemes sj 

HAB. Meadows. Aug. — Sept. U . Stem 

S. ncmoralis: stem erect, woollv ; cauline learea 


lanceolate, hispid, very entire ; radical ones sul> 
cuneiform, serrate ; racemes paniculate ; secund 
HAB. Barren fields. Sept. U . Plant gray, 1 — 
2 ft. high. 

13. S. patula ; stem erect, smooth; leaves elliptical, 
serrate, smooth ; lower ones obloDg-spathulate ; 
racemes paniculate, secund, spreading ; peduncles 

HAB. Dry woods. Sept. U. Stem t ft. high, 
virgate ; racemes short. 

14. S. ulmifolia : stem erect, smooth, striate; leaves 
elliptical, deeply serrate, acuminate, villous be- 
neath ; radical ones obovate ; racemes paniculate, 
secund ; peduncles villous ; rays short. 

HAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Sept. U . Stem oft. 
high ; leaves large. 

15. S. arguta : stem erect, smooth; leaves smooth, 
acutely and unequally serrate ; cauline ones ellip- 
tical ; radical ovate-oblong ; racemes paniculate, 
secund ; rays elongate. 

HAB. Meadows. Aug. U . Stem 2 ft. high. 

16. S.juncea: stem erect, smooth; leases lanceolate, 
smooth except on the margin ; lower ones serrate ; 
racemes paniculate, secund. 

HAB. Meadows and dry woods. Sept. U . Stem 
Sft. high, slender. 

17. S. elliptica : stem erect, smooth ; leaves elliptical, 
smooth, serrate ; racemes paniculate, secund ; 
rays of middling length. 

HAB. Dry woods. Sept. U. Stem 3 ft. high; 
lear. large and broad. 

18. S. sempervirens : stem erect, smooth; leaves 
linear-lanceolate, somewhat fleshy, smooth, very 
entire, scabrous on the margin ; racemes pani- 
culate, secund ; peduncles hairy. 

HAB. Swamps. Sept.— Oct. U. Stem 2 ft. high-. 
subglauc. ; rays narrow, elong., 5 — 6. 

19. S. virgata : stem smooth, quite simple; leaves 
subcuneate-laneeolate, obtuse, very smooth, up- 
per ones very entire, appressed to the stem, 
growing smaller above ; branches of the panicle 
elongate, racemed at the summit : peduncles: 
smooth, seeund. 


HAB. Swamps. Oct. U . Stem atten., 3 — i ft. 

high ; lower leav. subserrate ; jl. small. 
?0. S. odora : stem erect, pubescent, slender ; leaves 

linear-lanceolate, very entire, smooth, scabrous on 

the margin ; racemes paniculate, secund. 
HAB. Rocky hills and dry wood*. July — Aug. U . 

Stem subvirg. ; plant odorous. 

* * * Racemes erect. 

21. S. speciosa : stem smooth, simple, or with virgate 
branches ; leaves lanceolate, entire, somewhat 
fleshy ; lower ones very broad ; radical subser- 
rate ; racemes erect and compound, pubescent : 
rays about 5, elongate. 

HAB. Shady woods. U. Stem 4— 6 ft. high, 
sulc. ; leav. large; pedunc. short. 

22. S. bicolor : stem hairy ; leaves elliptic, hairy ; 
lower ones serrate ; branches leafy ; racemes 
short, dense, erect ; scales of the calyx obtuse. 

HAB. Dry hills and woods. July — Aug. U . Stem 
1 — 2 ft. high ; rays white. 

23. S. stricta : stem erect, smooth ; cauline leaves 
lanceolate, very entire, smooth, scabrous on the 
margin ; radical ones serrate ; racemes paniculate, 
erect; peduncles smooth. 

HAB. Sandy woods. Sept. U. Stem 2 ft. high ; 
panic, dense. 
14, S. pet iol arts : stem erect, villous ; leaves elliptic, 
somewhat scabrous, petiolate ; racemes erect ; 
rays elongate. 

HAB. Sandy fields. Sept.— Oct. U. Stem branch.; 
rac.em. numerous, short. 
!6. S. lanceolata : stem angular, hairy, much branched : 
leaves lanceolate-linear, entire, 3— 5-nerved, sca- 
brous on the margin, minutely hispid on nerves 
beneath; corymbs terminal, fastigiate ; rays 15 — 
20, as long as the disk. 

HAB. Meadows. Sept. U . Stem 3—4 ft. high , 
Jl. glomerate ; cal. ovate. 

5. tenuifolia: stem angular, much branched. 
smoothish ; leaves linear, very narrow, numer- 
■ brous-ciliate on the margin, obscurely : : 


nerved, punctate above ; corymbs fastigiate ; rays- 
about 10, exserted. 
HAB. Sandy fields. Sept.— Oct. U. Afoot high: 
ft. glomerate ; axils leafy, 

27. S. caesia : stem smooth, glaucous, erect ; leaves 
lanceolate, smooth j racemes erect ; rays of mid- 
dling length. 

HAB. In dry woods. Sept. U. Stem slend., t 
ft. high, subvirgate ; pedicles scab. 

28. S. fiexicaulis : stem flexuous, smooth, angular : 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, gla- 
brous ; racemes axillary ; rays half as long again 
as the calyx. 

HAB. Fields and woods. Sept. U . Stem slend, 
purp., 2ft. high; racem. short. 

29. S. latifolia: stem somewhat flexuous-, angular, 
smooth ; leaves broadly ovate, acuminate, deeply 
serrate, smooth, petioles winged ; racemes axil- 

HAB. Dry Woods. Sept.— Oct. U . Stem IS 
in, high ; leav. 2 in. broad, aiten. at base, 

30. S.hispida: stem erect, hispid, scabrous; leaves 
lanceolate, scabrous, very entire ; radical ones 
serrate ; racemes erect ; rays of middling length. 

HAB. Fields and woods. Sept. U . Resembles 
No. 27. 

31. S. laevigata: stem erect, smooth ; leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, fleshy, very entire, very smooth ; ra 
cemes paniculate, erect : peduncles scaly, villous ; 
rays elongate. 

HAB. Salt marshes. Sept.— Oct. U. Stem 4— 
5 ft. high; rays about 10; radical leaves subob 

32. S. limonifolia : stem smooth ; leaves lanceolate, 
somewhat fleshy, very entire, smooth ; racemes 
paniculate, suberect, nearly naked ; peduncles 
scaly, pubescent ; rays about 10. 

HAB. Marshes. Aug. It. Stem 3— 4 ft, high ; 
pedunc. mostly l-ftow. 

33. S. viminea : stem erect, subpubescent ; leaves 
linear-lanceolate, membranaceous, attenuate at the 
base, smooth, scabrous on the margin ; lower ones, 
subserrate ; racemes erect ; rays elongate, 


HAB. Low grounds. Sept. U . 

34. S. rigida : stem hairy and scabrous ; leaves ovate- 
oblong, rough, with minute hairs ; those of the 
stem very entire ; lower ones serrate ; flowering 
branches paniculate ; racemes compact ; rays 
elongate ; scales of the calyx obtuse. 

HAB. Rocky woods. Aug.— Sept. U. Stem tall ; 
leaves rigid ; Jl. very large, 

35. S. noveboracensis : radical leaves ovate oblong, 
petiolate ; stem somewhat naked, fastigiately 

HAB. Meadows. Sept. U. Stem 3 ft. high, 
thick ; leav. rough ; Jl. large. 
Vq. S. squarros-a : stem thick, pubescent above ; leaves 
smooth ; lower ones very broad, spathulate-oval, 
serrate, acute ; upper ones lanceolate-elliptic ; 
racemes glomerate, rigid, and pubescent ; calyx 
squarrose, many-flowered ; rays 10 — 12, elongate. 
HAB. Rocky hills. Sept. U . Stem 2 ft. high ; 
Jl. very large. 

489. ARNICA. Composites. 

A. nudicaulis: hairy; radical leaves decussate and op-* 
posite, oblong-oval, subdentate ; stem nearly leaf- 
less, divided at the summit into several 1-flowered 
HAB. Woods. June. U. Stem 1—2 ft. high ; 
leav. large, rough beneath; Jl. large, yellow. 

490, SENECIO. Groundsel. Composites. 

* Florets oj the rays wanting. 

S. hieracifolius : stem virgate, paniculate ; leaves 
oblong, amplexicaul, unequally and deeply tooth- 
ed ; dentures acute ; calyx smooth ; seeds hairy. 
HAB. Fields, &c. Aug.— Oct. © . Stem 2—3/*. 
high, subscab. ; calyx veniric, large ; Jl. wh. 
?\ S. vulgaris : leaves mostly amplexicaul, sinuate- 
pinnatitid, toothed; stem paniculate, erect, angular. 
HAB. Waste grounds. Aug. ©. Stem 18 in, 
high ; leav. thin ; Jl. pale yell. §. 
- ^ . elongatui : radical leaves spathulate, attenuate 
C c2 


into a petiole, serrate ; stem leaves pinnatifid 
toothed, very remote ; peduncles elongate, um- 
bellate, corymbed. 
HAB. Rocky banks. July— Aug. U- . Resem- 
bles S. Balsamitce. 

* *- Flowers radiate. 

4. S. gracilis : radical leaves on very long petioles, 
orbicular, subcordate, crenate ; stem-leaves few, 
very remote, linear-oblong, dilated at the base, in- 
cisely dentate ; peduncles very short, hairy, sub-, 
umbellate ; calyx smooth ; rays few, very short. 
HAB. Rocky banks. May— Aug. tt. A foot 
high j ft* small. 

i. S. aureus : radical leaves ovate, cordate, serrate, 
petiolate ; stem leaves pinnatifid, dentate, termi- 
nal segment lanceolate ; peduncles subumbellate, 
HAB. Rocky woods. May. U . Stem Win* high; 
umb. simp.; fl. yell. 

6. S. Balsamitas : radical leaves oblong, serrate, petio- 
late ; lower cauline leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, ser- 
rate ; upper ones pinnate, dentate ; flowers some- 
what umbellate ; stem and peduncles villous at 

trip oisp 

HAB. Meadows, &c. June. H. Stem 1—2 ft, 
high; leav. subpubes.; fl* yellow. 
"•'. S. het&rophyllus ; woolly and downy ; leaves on long 
petioles, ovate-spathulate and ovate, rather acute 
and pinnatifid ; cauline ones 2 — 3, linear, pinnati- 
fid ; flowers corymbed. 
HAB. Rocks. May— June. lfc. A foot high ; fl. 
bright yellow. 
3. S. obovatus : radical leaves obovate, crenate-ser- 
rate, petiolate ; cauline leaves pinnatifid, dentate ; 
flowers subumbellate, on long peduncles ; stem 
rather smooth. 
HAB. Rocky woods. May— June. U. A foot high: 
leav. thick ; fl. yell. 

491. TUSSILAGO. Colt's-foot. Composite. 
i. T.frigida: scape fastigiate, many-flowered* brae 


teate ; leaves roundish-cordate, unequally tooth- 
ed, woolly beneath. 

HAB. High mountains. June. U. A span high : 
rays wh. ; disk pur p. 
2. T.Farfara: scape 1-flowered, scaly; leaves cor- 
date, angular, toothed, woolly beneath. 

HAB. Banks of rivers. April. U. A span high : 
Jt. yell, j appearing before the leav. § ? 

492. BOLTONIA. Composite. 

i. B. glastifolia : lower leaves serrate; flower* on 
short peduncles ; seeds obcordate, conspicuously 
winged, pubescent ; awns of the pappus of nearly 
equal length. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. July— Aug, U. Stem 2 
— 3 ft. high; leav. lin., aliem. ; fi. flesh-col. 

2. B. astervides : leaves very entire ; flowers on long 
peduncles ; seeds oval, smooth, scarcely awned. 
HAB. Wet places. July. U. Stem j— 2 fL high : 
leav. alter., lanceol. ; fl.few, pink. 

493. CHRYSANTHEMUM. Ox-eye Daisy. Com 

EX Leucanthemum : leaves amplexicaul, lanceolate, ser 
rate, laciniate-dentate at the base ; stem erect 
HAB. Fields, &c. May— Nov. U. Sleni 12— 
18 in. high ; fl. large wh. §. 

494. VERBES1NA. Composite. 

^Ugesbeckia : leaves opposite, ovate, lanceolate 
acuminate at each end, acutely serrate ; panicle 
brachiate, irregularly many-flowered at the sum 
mit ; rays 1 — 3. 
HAB. Dry woods. Sept. U . Stem 2—4 ft. high 
[-■wing ; leav. triply nerv. ; fl. yell. 

195. ANTHEM1S. Chamomile. Composite. 

k \. arvensis : receptacle cooic ; chaff lanceolate 
seed crowned with a margin ; leaves lanceolate ' 
segments lanceolate-linear ? 


HAB. Fields and waste grounds. July — Nov. © . 

Stern much branch. ; fl. wh., disk yell. §. 
2. A. Cotula : receptacle conic ; chaff bristly ; seed 

naked ; leaves bipinnate ; segments subulate, 3- 

HAB. Waste grounds. June — Nov. 0'. Erect; 

fl. in termin. corymb. ; fl. wh. §. 

496. ACHILLEA. Milfoil. Composite*. 

1. A. Ptarmica : leaves linear, acuminate, acutely and 

equally serrate, smooth. 
HAB. Dry swamps. Aug. U. Fl. white. §? 

2. A. Millefolium : leaves bipinnatifid, hairy; seg- 

ments linear, toothed, mucronate ; calyx sulcate. 
HAB. Fields, &c. June— Sept. U. Afoot high: 
Qorymb dense ; fl. wh. or rose-col. §. 

497. HELIOPSIS. Composite. 

H. Iczvis: leaves opposite, ovate, serrate, triply-nerved. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. July— Aug. U. Stem 2 ft. 
high ; leav. smooth ; fl. large, yell. 

498. HELENIUM. False sunflower. Composite. 

II. autumnal e : leaves lanceolate, serrate, decurrent ; 
flowers corymbed ; florets of the disk 5-eleft, of 
the ray flat, reflexed. 
IIAB. Low meadows. Aug. — Sept. H . Stem 2 
« — 3 ft. high, winged ; fl. yell. 


499. HELIANTHUS. Sunflower. Composite^. 

* Florets of the disk dark purple. 

1. H. atrorubens: hispid; stem naked towards the 
summit ; loosely paniculate ; leaves spathulate. 
oblong-ovate, crenate, triply-nerved, scabrou.9 on 
the upper surface ; scales of the calyx ovate-lan- 
ceolate, as long as the disk. 
1JAB. Dry soils. Aug.— Sept. %. Stem &— 4 ft< 
" high; leav. opp., very long ; rap yell. 


K H. angustifolius : stem slender, slightly scabrous ; 
leaves narrow-lanceolate, revolute on the margin, 
scabrous, entire, glaucous beneath ; upper ones 
alternate ; scales of the calyx linear-lanceolate, 
ciliate, expanding; chaff 3-toothed. 
HAB. Pine barrens. Oct. U • Stem 3—5 ft, 
high ; branch, few ; leav. 4 — 8 in. long ; fl. smalt 

* * Florets of the disk yellowish. 

| Leaves opposite. 

3. H. mollis: stem smooth below, scabrous above, 

leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, serrate, scabrous 
on the upper surface, pubescent and hoary be 
neath ; flowers few, terminal. 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. U. Stem 3—6 ft. high; 
leav. very acute ; fl. few ; cal. hairy. 

4. H. divaricatus : stem smooth, branched ; leaves 

subopposite, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, triply-nerv* 
ed, scabrous above, smooth beneath ; panicle tri- 
chotomous, slender ; flowers very small. 
HAB. Rocky woods. Aug. U . Stem 4—6 ft. 
high ; leav. sub acuminate. 

5. H . frondosus : stem smooth below ; leaves ovate, 

acutely serrate ; peduncles scabrous ; calyx 
squarrose, undulate, leafly, ciliate ; rays 8. 
HAB. Woods. Aug.— Sept. U . Stem. 4— 5 ft, 
high ; fl. small. 

6. H. trachelifolius : leaves ovate-lanceolate, acumir 

nate, serrate, triply-nerved, very scabrous above 
and beneath ; scales of the calyx linear-lanceolate, 
ciliate, the exterior ones longer. 
HAB. Rocky woods. Aug.— Sept. U . Stem 3. 
— Aft. high; fl. middle-sized. 

1 1 Upper leaves alternate. 

:. II. altissimus : leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, 
serrate, scabrous, triply nerved, attenuate at the 
apex, petiolate ; petioles ciliate ; scales of the 
calyx lanceolate, ciliate. 
HAB. Low grounds. Sept. U . Stem 4 — 6 ft. 
high.purp. ; rays 16 ; chaff green. 

' H. giganteus : leaves alternate, lanceolate, serrate 


scabrous, obscurely triply-nerved, subsessile, at- 
tenuate at each end, ciliate at the base ; scales of 
the calyx lanceolate, ciliate. 
HAB. Low grounds. Aug. — Sept. U . Stem 5 — ■ 
6 ft. high, subscab. ; pan. loose, few-Jl. 

9. H. decapetalus : leaves ovate, acuminate, remotely 

serrate, triply-nerved, scabrous ; scales of the ca 
lyx lanceolate, subequal, subciliate ; rays 10 — 12. 
IIAB. Rocky woods. Aug. U. Stem 4 — b ft. 
high ; Jlowers large. 

10. H. multiflorus : leaves triply-nerved, scabrous: 
lower ones cordate ; upper ovate ; rays inany- 
flowered ; scales of the calyx lanceolate. 

IIAB. Rocky woods. Aug. — Sept. U . Stem and 
pedunc. scab. ; rays very num. 

500. RUDBECKIA. Composite 

* Calyx imbricate ; chaff mucronate. 

1. R. purpurea : scabrous; lower leaves broad-ovate. 

narrowed at the base, remotely toothed ; cauline 
ones lanceolate-ovate, nearly entire, acuminate 
at each end ; florets of the ray very long, deflexed. 
HAB Mountains. June — July. U. Stem 4 ft. 
high ; fl. large ; rays purp. ; disk brown. 

* * Calyx subequal ; chaff unarmed. 

2. R. pinnata : leaves all pinnate ; lower segments 

sometimes 2-parted ; pappus entire ; stem sulcate. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. July — Oct. U. Fl. large, 
yell. ; rays long, reflex. ; disk jyirp. 

3. R. digitata : lower leaves pinnate ; segments pin- 

natifid ; upper ones simple, pinnate, the highest 
3-cleft ; pappus crenate ; stem smooth. 
HAB. Mountains. Aug. U . Stem b— 6 ft. high: 
leav. thin; fl. yell. ; pap. subtruncate. 
U R. laciniata : lower leaves pinnate; segments 3- 
lobed ; upper ones ovate ; pappus crenate ; stem 
HAB. Swamps. Aug. U . Stem 5—8 ft. high 
lower leav. 3-foliate ; fl. yell. 


R. triloba : hispidly pilose ; stem paniculate ; 
branches divaricate, many-flowered, leafy ; leaves 
lanceolate, acuminate at each end, serrate ; the 
lower ones 3-lobed ; leaflets of the calyx linear, 
deflexed, as long as the ray. 

HAB. Mountains. Aug. — Sept. U. Stem 4 — 5 
ft. high ; rays yell. ; disk dark purp. 

R. fulgida : stem hispid ; branches long, virgate, 
1 -flowered ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, denticulate, 
hispid, narrowed and slightly cordate at the base ; 
calyx leafy, as long as the ray ; disk hemispheri- 
cal ; chaff lanceolate. 

HAB. Mountain meadows. Aug. U . Stem 2 — 
3ft. high; rays 12—14, yell. 

R. hiria : very hairy ; stem virgate, somewhat 
branched, 1-flowered ; leaves spathulate, lanceo- 
late, triply nerved, serrate, hairy ; scales of the 
calyx imbricate, in a triple series, shorter than the 
ray ; chaff obovate, acute. 

HAB. Mountains. Aug. U- Stem 2— 3 ft. high., 
subsimp. ;fl. solit., yell.; rays 14. 

501. BIDENS. Burr-marygold. Compositor. 

. B. ccrnaa : flowers subradiate, cernuous ; exterior 
calyx as long as the flower; leaves lanceolate, sub- 
connate, dentate. 
HAB. Ditches, Lc. Aug.— Oct. ®. Stem 1— 2 

ft. high ; rays yell., often wanting. 
3. minima : leaves lanceolate, serrate, sessile ; flow/ 

era erect. 
HAB. Low wet place?. Aug. Stem 4 — 8 tit. high ; 
//. very small. 
. B. chrysanthemoides : flower9 radiate, cernuous; 
rays thrice as long as the nearly equal calyx: 
leaves oblong, attenuate at each end, dentate, con 
nate at the base, 
i 1 AH. Wetplaces. Aug.— Oct. ©. Stem 1— 3 
ft. high ; JL large ; rays 3, lanceol. 
'. B. frondosa : flowers discoid ; exterior calyx six 
time? as long as the flower; its leaflets ciliate at t ht 
base; lower leaves pinnate ; upper ones tomato 
lanceolate, 9errate. 


HAB. Shady wet places. Aug. © . Stem 2 ft. 
high, branch. ; rays ; steds 2-awned. 
t. B. connata: flowers discoid ; exterior calyx thrice 
as long as the flower ; cauline leaves ternate ; la- 
teral leaflets connate; floral ones oblong-lanceolate. 
HAB. Meadows, &c. Aug.— Sept. ©./Stem 2 
— 3 ft. high, smooth; leav. subglauc. 
I B. bipinnata : flowers subradiate ; exterior calyx as 
long as the interior ; leaves bipinnate ; segments 
HAB. Fields. July— Sept. ©. Stem B— 12 tw, 
high; leav. finely divid. ; rays 0, or 1 — 3. 
3. B. Beckii: stem subsimple ; submersed leaves, di- 
vided into many linear and dichotomous segments; 
flower erect, solitary, terminal. 
HAB. Deep water. Aug. 4. ? Stem 2—5 ft. 
long; emersed leav. lanceoL or trifid; fl. radiate. 

i02. COREOPSIS. Tickseed-sunflower. Composite 

* Leaves opposite, undivided. 

C. rosea: small, very smooth ; stem simple : leaves 
linear, entire ; axils leafy ; flowers few, long- 
pedunculate, axillary and terminal ; seeds very 
entire, naked. 

HAB. Swamps. Aug. U. A foot high; lea.v. 
subconnate ; rays 3-tooth., red. 

* * Leaves opposite, divided. 

C. trichosperma : smooth ; leaves subquiuate, pin.- 
nate ; segments linear-lanceolate, serrate ; flowers 
corymbed ; leaflets of.the exterior calyx ciliately 
serrate; ray9 entire; seeds cuneate, 2 — 4-toothed. 

HAB. Cedar swamps, &c. Aug. — Sept. £. Stem 
2 ft. high, dichot.; rays lanceoL, yell. 

C. tripteris: smooth; leaves petiolate, lanceolate } 
very entire ; radical ones pinnate; of the stem ter- 
nate; rays entire; seeds obovate, naked at the 

HAB. Mountain meadows. Aug. H . Stew 4 ft. 
high, terete: fl. small, yell, 



* * * Leaves alternate. 

4. C. gladiata : stem smooth, dichotomous above: 
leaves narrow-lanceolate, very entire, thick, atten 
uated into a petiole ; seed obovate, winged ; the 
wings serrulate ; pappus 2-bristled. 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps. Sept. $. Stem 2 ft. 
high; rays 8, 3-tooth., yell. 
j. C.aspera: leaves lanceolate-linear, rough ; upper 
ones alternate, inferior opposite ; stem 1 -flowered, 
HAB. Maryland. 

503. ACTINOMERIS. Composite. 

A? squarrosa: stem erect, winged, pubescent and 
paniculate above ; leaves lanceolate, serrate, sca- 
brous ; calyx spreading, loose ; receptacle subglo- 
bose, at length squarrose. 

HAB. Swamps. Aug. U. Stem 3— 4 ft. high: 
leav. altern.; rays long, -wh. or yell. 


504. SILPH1UM. Composite. 

5. ternatum : stem terete, smooth ; leaves verticil- 
late by three;?, petiolate, lanceolate, unequally 
subdentate, somewhat scabrous, ciliate at the base ; 
upper ones scattered and sessile ; panicle dicho- 
tomous ; calyx ciliate. 

HAB. Mountain meadows. July. U. Stem A — 
(}ft. high ; Jl. corymb., loose, yell. 
2. S. trifoliatum ; stem G-angled, smooth ; leaves ver~ 
ticillate by threes, ovate-lanceolate, unequally 
toothed and serrate, scabrous ; upper ones ses- 
sile ; panicle trichotomous. 

HAB. River swamps. Aug. U • Stem 5 — Oft- 
high ; lower leav. subovate ; rays 14, yell. 
). S. perfoliatum : stem quadrangular, smooth ; leaves 
opposite, connate, ovate, serrate. 

HAB. Mountains. Aug. U. Steffi 6 ft. high. 
petiol. decurrent ; rays 24, yell. 


505. POLYMNIA. Composite. 

1. P. canadensis : viscid and villous; leaves denticu- 

late, acuminate ; lower ones pinnatifid ; upper 3- 
lobed or entire. 
HAB. Shady rocks. July. U. Stem 2-3 ft*, high ; 
leav. thin; fi. in term, clusters, yell. 

2. P. Uvedalia : leaves opposite, 3-lobed, acute, at- 

tenuate into a petiole, decurrent, the lobes angu- 
lar-sinuate ; rays elongate. 
HAB. Fields, &c. July. U . Stem 3— 5 ft. high ; 
leav. scab, beneath ; fl. larger. 

506. IV A. Bastard Jesuit's bark. Composites . 
1. frutescens : fruticose ; leaves opposite, ovate-lanceo- 
late, deeply serrate, subscabrous ; flowers de- 

HAB. Salt-marshes. Aug. — Sept. ^. Stem much 
branch., 3 — 4ft. high; leav. thick. 


507. ELEPHANTOPUS. Elephant's-foot. Composite. 

1. E. carolinianus : leaves of the root and stem ob- 
long, tapering at the base, hairy ; stem branched, 
leafy, hairy. 
HAB. Dry soils. Sept. U . Stem 2 ft. high ; fl, 
in term, dust., pur p. 



* Anther adnate, subterminal and persistent. Pollinia 
affixed by the base, composed of angular grains, elas- 
tically cohering. 

508. ORCHIS. Cor. ringent; upper lip vaulted. Lip 

dilated, with a spur beneath. Pollinia 2, ter- 
minal, adnate. 
f>09. HABENARIA. Cor. ringent. Lip spurred at 
the base beneath. Glands of the stalks of the 


pollinia naked and distinct ; cells of the stalks 
adnate, or separated. 

* * Anther persistent, parallel with the stigma. Pollinia 

affixed to the summit of the stigma, composed of an- 
gular grains, or farinaceous. 

510. GOODYERA. Cor. ringent ; the 2 lower petals 

placed beneath the gibbous lip, which is undi- 
vided at the extremity. Column free. Pollen 

511. NEOTTIA. Cor. ringent; the 2 lower petals 

placed beneath the lip, which is beardless ; in- 
terior petals connivent. Column apterous. Pol- 
len farinaceous. 

512. LISTERA. Cor. irregular. Lip 2-lobed, pen- 
dent. Column apterous. Anther fixed by its 

* * * Anther terminal, inserted, persistent. Pollinia 
farinaceous or angular, affixed by the base or below 

the extremity. 

513. POGONIA. Petals 5, distinct, without glands. 

Lip sessile, cucullate, internally crested. Pol- 
len farinaceous. 

514. TRIPHORA. Petals 5, distant, equal, and con- 

nivent, without glands. Lip unguiculate, cu- 
cullate. Column spathulate, flattened, apter- 
ous. Pollen farinaceous. 

515. CALOPOGON. Petals 5, distinct. Lip behind 

(or inverted,) unguiculate ; the lamina bearded. 
Column free. Pollen angular. 

516. ARETHUSA. Petals 5, connate at the base. 

Lip beneath growing to the column, cucullate 
above, and crested internally. 

* * * * Anther terminal, moveable, deciduous. Pollinia 

at length becoming waxy. 

517. TIPULARIA. Petals spathulate, spreading. Lip 

sessile, entire, with a conspicuous spur at the 
base beneath. Column apterous, porrected, 
free. Anther operculate, persistent ; pollinia 
4, parallel. 


518. MALAXIS. Petals 5, narrower than the li r 
spreading or deflexed. Lip flattened, undi 
dcd, sessile, often exterior. Pollinia 4, pa 
lei with each oilier, fixed to the stigma by then- 

319. CORALLORH1ZA. Petals equal and conriivent. 
Lip mostly produced at the base. Column free. 
Pollinia 4, oblique, (not parallel.) 

520. APLECTRUM. Petals equal, connivent. Lip 
unguiculate, not produced at the base. Anther 
situated below the summit of the column ; pot 
linia 4, oblique, lenticular. 


m. CYPRIPEDIUM. Lip ventricose, inflated, sac- 
cate. Petals 4 ; the under one bifid. Column 
terminating in a petaloid lobe. 


522. ARISTOLOCHIA. Cal. 0. Cor. 1-petalled, li- 
gulate, with a ventricose base. Caps. 6 -celled 
many-seeded, inferior. 


723. ASARUM. Cal. subcampanulate, 3— 1-cleft. 

Cor. 0. Anthers annate to the middle of the 

filaments. Caps, inferior, 6-celled, crowned 
with the calyx. 


508. ORCHIS. Orchidec*. 
O. spectabilis: lip obovate, undivided, crenate, re 
tuse ; petals straight, the lateral ones longer ; horn 
clarate, shorter than the germen ; bracts longe 1 
1han the flower ; stem leafless, 


HAB. Shady rocks. May — June. U . Leav. rad., 
large ; fl. large , purp. and wh. 

2. O Iflava : lip ovate, entire, partly crenulate ; horn 

attenuate, filiform and about the length of the ger- 
men ; spike crowded ; bracts longer than the 
HAB. Meadows. June. U . FL pale orange- 
yell. , rather small. 

3. O ? obsoleta : lip oblong, lanceolate, undivided ; pe- 

tals erect ; horn obtuse, scrotiform, as long as the 
IIAB. Shady places. July. U ♦ Bracts very 

4. ? tridentata: lip lanceolate, 3-toothed at the ex- 

tremity ; petals obtuse ; horn filiform, clavate, a= 
cending, longer than the germen. 
HAB. Swamps. July. U. Stem 1—2 ft. high. 
slend. i fl. small, gr. -white. 

509. HABENARIA. Or chide a;. 

',. U. ciliaris : lip oblong-lanceolate, pinnately ciliate, 

twice as long as the petals ; horn longer than the 

HAB. Swamp*. Aug. U. Stem 2 ft. high ; spike 

dense ; jl. bright orange. 
2. H. blephuriglottis : lip lanceolate, ciliate, as long as 

the upper petal ; horn much longer than the ger- 
HAB. Swamps. July. U. Stem 2 ft. high; fl. 

pure white. 
>. N. cristata : lip oblong, pinnately ciliate ; petals 

rounded ; the two lateral ones toothed ; horn 

shorter than the germen. 
J JAB. Swarnps. July. y. . Leav. lanceol. ; fl. 

crowded, rather small, yell. 
1. H. jisycodes : lip 3-parted ; segments finely divided ; 

petals obtuse ; horn filiform-clavate, ascending. 

longer than the germen. 
HAB. Swamps. July — Aug. \[ . Spike long ; fl. 

middle sized, grcenish-wh. 

5. II. integra : lip oblong, entire, longer than the in 

ner petals ; spur longer than the germen, acute 
D d2 


at the point ; stem leafy ; bracts shorter than the 
HAB. Swamps. July. U . Flowers orange yell.. 
smaller than in No. 1. 

6. H. huronensis : lip lanceolate, acuminate, entire. 

and incurved ; petals subulate and connivent ; spur 
about the length of the lip, incurved ; petals flat : 
stem leafy. 
HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. U . Stem 1—2 ft. 
high; spike dense, long; Jl. greenish, small. 

7. H. dilatata : lip linear, very entire, rather obtuse,, 

rounded and dilated at the base ; horn as long as 
the lip, shorter than the germen j bracts as long 
as the flower ; stem leafy. 
HAB. Mountain woods. July. lj. . Stem 2— 4 ft, 
high, very thick ; fl. gr. or "wh. 

8. W.fuscescens: lip ovate, toothed at the base ; petaU 

spreading ; horn subulate, as long as the germen ; 
bracts longer than the flower. 
HAB. Mountain meadows. July. lj. . Stem thick ; 
spike long ; Jl. purp.-yell. 

9. H. herbiola : lip oblong, obtuse, toothed at the base; 

palate 1 -toothed ; horn filiform, shorter than the 
germen ; bracts longer than the flower. 
HAB. Swamps. June. U. Stem I ft. high; Jl. 
small, yellowish. 

10. H. bracteata : lip linear, emarginate, and obscure- 
ly 3-toothed at the extremity ; petals subconni- 
vent ; lateral ones ovate and broader ; horn ob- 
tuse, scrotiform ; bracts spreading, twice as long 
as the flower ; leaves subovate or oblong. 

HAB. Shady woods, &e. June. U. Stem 8— 12 
in. high, leafy ; spike loose ; Jl. green. 

11. H. orbiculata: lip linear, very entire, obtuse ; the 
3 upper petals connivent ; the 2 lateral ones 
spreading, oblique at the base ; horn longer than 
the germen ; scape with 2 orbicular leaves at the 

HAB. Wet meadows. June. U. Scape 12— 18 
IS. high; leav. very large ; Jl. loose, gr.-zvhite. 

12. H. macrophylla : lip lanceolate, entire, acuminate : 
spur longer than the germen, terete, nearly 


straight ; upper petals ovate, acute ; scape with 2 
broad-oval suberect leaves at the base. 
HAB. Meadows. June. U. Stem 1 ft. high; 
leav. large ; fl. gr. -yell 

13. H.fimbriata: lip 3-parted, scarcely longer than 
the petals ; segments cuneiform, ciliately fimbri- 
ate ; lateral petals ovate, fimbriate-toothed ; horn 
filiform, clavate, longer than the germen. 

HAB. Meadows. July. U- Stem 2 ft. high ; fl. 
large, beautiful purp. 

14. H. grandiflora : lip dependent, twice as long as 
the petals, 3-parted ; segments cuneiform, fimbri- 
ate, the middle one largest, with the fimbriae con- 
nivent ; lateral petals fimbriate ; spur ascending, 
clavate, longer than the germen ; leaves oval-ob- 

HAB. Wet meadows. June. U. Stem 2 ft. high , 
thick; fl. very large, purp, 
f 5. H. incisa : lip 3-parted ; segments cuneiform, in- 
cisely toothed, the intermediate one emarginate : 
lateral petals obtuse, subdentate ; horn subulate, 
ascending, longer than the germen. 

HAB. Meadows. July. 7/. Stem 2— 4 ft. high; 
fl. purple. 
!*". U.fissa: lip 3-parted ; segments cuneiform, den- 
tate ; intermediate one 2-lobed : horn filiform, 
clavate at the extremity, ascending, longer than 
the germen. 

HAB. Mountain meadows. July. U. Stem tall , 
fl. dark purple. 

510. GOODYERA. Orchidece. 

1. G . pubescens : radical leaves ovate, petiolate, reti- 
culate ; scape sheathed, and with the flowers pu- 
bescent ; lip ovate, acuminate ; petals ovate. 
HAB. Woods. July — Aug. U . Leav. radical, 
dark green with wh. veins ; fl. wh. 

1. G. repens: radical leaves ovate, petiolate, reticu- 
late ; scape sheathed, and with the flowers pu- 
bescent ; flowers unilateral ; lip and petals lanceo 
HAB. Woods. July. U Scape 8 in. high 
leav. small; Jl. gr.~wh. 


1 , NEOTTIA. Ladies' tresses. Orchideit. 

1 . N. tortilis : radical leaves linear ; scape sheathed ,: 

flowers spirally secund ; lip somewhat 3-lobed ; 
the middle lobe larger and crenulate. 

HAB. Meadows and woods. July. U . Scape 
slend., 12 in. high; fi. num., wh. ; root fascic. 
B. gracilis : radical leaves ovate, caducous, membra- 

HAB. Dry woods. Scape very slend., smooth. 

2. N. cernua : leaves linear-lanceolate, nerved ; stem 

sheathed ; spike densely flowered ; flowers re- 
curved-drooping ; lip oblong, entire, acute. 

HAB. Boggy grounds. Aug. — Oct. tt . Stem 8— 
12 in. high,pubes. above ; fl. gr.-wh. 
&. major : stem tall, somewhat leafy ; flowers very 

HAB. Woods. Sept. Stem 2 ft. high ; Jl. 3 timto 
ens large as in the common variety. 
y? latifolia: stem short; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
subradical, flat. 

HAB. Mountain meadows. Stem 4 — 8 in. high ; 
leav. broad ; lip ovate, obtuse. 

512. LISTERA. Tway-blade. Orchideai. 

1. L. cor data : stem with only 2 opposite roundish- 
cordate ; raceme loose ; column without any ap- 
pendage behind ; lip elongate, 2-toothed at base, 
deeply bifid ; the segments subdivaricate and 
JIAB. Sphagnous swamps. May. U. Stem 4— - 
8 in. high; raceme 7 — \b-Jl. ;fl. minute, gr.-purp. 

J. L ? convallarioides : stem with only 2 opposite oval- 
roundish leaves, pubescent above ; raceme few- 
flowered (4 — 6) ; column porrected ; lip oblong, 
dilated, and obtusely 2-lobed at the extremity. 
I JAB. Swamps. U. Stem 6 in. high, slend. ; Jl. 
much larger than in No. 1. 

513. POGONIA. Orchidece. 
1 . 1*. ophioglossoides : root fibrous ; scape furnished 


with an oval-lanceolate leaf and a foliaceous bract 
near the flower ; lip fimbriate. 
IIA13. Swamps. July. U . Root fascic. ; scape 1 
ft. high ; fl. solit., large, purp. 
1. I\ vcrlicilluta : leaves 5, oblong-lanceolate, verti 
cillate ; flower solitary ; the 3 exterior petals 
very long, linear ; interior shorter, oblong, ob- 
tuse ; lip 3-lobed, middle segment undulate. 
MAB. Swamps. July. U . Stem 8— 12 in. high 
leav. term.; ext. pet. greenish-brown. 

514. TRIPHORA. Otchidete. 

T. pendula : root tuberous ; stem leafy, about 3-flow- 
ered at the summit ; leaves ovate, alternate 
flowers pedunculate ; peduncles at length recur- 
JIAB. Rocky woods. Sept. U. Stem a span 
high, succut. ; JI. purp. 

515. CALOPOGON. Orchidea. 

C. pulchellus : radical leaves ensiform ; scape few- 
HAB. Swamps. July. U. Stem I ft. high ; fl. 
3 — 4, large, purp. ; root bulb. 

516. ARETHUSA. Orchidea. 

\.bulbosa: leafless; root bulbous; scape sheathed, 
1 -flowernd. 
IIAB. Swamps. June. U. Stem 8—12 in. high , 
JI. solit., large, purp. 

517. T1PULARIA. Orchidca-. 

1\ discolor. 
HAB. Pine barrens. July. Root bulb. ; leaf so 
lit,, ovate, petiol., plicate ; fl. racem.,fezv, nodding, 


510. MALAX1S. Orchidea. 

I. M. tiliifolia : leaves 2, ovate-lanceolate ; scape tri- 
angular ; interior petals filiform, reflexed : lip 
concave, obovate, acute at the tip. 


HAB. Woods and swamps. June. U . Leav^. 
large, rod.; scape 6 — 10 in. high; fi. gr. -white. 

* Subgenus. MICROSTYLIS. 

Lip sessile and concave, erect, the summit truncat e 
and bidentate; column minute; anthers 2; pollinia 3. 
2. M. ophioglossoides : leaf solitary, ovate, amplexicaul ; 
stem pentagonal. 

IIAB. Swamps. June. U . Stem a span high, 
with 1 leaf; fl. minute, gr. -white. 

519. CORALLORHIZA. Dragon's claw. Orchideoz. 

1. C. verna : petals linear-lanceolate, spreading; lip 

oblong, without spots, bidentate at the base ; apex 
recurved, ovate ; spur obsolete, adnate. 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps. May. 2{. Leafless; 
root coralloid ; scape 5 — 6 in. high; fl. small, 

2. C. odontorrhiza : lip oval, undivided, obtuse, spot- 

ted ; spur obsolete, adnate ; capsule subglobose. 
HAB. Shady woods. Aug. — Sept. U . A foot 
high, leafless, sheathed ; fl. purplish. 

3. C. multiflora : scape many-flowered (15 — 30) ; lip 

cuneate-oval, 3-parted, recurved, spotted ; spur 
conspicuous, adnate. 

HAB. Shady woods. Aug. — Sept. Scape 12 — 15 
in. high ; fl. purp. and spotted. 

520. APLECTRUM. Orchidea. 

A. hyemale. 
HAB. Woods. May. %. Root bulb. ; leaf solit., 
ovate, striate ; scape 12 in. high, vagin. ; fl. gr.' 
purp. ; lip 3-cleft, not spotted. 


521. CYPRIPEDIUM. Ladies' slipper. Orchidex. 

1. C. candidum : stem leafy; leaves oblong-lanceo- 
late ; lobe of the style lanceolate, rather obtuse ; 
lip shorter than the lanceolate petals, compressed. 
HAB. Pennsylvania. May. U . Fl. wh. Resem- 
bles C. Calceolus, 


2. C. parviflorum : stem leafy ; lobe of the style tri- 

angular, acute ; exterior petals ovate-oblong, acu- 
minate, interior linear and contorted ; lip shorter 
than the petals, compressed. 
HAB. Woods. May — June. U. Pet. gr.-brown ; 
lip yell., spotted. 

3. C. pubescens : stem leafy ; lobe of the style trian- 

gular-oblong, obtuse ; exterior petals ovate-ob- 
long, acuminate ; interior very long, linear, con- 
torted ; lip shorter than the petals, compressed. 
HAB. Meadows and woods. May — June. U. 
Stem 1 — 3 ft. ; fl. gr.-yell, spotted ; leav. pubes. 

4. C. spectabile : stem leafy ; lobe of the style ellip- 

tical-cordate, obtuse ; exterior petals broad-oval, 
obtuse ; lip longer than the petals, cleft before. 
HAB. Swamps. June. U . Stem 2—3 ft. high ; 
2 — 3fl. t thick; lip wh. and purp. 

5. C. arietinttm : stem leafy ; lobe of the style orbi- 

cular ; petals 5, the 2 lower ones linear-lanceo- 
late, deflexed ; the 2 lateral linear, spreading ; 
upper one oblong-ovate, acute ; lip as long as the 
petals, inversely conical. 

HAB. Wet woods. May. U. Stem 6—8 in. 
high ; fl. small; pet. gr.-brown; lip. retic. 
G. C. acanle : scape leafless, 1 -flowered ; radical 
leaves 2, oblong, obtuse ; lobe of the style round- 
ish-rhomboidal, acuminate, deflexed ; petals lan- 
ceolate ; lip shorter than the petals, cleft before. 

(IAB. Woods. May— June. U. Scape 1 ft. high : 
fl. very large ; lip purp. 


522. AUISTOLOCHIA. Birthwort. 

1. A. Sipho : leaves cordate, acute ; stem twining , 

peduncles 1 -flowered, furnished with an ovate 
bract ; corolla ascending, the border 3-cleft and 
HAB. Mountains. June. T 2 . Stem long; leav. 
very large; cor. long, dark purp. 

2. A. Scrpentaria ; leaves cordate, oblong, acuminate: 

stem flexuous ; peduncles radical ; lip of the c© 
rolla lanceolate. 


HAB. Shady woods. June. U. Root Jib r.; stem 
8—10 tit, high, genie. ; ft. purp* 


523. ASARUM. Indian ginger. 

1. A. canadense : leaves broad-reniform, geminate; 

calyx woolly, deeply 3-parted ; the segments sub- 
lanceolate, reflexed. 
HAB. Shady rocks. May — June. U . Leav. long- 
petiol., pubes. ; ft. axilL, pendul., solit. 

2. A. virginicum : leaves solitary, roundish-cordate, 

smooth and coriaceous ; flower subsessile ; calyx 
short-campanulate, smooth externally. 
HAB. Rocky woods. April. U . Lean, very 
smooth ; seg. of cal. obtuse. 


5241 ZOSTERA. Stam. and pist. inserted in 2 rows 
upon one side of a spadix. Spath foliaceous. 
sterile fl. Anth. ovate, sessile, alternating 
with the germens. fertile fl. Germ, ovate. 
Style bifid. Drupe with 1 seed. 

325. CAUL1NIA. sterile fl. Perianth 0. Anth. 
sessile, fertile fl. Perianth 0. Style fili- 
form ; stigma bifid. Caps. 1 -seeded. 

526. ZANN1CHELLIA. sterile fl. Perianth 0. 

fertile fl. Cal. 1 -leaved. Cor. 0. Style 
1 : stigma peltate. Capsules about 4, sessile. 

527. EUPHORBIA. Involucrum resembling a calyx, 

ventricose, the alternate segments (petals L. 
nectaries?) petaloid. sterile fl. 12 or more, 
mostly simple, each consisting of an anther with 
its filament articulated to a pedicel, (coming to 
maturity successively.) Cal. and Cor. very 
rarely present, fertile fl. solitary, central, 
stipitate. Cal. and Cor. 0. Styles 3, 2-cleft. 
Caps. 3-lobed. 



>28. PODQSTEMUM. sterile fl. Perianth 0. 
Stam. 2, affixed to a common pedicel, fertile 
fl. Germ, ovate ; stig. 1, sessile. Caps. 2- 
celled, 2-valved, many-seeded. Seeds minute 


529. TYPHA. Ament cylindrical, dense, sterile 

fl. Perianth 0. Stam. 3 together, upon a chaf- 
fy or hairy receptacle, united below into 1 fila- 
ment, fertile fl. below the sterile. Perianth 
0. Pericarp pedicellate, surrounded with a 
hairy pappus at the base. 

530. SPARGAN1UM. Ament globose, sterile fi 

Cat. 3-leaved. fertile fl. Cal. 3-leaved, 
Drupe dry, 1 — 2-seeded. 

531. CAREX. Flowers collected into an imbricate 

ament. Glume I -flowered. Cor. ventricose : 
1-valved, persistent, including the caryopsis. 

532. SCLERIA. sterile fl. Cal. 2- or 6-glumed, 

many-flowered. Valves of the Cor. unarmed 
fertile fl. Cal. 2 or 6 glumed, 1 -flowered. 
Cor. 0. Stig. 1 — 3. Nut coloured, subglo- 

533. TRIPSACUM. sterile fl. Glume 2-flowered ; 

the exterior flower sterile, the interior neuter. 
Valve of the Cor. membranaceous, fertile 
fl. Glume 2-flowered ; exterior valve resem- 
bling an involucrum, perforate near the base 
Cor. 2-valved. Styles 2. Seed 1. 
>34. COMPTONIA. sterile fl. Ament cylindric ; 
scales 1 -flowered. Cor. 0. fertile fl. Anient 
ovate. Cal. at length 6-leaved. Cor. 0. Stylet 
-\ JVut oval, 1 celled. 


ERIOCAULON. Florvers collected into a coin 
pact scaly head, sterile fl. in the disk. Pe- 
rianth sinele, 4-cleft ; the 2 inner segments 


united nearly to their summit. Stam. 4 — i 
fertile fl. in the margin. Perianth single, 
deeply 4-parted. Style 1. Stig. 2 — 3. Caps* 
2 — 3-lobed, 2 — 3-celled ; cells 1-seeded. 

536. ALNUS. sterile fl. Ament composed of 3- 

flowered, cuneiform truncate receptacles. Cal* 
the scales of the ament, 3-lobed. Cor. 4-parted. 
fertile fl. Scales of the ament 2-flowered, 
subtrifid. Cor. 0. Seed compressed, wingless. 

537. BOEHMERIA. sterile fl. Cal. 4-parted. 

Cor. 0. Nectary 0. fertile fl. Cal. and 
Cor. 0. Seed 1, compressed. 

538. URTICA. sterile fl. Cal. 4-leaved. Cor. 0. 

Nectary (abortive germen ?) central, mostly 
cyathiform. fertile fl. Cal, 2-leaved. Pe- 
ricarp 1 seeded, shining. 

539. PARIETARIA. Flowers polygamous, perfect. 

Cal. 4-cleft. Cor. 0. Stam. elastic. Style 1. 
Seed 1, superior, fertile. Cal. 2-leaved. 
Seed covered by the dry and elongated calyx. 

540. MORUS. sterile fl. Cal. 4-parted. Cor. 0. 

fertile fl. Cal. 4-leaved, becoming a berry 
Cor. 0. Styles 2. Seeds solitary. 


541. CROTONOPSIS. sterile fl. Cal. 5-parted. 

Cor. 5-petalled. fertile fl. Cal. 5-parted. 
Cor. 0. Stig. 3, twice bifid. Cap. 1-seeded 
512. AMARANTHUS. sterile fl. Cal. 3—5- 
leaved. Cor. 0. Sta?n. 3 — 5. fertile fl. 
Cal. 3—5 leaved. Cor. 0. Styles 3. Caps. 1- 
celled, opening transversely all round. Seed 1. 

543. XANTHIUM. sterile fl. Cal. imbricate. 

Anthers approximate, but not united. Recept. 
palaceaceous. fertile fl. Cal. a 2-leaved 
involucrum, 1-flowered. Cor. 0. Drupe? dry, 
muricate, 2-cleft. Nut 2-celled. 

544. AMBROSIA, sterile fl. Cal, 1 -leaved. Anth. 

approximate, but not united. Recept. naked. 
fertile fl. Cal. 1 -leaved, entire or 5-toothed. 
1-flowered. Cor. 0. Nut formed from the in 
durated calyx, 1-seeded. 



Ao. ZIZANIA. sterile fl. Cal. 0. Cor. 2-valved 
subuvned. fertile fl. Cal. 0. Cor. 2-valved. 
cucullate, awned. Style 2-parted. Seed 1, in- 
vested by the corolla. 

5*6. HYDROCHLOA. sterile fl. Cal. 0. Cor. 2- 
valved, awnless. fertile fl. Cat. 0. Cor. 2- 
valved, awnless. Stig. 2, very long. Seed J 


547. CERATOPMYLLUM. sterile fl. Cal. many- 
parted. Cor. 0. Stain. 16 — 20; anth. tricus- 
pidate. fertile fl. Cal. many-parted. Cor. 
0. Stig. nearly sessile, oblique. Nut 1 -seeded. 

518. MYRIOPHYLLUM. sterile fl. Cal. 4-cleft. 
Petals 4, caducous. Stam. 4, 6, or 8. fertile 
fl. Cal. 4-leaved. Petals 4. Stig. 4, pubescent ; 
styles 0. Nuts 4, subglobose, 1 -seeded. 

549. SAGITTARIA. sterile fl. Cal. 3-leaved. 

Pet. 3. Stam. definite, fertile fl. Cal. 3- 
leaved. Pet. 3. Germens numerous. Peri- 
carps aggregated, 1 -seeded, not opening. 

550. QUERCUS. sterile fl. in a loose ament. Cal. 

mostly 5-rleft. Cor. 0. Stam. 5 — 10. fer- 
tile fl. Invohicrum cup-shaped, scaly. Cal. 
incorporated with the germen, 6-lobed. Germen 
3-celled; 2 of the cells abortive. Style 1 ; stig. 
3-5. Nut (acnrn) 1-celled, coriaceous, 1 seed- 
ed, surrounded at the base by the enlarged 
cup-shaped involucrum. 

551. CORYLUS. sterile fl. in a cylindrical ament, 

itfl scales 3-cleft. Perianth 0. Stam. 8 ; anth. 
1-celled. FERTILE fl. Cal. obsolete. Germ. 
several ; stig. 2. Nut ov;ite, surrounded with 
the enlarged coriaceous and scaly involucrum. 
FAGUS. sterile fl. in a globose ament. Cal, 
5— G-cleft, campanulate. Stam. 5 — 12. FEB 

ri.. ( 2. Involucrum 4-lobed, prickly. 

single, i—5-ckft. Styles 3. Nut 1 -seeded, in 

led in the enlarged echinate involucrum. 


653. CASTANEA. sterile fl. in a long, naked cy 
lindrical ament. Cal. 1 -leaved, 6-cleft. Stam. 
10 — 12. fertile fl. 3. Involucrum 4-lobed;, 
thickly muricate. Cal. 5 — 6-lobed. Styles 6. 
Nut mostly 1 -seeded, invested with the enlarg- 
ed involucrum. 

554. BETULA. sterile fl. in a cylindrical ament ; 

scales peltate, 3-flowered. Cal. 0. Cor. 0. 
Stam. 10 — 12. fertile fl. Scales of the ament 
3-flowered. Cal. 0. Cor, 0. Styles 2. Nuts 
compressed, with a broad- winged margin, 1- 

555. CARPINUS. sterile fl. in a cylindrical ament : 

scales ciliate. Stain, about 10. fertile fl. 
in a loose ament; scales large, 3-lobed, 1 — 2- 
flowered. Cal. 3-cleft. Styles 2. Nut ovate, 
sulcate, 1 -seeded. 

556. OSTRYA. sterile fl. in a cylindrical ament ; 

scales 1 -flowered. CaZ. 0. Filaments branched 
fertile fl. Ament naked. Cal. 0. Cor. 0. 
Ca/9$. inflated, imbricate, 1-seeded at the base, 

557. PLATANUS. Flowers in globose aments. sterile 

Cal. 0. Cor. minute. Anth. adnate to the fila- 
ments from the base, fertile. Cal. many- 
parted. Cor. 0. Stig. recurved. Caps, sub- 
clavate, 1-seeded, mucronate with the per- 
sistent style ; base surrounded with a hairy 

558. LIQTJIDAMBAR. sterile fl. in a conic ament* 

surrounded with a 4-leaved involucrum. Cal. 
and Cor. 0. Filam. numerous, sterile fl. 
Ament globose, surrounded with a 4 -leaved in- 
volucrum. Cal. 1-leaved, urceolate, 2-flower- 
ed. Styles 2. Capsules 2, surrounded by the 
base of the calyx, 1-celled, many-seeded. 

559. JUGLANS. sterile fl. Ament imbricate ; the 

scales mostly 5-parted. Cal. about 5-parted. 
Stam. 20 — 30. fertile fl. Cal. 4-cleft, su- 
perior. Cor. 4-parted. Styles 1 — 2. Drupe 
partly spongy ; nut rugose and irregularly fur- 
. CARYA. sterile fl. Ament imbricate : scale? 
3-parted. Cal. and Cor. 0. Stam. 4 — 6. fee 


tile ft,. Cal. 4-cleft, superior. Cor. 0. Styles 
; stig. subdiscoid, 4-lobed. Pericarp 4- 
valved. Nut subquadrangular, even. 
56k ARUM. Spaihe 1 -leaved, cucullate. Cal. and 
Cor. 0. Spadix naked above, bearing sessile 
anthers below the middle, and germens at the 
base. Berry 1-celled, many-seeded. 

562. LECONTIA* Spaihe convolute. Cal and Cor. 0. 

Spadix covered with flowers, fertile at the base, 
sterile above. Berry 1 -seeded. 

563. CALLA. Spath ovate, somewhat flattened. Spa- 

dix covered with flowers ; barren and fertile in 
mixed. Cal. and Cor. 0. Berry many-seeded. 


564. PINUS. sterile fl. Scales peltate. Cal. and 

Cor. 0. Anth. 2, sessile, 1-celled. fertile 
fl. in an ovate or conical strobile ; scales 
closely imbricate, 2-flowered. Cor. 0. Nut 
winged, covered by the scales of the cone. 

565. THUYA, sterile fl. Ament imbricate. Cal, 

and Cor. 0. Anth. sessile, 4. fertile fl. 0. 
Strobile with the scales 2-flowered. Cor. 0. 
Nut 1, winged. 

566. CUPRESSUS. sterile fl. in an ovate ament ; 

scales peltate. Cal. and Cor. 0. Anth. 4, ses- 
sile, fertile fl. Strobile with the scales pel- 
tate. Cal. and Cor. 0. Germens 4 — 8 under 
each scale of the strobile. Nuts angular, com 

567. ACALYPIIA. sterile fl. Cal. 3— 4-parled. 

Cor. 0. Slam. 8 — 16. fertile fl. Cal. 3- 
leaved. Cor. 0. Styles 3. Caps. 3-celled 
Seed 1 in each cell. 

568. PIIYLLANTHUS. sterile fl. Cal. 5—6- 

parted. Filam. often columnar ; anth. 3. fer- 
; ii i i r . resembling the sterile. Nectary a 12- 
angled margin. Styles 3. Caps, mostly 3-grained. 

569. MELOTHRIA. sterile fl. Cal. 1 -leaved, 3— 

* A nciv genus proposed by Mr. W. Cooper, and named in- 
lonom- of C »pt. I-ecoote of the U. S. A. 

E e 2 


5-toothed. Cor. campanulate. Stain. 3, grow- 
ing to the tube of the corolla, fertill fl, 
Cal. and Cor. as in the sterile. Germen infe- 
rior ; style 1 ; stig. 3. Berry 3-celled, many- 

570. MOMORDICA. sterile fl. Cal. 5— 6-cleft. 

Cor. 5 — 6-parted. Filam- 3. fertile fl. 
Style 3-cleft. Pepo dry, bursting elastically. 

571. SICYOS. sterile fl. Cal. 5-toothed. Cor. 

5-parted. Filam. 3. fertile fl. Style 3 
cleft, Pepo 1 -seeded. 


524. ZOSTERA. Grass-wrack. Fluviales. 

Z. marina: leaves entire, somewhat 3-nerved ; stem 
HAB. Sea shore. Leav. linear, 3-4 tin, broad, 2 — 
4 ft. long ; spad. lin., sheath, 

525. CAULINIA. Fluviales. 

1. C.flexilis: leaves verticillate by sixes, linear, den- 

ticulate at the extremity, spreading. 
HAB. Flowing water. Aug. — Sept. U ? Stem 
submerge branch. ; fl. axill., sess. 

2. C.fragilis: leaves by threes, or opposite, linear- 

subulate, recurved, with aculeate dentures, rigid, 
HAB. Ditches, &c. Aug. Stem long, brittle, sub* 

526. ZANN1CHELLIA. Horned pondweed. Flu 

1. Z. palustris : anther 4-celled ; stigmas entire; peri- 

carps toothed on the back. 
HAB. Ditches, &c. © . Stem long, filif. ; leav. 
oppos., lin. : fl. axill., small. 

2. Z. intermedia* : anther 2-celled ; stigmas dentate 

senate ; seed smooth, entire on the back. 


IIAB. Salt marsh ditches. July. ©. Submerged, 
stemfllif. ; leav. entire ; fl. inconspic. 

527. EUPHORBIA. Spurge. Euphorbiacect. 

\. TZ.hypericifolia: smooth, branched, erect-spreading; 
branches divaricate; leaves opposite, serrate, oval- 
oblong, subfalcate, on very short petioles; corymbs 
terminal and axillary. 
HAB. Fields and dry soils. July — Aug. © . Very 
smooth, 12 — 18 in. high ; leav. spot. 

& ? hirsuta : stem slender, hairy ; leaves oblong, 
smooth, serrulate. 
HAB. Sandy soils. Aug. Much branch., 8 — 12 
in. high ; stem purp. 

!. E. maculata : stem procumbent, spreading flat on 
the ground, much branched, hairy ; leaves oppo- 
site, oval or oblong, serrulate, oblique at the base, 
on short petioles, smooth above, hairy and pale 
beneath ; flowers solitary, axillary, much shorter 
than the leaves. 
HAB. Sandy fields. July— Oct. ©. St em 6—12 
m. long; fl. appearing fascic. 

*>. E. polygonifolia : procumbent, divaricate, very 
smooth, succulent ; leaves oblong and linear- 
lanceolate, entire, obtuse at the base, sometimes 
subcordate ; flowers solitary in the forks of the 
stem; stipules simple. 
IIAB. Sea shore. July— Sept. U. Stem 8 in. 
long; stip. subul. ; fl. minute. 

1. E. Ipecacuanha : procumbent or suberect, very 
smooth ; leaves opposite obovate and lanceolate ; 
peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered, elongated. 
HAB. Pine barrens. May— June. 1|. Root ta- 
pering, very long ; leav. variable, cllipt., obovate, 
or linear, (in young plants broad.) 

5. E. corallata : umbel 5-cleft, 3-cleft, and dichoto- 
mous ; floral and cauline leaves oblong, obtuse, 
alternate dentures of the involucrum petaloid, ob 
HAD. Fields, kc. June. U- Stem 1—2 ft. 
high, erect, sub simp. ; fl. conspic. 
E . portulaccoides: erect, leaves entire, oval, re 


tuse ; peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered, as long at 
the leaves. 
HAB. Sandy soil. U. A variety of the preceding ? 
7. E. Peplus : umbel 3-cleft, dichotomous ; floral 
leaves ovate, of the stem obovate, very entire, 
HAB. Sandy soil. July. ©. Flor. leaves large : 
fl. conspic, 
3. E. ohtumta: umbel 3-rayed, twice dichotomous; 
floral leaves ovate, rather obtuse, subcordate ;■ of 
the stem alternate, sessile, spathulate, serrulate, 
smooth ; capsule muricate. 
HAB. Fields. July. U. Stem 12— 18 in. high, 
smooth) subsimple below. 
9. E. mercurialina : stem slender and weak, simply 3- 
cleft ; leaves opposite and ternate, subsessilc 
oval, entire ; peduncles terminal, solitary, 1- 
HAB. Shady rocks. July— Aug. U : 
JO. E. pilosa : umbel of 5 primary rays and bifid ; flo 
ral leaves ovate ; cauline lanceolate, somewhat 
hairy, serrulate at the extremity ; petaloid seg- 
ments of the involucrum entire. 
HAB. Woods/fee. June— July. U. Stem 1— £' 
ft. high, 
H. E. dentata: hair}' ; leaves opposite, oval, dentate ; 
flowers crowded at the summit of the stem. 
IIAB. Shady rocks. July — Aug. ©. Upper 
leov. spotted. 
12. E. helioscopia : umbel of 5 primary rays and bifid ; 
floral leaves obovate ; cauline cuneiform serrate. 
HAB. Rich soil. ©. Stem erect ; leav. scattered 
caps, smooth. 


628. PODOSTEMUM. Fluviales. 

P. ceratophyllum. 

IIAB. Rocks, in streams. July, ty . StemfiUf.. 
float. : leav. pinnate ; ft. axilL 



.29. TYFHA. Reed-mace. Avoided 

1. T. laiifolia : leaves linear ; sterile and fertile spikes 

approximate on the same rachis, both cylindrical. 
IIAB. Water. June— July. U . Culm 5 ft . high ; 
spikes dense; leav. 1 in. broad, 

2. T . angustifolia : leaves linear, canaliculate, semi- 

cylindric below and flattish above ; sterile and fer- 
tile spikes a little separate. 

HAB. Water, June— July. U- Culm 4— 5 ft. 
high; leav. 5-6 lin. broad. 

530. SPARGANIUM. Burr-reed. Aroidea;. 

1. S. ramosum : leaves triangular at the base, their 

sides concave ; common flower stalk branched ; 
stigma linear. 
HAB. Borders of lakes, &c. Aug.— -Sept. U. 
Two ft. high; leav. ensif, long. 

2. S. americanum : lower leaves equal with, or ex- 

ceeding the stem, which is nearly simple ; floral 
ones concave at the base and erect ; stigma sim- 
ple, ovate-oblong, oblique, scarcely more than 
half the length of the style. 
IIAB. Lakes. Aug. H. Stem 12 in. high ; lower 
leav. curinate ; fertile heads 2 — 5. 

3. S. nutans : leaves long, flat, floating ; common 

flower-stalk simple ; stigma ovate, very short ; 
head of sterile flowers subsolitary. 
IIAB. Lakes. Aug. U. Stem long, slend.; leav. 
very narrow, linear, thin. 

531. CAREX.« Sedge. Cyperoideat. 

A. Inflorescence dioecious. 

1. C. sterilis : spikes dioecious ; sterile 3—5; fertile 
about 6, (sometimes androgynous ;) fruit ovate, 

a Tor full descriptions of the species enumerated below, sec 
ihe Monograph of North American Carices, by Rev. Mr. Sclnvci 
nitz and myself, in the Annals of the Lyceum of Nat. History. 


compressed, triquetrous ; margin ciliate-serrate 
apex recurved and bicuspidate. 
HAB. Marshes. May. U. Culm 8—12 in. high ; 
spik. subapprox.. oblong. 

B. Inflorescence monoecious. 
* All the spikes androgynous. 
t Spike solitary. 
a. Summit staminiferous. 

?. C. Fraseri : spike simple, ovate; fruit ovate-sub- 
globose, entire at the point, longer than the oblong 
glume ; leaves lanceolate, undulate, crenulate ; 
scape sheathed at the base. 
HAB. Mountains. April. 1J. . Leav. broad, radi- 

3. C. Willdenovii : spike simple, ovate; sterile and 

fertile flowers about 6 ; fruit ovate, subglobose at 
the base, rostrate ; glumes ovate, acuminate, the 
inferior ones very long and foliaceous, much ex- 
ceeding the culm. 
HAB. Rocky woods. May— June. U. Culm a 
span high ; inf. glum. 1 — 2 in. long. 

4. C. polytrichoides : spike simple ; fruit oblong-lan- 

ceolate, compressed triquetrous, obtuse, emar- 
ginate ; glumes oblong-obtuse, mucronate. 
HAB. Dry hills and bogs. May. U. Culm a 
foot high, very slend. ; leav. narrow -linear. 

5. C. pauciflora : spike about 4 -flowered ; sterile 

flower subsolitary, terminal ; fruit lanceolate, 
terete, reflexed ; fertile glumes caducous. 
HAB. Sphagnous bogs. June. i|. . A span high ; 
fr. long., yell., caduc. 

b. Summit pistilliferous. 

6. C.squarrosa: spike mostly simple, (sometimes 

spikes 2 — 3,) very thick, oblong-cylindrical ; 
fruit imbricate, at length horizontal, smooth, sub- 
squarrose, bidentate at the point, longer than the 
lanceolate glume. 
HAB. Bogs. June. 1J.. Culm 2 ft. high'; spikr 
i in, !on%, h in. thick. 


* * Spikes several, aggregated into a head. 

7. C. cephalophora : spikes collected into an elliptical 
head ; fruit ovate, scabrous on the margin above ; 
about equal to the ovate subaristate glume. 
IIAB. Hills. May. H. Culm 1—2 ft. high, ces< 
pit., wiry; head subtri fid. 

* * * Spikes distinct, (not aggregated into a head.) 

a. Summit staminiferous. 

1. With 2 stiginas. 

3. C. bromoides : spikes 4 — 6, alternate, oblong, erect, 
uppermost one sterile above, the rest pistilliferous 
or androgynous (sterile above and below ;) fruit 
erect, lanceolate acuminate, scabrous, nerved, bi- 
fid, longer than the ovate-lanceolate glume. 
HAB. Bogs. May. 1*. Culm 12—18 in. high, 
slend. ; spik. sitbdist., h in* long. 

9. C. retrojlexa : spikes about 4, subapproximate, 

ovate, the lowest one with a short bract ; fruit 
ovate-lanceolate, bidentate, scabrous on the mar- 
gin, spreading and reflexed, as long as the ovate 
acute glume. 
HAB. Meadows, &c. May. U. Culm 8—12 in. 
high, subhexang. ; spik. 3 — 4 — 5. 

10. C. rosea: spikes 4 — 6, remote, about 9-flowered ; 
the lowest one with a setaceous bract overtopping 
the culm ; fruit ovate, acuminate, diverging and 
radiate, scabrous on the distinct margin, twice as 
long as the ovate obtuse glume. 

IIAB. Moist woods, &c. May. H . Culm 12 in. 
high ; spikes 1 in. distant, yell.-gr. 

11. C. disperma : spikes about 3, rather remote, 
mostly 2-flowered, somewhat erect, the lowest 
one bracteate ; fruit ovate, rather obtuse, nerved, 
plano-convex, smooth, with a scabrous margin, en- 
tire at the point, twice as long as the ovate, obtuse 
submucronate glume. 

IIAB. iMountain woods. May — June. U . Culm 
6 — 12 in. high ; fruit small. 
12. C. Muhlenbergii : spikes about 5, ovate, crowded 
at the summit of the culm, bracteate at the base •• 


fruit broad-ovate, compressed, nerved, bifid, some 
what diverging, scabrous on the margin, rather 
shorter than the ovate mucronate glume. 
HAB. Woods. May. U. Culm 1—2 ft. high; 
plant dark green. 

13. C.stipata: spike compound, oblong; spikelets 
numerous (10 — 15,) oblong, aggregated, bracte- 
ate ; bracts a little longer than the spikelets ; fruit 
lanceolate, subterete and smooth below, spreading, 
bidentate at the point, which is scabrous, twice as 
long as the glumes. 

HAB Swamps. April. U. Culm 1 — 3 ft. high, 
thick, small ; spik. crowded. 

14. C. sparganioides : spikelets about 8, many-flower- 
ed ; upper ones approximate, lower ones subdis- 
tant, bracteate ; fruit ovate, compressed, acumi- 
nate, bifid, diverging, scabrous on the margin, 
twice as long as the ovate mucronate glume. 

HAB. Meadows. May. U . Culm 2 ft. high ; 
2 — 4 lowest spik. remote. 

15. C. multiflora : spike oblong, decompound, bracte- 
ate, interrupted ; spikelets glomerate, ovate-ob- 
long, obtuse ; fruit ovate, acuminate, compressed, 
crowded, bifid, 3-nerved, serrulate on the mar- 
gin, at length diverging, rather shorter than the 
ovate cuspidate glume. 

HAB. Wet meadows. May. U. Culm 2 ft. high, 
obtusely triang. ; spike subpanic. 

16. C. setacea : spike oblong, decompound, bracteate ; 
spikelets glomerate, ovate, obtuse ; fruit ovate, 
acuminate, compressed, bifid, subdiverging, as 
long as the ovate-lanceolate awned glume. 

HAB. Meadows. June — July. U . Culm 18— 
30 in. high, acutely triang., sulcate. 

17. C. paniculata: spike decompound, paniculate, in- 
terrupted, the branches alternate and somewhat 
remote ; fruit ovate, acuminate, spreading, mar- 
gined above, bifid. 

HAB. Wet meadows. May. H . Culm 18 in. 
high ; spikes not black in age. 

18. C. teretiuscula : spike decompound or paniculate, 

dense, subacute, (often dioecious, at length brown,) 
spikelets with short bracts at the base : fruit ovate. 


acuminate, somewhat gibbous at the base, biden- 
tate, ciliate-serrulate on the margin. 
HAB. Bogs. May. tt . Culm 18 in. high ; spike 
narrow ; fr. and glume brown. 

2. With 3 stigmas. 

19. C. pedunculata : spikes about 4, on long peduncles., 

very remote ; fruit obovate, triquetrous, obtuse, 
smooth, entire at the orifice ; glumes ovate, mu 
cronate, (purple and green.) 
HAB. Rocky hills. May. U-. Culm filif., 6 in. 
high ; pedunc. mostly radical. 

20. C. ovata: spikes about 5, pedunculate, ovate, pen- 
dulous ; fruit obovate, acute ftt each end, as long 
as the ovate acute glume. 

HAB. Canada. U. Spikes densely imbricate; 
glumes brown. 

C. Summit pistilliferous. 

1. With 2 stigmas. 

21. C. Dewey ana: spikes about 3, sessile, loose, two 
of them approximate, the third distant, with long 
bracts at the base, (except the highest ;) fruit ob- 
long-lanceolate, subcompressed, rostrate, bifid at 
the point ; beak serrulate ; culm flaccid. 

HAB. Woods. June. W- . Culm 1—4 ft. high, 
subprccumb. ; plant yell. -green. 

22. C. loliacea : spikes about 4, rather distant, few-flow- 

ered : fruit elliptical, obtuse, nerved, compressed, 
HAB. Swamps. June. U. Culm 2 ft. high, 
slend. ; spik. 3 — b-fl. 

13. C. trisperma : spikes 3, remote, alternate, sessile, 
ovate, uppermost one without a bract ; fruit ob- 
long, acute (or short-rostrate) entire at the point, 
many-nerved, subscabrous above, somewhat di- 
verging, longer than the oblong acute hyaline 
HAB. Mountain bogs. June. U. Culm 18 in. 
high ; filif, prostr. ; plant pale green. 

24. C. arida: spikes 8, (large) subapproximate, dry; 
fruit elliptical, compressed, winged, terete in the 
F f 


middle, acuminate at each eud, divergingly bifid ; 
culm leafy. 
HAD. Meadows. June. U . Culm 2— 3 ft. high ; 
leav. dark green ; spik. gray. 

25. C. lagopodioides : spikes numerous, (10 — 16,) el- 
liptic, crowded ; bract beneath the lowest overtop- 
ping the culm ; fruit lanceolate, acuminate, erect, 
bicuspidate, with a narrow serrulate margin, twice 
as long as the ovate-lanceolate glume. 

HAB. Wet meadows. May. H . Spikes large, 
at first subcylind. 

26. C. scoparia : spikelets mostly 5, (sometimes 6 or 

7,) ovate, sessile, approximate, aggregate, lowest 
one bracteate ; fruit ovate-lanceolate, margined, 
nerved, smooth, bicuspidate longer than the lan- 
ceolate acuminate glume. 
HAB. Wet meadows. May. U. Fruit not wing- 
ed, tawny zvhen mature. 

27. C. straminea: spikes about 5, (4 — 7,) roundish, 
approximate, with short bracts at the base ; fruit 
roundish-ovate, rostrate, compressed, broadly- 
ovate, bidentate, serrulate, longer than the lanceo- 
late glume. 

HAB. Wet meadows. May. U . A foot high ; 
spikes yellowish ; fr. acuminate. 

28. C. foznea: spikes numerous, (8 — 10,) inferior 
ones distinct, upper ones aggregated and conBuent ; 
fruit ovate, acuminated, winged, bidentate, some- 
what longer than the ovate glume. 

HAB. Marshes. June. U . Culm obtusely triang. ; 
spik. subglob. ; glumes rigid. 

29. C. cristata : spikes numerous, (8 — 15,) aggregated 
into a kind of head ; fruit ovate-lanceolate, winged, 
diverging, serrate, longer than the ovate-lanceo- 
late glume. 

HAB. Wet thickets. June. H . Spik* crowded 
into an ovate head. 

30. C.festucacea : spikes obovaie, (5 — 8.) subap- 
proximate, bracteate ; fruit roundish-ovate, ros- 
trate, bidentate, winged, serrulate on the margin, 
longer than the ovate-lanceolate glume. 

HAB. Woods and meadows. May. U . Fruit green 
or silver-gray, not becoming tawny. 


31. C. stellulata: spikes 3 — 4, rather remote, upper 
one attenuate at the base, the rest ovate ; fruit 
ovate, plano-convex, spreading, and at length re- 
flexed, short-acuminate, scabrous on the margin. 

IIAB. Wet places. May. U. Culm 8—18 in. 
high ; Jr. broad ; point subentire. 

32. C. scirpoides : spikes 4, ovate, obtuse, approxi- 
mate, uppermost one clavate ; fruit ovate, bi- 
dentate, plano-convex, erect, and a little spread- 
ing, but not reflexed, subcordate, serrulate, longer 
than the ovate obtuse glume. 

IIAB. Meadows. May. U. Culm 6— 12 in. high, 
strict ; jr. not re/lexed. 

33. C. curta : spikes about 6, subremote, somewhat 
cylindric-ovate, tumid, sessile ; fruit short-ovate, 
plano-convex, rather acute, erect, entire at the 

HAB. Wet meadows. May. U . Culm nodding 
at the end ; glume 7vhitish. 

34. C. tenera: spikes about 5, obovate, rather remote, 
sessile, attenuate at the base, the lowest bracteate ; 
fruit ovate, compressed, rostrate, serrulate, longer 
than the oblong-lanceolate glume. 

IIAB. Moist meadows. May. U. Culm 15—30 
in. high; spik. brownish. (Is it C. sterilis ?) 

35. C. remota ; spikes alternate, remote ; bracts leafy, 
very long ; fruit ovate acuminate, bifid, somewhat 

IIAB. Woods. Pennsylvania? 

2. With 3 stigmas. 

(J. atrata : androgynous spikes 3, pedunculate, 
crowded, subpendulous in fruit, (black ;) fruit 
roundish-ovate, with a short beak, bidentate. 
HAB. High mountains. June. Culm C in. high ; 
spik. large, black. 

~ * Terminal spikes androgynous; the rest pistilli- 
ferous ; stigmas 3. 

-7. C. virescens : spikes 3, oblong, erect ; upper one 
pedunculate, sterile below, the rest fertile, sub- 
sessile and bracteate ; fruit ovate, obtuse, costate, 


HAB. Dry woods. May. Culm 1—2//. high; 
leav. and sheath pubes. ; plant dull green. 

3. costata : spikes larger ; fruit strongly costate : 
exterior sheaths purple. 

HAB. Rocky hills. Culm 2—3 ft. high. 
S8. Chirsuta: spikes 3, erect, approximate, densely 
fruited, upper one ovate-oblong, on a short pedun- 
cle ; the rest ovate, subsessile, bracteate ; fruit 
roundish-ovate, nerved, obtuse, smooth, orifice 
entire, longer than the ovate acuminate glumes ; 
leaves and sheaths pubescent. 

HAB. Rocky woods. May. Culm 12 — 18 in. 
high; spik. thick ; young fr, pubes* 
•9. C. Buxbaumii : spikes about 4, obovate, subre- 
mote, upper one androgynous and pedunculate, 
the rest sessile, with very long bracts ; fruit ovate, 
obtuse, rather compressed, orifice entire, shorter 
than the ovate acuminate (brown) glume. 

HAB. Sphagnous swamps. June. Culm 2 ft. high; 
glume dark br. ; ft. green. 

40. C. digitalis : spikes mostly 4, distant, slender, pe- 
dunculate, loosely-flowered, nodding ; uppermost 
androgynous, fertile above; the rest all fertile; 
fruit oblong, subtriquetrous, obtuse, smooth, 
longer than the oblong mucronate glume. 

HAB. Meadows. May. Culm 18 in. high, slend. ; 
spik. filif. ; plant pale green. 

41. C.formosa : spikes 4, oblong, thick, distant, on ex- 
sert peduncles, nodding, uppermost one sterile at 
the base ; fruit oblong, triquetrous, somewhat in- 
flated, rather acute at each end ; orifice nearly en- 
tire or 2-lobed, obscurely nerved, twice as long 
as the ovate acute glume. 

HAB. Meadows. Culm 12 — 18 in. high; leav. 
often subpubes. ; plant yellowish-green. 
12. C. Torreyana : spikes 4, filiform, pedunculate, 
somewhat nodding, uppermost one sterile at the 
base ; fruit oblong, triquetrous, acute at each end, 
slightly 2-lobed, shorter than the oblong awned 
glume ; leaves and sheaths pubescent. 
HAB V Meadows. Culm 18 in. high f leafy; spik-. 
*Und.; rachisjlex. ; glum, hyaline. 

M0N0EC1 A.— TRIANDRIA. 34 1 

■ * * * * Staminiferous and pistilliferous spikes distinct. 

t Staminiferous spike solitary. 

2. With 2 stigmas. 

43. C.novce anglice: sterile spike on a short pedun- 
cle ; fertile 2 — 3, sessile, ovate, few-flowered, 
rather remote ; fruit oval-subtriquetrous, rostrate, 
minutely pubescent, longer than the ovate-mucro- 
nate glume ; culm slender, subdecumbent. 
IIAB. High mountains. Culm 6 — 8 in. high; leav. 
sm. ; spik. mostly 4-Jl., lowest dist. 

41. C. aurea : fertile spikes mostly 3, oblong, loose- 
flowered, subpendulous, rather approximate, 
lower ones pedunculate ; fruit obovate or pyri- 
form, obtuse, nerved, entire at the orifice, longer 
than the ovate acute glume. 
IIAB. Wet rocks. May— June. Culm 3— 10 in. 
high, subprocum. ; fruit dark orange. 

2. With 3 stigmas. 

Pistilliferous spikes sessile, or with the peduncles in- 

15. C. varia : fertile spikes 2—3, approximate, few- 
flowered, ovate, subsessile ; sterile spike sessile, 
(or on a short peduncle ;) fruit subglobose, acu- 
minate, bifid, obtusely triangular, hispidly pubes- 
cent, as long as the ovate acuminate glume. 

KAB. Rocky woods. April. Culm 8 — 12 in. 
highffilif. ; fr. ventricose. 

16. C. marginata : sterile spike pedunculate; fertile 
spikes mostly 2, approximate, subglobose, sub- 
sessile ; fiuit globose, woolly, bidenlate, longer 
than the ovate-oblong glume. 

IIAB. Dry woods. April. Culm G — 12. in. high; 
sttrile spike subtrigon. ; glume margined. 
i~. Cvestita: sterile spike mostly solitary (rarely 
geminate, with the upper one elongate,) peduncu- 
late, cylindrical-oblong ; fertile 2, ovate-oblong, 
6essile, subapproximate, sometimes sterile at 
the summit ; fruit ovate, subtriquetrous, nerved, 
with a short rostrum, pubescent, rather longer 
than the ovate mucronate glume. 


HAB. Wet sandy soil. June. Culm 2 ft. high ; 
glum, brown ; Jr. bidentate. 
48. C. pubescens: sterile spike subsessile ; fertile 3, 
oblong, erect, rather loosely-flowered, ihe lowest 
on a short peduncle ; fruit ovate triquetrous, 
rostrate, pubescent, orifice nearly entire, as long 
as the ovate mucronate glume ; leaves and culm 

HAB. Woods. May. Culm 12 — 18 in. high, erect 
or subdecum. ; leav. pale gr. 
19. CJlava: sterile spike on a short peduncle ; fer- 
tile mostly 8, ovate, subapproximate, (the lowest 
rather remote,) on short included peduncles ; 
fruit ovate, densely imbricate, bidentate, with a 
curved and reflexed rostrum, shorter than the 
ovate-lanceolate glume. 

HAB. Highland meailows. Culm 12 — 14 in. high, 
(sometimes 3 — 1 ;) plant yellowish. 
50. C. (Ederi : sterile spike on a short peduncle ; fer- 
tile about 3, ovate, approximate, subpedunculate, 
densely flowered ; fruit ovate-globose, horizontal, 
with a straight rostrum. 

HAB. Wet rocks and banks. June. Culm 6—12 
in. high ; spik. andfr. small, yell. 

61. C. tentaculata: fertile spikes 2—3, (rarely 4,) 
sessile, ovate or ovate-cylindrical, approximate, 
horizontal ; bracts very long ; fruit ovate, ven- 
tricose, nerved, with a very long rostrum, orifice 
bidentate, longer than the lanceolate glume. 

HAB. Wet meadows. May— June. Culm 12— 18 
in. high; spik. very large, thick. 

62. C. nigra : sterile spike pedunculate ; fertile 2 — 3, 

(rarely 4,) rather remote, oblong (black,) sessile, 
erect ; fruit obovate, compressed-triquetrous, 
subacute, orifice entire, as long as the ovate glume. 
HAB. High mountains. July. Cidm 8—12 in. 
high] Jr. smooth, nerveless; styles 2 — 3. 

63. C. lupulina : sterile spike on a short peduncle, 
(rarely geminate ;) fertile 3, subsessile, ovate-ob- 
long, erect, approximate ; bracts very long and 
leafy ; fruit ovate, inflexed, nerved, long-rostrate, 
bicu9pidate,much longer than the ovate glume. 


1IAB. Swamps. June. Cidm 2 — 3 ft. high, thick 

and leafy ; spike very thick. 
B. polyslachia : fertile spikes 5, oblong-cylindric, 

lowest one remote, on a long peduncle. 
HAB. Swamps. Culm 2 ft. high; spik. 2—3 in. 


54. C. folliculata : sterile spike pedunculate; fertile 
2, (often solitary,) roundish, approximate, few- 
flowered, upper one sessile, lower one short pe- 
duncle ; bracts leafy ; fruit ovate, acuminate- 
rostrate, ovate, reflexed and diverging, bicuspi- 

1 1 AB. Swamps. June. Culm 18 in. high; spik. 
6 — 10-jfl. ,• pi. dark green. 

55. C. Xanthophysa : fertile spikes 3 — 4, ovate, very 
remote, pedunculate, few-flowered ; fruit oblong- 
conical, somewhat inflated, striate, horizontal 
when mature, acute, bifid, longer than the ovate 
acuminate glume. 

HAB. Swamps. June. Culm 2 — 4ft.high,slend.; 
fr. i in. long; pi. yell.-gr. 

56. C. subulata : sterile gpikes short-pedunculate ; 
fertile mostly 4, ses-ile, or with included pedun- 
cles, very remote, few-flowered, sterile at the 
apex ; fruit subulate, reflexed, much longer than 
the lanceolate glume ; culm very slender. 

HAB. Cedar swamps. July. Culm 2 ft. high ; 
spik. about 4-Jl. 

57. C. ulpestris : fertile spikes 3, 5-flowered, the 2 

uppermost approximate and sessile, the lowest 
radical, on a long peduncle ; fruit obovate-oblong, 
triquetrous, scarcely rostrate, subpubescent, ori- 
fice oblique, as long as the oblong glume. 
HAB. Woody hills. Culm 6 in. high. 

§§ Pistilliferous spikes on exsert peduncles, partli 
sheathed at the base. 

0, alba ; sterile spike pedunculate; fertile 2—3, 
pedunculate, about 5-flowered ; fruit obovate, 
with a short rostrum, obliquely truncate ; sheath 
at the base of the culm hyaline, leafless. 
HAB. Limestone hills. June. Culm 1 — 10 in. 
high, slend. ', bracts zih. ; fr. dark. 


50. C. plantaginea : fertile spikes mostly 4, on pedun- 
cles scarcely exserted, loosely-flowered ; fruit ob- 
long-cuneiform, triquetrous, recurved at the apex; 
culm sheathed at the base ; sheaths of the culm 
all leafless, (coloured ;) leaves broad. 
1IAB. Mountain woods. April — May. Culm 8 — 
12 in. high, leafless ; sheath purp. 

60. C. anceps : fertile spikes mostly 3, remote, sub- 
cylindric, loosely flowered, lower ones peduncu- 
late ; fruit ovate, triangular, acute, striate, nar- 
rowed at the base, orifice obscurely bidentate, 
about as long as the ovate cuspidate glume. 

HAB. Woods. April— May. Culm 12—14 iff. 
high; hyemal leav. very broad. 

61. C oligocarpa : fertile spikes 3, pedunculate, few- 
flowered ; lower peduncles elongate ; fruit short- 
ovate, acutely triangular, with a short rostrum, 
orifice entire, longer than the ovate glume. 

1JAB. Rocky woods. May. Culm 6 in. high, 
slend. ; leav. subglauc. ; spik. 5 — 8-Jl. 
CI. C.scabrata: fertile ppikes 5, subremote, cylindri- 
cal, mostly erect, lower ones long-pedunculate ; 
fruit ovate, with an acuminate rostrum, subventri- 
cose, scabrous, orifice oblique and somewhat bifid, 
longer than the ovate-lanceolate ciliate glume. 

11 AB. Bogs. May. Culm 18 in. high; leav. broad, 
very scab. ; plant dark green. 
63. C. conoidea : fertile spikes 2 — 3, oblong, remote, 
rather loose, uppermost subsessile, lower ones on 
long peduncles ; fruit oblong-conical, obtuse, re- 
curved at the apex, as long as the awned glume. 

II AB. Woods and meadows. May. Culm C— 12 
in. high, leav. thin. ; spik. pale gr. 
61. C. tetanicu : sterile spike long-peduncul;ite ; fer- 
tile 2—3, remote, rather densely flowered, up- 
per one subsessile, lowest on a long peduncle ; 
fruit ovate-oblong, acute at each end, nerved, sub- 
gibbous at the summit, oblique, orifice entire, 
longer than the ovate mucronate glume. 

HAB. Moist meadows. May. Culm 12 in. high ; 
spikes very remote ; jr. subterete. 
«;■>. C. laxiflora : sterile spike subsessile ; fertile most- 
ly 3, rather loose, remote, pedunculate, erect ; 


fruit ovate oblong, ventricose, obtuse, somewhat 
shining, longer than the ovate cuspidate glume. 
HAB. Woods and meadows. May. Culm 12 — 
18 in. high ; fr. inflated when mature. 

66. C . granularis : sterile sessile or short-pedunculate; 

fertile mostly 3, remote, cylindrical, dense ; up- 
permost subsessile, lowest on a long peduncle ; 
fruit globose-ovate, nerved, orifice entire ; ros- 
trum very short and recurved. 
HAB. Wet meadows. May. Culm 12 in. high; 
Icav. subglauc. ; spikes cylind., thick. 

67. C. sylvatica : fertile spikes mostly 4, remote, fili- 

form, dense, peduncles nodding ; fruit ovate, ros- 
trate, bifid, twice as long as the ovate mucronate 

HAB. Woods. May. Culm 12—18 in. high ; 
spik. lh in. long ; plant pale gr. 
63. C.Jlexuosa; fertile spikes 4, remote, filiform, on 
nodding peduncles ; fruit distant, alternate, oblong, 
acute at each end, rostrate, bifid, twice as long as 
the ovate-mucronate glume. 

HAB. Meadows. June. Culm 18 — 24 in. high, 
spik. 2 in. long ; rach.Jlex. 

§ § § Pistilliferous spikes on long peduncles t nearly des- 
titute of sheaths. 

69. C. umbellata : cespitose ; fertile spikes mostly 4, 

ovate, few-flowered, one sessile at the summit of 
the culm, the rest on radical peduncles and appear- 
ing subumbellate; fruit ovate, acuminate-rostrate, 
subpubescent, as long as the ovate acuminate 
HAB. Rocky hills. April. Culm 1—6 in. high; 
leav. long ; spik. 3 — 5, 6 — ti-Jl. 

70. C. miliacca : fertile spikes 3, slender and cylin- 
drical, nodding, slender and filiform ; fruit ovate, 
triangular, without nerve?, slightly ro-trate, ori- 
fice entire, as long as the ovate-lanceolate glume. 

HAB. Moist meadows. Culm 12—15 in. high ; 
spik. subapprox., 1 — 2 in. long, gr. 

71. C. pallescens : fertile spikes 2 — 3, ovate-cylindri- 
cal, dense, at length somewhat nodding ; fruit ob- 
ovate-oblong, obtuse; sheaths and culm pubes 


HAB. Wet meadows. May. Culm 12 in. kigh> 
fert. spik. mostly 3, thick, pale gr. 

72. C. hystericina : sterile spike pedunculate ; fertile 
2 — 3, thick, at length cernuous, upper one in- 
clusely pedunculate, the rest on exsert peduncles ; 
fruit ovate, inflated, subhorizontal, many-nerved, 
rostrate, orifice bifid, twice as long as the oblong 
awned glume. 

II AB. Wet meadows. May. Culm 12—18 in. 
high; fert. spik. 1 in. long; plant yell. -gr. 

73. C. Pseudo-cyperus : fertile spikes 4, cylindrical, 
pedunculate, upper ones subgeminate ; fruit ob 
long-lanceolate, rostrate, reflexed, many-nerved, 
apex divaricately bifid. 

HAB. Swamps. June. CuTm 2—3 ft. high, thick : 
spik. 2 in. long, dense. 

74. C. limosa : fertile spikes mostly 2, ovate or ob- 

long-ovate, pedunculate, somewhat distant, pen- 
dulous ; fruit suborbicular-elliptic, compressed. 
with a very short rostrum, (green,) orifice entire, 
as long as the ovate mucronate glume. 
HAB. Sphagnous swamps. June. Culm 9 — 15 
in. high; glum, variable, ovate, oblong, acum. or 
cuspid, often very long. 

| | Staminiferous spikes 2 or more. 

1. With 2 stigmas. 

75. C. cespitosa : sterile spike subsolitary (or gemi- 
nate ;) fertile mostly 3, cylindrical, obtuse, dis- 
tant, the lower en a short exsert peduncle ; bract? 
strict; fruit ovate, somewhat acute, densely fruit- 
ed in about 8 rows, orifice minute ; longer than 
the ovate (black and margined) glume ; leaves 

IIAB. ^fountain bogs. Culm 12 — 18 in. high; 
leav. dark gr. ; fr. qr. nerveless. 

76. C.crinita: sterile spikes geminate, (sometimes 
androgynous ;) fertile 4, distant, pendulous, cylin- 
drical, dense ; fruit roundish-ovate, ventricose. 
slightly rostrate, orifice entire, much shorter than 
the lu.ear glume. 


UAB. Swamps. June. Culm 2 — 4ft.high;leav. 
pale gr. ; spik. 2 — 3 in. long. 

p. gynandra : fertile spikes 3, oblong-cylindrical ; 
fruit short-ovate, somewhat longer than the awned 

HAB. Meadows. Culm 12—1 4 in. high ; fr. yel- 
lowish when mature. 

77. C. acuta : sterile spikes 1 — 3 ; fertile mostly 3, 
subpedunculate, somewhat nodding, cylindrical, 
remote ; fruit oblong, entire at the orifice, as long 
as the oblong acute glume. 

HAB. Wet meadows. Culm 2 ft. high, sharply 
triquetr. ; glume br. ; Jr. nerveless. 

2. With 3 stigmas. 

78. C. Barraitii : sterile spikes subgeminate ; fertile 

about 3, oblong-cylindrical, sterile at the summit, 
nodding, distant ; fruit oblong, subtriquetrous, 
somewhat scabrous, orifice subentire ; a little 
shorter than the ovate lanceolate glumes ; leaves 
HAB. Sea coast. Culm 12 in. high; leav. very 
smooth ; glum, dark brown. 

79. C. trichocarpa : sterile spikes 2 — 1, pedunculate, 

(sometimes sterile at the summit ;) fertile 3, dis- 
tant, pedunculate, erect, oblong-cylindrical ; fruit 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, bicuspidate, hairy, 
longer than the ovate acuminate glume. 
HAB. Swamps. Culm 3 ft. high; fertile spik. 
thick, subcylindr. ; pedunc. oppress. 

80. C. filiformis : sterile spike geminate; fertile 2, 
ovate-oblong, sessile, distant ; fruit elliptical, vil- 
lous, bifurcate, as long as the ovate-lanceolale 
somewhat awned glume ; leaves convolute. 

HAB. Bogs. Culm 2— 3 ft. high, slend. ; rad. 
Uav. 2— 3 ft. long, filif above. 

8 1 . C. vrsicuria : sterile spikes 3; fertile mostly 2, 

pedunculate, cylindrical ; fruit oblong, inflated. 
acuminate-rostrate, hicuaptcfate, longer than the 
lanceolate glume ; culm acutely triquetrous. 
1 1 A B. Wet meadows. May. Culm 2 ft. high ; spik. 
dense, 2 — 3 in. long. 
Campvifacea: sterile spikes 3; fertile 2- 


cylindrical, short pedunculate, erect; fruit sub' 
globose, inflated, rostrate, bifurcate, longer than 
the lanceolate glume ; culm obtusely triangular. 
HAB. Wet meadows. In N. America ? 

«j3. C. retrorsa : sterile spikes about 3, lower one of- 
ten fertile at the base ; fertile spikes about 5, ap- 
proximate, (and clustered in a subcorymbose man- 
ner,) oblong-cylindrical, inclusely pedunculate, 
lowest one often remote ; fruit ovate, inflated, re- 
flexed, rostrate, half as long as the lanceolate 
HAB. Borders of ponds. Culm 2 ft. high; fert. 
spik. thick, dense. 

84. C. Schweinitzii : sterile spikes 2, upper one elon- 
gate, pedunculate ; fertile 3, oblong-cylindrical, 
subpendulous, rather remote, inclusely peduncu- 
late ; fruit oblong-ovate, acuminate-rostrate, in- 
flated, bifurcate, longer than the lanceolate attenu- 
ate glume. 
HAB. Wet sandy soil. June. Culm 12 in. high ; 
spik. light straw-colour. 

U5. Cbullata: sterile spikes 3 ; fertile 2, oblong- 
cylindrical, rather loose, exsertly pedunculate and 
somewhat nodding, distant ; fruit ovate-globose, 
inflated, erect, smooth, costate, rostrate-acumi- 
nate, orifice bifid, twice as long as the lanceolate 
HAB. Bogs. Culm \8— 24 in. high, slend. ; fert. 
spik. remote, few-Jim 

l;6. C. pellita : sterile spikes 2, oblong ; fertile 2, cy- 
lindrical, remote, erect, upper one sessile ; fruit 
ovate, subtriquetrous, short-rostrate, hairy, bicus- 
pidate, equal to the oblong awned glume. 
HAB. Wet meadows. May. Culm 2i Jt. high: 
leav. subrigid, flat. 

87. C. lacustris : sterile spikes about 4 ; fertile 2 — 3, 
erect, oblong-cylindrical, short pedunculate ; fruit 
oblong, many-nerved, subrostrate, smooth, bifur^ 
cate, somewhat longer than the oblong mucronate 
HAB. Deep swamps. June. Culm 3 — 5ft. high, 
leav. broad: fr. brown* 
38. C. longirostris : sterile spikes *% short : fertile S 1 ^ 


3, cylindrical, loose, at length pendulous, long- 
pedunculate, subdistant ; fruit ovate, subglobose 
at the base, smooth, bi6d, rostrum very long, 
longer than the lanceolate glume. 
HAB. Meadows and rocky woods. Culm 2 ft. high, 
slend.; pedunc.Jilif. 

232. SCLER1A. Whip grass. Cyperacece. 

1. S. triglomerata : culm erect, acutely triquetrous, 

scabrous ; leaves broad-linear, subscabrous and a 
little hairy ; spikes lateral and terminal, fascicu- 
late ; glumes ciliate, mucronate ; nuts smooth and 
HAB. Marshes. July. U. Culm 3— 4 ft. high ; 
nut large, white, hard. 

2. S. paucx [flora: stem triquetrous and with the nar- 

row leaves smooth ; spikes lateral and terminal, 
few-flowered, the lateral ones pendulous, terminal, 
fasciculate ; glumes smooth ; seed roughened. 
HAB. Wet meadows. Aug. U. Culm 2 ft. high, 

slend. ; lat. spikes 2. 
. S. verticillata : stem simple, triquetrous, and with 
the leaves smooth ; spike glomerate, naked, the 
clusters alternate, distant ; glumes smooth ; seed 
globose, mucronate, transversely corrugate. 
HAB. Meadows. Aug. U. Culm 1 ft. high, 
slend. ; nut small, tuberculaie. 

533. TRIPSACUM. Sesame grass. Graminecs. 

W dartyloides : spikes numerous, (3 — 4,) aggregate, 
florets sterile near the summit, fertile at the base. 

fJAB. Dry hills. Aug. U . Culm 5— 1ft. high . 
spik. large ; stig. long, purp. 

l. monostachyon : spike solitary. 

IIAR. With the preceding. 

534. COMPTONIA. Sweet fern, 

G. aspleni folia. 

HAB. * Woods. May. Shrub *—> 3 ft. high, aro. 
matir ; leav. lobed-pinnat. 



535. ERIOCAULON. Pipewort. Resliacea>, 

t. E. pellucidum : scape slender, about 7-furrowed : 
leaves linear-subulate, canaliculate, smooth, pel- 
lucid, 5-nerved, transversely striate ; head small, 
globose ; scales of the involucrum oval, obtuse. 
HAB. Water. June. U. Scape 4 — 6 in. high; 
leav. rad., cesp. ; Jl. white. 

2. E. decangulare : scape 10-furro\ved ; leaves ensi- 
forrn, smooth ; head large, hemispherical ; scales 
of the involucrum oval, acute ; of the receptacle 
HAB. Water. Aug. Scape 2 — 4 ft. high ; leav, 
without midrib ; Jl. wh. 

536. ALNUS. Alder. Salicince. 

1. A. serrulata : leaves obovate, acuminate, with the 

veins and their axils hairy underneath ; stipules 
elliptical, obtuse. 
HAB. Low grounds. Blarch — Apr. Shrub 8 — 15 
ft. high, much branch. 

2. A. undulata : leaves oblong, acute, rounded at the 

base, doubly serrate ; petioles and the veins be- 
neath L.ury ; axils of the veins naked ; stipules 
HAB. Mountain swamps. April. Shrub 3 — 4 ft. 


537. BOEHMERIA. Urticece. 

B. cylindrica : leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, acu- 
minate, dentate, smooth ; flowers dioecious ; ste 
rile spikes glomerate, interrupted ; fertile cylin- 
drical ; stem herbaceous. 

HAB. Shady swamps. July — Aug. U. Stem 
slend., 2 ft. high ; leav. petiol.; Jl. minute. 

B. lateriflora : leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate ; 
acuminate, serrate, scabrous ; stem herbaceous. 

HAB. Woods. July. 1*. Stem smooth; leav. 
scabrous on both surfaces. 


538. URTICA. Nettle. Urticetx. 

!. \j.pumila: leaves opposite, ovate acuminate, 3- 
nerved, serrate ; inferior petiole^ as long as the 
leaves ; flowers monoecious, triandrous, in co- 
rymbed heads, shorter than the pc oles. 
HAB. Wet places. Jul;. — Aug. ©. Stem suc- 
culent, semitransparent ; leav. shining, 

:. U. urens: leaves opposite, elliptical, about 5-nerved, 
acutely serrate ; spikes glomerate, by pairs. 
HAB. Waste places. May. ®. Stem % ft: high '; 
plant stinging. §. 

3. U . dioica : leaves opposite, cordate, ovate-lanceo- 

late, coarsely serrate ; flowers dioecious ; spikes 
paniculate, clustered, by pairs, longer than the 
HAB. Roadsides, &c. May. U. Stem 2— 3 ft. 
high, erect; fi. sm., green ; plant stinging. §. 

4. U. procera : leaves opposite, ovate-Ian eolate, ser- 

rate ; petioles ciliate ; flowers dioecious ; spikes 
somewhat branched, clustered, by pairs, longer 
than the petioles. 
HAB. Shady banks. July— Aug. U. Stem 3— 4 
ft. high ; leav. subacuminate. 

">. U.capitata: leaves alternate, cordate-ovate, acu- 
minate, serrate, 3-nerved, twice as long as the 
petiole ; clusters spiked ; spikes solitary, shorter 
than the leaves, leafy at the summit : -tern naked. 
HAB. Shady woods. June — July. U- Stem 4 — 
5ft. high ; leav. scab., on the stem opposite, 

o. U. divaricata : leaves alternate, ovate, tcuminate. 
rather smooth ; petioles long, cilia' ; panicles 
axillary, solitary, much branched an- divaricate, 
longer than the petiole ; stem stinging. 
HAB. Damp rocky places. July — Aog. U . Stem 
2 — 3 ft. high, branch. ; leav. not cortl'lc. 

7. U. canadensis: leaves cordate-ovate, acuminate- 
serrate, hispid on both sides; panicles axillary, 
generally by pairs, much branched and divaricate, 
inferior ones sterile and longer tha. the petiole, 
upper ones fertile, elongate, stem very hispid 


HAH, Shady rocks. Aug. — Sept. U . Ste7n 4— 

6 ft. high ; fibres tough. 

539. PAKIETARIA. Pellitory. Urticece; 

P '. pennsylvanica : leaves oblong-lanceolate, veined, 
with opake dots ; involucrum 3-leaved, longer than 
the flower. 
HAB. Rocks. July. ©. Stem slend. 6— 12 in. 
high, simple ; fl. axill., clustered. 

540. MORUS. Mulberry. Urticece. 

M. rubra: dioecious j leaves cordate, ovate, acuminate, 
often 3-lobed, equally serrate, scabrous, pubes- 
cent beneath ; fertile aments cylindrical. 
HAB. Woods. May. A large tree, with long 
branches ; leav. in young trees divided. 


541. CROTONOPSIS. Euphorbiacece. 

C. linearis: stem erect, dichotomously branching ; 
leaves stellately pubescent above, covered with 
silvery scales beneath. 
HAB. Swamps in pine barrens. June. U. Stent'*. 
12 — 18 in. high: leav. lane, or ovate. 

542. AMARANTHUS. Amaranthacece. 

I. A. lividus: flowers clustered, triandrous, in rounded 
spikes ; leaves elliptic, retuse ; stem erect. 
HAB. In cultivated grounds. Aug. ©. Stem 1 
ft. high, smooth. 
1. A. hybridus : flowers pentandrous ; racemes de- 
compound, erect, crowded; leaves ovate-lanceo 
HAB. Waste grounds. Aug. ©. Stem 2—3 ft. 
high ; racem. large, thick. §. 
3. A. Blitum : flowers triandrous ; racemes somewhat 
spiked ; flowers 3-leaved ; leaves ovate, retuse ; 
stem spreading. 
HAB. Waste places. July. 0. Stem- prostr., 
branched. §. 


4, A. spinosus : flowers pentandrous, in terminal com- 

pound racemes ; axils spiny. 
HAB. Waste grounds. June — Aug. 0. Stem 
branch., diffuse, mostly coloured. §. 

5. A. pumilus : flowers pentandrous, in axillary clus- 

ters ; leaves ovate, obtuse, emarginate, fleshy, 
subrugose ; stem diffuse, smooth. 
HAB. Sandy sea coast. Aug. 0. Stem and leav. 
purplish; plant smooth. 

543. XANTHIUM. Clot-weed. Urticece. 

1. X. strumarium : stem unarmed, branching; leaves 

cordate, lobed, unequally serrate, scabrous, 3- 
nerved ; fruit elliptical, armed with uncinate rigid 
bristles ; horns straight, spreading. 

HAB. Old fields, &c. Sept. ©. Stem 2— 3 ft. 
high ; leav. large ; fl. axill. 
7. X. macrocarpon : stem unarmed, spotted; leave? 
cordate, lobed, obscurely sinuate-dentate, sca- 
brous, 3-nerved ; fruit oval, densely armed with 
short rigid uncinate bristles ; horns incurved. 

HAB. Near salt water. Aug. 0. Stem purp.- 
spotted ; fr. very large, woolly. 
3. X. spinosum: spines ternate ; leaves 3-lobed. 

HAB. Waste places. Aug. 0. Stem 3 ft. high, 
much branch. ; spin, long, yell.; fr. small. 

544. AMBROSIA. Hog-weed. Urticece. 

f , A. trifida : hairy, rough ; leaves 3-lobed, serrate, 
with oval-lanceolate acuminate lobes ; fruit 6- 
spined below the summit. 
HAB. Along ditches, &c. Sept. ©. Stem 4— 6 
ft. high; leav. very large; spik. long, axill. and 

2. A. elatior : leaves bipinnatifid, nearly smooth ; pe- 

tioles ciliate ; racemes terminal, paniculate ; stem 
HAB. Fields. Sept. 0. Stem 1—3 ft. high, 
pubes. when young ; seg. of leav. acute. 
'•. A. artemisifolia : leaves bipinnatifid, hoary beneath, 
the uppermost pinnatifid ; racemes by threes, tei> 
minal ; branches fastigiate. 


HAB. Fields. Aug.— Sept. 0. Stem 4 ft. high ; 
leav. subpubes. above, whitish beneath, 
4. A. heterophylla : leaves of the stem pinnatifid, sub- 
dentate, petiolate ; uppermost ones lanceolate, 
sessile ; petioles conspicuously ciliate ; racemes 
terminal, solitary ; stem paniculate. 

HAB. Banks of rivers and ditches. Aug.— Sept 


545. ZIZANIA. Wild rice. Gramineu. 

\. Z. aquatica : panicle pyramidal, divaricate and ste 
rile at the base, spiked and fertile above ; pedicels 
of the flower clavate ; awns long ; seed linear. 

HAB. In water. Aug. U>. Culm 4 — 8 ft. high) 
thick; leav. broad-lin. ; Jl. decid. 
2. Z. miliacea : panicle effuse, pyramidal ; glumes 
with short awns ; sterile and fertile florets inter- 
mixed ; style 1 ; seed ovate, smooth ; leaves glau- 

HAB. In water. U. Culm G ft. high; joint? 
smooth ; leav. broad, perennial. 

546. HYDROCHLOA. Graminea. 

H. fluitans. 

HAB. Lakes. July. U. Floating; culm long, 
slender; leav. flat ; spik. solit., axill., setaceous; 
glumes awnless. 


5*7. CERATOPHYLLUM. Hornwort. Uncertain.. 

C. demersum : fruit armed with 3 spikes, 

HAB. Underwater. July. U . Stem long, slend,. 
much branch.; leav. verticill. 

548. MYRIOPHYLLUM. Water milfoil. Haloragex, 

f, M. spicatum: sterile flowers in interrupted leaflet 
spiked whorls. 


HAB. In water. Aug. — Sept. U. Stem slend., 
branch* ; leav. verticil, by 4'$, finely pectin, 
i. M. verticillatum : leaves pinnate, capillary, upper 
ones pectinate-pinnatifid ; flowers axillary, verti- 
cillate, upper ones sterile, octandrous. 
HAB. In water. July. U. Floating; upper f. 
sometimes perfect. 
3, M. heterophyllum: inferior leaves capillary-pinnate, 
superior oval-lanceolate, acutely serrate ; flowers 
hexandrous, the highest often perfect. 
HAB. Lakes. July. H. Floating; stem simp,; 
upper leav. in 5's and 6's ; Jl. purp. 
1. M, capillaceum: leaves all capillarly-pinnate ; 
flowers axillary, opposite, and alternate, te- 
trandous, mostly perfect ; fruit quadrangular- 
formed of 4 cylindrical seeds. 
HAB. Ponds. July— Aug. U. Floating; stem 
branch., dichot.; leaves hair-like, 
.}. M. ambiguum : leaves petiolate, pinnate, the lowest 
capillary, emerging ones pectinate, uppermost 
nearly entire, subserrate ; flowers perfect ; an- 
thers partly oblong ; fruit quadrangular. 
HAB. Ponds. July. U. Floating, dichot.; leav. 

at ten. at base ; Jl. axill. solit. 
p. limosum : stem rosting, erect, or procumbent ;- 
leaves rigid, partly entire, or divided above, with 
setaceous divisions. 
HAB. Miry shores. July. U. Stem 1 — 4 in, 
high ; leav. spread. ; seg. 3 — 5 ; anth. oblong. 
i. M. tenellum : erect, nearly leafless ; bracts entire s 
obtuse ; petals linear, conduplicate and revolute ; 
flowers mostly perfect, tetrandrous. 
HAB. Borders of ponds. July. ty. Stem simp,* 
4 — 12 tin. high; Jl. alternate ; pet. oblong-lin, 

SAGITTAR1A. Arrowhead. Jancecc. 

'■-. S. sagittifolia : leaves sagittate, acute ; lobes acute 

straight, lanceolate. 
■:. latifolia: leaves broad-ovate, rather obtuse ; lobes 

ovate, slightly acuminate, straight. 
3. hojtata : leaves oblong-lanceohte, acute ; lobe 1 


spreading, lanceolate, long-acuminate ; flowers 
mostly dioecious. 

y. gracilis : leaves linear ; lobes much spreading, 
linear, very long and acute. 

J\ pubescens : leaves and stem pubescent ; bracts and 
calyx very pubescent. 

HAB. Ponds, &c. July. U. Leav. large; scape 
1 — 2 ft. long ; fl. large, wh., verticil, in 3's. 
2. S.obtusa : leaves sagittate, dilated-ovate, rounded 
at the extremity, mucronate ; lobes approximate, 
oblong, obliquely acuminate, straight ; flowers 
dioecious ; sterile scape branched at the base. 

IIAB. Ponds. Jury. U. Leav. large ; sap milk n. 
affording gum ; fl. wh. 
?■>. S. heterophylla : leaves simple, linear and lanceo- 
late, acute at each extremity, or elliptical and 
sagittate, with the lobes linear and divaricate : 
scape simple, few-flowered ; flowers monoecious, 
the fertile subsessile. 

IIAB. Ponds. July. U. . Scape \ ft. high; leav* 
rarely sagitt. 

4. S. rigida : leaves narrow-lanceolate, carinate be- 

neath, rigid, very acute at each extremity ; scape 
branched ; flowers monoecious. 
IIAB. Deep water. July — Aug. 4 . Very tall ; 
petioles stiff ; fl. numerous. 

5. S. simplex : leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, nar- 

rowed towards the base ; scape simple, many 
flowered ; flowers dioecious. 
HAB. Muddy banks, &c. Aug. U. Scape 8— 15 
ni. high ; leav. not rigid j fl. small. 

6. S. acutifolia : leaves subulate, sheathed at the base. 

convex on the back ; scape simple, few-flowered, 
longer than the leaves ; flowers monoecious. 
HAB. Muddy shores. Aug. H . Scape 6 in* 
high; fl. pedunc. ; stam. 12 — 15. 

7. S. pusilla : leaves linear, obtuse and short, a little 

flattened, foliaceous at the summit ; scape simple, 
mostly shorter than the leaves ; flowers monoe- 
cious, few ; fertile flowers deflexed. 
HAB. Muddy shores. Aug. H . Scape 2—4 in* 
high ; fl. very small, fertile subsolit* 


550. QUERCUS. Oak. Corylacece. 

* Fructification biennial; leaves setaciously mucronatt. 

j Leaves entire. 

1. Q. Phellos : leaves deciduous, linear-lanceolate, at- 

tenuate at each end, very entire, smooth, mucro- 
nate ; acorn roundish. 
HAB. Sandy woods. A large tree ; young leav. 
dentate ; acorn small. 

2. Q,. imbricaria : leaves deciduous, oblong, acute at 

each end, mucronate, very entire, shining, pubes- 
cent beneath ; cup flat ; scales broad-ovate ; acorn 
HAB. Woods and river banks. A large tree. 

1 1 Leaves dentate, or with short lobes. 

3. Q,. heterophylla : leaves on long petioles, ovate- 

lanceolate and oblong, entire, or coarsely toothed ; 
cup hemispherical ; acorn subglobose. 
HAB. River banks. A hybrid ? 

4. Q, aquatica : leaves obovate-cuneiform, smooth, 

very entire, obscurely 3-lobecl at the end, with 
the middle lobe largest ; cup hemispherical ; 
acorn subglobose. 
HAB. Swamps. Tree middle-sized ; leaves very 

5. Q,. triloba : leaves oblong-cuneiform, acute at the 

base, somewhat 3-lobecl at the end ; lobes equal 
and mucronate, tomentose beneath; cup flat; acorn 
HAB. Fine barrens. Tree small. 

G. Q, nigra : leaves coriaceous, cuneiform, subcordate 
at the base, dilated, and retusely 3-lobed at the 
summit, when young, mucronate, smooth above, 
rusty pubescent beneath ; cup turbinate, with the 
scales obtuse and scanous ; acorn short-ovate. 
HAB. Pine barrens. Tree 10— 20 ft. high ; acorns 

7. Q,. tinctoria : leaves ovate-oblong, slightly lobed, 
pubescent beneath ; lobea oblong, obtuse, mucro- 
nate : cup flat ; acorn depressed-globose. 


HAB. Wood)?. A large tree; bark rough, blackish. 
3. Q,. discolor : leaves oblong, pinnatifid-sinuate, pu- 
bescent beneath ; lobes oblong, dentate, setaceous- 
ly mucronate ; cup turbinate, acorn ovate. 

HAB. Upland forests. A large tree ; young leaves 
downy on both sides. 

t Leaves deeply sinuate and m lobed. 

9. Q, coccinea : leaves long-petiolate, oblong, deeply 

sinuate, smooth ; lobes divaricate, dentate, acute, 
setaceously mucronate ; cup turbinate, scaly ; 
acorn short-ovate. 
HAB. Woods. A large tree ; leav. bright green ; 
cup with prom, scales 

10. Q, rubra : leaves long-petiolate, smooth, obtusely 
sinuate ; lobes rather acute, dentate, setaceously 
mucronate ; cup flat, nearly smooth ; acorn sub- 

HAB. Woods. A large tree; leav, bright green : 
sinuses large, rounded. 

11. Q,. Catesbaei : leaves on short petioles, cuneate at 
the base, oblong, deeply sinuate, smooth ; lobes 
3 — 5, divaricate, dentate, acute, setaceously mu* 
cronate ; cup turbinate, broad; scales obtuse, 
those of the margin inflexed ; acorn subglobose. 

HAB. Pine barrens. Shrubby; 6 — 15 ft. high; 
leav. subsessile. 

12. Q.falcata : leaves on long petioles, obtuse at the 
base, woolly beneath, 3-lobed and sinuate ; lobes 
falcate, setaceousty mucronate, terminal one 
longer ; cup crateriform ; acorn globose. 

IIAB. Dry woods. A large tree; leav. with S — 5 
large lobes, shining above. 

13. Q. palust ris : leaves on long petioles, oblong, 
deeply sinuate, smooth ; axils of the veins villous 
beneath ; lobes divaricate, dentate, acute, seta- 
ceously mucronate ; cup flat, smooth ; acorn sub- 

IIAB. Wet woods. A large tree ; acorns small, 
3 4. Q. Bannisteri : leaves on long petioles, obovate, 
cuneiform, 3 — 5 lobed, entire on the margin, 
grayish-tomentose beneath ; lobes setaceously mu 
cronate ; cup subturbinate ; acorn subglobose. 


HAB. Sandy fields and mountains. Shrub 4 — 6 ft, 
high ; acorns abundant. 

* * Fructification annual ; fruit pedunculate ; leaves 

t Leaves sinuate. 

15. Q, obtusiloba : leaves oblong, sinuate, cuneate at 
the base, pubescent beneath ; lobes obtuse, the 
upper dilated ; cup hemispherical ; acorn oval. 

HAB. Woods. A middling large tree; leaves mostly 
5-lobcd ; cup deep. 

16. Q. macrocarpa : leaves woolly beneath, deeply 
lyrato-sinuately lobed ; lobes obtuse, repand, up- 
per ones dilated, cup deep, with the upper scales 
bristly ; acorn short-ovate. 

HAB. Woods. A large tree; branches scabrous; 
acorns very large. 

17. Q. olivaformis : leaves oblong, smooth, glaucous 
beneath, deeply and unequally sinuate-pinnatifid t 
fruit elliptical-ovate ; cup very deep, crenate 
above ; acorn elliptical-oval. 

HAB. Woods. A large tree. 

18. Q,. alba: leaves oblong, pinnatifid-sinuate, pale or 

pubescent beneath ; lobes oblong, obtuse, mostly 
entire ; cup deep, tuberculate ; acorn ovate. 
IIAB. Woods. A very large tree ; bark white; 
leav, pubes, beneath when young. 

t j Leaves entire, dentate, 

19. Q,. Prinus : leaves on long petioles, obovate, acute, 
pubescent beneath, coarsely toothed ; teeth un- 
equal, dilated, callous at the tip ; cup deep, at- 
tenuate at the base ; acorn ovate. 

HAB. Shady woods. A large tree. 
?0. Q, bicolor : leaves on short petioles, oblong-obovate, 
whitish-tomentose beneath, coarsely toothed, en- 
tire at the base, teeth unequal, dilated, rather 
acute, callous at the tip ; fruit in pairs on long pe- 
duncles ; cup hemispherical ; acorn oblong-ovate. 

HAB. Woods. A large tree; pedunc. long and 
slender ; acorn pubes, 

fl. mollis : leaves merely toothed, not pinnatifid ; un- 
der side partly ferruginous and softly pubescent. 


HAB. Swampy elevated forests. Tree 60—70 ft, 
51. Q. montana : leaves on petioles of middling length, 
broad-obovate, oblong, white-tomentose beneath, 
shining above, coarsely toothed, obtuse and une- 
qual at the base ; teeth subequal, very obtuse ; 
fruit in pairs, on short peduncles ; cup hemisphe- 
rical ; scales tuberculate and rugose ; acorn ovate. 
HAB. Rocky woods and mountain sides. A large 
tree ; fr. middle sized. 

22. Q. castanea : leaves on long peduncles, oblong- 
lanceolate, obtuse at the base, acuminate, tomen- 
tose beneath, coarsely toothed ; teeth subequal. 
dilated, obtuse ; cup hemispherical ; acorn ovate - 

HAB. Rocky and mountain woods. A large tree , 
fr. on short pedunc. 

23. Q. Chinquapin : leaves on short petioles, obovate, 

acute at the base, coarsely toothed, glaucous be- 
neath ; teeth subequal, dilated, callous at the tip ; 
cup hemispherical ; acorn ovate. 
HAB. Barren woods. Ashruho — 4 ft. high; acorns 
small j numerous. 

551. CORYLUS. Hazel-nut. Corylacece. 

1. C. americana: leaves roundish, cordate, acuminate ; 

involucrum roundish-campanulate, larger than the 
subglobose nut, border dilated, coarsely serrate. 
HAB. Fields and woods. April. A shrub 3—5 ft. 
high : nuts large, edible. 

2. C. rostrata : leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate ; sti- 

pules linear-lanceolate ; involucrum campanulate- 
tubular, longer than the nut, two. parted, with 
dentate segments. 
HAB. Rocky woods. May. A shrub 2— 3 ft. high ; 
involuc. with a long rostrum. 

552. FAGUS. Beech. Corylaceaz. 

F. ferruginea; leaves ovate-oblong, acuminate, pu- 
" bescent beneath, ciliate on the margin, coarsely 
toothed, obtuse at the base and unequally sub- 
cordate ; nut ovate, acutely triangular, very acute. 



HAB. Woods. A large tree; bark smooth ; fruit 
muricate ; leav. ribbed. 
i. F. sylvatica ; leaves ovate, acuminate, slightly den- 
tate, ciliate on the margin, acute at the base ; nut 
ovate, triquetrous, obtuse, but mucronate. 

HAB. Woods. A large tree with num. branch. ; 
leav. bright green. 

553. CASTANEA. Chesnut. Corylacea>.. 

1. C.vesca,^. americana: leaves lanceolate, acuminate, 
mucronately serrate, smooth on both sides. 
HAB. Woods. June. A large tree ; trunk straight ; 
leav. large; sterile spik.Jilif. 
1. C. pumila : leaves oblong, acute, mucronately ser- 
rate, tomentose and hoary beneath. 
HAB. Sandy woods. A shrub or small tree; fruit 
small, very sweet. 

554. BETULA. Birch. Salicinm. 

1. B. populifolia : leaves deltoid, long-acuminate, un 

equally serrate, very smooth ; petioles smooth ; 
strobile pedunculate; scales with roundish lateral 
HAB, Rocky woods and mountains. May. A smalt 
or middle sized tree. 

2. B. excelsa : leaves ovate, acute, serrate ; petioles 

pubescent, shorter than the peduncle ; strobile 
ovate, erect; scales with rounded lateral lobes. 
HAB. Woods. A large tree ; bark smooth and yel- 
lowish, somewhat fragrant. 
i. B. nigra : leaves rhornbic-ovatc, doubly serrate, 
acute, pubescent beneath, entire at the base ; stro- 
bile ovate ; scales villous, with the segments linear 
and equal. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. A middle sized tree ; leav. 
acutely serrate. 
4. B. papyracea : leaves ovate, acuminate, doubly ser 
rate, the veins beneath hairy ; peduncles smooth ; 
strobile nodding, pedunculate ; scales with the la 
teral lobes short and suborbicular. 
HAB. Woods. A large tree; cuticle tough, com- 
posed of numerous membranaceous layers. 
H h 


5. B. lenta : leaves cordate-ovate, sharply serrate. 

acuminate ; nerve* In-i.eath ami the petiole hairy; 
strobile erect ; scales smooth, the lobes equal and 
obtuse, with elevated veins. 
HAB. Woods. A large tree; bark aromatic; 
branchlets dark, spotted. 

6. B. pumila : young branches pubescent, not punc- 
, tate ; leaves orbicular-obovate, petiolate, thickly 

pubescent beneath ; strobile cylindrical, 
HAB. Mountain bogs. June. Shrub 2 — 3 ft. high: 
leav r 1 in. long, on short pet. 

7. B. glandulosa : branches glandularly punctate, 

smooth ; leaves ohovate, serrate, entire at the 
base, smooth, ^ubsessile ; strobile oblong; scales 
half 3-cleft ; seed orbicular, with a narrow mar- 

H/\B. Mountain swamps. Slirub 2 ft. high. 
3. B. nana : very smooth loaves ; orbicular, crenate, 
reticulate beneath ; scale* of the strobile deeply 
3-partfd; segments oblong; seed orbicular, nearly 

HAB. High mountains. Shrub 1 — 2ft.high;hav. 
h in. long. 

555. CARPINUS. Hornbeam. Con/urea. 

0. americana ; leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate, une- 
qually serrate ; strobile with 3-parled scale?, the 
middle segment oblique, toothed on one side. 
HAB. Woods. May. A small tree ; fertile amenis 
loose; scales foliaceovs. 

556. OSTRYA. Hop hornbeam. ConjJacew. 

(). virginica : leaves ovate oblong, cordate at the base., 
acuminate, unequally serrate ; strobile oblong- 
ovate, erect ; buds acute. 
HAB., Woods. A small tree; cones large, rttem- 
bling hops. 

557. PLATANUS. Buttonwood. 
P. occidenfalis: leaves lobed-ai.gnlar; branches whitish. 
HAB. Woods A very large tree : leav. very broad; 
ainents glob*, pendulous. 



558. LIQUID AMBAR. Gum-tr.**. Corylacex. 

L. styraciflua : leaves palmately lobed ; lobe? acumi- 
nate, serrate, with the sinuses at the base of veins 
HAB, Woods. A large tree ; leav. 5-lobed, cordate, 
dork green. 

559. JUGLANS. Walnut. Corylacex. 

1. J. nigra : leaflets numerous, ovate-lanceolate, ser- 

rate, slightly cordate, tapering to the summit; un- 
der surface and petiole's subpubeftcent ; fruit glo- 
bose, scabrous, ptinct te. 
H\B. Woods. J\ la> .c tree ; leav. pinnate ; leaf,. 
15 — '21 ; fr. i< rge, dible. 

2. J.cinerea: leaflets numerous, lanceolate, serrate, 

rounded at the base, .-oft-pubesc- nt beneath ; pe- 
tioles villous ; fruit oblong-ovate, with a terminal 
projection, viscid and hairy j i ul oblong, acu- 
minite, deeply and i. regularly s< ulptured. 
HAB. Woods. A la rge tree ; Uajl. 15 — it ; fruit 
very viscid ; nut edible. 

560. GARY A. Hickory. Corylacece. 

1. C. tomentosa : leaflets about 7, oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, slh-htly serrate, pubescent and sca- 
brous beneath, the old one sessile ; anient rili- 
form, tomentose ; rViiit roundish, smooth ; peri- 
carp very thick ; nut somewhat G-angled ; shell 
thick and very hard. 
HAB Wood>. A large tree; leav* pinnate ; veins 
pnbes. above; nn-r tdible. 

ft. C. alba : leaves -3 — 7, on long petioles, oblong-Ian 
ceolate, acuminate, sharply serrate villous rx 
neath, the odd one senile ; an nfs filiform, 
smooth ; fruit depressed globose nut nira- 
HAB. Woods. A large tree with scaly bark ; frui! 
large ; nvt white hin-shd'r,! . 

"). C. sulcata : ba'l i- g60<*l allj 9, obov.i;e-l anceolate, 

acuminate, serrate, pubescent beneath, the od'' 


one subsessile and attenuate at the base; fruit 

roundish, 4-angled ; nut subglobose, slightly con> 

pressed, conspicuously mucronate. 
HAB. Mountain woods. A large tree; nuts large, 

with very thick pericarps. 
4. C. amara : leaflets, generally 9, ovate-oblong, aru- 

minate, acutely serrate, smooth on both sides : 

fruit subglobose ; nut smooth, mucronate, with 

the shell fragile. 
HAB. Dry woods. A large tree; nerves of the I eav. 

pubes. beneath : nuts bUler. 
3. C. porcina : leaflets 7, ovate-lanceolate, ;icuminate. 

serrate, smooth on both sides ; fruit oblong, or 

obcordate ; nut smooth, ver\ hard 
HAB. Woods. A large tret ; leofi. 5 — 7 ; nuts 

small, very bitter. 

561. ARUM. Wake-robin. Aroidece. 

). A. draconiium : sternless ; leaves p«*date ; leaflets 

lanceolate-oblong, entire. ; spadix ;»ubulate-filiform. 

longer than the oblong convolutp spathe. 
HAB. River bunks. June — July. U. Petiole 

12 — 18 in. long; leav. large; spath. short. 
2. A. triphyllum : sternless ; leaves ternate ; leaflets 

ovate, acuminate, very entire; spadix clavate ; 

spathe ovate, acuminate, convolute below, flat and 

bent above. 
HAB. Wet shady places. Ma\ — June. U . Root 

tub. acrid; spath. green or purp. ; berry red, 

562. LE.CONTIA.* Aroidece. 

L. virginica : 

HAB Swamps. July. U. Leav. petiol., oblong, 
hastate-cordate, with the lobes obtuse; spathe lanceo- 
late, involute ; harder undul. ; spad. slender. 

563. CALLA. Water arum. Aroidece. 

i "I. pahistris : leaves cordate ; spathe flat ; spadix co- 
vered with perfect flowers. 

s A- new genus, separated from Arum by W. Cooper, Esq. 


ilAB. In water. July. ty. Root thick, creeping ; 
leav.acum. ; spaih. oval, -white inside. 


564 PINUS. Pine. Conifers. 

* Leaves solitary, distinct at the base, abies. 

1. P. baisamea: leav s solidary flit, emarginate or en- 
tire, glaucous bene.sth, somewhat pr-ctinate, re- 
curved-spreading. sub-erect above ; cones cylin 
dric, erect ; bracts abbreviate, obovate, conspi- 
cuously mucronate, subsen nlate. 

HAB. Mountains. A small tree; leav. C — 10 lin. 
long, dense ; scales of the cones ihin, 

3. Fraseri : leaves short, emarginate, subsecund, 
erect ai>ove ; cones ovate-oblong ; bracts elon- 
gated, incisely denticulate. 

HAB. High mountains. Smaller than the preced. : 
leaves shorter ; cones small. 
!. P. canadensis : le »ves Solitary, flat, denticulate, 
nearly in two rows ; cones ovate, terminal, scarce- 
ly longer than the leaves. 

HAB. Kocky woods and mountains. A large tree; 
branch, and leav. horizont. ; leav. lin., obtuse. 
'). P. nigra: leaves solitary, quadrangular, erect, 
straight ; cones ovate ; scales, elliptical, undulate 
on the margin, erect, summit denticulate. 

HAB. Mountain swamps. A middle sized tree; 
leav. dense, dark green ; cones 1 — 2 in. long. 
4. P. rubra: leaves solitary, subulate ; cones oblong, 
obtuse ; scales rounded, soaiewbat 2-lobed, en- 
tire on the margin. 

HAB Maine. 
». P. alba: leaves solitary, quadrangular, incurved; 
cones subcyhndrical, loose j scales ohovate, very- 

HAB Mountain swamps. A small tree ; leav. pale 
green, not crowded. 

* * leaves 2 — 5, in a short cylindrical sheath. vinv€, 

•?. P. inops : leave? by pairs, short ; cones recurved. 
iih 2 


oblong-conical, as long as the leaves ; spines of 
the scales subulate, straight. 
HAB. Pine barrens. A middle sized tree; leav. 
1 — 2 in. long; cones 2 in. long. 

7. P. resinosa : leaves elongate, by pairs, with long 

sheaths ; cones ovate-conical, rounded at the base, 
mostly solitary, half as long as the leaves ; scales 
dilated, unarmed. 
HAB. Dry woods. A large tree; bark red, smooth; 
cones large ; scales not mucronate. 

8. P. Banksiana : leaves short, by pairs, rigid, divari- 

cate, oblique ; cones recurved and twisted ; scales 
HAB. Barren rocky places. A small straggling 
tree ; leav. 1 — 2 in. long. 

9. P. variabilis : leaves slender, geminate and by 

threes, canaliculate ; cones mostly solitary, ovate- 
conical ; scales with a subulate incurved point. 
HAB. Woods. A large tree; leav. mostly by pairs, 
4 — 5 in. long ; cones small. 

10. P. rigida : leaves by threes, with short sheaths ; 
sterile aments erect-incumbent : cones ovate, 
scattered or clustered ; spines of the scales re- 

HAB. Barren sandy soils. A large tree ; bark thick 
and rough; cones large. 

11. P. scrotina: leaves by threes, elongate; sterile, 
aments erect, incumbent ; cones ovate ; spines of 
the scales straight, very slender. 

HAB. Swamps. A large tree resembling the pre- 

12. P. Slrobus : leaves by fives, slender ; sheaths very 
short ; cones pendulous, cylindrical, longer than 
the leaves ; scales loose. 

HAB. Fertile soil. A very large tree ; leav. very 
delicate ; cones 3 in. long. 

*** Leaves fasciculate, [deciduous.) i.arix. 

13. P. microcarpa : cones roundish, few-flowered ; 
scales inflexed ; bracts elliptic, obtusely acumi- 

HAB. Swamps and low grounds. A pretty large 
tree f scales red, brown, or white. 


565. THUYA. Arbor vita?. Coniferoe. 

T. occidentalis : branches ancipitous ; leaves imbricate 
in 4 rows, ovate-rhomboidal, appressed, naked, 
tuberculate ; cones obovate ; interior scales trun- 
cate, gibbous beloiv the summit. 
HAB. Rocks and mountains. A small tree ; branch, 
irreg., tough; leav. perennial. 

566. CUPRESSUS. Cypress. Coniferoe. 

1. C. thuyoides: branchlets ancipitous; leaves imbricate 

in 4 rows, ovate, tuberculate at base ; cones sub- 
spherical, angular. 
HAB. Swamps. A large tree ; leav. minute, peren. ; 
cones very small. 

2. C.disticha: leaves distichous, flat; sterile florets 

paniculate, leafless ; cones spherical. 
HAB. Swamps. A very large tree; leav. small, 
lin., acute. 

567. ACALYPHA. Three-seeded mercury. Eu- 

A. virginica : pubescent ; leaves on short petioles, 
lanceolate-oblong, serrate ; involucruci cordate, 
ovate, dentate, axillary, nerved, denize. 
HAB. Dry gravelly soil. Aug. ©. Stem 8 — 
15 m. high, erect, pules. ; invol. subscss. 

563. PHYLLANTHUS. Euphorbiaccu:. 

P. obovatus : leaves alternate, oval, obtuse, smooth 
somewhat distichous ; flowers few, axillary, pedi- 
cellate, nodding ; stem erect ; branches distichous. 
HAB. Gravelly banks. June — July. ©. Stem 
12 in. high; leav. entire; stam. 6. 

)Q9. MELOTIIRIA. Small creeping cucumber. Cv 

M. pcndula : leaves somewhat reniform, lobed and an 
gled, slightly hispid ; berry oval, smooth. 
HAB. Shady hanks. June. ©. Slender, climb- 
ing't stem hairy ; Jl. yell. 


570; MOMORDICA. Balsam -apple. Cucurbiiacea:. 

M ? echinuta : pericarp a pomaceoua berr\ , 4-seeded. 
inflated, roundish, setose-echinate , leaves cord- 
ate, angularly 5-lqbed, acuminate, entire; calyx 
6-cleft ; corolla 6-parted. 
HAB. Bank:* of rivers. Aug. ©. Climbing; f. 
small ; fr. 1-i in. long. 

571. SICYOS. Single-seeded. Cucurbit aceoc. 

•S. angulata : leave? cordate, 5-<>r )t ;led, dentate, sca- 
brous ; fruit clustered, hispi . 
HAB. Bank* of rivers, &r. © . Climbing; stem 
pubes. ; leav. peliot. ; fr. small, ovate, 



57L\ VALLTSNERIA. stam. fl. Spain ovale, 2-part~ 

ed. Spadix covered with minute flowers. Cal. 

3-parted. fistillif. Spath bifid, 1 -flowered. 

Cal. 3-parted, superior. Cor. 3- peialled. Stig. 

ligulate. bifid. Caps, valvehss, 1 -celled. Seeds 

numerous, attached to the sides. 
573. SALIX. stam. fl. Ament cylmdric ; scales 1- 

flowered, imbricate, with a nectariferous giant! 

at the base. Cal. and Cor. 0. Stam. 1 — 5. 

fertile fl. Scales of the ament 1 -flowered. 

Cal. and Cor. 0. Stig. 2, mostly bifid. Cops. 

1 -celled, 2-vaIve.d, many-speeded. Seeds co 

674. FRAXlNU.a Cal. 0, or 3— 4-eleft. Cor. 0, or 

4-petalled. Stnm. 2. Caps. 2 celled, 2-seeded, 

compressed and folia' eoojs at the extreoiih ■. 

Seed solitary, pendulous. — Polygamous. 


575. EMPETRUM. Cal. 3 parted, persistent, stam 
fl. Pet. 3, marcescent. Stam. 3 ; filaments 


long ; anih. 2-parted.. fertile. Germ, supe- 
rior, depressed ; style 0, or very short ; stig. 9, 
reflexed, spreading. Berry round, 1 -celled. 
2 — 6-seeded. Seed erect, bony. 


576. MYRICA. Ament ovate-oblong; scales lunulate. 

stam. fl. Slam. 4 — 6 ; anth. 4-valved. fer- 
tile. Geirmen 1 ; stig. 2. Drupe 1 celled, 1- 

577. VISCUJVJ. Cul. with the margin entire or a lit- 

tle prominent. Pet. 4, short, united at the 
base. stam. fl. Anth. 4, senile, adnate with 
.the petals, fertile. Germ, crow ned with the 
margin of the calyx; stig. 1. Berry globose, 
1 -seeded. 


578. NYSSA. perfect fl. Cal. 5-parted. Cor. 0. 

Pistil. 1. Drupe inferior. Nut 1 -seeded. 
sterile Stam. 5, 8, 10, or 12, inserted around 
a peltate gl tnd. 

579. ZANThOXYLUM. stam. fl. Cal. 5-parted. 

Cor. Stam. 3 — 5 — 6. fertile. Caps. 3— 
5-celled, each l^seeded. 

580. ACJNIDA. stam. fl. CaL 5-parted. Cor. 0. 

fertile. CaL. 3-parted. Cor. 0. Styles ; 
stig 8, sessile. Caps. 1 -seedeo. 

581. HUMULUS. stam. fl. Cal. 5-leaved. Anth. 

with 2 pores at the extremity. Cor 0. fer- 
tile. Cal. 1 -leaved, large, persistent, concave, 
entire. Cor. 0. Styles 2. Seed 1"; 


582. SMILAX. stam. fl. Cal. 6-leaved. Cor. 0. 

.//////. .uinate to the filaments, fertile. Style 
minute . stig. 3. Berry 3-celled, superior, 1, 
oi 3-Meded. 

583. DIOSCOREA. ster. fl. Cal. 6-parted. Cor 

0. fertile. Styles 3. Caps. 3-celled, trian 


gular. compressed ; cell* 2-seeded. Seeds with 
me ubranaceous margins. 
384. GLEDl iSCHIA. perfect. CaL G— 8-parted, 
deciduous, 3 or 4 of the exterior segments 
smaller. Cor. 0. Slam. 5 — 6, rarely 8. Le 
guitoe fl ttly compressed, 1, or many-s»eded. 
sterile. Cal. snbtnrbinate, 5 — S-parted, 3~ 
5 of the segments interior. Stum. 6 — 8. 


585. POPULUS. Anient* cvlimiri* al ; scales lacera 

ted. sterile fl. St ami b — 30, -" t'.ed on a 
turbinate obuque entire rul\ x. fertile. CaL 
turbinate. Sttg. 4. Caps, •ajpertor, ?-celKd, 
2-valved, many-seedecl. Seeds surrounded wilb 
long hairs 

586. DIOSPYROS. Cat. 4— 6-cleft. Cor. urceplate, 

4 — 6 cleft, sterile ft. Stam. 8— 16 ; jiiam, 
often producing 2 anthers, fertile. Stig. 4 — 
5. Berry 8 — 12-seeded. 

587. SHEPHEKDIA sterile fl. CaL 4-cleft. Cor. 

0. Stam. 8, included, alternating with 8 glands. 
fertile. CaL 4-cleit, campanulate, superior. 
Style 1 j *t'ig. oblique. Berry 1 -seeded, 


588. ELODEA. Spath birid. stemle fl. Cor. 3~ 

©Hailed Stum. 9. $ of theft! interior, fer- 
tile. Cal, 3-parted ; tub*' very long. Pet. 3. 
Sterile filaments 3. Ulnculun about 3-seeUed 
Seeds cyltudric. 


580. G YMNOCL \DUS. CaL tubal r, 5-cleft. Cor 
4 }-M. Or 5-piti!l d. sterile fl. Stam- 
lu. fertile. .S'///e 1. Lcxviiie 1 -celled, in 
tei •. illy somewhat pulpy. 6«e r tis roundish, large- 



59a MENISPERMUM. sterile fl. Cal. 2-bracteri, 
about 6-leaved, caducous. Pet. 6 — 9, glandu 
lar, minute, and retuse. Star*. 16 — 24 ; anth. 
adnate to the filaments, 4-lnberi, 2-celled. fer- 
tile. Germens and st xjU, * 3 — 6. Drupes mostly 
solitary, 1 -seeded. Nut lunate, compressed. 


391. JUNIPEKUS. sterile fl. Anient ovate ; scales 
verticillan ■■, peltate, An'.h. 4 — 8, 1-celled. 
fertile. Anient globose , tcales 3, coadunate. 
Stig', gaping. Ktrrij with 3 bony l-«-eeded nttjte, 
surrounded unh the united and tiei-hy scales. 

•T;?. TAXI'S. Flowers Vurrounded with numerous 
scales. sterile fl. Stam* 8-- 10; anthers 
peltate. fertile. Style ; trig, concave. 
Drupe fleshy, open at tin extremity. .Yut 1- 


572, VALLISNERIA. // h\c. 

:pirnlis, p. atnericana : leaves linear and obtuse, 
equal the whole length, 3-nerved J margin acule- 
ate! v semil- ,:n;i'-le- very short, fer- 
tile, long Bpil .1. 

HABi. Sttli wtter, Aug %'. Lcav. C— 3 tin. 
broad } capi eylind n long : ped.Jilifoi 

\\A\. Willow. Sertoli 

/. . r obsutrtch 

\ndidar: leaver linear k lanpaoJat*» i », ob- 

,rul;.tr ;it [hi i vreunly, pub.'.- 

ve. white and tomentoi ro 


volute ; stipules lanceolate, as long as the petioles ; 
aments cylindric ; scales obovate-lanceolate, with 
a very long villus. 
HAB. * Woods. April. Tj. Shrub 3— 4 ft. high. 

2. S. viminalis : leaves linear-lanceolate, obscurely 

crenate, white and silky beneath ; stipules very 
small, sublanceolate ; branches Mraight ; germens 
subsessile, lanceolate ; style fililorm ; stigma li- 
near, mostly entire. 
HAB. River banks, &c. Apnl. A pretty large 
tree ; fil. yell. ; anlh. orange. §. 

3. S. Muhlenbergiana : leaves lanreol.ite, rather acute, 

nearly entire, whitish, pubescent, rugose and veiny 
beneath, revolute on the m ir«in ; stipules deci- 
duous, lanceolate; scales oblong, villous on the 
margin ; germen ovate-lanceoLtte, silky-villous,. 
on a conspicuous pedicel ; style short ; stigma 
HAB. Dry woods. April. Shrub 3— 5 ft. high; 
branch, gr.-yell. ; anth. purp. mid yell. 

4. S. tristis : leaves linear-lanceolate, acute at each 

end, revolute, on the. margin, smoothish above, 
beneath rugo^ely vein\ and lomentose ; stipules 0*. 
HAB. Dry woods. Shrub 3 — if. high. 

5. S. recurvata .-.leaves obov,«te-lanceol:ite, acute, very 

entire, smooth, ghiucous beneath, silky when 
youn^; stipules 0; ament-* ■ e< urved ; scales black 
at the tip, with hairs as \o'.a hs the ovate, silky, and 
subpedicellate germen ; stvle very short ; stigmas 
HAB. Shady woods. Shrub 2— 3 ft. high ; branch, 
brown, smooth ; buds yelL 

6. S. pedicellaris : branches smooth ; leaves obdvate- 

lanceolate, acute, very entire, smooth, and of the 
same colour on both sides ; stipules ; aments 
pedunculate ; scales oblong, scarcely hairy, half 
as long as the pedicel ; germen ovate-oblong, on a 
very long pedicel ; stigmas sessile, bifid. 
HAB. Mountains. April. 

7. S. rosmarinifolia : leaves straight, linear-lanceolate, 

acute at each end, very entire, deciduously pu- 
bescent above, silky beneath ; scales oblong, ob* 


M&e, ciliate ; germens pedicellate, lanceolate, vil 
Ions ; stigmas subsessile, bifid. 

1IAB. 3 adows and mountain swamp*. Shrub 3 
ft. high ; branch, pube.?. ; leav. li in. long. 
. S. repens : stem procumbent ; leaves acute, nearly 
entire, somewhat downy, glaucous, mostly verv 
silky beneath ; germens on a long pedicel, lanceo- 
late, very silky ; styles short ; stigmas bifid. 

HAB. High mountains. Shrub small, usually pro- 
cumb. — Variable. 

* * Leaves remotely and obtusely serrate. 

. S. conifera : leaves oblong-lanceolate, remotely scr 
rate, acute, smooth above, tomentose beneath ; 
stipules lunate, subdentate ; scales lanceolate, ob- 
tuse, villous ; germens pedicellate, lanceolate, 
silky ; style bifid ; stigmas 2-lobed. 
HAB*. Low thickets. April. Shrub 4 — B ft. high; 
frequently with excresences on the branches. 

0. S. myricoides : leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, ob- 
tusely serrate, smooth, glaucous beneath ; stipules 
ovate, acute,; amenta villous, leafy at the 
base ; scales lanceolate, villous, (black ;) germens 
on long pedicels, lanceolate, smooth ; style bind ; 
stigmas bifid. 

ffAB. Woods. A small shrub; branch, green; 
young ones purp., smooth. 

1. S. prinuides : leaves oval-oblong, acute, remotely 
undulate-serrate, smooth, glaucous beneath ; sti- 
pules semicordato, incisely dentate ; germens pe 
dice! late, ovate, acuminate, silky; style long; 
stigmas bilid. 

HAB. Wet thickets, April. A shrub 8— 
high ; aments early, villous. 

8« t&hcvLor : leaves oblong, rather obtuse, smooth, 
remotely Semite; glaucous beneath ; stipules deci- 
duous, lanceolate, serrate ; scales oblong, ncute 
black,) hairy ; germens snbsessile, lanceolate, to- 
inentose, style of middling length ; stigmas £-p*rted 

HAD. Lew grounds. April. A small tree ; h n 
dark brown ; ami Mttf ruther late. 

;. S. angustula : leaves lanceolate, acute, very long, 
gradually narrowed towards the base, serru' if e 
I i 


very smooth, colour nearly uniform ; stipules 
semicordate ; germens pedicellate, ovate, smooth 
style bifid ; stigmas 2-lobed. 
II AB. Banks of rivers. Leaves very long. Re 
sembles No. 1 1. 

* * * Leaves closely and acutely serrate. 

14. S. nigra : leaves lanceolate, acute at each end, ser 
rulate, green on both sides, smooth except the 
petiole <ind the midrib above ; stipules dentate ; 
aments cylindric ; scales oblong, very villous ; 
filaments 3 — 6, bearded at the base ; germens pe- 
dicellate, ovate, smooth ; style very short ; stig 
mas bifid. 
1IAB. Banks of rivers. May. A small tree: 
branch, smooth ; first leaves pubes. ; aments long. 
15. S. lucida: leaves ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, 
rounded at the base, serrate, smooth on both sides, 
shining; stipules oblong, serrate; aments trian- 
drous ; scales lanceolate, obtuse, hairy at the base, 
serrate and smooth at the tip ; germens lanceolate- 
subulate, smooth ; style bifid ; stigmas obtuse. 
1IAB. Swamps. May. A small tree ; leav. thick ; 
branch, yell.-br. ; aments late, 
\(j. S. rigida : leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
subcordate at the base, rigid, smooth, acutely ser- 
rate, the lowest serratures long ; petiole villous ; 
stipules large, cordate, obtuse ; stamens 3; scales 
lanceolate, (black,) woolly ; germens on long pe- 
dicels, smooth ; style very short ; stigmas 2- 
JIAB. Low thickets. May. A small tree ; branch , 
green, tough ; aments late. 
17. S. cordata : leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate 
cordate at the base, acutely serrate, smooth ; sti- 
pules large, ovate-roundish, serrate ; stamens 3 ; 
scales lanceolate, (black ;) germens pedicellate, 
lanceolate, smooth ; style very short ; stigmas 
11AB. Swamps. April— May. A shrub 6— 8 ft. 

high ; leav. large, 1 in. broad, 
p.falcata : leaves narrow-lanceolate, very long, sub- 


ilAB. Swamps. Leav. 6— S in. long. 
S. grisea : leaves lanceolate, acuminate, serrulate, 
smooth above, silky or naked beneath ; stipule:^ 
linear, deflexed, deciduous ; scales oblong, hairy, 
black at the tip ; germens oblong, pedicellate, 
silky ; stigmas sessile, obtuse. 

ITAB. Low bushy places. April. Shrub 6 — 8 ft. 
high ; branch, pur p., brittle at base. 
)9. S. vitellina : leaves lanceolate, acuminate, with 
thickened serratures, smooth above, paler and 
somewhat silky beneath ; stipules ; aments cy- 
lindrical, scales ovate-lanceolate, pubescent out- 
side ; germens sessile, ovate-lanceolate ; stigmas 
subsessile, 2-lobed. 

HAB. Read sides, &c. May. A pretty large tree ; 
bark, and twigs yell. §. 

574. FRAXINUS. Ash. Olei?iece. 

1. F. sambucifolia : leaflets sessile, ovate-lanceolate, 
serrate, rugose and shining ; base rounded and 
unequal ; axils of the veins villous beneath ; 
flowers naked 
1IAB. River banks and woods. April. A large 
tree ; buds deep blue ; young shoots doited^ green. 
'. F. acuminata: leaflets petiolate, oblong, shining, 
acuminate, very entire, or slightly toothed, glau- 
cous beneath ; flowers calyculate. 
HAB. Woods. May. A large tree; first leav. 
downy ; summer leav. gr. above, wh. beneath. 
). F. pubesctns : leaflets petiolate, elliptical-ovate, ser- 
rate ; under surface* petioles, and young branches 
tometttoae ; flowers calyculate. 
HAB. Woods. May. A large tree; leav. 12 — 16 
in* long ; leuji. often nearly entire, 3 — 4 pairs. 
-■ . F.juglandifelia : leaflets petiolate, ovate, opake, 
serrate, glaucous'oeneath, axils 6f the veins pu 
l>< Been! ; Im nootfa ; llowers calyculate. 

' \l>. Banks of rivers. ./ small trie : Uav* 6 — 15 
loti£ ; seeds smaller 



575. EMPETllUM. Crow-berry. Empetrco ,. 

! ). nigrum : procumbent ; leaves linear-oblong. 

HAD. Ui^h mountains. June. Shrub small , ever 
green ; leav. densely imbricate ; j\. axill. 

576. B1YRICA. Gale. Salicince. 

i. M. Gale : leaves lanceolate, broader above, ser 

rate ; sterile ament imbricated ; scales acumi 

natc, ciliate; fruit scaly-capitate. 
HAH. Borders of pond* and about mountain lakes. 

May. Shrub 3 — 4 ft. high ; fruit spicy. 
2. M, ccrifera : leaves cuncate-lanceolate, with a few 

serratures at top, acute ; sterile aments loose ; 

scales acute ; fruit spherical, naked, distinct. 
IIAB. Dry woods and copses. May. Shrub 2 — 6 

ft. high ; fruit small, covered with wax. 

577. VISCUM. Misseltoe. Loranthece. 

Y . verticillatum : leaves cuneate-oval, 3-nerved, ob 
tuse ; spikes axillary, solitary, about as long a9 the 
leaves ; sterile flowers mostly tnfid. 
HAB. Parasitic on trees. Branch, oppos. ; sterile 
/!. mostly trifid ; berry white,' diaph. 


578. NYSSA. Tupelo. Combretacece. 

1 . N. zillosa : leaves oblong, very entire, acute at each 

end, the petiole, midrib, and margin villous ; fer- 
tile peduncles 3 — G-flowered ; nut short-obovatc 
obtusely striate. 
JIAB. Low woods. Juue. A large tree ; branch, 
horizont. ; fl. small, gr. ; drupe dark blue. 

2. N. biflora : leaves ovate-oblong, very entire, acute 

at each end, smooth ; fertile peduncles 2-flowered 
drupe short-obovate ; nut obtusely striate. 
UAB. Swamps. June. A large tree • drupe deer 


,79. ZANTHOXYLUM. Tooth-ach tree. Rutacea. 

A. fraxineum : prickly ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets oval- 
lanceolate, Mibentire, sessile, equal at the base ; 
petioles unarmed ; umbels axillary. 
IIAB. Rocky woods. April. Shrub 3-V5 ft. high; 
prickles strung ; leafl. 4 — 5 pairs. 

500. ACNIDA. Wild-hemp. Chenopodecz. 

I. A. cannabina : leaves ovate-lanceolate; capsules 

smooth, acutely angled. 
IIAB. Salt marshes. July — Aug. © . Stem 2— 

4 ft. high, smooth; Icav. alt. ; jl. small, gr. 
.'. A. rusocarpa : leaves oval-lanceolate ; capsules ob 

tusely angled, rugose. 
IIAB. Fresh -water marshes. July. ©• + 

501. 1IUMULUS. Hop. Urjicece. 

II. Lupulus. 

IIAB. Hedges, kc. Aug. U. Stem tivin., sea 
Irons ; Icav. oppos., 3 — 5-lob., rough ; fl. gr. 


►82. SMILAX. Rough bind-weed. Asparageo <.. 

'•■'• Stemfrutescent. 

>. S'» Sarsapurilla ': stem prickly, slightly 4-angled ; 
leaves unarmed, ovate-lanceolate, cuspidate, some- 
what 5- nerved, glaucous beneath ; peduncles 
longer than the petioles. 
IIAB. Low thickets. July. Stem climbing ; prickle: 
scattered ; lev. black, 3-seeded. 
.». S. rotundifolia : stem prickly, subterete ; leaves 
unarmed, roundish-ovate, short-acuminate; cord 
;it<\ 5 — 7-nerved ; berries spherical. 
IIAB. Hedges, &c. June. Stem climb.; branch 

(juadrang. ; br.r. black ; fl. umbel. 
S, caduca : prickly ; leaves ovate, mucronate, mem 
brauacrous, 5-nervrd ; common peduncles scarce- 
ly longer than the petiolea. 
I i 2 


II AB.- Fields and dry wood:*. June. Climbing 
stem subang. ; petiol. 5 — G lin. long. 

1. S. Pseudo-china: stem unarmed; leaves unarmed, 

those of the stem cordate, of the branches ovate- 
oblong, 5-nerved ; peduncles very long. 

HAB, Pine barrens and sandy fields. June. Root< 
large, tuber. ; stem climb. 
b. S. laurifolia : prickly ; branches unarmed ; leaves 
coriaceous, elliptical or elliptical-lanceolate, ob 
tuse, slightly acuminate, shining, 3-nerved ; um- 
bels on short peduncles. 

HAB. Pine barrens. July. Stem with few -prickles ■ 
leav. very thick, smooth* 

6. S. pandurata : prickly; leaves ovate-panduri- 

form, acuminate, 3-nerved ; common peduncle 
twice as long as the petiole. 
HAB. Sandy woods. July. Leav. smooth and 
shining. A var. of the preceding ? 

* * Stems herbaceous, unarmed. 

7. S. herbacea : stem slightly angled, erect ; leaves 

5 — 7-nerved, acuminate, pubescent beneath, the 
lower ones alternate, upper verticillate and 
crowded ; peduncles very long, compressed. 

HAB. Moist shady places. June. Stem 2—3 ft. 
high, nearly simp. ; ber. black, 
o. S. peduncularis : stem terete, climbing; leaves 
ovate, nearly round, cordate, acuminate, 9-nerved ; 
umbels on very long peduncles. 

HAB. Low grounds. June. Stem climb, by ten- 
drils, 5 — Bft. high ; leav. smooth ; fl. fetid. 

533. DIOSCOREA. Yam. Asparagex. 

J. D.villosa: leaves alternate, opposite and verticil 
late, cordate, acuminate, pubescent beneath, 9 
nerved, the lateral nerves simple. 
HAB. Hedges and woods. June. 11. Climbing. 
sler.fl. in axill. panic, small. 

2. D. quaternata : leaves verticillate by fours, and al- 

ternate, cordate, acuminate, smooth on both sic!c<. 
7-nerved : the lateral nerves divided. 
HAB. Dry soils. June. U. Climbing: leav. 
longer acum. than the preceding. 


j84. GLEDITSCHIA. Honey-locust. Lcguminostc 

G . triacanthos : branches spiny ; spines thick, triple 
and compound ; leaflets oval and oblong; legumet 

11AB. About plantations. June. A middle- size*' 
tree; spines very long ; legumes falcate, long. 

3. inermis : branches unarmed. 

HAB. With the preceding. 


505. POPULUS. Poplar. Salicintr. 

J. P. candicans : leaves cordate, ovate, acuminate, ob 
tusely and unequally serrate, white beneath., 
somewhat triply nerved, reliculately veined ; pe- 
tiole hairy ; buds resinous ; branches round. 
HAH. Woods. April. A small tree ; teav. large; 
buds odorous. 
,\ P. tremuloides : leaves roundish, abruptly acumi 
nate, dentate-serrate, pubescent on the margin. 
HAB. Woods. April. A middle-sized tree ; bark 
smooth; leav. thin, rather small 
3. P. hudsonica : leaves rhomboid, wilh a very long 
acuminatum, dentate-serrate, smooth ; young 
branches hairy. 
HAB. Banks of rivers. April. A large tree 
branch, spreading ; leav. 3—4 in. long. 
1. P. grandidtntaia: leaves roundish-ovate, acule, will: 
large unequal sinuate teclh ; younger ones villous. 
HAB. Woods. April. A middle-sized tree ; youTi£ 
leav. downy. 

jicndula : branches pendulous. 
HAB. Mountains. Rare. 

>. P. hctcrophylla : leaves rour. dish-ovate, with tin 
•inns small, cordate, Bubauriculate, uncii 
toothed ; young ones ton. 

DIOSP1 ROS. Pereimu 

\). virginianc i ovate»oblong, acuminate n 

reliculately veined; petioles pubeteent ; bud 
HAB. Woods. June. A email tree ; Jl. pale oronge ; 
fir. roundith) ing. 


587. SHEPHERDIA. Eleagni. 

S. canadensis; leaves oblong-ovate, nearly smootl. 
above, stellately hairy and scaly beneath ; the 
scales ferruginous and deciduous. 
HAB. Borders ot lakes and river banks. Aug. .'/ 
shrub 6 — 3 ft. high ; fl. dust., minute. 


588. ELODEA. Halorageoc. 

E. canadensis : leaves verticillate by threes and four?, 
lanceolate, oblong or linear, serrulate ; tube of tht< 
calyx filiform. 
HAB. Creeks and still waters. Aug. H. Stem 
subm., dichot. ; Jl. minute, "white. 


589. GYMNOCLADUS. Coffee-bean tree. Legu- 

G. canadensis. 

HAB. Woods. May — June. Jl middle-sized tree r 
leav. very large, bipinnate ; Jl. racem. 


590. MENISPERMUM. Moon-seed. Menisper- 

V. M. canadense : leaves peltate, cordate, rounded 
angular ; racemes compound ; petals 8. 
HAB. Woods and hedges. July. U . Climbing 

nciiol. long ; racem. axill. ; Jl. small, yelL 


591, JUNIPERUS. Juniper. Coniferce. 

I, 3. -communis: leaves ternate, spreading, muoro 
nate, longer than the berry 

3. depressa : stems prostrate, 


iJAB. Dry woods. April — May. A low spread- 
ing shrub ; leav. shining above, glauc. beneath. 
J. J. virginiana : upper leaves imbricate in four rows 
ovate-lanceolate, pungently acute, appressed ; 
young ones acerose expanding ; trunk arboreous. 

HAB. Dry rocky places. April. Ji small tree: 
leav. sometimes ternate ; 6er., sjnall, blue. 
3. J. prustrata : leaves imbricate id four rows, ovate, 
submucronate, glandular in the middle, appressed ; 
berries tubercular; stem prostrate* creeping. 

HAB. Gravelly shores. A shrub with very lone 
creeping branches ; berries longer than Ao. 2. 

592. TAXUS. Yew. Coniferce. 

F. canadensis . leaves linear, distichous, revolute on 
the margin ; sterile receptacle globose. 
HAB. Shady rocks. April. Shrub evergreen, 2 — * 
4 ft* high ; berries red. 


* Capsules furnished with an articulated clastic ring 
transversely opening. 

193. POLYPODIUM. Sori (small clusters of cap 
sules) roundish, scattered. Involucrum 0. 

S94. HYPOPELTIS. Sori roundish, having a cup- 
shaped involucrum beneath, divided into 5 — <> 
irregular segment-. Capsules sessile. 

>95. WOODS1A. Sori roundish, having an involu- 
crum beneath, which is cut into numerous ca- 
pillary segments. Capsules pedicellate. 

r >9G. ASPIDIUM. Sori rduhditfti or elliptical, scat- 
tered, liivolurrum umbilicalc, or opening OH 
one side. 

>07. ASPLKNU'M. Sort linear, straight, more or 
lefli transverse. Invoho rum arising from the 
lateral veins, and opening toward- the central 


598. SCOLOPENDRIUM. Sori linear, transverse 
scattered. Invoiucrum double, occupying both 
sides of the sorus, superficial, and opening like 
a longitudinal suture. 

399. WOODWARDIA. Sori oblong, distinct, straight. 
parallel with the ribs of the frond, on either 
side. Invoiucrum superficial, arched, opening 

GOO. PTERIS. Sori in a continued marginal line. 
Invoiucrum formed of the inflexed margin of the 
frond, opening inwards. 

601. ADIANTUM. Sori oblong or roundish. In 
volucra membranaceous, arising from distinct 
portions of the frond turned in, opening inwards. 

602. CHEILANTHES. Sori punctiform, distinct and 

marginal, each covered with a scale-like mar- 
ginal invoiucrum opening inwards. 

603. HYMENOPHYLLUM. Sori marginal. Capsule* 

sessile, inserted upon a common cylindrical re- 
ceptacle, within a 2-valved invoiucrum of the 
same texture as the frond ; valves plane, exte- 
rior free. 

604. ONOCLEA. Sori indeterminate. Capsules co 

vering the whole lower surface of the frond. 
Invoiucrum resembling a berry, formed of the 
frond, opening, but not expanding. 

605. STRUTHIOPTERIS. Capsules densely cover 

ing the back of the frond. Invoiucrum squami- 
form, marginal, opening inwards. 

** Capsules destitute of a ring, vascular-reticulate., 
pellucid, radiate at the tip and substriatc, longitudi 
nally {and often externally) opening. 

G06. OSMUNDA. Capsules subglobose, pedicellate, 
striate, half-bivalved, paniculate. Invoiucrum 0. 

G07. SCHIZJEA. Spikes unilateral, flabellate, aggre- 
gate. C&psules subturbinate, striate longitudi- 
nally and radiate, opening laterally. Invoiu- 
crum continuous, formed of the inflexed margin 
of the spikes. 

r308. LYGODIUM. Capsules in 2 series on the back 
of appendages to the frond, radiate-striate, or 
wrinkled, opening on the inner side., from thr 


base to the summit. Involucrum scale-like, co- 
vering each capsule. 

* * * Capsules destitute of a ring, adnate at the base, 
subglobose, coriaceous, opakc, not cellular, semibi' 

609. OPHIOGLOSSUM. Capsules naked, upon an 
articulated distichous spike, transversely open- 
ins;, 2-valved. 

r,\0. BOTRYCHIUM. Capsules subglobose, adnate 
to the rachis of the compound spike, distinct, 
naked, 1-celled ; valves 2, connected behind, 
transversely opening. 


611. LYCOPODIUM. Capsules 1-celled, axillary 
sessile ; some of them 2-valved, filled with a 
farinaceous substance ; others 3-valvcd, con- 
taining from 1 — 6 globose corpuscules. 


HI 2. EQJJISETUM. Fructification terminal, spiked, 
consisting of peltate polygonous scales, on the 
under side of which are from h — 7 follicular 
involucra opening longitudinally on the inside. 
Sporoz included in the involucrum, numerous, 
<j;reen,) globose, with 4 filaments at the base 
which are dilated at the extremity. 


<M3. SALVIN1A. Involucra imbricate, (4—9,) con- 
nate, resembling a unilocular capsule. Spora: 
inserted on a central receptacle. 

614. AZOLLA. Mono-icon*. Sterile? appendage* by 

pans, contiguous. Involucrum subglobose, re- 
sembling a unilocular capsule. Sponr numer- 
ous, naked. 

615. I80ETE& Capsule membranaceous, not open- 

ing, immersed at the ba-c of tin: frond. I •celled 


Seeds angular, attached to numerous filiform re 


593. POLYPODIUM. Polypody. 

1. P. vulgare: fronds deeply pinnatifid ; segments li^ 

near-lanceolate, obtuse, crenulate, approximate , 
the upper ones gradually smaller ; caudex chaffy ; 
stipe smooth. 
IIAB. Shady rocks. July. Fronds 8 — 12 in, high, 
smooth ; segments 3 — 4 lin. broad, somewhat cur- 

2. P. hexagonopterum : fronds bi pinnatifid, rather 

smooth, circumference triangular, two of the lower 
divisions deflexed ; segments lanceolate, obtuse, 
ciliate, the upper ones very entire, lower ones in- 
cisely crenate ; the lowest adnate-decurrent ; soil 
minute, solitary; stipe smooth. 
IIAB. Moist wood*. Aug. Fronds 12 in. high, 
very broad ; divisions acuminate, separate. 

3. P. connectile : fronds bipinnatifid, ciliate, triangular 

divisions opposite, contiguous, adnate ; segments 
subelliptical ; stipe chaffy ; sori minute. 
IIAB. Woods. Aog. Fronds 12 in. high, oblong, 
triang. ; segments closehj approximate at base. 

4. P. Dryopteris : fronds female, bipinnate, patulou- 

and detlexed ; segments obtuse, subcrenate ; soii 
marginal ; root filiform. 
•HAB. Rocky woods. Aug. Frond 8 — 12in.hi»';. 
triang. ; stipe slend. ; sori at length subconjl. 


H. obtusa. 

HAB. Rocky Woods. Aug. Fronds 8 — 14 in. 
high, bipinnate; divisions sub remote ; segments ob- 
long, the lower ones crenate-dentate^ rachis pubis. 
above ; sori subconjliicni. 


595. WOODSIA. 

W. ilvensis: fronds bipinnatifid ; segments oblong, ob- 
tuse, the inferior ones repand, upper very entire, 
hairy beneath ; sori submarginal, at length con- 
fluent ; stipe villous above. 
HAB. Rocks. July — Aug. Fronds 6 — Sin. high, 
beneath chaffy and hairy f cespitose. 

596. ASPIDIUM. Shield-fern. 

v Involucrum subumbilicate or reniform^ attached near 
the centre of the sorus and opening on all sides. 

t Fronds simply pinnate. 

1. A. acrostichoides : fronds pinnate ; segments lanceo 

late, falcate, acute, ciliate-serrulate, auriculate on 
one side at the base, subsessile, only the upper 
ones fructiferous ; sori at length confluent ; stipe 
HAB. Shady rocks. Fronds 15 — 18 in. high; seg. 
1 in* long ; fructiferous ones smaller. 

1 1 Frond subbipinnate. 

2. A. noveboracense : frond pinnate, the divisions pin- 

natifid, linear-lanceolate ; segments, oblong, ob- 
tuse, entire, ciliate ; sori marginal ; stipe nearly 

HAB. Damp woods. July. Frond 1 — 2ft. high: 
seg. mostly obtuse, pubes. beneath. 
S. A. Thelypteris : frond pinnate; the divisions pinna 
tifid, linear-lanceolate, distinct at the base ; seg- 
ments ovate, acute, entire ; sori marginal, conti 
guous, at length confluent. 

HAB. Wet woods and swamps. Frond a foot and 
a half hiqh. Distinct from the preceding? 
4. A. cristatum : /3. lancastrnnrc : frond lanceolate- 

oVate, smooth, pinnate ; divisions subcordaie, pin 
natifid ; segment* ti ianinilar-oblon^, snmulosr- 
rate ; stipe nearly Baked* 

t t t Frond doubly and triply piniutlr. 

7). A. Goldianum : frond broad-ovate, smooth, bipin 
K k 


nate ,• divisions lanceolate, pinnatifid ; segments 
oblong, obtuse, with remote uncinate serratures, 
the lowest decurrent on the rachis ; sori near the 
central nerve ; stipe and rachis somewhat chaffy. 
HAB. Rocky woods. July. Frond very broad, 2 
ft. high ; invol, peltate. 

6. A.marginale: frond bipinnate ; segments oblong. 

obtuse, decurrent, crenate, sinuate-repand at the 
base ; sori marginal ; stipe paleaceous. 
HAB. Rocky places. July. Frond 18 in. high, 
very smooth; invol. large, umbilicate. 

7. A. spinulosum : frond bipinnate ; divisions oblong. 

decurrent, smaller segments mucronately serrate ; 

stipe paleaceous ; involucrum glandular. 
HAB. Rocky woods. July. Frond broad, slender. 

smooth ; sori small. 
3. A.dilatatum: fronds bipinnate; divisions oblong, 

distinct, incisely pinnatifid ; segments mucronately 

serrate ; stipe chaffy ; involucrum smooth. 
HAB. Shady woods. July. Frond broad, 2 ft* 

high ; stipe slightly chaffy. 

* * Involucrum oblong, opening on one side. 
#. A. asplenioides : frond bipinnate ; segments lanceo 

late, incisely serrate ; serratures 2= — 3-toothed ; 

sori oblong, lunate. 
HAB. Moist woods. Two ft. high; frond smooth ; 

sori at length subconfluent. 

* * * Involucrum hemispherical, bursting at the top. 

10. A. tenue : frond bipinnate; segments ovate, de- 
current, dentate ; sori solitary, near the teeth of 
the leaflets. 

HAB. Rocks. Cespitose, 6 — 3 in. high, slend. ; sori 
large ; invol. deciduous, 

1 1. A. bidbiferum: frond bipinnate, lanceolate, attenu- 
ate above ; segments oblong, obtuse, serrate, the 
inferior ones pinnatifid ; rachis bulbiferous ; sori 

H\B. Rocky woods. Frond narrow and long, IS 
in. high ; bulbs ovate, compress., green. 

12. A. punctilobulum : frond bipinnate, oblong; divi- 
sions oblong, pinnatifid ; segments with the supe- 


rior margin incisely dentate ; stipe somewhat 
HAB. Shady woods. Frond 18 in. high, thin; sori 
minute, near the margin. 

597. ASPLENIUM. Spleenwort. 

f. A. rhizophyllum : frond lanceolate, stipitate, subcre- 
nate, auriculate-cordate at the base, the point 
very long, filiform, rooting. 

MAB. Rocks. Frond G — 10 in. long, rooting at the 
extrcm., and producing new plants. 

/3. pinnatifdum : frond pinnatifid ; lobes roundish- 
ovate, the lower ones crenate. 

HAB. Rocks. Larger than the common variety. 
2. A. angustifolium : frond pinnate ; divisions alternate, 
upper ones opposite, linear-lanceolate, somewhat 
repand, the base truncate on the upper side, 
rounded on the lower. 

HAB. Low woods. July. Frond 1 — 2 ft. high, 
the fertile one separate ; sori large. 
}. A. ebenentn : frond pinnate ; divisions lanceolate, 
somewhat falcate, serrate, auriculate at the base : 
stem smooth and pnlishcd. 

HAB Rocky woods. Frond 12 in. high; stipe 
slend., brown; seg, I in. long, appearing spiral. 

4. A. Trichomonas : frond pinnate ; divisions roundish; 

crenate, obtusely cuneate, and entire at the base ; 
stipe polished and black. 
MAB. Rocks. Cespitose — 8 in. high, delicate; 
seg. 4 — 5 lin. long ; sori few, large. 

5. A. thelypteroida : frond pinnate ; divisions pinnati- 

fid, lanceolate ; segments oblong, obtuse, serrate, 
confluent at the base ; sori in parallel oblique lines. 
HAB. Shady woods. About 2ft. high ; frond ovate, 
sort very numerous ; slipe smooth. 

6. A. Ruta muraria : frond bi pinnate at the base, sim- 

ply pinnate ;it top ; segment! cuneate, obtusely 

dentate at the extremity. 
IIAB. Dry rocks. Frond 2 — 3 in. high, rather co* 

riaceous ; seg. tubrhombic ; stipe smooth. 
'■'. A.montanum: frond smooth, bipinnate ; divisions 

lanceolate, pinnatifid ; segments % — 3-toothed. 
HAB. Clefts of rocks on mountains. 


598. SCOLOPENDRIUM. Hart's-tongue. 

S. vulgare: frond ligulate, entire, cordate at the base. 
HAB. Limestone rocks. Frond 8 — 10 in. long, 
rachis acute, petiolate ; sori very large* 


1. W . onocleoides ; sterile frond pinnatifid ; segments 

lanceolate, repand, slightly serrulate ; fertile 
fronds pinnate ; segments linear, entire, acute. 
HAB. Swamps. About lft. high ; ond witli 
very narrow seg. ; sori large, oblong. 

2. W.virginica: frond very smooth, pinnate; divi- 

sions sessile, lanceolate, pinnatifid ; segments ob- 
long, obtuse, nearly entire ; stipe smooth, nearly 
HAB. Swamps. About 2 ft. high ; frond oblong, 
sori small, at length subconfluent. 

600. PTERIS. Brake. 

t . P. Aquilina : frond tripartite ; divisions bipinnate ; 
segments oblong-lanceolate, the lower ones pin- 
natifid, upper ones entire. 
HAB. Woods. Two— four ft. high ; stipe long, 
erect, smooth ; frond ample, circumf. triang. 

1. P. atropurpurea : frond pinnate ; inferior divisions 
ternate or pinnate ; segments lanceolate, obtuse, 
obliquely truncate or subcordate at the base. 
HAB. Rocks. A span high ; frond grayish green; 
fructif conspicuous ; stipe dark 6r., subpubes. 

:3. P. caudata: frond pinnately 3-parted ; sterile divi 
sions bipinnate, with the segments linear, long, ob- 
tuse, and very entire ; fertile divisions pinnate : 
segments rather remote, the lower ones pinnatifid- 
dentate at the base. 
HAB. Stony woods near creeks. A small species ; 
stipe black and shining. 

601. ADIANTUM. Maiden-hair. 

K. pedatum : frond pedate ; divisions pedate ; segments 
rhomboid-oblong, sublunate, incisely lobed, 


HAB. Rocky woods. About 1 ft. high ; stipe slend., 
black, polish. ; frond ample ; segm. entire below. 


C. veslita : frond bipinnate, hairy on both sides ; seg- 
ments oblong, obtuse, very entire ; stipe and 
rachis hairy. 
HAB. Rocks. About 4 in. high, covered with chaffy 
brown hair. 


\\. ciliatum: frond pinnate ; lower divisions larger, up- 
per ones gradually smaller, pinnatifid ; segment* 
linear, obtuse, bifid, ciliate, hairy on the veins ; 
rachis and stipe winged, ciliate. 
HAB. Trunks of trees. 

604. ONOCLEA. Sensitive fern, 

' ). sensibilis : sterile frond, pinnate ; segments lacinate. 
the upper ones united; fertile frond bipinnate, re- 
sembling a compound spike, with recurved globu- 
lar segments. 

HAB. Low ground--. Fronds about a foot high; 
cterile dilated, suhtriang. ; fertile very narrow. 

(S. obtusiloba : divisions of the frond opposite, pinna- 
tifid, with rounded lobes. 

HAB. Low grounds. Smaller than the preceding, 


S, pennsylvanica : j-tcrile frond bipinnntitid ; segments 

entire, obtuse, the lowest elongated and recurved. 

HAB. Low grounds. About 2 ft. high ; fertile 

frond resembl . a compound spike ; seg. lin., num. 

. OSMUNDA, Flowering fern. 

I. O. cinnamomea : sterile frond pinnate j OlTiaioiU 

pinnatifid ; segments ovate, oblong-obtuse, very 

entire ; stipe woolly ; fertile frond bipinnate. 


HAB. Low grounds. Fronds 3 — 5 ft. high ; slip? 

K k 2 


covered with brown hair ; fertile jr. spikelike, 
sometimes bearing a few leaves. 

2. 0. interrupta : frond pinnate, smooth ; divisions 

pinnatifid ; segments oblong, rather acute, entire : 
some of the intermediate divisions fructiferous. 
HAB. Low grounds. Frond 3 — 4 ft. high ; several 
central pairs of the divisions fertile, dark-br. 

3. O. regalis ; frond bipinnate ; segments oblong, dis- 

tinct, serrulate ; raceme terminal compound. 
HAB. Swamps. About 4 ft. high, smooth; panich 
large, very compound. 

607. SCHIZ^A. 

3. pusilla : frond simple, linear, compressed, tortuous ; 

spikes few, conglomerate at the summit of a long 

slender stipe. 

HAB. Pine barrens. Aug. Fronds num., cespit. 

2 in. long j stipe 4 — 5 in. long,Jilif. ; spik. brown. 


L. palmatum : stem flexuous and climbing ; fronds con- 
jugate, cordate, palmate, with 5 lobes ; lobes en- 
tire, obtuse ; spikelets oblong-linear, in a com- 
pound terminal spike. 
HAB. Shady banks of creeks. July. Frond 3— 
5 ft. high, smooth, slend. ; fr. subterm. 

609. OPHIOGLOSSUM. Adder's tongue. 

1. O. vulgaium: spike cauline ; frond oblong-ovate, 
- obtuse, closely reticulate. 

HAB. Wet meadows. June. About -a span high ; 
leaf solit. entire; spik. linear, 2-r owed. 
*. O. bulbosum : spike cauline ; frond subcordate- 
ovate, rather obtuse ; root bulbous. 
HAB. Low sandy grounds. About 6 in. high ; frond 
\h in. long, 1 in. broad, reticulate. 


I. B. simplex: stipe with a single frond above ; frond 
subpinnate ; segments 3 — 5, rarely 7, roundish 
obovate, sometimes lobed. 


HAB. Dry woods. July. About 4 in. high; frond 

very small, variable. 
B. fumarioides : stipe naked; frond smooth, radi- 
cal, 3-parted, bipinnate ; leaflets lunate, crenate : 
spikes bipinnate. 

HAB. Shady woods. Aug. A foot high ; stipe 
rather thick ; frond somewhat succul. 

j3. obliquum : scape with a single frond below ; leaf- 
lets oblong-lanceolate, serrulate. 

HAB. Shady low grounds. Flowers later than the 

B. disseclnm : scape with the frond near the base ; 
frond tripartite-bipinnatifid ; segments linear, 2- 
parted, 2-toothed at the extremity. 

HAB. Shady woods. Aug. A span high ; frond 

much divided ; spike compound. 
B. virginicum : somewhat hairy ; scape bearing the 
frond in the middle ; frond 3-parted, bipinnatifid ; 
divisions incisely pinnatitid ; segments obtuse, 
about 3-toothed ; spikes decompound. 

HAB. Woods. July. Nearly 2 ft high ; stipe 
mostly hairy ; frond thin ; spik. often geminate. 

,3. gracile : smooth ; spike bipinnate, on a long 
slender peduncle. 

HAB. Dry woods. A span high ; frond and spike 
delicate, very smooth. 


611. LYCOPODIUM. Club-moss. 
* Spikes pedunculate. 

. L. carolinianum : stem creeping; leaves distichous. 

spreading, lanceolate; peduncle erect, solitary. 

elongated, one-spiked ; bracts sublanceolate. 
HAB. Sandy swamps. Srpt. Stem oppressed to 

the ground ; jiednnc. 3 — 4 Ml. long, 
. \j.clavatum: stem creeping, with ascending branches*; 

leaves scattered, incurved, ending in built; spikei 

geminate or ternate, cylindrical, pedunculate ; 

scales ovate, acuminate, coarsely dentate. 
HAB. Woods. July. Stem long, trailing; lean. 

ending in a diaphanous bristle, entire or scrrul. 


3. L. complanatum : stem trailing, with dichotomous 

branches ; leaves 2-rowed, connate, superficial 
ones solitary ; peduncles elongated, supporting 4 
cylindrical spikes. 
HAB. Woods. Aug. Stem 2 — 10 ft. long ; branch . 
repeatedly forked ; leav. small, pung. 

* * Spikes sessile ; leaves surrounding the stem. 

4. L. dendroideum : erect ; branches alternate, crowd* 

ed, dichotoraous, erect ; leaves linear-lanceolate, 
in 6 equal rows ; spikes numerous, solitary, ses- 

HAB. Woods. July. About a span high ; branch, 
numerous ; spikes 3 — 4 on each plant. 

/3. obscurum : branches spreading; plant mostly 1- 

HAB. Woods. Branch, diverging, loose ; spike as 
in the preceding. 

5. L. annotinum : stem creeping ; branches ascending, 

dichotomously branched; branchlets simple; leaves 
in 5 rows, linear-lanceolate, mucronate, serrulate, 
spreading; spikes oblong-cylindrical, solitary, ses- 
sile, terminal. 

HAB. Rocky and mountain woods. Aug. About 
a span high ; branch. 4 — 8 ; spik. 1 in. long, 
ft. L. inundatum : stem creeping ; branches simple, 
solitary, erect, with a single sessile leafy spike at 
. the extremity ; leaves linear, scattered, acute, en- 
tire, curved upwards. 

HAB. Low wet grounds. July. Stem 3 — 4 tit. 
long ; flowering branch, subradical. 
7. L. selaginoides : stem creeping ; branches ascend- 
ing, simple ; leaves scattered, lanceolate, some- 
what spreading, ciliate-denticulate ; spikes termi- 
nal, solitary. 

HAB. Mossy woods. July. 
3. L. alopecuroides : stem creeping, somewhat branch- 
ed ; branches nearly simple, elongated, ascending, 
with a sessile leafy spike at the summit ; leave* 
linear-subulate, ciliate-dentate at the base, spread- 

HAB. Sandy and sphagnous swamps. Oct. Stem 


long; branches densely leaved, terete, 8 — 12 in. 

9. L. rupestre: stem creeping, with ascending subdi- 

vided branches ; leaves scattered, imbricate, li- 
near-lanceolate, ciliate, ending in hairs ; spikes 
solitary, sessile, quadrangular. 
HAB. Rocks. July. Stem 2 — 3 in. long ; branch . 
numerous, somewhat incurved ; plant grayish-green. 

* * * Spikes sessile ; leaves distichous. 

10. L. apodum: leaves 2-rowed, roundish-ovate, acute, 
denticulate, Oat, acuminate ; spikes terminal, ses- 
sile, nearly solitary, quadrangular. 

HAB. Wet rocky places. July. Resembling a 
a moss, or Jungermannia ; creeping. 

* * * * Fructification axillary. 

11. L. lacidulum : leaves in 8 rows, linear-lanceolate, 
denticulate, acute, spreading-reflexed ; stem as- 
cending, bifid. 

HAB. Woods. July. Stem 3 — 12 in. long, nearly 
erect, simp, or bifid, dark green. 

12. L. Selago : stem dichotomously branched, erect, 
fastigiate ; leaves scattered in 6 equal rows, linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate, entire, imbricate, rigid ; 
fruit axillary. 

HAB. High mountains. About 6 in. high; leav 
densely imbricated. 


612. EqUISETUM. Horse-tail. 

1. E. hyemale : stem simple, erect, very rough, na 

ked ; sheaths whitish, black at the base and sum 


HAB. Woods and marshes. April. Stem 2 — 3f(. 

high, slend.,pale green ; spik. term., mostly solitary. 

1. E. arvense : sterile stems decumbent, with simple 
branches, which are rough am) quadrangular ; fer 
tile stem erect, simple ; sheaths simple, cylindri 
eal| incisely-dentate. 


HAB. Boggy grounds. April. A span high ; sheatfu 
of the fertile stems swelling ; teeth black. 

3. E. sylvaticum : sterile and fertile stems with com- 

pound scabrous deflexed branches. 
HAB. Woods and low grounds. May. Branch, 
verticill., curved downwards ; sheaths loose. 

4. E. limosum : stems branched upwards, with the 

branches about 12 in a whorl, simple, pentagonal, 
HAB. Borders of ponds, &c. July. Stems 2 — 4 
ft. high ; sheaths with narrow acute black teeth. 

5. E. variegatum : cespitose ; stems somewhat branch- 

ed at the base, naked, scabrous, filiform ; sheaths 
3-toothed, blackish ; teeth membranaceous, lanceo- 
late, whitish, deciduous at the tips. 
HAB. Borders of lakes. Aug. Stem 3 — 6 in. 
long, 5-angled ; rough with siliceous dots. 




S. natans: leaves ovate, subcordate, obtuse, with fas- 
cicles of hairs beneath, scabrous. 
HAB. Lakes and still waters. Floating. 

614. AZOLLA. 

A. caroliniana : leaves distichous, imbricate, ovate 
oblong, obtuse, spreading. 
HAB. Lakes and still waters. Floating ; resembling 
a Jungermannia ,' leav. reddish beneath. 

615. 1SOETES. 
I. lacustris. 

HAB. Bottom of lakes. Leav. all radical, 2 — 5 in- 
long, subulate, fleshy ,*semicylindrical . 


435. FUMARIA. Fumitory. Fwnariacta. 

officinalis : siliclea globose-retuse : fructiferous pe- 
dicels erect, twice as long as the bract ; racemes 
rather loose ; stems erect ; leaves decompound, 
with linear lobes. 

H-AB. Sandy fields. ©. July— Aug. Fl. purp. §. 



Acalypha 3G1 

Acer 169 

Achillea 308 

Acnida 373 

Aconitum 218 

Acorus 156 

Actaea 217 

Actinorneris 313 

Adiantum 384 

^Escbynomene 270 

Esculus 164 

Agave 151 

Agrimonia 200 

Agropyron 65 

Agrostemma 1 94 

Agrostis 50 

Aira 64 

Alchemilla 86 

Vletris 150 

Alisma 163 

Allium 149 

Mnus 350 

Alopccurus 53 

Alysaum 247 

Altba:a 255 

Amaranthus 352 

Amaryllis 149 

Ambrosia 353 

Ammannia 86 

Amorpba 262 

Amphicarpa 270 

Anagallis 102 

Andromeda 181 

\mlropogon 73 

Anemone 222 

Angelica 137 

Anthemis 307 

Anthoxanthura 54 


Anychia 123 


Apios 970 


Apocynum lvM 

\quilegia 218 


Arabia 250 

Aralia 141 

Arbutus. 178 

Arctium 280 

Arei.aria 192 

Arethusa 321 

Argeuione 216 

Aristida 49 

Aristolochia 323 

Arnica 305 

Aronia 202 

Arrhenatherum 63 

Artemisia 287 

Arum 358 

Arundo 53 

Asarum 324 

Asclepias 125 

Ascyrum 219 

Asimina 222 

Asparagus 155 

Aspidium 381 

Asplenium 383 

Aster 291 

Astragalus 264 

Atherupogon 66 

Atriplex 129 

Avena 64 

Azalea 110 

Azolla 391 

Baccharis 288 

Baptisia 188 

B:ir!)area 251 

Bartonia 85 

Bartsia S44 

Berberii 143 

Betula . 35."> 

Bidena 311 

Biffnonil 2M 

BGtum it 

Boehmerla 3 


Botrycbium 336 



I 1 



Briza 56 

Bromus 63 

Buchnera 240 

Cacalia 286 

Cactus 198 

Cakile 246 

Calla 358 

Callitriche 14 

Calopogon 321 

Caltha 224 

Calycanthus 211 

Camelina 248 

Campanula Ill 

Cardamine 248 

Carex 333 

Carpinus 356 

Carya 357 

Cassia 187 

Castanea 355 

Catalpa 20 

Caulinia 330 

Ceanothus 119 

Celastrus 120 

Celtis 132 

Cenchrus 46 

Cephalanthus 78 

Cerastium 193 

Ceratochloa 62 

Ceratophyllum 354 

Cercis , 188 

Chaerophyllum 354 

Cheilanthes 385 

Chelone 243 

Chelidonium 216 

Chenopodium 130 

Chionanthus 17 

Chrysocoma 286 

Chrysosplenium 189 

Chrysanthemum 307 

Cichorium 276 

Cicuta 3 35 

Cimicifuga 219 

Cinna 52 

Circaea 24 

Cissus 121 

Claytonia 119 

Clematis 222 

Cleome 252 

Clethra 1S7 

Clinopodium 236 

Clitoria 271 

Cnicus 281 

Cnidium 134 

Collinsia 241 

Cominelina 35 

Comptonia 349 

Conium 136 

Conostylis 150 

Convallaria 153 

Convolvulus 107 

Conyza '288 

Coptis 225 

Corallorhiza 322 

Coreopsis 312 

Cornus 82 

Corydalis 259 

Corylus 360 

Crataegus 201 

Crotalaria 262 

Crotonopsis 352 

Crypsis 53 

Crypta 24 

Cucubalus 190 

Cunila 22 

Cuphea 200 

Cupressus 361 

Cuscuta 128 

Cynodon 54 

Cynoglossum 102 

Cyperus 42 

Cypripedium * 322 

Dactylis 62 

Dalibarda 208 

Danthonia 62 

Datura 110 

Daucus 135 

Delphinium 218 

Dentaria 248 

Dianthus 190 

Diapensia 110 

Diervilla 113 

Digitaria 72 

Diarrhena 62 

Diodia 80 

Dioscorea 374 

Diospyros 375 

Dipsacus 78 

Dirca 170 

Dodecatheon 104 


Draba 247 

Dracocephalum 236 

Drosera 142 

Dryas 20S 



Dulichium 42 

Echium 101 

Elephantopus 314 

Eleusine 65 

Elodea 376 

Elymus . . . . 66 

Empetrum 372 

Epipliagus 244 

Epigaea 184 

Epilohium 168 

Equisetum 389 

Engeron 289 

Eriocaulon 350 

Eriophorum 45 

Ervum 264 

Eryngium 132 

Erytbronium 152 

Eucbroma 243 

Eupatorium 283 

Euphorbia 331 

Evonymus . 119 

Exacum 85 

Fagus • 360 

Fedia 34 

Festuca 60 

F'otrkea 149 

Fragaria 211 

Frasera 85 

Fraxinus 371 

Fuirena 45 

Fumaria .c. . . . — 

Galactia 271 

Galeopsii 234 

Galium 78 

Gfuiltheria 179 

Giura 163 

G« aiata 2G2 

(ientiana 127 

Geranium 254 

Grrardia 241 

G.-um 208 

Gillenia Wf 

GUuX 124 

GHechonaa 234 

Ql< ditseatt 375 

GHyceria M 

i (hum 2^S 

Gonulobus 125 

Goociycra 319 

Gratiolat 19 

Gymnocladus 37£ 

Gymnopogon 54 

Gyromia 161 

Habenaria 317 

Hamamelis 86 

Hamiltonia 123 

Hedeoma 22 

Hedyotis 81 

Hedysarum 261 

Helenium * 30fe 

Helianthemum 215 

Helianthus 30fe 

Heliopsis 308 

Helonias 159 

Hemerocallis 151 

H» mianthus 20 

Hepatica 22i- 

Heracleum 13? 

Herpestis 230 

Hesperis 281 

Heteranthera 30 

Heucbera 129 

Hibiscus 255 

Hieracium 279 

Hierochloa 77 

Hippuris lo 

Hoicus 71 

Holosteum 74 

Hordeum 73 

Hottonia 104 

Houstonia 81 

Hodapata 215 

11 :lllus 373 

Hydrangea 1SS 

Hydrastis 224 

Mvdroebloa 354 

ilv.lrorotyle 133 


Hymeuopbyllum 385 

Hyoacyaaaua 107 

H\|'cnfum 219 

Hypoxia 160 

I Is poueltis 380 

i is isopna M3 

r».mia 17( 

n i M 

Impaiieoa I •• 







Isnardia 83 

Isoetes 393 

Itea 115 

Juglans 357 

Juncus 1 5G 

Juniperus 376 

Justicia 20 

Iva 314 

Kalmia 182 

Koeleria 59 

Krigia 280 

Kubnia 2S3 

Kyllingia 37 

Lacbnantbes 35 

Laetuca 278 

Lamium 233 

Lathyrus 263 

Laurus 174 

Lechea 74 

Lecontia 353 

Ledum 186 

Leersia 47 

Leiopbyllum 187 

Lemna , 24 

Leontice 148 

Leontodon 277 

Leonurus 234 

Lepidium 248 

Leptatidra 19 

Lespedeza 266 

Liatris 282 

Ligusticum 136 

Lia;ustrum 17 

Lilium 152 

Limosella 239 

Lindernia ... 19 

Linnaea 82 

Linum 142 

Liquidambar 357 

Liriodendron 221 

Listeria 320 

Lithospermum 100- 

Lobelia 112 

Lolium ' 64 

Lonicera 113 

Ludivigia 83 

Lupsnus 252 

Luzula 158 

Lycojjodium 387 

Lycnpsis 102 

f.ycopus 21 

Lygodium 386 

Lysimacbia 102 

Lythrum 200 

Magnolia 221 

Malaxis 321 

Malva 255 

Mariscus 42 

Marrubium 235 

Martynia 243 

Meconopsis 216 

Medicago 271 

Melampyrum 244 

Melanthium 159 

Melica 66 

Melilotus 264 

Melothria 361 

Menispermum 376 

Menrba 233 

Menyanthes 104 

Menziesia 169 

Mikania 286 

Milium 4S 

Mmiulus 242 

Mitchella 81 

Mitella 189 

Mollugo 74 

Momordica 361 

Monarda 22 

Monotropa 185 

Morus 352 

Muhlenbergia 49 

Mvosotis 101 

Myriea 372 

Myriopbvllum 354 

Myrrhis'. 135 

Nasturtium 251 

Nanhecium 151 

Nelumbium 228 

Neottia 320 

Nepeta 233 

Nirotiana 107 

NupbW 217 

Nvmpl aea 218 

Ny«sa 272 

Obohiria 85 


CEnothora 166 

Onopordum 280 

Onoclea 385 

Onosmodium 101 



Ophioglossum 386 

Orchis 316 

Origanum » . 236 

Ornithogalum 151 

Ornus 17 

Orobanche 244 

Orontium 155 

' Oryzopsis . . . > 46 

Osmunda 385 

Ostrya 355 

Oxalis 194 

Oxycoccus 168 

Panax 129 

Panicum 66 

Parietaria 352 

Parnassia 141 

Paspalum 47 

Passiflora 253 

Pastinaca 137 

Pcdieularis 242 

Pcnthorum 1 95 

Pentstemon 243 

Peplis i. 

Pcriploca 124 

Phacclia 106 

Phalangium 151 

Phalaris 54 

Phaseolus. 270 

Phleum 54 

I'hlox ... 108 

Phryma 238 

Phyllanthus 361 

Phragmitcs 55 

Physalis 110 

Phytolacca 196 

Pinus 359 

Piptatherum 48 

Pisum 263 

Plantago 84 

Platanua 355 

Poa 56 

Podophyllum 217 


Pogonia 390 

Polemoniutn 109 


gooum 171 

Polymnia >l I 



Pontcdcria 150 

Populus 375 

Portulacca 216 

Poiamogeton 88 

Potentilla 209 

Prenanthes 277 

Primula 103 

Pnnos 148 

Proserpinaca 74 

Prunella 236 

Prunus 198 

Psamma 53 

Pit-lea 86 

Pteris 384 

Pterospora 185 

Pulmonaria 100 

Pycnanthemum 235 

Pyrula 185 

Pyrus 203 

Quercus 357 

Ranunculus 225 

Rap jatius 252 

Rhamnus 120 

Rhexia 165 

Rhododendron 183 

Rhodora 184 

Rhus 140 

Rhynchospora 41 

Riocfl 121 

Rivina 86 

Robinia 271 

llochelia 102 

Rosa 205 

liubus 206 

Ruellia 240 

Rudbeckia 310 

Rumex 162 

Ruppia 89 

Sahhatia 105 

Sagina 87 

Sagittaria 355 

Saiicornia 13 

Salix 365 

Salsola 131 

Balrk 23 

SnU iriiu. 390 

S.umImu'ii* 139 

Sniuolus 104 


Banguborba 82 

Baotcala 1S9 

I. I ' 



Saponaria 139 

Sarracenia 217 

Saururua 163 

Saxifraga 188 

Scheuchzeria 160 

Scbizaea 386 

Schoenus 41 

ScholJera 36 

Scirpus 37 

Sclnvalbea 243 

Scleria 349 

Scleranthus 190 

Scrophularia 239 

Scutellaria 236 

Secale 65 

Sedum 195 

Senecio 305 

Sesuvium 202 

Setaria 72 

Shepherdia 376 

Sibbaldia 142 

Sicyos 362 

Sida 254 

Silene 190 

Silphium 313 

Sinapis 252 

Sison 134 

Sisymbrium 251 

Sisyrinchium 36 

Sium 136 

Smilax 373 

Smyrnium 134 

Solarium Ill 

Solidago 300 

Soncbus 278 

Soibus 202 

Spai ganium 333 

Sparganopborus 287 

Spartina 46 

Spergula 193 

Spermacoce 80 

Spigelia 106 

Spiraea 203 

Stacbys 234 

Staphyiea 141 

Statice 142 

Stellaria 191 

Stipa 48 

Streptopus 153 

Strophostyles 270 

Strutbiopterus 385 

Stylosantbes 266 

Subularia 248 

Swertia 85 

Symphoria 114 

Symplocarpus 86 

Talinum 216 

Tanacetum 287 

Taxus 377 

Tephrosia 271 

Teucnum 232 

Tbalictrum 223 

Tbapsia 138 

Tbesium 123 

Tblaspi 246 

Tbuva 361 

Tiarella 189 

T-lia 214 

Tihaea 87 

Tipularia 321 

Tofieldia 160 

Tradescantia 147 

Trichocbloa 52 

Tricliodium 49 

Trichobtema 238 

Tricu.spis 60 

Trientalis 164 

Trifolium 265 

Trislochin 160 

Trillium 161 

Triosteum 115 

Triphora 321 

Tripsacum 349 

Trisetum 62 

Triticum 65 

Trollius 225 

Tussilago 306 

Typba 333 

Ulmus 132 

Uniola 55 

L ralepis 60 

Urtica 351 

Utricularia 29 

Uyularia 153 

Vaccinium 1 79 

Valisneria 365 

Veratrum 159 

Verba*cum 106 

Verbi na 233 

Verbesina 307 

Vernonia 283 

Veronica 17 

Viburnum ..,,... 13c 


Vicia 263 Xerophyllum 160 

Villarsia 104 Xylosteum 114 

Viola 115 Xyris 36 

Viscum 372 

Vitis 120 Zannichellia 330 

Zanthorhiza . , 143 

Woodsia 381 Zantholylum 373 

Woodwardia 3S4 Zapania 230 

Zizania 350 

Xanthium 353 Zostera 334 




Acer striatum, du Roi. See 
Aetata brachypetala. D. C. 

racemosa, L. 

Agrostis cinna. L. 

diffusa. Muhl. 

' filiformis. Muhl. 

gl&uca. Muhl. 

— mexicana. Muhl. 

Mr a mollis. Muhl. 

pennsylvarica. Muhl. 

truncata. Muhl. 

Alopecurux aristul. Mx. 
Ammi capillaceivn. Mx. 
Ampelopsis quinquef. Mx. 
Ammyrsine buxifol. Ph. 
Andromeda panicidata. Walt. 

■ panicidat. Willd. 

.indropogon ambiguum. Mx. 

■ purpurasc. Muhl. 

Anemone thalictroides. L. 

hepatica. L. 

Anthopogon lepturoides. N. 
Arenaria manna. Sm. 

canadensis. Pers. 

Arethusa ophioglossoid, &c. 

pendula. Sw. 

Aristida racemosa. Muhl. 
Aronia melanocarpa. Ell. 
Arum virginicum. L. 
Arundo agrostoides. Ph. 

■ arenaria. L. 

Phragmites L. 

Asclepias obovata. Ell. 

lancifolia. Ives. 

Aspidium obtusum. Willd. 

■ filix mas. Ph. 

Asplenium melanocaxdon. W. 
Atragene americana. Sims. 
Avena elatior. L. 

permsr/hwuca. Muhl. 

.^ro/en nudiflora, &c. 

A. pennsylvanicum. 
A. alba. 

Cimicifuga racemosa. 
Cinna arundinacea. 
A. s\lvatica. 
A. lateriflora. 0. 
Arundo coarctata. 
A. lateriflora. 

/ Koeleria pennsylv. 

K. truncata. 
A. geniculatus. 
Sison eapillaceus. 
Cissus hederacea. 
Leiophyllum buxif. 
A. racemosa. 
A. ligustrina. 
A. seoparium. 
Thalictrum anemonoid. 
Hepatica triloba. 

A. rubra. ,3. 

Pogonia ophiogloss. 
Triphora pendula. 
A. purpurascens. 
A. arbutifol. /S. 
Lecontia virginica. 
A canadensis. 
Psamrna arenaria. 
A. viridiflora. *. 

Hypopeltis obtusa. 
A. Goldianum. 
A. trichomanes. 
Clematis verticillans. 
Arrhenatherum ayenen- 
Arr. pennsylvanicum. 



Bartsia coccinea. L. 
Batschia canescens. Mx. 
Bootia sylvestris. Big. 
Briza canadensis. Mx. 


CaUiiriche aquatica. Big. 
Caprifolium dioicwn, &c 
Caulophijlum thalictr. Mx. 
Cenlaurella panicul. Mx. 

autumnale. Ph. 

Cerastium glutinosum. N. 
Chaerophyll. canad. Pers. 

Claytoni. Pers. 

Chelidonium diphyll. Mx. 
Chvaxaphila maculat., &c. 
Chironia angular is, Sec. 
Cistus canadensis. L. 
Cleome dodecandra. Ph. 
Comandra nmbellatu. N. 
Comanim palustn. L. 
Coreopsis alternifolia. L. 
Convolvulus stans. Mx. 
Conyza marilandica. Mx. 
Cunila pulegioides. L. 
Cyamus luteus. Salisb. 
Cymbidhim pulchcll. XV. 

odontorrhizon, &c. 

hytmale. W. 

Cynogloss. amplexic. Mx. 
Cyperus cespitosus. Tor. 

- parvijlows . Muhl. 

uncina/us. Ph. 

Dicksonia pilosius. W. 
Digi/aria paspalod. Mx. 
Dilairis tinctoria. Ph. 
Dioscorea glauca. Muhl. 

Elod a virginica. Pli. 
Epipactis coniallanoid, &c. 
Equisetum §ciiffiid$i. Mx. 

Eriophorum cispitosum. Ph. 
Euphorbia depress. Tor. 
Erysimum officinale. L. 

Festuca diandra. Mx. 

jluitans. L. 

i polijstarfiia M\. 

uninluidts. Willd. 

Cialium slrictum. M. 

scptentriunale, II. & S. 

//a glaum. Ed. 
Craliola neglecta. Tor 

Euchroma coccinea. 
Lithospermum canesc. 
Potentilla coarctata. 
Poa canadensis. 

C. verna. 
Leontice thalictroid. 

' Bartonia. 

C. nutans. 

Myrrhis canadensis. 

M. Claytoni. 

Meconopsis diphyll. 




Polanisia graveolens. 

Thesium umbellat. 


Actinomeris squarrosfi 

C. spitbamaeus. 

C. camphorata. 

Hedeoina pulegioides. 





C virginicum. 

C. Nutrallii. 

C. dentafus. 

C. inflexus. 

Aspid. punctilobulum. 

D. glabra. 

D. quaternata. 

Hypericum virginicum 

E. variegatura. 
E. vaginatum. 

I . m:i< ulata. 
Sisymbrium officinale 

Diarrhena americ;ui i 
< Hj ccria. 

l'. hieieutaiiSi 


(j. l)oreale. 

Gk .mcrcifnlin 

<;. \ir-inica 



Glycine monoica, L. See 


helvolus. Muhl. 


Heritiera tinctoria. Bosc. 


Heteranthera gramin. Wahl. 


Hippophtie canadens. W. 


Holcus fragrans. W. 


Hydropeltis purpurea. Mx. 


Hypericum corymbos. W. 

H. punctatum. 

Ictodes foetida. Big. 


Iris gracilis. Big. 
prismatica. Ph. 

> I. virginica. 

Juglans alba, &c. 


Juncus campestris, &c. 


Juniperus repens. N. 

J. prostrata. 

Lathyrus maritimus. Big. 

Pisum maritim 

Ledum buxifolium. Ait. 


Limnetis juncea, &c. 

Spar-tip a. 

Lespedeza polystackya. Mx. 

L. lurta. 

capitata. Mx. 

L. frutescens. 

Lobelia paludosa. Nut. 

L. Dortmanna. 

■ gracilis. N. 

L. Nuttallii. 

Medeola virginica. L. 


Micropitalum gramin. Mx. 

Stellaria longifol. 

■ JanceoJatum. Mx. 


JVV^npAaa advena, &c. 


Neottia pubescens, &c. 


O/denlandia glomerat. Mx. 


Orobanche americana. W. 


Orchis ciliaris, &c. 


discolor. Ph. 


Oryzopsis melanocarpa. Muhl 

Piptatberum nigrum. 

Panicum viride, &c. 


Pedicidaris serotina. Muhl. 

P. pallida. 

Peplis americana. Ph. 

Crypta minima. 

Phnseolus trilobus. Mx. 

Strophostyles angulosi 

Poa quinquefida. Ph. 
seslerioides Mx. 

£ Tricuspis. 

Polypodium ccdcareum. W. 

P. Dryopteris. 

Porcelia triloba. 

Asimina triloba. 

Potentilla floribunda. Ph. 

P. fruticosa. 

Pulnwnaria mnritima. L. 

> Lithospermum marit 

Pyrola chlorantha. N. 

P asarifolia. 

Pt/nts arbutifolia, &c. 


Querw canadensis. L. 

Anychia dichotoma. 


Hhynchospora longirost. Mx. See R. laxa. 
Rosa suaveolens. Ph. R. Rubiginosa. 

Rubus procumbens. Muhl. R. tnvialis. 

Salicorniu virginica. L. 
Sarothra g'ntianoid. L. 
Schoenus albus, &c. 
Scirpus cyperiform Muhl. 

robustus. Ph. 

trichodes. Muhl. 

Selimtm canadense. Mx. 
Serpicula vtrticill. Muhl. 
Sisymbrium officinale. 
Sium rigidius. L. 

ambiguum. N. 

Smilaeina borealis, &c. 
Smyrnium atropurp. Lam. 

trifoliatum. N. 

aureum. L. 

Smyrnium integrifol. L. 
Spartina poiystachya. M. 
Spergulastrum. Mx. 
Spircea stipulacea, &c. 
Stipa sericea. Mx. 
Stylophorum diphyll. Nutt. 
.Stcerfm comicutafa. Ph. 

Trichophorum cyperin. Pers 
TrienUdis Europea. Mx. 
Trillium pictum. Ph. 
7'riticum repens, &c. 
Thlaspi Bursa pastoi-. 
Troxunon virginicum 
Tu iritis hirsuta, &c. 

(7rfora canadensis. Nutt. 
Uniola distichophyll . 
Utricularia ceratophyl. Mx. 
I'vularia amplexif., &c. 

PtntfrWH luteum. L. 
Ii rental virginica. L. 

Viburnum opulus. Mx. 
Picfa pusilla. YVilld. 

Mitrhilli. Raf. 

Tio/a bicolnr. Ph. 

</<>&tii'.». Ph. 

striata. Ait. 

II 'hulsoria poct/or 
pallida. Spr. 

Xanthium maculatum. liaf. 

7Azaniaflititans. Mx. 



S. herbacea. 
Hypericum Sarothra. 
Cyperus mariscoid. 
S. macrostachyos. 
S acicularis. 
Cnidium canadensis. 
Pastinaca rigida. 


Co n vail aria. 

Cnidium atropurp. 

S. cordatum. 

Sison aureus. 

Sison integrifolius. 

S. cynosuroides. 



Trichochloa capillar^. 


S. deflexa. 

Scirpus erioph. 
T. americana. 
T. erythrocarpum. 

Krigia amplex. 

Elodea canadensis. 
U. spicata. 
U. inflata. 

Htlonias dioica. 
V. oxycoccus. 
Ervum tetrasperm. 


\ . tcnella. 

V. Muhlinbcrgii. 

V. ochroleuca. 

Poa dentata. 

X. macrocarpov 

New York Botanical Garden Library 

QK117.T6C.2 gen 

Torrey, John/A compendium of the flora o 

3 5185 00125 0925