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History and Biography 




**A people that take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors will never achieve anything worthy to be 
remembered with pride by remote generations.'*— Macaulay. 


Publishers, Engravers and Book Manufacturers 


Two Cuptes Received 

FEB 20 1U09 

CopyriiiiU L.'iiry 
CLASS Oc '^Xc. No. 







All history is, perforce, a merciless abridgment, and yet too much can never be written con- 
cerning; any nation, any people — since each contribution must have a definite value. In the offering 
of this compendium of history and biography, the publishers lay claim not to any amplification of 
data in the annals of Detroit and Wayne county, but rather to the condensed, narrative presenta- 
tion of the history of a section whose records bear the graceful tales oF romance and the sterner 
burdens of definite accomplishment. In the collation of the generic history, recourse has been had 
to the most reliable authorities, and the publishers have been most fortunate in securing in this 
department of the work the co-operation of Mr, Clarence M. Burton, than whom none has ever 
had more intimate and thorough knowledge of the history of Michigan and whose reputation in 
the field of historic research is especially notable. Mr. Burton has not only given careful revision 
to all subject matter in the general history but has also offered a most valuable personal contribu- 
tion, in the chapters relative to the war of 18(2 and conditions existing at that period. These 
chapters are definitely credited to him in the initiation thereof. The form in which the history is 
presented is believed to have much of individuality and originality, so that the record can not fail 
of cumulative value as a source of information and as offering a concise narrative, interesting to 
the reader who has no desire for mere detail and intimate research. The functions of the bio- 
graphical, industrial and financial departments of the publication are such as offer their own 
justification and add materially to the intrinsic value of the work. 



Origin of Detroit in Struggle for Supremacy Between England and France— Plans tor Establishing a 
Fortress by Count Pontchartrain — Expedition Under Cadillac — Post Named Fort Pontchartrain 
— Record Concerning Cadillac — Conditions at the Frontier Post — Cadillac Succeeded by Dubuisson 
— Trouble with the Fox Indians — Regime of Alphonse de Tonty — Robert Navarre, Intendant at 
Detroit — Efforts to Increase Population and Military Strength — Beginning of Struggle Between 
France and England — French Lose Stronghold at Louisburg— Montcalm as Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada — Fatal Conflict at the Heights of Abraham and Its Results on Future of Detroit 
— British Gain Control of All Canada. 1 


The Detroit Post Surrended by the French Commandant — One Hundred and Forty-Eight Years of 
French Misdirection — New Era Ushered In with English Control — Detroit Menaced by Indian 
Unrest and Antagonism — Regime of Captain Henry Gladwin — ^Treaties with the Indians — Con- 
spiracy Under Pontiac, and Attempt to Capture the Detroit Garrison — War with the Indians 
Under Pontiac — Lack of Supplies at Detroit — Murder of Captain Campbell — Indian Victory at 
Bloody Run — Pontiac Sues for Peace — Colonel John Bradstreet Made Commandant — Condi- 
tions Indian Uprising — First Money Circulated in Detroit — Philip Dejean Commissioned 
First Chief .lustice — The Northwest Company — Passage of the Quebec Act — Local Discontent 
with Policy of English Home Government; Lieutenant Governors Appointed — Nefarious Rule of 
Hamilton and Dejean at Detroit 10 


Detroit's Position at Inception of Revolution — Hamilton's Execrable Policies — Indian Atrocities — Ex- 
peditions from Detroit During Revolution — Settlers Oppose Hamilton's Plans — Expedition of 
Indian Allies Under Girty — Attack on Detroit Planned by Americans — The Wyoming Valley Mas- 
sacre — Expedition Under George Rogers Clark — Hamilton's Expedition from Detroit to Vincennes 
Capitulation of Hamilton 19 


Strengthening of the Detroit Post Under DePeyster — Expedition Against the Moravian Villages in 

Ohio 26 


Problems in Northwest After Close of Revolution — Extravagant Demands of the English — Report of 
Ephraim Douglass — Washington Demands Surrender of Forts in Disputed Territory — Missions 
of Baron Steuben — Lieutenant Colonel Hull — English Refuse Demands and Regain Indian Prestige 
— Harmar's Disastrous Expedition — Commissioners Appointed to Effect Treaties with the Indians 
— Fruitless Results — General Anthony Wayne Advanced Into the West — President Washington's 
Message — Conflict at Fort Recovery — Wayne's Subsequent Movements — Battle of Fallen Timber 
Wayne's Treaty with the Indians 28 


Northwest Boundary Dispute — John Jay Envoy to England — Jay's Treaty Ratified — Detroit Formally 
Given Into Possession of the United States — Colonel Hamtramck Assumes Command — Wayne 
County Named — Record Concerning General Wayne — Detroit After British Evacuation — St. Clair 
Appointed Governor of Northwest Territory — Other Officials — Ordinance of 17S7 — First and 
Second Legislative Assemblies — Wayne County Representatives— Detroit Incorporated as a 
Town — First Officers — First Fire Department — Conditions in Formative Period — Attitude of Brit- 
ish Officers at Fort Maiden 37 


Change in Boundaries of Wayne County — Ohio Admitted to Statehood — Michigan a Part of the 
Territory of Indiana— Forming of the Territory of Michigan — Boundaries of New Territory — 
First Officers — Detroit the Capital — William Hull, Augustus B. Woodward, Frederick Bates 
John Griffln — Civic and Social Conditions in Detroit — Detroit Destroyed by Fire— Effects of the 
Disaster — High-handed Rule of the Federal Appointees — Work of Rehabilitation — Rebellion of 
Citizens Against Conditions — Distribution of Town Lots — Rights of the People Flagrantly In- 
fringed — Governor Hull Establishes an Army — Popular Protest Against Hull's Despotism — Bank 
of Detroit Established — History of the Institution 43 


The Woodward Code — Judicial Districts in the Territory — Early Courts — Judge James Witherell — 
First Printing Press in Detroit — Efforts to Separate Legislative and Judicial Departments of Ter- 
ritorial Government — Conditions Leading Up to the War of 1812 — Renewed Alliances Between 
British Agents and the Indians — Tecumseh, the Indian Leader — Battle of Tippecanoe' 58 


. (Contributed by C. M. Burton.) 

War Declared Against England, June IS, 1812— Hull Appointed Brigadier General— Rising of Volun- 
teers — Failure to Notify Hull of Formal Declaration of War — Packet "Cuyahoga" Captured by 
the British — Militia Companies in Detroit — Arrival of Hull and His Army — Preliminary Opera- 
tions in Canada— British Capture Fort Mackinac — Hull Delays Attack on Fort Maiden — Van 
Horn's Command Attacked by Indians — British L?arn Plans of Operation — Hull Retires from 
Canada — Battle of Monguagon — Brock Assumes Command of British Forces— Americans Retreat 
from Sandwich — Brock Demands Surrender of Detroit — Hull Refuses and Detroit Is Bom- 
barded — British Forces Cross the Detroit River — Hull's Letters to Brock — Surrender of Detroit 
by Hull — Articles of Capitulation — Captured Officers Taken to Montreal 02 

(Contributed by C. M. Burton.) 
Hull's Trial by Court Martial — Members of the Court — Hull Sentenced to Be Shot — Execution of 
Sentence Remitted — Efforts to Exonerate Hull in Later Years — The Lewis Cass Account of Sur- 
render of Detroit — Extracts from Hull's Arguments at Time of Trial 73 

Progress of War of 1812^British Occupy Detroit — Hull's Memoirs — Attempts to Re-establish Amer- 
ican Prestige — Expedition Under General Winchester — Surrender of Winchester — Massacre of 
Americans by Indians — Efforts of General Harrison — Expedition Against Fort Maiden — Proctor 
Lays Siege Before Fort Meigs and Attacks Fort Stephenson 75 

Continuation of War of 1812 — Americans Gain Control of Lake Ontario — Perry Given Command of 
Lake Erie — British Compelled to Evacuate Capital of Upper Canada — Fall of Fort George — 
Perry's Victony on Lake Erie — Description of the Battle — Procter Prepares to Retreat — Speech 
of Protest by Tecumseh— British Evacuation of Detroit — American Armies Invade Canada- 
Pursuit of Procter— Battle of the Thames— Death of Tecumseh— General Cass Assumes Com- 
mand at Detroit— Expedition to the North — Progress of War in the East — Indian Depredations 
About Detroit — Treaty of Ghent 80 

Readjustment of Affairs in Detroit Under Cass — Record Concerning General Lewis Cass — Dawn of 
Brighter Era in Detroit and Michigan Territory— New Order of Government— The Cass Code- 
First Newspaper Established— Birth of the University of Michigan— Liberal Apropriations and 
Subscriptions for the Support of the New Institution— Building of New Highways— First Steam- 
boat Arrives in Detroit — Enlargement of Michigan Territory — Development and Prosperity — 
Bank of Michigan Established— Bishop Flaget Visits Detroit — Cass Effects Further Indian 
Treaties— Expedition to Lake Superior District— General Cass Secures Treaty with the Chip- 
pewas— Governor's Expedition One of Great Value— Michigan Secures Federal Representation — 
Woodbrldge Elected — Other Delegates from the Territory — A Remarkable Campaign — Father 
Richard, a Catholic Priest, Elected Michigan Delegate to Congress 87 


Important Govermental Changes— Political Discontent— Petition to Congress— Establishing of Gover- 
nor's Council— New Territorial Judges — Council Holds Its First Meeting— Message of Governor 
Cass — Further Congressional Acts Relative to Michigan Territory— Important Indian Treaties Ef- 
fected—Completion of the Erie Canal— Internal Improvements in Michigan — Detroit Municipal 
Government— New Capitol Occupied— Protest Against Formation of Huron Territory— Arrest of 
Editor of Gazette Arouses Popular Indignation ". 97 



Porter Succeeds Cass as Governor — Cholera Epidemic in Detroit — Black Hawk War — Stevens T. 
Mason Appointed Secretai-y of the Territory— Cholera Epidemic of 1834— Mason Becomes Act- 
ing Governor of the Territory — Steps Toward Statehood — Constitutional Convention — Bound- 
ary Dispute Between Michigan and Ohio — The Toledo War— Horner Serves Brief Term as Acting 
Governor — Election of 1835— Michigan Admitted to the Union — Mason First Governor — Su- 
preme and Chancery Courts of the New State 102 


Internal Improvements — Commissioners Appointed — Influx of Settlers from the East — Purchase by the 
State of the Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad — Clinton and Kalamazoo Canal — Famous Five Mill- 
ion Dollar Loan Approved — Placing of the State's Bonds — Grave Financial Situation of the New 
State — Canal Projects Abandoned 108 


Geological Survey of the State — Houghton Appointed State Geologist — Early Railroads — Railway 
Stations in Detroit — The Milwaukee Railroad — Progress of the Michigan Central and Sale of the 
Road in 1846— Great Western Railway — First Train from the East — Climax of the Railroad Con- 
spiracy — Destruction of Michigan Central Properties — Patriot War in Canada — Border States 
Support the Patriots — Proclamation by President Van Buren — Mass Meeting of Detroit Sympa- 
thizers — Capture of the Ship "Ann" — General Scott Comes to Detroit to Police the Frontier — 
Skirmishes Along the Detroit River 112 


Campaign of 1840 — Formation of the Whig Party — Retirement of Governor Mason — Detroit Whigs 
Erect Log Cabin — Vice-President Johnson Attends Democratic Meeting in Detroit — General Cass 
Democratic Nominee for President — State Capital Pei'manently Located at Lansing — Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1850 — Detroit Opposition to Slavery — Arrest of the Blackburns, Fugitive 
Slaves — The Anti-Slavery Association — Formation of the Republican Party — The Underground 
Railroad — Detroit an Important Station — Zachariah Chandler — Plans for John Brown's Raid 
Completed in Detroit — Bingham Elected Governor of Michigan— Substantial Development in De- 
troit—Campaign of 1860 — The Cloud of Civil War— Attack on Fort Sumter— Patriotic Attitude of 
Detroit and Michigan — Governor Blair Calls foi Volunteers — Regiments Organized — Military Ac- 
tivity in Detroit — Troops Mustered in at Detroit in 1861-2 — Michigan Losses in the War — Mal- 
contents Interrupt Patriotic Meeting on Campus Martius — Disgraceful Mob Attack on Detroit 
Negroes — Attempt to Liberate Confederate Prisoners on Johnson's Island — The Plot Frustrated 
— Precautions for the Protection of Detroit — News Received of Lee's Surrender — Tributes to the 
Martyred President — Work of Michigan Relief Societies During the War — Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors' Monument Erected in Detroit 117 


Readjustment in Detroit After the Civil War — Substantial Progress of the Michigan Metropolis — City's 
Protracted Struggle with the Street Railway Problem — First Franchise Granted — Detroit 
City Railway Company — Gradual Expansion of Facilities — Street Railway Climax During Regime 
of Mayor Pingree — Notable Administration of Pingree — Citizens' Railway Company — Pingree 
Re-elected and Continues Efforts for Municipal Ownership — Franchise Litigations — Pingree Con- 
tinues His Fight for Detroit After Being Elected Governor of the State — Detroit United Rail- 
way — Mayor Pingree's Remarkable Activities in Behalf of the People — Gas Companies Attacked 
— Mayor's Famous Crusade — -Brush Electric Light Company — City Acquires Electric Lighting 
Plant 126 


Michigan in the Spanish American War — 'Wayne County's Representation In the Volunteer Service — 
Michigan Regiments — Michigan Naval Reserves— 'Detroit Board of Commerce — Industrial Progress 
of Detroit — Railway Tunnel Under Detroit River — Shipbuilding Industry and Marine Interests- 
Magnificent Industrial and Commercial Advancement — Figures and Estimates for 1908 — Munici- 
pal Government of Detroit — Parks and Boulevards — Cain in Population — Pertinent Statistics.... 131 

Representative Financial Institutions 143 

Leading Industrial and Commercial Institutions 165 

Department of Biography 247 



Acme White Lead & Color Works 178 

American Brewing Company 233 

American Car & Goundry Company 183 

American Excliange National Bank 155 

American Harrow Company 217 

American Radiator Company 21S 

Barium, Thomas & Sons 200 

Bishop, J. H. Company 215 

Buhl Malleable Company 216 

Buhl Stamping Company 218 

Burroughs Adding Machine Company 181 

Cadillac Motor Car Company 196 

Caille Brothers Company 230 

Calvert Lithographing Company 187 

Central Savings Bank 153 

Citizens' Savings Bank 157 

Clark Wireless Telegraph & Telephone 

Company 196 

Clayton & Lambert Manufacturing Company. 227 

Commercial National Bank 146 

Cowles & Danziger Company 236 

Detroit Board of Commerce 132 

Detroit Carriage Company 233 

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company. . . . 171 

Df;troit Creamery Company 18S 

Detroit Fire & Marine Insurance Company. . 191 

Detroit Graphite Company 204 

Detroit Hoist & Machine Company 243 

Detroit Motor Castings Company 234 

Detroit National Bank, The Old 150 

Detroit Regalia Company 239 

Detroit Savings Bank 160 

Detroit Steel Castings Company 205 

Detroit Steel Cooperage Company 223 

Detroit Steel Pulley Company 229 

Detroit Stoker & Foundry Company 235 

Detroit Tool Company 231 

Detroit Trust Company 158 

Detroit United Railway 184 

Detroit White Lead Works 192 

Dime Savings Bank 161 

Ekhardt & Becker Brewing Company 242 

Enterprise Foundry Company 244 

Ferry, D. M. & Company 174 

Finck, W. M. & Company 225 

First National Bank of Detroit 145 

Gies Gear Company 239 

Gordon-Pagel Bread Company 237 

Haberkorn, C. H. & Company 201 

Hargreaves Manufacturing Company 232 

Holliday Box Company 222 

Home Savings Bank 162 

Hugh Wallace Company 211 


Independent Brewing Company 246 

Kelsey-Herbert Company 205 

Kemiweld Can Company 206 

Kling, Philip, Brewing Company 238 

Kolb-Gotfredson Horse Company 243 

Koppitz-Melchers Brewing Company 240 

Manufacturers' Power Building Company.... 240 

Michigan Copper & Brass Company 189 

.Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company.... 184 

Michigan Savings Bank 156 

Micliigan State Telephone Company 198 

Michigan Stove Company 176 

Michigan Sugar Company 193 

Morton Baking & Manufacturing Company... 202 

National Bank of Commerce 158 

National Can Company 208 

National Loan & Investment Company 164 

National Twist Drill & Tool Company 230 

Nelson, Baker & Company 207 

Newberry Baking Company 225 

Newton Beel Company 224 

Noble, H. W. & Company 153 

Northwestern Transportation Company 1?:) 

Old Detroit National Bank 100 

Parke, Davis & Company 167 

Penberthy Injector Company 213 

Peninsular Milled Screw Company 234 

Peninsular Stove Company 180 

People's Savings Bank 147 

People's State Bank 147 

Pfeiffer Brewing Company, The C 228 

Philip Kling Brewing Company 238 

Posselius Brothers Furniture Manufacturing 

Company 219 

Remick. Jerome H. & Company 212 

Russel Wheel & Foundry Company 189 

Seamless Steel Bath Tub Company 208 

Security Trust Company 156 

State Savings Bank 148 

Sterling & Skinner Manufacturing Company. 226 

Sullivan Packing Company 220 

Thompson, F. A. & Company 209 

Tivoli Brewing Company 245 

Union Trust Company 149 

Walker & Company 221 

Wallace Company, The Hugh 211 

Warden, O. & Sons 241 

Wayne County Savings Bank ] 51 

Whitehead & Kales Iron Works 241 

White Star Line 203 

Widman, C. D. & Company 210 

Wyandotte Savings Bank 161 




Alger, Russell A 264 

Avery, Waldo A 552 

Bagley, John J 256 

Berry, Joseph H ^^^ 

Beyer, Joseph ®^^ 

Buhl, Christian H 320 

•Jiihl, Theodore D 328 

Burton, Clarence M 312 

Colburn, William C 488 

Dean, Charles A 632 

DuCharme, Charles 384 

Dwyer, James 424 

Dwyer, Jeremiah 416 

Eaton, Theodore H 376 

Edson, James L 472 

Elliott, William H 576 

Ferry, Dexter M 304 

Frazer, Robert E 480 

Hannan, William W 664 

Harsha, Walter S 666 

Hawks, James D 656 

Hendrie, George 408 

Hodges, Henry C 584 

Hutchins, Jere C 608 

Joy, James F 272 

Kellie, Ronald S 672 

Lewis, Alexander 249 

McGregor, James 432 


McMillan, James 280 

McPherson, Alexander 392 

Moody, George T 640 

Moore, William V 600 

Newberry, John S 296 

Newcomb, Cyrenius A 568 

O'Brien, Michael W 528 

Parker, Aaron A 624 

Pingree, Hazen S 344 

Pridgeon, John, Jr 544 

Remick, JameS A 512 

Remick, Royal C 507 

Russel, Dr. George B 360 

Schmidt, Traugott 400 

Shaw, John T 560 

Shipman, Ozias W 536 

Slocum, Elliott T 456 

Slocum, Giles B 448 

Smith, Frederick B 520 

Taylor. Elisha 464 

Van Alstyne, John S 591 

Van Dyke, James A 368 

Walker, Hiram 352 

Warren, Charles B 648 

Whitney. David, Jr 288 

Williams, Morris L 440 

Yawkey, William C 496 




Ailes, James W 653 

Alger, Russell A 264 

Anderson, William K 704 

Antisdel, John F 555 

Arms, Floyd G 646 

Atwater, Almon B 531 

Avery, Waldo A 562 

Bagley , John J 256 

Baker, Walter N 599 

Baldwin, Henry P 275 

Baldwin, Henry P., {2d) 359 

Barbour, George H 347 

Barium, John J 716 

Barium, Thomas 709 

Bates, George W 632 

Beck, George 429 

Berry, Joseph H 336 

Bielman, Charles P 478 

Bishop, Jerome H 425 

Blair, Frank W 150 

Bourke, Oliver, Jr 561 

Bourke, Percy E 713 

Boutell, Alexander A 662 

Boydell Brothers 579 

Boydell, John 579 

Boyer, Joseph 616 

Brady, Preston 382 

Breitmeyer, Martin 717 

Brevoort, Henry B 324 

Bromley, Frank L 652 

Buhl, Christian H 320 

Buhl, Frederick 279 

Buhl, Theodore D 328 

Burgess, James E 712 

Burton, Clarence M 312 

Butler, Edward H 389 

Butler, William A 322 

Caille, Adolph A 636 

Caille, Arthur A 602 

Callan, William 603 

Campbell, Charles H 398 

Campbell, Henry M 388 

Cambell, James V 298 

Candler, Claudius H 431 

Carter, David 356 

Carter, David S 444 

Caswell, William L 607 

Chandler, Zachariar 269 

Chipman, Harry F 645 

Chipman, J. Logan 331 

Chittenden, William J 326 

Clark, Emory W 423 

Clark, Thomas E 650 

Codd, George P 484 

Colburn, William C 488 

Coleman, Silas B 397 

Coll, John 718 

Collier, William W 217 


Conn, Herbert J 637 

Conner, Leartus 453 

Cotner, Jacob, Jr 644 

Couch, Alfred E 642 

Cuddy, George S 578 

Danziger, Jacob C 631 

Davenport, Lewis 285 

Davies, William L 550 

Dean, Charles A 632 

DeGraff , William T 479 

Denbv, Edwin 366 

Dietz, Henry C 635 

Douglas, Samuel T., (2d) 350 

Douglass, Samuel T 364 

Doyle, Edward H 433 

DuCharme, Charles 384 

DuCharme, Charles A 287 

Duffield, Bethune 330 

Duffleld, D. Bethune 372 

Duffield Family 334 

Duffield, Henry M 315 

Dwyer, James 424 

Dwyer, Jeremiah 416 

Easter, Ephraim B 606 

Eaton, Theodore H 376 

Eddy, Frank W 500 

Edson, James L 472 

Ekhardt, August 630 

Ekhardt, August H 634 

Elliott, William H 576 

Ellis, Griffith 547 

Endicott, Charles 340 

Farrand, Jacob S 283 

Ferry, Dexter M 304 

Fetters, Arthur S 628 

Finck, Leon C 558 

Finck, William M 601 

Flinn, Elisha H 375 

Frazer, Robert E 480 

Francis, John M 556 

Fyfe, Richard H 435 

Geiger, Benjamin F 705 

Giddings, Theron F 623 

Gillespie, John | 605 

Gillett, Ruf us W 380 

Gillis, Ransom 707 

Goodman. Fred A 628 

Gordon, James C 622 

Griffith, Armond H 701 

Haberkorn, C. H 468 

Haigh, Henry A 540 

Haigh, Richard, Sr 420 

Hannan, William W 664 

Harbeck, .lervis R 621 

Harrah, Charles W 441 

Harsha, Walter S 665 

Harsha, William 504 

Hawks, James D 656 



Hendrie, George 408 

Hodges, Henry C 584 

Hoenscheid, Peter J 581 

Holden, A. Milton 619 

Holden, William H 473 

Holliday, William P 403 

Holmes, William L 437 

Hooper, Alfred 351 

Howarth, John B 458 

Howe, Jeremiah 451 

Hubbert, Robert 654 

Hudson, Joseph L 307 

Hutchins, Jere C 608 

Jackson, William A 486 

Jacobs, Charles H 708 

Jacobsen, Peter N 617 

Jenks, Edward W 394 

Jenks, Nathan 397 

Johnson, Homer S 675 

Johnson, S. Clin 534 

Joy, James F 272 

Kales, William R 615 

JCeller, Frank H 717 

Keller, Herman D 714 

Kellie, Ronald S 672 

Kelsey, John 619 

Kinnear, Wilson S 469 

Klein, William M 657 

Kling, August 620 

Kling, Kurt 622 

Kling, Philip 597 

Kolb, Jacob 598 

Koppitz, Konrad E 614 

Lambert, Bert 228 

Lambert, Joshua 22S 

Larned, Abner E 548 

Ledyard, Benjamin 251 

Ledyard Family 251 

Ledyard, Henry 251 

Ledyard, Henry B 253 

Lee, Gilbert W 418 

Lee, James L 611 

Leidich, Chrirstian 612 

Leland, Henry M 492 

Lewis, Alexander 249 

Lewis, Henry B 415 

Linn, Thomas 38fi 

Lodge, Frank T 402 

Looker, Oscar R 446 

Lyons, Albert B 613 

McFarlane, John 595 

McGregor, James 432 

McGregor, William H h^'i 

McLeod, Alexander 1 574 

McMillan, Hugh 294 

McMillan, James 2R0 

McMillan, Neil 594 

McMillan, William C 259 

McNeil, Daniel T 610 

McNeil, Paul C 611 

McNeil, Walter C 611 

McPherson, Alexander 392 

Mason, George D 604 

Maybury, Tlionias 493 

Maybury. William C 503 

Mpginnitv. David 603 

Mellish, Charles F 593 

Miller, Sidney D 494 

Miller, Sidney T 499 

Moody, George T 640 

Moore, Alvah F 658 

Moore, George F 485 

Moore, William A 342 


Moore, William V 600 

Moran, Alfred T 530 

Moran, William B 501 

Morion, Harry D 590 

Morton, Robert R91 

Morton, Robert M 597 

Munger, Frank S 461 

Munz, Charles W 596 

Murphy, Michael J 522 

Neal, Thomas '. 545 

Nelson, Edwin H 491 

Nester, Thomas 587 

Newberry, Lewis 586 

Newberry, John S 296 

Newberry, John S., Jr 461 

Newcomb, Cyrenius A 568 

Newcomb, Cyrenius A., Jr 589 

Newton, Thomas E 715 

Noble, Herbert W 658 

O'Brien, Michael W 528 

Osborne, Fred S 661 

Owen, John 262 

Owen, John, Jr 674 

Pagel, William M 678 

Paine, George H 562 

Palmer, Thomas W 291 

Parker, Aaron A 624 

Paton, Henry W 680 

Peck, Elihu M 523 

Peck, George 255 

Peck, George B 463 

Pfeiffer, Conrad 679 

Pingree, Hazen S 344 

Post, Hoyt 412 

Postal, Fred 710 

Pridgeon, John 516 

Pridgeon, John, Jr 544 

Putnam, Howard E 679 

Putnam, Thomas R 677 

Rathbone, Charles A 697 

Reeder, Thomas E 685 

Remick, George B 513 

Remick, James A 512 

Remick, Jerome H 514 

Remick, Royal A 511 

Remick, Royal C 507 

Rente, Henry J 563 

Roehm, Albert H 564 

Rogers. Fordyce H 410 

Roney, Edward J 551 

Rothschild, Sigmund 517 

Russel, Dr. George B 360 

Russel. George B 563 

Russel, George H 271 

Rus.sel, Henry 391 

Ryan. Frank G 390 

Sanger, Henry H 539 

Schantz. Arnold A 476 

Schimmel. Louis W 571 

Schmidt, Traugott 400 

Scott, H, Byron 467 

Seeger, Anthony 566 

Shaw, John T 560 

Sherrill, Abraham P 543 

Shipman, Ozias W 536 

Sibley. Alexander H 527 

Sibley, Frederick B 302 

Simmons, Fred J 687 

Singelyn, A. James 546 

Skinner. Frederick G 675 

Slaymaker. Nathaniel E 684 

Slocum, Plliott T \ 456 

Slocum. Giles B 448 




Smith, Bradford 428 

Smith, Frederick B 520 

Sprague, Frederick P 667 

Sprague, William C 399 

Spratt, John C 553 

Stange Edward 573 

Starkey, Harry S 696 

Starkey, Henry M 526 

Starkey, Lewis F 689 

Stearns, Frederick 378 

Stephens, Albert L 545 

Stephens, Henry 459 

Stephens, Henry, Jr 540 

Strelinger, Charles A 606 

Stoepel, Frederick C 524 

Stone, Ralph 533 

Sullivan, James J 572 

Sumner, Edward A 565 

Swan, Henry H 519 

Swift, Ernest G 567 

Taylor, DeWitt H 304 

Taylor, Elisha 464 

Taylor, FYank D 339 

Taylor, Thornton A 693 

Thompson, Frank A 681 

Truax, Abram C 289 

Unruh, William J 701 

Van Alstyne, John S 591 

Van Dyke, James A 368 


Van Husan, Caleb 318 

Van Husan, Edward C 439 

Wadsworth, Thomas A 638 

Waldo, Lewis C 683 

Walker, Harry C 582 

Walker, Henry W 660 

Walker, Hiram 352 

Wallace, Hugh 445 

Warden, Charles R 695 

Warden, Fred 700 

Warden, Orrin 692 

Warren, Charles A 532 

Warren, Charles B 648 

Warren, Homer 406 

Whitaker, Byron 525 

White, H. Kirke, Jr 694 

Whitehead, James T 687 

Whitney, David, Jr 288 

Widman, Albert XT 690 

Widman, Cosmos D 210 

Widman, John C 682 

Wiedeman, Henry C 698 

Wilder, Bert C 583 

Wilkie, James 669 

Wilkie, Warren 676 

Wilkinson, Albert H 471 

Wilkinson, Ralph B 643 

Williams, Morris L 440 

Yawkey, William C 496 

Detroit and Wayne County 


Origin of Detroit in Struggle for Supremacy Between England and France — Plans for Estab- 
lishing a Fortress by Count Pontchartrain — Expedition Under Cadillac — Post 
Named Fort Pontchartrain — Record Concerning Cadillac — Conditions at the Fron- 
tier Post — Cadillac Succeeded by Dubuisson — Trouble with the Fox Indians — 
Regime of Alphonse de Tonty — Robert Navarre, Intendant at Detroit — Efforts to 
Increase Population and Military Strength — Beginning of Struggle Between France 
and England — French Lose Stronghold at Louisburg — Montcalm as Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada — Fatal Conflict at the Heights of Abraham and its Results on Fu- 
ture of Detroit — British Gain Control of All Canada. 

Man commonly believes himself to be lord of creation, but nature often dominates over 
man. Nine times out of ten nature decides where a great city shall rise and endure. For 
more than two hundred years the leading maritime powers of the Old World struggled with 
each other for the mastery of the New World. It was during the struggle between Great 
Britain and France that the city of Detroit was founded. It had its origin in that strife. 
France held Canada, the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi valley, — territory and trade. 
The only highways were the waterways, and France tried to keep vigil along the route 
from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the mouth of the Mississippi, but her thin line was 
constantly crossed by British traders who offered rum to the Indians on cheaper terms than 
the French offered their brandy. The French,, too, were morally restrained by the vigorous 
opposition of the early Jesuit fathers, while the British had no such embarrassment. 

Before the seventeenth century began there was a well established highway of com- 
merce between the British Fort Orange, afterward Albany, New York, and the foot of Lake 
Erie, and up Lake Erie as far as the straits leading to the northern lakes. Count Pontchar- 
train, minister of marine for Louis XIV of France, decided that this inroad must be blocked. 
He had in his employ an adventurous and capable commander of frontier forces, Antoine 
de Laumet Cadillac, forty-three years of age, who had been in New France fifteen years or 
more and was well acquainted with the river St. Lawrence and the lake region. An outpost 
had existed at what is now known as Mackinac island for many years and in the hope of hold- 
ing back the invasions of British traders Count Pontchartrain directed Cadillac to take one 
hundred white men and as many Indian allies as his judgment would approve and proceed 
to the region of the straits, for the purpose of establishing there a frontier fortress that 
would take advantage of the most defensible spot and serve the purposes of the empire. 

The expedition set out from La Chine on June 5, 1701. It followed the Ottawa river 
along the old route by way of Lake Nipissing and reached Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. 



There a flotilla of large canoes was properly organized to meet any opposition that it might 
encounter, with a force of one hundred Frenchmen and an equal number of Algonquin 
Indians. Duluth had erected a fort at the head of the Ste. Claire river in 1687, but it had 
soon been abandoned and was burned at the command of the French government. Cadillac 
had been commandant of the post at Mackinac for three years and he determined to estab- 
lish the new fort in a more defensible place. The expedition passed through the Ste. Claire 
river and the lake of the same name and proceeded as far as the mouth of Detroit river. 
After camping over night on Grosse He and examining the site for its strategic situation, 
Cadillac led the way back and landed somewhere near the center of the present water front 
of Detroit. He was guided in this selection by the favorable banks of the river, as they here 
rose to a commanding height — about forty feet. Immediately back of this bluff flowed a small 
but sluggish stream, afterward known as the Savoyard river. This, it was seen, would serve 
to a military post on the blufif as some protection against attack from the rear. So it hap- 
pened that here, on July 24. 1701, Cadillac made his permanent landing and proceeded to lay 
out and direct the construction of a strong frontier fort. The outline measured one arpent of 
land about two hundred feet on a side, and included a plat of land between the present Wayne 
and Griswold streets in Detroit and extended to the middle of Jefferson avenue on the crest of 
the bluff facing the river front. 

The fort was typical of the times and the frontier and consisted of a stockade of oak 
pickets fifteen feet long imbedded in the earth to a depth of three feet. Inside this there 
was a clear space twelve feet wide all around. A strong bastion was erected at each of the 
four corners and a parapet was built around the inside at a height of about seven feet above 
the ground, where pickets could patrol in security and keep watch over all approaches by 
land and water. The fort was named Pontchartrain, in honor of Cadillac's patron, and 
the church which was erected immediately was called Ste. Anne's. 

Cadillac arrived none too soon, for on June 19 the British authorities in New York, 
while he was en route, obtained from the Iroquois such title as the Indians had to the western 
forests, which were called Teuscha Gronde. This territory included the land surrounding 
the straits. Robert Livingstone, English trader at Fort Orange, had urged his government 
to establish a post on the Detroit river in 1699, but the delay of a year deferred British occu- 
pation until the conquest of New France was achieved, more than half a century later, and 
until the bloody years of the French and Indian wars had intervened. 

Cadillac was born in the department of Tarne et Garonne, at the village of St. Nicholas 
le Grave, December 4, 1663. His name on the parish records appears as Antoine de Laumet. 
The marriage record at Quebec shows that Cadillac was the son of Jean de la Mothe, 
Seigneur de Cadillac, conseiller of the department of Toulouse, and that his mother's name 
was Jeanne de Malefant. There is some confliction of names, due to the general practice of the 
time, which took great liberties with family names and often substituted others. Cadillac 
came to America in 1683. After a short stay at Quebec, he went to Port Royal, which was 
the French hfeadquarters for privateers who preyed upon British shipping and the British 
colonial coast during many years when the nations were at strife. There he attached himself 
to a privateering commander named Guyon and presently became so well acquainted with 
the New England coast that he was able to pilot expeditions. 

In the winter of 1686 he was at Quebec, where he had a serious quarrel with Sabrevois, 
who afterward figured in the history of the Detroit colony. He returned to Port Royal in 
the spring, and on the 25th of June, in Quebec, he married Therese Guyon and set up an estab- 
lishment in the port, but two years later he obtained from the king a grant of land, six miles 


square, on the coast of Maine (the present site of Bar Harbor), and also the island of Mount 
Desert, by patent from Louis XIV. This was in honor of his valuable service in harassing 
the British. He was called to France in 169010 furnish information to Count Pontchartrain, 
minister of marine, in view of a possible war with Great Britain, and returned home after 
several months, only to be recalled in 1692. When he came back he bore a recommendation 
for special service under Frontenac at Quebec. In 1694 he was made commandant at 

Mackinac proved a post of no particular value, since the Iroquois and British traders 
came up the lakes ofifering competition and making trouble. Cadillac advised a fort on the 
lower straits, but Frontenac died in June, 1698, leaving the succession to de Callieres, who 
had a poor opinion of Cadillac and gave no heed to his suggestions. Cadillac memorialized 
the king, who advised the adoption of his plans, but Callieres stood firmly against them. 
Cadillac went to Quebec and persisted until he secured the authority and backing which led 
to the founding of Detroit in the manner related. 

The rivalry between the French and British was complicated by another factor which 
greatly embarrassed the civil and military head of the post and ultimately led to his removal. 
Trade in beaver skins was the principal traffic with the Indians. Blankets and gew-gaws 
were sold freely, guns and powder cautiously, but the favorite exchange was "fire-water," 
for which the Indians developed a craving that often induced them to make extravagant 
offers to procure it. As drink speedily demoralized the savages and made them impossible 
of control, the missionary priests, who were entirely devoted to the task of Christianizing 
them, made vigorous protests to their superiors and to the governments, and the clerical 
power exerted all the influence it could with the civil power. It had spent half a century 
of struggle and peril in the wilderness, had sacrificed the lives of many heroic missionaries, 
and thus it would not consent to see all its good work undone by the Frenchman's brandy 
and the British rum. 

Cadillac was a practical man: he felt that the interests of the empire were paramount, 
and cared little for the welfare of the Indian so long as he would be able to collect beaver 
skins and other valuable peltry. He proposed to meet rum with brandy and to make the 
western territory so uncomfortable for British traders that they would keep at a respectful 
distance from Fort Pontchartrain. For years there was strife between the plucky com- 
mandant and the church. Appeals went back and forth to Montreal, to Quebec, and to 
the capital across the sea, each side stating its case with all the persuasion that could be 
brought to bear, but Cadillac gradually lost favor. In 17 10 he was promoted to the gov- 
ernorship of Louisiana, and that promotion was followed by the confiscation of his prop- 
erty in Detroit. In Louisiana he superseded Bienville, whose enmity he gained. He also 
made an enemy of Crozat, the foremost trader of the territory, and this led to his dismissal 
and his return to France in 1717. Cadillac died October 15, 1730, and his remains were 
interred in the old Carmelite church of Castel-Sarassin. His wife died sixteen years later. 
He was the father of thirteen children, eight of whom were born in Detroit. 

Though isolated from the Old World and cut off from the more firmly established 
French settlements along the St. Lawrence, by league after league of almost impenetrable 
forest, storm-swept lake and turbulent river, Fort Pontchartrain had taken permanent root. 
Soon a little group of log cabins began to nestle close to the walls of the stockade. Coureurs 
de bois, small parties of Iroquois and occasional white settlers built their rude habitations 
along the banks of the Detroit river. During the second year came the wives of the officers 
from Quebec and Montreal, to share with their husbands the low log huts. 


With Madame Cadillac came the wife of Alphonse de Tonty, Cadillac's lieutenant, and 
these two were the first white women to set foot in the new settlement. 

From Wayne street to a point near Griswold, along Lamed street, extended the 
northern extremity of Fort Pontchartrain, which seems to have stretched close to the river 
bank on the south. With the post as a nucleus, Cadillac attempted to establish a sort of 
feudal domain, with himself as liege lord, for it is a matter of record that he leased varying 
plots of ground to his men for cultivation, always stipulating that all grain should pass 
through the mill which he built, and be subject to a certain tax. To establish more firmly 
a friendly relationship with the Indians, he encouraged alliances between his men and the 
shy savage maidens, but in this he was opposed by the priests who had accompanied the 
expedition. Always at outs with the Jesuits, his scheme further embraced bringing to the 
settlement the Huron Indians from the post at Mackinac, and the consequent injury of the 
mission at that point. 

As a result of this enmity and a growing jealousy, the Mackinac Jesuits, in turn, planned 
to establish a post at Fort St. Joseph, at the mouth of the St. Joseph river, on Lake Michigan. 
So keen was the feeling that extraordinary inducements were offered to draw settlers from 
the Detroit colony and thus weaken its support and strike a vital blow at its trade with the 
Indians. Cadillac's lieutenant, Tonty, ambitious to succeed his superior, became involved in 
the scheme with the priests to the northward, but upon its discovery and failure he confessed 
his treachery and was pardoned. Meanwhile bitter accusations were sent by each party to 
the disastrous controversy to the headquarters at Quebec, and later Tonty's cupidity led him 
into a second plot to undermine the commandant at Detroit. Finding their origin largely in 
the rapidly growing and remunerative fur trade with the natives, innumerable other jealousies 
took form, and in these, perhaps, lay the most formidable of the dangers that beset the 
struggling post. 

Notwithstanding the ceaseless efforts put forth by Cadillac in the interests of the colony, 
he was finally notified, without previous warning, that the post had been ceded to "The Com- 
pany of the Colony of Canada." This meant that the monopoly of the fur trade was to pass 
into other hands than his. As early as 1702, intersecting circles of intrigue were at work. 
The British saw with disfavor the advancement of the colony and straightway sought to 
breed discontent among the Indians friendly to the French. They offered more liberally for 
the peltries of the savages. The Iroquois already resented the intrusion of the French upon 
their trapping grounds, and the warnings spread by the English to the effect that their rivals 
sought not furs but lands, straightway took root in the savage mind. The various tribes 
became jealous of each other and only by the exercise of the utmost tact and caution was 
a most delicate situation made tenable for the little colony. Through his discovery of and 
attempted punishment for what he thought to be attempted fraud on the part of the com- 
pany's agents, Cadillac was summoned to Quebec by Vaudreuil, governor of the French along 
the St. Lawrence, and imputations were openly made to the effect that the vigilance of the 
commandant at Detroit was inspired by a desire to regain for himself the Indian trade, rather 
than by any anxiety to serve the interests of the company. The fact that many of the clerks 
and company agents were relatives of its directors materially strengthened this contention. 

While Cadillac was absent at Quebec, the command of the post fell temporarily to Tonty. 
He was finally relieved by M. Bourgmont, who was dispatched to Detroit on the day of Cadil- 
lac's departure. Bourgmont proved to be lacking in the exercise of that judgment which had 
made Cadillac popular with the savages, and soon affairs were in a serious state as the result 


of a clash between the Indians and whites. Tliis culminated in the death of the first priest 
of Ste. Anne's church, Father Del Halle, and that of a French soldier. 

Cadillac, after an acquittal under charges of promoting his own interests, returned to 
the Detroit post and succeeded in restoring a semblance of the old relationship between the 
settlers and the Indians. 

A regime identical with that of the mother country obtained during this time in New 
France. The country was under feudal tenure. What was known as the sovereign council, 
consisting of the governor general, the bishop and the intendant, being in control of affairs. 
All lands were the property of the king, but were held by seigneurs who were empowered with 
certain judicial authority and who paid a rental to the crown, usually in the form of military 
service. Every tenant in turn owed an allegiance of arms to the seigneurs and was obliged 
to bring to the seigneur's mill for the grinding whatever grain was harvested. In this way 
taxation was commenced with the gathering of the first crop at Detroit, a quarter of a bushel 
of wheat being paid in addition to the military service, for each arpent of land the tenant 
might have under cultivation, outside the stockade. 

From the very first of Cadillac's service to the king, and later in his capacity as agent 
for the Canada company, his old enmity with the Jesuits proved itself the basis of an unend- 
ing conflict, making for the commandant almost innumerable enemies on all sides. Governor 
General Vaudreuil was a staunch friend of the Jesuit order, and Cadillac's repeated efforts 
to bring about the downfall of the Jesuit mission at Mackinac resulted only in his incurring 
the further dislike of the governor general. Naturally enough, when complaints were made 
to the authorities at Quebec by other enemies of the commandant, they found there a ready 
ear. Had it not been that Count Pontchartrain, French minister of marine, was a strong sup- 
porter of Cadillac, it is quite probable that the distorted reports made by various "inspectors," 
through Governor Vaudreuil, would have terminated Cadillac's command at Detroit after 
the second year, if not proving successful in their apparent object, — that of discouraging the 
continuance of the little post altogether. Between 1702 and 1709 a combined and persistent 
effort was made to discredit Cadillac with the king and the company, and repeated reports 
were sent to France flatly contradicting most of his statements as to the condition of the 
colony. So embarrassing was Cadillac's position made by this constant effort to undermine 
his authority and hinder his every effort to develop as he wished the resources at hand, that 
but slow progress was effected. 

In 1710 came one Lieutenant Charles Regnault Dubuisson from Quebec, bearing dis- 
patches relieving Cadillac of his command at Detroit and appointing him governor of 
Louisiana. M. de la Forest, who had at one time been mentioned as second in command 
under Cadillac, was named as his successor, but as he "was an old man, feeble and infirm, 
having spent thirty-two years in the wilderness," Dubuisson was authorized to serve tempo- 
rarily in his stead. 

Throughout the years of his service, Cadillac had apparently never had a doubt of the 
success of the colony, for it is recorded that such profits as he made he had persistently 
invested in lands and buildings at the Detroit post. To be thus peremptorily dismissed was 
a considerable hardship, even though made somewhat less poignant perhaps by the Louisiana 
appointment ; but the man's loyalty to his home government must have been sorely tried when 
he discovered that he could realize nothing on his investments — there being no one in the 
colony with sufficient means to purchase his holdings. He was even enjoined from removing 
the supplies and stock he had purchased with his own money. His estate at this time was esti- 
mated as representing upwards of one hundred and twenty-two thousand livres, and an idea 


of the progress of the colony can be gathered from the statement that he was the owner of 
four hundred arpents of cleared land, a brewery, a grist mill, a warehouse and an icehouse. 
After being relieved he remained in Detroit for one year, in an effort to make some dispo- 
sition of his property, but was finally forced to leave without any satisfactory adjustment of 
his affairs, after a fruitless appeal to his government. 

Dubuisson, meanwhile, found himself facing the difficulties of maintaining a struggling 
and feeble post. Of the fifty soldiers who had come with Cadillac but twenty remained. The 
others, having become disgusted with the slow progress possible, because of the constant 
intrigue, had returned to Quebec or deserted, in order to engage in trade for themselves 
with the Indians. A year after Cadillac's departure (1712) Dubuisson became involved in a 
war with the Fox Indians, who came from Green Bay, Wisconsin, to attack the Detroit post. 
Though successful in his defense and in a subsequent offensive campaign, Dubuisson's trouble 
with the savages made necessary the presence in Detroit of La Forest, who was accordingly 
dispatched to take up the command of the post. 

Lacking the youth and unable to proceed with the energy characteristic of Cadillac, 
La Forest made no effort to withstand the inroads made upon his little settlement by the 
ever more powerful and vindictive Jesuits at Mackinac, and finally gave up all effort to 
enlarge his post by attempting to secure additional settlers. He was relieved after less than 
two years' service by Charles Jacques Sabrevois. After two terms of three years each the 
colony fell to the tender mercies of Alphonse de Tonty, who began in 1720 a seven-year term, 
which was unprecedented in the annals of the settlement for its disregard for the rights of 
the settlers and for the dishonesty of the commandant. During this time free trading was 
abolished and agriculture allowed to become but a memory. This unfortunate state of affairs 
was terminated in 1727, by an investigation which resulted in the relief of Tonty as com- 
mandant and the rapid succession of M. Jean Baptiste Deschallions de St. Ours; Ives Jacques 
Hughes, Pean Sieur de Livandiere, 1733-36; Nicklas Joseph Des Noyellis, 1736-39; Pierre 
Pean Jacques de Noyan, 1739-42; Pierre Joseph Celeron Sieur de Blainville, 1742-43; 
Paul Joseph Le Moyne, 1743-48; Jacques Pierre Daneau, 1748-50; Pierre Joseph Celeron, 
1750-53 (second term) ; Jacques Pierre Daneau, 1753-58 (died); Francois Marie Picote 
Sieur de Bellistre, 1758-60; St. Ours, who was an able soldier, was shortly succeeded by 
Charles Joseph de Noyelle, who was himself replaced by M. de Boishebert, whose six-year 
tenure terminated in 1734. 

Four years prior to the above date, Robert Navarre, removed by but eight generations 
from the French throne, became. intendant at Detroit, serving as a legal officer at the post 
and as the collector of revenues due the crown. A young man upon his acceptance of the 
office, Navarre served the post for more than thirty years, and is mentioned as having 
been retained as notary, even after the cession of the colony to the British. 

Though Boishebert was an efficient commandant, and more popular with Indians, set- 
tlers and the Quebec authorities than any former officer at Detroit, his efforts were of little 
avail, under a system which sought the extraction of revenue rather than the healthful 
growth of the settlement and its thorough establishment as an effective military post. Un- 
fortunately the policy obtaining in France at this time was one which made no provision for 
the difficulty of successfully maintaining regular communication between the isolated French 
posts in Canada, though Count Maurepas, then French minister of marine, was repeatedly 
petitioned by Governor Beauhamois to provide ships for this purpose and to recniit the de- 
pleted garrisons. Underlying the dishonesty of the commandants and the resultant discour- 
agement of serious and permanent French settlers, was that continued cupidity of the French 


crown itself, which doubtless was an important factor in the failure of the king to secure at 
this time a permanent footing in a territory whose wealth has not been fully gauged, even to 
this day. Because of this insatiate desire to turn the most available of the natural resources 
of the territory into revenue, but little energy was directed to farming, the fur trade, which 
offered more immediate returns, being pushed to the utmost. The true source of permanent 
wealth — labor and land, and their healthful relationship — was almost completely overlooked, 
Cadillac being, apparently, the only commandant who appreciated their value. Even the 
Indians, it appears, were better farmers than the French, though neither ever succeeded in 
properly cultivating their fields. 

During the regime of M. Sabrevois, who began his second term in 1735 as successor to 
the corrupt de Livandiere, a serious quarrel broke out between the Huron and Ottawa In- 
dians at Detroit. This for a time bade fair to afford the English an excellent opportunity 
for supplanting the French in the affections of the Hurons, who were among the most peace- 
ful and progressive of the savage tribes. The action of the Jesuit priests, who were at odds 
with the French officials at Quebec, considerably handicapped the successful solution of a most 
trying problem, — that of placating the warring tribes and securing a permanent camping 
place for the Hurons beyond the insidious influence of the British. A reservation was of- 
fered these Indians either in the vicinity of Montreal or near Quebec by the French gover- 
nor, but the Jesuit priest at the mission which had been established at Sandwich, across the 
river from Detroit, was anxious to retain his flock and secretly worked to discourage the ac- 
ceptance of either of the proffered reservations in lower Canada. The Jesuits were finally 
successful in inducing the Hurons to settle at Bois Blanc island, below Detroit, though but a 
portion of the tribe acquiesced in remaining within the territory comprising the Jesuit parish. 

In the meantime Sabrevois had been succeeded by M. Noyan. Pierre de Celeron de 
Blainville and Joseph LeMoyne de Longueil served in the order named as commandants, the 
latter serving for two successive terms (1743-49). During this time affairs, which had been 
allowed to progress but slowly till then, became so complicated as a result of Indian uprisings 
and plots to slaughter the settlers, that some notice appears to have been given the necessity of 
supplying needed support to the post. Following an attack made by the Chippewa tribe re- 
siding near the Mackinac straits, and the discovery of a conspiracy entered into by nearly, 
if not quite, all the braves living about Detroit, Governor Beauharnois dispatched a relief flo- 
tilla bearing supplies and a considerable number of soldiers and merchants. During the next 
year, 1748, the fortifications were materially strengthened, as it became evident to the 
French authorities that, in view of the impending struggle with the British, forebodings of 
which were even then noticeable, Detroit would be of considerable strategic value. A policy 
embracing a consistant effort to increase the population and the military strength of the 
settlement was initiated. 

This took tangible form in sending out, during the ensuing year, of a considerable number 
of farmers as a reinforcement to the struggling little colony. With them the settlers brought 
the implements of husbandry, and upon their arrival an encouraging and serious effort was 
made toward cultivation of the fields about the post. The timber of the forest was felled, 
adding considerably to the producing acres about the fort, and that stronghold was strength- 
ened and enlarged till the settlement began to take on the air of a healthful and thriving 
community on the edge of the wilderness. Sabrevois, who was serving out a reappointment 
as commandant, was too feeble, however, to attempt to initiate methods sufficiently progres- 
sive to develop fully these added opportunities and the younger de Celeron was made his suc- 
cessor in 1 75 1. He in turn was retired after serving three years, to give place to Jacques 


Pierre Daneau, who, during the next four years (1754- 1758) proved himself an able officer. 
The effort put forth for the establishment of a definite relationship between the frontier 
French posts now began to bear fruit, and the governor general was enabled to strengthen 
still further the Detroit settlement by making it the depot or base of supplies for the outlying 
forts which had been established between Lake Ste. Claire and Fort Du Quesne, at the junc- 
ture of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers. 

Desultory fighting was in progress between the English and French and the Indian 
tribes allied to each, far to the eastward, and Detroit's strategic advantages began to be un- 
deniably demonstrated as the French were enabled to hasten reinforcements and supplies to 
the eastern points from this base on the straits. 

Peculiarly enough, though each of the opposing nations was ready at all times to fight 
for the territory each one claimed, neither was apparently willing to put forth more than a 
half-hearted effort to settle the dispute permanently, by instituting a sharp and effective cam- 
paign. Brave and capable officers served equally well, perhaps, their respective govern- 
ments, but were left for long intervals without support from abroad. 

The interest across the Atlantic was but intermittent at best. Neither France nor Eng- 
land realized the value of the rich stake for which they gambled, though the new territory 
had been even then sufficiently explored to demonstrate its value in a general way. 

From the time Cadillac beached his canoe on the site of the Detroit settlement, its for- 
tunes were indirectly involved in the game of national politics being played thousands of 
miles away. The momentary humors of the French king and the incidents occuring in Lon- 
don, penetrated the leagues of virgin forests in the New World, and left their marks indeli- 
bly imprinted upon the future of that straggling row of rude cabins far to the west. The 
eastern Indians, incited by the French, spread terror among the settlers in the Atlantic colo- 
nies by a succession of indescribable outrages. These were repaid by no less severe attacks 
on the western settlements by savages driven to frenzy by British rum and by well directed 
promises of reward from the English commandants. 

From Queen Anne's war, in 1702, through King George's war and on until the termina- 
tion of what is known as the French and Indian war (1755-63) a most inhumane and dis- 
tressing period of guerrilla warfare prevailed. For this both the English and French were 
perhaps equally responsible. In nearly all the settlements, as in Detroit, every pioneer 
prayed, toiled and slept with his rifle close at hand. Children were threatened with the ven- 
geance of the Indians for every misdemeanor, and wives parted with their husbands in con- 
stant dread of the savage scalping knife. A hardy, courageous race of men was thus bred, 
innured to the hardships of the frontier and to the dangers of the wilderness. Their liveli- 
hood and their very existence were dependent upon force of arms and sheer courage alone, a 
circumstance which made but the more certain the inevitable clash which changed the des- 
tiny of the western posts. 

By the ceding to the British of Nova Scotia, under the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, the 
French gave their adversaries a dangerous advantage in the foothold the English thus se- 
cured in the territory close to the gulf of St. Lawrence. Up this avenue every French 
ship was forced to pass in reaching the up-river settlements at Quebec and Montreal. The 
strongest fortification then existing in America was that at Louisburg, on Cape Breton island. 
The French had hastened at an early date to strengthen this the then most valuable strategic 
point on the Atlantic, thus offering a formidable barrier to England's advance northward. 
With a base from which to operate in Nova Scotia, the English looked covetously upon the 
frowning fortress at Louisburg. In 1745 an expedition of farmers and fishermen was or- 


ganized in the New England colonies, whose purpose it was to drive the French flag from 
this valuable island in the gulf. Undisciplined as they were, the British were no more sur- 
prised than were the French when, after a vigorous attack, the banner of the fleur-de-lis was 
hauled from its staff on the fort and Louisburg was in the hands of the English. 

Upon the restoration of Louisburg to the French in 1748, under the treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, there began for each flag a series of alternating victories and defeats. These were 
destined to continue through campaigns of indescribable hardship, till the final fall of Que- 
bec and the loss to France of her colonial prestige and of a territory richer by far in many 
natural resources than the mother country herself. 

Following the fall of Louisburg, the French began to hold more tenaciously than ever 
whatever territory they could claim. Some sixty posts had been stretched in a thin line be- 
tween the St. Lawrence and the Gulf of Mexico. The garrisons, and the settlers about these 
forts, resisted the encroachments of the English from Virginia with persistent tenacity. For- 
midable steps were necessitated on the part of the Virginia authorities to enforce the secur- 
ing to Virginians of land grants made to then in the disputed territory. One of the French 
posts was located on the present site of Pittsburg. As many of the land grants included 
territory in the Ohio river valley, and as the French and their allies continued to forbid their 
definite location and occupancy, George Washington was sent to interview the French com- 
mandant and to offer a formal protest. This conference was unsatisfactory and the English 
constructed a fort on the Monongahela, which was promptly taken by the French, in 1754. 
Humiliated by their defeat, the English sent out an expedition under General Braddock, in an 
attempt to take the French Fort Du Quesne, but this effort was rewarded with a second crush- 
ing defeat, and it was not until 1758 that this inland fortress fell before a British attack. 

Meantime there had come to Canada, as governor general, a man who promised through 
his relentless energy and dauntless courage, to sweep the enemies of Louis from the wilder- 
ness. This was Louis Joseph de St. Verain Montcalm, who took command of a scattered 
and undisciplined army in 1756. He captured two important British forts, and with but lit- 
tle more than three thousand men successfully repulsed an army of fifteen thousand under 
General Abercrombie, at Ticonderoga, between Lakes George and Champlain. This he accom- 
plished before retiring to Quebec to prepare the citadel there for an attack which he even then 
anticipated, and which ended in the fatal conflict that has made famous in the history of the 
western continent the far-sung Heights of Abraham. There, on September 13, 1759, the 
map of a continent was changed. The entire future fortune of the struggling little post 
miles away on the Detroit river was forever altered. Dear to the heart of every man is the 
story of that fight between the gallant young Wolfe and the no less admirable Montcalm, — a 
fight which resulted in the loss to each of his life; the loss to France of her colonies in the 
New World, and the winning for England of a glorious empire. Not quite a year later Mon- 
treal surrendered and all Canada was formally turned over to the victorious British. 


The Detroit Post Surrendered by the French Commandant — One Hundred and Forty-Eight 
Years of French Misdirection — New Era Ushered in with English Control — Detroit 
Menaced by Indian Unrest and Antagonism — Regime of Captain Henry Gladwin — 
Treaties with the Indians — Conspiracy Under Pontiac, and Attempt to Capture the 
Detroit Garrison — War with the Indians Under Pontiac — Lack of Supplies at De- 
troit — Murder of Captain Campbell — Indian Victory at Bloody Run — Pontiac Sues 
for Peace — Colonel John Bradstreet Made Commandant — Conditions Following 
Indian Uprising — First Money Circulated in Detroit — Philip Dejean Commissioned 
First Chief Justice — The Northwest Company — Passage of the Quebec Act — Local 
Discontent with Policy of English Home Government; Lieutenant Governors Ap- 
pointed — Nefarious Rule of Hamilton and Dejean at Detroit. 

During the last years of the struggle between the banner of the fleur-de-lis and the royal 
standard of Great Britain, the post at Detroit had been materially strengthened and amply 
provisioned. It had become a formidable stronghold. It was never the scene of battle be- 
tween the opposing powers, but was surrendered by its last French commandant, Francois 
Marie Picote de Bellistre, upon the presentation to him by Major Robert Rogers of proof of 
the French surrender, without the firing of a single shot. With scant ceremony the colors 
of France were hauled from the staff at Fort Pontchartrain, where they had been raised by 
Cadillac fifty-nine years before, and the efforts of those years were thus declared failures. 
The story of French follies in seeking ever more and more revenue by the enriching of the 
few from the toil of the many — the evidence of the failure to encourage definite relations be- 
tween the scant population and the land — was told in the miles of impenetrable wilderness that 
stood as mute witnesses of one hundred and forty-eight years of misdirected effort in New 

It is said of the treaty of Paris, under which half the western hemisphere was sur- 
rendered, that no other agreement "ever transferred such an immense portion of the earth's 
surface from one nation to another." 

With the marching into the stockade at Fort Pontchartrain of the British troops under 
Major Robert Rogers and the passing out of the soldiers of France, there dawned upon the 
settlement at Detroit a new era. In it was destined to be born the embryo of a fresh stand- 
ard of ideas underlying the political, religious and personal freedom and equality of a great 
and glorious people. With the felling of the forests between the lakes and the sea, there were 
to spring from the virgin soil those first tender seedlings that were to be nourished by the 
rigors of the winters and by years of strife with the savages, until they could stand as hardy 
and impassable barriers against the advance of oppression. 

At Detroit, as elsewhere on the frontier, the change was to the Indians an unwelcome 
one. Accustomed as they had been to treatment as equals by the French, they resented 
from the first what they considered to be the presumption of the British, whose unbending 
condescension roused them to retaliation. Both France and England had sought allies among 
the savages, and this had led to the division of the native tribes into two great factions. 
While the wars continued, they were diametrically opposed and fought each other as lustily 



as did their principals. With the surrender of the French, however, and with the beginnings 
of that Indian distrust of the victors which immediately followed all attempts at colonization, 
the Indians became reunited against a common white foe, who they saw was beginning at once 
to claim their hunting grounds as his own. The western Indians had ever been staunch 
friends of the French, and this new prejudice against the English but engendered a smolder- 
ing hatred that seriously menaced the Detroit settlement and eventually cost many a life. 
Captain Donald Campbell served until he was relieved by Captain Henry Gladwin, as the 
first English commandant. By his easy good will he made himself popular with the French 
settlers who remained at Detroit, as well as with the Indians in the surrounding territory. 
Under the influence of his natural tact, began the reconstruction of the business, social and 
military life of the post. Major Rogers, who received the surrender, mentions in his re- 
port that there were in Detroit at the time of the evacuation, approximately two thousand in- 

Efforts were made to establish trade relations with the Indians and gain their friend- 
ship, but to these attempts the French, smarting under their recent defeat, offered what tacit 
opposition they could. Added to this, unscrupulous English traders sought the frontier posts 
and by the free use of rum set up a standard of dealing with the Indians whereby the latter 
were mercilessly fleeced and cheated in every possible way and thus more firmly than ever 
led to distrust the newcomers. Reports of unseeming activity on the part of the French and 
coincident uneasiness among the Indians were carried to the new seat of government at New 
York. The result was an attempt to secure treaties with the savages. 

General Jeffrey Amherst, then in charge of the British affairs at New York, sent Sir 
William Johnson, who was considered the ablest of the Indian commissioners of his time, to 
the post at Detroit. With him came Captain Henry Gladwin, who was to succeed Captain 
Campbell as commandant. He led several hundred troops who served as an escort and guard 
for a large store of supplies. Treaties were made with most of the tribes about the post, with 
the Senecas of the Maumee valley and with the Chippewas to the northward. In spite of 
these efforts toward the establishment of friendly relations, however, the continuation of the 
unscrupulous methods of trading employed by certain of the English so inflamed the savages 
that they still believed the English would eventually dispossess them of their lands. 

The most influential of the natives who entertained distrust and hatred against the Brit- 
ish was Pontiac, chief of the Ottawas. This was then the most intelligent and civilized of 
the Indian tribes in the vicinity of Detroit. From the very first of the English occupancy 
Pontiac had watched with disfavor their entrance into what he considered the God-given 
territory of his people. After a little more than two years of association with them he con- 
cluded they would forever be a source of danger to the sons of the forest. 

While Gladwin was occupied with the administration of the affairs of the post and rest- 
ing in assurance of friendly relations with his savage neighbors, Pontiac's home at Peche 
island in Lake Ste. Claire, became the scene of great activity. Indian nmners were con- 
stantly arriving and departing, bearing mysterious messages to and from the chiefs and the 
medicine men of the western tribes. The crafty Pontiac had evolved no less a plot than that 
which sought the absolute extermination of the English or their expulsion from the chosen 
hunting grounds about the western lakes. Systematically, and with a care that would have 
done credit to a trained political organizer, were the chief's plans laid. Pontiac realized fully 
that the greatest strength of the English posts lay in their ability to aid each other in case of 
attack and he accordingly proposed in the councils of his brothers a simultaneous attack on the 
isolated forts, which would preclude the possibility of any such interchange of support. 


Reports of the strength of each of the western forts were brought to the lodge at 
Peche island, that the chief might the more wisely direct his campaign. Incendiary mes- 
sages went forth, inciting the wrath of the subsidiary leaders and inflaming the young fight- 
ing men with a lust for English blood. 

In April, 1763, a great council was called at Ecorse, just below Detroit, at which the 
chief's plans were fully made known to all the Detroit Indians and their complete enlist- 
ment insured. On the ist of May Pontiac himself visited the fort at Detroit, to assure him- 
self of the exact conditions of its defenses. Even then the commandant entertained no suspi- 
cion of the infamous conspiracy which was to result in a practical siege of the post and prove 
itself, perhaps, the greatest crisis in the history of the settlement. 

Four days later a second Indian council was held, and the final details of the attack were 

In just what way the English were warned of the intended attempt to take the post is 
a matter of some doubt. Several more or less romantic accounts of the circumstance are 
current, but certain it is that the settlement owes its very existence to the fact that before Pon- 
tiac's plans could be put into execution Gladwin was made aware that a conspiracy was on foot. 
Since the Indians were held in a certain easy contempt by the British, they were usually 
allowed reasonable freedom inside the stockade, and it was on this circumstance very 
largely that Pontiac staked the outcome of his plans. Having been careful to impress his 
great friendship upon the commandant, he foresaw that with but comparatively few warriors 
once inside the fortifications, he could effect a sudden attack and in the ensuing confusion 
make the post an easy prize. 

Sixty chosen warriors were supplied with rifles whose barrels had been sawed so short 
as to permit their being carried in safe concealment under the blankets of the attacking 
party. To further allay all suspicion, the chief was to pretend that the visit was made for 
the purpose of more securely cementing the friendship between his people and the White 
Father. Then, if the circumstances were auspicious, he was to present to Gladwin a belt 
of wampum, holding the gift in a reversed position. If, however, any untoward occurrence 
should make the advisability of the attack doubtful, the wampum belt was to be presented 
in the usual way and the attempt postponed. 

One account has it that a certain chief, Mohican by name, who was opposed to Pontiac's 
scheme, came by stealth to the gate of the fort and personally warned Gladwin of his threat- 
ened peril. Another chronicler asserts that the wife of one of the French habitants detected 
a party of savages in the act of sawing off the gun barrels and, by the air of secrecy attending 
the performance, was aroused to such an extent that she informed one of the artisans of the 
fort, thus giving the alarm. Whoever the informant may have been, Gladwin faithfully 
maintained the confidence, as no authentic report has been found to exist among his papers. 
Many years after the conspiracy, an unsigned manuscript was discovered, presumably writ- 
ten by one of the priests at the mission opposite Detroit. This substantiates the Mohican ac- 
count, though a more popular legend has to do with an Indian maiden, Catherine by name, 
who is supposed to have formed an attachment for the commandant, and, in truly melodra- 
matic fashion, informed the gallant young captain of the plot of the sixty warriors. How- 
ever the warning may have been given, the British were fully prepared for any denoument, 
and when Pontiac and his men appeared the garrison was under arms. 

Seated in the council chamber, the commandant and his staff received the visitors, but 
gave no sign that they suspected treachery, save that they appeared with a full complement 
of side arms. As he passed through the narrow streets, Pontiac saw at once that every 


soldier was equipped with musket and bayonet and that small squads, fully armed, had been 
deployed about the gates of the fort. The disappointment was a bitter one, but retreat was 
impossible. The visit had to be carried out or additional suspicion would be aroused. Glad- 
win listened with apparent good humor to Pontiac's oration of friendship until the chief was 
about to present the wampum belt. Then, at the sudden signal from the commandant, the 
roll of the drums was heard. The crisis had arrived. The English soon perceived that even 
the renowned chief could not preserve his usual stoical expression. The white men had 
played the game with a reckless bravery that completely overawed the savages. At the psy- 
chological moment Gladwin sprang from his chair and, pulling aside the blanket of one of the 
visitors, he exposed a hidden gun to the assembly. In a bitter arraignment of their 
treachery, the commandant assured the Indians that the vengeance of the White Father would 
be sudden and severe should any further instance of misconduct warrant their punishment, but 
that so long as they remained faithful to the conditions of their treaties, the friendship of the 
British would be ever generous. To further impress his tendency towards friendship and 
forgiveness, Gladwin served the conspirators with food and beer before dismissing them. The 
seeds of a great uneasiness were sowed among the whites by this verification of treacherous 
intentions and the humiliating experience of the proud chief only made the more bitter his 
hatred for the English and the more firm his intention of driving them from the land. 

Repeated efforts on the part of Pontiac to regain the English confidence that he might 
make effective his original plans, met with failure. The garrison was kept almost con- 
stantly under arms in anticipation of an attack in force. 

Goaded to a frenzy by this unexpected turn of affairs, the chief shortly gave up all sem- 
blance of friendship and openly attacked three settlers, who were put to the torture within 
sight of the fort. Following this, a settler, one James Fisher, his wife and two soldiers were 
massacred on Belle Isle and a herd of the garrison cattle, pastured there, was stolen. On 
the same day Pontiac moved his camp across the river to the Michigan shore, thus formally 
beginning a war destined to place Detroit in the position of a beleaguered citadel and to con- 
tinue for many days. 

The situation at once became serious. It was even necessary to burn the buildings in the 
vicinity of the fort, that no cover might be afforded an attacking party. Supplies were piti- 
fully short inside the stockade, and as soon as the commandant saw that the savages were de- 
termined to continue their attacks, he decided to ask for a parley, and thus give his men an 
opportunity to replenish the stores. La Butte, the interpreter, was sent to Pontiac's camp 
to inquire into the reasons for the chief's actions. He returned with the report that the 
Indians might be pacified by the presentation of a few suitable gifts. Pontiac suggested that 
Captain Campbell and Lieutenant McDougall, both of whom had been upon especially good 
terms with the Indians before the outbreak, be sent to his camp for a council. Heedless of 
warnings from their comrades, the two men accepted the invitation and were immediately 
made captives. For a time the English were tempted to abandon the fort, but Gladwin was 
determined to hold out at all hazards and his men successfully stood off a large party of 
savages who opened fire shortly after taking the two captives. This gave the troops some 
encouragement, though much of the baggage of the garrison was placed on board the schooner 
"Gladwin," lying before the fort in the river, as a precaution against its capture. Orders 
were given that the ship was to sail at once to Niagara on the flying of a certain signal from 
the fort. 

Realizing that starvation was his most powerful ally, Pontiac made every effort to pre- 
vent the sale of supplies to the besieged fort, by the French habitants. In this he was unsuc- 


cessful. Meagre though sufficient stores were obtained from both sides of the river. As the 
siege continued, however, even these slender sources were threatened, and on May 21 it was 
decided to dispatch the Gladwin to Niagara to hasten forward relief. This done, a party 
from the fort searched the houses of the French settlers in quest of forage, but were success- 
ful only in a small way. Throughout June, the utmost anxiety prevailed inside the stock- 
ade, the danger of starvation becoming daily more imminent. On the last of the month the 
hearts of the garrison were overjoyed by the sight of a schooner which appeared in the river 
and later landed a force of half a hundred men, a supply of ammunition and one hundred and 
fifty barrels of provisions, thus temporarily relieving an almost untenable situation. 

Early in July the French formed a company of militia, after refusing to join forces with 
Pontiac, and were equipped with muskets and ammunition by the English commandant. 
This was a severe blow to Pontiac and the infuriated Indians decided upon a bold attempt 
to cut off all sources of communication between their enemies and the forts at Niagara, by 
burning the "Gladwin" and her consort, a sloop named the "Beaver." Large rafts of 
blazing logs were set adrift above the moorings of the two boats, in hopes of thus setting 
them afire. The vessels slipped their cables in time to avoid the rafts and were then dis- 
patched to the Indian villages, where a lively fusillade was begun against the fragile wigwams. 
This method of bringing the fight into their own camp so terrified two of the tribes that they 
immediately sued for peace and effected treaties with Gladwin. 

Lieutenant McDougall, who had been held prisoner since the early stages of the siege, 
eluded his captors and succeeded in making his way in safety to the gates of the fort. Cap- 
tain Campbell was less fortunate, however. During a sortie against a barricade held by the 
savages, a party of soldiers killed several of the Indians, whom they at once scalped. To 
pay for this indignity, Captain Campbell was securely bound and slowly hacked to pieces in 
the most shocking manner. 

Toward the last of July a large body of reinforcements arrived under Captain Dalzell. 
who had been commissioned by General Amherst to put an end to the siege. Several can- 
non and ample supplies were brought under guard of the party, and with the stores thus 
replenished it became at once apparent to the commandant that he had but to remain quietly 
on guard within the stockade and tire out his antagonist in a waiting game. Captam Dal- 
zell, however, insisted in leading his men in a decisive attack against Pontiac's warriors, and 
would take no suggestions from the garrison officers. On July 31, he advanced against the 
Indian camp to the eastward of the fort, being supported by two bateaux, which were to 
open fire with swivels, from the river. 

Disregarding suggestions that he should carefully deploy a skirmish line in advance and 
on the flanks of his main force, Dalzell marched his men in perfect order along the edge of 
the forest. Pontiac anticipated the attack and waited the British in ambush in the vicinity 
of Parent's creek, since known as Bloody Run. A narrow bridge extended across the lowland 
at this point, and it was there that the Indians poured a withering fire into the troops, who 
were completely surprised. Every tree and thicket became ablaze with death spitting fire. 
The English charged the bridge in a fruitless effort to dislodge the as yet unseen enemy. 
Dalzell was shot down and the soldiers were thrown into complete confusion, which would 
have ended in a disastrous rout save for the coolness of one Captain Rogers, who assumed 
command. He succeeded in effecting an orderly retreat to the house of Jacques Campau, 
where he made a stand until reinforced by a party from the fort. With a loss of fifty-nine 
men, killed and captured and a score or more of wounded, the detachment reached the fort 
late on the afternoon of the attack. Some chroniclers assert that the loss to the British in 


this battle of Bloody Run, was far in excess of the above number, and state that only ninety of 
the original two hundred and fifty regained the stockade. 

Though the victory was a decided one for the Indians, Pontiac was made to realize, by 
the arrival of additional men and supplies, that his struggle against a people possessed of ap- 
parently limitless resources was a futile one. His lieutenants, the chiefs of the subsidiary 
tribes, had been successful in the planned destruction of the fort at Mackinac and those at 
other points, but he was forced to admit that he, the leader of the conspiracy and the originator 
of all the plans, had been outwitted. His was the humiliation of being the only chief to fail. 

The autumn found the British in better condition to continue the siege than at any time 
since its origin, while the Indians were without permanent shelter and were lacking in am- 
munition and food for the winter's fighting. General Amherst had made a vigorous protest 
to the French authorities against the attitude of some of the habitants, and this resulted in 
the direction of a decisive communication to the French settlers forbidding the continuance 
of an attitude that might be construed as unfriendly to English interests. Though pos- 
sessed of every advantage for cutting off the fort from supplies and reinforcements, Pontiac 
found himself for some reason unable to accomplish this important detail of his plans. 
This and the failure of the French to afford material aid, finally induced the proud chief to 
bow to the inevitable and to sue for peace. 

Gladwin would consent to but a temporary armistice, sufficient to enable him to secure 
definite orders from General Amherst. This was declared in October, and a letter indited by 
the commandant to his general during that month is of interest in relation to a report of con- 
ditions and a suggestion it contained. In part it reads : "The Indians have lost between 
eighty and ninety of their warriors, but if your excellency still intends to punish them for 
their barbarities it may easier be done, without any expense to the crown, by permitting a free 
sale of rum, which will destroy more effectually than fire and sword." 

An attempt was made to relieve Gladwin, before winter set in, by the dispatching of 
Major Wilkins from Niagara, but the expedition met with disaster and was forced to return 
to await favorable weather for the voyage. It was not until the summer of 1764 that Colonel 
Bradstreet, with a body of troops, arrived from the east to succeed as commandant. Glad- 
win's truce virtually ended the war and his men were given, by its conditions, their first op- 
portunity of leaving the post in security, after a strenuous existence on short rations during 
a period of one hundred and fifty-three days. 

Upon the termination of the Pontiac uprising in 1764, much of the gaiety character- 
istic of the days of the French regime and those of the early English occupation was re- 
sumed at the post. Here civilization met savagery. Reckless coureurs de bois and fantas- 
tically bedecked Indians exchanged the yields of the chase for whatever manufactured prod- 
ucts the settlement traders might offer. Land values advanced by leaps and bounds and their 
increase, together with the advantageous conditions prevailing for trade, fattened the purses 
of both the older inhabitants and the more recent acquisitions to the little colony. 

Even at this time, however, furs formed the basis of all wealth. Heavily laden canoes 
were daily beached on the river's bank and the water front became the general center of a 
lively traffic in beaver pelts. But, as in the days of the French occupancy, the fur trade proved 
itself a menace to the healthful development of the settlement. The traders were ever on 
the alert to forestall any project which sought the further clearing of the forests. They looked 
with growing disfavor on the straggling advance of the line of scattered farms. 

Settlement meant the spoliation of the trapping grounds. The protests of the traders 
found sympathetic ears among the manufacturers and tradesmen in England, for the latter 


were selfishly jealous of any colonial advancement which might result in the establishment 
of western institutions capable of becoming future competitors. 

Beginning with John Bradstreet, the commandant who succeeded Gladwin as English 
chief of affairs, the promotion of individual interests characterized the policy of nearly every 
man in authority. The practice of fleecing the Indians out of their lands became so general 
that strict regulations were necessitated, making illegal the transfer of any lands save by 
treaty through the colonial government. 

What was known as New York currency, the first money that came into circulation in 
Detroit, made its appearance in 1765, and not until that time did the practice of the payment 
of taxes and commercial obligations in pelts begin to be discontinued. As can be easily 
imagined, the change was not appreciated by the Indians, who were loath to accept the new 
medium of exchange. On account of this antipathy, trading was accomplished with no little 
difficulty, and the former unit of value, the beaver skin, threatened for a time to force its 
rival from the field. 

On April 24, 1767, one Philip Dejean was commissioned as the first chief justice of De- 
troit. This appointment was necessitated by increasing complications in the business and 
social relations of the settlers, resulting from the increase in population and the growing im- 
portance of the colony. Unfortunately Dejean, who had left Montreal a bankrupt and had 
come to Detroit to recoup his fortunes, proved a ready accomplice in helping to perfect a rule 
of petty despotism in which succeeding commandants indulged. The appointment proved 
an unfortunate one for everyone who fell into his clutches. To Dejean was given the au- 
thority of draughting nearly all legal documents, conducting public sales and filling generally 
the duties of sheriff, notary and justice of the peace. 

Since the establishment of the colony it had been constantly under military rule, and im- 
mediately following the signing of the treaty of Paris the settlers in the territory affected peti- 
tioned for the establishment of civil authority. Detroit, however, continued to be subject to 
the authority of the military commandants and their appointees, the control of affairs being 
thus largely shirked by the governor general of Canada, who was nominally in power. 

In 1770 what was known as the Northwest Company initiated an aggressive policy of fur 
buying, in opposition to the old Hudson's Bay company, which had at that time enjoyed 
nearly one hundred years of almost complete monopoly of the fur business. Rival traders 
resorted to such lawlessness in inducing the various Indian tribes of the northwest to bring 
their peltries to their respective masters that only the happy merging of the rival companies 
averted serious trouble. Rum was offered lavishly as a successful inducement to the Indians, 
and the authorities either winked at the practice or were unable to prevent its continuance, 
according to the varying conditions in different parts of Canada. Major Bradstreet was 
forced to appeal to the Canadian governor for protection against the smuggling of spirits. 

The smouldering jealousies of the commercial interests in England that had been in evi- 
dence since the establishment of the British at Detroit, but which were directed chiefly 
against the New England colonies, took definite form in 1774, when sufficient pressure was 
brought to bear on parliament, despite the efforts of some of England's wisest statesmen, to 
insure the passage of the Quebec act. This affected the entire territory west of New York 
and north of the Ohio river. It was evidently intended to prevent the settlement of the west- 
ern country, for it practically deprived every settler of the benefits of the English law, except 
in criminal cases. 

The passage of this act was not the least of the grievances which a few years later 
drove the colonists to that rebellion which deprived the English crown of her most valuable 


possession and cost her more dearly than any other event in her history. In referring to the 
act, the Declaration of Independence says that the mother government has set aside "the free 
system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary govern- 
ment so as to render it an example and a fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule 
into these colonies." Despite these measures, the wave of adventure drove the settlers stead- 
ily westward. They seemed to thrive on adverse circumstance, though no one perhaps real- 
ized that their coming was but the foreshadowing of the birth of a nation more powerful 
and far greater than the world had seen. 

The policy adopted by the English home government relative to the administration of 
civil rights for the Detroit colony was, in a mild way, comparatively a replica of the general 
attitude manifest toward the American colonies as a whole. Short-sighted jealousy continued 
to characterize the treatment accorded those who sought the upbuilding of the frontier settle- 
ments and the fuller development of the rich natural resources even then known to exist in 
the territories. Obstinacy met obstinacy. The pioneers were roused to increased determina- 
tion. Faint murmers of protest, broached timidly at first, found ready ear. Soon it became 
apparent that the spirit rapidly rising in the Atlantic colonies was healthily incubating in the 
heart of the more remote wilderness. Under less thoroughly established social and political 
restrictions, the first evidence of a mild ferment of discontent was more readily discernible 
in the west, perhaps, than in the older and more substantially established commonwealths. 
Early in the '70s the king's representatives in the Northwest became aware of the impending 
menace and straightway plans were set on foot for the strengthening of the fort at Detroit. 

At this time the middle west, that territory lying to the north and south of the Ohio 
river, west of its origin, was rapidly filling with a hardy admixture of the more adventurous 
of the Pennsylvanians and Virginians — a rough, fearless vanguard, such as has ever cut a 
pathway for civilization. The smoldering ruins of log cabins that had stood as lonely out- 
posts of the pioneer advance, and the pillaged villages of the Indians bore mute evidence of 
a warfare of extermination, — evidence of the resistance offered the white man's coming. 
Lust and greed and murder and torture stalked side by side through the forest — grim phantoms 
of destruction. The governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, placed an army in command of 
General Lewis and from Fort Pitt, at the present site of Pittsburg, frequent sorties were 
made against the Indians. Though the punishment thus inflicted was severe, it but tended to 
impress upon the savage mind a hatred for the colonists that only subsequent events were 
destined to fathom. 

When, in 1775, England awoke to the fact that a struggle on the part of the colonies 
for their political rights and independence was inevitable, the strategic importance of the 
Detroit post, as well as the supremacy of the inland lakes, became of apparent value. De- 
troit afforded an ideal base from which to annoy the colonies from the rear and in the Indians, 
already in an inflammable state against the settlers, the British were quick to see a weapon 
at once merciless and effective. Whatever losses might be sustained by these ferocious 
allies would be a matter of little concern to the crown, while the damage they were able to 
accomplish would be that much clear gain. As an additional advantage, whatever atrocities 
might be committed could be easily condemned by a shocked and deeply horrified government 
that, pretending to wage only an honorable and civilized warfare, would find itself in a posi- 
tion to readily shift all responsibility. From the British point of view the conditions then 
existing in the west and at Detroit were ideal. They were rather impiously declared to be the 
direct result of an interposition of "Divine Providence." Vainly a few Englishmen pro- 
tested against the sullying of the British arms through association in the coming struggle with 


the tomahawk and scalping knife. In vain did the governor-general himself warn the gov- 
ernment that the Indians, once loosed, could not be restrained. But the "Divine Provi- 
dence" argument prevailed with the king. Three lieutenant governors were appointed — one 
for each of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes and Mackinac. Though much confusion attended 
these appointments and some difference of opinion is expressed as to the source of the au- 
thority under which the offices were created, it appears that the major functions of such ap- 
pointees included the distribution of gifts to the Indians and the exacting from them of 
loyalty to the British cause and service under arms in return. As the colonial secretary, the 
Earl of Dartmouth, who is generally credited with having made the appointments, failed 
to clearly define the exact status of the ofificials named, frequent clashes in authority resulted 
between the lieutenant governors and the military commandants at the three posts, much to 
the embarrassment of all the officials and the demoralization of discipline. 

Captain Henry Hamilton, who received the appointment as lieutenant governor at 
Detroit, pounced upon the revenues of the post immediately after his arrival in 1775, and 
through a most notorious connivance with the unscrupulous Philip Dejean, so-called chief 
justice, he inaugurated a system of petty graft and plunder that outshone the flagrant acts 
of even the most dishonest of the earlier French commandants. The partnership between 
these two spoilers seems to have been happily consummated for their mutual advantage. 
Dejean in his legal capacity had jurisdiction over civil cases at Detroit and even went so 
far as to assume authority in criminal matters that ought properly to have been referred to 
the courts at Quebec. The pair became at once the terror of every citizen; no one was 
immune from their greed. The most unreasonable and extortionate fines were imposed as 
the result of convictions on the flimsiest of charges. Apparently neither of the conspirators 
was satisfied until the interests of his friends were furthered, those of his enemies tyrani- 
cally checked and the last shilling wrung from the unfortunate debtors who fell into his 

Bitter was the feeling of the colonists against Dejean ; a petition bearing the signature 
of nearly every resident at Detroit was presented to the governor general, asking that the 
post be relieved of its chief justice, but no action was taken. Repeated demands for De- 
jean's removal from office and the filing of specific charges of extortion resulted finally, 
however, in a grand-jury investigation of affairs. This was held at Montreal in 1778. 
Eventually indictments were found against both Dejean and Hamilton, though neither of the 
culprits was ever brought to trial. 


Detroit's Position at Inception of Revolution — Hamilton's Execrable Policies — Indian Atroci- 
ties — Expeditions From Detroit During Revolution — Settlers Oppose Hamilton's 
Plans — Expedition of Indian Allies Under Girty — Attack on Detroit Planned by 
Americans — The Wyoming Valley Massacre — Expedition Under George Rogers 
Clark — Hamilton's Expedition from Detroit to Vincennes — Capitulation of Hamil- 

The moment the Revolution was in progress Detroit assumed much the same position, 
relative to the actual belligerents, that it had occupied during the previous struggle between 
the French and the British. As then, it served as a most important base for the distribu- 
tion of supplies and troops, but it was never the scene of a real encounter, although grave 
fears were entertained by the citizens, on more than one occasion, that the settlement and 
fort would be razed. Lieutenant Governor Hamilton made the most of every opportunity 
for galling the colonists, and, as arch demon in inciting the savages to almost untold atroc- 
ities, his activities were such as well to justify his selection for the purpose. 

Thousands of barrels of rum and unlimited supplies of scalping knives were distrib- 
uted to the allies with a generosity unprecedented under the rule of former English offi- 
cials. Messengers were sent calling the more distant tribes to council at Detroit. Barbecues 
were held in the streets of the town and the Indians were made to see that the colonists were 
not only a wicked and dangerous people, who were conspiring against the "White Father," 
but who also sought to possess themselves of the land. It was pointed out that they would 
succeed unless the Indians came to the aid of their white brothers in a war of extermina- 
tion. Aside from numerous trinkets and gaudy baubles calculated to catch the savage fancy, 
rifles, powder and ball were presented promiscuously. Through his interpreters Hamilton 
even went so far as to attempt to duplicate the forms of savage mummery characteristic of 
the usual Indian ceremonials. He chanted war songs and drove knives or hatchets into 
various grotesque effigies representing the common enemies of the Indians and British. 

All of Hamilton's flattery, however, was useless when he attempted to induce the natives 
to take the field against the settlers, unaccompanied by British soldiers and officers. Appar- 
ently no stratagem of which he was capable was sufficient to blind his allies to his real inten- 
tions. If his zeal was genuine, it was obvious, the Indians said, that he would want his own 
men to partake of the glories of the conflict. Daily the lieutenant governor was artfully 
drawn further and further into the meshes of an insatiable ravage greed for presents and 
still more presents. Every endeavor to maintain the scheme of elaborate generosity which 
he had at first initiated but brought him into sharper conflict with Captain Lord, the mili- 
tary commander, who, as a result of frequent quarrels, was eventually transferred to 
Niagara. Captain Richard Beranger Lernoult succeeded Lord at the post. 

Again agents were sent to make friends with remote tribes and so many Indians 
hastened to avail themselves of the free rum, muskets, ammunition, blankets and addi- 
tional gifts that Detroit soon became the Mecca toward which all trails led. But no 
one was inclined toward the hardships of the warpath so long as there was feasting and 
speechmaking to be accomplished and enjoyed. As much as two barrels of rum were 



required daily for the entertainment of England's guests, not to mention fattened oxen 
publicly roasted before the fort. Though this expense became the subject of repeated 
protests from the governor general, Hamilton seemed unable to obtain the desired results 
on a more conservative basis and the practice became chronic. 

The first few war parties sent out from the fort were immediately successful. Each 
returned with numerous prisoners taken from captured settlements. Each was accorded 
a hilarious welcome. More oxen were roasted and additional rum was distributed as a 
fitting feature of the celebration and as a special reward to the victors. As the prisoners 
had to be sent to Montreal or Quebec for confinement and as the trouble and expense 
attending such disposition were considerable, the artful Hamilton hit upon an atrocious 
scheme of economy. He suggested heartlessly to his allies that scalps furnished excellent 
evidence of results accomplished by the faithful and could be handled much more conve- 
niently than prisoners. This suggestion gained the lieutenant governor the pseudonym of 
"Hair Buyer." To the unending shame of England it must be said that the practice of 
buying scalps, classified as having been taken from men, women and children and paid 
for accordingly, is a matter of actual record. 

Many of the letters comprising Hamilton's correspondence with his superiors — letters 
received and preserved by them — contain invoices of bale after bale of scalps for which the 
savages were paid varying amounts from the exchequer of his Gracious Majesty the 
King. These letters make patent the fact that the "scalp buyer's" superiors were not only 
cognizant of but winked at and permitted these disgraceful dealings with the allies. 

When Dr. Benjamin Franklin was pleading the American cause at the court of France, 
he submitted among other evidences of atrocious British practices characteristic of their 
conduct of the war, the following letter. The communication is purported to have been 
written by a British officer and to have been intercepted while in transmission to Hamilton 
at Detroit : 

"At the request of a Seneca chief, I hereby send to your excellency, under care of 
James Hoyd, eight packages of scalps, cured, dried, hooped and painted with all the tri- 
umphal marks, and of which consignment tliis is an invoice and explanation. Package 
number 143, scalps of Congress soldiers, inside painted red with a small black dot to show that 
they were killed by bullets; those painted brown and marked with a hoe, denote that the 
soldiers were killed while at their farms; those marked with a black ring denote that the 
persons were surprised by night ; those marked with a black hatchet denote that the persons 
were killed with the tomahawk. Package number 2, 98 farmers' scalps; a white circle 
denotes that they were surprised in the day time; those with a red foot denote that the 
men stood their ground and fought in the defense of their wives and families. Number 

3, 97 farmers' scalps ; the green hoops denote that they were killed in the fields. Number 

4, 102 farmers' scalps; eighteen are marked with a yellow flame to show that they died 
by torture ; the one with the black hand attached belonged to a clergyman. Number 5, 
88 scalps of women; those with the braided hair were mothers. Number 6, 193 boys' 
scalps. Number 7, 211 girls' scalps. Number 8, 122 scalps of all sorts; among them are 
twenty-nine infant scalps, and those marked with the small white hoops denote that the 
child was unborn at the time the mother was killed. The chief of the Senecas sends this 
message : 'Father, we send you here these many scalps that you may see that we are not 
idle friends. We wish you to send these scalps to the great king that he may regard them 
and be refreshed; and that he may see our faithfulness in destroying his enemies and be 
convinced that his presents are appreciated.' " 


Thus labored the alHes that a Christian king might be "refreshed" ; thus did defense- 
less women and unborn babes become the price of rum and gaudy trinkets; thus were the 
arms of an empire, the honor of a people, dragged in the mire of shame and lust, to be 
smeared with a disgrace that will endure until the end of time. 

Chief of Hamilton's lieutenants in leading the raiding parties against the settlements 
were Simon Girty; his two brothers, James and George; Alexander McKee and Mathew 
Elliott. The mention of either of these names struck terror to the hearts of the defense- 
less during the early Revolutionary days, and it is probable that no country was ever 
cursed with the presence of a more unscrupulous set of men. The last two were deserters 
from the colonial forces under General Lewis at Fort Pitt, but the Girtys were avowedly 
Tories. Major William Caldwell, Captains Henry Bird and John Butler, of the British 
regulars, and officers from the French militia at Detroit, were also directed to the occasional 
joint command of the allies. 

The number of expeditions setting out from Detroit and the number of unwarranted 
and merciless murders committed under British rule, from 1777 to the termination of the 
Revolution and beyond are impossible of enumeration liere. Raids were made into Ohio, 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and were generally successful. The demand for men in 
the defense of the country against the regular British forces in the east left the western 
settlements but poorly guarded. Many a block house fell after a siege in which women 
fought side by side with a handful of men in heroic resistance to a host of yelling savages 
reinforced by England's trained soldiery. The pioneers not only suffered hardship and pri- 
vation but also endured unspeakable tortures and finally sacrificed their lives that the fron- 
tier might not be pushed further eastward. The fledgeling colonial government, with a 
war on its hands in the east, was powerless to send relief to the west. Such an attempt 
meant the traversing of hundreds of miles 'of savage-infested wilderness, through which 
it was impossible to transport artillery or military supplies. Advance by water also was 
impossible. By the summer of 1777 the British had established the beginnings of a navy 
on the Great Lakes. The schooner "Gladwin" was supplemented by the building of several 
craft, and a regular rate of pay for officers and sailors quickly recruited adequate crews. 
Though the ships were comparatively small they were sufficiently formidable to be capable 
of maintaining an efficient police service. They were mostly used, however, in continuing 
communication with Mackinac and in transporting troops and supplies to Detroit. All 
vessels navigating waters west of Lake Ontario were required to register at the latter port. 

Few victories of importance fell to the allied arms until 1778. By this time the settlers 
had become thoroughly aroused to the necessity of offering some armed resistance to Ham- 
ilton's plans. Counter raiding parties advanced into Ohio and Indiana from Kentucky and 
at Fort Pitt an attack was planned on Detroit. Two forts. Fort Mcintosh and Fort Laurens, 
were built on Beaver creek and the Tuscarawas river respectively, both being located in 
southern Ohio. Colonial General Gibson was detailed to the western service by George 
Washington and at once occupied Fort Laurens. It was planned that he advance on 
Detroit after wintering at the fort. 

Just at this time Hamilton's former plan for the esablishment of an Indian confed- 
eracy stood him in good stead. He had sent Simon Girty, who was well versed in Indian 
customs and dialects, to nearly every savage village of consequence. Girty's influence 
with the Indians was phenomenal; as a result of his activities the British relationship with 
almost every tribe was considerably strengthened. News of the erection of the Ohio forts 
was quickly brought to Detroit by Girty's converts and even Gibson's intention of advanc- 


ing northward was made known to Hamilton. Girty, who was an old-time enemy of 
Gibson, was given command of between seven hundred and eight hundred Indians and 
ordered to capture Fort Laurens. He set out with alacrity on this quest for more scalps, 
but the intervention of an unexpected circumstance partially thwarted his plans. Prior 
to this time a religious sect, the Moravians, or as they styled themselves, "The United 
Brethren in Christ," had gained a secure foothold in Ohio. The order, which had originally 
settled in the south, in 1735, had later moved to Pennsylvania. Coming from that state, 
missionaries, who sought the conversion of the Indians, had established a branch church 
and settlement at Gnadenhutten, near Fort Laurens. Always seeking the promotion of 
peace, the Moravian belief held to the principle of "turning the other cheek" when attacked 
and discountenanced resistance, either in the defense of property or life. 

Through some of the converted Indians news of Girty's advance reached David Zeis- 
berger, the missionary at Gnadenhutten. Zeisberger immediately informed Gibson of the 
impending attack and advised him to keep his men within the walls of the Laurens stockade. 
Gibson at once dispatched a portion of his force to Fort Mcintosh, in quest of reinforce- 
ments and supplies. The relief party vvas attacked on its return, several men were killed 
and scalped in plain sight of Gibson's redoubt, and letters to the commander were taken 
by Girty's men. The captured letters contained complete details of the planned attack of 
the Americans on the Detroit post. Gibson now realized the value of his missionary 
friend's advice and kept so closely within the fort that Girty's men withdrew after a short 
siege. Captain Bird arrived from Detroit with a strong force of Indians shortly after- 
ward. He in turn besieged the fort, but was unsuccessful save for the killing in ambush 
of a small party of wagoners from the fort. Though Gibson succeeded in holding Fort 
Laurens, the enemy were in possession of his plans and this, coupled with the losses he 
had sustained, necessitated the abandonment of the Detroit attack. 

In the same year Captain Bird, of the British forces, fell victim to a disappointment in 
love. Apparently, save American scalps, nothing could divert his mind from the tortures 
_of his heart. He accordingly set out from Detroit with John Butler and a party of rangers 
and Indians. The object of the expedition was an attack upon Butler's former neighbors 
in Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania. Butler was originally from Connecticut. Nearly every 
man of the Americans was absent with the colonial army and the allies found the valley 
but poorly defended. The settlers, fearing a savage butchery in case they surrendered, 
retired within a small fort. Butler followed the usual trick of showing only a portion of 
his force and then retreating, in order to invite pursuit. His main body of savages remained 
hidden in ambush. The settlers advanced, only to be surrounded and tomahawked in their 
tracks. Nearly two hundred scalps were taken to assuage Captain Bird's tortured mind. 
Meanwhile the fort was fired and nearly all the settlers perished in the flames rather than 
submit to the tortures they knew were certain once they asked for mercy. Few escaped. 
The neighboring Cherry Valley was also attacked successfully and more Americans were 
tortured, killed and scalped. For this service to his gracious majesty, Butler was given a 
grant of some five thousand acres of land and a substantial annuity. 

Similar raids were organi.?:ed and sent into Ohio during 1778, from the posts at Vin- 
cennes, Indiana, and Kaskaskia. Illinois. These were ostensibly launched in furtherance 
of a treaty agreement between England and Spain, to the efifect that the settlements must 
not encroach on territory claimed by the latter power east of the Alleghanies. 


Every such raid was but a replica of its predecessor and but helped to swell the list 
of outright murders and tortures for which the then greatest government in the world 
must ever be held directly responsible. 

Toward the close of 1778 a second attempt was made by the Americans to administer 
some punishment for these depredations. General Brodhead, of the colonial regulars, was 
sent into Ohio with a force of between two thousand and three thousand men. Indian 
runners promptly bore news of the advance to Hamilton. The whole settlement at Detroit 
was immediately thrown into consternation by the conclusion that Brodhead's objective 
point could be none other than the Detroit post. Though the garrison had been kept in 
fighting order since the beginning of the Revolution, Captain Lernoult, now a major, 
suddenly realized that the fort was not sufficiently strong to withstand well directed artil- 
lery fire. Strategically it occupied a poor position, because of higher ground to the north. 
The only recourse was the erection of a second fort on the elevation. Accordingly what 
became known as Fort Lernoult was hastily built on the present site of the Detroit federal 
building. It was rectangular in shape and was flanked by effective bastions at the four 
comers. Brodhead's advance, however, terminated at a point in the Maumee valley, nearly 
one hundred miles from Detroit. 

Fortunately for the settlers, one man, Colonel George Rogers Clark, of Kentucky, not 
only saw the advantage to the colonial government of the capture of Detroit, but was 
undismayed by the difficulties of a wilderness campaign. Again and again he besought 
the American leaders for an army. Though he was known to be an intrepid fighter, his 
personal habits were such as to discredit his requests at a time when the government 
was so hard pressed for men and stores ; in addition to this he had numerous and powerful 
enemies. Not discouraged by repeated refusals of a command, the capture of Detroit 
became his life ambition. He believed that if he could but succeed in taking the posts in 
Indiana and Illinois the colonial government would then give him command of a force 
adequate for the more serious undertaking. 

With such a plan in view, Clark set out in the fall of 1778 with something more than 
five hundred rangers and woodsmen, for the posts at Kaskaskia, Kahokia and Vincennes. 
Though his followers were poorly equipped and were unversed in the approved military 
tactics, they were Indian fighters, every man of them. Inured to hardship and want, they 
fought largely for the love of fighting ; they needed no direction in the handling of their 
long, brown rifles ; they lacked nothing of courage and dash ; they knew how to move quickly 
and quietly. 

The garrison at Kaskaskia was completly surprised. Every village in Illinois was in 
terror of the "Long Knives," as the Kentuckians were called. Both the settlers and the 
British soldiers had heard of and feared the vengeance of the southerners. Many of 
the inhabitants were French. They sent a deputation to Clark offering themselves as his 
slaves if he would but protect them from his men. The British were informed that they 
would come to no harm if the post was surrendered peacefully, and great rejoicing and 
expressions of allegiance to the American cause followed Clark's announcement to the 
French that they might remain in their homes in perfect security. The post was surren- 
dered, as was later Kahokia, without the firing of a shot. The French at Vincennes were 
informed by the Kaskaskians of the latter's treatment at the hands of Clark, and Vincennes 
was also surrendered without resistance. The Wyoming Valley massacre, under Bird, 
and the capture of Kaskaskia, under George Rogers Clark, took place on the same day, — 
July 3, 1778. 


The advance northward had continuously tended to deplete the ranks of his little army, 
and now Clark found himself unable to hold the posts he had taken. Believing in the 
expressions of loyalty as voiced by the French, he decided to retire to Kaskaskia to await 
reinforcements. He left but two men in charge of the fort at Vincennes. The expected 
reinforcements consisted of one hundred men under command of Colonel Archibald Lochry, 
who attempted to advance from Pennsylvania. Unknown to Clark, Lochry's entire party 
were ambushed and killed near the Ohio by a large force of Indians under George Girty 
and Joseph Brant, of Detroit. 

Day after day Clark awaited assistance which never came. Meanwhile refugees from 
Vincennes had reached Detroit with news of the American success, and Hamilton set 
about organizing an expedition for the recapture of the British posts. The French refusing 
to fight, Vincennes was easily retaken. The situation of the Americans became desperate. 
They were hundreds of miles from a base of supplies and could not successfully retreat 
before an enemy well equipped for pursuit. Hamilton's force, which consisted of a portion 
of a regiment of English regulars, a detachment of French militia and nearly two hundred 
Indians, had established itself within the retaken fort at Vincennes. There was nothing 
for Clark to do but attack. This he did. With unparalleled boldness he planned to 
surprise Hamilton in his fort. The melting of a heavy snow practically flooded the country 
and Hamilton had delayed proceeding against Clark until the waters subsided. This 
afforded Clark his opportunity. 

Placing his supplies and a few men in canoes, he led the main body of his army of 
one hundred and fifty men toward Vincennes, by a circuitous route, keeping clear of the 
trails in order to avoid sentinels and outposts. For four days his men advanced, submerged 
to their shoulders in the icy water and carrying their knapsacks on their heads. Marshes 
and swamps were crossed and at times the hardships seemed almost unbearable, but they 
were Kentuckians and they had started for Vincennes to fight the British. 

Arrived before Vincennes, Clark issued a proclamation warning British sympathizers 
to retire within the fort and offering enlistment in his own ranks to those who espoused the 
American cause. He kept his little army carefully secluded, that Hamilton might not 
become aware of its limited strength. Hamilton, always a coward, quite mistook the real 
situation and remained carefully behind the redoubts with his forces. The Kentuckians 
fought in true frontier style. The showmg of a head above the stockade meant the crack 
of a rifle directed with deadly aim. Every available bit of cover near the fort concealed a 
merciless agent of destruction. Finally Clark resorted to a time-worn ruse. Hamilton's 
garrison awoke one morning to find two cannon trained on the gate of their fort. Their 
provisions were extremely low. and this new danger not only threw the commander into a 
state of abject terror but also completely demoralized his entire force. Clark was imme- 
diately asked for terms of surrender. He sent word that surrender must be unconditional 
and that the British must evacuate the territory and turn over all arms and supplies. 
Hamilton dared not strike his flag under such conditions and the siege was continued. 
He afterward learned, much to his chagrin, that the two "cannon" were nothing more 
formidable than logs painted black and mounted on gun carriages. 

Philip Dejean, who had accompanied Hamilton on the expedition to Vincennes, had 
been, upon the arrival of Clark's forces before that place, ordered to return to Detroit for 
supplies and reinforcements. Word of this reached Clark. The Americans were also 
informed that Dejean's relief expedition had set out for Vincennes in canoes and bateaux, 
with some fifty thousand dollars' worth of stores. This was a prize worth taking. Clark 


sent half his force to intercept Dejean on the Wabash. The British were successfully sur- 
prised and the stores, together with several soldiers and Indians, were captured. A few 
of the savages were scalped before the redoubt at Vincennes, for Hamilton's benefit, and a 
few whites were allowed to escape to the fort to tell its commander of the disaster. On 
the following day, March 5, 1779, Vincennes was surrendered on Clark's terms and Ham- 
ilton, Dejean and officers of the British regulars were dispatched under escort to Fort Pitt 
as prisoners of war. 

For this magnificent service to the colonial cause Clark was voted a resolution of 
"thanks" by the legislature of Virginia; some time later he was grudgingly given the 
rather empty title of general. Though his ultimate object throughout the Vincennes cam- 
paign had been the storming of Detroit and the termination of the outrages perpetrated 
by the British and Indians, he now found his force inadequate for further advance into the 
enemy's country. Vainly he besought the colonial authorities for reinforcements. This 
man, who had mustered his own army and led them to victory; this "general" who had 
accomplished, without even the knowledge of Washington, more than any other soldier 
sent into the northwest up to that time, was completely ignored. Correspondence between 
Thomas Jefferson and General George Washington indicates that the former at least appre- 
ciated Clark's abilities as a fighter. Jefferson repeatedly attempted to have Clark provided 
with a respectable command, but Brodhead, of the colonial forces, who had been given one 
opportunity and had failed, was still ambitious. Extreme jealousy between that officer and 
Clark ultimately defeated the Detroit expedition. In spite of promises of assistance, Clark 
was finally refused troops with which to follow up his achievement and was left to extri- 
cate his little command frorn its precarious position as best he might. The vantage point 
gained by the suffering and bravery of the Kentuckians and by the courage and dash of 
their commander was abandoned with the thanks of Virginia. • 

Clark returned to the Ohio river to renew his pleadings for an army. He led several 
successful attacks against the Indians in the Ohio country during 1783, but was obliged 
to see the ambition of his life — the command of a real military force — given to a less 
capable man than himself. Finally he was allowed to die in loneliness and neglect in Ken- 
tucky, heartbroken because his powerful enemies in the east remembered that he was high 
tempered and occasionally intemperate. 


Strengthening of the Detroit Post Under DePeyster — Expedition Against the Moravian 
Villages in Ohio. 

Shortly after the capture of Hamilton, Colonel DePeyster, formerly stationed at Macki- 
nac, was dispatched to Detroit. The British, realizing that the Detroit post would be sub- 
jected to constant danger of capture so long as Clark remained in the field, strengthened their 
forces at Detroit by sending west a considerable force from Niagara. 

With the evident purpose of discouraging any further expeditions north, Captain Bird 
was sent from Detroit to carry the war into the enemy's country.- In the spring of 1780 he 
set out for Kentucky with a force of some six hundred Indians and rangers. Arrived before 
Ruddle's Station, Captain Bird accepted the surrender of the settlers on the understanding 
that the latter were to be prisoners of the British and not of the Indians. He was unable 
to control the allies, however, and the usual Indian massacre took place. Following the 
attack and capture of two other small settlements, it became apparent to Captain Bird that 
his Indians intended to pay no heed to his commands. On this account he returned to 
Detroit, accomplishing only in part the objects of his mission. 

During these years the Moravians had kept steadily at the task of Christianizing the 
Indians. David Zeisberger, chief of the missionaries, had accomplished such results with 
the Delawares that that tribe refused to ally itself with the British and remained neutral. 
These Indians devoted themselves to agricultural pursuits and established permanent settle- 
ments on the Muskingum. The British had long felt that in Zeisberger's zeal for the suc- 
cess of the American cause was to be found an explanation of the readiness with which 
colonial officers gained information of British affairs. Colonel DePeyster therefore 
directed Alexander McKee, Indian agent, to eliminate the Moravians from what was 
becoming an embarrassing situation. McKee attempted to incite both the Iroquois and Chip- 
pewas against the Moravian villages in southern Ohio, but neither would consent to take 
the warpath against the Delawares. Finally Colonel Mathew Elliott, of Detroit, proceeded 
to the Moravian villages and sent the missionaries, their women and children, to Detroit. 
Their unharvested crops were abandoned in the fields. After remaining at Detroit for sev- 
eral months the missionaries, with their converted Indian followers, were sent to Ohio, 
under command of a Wyandotte chief. Their supplies running short, a considerable body 
of converts were sent to the Muskingum settlements for the unharvested grain. While 
there, they were attacked by a body of Pennsylvania militia under Colonel Williamson and 
were mercilessly slaughtered. This unfortunate occurrence seems to have been due to a 
misunderstanding on the part of the Pennsyh-anians. The latter mistook the innocent vic- 
tims for a party of hostile Delawares, against whom a campaign was in progress. The 
neutral Delawares refused to ally themselves with the American cause and later joined 
the British, the incident of the slaughter by the Pennsylvanians probably influencing them 
strongly in this decision. 

The Pennsylvanians paid dearly for their mistake when Colonel Crawford's command 
was met, in the spring of 1782, by a party of Delawares under Simon Girty. The most 


extreme cruelties the savages could invent were visited upon Crawford, who had become 
separated with several others from his fleeing command. Captain Pipe, chief of the Dela- 
wares and formerly a friend of the Americans, led in the tortures. 

During the same year Simon Girty, Elliott and McKee were sent as lieutenants under 
Major William Caldwell to visit the settlements of the Delawares and Miamis in Ohio. 
Caldwell established camp at a point near the present site of Piqua and from there set out 
on a raid against Bryan's Station in Kentucky. Failing in this, he met a force under Colonel 
John Todd, of Kentucky. Todd's men were led into ambush and nearly eighty 
were either killed, scalped or taken prisoners. Girty felt that the Moravians were 
again giving information to the Americans. He sent eight missionaries, among whom was 
Ziesberger, to Detroit. Upon their arrival, DePeyster gave them the option of returning 
to their congregations in Pennsylvania or settling in Michigan near Detroit. Deciding on 
the latter course, land belonging to the Chippewas, near the present city of Mount Clemens, 
was allotted to them. The Moravians christened the new settlement New Gnadenhutten, 
and though they erected some forty houses, they were soon destined to be forced to move 
again. When the Revolution was terminated, during the next year, the Chippewas claimed 
the land and Zeisberger and his followers were allowed to return to the former Gnaden- 
hutten in Ohio. Some went to Canada. In general the missionaries and their followers 
were treated with kindness and courtesy by the Detroit authorities. Upon their final 
departure from the post they were paid between two hundred and three hundred dollars 
for their houses and cleared lands at Mount Clemens. They left Detroit on board two sail- 
ing vessels. A Moravian settlement was established six years later on the banks of the 
Thames river in Canada. 


Problems in Northwest After Close of Revolution — Extravagant Demands of the English — 
Report of Ephraim Douglass — Washington Demands Surrender of Forts in Dis- 
puted Territory — Missions of Baron Steuben — Lieutenant Colonel Hull — English 
Refuse Demands and Regain Indian Prestige — Harmar's Disastrous Expedition — 
Commissioners Appointed to Effect Treaties with the Indians — Fruitless Results — 
General Anthony Wajme Advanced Into the West — President Washington's Mes- 
sage — Conflict at Fort Recovery — Wayne's Subsequent Movements — Battle of 
Fallen Timber — Wayne's Treaty with the Indians. 

Of the events following the treaty terminating the Revolution, the question of the occu- 
pancy of the northwest was one of the most embarrassing. The embryonic colonial govern- 
ment claimed the territory between the Ohio river and the lakes, in accordance with the terms 
of the new agreement. The British refused to evacuate the disputed country under a double 
pretext. They claimed that their commissioners had not rightly understood the conditions 
of the agreement that gave the colonies this territory. Likewise they asserted that the 
colonies had forfeited any right ttiey might have had in the matter through their failure to 
carry out certain terms of the treaty. These terms had to do with the payment of obliga- 
tions owed to English traders by American merchants. The already unpopular court party 
in England found itself in a position to yield gracefully to the demands of the combined 
English and Canadian financial interests in establishing a policy quite in accord with its 
own desires — a policy of delay. Smarting under its defeat at arms, and realizing the extent 
to which the Indian situation in the west would handicap the fledgling states, the crown 
apparently determined to bully the colonies into yielding. 

Repeated demands for possession of the forts at Niagara, Mackinac and Detroit met 
first with evasions, then with persistent refusals. But congress determined to ignore the 
possibility of any such misunderstanding. It proceeded with the business of effecting treaties 
with the Indians very much as though no dispute existed. Obviously it was England's 
play to attempt to forestall this process. In this her relationship with the savages was a 
decided advantage. 

Perhaps the best idea of the British attitude is gained from the report of Ephraim 
Douglass, who was sent by the secretary of war to counsel with the Indians. Of his expe- 
rience with British officers he reported in August, 1784: 


In obedience to the instructions you honored me with on the 5th of May last, I have 
used every endeavor in my power to execute in the fullest manner your orders. * * * 
Captain Pipe, who is the principal man of the nation (Dela wares), received me with every 
demonstration of joy, * * * but told me as his nation was not the principal one, nor 
had voluntarily engaged in the war, it would be proper for me first to communicate my 
business to the Hurons and Shawnese, and afterwards to the Delawares. That he had 
announced my arrival to the Hurons and expected such of them as were at home would 
very shortly be over to see and welcome me. This soon happened as he had expected, but 
as none of their chiefs were present, I declined speaking publicly to them, knowing that I 
could receive no authentic answer, and unwilling to expend unnecessarily the wampum I 



had prepared for this occasion. I informed them for their satisfaction of the peace with 
England, and told them that the United States were disposed to be in friendship with Indians 
also, — desired them to send for their head men, particularly for the Half King, chief of the 
.Wyandottes at Brownstown, who was gone to Detroit. * * * The Hurons, neverthe- 
less, failed sending to Detroit, partly through the want of authority in the old men present 
and partly through the assurance of the wife of the Half King, who was confident her hus- 
band would be home in two days, and therefore a journey which would require six or seven 
was altogether unnecessary. On the evening of the i8th a runner arrived from the Miami 
with the intelligence that Mr. Elliott had received dispatches from Detroit announcing the 
arrival of Sir John Johnson at that place; that in consequence the chiefs and warriors were 
desired to repair thither in a few days, where the council would be held with them. * * * 
Pipe pressed me to accompany him to Detroit, assuring me that it would be useless to wait 
the coming, of the Indians from the Miami, that they would spend their time in useless 
counciling there till the treaty of Detroit would come on, and that if I even could assemble 
them I could obtain nothing from the interview. That if the Half King was present he 
would not undertake to give me an answer without consulting the chiefs of the Huron 
tribe at Detroit, and that these would determine nothing without first asking the advice of 
their Father the Commandant. When I arrived at Detroit, where I was received with 
much politeness and treated with great civility by the commandant, to whom I delivered 
your letters, showed your instructions and pressed for an opportunity of communicating 
them to the Indians as soon as might be. He professed the strongest desire of bringing 
about a reconciliation between the United States and the several Indian nations ; declared 
that he would willingly promote it all in his power; but that until he was authorized by his 
superiors in command, he could not consent that anything should be said to the Indians 
relative to the boundary of the United States ; for though he knew from the king's procla- 
mation that the war with America was at an end, he had no official information to justify 
his supposing the states extended to this place, and therefore could not consent to the 
Indians being told so; especially as he had uniformly declared to them that he did not know 
these posts were to be evacuated by the English. He had no objection, he said, to com- 
municating the friendly offers of the United States, and would cheerfully make known to 
them the substance of your letter to him. In the morning of the 5th I received an inti- 
mation from Colonel E)ePeyster, through Captain McKee, that it was his wish that I would 
go on to Niagara as soon as I had recovered from the fatigue of my journey. In conse- 
quence of this I waited on him in the afternoon and pressed with greater warmth than 
yesterday the necessity of my speaking with the Indians and receiving an answer from them. 
I pressed him to suffer me to proceed on my business without his interference, and offered 
him my word that I would say nothing to them respecting the limits of the states, but con- 
fine myself to the offer of peace or choice of war, and the invitation to treaty. He would 
not retract his resolution without further orders from the commander in chief, and I was 
obliged to submit, however unwillingly ; but must do him the justice to acknowledge that 
he made every offer of civility and service except that which he considered inconsistent with 
his duty. On the 6th I attended the council which Colonel DePeyster held with the Indians, 
to which he had yesterday invited me. After delivering his business of calling them together, 
he published to them your letter and pressed them to continue in the strictest amity with the 
subjects of the United States, representing to them the folly of continuing hostilities and 
assured them that he could by no means give them any further assistance against the people 
of America. * * * Qj^ ^]-^q morning of the 7th I took my leave of Colonel DePeyster, 
after having received more civilities from him than the limits of this report will suffer me to 
enumerate; * * * j arrived at Niagara on the nth, was introduced to General Mac- 
Lean, who was prepared for my coming, delivered him Colonel DePeyster's letter, and was 
received with every mark of attention, but he declined entering upon any business this day. 
On the evening of the 13th I received a note from the general requesting a copy of my 
instructions to send to the commander in chief to facilitate business. I sent him word that 
he should be obeyed, and early in the morning began to execute my promise, but before 


I had finished copying them I received a verbal message that he wished to see me at his 
quarters. * * * f^g informed me that he had sent for me to shovvr me the copy of a 
letter he was writing to Colonel DePeyster. It contained instructions to that gentleman in 
consequence of my representations of the murders committed by the western Indians in 
course of the last spring and since; by his account they had been positively forbidden to be 
guilty of any such outrage. He pressed Colonel DePeyster very earnestly to examine 
minutely into this affair; to forbid the Indians in the most positive manner to be guilty of 
such future misconduct; to order them to deliver up immediately such prisoners as they had 
captured through the spring, into the hands of himself or his officers ; and further to tell 
them that if they did not desist from these practices the British troops would join the 
Americans to punish them. 

Though the attitude of the British officers at Detroit and Niagara prevented the com- 
plete success of Douglass' mission in the west, his visit resulted in greatly weakening English 
influence with the Indians. DePeyster felt a difference in the attitude of the allies almost 
immediately and wrote Governor Haldimand's office requesting that Sir John Johnson be 
sent to Detroit. Sir John had, as Indian agent, inspired the respect of the savages and was 
probably more influential in Indian councils than any other Englishman in the colonies. 

Congress being left much in doubt as to England's real intentions. Washington sent 
Baron Steuben to make formal demand of Governor Haldimand for the surrender of the 
forts in the disputed territory. Douglass reported that Sir John Johnson had assembled 
the Indians at Sandusky in the fall of 1783, had given them many presents and had ad- 
dressed them declaring : "That the king, his and their common father, had made peace with 
the Americans, and had given them the country they possessed on this continent; but that 
the report of his having given them any part of the Indian lands was false, and fabricated 
by the Americans for the purpose of provoking the Indians against their father; that they 
should therefore shut their ears against it. So far the contrary was proved that the great 
river Ohio was to be the line between the Indians in this quarter and the Americans ; over 
which the latter ought not to pass and return in safety. That, however, as the war be- 
tween Britain and America was now at an end, and as the Indians had engaged in it from 
their attachment to the crown, and not from any quarrel of their own, he would, as 
was usual at the end of a war, take the tomahawk out of their hand ; though he would not 
remove it out of sight or far from them, but lay it down carefully by their side that they 
might have it convenient to use in defense of their rights and property, if they were in- 
vaded or molested by the Americans." 

Baron Steuben's mission to Quebec was no more successful than was that of Doug- 
lass. Governor Haldimand replied to Washington's demands in a letter which he entrusted 
to the Baron, declaring that the treaty was but a temporan*' one. He further advised that 
no commands had been received by him relative to surrendering the lake posts to the co- 
lonial government. A year later (May, 1784) Secretary of War Knox induced congress 
to send Lieutenant Colonel William Hull, he who was later governor of Michigan Terri- 
tory, to Quebec on a similar errand. Again Haldimand refused to surrender the forts. In 
1786 John Adams, minister to England, reported to congress that the British government 
had refused his formal demand for the territory, claiming violation by Americans of the 
treaty provisions relative to the payment of debts. 

During these continued delays, the English made rapid headway in regaining their 
former prestige with the savages. The inability of congress to bring the dispute to a 
definite conclusion, together with the change in Indian sentiment, encouraged the Canadian 
merchants to urge that no concessions be made by the crown. Repeated memorials were 


addressed to the English government by these merchants, insisting that Americans had 
forfeited any rights that made the treaties of permanent effect. This no doubt had much 
to do with continuing the policy of delay and with the failure of the British officers to 
fulfill the promises made to Douglass relative to promoting peace between the Indians and 
the settlers. The Indians, always eager to fight, were quick to comprehend the situation 
and began again their raids on the weaker settlements. This finally drove congress to 

General Harmar was placed in command of a punitive expedition against the savages, 
but before the departure of his force, the secretary of war notified the commandant at 
Detroit of Harmar's plans, stating that the latter were directed solely against the Indians. 
As might have been anticipated, the British were prompt to come to the aid of the savages. 
Harmar suffered a disastrous defeat on October 19, 1790, and again on the 20th, at the 
Miami villages in Ohio. Again American scalps dangled from poles carried through the 
streets of Detroit ; again the returning warriors were greeted at the post as conquerors. 

After the defeat of a second force under St. Clair, who was worsted in an engage- 
ment taking place in November, 1791, the Indians had practically free rein for a period of 
nearly two years. In 1793 three commissioners were named to meet the savages at San- 
dusky. Their purpose was to effect treaties with the warring tribes. The Indians re- 
ferred the proposals of the commissioners to British officials and upon the advice of the 
latter finally refused to consent to the establishment of any boundary other than the Ohio 
river, between the setlers and themselves. Though the attempts of the commissioners were 
fruitless, certain of the tribes again began to doubt the ability of England to hold out 
against the Americans. It was only by means of a generous disposition of gifts by the 
British officers that the savages were induced to continue their allegiance. To supplement 
the gifts and to further strengthen Indian faith in his government. Lieutenant Gk)vernor 
Simcoe of Canada decided to establish a new fort on the Miami river. This was done in 
spite of British protestations of neutrality so far as their attitude concerned the relationship 
between the federal government and the Indians. Subsequently this same fort was even 
garrisoned by a detachment of troops under command of Captain Caldwell, of Detroit, in 
flagrant contradiction to the former assurances made to Ephraim Douglass by Colonel De- 
Peyster and other British officers. 

After such an act, congress no longer had ground for doubt as to England's exact 
position. Indian arrogance, always encouraged by the English, finally became so unbearable 
that congress' only hope of relief from continuous raids against the western settlers lay in 
administering swift and severe punishment. 

Accordingly it was decided to advance General Anthony Wayne into the west with a 
sufficient force to cope with the Indians and even with the British, should need arise. The 
advisability of such a course had been previously made clear by a message from the presi- 
dent, George Washington, delivered to the senate on February 14. 1791. Washington 

"Conceiving that in the possible event of a refusal of justice on the part of Great 
Britain, we should stand less committed should it be made to a private rather than a public 
person, I employed Mr. Gouverneur Morris, who was on the spot, and without giving him 
any definite character, to enter informally into the conferences before mentioned. For your 
more particular information I lay before you the instructions I gave him and those parts 
of his communications wherein the British ministers appear, either in conversation or by 
letter. These are two letters from the Duke of Leeds to Mr. Morris and three letters of Mr. 


Morris giving an account of two conferences with the Duke of Leeds and one with him 
and Mr. Pitt. The sum of these is that they declare without scruple they do not mean to 
fulfill what remains of the treaty of peace to be fulfilled on their part (by which we are 
to understand the delivery of the posts and payment of property carried off) till perform- 
ance on our part, and compensation where the delay has rendered the performance now im- 
practicable; that on the subject of a treaty of commerce they avoided direct answers, so 
as to satisfy Mr. Morris they did not mean to enter into one unless it could be extended to 
a treaty of alliance offensive and defensive, or unless in the event of a rupture with Spain." 

In compliance with the orders of Secretary of War Knox, General Wayne, commander 
in chief of the American army, proceeded to Pittsburg in 1792, for the purpose of re- 
cruiting and drilling a force for his western expedition. During this year additional over- 
tures of peace were made to the Indians who refused to council for a treaty. The effect of 
this refusal on the secretary of war was such that he strongly opposed any advance of 
American forces into the northwest, but, regardless of this, Wayne led his army westward 
the next year, as far as the present site of Cincinnati. There he was joined by a considerable 
force of Kentuckians and with them he advanced in November to Greenville, in Ohio, 
where he spent the winter of 1793-4. 

From the camp at Greenville, Wayne sent a detachment of men to the spot of St. 
Clair's defeat. The detachment arrived on Christmas day and began the work of burying 
the American dead who had fallen in the savage butchery of two years before. This done, 
the troops began the erection of a fort called Fort Recovery, in commemoration of the re- 
covery of that immediate territory from the Indians. Always exposed to the possibility of 
a savage surprise, this experience schooled the troops in being ever on the alert. Upon its 
completion the fort was garrisoned by one company of artillery and one of infantry, while 
the remainder of the force was returned to Greenville. At the latter place Fort Greenville, 
a formidable redoubt covering the larger portion of the town, was then built. Here Wayne 
remained until July, when he advanced to the Maumee rapids. 

Though the fact that the English were giving the savages at least their moral support 
against the Americans, was by this time generally known, it was not thought that Ameri- 
ca's late antagonist would take up arms without formally declaring war. The British took 
part in an attack, however, against the Americans, in a sharp battle fought before Fort 
Recovery. Wayne was at this time with his troops at Greenville. Of this sortie Burnet's 
notes say : "On the 30th of June, a very severe and bloody battle was fought under the 
walls of Fort Recovery, between a detachment of American troops, consisting of ninety 
riflemen and fifty dragoons, commanded by Major McMahon, and a very numerous body of 
Indians and British who at the same instant rushed on the detachment and assailed the fort 
on every side with great fury. They were repulsed with heavy loss but again rallied and 
renewed the attack, keeping up a heavy and constant fire during the whole day, which was 
returned with spirit and effect, by the garrison. * * * Qn the next morning, Mc- 
Mahon's detachment having entered the fort, the enemy renewed the attack, and continued 
it with great desperation during the day, but were ultimately compelled to retreat from 
the same field, on which they had been proudly victorious on the 4th of November, 1791 
(St. Clair's defeat). * * * From the official return of Major Mills, adjutant general of 
the army, it appears that twenty-two officers and non-commissioned officers were killed and 
thirty wounded. * * * Immediately after the enemy had retreated it was ascertained ■ 
that their loss had been very heavy, but the full extent of it was not known till it was dis- 
closed at the treaty of Greenville. References were made to that battle by several of the 


chiefs in council, from which it was manifest that they had not even then ceased to mourn 
the distressing losses sustained on that occasion. * * * From the facts afterward 
communicated to the general it was satisfactorily ascertained that there were a consider- 
able number of British soldiers and Detroit militia engaged with the savages on that oc- 
casion. A few days previous to that afifair the general had sent out three small parties of 
Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians to take prisoners for the purpose of obtaining information. 
One of those parties returned to Greenville on the 28th and reported that they had fallen 
in with a large body of Indians at Girtystown and that there were a great many white men 
with them. The other two parties followed the trail of the hostile Indians and were in 
sight when the assault on the post commenced. They affirmed, one and all, that there were 
a large number of armed white men, with painted faces, whom they frequently heard con- 
versing in English and encouraging the Indians to persevere; and that there were also 
three British officers dressed in scarlet who appeared to be men of distinction from the 
general attention and respect which was paid to them. These persons kept at a distance in 
the rear of the assailants. Another strong corroborating proof that there were British 
soldiers and militia in the assault is that a number of ounce balls and buckshot were found 
lodged in the block houses and stockades of the fort." 

Jonathan Alder, who was then living with the Indians, gives in his manuscript auto- 
biography an account of the attack on the fort. He states that Simon Girty was in the action 
and that one of the American officers was killed by Thomas McKee, a son of the British 
agent, Colonel Aleck McKee. 

Wayne's advance from Greenville to the rapids of the Maumee immediately followed 
the juncture with his force of sixteen hundred Kentuckians under General Scott. Henry 
Howe, in his historical collections of Ohio, gives the following account of Wayne's subse- 
quent movements : 

"By the 8th of August the army had arrived near the junction of the Auglaize with 
that stream (Maumee) and commenced the erection of Fort Defiance at that point. The 
Indians, having learned from a deserter of the approach of Wayne's army, hastily aban- 
doned their headquarters at Auglaize and thus defeated the plan of Wayne to surprise 
them, for which object he had cut two roads, intending to march by neither. At Fort 
Defiance, Wayne received full information of the Indians and the assistance they were to 
derive from the volunteers at Detroit and vicinity. On the 13th of August, true to the 
spirit of peace advised by Washington, he sent Christian Miller, who had been naturalized 
among the Shawanese, as a special messenger to offer terms of friendship. Impatient of 
delay, he moved forward on the i6th, met Miller on his return with the message that if the 
Americans would wait ten days at Grand Glaize (Fort Defiance) they — the Indians — 
would decide for peace or war. On the i8th the army arrived at Roche de Boeuf, just 
south of the site of •<Waterville, where they erected some light works as a place of deposit 
for their heavy baggage, which was named Fort Deposit." 

The building of these new forts and the swiftness with which the American forces were 
moved through the wilderness were circumstances that well fulfilled Wayne's intention, — 
that of impressing the savages with a wholesome respect for American maneuvering. In 
addition to this the Indians had just suffered severely at Fort Recovery and had come to 
look upon "The Black-snake," as Wayne was called, with undisguised dread and fear. They 
had never seen any such fighting on the part of the British as that exhibited by the Amer- 
icans. Never before had they been compelled to face a well commanded, fairly equipped 
American army. Now they were enabled to compare their protectors with the Americans 


on a reasonably fair basis. The result of this process was speedy cooHng of any yearning 
for additional fighting. Quick of comprehension, the allies soon lost confidence in the 
British. At this point the English ofiicers had recourse to the old practice of bolstering 
up the savage courage by another presentation of gifts and by shaming the Indians into 
continued activity by accusations of cowardice. 

After hurriedly completing earthworks at Fort Deposit, Wayne moved his army for- 
ward on August 20 for a decisive engagement with the Indians who were encamped on 
the Maumee near Presque Isle. The following account is taken from Wayne's report of 
the encounter : 

"The legion was on the right, its flank covered by the Maumee; one brigade of 
mounted volunteers on the left under Brigadier General Todd and the other in the rear 
under Brigadier General Barbae. A select battalion of mounted volunteers moved in front 
of the legion commanded by Major Price, who was directed to keep sufficiently advanced so 
as to give timely notice for the troops to form in case of action, it being yet undetermined 
whether the Indians would decide for peace or war. 

"After advancing about five miles Major Price's corps received so severe a fire from 
the enemy, who were secreted in the woods and high grass, as to compel them to retreat. 
The legion was immediately formed in two lines, principally in a close, thick wood, which 
extended for miles on our left and for a very considerable distance in front; the ground 
being covered with old-fallen timber, probably occasioned by a tornado, which rendered it 
impracticable for the cavalry to act with effect and afforded the enemy the most favorable 
covert for their mode of warfare. The savages were formed in three lines within sup- 
porting distance of each other, and extending for near two miles at right angles with the 
river. I soon discovered from the weight of the fire and extent of their lines that the 
enemy were in full force in front, in possession of their favorite ground, and endeavoring 
to turn our left flank. I therefore gave orders for the second line to advance and support 
the first; and directed Major General Scott to gain and turn the right flank of the savages 
with the whole force of the mounted volunteers by a circuitous route ; at the same time 
I ordered the front line to advance and charge with trailed arms and rouse the Indians 
from their coverts at the point of the bayonet, and when up, to deliver a close and well 
directed fire on their backs, followed by a brisk charge, so as not to give them time to load 

"I also ordered Captain Campbell, who commanded the legionary cavalry, to turn the 
left flank of the enemy next the river, and which afforded a favorable field for that corps 
to act in. All these orders were obeyed with spirit and promptitude; but such was the 
impetuosity of the charge by the first line of infantry, that the Indians and Canadian 
militia and volunteers were drove from their coverts in so short a time that, although 
every possible exertion was used by the officers of the second line of the legion and by 
Generals Scott, Todd and Barbee, of the mounted volunteers, to gain their proper positions, 
but part of each could get up in season to participate in the action ; the enemy being drove, 
in the course of one hour, more than two miles through the thick woods already men- 
tioned, by less than one-half their numbers. From every account the enemy amounted to 
two thousand combatants. The troops actually engaged against them were short of nine 
hundred. This horde of savages with their allies abandoned themselves to flight, and dis- 
persed with terror and dismay, leaving our victorious army in full and quiet possession of 
the field of battle, which terminated under the influence of the guns of the British garrison. 


"The bravery and conduct of every officer belonging to the arms, from the generals 
down to the ensigns, merit highest approbation. * * * j; must beg leave to mention 
Brigadier General Wilkinson and Colonel Hamtramck, the commandants of the right and 
left wings of the legion, whose brave example inspired the troops. * * * The loss of 
the enemy was more than that of the federal army. The woods were strewed for a con- 
siderable distance with the dead bodies of Indians and their white auxiliaries, the latter 
armed with British muskets and bayonets. 

"We remained for three days and nights on the banks of the Maumee, in front of the 
field of battle, during which time all the houses and corn fields were consumed and 
destroyed for a considerable distance, both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol shot of the garrison who were compelled to remain tacit spectators to this general 
devastation and conflagration among which were the houses, stores and property of Colonel 
McKee, the British Indian agent and principal stimulator of the war now existing between 
the United States and the savages." 

Following this battle of Fallen Timber, a sharp correspondence took place between Gen- 
eral Wayne and Major Campbell, in command of the British garrison at Fort Miami. 
The latter remonstrated with Wayne for approaching so closely to the fort but the gen- 
eral's only heed was the issuance of an order for the advance of a reconnoitering party 
which proceeded within ear shot of the fortification. 

After the defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timber, the British seemed less anxious to 
afford them assistance. Wayne destroyed all the villages along the Maumee and as he 
could find no enemy that would stand against him, he retired to Greenville in November. 
There a treaty was signed in August, 1795, by Wayne and the Indian chiefs. The basis of 
the agreement was that hostilities should cease and all prisoners be restored. The Indian 
boundary was defined as follows: "The general boundary line between the lands of the 
United States and the lands of the said Indian tribes shall begin at the mouth of the Cuya- 
hoga river and run thence up the same to the portage between that of the Tuscarawas, 
branch of the Muskingum, thence down that branch to the crossing place above Fort Laur- 
ens, thence westerly, to a fork of that branch of the Great Miami river, running into the Ohio, 
where commenced the portage between the Miami of the Ohio, and St. Mary's river, which 
is a branch of the Miami, which runs into Lake Erie; thence a westerly course to Fort 
Recovery, which stands on a branch of the Wabash ; thence southerly in a direct line to the 
Ohio, so as to intersect that river opposite the mouth of Kentuck or Cuttawa river." Within 
these confines, however, the Indians were allowed certain reservations. 

The comment of General William Henry Harrison, Wayne's aide in the campaign, 
affords additional evidence of the British relationship with the Indians. In a letter dated 
February 17, 1834, to Hon. Thomas Chilton, General Harrison said: 

"That the northwestern and Indian war was a continuation of the Revolutionary con- 
test is susceptible of proof. The Indians in that quarter had been engaged in the first seven 
years of the war as the allies of Great Britain and they had no. inclination to continue it 
after the peace of 1783. It is to British influence that their subsequent hostilities are to be 
attributed. The agents of that government never ceased to stimulate their enmity against 
the government of the United States, and to represent the peace which had been made as 
a temporary truce, at the expiration of which, 'their great fathers would unite with them 
in the war, and drive the long knives from the land which they had so unjustly usurped 
from his red children.' This was the cause of the detention of the posts of Detroit, Mack- 
inac and Niagara so long after the treaty of 1783. The reasons assigned for so doing 


deceived nobody, after the failure of the negotiation attempted by General Lincoln, Gov- 
ernor Randolph and Colonel Pickering, under British mediation voluntarily tendered. 

"The bare suggestion of a wish by the British authorities would have been sufficient to 
induce the Indians to accept the terms proposed by the American commissioners. * =i= * 
In June, 1794, the Indians assembled at the Miami of the Lake, and were completely 
equipped out of the King's store, from the fort. * * * Qn the advance of the Indians 
they were accompanied by a captain of the British army, a sergeant and six matrosses, pro- 
vided with fixed ammunition, suited to the caliber of two field pieces. Upon the advance of 
the American army * * * the British fort at the Rapids (Fort Miami) was the point 
of rendezvous for the Indians. There the deficiences in arms, ammunition and equipments 
were again supplied ; and there they were fed with regular rations from the King's store 
until the arrival of General Wayne with his army. In the general action of that day there 
were two militia companies from Amherstburg and Detroit. The captain of the cutter, who 
was also the clerk of the court at that place, was found among the killed and one of his 
privates taken prisoner." 


Northwest Boundary Dispute — John Jay Envoy to England — Jay's Treaty Ratified — De- 
troit Formally Given into Possession of the United States — Colonel Hamtramck 
Assumes Command — Wayne County Named — Record Concerning General Wa5me 
— Detroit After British Evacuation — St. Clair Appointed Governor of North- 
west Territory — Other Officials — Ordinance of 1787 — ^First and Second Legisla- 
tive Assemblies — Wayne County Representatives — Detroit Incorporated as a Town 
— First Officers' — First Fire Department — Conditions in Formative Period — At- 
titude of British Officers at Fort Maiden. 

While General Wayne was in camp at Greenville preparing for the advance against 
the Indians and British, congress determined to put forth an especial effort relative to the 
adjustment of the northwest boundary dispute. An envoy extraordinary, in the person of 
John Jay, was sent to the court of St. James. His mission was the perfection of a new 
treaty with the London government. Arriving in England in the spring of 1794, he reported 
shortly afterward the flat refusal of the British to evacuate the lake forts. But congress' 
persistence and that of the envoy resulted later in the effecting of an agreement. In 1795 
President Washington ratified what is known as Jay's treaty. This embraced the settle- 
ment of claims arising from the Revolution ; established certain eastern boundaries of 
the United States; and provided that the posts at Detroit, Mackinac, Niagara and other 
western settlements should be turned over to the Americans not later than June i, 1796. 

On June 26, James McHenry, secretary of war, submitted to the president the final 
order for the departure of the British troops at Forts Miami and Detroit. The order was 
given by Adjutant General George Beckwith at Quebec on June 2d, and directed that 
a detachment of the Queen's Rangers should occupy both the above forts between the date 
of the evacuation and the entrance of the Ameiican forces, as a guard, "for the protection 
of the works and public buildings until the troops of the United States are at hand." 

On Monday, July 11, 1796, Detroit was formally given into the possession of the 
new United States. Received at the water's edge by the retiring British, a little cavalcade 
of si.xty-five men, under command of Captain Moses Porter, disembarked from two 
schooners made fast to the pier at the foot of what is now Shelby street. They marched 
to Fort Lernoult, built on the hill where the federal building now stands. There they 
took possession of a richer area than that contained in the original colonies. 

At noon the English flag sank from the staff at Fort Lernoult. In its stead the halyards 
bore aloft a new device. It was one of red and white and blue; an emblem of unity and 
liberty, — the stars and stripes. All the hardship, all the sufferings ; all the unspeakable tor- 
tures endured by brave men and women at savage hands urged on by gifts from his maj- 
esty of England were thus rewarded. Thus was the Northwest Territory born of death and 
suffering and greed, after years of travail and savage warfare in the wilderness. 

At the passage of the Quebec act, in 1774, Detroit was directly under British govern- 
ment; subsequent to 1774 it was a part of the Province of Quebec, until it became part of 
the United States, in 1783. 




The following British officials were in power in Canada and Detroit between 1760 
and 1796: 

Sir Jeffrey Amherst, 1760-65; Sir James Murray, 1765-66; Paulus Emilius Irving 
(acting), 1766; Brigadier General Guy Carleton, 1766-70; Hector Theophilus Cramahe, 
1770-74; Sir Guy Carleton (2nd term), governor of Quebec, 1774-78; Sir Frederick Hal- 
dimand, governor of Quebec, 1778-84; Henry Hamilton, lieutenant governor of Detroit, 
1775-82; Henry Hope, lieutenant governor of Canada, 1785; Lord Dorchester (Guy Carle- 
ton), lieutenant governor of Canada, 1786; John Graves Simcoe, lieutenant governor Up- 
per Canada, 1792-96; Henry Hamilton, lieutenant governor of Canada, 1784; Jehu Hay, 
Heutenant governor of Detroit, 1783. 

Two days after the arrival of the American force under Captain Porter, Colonel John 
Francis Hamtramck, General Wayne's former aide-de-camp, took command at Detroit pend- 
ing the arrival of his superior. Wayne, who had been made civil commissioner as well as 
commander in chief of the American military, did not reach the post until September. Dur- 
ing the month prior to his arrival. Secretary Winthrop Sargent, who was a staunch 
admirer of the general, suggested that the territory surrounding Lake Michigan be em- 
braced in a single county to be known as Wayne county. This suggestion met with instant 
and general approval and though Governor St. Clair, first governor of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory, later offered strenuous objections to what he termed the presumption of the secre- 
tary, leading citizens brought sufficient pressure to bear, to insure the permanency of the 

General Wayne remained two months at the Detroit post from which he set sail in 
November for Erie, Pennsylvania. Before arriving at that port, however, he was taken 
fatally ill and finally succumbed shortly after disembarking at Erie. At his request his body 
was buried at the foot of the flagstaff on the parade ground there. Several years later 
it was removed to Radnor, Pennsylvania. 

"Mad" Anthony Wayne was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, January i, 1745. 
He became a surveyor and engineer, and, being interested in philosophy, he gained the 
friendship of Dr. Benjamin Franklin, who was later his patron. He joined the army of the 
Revolution in 1775 and became a brigadier general two years later, serving throughout the 
war. Wayne particularly distinguished himself in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown 
and Monmouth. His attack on the heights at Stony Point, defended by six hundred British, 
in July, 1779, is declared to be the most brilliant exploit of the war. Here he led his men 
to victory at the point of the bayonet) capturing the fort and over five hundred prisoners 
without the firing of a gun. 

Wayne is considered to have been one of the most able generals of the Revolution. He 
was irresistible in leading a charge and was a man of great impetuosity, which often 
bordered on rashness. His last campaign was conducted with great caution and skill. 
Though but forty-six years old at the time of his death, General Wayne spent nearly half 
his life in military service for his country. 

From a book of travels in Canada and the northwest, published in 1799, by Isaac Weld. 
who visited Detroit soon after the British evacuation, it appears that the settlement then 
boasted some three hundred houses. "The town," wrote Weld, "consists of several streets 
that run parallel to the river, which are intersected by others at right angles. They are 
very narrow and, not being paved, dirty in the extreme whenever it happens to rain. For 
the accommodation of passengers, however, there are footways in most of them, formed of 
square logs laid transversely close to each other. The town is surrounded by a strong stock- 



ade, through which there are four gates, two of tliem open to the wharfs, and the two others 
to the north and south side of the town respectively. * * * 

"About two-thirds of the inhabitants of Detroit are of French extraction and the 
greater part of the inhabitants of the settlement on the river, both above and below the 
town, are of the same description. The former are mostly engaged in trade and they all 
appear to be much on an equality. Detroit is a place of very considerable trade ; there 
being no less than twelve trading vessels belonging to it, brigs, sloops and schooners, of 
from fifty to one hundred tons burden each. * * * The stores and shops of the town 
are well furnished and you may buy fine cloth, linen, etc., and every article of wearing 
apparel as good in their kind and nearly on as reasonable terms as you can purchase them 
at New York or Philadelphia. * * * The inhabitants of Detroit and the neighboring 
country, however, though they have provisions in plenty, are frequently much distressed for 
one very necessary concomitant, namely salt. Until within a short time past they had no 
salt but what was brought from Europe, but salt springs have been discovered in various 
parts of the country, from which they are now beginning to manufacture that article them- 
selves. * * * There is a large Roman Catholic church in the town of Detroit and 
another on the opposite side called the Huron church from its having been devoted to the 
use of the Huron Indians. * * * ^j. night all the Indians, except such as get admittance 
into private houses, and remain there quietly, are turned out of town and the gates shut 
upon them." 

After President Washington had ratified Jay's treaty, but nearly two months prior to 
the American occupancy of Detroit, Washington sent the following message to congress: 

"The measure now in operation for taking possession of the posts of Detroit and 
Michilimackinac render it proper that provision should be made for extending to these places 
and any others alike circumstanced the civil authority of the Northwestern Territory. To 
do this will require an expense to defray which the ordinary salaries of the governor and 
secretary of that Territory appear to be incompetent. 

"The forming of a new county or new counties, and the appointment of the various 
officers, wbich the just exercise of government must require, will oblige the governor and 
secretary to visit those places, and to spend considerable time in making the arrangements 
necessary for introducing and establishing the government of the United States. Congress 
will consider what provisions will in this case be proper." 

The chaotic state of affairs relating to the adjustment of the Northwest boundaries 
dispute tended greatly to complicate and delay the establishment of the civil regime in that 
territory. In the absence of definite surveys little was known of the exact extent of vast 
areas that were included with surprising freedom within certain county limits. As a result 
of this, sweeping and frequent changes were subsequently necessitated. Save for that por- 
tion in the immediate vicinity of Detroit, the mapping and settlement of the Northwest 
naturally covered at first the territory adjacent to the Pennsylvania and Virginia settlements. 

The American government having reached the limits of its resources in the conduct of 
the Revolution, congress sought to provide means for the establishment and maintainance 
of a stable government by the sales of lands in the northwest. General Arthur St. Clair, a 
former officer in the colonial army, was then president of congress. He was urged to 
promote such sales, evidently by the promise of a desirable appointment to office in the new 
territory, once it was developed. Associated with him in this exploitation scheme were 
Manassah Cutler and Winthrop Sargent. The two latter men became the representatives of 
the directors of what was known as the New England Ohio Company of Associates. A 


contract between the board of treasury for the United States of America and Manassah 
Cutler and Winthrop Sargent as agents for this Ohio company was affected in 1787 for the 
purchase of a certain tract within the present bounds of Ohio. The settlement of a part 
of this purchase was commenced in the spring of 1788 and in the same year General Arthur 
St. Clair was appointed by congress to the office of governor of the Northwest. 

Winthrop Sargent was made secretary and at the same time Samuel Holden Parsons, 
James Mitchell Varnum and John Cleves Symmes were appointed judges. The appoint- 
ment of these officers and the closing of the sale to the Ohio Company was, however, not 
accomplished without the enactment by congress of a special act, known as the ordinance 
of 1787, for the establishment of government northwest of the Ohio river: This ordinance, 
according to William F. Poole, a recognized authority on the early history of the north- 
west, was intended to insure the consummation of the Ohio Company's purchase of some- 
thing between one, and one and one-half million acres of land, and was draughted largely 
by Cutler himself. The ordinance contained certain provisions relative to slavery and 
to the establishment of schools within the territory. It also provided for the appointment 
by congress, as need arose, of such executive officers as governor and secretary, the former 
to serve for a term of three years unless previously removed from office, and the latter to 
serve four years under the same condition. Both officers were required to hold land within 
the territory; the governor one thousand and the secretary five hundred acres. 

In as much as the English still held the northwest at the time the first appointments 
were made, the position of the executive was not without its embarrassments. However, 
Governor St. Clair and the judges who, with him, then constituted the legislature, met 
at Marietta, Ohio, in July, 1788, and proceeded to enact such laws as they deemed fitting. 
Subsequent sittings of this embryonic legislature were held at Vincennes and Cincinnati, 
though none of its deliberations, of course, became effective in Detroit until the evacution 
in July, 1796. Provision was made under the terms of the ordinance for the election of a 
general assembly whenever the number of adult free male whites within the territory should 
reach five thousand, one member being chosen for every five hundred citizens. After the 
number of assemblymen so chosen should exceed twenty-five, the assembly itself was given 
power further to regulate the representation. 

In 1 79 1 St. Clair issued the first proclamation calling for the election of the initial 
assembly. The body seems not to have met, however, until eight years later when it con- 
vened at Cincinnati, January 22, 1799. Wayne county was entitled to three representa- 
tives at this session and after two elections, the first of which occurred in December, 1798, 
Solomon Sibley, Chabert de Joncaire and Jacobus Visger were chosen as such representa- 

In the meantime. Lieutenant Governor Simcoe, acting under British authority, pre- 
scribed the limits of some nineteen counties, naming that in which Detroit was located 
the county of Kent. Two members, William Macomb and David William Smith, were 
chosen to represent this county in the first legislature under British rule, at an election 
held August 28, 1792. Alexander Grant, also from Detroit, was appointed a member of 
the council. This body convened at Niagara (then called Newark) in September of the 
same year and was followed by four succeeding sessions held annually until and including 

With two sets of governors and legislators, one acting under authority of the federal 
government and the other under that of the crow-n; and with a variety of county limits and 
territorial divisions representing the ideas of the opposing executives, the regime in the 


Northwest was naturally characterized by a state of general confusion. Each party was 
supported by strong followings, but neither for a time could lay claim to any organization 
of stability. Finally, however, following the session of what may be termed the territorial 
general assembly at Cincinnati in 1799, an upper council was established. This body was 
made up of five members nominated by the assembly and named by the president, Jacob 
Burnet, David Vance, James Findlay, Henry Vanderburg and Robert Oliver being so 
named. Solomon Sibley was later named to succeed Vanderburg, who lost his member- 
ship upon the establishment of the Indiana Territory, within the limits of which he resided. 
Sibley being at the time of his appointment a member of the legislative assembly, the va- 
cancy in that body caused by his appointment, was filled by the selection of Jonathan 

Of Wayne county's representation at the second assembly Silas Farmer, in his His- 
toT}' of Detroit and Michigan, says : "The delegates from Wayne county at the first session 
of the second assembly, on November 23, 180 1, consisted of Charles F. Chabert Joncaire, 
George McDougall and Jonathan Schiefflin. It is a curious fact, illustrating the principles 
and politics of that day, that Schiefflin and Joncaire, both of whom ser\'ed under Governor 
Hamilton, and joined with the Indians in killing and scalping the white inhabitants in the 
territory, were afterwards elected to represent in the territorial legislature the very regions 
they had ravaged. As late as May, 1797, Jonathan Schiefflin had officially declared him- 
self an English subject, and affirmed that he did not intend to become an American citizen." 

At the second session of the first assembly, convened at Cincinnati, in the fall of 1799, 
both an upper and lower house were formally organized. In accordance with an act of 
congress, Chillicothe was appointed as the meeting place for the next session, held in No- 
vember, 1800. This remained the seat of government until the close of the session of 
1802, when the governor arbitrarily selected Cincinnati as the place of the next meeting. 
This gave rise to a storm of protest on the part of the citizens of Chillicothe and even re- 
sulted in a hostile demonstration against the governor. 

At this session of the assembly, Solomon Sibley presented a petition from the people 
of Detroit asking for the incorporation of the settlement as a town. The petition was read 
to the delegates in January, 1802, and was formally passed as a bill on the i8th of the fol- 
lowing month. It bore the signatures of Edward Tiffin, speaker of the house of represen- 
tatives, and of Robert Oliver, president of the Northwest territorial court, and it was im- 
mediately approved by Governor St. Clair. The bill provided for the election of town officers 
on the first Monday in May, 1802, and named five trustees who were to serve as guardians 
over the affairs of the fledgeling corporation until such election. The town was extended 
officially for a distance of some two miles northward from the river; on the east to the 
westerly line of the farm of Antoine Beaubien ; thence westerly along the river front and to 
the line between what were later known as the Cass and Jones farms. The incorporation 
act directed that only land owners, citizens paying a minimum rental of forty dollars per 
annum and those privileged with what was known as the "freedom of the settlement" 
should be eligible to vote at the elections of town officers, held at the annual town meetings. 

Immediately after the trustees had taken their oaths of office they entered upon a 
strenuous existence of guardianship and execution. Appointments and ordinances fell thick 
and fast. Nearly every citizen possessed of civic ambition found outlet for superfluous 
energies in appointments at the hands of the trustees. A secretary, marshal, assessor, col- 
lector and messenger were chosen to administer the smaller duties of home government, and 
at one of the early meetings of the trustees a suggestion that the new town was in dire need 


of improved five protection was unanimously approved. A voluminous ordinance was the 
immediate result. On pain of a fine, eveiy citizen possessed of a defective chimney was 
directed to make such repairs as safety required ; provisions were specifically made requiring 
householders to provide themselves with water barrels, buckets and ladders and directing 
that all merchants keep constantly ready for use, large sacks which might be wet and used 
in protecting roofs adjacent to burning buildings. No citizen could hope to retain the 
respect of the community who failed to volunteer his services in case they were needed. 

Five days after the passage of the act of incorporation, the town's first fire department 
was formally organized. A detail of soldiers was named by Colonel J. F. Hamtramck, the 
military commander, to serve as the nucleus of the fire brigade. Various citizens made up 
bucket, axe and battering companies, the latter corps being employed to demolish, by means 
of a log ram, all structures that were hopelessly aflame. 

There being no town hall, the trustees met either in the houses of the members of the 
body or in some tavern. Ordinances followed rapidly as need arose, a market place being 
provided and regular market days established. Inspectors were appointed whose duty it 
was to visit stores and dwellings and to insist on the enforcement of the fire ordinances and 
report generally upon the condition of grounds and structures. 

At the first election, held May 3, 1802, the polls were kept open for but two hours near 
midday. James Henry, George Meldrum, Charles Francis Girardin, Joseph Campau and 
John Dodemead were elected as trustees. The town treasurer and collector were paid 
three per cent, of the moneys collected in fines and taxes, while the marshal and messenger 
were allowed one dollar per diem. 

The days of the town's formative period were replete with all the romance and more 
than the usual elements of the picturesque, generally characteristic of frontier settlements. 
Though the trustees were insistent in regulating the exact size of the loaves of bread sold 
and persisted in prescribing many other minor details, the streets were often given over 
to roisterers who frequented the public houses, and gambled and drank to their hearts' 
content with little fear of interruption. Nearly every one drank to some extent, and many 
of the old ledgers still extant show heavy scores for punch, brandy and wines, bought by 
some of the best citizens. Not until two years after the incorporation of the town was 
Thomas McCrae appointed as the first police officer. His duties, aside from the care of 
wabbly-limbed and exuberant citizens, involved the functions of sanitary officer and fire war- 
den. While he was not thus engaged he was allowed to fill in his time on market days as 
recorder of the market, — all for the munificent consideration of seventy-five cents per day. 

Though the British at Fort Maiden, near the present site of Amherstburg, were sup- 
posedly on good terms with the citizens at Detroit, their action in stirring up the old Indian 
troubles became apparent prior to 1804. The courtesies extended socially to the Americans 
by the officers at Fort Maiden seem to have been inspired by doubtful motives. The trus- 
tees were forced to give heed to an undercurrent of hostility on the part of the savages that 
was so noticeable as to demand serious consideration on the part of every citizen. Sentries 
were not only posted at night, as in the earlier days of the military regime, but additional 
military protection was sought at Washington. Even at that time agencies were at work 
that ultimately led to a final contest at arms with England in the war of 1812. 


Change in Boundaries of Wayne County — Ohio Admitted to Statehood — Michigan a Part 
of the Territory of Indiana — Forming of the Territory of Michigan — Boundaries 
of New Territory — First Officers — Detroit the Capital — William Hull, Augustus 
B. Woodward, Frederick Bates, John Griffin — Civic and Social Conditions in 
Detroit — Detroit Destroyed by Fire — Effects of the Disaster — High-handed Rule 
of the Federal Appointees — Work of Rehabilitation — Rebellion of Citizens Against 
Conditions — Distribution of Town Lots — Rights of the People Flagrantly In- 
fringed — Governor Hull Establishes an Army — Popular Protests Against Hull's 
' Despotism — Bank of Detroit Established — History of the Institution. 

By an act of congress dividing the Northwest Territory, a large portion of the present 
state of Ohio was combined with the eastern half of lower Michigan and designated Ohio 
Territory. Of the addition of but the eastern half of the peninsula, "Landmarks of Wayne 
County and Detroit" says: "This (combination) necessitated a change in the boundaries 
of Wayne county, for it could not be extended over two territories, so the eastern portion 
of the lower peninsula, which had been set off as a part of the Territory of Ohio, was 
added to nearly one-quarter of the state of Ohio, the eastern limit being the Cuyahoga river, 
and the southern boundary being placed about one hundred miles south of Lake Erie. 
While this suited the people of Detroit and Wayne county, it did not please the people of 
Ohio. As a result, in the fall of 1800, a section of the lower strip was chopped off from 
Wayne county and added to Ohio proper, so that the eastern boundary was near San- 
dusky. Next year nearly all the territory which is now included in the state of Ohio was 
cut off from Wayne county, and only a narrow strip, including the present site of Toledo, 
was left. The residents of the Ohio region organized a general assembly and began to move 
for a constitutional convention, for the purpose of organizing their section into a state and 
leaving Wayne county out. The Wayne county people and some of the others objected. 
In the fall of 1802 a convention was held at Chillicothe by the people of Ohio, and a con- 
stitution was adopted. In order to make up the requisite number of residents for state- 
hood, the people of Wayne county were counted in, and in March, 1803, the state of Ohio 
was admitted to the Union. Wayne county was then cut off from Ohio and attached to the 
present boundary of Indiana, and the two were organized into the Territory of Indiana." 

After Governor St. Clair had changed the seat of government from Chillicothe to Cin- 
cinnati, at the close of the session of 1802, but prior to the meeting of the next assembly, 
the act of congress established the Territory of Indiana, whose boundaries included all of 
what is now Michigan. 

General William Henry Harrison was appointed governor of Indiana Territory and 
was given authority to call an election of legislative delegates for the new territory. His 
proclamation ordered this to be held in January, 1805, and the ist of the following month 
was appointed as the date for convening the delegates so elected. Owing to lack of facili- 
ties for communication, or to some misunderstanding, Wayne county sent no delegates to 
this session. Before the difficulty could be properly adjusted, a federal enactment, passed in 
June, 1805, relieved Governor Harrison of his jurisdiction over Wayne county. 



Thomas Jefferson, than whom perhaps no man of his times was more gifted, was presi- 
dent of the United States. The nation, emerging from the chrysahs days of its struggle 
for existence, was spreading untried wings in its first uncertain flights. Washington was 
an isolated marshy village, ridiculed in the capitals of the Old World and an object of the 
scorn of the disgruntled American cities ; but assembled there about the president was a 
group of men of peculiar attainments. There were men of culture, men of courage, men 
of genius, men of honor; but all, scrupulous and unscrupulous alike, were men of insatiable 
ambition. To some of these the west called. 

Cradled between two of the greatest of the lakes in the west, both prairie and forest — 
rich beyond the knowledge of the day, beyond the rosiest dreams of the most visionary — 
awaited the hand of the pioneer. Fortunes were to be gained; great and honorable names 
were to be made ; a powerful commonwealth was to be hewn from the wilderness. Dis- 
satisfied with the conduct of affairs in the Indiana Territory, the people of the lakes were 
ready to carve for themselves a future of their own from the destiny of the northwest. 

In December, 1804, an assembly convened at Detroit. Two men, James May and 
Robert Abbott, had prepared petitions to congress, praying for the establishment of a sep- 
arate territory, to be known as Michigan. The petitions asked that the territory embrace 
all of Wayne county; and this had comprised since 1796 the area to the northward of an 
imaginary line drawn eastward from the foot of Lake Michigan. 

On June 30, 1805, congress passed the act that brought the Territory of Michigan 
into being. A governor and three judges constituted for the new territory a legislature, 
which formally organized within a month from the birth of the territory. 

Michigan then consisted of the area now embraced in the whole of the lower penin- 
sula of the state; the eastern half of the northern peninsula and that portion of the present 
states of Indiana and Ohio which lay north of the line running directly east from the foot 
of Lake Michigan. The eastern confines lay along the Canadian frontier, and this, under 
the Jay treaty, extended from Sault Ste. Marie, to the north of Mackinac island, and thence 
through the center of Lakes Huron and Ste. Claire and along the principal navigable channel 
of the Ste. Claire and Detroit rivers. On the west the territory was limited by a line run- 
ning nearly north and south, through the center of Lake Michigan. 

To govern the territory were named : William Hull, governor ; Stanley Griswold. 
secretary ; Frederick Bates, treasurer, and Augustus B. Woodward, Frederick Bates and 
John Griffin, justices of the supreme court. Among these men the judicial, legislative and 
executive functions of the territory were divided. The federal ordinance of 1787 was 
adopted as the underlying principles of law for the territory. Detroit, the most impor- 
tant settlement, became the capital. 

Of these officers the authors of "Landmarks of Wayne County and Detroit" say: 

"William Hull was a native of Derby, Connecticut, and was bom on June 24, 1753, 
of English ancestry. Young Hull entered Yale College and graduated after a four years' 
course, when he was nineteen. He taught school and afterward studied law at Litchfield, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1775. He was elected captain of a Derby company, * * * 
which proceeded to Cambridge, then Washington's headquarters. * * "^^ It is said Hull 
was a brave soldier, but the only separate command with which he was entrusted was a 
force of four hundred men in an expedition against Morrisania, on the East river near 
Hell Gate, New York. In this affair he did not distinguish himself. * * * ^j. (-j.,g 
conclusion of the war of the Revolution he settled at Newton, Massachusetts, and prac- 
ticed law. * * * In lygi^ he was appointed a commissioner to make arrangements 


with the British government for a treaty with the western Indians then at war with the 
United States, but nothing came of it. In the same year he was appointed judge of the 
court of common pleas and was also elected senator in the Massachusetts legislature. He 
was a popular man and was re-elected senator every year until he was appointed gov- 
ernor of Michigan Territory, by President Jefferson, on March 22, 1805. In the latter 
position he was appointed for three years and was reappointed for two successive terms. 
When he arrived in Detroit on July i, 1805, he was a little over fifty-two years of age. 

"Augustus B. Woodward, the chief justice or presiding judge, by virtue of his com- 
mission being the earliest, was a native of New York city. He held the position from 
1805, when the territory was created, until 1823, when he was virtually legislated out of 
office, — a period of eighteen years. He commenced to practice law in Washington about 
1795- * * * Personally and judicially the judge was a unique and interesting char- 
acter, and his name and fame are indissolubly connected with the history of Detroit. 

"Woodward had a legal mind of no common order; he had great literary ability and 
fine executive and administrative powers, but his merits as a jurist and legislator were 
obscured by his colossal vanity. * * * No ruler of Detroit was ever so detested by 
the more intelligent citizens, but he nevertheless had many friends. His initiative in law, 
politics and municipal afifairs was generally adopted. Complaint after complaint with 
reference to his official conduct went to congress, signed by the most influential citizens, 
but his influence in Washington was strong enough to enable him to maintain his position 
until an act was passed in congress providing that the people of the territory should elect 
their own legislature in 1824 and thereafter. His experience in trying to be elected dele- 
gate to congress, in which he was defeated twice, showed him that his career in Michigan 
was over. He resigned shortly after the act was passed, and went to Washington, where 
he was appointed judge of the Territory of Florida. 

"Frederick Bates came to Detroit from Ohio in 1797 and engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness, improving his mind in leisure hours by studying law and history. He was post- 
master of Detroit from 1803 to 1806. Official honors then came thick upon him. In 
1804 he was appointed receiver of the Detroit land office; trustee in 1804-5; United States 
territorial judge in 1805-6; and territorial treasurer during the same year. 

"John Griffin, who was territorial judge from 1805 to 1823, was exactly contempo- 
rary with Woodward in that office. He was subservient to Woodward and invariably voted 
with him on the bench." Griffin was judge of the territorial court in Indiana before 
Michigan was formed." 

Detroit, the frontier town, had for its citizens for the most part, men who were not 
perhaps as well versed in les beaux arts as were the governor and judges of the territory. 
The people were still very close to the traditions and institutions of the Old World. The 
general standard of public opinion had not at that time developed into that more generous 
American standpoint from which the rights of individual citizens came, later on, to be 
regarded. Rapidly changing forms of government, repeatedly shifting territorial confines, 
and the peculiar admixture of racial extremes tended toward an unfortunate condition, — a 
condition closely bordering on business, social and political chaos. In this state of confu- 
sion individual rights were freely violated by those possessed of sufficient power and the 
inclination to presume. Affluence and education were natural barriers which, while not 
always superficially apparent, came nevertheless to be tacitly felt in the general undertow. 
Citizens and petty officials alike, were accustomed to the recognition of more or less sharply 
defined lines of social demarkation which placed the common people and a quasi-aristocracy 


clearly apart. The phenomenal period of industrial advancement which was marked by 
the construction of railroads in the east and by that of the Erie canal, had not opened the 
gateway to the west. Communication with the frontier was still uncertain and difficult. 
The flow of sturdy, stable New England stock, perhaps the most potent factor in the real 
building of this part of the west, had not been started toward Michigan Territory. The 
actual moulders of an irresistible public opinion had not as yet arrived; there was no 
adequate defense against abuse. 

Governor Hull, whose official mistakes can be termed errors only through a most 
generous application of charitable regard, proceeded almost immediately to vie with the 
chief justice in the establishment of a far from desirable record. President Jefferson, swayed 
unduly, it seems, by the intellectual attainments of his appointees, overlooked the necessity for 
sending well balanced, broad-minded officials to the west. Detroit and the territory became 
at once the victims of the arrogance, selfishness and personal vanity of Hull and Wood- 
ward; these men seem to have possessed between them all of these and even more unfor- 
tunate characteristics. Both were soon at loggerheads over petty differences of opinion 
which found origin in smallness and personal pique. 

Of the events facilitating the usurpation of civil rights, perhaps no circumstance was 
more favorable to the officers of the new territory than the great fire of June ii, 1805. 
On that dark day nearly every citizen was made homeless and many saw their entire for- 
tunes swept away in a few hours' time, by the carelessness of John Harvey, a baker. In 
spite of the previous efforts of the trustees to provide against such a possibility, nearly the 
whole town was destroyed. Harvey, it seems, dropped the live ashes from his pipe into a 
pile of hay in his stable. Quickly the building became a mass of flame. Battering rams, 
a decrepit fire engine, the ladder corps and the bucket brigade proved ineffective. Before 
the excited inhabitants could realize their danger, flames leaped from roof to roof across 
the narrow streets. The sparks, drawn high in the air from the central conflagration, fell 
promiscuously, and every citizen was forced to seek his own home in hope of saving some 
part of his property from the general destruction. In somewhat less than five hours the 
stockade and every house and structure within its confines were reduced to smouldering 

News of the disaster gradually reached the east and the Canadian cities, and, though 
money was comparatively scarce, contributions were received from Mackinac, Montreal, 
and other towns. Only a portion of this fund was spent for the relief of the needy, in 
spite of loud protest, and though the population numbered at this time somewhat less 
than one thousand, much suffering resulted from the inability of the neighboring farmers 
to shelter the homeless. Many doubted that the city would ever be rebuilt and sought 
homes at Amherstburg and in the Canadian provinces in the east. 

Shortly after the fire Judge Woodward arrived on the scene, preceding the governor 
by several days. Judge Bates lived here before the fire. Toward the end of June they 
attended an open-air meeting of the citizens held to consider plans for the rebuilding of 
the city. Though neither of the judges had as yet taken oath of office, they were quick 
to offer suggestions. They finally dissuaded the meeting from adopting a plan for a new 
city, based on that of the one destroyed. Both officers urged that the meeting defer all 
action until the arrival of the governor, who was expected momentarily. Governor Hull 
reached Detroit on July ist, and, after a hurried conference with his colleagues, placed the 
arrangements for laying out the city, in accordance with hastily formulated plans, in the 


hands of Judge Woodward. A surveyor was obtained and after many perplexing delays 
actual work was begun. 

On July 2d, the federal appointees formally took their respective oaths of office. On 
that day what is known as the rule of the governor and judges began with a vengeance, — 
a rule of presumption and bullying unequaled before or since that time in the United 

The people, still stunned by the sudden severity of their losses, were only too willing 
to look to the territorial officials for succor and to accept blindly their advices. In their 
hour of stress the citizens allowed the administration of their affairs to be taken quite 
out of the hands of the regularly elected officers of the corporation. The governor and 
judges, prompt to avail themselves of such a situation, overlooked no opportunity to add 
to their own power and importance. No detail of government, however trivial, escaped 

As the days lengthened into weeks and still no plans for the new city were forthcom- 
ing, the sturdier of heart began to chafe at the delay. They were tired of their tempo- 
rary shelters, built for the most part of bark and canvas, along the river front. They 
became more and more anxious to hew new homes for themselves from the timber of the 
forests. The governor and judges, however, insisted on carrying out their own ideas, 
regardless of the desires of the people. 

During the time of his residence at Washington, Judge Woodward had been the close 
friend of a French engineer who had assisted in planning the arrangement of the streets and 
avenues of the capital. These plans followed closely those adopted in laying out Ver- 
sailles, whose streets radiated from the palace of the French king, Louis XIV. Wood- 
ward had been much interested in the surveying of the streets of Washington and now he 
persuaded Hull that the great fire had but paved the way for the creation of a new Ver- 
sailles in the western wilderness. Evidently the governor's determination on such a course 
was reached without delay, for he issued an order in September, prohibiting the cutting of 
timber in certain districts. This edict was followed by a direct proclamation to the effect 
that former property bounds would no longer be regarded. Finally Hull announced that 
no new houses could be built until the surveys were completed. 

This meant that those remaining otherwise shelterless were to be forced to continue 
living in their flimsy shanties until it pleased the executive to parcel out allotments of land 
in accordance with his own ideas. Naturally such action resulted in bitter disappointment 
on the part of the citizens and in much severe suffering. Protest after protest brought no 
relief, and with the coming of winter the population was still further reduced by whole- 
sale removals from the town. 

Realizing that they had no legal right to disregard the property rights of those who 
had acquired title to lands in Detroit prior to the great fire, the judges and governor 
proceeded to Washington to secure at least a nominal right for such action. Both Hull 
and Woodward left for the capital in November. Acting as lobbyists, they secured the 
passage of the congressional act of April 21, 1806. This provided for the adoption of 
plans for a new city in accordance with Hull's and Woodward's desires, and for the sur- 
veying of what has been known as the "Ten thousand acre tract," — an area adjoining 
the commons and the old city. 

The act further provided that one lot within the bounds of the new town was to be 
conveyed to every resident over seventeen years of age who resided in the old town prior to 
the fire. Such grants, however, were limited to those who were citizens of the United 


States. In addition, the governor and judges were empowered with the privilege of selhng 
lots in the "Ten thousand acre tract" for the purpose of obtaining funds for the erection 
of a jail and court house. 

The fact that apparently sufficient funds, derived in accordance with the system of 
taxation, were at the time available for the erection of the public improvements, tends to 
substantiate the boasts credited to Judge Woodward, to the effect that his lobby had been 
most effective in favorably influencing congressional legislation. However much of veracity 
there may have been in these statements, certain it is that the territorial officers were 
openly and collectively charged with conspiring wrongfully to dispossess the people of 
their property claims and drive the inhabitants from the territory. 

With the citizens in general revolt against the prevailing regime, it is not surprising 
that so delicate a transaction as the distribution of hundreds of lots should be attended 
with much dissatisfaction on all sides. This, coupled with the postponement of the adop- 
tion of any definite survey for the new city, proved the last straw. By the time the winter 
of 1806 had passed without the erection of one new dwelling, the inhabitants were well nigh 
driven to virulent anarchy. 

As provided by the federal enactment, the governor and judges sat in the fall of 1806 
as a land board. After due deliberation, which seems to have been devoted to determin- 
ing the best means of producing revenue, the board decided that only inside lots should be 
given away, corner lots being reserved for sale. This proposition met with instant disap- 
proval and within a month an indignation meeting was held by the citizens. Even the 
most arrogant of the officials was forced to realize the extent of the popular disaffection. 
Threatening protests bore fruit in the form of an official request for a counter proposal 
from the inhabitants. 

Toward the middle of October such a plan was presented to the officials and was finally 
adopted. The new arrangement classified the inhabitants at Detroit at the time of the fire 
as those owning lots, those who occupied houses, and those who lived within the town but 
who were not possessed of any real property. Governor Hull took it upon himself to per- 
sonally adjudicate the rights of all claimants and to supervise the distribution of the free 

Of this plan Farmer's History of Detroit and Michigan says : "Those persons in the 
first class who had improved their lots subsequent to the fire were allowed to retain the 
land occupied or enclosed by them ; but as the lots, according to the new plan, were in 
some instances larger than they had before occupied, they were required to pay from two 
to three cents per square foot for any excess in size. Towards Christmas the governor by 
agreement * * * located the donation lots; and about New Year every person, male 
and female, who lived in the town when it was burned, and whom the governor judged 
eligible, to the number of two hundred and fifty-one drew their donation lots. 

"About three weeks afterward the board came together, and the governor introduced 
the question 'Whether those who came to Detroit since it was given up to the Americans 
by the British, who had not taken the oath of allegiance, should receive donation lots,' and 
delivered a lengthy speech in favor of said class of claimants. Judges Woodward and 
Griffin also at first inclined to favor giving them lots, but the final decision was against 
such claimants. About two-thirds of the two hundred and fifty-one persons who had 
drawn donation lots but a few days previously were by this decision deprived of them. So 
the farce went on, the people being alternately threatened and cajoled until many of them 
became almost ready to yield their old holdings and leave the territory." 


Though the purpose of the congressional act of 1806 was clearly that of alleviating 
the distressed condition of the people of Detroit, all such intent was defeated by the gov- 
ernor. The administration decided that the hoi polloi should have no opportunity of 
acquiring valuable locations. Corner lots and other choice bits of ground were not only 
sold to certain privileged individuals, but the common citizens were forced to accept inside 
lots and whatever crumbs the governor was pleased in his generosity to let fall to them. 

These acts of presumption on the part of the executives were only equaled by similar 
acts in which both the legislative and executive rights of the people were clearly usurped. 
Whenever the executive branch of the government, vested entirely in the governor and 
judges, found itself embarrassed by any regulation limiting its power, a most convenient 
transition was made with bewildering swiftness; the same individuals, adjourning tempo- 
rarily as executives, without leaving their chairs, convened as legislators; any inconvenient 
law was repealed or repaired as best suited the exigencies of the occasion ; the "legislature" 
adjourned and whatever executive business had been originally before the autocrats was 
again taken up under more favorable circumstances. 

While Judge Woodward's elaborate plans for the fashioning of a magnificent city were 
still in progress of development in accordance with his aesthetic ideas, Governor Hull 
decided to carry into execution certain designs of his own. These designs were character- 
ized by details none the less striking than those of Woodward. Hull decided upon the 
necessity of an army. By virtue of his office as governor, he was commander-in-chief of 
militia; and this opportunity for the exercise of authority had been overlooked! In Sep- 
tember, 1805, directions were given for repairing this oversight. Hull ordered the 
recruiting of two infantry regiments and one legionary corps. Aides-de-camp, quarter- 
masters general, colonels, adjutants general, majors, captains, lieutenants, surgeons and 
chaplains sprang into immediate being. Again the town assumed a martial aspect; from 
their own resources the populace were required to contribute to the formation of a body 
of soldiery so equipped as to inspire the country with the grandeur of the governor's ideas. 
Of the Detroit militia, "Landmarks" says ; 

"According to his (Hull's) orders, the privates were directed to clothe themselves in 
long coats of dark blue cloth, the skirts reaching to the knee, and they were to be orna- 
mented with large white buttons. Their pantaloons were to be of the same material for 
winter wear and of white duck for summer. The vests were to be of white cloth all the 
year. Half-boots or gaiters were to be their foot gear, and round black hats, ornamented 
with a black feather tipped with red, were required for head covering. Officers of the 
first regiment were to wear similar clothing, to which was added a red cape for the coat, 
silver straps and epaulettes to designate their rank, and a cocked hat with a white plume. 
The coats were to be faced with buff. Artillerymen were to have coats turned up with 
red, and a red cord running down their trousers, and red plumes. Riflemen were to have 
green uniforms with short coats and the plumes on their hats were to be green. Taken 
altogether, the uniforms required were better adapted for the clothing of a royal body 
guard than for the dressing of a backwoods military corps. They were entirely beyond 
the means of the men who were ordered to purchase them. * * * There was method 
in the governor's madness. The men were ordered to appear on duty in full uniform after 
June I, 1806. 

"Before issuing the order Governor Hull had taken the precaution to stock his store 
with cassimeres, ducks, hats, plumes, silver braid, buttons and epaulettes, and his unforms 
were planned so as to create a sale for this stock and give him a big profit." 


Of Governor Hull's propensity for so performing his "duty" as to promote at the same 
time his personal welfare materially, one John Gentle, who wrote extensively of the hap- 
penings of the times for a Pittsburg paper, reported as follows : 

"On the 6th day of June, 1806, the people of Detroit were gratified with the pleas- 
ing intelligence that Governor Hull had arrived at Fort Maiden, where he was received 
with a royal salute and every royal distinction due to his high merits as a distinguished 
officer of the United States. The next day he crossed the river to Detroit. * * * He 
brought with him a number of carpenters and bricklayers and a barge of dry-goods, con- 
sisting of clothes, chiefly blue cassimeres, and a quantity of swords, epaulettes, tinsel ware, 
etc. So soon as his shop was put in order for business, he issued his general orders, com- 
manding all the militia in the territory to provide themselves with complete suits of uniform 
clothing, viz. : blue coats, white small clothes for summer, and blue for winter, black hats 
and feathers, short boots and gaiters. The chief of the officers complied with his orders, 
but the soldiers, more from poverty than from contumacy, did not comply. Blue cloth 
could not be got at that time at any of the stores where the people were accustomed to 
traffic and they could not command money to purchase their uniforms at the governor's 

This inability upon the part of the rank and file to buy proved a severe disappointment 
to the governor. The extent of his wrath can be imagined when it is remembered that 
the "legislature" had passed a militia law in 1805, requiring military service from every 
male resident between the ages of fourteen and fifty years. From a report made by 
Lieutenant Colonel Philip Chabert de Jonclaire it appears that some six hundred and 
twenty-five men were liable to such service, — a sufficient number, exclusive of officers, to 
give promise of generous returns from the governor's store. This bit of profit it seems 
was too good a thing for a man of the governor's inclinations to let slip, and he accord- 
ingly sought means of forcing the unwilling ones to contribute. 

The most convenient avenue of persuasion lay through the courts, which were con- 
veniently at the service of the governor, who had but recently districted the territory and 
appointed several justices. The militia was again ordered to procure uniforms on pain of 
arrest and imprisonment, — a formidable method of persuasion, considering the fact that 
two of the justices were officers of militia who had themselves been forced to purchase 

For those who were incapable of obeying the governor's orders there was no avenue 
of escape. Many such persons fell victims to the "law" and were clapped into prison, 
where they seemed quite content to remain. 

Notwithstanding the dispatch of petitions of protest to Washington and the expres- 
sion of dissatisfaction to the territorial officers, a considerable body of uniformed militia 
was enrolled. Many managed to meet the expense of self-equipment. Inspections were 
held, training days established and, as Mr. Gentle informs us, "by means of this bare-faced 
imposition he (Hull) emptied a considerable store of money out of the pockets of the 
people in a direct line into his own." 

During 1806 untoward events connected with America's shipping interests and what 
were considered to be threatening acts on the part of the western Indians gave rise to 
additional alarm at Detroit. War rumors were on every tongue. It occurred to the people 
that an army of fighting men was much more a necessity to the safety of the community 
than the governor's militia. These "pretty soldiers" had become the laughing stock of all 
who were not more seriously affected by the governor's ordere. No one in the territory 


was aware of any signal ability of the governor as a military commander, and no one had 
much of confidence m his leadership. Those who foresaw the helplessness of the Ameri- 
cans in case need for a real leader should arise drew up the following petition : 

"From the circumstances of our being on a frontier in a double sense, it is peculiarly 
necessary to have an officer of judgment and of military science. This gentleman (Hull) 
has a kind of reputation of that sort, from his having served as a major in the army and 
from having been a general in the militia; but we have enough to satisfy us here that it is 
unmerited. We judge from what we see with our own eyes." 

Supplementing the above and other petitions addressed to President Madison relative 
to Hull's actions, the following presentation was made by the citizens at about this time : 
"In upper Canada African slavery has always existed, and the labor of their slaves is the 
principal reliance of many families on both sides for subsistence. Mr. Hull has counte- 
nanced the runaways * * * 5y embodying them into a military company, and supply- 
ing them with arms from the public stores. He has signed a written instrument appoint- 
ing a black man to the command of the company. This transaction is extremely dishon- 
orable to the government on this side of the river; violates the feelings of the opposite side; 
essentially injures their interests; and eventually injures our own people, by exciting the 
others to retaliate in the same way." 

No one at Washington was inclined to heed these complaints against Hull, it seems, 
and that officer was allowed to continue the farce of his militia establishment unhindered. 
Though the matter of the uniforms threatened to bring trouble from the grand jury, the 
"drills" continued. Reluctant soldiers were dragged from their homes if occasion 
demanded, and forced into line. In indignation Mr Gentle wrote : "The farmers were 
commanded to quit their harvest fields and repair to the city, armed and accoutred with 
pick-axes and shovels, all day, to dig trenches and plant pickets around Brush's farm, 
adjoining the city, without fee or reward, and to stand guard over their lords and masters 
during the silent night, with hungry bellies; whilst their families in the country are 
exposed (if the danger was real) to the scalping knife and their grain to the rot." 

So despotic did the governor finally become in the execution of what he termed the 
militia law, that the executive was brought into an open clash with the secretary of the 
territory, Stanley Griswold. The secretary was accused of inciting certain militiamen to 
insubordination and was arrested and tried before Justices May, McDougall and Smythe. 
Both May and McDougall were militia officers and they accordingly held the secretary to 
his personal recognizance in the sum of one thousand dollars, though Smythe was loud in 
dissenting from such a verdict. Shortly after this, Griswold's term of office expired and 
he left Detroit. 

Thus the autocracy was continued. To make its continuance doubly secure, the terri- 
torial act incorporating the town of Detroit, passed in 1802 by the same body that later 
was responsible for the appointment of the governor and judges, was, in September, 1806, 
set aside by these worthies. This superseding act placed the control of local afifairs entirely 
within the hands of the governor, who was by its provisions empowered with the appoint- 
ment of a mayor. As this latter official was given full powers, and was directly responsible 
to the governor for appointment and continuance in office, nothing could escape Hull's 
watchful dictation. Once such an act became effective, the people were powerless despite 
their indignation. They were allowed to elect an upper and lower town council, to be 
sure; but this blessing proved itself to be limited by so many restrictions that but one such 
election was held until the repeal of the act in 1809. During the year following the latter 


date the governor and judges had the effrontery to repeal all the laws of the territorial 
legislature and thus to continue their absolute supremacy. 

Of the act of 1806, Mr. Gentle is quoted as having written: "This summer the legis- 
lative board passed a law incorporating the town of Detroit into a city. The governor 
conferred the mayorship upon Solomon Sibley, who advertised the citizens to assemble for 
the purpose of choosing a first and second council, to consist of three members each. 
Accordingly the following persons were elected: First council, Stanley Griswold, John 
Harvey, Peter Desnoyers ; second council, Isaac Jones, John Gentle, James Dodemead. A 
few days after the election Solomon Sibley relinquished his mayorship and Elijah Brush 
was appointed by the governor mayor of the city in his stead. Some time in the month 
of December following the governor and judges were committing some depredations upon 
the streets of the new town, entirely blocking up one, laying it out in lots and disposing 
of them at an enormous price, to the great damage of the adjoining settlers ; and removing 
another street about fifty feet on purpose to make the bank form the corner of the two 
streets and enlarge the avenue to the governor's mansion, to the great damage of the 
principal range of houses in the new town. These flagrant infractions on the rights and 
privileges of the citizens did not fail to attract the attention of the city council. They 
assembled to examine for the first time the corporation law and to ascertain the extent of 
their jurisdiction. But how great was their astonishment when they discovered that the 
whole of the corporation powers centered in the mayor alone. 

"That the election of the councils was a mere mockery and an insult to the understand- 
ings of the citizens will evidently appear from the following extract from the corporation 
law itself: 'And be it further enacted that every bill or act having passed by a majority 
of both chambers before it becomes a law shall be presented to the mayor, and if not approved 
by him shall not take effect or become a law, but shall be returned with his objections to the 
chamber in which it last passed, — there to remain (for here it stopped) in statu quo until 
the day of judgment, without further reconsideration.' But they ought to have added a few 
more words to the following effect : Who shall enter the objection at large on their jour- 
nal and proceed to reconsider it, and if after such reconsideration two-thirds of that cham- 
ber shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other 
chamber, by which it shall also be reconsidered and if approved by two-thirds of them, it 
shall become a law, etc. Then the power of the two chambers would be complete and in 
exact similitude with the power vested in every other body corporate in the Christian 
world. But as the Detroit corporation act now stands, of which the foregoing extract is 
the most important part, I defy the most enlightened age to produce anything so ridicu- 
lously absurd. By it the mayor is clothed with an absolute negative in all cases whatsoever, 
and by it the two councils are clothed with absolute insignificance. They are, if I may be 
allowed the expression, a body without guts. Instead of having power to open one street 
and prevent the removal of another, they have not power to open a hog pen or prevent the 
removal of a hen roost." 

All this, however, was far within the limits of the presumption of the despots. Before 
Governor Hull took oath of office ; before, indeed, he came west to enter upon his duties in 
Michigan Territory, he conceived the idea of establishing for the suffering tradesmen of 
the frontier nothing less than a bank "of deposit and exchange." He even went so far, it 
seems, as to present the matter to certain of his friends in Boston. These persons looked 
with favor on such an enterprise for the upbuilding of trade in the west. Incidentally, it 
was conceived that such an institution might prove itself somewhat profitable to its 


In the spring of 1806, therefore, six Boston financiers asked leave to estabhsh the 
Bank of Detroit, the pioneer of the city's financial enterprises. It was set forth at the 
time that the promoters proposed a capitalization of no less than four hundred thousand 
dollars and, later on, one William Flannigan presented a bond in the sum of fifteen thou- 
sand dollars for the faithful performance of the duties of cashier, "if the bank is organized." 

Evidently agreeable to the satisfaction of the desires of his eastern friends, Governor 
Hull introduced a bill before the territorial "legislature" providing for the chartering of 
such a bank. His bill having been conveniently referred to its sponsor by his colleagues, 
the Bank of Detroit was, after due deliberation, of course, formally incorporated by the 
act of September 19. 

For the subsequent history of this financial stronghold and its relations to the Michi- 
gan territory and to the world in general, we are again indebted to Mr. John Gentle, who 
took particular note of the affairs of his times. Mr. Gentle wrote : 

"In 1805, a few days after Governor Hull and Judge Woodward arrived, the writer 
accidentally stepped into the legislative board while the honorable members were deliber- 
ating on the situation and circumstances of the territory and the measures necessary for its 
future elevation. Judge Woodward said : 'For my part I have always considered these 
territorial establishments at best a most wretched system of government. And the measures 
hitherto pursued by former territorial governments have all proved exceedingly defective. 
We will, therefore, adopt a system for the government of this new territory that shall be 
entirely novel.' Governor Hull then observed : 'Before I left Boston I had a very imper- 
fect idea of this country, but since I arrived I am quite delighted with it. Gentlemen, this 
is the finest, the richest country in the world, but from its remoteness it is subject to many 
inconveniences which it behooves us to remove as speedily as possible. And the first object 
which merits the special attention of this honorable board is the establishment of a bank. 
Yes, gentlemen, a bank of discount and deposit will be a fine thing for this new territory. 
Before I left Boston I spoke to several of my friends on this subject and they were quite 
taken with it and even made me promise to allow them to be connected with it.' A bank, 
said I to myself, a bank of discount and deposit in Detroit? To discount what? Cabbages 
and turnips ? To deposit what ? Pumpkins and potatoes ? Thinks I to myself, These folks 
must either be very wise men, very great fools, or very great rogues. A bank in Detroit, 
where the trade is all traffic and the bills all payable in produce! A bank in the bosom of 
the deserts of Michigan! That will be a novelty indeed! 

"The following fall Governor Hull and Judge Woodward went down to congress and 
during the winter and spring they settled the necessary preliminaries with their Boston 
friends for the establishment of the Detroit bank. Early in the summer of 1806 Gov- 
ernor Hull returned and about six weeks afterward Mrs. Hull and the rest of the family 
arrived, escorted by Mr. Flannigan, cashier of the proposed Detroit bank. He brought 
along some strong iron doors and several tons of bar iron to strengthen the vaults. Mate- 
rials were soon collected, the governor stopped his works, and all his workmen were 
employed to expedite the erection of the bank. 

"Nothing was done that summer and nothing thought of but the bank. Early in Sep- 
tember Judge Woodward and Messrs. Parker and Broadstreet, both proprietors in the pro- 
posed bank, arrived with nineteen thousand dollars in bright guineas of Britain's Isle to 
pay the first installment of Boston shares in the Detroit bank; and they also brought an 
immense cargo of bank bills not filled up. The real capital of the Detroit bank is twenty 
thousand dollars, eight thousand dollars of which has been expended in building the bank 


and in other contingent expenses. The nominal capital is one million dollars, divided into 
ten thousand shares of one hundred dollars each, eight thousand of which is already 
engrossed by the people of Boston. Towards the last of September, while the principal 
inhabitants of the territory were in town attending the supreme court, a subscription of 
the remaining two thousand shares was opened for a few hours only at Smyth's hotel, by 
Parker and Broadstreet, who informed us that it was not yet decided what the amount of 
the first installment would be; but at the same time assured us that it would not be less 
than twenty-five dollars nor more than fifty dollars per share. Being uninformed of its 
object, only ten or twelve shares were taken up at this time. We saw no more of the sub- 
scription until about three weeks afterward. In the interim the legislature met and framed 
a charter for the bank; also a law making it lawful for Michigan Territory to hold shares 
in the bank ; and empowering Governor Hull to purchase ten shares for the Territory of 
Michigan with money from the territorial treasury; and also making the Detroit bank 
notes a lawful tender in all payments wherein the territory was concerned. 

"The bank being nearly completed, the subscription was again offered, not publicly as 
before, but only to a few gentlemen of spirit and enterprise; but the first installment, which 
only three weeks before was not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than fifty dollars, 
was now reduced to two dollars per share; and instead of giving every person an oppor- 
tunity of subscribing, Messrs. Parker and Broadstreet, at one dash, swept off for themselves 
and friends in Boston the fifteen hundred shares which remained after satisfying their new 
converts in Detroit. When Parker and Broadstreet opened the subscription at Smyth's 
hotel they asserted that they did not know what the amount of the first installment would 
be, but assured us that it would not be less than twenty-five dollars nor more than fifty 
dollars. They knew then that they asserted a falsehood; for they brought just money 
enough with them to pay for the Boston installment at the rate of two dollars per share. 
At the same time they were deceiving the public with fifty dollar installments to prevent 
a general connection. Meanwhile they were busily engaged in sounding the moral char- 
acters of certain individuals whose opposition they dreaded, whose support was indispens- 
ably necessary, and whose virtue, alas, was too flexible to resist the golden allurements of 
the Detroit mint. 

"Having brought matters to a favorable issue, a meeting of the founders and their new 
converts assembled, and appointed Judge Woodward president and William Flannigan of 
Boston cashier. Parker and Broadstreet then embarked for Boston with a small venture 
of one hundred and sixty-three thousand dollars of Detroit Bank notes. The appearance 
of the notes excited the curiosity of the Bostonians, but on inquiring they were given to 
understand that they were very safe notes and that the rich territory of Michigan was 
concerned in them. Agents were also stationed throughout the northern states, who dis- 
posed of immense quantities of them to the unwary, at from ten to twenty-five per cent, 
discount. Not long after the introduction of the notes in New England the following 
remark appeared in the Boston Sentinel, developing the motives of the Detroit bank, sup- 
posed to be the production of Mr. Parker: 'The enterprise the Detroit banking com- 
pany have in contemplation, of which this bank is but a part, involves in it as much public 
advantage as any enterprise that ever was undertaken, viz : the diversion of the valuable 
trade of Canada to the ports of Boston and New York.' Yes, and peddling Detroit bank 
notes through the New England states is the very plan to effect that object. Every lover 
of sport must admire this choice diversion — diverting the cash from the Atlantic states 
into the Detroit bank. 


"The amount of their paper currency circulating here never, until very lately, exceeded 
two thousand dollars, and how even that much got afloat is a mystery, for no person ever 
deposited money in the bank, and no person ever borrowed from them ; neither do I know 
that any notes of hand, bills, or bonds were ever discounted. * * * 

"In the month of March or April, news came to Detroit that Parker and Broadstreet 
had sold their interest in the Detroit bank to a Mr. Dexter, at or near Boston, and it 
appeared by the length of their faces that our Detroit proprietors were somewhat suspicious 
that their late associates had swindled them. Before our mock bankers were entirely recov- 
ered of this shock, a Mr. Latimer, of Presque Isle, arrived and brought on one of the New 
England five dollar Detroit bank notes, which he presented at the bank, but it was refused 
admittance. The week following Mr. Conrad Ten Eyck returned from Albany with a 
small cargo of five hundred dollars' worth of Detroit bank notes, which he purchased from 
one of the agents at or near Albany at twenty-five per cent, discount. He made a tender of 
them at the bank, but to his great surprise the directors refused to discount them. 

"The appearance of Ten Eyck with so much of Detroit paper at first determined the 
directors to shut the bank. On that occasion Governor Hull delivered the following very 
learned oration : 'It is reported there are now in circulation in New England from four 
hundred thousand to six hundred thousand dollars of Detroit paper money, and I believe 
it. It is verj' strange that I was not informed of it before. I assure you, gentlemen, I 
never knew that a single bill of this bank went down the country. This bank business I 
find is one of the damnedest swindles I ever heard of; but,' laying his hand on his breast, 
'thank God, I have no hand in it !' Mon Dieu ! What an example of piety and virtue ! 

"For about three weeks the bank gentry assembled daily, no doubt to deliberate on the 
propriety or impropriety of shutting up the bank. If they shut the bank on the bills from 
below, the report would very soon reach Boston and put a final stop to the circulation of 
bills in that quarter; on the contrary, if they satisfied Ten Eyck, and maintained the credit 
of the bank a few months longer, they would easily dispose of five hundred or six hundred 
dollars' worth more of their paper, which would amply compensate for Ten Eyck's five 
hundred dollars. Accordingly, after a series of consultations, it appears that the latter 
proposition prevailed. The cashier was dispatched with tidings to Ten Eyck to repair to the 
bank and receive the cash for his notes. There were in circulation at that time in Detroit 
and its vicinity seventeen hundred dollars of the Detroit paper currency, and the report 
having gone abroad that the bank refused to discount its own bills, the people crowded 
in from all quarters with their bills, and without any diiificulty received cash for them, 
which was more than they expected. 

"Just at this time the following conversation accidentally took place on the subject of 

the bank : Mr. S , who was one of the largest share holders, said that that 'Parker 

and Broadstreet had acted a very treacherous part, and for that reason the directors were 
determined not to pay the bills that are in circulation below;' but he pledged his word and 
honor 'that no person in this country would be suffered to lose a single cent by the bills 
which had been circulated here.' It was answered, 'How will you avoid payment of your 

own notes? You can surely be compelled by law to pay them.' Mr. S replied, 'We 

never will pay them, neither can we be compelled by law to pay them, unless we please.' Mr. 
S 's observations are perfectly correct, for the Territory of Michigan holds an inter- 
est of ten shares in the bank, and congress, not having the fear of God before their eyes, 
nor the interest of the Detroit Banking company, at the last session, wilfully and malici- 
ously, destroyed the charter of the bank; and every stockholder is now bound for the 


bank debts to the full amount of his fortune (and that is not much). * * * The ter- 
ritory being a stockholder involves a general interest in the bank, and the property of 
every person therein is bound to these promises for the payment of the Detroit bank notes, 
and no person, agreeably to the laws of the land, being eligible to serve as judge or jury 
or evidence, in processes wherein his interest is concerned, consequently no suits can be 
instituted in this territory for debts due by the Detroit Bank. 

"The people through their grand juries have three different times remonstrated to the 
government of this territory against the illicit connection with the bank, but their respect- 
ful solicitation has been disregarded. 

"The directors say that the intentions of the banking company are honest, their views 
extensive, and their prospect of pecuniary remuneration incalculable ; that the Michigan gov- 
ernment has no concern in the bank, nor the bank with the schemes of government. * * * 
First, — Governor Hull and Judge Woodward, in the spring of last year, while they so- 
journed in the states, spent a great deal of time and a great deal of money, negotiating 
with the good people of Boston and New York, for the establishment of the Detroit bank. 
Still the government have no concern in the bank. Second, — The governor and Judge 
Bates accommodated the bank with two of the most valuable lots in the new town, 
in total disregard of the act of congress and the interests of the people. Still the govern- 
ment have no concern in the bank ! Third, — Although Governor Hull was himself living in 
an old store house he stopped the building of his own mansion, and sent all his workmen 
to expedite the erection of the bank ! Still the government have no concern in the bank ! 
Fourth, — Last September Judge Woodward, in his charge to the grand jury recommended 
this infant bank to their particular protection. Still the government have no concern in 
the bank! Fifth, — The governor and judges made a law incorporating the Detroit bank, 
in utter contempt of a law of congress, in favor of the United States Bank, which says in 
plain terms 'That no other bank shall be established by any future law of the United 
States, during the continuation of the corporation hereby created, for which the faith of 
the United States is hereby pledged.' Still the government have no concern in the bank! 
Sixth, — Judge Woodward is president of the bank. Still the government have no concern 
in the bank ! 

"Seventh, — The governor and judges removed one of the streets forty to fifty feet 
nearer the bank, to make it form the corner of two streets, to the great damage of the 
principal range of houses in the new town. Still the government have no concern in the 
bank ! Eighth, — The governor and judges are proprietors of a few shares publicly, and 
an immense number clandestinely in the Detroit Bank. Still the government have no con- 
cern in the bank! Ninth, — The governor and judges passed a law making it lawful for 
this territory to become proprietors in the bank. Still the government have no concern in 
the bank ! Tenth, — The governor and judges made a law authorizing Governor Hull to 
purchase ten shares in the bank for the territory of Michigan. Still the government have 
no concern in the bank! Eleventh, — Governor Hull did purchase ten shares in the Detroit 
Bank, for the territory of Michigan, without the advice or consent of the inhabitants 
thereof. Still the government have no concern in the bank ! Twelfth, — The people have 
often solicited the governor and judges through the grand juries, and otherwise, to exon- 
erate the territory from its dangerous connection with the bank, but their respectful solici- 
tations are to this day totally disregarded. Still the government have no concern in the 
bank ! Thirteenth, — The governor and judges passed a law making the Detroit bank notes 
a lawful tender. Still the government have no concern in the bank ! Fourteenth, — In the 


winter of last year Governor Hull made a tour through the New England states, sounding 
the praises, as he went, and jingling the unaccountable riches of Michigan, in the listening 
ears of the astonished Yankees. 'Come all to Michigan! It is the richest country, and 
the richest land for raising pumpkins in the world.' Immediately on his return to De- 
troit, he instituted the bank, and shipped with all possible speed to New England an im- 
mense cargo, consisting of one hundred and sixty-three thousand dollars in Detroit bank 
notes, peddling them through the country ever since, and passing them away on the credit 
of the immense riches of Michigan. And yet the government have no concern in the 

Of the connection of Governor Hull and Judge Woodward with the Bank of Detroit, 
the authors of "Landmarks of Detroit" say : 

"In reviewing the circumstances connected with the founding of this, the first mone- 
tary institution of Detroit, it is impossible to resist the conclusion that both President 
Woodward and Governor Hull were not men of integrity. Both were active promoters 
of the fraudulent concern. The latter confessed in an official letter to President Madison, 
in 1807, that eighty thousand dollars to one hundred thousand dollars of the bank's bills 
were sent to agents at Boston. There they went into circulation, scattering all over 
New England, but they were never redeemed at Detroit with the exception of five hundred 
dollars which were redeemed under threat of publicity. * * * Hull and Woodward 
denied receiving any part of the proceeds, but it is contrary to probability that they told 
the truth. * * * When Woodward came to Detroit he was a poor man. * * * 
He certainly acquired money while in Detroit and became a very extensive land owner. 
He was a rich man when he left the city, yet he never engaged in trade nor in any visible 
business save the purchase and sale of land, and his sales did not aggregate a tithe of his 


The Woodward Code — Judicial Districts in the Territory — Early Courts — Judge James 
Witherell — First Printing Press in Detroit — Efforts to Separate Legislative and Ju- 
dicial Departments of Territorial Government — Conditions Leading up to the War 
of 1812 — Renewed Alliances Between British Agents and the Indians — Tecumseh, 
the Indian Leader — Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Under a code of laws adopted by the governor and judges during the first year or two 
of their service — a compilation known as the Woodward code — Michigan Territory was 
divided into three judicial districts. Courts were established in each of the districts of 
Mackinac, Huron and Erie and had jurisdiction in both civil and criminal procedures, save 
those processes of so petty a nature as to fall within the province of the justices of the 
peace. The sessions of the Huron and Detroit district court were held at Detroit, following 
a proclamation providing for its establishment issued July 3, 1805. 

As the people had become disgusted with the executive efforts of the governor, so they 
became dissatisfied with the procedure of the judges and governor acting as legislators and 
jurists. From the records of the times it is evident that little heed was given by the terri- 
torial officials to any principles of justice in the conduct of affairs. Court proceedings were 
characterized by the most unusual practices. Though the grand juries had repeatedly con- 
fronted both Hull and Woodward with alleged irregularities, nothing definite was at first 
accomplished in way of remedies. Upon the withdrawal from the territory of Judge 
Bates, President Jefferson appointed James Witherell as his successor. In this appointment 
the people were more fortunate. Witherell, who assumed the duties of his position in April, 
1808, was an honest man, and possessed of sufficient courage to prove himself a thorn in 
the flesh of his colleagues. Usually he stood with Hull as opposed to Woodward and 
Griffin, in cases of executive division. 

Despite the apparent uselessness of their deliberations, the grand juries began to be 
troublesome to the officials of the territory following Witherell's appointment. This fact 
and the circumstances incident to the rivalry and ill feeling between Hull and Woodward 
constituted almost the sole defense of the people against the high handed practices of the 
governor and judges. In 1809 the grand jury, of which George Hoffman was foreman, 
made so bold as to present an official accusation against Hull. One Whipple, a former 
army officer and a friend of the governor, had called Judge Woodward a rascal, following 
litigation in which Whipple had been unsuccessful. For this the offender was promptly 
brought to trial by Woodward and was convicted, the court assessing a fine of fifty dollars. 
Hull remitted the sentence of the court, thus straining to the breaking point his relations 
with Woodward and incurring much popular censure. It was generally conceded that the 
governor's act was one of personal spite. Public indignation found expression in this formal 
accusation from the grand jury : "History, the record of facts, shows that under every form 
of government, man, when vested with authority, from the weakness and imbecility of his 
nature has a strong propensity to assume powers with which he is not legally clothed. Fully 
persuaded of this truth from reflection and observation, we, the grand jury for the body of 



the Territory of Michigan, after having heard witnesses and a free and impassionate dis- 
cussion and consideration of their testimony, on our oath present that William Hull, governor 
of this territory, did on the 27th day of February, 1809, illegally and vi^ithout any color of 
authority, sign an instn:ment in writing as said governor of the territory, remitting the fine 
of fifty dollars imposed on Whipple * * * and we, the said grand jurors, have a con- 
fident hope that the supreme court will carry into effect their own judgment." 

This document was one of the first to be printed on the first printing press brought to 
Michigan Territory. It was widely circulated among residents of the city and was even 
posted on trees and about taverns and public places, somewhat to the governor's chagrin. 
Wherever his excellency was pleased to go, the noxious notice met his eye. 

The formal accusation was significant in that its actuating cause was the last straw 
under which public forbearance seemed about to refuse to stagger on. This act of the gov- 
ernor's incited the most calm of the citizens to insist that the legislative and judicial depart- 
ments of government be permanently divorced. In October, 1809, a committee consisting 
of Solomon Sibley, Judge Woodward, George Hoffman, James May and James Henry, met 
at the house of one of its members, with an organization of citizens by which it had been 
named. The committee had been appointed for the purpose of inquiring into the legality of 
the ordinance of 1787 on which the laws governing the territory were supposed to have 
been based. For the publication of the following resolutions, which the citizens' organization 
adopted, the new printing press was again brought into service : 

"That it is expedient to alter the present form of government of this territory and to 
adopt a form of government by which two bodies, elected annually by the people, should make 
the laws, instead of the executive and the three judicial magistrates, appointed by the gen- 
eral government, adopting them; the first to consist of five representatives, and the sec- 
ond of three councillors; the executive to have a qualified veto, under such modifications as 
congress in their wisdom may think proper to provide. 

"That the congress of the United States be respectfully solicited to appropriate the sum 
of six hundred dollars annually towards defraying the expenses of the territorial legisla- 
ture, constituted on the foregoing principles. 

"That it is expedient that the people of this territory should be represented in the con- 
gress of the United States by a delegate to be elected by the people." 

Though these resolutions were presented in congress early in 1810, by Peter B. Porter, 
it was not until nine years subsequent to the latter date that Michigan was so represented 
by a delegate in the congress of the United States. The resolution assumed the form of a 
petition and is of particular interest, inasmuch as it may be said to have been the first effec- 
tive step of the citizens in attempting to throw off the yoke of political abuse under which 
they had been galled from the time of the birth of the territory. Reassured by their own 
boldness in this matter and by the evident concern it occasioned the governor, a subsequent 
grand jury attacked the acts of all four of the territorial officials, in 1810. So popular did 
this practice on the part of the people become, indeed, that it is probable that the rule of 
the governor and judges would have been overthrown with comparative dispatch had not 
the nation's final struggle with Great Britain intervened to claim the public attention. 

Though Mad Anthony Wayne had wrested the northwest from English greed, his 
majesty the king was not disposed to allow an upstart government in the western world 
to balk the royal will without some punishment. Characteristic Yankee energy had begun 
to push the American flag and the American carrying trade into the ports of the world. 
Rich cargoes from the Indias and from European ports were traversing the seas in Yankee 


bottoms. Rich prizes were to be had for the taking on every hand and as the young govern- 
ment was innocent of naval defense, the taking of its merchantmen and the harassing of its 
foreign trade were shining marks for British vengeance. Sailor citizens of the United 
States were impressed into the British service and subjected to a quasi-slavery by brutal 
sailing masters, under the pretext that no English born individual could expatriate himself 
at will. Indignity after indignity was suffered by the American flag. That a "sailors' 
war" should follow was inevitable. 

Naturally the young government was much concerned in the occurring of events of 
international magnitude that at the time made for some serious doubt as to the very continu- 
ance of the colonial federation ; and these circustances were no doubt largely responsible 
for the seeming oversight of abuses obtaining in the west. 

Reports of impressment and "right of search" were sent westward from the Atlantic 
seaboard. Simultaneously equally startling revelations went eastward in exchange, chron- 
icling a general state of imeasiness over the Indian situation in the west. From all appear- 
ances it was evident that the old and well known British practice of employing Indian sav- 
agery in inducing American tracticability, was again about to be employed. 

Apparently the English were to have the advantage of finding an Indian leader ready 
to appreciate their presents and to understand clearly their attempted subtle urgings. This 
man was Tecumseh, an Indian leader who has been frequently likened to his predecessor, 
Pontiac. Indeed, Tecumseh's imagination embraced a plan of Indian confederacy similar 
to Pontiac's former enterprise. Drake's memoir of this celebrated chief says : "Pucke- 
shinwa, the father of Tecumseh, was a member of the Kiscopoke, and Methoataske, the 
mother, of the Turtle tribe of the the Shawanoe nation. They removed from Florida to 
Ohio about the midde of the last (eighteenth) century. The father rose to the rank of 
chief and fell at the battle of Point Pleasant, 1774. Tecumseh was born at Piqua, Ohio, 
about the year 1768. When seventeen years of age he manifested signal prowess in an 
attack on some boats on the Ohio near Limestone, Kentucky. The boats were all captured 
and all in them killed except one person who was burned alive. Tecumseh was a silent 
spectator, never having before witnessed the burning of a prisoner; after it was all over he 
expressed his strong abhorrence of the act and by his eloquence persuaded his followers 
never to burn any more prisoners." 

Following this incident his influence over his followers increased to such an extent that 
he rose rapidly in the favor of his tribe. His subsequent respect for the valor of the whites 
originated in the battles occurring prior to that at Fallen Timber during Wayne's cam- 
paign in the west. Three years after his tribe had made him chief, in 1795, Tecumseh 
went into Indiana to live among the Delawares. He established his lodge on White river in 
that state, and began to extend his influence rapidly among other tribes. Through the 
influence of his brother Laulewasikaw, the prophet, a large village of Shawanoes was estab- 
lished at Greenville, Ohio, in 1805. Here the prophet began that famous career of sorcery 
that later made him a man of great influence with his people and a source of constant danger 
to the settlers. 

At this time comparatively little of the land in Indiana, Ohio and Michigan had legally 
passed out of the hands of the Indians. Both Governors Harrison and Hull were seeking 
to acquire title to the Indian lands in their respective territories, but save for the somewhat 
meager results of their efforts, the savages owned practically all of the country not in- 
cluded in the treaties of Greenville. Notwithstanding this fact, however, white settlers 
made a common practice of appropriating such of these lands as they needed and even dese- 


crating the Indian burial grounds. Naturally the Indians were quick to respond to this 
unfortunate antagonism. This tendency did not escape the eyes of the British agents. The 
time was opportune for well directed gifts ; and these were readily forthcoming. 

Incidentally it was suggested to the savages by English envoys that the Americans 
were robbing the rightful owners of their choicest hunting grounds, a fact easily verified. 
As in the days of Pontiac, Indian runners began to pass to and fro between the various 
tribes. Tecumseh himself actively exploited a propaganda of confederation. The prophet 
was active in working on the superstitions of his brothers. Such were the circumstances 
which led Governor Harrison to make energetic efforts towards defense. Of these events 
Henry Howe has written: "In the spring cf 1808 Tecumseh and the prophet removed to 
a tract of land on the Tippecanoe, a tributary of the Wabash, where the latter continued 
his efforts to induce the Indians to forsake their vicious habits, while Tecumseh was visiting 
the neighboring tribes and quietly strengthening his own and the prophet's influence over 
them. The events of the early part of the year 18 10 were such as to leave but little doubt 
of the hostile intentions of the brothers. The prophet was apparently the most prominent 
actor, while Tecumseh was in reality the mainspring of all the movements, backed, it is sup- 
posed, by the insidious influence of the British agents, who supplied the Indians gratis with 
powder and ball in anticipation perhaps of hostilities between the two countries, in which 
event a union of all the tribes against the Americans was desired. * * * in August he 
(Tecumseh) having visited the governor at Vincennes, a council was held at which, and a 
subsequent interview, the real position of affairs was ascertained. 

"In June of the year following (1811) General Harrison sent a message to the Sha- 
wanoes bidding them beware of hostilities, to which Tecumseh gave a brief reply, promis- 
ing to visit the governor. This visit he paid in July, accompanied by three hundred fol- 
lowers, but as the Americans were prepared and determined, nothing resulted and Te- 
cumseh proceeded to the south, as it was supposed, to enlist the Creeks in the cause." 

Nevertheless Harrison determined to increase his forces. After warning the Indians 
that they must observe the provisions of the treaty of Greenville to the letter, he at once 
proceeded to break up the establishment of the prophet. Having further recruited his forces 
and received reinforcements, Harrison proceeded to a point on the Wabash river, some 
sixty miles above Vincennes in October. There he built Fort Harrison, near the site of what 
is now Terre Haute, Indiana ; and there in the following month he was victorious in a 
brilliant action with the Indians, known as the battle of Tippecanoe. The prophet had promised 
victory for his brothers in this battle. Its adverse results to the Indians spelled the loss of 
popularity and power for the prophet and were conducive to the temporary cessation of hos- 
tilities along this part of the frontier. 



War Declared Against England, June 18, 1812 — Hull Appointed Brigadier General — Raising 
of Volunteers — Failure to Notify Hull of Formal Declaration of War — Packet 
"Cuyahoga" Captured by the British — Militia Companies in Detroit — Arrival of 
Hull and His Army — Preliminary Operations in Canada — British Capture Fort 
Mackinac — Hull Delays Attack on Fort Maiden — Van Horn's Command Attacked 
by Indians — British Learn Plans of Operation — Hull Retires From Canada — Battle 
of Monguagon — Brock Assumes Command of British Forces — Americans Retreat 
from Sandwich — Brock Demands Surrender of Detroit — Hull Refuses and Detroit 
is Bombarded — British Forces Cross the Detroit River — Hull's Letters to Brock — 
Surrender of Detroit by Hull — Articles of Capitulation — Captured Officers Taken 
to Montreal. 

On June i8, 1812, while Governor Hull was absent from the Territory of Michigan, the 
United States declared war against England. In spite of the embargo and repeated pro- 
tests against continued outrages on American shipping by the British admiralty, the final 
breach between the two countries opened even more widely. The war is directly attrib- 
utable to the indignity suffered by the American ship "Chesapeake" at the hands of the 
British ship "Leopard," off the Virginia coast. 

The list of grievances against Great Britain had been, it will be remembered, accumu- 
lating for ten years, Although it was well understood for several years before the final 
declaration, that war must sooner or later follow, the country was not prepared for the 
event when the time arrived. Within the limits of the present state of Michigan there were 
two fortified posts of importance, — Detroit and Michillimackinac. The latter post was lo- 
cated on the island of Mackinac, situated on the strait between the two peninsulas of 
Michigan, and was under the command of Lieutenant Porter Hanks, with a force of fifty- 
seven effective men and officers. Fort Lernoult was within the limits of the Detroit post, 
and at the time of the declaration of war contained Major Whistler's company of infantry 
and Captain Samuel Dyson's company of artillery. 

Governor Hull was called into frequent consultation with the president at Washington, 
and the subject of the expected war was uppermost in their interviews; plans for raising 
forces for the protection of the northern frontier were fully discussed. At first Hull de- 
clined an appointment as brigadier general, which would place him in command of the army 
of the northwest, but he finally consented to accept the appointment. In April, 1812, the 
newly made general set out for Detroit. Descending the river Ohio, he reached Marietta 
May 3d, and Cincinnati May 8th. At the latter place he met Return J. Meigs, who had 
been enlisting volunteers for the army to accompany Hull to Detroit. A draft of ten com- 
panies was rendezvoused at Dayton. Volunteers from Kentucky poured north across the 
Ohio to supplement this force. Three companies of Ohio volunteers were formed to still 
further swell these numbers. Though the country had been engaged in various wars for 
years; though the men of the west had borne the brunt of the Indian fighting on the fron- 
tier, everyone was anxious to help defeat the British. 



At Dayton Hull met, on May 23d, twelve hundred men, comprising the three militia 
regiments of volunteers. The field officers of these troops were : Duncan McArthur, col- 
onel , and James Denny and William A. Trimble, majors of the First Regiment ; James Find- 
lay, colonel, and Thomas Moore and Thomas Van Horn, majors of the Second Regiment; 
Lewis Cass, colonel, and Robert Morrison and J. R. Munson. majors of the Third Regi- 
ment. Colonel Meigs, governor of Ohio, turned over the command of these troops to Gen- 
eral Hull on the 25th of May, and on the ist of June they marched to Staunton. At Urbana, 
on the loth they were joined by the Fourth Regiment of United States regulars, consisting 
of about three hundred men. From Urbana to Detroit, a distance of some two hundred 
miles, a pathway had to be cut through nearly unbroken forests. The line of march as 
laid down on a modern map shows that Hull passed through Urbana, Kenton and Fort 
Findlay, and reached and crossed the Maumee river near the falls, not far from where the 
battle of Fallen Timber had taken place in 1794. 

Proceeding down the northerly bank of the Maumee to a point near the present site of 
Toledo, Hull took a direct course to Monroe, or Frenchtown as it was then called, on the 
river Raisin, and thence proceeded along the line of the government road, — probably at 
that time an Indian trail, — hugging the shore line of the Detroit river until he reached De- 
troit. On the way, four block houses were built, in which were left the invalids and a few 
soldiers for the protection of convoys. 

Although there is so'.ne evidence to the contrary, there seems to have been an inexcusa- 
ble delay on the part of the Washington government in notifying Hull of the declaration of 
war. While warlike preparations were openly being made, no formal advice that war ex- 
isted had been issued and until that notice was given, either side was at liberty to proceed 
about its own affairs without fearing to be molested by the other. As before stated, the 
declaration was dated June i8th, and notice was at once given to the British officials. They 
made haste to convey the news across the border and the soldiers in the various garrisons 
as well as the militia officers were notified as quickly as special messengers could convey 
the news to them. On the other hand, the president trusted to the slow movements of 
the mail carriers to give to Hull the notice that was of more importance to him than to any 
other American. When Hull was at Findlay, Ohio, he received a letter announcing that 
war would soon be declared. This letter was dated June i8th, the very day that the dec- 
laration of war was issued, but the letter did not convey that news to him nor inform him 
when he might expect it. 

Hull proceeded with his army and was well on his way to Detroit before the letter con- 
taining the official news of the declaration of war reached him, on July 2d. The letter 
that Hull received at Findlay did not convey news of great importance but was sent by 
special messenger, while the other letter, containing news of the greatest possible impor- 
tance, reached Cleveland in the ordinary mail, and might have remained there several days 
longer had it not been ior a young attorney named Charles Shaler, who was hired to 
take the letter forward, for the consideration of thirty-five dollars. This inexplicable de- 
lay resulted in a serious loss to Hull. 

There was a small force of British regulars and quite a force of Canadian militia 
stationed at Maiden, as the fort at Amherstburg was called, at the time Hull crossed the 
river Maumee. This British force was under the command of Lieutenant Colonel T. B. St. 
George. He had been informed of the declaration of war and was on the lookout for the 
approach of Hull's army. When the latter reached the Maumee river, he employed a small 
packet, called the "Cuyahoga," Captain Chapin, to carry his luggage and some sick sol- 


diers up the river to Detroit. At this time Hull did not know that war liad been declared. 
When the packet undertook to pass between Fort Maiden and Bois Blanc island, it was 
easily captured by the British soldiers. Its officers were made prisoners and the luggage 
was ransacked. In the luggage was a dispatch box containing the private letters and in- 
structions of Hull and the plans for his future work; the possession of these gave informa- 
tion of much importance to the British. 

Hull pushed on with his troops, but his progress was greatly delayed by rains and bad 
roads. It was not until the 7th of July that he reached Detroit. On the 6th of July, at 
about the time the troops reached the river Rouge, Hull sent Colonel Cass and Captain 
Hickman, Hull's son-in-law, to Colonel St. George at Amherstburg, with a note demand- 
ing the return of the baggage captured on the "Cuyahoga." He also suggested the com- 
pletion of an understanding for the exchange of prisoners. The captured baggage was not 

In anticipation of the declaration of war, the citizens of Detroit had made some prep- 
arations for arming the militia. There were many men living in the place who had taken 
active part in the Revolution, and their ardor was not abated by the trials they had passed 
through. Their desire now to punish England for her constant insults and aggressions 
since the close of that war, revived their spirits, and they enrolled themselves in militia 
companies and were drilled, preparatory to the conflict that for years had seemed to be in- 
evitable. A committee of safety was chosen and a popular subscription was started to obtain 
funds to purchase a supply of powder to be distributed by the committee. Hull, as governor, 
was also commander of the militia and in his absence such duty fell upon Reuben Att- 
water, secretary of the territory and acting governor. James Witherell, one of the judges 
of the supreme court, was appointed major in command of the detachment of militia raised 
at the rivers Huron, Raisin and Maumee. A troop of cavalry and a company of infantry 
were organized at Detroit, and a three-gun battery was erected close by the military store 
on Jefferson avenue, near the present Wayne street, on the bluff that overlooked the river. 
Other officers of the militia, George McDougall, Solomon Sibley and Elijah Brush, were 
present with their companies to welcome Hull with his army on his arrival, and to put 
themselves under the command of the general. The soldiers spent a few days resting and 
employed themselves in cleaning and repairing their arms, and getting ready for active 
work. Early in the morning of the 12th of July, the army passed along the river road to 
the eastward of the village and crossed the river at Belle island, to the Canadian shore, 
meeting with no opposition. 

The Canadian militia had been summoned to the aid of the regulars and had gathered 
at Maiden and Sandwich. At the latter place there were four hundred and sixty men 
under Colonel James Baby and Mathew Elliott. These were supported by a detachment of 
regulars. In addition to troops at Maiden there were, as allies, between two and three 
hundred Indians under command of the chief Tecumseh. The militia were but partly 
armed. They had left their farms at the call of their officers, but were impatient to return 
to their homes and harvests. 

St. George, who was in command of the troops and militia, did not have a very high 
opinion of the latter. In his letter of July loth he says that if the Kent and Essex coun- 
ties' militia continue to be so much alarmed as they then were, he would withdraw them 
from Sandwich to Maiden. Continuing he writes : "I am at present so disagreeably sit- 
uated from the prevailing disposition of both officers and men. that I have no doubt in an 
attack on Sandwich, which the enemy appears to be preparing for, the force there will be 


obliged to retreat to this place (Amherstburg) before that happens, which would throw the 
militia into a state of confusion liable to disorganize the whole body. Before it is too late 
I shall most likely think it incumbent on me to bring them down to this place, and make 
the most of them — perhaps they will show a better spirit when they have a larger body of 
regulars to set them an example." 

Immediately upon seeing Hull cross the river the Canadian militia withdrew to Am- 
herstburg, taking with them all the cattle and provisions that could be found, Mr. Francis 
Baby having been commissioned to carry off everything that might assist the Americans if 
captured by them. The Canadian militia began to desert the army in large numbers and 
St. George reported a few days later that only four hundred and seventy-one men were 
left. These were in such a state as to be entirely inefficient in the field. 

General Hull was now ?.t Sandwich and took possession of Mr. Baby's house as his head- 
quarters. Intrenchments were thrown up, and batteries were erected along the line towards 
Maiden. Hull issued a proclamation promising protection to the Canadians and directing 
them to remain in their houses. The proclamation is dated July 13th, and Lewis Cass claimed 
to be its author. Hull's army at this time, as reported in "Defense of General Dearborn." 
consisted of 2,075 soldiers as follows : 

Fourth regiment of infantry 483 

Colonel Findlay's regiment of volunteers and militia 5°9 

Colonel Cass' regiment of volunteers and militia 483 

Colonel McArthur's regiment of volunteers and militia 55^ 

Colonel Sloan's troop of Cincinnati light dragoons 48 

Total 2,075 

Hull claimed, however, shortly after his surrender, that but fifteen hundred men passed 
with him into Canada, and that none of the Michigan militia, and only a portion of the Ohio 
militia, would cross the river. In his proclamation Hull threatened to put to death any 
white man of the Canadians, found fighting by the side of an Indian. The proclamation 
quickly circulated among the Canadians and found its way to the militia assembled at 
Maiden. Assured that their lives and property would be protected in any event, the 
militia hastened to leave for their homes. A letter from Mathew Elliott, the British Indian 
agent, explains the situation as follows: "Their proclamations have operated very power- 
fully on our militia (who had come forward with as much promptitude as could have 
been expected). Since their issuing our militia have left their posts and have returned to 
their homes, so that since Sunday the number is reduced to about one-half, and I expect 
that in two or three days more we shall have ver\' few of them at the post. We expect to be 
attacked to-day or to-morrow. The Indians with us are between three and four hundred, 
who have resisted every allurement which General Hull lay before them. Tecumseh has 
kept them faithful — he has shown himself to be a determined character and a great friend of 
our government." 

Hull did not proceed at once to attack Maiden as predicted by Elliott. A council of 
officers decided to wait until preparations could he made for heavy ordnance. Work was 
begun for this purpose, and continued till August 5th. Not to keep the American forces 
idle in the meantime. Colonel McArthur was sent with a detachment to the river Thames 
(La Tranche) to secure some flour and other provisions belonging to the British. He 
returned with a quantity of goods for which he had given receipts. Hull had given com- 
mands forbidding his soldiers to take anything from the Canadians, but his official seizure 


of supplies from McGregor, Baby and David, three Canadian citizens, was in retaliation 
for the taking of the baggage captured on the "Cuyahoga" by the British. 

Colonel Cass, with two hundred and fifty men, went down the river to reconnoitre 
and to determine the enemy's position. On reaching the river Canard, he found the bridge 
that spanned tlie stream gxiarded by British troops. By ascending this river for some dis- 
tance he was able to ford it, and with a part of his force he returned on the other side 
and drove the guard back to Maiden, taking possession of the bridge and thus opening a 
road to that place. 

The delay of our government in neglecting to notify the frontier posts of the declara- 
tion of war caused a serious disaster at this time. Lieutenant Porter Hanks was in com- 
mand of the fort at Mackinac. He was in entire ignorance of the existence of war. Cap- 
tain Charles Roberts, in command of the British post. Fort St. Joseph, was better informed, 
however, and planned to capture Fort Mackinac. With three hundred and twenty men, 
Canadians and Indians, Roberts took the Mackinac post by surprise. His expedition 
crossed the island, dragging a six-pound gun. The attack was made on July- 17th and a 
flag of truce was sent to the fort, demanding its surrender. Lieutenant Hanks felt com- 
pelled to yield, as he was unable to resist the threatened assault. The fort fell into the pos- 
session of the British without the firing of a shot. John Askin, Jr., in command of the In- 
dians, reported that had the Americans resisted, not a soul would have escaped the hatchet. 
Lieutenant Hanks and his fifty-seven men were paroled and sent to Detroit, where they were 
again captured a month later. 

Lieutenant Colonel St. George had, according to the report of July 30, 181 2, four hun- 
dred and seventy militia and tiiree hundred regulars at Fort Maiden. The militia continued 
to desert and those that refnained could not be depended upon. The fort was in poor con- 
dition, but had twenty pieces of ordnance. It was believed that Hull would attack the 
place at once, and every effort was made to put it in condition to resist him. An armed 
ship, the "Queen Charlotte," was used by the British to guard the bridge at the river 
Canard, over which the Americans would be forced to march in attacking Maiden. In 
order to advance, Hull endeavored to drive off the "Queen Charlotte" and set about build- 
ing floating batteries heavy enough to attack the ship. Three such batteries were begun and 
two of them were completed. At this time a foraging party under Captain Robert Forsyth 
captured a large drove of cattle and sheep, at Baldoon, on the river St. Clair. At Hull's 
trial by court marshal it was was alleged that these supplies were given the general as a 
reward for his perfidy in surrendering Detroit. Colonel Cass testified to the recapture of 
the sheep at the surrender of Detroit. 

St. George was superseded by Colonel Henry Procter, who arrived at Maiden July 
26th, with reinforcements of about three hundred regulars. On August ist news was re- 
ceived at Detroit of the fall of Mackinac. There was an occasional skirmish with the Brit- 
ish and Indians but no decisive battle took place, nor was there any effort made to pro- 
ceed against Maiden with the army. A spot for the erection of a picket fort was chosen 
near Sandwich and work was begun under the supervision of Colonel John Anderson. A 
few days after the receipt of the news of the fall of Mackinac the officers in Hull's army 
were called in council and it then appeared that the floating batteries and the heavy guns 
would be ready, soon, for an attack on Maiden. Although the officers were anxious to 
make the attack at once, Hull was not confident of success and was afraid that his defences 
on the American side were in great disorder. Again he delayed. Hull's dispatches to the 
secretary of war, fell into the hands of the British, a habit they seem to have acquired. 


Thus the enemy were given full knowledge of the situation of the American army. Hull 
stated in these dispatches that the council of officers had determined that it was not advisable 
to attempt to storm Maiden. At his subsequent trial, however, nearly all the testimony 
introduced directly contradicted this statement. Our general was much depressed by the 
news of the approach of Major Chambers, of the British army, who was proceeding across 
country from Niagara to attack him in the rear. He was also afraid that the fall of 
Mackinac would let loose a horde of savages from the north, who were allied to British 
interests. He proposed to complete the work on the floating batteries and then march 
down the river to attack Maiden, unless it became necessary to send a portion of his troops 
across the river to the American side in order to keep open his communications with Ohio. 
Just what he feared regarding his food supply happened. The Wyandotte Indians, who 
were friendly to the Americans but who had not taken any part in the war, were seated on 
their reservation in Monguagon, some fiften or eighteen miles below Detroit. On August 
2d a detachment of Indians and British troops crossed the river and drove the Wyandottes 
as willing prisoners to Maiden, in expectation that they would join the other savages on 
the British side. 

Governor Return J. Meigs of Ohio notified Hull that Captain Henry Brush, with a de- 
tachment of soldiers, and Captains Rowland and Campbell, with their companies, were on 
the road to Detroit with supplies for the troops. At the time this news was received. 
Brush had not entered the territory of Michigan. Hull was again afraid. He feared that 
communication between his army and its supplies would be cut off and that the supplies 
would be captured by the enemy. At a council of the officers Hull stated that he proposed 
to send Major Van Horn down the river on the American side to keep open the com- 
munication with the party under Brush. Accordingly Van Horn was dispatched with two 
hundred men, though Colonels Cass, Findlay and McArthur protested that the number 
of troops was too small to successfully resist an attack. The Detroit-Ohio road passed 
along the margin of Tihe river so close to the water as to be easily guarded by boats. 

While Van Horn was en route, his command was fired upon at the river Ecorce, and 
when the advance guard of the detachment had reached Brownstown creek, it was again 
attacked by Indians. Van Horn's men were escorting the mail and a retreat was ordered to 
a point of cover in the woods. However, the soldiers fled at least a quarter of a mile be- 
fore they could be reformed. A short stand was made but the troops again retreated 
under direction of Van Horn, to once more form under a clump of trees that appeared like 
an island in the prairie. The soldiers did not obey the order to halt at these trees, but 
continued their flight in great confusion, closely followed by the savages. The loss in killed 
was eighteen; about seventy were missing and twelve were wounded. Van Horn reached 
Detroit the same evening, August 5th, and was soon rejoined by most of his scattered men. 
On this occasion the Indians, numbering about three hundred, were under the command of 
Tecumseh. The mail was captured and thus Hull's letters, containing full plans for the 
American operations, fell into the hands of the enemy. 

On the morning of August 7th preparations were made by Hull for the long delayed 
attack on Maiden, but his activities in this respect were discontinued at noon. It is prob- 
able that at that hour Hull had received news of Van Horn's defeat and that the general felt 
it was of more importance to keep open the road to his supplies on the south than to attack 
Maiden. Preparations were accordingly made for a retreat, much to the disgust of both 
officers and men. On August 8th the army passed over the river, leaving only a few sol- 
diers, under Major John Anderson, to hold a position at Sandwich. At his trial Hull 


stated tliat he had built a work opposite Detroit and had garrisoned it with two hundred 
and tliirty infantry and twenty-five artillerists. Alajor Denny in command of the ordnance, 
was instructed to hold the position, to afiford protection to all well disposed inhabitants 
and to fall back onh' in case of an attack by artillery. On the day of his retirement from 
Canada. Hull wrote Secretary Eustis of the movement and stated that his action was 
necessitated by the defection of the Wyandotte Indians, the fall of Mackinac, the advance 
of British reinforcements from Niagara and the resultant interruption of communication 
with Ohio. 

In the general's defense it may be said that the defeat of Van Horn placed the Ameri- 
cans in a position of decided disadvantage. Hull, separated from his base of supplies and 
the reinforcements under Brush, feared lest Detroit would soon be at the mercy of the In- 
dians who were even then overruning the American farms, destroying crops and driving 
ofif cattle. Hull was afterward sharply criticised for not falling back, with his army, to 
the Maumee and thus abandoning Detroit but saving his army. He was separated from 
his source of supplies and practically surrounded by a force that was daily increasing in 
numbers and in fortified strength. He had neglected the only opportunity that' presented 
itself to proceed against the enemy and it was doubtful if he could, at this time, have made 
a juncture with the south if he had attempted it with his entire force. Certainly he could 
not have retained Detroit and held open the communication with Ohio unless he first de- 
feated and captured or drove off the British. He contemplated a general retreat down the 
river, but feared, so he subsequently stated, a defection in the troops. This would indicate 
that his officers and men wercnot troubled with the temerity and caution with which their 
general seems to have been so generously supplied. Hull resolved, however, to do what 
he could to keep open his communication with Captain Brush, who was still at the river 
Raisin. For this purpose Colonel James Miller, with Majors Van Horn and Morrison and 
a force of si.x hundred regulars, was ordered to proceed down the American side of the 
river. The detachment set out on the night of August 8th and marched to a point near the 
present site of the village of Trenton, then a wilderness. The ne.xt morning they met the 
British and Indians under Captain Muir, who was accompanied by Tecumseh, a force of 
four hundred regulars and Canadian volunteers and between two and three hundred In- 
dians. The British were in position behind a breastwork of logs and the savages were de- 
ployed in the woods. Captain Josiah Snelling led the advance guard of the Americans 
and was the first to receive the fire of the enemy. He stood his ground until supported 
by the main body under Colonel Miller. On the arrival of the latter the engagement known 
as the battle of Monguagon became general. Both sides took advantage of whatever cover 
the fallen trees in the vicinity afforded and for some time no decisive movement was made 
by either. At length Miller ordered an advance which resulted in the dislodging of the 
enemy and their full retreat. They were enabled to make good their escape by means of 
their boats. Captain Maxwell was ordered forward to reconnoitre and on his report that 
the enemy could not be found. Miller believed that the road to the Raisin was now free 
and that his further advance was unnecessary. The American loss of twenty killed and 
sixty wounded in this engagement far exceeded that of the British. Miller's forces camped 
on the field of battle and Captain Snelling was sent back to Detroit for provisions. 

As soon as Hull was notified of the battle of Monguagon he dispatched Colonel Mc- 
Arthur with one hundred men to carry provisions to Colonel Miller and to assist in bring- 
ing back the wounded and dead. McArthur returned on the 13th and was sent on the fol- 
lowing day with Colonel Cass and a detachment of three hundred men to assist Captain 


Brush. This detachment set out without provisions, on the assurance from Hull that food 
would be sent them at once. The party marched twenty-four miles before they halted, on 
August 14th, but having no provisions and seeing no traces of Indians, it was decided, upon 
consultation, to return to Detroit. In the meantime affairs had been quite active on the 
other side of the river. 

General Isaac Brock arrived at Amherstburg with three hundred soldiers on August 
13th, and immediately assumed command of the entire British forces. His presence instilled 
an enthusiasm into the militia that they had not before possessed. All the troops, regulars, 
militia and Indians, began preparation for an aggressive movement against the Americans 
at Detroit. All British troops were concentrated on the Canadian side of the river. The 
Americans at Sandwich retreated to the American side and the enemy, taking possession of 
the position so vacated, began the erection of batteries, unmolested. Their work continued 
for two days before they were in a position to commence the bombardment of Detroit. 

On Saturday, August 15th, shortly after midday, a flag of truce was sent by Brock to 
Hull, demanding the immediate surrender of the latter. This flag was carried by Lieu- 
tenant Colonel McDonald and Captain Glegg of Brock's army. The two officers were 
blindfolded and taken to a house near the fort, where they were met by Hull, who refused 
to surrender. The British then began cannonading the city. There were three batteries 
on the American side within the village enclosure, one of them being placed in what was 
then called Judge Woodward's garden, near the corner of Jefferson avenue and Wayne 
street, on an elevation ; and the others near the river bank, one being near the garden above 
mentioned and the other near the foot of Woodward avenue. These batteries returned shot 
for shot until late in the night, one of the enemy's batteries being silenced. 

During the night six hundred Indians, under Colonel Mathew Elliott, crossed the river 
and encamped along the line of the river road in Springwells not far from the present Fort 
Wayne. Hull was informed that Brock's forces had moved away from Sandwich prepar- 
atory 10 crossing the river. Captain Snelling was sent down the river with a detachment 
and a small gun to attack the enemy's ship, "Queen Charlotte," which lay in the stream. 
No shots were fired by this detachment, which returned to the fort in the morning. Before 
daylight of the i6th, Hull aroused Major Thomas S. Jessup of the regulars and directed him 
to send a messenger recalling McArthur and Cass. The artillery fire was again begun on 
both sides of the river and the British soldiers who were already below the town began to 
cross to the American side under cover of two of their gunboats. No effort was made by 
Hull to check this advance. Major Jessup was directed to order Colonel Findlay's regi- 
ment and what remained of the commands of McArthur and Cass, in line of battle about 
a quarter of a mile below the fort, where there was a line of high pickets. The enemy 
were soon seen marching along the river road toward the fort. Jessup hastened back to 
give Hull information of the approach of the British and to obtain orders to open fire. 
These orders were not given, although the detachment occupied a most advantageous posi- 
tion. A gun was also mounted which could have raked the advancing columns, which 
were in close formation. Jessup's announcement was the first information Hull had that 
the enemy had crossed the river. x\t Hull's trial every particle of evidence that could be 
obtained against him was produced and printed, but there were two of his letters that were 
not then known to be in existence. Indeed, they were considered of so little value by their 
possessor that it was not until recently that they were published. Evidence that the letters 
were sent appears in several places in the trial record, but their contents are not given. 


As soon as it was light on the morning of the i6th, and as early as five o'clock, Hull 
sent his son. Captain Abraham F. Hull, across the river with a flag of truce and with a 
letter reading as follows : 

General Brock: D^t'"°'t- '^^ ^"S"^^' '^'^- 

I propose a cessation of hostilities for one hour to open negociations for the surrender 
of Detroit. Yours &c. William Hull, 

B. Gen'l. Com'g. 

Captain Hull did not deliver this letter in person to Brock, as the latter had passed 
down the river some time before the messenger's arrival, and was either on the point of 
passing to the American side or had already done so. Young Hull did not deliver the letter 
to anyone at the time, but remained with it on the Canadian side until the surrender of 

The heavy gun fire of the English from the Canadian batteries continued to be 
exceedingly wild even after it was broad daylight. Though some damage was done the 
houses of the town, few of the inhabitants were injured. A court martial was in progress 
at this time in the fort, investigating the action of Lieutenant Hanks in surrendering 
Mackinac. While his trial was being held, a shell from the enemy's camp crashed through 
the building and killed Lieutenant Hanks, two officers, two privates and a surgeon. A 
second surgeon was wounded. The trial record shows that at this time the main body of 
the troops "were so crowded inside the fort as to render it impossible for them to act 
offensively — that is, just before the articles of capitulation were agreed upon ; — the orders 
(to place the regulars inside the fort) were given to Colonel Findlay immediately after 
fire, when the flag was sent by Captain Hull." Many of the townspeople were also within 
the enclosure at this time. 

Major Anderson was in command of the battery in Woodward's garden. A British 
ofiicer with a flag of truce rode up and asked why the flag of truce had been sent across 
the river. He was told that General Hull had sent a letter to Brock. Lieutenant Henry 
Jackson Hunt was sent to notify Hull of the errand of the British oflicer. Lieutenant 
Duer, and to ascertain what reply should be made to him. Hunt returned with a sealed 
paper addressed to General Brock and with directions to Major Snelling to return with 
Lieutenant Duer and to deliver the letter to Brock. Brock was a little in advance of 
his troops, the latter having marched as far as the Henry farm, a point where the 
Michigan Central railroad crosses River street. 

The letter borne by Snelling to Brock reads as follows : 
Sir: Detroit, i6th. August, 1812. 

The object of the Flag which passed the river, was to propose a cessation of hostilities 
for one hour for the purpose of entering into a negociation for the surrender of Detroit. 

Yours &c. 
William Hull. 

Gen. Brock. B Gen'l. 


It does not appear that any person in the American army, save General Hull himself, 
knew of the contents of these letters at the time they were sent, nor did he have the assist- 
ance or advice of any of his officers in their preparation. Major Snelling knew of the 
general nature of the letter he bore, for he was asked by Brock if he was authorized to 
settle the terms of the surrender. Upon Snelling's negative reply Colonel McDonald and 
Captain Glegg were directed to return to the fort with him. They were immediately 



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taken to a marquee which had but recently been erected in front of the fort, on the south- 
east corner near the present location of Congress street. Here the officers con- 
ferred with General Hull. Captain Elijah Brush and with Lieutenant Colonel Miller. 

As mentioned above, Colonel Findlay, with some of his own troops and a portion 
of the regiments of McArthur and Cass, had been stationed at a distance west of the fort 
°o resist the advance of the enemy. After he had asked for orders to open fire, F.ndlay 
was commanded to retire, without firing a shot. As he fell back, he saw the white flag on 
the staff on the fort and was told of the surrender. Aghast at the "^^'^e brave colone 
ushed up to Hull and demanded : "What in h- am I ordered here for ?" Hull a empted 
o tell him that he could obtain better terms from Brock then than if he delayed. lerms 
Damnation! We can beat them on the plain. I did not come here to capitulate; I 
came here to fight," was Findlay's retort. 

In the meantime, and before the return of Colonel Findlay the white flag had been 
hoisted over the fort by Captain Burton, under orders from General Hull, and was seen 
by the troops on their return. The firing from the fort had ceased some time before and 
?he fie from the Sandwich battery stopped soon after the cessation on the American side. 
Though Colonel Findlay's men protested hotly on being ordered to retire they obeyed the 
order and stacked arms, loudly condemning Hull's temerity. . . , ■ 

Hull Brush, Colonel Miller and Captain Charles Fuller, representing the American 
side Colonel McDonald and Major Glegg, representing the British, then agreed upon the 
folLing terms of capitulation, transferring the control of the entire northwest. The 

articles of surrender follow ; 

Camp Detroit, August i6th, 1812. 

r- : i„i™ of sr.rrenderine Fort Detroit, entered into between Maj, Gen, Brock, 
comt^a^' ng te%ri.anrMa™s1y's forces of the one part, and Brig. General Hull, cont- 
ZSntthl N„nh„«. arn. of the Untted tates^^^^^ ^^ ,^,„,,,^^ ,,„, 

Article First, /" ' °''™''i S' ,„„es „„ij he command of Maj, Gen, Brock, 

'''*S5^,I";^'ArX"tr:rm?and";';;bhc documents including everything also 

<" 'T^-::T w'vat prt^';raudTriv"ate''persons of every description will be respected. 

Are ith H is exceltacy Brig Gen, Hull, having expressed a desire that a detach- 

. , ,h, «,ie of Ohio 01, ts way to join his army, as well as one sent from Fort 

S«„?r"nde? thf colSaiTd oVcol. McAt^hur. should be included in the above capitula- 

"°°'U Is how«e?'»Tund'e°rslood, that such parts of the Ohio militia as have no. joined 
the army wffl be permi„ed to return home on condition that they will no, serve during the 

""ileT.^' ^he-garrTr^Sf^:;:?, Z'^Sr':^ ^ this day and the 
British forces take immediate PO-ession oOhe^fort ^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^_^.^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

J. B. Glegg, Major, A. D. C. 
James Miller, Lieut. Col. 5th U. S. Inft. 
E. Brush. Col. ist. Reg. Mich. Militia. 
Approved, Approved, . ■; 

Com. Hull, Brig. Gen. Isaac Brock. Maj. Gen. 

Comm'g. N. W. Army. A true Copy: 

Robt. Nichol, Lieut. Col. & Qr. M. Gen. Militia. 


The articles of capitulation were read to the inen by Major Jessup. At 12 o'clock 
noon, August i6th, the troops stacked their arms before the fort and became prisoners of 
war. Brock made a detailed report, giving the number of his troops, as follows : Thirty 
artillery, 250 Forty-first Regiment, 50 Royal Newfoundland Regiment, 400 militia, and 
600 Indians, making a total of 1,330. Thirty-five pieces of ordnance and a large store of 
ammunition were surrendered, with the brig "Adams." Hull reported 976 serviceable 
men under his command, not including the men under Cass, McArthur and Brush. 

The detachment that had been sent down the river under Colonel McArthur and 
Colonel Cass had proceeded some twenty-five miles when lack of supplies necessitated a 
return. The party met a messenger from Hull ordering a retreat. Nearing the fort on 
the morning of the i6th, Cass and McArthur were told of the surrender. Instead of pro- 
ceeding further toward Detroit, they fell back to the river Rouge and took a position of 
defense. They were soon informed by deserters from the army that they were included in 
the capitulation and shortly afterward, on an order from Hull, the soldiers marched to 
the fort and surrendered their arms. 

Captain Henry Brush was still at the river Raisin. There he received news of the 
surrender but was not willing to credit the story. Captain Thomas Rowland, who was 
present, exclaimed with an oath: "It is treason!" A council was at once called, which 
concluded that Brush was not bound by the articles of capitulation. Captain Elliott, son of 
Mathew Elliott, the British Indian agent, was sent to the Raisin by the English to take 
over Brush's command. He was at once made prisoner and forced to retreat with the 
command until it was well into Ohio. 

The captured officers at Detroit were hurriedly put on board the vessels belonging to 
the English government and were sent down the river and lake to Montreal. Hull, who 
was accompanied by his daughter, was put on board the "Queen Chariotte" and left Detroit 
August 17th. Captain Dyson, with his company of regulars, was left at Amherstburg 
and the other regulars proceeded to Montreal. The Ohio volunteers were taken to Buffalo 
and there permitted to return to their homes. On :he wall of a building at the northwest 
corner of McGill and Notre Dame streets in Montreal, is a tablet bearing this inscription • 
•General Hull, United States army, 25 officers, 350 men, entered prisoners of war loth 
September, 1812." 

General Brock, although a relentless enemy, inspired the respect of the Americans by 
his bravery and honorable conduct. A few weeks after leaving Detroit he was killed at 
Queenston Heights, while gallantly attempting to rallv his men. 


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Hull's Trial by Court Martial— Members of the Court— Hull Sentenced to be Shot— Execu- 
tion of Sentence Remitted — Efforts to Exonerate Hull in Later Years — The Lewis 
Cass Account of Surrender of Detroit — Extracts from Hull's Arguments at Time of 

Governor Hull was tried by a court martial that convened in Albany, in January, 1814. 
The charges against him in connection with the surrender of Detroit were (i) treason, 
(2) cowardice, and (3) neglect of duty and conduct unbecoming an officer. The mem- 
bers of the court were Major General Henry Dearborn, president; and Brigadier General 
Bloomfield, Colonel Peter Little, Colonel WiUiam N. Irvine, Colonel J. B. Fenwick, Colonel 
Robert Bogardus, Lieutenant Colonel James House, Lieutenant Colonel William Scott, 
Lieutenant Colonel William Stewart, Lieutenant Colonel Richard Dennis, Lieutenant 
Colonel Samuel S. Conner, Lieutenant Colonel S. B. David and Lieutenant Colonel John 
W. Livingstone. The special judge advocate was Martin VanBuren. 

The trial began on the 3d of January and was continued until March 23d following. 
Hull was acquitted of the charge of treason and of some of the other specifications, but 
he was found guilty of cowardice, and was sentenced to be shot. The sentence was 
approved by President Madison, but its execution was remitted. 

It is thought probable that the excited condition of the country and the bias of mili- 
tary ofificers of the state had much to do in forming the opinion of the military court. A 
constant and untiring effort for nearly one hundred years has been made and is still being 
made to exonerate Hull and to show that his actions were justified by his situation and 
surroundings. The first official account of the surrender of Detroit was made by Lewis 
Cass. His letter was written at Washington, September 10, 1812, and purports to have 
been made by direction of Colonel McArthur. It was in consequence of this report that 
the torrent of abuse was heaped upon Hull, who was then a prisoner. The report consists 
of a succession of charges and was followed by a series of similar attacks when Cass was 
called as the first witness at the subsequent trial of Hull. Whether Cass, at this time, had 
in mind the possibility that he might be a successor to Hull in the ofiice of governor of 
Michigan Territory, is difficult now to determine, but it is certain that Hull had no more 
bitter or relentless enemy. 

Next to the charge of treason, against which Hull successfully contended, that of 
cowardice most deeply affected him, and he resented it with all the powers of a man over- 
burdened with the disgrace of his surrender. In the course of his argument on this point 
he said : 

"But, gentlemen, upon the charge of cowardice, I am bold to say, I have no dread. I 
have fought more battles than many of the young men who have impeached "me of this 
crime have numbered years. I appeal to the history that bears record of those who were 
engaged in the bloody contests for our liberty ; there you shall find my name,— but not as 
a coward! I have brought before you the testimony of the few who remained of those 
who were my companions in arms in times that tried men's souls. Do they say I am a 



coward? I invoke the spirits of the departed heroes who have died at my side by the 
sword of the enemy, to say if I am a coward. 

"I would call the shades of Gates, Wayne, Schuyler and of Washington to tell you how 
often they have led me into battle and to say if they found me a coward. Will you believe 
that the spirit which has so often prompted me to risk my life for my country should now 
have so far forsaken me as that I have become a traitor and a coward? 

"Will you believe that the years in which I have grown gray in my country's service 
should so far have changed my nature as that I could have been the base and abject thing 
my enemies have represented? No, gentlemen; that blood which animated my youth, age 
has not chilled. I at this moment feel its influence, and it makes me dare to say that no 
man ever did or can think me a coward." 

Hull asserted in his defence that he surrendered Detroit because he felt that he could 
not hold it against the British army, and that if he undertook to resist and failed, the 
place would be made to suffer the horrors of an Indian massacre. Brock threatened, in 
his demand for the surrender of the post, sent to Hull August 15th, that we would turn 
the Indians loose on the helpless citizens, and Hull feared the threat would be carried into 

Brock, who had personally conducted the campaign against Detroit, left the place to 
attend to other duties along the Niagara frontier. He gave the territory of Michigan into 
the civi' and military charge of Henry Procter. Judge Woodward served as secretary. 
Such soldiers as were not necessary to take the prisoners down to Amherstburg and Mon- 
treal were left with Procter to maintain the British possession of Detroit, and to protect 
the people from the Indians. Captain Eastman, an American soldier and at this time a 
prisoner, remained in Detroit twenty-four days after the capitulation. He stated that on 
the third day following the surrender two hundred and fifty Indians came from Saginaw 
and that on the loth or nth of September, eleven hundred or twelve hundred more came 
from Mackinac. It was intended to have these Indians aid the British in the attack on 
Detroit, but the siege ended so quickly and unexpectedly that the services of these savages 
were not required, and now that they had arrived, their presence was unwelcome alike to 
the Americans and to the British. 


Progress of War of 1812 — British Occupy Detroit — Hull's Memoirs — Attempts to Re-estab- 
lish American Prestige — Expedition Under General Winchester — Surrender of 
Winchester — Massacre of Americans by Indians — Efforts of General Harrison — 
Expedition Against Fort Maiden — Procter Lays Siege Before Fort Meigs and 
Attacks Fort Stephenson. 

After the capitulation of Detroit the British, evidently realizing the true weakness of 
their position and fearing that the American troops would disregard the terms of surren- 
der and reopen hostilities, were prompt to take possession of the fort. The American 
troops were marched out of the enclosure and formed in line for the surrender. The local 
militia dispersed to their homes, the Ohio volunteers were escorted to the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga river and allowed their freedom, but Hull and his regulars were transported to 
Montreal. There they were held as prisoners of war until exchanged. 

Hull's memoirs, written after his pardon by President Madison, are generally consid- 
ered to be a weak attempt to justify his ofificial actions. Of late years an attempt has Ijeen 
made to exonerate the unfortunate brigadier-general and governor, and in the spring of 
1908 a field piece was even dedicated in his honor by a post of the Detroit Grand Army of 
the Republic. It is altogether probable, however, that so long as the memory of man shall 
endure; so long as the standards of courage and achievement and loyalty to duty remain 
what they now are, Hull's official career will always be regarded with scorn, as a disgrace 
to the northwest, to the army, to himself and to his government. In the rush of events 
incident to the regaining of what his cowardice, and possibly his greater culpability, lost to 
his country, a most generous fate allowed this man to sink into obscurity. While an endur- 
ing government was being builded on the ruins of his misdirection, this once arrogant man 
of parts — peculiar parts they were — was permitted to live that he might endure the severest 
punishment : that of seeing others accomplish in honor and under difficulties what he had 
in dishonor failed to achieve under the most favorable conditions. 

Paralyzed as was the army, deeply chagrined as was the government, disheartened as 
were the prisoners, not a moment's time was lost in attempting to re-establish American 
prestige. Governors Harrison and Meigs began at once the recreation of the northwestern 
army. Again volunteers were rendezvoused in Ohio. Again Kentucky contributed a gen- 
erous quota of her best fighting stock. The mobilizing of this second army of the north- 
west occupied the fall of 1812. In January following, General Winchester, in command of 
the Ohio and Kentucky volunteers, started northward with the object of retrieving the 
American losses under Hull. Reaching the rapids of the Maumee, Winchester sent two- 
thirds of his army of nine hundred men to the relief of Frenchtown, which was being 
threatened with an Indian massacre. A force of Indians and British were defeated by this 
command on January i8th, and two days later the entire force of volunteers arrived. On 
the 22d a sortie was made from Maiden, which ended disastrously for the Americans. 
Though scouts are said to have warned Winchester of the probability of an attack, his 
army was unprepared. The British and Indians advanced and opened fire with such 
ferocity that Winchester's army was thrown into immediate confusion. Small detachments 



sought escape by retreating into the surrounding woods but almost invariably these parties 
were overtaken and massacred by overwhelming hordes of savages. 

Winchester finally accepted the terms of surrender offered by Procter, who commanded 
the allied British and Indians. All available boats were placed at the disposal of even the 
slightly wounded British and Indians, regardless of the pitiful plight of many of the severely 
wounded Americans. Procter agreed, however, to transport the Americans to Maiden as 
soon as his own injured were given attention and promised to leave a guard as protection 
against the infuriated savages. This he evidently had no intention of doing. With the 
withdrawal of his main force, but one otflcer and a few men were left in fulfillment of 
his agreement. Scarcely were the English out of sight, before the Indians held council 
and determined to avenge their own losses by killing every American who was unable to 
stand a forced march to Maiden and Detroit. Two houses in which were confined most of 
the wounded prisoners were fired ; and other prisoners not confined in these buildings were 
scalped and thrown into the burning ruins. Such of the volunteers as were able to crawl, 
showed fight, and many escaped from the flaming prisons only to be mercilessly killed out- 
right or burned alive. Though these atrocities were perpetrated by savages, it is quite 
probable that the massacre was not beyond Procter's expectations. No record has been 
brought forward to show that he ever sent back his boats for the American wounded, as 
he would have done had he expected to take them to Detroit alive. While such damnable 
practices cannot be entirely disassociated with the "honor" of the British arms at that time, 
Procter's perfidious inhumanity can only be compared to that of the beast, Hamilton. 

The savagery of the massacre at an end, those of the Americans who were not wantonly 
tomahawked en route were marched into Detroit. There, as in the days of the Revolution, 
human lives were peddled about among the residents for redemption in cash or barter. 
Household goods, money, clothing and provisions were offered by the citizens as the price 
for the lives of the prisoners. Many a volunteer owed his existence to the sacrifice of the 
northern housewives, who literally stripped their homes in offering ransom, and bargained 
their last treasures in competition wdth money paid for scalps by the British. 

Angered by the determination of the citizens to prevent the massacre of their country- 
men, Procter ordered several of the most active offerers of ransoms to leave the country. 
Regardless of the terms of Hull's surrender, the property of Americans generally was 
given over to plunder. Only such property as was specially marked as being that of Cana- 
dians or British sympathizers was exempt from pillage. 

In the meantime General Harrison was actively engaged in recruiting a sufficient force 
to avenge Winchester's disaster. Upon hearing of the latter's defeat he dispatched Surgeon 
McKeehan and two men from Portage river, in Ohio, to Maiden. The surgeon bore medi- 
cines and money for the relief of the American prisoners and wounded, and carried a letter 
from Harrison addressed to any British officer. The party was met at the Maumee rapids 
by several British and Indians. Notwithstanding the humane and peaceful object of its 
advance, it was set upon, one man was killed and the surgeon and his remaining com- 
panion were taken to Maiden as prisoners. There Dr. McKeehan was promptly placed in 
irons and subjected to every insult. Needless to say, neither the money nor medicine was 
devoted to the relief of the suffering Americans. 

Early in February, 1813, according to the journal of Lieutenant Joseph Harwell, one 
of Harrison's command, "the general established his advance post at the foot of the 
(Maumee) rapids. He ordered the fortification of the position, as it was his intention 
to make this point his grand depot. The fort erected was afterward named Meigs, in honor 


of Governor Meigs. Harrison ordered all the troops in tiie rear to join him immediately. 
He was in hopes by the middle of February to advance on Maiden and strike a blow that 
would in some measure retrieve the misfortunes that had befallen the American arms in 
this quarter." 

Harrison was unable, however, to make any attempt against Maiden until March. On 
the 2d of that month a most hazardous expedition was undertaken. Of this Lieutenant 
Harwell wrote as follows: "About two hundred and fifty men volunteered to go on an 
enterprise of the most desperate nature. On Friday, the 26th, the volunteer corps destined 
for this duty were addressed on parade by General Harrison, who informed them that when 
they had got a sufficient distance from the fort they were to be informed of the errand they 
were upon, and that all who then wished could return, but not afterwards. He repre- 
sented the undertaking as in a high degree one of peril and privation ; but he promised that 
those who deported themselves in a gallant and soldier-like manner should be rewarded, 
and their names forwarded to the general government. 

"The corps took up its line of march and concentrated at what is now Lower San- 
dusky, where was then a blockhouse, on the site of Fort Stephenson, at that time garrisoned 
by two companies of militia. On the morning of the 2d of March they left the blockhouse 
with six days' provisions and had proceeded about a half mile when Captain Langham (m 
command) ordered a halt. He addressed the soldiers and informed them of the object of 
the expedition, which was to move down to Lake Erie, to cross over the ice to Maiden, 
and in the darkness of night to destroy with combustibles the British fleet and the public 
stores on the bank of the river. This being done, the men were to retreat to the point of 
the Maumee bay, when their retreat was to be covered by a large force under Harrison. 
At this time, independent of the garrison at Maiden, in that vicinity was a large body of 
Indians, and it required a combination of circumstances to render the enterprise successful." 
Passing Portage river, the party encamped on the shore of the lake and on the next 
day advanced across the ice to Middle Bass island, a distance of seventeen miles. On break- 
ing camp the following day it was discovered that the ice to the north was unfavorable. 
Then, too, "sled tracks were discovered on the ice going in the direction of Maiden. They 
were presumed to have been made by two Frenchmen who left Sandusky the day before 
the corps of Langham. They (the Frenchmen) had then stated they were going to the 
river Huron, which was in an opposite direction. The officers now felt assured they were 
inimical to their designs and were on their way to give the British notice of the Ameri- 
cans' intentions. It being the intended route to go by the Western Sister island to elude 
the spies of the enemy, the guides gave it as their opinion that it was impossible to go to 
Maiden ; that the river Detroit and the lake from the Middle Sister were doubtless broken 
up, and that there was only possibility of getting as far north as the Middle Sister ; but as 
the distance from that to the Detroit river, eighteen miles, had to be performed after night, 
they could not attempt going, being fully satisfied that they could not arrive at the point 
of destination, and as the weather was and had been soft, that, should a southerly wind 
blow up, the lake would inevitably break up, and they might be caught on it or one of the 
islands. Captain Langham called the guides and officers together. He stated that he had 
been instructed to go no farther than the guides thought safe, asked the opinion of the 
officers, who unanimously decided that it was improper to proceed, and that they should 
return. The party returned by way of Presque Isle, at which point they met General 
Harrison with a body of troops. From thence they proceeded to Fort Meigs in safety. 


"Harrison had determined to regain Detroit, but the weather had proved unfavorable 
for the transportation to Fort Meigs of a sufficient body of troops for such an object His 
force there was diminished soon after his arrival, by the expiration of the term of service 
of a part of those at the rapids, and nothing more was left for him but to remain on the 
defensive. Satisfied that in his weakened condition the enemy would make a descent from 
Maiden upon the fort as soon as the ice broke up in the lake, he left in March for the 
interior, to hasten on all the troops he could raise to the fort's defense. On the i^th of 
April he returned at the head of a detachment of troops and applied himself with" great 
assiduity to completing the defenses." 

Procter's command, accompanied by about eighteen hundred Indians under Tecumseh 
attacked Fort Meigs on the ist of May. The British placed their guns on an eminence 
across the river and opposite to the fort, the allies taking position in the rear of the 
Americans, who had not yet finished building their fortifications. Procter encouraged the 
a lies by promising to deliver the person of General Harrison over to Tecumseh. immedi- 
ately t^ie fort was taken. The Americans had not completed their wells : thev had no water 
save that obtained from the river, under constant fire. For three days the British batteries 
kept up a continuous shelling of the fort and on the third day the English succeeded in 
mounting a mortar battery within two hundred and fifty yards of the Am.erican entrench- 
ments. Ihe savages climbed trees and from such vantage points poured in a galling fire 
upon the American rear. Procter then demanded the surrender of the garrison but 
received a curt reply from Harrison to the effect that "should the fort fall into vour hand. 
It will be m a manner calculated to do you more honor and to give vou larger claims upon 
the gratitude of your government than any capitulation could possibly do." In anticipa- 
tion of an attack in force upon Fort Meigs, General Harrison had forwarded minute par- 
ticulars regarding his position to Governors Shelby of Kentucky and Meigs of Ohio and 
had asked for reinforcements if such were available. So faithfully had Shelby and Meigs 
endeavored to accede to Harrison's request that at the time Procter was demanding a sur 
render. General Clay of Kentucky was at the head of the rapids with a substantial com- 
mand. Upon the juncture of the two American forces, Procter was forced to raise th- 
siege. He retreated to Amherstburg with all his forces save that portion of the savages 
whose ^I'sgust evxn the persuasion of Tecumseh failed to overcome; these Indians openly 
deserted the British arms, refusing to aid further in the prosecution of the war. 

In the last day's fighting at Fort Meigs, the Kentuckv volunteers under Colonel Dud- 
ley were ordered to attack and spike the guns of the British battery across the river This 
accomplished, they were to return at once to the fort in boats. The Kentuckians, though 
successful ,n their sortie, fell victim to their own bravery. Instead of returning at once as 
ordered, they remained to fall in with a large party of Indians, who easily effected a cap- 
ture after a brief pitched battle. After surrendering, the Kentuckians were tomahawked 
and scalped in full view of Procter, many of their number falling in this way. Tecumseh 
had given orders expressly directing his men to respect the surrender, but the massacre 
was only stopped upon his arrival. Infuriated at the sight, he tomahawked one of his own 
due s for disregarding the order and demanded to know where Procter was. Seeing the 
English commandant at length, Tecumseh exclaimed: "Why have you not made an end 
of this slaughter; why did you allow it? "Sir," said Procter, "your Indians cannot be 
commanded. Begone !" retorted the chieftain, with great disdain, "you are unfit to com- 

mand ; go and put on petticoats." Colonel Dudley was tomahawked and scalped before 


Tecumseh's arrival and but about one hundred and fifty of Dudley's eight hundred men 

escaped. , . , ■ j r 

On July 20th Procter again laid brief siege before Fort Meigs, then m command of 
General Green Clay of Kentucky, but soon directed his attention to an attack upon Fort 
Stephenson, near Sandusky. This movement proved disastrous to the English and Procter 
again retired to Maiden early in August, after having lost severely in the fighting and by 
the continued desertions of the Indians. 


Continuation of War of 1812 — Americans Gain Control of Lake Ontario — Perry Given Com- 
mand of Lake Erie — British Compelled to Evacuate Capital of Upper Canada — Fall 
of Fort George — Perry's Victory on Lake Erie — Description of the Battle — Procter 
Prepares to Retreat — Speech of Protest by Tecumseh — British Evacuation of De- 
troit — American Armies Invade Canada — Pursuit of Procter — Battle of the Thames 
— Death of Tecumseh — General Cass Assumes Command at Detroit — Expedition to 
the North — Progress of War in the East — Indian Depredations About Detroit — 
Treaty of Ghent. 

In the meantime the Americans, under Admiral Chauncey, had secured control of Lake 
Ontario. Following this a young naval officer, Oliver Hazard Perry, then stationed in the 
east, had applied for transfer to the lakes. This granted, Chauncey gave him command 
of Lake Erie. Perry was ordered to Presque He (Erie, Pennsylvania) to command there 
a naval establishment, at which it was hoped to create a superior fighting force on the lake. 
On Perry's arrival, March 27, 1S13, he found under construction six American ships, 
mostly inferior affairs. His equipment, armament and crew were of necessity to be trans- 
ported for the most part, either from Albany or Philadelphia, but he met every obstacle 
with the same characteristic energy and courage that afterward helped so materially to 
turn the war in favor of the American arms. 

The ships while building were frequently threatened by the appearance of the enemy, 
but the presence of treacherous shoals and a tortuous entrance to the harbor in which opera- 
tions were being carried on made the position practically immune from attack. In April, 
Chauncey took aboard his fleet the army of General Dearborn, which was transported from 
the New York shore across Lake Ontario to York (now Toronto), then the capital of 
Upper Canada and an important British supply depot. The enemy were forced to evacu- 
ate York and on May 27th the army under Dearborn and the fleet under Chauncey, who 
was accompanied by Perry, attacked Fort George near the mouth of the river Niagara. 
After the fall of Fort George, Perry returned to Lake Erie with a few small ships and 
completed the fitting of his fleet. 

Both General Harrison and the secretary of war were desirous that Perry should lead 
a land expedition toward the Cuyahoga river, to assist the former, but Perry was deter- 
mined to demonstrate the vital importance of promptly securing control of Lake Erie. 
His fleet was in readiness by the last of July and on August ist he proceeded to act 
upon his own responsibility. The protecting sandbars at Presque He which had placed 
him beyond reach of the enemy, now, however, proved a serious menace, as two of the 
ships were of greater draught than the water gauge over the bar. Immediately contriv- 
ing a plan by which to extricate himself. Perry submerged several large barges alongside 
the two troublesome ships. Making them securely fast, he pumped the water from the 
barges, thus so buoying his vessels as to enable them to pass the shoals in safety. 

The British fleet, which had been hovering about in the vicinity of Presque He during 
the completion of Perry's fleet, had later retired to Maiden, there to await the refitting of 
the brig "Detroit." After leaving Presque He, Perry anchored at Put-in-Bay. His flotilla 



consisted of the ships "Lawrence" and "Niagara." twenty guns each, and seven smaller 
vessels, — one of four guns, one of three, two of two and three of one, a total of fifty-four 
guns. On September loth the enemy's fleet, under Commodore Barclay, a seasoned com- 
mander who had fought under Nelson at Trafalgar, sailed from Maiden to the attack. 
After a hot engagement lasting three hours. Perry sent the following famous message to 
General Harrison at Sandusky: "We have met the enemy and they are ours." A descrip- 
tion of the battle is taken from Perkins' "The Late War." 

On the loth of September, at sunrise, the British fleet, consisting of one ship of nine- 
teen guns, one of seventeen, one of thirteen, one of ten, one of three and one of one, amount- 
ing to sixty-four, and exceeding the Americans by ten guns, under the command of Com- 
modore Barclay, appeared off Put-in-Bay, distant about ten miles. Commodore Perry 
immediately got under way, with a light breeze at southwest. At ten o'clock the wind 
hauled to the southeast, which brought the American squadron to the windward, and gave 
them the weather gauge. Commodore Perry, on board the Lawrence, then hoisted his 
union jack, having for a motto the dying words of Captain Lawrence, "Don't give up the 
ship," which was received with repeated cheers by the crew. 

He then formed the line of bsttle, and bore up for the enemy, who at the same time 
hauled his courses and prepared for action. The lightness of the wind .iccasioned the hos- 
tile squadrons to approach each other but slowly, and prolonged for two hours the solemn 
interval of suspense and anxiety which precedes a battle. The order and regularity of 
naval discipline heightened the dreadful quiet of the moment. The hostile fleets gradually 
neared each other in awful silence. At fifteen minutes after eleven a bugle was sounded on 
board the enemy's headmost ship, the Detroit ; loud cheers burst from all their crews, and 
a tremendous fire opened upon the Lawrence, from the British long guns, which from the 
shortness of the Lawrence's she was obliged to sustain for forty minutes without being able 
to return a shot. Commodore Perry, without waiting for the other ships, kept on his 
course in such gallant and determined style that the enemy supposed he meant immediately 
to board. At five minutes before twelve, having gained a nearer position, the Lawrence 
opened her fire, but the long guns of the British still gave them greatly the advantage, and the 
Lawrence was exceedingly cut up without being able to do but very little damage in return. 
Their shot pierced her sides in all directions, killing the men in the berth deck and steerage, 
where they had been carried to be dressed. 

One shot had nearly produced a fatal explosion ; passing through the light room, it 
knocked the snuff of the candle into the magazine ; fortunately the gunner saw it and had 
the presence of mind immediately to extinguish it. It appeared to be the enemy's plan 
to destroy the commodore's ship; their heaviest fire was directed against the Lawrence, and 
blazed incessantly from all their largest vessels. Commodore Perry finding the hazard of 
his situation, made all sail and directed his other vessels to follow, for the purpose of 
closing with the enemy. The tremendous fire, however, to which he was exposed soon cut 
away every brace and bowline of the Lawrence and she became unmanageable. The other 
vessels were unable to get up, and in this disa.strous situation she sustained the main force 
of the enemy's fire for upwards of two hours, within cannister distance, though a consider- 
able part of the time not more than two or three of her guns could be brought to bear on 
her antagonists. 

The utmost order and regularity prevailed during this scene of horror; as fast as the 
men at the guns were wounded they were carried below and others stepped to their places ; 
the dead remained where they fell until after the action. At this juncture the enemy 
believed the battle to be won. The Lawrence was reduced to a mere wreck ; her deck was 
streaming with blood and covered with the mangled limbs and bodies of the slain ; nearly 
the whole of her crew were either killed or wounded; her guns were dismounted, and the 
commodore and his officers helped to work the last that was capable of service. At two, 
Captain Elliott was enabled, by the aid of a fresh breeze, to bring his ship (the Niagara) 
into close action in gallant style, and the commodore immediately determined to shift his 


S3'— 5^^^:?Es:aH3^^ 

fit fnr Hiif,, -TT,^ 1 u "*"/.,, * ^^^ Struck but twenty men remained on deck 

uL'nded '-The Br?tish"lo^s"' °'/'>^ ''' u""'' "^"^'^ ^^'^^ °"'>^ «- •^"'"^d and tlSty s x 
Huunaea. ine tintish loss must have been much more considerable * * * tu;. 

opposite snores, waitmg m anxious expectation its result. 

Ten days after Perry's memorable victory his fleet transported Harrison's armv to 

on M if ' "^ V'i:° ^''''' ^''''' '^'^"^- P™^^--' ^' Amherstburg. fearing ^. Tuack 

St 11 adhcTed to th^B t' h"^"^' '"'°" °' ''^ '^^-^^^^^^ "P ^'^ -- Tecumseh. ^ 

o le^i^eat n J "r'' 'i°'''''^ '^""^' ^'^^ ^^ P^^^^'^^^ ^° be preparations 

th t ir would tfj" T '° ^"'^'" ''^ ^'"' ^"'^^ "^°" ^°'^ ---'- -d children 

!/°\r ^°?'^ '"■' °^ y^"*" S^"-"^"" here, which made our hearts glad 

hard to %ht people who hve like ground hogs. (At the siege of Fort Meigs Harrison 
constructed bomb proofs by shallow tunneling.) Father, listen! Our fleet ha ' goneTut 

has hann 7\ ^f''' "' '^^^ '^^"' '''' ^'''' ^"^ = ^ut we know nothing of wht' 

has happened to our father with one arm (Commodore Robert H. Barclay). Our fhips 1 ave 
gone one way, and we are much astonished to see our father tving up everything and pre 
panng^to run away the other, without letting his red children know what hJiiSi^ :s fre" 
You always told us to remain here and take care of our lands; it made our hearts 
glad to hear that was your wish. Our great father, the king, is the head, and vou T presen 
h.m. You always told us you would never draw your foot off British .ground- but now 
father, we see that you are drawing back, and we are sorry to see our father doii'.^. so witl' 
out seeing the enemy. We must compare our father's conduct to a fat dog that caTs" 

te- Th"A ' '"',"'^" ""'""^'''^ '^°P^ '' ^^'^^^- ^'^ '^^- -^d runr'of^^ FathTr 
hsten! The Americans have not yet defeated us by land; neither are we sure that they 


have done so by water; we therefore wish to remain here and fight our enemy should 
they make their appearance. If they defeat us we will then retreat with our father. At 
the battle of the rapids, last war, the Americans certainly defeated us; and when we 
returned to our father's fort at that place, the gates were shut against us. We were afraid 
that it would now be be the case; but instead of that we now see our British father pre- 
paring to march out of his garrison. Father, you have got the arms and ammunition which 
our great father sent for his red children. If you have an idea of going away, give them 
to us and you may go and welcome, for us. Our lives are in the hands of the Great 
Spirit. We are determined to defend our lands, and if it be His will, we wish to leave our 
bones upon them." 

Regardless of the taunts of his ally, Procter, who was a stranger to courage, pushed 
forward his plans for retreat, and finally evacuated Detroit on September 28th. Many of 
the smaller guns, a portion of the lighter stores and all supplies that could be readily 
moved, were transported across the river to Windsor. Amherstburg was as hastily aban- 
doned after whatever valuable property that could not be removed had been burned to 
prevent it from falling into the hands of the Americans. Halting at Windsor, the Maiden 
force was joined by the British garrison from the fort at Detroit and the entire command 
accompanied bv a flotilla of small craft, made its way hastily up stream. Harrison had 
been joined at Put-in-Bay by a force of thirty-five hundred Kentucky volunteers, under 
Governor Shelby of that state, and the combined armies, numbering easily five thousand 
men. landed on the Canadian shore of Lake Erie on September 29th, disembarking a 
short distance below Amherstburg. Proctor, however, had acted too quickly and had shown 
the Americans a clean pair of heels. At Maiden the Americans found only a few terrified 
women and non-combatants, who begged for their lives, fearing that the Kentuckians or 
"long knives," as they were called, meant to avenge the massacre of their comrades who had 
fallen at the' river Raisin. By this time Procter was understood to be in full flight along 
the shores of Lake St. Clair. Colonel Richard M. Johnson, who had been stationed at Fort 
Meigs in command of a troop of Kentucky volunteer cavalry, had been ordered to proceed 
to the Raisin. Stopping only long enough to bury the bodies of those slain in the Browns- 
town massacre, Johnson's men, numbering more than one thousand, reached Sandwich on 
October ist. In recognition of the readiness with which Kentucky had responded to the 
call for troops for the protection of the frontier, Fort Lernoult, at Detroit, was at this time 
named Fort Shelby, in honor of Kentucky's governor, who, though an elderly man, had 
braved the fatigue of long forced marches in leading his men to the northwest. Harrison 
and Shelby left Detroit with somewhat more than three thousand troops on October 2d, 
in pursuit of Procter, who was reported as being encamped with the Indians under Tecum- 
seh on the Thames river in Canada. Simultaneously Perry proceeded up the river with sev- 
eral ships en route to Lake St. Clair to aid in supporting the American land column. 

With Sandwich held by Colonels Cass and Ball, and Fort Shelby guarded by McArthur, 
Perry disembarked a considerable detachment from his fleet and joined Harrison. The 
entire command overtook Procter near Chatham, where Tecumseh vainly attempted^ to 
shame his commander into making a stand. and giving battle in the open. But the "fat 
dog" weakened and continued to retreat. The savages held their ground for a time, sus- 
taining a heavy fire from the Americans, but finally fell back, overtaking Procter. On 
October 5th the battle of the Thames was fought, at a point between Chatham and the old 
Moravian settlement at Moraviantown. Colonel Johnson's cavalry outflanked the British 
regulars on the right. Procter's left being protected by the Thames. The British were 


thrown immediately into such confusion by the suddenness of the American onslaught that 
their commander left the field in flight before the whole of Harrison's army cc>uld be 
brought mto action. Procter's front had been formed behind a strip of marsh and behind 
this the Indians continued to fight for some time after the English had asked for quarter 
Tecumseh had eritered this battle of the Thames fully convinced that he would not survive 
he action. He determined to disregard the movements of Procter, whom he held by this 
time in great contempt, and to stake all on the ability of his Indians to stand off Harri- 
son s columns. Forced to dismount because of the character of the field, Johnson's men 
swung into a charge against the savages, who held their fire until the Americans were close 
at hand. Governor Shelby was compelled to send the reserves to Johnson's assistance before 
the ndians could be dislodged. Tradition has it that Tecumseh was killed in the las^ stand 
of the Indians by a ball from Colonel Johnson's pistol, although the latter had been twice 
wounded in the desperate hahd to hand fight on the edge of the marsh. The English his- 
torian James is authority for the statement that the Kentuckians scalped the Indian leader 
actually flayed his body with their knives and converted parts of his skin into razor strops 
Nearly seven hundred British soldiers were captured and a detachment under Colonel Pavne 
was ordered m pursuit of the fleeing Procter, who had left the scene of battle in a wagon 
The gallant Englishman was finally forced to leave the highway and seek cover in the 
woods, where he successfully secreted himself until after the departure of the Americans 
He was later denounced by his superior officers for his rank cowardice 

nneJ .°" nT"^ ^' '''"^ ^™"' ^^'*'"' '° ^''''''' ""^ '^' dispatching of the English pris- 
oners to Ohio, Harrison proceeded to Buffalo, intending to join the American army on the 
Niagara frontier A sufficient number of officers had been assigned to the army in the east 
however, and Harrison was given permission to retire into Indiana. Brigadier General 
Cass was left in civil and military control at Detroit, with four regiments of regular infan- 
try one company of artillery and a regiment of militia. Cass assumed command at Detroit 
October 29, 1813, resigning his command in the army of the United States, but continuing 
as the military and evil head of Michigan Territory and "Upper Canada " 

aeemlnt° of the' "''°S^ '' ''.' ''''"" "'' ''"^'^' ^"' ^^°"^^ '^ ^^^^^^ in the discour- 
agement of the assemblage of any material force of the enemy in the vicinity of Detroit 
several small parties of British assembled on the Thames shortly after the Jthdrawal of 
the Amenca, troops from that territory. Cass' resources were such, however, as to preclude 
the possibility of any dangerous attack from this source. 

Following the evacuation of the British.who had occupied Detroit a little more than 
one year, the inhabitants were practically destitute. Crops had been destroyed, houses had 
been plundered and almost all the available supplies had been confiscated. Cast off by the 
English, the Indians were in still sadder plight. Many were in a state bordering on starva- 
tion, a circumstance which induced detached parties to attack and rob isolated settlers 
Several whites were killed, their buildings burned and their cattle stolen. As a result of 
these forays the local militia was assembled and severe punishment was ministered in sev- 
eral instances the bulk of the hostile savages finally withdrawing either into Canada or into 
the vicinity about Saginaw bay. 

Following the example of General Harrison, Cass sought to placate the unfriendlv sav- 
ages by assuring them fair treatment at the hands of the whites. During the governor's 
temporary absences from Detroit, Colonel Butler of Kentucky and Lieutenam Colonel 
Croghan were left in command of the post. Butler led an unimportant expedition against 
the English to the eastward of Lake Erie and shortlv after his return to Detroit left for 


his home. Lieutenant Colonel Croghan assumed the American command and on March 
21, 1 814, Fort Maiden was evacuated by the American force, which had held the place 
since Procter's flight. 

The British, under Colonel McDougall, still held Mackinac and the Lake Superior re- 
gion, and were reported to be fitting a naval force at Georgian Bay, preparatory to again 
contesting the supremacy of the lower lakes. For some time prior to the war of 181 2, the 
English had also maintained a garrison at St. Joseph's island, between Mackinac island 
and the Sault. Captain Arthur St. Clair, who was in command of five vessels of the lake 
fleet, was joined by Croghan and a portion of the Detroit force in July, the resultant com- 
mand leaving Detroit during that month to attack the enemy in the north. Proceeding to 
St. Joseph's island, the Americans found the fort unoccupied. In the meantime McDoug- 
all, at Mackinac, had opportunity to strengthen his position and on the arrival of the Ameri- 
cans at the straits, was enabled to show a much superior force. A shore party was landed, 
however, which, with the support of the guns of the ships, engaged the English advance for- 
tifications in a hot encounter, finally dislodging the enemy. A detachment of hostile Indians 
harrassed the Americans from the cover of the woods and as the landing party were unable 
to reply from shelter, it was forced to retire, leaving several killed, among whom were 
Major Holmes, Captain Van Horn and Lieutenant Jackson. A second attack being deemed 
inexpedient, St. Clair withdrew his fleet with the exception of two ships, the Scorpion and 
Tigress, a council of officers having decided that an effective blockade would soon force the 
enemy to surrender their temporarily invulnerable position. Following the withdrawal of 
St. Clair, however, McDougall surprised one of the ships in a night attack from small 
boats and later succeeded in capturing her consort. He held Mackinac until the fort was 
turned over to the American government under the terms of the treaty of Ghent which ter- 
minated the war. 

Prior to and during July, both General Harrison and Governor Cass were engaged in 
the promotion of treaty agreements with the Indians of the northwest. Both followed a 
policy of purchasing lands from the savages and of recommending the strict observation on 
the parts of the settlers of Indian property rights except on the lands so purchased. On 
July 22d the second treaty of Greenville was concluded with the Wyandots, Delawares, 
Shawnees, Senecas and Miamis, General Harrison and Governor Cass acting as commis- 
sioners on behalf of the United States. Under this agreement these tribes engaged to assist 
the United States in war with the British and with the hostile tribes. Thus peace was tem- 
porarily restored in and about Detroit. Freedom, however, from Indian raids was short 
lived, repeated outbreaks occurring within the year. 

The war in the east, along the Niagara frontier, was still being vigorously waged by 
both the British and Americans. Congress now adopted extreme measures to add to the 
efficiency of the army. General Wilkinson, in command in the east, had suffered defeat 
and a heavy loss in an expedition agamst the British at the Canadian river La Cole. Every 
available man was needed in this emergency to swell the command of General Izard, Wil- 
kinson's successor. General Brown, of the eastern army, advanced into Canada and Gov- 
ernor Cass sent from Detroit nearly all of the regulars comprising the garrison of the place. 
This encouraged the Indians in Michigan to further depredations. Ananias McMillan, a 
resident of Detroit, was shot from ambush, almost in sight of the fort, and other settlers 
suffered similar fates. With no regular soldiers at his disposal. Governor Cass called for 
volunteers whom he could lead against the savages. A considerable force responded, and so 
determined an advance was made that the savages who had fled to the woods for protection 


were overtaken and severely punished, many of their number falHng before the muskets 
of the volunteers. A flag of truce was sent to the Americans and most of the hostile Indians 
withdrew to the Saginaw valley, leaving Detroit again safe from attack. 

The war with England was ended by the treaty of Ghent, December, 1814. England 
hastened to sign this treaty because she needed all of her troops to defend herself in Europe. 
Shortly after the treaty Napoleon escaped from Elba and began gathering his troops to 
oppose the northern armies; he met them at the battle of Waterloo, in 1815. 


Readjustment of Affairs in Detroit Under Cass — Record Concerning General Lewis Cass — 
Dawn of Brighter Era in Detroit and Michigan Territory— New Order of Govern- 
ment—The Cass Code— First Newspaper Established— Birth of the University of 
Michigan— Liberal Appropriations and Subscriptions for the Support of the New 
Institution — Building of New Highways— First Steamboat Arrives in Detroit— En- 
largement of Michigan Territory — Development and Prosperity— Bank of Michigan 
Established— Bishop Flaget Visits Detroit— Cass Effects Further Indian Treaties- 
Expedition to Lake Superior District — General Cass Secures Treaty with the Chip- 
pewas— Governor's Expedition One of Great Value— Michigan Secures Federal 
Representation— Woodbridge Elected— Other Delegates From the Territory— A 
Remarkable Campaign— Father Richard, a Catholic Priest, Elected Michigan Dele- 
gate to Congress. 

Though the war with England still retained the characteristics of a hot and somewhat 
doubtful contest in the east, Detroit, now that the Indians had been forced into submission, 
was enabled to concern itself with the readjustment of its own affairs. The community, long 
the victim of arrogant misgovernment and but recently relieved of the brunt of the burden 
of frontier warfare, had arrived at a crisis whose vital import was fully appreciated by one 
man. Fortunately for the town of Detroit and for the Territory of Michigan, that man 
was none other than the new governor, Lewis Cass. Though his motives in pressing so 
vigorously the charges brought against his predecessor have been severely impugned, his 
zeal for the public welfare and his untiring efforts to meet with precision and force the 
difficult governmental problems confronting the early days of his administration, have 
stamped him as a loyal citizen and a man of unquestionable merit and ability. 

Of the forebears and early days of Lewis Cass, Andrew C. McLaughlin has written: 
One who examines the genealogical records of New England will observe that the name 
Cass appears not infrequently. One branch of the family is easily traceable to James Cass of 
Westerly, from whom seems to have come Joseph Cass, who was living in Exeter, New 
Hampshire, in 1680. A son of Joseph who bore the national praenomen of Jonathan, was, 
in the latter half of the last century, a young man of vigor and promise in Exeter. At the 
outbreak of the Revolution Jonathan was an energetic young blacksmith, too full of life and 
eager restlessness to be wedded to the fiery joys of the forge, and too full of patriotism to 
await the second call to arms when the battle of Lexington proclaimed that war was 
actually begun. * * * in 1781 he married Mary Oilman, who belonged to a branch of 
the Oilman family which traces its ancestry back to Norfolk, England, where in 1558 were 
living the forefathers of those who in 1635 landed in Boston, and began life in the New 
World. In a house which stood on the east side of Cross street, now Cass street, Exeter, 
Lewis Cass was born October 9, 1782. Lewis was the eldest of six children, the youngest 
of whom was only eight years his junior. His boyhood fell in the uneasy, anxious times 
of the confederation. The air was ful! of political clamor, and electric with dreaded disas- 
ter. State selfishness and political greed were the accompaniments of personal selfishness. 
Avarice and dishonesty were the natural effects of a demoralizing war. In after years 



Le^^•is Cass looked back upon those boyhood years with a memory retentiye of their de^n 
.mpress:ons If m later years he had a neyer failing loye for the Union and the constit^ 
.on, he might trace .t m part to the relief that came when the constitution was adopted and 
cIZT "^,V^^°"§^^- ^ shadow. "You remember, young man/" he said to Jame's A. 
Garfield m 1861, that the constitution did not take efifect until nine states had ratified it 
My natiye state was the ninth. It hung a long time in doubtful scale whether nine would 
agree; bu when at last New Hampshire ratified the constitution, it was a day of great re- 
joicmg. My mother held me, a little boy of six years, m her arms at the wmdow and 
pon: ed to me the bonfires that were blazing in the streets of Exeter, and told me t^^t the 
people were celebratmg the adoption of the constitution. And so I saw the constitution 

It usually falls to the lot of the biographer to narrate at least a few instances of prophet- 
c precoc,^-. But none are to be told of Lewis Cass. It is clear that in early years he was 
fond of study, and eyn.ced a capacity that encouraged his father to giye him an education 
beyond the means, one would think, of the mechanic and soldier, who must haye had some 
difficulty m makmg both ends meet. In 1792, when the boy was scarcely ten years old. he 
en ered the academy of Exeter and came into the stimulating presence of Benjamin Ab- 
bott. The stern disaplme and accurate scholarship of the principal had a moulding influ- 

n ±e°hfe o^T A^ ''''''''\ ''1 ''' ^^^" ^^^"^ '' *^^ ^^^^^^^ --^ -P-^-^ ones 

m the hfe of Cass. Meantime h,s father, who had been unsuccessfully presented to Wash- 
ington as a suitable marshal for the state, had accepted a commission in the army raised 
for the defense of the western frontier, and was with "Mad" Anthony Wayne in his cunnino- 
and yigorous campaign. Major Cass (the father) was left in command at Fort Hamilton 
(Cincinnati) and retained command until the treaty of Greenyille. * * * A few months 
passed in teaching in an academy seem to haye satisfied young Cass that the uneyentful life 
o a schoolmaster vyas not to his liking. The Major had returned from the new west with 
glowing accounts of opportunities, and pedagogics were laid aside for the hardships and 
excitement of pioneering. The family slowly made their way into the Ohio yalley. Lewis 
with his bundle on his back, plodded oyer the mountains into the "Old Northwest " 

Lewis Cass seems to haye settled in Marietta in 1799 and to haye begun there his 
study of the law, in the office of Mr. R. J. Meigs, who was afterward goyernor of the state 
of Ohio. Lewis spent a portion of his time on his father's farm in the wilderness The set 
tiers in the west of after years needed to tell him nothing. He knew their needs, he real- 
ized their capacities, he sympathized with their longings. All this appreciation of north- 
western characteristics moulded his career and increased his usefulness 

Cass came to Detroit as an officer in that army of Ohio yolunteers which Hull led to 

d 1 ieTof 7" '''°" °^>^^°"- ^^ ^^- thirty-one years old when he assumed the arduous 
duties of his new office as goyernor of Michigan Territory 

Under the peculiar circumstances of location and pohtical enyironment, Detroit had 
neyer been considered, saye for the fur trade, as a place of substantial business importance 
s strategic yalue alone had made the town the bone of contention first between the French 
and English and later between Great Britain and the newly established American con 
federacy. But during the Cass administration dawned a broader and bri^^hter era 

At the time the new goyernor assumed office. Michigan Territory vyas still struggling 
mder the onus of those unprecedented laws enacted by the goyernor and judges subse|.en^ 

n, .?r\ , r '°"'''"' °' ^°^''""°'" ^''' ^^^ *° --^P^-' ^1- Woodward code 

and to establish a truly democratic form of goyernoment for Detroit. On October 24 


1815, Judges Witherell and Griffin, acting in conjunction with Cass, adopted an enactment 
recreating the rule of the town trustees. The act provided that the highest municipal au- 
thority should be vested in the chairman of the trustees, to be chosen from its numbers by 
the board, instead of in the mayor. At the election of November 30, 1815, the town 
board was elected, Solomon Sibley being made chairman and Thomas Rowland secretary. 
This board held office until the election of its successors, which occurred on the first Mon- 
day in May, 1816. Following that date the town elections were held annually. The new 
town board was formally organized at a meeting held on December 4, 181 5, at which time 
sixteen general regulations were adopted for the government of the community. The last 
vestige of the British regime was obliterated by the setting aside of the old English laws, 
some of which were still in force in Detroit. Tn their stead what was known as the Cass code 
was ratified and this superseded in their entirety, as well, whatever laws of the Northwest 
Territory had been applicable in Michigan. 

But the planning of the readjustment of the laws of Michigan Territory was not the 
only problem arising to vex the administration during 1815-16. Aside from the settling of 
the' Indian troubles, Cass, in order to maintain the dignity of his government, became in- 
volved in a sharp controversy with the British military authorities who sought, in more 
than one instance, opportunity for a breach of any good feeling that might otherwise have 
been possible. As late as 18 16 the English openly violated American rights by stopping 
and searching, at various points on the Great Lakes, Detroit bound vessels. In addition to 
this, a series of letters in the archives of the state department at Lansing, attest a vigor- 
ous correspondence between Cass and Colonel James in command of the British forces, rela- 
tive to various troubles with the soldiers in Canada. Nine months after the close of the 
war a British lieutenant and boat's crew entered the United States in search of a deserter 
from one of the men of war. Several houses were entered and searched, much to the dis- 
comfort of their owners. Niles states that the party even policed a section of highway with 
sentinels and fired on American citizens. The invaders finally found and arrested the de- 
serter, but McLaughlin writes : "Meanwhile the behavior of the party had so exasperated 
the citizens that they flew to arms and turned the tables on the intruders by arresting the 
lieutenant and conducting him with due pomp to the fort, while the boat's crew hurried 
their captive on board their vessel." Colonel Miller gave up jurisdiction in the matter to 
Governor Cass as the head of the civil authority. Commodore Owen demanded the return 
of the lieutenant. Cass answered at some length. With only a half starved territory at 
his back he knew how to resent contempt and neglect for well known principles of law. 
Instead of complying with the demand for the lieutenant, the man was imprisoned, tried, 
convicted and fined. The Washington government was then appealed to by the British, but 
the action of Cass was upheld. 

Two of the most important events occurring in 1817 were the establishment of De- 
troit's first semi-permanent newspaper, the Gazette, and the birth of the University of 
Michigan. The first issue of the Gazette appeared July 25th, under the management of Shel- 
don and Reed. Its original home was in what was known as the old Seek house, in the 
vicinity of Wayne and Atwater streets. Governor Cass encouraged the new journal and 
was for many years its patron. 

Sitting as a legislative body, the governor and judges passed, on August 26th of that 
year, an act which provided for an appropriation of three hundred and eighty dollars for 
the establishment of a university. So great was the zeal of the pioneers and so proud were 
they of this new institution, which was destined to rise and outstrip many of the older centers 



of learning in the east, that they were wilHng to make sacrifices that few can fully 
ciate to-day. The act provided for an additional tax of fifteen per cent and vvithTn . . 
rnne days of the passage of the act. the corner stone of the uniJ^Trs^bui n t^l^H: 
chosen site benig on the west side of Bates street, midway between Larned and Vo 
streets. In addition to several succeeding appropriation J for rh::upport f h nlX^ 
tut,on, mdiv:dual. subscriptions were made by many of the ambitious citizens of thi Zl 
and a portion of the rehef funds sent to Detroit for the relief of the fire sufferer of 80 ' 
which had never been distributed, was also added to the university fund. Under the ori'mai 
act, which was drawn up by Judge Woodward with all the flourishes of his grandi oau^'e 
the university was to include thirteen professorships and was to be known^ s the ''C th 
olepistemiad, or University of Michigania." 

The youth of the territory were to receive instruction in universal science to be taught 
by the president o the university; in "literature, embracing all the sciences relltive to l^n 
gv:ager m natural history, mathematics, chemistry, natural philosophy, astronomy eth cs" 
economics mediane military science, and in what was termed "intellectual science ' 7h ic h 
was to embrace the 'sciences relative to the minds of animals, to the human mmd sp.ntual 
existence, to tl^ Deity and to religion." Before the comer stone had been pu nto po on 
before even it had been cut, the thirteen professorships were divided between two men the 
president and vice-president of the university, the Rev. John Montieth, the palT of the 
Protestant church, and the Rev. Gabriel Richard, Roman Catholic priest o the par sh of Ste 
Anne s, respectively. In 1818 what was known as the "Classical Academy" wa tabl shed 
as a part of the university, in charge of H. M. Dickie, and in the summer of the same vear 
James Connor, Oliver Williams and Benjamin Stead were appointed as directors ofT "Lan 
casterian school, which opened under the tutelage of a Massachusetts man, Lemuel Shattuck 
The original university act was superseded, April 30, 1821, by a subsequei^t act unde which 
the jurisdiction of the affairs of the university was placed in the hands of he govern- of 
Michigan Territory and a body of twenty trustees. Many names prominent in the ear^y 
annals o Michigan were associated with the university, which continued at Detroit w th 
varying fortunes, until its removal to Ann Arbor, its present location, by act of the sTa t e 
legislature, approved March 20, 1837. ^^^ 

Almost as important as the adjustment of the territory's internal civil affairs was the 
es abhshment of convenient transportation facilities between Detroit and the settlements in 
Ohio and Indiana. The only roads of consequence were those forced through the w Ider 
ness by the movement of troops and military supplies. The settlement of the territ^rv hv 
eastern immigrants was one of the governor's fondest ambitions, but this could not be real 
ized as long as the territory was inaccessible. Before reliable communication could be es- 
tab ished an extensive policy of road building was necessary, but this could not be carried 
on to advantage until the title to large tracts of land in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana could be 
egally wrested from the Indians. In :8i6, Indiana Territor^ forced its way m o the uln 
the new state taking with it a portiori of the southwest corner of Michigan This sm"rred 
Michigan to action. The construction of roads was a necessity. Accordfngly D i c n Mc ' 
Arthur was appointed to co-operate with Cass in affecting additional treaties with the In- 
dians. In 1818 large portions of Ohio and Indiana were ceded by the Indians I„ the 
same year Governor Cass impressed upon the federal government the importance of a 
road "around the end of Lake Erie, as a highway for commerce and an actual necessity for 
military movements in case of war." The struggling territory then made an appropriation for 


the building of a road between Detroit and Chicago. A passable wagon road was the re- 
Important as these measures were, however, August 27th of this year of 1 818 brought 
forth an event of the greatest moment to the town of Detroit. Before the astonished 
caze of the populace, nearly all of whom thronged the river front, a strange vessel, sans 
canvas, sans sweeps, ploughed her way past the islands and up stream towards the cty. 
Whitened foam sprang from her glistening paddlewheels and fiery sparks fell from her 
stack She was the "Walk-in-the-Water," the first steamboat to stem the current of the 
Detroit river or to plough the waters of the western inland seas. The steamer made regular 
trips between Buffalo and Detroit and her owners solicited both freight and passenger 

patronage. ^^^ ^^^.^.^^ ^^ Michigan during this year, of Wisconsin and a part of Minnesota. 
Cass sought the establishment of a general assembly for the territory. Of the governor s 
effort in this respect Andrew C. McLaughlin says, in his life of Lewis Cass : He adhered 
with tenacity to the doctrine that the people should have a direct voice in appointments and 
in other political affairs in the territory. In the spring of 1818 the people were invited to 
decide by a general vote whether or not to proceed to the semi-representative government 
permitted by the ordinance. But the lethargic French and others who appreciated the good 
they had voted against change. For five years the governor and judges retained their au- 
tocratic position, at the end of which time the second form was established." 

The changes already wrought in governmental affairs; the re-establishment of the 
rights of the people, marked the beginning of an era of business development and pros- 
perity Settlers began to arrive; government land began to be sold; there began to be a 
demand for reliable banking institutions. To meet this need, the Bank of Michigan. De- 
troit's second financial institution, was established during this year (1818). The new e^-- 
tablishment occupied a building at the corner of Jefferson avenue and Randolph street and 
numbered among its stockholders Catherine Navarre and Mary Devereaux, and the follow- 
ing prominent citizens of the territory: General Alexander Macomb. Otis Fisher, James 
Abbott Stephen Mack. Solomon Sibley, Benjamin Stead, Charles Lanman. DeGarmo 
Tones Henry Jackson Hunt, Joseph Campau, Henry B. Brevoort, John R. Williams, Au- 
gustus B Woodward. Andrew G. Whitney, William Woodbridge, James May, Peter Des- 
noyers, Ebenezer Sibley, John Anderson, John H. Piatt, Barnabas Campau, 
John J Deming, William Brown, Philip Lecuyer and Abraham Edwards. John K. Will- 
iams was made the bank's first president and James McCloskey served as cashier until suc- 
ceeded by C C Trowbridge, who assumed the office only after McCloskey had been dis- 
missed under accusation of having applied a portion of the bank's funds to his own uses. 

Earlier in the year plans were laid for the disposition of certain public lands which 
were ordered placed on sale following the completion of the government surveys. The 
reports of the government surveyors had been such that a general opinion was disseminated 
to the effect that most of Michigan was a desolate waste. On this account the federal gov- 
ernment altered the allotments formeriy made to cover grants to soldiers, by limiting Michi- 
gan's quota, offering instead lands in Missouri and other states. Governor Cass had been 
doing all in his power to promote settlement within the territory and this action on the 
part of the Washington government promised to greatly retard the realization of the gov- 
ernor's plans A local organization, known as the Pontiac Land Company, was, however, 
perfected two prominent merchants. Mack and Conant. acting as the active promoters 
The company included neariy all of the stockholders of the Bank of Michigan, and acquired 



a considerable acreage in Oakland county, adjacent to and including the present city of 
Pontiac A busniess directory of Detroit compiled in 1819 shows that there were at that I 
time ,n the c.ty watchmakers, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, carpenters, coopers, cabinet-makers 
coach-makers, wheelwrights, tanners, harness and shoe makers, masons, tailors hatters' 

fn" ke'eperT'"'''' '""^ ^'^"''" '^^'" ""'" '"*"" ^'"""'''^ '^""^^ *^^^ "merchants, and eighi 

FI.P-e?"o{Ti? '^'V^' '°™"' ''°"' °^ '^' "'^ ^''- ^"""'^ ^'^"'•'^'^ ^^^ l^'d, Bishop 
Flaget, of Baltimore, being present at the ceremony. Shortly prior to this time a division 

had arisen in the parish of Ste. Anne over the removal of the dead from the bunal ground 
necessitated by the extension of Jefferson avenue, and because of the efforts of Fathi Gab^ 
nel Richard to build a new church. Bitter feeling had forced the issue to an open quarrel 
This brought forth a letter from the bishop sharply reprimanding Father Richard's oppon- 
ents and interdicting the church. Bishop Flaget's visit was made primarily for the purpose 
of restoring peace in the parish. His party was met at some distance from the city by an 
escort and following his arrival a reconciliation was soon affected. The congregation con- 
ented to the removal of the burial ground and agreed to contribute to a fund fof the buHd- 
ng of the new church. The bishop "promised to raise the interdict against their chu" h 
to permi burials in the cemetery, and to send them a priest once a month. The prelim 
maries of the reconciliation having been satisfactorily adjusted, the bishop determined to 
render the ceremony of removing the interdict as public and solemn as possible. Accord- 
ingly, on Tuesday the 9th of June, he was conducted to their church in grand procession 
the di charge of cannon announcing the approaching ceremony, and the music of the regi^ 
mental band mingling with that of the chorister.. An affecting public reconciliation took 
place between the schismatics and their pastor, Gabriel Richard, who shed tears of joy on 
the occasion. A collection of five hundred dollars was taken upon the spot, which the 
bishop considered a substantial omen of a permanent peace." That the erection of the church 
was begun at once is evidenced by an advertisement quoted from the Detroit Gazette of 
tTVi f!'u "^'■^ J-^-"' Offered by Gabriel Richard, rector of Ste. Ante two 
hundred hard dollars will be given for twenty toises of long stone, of Stony island dd7v 
ered at Detroit on the wharf of Mr. Jacob Smith, or two hundred and forty dollars' if dl- 
hvered on the church ground. One hundred barrels of lime are wanted immediatelv 
Five shillings will be given per barrel at the river side, and six shillings delivered on the 
church ground." During the building of the church. Father Richard'f shin plas ers 1 ch 
he issued in payment for material and labor, were counterfeited so extensively as o 
hrea en rum for the good father. The culprit who committed the forgery, however wis 
frightened out of the territory before the authorities could succeed in apprehending him 

While the beginnings of industrial progress were under way in Michigan Territory the 
governor was directing much of his attention to the framing of important treaties wiU th 
ndians. Serving as Indian commissioner for the territory between the Great Lakes and 
the Mississippi river north of Illinois, most of the treaties of the time bear the .^overno "s 
signature. During t8i8 Cass met with the savages at St. Mail's, Ohio, secu -ing Thi 
conference title to a large area for the government. During the next year and in isL I e 
secured reaties at S.aginaw and Chicago respectively, which transferred to the vvhit 
nearly a 1 of the present state of Michigan south of the Grand ri^.er. Much of the topog- 
raphy o the lake region was known only in a most general way even at this time the onfy 
information available having been derived from trappers and missionaries. Vague rumos 
of mineral wealth had long been in circulation. Cass determined to inform himself of the 


extent c f the territory's resources and asked authority to map the country and to investigate 

its flora and fauna. 

I Having secured the desired authority and the services of an officer of enguieers, Cass 

set out for the Lake Superior country, accompanied by Henry R. Schoolcraft who was to 
I conduct the scientific observations. With the expedition went an escort of ten soldiers 
j from the regular army and a corps of interpreters and voyageurs, the party being further 
j augmented upon its arrival at Mackinac. Near the Sault Ste. Marie was a plot of ground 
! which had been ceded to the United States. This, however, had never been occupied by the 
' American government, though the right of the United States to the land had always been 
I observed in the various treaties with the northern tribes. As the Chippewas were still re- 
I ceiving gifts from the British government, much to the concern of the Americans, Cass now 
determined to take possession of the lands in question, and to effect a treaty with that 
tribe. On his arrival at the Sault, Cass perceived at once that the Indians were completely 
under the influence of the English. Decisive measures were necessary. Perhaps the best 
idea of the courage and precision with which the governor met this and similar difficulties 
can be gained from McLaughlin's narrative which is based on Schoolcraft's "Summary Nar- 
rative" and on the account of Charles C. Trowbridge, who likewise was with the party. Mc- 
Laughlin says : 

The braves, evidently restless and out of humor, assembled to meet the Americans. Ar- 
rayed in their best attire, and many of them adorned with British medals, they seated 
themselves with even more than their wonted solemnity and dignity, and prepared to hear 
what Governor Cass desired. At first pretending not to know of any French grant, they 
finally intimated that our government might be permitted to occupy the place if we did 
not use it as a military station. The governor, perceiving that their independence and 
boldness verged on impudence and menace, answered decisively that as surely as the rismg 
sun would set, so surely would there be an American garrison sent to that pomt, whether 
they received the grant or not. The excitement which had been ready to break forth now 
displayed itself. The chiefs disputed among themselves, some evidently councilling mod- 
eration, others favoring hostilities. 

A tall and stately looking chieftain, dressed in a British uniform with epaulets, lost 
patience with moderation and delay. Striking his spear into the ground, he drew it forth 
again, and, kicking away the presents that lay scattered about, strode in high dudgeon 
out of the assembly. * * * The dissatisfied chiefs went directly to their lodges, and in 
a moment a British flag was flying in the very faces of the little company of white men. 
The soldiers were at once ordered under arms. Everyone expected an immediate attack 
for the Indians, greatly outnumbering the Americans, had not disguised their impudence 
and contempt. In an instant Governor Cass took his resolution Rejecting the offers of 
those who volunteered to accompany him, with no weapon in his hands, and only his in- 
terpreter beside him, he walked straight to the middle of the Indian camp, tore down the 
British flag, and trampled it under his feet. Then addressing the astonished and terror- 
stricken braves, he warned them that two flags could not fly over the same territory, and 
should they raise any but the American flag, the United States would puts its strong foot 
upon them and crush them. He then turned upon his heel and walked back to his own 
tent, carrying the British ensign with him. An hour of indecision among the Indians en- 
sued. Their camp was quickly cleared of women and children, an indication that a battle 
was in immediate prospect. 

The Americans, looking to their guns, listened for the war whoop and awaited attack. 
But the intrepidity of Governor Cass had struck the Indians with amazement. It showed a 
rare knowledge of Indian character, of which his own companions had not dreamed. Sub- 
dued by the boldness and decision of this action, the hostile chiefs forgot their swaggering 
confidence, and in a few hours signed the treaty which had been offered them. 


Following the perfecting of the treaty with the Chippewas, the governor's expedition 
proceeded to explore and n.ap the Lake Superior region at its leisure^choolcraft making 
crful observations of the n.ineral resources. After investigating the territory at the ha5 
of he M,ss>ss,pp,. the travelers returned home, via Green Bay and Chicago. Cass is cred 

'agold Detfo'^V, "7"'; "^" ^° '^^'^ ''''"''' ''^ ^^^ ^"^-" ^-'^ ^^^-^ Chi- 
cago and Detroit^ The charts and maps, as well as the other information obtained bv this 

expedition proved later on to be of the utmost value in furthering immigration into the the, 
more remote parts of the territory. In 1820 a regular survey fystem was adopted which 
enab ed the du-.s.on of the land into townships and sections, fhe'latter numbering from a 
north and south mendian, and from an east and west base line. 

Owing to the failure of the people to follow the governor's effort to bring about the 

ZITT:!: r'^°'1 '^f '^^"^^- '^^ ^^^^-^^^-^^ ^^-'^ '^^^ - representative t c':! 
gress. The old ordmance of 1787 was still operative 'in the northwest and though Michigan 
had a population sufficient to justify federal representation, the ordinance specifically pfo 

was a « ;;: Zf '.T'^'^T' '°"" '^ ^^^^^^ ""^'' '^'^ ^^■■"^°'->' ^ad advanced to what 
was called the second form of government, by establishing an assembly. In 1810 however 

congress passed an act relieving Michigan of the fulfillment of this requirement 

iam wln^', "^''' if ^"^"'f representation granted, an election was held, in which Will- 
iam Woodbndge. collector of customs and secretary of the territorv. defeated Henrv 
Jackson Hunt Judge Woodward. John R. Williams and James McCloskey. Woodward re- 
eved but half as many votes as did the third lowest candidate and his defeat erdenced 
hat unpop.dan ty which later led to his enforced retirement from the public affairs of the 
nmrl7\u 1 ^''' """"^ ^'' '^'''''''' Woodbridge was forced to resign his new 

tifn Th 1 7 f IT' *? '"^^"' ^^^'"^* ^^^ ^^°^^'"^- -°- ^'-" °- federal posi- 
tion. The election of Solomon Sibley filled Woodbridge's unexpired term. Sibley being suc- 

c^gres ' fI hir R r^ T'''''\ T '''' ^^^'^°''^ ^"^^^ ^^^^^P--^^ ^ constituency in 
13/ .^I^'^^-^d ^^'-ved from 1823 until 1825. In those davs there was no civil 

service and no cavilling about officials mingling in politics 

c.nH-f r'^."^"? r ^- ^^'^"^ '"^ -^°^" ^'^^'^' '■^^^'^^'- '" '^'^ land office, were prominent 
andidates for delegates to congress in iS^a.Major Biddle placed the management of hi 
campaign in the hands of Attorney William Fletcher, and Wing entrusted his cause to the 
vigilance of John Hunt afterward supreme justice. Just as L canvass was well unde 
way the candidates were inform.ed that Father Richard was being boomed as a third can- 
didate by the French residents. At first the idea of a Roman Catholic priest, in charg of 

the United State . should become a candidate for so important an office, seemed preposter- 
ous, but the popular priest gained ground in an alarming fashion. 

On June 9, 1823, Father Richard applied for citizenship papers, but Mr. Fletcher who 
^bt T '^'"^"PP^'"^^^ '^'^'^ J^^tice of Wayne county by Governor Cass, raised the point 
hat the county court was not the proper tribunal for granting such papers His col 
leagues. Judges Witherell and Lecuyer, however, issued the papers on Jtme 28th. and the 
presiding judge found his political candidate face to face with a dangerous competitor 
The first candidates in the field had already subsidized the press. The Gazette utterly i^^ 
nored the pretensions of Father Richard. The campaign caused great excitement and prt 
duced some remarkable ruptures. John R. Williams, a merchant of the town and son of 
Thomas Williams a prominent official, and Celia Campau, sister of the wealthy Jo- 
seph Campau, had been reared in the Catholic faith and was a warden of Ste Anne's He 


had been elected a delegate to the convention and he undertook to head off Father Rich- 
ard's campaign and to compel him to withdraw from the race. He issued a circular m the 
French language setting forth the trials and perils of a church deserted by its pastor and 
calling upon the straying shepherd to return to his flock. Father Richard said he had a 
perfect right to become p candidate and upon his refusal to withdraw, John R. Williams 
and his uncle Joseph Campau left the church never to return. They became Free Masons 
and died full of years, honored and wealthy, but they were apostates and were buried in uncon- 
secrated soil. (Campau had been a Free Mason many years and was treasurer of the Ma- 
sonic Lodge in 1803.) Then the rival candidates looked about for some means to compel 
the withdrawal of the priest, and at first they were apparently successful. Three years be- 
fore this time Francis Labadie had been accused of leaving his wife, Apoline Girardin, in 
the parish of St. Berthier, Canada. He came to Detroit, became a member of Ste. Anne's, 
and married Marie Ann Griffard. widow of Louis Dehetre, the ceremony being performed 
on February 17, 18 17. Father Richard, in the discharge of his duty, tried to make Labadie 
abandon his new wife, and return to his lawful mate, but Labadie refused to obey. Then 
Father Richard gave three public warnings to Labadie for his contumacy, but without effect, 
whereupon he formally excommunicated him on July 16, 181 7. Labadie took his revenge 
by bringing suit for defamation of character and employing Lawyer George A. O'Keefe 
to prosecute the case. Father Richard employed William Woodbridge to defend him. In 
the winter of 1821 the supreme court rendered a verdict for Labadie in the sum of 
$1,116, but Father Richard refused to pay. As the judgment was still hanging over him, 
and Wing, one of the candidates for congressional delegate, was sheriff, the priest was 
taken on a writ of execution and locked in jail. This merely served to increase his popu- 
larity, for his parishioners now considered him a persecuted man, and the French popula- 
tion rallied to his support. As a final resort the Wing and Biddle factions tried to unite 
against Father Richard. Both managers were scheming for their personal advantage. 
Hunt thought that if Biddle would resign the land ofBce to Wing, the latter would be 
content to retire from the field. Fletcher, it is said, wanted Biddle to promise that if he 
was elected to congress he would favor the appointment of himself (Fletcher) to the su- 
preme court, then about to be reorganized. Fletcher denied that he had tried to make such 
a bargain, and in the wrangling that ensued between the managers. Hunt and Fletcher came 
near meeting on the field of honor. The election occurred on the first Tuesday of Septem- 
ber, and the early returns showed that Father Richard was probably elected. The returns 
were slow in coming in. John P. Sheldon, editor of the Gazette, delayed issuing his paper 
for three days in the hope that full returns would show a different result, but with the coun- 
ties of Macomb and St. Clair unreported, the paper came out with the following result : 
Father Richard, 372; Wing, 286; Biddle, 235; Whitney, 143; McCloskey, 134, and Will- 
iams 41. Subsequent returns did not alter the result, and the notice of election was handed 
to Father Richard in jail, and he was thereupon released. The defeated factions were very 
glum over the election, but the French were jubilant. A member of congress cannot be 
held in jail on a civil process during his term of office, so Sheriff Austin E. Wing un- 
locked the doors that shut Father Richard from his liberty, and the triumphant priest 
walked forth to be greeted by his ardent supporters. Major Biddle contested the seat, but 
the committee on elections allowed his petition to slumber in a pigeon-hole and never in- 
vestigated it or reported on the subject. 

Of the successful candidate's subsequent career much has been written. The authors of 
Landmarks of Wayne County say: "Father Richard's personality excited much interest m 



Washington, as no Catholic priest had ever before been a member of congress His eaunt 
sepulchral figure and face, his attire, which was black throughout, with small clothes silk 
stockmgs, silver shoe buckles, his broken English, his quaint ways and copious use of snuff 
attracted much attention. A number of his fellow congressmen talked with him one dav' 
and in answer to questions he said he came there to do his people some good 'But ' he 
modestly added, 'I do not see how I can do it; I do not understand legislation- I want to 
give them good roads if I can.' His hearers then and there said they would aid him and 
the result was the law of 1825. making appropriation for a road from Detroit to Chicao-o 
Father Richard died in Detroit September 13, 1832, following a collapse resulting from 
ministering to the Asiatic-plague sufferers." 


Important Governmental Changes— Political Discontent— Petition to Congress— Establishing 
of Governor's Council— New Territorial Judges — Council Holds its First Meeting — 
Message of Governor Cass — Further Congressional Acts Relative to Michigan Ter- 
ritory — Important Indian Treaties Effected — Completion of the Erie Canal — Internal 
Improvements in Michigan — Detroit Municipal Government — New Capitol Occu- 
pied — Protest Against Formation of Huron Territory — Arrest of Editor of Ga- 
zette Arouses Popular Indignation. 

Probably no period Jn the history of the northwest has been productive of broader, 
more significant and more interesting governmental changes than that between the years 1820 
and 1825. With the coming of eastern settlers, and the resultant infusion of the fresh and 
vigorous political blood of the New England states, the public attention in Detroit during 
these years began to focus more sharply upon the community's civil needs. It is probable 
that the history of the United States affords no more striking political anomaly than that 
which presented itself at this time in Michigan Territory. This was the result of an inev- 
itable collision between the sturdy American ideas of self-government and the Old World 
belief in the necessity of submission to a preimposed authority. Into a community in which 
these latter ideas had become thoroughly implanted during the regime of both the early 
French and that of the later English occupation, came now the sons of Massachusetts, aflame 
with that zeal for political liberty which was the fruit of the New England town and local 
governments. These eastern institutions had flourished and waxed strong since the years 
prior to the Revolution, and now the influences of the most truly democratic government the 
world has known began to make themselves felt on the edge of the wilderness. Though 
the newcomers were but the vanguard of that tide of settlers that later flowed into Michi- 
gan upon the completion of the Erie canal, they brought with them an influence that not 
only afforded a stimulus to the dissatisfaction then existing politically in Detroit, but pro- 
vided fertile ground for the support of the policies of Governor Cass. 

There now began a period of gradual but constant withdrawal from previously existing 
civil standards. The public opinion became ever more firmly united in opposition to any 
form of government which sought to place the people under officials in whose selection the 
public had no part. The rule of the governor and judges and the centering in these offi- 
cials of both judicial and legislative powers now became an absurd impossibility. Wood- 
ward and his ally Griffin were still nominally a part of the Michigan government, but they 
stood for the old and now thoroughly detested regime. As a consequence, each rapidly lost 
any footing he might even then have had in the public esteem. Sensible of his unpopularity, 
Woodward absented himself for much of the time, and Griffin, left to stand by himself, 
made no attempt to press any original legislative ideas upon the public. 

As the culmination of the political discontent, a meeting of citizens was called at the 
council house, on March 11, 1822. Congress was petitioned to divorce the judicial and 
legislative branches of the government and was asked to "vest the latter in a certain num- 
ber of our citizens." Again, in October of the same year, a similar meeting was called and 
a second petition was drafted. Finally, in January of the following year, a statement of 



facts was addressed to the judiciary committee of congress. This statement of facts recited 
at some length the reasons necessitating a new form of government in Michigan Terri- 
tory. These the Detroit Gazette, under date of January 24, 1823, set forth as follows: 

"The legislative board do not meet to do business at the time fixed by their own stat- 
utes for that purpose, and they have no known place of meeting; and, when they do meet, 
no public notice of the time or place is given ; and when that can be ascertained by inquiry, 
they are found sometimes at private rooms or offices, where none have a right, and few 
except those immediately interested in the passage of the laws have the assurance to intrude 
themselves, or can find room or seats if they should. Laws are frequently passed and others 
repealed, which take effect from the date, and vitally affect the rights of the citizens, and 
are not promulgated or made known to the community, for many months."' 

This concise arraignment had some weight with the judiciary committee and bore fruit 
much sooner than the most sanguine citizen had dared to hope. The congressional act of 
March 3, 1823, provided for the establishment of a governor's council which, with the exec- 
utive, should form the territorial government. To the people was left the election of 
eighteen candidates, from whom nine were selected by the president as the governor's coun- 
cillors. The news of the passage of the new law reached Detroit on March 27th, and though 
the act did not take effect until the following year, both Woodward and Griffin at once 
resigned as judges. They were succeeded by Solomon Sibley and John Hunt. The latter was a 
lawyer who had lived in the territory but four or five years, laeing a brother-in-law and part- 
ner of General Charles Larned, the attorney general. Judge Witherell, who still retained 
his office, was then made presiding judge of the territory. At about the same time an addi- 
tional judge, James Duane Doty, was appointed for the northern portion of the territory. 

Abraham Edwards was made president, and John P. Sheldon, editor of the Detroit 
Gazette, was appointed clerk of the newly made council, which held its first meeting June 
7, 1824. In his message to the councillors. Governor Cass advocated the completion of In- 
dian treaties under which operations might be carried on for the development of the mineral 
resources in the north, and the passage of legislation providing for the early establishment dl 
a general system of public schools. No important measures were adopted, however, by the 
first council. In 1825 congress passed further acts relative to Michigan Territory, under 
which is was provided that thirteen instead of nine councillors should constitute the local 
representation. Twenty-six instead of eighteen candidates were allowed, they being propor- 
tioned among the counties as follows : Wayne county, eight : Monroe county, six ; Oakland 
county, four; Macomb county, four; St. Clair county, two; and Brown, Crawford and 
Mackinac counties, two. 

A strong influence on public affairs was exerted during all this time by Governor Cass, 
most of whose attention was directed toward the further completion of Indian treaties, the 
popularization of government and the advancement of education. In one of his addresses 
on the latter subject, as reported in the Journal of the Legislative Council of the Territory 
of Michigan, 1826, he said: "Of all purposes to which a revenue derived from the people 
can be applied under a government emanating from the people, there is none more interest- 
ing in itself, nor more important in its effects, than the maintenance of a public and general 
course of moral and mental discipline. Many republics have preceded us in the progress of 
human society ; but they have disappeared, leaving behind them little besides the history of 
their follies and dissensions to serve as a warning to their successors in the career of self 
government. Unless the foundation of such government is laid in the virtue and intelligence 
of the community, they must be swept away by the first commotion to which political circum- 



stances may give birth. Whenever education is diffused among the people generally, they 
will appreciate the value of free institutions ; and as they have the power, so must they have 
the will to maintain them. It appears to me that a plan may be devised which will not press 
too heavily upon the means of the country, and which will insure a competent portion of 
education to all youth in the territory." 

As the constant warfare between the Sacs, Foxes and Sioux Indians to the west was 
proving itself a source of danger on the frontier, as well as one of trouble to the federal 
government, Cass, in company with Governor Clark of Missouri, effected important trea- 
ties during the summer of 1825, at Prairie du Chien. The following year Cass and Colonel 
McKenney met the Chippewas at Fond du Lac. In return for annuities for school pur- 
poses promised by Governor Cass, the Indians granted the whites permission to locate and 
mine the valuable minerals of the north. 

In 1825 the Michigan government was further popularized by an act of congress which 
endowed the governor and council with authority to establish townships and arrange for the 
election of local officials as need arose. Though judicial officials were not at that time in- 
cluded in the provisions for elective selection, they became so at the instance of the governor. 
Of this example of the executive democracy of Cass, McLaughlin says: "Counties were 
laid out as rapidly as convenience directed. As the Americans came into the territory in 
greater numbers, the governor allowed the settlers in each locality to suggest names of 
persons to be appointed to local offices, and thus practically deprived himself of a prerogative 
which he might have used for his own ends. He adhered with tenacity to the doctrine that 
the people should have a direct voice in appointments and other political affairs in the ter- 

During the summer of 1825, settlement in Michigan received its greatest impetus as 
the result of the completion of the Erie canal. This important project marked the begin- 
ning of a fever for internal improvement; and this immediately stimulated that immigra- 
tion which alone could bring about the conquest of the northwest. Indeed, the term "internal 
improvement" soon came to be the shibboleth of the true pioneer. Such a conjunction of the 
waters of Lake Erie and her sister lakes with those of the Hudson river and the ^Vtlantic, 
resulted not alone in a material addition to the population of Detroit and the occupancy of 
much of the adjacent wild lands; it served as an example which, in later years, led the new 
state of Michigan into what, for a time, promised to be a most disastrous attempt toward 
internal improvements of her own. The exodus from the east, which threatened the pros- 
perity of many of the eastern cities, added continuously to the importance and general 
wealth of Detroit. As the land lying near the center of the city became of greater value, 
congress surrendered, in 1826, the last of the military reservation that had surrounded 
Forty Shelby, which stood, it will be remembered, on the present site of the federal building. 
This area, extending from the line of the Cass farm on the west, easterly to Griswold street, 
and from a point midway between Jefferson avenue and Earned street, 'northward to Michi- 
gan avenue, had included the old post burial ground. In this had been interred the bodies of 
those soldiers who died at the fort during the epidemic following the return of the troops 
from the battle oi the Thames, in 181 3. The opening of streets through this cemeter>' and 
the subsequent improvement of the vicinity led to a mild recurrence of the epidemic, which 
carried off among its victims the mayor of the city, Henry Jackson Hunt. In May of this 
year Detroit ceased to be, for the time, a regularly garrisoned post. Two companies of 
troops stationed at Fort Shelby were ordered to Green Bay and twelve months later the 
historic fort was razed to the ground. Detroit was organized as a city in 1824, and John R. 


Williams became the first mayor. In 1827 a new act of incorporation was passed, and in 
the same were noted "The mayor, recorder, aldermen, and freemen of the City of Detroit." 
The municipal officials at this time were made to include mayor, recorder, five aldermen, 
clerk, marshal, treasurer, supervisor, collector, assessor, and three constables. Shortly after 
this, two more aldermen were added to the city council, and work was begun for the im- ' 
provement of the river front and the completion of a sewage system. The public schools, 
which had hitherto been under the supervision of the governor and university trustees, were 
now given into the charge of the various local township governments. 

Following the delivery of an impressive address presented by the president of the legis- 
lative council, that body formally occupied for the first time the new capitol building on 
May 5, 1828. This edifice, an imposing one for those days, was located on the present Cap- 
itol Park, then the head of Griswold street. Twenty-two years of procrastination and neces- 
sitated delays were required before this building could be completed. After the fire of 1805, 
and the laying out of the town lots and the "ten thousand acre tract," the governor and 
judges passed an act providing for the appropriation of a portion of the proceeds from 
the sale of the town lots, for the erection of a court house and jail. Shortly afterward 
twenty thousand dollars were appropriated for the completion of the court house, which was 
to be located "in the center of the Grand Circus." The next step was the act of 1815, re- 
pealing that providing for the Grand Circus location, and favoring instead a site at the head 
of Griswold street. In 1823 it occurred to the progressive citizens that plans must be se- 
lected and a contract let before the capitol could become a reality. After some confusion 
over bids, the governor and judges selected D. C. McKinstry, Thomas Palmer and Degarmo 
Jones as the contractors, agreeing on an estimate of twenty-one thousand dollars for the 
completion of the building. The laying of the corner stone was accomplished with much 
ceremony on September 23, 1823. 

In those days the financing of a public improvement of such magnitude was not ac- 
complished without some difficulties. These were somewhat mitigated by the issuing, on the 
part of the governor and judges, of scrip which, it was originally planned, should be re- 
deemed with moneys received from land sales. In 1828, however, the council authorized the 
endorsement of the scrip by the territorial government. 

In 1828 and 1829 there occurred two events which, though they did not result in vital 
concern, nevertheless, roused the public feeling almost to fever heat. In 1828 an act was 
introduced in congress suggesting the segregation of a portion of the Lake Superior country 
and the addition of such area, with a part of Wisconsin, to form a new territory, to be 
called Huron. Naturally this measure met with the instant disapproval of the citizens of 
Detroit and lower Michigan. Speeches were made and a popular meeting was called for 
the expression of a formal protest. Every public-spirited man of the times entered so 
heartily into the objection that the proposal wilted soon after its inception, and the rich 
northern section wa§ saved to Michigan. Early in the following year John P. Sheldon, 
editor of the Gazette, became the hero of a popular demonstration against the administration 
of the authority of the supreme court of the territory. In this the acts of the judges were 
severely attacked. In decrying a decision of the court in the case of a man on trial for the 
larceny of a watch, the Gazette said editorially : "Many a poor, plodding attorney in the 
states, when he shall read the above decision of the supreme court of Michigan, will kick his 
Blackstone out of his office and acknowledge himself a nincom." The dignity of the court 
could suffer no such discourtesy, and Sheldon was immediately ordered arrested for his 
presumption and contempt. Upon his refusal to pay a fine of one hundred dollars assessed 


against him by the court's verdict, he was promptly thrown into jail. This action so greatly 
angered the public that a storm of popular wrath was soon bursting about the heads of the 
unfortunate judiciary. A public meeting was held at which a subscription was started for 
the securing of a fund sufficient to meet Sheldon's fine, and as soon as the money was thus 
raised a representation of prominent citizens gave a dinner at the jail in honor of the im- 
prisoned editor. Nearly every one present responded to toasts in which the court was made 
the butt of the general disgust, expressed in no uncertain terms of frontier wit. Sheldon's 
sympathizers escorted him to his home in state and the judges were driven to the necessity 
of meeting the public disfavor with an elaborate pamphlet, in which was set forth the court's 
detailed defense. 


Porter Succeeds Cass as Governor — Cholera Epidemic in Detroit — Black Hawk War — Stev- 
ens T. Mason Appointed Secretary of the Territory — Cholera Epidemic of 1834 — 
Mason Becomes Acting Governor of the Territory — Steps Toward Statehood — Con- 
stitutional Convention — Boundary Dispute Between Michigan and Ohio — The To- 
ledo War — Horner Serves Brief Term as Acting Governor — Election of 1835 — 
Michigan Admitted to the Union — Mason First Governor — Supreme and Chancery 
Courts of the New State. 

Upon his appointment, in 1831, as secretary of war in the cabinet of President Jackson, 
Lewis Cass was succeeded as governor of Michigan Territory by a leading Pennsylvania 
politician of the day, George B. Porter. But two events of importance obtrude themselves 
in the Porter administration, — the bringing into prominence of Stevens T. Mason, the first 
governor of the state of Michigan, and the outbreak of the Black Hawk war. Though this 
short conflict, which resulted from the uprising of the western Indians under Chief Black 
Hawk, in Wisconsin, did not directly affect Detroit, indirectly it brought about much distress 
to the citizens and much loss of life. In July the steamer "Henry Clay," having on board 
a detachment of troops en route to the front, touched at Detroit, and on the following day 
one of the soldiers fell victim to cholera. Some little concern had been felt for the public 
health during the summer months prior to the death of the unfortunate soldier, and as 
soon as his fate became noised about the city, the vessel was immediately ordered away. 
She proceeded upstream as far as Belle Isle and later to Fort Gratiot, at Port Huron. Here 
she was forced to stop by the general outbreak of the dread disease among the troops. 
Those who had not already been struck down, made their way back to Detroit, where they 
attempted to re-embark on board the steamer "William Penn." But again they were 
forced ashore. Quickly the plague spread among the citizens, and those who were able 
fled from the city. By the residents of the smaller surrounding towns a strict quarantine 
was maintained against all who came from Detroit, and even the bridges and roads were 
destroyed or blockaded. Armed patrols guarded the roads outside Pontiac; and mail 
coaches were held up for examination of passengers, all of whom were fleeing from the 
stricken city. Emergency hospitals were established in the capitol and other buildings, and 
in these Father Richard, priest of the parish of Ste. Anne's, and other devoted nurses worked 
day and night in a warfare against the scourge, to which they, too, finally succumbed. De- 
spite the efforts of the priest, his friends and the health officers, nearly one hundred lives 
were sacrificed before the disease had run its course. The epidemic lasted from July 4, 1832, 
until the middle of the following month. At the time of the epidemic of cholera many of 
the citizens of Detroit were absent at Chicago, under John R. Williams, for the purpose of 
aiding in the protection of that village against Black Hawk and his warriors. 

During the year prior to the resignation of Governor Cass, who became secretary of war 
in 1831, the president appointed as secretary of the territory of Michigan, John T. Mason, 
a member of a Virginia family prominent in the political and official history of the United 
States. His son, Stevens Thomson Mason, destined to become one of Michigan's most bril- 
liant men, had been born in Virginia during the memorable year of 1812. The father served 



as secretary of tlie territory until the appointment of Governor Porter, at which time he 
resigned, after bringing sufficient pressure to bear at Washington to insure the appointment 
of his son as his successor. The pohtical ambitions of many of the older families of Detroit 
easily matched those of the Mason family, and this appointment of a comparative stranger 
over the heads of several older aspirants met with an almost general objection. This was 
raised to white heat by the discovery of the fact that the young secretary had not yet attained 
legal manhood. Meetings were held in several places in the territory to bring sufficient 
public sentiment to bear to prevent the realization of the Mason ambitions, and a commis- 
sion was named to investigate the age of the younger Mason. It was discovered that in 
case of the illness, absence or death of the governor, the affairs of the territory would be 
left in the hands of a "mere stripling." Before effective demands for the resignation of the 
young secretary could be formally placed before the president, however, John Mason, the 
father, was enabled to take advantage of an opportunity for ameliorating the public senti- 
ment. This afforded itself, so tradition has it, at a farewell dinner given by former Gov- 
ernor Cass. On this occasion the elder Mason made so pathetic an appeal for a fair trial 
of his son that many of the family's bitterest opponents were completely won over. Thouo-h 
there still remained a strong undercurrent of feeling against the sou, he assumed the du- 
ties of his office and soon proved himself to be a man of resource and ability. 

In 1834 the cholera again broke out in Detroit; this time with increased severity. Be- 
ginning with August and continuing through that month and the next, the streets were 
daily filled with funeral processions; many of the city's most prominent residents, including 
Governor Porter, were taken off. Throughout these trying days the young secretary of 
the territory, the mayor of the city, C. C. Trowbridge, Father Martin Kundig, a Catholic 
priest, and many volunteers worked untiringly to save or ease the sufferings of the afflicted. 

Upon the death of Governor Porter, Mason became acting governor of the territory. 
During the time subsequent to his appointment as secretary he had made many friends even 
among those who had at first sought his removal. Now these former opponents sought to 
have Mason made governor by presidential appointment, but President Jackson turned a 
deaf ear to all such suggestions. Instead of acceding to the popular demand, he attempted 
to thrust Henry D. Gilpin upon the people of the territory as their executive head. Jack- 
son's desires were, however, frustrated by the action of the Mason family, who were of 
sufficient political importance to induce many senators to disapprove the president's se- 

A census of the territory taken in the fall of 1834 gave Michigan a population of 8y,2y^, 
of which nearly 5,000 were residents of Detroit. 

With a population exceeding, by about twenty-five thousand, that legally entitling 
Michigan to become a state, the people now began to look toward placing the commonwealth 
on a footing equal to that of her older sisters in the federal union. The first definite step in 
this direction was taken in May, 1835, when a constitutional convention was held at De- 
troit. This body framed a constitution which gave the right of franchise to all residents 
of the territory who should have attained legal age whenever the constitution became effect- 
ive, and provided for an election to be held on the first Monday in October, 1835. At this 
election the people were to select a governor and lieutenant governor, a state legislature and 
a representative in congress. During the same year, however, an event that for a time 
threatened to embroil the territory in a war with Ohio, diverted all efforts towards statehood. 

The Ohio trouble, known as the Toledo war, was occasioned by a boundary dispute be- 
tween Michigan Territory and her southern neighbor. Under the ordinance of 1787, provi- 


sion was made for the division of the Northwest Territory into either tliree or five states. 
The ordinance stipulated that if five states were to be created, the three states on the south 
were to be divided from those to the north by a Hne drawn eastward from the southerly 
extremity of Lake Michigan, and extending to the line of the Northwest Territory in Lake 
Erie. When Ohio was admitted to the Union, however, the constitution which was accepted 
by congress contained a provision which stipulated that in case this line should not pass as 
far north as the northerly cape of the Maumee bay, then a line extending easterly from the 
foot of Lake Michigan to the north cape of Maumee bay, should serve as the northern boun- 
dary of the state. When Michigan Territory was cut ofif from Indiana, the residents in 
the territory later in dispute preferred to be governed under the Michigan laws, which were 
accordingly extended to cover the area. The disputed .territory consisted of a strip of land, 
about eight miles in width, which lay between two lines of survey, — one known as the Ful- 
ton and the other as the Harris line. 

In 1833 an Ohio senator brought the question of establishing a definite boundary be- 
tween Ohio and Michigan before the Ohio legislature, but nothing was accomplished fur- 
ther than the passage of a resolution asking congress to determine the difficulty. In 1835 
the matter came before congress and John Ouincy Adams made an elaborate report against 
the claim of Ohio. Following this, the Ohioans petitioned their legislature asking for an 
extension of the laws of Ohio over the territory in dispute. On the pas'sage of an act granting 
the prayer of the petitioners, the disputed area was added, by the Ohio legislature, to the 
Ohio counties of Wood, Henry and Williams. This occasioned a counter-action on the 
part of Michigan. A double set of officers were created at the spring election, and war be- 
came inevitable. The Michigan sympathizers living in the trouble zone formed a posse 
which, under the direction of their sheriff, carried off some of the would-be citizens of Ohio 
to Monroe. Under advices from Acting Governor Mason, the Michigan legislative assembly 
made a ruling which prevented any official from assuming or carrying out the duties of any 
local office unless commissioned to do so either by congress or the territorial council. This 
action was ignored by Governor Lucas of Ohio, who directed the officials elected at the 
Ohio elections to serve without regard to the authority of the Michigan council. Lucas 
further attempted to survey the boundary in accordance with the Ohio ideas, but the Michi- 
gan citizens managed to assemble in sufficient force to swoop down upon the surveying 
parties and arrest them as often as they trespassed on land claimed by the territory. 

The Michigan militia, under General Joseph Brown, were ordered to hold themselves 
in readiness for immediate mobilization by Governor Mason and an appropriation was made 
to cover the expenses of a campaign against the Ohioans, in case a decisive movement should 
prove necessary. Ohio at once took similar steps. With the two armed commonwealths 
facing each other and each waiting only some overt act on the part of the other to precipi- 
tate a bloody encounter, it was thought best at Washington to dispatch to the west two peace 
advocates, in the hope of bringing about a peaceful compromise. Accordingly, Richard 
Rush of Pennsylvania, and Colonel Howard, of Maryland, appeared in the role of ambas- 
sadors, armed with full powers for the completion of amicable negotiations with the bellig- 
erants. As the Ohioans were fighting mainly to save for themselves a port on Maumee Bay, the 
state legislature had passed an act creating Lucas county, of which Toledo is the principal 
city, and ordering the assembling of a county court at that place. The surveying commis- 
sion were still active and it was against them that Michigan vented her wrath for what 
her citizens considered the last straw of presumption. The surveyors were fired upon and 
several taken prisoners. 


Governor Mason was determined to prevent if possible the convening of the Lucas 
county court. With a force of about one thousand men, he entered Toledo and formally 
took possession of the town. Governor Lucas had assembled a small force of Ohio militia 
at Maumee, but was powerless to move against so imposing a command as that from Michi- 
gan. Stealthily stealing into Toledo with the judge and court officers, Lucas proceeded to 
open court as provided by the legislative act. The session was immediately adjourned, the 
Michigan men being unaware of the strategy until the following day. The dispute was finally 
settled at the next session of congress, Ohio being given title to the disputed territory, and 
Michigan being granted the invaluable lands of the upper peninsula, and also her state- 

In the meantime Jackson had appointed John S. Horner, of Philadelphia, as secretary 
and acting governor of Michigan Territory, to succeed Mason. Horner was commissioned 
early in September but served less than thirty days. Shortly after his appointment the new 
acting governor addressed the citizens of Detroit, relative to his ideas of the needs of the 
territory. Unfortunately for the man, his suggestions met with instant disapproval. This, 
coupled with the fact that his appointment over Mason was resented by almost every citi- 
zen in the territory, made Horner's position most disagreeable. Following his address, the 
citizens passed the following resolution, in which their views were expressed with painful 
frankness : "Resolved : That if our present secretary of the territory should find it beyond 
his control, either from the nature of his instructions, his feelings of tenderness towards 
those who have for a long period of time set at defiance as well the laws of the territory as 
those of the United States, or any feeling of delicacy toward the executive of a neighboring 
state, who has in vain endeavored to take forcible possession of a part of our territory, to 
enable him to properly carry into effect the exacting laws of this territory, it is to be hoped 
he will relinquish the duties of his office and return to the land of his nativity." 

In accordance with the provisions made by the first constitutional convention, an election 
was held in Detroit on the first Monday in October, 1835. Stevens T. Mason was elected 
governor; Edward Munday, lieutenant governor; and Isaac E. Crary, congressman. The 
legislature met in November and took action preparatory to the admission of the territory 
into the Union. As the first draft of the constitution extended the right of franchise very 
liberally and included provisions prohibiting slavery, the question of admitting the aspiring 
territory was hotly debated at Washington, many of the southerners objecting to Michigan's 
slavery ideas. Finally it was decided to accept the territory's constitution, on condition that 
Michigan surrender her claims in the Toledo dispute and accept in lieu of the eight-mile- 
wide strip on the southern border, the entire northern peninsula. It was decided at Wash- 
ington that the territory could not hope for admission until a convention of delegates had 
acceded to these conditions. 

When this became known, the legislature issued a call for the election of delegates to 
a convention to be held on the last Monday in November, 1836, at Ann Arbor. The con- 
vention so elected promptly refused to accept the terms of the Washington government, and 
adjourned. So bitter had been the feeling over the Ohio dispute, that the general consensus 
of opinion in the territory agreed at first with the decision of the Ann Arbor convention. 
But as the citizens began to consider more coolly what it meant to Michigan to be deprived 
of her rights as a state, and as information as to the value of the mineral lands in the north 
became more widely disseminated as a result of the Schoolcraft-Houghton exploring expedi- 
tion, a sharp division of sentiment took place. Those in favor of the acceptance of the im- 
posed terms held conventions, in Wayne and Washtenaw counties, at which resolutions were 


passed demanding a reconsideration of the issue at another convention. Though Governor 
Mason expressed strong pro-acceptance tendencies, not much importance was attached to the 
proposal for the additional convention by the opposition. The result was that, for the 
most part, only the supporters of the new movement were active in the election of delegates. 
This made the convention, held at Ann Arbor, December 14, 1836, almost unanimously in 
favor of statehood, under the congressional provisions. Forty-two days after the last Ann 
Arbor convention, Michigan was admitted to the Union as the twenty-sixth state. Con- 
gress further enacted that the state should be recognized as having existed from and after 
the election of 1835, at which the state officers had been chosen. 

The history of the state supreme court dates from the assumption of the office of chief 
justice by William A. Fletcher in the year prior to the admission of the state. Of the or- 
ganization of the court George Irving Reed has written : "The constitution, which became 
operative upon the admission of the state, provided for the division of the state into three cir- 
cuits and the appointment of three judges of the supreme court, each to hold court in the 
several counties of his circuit, and all of whom should sit together as a court in banc, to 
consider and determine appeals. The powers of these judges in circuit were restricted and 
their labors correspondingly reduced by a provision in the constitution for a separate court of 
chancery. To this court was granted exclusive primary jurisdiction of all chancery cases, 
with the right of appeal from the chancery to the supreme court. The judges were ap- 
pointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate, for a term of seven years." The first 
supreme court was composed of William A. Fletcher, chief justice, George Morrell and 
Epaphroditus Ransom, associate justices. The circuit assigned to the chief justice comprised 
the counties of Monroe, Lenawee, Hillsdale, Jackson, Washtenaw, Oakland and Saginaw ; 
that assigned to Judge Morrell comprised Wayne, St. Clair, Lapeer, Michillimackinac and 
Chippewa. As under the territorial system, two assistants were chosen for each county, who 
were not necessarily lawyers and whose presence on the bench was not essential to the valid- 
ity of a proceeding; they were elected for a term of four years. The supreme court was a 
peripatetic body under the constitution, holding one term each year in Wayne, Washtenaw 
and Kalamazoo counties. Of Judge Fletcher's career the author continues : "Chief Justice 
Fletcher came to Michigan several years before the organization of the state government, 
as one of the commissioners for that purpose. He rendered valuable service in preparing 
the compilation of territorial laws known as the code of 1827, and the first revision of the 
statutes of the state, known as the revised statutes, 1838, was prepared by him and under 
his supervision. He was a man of commanding presence, a good lawyer and an able judge." 

The early history of the chancery court has been outlined by former Governor Alpheus 
Felch, in a paper read before the Michigan Historical Society, to this effect : The Michi- 
gan court of chancery was established and the office of chancellor created, by act of the leg- 
islature approved March 26, 1836. This act was amended in July of the same year, and 
the year following both statutes were repealed and a new law continuing the independent 
court of chancery, with more specific provisions as to its powers and jurisdiction, was en- 
acted. By this statute the powers and jurisdiction were made coexistive with the powers 
and jurisdiction of the court of chancery in England, with the exceptions, additions and lim- 
itations created and imposed by the constitution and laws of the state. * * * yiig 
state was divided into three circuits, afterward increased to five, in each of which two terms 
were to be held annually, and an appeal was given from the decrees of the chancellor to the 
supreme court of the state. In July, 1836, Elon Farnsworth received the appointment of 


chancellor, and soon afterward the court of chancery was organized and the exercise of its 
functions was commenced. 

From the time of the British evacuation until Michigan was admitted to the Union, 
Detroit and the territory were under the authority of the following governors and military 
commandants: 1787-1800, General Arthur St. Clair, governor Northwest Territory; 1800- 
1805, General William Henry Harrison, governor Indiana Territory; 1805-1812. General 
William Hull, governor Michigan Territory; 1812-1813, General Procter, British command- 
ant; 1813-1831, Lewis Cass, governor and military commander; 1831-1835, Stevens T. 
Mason, secretary and acting governor; 1835-1835, John S. Horner, secretary and acting 
governor; 1835, until and after admission, Stevens T. Mason, governor. 


Internal Improvements — Commissioners Appointed — Influx of Settlers from the East — Pur- 
chase by the State of the Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad — Clinton and Kalamazoo 
Canal — Famous Five Million Dollar Loan Approved — Placing of the State's Bonds 
— Grave Financial Situation of the New State — Canal Projects Abandoned. 

Scarcely had the new state been created and the craze for land speculation reached its 
height, when a mania for what was then glibly termed "internal improvement" took posses- 
sion of the hearts of the early state builders. In his first message to the general assembly 
of the state, Governor Stevens T. Mason, thoroughly imbued with that spirit of proud en- 
thusiasm and ambitious energy which made him for the time the idol of the pioneers, sug- 
gested that an act be passed providing for the appointment of a "board of internal-improve- 
ment commissioners whose duty it should be to ascertain the proper objects of improve- 
ment in relation to navigable rivers, roads and canals." On March 21, 1837, such an act 
was approved by the young legislature and on the same day Governor Mason named such 
a board, consisting of the following men : James B. Hunt, Hart L. Stewart, John M. Bar- 
bour, David C. McKinstry, Gardiner D. Williams, Levi S. Humphrey and Justin M. Burdick. 

Just at this time a fever of immigration swept over the eastern states, fanned by the re- 
ports of the fair lands in Michigan and the fortunes awaiting the hand of those with suffi- 
cient courage and resolution to grasp them. A stream of settlers poured into the country, 
coming mostly from New York via the then new Hudson River railroad and the Erie canal 
as far as Buffalo, and from that point to Detroit by way of the lakes. Young men they 
were, accompanied by courageous wives, fearing to undertake nothing and nerved to the 
struggle of overcoming the mighty forests. The true zeal of the pioneer was theirs, and all 
had but one aim, — the speedy creation of a great and prosperous commonwealth, that influ- 
ence, honor and wealth might be wrought from the wilderness for their children. On the 
journey "out," all had seen the beneficent effects of the Erie canal and the railroads, and 
readily enough they responded to the suggestion of Governor Mason. The whole popula- 
tion was intent upon the realization of an ideal, but so great was the spirit of impatience 
that none was content to wait for the steady, healthful growth which had characterized the 
development of the mother states. Important measures, involving far-reaching projects 
whose magnitude would cause the men of to-day to hesitate, were carried through with a 
swing and a rush on the crest of the wave of popular hope. Surveying crews were mus- 
tered and hurled against the walls of the almost impenetrable wilderness with indomitable 
faith and courage. Lines were run and estimates made with only the thought of the great 
results anticipated in view. All were conversant with the revolution brougth about by the 
gradual improvements effected in the east, and it was clear to every pioneer that if the Erie 
canal had been so efficient in the bringing of settlement and civilization to the west, then sev- 
eral canals across the lower peninsula were all that was needed in the way of allies for the 
redemption of their state. 

So great was the enthusiasm that the internal improvement commissioners, appointed 
in March, met in Detroit on the ist of May and formally organized for the execution of 
their work. One of their first acts was the purchase of the "chartered rights, privileges and 



franchises" of the Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad, for it was intended that the new state 
shonld own ar.d control its public utilities. Early in 1838 the board reported that the engi- 
neers in charge of the survey of "a canal part of the way and railroad the balance of the 
route commencing at or near Mount Clemens, on the Clinton river, to terminate at or near 
the mouth of the Kalamazoo river" (the line of the Clinton and Kalamazoo canal), had 
found the project to be perfectly feasible, the character of the soil and the abundance of 
available water leaving no doubt of the practicability of the enterprise. 

The work as outlined by the improvement board on the Clinton and Kalamazoo canal, 
as well as the additional canals, river improvements, wagon and rail roads throughout the 
state, required the expenditure of what were in those days of simple individual needs and 
resources, stupendous fortunes. The legislature memorialized congress in an attempt to 
secure the setting aside of five hundred thousand acres of public lands for the benefit of the 
improvement fund, and the famous and disastrous five million dollar loan was approved. 
In all, three hundred and five thousand dollars was appropriated for the work on the Clinton 
canal,' and in July, 1838, with the pomp of a parade and the ceremony of a dinner attended 
by the governor and a party of distinguished guests, ground was broken on the banks of 
the Clinton river at Mount Clemens and the hope of the pioneers was launched under the 
most favorable circumstances. 

At daybreak a gun was fired announcing to the inhabitants the dawn of the great day. a 
day, it was then thought, destined to be remembered as one of the proudest the people of 
the state would ever behold. After predicting the glorious results which could but follow the 
completion of the canal, Governor Mason turned the first shovelful of earth, little reahzmg 
that the zeal of achievement had blinded the eyes of all to the real obstacles about to be 
encountered. Since that time, later events have been ascribed to an ill omen which occurred 
during the ceremony. In loading the first wheelbarrow of earth so little attention was 
given to that vehicle's capacity that, when it was dumped, the frail structure went to pieces, 
its fate being considered by many as prophetic of that of the canal. 

To provide funds for the carrying out of the canal project and the other then colossal 
undertakings, the governor approved an act on March 21, 1837, authorizing the loan of a 
sum not to exceed five million dollars," and as soon as the state's bonds securing this amount 
had been prepared in New York, he left for the east for the purpose of personally dosing the 
deal for the securing of the money. Prior to this time the financial measures which had been 
adopted by the "wildcat" banks, and the stories of Michigan "town-site" speculation which 
had been heralded abroad, had so tended to the detriment of the new state's reputation for 
stabihtv, as well as that of her people, as to make any successful exploitation well nigh impos- 
sible 'Added to this, it must be remembered, very little of a reliable nature was known of 
the state's resources. Its government was entirely new, its organization was characterized 
by no little instability, and its vast mineral riches were known to none. So extensive had 
the prejudice against the state become that scarcely had the enthusiastic young governor 
reached New York when he began to realize that a much more difficult task awaited im 
there than that of arousing the sympathetic concordance with his own ^''''P^.l^\^'''2.!Z 
been. The difficulty of even partially imbuing the hard-headed financiers with the glowmg 
possibilities of Michigan's internal improvements became at once apparent 

In his efforts to place the state's bonds, Governor Mason fell "^-^h the Morn Canal 
& Banking Company, a New Jersey concern with headquarters m ^^^\ ^ 7^^; . /.^^ "^'l^ 
ing was dltined to prove itself the rock on which were to be wrecked no °"ly ^- a r hop s 
of the earnest pioneers, but the political future and life of their idolized governor as well. 


The immediate result of tliis meeting was the closing of a contract between the Michio-an 
government and the banking company, in which the latter was made the state's agent for 
the floating of the five million dollars in bonds. For this service the company was to receive 
a commission of two and one-half per cent, with the understanding that if the bonds were 
sold above par the company was to receive as a bonus one-half of such premium up to one 
hundred and five. If the bonds sold above one hundred and five, the state agreed to allow 
the company the excess above that point as an additional premium. Bonds to the extent of 
one million three hundred thousand dollars were then turned over to the company upon its 
agreement to place one-fourth of their par value to the immediate credit of the state in cash 
and to hold the balance available as needed, subject to the governor's order. The remain- 
ing three million seven hundred thousand dollars was to be paid in quarterly installments at 
the rate of one million a year, after July i, 1839. 

This arrangement would no doubt have given the state the construction funds as rap- 
idly as they were needed, but unfortunately little regard was given to the fact that the state 
would be paying out interest at the rate of six per cent on five million dollars long before 
all of the money was actually received. 

The senate and house documents for the year 1839 show that after the closing of the 
above contract further changes were made in the arrangement of the negotiations, which 
afterward turned out to be even more embarrassing. The banking company's notes were 
to be taken in payment for the first installment of bonds, in lieu of cash. Then, as an addi- 
tional change, it was finally decided that the state would be content with ninety-day drafts 
on the company, instead of its notes. Later on, in the same year, the remaining portion of 
the five million dollar bond issue was turned over to the company without security other 
than the company's obligation for one-fourth of the amount and the understanding that the 
United States Bank, a Pennsylvania corporation, would undertake to float the rest. 

In justification of the course followed by Governor Mason in connection with the 
placing of this loan, the conditions of the times and the peculiar financial exigencies then 
existing must be considered. To his scheme of financiering is attributed directly the down- 
fall and ultimate failure of many of the projects he so earnestly endeavored to further, 
including that of the Clinton and Kalamazoo canal. The governor's faith in Michigan's 
future and his ready belief in the honesty of the men with whom he was associated tend to 
explain the anxious desire on the part of the banking company to be of assistance, which 
was manifest in the way it took advantage of every circumstance favorable to itself in the 
promotion of the hopes of the fledgling state. 

In 1838 an appropriation was made by the legislature of two hundred and five thou- 
sand dollars for work on the Clinton and Kalamazoo canal, and in the following year an 
act was passed authorizing the payment of sixty thousand dollars for the same purpose, "out 
of any moneys that shall hereafter come into the treasury of this state, to the credit of the 
fund for internal improvement." 

Following the final location of the canal route and the elaborate ceremonies attendant 
upon the initiation of its construction, agents of the improvement board were sent along the 
route securing, as the needs demanded, rights of way, and grants of other necessary priv- 
ileges. The ease with which these were acquired demonstrates clearly the popularity of 
the project, most of the land necessary being freely donated by the pioneers. Public opinion 
had been so thoroughly roused to the benefits of a canal that none seemed to stop to con- 
sider the possibility of the failure of the commissioners to meet promptly their payment to 
the laborers, most of whom, we are told, were Irishmen. The "wildcat" banks had accus- 
tomed everyone to the acceptance of script, instead of specie, in the satisfaction of financial 


obligations, so that the commissioners experienced little difficulty, if any, in settling with 
the canal diggers on the same basis. 

The absence of specie payments on the canal work began, however, to make itself insid- 
iously felt, and as the pioneers became conscious of the realization, slowly bursting upon 
them, that sudden riches could not be attained by borrowing any more than railroads could 
be built by the mere granting of a charter from the state, or flourishing cities could arise 
from the platting of a beautiful map, their enthusiasm began to wane. Only a slight majority, 
attributed at the time to the votes of the public-improvement laborers, saved the last cam- 
paign of the governor from ending in defeat, so great was the disappointment at his failure 
to realize cash on the five million dollar loan. To the state at large the improvement 
projects became less and less the topic of all-absorbing interest. The "hard times of 1838 
and 1839" became a matter of vital concern. Specie payments even in the east were dis- 
continued, and, to add to the general spirit of gloom, announcement was made that the 
Morris Canal & Banking Company had defaulted in its payments to the improvement com- 
missioners. The United States Bank also became so involved as to be forced to discon- 
tinue payment, and absolute ruin confronted every honest man in Michigan. The state script 
became subject to a heavy discount and was found to be available for little else than the pay- 
ment of taxes or the settling of m'nor obligations to the state. 

The scarcity of money and the necessity of battling for the satisfaction of individual 
needs were important factors in the reversal of sentiment as related to internal improvement 
and did much in bringing about a complete change of front on the part of the administration. 
Strict economy was urged in every department of the government, and finally, upon the 
inauguration of Governor William Woodbridge, it was suggested that "the committee on 
internal improvement be instructed to inquire into the expediency of bringing ^ bill to repeal 
the act to provide for the further construction of certain works." In 1840 such an act was 
approved, except in so far as it related to the completion of the Central and Southern Rail- 
roads, then partially under operation. 

The railroads were soon discovered to far exceed in efficiency even the highest hopes of 
the canal enthusiasts, and thus passed the most roseate dream of Michigan's vanguard of 
progress into the shades of pathetic oblivion. 


Geological Survey of the State— Houghton Appointed State Geologist— Early Railroads- 
Railway Stations in Detroit— The Milwaukee Railroad— Progress of the Michigan 
Central and Sale of the Road in 1846— Great Western Railway— First Train from 
the East— Climax of the Railroad Conspiracy — Destruction of Michigan Central 
Properties— Patriot War in Canada— Border States Support the Patriots— Procla- 
mation by President Van Buren— Mass Meeting of Detroit Sympathizers— Capture 
of the Ship "Ann" — General Scott Comes to Detroit to Police the Frontier— Skir- 
mishes Along the Detroit River. 

Following Governor Mason's second campaign for the governorship, in which he de- 
feated C. C. Trowbridge and in which Edward S. Munday was chosen as lieutenant gov- 
ernor over Daniel S. Bacon, a geological survey of the state was made. This was pro- 
vided for by an act of the legislature, under which Dr. Douglass Houghton was appointed 
state geologist. As a result of his investigations and those of his assistants much timely 
information concerning the resources of the state was secured for the benefit of the eastern 
settlers who, passing generally through Detroit, were rapidly settling and developing the 
country. At this time, 1837, the craze for internal improvement was at its fieight. While 
the canals were being surveyed, lines were also being run and grubbing was in progress 
along the rights of way of several lines of railroad. Contracts were let for the building of 
the line of the Detroit and Pontiac railroad in the spring of 1836. The original company 
formed to build this line had been incorporated as early as 1830 and again incorporated 
under the terms of a reorganization in 1834. A year later this last corporation was given 
authority to establish what was known as the Bank of Pontiac, which it was thought would 
facilitate the financing of the enterprise. Only after the state had loaned the company one 
hundred thousand dollars in 1838, however, was any part of the line in operation. During 
this year the track— the timber and strap-iron affair characteristic of all the early roads- 
reached Royal Oak. A year later Birmingham was reached, but not until four years later 
were trains run into Pontiac. 

Before the Pontiac line had arrived at Birmingham, cars were being run between De- 
troit and Dearborn over the Michigan Central. This line was originally promoted as the 
Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad and had been incorporated two years after the Pontiac com- 
pany had received its first charter. Its exploitation was so skillfully handled that a govern- 
ment engineer was detailed by the war department to complete the initial surveys and later 
the company was granted banking privileges at Ypsilanti and was assisted by stock sub- 
scriptions to the extent of fifty thousand dollars by the city of Detroit. In 1837 the state 
purchased the line and placed its control in the hands of the board of internal improvement 
At this time the name Michigan Central was substituted for the original Detroit & St. Joseph. 
At first these lines were operated by horse power, but the crowning glory of early trans- 
portation achievements was left to the Erie & Kalamazoo, which introduced a real steam 
locomotive as early as 1837. This line, chartered in 1833, to extend from Toledo into Mich- 
igan, reached Adrian in 1836. Of it the authors of "Landmarks" say: "A law was passed 
establishing the Michigan Southern Railroad, which was intended to be fostered by the state, 



and a perpetual lease of the Toledo and Adrian line was obtained. Another line was built 
from Monroe to Adrian with the idea of making the road a connecting link between the two 
most southerly Michigan ports — Monroe, on Lake Erie, and New Buffalo, on Lake Michi- 
gan. After spending about one million dollars on the construction of the line the state debt 
became burdensome and, the credit of the commonwealth being at a very low ebb, the road 
was sold in 1846 to a corporation for five hundred thousand dollars. The purchasing com- 
pany concluded to make the western terminus at Chicago, instead of at New Buffalo or 
some other Michigan port." 

As the people of Detroit and of Michigan generally were anxious to promote in every 
way the interests of the new railroads the companies entering Detroit were granted every 
privilege. The Pontiac line was allowed to run its cars down Dequindre street and the Gra- 
tiot road to a station situated near the present site of the Detroit Opera House, while the 
Michigan Central Company was granted the use of the Chicago road, Michigan avenue, and 
a station site on the southeast corner of Michigan avenue and Griswold street, on the present 
city hall site. The Pontiac company, however, made itself objectionable to Gratiot avenue 
property owners by neglecting to make passabe that part of Gratiot not occupied by its tracks. 
After several orders of the council directing the company to remedy the evil had been ig- 
nored, the citizens took the matter into their own hands and initiated a series of night 
attacks in which the company's track was torn up. Guards and the arrest of the belligerent 
citizens brought the company no relief. Finally ground on the river front was purchased 
and the line was extended across Jefferson avenue to the Brush street station, which was 
first used in 1852. 

Prior to 1855 a company had been incorporated for the purpose of building a railroad 
from Pontiac to a point on Lake Michigan. This was called the Oakland and Ottawa line. 
Early in the above year the legislature granted authority for the combination of the Detroit 
and Pontiac line with the Oakland and Ottawa road, the two properties to be known as the 
Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad. Grand Haven was selected as the objective point on Lake 
Michigan and in 1858 the line was completed to that place, passing Owosso and Ionia. In 
the following year two transports were put into operation between Grand Haven and Mdwau- 
kee, thus opening through transportation between Detroit and the latter city. Both parties to 
the consolidation were heavily involved financially at the time the combination was effected 
and as a result of the non-payment of mortgages given for construction the entire property 
was later sold to the Great Western Railroad Company which was in turn subsequently ab- 
sorbed by the Grand Trunk. 

In the meantime the Michigan Central had been steadily pushing its rails westward. An 
elaborate entertainment was given Governor Mason and a party of distinguished guests 
from Detroit on the occasion of their excursion to Ypsilanti when the first train was run 
from Detroit to that place, in February, 1838. In the fall of the following year a second 
excursion and celebration marked the arrival of the rails at Ann Arbor. At this time the 
Detroit terminal was extended down Woodward avenue from the Campus Martms towards 
the river and sidings were laid for the accommodation of merchants between the latter 
thoroughfare and Brush street. This track was later abandoned, however, and in 1848 Mich- 
igan Central cars ran into a station that stood on the site of the present Third street depot^ 
In 1846 the track had been completed as far west as Kalamazoo, from which place a hne of 
stages carried passengers to New Buffalo. From there the trip to Chicago, the objective 
point for all western traffic, was completed by steamer. 


The whole state was anxious for the completion of the line as far as the Lake Michigan 
shore and great satisfaction was voiced upon the publication of the following notice under 
date of April 25, 1846, by the president of the board of internal improvements: The pas- 
senger train will, after the ist of June next, leave Detroit for the west at 8 o'clock a. m., 
arriving at Marshall at 3:30 p. m. They leave Marshall at precisely 9:30 a. m., arriving 
at Detroit at 5 p. m. There is at the western terminus a line of coaches always ready to carry 
passengers to St. Joseph — ninety miles in twenty-two hours. From St. Joseph to Chicago 
by steamboat — sixty-nine miles in six hours. This was thirty-six hours from Detroit to 
Chicago, and for thus being whirled across the state the traveler was assessed six dollars 
and fifty cents. 

Though the operation of the Michigan Central had shown a steadily increasing profit 
from its first year, the financial straits into which the state was now thrown as a result of 
its attempts at rapid development necessitated the realization of at least a portion of the public 
funds so invested. It was therefore decided to sell the road. After failing to negotiate a 
sale at Albany, which would make possible the cancellation of part of the millions of dollars 
in state bonds then outstanding, the attorney general, H. N. Walker, and George F. Porter 
organized a purchasing company in New York. This corporation took over the road Septem- 
ber 23, 1846. For the agreed price of two million dollars the state transferred a going prop- 
erty that had cost it within forty-five thousand dollars of that amount. 

The new company, which had found a special charter from the legislature awaiting its 
formation, promptly placed in operation a line of steamers between Detroit and Buffalo, 
thus forming an eastern connection ; at the same time the promoters hastened forward the 
western extension of the line. State-wide interest now centered in the race for the Lake 
Michigan shore between the Michigan Central and the Michigan Southern, the state's inter- 
est in which was also sold in 1846. The Michigan Central's steel was laid to New Buffalo, 
the western terminus under that company's charter, in the spring of 1849. The Southern 
was pushing on toward Chicago, the goal toward wliich both companies were striving. The 
public protest against the extension of either line into Illinois made necessary the resort to 
some strategy to reach beyond the charter limitations. The Central acquired stock in and 
eventually leased an Indiana road beyond New Buffalo and effected traffic agreements with 
the Illinois Central whereby the Michigan Central gained entrance to Chicago. The South- 
ern also completed traffic arrangements with an Indiana road, thus covering its Chicago en- 
trance, but so active had been the Central management that that road was enabled to send 
its trains into Chicago May 21, 1852, one day in advance of the Southern. 

The Great Western Railroad, originally chartered in 1S34, was the first line to complete 
an all-rail connection with the east. This line was projected to run between Hamilton, On- 
tario, and Niagara, but found an active rival in the Detroit & Niagara, which was chartered 
two years later. The Michigan Central, seeking an eastern feeder, interested itself in the 
Great Western, however, and soon after the expiration of the charter of the Detroit & Nia- 
gara, invested between one hundred and fifty and two hundred thousand dollars in the com- 
pletion of the Great Western. Nearly four thousand five hundred dollars were spent by the 
city of Detroit in celebrating the arrival at Windsor of the first train from the east, January 
17, 1854. A public dinner was given, whistles were blown, guns were fired and the citizens 
paraded, the whole community taking part in the general jubilee. Until 1867 passengers 
and freight were transferred from the Canadian side, and vice versa, by ferry, but in that 
year through trains began running between Chicago and the east, via the New York Central 
the Canadian line and the Michigan Central. 


The climax of wliat was known as the railroad conspiracy occurred in 1851. Though 
the people had welcomed the railroads and had originally supported liberally every trans- 
portation project furthered by the state, a reversion of feeling soon followed the acquire- 
ment of the properties by foreign investors. This was particularly true in the case of the 
Michigan Central. Disputes over settlements for damages brought many farmers living 
along this line into bitter enmity with the company. Upon their failure to secure, through 
peaceful means, redress for losses, the farmers prosecuted what was at first a mild system 
of annoyance. Growing bolder, some of the more lawless began derailing trains, tearing up 
and blockading tracks and destroying railroad property. Growing still bolder, the malcon- 
tents burned the road's freight station at Detroit, inflicting on the company a loss of nearly 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The fire took place in November, 1850, but not 
until six months later were the railroad's representatives able to gather sufficient evidence to 
justify arrests. In April, 185 1, thirty-eight suspects, many of them well-to-do men, were 
confined in the Wayne county jail to await trial, which began toward the last of the following 
month. Though twelve men were sentenced as conspirators, the railroad company's prop- 
erty was not safe from further vengeance, the Detroit car shops being burned in 185 1 and 
the Detroit passenger station being laid in ashes by incendiaries three years later. 

During the year 1838 Detroit was kept in a furor of partially suppressed excitement by 
the occurrence of the "Patriot war" in Canada. This was the result of the rebellion of a 
large portion of the Canadian citizens against the high-handed practices of those who pleased 
to consider themselves the aristocracy. The latter party controlled the upper house of par- 
liament and made the commons subservient in so galling a way as to bring about open hos- 
tility and bloodshed. In Michigan, as in the other border states along the Canadian frontier 
between Detroit and Niagara, much sympathy was manifest for the Patriots. In several 
instances this materialized in the form of assistance to the rebels on the part of American 
citizens, and even participation in expeditions against the Canadian government. Though 
constant endeavor was made by the authorities to maintain a strict observance of the neu- 
trality laws, Detroit became a hotbed of Patriot supporters. 

Though the spirit of rebellion had been smouldering in Canada for many years, the first 
overt act of importance was the fortification of Navy island, in the Niagara river. Supplies 
for the island were shipped aboard the steamer "Caroline," at Buffalo, by the rebels and 
several trips were made between the states and the armed fortification. As the good wishes 
of the Americans began to take the shape of arms for the rebels. President Martin Van 
Buren issued a proclamation of warning against such assistance and sent General Scott to 
the frontier to preserve the peace. Finally the British sent a party aboard the "Caroline," 
on December 29, 1837, to whom the vessel was obliged to surrender after a short fight. The 
entire crew was captured and the vessel was burned. The arrival of Canadian refugees at 
Detroit further stimulated the sympathies of many of the citizens and three days after the 
capture of the "Caroline" a mass meeting was held in a Detroit theater. At this assembly a 
popular subscription was started to raise funds for the Patriot cause. Plans were promptly 
laid for the capture of Maiden, many of the wilder spirits along the border joining the 
rebels in an enterprise which sought the rendezvous of a force at Gibraltar for the attack. 
The better class in Detroit realized fully the magnitude of such a breach of neutrality and 
proceeded to block any attempt to carry supplies across the river from Michigan. The first 
step was the secretion of several stands of arms in the Detroit jail, where it was thought 
they would be safe from seizure. But on January 5th the jail entrance was rushed and the 
guns were forciblv taken. Provisions were hastily gathered by the adventurers and these 


together with the arms and ammunition were placed aboard tlie ship "Ann," which was 
seized for the expedition. Evading both the Enghsh and American authorities, the "Ann's" 
party proceeded to Gibraltar, the agreed rendezvous, and was there joined by a small force 
under T. J. Sutherland, who assumed command. Sutherland led the Canadian militia who 
opposed him a fox and goose chase among the islands of the lower river and finally landed 
at Fighting island, only after his attempt to take Bois Blanc had been frustrated. The "Ann" 
was soon captured, whereupon the rebels retired to Gibraltar. Beside keeping beyond reach 
of the British, Sutherland evaded an expedition led against him by Governor Mason, who 
sought to retake the filched arms. So rapidly had the residents of Detroit become infected 
with Patriot sympathy that the officials were for a time in doubt as to the city's general 
attitude with reference to observing a careful neutrality^ Only after a mass meeting held 
in the city hall had been addressed by several of the more conservative were the governor 
and mayor assured of the support of the community. A few days prior to this meeting 
the government arsenal at Dearborn had been broken open and a considerable quantity of 
=irms carried off. These, however, were found hidden in Detroit. Provisions were also 
stolen in several instances and attempts were made to seize ships lying at their moorings in 
the river. The arrival of General Scott, who came to Detroit to personally superintend the 
policing of the frontier in this vicinity, temporarily checked such attempts. 

Though Governor Mason induced the Patriots assembled at Gibraltar to disperse, they 
immediately reassembled and retook their position on Fighting island. There they were 
attacked February 25th by the British, who were equipped with artillery. The rebels were 
soon dislodged and forced to seek refuge on the American shore, where they were met and 
disarmed by American troops. Desultory skirmishing was kept up along the river throughout 
the spring and summer of 1838, in spite of the watchfulness of the American officials, who 
were charged in Canada with favoring the Patriot cause. Not until early in December was 
the bfickbone of the local struggle broken. On that date a detachment of nearly two hundred 
rebels crossed the river from Detroit, landing above Windsor. Proceeding down stream the 
invaders burned barracks at that place, several loyal troops losing their lives in the fire. 
While the attack on the barracks was in progress reinforcements of British regulars were 
marching to Windsor from Sandwich and Maiden. Before such troops the thin line of 
the rebel forces quickly melted, disaster, death and capture attending an attempt to retreat 
in small boats to Belle Isle. 

Though ugly charges were made by the hotheads in both the States and Canada, 
the British and American forces co-operated effectively and harmoniously throughout the 
entire trouble. Happily, good sense prevailed ; the counsels of the conservative were heeded 
and all danger of an international entanglement was avoided. 


Campaign of 1840 — Formation of the Whig Party — Retirement of Governor Mason — Detroit 
Whigs Erect Log Cabin — Vice-President Johnson Attends Democratic Meeting in 
Detroit — General Cass Democratic Nominee for President — State Capital Perma- 
nently Located at Lansing — Constitutional Convention of 1850 — Detroit Opposition 
to Slavery — Arrest of the Blackburns, Fugitive Slaves — The Anti-Slavery Associa- 
tion — Formation of the Republican Party — The Underground Railroad — Detroit an 
Important Station — Zachariah Chandler — Plans for John Brown's Raid Completed 
in Detroit — Bingham Elected Governor of Michigan — Substantial Development in 
Detroit — Campaign of 1860 — The Cloud of Civil War — Attack on Fort Sumter — 
Patriotic Attitude of Detroit and Michigan — Governor Blair Calls for Volunteers — 
Regiments Organized — Military Activity in Detroit — Troops Mustered in at Detroit 
in 1861-2 — Michigan Losses in the War — Malcontents Interrrupt Patriotic Meeting 
on Campus Martius — Disgraceful Mob Attack on Detroit Negroes — Attempt to Lib- 
erate Confederate Prisoners on Johnson's Island — The Plot Frustrated — Precau- 
tions for the Protection of Detroit — News Received of Lee's Surrender — Tributes 
to the Martyred President — Work of Michigan Relief Societies During the War — 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Erected in Detroit. 

With the exception of the second Adams administration, the Democratic party had 
been in power for forty years. But now the malcontents among the Democrats joined 
with the shattered Federalists to form the Whig party, Vvhich brought forth the candidacy 
of William Henry Harrison, the hero of Tippecanoe and the Thames, for the presidency, 
in opposition to Van Buren's ambition for re-election. In Detroit, as elsewhere, the strong- 
partisan feeling evinced by the supporters of both parties made the campaign one of the 
most exciting in the history of American politics. In addition to charging Van Buren's 
administration with responsibility for the financial depression under which the country was 
struggling, his opponents were loud in deci"ying his alleged extravagance and mismanage- 
ment. A similar feeling was evident in Michigan against the state's former idol, Governor 
Mason, who, under the influence of the popular clamor, was forced to withdraw from public 
affairs in 1840. 

The Democrats hailed Harrison's simple frontier life with derision, ridiculing him by 
such names as "Log Cabin Candidate," "Hard Cider Campaigner." These terms the Whig 
leaders were quick to appropriate as the shibboleth of their party. To fully develop the 
idea, the Detroit Whigs built a real log cabin of generous dimensions, at Jefferson avenue 
and Randolph street, and in it opened their campaign April 21st. The cabin was head- 
quarters for a political mass meeting at which campaign oratory, hard cider, baked beans 
and other frontier delicacies flourished. Richard M. Johnson, who had led the center of 
attack at the battle of the Thames, was at this time vice-president of the United States. 
To counteract the enthusiastic support accorded Harrison because of his military record— 
this support being particularly strong throughout the Northwest— Johnson was invited to 
be present at a barbecue given in Detroit by the Democrats September 28th. The vice- 
president accepted and the Detroit Democrats sacrificed their every interest to the rallying 
of their forces for the celebration ; but the response fell far short of equaling the attend- 



ance at the Whig meetings, which truly presaged the subsequent victory of the Harrison- 
Tyler ticket. 

Following the Harrison campaign, the people of Michigan began to take a more 
active interest in national affairs, and much of this centered very naturally at Detroit. 
Here, as elsewhere, the principle of state rights, which had been so hotly debated during 
the Jackson administration, and the division between the northern and southern states, 
which was even then making itself insidiously felt in relation to the slavery question, were 
topics for general discussion. In the two ensuing national campaigns, of 1844 and 1848, 
Lewis Cass was twice a candidate for the presidency. In the campaign of 1844 Cass was 
defeated for the nomination by James K. Polk, who was finally elected over Henry Clay, 
a slave-holder. In the next campaign Cass secured the Democratic nomination, but was 
defeated by the Whig candidate, Zachariah Taylor. 

In 1847 came the state-wide fight over the final location of the state capital. In this 
struggle Detroit put forth every effort to retain the seat of government, Wayne county 
and the city co-operating in opposition to the efforts of representatives of nearly every 
other section of the state, all of which were anxious to secure such a prize. After the 
committee on location had failed to come to an agreement at several heated sessions, how- 
ever, the opposition joined forces in support of the selection of a site at Marshall. Still 
no agreement could be reached. Finally James Seymour presented a compromise, offer- 
ing a site for the capital buildings at a point in Ingham county, near which he had secured 
considerable holdings. As a solution of the dispute both the senate and lower house voted 
to accept the Seymour proposal and the present location at Lansing was thus officially 

The rapid growth in population and the experiences through which the state had 
passed during the days of the fever for internal improvement, now necessitated a further 
development of the constitution. This was accomplished at what is known as the consti- 
tutional convention of 1850, which met on June 3d of that year, in the new capital build- 
ings at Lansing. The work of this convention consisted mainly in formulating additions 
and amendments to the old constitution of 1835, concerning the judiciary, the salaries of 
state officials, taxation, the elimination of any interest on the part of the state in corpora- 
tions, the limitation of state indebtedness (this was placed at fifty thousand dollars, save in 
case of war) and the right of franchise. 

The passage of the famous "Omnibus Bill," the compromise of 1850, in the discussion 
of which Henry Clay and Daniel Webster bore so memorable a part, roused the people 
of Detroit to increased opposition against slavery. Though the holding of human beings 
in bondage had been practiced at Detroit since the time immediately subsequent to the 
founding of the settlement by Cadillac, the ordinance of 1787, under which the Northwest 
Territory was created, forbade slavei^y. During the British occupation, of course, no con- 
gressional act was in effect. Following the evacuation by the British in 1796, slaves con- 
tinued to be held under that provision of the Jay treaty which stipulated a strict observ- 
ance of personal-property rights. Under the law of 1827 it became illegal for any slave 
to remain within the bounds of the territory and every colored person was obliged to reg- 
ister himself before a county clerk and to file a five hundred dollar bond. This bond pro- 
vided for the negro's support in case he became dependent. In 1833 two colored residents 
of Detroit, one Blackburn and his wife, were arrested and imprisoned in the jail as fugitive 
slaves. Forty years prior to this time the dominion government had enacted rigorous anti- 
slavery laws and, as the arrest of the Blackburns threw Detroit's colored population into a 


panic, many negroes at once took refuge in Canada. But a considerable number of blacks 
remained in Detroit and these participated in a hostile demonstration before the jail. To 
so high a pitch were the feelings of both the white and black citizens aroused that the 
sheriff feared to deliver the prisoners for transportation south and both escaped. The 
woman was assisted to freedom by a ruse and the man was finally liberated and helped into 
Canada by a mob of blacks who overpowered and wounded the sheriff. 

This occurrence awakened public interest in what was known as the Anti-Slavery 
Society, which had been established as early as 1837. The association included among 
its members some of the most prominent citizens of Detroit and Michigan, the local society 
working in conjunction with a state organization which sought absolute abolition. Almost 
from its inception the society gained strength with remarkable rapidity, but the passage of 
the "Omnibus Bill" gave it its greatest impetus. Included in this bill was the famous fugi- 
tive-slave law, which served to postpone an open breach between the north and south by 
providing for the capture, retention and return of any runaway slave apprehended in any 
portion of the Union, including its newly made states and territories. Prior to this time 
slave hunting had been largely a matter of indifference to most northerners, but when 
regularly appointed officers of the United States began to hound unfortunate refugees 
from alley to alley in Michigan cities, the compromise law began to assume a vastly different 
aspect. Many states passed "personal-liberty" laws in opposition to the compromise, but 
in Michigan a movement of much greater breadth was inaugurated. This was nothing less 
than the formation of the Republican party, — the party that afterward elected Abraham 
Lincoln to the presidency of the United States, the party that forced the seceding southern 
commonwealths to a recognition and an observance of the principles of true Americanism. 
It was only natural that the abolition motives of the New England states should find ready 
reflection in those sons of Massachusetts who had come to the northwestern frontier. 

In 1850 a repetition of the rioting which followed the arrest of the Blackburns threat- 
ened to break out in Detroit upon the capture of a fugitive slave named Rose; only the 
prompt assembling of the militia prevented bloodshed. This further popularized the cause 
of the Anti-Slavery Society and roused sympathy and support for the promoters of the 
"Underground Railroad." The "stockholders" in this organization were allied closely with 
the anti-slavery associations and formed a successful series of rendezvous reaching toward 
the Ohio river, for the harboring and assistance of escaping negroes en route to Canada. 
Detroit's location on the border naturally made it one of the centers of Underground inter- 
est, and Zachariah Chandler, the city's mayor in 1851, was not the least enthusiastic of the 
system's supporters. 

Chandler not only made his strong personality felt in Detroit; he was a figure of na- 
tional prominence during and after the civil war. He came to Detroit in 1833, leaving 
his birthplace, Bedford, New Hampshire, when twenty years of age. Entering the mercan- 
tile trade, he amassed a considerable fortune, a large portion of which he devoted gener- 
ously to the interests of the Whig and anti-slavery propaganda. His service to the city 
as mayor and his activity in the promotion of the new Republican party, brought hnti promi- 
nently before the people of the state. He was elected to the United States senate in 1857, 
after having represented Detroit as a Lincoln delegate in the national Republican conven- 
tion of 1856, which nominated Fremont. Serving in the senate throughout the war, 
Chandler was appointed secretary of the interior in Grant's cabinet. He died suddenly in 
Chicago, in 1879, probably from the results of overwork during the strenuous campaign of 
that year. A sketch of his life appears in the biographical department of this publication. 


After 1855 the Underground Railroad agents were particularly active in Detroit. 
During the year prior to this date, a subsidiary freedom organization, called the Refugee 
Home Society, had bought a tract of land near Windsor, and this it utilized as a place of 
settlement for escaped negroes. The Michigan legislature sought to weaken the effect of 
the fugitive-slave law by the passage of an act preventing the imprisonment of slaves in 
county jails. Prosecuting attorneys were also directed to defend fugitives who claimed to 
be free. Detroit's attitude toward slavery attracted many abolitionist lecturers and during 
the '50s many of the best known speakers in the countrj' addressed meetings in the city. 
Among them were Frederick Douglass and John Brown. These two men met in the city 
in 1859 and it was here that they, with several others, completed the details for the John 
Brown raid against Harper's Ferry. Strained as were the relations between the slave 
states and the north, the attempted execution of the plans perfected in a house at 185 
Congress street, set the entire country aflame with excitement. Brown sought to invade 
Virginia, to capture the arsenal at Harper's Ferr\' and to arm the negroes. The failure 
of the plot and the subsequent execution of the leaders are matters of national history. 

The organization of the Republican party at Jackson, Michigan, came about as the 
result of an anticipated split in the Whig vote in favor of the Free-Soil gubernatorial 
candidate. It was evident to the Detroit politicians that the anti-slavery feeling was rap- 
idly becoming a strong political issue. Many northern Democrats were of this opinion, 
as were large numbers of Whigs and Free Boilers. After several conferences between the 
various local leaders, a Free Soil meeting was arranged. This was held in the city hall. 
At its close a general call was issued for a convention to be held at Jackson, July 6, 1854. 
This convention met as planned and adopted a compromise platform which embodied the 
acceptable portions of two draughts which were presented by Jacob M. Howard and Isaac 
P. Christiancy. In the meantime the candidacy of Kinsley S. Bingham, the Free Soil 
gubernatorial aspirant, had been withdrawn with that of the rest of the Free Soil ticket. 
Bingham later became the candidate of the new Republican party and was elected governor. 

Though John C. Fremont, the standard-bearer of the Republicans, was defeated in the 
presidential campaign of 1856 by James Buchanan, the Democratic candidate, the new party 
succeeded in re-electing Kinsley S. Bingham governor of Michigan. Little save the 
political issue of the time — the slavery question — occupied the public attention, and yet the 
city developed during these years with remarkable rapidity. Annual state fairs had now 
been in vogue for seven years; art exhibitions were being held; educational interests were 
being furthered ; industrial institutions were springing into life ; municipal needs were being 
satisfied apace with the increase in population. Detroit was becoming one of the impor- 
tant social and industrial centers in the country. The city had been in telegraphic com- 
munication with Buffalo since 1847 ^^^ was the center of competition for three opposing 
lines. In 1856 a meeting of the warring telegraph interests was held in Detroit, repre- 
sentatives of the various companies forming here the Western Union Telegraph Company. 
In the following year a cable was laid across the Detroit river. The year 1857 witnessed 
the extension of the city limits, the granting of a new city charter, the opening of the old 
Russell House and the establishment of a recorder's court. Many down-town buildings 
were in course of erection by private individuals who vied with each other in satisfying 
the then existing craze for city improvement. In 1859 a mass meeting of citizens voted 
to raise three hundred thousand dollars for municipal structures, two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars of which were appropriated for a new city hall; the balance was directed 
toward the completion of a workhouse. 


In i860 came the memorable campaign as a result of which Abraham Lincoln became 
president of the United States. This precipitated the civil war. For some time plots had 
been in process of formation in the south for the secession of the slave and "state's rights 
states." In December, i860, a secession ordinance was ratified by the legislature of South 
Carolina, and within the next few weeks many of the southern commonwealths joined that 
state in withdrawing from the Union. While the Buchanan regime was still in effect, the 
southern sympathizers in the cabinet overlooked no opportunity for furthering the interests 
of the pro-slavery party. The secretary of war, John B. Floyd, was among those cabinet 
officers who later became leaders of the Confederacy. He took precaution to deplete the 
military stores in the northern arsenals and to order United States troops into positions 
most disadvantageous to the Union cause. He directed the sale of arms stored in the gov- 
ernment arsenal at Dearborn and winked at the erection of strong batteries by the rebels 
in Charleston harbor. The south was fully cognizant of the impending struggle. The pos- 
sibility of an open breach of serious consequences was beyond belief in the north. As the 
erection of hostile works continued off Charleston, Major Anderson, in command of a small 
but loyal force stationed at the adjacent Fort Moultrie, evacuated that position and entered 
Fort Sumter, a much stronger fortification. Buchanan determined to send Anderson supplies, 
and to this end dispatched the steamer "Star of the West." Upon her arrival at Sumter, Jan- 
uary 9th, both the steamer and the fort were fired upon by the rebels. This was the open- 
ing event of the war. News of the insult was flashed to Detroit, where the citizens were 
at once aroused to a frenzy of anger and indignation. On April 12th news of the fall of 
Sumter reached the city. On the 13th nearly every resident joined a mass assembly which 
met on the Campus Martins to voice its loyalty to the Union. All of Michigan was aflame 
with patriotism. On the i6th Governor Blair, who had succeeded Bingham, conferred with 
the leading citizens as to the procedure for securing Michigan's quota of the seventy-five 
thousand troops for which the president had asked the country. The governor addressed 
the throng at his hotel, informing the people that it was estimated that one hundred thou- 
sand dollars would be required for the equipment of the state's first regiment. Of this 
amount fifty thousand dollars was pledged by the city. Nearly twenty-five thousand dollars 
more was subscribed by the meeting. On the 23d the governor's proclamation was issued 
calling for ten volunteer companies and within less than twenty-four hours John Robertson, 
the auditor general, had begun the organization of Michigan's first regiment of infantry. 
This regiment was mustered into the United States service on May nth, and two days 
later it left Detroit with seven hundred and eighty "ninety-day" men, under command of 
Colonel O. B. Wilcox, proceeding directly to Washington. The second regiment of 
infantry was already partially recruited. 

The government reservation at Fort Wayne, the Detroit Riding Park and a camp 
ground established between Elmwood and Joseph Campau avenues, on Clinton street, were 
now scenes of military activity. From Detroit, from Wayne county, from adjoining coun- 
ties, came the best of the younger blood of Michigan to join the ranks of the Michigan 
troops, already being schooled in the arts of war at the city's three instruction camps. 
As soon as it became evident that the rebellion was to be more than a ninety-day affair, 
volunteers swarmed about the recruiting stations at Detroit as elsewhere in the state. 
Michigan furnished ninety thousand seven hundred and forty-seven troops during the war. 
Of these the following regiments were mustered in at Detroit during the first two years 
of the conflict : 



First Michigan Infantry O. B. Wilcox, colonel. 

Second Michigan Infantry I. B. Richardson, colonel. 

Fifth Michigan Infantry H. D. Terry, colonel. 

Eighth Michigan Infantry W. M. Fenton, colonel. 

Ninth Michigan Infantry W. W. Duffield. 

Sixteenth Michigan Infantry T. W. B. Stockton, colonel. 

First Michigan Cavalry T. F. Brodhead, colonel. 

First Michigan Battery CO. Loomis. 

One company Berdan's Sharpshooters. 
One company Jackson Guards. 


Fifth Michigan Cavalry T. J. Copeland, colonel. 

Ninth Michigan Battery J. J. Daniels, captain. 

Fourth Michigan Cavalry R. H. G. Minty, colonel. 

Twenty-fourth Michigan Infantry H. A. Morrow, colonel. 

Seventeenth Michigan Infantry Wm. H. Withington, colonel. 

One company Stanton Guards, raised by G. S. Wormer, captain. 

One company Dygert's Sharpshooters. 

In Wayne county nine thousand two hundred and thirteen men were recruited for the 
defense of the Union, Detroit furnishing a little less than two-thirds of this number. 
Nearly fourteen thousand Michigan men and three hundred and fifty-eight officers laid 
down their lives during the struggle. 

During these days the city was stirred as never in its history by jollification meetings 
in celebration of the victories of the northern arms. Throngs gathered frequently on the 
Campus Martius to listen to the patriotic oratory of such men as Theodore Romeyn, Gen- 
eral Lewis Cass, William A. Howard, Colonel H. A. Morrow and many others. In these 
addresses eligible men were urged to enlist. Receptions and dinners were given return- 
ing and visiting heroes. The war spirit invaded every home in the city. Triumphal arches 
were erected, under which marched patriotic parades. To encourage enlistment, appropri- 
ations and subscriptions were made to a bounty fund, which reached in Wayne county some 
six hundred and sixty thousand dollars, during the war. In addition to this the county and 
its citizens subscribed considerably more than six hundred and seventy-five thousand doHars 
for the assistance of families who were left without support by the enlistment of the bread- 
winners. Regular allowances of ten and fifteen dollars per month were made to such 

But not all was enthusiasm for the Union. After the first wave of loyalty had swept 
the city, carrying to the battlefields at the front the most desirable of Detroit's available 
men, there still remained many malcontents. These men had taken care to avoid the 
recruiting stations. They were unwilling to make personal sacrifice and assume the risks 
and hardships of war for the preservation of the government. They feared being caught 
by the dragnet of the draft which everyone felt would follow the repeated calls for more 
men. The agents of the Confederacy were active in the north, and especially so along the 
Canadian border. Whenever opportunity afforded itself they played upon the cowardice 
and disloyalty of those who had refused to volunteer. On July 15, 1862, a mass meeting 
assembled on the campus to hear speeches in favor of raising a new regiment. Through- 


out the crowd were sprinkled many of the malcontents. As the meeting progressed the 
speakers were greeted with hisses and shouts of derision. The wrath of the diso-runtled 
centered on certain individuals on the speakers' platform. The rostrum was finally torn 
down and Lewis Cass and other prominent citizens were forced to take refuge in the 
Russell House. 

On March 6, 1863, occurred the most disgraceful affair in the city's history. For 
some time the feeling of resentment against the negroes, as causes of the war, had been 
rapidly gaining ground among the semi-lawless. This class greatly feared the draft which 
was necessitated during this year to supply Michigan's quota of soldiers. The trial of a 
negro, William Faulkner, charged with attacking a white girl, afforded a vent for the pent 
up anti-negro sentiment. While the prisoner was being escorted from the court at Congress 
and Griswold streets, a mob attempted to take the man from the officers. Trouble had 
been anticipated and a formidable guard had been provided by the provost to prevent a 
lynching. In spite of the array of soldiers, the mob made an attack upon the guard, who 
replied with a scattering volley. One man was killed and several fell wounded as the result 
of the fire. Immediately the crowd dispersed but reassembled in the colored settlement east 
of Woodward avenue and proceeded to drive the blacks into their homes with clubs and 
stones. Helpless men and women were struck down and beaten to insensibility at their 
doors; or driven terror-stricken before a crowd of frenzied whites. Then the torch was 
applied. Over thirty houses were thus consumed and thirty-five human beings were either 
killed outright or burned in their homes. For a time it was feared that the entire city 
would be burned and would fall victim to looters. Finally several companies of military 
reached the scene of the rioting, but not before the guilty had made good their escape. 

In the same year occurred an attempt to liberate the Confederate officers held as 
prisoners of war at Johnson's island, off Sandusky. The latter city and Detroit were 
chosen as headquarters for a party of southerners who were involved in the plot. At 
this time there were nearly twenty-five thousand rebel prisoners in confinement in the 
federal prisons at Chicago, Columbus, Johnson's island and Indianapolis. To liberate these 
men the party of southerners came north under various pretexts, simulating disgust with 
the southern cause. These men planned simultaneous attacks upon each of the northern 
prisons for the liberation of the Confederate soldiers. Bennett G. Burley, Major C. H. Cole 
and John Y. Beal were the conspirators who undertook the capture of the Johnson's island 
prison, near Sandusky. Planning their attempt with elaborate deliberation, which enabled 
them to make many friends in the north and thus allay suspicion, it was not until Sep- 
tember 19, 1864, that the leaders left Detroit for the island. Major Cole, who posed as 
a man of wealth and a general good fellow, had wormed himself into the good graces of 
some of the officers of the gunboat "Michigan," then stationed off Johnson's island as a 
guard for the prison. He had been a guest aboard the ship and had entertained the officers 
at little functions on shore. In payment of their social obligations, the officers in turn 
invited the major to again dine aboard the ship, on the 19th. Cole had spent much of 
his time at Sandusky, but on the above date he left Detroit with his accomplices, on board 
the steamer "Philo Parsons," which ran regularly between Detroit and Sandusky. Several 
passengers were waiting for the boat at Amherstburg and when she made the landing at 
that port they came aboard with considerable baggage, passing themselves off as carpen- 
ters, and their baggage as chests of tools. Before the boat reached Sandusky the carpen- 
ters opened the chests, which were then found to contain a generous supply of muskets and 
pistols. The boat was immediately taken in hand by the conspirators, one of whom, Beal, 


presented a pistol at the clerk's window, demanding that Walter Ashley, one of the owners 
of the steamer, turn over the money in the ship's safe. Somewhat more than one hundred 
dollars were passed through the window without delay. It was largely through Ashley's 
testimony that Beal was later convicted and hanged in New York. At Middle Bass island 
the "Parsons" joined the "Island Queen," another steamer which had been taken by a simi- 
lar band of conspirators. The passengers of the latter steamer, including a score or more 
of United States soldiers, were ordered aboard the "Parsons," which proceeded to a point 
near Johnson's island. Cole went aboard the "Michigan." where he had arranged to be 
met by a fellow plotter who was expected to have temporarily disabled the gunboat's engines. 
After drinking the officers into a state of helplessness, Cole planned to signal the "Parsons," 
take the "Michigan," overpower the prison's shore guard and assist the prisoners, all of 
whom were Confedrate officers, to Canada. 

During his entire stay in the north, no one had apparently suspected Cole. He was 
cordially received aboard the gunboat, and confidently expected a successful culmination of 
the plot. At this point, however, he was destined to surprise. One of the plotters, a 
Colonel Johnson, exposed tlie scheme, being actuated by personal pique. As the dinner was 
proceeding pleasantly an officer from shore came aboard the "Michigan" and arrested Cole 
as a rebel spy. The major had no other course than to confess, though he loyally attempted 
to shield his associates. The "Parsons" in the meantime had been steaming back and forth, 
standing well off the "Michigan's" moorings awaiting the expected signal to board. As no 
signal was given, the steamer returned to Fighting island, where the captured soldiers were 
marooned. Landing near Sandwich, the conspirators scuttled the steamer and escaped into 
Canada. Of the three leaders, Beal, Cole and Burley, the first mentioned was the only one 
to suffer punishment, both Cole and Burley escaping after being tried and convicted. 
Though the government had been warned of the plot by the English minister, so carefully 
had the entire affair been planned and executed that it is probable that the Johnson's island 
portion of the enterprise would have terminated successfully had it not been for the betrayal 
of the leaders by one of their number. 

During 1864 warnings were received of rebel plots to burn Detroit. As a precaution 
against such an attempt, impromptu guards were drilled in various wards of the city; the 
Thirtieth Michigan Regiment, which had not left for the front, was detailed for duty along 
the border, and a special steamer patroled the river. Both the Third and Fourth Regi- 
ments of Michigan Infantry had been relieved of duty and mustered out at home, and now 
returned soldiers began to arrive almost daily in Detroit. News of the taking of Richmond 
reached the city on April 3, 1864, and seven days later came dispatches announcing Lee's 
surrender. Both these events were occasions for general rejoicing, which found expression 
in long processions of jubilant enthusiasts, the firing of cannon, the blazing of bonfires and 
in displays of fireworks. But within a week the Campus Martins was crowded with a grief- 
stricken throng who at first refused to believe the stunning news of the assassination of 
President Lincoln. The whole north was struck numb with sorrow. The local patriotic 
organizations passed resolutions of grief and on April 19th memorial services were held in 
the city's churches. On the 25th an immense funeral procession passed along streets hung 
with deepest mourning and emblems of love and respect for the dead idol of the loyal states. 

Almost at the inception of the war local societies were formed whose members devoted 
themselves to providing means for the relief of the sufferings of Michigan's wounded sol- 
diers. Among these were the Ladies' Soldiers' Aid Society, the first of its kind to organize 
in the country; and the Michigan Soldiers' Relief Society, which was formed somewhat 


later. In 1864 these associations were merged under the name of the latter. In 1863 the 
efforts of these organizations were supplemented by the city council, which voted two thou- 
sand five hundred dollars for the relief of the Michigan regiments that had suffered terrible 
losses at the battle of Gettysburg. Four citizens were named as a committee to visit the 
front and investigate the condition of the state's wounded, that the money might be judi- 
ciously expended. So well had the government provided for the injured, however, that 
less than eight hundred dollars of the amount was used. 

Though initial efforts to raise a monument to Michigan's dead had been made during 
the first year of the war, it was not until six years later that the Michigan Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument Association was formally incorporated. On July 7, 1867, the corner 
stone for the soldiers' and sailors' monument, to be built in accordance with the design of 
Randolph Rogers, a Michigan sculptor, was laid with impressive ceremonies in East Grand 
Circus Park. This site was later discarded in favor of the location on the Campus Martins, 
where the monument was formally dedicated April 9, 1872. Through the efforts of the 
association the sum of seventy thousand dollars was raised for this purpose, much of the 
money being subscribed by various patriotic organizations, schools and secret societies. 


Readjustment in Detroit After the Civil War — Substantial Progress of the Michigan Me- 
tropolis — City's Protracted Struggle with the Street Railway Problem — First Fran- 
chise Granted — Detroit City Railway Company — Gradual Expansion of Facilities — 
Street Railway Climax During Regime of Mayor Pingree — Notable Administration 
of Pingree — Citizens' Railway Company — Pingree Re-elected and Continues Efforts 
for Municipal Ownership — Franchise Litigations — Pingree Continues his Fight 
for Detroit after Being Elected Governor of the State — Detroit United Railway — 
Mayor Pingree's Remarkable Activities in Behalf of the People — Gas Companies 
Attacked — Mayor's Famous Crusade — Brush Electric Light Company — City Ac- 
quires Electric Lighting Plant. 

Upon the termination of the civil war and the return of the troops from the field, 
Detroit began a rapid process of social and industrial readjustment. Though the north 
was in much better condition than the south, the withdrawal of thousands of men and the 
expenditure of large sums of money for the satisfaction of innumerable public and private 
needs left Wayne county and Detroit in a seriously crippled condition. But the same cour- 
ageous enterprise that had made the city tlie metropolis of the state now evinced itself 
rapidly to pick up shattered industries. From that time to the present day the city's history 
is one of normal business progression. Gradually the functions of the social fabric have 
been developed to meet successfully the political and economic problems that confront every 
growing municipality. Transportation facilities — 'railroad, marine, postal, telegraph and 
telephone— have more than kept pace with the expansion of similar interests in other parts 
of the country. The lessons of industry (see section devoted to industrial enterprises else- 
where in this volume) have been learned here as readily and at no greater cost than in other 
American cities. 

While the rebellion was still in its first year there began in Detroit a local struggle 
that has not to this day been terminated. This found its inception in the beginnings of one 
of the city's most important public-utility concerns — the street railway. In 1862 the city 
council granted the petition of Eben N. Wilson and his associates, who prayed the council 
"To permit certain persons to establish and operate street railways in Detroit." Prior to 
this time citizens had been compelled to walk, to depend on private conveyances of their 
own, or to trust themselves to a line of omnibuses that intermittently accommodated those 
living in localities remote from the center of the city. The building of a street-railway 
line was regarded as a most venturesome risk and a stupendous undertaking; but the coun- 
cil opined that so great an enterprise must of necessity engender a degree of good faith of 
like proportions. This, it suggested, could best be expressed in r^. material way by the deposit 
of five thousand dollars by the promoters. On August 26th the promoters declined to accept 
such a view of the situation and the city controller was directed to seek other investors 
who might look with more favor on the city's stipulation. In the fall of the same year 
Mr. Wilson, the original promoter, succeeded in associating with himself a second company 
of capitalists, who finally compromised with the city, accepting an ordinance which gave 
exclusive rights of way along specified streets as well as options to build on any other thor- 



oughfare. This accomplished, what was known as the Detroit City Railway Company was 
incorporated in the early part of 1863. The company was capitalized at one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, that amount being issued in stock with an equal amount in bonds. Most of 
the investors were residents of Syracuse, New York. Under the franchise the company 
was empowered to lay tracks along, over and across Woodward, Jefferson, Gratiot, Third, 
Grand River and Michigan avenues, and Fort, Witherell and Woodbridge streets; but was 
taxed fifteen dollars per year for each car operated and was prohibited from exceeding a 
schedule of six miles per hour. The possibility of amassing undue returns from the collec- 
tion of a straight five-cent fare was limited by a regulation which provided that no two cars 
should pass a given point within twenty minutes of each other. For a time the first line of 
street railway, extending along Jefferson avenue between the Michigan Central and the 
Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee depots, struggled to pay expenses, and failed. It 
became evident that the company was not supplying a demand for transportation sufficient 
to permit the operation of its cars. The only alternatives were complete failure or extension. 
Accordingly, in 1864, new blood was taken in, and a track was laid along Woodward 
avenue, from the river to Grand Circus Park. Still the company was forced to struggle 
against an increasing deficit. Up to this time, in addition to the Syracuse investors, John 
A. Griswold, M. D. Sperry, D. B. Dufifield, G. V. N. Lothrop and Mr. Wilson had become 
interested in the company ; George Hendrie, owner of a line of transfer wagons and trucks, 
was given the management of the Jefferson line in 1864. Three years later E. W. Med- 
daugh, F. E. Driggs, James McMillan, Sidney D. Miller and others linked their fortunes 
with that of the street-railway company, whose capitalization was now increased to five 
hundred thousand dollars. Both the Woodward and Jefferson lines were extended, but the 
company was forced to relinquish its franchises on Grand River avenue and Fort street, 
through failure to meet extension stipulations. 

In this way two new companies came into existence, one to build the Fort street line 
(1865) and the other to operate cars on Grand River avenue. The latter company was 
known as the Grand River Street Railway Company and was formed three years subsequent 
to the incorporation of the Fort Street & Elmwood Company. In 1882 the Detroit City 
Railway Company purchased the holdings of the Detroit & Grand Trunk Junction Railway 
Company, which had been formed in 1873 ^o construct an east and west line, from Mount El- 
liott avenue westward across Woodward avenue and along Congress and Baker streets to the 
city limits. In the meantime the Third and Cass avenue lines had been built, and the latter 
had bought the former at sheriff's sale. An attempt had been made by the Detroit City 
Railway Company to prevent the construction of the Third avenue line, under the option 
proviso of the original franchise, and the matter was taken into court. Before an adjudi- 
cation had been reached, however, the Detroit City Company bought out the Cass and Third 
companies, in 1879. This deal gave the Detroit City Company control of all lines save 
those of the Fort street and Grand River companies, and largely as the result of the compli- 
cations which had existed, the former company's franchises, covering its lines then in opera- 
tion, were at this time extended until 1909. 

Though the company was now required to pave between its tracks and to pay into the 
city treasury a tax of one per cent, on its gross receipts, the building of new lines and the 
extension of old ones progressed rapidly. The Trumbull and Warren avenue and Brush and 
Myrtle lines were built in 1885. Two years later an ordinance was passed requiring the 
filing of reports of the company's receipts at six-month intervals and the payment of a one 
and one-half per cent, tax for the next ten years, after which time a two per cent, rate 
should obtain. 


Thus far tlie history of the Detroit City Railway Company had been one of constant 
struggle, — first against financial ruin and later against increasing competition. But this 
only paved the way for the coming of the real street-railway war, which began immediately 
after the election of Hazen S. Pingree as mayor of Detroit. Champions of the people 
have arisen with the recurring crises in the experiences of almost every American city with 
its public-service corporations, but none has stood forth more prominently than Mr. Pingree. 
The war which he began in 1890 against the Detroit City Railway Company not only 
made him a national character, but also has taxed to the utmost the capacities of succeed- 
ing administrations and is yet to be brought to an equitable termination. 

Within a month after becoming mayor Mr. Pingree began the exploitation of his 
municipal-ownership propaganda. In 1891 the railway company offered a rate of six tickets 
for twenty-five cents, on condition the council grant a new thirty-year franchise. A thirty- 
one year extension had been granted to the Grand River company in 1885 and now the 
council agreed to the Detroit City company's later proposition, but the mayor promptly 
vetoed the ordinance. Early in July the council, having discovered that the entire city 
would support the mayor, fell into line. Shortly after this, July 23, 1891, a new organiza- 
tion, the Citizens' Railway Company, bought the property of the Detroit City Railway Com- 
pany, the latter ceasing at this time to exist. The new corporation then began the installa- 
tion of an electric equipment. At the close of Mr. Pingree's first term as mayor, in 1891, 
the status of Detroit's street railways was this : The Citizens' company had acquired, with 
the physical property of the Detroit City Railway Company, the latter's thirty-year ■ fran- 
chise extension, which ran from 1879. Originally the franchise granted the old company 
in 1863 expired in 1893. Were it not for the 1879 extension, Mr. Pingree felt that a most 
favorable opportunity would be presented for the further urging of the municipal ownership 
plan in 1893. Accordingly he set about, immediately after his re-election in the fall of 
1891. to attack the ordinance of 1879, granting the extension. The mayor argued that the 
passing of a new ordinance of extension prior to the termination of the old franchise of 
1863 was irregular and contrary to good policy for the city. The United States circuit 
court agreed with the mayor, who took the matter before that tribunal, but the United States 
court of appeals, from whom the railway company sought relief, found, in 1895. for the 
company. During these years the city and the entire state were kept on the qui vive by 
frequent altercations between the mayor and officers and employes of the railway company, 
and by announcements from Mr. Pingree of attempted bribery on the part of the latter! 
Fmally the Citizens' Railway Company disposed of its interests to the New York firm 
of R. T. Wilson & Company. The transfer occurred in September, 1894, and three months 
later Mr. Pingree succeeded in having passed an ordinance granting a franchise to the 
Detroit Railway Company, the formation of which he had actively promoted in the east 
While not meeting with Mr. Pingree's desires in their entirety, the new company's fran- 
chise marked considerable progress in the mayor's fight. It provided that the city pay for 
paving between rails on unimproved streets and called for a rate of eight tickets for a 
quarter of a dollar between 5 145 a. m. and 8 p. m. ; a rate of six tickets for a quarter for 
the remainder of the twenty-four hours; and universal transfers. Following the adverse 
decision of the United States court of appeals in 1895, the mayor attempted to 
place the city's franchise-surrender case before the United States supreme court but without 
avail. The supreme court held that the lower court's findings were final. The Citizens' 
Company now expressed its triumphant satisfaction by withdrawing the rate of six tickets 
for a quarter and began charging straight five-cent fares, without transfers The supreme 


court's decision was handed down in November, 1895, and shortly after the withdrawal of 
the six-for-a-quarter rate by the Citizens' Company, Mr. Pingree was forcibly expelled from 
one of that company's cars for refusing to pay a straight five-cent fare. Thereupon the 
city sought to enforce the six-for-a-quarter rate by legal proceedings, but this end was 
accomplished before the issue came to trial. Early in 1896 the mayor vetoed an ordi- 
nance, passed by the council at the suggestion of the Citizens' Company, providing for a 
rate on that company's lines of eight tickets for a quarter, without transfers; the transfers 
to issue only on payment of a five-cent cash fare. Again he succeeded in winning over a 
large majority of the council. 

Though elected governor of Michigan in 1897, Mr. Pingree continued to fight for 
Detroit's better street-railway service. As a partial result the city now has unexcelled facili- 
ties in the matter of urban rapid transit as well as in that of convenient trolley connection 
with surrounding cities. On December 31, 1900, the several street-railway companies oper- 
ating in Detroit passed into the hands of a new corporation — the Detroit United Railway. 
This company became the purchaser of all the properties, rights and franchises of the De- 
troit Railway, Citizens' Railway, Fort Wayne & Belle Isle Railway, and the Detroit Sub- 
urban Railways companies. The Detroit United was capitalized at twelve and one-half 
million dollars and now operates about seven hundred and fifty miles of city and interurban 
lines. In February. 1898, the common council passed a resolution to the effect that no fran- 
chise be granted to any individual or corporation for the occupancy of the streets of the 
city without first securing a favorable popular vote on the question. It can not be said that 
this resolution has brought forth as yet any definite action or reform. 

Closely related to the street-railway problem were other public utility matters, covering 
gas, telephone and electric light, and none of the concerns interested in these projects 
escaped the vigilant eye of Mr. Pingree. Many of his friends were stockholders in one or 
other of such companies as were furnishing service to the citizens of Detroit at rates highly 
satisfactory and profitable to all save the consumers. But the interests of these friends 
were ignored by the mayor, who sought to promote the interests of the people. In 1892 
he threw down the gage to the two gas companies, which were then exceeding their legal 
rates by about seventy cents per thousand feet of gas. The franchises under which the com- 
panies were charging one dollar and a half per thousand feet were based on the legal charge 
for gas on the average of the rates obtaining in Cleveland. Chicago and other cities. An 
investigation showed this average to be eighty cents per thousand feet. 

In 1849 the city's original gas company, the Detroit City Gas Light Company, had 
been organized by the Messrs. Brown Brothers, a firm of Philadelphia capitalists, who asso- 
ciated with themselves in the deal G. V. N. Lothrop and other local men of wealth. The 
company first gave service in 185 1, but so expensive was their product that few citizens 
enjoyed the luxury of the new illuminant. A rival concern, the Mutual Gas Company, was 
organized in 1872. After this date there ensued a rate war between the two companies 
which bade fair to ruin the contestants until an agreement was reached whereby the local 
territory was divided, the center of Woodward avenue serving as a boundary. During the 
era of cheap gas, occasioned by the competitive fight, many citizens had availed themselves 
of the service of one or the other company, but upon the effecting of the armistice all con- 
sumers found themselves again the victims of excessive rates. In 1886 a coterie of local 
capitalists organized the Detroit Natural Gas Company, for the purpose of piping into the 
city a fuel supply from the Ohio gas fields. 

These three companies were in operation when Mr. Pingree began his three-year fight 
against the two coal-gas companies. The result of the mayor's crusade was the formation 


of a new company, which took over the properties of the three former organizations. At 
this time a net rate of one dollar per thousand feet for coal gas and eighty cents per thou- 
sand for natural gas was established. Upon the exhaustion of the Ohio gas fields a new 
supply was secured from freshly developed wells in Ontario, Canada, and this was piped 
across the river in two lines, which were connected with the city mains. This source has 
also become depleted, however, and only coal gas is now sold in Detroit. 

Until 1883 gas lamps were the only means of street lighting employed by the city, but 
during this year a few electric lamps were put into service in the down-town portions of 
Jefferson and Woodward avenues. During the following year a corporation known as the 
Brush Electric Light Company was awarded a contract for lighting the whole city. For 
ninety-five thousand dollars the lighting contractors agreed to furnish and operate some 
three hundred arc lamps. This arrangement was continued until the Detroit Electric Light 
& Power Company secured the city contract in 1890. The latter corporation engaged to 
operate one thousand and thirty lights for a consideration of one hundred and thirty-three 
thousand seven hundred and sixteen dollars per year. Naturally the payment of so large 
an amount for lighting suggested to Mr. Pingree an opportunity for the application of his 
municipal ownership theories. Though he strongly urged the establishment of a municipal 
lighting plant during his first term, it was not until 1893 that a vote of the people passed 
favorably upon his suggestions. City bonds were issued in the sum of six hundred thou- 
sand dollars and the present lighting plant was erected on the river front. Originally the 
plant cost the city about seven hundred and forty thousand dollars. Its maintenance and 
operation have shown a large saving to the city over the lowest contract prices under which 
lights were formerly furnished. 


Michigan in the Spanish-American War — Wayne County's Representation in the Volunteer 
Service — Michigan Regiments — Michigan Naval Reserves — Detroit Board of Com- 
merce — Industrial Progress of Detroit — Railway Tunnel Under Detroit River — 
Shipbuilding Industry and Marine Interests — Magnificent Industrial and Commer- 
cial Advancement — Figures and Estimates for 1908 — Municipal Government of De- 
troit — Parks and Boulevards — Gain in Population — Pertinent Statistics. 

Michigan has well maintained its honors in the various polemic conflicts in which the 
nation has been involved. This was significantly true in the Spanish-American war, to whose 
service Wayne county contributed a sterling and valiant force of volunteers, made up prin- 
cipally from existing military organizations. The data here given concerning this matter are 
largely gained from the official reports of the adjutant and quartermaster generals of the 

On the 23d of April, 1898, President McKinley issued a call for one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand volunteers. Michigan's quota was four thousand one hundred and 
four, to consist of four regiments of infantry, each comprising ten hundred and twenty-six 
officers and men. On the following day an order was issued from the office of the adjutant 
general of the state for the mobilization of the entire Michigan National Guard, at Island 
Lake, on the 26th of April. The adjutant general assumed command and the work of 
reforming the Michigan troops to meet the exigency of the call was undertaken. This was 
accomplished by assigning the second independent battalion to the First Infantry and the 
first independent battalion to the Second Infantry, together with the accepting of eight 
companies from different localities in the state to complete the Third and Fifth Regiments, 
respectively. The regiments thus organized were designated as the Thirty-first, Thirty-sec- 
ond, Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Michigan Volunteer Infantry. Of the Thirty-first 
Regiment three companies (I, K, and L) were mainly made up of Detroit men, including 
Colonel Cornelius Gardener, commanding; Charles W. Harrah, major; Andrew P. Biddle, 
surgeon; Frederick L. Abel, first lieutenant and adjutant; and Allen D. McLean, hospital 
steward. The other field and staff officers were from other points in the state. The regi- 
mental band had three Detroit representatives. Companies I and K were all Detroit men, 
as was also Company L, with the exception of one musician. The death roll of this regi- 
ment incidental to the service was fourteen men. Company I of the Thirty-second Regi- 
ment was made up almost entirely of men from Wayne county, including its officers, and 
the county also gave a large percentage of officers and men to Companies K, L and M. 
The death list of this regiment was twenty men. The Thirty-fourth Regiment had on its 
roster only eight Detroit men, including one officer. Major William G. Latimer. The Thir- 
ty-fifth Regiment had two Detroit representatives on its list of staff officers, and in the com- 
pany organziations were found a few men from Wayne county. 

On the loth of May, 1898, the enlistment and muster of the Thirty-first Regiment was 
completed, and May 15th, under command of Colonel Cornelius Gardener, it left for Chick- 
amauga Park, Georgia, in the service of the United States. The Thirty-second Regiment 
was muslered in May 4, 1898, and on the 19th of the same month, under command of 



Colonel William T. McGurrin, departed for Tampa, Florida. The Thirty-third and Thirty- 
fourth Regiments were mustered in May 20th and 25th, respectively, and under the re- 
spective commands of Colonels Charles L. Boynton and John P, Petermann. The Thirty- 
third left for Camp Alger, Virginia, May 28th, and the Thirty-fourth departed for the same 
rendezvous on the 6th of June. On the nth of July Adjutant General E. M. Irish was 
commissioned colonel of the Thirty-fifth Michigan Volunteer Infantry and the regiment 
was mustered into the service of the United States on the 25th of the same month. On the 
14th of September, under orders, it moved from Island Lake to Camp Meade, Pennsylvania. 

The Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Michigan participated in the expedition, under Gen- 
eral Shafter, against Santiago, and bore their full share of the hardships and dangers of 
that expedition. The Thirty-first Michigan remained in various southern camps until Jan- 
uary 25, 1899, when it was transported to Cuba, where it remained in service until April 
25, 1899. The Thirty-second Michigan had no Wayne county contingent and consequently 
its service need not be noted in this article. The Thirty-fifth Michigan did not become ac- 
tively engaged, the exigencies of the war not demanding its interposition, but it was recog- 
nized as a splendid command in both personnel and equipment. 

The Michigan Naval Reserves, consisting of eleven officers and two hundred and sev- 
enty men, were detailed on the auxiliary cruiser "Yosemite" and saw service at Havana, 
Santiago and other points. In all situations they won the approval of the regular naval au- 
thorities and honored the state which they represented. In January, 1902, congress al- 
lowed a bounty of fifty thousand dollars to the crew of the "Yosemite" for the sinking of 
the Spanish vessel "Antonio Lopez" off San Juan, Porto Rico, during the war. 

Through divers channels the Detroit board of commerce has done most effective serv- 
ice in forwarding the civic and industrial progress and wellbeing of the city, begetting, 
as it has, a "high order of civic consciousness and of civic conscience." The organization 
of the board, on June 30, 1903, is an event of no minor importance in the history of the 
city. At the time of its formation the board's roster contained the names of nearly all 
members of the Merchants' & Manufacturers' Exchange, the Chamber of Commerce and 
the Convention League. A total of two iuindred and fifty-two charter members was se- 
cured, and the growth of the order is best indicated by the statement that the membership 
on the ist of April, 1908, as reported at the annual meeting of the board, was eleven hun- 
dred and fifty-four. The work of the Board of Commerce "touches every phase of the city's 
welfare, as well as of the elements and factors of our general commercial and industrial 

The Board of Commerce has recognition of every activity and condition that touches 
the welfare of Detroit, and it finds within its sphere of influence and work all public af- 
fairs. It is potent in the fostering and advancement of the existing business industries and 
commercial enterprises of the city, and has accomplished a most effective work in securing 
to the city new industries. It cannot be doubted that no one factor in the city's civic make- 
up has done as much as this organization to promote the splendid advancement which has 
marked the history of the Michigan metropolis within the past few years — work which has 
significantly contributed to the upbuilding of the larger and greater Detroit. The board 
discusses public interests and public improvements and is a co-ordinate force in aiding the 
departments of public service by its suggestions and independent investigations. As a cen- 
trifugal force it "enables the material interests which make up the prosperity of the city to 
act as a unit and act without delay." Its co-operation is of great value in insuring good mu- 
nicipal government and in fostering commendable municipal activities. It has been well said 



that "tlie talents and abilities that are freely given, through this organization, to measures 
for general welfare are those of men who, in various avenues of business effort, have dem- 
onstrated their capacity and made themselves well known as men of success." 

In any account of Detroit's industrial progress it is but consistent that recourse be 
had to the most valuable sources of information. In the following paragraphs are to be 
found data for which credit is to be given alike to the Detroit Board of Commerce and to 
the publishers of the Detroit city directory. 

The location of Detroit created for it a manifest destiny as a city of commercial and 
manufacturing importance. Its position on the strait connecting the upper and lower lakes, 
the depth of the water, the close approacli of the channel bank to the river's edge, the 
safety of its harbor, and the length of its dock line give it advantages for water transporta- 
tion unsurpassed by those of any other port on inland waters. Its railroad facilities also are 
of the best. It is the natural gateway between the west and the east, being on four of the 
trunk lines connecting these sections. Two great systems penetrate every part of Michigan, 
and there is excellent connection with the southwest. Recently there has been a reaching 
out to the south and southeast. The city has the advantage of good labor conditions, of 
cheap sites for manufactories, of an abundant supply of pure water at low rates, of good 
municipal administration, of a light debt and low taxation, and of unusual outward at- 
tractions. These advantages, intelligently directed, had raised it to the twelfth city in popu- 
lation in the country and to the sixteenth in the value of its manufactured products when 
tlie census of 1900 was taken. Since that year the city has entered upon a new period of 
growth, the rapidity of which is surpassing the expectations of the most hopeful of its busi- 
ness men. 

The facilities for water transportation did not need to be increased, but government 
improvements, added to unusual natural advantages, have made them the best on the Great 
Lakes. Nine miles of frontage on the Detroit river and four on the river Rouge will fur- 
nish ample dock rooi-n for many years to come. 

There has been a vast gain for Detroit in railway transportation. It is a terminal point 
also for the two principal Canadian systems of railway, which reach every place of im- 
portance in the Dominion and the maritime provinces. A belt line encircles the city, cross- 
ing all the railroads and facilitating the transfers of freight. A second belt line, to extend 
around the city at a uniform distance of six miles from the city hall, has been commenced. 

Since the great trunk lines began to bring the east to the west, Michigan Central rail- 
road operatives have dreamed of a mammoth, swinging steel bridge, capable of sustaining 
on its trestles the tonnage of the road and fitted to eliminate those obstacles which have 
placed the certain direction of trains practically beyond mortal control. With the develop- 
ment of such traffic conditions, however, as would justify such an undertaking, the com- 
merce of the great lakes has kept equal pace, until now the almost continuous passage, 
during the eight months of the navigation season, of the great freighters of the lake flo- 
tilla, precludes any such possibility. From the earliest day vessel interests successfully 
opposed the construction of a bridge. Though the project of a tunnel meant, at first hand, 
the expenditure of even a modern fortune, involving attendant engineering risks whose cost 
and extent could not be approximated, the spirit of the present-day progress was insistent 
and the construction of such an alternative was begun in 1904. 

In perfecting the tunnel plans and specifications it was naturally necessary to consider 
with great care just what functions the traffic demands would require the tunnel to fulfill, 
and the question of car movement and anticipated volume of business, together with end- 


less other problems, has entered very largely, in connection with physical conditions, into 
the matter of establishing grades at the approaches and the general alignment. In many 
ways the tunnel will be in the nature of an experiment in the handling of traffic. The 
expectations are that it will have an annual capacity of considerably more than one million 
cars, and when completed, will be the source of a great saving, increasing facilities from 
four hundred to five hundred per cent. The heaviest passenger and freight business han- 
dled by the Michigan Central is east bound, west bound freight cars being largely empties, so 
that the tunnel grade from the center of the river to the portal on the Canadian side is 
one and one-half per cent. That on the Michigan side is one-half of one per cent greater, 
the easier grade thus being provided for the heavier business. 

The details of this great engineering work required a little more than two years for 
their final adjustment. The engineers' diagrams roughly divide the tunnel work under the 
following heads: Westerly open cut, 1,540.07 feet; westerly approach, 2,128.97 feet; sub- 
aqueous, 2,625 f^^t; easterly approach, 3,193.14 feet, and easterly open cut, 3,300 feet, mak- 
ing the total distance of excavation a little more than 2.42 miles from surface to surface. 
The approach tunnels are twin concrete structures, between which a bench or retaining 
wall of the same material is four feet in lateral thickness. In chambers along this wall will 
be placed conduits, through which power, telephone and telegraph cables will be stmng. 
The side walls vary as earth fonnation and pressure necessitate, from two feet and nine 
inches, to five feet in thickness. 

When the tunnel is completed all cars will be operated at the terminals by means of 
high-power electric locomotives, a third-rail system being used. 

In completing the final plans it was decided that the object of the work could best be 
attained by building steel tubes on shore, excavating in the river bed a trench, in which a 
steel cradle for the reception of the tubes should be imbedded in a footing of concrete, the 
sinking of the tube shells within the arms of the cradle and the final depositing around themi 
of a complete covering of concrete. The cradle feature and the elimination of the use of a 
cofferdam, comprise a method never before attempted in sub-aqueous tunnel construction. 

Each of the tubes is twenty-three feet and four inches in inside diameter, their cen- 
ters being about twenty-six feet apart. This diameter, it is estimated, will allow eighteen 
feet of clearance between the tops of the rails and the roof of each tube, which will contain 
a single track. When the submerged structure has received its outer covering of concrete 
it will be fifty-five feet in width and thirty-one feet in depth, over all. A lining of specially 
prepared concrete, twenty inches thick, will be placed inside the tube shells, which are made 
of three-eighths-inch steel plates, and this lining will be reinforced by one-inch longitudinal 
rods, placed horizontally at intervals of approximately eighteen inches on centers located 
about six inches within the interior surface of the thus reinforced lining. 

To provide further rigidity for the structure, the tubes penetrate at regular intervals, 
a series of upright cross sections or steel diaphragms, extending below the bottom sur- 
faces of the shells. Between the cradle arms, above mentioned, heavy steel alignment 
beams, running parallel with the trench, will be placed, thus stiffening the arms on which 
will rest the lower edges of the diaphragms. Like the tube shells, the diaphragms are also 
made of three-eighths-inch steel plates, the outer edges being reinforced by heavy flange an- 
gles. Between these cross sections are frequent flanges to which as an additional rein- 
forcement, one-inch steel rods are connected to serve much in the manner of the spokes of 
a wheel in relieving tension. 


The tube sections shoulder in heavy rabber gaskets at the joints, in each face of which 
are partially cylindrical chambers, extending along the entire circumference. Into these 
chambers is forced the best grade of cement grout by means of high-pressure tubes connected 
with air pumps on the river's surface. The joints are finally locked with heavy pms i^ttmg 
into corresponding sockets in the adjoining section, and securely bolted by divers. To fa- 
cilitate this conjunction, the forward end of each of the tunnel tubes carries a seventeen- 
inch sleeve, and can thus be more readily fitted over the end of the section previously sunk. 
Before launching the first of the tube sections, which were built at the plant of a ship- 
building company on the St. Clair river, some forty miles from the tunnel location, the open 
ends of the section were enclosed with immense bulkheads, that the structure might be 
floated down to position, as the hull of a ship is towed to her moorings. At the bottom 
of the bulkheads are a series of inlet valves for the admission of water ballast to serve m 
helping submerge the shells. A similar series of valves is placed along the upper area as 
vents for escaping air, all the valves being so arranged as to permit their manipulation from 
the river's surface. 

Several steel cylinders, sixty feet long and over ten feet in diameter, capable of sus- 
taining the six hundred tons weight of each tube section, were made fast temporarily to the 
various diaphragms, by heavy chains, and thus served as buoyant air chambers. The lower 
series of valves in the bulkheads are opened, admitting water into the tubes. The upper 
valves are then adjusted to permit the discharge of air displaced by the entering water, and 
the buoyant cylinders are placed in the proper positions to maintain the tubes on a hori- 
zontal plane, as they are gradually submerged. These cylinders are provided with a com- 
pressed air mechanism and with such valves that they also may be partially submerged by 
the admission of water ballast, or elevated by the forcing in of air, as the circumstances of 
the moment may demand. 

In this way the engineers have complete control of the entire structure at all times 
as the tubes can not sink except as the buoyancy of the air chambers is overcome by the 
weight of the water admitted through the bulkhead valves and that allowed to enter through 
the intakes of the air cylinders themselves. 

To surmount difficulties anticipated in effecting a safe and exact conjunction of the 
submerged sections, pilot pins between five and six feet in length and six inches in dia- 
meter, extending parallel to the axis of the tubes have been provided on the alternate sec- 
tions.' These pins are so arranged as to fit into corresponding sockets of cast steel bolted 
to the outer surface of the adjoining section. 

The marine facilities of Detroit have not only given a distinctive stimulus to trade and 
ofifered profitable investments in navigation interests, but the city has now gained prece- 
dence as the leading ship-building port on the Great Lakes. From a most interesting ar- 
ticle written by William Stocking for the Book of Detroiters, published about the beginning 
of 1908, are taken the following statements relative to the ship-building industry: "Ca- 
noes, bateaux and other small craft have been built here from almost the earliest times. 
The first large vessel was built in 1852; the first double-decked vessel for carrying iron 
ore was built here. The first yard in the west for constructing iron hulls was located in 
the neighboring village of Wyandotte and was owned by Detroit capital. All types of ves- 
sels, from the scow and tow barge up to the largest freighters and the finest passenger 
steamers have been built at yards in the Detroit district. Always prominent, this port has 
in the past three years held a position of undisputed supremacy. The addition of a new 
company and improved facilities of the old brought it to the front in 1905. Of large freight 


vessels its two companies that year launched fourteen, with a total tonnage of 134,400. The 
output of the next largest port on the lakes was ten, with a tonnage of 85,500. For some 
of the vessels built in Detroit the contracts were made, the keels laid, the vessels launched, 
equipped and put in commission before the close of the season in which they were com- 
menced, showing a degree of expedition in construction that was a marvel to old vessel- 
men. The freighters, with a floating dry dock, a large tug, with some smaller work and 
repairs, made an aggregate of about five million dollars in value. To this nearly half a 
million dollars was added in yachts, launches, rowboats and canoes. The industry gives 
employment to over five thousand men. In 1906 the Detroit yards launched thirteen 
freighters, with 108,000 tonnage, besides a large passenger steamer and a large car ferry. 
On the I St of January, 1907, the freight vessels under contract in the Detroit district for 
delivery during the year numbered seventeen, with aggregate tonnage of 135,500. The 
Detroit contracts for the year also included the largest 'and most costly passenger steamer 
ever built on the lakes, to cost $1,250,000. This vessel is the magnificent 'City of Cleve- 
land,' of the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company, which was put into service at the 
beginning of the season of 1908." 

Records of the year 1880 show that at that time Detroit had only nine hundred manu- 
facturing establishments, employing about sixteen thousand persons and representing a 
capitalization of about fifteen and one-half millions of dollars. During the ensuing decade 
there was an increase of only one hundred in the number of manufactories, but the capi- 
talization showed the noteworthy aggregate of forty-five million dollars, while employment 
was afforded to thirty-five thousand persons. In 1900 there were twelve hundred factor- 
ies, capitalized at sixty-eight million dollars and employing thirty-eight thousand five hun^ 
dred hands. The state census of 1904 showed thirteen hundred factories, with a combined 
capital of ninety-one million dollars. These afforded employment to more than forty-eight 
thousand hands, and the valuation of the output for the year aggregated one jiundred and 
forty million dollars. 

The year 1905 ushered in for Detroit its era of magnificent and unprecedented indus- 
trial and commercial progress. Within a single year the city gained as many new manu- 
factories as it had done during the entire period from 1900 to 1904. The Board of Com- 
merce made an independent canvas at the close of the calendar year 1905 and by the same 
established the fact that the city had more than fourteen hundred factories, with an aggre- 
gate capital of one hundred million dollars and employing over fifty-five thousand workers. 
The product for the year represented a valuation of about one hundred and seventy million 
dollars, and that for 1906 was one hundred and eighty million dollars. The output for 1907 
was slightly larger than that of 1906. The output for some of the leading industrial con- 
cerns for 1906 is here noted : 

Car building, freight, passenger and electric $25,000,000 

Automobiles ,. ., 12,000,000 

Druggists' preparations 10,900,000 

Clothing, knit goods, boots and shoes, etc 10,500,000 

Paints and varnish 10,000,000 

Coarse chemicals 10,000,000 

Stoves and steam-heating apparatus 9,300,000 

Food products, aside from meats 9.500,000 

Foundry and machine-shop products o^ 

Slaughtering and meat packing 5,500,000 


Newspaper publishing 5,200,000 

Other printing and pubHshing 5,000,000 

Furniture 5,500,000 

Tobacco and cigars 4,500,000 

Malt liquors 3,600,000 

Twenty other industries showed a product of one millions dollars each. 
From the previously mentioned article by Mr. Stocking are taken the following perti- 
nent extracts, and his position as a statistician for the Board of Commerce gives special 
weight and authority to his statements : 

One of the striking features of this industrial expansion is the development in new 
channels. The automobile industry is entirely the growth of the present decade. For the 
assembling of automobiles twenty companies are in actual operation in the city. About 
thirty others devote the whole or part of their energies to the manufacture of automobile 
parts and accessories. They employ together nine thousand hands and are second only to 
car-building in the value of their output. The manufacture of computing machines is the 
growth of the past five years. The manufacture of rubber goods is another new enter- 
prise that adds a very important branch to Detroit's specialized industries. The making of 
coke and the establishment of the first coke iron furnace in Detroit belongs to the same 
period. The alkali and pharmaceutical industries have increased immensely in their product 
in the same time. A large copper and brass rolling mill and a number of smaller brass 
industries belong to the same period. Three things are especially notable about Detroit's 
manufacturing interests — the supremacy in certain special lines, the great variety of prod- 
ucts not thus specialized, and the number of separate manufacturing districts. Detroit not 
only has the largest single pharmaceutical establishment in the country, but it also has a 
large lead over any other city in the total value of all products of this class ; it leads every 
other city in the world in the manufacture of stoves and heating apparatus; it makes 
more than half in number of all the automobiles in the country and surpasses every other city 
in the value of the product; it makes over eighty per cent, of all the computing machines 
manufactured in the country ; it manufactures more soda ash and kindred alkaline products 
than any other section ; it is the leading city in the country in the manufacture of paints and 

Aside from these specialties, in which it is beyond competition, the city is remarkable 
for the variety of its products. It is not especially known as an iron city, yet its iron in- 
dustries are large and varied, and it is one of the largest consumers of pig iron in the coun- 
try. The brass and copper industries are almost as varied as those of iron, including nearly 
every variety of mechanical appliance in which precision is desired, and every article of 
household furniture and use. Michigan was for many years the leading white-pine state, 
and is still one of the largest producers of ornamental and useful hard woods. Among De- 
troit's industries are included a great variety of those in which wood is the chief material. 
The city is a small producer of textile fabrics, but a large manufacturer of clothing, particu- 
larly for the miner, the lumber camp and the factory. It makes many varieties of elec- 
trical appliances and a host of other things. This diversity of manufacture is one of the 
best elements of its prosperity. Whatever temporary depression may fall upon one indus- 
try, others are prosperous. Skilled mechanics are trained in every branch, and work is to 
be had in almost every line. More important yet is the home market that is created for a 
variety of products. In many manufactured articles Detroit is its own best customer. 

Detroit's manufacturing industries are hot, as in some cities, collected in a single con- 
gested and unwholesome district. They throng the river front and adjacent streets from 


Woodward avenue to Belle Isle bridge. They follow the belt-line railroad around the city. 
They make a sizable manufacturing city by itself of the Milwaukee Junction district, and ' 
one almost equally large about West Detroit Junction. They occupy a number of separate ^ 
blocks in the down-town districts. They scatter along the banks of the River Rouge, and 
their tall chimneys and derricks dot the landscape along the salt and soda district for 
eight miles west of the city limits. This separation of industries over large areas gives 
great advantage of profit, convenience and accessibility. It prevents the crowding of freight 
into one section. It prevents the raising of factory sites to a prohibitive or speculative price. 
It gives opportunity to intersperse the factory districts \vith cottage districts, so that wage- 
earners may live reasonbly near their work. If 

During the past four years a new element has entered into the growth of Detroit, in 
the removal here of industries established in other cities. About thirty companies have 
either moved bodily from other localities or else have established branches here. They 
have come not by reason of artificial inducements, bonuses, free lands or exemption from 
taxation, but for residence and business considerations alone. Nearly all of them have en- 
larged their operations since they came here and several are among our largest and most 
prosperous industries. Twelve companies that in the aggregate employed nineteen hundred 
wage-earners when they commenced operations had seven thousand one hundred on their 
pay rolls in the summer of 1907. 

The articles of incorporation of companies organized for manufacturing purposes are 
significant. In the three and one-half years ending June 30, 1907, they numbered five i 
hundred and fifty-six, with 34,662,500 of authorized capital, of which $21,498,807 was 
paid in, either in cash or other property. In the same period one hundred and forty-nine 
old companies added $12,069,000 to their capital, and four hundred and thirty-six permits 
were issued for new buildings in connection with manufacturing plants, the estimated cost of 
which was $4,346,750. 

The annual report of the committee on manufactures of the Board of Commerce pre- 
sented at the annual meeting held April 21, 1908, gives the following pertinent statements 
concerning the city's industrial progress: "During the board's fiscal year to March 31, 
1908, there were one hundred and forty-nine new industries incorporated, with $4,306,810 
subscribed capital, of which over $3,500,000 was paid in. Forty-four established companies 
increased their capital $11,310,000. The aggregate sum put into industrial production for 
the twelvemonth exceeds $15,500,000. This is a notable record when it is remembered 
that fully half of the period was marked by extreme financial depression. The following 
table of statistics is most interesting and instructive as indicating the growth of the 'Greater 
Detroit,' where, as is emblazoned on the escutcheon of the Board of Commerce, 'life is 
worth living' : 

1900 1904 1907 

Area, square miles 29 29 41-44 

Population 285,704 3I7-59I 410,000 

Number of families 60,524 70,087 87,968 

Public school enrollment 34.865 36,421 44.318 

Postofifice receipts 793.978 1,208,677 1,675,002 

Exports 17.669,535 23.400,851 40,488,295 

Building construction — cost 4,142,400 6,737,105 14,226,300 

Banking — capital and surplus 9,815,100 13,211,500 17,393,000 

Deposits in banks 75,691,898 92,190,715 117,674.983 

Total resources of banks 87,283,385 108.413,823 138,345,786 


Bank clearings .' 427,800,392 525-513705 711,610,404 

Capital employed in manufacture 67,544,972 91,228,214 125,000,000 

Employes in factories 38,481 48,879 71,000 

Wages paid 15,392,527 22,786,576 35,000,000 

Value of manufactured product 88,649,635 128.761,658 180,000,000 

Manufacturing capital — new and old 2,770,500 5,904,296 17,482,880 

Electric H. P., central plants 1,948 5-334 20,378 

Shipbuilding — tonnage . I4)300 9,800 139,500 

City assessment 244,371,550 277,983,370 335-759>98o 

City tax levy 3,662,877 4,083,401 4,207,556 

Net public debt 3,464,190 3-359-294 5-637,365 

The population of the city as estimated by the Board of Commerce, through the cus- 
tomary and reliable mediums, is placed at 425.000 the water-board records show the num- 
ber of families served in the corporate limits of the city in June, 1908, to be 92,697, and 
this is the basis of the conservative estimate made of the total population. The permits for 
building construction during the first nine months of 1908 indicate an aggregate of some- 
what more than three-fourths that of 1907. Statistics of building done in forty leading 
cities compiled by the American Contractor and covering the first nine months show that 
Detroit leads the countrj' with forty-nine per cent, gain in building over the same period 
last year. The official statements of the Detroit banks for July 15, 1908, show a total capi- 
tal and surplus of $18,585,000; deposits, $1 12,485,128. and total resources, $134,647,985. 
The bank clearings for the first nine months of the year were about nine per cent, less than 
for the same relative period in 1907. In the first nine months the number of manufacturing 
companies incorporated was eighty-nine, with subscribed capital of $2,025,150. In the 
same period existing companies increased their capital by $3,303,000. The exports for the 
nine months show a decrease of sixteen per cent, as compared with 1907, while the imports, 
the internal revenue receipts and the postoffice receipts show a slight increase. The assess- 
ment roll for 1908 is $349,163,590, and the tax levy $5,204,001. The net city debt July i, 
1908, was $5,863,544. 

Detroit controls a larger export trade than any other of the twenty-three customs dis- 
tricts on the Great Lakes and northern frontier from Maine to Montana, and the percent- 
age of increase has been large within the present decade, having been about thirty-two per 
cent, from 1900 to 1904. Statistical matter compiled under the auspices of the Board of 
Commerce offers the following information : As touching export trade Detroit is distinct- 
ively a strategic point in this field of commercial operations. It is the natural gateway be- 
tween the east and west and is a terminal point of the two principal railway systems of the 
Dominion of Canada, besides being the crossing point of several American railroads, so 
that it early gained precedence as a border shipping point for goods to be sent to the foreign 
markets. Its shipments are far in excess of those of any other port on the Great Lakes 
system. For a number of years they were about one-sixth of the whole. There have 
been periods of fluctuation, especially during times of uncertainty as to tariff policies. 
Since 1892 the tide of domestic merchandise that flows across the Detroit river to foreign 
ports has steadily risen. The total in 1892 was about $6,000,000; in 1897 it was $11,500.- 
000; in 1902 it reached $18,694,000; in 1907 it exceeded $40,000,000. In a foregoing 
paragraph it has already been stated that there has been a considerable decrease during the 
first nine months of 1908, but this is to be predicated as the result of abnormal conditions 
and not as an index of permanent conditions. These exports are as varied in character as 


they are large in volume. Of the three hundred and fifty classes and sub-classes into 
which the schedule is divided, two hundred and ninety are represented in the tables of De- 
troit exports. 

It should be remembered that the government statistical tables in regard to export 
trade indicate the point of departure of merchandise sent abroad, and not the point at 
which it originates. The location of Detroit with reference to both the United States and 
Canada, as well as the character of its manufactures, brings about a clear demarkation be- 
tween these two classes. Many of the heaviest exports sent forth from the gates of the 
Michigan metropolis come from the west and south, while the major portion of its own 
manufactures reach foreign markets through Atlantic and Pacific ports. Exports of the 
latter class are numerous and varied, including some very bulky products as well as those 
of finer order. It may be noted that three or four of the largest dry kilns in Russia are 
of Detroit manufacture; Detroit cars are in use on the railways of Canada, Mexico, Spain 
and Russia: the largest brewery in South Africa is equipped with tanks made in Detroit, 
and one of the most extensive mines in that far country is fitted with pumps and water- 
valves manufactured in this city; Detroit automobiles are to be found in use in nearly 
every country that has passable roads, including the mystic Orient; Detroit-made agricul- 
tural implements find sale in a number of European countries, where is also being gained 
an increasing demand for the furniture here manufactured ; Detroit pianos and piano self- 
players are found in the homes of a number of countries in Europe; Detroit stoves and 
radiators are sold in England and on the continent ; adding machines manufactured in this 
city are sold in almost every country that has any system of commercial accounts. In De- 
troit factories were originated ready-mixed paints, and these products are now widely dis- 
tributed over the world ; pharmaceutical preparations manufactured in Detroit are to be 
had in every country where human ills demand medical treatment ; heavy clothing finds its 
wav from Detroit factories to the mines and lumber woods of Canada ; boots and shoes sfo 
to the various Canadian provinces and the West Indies; toys to France and Germany; plum- 
bers' supplies to Great Britain, the continent of Europe and South America ; picture-frame 
mouldings to Germany ; carriages to the mountain districts of South America ; motor boats 
to England, Russia and Africa ; smelting furnaces to the foundries of Germany — and these 
constitute only a part of the contributions made by Detroit to foreign markets. The im- 
ports of Detroit are less varied and less extensive, but they are steadily increasing. 

It is uniformly recognized that Detroit's system of municipal government is both lib- 
eral and effective and that it defies adverse criticism to an extent that can be claimed by few 
of --the principal cities of the Union. A most important element in the scheme of govern- 
ment is the unique and conservative administration of the municipal finances. By its char- 
ter Detroit must needs limit its bonded indebtedness to two per cent, of its assessed valua- 
tion, and even this modest rate is seldom approached. All measures for the raising of 
money, either by tax levy or by the issuing of bonds, must be approved by a board of esti- 
mates, and this has forfended excessive demands by the various departments of the city 
government. The board of estimates consists of two members from each ward and five 
members at large, and all are elected on a general ticket. They hold office two years. 
The heads of the various municipal departments are members ex officio, with the privileo-e of 
speaking but not of voting. The board has no patronage and its members must not be in- 
terested in any city contracts. The charter of the city provides that itemized estimates of 
the dififerent departments must be sent annually to the controller, who must forward them, 
with his recommendations, to the common council on or before the last day of February. 


The council is given a month for their consideration and then sends them to the board of 
estimates, which may decrease or disapprove any item but not increase any. The budget 
is divided among a number of committees, and the reports of the latter are considered, 
item by item, in committee of the whole, after which they are again gone over in general 
session before their final adoption. By reason of the provisions thus made frauds have 
been practically unknown in connection with the financial affairs of the city, and the tax 
levy has been exceptionally free from extravagant appropriations. The charter also pro- 
vides that no money shall be expended in excess of the appropriations, and that no moneys 
shall be transferred' from one fund to another. Within the past three years the annexation 
of new territory has added a larger percentage to the cost of city government than it has to 
the assessment roll, but even with this the appropriations are believed to be less in propor- 
tion to population than those of any other large city in the country. 

The natural topographical attractions of Detroit, the beautiful "City of the Straits," 
have been supplemented and enhanced most effectively by the care and discrimination shown 
in the platting of the city from its inception through the various stages of growth and prog- 
ress. Long has the city been noted for its broad and well-shaded streets and avenues, and 
the park and boulevard system has worthily supplemented the original platting, suggested 
in an early day by Judge Augustus B. Woodward. 

In the Detroit river, opposite the east end of the city, lies Belle Isle, which has an area 
of seven hundred acres and which came into possession of the city about thirty years ago. 
Even as "Good wine needs no brush," so does Detroit's beautiful island park need no words 
of extollation,' for its fame is coincident with that of the city itself; its attractions are not 
excelled by those of any public park in the world. A portion of the original forest on the 
island has been left essentially intact, and other parts of the fair isle have gained new 
beauties under the designs and labors of skilled landscape artists. The swamps have given 
place to lakes or lagoons, and these are connected by a series of canals, giving a long stretch 
of idyllic waterway for rowboats and canoes. Near the center of the island is a consid- 
erable space reserved for the zoological enclosui-e. and the conservatories and the aqua- 
rium are a constant attraction to the multitudes who visit the island each day during the 
summer season. The aquarium is conceded to be one of the best in the world, and the park 
as a whole is one of the most unique and interesting on the continent. 

Belle Isle is accessible by large and well ordered ferry boats, which ply at frequent in- 
tervals, and is also connected with the mainland by a bridge about half a mile in length. 
From this bridge starts the Grand boulevard, which is one hundred and fifty feet, and in 
some portions two hundred feet, wide and twelve miles long, and which encircles the city, 
terminating in a small park and dock at the western end. The roadway is macadamized 
and the sides and center have parklike treatment throughout the entire length. Palmer 
Park, of one hundred and forty acres, in the northern part of the city; Clark Park, of 
thirty acres, in the western part, and smaller parks on the river front and dotting other 
sections of the city, add to the attractions which have given Detroit the merited reputation 
of being one of the most beautiful cities in the country. 

Within the past decade Detroit has shown a wonderful advancement in its industrial ac- 
tivities, as has already been stated, and this has, of course, implied a distinctive gain in pop- 
ulation. The government census of 1870 accredited to Detroit a population of 79,577; 
that of 1880, 116.340; that of 1890, 205,876, and that of 1900, 285,704. The state census 
of 1904, taken with federal co-operation, shows the population to have been 31 7.591- In 
1906 the estimated population was 385,000, and in 1907, 410,000— both of these esti- 


mates being made upon authentic data secured by the city water board and the pubhshers 
of the city directory. The estimated population in 1908 is 425,000. This is the conserva- 
tive estimate based upon the water-board enumeration in June, which gave a total of 92 697 
famines. It will be understood that the water service takes no account of the contributory 
districts or suburbs of the city not included in the corporate limits but still essentially a part 
of the city. Thus the virtual population is considerably greater than that indicated by the 
water-board figures. 

The following pertinent facts concerning Detroit offer a comparative view of condi- 
tions in the years 1906 and 1907 and indicate clearly that the brave march of progress is 
continuing, even as it has during the year 1908. notwithstanding the period of finandal de- 
pression which this year has recorded: 

1906 1907 

f°P"'^t'0" ■ .385.000 410.000 

Number of families in June, water board 

enumeration 81,535 87,968 

Euildmg construction. 

J!""^'^^'- 4.705 4,942 

^ ."^^^^ $13,282,350 $14,226,300 

Bank statements. 

Capital and surplus $ 15,186,000 $ 17,393,000 

^^P°^''^ 107,217,020 1 17,674,983 

Total resources 139,417,909 138,345,786 

Clearmgs 670,130.679 711.610,404 


New companies incorporated 143 j-g 

Capital subscribed $ 5,563.980 $ 5,704,880 

Old companies increased capital 4.364,000 1 1 778 000 

Federal. ' ' 

f^P^*"^^ $ 36,663,196 $ 40,488,295 

i:"7if : 5,769,879 7.679,837 

Postoffice receipts 1,515,407 1,675,002 

Internal revenue receipts 4,365,649 4,531,997 

Municipal finances. 

Assessed valuation $305,756,930 $335.759,98o 

^f *ft'^^^ 4,317.506 4,307,556 

^'^^'^'^ 5,171.451 5,637.365 






Among the great monetary institutions 
which have emphasized and held powerful in- 
fluence in the financial stability and conserva- 
tism of the city of Detroit and the state of 
Michigan, none occupies a more conspicuous 
position than does the First National Bank, 
which has had a consecutive history covering a 
period of nearly half a century and which has 
at all times enlisted the capitalistic and execu- 
tive support of citizens of the highest standing 
in the community. The bank as now consti- 
tuted represents the merger of the First 
National Bank and the Commercial National 
Bank, whose interests were thus consolidated 
on the 30th of May, 1908. 

The First National Bank of Detroit received 
its original charter (No. 97)) in the year 

1863, its preliminary organization certificate 
having been executed August 5th and its 
articles of association having been signed on 
the 26th of the preceding month. The signers 
of this original certificate were as here noted : 
Philo Parsons, E. G. Merrick, John Hosmer, 
Waldo M. Johnson, C. M. Davison, Michael 
B. Kean, John Evans, T. K. Adams, C. L. 
Safford, John Hutchings and George Peck. 
The bank opened its doors for business Sep- 
tember I, 1863, and its first board of directors 
comprised John Hosmer, E. G. Merrick, J. N. 
Ford. M. I. Mills, M. B. Kean, W. M. John- 
son, John James, John Hutchings, and Philo 
Parsons. The bank was incorporated with a 
capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, 
and Philo Parsons was elected the first presi- 
dent of the institution, while Henry C. Kibber 
was chosen as the first cashier. The first bank- 
ing office was located in the building occupied 
by P. Parsons & Company, in the old Rotunda 
building, on Griswold street, where the present 
Newberry building stands. In December, 

1864, control of the bank was secured by in- 
terests at the time in control also of the State 
Bank, and in the following year the latter in- 
stitution was merged in the First National. 

It is well in this connection to enter brief 
data regarding the State Bank, which was 

organized in 1858, largely through New York 
capital, and which was headed by ex-Governor 
Myron H. Clark of that state. The bank was 
capitalized for fifty thousand dollars and its 
first officers were as follows : Lorenzo E. Clark, 
president, and Theodore P. Hall, cashier. In 
1 86 1 the control of this bank became vested in 
Detroit parties, and at this time S. P. Brady 
became its president and Emory Wendell its 
cashier. These gentlemen served until its con- 
solidation with the First National Bank, when 
they assumed similar executive offices in the 
latter. In January, 1868, Jacob S. Farrand 
succeeded to the presidency, and in February 
of the following year the capital was increased 
to two hundred thousand dollars, while the 
sum of twenty thousand dollars was passed to 
the surplus account, from undivided profits 
accumulated in the preceding four years. In 
1869 the National Insurance Bank went into 
voluntary liquidation, and its corporate 
property was purchased by the First Na- 
tional, to which nearly all of its accounts 
were transferred. The capital was at 
this time increased to five hundred thousand 
dollars, of which amount one hundred thou- 
sand dollars of stock were allotted to John 
Owen and his associates who had been the 
principal stockholders of the National Insur- 
ance Bank. The combined deposits of the two 
institutions aggregated about two million dol- 
lars. In 1875 James McMillan and William 
B. Wesson became large stockholders, and both 
were elected to the directorate; in 1880 Mr. 
McMillan purchased the interests of John 
Owen, who at that time retired from active 

June 17. 1882, upon the expiration of its 
original charter, the First National Bank 
entered into voluntary liquidation and was suc- 
ceeded by a new organization, under the same 
name and with charter No. 2707, the reorgani- 
zation having been effected on the ist of the 
preceding February. The personnel of the 
executive corps under the new charter was as 
follows : Emory Wendell, president ; D. M. 
Ferry, vice-president ; and L. E. Clark, cashier. 
Besides these officers the board of directors in- 
cluded J. S. Farrand. G. V. N. Lothrop, M. I. 



Mills, William B. Wesson, Alanson Sheley, 
and James McMillan. 

The second charter expired February i, 
1902, and under the same title and number an 
extension was secured for a period of twenty 
years. January 10, 1893, John T. Shaw suc- 
ceeded L. E. Clark as cashier, and in 1899 he 
was elected vice-president, of which dual offices 
he has since remained incumbent. October 
10, 1892, Emory Wendell resigned the presi- 
dency, on account of impaired health, and D. 
M. Ferry became acting president, an office to 
which he was duly elected somewhat later in 
the same year. He continued to serve as presi- 
dent of the bank until his death, which occurred 
on the loth of November, 1907. The other 
officers at the time of consolidation with the 
Commercial National Bank were as follows : 
John T. Shaw, vice-president; Emory W. 
Clark, second vice-president; Frank G. Smith 
and Joseph Grindley, assistant cashiers. The 
officers and directors of the bank at the present 
time are as here designated: Morris L. Will- 
iams, president; John T. Shaw, vice-president 
and cashier; Emory W. Clark, second vice- 
president ; F. A. Smith, assistant to the presi- 
dent; Frank G. Smith, W. A. McWhinney, 
F. F. Christie, Joseph Grindley, and J. H. 
Hart, assistant cashiers; directors. Dr. J. B. 
Book, William J. Chittenden, Emory W. 
Clark, Don M. Dickinson, Clinton G. Edgar, 
Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., J. S. Farrand, Jr., 
Edward Ford, Charles F. Hammond, George 
Hendrie, Robert Henkel, Gilbert W. Lee, 
Cyrus E. Lothrop, Philip H. McMillan, M. J 
Murphy, Thomas Neal, Charles L. Palms, 
Cornelius J. Reilly, John T. Shaw, Stephen Y.' 
Seyburn, James D. Standish, Frederic B. 
Stevens, Willis C. Ward, A. E. F. White, H. 
K. White, Morris L. Williams, William C. 

_ Within the history of this old and substan- 
tial institution there have been identified with 
the same as directors many of the most prom- 
inent business men and most honored citizens 
of Detroit, and in addition to those already 
mentioned in a direct or incidental way there 
have been others of equal prominence and in- 

fluence. The First National Bank of Detroit 
now has a capital of two million dollars, and 
its surplus and undivided profits reach an ag- 
gregate of about one million dollars. 

June 1st, 1908, the offices of the First 
National Bank were removed from the Union 
Trust building to the present fine quarters in 
the magnificent Ford building, and its facilities 
and prestige are excelled by those of no other 
financial institution in the state. Detroit's long 
continued commercial and general business in- 
tegrity has been in a large measure due to the 
wise and discriminating banking methods here 
employed, the city having weathered many 
financial storms and panics which have pros- 
trated other sections of the Union, and among 
the most influential potencies in insuring this 
solidity has stood the First National Bank, 
whose history has been one of consecutive 

The Commercial National Bank. — It is 
but consonant that in this article should be 
given also a brief outline of the history of the 
Commercial National Bank, which long held 
much relative priority among the great banking 
institutions of the Michigan metropolis and of 
whose consolidation with the First National 
Bank due mention has already been made. 

This well known and popular bank was or- 
ganized in 1 88 1 and was incorporated with a 
capital stock of two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars. Its charter was received Decem- 
ber 27th of that year. The first executive 
corps was as follows: Hugh McMillan, presi- 
dent; George H. Hammond, vice-president; 
and Morris L. Williams, cashier. The original 
directorate comprised, besides the officers men- 
tioned, Ashley Pond, William G. Thompson, 
Isaac L. Lyon, James K. Burnham, W. C. 
Williams, Joseph H. Berry, and George 
Hendrie. The capital stock was increased to 
five hundred thousand dollars, and finally a 
further increase was made to the notable ag- 
gregate of one million dollars. At the time of 
its consolidation with the First National its 
deposits aggregated nearly eight million dol- 
lars. It was a United States depository and 
its charter number was 2591. 



Upon the death of George H. Hammond, in 
1886, Henry B. Ledyard succeeded to the office 
of vice-president, and upon the retirement of 
the latter F. H. Wallcer was chosen successor. 
Mr. Walker was later succeeded by Morris 
L. Williams, who was elected president upon 
the retirement of Hugh McMillan, and who 
thereafter remained the executive head of the 
institution until its consolidation with the First 
National Bank. Mr. Williams was practically 
the chief administrative officer of the Com- 
mercial National during the entire period of 
its history, and he is known as one of the 
most discriminating and influential bankers of 
the state. The other officers of the Commercial 
National at the time of its merging with the 
First National were as follows : George Hen- 
drie, vice-president ; Charles L. Palms, second 
vice-president; F. A. Smith, cashier; and W. 
A. McWhinney, F. F. Christie, and J. H. Hart, 
assistant cashiers. In addition to the president 
and vice-presidents the directorate included 
Joseph H. Berry (since deceased). Dr. J. B. 
Book, J. S. Farrand, Jr., Charles F. Hammond, 
Robert Henkel, Gilbert W. Lee, M. J. Mur- 
phy, James D. Standish, F. B. Stevens, A. E. 
F. White, H. K. White, and William C. 


This institution represents the consolidation 
in January, 1907, of the People's Savings 
Bank and the State Savings Bank, both of 
which had gained a secure place in connec- 
tion with financial affairs in Detroit and the 
state. The People's State Bank thus initiated 
its business under the most auspicious circum- 
stances and it exercises important functions 
in its wide field. It occupies the splendid 
bank building erected by the State Savings 
Bank and used by the latter until the consoli- 
dation of the two was effected. The bank has 
a capital stock of one million five hundred 
thousand dollars and a surplus fund of the 
same amount, while its net undivided profits 
are in excess of two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars. According to its statement at 
the close of business September 23, 1908, its 

commercial deposits aggregate $6,923,727.30; 
and the savings deposits $13,602,584.22, and 
bank deposits $3,690,320.23. The executive 
officers of the institution are as here noted : 
George H. Russel, president; Michael W. 
O'Brien, vice-president and chairman of the 
board of directors; H. C. Potter, Jr., George 
E. Lawson, R. S. Mason, and F. A. Schulte, 
vice-presidents; Austin E. Wing, cashier; H. 
P. Borgman, cashier of savings department; 
R. W. Smylie, manager of credit department; 
George T. Courtney, auditor ; and J. R. Bodde, 
assistant cashier. The personnel of the board 
of directors is as follows: R. A. Alger, 
George H. Barbour, W. T. Barbour, H. M. 
Campbell, B. S. Colburn, C. A. Ducharme, 
Jeremiah Dwyer, Haley Fiske, F. J. Hecker, 
George E. Lawson, H. B. Ledyard, P. H. Mc- 
Millan, R. S. Mason, Fred T. Moran, M. J. 
Murphy, M. W. O'Brien, H. C. Potter, Jr., 
Louis Rothschild, George H. Russel, Hugo 
Scherer, F. A. Schulte, and Henry Russel. 
The bank maintains several branch offices in 

The People's Savings Bank for many 
years figured as one of the most substantial 
and popular financial institutions of Detroit, 
and this precedence continued unchallenged up 
to the time of its consolidation with the State 
Savings Bank, under the title of the People's 
State Bank. The People's Savings Bank was 
organized and incorporated under the laws 
of the state in 1871, on the 2d of January of 
which year it commenced business in quar- 
ters on Woodward avenue near the corner of 
Jefferson avenue. Francis Palms was the orig- 
inal president of the institution and Michael 
W. O'Brien, cashier, the latter having later 
served for many years as president of the 
bank and being at the present time vice-presi- 
dent and chairman of the board of directors 
of its successor, the People's State Bank, as 
noted in the preceding paragraph. On the 
2d of January, 1872, the bank was reorgan- 
ized under the general banking law as amend- 
ed by the session of the legislature of 1871-2, 
and under the new regime the following offi- 
cers were chosen: President, Francis Palms; 



vice-president. John Heffron; cashier, Michael 
W. O'Brien; directors, Francis Palms. Charles 
Ducharme, Anton Pulte, Ferdinand Morrell, 
Edward Reidy, William Foxen, John Heff- 
ron, and John Mark. At the reorganization 
the capital stock of the bank was placed at 
sixty thousand dollars, and in the same year 
the institution was removed to more eligible 
quarters, in the Telegraph block, at the corner 
of Congress and Griswold streets. On the 
1st of January, 1874, the capital of the bank 
was increased to one hundred and twenty 
thousand dollars, and later in the same month 
William L. Carpenter was elected a director 
to succeed Charles Ducharme, deceased. Jan- 
uary 12, 1875, Anton Pulte succeeded John 
Heffron as vice-president, the latter retiring 
from the board of directors at this time, and 
in 1881 Francis F. Palms and Jeremiah 
Dwyer became members of the directorate, 
succeeding William Foxen and Ferdinand 
Morrell. In January of the same year the 
capital of the institution was raised to two 
hundred thousand dollars. On the organiza- 
tion of the Detroit Clearing House Associa- 
tion, in March, 1883, the People's Savings 
Bank became a member of the same. On the 
1st of January, 1874. the capital of the bank 
creased to five hundred thousand dollars, and 
M. W. O'Brien retired from the directorate 
in order to create a vacancy, which was filled 
by the late James L. Edson. In the following 
year Mr. O'Brien again became a director, 
succeeding Mr. Carpenter, who died on the 
13th of November of that year. On the 26th 
of November, 1886, occurred the death of 
Francis Palms, and in the following January 
George H. Barbour was chosen as his succes- 
sor in the directory. On the 2d of May, 1887. 
Michael W. O'Brien was elected to the presi- 
dency, Frank A. Schulte became vice-president, 
and Silas B. Coleman, cashier. At the opening 
of the year 1890 the bank removed to the 
Moffat building, and in December of that 
year Charles A. Ducharme was elected a di- 
rector, to succeed William Boeing, deceased, 
while George E. Lawson succeeded Mr. Cole- 
man as cashier. December 8, 189 1, Charles 
L, Palms was elected a director and Patrick 

Fitzsimons and William C. Yawkey retired 
from the board. December 8, 1896, the late 
Sigmund Rothschild was elected a director, 
and in January, 1901, Michael J. Murphy be- 
came a member of the board. The late 
David Whitney, Jr., was a director for some 

The State Savings Bank likewise played 
a large and important part in the financial af- 
fairs of Detroit from the time of its organi- 
zation until it was merged with the People's 
Savings Bank, as already noted. This bank 
was organized and incorporated in 1883, un- 
der the banking laws of the state, and it initi- 
ated business on the 23d of October of that 
year. The founders of the institution were 
David Hamilton and T. S. Anderson, capital- 
ists who came to Detroit from Owensboro, 
Kentucky, and who were fortunate in enlist- 
ing the co-operation and executive services of 
Robert S. Mason, at that time the first teller 
of the First National Bank and long identified 
with the banking business in this city. Mr. 
Hamilton became president of the State Sav- 
ings Bank; Mr. Anderson, vice-president, and 
Mr. Mason, cashier. Temporary banking of- 
fices were secured at 88 Griswold street, and 
these were occupied about six months, at the 
expiration of which the bank was removed to 
the Buhl block. The original capital stock 
was one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, 
practically controlled by the two founders of 
the institution. In 1887 a reorganization took 
place and the capital was increased to two 
hundred thousand dollars. At this time also 
T. S. Anderson became president, an office 
of which he continued incumbent until 1889, 
when George H. Russel succeeded him, hav- 
ing previously been a member of the board of 
directors. Mr. Russel's financial and busi- 
ness interests were then, as now, of great 
scope and variety, and he consented to assume 
the presidency of this bank only on the under- 
standing that the arrangement was to be a 
temporary one. So high a valuation, how- 
ever, did the stockholders and directors place 
upon his services and so insistent were they 
in demanding his retention of the office that 
he continued in the same until the bank was 



consolidated with the People's Savings Bank. 
From the Buhl block the bank finally removed 
to more spacious quarters in the Hammond 
building, where it remained until the comple- 
tion of its fine new building, one of the best 
devoted specifically to banking uses to be 
found in the Union. This building, now oc- 
cupied by the People's State Bank, is located 
at the southeast corner of Fort and Shelby 
streets, and possession of the same was taken 
on the 30th of May, 1900. The building and 
grounds represent an investment of more than 
four hundred thousand dollars. The bank 
eventually increased its capital to five hundred 
thousand dollars and maintained a large sur- 
plus fund. Careful attention was given to sav- 
ings accounts and a large and representative 
commercial business was controlled. 


Following the enacting of the present trust 
company law by the legislature of the state 
of Michigan, at the session of 1891, the Union 
Trust Company, of Detroit, was organized 
thereunder and in October of that year opened 
its doors for business, its capital stock being 
five hundred thousand dollars, fully paid in. 

Though trust companies had been estab- 
lished for some years in eastern states, the 
purpose and scope of such organizations were 
not generally understood in this vicinity and 
a considerable part of the earlier duties of 
the Union Trust Company was in the direc- 
tion of disseminating information as to what 
the company was organized for and what 
functions, under the law, it could perform. 

Trust companies, under the Michigan law, 
are authorized to act as executor and trustee 
under wills, as administrator of estates, as 
guardian of minors and incompetents, as agent 
or attorney for the transaction of business, the 
management of estates, the collection of rents, 
interest mortgages, and other securities ; under 
appointment of court, as receiver, assignee and 
trustee in bankruptcy ; as trustee under mort- 
gages to secure issues of bonds, and in pur- 
suance of any trust created under the laws 
of this state, or the United States ; as agent 
for the registering and transferring of the 

certificates of stock, bonds or other obliga- 
tions of any corporation, association or mu- 
nicipality; and, generally, in any representative 
fiduciary capacity. 

That the local field was ready for institu- 
tions of this kind is well borne out by the suc- 
cess of the Union Trust Company and by the 
further fact that other companies have been 
organized in Detroit for the conduct of trust 
business. It is now some seventeen years since 
the Union Trust Company commenced busi- 
ness, and its wide experience during that time 
in all of the various directions indicated above 
has qualified it to such degree as to render 
its services of the highest worth and value to 
those who put their affairs in its charge. 

The company is particularly well equipped 
with respect to the taking over and managing" 
of real and personal property, as agent or at- 
torney, in which capacities it gives the same 
thoughtful and judicious attention as is given 
by a careful and prudent owner. 

In addition to the general scope of busi- 
ness, as above set forth, the Union Trust Com- 
pany has an abstract department, in which it 
issues new abstracts of title and tax state- 
ments and extends old abstracts, whether is- 
sued by itself of by other abstract companies, 
on all lands in the city of Detroit and the 
county of Wayne, and in which are issued 
policies of insurance under the authority 
granted by law to guarantee or insure the va- 
lidity of titles to real estate. The company 
has, as well, a safety deposit vault, which is a 
structure of great strength, is modern and 
complete in its appointments and equipment, 
and contains boxes of such variety in size and 
price as permits selection in precise accord- 
ance with the requirements of each individual. 

The board of directors is made up of active, 
substantial and successful business men, their 
names being as follows : Henry B. Ledyard 
(chairman), F. J. Hecker, A. E. F. White, 
Charles Stinchfield, Henry Russel, Elliott T. 
Slocum, Truman H. Newberry, Charles A. 
Ducharme, Harry A. Conant, Charles L. 
Palms, D. C. Whitney, Philip H. McMillan, 
Herbert E. Boynton, George Hendrie, Albert 
L. Stephens, Paul F. Bagley, Burnham S. Col- 



burn, George B. Remick, Frank W. Blair, 
George M. Black, Allen F. Edwards. The 
officers of the company are as follows : Henry 
B. Ledyard, chairman; Frank W. Blair, presi- 
dent; A. E. F. White, second vice-president; 
Gerald J. McMechan, secretary; Charles R. 
Dunn, treasurer ; Alexander C. Long, assistant 
secretary ; Hobart B. Hoyt, trust officer ; Israel 
T. Cowles, manager of title, guaranty and ab- 
stract department; W. T. Bradford, bond of- 
ficer; Gilbert R. Osmun, custodian safety de- 
posit vault; Frank X. Lingemann, real estate 
officer; Russel, Campbell, Bulkley and Led- 
yard, general counsel. 

Frank W. Blair, president of the Union 
Trust Company, was born in Troy township, 
Oakland county, Michigan, on the 13th day 
of May, 1870, and his parents were numbered 
among the sterling pioneers of that county, 
where his father became a successful farmer. 
Mr. Blair was afforded the advantages of the 
public schools, including the high school, and 
his initial experience in the banking business 
was secured in the Exchange Bank of Bir- 
mingham, Michigan, and later he was employed 
for some time in a drug store. In 1900 he as- 
sumed a position in the office of the auditor 
general of Michigan, at Lansing, where he 
remained engaged until 1905, as inheritance 
tax examiner. In the year last mentioned he 
was made incumbent of the office of state 
bank examiner, and in the following year he 
became auditor of the State Savings Bank, 
of Detroit, an office which he retained until 
1908, when he was chosen president of the 
Union Trust Company. Prior to his retire- 
ment from the office of auditor of the State 
Savings Bank tlie institution had been merged 
with the People's Savings Bank, under title 
of the People's State Bank, with which latter 
institution he continued as auditor until as- 
suming his present office. 


There is no one factor which so well de- 
termines and designates the status and stability 
of a community as the extent and character of 
its banking institutions, and in this regard the 

financial solidity of Detroit has been main- 
tained by banks of ample capital, reinforced by 
conservative management and by the enlist- 
ment of the capitalistic support of citizens of 
the highest and most representative character. 

The old Detroit National Bank holds pres- 
tige as one of the most solid financial institu- 
tions in the state, and is the successor of the 
Second National Bank, whose standing also 
was ever of the best, and of the Detroit Na- 
tional Bank, which succeeded the latter. The 
Detroit National Bank was organized and in- 
corporated in 1883, beginning business Feb- 
ruary 26th of that year and succeeding the 
Second National Bank, which was founded in 
1863. The Second National soon became 
known as the leading bank of the state, and 
within a short time after its organization it 
was made a United States depository, con- 
tinuing to exercise its functions as such until 
the election of President Cleveland in 1884. 
The bank was incorporated with a capital stock 
of five hundred thousand dollars, and this was 
later increased to one million dollars. The 
original executive corps of the Second National 
Bank was as follows : Henry P. Baldwin, presi- 
dent; Christian H. Buhl, vice-president; and 
Clement M. Davison, cashier. Mr. Baldwin 
continued to give his personal attention to the 
affiairs of the bank after his election to the 
office of governor of Michigan and also after 
he had become a member of the United States 
senate, but he resigned October 20, 1887, hav- 
ing continued as president of the reorganized 
institution, the Detroit National. 

Shortly before the expiration of the charter 
of the Second National Bank, in 1883, the De- 
troit National was organized, with practically 
the same official corps as the old institution. 
Senator Baldwin was made the first president; 
Christian H. Buhl, vice-president ; and Clement 
M. Davison, cashier. The personnel of the 
first board of directors was as follows: H. P. 
Baldwin, C. H. Buhl, Frederick Buhl, James 
F. Joy, Allan Shelden, John S. Newberry, 
William C. Colborn, General Russell A. Alger, 
and Chauncey Hurlbut. Upon the resignation 
of Senator Baldwin from the presidency, in 
1887, he was succeeded by Christian H. Buhl, 



while William C. Colborn was chosen vice- 
president. On the 31st of December, 1891, 
Mr. Davison resigned the position of cashier 
and William T. DeGraff was chosen his suc- 
cessor. Mr. DeGraff began his banking career 
in the old Second National Bank June 6, 1865, 
and in 1867 he became paying teller in that 
institution. In 1882 he was promoted to the 
office of assistant cashier, of which he remained 
incumbent for twenty-six years, having con- 
tinued after the reorganization, and he has 
since remained cashier of the Detroit National 
Bank, and Old Detroit National Bank, proving 
in every respect a most able and discriminat- 
ing executive and having the unqualified con- 
fidence and esteem of the bank stockholders as 
well as of the many patrons of this popular 
financial institution. 

Mr. Buhl retired from the presidency Jan- 
ury 14, 1 89 1, and was succeeded by Alexander 
McPherson, who up to that time had been en- 
gaged in the banking business at Howell, 
Michigan. Mr. McPherson still retains the 
presidency, having been re-elected under the 
reorganization as the Old Detroit National 
Bank, upon the expiration of the second char- 
ter, November 18, 1902. 

During the three regimes — those of the 
Second National, Detroit National, and Old 
Detroit National Banks — the history of the 
institution has been one of uninterrupted and 
unqualified success, and the bank to-day is 
classed as one of the leading financial institu- 
tions of the Central states. The present board 
of directors is, as has always been the case, of 
distinctively representative order, and its per- 
sonnel is as follows : A. W. Wright, Elisha H. 
Flinn, Henry P. Baldwin, James Davidson, 
Henry Stephens, J. B. Ford, B. F. Berry, F. 
W. Gilchrist, Alexander McPherson, F. C. 
Stoepel, Clarence A. Black, Stanford T. Crapo, 
E. L. Ford, Charles A. Dean, Willis E. Buhl, 
E. D. Stair, and Charles B. Warren. The ex- 
ecutive officers are as follows : Alexander 
McPherson, president; Henry P. Baldwin, 
vice-president; Irvine B. Unger, assistant to 
the president ; Elisha H. Flinn, vice-president ; 
Wilham T. DeGraff, cashier, William H. 

Fowler, Elmer E. Ford, Ben G. Vernor, and 
Edward C. Mahler, assistant cashiers. 

From the official statement of the bank at 
the close of business on September 23, 1908, 
its capital stock is shown to be $2,000,000, paid 
in; surplus fund, $500,000; undivided profits, 
less expenses and taxes paid, $266,526.97 ; in- 
dividual deposits subject to check, $7,396,- 
122.06; demand certificates of deposits, $907,- 
362.64; and United States deposits, $150,000. 


The wise policy which has dominated the 
management of this fine institution from the 
time of its founding to the present has made 
it one of the greatest.of similar concerns in the 
middle west, and its enormous resources, ad- 
mirably conserved, make it a distinctive power 
in financial affairs of Detroit and Michigan. 
For nearly forty years has this bank been in 
existence and its history is one marked by con- 
secutive advancement and the most absolute 
solidity. In October, 1871, the Wayne County 
Savings Bank was organized and incorporated, 
the moving spirit in bringing about this result 
having been the late S. Dow Elwood, who had 
formulated a most definite system of operations 
before he secured the requisite capitalistic co- 
operation. He had decided to make a specialty 
of high-grade securities and to touch the purely 
commercial phase of the banking business as 
little as possible. He advocated the handling 
of municipal and school-district bonds of the 
gilt-edge type and issued for long terms. His 
wisdom was soon verified, for many of the 
securities thus purchased by the bank paid 
from eight to ten per cent, interest for long 
periods and were accumulated with scarcely 
more than a nominal premium. The plan of 
the national banking system in rendering it 
practically impossible for the national banks 
to handle real-estate securities, gave to Mr. 
Elwood the inspiration for taking up farm 
mortgages, as being more certain and substan- 
tial than those on city real estate, and at one 
time the bank of which he was the founder 
had loans extended on lands in twelve or more 



counties in the state and aggregating nearly 
one million dollars. The careful and con- 
servative methods employed in the extending 
of these loans made the margin of losses very 
narrow indeed. 

Upon the organization of the Wayne County 
Savings Bank Mr. Elwood was naturally 
chosen its secretary and treasurer, and he had 
enlisted the co-operation of leading capitalists 
and business men, so that the institution lacked 
naught in preliminary prestige when its doors 
were opened for business. The others of the 
original official corps were as follows : William 
B. Wesson, president; Dr. Herman Kiefer, 
vice-president; and William A. Moore, attor- 
ney. Besides these officers the board of trus- 
tees included also John J. Bagley, Dexter M. 
Ferry, Thomas W. Palmer, Jerome Croul, 
Paul Gies, J. B. Sutherland, L. P. Knight, 
Francis Adams, Jefferson Wiley, K. C. Bark- 
er, Traugott Schmidt, M. S. Smith. George 
F. Bagley, David M. Richardson, Jacob S. 
Farrand, Stanley G. Wight, William C. Dun- 
can, and David Knapp. In 1882 D. C. Whit- 
wood was elected second vice-president, the 
office having been created at that time, and in 
the following year he was elected first vice- 
president, to succeed Dr. Kiefer, who resigned, 
the office of second vice-president being per- 
mitted to remain without an incumbent. In 
1885 Jacob S. Farrand succeeded to the vice- 
presidency, upon the death of Mr. Whitwood, 
and in the same year the title of the board of 
trustees was changed to that of directors, the 
number being reduced to nine. This year also 
marked the election of General L. S. Trow- 
bridge to the dual offices of second vice-presi- 
dent and assistant secretary and treasurer. In 
1889 he resigned and in December of that year 
William Stagg assumed the position of assist- 
ant secretary and treasurer. 

William B. Wesson, the honored and excep- 
tionally able president of the bank, died 
in 1890, and S. Dow Elwood succeeded 
to the presidency of the institution of 
which he had been the virtual founder. He 
retained this office until his death, in 1898, and 
his name is inseparably connected with the 
upbuilding of the fine monetary institution with 

which he was so long identified. He was suc- 
ceeded by Charles F. Collins, who has since 
continued president of the bank. Mr. Farrand 
died in 1891, and in 1893 D. M. Ferry was 
elected first vice-president ; Jerome Croul, 
second vice-president; William Stagg, secre- 
tary and treasurer; and Charles F. Collins, 
assistant secretary and treasurer. In 1895 
Alfred K. Kiefer became assistant secretary 
and treasurer, Mr. Collins having been ad- 
vanced to the office of secretary and treasurer 
upon the death of Mr. Stagg, in the preceding 
year, and later having been chosen president, 
as already stated. In 1898 also Mr. Kiefer 
was promoted to the position of secretary and 
treasurer, and Edward H. Collins became as- 
sistant secretary and treasurer. Colonel 
Jerome Croul, an especially capable and popular 
officer, died in 1899, and was succeeded by 
William S. Green in the office of second vice- 
president. In 1900 the number of members on 
the board of directors was increased to eleven, 
the personnel at the present time being as fol- 
lows: D. M. Ferry, E. H. Flinn, H. Kirke 
White, F. H. Croul, William S. Green, J. B. 
Book, A. L. Stephens, Frank W. Eddy, S. Y. 
Seyburn, William V. Moore, and Charles F. 
Collins. Followmg are the names of the pres- 
ent executive officers of the bank : Charles F. 
Collins, president ; D. M. Ferry, first vice- 
president; W. S. Green, second vice-president; 
A. K. Kiefer, secretary and treasurer; and E. 
H. Collins, assistant secretary and treasurer. 

The capital of the Wayne County Savings 
Bank at the time of its incorporation was fifty 
thousand dollars, and notwithstanding the 
magnificent expansion of the business this 
figure represented the capital stock until 
1900, when, with the change in the 
state law governing banks with savings de- 
posits of more than five millions of dollars, 
the capital of the bank was augmented to its 
present figure of four hundred thousand dol- 
lars. The surplus fund (1908) aggregates 
one million dollars ; the undivided profits about 
three hundred thousand dollars, and the de- 
posits have reached the noteworthy aggregate 
of more than eleven millions. On the i8th of 
September, 1901, the bank secured a renewal 



of its charter for a term of thirty years, and its 
original policy of operation has remained es- 
sentially unchanged during the long period of 
its notably successful history. The bank owns 
and utilizes one of the most commodious and 
consistently arranged bank buildings in De- 
troit, the same being located at 32-34 Congress 
street west. The structure is six stories in 
height, and the entire main floor is used by 
the offices and fine safety-deposits vaults, few 
banks having so much available space for their 
own use. The safety vaults, of the most mod- 
em type, contain more than nine hundred com- 
partments, fire and burglar proof, and in addi- 
tion to this there are two other fire-proof vaults 
for the storage of more bulky effects, such as 
silver plate and other family or household 
valuables. The bank has long controlled a 
magnificent business, but each year records a 
still farther expansion, indicative of popular 
confidence and appreciation. 


Exercising important functions and to be 
noted as one of the representative concerns of 
its kind in the state of Michigan, the firm of 
H. W. Noble & Company controls a large and 
substantial business in the handling of bonds, 
local stocks, etc., while special attention is 
given to the placing of public-utility bonds of 
high grade. The enterprise is conducted along 
normal and conservative lines and absolute re- 
liability has gained to the firm high prestige in 
financial circles. Elsewhere in this volume is 
given a brief outline of the career of Herbert 
W. Noble, the founder and head of the firm. 

The business was established in 1894, by 
Herbert W. Noble and William E. Reilly, and 
operations were then initiated under the firm 
title of Reilly & Noble. In 1896 Mr. Reilly 
retired from the firm and Mr. Noble thereupon 
assumed control of the enterprise, adopting 
the present title of H. W. Noble & Company. 
He continued the business individually until 
1903, when William E. Moss was admitted to 
partnership and the: title of the firm was 
changed to Noble, Moss & Company. Mr. 
Moss retired from the business on the ist of 

January, 1905, and shortly afterward Mr. 
Noble formed ? partnership with J. Henry 
Wood, with whom he has since been asso- 
ciated under the title designated at the head of 
this article. The firm has shown much dis- 
crimination in the handling of stocks and bonds 
of the highest grade and has placed many im- 
portant securities on the market. A branch 
office is maintained in the city of Philadelphia, 
in the Land Title building, and the same is in 
charge of Mr. Wood, the junior member of 
the firm. The firm is a member of the Ameri- 
can Bankers' Association, the Michigan Bank- 
ers' Association, and the Pennsylvania 
Bankers" Association — connections which well 
indicate its status in the field of financial opera- 
tions. The Detroit offices of the firm are lo- 
cated in the Penobscot building. Fort street 


This solid, popular and representative bank- 
ing institution of Detroit was established in 
1888, and opened its doors for business on 
the i8th of April of that year. The founder 
of the bank was Joseph C. Hart, who had 
previously been engaged in the insurance busi- 
ness in Detroit for a number of years and 
who had become impressed with the idea that 
a banking house located in the center of the 
retail business district would meet a popular 
demand and liberal support. Results have 
most fully shown that his judgment and pre- 
science were justified. Associated with Mr. 
Hart in the organization and incorporation 
of the Central Savings Bank were Charles K. 
Latham, Gilbert Hart and Conrad Clippert. 
The bank was incorporated with a capital 
stock of one hundred thousand dollars and its 
first officers were as here noted : Gilbert Hart, 
president ; Conrad Clippert, vice-president ; and 
Joseph C. Hart, cashier. The chairman of 
the first board of directors was Michael J. 
Murphy, and other members of the original 
directorate were: William T. Gage, Marvin 
H. Chamberlain, Julius Stroh, Henry F. Lis- 
ter, William C. Stoepel, Henry O. Walker, 
William H. Irwin, and Albert E. Leavitt. The 



first banking offices were opened in the old 
Detroit Opera House building, which was de- 
stroyed by fire in November, 1897, and the 
institution was then removed to 151 Griswold 
street, in what was then known as "Bank 

In January, 1900, a controlling interest in 
the bank was secured by John M. Nicol, a 
broker who represented in the transaction 
Harry J. Fox and a number of his friends, 
Mr. Fox at the time having been auditor of 
the Home Savings Bank. The deposits at the 
time aggregated five hundred thousand dol- 
lars, and under the new regime the following 
named officers were elected : William A. 
Pungs, president ; Conrad Clippert, first vice- 
president ; Charles P. Collins, second vice-pres- 
ident; and Harry J. Fox, cashier. Mr. Clip- 
pert died in the autumn of the same year and 
was succeeded by William Reid. In 1904 
William P. Holliday succeeded Mr. Pungs in 
the office of president, and Charles P. Collins 
succeeded Mr. Reid as first vice-president, 
while the office of second vice-president, va- 
cated by Mr. Reid, was filled by the election 
of William T. Gage. Since these changes 
none other has been made in the personnel of 
the executive corps. The bank retained quar- 
ters on Griswold street until August 12, 1907, 
when were secured the present finely appointed 
offices in the magnificent Majestic building, 
on the Campus Martius. 

William P. Holliday, president of the Cen- 
tral Savings Bank, is a well known manufac- 
turer of Detroit, where his capitalistic inter- 
ests are large and varied. He is the subject 
of an individual sketch on other pages of this 
work and is distinctively one of the substan- 
tial and representative business men of De- 
troit, in whose continued progress he has at 
all times shown an abiding faith and confi- 
dence. He is a director of the American Ex- 
change National Bank and was the first treas- 
urer of the Detroit Board of Commerce. 

Charles P. Collins, first vice-president of 
the Central Savings Bank, is the founder and 
head of the great cigar manufacturing busi- 
ness which is conducted under his name, and 
is a well known and successful business man 

of the Michigan metropolis. The second vice- 
president, William T. Gage, is general agent 
for Michigan of the Northwestern Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, of Milwaukee. As 
a counselor in regard to insurance matters his 
services are of especial value to the bank. 
Samuel T. Douglas, attorney of the bank and 
a member of its directorate, is a representative 
member of the Detroit bar and has large cap- 
italistic interests in the city ; he is a director of 
the Detroit Trust Company. 

Harry J. Fox, cashier of the Central Sav- 
ings Bank, has been closely identified with 
banking interests in Detroit for about twenty 
years and his marked ability in handling and 
directing financial afifairs is well , recognized. 
From 1889 to 1891 he was corresponding 
clerk in the Peninsular Savings Bank, and 
thereafter he was auditor of the Home Sav- 
ings Bank until 1900, when he resigned to 
accept his present office. 

The Central Savings Bank was one of the 
first to realize the importance and value of 
branch banking offices. Its first branch was 
established in 1903, at the corner of St. Aubin 
and Canfield avenues, and the management of 
the same has been entrusted from the begin- 
ning to Basil A. Lemke, son of the first Polish 
settler in the northeastern portion of the city. 
His family has been one of influence in that 
section, and has led in its civic and material 
development. Mr. Lemke has the un- 
qualified confidence of the residents of 
that part of the city in which the branch bank- 
ing office is thus located, and there a very suc- 
cessful and substantial business has been built 
up for the Central Savings Bank. In 1905 
the second branch was established, an office 
being then opened in eligible quarters at the 
corner of Grand River and Fourteenth ave- 
nues. This branch is maintained under the 
management of Thomas J. Fitzpatrick, who 
was reared in that immediate locality and 
whose ability and personal popularity have 
inured greatly to the success of the business 
placed in his charge. 

The capital stock of the Central Savings 
Bank is one hundred thousand dollars, paid in, 
and its surplus and undivided profits aggre- 



gate about sixty-five thousand dollars. The 
commercial deposits, as shown in the official re- 
port of the bank issued September 23, 1908, 
were $301,984.25, and the savings deposits, 


Among the oldest and most favorably known 
financial institutions of the state of Michigan 
is this solid and popular banking house of 
Detroit, which was organized mainly through 
the efforts of Alexander H. Dey, who was 
here engaged in the private banking business 
from 1842 until 1865. In June of the latter 
year the American Exchange National Bank 
was incorporated with a capital stock of two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The per- 
sonnel of the original executive corps was as 
follows: President, Alexander H. Dey; vice- 
president, L. M. Mason; cashier, George B. 
Sartwell ; directors — L. M. Mason, A. H. Dey, 
Franklin Moore, John J. Bagley, Jacob S. 
Farrand, Eber Ward, Charles Root, M. S. 
Smith, and Edward Kanter. The original cor- 
porate name was the American National Bank, 
and from the names of those most prom- 
inently interested in the new institution those 
who know the history of Detroit will at once 
recognize under how favorable auspices the 
bank began operations. Its standing has ever 
remained of the highest and it has at all times 
enlisted the capitalistic support of leading cap- 
italists and business men of Detroit — men of 
impregnable integrity and honor. 

On the expiration of the first charter, in 
1885, the institution was reorganized as the 
American Exchange National Bank, with a 
capital of four hundred thousand dollars and 
with the following named officers and di- 
rectors: President, Alexander H. Dey; vice- 
president, M. S. Smith; cashier, George B. 
Sartwell ; assistant cashier, Hamilton Dey ; di- 
rectors — A. H. Dey, Charles Root, M. S. 
Smith, S. J. Murphy, Samuel Havenrich, 
Thomas W. Palmer, Alexander Chapoton, Sr., 
William A. Moore, and George B. Sartwell. 
The honored president, Alexander H. Dey, to 

whose able efforts and distinctive financial 
acumen the institution largely owes its up- 
building and prestige, died August 9, 1889, 
having been one of Detroit's influential and 
honored citizens and pioneer bankers. He 
was succeeded in the presidency by M. S. 
Smith, who remained the executive head of 
the institution until his death, October 28, 
1899. M'"- Sartwell became vice-president after 
the demise of Mr. Dey, and Hamilton Dey 
and Hermann Dey, sons of the former presi- 
dent, assumed respectively the ofifices of cashier 
and assistant cashier, which offices they have 
since retained. Mr. Sartwell retired from the 
vice-presidency and was succeeded by Waldo 
A. Avery, who held this position until the 
death of Mr. Smith, when he succeeded to the 
presidency, with John N. Bagley as vice-presi- 
dent. They have since been re-elected to their 
respective offices each year, as have the cashier 
and assistant cashier, and the other executive 
officer is John P. Williams, wlio is auditor of 
the bank. The capital of the bank is now four 
hundred thousand dollars and it has a surplus 
fund of one hundred thousand dollars. The 
present directorate comprises the following 
named gentlemen : W. A. Avery, John N. Bag- 
ley, Charles W. Baird, Hamilton Dey. F. W. 
Gilchrist (Alpena), Gilbert Hart, William P. 
Holliday, Joseph L. Hudson, William H. 
Murphy, Julius Stroh, D. D. Thorp, Clay H. 
Hollister (Grand Rapids), Frank S. Werne- 
ken, James N. Wright, and Fremont Wood- 

Since the death of his father and the retire- 
ment of Mr. Sartwell the active administration 
of the executive and details of the bank's 
counting room has devolved upon Hamilton 
Dey, who has attained to a leading position in 
the banking circles of the city and state. Mr. 
Avery brings to the presidency wide and 
varied experience as a man of affairs and is 
one of Detroit's substantial and well known 
capitalists, duly conservative in his methods 
and yet progressive in his attitude and demo- 
cratic in his views. 

The banking offices of the institution were 
first located in the Seitz Block, and later re- 
moved to the Newberry & McMillan building. 



where they were located at the time of the 
reorganization as the American Exchange Na- 
tional Bank and where the business was con- 
tinued until the completion of the magnificent 
building of the Union Trust Company, when 
the present spacious quarters, occupying the 
entire north end of the ground floor, were se- 
cured, thus making one of the finest banking 
offices in the city. 


The Security Trust Company, of Detroit, 
Michigan, began business July i, 1906, with a 
capital and surplus of $1,000,000.00. At the 
end of two years the Company had paid $26,- 
250.00 in dividends, and had undivided profits 
of $106,000.00. 

The board of directors of the Security Trust 
Company is made up of representatives of the 
First National Bank, The People's State 
Bank, Dime Savings Bank, Peninsular Savings 
Bank, Home Savings Bank, American Ex- 
change National Bank, and various large De- 
troit corporations. 

In the following paragraph is given a list of 
the officers, board of directors and advisory 
board of the company. 

Officers: M. J. Murphy, president; Lem W. 
Bowen, vice-president ; Frederic F. Sanford, 
secretary ; Emory W. Clark, vice-president ; 
Charles Moore, vice-president ; J. Harold Mur- 
phy, assistant secretary ; Gray & Gray, counsel. 
Board of directors : Russell A. Alger, president 
Alger, Smith & Company ; William K. Ander- 
son, vice-president Home Savings Bank ; John 
N. Bagley, vice-president American Exchange 
National Bank ; Lem W. Bowen, treasurer D. 
M. Ferry & Company ; Henry M. Butzel, at- 
torney; Emory W. Clark, vice-president First 
National Bank; John M. Dwyer, secretary 
Peninsular Stove Company; D. M. Ferry, Jr., 
secretary D. M. Ferry & Company ; J. B. Ford, 
vice-president Michigan Alkali Company; 
William J. Gray, of Gray & Gray, attorneys; 
James S. Holden, real estate; Charles C. Jenks, 
president Jenks & Muir Manufacturing Com- 
pany; J. H. Johnson, president Peninsular 
Savings Bank; George E. Lawson, vice-presi- 

dent People's State Bank ; William Living- 
stone, president Dime Savings Bank; Charles 
Moore, vice-president Security Trust Com- 
pany; M. J. Murphy, president Murphy Chair 
Company; Henry C. Potter, Jr., vice-president 
People's State Bank ; John T. Shaw, vice- 
president and cashier First National Bank; 
James D. Standish, secretary and treasurer 
Hammond, Standish & Company ; Morris L. 
Williams, president First National Bank. 
Advisory board: Hon. Lincoln Avery (Port 
Huron), W. T. Barbour, A. D. Bennett (Port 
Huron), Hon. James V. Barry (Lansing), F. 
W. Hubbard (Bad Axe), Ralph M. Dyar, 
Theodore H. Eaton, E. G. Filer (Filer City), 
M. W. O'Brien, Arthur M. Parker, Cornelius 
J. Reilly, Walter S. Russel, General George 
Spalding (Monroe), Thomas Cranage (Bay 
City), James Dempsey (Manistee), E. W. 
Sparrow (Lansing), Dudley E. Waters 
(Grand Rapids), Jere C. Hutchins. 


Thirty years have elapsed since this solid 
and ably managed financial institution came 
into existence, and its history has been one of 
substantial, merited and constantly growing 
success. The bank was founded on the 17th 
of February, 1877, by the late Thomas 
McGraw and Samuel R. Mumford, the former 
of whom was president of the institution until 
1880, when he resigned, being succeeded by 
George Peck, who has continuously served as 
chief executive since that time. The bank's 
headquarters from the start until Dec, 1907, 
were in the McGraw building, and were then 
removed to the Moffat Block, where the ap- 
pointments and facilities are those demanded 
in a modern and metropolitan banking house. 

The Michigan Savings Bank was originally 
capitalized for sixty thousand dollars, and its 
operations were instituted on the 2d of April, 
1877. On the I St of May, 1882, the capital- 
istic reinforcement was increased to one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. At the 
present time the capital stock is two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. The first officers of 
the bank were as here designated: Thomas 



McGraw, president; Nicol Mitchell, vice-presi- 
lent; Samuel R. Mumford, secretary and 
treasurer. The first board of trustees included 
these officers and also the following named 
gentlemen : Horace M. Dean, George W. 
Balch, William Perkins, Jr., Newell Avery, A. 
G. Lindsay, Julius Stroh, Joseph Kuhn, and 
George Peck. Upon the death of Mr. Mitchell 
Mr. Dean succeeded to the office of vice-presi- 
dent, of which he continued incumbent until 
his death, when J. H. Kaple, former post- 
master of Detroit, was chosen to fill the vacant 
office, which he retained until his death. He 
was succeeded by C. C. Jenks. Mr. Mumford 
died on the 24th of May, 1894, and his place 
as secretary and treasurer was filled by the 
selection of Charles Emerson. 

Following is the personnel of the executive 
officers and directorate of the Michigan Sav- 
ings Bank : President, George Peck ; vice- 
presidents, Charles C. Jenks, James D. Stand- 
ish and James S. Holden; cashier, George 
Wiley ; assistant cashier, Hugh R. Burns. Di- 
rectors : Lem W. Bowen, Clarence M. Burton, 
Dexter M. Ferry, Jr., J. B. Ford, W. J. Gray, 
J. S. Holden, James Inglis, Charles C. Jenks, 
M. J. Murphy, Thomas Neal, George Peck, 
Hoyt Post. John T. Shaw, James D. Standish, 
F. F. Sanford, M. L. Williams, George Wiley. 

According to the statement of the Michigan 
Savings Bank at the close of business Septem- 
ber 23, 1908, as called for by the commissioner 
of the banking department of the state, the 
capital stock paid in is shown to be $250,000; 
surplus fund, $125,000; commercial deposits, 
$900,893.36; certificates of deposit, $4,017.88; 
savings deposits, $1,393,864.45; and savings 
certificates, $128,322.79. These figures indi- 
cate adequately for the purposes of a publica- 
tion of this nature how substantial and popular 
is the institution, whose management has 
always been conservative and yet progressive. 


At all periods in her history has Detroit 
maintained a high reputation for the solidity 
and able management of her banking institu- 
tions, and among the institutions which are 

upholding this reputation at the present time 
is the Citizens' Savings Bank, which exercises 
most beneficent functions in its various depart- 
ments and which has the best of capitalistic and 
executive reinforcement. 

The Citizens' Savings Bank was organized 
March 5, 1885, and succeeded the private bank- 
ing house of Roberts, Austin & Company, lo- 
cated at 63 Griswold street. The interested 
principals in the firm of Roberts, Austin & 
Company were Lorenzo B. Austin, Albert S. 
xA.ustin and Ephraim K. Roberts. The new 
bank was capitalized at one hundred thousand 
dollars and engaged in business with both com- 
mercial and savings departments. Its first of- 
ficial corps was as follows : President, Milton 
H. Butler; vice-president, Cyrus B. Barnes; 
and cashier, Ephraim K. Roberts. The mem- 
bers of the original directorate were, in addi- 
tion to the executives just mentioned, as fol- 
lows : John H. Avery, L. B. Austin, Thomas 
Berry, William G. Brownlee, Amos Chafee, 
S. L. Fuller, W. W. Hannan. 

On the 5th of May, 1887, Ephraim K. 
Roberts was elected president, to succeed Mr. 
Butler, who had declined a re-election. Edwin 
F. Mack was elected cashier and his father. 
Christian Mack, president of the Ann Arbor 
Savings Bank, was added to the board of di- 
rectors. October 3, 1889, Mr. Roberts re- 
signed, to devote his attention to other business 
interests, and Christian Mack was elected to 
the presidency. In January, 1890, the bank 
decided to place itself under the banking law 
of 1888, and took out a certificate with the 
commissioner of banking. On April 29th of 
the same year the capital stock was increased 
to two hundred thousand dollars, and the of- 
fices were removed to more spacious and 
eligible quarters, in the Newberry building. 
At this time also the following officers were 
elected : Collins B. Hubbard, president ; 
Richard H. Fyfe, vice-president ; Edwin F. 
Mack, cashier; and Frank F. Tillotson, assist- 
ant cashier. In May, 1895, ^^^ bank was re- 
moved to its present handsome offices in the 
Chamber of Commerce building. July i, 1898, 
Frank F. Tillotson was elected cashier, to suc- 
ceed Edwin F. Mack, resigned, and at the 



annual election in the following December 
Richard H. Fyfe was elected to the presidency, 
upon the resignation of Mr. Hubbard. Hugh 
Wallace is now vice-president; Mr. Tillotson, 
cashier; F. J. Kirts, assistant cashier; and 
Charles E. Bryant, auditor. The attorneys of 
the bank are the firm of Barbour & Field, and 
the directorate is as follows : Levi L. Barbour, 
Thomas Berry, David S. Carter, Richard H. 
Fyfe. Frank Filer, James H. Flinn, Gaylord 
W. Gillis, Charles A. Kent, W. F. Jewell, 
George Osius, Hugh Wallace, and Frank F. 
Tillotson. The bank is a depository of the city 
of Detroit and the state of Michigan. Its sur- 
plus fund is fifty thousand dollars, and its un- 
divided profits in excess of ten thousand 


In the stability, scope and management of 
her financial institutions Detroit has a source 
of just gratulation and pride, and among the 
prominent concerns exercising important 
functions and fortified by all that is reliable in 
executive control and capitalistic reinforce- 
ment, is the Detroit Trust Company, which 
has gained distinctive priority within the com- 
paratively few years of its existence. 

The articles of incorporation of the Detroit 
Trust Company were approved by the state on 
the 8th of December, 1900, and the first meet- 
ing of the stockholders was held on the 17th 
of the same month, when the following named 
gentlemen were chosen to constitute the first 
board of directors : Henry Stephens, Theodore 
D. Buhl, Henry P. Baldwin, James N. Wright, 
Henry L. Kanter, Chester G. White, Elisha 
H. Flinn, Sidney T. Miller, Ammi W. Wright, 
George Peck, James E. Davidson, Edwin C. 
Nichols, Henry B. Joy, Rasmus Hanson, 
Edward H. Butler, Eldridge M. Fowler, James 
McGregor, Frank W. Eddy, Charles A. Dean, 
James Edgar, Charles M. Heald, John H. 
Avery, Merton E. Farr, Fred E. Driggs, Oren 
Scotten, Alexander McPherson, and Frank W. 

At the initial executive meeting of the board 
of directors, on December 20, 1900, the fol- 

lowing officers were elected: President, Alex- 
ander McPherson, and vice-presidents, Theo- 
dore D. Buhl and Henry Stephens. The 
company inaugurated its active business on the 
5th of January, 1901, its offices being located 
on the second floor of the building at Nos. 82 
and 84 Griswold street. George L. McPherson 
was incumbent of the office of treasurer of the 
company from the time of its formal organiza- 
tion until December i, 1902, and on the ist 
of March, 1903, Howard J. Lesher succeeded 
him in this important office, of which he has 
since remained the able and popular incumbent. 
In 1903 also Henry Stephens resigned his po- 
sition as vice-president, and he was succeeded 
by Edward H. Butler, who is still serving in 
that capacity. On the 6th of May, 1901, Ralph 
Stone entered the ser\nce of the company in the 
office of assistant secretary, and later he was 
elected secretary, which office he still retains, 
proving a most discriminating executive of- 
ficer and supervising the details of the office 
with an exactitude and care that have gained 
to him the unequivocal commendation of the 
interested principals in the institution. 

The Detroit Trust Company is capitalized 
for $500,000, and its business has shown a 
steady and gratifying expansion, placing it 
already among the leading concerns of the 
kind in the state. Its surplus fund at the pres- 
ent time is maintained at the same figure as its 
capital stock — five hundred thousand dollars, 
and its undivided profits amount to $554,- 
794.85. The trust deposits of the institution, 
as shown in the report of its condition at the 
close of business September 23, 1908, as called 
for by the commissioner of the banking depart- 
ment, reach the noteworthy aggregate of 


The financial and industrial interests of the 
commercial world have long maintained as 
their regulators and conservators the banking 
institutions, and upon the stability and proper 
systematization and management of the latter 
must depend the solidity and strength of prac- 
tically all other lines of business enterprise. 



Detroit is especially favored in the extent and 
character of her banking institutions, and one 
of the more recent but none the less representa- 
tive and stable concerns of this sort is that 
whose name appears as the heading of this 
article. This bank, whose offices are located in 
the Union Trust Building, opened for business 
on the 1st of June, 1907. 

In a brochure issued by the bank in the 
month following its initiation of business ap- 
peared the following pertinent statements : 
"The National Bank of Commerce of Detroit 
was organized by young business men who are 
in intimate practical connection with various 
lines of active business. It represents the ag- 
gressive, progressive and at the same time con- 
servative commercial and manufacturing ele- 
ments of the city of Detroit. The officers are 
all in daily active attendance at the bank to 
give prompt attention to the interests of our 
customers. The small depositor is made as 
welcome as the large. Our aim is first that 
this bank shall be strong by its conservatism 
and large by its aggressiveness." These force- 
ful statements bear their own significance and 
truly denote the policy of the bank, whose suc- 
cess has been pronounced from the start. 

The National Bank of Commerce received 
its charter under date of April 24, 1907, and 
its designated number is 8703. The one most 
prominent in the promotion of the organiza- 
tion of the new institution was its present 
cashier, Henry IT. Sanger, of whom indi- 
vidual mention is made in this publication. 
The original and present officers of the bank 
are as follows : Richard P. Joy, president ; 
William P. Hamilton, vice-president ; Henry 
H. Sanger, cashier; and Charles R. Talbot, 
assistant cashier. Concerning the personnel 
of the directorate the following data are 
entered : Frederick M. Alger is president of 
Alger, Smith & Company and vice-president 
of the Manistique Railway Company ; William 
M. Davies is president of the Acme White 
Lead & Color Works ; Edwin Denby is a rep- 
resentative lawyer of Detroit and member of 
congress from the first district of Michigan; 
Francis T. Dwyer is president of the Standard 
Foundry Company; Ralph M. Dyar is secre- 

tary of the Trussed Concrete Steel Company 
and president of the Mexican Crude Rubber 
Company; G. B. Gunderson is secretary and 
treasurer of the Detroit Stove Works and vice- 
president of the Northern Motor Car Works; 
Charles H. Hodges is second vice-president of 
the American Radiator Company and president 
of the Detroit Lubricator Company ; James 
Inglis is president and manager of the Ameri- 
can Blower Company ; Lewis H. Jones is presi- 
dent of the Detroit Copper & Brass Rolling 
Mills; Richard P. Joy is ex-controller of the 
city of Detroit, vice-president and treasurer 
of the Detroit Union Railroad Depot & Station 
Company, and vice-president of the Detroit 
Copper & Brass Rolling Mills; Edward M. 
Mancourt is western manager of the Fairmont 
Coal Company, Southern Coal & Transporta- 
tion Company, Somerset Coal Company and 
Consolidated Coal Company ; Edwin H. Nelson 
is president of Nelson, Baker & Company, of 
Detroit; John S. Newberry is president and 
general manager of the Detroit Steel Casting 
Company; Dr. R. Adlington Newman is man- 
ager of the estate of the late Daniel Scotten; 
Edward D. Stair is president of the Detroit 
Free Press Company and the Detroit Journal 
Company; Frederick K. Stearns is president 
of Frederick Stearns & Company, of Detroit; 
Dr. Ernest T. Tappey is a practicing physician 
and secretary of the Universal Button Com- 
pany; Benjamin S. Warren is a lawyer and 
president of the Hutchins Car Roofing Com- 
pany; Charles B. Warren is a lawyer and 
president of the Michigan Sugar Company; 
Dudley E. Waters, of Grand Rapids, is presi- 
dent of the Grand Rapids National Bank and 
vice-president of the Michigan State Telephone 
Company. This constitutes assuredly a list 
of representative and active business men and 
capitalists, and the bank is thus fortified in all 
that is strong through the interposition of men 
of standing and worth. 

The National Bank of Commerce is capi- 
talized for seven hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, all of which amount is paid in. The 
surplus fund is one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars and the deposits aggregate over two 
million dollars. 



In a circular recently issued the bank calls 
attention to the following pertinent facts : That 
at no time during the recent panic was the 
bank below the required legal reserve; that it 
had called no loans whatever during this panic 
and had in every way been of service to the 
community at large; and that it has paid out 
currency on demand at all times since the 
bank was organized. 


One of the oldest and most substantial and 
popular of the banking institutions of Detroit 
is that whose title is here noted. The Detroit 
Savings Bank dates its inception back more 
than half a century, being the successor to 
the Detroit Savings Fund Institute, which was 
incorporated March 5, 1849, being the first 
institution in Michigan to receive deposits and 
pay interest on the same. Its charter was 
granted by Governor Epaphroditus Ransom, 
who appointed the following board of trustees : 
Elon Farnsworth (ex-chancellor of the 
state), Shubael Conant, Zina Pitcher, David 
Smart, Charles Moran, George M. Rich, John 
Palmer, Levi Cook, James A. Hicks, Benjamin 
B. Kercheval, and Gurdon Williams. 

The Detroit Savings Fund Institute was 
differentiated from the banking institutions of 
the present day in one important particular. 
It was incorporated without capital stock and 
was conducted upon the co-operative plan, the 
depositors sharing the profits on a mutual 
relative basis. This plan of banking was then 
much in vogue in the eastern states, and in 
some districts in that section of the Union 
obtains at the present time. Elon Farnsworth 
was chosen first president of this important 
pioneer banking institution and continued in 
this chief executive office until his death, which 
occurred in 1877. This bank was for many 
years without competition in its prescribed 
field of operation, and numbered in its direct- 
orate many of the most prominent and influ- 
ential men of Detroit, among the number being 
the following: Henry N. Walker, Governor 
Henry P. Baldwin, Henry Ledyard, Samuel 
Lewis, Henry P. Bridge, Edward Lyon, Will- 

ard Parker, Edmund Trowbridge, Alexander 
Chapoton, Sr., Thomas Ferguson, George 
Jerome, William K. Muir, Alexander Lewis, 
and Sidney D. Miller. 

On the loth of July, 1871, the bank was 
reorganized under the name of the Detroit 
Savings Bank, which title has since been re- 
tained. It was at this time incorporated with 
a capital stock of two hundred thousand dol- 
lars, and the charter granted had a double 
liability clause, for the more effective protec- 
tion of its depositors. Elon Farnsworth was 
continued in the presidency of the new insti- 
tution and remained in this position until 
his death, as has already been noted in this 
context. When he was called from the scene 
of life's endeavors, in 1877, after a career of 
unqualified distinction and honor, he was suc- 
ceeded in the presidency by Alexander H. 
Adams, the cashier, who retained both ofiices 
thereafter until 1882, when he retired from 
the position of cashier, though remaining in- 
cumbent of the office of president until his 
death, in the following year. The next head of 
the institution, Sidney D. Miller, was chosen 
from the board of directors, and, like his pred- 
ecessors, he proved a most able and popular 
executive, holding the presidency until his 
demise. He was succeeded by the present in- 
cumbent, Dewitt C. Delamater, one of the 
honored business men and substantial capital- 
ists of the metropolis of the state. 

It is consonant that in this brief review 
mention should be made of other prominent 
citizens who have served as members of the 
board of directors of this fine old banking 
bouse. F. B. Sibley was a director for twenty- 
five years and also served as vice-president; 
Hon. James McMillan was a director for 
twenty-seven years; George Hendrie, who is 
now one of the oldest bank directors livine in 
Detroit, has been a valued member of the board 
for the past thirty years ; and others who have 
done most effective service have been Charles 
A. Dean, D. C. Delamater, Sidney D. Miller, 
E. A. Chapoton, M. D., and W. K. Anderson. 

The present executive corps of the Detroit 
Savings Bank is as follows : D. C. Delamater, 
president ; Charles A. Dean, vice-president ; E. 



C. Bowman, assistant to the president; Cyrus 
Boss, cashier; and T. F. Hancock, assistant 
cashier. The board of directors comprises the 
following: George Hendrie. D. C. Delamater, 
Charles A. Dean, W. K. Anderson, E. A. 
Chapoton, M. D., Phihp H. McMillan, Sidney 
T. Miller, Strathearn Hendrie, Arthur M. 
Parker, and John M. Dwyer. 

The rate of interest paid by the Detroit Sav- 
ings Bank on savings accounts is three per 
cent., and since its organization there have been 
more than one hundred thousand accounts 
opened, while it has paid to its depositors in 
interest more than one-half millions of dollars. 
In 1900 the capital stock, paid in, was in- 
creased to its present figures, $400,000, and the 
official report of the bank at the close of busi- 
ness September 23, 1908, as called for by the 
commissioner of the banking department. 
shows that it has a surplus of $400,000 ; undi- 
vided profits, net, $235,888.40; commercial 
deposits, $704,167.05; and savings deposits of 
$7,278,639.69. The history of the bank has 
been one of consecutive and splendid growth 
and prosperity, and it has ever maintained an 
inviolable hold upon the confidence of the pub- 
lic. This venerable banking concern merits 
consideration in every publication which 
touches the annals of the city of Detroit and 
the history of financial operations in the state. 
The present banking offices are in commodious 
and finely equipped quarters in the Penobscot 

citizens of Wyandotte. He secured the sup- 
port of Frederick B. Sibley, George Hendrie, 
and William H. Zabriskie, all of Detroit, and 
these gentlemen were associated with him in 
the organization of the new institution. Other 
prominent men who were represented on the 
first board of directors were Dr. Edmond P. 
Christian, of Wyandotte; Samuel L. Potter, 
manager of the Rolling Mill Company ; Oscar 
T. Brinton, manager of the blast furnace of the 
same company; and Simon Mandelbaum, of 
Detroit, well known in connection with the or- 
ganization of the famous Calumet & Hecla 
Company, which controls the greatest of the 
copper mines of the northern peninsula of 
Michigan. Frederick B. Sibley was vice-presi- 
dent of the bank from the beginning until his 
death, in 1907, and since that time George 
Hendrie has held this office. William Van 
Miller was the first cashier and held this office 
until 1897, when he was succeeded by the 
present incumbent, Frederick E. Van Alstyne, 
a son of the president of the institution. The 
bank has been conducted according to con- 
servative methods, has secured the financial 
co-operation of men of the highest standing 
in the business world, and has well merited the 
public confidence which it has ever enjoyed. 
The bank has at the present time in earned 
surplus and undivided profits a fund of forty- 
five thousand dollars. 


As one of the substantial, popular and ably 
conducted financial institutions of Wayne 
county this bank is entitled to definite consid- 
eration, and it affords to the city of Wyandotte 
facilities which are greatly appreciated. 

The Wyandotte Savings Bank was organ- 
ized in 1 87 1, on the nth of November of 
which year it was incorporated under the laws 
of the state, with a capital of fifty thousand 
dollars. The enterprise was promoted by 
John S. Van Alstyne, who has been president 
of the bank from its inception and who is one 
of the most honored pioneers and influential 


Among the leading institutions of Detroit 
and the state this bank holds a position of no 
little relative priority and popularity, and in 
its operations it is fortified by the support of 
representative capitalists and business men as 
officers and stockholders and by the impreg- 
nable strength of management and control. 

The Dime Savings Bank of Detroit was or- 
ganized in the year 1884, with a capital of 
sixty thousand dollars, and it initiated business 
on May ist of that year. The personnel of its 
first board of directors was as follows : A. M. 
Henry, S. M. Cutcheon, J. E. Scripps, William 
Livingstone, Jr., J. L. Hudson, William Hull, 
R. T. F. Roehm, E. W. Voigt, and C. A. War- 



ren. The first officers of the new institution 
were as follows : Sullivan M. Cutcheon, presi- 
dent ; James E. Scripps, vice-president ; and 
Frederick Woolfenden, casiiier. A. M. Henry 
served as president from May i, 1884, until 
May 24, 1884. 

The year following the opening of the bank 
its capital stock was increased to one hundred 
thousand dollars, and in 1887 a further in- 
crease was made, to the amount of two 
hundred thousand dollars. At the present time 
the capital stock, paid in, is five hundred thou- 
sand dollars. Upon the death of Mr. Woolf- 
enden, in 1 89 1, Charles A. Warren, one of the 
original directors and for many years city pas- 
senger and ticket agent of the Michigan Cen- 
tral Railroad, became cashier, an office of 
which he has since remained incumbent. 

On the i8th of April, 1900, S. M. Cutcheon, 
who had for six years been the able and hon- 
ored executive head of the bank, was called 
from the scene of life's activities, after a career 
of signal usefulness and inviolable integrity. To 
his conservative management and financial 
acumen and to his devotion to the advancement 
and stability of the bank's interests its growth 
was in a large measure due. He was succeeded 
in the presidency by William Livingstone, who 
IS one of the best known of the representative 
business men of Detroit, where his interests are 
wide and varied, and who has well upheld the 
prestige of the institution through his wise and 
careful policy and broad grasp of affairs. He 
is extensively interested in lake shipping and 
general marine affairs, is president of the Lake 
Carriers' Association and the Michigan Navi- 
gation Company. He is ex-president of the 
Detroit Board of Trade, ex-collector of the 
port of Detroit, and ex-president of the Detroit 
park and boulevard commission. He is a 
prominent and valued member of St. Andrew's 
Society and the Fellowcraft Club, of each of 
which he has served as president, and is ex- 
vice-president of the American Bankers' As- 
sociation and ex-president of the Michigan 
State Bankers' Association. For many years 
he was publisher of the Detroit Journal, which 
has long been recognized as one of the leading 
daily newspapers of the central states. The 
vice presidents are George H. Barbour and 
Joseph L. Hudson. Mr. Barbour is vice- 

president and general manager of the Michigan 
Stove Company, one of the largest concerns of 
the kind in the world, and is ex-president of 
the Manufacturers' Association of the United 
States. Mr. Hudson has long been known as 
one of the merchant princes of the state, being 
president of the J. L. Hudson Company, of 
Detroit. The other executive officers are: 
Charles A. Warren, cashier; L. C. Sherwood, 
David S. Carnegie and Charlton E. Partridge, 
assistant cashiers; and George T. Breen, audi- 
tor. The full personnel of the directorate is 
as follows : William Livingstone, George H. 
Barbour, Joseph L. Hudson, James B. McKay, 
Bethune Duffield, Marshall H. Godfrey, Au- 
gustus C. Stellwagen, Silas P. Hovey, Aaron 
A. Parker, John Pridgeon, Jr., James E. Dana- 
This bank was founded primarily for the 
purpose of attracting small depositors, and 
her, and Charles A. Warren, 
under the capable management of its officers 
and directors it has overtaken some of its older 
competitors, has built up a commercial busi- 
ness of large volume, and is one of the staunch 
financial institutions of the city of Detroit. 
According to its official statement of September 
23, 1908, the bank has a surplus fund of $250,- 
000; undivided profits, net, $36,675.10; com- 
mercial deposits, $1,565,030.43; and savings 
deposits, $3,433,272.86. 


Distinctively unique in the history of the 
banking institutions of Detroit is that of the 
Home Savings Bank, whose record has been 
that of conservative and discriminating man- 
agement when operations were conducted upon 
a modest scale, while the same has held true 
in the amplification of the functions of the bank 
to so great an extent as to place it among the 
leading financial institutions of the state. 

This bank was organized in December, 1888, 
its charter being granted on the nth of that 
month. The bank was incorporated with a 
capital stock of two hundred thousand dollars, 
of which amount one hundred and twenty 
thousand dollars were paid in as the practical 
basis of operations. The institution initiated 
business in January, 1889, and its offices were 
at first located in the McGraw building. The 



prime object of the promoters and organizers 
was to build up a savings and commercial bank, 
without relying up the handling of accounts 
from country banks, whose exchange business 
entails much care and labor and ofifers little 
profit to the city institutions handling the same. 
The Home Savings Bank had its original stock 
well distributed in safe keeping, though its 
principal holders were not largely of the 
heaviest capitalistic class. It has been signally 
favored in having from the start to the present 
a chief executive who, though he had not had 
practical experience in banking, was well forti- 
fied for the duties of the presidency, as he had 
been a particularly successful business man, 
endowed with great pragmatic ability and ani- 
mated by that integrity and liberality which 
are so essential in the proper handling of the 
affairs of a bank. Of the honored president, 
James McGregor, individual mention is made 
elsewhere in this work, and to the article in 
question reference may be made for a succinct 
outline of his business career. 

The first official report of the Home Sav- 
ings Bank was issued March 30, 1889, after it 
had been doing business about three months, 
and it is interesting, in view of its standing to- 
day, to revert to the fact that in this report its 
resources were shown to aggregate $274,- 
871.71. In an appreciative article published in 
the Michigan Investor concerning this institu- 
tion, the following words are worthy of repro- 
duction and consequent perpetuation in this 
volume : "Its history has been closely associ- 
ated from the start with the most conservative 
business interests of the city and for more than 
the latter half of it with some of the most pow- 
erful. The influence of a single strong man, 
now, as from the start, its president, who did 
not intend to become a banker when the insti- 
tution was organized but who accepted its 
presidency because his friends rather forced 
him into it, is traceable the entire growth and 
policy of the institution." 

In May, 1894, the bank removed from the 
McGraw building to its present attractive quar- 
ters in the building erected primarily for its 
accommodation, on the corner of Michigan 
avenue and Griswold street, opposite the city 

hall, the building having been erected and fitted 
up by the president of the bank. At that time 
the offices were unexcelled by those of any 
other banking institution in the state, and they 
still remain of high comparative standard, not- 
withstanding the many fine buildings which 
have since been erected in Detroit with special 
provision for banking business. In the year of 
removal began the period of marked growth 
and expansion in the business of the Home 
Savings Bank. The present cashier, in June of 
that year, succeeded the original incumbent of 
the office, John S. Schmittdiel, and he had the 
distinction of being at the time the youngest 
bank cashier in Michigan, having been but 
twenty-five years of age at the time of his pro- 
motion to his responsible office but having lit- 
erally grown up in the banking business, in 
which he had developed distinctive executive 
power and a thorough comprehension of de- 
tails, so that he was well fortified for the du- 
ties devolving upon him. Ably seconding the 
policy of the president of the bank, he has done 
much to further the upbuilding of an institu- 
tion which now holds high rank among the 
banking concerns of the state of Michigan. 
He has been connected with the bank from the 
time of its organization, and he has won his 
advancement through the various grades to his 
present office, in which he has made a most 
admirable record. 

The Home Savings Bank now conducts its 
business upon a capital stock, paid in, of four 
hundred thousand dollars, and it has a surplus 
fund of three hundred thousand dollars. From 
its statement of September 23, 1908, are de- 
rived the following significant items relative to 
its resources: Commercial deposits, $1,276,- 
017.01 ; certificates of deposit, $23,149.20; due 
to banks and bankers, $94,583.78; certified 
checks, $5,962.12; savings deposits, $4,133,- 
150.02; savings certificates, $93,210.13; undi- 
vided profits, net, $50,108.55. In view of the 
significance of this record and the necessary 
limitations prescribed for this descriptive ar- 
ticle, it is needless to enter into farther details 
concerning the magnificent growth of this 
popular institution. Its functions as a savings 
bank are specially well ordered and beneficent. 



Its facilities in this department are in every 
way admirable, attracting a most desirable 
class of patrons. 

The present officers of the Home Savings 
Bank are as follows : James McGregor, presi- 
dent ; W. K. Anderson, vice-president ; Charles 
I. Farrell, vice-president; Julius H. Haass, 
cashier ; Edwin J. Eckert and Arthur E. Loch, 
assistant cashiers; William H. McClenahen, 
manager of the Michigan avenue branch; 
Henry A. Schulte, manager of the Gratiot ave- 
nue office; Alfred B. Tapert, manager of the 
Mount Elliott avenue branch ; and U. Grant 
Race and Walter F. Haass, attorneys. The 
following named constitute the directorate of 
the bank : James McGregor, W. K. Anderson, 
Charles I. Farrell, Orla B. Taylor, Frederick 
Guenther, Ralph Phelps, Jr., George H. Clip- 
pert, Emory W. Clark, Leartus Connor, and 
Julius H. Haass. This bank was the pioneer 
in the establishing of branch offices to meet the 
legitimate demands of and furnish accommo- 
dations to the citizens of sections far removed 
from the central institution. The policy has 
proven a wise one in every respect and has 
been emulated by other leading banking houses 
of the city. 

The bank makes loans on improved real es- 
tate in Detroit and Wayne county only. Loans 
are made of only small amounts, — to home 
builders, small manufacturers and merchants, — 
so that the loss of any loan or number of them 
could not affect the bank to any extent. 


For the exercising of two specific and im- 
portant functions was effected the organization 
of this company, which was incorporated under 
the laws of the state in November, 1889. Its 
primary objects have thus been succinctly 
stated : First, to assist those who desired to 
buy or build homes to pay off an indebtedness 
upon them by small monthly payments, cover- 
ing a period of years ; and, second, to furnish 
a safe depository for the funds of its members 
having regular incomes from salaries, wages 
or any other source, and to enable them sys- 
tematically to lay aside a portion of their in- 

come each month, to which reserve should be 
added a proportionate amount of the profits of 
the business until the deposits, together with 
the profits upon the same, had reached a cer- 
tain definite amount, when that amount would 
be paid to the investor in a lump sum. 

The company has now been in operation for 
nearly a score of years, and within this time it 
has accomplished a most beneficent work. 
Through its instrumentality have been built and 
paid for more than eight thousand homes, and 
through its medium thousands of persons have 
been enabled to accumulate sums ranging from 
one hundred to several thousands of dollars. 
Its receipts and disbursements, based princi- 
pally upon small transactions in the lines men- 
tioned, have reached at the opening of the 
present year (1908) more than thirty millions 
of dollars, — a statement which bears its own 
imperial significance. The company has with- 
out exception promptly met every demand 
placed upon it and its present undivided profits 
are one hundred and thirty-two thousand dol- 
lars. From an article descriptive of this valued 
institution of Detroit and appearing in Wen- 
dell's history of banks and banking in Michi- 
gan, is made the following pertinent extract : 
"This company is prohibited by law from ac- 
cepting any commercial risks whatever or from 
making loans upon anything but its own stock 
up to ninety per cent, of its cash withdrawal 
value, and upon real estate worth not less than 
double the amount of the loan. One of the 
greatest and most beneficent functions exer- 
cised by the company is its demonstration of 
the value of monthly-payment system of dis- 
charging mortgages." fl 

The National Loan & Investment Company 
now has well appointed and spacious offices at 
204 Griswold street, and its business has from 
the start been of the most substantial order, 
based upon the supervision of men of ability 
and capital and upon conservative but distinctly 
progressive management. Its capital stock paid 
in is $2,553,803.50 and the present officers of 
the company are as here noted : James H. 
Tribou, president ; Fred P. Todd, vice-presi- 
dent ; Frank B. Leland, secretary ; Laverne 
Bassett, assistant secretary; and Joseph B. 
Standart, treasurer. 


Industrial and Commercial 




Of primary and most insistent relevancy to 
the industrial and general commercial history 
of the Michigan metropolis is the record of the 
splendid corporation whose title initiates this 
article. There can be no measure of incon- 
sistency in saying that of all the great con- 
cerns which have contributed to the commercial 
advancement and prestige of Detroit none other 
has been a factor of so distinct importance as 
has Parke, Davis & Company, whose establish- 
ment is the largest of the kind in the world, 
whose business ramifications have carried the 
name of Detroit into all quarters of the globe, 
and whose beneficent influence, by very rea- 
son of products sent forth, has transcended the 
bounds of mere commercialism and made for 
the wellbeing of humanity. This statement will 
readily be understood when recognition is had 
of the scope of the magnificent enterprise of 
the company, — manufacturers of pharmaceuti- 
cal products, new chemicals, digestive ferments, 
empty capsules and other gelatin products, 
pressed herbs, etc.; propagators of vaccines, 
serums, antitoxins and other biological prod- 
ucts ; and importers of crude vegetable drugs, 
oils, etc., in original packages. The great main 
laboratories and general offices of the company 
are in Detroit, and the extent of the plant is in- 
dicated in the fact that six city blocks are 
owned and utilized by the company,— Atwater, 
Guoin and Wight streets, between Joseph Cam- 
pau avenue and Walker street. Branch labora- 
tories are maintained in Walkerville, Ontario, 
and London, England, and branch warehouses 
are to be found in New York city, Baltimore, 
New Orleans, Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas 
City, Minneapolis, and Indianapolis, United 
States of America; and in the following 
named foreign cities: Montreal, Quebec; 
Sydney, Australia ; Bombay, India ; St. Peters- 
burg, Russia; Tokyo, Japan; and Buenos 
Ayres, Argentina. The capital stock of the 
corporation at the present time is eight million 
dollars, and the personnel of the official and 
executive corps is as here noted: Frank G. 
Ryan, president; David C. Whitney and 
Henry M. Campbell, vice-presidents; Ernest 

G. Swift, secretary and general manager; and 
George Hargreaves, treasurer. 

The history of the inception and develop- 
ment of every large industrial enterprise in- 
variably presents varied phases, each bearing 
its specific and analytical interest, but of these 
several presentations it is quite probable that 
to the general reader only one may be of indi- 
vidual interest. Thus in a publication of the 
province assigned to the one at hand there is 
no propriety in entering into a scientific review 
of the development of the great industry rep- 
resented by Parke, Davis & Company. Rather 
should the object be to convey to the reader a 
conception of the relative importance of the 
enterprise as bearing upon the commercial 
precedence of Detroit and to offer succinct 
statements as to the generic scope of the busi- 
ness. Those who are not particularly con- 
cerned in the nature of the products which 
Parke, Davis & Company scatter so extensively 
over the world that there is probably not a 
civilized country, and few semi-civilized, 
where their label may not be found, will never- 
theless be entertained and perhaps instructed 
by the prosaic recital of the principal incidents 
which mark the commercial development of 
the enterprise. 

On the 7th of May, 1867, Dr. Samuel P. 
Duffield and Messrs. Hervey C. Parke and 
George S. Davis organized a partnership under 
the title of Duffield, Parke & Company, and 
prepared to engage in the manufacturing of 
pharmaceutical preparations. Their first labo- 
ratory, which was one of very modest order, 
was established at the corner of Cass avenue 
and Henry street, in the city of Detroit. This 
formed the nucleus around which has been 
evolved the gigantic enterprise now controlled 
by Parke, Davis & Company. In 1869 Dr. 
August F. Jennings succeeded Dr. Duffield as 
a member of the firm, whose title was there- 
upon changed to Parke, Jennings & Company. 
In 1871 Dr. Jennings retired, and Messrs. 
William H. Stevens and John R. Grout be- 
came special partners. With this change was 
inaugurated the present title of Parke, Davis 
& Company, which has thus obtained for 



nearly forty years. With the retirement of 
Dr. Jennings, Messrs. Parke and Davis became 
the active partners and managers of the busi- 
ness. It should be remembered that at that 
time Detroit had not become widely known as 
a manufacturing city. The founders of this 
great house could scarcely have had a concep- 
tion that their operations would reach beyond 
the circumscribed confines of the territory then 
supplied by Detroit's wholesale and manufac- 
turing concerns. The business, however, de- 
veloped to such an extent that it was regarded 
as an unwise policy to allow it to remain sub- 
ject to the radical changes in methods and 
control which might be entailed by the death 
or retirement of a partner, and on the 14th of 
January, 1875, the business was incorporated, 
under the title of Parke, Davis & Company, 
with a capital stock of one hundred and twenty- 
five thousand dollars, of which eighty-one 
thousand, nine hundred and fifty dollars were 
paid in. The names of the incorporators and 
first board of directors were: Hervey C. 
Parke, George S. Davis, John R. Grout, 
William H. Stevens, and Harry Tillman.' 
The president was Mr. Parke, the secretary, 
Mr. Davis, and the treasurer, Mr. Tillman. 

The consecutive expansion and development 
of this corporation is marked in no more em- 
phatic way than by the successive increases in 
its capital stock, brought about by the neces- 
sity of augmenting its capacity and facilities 
or of making proper provision for the utiliza- 
tion of its earned surplus. In 1881 the capital 
stock was increased to two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars; in 1884 to five hundred thou- 
sand dollars; in 1887 to one million dollars; 
in 1895, when the expired term of its cor- 
porate existence was extended, to two million 
dollars; in 1903 to four million dollars; and in 
1907 to eight million dollars. But the growth 
has been indicated with almost equal signifi- 
cance by the successive enlargements of the 
company's plant. The somewhat obscure 
quarters at the comer of Cass avenue and 
Henry street continued to be utilized until 
1873, when the firm acquired about four-fifths 
of an acre, comprising somewhat less than the 
east half of the block bounded by Joseph Cam- 

pau avenue, Guoin street, McDougall avenue 
and Atwater street, and upon this site an un- 
pretentious brick building of two stories was 
erected. These quarters, however, were very 
capacious as compared with those originally 
secured by the firm. It was thought that the 
new building would meet all requirements for 
many years, but in 1879 it was found necessary 
to enlarge the laboratory building, and this 
was accomplished by the erection of an addi- 
tion two stories in height and two hundred 
and forty by sixty feet in dimensions, on the 
river front of the lot. At the same time an 
ofiice and shipping building, sixty feet square 
and three stories in height, was erected. In 
1880 the laboratory was further enlarged, by 
an addition two stories in height and two hun- 
dred feet long by twenty feet wide. In the 
spring of 1883 a three-story building, for 
cnide-stock and printing purposes, was erected 
on the parallel wing, forming an extension of 
the ongmal laboratory building, sixty by two 
hundred feet. With this improvement the 
laboratory occupied the entire tract of land 
originally secured, with a court in the center 
It was realized as imperative that more ground 
should be secured, and the remainder of the 
block was therefore purchased by the com- 
pany, which soon afterward purchased also the 
block immediately to the north. The acquire- 
ment of surrounding property was extended 
from year to year, to meet the demands of the 
ever expanding business, and the company now 
own and utilize thirteen and one-third acres 
comprising practically six city blocks of the 
average size. The building operations of the 
company have been almost unparalleled 
Omitting mention of small, subsidiary struc- 
tures, the following data are worthy of con- 
sideration. The office building erected in 
1879, although apparently adequate for years 
to come, was soon found to be too small for 
Its purposes, and in 1887 a new office building 
one hundred by sixty feet, was erected, to be 
devoted solely to office and shipping purposes. 
The significance of this greatly enlarged pro- 
vision as taken in connection with the growth 
of the business is shown in the fact that at the 
present time several of the office departments 



have been crowded out of the same, for lack 
of room. What was conceived at the begin- 
ning to be ample space for the storage of fin- 
ished packages, and for packing and shipping, 
is now devoted entirely to counting-room pur- 
poses. The second story has been increased 
in size by additions and is devoted entirely to 
the offices of the executive officials, the man- 
agers, and the purchasing and sales depart- 
ments. The third story accommodates a large 
force of general clerks and stenographers, in 
addition to the legal department and the de- 
partment of animal industry. The fourth 
story has been refinished for the use of the 
department devoted to the publications in 
which the company is interested. In 1890, in 
order to meet requirements for manufacturing 
and storage, a building three stories in height 
and sixty feet deep was extended around the 
block, occupying one hundred and twenty-five 
feet on Atwater street, two hundred feet on 
Joseph Campau avenue, and two hundred and 
fifty-seven feet on Guoin street. This brought 
about the enclosure of the entire square. 

The development of the biological depart- 
ment necessitated the acquirement of two 
massive buildings originally erected by the 
late Hiram Walker for car-building purposes, 
but never so used. In 1899 the company, aftei 
having acquired the block between Guoin and 
Wight streets, erected thereon a three-story 
building, five hundred and eighteen feet long 
and sixty feet deep. About the same time was 
also effected the purchase of the building pre- 
viously erected by the United States Capsule 
Company, on the northeast comer of Joseph 
Campau avenue and Wight street. In 1903 
was erected the fine scientific building, three 
stories in height and sixty by one hundred and 
sixty feet in dimensions, and this is devoted 
almost entirely to research work in chemistry, 
biology, etc. Its equipment is undoubtedly 
unexcelled by that of any other of the kind in 
the world, — either in connection with a manu- 
facturing industry or collegiate institution. It is 
well understood to-day that all the phenomena 
of life are to be explained on the basis of 
chemical and physical laws, and it is partly 
because of a clear recognition of this fact that 

biological chemistry has gained the eminence 
it has now reached as a division of biology. 
It has furnished direct and positive aid to 
physiology and both practical and experimental 
medicine, and Parke, Davis & Company have 
accomplished a wonderful work in this field of 
research and development. In 1905 was com- 
pleted the large three-story structure which is 
now used entirely for shipping purposes and 
finishing stock, and which has an aggregate 
floor space of one hundred and thirty-seven 
thousand, seven hundred and sixty square feet. 
A new four-story building with basement, 
four hundred and ten by sixty feet, was com- 
pleted in 1908, and was occupied in July of 
that year. This gives the institution a total 
floor space aggregating fully 16.68 acres. 

In the number and character of employes 
and in the equipment of machinery and other 
facilities the same steady progression has been 
marked. At the initiation of the enterprise 
not more than twenty persons were demanded 
in conducting the same, and at the present time 
the requisition is from two thousand to twenty- 
five hundred in connection with the main es- 
tablishment in Detroit. The number engaged 
in manufacturing operations means little to 
those unfamiliar with the technique of the in- 
dustry under survey, but it can not be inap- 
propriate to state at this juncture that to-day 
there are employed in manufacturing depart- 
ments at the laboratories of Parke, Davis & 
Company in Detroit about two thousand per- 
sons; in the Canadian laboratories three hun- 
dred, and in the Continental laboratories, at 
Hounslow, England, two hundred and fifty 
persons. In the last mentioned are manufac- 
tured only such products as can not be more 
economically imported. The sales department 
in Detroit engages the attention of two hun- 
dred and fifty office employes and commercial 
travelers, and a combined force of about three 
hundred and sixty traveling representatives 
are scattered through the various branches. 
In manufacturing, assembling, packing and 
shipping, employment is given to about twenty- 
five hundred persons. 

There is an ethical and sentimental side to 
every successful business enterprise. Early in 



its historj' this important concern recognized 
certain marked deficiencies in manufacturing 
pharmacy, and at once undertook to correct 
them. The management also conceived the 
idea that there was no reason why the manu- 
facturing pharmacist should not take the same 
interest in the scientific problems that con- 
fronted the physician in his practice or the pro- 
fessor in his college. Scientific men, investi- 
gators and students in medicine and pharmacy, 
were at first suspicious of this commercial in- 
truder in their domain, but soon gave it their 
confidence and recognized it as a most val- 
uable coadjutor; the more so because it 
eschewed certain business methods and prac- 
tices which medicine and pharmacy had come 
to regard as unefhical and as prejudicial to 
public health. 

It may well be noted that long before the pos- 
sibilities of serum-therapy and biologic phar- 
macy had dawned upon the world of medical 
and pharmaceutical science, Parke, Davis & 
Company explored the unknown botanic field, 
and expended large treasure in investigation 
and experimentation. The layman will best ap- 
preciate the importance of this work when he 
learns that Cascara Sagrada, than which there 
are probably not more than four or five drugs 
in more common use, was introduced to the 
medical profession by Parke, Davis & Com- 
pany. Other such botanic drugs evolved and 
exploited by this great concern are : Grindelia 
Robusta, Guarana, Coca, Verba Santa, Tonra, 
Manaca, Chekan, Boldo, Jaborandi and 

In the field of biologic chemistry and serum- 
therapy, Parke, Davis & Company occupy an 
advanced position. In 1894, when the virtues 
of diphtheria antitoxin had been heralded 
throughout the world and the supplies were 
limited to what was produced in Germany, the 
United States congress was considering the 
proposition of appropriating twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars for the manufacturing of anti- 
toxin in this country. At this juncture, as was 
announced in an Associated Press dispatch at 
the time, Parke, Davis & Company had al- 
ready anticipated the demand and concluded 

experiments and arrangements which would 
enable them to supply it. 

This concern's reputation for progressive- 
ness has naturally brought to its attention 
many discoveries and improvements in medi- 
cine and pharmacy. Its policy has always been 
to carefully test and try out every preparation 
thus brought to its consideration. More often 
than otherwise the discovery is found to be of 
no value or impracticable for utilization in 
large manufacturing operations, but from the 
whole some valuable products, such as Taka- 
Diastase. for illustration, have been added to 
the physician's armamentarium. Adrenalin is 
another valuable example of the company's 
initiative in scientific investigation. 

It can not be doubted that nothing has more 
signally conduced to the phenomenal success 
of Parke, Davis & Company than the high 
plane of pharmaceutical integrity on which its 
operations have ever been maintained. Re- 
garding quality and therapeutic efficiency as 
of the utmost importance, the company have 
wonderfully improved the standards of the 
different pharmaceuticals existing at the time 
they came into the field, and the name itself 
of the concern is a voucher for the maximum 
of excellence in all products. Improvements 
have been made which insure the uniform 
quality of fluid extracts; the permanency and 
assimilability of gelatine-coated products, and 
likewise has essential perfection been attained 
in sugar and gelatine-coated pills, elixirs and 
other of the various forms in which remedial 
agents are presented to the physician. The 
confidence which is given to Parke, Davis & 
Company by the medical profession of the 
world and the consequent patronage accorded, 
are a natural recognition of the concern's co- 
operative efforts in medical and pharmaceutical 

With the company have been identified a 
number of the representative capitalists and 
business men of Detroit, and changes have oc- 
curred from time to time, due to death, com- 
mercial exigencies, etc. To enter into details 
concerning all those who have been officers 
and stockholders of the corporation is, as a 
matter of course, apart from the scope of such 



an article as is here entered concerning one of 
Detroit's most magnificent industrial and com- 
mercial institutions and one in which the city 
has long taken a just and commendable pride. 


Since the dawn of its history as a civilized 
community Detroit has found appreciation of 
its unexcelled water-transportation facilities, 
and among the agencies which have fostered 
the development of these natural advantages 
none has been and continues more prominent 
and efifective than that exerted by the corpo- 
ration whose name initiates this article. Its 
history dates back more than a half century 
and its fleet of vessels comprises the highest 
examples of marine architecture known to 
lake-marine navigation. The company has ex- 
erted a most potent influence in the industrial 
and civic development of the Michigan me- 
tropolis in its advancement to a position of 
importance among the leading industrial, 
financial and commercial centers of the United 
States, and a brief review of its history is 
demanded in this publication. 

The first passenger and freight service to be 
established between the cities of Detroit and 
Cleveland was initiated in the year 1850, when 
the steamers "Southerner" and "Baltimore" 
were placed in commission between these ports 
by Captain Arthur Edwards. These steamers 
covered the route during the seasons of 1850- 
51, and were succeeded in 1852 by the "Forest 
City," completed that year for John Owen and 
associates and run jointly with the steamers 
"St. Louis" and "Sam Ward," owned by E. B. 
Ward & Company. In 1853 the steamers 
"May Queen," built that year, and the "City 
of Cleveland," built the year previous, suc- 
ceeded the former vessels on the route. In 
1855, the steamer "Ocean" was added with a 
view to operating both day and night lines. 
This arrangement continued during the sea- 
son of 1855, and a portion of that of 1856, 
when the "Queen" was laid up, due to unre- 
munerative business. The seasons of 1857-61, 
inclusive, saw the route covered by the "May 

Queen" and the "Ocean." In 1862, the 
"Morning Star" was completed and displaced 
the "Ocean," and then during the latter part of 
the season the "City of Cleveland" displaced 
the "May Queen." The route was covered 
during the years 1863-66, inclusive, by the 
"Morning Star" and the "City of Cleveland." 
In 1867, the "R. N. Rice" was completed and 
displaced the "City of Cleveland." The busi- 
ness at this time was operated as the Detroit 
& Cleveland Steamboat Line and was run in 
connection with the Michigan Central Rail- 
road, affording the latter company a water 
route to Cleveland from Detroit, at that time 
its eastern terminus ; and the service was 
known and advertised as the Michigan Central 
Railroad Line. The business was conducted 
under the management of John Owen, who 
was heavily interested, and its local affairs 
were taken care of by Keith & Carter, at De- 
troit, and by L. A. Pierce, at Cleveland, act- 
ing as agents. The business had, during the 
seventeen years of operation, grown to such 
volume that it was necessary to weld the vari- 
ous private interests which controlled its ves- 
sels more closely, and during the winter of 
1867-68, John Owen and David Carter per- 
fected an organization which resulted in the 
incorporation, in April, 1868, of the Detroit 
& Cleveland Steam Navigation Company, 
with the following incorporators : John Owen, 
David Carter, Captain Ira Davis, Captain E. 
R. Viger, W. B. Watson, James Moreton, W. 
McKay, Joseph Cook and S. Gardner, of De- 
troit, and L. A. Pierce and George B. Burton, 
of Cleveland. The company was incorporated 
with a capital of three hundred thousand dol- 
lars and granted a thirty year charter by the 
state of Micliigan. Its first election of officers 
occurred in May, 1868, when John Owen was 
elected president and treasurer, and David 
Carter, secretary. Its vessels were two in 
number, the steamers "R. N. Rice" and 
"Morning Star." The latter steamer was lost 
in collision with the schooner "Cortlandt" on 
the 20th of June, 1868, with a loss of twenty- 
six lives, and her place on the route was filled 
by the steamer "Northwest," which with the 
"R. N. Rice" was run continuously until the 



close of navigation in 1876. During the win- 
ter of 1876-7, the "Northwest" was rebuilt at 
a cost of eighty thousand dollars and the fol- 
lowing summer the "R. N. Rice" was prac- 
tically destroyed by fire, while lying at her 
moorings in Detroit, the "Saginaw" taking her 
place on the route for the balance of the sea- 
son. The first vessel to be built for this com- 
pany was the "City of Detroit," a composite 
hulled steamer, completed in 1878, at a cost 
of one hundred and seventy-five thousand dol- 
lars. This steamer, with the "Northwest," 
took care of the traffic on the Cleveland route 
until 1886. The second vessel constructed was 
the "City of Cleveland," which was built in 
1880, and which was placed on a route be- 
tween Detroit and Houghton, Michigan, re- 
maining in this service during the seasons of 
1880-81-82. In 1883 the third vessel, the 
"City of Mackinac," an iron steamer, costing 
one hundred and sixty thousand dollars, was 
completed, and m connection with the steamer 
"City of Cleveland." whose name had been 
changed to the "City of Alpena," the company 
maugurated the ser\ace on the route between 
Detroit and St. Ignace, and known as the 
Lake Huron division. The fourth vessel to 
be built for the company marked a great ad- 
vance in lake passenger-steamers, being the 
first steel-hulled steamer constructed for pas- 
senger service on the Great Lakes and the first 
to be equipped with feathering wheels. This 
steamer was completed in 1886, at a cost of 
three hundred thousand dollars, was named the 
"City of Cleveland" and replaced the "North- 
west," which was sold to the White Star Line, 
and by them rebuilt and renamed the "Grey- 
hound." In 1889, the fifth vessel was com- 
pleted for the company, a steel steamer costing 
three hundred and fifty thousand dollars and 
named the "City of Detroit." This replaced 
the older vessel of that name on the Detroit- 
Cleveland route. The latter steamer was 
known as the "City of Detroit" No. i, during 
the season of 1889, and was run on the route 
between Chicago and St. Joseph, Michigan. 
The following year she was renamed the "City 
•of the Straits" and has since plied between 
Cleveland and Put-in-Bay. The demands of 

a constantly increasing business on the Lake 
Huron division taxed the capacity of the steam- 
ers operated on this route, and necessitated the 
building of new steamers of larger carrying ca- 
pacity; accordingly, in 1893, the twin vessels 
"City of Alpena" and "City of Mackinac" were 
completed at a cost of three hundred thousand 
dollars each, and they replaced the steamers 
of the same names formerly operated on the 
route, the old vessels being sold to the Cleve- 
land & Buffalo Transit Company, forming its 
first fleet; the "City of Alpena" being renamed 
the "State of Ohio" and the "City of Macki- 
nac" changed to that of the "State of New 
York." In 1906 contracts were let for the 
construction of the eighth vessel to be built for 
the company and to be ready for the season of 
1907. The hull of this vessel was laid in 
1906, her upper works were practically com- 
pleted and a large portion of her machinery 
installed when, on May 13, 1907, she was 
burned to her steel framework, entailing a loss 
to her builders, the Detroit Shipbuilding Com- 
pany, of seven hundred thousand dollars, be- 
sides that involved in the needed tonnage and 
other service which she would have supplied 
during the season. Expecting to replace the 
"City of Cleveland" with this new steamer, 
her name was changed in 1907, to the "City 
of St. Ignace" and she was to have been oper- 
ated on the Lake Huron division, but the de- 
struction of the new vessel kept her on her 
former route. The completion of the last ves- 
sel, the eighth in order of construction, marks 
the highest advancement in lake-marine con- 
stniction. The cost of the completed steamer 
is one million two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars and she is the largest, most sumptuously 
furnished and equipped of any passenger vessel 
on fresh water, and is not excelled in appoint- 
ments, comforts or construction by the best 
ocean-going steamers. Her trial trip on the 
28th of April. 1908, resulted most satisfac- 
torily to her designer, her constructors and the 
officials of the company. The new "City of 
Cleveland" has a passenger capacity of four 
thousand five hundred persons and a freight 
capacity of one thousand tons. She will be 
operated upon the Detroit-Cleveland route 



during the mid-summer months, the "City of 
St. Ignace" commencing and concluding th€ 
season on this route and during the openatioB 
of the "City of Cleveland" will be run as an 
excursion steamer on Lake Huron and adja* 
cent waters. 

In 1896-98, the Cleveland & Buffalo Tran- 
sit Company replaced the steamers "State of 
New York" and "State of Ohio" by new ves- 
sels and the Detroit company purchased a half- 
interest in these steamers, which were oper- 
ated jointly by. the two corporations as the 
Cleveland & Toledo Line. The season of 
1908 finds the "State of New York" placed 
upon the run between Detroit and Bay City, 
the initiation of this service due to repeated 
and urgent requests upon the part of the mer- 
chants and traveling public of Bay City and 
Saginaw. On the expiration of the charter 
granted to the Detroit & Cleveland Steam 
Navigation Company in April, 1868, and run- 
ning until April, 1898, the company was rein- 
corporated as the Detroit & Cleveland Navi- 
gation Company, with a capital of one million 
five hundred thousand dollars. This amount 
was increased in 1907 to two and one half 
million dollars. The terminal property owned 
by the company in both the city of Detroit and 
at Cleveland is easily accessible to the traveling 
public and also afifords the best of shipping 
facilities, while its buildings offer exceptional 
comforts to its patrons as well as the necessary 
accommodation tor the handling of its freight 

The history of the development of the busi- 
ness of this company has been marked by pro- 
gressiveness on the part of the executive of- 
ficers, both in the operative and financial de- 
partments of the organization. The continued 
insistance upon the part of the management 
that at all times the vessels of the fleet should 
excel in the controlling essentials of safety, 
speed and comfort, the spirit of enterprise and 
confidence in the appreciation by the public of 
the improvements for its benefit, have ad- 
vanced in a very marked degree the commer- 
cial development of the city and state. That 
the traveling public has justly appreciated the 
efforts of the management is easily proven by 

the universal commendation of "its service and 
the oft repeated statement "that nowhere on 
fresh water is found a fleet of vessels which 
are maintained at such a high state of ef- 
ficiency in all departments as are those of the 
Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company." 

During its life of forty years the company 
had as executive chiefs the following : John 
Owen, who with David Carter, was one of its 
most active organizers ; Mr. Owen was its first 
president and treasurer and remained its execu- 
tive head until he was succeeded by the late 
Senator James McMillan, who upon his death, 
in 1903, was in turn succeeded as president by 
his son, William C. McMillan : upon the death 
of the latter, in 1907, his brother, Philip H. 
McMillan, was elected to the office. With the 
history of the company the name of David 
Carter is indissolubly linked. The organiza- 
tion of the corporation was in great measure 
due to his efforts and the result of his ideas. 
He more than any other effected the develop- 
ment of its service, and to his unflagging zeal, 
persistent industry and impregnable faith in the 
possibilities of the line, upon the success of 
which he was ready to and did stake his all in 
the decade closing in 1870, the success and 
present unassailable position of the line are in 
a great measure due. He was connected with 
the service between Detroit and Cleveland 
some sixteen years previous to the organiza- 
tion of the company and on its incorporation 
was elected its first secretary. Shortly after- 
ward he was appointed general manager, and 
in these dual positions he remained until his 
death, in 1901. On other pages of this volume 
is printed a memoriam to him, to which the 
reader is referred for supplemental informa- 
tion. Mr. Carter was succeeded upon his 
death as general manager by the late William 
C. McMillan. Upon the death of the latter, in 
1907, he in turn was succeeded by Arnold A. 
Schantz, who became connected with the com- 
pany in 1878, and who by sheer ability and in- 
defatigable effort has risen from an unim- 
portant position in connection with the pas- 
senger department to that of executive head of 
the operative department of the company. 
Those in charge of the various departments of 



operation of which Mr. Schantz is chief are 
men of exceptional ability and who have been 
connected with the line for many years. Per- 
sonal mention of the various executives is 
printed elsewhere in the work under their re- 
spective names and the personnel is as follows : 
Executive officers — Philip H. McMillan, presi- 
dent; James McGregor, vice-president; George 
M. Black,- secretary and treasurer. Operating 
executives — Arnold A. Schantz, general man- 
ager; Bert C. Wilder, general auditor; Lin- 
coln G. Lewis, general passenger agent ; Dan- 
iel C. Mclntyre, general freight agent ; and 
Louis Thorne, chief of commissary depart- 
ment. The general offices, with the exception 
of that of general freight agent, are in the com- 
pany's building at the foot of Wayne street, 


The name of no industrial concern in De- 
troit is better known throughout the world 
than that which initiates this article, for the 
ramifications of its business are gigantic in 
scope and variety. It would be difficult for 
one not familiar with details to realize the 
multifarious agencies which have been brought 
to bear in this building up of an industry 
which is the most extensive of the kind in 
existence, for not only has it demanded the 
great executive and administrative talent and 
progressive methods which must ever be the 
concomitants of so marked commercial suc- 
cess, but there has also been the necessity for 
patient experimentation and investigation 
along definite scientific lines, a close study of 
plant growth and of the best means for gain- 
ing the products suited for varying soil and 
climatic conditions, as well as for propagating 
the ultimate types of the thousands of vege- 
tables and flowers whose seeds are the output 
of this splendid Detroit institution. An indus- 
try of so great magnitude and under a man- 
agement which is all that experience and 
science can offer, assuredly should be given 
more than cursory attention in this publication, 
within whose province it is to indicate as clearly 
as may be the sources through which the larger 
and greater Detroit is being developed. On 

other pages of this volume appears a brief re- 
view of the career of Dexter M. Ferry, the 
late head of D. M. Ferry & Company, and the 
two articles should be brought into mental 
juxtaposition by the reader in order that a 
clearer idea may be gained of the business 
enterprise to which the sketch at hand is 

This industry dates its practical inception 
back more than half a centur3^ the firm of 
M. T. Gardner & Company, seedsmen, having 
been organized in 1856 and the three inter- 
ested principals having been Miles T. Gard- 
ner. Dexter M. Ferry and Eber F. Church. 
Under the title noted the enterprise was con- 
ducted until 1865, when Mr. Gardner sold his 
interest to his associates and the firm name of 
Ferry, Church & Company was adopted. Be- 
sides Messrs. Ferry and Church, H. Kirke 
White and Charles C. Bowen were represented 
as members of the new firm, of which Mr. 
Ferry was executive head until his death, 
which occurred November 10, 1907. He 
stood as the only person who had been identi- 
fied with the business from the time of its 
foundation, and it is needless to say that its 
rise to its present status has been resultant 
upon his efiforts and abilities more than to 
those of all others who have been concerned 
with the underraking. In 1867 the present 
title of D. M. Ferry & Company was adopted 
and in 1872 Albert E. F. White was admitted 
to the firm. The business was continued under 
partnership relations and control until 1879, 
when, under the same title, it was incorporated 
under the laws of the state, with a capital of 
seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Mr. 
Ferry became president and general manager 
of the new corporation. The other original 
officers chcsen were as follows : James 
McMillan, vice-president; H. K. White, treas- 
urer; and Charles C. Bowen. secretary. The 
directorate included these executive officers 
and also A. E. F. White. John S. Newberry 
and W. K. Anderson. In 1894 the capital of 
the company was increased to its present 
amount, — eight hundred thousand dollars, — 
and the personnel of the administrative corps 
at the time of this writing is as follows : H. K. 



White, vice-president; Lem W. Bowen, treas- 
urer and general manager; D. M. Ferry, Jr., 
secretary ; and A. E. F. White, auditor. These 
officers, with Sherman R. Miller and P. H. 
McMillan, constitute the directorate of the 

Like many other industrial enterprises of 
Detroit, that of D. M. Ferry & Company had 
a modest inception, and it can well be under- 
stood how great energy, discrimination and 
generalship have been brought into play in the 
development of the same to its present mag- 
nificent proportions. The first headquarters 
of the original firm of M. T. Gardner & 
Company were established in a small store on 
Monroe avenue, and the aggregate transactions 
for the first year represented only about six 
thousand dollars, while the market was scarcely 
more than local in character. The trade of 
the concern to-day extends into almost every 
township in the United States and Canada 
and also into many foreign countries, and the 
aggregate business has reached an annual av- 
erage of fully two million dollars. The im- 
portations from English, French, German, 
Dutch and other European concerns are far in 
excess of any other seed house in America. 
The corporation supplies more than one hun- 
dred and sixty thousand retail merchants with 
complete assortments of seeds each year, and 
vast quantities are also shipped in bulk to 
wholesalers and jobbers. The average daily 
shipments now are enormous and significant. 
The corporation itself grows immense quanti- 
ties of seeds, and it also has contracts for the 
raising of stock by seed farmers in many sec- 
tions of the United States and Canada, as well 
as in European countries. These contracts are 
made with ample specifications as to care and 
conservation of the products and through this 
means are gained the hardiest and most prolific 
varieties and species of vegetables and flowers, 
with special reference to future propagation 
under the varying conditions which compass 
the patrons of the house. 

From the original store on Monroe avenue 
the establishment was removed to a more 
eligible location on Woodward avenue, where 
four stores were finally demanded to accom- 

modate the constantly expanding business. In 
1880 the business was removed to its present 
location, on Monroe avenue, where a substan- 
tial four-story warehouse with appropriate 
business offices had been erected for the pur- 
pose. In January, 1886, the entire building 
and contents were destroyed by fire, entailing 
a total loss of eight hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, with about one-half insurance in- 
demnity. On the same site the present build- 
ing was erected, being equipped with facili- 
ties far superior to those of the original build- 
ing. The aggregate floor space now utilized 
in the headquarters and warehouses A & B 
is four hundred and thirty-five thousand five 
hundred and thirty-six square feet, lacking 
only fourteen square feet of being ten acres 
and not including their box factory, — their 
main building being a substantial brick and 
stone structure three hundred by one hundred 
and twenty feet in dimensions and six stories 
in height. Through the energy and fertility 
of resource exhibited by the interested prin- 
cipals in the corporation of D. M. Ferry & 
Company there was no interruption of business 
at the time of this disastrous fire, and tem- 
porary quarters were used until the new build- 
ing could be completed. The concern now 
has three large buildings, including the 
original structure as built in 1887, and the 
trial grounds, used for experiments in seed- 
germinating, etc., are of the finest type 
and conducted under scientific methods. The 
seed-growing department of the enterprise 
was for twenty-two years in charge of 
Professor William W. Tracy, now an of- 
ficial of the department of agriculture in 
the national capital, and he has able successors 
have effectively carried forward the work 
to which he gave his attention, with all of his 
interest and enthusiasm, for so long a term of 
years. D. M. Ferry & Company have a branch 
house at Windsor, Ontario, Canada, the same 
having been established in 18S0, to facilitate 
the Canadian trade, and they also have well 
equipped receivmg warehouses at Charlevoix 
and Harbor Beach, Michigan, — much propa- 
gating work being done in the vicinity of these 
two cities. The entire executive control of 



the business, however, remains placed in the 
home estabHshment in Detroit. The concern 
gives employment to more than a thousand 
persons, including one hundred and twenty- 
five traveling representatives in the United 
States and twelve in the Canadian provinces. 
The beneficent effects of this great concern 
upon the industrial and commercial precedence 
of Detroit may well be imagined, and Mr. 
Ferry and his associates deserve prominent 
mention as being among the foremost of those 
who have aided in and are contributing to the 
upbuilding of the "Greater Detroit." 

It is consonant that in this article a word of 
special appreciation should be uttered concern- 
ing the late Charles C. Bowen, who was identi- 
fied with the enterprise from 1865 until his 
death, which occurred in August, 1900. He was 
one of the influential and honored business men 
of Detroit and was a citizen of distinctive loy- 
alty and public spirit. He was bom in Orleans 
county. New York, in 1831, and was reared 
and educated in the old Empire state, where 
he remained until 1863, when he took up his 
residence in Detroit. He had previously been 
identified with business interests in the city of 
Rochester, New York. His connection with 
the firm and corporation of D. M. Ferry & 
Company has been adequately noted in pre- 
ceding paragraphs. He was one of the chief 
stockholders in the Standard Life & Accident 
Insurance Company, of Detroit, of which he 
was vice-president for a number of years an- 
tecedent to his death, and he had also other 
local capitalistic interests of important order, 
besides being concerned in mining and rail- 
road enterprises in Arizona. He was a zealous 
and devoted member of the Baptist church, 
to the various departments of whose work he 
contributed with all of consecrated apprecia- 
tion and liberality. He was for many years a 
member of the board of trustees of the Wood- 
ward Avenue Baptist church, was a trustee of 
Kalamazoo College at the time of his demise 
and also of the University of Chicago, which 
is in general a Baptist institution. Prior to his 
removal to Michigan he was married to Miss 
Julia M. Hord, of New York state, and she 
survived him by only a short interval, her death 

occurring in 1901. They are survived by one 
son and two daughters. Lem W. Bowen, the 
only son, practically assumed his father's in- 
terests in the business of D. M. Ferry & Com- 
pany, of which corporation he had been treas- 
urer for thirteen years prior to the death of 
her father, after which he became general 
manager, while still retaining his incumbency 
as treasurer. He is one of the most enthu- 
siastic of those enterprising citizens who are 
working so earnestly for the making of the 
larger Detroit, and was president of the De- 
troit Board of Commerce, in the keeping of 
which is entrusted much of the promotive en- 
ergy brought to bear in this line. He is presi- 
dent of the Cadillac Motor Car Company, vice- 
president of the Security Trust Company, a 
director of the Michigan Fire & Marine In- 
surance Company, and vice-president of the 
Standard Accident Insurance Company. 

The only living members of the old firm of 
D. M. Ferry & Company are H. Kirke White, 
admitted into the firm of Ferry, Church & 
Company in 1866, a director in the cor- 
poration in 1879 and ever since, its treas- 
urer from 1879 to 1888, its vice-president 
since 1903; and A. E. F. White, admitted 
into the firm of D. M. Ferry & Company 
in 1872, a director in the corporation 
in 1S79 and ever since, and its auditor 
since its incorporation. He has been actively 
connected with the company continuously for 
forty-four years and H. K. White has been 
continuously connected with it forty-nine years. 
Both H. K. White and A. E. F. White are 
also largely interested in the Acme White 
Lead & Color Works and have been instru- 
mental in the success of that company from 
the beginning. They have many other impor- 
tant business and banking affiliations. 


No small measure of the great industrial 
prestige which pertains to Detroit may be justly 
attributed to the great concern whose business 
is conducted under the corporate title here des- 
ignated and which is the largest concern of its 
kind in the world. Its products are sold in 



practically every civilized country and it has 
been built up along conservative lines and upon 
the highest business principles, from which 
there has never been the slightest deviation. 
Such are the industries to which "Greater De- 
troit" points with distinctive pride and gratifi- 
cation and upon such enterprises rests to a 
large degree the material and civic prosperity 
of the fair "City of the Straits." 

Of the inception of the Michigan Stove Com- 
pany mention is made in the individual sketch 
of its virtual founder and present president, 
Jeremiah Dwyer, elsewhere in this work, and 
the two articles should be read in connection 
if a distinct grasp of the salient features of the 
history of the company is desired. In 1871 
Mr. Dwyer promoted the organization of this 
company, enlisting as his coadjutors Messrs. 
Charles Ducharme, Richard R. Long, Mer- 
rill I. Mills and George H. Barbour. The 
last named became actively identified with the 
company June 29, 1872. The company incor- 
porated under the present title and the origi- 
nal capital stock was one hundred thousand 
dollars. How great the advancement of the 
industry has been in the intervening period of 
thirty-six years may be measurably appreciated 
when it is stated that operations at the present 
time are based upon a capital of three millions 
of dollars. The original official corps of the 
Michigan Stove Company was as follows: 
Charles Ducharme, president; Jeremiah 
Dwyer, vice-president and manager; Merrill 
I. Mills, treasurer; and George H. Barbour, 
secretary. The gentlemen who organized the 
company constituted its first board of directors. 

The original plant of the concern was lo- 
cated on Jefferson avenue, corner Adair street, 
and was erected in 1872, within a period of 
twelve months. The main building was about 
one hundred by seven hundred feet in dimen- 
sions, with five stories and basement. In 1881 
was erected to the east of the original building 
an addition of about the same dimensions as 
the latter, also same height. In 1885 another 
addition was made eastward from the one com- 
pleted in 1 88 1, and in 1889 was completed 
another building as large as all of those pre- 
viously constructed. On the 8th of January, 

1907, all except the main buildings first erected 
were destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of seven 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. With 
characteristic energy the company at once in- 
stituted the rebuilding of the plant, which was 
made ready for occupancy within the brief 
period of thirteen weeks. The large and sub- 
stantial plant as it now stands is equipped with 
all modern facilities, including the best pos- 
sible fire protection. 

At the beginning of operations the company 
gave employment to but three hundred me- 
chanics, and the products were a small variety 
of both coal and wood stoves, which found 
market almost exclusively within the confines 
of the states of Michigan, Ohio and Indiana. 
The operative force of the factories at the 
present day numbers fifteen hundred persons, 
nearly all being skilled mechanics, and the an- 
nual output of stoves of all kinds, including 
gas ranges and heaters, is one hundred and 
fifty thousand stoves. A Chicago house is 
maintained, where all their business out of 
Chicago is handled, and agencies controlling 
largely the foreign trade are those established 
in London, Paris, Berlin, Constantinople, 
Spain, Honolulu and Manilla, Philippine 
Islands. The trade of the company extends 
throughout the entire United States, European 
countries, Great Britain, the Orient, and Mex- 
ico. The present official corps of this great 
company are as here noted : Jeremiah Dwyer, 
president ; George H. Barbour, first vice-presi- 
dent and general manager; Charles A. 
Ducharme, second vice-president and secre- 
tary; Merrill B. Mills, treasurer; Edwin S. 
Barbour, assistant treasurer; Harry B. Gil- 
lespie, corresponding secretary; W. J. Keep, 
superintendent; Robert L. Morley, western 
manager, with headquarters in Chicago. The 
above officers, with the exception of the three 
last mentioned are members of the directorate 
of the company, as are also Charles L. Palms 
and Francis Palms. 

Concerning the connection of Mr. Dwyer 
with the manufacturing of stoves in Detroit 
his personal sketch gives ample details, and the 
article thus incidentally makes record of the 
circumstances and conditions which led up to 



the founding of the company of which he is 
now the executive head. A repetition of the 
data is not demanded in the present article. It 
may be said, however, that Mr. Dwyer manu- 
factured the first cook stoves ever made in De- 
troit and that one of them is still owned by 
the Michigan Stove Company, being retained 
as a unique and valued relic. 


In this age of colossal enterprise and marked 
intellectual energy the prominent and success- 
ful men are those whose abilities lead them 
into large undertakings and to assume the re- 
sponsibilities and labors of leaders in- their re- 
spective fields of endeavor. Success is 
methodical and consecutive and however much 
we may indulge in fantastic theorizing as to its 
elements and causation in any isolated instance, 
in the light of sober investigation we shall find 
it to be but the result of the determined appli- 
cation of one's abilities and powers along the 
rigidly defined lines of labor — whether mental 
or manual. 

Among the great industrial enterprises 
which have conserved and are admirably main- 
taining the commercial prestige of the city of 
Detroit is that conducted under the title ap- 
pearing above, and perhaps no better descrip- 
tion of the same, as available for this com- 
pilation, can be gained than that which ap- 
peared in the Detroit News Tribune of Sun- 
day, December i6, 1906, and which is there- 
fore here reproduced with only such minor 
changes in statement and phraseology as facts 
and incidental expediency may dictate. 

Few stories of human achievement are filled 
with greater interest than that which is caus- 
ing the assembling in Detroit this week of one 
of the most unique congresses that has ever 
come to the city, — a congress of men who come 
from all parts of the United States and who 
are the living characters to-day in that story, 
begun by two poor young men nearly a quar- 
ter of a century ago, which describes the pic- 
turesque growth from pigmy to giant of the 
greatest institution of its kind in the world. 
When this congress of men, brought together 

from every state between the two seas, meet 
in the big assembly hall of the Acme White 
Lead & Color Works to-morrow, a fitting cli- 
max will have been reached in a history of 
human endeavor beyond which young men of 
to-day need not seek for a better object lesson. 
It will be the gathering of a great "family," — 
the last step in the achievement of an ambition 
born in the brains of two moneyless youngsters 
more than twenty years ago, and who, begin- 
ning with the mixing and selling of a single 
barrel of paint, now *and at the head of an 
institution unrivaled the world over. During 
the whole of this week the one hundred and 
twenty-five salesmen of the Acme White Lead 
& Color Works will be entertained by the com- 
pany. While twenty-two years ago the ex- 
penditure of a ten-dollar bill was regarded as a 
matter of considerable moment by the "com- 
pany," its reunion now means a total suspen- 
sion of soliciting business in every state in the 
Union for an entire week and the expenditure 
of a small fortune in bringing its "family" to- 
gether and caring for it while in the city. 

Just as the representatives of Michigan, of 
Ohio, and of other states go to Washington to 
participate in making laws for the welfare of 
the nation, so do these many traveling men and 
general salesmen come to Detroit to work in 
the interests of their company. Each of the 
district managers is known by the company 
as a "senator" and is so called, while each of 
the salesmen is a "representative." Together 
they form the only "congress" of its kind 
known. Being a congressman of this kind is 
not regarded as a joke. It is a position which 
demands even greater work than does such a 
berth in the ship of state. During the session 
of congress this week each of these men will 
advance ideas for the advancement of work, 
in his own territory or throughout the entire 
country. When congress adjourns next Sat- 
urday afternoon the members will return to 
their respective territories and the active work 
of the greatest factory of its kind in the world 
will again be taken up. 

Until one visits this Detroit institution, until 
he knows that it covers fourteen acres of land 
and that its capital is now one and one-quarter 



millions of dollars, it will be difficult for him, 
perhaps, to fully appreciate the efforts which 
have given this industrial giant to the city. 
During the month of November there were on 
the books of the company "immediate-deliv- 
ery" orders for one hundred and sixty-two 
carloads of paint, besides innumerable smaller 
orders. Just twenty-two years ago the "com- 
pany's" first order was for one small barrel. 
In those days there were two young men in 
Detroit, each twenty-six years of age, both 
poor but both filled with pluck and ambition. 
These were William L. Davies and Thomas 
Neal, the former now the president and the 
latter the secretary and general manager of 
the Acme company. These young fellows were 
close chums, as they have remained through- 
out their lives, and together they formulated 
scheme after scheme for going into business 
for themselves. At that time ready-mixed 
paints were a new thing, for nearly everybody 
mixed his own. Like an inspiration came the 
idea to Davies and Neal that they might go 
into the paint business. But neither knew any- 
thing about it and neither had much money. 
For a time they worked like tigers, sold every- 
thing they possessed and pooled their money. 
Together they had about twenty-eight hun- 
dred dollars. Neal took charge of the business 
at the start and Davies retained his salaried 
position, working in a wholesale drug store. 
In the meanwhile young Neal hustled for a 
location and a paintmaker. In the year 1884 
every half-grown boy was familiar with the 
old circus grounds, located on the Jones farm, 
near Grand River and Fourth avenues. It was 
in this vicinity that the Acme White Lead & 
Color Works started in business. A building 
forty by seventy feet in dimensions was rented 
and the work of making ready-mixed paints 
was begun. At that time the concern employed 
just two men, — young Neal and the paintmak- 
er. No difficulty was found in making paint, 
but for a time it looked as though people had 
stopped painting their houses or wouldn't use 
the "ready-mixed stuff." Then one day the 
first order came. It was for one barrel. A few 
days later another order came, and they rolled 
in, one after another, — the Acme White Lead 

& Color Works was under full steam. Both 
Davies and Neal made a point of working ten 
hours a day. Neal was manager, bookkeeper, 
superintendent, shipping clerk, janitor and 
factory hand, and seldom went home before 
eleven o'clock at night, frequently remaining 
at work until two o'clock in the morning. 
After his day's labor in the drug establishment 
Davies would join him and would work in the 
factory until late at night. So, step by step, 
through their indomitable energy and pluck, 
the little industry, which was to result in the 
greatest institution of its kind in the world a 
few years later, slowly gained its hold. 

After the first hard fight was won the enter- 
prise developed with remarkable rapidity. In 
the second year its capital was increased to 
twenty-five thousand dollars and Albert E. F. 
White and H. Kirke White became financially 
interested. The little business was now out- 
growing its quarters. A salesman had been 
put upon the road, the manufacturing staff had 
been increased to about twelve persons, and at 
the end of the second year it was found neces- 
sary to secure another Grand River avenue 
building, thirty by one hundred feet in size. 

Davies now gave up his position in the drug 
house and devoted his entire time, with his 
friend, to the development of their own con- 
cern. Within two years, and before either had 
passed his twenty-eighth year, these young 
men had successfully launched what quickly 
developed into one of the city's chief enter- 
prises. In 1886 another three-story building 
was added, and the following year several 
other buildings were secured. Again and 
again new capital was added to the company, 
until in 1887, only five years after two poor 
young men had set out to earn a livelihood by 
making paint, the largest part of the present 
site of the Acme White Lead & Color Works 
was purchased. From that time on the growth 
of the institution was little less than phenom- 
enal. From 1893 to 1896, years of great finan- 
cial depression, when corporations were either 
failing or calling in their traveling men, the 
Acme company added to all their traveling 
forces, arguing that "when the other fellows 
are down is the time to hunt for trade." So 



indomitably did the)' work through these years 
of panic that in 1896, when the era of depres- 
sion was ending, the erection of the present- 
day factories was begun, upon the site pur- 
chased a few years before. 

A more striking contrast could not be imag- 
ined than that between the plant of to-day and 
the little factory of twenty-two years ago. 
While it had only two men at work then it now 
employs four hundred persons in Detroit, be- 
sides one hundred and twenty-five traveling 
salesmen. The industry, which started on a 
barrel of paint and which occupied but one 
large room, now produces a larger output than 
any other paint factory in the world, and its 
magnificent buildings occupy fourteen acres of 
land. Out of the "twenty-five hundred dollar 
scheme" of two poor young men have grown 
the several great industries of the present-day 
institution with its capital of one and one- 
quarter millions of dollars. These are a fac- 
tory for making mixed paints, a dry-color fac- 
tory, a white-lead corroding plant, and fac- 
tories for the manufacturing of chemicals and 
linseed oil. 

One of the most remarkable things in con- 
nection with the upbuilding of this magnificent 
Detroit institution is the fact that every dollar 
of its capital has been earned. In other words, 
the Acme White Lead & Color Works has 
made itself, dollar by dollar. Additions were 
made only as the plant earned the necessary 
money. Outside capital was never solicited. It 
is absolutely a self-made factory, — just as the 
two hard-working youngsters who started it 
are self-made men. And this fact has had much 
to do with its history. It has brought its em- 
ployes in closer sympathy with it, and all 
over the country Acme people speak of the 
plant as "home." And it is a home, as nearly 
as any factory on earth could be. The men who 
became associated with the factory in its early 
days still remain with it, and it is with great 
pride that the men at its head to-day point to 
the fact that here have been no "family" quar- 
rels among them. 

To properly appreciate what may be done 
by young men of energy and pluck, even 
though they may be poor financially, one 

should take a trip through this greatest plant 
of its kind in existence. From the time one 
enters the magnificent offices until he comes 
out at the last door of the works he will en- 
counter new and interesting things. From the 
elegance of the one great office floor he may 
pass into the dining rooms, where prettily ar- 
ranged tables await the employes, and from 
there he may pass into the great assembly hall, 
where "congress" of the concern assembles. As 
he continues his journey he will pass through 
one of the biggest printing offices in the city; 
he will cover floor after floor in great ware- 
houses, and then he will be plunged into the 
noise and activity of the manufacturing plants, 
where he may pass one of the most interesting 
days of his life. And when he comes forth and 
goes once more on his way, he may well won- 
der at the indomitable energy which produced 
— from a barrel of paint, two men and a little 
shop — this industrial giant of to-day. 

William Davies is president of the company, 
and Thomas Neal, secretary and general man- 
ager. Brief biographies of the president and 
secretary of the company appear elsewhere in 
this work. 


The name of Dwyer has been most conspic- 
uously identified with the manufacturing of 
stoves in Detroit and representatives of the 
name have had most to do with bringing to 
the city the prestige of having the largest 
stove manufactories in the world. The virtual 
founder of the concern whose title initiates 
this article was James Dwyer, of whom indi- 
vidual mention is made in this work and who 
was originally associated with his brother Jer- 
emiah, to whom likewise a specific sketch is 
dedicated in this publication. 

The business of the Peninsular Stove Com- 
pany may properly be said to date its founda- 
tion back to the year 1861, though the present 
title was not adopted until a score of years 
later. In the year first mentioned, Messrs. 
Jeremiah and James Dwyer and Thomas W. 
Mizner organized the firm of J. Dwyer & 
Company, which established a small stove 
foundry at the corner of White street and 



Mount Elliott avenue, Detroit. Two years 
later Mr. Mizner's interest was purchased by 
Jeremiah Dwyer, and the firm name continued 
the same as previously until 1864, when a 
stock company was organized, under the title 
of the Detroit Stove Works. In 1871, on ac- 
count of impaired health, Jeremiah Dwyer 
sold his interest in the Detroit Stove Works to 
his brother James, who continued to be ac- 
tively identified with the management of the 
business for a decade thereafter. In 1881 
James Dwyer purchased the old Eureka Iron 
Works, in the village of Wyandotte, and un- 
der his effective supervision the business was 
there built up to a point where about four tons 
of iron were used per diem, while employment 
was given to about fifty hands. The original 
products were principally cook stoves, and the 
same found sale mostly in Detroit and the 
southern part of the state. Under the 
title of James Dwyer & Company the 
enterprise was continued until 1882, in 
March of which year the business was 
incorporated under the present title of 
the Peninsular Stove Company. The 
headquarters were then transferred to Detroit 
and the plant was established on its present 
site, at the corner of Fort and Eighth streets. 
The original plant at this location had a front- 
age of three hundred feet on Fort street, and 
the magnificent growth of the enterprise is 
measurably indicated in the status of the pres- 
ent works, which occupy two entire blocks on 
Fort street, running back a distance of four 
hundred feet. The entire tract is covered with 
the buildings of the company and employment 
is now afforded to twelve hundred men, most 
of whom are skilled mechanics. In meeting the 
requirements of the pay roll the company ex- 
pends from twenty-five thousand to thirty 
thousand dollars every two weeks, and the 
annual output, including heating and cooking 
stoves, is seventy-five thousand stoves. The 
products are sold in all parts of the United 
States and Canada, and the foreign trade is 
constantly expanding. 

The Peninsular Stove Company was incor- 
porated with a capital stock of fifty thousand 
dollars, and this has since been increased to 

three million dollars, to meet the demands 
placed upon the institution by its immense 
business and amplified operations. The origi- 
nal organizers of the company were James 
Dwyer, William B. Moran, Fred T. Moran 
and R. McD. Campau, and the respective offices 
which were assumed were as here noted: 
William B. Moran, president; James Dwyer, 
vice-president and general manager; and R. 
McD. Campau, secretary. The present officers 
of the company are as follows : Fred T. 
Moran, president; James Dwyer, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager; John M. Dwyer, 
secretary; James M. Dwyer, treasurer; and 
Daniel T. Crowley, auditor. On the director- 
ate are found, besides these executive officers, 
a number of the best known and most influ- 
ential capitalists and business men of Detroit. 
The concern is now one of the largest of the 
kind in the world and has had much potency 
in furthering the industrial precedence of 


One of the splendid manufacturing concerns 
which constitutes a brilliant jewel in the in- 
dustrial crown of the city of Detroit is that 
whose title initiates this article, and that the 
same has been gained to the Michigan metrop- 
olis is but another mark of appreciation of 
the superior advantages here offered as a 
manufacturing and distributing center. The 
unique product of the Burroughs company is 
now known throughout the civilized world, 
for the Burroughs adding machine was the 
first practical device of the sort ever placed on 
the market, its supremacy has easily main- 
tained at all times and against all competition, 
and its use has simplified, facilitated and in- 
sured accuracy in the handling of all lines of 
business. It is not within the province of this 
necessarily circumscribed article to enter into 
details concerning the labors of the earnest 
and determined inventor of this splendid piece 
of mechanism, nor to reveal the struggles and 
vicissitudes he encountered ere he was enabled 
to perfect the device, but it is sufficient to say 
that the name of William Seward Burroughs 



will go down in history as that of the inventor 
of one of the most useful mechanisms ever 
given to the business world. He lived to wit- 
ness the definite success of his protracted and 
self-denying efforts and was summoned from 
life in the very prime of his strong and useful 
manhood. His death occurred on the 14th of 
September, 1898, and well may it be said that 
"His works do follow him." The company 
which perpetuates his name and manufactures 
his invention has issued a beautiful little 
brochure in which is entered a review of his 
life history, and to this the interested reader 
may be referred. Mr. Burroughs died a num- 
ber of years before the company established 
its great plant in Detroit, but it is fitting that 
in this article due honor be paid him as having 
made possible the upbuilding of the magnifi- 
cent concern which is contributing so materi- 
ally to the industrial and commercial prestige 
of Detroit. From the artistic little memorial 
work just mentioned we draw the following 
brief extract: "Finally there was produced 
the perfected Burroughs adding and listing 
machine. The patient inventor was at last 
triumphant, and soon the whole world mar- 
veled at the invention — a perfect adding 
mechanism — adapted to the uses of the bank, 
the counting-room, and of every business re- 
quiring quick and accurate accounting. Bur- 
roughs had won. When he died, honored by 
the world, wealth at last had become his; but 
he valued far more the love and esteem of his 
official associates and of the 350 employes of 
the company he had founded. A beautiful 
marble shaft was erected by his friends and 
associates over his grave in Bellefontaine 
cemetery, St. Louis, Missouri. Under that 
stately column reposes a man who was noble 
in poverty, humble in wealth, and great in his 
benefits to humanity." Mr. Burroughs was 
but forty-one years of age at the time of his 

The manufacturing and placing on the mar- 
ket of the Burroughs adding machine was 
instituted in the city of St. Louis, Missouri, 
in 1888. In January of that year was organ- 
ized the American Arithmometer Company, 
which was incorporated with a capital stock of 

one hundred thousand dollars; this was in- 
creased to five hundred thousand dollars prior 
to the death of Mr. Burroughs. The original 
officers were as here noted : Thomas Metcalfe, 
president; William S. Burroughs, vice-presi- 
dent; Richard M. Scuggs, treasurer; and A. 
H. B. Oliver, secretary. William R. Pye was 
also one of the stockholders in the original 
company. All of those who were thus interested 
are now deceased. At the start the company 
struggled against great obstacles and for some 
time its existence was rather precarious, but 
the passing years could not fail to bring suc- 
cess to a venture based upon a foundation of 
so substantial an order. The original company 
eventually brought the output of its factory 
up to about twenty machines a day. The head- 
quarters of the enterprise remained in St. 
Louis until 1904, when the removal to Detroit 
was made, principally through the influence 
of Joseph Boyer, president of the company at 
the present time. His intimate association with 
the industry is noted more fully in the specific 
sketch of his career, on other pages of this 
work. In Detroit was organized in 1905 the 
Burroughs Adding Machine Company, which 
was incorporated in January of that year, 
under the laws of the state, and with officers 
as follows: Joseph Boyer, president; Henry 
Wood, of St. Louis, vice-president; Benjamin 
G. Chapman, secretary and treasurer; Alvan 
Macauley, general manager; Alfred J. 
Daughty, manager of the works; and Joseph 
Boyer, Benjamin G. Chapman, Henry Wood, 
Edward Rector, and Emil P. Wenger, direc- 
tors. The gigantic plant of the company is 
located on Second avenue and Amsterdam 
street, where a tract of nine acres was secured 
for the purpose. One-third of this area is 
covered by the buildings, which have an ag- 
gregate floor space of three and one-half acres. 
The main building is three hundred and 
twenty feet square and a part of the same is 
two stories in height. All of the buildings are 
constructed of brick and stone and are of the 
most substantial and modern type, as is also 
the mechanical equipment in every department 
of the great institution. Employment is now 
given to more than sixteen hundred persons. 



including operatives and office force, and over 
two hundred men represent the concern 
through its trade territory. It is scarcely 
necessary to state that the factory employes 
are nearly all skilled artisans, and the pay 
roll of the company represents an average 
weekly expenditure of twenty-five thousand 
dollars. The aggregate of sales in 1906 was 
more than three and one-half millions of dol- 
lars, and this was exceeded by the sales for 
1907. Detroit takes justifiable pride in having 
gained to herself this magnificent industry, the 
largest of the kind in the world and one whose 
prestige is ever increasing. 


The Detroit branch of this great manufac- 
turing institution is comprised of what was for- 
merly known as the Peninsular Car Company, 
located at Ferry and Russell streets ; the Michi- 
gan Car Company; the Detroit Car Wheel 
Company, and Detroit Pipe and Foundry 
Company, located at Michigan and Clark ave- 
nues ; and the Baugh Steam Forge, located on 
the Detroit river at the foot of Clark avenue. 
All of these properties were merged into the 
Michigan-Peninsular Car Company in Sep- 
tember, 1892, and in March, 1899, were 
acquired by the American Car & Foundry 
Company, with other plants located in Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, Buffalo and other cities. The 
plants in Detroit are designated as the Penin- 
sular Department, Michigan Department and 
Forge Department. In 1884 the Peninsular 
Car Company purchased twenty-five acres of 
land at Ferry and Russell streets and in the 
same year erected buildings and installed 
equipment of the best to be had at that time. 
It was then only necessary to arrange for the 
construction of wooden cars. When the de- 
mand for steel cars made it apparent that 
eventually the wooden car would give way 
to the car of steel construction, large shops 
were erected at this plant and equipped with 
machinery adapted to this work. The build- 
ings alone now cover about twenty acres and 
the total acreage occupied is fifty-two. The 
capacity of the plant is about seventy-five cars 

per day and the large acreage occupied is 
necessary for storage of material and for 
trackage to handle new cars. There are also 
foundries at this plant in which are made the 
wheels and castings for cars turned out. When 
operated to capacity about forty-five hundred 
men are employed, one-third of whom are 
skilled mechanics. 

The Michigan Department, at Michigan and 
Clark avenues, occupies thirty-nine acres. The 
capacity of the Michigan car shop is twelve 
thousand cars per annum, made up of box, 
gondola and refrigerator cars. At the found- 
ries one hundred thousand car wheels are 
made annually, about twenty thousand tons of 
gray iron castings, for cars, locomotives and 
structural work, and twenty thousand tons of 
water and gas pipe. This latter is supplied to 
municipalities and public-service corporations. 

At the Forge Department, occupying nine 
acres of land on the shore of the Detroit river 
at the foot of Clark avenue, about fifty thou- 
sand tons of bar iron are made annually, prac- 
tically all of which goes into the construction 
of new cars. 

The American Car and Foundry Company 
occupy, within the radius of the three-mile 
circle, one hundred acres of land and when 
operating their Detroit plants to capacity em- 
ploy in all about seven thousand men, and the 
amount paid for labor is seventy-five thousand 
dollars per week. This is Detroit's largest in- 
dustry and the amount of its weekly pay roll 
indicates its value tu the city. 

The company's general offices are in St. 
Louis, Missouri. Mr. George H. Russel is the 
local representative on the board of directors. 
Joseph G. Johnston is district manager, and 
P. H. Sullivan, assistant manager of the De- 
troit district. Both of these men have been 
identified with the company for a number of 

Representative Detroit capitalists who were 
formerly identified with the car building in- 
dustry in Detroit are Colonel Frank J. Hecker, 
C. L. Freer and James McGregor, and the late 
Senator James McMillan, John S. Newberry, 
Christian H. Buhl, Theodore D. Buhl, Gen- 
eral Russell A. Alger, James F. Joy, and Will- 
iam C. McMillan. 




If there is any one feature which gives 
emphasis to the enterprising character of the 
city of Detroit in this progressive era it is the 
superiority of the facihties provided for rapid 
transit within her borders, and judged by the 
high standard maintained, the Michigan 
metropolis holds rank with the leading metro- 
politan centers of the country. 

The Detroit United Railway controls all 
street and suburban lines in and entering the 
city of Detroit, and its policy is one of liber- 
ality and utmost progressiveness, as is mani- 
fest in the fine equipment and the service 
accorded. The company was incorporated 
under the laws of the state of Michigan on the 
31st of December, 1900, and its capital stock 
is twelve and one-half million dollars. The 
franchises of the company cover all lines in the 
city, and at the time of incorporation the 
ownership of the Grosse Pointe and Highland 
Park lines also became vested in this corpora- 
tion. In 1902 were acquired also the Detroit 
& Flint and the Detroit & Pontiac interurban 
lines, as well as the Detroit & Northwestern, 
(known as the Orchard Lake division), and 
the Detroit & Wyandotte lines. The company 
also owns all the stock of the Rapid Railway 
system, the line from Grosse Pointe to Mount 
Clemens, the Detroit & Toledo line, and that 
between Detroit and Jackson. Since this com- 
pany was incorporated it has added seven 
hundred and eight miles of track to its prop- 
erties, and in the province of Ontario, Canada, 
it owns and operates the lines from Windsor 
to Walkerville and Tecumseh. In Detroit the 
system has been greatly amplified by the ex- 
tension of the existing lines and by the install- 
ing of new ones. Cars of the most modem 
and improved type have replaced those of in- 
ferior order and the constant aim is to main- 
tain the highest perfection in service and 
facilities. The company owns all of the capital 
stock of the Detroit & Port Huron Shore Line 
Railway, and also all of the capital stock of 
the Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Rail- 
way. Its total mileage is now nearly eight 
hundred miles; its rolling stock consists of 
1,561 cars, 2,637 motors, and 2,019 trucks. 

At the time of incorporation the company 
elected the following named officers : Henry 
A. Everett, president; Jere C. Hutchins, vice- 
president and treasurer; Albert E. Peters, sec- 
retary; and Antoine B. du Pont, general 
manager. The last mentioned official resigned 
his position within the same year and removed 
to St. Louis, Missouri. The personnel of the 
present official corps (1908) is as follows: 
Henry A. Everett, of Cleveland, Ohio, chair- 
man of the board of directors; Jere C. Hutch- 
ings, Detroit, president; Arthur Pack, Detroit, 
vice-president; Edward W. Moore, Cleveland, 
second vice-president; Edwin Henderson, 
New York, secretary; George H. Russel, De- 
troit, treasurer; Albert E. Peters, Detroit, 
assistant secretary; and Frank W. Brooks, 
Detroit, general manager. All of the officers 
mentioned with the exception of the secretary 
and assistant secretary are also members of 
the board of directors, which includes also the 
following named : Robert B. Van Cortlandt, 
New York city; Charles M. Swift, Detroit; 
Alonzo Potter, New York city ; and A. J. Fer- 
guson and J. M. Wilson, of Montreal, 


One of the most beneficent forces that has 
entered into and permeated modern civiliza- 
tion is that of life insurance. Its functions 
are in the protection of those who are nearest 
and dearest to the individual and thus they 
touch the home — that conservator of all that 
is best and most enduring in the scheme of 
human existence. In the light of recent de- 
velopments and investigations which have 
revealed much that is wrong in the conduct of 
the business of certain corporations conducting 
life-insurance business there is no reason for 
public disquietude or lack of confidence, for 
the basic elements of indemnity remain un- 
changed and exalted and there are innumer- 
able concerns which have a high sense of their 
stewardship and regulate their operations upon 
a broad, safe and humanitarian basis, enlisting 
the highest personal integrity and manipulat- 
ing their financial affairs for the distinct and 



prime benefit of those who seek security 
through their interposition. Such a concern 
is the Michigan -Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany, of Detroit, a corporation whose magnifi- 
cent growth has been the diametrical result of 
effective service, honorable methods and pub- 
lic appreciation of the same. 

This well known and substantial insurance 
company instituted business forty years ago, 
and its history is without spot or blemish. In 
1867 it was incorporated under the laws of 
Michigan and began the transaction of life- 
insurance business within its assigned prov- 
ince, which then comprised practically only 
the state. Concerning its inception and growth 
the following pertinent extracts are taken 
from the Michigan Investor, a weekly publi- 
cation, of the issue of August 27, 1904. 

"The Michigan Mutual Life Insurance 
Company has far outgrown the dreams of its 
original organizers. It has become one of the 
big organizations of Detroit and Michigan 
and is now on the high road to take rank as 
one of the large insurance companies of the 
country. The dreams of the organizers of the 
company were modest, it must be chronicled. 
They expected the company to do largely a 
local business, with possible extensions into 
Ohio and Indiana. With such a restricted 
field its growth was naturally slow. The fact 
that it wrote endowment business almost ex- 
clusively- for many years also was a check upon 
rapid advancement, as in course of time the 
endowment policies matured almost as fast 
as new business could be written. All this is 
changed now. The methods pursued by the 
company were revolutionized with the advent 
of Mr. O. R. Looker as secretary and man- 
ager, in 1883. From this year dates the real 
growth of the Michigan Mutual Life into a 
big insurance concern. 

"The company is now abreast of any like 
concern in the world in the issuance of all ap- 
proved forms of life-insurance contracts. It 
was the first company in the United States to 
endorse cash surrender values upon insurance 
policies, and it also has been the pioneer in 
many of the most attractive insurance con- 
tracts which are now universally approved and 

used. Perhaps the most important of these 
is the provident plan of insurance, a method 
whereby the payments are made by the insured 
in monthly installments, instead of annually, 
thus supplying the masses with reliable old- 
line life insurance upon terms easily within 
their reach. This form of insurance has be- 
come so popular that many competing com- 
panies have copied and adopted it. - 

"Prior to 1883 the company's business 
had been confined to Michigan, Ohio and In- 
diana. Now it is ably and vigorously repre- 
sented in twenty states, and the expansion is 
not yet ended. What the company has accom- 
plished within the period of forty years that it 
has been doing business can be best told in 
figures. These show that it passed through 
the various periods of business depression 
which have occurred during the four decades 
with flying colors, surviving financial panics 
which stranded many older companies — a high 
compliment to the conservative methods of its 
officers. The whole number of policies issued 
during 1869 was 842, and the net number of 
policies in force was 1,018, carrying aggregate 
risks of $1,694,600. By December 31, 1873, 
the assets had passed the half million mark, 
standing at $500,336.21, despite the financial 
panic. There was a steady mounting of the 
assets of the company for the next four years. 
In 1880 the million-dollar mark had been over- 
hauled, and there has been no setback in 
growth since. The three-million mark was 
passed in 1890 and the four-million mark was 
crossed in 1892. On January i, 1904, the 
books showed the magnificent figures of $8,- 
355,318.29. At this time the whole amount 
of insurance in force was $42,804,923.47, and 
the policies in force were 32,719. The sur- 
plus yet stands near the $500,000 mark. (On 
the I St of January, 1907, the books of the 
company showed assets to the amount of $9,- 
902,754, and since that date the ten-million 
mark has been passed. The insurance in force 
now aggregates forty-seven million dollars). 
"The proof of the successful management 
of a life-in-^urance company, it is repeatedly 
asserted, is the earning power of the funds 
intrusted to its care by its policy holders and 



the wisdom and care with which such funds 
are invested. The funds of the Michigan 
Mutual Life Insurance Company are all in- 
vested in first-mortgages upon real estate, 
worth in all cases at least twice the amount 
loaned thereon, and upon the security of its 
own policies. Not a dollar of the funds of this 
company is invested in stocks or other fluctu- 
ating securities. The Michigan Mutual Life 
Insurance Company was originally capitalized 
at one hundred thousand dollars, which 
amount was increased to two hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars in 1876, at which figure 
it yet stands. This capital is all paid up, and 
in addition the company has in the custody of 
the treasurer of Michigan a deposit of one 
hundred thousand dollars as a security for its 
policy holders. This money can not be with- 
drawn while a policy of the company remains 
in force." 

It is not within the province of an article 
of this nature to enter into manifold details 
as to the history and status of any of the con- 
cerns here represented, but this outline of the 
admirable record of one of Michigan's splen- 
did institutions is consistently given place in 
the pages. The first president of the company 
was the late Hon. John J. Bagley, who was 
succeeded, after a regime of four years, by 
Jacob S. Farrand, who remained at the head 
for nearly a quarter of a century, when death 
severed the connection. He was succeeded by 
William A. Butler, who died within the same 
year and who was succeeded by Hon. Thomas 
W. Palmer, who served until 1893, when the 
present incumbent, Oscar R. Looker, was 
elected president, still retaining the position of 
active manager. Of the men mentioned in this 
connection there is no need for extended men- 
tion, for their names loom large in the finan- 
cial and civic history of Detroit and the state 
of Michigan. During all the years through 
which the company has been doing business it 
has had the executive and capitalistic support 
of citizens of the highest type, and the direc- 
torate, as well as the executive corps, has ever 
been a voucher for reliability and correct 
methods. The present officers are as follows : 
O. R. Looker, president ; C. A. Kent, first vice- 

president and counsel ; Hoyt Post, second vice- 
president; A. F. Moore, secretary; Theron F. 
Giddings, general superintendent of agencies; 
G. W. Sanders, actuary; T. E. McDonough 
and B. A. Welstead, assistant secretary and as- 
sistant actuary, respectively; J. P. Dawson, 
cashier; A. H. Wilkinson, attorney; and C. 
A. Devendorf, M. D., medical director. The 
full personnel of the directorate of the com- 
pany is as follows : O. R. Looker, A. F. Moore, 
T. F. Giddings, C, A. Kent, Hoyt Post, A. 
H. Wilkinson, C. A. Devendorf, T. E. 
McDonough, D. M. Ferry, George Peck, R. 
P. Williams, C. H. Candler, W. S. Green, L. 
H. Chamberlin, W. H. Brace, Thomas A. 
Wadsworth, M. L. Williams, E. H. Elwell, 
D. F. Mooney, and J. J. Mooney. 

The foregoing record offers a brief resume 
of the upbuilding of this strong and valued 
Michigan institution, and the work accom- 
plished by the Michigan Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company has brought to it all of honor 
and prestige and has reflected distinction upon 
the city and state. 

Concerning the headquarters of the com- 
pany the following description is taken from 
the Michigan Investor, to which we are in- 
debted for previous excerpts. 

"When the company began business it oc- 
cupied an office in old Fireman's hall, in the 
Biddle block, on Jefferson avenue, and its 
office force consisted of three persons. Later 
it moved to the Buhl block on Griswold street. 
To-day it owns the historic building at the cor- 
ner of Jefferson avenue and Griswold street, 
and employs more than fifty persons to trans- 
act its office business alone. The framed check 
which paid for its home is one of the prized 
possessions of the company. 

"The building is one of the landmarks of 
Detroit. It was the first stone structure to 
be erected in Detroit, if not in Michigan. 
Originally built for the Bank of Michigan, in 
the '40s, it was occupied by Uncle Sam with 
the postoffice and federal courts, and the fed- 
eral government retained possession of it until 
1855, when it again became a banking office, 
being occupied by the Michigan Insurance 
Bank, the National Insurance Bank, and 



finally the First National Bank. The site of 
the building is prominently identified with the 
early history of the city. A bronze tablet 
which appears upon the face of the structure 
was dedicated by the Society of Colonial Wars 
and the Society of the Sons of the American 
Revolution. It tells this story: 

"This tablet designates the site of one of the 
gateways of Fort Detroit. The original stock- 
ade was known as Fort Pontchartrain and was 
erected when the city was founded, in 1701. 

"Through the gateway here located, Pontiac, 
the Ottawa chief, with a band of Indians, 
passed on May seventh, 1763, intending to 
surpise and massacre the garrison. 

"The exposure of his plot on the previous 
day caused the defeat of his plans and gave the 
English the supremacy of this region until the 
close of the Revolutionary war." 


One of the largest and most modernly 
equipped institutions of the kind in the Union 
is that conducted in Detroit under the cor- 
porate title appearing above, and the concern 
has the farther distinction of being one of the 
oldest in the country. Like many others of the 
magnificent business and industrial enterprises 
of Detroit, it had its inception on a most 
modest scale, and its growth to its present 
proportions has been the diametrical result of 
the application . of energy, technical skill, 
marked commercial prescience and inviolable 
integrity of purpose. On other pages of this 
work appears a brief review of the career of 
Claudius H. Candler, president of the com- 

In the spring of the year 1863, after a so- 
journ of several years in the state of Minne- 
sota, Thomas Calvert came to Detroit, where 
he soon afterward entered into partnership 
with John Gibson, a practical lithographer, 
who had lately established the business in this 
city, and they engaged in the lithographic 
business under the firm name of John Gibson 
& Company, beginning operations in a small 
building at the southwest comer of Jefferson 

avenue and Bates street. In the following 
year Mr. Calvert purchased his partner's in- 
terest and changed the title to Calvert & Com- 
pany. The enterprise was thus continued, 
with a modest office in a building at the north- 
east corner of Jefferson avenue and Griswold 
street, until 1867, when, on the i6th of March, 
the business was incorporated under the laws of 
the state, as the Calvert Lithographing & En- 
graving Company. Under the new regime the 
capital stock was placed at forty thousand dol- 
lars, and the first official corps was as follows : 
Thomas Calvert, president; Claudius H. Cand- 
ler, vice-president and secretary; and Charles 
B. Calvert, treasurer. In 1870 the plant of the 
company was removed to quarters in the 
Arcade building, on Earned street west, and in 
1874, still more commodious quarters were 
secured in the new Tribune building, adjoin- 
ing the Arcade. In 1881, having outgrown 
these quarters, the business was removed into 
the new building erected by the late Frederick 
Buhl, at the southwest corner of Earned and 
Shelby streets. Eventually the concern se- 
cured and utilized this entire building, five 
stories in height, and there the headquarters 
were maintained for the long period of twenty- 
two years, within which the company had 
gained prestige which made its name known 
in the most diverse sections of the Union. 

In 1897 the charter of the company expired 
by limitation, and on the i6th of March, the 
thirtieth anniversary of its granting, the 
original stockholders, including William A. 
Ross, held a meeting and formally transferred 
the property of the company to its lineal succes- 
sor the Calvert Lithographing Company, whose 
interested principals and officers remained 
practically the same, George W. Heigho, 
who had been identified with the concern for 
sixteen years, becoming a stockholder at this 
time. Mr. Calvert remained president of the 
company, and actively supervised its affairs 
until his death, in 1900, and in the meanwhile 
the capital stock was increased from time to 
time until it reached its present figures, two 
hundred thousand dollars. In 1901 the com- 
pany began the erection of its present exten- 
sive plant, at the corner of Grand River ave- 



nue and Elizabeth street, and the same was 
completed and ready for occupancy in May, 
1902. Fifty-two days were required in mak- 
ing the removal into the new quarters, and the 
cost involved was six thousand dollars. The 
present plant represents an expenditure of one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and is one 
of the most modern and complete lithograph- 
ing establishments in the country. 

When the business was instituted originally 
it gave employment to two men and a boy, 
and was almost entirely local. It now employs 
over three hundred hands and extends 
throughout the entire United States and their 
possessions. During the corporate life of this 
company the lithographic business has been 
practically revolutionized, but the company has 
more than kept pace with the multifarious 
changes. In the present plant one hundred 
and fifty thousand square feet of floor space 
are utilized, and every department is thor- 
oughly modern and complete in equipment and 
appointments. The personnel of the present 
executive corps of the company is as follows : 
Claudius H. Candler, president; William A. 
Ross, vice-president; and George W. Heigho, 
secretary and treasurer. 


An industry of magnitude and one whose 
operations are based on ample capital and all 
that thorough experience and care can bestow, 
is that conducted under the title which forms 
the caption of this article. No concern of 
similar functions in the state of Michigan ex- 
cels this in the extent and importance of its 
work, and the company is recognized as one 
of the substantial and emphatically proo-ressive 
corporations of this favored commonwealth. 

The Detroit Creamery Company controls 
a business whose inception dates back nearly 
forty years and whose history has been one of 
consecutive growth and ever increasing suc- 
cess. The company was incorporated in 1900, 
with a capital stock of one hundred and forty 
thousand dollars, which was increased to two 

hundred thousand dollars in 1906, while in 
the following year, in meeting the amplifying 
demands of the enterprise, a further increase 
was made, to the noteworthy capital stock of 
four hundred thousand dollars. The company 
succeeded to the business of the firm of A. 
Easter & Son, and the latter represented a 
copartnership which was formed in 1889, to 
assume control of the business which had 
previously been conducted in an individual 
way by its founder, Alfred Easter, who initi- 
ated operations on a comparatively small scale 
in the year 1872. The story of the upgrowth 
of this really great concern is interesting to 
contemplate, and it bears at every stage the 
impress of the personality of its founder,— a 
man of marked business acumen and power 
and one whose progressive ideas and efforts 
have been the chief factors in the building up 
of the magnificent enterprise. 

The plant of the Detroit Creamery Com- 
pany, representing all that modem and 
thorough scientific principles and appliances 
can supply, occupies practically the entire 
triangular block bounded by Grand River ave- 
nue. Middle and Clififord streets and Adams 
and Cass avenues. This location is in the 
heart of the business district of the city,— a 
fact which has marked bearing on the facility 
with which the gigantic business is handled. 
In 1906 the fine ice plant was erected at the 
comer of Clifford and Middle streets, at a cost 
of eighty thousand dollars, and in the follow- 
ing year was instituted the erection of a three- 
story brick ice-storage building and milk de- 
partment, at the southwest comer of Clifford 
street and Adams avenue, on the former of 
which it has a frontage of one hundred feet 
and on the latter of one hundred and eighty 
feet. The plant as completed represents a 
storage capacity for the accommodation of 
five thousand tons of ice. The new building 
involved an expenditure of more than one 
hundred thousand dollars, and the plant of the 
company is conceded without reservation to be 
one of the most perfect of the kind in the 
United States, both in size and in matter of 



facilities, sanitary provisions, etc. The com- 
pany are dealers in milk and cream, and manu- 
facturers of ice cream. Their sales of milk 
and cream aggregate an average of two mil- 
lion gallons annually, and they virtually con- 
trol the ice-cream trade of the city of Detroit, 
in which department of th6 business the sales 
have attained to as high a volume as six 
thousand gallons in a single day. The in- 
dustry affords employment to a force of one 
hundred persons in the manufacturing and 
milk departments, and sixty-five in the delivery 
department. The company's stables, located 
at the corner of Second avenue and High 
street, have a force of fifteen employes and 
show an average of one hundred and forty 
horses, with a relative complement of fine de- 
livery wagons and other necessary vehicles. 
The company pay out annually in wages alone 
the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, and this represents but a comparatively 
small part of the incidental expense involved 
in the operations of the business. The busi- 
ness covers Detroit and its suburban towns and 
villages, and this territory they virtually con- 
trol, by reason of superior service in every 
particular. The policy of the interested prin- 
cipals of the company is essentially and em- 
phatically progressive, no expense being 
spared in maintaining every department at the 
highest standard at all times, and the products 
command the well merited commendation of 
the general public, which is ever appreciative 
of service of high standard and of a business 
conducted upon principles of honor and fair- 
ness. The company have done much to pro- 
mote, if not, indeed, to compel the raising of 
the standard of production in their line on the 
part of all competitors, and the great benefit 
of this result inures to the public. The officers 
of the company at the time of this writing, 
in 1908, are as here noted: Stephen Baldwin, 
president; Austin E. Morey, vice-president; 
Ferdinand W. Ulrich, secretary and treasurer ; 
and Alfred Easter, the founder of the business, 
general manager of the great enteiprise, to 
which he may well point with pride and satis- 


One of the substantial manufacturing enter- 
prises of Detroit is that conducted under the 
title noted, and the business dates its inception 
back to the year 1880, when Messrs. George 
H. and Walter S. Russel founded the works 
and began operations on a modest scale, at the 
foot of Walker street. In 1892 the business 
was removed to its present location, on Chene 
street, where the company owns a tract of fif- 
teen acres, and where large and substantial 
buildings have been erected, equipped with the 
best of machinery and facilities. 

The company is incorporated with a capital 
stock of five hundred thousand dollars, and 
the personnel of the executive corps is as fol- 
lows: W. S. Russel, president; George H. 
Russel, vice-president; John R. Russel, secre- 
tary ; A. W. Russel, treasurer ; and C. W. Rus- 
sel, assistant manager. The company gives 
employment to seven hundred men, principally 
skilled operatives, and the annual pay roll 
reaches an aggregate of nearly four hundred 
thousand dollars. The company makes a 
specialty of manufacturing cars for mining- 
and similar operations, and also of structural 
iron work. The business has grown to be one 
of wide scope and importance and contributes 
its quota to the commercial prestige of the 
city. Walter S. Russel is a member of the 
directorate of the American Radiator Com- 
pany, of which he was one of the founders, 
in association with his brother George H. 
Dr. George B. Russel, the father of George 
H., Walter S., and John R., made the first gas 
and water pipe ever manufactured in the state 
of Michigan, and was the founder of the Ham- 
tramck Iron Works. In this manufactory 
were turned out the first car wheels ever manu- 
factured in the west. George H. Russel was 
secretary of this company. 


Detroit offers unequaled inducements for 
the prosecution of industries of great magni- 
tude and, in particular, to manufacturing en- 
terprises, by reason of her available supply 



sources, desirable internal facilities and ready 
financial fostering. That these facts are real- 
ized is shown by the wide scope and import- 
ance of the industrial and commercial activi- 
ties of the Michigan metropolis, and the ad- 
vancement along normal lines of business has 
been greatly accelerated within the past decade, 
through the application of that progressive 
spirit which is making for the upbuilding of 
the larger and greater city. The representa- 
tive capitalists and business men of Detroit are 
duly conservative, and this fact is to be looked 
upon with satisfaction, but they are ever ready 
to lend influence and tangible co-operation in 
the promotion of business undertakings of 
legitimate order and in maintaining them upon 
the highest plane of productive activity. A 
noteworthy example is afforded in the secur- 
ing to the city the Michigan Copper & Brass 
Company, whose business is one unique in the 
middle west, as the functions of its great plant 
have hitherto been practically monopolized by 
institutions of the sort in the eastern states, — 
particularly Connecticut, which has virtually 
controlled eighty-five per cent, of the brass and 
copper manufacturing of the Union. The 
products of the Detroit plant include copper, 
brass and German silver in sheets, rolls, rods, 
tubing, wire, blanks and shells, and the equip- 
ment of the mammoth and thoroughly mod- 
em establishment is unexcelled by that of any 
other in the country. It is needless to say 
that the industry is a distinctive acquisition 
to Detroit, both in a direct and collateral 

The Michigan Copper & Brass Company 
was organized in 1906, and its articles of in- 
corporation were approved in that year. The 
original capital stock was four hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and in enlisting this capital the 
chief promoter was George H. Barbour, the 
president of the company from the start and 
known as one of the most substantial and 
progressive of Detroit's representative capi- 
talists. Later, the capital was increased by 
two hundred thousand dollars, represented in 
the issuing of preferred stock. The issuing of 
this additional stock was found expedient in 
view of the fact that as the work of erecting 

and equipping the fine plant progressed it was 
found that greater expenditures were entailed 
than had originally been contemplated. The 
policy was to spare no expense in making the 
plant perfect in every detail, and Mr. Bar- 
bour's enthusiastic and indefatigable efforts 
found their reward when the privilege became 
his, on the 24th of July, 1907, of giving the 
signal which started the operation of the ma- 
chinery in the splendid plant of the company. 
The buildings are of the most approved type 
of modern construction, being located on 
River street, just east of Fort Wayne. The 
following description is substantially that 
given in the Detroit Free Press of July 24, 
1907, only such paraphrase and elimination 
being made as to make the statements con- 
sonant with the prescribed limitations of this 

"Entering the long, clean building, made 
light by the saw-tooth roof in which are set 
the skylights, the visitor is confronted with a 
maze of overhead shafting and tracks for 
traveling cranes. The cranes traverse the 
building at intervals and two great cranes go 
the entire length of the structure, a distance of 
five hundred and sixty-eight feet. At the front 
of the building are the tube-drawers, with their 
tremendous pulling power. Six of these mas- 
sive machines will make the tubes and heavy 
rods. The immense immersion and pickling 
tanks along-side of them have a business-like 
look, the pickling vats being lined with three- 
eighths inch lead, as smoothly put on as if it 
were paper. At the rear of the building are 
the initial furnaces which receive the copper 
and spelter. Flanking the drawing benches, 
with their endless chains and nippers, are the 
wire-drawing machines, into which the rods 
go for the manufacturing of the larger sizes 
of copper wire. Other machines are provided 
which will make wire from the trolley size 
down to the diameter of fine linen thread, all 
the drawing being done cold. To the right of 
the main entrance of the building are several 
massive rolling machines, with their large 
cogged fly wheels. One shaft leading from 
the engine operates all the rolls, but any of 
the machines may be detached without inter- 



fering with the operation of the others. The 
superintendent in charge of the building of 
the mill pronounced it the finest he had ever 
seen, and he had personally supervised the 
building of tvirenty-four mills prior to this. 
Power is furnished by a magnificent Allis- 
Chalmers engine of twelve hundred horse- 
power. Every labor-saving device possible has 
been provided, and yet this new plant will em- 
ploy five hundred men when running to full 
capacity. The plant has a unique water- 
works of its own, and in every particular the 
establishment is a model and one capable of 
turning out products of ultimate excellence." 

From the article to which recourse has just 
been made for the foregoing data it is not in- 
consistent to draw farther, in order to per- 
petuate the words of the president of the com- 
pany uttered on the occasion of the "dedica- 
tion" of the plant. Mr. Barbour spoke es- 
sentially as follows : "It is very gratifying to 
me, and I believe to all the stockholders and 
directors, to know that this plant and its 
equipment have been completed and paid for 
in cash and that there is not a dollar of in- 
debtedness upon it. I believe we have the 
most modern and up-to-date copper-rolling 
mill in the country. We believe this institu- 
tion will prove of great interest to the general 
manufacturing industries of Detroit. Why 
should we not manufacture the product of our 
own state? Here we are, located some seven 
or eight hundred miles nearer where the cop- 
per is produced than are many of our com- 
petitors, and is it not better to manufacture it 
right here at home than to have it shipped 
east, manufactured there and then returned to 
the west ? We are most favorably located for 
this particular branch of industry." The plant 
has a frontage and best of dock facilities on 
the Detroit river and has also a spur track 
from the Michigan Central Railroad, so that 
its shipping and receiving facilities are of the 

The official and executive corps of the Mich- 
igan Copper & Brass Company is as here 
noted: George H. Barbour, president; James 
E. Danaher, first vice-president; David M. 
Ireland, second vice-president; George H. 

Barbour, Jr., treasurer; John R. Owen, sec- 
retary; and Jeremiah Howe, general superin- 
tendent. All of the above mentioned gentle- 
men are members of the directorate of the 
company, and the others represented on the 
board of directors are James T. Whitehead, 
Henry B. Ledyard, Jeremiah Dwyer, Fred- 
erick T. Moran, Fred M. Alger, and Edward 
J. Corbett. 


As the American republic stands to-day pre- 
eminent among all the nations of the globe in 
its capacity for conducting affairs of great 
breadth and scope, so does the splendid enter- 
prise of the Detroit Fire & Marine Insurance 
Company stand as a conspicuous example of 
the truth of this statement. The company has 
conducted its affairs according to the most 
honorable methods during its entire history, 
covering a period of more than forty-two 
years ; it is independent yet conservative in its 
mode of transactions, not controlled by influ- 
ence or direction of compacts or associations, 
offering secure and reasonable indemnity and 
securing to itself popularity and consequent 

This company was organized on the ist 
of February, 1866, and was duly incorporated 
under the laws of the state, with a subscribed 
capital stock of five hundred thousand dollars, 
of which one hundred thousand were paid in. 
The paid-up stock was later increased to one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The per- 
sonnel of the first official corps of the company 
was as follows: Caleb Van Husan, president; 
Edward Kanter, vice-president; and S. War- 
ner White, secretary. In addition to these 
officers the board of directors included the fol- 
lowing named representative citizens of the 
state : John Owen, Charles Ducharme, William 
A. Moore, M. I. Mills, John J. Bagley, Eber 
Ward, Joseph Aspinall, F. Wetmore, L. M. 
Mason, S. Gardner, H. E. Benson, Emory 
Wendell and Edward Trowbridge, all of De- 
troit; and T. D. Gilbert, of Grand Rapids; S. 
P. Williams, of Lima, Indiana; P. Bach, of 
Ann Arbor; and S. S. Cobb, of Kalamazoo. 



From the above list it will be seen that all 
save one on the board of directors were Michi- 
gan men, and the company has remained es- 
sentially a Michigan institution during the 
long intervening years, which have witnessed 
the passing away of the greater number of 
those who were interested in its organization. 
The original headquarters of the new com- 
pany were at 124 Jefferson avenue, and later 
the present eligible location, at No. 100 Gris- 
wold street, was secured. Discriminating 
management soon secured to the company a 
good business through the southern part of 
the state, and from the beginning an excellent 
support was received in the department of 
marine insurance, which has continued an im- 
portant feature of the business until the pres- 
ent time. In 1871 the company, whose busi- 
ness had been extended into adjoining states, 
encountered very severe losses in the Chicago 
fire, as well as in disastrous fires in Holland 
and Manistee, Michigan, in the same year. 
This required the calling in of thirty per cent, 
of the stock, and the subscribed capital stock 
was then, by resolution, reduced to three 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Upon 
hearing of the Chicago fire, and before the ex- 
tent of the company's losses therein was 
known, William A. Moore offered the follow- 
ing resolution at a meeting of the stockhold- 
ers: "Resolved, That the officers of the com- 
pany be instructed to reply to inquiries as to 
its responsibility, that the company is solvent 
and that the business will be continued." This 
resolution exemplified the loyalty which has 
ever characterized the stockholders of the com- 
pany and the policy which has conserved its 
continued and gratifying success. 

Mr. Van Husan continued incumbent of the 
office of president until his death, in 1884, 
proving a most able and popular executive, as 
did also his successor, William A. Butler, who 
served until his death, in May, 1891. Mr. 
Butler was, in turn, succeeded by William A. 
Moore, who likewise had done much to further 
the success of the enterprise, and upon his 
death, in September, 1906, Edward H. Butler, 
the present popular incumbent, was elected to 
the presidency. S. Warner White continued 

in the office of secretary until March, 1868, 
when James J. Clark was chosen his successor. 
The latter held the office until 1891, when he 
was made vice-president, of which office he 
was in tenure until his death, which occurred 
in November, 1899. He was succeeded by 
C. L. Andrews, who was secretary of the com- 
pany until January, 1900, when he was elected 
to his present office, that of vice-president. 
A. H. McDonell became assistant secretary in 
1 89 1, and upon the advancement of Mr. 
Andrews to the vice-presidency he was chosen 
secretary, 'in which position he is still serving. 
Since its organization the company has paid 
in losses more than five millions of dollars. 
Since January 14, 1897, the capital stock has 
been five hundred thousand dollars, all paid 
up, and the gross assets, as indicated in the 
official statement under date of January i, 
1908, are $1,939,094.88. The names of the 
present officers of the company have already 
been noted with the exception of that of C. 
A. Reekie, who is now assistant secretary. 
The board of directors is as follows: Alex- 
ander Lewis (deceased since this article was 
prepared), E. O. Grosvenor, Oliver Goldsmith, 
Merrill B. Mills, George Peck, Edward H. 
Butler, Edward C. Van Husan, Charles A. 
Ducharme, Junius E. Beal, H. L. Jenness, D. 
E. Heineman, George N. Brady, Albert L. 
Stephens, William R. Croul, C. L. Andrews. 
Charles A. Dean, A. H. McDonell, D. L 
Quirk, W. V. Moore, and S. T. Miller. 


Under the title noted above is conducted 
one of the splendid manufacturing industries 
of Detroit and one which has grown from a 
most modest nucleus to its present magnificent 
proportions as one of the largest concerns of 
the sort in the world. 

The inchoation of the enterprise dates back 
to 1865, when J. H. Worcester established on 
Jones street, between Third and Fourth streets, 
a diminutive factory, in which he began opera- 
tions jDn a small scale, under the title of the 
Detroit White Lead & Color Works. Un- 
favorable circumstances finally forced the 



failure of the business, but Mr. Worcester 
again resumed operations, which he continued 
until 1880, in the autumn of which year he 
again made an assignment, having in the 
meanwhile amplified the facilities of his plant 
to a point which placed it upon a modem basis 
for the time. At this juncture Colonel 
Fordyce H. Rogers, the present president and 
general manager of the corporation, purchased 
from the assignee the entire plant and business, 
and a short time afterward he effected the 
organization of the Detroit White Lead 
Works, which was incorporated December 22, 
1880, with a capital stock of fifty thousand 
dollars, of which amount twenty-two thou- 
sand five hundred dollars was paid in. The 
original president of the company was F. D. 
C. Hinchman, and the others of the executive 
corps were as follows : Horace M. Dean, vice- 
president; Carlos B. Shotwell, secretary, and 
Colonel F. H. Rogers, treasurer and general 

Colonel Rogers inaugurated at once a most 
vigorous, progressive and well defined policy, 
and to him more than any other is due the 
upbuilding of the business to its present solid 
and extensive status. More capital was paid 
in within a short time and the plant was mod- 
ernized and remodeled. The first dividend 
of ten per cent, on fifty thousand dollars' capi- 
tal, was declared in July, 1882, and since that 
time as high a dividend as forty per cent, has 
been declared, the average being sixteen per 


February 27, 1896, the plant was destroyed 
by fire, entaiHng a loss of ninety thousand 
dollars, with insurance indemnity of forty- 
two thousand dollars. The company at once 
prepared to rebuild upon a far more extensive 
and elaborate scale and secured the present 
eligible site, on Milwaukee avenue, in the 
northeastern environs of the city, where sub- 
stantial brick buildings were erected, admira- 
bly adapted for the various departments of 
manufacture. In the new plant operations 
were instituted on the 6th of November, 1896, 
and the buildings now cover a total of nearly 
four acres, having all modern facilities and ac- 
cessories, and being equipped with an auto- 

matic sprinkling system for protection against 
fire. No superior plant of the sort is to be 
found in the world and there are few more 
extensive in scope or controlling a larger busi- 
ness. The company maintains branch houses 
in Chicago and Buffalo, and maintain agencies 
in other leading American cities, as well as in 
the principal foreign countries. The trade of 
the concern ramifies into all sections of the 
civilized globe and is constantly expanding in 
scope and importance, owing to the aggressive 
business policy and the superiority of the pro- 
ducts. To meet insistent exigencies, the capi- 
tal of the company has been amplified from 
time to time and is now placed at seven 
hundred thousand dollars. 

The present executive corps of the Detroit 
White Lead Works is as follows: Ford H. 
Rogers, president and general manager; 
George Peck, vice-president; H. B. Levan, 
treasurer ; and Henry Duffield, secretary. The 
personnel of the directorate is as follows: 
Ford H. Rogers, George Peck, J. M. Thurber, 
W. H. Brace, and W. J. Weaver, the last men- 
tioned being superintendent of the works. 


Michigan's active interest in the beet-sugar 
industry dates from 1898, when the first fac- 
tory was erected. The preceding year both the 
state and nation passed favorable legislation 
to encourage the industry. In the course of 
an European trip Mr. N. B. Bradley, of Bay 
City, took occasion to investigate the beet- 
sugar industry in Germany and Holland. He 
became convinced that certain sections of 
Michigan, especially the Saginaw valley, are 
well adapted to beet culture. In his experi- 
mental work he was ably assisted by Professor 
Kedzie, of the State Agricultural College. As 
a result of this experimental work, a company 
was organized and a factory erected at Bay 
City to care for the crop grown the summer 
of 1898. The following year the industry was 
established in three distinct sections of the 
state. An additional factory was erected at 
Bay City and another at Alma, thus occupying 
the Saginaw valley. In southwestern Michi- 



gan factories were erected at Holland, Benton 
Harbor and Kalamazoo ; in the eastern section 
of the state, at Caro and Rochester. During 
the next two or three years two additional 
factories were built at Bay City, two at Sagi- 
naw, and one at each of the following places : 
Tawas, Owosso, Lansing, Croswell, Sebewa- 
ing, St. Louis, Mount Clemens, Marine City, 
Blissfield, Menominee and Charlevoix. Ex- 
perience taught that the light soil in certain 
sections of the state was not adapted to beet 
culture, and consequently the factories at 
Kalamazoo, Benton Harbor. Tawas and 
Rochester were moved to other states. It was 
also found that too many factories had been 
located in the Saginaw valley, and the original 
Bay City factory and one of the Saginaw fac- 
tories were moved west. 

Detroit capitalists early became interested in 
the factories located at Caro, Croswell and 
Rochester. Among those who supported the 
movement were Hon. James McMillan, Messrs. 
W. C. McMillan, George Peck, G. W. Lee, 
Henry B. Joy, Charies B. Warren, Cyrus 
Lothrop, C. A. Black, E. H. Parker, and 
Charles Bewick. 

Originally each company owned and oper- 
ated one factory. Later it was found that 
economies in operation could be made by ef- 
fecting certain consolidations. The factories 
at Lansing and Owosso were consolidated 
under the title of the Owosso Sugar Com- 
pany, with general offices at Bay City. In 
1906 six factories, located at Bay City, Sagi- 
naw, Alma, Caro, Croswell and Sebewaing, 
were consolidated under one company, known 
as the Michigan Sugar Company, with a capi- 
tal of twelve and a half million dollars. The 
officers of the company are : Charles B. War- 
ren, Detroit, president ; A. W. Wright, Alma, 
first vice-president; T. A. Harvey, Saginaw! 
second vice-president; F. R. Hathaway, De- 
troit, secretary; H. A. Douglas, Detroit, 
treasurer; and W. H. Wallace. Saginaw, gen- 
eral manager. The operating offices of the 
company are in Saginaw, while the offices of 
the president, secretary and treasurer are in 

The beet-sugar industry of Michigan has 
increased during the past ten years to a point 
where this state is now manufacturing as 
much granulated sugar as it consumes, rank- 
ing second in the entire United States. The 
amount of sugar produced for each of the past 
two years is about two hundred million 
pounds, valued at nine million dollars. Some 
thirty thousand farmers are engaged in rais- 
ing the one hundred thousand acres of beets 
used annually by the factories of the state. 
For these beets they receive years five million 
dollars. This amount has been added to the 
agricultural output of the state without dimin- 
ishing in any way the other agricultural re- 
sources of Michigan. The general effect has 
been to improve agricultural conditions so that 
in those sections of the state in which beets 
are raised the actual yield in other farm pro- 
ducts has been increased by virtue of the im- 
proved methods necessitated by the cultivation 
of beets. The influx of ready money occa- 
sioned by the beet-sugar industry exerts a 
powerful beneficial influence in many lines of 
commercial activity. 

During the manufacturing season each of 
the sixteen factories now operating in the state 
employs from three hundred to four hundred 
workmen at an average daily wage of two 
dollars and twenty-five cents. About thirty- 
five per cent, of the beets used at the factories 
is received by wagon haul, the remainder by 
rail. No other crop yields as great returns per 
acre to railroads as does that of beets, the 
average freight on raw material, finished 
product and supplies being fourteen dollars an 
acre where the beets are transported by rail, 
and nine dollars an acre where they are hauled 
to the factory by wagon. The annual freight 
bill of the Michigan sugar companies is neariy 
a million dollars. 

When judged by the money invested, the 
money distributed, the effect upon rural dis- 
tricts, railroads and labor, it is safe to say 
that the beet-sugar industry is the most im- 
portant enterprise that has marked the de- 
velopment of the state during the past decade. 




Within the past decade there has come a 
most gratifying realization and utilization of 
the advantages of Detroit as a manufacturing 
and distributing center, and the result has been 
the extraordinary development in industrial 
lines within that period, so that the term 
"Greater Detroit" is no misnomer. 

Among the great industrial enterprises here 
established and one that has important bearing 
upon the commercial prestige of the city is 
that conducted by the Cadillac Motor Car 
Company, whose vehicles have gained and 
maintained the highest reputation for superi- 
ority and whose trade has reached an enor- 
mous annual aggregate. 

The Cadillac Motor Car Company had its 
practical inception in 1902, when the business 
was established under the title of the Cadillac 
Automobile Company, and the concern was 
incorporated with a capital of three hundred 
thousand dollars. In preparing for active op- 
erations the company purchased the plant of 
the old Detroit Motor Company, and in 1903 
the works were considerably enlarged, to meet 
the demands of the new institution. In April, 
1904, misfortune overtook the company, in 
that the greater part of its plant was destroyed 
by fire, entailing a very considerable loss above 
the insurance indemnity carried. The upbuild- 
ing of the present finely equipped plant was at 
once instituted, and it now covers five hundred 
and twenty-five thousand square feet, most of 
the buildings being three stories in height. 
While the new quarters were in course of con- 
struction the company continued its manufac- 
turing, utilizing a storage building across the 
street from the present plant and completing 
and shipping one machine on the day follow- 
ing the fire. By the ist of July the concern 
had made the record of shipping from its plant 
a larger number of machines than had any 
other automobile factory in the world, in the 
quarter ending July ist, and they now manu- 
facture four thousand machines annually and 
place the same on the market, still maintaining 
the record of turning out more motor cars 
each year than any other manufactory in ex- 

In 1905 the company secured control of the 
plant and business of the Leland & Faulconer 
Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of 
engines of all kinds, and this plant became an 
accessory and complement to the original con- 
cern, whose facilities were thereby greatly ex- 
panded. In 1905 of the year last noted a 
reorganization of the company took place and 
the present corporate title was adopted, while 
the capital stock was increased to the signifi- 
cant amount of one and one-half millions of 
dollars, giving the concern precedence over 
all others. The personnel of the executive 
corps of the company is as follows: Lem W. 
Bowen, president; William H. Murphy, treas- 
urer; Wilfred C. Leland, secretary ; and Henry 
M. Leland, general manager. 

In the direct operation of the gigantic plant 
employment is given to more than two thou- 
sand men, and as many more are retained in 
service in outside factories maintained by the 
company for the manufacturing of bodies, 
springs and other accessories. Of the labor 
employed fully seventy-five per cent, is of the 
skilled order, and the weekly pay roll repre- 
sents an expenditure of twenty-five thousand 
dollars. About ninety per cent, of the output 
of the plant is sold in the United States, and 
the export trade is steadily increasing, ex- 
tending to Great Britain, Australia, Mexico, 
Russia, Germany, Sweden, South America and 
the Dominion of Canada. The company has 
successfully met all foreign competition and 
its products are coming into greater favor as 
their superiority becomes known. A note- 
worthy fact in connection with the machines 
manufactured by this company is that not the 
slightest detail of mechanism and finish is per- 
mitted to fall below the highest possible 
standard. Inspection of all parts is most 
scrupulous and any piece of inferior order is 
rejected. The motor cars turned out represent 
the acme of excellence thus far attained in 
automobile manufacture, and this claim ap- 
plies not alone to the engines, driving mecha- 
nism, etc., but also to the finishing of every part 
of the vehicle. Detroit may well be proud of 
possessing, in this day of phenomenal produc- 
tion and popularity of automobiles, a factory 



which exceeds all others in the world in the 
total of its annual output and which produces 
machines of indubitable superiority. Since 
1905 the general supervision of the entire fac- 
tory has been in the able control of Henry M. 
Leland, of whom individual mention is made 
in this work. It is not within the province of 
this publication to enter into full details con- 
cerning the manufacturing and commercial 
industries which are given representation here, 
but it is gratifying to make record concerning 
so magnificent and efifectively managed a con- 
cern as that of the Cadillac Motor Car Com- 
pany, which represents one of the industrial 
giants not only of Detroit, but also, of the 
sort, in the entire world. 


In no branch of science pertinent to practical 
industrialism and public utilitarian purposes 
has been accomplished so wonderful a work 
as in the field of applied electricity. In fact, 
it cannot but be admitted that the subtle force 
which is engaging the attention of the best 
scientific minds and many of the leading in- 
dustrial economists of the day, is destined to 
still more marvelous development. Within the 
limits of a sketch of this character it is im- 
possible, and, indeed, unnecessary, to enter 
into an extended consideration of the applica- 
tion of wireless telegraphy and telephony in 
connection with practical commercialism. 
Proven results attest the value of the wireless 
systems, whose splendid showing has been a 
matter of wonderment and admiration. One 
of the successful inventors, developers and pro- 
moters of these systems is Thomas E. Clark, 
a brief sketch of whose career appears on other 
pages of this volume, and to him is due the 
establishing in Detroit of the plant and head- 
quarters of the Clark Wireless Telegraph & 
Telephone Company, of which he is vice-presi- 
dent and directing engineer. It is needless to 
say that the company has proved a noteworthy 
addition to the industrial concerns which con- 
tribute to the pre-eminence of Detroit, and the 
institution is one whose continuous expansion 

and cumulative success are emphatically as- 

In the review of Mr. Clark's career are 
given adequate data concerning the efforts and 
movements which led to the organization of 
the Clark Wireless Telegraph & Telephone 
Company, which was incorporated under the 
laws of the state of Arizona in February, 
1907, with a capital stock of two million five 
hundred thousand dollars. The capital stock 
is divided into two million five hundred thou- 
sand shares at a par value of one dollar each. 
There is no preferred stock, no bonds are 
issued, and all stock is non-assessable. At the 
time of incorporation five hundred thousand 
shares of the company's stock were exchanged 
for the property of the original Clark Electric 
Engineering Company and Clark Wireless 
Telegraph Company, which latter company 
had been organized and incorporated in 1906. 
This special block of five hundred thousand 
shares of stock is to be held in escrow until 
the company shall have attained to a dividend- 
paying basis. The remaining two million 
shares of the company's stock have been set 
aside for the use of the treasury and will be 
ofifered for sale in limited allotments, at such 
time as expediency shall dictate, through the 
requirement for capital to increase the capa- 
city of the manufacturing plant, for the instal- 
lation of new stations in interior and lake- 
coast cities, for equipping steamships and other 
vessels on the Great Lakes with wireless tele- 
graph and telephone apparatus and for the 
necessary expenses to enable the company to 
operate on an extensive scale. The enterprise 
is in no sense a speculative scheme, but, as 
stated in a prospectus of the company, "is a 
plain business proposition, now in actual 
operation, easy of investigation, and of the 
merits of which any and all conservative in- 
vestors can fully familiarize and convince 
themselves before investing in shares of the 
company's stock." 

The personnel of the official and executive 
corps of the company stands as voucher for the 
legitimacy and strength of the proposition and 
for its practical and well demonstrated sue- 



cess at the present time. These officers are 
numbered among the representative capitahsts 
and business men of Detroit, Cleveland and 
Buffalo —men of high financial standing and 
unassailable reputation. The list of officers 
is as here noted: R. R. Sterling, president; 
Thomas E. Clark, vice-president; J. H. Liv- 
sey second vice-president; N. A. Hawkins, 
secretary ; and E. E. Collins, treasurer. They 
also, with the addition of Edward Smith, of 
the Great Lakes Towing Company, Captain 
John Mitchell, of Cleveland, and William 
Gray, constitute the board of directors. Gray 
& Gray, of Detroit, are attorneys for the com- 
pany. Literature, descriptive and statistical, 
has been issued by the corporation and may be 
had upon application. 

Several of the leading lines of steamers on 
the Great Lakes are making practical and ef- 
fective utilization of the Clark wireless sys- 
tems, including the boats of the Detroit & 
Buffalo Steamship Company and the Detroit 
& Cleveland Navigation Company, which in- 
stalled the service in 1904. It is purposed by 
the Clark Company to rapidly and extensively 
expand its service on the Great Lakes and, 
based upon past results, the revenues from 
this source alone will be large and substan- 
tial. From the company's attractive brochure, 
which has already been mentioned, is secured 
the following excerpt : "Ten years ago (1898) 
saw the origin of the Clark Wireless Tele- 
graph & Telephone Company. This company 
had its birth in Detroit, carried on its expen- 
ments in the heart of the city, and learned to 
overcome all the difficulties that commercial 
wireless-telegraph companies will encounter. 
There is a vast difference in land and fresh- 
water conditions as compared with wireless 
transmission over or by salt water. Where 
the old-world demonstrators have been suc- 
cessful in the comparatively easy work over 
the ocean, this company has been doubly suc- 
cessful in the extremely difficult problem of 
wireless transmission over land and fresh 
water. The Clark Company was the first to 
advertise wireless instruments for sale for 
practical use. It was the first wireless-tele- 
graph company to communicate with a for- 

eign country by means of space telegraphy. It 
has the first and only factory ever built and 
equipped anywhere in the world solely for the 
purpose of manufacturing commercial wire- 
less-telegraph apparatus for sale to everybody. 
The fact that the Clark wireless-telegraph 
system was subjected to a most stringent in- 
vestigation by the United States signal corps 
department before it was accepted and adopted 
by the government, has dissipated much of the 
skepticism with which it has previously been 
regarded. The United States government 
adopted the Clark wireless system in various 
departments in the latter part of 1905. As is 
well known, the government requires the most 
rigid investigation before purchasing supplies 
of any kind. After the inventor, Thomas E. 
Clark, had demonstrated his apparatus before 
a board of experts, and in competition with 
several foreign systems, the Clark system was 
favored." In this connection a flattering re- 
port was made to the chief signal officer by 
the electrical engineer who conducted the in- 
vestigation and experiments. The Clark ap- 
paratus was the first to be introduced into 
educational institutions and many of the lead- 
ing universities and colleges of the country 
now utilize the same for illustrative and prac- 
tical purposes. 

The Clark wireless apparatus is also in use 
by the Japanese government, and from every 
source have come recommendations of its great 
efficiency and its economy in operation. 

In December, 1906, Mr. Clark made dem- 
onstrations of wireless telephone, achieving 
a noted success in his experimental work and 
has greatly developed wireless-telephone com- 
munication, so that now the scientific journals 
of the country predict that he has demonstrated 
practically what may be the nucleus of a won- 
derful telephone system in the future. In 
June, 1908, Mr. Clark showed the successful 
operation of wireless telephone which had been 
installed on the new steamer "City of Cleve- 
land" and on the Clark wireless-telegraph sta- 
tion at the foot of Wayne street, Detroit. 
Passengers on the steamer were able to talk 
twenty-five miles by the Clark wireless tele- 
phone. This apparatus Mr. Clark is contin- 



ually developing and perfecting, extending the 
talking distance so that he is now able to talk 
fifty miles. He has every confidence that the 
time is not far distant when it will be possible 
to talk by wireless telephone from Detroit to 
New York city or Chicago. 

Following is a brief description of the pres- 
ent factory of the Clark Company, and it is 
the purpose of the corporation to erect in De- 
troit within the near future a magnificent 
laboratory and extensive plant, in harmony 
with the vast business possibilities which the 
enterprise oi¥ers. 

The factory of the Clark Wireless Telegraph 
& Telephone Company, corner of Cass and 
State streets, is located in the central down- 
town district of the city of Detroit. The build- 
ing is of brick and stone, fifty-eight by one 
hundred and thirty feet, three stories high. 
On the first fioor is located the office, well 
equipped with modern office furniture. A door 
leads directly from the office into the large 
factory room. Here are found the lathes, 
drill presses, screw machines, planers, auto- 
drills and electric winding machines, with a 
force of men turning out the machine-shop 
part of the work, electric motors being the 
power used to operate the various machines, 
both on this and the second floor. Adjoining 
the machine-shop is a specially large labo- 
ratory-testing room, used for testing and try- 
ing out the various instruments and apparatus 
manufactured by the company. Here is gath- 
ered together a complete storehouse of electric- 
testing instruments, scientific and chemical- 
laboratory apparatus to carry on the varied re- 
search work that is necessary in connection 
with the development of the Clark wireless 
telegraph and telephone systems. The second 
fioor is equipped with wood-circular saws, 
planers and the accessories necessary for cabi- 
net work, as well as an assembling and drying 
room. Here a force of men are engaged in 
assembling instruments and apparatus; and on 
long, narrow tables are completed wireless- 
telegraph and telephone instruments of the 
various types, from the smaller miniature sets 
to the larger station sets for long-distance 
work. A part of this floor is devoted at times 
to the giving of instruction to young men on 
the apparatus. The efficiency of all apparatus 
manufactured is fully up to the standard of the 
best electrical instrument, and the wireless 
telegraph apparatus is superior to any other. 


As representing one of the important public 
utilities of the state of Michigan, this com- 
pany, whose ofiicial headquarters are main- 
tained in Detroit, wields a most positive and 
valuable influence in connection with civic and 
commercial affairs. The corporation bases its 
extensive operations on large capital and most 
effective administration. The ramifications of 
its lines are virtually co-extensive with the lim- 
its of the state, and the system is maintained 
at the highest standard of modern telephony. 
The Michigan State Telephone Company 
was organized in February, 1904, and is the 
direct successor of the Michigan Telephone 
Company, which was practically the pioneer 
concern in the development of the telephone 
business in Michigan. The control of the 
original company was vested in William A. 
Jackson and the Newberrys and the McMil- 
lans of Detroit, but in reorganization four years 
ago it passed into other hands. 

The Michigan State Telephone Company is 
a state-wide corporation, connecting every vil- 
lage and city in the state with its network of 
local and long-distance lines. Outside of the 
state it connects over the lines of the Bell sys- 
tem with almost every city and town of any 
importance between the Rocky mountains and 
the Atlantic ocean. Although it is physically 
a part of the "Bell Company," it is entirely in- 
dependent of Bell ownership and control; it is 
strictly a locally incorporated and individually 
owned Michigan enterprise, and one that the 
state may justly claim with pride. In round 
numbers the Michigan State Telephone Com- 
pany. July I, 1908, connected with one hun- 
dred and forty-five thousand subscribers in 
Michigan and over three million in the United 
States. In the last four years it has actually 
doubled its number of subscribers and its wire 
mileage, and in 1907, with the single excep- 
tion of San Francisco, which was in process 
of rehabilitation, the percentage of increase in 
subscribers in the city of Detroit was the great- 
est of the twenty-five largest cities in the 
United States. Since January i, 1908, to the 



time this work goes to press, September i, this 
company has made in Detroit a net gain of 
four thousand six hundred and forty-three,— 
a new subscriber every hour, night and 
day, excepting Sunday. This is the highest 
record of growth in Detroit for any equal 
period in the history of the company and the 
net gain of eight hundred and forty for the 
month of August, 1908, is the largest net gain 
for any one month. Financial depression evi- 
dently has not affected in any way the steady 
progress of the enterprise, for there was a 
thirteen per cent, increase in gross earnings for 
October, November and December, 1907, over 
the corresponding period of the preceding 


Although a fifteen million dollar corpora- 
tion, serving thousands of patrons and com- 
bining nearly three hundred connecting com- 
panies in one great unified system, this com- 
pany has undertaken a man-to-man policy of 
dealing with its thousands of customers and 
constituents. Its policy is on record, in printed 
form, framed and posted as a "declaration," 
in every office and exchange in the state, — to 
the effect that it will "furnish the best grade of 
telephone service, adopt every improvement, 
reduce rates whenever business safety will per- 
mit, adjust fairly each complaint, treat as man 
to man all subscribers, remove the idea of soul- 
less corporation, and bring about a personal, 
friendly feeling between the company and the 
subscribers." To-day the operations of the 
company have a practically impregnable forti- 
fication and the corporation is solid and de- 
servedly prosperous. The company has in op- 
eration fully two hundred and ninety-five 
thousand miles of wire, involving the use of 
one hundred and forty-five thousand telephone 
instruments and the employment of over six 
thousand miles of long-distance toll lines in 
Michigan, thus affording connections through- 
out the entire state. In the service of the com- 
pany is retained an army of nearly four thou- 
sand employes, duly assigned to the various 
departments of work. 

The officers of the Michigan State Telephone 
Company are as here noted: N. C. Kings- 
bury, president ; Dudley E. Waters, vice-presi- 

dent ; B. W. Trafford, vice-president and gen- 
eral manager; Walter I. Mizner, secretary; 
W. L. Burrows, treasurer; H. J. Booth, audi- 
tor; C. L. Boyce, engineer; and E. G. Ste- 
venson and W. E. Thompson, attorneys. 


The corporation here designated is one of 
the oldest and most important companies en- 
gaged in lake transportation business with 
headquarters in Detroit, and the enterprise is 
one of broad scope, having marked influence in 
upholding the great marine tonnage for which 
the fair "City of the Straits" has long been 

The Northwestern Transportation Company 
dates its inception back nearly forty years, its 
organization having been effected on the 21st 
of January, 1869, when it was incorporated 
under the laws of the state, with a capital stock 
of two hundred thousand dollars, of which 
amount seventy-five thousand dollars were 
paid in. The organizers of the concern were 
Messrs. Robert J. and Henry Hackett, William 
McGregor, David Cotter, Duncan McLaugh- 
lin, James A. M. Morton and Andrew 
Hackett. The personnel of the first executive 
corps -was as follows: President, Henry 
Hackett; vice-president, William McGregor; 
secretary and treasurer, Robert J. Hackett. 
Besides these officers the directorate of the 
company included Messrs. McLaughlin and 
Cotter. The original charter, issued for a 
period of thirty years, was secured on the date 
noted above, and the company forthwith en- 
gaged in the general marine freight business, 
operating a number of tugs and freight boats 
and devoting special attention to the handling 
of iron ore and coal. 

In 1872 Elihu M. Peck was elected to the 
presidency, having acquired a large interest 
in the company in the preceding year, and he 
continued to be the executive head of the con- 
cern until his death, which occurred in 1896. 
He was an able and progressive officer and did 
much to upbuild the large business of the com- 
pany. The original organizers dropped out 
from time to time, the Hackett brothers having 



withdrawn about 1876, when Harvey H. 
Brown, of Cleveland, Ohio, now president of 
the company, was elected secretary pro tem- 
pore. Later George Hendrie became secretary, 
and upon the death of Captain Elihu M. Peck 
Mr. Brown was chosen to succeed him in the 
presidency, of which position he has since re- 
mained incumbent, his election having taken 
place in 1896. In 1882 Alexander McVittie was 
chosen secretary of the company, serving until 
1889, when he was succeeded by James Find- 
later. In 1892 Lewis C. Waldo succeeded to 
the office of secretary and in 1896 he was made 
general manager of the business. In 1891 the 
capital stock of the company was increased to 
six hundred thousand dollars, with four hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars paid in. In 
1879 they reorganized, with a charter for 
thirty years, under the same title. 

The company at the present time operates 
four boats, namely : The "Harv-ey H. Brown," 
with four thousand five hundred tonnage; the 
"S. R. Kirby," thirty-five hundred tons; the 
"Fayette Brown," thirty-five hundred tons; 
and the barge "George E. Hartnell," fifty-five 
hundred tons. The concern is now one of the 
oldest of the sort on the lake system and its 
reputation has ever been unassailable, while at 
every stage its management has been reliable 
and effective. The present officers of the com- 
pany are: Harvey H. Brown, of Cleveland, 
Ohio, president, and Lewis C. Waldo, of De- 
troit, secretary, treasurer and general manager. 


An enterprise that has been built up from 
one of small scope to its present large propor- 
tions is that conducted by Thomas Barium & 
Sons, packers of pork products and wholesale 
and retail dealers in meats, with headquarters 
in the Barium building. Fifth street and Grand 
River avenue. The business was founded by 
Thomas Barium, of whom individual mention 
is made on other pages of this work. His first 
place of business was a stall in the old Central 
market, in Cadillac Square, and when the 
building was finally removed and the market 
so long maintained in the same was abolished. 

he secured quarters in the same vicinity, at the 
corner of Bates street and Cadillac Square. In 
1889 Mr. Barium admitted to partnership his 
eldest son, John J. Barium, who is likewise 
the subject of an individual sketch in this 
work. At the time this association was formed 
the firm title of Thomas Barium & Son was 
adopted, and in 1905, when the younger sons, 
Thomas J. and Louis P., were admitted to the 
firm, the present title was adopted. A branch 
retail store is maintained in the building owned 
by the senior member of the firm and known 
as the Barium flats, the same having been 
erected by Thomas Barium and being located 
at the corner of Fifth street and Grand River 
avenue, as already stated. 

In 1896 the firm began the packing of pork 
products in a small way, utilizing for this pur- 
pose the rear of the building just mentioned. 
At the outset only three men were employed 
in this department and the output did not ex- 
ceed twenty hogs a week. That the venture 
has proved a most successful one is best shown 
by the fact that at the present time (1907) 
fifty-four men are given employment in the 
packing department and that an average of 
fifteen hundred hogs are utilized each week. 
The firm have four traveling representatives 
and manufacture the finest grades of hams, 
bacon, lard, sausage of all kinds and English 
pork cuts. Their trade extends through 
Michigan. Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and they 
are also building up a large and substantial 
export trade in English cuts and bacon, 
handled principally in the markets of Man- 
chester and Liverpool, England, and Glasgow, 
Scotland. The basement and first floor of the 
Barium building are used for the market and 
manufacturing departments, the building hav- 
ing a frontage of one hundred and fifty feet 
on Grand River avenue, and one hundred feet 
on Fifth street. All of the slaughter work of 
the firm is done under contract, at Port Huron, 
Michigan, and the most scrupulous care is 
given to the selection of all stock used, so that 
the standard of the products is constantly 
maintained at the highest point. It is to the 
policy thus observed from the start that this 
splendid business enterprise has been built up. 



and the firm has an unrivaled reputation for 
the superiority of its products, controlling an 
appreciative trade in both the wholesale and 
retail departments. The firm pays out in wages 
an annual average of forty thousand dollars, 
not including the salaries of the traveling sales- 
men and the office corps. The general man- 
j agement of the business is in the hands of 
I John J. Barium, the founder of the enterprise 
I having practically retired, though he still 
! maintains a general administrative function in 
I the directing of the affairs of the firm. 


Among the successful industrial enterprises 
which contribute to the commercial supremacy 
of Detroit is that conducted under the title 
here designated. The enterprise is deserving 
of especial attention in this publication, not 
only by reason of its present extent and im- 
portance but also as standing typical of the 
results attained by the indomitable pluck and 
energy of the founder, who placed in subor- 
dination all other interests and evolved a most 
prosperous and remunerative business from a 
nucleus which was represented only in sub- 
jective personal vigor and executive and tech- 
nical ability. 

The concern is given over exclusively to the 
manufacturing of high-grade parlor and li- 
brary tables, and the products are unexcelled 
by those of any factory in the Union. This 
enterprise dates its inception back to the year 
1878, and thus it has been in existence more 
than a quarter of a century, within which 
period it has been advanced from a small and 
obscure undertaking to one of substantial and 
important order in its specific line, and one 
which is a valuable acquisition to the various 
industries of the Michigan metropolis. 

In the year mentioned, C. H. Haberkorn 
opened a factory in a building at the corner of 
Fourth and Porter streets, where he utilized a 
portion of the fourth floor and where he be- 
gan operations with a force of only eight em- 
ployes. The original output of the little fac- 
tory was parlor and library tables, but the 
grades were not at the time maintained at the 

specially high standard which now obtains, as 
it was found expedient, in an introductory 
way, to turn out such products as would meet 
the requirements of the limited market and 
render sufficient financial returns to expand 
the scope of operations. Mr. Haberkorn had a 
definite ambition, and had formulated his plans 
with marked discrimination, but he showed his 
fertility in expedients by availing himself of 
only such means of advancement as the busi- 
ness justified at any certain stage of progress. 
Thus the business has had a gradual but very 
substantial growth, and the founder has finally 
realized his ambition, in that the products of 
his factory are now of the highest grade and 
meet the demands of the most exacting and 
discriminating trade. 

Finally the business increased to such pro- 
portions as to necessitate the securing of larger 
quarters, and in 1887 was initiated the erec- 
tion of the present fine plant, which is located 
on Orchard street, between Brooklyn avenue 
and Eighth street. With the continued ex- 
pansion of the enterprise, additional buildings 
were demanded, and, in all, five have been 
added to the plant since the erection of the 
first, in the year mentioned. The plant uti- 
lizes four hundred feet frontage on Orchard 
street and extends back to a depth of one hun- 
dred and fifteen feet, with an alley at the rear. 
The main building is fifty by one hundred and 
fifteen feet in dimensions and five stories in 
height, and is a substantial brick structure. 
The finishing department occupies a building 
forty by one hundred and fifteen feet in di- 
mensions, and is four stories in height. The 
two stock rooms, or warehouses, are each 
forty-two by one hundred and fifteen feet in 
dimensions, and four stories in height. The 
office building, of three stories, is twenty-five 
by two hundred feet in dimensions, and the 
other two buildings, of similar design and con- 
struction and admirably equipped for the uses 
to which they are applied, are the dry kilns, 
forty by two hundred feet in dimension, and 
the power plant. 

All of the buildings are of brick, and the 
equipment of the factory is modern in every 
department, making the plant a model of its 



kind and one creditable to the city in which it 
is located. Employment is given to an aver- 
age force of one hundred and eighty opera- 
tives, and the larger number are skilled work- 
men. The average annual disbursement in 
wages is eighty-five thousand dollars. The 
products of the establishment are now shipped 
into the most diverse sections of the Union, 
and the foreign trade is also one of no incon- 
siderable magnitude, the products being essen- 
tially standard and being unexcelled by those 
of any other factory in the line. The firm 
maintains an export agency in New York city, 
where the business is thus controlled by Chip- 
man & Company, and other agencies are es- 
tablished in other of the leading markets of 
the Union. All goods are sold through agents 
and placed on the market on a purely com- 
mission basis, no traveling representatives 
being employed by the factory. 

Mr. Haberkom is virtually the sole propri- 
etor of the business which he has thus devel- 
oped, and from the start it has been conducted 
under the title of C. H. Haberkorn & Company. 


In reviewing those enterprises which have 
been material factors in the advancement of 
Detroit to a position of importance among the 
leading industrial, financial and commercial 
centers of the United States, a publication of 
this nature exercises its most important func- 
tion when it takes cognizance of those institu- 
tions which in a direct way effect the bodily 
welfare of her citizens. In the manufacture 
of one of the most important foodstuffs used 
by the public, of which the company whose 
name initiates this article is the most extensive 
producer in the state, the consumer is vitally 
interested, and in this connection the publishers 
of this volume take pleasure in publishing the 
brief review which follows. 

The present business of the Morton Baking 
& Manufacturing Company is the outgrowth 
of a modest bakery established by Robert Mor- 
ton in 1877, and first located at number 737 
Fort street west. As is usually the case in the 

majority of instances, the beginning was made 
with a modest force, which consisted of Mr. 
Morton and one other, who is still in the em- 
ploy of the company. A thorough knowledge 
of the business and careful attention to his 
patrons, together with continued insistence 
that quality and purity of the materials made 
should ever be foremost, resulted in an almost 
immediate expansion and necessitated a re- 
moval to larger quarters. The second loca- 
tion of the business was at number 75 Grand 
River avenue and here the business was con- 
tinued until 1882, when these quarters proved 
inadequate. In April of this year the business 
was incorporated as the Morton Baking & 
Manufacturing Company and was capitalized 
at forty thousand dollars. Suitable buildings 
were erected for the business and the latest 
improved equipment installed. Additions have 
been built from time to time as the expansion 
of the business required, and every effort pos- 
sible has been made and no expense spared to 
keep in the lead in the matter of equipment, 
sanitation and methods of manufacture. The 
present plant of the company is located at 
numbers 72-84 Plum street, having a frontage 
of one hundred and forty feet, and extends to 
Cherry street, a distance of two hundred and 
forty-eight feet, covering the numbers 67-73 
on the latter. This entire ground surface of 
about one-half acre is covered by substantial 
brick buildings, equipped with the best ma- 
chinery known to the baking trade, and the 
sanitation is as perfect as modern science can 
devise. The products manufactured are to be 
relied upon and are made from the purest of 
materials by the most expert workmen ob- 
tainable. The process of manufacture pre- 
cludes the possibility of any deleterious sub- 
stance entering into the product, while the ex- 
perience of years in the blending of winter and 
spring wheat flours makes possible the produc- 
tion of an article of food superior to the usual 
home baking. Distilled water only is used in 
the mixing and machinery takes the place of 
hands in the manipulation incident to the out- 
put of the finished product. That the greatest 
care is taken in respect to cleanliness is best 
illustrated by the fact all the horses employed 



in the delivery service of the company are 
cleaned by electricity, while compressed air is 
used in the cleaning of the work rooms. The 
company are manufacturers of bread and pies 
and do an exclusive wholesale business, cover- 
ing Detroit and southern Michigan and some 
of the smaller cities in the interior of the state. 
Aside from that of the regular dealers they 
enjoy a more extensive hotel, restaurant and 
steamboat trade than any other firm in their 
line in the state. 

Some idea of the relative importance of the 
enterprise to the city from a labor standpoint 
can be gained from the following statement : 
The company employ in the manufacturing de- 
partment forty-five persons, all skilled work- 
men, while thirty-six men are employed in the 
sales and delivery department. The office 
force numbers six and the barn force, which 
has charge of the forty horses used in the de- 
livery service, numbers five. The company 
are the only one in their line of manufacture 
who have installed an automobile-delivery 
service, and operate three machines. They dis- 
tribute annually in wages over sixty thousand 
dollars and their per capita wage will compare 
favorably with any enterprise in the city. In 
1903 the capital of the company was increased 
to seventy-five thousand dollars, which repre- 
sents only a portion of the value of the equip- 
ment, an earned surplus of fully a like amount 
having been put into the business. 

In 1907 the stockholders of the company 
organized the Morton Baking Company, Lim- 
ited, of Windsor, Ontario, and entered the 
Canadian field. In Windsor a model plant was 
erected at a cost of twenty thousand dollars 
and about twenty-five workmen are employed 
there. A successful business has been devel- 
oped and extends from Toronto westward in 
the province. Since the inception of the busi- 
ness the controlling spirit in the enterprise has 
been Robert Morton and to his knowledge of 
the art of baking, combined with executive and 
constructive ability, and the sturdy and inde- 
fatigable energy so characteristic of his na- 
tionality, the present business of the company 
is in a very great measure due. The officers 
of the company are as follows : Robert M. 

Morton, president; James C. McBriar, vice- 
president; and Edward W. Kreg, secretary 
and treasurer. Of the Morton Baking Com- 
pany, Limited, of Windsor, Robert Morton is 
president ; Gordon McGregor, vice-president ; 
and Robert M. Morton, treasurer and general 
manager. Personal mention of the founder, 
Robert Morton, and of Robert M. Morton is 
printed on other pages of this volume, and to 
these articles the reader is referred for sup- 
plemental information. 


Through her natural advantages Detroit 
holds precedence as one of the most important 
points touched by the navigation system of the 
Great Lakes, and here are centered a large 
number of the most important concerns oper- 
ating in the lake-marine service. A leading 
and popular corporation of this order is that 
whose title initiates this article. 

The White Star Line was organized in 
1896, in which year it was incorporated under 
the laws of the state of Michigan, receiving 
charter in February of that year and basing its 
operations on a capital stock of eighty-five 
thousand dollars. In 1899 the capital was in- 
creased to two hundred thousand dollars, and 
the progressive policy and attendant success 
of the company was further shown in 1907, 
when the capital stock was further increased 
to seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
The representative citizens who effected the 
organization of the company and who still re- 
main its principal stockholders are : Aaron 
A. Parker, Byron W. Parker, John Pridgeon, 
Jr., L. C. Waldo and Charles F. Bielman. The 
executive officers are to be designated as fol- 
lows : A. A. Parker, president ; L. C. Waldo, 
vice-president; John Pridgeon, Jr., treasurer; 
C. F. Bielman, secretary and traffic manager; 
and B. W. Parker, general manager. (Since 
the preparing of this article has occurred the 
death of Aaron A. Parker, who passed away 
on November 13, 1908.) 

The White Star Line has a fine fleet of ves- 
sels engaged in the passenger and freight serv- 
ice, and the business shows a decisive expan- 




sion each succeeding season. The first steamer 
put into commission by the company was the 
"City of Toledo," and in 1899 the "Grey- 
hound," No. I, was added to the Hne. In the 
following year the company built the steamer 
"Tashmoo," at a cost of three hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars, and in 1903 was built 
the "Greyhound," No. 2, at a cost of three 
hundred thousand dollars. In 1904 was built 
and placed in commission the "Owana," which 
represents an expenditure of one hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars. The "Tashmoo" and 
the "City of Toledo" are in service between 
Detroit and Port Huron, and give special fa- 
cilities in the way of trips to and from the St. 
Clair Flats and Tashmoo park, which latter is 
owned and controlled by the company and 
which is one of the most attractive resorts 
tributary to Detroit. On the Detroit-Toledo 
route are operated the steamers "Greyhound" 
and "Owana," with special service to Sugar 
Island park, which likewise is owned by the 
White Star Line and which is a most popular 
down-river resort. 

The docks and general offices of the White 
Star Line in Detroit are located at the foot of 
Griswold street, where a river frontage of two 
hundred feet is controlled and where the wait- 
ing rooms and other facilities are of excellent 
order. The company owns its own docks at 
Detroit and Port Huron. An idea of the ex- 
tent of the business of this well known and 
popular line may be gained when it is stated 
that in the season of 1907 five hundred and 
eight thousand passengers were carried on its 


In this compilation will be found a number 
of brief articles concerning commercial and 
industrial enterprises that have been of mate- 
rial assistance in the advancement of Detroit 
as a manufacturing and distributing center. 
In the growth and development of her com- 
merce the Detroit Graphite Company has been 
a factor of no inconsiderable value, the high 
standard of the products manufactured and the 
results obtained by their use adding in no small 

measure to the popularity and continued 
demand of Detroit-made goods. 

The Detroit Graphite Company are manu- 
facturers of ready-mixed paints for exterior 
and interior use in the protection of metal sur- 
faces from corrosion, and the company enjoy 
the distinction of having placed upon the mar- 
ket the first article that has withstood the se- 
vere exactions of a government test with 
credit. The company was organized in 1892 
and was incorporated with a capital of ten 
thousand dollars and the following officers : 
President, Hon. A. G. Boynton; vice-presi- 
dent, Ralzemond A. Parker; treasurer and 
general manager, Alexander A. Boutell ; sec- 
retary, William F. Monroe. The chief factor 
in its promotion and organization was Alex- 
ander A. Boutell, secretary of the Detroit 
Chamber of Commerce and treasurer of the 
Baraga Graphite Company, owners of valuable 
graphite deposits in the upper peninsula of 
Michigan. The company located its plant on 
Twelfth street near Fort street, and had a pre- 
carious existence for the first four years. In 
1896 its management succeeded in getting its 
products before the ordnance departments of 
the United States army and navy. Here their 
paints were subjected to most thorough and 
exhaustive tests, which resulted in their prov- 
ing all that was claimed for them, — the pre- 
vention of corrosion of metal by water, damp- 
ness or weather. The success attending these 
tests, in competition with the products of other 
manufacturers, resulted in their adoption by 
the United States government for the use of 
the army and navy. During and since the 
Cuban war all vessels belonging to the gov- 
ernment have been painted with their prepara- 
tions, which have conclusively proven their 
superiority over those of other manufacturers, 
by that best of all evidence, constantly increas- 
ing orders from the department. In 1907 the 
company was reorganized ; its capital increased 
to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and 
the following officers elected : Alexander A. 
Boutell, president and general manager ; Frank 
W. Davis, vice-president; and William F. 
Monroe, secretary and treasurer. Their pres- 
ent plant is an enlargement of their original 




quarters and includes an equipment of the best 
machinery known to the paint-making trade. 
Their products have had a large sale through- 
out the United States and Canada and a con- 
siderable export business has been developed. 
In the exterior painting of buildings, in the 
covering of steel framework during construc- 
tion, in fact the use of their product in any 
way where protection to metal surfaces from 
dampness or the elements is demanded will 
prove a saving to the consumer. The company 
was the first to use graphite as a material in 
paint manufacture, and the process of its use 
is covered by patent. In the conducting of the 
business from the time of its organization Mr. 
Boutell has been the dominant spirit, and its 
growth and development are in great measure 
the result of his ceaseless efforts. The com- 
pany maintain a branch in London, England, 
and a sales agency in Seattle, Washington. 

The development of the business of the com- 
pany has been healthy, its products have been 
kept at a high standard, and its management 
has been clean. As a factor in the commerce 
of the city its influnece has been felt through 
its careful and judicious advertising of goods 
"Made in Detroit" and the marketing of them 
throughout a wide territory, the payment to 
wage earners of over fifty thousand dollars 
yearly, and the addition to its industries of a 
specialty manufacturing concern which in its 
line is the largest in the Union. Mr. Boutell, 
the executive head of the company, has had 
able assistance in the building up of this enter- 
prise and great credit is due to Mr. Davis, the 
vice-president, who has so successfully devel- 
oped the sales department and prepared a mar- 
ket for the output. In the important depart- 
ment of finance, Mr. Monroe, the secretary 
and treasurer, has proven himself a man of 
keen perception, far-sightedness and safe 


As a representative concern which is con- 
tributing its quota to the industrial pre-emi- 
nence of Detroit, this company is consistently 
given consideration within the pages of this 
publication. The company was organized in 

March, 1902, and succeeded to the business 
and plant of the Detroit Steel & Spring Com- 
pany. The new company was incorporated 
under the laws of the state, with a capital stock 
of two hundred thousand dollars, and in April, 
1905, to meet the exigencies of the greatly 
augmented business and widened operations of 
the concern, the capital stock was increased to 
six hundred thousand dollars, of which five 
hundred thousand dollars were paid in and the 
remaining one hundred thousand retained as a 
treasury reserve. The personnel of the of- 
ficial corps of this important corporation is as 
here noted : John S. Newberry, president and 
general manager; Allen W. Atterbury, treas- 
urer; Thomas F. Meek, secretary; and Fred- 
erick P. Smith, assistant secretary. 

The Detroit Steel Castings Company manu- 
facture a general line of steel castings for 
marine-dredging, car-machinery and diversified 
railway uses. The admirably equipped plant 
is located at the juncture of Michigan avenue 
and the tracks of the Michigan Central Rail- 
road, where is utilized a ground space eight 
hundred by four hundred feet in dimensions. 
In February, 1905, the old plant was destroyed 
by fire and within the same year was completed 
the present main building, which is one of the 
finest examples of modern factory construction 
to be found in Detroit and which is five hun- 
dred by one hundred and sixty-five feet in di- 
mensions. The plant also has a modern office 
building, attractive in design and accessories. 
Employment is given by the company to an 
average force of seven hundred and fifty men, 
of whom one-third are skilled mechanics, and 
the annual pay roll represents an expenditure 
of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
The original enterprise was founded by the 
late Hon. John S. Newberry, father of the 
present president of the concern, and it was 
one of the first of the large manufacturing 
plants which have brought about the great ad- 
vancement of Detroit along industrial and 
commercial lines. 


One of the unique and important manufac- 
turing industries which add to the commercial 



prestige of Detroit is that conducted under the 
title which initiates this article. The enter- 
prise dates its inception back to the year 1898, 
when a stock company was formed and incor- 
porated with a capital of twenty-five thousand 
dollars. The original official corps was as fol- 
lows: John Kelsey, president; George Da- 
vidson, vice-president; and G. J. Vinton, sec- 
retary and treasurer. 

The title under which operations were first 
instituted was the Davidson Pipe & Novelty 
Company, and the original headquarters were 
in the Case building on Congress street. The 
establishment was burned out in 1899, and the 
headquarters were then established in a build- 
ing on Larned street, where the title of the 
concern was changed to the United States 
Chemico-Wood Company. The chief products 
of the manufactory at this time were umbrella 

In 1902 a reorganization took place and the 
present Kelsey-Herbert Company was incor- 
porated. With amplified facilities the company 
began the manufacturing of various lines of 
toilet articles, brushes, combs, mirrors, etc., the 
articles turned out being made of metallic 
horn, resembling French stag, and manufac- 
tured from fiber. This is the only plant of the 
kind in the world and the composition used is 
protected by patents, being of most durable 
and attractive order. Mr. Davidson was the 
originator of the material utilized in the manu- 
facture of the goods, but Messrs. Kelsey and 
Herbert perfected the machines and the prod- 
uct, the latter gentleman having become one 
of the interested principals in the concern in 
1901. Upon the reorganization under the 
present title the capital stock of the company 
was increased to fifty thousand dollars, and so 
rapid was the growth and expansion of the 
business that it was later increased in turn to 
one hundred thousand and finally two hundred 
thousand dollars, at which latter figure as a 
basis, operations are now conducted. The 
present officers of the company are: Henry 
J. Herbert, president; James S. Stevenson, 
vice-president ; and John Kelsey, secretary and 
treasurer. In 1904 was erected the company's 
present well equipped and thoroughly modem 

plant, at 277-285 Monroe avenue. The 
building there utilized is four stories in height 
and of brick and stone construction. Besides 
this two branch places are maintained else- 
where in the city, and the aggregate floor space 
utilized is more than eighty-five thousand feet. 
The company now affords employment to 
three hundred operatives, many of them being 
skilled mechanics, and the annual pay roll 
shows an expenditure of more than one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. These facts indicate 
how great have been the energy, enterprise 
and ability which have been the potent factors 
in the upbuilding of the splendid business 
within comparatively so brief a period of time. 
The output of the factory is sold in all sections 
of the Union, as well as throughout Canada, 
and the foreign trade is showing an appre- 
ciable increase each successive year. The 
pyrography plant of the company is located at 
576 Kirby avenue and in the same is manu- 
factured the largest line of wood for pyrog- 
raphic purposes in this country. 


Another of the unique and successful indus- 
trial enterprises of the city of Detroit is that 
conducted by the company named above, the 
business having formerly been conducted under 
the title of Gem Fibre Package Company. The 
company are manufacturers of aseptic, mold- 
proof, moisture-proof and air-tight fibre cans 
and boxes, and the products have gained a 
most favorable reception by reason of mani- 
fest superiority. 

The Gem Fibre Package Company was in- 
corporated under the laws of the state in 1902, 
basing its operations upon a capital stock of 
ten thousand dollars. The expansion of the 
industry is shown adequately when it is stated 
that in 1906 it was found expedient to increase 
the capital to one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars and that in 1907 it was further raised, 
to the noteworthy figure of three hundred 
thousand dollars. All this implies a substan- 
tial growth and one of unusual rapidity. The 
original company had its organizers Messrs. 
H. Kirke White, Jr., Frank J. Hoag and 



James Miller, and the officers of the company 
at the opening of the year 1908 are as here 
noted: H. Kirke White, Jr., president; Frank 
J. Hoag, of Toledo, Ohio, vice-president; 
Jervis R. Harbeck, treasurer; and Miron Neal, 
secretary. The fibre cans and boxes manufac- 
tured by the company are chemically welded, 
and this insures a thoroughly aseptic, odorless 
and tasteless container, the same being im- 
pervious to water, oils, grease, alkalis and light 
acids. The products have been found espe- 
cially desirable for the putting up of coffees, 
spices, baking powder, cleaning powder, dry 
chemicals, greases, paints, oils, syrups, candy, 
brines, butter, etc., and the demand on the 
part of the wholesale trade and certain manu- 
facturers has reached very extensive propor- 
tions, which show a constant tendency for still 
farther expansion. The fibre receptacles are 
manufactured under a secret and patented 
process controlled by the company, and much 
of the special machinery utilized in the manu- 
facture of the goods was designed by Mr. 
Harbeck, the treasurer of the company, these 
devices also being amply protected by patents. 

The trade of the concern extends through- 
out the United States and Canada, as well as 
into Mexico, Cuba, and the Orient, including 
the Philippine Islands. The plant of the com- 
pany is eligibly located at the corner of Clay 
and St. Aubin avenues, where about five acres 
of land are occupied. The plant represents a 
capitalistic investment of about five hundred 
thousand dollars, and employment is given to 
an average of three hundred and fifty persons. 
The president of the company exercises a gen- 
eral executive control and gives especial at- 
tention to the finances of the concern; Mr. 
Harbeck, the treasurer, is also the practical 
chemist and manufacturing expert of the com- 
pany, having as his assistant Thomas Neal 2d. 
The company maintains branch offices in New 
York city, Chicago, San Francisco and St. 
Louis, and has an agency in Denver. The 
fine products are rapidly displacing glass and 
tin, as well as wood in offering effective and 
superior facilities for the packing of in- 
numerable preparations, and the trade growth 

stands as ample voucher for the superiority of 
the goods produced in this fine industrial plant 
of Detroit. The fibre is chemically treated and 
the tops and ends of the various boxes and 
cans may likewise be of the fibre, or of any 
desired metal susceptible of adaptation to such 


No city or locality in the world can legiti- 
mately claim precedence of Detroit in the mat- 
ter of the extent and importance of her posi- 
tion as headquarters for manufacturing chem- 
ists, for here are to be found some of the 
greatest pharmaceutical laboratories on the 
globe. Among the manufacturing concerns 
in this line that tend to give such priority to 
Detroit as a commercial center and which 
bring her name into recognition throughout 
the civilized world is that of Nelson, Baker & 
Company, which is an incorporated company, 
with a capital of three hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars. The officers of the company are 
as follows : E. H. Nelson, president and gen- 
eral manager; George Peck, vice-president; 
A. B. Lyons, M. D., secretary; and W. S. 
Baker, treasurer. In addition to these officials 
the directorate of the corporation includes Dr. 
F. A. McGraw, C. A. Black, and F. W. Eddy. 

The present president of the company was 
the founder of the business, which has grown 
to be one of broad scope and importance under 
his administration as chief executive. In 1893 
the company erected a laboratory on Lafayette 
avenue and the building has since been mate- 
rially enlarged. In the laboratory and offices 
are employed nearly four hundred persons, and 
the concern is represented in its trade territory 
by an average of seventy traveling salesmen. 
The company manufactures full and complete 
lines of pharmaceutical preparations and the 
products of the establishment are recognized 
by the trade and by the medical profession in 
general as being of a superior order. The 
concern merits consideration in this publica- 
tion as one of the many splendid industrial and 
commercial enterprises of Detroit and of the 




In the multiplicity and variety of her manu- 
facturing interests Detroit is excelled by few, 
if any, cities of comparable size in the Union, 
and within the past decade she has made mar- 
velous and substantial strides along these lines, 
progressing steadily and bravely along her 
course to the goal of still greater prestige as 
one of the great manufacturing and industrial 
centers of the world. One of the prime func- 
tions of this publication is to give recognition, 
through brief mention, to those enterprises 
which are contributing each its quota to this 
magnificent advancement. 

The National Can Company was organized 
in 1901 and was duly incorporated with a capi- 
tal stock of one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, which was increased to two hundred 
and fifty thousand in 1905, to meet the de- 
mands placed upon the institution by its rap- 
idly expanding business. The originators of 
the company were Messrs. Theodore D. Buhl, 
William H. Warren, Frederick T. Ducharme, 
Frank W. Eddy, David M. Ireland, Edwin H. 
Nelson, and Frederick E. Wadsworth. These 
are names of essentially representative capi- 
talists and business men of the Michigan me- 
tropolis, and thus the industry had its incep- 
tion under peculiarly favorable auspices. The 
company purchased the substantial factory of 
the Decoy Fly Paper Company, near the junc- 
tion of North Grand boulevard and the lines 
of the Grand Trunk Railway, and the plant was 
remodeled and enlarged, to make it thoroughly 
available for the purposes for which it was to 
be used. The main building is a brick and 
stone structure, three stories and basement, and 
two hundred and thirty by sixty-five feet in 
lateral dimensions. This is utilized as the gen- 
eral manufacturing department. The commo- 
dious warehouse, two stories in height, is sixty 
by one hundred and twenty feet in dimensions, 
and is utilized for the storage of both raw 
material and the finished products. The 
stamping room is forty by two hundred feet 
in dimensions, and a separate brick building 
accommodates the fine modern power plant. 
The products of the concern are tin cans and 
metal containers, besides sheet-metal work for 

general commercial purposes, and of the former 
an average of thirty-two millions are manufac- 
tured annually. Employment is given to three 
hundred hands, of whom about one-half are 
girls, expert artisans being employed on the 
machine and die work. The yearly pay roll 
represents an expenditure of about one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars, which indi- 
cates unequivocally the importance of the in- 
dustry as contributory to the civic and com- 
mercial prosperity of Detroit. The output of 
the concern finds sales in the most diverse sec- 
tions of the Union, and adds to the honors of 
the city through being "Made in Detroit." 

The officers of the National Can Company 
are as follows: Frank W. Eddy, president; 
David M. Ireland, vice-president; Frederick T. 
Ducharme, treasurer; and Neil McMillan, sec- 
retary and general manager. Bert Canby is 
the efficient and popular sales manager for the 
concern. In addition to the four executive 
officers mentioned, the directorate of the com- 
pany includes David C. Whitney, Willis E. 
Buhl, Alexander McPherson and Edwin H. 


To note those enterprises which stand repre- 
sentative in their respective lines and have im- 
portant bearing upon the precedence and com- 
mercial activity of the city of Detroit and 
Wayne county, is the prime desideratum in this 
department of the publication here presented. 
From this viewpoint there is eminent consist- 
ency in entering a brief review of the unique 
and successful mdustry conducted under the 
title which initiates this article. 

The Seamless Steel Bath Tub Company was 
incorporated under the laws of the state of 
Michigan in 1904, with a capital stock of six 
hundred thousand dollars. Following is a list 
of the principals concerned in the organization 
and incorporation of the company, and it will 
be seen that enlisted in the enterprise are a 
number of the leading capitalists and influential 
citizens of Detroit, while from the original 
personnel two or more have been taken by ■ 
death since the corporation was formed: 



George H. Barbour, Henry B. Ledyard, Jo- 
seph Boyer, George H. Russel, Henry Russel, 
General Russell A. Alger, Franklin H. Walker, 
Theodore D. Buhl, Anton B. DuPont, Eugene 
H. Sloman, A. E. F. White, William P. Ste- 
vens, William C. McMillan, and Philip H. 
McMillan. The original executive corps was 
as here noted : A. B. DuPont, president ; E. 
H. Sloman, vice-president ; and George B. Rus- 
sel, secretary and treasurer. Mr. DuPont, the 
president, was general manager of the business 
from its inception until the autumn of 1906, 
when he retired and was succeeded by E. H. 
Sloman. E. L. Wayman is assistant manager 
at the present time, and has direct super- 
vision of the manufacturing and sales depart- 
ments. Antonio C. Pessano is now president 
of the company ; Joseph Boyer, vice-president ; 
and George B. Russel, secretary and treasurer. 
Walter Sturgis is superintendent of the plant. 
Soon after its organization this company 
purchased eight and one-half acres of ground 
on Mount Elliott avenue, near Harper avenue, 
and on this tract was erected the fine modern 
plant in which are manufactured the seamless 
steel bath tubs, whose superiority over all other 
types is uniformly conceded. From the cata- 
logue issued by the company are taken the fol- 
lowing pertinent statements: "The organiza- 
tion and successful launching of the Seamless 
Steel Bath Tub Company presents a new indus- 
try in steel working that revolutionizes the 
manufacture of bath tubs. For years it has 
been tried in various ways to construct an ar- 
ticle that would replace the cumbersome and 
unsightly cast-iron tubs that have been in use 
up to the present time, but it remained for 
this company to solve the problem successfully. 
Wood-rimmed steel bath tubs have been on the 
market for some time, but in such shape that 
they could be used only for the cheapest kind 
of installations, being made in three parts, 
which precluded porcelaining, and being most 
unsatisfactory in every respect. The tubs 
manufactured by this company under the Slo- 
man process, patented, are constructed from a 
single sheet of steel, embodying the advan- 
tages of durability, smooth surface on the out- 
side that admits of high decoration, light 

weight, taking the temperature of the water 
with little absorption of heat, the readiness 
with which it can be handled by the plumber, 
and the adaptability to a high Dresden finish 
in the porcelaining, also an economy in weight 
with reference to floor construction in apart- 
ment houses and hotels." The catalogue from 
which the foregoing extracts are made offers 
a full description of the methods of manufac- 
turing the superior products, and those inter- 
ested will, of course, gain desired information 
from this brochure of the company, as it is not 
consonant with the province of the publication 
at hand to enter into such details. The plant 
has a capacity for the output of one hundred 
and fifty tubs a day when running at normal 
capacity, and the processes of manufacture, as 
well as much of the special machinery, are 
protected by both domestic and foreign patents. 
The company claims, with all of consistency, 
to be the only one producing tubs porcelained 
on both sides, and a specialty is made of high- 
grade and artistic work. The company fur- 
nished to the magnificent new Hotel Pont- 
chartrain, in Detroit, one hundred and seventy 
of its highest grade of tubs. 

The trade of the company penetrates into the 
most diverse sections of the United States and 
Canada, and the export trade is rapidly in- 
creasing in scope and importance. In the plant 
employment is given to a force of one hundred 
and fifty workmen, the majority of whom are 
skilled artisans in the lines of work assigned 
to them, and the average annual expenditure 
in wages aggregates fully seventy-five thousand 


The commercial prestige of the city of De- 
troit has been advanced through no one source 
so greatly as in the extent and high standard of 
its great institutions devoted to the manufac- 
turing of chemicals and general pharmaceutical 
preparations and specialties. One of the suc- 
cessful enterprises which has contributed to 
this noteworthy prestige is that conducted 
under the title designated in the caption of this 



The business dates its inception back to the 
year 1898, and the chief organizer of the cor- 
poration was the present treasurer and general 
manager of the company, Frank A. Thompson, 
whose efforts and enterprise are perpetuated in 
the name of the concern. The company was 
incorporated with a capital stock of seventy- 
five thousand dollars, and with official corps as 
follows : Edwin F. Conley, president ; Frank 
A. Thompson, treasurer and manager; John E. 
Clark, M. D., vice-president; and Frederick 
Guenther, secretary. Since the death of Mr. 
Conley, C. J. Reilly has been president, and the 
other officers remain the same, while John 
McFarlane is now superintendent of the tech- 
nical and manufacturing departments, being 
the subject of an individual sketch in this pub- 
lication. The concern manufactures a general 
line of pharmaceutical preparations, has well 
equipped laboratories and the best of other fa- 
cilities in its plant, which is located on 502-510 
Trombly avenue, and has built up a large and 
far-reaching business. A specialty is made of 
nicotine products from tobacco, and the same 
have gained a wide reputation and sale, being 
utilized for the destruction of plant insects and 
other vermin, including the various parasites 
which afflict animals and even human beings. 
The well arranged catalogues and other litera- 
ture of the company offer adequate description 
of the values and uses of the Thompson "Rose 
Nicotine," "Tobakine" sheep dip; liquid nico- 
tine preparations for the use of florists and 
home flower and plant grower. The concern 
is the only one in the north manufacturing 
products of this order, and the processes and 
certain of the machines used are the invention 
of Mr. Thompson. The company also manu- 
facture resinoids, alkaloids, medicinal extracts 
of all kinds, and other preparations sold to the 
manufacturing and wholesale trade. The trade 
of the company penetrates all sections of the 
United States and also extends into the various 
provinces of Canada and into European coun- 
tries. An agency is maintained in the city of 
London, England. In the various departments 
of the plant forty persons are employed, and 
the greater number are skilled in the technical 
lines which represent this peculiar branch of 

industrial enterprise. It is impossible in a pub- 
lication of this nature to enter manifold de- 
tails concerning the various business enter- 
prises represented, but even a brief review, 
such as the one at hand, aids in showing forth 
the multiplicity and variety of the commercial 
and industrial concerns which aid in maintain- 
ing Detroit in the front rank as one of the 
great distributing and manufacturing centers 
of the Union. 


In the manufacturing of mirrors and hall 
furniture this well known Detroit corporation 
is recognized as one of the pioneer concerns of 
the kind in the west, and the ramifications of 
its business are now wide and important. The 
enterprise dates its inception back to the year 
1865, when Cosmos D. Widman and Mr. 
Aspinwall entered into partnership, under the 
present title of C. D. Widman & Company, 
and established a modest business place at the 
corner of Fort and Randolph streets. There 
the headquarters were maintained, with en- 
largement of facilities from time to time, until 
1885, when the present plant at Trombly and 
Milwaukee avenues and Orleans street, was se- 
cured by the firm, the same being adequate in 
all its mechanical equipment and needed ac- 
cessories. In 1884 the original title was con- 
tinued in the corporation which was then 
formed and of which the officers are as here 
noted: James W. Ailes, president; Sylvester 
L. Rich, vice-president and treasurer; and 
Albert U. Widman, secretary and general 

Cosmos D. Widman, who died in 1883, was 
born in Bavaria, Germany, in 1846, and was 
a son of Christian Widman, who came with his 
family to America in 1861 and located in the 
city of Rochester, New York, where he passed 
the remainder of his life. Cosmos D. Wid- 
man secured his early education in the excel- 
lent schools of his fatherland and was about 
fifteen years of age at the time of the family 
immigration to the United States. He re- 
mained in Rochester until 1865, when he came 
to Detroit, where he soon afterward founded 
the business of C. D. Widman & Company, as 



is noted above. He ever showed himself a 
thoroughly upright and honorable business 
man and as a citizen was loyal to all civic du- 
ties and responsibilities. In politics he was a 
stalwart Republican, though he had never 
sought or desired the honors or emoluments 
of public office. He and his wife held mem- 
bership in the Emanuel church, Protestant 

Mr. Widman was united in marriage to 
Miss Isabelle Rich, daughter of the late George 
Rich, a representative citizen of Detroit and 
at one time incumbent of the office of city 
treasurer. Concerning the children of Mr. 
and Mrs. Widman the following brief data are 
entered : Clara E. is the wife of Frederick 
L. Andrews, who is connected with the great 
pharmaceutical concern of Parke, Davis & 
Company, of Detroit; Albert U. is individ- 
ually mentioned in this volume ; Adele R. is the 
wife of George Gnau, a well known insurance 
agent of Detroit, with offices in the Hammond 
building; and Florence J. is the wife of Don- 
ald Johnston, of Detroit, the Michigan general 
agent for the Union Central Life Insurance 


In the manufacturing of coats and robes this 
company controls a widely disseminated and 
important business, and the enterprise con- 
tributes materially to the industrial supremacy 
of the city of Detroit. The company was in- 
corporated in 1906, with a capital stock of four 
hundred thousand dollars, and the personnel 
of its official corps is as follows : Hugh Wal- 
lace, president; Lewis H. Ward, vice-presi- 
dent; Floyd G. Arms, secretary; Daniel 
McColl, treasurer. This company is the direct 
successor of the Western Robe Company, 
which was incorporated in 1904, prior to 
which time the business had been conducted 
under the same title but without incorporation. 
The business was founded in 1897, by Hugh 
Wallace, who has been at its head from the 
inception to the present time and to whose 
progressive ideas and wise administrative 
policy the expansion of the enterprise to its 
present large proportions is primarily due. A 

brief review of his career appears on other 
pages of this volume. 

Many of the products of this concern are 
unique, and the lines manufactured include 
astrakhan and buffalo fur cloths, which, in 
turn, are utilized in the making of robes, coats, 
Mackinac jackets, etc. The plant has a ca- 
pacity for the manufacturing of three thousand 
yards of cloth daily, and the Wallace astrakhan 
and buffalo cloths are the standard in America. 
The Wallace robes, of varied designs and ma- 
terials, find sale in every state in the Union, 
and through their wide introduction the name 
of the original company was given marked 
prestige throughout all sections of the country. 
Concerning another feature of the industry the 
following pertinent statements are made in one 
of the recently issued and especially attractive 
catalogues of the company : "The fur and fur- 
lined departments have grown more rapidly 
than any other branch of our business, which 
bespeaks the popularity of these goods. We 
have established the same high standard in 
these departments that we have always main- 
tained in our other lines. We now have our 
own tanning, dressing and dyeing plant, thus 
insuring the very best work." 

The Wallace cloak and overcoat cloths are 
manufactured on special knitting machines, and 
the factory in this department has the best of 
equipment throughout. It is run to its full 
capacity every day in the year, and more than 
one hundred hands are employed in this de- 
partment alone. One of the modern type of 
machines utilized will produce in the same 
length of time three times as much as the old- 
style weaving machines. The output of the 
knitting mill not only supplies the materials 
for the other manufacturing departments of the 
concern but is also sold to other coat and cloak 
manufacturers and to jobbers of cloths. The 
mill is two hundred and forty by one hundred 
feet in dimensions and three stories in height, 
being of substantial brick construction. The 
coat and robe manufactory occupies a building 
on the south side of Grand boulevard, and this 
plant was erected in 1906. Here employment 
is given to about three hundred persons, in- 
cluding twenty-five experts in the tanning, dye- 



ing and dressing of furs. A branch establish- 
ment is maintained at 725 Broadway, New 
York, where a large stock is carried, and 
sample rooms and agencies are also established 
in St. Louis, Boston, San Francisco, and in 
Gloversville, New York. The robes and coats 
manufactured b}' the company control a large 
sale throughout all sections of the Union north 
established in Alaska. This concern is the 
of the Ohio river, and a large trade has been 
largest of its kind in the United States, is the 
pioneer in covering the manufacture of its 
products from the raw material to the finished 
garment, and is still the only company which 
compasses such operations. The Canadian 
market is controlled through a branch factory 
at Berlin, Ontario, and the same is under the 
management of W. J. Simeon, who had pre- 
viously been connected with the business of the 
home plant in Detroit. In the Canadian fac- 
tory employment is afforded to an average 
force of one hundred persons. In Detroit the 
company disburses one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars annually in wages to operatives, 
and this does not include the salaries of the 
office corps, of twelve persons, and the travel- 
ing representatives, numbering fourteen. In 
addition to the production of buffalo and as- 
trakhan and Persian lamb cloth garments, the 
company also manufactures duck coats and 
vests, women's coats, a wide variety of robes, 
and also gauntlet mittens and gloves. The 
enterprise is one of the strong and ably 
conducted industries of Detroit and is most 
consistently given representation in this 


In reviewing those enterprises which have 
been material factors in the advancement of 
Detroit to a position of importance among the 
leading industrial, financial and commercial 
centers of the United States, few instances of 
more rapid, substantial and satisfactory growth 
can be found than in that of the development 
of the extensive business of the corporation 
whose name initiates this article. 

Jerome H. Remick & Company are the 
world's largest publishers of sheet music, — a 

distinction rightfully theirs through the vol- 
ume of business transacted. They are also the 
most extensive retailers in their line in Amer- 
ica, the originators of the retail department in 
connection with the publishing business, and 
operate some thirty sales branches, in as many 
leading cities of the country. The foundation 
of the present business dates from the estab- 
lishment of the Whitney-Warner Publishing 
Company, of Detroit. Mr. Remick, the domi- 
nant factor in the enterprise of to-day, pur- 
chased a half interest in the original enterprise 
in 1898, and two years later became its sole 
owner, conducting it imder its original title 
until 1904. In January of that year the busi- 
ness was consolidated with that of a New York 
institution, and incorporated under the laws of 
the state of New York as Shapiro, Remick & 
Company, its executive officers being: Presi- 
dent, Maurice Shapiro; secretary, treasurer 
and general manager, Jerome H. Remick. A 
reorganization followed the retirement of Mr. 
Shapiro, in December of that year, and the 
business was re-incorporated under the laws of 
the state of New York, as Jerome H. Remick 
& Company, with an authorized capital of two 
hundred thousand dollars. Mr. Remick was 
elected president and general manager. 

The executive offices of the company are 
located at numbers 68-70 Farrar street, De- 
troit, and branch offices are maintained in New 
York city and Chicago. The company have 
developed an extensive foreign business, which 
is supplied through sales agencies in London, 
Paris and Berlin. In 1902, Mr. Remick orig- 
inated and established the first retail branch of 
the business, a sheet music department in one 
of the largest of Detroit's department stores. 
Its favorable reception by the music-purchasing 
public was instantaneous, and others were 
added as rapidly as possible. At the present 
writing, 1908, the company maintains thirty- 
five such departments, distributed among the 
leading department stores in the principal 
cities of the United States. 

In order to centralize and facilitate the oper- 
ation of the mechanical department of the bus- 
iness, there was organized and incoi-porated 
on January 10, 1907, the J. H. Remick Print- 



ing Company, a subsidiary corporation, with 
an authorized capital of twenty thousand dol- 
lars, and the following officers were elected : 
J. H. Remick, president ; John H. Engel, vice- 
president; Stephen Baldwin, treasurer; and 
Emil Voelker, secretary. As its title suggests, 
this company is engaged in printing the var- 
ious musical compositions emanating solely 
from the parent company. 

The building occupied jointly by these en- 
terprises, at numbers 68-70 Farrar street, was 
designed and erected for their use in 1907. It 
j is a three story and basement structure, having 
I an aggregate floor space of twenty thousand 
j square feet, and is divided in its occupancy as 
follows : First floor, basement and portion of 
! second floor by the printing company : their 
I equipment is of the latest and best known to the 
I printing trade and includes a battery of five 
i Miehle presses; Jerome H. Remick & Com- 
' pany occupy the remainder of the building. 
The second floor provides room for sumptuous 
offices, music rooms and the order department, 
and the third floor is used for storage pur- 
poses, stock room etc. The extent of the busi- 
ness conducted by the publishing house is best 
illustrated through the statement that the 
paper stock used in printing the compositions 
marketed during the year 1907 represented an 
outlay of over one hundred and twenty thou- 
sand dollars. There are few homes in Amer- 
ica in which could not be found one or more 
compositions bearing the imprint of Jerome 
H. Remick & Company, Detroit, and the re- 
flex value of the familiarizing throughout the 
country of the name Detroit is, from the 
standpoint of home advertising, of inestimable 

The development of the business has been a 
matter of about eight years, and when the re- 
sults accomplished are taken into considera- 
tion, one is forced to commend the remarkable 
energy, initiative and executive ability demon- 
strated in its administration by the manage- 

The personnel of the executive corps of the 
company is as follows: Jerome H. Remick, 
president and general manager; William Gross- 
man, of New York city, vice-president; Ste- 

phen Baldwin, of Detroit, treasurer; and Fred 
E. Belcher, of New York city, secretary. An 
individual article concerning Mr. Remick ap- 
pears on other pages of this volume. In the 
organization, development and administration 
of the enterprise Mr. Remick has ever been the 
controlling spirit, and to his progressiveness, 
energy and resourcefulness the present com- 
manding position of the company is due. Its 
success has not been confined to volume of bus- 
iness alone and it is recognized as having pro- 
duced, during its career, more popular music 
successes than any house in the music publish- 
ing line in America. 


The throbbing pulsations of the manufac- 
turing industries of Detroit are felt in all sec- 
tions of the world and the products of her 
magnificent institutions may be found in prac- 
tically every civilized clime. 

In insuring this prominence and pres- 
tige few concerns have contributed more con- 
spicuously and worthily than that whose title 
initiates this paragraph and whose enterprise 
is conceded to be the largest of the sort in ex- 
istence. The history of the company is a most 
interesting and significant one, involving, as it 
does, the record of the building up of a splen- 
did industry from a nucleus of most modest 
order and bearing evidence of the well directed 
energies of men of courage, progressive ideas 
and distinctive administrative ability. Wher- 
ever steam is generated for practical utiliza- 
tion there are the products of the Penberthy 
Injector Company known and applied, and 
thus it becomes a matter of special gratifica- 
tion to the publishers of this work to enter 
within its pages a resume of this representa- 
tive concern. 

The company was incorporated in 1886, 
with a capital stock of one hundred thousand 
dollars, and the personnel of its original execu- 
tive corps was as follows : Homer Pennock, 
president ; William Penberthy, vice-president ; 
and S. Olin Johnson, secretary and treasurer. 
The organization was effected for the purpose 
of manufacturing the improved steam injector 



invented by Mr. Penberthy, and the company 
assumed the ownership of the patents on the 
device. The original "plant" was a room about 
twenty feet square in the building occupied by 
the Detroit Knitting & Corset Works, of 
which Mr. Johnson, secretary and treasurer of 
the new corporation, was at the time manager. 
The mechanical equipment installed at the 
start consisted of one brass lathe and one tool 
lathe, and the operative force was limited to 
four men, all castings being made outside, un- 
der contract. Carefully and methodically was 
the work pushed forward and the products 
were introduced entirely upon their merits. 
The enterprise expanded rapidly but normally 
under these conditions, and in 1890 the orig- 
inal quarters were abandoned for a building 
of one story which had been erected in the rear 
of the knitting and corset factory and which 
was fifty by forty feet in dimensions. The de- 
velopment of the business continued and event- 
ually the entire building formerly occupied by 
the corset factory was devoted to the use of 
the injector company, while the corps of em- 
ployes was increased to one hundred and fifty 
persons. Under essentially these conditions 
the enterprise was successfully continued until 
November 21, 1901, when the plant and build- 
ing were completely wrecked by an explosion 
of the boilers, entailing virtually the entire 
loss of the equipment. A careful investigation 
of the cause of the accident was made and the 
matter was carried into the courts, where the 
jury emphatically placed the blame upon the 
manufacturers of the boilers, having unequiv- 
ocally pronounced the dictum that inferior 
material had been used in the construction of 
the same. 

Immediately following the wrecking of the 
plant, which had been located on Abbott street, 
the company purchased five and one-half acres 
of land with a frontage of three hundred feet 
on Greenwood avenue and five hundred feet 
on Holden avenue and the trackway of the 
Grand Trunk Railway. On this site on hun- 
dred and twenty-five thousand dollars were ex- 
pended in the erection of an essentially mod- 
em plant, with every possible accessory and 
device for facilitating operations and consei-v- 

ing time and economy in the same. In addi- 
tion to the sum noted about seventy-five thou- 
sand dollars were invested in the machinery 
installed. In 1907 was erected the office build- 
ing, one of the finest and most sumptuously 
appointed that can be found in connection with 
Detroit manufacturing concerns. In the mat- 
ter of lighting, convenience of arrangement, 
individual apparatus for protection from fire, 
excellence of shipping facilities and general 
equipment, this plant is recognized as one of 
the best in the country. Employment is now 
given to a force of about three hundred and 
fifty operatives, of whom fully sixty-five per 
cent, are skilled mechanicians. The average 
annual pay roll represents an expenditure of 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The 
stock of the company is now virtually con- 
trolled by S. Olin Johnson, and the capital has 
been reduced to fifty thousand dollars, giving 
ample working basis and showing the conserv- 
ative methods on which the business is con- 
ducted. This reduction is significant in these 
days, when there is so great a tendency toward 
the overdue "watering" of the stock of cor- 
porations. The financial stability of the com- 
pany is further indicated in its notable surplus 
fund of three hundred thousand dollars, at the 
beginning of the year 1908. The officers of 
the company at the present time are as here 
noted: S. Olin Johnson, president and treas- 
urer; and Homer S. Johnson, secretary and 
general manager. 

The Penberthy injector is manufactured in 
two types, — the automatic injector and the 
auto-positive injector, — and there is not a sec- 
tion of the world in which steam is applied 
that the products of this i-iportant concern are 
not utilized and recognized for their superi- 
ority. This implies, as is the unmistakable 
fact, that there are in use to-day more of the 
Penberthy injectors than of any two other in- 
jector manufactories combined. The annual 
capacity of the plant is for the output of fifty 
thousand injectors, and the institution is nm 
to its maximum capacity at all times in order 
to meet the demands placed upon it. Since the 
organization of the company, in 1886, it has 
expended more than two hundred and fifty 



thousand dollars in advertising, and this pub- 
licity work has been handled with signal ability 
and judgment. The Penberthy injectors are 
the recognized standard of excellence, taking 
precedence of all others. In 1890 an auxilliary 
plant was erected in Windsor, Ontario, for the 
purpose of protecting the Canadian patents of 
the company and facilitating the large business 
controlled in that dominion. In 1902 Homer 
S. Johnson, son of the president of the com- 
pany, assumed the management of the Cana- 
dian field and under his effective direction the 
trade therein was rapidly and substantially de- 
veloped from the Windsor headquarters. 
Since 1905 this branch has been in charge of 
Seth J. North, a nephew of the president of 
the company, and he has proven a discriminat- 
ing and capable executive, having well demon- 
strated his ability for the handling of large 
and important business interests. Detroit has 
reason to find satisfaction in counting among 
her representative manufacturing industries 
that of the Penberthy Injector Company, for 
the products, "made in Detroit," have brought 
unmistakable prestige to the city wherever 
steam is applied to practical uses, — and that 
implies all sections of the world. As in a 
measure supplemental and complimentary to 
this brief descriptive article may be taken the 
sketch of the career of the president of the 
company, said article appearing on other pages 
of this volume. 


An industry of importance and one which 
had a most modest inception is that conducted 
by the J. H. Bishop Company, whose extensive 
plant and business headquarters are located in 
the city of Wyandotte, where the concern rep- 
resents one of the pioneer manufacturing en- 
terprises of this thriving town. To the 
prescience and indefatigable energy of the 
founder, Jerome H. Bishop is due the upbuild- 
ing of this industry, the most important of the 
kind in the United States, and on other pages 
of this publication will be found a brief re- 
view of the career of Mr. Bishop, who is one 
of the most honored citizens and most pro- 

gressive and public-spirited business men of 
Wyandotte, where he has maintained his home 
for nearly forty years. 

The enterprise to which this article is de- 
voted had its inception in 1875, when Jerome 
H. Bishop, who had for the four preceding 
years been superintendent of the public schools 
of Wyandotte, began the manufacturing of fur 
coats and robes. He began operations upon a 
capitalistic basis of only fifty dollars and he 
individually constituted the entire executive 
and working force. The growth of the in- 
dustry to its present proportions stands in 
evidence of his unceasing application, wise 
policy and strong executive and initiative 

The business was conducted under the title 
of J. H. Bishop until 1891, when articles of 
incorporation were filed. In February of that 
year was incorporated under the laws of the 
state the J. H. Bishop Company, with a capi- 
tal stock of five hundred thousand dollars. It 
is needless to remark that it is a "far cry" 
from the little shop established by Mr. Bishop 
and the institution which now bears his name. 
The company manufacture fur coats and robes 
of all descriptions and control a trade which 
ramifies throughout the United States and 
Canada. For the facile handling of the large 
trade in the Canadian provinces a branch plant 
is maintained at Sandwich, Ontario, and the 
same is in charge of William J. Burns, secre- 
tary of the company. The home plant of the 
company in Wyandotte occupies an entire 
block, bounded by Superior boulevard. Chest- 
nut and River streets and the Detroit river. 
Here have been erected fourteen substantial 
buildings and the same are equipped with the 
most modern mechanical devices and other 
accessories for facilitating the manufacturing 
of the standard products of the concern, while 
careful attention has been given to providing 
the best of sanitary conditions and affording 
ample protection from loss by fire. This is 
the only concern in the Union which manu- 
factures fur coats and robes directly from the 
raw material. That is, the plant is equipped 
for the tanning, dyeing and finishing of all 
hides and skins used, and thereafter every 



detail of the manufacturing is done in the 
establishment itself. In the plant may be found 
every kind of skin utilized for the manufac- 
turing of the products for which the company 
has gained so wide and splendid a reputation. 
In the purchasing of skins for use in the fac- 
tory recourse is had to the fur markets of the 
world. The annual business of the company 
shows transactions to the average aggregate of 
about six hundred thousand dollars, and one 
hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars are 
expended each year in salaries and wages. 
The company gives employment to three 
hundred persons, a considerable proportion of 
whom are skilled artisans. A corps of ten 
traveling representatives are retained and the 
business is entirely of a wholesale order. The 
products are recognized as standard, and their 
superior excellence has been the agency 
through which the enterprise has expanded 
year after year. Branch offices are maintained 
in New York, Chicago and Boston. The of- 
ficers of the company are as here noted : Presi- 
dent and general manager, Jerome H. Bishop; 
vice-president, Jerome H. Bishop, Jr.; secre- 
tary, William J. Burns; and treasurer, J. H. 


Members of the Buhl family have long stood 
representative of the most progressive citizen- 
ship in Detroit, and the city owes to them no 
insignificant debt in connection with its in- 
dustrial and civic upbuilding and advancement. 
With many concerns of commercial impor- 
tance is the name identified, as the pages of this 
work will clearly show in greater or less de- 
tail, and among such enterprises is that con- 
ducted under the corporate name indicated 

Under the title of the Sprocket Chain Manu- 
facturing Company, the business had its in- 
ception on the nth of April, 1899, when the 
company was incorporated with a capital stock 
of twenty-five thousand dollars. The concern 
began the manufacturing of sprocket chains 
by effecting the purchase of the business of the 
Detroit Sprocket Chain Company, which had 
been manufacturing such products upon a 

modest scale. The Buhls assumed control of 
the business and on the 14th of August, 1899, 
it was incorporated under the laws of the state, 
as the Buhl Malleable Company, with a capital 
stock of fifty thousand dollars. The officers of 
the concern were as follows : Theodore D. 
Buhl, president; Alexander McPherson, vice- 
president ; Frederick T. DeLong, secretary and 
treasurer. In August, 1903, Charles A. Rath- 
bone was elected secretary and treasurer, and 
also a director of the company, and upon Mr. 
DeLong's leaving, he was made secretary, 
treasurer ' and manager. It will thus 
be seen that the interposition of other repre- 
sentative business men than those giving title 
to the concern was secured, so that the busi- 
ness started out under most favorable auspices 
in the matter of executive control. The suc- 
cess of the company has been pronounced in 
order, and the business has become one of the 
valuable acquisitions to the industrial enter- 
prises of the "Greater Detroit." In 1901 the 
capital stock was increased to one hundred 
thousand dollars, and September 30, 1907, was 
increased to one hundred and ten thousand 
dollars. The business since 1903 has been 
very successful, — adding new furnaces, in- 
creasing their output and doubling this busi- 
ness. Upon the death of Theodore D. Buhl, 
in April, 1907, his son, Arthur A. Buhl, suc- 
ceeded to the presidency, an office in which he 
is directing affairs with unqualified discrimina- 
tion, and his brother Willis E. Buhl, was 
elected director to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of his father. 

The well equipped plant of the Buhl Mal- 
leable Company is, in the main, that formerly 
utilized by the Peninsular Car Company, on 
Adair street, but enlargements and other im- 
provements upon the buildings have been made 
from time to time, to meet the demands of the 
expanding business and to facilitate the work 
of manufacturing. Through the extension of 
the plant the company now utilize the large 
tract of land lying between Adair and Walker 
streets on Wight street and extending down 
to the Detroit river, where excellent dock fa- 
cilities are controlled. In the works are em- 
ployed six hundred and fifty operatives, of 



whom one hundred and fifty to one hundred 
and seventy-five are moulders, and the output 
of the plant not only includes the original line 
of sprocket chains, now a small feature of the 
enterprise, but also the highest grade of mal- 
leable-iron work, for agricultural plants, car 
work and general malleable work. The output 
reaches an annual aggregate of from eight 
thousand to ten thousand tons and the products 
are sold principally throughout the United 
States and Canada. 


The superior advantages offered by Detroit 
as a manufacturing and distributing center are 
becoming more thoroughly appreciated every 
succeeding year, and in witness of this fact 
the best evidence is that shown in the marvel- 
ous impetus which has of recent years been 
given to the city's industrial growth and ex- 
pansion. Among the many manufacturing 
enterprises which thus lend prestige to the 
city is numbered that conducted under the cor- 
porate title indicated at the head of this article. 
The American Harrow Company, repre- 
senting one of the newer and important in- 
dustries of the city, was incorporated in 1882, 
with a capital stock of one hundred thousand 
dollars, and with official corps as follows: D. 
M. Ferry, president, until his death; W. B. 
Moran originally vice-president; Sherman R. 
Miller, vice-president; and Wilham W. Col- 
lier, secretary and treasurer. In addi- 
tion to the present officers of the company 
several others of the stockholders are 
represented on the directorate. Shortly 
after incorporation the company instituted the 
erection of a suitable plant, securing an eligi- 
ble location on the corner of Milwaukee ave- 
nue and Hastings street, where they now have 
four acres of ground covered with buildings, 
and have a most complete and finely equipped 
modern plant. The products of the establish- 
ment include harrows, cultivators and manure- 
spreaders, all of special and effective design 
and all properly protected by patents, and the 
trade of the concern now permeates into all 
sections of the agricultural world. From the 

earnings of the concern the capital stock has 
now been increased to the noteworthy aggre- 
gate of two hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars. Though the major portion of the output 
is utilized in the United States and Canada, 
the company has already built up specially sub- 
stantial and appreciative trade in England, 
Australia and Holland. This concern repre- 
sents the largest manufactory of disk-harrows 
and manure-spreaders in the world. 

William W. Collier and the late Henry Gale, 
of Albion, Michigan, were the leading spirits 
in the promoting of this important and well 
ordered enterprise and to them is due the or- 
ganization of the company under so favorable 
auspices. Since the death of Mr. Gale the 
practical management of the business has de- 
volved largely upon Mr. Collier, in co-opera- 
tion with the executive committee. 

William W. Collier is a native of the 
Wolverine state, having been born in Battle 
Creek, Michigan, on the 19th of November, 
1850, and being a son of Victor P. Collier, 
who was long one of the prominent and in- 
fluential business men of that city. Mr. Col- 
lier was reared in Battle Creek, where he se- 
cured his preliminary educational training, 
which was supplemented by further study in 
Highland Military Academy. After leaving 
school Mr. Collier was associated with his 
father in the hardware business for some time, 
and the father later became president of the 
First National Bank of Battle Creek, also serv- 
ino; one term as state treasurer. 

In 1871, soon after attaining to his legal 
majority, William W. Collier came to Detroit, 
where he entered the employ of the hardware 
house of Ducharme, Fletcher & Company, with 
whom he remained four years, after which he 
was salesman for the Wyandotte Rolling Mill 
Company until 1902, when he became identi- 
fied with the organization of the American 
Harrow Company, as already described in this 
article. He is also vice-president of the Du- 
plex Printing Press Company, of Battle Creek. 
In the spring of 1908, the Detroit Driving 
Club was reorganized, with a capital stock of 
twenty-five thousand dollars, and Mr. Collier 
was chosen president. The company leased 



the State Fair grounds and track for a period 

of ten years, and have greatly improved the 


In politics he is a Republican, and he is 

identified with various civic and social organi- 
zations. He and his wife hold membership in 
the Unitarian church. 

In 1891 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. 
Collier to Miss Virginia Wright, daughter of 
Philo Wright, a well known vessel-owner of 
Detroit, and prominently identified with navi- 
gation interests on the Great Lakes. Mr. and 
Mrs. Collier have three sons, — Wright, Ste- 
phen, and William. 


As an important mechanic industry of De- 
troit that represented by the company whose 
name here appears, merits due consideration 
in this work, which has assigned as a promi- 
nent function in its province the recording of 
the histories of those enterprises which have 
tended to conserve the upbuilding of modern 
and greater industrial Detroit. 

The Buhl Stamping Company was founded 
in 1888, and the interested principals in the 
new corporation were junior partners in the 
wholesale hardware concern of Buhl Sons & 
Company. The first president of the company 
was Theodore D. Buhl, and Charles H. Jacobs 
was chosen vice-president; Dewitt E. Dela- 
mater, secretary; and Jefferson M. Thurber, 
treasurer. The capital stock represented in the 
incorporation was twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars, and the plant secured for the initiation 
of practical operations was that of the Buhl 
Iron Works, located on Third, Lamed and 
Congress streets, from Third to Fourth streets, 
in the western section of the city. The plant 
was extensively remodeled without interfering 
with the operation of the factory and the main 
building is now three hundred by two hundred 
and fifty feet in dimension, three stories in 
height. Of the force of five hundred opera- 
tives about forty per cent, is represented in 
skilled labor. The business had its inception 
through a realization on the part of Theodore 
D. Buhl of its practical necessity as an adjunct 

or complement to other lines of enterprise with 
which he was identified, and the products of 
the concern comprise a full line of milk cans, 
cream separators, lanterns, etc. During the 
first four years the enterprise was not a pay- 
ing venture, owing to ineffective management 
in the detail work of the various departments, 
but the business has shown a steady and sub- 
stantial growth and is now paying good re- 
turns on the investment made, besides beine 
a valuable acquisition to the industrial and 
commercial life of the city. The products now 
find sale in the most diverse sections of the 
United States, with a growing trade in Canada 
and Mexico. Since the death of Theodore 
D. Buhl, his son Willis E., has been presi- 
dent of the company. Jefferson M. Thurber 
is secretary; Dewitt C. Delamater, treasurer; 
and John B. Breen, general manager. 


Tn the sum total of the multifarious manu- 
facturing industries which contribute materi- 
ally to upholding the commercial precedence 
and prestige of the city of Detroit that con- 
ducted under the above title has no incon- 
spicuous place, the Michigan and Detroit plants 
of the company being large and finely equipped 
establishments and their products being of the 
highest order of excellence. Both plants are 
located in Detroit, 

This Michigan-plant branch of the enter- 
prise in Detroit, dates its foundation back to 
1888, and the original incorporation was made 
under title of the Michigan Radiator & Iron 
Manufacturing Company. The chief promoter 
was John B. Dyar, who had been for about a 
decade previously managing owner of the De- 
troit Metal & Heating Works. In the forming 
of the new company there were associated with 
him such representative business men of De- 
troit as Martin S. Smith, Clarence Carpenter, 
Clarence M. Woolley, James McMillan, E. W.' 
Meddaugh, and Ernest E. Mann. The per- 
sonnel of the original executive corps was as 
follows : John B. Dyar, president ; M. S. Smith, 
vice-president; Clarence Carpenter, treasurer; 
and C. M. Woolley, secretary. 



The company purchased a tract of land on 
Trombly avenue, between Russell street and 
the tracks of the Grand Trunk Railway, se- 
curing about six acres and erecting thereon a 
foundry building eighty by three hundred feet 
in dimensions; a machine shop, forty by four 
hundred and thirty feet; a core room eighty 
feet square ; cleaning room, fifty by sixty feet ; 
power house, eighty by forty feet; warehouse 
four hundred and seventy-eight by one hun- 
dred and twenty-four feet ; and an adequate and 
appropriate office building. The company en- 
gaged in the manufacturing of cast-iron radi- 
ators for water and steam warming purposes, 
being the second concern to take up this line 
of industry in Detroit, where the Detroit Steam 
Radiator Company had previously been in the 
field for a period of about four years, having 
also the distinction of being one of the pioneer 
concerns in this branch of manufacture in the 
United States. 

In initiating practical operations the Michi- 
gan Radiator & Iron Manufacturing Company 
gave employment to about two hundred hands, 
and the business met with immediate success. 
In a few years about five hundred employes 
were represented on the pay roll of the com- 
pany and the enterprise had assumed very ex- 
tensive proportions, after having been in 
operation for but little more than a decade. 
In the year 1891 the American Radiator Com- 
pany was organized and incorporated and as- 
sumed possession and control of the business 
and plant of each the Michigan Radiator & 
Iron Manufacturing Company and the Detroit 
Radiator Company, of this city, as well as of 
the Pierce Steam Heating Company, of Buf- 
falo, New York. About this time the Michi- 
gan plant began the manufacturing of hot- 
water and steam warming apparatus in con- 
nection with its previous line of products, and 
in 1894 were manufactured in the plant its 
first boilers for house-warming purposes. The 
manufacturing of radiators was gradually dis- 
continued, being turned over to the Detroit 
plant, and the original plant of the Michigan 
Radiator & Iron Manufacturing Company is 
now devoted exclusively to the manufacturing 
of hot-water and steam-warming appliances. 

not including radiators. About one acre of 
additional ground has been added to the origi- 
nal tract and new buildings have been erected, 
to meet the demands of the constantly expand- 
ing business. Further amplification is required 
in this line at the present time, and arrange- 
ments are being made for the enlarging of the 
plant in the near future. The employes of the 
Michigan plant of this concern are now up- 
ward of seven hundred in number, and about 
one-half are skilled artisans. The office force 
numbers twenty persons, and the average an- 
nual outlay in salaries and wages aggregates 
five hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Clar- 
ence Carpenter is manager of the plant ; Henry 
J. Rente, assistant manager; and Roland H. 
Mann, assistant superintendent. 


An industry of considerable magnitude and 
one unique in special features of furniture 
manufacturing is that conducted under the 
title appearing above, and the extensive and 
finely equipped factory and warerooms of the 
company are eligibly located on Mount Elliott 
and Harper avenues. This business dates its 
foundation back to the year 1870, when it was 
established in a somewhat modest way by the 
late Adolph Posselius. Success attended the 
enterprise from the start and the advancement 
has been substantial and consecutive during 
the intervening years, the result being the 
building up of an industry of wide ramifica- 
tions and one that contributes materially to the 
commercial precedence of the city of Detroit. 
For a time the business was conducted under 
the title of Posselius Brothers and in 1890 the 
Posselius Brother Furniture Manufacturing 
Company was incorporated, with a capital 
stock of fifty thousand dollars. The officers of 
this company are as here noted : Charles W. 
Munz, president and general manager; John H. 
Knodell, vice-president; and Anthony Seeger, 
secretary and treasurer. The concern stands 
the largest exclusive manufacturers of dining- 
room extension tables in the world, and its 
specialty is the "Victor" tables, representing 
the improved inventions of Mr. Munz, the 



president of the company. The products of 
this institution find sale in the most diverse 
sections of the Union, and the volume of trade 
is very large, with a constantly cumulative 
tendency. A branch salesroom is maintained 
at 13 19 Michigan avenue, Chicago, in the Fur- 
niture Exposition building. 

The plant of the company utilizes six acres 
of ground at the location previously noted. 
The main building has a frontage of three 
hundred and sixty feet on Harper avenue, this 
section being sixty feet in width, and the 
Mount Elliott avenue frontage is one hundred 
and fifty feet, with a width of seventy-five 
feet. This building is four stories in height 
and is substantially constructed of brick, ac- 
cording to the most modern ideas for factory 
purposes. The power building is in the main 
one hundred by fifty feet in dimensions and 
has an annex twenty-five by forty feet. The 
shipping room is fifty-five by seventy-five feet 
in dimensions. The facilities throughout, in- 
cluding the mechanical equipment, are of the 
highest type and the plant was erected in 1901, 
in which year the business was removed from 
its former location on Gratiot avenue, between 
Russell and Riopelle streets. In the manufac- 
turing department of the enterprise employ- 
ment is afforded to a force of two hundred and 
thirty operatives, about half of whom are 
skilled mechanics, and fifteen men are em- 
ployed in representing the sales department 
throughout the extensive trade territory cov- 
ered by the company. The average annual 
expenditure in wages is one hundred thousand 
dollars. On other pages of this publication 
appear brief sketches of the careers of the 
president and the secretary and treasurer of 
the company. 


Under the title here noted is conducted one 
of the important and successful business en- 
terprises of Detroit, and the interested princi- 
pals in the concern, which is a corporation, are 
James J. Sullivan, Frank J. Sullivan, Mark 
M. Fleischman, William Wreford and Alfred 
Roe. James J. Sullivan, founder of the enter- 

prise and president of the company, is one of 
the well known and essentially representative 
live-stock commission men of Detroit, and he 
is connected with the live-stock exchange of 
this city, as well as that of the city of Buffalo, 
New York. 

The prosperous industry here considered 
was founded in 1895, by James J. Sullivan, and 
at the start employment was given to only 
twelve persons. The cattle killed each week 
did not at that time aggregate more than sev- 
enty-five head. The company now employs a 
force of fifty men in the abattoir, and twelve 
men, utilizing an equal number of wagons, are 
employed in the delivering of products. 

The business was conducted as a copartner- 
ship, under the title of the Sullivan Beef Com- 
pany, until April 2, 1908, when it was incor- 
porated under the present title and with a cap- 
ital stock of two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. The officers of the company are as 
here noted : James J. Sullivan, president ; Mark 
M. Fleischman, vice-president; William Wre- 
ford, second vice-president ; Frank J. Sullivan, 
secretary, treasurer and general manager; 
Alexander McFall, superintendent of the pack- 
ing plant ; and William Flanigan, superintend- 
ent of the abattoir. 

The abattoir, packing house and general of- 
fices of the Sullivan Packing Company are 
located at the juncture of Beecher avenue and 
the tracks of the Michigan Central Railroad. 
A frontage of five hundred and forty feet is 
owned on the avenue mentioned and the 
grounds utilized extend back therefrom a dis- 
tance of one hundred and seventy feet to a 
spur track of the Michigan Central, through 
which railroad the best of shipping facilities 
are controlled. The plant is the most modem 
of the kind in Michigan. The buildings are 
of brick, steel and concrete construction and 
were erected in 1906 and 1908. The machin- 
ery and other accessories are of the most 
modern type known to the business and thus 
insure perfection of output. The cold-storage 
rooms have a capacity for the housing of four 
hundred beeves, five hundred lambs and two 
hundred calves, and the capacity of the ice 
plant is sixty tons per day. The packing plant 



has facilities for the slaughtering and packing 
of three thousand hogs per week. All the 
hoisting and transferring machinery is oper- 
ated by electric power, and the sanitary equip- 
ment of the entire plant is as nearly perfect 
as scientific principles and scrupulous care can 
make it. The by-products of the abattoir and 
packing house are treated in sanitary, odorless 
rendering-tanks, and from this department of 
the enterprise are produced two grades of tal- 
low and a valuable dry fertilizer. The com- 
pany has its own power plant and generates its 
own electricity for mechanical and lighting 
purposes. The establishment as an entirety is 
a veritable model. The abattoir handles an 
average of three hundred and fifty head of 
cattle, four hundred lambs, one hundred and 
fifty calves, and from twenty-five hundred to 
three thousand hogs each week, and the annual 
transactions represent an average aggregate of 
fully two and one-half millions of dollars. 

Within the year 1908 the company has 
erected a packing plant, placed in operation in 
October of that year. The building is four 
stories in height, and its equipment through- 
out is the acme of perfection. There has been 
adopted a new system, by which the slaughter- 
ing is done on the top floor, from which the 
products are worked downward through the 
various processes. Improved facilities are to 
be noted on every side, including provisions 
for the scraping of the hogs by machinery. 
The latest improved sausage machinery has 
been installed, and the coolers are of the best 
type. Operations involve the slaughtering and 
handling of three thousand hogs a week, and 
the finest grades of ham. bacon, lard, sausage, 
etc., are turned out in this fine establishment. 
The output of the plant is utilized princi- 
pally in the retail markets of Detroit and the 
state, and the cattle and hogs are procured 
from the stockyards of Kansas City, Omaha, 
Chicago and Detroit. Particular discrimina- 
tion is brought to bear in the selection of stock. 
The company's plant has a storage capacity 
for the accommodation of fifteen thousand 
beef hides, five thousand calf skins and five 
thousand sheep pelts. All of these products 
must be rehandled and replied at least once 

in every thirty days, in order to prevent de- 
terioriation or spontaneous combustion. There 
is also storage capacity for one hundred casks 
of tallow. These brief statements indicate that 
the industry is one of no minor importance and 
no small scope, and it is ably managed in every 


When one stops to consider the progressive- 
ness of Detroit's captains of industry and the 
many channels in which their energies are di- 
rected, it is not surprising that the city has 
forged to the front industrially and commer- 
cially. An idea of the diversity of interests 
represented is to be gleaned from a perusal 
of the various descriptive and biographical 
sketches appearing within the pages of this 
work, and in this connection the concern whose 
name introduces this article is well entitled to 
consideration. The company manufactures 
electric signs and a variety of other styles of 
commercial signs, figures as an effective dis- 
tributor of out-door advertising and is one of 
the leading bill-posting concerns of the United 
States. It controls a large business in its 
several departments. 

The enterprise dates its foundation from the 
year 1862, when William and John D. Walk- 
er, uncle and brother respectively of the pres- 
ent president of the company, established the 
business under the title at present maintained, 
though the original concern was a copartner- 
ship. Like many another Detroit concern 
with so long a history. Walker & Company 
began operations upon a very modest scale, 
though one adequate for the demands of lo- 
cality and period. At the inception a two- 
sheet poster was the largest display advertis- 
ing put forth by the firm. In 1872, the pres- 
ent president, Henry W. Walker, individually 
mentioned in this publication, became a mem- 
ber of the firm, whose business at that time had 
been extended in such a way as to effectively 
cover the cities of Detroit and Buffalo, and the 
executive force then comprised only two other 
men besides himself. Henry W. Walker re- 
mained actively identified with the firm for 
about a decade, and through his energy and 



progressive polic}' the business greatly ex- 
panded in scope. In 1881 he retired from the 
firm and resumed his connection with the lum- 
bering industry, with which he had previously 
been identified, but in 1883 he associated him- 
self with Charles Shaw, lessee of the Detroit 
opera house, and again engaged in the bill- 
posting business, under the original title of 
Walker & Company. In 1885 Mr. Walker pur- 
chased and assumed control of all bill boards 
utilized by the Detroit opera house and soon 
established the enterprise upon a most sub- 
stantial and metropolitan basis, the growth of 
the business being most satisfactory, while the 
best advertising sites, both as to location and 
number, were secured as rapidly as they be- 
came available. The firm maintained from 
the start a high reputation for honorable busi- 
ness methods, and the result has been that 
to-day the concern is recognized as one of the 
most popular, as well as one of the largest and 
most progressive, in the Union. No other in 
the growth of the business caused a removal 
the same province of enterprise has in its 
chosen domain so many eligible locations con- 
trolled for advertising purposes, has a superior 
order of equipments and facilities, or gives 
better service. Nearly all the bill boards used 
are constructed of sheet iron and the utmost 
care is given to affording attractive advertis- 
ing of the most advanced modern type. In 
1905 the firm began the manufacturing of 
electric signs, as a supplement to their regular 
commercial-sign department, and this feature 
of the enterprise has gained distinctive popu- 
lar approval and support, many of the most 
attractive electric signs in Detroit being pro- 
ducts of the manufactory of Walker & Com- 
pany. In March, 1906, the business was in- 
corporated under the laws of the state, with 
a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars, 
and Henry W. Walker became president and 
general manager of the new corporation, 
while his son, Harry C. Walker, one of the 
alert and enterprising business men of the 
younger generation in Detroit, is the secretary 
and treasurer, proving an able coadjutor to his 
father. The company employ a force of sixty 
to eighty experts in the sign and bill-posting 

department, have four solicitors, and an office 
corps of nine persons. Their bill boards cover 
not only the city of Detroit, but also Wyan- 
dotte, Trenton, Monroe, Ecorse, Ypsilanti, 
and the St. Clair Flats, and the general dis- 
tributing business of the concern has reached 
gigantic proportions, the facilities controlled 
being such that the largest and best advertisers 
have recourse to the services of the company. 
Both of the executive officers of the company 
are members of the Associated Bill Posters 
and Distributers of the United States and 
Canada, and Harry C. Walker is a director of 
this organization, while Henry W. was one of 
the organizers and original directors. The ad- 
vertisers of Detroit may well find satisfaction 
in the facilities offered by this concern, whose 
plant is uniformly recognized as being one of 
the best equipped in the country, while the re- 
liability of the service is of the highest. 

Their being members of the National As- 
sociation enables them to get absolutely relia- 
ble service in every city of two thousand in- 
habitants or over in the United States, Canada, 
Mexico and Cuba. This organization is one 
of the most complete, reliable and important 
ever organized in America, each member 
having a complete list of all other members' 
boards, capacity, prices and scope. 


In the matter of industrial development De- 
troit in the past decade has attracted the at- 
tention of the citizens of the country at large, 
her growth in this particular being greater 
than that of any city of her population in 
America. A careful analysis of that growth 
will show that in the matter of specialty man- 
ufacturers, whose individual plants are the 
most important in their respective lines, this 
city is without a rival. Among her larger in- 
dustries in the specialty field, that of the Hol- 
liday Box Company is one of the most import- 
ant. This business was founded in 1878 by 
Mr. William P. Holliday, who for about six 
years previously had been in charge of the 
plant of D. M. Richardson, manufacturer of 
matches — now the Detroit plant of the Dia- 
mond Match Company. His first factory was 



located at 157 Jefferson avenue, and his oper- 
ating force did not exceed ten employes. His 
output consisted of all classes of paper boxes 
and his trade was confined to the local markets. 
His venture vi^as successful from the start and 
and the Michigan Central belt line tracks, in 
to larger quarters, 55 Jefferson avenue. A 
second removal, to the Bagley building on 
Bates street, soon follovi^ed. The continued 
growth of the enterprise resulted in the pur- 
chase, in 1890, of the lot at the corner of Fort 
and Brush streets, one hundred and thirty- 
eight by one hundred and thirty-eight feet. A 
six-story and basement factory building, 
equipped with the most modern machinery to 
be had, was erected and occupied in 1891. 
Built of brick and provided with the most 
modern safeguards against fire, having a floor 
space of one hundred and thirty thousand 
square feet, it offers employment to four 
hundred operatives, two-thirds of whom are 
girls, trained in the making of the company's 
products and working under sanitary condi- 
tions as perfect as modern factory construc- 
tion will permit. 

This company manufacture fancy confec- 
tionery boxes, made from silks, satins and im- 
ported papers. Only the best grades are pro- 
duced, their line being the most expensive 
made in America, and their output equalling in 
quantity all of the other makers of this special- 
ty in the United States. Their product is 
sold through a traveling force and is marketed 
in every town of twenty thousand population 
and over in the United States and Canada. 
In addition to this they export annually large 
quantities of goods to many of the larger 
cities. The importance of the industry to the 
city is best illustrated through its wage scale, 
— more than one hundred thousand dollars 
being distributed each year in return for labor. 
The company was incorporated on April 
12, 1903, with a capital stock of two hundred 
thousand dollars, and succeeded to the business 
of W. P. Holliday. Its officers are : President, 
William P. Holliday; secretary and treasurer, 
Robert W. Stewart; superintendent, George 
B. Streit. Personal mention of Mr. Holliday 
appears on other pages of this work. 


In reviewing the industrial concerns of De- 
troit, and especially those which have most 
rapidly attained to a commanding place in 
their respective lines of manufacture, the De- 
troit Steel Cooperage Company commends it- 
self to the publishers of this volume. The 
spring of 1908 completes the fifth year since 
its products were first placed upon the market 
and the incidental record shows that in the 
closing of this period the only market in the 
known world in which its products had not 
been sold, that of China, receives a shipment 
of thirty car loads. 

The company was organized in 1902 to 
manufacture glass enameled steel tanks, the 
process of making being the successful result 
of about two years of experimenting by Mr. 
Henry C. Wiedeman, at that time the general 
manager of the Huetteman & Cramer Com- 
pany, of Detroit. In perfecting the tank made 
by this process, two advantages were gained to 
the brewery and distillery interests of the 
world, the most perfect sanitation possible 
from the use of this character of equipment 
in their plants and a commercial saving in the 
manufacture of products and upkeep of 

Associated with Mr. Wiedeman in the pro- 
motion of the company, were Mr. Otto Rein^ 
valdt and Mr. Elias Aberle. Incorporation of 
the enterprise occurred in 1902. The capital 
stock of the company was one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and the first officers were : Presi- 
dent. Conrad Pfeiffer; vice-president, Paul 
Weidner; secretary. Otto Reinvaldt; treas- 
urer and general manager, Henry C. Weide- 
man. A site was purchased at Sylvester street 
the heart of Detroit's most desirable manu- 
facturing district. A factory building one 
hundred and fifty by one hundred and five feet, 
constructed of steel, concrete and brick,, was 
built and the equipment necessary for manu- 
facture installed. A large percentage of the 
machines needed were built especially for the 
purpose and patented by the company. 

The summer of 1903 saw the first tanks 
placed upon the market. They were received 



with marked approval, and, although an un- 
tried and unproven feature of brewery equip- 
ment, a business totaling eighty thousand dol- 
lars was secured the first twelve months from 
the time their first order was secured. One of 
their first customers, the Anheuser-Busch 
Brewing Association, of St. Louis, the world's 
largest brewers, placed an order for thirty-two 
of the largest storage tanks ever constructed, 
viz : ten feet in diameter by sixty-eight feet in 
length, each having a capacity of one thousand 
one hundred and forty barrels. Each suc- 
ceeding year had brought an order for more 
equipment from this company, which is con- 
clusive evidence not only of the practical value 
of this class of tank, but also of the high 
standard of quality of the product. 

Financial demands of a business that had 
grown beyond the expectations of its owners 
made a reorganization necessary; and in 1905 
a number of Detroit's well known business men 
of wealth were interested in the enterprise. 
Complete reorganization resulted and the offi- 
cers of the practically new concern are as fol- 
lows : President, Colonel Frank H. Blackman ; 
vice-president, Hon. Hoyt Post; secretary^ 
DeWitt H. Taylor; assistant secretary, Otto 
Reinvaldt; treasurer, William Harry; assist- 
ant treasurer, H. C. Wiedeman. The controll- 
ing spirit in the enterprise, Henry C. Wiede- 
man, to whose indefatigable energy and well 
directed business efforts the success of the 
company is mainly due, has since its start sat- 
isfactorily filled the position of general man- 
ager. He is in control of the sales, finance 
and general business departments of the com- 
pany. Mr. Otto Reinvaldt, his associate in 
the formation of the company, is in charge of 
the purchasing and manufacturing depart- 

The company maintain branch offices in 
New York, Chicago and Seattle, and a foreign 
office in London, England. An average force 
of one hundred and fifty men is employed, 
sixty-five per cent, of whom are skilled me- 
chanics, and the company distributes annually 
in wages one hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars. The growth of this enterprise is best 
illustrated by a comparison of the business 


Occupying a position of marked relative im- 
portance in comparison with the representative 
concerns of the sort in Detroit, this company 
is clearly entitled to consideration in this pub- 
lication, one of whose chief functions is the 
entering of a general review of the leading in- 
dustrial enterprises which are contributing to 
the upbuilding of the "Greater Detroit." 

The controlling stock in the Newton Beef 
Company is owned by its founder, Thomas E. 
Newton, who is president, treasurer and gen- 
eral manager of the company, which was in- 
corporated under the laws of the state in 1901. 
The other members of the executive corps are 
as follows: William J. Streit, vice-president 
and manager of the retail store; William Cal- 
lan, secretary and office manager. The finely 
equipped abattoir of the company is located on 
Fourteenth street at the junction of the same 
with the tracks of the Michigan Central Rail- 
road, so that the best of transportation facili- 
ties are controlled. The annual business of the 
concern has already reached the noteworthy 
aggregate of one million dollars, representing 
the handling within that period of an average 
of twenty-five thousand head of cattle, twelve 
thousand lambs, and seven thousand calves. 

done in 1903, its first year, and that of 1907, 
its fifth. That of 1903 totaled eighty thousand 
dollars; that of 1907 reached the pleasing ag- 
gregate of six hundred thousand dollars. Ad- 
ditions to the original building have from time 
to time been built, until in 1908, the factory ' 
stretches on Beaufait avenue northward seven 
hundred feet from Sylvester street, and has a ' 
width of one hundred and five feet, this being 
the largest single structure devoted to indus- | 
trial use in the city. The reputation of its 
products and the magic of the words "made 
in Detroit''' are necessarily of much value to 
the city, while the money disbursed in wages 
is an important item in a commercial way. 
The financial strength of those in control and 
the business acumen displayed by those in 
charge of the company presage a successful 
future and expansion. 



In by-products the output includes an average 
of fifty thousand pounds of tallow and seventy- 
five thousand pounds of fertilizer each month. 
The business of the company is largely directed 
in supplying the hotel, restaurant and steam- 
boat trade of Detroit and the local retail meat 
markets, and in addition to this the company 
holds contracts for supplying meats to the gar- 
rison at Fort Wayne and the state prison, at 
Jackson. In the abattoir and delivery service 
thirty-five employes are retained, and an aver- 
age of thirty thousand dollars annually is rep- 
resented in the company's pay roll. The sales 
of hides reach an average of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars annually, and every department 
of the enterprise is conducted with utmost care 
in the conservation of sanitary conditions, thus 
insuring an output which defies criticism and 
constitutes its own advertising. The ice plant 
has a capacity of twenty-five tons daily, and 
the storage rooms afford accommodation for 
five hundred head of dressed cattle, three 
hundred sheep and two hundred calves. In 
1907 a department for the handling of pork 
products was added to the plant, and this fea- 
ture of the enterprise is proving most success- 
ful in operation. The wholesale headquarters 
of the company are maintained at 41 Cadillac 
Square, and the retail store is located at Stall 
4, Central Market. A sketch of the career of 
the president and also one of the secretary of 
the company appear elsewhere in this volume. 

Newberry, president ; C. E. Petrak, vice-presi- 
dent; and Mrs. A. Newberry secretary and 
treasurer. A sketch of the career of the presi- 
dent and founder of the business appears on 
other pages of this work. The plant of the 
company is located at the corner of Fourteenth 
and McGraw avenues, where the building oc- 
cupied is one hundred and fourteen by one 
hundred and forty-six feet in dimension, and 
two stories in height. The company has also 
erected an addition to the main building, and 
this is sixty feet square. The equipment of 
the plant throughout is of the highest modem 
type, and the sanitary provisions are perfect in 
every possible detail. The ovens have a capa- 
city for the output of fifteen thousand two- 
pound loaves of bread a day, and the factory 
is given over exclusively to the manufacturing 
of bread, which is sold at wholesale only. The 
trade of the company extends throughout De- 
troit and its suburbs. Seven delivery wagons 
are in service, and in the factory of the con- 
cern is employed a force of twenty men, en- 
tailing the expenditure of about twenty thou- 
sand dollars annually in wages. The man- 
agement of the business is distinctively pro- 
gressive and aggressive, and the result has been 
an exceptionally rapid growth in the A>olume of 
trade controlled. The interested principals are 
men of established business reputation and pro- 
gressive ideas, and the success of the enter- 
prise represents a natural sequel. 


The enterprise conducted under the above 
title is of more recent establishing than certain 
others of the kind in the city of Detroit, but its 
precedence is acknowledged and the business 
already ranks among the first of the order in 
the Michigan metropolis. 

The Newberry Baking Company was organ- 
ized in 1906, in May of which year it was in- 
corporated under the laws of the state, with a 
capital stock of ten thousand dollars. The 
principals interested in the incorporation were 
Lewis Newberry, Charles E. Petrak, and Mrs. 
A. Newberry, and the officers of the company 
at the present time are as here noted: Lewis 


An industrial concern of importance and one 
that has contributed materially toward the 
commercial prestige of Detroit is that whose 
title initiates this paragraph. The enterprise is 
one of the largest of its kind in the Union, and 
the products of the establishment include over- 
alls, special lines of service coats, trousers, etc. 
The company was incorporated in 1902, with a 
capital stock of sixty thousand dollars, and the 
ofiicers of the same are: William M. Finck, 
president and secretary, and James L. Lee, 
vice-president and treasurer. Mr. Finck has 
the personal supervision of the manufacturing 
department of the business, in which he has 



had long and intimate experience, and Mr. Lee 
has charge of the sales, credit and finance de- 
partments and also of the buying of material 
used in the manufactory. The large and finely 
equipped plant of the company is located at 
1 156 Gratiot avenue, and the main building is 
seventy by one hundred feet in dimensions, is 
constructed of brick and is three stories in 
height. The factory building, at the rear of 
the structure just mentioned, is seventy by one 
hundred and fifty feet in dimensions and 
is two stories in height. In the factory 
employment is given to a force of eight 
hundred operatives, and the output is known 
for its superiority in every respect. It 
has been stated with much of consistency 
that Mr. Finck, president of the company, 
is the man who has made Detroit famous 
for union-made overalls. The enterprise was 
established by him in 1890, and from a modest 
inception has been built up a business that in 
its line stands second to none in the Union. 
Growth, progress and success have been the 
concomitants of the industry and the advanced 
policy and absolute reliability of products in- 
sures a consecutive expansion in the business 
each successive year, as the goods turned out 
constitute their best advertising. From a 
brochure issued by the company are taken the 
following pertinent statements: "Our success 
has been phenomenal, and our many friends at- 
tribute it to the superiority and merit of our 
productions. We are constantly on the alert 
for articles of superiority, having realized the 
importance of manufacturing the best article in 
the country, thus establishing a foundation for 
permanency which tends to steady growth and 
expansion." All styles of overalls are manu- 
factured, as well as coats of denim, corduroy, 
cottonade, canvas, etc. Particular study has 
been given to securing economy in production 
and in conserving the highest possible quality 
in the output. The company has established a 
reputation for fair and honorable dealings, and 
the reliability of all products is assured. As 
showing the progressive ideas of the concern 
it may be stated that the factory utilizes forty- 
two yards of cloth in the manufacturing of a 
dozen of average size, while the record of com- 

petitors in the same production is for the use 
of only thirty-five yards. The excess allows 
for shrinkage and greatly improves the wear- 
ing quality of the garments. Thus the highest 
grade of products is turned out at a price that 
meets all competition. All garments of this 
factory are union made. The goods of the ■ 
company are sold in all sections of the United 
States and Canada, and they are placed largely 
in a direct way, through advertising sent out 
from the headquarters. This method in itself 
conserves economy and enables the company 
to give its customers the advantage of superior 
goods at the price of those of inferior quality 
and workmanship. It is gratifying to note the 
upbuilding of so prosperous an industry, — 
one founded on honor and conducted on the 
plan of giving full value received in every 
transaction. The average annual expenditure 
of the company in wages and salaries is fully 
two hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars, 
and this statement is significant when we revert 
to the fact that in 1902, when the company was 
organized, its total force of employes numbered 
only seventy persons, including the ofiice corps. 
Other data of interest in this connection may be 
found in the sketch of the career of Mr. Finck, 
president of the company. 


In the manufacturing of steam, water and 
gas fixtures and appliances of brass this com- 
pany has built up a large and thriving business 
and gained precedence as one of the leading 
concerns of the kind in the Michigan metropo-. 
lis. The company was incorporated in 1902, 
and its operations are based on a capital stock 
of thirty-five thousand dollars. The following 
officers, each peculiarly well fortified for the 
executive duties devolving upon him, control 
the affairs of the company : Ruluff R. Steriing, 
president; Edward J. Roney, vice-president; 
Frederick G. Skinner, secretary and treasurer; 
and George W. Bowe, superintendent. The 
president of the company has charge of the 
sales of the concern in all territory west of 
Detroit; Mr. Roney is superintendent of the 
foundry and the manufacturing of the rough 



products ; Mr. Skinner has charge of the office 
and finances of the company and also of the 
sales in the eastern territory; and Mr. Bowe 
is the general superintendent of the factory and 
gives special supervision to the finishing de- 

The factory of the company is located at the 
comer of Russell street and North Grand boul- 
evard and the plant occupies an acre of ground. 
The main building was erected in 1902, is three 
stories in height, substantially constructed of 
brick, and has an aggregate floor space of 
twenty thousand square feet. The foundi-y 
building is one story in height and fifty by one 
hundred feet in dimensions. The mechanical 
equipment and all other facilities are of the best 
modern type, making possible the rapid turning 
out of work of the highest grade. The trade 
of the company extends throughout the United 
States and Canada and also into the principal 
European countries. Of the one hundred and 
fifty employes full seventy-five per cent, are 
skilled artisans, and the average annual pay 
roll represents an expenditure of about seventy- 
five thousand dollars. The company insistent- 
ly maintains all of its products at the highest 
standard of excellence, and its reputation in 
this regard results in the trade of the concern 
showing a constantly expanding tendency. 


Under the above title is conducted another of 
those manufacturing industries to which the 
Michigan metropolis lends her hearty support, 
conducive, as it is, to the general and commer- 
cial prosperity of the community and enlisting 
in its prosecution both ample capital and skilled 
labor. The company are manufacturers of 
gasoline torches and furnaces for electric, steam 
and gas fitters and tin and sheet-iron workers, 
and the enterprise is one of the largest of the 
kind in the west. 

The original location of the Clayton & Lam- 
bert Manufacturing Company was in the city 
of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and it was organized in 
1888, when it was incorporated under the laws 
of the state, with a capital stock of ten thou- 

sand dollars. The interested principals in the 
concern at the time of incorporation were Nel- 
son J. Clayton, Joshua Lambert, and the lat- 
ter's three sons, — John E., Charles R. and 
Bert. The company retained its headquarters 
in Ypsilanti until 1899, when the business was 
removed to Detroit, the factory being estab- 
lished at Milwaukee Junction until 1902, when 
the present premises were purchased, having a 
frontage of three hundred feet on Beaubien 
street and two hundred and seventeen feet on 
Trombly avenue. On this land was erected in 
the same year a general factory building of two 
stories, one hundred and seventeen by one 
hundred and twenty feet in lateral dimensions, 
and the building affords ample accommodations 
for the various departments, including the of- 
fices, shipping room, ware rooms, etc. The 
main foundry building is two stories in height 
and sixty by two hundred and seventeen feet 
dimensions; a portion of this structure is one 
story in height. The business has been built 
up from a modest inception to its present large 
proportions, and in the special line of produc- 
tion the concern manufactures fully eighty per 
cent, of all such devices utilized in the United 
States and Canada, while the articles manufac- 
tured are amply protected by letters patent. 
The company control also an excellent export 
trade, which is done through the interposition 
of jobbers in New York city, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, San Francisco, Portland, Seattle and 
Los Angeles. Of the average force of em- 
ployes seventy-five per cent, are skilled artisans 
in their respective lines, — including moulders, 
buffers, polishers, machinists, tool-makers, pat- 
tern-makers, monitor hands, platers, sheet- 
metal workers, press men, etc. Charles R. 
Lambert has charge of the manufacturing de- 
partment ; John E. Lambert is sales promoter, 
and Bert Lambert has the supervision of the 
general accounting department. 

In 1902 the capital stock of the company was 
increased to fifty thousand dollars, and in 1904 
it was raised to its present figure, — two hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Mr. Clayton has been 
president of the company from the time of its 
incorporation, and the other officers are as fol- 
lows : Charles R. Lambert, vice-president ; John 



E. Lambert, secretary; and Bert Lambert, 

Joshua Lambert, the father, was one of 
the founders of the enterprise, as has already 
been stated. He was bom in 1837 and his 
death occurred in 1902. He was a son of Sol- 
omon Lambert, who was one of the pioneers of 
Wayne county, Michigan, where he took up a 
tract of government land, about four and one- 
half miles distant from the present village of 
Farmington. Solomon Lambert was a native 
of the state of New York and practically his 
entire life was devoted to agricultural pursuits. 
He continued to reside on the old homestead 
until his death, at the patriarchal age of ninety 

Joshua Lambert was born on the homestead 
mentioned and his early educational privileges 
were limited to the primitive district schools of 
the locality and period. He learned the trade 
of blacksmith when a youth, and followed the 
same in Charlotte and later in Ypsilanti, Mich- 
igan. In the latter place he became associated 
in business with Nelson J. Clayton, under the 
firm name of Clayton & Lambert, and from 
their modest little establishment was built up 
the fine manufacturing institution through 
which their names are perpetuated. Mr. Lam- 
bert took up his residence in Detroit in 1899, 
and here passed the residue of his life, whose 
entire course was marked by impregnable in- 
tegrity and honor. He was a Democrat in 
politics and was a consistent member of the 
Congregational church. His wife, whose 
maiden name was Maria Griffith, was born and 
reared in Michigan and is now deceased. 

Bert Lambert, treasurer of the Clayton & 
Lambert Manufacturing Company, was born at 
the family homestead, at Livonia, Wayne 
county, Michigan, on the loth of September, 
1865, and he was affored the advantages of the 
public schools of the city of Charlotte, after 
which he completed a course in the Cleary 
Business College, at Ypsilanti, in which he was 
graduated as a member of the class of 1883. 
After leaving school he became a clerk in a 
grocery in Ypsilanti, and later he entered the 
employ of the firm of Clayton & Lambert. 
When the same was succeeded by the Clayton 

& Lambert Manufacturing Company, he be- 
came one of the incorporators of the latter, for 
which he was traveling salesman for some time 
and of which he has been treasurer since 1896. 
He is a Republican in his political allegiance, is 
a member of the Detroit Golf Club, and both 
he and his wife are communicants of St. Paul's 
church, Protestant Episcopal. 

On the 6th of September, 1893, was solem- 
nized the marriage of Bert Lambert to Miss 
Ina F. Hay, daughter of William Hay, foun- 
der, president and manager of the Hay & Todd 
Manufactuting Company, of Ypsilanti, and the 
children of this union are William Hay Lam- 
bert and Bert Lambert, Jr. 


To note those enterprises which stand as 
representative in their respective lines of in- 
dustry as bearing upon the precedence and com- 
mercial activity of the city of Detroit, is one of 
the prime desiderata in the compilation of this 
work, and under these conditions the company 
named above demands particular recognition, 
being one of the important concerns of the sort 
in the city and being conducted upon the prin- 
ciples of strict commercial integrity. 

The C. Pfeiffer Brewing Company, which 
succeeded to the brewing business established 
by Conrad Pfeiffer in 1898, was organized and 
incorporated as a stock company on the 2d of 
March, 1902, with a capital of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. The growth of the 
enterprise had been such as to demand this 
process of amplification and extension of com- 
mercial latitude. The well equipped plant, 
modern in every detail, is located at Nos. 908 
to 940 Beaufait avenue, on which thoroughfare 
the company has a frontage of four hundred 
feet, while the premises extend back a distance 
of one hundred and five feet to the Michigan 
Central Railroad. Tlie new brew house, a 
substantial brick structure three stories in 
height and with a floor space of nine thousand 
square feet, was erected in 1907, at a cost of 
twenty-five thousand dollars, and is a model in 
every particular, its facilities being unexcelled 
by those of any brewery in the city. The ice 



plant has a capacity of ninety tons a day 
and in the prosecution of the flourishing busi- 
ness this capacity is fully utilized. The out- 
put of the brewery for the year 1907 was 
thirty-five thousand barrels, of which about 
fifteen per cent, was bottled. The company's 
products are utilized principally by the trade 
in the city of Detroit, and so secure is the de- 
mand of this local trade that no special effort 
has been made to extend the same into ex- 
traneous territory. The business gives em- 
ployment to a force of forty men, — in the 
manufacturing, distributing and office depart- 
ments, — and the amount represented on the 
annual pay roll, aside from the salaries of the 
officers of the company, is fully thirty thou- 
sand dollars. The concern pays to the city 
in water tax seven hundred dollars annually. 
Under the new regime the business of the 
company has rapidly and substantially ex- 
panded, and the very popularity of the product 
is the best attest of its superiority and of the 
correct business methods brought to bear in 
the prosecution of the enterprise. 

The personnel of the official corps of the C. 
Pfeiffer Brewing Company is as here desig- 
nated : Conrad Pfeiffer, president ; Martin 
Breitmeyer, vice-president and treasurer; and 
Henry C. Deitz, secretary. The executive du- 
ties assigned to these officials are as follows: 
The president has charge of the manufactur- 
ing and of the sales and purchasing depart- 
ments; the finances of the company are, of 
course, in charge of the treasurer, who is also 
vice-president; and the secretary has the su- 
pervision of the accounting department and 
general detail work of the office. Individual 
mention of these three representative business 
men is made in this volume. 


Another of the unique industrial enterprises 
which add to the extent and variety of the 
manufactured products which bear the prestige 
of the city afar, as being "made in Detroit," is 
that represented by the Detroit Steel Pulley 
Company, which was organized and incorpo- 

rated in the fall of 1905, with a capital stock 
of fifty thousand dollars, and with interested 
principals as here noted : Daniel T. McNiel, 
Paul C. McNiel, Walter C. McNiel, John M. 
Parker, Charles R. Dennen, and Arthur W. 
Johnston. The personnel of the first execu- 
tive corps was as follows : Daniel T. McNiel, 
president ; John M. Parker, vice-president ; 
and Paul C. McNiel, secretary and treasurer. 
No change has been made in the executive 
force since the incorporation of the company. 
The well equipped plant of the company is lo- 
cated at the corner of Bellevue avenue and 
Warren avenue east, and the main factory 
building is a brick structure, ninety by one 
hundred and sixty-eight feet in dimension. 
Operations were instituted with a force of only 
four employes, but such has been the growth 
of the enterprise that at the present time the 
services of twenty skilled artisans are required 
and also a number of unskilled workmen are 
retained on the pay roll, which represents an 
average expenditure of about fifteen thousand 
dollars. The company confines itself to the 
manufacturing of split-steel belt pulleys, the 
patents on which are owned by the corpora- 
tion, whose president, Daniel T. McNiel, is the 
patentee. The pulleys turned out by this com- 
pany have met with most favorable reception 
and having proven to have all the good quali- 
ties to be claimed for wooden pulleys, besides 
many points which render them unmistakably 
superior in insuring effective operation and 
also economy and safety. The practically in- 
destructible nature of the devise, of course, im- 
plies economy wherever it is used. The output 
of the concern is sold principally to the job- 
bing trade, and the pulleys are now in use in 
the most diverse sections of the United States. 
Their introduction constitutes their best ad- 
vertising, and the business of the company is 
rapidly expanding, so that an enlargement of 
its plant will be necessitated in the near future. 
On other pages of this work is entered a 
brief review of the career of Daniel T. McNiel, 
president of the company, and in the same will 
also be found specific mention of his sons, both 
of whom are stockholders in the same company. 




One of the notable industrial enterprises 
of Detroit which have given the city a 
place among the leading manufacturing cen- 
ters of the world is that conducted by 
the corporation whose title initiates this 
paragraph. The company are the largest 
manufacturers of coin slot apparatus in the 
world, and the Detroit plant of the concern, 
at 1 300- 1 340 Second avenue, is likewise the 
largest of all factories devoted to this line of 
manufacture. The gigantic enterprise is fur- 
ther conspicuous from the fact that it repre- 
sents the concrete results of the technical skill, 
progressive ideas and energy of business men 
of the younger generation, — men whose fine 
initiative talent has enabled them to build up a 
magnificent industry within the space of com- 
paratively few years. The enormous sales of 
the coin slot machines of the Caille Brothers 
Company testify to the distinctive merits of the 
products and to the popular appreciation of the 
manifold devices of this line sent out by the 
concern into all sections of the civilized worid. 
The Caille Brothers Company was incor- 
porated under the laws of the state of Michi- 
gan in 1901, and its operations are based on a 
capital stock of three hundred thousand dol- 
lars. Coin-controlling machines of fully eighty 
dififerent types are manufactured and each is of 
the best mechanical construction, backed by the 
positive guaranty of the company. The an- 
nual output of the plant has now reached the 
enormous average of fully twelve thousand 
machines, all of which are protected by patents 
issued to the Caille brothers, who are the in- 
ventors of the various mechanical devices em- 
ployed. The business had its inception in 1893, 
when the Caille Company was organized and 
began operations on a modest scale in the city 
of Saginaw, Michigan, where the headquar- 
ters were maintained until 1896, when A. 
Arthur Caille and Adolph A. Caille, the two in- 
terested principals, came to Detroit and here 
laid the foundation for the present enterprise 
controlled by their company. Both brothers 
are practical mechanics and specially skilled as 
artisans, and both have shown distinctive ability 
in the invention of mechanical devices. The 

original factory in Detroit was one of modest 
order and was located at the corner of Wood- 
ward and Baltimore avenues, from which lo- 
cation the removal was made to the corner of 
Second and Amsterdam avenues in 1904. At 
the latter and eligible location was erected the 
fine, modern plant utilized by the company at 
the present time. The large buildings are sub- 
stantially constructed of brick and stone, and 
the main building, one hundred and twenty by 
three hundred and fifty feet in dimensions, is 
three stories in height, not including the base- 
ment. The, factory proper lies at the rear of 
the main building and is one story in height. 
In the prosecution of the various details of 
manufacture employment is given to an aver- 
age force of three hundred persons, of whom 
fully seventy-five per cent, are skilled me- 
chanics, and the average annual expenditure in 
wages and salaries aggregates two hundred and 
twenty-five thousand dollars. In capacity, out- 
put and extent of business controlled, the con- 
cern outranks all others of the kind in the 
worid, and its value to Detroit is large, both 
in a direct and collateral way. It is not within 
the province of this article to enter into details 
concerning the products of this great indus- 
trial institution, but the literature issued by 
the company gives all information that can be 
asked in this regard. Agencies are maintained 
by the company in the leading cities of the 
United States, as well as in those of European 
countries and other foreign lands. The stock 
of the company is virtually controlled by the 
Caille brothers, of whom A. Arthur Caille is 
president and general manager, and Adolph A., 
vice-president and secretary. The former has 
the general supervision of the finance and sales 
departments of the business, and the latter has 
charge of the manufacturing and the directing 
of the general accounting and office affairs. 
Personal mention of the brothers is made on 
other pages of this volume. 


Contributing its quota to the industrial pres- 
tige and commercial importance of Detroit is 



the company to a description of whose rise 
and splendid progress this article is devoted. 
The company was organized primarily through 
the efforts of P. J. Hoenscheid, the present 
manager, and it was duly incorporated under 
the laws of the state November 3, 1903, basing 
its operations upon a capital stock of seventy- 
five thousand dollars. Mr. Hoenscheid has 
been identified with this line of enterprise for 
more than a quarter of a century, having been 
for many years connected with the various 
twist-drill companies and being recognized as 
an expert mechanic and as one well fortified in 
technical and practical knowledge. He has 
been manager of the manufacturing depart- 
ment of the National Twist Drill & Tool Com- 
pany from the time of its inception and of him 
individual mention is made on other pages of 
this publication. The officers of the company 
are as follows : William H. McGregor, presi- 
dent ; Jonathan O. Whitaker, of Chicago, vice- 
president; Otto Reinhardt, treasurer; and 
George Mead, secretary. The concern has a 
fine, modern plant, located at Brush street and 
Grand boulevard east, and the output of the 
same is of the highest grade. All kinds of 
twist drills are manufactured, together with a 
multiplicity of designs in the way of small 
machine-tools. Special attention is given to the 
manufacture of tools made from high-speed 
steel. The trade of the company extends into 
the most diverse sections of the United States, 
and an excellent export business is also con- 
trolled by the company, whose affairs have 
been administered with distinctive ability and 
discrimination. The present plant of the com- 
pany was erected in 1907, on Brush street, 
near Grand boulevard, and the buildings, 
which are mainly of reinforced concrete, were 
constructed by the Detroit Concrete Stone 
Company. The main building is three stories 
in height and forty by one hundred and forty 
feet in dimensions, affording twenty thousand 
square feet of floor space. The average corps 
of employes numbers one hundred and twenty- 
five men, and of this number fully eighty-five 
per cent, are skilled artisans. 


Under the above title is conducted one of 
the successful industrial enterprises of Detroit, 
and the products of the establishment are sold 
throughout the civilized world, — a fact which 
attests the value of the machines manufactured 
by the company. 

The Detroit Tool Company was organized 
and incorporated in 1905, with a capital stock 
of five thousand dollars, and those interested in 
the organization were William L. Holmes, 
Dr. J. W. Morrison, H. T. Harding and 
Harold W. Holmes. The officers of the com- 
pany are as follows: William L. Holmes, 
president; J. W. Morrison, vice-president; M. 
E. Glenn, treasurer. 

The plant of this corporation is located on 
Rivard street and is admirably equipped for 
the production of the Detroit combination tool, 
which is the name of the unique machine which 
constitutes the specific output of the factory. 
The Detroit combination tool is composed of 
six high-grade, scientifically designed tools, 
every one of which is of the highest practical 
use and indispensable to everyone who has use 
for tools. From a circular issued by the com- 
pany the following pertinent statements in re- 
gard to the unique device are taken : "It is 
useful to the engineer for making repairs about 
the steam plant, and in the engine room of a 
steamboat, where the question of space is so 
important, the value of this tool can be in- 
stantly appreciated. This tool may also be 
used to advantage by the repair crews of water 
works, gas systems and railroads, as it over- 
comes the necessity of having to return to the 
shop in case they want to do any drilling, 
forging or grinding. The automobile owner 
realizes that the greatest inconvenience and 
expense in connection with his automobile is 
the time that is consumed by sending the ma- 
chine to the shop to have even the simplest 
repairs made. Many times these repairs could 
be made by the owner or chauffeur if they had 
the proper tools to work with. The Detroit 
combination tool affords a full equipment for 
making all these repairs. The farmer and 
householder will find the Detroit combination 



tool a complete workshop for the many repairs 
which they find necessary to make." 

The Detroit combination tool represents the 
highest grade of material and the most perfect 
type of workmanship, thus insuring durability 
and effective service in each of its several func- 
tions. Its versatility of application is its chief 
point of appeal to all who have use for me- 
chanical devices. In the one machine are em- 
braced a forge, with a geared rotary blower, 
and the forge is easily and quickly adjusted to 
or removed from the bed piece ; an anvil, made 
of the highest grade chilled manganese iron; 
a vise, with four-inch jaws of tempered tool 
steel, opening ten inches, and operated by a 
screw made of cold rolled steel and fitted with 
a hand wheel which has a drop-forged steel 
handle ; a pipe vise, operated by the same heavy 
screw as the vise, and capable of handling any 
pipe from one-eighth inch to three inches, in 
vertical or horizontal position ; an emery wheel, 
ten inches in diameter and made of the best 
material; a drill-press, geared two to one, giv- 
ing great power and speed, and fitted with a 
Barber adjustable chuck; transmission gears 
are cut, the large wheels running into phos- 
phor-bronze pinions, thus making as strong, 
durable and noiseless gears as can be made; 
the anvil hardy is m.ade of the best tempered 
tool steel; and a crucible holder, consisting of 
an iron frame that rests on the forge over the 
fire, and used for heating crucible, glue pot or 
soldering iron. The machine is made in two 
models, and the same are adequately described 
in the literature issued by the company and 
sent to all who make application for the same. 
The Detroit combination tool is the joint pro- 
duction of Dr. J. W. Morrison and Harold 
W. Holmes, of Detroit. 


Under this title is conducted one of the 
unique and important industrial enterprises of 
the Michigan metropolis, one whose trade 
ramifications are widely extended and one 
which contributes its quota to the commercial 
prestige of the city. In its functions the con- 
cern is one of the largest of its kind in the 

world. The company was incorporated under 
the laws of the state in the year 1872, with a 
capital stock of one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. Its organizers were George and 
Samuel Hargreaves, who secured the capi- 
talistic support of the following named repre- 
sentative citizens of Detroit : William B. Wes- 
son, George Hendrie, William J. Chittenden, 
Ashley Pond, Thomas Ferguson, Sidney D. 
Miller and Hon. George V. N. Lothrop. The 
company purchased the block of land bounded 
by Lafayette avenue and Howard, Seventeenth 
and Eighteenth streets, and there erected a 
substantial factory building of brick, the struc- 
ture being three stories in height and having 
an aggregate floor space of one hundred thou- 
sand square feet. The facilities of the plant 
have been kept up to the highest standard at 
all times and the output is enormous each 
year. The company manufacture picture 
mouldings, frames and framed pictures of 
every description, including productions in oils, 
water colors, pastels, etchings, photogravures, 
chromos, etc., and their trade extends into the 
most diverse sections of the United States and 
Canada, and also penetrates definitely into 
England and Australia. They have resident 
agents in the city of London, England, and in 
Sydney, Australia, and their export business 
is large and substantial, showing a constantly 
cumulative tendency. In the various depart- 
ments of the home establishment employment 
is given to a force of about four hundred per- 
sons, and the annual pay roll represents an 
average expenditure of two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. The officers of the company 
are as follows: William J. Chittenden, presi- 
dent; Thomas E. Reeder, vice-president and 
general manager; Walter N. Baker, treasurer; 
and Charles F. Mellish, secretary and assistant 

The general management of the business is 
reposed in the able hands of Mr. Reeder, a 
sketch of whose career appears elsewhere in 
this volume; the sales department is under the 
superintendency of Mr. Mellish; and Mr. 
Baker has charge of the correspondence. The 
latter two officials are likewise individually 
mentioned in this publication. 




It is well within the province of this pub- 
lication to make specific mention of those in- 
dustrial enterprises through which is upheld 
the high commercial prestige of the city of 
Detroit, and as contributory in this respect 
the industry conducted under the above title is 
one of no little importance. The business is 
the outgrowth of that established under the 
name of the Detroit Carriage Manufacturing 
Company, in 1898, when the company was in- 
corporated with a capital stock of fifty thou- 
sand dollars and with officers as follows: 
Herman Roehm, president; Daniel S. Giles, 
vice-president and manager; and George E. 
Moody, secretary and treasurer. The com- 
pany engaged in the manufacturing of high- 
grade carriages, establishing a well equipped 
plant in a building leased from the Rumsey 
Manufacturing Company and giving employ- 
ment to a force of seventy-five men. Within 
the first year twenty thousand dollars were ex- 
pended in the erection of a large addition to 
the original building, and since that time still 
other additions have been made, together with 
many incidental improvements in the equip- 
ment of the plant, which is now owned by the 
Detroit Carriage Company, which succeeded 
the original company. 

The Detroit Carriage Company was incor- 
porated in 1903, and the officers of the same 
are as follows: Henry W. Paton, secretary; 
Albert H. Roehm, treasurer. The operative 
force now includes one hundred and twenty- 
five men, the majority of whom are skilled 
mechanics. The average annual outlay in 
wages reaches an aggregate of fully sixty-five 
thousand dollars. The company now manu- 
factures fine automobile bodies, giving this 
branch of the enterprise precedence over the 
making of other vehicles, and the output is 
recognized for invariable superiority, — a fact 
which has brought the products of the factory 
into demand wherever automobiles are manu- 
factured within the United States, though the 
greater part of the output is utilized in Detroit, 
which is the recognized hub of the automobile 

The nucleus of the business of the Detroit 
Carriage Company was that started by the 
Rumsey Manufacturing Company, in 1886, 
and of this company Herman Roehm was 
president; Henry H. Brown, secretary; and 
Charles Kellogg, treasurer. William D. Rum- 
sey was likewise one of the interested princi- 
pals in the company, which engaged in the 
manufacturing of carriage and buggy bodies 
and other parts in the white, — that is, to be 
finished by other manufacturers. The factory 
was located on Clay avenue, in juxtaposition 
to the tracks of the Grand Trunk Railroad, 
and employment was originally given to thirty 
workmen. The plant was partially destroyed 
by fire in October, 1889, and in March of the 
following year the new plant was completed. 
In 1898 the plant and business passed into the 
control of the Detroit Carriage Manufacturing 
Company, as noted in the opening paragraph 
of this article. The business of the Detroit 
Carriage Company has grown to large and 
substantial proportions and the enterprise is 
one which has enlisted the energies and man- 
agement of business men of marked aggres- 
siveness and of distinctive energy and pro- 


Continued success is the ultimate criterion 
of merit and reliability in the industrial world, 
and the distinctive priority maintained by the 
American Brewing Company thus stands in 
evidence of its well authorized claims as one 
of the leading concerns of the sort in the state 
of Michigan. 

This company was organized in 1890, in 
August of which year it was duly incorporated 
under the laws of the state, with a capital stock 
of fifty thousand dollars. The most patent 
voucher of the success of the enterprise is that 
aft'orded in the fact that in 1906 it was found 
expedient, in order to meet the demands placed 
u'^on the institution, to increase the capital 
stock to two hundred thousand dollars. The 
conpany succeeded to the business of the Ex- 
position Brewin; Company, which was organ- 
ized in 1890, ar.d under the new regime the 



interested principals were Edward Stange, 
Louis Schmit, Gustav Fetters, George Sexauer, 
Conrad Clippert, William Zimmermann, Fred- 
erick Kraft, and Anthony and Charles 

Immediately after its organization the 
American Brewing Company purchased four 
lots at the corner of Medina and Boyer streets, 
the tract running back a distance of two hun- 
dred feet, to the Detroit river. On this prop- 
erty was erected a fine, modern plant, with a 
capacity for the annual output of fifteen thou- 
sand barrels, and in 1904 the capacity was in- 
creased to tjiirty thousand barrels. The trade 
of the company now taxes this concern to 
practically its full capacity, and the business is 
principally confined to Detroit and its environs. 
The company does no bottling, selling its en- 
tire product in the keg and barrel. Employ- 
ment is given to a force of about forty men, 
and the average annual outlay in wages ag- 
gregates about thirty-five thousand dollars. 
The executive head and general superintendent 
and manager of the business is Edward Stange, 
of whom individual mention is made elsewhere 
in this volume; the sales department is in 
charge of Adolph Beckmann ; the finances and 
correspondence are handled under the direction 
of Arthur S. Fetters; and Oscar Lamsens is 
brewmaster. The plant is equipped with the 
most modern apparatus, machinery and acces- 
sories devised for the business, and this, with 
the employment of thoroughly trained and 
skilled workmen, with perspicacious knowledge 
of all details, insures the finest quality and 
grade of production, the beer from the com- 
pany's establishment being recognized for its 
absolute purity and general excellence. The 
plant is in every respect a model one. The 
sanitary provisions are unexcelled, and abso- 
lute cleanliness is maintained in every "depart- 
ment. The ice manufacturing plant, where 
ice is made from distilled water only, was 
added in 1906. This is conceded to be one of 
the best in the city, and this fact has gained 
recognition in a most conspicuous sense, as the 
company has furnished the distilled water ice 
used in 1907 by the Detroit board of health. 

the municipal building and the Bagley foun- 
tain, on the Campus Martins. 

In 1902 a reorganization of the company 
was effected, and the ofiicers and board of di- 
rectors since that time have been as follows : 
Edward Stange, president; William Zimmer- 
man, vice-president; Leo Taube, treasurer; 
Arthur S. Fetters, secretary; and Oscar 
Lamsens, brewmaster. 


Under the above title is conducted a pros- 
perous enterprise which adds not only to the 
industrial prestige of the city of Detroit but 
also to her marked distinction as the "hub" 
of automobile manufacturing in the United 
States, as the products of the concern are to a 
very large extent utilized in connection with 
the last mentioned industry. 

The Detroit Motor Castings Company was 
organized in 1906 and was duly incorporated 
under the laws of the state, with a capital 
stock of twenty-five thousand dollars. The 
officers of the company are as follows : Ed- 
ward J. Roney, president; F. G. Skinner, vice- 
president ; and Jacob C. Danziger, manager. 
The other interested principals, w'ho were like- 
wise organizers of the company, are : John J. 
Roney and R. R. Sterling. 

The well equipped plant of the concern is 
devoted to the manufacturing of brass, bronze 
and aluminum castings for automobile and 
power-boat use, and the special products are 
finished parts for gasoline engines and auto- 
mobile bodies. The business is largely con- 
tract work for the larger concerns in the auto- 
mobile and power-boat manufacturing, and 
the enterprise has been successful from the 
time of its initiation. 


The rapid industrial growth of Detroit 
within the past few years has been a subject 
of much comment and a matter of great sat- 
isfaction to the city. Men already prominent 
in local business affairs have conserved this 



progress by giving their capitalistic and ex- 
ecutive support to new enterprises, and among 
the successful industries thus fostered is that 
represented by the company whose name 
initiates this paragraph. 

The Peninsular Milled Screw Company was 
organized in 1902, being duly incorporated 
under the laws of the state, with a capital 
stock of thirty-four thousand dollars and with 
the following named stockholders and or- 
ganizers : Herbert J. Conn, Thornton A. Tay- 
lor, William L. Caswell, William E. Currie, 
John A. Mercier, Ralph B. Wilkinson, Lyle G. 
Younglove, George Groul, Charles B. Kidder, 
and August Guerold. Of these Messrs. Tay- 
lor and Caswell were men of practical expe- 
rience in the line of business for the prosecu- 
tion of which the company was organized. 
The personnel of the original official corps was 
as here noted : William E. Currie, president ; 
Ralph B. Wilkinson, vice-president ; Herbert 
J. Conn, secretary; John A. Mercier, treasurer; 
and Thornton A. Taylor, general managen 
In 1903 Messrs. Taylor, Conn and Caswell 
purchased the interests of the other members 
of the company, and in the reorganization the 
following executive offices were assigned : 
Herbert J. Conn, president; William L. Cas- 
well, vice-president ; and Thornton A. Taylor, 
secretary and treasurer. Under the direction 
of these officers the enterprise has since been 
successfully continued. Mr. Conn has the su- 
perintendence of the financial affairs of the 
company; Mr. Caswell is in charge of the 
manufacturing department; and Mr. Taylor, 
besides supervising the general office and fiscal 
affairs of the business, has charge of the pur- 
chasing department and is associated with the 
president of the company in the supervision of 
the sales department. 

The present substantial and modern plant 
of the company was erected in 1904, and the 
main building is forty by one hundred and 
sixty-three feet in dimensions, two stories in 
height, with a one-story "L," forty by forty- 
five feet. In 1906 was constructed an addi- 
tion of one story, forty by one hundred and 
twenty feet in dimensions. In 1907 was com- 
pleted a large warehouse. The business at the 

start was conducted with headquarters in the 
old Wilson foundry building, 613 Fort street 
west, and the present plant is located at 751- 
755 Bellevue avenue. The buildings are of 
fire-proof construction, and the interior pro- 
visions in this line were installed by the Ameri- 
can Fi reproofing Company. 

The company began operations on a modest 
scale, at first giving employment to a force of 
only ten men, and at the present time about 
one hundred men are employed, about one- 
half of the number being skilled artisans. The 
first year's business aggregated only fifteen 
thousand dollars, and the rapid expansion of 
the industry is shown in the fact that in 1907 
the transactions of the company represented an 
aggregate of fully two hundred thousand dol- 
lars. Ninety per cent, of the products of the 
factory is sold from the general offices of the 
company, and the goods are also handled by 
commission men in various sections. The 
company manufacture a staple line known as 
standard set and cap screw studs, nuts, etc., 
which are carried in stock, also many special- 
ties, embracing all screw-machine products, 
such as automobile parts, spark-plug shells, 
universal joints, washers, rollers, clevises, 
cones, turnbuckles, steel taper pins and planer 
bolts, milled coupling bolts, malleable-iron 
thumb nuts and screws, finished and case-hard- 
ened nuts, ice calks, etc. All kinds of case- 
hardening work are turned out in the well 
equipped factoiy, and also every description of 
work turned from solid bars. The trade of 
the concern is principally in Michigan, Ohio 
and Indiana, and its business is constantly 
expanding in scope and in extent of territory. 


In the line of manufacturing industries it 
has been repeatedly observed that Detroit 
bears aloft a high standard and has acknowl- 
edged leadership, and on the long list of sub- 
stantial industrial enterprises which conserve 
her prestige that conducted by the above named 
corporation contributes its quota. 

This industrial concern was organized and 
incorporated in November, 1901, under the 



name of the Detroit Foundry & Manufactur- 
ing Company, with a capital stock of ten thou- 
sand dollars and with official corps as follows : 
President and treasurer, Frank L. Bromley; 
vice-president, Frank H. Sears; secretary, 
Alvah H. Leavitt. At that time the company 
was engaged in the jobbing foundry business, 
on Atwater street east, between Antoine and 
Hastings streets. The plant was a small one, 
with a maximum capacity of from four to five 
tons of finished castings per day. During 
1902 the business was carried on successfully 
in this small foundry, but the business was 
necessarily limited, on account of the size of 
the plant. In 1903 the officers of the com- 
pany were changed, as follows : President and 
manager, Frank L. Bromley; vice-president, 
J. W. Thompson; secretary and treasurer, 
Charles F. Lawson. The capital was increased 
from ten thousand to sixty-five thousand dol- 
lars and a plat of land fronting on the Grand 
boulevard, between Russell and Dequindre 
streets, was purchased. A large and modern 
foundry building, one hundred by one hundred 
and eighty-five feet in dimensions, was erected 
on this land early in 1903, and in this plant the 
business was carried forward in much greater 
volume. During the same year the company 
built a machine shop seventy by one hundred 
and ninety feet in dimensions, which building 
was leased to the Detroit Automatic Stoker 
Company, a concern which contracted for all 
its grey-iron castings from the Detroit Foun- 
dry & Manufacturing Company. This ar- 
rangement continued until February, 1905, 
when the Detroit Automatic Stoker Company 
sold its entire business to the Detroit Foun- 
dry & Manufacturing Company. After the 
transfers were made the name of the company 
was changed to that of the Detroit Stoker & 
Foundry Company and the capital was in- 
creased to one hundred and ten thousand dol- 
lars. During 1906 Mr. C. F. Lawson re- 
signed his position as secretary and treasurer, 
and the corps of officers was changed as fol- 
lows : President and treasurer, Frank L. 
Bromley; vice-president, J. W. Thompson; 
secretary, William H. Rea. The manufacture 
and sale of the Detroit Automatic stoker were 

pushed with such success that in 1907 the capi- 
tal of the company was increased to one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars, and the "De- 
troit Stoker" became favorably known amongst 
engineers and owners of power plants through- 
out the entire country. 

The Detroit automatic stoker is a patented 
device, known as a smokeless furnace. It is 
used in power plants for the purpose of burn- 
ing the lower grades of bituminous coal under 
boilers without smoke. The furnace is sold 
under guarantees as to economy and smoke 
prevention, 'and it has proven so satisfactory 
that the business has almost doubled each year 
since it was turned over to the present 

The Detroit Stoker & Foundry Company 
gives employment to over two hundred and 
fifty men and fully sixty-five per cent, is rep- 
resented in skilled labor, while the average 
annual pay roll shows an expenditure of one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. It has 
been necessary to build two new additions to 
the plant during the last two years, in order 
to take care of the increasing business. The 
company appreciates the value of the name 
"Detroit" and is doing everything in its power 
to make the Detroit Stoker & Foundry Com- 
pany and the "Detroit Stoker" a credit to the 
city which has helped so materially in its 


It is a fact uniformly conceded that few 
cities in the Union offer to manufacturing en- 
terprises so desirable facilities, ready capi- 
talistic support and general fostering care as 
does Detroit, and within her hospitable walls 
no legitimate vindertaking need lack for appre- 
ciative support. One of the later and im- 
portant manufacturing enterprises established 
in this city is that conducted by the company 
whose name introduces this brief sketch. 

The company was organized and incorpo- 
rated in 1901, with a capital of fifteen thousand 
dollars and with the following named business 
men as the interested principals : R. R. Ster- 
ling. F. G. Skinner, A. A. Cowles, and Jacob 



C. Danziger. The original official corps com- 
prised the following: R. R. Sterling, presi- 
dent; F. G. Skinner, vice-president; A. A. 
Cowles, secretary and treasurer ; and J. C. Dan- 
ziger, manager. The executive officers have 
since remained as above, save that Mr. Cowles 
served only during 1901 as secretary and treas- 
urer, being then succeeded by J. C. Danziger, 
the present incumbent, who also continues as 
general manager of the business. The com- 
pany manufacture steel barrels for the use of 
the gasoline and oil trade, have built up a large 
and substantial business, and the trade extends 
throughout the United States and into diverse 
sections of the dominion of Canada and re- 
public of Mexico. The annual business shows 
an average aggregate of fully fifteen thousand 
dollars, and the factory, which is essentially 
modern in its equipment and facilities, is lo- 
cated on Beaufait avenue. The work in the 
factory is done principally by compressed-air 
tools and the products are recognized for their 
superiority in every practical and technical 


In every populous community one of the 
very important lines of industrial enterprise 
is that which has to do with the production of 
foodstuffs, and in this branch of manufactur- 
ing Detroit is signally favored. Here are to 
be found concerns whose every effort has been 
to produce for the use of the consuming pub- 
lic a grade of food requisites of the highest 
possible standard and prepared under the most 
perfect sanitary conditions. As standing in 
exemplification of the truth of the above state- 
ments it is but necessary to refer to the es- 
tablishment of the company whose title initi- 
ates this paragraph. An inspection of the plant 
of the Gordon-Pagel Bread Company, the most 
modern in the city, can not but compel the ob- 
server to recognize that baker's bread may be 
made thoroughly wholesome and more palat- 
able than is the average domestic product. The 
absolute cleanliness of the establishment in 
every department and the strict regard to mod- 
ern sanitary precautions and provisions, to- 
gether with the scientific methods employed in 

the treatment of the materials used, proves a 
revelation to one who has not previously 
familiarized himself with the workings of 
baking establishments of the highest type. 

In 1900 James C. Gordon and William M. 
Pagel entered into partnership, under the title 
of Gordon & Pagel, and forthwith established 
the business which has already grown to be 
one of the most successful of the kind in the 
city of Detroit. Mr. Gordon had previously 
passed about twelve years in the employ of the 
Morton Baking Company, of this city, and 
brought to bear in the new enterprise a most 
thorough experience of a technical order, and 
Mr. Pagel had conducted a successful retail 
grocery business for about a decade prior to 
entering into partnership with Mr. Gordon. 
The original plant of the firm occupied a small 
section of the present ample quarters, at the 
corner of Chene and Hendricks streets, and at 
the start only two men were employed in the 
baking department. The members of the firm 
officiated as their own salesmen and drove 
their own wagons, realizing that personal ap- 
plication and consecutive industry constitute 
the basis of success, and hiving no false ideas 
as to business dignity when they thus gave 
themselves to the work in hand. The growth 
of the enterprise has been most gratifying and 
has shown the wisdom of their initial and 
retained policy of operations. Each year has 
seen the completion of an addition to the plant 
and the augmenting of its facilities, and at the 
present time the company occupy premises with 
a frontage of two hundred and ten feet on 
Chene street and running back one hundred 
feet on Hendricks street to the alley. On the 
southeast corner of the same streets they 
erected in 1907 a modern stable building, one 
hundred by sixty feet in dimensions, and this 
is utilized for the accommodation of their fifty 
or more horses used in connection with the 
delivery department of the business. The at- 
tractive wagons used in this department number 
about thirty at the time of this writing. 

A brief description of the modus operandi 
of a modern baking plant can not be malapro- 
pos in this connection. The first operation is 
the sifting of the flour, followed by the blend- 



ing of the winter and spring wheat varieties; 
next the flour, weighed to exact proportions, 
is placed in a mixer, with an equally definite 
amount of sterilized water, which is heated to 
the proper temperature indicated by science 
and experience, which also determine the blend- 
ing of the two varieties of flour. After the 
dough is thus prepared in the mixer it is placed 
in large wooden troughs, scrupulously clean, 
and later into a machine which weighs with 
exactitude the amount to be placed in each 
loaf. This small portion is then run through 
a kneading machine and shaped for the baking 
pans, which are then sent to the proving room. 
The scientific appliances and facilities of this 
room afford means of obtaining results not 
possible in the home, and the even tempera- 
ture maintained insures uniform size and also 
symmetry in the loaves of bread. From the 
proving room the waiting loaves are taken to 
the baking oven, whence is finally turned out 
the completed product, ready for the consumer 
and far superior to that secured by old-time 
methods, according to which chance, unequal 
temperature, unproven and unequalized grades 
of flour and inexact proportions gave ever 
varying results. 

The rapid growth of the business of the 
firm of Gordon & Pagel finally made the in- 
corporation of the concern expedient, and on 
the 1 6th of July. 1907, the Gordon-Pagel 
Bread Company was organized, with a capital 
stock of seventy-five thousand dollars. Mr. 
Gordon is president of the company ; John W. 
Zimmerling, vice-president; and William M. 
Pagel, secretary and treasurer. Brief reviews 
of the careers of Messrs. Gordon and Pagel 
appear on other pages of this publication. The 
equipment of the plant embodies the most mod- 
ern and perfect appliances pertaining to the 
manufacture of bread. The buildings are mod- 
els of sanitary construction, and every pos- 
sible care is given to delivering to the trade a 
product perfect in every particular. In main- 
taining the perfect sanitation of the plant a 
compressed-air system is employed, in addi- 
tion to the practically constant application of 
soap and water, and two men give their entire 
time and attention to this work. The oven 

capacity makes possible the baking of fifty 
thousand two-pound loaves of bread in a 
single day; employment is given to a force of 
about one hundred men; and the annual out- 
lay in wages reaches the notable aggregate of 
sixty thousand dollars. The output of the es- 
tablishment is sold entirely at wholesale, and 
the trade territory is confined to Detroit and its 
suburban districts. 


The successful enterprise conducted under 
the above title has been in existence for more 
than half a century and stands among the lead- 
ing industries of the sort in the state of Michi- 
gan, while its facilities are unexcelled by those 
of any other of similar order in the city of 

The business was founded in the year 1856, 
by Philip Kling. who was one of the pioneers 
in this field of industry in the city of Detroit, 
where he still maintains his home, and here he 
has the distinction of being at the present time 
the oldest citizen of the Michigan metropolis 
who has been identified with brewing interests. 
His reputation and that of the establishment 
of which he was the founder have alike re- 
mained unassailable, and through well directed 
effort he built up the splendid enterprise whose 
title perpetuates his name. 

The original brewery was located on the site 
of the present fine plant, and was one of modest 
order but one which turned out a product of so 
superior quality as to early gain to it an ap- 
preciative and substantial patronage. The 
standard has never been lowered but rather 
has been raised by every possible means, so that 
the business has shown from the start a steady 
and normal expansion, until it is now one of 
the largest and most important of the sort in 
the state, throughout the most diverse sections 
of which the trade extends. The brewery, 
which is of the most modern type in all equip- 
ments and accessories, is located on Jefferson 
avenue near Grand boulevard, with a frontage 
of two hundred feet on the avenue mentioned, 
and extending back to the Detroit river, by 
means of which, as well as through railway 



connections, the shipping facilities are of the 
best. The buildings of the plant are substan- 
tial brick structures, and in every department 
the utmost care is given to the maintaining of 
the most perfect sanitary conditions and to 
insuring absolute purity of prodvict, so that the 
output is of a sort that in itself gains and re- 
tains trade. The company gives employment 
to an average force of seventy-five hands. The 
honored founder of the business, now vener- 
able in years, is living practically retired, and 
is one of the sterling pioneer business men of 
Detroit, where he holds a secure place in the 
confidence and esteem of all who know him. 
A brief sketch of his life appears elsewhere in 
this volume. 

The Philip Kling Brewing Company was 
incorporated in 1887, the business having pre- 
viously been conducted as an individual or 
partnership enterprise. The personnel of the 
official and executive corps of the company at 
the present time is as follows : Josephine 
Kling, president ; August Kling, vice-president 
and general manager; and Kurt Kling, secre- 
tary and treasurer. 


The manufacturing of reversing gears for 
marine engines of the explosive type has 
brought this company into wide repute and 
its products, recognized for simplicity, effi- 
ciency and general superiority, are now uti- 
lized in all parts of the world where such types 
of marine engines are in commission. Letters 
of commendation have been received from 
leading manufacturers and users of such ma- 
rine engines to which the Gies reverse device 
has been applied, and the record of satisfactory 
service of the gear is practically unparalleled. 
The Gies Gear Company was organized in 
September, 1906, when it was incorporated 
under the laws of the state of Michigan, with 
a capital stock of seventy-five thousand dol- 

Those interested in the organization of the 
company were Howard E. Putnam, Bruce H. 
Wark. Frank G. Gies, Clarence J. Gies, A. F. 
Gies, and Harry D. Morton. The officers of 

the concern are as here noted : H. E. Put- 
nam, president; B. H. Wark, vice-president; 
C. J. Gies, secretary; and H. D. Morton, 
treasurer and general manager. The well 
equipped plant is located at 345-7 Bellevue 
avenue, where the main building is eighty by 
one hundred and forty feet in dimensions, one 
story in height. The foundry building is 
thirty by fifty feet in dimensions. Of the fifty 
employes in the establishment fully ninety per 
cent, are skilled mechanics, and the average 
outlay in wages each year is thirty-five thou- 
sand dollars. The products of the institution 
find sale throughout the United States and 
Canada, and the demand extends to Europe, 
Asia, Africa, South America and every other 
part of the world where the motor boat is 
known. The European trade is covered 
through the agency of The Fairbanks Com- 
pany, of London. At the headquarters of the 
company in Detroit the president, Mr. Put- 
nam, has general supervision of the auditing 
department; Mr. Morton has the management 
of the purchasing department and general su- 
pervision of the business. Within the first ten 
months after beginning active operations the 
company turned out three thousand of its pat- 
ented reversing gears, and the business is con- 
stantly expanding in scope and importance. 
Full information in regard to the products of 
the establishment may be had by applying to 
the company's general offices, in Detroit. 


In extent of business controlled and in out- 
put capacity this concern ranks third of its 
kind in the Union, on which score it will readily 
be understood that it adds its quota to the 
commercial prestige of Detroit, where its 
manufactory and general headquarters are 

The enterprise dates its inception back to 
the year 1891, when operations were instituted 
by a copartnership, in which the interested 
principals were James G. Morgan, Emil Puhl, 
and C. V. Morris. The original firm name 
was Morgan, Puhl & Morris, and in 1894, so 
marked had been the expansion of the business 



of the firm that it was considered expedient to 
organize a stocic company. This was duly ac- 
complished, and the Morgan, Puhl & Morris 
Company was incorporated with a capital stock 
of twenty-five thousand dollars. Under this 
title the business was successfully continued 
until 1904, when the company was succeeded 
by the Detroit Regalia Company, which was 
incorporated with a capital of fifty thousand 
dollars, its officers being as follows : Philip 
Breitmeyer, president; Leon C. Finck, vice- 
president ; and John Gillespie, general man- 
ager. The company, with unrivaled facilities, 
manufactures all kinds of uniforms, regalia 
and lodge supplies, and its headquarters are 
maintained in the Palms building, 45-49 Grand 
River avenue, where five stories are utilized, 
each fifty by seventy feet in dimensions. In 
the factory and general sales and office depart- 
ments employment is given to an average of 
seventy persons, at an annual expenditure in 
salaries and wages of fully thirty-five thousand 
dollars, besides which a corps of able traveling 
representatives is retained and much employ- 
ment given in the placing of piece work out- 
side the factory. The company has agencies 
in all leading cities in the United States and 
Canada, throughout which its trade extends, 
and it also has a substantial demand for its 
products in foreign countries. The company 
has secured many prizes for its regalia and 
other insignia, and its products have met with 
special commendation in the elaborate re- 
galia of the Masonic and other fraternal 


The brewing industry in Detroit is repre- 
sented most effectively by the finely equipped 
plant, excellent product and substantial busi- 
ness of the Koppitz-Melchers Brewing Com- 
pany, which was organized and incorporated 
in 1890, with a capital stock of one hundred 
thousand dollars. Those concerned in the or- 
ganization of the new company were Messrs. 
Konrad E. Koppitz, Arthur C. Melchers, Her- 
man C. Sachse, and Charles F. Zielke, the first 

two mentioned having previously been identi- 
fied with the Stroh Brewing Company, of this 
city. Mr. Melchers was elected the first presi- 
dent; Mr. Koppitz, vice-president; and Mr. 
Zielke, secretary and treasurer. In 1907 Mr. 
Koppitz became president of the company, suc- 
ceeding John A. Preston, who died in April of 
that year, having been president from 1903 
and prior to that year having served as treas- 
urer of the company. Ferdinand P. Goettman 
succeeded Mr. Zielke in the management of the 
accounting department in 1894, was elected 
secretary in 1899, and since 1904 has served 
as both secretary and treasurer. Practically 
from the inception of the business Mr. Kop- 
pitz has had charge of the manufacturing or 
general brewing department. 

The large and distinctively modern plant of 
the company is located at the corner of Gratiot 
avenue and Superior street, and the equipment 
in every department is of the best type. The 
main brewery building is one hundred and 
forty feet square, and the building devoted to 
the bottling department is one hundred feet 
square. The average annual output is sixty 
thousand barrels, and the product is sold largely 
in Detroit and its environs, where the demand 
for the same is steady and cumulative. The 
concern pays out annually in wages about 
sixty-five thousand dollars and employment is 
given to an average of seventy men. With 
ample capital and the best of management the 
company has handled its business with due 
conservatism and has at all times placed its 
product at a trade premium in demand, by rea- 
son of the fact that absolute purity and proper 
handling have been demanded in every phase 
of the work, both mechanical and chemical. 
The concern has gained a high reputation and 
controls a large and substantial business. 


This company was organized in 1906, in 
March of which year it was incorporated with 
a capital stock of twelve thousand dollars, and 
the personnel of its official corps is as follows : 
F. G. Skinner, president; Edward J. Roney, 



vice-president ; and Jacob C. Danziger, sec- 
retary and treasurer. The company was 
formed for the purpose of owning and oper- 
ating building used by the Detroit Motor Cast- 
ings Company, the Cowles & Danziger Com- 
pany, and the Smith Chandelier Company, to 
which concerns it is practically an auxiliary, 
its interested principals being connected with 
one or more of the companies mentioned. 
Thus the concern exercises important func- 
tions and it is a distinct acquisition to the city 
of Detroit as an industrial and manufacturing 
center. The allied companies are elsewhere 
mentioned in this work, in which also appear 
sketches of the officers noted above. 


Contributing its quota to the industrial pre- 
eminence of Detroit and controlling a large 
and substantial business in its prescribed line 
of manufacturing, this well known company 
dates its inception from the year 1899, when 
the firm of Whitehead & Kales was formed. 
The firm instituted practical operations in a 
building at the corner of Randolph and Frank- 
lin streets, and from a modest beginning, in- 
volving the employment of only twenty-five 
men, the business has grown year by year until 
it is now recognized as one of the representa- 
tive industries of the metropolies of Michigan, 
having unexcelled facilities and resting on most 
secure financial and technical foundations. 
The original firm title was retained until 1905, 
when the business was incorporated under the 
laws of the state, as the Whitehead & Kales 
Iron Works. The capital stock of the com- 
pany is one hundred thousand dollars and the 
personnel of the official corps of the institution 
is as here noted : James T. Whitehead, presi- 
dent and treasurer; William R. Kales, vice- 
president and designing engineer; and James 
T. Warner, secretary. The office and plant of 
the company are located at the juncture of 
Beecher avenue and the Michigan Central 
Railroad. Here an ample tract of ground 
is owned and here are established the substan- 
tial and finely equipped modem buildings 
which constitute the company's plant. The 

main building is four hundred and fifty by one 
hundred and fifty-five feet in dimensions, and 
the other buildings, including storehouses, are 
in harmony with the main structure. The best 
of transportation facilities are afforded by the 
proximity of the Michigan Central Railroad, 
with whose lines are connected the four side- 
tracks constructed on the grounds of the iron 
works. The company now gives employment 
to an average force of two hundred persons. 
The annual pay roll represents an expenditure 
of about sixty-five thousand dollars, and the 
trade of the concern now extends throughout 
the middle west and the Pacific coast sections. 
Careful management, progressive policies and 
able technical supervision have made the 
growth of the enterprise especially rapid and 
substantial, and its continued expansion along 
normal channels is assured. The company are 
builders of structures in steel, including 
bridges, jails and prisons, and manufacture 
architectural and ornamental iron work, trav- 
eling, gantry and jib cranes, turntables, indus- 
trial railways, cars, trolleys, etc., coal-handling 
plants, iron-ore buckets, tanks, smokestacks 
and breechings, and turn out all kinds of heavy 
and light sheet-iron work. Individual mention 
of the officers of the company is made elsewhere 
in this volume. 


In the middle '70s Detroit was a city of 
about one hundred and fifty thousand popula- 
tion and here has been vouchsafed within the 
intervening years a substantial and normal ad- 
vancement along material and civic lines, so 
that at the opening of the year 1908 the city 
stands as an industrial and commercial center 
of nearly an half million population. This 
growth has implied the expansion of the terri- 
tory of the city to a notable extent, that due 
provision might be made for the many manu- 
facturing plants and the houses demanded for 
the accommodation of the greatly augmented 
number of inhabitants. In this connection a 
work of great magnitude has been done by the 
reliable and enterprising real-estate dealers of 
the city, and through their discriminating ef- 



forts marked impetus has been given to this 
march of progress and industrial development. 
One of the oldest and best know^n of the real- 
estate firms of Detroit is that whose title initi- 
ates this paragraph, and as real-estate dealers 
and auctioneers no concern in the city can claim 
greater prestige and popularity. The reputa- 
tion of the concern rests upon the solid foun- 
dation of more than thirty-five years of fair 
and honorable dealings, and the founder of the 
firm still remains its executive head. 

In 1873 Orrin Wardell established himself 
in Detroit as a dealer in and auctioneer of real 
estate, and he has since been continuously and 
prominently identified with this important de- 
partment of business enterprise. He conducted 
the business individually until 1882, when his 
elder son, Charles R. Wardell, was admitted 
to partnership, under the firm name of O. War- 
dell & Son. This title obtained until 1887, 
when the younger son, Fred, was admitted to 
partnership and the present firm name adopted. 
The offices of the business were established in 
vhe Walker block from the time that the 
founder entered this field of enterprise in De- 
troit up to a few months ago, when they re- 
moved to 1223 Majestic building. Individual 
mention of the three members of the firm is 
made on other pages of this volume. 

The priority of the firm of O. Wardell & 
Sons in the especial function of real-estate 
auctioneering is best illustrated by the volume 
of business transacted. Fully seventy-five per 
cent, of all the real estate sold at auction in 
Detroit and its environs has been handled by 
this firm, and among the most important sales 
may be noted the following: The Eureka 
Iron Works, at Wyandotte, involving an ag- 
gregate of one hundred and forty thousand 
dollars; the Trumbull avenue holdings of 
Waldo A. Avery and Michael J. Murphy, two 
hundred thousand dollars; and the sale of the 
property of the City Savings Bank for its 
trustee, the Union Trust Company. The firm 
also conducted the sale of the furnishings of 
the Griswold House in 1893, disposing of about 
sixteen hundred articles within a period of 
twelve hours, and in 1905 were sold by the 

firm the furnishings of two hundred rooms of 
the old Russell House. 

O. Wardell & Sons have made a specialty of 
the sale of subdivision property, and in this 
field have done a large and successful business. 
Their operations have extended into the most 
diverse sections of the state of Michigan and 
they are at the present time handling in this 
line a large business in the city of Cleveland, 
Ohio. They are members of the Detroit Board 
of Commerce and the Detroit Real Estate 
Board, and the interested principals are num- 
bered among the honored and representative 
business men of the city. The firm has been 
conspicuously identified with the development 
and upbuilding of Mount View Park, located 
at Waterford, Michigan, where about fifteen 
cottages have been erected and where the col- 
ony is also provided with a first-class cafe 
service by the authorities in control of the 
resort. Among the representative citizens of 
Detroit who have erected cottages in this 
beautiful park may be mentioned Dr. C. C. 
Miller, H. F. James, George Hammond, 
Charles Burton, W. C. Dailey, O. Wardell, and 
Charles R. Wardell. 


A concern of magnitude and with the best of 
facilities for the prosecution of its special line 
of industry, this company ranks as one of the 
leading manufacturers of high-grade beer in 
Detroit. The company was incorporated in 
189 1, with a capital stock of one hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars, and it succeeded to the 
business of the firm of Ekhardt & Becker, 
which was formed in September, 1873, and 
which was in turn the successor of John 
Koch, who established the Michigan brewery 
at 244 Russell street. The original plant had 
a capacity for the output of about ten thousand 
barrels annually, and the incorporation of the 
present stock company was brought about to 
meet the exigencies of the large and constantly 
increasing business which had been built up 
by honorable methods and superior product. 
At the time of the organization of the com- 



pany a tract of land was purchased at the cor- 
ner of Orleans and Winder streets. On the 
former street the frontage is two hundred feet 
and on the latter three hundred and fifty feet, 
so that ample accommodations were afforded 
for the erection of the fine new plant. The 
buildings are of substantial brick and stone 
construction and the plant now has a capacity 
for the output of fifty thousand barrels a year, 
— a capacity that is fully tested by the trade 
demands placed upon the institution. The 
bottling department is modern in every re- 
spect, and the ice plant has a capacity of one 
hundred and thirty-five tons a day. The prod- 
uct of this establishment is admitted to be of 
the highest standard of excellence, and the 
popular appreciation of this fact is shown in 
the substantial trade controlled. The company 
gives employment to a force of about fifty men, 
exclusive of office assistants, and the average 
annual expenditure in wages is thirty-five 
thousand dollars. The company is rapidly in- 
creasing its scope of operations and its execu- 
tive and technical principals are men of marked 
business ability and thorough experience. The 
brewmaster of the plant, August H. Ekhardt, 
is one of the youngest in the state and is con- 
sidered one of the most successful. All de- 
partments are in charge of men who have be- 
come most favorably known to the trade, and 
every care is taken to insure absolute perfec- 
tion of sanitary provisions and purity and 
evenness of product. 

The personnel of the executive corps of the 
Ekhardt & Becker Brewing Company is as 
here indicated: August Ekhardt, president; 
August Voss, vice-president; and William H. 
Becker, secretary and treasurer. August Ek- 
hardt, William H. Becker and Louis Becker 
are the managing directors. 


This company controls one of the unique 
industrial enterprises of Detroit and one which 
has, through its successful operation, con- 
tributed in both a direct and collateral way to 
the prestige of the city as a manufacturing and 

distributing center. The company was organ- 
ized in 1905, as the Pilling Air Engine Com- 
pany, and the title was later changed to the 
present form, — the Detroit Hoist & Machine 
Company. The business was duly incorporated 
under the laws of the state, with a capital stock 
of twenty thousand dollars, which was in- 
creased to thirty-five thousand dollars in the 
following year, to meet the demands of the 
expanding business. The interested principals 
in the organization of the company were Jo- 
siah C. Fleming, of Chicago, who became 
president of the corporation, and Frank L. 
Bromley, who became secretary and treas- 
urer. The concern leased a portion of 
the plant of the Detroit Stoker & Foun- 
dry Company, and utilized the same until 
1907, when the present finely equipped plant 
was erected, near Clay avenue, at the crossing 
of the Grand Trunk Railway, where the com- 
pany had purchased three acres of ground for 
the purpose. The company manufacture pneu- 
matic hoists, pneumatic motors for use in con- 
nection with the operation of railway cranes, 
and also other specialties of kindred order. 
The trade of the concern extends throughout 
the United States and Canada and the prod- 
ucts are of recognized superiority, thus con- 
stituting their own advertisement and insur- 
ing the continuous growth and the definite 
solidity of the industry. Employment is given 
to twenty-five skilled artisans, and the force is 
certain to be increased from time to time, as 
the expansion of the business requires. The 
original officers of the company still retain 
their respective executive positions, and J. Wil- 
fred Thompson has been added to the list, in 
the office of vice-president. 


With Detroit headquarters at 1093 to 11 13 
Gratiot avenue, this concern transacts a large 
and important business as dealers in and com- 
mission salesmen of horses and also as dealers 
in carriages, buggies, wagons, harness, etc. 
At the establishment of the company auction 
sales of draft, driving, saddle and farm horses 



are held every Thursday and Saturday, at ten 
o'clock A. M., and private sales are held daily. 
In the carriage and harness department are 
handled all kinds of carriages and buggies of 
the light driving order, and a specialty is made 
of harness equipment of all kinds, saddlery, 
and turf supplies, as well as delivery wagons 
and lumber and dump wagons. The company 
was incorporated under the laws of the state 
in August, 1905, with a capital stock of sixty 
thousand dollars, and it succeeded to the busi- 
ness founded by Jacob Kolb in 1878. Thus the 
enterprise under the corporate regime was in- 
stituted with ample capitalistic reinforcement 
and a high and well established reputation for 
fair and honorable dealings. In January, 1908, 
the business was incorporated, with capital 
stock of $150,000. The officers of the company 
are as here noted : Jacob Kolb, Sr., president; 
William D. Fox, vice-president; and Benjamin 
Gotfredson, secretary and treasurer. All of 
the interested principals are thoroughly expe- 
rienced in their line of business, being authori- 
tative judges of the values of horses, and the 
company is the largest concern of the kind in 
the middle west. In 1907 twelve thousand 
horses were sold through its agency, and an 
average of fully thirty-six thousand dollars is 
paid out annually in wages to employes. In 
the carriage and harness department an exten- 
sive trade also is controlled. The company 
owns the building occupied, and the same is 
substantially constructed of brick, is eighty- 
four by two hundred and twenty feet in di- 
mensions, three stores in height and represents 
the expenditure of thirty thousand dollars. 
This fine, modern building, which has the best 
of equipment throughout, was erected in 1905. 
The company has an accumulated surplus of 
forty thousand dollars, and this reserve is be- 
ing used with due care and conservatism in 
the expansion of the business. A review of 
the career of the president of the company 
appears on other pages of this publication. 


Under the above title is conducted one of 
the thriving and well ordered industrial en- 

terprises which contribute to the sum total of 
the great commercial prestige of the city of 
Detroit. The business, like many others of 
this city, was initiated on a small scale, and it 
has been expanded to an enterprise of large 
scope and importance, through the ability of 
the interested principals and through the su- 
periority of the products. The company manu- 
factures gray-iron, brass and aluminum cast- 
ings, and also does a general jobbing business 
along the line of its manufactured products, 
making a specialty of light castings. The in- 
dustry is the outgrowth of the labors and ener- 
gies of men practical in the business, and the 
success which has attended the same is grati- 
fying to note in connection with that of other 
enterprises which are likewise contributing 
their quota to the upbuilding of the greater 

The Enterprise Foundry Company, which 
well merits its title, was organized in 1896 and 
was incorporated under the laws of the state, 
with a capital stock of five thousand dollars. 
Those concerned in the establishing of the busi- 
ness under these circumstances were George S. 
Cuddy, Charles W. Carolin and John Goschen- 
hofer, all of whom are practical moulders and 
foundry men and all of whom had previously 
been skilled employes at their trade. Relying 
upon their technical knowledge and their com- 
mon interest in inaugurating independent busi- 
ness careers, they established the new enter- 
prise, though their capitalistic reinforcement 
was but limited. The original plant covered 
three lots, at the junction of Warren avenue 
and the lines of the Michigan Central Rail- 
road, and operations were started with a force 
of but eight men. The present plant, located 
on Warren avenue and the Belt Line, is essen- 
tially modern in its equipment and appurte- 
nances, so that the business suffers no handicap 
in the matter of facilities for the expeditious 
and effective handling of all work undertaken. 
The company's buildings now occupy two acres 
of ground and were erected in 1905-6. They 
are of reinforced concrete construction, and 
the pattern building is thoroughly fire-proof. 
Employment is given to a force of one hun- 
dred and fifteen persons, of whom seventy-five 



are skilled mechanics, and the aggregate of 
wages paid out by the concern for the year 
1907 is represented in the sum of eighty-two 
thousand dollars. The output is sold princi- 
pally in Detroit and a large portion of the work 
of this finely equipped foundry is turned out 
on contract. The trade is secure and substan- 
tial and is constantly expanding, thus showing 
that the company's reputation for reliability 
and high-grade- work is amply justified. The 
capital stock is now thirty thousand dollars, 
and the personnel of the executive corps is as 
follows : Frank Smith, president ; Emil Van 
Wanseelee, vice-president; George S. Cuddy, 
treasurer; and Charles W. Carolin, general 
manager and sales agent. The president, Mr. 
Smith, who is a representative real-estate 
dealer of Detroit, has been identified with the 
company since 1898, and the vice-president, 
who is also the mechanical engineer of the con- 
cern, became a stockholder and executive of- 
ficer in 1899. Mr. Cuddy, the treasurer, also 
has charge of the experimental department, 
and John Goschenhofer, Jr., is superintendent 
of the foundry department. The technical 
ability of the officers of the company, together 
with their distinctive community of interests, 
insures continuous success to the enterprise, 
which is well entitled to representation in this 


In manifold lines of industrial activity has 
Detroit gained a position of pre-eminence, and 
here are found represented practically all lines 
of legitimate business enterprise which any 
other metropolitan centers can claim. The 
brewing interests of the Michigan metropolis 
find a progressive and effective exemplifica- 
tion in the enterprise conducted under the title 
which initiates this article, and the energized 
ability brought to bear in an executive way is 
equalled by the superiority of the product of 
the concern. 

The Tivoli Brewing Company was organ- 
ized in 1898 and was incorporated under the 
laws of the state, with a capital stock of one 
hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, so 

that it is amply fortified in both financial and 
administrative agencies. The able triumvirate 
which effected the incorporation was Messrs. 
Bernhard Verstine, Louis W. Schimmel and 
Franz Brogniez. The first named is president 
of the company, but takes no active part in the 
management of the business, and the other of- 
ficers of the company at the present time are as 
here noted : A. James Singelyn, vice-president 
and treasurer; and Louis W. Schimmel, secre- 
tary and general manager. 

The plant of the company is one of model 
type in every detail and is eligibly located on 
Mack avenue at the corner of Hurlbut street, 
where two and one-half acres of ground are 
owned and utilized. The capacity of the in- 
stitution at the inception of its operations was 
forty thousand barrels per annum, and the ef- 
fective generalship of the officers of the con- 
cern made the industry distinctively successful 
from the start, for in no respect is the pro- 
duct permitted to go forth to the trade until the 
ultimate of excellence has been attained. The 
result is that the Tivoli beer has been its own 
advertiser, justifying the old English adage 
that "Good wine needs no bush," the old cus- 
tom having been for the English public wine 
houses to place over the door a bush from some 
tree as the designating advertisement. Exten- 
sive improvements were made at the plant in 
1907, including the erection of a new office 
building, the providing of fine storage cellars 
and wash house, and the installation of an ice 
plant of one hundred tons capacity. The build- 
ings are all of fire-proof construction and the 
plant stands as a veritable model. The output 
for 1907 was sixty-five thousand barrels, and 
the product finds its largest demand in the city 
of Detroit, while the outside trade is increasing 
with such rapidity as to test the capacity of the 
institution. Employment is given to an ade- 
quate force in each of the various departments. 
The concern utilizes thirty horses in the work 
of its delivery department, and the animals are 
of the best type and kept with utmost care. 
Thus the teams and wagons of the company at- 
tract attention by reason of their superiority. 
The company also operates one automobile 
truck, being one of two breweries in the city 



to adopt this modem accessory. The institu- 
tion has forged rapidly to the front within the 
decade of its existence and its products are 
recognized as being unexcelled by those of 
any other local brewery. The officers in charge 
are each specially well equipped for the han- 
dling of assigned work, and are known as pro- 
gressive and reliable business men. The vice- 
president and treasurer, Mr. Singelyn, has 
supervision of the financial and sales depart- 
ments of the business; the secretary and gen- 
eral manager, Mr. Schimmel, has charge of the 
details of manufacture and of the accounting 
and correspondence department; and Adolph 
Wandrie, a thoroughly skilled and practical 
operative, is brewmaster of the concern. 


An effective representative of the brewing 

interests in the state of Michigan is the com- 
pany whose name initiates this paragraph and 
whose business has reached large and substan- 
tial proportions. The company was incorpor- 
ated under the laws of Michigan in 1906, with 
a capital stock of seventy-five thousand dollars 
and with the following named organizers: 
John Coll, William F. Zoeller, William Unruh, 
George H. Schmitt, August Graunau, Robert 
Kunze, and Frederick Wentzel. The company 
forthwith effected the purchase of one acre of 
ground at the juncture of Springwells avenue 
and the tracks of the Michigan Central Rail- 
road, and upon this site was erected in the 
same year the present modern and finely 
equipped plant, which has a capacity for the 
output of thirty-five thousand barrels of beer 
per annum. The most scrupulous care is given 
to every detail of manufacture, thus insuring a 
product of maximum excellence. 


Department of 




A publication of this nature exercises its 
most important function when it takes cog- 
nizance, through proper memorial tribute, of 
the life and labors of so distinguished a citizen 
as the late Alexander Lewis, who became a 
resident of Detroit in the year which marked 
the admission of Michigan to the Union and 
who rose to prominence and prosperity through 
his own well directed efforts. He served as 
mayor of Detroit in the centennial year of our 
national independence, he ever stood exponent 
of the most leal and loyal citizenship, and was 
a gracious, noble personality whose memory 
will be long cherished and venerated in the 
beautiful city in which he continued to make 
his home until his death, which occurred on 
the morning of Saturday, April i8, 1908. At 
the time of his demise he was one of the most 
venerable and most honored pioneer residents 
of the fair "City of the Straits." 

Alexander Lewis was born in Sandwich, 
province of Ontario, Canada, on the 24th of 
October, 1822, and was a son of Thomas and 
Jeanette (Velaire) Lewis, the former of whom 
was born at Three Rivers, Canada, and the lat- 
ter in the locality formerly known as Ottawa, 
part of which is now the city of Windsor, 
Ontario. In the agnatic line the ancestry is 
traced to pure Welsh stock, and the maternal 
ancestry was of high-class French derivation. 
The paternal grandfather of the subject of this 
memoir immigrated from Wales to America 
about the year 1760, and settled at Three 
Rivers, Canada, where he passed the residue of 
his life. Thomas Lewis took up his residence 
in Sandwich, Ontario, when a young man and 
there he became a large landholder and an ex- 
tensive farmer. He was held in unequivocal 
esteem in the community and exerted much in- 
fluence in local affairs. He and his wife con- 
tinued to reside in Sandwich until they were 
called to the life eternal, and both were devout 
communicants of the Catholic church. They 
became the parents of four sons and four 
daughters, of whom only one is now living, 
Charlotte P., who is the widow of Henry P. 
Bridge, of Detroit, where she still maintains 

her home. The father was for a time in serv- 
ice as a soldier in the war of 1812. 

Alexander Lewis was reared to the age of 
fourteen years at Sandwich, where his early 
educational training was secured under the able 
tutorship of Rev. William Johnson, who was 
a graduate of one of the colleges in Dublin, 
Ireland, and who was at the time rector of the 
Sandwich parish of the Church of England. 
On the ist of May, 1837, when about fifteen 
years of age, Mr. Lewis came to Detroit and 
secured employment in the general store of 
E. W. Cole & Company, at the corner of 
Woodward avenue and Atwater street, in 
which connection he received in compensation 
for his services four dollars a month and his 
board. He remained with this concern about 
two years, and for the ensuing two years he 
was in the employ of G. & J. G. Hill, drug- 
gists, on Jefferson avenue. At the expiration 
of the time noted, in 1841, he removed to 
Pontiac, where he was employed as clerk in 
a mercantile establishment until 1843, when 
he returned to Detroit, where he ever after- 
ward continued to make his home. Here he 
entered the forwarding and commission ware- 
house of Gray & Lewis, the junior member of 
which firm was his elder brother, Samuel 
Lewis. In 1845 he engaged in the same line of 
enterprise independently, by associating him- 
self with the late Henry P. Bridge, under the 
firm name of Bridge & Lewis. Their original 
headquarters were at the foot of Bates street, 
whence they later removed to the foot of 
Randolph street. This firm continued opera- 
tions for nearly thirty years, and in the mean- 
while, in 1862, Mr. Lewis established himself 
in the flour and grain business, on West Wood- 
bridge street, where he continued in active 
business until 1884. He built up one of the 
largest enterprises of the sort in the city and 
in the meantime made judicious capitalistic in- 
vestments in other lines, so that when, in 1884, 
he finally retired from the commission trade 
he found ample demand upon his time and at- 
tertion in the supervision of his other large 
and varied inter. 'Sts, though he lived virtually 
retired after the year noted. He was in his 



offices daily until within a very short time 
before his death, and he kept in close touch 
with the advances of the day, retaining a vital 
interest in men and affairs. 

Mr. Lewis was a stockholder, and the oldest 
director at time of death, in the Old Detroit 
National Bank, one of the strongest in the mid- 
dle west, and was at one time a stockholder in 
the Detroit Savings Bank. He was long a 
valued member of the board of trade, of which 
he was president for some time. He was a 
member of the directorate of the Detroit Fire 
& Marine Insurance Company, was a stock- 
holder of the Detroit Trust Company, and for 
fifteen years he was president of the Detroit 
Gas Company. He was the owner of much 
valuable real estate in the city and was one of 
Detroit's substantial capitalists. 

In politics Mr. Lewis was ever arrayed as 
a stanch supporter of the cause of the Demo- 
cratic party, and he rendered effective and val- 
uable service in various offices of local trust. 
He was a member of the board of police com- 
missioners from 1865 to 1875, and from 1881 
to 1887 Wfas a member of the board of com- 
missioners of the public library of Detroit. In 
1876-7 he was mayor of the city, and no in- 
cumbent of this chief executive office has ever 
given a more loyal and careful administration. 
He was a man of distinctive independence and 
his opinions were always well fortified, as were 
his convictions invariably based on conscien- 
tious motives. Of his service as mayor the 
following pertinent statement has been pre- 
viously published : "Mr. Lewis was elected 
mayor of the city under circumstances of the 
highest possible honor. The distinct issue in 
the election was as to whether the laws should 
be observed, and especially whether the law 
providing for the proper observance of the 
Sabbath should be enforced. Mr. Lewis, as the 
candidate of those who favored law and order, 
was supported almost unanimously by the re- 
ligious and moral elements of the community, 
was triumphantly elected, and fully, squarely 
and repeatedly opposed the violation of law, 
successfully carrying out the ideas of those 
who elected him." 

Mr. Lewis was a communicant of the Cath- 

olic church, in whose faith he was reared, and 
the other members of his family are identified 
with the Protestant Episcopal church. When 
he was summoned to the life eternal there came 
from every side marks of appreciation and sor- 
row, but even to those nearest and dearest to 
him in his ideal domestic relations there must 
remain a large and perpetual measure of com- 
pensation and reconciliation in having so 
closely touched his beautiful and useful life, 
which was prolonged far beyond the span al- 
lotted by the psalmist. The following editorial 
appeared in the Detroit Free Press at the time 
of his death, and is but one of many similar 
utterances of appreciation : "The meager num- 
ber of Detroit ex-mayors is diminshed by one 
in the death, full of years, of Alexander Lewis. 
There was nothing in his entire career out of 
harmony with what one might expect in a man 
who had been elevated by his fellow citizens 
to the position of the first gentleman of the 
community. In varied activities he had 
touched success at many points, and this gen- 
eration knew him as one whose life exempli- 
fied a beautiful content with the many honors 
fate had bestowed upon him and whose char- 
acter exemplified a symmetrical development, 
in which culture and polish had not weakened 
qualities of strength and force. The social 
side of Mayor Lewis was unusually attractive. 
A natural graciousness in manner and mind 
marked his intercourse with his associates. 
The affection entertained for him was of 
marked warmth and sincerity. The public 
spirit that caused his designation for many of 
the highest municipal responsibilities showed 
slight diminution with length of years. What 
type can inspire a higher incentive for imita- 
tion in those of younger years than the success- 
ful, public-spirited, admirable, unusual type to 
which this excellent and universally respected 
old gentleman belonged?" 

On the loth of June, 1850, was solemnized 
the marriage of Mr. Lewis to Miss Elizabeth 
J. Ingersoll, who was born in the state of New 
York, whence she came to Detroit with her 
father, Justus Ingersoll, who became one of 
the influential business men of this city. Mrs. 
Lewis died on the 4th of January, 1894. She 



was a woman of gentle and gracious attributes 
and was beloved by all who came within the 
sphere of her influence. Of the thirteen child- 
ren of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis, seven are living. 
Edgar L. is now engaged in business in the 
city of Boston; Josephine is the wife of Clar- 
ence Carpenter and they reside at Colorado 
Springs, Colorado ; Harriet I. is the wife of 
Cameron Currie, of Detroit; Henry B. is a 
representative business man of Detroit, and is 
individually mentioned on other pages of this 
publication; Julia Velaire is the wife of Spen- 
cer Penrose, of Colorado Springs; Marion 
Marie is the wife of W. Howie Muir, of De- 
troit; and Alexander I. is secretary and treas- 
urer of the Newland Hat Company, of De- 


The Ledyard family, which has had dis- 
tinguished representation and recognition in 
Detroit, is one of distinctively patrician lin- 
eage, both direct and collateral, and the name 
is one which has been prominent and honored 
in the annals of the nation. 

Henry Ledyard, the first to become a cit- 
izen of Detroit, of which city he was one 
of the early mayors, was born in the city of 
New York, on the 5th of March, 18 12, and 
was a son of Benjamin and Susan French 
(Livingston) Ledyard. His grandfather, who 
likewise bore the name of Benjamin Ledyard, 
was major of a New York infantry regiment 
in the war of the Revolution, in which he 
rendered yeoman service, and after the close 
of the great struggle for independence, he 
became one of the organizers of the New 
York body of the historic Society of the Cin- 
cinnati, composed of those who had served 
as officers in the Continental armies. His 
cousin. Colonel William Ledyard, likewise was 
a valiant soldier of the Revolution and was in 
command of Fort Griswold, at Groton, Con- 
necticut, at the time of the memorable mas- 
sacre of the garrison by the British, in 1781. 
There he met his death through the treachery 
of an English officer. 

Benjamin Ledyard (2d), father of Henry 
Ledyard, was a representative lawyer and in- 

fluential citizen of New York city, where he 
continued to reside until his death, as did 
also his wife, who was a daughter of Brock- 
hoist Livingston, a member of the distinguished 
New York family of that name. Brockholst 
Livingston was graduated in Princeton Col- 
lege in 1774, served as aide-de-camp to Cen- 
tral Schuyler and General Alexander Ham- 
Iton, and in 1778 was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel. After the close of the Revolution he 
was engaged in the practice of law in New 
York city until 1802, when he became one of 
the associate judges of the supreme court of 
the state. Of this office he remained incum- 
bent until 1807, when he was appointed an 
associate justice of the supreme court of the 
United States, and he remained a member of 
this distinguished tribunal until his death, in 
1823. He was a son of William Livingston, 
third son of Philip Livingston, who was the 
second lord of the historic manor of Livings- 
ton and whose eldest son was the third and 
last lord of this manor, in the state of New 
York; the second son, Philip, was one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
William Livingston was graduated in Yale 
College in 1741, became a member of the Mid- 
dle Temple, London, England, in the following 
year; in 1759 he was representative of the 
Livingston manor in the colonial assembly of 
New York; in 1772 he removed to New Jer- 
sey, which he represented in the colonial con- 
gress in 1774-5, being recalled from that 
body on June 5th of the latter year to take 
command of the New Jersey forces, as brig- 
adier-general. In 1776 he was made governor 
of New Jersey, and he retained this dignified 
incumbency with high honor and ability until 
his death, in 1790. 

Henry Ledyard was afforded the best of 
educational advantages of a preliminary order 
and in 1830 was graduated in Columbia Col- 
lege, New York city. He soon afterward 
entered upon the practice of law in the national 
metropolis, and he continued in the work of 
his profession until General Lewis Cass, second 
governor of Michigan, was appointed minister 
to France, whither Mr. Ledyard accompanied 
him, as an attache of the legation. The cul- 
ture and genius of Mr. Ledyard made him 



specially eligible for diplomaUc preferment, 
and in 1839 he became secretary of the lega- 
tion. In 1842 he was made incumbent of the 
office of charge d' affaires of the same lega- 
tion, and of this position he continued incum- 
bent for two years. On the 19th of September, 
1839, was solemnized his marriage to Matilda 
Frances, daughter of General Cass. 

In 1844 Mr. Ledyard returned to the United 
States and took up his residence in Detroit, 
where he continued to make his home for 
nearly a score of years and where he was a 
distinguished figure in civic and social affairs 
and public life. He was one of the founders 
of the State Bank, in 1845, ^"^ >" the follow- 
ing year he became one of the promoters and 
first trustees of Elmwood cemetery, of whose 
governing body he was secretary for many 
years. In 1846-7 he was a member of the board 
of education, in which connection he ren- 
dered noteworthy service in improving the 
public-school system of the city. In 1848 he 
became one of the promoters and incorporators 
of the first plank-road company organized in 
the state, and for many years afterward he 
was a director of various corporations of kin- 
dred order, — all of which were effective agen- 
cies in providing better means of communica- 
tion between Detroit and the interior sections 
of the state. In 1849-50 he was a member of 
the board of aldermen, and he became a mem- 
ber of the first board of water commissioners, 
on which he served from 1853 to 1859. In 
1855 his fellow citizens in Detroit gave him 
the highest honor offered by the municipal gov- 
ernment, since he was then elected mayor of 
the city, by a gratifying majority. In 1857 
he was elected a member of the state senate. 
This position he resigned soon afterward for 
the purpose of accompanying General Cass to 
Washington, the latter having been appointed 
secretary of state under the administration of 
President Buchanan. Mr. Ledyard remained 
in the national capital until 1861, when he 
removed to Newport, Rhode Island, which con- 
tinued to be his home until his death. In 1880 
he made a visit to Europe, where he remained 
for but a short time, as his death occurred, in 
the city of London, on the 7th of June, 1880. 
Mr. Ledyard was a man of distinguished and 

courtly presence, representing well the gracious 
old regime, and his ideals in all lines were of 
the most exalted order. He was the friend of 
humanity and did much to relieve distress and 
suffering and to support worthy objects of char- 
itable and benevolent order. In Newport, 
Rhode Island, he continued to give potent 
manifestation of the generous attributes of his 
character, and it was chiefly through his ef- 
forts that the fund was raised for the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of the Newport 
hospital. In a sketch of his career appearing 
in Farmei^'s History of Detroit and Mich- 
igan, a concluding paragraph offers the follow- 
ing pertinent statements: "Although a great 
sufferer during the later years of his life, his 
zeal for the welfare of others showed no abate- 
ment. No considerations of personal discom- 
fort or inconvenience deterred him from his 
active efforts of benevolence. He was a daily 
visitor at the hospital which he had established, 
and many a sufferer within its walls