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Full text of "Compendium of history, reminiscence, and biography of Nebraska : containing a history of the state of Nebraska ... also a compendium of reminiscence and biography containing biographical sketches of hundreds of prominent old settlers and representative citizens of Nebraska"


978.2 M.U. 






3 1833 01716 9506 









History of the State of Nebraska 

Embracing an account of Early Explorations, Early Settlement, Indian 

Occupancy, Indian History and Traditions; Territorial and State 

Organization; a Review of the Political History; and a 

Concise History of the Growth and 

Development of the State. 


With a Review of their life work; their identity with the growth and 

development of the State; Reminiscences of Personal History and 

Pioneer Life, and other Interesting and Valuable 

Matter which should be Preserved in History. 



Title Page 5 I History of Nebraska 

Table of Contents 7 Compendium of Reminiscence and Biography. 



Geography, Topography, Climate, Geology, Soil, Natural j State Institutions, Societies and Associal 

Resources, Territory, Etc 17 j 

Discovery and Early History of the Province of Louisiana; 
Early Explorations; Early Settlement; the Birth of Ne- 
braska; Principal Events in the History of the State 23 

POLITICAL. -Territorial Organization; State Organiza- 
tion; Territorial Officers: State Officers; Legislative and 
Official Roster 45 

RAILROADS.- Early Railroad Building in the State of 
Nebraska; Influence of Railroads in the Early Develop- 
ment and Growth of the State 

Miscellaneous Historical Matter; the Locusts or Grass- 
hoppers; Public Lands; Educational; Population of 
Nebraska; Etc 92 





Abbott, Jacob W: 642 

Abel, Will iam Sr 566 

Adams, Alexander S.,.1017 

Adams, Robert 976 

Agler, Wm. P 420 

Agnew , John S 189 

Agnew, William S 379 

Ahlman, Herman 1092 

Ahlmann, Albert 726 

Ahrendt, Christian H., 978 

Ahrens, W. W 973 

Akin, Dell 163 

Albertsen, Lorenz 891 

•Aldrich, Gov. Chester 

H 101 

Alexander, Geo. F 1065 

Alexander, William... 828 
Alexander, William 1067 



Allen, Benjamin D 853 

Allen, George 406 

Allen, Hon. Hugh A.,. 112 

Allen, Richard E 675 

Alvord, Benjamin H., . . 520 

Alvord, Walter M 519 

Amos, Alfred 571 

Amos, John M., 577 

Amos, Lycurgus 564 

Amsberry, Darius M.. .1000 

Amsberry, John A 717 

Amsberry Family. The, 999 
Amsberrys of Custer 

County 999 

Andersen, John 832 

Andersen, Niels 492 

Andersen, Peter H 414 

Anderson, Arthur J.,.. 821 

Anderson, Carl A 931 

Anderson, Christian,.. 814 

Anderson, Nels 632 

Anderson, Robert 881 

Andrews. Hnrvev B., . . 733 

Anson, C. T 1073 

Appel, Chris 325 

Applegate, E. D 921 

Armbrust, Henry 906 

Armbruster, Louis 812 

Armour, Judge Josiah 

A 982 

Armstrong, Mrs. Alice 

R 656 

Arnold, E. M 772 

Arnold, Stephen N., . . 638 

Ashworth, Frank 912 

Askey, Jnmes M 424 

Asmus, Cnrl 998 

Asplin, Oliver 497 

Atkinson. Rebecca 604 

Atkinson ,Wm. H 604 

Aubert, Jasper N 374 

Auman, John 290 

Aurand, Enoch 195 

Avery, Steven D 460 

Ayers, John 394 

Babcock, Edwin J 268 

Babcock, H. A.,. 269 

Babcock, Oscar 326 

Backhaus, Arthur H., . 612 

Backhous, Gus 530 

Baggstrom, J. E 984 

Bagley, E. S 617 

Bailey, Abner 669 

Bailey, Daneil Cooley, . 858 


Bailey, Harry H 691 

Bailey, Jere B., 716 

Baillle, Alexander L., . 566 

Baird, James 9 44 

Baird, Robert G 127 

.Baird, Z. M 204 

Baker, Byron H 621 

Baker, James N 926 

Baker, Thompson 677 

Baliman, Alfred L, 903 

Baliman, Wm. E 334 

Baliman, William H., . 838 
Ball, William 738 

.Ballantyne, John A.,.. 728 
Balleweg, William,... 743 
Barber, Linas W 914 

• Barker, Joseph H 412 

Barnes, Dr. E. M 804 

Barnes, Issac C 390 

Barnes, Joshua 991 

Barnes, Samuel, 298 

Barnes. Ward W 768 

Barnes, William W 1051 

Barnett, Jesse G 902 

Barnett, W. R 768 

Barn hard, Virgil F., . . 643 

Borr. Henry W 218 

Barrett, Daniel 989 

Bartle, Prank 1056 

Bartle, Mrs. Veronica 
J 1056 

; Barton. S. R 610 

Bastian, C. C 976 

Bates, William 1018 

Bauer, George 565 

Baumann, Fred 5S3 

Baumgartner, Joseph,. 3SS 
Baxter, James 934 

■ Bayha, Ben 1019 

■Bayha, George 1019 

Beals, Frank L 939 

Bean, Henry C 140 

Beaty, George 1080 

Becher, John G 882 

Becker, Henry E 501 

Beckley, James 424 

Beckman, Lewis 790 

Beechler, Bernard 650 

Bell, A. A 581 

Belz, Louis 340 

Beman, AbrMm P 311 

Benda, Anton SIC 

Benger, George 70S 

Benjamin, Judge John 

S., : 996 

Benn, George H. Sr., . 971 
Benner, Christian G. 

Sr 162 

Bennett, Telmnn N.,..1002 

Benson'. Daniel,'.'. ■.■.'.', 1024 

Bergm^inn, Herman F., b34 

Bergstrom, John 737 

Berry, Thomas C 909 

Berryman, Bell E 228 

Best, Leander M 276 

Beushausen, Chas. F., . 942 

Bichel. Fred 860 

Billerbeck, Henry J.... r.26 

Billings, Isaac F., 132 

Birch, Frank 154 

Bishop, Asa B 232 

Bishop. Curtis, Sr 267 

Bishop, Watson W 634 

Bishop, Wm. E 149 


Bitney, Lewis 534 

Bivens, Francis S 758 

Black, Wm. W 407 

Blakeman. Charles E., 574 
Blanchard, Thomas,... 554 

Blank, Herman 601 

Bligh, C. H 772 

.Block, William 1097 

Blomgren, Jonas J 680 

Blomquast, John E.... 126 

Boehme, Conrad G 238 

Boelts, Frederick G., . 328 
Boelts, Hon. John G., . 556 

Boesen, Henry H 579 

Boetger. Rudolf 1042 

Bohl, George 389 

Bolter, Fred 867 

Bonge, Henry 454 

Booth, Charles W 1031 

Borchers, Otto 890 

Borrall, M. A 230 

Bovee, John W 1093 

Bowm.in, Jabez L, 952 

Bowman, Dr. Wm. L., . 266 

Box. Geo. W 115 

Bradburn, Joseph E., . . 875 

Braden, Joseph P. 384 

Bradstreet, N. P 556 

Brady, James, Sr 357 

Brady, Hon. James T., 306 

Branaman. John B 496 

Brande, Alfred Lincoln, 382 
Brandenburg, John 

N 1074 

Brandrup, James 270 

Brannon, James A 169 

Brega, Richard E 694 

Bressler, Hon. John 

T., 164 

Brewer, David 1031 

Bridge, C. L 819 

Briggs, Davis H 305 

BrinkerhofE, Daniel W., 188 
Bristol, Clarence R., . 650 

. Britt. Dr. W. H 329 

Brittell. Orange 677 

Broberg, E. C 795 

Brockmoller, Franz,.. 232 
Brookhouser. William. 637 

Brooks, Alonzo 557 

Brooks, Horace L 206 

Brosh, Joe 859 

Browder, Albert B 657 

Browder, Arhtur 339 

Browder, Elwin E., . . 331 
Browder, James 

Fletcher 867 

Brown, Geo. W 293 

Brown, John D 564 

Brown! W. S ".'.'.'.'. 131 

Brubaker, Martin 1087 

Bruce, Ryland F 473 

Bruegman, Frank 

Frederick 679 

Bruegman, Henrv D., . 652 

Brugger, J. H 240 

Brummund, Gottlieb,.. 555 

Brummund. Paul 522 

Brune. William 682 

Bruns, Frederick 1088 

Bryan, John W., 638 

Bryan. Joseph 559 

.Bryant. Wilbur F 1048 

Buchanan. James T., .. 158 

Buche, Chas 2f4 

Buckendahl, Henry,... 663 
Buckley, William 157 

.Buckmaster, T. J 362 

Buckner, Robert W....1064 

Buftington, J. L 155 

Buhrman, Hon. John 

H 811 

Buhrman. Louis L 1026 

.Buhrow, John 1065 

Bunker, Thomas A.,.. 164 

Buntrock, Frank 327 

Burdick, Charles S 928 

Burdick, James T 647 

Burghardt, George 914 

Burke, David H 575 

Burke, John C 240 

Burke, Mark 241 

Burke Family 240 

Burkhead, Joseph W., . 875 

Burkman, Warren 937 

Burtwistle, S 440 

Busch, John W 165 

.Bushelman, Anton, ... 1071 
Buss, William. . . 889 

Butterfleld. Justus.... 525 

Calelly. John 731 

Calvin. Curtis A 652 

Calvin. David A 899 

Calvin. Richard E 606 

Cameron. Wallen 676 

Campbell. Archibalds.. 146 

Campbell, John F 886 

Campbell, Hon. J. N., . 179 

Campbell, N. G 1004 

Campbell, Wm. F 919 

Cannon, Charles 

Elmer loil 

Cannon, Ralph C 958 

Cannon. Hon. Samuel 

L 1018 

Capron. Joseph H 479 

Carlson. N. P 984 

. Carmack. Geo 294 

■Carpenter, Frederic W., 683 

Carr, Rufus G 226 

Carroll, Joseph 490 

Carsen, John M 875 

Carson, Wm. H., Ia3 

Carter, Austin L 495 

Carter, Chas. E., 330 

Case. Robert E 258 

Casey, Martin 1021 

Cassel, Joseph W., . 918 

Cassin, Michael C 617 

Chamberlain, Isaac 442 

Chamberlin, Walter 676 

Chambers, Geo. W 517 

Chase, Henry A 660 

Chicken, Allen 467 

Chilvers. Thomas 586 

Chilvers. Wm. B 185 

• Chindvall, John 991 

Chinn, William H. C. . 692 
Christensen. Jorgen, .. 923 
Christensen. Lars P.... 210 
Christensen. Mnrtin... 690 

Christensen, Niels 1021 

Christian, O. S 878 

Christian, Peter 134 

Christiansen, Christen 

A 409 

Christiansen, Lars S.. . 242 



Christon, John 


Clark, Alfred 

Clark, David Y 

Clark, Thomas M 

Clark. Wm. M 

Clausen, Peter 


Clavland, Chas. E 

Clement, Hans, Sr., . . 


Clemmensen, Lorenz,. 


Colborn, Benjamin F. 

Colborn, Hiram E.. . . 

Colborn, John M 

Coleman, Isaac A.,.. 

Collier, David 

Collier, John, Jr.,., 

Collier, William 

Collins, Geo. E 

Collins, Oscar E 

Collins, Rufus J 

Collins, Timothy 

Collins, Warren G., . . 

Combs, Chas. C 

Comstock, DeWitt, .. 
Comstock .William I 
Cones, Judge Dougla 

Cones, Woods 

Conner. Samuel P.,.. 
Conner, Stillwell, . . . 

.Conway, John, 

Cool, Jacob 

Colley, George 

Coombs, Mingerson, . 
Cooper, Charles C . . 
Copley. Joseph B., . . 
Copsey, George A.,.. 

Cormeny, W. H 

Cornell. Albert W., . 
Cornfield. James C, . 

Cornfield, John 

Cotterman, Benton,. 

Coutts. William 

Cover, Levi 

Cox, Benjamin F.. . . 
Coyle. John 



Crabtree, Nathaniel.. 

Craig. David 

Craig. John S 

Crandall, William P. 

Cravath. Obed 

Crawford, Everett J., 

Crew, Farmer W 

Crippen, Sidney H 


Crist. Seth S., 



Crooks, Geo. H 

Crosby, C. Guy 

Crosby. R. L, 

Crow, Christopher 

Crowe, Francis 

Crowe, William James, 
Crowley, Rev. Father 

J. J 

Cruikshank, James... 
Cruikgank. James G., 

Culver, Alanson 

Culver, Chas. W 

Culver, Delancy L., .. 

Culver. Fred E . . 

Cunningham, Alex E 
Cunningham, Aug 


M - - 

Cunningham, David,, 
Cushing, Francis K 
Cutler, James H 

Dally, Alvin 

Damme, William,.. 

Dana. Byron H 

Daniel, Charles L.. . 
Dather, Henry H., . 
Davis, Charles H.. . 
Davis, Harrison E.. 
Davis, Horace M. . . 

Davis, Joe G 

Davis, John 

Davis, John L, 

Davis, Mansell 

Dean, Jarvls 

Dean, John N 

Dean, William D., . 
Deckert, Jacob 


Dedlow, Charles 793 

Dedlow, Frederick 842 

Dedlow, Wm 399 

De Groot, John H„ . . 87? 

Delaney, John 453 

Delano, Fred E .'..498 

Delano. Will Stevens, 738 
Denney, Solomon D.. . . 919 

Dennis, Jasper L 870 

Derig, William 925 

Derrv. A, E S26 

Deth'lefs, John P 1061 

Dewey. George F 5S5 

Dibbert. Christian 606 

Dibble, Morgan 1035 

Dickerson. William 247 

Dickerson, W. T 350 

Dickinson. Reuben 148 

Dinsdale, George, 489 

Doane, Halsey A 786 

nobesh, Anton P 795 

Dobesh, Frank 773 

Dodd. James W 620 

Dodge, Erwin. 786 

Dodge, B. M 978 

Dolbear, David M 264 

Doll, William E 1045 

Domon, Albert C 698 

Donner, John 670 

Douse, Lewis R 813 

Dober, Al 823 

Dover, Fredrick J 1013 

Dover, John W 964 

Downie, Hector 1039 

Downing, Dr. Albert 

R 9«7 

Downing. James F 322 

Drake, John E 947 

Draube, Herman 389 

Dreesen, Mat 147 

Dreesen, Peter 369 

Driskell, E. E 553 

Drobny, Anton 408 

Ducher, William 1096 

Duel, Frank 244 

Dutoe, Lorenzo P 723 

Dullerud, Nels, . . ; 949 

Dunbar. Willinm F.... 775 

Duncan, Robert R 920 

, Dwinell, John 791 

Dvar, Alfred W 610 

Dyar, John Walter,.. 610 

Easterbrook, Edgar A., 

Eastman, Wm. G 

Eberhart, George 

Eckert, Julius 

Edgington, Asahel 

Edwards, Thomas W„ . 

' Ege. Leopold 

Eggers, John J 

Eggert, Louis 

Eggleston, Oliver F., . . 

Elison, Charles S 

Ellis, H. A 

Ellis, Mrs, Jane E 

Embree, Frederick C, . 
Emerson, Eddie War- 

Emery, William C, . 

Ender, Christian 

Knder. Christian 1 


Enderly, Christian.. 
Enevoldsen, Hans C 
Enger, Oscar W., . . 
English, Robert H.. 

Envoldsen, Nels 

Eppler. Otto R 

Erdenberger, Albert, 
Erickson, Nels E„ . . 

Erikson, G. A 

Rrskine, John A 








Joshua H. 


Frank M., , 



Conrad, . . . 



54 3 





James H. 


Ryl, Fred 









m. Daniel 



Hon. Tho. 



Capt, Wil 

Feyerherm, Fred,.. 

Fichter, John G 

Fiebig, Paul Herm 

Field, Chester 

Filsinger, William,. 

Finlev. . 
Fi.si lu-i-. 



P'i.s.us, John A. Jr.,.. 792 

FLshfi-, Joseph 440 

Fi.sher, W. H 208 

Fisher, W. S 1083 

Pisk, James A 904 

Fitzsimmons, Geo. W., . 667 

Plemming, Peter 383 

Flint, William 824 

Flynn, John 1038 

Flynn, Richard 871 

Foltz, Louis N 956 

Forbes, William J 641 

Force, Captain Jacob 

Fo'rd, Jar'ed ' P.', '. '. '. '. '.'.'. 513 

Forsberg, Edward 437 

Forsyth, Joseph 559 

Forwood, William G.,.1037 

Foster, William 413 


Dirk 613 

Freeman, Pari 


Freeman, W. S 

Freiberg, G. E 

Frey, Christian 

Frey, J^mes T 

Frey, Mano 




lire, William 

Gabelman, J. D 

Gaines, Elbert H,... 
Gallaher, Charles L„ 
Galyean, George F,, 
Galyean, Jesse B., . . 
Gardner, Rev, N, E.. 

Gardner, Turner 

Garniss, John 

Garrett, Melvin C, . . 

• Garvie, James 

Gast, Edward 

Gates, Stillman 

Geil, Dellmond A.,. . 
Gereckn, Herman,.. 

Gibbs, Charles L 

Giddings, Joseph M„ 

: Glassey, Matthew 

1 Glazier, Hamilton „ 

Gleason, Frederick H.. 406 
! Gleason, Patrick 551 



ason, William,... 

Glover, Samuel Leroy, . 839 

Goble. G 123 

Goodenow, Melville B., 526 

Goodrich, ErwIn W.,.. 385 

Goff, George W 755 

Goke. Conrad, 381 

Gormlev, Len B 438 

Gosnell, Thos. N 353 

Gottschalk, Frederick, 114 
Gottschalk. L. Fred... 114 

Gould, James : . . . . 183 

Gould, James W 182 

Gourley, James H 283 

Govier, John 697 

Graham, William 459 

Granquist, Ole 173 

Grant, John, 766 

Graves. Alexander L.,.1061 

Graves, Geo. S 1044 

Gray, George H 481 

■Greckel, Fred 1052 

Gregersen, Albert 477 

Greiner, P. J 623 

ink H 229 

J. T., 

O. E., 

Greenwald, John 1 

Greenwalt, George W., 

Greer, Dr. F 1 a V i u s 


Groat, Stillman P 664 

Grobbel, Rev. Peter, ...740 

-Groeling, Herman\ 825 

Gross, Morris 1077 

Guggenmos, Charles, . 1028 

Guggenmos, Louis 1027 

Guiles, Henry 397 

Gunderson. Guennes, . , 1005 

Haase, Carl Freder 

Haase, William 

Hackett, Hosea F., . 

•Hafner, Detlef 

■Hafner, H. C 


Halligan, John,. 
Halliwill, James 
Halverstein, Gay 
Hamilton, John, 
Hammer, Hans.. 
Hammerback, J. 



Hancock, William, 
Hanefeldt, August, 

Hanks, G. H 

Hannawald. Adam 
Hannawald. Frank 
Hannibal, P. M„ , . 

Hansen, Chris 

Hansen, Christian. 

Hansen, Henry 

Hansen, Frank B.. 

Hanson, Richard 
Happel, August,. 
Harbottl?, J. W„ 
Harding, John f 
Hards, Ebeneaer 




Hartwell, Calvin 1! 

Hather. Frederick i 

Hather, Geo. T 

Hather, William J 
Haumont. Edmond, 
Haumont, Jules, ., 

Havel, John 

Havel, Michael M., , 

Havens, Walter 

Havens, William A., 
Havens, Wm, W.. . 
Hays, Frank S 




. 512 


Havs, Marion G 


Ickler, John 

Kile, Ransome 

Kile, Dr. W. T 

Leech, Corydon T., .. 
Leedom, Boyd S 


Havs, Oliver M 

Ingraham, Alonzo F., . 


Hazen. Dr. \Vm 


Ira, Dr. G. W 

. 272 

Kilpatric, J 

. 539 

Lehman, Louis 


Heater, Noah 


Irvine, George 

. 484 

Kilpatrick, Abraham 

Lehmann, Frank G.. . 


Hecht, Christian 


Irvine, James 

. 142 


. 830 

Lehmann. F. W 


Hecht, George H 


Irvine, James F.,... 

. 935 

Kilpatrick, George,.. 

. 829 

Leibert, George 


Hecht, Herman J.,.. 


Irvine, John 

. 202 

Kilpatrick, Joseph,.. 


Leibert, Henry 


Hedglin, Elias L 


Kilpatrick, Joseph H 

., 829 

Lemburg, Hans 


Helmsy, Arnold H., . . 


Kilpatrick. Robert,.. 

. 829 

Lenger, Frank H 


Hemenway, Chas. K, . 


Jacobsen, William,... 

. 307 

Kilpatrick, Stephen D 

., 830 

Lenger, John J 


Hemenway, E. L 


Jacobson, August 

James, Geo. C 


Kimball, H. J 

. 596 

Lenz, John Ludwig 

Hemenway, M. H 


. 404 

Kimball, Kendrick W 

., 712 



Hemenway, Prescott, 


James, Thomas, 

. 562 

King, Absalom Y., . . 

. 669 

Lerum , Christian 


Henderson, Jacob,. . . 


James, W. I 

. 440 

King, Isaac W 


Leuthaeuser, Albert,.. 


Henderson, Walter M 


Jasper, John! 


Kingston. Thomas... 

. 341 

Lewin, James Harvey 


Hensstler, Andrew,.. 


Jenkenson. B 


Kinkaid, Eugene A., 

. 994 

Lewis, A. E 


HenninK, John A...... 


Jenkins, Alonzo O., . 

. 335 

Kirk, Hon. W. L 

. 102 

Libby, E. R 


Henrickson, Knut 


Jenkins, David 

. 259 

Kirk, William T.... 

. 955 

Lichyt, H. P 


Henzler, Chris, 


Jenkins, Evan 

. 447 

Kirkland. George,... 

. 280 

Lidmila, Frank 


Hering, Julius 


Jenks, Willard L., . . 

. 569 

Klentz, August 

. 747 

Lierman, William,... 


Herner, David 


Jenner, Henry 

. 136 

Klentz. W 

. 316 

Liesner, E 


Hetrick, Roland R., . . 


Jensen, Anders 

. 673 

Kliese, Hon. A. F., . . 

Lindly. James 



Jensen, Andrew P.,. . 

. 122 

Klingler, Charles N., 

'. 792 

Lindsay, James A.,.. 


Hickenbottom, Wm. T 


Jensen, Cresten 

. 751 

Kloke, William F.,. 

. 805 

Lindwurm, George,.. 


High, B. Y 


Jensen .Niels 

. 960 

Klopping, Henry 

. 676 

Linstadt, Otto F 


Hild, Jacob F 


Jensen, Niels O 

. 613 

Klug, Fred 


Littell, Geo. W 


Hill, E. J 

Jensen, Peter 

. 259 

Klump, Jacob B 

. 915 

Little, Waldo L 


Hill, Walter F 


Jepson. Peter 


Koch, Jacob D 

. 151 

Locker, David W 


Hill, Wm. H 


Jewell, Ralph 

. 166 

Koebke, Fred 

. 770 

Loebel, C. D 


Hill, William J 

Jewell, Wm. P 

. 171 

Koehler, Ferdinand, 


Loftus, Mike 


Hille, Adolph 


Jilg, William 

. 822 

Koehler, Fred 


Loge, Claus 


Hilmer, Fred 


Joll, Francis 


Koester. John H., . . 

. 145 

Logerwell, Leo 


Hilmer. William 


John, James M 

. 869 

Kohlhof, Christian,. 

. 324 

Lohr, Wm. R 


Hilton, Eugene, 


Johnson, A. E 

. 714 

KoU, Claus J 

. 658 

Loney, Henry 


Hines, Joseph C 


Johnson, Andrew,... 


Kolterman, John 

Long. Elihu 


Hinrichsen, Claus 


Johnson, Bennie 

. 549 


. 547 

Long, James B 


Hirschman, Edward B 

, 311 

Johnson. Byron H., . 


Koppelmann, C. H., . 

. 548 

Long, Thomas 


Hirsehman, Frank C, 


Johnson. C. H 

. 814 

Korth, Robert 

. 291 

Longe, R 


Hirschman, Franz,.. 


Johnson. F. A.. 

. 709 

Kost, J. A 

. 436 

Longe, Theodor 



Johnson. Gilbert,... 


K-iaak, Fred 

. 794 

Longfellow, John R., . 


Hirsehman,' Jdhn P.','.'. 


Johnson, G. W 

. 603 

Knecht, Theodore,.. 

. 777 

Longnecker, Harley A 

, 683 

Hirschman, Julius 


Johnson, J. A 

. 211 

Knight, Benjamin,.. 

. 699 

Longnecker, Willian 

Hoagland, Dr. H. H., 


Johnson. James W.. 

. 160 

Knight. John D 

. 661 



Hodg-es, Frank 


Johnson, John 

. 719 

Knight. John Gardner, 662 

Lothrop, Geo. C, . . . . 


Hodies! Herbert 


Johnson. L. J.. 

. 539 

Knoepfel, John 

. 334 

Louis, Jacob 


Hoehne, August J.,.. 


Johnson, L. M 


Knoepfel, Ludwig,.. 

. 333 

Lovejoy. John H 


Hoeppner, Theodore,. 


Johnson, L. S 

. 384 

Knoll, Louis 

. 748 

Lowe. Burlen W 



Johnson, Meritt A.,. 

. 820 

Kremer, Wm. F 

. 371 

Lubeley, August 


Hoes.' John H.,'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


Johnson, N. P 

. 511 

Kriewald, Carl 

. 444 

Lubke. Wm. 


Hoftart, Henry 


Johnson, O 

. 963 

Kripner, Anton 


Luce, Samuel M 


Hoftart, Henry G 


Johnson, Ole 

. 927 

Krueger, G. Henry,. 

. 260 

Luckert, John C 


Hofeldt, George 


Johnson. Mons O. M.. 

. 318 

Krueger, Martin 

. 282 

Ludington, John W., . 


Hoffman, John C 


Johnson. Robert 

. 194 

Krueger, William,.. 


Luebke, William 


Hogue, John H 


Johnson. T. C 

. 387 

Kruetzfeldt, Herma 

Lueck, Carl H 


Hohneke, John F 


Johnston, William,.. 

. 386 



Luedeke, Carl 


Holcomb, Earl L 


Jones. Alfred E 

. 217 

Kruse, Fred, (Kno 

Luke, John H 


Holden, James G 


Jones, Benjamin M., 

. 572 



Lumadue, John W... 


Holecek, J. V 


Jones, Hon. Doctor A.. 249 

Kruse. Fred. (Howar 


Lundy, James W 


Holeman, Reuben I.,. 


Jones, E. W 

. 474 


. 947 

Lvbolt, J. H 


Hollenbeck, Aaron 


Jones, W. A 

. 231 

Knull, Charles 


Lynch, Thos. Sr 


Holmes, Benjamin F., 


Jorgensen, Neils 

. 126 

Kuehl, Eggert 


Lynch Family 


Holmes! Geo?ge W., . . 


Jorn, John J 

. 755 

Kuehl, Fritz H 

. 821 

Lynde, Stephen C. . . 


Holmes, James M., . . 


Joyner, Denton V.,. . 

. 954 

Kuehl, Peter 

. 142 

Lyon. C. A 


Holmes. John A.,... 


Joyner, John J 

. 495 

Kull, Frank S 

. 176 

Holt, H. E :... 


Judkins, Francis O., 


Kumm, William 


Holtorf, Claus F 


Julyan, Jacob 


Kurka Joseph...... 

. 977 

Maas, Charles 


Hoover, Edwnrd D., . 


Junge, M. F 

. 988 

Kyes, John M 

. 925 

Maas, Julius 


Hopkins, Andv 


Kyriss, Fred 

. 256 

Mabeus, Herman A.,. 


Hopkins, Jeptha, .... 


Machmuller, William. 


Hoppen. Paul 


Kaczor, Fred 

. 139 

McAllister, James 


Horrocks, John 


Kaelin, Burkhardt J., 

. 799 

Ladd, Arthur W 

. 406 

McCandless. Lucian, . 



Kalal, John, 

. 462 

Ladd, J. W 

. 854 

McCandless, Milton W 

, 484 

Horsham,' William.'.'. 


Kammer, John 


Lageschulte, Frederick 

McCartney, Jacob R., 


Hdrstmann, Christ,... 


Kamrath, Fr.ink 

. 269 


. 836 

McClellan, Samuel,... 


House, Edward C 


Kamrath, William.. . 

. 269 

LaGrange, Erwin M 

. 256 

McClintock, David,.. 


Housel, Gardner 


Karnes, Charles L.,.. 

. 810 

Lamb, Alex 

. 591 

McClintock. Frank... 


Houtby, Edward 


Kasson, Henry D., . , 

. 856 

Lamb, Bartholomew 

. 215 

McCloughan, Geo. W.. 


Hovlnnd. George B., . . 


Kaufman, J. D 

. 457 

Lammers, Anton K., 

. 221 

McClure, Daniel 


Howe, George W 


Kaupp, Christian,... 

. 501 

Langenberg, Louis,. 

. 357 

McClure, James G., . 



Kaupp, Wm. A 

. 60S 

Lanman, James 

. 433 

McCoy, J. B 


Hu'bbard,"'sol'omon '6.', 


Katy, David 

. 487 

Lantis, Charles 

. 589 

Mccracken, David.... 


Huhbv, John 


Kay, Judson 

Keating, Joseph M., . 

. 704 

Lanum, Joel F 

Larison, John H 

. 953 

. 273 

McCumber. James M., 
McCutchen, Hon. Wm 


Hudson, Milton 

Huebner, Anton 


Keiter, Frank 

. 177 

Larsen, J. P 

. 323 



Huff. Martin H 


Kelley, A. J 

. 428 

Larson, F. A 

. 569 

McDonald. Andrew P.. 


Huffnvin, James G., . . 


Kelly. T. Frank 

. 538 

Laub, Frederick 

Laub, Jacob 

. 595 

McDonald, James V.,. 


Hughes. H:,rry,...;.. 

. 550 

Kelly, Thomas F., . . 

. 537 

. 596 

McDonald, K. W 


Huahe.'^. Jiimes B.. . . 


Keller, Calvin 

. 228 

Laub. James W 

. 428 

McDowell, Barney 


Huigens. John 

. 497 

Keller, Frank 

. 300 

Laub. John P 

. 145 

McFarland, Samuel P., 


Hull, Martin 

. 460 

Kellogg, Charles E 

. 695 

Laub, William 

. 153 

McGee, Hon. Geo. H., 


Hummel, Anton 

Kellogg. Cyrus 

. 730 

Laudeman, John P., . 

. 216 

McGehee, E. T 


Hunt. Oscar F 

: 145 

Kellogg, Henry 

. 349 

Laughlin, George.... 

. 704 

McGinnis, Andrew N.. 


Hunt, William H 

. 680 

Kellogg, John G 

. 254 

Lauritseii, Han! N... 

. 836 

McGrath, Phillip 


Hunter, Hon. Cha. 

Kennedy. Crawford, 


Lawrence, Mell 

. 969 

McGrath , Thomas 



.' 193 

Kenney, Samuel A.,. 

. 104 

Lawson, Christian.. 

. 385 

McGregor, Gregor, . . . 


Hurlburt, James E., . 

. 834 

Kent. Joseph 

. 475 

Lawson, Hon. L. C... 

. 516 

McHenry, James 


Huse, Eugene W 

. 139 

Kent, Nicholas 

. 802 

Leach, A. J 


Mclnerney, M. T 

. 744 

Hiise. William 

. 622 

Kent. Samuel 

. 865 

Leamey, Martin H... 

. 959 

Mclninch, Benjamin _ 

Hutchinson, James,.. 


Kenyon, Charles T.. 


Lear, David 

. 246 



Hutto, J. H 

. 209 

Kenvon, L. B 

. 627 

Leblanc, Gustav A., . 

. 763 

Mclninch, John W.... 

. 728 

Huwaldt. August P... 

. 277 

Kerbel, Ludwig P.,. 

. 943 

Lederer, Charles,... 

. 506 

Mcintosh. Geo. W 

■ 51i 

Huwaldt, William 

Kerr, James H 

. 827 

Ledwich, James 

. 684 

McKay. Hugh 

. 416 


. 711 

Kibby, C. A 

. 347 

Ledwich, Robert,... 


McKelvey, Andrew J.. 

. 281 

Huxford, Andrew J., 

. 912 

Kidder, James W.,.. 

. 879 

Lee, Severt K 

. 504 

McKendry. Elijah.... 

. 212 






McKenzie, F. E 

McKibbon, Jackson W 

McLain, Geo 

McManigal, Daniel,.. 
McManus, John 

Moses, Halsey H., 

... 113 

Osborn, Troy C 


Pufahl, Edward 



Moss, Chas. W., . . 

... 448 

Ostrem, T. G 


Pulcifer, Edwin D., . . 



Mossbarger, Wm., . 

... 649 

Ottele, Nickolas 


Pulliam, Orlando S., . . 



Most, Philip 

... 452 

Puryear, Samuel G:, . . 



Mott, George F., . . 

.. . 900 

McNamara, Rev. Johr 

Mott, Jack 

Packard, Sanford, ... 




Moulton, Charles,. 

... 179 

Paist, Lafe, 


Raabe, August 

Raasch, August, 


McNichols, John P.,. 


Muhm, Fred E., . . 

... 602 

Palmer, Abraham, . . . 



Madsen, Hans P. L., . . 


Muhs, Gustave 

... 716 

Palmer, Joseph 


Rabeler, Frederick, Sr 


Madsen, Lewis C, . 


Muller, August W. 

... 353 

Pangborn, Charles D., 


Rabeler, Frederick Ph 

Madsen, Louie C 


Muller, Gustav 

••• i^t 

Papenhausen, John,.. 




Madsen, Niels M 


Muller, Jacob,.... 

... 508 

Parker, Addison J.,.. 


Rafferty, Michael H., 


Madsen, Rasmus 

Muller, Viggo 

... 226 

Parker, Amos S 


Ragan, R. J 


Mallory, Geo. H 


Mumm, John 

. . . 366 

Parker, Jason 


Ramsey, William H 

Maly, Joseph W 


Munger, Charles Alden, 928 

Parker, Lewis 




Manchester, Orrin,... 


Munger, W. H 

... B31 

Parker, L. A., 


Rathbun, Dimic H., . . 


Manke, Albert A 


Munn, Edward C, . 

... 234 

Parker, Thomas J.,. 


Raubach, Theodor, ... 


Mansfield, Augustus G 


Murschel, Otto 

... 167 

Parker, Wm. M 


Rawlings, Milton H., . 


Mansfield, Edwin T. 


Myers, George W., 

.. .1077 

Parks, Harvey, 


Raymen Geo 


Mantev, Albert 


Myers, Henry H., . 

. . . 491 

Paton, John 


Ream, Hon. James D 


Manzer, C. E 


Myers, J. Abner, . . 

... 476 

Patros, Joseph 


Reed, A. G 


Maricle, Harvey 


Mytton, Charles J. 

. . . 929 

Patterson, George R., 


Reed, Burreli E 


Maricle, R. Claude,.. 


Patterson, M 


Reed. Jeremiah 


Maring, Alexander,.. 


Patzel, August, 


Reeder, Wm .H 


Marks, F. A. 


Paul, Carl F. H 


Rees, Howell 

Marsh, Edwin A 


Nahrstedt, Andrew 

... 929 

Paul, Carl P. W 


Rees, Richard, 


Marshall, Fred C 


Nathan, Ernest, Sr. 

... 628 

Paul, Hon. James N., 


Reeves, A. P. 


•Marten, Herman J.,. . 


Nay, Robert 

... 202 

Paul, N. J. 


Reeves, Oscar 


Martin, David 


Needham, Will A., 

... 575 

Paulman, George 


Rehder, John 


Martin, Judg-e John 

Needham, W. H., . . 

... 544 

Pearson, Joe,. ...... 


Rehfeld, Herman 



Neely, W. A. K., . . 

... 702 

Peck, Henry L 


Rehfeld, Richard 


Martin.' ' kVchard ' R., . 


Neese, Isaac M., . . 

... 430 

Pedler, Joseph S 


Rehmus, Gustav 


Marwood, Robert 


Negley, Wm. D.,.. 

... 302 

Peed, Isaac 


Reid, Amenzo T 


Mather, Daniel E 


Neidig, John P 

... 851 

Pelster, Joseph 

Penny, Seth H 


Reid, Hubert 


Matheson, Alexander, 


Nellor, Daniel E., 

... 393 


Reigle, J. W 


Mathews, Dr. Alexan 

Nelmes, George,. . 

... 885 

Pense, William H 


Reimers, Christian A 


der L., 


Nelsen, Christian.. 

... 507 

Perin, S. L 


Reimers, Reinhold,.. 


Mathews, Charles R., . 


Nelson, Charles,. . 

... 749 

Perrin, Aaron Z 


Renner, Ignatz 


Mathews, Thos, J 


Nelson, Chas. J.,. . 

... 318 

Perrine, E 


Renner, Paul 


Mathon, Steward 


Nelson! Frank,.... 
Nelson, Geo 

'.'.'. 300 

Peter, Frank 


Remolds, H. D 

Rice, Andrew 

Mattox, William R., . 

Peter, Mickel 


Mauk, Jacob F 

Nelson, Jonas 

... 636 

Petersen, Carl L 


Rice, George W 


Mauk. William 


Nelson, Hon. Neil M., . . 688 

Petersen, C h r i s t i a 

Rice, William J 


Maze. Orville H 


Nelson, Nels (Howard 



Richardson, Frederick 

Meahan, Edward J.,. 



... 660 

Petersen, Jens M 




Meese, John C, 


Nelson, Nels (Ante 


Petersen, L 


Richardson, Geo. E., . 


Meierhenry, F 



.^. 316 

Petersen, Niels C 


Richardson, I. O 


Meikle. John 


Netzer, Henry V., 

... 273 

Petersen, Peter, 


Rickert, J. W 


Meis, Meinolph 


Newcomer, Clark,. 

... 263 

Petersen, Peter E 


Ridell, C. C 


Melland, B. K 


Newman, Henry C, 

... 969 

Petersen, Peter S 


Riley, Frederick W., . 


Menebroker, Henry,.. 


Nicholas, Alexander S., 629 

Peterson, Erick 


Riley, Judge John W 


Menkens, J. H 


Nicholas, Benjamin 

L., 789 

Peterson, John 


Rilev, Patrick E 


Mensing, Aaron V.,. . 


Nichols, Charles H.. . . 173 

Peterson, Lars 


Riley, W. W 


Mensing, Arthur 


Nichols, Joseph,.. 

... 107 

Petet, James L 


Ringer, Edward 


Meuret, Henry 


Nicolay, William,. 

... 16S 

Ptanstiel, Henry 


Risk, John W 


Merer. Fred 


Nielsen, Barnie,. .. 
Nielsen, Enevold,.. 

... 159 

Pfleuger, Fred, 


Roberts, Charles 

Roberts, Dennis 


Meyer, K. H 

Pfrehm,' Lewis J 


Michael Frank J 


Nielsen, Hans 

... 746 

Pfrehm, William 


Roberts, John B 


Mick, Lewis 


Nielsen, Iver C.,.. 

... 787 

Phelps, Abraham L., . 


Robertson, Sydney D., 


Miller, Charles 


Nielsen, Martin 

... 998 

Phelps, Austin 


Robertson, Wm. M., . 


Miller, Charles A 


Nielsen, Niels 

... 367 

Phelps, Joseph 


Robinson, Charles, . . . 


Miller, C. T 


Nielsen, Niels C. . . 

... 342 

Phelps, William 


Robinson, George 


Miller, Ed 


Nielsen, Die 

... 317 

Philbrick, Orlando K 

, 435 

Robinson, John B 


Miller. Ernest A 


Nielsen, Paul 

... 375 

Phillips, E. C 


Robinson, Rezin R.. . . 


Miller, Judge E. S.. . 


Nielsen, Soren 


Pieper, Christopher,. 


Robinson, Robert T., . 


Miller, James B 

Nippell, Chas. A... 

... 279 

Pierce, Alfred W., . . 


Roe, David 


Miller, John A 

Nissen, Peter, (Pierce 

Pierce. Dwight 


Roe, Henry 


Miller, John M 



... 632 

Pierce, Frank J 


Roe, Si/muel W 


Miller, Joshua 


Nissen, Peter, (Cedar 

Pierce, George 


Roepke, August 


Miller, Otto 



... 458 

Pierce, James 

. 344 

Rohde, Albert 


Miller, Philip 



Nitzel, Adolph 

... 550 

Pierce, Jesse 


Robe, Henrv 

Rood. Charles J 


Miller, Reno J 

Norling. Eric 

... 524 

Pierce, Louis D 


Miller. Seth 


Novacek, Frank... 

. . .1052 

Pierce, S.amuel W 

Rood. Charles P 


Millnitz. John 


Nygren, Nels 

... 260 

Pierce, William A 


Rood, Walter G 


Mills, Fabius D 


Pierson! Louis, . .' 

. 769 

Rood, William H 


Mills, Ira P... 


. 262 

Root, W. H 


Mills, Richard L 


Pierson, Perrv 


Roper, George A 


Mills. Robert J 


Oberle, Nick 

... 703 

Pilger, Fred W 

. 962 

Rork. Prank F 


Miner, Edgar 


Obermiller, Hans.. 

... 472 

Pischel, E. L 

. 963 

Rosburg. Conrad 


Minter, William H., . . 


Obermiller, John,. 

... 464 

Pittenger, Giirney R., 

. 231 

Rose, Christopher N 


Mischke. John M 


O'Brien, Alfred... 

... 519 

Place, is.aac f.... 

. 846 

Ross, Charles E 


Mithofer, Herman 


O'Donnell, John,.. 

... 918 

Pochop. Prank. Jr 

. 409 

Ross, David M 


Mittelstaedt, J 


Oelsligle, William 

H., . 847 

Pochop. John .. 

. 599 

Ross, James 


Mogensen, Adolph,... 


O'Gara, Prank 

... 257 

Pocoi-k. John W 

. 645 

Roth. Jonas S 


Mohr, Christian 


O'Gara, Peter Fran 

cis. 257 

Pont. Alfred 

. 191 

Rotter. Joseph 


Mohr. Herman H 


O'Gara, Roger T., 

. . 286 

Pont, Renjmiin 

. 306 

Routh. Cash M 


Mollin. Gustave A 


Ohme, Prank 


Porter. James P 

. 826 

Rowe. Robert F 


Montgomery, L. D.! . . . 


Oliver, Luther L, . 

... 320 

Porterfield. John 

. 155 

Rubeck, Henry 


Moon, Judge Walter. 


OUis, James A., Jr., 

... 343 

Postle, Justin F 


Ruden, Charles 


Morehead. Bert E.. . . 


Ollis, James A., Sr 

... 375 

Potts. Wilson W 


Ruff, John 


Morgan, Nicholas M., . 


Olsen, Magnes 

... 153 

Powell. Russell S 

. 177 

Ruggless, W. H 


Morris, J. R 


Olson, Andrew.,.. 

. . . C43 

Powers, Ned 

. 542 

Ruhlow, Robert 


Morrow, Augustus,... 


Olson, Ebert 

... 285 

Powers, William E., . . 


Rund.quist. M 


Morrow, Rev .John,.. 

. 600 

Olson, Hans 

... 476 

Poynter, Daniel J 


Russell, Albert 


Morse. Alfred A 


Olson, Ole 

... 9S« 

Poynter, Ex. Gov. \\ 

Rutherford, William.. 


Morse. Hon. Wm. R., 


Olson, Peter 



.' 102 

M o r t e n s e n, Mrs 

Olsson, Ored 

... 739 

Prauner, C-^rl 



.' 220 

O'Mallev, Patrick, 

... 237 

Predmore, William H., 


Mortensen. Martin C, . 

. 417 

Ondracek, J. M., . . 


Prentice, 'wm. A .' 


Saare, Herman 


^rortensen, Peter 

. 492 

O'Neill, John 


Preusker, William. .,. 

. 344 

Sahs, John 


Morten.sen, Rasmus,.. 

. 220 

Opocensky, Fred,.. 

... 346 

Primrose, David 

. 181 

St. Louis, Joseph 


Mortimer. Thomas,. .. 

. 357 

Orvis, John R 

... 161 

Prokop, V. J 


Samuel, Joseph D., . . 


Moses, Franz .. 

. 113 

Osborn, A. R 

... 975 

Prouty, John T 


Sandahl, Edward,.... 







Sandberg, Isaac W., . 

Smith, A. A 

Sward, August 


Vieregg, James 



Sweeney, Henry 


Vieregg, Joseph W., . . 


Sarles, Preston 


Smith. Benjamin F.,. 


Sweet, Charles A 

Vinson, George 



Smith, Chas. H 


Sweetland, Stephen N. 


Sattler, Hermar 

Smith, Chas. W 


Switzer, Virgil M 


Voelker, H 


Sydow, Henry 


Vogel, Hugo 



Smith, Daniel B 

Smith, Edward 

Smith, Eugene A...... 


Synovec, Theodore 


Vogt, Edward L 

Vogt, Frederick W., . . 
Volk, Balthaser 


Sawyer, John W 



Smith, F. B 


Tackley, John P 

Talbot, Dr. Roberta,. 
Talbot, Dr. Willis E., . 
Talbot, Col. V. C 


Von Seggern, Menke,. 
Vorhes, Peter D 

Smith, Hanford N 


Scheer Ernest 

Schellenberg, Paul,... 

Smith, James, 



TannehiU, Frank 


Scherer, Franz 


Smith, John, (Coltax 

Tatge, Christopher,... 

Wachter, Henry 


Scherer H A 




Tatge Phillip, 


Wachter, Herman 

Waggoner, Henry H., . 


Scherzbergr, Charles,. 
Schilling. Frederick,. 


Smith, Moses F 

. 824 

Taylor! Edward G 


Waggoner. Wm. M., . . 



Smith, Nathan A.,... 

. 831 

Taylor, Frank J., . . . . 


Wagner. John 



Wagner, Julius G 



Smith, William M 

Snider, W. H 

. 379 
. 710 

Taylor, John O 

Taylor, John P 


Schlecht, William 

Waite, Wilbur S 



. 418 

Tawney, W. A 


Waite, Willis R 

Schlyte'rn, Carl 6 


. 427 

Teatke, Fred 


Schlytern, John G 


Sodersten, Peter M., . . 

. 868 

Terry, Timothy 


Wall, Judge Aaron 



Sommer, Andrew 

Sonderup, Soren M.,.. 
Sorensen, Mrs. Anna M 
Sorensen, Chas. A 

, 434 

. 494 

Texley, Gulbrand H.,. 

Texley, O. H 

Thiessen, John 

Thode, Peter J 



Wall George 


Schmltz, John B 

Wall] Thomas 


Schmitz, Leonard 

Wallace, Robert W... 




Wallace, Wm. J 



Sorensen, Christian,. 
Sorensen, Hans, 

. 382 

Thomas, David 

Thomas, D. R 


Schnerlnger, Hall B., 

Wallis, Henry F 


, 96S 

. 185 

TTiomas, Dr. Eugene L 

Walrath, Archibald,.. 


Schoenauer, A. B., . . . 

. 443 


Walsh, William 


Schoepflin, Fred 

, 186 

. 889 
. 645 

Thomas, Van J 

Thomas, Wesley 


Walter Jacob 


Schoning, John O. F 

Walters, Oliver E 


. 486 

Thompson, Andrew J., 


Wanser, Frederick L., 




Spahr, Wilbur, 

. 642 

. 398 

Thompson, E. H 

Thompson, James W., 
Thompson, Robert C, . 

Thomsen, Hans 

Thomson, Dr. Thos. M 
Thorn, John B 


Wanser, Winfleld S., . . 


Speer. Wilbur M 

Speice, Charles B 

Spence, Charles, 

Spireg, Frederick K... 

Ward! John L.;: :::::: 

Ward, Miles 



Schultz, Charles C.,. 

Warner, Hiram 


Thorngate, Geo 


Warner, Samuel P 


Schultz, Wm. H 


Splittgerber, Wilhelm, 

. 157 

Thorngate, Henry 


Warrington, Mack C, . 


Schultze Amil 


Splittgerber, Wm. C... 

. 122 


Waters, George O 


Schultze, Fritz W 

Tichy, Joseph P 



Sprieck, Gotlieb, 

Springsteen, L. K 

. 290 

Tiedke, August 

■Wenken, Henry 

Timmerman, Wm. J.,. 


Watson, Lysander 

Watts, Frank 

Weatherby, Edmund 


Schwank. Andreas. 


Stahl, Julius C 

Stahlecker, John 

. 609 

Tobias, Israel C 

Totten, J. G 


Schwarz,' Fred,. .•... 

Webb, E. W 


Schwede, F. A 


Stamer, Henry, 

. 496 

Tracy, Eugene, E 

Travis, Amos W 


Weber, Frederick 

Weddel, Alfred E 

Scott, Charles W 

Stark, August 


Scott, David P 


Stark, S. A 


Trenhaile, Richard H., 


Wedekind, H 


Scott, James P 


Starr, John C 

. 568 
. 223 

Trenhaile, W. S 

Trine, J. Osman 

Trotter, Charles O 


Weed, Hubert A 

Weerns, Hon. John A., 
Weerts, Walter 

Scott. John 

Scudder, Albert 

Stearns, A. L 


Scudder, Melvin G 


Trotter, William O.. . . 


Weigand, Prank 


Seabury, A. P., 


Stedry, Vincent J 

. 842 

Tubbs, Rev. Sylvester 

Weigand, Leonard 



Steffensen, Niels J.,.. 

Steinbach, T. B 

Steinkraus, Herman,. 

Stephens, James 

Stephenson, W. H 

. 995 
. 731 
. 358 
. 415 
. 197 



Weitzel, William 


Seeber, Charles 

Tucker, James W 

Tunks, Albert 

Welch, Moses 


Seevers, Robert M.,. 

Wellman, Charles H., . 
Wells, Henrv C 



Seggern, Menken Von 

Turner, Hon. Moses K 


Stevens, Sturley T.,.. 
Stevens, William N., . . 
Stewart, Chauncey, Jr 
Stewart, Chauncey, Sr 

. 811 

Turner, Samuel B 

Twing H. C . 



Welsh, James H., .'.... 
Welsh, John, (Custer 

Seip, Wm.,'.'.V.".".'."" 

Sellon, C. O 


Shafer, Albert 

Welsh, John, (Howard 

Shallenberger, Ex. Gov 

Tyrrel, Samuel P 




Stewart, Edwin 


Werkmeister. Daniel,. 

Sharpless, Jas. F 



Stewart, G. W 

Westbrook, Joseph,.. 
Westbrook, William,. 



Stewart, Leroy D., . . . 

. 116 


Shepherd, W. A 

Uehling, Fred 

Sherbeck, Andrew,... 


Stewart, Wm. J 

. 425 

Uhing, Ludwig 

Weyhrich, Jacob 



Stichler, Charles M., . 

. 685 


Wheeler. John S 

Wheeler, Theodore... 

Shetler. ' Jeremiah, .'i .' 

Umstead. Hon. J. H., . 


Stockwell, Dr. James 


Underwood, Rev. Wn 

Wheeler, Willard A.,. 


. 255 

. 405 
'. 303 

H., . . 


Wherrett, Charles 

Whipple, Ira ... 

Stoetzel, Theodore J.,. 
Stokes, Henry George 

Short. G. w ; : : : : 

White'! (bharles E.,::: 


Shrader, Anthony.. 

. 887 
. 289 
. 349 

Stolp, Art 



. 372 


Van Camp, Garrett,.. 

Van Camp, Victor 

Van Camp, William,. . 


Shroder, Peter,... ... 

White, George Prank 
White! josephB.',!!;! 

Shunn, Robert 


Siem, Henrv N 

Stoural, Thomas 


Simms, Geo. W.,.. 

Vancleave, Edward T., 


Whitmore, M. M 


Simms, Isaac Newton 

Vandegrift, John 


Whitmore, S. L 

Simonson, Onon 

. 205 

Strathdee, George 


Vandenberg, M. E 


Whitney, Charles A... 


S.monson, Simon 

. 205 


Van Every, G. E 


Whitney, Henry M., . . 


bimpson John 


Whitney, Zachariah, F 


. 502 

Strickler, Rev. Geo B 


Van Kleek. G. E 


Whitten, David 


Sirek, Frank. L 


; 6^2 

Vannice, Wesley M., . . 
Van Osdol, Isaac F., . . 


Whittenburg. H 



S'ttler, Joseph 

. 965 

Strope," W. W.,'::'"" 


Van Pelt, Jefferson D.. 


Wichman, Fred .'. 


StuchenhoiT, Henry,.. 


Van Pelt, Wiley E.,.. 


Wichman, Frederick,. 

Skelton, Dr. H. A 

. 156 
. 551 
. 272 

. 654 



Varney, Edgar 

Vrrney, Thomas T 

Van Skike, Charles,.. 

. 419 

Wichman, Joseph 


■skoog, Neis J.,.'::::: 

sukup,' A. w.,;: :::::; 


Sullivan, Daniel P 

Slmgsb.v, William K,. 

. 773 

Vanskike, Samuel C... 

. 328 

Widhalm, Florian 


. 216 

Sullivan; Wm... :::::: 

. 328 

Vesely, Mike 


Wiegand. J 



Wieland, John D.. . . 
Wigent, C. D 

. S23 
. 830 
. 314 
. 143 
. 171 
. 416 
. 573 
. 404 

. 431 
. 490 
. 289 
. 709 
. 567 
. 664 
. 498 

Wiltshire. Geo. W... 
Windfield, Thomas,.. 

Wingett, O. C 

Winter, Chas. F 

Winter, Frank 

Winter, Herman W., 

Winter, W. F. F 

Wirth, Joseph F 

Wisdom, J. S 

Wittemyer, Fred H., 

Witten, James A 

Witten, Joseph E 

. 437 
. 970 
. 261 
. 219 
. 293 
. 944 
. 435 
. 436 
. 543 


. 623 
. 170 
. 656 

. 682 

Wolfe, Charles 

Wolski, Gottfried,.. 

Wood, James E 

Wood, John P 

Woods, Frank W., . . 

Woods, J. T 

Woods, Joseph F., . . 
Woods, T. M 


:: 11] 

.. 296 
'.'. 432 


Yockey, James W 

Y'ocum, C. E., 

. 790 
. 630 

YouU, C. A 


Zaehry, Charles H 

Zander, Albert, . 

. 172 


Wilburn, Thomas J.. 

Will, Wm. L, 

Willard, D. A 

VVillard, Geo. E 

Willeman, Thomas M. 

Williams, Jacob B., . . 
Williamson. John W. 

Woody, Walter N 713 

Worden, James 249 

Worker, Capt. Charles, 776 

. Wright, Norton 132 

Wycoft, Geo. R 401 

Wylie, John 448 

Wymer, Frank E 743 

Yager, J. S 945 

Yates, Alphonso L 365 


Williamson, Sylvester 

Zellmer, Julius 


Williamson, Zina A., 

Ziegenbein, Wm 

Zimmerer, Joseph,... 
Zimmerman. Abraham 

Wilson, Jay E; 

Wilson, John 

Wilson, John O 

Wohlfeil, Herman,.. 

Wolcott, Geo. J 

Wolcott, Oliver S 

Wolcott, Reuben M., . 

Wolcott, Col. Walter 



Wilson, J. W 

Wilson, Thomas 

Wilson, Wm J....... 

Zimmerman. Dr. C. F., 
Zimmerman, Fred,... 
Zimmerman, Henry E 

. 489 
. 575 
, 924 





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COMPRISING as it does an area larger by 
^ 14,259 square miles than all of New Eng- 
land, the state of Nebraska is justly entitled to 
the important position it holds among the sister 
states of the republic. Twice the size of Ohio, 
larger in area by many thousand square miles 
than England and Wales combined, Nebraska in 
area is an empire. 

The position occupied by Nebraska is quite 
near the center of the United States. The paral- 
lel of forty degrees bounds it on the south, and 
the Missouri river is its eastern and northern 
boundary until the forty-third degree parallel is 
reached. This parallel then constitutes the north- 
ern boundary until the west line of the state, on 
the twenty-seventh degree of west longitude, is 
reached. The western boundary of the state fol- 
lows the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west 
from Washington south until the forty-first de- 
gree of north longitude is reached. It then fol- 
lows the forty-first degree of longitude east to a 
point formed by its intersection with the twenty- 
fifth degree of longitude west from Washington ; 
then south to the fortieth degree of north lati- 
tude. This, it will be seen, takes quite a notch, 
approximately 7,300 square miles, out of the 
state. If it were not for this off-set, the state 
would approximate the shape of a parallelogram. 
The extreme width of the state from north to south 
is 208.5 miles, and its length from east to west is 
approximately 413 miles. Previous to 1882 the 

area of the state was almost 75,995 square miles. 
In that year, by act of congress, the northern 
boundary was straightened, which added approx- 
imately 900 square miles to its territory, giving a 
present area of 76,895 square miles, or 49,212,000 
acres. In the heart of the great union, grouped 
among the greatest states of the commonwealth, 
directly in the great center of the nation's wealth, 
Nebraska has received the overflow from the 
east, and blessed them with plenty. And its loca- 
tion, combined with its climate and natural re- 
sources, have made its settlement, growth and 
development so rapid as to place it among the 
greatest states in the union in a time so short as 
to be within the memory of the present genera- 


Nebraska has an extremely varied surface. 
Although there are no elevations high enough to 
be called mountains, yet in the northern and 
western parts of the state there are lofty hills of 
varied character. In the eastern states the ridges 
are generally the result of elevations and subsi- 
dences of the earth's crust, modified b.y subse- 
((uent aquaeous agencies, but in Nebraska the roll- 
ing lands and hills are caused mostly by erosion. 
In the east massive rocks mainly make up the 
body of the hills, while here they are to a certain 
extent composed of drift materials, loosely com- 
pacted, but chiefly of loess. The bottom lands 



are met with every few miles crossing the state. 
They are huge and in general shallow troughs ; in 
breadth, proportionate to the size of the stream. 
In width they range from a quarter of a mile to 
twenty-three miles on the Platte and the 
Missouri. Quite often we find them terraced. 
These terraces, like broad steps, lead gradually 
to the bordering bluffs. Sometimes the edges of 
the low terraces on the bottoms are so worn away 
that their character is concealed. What was 
once a terrace has become a gentle slope. The 
slopes on the bottoms between Crete and Beatrice 
and Ashland and Lincoln are good examples of 
this character. 

In regard to the surface, the curve is the pre- 
dominating geometrical form — streams, terraces, 
bluffs, valleys, all follow curves. "The curve is 
the line of beauty." This law is exemplified 

There is an amazing number of valley or bot- 
tom lands. By the thousand they must be num- 
bered. As an example take the region of the Re- 
publican river. On the average of every two 
miles a tributary valley comes into the bottom 
from the north side. Counting the small tribu- 
taries with their narrow bottoms, not less than 
twenty-five per cent, of the entire surface of the 
state is made up of bottom lands. 

The gently rolling lands of three-fourths of the 
state appear very much like billows of the ocean. 
Sometimes extensive stretches are met with which 
appear to be level, but even these on closer obser- 
vation show to be gently undulating. From these 
last mentioned forms to the few isolated sections 
of limited extent, broken by canons with precipi- 
tous sides, the transition is gradual. It is alto- 
gether a prairie state, with rich alluvial valleys 
and table lands stretching away into extensive 
level plains, with a gradual ascent from the Mis- 
souri river westward, reaching an altitude on its 
western border of between five and six thousand 
feet above the sea level, and yet the incline is so 
gradual that in the construction of the Union 
Pacific railroad up the Platte valley, not a tunnel, 
trestle or fill of any importance was required, nor 
a single difficulty encountered from the Missouri 
river to the west line of the state. Take the state 
as a whole, it slopes mainly toward the east and 
in minor degree toward the south. The ascent 
west from Omaha is at the rate of five and a half 
feet to the mile for one hundred miles. The sec- 
ond hundred miles increases the ascent to seven 
feet; the third hundred, seven and a half feet; 
the fourth hundred to ten and a half feet to the 
mile, and the ascent of the last fifty miles at the 
west end of the state is eighteen feet to the mile. 
The figures are approximately correct. A similar 
gradual ascent characterizes the south and north 
lines of the state. The southeastern corner of the 
state, which is the lowest part of the state, has an 
elevation of 878 feet. Here the ascent is only one 
and a quarter feet to the mile. Even less than 

this is the fall going northward to Dakota City. 
In western Nebraska the difference in elevation 
between the Union Pacific railroad and the Re- 
publican valley on the south side is approximate- 
ly 352 feet. From the Union Pacific, on the west 
line, going northward, the elevation increases 
until Scott's Bluft" is reached, where the elevation 
of 6,051 feet is the highest point in the state. 
From here to the valley of the Niobrara, toward 
the north line, there is a gradual descent. As the 
elevation at Pine Bluffs, on the extreme western 
line of the state, on the Union Pacific, is 5,061 
feet, the ascent from this point northward is 635 
feet, against a corresponding difference of less 
than 200 feet on the east line of the state. Taking 
the data, obtained principally by a reduction of 
railroad surveys in various parts of the state, the 
average elevation of the whole state is about 
2,312 feet. 

Although there are no large lakes in Nebraska, 
there are many small ones. Besides the lakes of 
fresh water, there are a few saline or alkaline. 
In southeastern Nebraska many springs appear 
on top of limestone strata that underlie loosely- 
compacted sandy rocks or shales. In most parts 
of the state, by sinking a shaft down from fifteen 
to fifty feet, fresh water can be had in abundance. 
In Fillmore, Clay, Adams and Phelps counties, and 
in some other portions of the state we find excep- 
tions to this rule, where there is a great thickness 
of loess and drift to be penetrated before imper- 
vious strata capable of holding water are reached. 
Some artesian wells have been bored. 

Among the rivers of Nebraska, the deep and 
rapid Missouri is the principal one. At least five 
hundred miles of this river are on the eastern and 
noi-thern borders of the state. It is a highway to 
the commerce and markets of the world. Had it 
not been for the Missouri, the settlement of this 
region would have been indefinitely delayed. As 
the river is navigable for two thousand miles 
above Omaha, it was a great highway for traffic 
with the mountain regions of Idaho, Dakota and 
Montana in early days. However, with the build- 
ing of railroads the business has fallen off. The 
Missouri river is the only navigable river in Ne- 
braska, and has always been described as an "ex- 
ceedingly crooked, treacherous stream." Its 
source is in latitude forty-five north, and longi- 
tude 110:30 west, high up in the Rocky moun- 
tains, and the distance it flows from the Great 
Falls to its junction with the Mississippi river is 
2,575 miles. The Missouri seems to hold a mort- 
gage on the lands that flank it on either side, and 
it often takes such lands by force, only to return 
them when some other change in its ever shifting 

I course is developed. Previous to the exploration 
made by Lewis and Clark, the impression pre- 
vailed among the Spanish and French residents 
in what was then known as the Northwestern 
Territory, that the source of the Missouri was near 
a point where it joins the Niobrara, and most of 

I the maps in use previous to the exploration re- 



ferred to locate its source at or near the point 

Having referred to the Missouri as being the 
only navigable river touching Nebraska, it will 
doubtless be of interest in this connection to men- 
tion the first steamer on the Missouri. It was 
built at Pittsburg by the United Sates govern- 
ment in 1818, and named the "Western Engin- 
eer." She left her moorings at Pittsburg May ;3, 
1819, having on board an exploring expedition 
sent out by order of the government to explore^ 
the Missouri river and the country west of the 
Rocky mountains. The expedition was under the 
command of Major S. H. Long, and arrived at St. 
Louis on June 20, one month and seventeen days 
after starting. The mouth of the Platte was 
reached on the 17th of September following, and 
on the 19th of the same month the expedition 
cast anchor near the mouth of Boyer river, on the 
Iowa side, about five miles below Council Bluflt's, 
where it went into winter quarters. The point of 
encampment was known as Fort Lisa, and was 
occupied bj^ the Missouri Pur Company as a trad- 
ing post. Here the explorers remained during 
the winter of 1819-20, Major Long in the mean- 
time returning to Philadelphia, the then seat of 
government, with reports of the expedition. June 
20, 1820, Major Long returned to Port Lisa with 
orders for the expedition to proceed overland to 
the head waters of the Arkansas and Red rivers, 
for the purpose of exploring said streams and the 
country contiguous to them, and, in accordance 
therewith, the expedition left the boat at this 
point and proceeded up the valley of the Platte, 
holding councils with the numerous Indian tribes 
through which they passed. The "Western En- 
gineer," after the departure of the expedition, 
received a new commander, and was employed 
for many years thereafter in transporting gov- 
ernment supplies to forts and trading posts along 
the Missouri river. 

The Platte is the second great river in Nebras- 
ka. It is nearly 1,200 miles in length. Its head 
waters originate in the mountains, and some of 
them in lakelets, fed by the everlasting snows. 
By the time it reaches Nebraska it is a broad, 
shallow, sandy, but rapid current. Plowing from 
west to east through the state, it divides it, leaving 
the larger part on the north. It is not navigable. 
Flood time is about the same for both rivers. 
Sometimes for the Platte it is a few days or weeks 

Among other important rivers and creeks are 
the Republican, Niobrara, Keya Paha, White, 
Elkhorn, Logan, the Bow rivers, the Nemahas, 
the Blues, the Loups, Salt Creek, Weeping Water, 
the Wahoo, Elk Creek, South and West Iowa 
creeks, and others. 


The elements found in the soil of the greater 
part of Nebraska forms one of the richest and 

most tillable soils in the world, and the unrivaled 
fertility of her soil places Nebraska in the front 
rank among the gi-eat grain producing states of 
the union. The soil of the table and upland is 
composed of what is known as loess or lacustrine 
deposit, most valuable of all for agricultural pur- 
poses, and this deposit, of uniform color, prevails 
over nearly three-fourths of the area of the state. 
In some places in the northeastern counties it is 
claimed to be nearly two hundred feet thick, but 
in the balance of the state it ranges from five to 
one hundred and fifty feet in thickness. One of 
the former state geologists, Prof. Samuel Aughey, 
after a careful analysis of this soil from samples 
taken in difi'erent portions of the state, incorpor- 
ated the following in one of his reports: "Prom 
my examination I find that over eighty per cent, 
of this formation is silicious matter, and so finely 
comminuted is it that the grains can only be seen 
under a good microscope. So abundant are the 
carbonates and phosphates of lime that in many 
places they form peculiar rounded and oval con- 
cretions. Vast numbers of these concretions from 
the size of a shot to a walnut are found almost 
everywhere by turning over the sod and in excava- 
tions. The analysis shows the presence of a com- 
paratively large amount of iron, besides alumina, 
soda, potash, etc. These elements form one of the 
richest soils in the world. In fact, in its chemical 
and physical properties and the mode of its origin, 
it comes nearest to the loess of the Rhine and the 
valley of Egypt. It can never be exhausted until 
every hill and valley which composes it is entire- 
ly worn away. Owing to the wonderfully finely 
comminuted silica of which the bulk of the depos- 
its consist, it possesses natural drainage in the 
highest degree. However great the floods of water 
that fall, it soon percolates through this soil, 
which in its lowest depths retains it like a sponge. 
When drouths come, by capillary attraction, the 
moisture comes up from below, supplying the 
needs of vegetation in the dryest seasons. This 
is the reason why all over this region where this 
deposit prevails, the native vegetation and culti- 
vated crops are seldom either dried out or 
drowned out. This is especially the case on old 
breaking where deep plowing is practiced." 

Next in importance after the loess or lacustrine 
are the alluvium deposits. Prom an analysis 
made of the bottom lands it appears that, chemi- 
cally, alluvium differs from the loess chiefly in 
having more organic matter and alumina, and less 
silica. The soil of the bottom lands is rich in or- 
ganic matter. The depth of this soil varies greatly, 
it often being twenty feet or more in thickness, 
and then the sand of the subsoil is reached at a 
depth of two or three feet. 

The alkali lands are to be found in difi^erent 
sections of the state, but chiefly in the western 
portion. In the east half there are scarcely any 
such lands, the majority of counties having none 
at all, while in others are small spots. These 
alkali lands are renovated and made very produe- 



tive by irrigation, cultivation and drainage. The 
time is rapidly approaching when these lands will 
become the most valuable farming sections of the 
world. They are not confined to any one geo- 
logical formation, but are found some times 
on the drift, alluvium or the loess. They increase 
in number from the eastern to the western portions 
of the state, and where they have been closely 
examined they have been found to vary a great 
deal in chemical constituents. Generally, how- 
ever, the alkali is largely composed of soda com- 
pounds, with an occasional excess of lime and 
magnesia or potash. Much of the alkali origin- 
ated by the accumulation of water in low places. 
The escape of the water by evaporation left the 
saline matter behind, and in case of salt (sodi- 
um chloride), which all waters contain in at least 
minute quantities, the chloride, by chemical 
reactions, separated from the sodium, the latter 
uniting with oxygen and carbonic acid formed 
the soda compounds. The alkali that exists far 
down in the soil is also brought up during dry 
weather by escaping moisture, and is left on the 
surface when the water is evaporated. 

One of the most interesting features of the 
topography of southern Nebraska is the salt bas- 
ins stretching along the west side of Salt Creek 
from Lincoln five or six miles to the north. An 
early writer said of these: "In ordinary sunny 
days, of which the climate of Nebraska is so 
prodigal, these basins, some of which are a mile 
in diameter, exactly resemble at a distance, bod- 
ies of limpid water, and it is difficult for a strang- 
er to realize that what he sees reflecting the rays 
of the sun from a mirrorlike surface is a level floor 
of compact earth, covered with a layer of saline 
crystals and intersected with tiny rivers of brine 
flowing into the creek that obtains from them its 
name and character." The discovery of these 
basins was made by the government surveyors in 
1856, and at that time great wealth was anticipat- 
ed for those who would erect suitable works for 
the manufacture of salt. Several companies were 
organized to manufacture salt, and a great deal of 
litigation resulted over the rival claims to the 
various basins. 

In certain sections of the western portion of 
the state are found the "sand hiUs. " Sometimes 
these hills are comparatively barren, but in most 
places they are fertile enough to sustain a cover- 
ing of nutritious grasses, and these regions are 
now famous stock-raising ai-eas. In many places 
in the sandy regions the soil has a mixture of 
drift and loess which makes it highly fertile when 
supplied with sufficient moisture.' 

Irrigation, which is treated of in another part of 
this volume, has already begun in the western 
portion of the state on an extensive scale, and 
tlie wonderful future of this line of development 
is surely foretold in the success that has been 
attained along the Platte river by irrigating the 
lands. This great work as yet is in its infancy, 
but enough is already proven along this line to 

safely predict a most marvelous growth and de- 
velopment of the wealth and resources of western 
Nebraska by scientific and practical irrigation. 

Nebraska is essentially an agricultural state. 
The bountiful soil and mildness of climate are 
especially favorable to cereal crops, and in fact to 
all the products of the temperate zone, nearly all 
of which are grown here to perfection, and attain 
a size and quality rarely found in oliier states. 
It is also one of the most favored and important 
stock-raising countries in the world — in fact, the 
state of Nebraska, and more especially its north- 
western and western portions, is fairly entitled to 
the fii-st position among the western states and 
territories as a stock-producing and stock-sustain- 
ing region. Its vast prairies, abundant, luxuriant 
and nutritioiis grasses; its rivers, creeks and 
springs of clear, sparkling water, and still more, 
its uniform and delightful climate — these are a 
few of the more substantial reasons why Nebras- 
ka excels as a stock-raising country. But even in 
the far western counties mixed farming is fast 
gaining headway, and the general rule of the 
moderate farmer is to raise grain along with 
stock, and the growth in wealth and productive- 
ness of that region has been marvelously rapid 
and substantial. 

All of the factors which enter into the deter- 
Imination of an ideal climate are found in Nebras- 
'ka — temperature, forms of belief, condition of the 
atmosphere, geographical position and rainfall — 
all combine to make this a climate as satisfactory 
as can be found anywhere in the union. Long and 
mild autumns are characteristic here. During 
these months excessive rains seldom fall. Occa- 
sionally there is a rough spell in October, but 
almost invariably it is followed by mild weather 
which is generally prolonged into December and 
in some years into January. The climate is par- 
ticularly healthful. No spot on the globe is abso- 
lutely free from disease, but this state is singular- 
ly exempt from its severest forms. Fever and 
ague are more rarely met with here than in most 
states. Where they do occur it is owing to lim- 
ited local causes or extraordinary exposure, and 
they are generally successfully treated by the 
simplest remedies. Many of these cases con- 
tracted elsewhere come here in hopes of having 
the disease cured by this climate, and they are 
rarely disappointed if nature is given a chance to 
exert its full health-making power. The cause of 
the general exemption from this class of diseases 
and malarial poisons is fomid in the peculiar cli- 
mate and surface conditions of the state. 

An early writer, in speaking enthusiastically of 
this climate, said: "Nearly every one who comes 
to the state feels a general quickening and elas- 
ticity of spirits. The appetite and digestion im- 
prove wonderfully. Mind and body are lifted up. 
It must originate from our peculiarities of cli- 
mate. I have myself felt in this state as I have 
never felt it elsewhere, especially Avhen camping 
out far away from settlements and alone with 


nature and God, how luxurious existence was and 
how pleasant life was intended to be." 

Western Nebraska as a whole has been what 
might be called semi-arid, though not in an ex- 
treme sense, as many sections have been produc- 
tive since early settlement. During the last ten 
years moisture conditions in the entire section 
have been improving, and the productivity has, 
therefore, been increasing, which has consequent- 
ly caused a general and gradual increase in land 
values which is continuing at the present time. 
Two things in early days caused western Nebras- 
ka to be semi-arid: first, lack of sufBcient pre- 
cipitation, and, second, hot winds. There have 
been years when the annual rainfall was suf3- 
cient, but at the time when the crops were nearing 
maturity the hot winds from the south and south- 
west would blast them. During the past few 
years innumerable irrigation projects, both gov- 
ernment and private, have been turning hundreds 
and thousands of acres in Kansas, Colorado and 
Wyoming under irrigation. This great trans- 
formation in the southwest will result in elimin- 
ating forever any furher visitations of hot winds 
which originated in that territory ; at least under 
no conditions will they again visit this region 
with such destroying effect as in the past. This 
vast irrigated district surrounding Nebraska on 
the west, southwest and south will result in giv- 
ing western Nebraska increased precipitation 
from the great evaporation occurring there. 


Irrigation in Nebraska has made considerable 
progress during the past few years, and the work 
contemplated by the government along the line 
of storing the flood water of the North Platte 
river will add a large number of acres to the 
irrigated area. 

In the valleys of the Platte and North Platte 
rivers are found the largest irrigation enterprises 
of the state. In many places the valley reaches a 
width of ten to twelve miles, and contains some 
of the best soil to be found anywhere in the state. 

On the Republican some very .successful ditches 
have been operated. The total length of these 
ditches is nearly two hundred miles, covering 
about fifty thousand acres. ' 

In the northwestern part of the state a large 
number of canals have been built, using the water 
from Hat creek. White river and Niobrara river 
and their tributaries. Most of these ditches are 
small, but they are of great value, as they furnish 
the means of supplying winter feed for the cattle 
wliich graze upon the range adjacent to these 
irrigated sections during the gi-eater part of the 
year. These small ditches also enable the ranch- 
man to raise a variety of products which would 
be impossible without irrigation. 

Many canals have been built, taking their water 
from the Loup rivers and their tributaries. The 
largest of these, the Great Eastern canal, which 

heads a short distance above Genoa, has about 
seventy miles of canal constructed and in opera- 
tion, and covers about forty thousand acres of 
land. These streams flow for the greater portion 
of their lengths through a section of the state 
where the natural rainfall is generally sufficient 
for the production of good crops, and for this reas- 
on only a very small percentage of the flow has 
been diverted for use in irrigation. 

Some very extensive schemes for the develop- 
ment of power have been planned, involving the 
use of the waters of the Loup, Elkhorn and Platte 

Only a few canals have been taken out of the 
Elkhorn and lower Niobrara rivers for irrigation. 
Among the largest of these is the Elkhorn Valley 

The Elkhorn river is used extensively for the 
development of power, and application has been 
made for water for several large power plants on 
the Niobrara. 

Some of the smaller streams such as Lodge 
Pole, Pumpkin Seed and Frenchman rivers, irri- 
gate an area very much in excess of what would 
be expected from an examination of the records 
of their discharge measuremnts. 

The Lodge Pole, which rarely flows more than 
twenty cubic feet per second at any point at this 
writing, supplies seventy-seven miles of canal, 
covering about twelve thousand acres of land, and 
a large percentage of this land receives sufficient 
water to insure the production of good crops. 

In many localities in Nebraska the land under 
irrigation has reached a high state of cultiva- 
tion, and a large variety of crops is produced. 
Under the older canals many well-improved 
farms are found which will compare favorably 
with any to be found in the eastern portion of 
the state. 

A great deal of alfalfa is grown under irriga- 
tion, and the cultivation of sugar beets is being 
rapidly developed. The beets show a very large 
percentage of sugar, and the tonnage is heavy. 
The abundance of sunshine and the fact that the 
amount of moisture supplied may be regulated so 
as to give the growing beets just the amount re- 
quired, and the further fact that the soil seems to 
be particularly adapted to their growth, make 
this an ideal locality for sugar-beet culture. 
Much of the land under irrigation has never been 
broken up, and is devoted to the production of 
native hay. The native sod when irrigated pro- 
duces large crops of hay of a very superior qual- 

Within the last few years the supreme court 
has handed down several opinions which have 
done much to settle the question of irrigation 
rights in Nebraska. These decisions declare the 
irrigation laws of the state to be constitutional, 
define the rights of riparian owners, and uphold 
the rights of appropriators who have made bene- 
ficial use of the water. This has done much to es- 
tablish the stability of existing rights and to en- 



coiirage appropriators. There are still a number 
of important points which remain unsettled. 
Nebraska, extending as it does from the Missouri 
river almost to tlie mountains, includes within its 
borders two distinct regions. The eastern portion 
of the state is within the humid region, and the 
rainfall is sufficient for successful agriculture. 
The extreme eastern portion might be classed as 
semi-arid. Here the rainfall in the past has been 
very variable. The conditions being so different 
in different portions of the state render it very 
difficult to settle many of the questions which 
arise in regard to the use of water. 

The question of the distribution of the water of 
interstate streams is a very important one, and one 
which should be seettled as soon as possible. Ne- 
braska is particularly interested in this question. 
A very large part of the land reclaimed in this 
state receives its water from the Platte rivers. 
The pioneers of irrigation have gone into this 
part of the state and encountered all the hard- 
ships incident to the settlement of a new country, 
and have brought thousands of acres of land un- 
der the influence of irrigation and added millions 
of dollars to the value of the state. These people 
should be protected in the use of water which 
they have appropriated, and be assured 
that subsequent appropriators in other 
states will not be permitted to divei't the 
water and ruin their work of a lifetime. Some 
system should be devised whereby the appropria- 
tor of the Avater of any stream who has made 
beneficial use of the same, should be protected 
without regard to state lines or other political 

In the early days of the settlement of this state 
there was a great prejudice against irrigation, 
and any one who advocated it was looked upon 
as an enemy of the state. Many of the pioneers 
who settled in the western portion of the state, 
realizing the uncertainty of agriculture when de- 
pendent upon the natural rainfall, constructed a 
number of canals which demonstrated the value 
of irrigation. 

We quote the following article bearing on this 
subject from the latest report issued by the state 
board of agriculture: "Nebraska has now over 
2,500 miles of canals, covering over one million 
acres of land. In the western part of the state 
the normal flow of many of the streams during 
the height of the irrigating season has already 
been appropriated, but only a small portion of 
the entire flow is used, and a large amount of land 
can still be reclaimed by an intelligent system of 
storage and by educating the irrigators to use the 
water upon the land when it is to be had instead 
of waiting until the crops are suffering and every 
one desires to use the full amount of his appro- 
priation. On some of the smaller streams the 
plan of distributing the water by a time schedule 
has proven very successful. This allows each 
appropriator to use all the water available in the 
stream for a short period, and then turn it out to 

be used by the next one who is entitled to it. In 
this way it is possible to accomplish much more 
than could be accomplished when each irrigator 
is restricted to the amount of his appropriation, 
which is sometimes only a fraction of a cubic foot 
per second, and is allowed to use it for the entire 

"We have a district irrigation law in Nebraska 
which enables a majority of the land-owners in 
any territory which is susceptible to irrigation 
from a common source, to organize a district, and 
this district has authority to vote bonds for the 
construction or purchase of Avorks, and to levy a 
tax to raise money to pay these bonds and also to 
pay for the maintenance of the works. This law 
has worked out very successfully in many cases, 
and we have some districts organized under it 
which are finely improved and in good financial 

"There has been considerable development 
along the line of pumping water for irrigation, 
and quite a number of plants have been put in 
operation, employing windmills, water wheels, 
gasoline and steam engines for the motive 
power. ' ' 

Taking everything into consideration, Nebras- 
ka has made very good progress in irrigation im- 
provement, and is in position to make still great- 
er development in the future. 


In 1874 the government report showed that Ne- 
braska raised only 3,619.000 bushels of wheat. 
In 1880 this had grown to 12,922,000. In 1890 
the government gave the figures as 15,315,000 
bushels, and in 1900, 24,810,000, but since then 
the state has made wonderful development in the 
way of wheat growing. In 1902 it raised a crop 
of " 52,726,000 bushels ; its crop in 1905 was 
48,002,000 bushels; in 1906 its wheat yield was 
51,709,000 bushels, and in 1907, when the crop 
was short everywhere, the government report 
made it 46,879.000 bushels. In 1910 the produc- 
tion of wheat was 45,151,000 bushels. It has 
also become a great corn-growing state. As late 
as 1880 its corn crop was only 59,507,000 bushels. 
Eight years later it raised 144,217,000 bushels. 
In 1898 the government reported its crop at 
158.754,000 bushels; in 1904 it was 260,942,335 
bushels; in 1906 its yield was 241,383,537 bush- 
els, and the reports for 1910 give the yield as be- 
ing 178,923.128 bushels. 

The above figures are given to show by way of 
comparison the marvelous growth of the state and 
its development as an agricultural region. The 
growth has been equally marked in regard to 
other crops, and also in its manufacturing and 
commercial interests. This is evidenced by the 
growth of bank deposits in Nebraska. In 1890 
the bank deposits in Nebraska were reported as 
being $48,770,811. In 1905 they had grown to 
$134,991,210, and two years later (1907) they 



were given as being $178,361,355.13. On Septem- 
ber 1, 1911, the deposits amounted in round num- 
bers to over $200,000,000. 

In speaking of the prosperity of the state and 
the general condition of its people, Governor 
Sheldon, in closing one of his Thanksgiving proc- 
lamations, said: "Our granaries and our store- 
houses are filled with the products of our farms 
and our factories. Our pastures and our feed lots 
contain cattle, hogs and sheep without number. 
Our commercial and business institutions are sol- 

vent. Our people, realizing that they must go 
up or go down together, have full confidence in 
each other's honesty and integrity. The indus- 
trious and frugal for a decade have been well 
rewarded for their labor. This has enabled them 
to provide their families with the comforts of life 
and build beautiful homes in our cities through- 
out the country. For all these things that have 
promoted our peace, prosperity and happiness, it 
is fitting that thanks should be rendered unto 
Him whose invisible hand controls our destiny." 



I T is difficult looking back through the mist 
^ of years to arrive at an incontrovertable 
conclusion as to just when and by whom the mid- 
dle portion of the United States was first visited 
by white men. There is a wealth of interesting 
historical documents and writings recounting the 
invasion of this part of the continent by whites 
and tracing the march of civilization, most of 
which base their beginning with the French ex- 
plorers, but it is now regarded as an established 
fact by many historical writers that the south- 
western and middle portions of the United States 
were included in Spanish explorations early in 
the fifteenth century. One of the expeditions 
which is referred to by many historians is the 
Coronado expedition. It is related that in about 
the year 1540, Coronado, who Avas then governor 
of New Gallia, organized an expedition and exe- 
cuted a march from Mexico to the region which is 
now the heart of Nebraska and Kansas. That was 
as marvelous an undertaking as the history of 
this continent afi'ords. Not only was the region 
to be covered an unknown land, but the obstacles 
to be overcome, the mountains between and sub- 
sequent stretches of sand plains and desert made 
the undertaking a gigantic one. And yet under 
these conditions it is said that an army of about 
one thousand men was pushed across the arid 
plains, the rugged mountains and barren deserts, 
which lie between what is now Nebraska and 
Mexico. This, it must be remembered, was eighty 
years before the Pilgrims landed on the shores of 
New England; sixty-eight years before Hudson 
discovered the river which bears his name ; sixty- 
six years before John Smith commenced the set- 
tlement of what was afterward to be Virginia ; 
and nearly a century before Jean Nicolet estab- 
lished commercial relations with the Indians of 

Wisconsin. This expedition was organized to 
search for fabulous wealth which was supposed 
to exist in these regions, of which marvelous tales 
had been carried to Mexico. The end of the long 
march is graphically told by Judge J. W. Savage, 
a careful student and an eloquent writer on Ne- 
braska's early history, in the following words: 
"Northward from the Arkansas river for many 
weary and anxious hours, the little band which 
accompanied the adventurous general pursued its 
way over the Kansas plains. July had come, the 
days were long and hot and the sultry nights 
crept over the primeval prairie, seeming to rise 
like a shadowy and threatening specter out of 
the grass. But stout hearts and good horses 
brought them at last to what I am satisfied is the 
southern boundary of Nebraska. And here, along 
the Platte river, they found the long-sought Eang- 
dom of Quivera; here was Tartarrax, the hoary- 
headed old ruler of the land. But alas for the 
vanity of human expectations ! The oaly precious 
metal they saw was a copper plate hanging to the 
old chief's breast, by which he set great store; 
there were no musical bells, no gilded eagle, 
no silver dishes, no rosary, no image of the Vir- 
gin, no cross, no crown, that they had been led 
to believe existed. In the midst of his disappoint- 
ment the general took a melancholy pleasure in 
hanging his guides who had so egregiously mis- 
guided him. It is said that the guides here boldly 
avowed that they knew of no gold ; that they had 
brought the invaders into the wilderness to perish 
with hunger and hardship, to rid the peaceful 
dwellers in the Rio Grande and Pecos valleys of 
their hated presence, and met their fate with 
stoicism which the Spaniards called despair and 
remorse. Here then, upon the southern boundary 
of this state at a point not yet easily ascertain- 



able, but doubtless between Gage county on the 
east and Furnas county on the west, Coronado 
set foot on the soil of Nebraska and remained for 
twenty-five daj^s. I have heretofore adverted 
to the fact that this location of the northern 
terminus has not met with universal acceptation. 
The arguments, however, in support of the theory 
seem to me to be unanswerable." 

While it is true that the location of the north- 
ern terminus is not definitely settled, most writers 
concede that Coronado 's march — following the 
itinerary given in the Spanish documents and 
papers — must have carried this band of explorers 
up somewhere into the Kansas-Nebraska prairies. 
The land of Quivera, and the Seven Cities of the 
Buffalo, referred to is surrounded by much gla- 
mour of romantic mystery. Although a number of 
contemporaneous narratives are preserved refer- 
ring to this kingdom and to remarkable searches 
made for it, it is singular that hardly any two 
writers agree as to the location or the ultimate 
terminus of the searching expeditions. 

At about the same time another event was 
transpiring, also under the folds of the Spanish 
flag, which for years stood undisputed in point 
of priority, and an epoch is marked in American 
history by the discovery of the Mississippi by 
Ferdinand DeSoto in 1542. 

It is related that in 1542 Ferdinand De Soto, 
with a band of Spanish adventurers, acting un- 
der a commission from the sovereign of his native 
land, discovered the Mississippi river about the 
mouth of the Ouachita. After the sudden death 
of their leader, in May of that year, his followers, 
after burying his body in the river, built a small 
vessel, and in July, 1543, descended the great 
river to the Gulf of Mexico. Thus the mouth of 
the Mississippi was discovered one hundred and 
thirty years prior to the discovery of its upper 
valley by the French missionary priests. 

By virtue of this and the conquest of Florida, 
Spain claimed the country bordering on the Mis- 
sissippi and the Gulf of Mexico, but made no at- 
tempt to colonize it permanently. At that time 
it was tacitly understood by the various mari- 
time states of Europe that the discovery and oc- 
cupation of any part of the New World made 
a legitimate title to the country. Although the 
valley of the Mississippi was thus taken posses- 
sion of by Spain, the failure of that power to con- 
summate its discovery by planting colonies or 
settlements, made their title void, and the country 
was left open to be rediscovered and taken pos- 
session of by other powers. 

In 1534 and 1535 an intelligent and capable 
French naval officer, Jacques Cartier, discovered 
and named the St. Lawrence river. He took pos- 
session of that country in the name of his kiiig 
and built a rude fort, in 1541, near the present 
site of Quebec. This was sixty-six years before 
the English made a setlement at Jamestown, 
Virginia. From that time on the country became 
known and settlements sprang up along the great 

river and it became the province of New France. 
In 1608 Champlain selected the site of the old 
fort of Cartier 's as the future capital of the pro- 
vince. Champlain made many explorations in 
and around the country, and in 1609, ascending 
a tributary of the St. Lawrence, found that beau- 
tiful sheet of water in New York that bears his 
name. After visiting France, he returned and 
in 1615, accompanying a tribe of Indians to their 
far off hunting grounds, discovered Lake Huron. 

It was early in the seventeenth century when 
the revived religion of Prance quickened the 
fervor of her noble missionary priests. Led by 
their zeal to the New World, they penetrated 
the wilderness in all directions from Quebec, 
carrying the tidings of the Gospel to the heathen. 
Along the river St. Lawrence, through the chain 
of Great Lakes, westward, they pushed their way, 
establishing mis.sions and endeavoring to turn 
the savages to their faith. This movement be- 
gan in 1611, when Father La Caron, a Francis- 
can friar, the friend and companion of Cham- 
plain, made a journey to the rivers of Lake Huron 
on foot and by paddling a bark canoe. In 1632, 
on the establishment of a government of New 
Prance, under the commission of Louis XIII, and 
the patronage of his great prime minister, Ar- 
mand Duplessis, Cardinal Richelieu, the work of 
converting the Indian passed from the order of 
St. Francis, to that of Loyola, the famed Jesuit. 
Burning with a pious zeal and animated by a 
spirit of self-sacrifice, rarely, if ever, paralleled 
in the history of missionary work, these latter, 
simple priests, penetrated the wilds of the Cana- 
dian frontier, and through toil and pain, often to 
martyrdom, carried the cross to the remote tribes 
of the Mississippi and its tributaries. Braneroft, 
the historian, says: "The history of their labors 
is connected with the origin of every celebrated 
town in the annals of French America ; not a cape 
was turned or a river entered, but a Jesuit led the 
way. ' ' 

In 1634 the Jesuits, Brebeuf and Daniels, fol- 
lowed by Lallemand, made a joui-ney into the 
far west. Joining a party of Huron Indians, who 
had been in Quebec, and who were returning to 
their homes, they pushed their way, enduring, 
without complaint, untold fatigue and suffering, 
by lake, river and forest. They penetrated to the 
heart of the Huron wilderness. Near the shores 
of Lake Iroquois was raised the first house of the 
Society of Jesus in all that region, and soon two 
villages, named St. Louis and St. Ignace, sprang 
up among the primeval forests that were then the 
homes of the savage red man. The mission of 
Brebeuf gave to the world its first knowledge of 
the water courses of the St. Lawrence valley. 
From a map published in France in 1660 it is seen 
that these pious priests had explored the country 
from the waters of the Niagara to the head of 
Lake Superior and had heard of or seen the shores 
of Lake Michigan. 

As early as 1635 Jean Nicolet, who had been 



one of Champlain 's interpreters, and who had 
come from his native land, Prance, to Canada in 
1618, reached the western shores of Lake Michi- 
gan. In the summer of 1634 he ascended the St. 
Lawrence river with a party of Hurons, and 
thence onward to Lake Michigan, and during the 
following winter traded with the Indians at what 
is now Green Bay, Wisconsin. In 1635 he re- 
turned to Canada. He was married in Quebec, 
October 7, 1637, and lived at Three Rivers until 
1642, when he died. Of him it is said, in a letter 
written in 1640, that he had penetrated the far- 
thest into these distant countries and that if he 
had proceeded "three days more on a great river 
which flows from that lake (Green Bay), he would 
have found the sea," for such was the common be- 
lief in those days, even among geographers and 
other scientists. 

The hostilities of the Iroquois, or Five Nations, 
a confederacy of fierce and bloodthirsty savages, 
prevented the journey of Raymbault and Picard 
to the west in 1640, but the following j^ear at 
the great feast of the dead, held by the Algon- 
quins, at Lake Nipising, the Jesuits were invited 
to visit the land of the Ojibway or Chippewa In- 
dians, at what is now Sault de Sainte Marie. Ac- 
cordingly, September 17, 1641, Fathers Raym- 
bault and Jogues left the Bay of Penetanguish- 
ene in a bark canoe for the rendezvous, where, 
after a passage of seventeen days, they found 
two thousand Indians, who had congregated to 
meet them. 

At this assembly the fathers learned of many 
as yet unheard-of tribes. Here was heard the 
first mention of the Daeotahs, called in the Ojib- 
way tongue, Nadouechionec or Nadouessioux. 
The latter name, abbreviated by the French, 
forms the present name of those fierce nomads of 
the North, the Sioux. It has been truly said 
"that the French were looking toward the homes 
of the Sioux, in the great valleys of the Missis 
sippi and Missouri five years before the New Eng- 
land Eliot had addressed the tribes of Indians 
who dwelt within six miles of Boston harbor." 
In the ardor of his enthusiasm for discovery 
Raymbault expected to reach the Pacific ocean, 
then supposed to be but a few hundred miles west 
of where the Mississippi river is now found. 
However, he was laid low by the hand of death, 
dying in 1642 of sickness brought on by hard- 
ships and exposure. 

In August, 1654, two fur traders joined a band 
of Ottawa Indians and made a long journey in- 
to the far west. In two years they returned with 
some fifty canoes and two hundred and fifty na- 
tives. They described the rivers and lakes of 
the west, and the tribes whose homes stretched 
away to the northern sea and mentioned the Sioux 
who dwelt beyond Lake Superior and who wanted 
to trade with the white man. 

In this way the exploration of the western 
country was extended from the eastward into the 
wilds of the great west. The adventurous spirits 


from the St. Lawrence explored the great lakes 
and adjacent regions, planting the seeds of com- 
merce and civilization, and we see the trend of 
exploration pushing still westward toward the 
land of which we write. Among those who should 
be mentioned as having helped to carry civiliza- 
tion west of the great lakes and who explored 
considerable territory in what is now Wisconsin 
and Illinois were Father Rene Menard, Father 
Claude AUouez and Father Jaquez Marquette. 
It seems that in the year 1660 the superior of the 
Jesuits at Quebec, learning of the many savage 
tribes to the west of the missions, and burning 
with zeal for the advancement of the cause of 
Christ and his church, and aiming at the conver- 
sion of the heathen, sent this Father Rene Me- 
nard and another priest as apostles among the 
red men. Father Menard's "hair had been 
whitened by age, his mind ripened by long exper-. 
ience, and, being well acquainted with the pecul- 
iarties of the Indian character, he seemed the 
man for the mission. ' ' The night previous to his 
departure sleep deserted the eyes of the venera- 
ble priest. He knew that he was going into the 
land of ruthless, savage barbarians, and he 
thought of his friends. Two hours past midnight 
he penned a letter to a friend, the pious simplicity 
of which is a monument to this estimable priest. 
Early on the moi-ning of the 28th of August, 
1660, in company with the party of fur traders, 
he departed from Three Rivers. October 15 he 
arrived at a bay on Lake Superior, to which he 
gave the name of Ste. Theresa, its discovery oc- 
curring on her fete day. The party remained at 
this point all winter, hard pressed for want of 
food, being driven to all sorts of shifts to avoid 
starvation. Having received an invitation to visit 
them from the Hurons and Ottawas, Father Men- 
ard started for their villages on the island of St. 
Michael. In some manner he wandered away 
from his guide, got lost, and, although the guide 
sought him faithfully, was never found; he per- 
ished in some unknown manner. Relics of him 
Avere found from time to time in Sac and Sioux 
villages many years after, but no tale ever came 
to his many waiting friends to tell how or where 
he died. 

In the summer of 1663 the news of his death 
reached Montreal. His succesor was soon found, 
for the impassive obedience of the 
members of the Order of Loyola brooked 
no opposition to the command of a su- 
perior. Father Claud Allouez was chosen to carry 
the cross to these heathens, and to follow in the 
footsteps of Father Menard. Impatiently wait- 
ing for the chance to proceed to his work, he was 
unable to find conveyance and convoy until the 
summer of 1665, when, in company with six of 
his own race and color and four hundred savages, 
he started. He built a mission at La Pointe, on 
Lake Superior, where he taught the simple na- 
tives his religion and took up his work among 
1 them. Here he, too, heard about the Indians that 



had their homes on the banks of that mighty 
river, a stream which the natives knew by the 
name of Messipi. 

Although he had done a great work exploring 
the country around the southern boundary of 
what is now Wisconsin and in the northern part 
of Illinois, and had preached to all the Indians 
met with in that region. Father Allouez grew 
discouraged, and pased on to other fields. Sep- 
tember 13, 1669, he was succeeded by the famous 
Father Jacques Marquette. The design of discov- 
ering the Mississippi, a stream about which the 
Indians had told so much, seems to have origin- 
ated with Father Marquette in the same year of 
his reaching the mission of the Holy Ghost at La 
Pointe. The year previous he and Father Claud 
Dablon had established the mission of St. Mary 
within what is now Michigan. Circumstances 
about this time were favorable for a voyage of 
discovery among Indians. The protection afford- 
ed to the Algonciuins of the west by the commerce 
with New France had confirmed their attach- 
ment, and had created for them a political inter- 
est in France and in the minds of Louis XIV and 
his great financier, Colbert. The intendent of 
justice in New France, Talon, determined to ex- 
tend the power of France to the utmost border of 
Canada, and for this purpose Nicholas Perrot was 
despatched to the west as an emissary. The lat- 
ter proposed a congress or convention of the In- 
dian nations at St. Mary's mission, and the invi- 
tation to attend was extended far and wide. Per- 
rot arrived, and in May, 1671, there assembled at 
the Sault de Ste. Marie a great gathering of In- 
dians from all parts of the northwest. From the 
headM-aters of the St. Lawrence and the Missis- 
sippi, from the great lakes and the prairies be- 
yond, from the valley of the Red river of the 
north, and from the plains of Dakota they came, 
and it was announced that there should be peace, 
and that thej' were all under the protection of 
France. The same year Pere Marquette gathered 
together one of the broken branches of the Hu- 
rons at Point St. Ignace, which became quite a 
religious establishment. 

These things having been done, the grand ex- 
ploring expedition to the west to discover the 
great river so often heard about was the next to 
be attended to. May 13, 1673, Marquette and 
Joliet, accompanied by five other Frenchmen, set 
out. Louis Joliet was a native of Quebec, born in 
1645. He was educated by the Jesuits for the 
priesthood. He, however, determined to become 
a fur trader, which he did. He was sent with an 
associate to explore the region of the copper 
mines of Lake Superior. He was a man of close 
and intelligent observation, and possessed consid- 
erable mathematical acquirements. In 1673 he 
was a merchant, courageous, hardy, enterprising. 
He was appointed by the French authorities at 
Quebec to discover the Mississippi. He passed up 
the lakes to Mackinaw and found at Point Ignace 
the reverend Father Marquette, who was ready to 

accompany him. Their outfit was simple — two 
birch-bark canoes and a supply of smoked meat 
and Indian corn. The friendly Indians tried to 
dissuade the father and Joliet from undertaking 
this voyage, saying that the Indians of that quar- 
ter were bad; that they were cruel and re- 
lentless, and that the river was the abode of all 
kinds of demons and evil spirits, but this did not 
intimidate these bold and hardy men. Passing 
the straits, they followed the north and west 
shore of Lake Michigan to Green Bay, where they 
entered the Fox river. This they ascended with 
great labor until they came to the village of the 
Kickapoos and Miamas, the extreme point to 
which the explorations of the French had as yet 
extended. Here Marquette was much pleased to 
see "a beautiful cross planted in the middle of 
the town, ornamented with white skins, red gir- 
dles and bows and arrows which those good peo- 
ple had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank Him for the pity he had bestowed upon 
them during the winter in having given them an 
abundant chase." On assembling the chiefs of 
the village and the medicine men, Marquette 
made them a speech, telling them that Joliet 
had been sent by the governor of New France to 
discover new countries, and himself by God to 
spread the light of the gospel. He added that he 
feared not death nor exposure to which he ex- 
pected to be called upon to endure. From this 
place, under the guidance of two Miami Indians, 
the expedition started to cross the portage from 
the Fox to the Wisconsin river. On reaching the 
latter stream the guide left them and they pushed 
their way down the rapid waters of the Wisconsin 
until, upon the 17th of June, their frail barks 
floated upon the majestic waters of the Mississip- 
pi. Down the mighty "Father of Waters" they 
voyaged until they reached the mouth of the 
Illinois. LTp the latter stream they paddled their 
way through a virgin land, encountering many 
difficulties and privations. At the forks of the 
river they entered the Desplaines, and by that 
and the Chicago river reached Lake Michigan and 
finally Green Bay. At the latter point Father 
Marquette remained to recuperate his exhausted 
strength, while Joliet and his companions has- 
tened on to Quebec to report his success to his 

The rediscovery of the lower Mississippi re- 
mained for the gallant, daring and indefatigable 
La Salle, to whose labors, privations and enter- 
prise the French settlements in the Mississippi 
valley are so largely indebted. La Salle was a 
poor man, for, having relinquished his patrimony 
on entering the Society of Jesus, on his honorable 
retirement from that order he had nothing. In 
1667, having in the meantime crossed the seas to 
the new world in search of fortune, he appeared 
as a fur trader near what is now the city of Mon- 
treal. His business led him to explore both Lakes 
Ontario and Erie. Full of enthusiasm for discov- 
ery and for the colonization of the west, he re- 



turned to his native land for help and authority 
to act. He received the title of Chevalier and 
considerable grants of land in Canada, and re- 
turned in 1678. The same year he conveyed a 
party from Fort Prontenae (now Kingston, 
Canada) to the neighborhood of Niagara Falls in 
a vessel of ten tons. This was the first craft that 
ever sailed up the Niagara river. In 1679 he 
launched a vessel of some seventy tons burden. 
On the 7th of August of that year, amid the salvos 
of artillery, the chants of the Te Deum by the 
priests, and the plaudits of the people and In- 
dians, he sailed from the little harbor. He passed 
through Lake Erie and through the Detriot and 
St. Clair rivers into Lake Huron. Onward 
through the straits of Mackinaw into Lake Michi- 
gan his little vessel ploughed its way, and was the 
first to navigate a sailing craft upon the blue 
waters of the latter body of water. Coasting 
down its western shore. La Salle, in his bark, 
which he had called the Griffin, came to Green 
Bay, where he came to anchor. He had named 
his little craft in honor of the coat of arms of his 
patron, Comte de Prontenae, then governor of 
New Prance. It was LaSalle's intention to util- 
ize his vessel in a regular commerce between the 
Indians and the settlements, but was doomed to 
disappointment. Having loaded the vessel with 
furs and peltries, he ordered the crew to return 
with it to the Niagara river. He journeyed down 
to the head of Lake Michigan, and, passing up the 
St. Joseph river, discovered a portage over the 
swamps and prairies to the Kankakee river. He 
followed the latter stream to the Illinois, and pad- 
dled down the latter river until he reached a point 
about where now stands the city of Peoria. Mis- 
fortunes then accumulated upon the head of La 
Salle. His vessel was wrecked on its voyage 
down the lakes and its cargo of furs and pelts 
totally lost, and the expected stores upon which 
he had depended to found and keep his colony 
did not come. The men that were with him grew 
discontented and threatened to desert. Like a 
man, and a brave and energetic one, he went to 
work to carry out the object that he had come so 
far to accomplish. He built a fort just below 
Lake Peoria, to which he gave the appropriate 
name of Creve Coeur (Broken Heart). He sent 
Accault, Father Hennepin and others who had 
accompanied him on a voyage up the Mississippi. 
This expedition, as related further on, was very 
successful, it being the first party of white men to 
tread the shores of the Mississippi river near its 
head and to gaze upon the falls of St. Anthony. 
After their departure. La Salle set his men to 
work to build a barge or boat in which to descend 
the river, but as sails and cordage were necessary, 
he determined to make the journey back to Cana- 
da. It was in the depth of winter, and he could 
have no food but what he could gain by the chase, 
and no drink but what the streams would afford. 
Leaving the bulk of his little force under his 
lieutenant, Tonti, he started with three compan- 

ions on this almost unparalleled journey through 
the wilderness. He accomplished his mission, but 
on returning to the fort w'hieh he had built and 
where he had left his men, he found it deserted. 
TJie party, who had been ordered before his de- 
parture to erect a new fort on the bluff', had been 
assaulted by a band of Pottawattamie Indians, 
and, becoming demoralized, had fled to the shores 
of Lake Michigan for safety. After wasting some 
time in a fruitless search for his men, LaSalle fin- 
ally, with the party brught with him, started on 
his long voyage down the Illinois and Mississippi 
to the Gulf of Mexico. April 9, 1682, he took pos- 
session of the whole country watered by the great 
river from its source to its mouth in the name of 
the king of Prance, Louis XIV. 

Thus was the Mississippi river in its lower 
course rediscovered and taken possession of as 
French territory, and thus to La Salle belongs the 
honor of first navigating its length from the mouth 
of the Ilinois southward. He gave to this vast 
empire he had added to the French possessions in 
America the name of Louisiana in honor of the 
king, Louis XIV, and to the river which is now 
called the Mississippi the name of Colbert, after 
that able minister of finance of France, then one 
of the foremost men of Europe. He erected a col- 
umn or cross near the mouth of the river, bearing 
the leaden plate with an inscription, which may 
be translated as: 

"Louis the Great, King of Prance and Navarre, 
Reigning April 9, 1682." 

He found the three channels of the delta where- 
by the river empties into the Gulf of Mexico. In 
May, 1683, he returned to France to make a re- 
port of his valuable discoveries. In 1685 he re- 
turned from his native land with a fleet and with 
emigrants to colonize the country he had found. 
Owing to the flat, level country, where land min- 
gled with the water in marsh and swamp spread 
for hundreds of miles along the north coast of the 
gulf, he was unable to find the mouth of the river. 
After beating about for some time in search, he 
was finally abandoned by Beaujeau, who com- 
manded the fleet, who returned to Prance. With 
his store ship and two hundred and thirty emi- 
grants. La Salle was driven ashore and wrecked 
in Matagorda Bay, in what is now the state of 
Texas. He hastily constructed a fort of the scat- 
tered timbers of the vessel and formed a colony, 
to which he gave the name of St. Louis. This set- 
tlement, as if by accident, made Texas a 
part of Louisiana. 

After a four-months' search, which he con- 
ducted in canoes, for the lost mouth of the river, 
which proved fruitless, the restless La Salle, in 
April, 1686, turned his steps towai-d New Mexico 
with twenty companions. He hoped to find the 
rich gold mines of that country, the Eldorado of 
the Spanish. The colony did not pro.sper in his 
absence. Sickness and death soon took off many 
of the poor emigrants, so that on his return to 
that place he found it reduced to about forty or 



fifty persons. Moving them to a healthier locali- 
ty, La Salle determined to travel across the coun- 
try on foot to the settlements on the Illinois and to 
Canada, and bring back emigrants and supplies. 
January 12, 1687, he started with sixteen men, 
leaving t.he fort and settlment in charge of Sieur 
Barbier. His little party passed the basin of the 
Colorado and reached a branch of the Trinity 
river, where, March 20, 1687, the brave and gal- 
lant La Salle was assassinated by three of his own 
party. One of his biographers, who calls him 
truly the father of the French settlements 
in Louisiana, says: "Not a hint appears in any 
writer that has come under our notice that casts 
a shade upon his integrity and honor. Cool and 
intrepid at all times, never jdelding for a moment 
to despair or even despondency, he bore the heavy 
burdens of his calamities to the end, and his 
hopes only expired with his breath." 

In the meantime, in 1680-81, Louis Hennepin, 
the Franciscan friar, started down the Illinois 
river to explore its mouth, and on reaching the 
Mississippi extended his explorations northward 
as far as the falls of St. Anthony, which he 
named. The war between the Iroquois and Brit- 
ish colonies on the one side and the French of 
Canada on the other eommeneed in 1689, and any 
fui-ther attempt at colonization of the lower 
Mississippi was interrupted, and for a number 
of years exploration aud colonization in the west 
was at a standstill. 

It is now time to trace the growth of the great 
French province of Louisiana in another quarter. 
This was the parent stem from which grew so 
many of the great and growing states of the 
northwest, foremost among which is Nebraska. 

At the close of the seventeenth century France, 
by right of discovery and occupation, claimed not 
only Canada and Nova Scotia, then known as 
New France and Acadia, Hudson's Bay and New 
Foundland, , but parts of Maine, Vermont and 
New York, together with the whole of the Missis- 
sippi valley aud possessions on the Gulf of Mexi- 
co, including Texas as far south as the Rio del 
Norte. The English revolution of 1688, when 
William of Orange succeeded James II upon the 
throne of England, nor the peace of Ryswick in 
1697, did not affect these possessions of Prance in 
the new world. At the period at the close of the 
great war which had just been brought to an end 
by the above treaty, in which so many powers 
were included, none of the possessions of France 
in the new world engaged the attention of the 
French government so much as Louisiana. In 
1697 D 'Iberville still further aroused the interest 
of the minister of the colonies and inspired the 
Comte de Pontchartrain with the idea of building 
a fort and making a settlement at the mouth of 
the Mississippi. Two vessels were fitted out, one 
under the command of the Marquis de Chateau- 
Morand and the other under D 'Iberville. Both 
left France in October, 1698, to find the mouth of 
the river, and after touching at Pensacola entered 

the delta of the Mississippi March 2, 1699. De 
Chateau-Morand soon went back to Hayti, but 
D 'Iberville ascended the river as far as what is 
now known as Bayou Goula. At this point he met 
an Indian chief who handed him a letter, which 
was written by Tonti, the man who had left his 
post at Fort Creve Coeur, where he had been 
placed by LaSalle, and was addressed to the latter 
as governor of Louisiana. It read as follows: 

"Sir — Having found the post upon which you 
had set up the king's arms thrown down by the 
driftwood, I caused another to be fixed on this 
side, about seven leagues from the sea, where I 
have left a letter in a tree by the side of it. All 
the nations have smoked the calumet with me; 
they are people who fear us exceedingly since you 
have captured this village. I conclude by saying 
it is a great grief to me that we will return with 
the ill fortune of not having found you after we 
had coasted with two canoes thirty leagues on 
the Mexican side and twenty-five on that of Flor- 

The receipt of this letter was twelve years after 
the death of La Salle and nineteen after he and 
Tonti had parted at the Peoria fort. Neither 
knew what had become of the other. Both had 
sought the other unavailingly. The letter is in- 
teresting as shedding some light on Tonti 's con- 
duct, but more so for the peculiarity of the Indian 
keeping it so long. 

D 'Iberville again descended the Mississippi, 
and went to the baj' of Biloxi, between the Mis- 
sissippi and Mobile rivers, where he erected a 
fort. Missions, trading posts and small settle- 
ments began to be founded from that time on in 
the province. As early as 1712 land titles were 
issued as far north as Kaskaskia in what is now 
Illinois. Other settlements arose along the Mis- 
sissippi at various points from the mouth of the 
Illinois southward. The French determined to 
circumvent the English colonies on the Atlantic 
coast by building a line of forts from the Great 
Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, as was once sug- 
gested to the French government by La Salle. 
Part of this plan M^as carried into execution. 
Port Chartres was constructed on the east bank 
of the Mississippi in what is now Randolph coun- 
ty, Illinois, about sixty-five miles south of the 
mouth of the Missouri river. This was one of the 
strongest fortresses on the continent at the time, 
and its ruins were to be seen a hundred years 
later. It was the headquarters of the command- 
ant of Louisiana. Shortly after that, the villages 
of Cahokia, Prairie du Roeher and others sprang 
into existence. Fort Vincennes, on the Wabash, 
was founded in 1702. A monastery and college 
was established in 1712 at Kaskaskia, a very im- 
portant post at that time and afterward the capi- 
tal of the state of Illinois. The French laid claim 
to all the great JMississippi valley at that time. 
"France," says Bancroft, "had obtained, under 
Providence, the guardianship of this immense 
district of country, not, as it proved, for her own 



benefit, but rather as a trustee for the infant na- 
tion by which it was one day to be inherited." 

By the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, France ceded 
to England her possessions in Hudson's Bay, 
Nova Scotia and New Foundland, but the former 
power retained the sovereignty of Canada and 
Louisiana. In 1711 the affairs of the latter were 
placed in the hands of a governor general, but 
this only lasted one year. The colony, not meet- 
ing the expectations of the government of the 
mother country, in 1712 was farmed out to a com- 
pany to be carried on by private capital. 

In the year 1712 the entire province of Louisi- 
ana, including the vast country between the 
Rocky mountains on the west and the Alleghan- 
ies on the east, in fact the entire area drained by 
the Mississippi, was granted to Anthony Crozart, 
or Crozat, a wealthy French merchant of Paris. 
Within this grant was the whole of the territory 
which now forms the state of Nebraska. It was 
stipulated that every two years Crozart was to 
send two ships from France with goods and emi- 
grants. In his grant the river "heretofore called 
the Mississippi" is named "St. Louis," the "Mis- 
sourj^s" is called "St. Phillip" and the "Qua- 
bache" (the Wabash and Ohio united) is named 
"St. Jerome." Louisiana was made dependent 
upon the general government of New France (or 
Canada). The laws of Paris were to be observed. 
Crozart 's patent extended for a term of sixteen 
years, but was resigned in 1717, after five years. 
Every Spanish port on the gulf was closed to its 
commerce, and the occupation of Louisiana was at 
that time deemed an encroachment upon Spanish 
rights by that proud nation. Soon after the relin- 
quishment of the Crozart charter the colony of 
Louisiana was granted to tlie Mississippi Com- 
pany, projected by the dreamer John Law, of 
South Sea bubble fame, with a complete monopo- 
ly of its trade and commerce, to declare and pros- 
ecute wars and appoint officers. This company 
established Fort Chartres, about sixty-five miles 
below the mouth of the Missouri, on the east side 
of the Mississippi. Mechanics, miners and arti- 
sans were encouraged to emigrate, and in 1717 the 
city of New Orleans was founded. The Illinois 
country received a considerable accession, and 
settlements now began to extend along the banks 
of the Mississippi. 

In 1718 the new company sent eight -hundred 
emigrants to Louisiana. These people Governor 
Bienville settled at what is now New Orleans, but 
three years later the remainder of these people, 
some two hundred, were found still encamped on 
the site of the future city, they not having energy 
enough to build houses for themselves. The 
larger part had died on account of the climate 
and malarious condition of the land. In May, 
1720, the bubble burst, the land company went 
into bankruptcy, impoverishing France both in 
its public funds and private fortunes. The efi'ect 
on the infant settlement in the new world was 
more disastrous if possible. The principal occu- 

pation of the new settlers, like their Spanish 
neighbors, was the search for immense mines of 
gold and silver, for which they neglected the 
enormous natural agricultural resources of the 
country, now the granary of the world and the 
source of supply of the larger part of the cotton 
and cane sugar of commerce. The contrast was 
strong between the colonies of the Latin races and 
those of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

In 1719 there arrived in what is now Illinois 
one Phillipe Francois Renault, who had been ap- 
pointed director general of the mines of Louis- 
iana. With him he brought two hundred miners 
and artisans. The extent of the country explored 
at that time embraced among others the head- 
waters of the Minnesota and the Red river of the 
north, the tributaries of the Missouri, and even 
extended to the Rocky mountains. 

About this time hostilities with the Indians 
broke out, and a war with Spain threatened the 
lower part of the province. From 1712 to 1746 
the settlers in Louisiana fought with the savages. 
In the latter year, at Butte des Morts and on the 
Wisconsin river, the Fox Indians were defeated 
and driven westward. During this time, in 1729, 
the Natchez, Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians rose 
and massacred all within their reach. Military 
operations against them were taken. The Choc- 
taws were detached from the confederacy by the 
diplomacy of Le Sueur, the famous explorer, and 
the Natchez defeated. The latter 's chief. Great 
Sun, and four hundred of his people were taken 
prisoners and sold as slaves in Hispaniola, now 
the island of San Domingo-Hayti. Thus perished 
this interesting tribe, who were at that time semi- 
civilized, or had a civilization of their own ap- 
proaching in some degree that of the Aztec of 

In 1719 Dutisne, a French officer, was sent from 
New Orleans by the governor of Louisiana into 
the country west of the Mississippi, and revisited 
a village of Osage Indians, five miles from the 
Osage river, "at eighty leagues above its mouth." 
Thence he crossed to the northwest one hundred 
and twenty miles over prairies abounding with 
buffaloes to some villages of the Pawnees. He 
traveled westward fifteen days more, which 
brought him to the Paloukahs, a warlike tribe of 
Indians. Here he erected a cross with the arms of 
the king September 27, 1719. It is thought that 
Dutisne set foot on Nebraska soil on this trip. If 
he did not, he could not have been far from the 
Nebraska line. From the writings of Charlevoix 
concerning these explorations, we quote the fol- 
lowing : 

"We arrived at the mouth of the Missouri on 
October 10, 1721. I believe this is the finest con- 
fluence in the world. The two rivers are much the 
same in breadth, each about half a league, but 
the Missouri is by far the most rapid, and seems 
to enter the Mississippi like a conqueror, through 
which it cai-ries its white waters to the other 
shore without mixing them; afterwards it gives 



its color to the Mississippi, which it never loses 
again, but carries it quite down to the sea. The 
Osages, a pretty numerous nation, settled on the 
side of a river which bears their name, and which 
runs into the Missouri about forty leagues from 
its junction with the Mississippi, send once or 
twice a year to sing the calumet amongst the 
Kaskaskias, and are actually there at present. I 
have just seen a Missouri woman who told me 
that her nation is the first we meet with going up 
the Missouri. This nation (the Missouri) is situ- 
ated eighty leagues from the confluence of the 
Missouri river with the Misssissippi. " 

Charleviox also gives the first information we 
have of the tribes of Indians above the Missouri 
nation. Higher up we find the Cansez (Kansas) ; 
then the Octotatoes (Otoes), which some call the 
Mactotatas; then the Ajouez (lowas) and Panis 
(Pawnees), a very populous nation divided into 
several cantons which have names very different 
from each other. All the people I have mentioned 
inhabit the west side of the Missouri, except the 
Ajouez (lowas), which are on the east side, 
neighbors of the Sioux and their allies." An- 
other writer says: "It is evident that during the 
first half of the seventeenth century the country 
now forming the state of Nebraska was inhabited 
along its southern border by the Kansas Indians ; 
that the Platte river, then called the Rivere des 
Panis, was the home of the Pawnees, who also had 
villages to the northward at a point a considera- 
ble distance up the Missouri river. But to the 
westward, on the headwaters of the Kansas river, 
of the Platte river and of the Niobrara, lived the 
Padouchas, a tribe long since extinct. 

In about 1721-24 the French, under M. de 
Bourgmont, erected a fort on an island in the 
Missouri river above the mouth of the Osage 
river, which po.st was called "Fort Orleans." 
But the stockade was attacked after its comple- 
tion and occupation, and all the garrison slain. 
Bourgmont, the builder of this Fort Orleans, be- 
fore its destruction, passed many leagues up to 
the northwest of this fort into the Nebraska and 
Kansas country, and made firm friends with the 
Padoucahs, who had previously been seen by 

In 1732 the Mississippi Company surrendered 
their charter to the French government, and then 
came the bursting of the "Mississippi bubble." 
This company had held possession of Louisiana 
for fourteen years, and left it with a population 
of five thousand whites and half as many blacks. 
On the 10th of April, 1732, the French king de- 
clared the province free to all his subjects, with 
equal privileges as to trade and commerce. 
Though the company had done little for the en- 
during welfare of the Mississippi valley regions, 
yet it did something. The cultivation of tobacco 
and rice was introduced, the lead mines of Mis- 
souri were opened, and in the Illinois country the 
cultivation of wheat began to assume some im- 
portance, but the immediate valley of the Missouri 

and the country to the west remained wholly in 
possession of the native tribes. For thirty years 
or more after this there was but little worthy of 
special mention that transpired in the upper por- 
tion of the Louisiana province. St. Genevieve, 
on the west side of the Mississippi, within what is 
now Missouri, was founded, and during 1762 the 
first village was established on the Missouri river, 
named "Village du Cote," now St. Charles, Mo. 
In the same year the governor general of Louis- 
iana granted to Laclede and others a charter 
under the name of the "Louisiana Fur Com- 
pany," which, among other things, conferred the 
exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians of 
the Missouri river. But just before this time, 
momentous events had transpired in Canada. 
This country was conqiiered by the English, and 
the province of Louisiana became the property of 
other powers. 

A brief review of the events leading up to the 
transfer of Louisiana to Spain by the French 
will be appropriate in this connection. On the 
10th of April, 1732, after the bursting of the 
"Mississippi bubble" and the surrender of the 
charter of the Mississippi Company, the control 
of the commerce of Louisiana reverted to the 
crown of France. Bienville remained as governor 
for the French king until 1735. In the meantime 
a jealousy and rivalry had sprung up between 
Louisiana and the English colonies on the Atlan- 
tic coast which became fierce and bitter. In 1753 
the first actual conflict arose between the French 
and English colonists. The Fi-ench exerted every 
effort to prevent the other colonists from attempt- 
ing to extend their settlements toward the Mis- 
sissippi. The avowal was made of the purpose of 
seizing and punishing any Englishman found in 
the Ohio or Mississippi valley. To carry out their 
purpose the French seized upon a piece of terri- 
tory claimed by Virginia, and, alive to their in- 
terests, protests were made by the colonists of 
Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. In 1753 
Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, sent George 
Washington, then a young man of twenty-one, to 
the French commandant to demand by what right 
he invaded British soil in the time of peace be- 
tween France and England. Gardeur de St. 
Pierre, the French officer in command, was met 
near the headwaters of the Alleghany by the 
young colonist, after a difficult winter journey. 
Washington, on stating his demands, received the 
insolent answer that they would not discuss right, 
but as they had discovered the country they 
would hold it. 

On the return of Washington in January, 
1754, he made his report. Forces were raised, 
and, under Colonel Washington, marched upon 
the enemy. They had an action in western Penn- 
sylvania with some of the French troops, in 
which ten of the latter, with their commander, 
Jumonville, were killed. Some twenty French 
were made prisoners. The French receiving re- 
inforcements, Washington was forced to fall back 



before overwhelming numbers. At Green Mead- 
ows he erected a rude stockade which he called 
Fort Necessity. Here he was shortly after sur- 
rounded by a force consisting of some six hun- 
dred French and a hundred or two Indians. On 
the 3rd of July he was forced to capitulate, and 
July 4, 1754, the British troops (or rather the 
colonials) withdrew from the Ohio valley. War 
between England and France broke out in May, 
1755. This conflict lasted in the colonies, with 
various fortunes, until February 10, 1763, when 
the treaty of Paris was signed by the warring 
powers of Europe. By this instrument France 
renounced all her title to New France, now Cana- 
da, and all the land lying east of the Mississippi 
river, except the island and town of New Orleans. 

By the con(]uest of Canada by the British in 
1760 the province of Louisiana alone remained to 
France, but even this she was not in a position to 
hold. On November 3, 1762, she ceded it to Spain, 
shorn, however, of its eastern half, which fell to 
the English as stated. The entire region of the 
Missouri river, including all that now forms Ne- 
braska, was thereafter for thirty-seven years 
Spanish territory. But Spain did not at once 
take possession of this territory. On February 
15, 1764, Laclede's Company established itself on 
the present site of the city of St. Louis, where he 
founded that city. A few years later a company 
of Spanish troops took possession of St. Louis in 
the name of the king of Spain, and in 1770 French 
possession was at an end in so much of upper 
Louisiana as lay west of the Mississippi, for in 
that year a lieutenant governor arrived at St. 
Louis and extended his authority over the whole 

In 1783 Great Britain, by a definite treaty of 
peace signed September 3, relinquished all claim 
and ceded to the United States all territory east 
of the Mississippi river to the Atlantic ocean from 
a line along the great lakes on the north, south- 
ward to the thirty-first parallel and southern bor- 
der of Georgia. This was the treaty of Aix la Cha- 
pelle which terminated the revolutionary war. At 
the same time the British government ceded to 
Spain all the Floridas which she had taken east of 
Louisiana and south of the southern limits of the 
united colonies just freed. It will therefore be 
seen that as yet the territory now constituting the 
state of Nebraska was no part of the United 
States, but remained a possession of Spain and 
the home of savage nations, visited only by the 
vagrant trader to traffic in furs with the different 
tribes. These traders were mostly Frenchmen. 
Sometimes they would have houses and remain 
stationary for one, two or even more years, but 
sooner or later they all departed from the coun- 

At an early period after the conclusion of 
peace, the people of the United States began to 
demand the free navigation of the Mississippi 
river. The Spanish power holding one bank en- 
tirely, and both part of its course, assumed that 

they had exclusive use of it, and demanded heavy 
tolls on all imports south of the moutli of the 
Ohio. This was a vexed question at the time, and 
came at one period near disrupting the country, 
the intrigues of Miro and Carondelet, the Span- 
ish governors, tending to the separation of the 
western colonies from the eastern. All these 
ipiestions were quieted by the treaty of Madrid, 
October 20, 1795, by which the free navigation of 
the river was assured and the use of New Orleans 
as a port of entry or deposit granted. October 
16, 1802, these riglits were revoked by Morales, 
then intendent of Louisiana, but this action was 
not acquiesced in by the governor. Indignation 
ran liigh in the United States at that time over 
the matter. To effectually secure the rights of 
the United States in the navigation and commerce 
of the Mississippi, President Thomas Jefferson in 
January, 1803, sent a message to the senate of the 
United States, nominating Robert R. Livingston 
and James Monroe ministers to the court of 
France, with full authority to conclude a treaty 
to that end. Previous to this all the Louisianas 
had passed back into the possession of France. 
B_y a treaty made between the republic of France 
and Spain, the latter power had agreed to furnish 
a monthly war contribution to Prance, as she was 
unable to furnish soldiers for a common war. 
This debt not being paid, accumulated until pov- 
erty stricken or favorite-ridden Spain could not 
pay. At the same time the first consul, Bona- 
parte, had constructed out of some fragments of 
Italy remaining in his hands, the kingdom of 
Eturia. Now Spain proposed that she would, on 
the cancellation of the debt due by her and the 
gift of the kingdom of Eturia to the deposed 
pi-ince of Parma, son-in-law of the king of Spain, 
make over to France her province of Louisiana. 
This was acceded to, and by the hands of the chief 
magistrate the new monarchs were crowned in 
Paris and sent to their new government, and by 
the treaty signed at Madrid, March 21, 1801, 
Prance received back the immense tract of terri- 
tory then known as Louisiana. Thus Nebraska 
was again French territory. 

The newly accredited ministers of the United 
States arrived in Paris at a critical time. The 
hollow peace which followed the treaty of Amiens 
between England and France was strained to its 
utmost. Napoleon, with the admirable foresight 
which governed all his military measures, saw 
that this vast colony across the seas would be lost 
to him if war should break out between Prance 
and England. He took measures accordingly. 
Summoning M. Marbois, the secretary of finance, 
he broached the idea of selling to the Americans 
the whole province of Louisiana. In this he was 
governed by several motives. He felt he was 
making a friend of the American people and 
casting a bone of contention between them and 
the English government, and he also procured 
money with which to carry on the war. M. Mar- 
bois sent for the ministers and proposed the mat- 



ter. Messrs. Monroe and Livingston were neither 
of them dismayed at their want of powers to 
make any such treaty, entered into the stipula- 
tion, subject of coiirse to the ratification of their 
government. By the terms of this paper France 
ceded to the United States the whole province of 
Louisiana, for which she was to receive the sum 
of fifteen million dollars, and the United States 
assumed also the payment of certain claims 
against the French government. These latter 
were by merchants and ship owners who had suf- 
fered loss by the seizure of their vessels and car- 
goes by the Directory, a former govei-nment in 
France. The original price, which was paid 
through banking houses in Amsterdam, and the 
"spoliation claims" above mentioned, brought 
the price of Louisiana up to $27,267,621.98, as 
officially stated. This treaty was signed April 
30, 1803. Much opposition developed in the 
United States to the ratification of the treaty. 
New England being particularly bitter against it. 
The far-seeing statesmen of that day alone ap- 
preciated the vast importance of the tei-ritory so 
cheaply purchased. The administration was bit- 
terly attacked by the federalists, and it was 
claimed that all kinds of danger to the republic 
would grow out of the confirmation of the treaty. 
Sober common sense, however, prevailed, and the 
treaty was confirmed. In December of the same 
year the province was officially delivered to the 
commissioners appointed to receive it, Governor 
Claiborne of Mississippi and General James Wil- 
kinson of the United States army. It is related 
that these latter were just in time, as a British 
fleet was approaching New Orleans to take pos- 
session when the stars and stripes were being 
hoisted over it. 

By these means the United States became pos- 
sessed of a territory extending from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the forty-ninth parallel of north lati- 
tude, and from the banks of the Mississippi to the 
crest of the Rocky mountains. If the treaty, 
which was confirmed through the personal influ- 
ence of President Jefi:erson had miscar- 
ried, our now grand republic would have been 
bounded on the west by the "Father of "Waters," 
and the vast empire lying west of it, now a valua- 
ble part of the United States, would have been in 
the possession of a foreign power. To that act of 
Livingston and Monroe in transcending their 
powers, the personal influence and wisdom of 
President Jefferson, and the acquiescence of the 
senate and the people in an act only after it had 
been done, is due the fact that Nebraska is now a 
part of the federal union. 

At that time the territory since known by the 
name of the Louisiana purchase included what is 
now the states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, 
loM'a, Minnesota (or the greater part of it). 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, 
and parts of "Wyoming and Colorado. It also in- 
eluded Indian Territory and Oklahoma. 

The full text of the treaty of cession between 

the United States of America and the French Re- 
public is as follows: 

The President of the United States of America and 
the First Consul of the French Republic, in the name 
of the French people, desiring to remove all sources 
of misunderstanding relative to the objects of dis- 
cussion mentioned in the second and fifth articles of 
the convention of the 8th Vendemaire, an 9 (30 Sep- 
tember, 1800), relative to the rights claimed by the 
United States, in virtue of the treaty concluded at 
Madrid, the 27th of October, 1795, between his Cath- 
olic Majesty and the said United States, and willing 
to strengthen the union and friendship which at the 
time of the said convention was happily re-estab- 
lished between the two nations, have respectfully 
named their plenipotentiaries, towit: the President 
of the United States of America, by and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate of the said States, 
Robert R. Livingston, Minister Plenipotentiary of 
the United States, and James Monroe, Minister Plen- 
ipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary of the said 
States, near the government of the French Republic; 
and the First Consul, in the name of the French peo- 
ple, the French citizen Barbe Marbois, Minister of 
the Public Treasury, who after having respectively 
exchanged their full powers, have agreed to the fol- 
lowing articles: 

Article I. Whereas, By the article the third of the 
treaty concluded at St. Ildefonso, the 9th Vendemaire 
an 9, (1st October, 1800), between the First Consul 
of the French Republic and his Catholic Majesty, it 
was agreed as follows: "His Catholic Majesty pro- 
mises and engages on his part to retrocede to the 
French Republic, six months after the full and entire 
execution of the conditions and stipulations herein 
relative to his royal highness, the Duke of Parma, the 
colony or province of Louisiana, with the same ex- 
tent that it now has in the hands of Spain, and it had 
when France possessed it; and such as it should be 
after the treaties subsequently entered into between 
Spain and other States;" and 

Whereas, In pursuance of the treaty, and particu- 
larly of the third article, the French Republic has an 
incontestible title to the domain and the possession 
of the said territory; the First Consul of the French 
Republic desiring to give to the United States a strong 
proof of his friendship, doth hereby cede to the 
United States, in the name of the French Republic, 
forever, and in full sovereignty, the said territory, with 
all its rights and appurtenances, as fully and in the 
same manner as they have been acquired by the French 
Republic in virtue of the above-mentioned treaty, con- 
cluded with his Catholic Majesty. 

Article II. In the cession made by the preceding 
article, are included the adjacent islands belonging to 
Louisiana, all public lots and squares, vacant lands, 
and all public buildings, fortifications, barracks and 
other edifices which are not private property. The 
archives, papers and documents relative to the domain 
and sovereignty of Louisiana and its depencies, will 
be left in the possession of the Commissioners of the 
United States, and copies will be afterwards given in 
due form to the magistrates and municipal officers 
of such of the said papers and documents as may be 
necessary to them. 

Article III. The inhabitants of the ceded territory 
shall be incorporated in the Union of the United 
States, and admitted as soon as possible, according to 
the principles of the federal consitution, to the en- 
joyment of all the rights, advantages and immunities 
of citizens of the United States; and in the meantime 
they shall he maintained and protected in the free en- 
joyment of their liberty, property and the religion 
which they profess. 

Article IV. There shall be sent, by the Government 
of France, a Commissary to Louisiana, to the end that 
he do every act necessary, as well to receive from the 


officers of his Catholic Majesty the said country and its 
dependencies in the name of the French Republic, if 
it has not been already done, as to transmit it in the 
name of the French Republic to the Commissary or 
agent of the United States. 

Article V. Immediately after the ratification of the 
present treaty by the President of the United States, 
and in case that of the first consul shall have been pre- 
viously obtained, the Commissary of the French Re- 
pubic shall remit all the military posts of New Or- 
leans and other parts of the ceded territory, to the 
Commissary or Commissaries named by the President 
to take possession; the troops, whether of France ol- 
Spain, who may be there, shall cease to occupy any 
military post from the time of taking possession, and 
shall be embarked as soon as possible, in the course 
of three months after the ratifications of this treaty. 
Article VI. The United States promises to execute 
such treaties and articles as may have been agreed be- 
tween Spain and the tribes and nations of Indians, 
until by mutual consent of the United States and the 
said tribes or nations, other suitable articles shall 
have been agreed upon. 

Article VII. As it is reciprocally advantageous to 
the commerce Of France and the United States to en- 
courage the communication of both nations, for a 
limited time, in the country ceded by the present 
treaty, until general arrangements relative to the 
commerce of both nations may be agreed on, it has 
been agreed between the contracting parties, that the 
French ships coming directly from France or any of 
her colonies, loaded only with the produce of manu- 
factures of France or her saiu colonies, and the ships 
of Spain coming directly from Spain or any of her 
colonies, loaded only with the produce or manufac- 
tures of Spain or her colonies, shall be admitted dur- 
ing the space of twelve years, in the ports of New 
Orleans, and all other legal ports of entry within the 
ceded territory, in the same manner as the ships of 
the United States, coming directly from France or 
Spain or any of their colonies, without being subject 
to any other or greater duty on merchandise, or other 
or greater tonnage than those paid by the citizens of 
the United States. 

During the space of time above-mentioned, no 
other nation shall have a right to the same privi- 
leges in the ports of the ceded territory; the twelve 
years shall commence three months after the exchange 
of ratifications, if it shall take place in France, or 
three months after it shall have been notified at Paris 
to the French Government, if it shall take place in 
the United States. It is, however, well understood, 
that the object of the above article is to favor the 
manufacturers, commerce, freight and navigation of 
Prance and Spain, so far as relates to the importa- 
tions that the French and Spanish shall make into the 
said ports of the United States, without in any sort 
affecting the regulations that the United States may 
make concerning the exportation of the produce and 
merchandise of the United States, or any right they 
may have to make such regulations. 

Article VIII. In future, and forever after the ex- 
piration of the twelve years, the ships of France shall 
be treated upon the footing of the most favored. na- 
tions in the ports above mentioned. 

Article IX. The particular conventions, signed this 
day by the respective Ministers, having for its object 
to provide for the payment of debts due to the citi- 
zens of the United States by the French Republic, 
prior to the 3 0th of September, 1800 (8th Vende- 
maire, 9), is approved, and to have its execution in 
the same manner as if it had been inserted in the 
present treaty, and it shall be ratified in the same 
form and in the same time, so that the one shall not 
be ratified distinct from the other. 

Another particular convention, signed at the same 
date as the present treaty, relative to a definite rule 

between the contracting parties, is in like manner ap- 
proved, and will be ratified in the same form and in 
the same time, and jointly. 

Article X. The present treaty shall be ratified in 
good and due form, and the ratification shall be ex- 
changed in the space of six months after the date of 
the signature by the Ministers Plenipotentiary, or 
sooner if possible. In faith whereof, the respective 
Plenipotentiaries have signed these articles in the 
French and English languages, declaring, nevertheless, 
that the present treaty was originally agreed to in the 
French language; and have thereunto set their seals. 
Done at Paris, the tenth day of Floreal. in the 
eleventh year of the French Republic, and the 30th 
April, 1803. 



An act was passed by congress October 31, 
1803, which authorized the president of the 
United States to take possession of Louisiana and 
form a temporary government thereof. By this 
act the government was vested in such manner as 
the president of the United States might direct. 
But the authority of the general government real- 
ly dates from March 10, 1804, on which date 
Amos Stoddard assumed the duties of governor 
of Upper Louisiana. On the 26th of that month 
congress erected Louisiana into the territory of 
Orleans and the district of Louisiana. The divi- 
sion line was the southern boundary of Mississippi 
territory and the thirty-third degree of latitude. 
So Nebraska was then a part of the district of 
Louisiana, the latter being all of the French ces- 
sion west of the Mississippi river except the pres- 
ent state of Louisiana. The government of this 
large district was committed to the officers of the 
territory of Indiana. 

The Lewis and Clark expedition was the next 
move directed toward exploring and improving 
the newly-acquired territory. This expedition 
was planned by the president in the summer of 
1803 for the purpose of discovering the courses 
and sources of the Missouri and the most conven- 
ient water communication thence to the Pacific 
ocean. Capt. Meriwether Lewis and William 
Clark, both army officers, were given command. 
The party started in May, 1804, and consisted of 
nine young men from Kentucky, fourteen soldiers 
of the United States army who volunteered their 
services, two French watermen, an interpreter 
and hunter, and a colored servant of Capt. Clark. 
In addition to these, who were enlisted for tho 
whole expedition, a corporal and six soldiers, also 
nine watermen, were engaged to accompany the 
expedition as far as the Mandan nation iu order 
to assist in carrying the stores or repelling an at- 
tack. This expedition embarked in three boats 
up the Missouri river. On May 25 they reached 
LaCharrette, a little settlement of seven houses 
on the Missouri river, about fifty miles above its 
mouth in what is now the state of Missoiiri. This 
was the last settlement of white people on the 
Missouri river. From this point onward there 
was no civilization. Continuing up the river the 
expedition reached and encamped on a large 



island of sand on the north side of the Missoim, 
immediately opposite the mouth of the river 
Nemeha, on the evening of July 11. As the party 
proceeded from this point northwest to the moutli 
of the Niobrara they explored much of what is 
now the eastern boundary of Nebraska. An ac- 
count of what they saw is of especial interest m 
this connection. We therefore give their daily 
journal until the Platte was reached: 

"Thursday, 12 (July, 1804). We remained 
here today for the purpose of refreshing the party 
and making lunar observations. The Nemaha 
empties itself into the Missouri from the south, 
and is eighty yards wide at its confluence, which 
is in latitude thirty-nine degrees, fifty-five min- 
utes and fifty-six seconds. Capt. Clark ascended 
it in the pirogue about two miles to the mouth of 
a small creek on the lower side. On going ashore 
he found in the level plain several artificial 
mounds or graves, and on the adjoining hills 
others of a larger size. This appearance indicates 
sufficiently the former population of this country, 
the mounds being certainly intended as tombs, 
the Indians of the Missouri still preserving the 
custom of interring the dead on high ground. 
Prom the top of the highest mound a delightful 
prospect presented itself — the level and extensive 
meadows watered by the Nemahaw and enliv- 
ened by the few trees and shrubs skirting the 
borders of the river and its tributary streams, the 
lowland of the Missouri covered with undulating,' 
grass nearly five feet high gradually rising Into a 
second plain, where rich weeds and flowers are 
interspersed with copses of the Osage plui-i. 
Further back are seen small groves of trees and 
abundance of grapes, the wild cherry of the Mis- 
souri resembling our own but larger and growing 
on a small bush, and the choke cherry whicli we 
observed for the first time. Some of the grapes 
gathered today are nearly ripe. On the south of 
the Nemahaw and about a quarter of a mile fro n 
its mouth is a clifl! of freestone in which are var- 
ious inscriptions and marks made by the Indians. 
The sand island on which we are encamped is 
covered with two species of willow, broad and 
narrow leaf. 

"July 13. We proceeded at sunrise with a fair 
wind from the south, and at two miles passed the 
mouth, of a small river on the north called Big 
Torkio. A channel from the bed of the Missouri 
once ran into this river and formed an island 
called St. Joseph's, but the channel is now filled 
up and the island is added to the northern shore. 
Further on to the south is situated an extensive 
plain covered with a grass resembling timothy in 
its general appearance, except the seed, which is 
like flax-seed, and also a number of grape vines. 
At twelve miles we passed an island on the nortli, 
above which is a large sandbar covered with wil- 
lows, and at twenty and a half miles stopped on a 
large sandbar in the middle of the river, opposite 
a high, handsome prairie, which extends to the 
hills four or five miles distant, though near the 

bank the land is low and subject to be overflowed. 
This day was exceedingly fine and pleasant, a 
storm of wind last night from the north-northeast 
having cooled the air. 

"July 14. We had some hard showers of rain 
before 7 o'clock, when we set out. We had just 
reached the end of the sand island and seen the 
opposite banks fall in and so lined with timber 
that we could not approach it without danger, 
when a sudden squall from the northeast struck 
the boat on the starboard quarter, and would 
have certainly dashed her to pieces on the sand 
island if the party had not leaped into the river, 
and with the aid of the anchor and cable kept her 
off, the waves dashing over her for the space of 
forty minutes, after which the river became al- 
most instantly calm and smooth. The two 
pirogues were ahead in a situation nearly similar, 
but fortunately no damage was done to the boats 
or the loading. The wind having shifted to the 
southeast, we came at a distance of two miles to 
an island on the north. One mile above, on the 
same side of the river, is a small factory, where a 
merchant of St. Louis traded with the Otoes and 
Pawnees two years ago. Near this is an extensive 
lowland, part of which is overflowed occasionally. 
The rest is rich and well timbered. The wind 
again changed to the northwest by north. At 
seven and a half miles we reached the lower point 
of a large island on the north side. A small dis- 
tance above this point is a river called by the 
Maha (now Omaha) Indians, the Nishnabatona. 
This is a considerable creek, nearly as large as the 
Mine river, and runs parallel to the Missouri the 
greater part of its course, being fifty yards wide 
at its mouth. In the prairies or glades we saw 
wild timothy, lambsquarter, huckleberries, and 
on the edge of the river summer grapes, plums 
and gooseberries. We also saw today for the first 
time some elk, at which some of the party shot, 
but at too great a distance. We encamped on the 
north side of the island, a little above Nishnaba- 
tona, having made nine miles. The river fell a 

"July 15. A thick fog prevented our leaving 
the encampment before 7. At about four miles 
we reached the extremity of the large island, and 
crossing to the south (side of the Missouri) at the 
distance of seven miles, arrived at the Little 
Nemaha, a small river from the south, forty yards 
wide a little above its mouth, but contracting as 
do almost all the water emptying into the Mis- 
souri at its confiuence. At nine and three-quar- 
ters miles we encamped on a woody point on the 
south. Along the southern bank is a rich lowland 
covered with peavine and rich weeds and watered 
by small streams rising in the adjoining prairies. 
They, too, are rich, and though with a;bundance 
of grass, have no timber except what grows near 
the water. Interspersed through both are grape 
vines, plums of two kinds, two species of wild 
cherry, hazelnuts and gooseberries. On the 
south there is one unbroken plain; on the north 



the river is skirted with some timber, behind 
which the plain extends some four or five miles to 
the hills, which seem to have little wood. 

"July 16. We continued our route between a 
large island opposite to our last night's encamp- 
ment and an extensive prairie on the south. 
About six miles we came to another large island 
called Pairsun Island, on the same side, above 
which is a spot where about twenty acres of the 
hill have fallen into the river. Near this is a cliff 
of sandstone for two miles, which is much fre- 
quented by birds. At this place the river is about 
one mile wide, but not deep, as the timber or 
sawyers may be seen scattered across the whole 
bottom. At twenty miles distance we saw on the 
south an island called by the Prench I'lsle Chance, 
or Bald Island, opposite to a large prairie which 
we called Baldpoint Prairie, from a ridge of naked 
hills that bound it, running parallel with the river 
so far as we could see and from three to six miles 
distance. To the south the hills touch the river. 
We encamped a quarter of a mile beyond this in a 
point of woods on the north side. The river con- 
tinues to fall. 

"Tuesday, July 17. We remained here this 
day in order to make observations and correct the 
chronometer, which ran down on Sunday. The 
latitude we found to be forty degrees, twenty- 
seven minutes, five seconds. The observation of 
the time proved our chronometer to be slow five 
minutes, fifty-one seconds. The highlands bear 
from our camp north twenty-five degrees Avest up 
the river. Capt. Lewis rode up the country and 
saw the Nishnabatona about ten or twelve miles 
from its mouth, at a place not more than three 
hundred yards from the Missouri, and a little 
above our camp. It then passes near the foot of 
the Bald Hills and is at least six feet below the 
level of the Missouri. On its banks are the oak, 
walnut and mulberry. 

"Wednesday, July 18. We passed several bad 
sandbars in the course of the day, and made 
eighteen miles, and encamped on the south (of 
the Missouri), opposite to the lower point of the 
Oven Islands. An Indian dog came to the bank. 
He appeared to have been lost, and was nearly 
starved. We gave him some food, but he would 
not follow us. 

"Thursday, July 19. The Oven Islands are 
small and two in number, one near the south 
shore, the other in the middle of the river. Op- 
posite to them is the prairie called Terrien's Oven, 
from a trader of that name. We encamped on 
the western extremity of the island in the middle 
of the river, having made ten and three-quarters 

"Priday, July 20. We passed at about three 
miles distance a small willow island to the north 
and a creek on the south about twenty-five yards 
wide, by the Prench called L'eau qui Pleure, or 
the Weeping Water. Thence we made two and 
one-half miles to another island, three miles far- 
ther to a third, six miles beyond which is a fourth 

island, at the head of which we camped on the 
southern shore; (made) in all eighteen miles. 

"Saturday, July 21. We had a breeze from the 
southeast, by the aid of which we passed at about 
ten miles a willow island on the south, near high- 
lands, covered with timber at the bank and formed 
of limestone with cemented shells. On the oppo- 
site bank is a sandbar, and the land near it is cut 
through at high water by small channels, forming 
a number of islands. The wind lulled at 7 o'clock 
and we reached, in the rain, at the distance of 
fourteen miles, the great river Platte." 

On the morning of the 22d of July the party 
again set sail, and having found at a distance of 
ten miles from the mouth of the Platte a high and 
shaded situation on the north side of the Mis- 
souri, they encamped there to make observations 
and to send for the neighboring tribes for the 
purpose of making known to them the recent 
change in the government and the wish of the 
United States to cultivate their friendship. That 
time of the year was the one in which the Indians 
go out into the prairies to hunt the buffalo, but as 
some hunters' tracks had been discovered and as 
the plains were on fire in the direction of the In- 
dian villages, it was hoped they might have re- 
turned to gather the green corn. Two men 
were, therefore, dispatched to the Otoe or Paw- 
nee villages with a present of tobacco and an in- 
vitation to the chiefs to visit the company at their 
encampment. Their first course was through an 
open prairie to the south, in which they crossed 
Butterfly creek. They then reached a small, beau- 
tiful river called Come de Cerf, or Elkhorn river, 
about one hundred yards wide, with clear water 
and a gravelly channel. It emptied a little below 
the Otoe village into the Platte,which they crossed, 
and arrived at the town, about forty-five miles 
from the point of starting. They found no Indians 
there, though they saw some fresh tracks of a 
small party. 

The Otoes were once a powerful nation, and 
lived about twenty miles above the Platte on the 
southern bank of the Missouri. Being reduced, 
they emigrated to the neighborhood of the Paw- 
nees, under whose protection they were then liv- 
ing. Their village was on the south side of the 
Platte, about thirty miles from its mouth, and 
their number was two hundred men, including 
about thirty families of Missouris (all that were 
left), who were incorporated with them. Pive 
leagues above them, on the same side of the river, 
resided the Pawnees. This nation, once among 
the most numerous of those inhabiting the valley 
of the Missouri, had gradually been dispersed 
and broken until they were now greatly reduced 
in numbers. They consisted of four bands. The 
first was the one just mentioned, of about five 
hundred men, to whom of late .years had been 
added the second band called Republican Paw- 
nees, from their having lived previously on the 
Republican branch of the Kansas river, whence 
they emigrated to join the principal band on the 



Platte. They amounted to nearly two hundred 
and fifty men. The third was the Pawnees 
Loups, or Wolf Pawnees, who reside on the Wolf 
fork of the Platte, about ninety miles from the 
principal Pawnees. These numbered two hun- 
dred and eighty men. The fourth band originally 
resided on the Kansas and Arkansas, but in their 
war with the Osages they were so often defeated 
that they at length retired to the Red river, where 
they formed a tribe of four hundred men. To the 
westward of the Pawnees, upon the Platte, were 
a number of wandering tribes supposed to have 
previously been of the Padoueahs, previously 

The expedition again started up the Missouri 
on the 27th of July. At ten and a half miles, there 
was seen and examined a curious collection of 
mounds, on the south side of the river. Not far 
from a low piece of land and a pond was discov- 
ered a tract of about two hundred acres covered 
with these prehistoric earthworks of different 
heights, shapes and sizes, some of sand and some 
of both earth and sand, the largest being nearest 
the river. After making fifteen miles the party 
encamped for the night on the Nebraska side of 
the Missouri. The next day (July 28) they 
reached the place where the Iowa Indians former- 
ly lived. These were a branch of the Otoes, and 
emigrated thence to the river Des Moines. The 
hunter to the expedition in the evening brought 
to the camp a Missouri Indian whom he had found 
with two others, dressing an elk. They were per- 
fectly friendly, gave him some of the meat, and 
one of them agreed to accompany him in. He was 
one of the few remaining Missouris living with 
the Otoes. He belonged to a small party, whose 
camp was four miles from the river. He reported 
that the body of the Otoes were hunting bufi:alo 
on the plains. He appeared quite sprightly, and 
his language resembled that of the Osage, partic- 
ularly in his calling a chief "inca. " This name was 
probably learned from the Spaniards of New 
Mexico. Captains Lewis and Clark sent the In- 
dian back the next morning with one of their own 
party, with an invitation to the Indians to meet 
them on the river above, and the expedition pro- 
ceeded on its way. What transpired during the 
next six days is best given in the record of the 
company : 

' ' Sunday, July 29. We soon came to a north- 
ern bend in the river, which runs within twenty 
yards of Indian Knob creek, the water of which 
is five feet higher than that of the Missouri. In 
less than two miles we passed Bower's creek on 
the north (side of the Missouri), of twenty-five 
yards width. We stopped to dine under a shade 
near the highland on the south, and caught sev- 
eral large catfish, one of them nearly white and 
all very fat. Above this highland we observed 
the traces of a great hurricane which passed the 
river obliquely from northwest to southeast, and 
tore up large trees, some of which, perfectly 
sound and four feet in diameter, were snapped 

off near the ground. We made ten miles to a 
wood on the north (of the Missouri), where we 

"July 30. We went early in the morning 
three and a quarter miles, and encamped on the 
south (Nebraska) in order to wait for the Otoes. 
"July 31. The hunter supplied us with deer, 
turkeys, geese and beaver. One of the last was 
caught alive and in a very short time perfectly 
tamed. Catfish are very abundant in the river, 
and we have also seen a buffalo fish. One of our 
men brought in yesterday an animal called by 
the Pawnees chocar toosh, and by the French 
blair eau or badger. 

"We waited with much anxiety the return of 
our messenger to the Otoes. The men whom we 
dispatched to our last encampment returned with- 
out having seen any appearance of its having been 
visited. Our horses, too, had strayed, but we 
I were so fortunate as to recover them at the dis- 
I tance of twelve miles. Our apprehensions were 
j at length relieved by the anival of a party of 
I about fourteen Otoe and Missouri Indians, who 
came at sunset on the 2d of August, accom- 
panied by a Frenchman, who resided among 
them and interpreted for us. Captains Lewis and 
Clark went out to meet them, and told them that 
they would hold a council with them in the 
morning. In the meantime we sent them some 
roasted meat, pork, flour and meal, in return for 
which they made us a present of watermelons. 
We learned that oiir man Liberte had set out 
from their camp a day before them. We were in 
hopes that he had merely fatigued his horse or 
lost himself in the woods and would soon return, 
but we never saw him again. 

"August 3. The next morning the Indians with 
their six chiefs were all assembled under an awn- 
ing formed with the mainsail, in the presence of 
all our party, paraded for the occasion. A speech 
was then made, announcing to them the change 
in the government, our promises of protection 
and advice as to their future conduct. All the 
six chiefs replied to our speech, each in his turn, 
according to rank. They expressed their joy at 
the change in government; their hopes that we 
would recommend them to their great father (the 
president of tlie United States) that they might 
obtain trade and necessaries. They wanted arms 
as well for hunting as for defense, and asked our 
mediation between them and the Mahas (Oma- 
has), with whom they were now at war. We 
promised to do so, and wished some of them to 
accompany us to that nation, which they declined 
for fear of being killed by them. We then p)-o- 
ceeded to distribute our presents. The grand 
chief of the nation not being of the party, we sent 
him a flag, a medal and some ornaments for cloth- 
ing. To the six chiefs who were present we gave 
a medal of the second grade to one Otoe chief and 
one Missouri chief; a medal of the third grade to 
two inferior chiefs of each nation, the customary 
mode of recognizing a chief being to place a med- 



al around his neck, which is considered by his 
tribe as a proof of his consideration abroad. 
Each of these medals was accompanied by a pres- 
ent of paint, garters and cloth ornaments of 
dress, and to this we added a canister of powder, 
a bottle of whisky and a few presents to the 
whole, which appeared to make them perfectly 
satisfied. The airgnn, too, was fired, and aston- 
ished them greatly. The absent chief was an 
Otoe named Heahrushhah, which in English de- 
generates into Little Thief. The two principal 
chieftains present were Shongotongo, or Big 
Horse, and Wethea, or Hospitality; Shosgusean, 
or White Horse, an Otoe. The first an Otoe, the 
second a Missouri. 

"The incidents just related induced us to give 
to this place the name of Council Bluffs. The 
situation of it is exceedingly favorable for a fort 
and trading factory, as the soil is well calculated 
for bricks, and there is an abundance of wood in 
the neighborhood, and the air being pure and 
healthful. It is also central to the chief resorts of 
the Indians — one day's journey to the Otoes, one 
and a half to the great Pawnees, two days from the 
Mahas; two and a quarter from the 
Pawnees Loups village, convenient to the hunting 
gi'ound of the Sioux, and twenty-five days' journ- 
ey to Santa Fe. " 

After concluding the ceremonies of the council, 
Lewis and Clark set sail in the afternoon and en- 
camped in what is now Nebraska, at a distance of 
five miles above Council Bluffs. The next day 
(August 5), after passing a narrow part of the 
river, they came to a place on the south side of 
the Missouri, where was a deserted trading house. 
Here one of the party had passed two years in 
trafScing with the Mahas. Fifteen miles from 
their previous encampment brought the expedi- 
tion to a place where it was concluded would be a 
good stopping place for the night — where the hills 
on both sides of the river were twelve or fifteen 
miles from each other. From this point nothing 
of especial interest transpired during the next 
three days. Meanwhile a distance of nearly sixty 
miles was made, when (August 7) four men were 
sent back to the Otoe village in quest of the miss- 
ing man, Libei-te, also to apprehend one of the 
soldiers, who left the party on the 4th of the 
month under pretext of recovering a knife which 
he had dropped a short distance behind, and who 
it was feared had deserted. Small presents were 
also sent to the Otoes and Missouris, and a request 
that they would join the expedition at the Maha 
village, where a peace might be concluded be- 
tween them. On the 11th of the month, after 
having made sixty miles farther up the Missouri, 
the expedition halted on the south side of the 
stream for the purpose of examining a spot where 
one of the great chiefs of the Mahas, named 
Blackbird, who had been dead about four years, 
was buried. He died of the small pox. This chief 
seemed to have been a person of great considera- 
tion in his nation. August 13 he brought the 

party at a distance of over forty miles from 
I31ackbird's grave to a spot where, on the Nebras- 
ka side of the Missouri, a Mr. Mackay had a trad- 
ing establishment in the years 1795 and 1796, 
which he called "Fort Charles." 

The diary of the expedition continues: "At 
fourteen miles (from the previous place of camp- 
ing) we reached a creek on the south on which 
the Mahas reside, and at seventeen miles and a 
iiuarter formed a camp on a sandbar to the south 
side of the river, opposite the lower point of a 
large island. From this place Sergeant Ordway 
and four men were detached to the Maha village, 
with a flag and a present, in order to induce them 
to come and hold a council with us. They re- 
turned at 12 o'clock the next day, August 14. 
After crossing a prairie covered with high grass, 
they reached the Maha creek, along which they 
proceeded to its three forks which join near the 
village. They crossed the north branch and went 
along the south. The walk was very fatiguing, 
as they were forced to break their way through 
grass, sunflowers and thistles, all above ten 
feet high and interspersed with wild pea. Five 
miles from our camp they reached the position of 
the ancient Maha village. It had once consisted 
of three hundred cabins, but was burnt four years 
ago, soon after the small pox had destroyed four 
hundred men and a proportion of women and 
children. On a hill in the rear of the village are 
the graves of the nation, to the south of which 
runs the fork of the Maha creek. This they 
crossed where it was about ten yards wide, and 
followed its course to the Missouri, passing along 
a ridge of hill for one mile and a half and a long 
pond between that and the Missouri. They then 
recrossed the Maha creek and arrived at the 
camp, having seen no tracks of the Indians nor 
any sign of recent cultivation. 

"On the morning of the 15th some men were 
sent to examine the cause of a large smoke from 
the northeast and which seemed to indicate that 
some Indians were near, but they found that a 
small party who lately passed that way had left 
some trees burning, and that the wind from that 
quarter blew the smoke directly toward us. Our 
camp lies about three miles northeast from the 
old Maha village, and is in latitude forty-two de- 
grees, thirteen minutes and forty-one seconds. 
The accounts we have had of the effects of the 
small pox on that nation are most distressing. It 
is not known in what way it was first communi- 
cated to them, though probably by some war 
party. They had been a military and powerful 
people, but when these warriors saw their 
strength wasting before a malady which they 
could not resist, their frenzy was extreme. They 
burnt their village, and many of them put to death 
their wives and children to save them from so 
cruel an affliction, and that all might go together 
to some better country. 

"On the 16th we still waited for the Indians. 
A party had gone out yestei'day to the Maha 


creek, which was dammed up by the beaver be- 
tween the camp and the village; a second went 
today. They made a kind of drag with small 
willows and bark, and swept the creek. The first 
company caught three hundred and eighteen fish ; 
the second upwards of eight hundred, consisting 
of pike, bass, fish resembling salmon, trout, red 
horse, buffalo, one rock fish, one flatback, perch, 
catfish, a small species of perch called on the Ohio 
silver fish, a shrimp of the same size, shape and 
flavor of those about New Orleans and the lower 
part of the Mississipppi. We also found very fat 
mussels, and on the river as well as the creek are 
different kinds of duck and plover. * » * 

"Friday, 17. In the evening one of the party 
sent to the Otoes returned with the information 
that the rest were coming on with the deserter. 
They had also caught Liberte, but by a trick he 
made his escape. They were bringing three of 
the chiefs in order to engage our assistance in 
making peace with the Mahas. * * * 

"August 18. In the afternoon the party ar- 
rived with the Indians, consisting of the Little 
Thief and Big Horse, whom we had seen on the 
3d, together with six other chiefs and a French 
interpreter. * * * 

"August 19. The chiefs and warriors being: 
assembled at 10 o'clock, we explained the speech 
we had already sent from Council Bluffs and re- 
newed our advice. * * * 

"The next morning, August 20, the Indians 
mounted their horses and left us, having received 
a canister of whisky at parting. We then set sail, 
and after passing two islands on the north came 
to one on that side under some bluffs, the first 
bluffs near the river since we left Ayauwa (Iowa) 
village. Here we had the misfortune to lose one 
of our sergeants, Charles Floyd. He was yester- 
day seized with a bilious colic, and all our care 
and attention were ineffectual to relieve him. A 
little before his death he said to Captain Clark, 
'I am going to leave you.' His strength failed 
him as he added, ' I want you to write a letter for 
me.' He died with the composure which justified 
the high opinion we had formed of his firmness 
and good conduct. He M'as buried on the top of 
the bluff with the honors due a brave soldier, and 
the place of his interment was marked by a cedar 
post on which his name and the day of his 
death were inscribed. About a mile beyond this 
place, to which we gave his name, is a small river 
about thirty yards wide, on the north side (of the 
Missouri), which we called Floyd's river, where 
we encamped. We had a breeze from the south- 
east, and made thirteen miles. ' ' 

On the 21st of August the party reached the 
mouth of the great Sioux river, where is now sit- 
uated Sioux City, Iowa, and on the 27th of the 
same month reached the mouth of the James or 
Dakota river. Here they met and held a council 
with the Sioux Indians, a large body of whom 
were encamped near by. This council was held at 
Calumet Bluffs on the Nebraska side of the Mis- 

souri, August 30. The Sioux were found by 
Lewis and Clark to be divided in ten separate 
tribes or bands — Yanktons, Tetons of the Burnt 
Woods, Tetons-Okandandas, Tetons-Minnekenoz- 
zo, Tetons-Saone, Yanktons of the Plains, Wahpa- 
tone, Mendawarcarton, Wahpatoota and Sista- 
soone. It was estimated that the men of the en- 
tire nation in 1804 was over twenty-five hundred, 
representing a population of over ten thousand. 
From here on to the Rapid river (or as it was 
called by the French, Rivere qui Court, now the 
Niobrara) nothing of particular importance oc- 
curred, and here the expedition passed beyond 
sight of Nebraska soil. The expedition finally 
reached the Pacific ocean, and returned down the 
Missouri in the summer of 1806. 

In the daily journal which was kept by Lewis 
and Clark an extended account is given of a re- 
markable prehistoric earthwork which they visited 
before they reached the Niobrara. It was on the 
south side of the Missouri river, in the north part 
of what is now Knox county, Nebraska. The 
journal says: "This earthwork is opposite the 
upper extremity of Bonhomme Island, and in a 
low, level plain, the hills being three miles from 
the river. It begins by a wall composed of earth, 
rising immediately from the bank of the river, 
and running in a direct course south seventy-six 
degrees west, ninety-six yards. The base of this 
wall or mound is seventy-five feet and its height 
about eight. It then diverges in a course south 
eighty-four degrees west, and continues at the 
same height and depth to a distance of fifty-three 
yards, the angle being formed by a sloping de- 
scent. At the junction of these two is an appear- 
ance of a horn work of the same height as the 
first angle. The same wall then pursues a course 
northwest for three hundred yards. Near its 
western extremity is an opening or gateway at 
right angles to the wall, defended by two semi- 
circular walls placed before it, and from the gate- 
way there seems to have been a covered way com- 
municating with the interval between these two 
walls. Westward of the gate the wall becomes 
much larger,being about one hundred and five feet 
at its base and twelve feet high. At the end of this 
high ground the wall extends for fifty-six yards 
on a course north thirty-two degrees west. It 
then turns north twenty-three degrees west for 
seventy-three yards. These two walls seem to 
have had a double or covered way. They are 
from ten to fifteen feet in height, and from seven- 
ty-five to one hundred and five in width at the 
base, the descent inward being steep while out- 
ward it forms a sort of glacis. At the distance of 
seventy-three yards the wall ends abruptly at a 
large hollow place, much lower than the general 
level of the plain, and from which is some indica- 
tion of a covered way to the water. The space 
between them is occupied by several mounds scat- 
tered promiscuously through the gorge, in the 
center of which is a deep, round hole. From the 
extremity of the last wall, in a course north thir- 



ty-two degrees west, is a distance of ninety-six 
yards over the low ground, where the wall re- 
commences and crosses the plain in a course north 
eighteen degrees west for eighteen hundred and 
thirty j^ards to the bank of the Missouri. In this 
course its height is about eight feet till it enters 
at the distance of five hundred and thirty-three 
yards a deep circular pond of seventy-three yards 
in diameter, after which it is gradually lower 
toward the river. It touches the river at a muddy 
bar which bears every mark of being an encroach- 
ment of the water for a considerable distance, 
and a little above the injunction is a small circu- 
lar redoubt. 

"Along the bank of the river and at eleven 
hundred yards distance, in a straight line from 
this wall, is a second wall about six feet high and 
of considerable width. It rises abruptly from the 
bank of the Missouri at a point where the river 
bends, and goes straight forward, forming an 
acute angle with the last wall till it enters the 
river again, not far from the mounds just de- 
scribed, toward which it is obviously tending. 
At the bend the Missouri is five himdred yards 
wide, the ground on the opposite side highlands, 
or low hills on the bank, and where the river 
passes between this fort and Bonhomme Island all 
the distance from the bend it is constantly wash- 
ing the banks into the stream, a large sand bank 
being already taken from the shore near the wall. 
During the whole course of this wall or glacis, it 
is covered with trees, among which are many 
large cotton trees two or three feet in diameter. 
Immediately opposite the citadel, or the part 
most strongly fortified on Bonhomme Island, is a 
small work in a circular form, with a wall sur- 
rounding it about six feet high. The young 
willows along the water joined to the general 
appearance of the two shores induces a belief 
that the bank of the island is encroaching, and 
the Missouri indemnifies itself by washing away 
the base of the fortification. The citadel con- 
tains about twenty acres, but the parts between 
the long walls must embrace nearly five hundred 

The district of Louisiana was changed to the 
territory of Louisiana by an act of congress 
passed March 3, 1805, which provided for a gov- 
ernor, secretary and two judges. It was detached 
from Indian territory and erected into a separate 
territory, so that Nebraska became a pai-t of the 
"Territory of Louisiana." In 1808 the Missouri 
Fur Company was established, and an expedition 
under its auspices was sent out under command 
of Major A. Henry. He established trading posts 
on the upper Missouri beyond the Rocky moun- 

In 1805 Manuel Lisa, a wealthy Spaniard, with 
a party in search of trading grounds, reached the 
lands north of the Platte. The beauty of the scene 
caused him to exclaim "Bellevue," by which name 
the spot has since been designated. It is the pres- 
ent site of Bellevue, Sarpy county, Nebraska. 

In 1810 the American Fur Company, a great 
trading monopoly under the control of John 
Jacob Astor, established a trading post at Belle- 
vue. Francis de Roin was placed in charge of the 
business there, and a few years later was succeed- 
ed by Joseph Robiaux. In 1842 Colonel Peter A. 
Sarpy became agent at Bellevue, and for thirty 
years he was the leading spirit in that region. In 
1841 the government transferred to Bellevue the 
government agency which had previously been 
located at Fort Calhoun, or Old Council Bluffs. 

The settlement of Bellevue and the establishing 
of a trading post there by the American Fur 
Comi^any in 1810 is claimed by many writers to 
have been the first settlement made by whites 
within the limits of what is now the state of Ne- 

By an act of congress passed June 4, 1812, the 
"Territory of Louisiana" became the "Territory 
of Missouri," within the bounds of which was the 
present area of Nebraska. It provided for terri- 
torial officers and a council and house of repre- 
sentatives. The members of the house were to be 
elected by the people. On the 19th of January, 
1816, the legislature passed a law making the 
common law of England the law of the territory. 

In 1819 an exploring expedition was started 
from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to the Rocky 
mountains under Major Stephen H. Long, the 
principal object of which was a topographical de- 
scription of the country visited. They came up 
the Missouri river and reached the mouth of the 
Platte i-iver on September 15, 1819. Two days 
later they reached the trading establishment of 
the Missouri Pur Company, called Port Lisa. 
This was five or six miles below Council Bluffs, on 
the west side of the river. It was occupied by 
Samuel Lisa, one of the most active persons en- 
gaged in the fur trade. The expedition went into 
quarters for the winter about a half mile above 
Port Lisa on the same side of the river. 

In the meantime councils had been held with 
various Indian tribes which eventually resulted 
in treaties being agreed upon. A treaty between 
the Otoes and the United States was proclaimed 
December 26, 1817 ; one was ratified with the 
lowas and one with the Mahas December 26, 1815, 
and one with the Pawnees as eai-ly as January 5, 
1812. A treaty was also coiicluded with the Paw- 
nees Grand and proclaimed January 7, 1819 ; one 
with the Noisy Pawnee tribe on the same day, 
and one with the Republican Pawnees January 
17, 1819. The Yankton tribe of the Sioux treaty 
was proclaimed July 19, 1815; the Sioux of the 
River St. Peter's and those of the Lakes were 
proclaimed on the same day. The treaties all 
provided that there should be perpetual peace 
between the Indians and Americans, and the 
tribes all acknowledged themselves to be under 
the protection of the United States. 

It will, therefore, he seen that at tlie time of 
Major Long's visit to Nebraska all the Indian na- 
tions of the Missouri river and its ti-ibutaries as 



far up as the homes of the Sioux and down to the 
region of the mouth of the Nemaha had been 
treated with by the agents of the general govern- 
ment. Major Long held various councils with the 
Indians. During the winter of 1819-20 it was de- 
cided to change the course of the expedition and 
explore the sources of the Platte river. The ex- 
pedition left "Engineer Cantonment" June 6, 

1820, and reached the Elkhorn, a considerable 
tributary of the Platte, the next day. Soon after 
crossing the Elkhorn the party entered the valley 
of the Platte. The march was up this valley, on 
the north side of the stream, until the Loup Pork 
was reached. In this way the expedition pro- 
ceeded up the Platte valley, crossing the entire 
state of Nebraska, following the south fork to 
the Rockj^ mountains, visiting en route a number 
of the Indian villages. 

Major Long's party was the first exploring ex- 
pedition ever to ascend the Platte from its mouth 
to the confluence of the two forks, but others had 
descended the river previous to that date. In 
1811 a part of the men engaged in Hunt's expe- 
dition to the mouth of the Columbia river, on 
their return from the Pacific, fell upon the source 
of the north fork of the Platte, and descended 
thence to the Missouri. Also in June, 1812, 
Robert Stewart, one of the partners of the Pacific 
Fur Company, with several others, while coming 
from the Pacific, struck the headwaters of the 
Platte, spent the winter on it, and finally reached 
the Missouri. 

It may now be said that the territory included 
within the present boundaries of Nebraska had 
been explored. The general features and the 
homes of its Indian tribes were pretty well 

On the 2d of March, 1819, the congress of the 
United States created out of the Missouri terri- 
tory the territory of Arkansas. On the 6th of 
March, 1820, an act was approved, authorizing 
the people of the Missouri territory to form a 
constitution and state government, and for the 
admission of the state into the union. This was 
assented to by the people in state convention on 
the 19th of July following. On the 2d of March, 

1821, the state was admitted, with conditions, by 
a joint resolution of congress. These conditions 
were accepted, and Missouri became a state by 
proclamation August 10, 1821. As first estab- 
lished the state was bounded on the west by a 
meridian passing through the mouth of the Kan- 
sas river. An act was approved June 7, 1836, 
extending the boundary to the Missouri river 
north of its intersection with this line whenever 
the Indian title to this portion should be extin- 
guished and the state express its assent to the 
change. The Indian title was extinguished by a 
treaty with the lowas and Sacs and Poxes Sep- 
tember 17, 1836. This addition was known as the 
"Platte Purchase," and was sanctioned by the 
state December 16, 1836, and was declared perfec- 
ted by a proclamation of the president March 28, 

1837. This was bringing a state very close to 
portions of what are now included in Nebraska — 
only across the Missouri to the present counties 
of Richardson, Nemaha and the southeast corner 
of Otoe. 

After the admission of Missouri as a state into 
the union, for nearly thirty-three years the coun- 
try now included within the boundaries of the 
state of Nebraska was practically without a gov- 
ernment, but before the end of this time the coun- 
try was attached to the United States judicial 
district of Missouri. 

In the spring of 1822 William H. Ashley, the 
head of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company of 
St. Louis, equipped two boats to ascend the Mis- 
souri river to the mouth of the Yellowstone. 
This was a disastrous expedition, as during the 
first three months one-fourth of the men were lost 
by violent deaths, and a good deal of the proper- 
ty by accident, deceit and war with the savages. 

In the meantime negotiations were being car- 
ried on with the Indians of the various tribes. 
The Missouri Fur Company, one of the strongest 
and most active engaged in the trade, had at its 
head Dr. Pilcher. Benjamin 'Fallon was one of 
the principal partners, and was one of the most 
active in bringing about the treaties between the 
government and the various Indian tribes of Ne- 
braska and adjacent country already referred to. 
By a treaty proclaimed December 30, 1825, the 
Kansas tribe ceded to the United States a large 
section of this country. On April 12, 1834, a 
treaty was proclaimed by which the four confed- 
erate bands of the Pawnees did likewise. The 
Pawnees as well as the surrounding tribes were 
greatly ravished by small pox in 1832. Soon 
after, the Pawnees by treaty agreed to confine 
themselves to the north side of the Platte, but in 
a short time the Sioux came down upon them with 
great slaughter. From this time their numbers 
rapidly decreased. 

In 1834, by an act of congress, it was enacted 
that all that part of the United States west of the 
Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri 
and Louisiana or the territory of Arkansas should 
be considered Indian country for the purposes of 
the act, and certain regulations were prescribed 
for its government. This included the whole of 
the present state of Nebraska. 

In 1835 another expedition under the direction 
of the general government traversed the Platte 
valley. Colonel Henry Dodge was in charge of 
this expedition, and followed the west bank of 
the Missouri to the mouth of the Platte, then 
traced the last-mentioned stream to its source. 

Colonel John C. Fremont's exploring expedition 
came in 1842. They reached the Big Blue on 
June 20, 1842. Fremont reached the confluence 
of the north and south forks of the Platte river 
July 2d. Prom this point the party traveled up 
the south fork forty miles, where it was decided 
to divide the party, one to ascend the fork they 
were then on, the other to cross over to the north 


fork. With five men Fremont continued his journ- 
ey up the south fork, reaching July 5 a point near 
the western boundary of what is now Keith coun- 
ty, Nebraska. The other party followed the north 
fork up to the American Fur Company's fort, at 
the mouth of Laramie's fork (Fort Laramie), 
where the two parties were reunited and went on 
west, returning later in the fall of the same year. 
The second Fremont expedition was undertaken 
in 1843. 

During the decade following the time when 
the Fremont expedition traveled over Nebraska, 
various circumstances conspired to send thous- 
ands of white men into this region for a longer or 
shorter period. First in point of time and num- 
bers were the Mormons. Their home in Nauvoo, 
lUionis, having been broken up, the greater part 
of the believers in that faith journeyed slowly 
across Iowa, and finally, with few exceptions, 
crossed the Missouri river dui'ing the years- 1845 
and 1846, locating about six miles north of Oma- 
ha, at what is now known as Florence, but which 
was then called "Winter Quarters" by the Mor- 
mons. Here about fifteen thousand people con- 
gregated. The Indians were hostile to them, com- 
plaining that they cut too much timber, and the 
complaints caused the exodus of the Mormons. 
Many of them found temporary shelter on the 
Iowa side of the river. Soon an expedition of 
eighty wagons was sent out in search of a per- 
manent home for the Latter Day Saints, which 
resulted in the selection of the Salt Lake valley, 
then far beyond the reach of government law and 
civilization. The presence of these families had 
no decisive influence on the future of Nebraska. 

In 1847 the Presbyterian board of missions 
confirmed the selection of Bellevue for the loca- 
tion of a mission school. This was an important 
step in the history of Nebraska. The mission 
school buildings were finished and formally 
opened in 1848. 

In 1849 there set in that wonderfully migratory 
movement to California directly across what is 
now within the boundaries of the state. Bands 
of gold-seekers crossed the Missouri at old Fort 
Kearney (now Nebraska City), at Plattsmouth, 
at Bellevue and at Council Bluffs. Another great 
stream flowed from the southeast, striking the 
Platte at (New) Fort Kearney, previously called 
Fort Childs, which had been established on the 
south side of the Platte, opposite Grand Island. 
Thus the fever of 1849 swept over all the land, 
and thousands found their way to the Pacific 
along the valley of the Platte. The moving host 
left here and there a permanent impress on the 
land. The knowledge of this fertile country 
spread, and later on many of these same "forty- 
niners" sought its peaceful hills and plains 
wherein to erect homes for their declining years. 
Another effect of the emigration was the estab- 
lishment of a ferry between what is now Omaha 
and Council Bluffs by Wm. D. Brown in 1851 or 
1852. In 1853 he made claim to the site of Oma- 

ha. In 1850 a military road was established, 
leading from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Kearney 
on the Platte. 

By this time the territory was being so thor- 
oughly traveled over, that the broad and beauti- 
ful rolling prairies and the i"ich soil became well 
known, and it was clear now that it was only a 
i|uestion of time when emigration would cross the 
Missouri and in an irresistable wave spread itself 
widely over the fertile plains beyond. The gener- 
al government, therefore, continued the negotia- 
tions for residue of the Indian lands, and as rap- 
idly as possible concluded treaties to restrict the 
Indians to moderate metes and bounds. 

Nebraska was the highway to the west, and a 
place should be given in this history to mention 
of the events and conditions which were largely 
instrumental in the original settlement of Ne- 
braska. In remote times — remote for the west — 
the beginning of "The West" was at the Missis- 
sippi. Western Illinois and Wisconsin and West- 
ern Iowa were accessible by water by the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers. The region beyond was 
known only to the courageous few who had braved 
the perils of a wilderness inhabited by hostile 
tribes. But in 1850, when the fever for gold had 
spread throughout the east, the limits of civiliza- 
tion had extended so far that supplies of horses, 
mules, cattle, wagons, coffee, flour, bacon, sugar 
and the indispensables of a trip across the plains 
were obtainable at points on the Missouri river in 
the state of Missouri. Parties endeavored to 
reach that stream early in the spring that they 
might take advantage of the growth of vegeta- 
tion as food for their teams. While some cara- 
vans followed the Arkansas, many more chose to 
come up the Missouri and travel thence westward 
along the rich vaHey of the Platte. Thus was 
first opened up to observant pioneers the beauties 
of this region. Hundreds of improvident but 
eager men set out so late in the season as to en- 
counter the rigor of winter in the mountains, and 
many perished miserably from exposure and 
starvation. Others started early enough to safe- 
ly pass the Rocky mountains only to meet their 
fate in the inhospitable fastness of the Sierra Ne- 
vadas, where snow frequently piles to the depths 
of thirty and forty feet in localities. Among the 
early trials were the dangers incident to crossing 
a country inhabited by fierce Indians. If the truth 
could be known, probably every mile from the 
Missouri to the Pacific would demand at least one 
headstone to mark a victim's grave. 

At the time referred to the whole region from 
the Missouri to the Pacific was vaguely known as 
"the plains," though it embraced almost every 
variety of country. First the emigrant crossed 
the rich, rolling prairies of Nebraska. The soil 
grew thinner and thinner until it merged into 
dreary sand deserts. Upon these he found myr- 
iads of prairie dogs, sometimes living in towns 
twenty miles square ; herds of graceful antelopes 
bounded over the hills, and huge, ungainly buffa- 



loes, which numbered millions then, blackened 
parts of the landscape. A day's journey was from 
ten to twenty miles. When the company halted 
for the night, they turned their animals to graze 
with such precautions as served to prevent their 
escape; lighted a fire on the prairie of buffalo 
chips, and supped on pork, hot bread or "flap 
jacks," and washed the frugal repast down with 
the inevitable tin cup of coffee. Their trusty 
guns were kept within easy reach, and the whit- 
ened skull of a buffalo, perhaps killed by some 
emigrant long before in wanton sport, served as a 
seat. The wagons were covered with stout can- 
vas, and afforded protection to the fcAV women 
and children during the later years of the excite- 
ment. All became inured to the conditions of out- 
door life. When large streams were reached, the 
heavy wagons were floated or hauled, and where 
it was convenient to do so, rude bridges were con- 
structed over smaller streams. Every source of 
ingenuity was developed. If a wheel gave way 
and the mechanical productiveness of the party 
could not replace it, a cottonwood log with one 
end dragging on the ground was made to serve 
instead. If a pole broke, another was extempor- 
ized from the nearest timber. If an ox died, 
some luckless cow was yoked in his place. Some- 
times one familj' or one party of half a dozen 
men journeyed alone, and sometimes there were 
a hundred or more wagons in a single "train," 
with their white covers enveloped in an increasing 
cloud of dust. During the seasons when emigra- 
tion was very heavy, caravans could from an em- 
inence be seen stretching out for miles and miles, 
and at night every pleasant camping-ground was 
a populous village. The journey was not without 
its enjoyments, though one's philosophy was sore- 
ly tried at times. There were, often long delays 
for hunting lost cattle, waiting for swollen 
streams to subside, or in climbing the mountains. 
Storms and mishaps frequently taxed the pa- 
tience of all, and sickness came to feeble frame 
and hardy men alike. The flrst of a long line of 
trains often climbed steep hills instead of going 
the longer and easier way through ravines, and 
the followers along the new roads were forced to 
desert the beaten tracks and risk untried courses 
or labor on in their wake. It was not imcommon 
to see from ten to the thirty yoke of cattle hitched 
to a single wagon, working slowly up the moun- 
tain. The summit reached at last, the wagon 
would be emptied, and with a huge log trailing 
behind as a brake, the teams would descend to re- 
peat their experience in ascending with other 
loads. The wild, majestic scenery along 

the way may have been a partial compensation to 
some for the harships they endured, but it is 
reasonable to believe that few would have re- 
fused to forego those delights if thereby they 
might have gained easier transit. The tragedies 
of those days were numerous. The very nature of 
the journey and the chances of sudden wealth. 
combined with the freedom of the manner of liv- 

ing, gathered many a desperate character into the j 
civil army. The baser passions were too often j 
allowed full scope, and hence it must be recorded j 
that many a villain found his end at the hands of ( 
outraged companions. The travelers were a law 
unto themselves, and greed or lust were summar- 
ily avenged. 

An early settler wrote the following vivid de- 
scription of the appearance of Nebraska in 1856 : 
' ' In 1856 I first came to Nebraska, and the rolling 
prairies existing between the Big Sandy and Fort 
Kearney had been burnt off, so that as the cara- 
van with which I was traveling passed along, a 
wide waste of desolation met the eye. The sur- 
face of the earth was black as charcoal, and here 
and there was .spotted with the bleached bones of 
buffalo, oxen and wolves. It seemed as though 
nothing could live in that forsaken-looking coun- 
try, and yet I thought then that where that black, 
charred surface was, there must have been long 
blades of brown and yellow grass before the fire 
swept them out of existence. And I thought, 
too, the grass must have been beautifully green 
in the spring and summer time, and I hoped to 
see the summer bloom for me again. When I 
approached the Platte valley from the hills which 
skirt it, my eyes were delighted with the sight 
that met my view. Near by lay that beautiful 
countrj% its land as level as a floor, the dense 
groves of trees stretching out as far as the eye 
could see. It was a gorgeous spectacle, and it 
seemed to me no valley on the earth could sur- 
pass it in agricultural possibilities. During the 
winter of 1856-57, I journeyed on to Fort Lara- 
mie. The point at which I struck the Platte must 
have been two hundred and fifty miles from its 
mouth. From there to Fort Laramie was about 
three hundred and seventy-five miles. I, there- 
fore, traveled fully three hundred and seventy- 
five miles, so that my opportunity for judging of 
its extent and general features was of the best, 
although it was seen under most disparaging cir- 
cumstances. That was a terrible winter. From 
October to May snow was on the ground. On the 
last day of November our party arrived at Ash 
Hollow, returning from Fort Laramie. The snow 
was a foot deep at the former place. That night 
another .storm came on and continued for several 
days and nights. When it was over we were 
snow-bound. We remained there two weeks and 
then moved on to a village of Ogallala Sioux In- 
dians, where we remained more than a month, 
and were kept from starving by the kindness of 
the Indians, who gave us all the buffalo meat we 
needed for our food. From this village to Fort 
Kearney we journeyed on the ice of the Platte 
river. On the land the snow lay two feet deep, 
while the valleys were filled full with drifting 
snow. For months there was nothing to be seen 
but the dazzling whiteness of the snow. We were 
sixteen days in going from Ash Hollow to Fort 
Kearney, a distance of one hundred and fifty 
miles, and necessarily encountered many hard- 



ships and privations on the way. A few days 
after our arrival at the fort another severe storm 
came on with strong winds. This lasted several [ 
days, and completely buried the one-story houses 
of the fort in the drifts. Barracks, officers' quar- 
ters, stables, all were covered, and trenches had 
to be dug around haystacks to prevent the cattle 
from walking on top of them. Cuttings were 
made from door to door of the houses to allow 
the inmates to go in and out. The season was 
terrible, but it was general throughout the north- 
west. It was an unfavorable time to form an 
opinion of the region, but I nevertheless resolved 
to make it my future home. I knew that the .snow 
would finally disappear, and so it did. In June 
the valley of the Platte was decked with living 
green, the trees were rich with foliage, and birds 
chirped forth their songs of joy." 

Early in the fifties a movement was begun 
which culminated in the organization of Nebraska 
as a territory. On February 10, 1853, a bill, organ- 
izing the territory of Nebraska, passed the house, 
but failed to pass the senate. On the 14th of De- 
cember, 1853, the second bill was introduced in 
the senate, and on May 30 the organic act creat- 
ing the territory of Nebraska was signed by 
President Pierce and became a law. The first 
territorial officers appointed by President Pierce 
were as follows: Governor, Francis Burt, of 
South Carolina ; secretary, Thomas B. Cuming, of 
Iowa; chief justice, Tenner Ferguson, of Michi- 
gan; associate justices, James Bradley, of Indi- 
ana, and Edward R. Hardin, of Georgia; marshal, 
Mark W. Isard, of Arkansas; attorney, E. Esta- 
brook, of Wisconsin. 

Governor Burt reached the territory in ill 
health on the 6th of October, 1854, and proceeded 
to Bellevue. He took the oath of office October 
16, 1854, but his illness proved of a fatal charac- 
ter, and he sank rapidly. His death occurred 
October 18, 1854, and the duties of organizing 
the territorial government devolved upon Secre- 
tary Cviming, who became acting governor. 
Practically the first official act in the territorial 
government was the issuance of a proclamation 
announcing the death of Governor Burt. 

At the time of its organization, the territory 
was divided into eight counties, viz : Burt, Wash- 
ington, Dodge, Douglas, Cass, Pierce, Forney and 

The official headquarters of the territory were 
located temporarily at Bellevue until the assem- 
bling of the legislature in January, 1855. There 
was intense rivalry over the location of the capi- 
tal between Bellevue, Florence, Plattsmouth, Ne- 
braska City and Omaha, but it was decided in 
favor of Omaha. The erection of a capital build- 
ing at Omaha was commenced in the fall of 1855, 
which was completed by January, 1858. It was 
a commodious brick building. 

In the fall of 1854 the first census of the terri- 
tory was taken by virtue of a proclamation issued 

by the governor, and on December 12 of the same 
year the first election was held. 

In March, 1860, the question of forming a state 
government was submitted to the people and de- 
feated by a vote of 2,372 to 2,094. 

The matter of state organization was again 
taken up in 1864. On April 19 of that year the en- 
abling act passed by congress was approved by 
the president and became a law. Nebraska was 
now a state. 

In the meantime settlements were being made 
by a sturdy and thrifty class of pioneers in var- 
ious portions of the state, and the inhabitants set- 
tled down to peaceful pursuits of husbandry. 
Prom this time down to the present time we will 
here treat of only the most importnat points that 
have proven mile posts in the history of the state. 
For the more detailed mention of the different 
phases of the growth and development of the 
state we refer the reader to the special articles 
elsewhere in this volume. 

The growth and development of the state and 
its settlement had only begun to reach substan- 
tial proportions when it was interrupted by the 
breaking out of the civil war in 1861. In May, 
1861, Governor Alvin Saunders issued a procla- 
mation calling for the immediate raising of a reg- 
iment of infantry. In pursuance to this, compan- 
ies A, B, C, D, E, F and G, of the first regiment, 
were all sworn into the service in June, 1861. 
Three more companies were sworn into the ser- 
vice in July, and all these companies took their 
departure for St. Joseph. In August a call was 
issued for two companies of cavalry to join the 
First regiment. 

In 1862 and also in 1863 a number of compan- 
ies of cavalry were organized and mustered into 
the service. Additional companies of cavalry 
and infantry were organized in 1864 and sent to 
the front. 

In 1864 and 1865 the Indians along the frontier 
gave the whites a great deal of trouble, and many 
depredations were committed. On July 25, 1865, 
an attack was made on Platte Bridge station by 
one thousand Indians. 

In 1866 the state constitution was adopted by a 
vote of the people, and on March 1, 1867, Presi- 
dent Andrew Johnson issued a proclamation de- 
claring Nebraska a state. The first session of the 
legislature after the admission of the state into 
the union met May 16, 1867, under a proclamation 
issued by Governor Butler. 

The first state legislature (1866-67) appointed 
Governor David Butler, Secretary of State T. P. 
Kennard and State Auditor John Gillespie a com- 
mission for selecting a site for the state capital. 
The commissioners commenced their search in 
July, 1867, and made a thorough examination of 
all territory designated by the act of the legisla- 
ture, which embraced the counties of Lancaster, 
Seward and a part of the counties of Butler, 
Saunders and Saline. Seventy-two sections of 
land and twelve salt springs had been donated to 



the new state by the general government, and 
these were located by the governor within a rad- 
ius of twenty miles of the Great Salt Basin. The 
balloting of the commissioners for the location of 
the state capital occurred July 29, 1867, and re- 
sulted in favor of Lincoln (then called Lancas- 
ter). "Work on the capitol building was com- 
menced promptly. The building was sufficiently 
completed by December, 1868, for occupancy, and 
on December 3, 1868, Governor Butler issued 
a proclamation announcing the removal of the 
seat of government to Lincoln, and ordered the 
transfer of the archives of the state to the new 

In 1869 the University of Nebraska was 

On the 10th of May, 1869, there occurred an 
event which marked one of the most important 
mile posts, not only for Nebraska alone, but in 
American history as well — the completion of the 
Union Pacific railroad to Ogden. On that day 
two oceans were united, a continent was spanned 
by iron bands, and a revolution was accomplished 
in the commerce of the world. The event was 
observed in Omaha by a grand celebration. 

In 1871 articles of impeachment Avere formu- 
lated against Governor Butler. The trial began 
March 14, and resulted in an order for his removal 
from office. On September 19 of this year a new 
constitution was submitted to a vote of the people 
and rejected. 

The first serious devastation by grasshoppers 
occurred in July, 1874. In 1875 a new constitu- 
tion was adopted by a vote of the people. In 1878 
the state historical association was organized. 

In 1882 a great strike took place on the Bur- 
lington railroad, resulting in sei'ious rioting which 
required the militia to quell. 

In 1890 an Indian insurrection occurred at Pine 
Ridge agency, which assumed such serious pro- 
portions as to require the calling out of the 
national guards. The census of this year gave 
Nebraska a population of 1,058,910. 

In 1894 began the "famine period." The hot 
winds in July of this year throughout practically 
the whole state parched all vegetation, causing 
virtually an entire failure of crops of all kinds. 
The crop failures (1894-1895) resulted in great 
suffering in the western part of the state. In 
January, 1895, the legislature passed a relief bill, 
appropriationg fifty thousand dollars for the re- 
lief of the western sufferers. This was followed 
in March of the same year by an additional appro- 
priation of two hundred thousand dollars. 

In 1898, shortly after the breaking out of the 
Spanish-American war. Governor Holcomb issued 
a proclamation calling for volunteers, and as a 
result of this the First and Second regiments 
were mustered in at Lincoln May 9 and 10, 1898. 
The Third regiment was mustered in at Fort 
Omaha on July 7 of the same year. 

One of the important events of recent years in 
Nebraska that should be mentioned was the open- 

ing of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha j 
June 1, 1898. _ I 

The foregoing covers the most important events ' 
that would be considered as marking epochs in 
the history of the state. It may be said that the 
principal setbacks which the state has suffered 
were those caused: First, by the civil war in 
1861-1865, which temporarily delayed the settle- 
ment and development of this region by the 
drawing into the service of the government many 
of the able-bodied men from all parts of the 
country. But the delay was only temporary, and 
the emigration set in with renewed force immedi- J 
ately after the close of hostilities, and many of I 
the war veterans found their way to Nebraska to | 
settle down to peaceful avocations. Second, the 
occasional outbreaks of the Indians in early days 
may be said to have been one of the causes which 
for a time most seriously delayed and interrupted 
the growth of the .state, as many living in the 
eastern states were deterred from emigrating to 
Nebraska through fears of the Indians, aroused 
by the occasional outbreaks and the sensational 
rumors that were current in the east. The third 
great interruption to Nebraska's growth was 
from the grasshopper raids of the "seventies." 
Fourth, the drouth and consequent failure of 
crops which occurred about 1894 proved a serious 
set-back to Nebraska as well as to the entire 
western country. 

These, however, may all be justly considered as 
being the usual and ordinary set-backs that must 
be met in the development of any new country. 
With these exceptions it may be said that the for- 
ward progress of the state has been steady and 
rapid. The seasons have come and gone, leaving 
bountiful crops to enrich and supply the wants of 
all, and prosperity reigns supreme throughout 
the length and breadth of the state. The changes 
that have been wrought are truly marvelous, and 
as these things of only half a century are contem- 
plated, one can scarcely realize or comprehend 
that the wonderful results of time 's marvel-work- 
ing hand are the achievements of a period so 
brief as to be within the remembrance of men 
who are still living. Turn back, as it were, the 
leaves of time's great book to but a half century 
ago, and the stranger would have gazed upon a 
landscape of great beauty, selected by the red 
men as their camping ground, with that singular 
appreciation of the beautiful which nature made 
an instinct in the savage. These vast and rolling 
prairies were as green then as now; the prairie 
flowers bloomed as thickly and diffused their 
fragrance as bountifully. It was the home of the 
red man with scarcely a trace of civilization. 
But today, what a contrast ! Then all was as na- 
ture had formed it with its varigated hues of 
vegetation — in winter a dreary snow-mantled 
desert, in summer a perfect paradise of flowers. 
Now all traces of the primitive are obliterated. 
In place of the tall prairie grass and mangled 
underbrush one beholds the rich, waving fields of 



golden grain. In place of the dusky warriors' 
rude eabins are the substantial and often elegant 
dwellings of the thrifty farmers, and the "iron 
horse," swifter than the nimble deer, treads the 
pathway so recently the trail of the red man. 
Cities and villages, the peer of those which have 

been centuries in building, have sprung up as if 
by magic ; civilization and progress are apparent 
on every hand: schools and churches adorn the 
former prairies, and the result is a prosperous 
land filled with an enterprising, intelligent and 
happy people. 





In 1851 and 1852 the first effort was made to 
erect a territory west of Missouri and Iowa, which 
was abortive, and the matter did not reach a vote 
in congress. At the next session, 1852-53, Willard 
P. Hall, of Missouri, on December 13, 1852, offered 
a bill in the house of representatives organizing 
the territory of "Platte," which included in its 
area what is now the greater part of Nebraska, 
the northern limit of the region being generally 
described as "the Platte river." The bill was re- 
ferred to the committee on territories. From that 
committee William A. Richardson, of Illinois, re- 
ported a bill organizing the territory of Nebras- 
ka, covering the same area. The report did not 
meet with the approval of the southern members, 
and they made such a fight on it that the report 
presented recommended that the bill be rejected. 
Notwithstanding the objections, however, the bill 
passed the house by a vote of 98 to 43, February 
10, 1853. Now began the contest which became 
notorious in the history of the nation. The bill 
went to the senate heralded by pro-slavery blasts 
of warning. There was organized secretly a sys- 
tem to prevent free soil from becoming a new ter- 
ritory unless a similar tract of slave soil should 
be set off as a counterpoise in the national legis- 
lature, for to admit a free territory without one 
dedicated to slavery was to give the anti-slavery 
faction a political lever that might be used 
against the south. The bill reached the senate, 
where it was moved to "lay it on the table." 
This defeated the bill by a vote of 23 to 17, the 
senators from the slave states, with the exception 
of those from Missouri, were solidly arrayed 
against the bill. 

In the meantime the people of Iowa and many 
localities in the west had manifested their disap- 
proval of the lines described in the bill, and they 
began to impatiently insist that the country west 
of the Missouri river be opened to settlement. 
Thousands of emigrants were camping along the 

eastern banks of the Missouri, impatiently await- 
ing the extinguishment of the Indian title to 
lands, and were awaiting the permission of the 
general government to cross over and settle in 
the new territory. And to that end in the fall of 
1853 a considerable number of persons crossed 
the Missouri from Iowa, and, assembling at Belle- 
vue and Old Fort Kearney, proceeded to hold an 
election for a delegate to represent their inter- 
ests at "Washington in securing a territorial or- 
ganization. Said election was held on the 11th 
of October, 1853, and resulted in the unanimous 
choice of Hon. Hadley D. Johnson, a prominent 
lawyer and leading citizen of Council Bluffs, 

On the 14th of December, 1853, a bill was intro- 
duced in the senate by Augustus C. Dodge, sena- 
tor from Iowa, providing for the organization of 
the "Territory of Nebraska." This measure ad- 
hered to the former boundaries, and it was re- 
ferred to the committee on territories. The bill 
contained no clause interfering with the interdict 
on slavery in this region laid down by the Mis- 
souri compromise. The report of this committee 
contains so much information concerning the sit- 
uation at that time that we quote the following 
from it, viz: "A question has arisen in regard 
to the right to hold slaves in the territory of Ne- 
braska when the Indian laws shall be withdrawn 
and the country opened to emigration and settle- 
ment. By the eighth section of an act to author- 
ize the people of Missouri territory to form a con- 
stitution and state government, and for the ad- 
mission of such state into the union on an equal 
footing with the original states, and to prohibit 
slavery in certain territories, approved March 6, 
1820, it was provided: 'That in all that territory 
ceded by France to the United States under the 
name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty-six 
and one-half degrees north latitude, not included 
within the limits of the state contemplated by this 
act, slavery and involuntary servitude otherwise 
than a punishment of crimes shall be and hereby 
are prohibited; provided always that any person 



escaping into the same, etc., such fugitive may be 
lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person 
or persons claiming his or her labor or service as 
aforesaid. ' Under this section, as in the case of the 
Mexican law in New Mexico and Utah, it is a dis- 
puted point whether slavery is prohibited in the 
Nebraska country by valid enactment. The de- 
cision of this question involves the constitutional 
power of congress to pass laws prescribing and 
regulating the domestic institutions of the various 
territories of the union. In the opinion of these 
eminent statesmen who hold that congress is in- 
vested with no rightful authority to legislate upon 
the subject of slavery in the territories, the eighth 
section of the act preparatory to the admission of 
Missouri is null and void, while the prevailing 
sentiment in large portions of the union sustains 
the doctrine that the constitution of the United 
States secures to every citizen an inalienable right 
to move into any of the territories with his prop- 
erty of whatever kind and description, and to hold 
and enjoy the same, your committee do not feel 
themselves called upon to enter the discussion of 
these controverted questions. They involve the 
same grave issues which produced the agitation, 
the sectional strife and fearful struggle of 1850. 
As congress deemed it wise and prudent to refrain 
from deciding the matter in controversey then * 
* *so your committee are not prepared to recom- 
mend a departure from the course pursued on that 
memorable occasion, either by affirming or repeal- 
ing the eighth section of the Missouri act, or by 
any act declaratory of the meaning of the constitu- 
tion in respect to the legal points in dispute. It is 
apparent that the compromise measures of 1850 
affirm and rest upon the following propositions: 
First, that all questions pertaining to slavery in 
the territories and the new states to be formed 
therefrom are to be left to the people residing 
therein. ' ' 

When the report of the committee was present- 
ed Archibald Dixon, of Kentucky, gave notice 
that he would, when the bill came up, offer as an 
amendment a clause that the eighth section of the 
Missouri act "shall not be so construed as to ap- 
ply to the territory of Nebraska or to any other 
territory, but that the citizens of the several 
states shall be at liberty to take and hold their 
slaves within any of the territories or states to be 
formed therefrom." This, of course, would have 
annulled the compromise act, and it reopened 
hostilities. It was in the midst of this discussion 
and controversy that Hadley D. Johnson, repre- 
senting the Nebraska people, reached Washing- 
ton. He had no official status, but as representa- 
tive of a large region affected by the measure he 
was admitted to the councils of the committee on 
territories. He had a good deal of influence with 
the committee, and it was mainly through his ef- 
forts that Senator Douglas requested the reeom- 
mital of the bill. On January 23, 1854, a bill re- 
taining the title was offered, but so amended as 
to leave but little of the original document. Two 

territories were now proposed, one to be called 
"Kansas," the other "Nebraska." The amended 
bill contained the following important provisions 
concerning slavery : First, that all questions per- 
taining to slavery in the territories, and -in the 
new states to be formed therefrom, are to be left 
to the decision of the people residing therein, 
through their appropriate representatives. 

Second. That all cases involving the title to 
slaves and questions of personal freedom are re- 
ferred to the adjudication of local tribunals with 
right of appeal to the supreme court of the United 

Third. That the provisions of the constitution 
and laws of the United States in respect to fugi- 
tives from service are to be carried into faithful 
execution in all the original territories, the same 
as in the states. 

The fight that followed over this bill was a 
hotly-contested one. Senator Douglas introduced 
an amendment affirming the principle of non-in- 
tervention by congress, which prevailed. Senator 
Chase moved "that the people of the territory 
may, if they see fit, prohibit the existence of slav- 
ery therein. ' ' This was voted down. The contest 
and debate that followed was one of the most 
notable in the history of the country. It is not 
necessary to follow it in detail in this connection. 
So far as the destiny of Nebraska is concerned it 
is only necessary to say that the senate passed 
the amended bill by a vote of 37 to 14 on March 
3, 1854. In May a bill was passed by the liouse, 
in form as an original measure, although it was in 
essence the amended senate bill. This was 
sent to the senate May 24, and was passed. The 
bill was approved by President Pierce May 30, 
1854. The territory embraced 351,558 square 
miles, extending from the fortieth parallel of 
north latitude to the British possessions on the 
north, and from the Missouri river on the east to 
the summit of the Rocky mountains on the west. 
The creation of the territory of Colorado, Febru- 
ary 28, 1861, decreased the area by 16,035 square 
miles, and the creation of the territory of Dako- 
ta, March 2, 1867, further diminished the area by 
228,907 square miles. At one time a triangular 
tract of 15,378 square miles was attached from 
Washington and Utah territories, lying on the 
southwest slope of the Rocky mountains, but this 
was afterwards included in the 45,999 square 
miles which went to form the territory of Idaho, 
March 3, 1863. 


The following is the full text of the organic act 
which created the territory of Nebraska: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of 
Representatives of the United States of America, 
in Congress Assembled, That all that part of the 
territory of the United States included within the 
following limits, except such portions thereof as 
are hereafter expressly exempted from the opera- 
tions of this act, to-wit : Beginning at a point ou 



the Missouri river where the fortieth parallel of 
north latitude crosses the same, thence west on 
said parallel to the east boundary of the teriitory 
of Utah on the summit of the Rocky mountains, 
thence on said summit northward to the forty- 
ninth parallel of north latitude, thence east on 
said parallel to the western bouudai'y of the ter- 
ritory of Minnesota, thence southward on said 
boundary to the Missouri river, thence down the 
main channel of said river to the place of begin- 
ning, be and the same is hereby created into a 
temporary government by the name of the Terri- 
tory of Nebraska, and when admitted as a state 
or states, the said territorj' or any portion of the 
same shall be received into the union with or 
without slavery as their constitution may pre- 
scribe at the time of their admission; provided, 
that nothing in this act contained shall be con- 
strued to inhibit the government of the United 
States from dividing said territory into two or 
more territories in such a manner and at such a 
time as congress shall deem convenient and prop- 
er, or from attaching any portion of said territory 
to any other state or territory of the United States. 
Provided further, that nothing in this act con- 
tained shall be construed to impair the rights of 
person or property now pertaining to the Indians 
in said territory so long as such rights shall re- 
main unextinguished by treaty between the 
United States and such Indians, or to include any 
territory which by treaty with any Indian tribe is 
not, without the consent of said tribe, to be in- 
cluded within the territorial limits or jurisdiction 
of any state or territory, but all such territory 
shall be excepted out of the boundaries and con- 
stitute no part of the territory of Nebraska until 
said tribe shall signify their assent to the presi- 
dent of the United States to be included within 
said territory of Nebraska, or to affect the au- 
thority of the government of the United States to 
make any regulations respecting any such In- 
dians, their lands, property or other rights by 
treaty, law or otherwise, which it would have 
been competent for the government to make if 
this act had never been passed. 

See. 2. And be it further enacted. That the 
executive power and authority in and over said 
territory of Nebraska shall be vested in a govern- 
or who shall hold his office for four years, and 
imtil his successor shall be appointed and quali- 
fied, unless sooner removed by the president of 
the United States. The governor shall reside 
within said territory, and shall be commander-in- 
chief of the militia thereof. He may grant par- 
dons and respites for offenses against the laws of 
said territory, and reprieves for offenses against 
the laws of the United States until the decision 
of the president can be made known thereon. He 
shall commission all officers who shall be appoint- 
ed to office under the laws of said territory, and 
shall take care that the laws shall be faithfully 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That there 

shall be a secretary of said territory who shall re- 
side therein, and hold his office for five years un- 
less sooner removed by the president of the United 
States. He shall record and preserve all tht? laws 
and proceedings of the legislative assembly here- 
inafter constituted, and all the acts and proceed- 
ings of the governor in his executive department. 
He shall transmit one copy of the laws and jour- 
nals of the legislative assembly within thirty days 
after the end of each session, and one copy of the 
executive procedings and official correspondence 
semi-annually on the first days of January and 
July of each year, to the president of the United 
States, and two copies of the laws to the president 
of the senate and to the speaker of the house of 
representatives to be deposited in the libraries of 
congress. And in case of the death, removal, 
resignation or absence of the governor from the 
territory, the secretary shall be and he is hereby 
authorized and required to execute and perform 
all the powers and duties of the governor dur- 
ing such vacancy or absence, or until another 
governor shall be duly appointed and qualified to 
fill such vacancy. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted. That the 
legislative power and authority of said territory 
shall be vested in the governor and a legislative 
assembly. The legislative assembly shall consist 
of a council and house of representatives. The 
council shall consist of thirteen members having 
the qualification of voters as hereinafter pre- 
scribed, whose term of service shall continue two 
years. The house of representatives shall, at its 
first session, consist of twenty-six membei-s, pos- 
sessing the same qualifications as prescribed for 
members of the council, and whose term of service 
shall continue one year. The number of repre- 
sentatives may be increased by the legislative 
assembly from time to time in proportion to the 
increase of qualified voters; provided, that the 
whole number shall never exceed thirty-nine. An 
apportionment shall be made as nearly equal as 
practicable, among the several counties or dis- 
tricts for the election of the council and represen- 
tatives, giving to each section of the territory rep- 
resentation in the ratio of its qualified voters as 
nearly as may be. And the members of the coun- 
cil and of the house of representatives shall reside 
in, and be inhabitants of, the district or county 
or counties for which they may be elected, re- 
spectivley. Previous to the first election, the gov- 
ernor shall cause a census or enumeration of the 
inhabitants and qualified voters of the several 
counties and districts of the territory to be taken 
by such persons and in such mode as the governor 
shall designate and appoint, and the persons so 
appointed shall receive a reasonable compensa- 
tion thei'efor. And the first election shall be held 
at such time and places, and be conducted in such 
a manner, both as to the persons who shall super- 
intend such election and the returns thereof, as 
the governor shall appoint and direct; and he 
shall at the same time declare the number of mem- 


bers of the council and house of representatives 
to which each of the counties or districts shall be 
entitled under this act. The persons having the 
highest number of legal votes in each of said coun- 
cil districts for members of the council shall be de- 
clared by the governor to be duly elected to the 
council; and the persons having the highest num- 
ber of legal votes for the house of representatives 
shall be declared by the governor to be duly elect- 
ed members of said house : Provided, That in case 
two or more persons voted for shall have an equal 
number of votes, and in case a vacancy shall 
otherwise occur in either branch of the legisla- 
tive assembly, the governor shall order a new 
election; and the persons thus elected to the leg- 
islative assembly shall meet at such place and on 
such day as the governor shall appoint ; but there- 
after, the time, place and manner of holding and 
conducting all elections by the people, and the 
apportioning the representation in the several 
counties or districts to the council and house of 
representatives, according to the number of quali- 
fied voters, shall be perscribed by law, as well as 
the day of the commencement of the regular ses- 
sions of the legislative assembly: Provided, That 
no session in any one year shall exceed the term 
of forty days, except the first session, which may 
continue sixty days. 

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted. That every 
free white male inhabitant above the age of 
twenty-one years, who shall be an actual resident 
of said territory, and shall possess the qualifica- 
tions hereinafter described, shall be entitled to 
vote at the first election, and shall be eligible to 
any office within the said territory ; but the quali- 
fications of voters, and of holding office, at all 
subsequent elections, shall be such as shall be 
prescribed by the legislative assembly : Provided, 
That the right of suft'rage and of holding office 
shall be exercised only by citizens of the United 
States, and those who shall have declared on oath 
their intention to become such, and shall have 
taken an oath to support the constiution of the 
United States and the provisions of this act. And 
pi-ovided further. That no officer, soldier, seaman 
or marine, or other person in the army or navy 
of the United States, or attached to troops in the 
service of the United States, shall be allowed to 
vote or hold office in said territory, by reason of 
being on service therein. 

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted. That the 
legislative power of the territory shall extend 
to all rightful subjects of legislation consistent 
with the constitution of the United States and the 
provisions of this act ; but no law shall be passed 
interfering with the primary disposal of the soil ; 
no tax shall be imposed upon the property of the 
United States; nor shall the lands or other pro- 
perty of non-residents be taxed higher than the 
lands or other property of residents. Every bill 
which shall have passed the council and house 
of representatives of the said territory shall, be- 
fore it becomes a law, be presented to the governor 

of the territory; if he approve, he shall sign it; 
but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, 
to the house in which it originated, who shall 
enter the objections at large on its journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsi- 
deration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to 
pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the 
objections, to the other house, by which it shall 
likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two- 
thirds of that house it shall become a law. But 
in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be 
determined by yeas and nays, to be entered on 
the journal of each house respectively. If any 
bill shall not be returned by the governor within 
three days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law 
in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the 
assembly, by adjournment, prevent its return, in 
which case it shall not be a law. 

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted. That all 
township, district and county officers, not herein 
otherwise provided for, shall be appointed or 
elected, as the case may be, in such manner as 
shall be provided by the governor and legislative 
assembly of the territory of Nebraska. The gov- 
ernor shall nominte, and, by and with the advice 
and consent of the legislative council, appoint all 
officers not herein otherwise provided for; and 
in the first instance the governor alone may ap- 
point all said officers, who shall hold their offices 
until the end of the first session of the legislative 
assembly ; and shall lay off the necessary districts 
for members of the council and house of represen- 
tatives and all other officers. 

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That no 
member of the legislative assembly shall hold, 
or be appointed to, any office which shall have 
been created, or the salary or emoluments of 
which shall have been increased, while he was 
a member, during the term from which he was 
elected, and for one year after the expiration of 
such term; but this restriction shall not be ap- 
plicable to members of the first legislative assem- 
bly; and no person holding a commission or ap- 
pointment under the United States, except post- 
masters, shall be a member of the legislative as- 
sembly, or hold any office under the government 
of said territory. 

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted. That the 
judicial power of said territory shall be invested 
in a supreme court, district courts, probate courts, 
and in justices of the peace. The supreme court 
shall consist of a chief justice and two associate 
justices, any two of whom shall constitute a 
quorum, and who shall hold a term at the seat of 
government of said territory annually, and they 
shall hold their offices during the period of four 
years, and until their successors shall be appoint- 
ed and qualified. The said territory shall be di- 
vided into three judicial districts, and a district 
court shall be held in each of said districts by 
one of the justices of the supreme court, at such 
times and places as shall be prescribed by law; 

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and the said judges shall, after their appoint- 
ments, respectively reside in the districts which 
shall be assigned them. The jurisdiction of the 
several courts herein provided for, both appellate 
and original, and that of the probate courts and 
justices of the peace, shall be as limited by law: 
Provided, That justices of the peace shall not 
have jurisdiction of any matter in controversy 
when the title or boundaries of land may be' in 
dispute, or where the debt or sum claimed shall 
exceed $100; and the said supreme and district 
courts, respectively, shall possess chancery as 
well as common law jurisdiction. Each district 
court, or the judge thereof, shall appoint its clerk, 
who shall also be register in chancery, and shall 
keep his oifiee at the place where the court may 
be held. "Writs of erroi', bills of exception and 
appeals shall be allowed in all cases from the 
final decisions of said district courts to the su- 
preme court, under such regulations as may be 
prescribed by law ; but in no case removed to the 
supreme court shall trial by jury be allowed in 
said court. The supreme court, or justices there- 
of, shall appoint its own clerk, and every clerk 
shall hold his office at the pleasure of the court 
for which he shall have been appointed. Writs 
of error, and appeals from the final decisions of 
said supreme court, shall be allowed, and may be 
taken to the supreme court of the United States, 
in the same manner and under the same regula- 
tions as from the circuit courts of the United 
States, where the value of the property, or the 
amount in controversy, to be ascrtained by the 
oath or affirmation of either party, or other com- 
petent witness, shall exceed $1,000; except only 
that in all cases involving title to slaves, the said 
writs of error or appeals shall be allowed and de- 
cided by the supreme court, without regard to the 
value of the matter, property or title in contro- 
versy; and except also that a writ of error or 
appeal shall also be allowed to the supreme court 
of the United States, from the decision of the said 
supreme court created by this act, or of any judge 
thereof, or of the district courts created by this 
act, or of any judge thereof, upon any writ of 
habeas corpus involving the question of personal 
freedom. Provided, That nothing herein con- 
tained shall be construed to apply to or affect 
the provisions of the "act respecting fugitives 
from justice, and persons escaping from the ser- 
vice of their masters," approved February 12, 
1793, and the "act to amend and suplementary 
to the aforesaid act," approved September 18, 
1850; and each of the said district courts shall 
have and exercise the same jurisdiction in all 
cases arising under the constiution and laws of 
the United States as is vested in the circuit and 
district courts of the United States ; and the said 
supreme and district courts of the said territory, 
and the respective judges thereof, shall and may 
grant writs of habeas corpus in all cases on which 
the same are granted by the judges of the United 
States in the District of Columbia; and the first 

six days of every term of said courts, or so much 
thereof as shall be necessary, shall be appropriat- 
ed to the trial of causes arising under the said 
constitution and laws, and writs of error and ap- 
peal in all such cases shall be made to the su- 
preme court of said territory, the same as in 
other cases. The said clerk shall receive in all 
such cases the same fees which the clerks of the 
district eurts of Utah territory now receive for 
similar services. 

Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That the 
provisions of an act entitled "an act respecting 
fugitives from justice, and persons escaping from 
the service of their masters," approved Febru- 
ary 12, 1793, and the provisions of the act en- 
titled "an act to amend, and supplementary to, 
the aforesaid act," approved September 18, 1850, 
be, and the same are hereby declared to extend 
to and be in full force within the limits of safd 
territory of Nebraska. 

Sec. 11. And be it further enacted. That there 
shall be appointed an attorney for said territory, 
who shall continue in office for four years, and un- 
til his successor shall be appointed and qualified, 
unless sooner removed by the president, and who 
shall receive the same fees and salary as the attor- 
ney for the United States for the present territory 
of Utah. There shall also be a marshal for the ter- 
ritory appointed, who shall hold his office for 
four years, and until his successor shall be ap- 
pointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by 
the president, and who shall execute all processes 
issuing from the said courts when exercising their 
jurisdiction as circuit and district courts of the 
United States; he shall perform the duties, be 
subject to tli£ same regulations and penalties, 
and be entitled to the same fees, as the marshal 
of the district court of the United States for the 
present territory of Utah; and shall, in addition, 
be paid $200 anuually as a compensation for 
extra service. 

Sec. 12. And be it further enacted, That the 
governor, secretary, chief justice and associate 
justices, attorney and marshal shall be nominated, 
and, by and with the advice and consent of the 
senate, appointed by the president of the United 
States. The governor and secretary to be ap- 
pointed as aforesaid shall, before they act as 
such, respectively take an oath or affirmation 
before the district judge, or some justice of the 
peace in the limits of said territory duly authoriz- 
ed to administer oaths and affirmations by the 
laws now in force therein, or before the chief 
justice or some associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States, to support the con- 
stitution of the United States and faithfully to 
discharge the duties of tlieir respective offices, 
which said oaths, when so taken, shall be certi- 
fied by the person by whom the same shall have 
been "taken; and such certificates shall be re- 
ceived and recorded by the said secretary, among 
the executive proceedings; and the chief justice 
and associate justices, and all other civil "" 



in said territory, before they act as such, shall 
take a like oath or affirmation before tlie said 
governor or secretary, or some judge or justice 
of the peace of the territory, who may be duly 
commissioned and qualified, which said oath or 
affirmation shall be certified and transmitted by 
the person taking the same to the secretary, to be 
by him recorded as aforesaid ; and afterward the 
like oath or affirmation shall be taken, certified 
and recorded, in such manner and form as may 
be prescribed by law. The governor shall receive 
an annual salary of $2,500. The chief justice and 
associate justices shall each recieve an annual 
salary of $2,000. The secretary shall receive an 
annual salary of $2,000. The said salaries shall 
be paid quarter-yearly, from the dates of the 
respective appointments, at the treasury of the 
United States; but no such payments shall be 
made until said officers shall have entered upon 
the duties of their respective appointments. The 
members of the legislative assembly shall be en- 
titled to $3 each, per day, during their atten- 
dance at the sessions thereof, and $3 each for 
evei-y twenty miles' travel in going to and re- 
turning from the said sessions, estimated accord- 
ing to the nearest usually traveled route, and an 
additional alowance of $3 shall be paid to the 
presiding officer of each house for each day he 
shall so preside. And a chief clerk, and assis- 
tant clerk, a sergeant-at-arms and doorkeeper, 
may be chosen for each house; and the chief 
clerk shall recieve $4 per day, and the said other 
officers $3 per day, during the session of the leg- 
islative assembly; but no other officer shall be 
paid by the United States : Provided, That there 
shall be but one session of the legislature an- 
nually, unless on an extraordinary occasion the 
governor shall think proper to call the legisla- 
ture together. There shall be appropriated, an- 
nually, the usual sum, to be expended by the gov- 
ernor, to defray the contingent expenses of the 
territory, including the salary of a clerk of the 
executive department ; and there shall also be ap- 
propriated annually a sufficient sum, to be ex- 
pended by the secretary of the territory, and upon 
an estimate to be made by the secretary of the 
treasury of the United States, to defray the ex- 
penses of the legislative assembly, the printing of 
laws, and other incidental expenses ; and the gov- 
ernor and serectary of the territory shall, in the 
disbursement of all moneys intrusted to them, 
be governed solely by the instructions of the 
secretary of the treasury of the United States, and 
shall, semi-annually, account to the said 
secretary for the manner in which the aforesaid 
moneys shall have been expended; and no expen- 
ditures shall be made by said legislative assembly 
for objects not specially authorized by the acts of 
congress making the appropriations, nor beyond 
I he sums thus appropriated for such objects. 

Sec. 13. And be it further enacted. That the 
legislative assembly of the territory of Nebraska 
shall hold its first session at such time and place 

in said territory as the governor thereof shall 
appoint and direct; and at the said first session, 
or as soon thereafter as they shall deem expedi- 
ent, the governor and legislative assembly shall 
proceed to locate and establish the seat of govern- 
ment for said territory at such place as they may 
deem eligible ; which place, however, shall there- 
after he subject to be changed by the said gover- 
nor and legislative assembly. 

Sec. 14. And be it further enacted. That a 
delegate to the house of representatives, of the 
United States, to serve for the term of two years, 
who shall be a citizen of the United States, may 
be elected by the voters qualified to elect mem- 
bers of the legislative assembly, who shall be 
entitled to the same rights and privileges as are 
exercised by the delegates from the several other 
territories of the United States to the said house 
of representatives; but the delegate first elected 
shall hold his seat only during the term of con- 
gress to which he shall be elected. The first elec- 
tion shall be held at such time and places, and be 
conducted in such manner, as the governor shall 
appoint and direct; and at all subsequent elee 
tions the times, places and manner of holding the 
elections shall be prescribed by law. The person 
having the geatest number of votes shall be de- 
clared by the governr to be duly elected, and a 
certificate thej'of shall be given accordingly. 
That the constiution and laws of the United 
States which are not locally inapplicable shall 
have the same force and efi^ect within the said ter- 
ritory of Nebraska as elsewhere within the United 
States, except the eighth section of the act pre- 
paratory to the admission of Missouri into the 
Union, approved March 6, 1820, which being in- 
consistent with the principles of nonintervention 
by congress with slavery in the states and terri- 
tories, as recognized by the legislation of 1850, 
commonly called the compromise measures, is 
hereby declared inoperative and void, it being 
the true intent and meaning of this act not to 
legislate slavery into any territory or state nor 
to exclude it therefrom, but leave the people 
thereof perfectly free to form and regulate their 
domestic institutions in their own way, subject 
only to the constitution of the United States: 
Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be 
construed to revive or put in force any law or 
regulation which may have existed prior to the 
act of 6th March, 1820, either protecting, estab- 
lishing, prohibiting or abolishing slavery. 

Sec. 15. And be it further enacted. That there 
shall hereafter be appropriated, as has been cus- 
tomary for the territorial governments, a suffi- 
cient amount, to be expended under the direc- 
tion of the said governor of the territory of Ne- 
braska, not exceeding the sums heretofore ap- 
propriated for similar objects, for the erection 
of suitable public buildings at the seat of govern- 
ment, and for the purchase of a library, to be 
kept at the seat of government, for the use of the 
governor, legislative assembly, judges of the 


supreme court, secretary, marshal, attorney of 
said territorj^ and such other persons, and under 
such regulations, as shall be prescribed by law. 
Sec. 16. And be it further enacted, That when 
the lands in the said territory shall be surveyed 
under the direction of the government of the 
United States, preparatory to bringing the same 
into market, sections number 16 to 36 in each 
township in said territory sha![ be and the same 
are hereby reserved for the purpose of being ap- 
plied to schools in said territory, and in the states 
and territories hereafter to be erected out of the 

Sec. 17. And be it further enacted, That, until 
otherwise provided by law, the governor of said 
territory may define the judicial districts of said 
territory, and assign the judges who may be ap- 
pointed for said territory to the several districts ; 
and also appoint the times and places for holding 
courts in the several counties or subdivisions in 
each of said judicial districts by proclamation, to 
be issued by him ; but the legislative assembly, at 
their first or any subsequent session, may or- 
ganize, alter or modify such judicial districts; 
and assign the judges, and alter the times and 
places of holding the courts, as to them shall seem 
proper and convenient. 

Sec. 18. And be it further enacted. That all 
officers to be appointed by the president, by and 
with the advice and consent of the senate, for the 
territory of Nebraska, who, by virtue of the pro- 
visions of any law now existing, or which may 
be enacted during the present congress, are re- 
quired to give security for moneys that may be 
intrusted with them for disbursement, shall give 
such security, at such time and place and in such 
manner as the secretary of the territory may 

Approved May 30, 1854. 

The first territorial officers were appointed 
under the provisions of the organic act, by Presi- 
dent Pierce, as follows: Francis Burt, of South 
Carolina, governor; Thomas B. Cuming, of Iowa, 
secretary; Tenner Ferguson, of Michigan, chief 
justice ; James Bradley, of Indiana, and Edwin 
R. Hardin, of Georgia, associate justices; Mark 
W. Izard, of Arkansas, marshal and Experience 
Estabrook, of Wisconsin, attorney. Governor Burt 
reached the territory, in ill health, on the 6th of 
October, 1854, and proceeded to Bellevue, where 
he was the guest of Rev. Wm. J. Hamilton at the 
Old Mission house. His illness proved of a fatal 
character, and he sank rapidly until his death, 
which occurred October 18, 1854. 

"With the death of Governor Burt the duties 
of organizing the territorial government de- 
volved upon Secretary Cuming, who, by virtue of 
his office, became acting governor. The first 
official act performed in the territory by an ex- 
ecutive officer was the issuance by Governor 
Cuming of the following proclamation: 

"It has seemed good to an all-wise Providence 
to remove from the territory by the hand of 

death its chief magistrate. Governor Francis Burt. 
He departed this life this morning at the Mission 
House in Bellevue, after an illness protracted 
since his arrival, during which he received the 
most faithful medical aid and assiduous attention. 
His remains will be conveyed, on Friday next, to 
his home in Pendleton, South Carolina, attended 
by a suitable escort. In this afflictive dispensa- 
tion, as a mark of respect and affection for the 
lamented and distinguished executive and a sign 
of the public sorrow, the national colors within 
the territory will be draped in mourning, and the 
territorial officers will wear crape upon the left 
arm for thirty days from date. 

"Given under my hand at Bellevue, Nebraska 
Territory, this 18th day of October, A. D., 1854. 
(Signed) T. B. Cuming, Acting Governor of Ne- 

The official headquarters remained at Belle- 
vue until the assembling of the first territorial 
legislature in January, 1855, when Omaha be- 
came the seat of government. The machinery 
of the territorial government was set in motion 
in 1854. In October the acting governor issued 
a proclamation, by virtue of which the first cen- 
sus was taken. It was completed November 20, 
1854, and gave the territory a total population 
of 2,732. Of this number 13 were reported as 
being slaves. There were 929 white males over 
twenty-one years of age reported. Immediately 
after the census was completed, an election was 
held, at which a delegate to congress and mem- 
bers of the first territorial legislature were 

The territory was divided into eight counties, 
viz: Burt, Washington, Dodge, Douglas, Cass, 
Pierce, Forney and Richardson. 

Burt county was bounded as follows: Com- 
mencing at a point on the Missouri river two miles 
above Fort Calhoun, thence westwardly, crossing 
the Elkhorn river one hundred and twenty miles 
to the west boundary of lands ceded to the 
United States, thence northerly to Mauvaise 
river and along the east bank of the same to Eau 
Qui Court or Running Water, thence easterly to 
the Aaoway river and along the south bank of it 
to its mouth, and thence southerly along the Mis- 
souri river to the place of beginning. This coun- 
ty M'as sub-divided into two voting precincts — 
one called the Tekamah precinct, at the house of 
General John B. Robinson, who with W. N. Byers 
and B. R. Folsom formed the board of election, 
W. W. Maynard and N. C. Purple clerks, and the 
second precinct called Black Bird, located at the 
Black Bird house, with Frederick Buck, Dr. Shel- 
ley and John A. Lafi'erty, judges, and Lorenzo 
Driggs and William Sherman, clerks. 

Washington county was bounded as follows: 
Commencing at a point on the Missouri river one 
mile north of Omaha City, thence due west to the 
dividing ridge between the Elkliorn and Missouri 
rivers, thence northwesterly tAventy miles to the 
Elkhorn river, thence easterly to a i^oint on the 



Missouri i-iver, two miles above Port Calhoun, and 
thence southerly along said river to the place of 
beginning. There was one precinct of voting in 
this county. It was at the postoffiee at Florence, 
or "Winter Quarters." Anselam Arnold, Charles 
How and William Bryant were appointed judges 
of election, and Henry Springer and William 
More; clerks. 

Dodge county was bounded as follows: Com- 
mencing at a point on the Platte river twenty 
miles west of Bellevue, thence westerly along 
Platte river to the mouth of Shell creek, thence 
north twenty-five miles, thence east to the divid- 
ing ridge betAveen the Elkhorn and Missouri riv- 
ers, thence southerly to the place of begin- 
ning. The voting place was at the house of Dr. 
M. H. Clark in Fontenelle precinct. The judges 
of election were William Kline, Christopher S. 
Leiber and William S. Estley; the clerks, William 
Taylor and E. G. MeNeely. 

Douglas county was bounded as follows : Com- 
mencing at the mouth of the Platte river, thence 
north along the west bank of the Missouri river 
to a point one mile north of Omaha City, thence 
west along the south boundary of Washington 
county twenty miles, thence south to the Platte 
river, and thence east to the place of beginning. 
Two precincts or places of voting were established 
— one at the brick building at Omaha City and 
the other at the Mission house at Bellevue. David 
Lindley, T. G. Goodwill and Chas. B. Smith were 
appointed judges of election, and M. C. Gaylord 
and Dr. Pattee clerks, in the Omaha precinct. 
Isaiah Bennett, D. E. Reed and Thomas Morton 
were appointel judges of election, and G. Hol- 
lister and Silas A. Strickland clerks, in the Belle- 
vue precinct. 

Cass county was bounded on the north by the 
Platte, east by the Missouri, south by the Weep- 
ing Water river to its headwaters, thence wester- 
ly to the west boundary of lands ceded to the 
United States, and thence by said boundary 
northward to the Platte. Two precincts were 
named — one at the house of Colonel Thompson, 
the Kenosha precinct, with J. S. Griffith, Thomas 
B. Ashley and L. Young judges, Benjamin B. 
Thompson and William H. Davis clerks; the 
other at the house of Samuel Martin, with James 
O'Neil Thomas P. Palmer and Stephen Willes 
judges, and T. S. Gaskill and Levi G. Todd clerks. 

Pierce county (now Otoe) was bounded as fol- 
lows: Commencing at the mouth of Weeping 
Water river on the Missouri, thence westward 
to its headwaters, thence due west to the 
west boundary of lands ceded to the United 
States (one hundred miles)-, thence south twenty 
miles to the north line of Farney county, thence 
due east along the Farney county line to Camp 
creek and along the north bank of said creek to 
the Missouri river, thence northward along the 
I'iver to the place of beginning. The single pre- 
cinct was located at the house of Major H. P. 
Downs. The judges were William C. Fowlkes, 

Simeon Hargous and Henry Bradford; the clerks 
were James H. Cowles and James H. Decker. 

Forney county (now Nemaha) was bounded as 
follows: Commencing at the mouth of Camp 
creek, thence to the headwaters of the same, thence 
due west to a point sixty miles from the Missouri 
river, thence due south twenty miles, thence east 
to the headwaters of the Little Nemaha river, 
thence along said river to the Missouri, following 
the Missouri northerly to the place of beginning. 
One voting precinct, known as Brownville, was 
established at the house of Richard Brown. 
Richard Brown, Allen L. Coate and Israel Cum- 
ing were appointed judges of election, and A. .F. 
Benedict and Stephen Sloan clerks. 

Richardson county was bounded as follows: 
Commencing at the northwest corner of the 
"Half -Breed Tract," thence westerly along the 
Little Nemaha river, thence westerly to a point 
sixty miles west of the Missouri river, thence 
south to the fortieth parallel, the boundary be- 
tween Kansas and Nebraska, thence east to the 
Missouri river, thence north along the Missouri 
and west ten miles to the southwest corner of the 
"Half-Breed Tract," thence north to the place 
of beginning. Two precincts were designated — 
one at the house of William Level in precinct No. 
1, with John Purket, Robert T. Archer and James 
M. Roberts judges, William V. Soper and John 
A. Singleton clerks. Precinct No. 2 wa.3 at the 
house of Christian Bobst, with Henry Shellhorn, 
Henry Abrams and William J. Burns judges, 
Christian Bobst and W. L. Soper clerks. 

Another county designated as Jones county was 
to be created under the first division of the terri- 
tory, but certain irregularities in the surveys de- 
cided Marshal Izard to report adversely to the 
measure. This county would have included the 
southernmost section of the territory from sixty 
miles west of the Missouri river westward, from 
the north corner of Richardson county as then 
established along the Platte, to the one hundred 
and third degree of west longitude, thence along 
the southwest boundary of Richardson county. 

Another county composed of what is now Sar- 
py (then commonly spoken of as the "burnt dis- 
trict") was designated under the name of Oma- 
ha, but for some reason no official promulgation 
of its creation was made, and the section became 
a part of Douglas county. 

The following apportionment of councilmen 
and representatives was made in accordance with 
the census returns of November 20, 1854, viz : 
Burt county, one councilman, two representa- 
tives; Washington county, one councilman, two 
representatives; Dodge county, one councilman, 
two representatives; Douglas county, four coun- 
cilmen and eight representatives; Cass county, 
one councilman and three representatives; Pierce 
county, three councilmen and five representatives ; 
Forney county, one councilman and two repre- 
sentatives; Richardson county, one councilman 
I and two representatives. The first general elec- 



tion for members of the legislature and a delegate 
to congress was held on December 12, 1854. 

The first territorial legislature convened at 
Omaha January 16, 1855, and the occasion cre- 
ated intense excitement. The official roster of the 
first legislature stood as follows: 

Council. — Richardson county, J. L. Sharp, 
president; Burt county, B. R. Folsom; Washing- 
ton county, J. C. Mitchell; Dodge county, M. H. 
Clark; Douglas county, T. G. Goodwill, A. D. 
Jones, 0. D. Richardson, S. E. Rogers ; Cass coun- 
ty, Luke Nuckolls ; Pierce county, A. H. Bradford, 
H. P. Bennett, C. H. Cowles; Forney county, 
Richard Brown. Officers.— Dr. G. F. Miller, Om- 
aha, chief clerk ; 0. F. Lake, Brownville, assistant 
clerk; S. A. Lewis, Omaha, sergeant-at-arms ; N. 
R. Folsom, doorkeeper. 

House. — Douglas, county, A. J. Hanscom, 
speaker, W. N. Byers, William Clancey, F. Dav- 
idson, Thomas Davis, A. D. Goyer, A. J. Popple- 
ton, Robert Whitted ; Burt county, J. B. Robert- 
son, A. C. Purple ; Washington county, A. Archer, 
A. J. Smith; Dodge county, E. R. Doyle, J. W. 
Richardson ; Cass county, J. M. Latham, William 
Kempton, J. D. H. Thompson ; Pierce county, G. 
Bennett, J. H. Cowles, J. H. Decker, W. H. Hail, 
William Maddox ; Forney county, W. A. Finney, 
J. M. Wood; Richardson county, D. M. Johnson, 
J. A. Singleton. Officers. — J. W. Paddock, chief 
clerk; G. L. Eayre, assistant clerk; J. L. Gibhs, 
sergeant-at-arms; B. B. Thompson, doorkeeper. 

During the first session of the legislature many 
important matters were provided for. The local 
machinery of government was provided for, 
county offices created and the nature and emolu- 
ments thereof fixed, the offices of territorial audi- 
tor, treasurer and librarian fixed. The legislature 
adopted the criminal code of Iowa, with necessary 
alterations, as the code of the territory. Napol- 
eon B. Gidding, who had been elected delegate to 
congress, was instructed to use his influence in 
securing the passage of a homestead law for Ne- 
braska similar to that of New Mexico and Ore- 
gon. Educational affairs received early recogni 
tion. The Simpson University at Omaha, the Ne- 
braska University at Fontenelle, and the Nebras- 
ka City Collegiate and Preparatory Institute 
were incorporated at this first session. Governor I\I. 
W. Izard, who had been appointed governor to 
succeed Governor Burt, deceased, arrived and 
took the oath of office February 23, 1855, and de- 
livered his first formal message to the legislature 
February 27. 

The agitation over the permanent location of 
the state capital at this time was intense. The 
efforts of the Omaha men were crowned with suc- 
cess in the matter of the seat of government. 
Governor Izard appointed James C. Mitchell as 
the sole commissioner to locate the capitol build- 
ing. On the 17th of March Commissioner Mitchell 
reported to the governor that he had that day se- 
lected the center of Capitol Square in Omaha 
City as the site for the edifice. 

One of the measures passed by the first legisla- 
ture was an act adopted March 6, 1855, relative 
to the claims of squatters. At this time the terri- 
tory contained hundreds of would-be settlers who 
were temporarily debarred from becoming legal 
citizens and at the same time owners of the lands 
of their choice because at that period the public 
domain was not fully in the market. The survey 
was begun and prosecuted as speedily as possi- 
ble, but not rapidly enough to gratify the ambi- 
tion of emigrants or the greed of speculators. 
Those men who were determined to remain and 
abide their time were known as "squatters," and 
so numerous was this element that legislation in 
its behalf was enacted as a protection against the 
abhorred class called "claim jumpers," or men 
disposed to violate the unwritten law of the ter- 
ritory. As in all new countries where expressed 
laws were inadequate to insure equity and peace, 
the citizens formed clubs, and through the action 
of those informal but efficient organizations or- 
der was maintained. By this act of March 6, 
1855, it was provided that each claimant might 
hold three hundred and twenty acres when a 
member of a club, which was duly governed by 
established rules, a copy of which was filed with 
the registrar of the county. The clubs were 
vested with certain legislative power for their 
neighborhood. The constitutionality of this act 
was not permitted to be discussed. The clubs 
were a government unto and for themselves, as 
many a wretched man was able to testify after 
daring their wrath. 

The first formal census of the territory was 
taken in 1855 in order that a readjustment of 
legislative representatives might be made. The 
reports from the existing counties showed popu- 
lation as follows: Burt county, 85; Cass, 712; 
Dakota. 86; Dodge, 139; Douglas, 1,028; Nemaha, 
604; Otoe, 1,188; Pawnee, 142; Richardson, 299; 
Washington, 207; total, 4,491. Pierce county 
ceased to exist. The one now bearing that name 
dates from 1859. Dakota county was not accred- 
ited in the legislative proceedings with a repre- 

The second session of the assembly convened 
in Omaha December 18, 1855. The changes in 
the council were: John Evans, Dodge county, 
vice M. H. Clark, deceased ; A. A. Bradford, Otoe 
county (newly-created county), and S. M. Kirk- 
patrick, Cass county, vice Luke Nuckolls. The 
council officers were : B. R. Folsom, president ; E. 
G. McNeely, chief clerk; M. B. Case, assistant 
clerk ; C. W. Pierce, sergeant-at-arms. The house 
roster was: A. D. Kirk, Richardson county; W. 
H. Hoover, Richardson and Nemaha jointly; 
Charles McDonald, Richardson and Pawnee joint- 
ly. The census gave Pawnee county a population 
of one hundred and forty-two, and this, it was 
claimed by some, entitled it to representation. 
After considerable debate, Thomas R. Hare was 
accorded a seat, but he resigned January 11 after 
it became apparent that his presence might in- 



validate the acts of the body since the bill creat- 
ing the territory stipulated that the house should 
be composed of only twenty-six members. The 
remainder of the body was : W. A. Finney, L. A. 
Chambers, Nemaha county; James H. Decker, M. 
W. Riden, J. Sterling Morton, William B. Hail, 
J. C. Campbell, John Boulware, Otoe county; A. 
M. Rose, Otoe and Cass jointly; John F. Buck, 
William Laird, J. McF. Hagood, Cass county; 
George L. Miller, William Larimer Jr., Levi 
Harsh, W. E. Moore, Alexander Davis, Leavitt L. 
Bott-en, Alonzo F. Salisbury, William Clancy, 
Douglas county; P. C. Sullivan, Washington 
county; William B. Beck, Washington and Burt 
jointly, and Thomas Gibson, Dodge county. 

The organization of the house was perfected by 
the election of the following officers : P. C. Sulli- 
van, speaker; H. C. Anderson, chief clerk; I. L. 
Gibbs, assistant clerk; A. S. Bishop, sergeant-at- 
arms; E. B. Chinn, doorkeeper. The auditor's 
first report was submitted which gave a valua- 
tion of the property, real and personal, in the 
territory of $617,822, not including the newer 

A bill providing that counties in the then un- 
inhabited regions should be organized with boun- 
daries of twenty-four miles square without refer- 
ence to the Platte or other streams, was success- 
fully passed. 

The so-called first report of the superintendent 
of public instruction was made under date of 
January 5, 1857, by H. Anderson. The report 
covers two pages of the journal, and is but a 
statement of what should be done rather than 
what had been performed in pursuance of an act 
entitled "Common Schools," approved January 
26, 1856, which act is the origin of the public 
school system of the state. 

January 5, 1857, the third annual session of the 
territorial legislature began. The following 
members composed the council : Douglas county, 
A. F. Salisbury, George L. Miller, S. E. Rogers, 
L. L. Bowen for the northern district ; southern 
district of Douglas, Washington, Burt and Cum- 
ing counties jointly, James A. Allen; Otoe coun- 
ty, A. A. Bradford, Mills S. Reeves ; Cass county, 
S. M. Kirkpatrick; Nemaha county, R. W. Fur 
nas; Washington county, William Clancy; Rich 
ardson and Pawnee counties, Charles McDonald, 
Dodge, Cass, Otoe jointly, Jacob Safford; Dakota 
county, A. W. Puett. The officers were: L. L. 
Bowen, president; 0. F. Lake, chief clerk; T. H 
Robertson, assistant clerk; Samuel A. Lewis, ser- 
geant-at-arms ; Patrick McDonough, doorkeeper, 
The house was organized by the election of I. L, 
Gibbs, speaker; J. H. Brown, chief clerk; S. M 
Curran, assistant clerk; P. Laeomb, sergeant-at 
arms; J. Campbell, doorkeeper. The members 
were : Richardson and Pawnee counties, A. F. 
Cromwell, N. J. Sharp; Nemaha county, W. A. 
Finney, I. C. Lawrence, S. A. Chambers; Otoe 
county, H. P. Downs, I. D. White, H. C. Cowles, 
J. C. Ellis, L L. Gibbs, W. B. Hail; Cass county, 

W. M. Slaughter, H. C. Wolph, Broad Cole ; Cass, 
Lancaster and Clay counties jointly, J. A. Card- 
well; Douglas county (southern district), S. A. 
Strickland, Joseph Dyson, C. T. HoUoway, John 
Finney; Douglas county (northern district), W. 
E. Moore, H. Johnson, J. Steinberger, M. Mur- 
phy, R. Kimball, Jonas Seely, A. J. Hanscom, 
George Armstrong; Dodge and Platte counties, 
Silas E. Seeley; Washington county, J. A. Stew- 
art, William Conner, E. P. Stout; Burt county, 
G. M. Chilcott. 

On December 8, 1857, the fourth session began, 
with no change in the roll of the council members 
from the foregoing session. Hon. George L. Mil- 
ler, of Omaha, was elected president; Washburn 
Safford, chief clerk'; S. H. Elbert, assistant clerk; 
George A. Graves, enrolling and engrossing 
clerk; John Reck, sergeant-at-arms ; Jacob R. 
Cromwell, doorkeeper. 

The house chose Hon. J. H. Decker, of Otoe 
county, speaker; S. M. Curran, chief clerk; R. A. 
Howard, assistant clerk; Albert Mathias, ser- 
geant-at-arms, and Isaac Fisher, doorkeeper. 

The roll of the house showed : Richardson and 
Pawnee counties, A. F. Cromwell, Wingate King; 
Nemaha and Johnson counties, A. J. Benedict, J. 
S. Miniek, S. A. Chambers; Otoe county, J. Ster- 
ling Morton, J. C. Campbell, J. G. Abbey, D. B. 
Robb, W. B. Hail, J. H. Decker; Cass county, E. 
A. Donelan, T. M. Marquette, L. Sheldon; Sarpy 
county, S. A. Strickland, C. T. Holloway, James 
Davidson, Amos Gates; Douglas county, George 
Armstrong, J. Steinberger, George Clayes, J. S. 
Stewart, M. Murphy, A. J. Poppleton, W. R. 
Thrall, J. W. Paddock; Washington county, J. A. 
Stewart, P. C. Sullivan, P. G. Cooper; Burt and 
Cuming counties, William B. Beck; Dakota and 
Cedar counties, W. G. Crawford, E. C. Jones; 
Dodge and Platte counties, J. M. Taggart. 

On September 21, 1858, the fifth session of the 
legislature began. The following members com- 
posed the council: Richardson and Pawnee 
counties, Charles McDonald, whose seat was con- 
tested by E. S. Dundy; Nemaha county, R. W. 
Furnas ; Otoe county, Mills S. Reeves, W". H. Tay- 
lor ; Otoe, Cass and Dodge counties, John H. Chee- 
ver; Sarpy county, L. L. Bowen; Douglas county, 
G. L. Miller, W. E. Moore, John H. Porter ; Wash- 
ington county, George B. Scott; Burt, Washing- 
ton and Sarpy counties, George W. Doan ; Dako- 
ta county, W. G. Crawford. Hon. L. L. Bowen 
was elected president ; S. M. Curran, chief clerk ; 
John G. Tredway, assistant clerk; John McA. 
Campbell, sergeant-at-arms, and John Reck, door- 

In the house the roll stood: Richardson and 
Pawnee counties, William C. Fleming, A. C. Dean ; 
Nemaha and Johnson counties, M. F. Clark, Jesse 
Noel, S. G. Daily; Otoe county, John Cassell, 0. 
P. Mason, H. P. Bennett, George F. Lee, W. B. 
Hall ; Cass county, William A. Davis ; William J 
Young, T. M. Marquette, R. G. Doom; Sarpy 
county, Charles C. Norwood, Stephen H. Wat- 



ties; Douglas county, James H. Seymour, Clinton 
Briggs, Augustus Roeder, James Stewart, William 

A. Gwyer, R. W. Steele, John A. Steinberger, 
George Clayes; Dodge and Platte counties, 
Henry W. DePuj'; Washington county, C. D. 
Davis, P. G. Cooper, L. W. Kline; Burt county, 
David L. Collier; Dakota, Cedar and L'eau Qui 
Court counties, John Taffe, D. T. Bramble. The 
ofifieers of the house were : H. P. Bennett, speak- 
er; E. G. McNeely, chief clerk; Hugh McNeely, 
assistant clerk; J. D. N. Thompson, sergeant-at- 
arms ; F. H. Rogers, doorkeeper. 

On the 1st of November, 1858, Representative 
S. G. Daily introduced a bill "to abolish slavery 
in the Territory of Nebraska." This bill, with 
various changes and amendments, occupied a 
great deal of the time of the various sessions of 
tlie legislature until January 1, 1861, when a bill 
prohibiting slavery was passed over the veto of 
Governor Black. This matter is treated at length 
in another part of this work. 

Governor Richardson's term extended only 
from January 12, 1858, to the 5th of December of 
the same year. Secretary J. Sterling Morton as- 
sumed the functions of executive at that date, 
continuing as acting governor until the arrival of 
Governor Samuel W. Black May 2, 1859. 

On December 5, 1859, the sixth session of the 
territorial legislature convened at Omaha. The 
only changes in the council were : Thomas J. 
Boykin, of Sarpy county; Thomas T. Collier, of 
Dakota county, and W. A. Little, of Douglas 
county, who succeeded Messrs. Bowen, Crawford 
and Moore respectively. The officers of the coun- 
cil were : F. A. Donelan, president ; S. M. Curran, 
chief clerk; E. A. Allen, assistant clerk; J. F. 
Coffman, sergeant-at-arms, and R. R. Kirkpat- 
rick, doorkeeper. 

The house roll was : Richardson county, Hous- 
ton Nuckolls, J. F. Burbank, Nathan Myers; Ne- 
maha county, George Crowe, W. W. Keeling, 
Jesse Noel, John P. Parker ; Otoe county, John C. 
Campbell, Alex Bain, Truman H. Adams, Stephen 
H. Nuckolls, Milton W. Reynolds, William H. 
Broadhead; Cass and Lancaster counties, J. N. 
Stephenson, William S. Latta, William R. Davis, 
Samuel Maxwell, T. M. Manjuette ; Sarpy county, 
Matthew J. Shields, Silas A. Strickland ," Douglas 
county, A. J. Hanscom, D. D. Belden, Harrison 
Johnson, George F. Kennedy, George B. Lake, A. 

B. Malcomb ; Washington county, James S. Stew- 
art, J. S. Bowen; Burt and Cuming counties, 
David S. Collier; Dakota county, George A. 
Hinsdale, Barnabas Bates; Dixon, Cedar and 
L'eau Qui Court counties, James Tufts. The 
officers were: Silas A. Strickland, speaker; 
James W. Moore, chief clerk; George W. Rust! 
assistant clerk; J. W. Coleman, sergeant-at-arms; 
N. J. Sharp, doorkeeper. 

Among the most important legislation of the 
sixth session was "an act to frame a constitution 
and state government for the State of Nebraska." 
The proposition was submitted to the people 

March 5, 1860, and decided adversely by a vote 
of 2,372 against it and 2,094 for it. 

On December .3, 1860, the seventh session of the 
territorial legislature convened. The council 
stood: Douglas county, John M. Thayer, David 
D. Belden, W. A. Little; Dakota, Dixon, Cedar 
and L'eau Qui Court counties, John Taffe; Wash- 
ington county, John A. Unthank; Sarpy county, 
Silas A. Strickland ; Cass comity, T. M. Mar- 
quette ; Otoe county, William H. Taylor, John B. 
Bennett; Nemaha and Johnson counties, T. W. 
Tipton ; Richardson and Pawnee counties, E. S. 
Dundy; Cass, Otoe and Dodge counties, Samuel 
H. Elbert ; Burt, Washington and Sarpy counties, 
John Q. Goss. The officers were : W. H. Taylor, 
president ; E. P. Brewster, chief clerk ; D. H. 
Wheeler, assistant clerk ; W. H. James, sergeant- 
at-arms ; D. C. Slader, doorkeeper. 

The house stood : Richardson county, F. A. 
Tisdel, A. M. Acton, H. B. Porter ; Nemaha coun- 
ty, Thomas R. Fisher, James Hacker, John P. 
Baker, George Blane ; Pawnee county, E. W. 
Fowler; Johnson, Clay and Gage counties, Hiram 
W. Parker; Otoe county, Samuel P. Sibley, Alfred 
Mathias, Adin G. Cavins, Charles H. Cowles, 
Jacob Sallenberger, Hiram P. Downs ; Cass and 
Lancaster counties, William Reed, E. W. Barnum, 
W. R. Davis, Lauden Mullen, W. Gilmour ; Sarpy 
county, James Davidson, Amos Gates, William 
Cleburne ; Douglas county, John I. Reddick, S. A. 
Lowe, J. T. Griffin, Merrill H. Clark, Henry 
Grebe, Ezra T. Millard; Washington county, 
Giles Mead, H. W. DeRiy; Dodge county, M. S. 
Cottrell ; Burt county, J. R. Hide ; Dakota coun- 
ty, William T. Lockwood, Thomas Coleman; 
Dixon, Cedar . and L 'eau Qui Court counties, 
Amos S. Chase. The officers were : H. W. DePuy, 
speaker; George L. Seybolt, chief clerk; S. D. 
Bangs, assistant clerk ; F. M. Virden, sergeant-at- 
arms ; W. A. Pollock, doorkeeper. 

The roster of the eighth session stood : Coun- 
cil — John Taffe, president; R. W. Furnas, chief 
clerk ; William Lehmer, assistant clerk ; J. W. 
Chapman, sergeant-at-arms; A. J. Warner, door- 
keeper. The only changes from the preceding 
session were: F. W. Sapp, Douglas county; C. 
Blanchard, Sarpy county ; John McPherson, 
Nemaha and Johnson counties; S. M. Kirkpat- 
rick, Cass, Otoe and Dodge counties. The house 
—A. D. Jones, speaker; George L. Seybolt, chief 
clerk; J. W. Virtue, assistant clerk; F. C. Morri- 
son, sergeant-at-arms; John Wolfue, doorkeeper. 
The representation — Richardson county, L. All- 
gawahr, J. S. Ewing, H. B. Porter; Nemaha coun- 
ty, A. S. Holladay, George Crowe, William Reed, 
John Crothers; Pawnee county, David Butler; 
Johnson, Clay and Gage counties, Nathan Blake- 
ly; Otoe county, M. W. Re.ynolds, J. H. Croxton, 
J. Closser, W. "P. Birchfield, W. Buchanan, N. B. 
Larsh ; Cass and Lancaster counties, S. E. Eiken- 
berry, Isaac Wilds, James Chalfant, W. F. Cha- 
pin, E. W. Barnum ; Sarpy county, W. D. Rowles, 
Stephen H. Wattles, Henry T. Clarke; Douglas 


county, James H. Seymour, Joel T. Griffin, A. D. 
Jones, Merrills H. Clark, Oscar F. Davis, Aaron 
Cohn ; Wasliington county, John S. Boweu, E. A. 
Allen; Dodge county, E. H. Barnard; Burt coun- 
ty, S. T. Learning; Dakota county, C. O'Connor, 
Barnabas Bates; Dakota, Dixon and L'eau Qui 
Court counties, Daniel McLaughlin ; Dixon, Cedar 
and L'eau Qui Court counties, R. M. Hagaman; 
Platte, Green, Calhoun and Butler counties, John 
Reck ; Hall and Monroe counties, Enos Beall. 

The ninth session of the territorial legislature 
assembled at Omaha on January 7, 1864. In the 
council were : T. M. Marquette, J. E. Doom, 0. 
P. Mason, John C. Campbell, David Butler, 
William A. Little, John R. Porter, John McCor- 
mick, E. A. Allen, Frank Welch and A. H. Jack- 
son. E. A. Allen was chosen president; J. W. 
Hollingshead, chief clerk; John H. Mann, assist- 
ant clerk; S. A. Lewis, sergeant-at-arms, and W. 
B. Dixon, doorkeeper. In the house: Douglas 
county, John Ritchie, George B. Lake, Daniel 
Gavitt, Joel S. Smith, B. E. B. Kennedy, Henry 
Grebe; Otoe county, Henry A. Newman, Francis 
Sim, F. Renner, C. W. Seymour, W. McLennan, 
A. T. McCartney; Dodge county, Isaac E. Heat- 
on; Platte county, John P. Becker; Dakota, 
Dixon and L'eau Qui Court counties, J. 0. Fish- 
er; Dixon, Cedar and L'eau Qui Court counties, 
N. S. Porter; Burt and Cuming counties, D. 
Hobbs; Washington county, J. Evans, H. J. Roh- 
wer; Richardson county, Lewis Allgawhar, J. C. 
Lincoln, M. W. Breman ; Sarpy county, C. Blanch- 
ard, Amos Gates, John Whalen; Cass and Lan- 
caster counties, J. W. Chapman, H. C. Pardee, D. 
G. Todd, R. D. Hoback, J. S. Gregory, Jr., ; Paw- 
nee county, George L. Griffing; Nemaha county, 
6. W. Fairbrother, Lorenzo Rice, C. G. Dorsey, 
Joseph Dash. The officers were: George B. 
Lake, speaker; R. Streeter, chief clerk; T. A. 
Moore, sergeant-at-arms. During the session of 
congress, 1862-1863, a bill was, introduced late in 
the session, authorizing the territories of Nebras- 
ka, Colorado and Nevada to take the preliminary 
steps toward admission into the union as states. 
This measure did not reach final action during the 
life of that session. The proclamation of eman- 
cipation issued by President Lincoln January 1, 
1863, was approved by the ninth legislature. 

On January 5, 1865, the tenth session of the 
territorial legislature convened at Omaha. The 
council was divided into districts for the first 
time. First, Thomas L. Griffey, Dakota, Dixon, 
Cedar and L'eau Qui Court counties; second, Ed- 
win A. Allen, Washington, Burt and Cuming 
counties ; third, John R. Porter and B. E. B. Ken- 
nedy, Douglas county; fourth, C. Blanchard, 
Sarpy and Dodge counties; fifth, Isaac Albert- 
son, Platte, Monroe, Merrick, Hall, Buffalo, 
Kearney and Lincoln counties ; sixth, J. W. Chap- 
man, Cass county; seventh, J. G. Miller, Cass, 
Lancaster, Saline and Seward counties; eighth, 
0. P. Mason and John B. Bennett, Otoe county; 
ninth, Andrew S. HoUaday, Nemaha county; 

tenth, Oliver P. Bayne, Richardson county; elev- 
enth, J. N. McCasland, Pawnee, Gage, Johnson, 
Clay and Jones counties. The officers were: 0. 
P. Mason, president; John S. Bowen, chief clerk; 
W. W. Morgan, assistant clerk; Samuel Gamble, 
sergeant-at-arms; Charles Bryan, doorkeeper. 
The house was composed of: Richardson 
county, Oliver W. Dunning, F. A. Tisdel, Charles 
P. Walther, E. H. Johnson ; Pawnee county, John 
Briggs; Nemaha county, William B. Phillips, 
George Crowe, J. W. Taylor, Samuel Petit; Otoe 
county. Mason Crouch, R. Hedges, John Beuter, 
George P. West; Cass county, S. M. Klirkpatrick, 
Samuel Maxwell, J. T. A. Hoover, J. McF. Ha- 
good; Johnson county, Milo K. Cody; Lancaster, 
Seward and Saunders counties, William Imlay; 
Sarpy county, Amos Gates, Martin Langdon; 
Douglas county, E. L. Emry, A. J. Critchfield, 
Charles M. Conoyer, Charles H. Browne, James 
W. Pickard; Dodge county, W. H. Ely; Platte 
county, Guy C. Barnum; Washington county, W. 
N. McCandish, H. M. Hitchcock; Dakota county, 
John Hefferman ; Dakota, Dixon, Cedar and L'eau 
Qui Court counties, Nathan S. Porter; Dakota, 
Cedar and L'eau Qui Court counties, G. A. Hall; 
Gage and Jones counties, H. M. Reynolds; Sa- 
line, Butler, Kearney and Lincoln counties, A. C. 
Leighton ; Lancaster county, John Cadman ; Burt 
and Cuming counties, John D. Neligh. The offi- 
cers were: S. M. Kirkpatrick, speaker; John 
Taffe, chief clerk; Walter C. Heydon, assistant 
clerk; Anson Rising, sergeant-at-arms; Mitchell 
Fleming, doorkeeper. 

On January 4, 1866, the eleventh session of the 
territorial legislature met at Omaha. The coun- 
cil was : T. L. Griffey, E. A. Allen, B. E. B. Ken- 
nedy, J. R. Porter, J. Albertson, J. S. Miller, J. 
W. Chapman, John Bennett, 0. P. Mason, A. S. 
Holladay, 0. P. Bayne, J. N. McCasland. The 
officers were: 0. P. Mason, president; W. E. 
Harney, chief clerk; William W. Watson, assist- 
ant clerk ; Charles Ulry, doorkeeper. 

The house: Richardson county, L. Crounse, 
William Parchen, J. D. Ramsey, John Jay Hart; 
Pawnee county, John R. Butler; Nemaha county, 
W. B. Phelps, John Green, W. A. Pollock; Otoe 
county, John H. Maxon, James Thorn, M. S. 
Campbell, Albert Tuxbury, James A. Gilmore; 
Cass county, Joseph Arnold, W. F. Chapin, Sam- 
uel Maxwell, Benjamin Austin ; Johnson county, 
James Robinson ; Lancaster county, John Cad- 
man; Clay, Lancaster, Seward and Saunders 
counties, Marcus Brush ; Sarpy county, T. H. 
Robertson, N. P. Lefler; Dougla^ county, G. B. 
Luke, J. W. Paddock, C. H. Brown, Fred Drexel, 
J. G. Megeath; Dodge county, J. G. Smith; 
Platte county, G. C. Barnum; Washington coun- 
ty, E. H. Clark, Charles Eisley; Dakota county, 
Cornelius O'Connor; Dakota, Cedar, Dixon and 
L'eau Qui Court counties, R. H. Wilbur; Dakota, 
Cedar and L'eau Qui Court counties, L. E. Jones. 
The officers were: James G. Mageath, speaker; 
George May, chief clerk; E. S. Towle, 



elerk; Chester Lusk, sergeant-at-arms ; Dennis 
Dugan, doorkeeper. 

The preceding year had witnessed the close of 
the rebellion and the return of national peace, 
but the Indian war upon the western borders of 
Nebraska still continued when this legislature 
met. During the year 1865 the savages, embold- 
ened by temporai-y successes, had grown exceed- 
ingly reckless in their assaults upon settlers and 
upon the overland stages and telegraph lines. 
Outrages of the most atrocious character had 
been repeatedly perpetrated. It had become nec- 
essary to call upon congress for more stringent 
action for the suppression of this form of lawless- 

This year (1866) the laws of the territory were 
revised, arranged and issued in the form of re- 
vised statutes, the immense labor being completed 
in time for presentation early in the session and 
approved February 12, 1866. The new laws went 
into effect July 1. 

On the 19th of April, 1864, an act of congress 
was approved by the president and became a law, 
enabling the people of Nebraska to form a state 
constitution and government, but the continu- 
ance of the war and the consequent disturbance 
of national affairs, united with the partial suspen- 
sion of emigration to the west and the Indian 
troubles on the frontier, united in rendering this 
permission undesirable. The territory had been 
drained of many men and much treasure in its 
generous assistance of the government during the 
years of its struggle for existence. With the re- 
turn of peace and the suppression of border out- 
lawry, however, came an awakening conscious- 
ness of the value of state institutions. The peo- 
ple once more turned their attention to the sub- 
ject and revived an interest in the enabling act. 

The constitution was framed early in 1866, em- 
bodying these essential features: 

Declaring equal inherent rights to all men, pro- 
hibiting slavery in the state, maintaining freedom 
of speech and press, establishing the right of pe- 
tition to the people, the justice of trial before the 
law, civil and religious liberty, the perpetuation 
of free government and the rights of the people, 
declaring the elective franchise belongs to 
"white" citizens, vesting the government of the 
state in the legislative, the executive and the ju- 
dicial branches and defining their powers and 
jurisdiction, providing for methods of revenue 
and limiting expenditures, describing the juris- 
diction of the state over the eminent domain, 
naming the boundaries of the state, and arrang- 
ing for the fundamental machinery of a state 
after the "manner and order usual in such 
mighty undertakings." 

The constitution provided that it should be 
voted upon June 2, 1866. The legislature author- 
ized the submitting of the question and the elec- 
tion of state officers by an act approved by Gov- 
ernor Saunders February 9, 1866. At this elec- 
tion the constitution was adopted by the foUow- 

ing vote : For adoption, 3,938 ; against, 3,838. It 
was approved and signed by Governor Butler 
February 21, 1867. 


On March 1, 1867, the president issued his proc- 
lamation announcing the admission of Nebraska 
into the union, and on March 2nd Hon. T. ]\I. Mar- 
quette presented his credentials in the house of 
representatives and consummated the bond. 

On the 4th of April Governor Butler issued his 
call for an extra session, and on the 18th of May 
the legislators came together and set in motion the 
machinery of the state. 

The constitution provided that the first session 
of the so-called state legislature should meet July 
4, 1866, and in accordance therewith the members 
chosen at the preceding election assembled in 
Omaha in formal conclave on that day. The ros- 
ter of that body was: House — Richardson coun- 
ty, William Parchen, B. F. Cunningham, J. M. 
Deweese; J. T. Hoile; Pawnee county, C. H. Gere; 
Gage and Jones counties, N. Blakely; Nemaha 
county, George W. Fairbrother, W. G. Glasgow, 
Daniel C. Sanders, W. A. Pollock; Johnson coun- 
ty, A. W. Gray ; Otoe county, E. S. Reed, A. Tux- 
bury, D. M. Anderson, James Thome, John 
Graves; Lancaster, Seward and Saunders coun- 
ties, James Queen ; Lancaster county, Ezra Tullis ; 
Cass county, S. Maxwell, W. F. Chapin, T. R. 
Bell, H. D. Hathaway; Sarpy county, T. H. Rob- 
ertson, J. D. Smith; Douglas county, P. 0. Han- 
Ion, A. J. Critchfield, J. W. Paddock, V. Burkley, 
W. A. Denton; Dodge county, George J. Turton; 
Platte county, E. W. Arnold; Platte, Merrick, 
Hall and Buffalo counties, James E. Boyd ; Wash- 
ington county, David McDonald, W. R. Hamil- 
ton; Burt and Cuming counties, G. P. Thomas; 
Dakota county, A. H. Baker; Dakota, Dixon, Ce- 
dar and L'eau Qui Court counties, R. H. Wilbur; 
Dixon, Cedar and L'eau Qui Court counties, Kelly 
Frazier. Officers — W. A. Pollock, speaker; J. H. 
Brown, chief elerk; J. T. Davis, assistant clerk; 

F. M. Dovington, sergeant-at-arms; E. A. Graves, 

Council — Nathan S. Porter, Frank Welch, James 

G. Megeath, M. C. Wilbur, David Leach, Vincent 
Krummer, Thomas K. Hann, John Cadman, S. H. 
Calhoun, Oliver Stevenson, S. M. Rich, F. D. Tis- 
dale, A. S. Stewart. Officers— F. Welch, presi- 
dent ; C. E. Yost, chief clerk ; E. K. Valentine, as- 
sistant clerk; Wilson E. IMajors, sergeant-at- 
arms; P. Judson, doorkeeper. 

The following is the text of the proclamation 
issued by President Andrew Johnson, declaring 
Nebraska a state: 

"Whereas, the Congress of the United States 
did by an act approved on the 19th day of April, 
1864, authorize the people of the Territory of 
Nebraska to form a constitution and state govern- 
ment and for the admission of such state into the 
union on an equal footing witli the original states 
I upon certain conditions in said act specified, and, 



"Wliereas, said people did adopt a constitution 
conforming to the provisions and conditions of 
said act and ask admission into the union, and, 

"Whereas, the Congress of the United States 
did on the eighth and ninth days of February, 
1867, in mode prescribed by the constitution, pass 
a further act for the admission of the State of 
Nebraska into the union, in which last-named act 
it was provided that it should not take effect ex- 
cept upon the fundamental condition that within 
the State of Nebraska there should be no denial 
of the elective franchise or of any other right to 
any person by reason of race or color, excepting 
Indians not taxed, and upon further fundamental 
condition that the legislature of said state, by a 
solemn public act, shall declare the assent of said 
state to the said fundamental condition, and 
should transmit to the President of the United 
States an authenticated copy of said act of the 
legislature of said state, upon receipt whereof 
the President, by proclamation, should forthwith 
announce the fact, whereupon the said founda- 
mental condition should be held as a part of the 
organic law of the state, and thereupon and Avith- 
out any further proceeding on the part of the 
Congress, the admission of said state into the 
union should be considered as complete; and, 

"Whereas, within the time prescribed by said 
act of the Congress on the eighth and ninth days 
of February, 1867, the legislature of the State of 
Nebraska did pass an act ratifying the said act 
of Congress of the eighth and ninth days of Feb- 
ruary, 1867, and declaring that the aforenamed 
provisions of the third section of said last-named 
act of Congress should be a part of the organic 
law of the State of Nebraska; and, 

"Whereas, a duly authenticated copy of said 
act of the legislature of the State of Nebraska has 
been received by me ; 

"Now, therefore, I, Andrew Johnson, Presi- 
dent of the United States; do in accordance with 
the provisions of the act of Congress last herein 
named, declare and proclaim the fact that the 
fundamental conditions imposed by Congress on 
the State of Nebraska to entitle that state to ad- 
mission to the union have been ratified and ac- 
cepted, and that the admission of the said state 
into the union is now complete. 

"In testimony whereof I hereto set my hand 
and have caused the seal of the United States to 
be affixed. 

"Done at the City of Washington this first day 
of March in the year of our Lord, 1867, and of the 
independence of the United States of America the 

"By the President: 

"Andrew Johnson. 

"Wm. H. Seward, Secretary of State." 
The twelfth and last session of the territorial 
legislature met at Omaha January 10, 1867. The 
roster is here given: 

Council — Barnabas Bates, J. D. Neleigh, G.W. 
Doan, W. Baumer, E. H. Rogers, F. K. Freeman, 

Lawson Sheldon, James E. Doom, M. S. Reeves, 
W. W. Warden, T. J. Majors, W. A. Presson and 
A. S. Stewart. Officers — E. H. Rogers, president; 
0. B. Hewett, chief clerk; L. L. Holbrook, assist- 
ant clerk; E. A. Kirkpatrick, sergeant-at-arms ; 
John Cadman, doorkeeper. 

HoiTse — Pawnee county, John R. Butler; Rich- 
ardson county, G. Duerfeldt, J. M. Deweese, Jos- 
eph T. Hoile; Nemaha county, George Crowe, 
William Daily, Lewis Waldter, C. F. Haywood ; 
Otoe county, W. M. Hieklin, J. R. Graves, A. P. 
Harvey, D. M. Anderson; Cass county, D. Cole, 
W. F. Chapin, Isaac Wiles, A. B. Fuller; John- 
son county, A. W. Gray; Lancaster county, E. H. 
Ilardenberger ; Lancaster, Seward and Saunders 
counties, E. L. Clark; Sarpy county, George N. 
Crawford, A. W. Trumble ; Douglas county, G. 
W. Frost, D. S. Parmelee, H. Link, S. M. Curran, 
E. P. Child; Dodge county, J. E. Dorsey; Platte 
county, John E. Kelley; Washington county, L. 
J. Abbott, Amasa S. Warwick; Dakota county, 
Daniel Duggan; Platte, Merrick, Hall and Buffa- 
lo counties, John Wallichs; Gage and Jones coun- 
ties, Hugh M. Ross, Burt and Cuming counties, 
Martin Stuefer; Lincoln, Kearney, Saline and 
Butler counties, William Baker. Officers — W. F. 
Chapin, speaker; J. S. Bowen, chief clerk; W. S. 
Brewster, assistant clerk; J. M. Howard, ser- 

The constituution provided that senators and 
representatives should be elected biennially on 
the second Tuesday in October, at which time the 
state officers were also to be chosen. This, how- 
ever, did not apply to the first set of officers des- 
ignated under the constitution, those named un- 
der what may be termed, for distinction here, the 
provincial officers. That first election was ordered 
by the constitution to take place June 2, 1866. 
Under this provision Hon. T. M. Marquette was 
elected representative in congress. The vote for 
treasurer (which may be taken as a fair estimate 
of the party lines) was 4,756 for the republican 
candidate to 4,161 for the democratic. In accord- 
ance with the requirements of the constitution, 
although the territory was still out of the union 
as a state, the first regular election was held on 
the second Tuesday in October. Then it was that 
Hon. John Taffe was elected to congress. 

The new state began its existence 
under the official guidance of David 
Butler, governor; Thomas P. Kennard, 
secretary of state; John Gillespie, aud- 
itor; Augustus Kountze, treasurer; Thomas P. 
Kennard, librarian; Chami^ion S. Chase, attorney 
general. The congressional representatives were: 
Senators, John M. Thayer and Thomas W. Tip- 
ton ; representative, John Taffe. 

The so-called third session of the state legisla- 
ture (but in reality the first session) met at Oma- 
ha under proclamation of Governor Butler, May 
16, 1867. The state comprised eleven senatorial 
districts, represented by tlie following named 
senators: First district, Harlan Baird; second 



district, J. T. Davis; third district, Isaac S. Has- 
eall and J. N. H. Patrick; fourth district, E. H. 
Rogers ; fifth district, F. K. Freeman ; sixth dis- 
trict, Lawson Sheldon; seventh district, J. E. 
Doom; eighth district, W. W. Wardell and Mills 
S. Reeves; ninth district, Thomas J. Majors; 
tenth district, William A. Presson ; eleventh dis- 
trict, Oscar Holden. Hon. E. H. Rogers, of 
Dodge county, was elected president ; L. L. Hol- 
brook, secretary; Seth Robinson, assistant secre- 
tary; D. W. McKimmon, sergeant-at-arms ; E. K. 
Caldwell, doorkeeper. 

The house consisted of: Richardson county, J. 
T. Hoile, G. Duerfeldt, J. M. Deweese, T. J. Col- 
lins; Pawnee county, J. R. Butler; Nemaha coun- 
ty, "William Daly, George Crowe, Louis Waldter, 
C. F. Hagood ; Otoe county, A. F. Harvey, W. H. 
Hickliu, John B. Bennett, George W. Sroat, D. 
M. Anderson ; Cass county, W. F. Chapin, D. Cole, 
A. B. Fuller, Isaac Wiles; Clay, Lancaster, Sew- 
ard and Saunders counties, E. L. Clark ; Saline, 
Lincoln, Benton and Kearney counties, William 
Baker; Sarpy county, A. W. Trumble. George N. 
Crawford ; Douglas county, G. W. Frost, J. M. 
Woolworth, Martin Dunham, Joel T. Griffin; 
Platte county, John E. Kelley; Washington coun- 
ty, D. C. Slader, John A. Unthank ; Burt and 
Cuming counties, Austin Rockwell; Dodge coun- 
ty, Henry Beebe; Dakota county, James Preston; 
Johnson county, George P. Tucker ; Dakota, 
Dixon, Cedar and L'eau Qui Court counties, Hen- 
ry Morton ; Gage and Jones counties, Oliver 
Townsend; Lancaster county, John Cadman. 

Hon. W. F. Chapin, of Cass county, was elected 
speaker; J. S. Bowen, chief clerk; W. B. Smith, 
assistant clerk; D. Labor, sergeant-at-ai'ms ; E. L. 
Clark, doorkeeper. 

The specific purposes for which this extraor- 
dinary session was called was the enactment of 
laws and the amendment of existing statutes to 
harmonize with the new order of government. 

The fourth session of the legislature was called 
for the purpose of making such provision as was 
essential under the constitution of the United 
States for the election of electors for president 
and vice president, this important duty having 
been unprovided for in previous sessions. The 
legislature met in Omaha, October 27 and 28, 
1868, and on the last-named day passed a bill 
which was approved by Governor Butler, defin- 
ing the method of choosing electors. 

The fifth session of the legislature (which is 
incorrectly called the "first regular session" on 
the title page of the journal) was the first to meet 
in Lincoln after the removal of the capital to that 
place. It was also the first session by operation 
of the constitutional law under the supreme or- 
dinance of 1866, the preceding sessions since the 
passage of the coustitiition having been either 
practically territorial legislatures, or "called" 
sessions of the state body, hence the designation 
as "first regular session." 

The legislature met January 7, 1869. The 

members of the senate were by districts as fol 
lows: First, Richardson county, E. E. Cunning 
ham ; second, Nemaha, Charles J. Majors 
third, Nemaha, Richardson and Johnson, 
I. Reavis; fourth, Pawnee, Gage, Jef 
ferson. Saline and Lancaster, C. H. Gere 
fifth, Otoe, T. Ashton and T. B. Stevenson 
sixth, Cass, H. D. Hathaway; seventh, Cass. 
Sarpy, Saunders, Butler and Seward, W. F. Cha 
pin; eighth, Douglas, E. B. Taylor and G. W. 
Frost ; ninth, Washington and Butler, William F. 
Goodwill; tenth, Platte, Merrick, Hall, Buffalo^ 
Kearney and Lincoln, Guy C. Barnum. The sen 
ate chose Hon. E. B. Taylor, of Douglas county 
president; S. M. Chapman, secretary; J. R. Pat 
rick, assistant secretary; W. H. Miller, engross 
ing clerk; George Vandeventer, enrolling clerk: 
W. A. Pollock, sergeant-at-arms; John Bradshaw, 

The house was composed of: Richardson coun- 
ty, 0. C. Jones, Delos A. Tisdel, J. E. Gardner, J. 
T. Hoile; Pawnee county, A. S. Stewart; Gage 
and Jefferson counties, Nathan Blakeley; John- 
son county, Hinman Rhodes; Nemaha county, J. 
S. Church, H. Steinman, George Crowe, G. R. 
Shook; Otoe county, James Fitchie, W. McLen- 
nan, A. F. McCartney, J. W. Talbot, A. Zimmer- 
er; Lancaster county, Ezra Tullis; Cass coiinty, 
David McCaig, J. McF. Hagood, G. L. Seybolt, 
Joseph McKinnon; Saunders, Seward and Butler 
counties, Marcus Brush; Saline, Lincoln and 
Kearney counties, J. S. Hunt; Sarpy county, J. 
N. Case and J. D. Smith ; Douglas county, S. C. 
Brewster, Joseph Fox, J. B. Furay, J. T. GrifiSn, 
D. S. Parmelee and Edwin Lovelaud ; Dodge 
county, E. H. Bernard; Platte county, C. A. 
Speice; Hall, Buffalo and Merrick counties. 
Wells Brewer; Washington county. Christian 
Rathman and W. H. B. Stout; Burt and Cuming 
counties, Watson Parrish ; Dakota county, John 
Naft'ziger; Dixon, Cedar and L'eau Qui Court 
counties, C. B. Evans. The officers were: Hon. 
William McLennan, of Otoe county, speaker; 
John S. Bowen, chief clerk ; C. H. Walker, assist- 
ant clerk; E. L. Clark, sergeant-at-arms; H. J. 
Mumford, doorkeeper; Jesse Turner, engrossing 
clerk; Abram Deyo, enrolling clerk. 

The sixth session of the legislature was an ex- 
traordinary convention for twenty specific pur- 
poses, first among which was the ratification of 
the proposed fifteenth amendment to the constitu- 
tion of the United States. The measure of great- 
est state interest was the erection of a peniten- 
tiary, and the remaining objects of the session 
varied in importance from the incorporation of 
cities to the payment of the legislators. 

On February 17, 1870, the legislature met at 
Lincoln. The new representatives were Samuel 
Carter, Leander W. Pattison, from Richardson 
county; Hiram O. Miniek, from Nemalia county; 
Fordyce Roper, from Gage and Jefferson coun- 
ties, and C. A. Leary, from Douglas county. 
Speaker McLennan presided. The new members 


of the senate were: Second district, William 
Daily, Sr. ; third district, Samuel A. Fulton and 
Eugene L. Reed. 

Immediately after the close of the sixth session, 
the seventh session assembled at 8 :30 p. m., March 
4, 1870, on the order of Governor Butler, vrhose 
proclamation was issued during the day. The 
session was in fact but the continuance of the 
preceding session. The objects enumerated in 
the executive message were the necessity of a 
passage of a herd law, the ratification of a con- 
tract made by the governor for the conveyance 
of certain lauds to Isaac Cahn and John M. Ev- 
ans to aid in the developmnets of the saline inter- 
ests of the state, and some local measures. The 
result of the session was not favorable to the de- 
sire of Governor Butler relative to his action in 
the saline land contract. 

The eighth session of the legislature began 
January 5, 1871. The senate consisted of : First, 
Richardson county, E. E. Cunningham; second, 
Nemaha county, E. "W. Thomas; third, Nemaha, 
Richardson and Johnson counties, George P. 
Tucker; fourth, Pawnee, Gage, Jefferson, Saline 
and Lancaster counties, A. J. Cropsey; fifth, 
Otoe county, David Brown and Robert Hawke; 
sixth, Cass county, Lawson Sheldon; seventh, 
Cass, Sarpy, Saunders, Seward and Butler coun- 
ties, Willett Pottinger, contested successfully by 
A. W. Kennedy, who sat during the latter part of 
the session; eighth, Douglas county, Frederick 
Metz and I. S. Hascall; ninth, Washington and 
Burt counties, B. F. Hilton; tenth. Dodge, Stan- 
ton, Cuming, Cedar, Dixon and L'eau Qui Court 
counties, A.W.Tennant, contested unsuccessfully 
by J. D. Neighley ; eleventh, Merrick, Hall, Buffa- 
lo, Kearney and Lincoln counties, Leander Ger- 
rard. Hon. E. E. Cunningham was elected presi- 
dent; C. H. Walker, secretary; C. M. Blaker, as- 
sistant secretary; A. T. McCarthy, engrossing 
clerk (Miss Cornelia Frost received two votes for 
this office, two less than Mr. McCarthy, the first 
instance of a woman being nominated for office 
in the Nebraska legislature) ; G. G. Beecher, en- 
rolling clerk; L. L. Kline; sergeant-at-arms ; C. 
E. Hines, doorkeeper. 

The house contained: Richardson county, H. 
W. Sommerland, James Wickham, Henry Sehock, 
Ruel Nims; Nemaha county, William Daily, S. P. 
Majors, G. R. Shook, De Forest Porter; Pavmee 
county, G. W. Collins; Gage and Jefferson coun- 
ties, D. C. Jenkins; Johnson county, Hinman 
Rhodes; Otoe county, W. E. Dillon, J. E. Doom, 
Eugene Munn, John Oberton, J. W. Conger; Lan- 
caster county, S. B. Galey; Cass county, P. M. 
Wolcott, J. K. Cannon, J. M. Patterson, John 
Rouse ; Saunders, Seward and Butler counties, 
A. Roberts; Saline, Lincoln and Kearney coun- 
ties, Isaac Goodin; Sarpy county, E. N. Grin- 
nell, Chas. Duby; Douglas county, John Ahman- 
son, T.F. Wall, J. C. Myers, E. Rosewater, W. M. 
Ryan, L. S. Reed; Dodge county, A. C. Briggs; 
Platte and Colfax counties, A. J. Hudson; Hall, 

Buffalo and Merrick counties, Enos Beall ; Wash- 
ington county, Blam Clark, H. C. Riordan; Burt 
and Cuming counties, Frank Kipp; Dakota coun- 
ty, James Clark; Dixon, Cedar and L'eau Qui 
Court counties, D. J. Quimby. Officers — Hon. 
Geo. W. Collins, speaker; Louis E. Cropsey, chief 
clerk; J. R. Webster, assistant clerk; D. L. Sny- 
der, engrossing clerk; Charles Culbertson, ser- 
geant-at-arms; E. L. Clark, doorkeeper. By an 
irregularity in the journals, the election of Miss 
Cornelia Frost is not recorded, but that lady 
(lualified as enrolling clerk, and so served. 

On the 9th of January, 1872, in accordance 
with the order of adjournment, the legislature 
reassembled in what was known as the eighth ad- 
journed session. 

The ninth session of the legislature convened 
January 9, 1873, with the following senate: 
First district, W. D. Scott; second, G. R. Shook; 
third, A. Bowen; fourth, E. W. Barnum; fifth, 
W. A. Gwyer and 0. Wilson; sixth, L. W. Os- 
born; seventh, J. C. Crawford; eighth, S. W. 
Hayes ; ninth, G. C. Barton ; tenth, Job A. Dillon ; 
eleventh, S. B. Pound; twelfth, N. K. Greggs. 
Officers — Hon. W. A. Gwyer, of Omaha, presi- 
dent; D. H. Wheeler, secretary; L. S. Estell, as- 
sistant secretary; W. D. Wildman, sergeant-at- 
arms; S. L. Barrett, engrossing clerk; William 
Caffrey, enrolling clerk; C. E. Hine, doorkeeper. 

The house consisted of: Richardson county, 
E. S. Towle, C. L. Metz, H. Holcomb ; Nemaha 
county, C. Blodgett, C. W. Wheeler; Otoe county, 
J. H. Masters, J. W. Patrick, Logan Enyart, Paul 
Schminke; Cass county, J. W. Barnes, J. L. 
Brown; Pawnee county, A. H. Babcock; Johnson 
county, L. H. Laflin; Gage county, J. B. McDow- 
ell; Lancaster county, A. K. White, S. G. Owen; 
Saunders county, W. H. Deck; Saline county, 0. 
W. Baltzley; Jefferson, Nuckolls and Webster 
counties, Silas Garber; York, Polk, Butler, 
Platte, Hamilton, Clay and Adams counties, J. E. 
Cramer; Lancaster, Saunders, Gage, Jefferson 
and Pawnee counties, M. H. Sessions ; Sarpy 
county, George S. Burtch ; Douglas county, C. F. 
Goodman, W. R. Bartlett, J. L. Webster, M. Dun- 
ham, H. L. Dodge, E. G. Dudley; Washington 
county, Henry Sprick; Burt county, Austin Nel- 
son; Dodge county, Milton May; Cuming and 
Wayne counties, R. F. Stevenson; Dakota and 
Dixon counties, R. H. Wilbur; Platte and Colfax 
counties, A. J. Arnold; Madison, Stanton, Pierce, 
Cedar and L'eau Qui Court counties, L. M. How- 
ard : Hall, Merrick, Greeley, Howard, Boone and 
Antelope counties, Ed Parker; Douglas, Sarpy, 
Cass, Washington and Dodge counties, Bruno 
Tzschuek. Officers — Hon. M. H. Sessions, speak- 
er; J. W. EUer, chief clerk; E. Chadwick, assist- 
ant clerk ; U. B. Balcombe, enrolling clerk ; J. P. 
Zediker, engrossing clerk; D. V. Stevenson, ser- 

The tenth session was an extra one, beginning 
March 27, 1873, for the purpose of taking action 



on matters relating to the boundaries of certain 
counties and other legislation. 

The eleventh session of the legislature began 
January 7, 1875. The senate roll stood: First 
district, T. C. Hoyt; second, J. B. Fisher; 
third, J. E. Lamaster ; fourth, S. M. Chapman ; 
fifth, C. B. Rustin and J. S. Spaun ; sixth, Waldo 
Lyon; seventh, Alexander Bear; eighth, H. D. 
Perky; ninth, Guy C. Barton; tenth, Rufus H. 
Abbott; eleventh, C. C. Burr; twelfth, N. K. 
Briggs. Officers — Hon N. K. Briggs, president; 
D. H. "Wheeler, secretary; C. L. Mather, assistant 
secretary; George F. "Work, engrossing clerk; J. 
"W. Conger, enrolling clerk; Levi A. Stebbius, 
sergeant-at-arms ; C. E. Hine, doorkeeper. 

The house was composed of: Richardson coun- 
ty, Henry Fisher, E. S. Towle, Seth "W. Beats; 
Nemaha county. Church Howe, C. M. Hayden; 
Otoe county, \. R. Pinney, Logan Enyart, J. H. 
Tomlin, Eugene Munn ; Cass county J. L. 
Brown, H. "W. Farley ; Pawnee county, "W. F. 
"Wright; Johnson county, C. A. Holmes; Gage 
county, J. B. McDowell ; Lancaster county, A. T. 
Hastings, Louis Helmer; Saunders county, J. F. 
Roll; Seward county, D. C. McKillip ; Saline 
county, G. H. Hastings; Thayer, Jefferson, Nuck- 
olls and "Webster counties, F. J. Hendershot; 
York, Polk, Butler, Platte, Hamilton, Clay and 
Adams counties, Albinus Nance; Lancaster, 
Saunders, Gage, .Johnson and Pawnee counties, 
Thomas C. Chapman; Sarpy, James, Davidson 
and Douglas counties, B. H. Barrows, J. M. 
Thurston, Jacob Weidensall, John Baumer, Frank 
Murphy, A. H. Baker; Madison, Stanton, Cedar, 
Pierce and Knox counties, R. S. Lucas; Hall, 
Merrick, Howard, Greeley, Boone and Antelope 
counties, Loran Clark; Douglas, Sarpy, Cass, 
"Washington and Dodge counties, J. "W. Barnes; 
Lincoln, Cheyenne, Dawson, Buffalo, Sherman, 
"Valley, Kearney and Franklin counties, M. "V. 
Moudy; "Washington county, E. S. 

Gaylord; Dodge county, J. C. Seely; Col- 
fax county, Frank Folda ; Burt county, "W. G. 
dinger; Dakota county, B. F. Chambers; Cum- 
ing county, J. C. Crawford. Officers — Hon. E. S. 
Towle, speaker; G. L. Brown, chief clerk; J. F. 
Zediker, assistant clerk; S. B. Jones, engrossing 
clerk ; Miss Sarah C. Funke, enrolling clerk ; J. 
W. Manning, sergeant-at-arms; J. "W. MeCabe, 

The state constitution of 1875 was presented 
to the people for ratification or rejection in 1875. 
It was ratified by a vote of 30,202 against 5,474, 
which were against it. 

On December 5, 1876, the twelfth session of the 
legislature was called to pass upon the question 
of the legality of the election of Amosa Cobb to 
the office of presidential elector. Mr. Cobb was 
chosen by ballot in joint convention of both 
houses on the same day as the preceding session 
of the thirteenth session of the legislature was 
held for the purpose of canvassing the popular 
vote cast for the state ticket and congressman. 

On January 2, 1877, the fourteenth session of 
the legislature convened in regular session. The 
senate consisted of the following members: 
First district, J. "W. Holt, P. "W. Birkhauser ; sec- 
ond. Church Howe; third, G. W. Covell, C. H. 
Van Wyck; fourth, S. M. Chapman; fifth, G. W. 
Ambrose, C. H. Brown; sixth, A. N. Ferguson; 
seventh, "W. C. "Walton; eighth, G. F. Blanchard; 
ninth, J. C. Crawford ; tenth, Isaac Powers, Jr. ; 
eleventh, S. "W. Hayes; twelfth, John Aten; thir- 
teenth, G. H. Thummel; fourteenth, J. E. North; 
fifteenth, H. Garfield; sixteenth, A. M. Bryant; 
seventeenth, Thomas P. Kennard and C. N. 
Baird; eighteenth, T. "W. Pepoon; nineteenth, L. 
"W. Colby; twentieth, J. "W. Dawes; twenty-first, 
E. C. Cams ; twenty-second, "W. M. Knapp ; twen- 
ty-third, M. W. Wi'lcox; twenty- fourth, J. S. Gil- 
ham; twenty-fifth, E. C. Calkins; twenty-sixth, 

B. I. Hinman. Officers — Hon. Othman A. Abbott, 
president; Hon. George F. Blanchard, president 
pro tern ; D. S. "Wheeler, secretary ; E. J. Baldwin, 
assistant secretary; Thomas Harlan, sergeant-at- 
arms; Miss Ella Marlay, enrolling clerk; Miss 
Mollie Baird, engrossing clerk; M. J. Houek, 

The house roll by districts was : First district, 
J. D. Gillman, William Gerdis, Joseph H. Myers; 
second, E. Jordan, W. J. Halderman; third,"Wil- 
liam Anyan, L. M. Boggs ; fourth, W. H. Doolit- 
tle, William R. Spicknall ; fifth, J. G. Evans, John 
Frerichs, J. J. Mercer; sixth, George McKee, F. 
W. Robb, J. B. Elliott, Paul Schminke; seventh, 
John Cadman, W. C. Griffith, Henry Spellman, R. 
0. Phillips; eighth, J. A. Jury, M. M. Runyon, E. 
M. Mengel ; ninth, J. C. Gilmore, T. N. Bobbitt, J. 
M. Beardsley; tenth, S. F. Burtch ; eleventh, A. 
H. Baker, J. S. Gibson, William Neville, P. P. 
Shelby, G. E. Pritchell, James Creighton, L. L. 
Wilcox, Thomas Blackmore ; twelfth, H. B. Nico- 
demus, N. S. Belden; thirteenth, Henry Sprick; 
fourteenth, F. M. Johnson; fifteenth, W. J. 
Meicker, J. W. Pollock; sixteenth, J. C. Heffer- 
man; seventeenth, J. P. Walters; eighteenth, L. 

C. Champlin; nineteenth, W. W. Fitzpatrick ; 
twentieth, S. T. Caldwell; twenty-first. J. E. 
Smith; twenty-second, S. Sadler; twenty-third, 
James W. Small ; twenty-fourth, C. M. Northrup ; 
twenty-fifth, B. Whitcomb, T. B. Parker, James 
McCreedy; twenty-sixth, Thomas Wolfe, 
Thocas A. Healy; twenty-seventh, S. "V. Moore. 
Lee Love ; twenty-eighth, Thomas B. 
Johnson; twenty-ninth, Peter Harrison; thirtieth, 
S. W. Switzer; thirty-first, Anthony Reis; thirty- 
second, B. B. Mills ; thirty-third, n! J. Paul ; thir- 
ty-fourth, Henry A. Bruno; thirty -fifth, Albinus 
Nance: thirty-sixth, Cyrus Allen; thirty-seventh, 
N. W. Wells ; thirty-eighth, C. C. Barnuln ; thirty- 
ninth, Alexander Bear; fortieth, G. A. Hall; for- 
ty-first, C. F. Eisley; forty-second, C. H. Frady; 
forty-third, Thomas G. Hullihen ; forty-fourth.W. 
B. Lambert; forty-fifth, Loren Clark; forty-sixth, 
J. H. McColl; forty-seventh, A. H. Bushj forty- 
eighth, A. E. Harvey; forty-ninth, W. P. P. St. 



Clair; fiftieth, Samuel Barker; fifty-first, D. P. 
Whelpley; fifty-second, J. 0. Chase. Officers— 
Hon. Albiuus Nance, speaker; B. D. Slaughter, 
chief clerk; J. F. Zedizer, assistant clerk; "W. B. 
White, enrolling clerk; Hannah M. Kellum, en- 
grossing clerk; L. B. Palmer, sergeant-at-arms ; 
H. "W. Gregory, doorkeeper. 

The fifteenth session of the legislature met 
January 7, 1879. Below is given the roster of the 
senate: First district, P. "W. Birkhauser, G. P. 
Stone; second, Church Howe; third, C. H. Van 
Wyck, D. T. Hayden ; fourth, Orlando Tefft; fifth, 
C. K. Coutant, C. H. Brown; sixth, C. V. Galla- 
gher; seventh, John A. Cuppy; eighth, William 
Marshall; ninth, Louis Otterstein ; tenth, W. B. 
Beck; eleventh, Louis Ley; twelfth, 0. P. Sullen- 
berger; thirteenth, E. W. Arnold; fourteenth, J. 
T. Clarkson ; fifteenth, W. F. Kimmell ; sixteenth, 
T. A. Bonnell; seventeenth, E. E. Brown, M. B. 
Cheney; eighteenth, B. F. Dorsey; nineteenth, 
James A. McMeans; twentieth, J. H. Grimm; 
twenty-first, T. L. Nerval; twenty-second, D. A. 
Scovill; twenty-third, J. F. Coulter; twentj'- 
fourth, A. L. Wigton; twenty-fifth, John D. Sea- 
man ; twenty-sixth, George H. Jewett. Officers — 
Hon. Edmund C. Cams, pesident; Hon. William 
Marshall, president pro tern; Sherwood Burr 
secretary; C. H. Babcock, W. M. Seely, assistant 
secretaries; Miss Kate E. Stover, engrossing 
clerk; J. T. Allen, enrolling clerk; J. N. Cassell, 
sergeant-at-arms; W. H. Thomas, doorkeeper. 

The house roll by districts was : First district, 
John Kloepfel, B. R. Stouffer, W. M. Patton, J. 
Fenton; second, R. A. Kennedy, S. Bornard; 
third, John Sparks ; fourth, S. B. Starrett, W. R. 
York ; fifth, W. A. Pollock, N. Johnson, E. Lash ; 
sixth, J. L. Mitchell, R. D. Brownlee, Jacob Lisk, 
George Ferguson; seventh. M. H. Sessions, S. G. 
Owen, W. W. Carder, T. R. Burling; eighth, H. 

A. Fisher, B. F. Hammitt, F. E. Davis; ninth, R. 

B. Windham, I. F. Polk, Isaac Stone ;tenth, Amos 
Gates; eleventh, Geoge Plumbeck, L. M. Bennett, 
R. E. Gaylord, Patrick McArdle, W. H. Bums, J. 
S. Gibson, B. E. B. Kennedy, C. J. Karbach ; 
twelfth, C. F. Eiseley, G. M. Dodge; thirteenth, 
Giles Mead, J. J. Thompson; fourteenth, Ribert 
Hanson; fifteenth, B. A. Thompson, John E. 
Long; sixteenth and seventeenth, W. H. Vander- 
bilt ; eighteenth, C. B. Slocumb ; nineteenth, G. C. 
Bruce; twentieth, R. M. Simonton; twenty-first 
J. E. Smith; twenty-second, R. A. Batty; twenty- 
third, H. A. Draper; twenty-fourth, J. D. Jen- 
kins; twenty-fifth, M. B. C. True, J. W. Gilbert, 
N. H. Moore ; twenty-sixth, H. A. French, William 
Hickman; twenty-seventh, W. T. Scott, W. H. 
Keckley; twenty-eighth, R. W. Grayhill ; twenty- 
ninth, G. H. Bush- thirtieth, J. H. Davis; thirty- 
first, A. H. Bradley; thirty-second, P. J. Demp- 
ster; thirty-third, J. F. Frederick; thirty -fourth, 
J. W. Sparks; thirty-fifth, T. S. Sparks; thirty- 
sixth, F. Englehard; thirt.y-seventh, N. W. Wells; 
thirty-eighth, T. C. Ryan; thirty-ninth, C. P. 
Mathewson; fortieth, J. A. Ziegler; forty-first, 

R. N. Day; forty-second, Tobias Mack; 
forty-third, B. Y. Shelly; forty-fourth, P. H. 
Trowbridge; forty-fifth, Oscar Babcock; forty- 
sixth, T. L. Warrington; forty-seventh, Sidney 
Baker; forty-eighth, R. H. Rohr; forty-ninth, F. 
W. Gassman; fiftieth, A. W. Vandeman; fifty- 
first, D. C. Loveland; fifty-second, M. S. Price. 
Officers — Hon. C. P. Mathewson, speaker; B. D. 
Slaughter, chief clerk ; J. F. Zedicker, T. H. Ben- 
ton, assistant clerks; Miss Kate Strickland, en- 
grossing clerk; W .P. Squire, enrolling clerk; 
Isaac Goodin, sergeant-at-arms; C. H. North, 

The foregoing pages have carried the various 
sessions of the legislature through territorial or- 
ganization, and also through the first dozen 
years of statehood in consecutive form. This was 
during the formative period of the history of the 
state. The men who served in the councils of 
the state during these years may truly be classed 
as pioneers, and they were the representative 
men of their day from the various portions of the 


In the following pages we present in alphabet- 
ical list of the members of the Nebraska legisla- 
ture from 1866 to 1910 inclusive. The name is 
given first, together with the county from which 
the party was elected, and the figures indicate the 
sessions in which the party served : 

Abbott, Rufus, Pawnee county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Akers, Wm. R., Dawson county, session 24. 
Albert, I. L., session 32. 
Alden, J. M., Pierce county, session 28. 
Aldrich, C. H., Butler county, session 30. 
Alexander, C. L., Adams county, session 26. 
Allen, E. N., Furnas county, session 27. 
Ambrose, Geo. W., Douglas county, session 14. 
Anderson, C. B., Saline county, session 28. 
Arends, J. H., Otoe county, sessions 26, 27. 
Arnold, E. W., Hall county, session 15. 
Ashton, F. W., Hall county, session 30. 
Ashton, T., Otoe county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Aten, John, Dixon county, session 14. 
Babcock, Wm. N., Douglas county, session 23. 
Baird, Cyrus N., Lancaster county, session 14. 
Baird, Harlan, Richardson county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Baldrige, Howard H., Douglas county, session 27. 
Baker, Sidney, Buffalo county, sessions 16, 17. 
Ballentine, D. C, Lincoln county, sessions 16, 17. 
Banning, W. B., Cass county, sessions 31, 32. 
Barker, L. D., Saline county, session 18. 
Barnum, Guy C, Buffalo county, sessions 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 

10, 11, 12, 13. 
Barnum, E. W., Cass county, sessions 9, 10. 
Bartling, H. H., Otoe county, session 32. 
Barton, G. C, Lincoln county, sessions 9, 11. 
Barton, W. R., Johnson county, session 26. 
Bartos, P. W., sessions 31, 32. 
Bauer, Wm. E., Butler county, session 24. 
Beardsley, S. W., Lancaster county, session 21. 
Beal, C. W., Custer county, session 25. 
Bear, Alexander, Madison county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Beck, Wm. B., Burt county, sessions 15, 22. 
Beghtol, P. F., Lancaster county, sessions 28, 29. 
Berlet, Peter, Nemaha county, session 27. 



Besse, C. R., session 31. 

Birkhauser, P. W., Richardson county, sessions 14, 15. 

Black, Joseph, Buffalo county, session 24. 

Blauchard, Geo. P., Dodge county, session 14. 

Bodinson, C. F., sessions 31, 32. 

Bomgardner, D. E., Kearney county, session 18. 

Bonesteel, H. E., Knox county, session 2 0. 

Bonnell, T. A., Saunders county, session 15. 

Bowen, A., Otoe county, sessions 9, 10. 

Brady, James T., Boone county, session 28. 

Bresee, Charles P., Sheridan county, session 29. 

Bressler, John T., Wayne county, session 24. 

Bressler, John T., session 24. 

Brown, Charles H., Douglas county, sessions 14, 15, 

Brown, David, Otoe county, session 8. 
Brown, E. E.", Lancaster county, sessions 15, 18. 
Brown, Ezra, Clay county, sessions 18, 19. 
Brown, E. P., sessions 31, 32. 

Brown, J. Marion, Washington county, session 22. 
Brown, O. F., Platte county, session IS. 
Brown, R. G., Clay county, session 20. 
Brown, W. C, Keyapaha county, session 28. 
Bryant, A. M., Saunders county, session 14. 
Buck, S. H., Otoe county, sessions 30, 31. 
Buckworth, A. D., Lincoln county, session 19. 
Buhrman, J. H., Howard county, session 32. 
Burnham, S. W., Lancaster county, session 20. 
Burns, Joseph, Lancaster county, session 30. 
Burns, J. P., Dodge county, sessions 16, 17. 
Burns, Martin, York county, sessions 16, 17 
Burr, C. C, Lancaster county, sessions 11, 12, 13, 19. 
Burton, George W., Harlan county, session 21. 
Butler, David, Pawnee county, -session 18. 
Byrnes, J. C, Platte county, session 30. 
Cady, A. E., Howard county, session 29. 
Cady, H. P., Otoe county, sessions 16, 17. 
Cadman, John, Lancaster county, session 1. 
Cain, J. R., Jr., session 31. 
Caldwell, G. H., Hall county, session 24. 
Caldwell, S. T., Clay county, session 25. 
Calhoun, L. H., Otoe county, session 1. 
Calkins, D. K., Franklin county, session 20. 
Calkins, Elisha C, Buffalo county, session 14. 
Campbell, Frank, Holt county, session 27. 
Campbell, J. E., Sarpy county, session 2 0. 
Campbell, J. N., Nance county, sessions 23, 24. 
Campbell, Wm., Otoe county, session 17. 
Canaday, J. S., sessions 25, 26. 
Canfield, George, Douglas county, session 18. 
Cams, E. C, Seward county, session 14. 
Case, 0. C, Webster county, session 18. 
Casper, C. D., Butler county, session 2 0. 
Castle, G. H., Gage county, session 17. 
Chapin, Wm. P., Cass county, session 5. 
Chapman, S. M., Cass county, sessions 11, 12, 13, 14. 
Cheney, M. B., Lancaster county, session 15. 
Cherry, A. B., Gage county, session 19. 
Christofferson, George, Douglas county, session 22. 
Clarke, A. L., Adams county, session 30. 
Clarke, C. H., Douglas county, session 23. 
Clarke, H. P., Sarpy county, session 19. 
Clarkson, J. T., Platte county, session 15. 
Coffee, C. J., Boyd county, session 28. 
Colby, L. W., Gage county, sessions 14-20. 
Collins, Geo. P., Gage county, session 22. 
Conaway, J. B., York county, session 25. 
Conger, W. H., Boone county, session 20. 
Conkling, A. T., Washington county, session 18. 
Conner, A. H., Buffalo county, sessions 18-21. 
Coon, C. B., Adams county, sessions 16, 17. 
Cordeal, John P., session 32. 
Cornell, C. H., Cherry county, session 21. 
Correll, E. M., Thayer county, session 23. 
Coulter, P. B., Hall county, session 22. 
Coulter, J. P., Fillmore county, session 15. 
Coutant, C. K., Douglas county, session 15. 
Covell, G. W., Otoe county, session 14. 

Cox, H. A., session 32. 

Cox, J., Hamilton county, session 28. 

Cox, J. M., sessions 31, 32. 

Crane, T. D., Douglas county, session 24. 

Crawford, J., Holt county, session 2 4. 

Crawford, J. C, Cuming county, sessions 9, 10-14. 

Cropsey, A. J., Jefferson county, session 8. 

Cross, George, Jefferson county, session 24. 

Crounse, Lorenzo, Washington county, session 27. 

Crow, Jos., Douglas county, session 26. 

Cummins, H. B., M. D., Seward county, session 27. 

Cunningham, E. E., Richardson county, sessions 5, ( 

7, 8. 
Cuppy, J. A., Washington county, session 15. 
Currie, F. M., Custer county, sessions 26, 27. 
Daily, Wm., Sr., Nemaha county, sessions 6, 7. 
Daily, Wm., Nemaha county, sessions 16, 17. 
Dale, W. P., Harlan county, sessions 23, 24. 
Darner, J. H., Dawson county, session 23. 
Davis, Jesse T., Washington county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Dawes, J. W., Saline county, session 14. 
Day, C. A., Saunders county, session 19. 
Day, George L., Nuckolls county, session 28. 
Day, T. J., Garfield county, session 22. 
Dean, Prank A., Phelps county, session 28. 
Dearing, W. H., Cass county, session 2 5. 
Deck, W. H., Saunders county, session 18. 
Dern, John, Dodge county, session 21. 
Diers, Herman, session 31. 

Dillon, J. A., Johnson county, sessions 9, 10. 
Dimery, Martin W., Seward county, session 2 9. 
Dinsmore, J. B., Fillmore county, sessions 16, 17. 
Doane, Geo. W., Douglas county, sessions 16, 17. 
Dodson, P. P., Saline county, session 3 0. 
Dolan, J. W., Redwillow county, sessions 18, 19. 
Donahoe, J. A., session 31. 
Doom, Jas. E., Cass county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Dorsey, B. F., Johnson county, session 15. 
Dundas, John H., Nemaha county, session 25. 
Dunn, J. A., Platte county, session 26. 
Dunphy, R. E., Seward county, session 18. 
Duras, C, Saline county, session 20. 
Durland, A. J., Madison county, session 19. 
Dye, Wm., Pillmore county, session 18. 
Dysart, Wm., Nuckolls county, sessions 22, 23. 
Edgar, Wm. H., Gage county, session 27. 
Eggleston, G. W., Lancaster county, sessions 22, 23. 
Einsel, E. D., Phelps county, session 19. 
Epperson, Chas. H., Clay county, sessions 29, 30. 
Ervin, J. R., Johnson county, sessions 16, 17. 
Evans, A. J., Butler county, sessions 16, 17. 
Evans, J. H., Douglas county, session 25. 
Everett, P., Burt county, session 23. 
Parrell, T. P., Merrick county, sessions 25, 26. 
Feltz, F. Q., Keith county, session 25. 
Ferguson, A. N., Douglas county, session 14. 
Fisher, J. B., Nemaha county, sessions 11, 12, 13, IS 
Pilley, Elijah, Gage county, session 18. 
Pilson, G. M., Richardson county, session 19. 
Fowler, C. A., Fillmore county, session 2 6. 
Freeman, P. K., Kearney county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Pries, M. L., Valley county, sessions 28, 29. 
Fritz, Nick, Thurston county, session 25. 
Frost, G. W., Douglas county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Puller, Frank, Wayne county, session 20. 
Fulton, S. A., Johnson county, sessions 6, 7. 
Funck, L W., Gage county, session 20. 
Gallagher, C. V., Douglas county, session 15. 
Gallogly, Jos. J., Merrick county, session 21. 
Gamill, John C, session 31. 
Garfield, H., Butler county, session 14. 
Gere, C. H., Lancaster county, sessions 5, 6, 7, 16, 11 
Gerrand, Leander, Buffalo county, session 8. 
Gibson, L. C, Douglas county, sessions 29, 30. 
Giffert, D. C, Cuming county, session 26. 
Giffin, W. D., Dawson county, sessions 28, 29. 
Gilham, J. S., Adams county, session 14. 


Gilligan, John P., Holt county. 
Glover, H. B., Custer county, session 30. 
Goehner, J. F., Seward county, session 19. 
Gondring, J. N., Platte county, session 2 5. 
Good, Ellis E., Nemaha county, session 29. 
Goodrich, L., Fillmore county, session 30. 
Goodwill, W. F., Washington county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Gould, E. D., Greeley county, sessions 29, 30. 
Graham, Alex, Gage county, sessions 23, 24. 
Graham, L. M., Frontier county, session 25. 
Graham, Thos., Seward county, sessions 16, 17. 
Gray, W. M., Valley county, sessions 23, 24. 
Griggs, N. K., Gage county, sessions 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. 
Grimm, J. H., Saline county, session 15. 
Grothan, O., Howard county, session 25. 
Gwyer, Wm. A., Douglas county, sessions 9, 10. 
Hahn, L., Adams county, sessions 23, 24. 
Halderman, W. J., Richardson county, session 26. 
Hale, F. J., Madison county, sessions 23, 26. 
Hall, Joseph, Burt county, session 28. 
Hall, Mathew A., Douglas county, session 28. 
Haller, W. D., Washington county, sessions 25, 29. 
Hanna, D., Cherry county, session 30. 
Hanna, T. K., Cass county, session 1. 
Hannibal, R. R., Hall county, session 26. 
Harris, C. L., Boone county, session 18. 
Harris, J. E., Otoe county, session 23. 
Harlan, Nathan V., York county, session 27. 
Harrington, R. B., Gage county, sessions 16, 17. 


Harrison, T. O. C, Hamilton county, 

Harrison, W. H., Hall county, session 2 8. 

Harsh, A. F., Kearney county, session 2 9. 

Hart, David, Adams county, session 29. 

Hascall, J. S., Douglas county, sessions 2, 3, 4, 8. 

Hastings, Shelby, Butler county, session 2 8. 

Hastings, W. G., Saline county, session 19. 

Hasty, D. S., Furnas county, session 28. 

Hatfield, J. D., session 31. 

Hathaway, H. D., Cass county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Hawke, Robert, Otoe county, session 8. 

Hayes, S. W., Dodge county, sessions 9, 10, 14. 

Hayden, D. T., Otoe county, session 15. 

Heapy, J. W., Sherman county, session 25. 

Heartwell, J. B., Adams county, session 20. 

Hedge, J. C, Adams county, session 28. 

Heist, G. W., Dawson county, session 18. 

Henry, F. J., session 31. 

Higgins, J. M., Cass county, session 20. 

Higgins, P. M., Colfax county, session 20. 

Hill, J. F., Adams county, session 22. 

Hilton, B. F., Washington county, session 8. 

Hinman, B. I., Lincoln county, session 14. 

Hitchcock, J. H., Johnson county, session 24. 

Hoagland, W. V., Lincoln county, session 32. 

Hodges, B., Kearney, Phelps and Harlan counties. 

session 2 7. 
Hoebel, Louis, Otoe county, session 19. 
Holbrook, W. D., Dodge county, sessions 24, 26, 30. 
Holden, Oscar, Pawnee county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Holmes, C. A., Johnson county, session 2 0. 
Holt, J. W., Richardson county, session 14. 
Hoover, J. S., Webster county, session 21. 
Horn, Valentine, Hamilton county, session 22. 
Hortan, Richard S., Douglas county, session 32. 
Howard, F. M., Hamilton county, session 26. 
Howe, Church, Nemaha county, sessions 14, 15, 19, 

Howe, J. D., Douglas county, sessions 16, 17. 
Howell, E. E., Douglas county, sessions 25, 31. 
Howell, M., York county, sessions 18, 19. 
Howell, Rob't B., Douglas county, session 28. 
Hoyt, T. C, Richardson county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Hughes, Hugh, Platte county, session 29. 
Hurd, L. G., Clay county, session 21. 
Hyers, Rob't W., Cass county, session 19. 
Ijams, W. H., Douglas county, session 21. 
Jackson, H. W. L., Gage county, session 2 9. 
Jansen, Peter, Gage county, session 32. 

Jeffcoat, John, Douglas county, session 25. 

Jeffres, E. W., Greeley county, session 24. 

Jennings, W. H., Thayer county, sessions 28, 29. 

Jewett, G. H., Lincoln county, session 15. 

Jewett, L. H., Custer county, session 21. 

Johnson, L. L., Clay county, sessions 23, 25. 

Jones, R. W. W., Otoe county, session 29. 

Keckley, C. R., York county, sessions 2 0, 21. 

Kelper, G. F., Pierce county, session 22. 

Kemp, J. H., Nance county, session 32. 

Kennard, T. P., Lancaster county, session 14. 

Kent, L. H., Kearney county, session 30. 

Ketchum, Smith, session 31. 

Kimmell, W. P., Butler county, session 15. 

King, E. L,, Polk county, sessions 30, 31. 

Kinkaid, M. P., Antelope county, session 18. 

Klein, Jacob, session 31. 

Knapp, W. M., York county, session 14. 

Knepper, A. J., Butler county, session 26. 

Kohl, P. H., Wayne county, session 32. 

Koontz, J. N., Hayes county, session 22. 

Krumbach, Charles, Polk county, session 27. 

Krumraer, L., Platte county, session 1. 

Latta, J. P., Burt county, session 30. 

Lamaster, J. E., Otoe county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Laverty, Alex, Saunders county, sessions 29, 31. 

Leace, David, Sarpy county, session 1. 

Lee, J. D., Boyd county, sessions 25, 32. 

Lehr, W. J., Saunders county, session 2 4. 

Lewis, T. L., Burt county, session 19. 

Ley, L., Madison county, session 15. 

Liddell, John L., Douglas county, session 27. 

Lindsay, H. C, Pawnee county, session 24. 

Lindsay, J. P., Furnas county, sessions 20, 21. 

Liniger, G. W., Douglas county, session 20. 

Linn, J. L., Richardson county, sessions 20, 21. 

Lobeck, C. O., Douglas county, session 23. 

Love, E. M., Antelope county, session 19. 

Lowley, G. W., Seward county, session 23. 

Luce, C. A., Harlan county, session 3 0. 

Lyman, J. N., Adams county, session 2 7. 

Lyon, W., Burt county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Maher, M., Platte county, session 21. 

Majors, T. J., Nemaha county, sessions 2, 3, 4, 5, 20, 

Manning, J. R., Wayne county, session 21. 
Marshall, Charles, Otoe county, session 28. 
Marshall, Wm., Dodge county, session 15. 
Martin, Francis, Richardson county, session 2 7. 
Mattes, John, Jr., Otoe county, sessions 22, 23. 
McAllister, W. A., Platte county, session 19. 
McCargar, H., Saline county, sessions 26, 27. 
McCarty, T. F., Howard county, session 23. 
McDonald, B. F., Thurston county, session 23. 
McGann, M. W., Boone county, session 25. 
McGrew, J. B., session 32. 
McKeeby, G. E., Webster county, session 24. 
McKesson, J. C. F., Lancaster county, sessions 24, 30. 
McMeans, J. S., Fillmore county, session 15. 
McNamar, C. W., Dawson county, session 20. 
McShane, J. A., Douglas county, sessions 18, 19. 
Megeath, James G., Douglas county, session 1. 
Meiklejohn, G. D., Nance county, sessions 19, 20. 
Meredith, George W., Saunders county, sessions 2" 

Meserve, Wm. A., Knox county, session 29. 
Metz, F., Douglas county, session 8. 
Metz, Fred, Douglas county, session 19. 
Michener, N. S., Polk county, session 22. 
Mighell, E. E., Hamilton county, session 24. 
Miller, James E., Buffalo county, sessions 26, 27. 
Miller, J. E., session 31. 
Miller, J. P., York county, session 23. 
Miller, Wm., Burt county, session 25. 
Mills, M. A., Polk county, session 19. 
Mockett, John H., Jr., Lancaster county, session 29. 
Moore, R. E., Lancaster county, sessions 20, 22, 23. 



Morehead, John H., session 32. 

Morgan, W. A., Dixon county, session 26. 

Morse, W. R., Hall county, sessions 16, 17. 

Muffly, C. T., Madison county, session 25. 

Mullen, J. P., Holt county, session 23. 

Murphy, G. A., Gage county, session 25. 

Mutz, Otto, Keyapaha county, session 25. 

Myers, Jo'hn C, Douglas county, sessions 16, 17. 

Myers, F. L., session 31. 

Nesbit, J. I., Lincoln county, session 21. 

Newell, W. H., Cass county, sessions 26, 27. 

Nielson, Fred C, Cuming county, session 29. 

Norris, C. H., Pawnee county, session 19. 

Norris, Charles I., Pawnee county, session 28. 

Norris, W. F., Dakota county, session 18. 

North, J. E., Platte county, sessions 14, 23. 

Norval, R. S., Seward county, session 21. 

Norval, T. L., Seward county, session 15. 

Noyes, Isaac, Douglas county, sessions 24, 26. 

O'Connell, J. G., Johnson county, session 30. 

O'Neill, H., Holt county, session 26. 

O'Neill, Richard, Lancaster county, sessions 27, 28. 

Ollis, J. A., sessions 31, 32. 

Olson, Andrew R., Cuming county, session 27. 

Osborn, L. W., Washington county, sessions 9, 10. 

Osborn, John M., Pawnee county, session 25. 

Otterstein, L., Cuming county, session 15. 

Owens, E. D., Dawson county, sessions 26, 27. 

Packwood, Samuel, Knox county, session 23. 

Paschal, Joseph L., Platte county, session 27. 

Patrick, J. N. H., Douglas county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Patrick, W. R., Sarpy county, session 3 0. 

Patterson, J. M., Cass county, session 18. 

Paul, J. N., Howard county, session 19. 

Paulsen, J. T., Douglas county, session 21. 

Paxton, Wm. A., Douglas county, session 21. 

Pemberton, L. M., Gage county, session 28. 

Pepoon, T. W., Johnson county, session 14. 

Perkey, H. D., Saunders county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Perkins, J. W., Dixon county, sessions 16, 17. 

Peterson, J. E., Franklin county, session 29. 

Phillips, F. W., Holt county, session 30. 

Pickett, T. J., Jr., Saunders county, session 21. 

Pickens, Wes, session 32. 

Pierce, C. W., Lancaster county, sessions 16, 17. 

Pitney, O. R., Webster county, session 2 7. 

Placek, E. E., session 32. 

Polk, M. D., Cass county, session 21. 

Pope, John D., Saline county, sessions 21, 23, 24. 

Porter, N. S., Dakota county, sessions 1, 5, 6, 7. 

Pottinger, W., Saunders county, session 8. 

Pound, S. B., Lancaster county, sessions 9, 10. 

Powers, Isaac, Jr., Burt county, sessions 14, 16. 

Poynter, W. A., Boone county, session 22. 

Presson, W. A., Richardson county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Prout, F. N., Gage county, session 26. 

Putnam, F. C, Hamilton county, session 19. 

Randall, Charles A., Madison county, sessions 30, 31 

Randall, H. L., Phelps county, session 22. 

Ranson, F. F., Otoe county, session 21. 

Ransom, F. T., Douglas county, sessions 25, 27, 31. 

Rathbun, F. M., Furnas county, session 24. 

Raymond, I. M., Lancaster county, session 21. 

Raymond, L. L., session 31. 

Reagan, John E., Douglas county, session 32. 

Reavis, Isham, Nemaha county, session 5. 

Reed, B. L., Richardson county, sessions 6, 7. 

Reeves, M. S., Otoe county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Reuting, Henry, Clay county, session 27. 

Reynolds, B. W., Dodge county, session 28. 

Reynolds, S. S., Butler county, session 18. 

Reynolds, W. H., Dawes county, sessions 26, 32. 

Rich, H. M., Jefferson county, session 18. 

Rich, S. M., Nemaha county, session 1. 

Ritchie, W. E., Butler county, session 25. 

Robbins, A. M., Valley county, session 20. 

Robinson, J. C, Cedar county, session 21. 

Rocke, J., Lancaster county, session 2 6. 

Roche, J. J., Antelope county, session 21. 
Rogers, E. H., Dodge county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Rogers, J., Otoe county, session 18. 
Root, J. L., Cass county, session 30. 
Rustin, C. B., Douglas county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Sackett, H. B., Gage county, session 3 0. 
Sanders, W. A., Saunders county, sessions 22, 23. 
Sang, Charles, Dodge county, session 18. 
Saunders, C. L., Douglas county, sessions 28, 29, 3 
Saunders, S., Knox county, session 24. 
Schaal, W. D., Sarpy county, sessions 25, 26. 
Schminke, Paul, Otoe county, session 20. 
Schoenheit, A., Richardson county, session 18. 
Schram, S., Butler county, session 22. 
Scott, A. R., Richardson county, session 23. 
Scott, W. D., Richardson county, sessiops 9, 10. 
Scoville, D. A., York county, session 15. 
Seaman, J. D., Buffalo county, session 15. 
Selleck, Wm. A., Lancaster county, session 32. 
Shanner, L. T., Holt county, session 21. 
Shea, J. C, Douglas county, session 22. 
Sheldon, George L., Cass county, sessions 28, 29. 
Sheldon, L., Cass county, sessions 2, 3, 4, 8. 
Shervin, J. E., Dodge county, sessions 19, 20. 
Shreck, George W., York county, session 29. 
Shook, G. R., Nemaha county, sessions 9, 10. 
Shumway, H. P., Dixon county, session 22. 
Sibley, C. G., Frontier county, session 3 0. 
Skiles, C. McC, Butler county, session 32. 
Skinner, J. B., Nuckolls county, session 19. 
Sloan, C. H., Fillmore county, session 24. 
Sloan, Robert J., Fillmore county, session 28. 
Smith, A., Lancaster county, session 19. 
Smith, B. K., Madison county, sessions 16, 17. 
Smith, Chas. C, session 32. 
Smith, G. N., Buffalo county, sessions 22, 23. 
Smith, H. L., Fillmore county, session 19. 
Smith, J. F. S., Antelope county, session 26. 
Smith, Richard, Douglas county, session 24. 
Snell, W. H., Jefferson county, sessions 19, 20. 
Sowers, A. H., Adams county, sessions 18, 19. 
Spaun, J. S., Douglas county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Spencer, E. R., Lancaster county, session 25. 
Spencer, J. T., Dakota county, session 19. 
Spohn, G. P., Nuckolls county, session 26. 
Sprecher, John C, Colfax county, session 24. 
Sprick, H., Washington county, session 20. 
Starbuck, J., Thayer county, session 22. 
Steele, C. F., Jefferson county, sessions 25, 26, 27. 
Sterling, J. H., Fillmore county, session 20. 
Steufer, Wm., Cuming county, session 24. 
Stevens, J. K., Lincoln county, session 22. 
Stevenson, O., Otoe county, session 1. 
Stevenson, T. B., Otoe county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Stewart, A. S., Pawnee county, session 1. 
Stewart, H. G., Dawes county, sessions 23, 24. 
Stone, G. A., Richardson county, session 15. 

Sullenberger, , Saline county, session 15. 

Sutherland, , Burt county, session 21. 

Switzler, W., Douglas county, session 22. 

Sykes, T. P., Adams county, session 25. 

Taggart, F. D., Adams county, session 21. 

Talbot, A. R., Lancaster county, sessions 25, 26. 

Tanner, J. H., session 31. 

Tanner, John M., session 32. 

Taylor, E. B., Douglas county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Taylor, S. B., Washington county, sessions 16, 17. 

Taylor, W. M., Loup county, session 22. 

Tefft, 0., Cass county, sessions 15, 16, 17, 23, 24. 

Tennant, A. W., Dodge county, session 8. 

Thatch, S. H., Stanton county, session 18. 

Thomas, B. F., Douglas county, sessions 29, 30. 

Thomas, E. W., Nemaha county, session 8. 

Thomas, S. L., Cass county, session 22. 

Thompson, O. R., session 31. 

Thompson, John, Dodge county, session 23. 

Thompson, R. M., Buffalo county, session 30. 

Thorne, W. E., Webster county, session 30. 


Thummel, G. H., Hall county, session 14. 
Tibbets, G. W., sessions 31, 32. 
Tisdale, F. D., Richardson county, session 1. 
Trompen, John J., Lancaster county, session 27. 
Tuclter, E. A., Richardson county, session 29. 
Tuclier, G. P., Johnson county, session S. 
Turk, W. W., Richardson county, sessions 16, 17. 
Turner, Edward, Saline county, session 22. 
Turner, M. K., Platte county, sessions 16, 17. 
Tzschuck, Bruno, Douglas county, session 20. 
Umstead, J. H., Nance county, session 28. 
Van Boskirk, J. R., Cherry county, session 27. 
Vandemark, J. K., Saunders county, session 20. 
Van Dusen, J. H., Douglas county, session 26. 
Van Housen, J. C, Colfax county, session 22. 
Van Wyck, C. H., Otoe county, sessions 14, 15, 16, 17. 
Varner, L. A., session 32. 
Volpp, Fred, sessions 31, 32. 
Vore, T. A., Saline county, session 29. 
Wall, Aaron, Sherman county, sessions 28, 29. 
Walker, P. H., Lancaster county, 
Walton, W. C, Washington county. 
Warden, W. W., Otoe county, 
Warner, C. A., Fillmore county, 
Warner, William P., Dakota county, 
Warren, A. G., session 31. 
Watson, E. G., Saline county, session 25. 
Watson, J. C, Otoe county, session 24. 
Way, W. A., Platte county, session 28. 
Webber, Chris, Greeley county, session 2 7. 
Welch F., Washington county, session 1. 
Weller, A. A., Otoe county, session 25. 
Wells, H. M., Saline county, sessions 16, 17. 
Wetherald, F. W., Thayer county, session 21. 
Whaley, M. H., Merrick county, session 29. 
Wherry, R. A., Richardson county, sessions 16, 17. 
White, C. C, Saunders county, sessions 16, 17. 
Wigton, A. L., Adams county, session 15. 
Wilbur, M. C, Douglas county, 
Wilcox, F., M. D., Thayer county, 
Wilcox, M. S., session 32. 
Wilcox, M. W., Fillmore county, 
Williams, C. W., Johnson county, session 22. 
Williams, J. J., Wayne county, session 2i 
Wilson, O., Douglas county, sessions 9, 10. 
Wilson, W. H., Pawnee county, session 30. 
Wilson, W. W., Dawes county, session 22. 
Wiltse, George W., Cedar county, sessions 30, 31. 
Wilsey, Albert, Frontier county, sessions 29, 30. 
Wolbach, S. N., Hall county, sessions 20, 21. 
Woods, L. H., Pawnee county, session 22. 
Woostenholm, J. A., Hall county, session 27. 
Wright, C. J., Seward county, session 20. 
Wright, J. B., Lancaster county, session 24. 
Young, J. L., Johnson county, session 28. 
Young, L. W., Furnas county, session 23. 
Young, W. W., Stanton county, session 2 7. 
Zehrung, H., Cuming county, sessions 16, 17. 
Zeigler, T. F., Cedar county, session 27. 
(1866 to 1910) 

Abbott, N. C, Lancaster county, sessions 
Abel, A., Dawson county, session 18. 
Abrahamson, O., Kearney county, sessions 
Adams, G. M., Dawes county, session 30 
Adams, J. M., Cheyenne county, session 1 
Agee, A. W., Hamilton county, session 20. 
Ahmanson, J., Douglas county, session 8. 
Aikin, R. M., Nuckolls county, sessions 19 
Albert, H., Gage county, session 22. 
Alden, J. M., Cedar county, session 22. 
Alderman, F. B., Cuming county, session 
Alderson, T. E., Madison county, session 3 
Alexander, T. J., Nemaha county, session 
Allen, C, Butler county, session 14. 
Allen, H. A., Holt county, sessions 31, 32. 
Allen, James, Douglas county, session 24. 

16, 17. 
20, 21. 

Ames, G. W., Douglas county, session 23. 
Ames, W. R., Otoe county, session 22. 
Anderson, C, Kearney county, session 32. 
Anderson, Charles, Hamilton county, sessions 28, 29. 
Anderson, C. J., Douglas county, session 29. 

D. M., Otoe county, sessions 1, 2, 3, 4. 
1, F. E., Knox county, session 28. 
Anderson, G. W., Lancaster county, session 26. 
Anderson, N., Fillmore county, session 17. 
Anderson, Victor, Kearney county, sessions 27, 28. 
Andres, H. C, Buffalo county, session 2 0. 
Andres, P., Douglas county, session 20. 
Andrews, J. A., Frontier county, session 27. 
Ankeny, H. T., Cedar county, session 2 5. 
Anness, W. W., Otoe county, session 32. 
Anyan, W., Gage county, sessions 12, 13, 14. 
Armitage, H. G., Adams county, session 18. 
Arnold, A. J., Platte county, sessions 9, 10. 
Arnold, E., Gage county, session 22. 
Arnold, E. W., Platte county, session 1. 
Armstrong, J. W., Nemaha county, sessions 26, 27, 30. 
Armstrong, F. W., session 31. 
Ashburn, S. P., Buffalo county, sessions 9, 10. 
Ashby, T. P., Franklin county, session 18. 
Ashby, W., Clay county, session 24. 
Atwood, S. S., Seward county, sessions 28, 29. 
Ayer, S. C, Buffalo county, sessions 16, 17. 
Babcock, A. H., Pawnee county, sessions 9, 10. 
Babcock, C. F., Redwillow, session 18. 
Babcock, N. S., Fillmore county, sessions 16, 17. 
Babcock, O., Boone county, session 15. 
Babcock, W. E., Furnas county, session 2 0. 
Bacon, F., Dawson county, session 24. 
Bacon, George E., Dawson county, sessions 28, 29. 
Bailey, J. B., Washington county, sessions 16, 17. 
Bailey, O. J., Franklin county, sessions 20, 21. 
Bailey, S. M., Jefferson county, session 19. 
Bailey, Willard F., Buffalo county, session 3 2. 
Baird, H., Dakota county, session 2 0. 
Baird, J. P., Valley county, session 30. 
Baker, A. H., Douglas county, sessions 11, 12, 13, 14. 
Baker, B. S., Thayer county, session 21. 
Baker, D. W., York county, sessions 30, 31, 32. 
Baker, S., Franklin county, session 15. 
Baker, W., Saline county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Baldwin, A. S., Dawson county, sessions 16, 17. 
Baldwin, C. W., Douglas county, session 25. 
Ballard, J. R., Fillmore county, sessions 20, 21. 
Baltzley, 0. W., Saline county, sessions 3, 4, 9, 10. 
Barclay, A., sessions 31, 32. 
Barker, A. H., Dakota county, session 1. 
Barker, S., Cass county, session 14. 
Barnard, E. H., Dodge county, session 5. 
Barnard, S., Pawnee county, session 15. 
Barnes, J. W., Cass (Douglas) counties, sessions 9, 

10, 11, 12, 13. 
Barnes, S. C, Douglas county, sessions 29, 30. 
Barney, R. E., Buffalo county, session 19. 
Barnum, G. C, Platte county, session 14. 
Barrows, B. H., Douglas county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Barry, P. H., Greeley county, sessions 23, 24. 
Bartels, H. C, session 32. 
Barton, L., Kearney county, session 18. 
Bartoo, A. E., Valley county, sessions 28, ^9. 

Bartholomew, , Antelope county, session 22. 

Bartlett, E. M., Douglas county, sessions 16, 17. 

Bartlett, W. R., Douglas county, sessions 9, 10. 

Barrett, George, Buffalo county, session 30. 

Barrett, G. W., session 31. 

Barrett, J. H., Cuming county, session 20. 

Bassett, S. C, Buffalo county, sessions 19, 32. 

Bates, M. A., session 31. 

Batty, R. A., Adams county, session 15. 

Baumer, J., Douglas county, sessions 11, 12, 13.- 

Beal, C. W., Custer county, session 23. 

Beall, Charles H., Clay county, session 27. 

Beall, E., Hall county, session 8. 

Beals, S. W., Richardson county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 


Bear, A., Madison county, session 14. 

Beardsley, J. M., Cass county, session 14. 

Becher, Dirk A., Platte county, sessions 27, 28. 

Becher, G. G., Platte county, session 24. 

Beck, H. S., Pierce county, session 24. 

Beckman, H., Seward county, session 21. 

Bedford, Wm. H., Holt county, session 29. 

Bee, E. R., Furnas county, session 24. 

Beebe, H., sessions 3, 4. 

Beekly, Wm. H.„ Seward county, session 27. 

Beethe, C. H., Johnson county, session 27. 

Begole, B. H., session 31. 

Beisner, Conrad, Thayer county, sessions 26, 27. 

Belden, H. S., Richardson county, session 28. 

Belden, N. S., Dodge county, session 14. 

Bell, T. R., Cass county, session 1. 

Bender, John W., Platte county, session 29. 

Benedict, E., Douglas county, session 24. 

Bennett, J. B., sessions 3, 4. 

Bennett, L. M., Douglas county, session 15. 

Bentley, W. G., Saunders county, session 20. 

Berkley, H., Fillmore county, session 18. 

Berlin, R. H., Douglas county, session 21. 

Berlet, P., Johnson county, session 26. 

Bernard, J. J., Pawnee county, sessions 24, 25. 

Berry, E. M., Pawnee county, session 21. 

Bertrand, G. E., Douglas county, session 22. 

Besse, C. R., Webster county, session 3 0. 

Best, P. C, Douglas county, session 30. 

Beverly, J. A., Douglas county, session 26. 

Bick, H., Seward county, sessions 16, 17, 20. 

Bickley, W. M., Madison county, session 19. 

Bierbower, V., Cheyenne county, session 18. 

Bigland, I. S., session 31. 

Billings, O. P., Keyapaha county, session 2 5. 

Bisbee, M. B., Holt county, session 21. 

Black, Cyrus, session 31. 

Blackmore, T., Douglas county, session 14. 

Blaco, R., Washington county, session 19. 

Blaine, W. H., Fillmore county, session 19. 

Blake, P., Johnson county, sessions 25, 26. 

Blakely, N., Gage county, sessions 1, 5. 

Blodgett, C, Nemaha county, sessions 9, 10. 

Blystone, W. J., Lancaster county, sessions 30, 31. 

Bobbit, T. N., Cass county, session 14. 

Boelts, J. G., session 31. 

Boggs, L. B., Gage county, session 14. 

Bohacek, W., Saline county, session 21. 

Bolen, J. M., Butler county, sessions 29, 30. 

Boland, P. G., session 31. 

Bolin, H., Douglas county, sessions 16, 17. 

Bonham, Luther, session 3 2. 

Booth, J., Dodge county, session 19. 

Borland, P. G. H., Douglas county, session 32. 

Borroughs, W. W., Merrick county, session 29. 

Bortis, C. W., Clay county, session 21. 

Botts, P. J., session 31. 

Boulier, Alex, Saunders county, sessions 26, 27. 

Bowman, A. H., session 31. 

Bowman, G. G., Platte county, session 20. 

Bowman, H. E., Nuckolls county, session 29. 

Bower, S., Howard county, sessions 25, 26. 

Boyd, James, Nuckolls county, session 27. 

Boyd, J. E., Platte county, session 1. 

Boyd, R. W., session 31. 

Bradley, A. H., Lincoln county, session 15. 

Brady, J., Buffalo county, session 24. 

Brancht, H. G., Colfax county, session 21. 

Brandt, Wm., Jr., Lancaster county, session 19. 

Brecht, Chas., Richardson county, session 32. 

Bredeson, Ole, Polk county, session 22. 

Breen, J. J., Douglas county, session 22. 

Brennan, J. C, Douglas county, session 22. 

Brewer, W., Hall county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Brewster, S. C, Douglas county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Briggs, A. C, Dodge county, session 8. 

Brink, A. P., Boone county, session 21. 

Britton, J., Stanton county, session 18. 

12, 13. 


Broatch, W. J., Douglas county, sessions 16, 17. 

Brockman, J. M., Richardson county, sessions 23, 24. 

Broaderick, J. B., session 31. 

Broaderick, M., Clay county, sessions 2 6, 27. 

Brokaw, W. A., Seward county, session 24. 

Brownell, R. C, Saunders county, session 2 4. 

Brownlee, R. D., Otoe county, session 15. 

Bruce, G. C, Thayer county, session 15. 

Bruno, H. A., Merrick county, session 14. 

Brush, M., Saunders county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Brown, C. M., Purnas county, session 2 7. 

Brown, David, Cass county, session 27. 

Brown, D. J., Seward county, sessions 18, 23. 

Brown, E. A., Sherman county, sessions 30, 31. 

Brown, E. P., Lancaster county, session 30. 

Brown, E. W., Lancaster county, sessions 30, 31. 

Brown, G. W., Boone county, sessions 16, 17. 

Brown, J. L., Cass county, sessions 9, 10, 11, 

Brown, W. W., Frontier county, session 20. 

Buckley, J. B., Polk county, session 30. 

Buffington, J. R., Gage county, session 19. 

Bulla, J. H., Douglas county, session 32. 

Bunner, T. C, Douglas county, session 19. 

Burch, J. C, Gage county, session 24. 

Buresh, Vaclav, Douglas county, session 27. 

Burgess, H. C. N., Lancaster county, sessions 

Burke, D. W., Cuming county, session 24. 

Burkett, E. J., Lancaster county, session 25. 

Burkley, V., Douglas county, session 1. 

Burling, T. R., Lancaster county, session 15. 

Burman, P., Douglas county, sessions 25, 26. 

Burnham, A. J., Cherry county, session 21. 

Burnham, S. W., Lancaster county, session 19. 

Burns, E. C, Dodge county, session 2 4. 

Burns, J., Lancaster county, sessions 23, 24, 26, 29. 

Burns, W. H., Douglas county, session 15. 

Burtch, G. S., Sarpy county, sessions 9, 10. 

Bush, A. H., Franklin county, session 14. 

Bush, G. H., Hall county, session 15. 

Bushee, B. K., sessions 31, 32. 

Busse, C. H. W., Burt county, session 32. 

Butler, J. H., Douglas county, session 25. 

Butler, J. R., Pawnee county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Butt, William, session 31. 

Byram, H. D., Burt county, sessions 25, 30. 

Cady, A. E., Howard county, session 21. 

Cadman, John, Lancaster county, sessions 2, 4, 14. 

Cain, J. B., Hamilton county, sessions 23, 24. 

Cain, J. R., Jr., Richardson county, session 2 7. 

Caldwell, J. L., Lancaster county, sessions 2 0, 21. 

Caldwell, P. A., Clay county, sessions 28, 29. 

Caldwell, S. T., Nuckolls county, session 14. 

Calkins, J. T., Saline county, session 27. 

Callahan, T. C, Saline county, session 19. 

Cameron, M., Washington county, sessions 2 0, 21. 

Campbell, B. W., Clay county, session 25. 

Campbell, R. W., Merrick county, session 24. 

Cannon, J. P., Cass county, session 8. 

Cannon, S. S., Sherman county, session 2 0. 

Cantlin, J. R., Dodge county, sessions 16, 17. 

Capek, T., Douglas county, session 22. 

Carder, W. W., Lancaster county, session 15. 

Carlin, J. J., Rock county, session 30. 

Carlson, O., Kearney county, session 24. 

Carman, A. A., Johnson county, sessions 16, 17. 

Carnaby, Wm., Douglas county, session 18. 

Carpenter, G. J., Jefferson county, session 23. 

Carpenter, R. C, Butler county, session 22. 

Carr, John P., session 31. 

Carrigan, D., Cheyenne county, session 16. 

Carter, S., Richardson county, sessions 6, 7. 

Carton, J., Holt county, session 26. 

Case, E. S., section 31. 

Case, J. H., Clay county, sessions 16, 17. 

Casebeer, J. H., Gage county, sessions 25, 29. 

Casper, C. D., Butler county, sessions 23, 24. 

Casper, C. P., Butler county, session 19. 

Cassell, Job, Otoe county, sessions 2 8, 2 9. 



Burtch, S. P., Sarpy county, session 14. 

Castle, G. H., Gage county, session 18. 

Cawthra, R., Gosper county, session 26. 

Chiaddoek, L., Seward county, session 17. 

Chambers, B. P., Dakota county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Chambers, J. H., Washington county, session 2 6. 

Champlin, L. C, Jefferson county, session 14. 

Chapman, T. P., Lancaster county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Chapman, W. O., Saline county, session 24. 

Chapin, C. C, Pranklin county, session 18. 

Chapin, W. P., Cass county, sessions 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Charlston, C. O., Harlan county, session 18. 

Chase, C. H., Stanton county, sessions 24, 31. 

Chase, J. N., Sarpy county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Chase, J. O., Pillmore county, session 14. 

Chittenden, W. E., Gage county, sessions 25, 26. 

Church, J. S., Nemaha county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Chirstenson, A. C, Kearney county, session 29. 

Christopherson, J., Douglas county, session 18. 

Christy, G. S., Nemaha county, session 2 8. 

Christy, H., Dodge county, session 21. 

Christy, S. W., Clay county, session 21. 

Clapp, H., Jefferson county, session 22. 

Clark, A. P., Colfax county, session 18. 

Clark, E., Washington county, session 8. 

Clark, E. L., Lancaster county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Clark, H. G., Douglas county, session 18. 

Clark, Jas., Dakota county, session 8. 

Clark, L., Hall (Boone) counties, sessions 11, 12, 13, 

■ 14. 

Clark, P. P., Lancaster county, sessions 25, 26. 

Clark, R. A., Richardson county, sessions 25, 31. 

Clark, T. S., Polk county, session 15. 

Clark, H. T., Jr., Douglas county, sessions 29, 30. 

Clarke, E. D., Cherry county, session 32. 

Clay, J. H. M., Lancaster county, session 28. 

Clayton, L R., Gage county, session 32. 

Coats, W. N., Holt county, sessions 28, 29. 

Coffee, Charles P., Dawes county, session 2 7. 

Cole, A. v., Adams county, sessions 19, 20. 

Cole, Charles, Richardson county, sessions 16, 17. 

Cole, D., Cass county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Cole, I. M., Hall county, session 18. 

Cole, J. W., Hitchcock county, session 2 4. 

Cole, William, Kearney county, session 25. 

Coleman, A., Polk county, session 21. 

Coleman, J. M., Antelope county, session 21. 

Collins, G. W., Pawnee county, 

Collins, J. S., Saunders county, 

Collins, T. J., Richardson county, 

Collins, W., Cuming county, session 21. 

Colpetzer, P., Douglas county, session 18. 

Colton, G. R., Butler county, session 23. 

Colton, Wm., York county, session 32. 

Conaway, J. B., York county, session 24. 

Cone, T., Saunders county, session 30. 

Conger, J. W., Otoe county, session 8. 

Conger, W. H., Sherman county, session 19. 

Connelly, J. P., session 31. 

Conwell, M., Pillmore county, session 26. 

Cook, J. M., Nuckolls county, sessions 16, 17, 18. 

Cook, W. L., Jefferson county, session 18. 

Cooksey, W. H., Pillmore county, session 27. 

Cooley, A. S., Cass county, sessions 23, 24. 

Cooperrider, L J., session 31. 

Cope, J. A., Pawnee county, sessions 19, 20. 

Coppoc, Ed, Holt county, session 2 7. 

Copsey, A. H., Custer county, sessions 28, 29. 

Corbin, O. A., Nemaha county, session 21. 

Corneer, S. A., Douglas county, session 27. 

Cornelius, G., Hall county, session 19. 

Cornell, W. H., York county, sessions 12, 13. 

Cornish, A. J., Lancaster county, sessions 22, 23. 

Corr, T., Seward county, session 19. 

Correll, E. M., Thayer county, sessions 16, 17. 

Cosgrove, J. H., Garfield county, session 26. 

Cox, J., Hamilton county, sessions 18, 19. 

Cox, Levi, Douglas county, sessions 25, 26. 

Crab, John, session 31. 

Craig, W. S., Burt county, session 2 0. 

Cramb, J. C, Thayer county, session 22. 

Cramb, J. 0., Jefferson county, session 24. 

Cramer, J. E., York county, sessions 9, 10. 

Crane, M., Valley county, session 20. 

Crane, T. D., Douglas county, session 23. 

Cravens, Joseph M., Pawnee county, sessions 28, 29. 

Crawford, G. N., Sarpy county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Crawford, J., Cass county, session 19. 

Crawford, J. C, Cuming county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Creighton, J., Douglas county, session 14. 

Crissey, H. G., Johnson county, session 27. 

Critchfield, A. J., Douglas county, session 10. 

Crockett, Charles, Knox county, session 27. 

Crockett, C, Knox county, session 26. 

Cronk, J. H., Valley county, session 25. 

Crook, W. H., Richardson county, session 19. 

Cropsey, D. B., Jefferson county, sessions 28, 29. 

Cross, George, Jefferson county, session 23. 

Crow, J., Douglas county, sessions 24, 25. 

Crowe, George, Nemaha county, sessions 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Cruzen, A. R., Prontier county, session 21. 

Culdice, C. H., Saline county, session 30. 

Cunningham, A. V., Hamilton county, 

Cunningham, B. P., Richardson county, 

Cunningham, , Harlan county, session 

Currie, Prank, Dawes county, sessions 28, 29. 

Curtis, C. E., Douglas county, session 2 5. 

Curtis, C. W., Madison county, session 22. 

Gushing, R. C, Douglas county, session 21. 

Dahlsten, Peter, Wheeler county, session 2 7. 

Daily, William, Nemaha county, sessions 2, 3, 4, 8. 

Dastal, Joseph, session 31. 

Davenport, H. H., Cedar county, session 18. 

Davidson, J., Sarpy county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Davies, J. A., Cass county, sessions 23, 24. 

Davis, P. E., Saunders county, session 15. 

Davis, J. H., Buffalo county, sessions 15, 28, 29. 

Davis, P. J., Cass county, session 30. 

Dawson, J., Harlan county, session 18. 

Day, R. N., Burt county, session 15. 

Dech, W. A., Saunders county, sessions 9, 10. 

Decker, P., Thayer county, session 22. 

Delaney, M. C, Butler county, sessions 21, 24. 

Dempster, John A., Pillmore county, sessions 20, 21. 

Dempster, P. J., Harlan county, sessions 15, 19. 

Dempsey, W., Boxbutte county, session 24. 

Denman, H. C, Hall county, session 21. 

Denman, Z. H., Hall county, session IS. 

Denton, W. A., Douglas county, session 1. 

Dernier, William Deles, Cass county, sessions 28, 29. 

Detweiler, J. O., Douglas county, session 26. 

Detrick, H. M., York county, sessions 28, 29. 

Dew, J. S., Johnson county, sessions 16, 17, 23. 

Deweese, J. M., Richardson county, sessions 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Dickerson, A., Sherman county, sessions 22, 23. 

Dickinson, J. W., Lancaster county, sessions 20, 21. 

Diers, Herman, York county, session 2 7. 

Diller, W. H., Jefferson county, sessions 2 0, 21. 

Dillon, W. E., Otoe county, session 8. 

Dimmick, J. M., Pranklin county, session 23. 

Dittman, R. A., Otoe county, session 2 6. 

Dobry, J. G., Colfax county, sessions 26, 28. 

Dobson, R., Pillmore county, sessions 22, 23, 25. 

Dodd, J. P., Howard county, session 18. 

Dodge, G. M., Dodge county, session 15. 

Dodge, H. L., Douglas county, sessions 9, 10. 

Dodge, N. P., Jr., Douglas county, sessions 29, 30. 

Doolittle, W. H., Johnson county, session 14. 

Doom, J. E., Otoe county, session 8. 

Doran, T. H., Garfield county, sessions 29, 30. 

Dort, E. H., Nemaha county, session 32. 

Douglas, J. A., Rock county, sessions 2 8, 29. 

Dostal, Jos., Butler county, session 32. 

Dowty, J. R., Richardson county, sessions 16, 17. 

Dolezal, Prank, sessions 31, 32. 

Draper, D. S., Cass county, session 18. 



Draper, H. A., Clay county, session 15. 

Draper, S., Knox county, session 18. 

Duby, C, Sarpy county, session 8. 

Dudley, E. G., Douglas county, sessions 9, 10. 

Duerfeldt, G., Richardson county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Dunham, M., Douglas county, sessions 2, 3, 4, 9, 10. 

Dunkin, M. W., Otoe county, session 30. 

Dun, F., Colfax county, session 22. 

Dunn, W. J., Saline county, session 21. 

Eager, DeWitt, Seward county, session 25. 

Eager, Earl 0., Lancaster county, session 32. 

Eastman, L. H., sessions 31, 32. 

Eastman, W. G., Custer county, sessions 25, 26. 

Eberman, J. H., Thayer county, session 19. 

Edmondson, J. H., Hamilton county, session 27. 

Eggenburger, Peter, Fillmore county, sessions 28, 32. 

Eggleson, G. W., Lancaster county, session 20. 

Eickhoff, A., Cedar county, session 23. 

Eighmy, P. H., Brown county, session 2 5. 

Bisley, C. F., Burt (Madison) counties, sessions 14, 

15, 20. 
Elder, S. M., Clay county, sessions 22, 23. 
Eller, 1. C, Washington county, session 3 0. 
Elliott, A., Harlan county, session 21. 
Elliott, J. B., Otoe county, session 14. 
Ellis, C. C, Johnson county, session 20. 
Ellis, E. E., Dixon county, sessions 23, 32. 
Ellis, P. O., session 31. 

Elwood, H. C, Antelope county, session 26. 
Ely, J. F., Nemaha county, session 24. 
Emerson, C. D., Kearney county, session 19. 
Endicott, J. J., Seward county, session 26. 
Endort, F. W., Saline county, session 25. 
Englehard, F., Seward county, session 15. 
Engstrom, P. G., Phelps county, session 2 9. 
Enyart, L., Otoe county, sessions 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. 
Ernst, William, Johnson county, session 29. 
Esterling, J. M., Buffalo county, session 26. 
Evans, C. B., Dixon county, session 5. 
Evans, I. D., Adams county, sessions 26, 32. 
Evans, John E., Lincoln county, session 2 7. 
Evans, J. L., session 31. 
Everett, B. W., Burt county, session 19. 
Everett, F., Burt county, session 21. 
Ewan, J. G., Nemaha county, session 14. 
Ewing, J., Hall county, session 20. 
Fablinger, G., Nemaha county, session 18. 
Pairbrother, George, Nemaha county, session 1. 
Pannon, George, session 31. 
Parley, H. W., Cass county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Parley, J. J., Hamilton county, session 21. 
Parley, W. I., Hamilton county, session 30. 
Parnsworth, J. B., Keyapaha county, session 23. 
Farrell, J., Dodge county, session 23. 
Faxon, J. W., Gage county, session 22. 
Fee, J. R., Cherry county, session 22. 
Peeno, S. B., Douglas county, session 21. 
Peichtinger, C, Dodge county, session 22. 
Pelker, W. S., Douglas county, sessions 22, 25. 
Fellers, A. H., Richardson county, session 27. 
Fellers, B. E., Platte county, session 28. 
Felton, G. A., Nuckolls county, sessions 22, 23. 
Fenlon, Peter P., Butler county, session 29. 
Fenton, J., Richardson county, session 15. 
Fenton, Wm., Richardson county, sessions 20, 21. 
Ferguson, G., Otoe county, session 15. 
Fernow, M., Adams county, session 25. 
Ferrar, H. S., Hall county, sessions 28, 29. 
Field, A. W., Lancaster county, sessions 18, 19. 
Fieldgrove, H., Buffalo county, session 21. 
Filley, E., Gage county, sessions 16, 17. 
Filley, H. Clyde, Gage county, session 32. 
Fishback, George C, Clay county, sessions 28, 29. 
Fisher, A. G., Dawes county, session 26. 
Fisher, H., Richardson county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Fisher, H. A., Saunders county, session 15. 
Pltchie, J., Otoe county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Pitle, Frank J., Douglas county, session 29. 

Fitzpatrick, W. W., Thayer county, session 14. 

Flamme, Wm., Otoe county, session 22. 

Fletcher, W. G., M. D., Antelope county, session 30. 

Plynn, T. J., Douglas county, session 26. 

Pogarty, J. L., session 31. 

Polda, P., Platte county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Ford, Harvey, Thayer county, session 28. 

Ford, P., Douglas county, session 22. 

Ford, P. H., Phelps county, sessions 22, 23. 

Foster, Harry A., Douglas county, session 29. 

Fouke, G. R., Gage county, session 25. 

Fowler, Charles A., Fillmore county, session 27. 

Fox, G. W., Dawson county, session 20. 

Fox, Jos., Douglas county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Frady, C. H., Stanton county, session 14. 

France, C. L., Otoe county, session 30. 

Prance, T. M., Cuming county, sessions 16, 17, 18. 

Frantz, M. P., Saline county, session 20. 

Frazier, K., Dixon county, session 1. 

Frederick, J. P., Howard county, sessions 15, 16, 17 

Freeburn, Wm., Johnson county, session 18. 

French, H. A., Seward county, session 15. 

Prerichs, J., Nemaha county, session 14. 

Fretz, 1. S., Valley county, session 26. 

Pried, Wm., Dodge county, sessions 16, 17. 

Friedrich, M. L., Cass county, sessions 2 7, 2 8. 

Pries, S. M., Howard county, sessions 28, 30, 31, 32. 

Fritz, N., Thurston county, session 24. 

Frost, G. W., Douglas county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Frost, W. S., Burt county, session 2 2. 

Puchs, J. W., Platte county, session 20. 

Fuller, A. B., Cass county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Puller, P. W., Sherman county, session 21. 

Puller, George W., Seward county, sessions 26, 27, 3 

Puller, J. N., Gage county, session 20. 

Fulton, S., Harlan county, sessions 22, 23. 

Punk, P. C, Phelps county, session 30. 

Furay, J. B., Douglas county, session 5. 

Gaffin, J. N., Saunders county, sessions 22, 23, 25. 

Gafford, C. C, Gage county, session 20. 

Gale, A. H., Brown county, session 22. 

Galey, S. B., Lancaster county, 

Gallagher, Felix L., session 32. 

Gallogly, O., Brown county, session 2 7. 

Gait, A. A., Clay county, session 32. 

Gamble, A. J., Dodge county, session 20. 

Gandy, Jesse, Custer county, session 3 2. 

Garber, S., Jefferson county, sessions 9, 10. 

Gardner, J. P., Richardson county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 

Gardner, W. A., Douglas county, sessions 21, 22. 

Garvey, P., Douglas county, session 2 0. 

Gassman, P. W., Cheyenne county, session 15. 

Gates, A., Sarpy county, sessions 15, 16, 17, 21. 

Gates, J. M., session 31. 

Gawne, W. Y. R., Merrick county, session 27. 

Gaylord, E. S., Washington county, sessions 11, i: 

Gaylord, P., Buffalo county, session 25. 
Gaylord, R. E., Douglas county, session 15. 
Gelwick, C. C, Butler county, session 2 8. 
Gerdes, Henry, Richardson county, sessions 22, 2; 

25, 29, 31, 32. 
Gerdes, W., Richardson county, session 14. 
Gere, C. H., Pawnee county, session 1. 
Gibson, J. S., Douglas county, sessions 14, 15. 
Gifford, W. M., Pawnee county, sessions 22, 23. 
Gilbert, D. W., Douglas county, session 28. 
Gilbert, E. A., York county, session 21. 
Gilbert, J. W., Saline county, session 15. 
Gilchrist, L. W., Sheridan county, session 21. 
Gill, D., Thayer county, session 19. 
Gillilan, J. J., Lancaster county, session 22. 
Oilman, J. C, Cass county, sessions 14, 20. 
Oilman, J. D., Richardson county, session 14. 
Oilman, L. S., Lancaster county, session 3 0. 
Gishwiller, C. W., Franklin county, sessions 27, 28. 
Givens, P., Cuming county, session 25. 
Glasgow, W. G., Nemaha county, session 1. 



Glenn, R. A., Franklin county, session 19. 

Gliem, Philip, Redwillow county, sessions 29, 30. 

Goar, I. N., Custer county, session 2 4. 

Goddard, S., Frontier county, session 22. 

Goldsmith, B., Cuming county, session 23. 

Good, Ellis E., Nemaha county, session 28. 

Goodin, I., Saline county, session 8. 

Goodman, C. F., Douglas county, sessions 9, 10. 

Gordon, H., Holt county, session IS. 

Goshorn, J. S., Thayer county, session 25. 

Goss, C. A., Douglas county, session 23. 

Goss, T. S., Wayne county, session 23. 

Gow, J., Sarpy county, session 18. 

Graff, C, Cuming county, sessions 30, 31. 

Grafton, W. S., Saline county, session 2 6. 

Graham, R. B., Lancaster county, session 16. 

Grammer, C, Howard county, session 2 3. 

Grandstaff, J. L., Webster county, sessions 25, 26. 

Graves, John, Otoe county, session 1. 

Graves, J. G., Otoe county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Graver, Wm., Nemaha county, session 18. 

Gray, A. W., Johnson county, session 1. 

Gray, F. W., Douglas county, session 18. 

Gray, W. D., Fillmore county, session 16. 

Graybill, R. W., Hamilton county, session 15. 

Green, O. E., Platte county, session 21. 

Green, S. L., Redwillow county, session 2 0. 

Green, S. W., Holt county, session 30. 

Gregg, F. M., Wayne county, session 28. 

Greig, James, Platte county, session 30. 

Grell, Claus, Sarpy county, sessions 2 5, 2 6, 27. 

Grenell, E. N., Sarpy county, session 8. 

Griffin, B. F., session 31. 

Griffin, J. T., Douglas county, sessions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 

Griffith, P., Adams county, sessions 23, 24. 

Griffith, W. C, Lancaster county, session 14. 

Grigg, James, session 31. 

Grimes, H. M., Valley county, session 18. 

Grimes, M. C, Holt county, session 2 5. 

Grinstead, R. E., Richardson county, session 18. 

Grossman, John H., Douglas county, session 32. 

Grosvenor, J. H., Hamilton county, sessions 25, 26. 

Grout, A. P., Otoe county, session 18. 

Groves, C. E., session 31. 

Gumaer, A. W., Howard county, session 19. 

Grueber, Wm., sessions 31, 32. 

Gurnett, J. M., York county, session 22. 

Gustafson, C. H., Saunders county, session 32. 

Guthrie, D., Nuckolls county, session 2 4. 

Hadsell, E. H., session 31. 

Hagemeister, W., Hamilton county, session 30. 

Hagood, J. McP., Cass county, session 5. 

Hahn, L., Webster county, session 21. 

Hairgrove, E. E., Clay county, session 24. 

Hall, E. J., Hall county, session 2 2. 

Hall, G. A., Cedar county, session 14. 

Hall, G. L., Lancaster county, session 21. 

Hall, James, Brown county, session 2 6. 

Hall, James, Cass county, sessions 16, 17, 18. 

Hall, Joseph, Burt county, session 27. 

Hall, P. J., Saunders county. 

Hall, T. F., Douglas county, i 

Haldeman, W. J., Pawnee county, 

Haller, W. D., Washington county, sessions 23, 24, 26, 

Hamer, T. P., Buffalo county, session 30. 
Hamilton, D. W., Butler county, sessions 25, 27. 
Hamilton, W. R., Washington county, session 1. 
Hammitt, B. F., Saunders county, session 15. 
Hampton, I. B., Webster county, session 21. 
Hand, W. E., Cass county, session 29. 
Hanks, H. H., Otoe county, session 27. 
Hanna, David, Cherry county, session 28. 
Hanna, J. R., Garfield county, session 21. 
Hansen, 1. E., Merrick county, session 30. 
Hanson, R., Burt county, session 15. 
Hanthorn, James, Nuckolls county, session 21. 
Hardenburg, E. H., Lancaster county, session 2. 

Hardin, D. S., Harlan county, session 32. 

Harding, W. A., Burt county, session 21. 

Hardy, H. R., Polk county, session 26. 

Harlan, N. V., York county, sessions 19, 20. 

Harkson, H., Lancaster county, sessions 24, 26. 

Harmon, F. P., Adams county, session 2 3. 

Harmon, W. J., Saunders county, sessions 28, 29. 

Haroxby, Fred G., Nemaha county, session 27. 

Harrington, W., Burt county, session 18. 

Harrington, B. S., sessions 31, 32. 

Harris, D. H., Otoe county, session 26. 

Harris, J. E., Buffalo county, session 27. 

Harris, R. D., Keith county, session 24. 

Harrison, C. J., Saunders county, session 20. 

Harrison, M. T., Otoe county, session 30. 

Harrison, P., Hall county, session 14. 

Harrison, W. G., Washington county, 

Harrison, W. H., Hall county, session 

Hart, J. E., York county, session 3 0. 

Harte, A. C., Douglas county, 

Harvey, A. E., Furnas county, 

Harvey, A. F., Otoe county, 

Harvey, A. R., Douglas county, 

Hasik, John D., Butler county, 

Hastings, A. T., Lancaster county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Hastings, A. J., Webster county, session 26. 

Hastings, G. H., Saline county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Hatch, W. D., Washington county, session 18. 

Hatfield, I. H., Lancaster county, session 32. 

Hathaway, H. D., Cass county, session 1. 

Hathorn, J. E., Redwillow county, sessions 26, 27, 28. 

Haven, H. H., Builalo county, session 18. 

Havlik, J.,' Saunders county, session 24. 

Hayden, B. H., Saline county, session 20. 

Hayden, C. M., Nemaha county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Hays, G. W., York county, sessions 17, 21. 

Haywood, C. F., Nemaha county, sessions 1, 2, 3. 

Hazen, S. M., Gage county, session 19. 

Heacock, P. S., Richardson county, sessions 16, 17. 

Healey, T. A., Seward county, session 14. 

Heath, E. L., Sheridan county, session 22. 

Hector, Fred, session 31. 

Hefferman, D. C, Dakota county, sessions 30, 31. 

Hefferman, J. C, Dakota county, session 14. 

Heimrod, G., Douglas county, session 2 0. 

Heinrich, J., Dodge county, sessions 18, 19. 

Helliger, Henry, Jefferson county, session 32. 

Helmer, L., Lancaster county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Helms, J. H., Hamilton county, sessions 16, 17. 

Hendershott, F. J., Thayer county, sessions 11, 12. 13. 

Henderson, R., York county, session 25. 

Henry, D. P., Johnson county, session 19. 

Henry, H. R., Holt county, sessions 22, 23, 30, 31. 

Herman, S. J., Saline county, sessions 16, 17, 22. 

Hermanson, Niels, Howard county, session 29. 

Herron, J. R., Antelope county, session 28. 

Herzog, H. H., session 32. 

Hibbert, Thos. E., Gage county, sessions 26, 27. 

Hicklin, W. M., sessions 3, 4. 

Hickman, William, Seward county, session 15. 

Hicks, C. E., Webster county, session 26. 

Higgins, J. M., Cass county, session 19. 

Higgins, W. P., Custer county, session 23. 

Hile, L. L., Buffalo county, session 2 5. 

Hill, John C, Chase county, sessions 29, 30. 

Hill, J. S., Butler county, session 21. 

Hill, R. H., Clay county, session 25. 

Hill, W. C, Gage county, session 21. 

Hinds, L. B., Gage county, sessions 23, 24. 

Hinkle, H. S., Sarpy county, session 22. 

Hinnick, C. W., Garfield county, session 22. 

Hoare, Fred, Platte county, session 29. 

Hocknell, G., Redwillow county, session 19. 

Hoebel, L., Otoe county, session 18. 

Hogrefe, W. H., Richardson county, sessions 28, 29. 

Hoile, J. T., Richardson county, sessions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Holcomb, H., Richardson county, sessions 9, 10. 

Holbrook, W. D., Dodge county, session 25. 


Holland, L. J., Redwillow county, session 25. 
HoUlet, J. G., Lancaster county, sessions 28, 29. 
Hollman, J., Dakota county, sessions 16, 17, 18. 
Holmes, C. A., Johnson county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Holmes, E. P., Pierce county, session 19. 
Holmes, R., sessions 31, 32. 
Holsworth, W., Dakota county, session 19. 
Holt, F. H., Gage county, session 19. 
Homer, J. C., Saunders county, session 18. 
Hooper, E., Hall county, session 21. 
Home, O., Otoe county, session 21. 
Horner, Wm., Dawson county, session 25. 
Horst, Geo., Polk county, sessions 20, 23, 24. 
Horton, W. H., Keyapaha county, sessions 2 7, 29. 
Hospodsky, J., sessions 31, 32. 
Hostetter, C, Merrick county, sessions 16, 17. 
Houck, M. D., Douglas county, session 2 6. 
Householder, W. B., Webster county, session 27. 
Housh, P. M., Antelope county, session 32. 
Howard, L. M., Madison county, sessions 9, 10. 
Howard, A. S., Adams county, session 30. 
Howard, Edgar, Sarpy county, session 24. 
Howard, E. E., Clay county, sessions 18, 19. 
Howard, Jeremiah, session 31. 
Howard, T. J., session 32. 
Howe, C, Nemaha county, sessions 11, 12, 13, 16, 

22, 23. 
Howe, F. A., Dodge county, session 3 0. 
Howe, H. R., Nemaha county, session 29. 
Hoy, C. H., Polk county, sessions 27, 28. 
Hudson, A. J., Platte county, session 8. 
Huff, E. T., Sarpy county, session 19. 
Hull, O., Harlan county, sessions 24, 25. 
HuUihen, T. G., Knox county, session 14. 
Humphrey, Fred, session 31. 
Humphrey, Geo. C, Hall county, session 27. 
Humphrey, G. M., Pawnee county, session 18. 
Hunggate, J. H., Douglas county, session 21. 
Hunker, F. D., Cuming county, session 29. 
Hunt, Cary M., Douglas county, session 2 7. 
Hunt, J. S., Saline county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Hunter, Chas. W., Howard county, session 27. 
Hunter, Chas., Webster county, session 28. 
Hunter, J. M., Holt county, session 21. 
Huse, J. B., Douglas county, session 22. 
Hyatt, N. S., Platte county, session 2 5. 
Irwin, W. J., Platte county, sessions 19, 23. 
Israel, F., Dundy county, session 26. 
Jackson, A. H., Pawnee county, sessions 16, 17. 
Jackson, N. D., Antelope county, session 29. 
Jackson, S. K., Douglas county, sessions 16, 17. 
Jahnel, Frank, Washington county, sessions 2 8, 2 9 
James, P. H., Gage county, session 23. 
Jamison, James M., Saunders county, session 2 7. 
Jansen, P., Jefferson county, session 26. 
Jeary, E., Cass county, session 2 0. 
Jenkins, D. C, Gage county, session 8. 
Jenkins, E. M., Thayer county, sessions 23, 24. 
Jenkins, G. E., Jefferson county, session 25. 
Jenkins, J. D., Fillmore county, session 15. 
Jenness, R. H., Douglas county, session 2 4. 
Jennison, A. J., Clay county, session 30. 
Jensen, J., Fillmore county, session 23. 
Jensen, Thos., Butler county, sessions 16, 17, 18. 
Jindra, J., Saline county, session 19. 
John, James, Furnas county, session 32. 
Johnson, Benj., Saunders county, sessions 16 ,17. 
Johnson, Chas. T., Douglas county, session 27. 
Johnson, Eric, Phelps county, session 21. 
Johnson, Erick, Adams county, sessions 29, 31. 
Johnson, F. G., Saline county, session 30. 
Johnson, F. M., Burt county, session 14. 
Johnson, J. L., Hall county, session 23. 
Johnson, J. S., Phelps county, sessions 26, 28. 
Johnson, J. V., Valley county, session 22. 
Johnson, N., York county, session 23. 

Is, session 31. 
Johnson, Porter C, Johnson county 
T. B., Hamilton county, 
, B. F., Nemaha county, i 
Johnston, J. C, Lancaster county 
Johnston, J. W., Douglas county, 
Johnston, N., Nemaha county, session 15. 
Johnston, S., Seward county, session 22. 
Jones, Cass, Richardson county, sessions 28, 30. 
Jones, C. K., Adams county, sessions 16, 17. 
Jones, D. A., Wayne county, session 25. 
Jones, D. N., Nemaha county, session 25. 
Jones, G. U., Gage county, sessions 25, 26. 
Jones, John M., Clay county, session 32. 
Jones, J. O,, Polk county, session 18. 
Jones, O. C, Richardson county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Jones, R. F., Burt county, session 22. 
Jones, R. W. W., Otoe county, session 28. 
Jones, T. P., Richardson county, session 24. 
Jones, W. B., Polk county, session 29. 
Jordan, E., Pawnee county, session 14. 
Jordan, Wm., Buffalo county, session 27. 
Jouvenat, Frank, Boone county, sessions 27, 28, 2 
Judd, L. P., Boone county, session 24. 
Junkin, George C, Gosper county, sessions 28, 29 
Jury, J. A., Saunders county, session 14. 
Kaley, C. H., Webster county, session 17. 
Kaley, C. W., Webster county, session 29. 
Kaley, H. S., Webster county, session 16. 
Kaley, J. L., Webster county, session 19. 
Kapp, G. F., Boyd county, session 2 5. 
Karback, C. J., Douglas county, session 15. 
Katons, Otto, session 31. 
Kaup, W., Saline county, sessions 23, 24. 
Kavney, John, Butler county, sessions 27, 28. 
Keckley, C. R., York county, session 23. 
Keckley, W. H., York county, session 15. 
Kehoe, J. A., Platte county, session 19. 
Keiter, J. W., Jr., Nuckolls county, session 30 
Keiper, G. F., Cedar county, sessions 20, 21. 
Kcister, H. C, Boone county, sessions 25, 26. 
Kelley, J. E., Platte county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Kelley, J. W., session 31. 

Kempton, W. H., Saline county, sessions 16, 17 
Kennedy, B. E. B., Douglas county, session 15. 
Kennedy, J. A. C, Douglas county, session 2 8. 
Kennedy, R. A., Pawnee county, session 15. 
Kenney, A. J., Franklin county, session 20. 
Kent, Walter R., session 32. 
Kerns, J. W., Nemaha county, session 28. 
Kessler, J. F., Burt county, session 23. 
Keyes, C. E., Sarpy county, session 23. 
Killen, D. J., Gage county, sessions 30, 31. 
Kilmer, G. M., Saline county, session 19. 
King, E. L., Polk county, session 19. 
King, H. G., Saline county, session 20. 
King, H. P., Seward county, session 16. 
Kipp, F., Burt county, session 8. 
Kirk, W. L., Knox county, session 32. 
Kittle, E. H., Sherman county, session 28. 
Kloepfel, J., Richardson county, sessions 15, 16, 
Klope, R. F., Cuming county, session 23. 
Knowles, J. H., Dodge county, session 30. 
Knox, D., Douglas county, session 20. 
Knox, Oscar, Buffalo county, sessions 28, 29. 
Koetter, F. W., Douglas county, session 28. 
Kotouc, Otto, Richardson county, session 32. 
Kraus, J. P., session 31. 
Krick, E., Kearney county, sessions 22, 23. 
Kruse, J. D., Knox county, session 22. 
Kruse, J. G., Knox county, session 23. 
Kuhl, John, Cedar county, sessions 30, 31, 
Kuony, J. B., Washington county, sessions 
Kyd, Robert R., Gage county, session 2 9. 
Kyner, J. H., Douglas county, sessions 16, 1 
Laflin, L. H., Johnson county, sessions 9, 1 
Laflin, R. W., Gage county, session 2 7. 

.8, 19. 



Lahners, Thos., Thayer county, sessions 29, 30. 
Laird, G. C, Dodge county, session 18. 
Lamar, C. M., Saunders county, session 2 5. 
Lamb, C. L., Stanton county, sessions 16, 17. 
Lambert, Wm. B., Antelope county, session 14. 
Lamborn, J. J., Redwillow county, session 23. 
Lamp, H. A., Washington county, session 22. 
Lane, A. W., Lancaster county, sessions 26, 27. 
Langhorst, H., Fillmore county, session 23. 
Larson, L. P., Dodge county, session 21. 
Lash, E., Nemaha county, sessions 15, 21. 
Latta, J. P., Burt county, session 20. 
Laughlin, J. C, Burt county, sessions 16, 17. 
Lawrence, F. P., sessions 31, 32. 
Leary, C. A., Douglas county, sessions 6, 7. 
Leeder, Ed, Douglas county, session 3 0. 
Lee, C. H., Merrick county, session 19. 
Lee, J. M., Furnas county, sessions 18, 19, 21. 
Lee, Michael, Douglas county, sessions 2 9, 30. 

Leibhart, , Hamilton county, session 19. 

Leidigh, L. W., Otoe county, session 23. 
Leidigh, G. W., sessions 31, 32. 
Lehman, G. S., Platte county, sessions 16, 17. 
Lemar, C. M., Saunders county, session 26. 
Ley, H., Wayne county, session 21. 
Lichty, John, Richardson county, 
Liddell, J., Douglas county, 
Liesveld, H. J., Lancaster county, 
Lindsey, Geo. W., Webster county. 
Line, W. C, Jefferson county, sessi 
Lingenfelter, G. C, Cheyenne county, session 23. 
Linkart, G. A., Madison county, session 23. 
Linn, J. L., Pawnee county, sessions 16, 17. 
Lisk, J., Otoe county, session 15. 
Livengood, H. C, Franklin county, session 29. 
Liver, C. B., Douglas county, session 32. 
Lockner, A., Douglas county, session 2 3 
Logsden, S., Fillmore county, session 30. 
Loomis, P. F., Butler county, sessions 25, 26. 
Loomis, Geo. L., Dodge county, sessions 27, 28. 
Lomax, H., Custer county, session 22. 
Long, J. E., Cuming county, session 15. 
Lord, G. W., Butler county, session 20. 
Lord, J. S., Richardson county, session 2 9. 
Love, L., York county, session 14. 
Loveland, D. C, Platte county, session 15. 
Loveland, E., Douglas county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Lowe, Elliott, Harlan county, session 27. 
Lucas, R. S., Madison county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Luce, C. A,, Harlan county, sessions 19, 29. 
Luthy, J. W., Richardson county, session 18. 
Lux, Joseph, session 31. 
Lynch, J. O., Dawson county, session 23. 
Mack, T., Stanton county, session 15. 
Mackey, C, Custer county, sessions 29, 30. 
Majors, S. P., Nemaha county, session S. 
Majors, T. J., Nemaha county, session 21. 
Mangold, Pater, Douglas county, session 28. 
Mann, W. H., Saline county, sessions 25, 26. 
Marble, Wm. H., Saunders county, session 19. 
Marks, Robert H., Fillmore county, session 29. 
Marlatt, John, Kearney county, session 30. 
Marlott, J. W., session 31. 

Marsh, F. A., M. D., Seward county, session 30. 
Marshall, Chas., Otoe county, session 27. 
Marshall, C. C, Washington county, session 25. 
Marshall, F. H., Harlan county, session 20. 
Martin, L., York county, sessions 18, 19. 
Mast, S. D., session 32. 

Masters, P. W., Furnas county, session 30. 
Masters, J. H., Otoe county, sessions 9, 10. 
Matheson, J. G., Wayne county, session 22. 
Matthewson, C. P., Madison county, sission 15. 
Mathieson, J., Douglas county, session 2 0. 
Mattes, J., Jr., Otoe county, session 21. 
Matteson, G., Dixon county, session 24. 
Mattrau, H. C, Madison county, session 32. 

Maxwell, S., Cass county, session 1. 
May, M., Dodge county, sessions 9, 10. 
McAllister, G. C, Deuel county, sessions 28, 29. 
McAllister, W. A., Platte county, session 18. 
McArdle, P., Douglas county, sessions 15, 19. 
McArdle, E. J., Douglas county, session 32. 
McBride, D. L., Redwillow county, session 24. 
McBride, J. C, Lancaster county, session 21. 
McCaig, D., Cass county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
McCall, C. J., session 31. 

McCann, W. A., Cheyenne county, session 20. 
McCarthy, Con, Cuming county, session 32. 
McCarthy, J. J., Dixon county, sessions 26, 2 7. 
McCarthy, R. S., Greeley county, session 2 5. 
McCartney, A. P., Otoe county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
McClay, John H., Lancaster county, session 2 9. 
McClellan, M. E., Valley county, session 3 2. 
McClure, H. W., Knox county, sessions 16, 17. 
McClure, N. T., Lancaster county, sessions 16, 17. 
McColl, J. H., Dawson county, session 14. 
McConaughy, G. M., Polk county, session 20. 
McCoy, Henry, Douglas county, session 2 7. 
McCracken, D., Pranklin county, sessions 25, 26. 
McCready, J., Saline county, session 14. 
McCullough, C. W., Gage county, session 30. 
McCulloch, D. A., Harlan county, session 28. 
McCutchen, W. A., Boone county, sessions 22, 23. 
McDonald, D., Washington county, session 1. 
McDougall, M., Saline county, sessions 16, 17. 
McDowell, J. B., Gage county, sessions 9, 10, 11, 

12, 13. 
McElhinney, J. C, Burt county, session 29. 
McFadden, W., York county, session 24. 
McGavock, A., Douglas county, session 18. 
McGee, G. H., Antelope county, session 25. 
McGinley, W. J., Otoe county, session 26. 
McGrew, S. W., Nemaha county, session 20. 
McKee, G. M., Otoe county, session 14. 
McKelvie, S. R., Lancaster county, session 32. 
McKenna, A. P., Sarpy county, session 20. 
McKesson, J. C. P., Lancaster county, sessions 22, 

McKillup, D. C, Seward county, sessions 9, 11, 12. 

McKinnon, J., Cass county, sessions 5, 6, 7, 16. 
McKissick, John W., Gage county, session 32. 

6, 7. 

McLain, John, Seward county, sessions 

McLennan, W., Otoe county, sessions E 

McLeod, Chas., Stanton county, session in. 
I McLeod, D., Colfax county, session 2 5. 

McMillon, J., Douglas county, session 21. 

McMullen, Adam, Gage county, sessions 2 9, 30.. 
I McNickle, A. B., Gage county, session 21. 
I McNitt, R., Webster county, session 24. 
i McReynolds, L., Clay county, session 22. 

McShane, J. A., Douglas county, sessions 16, 17. 

McVey, E. A., Clay county, session 23. 
i McVicker, W. J., Cuming, Dodge counties, sessions 
I 14, 24. 

McVicker, W. D., session 31. 

Mead, G., Washington county, session 15. 

Mead, Geo. E., Douglas county, session 27. 
! Meeker, C. W., Hitchcock county, session 21. 

Memminger, P. T., Madison county, sessions 26, 28. 

Mendenhall, J. E., Jefferson county, sessions 2 7, 28. 

Mengel, E. M., Saunders county, session 14. 
I Meradith, Wm., York county, sessions 28, 29. 

Mercer, J. J., Nemaha county, session 14. 

Merrick, H. J., Gage county, sessions 23, 24. 

Metz, C. I., Richardson county, sessions 9, 10. 

Metzger, A. H., Cherry county, session 30. 

Metzger, C. E., Cass county, session 32. 

Meyer, Ernest, Nuckolls county, session 32. 

Meyers, J. H., Richardson county, session 14. 

Mickey, J. H., Polk county, sessions 16, 17. 

Milbourn, G. P., Kearney county, session 26. 

Miller, E., session 31. 



Miller, L. W., Madison county, session 18. 
Miller, M., Butler county, sessions 19, 20. 
Miles, B. F., Richardson county, session 19. 
Miles, F. W., Saline county, session 24. 
Mills, B. B., Harlan county, session 14. 
Mills, M. H., Lancaster county, session 25. 
Milligan, J. O., Dixon county, sessions 29, 30. 
Mikesell, S. P., Dixon county, session 28. 
Minick, H. O., Nemaha county, sessions 6, 7. 
Minnix, H. C, Adams county, session 20. 
Miner, A. J., Lancaster county, session 3 2. 
Miskell, Edw. W., Saline county, session 27. 
Mitchell, J. B., Seward county, session 25. 
Mitchell, J. L., Otoe county, session 15. 
Moan, J. M,, Cuming county, session 22. 
Mockett, John H., Jr., Lancaster county, sessions 

27, 28, 32. 
Modie, A. C, Redwillow county, session 22. 
Moehrman, H., Franklin county, session 24. 
Montgomery, R. W., Furnas county, session 16. 
Moran, O. S., Platte county, sessions 25, 26. 
Moody, O. H., Custer county, session 32. 
Moore, Frank, sessions 31, 32. 
Moore, J. O., Otoe county, sessions 16, 17. 
Moore, N. H., Saline county, session 15. 
Moore, S. V., York county, sessions 14, 16, 17. 
Moriarity, John F., Douglas county, session 32. 
Morrison, J. R., Thayer county, sessions 2 5, 2 6. 
Morrison, W. W., Gage county, session 18. 
Morrisy, F. R., Douglas county, session 21. 
Morsman, E. N., Jr., Douglas county, session 2 8. 
Morton, H., Dakota county, sessions 3, 4. 
Moudy, M. v., Lincoln county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Mullen, J. P., Holt county, session 22. 
Mullen, P. M., Douglas county, sessions 16, 17, 2 7. 
Mulvahill, J., Douglas county, session 19. 
Munger, T. C., Lancaster county, session 24. 
Munn, E,, Otoe county, sessions 8, 11, 12, 19. 
Murphy, F., Douglas county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Murphy, M. J., Saline county, session 32. 
Murphy, P. A., Fillmore county, sessions 30, 31. 
Murray, Mark W., Thurston county, sessions 26, 27. 
Musick, John R., Nuckolls county, session 28. 
Muxen, Mathew E., Douglas county, session 29. 
Myers, E. L., Rock county, session 24. 
Myers, H. A., Douglas county, session 2 6. 
Myers, J. C, Douglas county, session !^. 
Nance, A., York and Polk counties, sessions 11, 12, 

13, 14. 
Nason, W. N., Douglas county, session 23. 
Naffziger, J., Dakota county, sessions 5, 6. 
Neff, W., Franklin county, session 3 0. 
Neir, G. E., Hamilton county, session 32. 

25, 26. 

Nesbit, J. F., Burt county, s< 
Neligh, J. D., Cuming county 
Nelson, A., Burt county. 
Nelson, N. M., Pierce county 
Nelson, N. P., Dodge county. 
Nelson, H. J., Dodge county, 
Nelson, W. T., Douglas county 
Nettleton, D. M., Glay county, 

Neumeyer, G. W., Merrick county. 
Neve, W., Douglas county, session 
Neville, Wm., Douglas county, ses 
Neville, W., Cass county, session 
Newberry, F., Hamilton county, sessions 22, 23. 
Newcomer, D. D., Webster county, sessions 19, 20. 
Newton, W., Clay county, session 2 0. 
Nichol, J. R., Antelope county, sessions 19, 20. 
Nichols, D., Buffalo county, session 22. 
Nicodemus, H. B., Dodge county, session 14. 
Nims, R., Richardson county, session 8. 
Nordgren, T. E., Hamilton county, session 32. 
Norris, C. H., Pawnee county, session 20. 
North, F., Platte county, session 18. 
Norton, J. M., Polk county, session 32. 
Northrup, C. M., Fillmore county, session 14. 

Noyes, C. E., Cass county, sessions 30, 31. 
Nutzman, F. L., session 32. 

Oakley, R. H., Lancaster county, sessions 22, 23. 
O'Connell, J. G., session 31. 

Olinger, W. G., Burt county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Ollis, J. A., Jr., Valley county, session 27. 
Olmstead, F. D., Adams county, session 21. 
Olmstead, F. P., Adams county, session 19. 
Olmstead, R. H., Douglas county, session 26. 
Olson, C. O., Phelps county, session 27. 
Olson, P. B., Saunders county, sessions 22, 23. 
Orton, S. W., Cass county, session 24. 
Osgood, C. E., Lincoln county, session 19. 
Overton, J., Otoe county, session 8. 
Overton, N., Otoe county, sessions 16, 17, 20. 
Owen, S. G., Lancaster county, sessions 9, 10, 15. 
O'Hanlon, P., Douglas county, session 1. 
O'SuUivan, P. F., Cuming county, session 21. 
Paddock, J. W., Douglas county, session 1. 
Page, B. W., session 14. 

Palmer, A. S., Dixon county, sessions 16, 17, 18. 
Palmer, J., Saline county, session 18. 
Patterson, J. M., Cass county, session 8. 
Pattison, L. W., Richardson county, sessions 6, 7. 
Patton, W. M., Richardson county, session 15. 
Patrick, J. W., Otoe county, sessions 9, 10. 
Parchen, W., Richardson county, session 1. 
Parish, W., Burt county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Parker, E., Hall county, sessions 9, 10. 
Parker, H. C, Howard cotinty, session 22. 
Parker, S. M., Otoe county session 29. 
Parker, T. B., Saline county, session 14. 
Parmalee, D. S., Douglas county, sessions 2, 3, 4, 5, 

Parry, J. M., Otoe county, sessions 16, 17. 
Paul, N. J., Howard county, session 14. 
Paxton, W. A., Douglas county, sessiotis lo, 17. 
Payne, R., Otoe county, session 18. 
Peabody, V. P., Nemaha county, session 2 9. 
Peabody, U. P., Nemaha county, session 17. 
Peck, W. W., Holt county, session 26. 
Pemberton, W. J., Jefferson county, session 20. 
Perkins, Geo. A., Fillmore county, session 29. 
Perkins, J. M., Fillmore county, session 24. 
Perry, E. B., Furnas county, sessions 28, 29. 
Persinger, L. C, Webster county, session 27. 
Peters, J., Boone county, session 20. 
Peterson, A. M., Cuming county, sessions 16, 17. 
Peterson, E. W., Burt county, session 19. 
Phelps, C. W., Dundy county, session 24. 
Phillips, R. O., Lancaster county, session 14. 
Pickens, Wes, session 31. 
Pilger, A., Wayne county, sessions 30, 31. 
Pinney, N. R., Otoe county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Plumbeck, G., Douglas county, session 15. 
Pohlman, J. H., Nemaha county, sessions 22, 24. 
Polk, J. F., Cass county, session 15. 
Pollard, E. M., Cass county, sessions 24, 26. 
Pollock, J. W., Cuming county, session 14. 
Pollock, W. A., Nemaha county, sessions 1, 15. 
Pool, C. W., session 31. 
Porter, DeF., Nemaha county, session 8. 
Porter, W. F., Merrick county, sessions 22, 23. 
Pospisil, John J., Saunders county, session 29. 
Post, Mark F., Knox county, session 29. 
Potts, G. W., Pawnee county, session 32. 
Potter, R. K., Buffalo county, session 21. 
Poynter, W. K., Boone county, session 19. 
Preston, J., sessions 3, 4. 
Price, M. S., Fillmore county, session 15. 
Prince, F. P., Madison county, session 24. 
Prince, W. A., Hall county, sessions 26, 32. 
Pritchett, G. E., Douglas county, session 14. 
Puis, W. H., Cass county, session 32. 
Purnell, C, Lincoln county, session 2 2. 
Putney, W. W., Antelope county, sessions 16, 17. 
Quackenbush, E. B., Nemaha county, sessions 30, 




Queen, J., Lancaster county, session 1. 

Quimby, D. J., Dixon county, session 8. 

Raines, R. P., session 31. 

Ramey, D. M., Saline county, session 18. 

Ramsey, J. H., Gage county, session 28. 

Randall, W. S., Clay county, session 20. 

Ranney, H. D., Webster county, session 18. 

Ransom, F. L., Otoe county, 

Raper, W. B., Pawnee county, 

Ratcliffe, J. R., Merrick county, 

Rathman, C, Washington county, 

Raymer, H., St. Lincoln county, session 21. 

Raymond, 1. M., Lancaster county, session 2 0. 

Ream, J. D., Custer county, session 2 7. 

Redman, Herman, Adams county, session 2 7. 

Redmond, W. D., Nemaha county, session 30. 

Reed, C. C, Johnson county, session 28. 

Reed, E. S., Otoe county, session 1. 

Reed, G. C, Harlan county, sessions 16, 17. 

Reed, Lewis S., Douglas county, session 8. 

Regan, Richard C, session 32. 

Reis, A., Lincoln county, session 14. 

Rejcha, F., Lancaster county, session 30. 

Remington, D. D., Seward county, session 24. 

Renkel, W. F., Webster county, session 3 0. 

Reyman, M. B., Nemaha county, sessions 16, 17. 

Rhea, R. C, Seward county, session 23. 

Rhodes, H., Johnson county, sessions 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Rhodes, H. F., Valley county, sessions 23, 24. 

Rhodes, J., Pawnee county, session 21. 

Ribble, Curtis W., Saline county, session 28. 

Rice, A. E., Holt county, session 19. 

Rich, E., Douglas county, session 25. 

Richards, C. L., Thayer county, 

Richardson, F. W., Madison county, 

Richardson, L. O., Frontier county, 

Ricketts, M. O., Douglas county, sessions 23, 24. 

Rief, C, Hall county, session 20. 

Riggs, J. H., Douglas county, session 28. 

Riha, P. J., Douglas county, session 32 

Riley, A., Webster county, sessions 22, 23. 

Riley, J. E., Douglas county, session 19. 

Riordan, H. C, Washington county, session 8. 

Ritchie, C. A., session 31. 

Ritchie, W. E., Seward county, session 22. 

Robb, F. W., Otoe county, session 14. 

Robb, W., Johnson county, session 21. 

Robberts, J. C, Platte county 

Robbins, W. E., Gage county, 

Roberts, A., Saunders county, 

Roberts, Joseph, Dodge county, 

Roberts, E. W., sessions 31, 

Roberts, J. E., Douglas county 

Robertson, J. A., Holt county, 

Robertson, S. P., Nemaha county 

Robertson, T. H., Sarpy county, session 1. 

Robinson, C. S., Brown county, session 23. 

Robinson, J. F., Stanton county, session 19. 

Robinson, W. D., Lancaster county, session 24. 

Roche, J. J., Antelope county, session 18. 

Rockwell, A., Burt county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Roddy, P., Otoe county, sessions 24, 25. 

Rohan, P. F., Cedar county, session 22. 

Rohr, R. H., Furnas county, session 15. 

Rohwer, Henry, Washington county, session 2 7. 

Rohrer, Jacob J., Saline county, sessions 29, 30. 

Rolf, D. P., Otoe county, session 2. 

Roll, J. P., Saunders county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 

Root, A., Cass county, session 19. 

Root, H. D., Cass county, sessions 16, 17. 

Roper, F. E., {Gage and Thayer) counties, sessi 

6, 7, 20. 
Roper, W. B., Pawnee county, sessions 12, 13. 
Rosewater, E., Douglas county, session 8. 
Rothlenter, F., Cherry county, session 2 4. 
Rothsack, W. A., session 31. 
Rouse, G. L., Hall county, sessions 24, 25, 26, 


Sadler, S., Ada 
Sagl, Anton, ses 
Sanborn, C. W., 

Rouse, J. P., Cass county, sessions 8, 12, 13. 
Ruggles, L. G., Dundy county, sessions 22, 23. 
Runyan, M. M., Saunders county, session 14. 
Russell, B. P., Valley county, session 19. 
Russell, H. C, Colfax county, session 20. 
Russell, W. J., York county, session 18. 
Ryan, T. C, Platte county, session 15. 
Ryan, W. M., Douglas county, session 8. 
Saberson, S., session 31. 
Sadilek, F. J., Saline county, session 18. 

■, W. G., Adams county, sessions 28, 29. 

as county, session 14. 

;ion 32. 

Sarpy county, session 32. 
L., York county, session 27. 
Sandall, A. L., York county, session 26. 
Sanders, D. C, Nemaha county, session 1. 
Sargent, J. E., Custer county, session 21. 
Satchell, N. M., Cass county, sessions 2 0, 21. 
Saunders, Geo. W., Knox county, session 30. 
Savage, E. P., Sherman county, session 18. 
Schaible, M. J., Richardson county, session 26. 
Schappel, C. A., Pawnee county, sessions 22, 2J 
Scilley, Hugh, Dodge county, session 29. 
Scheele, Henry, sessions 31, 32. 
Schelp, W., Platte county, 
Schick, T. L., Nemaha county, 
Schickedantz, H., Howard county, 
Schinstock, Henry, Cuming county, 
Schlotfeldt, H., Hall county, sessions 
Schminke, P., Otoe county, sessions 9, 10, 14. 
Schock, H., Richardson county, session 8. 
Schoettger, H. D., Washington county, sessions 

Schoville, P. A., Saunders county, session 19. 
Schrader, C, session 18. 
Schram, C. W., Dixon county, session 25. 
Schueth, Charles, Platte county, session 32. 
Schwab, H., Dodge county, session 2 0. 
Scott, A., Pawnee county, sessions 26, 27. 
Scott, A. J., Buffalo county, sessions 23, 24. 
Scott, J. P., Saunders county, sessions 16, 17. 
Scott, R. M., Dawson county, session 22. 
Scott, W. T., York county, session 15. 
Scoville, D. A., Hamilton county, session 21. 
Scudder, A. L., Hall county, session 30. 
Sears, P. A., Hall county, sessions 16, 17. 
Sears, Wm. G., Burt county, sessions 27, 28. 
Seed, A., Seward county, session 21. 
Seeley, J. C, Dodge county, sessions 11, 12. 13. 
Selden, P., Platte county, session 14. 
Severe, 0. A., Otoe county, session 25. 
Severin, F. C, Lancaster county, sessions 21, 22 
Sessions, M. H., Lancaster county, sessions 9, 10. 

15, 18. 
Seybolt, G. L., Cass county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Shamp, J., Lancaster county, session 2 0. 
Shedd, H. H., Saunders county, sessions 16, 17. 
Shelby, P. R., Douglas county, session 14. 
Sheldon, A. E., Dawes county, session 25. 
Shelley, B. Y., Knox county, session 15. 
Shelly, Thos. C, Douglas county, session 28. 
Shellhorn, E. J., Lancaster county, session 27. 
Shephard, G. W., Saunders county, session 21. 
Sheridan, I. A., Redwillow county, session 2 3. 
Shinstock, Chris, Cuming county, 
Shipley, J., Cuming county, 
Shipley, W., Hitchcock county, 
Shook, G. R., Nemaha county. 
Shook, J. H., Richardson county, session 24. 
Shore, J. H., Cherry county, session 26. 
Shrader, C. D., Custer county, session 22. 
Shryock, W. B., Cass county, session 22. 
Shubert, J. P., Richardson county, session 30. 
Shull, J. C, Nemaha county, session 25. 
Shoemaker, W. S., sessions 31, 32. 
Siecke, C. L., Cuming county, session 26. 
Sill, J. A., Burt county, sessions 16, 17. 




Silver, H. H., Gage county, sessions 16, 17. 

Simaneli, T., Saunders county, session 20. 

Simms, B. M., Harlan county, session 20. 

Simonton, R. N., Nuckolls county, session 15. 

Sinclair, J., Otoe county, session 23. 

Sindelar, J. B., Colfax county, session 32. 

Sink, J. W., sessions 31, 32. 

Sisson, E. F., Burt county, sessions 23, 24. 

Skeen, Ben T., sessions 31, 32. 

Slader, D. C, Washington county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 

Slater, A. B., Stanton county, session 2 0. 

Slocumb, C. R., Jefferson county, sessions 15, 16, 

Smalser, H., Sherman county, session 29. 
Small, J. W., Clay county, session 14. 
Smith, A. A., Boone county, session 30. 
Smith, C, Richardson county, session 26. 
Smith, D., Douglas county, sessions 25, 31. 
Smith, G. F., Holt county, sessions 23, 24. 
Smith, H. M., Saline county, session 26. 
Smith, H. O., Dawson county, session 19. 
Smith, Herschel V., Saline county, session 2 8. 
Smith, G. L., Butler county, session 26. 
Smith, J., Saline county, sessions 22, 23, 24. 
Smith, J. D., Sarpy county, sessions 1, 5. 
Smith, J. E., Webster county, sessions 14, 15. 
Smith, Robert A., Burt county, session 29. 
Smith, Roscoe R., Boone county, session 32. 
Smith, T., Johnson county, session 23. 
Smithberger, L., Stanton county, sessions 26, 27. 
Smythe, C. J., Douglas county, session 20. 
Snyder, A., Douglas county, session 21. 
Snyder, D. C, Johnson county, session 25. 
Snyder, J., Harlan county, session 3 0. 
Snyder, Joseph, session 31. 
Snyder, J. M., Sherman county, session 25. 
Soderman, E., Phelps county, sessions 22, 23, 24, 

Somers, W. H., Lancaster county, sessions 12, 13. 
Sommerlad, H. W., Richardson county, sessions 1, 

Spackman, E. B., Nance county, session 24. 
Spanogle, A. J., Hamilton county, session 18. 
Sparks, J., Gage county, session 15. 
Sparks, J. W., Merrick county, session 15. 
Speice, C. A., Platte county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Spellman, H., Lancaster county, session 14. 
Spencer, Alvin D., Gage county, session 2 7. 
Spencer, E. R., Lancaster county, sessions 23, 24. 
Spier, S. S., Gage county, session 28. 
Specher, John C, Colfax county, session 27. 
Sprick, H., Washington county, sessions 9, 10, 14, 

16, 17. 
Spricknall, W. R., Johnson county, session 14. 
Springer, E. F., Scottsbluff county, session 30. 
Spurlock, Geo. M., Cass county, session 28. 
Sroat, G. W., Otoe county, sessions 3, 4. 
Stalder, Albert E., Richardson county, session 30. 
Starrett, S. B., Johnson county, session 15. 
Startzer, Samuel, Sarpy county, session 28. 
Staver, H. O., Richardson county, session 19. 
St. Clair, W. P. P., Cheyenne county, session 14. 
Stebbins, J., Buffalo county, session 22. 
Stebbins, L., Lincoln county, session 2 5. 
Stebbins, W. M., Dawson county, session 32. 
Stedman, E. J., session 31. 
Stedwell, A., Buffalo county, session 18. 
Steever, A., Polk county, session 18. 
Steinaur, N. A., Pawnee county, session 30. 
Steinman, H., Nemaha county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Steinmeyer, Henry, Gage county, session 27. 
Stephenson, D. V., Richardson county, session 18. 
Sternsdorf, G. J., Douglas county, session 2 2. 
Stettson, Delbert A., Saline county, sessions 28, 29. 
Stevens, A. D., Fillmore county, session 2 2. 
Stevens, H., Platte county, session 22. 
Stevens, J., Furnas county, sessions 22, 23. 
Stevenson, R. F., Cuming county, sessions 9, 10. 

Stevenson, T. B., Otoe county, session 19. 
Steward, J. B., York county, session 22. 
Stewart, A. S., Pawnee county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Stirk, J. W., Madison county, session 21. 
Stirling, J. H., Fillmore county, session 19. 
Stockwell, H. M., Antelope county, session 2 7. 
Stoeker, W. F., session 31. 
Stolz, J. P., Seward county, session 30. 
Stone, I., Cass county, session 15. 
Storm, J. D., Nemaha county, session 22. 
Stouffer, B. R., Richardson county, session 15. 
Stout, W. H. B., Washington county, sessions 5 

Straub, V., Otoe county, session 25. 
Sturgess, T. F., Douglas county, session 26. 
Suessenbach, H., Douglas county, session 18. 
Sullivan, J. J., Platte county, session 20. 
Suter, L. H., Antelope county, sessions 23, 24. 
Sutherland, W. J., Colfax county, session 19. 
Sutton, A. L., Douglas county, sessions 2 3, 2 4. 
Sutton, W., Pawnee county, sessions 24, 25. 
Swan, H. N., sessions 31, 32. 
Swan, J. T., Nemaha county, sessions 31, 32. 
Swanson, Daniel, Dodge county, session 2 7. 
Swartsley, J. C, Platte county, session 21. 
Swearingen, J., Seward county, session 18. 
Sweet, F., Merrick county, sessions 20, 21. 
Sweezy, F. A., Webster county, session 28. 
Switzer, S. W., Buffalo county, session 14. 
Taggart, R. M., Otoe county, session 19. 
Talbot, J. W., Butler county, session 30. 
Talbot, J. W., Otoe county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Talcott, J. M., session 31. 

Tanner, J. W., Nance county, sessions 26, 27. 
Taylor, A. B., session 31. 
Taylor, F. M., Johnson county, session 22. 
Taylor, H. G., Merrick county, session 32. 
Taylor, J. H., Douglas county, session 25. 
Taylor, W. H., Butler county 
Taylor, W. H., Fillmore county 
Taylor, W. J., Custer county, sessions 26, 27, 3 
Taylor, W. Z., Frontier county, sessions xS, 19, 31 

Tefft, C. R., Lancaster county, session 27. 
Ten Eyck, W. B., Douglas county, session 28. 
Thiessen, J. P., Jefferson county, sessions 30, 31. 
Thorn, J., Otoe county, session 1. 
Thomas, A. N., Hamilton county, session 24. 
Thomas, G. H., Colfax county, session 19. 
Thomas, G. P., Burt county, session 1. 
Thomas, I., Burt county, session 18. 

J. W., Cass county, session 19. 
W. P., session 31. 

1, A. L., Jefferson county, session 19. 
1, F. A., Clay county, session 26. 
1, J. J., Washington county, session 15. 
Thompson, M. J., Boone county, session 18. 
Thompson, Oscar, Cuming county, session 29. 
Thompson, R. A., Cuming county, session 15. 
Thompson, W. T., Merrick county, sessions 26, 28 
Thomssen, Wm., Hall county, session 2 7. 
Thornton, S. W., Buffalo county, session 20. 
Thorpe, Wm. P., Garfield county, session 28. 
Thurston, J. M., Douglas, county, sessions 11, 12 

Timme, H., Douglas county, session 24. 
Tingle, A. H., Holt county, session 20. 
TIsdel, D. A., Richardson county, session 5. 
Tomblin, D. M., Furnas county, session 17. 
Tomlin, J. H., Otoe county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Tooley, J. J., Custer county, session 28. 
Towers, L. H., Adams county, session IS. 
Towle, A. L., Knox county, session 21. 
Towle, E. S., Richardson county, sessions 9, 10, 11 

12, 13. 
Town, W. A., Thayer county, session 18. 
Townsend, O., Gage county, sessions 3, 4. 


I Thomas 

' Thomps 





1, 3, 

Tracey, J., Lincoln county, session 20. 
Trask, I. N., Fillmore county, session 28. 
Troup, A. C, Douglas county, session 19. 
Trowbridge, F. H., Antelope county, session 15. 
True, M. B. C, Saline county, session 15. 
Truesdale, S. A., Thayer county, sessions 20, 21. 
Trumble, A. W., Sarpy county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Tucker, F. S., Douglas county, sessions 2 9, 30. 
Tucker, G. P., Johnson county, sessions 3, 4. 
Tucker, J. M., York county, session 26. 
Tullis, E., Lancaster county, sessions 1, 5, 6, 7. 
Turner, C. M., Seward county, session 19. 
Turner, G. R., Gage county, session 18. 
Turner, W. L., Knox county, session 20. 
Turtle, W., Douglas county, sessions 8, 19. 
Turton, G. J., Dodge county, session 1. 
Tuxbury, A., Otoe county, session 1. 
Tweed, Robert, Thayer county, session 27. 
Tyson, W., Washington county, session 20. 
Tzschuck, B., Douglas county, sessions 9, 10. 
Uerling, P., Adams county, session 25. 
Uhl, Mel, Douglas county, session 27. 
Underbill, G. C, Otoe county, session 20. 
Unthank, J. A., Washington county, sess 

Vandergrift, John, Sherman county, sessions 26, 27. 
Vanderman, A. W., Cass county, session 15. 
Vanderbilt, W. H., Dixon county, session 15. 
Vanderventer, W. N., Richardson county, session 22. 
Van Duyn, J. N., Saline county, session 2 3. 
Van Horn, S. S., Dodge county, session 2 5. 
Van Housen, J. C, Colfax county, sessions 23, 24, 

Varner, L. A., Johnson county, se 
Veach, M. A., Richardson county, 
Vlasek, J. J., Saunders county, 
Vopalensky, F., Saunders county, session 30. 
Vorhes, J. T., Hamilton county, session 22. 
Voter, Frank P., Cedar county, session 29. 
Wait, A., Otoe county, session 24. 
Waite, C. E., Lancaster county, session 2 5. 
Waite, Wilbur S., Sherman county, session 32. 
Waitt, G. W., Dixon county, session 19. 
Walker, Chas. R., Dundy county, session 27. 
Walker, M. K., Pawnee county, session 18. 
Walcot, F. M., Cass county, session 8. 
Waldron, W. H., Adams county, session 22. 
Waldter, L., Nemaha county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Wallichs, J., Platte county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Walling, A. M., Colfax county, sessions 16, 17. 
Walling, J., Dawson county, session 26. 
Walsh, J., Douglas county, session 3 0. 
Walters, J. P., Dixon county, session 14. 
Ward, John, Sarpy county, session 29. 
Wardlaw, J. M., Gage county, sessions 20, 23. 
Waring, E. M., Holt county, sessions 27, 28. 
Warner, Chas. J., Lancaster county, sessions 27, 28, 

Warrington, T. L., Dawson county, session 15. 
Wart, M. H., Knox county, session 24. 
Watts, S. F., Lincoln county, sessions 16, 17, 18. 
Watson, A. J., Cedar county, session 27. 
Watson, G. P., Pierce county, session 26. 
Watson, J. C, Otoe county, sessions 20, 21, 22, 23. 
Weaver, A. J., Richardson county, session 26. 
Webb, E. M., Custer county, session 25. 
Weber, B. R. B., Saunders county, session 21. 
Weber, L. C, Washington county, session 24. 
Weborg, C. J., Thurston county, session 28. 
Webster, J. L., Douglas county, sessions 9, 10. 
Weems, J., Nance county, session 3 0. 
Weems, J. H., session 31. 
Weesner, W. L,, session 32. 
Weibe, C. E., Hall county, session 25. 
Welch, W., Polk county, session 25. 
Weller, H. D., Richardson county, ses<?ion 21. 
Wells, H. C, Franklin county, sessions 16, 17. 
Wells, J., Dawson county, session 21. 

Wells, N. W., Colfax county, sessions 14, 15. 

Wenzl, John F., Pawnee county, sessions 26, 27. 

Werham, W. S., Jefferson county, session 18. 
Werner, E., Richardson county, session 22. 
West, P. S., session 31. 

Westcott, M. H., Lancaster county, sessions 17, 18. 
Westover, H., Valley county, session 21. 
Wetherald, F. M., Thayer county, session 20. 
Whedon, C. O., Lancaster county, sessions 16, 17, 

Wheeler, C. F., Furnas county, sessions 25, 26. 
Wheeler, C. H., Nehama county, sessions 9, 10. 
Whelpley, D. P., Platte county, session 14. 
Whitcomb, E. W., Saline county, session 14. 
White, A. K., Lancaster county, sessions 9, 10. 
White, E. O., Hall county, session 30. 
White, Francis E., Cass county, sessions 20, 21, 22. 
White, F. E., Knox county, session 19. 
Whitehead, J., Custer county, session 21. 
Whitford, A. D., Dixon county, session 21. 
Whitham, J. W., Johnson county, sessions 29, 30. 
Whitmore, John A., Hamilton county, session 27. 
Whitmore, W. G., Douglas county, sessions 19, 20. 
Whitney, Howard, Sarpy county, session 30. 
Whitzel, L J., Fillmore county, session 18. 
Whyman, F. E., Gage county, session 21. 
Wickham, J., Richardson county, session 8. 
Wiedensall, J., Douglas county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Wilbur, R. H., Dakota county, session 1. 
Wilbur, R. S., Dakota county, sessions 9, 10. 
Wilcox, Burton E., Douglas county, session 27. 
Wilcox, J. A., Redwillow county, session 21. 
Wilcox, L. T., Douglas county, session 14. 
Wilcox, W. T., Lincoln county, session 26. 
Wilder, T. G., Webster county, session 2 4. 
Wiles, I., Cass county, sessions 2, 3, 4. 
Wilhelmsen, J., Howard county, session 20. 
Wilkinson, Richard, Cass county, session 27. 
Williams, H., Nemaha county, session 19. 
Williams, J. W., Gage county, sessions 21, 2 2. 
Willams, T. J., Franklin county, session 22. 
Wilsey, A. E., (York, Hamilton) counties, sessions 

16, 20. 
Wilson, C. G., Webster county, session 22. 
Wilson, F. C, Custer county, session 30. 
Wilson, J., Buffalo county, session 23. 
Wilson, J. L., York county, session 2 0. 
Wilson, V. E., session 31. 

Wilson, W. H., Pawnee county, sessions 28, 29. 
Wimberly, T. M., Lancaster county, session 2 5. 
Windham, R. B., Cass county, sessions 15, 16, 17, 

Winslow, W., Gosper county, session 25. 
Winspear, J. H., Douglas county, session 19. 
Winter, T., Brown county, session 21. 
Wissenburgh, H., Lancaster county, session 18. 



Withnell, C. H., Douglas county, sessic 
Wolbach, S. N., Hall county, session 1£ 
Wolenweber, N., Seward county, sessio 
Wolfe, T., Seward county, session 14. 
Wolph, H. C, Cass county, session 18. 
Woodard, J. M., Hamilton county, sessions 25, 26. 
Woods, J. D., Sheridan county, session 23. 
Woolworth, J. M., Douglas county, sessions 3, 4. 
Wooster, C, Merrick county, session 2 5. 
Worl, W., Lancaster county, session 18. 
Worthing, H., Dawson county, sessions 30, 31. 
Wright, J. B., Lancaster county, session 19. 
Wright, J. H., Nuckolls county, sessions 25, 26. 
Wright, P. G., Dixon county, session 20. 
Wright, W. F., Pawnee county, sessions 11, 12, 13. 
Wyatt, C. C, Madison county, sessions 16, 17. 
Wyman, E., Buffalo county, session 26. 
Yeiser, J. O., Douglas county, session 25. 
York, W. R., Johnson county, session 15. 
Young, B., Thayer county, session 18. 
Young, L. J., session 31. 
Young, J. R., Douglas county, session 20. 



Young, T. T., Cass county, sessions 25, 26. 
Yutzy, J. C, Richardson county, sessions 20, 21. 
Zellers, M. T., Dodge county, session 26. 
Ziegler, J. A., Cedar county, sessions 15, 16, 17. 
Zimmerman, D. S., Yorlc county, session 25. 
Zimmerman, P. F., Madison county, session 27. 
Zimmerer, A., Otoe county, sessions 5, 6, 7. 
Zimmerer, F., Dawson county, session 2 7. 
Zink, J. W., Slierman county, session 24. 
Zinli, v., Jolinson county, session 24. 
Zuelow, Otto, Colfax county, session 29. 


The following is a list of the various gentlemen 
who filled the most important positions in 
Nebraska during territorial times, viz: 

Governors. — Francis Burt served from October 
16, 1854, until the time of his death, October 18, 

1854, and the vacancy was filled by Secretary T. 
B. Cuming to February 20, 1855. Mark W. 
Izard from February 20, 1855, to October 25, 
1857,when he resigned, and the vacancy was filled 
by Secretary Cuming to January 12, 1858. Wil- 
liam A. Richardson from January 12, 1858, to 
December 5, 1858, when his death occurred, and 
the vacancy was filled by Secretary J. Sterling 
Morton until May 2, 1859. The next was Samuel 
"W. Black, who served until February 24, 1861, 
when he resigned to enter the army, and the va- 
cancy was again filled by J. Sterling Morton. 
Alvin Saunders was the next incumbent of the 
office of governor, and served until February 21, 

Secretaries. — Thomas B. Cuming from August 
13, 1854, to the time of his death, March 12, 1858. 
John B. Motley from March 23 to July 12, 1858. 
J. Sterling Morton from July 12, 1858, to May 6, 
1861. Algernon S. Paddock \intil February 21, 

Auditors.— Charles B. Smith, March 16, 1855, 
to August 3, 1857. Samuel L. Campbell to June 
1, 1858. William E. Moore to August 2, 1858. 
Robert C. Jordan to October 8, 1861. William E. 
Harvey to October 10, 1865, when he was suc- 
ceeded by the last under territorial organization, 
John Gillespie. 

Treasurers. — B. P. Rankin was the first territor- 
ial treasurer. Term of office began March 16, 

1855. He was succeeded by William W. Wyman, 
whose term began November 6, 1855. Augustus 
Kountze was next. Term of office began October 
8, 1861. 

Librarians. — The first was James S. Izard, 
whose term of office began March 16, 1855. H. C. 
Anderson, term began November 6, 1855. John 
H. Kellom, term began August 3, 1857. Alonzo 
D. Luce, term began November 7, 1859. Robert 
S. Knox, term began June, 1861. 

Supreme Court, Chief Justices. — Tenner Fer- 
guson, term began October 12, 1854. Augustus 
Hall, term began March 15, 1858. William Pitt 
Kellogg, term began May 27, 1861. William Kel- 
logg, term began May 8, 1865. William A. Little, 
1866, died in office. Oliver P. Mason, 1866. 

Supreme Court, Associate Justices. — Edward 

R. Harden, term began December 4, 1854. James 
Bradley, October 25, 1854. Samuel W. Black, 
1857. Eleazer Wakeley, April 22, 1857. Joseph 
Miller, April 9, 1859. William E. Loekwood, May 
16, 1861. Joseph E. Streeter, November 18, 1861. 
Elmer S. Dundy, June 22, 1863. 

Clerks of the Supreme Court. — H. C. Anderson, 

1856. Charles S. Salisbury, 1858. E. B. Chand- 
ler, 1859. John H. Kellom, 1861. William Kel- 
logg, Jr., 1865. 

District Attorneys.— D. S. McGary, term of of- 
fice began May 10, 1855. Jonathan H. Smith, 
June 9, 1855. S. A. Strickland, June 11, 
1855. John M. Latham, November 6, 

1855. Jacob Safford, November 6, 1855. William 
Kline, November, 1855. James G. Chapman, 
August 3, 1857. William McLennan, August 3, 

1857. George W. Doane, August 3, 1857. U. C. 
Johnson, October 11, 1859. 

United States Marshals. — Mark W. Izard, term 
of office began October 28, 1854. Eli R. Doyle, 
April 7, 1855. Benjamin P. Rankin, March 29, 

1856. Phineas W. Hitchcock, September 19, 

Territorial Delegates to Congress. — Napoleon 
B. Gidding, elected December 12, 1854. Bird B. 
Chapman, elected November 6, 1855. Tenner 
Ferguson, elected August 3, 1857. Experience 
Estabrook, elected October 11, 1859. Samuel G. 
Daily, elected October 9, 1860. Phineas W. 
Hitchcock, elected October 11, 1864. 
In the following pages we give a list of all the 
most important state officials of Nebraska from 
the time of its organization as a state : 

Governors. — David Butler from February 21, 
1867, to June 2, 1871. Elected in 1866, but did 
not enter upon the duties of the office until the 
admission of the state into the union. Wm. H. 
James, acting governor from June 2, 1871, to 
ary 13, 1873, to January 11, 1875. Silas Garber. 
January 13, 1873. Robert W. Furnas from Janu- 
term began January 11, 1875. Albinus Nance, 
term began January 9, 1879. James W. Dawes, 
term began January 4, 1888. John M. Thayer, 
term began January 6, 1887. James E. Boyd, 
term began January 8, 1891. Lorenzo Crounse, 
term began January 13, 1893. Silas A. Holcomb, 
term began January 3, 1895. William A. Poyn- 
ter, term began January 5, 1899. Charles H. 
Dietrich, term began January 3, 1901. John H. 
Lliekey, term began January, 1903. George L. 
Sheldon, term began January, 1907. A. C. Shal- 
lenberger, term began January, 1909. Chester 
H. Aldrich, term began January, 1911. 

Lieutenant Governors. — Orthman A. Abbott, 
term began January 4, 1877. Edmund C. Cams, 
term began January 1, 1879. A. W. Agee, term 
began January 4, 1883. H. H. Shedd. term began 
January 8, 1885. George D. Meikeljohn, term 
began January 3, 1889. Thomas J. Majors, term 
began January 6, 1891. Robert E. Moore, term 



began January 3, 1895. James E. Harris, term 
began January 7, 1897. E. A. Gilbert, term began 
January 5, 1899. Ezra P. Savage, term began 
January 3, 1901. Edmund G. McGilton, term be- 
gan January, 1903. M. R. Hopewell term began 
January, 1907; re-elected, term began January, 
1909; re-elected, term began January, 1911. 

Secretaries of State. — Thomas P. Kennard, term 
of ofiSce began February 21, 1867. William H. 
James, term began January 10, 1871 ; acting gov- 
ernor from June 2, 1871, to January 13, 1873. 
John J. Gosper, term began January 13, 1873. 
Bruno Tchuck, term began January 11, 1875. 
S. J. Alexander, term began January 9, 1879. 
Edward P. Roggen, term began January 4, 1883. 
Gilbert L. Laws, term began January 6, 1887 ; 
resigned November 20, 1889, to fill unexpired 
term in congress caused by the death of James 
Laird. Benjamin R. Cowdery, appointed by Gov- 
ernor Thaj'er to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Secretary Laws, term began No- 
vember 20, 1889. John C. Allen, term began 
January 8, 1891. Joel A. Piper, term began Jan- 
uary 3, 1895. William F. Porter, term began 
January 7, 1897. George W. Marsh, term began 
January 3, 1901. A. Galusha, term began Janu- 
ary, 1905. George C. Junkin, term began Janu- 
ary, 1907; re-elected November, 1908. Addison 
Wait, term began January, 1911. 

State Auditoi's. — John Gillespie, term of office 
began February 21, 1867. Jefferson B. Weston, 
term began January 13, 1873. F. W. Liedtke, 
term began January 9, 1879. John Wallicks, 
term began November 12, 1880. H. A. Bab- 
cock, term began January 8, 1885. Thomas H. 
Benton, term began January 3, 1889. Eugene 
Moore, term began January 13, 1893. John P. 
Cornell, term began January 7, 1897. Charles 
Weston, term began January 3, 1901. Edward 
M. Searle, Jr., term began January, 1905. Silas 
R. Barton, term began January, 1909. 

State Treasurers.— August Kountze, term of 
office began February 21, 1867. James Sweet, 
term began January 11, 1869. Henry A. Koenig, 
term began January 10, 1871. J. C. McBride, 
term began January 11, 1875. George M. Bart- 
lett, term began January 9, 1879. Phelps D. 
Sturdevant, term began January 4, 1883. 
Charles H. Willard, term began January 8, 1885 
John E. Hill, term began January 3, 1889. Jos- 
eph S. Bartley, term began January 13, 1893. 
John B. Messerve, term began January 7, 1897. 
William Steufer, term began January 3, 1901. 
Peter Mortensen, terra began January, 1903. L. 
G. Brian, term began January, 1907. W. A. 
George, term began January, 1911. 

Attorneys General. — Champion S. Chase, terra 
of office began February 21, 1867. Seth Robin- 
son, terra began January 11, 1869. Geo. H. Rob- 
erts, terra began January 10, 1871. J. R. Web- 
ster, terra began January 13, 1873. Geo. H. 
Roberts, term began January 11, 1875. C. J. 
Dilworth, term began January 9, 1879. Isaac 

Powers, Jr., terra began January 4, 1883. Will- 
iara Leese, term began January 8, 1885. George 
H. Hastings, terra began January 8, 1891. Arthur 

5. Churchill, terra began January 3, 1895. Con- 
stantin J. Smyth, terra began January 7, 1897. 
Frank N. Prout, terra began January 3, 1901. 
Norris Brown, terra began January, 1905. Wra. 
T. Thorapson, term began January, 1907. Grant 
G. Martin, terra began January, 1911. 

Commissioners of Public Lands and Buildings. 
— This office was created in 1875. F. M. Davis, 
term of office began January 4, 1877. A. G. Ken- 
dall, term began January 6, 1881. Joseph Scott, 
term began January 8, 1885. John Steen, 
terra began January 3, 1889. A. R. Humphrey, 
term began January 8, 1891. Henry C. Russell, 
term began January 3, 1895. William V. Wolfe, 
term began January 7, 1897. George D. Follmer, 
terra began January 3, 1901. Henry M. Eaton, 
terra began January, 1905. Edward B. Cowles, 
terra began January, 1909. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction. — This 
office was created by the act of the legislature 
February 15, 1869. S. DeWitt Beals was appoint- 
ed by Governor Butler, terra of office began Feb- 
ruary 16, 1869. J. M. McKenzie, term began Jan- 
uary 10, 1871. S. R. Thompson, term began Janu- 
ary 4, 1877. W.W.W. Jones, term began January 

6, 1881. George B. Lane, term began January 6, 
1887. A. K. Goudy, term began January, 1891. 
Henry R. Corbett, term began January 3, 1895. 
William R. Jackson, terra began January 7, 1897. 
William K. Fowler, terra began January 3, 1901. 
Jasper L. McBrien, term began January, 1905. 
E. C. Bishop, term began January, 1909. James 
W. Crabtree, term began January, 1911. 

Supreme Court, Chief Justices. — Oliver P. Ma- 
son appointed by Governor Butler, terra began 
1867. Geo. B. Lake, term began January 16, 
1873. Daniel Gantt, term began January 3, 1878. 
Samuel Maxwell, term began May 29, 1878. Geo. 
B. Lake, term began January 5, 1882. Amasa 
Cobb, term began January 3, 1884. Samuel Max- 
well, term began January 7, 1886. M. B. Reese, 
terra began January 5, 1888. Araasa Cobb, term 
began January 9, 1890. Samuel Maxwell, term 
began January 7, 1892. T. L. Nerval, term began 
January 4, 1894. A. M. Post, term began Janu- 
ary 9, 1896. T. 0. C. Harrison, term began Janu- 
ary 6, 1898. T. L. Norval, term began January 4, 
1900. John J. Sullivan, term began January, 
1903. Silas A. Holeomb, term began January, 
1905. S. H. Sedgwick, term began January, 1907. 
M. B. Reese, terra began January, 1911. 

Supreme Court, Associate Justices. — George B. 
Lake, terra of office began February 21, 1867; re- 
elected 1872-1877. Lorenzo Crounze, term began 
February 21, 1867. Daniel Gantt, term began 
January 16, 1873. Samuel Maxwell, term began 
January 16, 1873; re-elected 1877-1887. Amasa 
Cobb, term began May 29, 1878 ; appointed to fill 
vacancy; elected 1878; re-elected 1879-1885. M. 
B. Reese, terra began January 3, 1884. T. L. Nor- 



val, terra began January 9, 1890; re-elected 1895. 

A. M. Post, term began' 1892. T. 0. C. Harrison, 
terra began January 4, 1894. John J. Sullivan, 
term began January 6, 1898. Silas A. Holcomb, 
term began January 4, 1900. Samuel H. Sedg- 
wick, term began January, 1903. John B. Barnes, 
term began January, 1905. C. B. Letton, term be- 
gan January, 1907. Jesse R. Root, term began 
January, 1909. "W. B. Rose, term began January, 
1911. Jacob Fawcett and S. H. Sedgwick. 

Supreme Court, 1911-1912.— M. B. Reese, chief 
justice; J. B. Barnes, C. B. Letton, Jesse R. Root, 
W. B. Rose, Jacob Fawcett and S. H. Sedgwick. 

Territorial Delegates in Congress. — Napoleon 

B. Gidding, elected December 12, 1854. Bird B. 
Chapman, November 6, 1855. Fenner Ferguson, 
August 3, 1857. Experience Estabrook, October 
11, 1854. Samuel G. Daily, October 9, 1869. 
Phineas W. Hitchcock, October 11, 1864. 

United States Senators. — The following is a 
list of different parties who have represented Ne- 
braska in the United States senate since the ad- 
mission of the state into the union, viz : John M. 
Thayer, 1867-71; Thomas W. Lipton, 1867-75; 
Phineas W. Hitchcock, 1871-77; Al- 

gernon S. Paddock, 1875-81 ; Alviii Saunders, 
1877-83; C. H. VanWyck, 1881-87; Charles F. 
Manderson, 1883-95; Algernon S. Paddock, 1887- 
93; W. V. Allen, 1893-99; John M. Thurston, 
1895-1901; H. L. Hayward, 1899, died in office; 
W. V. Allen, 1899-1901; Charles H. Dietrich, 
1901; Joseph H. Millard, 1901; E. J. Burket, 
1907; Norris Brown and Gilbert M. Hitchcock. 

Representatives. — The following is a list of the 
different parties who have represented the vari- 
ous Nebraska districts in the house of represent- 
atives since the organization of the state govern- 

XXXIX Congress, 1865-67, T. M. Ma.rquette. 
Mr. Marquette, who was elected to represent Ne- 
braska in the house, presented his credentials 
March 2, the day following President Johnson's 
proclamation of the admission of Nebraska, and 
thereby limited his own term to the short period 
of two days, as this session expired March 4, 1867. 

XL Congress, 1867-69, John Taffe. 

XLI Congress, 1869-71, John Taffe. 

XLII Congress, 1871-73, John Taffe. 

XLIII Congress, 1873-75, Lorenzo Crounze. 

XLIV Congress, 1875-77, Lorenzo Crounze. 

XLV Congress. 1877-79, Frank Welch. Thom- 
as J. Majors to fill vacancy. 

XLVI Congress, 1879-81, E. K. Valentine. 

XLVII Congress, 1881-83, E. K. Valentine. 

XLVIII Congress, 1883-85— First district, A. J. 
"Weaver; second district, James Laird; third dis- 
trict, E. K. Valentine. 

XLIX Congress. 1885-87— First district, A. J. 
Weaver; second district, James Laird; third dis- 
trict, Geo. W. E. Dorsey. 

L Congress, 1887-89 — First district, John A. 
MeShane ; second district, James Laird ; third dis- 
trict, Geo. W. E. Dorsey. 

LI Congress, 1889-91— First district, W. J. Con- 
nell; second district, James Laird (died in office 
and Gilbert L. Laws filled vacancy) ; third dis- 
trict, Geo. W. E. Dorsey. 

LII Congress, 1891-93— First district, W. J. 
Bryan ; second district, W. A. McKeighan ; third 
district, 0. M. Kera. 

LIII Congress, 1893-95— First district. W. J. 
Bryan ; second district, H. D. Mercer ; third dis- 
trict, George Meiklejohn ; fourth district, E. J. 
Hainer ; fifth district, W. A. McKeighan ; sixth 
district, 0. M. Kera. 

LIV Congress, 1895-97— First district, J. B. 
Strode; second district, H. D. Mercer; third dis- 
trict, George Meiklejohn ; fourth district, E. J. 
Hainer; fifth district, W. E. Andrews; sixth dis- 
trict, 0. M. Kem. 

LV Congress, 1897-99— First district, Jesse B. 
Strode; second district, David H. Mercer; third 
district, Samuel Maxwell; fourth district, Wil- 
liam L. Stark; fifth district, R. E. Sutherland; 
sixth district, William L. Green. 

LVI Congress, 1899-1901— First district, E. J. 
Burkett; second district, David H. Mercer; third 
district, John S. Robinson; fourth district, Wil- 
liam L. Stark; fifth district, R. D. Sutherland; 
sixth district, William L. Green (died in office, 
William Nevill to fill vacancy). 

LVII Congress, 1901-03— First district, Elmer 
J. Burkett; second district, David H. Mercer; 
third district, John S. Robinson; fourth district, 
William L. Stark ; fifth district, A. C. Shallenber- 
ger; sixth district, William Nevill. 

LVIII Congress, 1903-0.5— First district, Elmer 
J. Burkett ; second district, Gilbert M. Hitchcock ; 
third district, J. J. McCarthy ; fourth district, Ed- 
mund H. Hinshaw; fifth district, George W. Nor- 
ris; sixth district, Moses P. Kinkaid. 

LIX Congress, 1905-07— First district, Elmer J. 
Burkett ; second district, John L. Kennedy ; third 
district, J. J. McCarthy ; fourth district, Edmund 
H. Hinshaw; fifth district, Geo. W. Norris ; sixth 
district, Moses P. Kinkaid. 

LX Congress, 1907-09— First district, E. M. 
Pollard ; second district, G. M. Hitchcock ; third 
district, J. T. Boyd; fourth district, Edmund H. 
Hinshaw ; fifth district, George W. Norris ; sixth 
district, Moses P. Kinkaid. 

LXI Congress, 1909-11— First district, John A. 
Maguire; second district, Gilbert M. Hitchcock; 
third district, James P. Latta; fourth district, 
Edmund H. Hinshaw ; fifth district, Geo. W. Nor- 
ris; sixth district, Moses P. Kinkaid. 

LXII Congress, 1911-13— First district, John A. 
Maguire ; second district, C. O. Lobeck ; third dis- 
trict, James P. Latta ; fourth district, Chas. Sloan ; 
fifth district, George W. Norris; sixth district, 
Moses P. Kinkaid. 




The University of Nebraska, located at Lincoln, 
was founded by an act of the legislature passed in 
1869. It was opened and students received in 
1871. The various acts of the legislature provid- 
ing for its organization authorized the estab- 
lishing of various departments, and laid the 
ground work for one of the greatest educational 
institutions in the union. Allen R. Benton, Ph. 
D., was the first chancellor. 

The university comprises the graduate school, 
the college of literature, science and the arts, the 
industrial college, the college of law, schools of 
agriculture, mechanical arts and domestic sci- 
ence. Collegiate courses preparatory to law and 
journalism and medicine, as well as the special 
teachers' course and summer sessions, are offered. 
The regents of the university have also entrusted 
to their care the U. S. experiment station, and the 
central office of the Nebraska section of the cli- 
mate and crop service of the U. S. weather bureau 
is located within its grounds. Courses in univer- 
sity extension, including farmers' institutes, 
are given as a means of education to those be- 
yond the bounds of the university. Admission to 
the university is by certificate from about seven- 
ty-five accredited schools or by examination. The 
degrees are A. B. ; B. Sc. ; B. Sc. in engineering 
courses ; LL. B. ; A. M. ; and Ph. D. Tuition is free 
except in the professional and special courses, 
where a nominal fee is charged. A matriculation 
fee of five dollars is provided by statute. A sys- 
tem of fellowships and scholarships exists, and in 
each county maintaining a first-class three or four 
year high school a scholarship is awarded the 
student passing the best competitive examina- 
tion. Several prizes are offered along certain 
lines of college activity, such as oratory and liter- 
ature. The university has a campus in the cen- 
ter of the city of Lincoln of twelve acres, and an 
experiment station farm of three hundred and 
twenty acres. There is a score of buildings, the 
most prominent being university hall, the chemi- 
cal laboratory. Grant memorial hall containing 
the armory and gymnasium, library building, 
Nebraska hall, mechanic arts hall, the library, 
the Pathotriological laboratory, dairy hall and 
soldiers' memorial hall. 

The college farm (including the experiment 

station farm) was secured by the exchange of 
state land and the payment of about $20,000 out 
of state funds. The property is now valued at 
about a quarter of a million dollars. On the 
farm ax'e the buildings for the use of the experi- 
ment station. The total value of the entire prop- 
erty of the university is now estimated at over 
one million dollars. 


The fifth territorial legislature, in an act op- 
proved October 14, 1858, providing for the or- 
ganization of county agricultural societies, es- 
tablished a territorial board of agriculture to re- 
ceive and digest reports from, and of the several 
organizations, and to hold annual meetings for 
the purpose of deliberating and consulting as to 
the wants, prospects and conditions of the agri- 
cultural interests throughout the territory. This 
board as originally constituted, consisted of 
Thomas Gibson, Harrison Johnson, A. D. Jones, 
E. Estabrook, J. M. Thayer, Christian Bobst, 
Robert W. Furnas, Jesse Cole, S. A. Chambers, 
Jerome Hoover, Mills S. Reeves, Broad Cole, J. C. 
Lincoln, Harlan Baird, Joel T. Griffin and E. H. 
Chaplin, duly created a body corporate, with 
perpetual succession, empowered to fill vacancies 
in its membership, and to elect officers in its dis- 

The first meeting of the board was held in 
Omaha, October 30, 1858, the election of officers 
for the ensuing year resulting as follows: Presi- 
dent, R. W. Furnas; secretary, A. D. Jones; 
treasurer, J. M. Thayer; board of managers, E. 
H. Chaplin, H. Baird, M. S. Reeves, Broad Cole 
and C. Bobst. It was determined at this meet- 
ing that the first annual fair be held three days 
in succession, in September, 1859, in such county 
as offered the largest donations, privileges and 
best accommodations. Under this arrangement 
Otoe county was selected as the location and the 
first territorial fair was held at Nebraska City, 
September 21, 22 and 23, 1859. The amount 
actually awarded in premiums was $355, in ad- 
dition to a gold watch, saddle and bridle, and two 
sets of jewelry valued at $115, and a goodly 
number of diplomas. The address of the occa- 
sion was delivered by J. Sterling Morton. At the 
end of the report of the fair to the next legisla- 



ture, the committee "beg leave to say that this 
first territorial fair of Nebraska, though not a 
complete success, was far from a failure. Taking 
all things into consideration, it is a marvel that 
we have done half so well." 

This was the only territorial fair ever held in 
Nebraska, no decided effort appearing to have 
been made toward another exhibition until 1868, 
when the board having been changed to a state 
organization by the admission of the territory, 
held a second annual fair, also at Nebraska City, 
October 7, 8 and 9, 1868. Under the state or- 
ganization the number of incorporated members 
was increased from sixteen to twenty-eight. In 
early days of the state's history, the state fairs 
were held at various places, including Nebraska 
City, Brownville, Omaha and Lincoln. 

The state board of agriculture embraces all the 
minor kindred organizations — the horticultural 
society and others, — reports of which are incor- 
porated in the official statements of the board to 
the legislature. It has since its institution as a 
territorial organization fostered, encouraged and 
developed the farming interests of Nebraska, stim- 
ulating honest rivalry. To it the state owes much 
of its present popularity, and to the indefatiga- 
ble efforts of its officers is due in great measure 
the fact not that Nebraska is an agricultural 
state, but that she is preeminently because scien- 
tifically such. The object of the association has 
been and is to advertise and make known in every 
possible way the agricultural advantages, prod- 
ucts, resources, possibilities and promises of the 
state. Of late years this has been done not only 
by holding annual fairs and exhibitions, but by 
the publication of a four-hundred-page volume 
of agricultural, horticultural, dairy, forestry, 
live stock, crop, botanical, geological, entomolog- 
ical, meteorological, civil engineering, zoological 
and other important data and information. 


The Nebraska school for the deaf and dumb was 
established in 1869, with Professor William M. 
French as principal. The object of the institu- 
tion as set forth in the law and in the first report 
of the superintendent, is "to promote the intel- 
lectual, physical and moral culture of the deaf and 
dumb by a judicious and well-adapted course of 
instruction, that they may be reclaimed from their 
lonely and cheerless condition, restored to society 
and fitted for the discharge of the duties of life." 
The object of the organization has remained the 
same and in many instances has been accom- 
plished. The first year there were enrolled twelve 
pupils, and the school was housed in a rented 
building. This institution is doing excellent work 
in carrying out the intent of the law and the ob- 
ject of the school. An exhibit was made at the 
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 
the work from all departments of the school, 
which attracted marked attention. The exhibit 

was awarded a diploma and gold medal by the 
exposition, and the committee appointed to judge 
of the work done in the education of the defec- 
tive classes, awarded the Nebraska School for the 
Deaf a diploma for first rank. This committee 
awarded but one of first rank. 


This institution, which is located at Nebraska 
City, was opened in 1875. To secure the institu- 
tion, Nebraska City donated $3,000 and ten acres 
of ground just north of the city limits. On this 
site substantial buildings have been erected, and 
the institution is admirably conducted and doing 
good work. The school was first opened in rented 
rooms March 10, 1875. At the beginning there 
were only three students, but the enrollment 
reached twenty-one by the close of the first two 
years. Samuel Bacon was the first superinten- 


The Nebraska state penitentiary is located at 
Lancaster, about three miles south of the city of 
Lincoln. Under grants from the congress of the 
United States, by acts of 1864 and 1867, the state 
of Nebraska received 32,044 acres of land for pen- 
itentiary purposes. The act providing for the 
building of the state penitentiary on the site do- 
nated for that purpose by Captain W. T. Dona- 
van and Mr. Hilton, was passed March 4, 1870. 
W. W. Abbey, W. W. Wilson and F. Tlemplin 
were appointed prison inspectors to attend to 
selling the land granted by the government for 
prison purposes and to superintend the building, 
$5,000 being appropriated for the erection of a 
temporary prison. The first warden of the peni- 
tentiary was Henry Campbell. The institution 
has always ranked high among the penal institu- 
tions of its class in the country. 


This institution is located at Lincoln. As early 
as 1865 it was found necessary to make provision 
for the insane in the territory of Nebraska. Four 
cases were already being cared for in an Iowa 
hospital. The legislature authorized the govern- 
or to make some arrangement with the state of 
Iowa by which they received and cared for the 
insane at the expense of Nebraska. Under this 
arrangement fifty patients were sent at various 
times to the hospital at Mount Pleasant. Soon 
after Nebraska became a state the governor, sec- 
retary of state and auditor of public accounts 
were appointed a board of commissioners to lo- 
cate a site for a state lunatic asylum near the city 
of Lincoln. The first building was completed at a 
cost of $137,000 in the fall of 1870, and the first 
patient was admitted November 26 of that year. 
Early in the following December seventeen pa- 
tients were brought over from Mount Pleasant to 
the new institution, and four were admitted who 



had been confiiied in the Pawnee county jail. Dr. 
N. B. Larsh was the first superintendent. In 
April, 1871, the institution was destroyed by fire. 
Five patients were reported missing and 
were never afterwards accounted for. The re- 
maining patients were taken to Lincoln 
and eared for in rented houses until 
a temporary build'ng was erected on the 
asylum grounds. As there was no appropria- 
tion available and the citizens of Lincoln were 
fearful lest the institution should be removed to 
some rival city, they advanced the funds neces- 
sary to build a temporary frame structure, which 
did service as a hospital until a new stone build- 
ing was erected the following year. Since that 
time the institution has been enlarged by the 
erection of additional buildings until today it is 
one of the most modern institutions of its kind in 
the country. As the population of the state 
increased, the number of insane persons likewise 
increased, thereby making it necessary to increase 
the capacity of the hospital. The congestion was 
also relieved by the erection of other institutions 
at Hastings and Norfolk. The first patients were 
sent to the Norfolk hospital February 15, 1888, 
and to the asylum for the chronic insane at Hast- 
ings August 1, 1889. Originally the state guar- 
anteed the expense of caring for insane patients 
and when possible collected the amount so ex- 
pended from the estate of the patient or from his 
or her natural guardians. Later the superinten- 
dent certified to the auditor the number of pa- 
tients from each county, and the auditor of pub- 
lic accounts certified to the commissioners of the 
several counties the amomits due for the main- 
tenance of their insane. In 1883 this was changed, 
and tlie state assumed the entire expense of car- 
ing for this class of persons. 

No effort has been spared to bring the hospital 
service up to the highest standard of efiicieney, 
and the citizens of Nebraska may well be congrat- 
ulated on the excellent reputation which the Ne- 
braska hospital for the insane bears in the sur- 
rounding states. 


The asylum for the chronic insane was located 
near the city of Hastings in the year 1888, the 
first building being erected from an appropiation 
allowed by the legislature of 1887. The capacity 
of the building at the time was one hundred and 
eighty patients. The institution was opened for 
the admission of patients in August, 1889, Dr. M. 
W. Stone being the first superintendent, having 
been appointed by Governor Thayer. The object 
of the institution is to care for the more quiet and 
those found to be chronic after treatment in the 
asylums of the state for the acutely insane. The 
legislature has since from time to time made 
large appropriations for additional buildings for 
enlarging the scope and usefulness of the institu- 


The Norfolk hospital for insane owes its origin 
to an act of the legislature of 1885 appropriating 
$75,000 to build an insane hospital within three 
miles of the city limits of Norfolk, provided the 
city should donate three hundred and twenty 
acres of good land upon which to locate said in- 
stitution. The three hundred and twenty acres 
were donated, commanding a most beautiful view 
of the lovely valley of the Elkhorn, its tributary 
the north fork, and the surrounding country. 
The first building was completed in November, 
1886. The legislature has from time to time made 
liberal appropriations to extend and enlarge this 
institution, and it ranks among the most import- 
ant eleemosynary institutions of the state. 


This institution is located at Beatrice, Gage 
county. It was established by the state of Nebras- 
ka in 1885 for the benefit of feeble-minded child- 
ren between the ages of five and eighteen years, 
who are by reason of their affliction denied the 
educational advantages of the public schools, and 
who likewise, because of their physical weakness, 
are necessarily dependent. We quote the follow- 
ing from the act of the legislature creating this 
institution, viz: "Besides shelter and protection, 
the prime object of said institution shall be to 
provide special means of improvement for that 
unfortunate portion of the community who were 
born or by disease may become imbecile or feeble- 
minded, and by a well-adapted course of instruc- 
tion reclaim them from their helpless condition, 
and through the development of their intellectual 
faculties fit them as far as possible for usefulness 
in society. To this end there shall be furnished 
them such agricultural and mechanical education 
as they are capable of receiving." Children who 
are residents of Nebraska, who are feeble-minded, 
and those who have such marked peculiarities or 
eccentricities of intellect, or those who by reason 
of their being backward are unable to receive the 
benefits of the common schools and ordinary 
methods of instruction, are entitled to care and 
training free of charge, except the expense of 
necessary clothing and transportation to and 
from their homes. Since the institution was 
founded, about one thousand applications have 
been made for admission, about half of which 
have been received as patients. The work of the 
institution covers a useful scope. Aside from the 
school duties, the girls are taught sewing, house 
work, cooking and all branches of domestic em- 
ployment, while the boys are instructed in brush 
making, carpenter work, farm work and such 
other branches of employment as may be useful 
to them after leaving the school 


This institution is located at Lincoln. In 1876 



some of the charitable women of Nebraska or- 
ganized a society known as the "Home for the 
Friendless," the object of which was to furnish a 
i*efuge for friendless children, girls, young women 
and old ladies. This society was duly incorporated 
under the laws of the state of Nebraska, and has 
been managed continuously from the time of its 
incorporation by a board of ladies who have 
served without pay, mileage or financial recom- 
pense whatever. Absolutely non-sectarian, as 
every religious organization has been represented, 
and absolutely non-political. In 1881 the state 
legislature appropriated the sum of $5,000 to aid 
the society in the erection of a permanent build- 
ing. As the state has grown, this charitable work 
has increased, and several legislative appropria- 
tions have been made to assist the society in car- 
rying on their great work. It can safely be said 
that thousands of friendless children have been 
received within the shelter of this institution and 
permanent homes have been found for them 
among the substantial citizens of the state. A 
record is kept of each child, and a useful future 
is assured to these unfortunate children who 
otherwise would have contributed to the haunts 
of vice and swell the roll of criminals. Over a 
thousand wives and mothers have been cared for 
by the home, besides caring for many aged in- 
mates. The magnitude of this work can only be 
appreciated by those who intimately acquaint 
themselves with the work of the society. Chris- 
tian women have devoted much of their time and 
contributed of their substance to the caring for 
these unfortunates for years. Auxiliary societies 
have been organized by the charitable women of 
many towns throughout the state, and the foun- 
dation has thus been laid for great charitable 
work in the future. 


The soldiers' and sailors' home at Grand Island 
was established under an act of the legislature of 
1887. This act constituted the board of public 
lands and buildings a commission to locate and 
establish a home for honorably discharged sol- 
diers, sailors and marines and hospital nurses who 
served in the United States army or navy or hos- 
pitals during the war of the rebellion, and who by 
reason of such service, old age or otherwise have 
become disabled from earning a livelihood, pro- 
viding such applicants have been actual bona fide 
residents of Nebraska for two years next preced- 
ing such application. This commission approved 
and accepted a site near the city of Grand Island, 
containing six hundred and forty acres of land, 
which was donated to the state by the citizens of 
Grand Island. The management of the home is 
vested in a visiting and examining board consist- 
ing of five persons, appointed by the governor, 
three of whom must be honorably discharged vol- 
unteer soldiers, and two of whom must be either 
wives, sisters or daughters of honorably dis- 

charged soldiers and members of the "Woman's 
Relief Corps of Nebraska. 


A branch of the soldiers' and sailors' home was 
established by an act of the legislature, which 
took effect April 9, 1895. This home is located 
near Milford, on the banks of the Blue river, and 
the site comprises about thirty-five acres. It con- 
sists of the sanitarium, park and springs, together 
with a brick and stone building surrounded by 
broad piazzas. The home is governed in like man- 
ner as the soldiers' and sailors' home at Grand 


The industrial home at Milford was established 
in 1888. Its object is to protect and care for the 
unfortunate and homeless girls, and thus prevent 
crime. In this institution a home is offered and 
an opportunity given to commence life anew, as 
without this opportunity and refuge, often, if the 
will to reform is evident, the way is completely 
hedged in. The institution is doing excellent 
work, and is a charitable enterprise that is worthy 
of the support of the state. 


The state industrial school at Kearney was es- 
tablished by the legislature of 1870 under the 
title of State Reform School. The sum of $10,000 
was appropriated for the erection of the first 
building and its temporary maintenance. The 
first building was completed in 1881, and the 
records of the school show that the first boy was 
committed by W. H. Ely, county judge of Dodge 
county, July 12, 1881. Since that time nearly 
fifteen hundred boys have been committed to the 
school by the different counties of the state, be- 
sides about two hundred girls that were sent here 
previous to the establishing of the girls' industrial 
school at Geneva in 1891. In 1887 the legislature 
changed the title of the Kearney institution from 
the State Reform School to that of the State In- 
dustrial School, the name it now bears. The in- 
tention of the change in the name was to remove 
the school as much as possible from a penal insti- 
tution to that of educational and industrial train- 
ing with the sole purpose in view that as far as 
possible no stigma should be attached to the un- 
fortunate and wayward youths that have received 
their education within its confines. 


The girls' industrial school at Geneva was es- 
tablished in 1891, and the main building was com- 
pleted during the same year. Up to this time the 
boys and girls were in one school at Kearney. 
The site for the school is located less than a mile 
from Geneva, Fillmore county, on a beautiful 
elevated tract of land containing forty acres. 



This institution has done and is doing noble work. 
The school is divided into classes, or families as 
they are called, and graded or placed according 
to the commitment and are assigned a certain 
number of demerits that must be cancelled by 
good behavior. They are detailed regularly every 
three months in the industrial departments, and 
work one-half of each day and are in school the 
other half day. All are committed until they are 
twenty-one years old unless sooner released by 
the governor or the board. They have an hour 
and a half to play each day, and there seems to 
be as much happiness as is found in the ordinary 
boarding school. When a girl has worked out on 
her "honor" and has no home, one is provided 
for her, where she goes on trial and is reported 
monthly. Many such are now commanding good 
wages. Some have married and have homes of 
their own. While inmates are committed here for 
certain offenses, it is not a prison, nor does it re- 
semble one in any way. It has no fences nor bars 
on the windows, and the surroundings are as in- 
viting as any high school. The girls are not here 
to take punishment for past mistakes, but for edu- 
cation and protection from all harm, especially 
evil influences. No home has better moral train- 


The legislature of 1879 passed an act creating 
the board of fish commissioners for the purpose of 
protecting, propagating and stocking the waters 
of the state and to arouse interest in fish culture. 
Governor Garber appointed as the first board of 
fish commissioners William L. May of Fremont, 
C. W. Kaley of Red Cloud and B. E. B. Kennedy 
of Omaha. The present site, consisting of fifty- 
two acres of ground lying along the Platte river 
in Sarpy county, just south of the village of 
South Bend, was purchased in 1880, and being 
well watered with several magnificent springs, 
has proven well adapted for the purpose for which 
it was acquired. J. G. Romine, of South Bend, 
was the first superintendent, appointed at a salary 
of $500 per annum. The board of commissioners 
received no salary, but Avere allowed $250 per an- 
num for expenses. The superintendent's salary 
is now $1,200 per annum, and he is allowed sever- 
al assistants. When the station was first located 
considerable attention was paid to the hatching 
and distribution of white fish and land-locked 
salmon, but it soon became apparent 
that the waters of this state were 
not adapted to these kinds of fish, and 
this work was discontinued, and the work of 
hatching carp, black bass, brook, rainbow and 
brown trout was taken up. The scope of the work 
has gradually been broadened until now, in addi- 
tion to the varieties named, they also propagate 
crappie, perch, catfish, rock bass, tench and sev- 
eral kinds of ornamental fish, and on the whole 
the work has been very successful. 


The Nebraska State Historical Society was or- 
ganized September 25 and 26, 1878, at Lincoln, 
with the following as charter members : Dr. Geo. 
L. Miller, Chris Hartman and J. T. Allen, Doug- 
las county; Governor Silas Garber and H. S. Ka- 
ley, Webster county; S. R. Thompson, T. P. Ken- 
nard, W. W. Wilson and Samuel Aughey, Lancas- 
ter county; Rev. J. M. Taggart and J. H. Croxton, 
Otoe county ; C. H. Walker, Franklin county ; Hon. 
L. Crounse and E. N. Grenell, Washington coun- 
ty; Prof. C. D. Wilbur, Saline county; J. Q. Goss, 
Sarpy county; D. H. Wheeler and William Gil- 
more, Cass county; 0. T. B. Williams, Seward 
county; L. B. Fifield, Bufi'alo county; Rev. L. W. 
B. Shryrock and B. Shugart, Gage county; Wil- 
liam Adair, Dakota county; Robert W. Furnas, 
Nemaha county ; H. T. Clark, Sarpy county ; J. H. 
Brown, A. Humphrey, J. H. Ames, John Cadman 
and A. G. Hastings, Lancaster county ; J. A. Mae- 
Murphy, Cass county; Hiram Craig, Washington 
county; J. J. Budd, Douglas county; F. J. Hen- 
dershot, Thayer county; S. A. Fulton, Richard- 
son county ; Theron Nye, Dodge county. 
A constitution was adopted, providing officers 
and regulations, and the first president, secretary 
and treasurer were respectively : Hon. Robert W. 
Furnas, Prof. Samuel Aughey and W. W. Wilson. 
The organization remained unchanged from 1878 
to 1883, having a president, recording secre- 
tary, corresponding secretary, treasurer and 
board of directors. During this time the funds of 
the society consisted solely of fees and dues paid 
in more or less irregularly, and were very small. 
The members first met at the old Commercial 
Hotel to organize, but usually thereafter the an- 
nual meetings were held in some room at the state 
university. The secretary. Prof. Aughey, gathered 
a small nucleus of a library, consisting of dona- ' 
tions from R. W. Furnas, ID. H. Wheeler, Moses 
Stocking and others. The society begaii also to 
carry out some of its proposed objects, These 
were: (1) To collect all material relating to the 
history of Nebraska; (2) to publish as much of it 
as possible; (3) to found an historical library. 

A subject of no small interest at the time the 
society was organized was that of the "historical 
block." This was block twenty-nine of the orig- 
inal plat of the city of Lincoln, later known as 
"Haymarket Square," and having the city offices 
on it, which Avas set apart by act of the com- 
missioners and of the state legislature, February 
15, 1869. It was called "State Historical and Li- 
brary Association Block, ' ' and was for the benefit 
of the "State Historical Library Association," or- 
ganized August 26, 1867. The society in question 
had some sessions, and its president for some time 
was Hon. John Gillespie. But for some reason 
the legislature, by act of February 24, 1875, took 
away this block and gave it to the city of Lin- 
coln. On the organization of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society in 1878 an effort was made to 


ascertain whether it was possible to recover this 
block for the latter society, but the attempt was 

In 1883, by act of the legislature February 23, 
1883, the society was made a state institution and 
a sum appropriated for its support. This opened 
up to the society a way to accomplish the purpose 
of publishing historical material. The first vol- 
ume was issued in 1885, which has been followed 
by a number of additional volumes. The biennial 
appropi-iations of the legislature for its support 
have increased from time to time, but have hard- 
ly kept pace with the needs of the society. Ne- 
braska has made a good beginning in the matter 
of collecting its own history, but its work does not 
as yet compare with that of most of its sister 
states. The plans of the officers of the society for 
the future contemplates an increase in the work 
and effectiveness of the organization. 


The Nebraska State Bar Association was organ- 
ized January 6, 1876. The constitution states the 
objects of tlie organization as follows: The as- 
sociation is established to maintain a high stan- 
dard of professional integrity among the mem- 
bers of the Nebraska bar; to cultivate social in- 
tercourse and courtesy among them; to encour- 
age a thorough and liberal legal education, and 
to assist in the improvement of the law and the 
due administration of justice to all classes of so- 
ciety without distinction." The constitution pro- 
vided for its incorporation under the laM^s of the 
state, appointing the president to take the neces- 
sary steps in the matter. Any member of a coun- 
ty association may become a member, and all 
judges of the supreme, district and federal courts 
of Nebraska are members by virtue of their offi- 
ces, and have all the privileges of membership 
except voting. Its eonstitiition provides for pun- 
ishment of its members for misconduct toward 
the association and the administration of justice, 
but it is also a vigilance committee to look after 
and punish in the courts the misconduct of non- 


An organization was effected on December 6, 
1859, of what was know as the Editors' and Pub- 
lishers' Association of Nebraska Territory. The 
first meeting was held at the Herndon House, 
Omaha, the following persons being present: 
Thomas Morton and M. W. Reynolds, of the Ne- 
braska City News; R. "W. Furnas, of the Brown- 
ville Advertiser; T. H. Robertson, of the Omaha 
Nebraskan; E. Giles, of the Plattsmouth Sentin- 
el ; Burbank & Jamison, of the Falls City Broad 
Axe; E. D. Webster of the Omaha Republican, 
and ex-editors H. D. Johnson, J. W. Pattison and 
S. Belden. On this occasion M. W. Reynolds was 
elected president, R. W. Pumas vice president and 
M. H. Clark secretary. Among the resolutions 

adopted at this meeting is one: "That a public 
journal is an impersonality, and should be so 
treated on all occasions, and that in our inter- 
course with each other we will neither use offen- 
sive personalities nor encourage them in others, 
but that Ave will at all times discourage their use 
as ungentlemanly and degrading to the profess- 
ion of journalism. " At this meeting Geo. A. Hins- 
dale and J. Sterling Morton were elected hono- 
rary members. 

The next reunion was held September 14, 1864, 
when the members of an "Editorial Convention" 
assembled at Nebraska City, the object as ex- 
pressed in the call being to adopt uniform rates 
of advertising. T. H. Robertson was elected pres- 
ident, W. H. H. "Waters secretary, and a commit- 
tee was appointed to prepare a schedule of prices. 
The rates as adopted secured publishers .$2.50 for 
weekly subscriptions, $1.00 per month for daily 
subscriptions, $5.00 per year for tri-weekly sub- 
scriptions. Legal and transient advertisements 
to be inserted at the rate of $1.50 per square for 
first insertion. $1.00 for each subsequent insertion, 
and the price of all job work advanced fifty per 

In January, 1873, a preliminary meeting of the 
"Nebraska Press Association" was held in Lin- 
coln, at which Major Caffrey acted as chairman 
and J. A. MacMurphy as secretary. With the ap- 
poiiitment of committees the meeting adjourned 
until February 27, 1873, at which time a constitu- 
tion and by-laws were adopted. No meeting was 
held in 1874, but the organization has been main- 
tained, increasing in importance and in the num- 
ber of members and with growing zeal in the pro- 
fession up to the present day. Its membership is 
representative of all sections of the state, and its 
tendency the creation of personal good will and 


The organization of the Nebraska State Medi- 
cal Society was effected at a meeting held in Oma- 
ha June 24, 1868. It was then declared that such 
an institution "organized and conducted so as to 
give frequent united and emphatic expression to 
the views and aims of the medical profession in 
this state, must at all times have a beneficial in- 
fluence and supply more efficient means that have 
hitherto been available here for cultivating and 
advancing medical knowledge, for elevating the 
standard of medical education, for promoting the 
usefulness, honor and interests of the medical 
profession, for enlightening and directing public 
opinion in regard to the duties, responsibilities 
and the requirements of medical men, for exciting 
and encouraging emulation and concert of action 
in the profession, and for facilitating and foster- 
ing friendly intercourse between those who are 
engaged in it." The members of the society were 
by the constitution divided into three classes — 
delegates, members by invitation and permanent 
members. The constitution was signed by the fol- 


lowing as the charter members : G. C. Mouell, M. 
D. ; H. P. Mathewson, M. D. ; James H. Peabody, 
M. D.; J. C. Denise, M. D.; S. D. Mercer, M. D., 
of Douglas county; R. R. Livingston, M. D., of 
Cass county; D. Whitinger, M. D., N. B. Larsh, 
M. D., of Otoe county, and J. P. Andrews, M. D., 
and August Roeder, M. D., of Washington coun- 
ty. The first officers elected were as follows: 
Gilbert C. Monell, president; Robert R. Livings- 
ton, vice president ; N. B. Larsh, second vice pres- 
ident; J. C. Denise, corresponding secretary; S. 

D. Mercer, permanent secretary; Daniel Whitin- 
ger, treasurer. 

The first annual convention was held at Ne- 
braska City, June 1 and 2, 1869. The society is 
today in prosperous condition, and growing in 
power and influence. It has from time to time 
issued full and valuable reports of its proceed- 
ings, accomplishing as far as possible that which 
it aimed to do — elevating the standard of medi- 
cal education, and promoting the usefulness, hon- 
or and interests of the medical profession. 



The question as to who it was that first sug- 
gested the possibility of building a railroad 
across the continent has been a disputed one. It 
was discussed by public men early in the century, 
and was mentioned in vai-ious journals and news- 
papers, but it gradually assumed more definite 
shape and culminated finally in the organization 
and construction of the Union Pacific railroad. 
While the scope of this work forbids an extended 
history of each particular road that has aided in 
the progress of the state, the inception and build- 
ing of the great Union Pacific is so intimately 
connected with the pioneer history of Nebraska 
that the writer believes a more extended history 
of its inception and growth will be found inter- 
esting in this connection. 

The claimants for the honor of having first in- 
troduced the subject of a ti"ans-continental rail- 
way to the American people have been numerous 
and persistent. The subject has been mooted 
time out of mind, and the question, "who first 
suggested the Pacific railway?" propounded and 
repeated incessantly. It is said that Jonathan 
Carver foreshadowed its construction as early as 
1778, and if true he was fartherest ahead of all 
men of the age in which he lived. When during 
succeeding years it was again and again men- 
tioned and pronounced impractical, California, 
rich in wealth and resources, sprang as if by 
magic from the desert, and the undertaking be- 
came an enterprise of the present rather than of 
the future. Since then the march of progress has 
with magestic- tread swept across the continent, 
populating the valleys, developing the agricultur- 
al resources of the plains, bringing to light the 
hidden mineral wealth of the mountains and in- 
scribing her name on the brightest pages of his- 
tory in every state. Upon the banks of the Fath- 

er of Waters the steps of progress impatiently 
lingered, but spanning that stream she swept 
along her magnificent career. Next she reached 
Nebraska, touching into life with her magic wand 
the hidden wealth therein sleeping. The Rocky 
mountains were crossed and the Queen of the 
Pacific reached. 

As early as 1835 the Rev. Samuel Parker, in his 
journal of a ti-ip across the continent, recorded 
an opinion that the mountains presented no insup- 
erable obstacle to a railroad. In 1836 John 
Plumbe, Jr., a Welshman, but a naturalized 
American, residing at Dubuque, commenced in 
person at his own expense the survey of a route 
for a railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific 
ocean, directing public attention to its importance 
in several well-written articles in the newspapers 
of the day. In 1838 he succeeded, through the in- 
fluence and efforts of the Hon. George W.Jones, in 
procuring an appropriation from congress to de- 
fray the expenses of locating the first division of 
the line, devoting his entire attention to and 
making constant exertions for the promotion of 
this great national object. He lived until after the 
gold discoveries of California, and used them as 
additional arguments in support of his pet 
scheme. Among the many claims is also that ad- 
vanced by the friends of John Wilgus, formerly 
a resident of Brownsville, Pennsylvania. A full 
review of the Wilgus claims are contained in an 
article published in the Unioutown (Pennsylvan- 
ia) Republican-Standard, from which we quote 
the following: 

"Many public men bask in borrowed light, and 
in no instance is this proposition more signally 
illustrated than in the case of Hon. 
Thomas H. Benton, who, as history records, 
is the accredited father of the Pacific 



railroad. Men of true moral and intellec- 
tual worth are more often modest and unassum- 
ing, and though deserving the gratitude of their 
fellow men, live in obscurity, and go to their re- 
ward hardly known outside the village in which 
fortune cast their lot. Such a man was John Wil- 
gus, the man who above all others is entitled to 
the credit and honor of originating the idea of a 
railroad to the Pacific. Born in comparative ob- 
scurity in a small town in southwestei-n Pennsyl- 
vania in the latter part of the last century, he 
very eai-ly gave promise of having more than 
bright intellect. Poverty and a lack of schools 
stood in his pathway, but his insatiable desire for 
learning was only limited by insurmountable ob- 
stacles incident to a new settlement on the border. 
The Bible was his companion from his youth, and 
in his manhood and declining years he who sought 
a controversy on religious dogmas must come fully 
armed and equipped. He had examined in detail 
all controverted points, read all the standard au- 
thors on Bible lore, memorized whole chapters 
and books of the Bible, and from studies and re- 
searches in the various departments, culling here 
and tliere logic and analogy, and with a memory 
never at fault when a topic was once scanned, he 
was a formidable opponent. While yet a young 
man he conceived the idea of a railroad to the Pa- 
cific, and this not when railroads were out of 
their swaddling clothes, but in their infancy, be- 
fore mountains had been scaled and rivers 
spanned. He contemplated and suggested 
congressional aid by giving ten miles of 
public land on each line of the surveyed routes, 
laying the road out so as to run through the 
county seats of successive counties. The eastern 
terminus should be the western shore of Lake Su- 
perior, near the present site of Duluth, also that 
it should cross the Rockies where the present road 
crosses, and its western terminus should be the 
Bay of San Francisco. Drawing a map and plan 
of his proposed railroad, he drew up a letter de- 
tailing the plans and methods and the reasons for 
the same, and forwarded the whole to Hon. An- 
drew Stewart, who was then a representative in 
congress from Fayette county, Pennsylvania. 
The plans and details were shown to a number of 
members, and it was thought advisable to have 
any proposition relating thereto come from a 
western man, and Mr. Benton, who was nearing 
the zenith of his glory, was selected. Mr. Benton 
arose in liis place in the senate on the following 
day. and proposed the building of a railroad to 
the Pacific. Mr. Stewart wrote to Mr. Wilgus the 
disposition made of his submissions. Years after, 
in the later years of Mr. Stewart's life, when the 
Pacific road was building, he wrote a letter to 
Mr. Wilgus, recognizing him as the original pro- 
poser of the road, and complimenting him upon 
the grand consummation about to dawn upon his 
early hopes." 

The letter referred to, and which is the only 

evidence now obtainable to substantiate Mr. Wil- 
gus' title to the honor, reads thus: 

Uniontown, Pa., June 25, 1869. 
John Wilgus, Esq., Brownsville, Pa. 

Dear Sir: I have just received your letter of 
yesterday, inclosing your communication to the 
Commercial in reference to a correspondence be- 
tween us relative to the "Pacific Railroad" be- 
tween twenty and thirty years ago, and request- 
ing me to give you my recollections in reference 
to that matter. 

I have a perfect recollection of having received 
numerous letters from you, urging me as a mem- 
ber of the committee on railroads and canals to 
call the attention of congress to this subject, in 
which you took so much interest. 

Your first route was from Lake Michigan, by 
the Columbia river, to the Pacific, but after the 
acquisition of California you changed it from St. 
Louis to San Francisco. Of this route you sent 
me a very handsome map, following, according to 
my recollections, very nearly the route on which 
the road has been lately built, which map I had, 
as you say, suspended in the hall of the house of 
representatives for the inspection of the members. 

I drew up a resolution authorizing the president 
to employ a corps of engineers of the United 
States army to examine and report upon the pi-ac- 
ticability of the proposed project, which resolu- 
tion I submitted to a number of members of con- 
gress, but especially to those of the west, who 
were most favorably disposed. 

Upon consideration and reflection, however, I 
concluded that the resolution had better be first 
offered in the senate, being a smaller body, and 
where the small western states were comparative- 
ly much stronger than in the house. I therefore 
took the resolution with your map to the senate, 
where I was advised by those friendly to the pro- 
ject to hand the papers to Colonel Benton, whose 
son-in-law, Colonel Fremont, had made the pre- 
liminary explorations. I did so, and he promised 
to attend to the matter in which he also took a 
very lively interest. I advised you of this ar- 
rangement, with which you expressed yourself as 
satisfied, and said you would write to Colonel 
Benton on the subject, who afterwards informed 
me you had done so. 

Without referring to the journals to which I 
have not now access, I can not undertake to state 
the action of the senate on the subject, but may 
do so hereafter, and should I find anything further 
material to your inquiry, I will let you know. 
Very respectfully your friend, etc., 
A. Stewart. 

Lewis Gaylord Clarke in 1838 wrote to the 
Knickerbocker: "The reader is now living who 
will make a railway trip across the continent." 
In 1846 Asa Whitney began to urge the project of 
building a line from the Mississippi to Puget 
Sound if congress would donate public lands to 
the width of thirty miles along the entire road. 
Later experience has shown that the proceeds 


sought by Whitney would have been utterly in- 
sufficient. His plan was conceded to be superior 
to that submitted by Mr. Plumb, but it was not 
acted upon. In 1850 the first Pacific railroad bill 
was introduced into congress by Senator Benton, 
of Missouri. "Old Bullion" contemplated a 
railroad only "where practicable," leaving gaps 
in the impassable mountains to be filled up by 
wagon roads. The Alleghanies were not even 
then crossed by an unbroken railway, but by a 
series of inclined plains, upon which the ears 
were drawn up and let down liy stationary en- 
gines. In all ages mankind has sought the short- 
est, most expeditious and economical route to 
market. The work was demanded in a national 
point of view, and across the state of Nebraska 
must the road be built. The questions which pri- 
marily suggested themselves — would it pay? how 
should it be built ? and where was it to leave the 
frontier? — were made the subjects of careful 
consideration. In 1851 the Hon. S. Butler King 
submitted a plan which received almost universal 
approval. It was, practically, that the govern- 
ment should guarantee to any company or per- 
sons who Avould undertake and complete the road 
a net dividend of five per cent for fifty or one 
hundred years, the road to be constructed under 
the supervision of an engineer appointed by the 
government, the cost of the road not to exceed a 
certain sum, and the guaranty not to begin until 
the road was completed and equipped for opera- 
tion. In 1853-54 nine routes were surveyed across 
the continent on various parallels between British 
America and Mexico, under the supervision of 
Jefi'erson Davis, then secretary of war. The re- 
sults were summarized in the interests of the ex- 
treme southern line. Up to this period the Ca- 
nadians and many residents of the United States 
believed that a railway could not be built south 
of the British possessions unless it was carried far 
down toward Mexico. In spite of all this, how- 
ever, the Union Pacific shouldered the enterprise, 
and in four years built a total of 1,090 miles. 
With each returning session of congress there- 
after convened the benefits and peculiarities of 
these several routes were submitted. The imprac- 
ticability of building the road had been from time 
to time removed by reports of engineers engaged 
in surveying designated routes, and many advo- 
cates were found to urge that the geography of 
the country and other features of excellence dem- 
onstrated incontestibly that the old Mormon trail 
up the Platte river was the most available. 

A number of appeals were made to congress, 
urging that a reasonable grant of land and other 
aid be made as would give an impulse to the 
building of the road. As regarded the Platte 
valley route, its superiority was insisted upon, 
and the truth of history cited in that behalf. In 
the early days of Brigham Young's domination, 
trusty emmissaries were by him dispatched for 
the purpose of obtaining a knowledge of the best 
road from the Missouri to Salt Lake. After 

every possible and impossible route had been ex- 
plored, this shrewd leader, who had more, at stake 
than any man who ever crossed the western 
prairies, chose the North Platte route. The 
speed and safety with which he and his followers 
traversed it attest a sagacity which only a thor- 
ough knowledge of the country would enable 
him to employ. The first emigrants to California 
crossed the Missouri at St. Joe, Leavenworth, 
Kansas City, Independence and elsewhere, but 
after the country had been explored thoroughly 
the emigration of 1852 was by way of Council 
Bluffs and the north Platte route. From the 
earliest days of the territory the people and offic- 
ial representatives of Nebraska favored the 
speedy completion of a line through the valley of 
the Platte. The proceedings of the legislature 
prove this. Every governor from Cuming to 
Saunders advocated the measure, and a most ur- 
gent spirit was manifested from 1855 to 1865. 

On January 20, 1858, a committee of congress, 
through Senator Gwin of California, reported a 
bill which proposed to locate the road at some 
point between the Big Sioux and Kansas rivers to 
San Francisco. It provided for the donation of 
alternate sections of land on each side of the 
route, and $12,500 per mile, the same to be ad- 
vanced on the completion of every twenty-five 
miles of the road until $25,000,000 was reached, 
the amounts to be returned in mail and army ser- 
vice and transportation, etc. This bill, however, 
was killed in the senate. At the session of 
1859-60 another effort was made and a bill intro- 
duced in the house by Mr. Curtis of Iowa. It 
provided for the construction of a road across 
the continent, with branches from two points on 
the navigable waters of the Missouri to converge 
and unite within two hundred miles of that 
stream, thence run to the Sacramento river. The 
bill ran through a long and excited debate, and 
was amended in several particulars, and finally 
was rejected by congress. The great difficulty at 
this time seemed the selection of a route. 

In 1861 the war came on and monopolized pub- 
lic attention, but early in 1862 the possibility of 
constructing the road was again bi-ought up, and 
at this time first took definite shape. On Febru- 
ary 5, 1862. Mr. Rollins, of I\Iissouri, introduced 
a bill to aid in constructing a railroad and tele- 
graph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific 
ocean. The bill was finally passed by both houses 
of congress June 24, 1862. and was approved July 
1, 1862, thus creating "The Union Pacific Railroad 
Company." The bill provided for the amount of 
the capital stock, the election of directors, the 
right of way through public lands, the extin- 
guishment of Indian titles, the dona- 
tion of alternate sections except mineral landt,, 
the conveyance of lands upon completion of forty 
consecutive miles of road, and the issue and pay- 
ment of bonds therefor, besides various other pro- 
visions. The act was amended later, and the 
company was formally organized October 29, 


1863, by the election of a board of thirteen direc- 
tors. Work on the road was commenced at once, 
and progressed rapidly. On March 13, 1866, i1 
was announced that sixty miles of the road had 
been completed, and awaited examination by the 
commissioners of the government. The comple- 
tion of the road occurred on May 10, 1869. The 
foregoing covers briefly the facts leading up to 
the inception and building of the Union Pacific. 


The Union Pacific railroad was the first railway 
enterprise commenced in Nebraska. The mere 
talk of the project of building this line from the 
Missouri river westward to the Pacific attracted 
a great deal of attention to the west, and espec- 
ially was emigration to Nebraska hastened by 
this. The location of the road and the commence- 
ment of operations looking to the building of its 
route tended to fill up Nebraska, then a territory 
with a thrifty population, as also to develop the 
agricultural and mineral wealth of the country 
beyond. The immediate efi'ects were, of course, 
experienced by that portion of the domain 
through which the road passed, and in other 
portions of the territory as its influence grad- 
ually extended. The great empire west of 
Omaha along the base of the Rocky mountains, 
rich in mineral wealth beyond any other por- 
tion of the country, filled up rapidly with the 
people. The productive lands of Nebraska 
were brought into requisition to furnish 
them with wheat, corn, potatoes and other 
cereals and esculents, and the wholesale merchants 
of the metropolis contributed to their necessities. 
The building of the road cheapened transporta- 
tion and in every way promoted the growth and 
development of Nebraska. 

The bill passed by congress creating the "Union 
Pacific Railroad Company," which was approved 
July 1, 1862, provided for the construction of a 
continuous railroad and telegraph line from "a 
point on one hundredth meridian of longitude 
west of Greenwich, between the south margin of 
the Republican river and the north margin of the 
valley of the Platte river, in the territory of Ne- 
braska, to the western boundary of Nevada terri- 
tory." This great national enterprise was form- 
ally organized in the city of New York October 
29," 1863, by the election of the first board of direc- 
tors as has already been stated. At that time 
four lines of railroad had been projected and were 
in process of construction across the state of Iowa 
—the BurlingtoE & Missouri: the most 
southern; the Mississippi & Missouri, the 
next north ; the Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska, farther 
north, and the Dubuque & Sioux City. The 
first named was in operation about one hundred 
miles westward from Burlington, with its western 
terminus undecided. The Mississippi & Missouri 
was in operation from Davenport to Grin- 
nell, with its western terminus decided as Coun- 

cil Bluffs, opposite Omaha. The Chicago, Iowa & 
Nebraska road was in operation from Clinton and 
Lyons to Marshalltown, and the Dubuque & Sioux 
City was operated a short distance west of Du- 
buque, with its western terminus at Sioux City. 
For this latter road a connection with the trunk 
line of the Pacific road was expressly provided in 
the act of congress incorporating the Union Pa- 
cific, obliging that company to construct a branch 
to a point opposite Sioux City whenever a road 
shoiild be completed there to cross the state of 
Iowa. At this time there was great anxiety 
throughout the west as to what place on the Mis- 
souri river the president would select as the ini- 
tial point of the Union Pacific road, and Omaha, 
it was insisted upon, offered superior inducements 
in that connection. On the morning of Wednes- 
day, December 2, 1863, the engineer of the road 
received a telegram from New York, announcing 
that the president of the United States had fixed 
the initial point of the road on "the western 
boundary of the state of Iowa," opposite Omaha, 
and directing him to formally "break ground" 
and inaugurate the great work. To aid in the 
construction of this great national highway, the 
United States government conferred upon the 
Union Pacific a magnificent land grant, amount- 
ing to over twelve million acres, contained in al- 
ternate sections of one square mile each within a 
breadth of twenty miles on either side of the rail- 
road, and extended along its entire line. The act 
passed by congress required that one hundred 
miles of the Union Pacific railroad between the 
Missouri river and the one hundredth meridian 
be completed within three years after filing of 
the company's assent of the organic law filed 
June 27, 1863. Considerable delay was occas- 
ioned by various interests fighting to secure the 
location of the line where it would serve specula- 
tive enterprises, but in 1865 the work of construc- 
tion was being pushed with vigor. On March 13, 
1866, it was announced that sixty miles of the 
road had been completed and awaited examina- 
tion by the commissioners of the government. 
Soon after the first hundred miles were completed 
in July, 1866, one hundred and thirty-five miles 
were annovinced as ready for the "cars" west of 
Omaha. The final completion of the line to the 
Pacific ocean, one of the great events of the cen- 
tury, occurred on May 10, 1869. On that day 
two oceans were united and a continent Avas 
spanned by the bands of iron, over which was 
to flow the commerce of the nation. An early 
writer, speaking of this event, said: "Fruitful 
as has been the present century in important 
discoveries and useful inventions, varied and 
multiform as have been the improvements 
wrought out by patient toil and un equaled energy 
of the men of the age in which they lived, no sin- 
gle achievement will compare in its immediate 
and ultimate consequences to the material pros- 
perity of the people, not only of America, but of 
Europe and Asia, with the grand work which 



reached its final consummation on Monday, May 
10, 1869." 

The bridge across the Missouri river at Omaha 
was completed in March, 1872, at a total cost of 
one million four hundred and fifty thousand dol- 

The first line from the east to salute the people 
of Omaha with the screech of the engine whistle 
was the Chicago & Northwestern, the first train 
on that road entering the city on Sunday, Janu- 
ary 17, 1867. The Missouri river was crossed on 
a pile bridge, which for several years was used 
during the winter months for crossing the river, 
it being removed during the months of naviga- 
tion and a ferryboat employed in its place to 
transfer freight and passengers. The second road 
to reach the state was the St. Joseph & Council 
Blufi's line. The Burlington & Missouri Avas com- 
pleted to the city of Omaha in 1868. The Omaha 
& Northwestern was built to Herman, a distance 
of forty miles, in October, 1871, and during the 
same year the Omaha & Southwestern was com- 
pleted to the Platte river. 

In February, 1869, the legislature of Nebraska 
appropriated two thousand acres per mile to any 
railroad which should complete ten miles of its 
route within one year, the grant in no case to ex- 
ceed one hundred thousand acres. It was stated 
that the members of the legislature appreciated 
its importance of prompt action, and realized that 
the railroads alone could effect the desired end, 
and appropriated altogether five hundred thous- 
and acres of land for the purpose of internal im- 
provements. Movements to take advantage of 
this act were inaugurated in various portions of 
the state during the summer of 1869. Early in 
October, 1869, James E. Boyd, of Omaha, made 
through the public press a proposition, the sub- 
stance of which was that he would be one of 
twenty men to advance ten thousand dollars for 
the purpose of constructing the Omaha & North- 
western road over a route projected from Omaha 
to the Niobrara river. On the 19th of November, 
1869, articles of incorporation were drawn up, 
and the organization of the company was per- 
fected a few days later. The work of building 
the road was pushed with wonderful rapidity, 
and on February 3, 1870, the railway was com- 
pleted ten miles on its route at a cost for mater- 
ials of one hundred and ninety-eight thousand 
dollars. During 1870 twenty-six and one-half 
miles of road were completed to DeSoto, and a 
lease entered into with John I. Blair, of a branch 
of the Missouri & Pacific road, known as the 
"DeSoto Plug, " by which communication be- 
tween Omaha and Blair became direct and regu- 
lar. On the 7th of October, 1871, the road was 
completed to Herman, on the line of Washington 
and Burt counties. As showing the liberality 
with which railroads were treated by tlie state 
and the public generally in those days, it may be 
said that the company received two hundred 
thousand dollars in ten per cent twenty-year 

bonds from Douglas county, one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars in . eight 
per cent, twenty-year bonds from 

"Washington county for the building of the line 
from the south to the north line of the latter 
county; in addition, two thousand acres of land 
per mile from the state and liberal donations 
from other northern counties. During 1872 the 
roadbed was graded to Tekama, but as the panic 
of 1873 came on it was not completed to Tekama 
until August, 1876, at which time the company 
received forty-five thousand dollars in bonds from 
Burt countj\ The following year the road was 
sold under foreclosure proceedings and reorgan- 
ized, and later was pushed on northward. 

The Omaha & Southern Railroad Company was 
one of the projects organized to take advantage 
of the act of the legislature passed in February, 
1869, appropriating two thousand acres of land 
per mile to any railroad which should complete 
ten miles of its route within one year. This com- 
pany was organized November 27, 1869, when 
officers were elected and plans laid for pushing 
the work. The affairs of the road were conducted 
with signal ability with a view solely to the com- 
pletion of the first ten miles before the first of 
February, 1870. The work of grading was let to 
Smiley & Meson, McCarth & Fleming, William 
Knight and John Green, and commenced without 
delay, so that its completion was reached and the 
last rail laid on the evening of January 29, 1870, 
at a total cost of one hundred and ninety-five 
thousand dollars. The celerity with 

Avhich this railroad and also the Oma- 
ha & Northwestern line (which is 
mentioned elsewhere) was incepted, pushed for- 
ward and completed the desired number of miles, 
was something marvelous and up to that time ex- 
ceeded anything in the annals of railroad build- 
ing. Sixty days previous to their completion the 
ties of both roads were in the primeval trees of 
the forest, the iron composing the rails was in a 
crude state six hundred miles away from where 
they were to be subsequently laid. This road, as 
previously stated, soon after its construction be- 
came a part of the Burlington & Missouri River, 
now the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy system. 

On the 11th of August, 1866, authority was ob- 
tained under the general law of Nebraska by the 
St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad Company to 
build a railroad from the Nebraska state line to 
Fort Kearney. The Northern Kansas Railroad 
Company was consolidated with this company, 
and the rights to land granted by act of congress 
July 23, 1866, of one million seven hundred thous- 
and acres was thereby obtained. Subscriptions 
from municipal corporations to the amount of 
one million twenty-five thousand dollars were se- 
cured in aid of building the road. Work was com- 
menced, and eighty miles of the line were com- 
pleted and in operation in October, 1870, at a cost 
of about one million five hundred thousand dol- 
lars. In 1871 the line was extended forty-eight 



miles, and in the following year it was completed 
to Hastings. It later passed into the hands of the 
Union Pacific Company, and was extended to 
Grand Island in the summer of 1879. Later it 
was extended further north. Harrison Johnson, 
an early writer of Nebraska history, said of this 
line: "The total cost of the line from St. Joseph 
to Hastings was five million four hundred 
forty-nine thousand six hundred twenty dol- 
lars and twenty-seven cents, of which stockhold- 
e'rs paid one thousand four hundred dollars, seven 
hundred eighty-two thousand seven hundred 
twenty-seven dollars and ten cents from state 
and municipal aid, and the remainder four million 
six hundred sixty-five thousand four hundred and 
ninety-three dollars and sixty-seven cents from 
the proceeds of mortgage bonds." 

Early in the "seventies" the project of build- 
ing what was then called the "Julesburg Cut- 
Off" or the "Omaha & Denver Short Line" at- 
tracted a good deal of attention. In 1873 the 
LTnion Pacific road first fostered the enterprise of 
building this line, and much of the projected line 
was graded between 1873 and 1875, when certain 
complications with the then inimical Kansas Pa- 
cific forced an abandonment of the scheme. Upon 
the completion of the purchase by the Union Pa- 
cific of the Kansas Pacific, however, the recon- 
struction of the line was recommenced early in 
1880, and it was rapidly pushed to completion to 

On January 17, 1870, the first passenger train 
from Chicago to Council Bluffs over the line of 
the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad marked 
the completion and opening of a third line of rail- 
way from Chicago to Omaha. To the Chicago 
& Northwestern is due the credit of 
having been the first, followed soon 
afterward by the completion and open- 
ing of traffic on the Iowa division of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railroad. This was fol- 
lowed, as stated, by the Burlington & Missouri 
River Railway, a continuation of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy Railroad. This line became a 
part of the great organization known as the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad system. 
They rapidly pushed their lines beyond the Mis- 
souri river by acquiring other lines alreadj^ built 
or under construction, and by the construction of 
new lines. Their lines now traverse the richest 
portions of the state. 

In 1871 a line of railway was built from Ne- 
braska City to Lincoln, a distance of fifty-eight 
miles, by a company organized that year under 
the title of the Midland Pacific Railroad. It was 
extended to Seward, eighty-three miles from Ne- 
braska City, in 1874. It was the intention of the 
original company to build a line to Fort Kearney, 
or to some point farther east on the Union Pacific 
road. A branch was also projected from the main 
line in Otoe county to Fort Riley in Kansas. The 
line was, however, sold under foreclosure and re- 
organized under the name of the Nebraska Rail- 

way, and later passed into the hands of the Bur- 
lington & Missouri Company in 1876, and later 
was pushed on westward to York and Aurora and 
Central City in Merrick county, and was also ex- 
tended southward from Nebraska City. 

The Sioux City & Pacific Railroad was one of 
the pioneer railroads of northeastern Nebraska. 
The Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley road, 
which was operated by the Sioux City & Pacific, 
was also among the pioneers. The first ten miles 
of this road was completed December 31, 1869. 
This line reached Stanton, the county seat of 
Stanton county, in 1879. The Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha Railway, with lines from 
Sioux City to Omaha and branches, was a pioneer 
in northwestern Nebraska, and was an important 
factor in the growth, settlement and development 
of that region. These lines are now a part of the 
Northwestern system, one of the greatest of 
Amei-ica's railway organizations. The North- 
western system has extended their lines through- 
out all of northern and eastern Nebraska. 


The foregoing pages have treated of the rail- 
road development in Nebraska in early days. 
Perhaps no state in the union owes more of its 
rapid growth to the railroad than does Nebraska. 
The last thirty years has been an era of railroad 
building throughout the west, and especially is 
this true of Nebraska. The state has been cov- 
ered with a net-work of rails that extend to all 
parts of the commonwealth, and in all directions 
the lines radiate into the outer world. Transpor- 
tation facilities today are excellent, not only with- 
in the state, but in all directions with the centers 
of trade and commerce of other states. 

The Union Pacific has its main line extending 
through the state from east to west, making it the 
greatest of all highways between the east and the 
Pacific coast. It also has various branches in Ne- 
braska extending north and south from the main 
line, notably those reaching the following named 
towns: Norfolk, Albion, Spalding, Ord, Callawa 
a*d Stromsburg: also a branch south through 
Lincoln to connect with the Union Pacific lines in 
Kansas, and they also control the St. Joseph & 
Grand Island Railway, extending from Grand 
Island southeast to St. Joseph, Missouri. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy system trav- 
erses the entire state of Nebraska from east to 
west, with various branches. The Chicago & 
Northwestern line, together with the Chicago, St. 
Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, which it controls, is 
another of the great railway systems that today 
serve much territory within the state and connect 
the state with the outside world. Their main line 
to the northwest and to the Black Hills, with var- 
ious branches, serve the north and northeastern 
part of Nebraska, while branches also extend 
southwest to Hastings, Superior and Lincoln. In 



addition to these, there are a number of other im- 
portant lines of railway that have trackage inter- 
est in the state and add to the transportation fa- 
cilities of Nebraska in connecting the state with 
the outside world, among which should be men- 

tioned the following: The Missouri Pacific, 
Kansas City & Northwestern, Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, the Chicago Great "Western, Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, Great Northern, and the 
Illinois Central. 




In the early history of Nebraska nothing ex- 
cited more general interest than the locust ques- 
tion. Early in the decade between 1860 and 1870 
these insects invaded portions of the state and 
wrought great havoie and damage, but the great- 
est damage was done during the latter part of 
the following decade — the damage they accom- 
plished being particularly great in 1874, 1876 and 
1877. In those days there were generally a num- 
ber of years between great locust invasions. It 
never occurred that the whole state sufi'ered at 
one time, but in those years small visitations were 
more frequent and over comparatively small 
areas. This is now all a thing of the past, but 
as it forms one of the most interesting features of 
the natural history of Nebraska, we present the 
following article on this subject written by Prof. 
Samuel Aughey, Ph. D., in 1880, when the lo- 
cust question was one of vast importance to the 
settlers of the western states, including Nebraska, 
Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota and the Dakotas. The 
settlers had then only recently suffered severely 
from the locust visitations and were constantly 
in fear of their reappearance. 

"The permanent habitat of the migrating 
locust is the region between latitude 43 degrees 
and 53 degrees north, and 103 degrees and lt4 
degrees west of Greenwich. From their native 
habitat may move mainly in an easterly, south- 
easterly and southern direction. Moving in this 
direction those that commence migrating from 
northern Montana by the middle of July reach 
southern Dakota territory, and in some cases 
probably Nebraska and even Kansas, sometime 
in August or September. Generally, however, 
those that come into Nebraska and Kansas were 
hatched and matured south of Montana. It takes 
generally from two to three seasons for them to 
reach these latitudes. Often the numbers that 
alight are amazing. During July, in 1866, in 
Cedar county, their numbers were so great that 
the sun was darkened. Many of the tree limbs 
were broken under their weight. This was an 

exceptional ease. However, they often complete- 
ly covered the ground. Generally, the cereal 
grains are already harvested when the migrating 
locusts reach Nebraska. Wheat, oats and barley 
are safe. Corn and the gardens are the victims 
if they come before the former is sufficiently 
ripened to resist their attacks. A swarm of lo- 
custs in July and August can ruin a field of corn 
in a few days and sometimes a few hours. Often 
the fields are only partially destroyed. Some 
times the silk and foliage are partially eaten off 
and the ends of the ears bared, so that the crops 
cannot mature. If they leave at this stage of 
their proceedings, all is well, and if not their eggs 
are deposited and the wheat crop endangered 
during the coming spring. The countless num- 
bers that are hatched out, if the spring happens 
to be favorable to them, become exceedingly 
voracious. As they soon commence to move by 
jumping in one direction, when abundant they 
are apt to devour everything in their path. This 
continues until they are old enough to fly, when 
they depart for other regions. Generally some 
corn can be saved and late planting may entirely 
escape. Often the third planting of corn during 
locust years yielded a fair crop. The cereal 
grains have, however, in some places and during 
a few years, been largely destroyed during the 
time between the hatching out and flying of the 
locusts. As yet no successful method has been 
devised to destroy the locusts on their first ap- 
pearance in migrating swarms from the north- 
west. The eggs, however, which are laid in 
autumn, have been frequently destroyed by re- 
peatedly harrowing the ground, breaking up the 
nests and exposing them to the action of rain and 
cold and birds. Plowing them under very deep 
also destroys great numbers. When they hatch 
out in the spring in destructive numbers, the most 
vigorous methods need to be employed. One of 
the most successful ways of destroying them is 
the digging of ditches around the "fields, across 
the path on which they are moving. If the 
trenches are made from twelve to fourteen inches 
deep, and still deeper holes dug every few rods 



in the trenches, the young locusts first get into 
the trenches, then into the holes, where unable 
to get out, they can be destroyed by piling ground 
on them. Some farmers have saved their entire 
crops in this way in tlie midst of the most infested 
districts. However, nature has its own method 
of destrojdng locusts. The locust's natural habi- 
tat is a high, dry region where the rainfall is 
from ten to twenty inches a year. They cannot 
long endure a combination of low altitudes and 
moisture, combined with extreme and sudden 
changes of temperature. Hence, the locust can 
never become localized in Nebraska. From the 
time tliey leave their native habitat, constiutional 
impairment sets in, and a few years in lower 
moisture regions exterminates them, unless they 
speedily return to their upland dry home. Gen- 
erally, there are many years between great locust 
invasions. It never occurs that the whole state 
suffers at once, while the small visitations have 
been more frequent, the destructive ones occur 
at very long intervals and over comparatively 
small areas. The small area under cultivation 
even in the thickest settlements has been hereto- 
fore one reason for the destructiveness of locusts. 
The locusts seemed to select the corn fields and 
gardens for their feeding grounds. When the 
area under cultivation is trebled, the amount of 
damage they can do will be more than one-half 
less. Another more potent agency against their 
increase and destructiveness is the increasing 
rainfall of the state. The presence of the locust 
is by no means the pest that it sometimes has been 
represented to be." (1880). 

The following very interesting article on the 
grasshopper raids was written by Harrison John- 
son, in 1879, viz: "During the growing seasons 
of 1874 and '75 the Rocky Mountain locust, or 
grasshopper, visited Nebraska and did incalcu- 
lable damage by devouring the crops in a large 
portion of the state. In many sections, more 
particularly in the western and middle counties, 
the destruction of crops by these insects was al- 
most complete, not a vestige of anything green 
being left untouched by them ; and as many of the 
farmers living in the sections so afflicted were 
new settlers, the total loss of their crops upon 
which they were dependent for the support of 
their families, was a great calamity and caused 
much distress and suffering. The destitution was 
so widespread and so great in some localities, that 
public aid was asked, for the relief of the suft'er- 
ers. The prompt and generous responses to the 
call by the people of the east and other localities 
not so afflicted, in forwarding provisions, cloth- 
ing and money, saved many a poor family from 
actual want if not starvation. 

""While it is true that the damage done by the 
grasshoppers was very great, and caused much 
genuine distress among the people in several of 
the counties yet the whole matter was grossly 
exaggerated and enlarged upon by a certain busy 
class of persons who somehow always come to 

j the front on such occasions, actuated, generally, 
more by a desire to further their own selfish ends 
than by any kindly, true feeling for the dis- 
tressed. This blatant, noisy class, with their 
loud demonstrations and universal begging, not 
only disgusted the more sensible people, but did 
the state an injury next to that of the grass- 
hoppers themselves. 

"Yet it is a stubborn fact that the timely suc- 
cor sent to the settlers in the devastated districts 
saved much suffering among the poorer portion ; 
and the people of Nebraska owe a lasting debt 
of gratitude to the noble men and women of the 
east, who contributed so willingly and bounti- 
fully to their aid in time of need. By an act of 
the legislature of Nebraska, fifty thousand dollars 
were donated as a relief to the grasshopper suf- 
ferers, which amount was judiciously expended 
and distributed for that purpose, but the grass- 
hopper scares have passed away, we hope, for- 
ever ; the seasons have come and gone, leaving 
us with bountiful crops of all kinds to enrich and 
supply the wants of all, and prosperity reigns 
supreme throughout the length and breath of 
the state." (1879). 


In early days the public lands in Nebraska 
were given with a lavish hand to aid in the set- 
tlement, growth and development of the country, 
as well as for internal improvments, railway 
grants, and school purposes. The state received 
from the general government millions of acres 
for various purposes. The records show that 
during the first ten years of statehood the state 
received grants of land aggregating nearly three 
and a half million acres, as follows: For internal 
improvement 500,000 acres; for agricultural col- 
lege, 90,000 acres; for university, 46,080 acres; 
for public buildings, 12,800 acres; for peniten- 
tiary, 32,000 acres; for saline purposes, 46,080 
acres; for common school purposes two sections 
in every township, aggregating about 2,650,000 
acres. The 500,000 acres for internal improve- 
ment purposes were granted to the state upon 
its admission to the union, under the provisions 
of an act of congress, approved September 4, 
1841. These lands were selected through agents 
appointed for that purpose, and disposed of in 
pursuance to the provisions of an act of the legis- 
lature, approved February 15. 1869. Up to Feb- 
ruary 24, 1874, the general government had 
turned over 504,131 acres of land to Nebraska 
for internal improvement purposes. These lands 
were disposed of by the state in the following 
manner. Deeded to Saline county for bridges, 
1,000 acres; Gage county for bridges, 1,000 acres; 
Elkhorn & Missouri Valley R. R., 100,030 acres; 
Midland Pacific R. R., 100,384 acres; Brown- 
ville & Ft. Kearney R. R., 19,989 acres; Bur- 
lington & Missouri River R. R., 50,104 acres; 
Sioux City & Pacific R. R., 47,327 acres; Omaha 



& Southweestern R. R. 100,010 acres; Oiuaha & 
Northwestern R. R., 80,416 acres; Burlington & 
Southwestern R. R., 20,000 acres; Atchison & Ne- 
braska R. R., 12,841 acres. 

The railroads received from the government 
an immense amount of land in the way of land 
grants. The aggregate amount of lands in Nebras- 
ka received by the Union Pacific Railway from the 
govenment was about 5,926,400 acres, all contigu- 
ous to their line of road, and about half of these 
lands were in the Platte Valley. The Burlington 
& Missouri River Railway received from the gov- 
ernment a land grant in Nebraska amounting to 
2,382,208 acres; they received from the state of 
Nebraska 50,104 acres, and when they took pos- 
session of the Omaha & Southwestern Road, they 
acquired the land grant made to that line by the 
state, of 100,010 acres. These lands were situated 
chiefly in the north-central and south-central por- 
tions of the state, and were designated as "North 
Platte" and "South Platte" lands. The railroad 
lands were placed on the market at extremely low 
prices and on very reasonable terms, a very small 
cash payment being required and long time being 
given for payment of the balance at low rates of 
interest. These conditions greatly stimulated the 
settlement of the state. 

On the first of January, 1863, the homestead 
law went into effect, and thereby public lands 
were subject to entry by those who acknowledged 
their intention to settle permanently, for a mere- 
ly nominal fee. Congress, in order that the bene- 
fits of the law might be justly distributed, from 
time to time amended its provisions and enlarged 
its scope. Liberal provisions were made by which 
the soldier, his widow and his orphans were per- 
mitted to receive enlarged privileges in securing 
homesteads, thus adding to the national recogni- 
tion of the principle that every citizen of the re- 
republic was entitled to the rights to make him- 
self a home upon the public domain, the still nob- 
ler and higher doctrine that it was the nation's 
duty to reward the defenders of the country and 
provide homes for the families of those who gave 
up their lives in its defense. 

The preemption law also helped materially 
the early settlement and development of Nebras- 
ka. Under this law, with certain restrictions, 
every person who was the head of a family or 
over tweny-one years of age and a citizen of the 
United States, was entitled in early days to enter 
a quarter section of land under the preemption 
act. The rules of the general land office in those 
days repuired a person to build a house and break 
at least ten acres of land before he could make 
final proof and perfect his title to the land, and 
in order to take a preemption a settlement on the 
land was required to be made within sixty days 
from the date of filing the claim. A patent could 
be secured at the expiration of thirty months 
from the time of filing on payment of one dollar 
and twenty-five cents per acre where the land 
was located outside the limits of a railroad land 

grant and two dollars and fifty cents per acre if 
within such limits. 

Another important method of securing title to 
public lands was by means of the "timber culture 
entry," or "tree-claim act," and this act left its 
impress throughout all the prairie regions of the 
west. Only one timber culture entry was per- 
mitted on each section, and this class of entries 
could only be taken upon "prairie land," or land 
naturally devoid of timber. No residence on the 
land was required. The law required that for a 
timber culture entry of one hundred and sixty 
acres, five acres be broken within the first year; 
that it be cultivated the second year, and planted 
to forest trees four feet apart each way within the 
third year, and that a second five acres be broken 
the second year, cultivated the third 
year, and planted as in the first 
instance the fourth year, and that if the 
ten acres be kept in a growing condition, a patent 
was issued for the tract at the expiration of eight 
years, provided that not less than six hundred 
and seventy-five trees be found in a growing con- 
dition at the expiration of that time. The law 
also provided that in case the trees, seeds or cut- 
tings should be destroyed by grasshoppers, or by 
extreme and unusual draught, for any year or 
term of years, the time for planting such trees, 
seed or cuttings should be extended one year for 
every such year that they were so destroyed. 


In educational matters Nebraska has kept pace 
with any of the other states in the union. Profit- 
ing by the experience of the older states, Nebras- 
ka at its organization incorporated into her com- 
mon school system all that had been proven by 
experiment to be the best and most advantageous 
methods. To show the growth and development 
along educational lines, we will state that in the 
year 1870 there were in the state only seven hun- 
dred and ninety-seven districts, employing five 
hundred and thirty-six teachers, and serving thir- 
ty-two thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine 
children. The value of school property at that 
time was approximately $178,604. For the pur- 
pose of comparison we give the following statis- 
tics for the school year — twenty-six years later — 
in 1906, viz : In 1906 there were in the ninety 
counties a total of 6,671 districts, employing 
9,639 teachers, occupying 6,780 school houses, and 
serving 373,829 children of school age. The total 
value of school district property at this time was 
$12,076,569. The number of graded schools in 
the state in 1906 was 492, giving employment to 
3,570 teachers. These figures speak well for the 
intelligence of the people of any state. 

There are a great many institutions of higher 
learning scattered throughout the state. The 
State University, located at Lincoln, was estab- 
lished by act of the legislature -in 1869, and 
opened in 1871. It is mentioned at length else- 



where in this volume. The following is a list of 
the most important colleges, academies, business 
and normal schools in the state, giving the loca- 
tion of each, viz : Aurora Normal Emd Business 
College at Aurora, Bellevue College at Bellevue, 
Brownell Hall at Omaha, Brown's Business Col- 
lege at Lincoln, Central College at Central City, 
Chadron Academy at Chadron, Convent of the 
Holy Child Jesus at Lincoln, Cotner University 
at Bethany, Creighton University at Omaha, Cus- 
ter College at Broken Bow, Dana College at Blair, 
Doane College at Crete, Franciscan Monastery at 
Humphrey, Franklin Academy at Franklin, Fre- 
montCollege and School of Pharmacy at Fremont, 
Gates Academy at Neligh, Grand Island Business 
and Normal College at Grand Island, Grand Island 
College at Grand Island, Hastings Business Col- 
lege at Hastings, Hastings College at Hastings, 
Kearney Military Academy at Kearney, Lincoln 
Business College at Lincoln, Lincoln Syllabic Col- 
lege at Lincoln, Luther Academy at Wahoo, 
Lutheran Seminary at Seward, Nebraska Normal 
College at Wayne, Nebraska Wesleyan University 
at University Place, Northwestern Business Col- 
lege at Beatrice, Omaha Commercial College at 
Omaha, Orleans Seminary at Orleans, Pawnee 
City Academy at Pawnee City, St. Catherine 
Academy at Jackson, St. Francis Academy at Co- 
Iambus, St. Mary's Academy at O'Neill, St. Paul 
Normal and Business College at St. Paul, St. 
Theresa Parochial High School at Lincoln, Union 
College at College View, Ursuline Convent at 
Falls City, Weeping Water Academy at Weeping 
Water, York Business College and Normal School 
at York, York College at York. 


The first census of the territory now comprising 
Nebraska was taken in the fall of 1854, being 
completed on the 20th of November of that year. 
It gave the territory a total of 2,732 white popu- 
lation. The first tfnited States census was taken 
in 1860, and this may be said to have been the 
first enumeration taken with any reasonable de- 
gree of accuracy. This gave the territory a pop- 
ulation of 28,841. Taking the United States cen- 
sus, taken every ten years, as a basis, the follow- 
ing table shows the growth of the population of 
Nebraska : 

In 1860 its population was... . 28,841 

In 1870 its population was 122,993 

In 1880 its population was 452,402 

In 1890 its population was 1,058,910 

In 1900 its population was 1,068,539 

In 1910 its population was 1,192,214 


To the average reader of today it will be inter- 
esting to know that at one time in the history of 
Nebraska the existence of slavery within its bor- 
ders furnished the most important topic for dis- 
cussion and legislation at several sessions of the 

territorial legislature. On November 1, 1858, a 
bill was introduced in the territorial legislature 
"to abolish slavery in the Territory of Nebras- 
ka. ' ' The bill was referred to a committee of five, 
tliree of whom recommended the passage of the 
bill, but two of the committee presented a minor- 
ity report in which they "regretted the introduc- 
tion of the bill, fearing it was done at the prompt- 
ings of political ambition, and that the discussion 
of an abstract question having no bearing on the 
practical afi'airs of the territory could but sow 
the seeds of dissension." The bill was laid on the 
table and the matter went over to the next session. 
On December 7, 1859, a bill was introduced "to 
al)olish and prohibit slavery or involuntary ser- 
vitude," liy William H. Taylor, and was referred 
to a committee consisting of William H. Taylor, 
George W. Doane and George L. Miller. The 
report of Mr. Taylor, of this committee, contains 
so many interesting facts bearing on the subject 
that we quote from it the following: 

"The ostensible objections urged against the 
passage of the bill are two-fold in their character. 
First, it is said by the opponents of free states and 
free territories that "slavery does not practically 
exist in Nebraska territory." In reply I affirm 
the converse of the proposition to be true, and 
will give the facts to show that slavery does prac- 
tically exist in Nebraska. There has never been 
to my knowledge a federal officer appointed to 
any office in this territory from any slave state of 
this union who has not brought with him into the 
territory a negro or negroes who have been and 
are now held in slavery. E. A. Deslonde, receiver 
of public moneys at Nebraska City, has one or two 
slaves. Now if slavery does not exist here, then 
the slave is free the instant he sets foot on Ne- 
braska soil, provided he came with his master for 
the purpose of residing in Nebraska. I know of 
my own knowledge that Hon. S. F. Nuckolls, a 
democratic member of the territorial legislature, 
had three colored persons whom he claimed as 
slaves up to a very late period. Two of these per- 
sons escaped from Mr. Nuckolls in the winter of 
1858-59, and the other, a colored man of twenty- 
five years of age, was sold by him, if I am correct- 
ly informed, and carried to some of the southern 
slave-holding states as a slave in the spring of 
1859. This man has been a resident of Nebraska 
for about three years. Mr. A. Majors, one of the 
government contractors, has a number of colored 
persons in Nebraska City whom he claims as 
slaves now in the territory of Nebraska. Judge 
C. P. Holly has two colored persons whom he 
claims as slaves. How many more there are in 
the territory at the present time I am not advised, 
but the fact is indisputable. African slavery does 
practically exist in Nebraska. Our eyes cannot 
deceive us, and if slavery is wrong — morally, 
socially or politieallj' — it is wrong to hold one 
slave. There is no distinction in principle be- 
tween holding one human being in bondage and 
ten thousand. 


"Again as evidence that slavery does exist and 
is considered to be a legal institution here, I have 
only to cite the fact that Hon. S. P. Nuckolls, be- 
fore alluded to, has instituted suit in the second 
judicial court of this territory against certain 
parties residing in the state of Iowa for the value 
of two colored persons, his slaves, whom he alleges 
were abducted from him in the spring of 1858-59, 
which is now pending in said court and undecided. 

"Second. It is said by those who oppose the 
passage of this bill that the 'let-alone policy is 
the most commendable ? Why curse our virgin soil 
in favor of freedom, a free territory and a free 
state, why recommend the 'let-alone policy' as 
most commendable? Why curse our virgin soil 
with the foot-print of African slavery? * * * 
I would ask of the opposers of this bill, when is 
the proper time to pass an act like the one under 
consideration? Shall we wait until slavery has 
acquired a permanency? * * * It is said that 
'naught but mischief can arise from the ill-timed 
and injudicious agitation of the question.' * * 
If a constitutional convention was now in session, 
it would be said by those who oppose the bill, 
'Don't agitate the question.' * * * Gentle- 
men of the council, if you are honestly in favor of 
Nebraska being a free territory and ultimately a 
free state, how can the passage of this bill gen- 
erate an injurious agitation? Men holding a com- 
mon sentiment and desiring a common object do 
not get up an ill-timed and injudicious agitation. 
Nothing short of a sincere opposition to free white 
labor and a free territory can produce agitation 
or excitement. Remember it is the clashing of 
public sentiment upon the same subject matter, 
and not its argument, that produces the results 
contemplated by you. Vote for this bill that 
makes Nebraska free and prevents persons being 
held in slavery, and there will be uo agitation. 
We will have then done all in our power and our 
whole duty to rid ourselves of the cursed institu- 
tion of slavery. But, it is objected, the bill pre- 
supposes the existence of slavery by virtue of the 
constitution of the United States. It pre-supposes 
no such thing, but simply admits the fact that 
persons are today held in slavery by usage or cus- 
tom or somehow, and that it ought not to be per- 
mitted. However, we all do know that this ad- 
ministration and a majority of the American sen- 
ate and ninety-three democrats in congress of the 
United States contend that slavery exists in all 
the territories of the United States by virtue of the 
constitution as much and as certainly as in Georg- 
ia or South Carolina. 

"Attorney General Black has recently written 
several pamphlets to demonstrate this proposition. 
It cannot be denied, it is contended by a large 
party in this country, that the people of the terri- 
tories in their territorial capacity have no power 
to legislate upon the subject of slavery until they 
become sufficiently numerous to form a state con- 
stitution and ask admission into the union, and 
this same party maintains that congress has pow- 

er to legislate upon the subject, thus leaving the 
people of the territories to be cursed with slavery 
without the ability on their part or on behalf of 
congress to ^et rid of it so long as the territorial 
existence continues, while on the other hand it is 
contended that the people of the territories in 
their territorial capacity have the right and pow- 
er to prohibit and abolish slavery. This position 
is contended for and sustained by arguments of 
great force. How the friends of Senator Douglas 
can oppose this bill if they are really in favor of 
making Nebraska a free state is astounding to 
me. We can account for the opposition of the ad- 
ministration democracy. The territory of Kansas 
has prohibited slavery after an unprecedented 
struggle against the policy of the two last admin- 
istrations, and why should not Nebraska act? 
Believing that tlie power exists in the territorial 
legislature under and by virtue of the organic 
act, and every community has the inherent right 
to regulate its own affairs and institutions 
free from foreign or federal intervention, and that 
Nebraska should be a free territory and forever 
dedicated to free white labor, and knowing that 
slavery does practically exist here, I earnestly 
recommend the passage of the bill. 

"All of which is respectfully submitted to the 
consideration of the council. 

"William H. Taylor, Chairman." 

This report was, under the rules, laid over for 
future action, whereupon Hon. George L. Miller 
submitted the following minority report: 

"The first question suggested by the examina- 
tion of this measure refers to the necessity, if any, 
which exists for the enactment of such a law in 
this territory. It is understood that our power to 
pass such a law and to impart to it validity is ex- 
tensively desired, and as there is known to be in 
the territory as well as throughout the union 
great diversity of opinion both as to the power of 
the territorial legislature over the question of 
slavery and the expediency of attempting its ex- 
ercise, your committee deem it extremely inju- 
dicious for the legislature to lend itself to the 
agitation of a subject which to the people of Ne- 
braska is conceded to be really of no practical 
importance. As to the necessity which exists at 
present or is likely to- exist in the future for such 
a law in this territory there can be no two intelli- 
gent opinions. No sane person for a moment sup- 
poses that Nebraska is in the slightest possible 
danger of being either a slave territory or a slave 
state. Popular sentiment in Nebraska is univer- 
sally against the institution of slavery, and even 
if it were not and the public voice were to pro- 
nounce today in favor of its establishment here, 
the controlling laws of nature peculiar to this 
latitude would utterly preclude the possibility of 
its obtaining a permanent place among us. Sup- 
pose it true, which it is not, that the territory does 
furnish a profitable field for slave labor, who is 
there so infatuated as to believe for an instant that 
this territory, peopled almost entirely by men 



whose associations from infancy and whose edu- 
cation in the midst of free institutions have con- 
ducted them into manhood not only with all their 
prejudices but with all the convictions of their 
judgment against the institution — who so foolish 
as to say that legislation is required or ought to 
be granted upon this subject? Your committee 
have felt it to be their duty to inquire into the 
cause which induced the introduction of the bill 
under consideration. Having made diligent 
search with the view to ascertaining whether any 
slaves exist in Nebraska, to their utter surprise, 
after four days' anxious inquiry and labor, they 
are prepared to report to the council that south 
of the Platte river, owned and held as such by 
highly respectable gentlemen, there are six and a 
half slaves, the fractional portion referring to a 
small negro boy who is in excellent and humane 
keeping, in that section of the territory. Now, 
instead of becoming alarmed at this information, 
your committee are rather disposed to congratu- 
late the council and the country upon the fortun- 
ate condition in which these slaves are found. 
We are happy to add on the best of authority 
tliat their servitude is entirely voluntary, and 
that they are perfectly contented with their lot. It 
is to be observed that these slaves Avere original- 
ly from Missouri and Louisiana. One of them, we 
are informed, proves a great burden to his owner 
by being subject to fits. What can be done to 
lighten the burden of the master or remedy the 
terrible malady of the slave we leave to your 
careful and candid consideration. At all events 
it is very clear that in removing to this territory 
these slaves have been changed from a worse to 
a better condition, and surrounded as they are by 
increased comforts and having before them the 
almost certain prospect of ultimately gaining 
their freedom, it would seem to be absolute cruel- 
ty in the legislature, even if it had the power and 
the purpose to do it, to enact a law here which 
would compel their owners to sell them into a 
worse bondage where these prospects would be 
forever blasted. A noticeable fact is to be found 
by reference to the census record of 1855. At 
that time thirteen slaves existed in Nebraska. 
Under the operation of incidental causes, aided 
by the stealing propensities of an unprincipled set 
of abolitionists inhabiting a place called Civil 
Bend, Iowa, the number has been reduced to the 
insignificant figure of six and a half slaves, all 
told. * * * _ 

"Your committee respectfully recommend that 
the bill be referred to the committee of the whole, 
and that it be made the special order for some 
future day of the session." 

A second report was submitted by Hon. George 
W. Doane, the third member. This gentleman re- 
ported after the two preceding reports had been 
read and concurred "in the main with tlie views 
expressed in the report submitted by Mr. Miller." 
He did not admit that practically slavery had any 1 
existence in the territory. "To agree that because \ 

a single instance may be found of a returning emi- 
grant from Utah who has pitched his tent in some 
remote part of the territory and is cohabiting 
with two women claiming to be his wives, there- 
fore polygamy exists as an institution in the ter- 
ritory, would be quite as conclusive and sensible 
as the attempt made by the chairman of this com- 
mittee to fasten upon our fair territory the stigma 
of slavery by the very slender data upon which 
his conclusion is based. * * * But if slavery 
does legally exist in the territory, as the bill re- 
ported by the chairman would advertise to the 
world that it does, is it proposed to confiscate the 
property of such as are interested in that descrip- 
tion of property by an unconditional abolition of 
the tenure by which it is held? And if it does not 
legally exist, what is the necessity of legislating 
for its abolition? The evil must be corrected by 
the judicial and not by the legislative branch of 
the government." Mr. Doane waived discussion 
of the principle involved in the abstract question 
of the right or wrong of slavery, and merely on 
the ground of inexpediency at that moment re- 
ported adversely to the bill. 

Still another bill "to abolish and prohibit slav- 
ery in Nebraska" was presented to the legislature 
December 7, 1859, by T. M. Marquette of Cass 
county, which was passed on the 17th of Decem- 
ber by a vote of twenty-one to seventeen. This 
bill, however, when it reached the council, was 
"indefinitely postponed." At this time it was 
proposed as a substitute that a resolution be 
passed by both branches of the legislature, mak- 
ing the following declarations: "That slavery 
does not exist in the territory, and there is no 
danger of its introduction; that it is unnecessary 
to waste the time of the legislature in enacting 
any legislation relating thereto; that being op- 
posed to slavery and asserting its right to the full 
control of such matters within the territory, the 
legislature declares itself prepared to take what- 
ever action may be necessary to prohibit or ex- 
clude slavery at any time it may become neces- 
sary, but that the agitation of this question at that 
time was believed to be ill-timed, unnecessary, 
pernicious and damaging to the fair name of the 
territory." This resolution was not acted upon. 

On the 29th of December, 1859, a bill for the 
prohibition of slavery in Nebraska was introduced 
by Mr. Little, which passed both houses of the 
legislature. The report of the committee to which 
this bill was referred is interesting at this day, as 
it shows the intense feeling that the question had 
wrought. We quote from the report the follow- 
ing: "The question, disguise it as you will, which 
is involved in this bill is the great question of the 
age. Our entire union is divided into two great 
parties on this question. One party struggles 
ever to uphold the principles of this bill, the other 
labors as earnestly for its overthrow, and we are 
now called to take one side or the other. The 
po-wer to prohibit, in the opinion of the majority 
of your committee, is conferred on us by our or- 


ganic act, and by this measure the opportunity is 
given us to test our fidelity to freedom and our 
opposition to the extension of slavery. The op- 
ponents of this measure have not a single reason 
to advance why this bill should not pass. 
They put forth, however, some excuses for op- 
posing it. They come forth with the miserable 
plea that they are opposed to blotting our statute 
books with useless legislation. Sir, this is not so 
much a plea against this law as it is in favor of 
blotting our territory with slavery. They say 
that slavery does not exist here, and that this 
measure is useless. This excuse will not now hold 
good, for a president's message has just reached 
us, in which it is declared, and in this opinion he 
is backed by a powerful party, that men have the 
right to bring slaves here, and to hold them as 
such, and that this is slave territory. We, it is 
true, may not be of opinion that this doctrine is 
triie, but, sir, if men declare that they have the 
right to make this a slave territory, shall we not 
prohibit them in this act and prevent the wrong 
they would do us? If the friends of slavery in- 
sist that they have the right to hold slaves here, 
shall we tamely submit to it? If they insist on 
making this a slave territory, which they do, shall 
we not insist that it shall be forever free?" 

This bill was passed by both houses of the leg- 
islature January 3, 1860, and placed in the hands 
of Governor Black for approval. On the 9th of 
January he returned it with his veto. The most 
important objections noted in the veto message 
were the following: 

"This act necessarily involves the whole ques- 
tion of power or jurisdiction over the subject 
matter. If slavery exists here in law or in fact, 
to prohibit it is to abolish it. If it does not exist, 
where is the need for legislation? This bill is in- 
tended to interdict slavery or involuntary servi- 
tude within the territory, and raises the question 
whether the territorial legislature can do it. For 
the purpose of considering the question with dis- 
tinctness, I will first examine it, as it may or may 
not be affected by the treaty with France. This 
territory was a pai-t of Louisiana, and all agree 
that when we acquired Louisiana in 1803 it was 
slave territory, and slaves were property. The 
third article of the treaty by which Louisiana 
was acquired by the United States is important at 
this point. It provides 'that the inhabitants of 
the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the 
United States and admitted as soon as possible, 
according to the provisions of the federal consti- 
tution, to the enjoyment of all the rights, privi- 
leges and immunities of citizens of the United 
States, and in the meantime they shall be pro- 
tected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, prop- 

erty and religion which they profess. * * * 
Nebraska was acquired to become a state, and for 
no other purpose. For this purpose, and this 
alone, is there any power under the constitution 
to acquire foreign territory? * * * It is a 
stipulation in the treaty 'that the inhabitants of 
the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the 
union of the United States,' and it is every whit 
as strong a stipulation as that 'in the meantime 
they shall be protected in the free enjoyment of 
liberty, property and religion.' The faith of the 
country is pledged to it, and it is just as good to 
the inhabitants of Nebraska territory today or 
any day as it was to the first inhabitants in 1803. 
Mr. John Quincy Adams understood this perfect- 
ly, and disposed of the question very briefly and 
conclusively when Arkansas was before congress 
for admission in 1836. 'She is entitled to ad- 
mission as a slave state as Louisiana and Missouri 
have been admitted' by virtue of 'that article in 
the treaty for the purchase of Louisiana which 
secures to the people of the ceded territories all 
the rights, privileges and immunities of the orig- 
inal citizens of the United States, and stipulates 
for their admission, conformably to that princi- 
ple, into the union.' " 

The argument contained that "if a party is a 
citizen of some one of the United States, he has 
the right to enter into the territory clothed with 
all his rights. He takes his property with him 
from his own state, and if he may not do so, then 
the territory is not acquired for the common and 
equal benefit of the several states. The territorial 
legislature was deemed but a temporary depart- 
ment, having no right or power to pass a law 
which was regarded as conflicting with the indi- 
vidual rights of citizens." This veto prevailed, 
and the matter was again indefinitely postponed. 
When the seventh session of the legislature con- 
vened December 3, 1860, the question of slavery 
again came to the surface. On the 6th of Decem- 
ber Mr. Mathias introduced in the house a bill "to 
abolish slavery and involuntary servitude in the 
territorjr, " and on the following day Mr. Thayer 
introduced the bill in the council. The bill was 
ratified by both houses, and was presented to 
Governor Black for approval, but on the 1st of 
January, 1861, it was returned to the legislature 
unsigned with a lengthy message, giving the 
grounds on which the veto rested, they being 
mainly a duplicate of the reasons assigned for the 
former veto. The bill, however, was promptly 
passed over the veto, and became a law. Thus 
after a long and intensely heated contest, the sub- 
ject was disposed of to the permanent honor of 


Governor Chester Hardy Aldrich was born at 
Pierpont, Ohio, on the 10th of November, 1862. 
His parents were George W. and Sophrona E. 
(Hardv) Aldrich. Chester Hardy Aldrich was 
given excellent training and educational advan- 
tages in his youth, and grew up with everything 
in his favor for making a success m life. After a 
thorough preliminary education, he entered the 
Ohio State University, from which he was gradu- 
ated with the class of 1888 with the degree of A. B. 
The degree of L. L. B. was conferred upon him m 
1911 by the Nebraska Wesleyan University. _ 

Our subject was married June 4, 1889, to bylvia 
E. Stroman of Ulysses, Butler county, Nebraska 

While still a young man Chester Hardy Aldrich 
left his Ohio home and came west. He settled at 
David City, Butler county, Nebraska, where he 
was admitted to the bar in 1891, and began the 
practice of law. He still makes David City his 
home He has varied business interests, and de- 
votes a great deal of attention to stock raising. 
He has always taken an active interest mall mat- 
ters that affected the public welfare, and is one ot 
the leaders of thought and action of the state 
He was a member of the state senate m 1907, and 
in 1910 was elected governor for the term begin- 
ning January, 1911. In political affairs Mr. Al- 
drich is a republican, and in religious affiliations 
a Methodist. He is also a prominent member of 
the Masonic fraternity, being a Knight Templar. 
A man of high character and integrity, he holds 
the respect and esteem of his fellow men of all 
parties and creeds. 

Hon. James N. Paul, probably better known 
than any resident of Howard county, Nebraska, 

and as his name would indicate, one of the found- 
ers of the city of St. Paul, is a gentleman of large 
means, and a leader in the affairs of his county 
and state. In 1901 Mr. Paul was appointed 
iudge of the eleventh judicial district of Ne- 
braska, and is still on the bench, having been 
elected for a second term without opposition. 

Judge Paul is a native of Beaver county, 
Pennsylvania, born September 23, 1839, 
and in 1840 the family moved to 
Meigs county, Ohio. He received his early educa- 
tion there, and at the age of twenty began the 
study of law in Gallipolis, Ohio. In 1864 he en- 
listed in Company H, one hundred and fortieth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, saw considerable hard 
service and was mustered out of the army at 
Gallipolis, Ohio, in 1865. He then went to Leav- 
enworth, Kansas, and continued his law studies 
while Avorking as a civil engineer, remaining 
there four years, when he came into Nebraska as a 
civil engineer and surveyor, following this work 
for eight years. He was admitted to the bar m bt. 
Paul Nebraska, in 1873. Three years previously 
he and a brother, N. J. Paul (whose sketch ap- 
pears in this book) had spent some time m How- 
ard county, laying out the village plat of St. Paul. 
In 1873 Judge Paul established the first news- 
paper in St. Paul, called the "Howard County 
Advocate," continuing the publication of the or- 
gan for about seven years, at which time he gave 
up newspaper work and turned his entire at^- 
tention to his law practice, real estate deals and 
various other interests. He succeeded m buildmg 
up a large and lucrative practice m the general 
courts of Nebraska. In 1885 he was elected a 
member of the state senate and chairman o± the 
iudiciary committee, serving one term. 

On December 24, 1869, Judge Paul was mar- 
ried to Mary P. Paul of Leavenworth, Kansas, 
and to them have been born the following chil- 



dren : Charles Howard, who is a lawyer, is mar- 
ried, and resides in New York city; Herbert J., 
who with his family lives in St. Paul, he being 
court reporter for the eleventh judicial district; 
James Leonard, civil engineer, also living in St. 
Paul with his family, and Willard S., cashier in 
the St. Paul State Bank. Mrs. Paul is a lady of 
charm and rare mental attainments, active in the 
Federation of Women's Clubs in the state, and 
the entire family are held in high esteem by as- 


Among the prominent men in public life of 
Nebraska, none is held in higher esteem by the 
people of that state than the gentleman above 
mentioned, now deceased. His faithful discharge 
of his official duties, his upright character and 
lovable disposition, have placed him among the 
most highly esteemed men of his time, and in his 
demise the people of his locality have lost a faith- 
ful and disinterested friend, his party a strong 
advocate and the church of Christ an elder and 
workmen above the average. 

W. A. Poynter was born in "Woodford county, 
Illinois, on May 29, 1848, and there grew to man- 
hood. He was educated at Eureka college, gra- 
duating from that institution with an A. B. de- 
gree, and later the degree of A. M. was conferred 
on him from his alma mater. 

He was married in October, 1869, to Maria J. 
MeCorkle, and to them were born two children, 
C. W. M. Poynter, M.D., and Mrs. Josephine Bick- 
ford, both now living in Lincoln, Nebraska. 

On coming to Nebraska, he soon entered into 
the work of reform in political matters. He was 
foremost in the Farmers Alliance and the Anti- 
Monopoly movement, which finally culminated in 
the populist party. Of this party he was one of 
the founders and always a leader. As a populist 
he was elected governor, and went direct from 
his farm — from the plow handles and dairy — to 
the executive chamber. Mr. Poynter led an ac- 
tive life, making his home in Illinois up to 1879, 
at which time he came to Boone county, Nebraska, 
and settled on a farm in Rozelma precinct, which 
he owned at the time of his death, which occurred 
on April 5, 1909, while he was transacting busi- 
ness at the state house. 

Mr. Poynter was elected state representative 
while living on his farm, and later was elected 
to the senate, and speaker of the senate, filling 
both offices with dignity and ability. His party 
■was one of reform, and he was one of the fondest, 
alwaj's a trusted leader. In the fall of 1898, he 
was elected governor of Nebraska, and made his 
residence in Lincoln from that time on. For 
five years prior to his death he was on the Univer- 
sity Institute force, and spent the winter lectur- 
ing all over the state, gaining the acquaintance 
of a wide circle of people, and becoming very well 
known among the leading men in state and 

national affairs. In this work his evening lecture 
was very popular and a great inspiration. to agri- 

On the morning preceding his death he went 
to the state house to plead for the daylight 
saloon bill, not that he favored the saloon at all, 
but that this much of a reform might be accom- 
plished. After closing his speech, which was full 
of earnestness and eloquence, he stepped back in 
line with the others and immediately expired. 
He was a man of noble character, always fighting 
for the best in life, and carrying this thought to 
the last, faithful to the last, and he left many 
friends among all classes to mourn his demise. 

Mr. Poynter was a thorough christian, and 
had spent his life in active service of the church. 
At the time of coming to Nebraska, he took a 
leading part in planting the church in his neigh- 
borhood, which still stands, a strong influence 
for good. All the enemies he left were those who 
opposed him in his works of righteousness and 
efforts at reform. 


The above gentleman is the genial editor of 
the Creighton News, and while not born in Ne- 
braska, has spent practically his entire career 
within the state, having been brought to Richard- 
son county while an infant in arms. This was 
before the grasshopper raid struck the state, 
and he well remembers the time when for two 
years his father's crops were consumed by the 
pests. After the family's removal to Antelope 
county, in 1881, they were often threatened with 
prairie fires, and occasionally schools were dis- 
missed in order to help fight the flames. Sand 
storms frequently devastated their crops, as after 
a three-days' blow there was usually no sign of 
vegetation, but after a rain — which generally fol- 
lowed these storms — the green blades were again 
brought out. During the blizzard of 1888, which 
is well remembered by every old-timer, Mr. Kirk 
barely escaped being caught in the storm. He 
had his horse saddled, intending to visit a neigh- 
boring school, when, noticing the threatening 
clouds, he decided to wait a while, and inside of 
ten minutes the snow blew so fiercely that he was 
unable to see the house. Mr. Kirk has seen this 
country in its primitive state, when its land would 
not be accepted as a gift, and often compares it 
with the present, when its soil produces as large 
crops as can be found in any section in the coun- 

Mr. Kirk is a son of Wm. T. and Mary B. Kirk, 
who are natives of Mason county, Kentucky, and 
are now residing in Plainview. His birth occurred 
on January 30, 1869, in Mason county, Kentucky. 
He was educated in the country schools of Rich- 
ardson and Antelope counties, attending the 
Creighton high school later. "While a student 
there, he worked for his board, and in his spare 
moments learned to set type in the office of the 


Creighton- News. After attending school two 
years, he quit, entering the oiSee of Lucas & Lo- 
gan, printers and publishers of the Courier, doing 
chores for enough to keep him in pocket money. 
He was employed by that firm with an increase 
of two dollars per week, until his parents removed 
to Plainview, where he joined them, and secured 
work with the Plainview Herald, which was pur- 
chased later by his father and himself. After 
running the paper for a time, he sold it and leased 
the Osmond Herald, selling his interest in the 
latter business in 1892 to its present owner, B. S. 
Leedom. He then worked as a compositor for 
some time, and leased the Elgin Advance in 
March, 1893. He prospered for the first year, 
then, times being hard and the efi'ects of the panic 
of that year becoming felt considerably, he aban- 
doned the business and started all over again. 
For three years he was editor and manager of the 
Neligh Yeoman. When that journal changed 
hands, he severed his connection with it, return- 
ing to Plainview and entering the employ of N. 
E. Foster, its owner. During the latter 's incum- 
bency as chief clerk of the legislature, Mr. Kirk 
had entire management for six months. He was 
next employed by W. E. Powers on the Pierce 
Leader until September, 1901, when he returned 
to the office in which he first learned to set type, 
leasing the paper of H. L. McCoy. He has run 
this paper ever since, building up the circulation 
and improving the office in every way, infusing 
new life in it, and making it one of the first pub- 
lications in the county, and, in fact, in north- 
eastern Nebraska. 

Mr. Kirk was married at Plainview, April 28, 
1892, to Rosa M. Buckingham, and they are the 
parents of two daughters, Opie and Esther. 

Politically Mr. Kirk is a staunch republican, 
who gives forcible expression of his views in his 
ably conducted journal. He served as a member 
of the house in the thirty-second session of the 
Nebraska legislature, being elected from a demo- 
cratic district, overturning a four hundred ma- 
jority; served on the insurance, immigration, 
labor and public printing committees, and was 
chairman of the house committee on university 
investigation, looking into the needs and condi- 
tions of the state university. A heavy democratic 
majority did not give a republican much show, 
but he got one bill through to become a law. He 
was an active member, and received considerable 
recognition, although a minority member. 

Mr. Kirk has been a member of the school 
board for the past five years, serving as secretary 
most of that time. He is a prominent Mason 
Past Chancellor Commander of the K. of P., also 
a leading member of the M. W. A. and Royal 
Highlanders. Mrs. Kirk holds the office of Past 
Worthy Matron of the Eastern Star. 


Ex-Governor A. C. Shallenberger has for many | 

years been one of the most prominent residents of 
Alma, Nebraska, and is widely known through 
Harlan county and the surrounding country as 
a successful agriculturalist and stockman. He 
is president of the Bank of Alma, which he estab- 
lished in 1887, and of which he was cashier for 
six years, from 1887 to 1893 inclusive, then be- 
came the head of the institution. He served for 
some time as mayor of Alma, and represented 
this district in congress in 1900. In 1906 he was 
the democratic candidate for governor of Ne- 
braska, and again in 1908, when he was elected 
to that office and served one term. 

Mr. Shallenberger was born in 1861 at Toulon, 
Illinois. He came to Nebraska in 1880, settling 
in Polk coimty. He was then eighteen years of 
age, and for some time after locating here was 
employed as a clerk in a store at Osceola, Ne- 
braska, and also at Stromburg, Nebraska. He 
has five brothers, two of whom are managers for 
the International Harvester Company, and three 
are engaged in the banking business, so it was 
only natural for him to select this line of work. 
The Bank of Alma has a capital of $30,000. To 
illustrate the rapid growth of the Bank of Alma, 
it is only necessary to say that while seventeen 
years ago the deposits were only $8,000, they are 
today over $200,000. Then there were no farm- 
ers' accounts, and now the bank carries many 
hundred accounts, the greater portion of them be- 
ing from farmers, which shows the wonderful 
progress of this vicinity and the prosperity of the 
farmers and stockmen. Since 1890 lands in this 
section of Nebraska have advanced from two hun- 
dred to three hundred per cent. Mr. Shallenber- 
ger is the owner of one thousand seven hundred 
and twenty acres of fine farm land located near 
Alma, and since 1890 he has raised and fed large 
numbers of cattle and hogs each year. The farm 
land about here has become so high that he has 
gone out of ordinai'y stock, and breeds only the 
best, and keeps only thoroughbred shorthorn 
cattle, preferring these, as they serve the dual 
purpose of beef and dairy, and the latter pays 
better on high-priced land than beef cattle. At 
the Nebraska State Fair in 1906, "Bar None II" 
took first prize and sweepstakes, and at the Royal 
exhibit held at Kansas City he captured second 
prize for yearling bulls. Mr. Shallenberger cap- 
tured eleven first prizes in 1907, and in 1908 cap- 
tured nine first prizes. He has now seventy-five 
to one hundred thoroughbred shorthorns in his 
herd, and at his sales held each year, buyers come 
from all over Nebraska and Kansas, recognizing 
the fact that they will get nothing but the best of 
stock. There is probably no man in western Ne- 
braska who has made a closer study of financial 
and agricultural conditions of the state, and he 
is recognized as an authority on these subjects. 
Mr. Shallenberger was married in 1884 to Miss 
Eliza Zilg of Spring Green, Wisconsni. They 
have three children: Martin Shallenberger, who 
is second lieutenant of the sixteenth United States 



infantry; Grace Shallenberger, at the University 
of Nebraska, and Dorothy Shallenberger, at 


Among the truly self-made and highly success- 
ful pioneers of Nebraska, the name of Obed Cra- 
vath deserves a prominent place. During his 
career of forty years as a farmer, he can boast of 
never having had a failure of crops, although 
passing through pioneer experiences in both this 
state and Minnesota. He now resides in Puller- 
ton with his family, retired from active labor, and 
is numbered among Nance county's substantial 
and worthy citizens, an active man of affairs, 
and widely known throughout the entire region. 
We are pleased to present a portrait of Mr. Cra- 
vath on another page. 

Obed Cravath is a native of Michigan, born in 
Washtenaw county, April 27, 1835, and is a son 
of Obed and Hannah Cushman Cravath. He re- 
ceived his education in his home state, and was 
interested in farming there as a young man. His 
father died when he was but four years of age, 
and his mother remained on the home farm until 
her death, Avhich occurred in 1851. In the sum- 
mer of 1855 Mr. Cravath went to Minnesota, took 
up a claim in Olmsted county, and after making 
arrangements for proving up on the land, re- 
turned to Michigan, where in April of the follow- 
ing year he was married to Charlotte E. Kellan, 
also born and reared in Michigan. After their 
marriage, they moved to Mr. Cravath 's claim in 
Minnesota, remaining on the place for five years, 
then purchased additional land and established 
a permanent home. In 1878 Mr. Cravath made 
a trip through the country, taking in different 
parts of Nebraska, and came through Nance 
county, which seemed to him to be a very desira- 
ble country, and two years later brought his fam- 
ily here, purchasing one hundred and sixty acres 
in section thirty, township seventeen, range six, 
which formed their home farm for fifteen years. 
He added to his original place until he now owns 
four hundred and five acres. They then located 
in FuUerton, and have since made their home in 
the little city. During his career as a farmer, 
Mr. Cravath has been very successful and is num- 
bered among the substantial and prosperous men 
of his county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Cravath have no family of their 
own, but have one adopted daughter, Inez Marie, 
who lives with them. In 1893 Mr. Cravath was 
elected county clerk on the populist ticket, and 
was also ex-offieio clerk of the court. While liv- 
ing in Minnesota he was assessor of his township, 
also chairman of the board of supervisors, county 
commissioner and justice of the peace for six 
years. As justice of the peace Mr. Cravath per- 
formed one marriage ceremony, and as clerk of 
the court signed one man's death warrant. With 
the exception of the office of justice of the peace, 

which he filled three terms, Mr. Cravath was elec- 
ted and filled the other positions' for one term 
each. He was born in Michigan when it was a 
territory, and moved to Minnesota before it be- 
came a state. During his entire life, he has acted 
as pall bearer at only one funeral, and once offi- 
ciated as funeral director. 


One of the oldest residents of northeastern 
Nebraska is Samuel A. Kenney, who is also one 
of the earliest settlers of Stanton county. He 
was born in Washington county, Maryland, April 
2, 1823, and is the son of Samuel and Margaret 
Hanna Kenney, the former a native of Scotland 
and the latter of Washington county. The father 
died at the age of fifty-six, but the mother lacked 
only four years of the century mark when she 

When Samuel A. was only six months old, 
his father moved to Fairfield county, Ohio, and 
settled sixteen miles west of where Columbus 
was later platted for the state capital. At that 
time, this was the extreme frontier, and the set- 
tler was abliged to carry his rifle with him at all 
times, for the thick woods sheltered panthers, 
lynx and wild cats, any of them being dangerous 
to meet when unarmed. Mr. Kenney grew up on 
the farm here, and when about twenty, went to 
Zanesville and worked for seven years at the 
tanner's trade. 

In August, 1850, Mr. Kenney married Almina 
Elizabeth Vermillion at Gratiot, Ohio. She was 
a native of Virginia. In the fall of that year, Mr. 
Kenney and his bride pushed still farther west- 
ward, becoming pioneers in Coles county, Illinois. 
At one time he and his wife picked a pailful of 
wild strawberries on the present site of Mattoon. 
He lived here for two years and one-half, and 
with the restlessness of the true pioneer, again 
moved west to the fore front of civilization, reach- 
ing Madisonr county, Iowa, in June, 1853. He 
made this place his home for six years, and de- 
veloped a good farm in the midst of the wilder- 
ness. At this time so many big timber rattle- 
snakes were foiind that the county offered a 
bounty, and the old records show that over five 
thousand and two hundred were killed in one day. 

In the summer of 1860, Mr. Kenney and his 
family returned to Ohio, his wife not having seen 
her old home and kindred since leaving as a bride 
ten j'ears before. The family traveled back in 
the same prairie schooner that had carried them 
west. They passed through Mattoon, their former 
home for a few years, the day on which Lincoln 
was first elected to the presidency. They remained 
in Ohio through the winter, enjoying a long visit 
with home folks and old friends until about the 
time that the war broke out. For weeks they 
retraced their steps until they reached their Iowa 

During the long and fierce struggle between 





the north and the south, Mr. Kenney lived on his 
Iowa farm, but in 1869 he sold his lands and again 
pushed onward to the ever-receding frontier. He 
had heard of the rich prairies of Nebraska, and 
made his way direct to the Lowery farm in Stan- 
ton county, the owner of which was a relative 
of one of their Iowa neighbors. They rested here 
a few days, then pushed on, and in June finally 
located on a homestead two miles north of where 
Stanton now stands. 

Mr. Kenney homsteaded a quarter section at 
first, and later purchased an eighty-acre tract ad- 
joining. He at one time owned an additional half 
section, but as land was a drug on the market, 
and taxes often were higher than the value of 
the crops produced, he sold it. Mrs. Kenney died 
here in 1895 at the age of sixty-three years. Mr. 
Kenney, however, remained here until 1906, when 
he retired from active management of the farm. 

The first building on this homestead was a 
three-room dugout, in which the family lived for 
eight years. The lumber for the door of this 
primitive dwelling was hauled from Omaha, one 
hundred miles or so away. In 1877 he built a 
more comfortable dwelling and barn. 

Twelve children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Kenney: Margaret Hanna, whose wedding was 
one of the first in Stanton county, when she mar- 
ried Wm. H. Brown ; Christiana (Mrs. Jos. Pl- 
iant) ; Emma (Mrs. Harry Harris) ; Ella (Mrs. 
Thos. Shillington) ; Perry, James, Albert, Anna 
Belle (Mrs. Amos Prawitz), Katie (Mrs. Adam 
"Warner) and William. Two of the children died. 

In politics Mr. Kenney is a democrat, and he 
is also a member of the Methodist church. He 
is remarkably well preserved for a man nearing 
ninety, active and clear-minded, and bids fair 
to round out a century or more. His heart is as 
young as it ever was, and he takes as much 
interest in children as when his own were small, 
and, as for the children, they are firmly per- 
suaded that there is no one, in the whole world, 
who can tell such wonderful stories as Grandpa 


The name of John Sanders is familiar to the 
residents of Pierce county, Nebraska, where he 
has lived for many years. Locating here in 1881, 
when this region was practically in its infancy, 
he has taken a leading part in its development 
and growth from its early settlement. 

Mr. Sanders was born in Montgomery county, 
Ohio, March 7, 1841, and is the son of John and 
Ellen (Amsted) Sanders, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland, respectively. Our subject has 
one brother, William Sanders, who lives in 
Sidney, Ohio. 

When leaving his native state, our subject 
went to Cairo, Alexander county, Illinois, where 
for six or seven years he followed the river be- 
tween Pittsburg on the Ohio and LaSalle on the 

Illinois, and from Keokuk to New Orleans on the 
Mississippi. In 1867 he settled in McLean county, 
Illinois, and farmed near Randolph for a period 
of ten yea^s. He then moved to Ringo county, 
Iowa, where he lived for four years, finally set- 
tling in Pierce county in 1881, filing on the two 
middle eighties of the west half of section five, 
township twenty-eight, range four. He lived in 
a dugout for twelve years, then built a good 
house. He has developed this land into a fine 
place, with a seven-acre grove of thrifty trees. 

Mr. Sauders went through the hardships to 
which this section was subjected in the early 
days, but fortunately was one of the few who 
suffered no loss in the blizzard of 1888. Like 
other early settlers, his only fuel for eight years 
was hay and corn. 

At the outbreak of the civil war, Mr. Sauders 
served two months in the state militia, and then 
enlisted in company E, Eighteenth Illinois infan- 
try, at Cairo, May 28, 1861. He served his coun- 
try for three years, receiving his discharge at 
Springfield, Illinois, June 11, 1864. He fought 
in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh and Vicks- 
burg, besides many smaller engagements and 
skirmishes. He received a number of slight flesh 
wounds, but never reported them, fearing dis- 
charge. He was in the hospital three times, but 
reported again for duty as soon as possible after 
getting again on his feet. 

In politics Mr. Sauders is a staunch repub- 


Hans C. Bnevoldsen, for many years a prom- 
inent resident of Loup Fork precinct, Howard 
county, is a prosperous farmer, and commands 
the respect of a large circle of acquaintances. 
He is a gentleman of untiring energy, possessed 
of sterling characteristics, and has prospered in 
his chosen calling. 

Mr. Enevoldsen was born in Denmark, De- 
cember 10, 1849. He is a son of Enevold and 
Inger Christiana Petersen, and was the youngest 
member of their family of five children. Hans 
grew up in his native country, and was married 
there to Marie Elsie Andersen in 1872. They 
followed farming for about ten years after their 
marriage, then the entire family, consisting of 
himself, wife and five children, came in an emi- 
grant ship to America. They traveled directly 
to Nebraska, locating in Howard county, Mr. 
Enevoldsen purchasing some land on section 
thirteen, township thirteen, range twelve, whieli 
is still used as the home farm. 

Since coming here, Mr. Enevoldsen has seen 
considerable of the early settlers' life. He 
started in the face of many difficulties, livnig m a 
sod shanty for many years, and in spite of hard 
ship and privation has succeeded in putting his 
farm in first-class shape, having much of the land 
in a high state of cultivation, and engaging sue- 



cessfully in mixed grain and stock raising. He 
has erected good farm buildings of all kinds, has 
a handsome residence, and, together with his fine 
family of eleven children, enjoj'S the comforts 
of a modern home and up-to-date farm. 

Mr. Enevoldsen's children are named as fol- 
lows: Andrew, Jens, Martin, Niels, Christina, 
Inger, Annina, Martinus, Elbena, Christ and 
Fred. Andrew, Martin, Inger and Annina are 
married, and have comfortable homes in different 
parts of the country, while the balance are at 
home, and following honorable callings. 

In the early years, our subject was closely iden- 
tified with the upbuilding of his locality, helping 
to establish the schools, and for many years has 
been a member of the school board in district 
number twenty-eight. 


William C. Alexander, familiar to all residents 
of Howard county, is one of her public-spirited 
citizens and leading business men, prominent in 
official circles. He has a pleasant home in St. 
Paul, and is classed among the well-to-do and 
successful men of affairs in his section. 

Mr. Alexander is a native of Iowa, born in 
Clinton county, October 21, 1870, and is the eld- 
est in a family of twelve children born to William 
and Maggie Alexander. When he was an infant 
of less than one year of age, his parents came to 
Howard county, and he has the distinction of 
being one of the very first white children in the 

He lived at home until he was twenty-three 
years old, at that time starting out for himself, 
following farming for three years. He then be- 
gun in the pump and windmill business, doing, 
in connection with this line, general repair work. 
He continued in this business for some time, then 
became a salesman for the Deering Harvester 
Company. He has been more than usually suc- 
cessful in this line, as he is an expert in field work 
in the way of setting up machinery, being a nat- 
ural mechanic and capable in every way. He was 
with the Deering Company for five years, then 
allied himself with the McCormiek Company, 
remaining with them for one year. In 1903 he 
again went into the pump and windmill business, 
establishing himself in Elba, where he secured 
all the work he was able to do. In the same year 
he was elected sheriff of Howard county, filled 
the office with credit, and was re-elected twice, 
serving in all for six years, his last term expiring 
January 6, 1910. He has also filled minor county 
offices to the satisfaction of all, and has gained 
the confidence of his fellow men by his integrity 
and sterling worth, counting his friends by the 
score. Since the expiration of Mr. Alexander's 
term as sheriff of Howard county, he has been 
employed as salesman for the International Har- 
vester Company, his territory extending west and 
northwest of Grand Island. 

September 21, 1905, Mr. Alexander was mar- 
ried to Mary Davis, who departed this life in 
1908, her death occurring in St. Paul. Mr. Alex- 
ander and his Avife, prior to their marriage, set- 
tled in St. Paul in 1904. 

Mr. Alexander was married the second time 
to Marie Green of Blue Hill, who comes of an old 
pioneer family of Nebraska, her father, mother 
and seven children having settled in Saunders 
county in 1881. Later they moved to Webster 
county, where the parents and four children still 
reside. Mr. and Mrs. Alexander have a pleasant 
home in St. Paul, and are popular members of 
society there. 


Aaron V. Mensing, who is among the old 
settlers in Valley county, Nebraska, owns a good 
ranch, which he has improved in splendid shape, 
and he occupies a foremost position among the 
well-to-do and progressive farmers and ranch- 
men of his county. Mr. Mensing is well known 
and highly esteemed throughout the community 
for his active public spirit and good fellowship. 

Mr. Mensing was born in the town of Edins- 
burg, Saratoga county, New York, February 7, 
1848, and was the eldest of three children in the 
family of Garret and Henrietta (Van Vleck) 
Mensing, who had two sons and one daughter. 
The father was a native of Holland, and the 
mother, of Holland descent, was born in Sarato- 
ga county. New York. The Mensing family 
moved to Calhoun county, Michigan, in 1854, 
going thence to Fond du Lac county, Wisconsin, ' 
in 1860. Remaining in Wisconsin two years, 
they next moved to Fillmore county, Minnesota, 
in which state the parents resided until the time 
of their death. 

Aaron Mensing, the subject of this sketch, 
returned to Michigan in the fall of 1863, and 
September 1, 1864, enlisted at Jackson in the 
Seventh Michigan Battery, and served until the 
close of the war, being mustered out at the 
same place August 5, 1865. Most of his service 
was performed around Mobile. Mr. Mensing 
was only in his sixteenth year at the time of his 
enlistment. After being mustered out, he re- 
turned to Michigan, and remained there until 
the fall of 1867, teaching school in the winter 
of 1866 and 1867. 

Going to Cheyenne, Wyoming, in 1867, Mr. 
Mensing was connected with the quartermaster's 
department at Fort Russell. Here he had fron- 
tier experience, freighting from Julesburg, 
Colorado, the terminus of the railroad, and points 
in Wyoming, to Montana, as far as Fort C. F. 
Smith, and continued in this until the Indians 
burned all the relay ranch stations, a wild life 
apparently enjoyed by Mr. Mensing. He re- 
turned to Michigan in 1868, and during his resi- 
dence there was married to Miss Harriett E. 
Doty, to which union one child was born, Edith, 



who is the wife of William Kauii'man, residing in 
San Diego, California. After marriage, Mr. 
Mensing moved to Fillmore county, Minnesota, 
where his parents lived at the time. 

A second marriage occurred at Austin, 
Moore county, Minnesota, April 17, 1880, the 
bride being Mrs. Charles E. Davis, whose maid- 
en name was Mary J. Stevens, a native of Rush 
county, Indiana. Her parents, William B. and 
Lovina (]\Iitchell) Stevens, were natives of Ken- 
tucky and Ohio, respectively. Of the first mar- 
riage, Mrs. Mensing became the mother of two 
daughters, Nettie E., deceased, and Daisy V., 
now living in Ord. Mr. and Mrs. Mensing are 
the parents of one son, Ai'thur, living on the 
same section with his parents. 

Mr. Mensing moved from Fillmore county, 
Minnesota, to Valley county, Nebraska, in the 
spring of 1884, and in April homesteaded near 
North Loup, where they lived seven years. Mrs. 
Mensing and three children, two by her first 
marriage, and their son, Arthur, joined Mr. 
Mensing in Valley county, Nebraska, in October 
of 1884. During his four years' incumbency of 
the sheriff's oifice, Mr. Mensing lived in Ord, 
and for three years later. His present place was 
purchased in 1893, and comprises, with land 
owned by Arthur eight hundred acres of fine land. 
Mr. Mensing resides on the northeast quar- 
ter of section ten, township tweutj', range 
thirteen, there being three hundred and twenty 
acres in this farm, which includes the southeast 
quarter of section three. Mr. Mensing has in 
past years been an active factor in the upbuild- 
ing of Valley county, and is a prominent man 
along all lines. 

Mr. Mensing 's son, Arthur, lives on the ad- 
joining quarter section to the west of his father, 
and owns the west half of section three, making 
a solid body of four hundred and eighty acres of 
land. He was married to Miss Emma Nay, 
August 30, 1906, and now has two children: 
Randall and Alice. A sketch of the Nay family 
is to be found elsewhere in this work. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mensing have had a varied ex- 
perience in Valley county, and enjoy the esteem 
and respect of many friends. Mr. Mensing 
served Valley county as sheriff in 1892-1893- 
1894-1895. He is a member of his school board, 
district number thirteen, also treasurer, and has 
served as justice of the peace of Noble town- 
ship since 1908. In politics he believes in the 
principles of the populist party, and affiliates 
with the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 

Fourteen years of Mr. Mensing 's early life 
in Nebraska were spent in a sod house, the usual 
dwelling of the pioneers of the plains. During 
the blizzard of January 12, 1888, Mr. Mensing 
breasted the storm, following after a neighbor's 
children, fearing they might be lost, having 
started for home just before the storm broke. 
Returning, he drove a neighbor's mules to his 
place and kept them there over night. 


Prominent among the old settlers and agri- 
culturists of Madison county, Nebraska, is Joseph 
Nichols, who, until recent years, resided in sec- 
tion thirty-five, township twenty-one, range one. 
He is accorded a high jjlace because of his ster- 
ling qualities and fine personality. He has al- 
ways held the best interests at heart for his 
home state and county, and also for his fellow 
citizens, and has been an active spirit along all 
lines pertaining to the welfare of his community. 

Mr. Nichols is a native of Vigo county, Indi- 
ana, his birth occurring in that state, December 
27, 1835. He is a son of . William and Maria 
(Grundy) Nichols, who were natives of New 
England. The mother died when our subject 
was but a small boy. The father served in the 
war of 1812, and at the time of his death was a 
highly respected citizen of Kankakee county, 

Mr. Nichols grew to manhood in his native 
state, receiving the usual school advantages, and 
in 1837 moved to Illinois, and while residing 
here, enlisted in the army during the civil war, 
joining company H, Seventy-sixth Illinois infan- 
try, first under Captain Dan Plummer, who after- 
ward died at Vicksburg. He also served under 
Generals Grant and Sherman, and when General 
Sherman started on his march to the sea, Mr. 
Nichols' regiment was detached and sent to Mo- 
bile. He enlisted August 5, 1862, and partici- 
pated in the battles of Jackson Cross Roads and 
Blakely, Alabama, and the siege of Vicksburg, 
being mustered out July 22, 1865, at Galveston, 

In 1882 Mr. Nichols came to Madison county, 
Nebraska, from Kankakee, Illinois. He lived in 
Madison county until 1885, when he went further 
west to Cheyenne county, where he took up a 
homestead and built a sod house. He also took 
up a tree claim, and, proving up on all the land, 
returned to Madison county, where he has since 
made his home. 

December 25, 1860, Mr. Nichols was united 
in marriage to Miss Rosealie Moran, a native of 
Canada. They are the parents of four children, 
whose names are as follows : Frank. Adele, 
Reuben and Ross. Mr. Nichols' son resides on 
the farm at present, Mr. Nichols having retired 
and become a resident of JMadison. 


James F. Hagerty, now living retired from 
active life at Sargent, Nebraska, is identified 
with various interests in the town, and is one of 
the best known men in the county. He was born 
in Grundy county, Illinois, April 18, 1860. being 
the second born of the five children of Patrick 
and Ann (O'Neill) Hagerty. and the only one of 
the family to settle in Nebraska. His parents 
were natives of- county Meath, Ireland, and both 



are deceased. The father died in Grundy county 
in 1867, and the mother in Chicago in the spring 
of 1897. 

Mr. Hagerty was reared in Illinois, and in 
the spring of 1879, in company with William 
Laughlin and family, came to Custer county, 
Nebraska, afterward taking a homestead on the 
southwest quarter of section thirty-four, town- 
ship twenty, range eighteen. He was married 
in Ord, September 23, 1884, to Miss Vida Tobias, 
a native of Tazewell county, Illinois, and daugh- 
ter of Israel Tobias and wife, who took a home- 
stead in Custer county in 1879. They made 
their first home on the homestead, which was 
located near Sargent, and soon afterward Mr. 
Hagerty became assistant cashier of the Custer 
County Bank, the first bank in the county. 
After proving title to his claim, he moved to 
Sargent, which remained his home until 1895. 
He then removed to Utica, Illinois, where for 
five years he conducted a grain business. Re- 
turning to Sargent in 1900, he formed a part- 
nership with A. L. Conhiser, and they opened a 
general store. Mr. Hagerty soon purchased the 
interest of his partner, and carried on the busi- 
ness until the latter part of 1910, when he re- 
tired from active business. He and his wife 
have a fine modern home, and have many friends 
and acquaintances in Sargent. He is one of the 
directors of the First National Bank of Sargent, 
and is interested in various other enterprises. 
He has always supported the best interests of 
his county and state, and has helped build up 
useful enterprises in the region where he has 
lived so many years. During his early years in 
Nebraska, he taught in the public schools, dur- 
ing the second and third years being employed 
in Custer county. He has witnessel the wonder- 
ful growth and development of central Nebras- 
ka during the past thirty-two years, and has 
done his share to help in the general progress. 

Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Hagerty: William F. and Leroy W., living at 
home, and two who are deceased. 


One of the earliest of the old settlers, or 
rather one of the oldest of the early settlers, 
still living in Cedar county, Nebraska, is the 
venerable Amos S. Parker of Hartington. He 
eame in the early days, when ox teams were the 
only means of transportation, intervening part 
of the way between the frontier and the western 
terminus of the railroads, three hundred miles 
to the east. Over this distance he plodded along 
afoot with several companions returning to their 
eastern homes after their prospecting journey 
to Nebraska plains. 

Mr. Parker was born in the town of Dalton, 
Coos county. New Hampshire, April 29, 1835, 
a son of Amos and Nancy (Pay) Parker, both of 
Yankee birth and breeding. He received the 

practical education of New England lads, and 
on attaining his majority, made a trip to the 
west. He was a member of a surveying party 
in northern Wisconsin, and came on to Nebras- 
ka. Starting for Cedar county, September 5, 
1857, with two yoke of oxen, from Dubuque, 
Iowa, they were one month on the way, reaching 
the now deserted village of Waucapana, in Cedar 
county, June 17. 

On October 19 the same party started back 
cast on foot, as their funds were low, and they 
kept to the roads for over three hundred miles. 
At Independence, Iowa, they took the stage for 
Dubuque, and then traveled by rail back to New 
Hampshire. Of these four men, Mr. Parker is 
the sole survivor. 

While at his eastern home, Mr. Parker was 
married on the last day of the year 1857, and 
in the spring following, started for the frontier 
wilderness with his bride. It took courage for 
a woman, just out of girlhood, to leave comfort 
and safety in the old home, and travel thous- 
ands of miles to an open wilderness, where hos- 
tile bands of Indians were still roaming, and 
occasionally committing depredations. A hor- 
rible massacre was actually committed within a 
few miles of their home six years after their 
settlement in the county. They journeyed by 
rail to St. Louis, and traveled thence by boat to 
Sioux City, Iowa. They left on the 18th of 
March, and arrived at Sioux City the 11th of 
April, spending three Sundays on sand bars. At 
Sioux City Mr. Parker left his bride and came 
out to the settlement alone, reaching Waucapona 
March 17. 

In June, Mr. Parker secured an ox team, 
drove to Sioux City, and brought his bride to 
her new wilderness home. Here they lived 
happily until the Indians began their depreda- 
tions, when Mr. Parker, growing uneasy, sent 
his wife and child back to their New Hampshire 
home for two years. She left Yankton, August 
9, 1862, and reached the town on her return, 
August 9, 1864, just two years to a day separated 

Mr. Parker preempted on a piece of timber land 
near St.James which was the first claim under the 
law ever perfected in Cedar county. He lived 
on this tract until April, 1861, when he moved 
to Green Island, and was farming here until the 
time of the great flood of March, 1881. When 
the danger from the rising waters became immi- 
nent, Mrs. Parker took her children to a sister's, 
further from the river, and on higher ground. 
In going there, they were compelled to cross 
several sloughs, through which water was 
already running, on the deep snow drifts and on 
fences, Mr. Parker wading beside them to keep 
them from falling into the icy water. He re- 
turned to the home, and remained there until 
the crest of the water was within two feet of 
the second story ceiling, wlien a neighbor reached 
him in a boat, and brought him off to safety. 



One may imagine his discomfort, with clothing 
saturated with ice-cold water. For four days, 
one hundred and ten people found refuge in one 
small house, eating and sleeping in turns as they 
could. But such is western hospitality and their 
spirit of helpfulness that all were made welcome 
by Mrs. Parker and her sister. After his own 
rescue, Mr. Parker went to the relief of others 
in like peril, and saved some of them from a 
watery grave. When the waters subsided and 
all decided to abandon Green Island, as floods 
were likely to occur again, a settlement was 
made at Aten, and here Mr. Parker removed his 
house, and rebuilt it into a hotel, the first in the 
village, which he kept until 1900, when he re- 
moved to Hartington. He has engaged in mar- 
ket gardening here since coming to town. Be- 
ing endowed with Yankee energy, he cannot be 
content to sit idly by. 

Mr. Parker was married in Coos county, New 
Hampshire, December 31, 1857, to Miss Mary 
N. Lowd, who was born in the town of Dalton, 
Coos county. New Hampshire, January 26, 1835, 
a daughter of Benjamin and Betsy (Marden) 
Lowd, both natives of the mountain state. Mr. 
and Mrs. Parker are the parents of four child- 
and Mrs. Parker are the parents of four chil- 
dren: William B., who resides near Wellington, 
ing several carloads of honey every year; Mary 
0., is the wife of Frans Nelson, for many years 
president of the First National Bank of Hart- 
ington, and now head of the Commonwealth 
Insurance Company in Omaha; George I., suc- 
ceeded Mr. Nelson as president of the bank, and 
resides in Hartington ; and Sadie, wife of John 
J. Nohr, who resides on a ranch near Morris, 
Colorado. Parents who have reared a family 
of such excellent children, and have seen them 
so well established, are a credit to the state and 
nation; to them all honor is due. 

Mr. Parker is independent in politics, voting 
for the man he considers best fitted to serve the 
public, regardless of party lines. 

The many blizzards of the early days were 
made light of by the early settlers, and many 
are the times they were out for hours in the 
blinding, icy blasts. In the blizzard of January 
12, 1888, Mr. Parker had hitched up, and was 
ready to start on a drive, when the storm broke. 
For several days after, he was kept busy shovel- 
ing the drifting snow from his barns and sheds 
to keep his stock from smothering. 

After returning from her two years' sojourn 
in New Hampshire, Mrs. Parker experienced 
little trouble from the Indians though at one time 
they crowded into her house as thickly as they 
could stand, demanding that she feed them. 
Provisions for such a croAvd she had none, so 
she drove them from the house, saying "punca- 
chee," meaning in their language, begone. Mrs. 
Wiseman, who had gone to Yankton for provi- 
sions at the time her children were killed, spent 

the night before their massacre with Mrs. Parker 
in her house. 

During the time of his wife's absence, Mr. 
Parker lived at Yankton part of the time, and 
was in a small party who went with the owner of 
a saw mill there, to Sioux City to get missing 
parts of his own mill from that of a mill at Sioux 
Falls, the owner of which had been driven off 
by the Indians. The town was deserted, and 
on that drive of eighty miles and return, not a 
human being was seen, all having been driven 
out by the hostile Sioux. 

Mr. and Mrs. Parker are among the last left 
of the earliest settlers, but are hale and hearty, 
and it is hoped will be with us for years to come. 


B. White, whose biography forms an 
interesting page in the history of the early set- 
tlement of Nebraska, is a resident of Central 
City, Nebraska, where he has become widely and 
favorably known. He is one of the energetic 
and prosperous citizens, and enjoys a pleasant 
home and many warm friends. 

Mr. White was born in New York state, July 
24, 1837, and was sixth of seven children in the 
family of Joseph and Sarah (Sprague) White, 
who had four sons and three daughters. Joseph 
White, Jr., in his seventeenth year, went to 
Blaekhawk county, Iowa, to the town of Water- 
loo, which was his home place until 1871. Mr. 
White learned the masons' trade, and followed 
that occupation until his retirement from active 
work several years ago. 

In 1861 Mr. White enlisted in company I, 
Third Iowa volunteer infantry, and was mus- 
tered out in February, 1864. Mr. White, at the 
time of being mustered out, was in company C, 
Thirty-fii'st Iowa volunteer infantry, as a non- 
commissioned officer. After being mustered out, 
he re-enlisted. During the war he participated 
in many of the notable battles and engagements, 
and was with Sherman at Chickasaw Bluffs, at 
the capture of Fort Hindman in Arkansas, the 
siege of Vicksburg, and in many other engage- 
ments and skirmishes. He is an honored veteran of 
the civil war, with an enviable record. After 
being formally mustered out, he returned to 
Blaekhawk county, Iowa, again taking up his 

Mr. White was married to Miss Laura Ann 
O'Neill in Waterloo, September 27, 1865, and in 
April, 1871, Mr. and Mrs. White and three chil- 
dren moved to Lone Tree, Merrick county, Ne- 
braska, now known as Central City. Mr. White 
from that time engaged continuously in his 
trade of master mason and builder. 

Mr. and Mrs. White have had ten children, 
seven of whom were born in Merrick county. 
Nine of them are living and married: Margaret 
Lenore, wife of Hugh L. Miller. Iia.s ten children 
and lives in Idaho ; Emeline, wife of John Baird, 



has one child, and lives in Grand Island, Nebras- 
ka; Elizabeth, wife of David Jackson, has two 
children, and resides in Pratt, Kansas ; Laui'a, 
wife of Sid Baird, lives in Grand Island, Ne- 
braska; Hattie, wife of Bert Hughes, has two 
children, and resides in Colorado; Rose, married 
to James Danks, has one child, and lives in Da- 
kota ; Josie, wife of Albert Miller, has one child, 
and resides in Lincoln, Nebraska; Arthur, mar- 
ried, has two children, and lives in Central City; 
Daisy, wife of David Green, has two children, 
and lives in Wallace, Idaho. Mr. and Mrs. White 
have twenty-one grand children. 

Mr. White has seen Central City grow from 
nothing to its present position as one of the most 
desirable residence cities in Nebraska. Mr. 
White is a republican, and has served on the city 
council of Central City for many years almost 
continuously, of which he is now president. He 
is also a Mason of high standing, and in earlier 
years served as justice of the peace in Lone Tree 

Mr. and Mrs. White live in their pleasant 
home in Central City, and enjoy the respect and 
esteem of a large circle of friends. 


While the west is full of self-made men, few 
have succeeded so well from such small begin- 
ning as has Prank Nelson, the genial banker and 
financier of Niobrara. 

Mr. Nelson was born in Christianharan, 
Sweden, August 13, 1854, and remained there 
with his parents until his thirteenth year, when 
the entire family emigrated to America, cross- 
ing the North Sea from Gottenburg to Hull, and 
proceeding to Liverpool by rail, there embark- 
ing in a vessel for New York. Their first stop 
was at Moline, Illinois, where some friends had 
located, and from there they went to Keokuk, 
Iowa, remaining for several years. Prank se- 
cured employment in quarrying and blasting 
stone in building the canal and the lower lock in 
the river, and later returned to Moline, where 
his superior knowledge of quarrying and blast- 
ing soon advanced him to the superiutendency 
of this branch of construction on the water- 
power plant which the government was erecting 
between the main shore and the island of Rock 
Island. In the fall of 1870, the father and moth- 
er moved to Nebraska, settling on a farm in the 
northwest quarter of section twenty-eight, town- 
ship thirty-two, range two, and Prank joined 
them there in Pebruary of the following year, 
helping get their farm started in their new loca- 
tion. For the first few years they had bad luck 
Math crops, and often it was difficult to even pro- 
cure sufficient food for the family. About this 
time our subject was married, and started for 
himself. He tried farming, and managed to 
make a living, but lost everything he had by 
prairie fires. After a time, he purchased a piece 

of timber along the Missouri river, and opened 
a woodyard, supplying fuel to the steamboats 
that plied the stream, and continued in this busi- 
ness until the fall of 1879, at which time he 
returned to his farm, and resided there up to 
1885. In the fall of 1875, he was elected county 
commissioner, his nomination being made a few 
weeks prior to his coming of age. He served in 
this capacity for six years, and later as county 
clerk for a like period. 

In 1890 he bought a third interest in the 
Niobrara Valley Bank, and was elected vice 
president of the institution, and six years later 
obtained a larger interest, being made president. 
Since that time he has been widening his opera- 
tions along the line of the Northwestern rail- 
road, purchasing banks at Cross, Bristow, Ver- 
del. Lynch and Monowi. The first two he has 
since sold, but retains the management of the 
others, which comprise a perfect chain of strong 
financial institutions tributary to the parent 

Mr. Nelson married Martha B. Lee in 1879. 
She is a native of Knox county, a daughter of 
Alfred Lee, who was one of the earliest settlers 
in Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Nelson have four 
children, as follows: Marion C, associated with 
his father in the banking business at Niobrara; 
Harry L., in charge of the bank at Verdel; 
Winnifred B., a graduate of the Niobrara High ' 
School, also of the Convent of the Sacred Heart 
at Omaha, class of 1907 ; and Howard, who is a 
student of St. John's Academy near Milwaukee, 

Mr. Nelson is a republican, and one of his 
party's "wheel horses" in this part of the state. 
He was a member of the national convention that 
nominated our strenuous president in 1904. 
Mr. Nelson has been a member of the Masonic 
fraternity since 1887, and has attained to the thir- 
ty-second degree of Scottish Rite Masonry, cross- 
ing the hot sands of the desert in Tangier Temple 
of the Mystic Shrine in 1887. With Mrs. Nelson, 
he is also a member of the Niobrara Chapter of 
the Order of the Eastern Star. 


Similien L. Perin, postmaster of Sargent, 
Nebraska, is one of the very early settlers of 
Custer county, and is one of the best known men 
of central Nebraska. He has, throughout the 
years of his residence there, supported the best 
interests of his community, and during the hard- 
est years never lost faith in the future of the 
county and state. Mr. Perin was born in New 
Orleans, Louisiana, May 13, 1852, eldest of the 
eleven children of Samuel and Sophia (Rueblo) 
Perin, ten of whom now survive, namely: 
Similien; S. W., of Lincoln, Nebraska; A. Z. and 
G. P., of Sargent; two sons in Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa; John L., of the Philippine Islands, in 
charge of the United States government stations 





at Balabac; Mrs. James D. Courtney, of Omaha; 
Mrs. William Crinklaw; Mrs. Granville Ivers, 
of South Dakota. The father of these children 
was a native of Ohio, born near Cincinnati, and 
of German descent, and the mother was born in 
New Orleans, where they were married, and was 
of French parentage. He was a civil engineer 
by profession; settled in Custer county about 
1884-5, and died on his homestead in January, 
1888. His widow died in Lincoln, May 13, 1911. 

In infancy Similien L. Perin accompanied his 
parents to Davenport, Iowa, and soon after- 
waj'ds to Council Bluffs. At this time the father 
surveyed a large part of eastern Nebraska. While 
the boy lived in various parts of Iowa and Nebras- 
ka, he received most of his education in the form- 
er state, where most of his early life was spent.In 
the spring of 1879 he came to Custer county, look- 
ing for a place to locate and homesteaded one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of land and a tree claim of 
like size adjoining, on sections ten and eleven, 
township nineteen, range eighteen. He began plow- 
ing the virgin soil on his land that summer, and 
also broke land where the town of Sargent was 
afterward located. In the fall of the year, he 
returned to Iowa to spend the winter season, and 
the following spring brought his two brothers, 
S. W. and A. Z., with him, making the trip with 
covered wagons, and bringing with them horses 
and cattle. 

In June, 1882, at Ord, Nebraska, Mr. Perin 
was united in marriage with Miss Sophia Tobias, 
a native of El Paso, Illinois, and the first teacher 
in the school at West Union, Custer county. 
They established their first home on the Custer 
county homestead, their nearest trading point 
then being Grand Island, one hundred miles dis- 
tant. Later, when the country began to be more 
settled, Mr. Perin moved to the south side of the 
river in order that he might have the benefit of 
better feeding privileges for his stock. He was 
obliged to meet many inconveniences and hard- 
ships in those days, and when going for supplies 
found it hard to cross the river, as there was no 
bridge constructed until he had lived in the 
locality four yeai-s. He was instrumental in or- 
ganizing school district number eighty-eight, 
and served many years as a member of its board. 

In the fall of 1900, when the railroad was 
constructed through Sargent, Mr. Perin moved 
to that town and opened a hotel, later conducting 
a station of the Beatrice Creamery Company 
there. In 1905 he was appointed postmaster, 
and still holds that office. He and his wife have 
had four children: Harold I., married, and liv- 
ing in Sargent; Louis E., assistant manager of 
Dierk's lumber yard in Sargent; Willis W., at 
home, and Vida, who died at the age of three 
years. Mr. Perin, always public-spirited, lent 
his aid in the support of the progress and devel- 
opment of the central part of the state. He and 
the other members of the family have taken an 
active part in social and religious circles. He 

is a prosperous and successful business man, and 
owns two hundred and fifty acres of laud ad- 
joining the town of Sargent, besides good city 
properties. Mrs. Perin is a daughter of Israel 
C. Tobias and wife, early settlers of Custer coun- 
ty. Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Perin appear on 
another page of this volume. 


Augustus F. Kliese, who holds the office of 
county judge of Nance county, Nebraska, is a 
gentleman of brilliant, intellectual attainments 
and exceptional business ability, and who, during 
his career as leader of aft'airs, has proven himself 
highly worthy of the confidence imposed in him 
by his fellow men. 

Judge Kliese is a native of Prussia, born 
March 14, 1839. He was the eldest of six chil- 
dren in the family of Frederick and Fredericka 
Kliese. When Augustus was a lad of four years, 
the entire family came to America, their first 
settlement being made in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
■H'here the father and mother remained for five 
years, and then moved to Watertown, Wisconsin, 
where the mother died about 1852, after which 
the father moved to Washington county, Wis- 
consin, where his death occurred in 1901. Our 
subject remained in Wisconsin up to 1858, at 
that time enlisting in company F, First United 
States infantry of the regular army, going with 
his company to Texas ou frontier service. After 
two years spent in that part of the country, he 
retiirned to Wisconsin, and in 1862 enlisted in 
company A, Twenty-second Wisconsin volunteer 
infantry, seeing active service for over a year, 
then was discharged, and received the appoint- 
ment of second lieutenant of company B, Sev- 
enteenth United States volunteers, colored troops. 
On February 6, 1864 he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant company E, of the same regiment, serving 
as such up to October 26 of the following year, 
then received his commission as captain of com- 
pany F, of his regiment, filling this office up to 
April 25, 1866, when he received his honorable 
discharge from the army at Nashville, Tennes- 
see. He was on continuous duty for over four 
years, gaining the reputation of being a most 
faithful and conscientious man in the service, 
taking part in numerous battles, during which he 
never received a severe wound. 

In the month of October, 1864, Mr. Kliese ob- 
tained a twenty-day leave of absence, made a 
trip to Janesville, Wisconsin, and was there 
married to Charlotte M. Weber, at the home of 
her parents. After leaving the army, they made 
Wisconsin their home up to the winter of 1868. 
Then Mr. Kliese went to Bvanston, Illinois, 
where he was soon afterward joined by his wife 
and babe, and for eleven years they made that 
city their home. From there they moved to 
Wheaton, Illinois, settled on a farm, and re- 
mained on the place up to March, 1885, at that 



time coming to Nance county, Nebraska, where 
they have resided ever since. Our subject has 
been engaged in different lines of work since 
locating here. He carried on an implement and 
furniture business in Belgrade for ten years. 
He has been a leader in public life during his 
residence in the region, and in the fall of 1907 
was elected to his present office. 

Judge and Mrs. Kliese have had nine children, 
six of whom are now living, all married, and fill- 
ing honorable positions in life. They are named 
as follows: Edward A., Lottie A., Alice A., 
Mary E., John L. and Hattie B. 


Hon. Hugh A. Allen of Atkinson, twice the 
representative of his district in the Nebraska 
legislature, came to the state in February, 1884, 
and settled on a quarter section of good land, 
seven miles northwest of Atkinson. The follow- 
ing year he sold that tract, and moved into town, 
engaging in the real estate business, and since 
that time he has bought, sold and traded thous- 
ands upon thousands of acres of Holt county land, 
and has prospered in this enterprise to a gratify- 
ing extent. 

Mr. Allen was born near Danville, Vermillion 
county, Illinois, October 5, 1849, was reared on a 
farm southeast of Rossville. About the time he 
reached his majority, he went to Hoopeston, 
where for about fifteen years he was employed at 
various kinds of labor. However, seeing small 
prospects for acquiring a competency in his na- 
tive state, and learning of the opportunities 
offered in the west, through the reports of his 
father, who had moved to Nebraska in 1882, he 
followed his parents to Holt county, and settled 
on the farm above mentioned. He is a son of 
"William I. and Emily (Newell) Allen, who is 
included in the circle of relationship to Ethan 
Allen of revolutionary fame. The father is a 
native of Burlington, Vermont, and the mother 
of Kentucky. The parents came to Illinois in 
the forties, and lived in tluit state until their 
coming to Nebraska in 1882. Upon coming to 
the latter state, they settled in Cherry county, 
where they lived until 1891. 

Mr. Allen was married (first) in Holt county, 
in 1887, to Mary E. Logan. His second marriage 
took place in Lancaster county in 1905, when he 
was united with Mrs. Adelaide Spencer, who, by 
her former marriage to Simeon K. Spencer, had a 
daughter, Natalie, now a pupil in the Atkinson 
high school. 

In politics Mr. Allen is a republican, and in 
1908 and again 1910 was elected to represent his 
district in the state legislature. He has been suc- 
cessful in a business way since coming to Ne- 
braska, and has been able to acquire a compe- 
tency that will keep him in comfort when old age 
shall overtake him.He enjoys the full confidence of 
his neighbors and fellow men, and his course of 

action in his public life during the year 1909 was 
such as to commend him for a second term, which 
he began in the session of 1911. He is always to 
be found supporting measures for the benefit of 
the common people, of whom he considers him- 
self one, and he understands them and their needs, 
as they in turn understand him, which accounts 
for their endorsement of him, and their support 
for a second term of office. 

Mr. Allen is a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and, fraternally, belongs to the 
Masons and the A. 0. U. "W. 

When he first came to Nebraska, deer were 
still to be seen on the prairie, though the buffalo 
had been driven farther west. Many of the set- 
tlers in those days used hay for fuel, but he never 
did so. Prairie fires were of frequent occurrence 
in the early days, aud among the worst he ever 
assisted to fight was one that threatened a neigh- 
bor's buildings. With two other men, Mr. Allen 
worked to save this property, and at the time of 
doing it they were in imminent danger them- 
selves, having to wrap their heads in wet blankets 
in order to enable them to get close enough to 
the fire to work effectually to extinguish it. He 
has witnessed a remarkable change in conditions 
and surroundings since coming west, and has 
borne his share in promoting the general wel- 
fare and advancement of his community. 


Daniel J. Poynter, editor and publisher of the 
Argus at Albion, Nebraska, is one of the best 
known professional and business men of his 
county and state. 

Our subject was born in Woodford county, 
Illinois, on June 4, 1857, and was the youngest of 
three children in the family of William C. and 
Hulda Poynter. Daniel J. Poynter is the only 
member of the family now living. His father was 
always active along religious lines, a member of 
the ministry, and an elder in the Church of Christ 
for fifty years in Illinois, coming to Nebraska in 
1888 in order to be near his sons, W. A. and our 
subject, who had settled here. He died in Albion 
on Christmas day, 1899, and his wife's death 
occurred in Albion in 1908. 

Our subject left his native county when he 
was nineteen years of age, settling in Iroquois 
county, Illinois. He was married to Florence A. 
Gray, at the home of her parents near Butler, 
Illinois, on October 3, 1876, and they located on 
Mr. Poynter 's farm in Iroi|uois county, remaining 
there until they came to Nelsraska in 1881. 

His first location here was on Plum creek, a 
few miles southwest of Albion, purchasing an 
original homestead and timber claim relinquish- 
ment on section eighteen, township nineteen, 
range six. He worked the farm for twelve years, 
engaged in grain and stock raising, and was reas- 
onably successful in both. In the fall of 1893 he 
was elected county treasurer on the fusion, later 



called populist, ticket, and two years later re- 
elected to the same office by a handsome major- 
ity. He is one of the original Farmers' Alliance 
men of Boone county, and up to the present time 
has been a wide-gauge man with populistic ten- 
dencies. He is an active worker along educa- 
tional and moral lines, enjoys a statewide ac- 
quaintance with well-known men, and has the 
esteem of all. 

Mr. Poynter was really the organizer of the 
Church of Christ and Sunday school in his com- 
munity Mdiile still living on the farm. He started 
a class, with the help of his brother, W. A., at the 
Rozelma school house shortly after locating in the 
county, and from this, the movement grew to a 
well-established church with a wide attendance, 
and this portion of his life has been his greatest 

Mr. Poynter came into control of the Argus 
plant in April, 1898, and this paper has always 
been an advocate of the best interests of Boone 
county. It enjoys a large circulation as a week- 
ly, is housed in a fine brick block, and has a 
splendid modern equipment for the prompt and 
proper execution of all orders received. 

Mr. and Mrs. Poynter have two children, 
Irene and John F., both married and living in 
Boone county. 


Although a resident of the state for a briefer 
period than the earliest settlers of Nebraska, 
Halsey H. Moses has been represented here in the 
person of a son since the days when "Wayne county 
was an open praii'ie wilderness. He first came to 
Wayne county in the spring of lS69,to view a tract 
of five hundred and twenty acres, southwest of 
where Wayne is now located, which he had pur- 
chased in the previous fall without even seeing it. 
This he held for nearly a decade, in its wild state, 
when his eldest son came in the spring of 1877 
and began farming the tract, and he has been an 
occupant of the land ever since. Mr. Moses 
bought and sold land from time to time, as a 
choice piece came into the market, or he found a 
favorable opportunity to sell to advantage. At 
pi-esent he owns some eight hundred acres of fine 
land southwest of the county seat, on which his 
first-born, and his two sons, reside, engaged in 
stock raising and stock dealing. 

Mr. Moses was born in Ashtabula county, Ohio, 
July 12, 1880, was a son of Jonathan Moses, 
whose immigrant ancestor, John Moses, came to 
the colonies in 1632, and from him sprang the 
branch of the family to which Halsey H. Moses 

The father was born in Norfolk. Litchfield 
county, Connecticut, as was the motlier, Abigail 
Pluraleigh. The fatlier died in 1841, at the age 
of sixty-one years, and the mother died in 1856, 
at tlie age of sixty-six years. They came to Ashta- 
bula county, Ohio, in June, 1814, settled on a 

farm, and there lived out their days. The prop- 
erty has never since gone out of the family, nor 
has it passed into the hands of even the third gen- 
eration. An elder brother, Harlow Moses, owned it 
until he was ninety-two years old, when Mr. 
Moses purchased the old homestead, and his 
j'ounger son now occupies the farm. His first 
dwelling was a log house, but he soon built a 
commodious frame dwelling, which is still in a 
good state of preseiwation. 

Mr. Moses was reared in Aslitabula county, 
eight miles from the home of the famous Joshua 
R. Giddings, who, by the way, was one of the 
committee to examine Mr. Moses for admission 
to the bar. He had read law in the ofiice of A. L. 
Tinker of Paynesville, and in August, 1851, a few 
weeks after attaining his majority, Mr. Moses 
was admitted to the bar, after an examination as 
to his proficiency by a eommitee composed of 
Joshua R. Giddings, Benjamin F. Wade, Judge 
Horace Wilder, Judge Laban Sherman and Judge 
Darius Caldwell, all prominent men in their time, 
of the Ohio bar. 

Opening an office in Astabula, he was an active 
member of the bar until 1862. The next ten years 
he was located in Warren, Trumbull county, and 
from that time until the spring of 1888, when he 
retired from practice and came west, he was a 
leading member of the bar in Youngstown, Ma- 
honing county, where he attained no little emi- 
nence as a man of wide learning in his profession. 
One of the standard text books of the profession 
is "Moses on Mandamus," which has been a rec- 
ognized authority on the subject since its publi- 
cation in 1866. An anecdote is related of Inger- 
soll, who was making liberal use of the volume in 
a case before Judge Blodgett of Chicago. His 
reply, not overly pious, assured the judge that 
the Moses who wrote of mandamus was not the 
Moses to whom he referred in one of his famous 
lectures. It was while living in his native county 
that Mr. Moses had office thrust upon him. His 
neighbors secured his appointment under Presi- 
dent James Buchanan as postmaster of Rock 
Creek, the arrival of the commission being the 
first notice he had of the honor. He qualified, 
appointed a deputy who attended to the mails, 
and continued to give his attention to the legal 

Mr. Moses was married in Ashtabula county, in 
1852, to Miss Jane Murdoek, a native of Mesopo- 
tamia, Ohio. She died in November, 1906, at the 
age of seventy-eight. Of their four children, two 
sons survive. Franz E., occupies part of the 
farm near Wayne. He graduated from the college 
at Hiram, Ohio, and then took the engineering 
course at Raines' Seminary, Youngstown, Ohio. 
Since coming to Wayne county he has served a 
term or two as county surveyor. 

Franzi ]Moses was united in marriage to Miss 
Martha Johnson, to whom two sons and two 
daughters have been born. Halsey S.. is engaged 
in stock dealing and breeding on part of Mr, 



;' big ranch; Edith, is the wife of Chester 
Chubb, of Michigan City, Indiana; Martha, an 
expert stenographer and china decorator, is em- 
ployed at Crete, Nebraska; Irving, is in partner- 
ship with his brother on the ranch. 

Mr. Halsey H. Moses' younger son, Hosmer, 
is married, and occupies the old homestead in 
Ashtabula county, Ohio, that has been in the fam- 
ily nearly a hundred years. 

Mr. Moses has been a life-long democrat 
although not a narrow-minded one — he will not 
support an unworthy candidate on his own party 
ticket if a better one opposes him. He has been 
a Mason since early life, having been raised to 
the Master's degree in the lodge at Warren. 

Since 1903, Mr. Moses has spent the winters 
in Pasadena, California, leaving for the sunny 
flower-land about the middle of November, and 
returning when the weather is settled in the 
spring. A man of four-score years, he is as active 
in mind and body as one of three-score or less, 
and gives promise to rounding out an even cen- 


The gentleman whose name heads this review 
comes from a family of the oldest and best-known 
settlers of Platte county, Nebraska, who have 
always served their county and state to the 

L. Fred Gottsehalk, son of Frederick and 
Margetha (Loy) Gottsehalk, was born in Colum- 
bus, Nebraska, April 30, 1864, and was the second 
of three children, and is the only one now living. 
His parents are both deceased, the death of his 
mother occurring May 31, 1901, and that of his 
father August 18, 1905, at Columbus, Nebraska. 

Mr. Gottsehalk received his elementary educa- 
tion in the home schools, and in the years of 
1885-86-87-88 was a student at Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan, studying along the lines of civil engineering. 
The five years following student life, he was 
engaged with Ann Arbor city engineer, and after- 
wards he was engaged in construction work for 
various railroads, his last employment being 
heavy rock work on the Union Pacific railroad 
through Wyoming. In the early nineties he spent 
nearly two years in the mountains of Kentucky, 
surveying for a land syndicate, during which time 
much trouble was experienced with moonshiners 
and mountain natives, who are a lawless people, 
being wholly without moral consciousness. They 
many times threatened the lives of the surveying 
party, several of whom were killed. These moun- 
taineers strenuously objected to all progress and 
civilizing influences. 

On January 27, 1892, our subject, Mr. L. F. 
Gottsehalk, was married to Miss Sophia M. Grayer 
of Ann Arbor, Michigan, one child being the re- 
sult of this union, which died in infancy. Mrs. 
Gottsehalk died April 29, 1893. 

On March 13, 1894, Mr. Gottsehalk was mar- 

ried to Helena Hoehen of Columbus, Nebraska, 
and they are the parents of six children, who are 
named as follows : Louise, Irma, Margaret, 
Frederick 0., Constance and Helen, all residing 
under the parental roof. 

Mr. Gottsehalk is one of the few native-born 
pioneers of Platte county, Nebraska. 

L. Fred Gottsehalk, our subject has been very 
prosperous and successful, and in 1908 built one 
of the finest houses in the city, on the homestead 
site of his father's original claim. In 1901, Mr. 
Gottsehalk retired from railroad survey work, and 
is now engaged in local work and land deals. In 
his engineer work, Mr. Gottsehalk has covered 
t-wenty-five states. 

Frederick Gottsehalk, the father of our sub- 
ject, was born in Germany, January 27, 1827, and 
came to America in 1853, locating in Pennsylvania 
for over tM^o years, and came to Platte county, 
Nebraska, in 1856, where he purchased one hun- 
dred and twenty acres of land from the govern- 
ment, paying $1.25 per acre, which land is now 
incorporated in the city limits of Columbus. Mr. 
Gottsehalk lived on this farm until the time of 
his death, August 18, 1905. He was a member of 
the vei-y first group of settles in Platte county, 
and was closely identified with all pertaining to 
tlie interest and welfare of his county. 

On August 25, 1861, Mr. Gottsehalk was mar- 
ried to Margetha Loy, in Columbus, Nebraska, 
Miss Loy being of German birth. Three children 
were born to them, two of whom are deceased, 
the surviving son being L. Fred. 


In reviewing the history of Antelope county, 
Nebraska, the citizens who have contributed to 
her welfare must be given special mention, and 
a prominent place must be accorded the gentle- 
man above named. Mr. McLain is a pioneer set- 
tler, coming here in 1883, and is one of the best 
known and most highly respected men in his 
region. He is a well-known farmer and stock 
man, and resides on section three, township 
twenty-seven, range seven. 

Mr. McLain is a native of Winnesheik county, 
Iowa, where he was born January 30, 1862. He 
grew to manhood in his native state, helping his 
father on the farm and attending the district 
school. In 1883, our subject started out for him- 
self, coming to Nebraska, where he thought there 
were better chances for a young man to gain a 
competence, locating in Antelope county, on a 
homestead of one hundred and sixty acres. Here 
he engaged in mixed farming and stock raising, 
and has met with success. He first built a sod 
house, and lived in that three years, when lie 
erected a frame house, which is a comfortable 

Mr. McLain was united in marriage July 15, 
1885, to Miss Caroline Seabach, and they are the 



parents of five children, as follows : Roy, Minnie, 
Floyd, Bell and Dewey. 

bur subject's father, "William B. McLain, was 
born in New York, but was of Scotch descent, 
his parents being natives of Scotland. He served 
in the civil war as an Iowa Volunteer from 1863 
to 1864. Our subject's mother was born in Cana- 
da, but was of German descent, her parents being 
born in Germany. 

Mr. McLain, our subject, has a well-improved 
place, with good buildings, a comfortable resi- 
dence, and fine orchard and groves. Here he and 
his family reside, and enjoy the respect and 
esteem of all who know them, and their friends 
are many. 

Mr. McLain is a member of the A. 0. U. W., 
and is affiliated politically with the republican 


George W. Box, whose name heads this person- 
al history, while now a resident of Sioux City, 
Iowa, was one of the most widely-known pioneers 
of Pierce county, and made that part of Nebraska 
his home for over twenty-five years. He settled 
in Pierce when that town was first started, and 
remained to see it grow into a prosperous and 
thriving commercial center. 

Mr. Box was born in Chicago, Illinois, Decem- 
ber 8, 1855, and grew to the age of twelve years 
in that city, at which time his parents moved to 
Delaware county, Iowa. There he finished his 
education in the common schools, and learned the 
trade of blacksmith, coming from there to Pierce, 
Nebraska. His father, Henry D. Box, is a venera- 
ble resident of Greeley, Iowa. He is ninety years 
of age, and is the oldest voter in Delaware county. 
His native place is Devonshire, England, and his 
wife was born in Cornwall. Henry D. Box crossed 
the Atlantic three times in the days of sailing 
vessels, one of these voyages lasting three months, 
and on the trip with his bride, they were on the 
sea for two months. 

George Box was one of the earliest settlers of 
Pierce, locating here in May, 1876, at which time 
the town consisted of but five buildings — the 
court house, school, one store, one hotel and a 
dwelling. He opened a blacksmith shop, continu- 
ing the work for two years. He was then married, 
and took charge of the Pierce Hotel, conducting 
the place for four years, then sold his interests 
and moved to Plainview, where he engaged in the 
mercantile business for five years. He then re- 
turned to Pierce, and for a time kept the Pierce 
Hotel, and later the Commercial House, adding 
to the latter a profitable livery business, which 
he purchased from George Chase in 1886. He 
disposed of his holdings in 1892, and removed to 
Norfolk, engaging in the livery business, and, 
shortly thereafter, opened an implement and grain 
store there. In 1902 he removed to Sioux City, 
Iowa, where he represented the New York Life 

Insurance Company, in which he proved very 
successful, continuing up to 1909, at which time 
he accepted a position with the Elkhorn Life and 
Accident Insurance Company of Norfolk and he is 
carrying into his new association the energy with 
which he has won success in other fields. 

Mr. Box was married in Staunton county, 
Nebraska, in 1878, to Miss Louisa Hinkle, who 
was a native of "Wisconsin. She died in April, 

Mr. Box is high up in Masonic circles, is a 
member of Norfolk Lodge No. 55, Damascus 
Chapter No. 23 and Damascus Commandry No. 
100, all of Norfolk. Politically he is a life-long 
democrat, and has been honored by his party in 
various political positions, serving as deputy 
sherifl" and county clerk, and one term as sheriff 
of Pierce county, Nebraska. 


"William Henry Hill, who is probably one of 
the best-known citizens of Howard county, re- 
sides in the beautiful city of St .Paul. He is one 
of the earliest pioneers in that region, and, during 
his early residence here, followed farming, after- 
wards engaging in the contracting and building 
business,and was for a number of years connected 
with the bridge building department of the Union 
Pacific railroad. He is a man of wide experience, 
and has met with decided success in his different 
business ventures. 

Mr. Hill is a native of Medina county, Ohio, 
and was born July 29, 1840. He is a brother of 
"Walter P. Hill (a sketch of whom appears in this 
volume on another page), and his childhood was 
spent in the vicinity of his birthplace, remaining 
on the home farm until his twenty-second year. 
In August, 1862, he enlisted in the army, and 
went with Company I, 103rd Ohio regiment of 
infantry, to the struggle, serving until the close 
of the war. He participated in a number of the fa- 
mous battles of civil war history, chief among 
them being the siege of Knoxville, Buzzard's 
Roost, the siege of Atlanta, and was all through 
that vicinity with his company, including the 
engagements at Pranklin and Nashville, Tennes- 
see, besides numerous minor skirmishes. 

In June of 1865 Mr. Hill received an honorable 
discharge from the army, and returned to his 
home, remaining there for about a year and a 
half, and during that time was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Mary Jane Merton of Portage coun- 
ty, Ohio. The young couple settled in Portage 
county,and followed farming for about three years 
then moved into Missouri, where they farmed until 
the spring of 1872, when they came to Howard 
county, the family consisting at that time of Mr. 
and Mrs. Hill and little daughter. They located 
on a homestead in section two, township ten, 
range fourteen, proved up on the claim, and 
farmed for about thirteen years, retiring from 



active farm work in 1885, wlien they moved to 
St. Paul, where Mr. Hill bought a comfortable 
home, which they still occupy. For about ten 
years after coming to St. Paul, Mr. Hill was en- 
gaged in doing bridge work for the Union Pacific 
railway company, then began at the builders' and 
contractors' trade, of which he has made a suc- 

During his early residence in Howard county, 
Mr. Hill was director of school district number 
fifteen for a number of years, and aided in every 
way possible to develop his locality along educa- 
tional and commercial lines. He has held diiferent 
township offices of trust, and, with his good wife, 
is classed among the prominent early pioneers of 
the county. 

Seven children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Hill, but only three of them are now living, name- 
ly: Cora M., wife of Chas. Dunn, they having 
three children and residing in Howard county; 
Inez M., wife of L. A. Parker, parents of two 
children, and living in Cotesfield; Edna M., wife 
of Lee DeBord, who have one son, their home be- 
ing in Brayton, Nebraska. 

The parents of Mrs. Hill are dead, but she has 
two sisters living, one of whom resides in St. Paul 
and the other in Pennsylvania. Mr. Hill's father 
and mother both died in Ohio. One brother, 
Vanrensler, lives in Ohio, Walter P., mentioned 
above, and one sister, Mrs. Julia Kemple, also 
living in Ohio. 


The rising generation now coming to the front 
is in no way unworthy of their sires, as they ex- 
hibit the same unflinching courage, the persever- 
ance, and the dogged determination to surmount 
all obstacles which sustained the hardy pioneers 
in their fight against the wilderness. 

Leroy D. Stewart may justly be called one of 
the "native sons" of Nebraska, having been born 
in Greeley county, near the Valley county line. 
May 11, 1885, the fifth child of Alza and Mamie 
(Burdick) Stewart, who were the first to take a 
homestead in Greeley county, and the first to take 
a timber claim in Valley county. 

Mr. Stewart lived on the old homestead until 
his twenty-first year. During that time he re- 
ceived the usual school advantages, attending the 
district school, and later going to the High School 
in North Loup. He graduated from the latter 
institution in 1906. 

On the second of November of the year follow- 
ing, he was married to Miss May Gertie Schultz, a 
native of Newton, Iowa, of which union three chil- 
dren have ben born : Jeanette and Thurwin, and 
an infant born June 22, 1911. Mrs. Stewart is a 
daughter of Clint C. and Lizzie (Preston) 
Schultz, who moved from Jasper county, Iowa, 
to Valley county in 1889. 

In 1909 Mr. Stewart purchased a quarter sec- 
tion of land on section thirty-three, tovmship 

eighteen, range thirteen, a little southwest of 
North Loup, and here he resides at this time. 
He has made extensive improvements,' and the 
farm is now considered one of the finest in that 
part of the country. Mr. Stewart devotes consid- 
erable attention to raising stock, as well as to 
the usual agricultural work. Besides this, he has 
always taken a keen interest in the affairs of 
his county and state. As may be imagined, Mr. 
Stewart and his family are prominent in the social 
life of the community. He is a prohibitionist in 
political faith, and a member of the Friends' 

One of his earliest recollections is of a band of 
Indians which camped near their place, to whom 
his father gave a load of watermelons. One of 
the early blizzards lie recalls by having seen 
some of the calves on the place dug out from deep 
drifts of snow that had covered them. 


John S. Craig, proprietor of one of the most 
valuable estates in Madison county, Nebraiska, 
has been a resident of that locality some forty 
years. He now resides in section twenty-five, 
township twenty-four, range two, and is promin- 
ently known throughout the northeastern part 
of the state as one of the foremost farmei-s and 
stockmen in this section of the country. After 
many years' hard labor in building up his farm, 
he is now prepared to enjoy the remaining days 
of his life in peace and comfort, surrounded by 
a host of good friends. 

Mr. Craig was born December 14, 1836, in the 
state of Ohio, was a son of William and Martha 
(Hile) Craig, both natives of the Keystone state, 
of Scotch and Irish descent, our subject's ma- 
ternal grandfather serving in the Revolutionary 
war. Our subject, with his parents, left his na- 
tive state and settled in Indiana, where the family 
remained eight years, and from there moved to 
Millville, Iowa. 

While residing in Iowa, Mr. Craig, our sub- 
ject, enlisted in the army, joining company G, 
Twenty-first Iowa infantry, under General Dav- 
idson. Mr. Craig served as a private on entering 
the service, was promoted to second lieutenant, 
then to first lieutenant, and later to captain. 
The first winter (in 1862) they went to Dubuque, 
Iowa, but early in 1863 they were stationed at 
St. Louis. Mr. Craig participated in the battle 
of Port Gibson, Mississippi, and was in the siege 
of Vicksburg from May 1 to July 4, 1863, and 
also took part in the battle of Black River Bridge ; 
was at New Orleans in 1864, and then spent the 
winter in Texas. On July 16, 1865, he received 
his honorable discharge. 

In 1869, Mr. Craig started for the west from 
Clayton county, Iowa, coming by the popular 
route in those days — that of a prairie schooner. 
They were one month on the road, landing in 




Madison county, Nebraska, June 24. Here Mr. 
Craig, with his family, settled and took up a pre- 
emption claim of eighty acres of land, and proved 
up on the same; He then took up a homestead 
of one hundred and sixty acres, which he also 
proved up and improved. He first built a good 
log house, in which the family lived for fifteen 
years, during which time he steadily prospered, 
finally building a fine residence. 

In those first years of residence in this section 
of the countr}^ the hardships and discouragements 
of Mr. Craig and his family were great, which 
was due to the new and unsettled condition of 
the region, the virgin soil not knowing the cut j 
of a plow, and scarcely knowing the trod of 
white men's feet. During the first few years, the 
crops that had with so much difficulty been 
planted and cared for, were completely destroyed 
bj' the grasshopper pests that devastated tbe 
western country at that time, making it very hard 
for this little family to pass through those trying 

Mr. Craig was united in marriage in 1860, to 
Aliss Caroline Griffith, and they are the parents 
of four children : Sevilla, Minerva, Ariel and 
Adrian. They are a fine family, and enjoy the 
esteem and good will of a host of friends and 
ac(|uaintanees. They are members of the Chris- 
tian church, and Mr. Craig is a democrat. 


Persistent and energetic industry have 
placed this gentleman among the prosperous and 
successful citizens of Nance county, Nebraska. 
He is one of the early settlers of Timber Creek 
township, and the owner of large landed interests, 
which have been gained only by the strictest econ- 
omy and excellent management. The hardships 
wliich have fallen to the lot of Mr. Palmer and his 
family would have discouraged those of less per- 
sistent natures, have only tended to make them 
more determined and spurred them to stronger 
action. With undaunted courage he has faced 
misfortune, suffering and hardship incident to 
the life of the pioneers in the west, and through 
all has remained to enjoy a fitting reward for 
his labors. He is now a resident of Fullerton, 
the owner of a fine home there, in addition to 
large farming interests in the county, and is held 
in tlie highest esteem by those with whom he 
comes in contact, in a social or business way. 
His portrait appears on another page of this 

Our subject is a son of Thomas and Susan 
Palmer, and was born in England in 1832. He 
was In-ought up there, and was married February 
20, 1854, to Emma Wilson, in the Parish church in 
Nuneaton, by the Rt. Rev. Vicar C. E. Savage. 
After two years in their native country, the 
young couple came to America, landing in New 
York City February 12, 1857. They went direct- 

ly to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where Mr. 
Palmer secured employment. After remaining 
there but a short time, they went to Connecticut, 
and he began work with the Hazard Powder 
Company, and continued with that concern for 
twenty-six years. Then he decided to try his 
fortune in the west, and came to Nebraska, locat- 
ing in Nance county in 1883. The following year 
he was joined by his family. Their first home was 
on Timber creek, living there for ten years, Mr. 
Palmer being engaged in the stock business and 
also doing mixed farming. In 1893 they removed 
to Fullerton, still owning the farm and considera- 
ble land in the vicinity. Mr. Palmer has been 
very successful in his various enterprises, and 
is counted among the well-to-do men of his 
county, owning at the present time seven hundred 
and twenty-nine acres in Nance county alone, 
most of this being under cultivation. Besides 
this laud, he has outside interests and the fine 
home which he occupies in Fullerton. He is now 
(in 1911) seventy-nine years of age, still active, 
and takes much interest in local affairs. 

Mrs. Palmer died in 1906, survived by her 
family of eight children, who are : Thomas, John, 
Abraham, Joseph, William, Mary, Emma and 
George, all married and settled in comfortable 
homes, highly esteemed by their associates. 


Among the prominent early settlers of Greeley 
county may be mentioned the above gentleman, 
now residing in the city of Scotia. He is a veter- 
an of tlie civil war, and as he was true and loyal 
to his country in the struggle of that day, so he 
has proven worthy as a citizen of the esteem 
and respect of his fellow men. 

Mr. Mej^er was the eldest child in the family 
of Fred and Martha (Meygerter) Meyer, and 
first saw the light of day on the 12th of April, 
1840, in Bremen, Germany. In 1853, like many 
another humble family in Germany, Mr. Meyer's 
parents decided to try their fortunes in the newer 
country, sailing from Bremen, Havre, in the 
"Magdalena, " an old sail ship. They landed in 
New York after a voyage of six weeks, during 
which time Mr. Meyer, then a lad of 
thirteen, was sick most of the time, hav- 
ing contracted fever and ague before 
leaving the old country. They located in 
Lake county, Indiana, where the father and 
mother lived until their death, which occurred on 
May 5 and 7, respectively, in 1885, within two 
days of one another. They were together in death 
as they had been for so many years in life. 

Mr. Meyer completed his ediieation after com- 
ing to this country, while living in Indiana. When 
the war began, he enlisted at Chicago. September 
28, 1861, in company F, ninth Illinois cavalry, 
and served until the end of the war. He was 
engaged in a number of battles some of the more 



famous being those of Tupulo, Mississippi; 
Franklin, Nashville and Pulaski, Tennessee. 
After the war, Mr. Meyer returned to Indiana 
and pursued his former calling, that of farming, 
and on March 28, 1867, he married Miss Lovina 
Locker, a native of the Hosier state, and daugh- 
ter of Louis and Harriet (Glass) Locker. 

In 1873 they removed to Joliet, Illinois, where 
they remained for four years, Mr. Meyer finding 
work in a quarry. Then they concluded it would 
be better to push on further west, where land was 
cheaper and more plentiful. Accordingly, in the 
spring of 1878, Mr. Meyer and his family came 
to Greeley county, Nebraska, where he filed on a 
homestead of one hundred and sixty acres in 
section thirty, township eighteen, range eleven, 
and also on a like amount of timber land adjoin- 
ing the other claim. For thirty-two years this 
property remained the home of our subject and 
his family, during which time improvements were 
made constantly, new buildings erected, or more 
complete equipments added to those already 
standing, until it is one of the finest estates in 
this section of the state. In the summer of 1910. 
Mr. Meyer moved to Scotia, where he has just com- 
pleted a fine,- modern home. He still retains an 
oversight over the large estate of five hundred and 
sixty acres which he possesses, but has retired 
from active work. 

During all these years, Mr. Meyer has not 
by any means neglected his part in public affairs, 
as he helped to organize his school districts, num- 
bers twelve and thirty-two, and has served in 
various offices in connection therewith. He has 
also served as precinct assessor. 

Mr. and Mrs. Meyer are the parents of three 
children : Hattie J., now Mrs. George Milne, living 
in Greeley Center, Nebraska, has three children; 
Martha A., now Mrs. George P. Hoke, a resident 
of Greely county, has one child; and David E., 
now living on the old homestead, is married, and 
has three children. The family is prominent soc- 
ially. Mrs. Meyer's mother, Mrs. Harriet Locker, 
is still living in Scotia at the advanced age of 
eighty-six. Mr. Meyer was reared in the Evan- 
gelical church, is a republican in politics, and a 
member of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

Mr. Meyer's first residence was an adobe house 
constructed of cedar posts secured near Burwell, 
to which willow branches were nailed. Between 
these two walls, mud and slough grass were 
tightly pressed, making a warm and substantial 
dwelling. This was later covered with weather- 
boarding, and two additions built from time to 
time, this forming the principal part of the farm 

Elk, deer and antelope were to be seen in droves 
in those early days, and an antelope was killed 
on the creek near his house. During the dry year, 
1894, nothing was harvested on the place, not 
even the amount necessary to seeding. Several 
times hail destroyed all their crops, but in the 

main Nebraska has proven to be the land of - 


Among the older settlers of Cedar county may 
be mentioned the above gentleman. Smith Wait. 
Although he was not one of the earliest settlers 
of the county, he has taken such a prominent 
part in all affairs pertaining to the well-being 
of the community, and has in so many ways as- 
sisted in the development of this region, that he 
is with truth counted among the pioneers in 
many lines. 

Mr. Wait was born in 1836 in Vermont, the 
son of John and Polly Wait. Although American- 
born himself, his mother was German and his 
father was of Scotch-English descent. His grand- 
father served during the revolutionary war. and 
was in many engagements, being taken pris- 
oner by the British on one occasion, although he 
was lucky enough to escape later on. The grand- 
father lived to an advanced age, and one of the 
precious little keepsakes in the family of ]\Jr. 
Wait is a wallet made by the grandfather in 1856. 

Mr. Wait spent his boyhood and early man- 
hood years in Vermont, on the farm. In 1863 he 
was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Ran- 
dall, and four children have been born to them, 
all of whom are living. Their names are as fol- 
lows : Merton H., Cora A., Ella May and Iven 

Mr. Wait, in 1868, came to Ida county, Iowa, 
and had much to do with affairs there, 'in 1890 
Mr. Wait and his family came to Cedar county, 
where he bought the Boeman homestead, located 
in section twenty-six, township thirty, range two, 
east. Coming to Nebraska at a comparatively 
late date, of course he escaped some of the un- 
pleastant experiences of the earlier settlers, such 
as having his crops destroyed by grasshoppers, 
but he met with more than one discouragement as 
it was. However, with true Anglo-Saxon perse- 
verance, he still remained, and now, after years 
of toil, is the possessor of a fine, well-improved 
farm and comfortable home. 

Mr. Wait and family have been prominent in 
a social and educational way for many years, and 
enjoy the respect of numerous friends. 


Among the men who have played an important 
part in the development of eastern Nebraska, and 
especially Merrick county, none is held in higher 
esteem than the man whose name heads this arti- 
cle. The life of Mr. Farnham has been a busy 
one, and he is now able to enjoy his later days in 
peace and comfort. 

Daniel W. Farnham, son of Eli and Jerusha 
(Loomis) Farnham, was born in Galesburg, 
Illinois, December 6, 1838, and was eldest of four 
children. He has one sister residing in Gales- 



burg, Illinois, the others being deceased, as are 
also the parents. The father died October 10, 
1882, and the mother, December 18, 1872, both in 
Galesbnrg, Illinois. Our subject was educated in 
the schools of his home state, and attended Knox 
College for three years. His father was the first 
school teacher in Galesburg, and Daniel received 
his first three years' instruction under his father's 
tutelage. He later engaged in farming, and on 
February 29, 1860, was united in marriage to 
Emeline Butler, who was born in New York state, 
but came \ktev on to Illinois. 

In the spring of 1882, Mr. and Mrs. Farnhara 
and three children came to Nebraska, locating in 
Lincoln for one year, going to Beatrice, Nebraska, 
the following year. In 1884 they moved to Mer- 
rick county and purchased one hundred and sixty 
acres of laud, being the northeast quarter of 
section twenty-seven, township fourteen, range 
seven, west, which remained the home place until 
1909, when Mr. Faruham retired from the farm 
and moved to Central City and purchased a good 
home, where he now lives. 

IMrs. F'arnham died May 20, 1908, on the home 
farm, survived by her husband and three chil- 
dren, the.y having had four children in all : Mary 
B., wife of George A. Baker, had five children, 
and lived in Lincoln, Nebraska, died in 1892 ; 
Fanny L., wife of Theo. Swartout, has three chil- 
dren, and resides in Merrick county ; Edwin R. 
married, has six children, and lives in Wheatland, 
Wyoming; Florence C, wife of John McKendry, 
has five children, and resides in Central City. 
Mr. Farnham's oldest grand-daughter, Nellie 
Baker, married D. L. Gardner, who lives in Ar- 
cher, Nebraska, and they have seven children. 
Alice Baker, another grand-daughter, mariied 
Geo. A. Johnston, and they have one child, and 
live at Central City. Grace Baker, another grand- 
daughter, married Randall Cronin, and lives in 
Colorado. Albert J. Baker, a grandson, is mar- 
ried, and lives at Lincoln, Nebraska. E. R. 
Swartout married Grace Braueher, and lives in 
Central City. 

Mr. Farnham has been prosperous and suc- 
cessful, and is widely and favorably known. He 
is a man of affairs, and takes an interest in all 
pertaining to the welfare of his home county and 
state. Mr. Farnham is a member of the M. E. 
church, as was his wife. In politics he is inde- 


The gentleman whose name heads this person- 
al liistory is a prosperous and successful agri- 
t'ulturalist of Knox county, Nebraska, being pro- 
pi'ietor of a valuable tract of land in section 
twenty-five, township thirty, range six, well im- 
proved with buildings, orchards and groves. He 
is known as one of the leading men of his locality, 
who has done much to bring about the present 
of his community. 

Mr. Horstmanu is a native of Germany, his 
birth occurring in 1844, on a farm in Germany, 
province of Westphalia. He received his early 
education in his native land, and in 1867 sailed 
for America, the mecca of so many sturdy sons 
of the German fatherland, who have contributed 
so largely to the growth and welfare of this part 
of the western country. After landing in the 
United States, Mr. Hortsmann settled in the state 
of Indiana, where he remained until 1888, in that 
year coming to Knox county, Nebraska. Here 
he bought land of Casper Huffman, improving it 
and building a good home, and he' now owns four 
hundred and eighty acres of choice land, and has 
one of the finest groves in the country. 

Mr. Horstmann was united in marriage in 
1872 to Miss Hanah Lampe, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Horstmann are the parents of eleven children, 
whose names ai-e as follows: Annie, Caroline, 
Lizzie, Mary, William. Emma and Fred. Minnie, 
Sophia, Henry and Carl are dead. Mr. and Mrs. 
Horstmann and family are highly esteemed by all 
in their communit.y and enjoy the respect of a 
wide circle of friends and ac(|uaintances. 

In his twenty-three j^ears of residence in Knox 
county, Mr. Horstmann has gained the high re- 
gard and esteem of all with whom he has had to 
do, his dealings with men being of the highest 
standard of integrity and fairness. 


The gentleman whose name heads this review 
is an old and prominent resident of Fullerton, 
Nebraska. He was born in the town of Edging- 
ton, Illinois, June 1, 1841, and is a son of Daniel 
Edgington, after whom the town of that name 
was called. 

Asahel Edgington was reared in his native 
state, receiving his elementary education in the 
schools of Rock Island, and later attended the 
Rensselaer Institute at Troy, New York. He 
also spent some time in Chicago, graduating from 
the Bryant & Stratton Commercial College of that 
city. In 1864 he came to Colorado, traveling 
across the plains with an ox team, and located 
about forty miles west of Denver, which place at 
that time was simply a village instead of the 
beautiful and thriving business city we now 
find it. In June of the following year, he returned 
to Illinois and engaged in farming, following that 
vocation in his native state up to 1867, and in 
February of that year was united in marriage to 
Josephine B. Cai-penter, who also was born and 
raised in Edgington, and for a number of years 
was a public school teacher there. After their 
marriage, the young couple settled in Washing- 
ton, Iowa, engaging in stock-raising business, re- 
maining in that region up to December, 1882, when 
they came with their family to Nebraska, locating 
in Nance county. They were among the first to set- 
tle in that vicinity, and our subject started in the 



real estate and banking business at Fullerton, 
which at that time was a very small village. 
During those years he bought and sold many 
large tracts of land, at different times handling 
deals involving from three to four thousand acres 
of land in one day, the price averaging from two 
and a half to four dollars per acre. While he 
was instrumental in aiding greatly in settling 
the country and building it up by his operations, 
he also purchased for himself one hundred town 
lots and four quarter sections of land, whicli 
grew to be very valuable. He was more than 
usually successful in his worli, and has been an 
important factor in the commercial and financial 
affairs of Nance county, as, besides his real estate 
business, he was for several years engaged in the 
general merchandise business, and built up a nice 
patronage throughout the region. 

In 1887 Mr. Edgington purchased twenty 
acres adjoining the town of Fullerton on the 
south, which he laid out in streets and platted 
the tract, and this is now known as "The Edging- 
ton Addition." It has been built up in good 
shape, and has become one of the popular resi- 
dence sections of the town. Mr. Edgington him- 
self has a home surrounded by ten acres of 
ground, beautifully laid out, and he is engaged 
in fruit growing and poultry raising, doing a 
flourishing business in both lines. This place is 
within the city limits, and is a very valuable 

Since locating in Nance county. Judge Edging- 
ton has taken a foremost part in its affairs. He 
has passed through all the early times, remembers 
well the days when Indians were numerous here, 
and also when the plains abounded in antelope 
and other game. In 1902 Judge Edgington and 
wife went to Santa Cruz, California, intending 
to live there, but after a stay of three years they 
returned to Nebraska, and have remained here 
since, surrounded by every comfort, and having 
a host of warm friends in the community. 

Judge Edgington 's family consists of five 
children, namely: Grace J., wife of Wm. Jenkins, 
they living at Prosser, Washington; Leona E., 
widow of Morris E. Thorp, who died in 1902, Mrs. 
Thorp having one child, and is now living in Los 
Angeles, California; Stella M., wife of Clarence 
B. Nonnamaker, parents of one child; Bernard 
A ..married, and Carl Edgington, the three last 
mentioned residing at Morenca, Arizona. 

Mr. Edgington served as county judge from 
1891 to 1893, afterwards being appointed deputy 
sheriff, which office he held for eight years, and 
during his early residence here was a member of 
the school board of district number one. 


Norse blood has played a great part in the 
development of the great northwest, as it has 
in all parts of the country where the Norseman 

has found it agreeable to settle. It was largely 
due to the invention of the "Monitor" by an 
illustrious Scandinavian that the civil ' war was 
closed as it was, with a united country instead 
of two warring, jealous governments. 

G. A. Erikson, vice president of the First 
National Bank of Naper, is a native of Norway, 
born in the city of Fredrikshald, July 12, 1859. 
His father, Peder Erikson, was a native of the 
same city, and when grown to man's estate, 
learned the painter's trade, and found employ- 
ment in the service of the government in their 
navy yard there. 

He married Miss A. Reiss, who was also a na- 
tive of Norway, remotely deeended from Danish 
and German ancestors. In 1869 Peder Erikson 
and family set sail in an old Norwegian full- 
rigged ship, about three hundred feet in length, 
embarking at Christiana. After a voyage of 
twenty-four days, they landed in Quebec the latter 
part of July or the first of August. Here they 
trans-shipped to a lake vessel, ascended the St. 
Lawrence river and Lake Ontario, through the 
Welland canal to Lake Erie, and thence to De- 
troit. Here they again transferred to a vessel, 
bound for Mihvaukee, whence they traveled by 
rail to Madison, Wisconsin, where Henry Erikson, 
an elder son, had preceded the family, reaching 
their destination about the middle of September. 
Henry had been a marine engineer in the old 
country, plying the coast of Norway to Tromsoe 
and Hammerfest. He had come to America in 
1865, and had established himself on a farm near 
Madison, and then sent for the rest of the family 
to join him. The father farmed with the son until 
coming to Nebraska in the year of 1872. He 
rented a farm three miles west of Nebraska City 
for one year, and then moved to town, and plied 
his trade there until rheumatism compelled his 
abandonment of labor. He died in Augu.st, 1878, 
having been an invalid for about four years. 

Gustav A. Erikson began to make his own way 
in the world at the age of fourteen, when in 
October, 1874, he secured a clerkship in a small 
grocery store in Nebraska City. Two and a half 
years later he secured a position in a large gen- 
eral store, remaining nearly the same length of 
time. Going to Blair in the spring of 1879, he 
secured a position in a general merchandise 
establishment. After two and a half years here, 
he went to Omaha and secured a clerkship in 
Cruikshank & Company's store, the largest dry 
goods establishment in the city at that time, 
Avhich later went into the hands of N. B. Faulkner 
& Company, who were succeeded by Thomas 
Kilpatrick, the present proprietor. 

After a year in Omaha, Mr. Erikson had an 
opportunity to join a United States surveying 
party as field writer, and also filled nearly every 
position in the party from time to time, even 
using the instruments. The party spent six 
months in the Utah mountains, during which time 
Mr. Erikson experienced life in the wilderness. 



On one trip for mail, he rode sixty-five miles one 
Saturday, swimming Golden river on his saddle 
mule to get to the camp where mail was expected. 
Resting over Sunday, during which time his wet 
clothing was dried, he was piloted to a lower 
ford some ten miles further down the stream, and 
after seventy-five miles' hard riding, reached 
camp on Monday with the coveted missives from 
the east. Several times he drove a span of mules 
to Port Thornberg for supplies, the trip usually 
occupying three days. On one occasion, the weak- 
er mule gave out about four o'clock in the after- 
noon, and the last twenty miles were not cov- 
ered before midnight, Mr. Erikson having had to 
unhitch the rest and feed three times on that 
weary stretch of road, at the last having to walk 
and prod the mule in the side, a most weary and 
desolute journey through an uninhabited count- 

After his season in the mountains, Mr. Erikson 
returned to Blair, and to the service of the firm 
in whose employ he had been before, and re- 
mained with them until the spring of 1886. At 
that time he became traveling salesman for the 
Canfield Manufacturing Company, with territory 
on the Union Pacific, Burlington and Missouri 
River (now C, B. & Q.), Missouri Pacific, and St. 
Paul and Omaha railroads, making towns as far 
from the Missouri river as North Platte, Hold- 
redge. Auburn, Scribner and Albion. After 
eighteen montlis on the road, he formed a part- 
nership under the firm name of Erikson & Thomp- 
son, and was in business in Blair for nine years. 
In 1891, when the reservation was opened and 
Boyd county was opened to settlement, Mr. Erik- 
son came to Naper in charge of the William 
Knotter Company's business, handling lumber, 
implements and grain, and he was manager of 
their large business for nearly twelve years, re- 
signing January 1, 1910, to take the vice presi- 
dency of the First National Bank, which was 
formed by the consolidation of the two former 
banks in Naper, and in which he bought a block 
of stock in December, 1909. 

Mr. Erikson was married in Blair, September 
2, 1885, to Miss Louise Kemp, a native of Wal- 
worth county, Wisconsin. Her father, Thomas 
A. Kemp, was born near York, England, and 
came to America about 1823. Her mother, who 
was Mary Haller before marriage, was born in 
Vermont of Swiss parentage. They settled in 
Wisconsin when that country was new, and saw 
the country change by the axe of the settler from 
a virgin forest to a thiekly-populated farming 

Mr. and Mrs. Erikson are the parents of one 
daughter. Vera P., born in Blair, Nebraska. 
After graduating in the Blair schools, she fin- 
ished the course of the Carleton College at North- 
field. Minnesota, in June, 1908. She had numer- 
ous offers of positions to teach, but accepted that 
of Clarkfield. Minnesota, iji the fall of 1908. She 
has since taught at Crete, Nebraska, that she 

might be in her native state and nearer home. 
Here she specialized, teaching German and math- 

Mr. Erikson is a republican in politics, and, 
with his family, is a member of the Congregational 

Mr. Erikson well remembers the blizzard of 
January 12, 1888, having been out in it for a 
time. He was then living in Blair, and went to 
the railroad station to meet a friend. On the 
way back to the store, he found the storm so 
blinding and suffocating that he had to turn 
his back to the blast, and shoulder his way 
through the icy mist. Later, in going home to 
supper, three blocks south, with the storm at his 
back, he made easier progress. 

In the summer of 1907, Mr Erikson took his 
family with him when he revisited the fatherland 
and toured an interesting part of Europe. The 
daughter had credits sufficient to permit her 
leaving school without prejudice four weeks be- 
fore the close of the spring term, and to delay a 
fortnight entering the classes in the fall. Leav- 
ing home the first of May and returning the first 
of October, they traveled through Scotland, the 
west coast of England, and Norway as far north 
as Hammerfest, making visits of longer or shorter 
duration in Bergen, Trondhjem and Swolvaer, 
and toured part of Sweden while on the Scan- 
dinavian peninsula. On the continent they vis- 
ited Denmark, Germany, and from Cologne up 
the Rhine, and then through the Black Porest ; in 
Switzerland, the Falls of the Rhine, Neuhausen, 
Zurich, Berne, Lucerne, Interlaken and Geneva, 
and after eight days in Paris, a like number in 
London, a day at Oxford and another at the old 
walled town of Chester and Marston Moors and 
a day on Stratford-on-Avou, they crossed to Ire- 
land, where they attended the exposition at 
Dublin before embarking for home at the city of 
Londonderry, having enjoyed a most delightful 
summer's travel. They will again visit the old 
country within a year or two, touring the Medit- 
erranean countries, Austria and the Tyrolean 
Alps. They have traveled much in the western 
world, having been as far south as Cuba, and 
north and west to the mountain states. Travel 
as a broadening means of culture, is well exem- 
plified in Mr. Erikson and his family, who can 
relate interestingly many incidents of history and 
personal experience in the old as well as the new 


Oliver E. Walters, county clerk of Boone 
county, is a son of Oliver M. and Elizabeth L. 
(Phillips) Walters, and was born in Brooklyn, 
New York, February 9, 1857, the eldest of two 
children, the brother dying in infancy. His 
father died October 14, 1861, in New York, and 
the mother died September 5, 1907, in Albion, . » 



In 1876 Mr. Walters moved to Waterloo, 
Iowa, with his parents, where he engaged in the 
coal business about a year, then went on a farm 
until 1879, when he came to Boone county, Ne- 
braska, and homesteaded one hundred and sixty 
acres of land in the southwest quarter of section 
twenty, township twenty-two, range seven, sell- 
ing same about five years later. 

In July, 1885, Mr. Walters organized what was 
known as" the Walters & Price General Merchan- 
dise Company at Garner Postoffice. fifteen miles 
northwest of Albion. In 1890 he moved with his 
family to Petersburg, Boone county, where he 
followed clerking, etc., and later engaged in the 
real estate business and edited a newspaper, re- 
maining , there thirteen years, during which time 
he also served as treasurer of the school board in 
1902 and 1903, chairman of the town board in 
1902, and justice of the peace for eight years. 

On January 1, 1904, Mr. Walters was ap- 
pointed deputy county clerk of Boone county, 
serving four years, and was then elected county 
clerk in the fall of 1907, taking charge of the 
office January 1, 1908, which office he is still 
filling to the satisfaction of his county. 

On November 26, 1885, Mr. Walters was mar- 
ried to Miss Cora E. Martin of Boone county, at 
Albion. Mr. and Mrs. Walters have had five 
children, three of whom are living: Oliver H., a 
printer in Columbus, Nebraska; Edna L., mar- 
ried to W. E. Baker, lives in. Boone county, Ne- 
braska; Louis E., deceased; Mabel E., deceased, 
and Clifford E., who resides at home. 

Mr. Walters' life history tells of the prosperity 
and success he has won, and besides the above 
chronicled facts, he has land interests in western 
Nebraska and local property in Albion, his pres- 
ent home. Mr. Walters has made his impress on 
the history of his county, and he and his family 
enjoy the respect and high esteem of all who 
know them, and their friends are legion. 


The prosperity enjoyed within the borders of 
Wayne county, Nebraska, is due in large meas- 
ure to the enterprise and thrift of the farmers of 
that region. Their well-improved and well-tilled 
farms show good management and painstaking 
care, which has resulted in their present prosper- 
ity. Among the prominent farmers may be men- 
tioned the gentleman above named. He has been 
a resident of the county for a number of years, 
and is a substantial farmer, having acquired a 
good home by persistent industry and honest deal- 
ings, and is esteemed by all with whom he has 
come in contact. 

Mr. Splittgerber was born in Germany, near 
Berlin, in 1855, and is the son of Carl and Caro- 
line Splittgerber. His early years were spent in 
his native land, where he obtained his education. 

In 1881 the Splittgerber family left their 
home to come to America, the land of liberty and 

opportunity. They came by way of Bremen and 
Baltimore, and started at once for the west, where 
land was cheap and there was an equal chance 
for all. They came to Wayne county, Nebraska, 
and Carl Splittgerber bought one-half section of 
land, upon which he lived for eight years. He 
then moved with his wife to Wisner, where he 
lived until his death in 1904. After his death 
the farm was divided between his sons, William 
C. and Emil; William C, now owning two hun- 
dred and forty acres of the old home place. He 
now has a well-equipped farm, with all necessary 
buildings, fences, stock and machinery. There 
is also now a fine orchard of two acres of fruit 
trees, all bearing well. 

Mrs. Carl Splittgerber has made her home 
with her son, William, since the death of her 

In 1886 our subscriber was united in marriage 
to Miss Caroline Ahlfers. They are the parents 
of two children, Paul and Hulda. 

Mrs. Splittgerber, who was born in Hanover, 
Germany, came to America in 1883 alone, and 
joined an aunt in Saline county. In 1885 she 
came to Wisner, where she lived with another 
aunt until her marriage the following year. 


A history of Nebraska would not be complete 
without mentioning the name of Andrew P. Jen- 
sen, who for the past twenty-nine years has been 
a substantial and progressive citizen, always tak- 
ing a keen interest in things pertaining to the 
welfare of his home state and county. 

Andrew P. Jensen was born in Denmark, De- 
cember 11, 1854, a son of Jens Peterson, and by 
a peculiar Scandinavian custom takes his last 
name from his father's first. He was fourth in 
a family of six children, and has two sisters re- 
siding in Garfield county, Nebraska, the other 
children being deceased. The father, Jens Pet- 
erson, lives in Ord, Nebraska, at the advanced 
age of eighty-four years. He came to Nebraska 
in the fall of 1884. The mother died in 1904, in 
Valley county, Nebraska. Our subject received 
his education in the schools of his native country, 
and at the age of fifteen began to learn the car- 
penter trade, which he finished in due time, and 
later followed alternately with farming. 

On July 21, 1876, Mr. Jensen was united in 
marriage to Miss Johanna Peterson, also a native 
of Denmark. Mr. and Mrs. Jensen have had two 
children, namely : Marie, who is the wife of John 
Frandsen, has one child, and lives in the state of 
Montana, and Iner, deceased in 1887 in infancy. 

In 1881 Mr. Jensen came with his wife and one 
daughter to America, locating in Omaha, Nebras- 
ka, where he worked at his trade until May, ' 
1884. He then moved his family to Valley coun- 
ty, purchasing one hundred and sixty acres of 
railroad land in the northeast quarter of section 
tM'enty-nine, township thirty, range fourteen, 



where he remaiued until the fall of 1885. Owing 
to eyelone and hailstorms, there was a total fail- 
ure of crops, and Mr. Jensen felt the necessity 
of going back to Omaha, where he could work at 
his trade. 

In July of 1893 he again moved his family on 
his Valley county farm, where they remained 
until August 17, 1908, when Mr. Jensen retired 
from active farming and moved to Ord, where he 
has a bee-hive factory. 

Mr. Jensen is a successful man of affairs, and 
owns one hundred and sixty acres of good land, 
which is a fine stock and grain farm, well im- 
proved, and has also fourteen acres of timber 

He is a progressive man, interested in all per- 
taining to the welfare of his home county and 
state, and enjoys the respect and esteem of all 
who know him. Mr. Jensen served as director of 
his school district, number twelve, for some years. 


A typical pioneer of eastern Nebraska is 
represented by the gentleman above named, G. 
Goble. He has lived many years in this section 
of the country, and has taken part in the growth 
and development of this region, building up for 
himself a substantial home and future by his 
perseverance and thrift, and has come to be one 
of the foremost citizens of Antelope county. 

Mr. Goble was born in 1862 in the state of 
Michigan, and is the son of Enos H. and C. (Ve- 
netta) Goble, the father being a native of Penn- 
sylvania, and the mother a native of New Jersey. 
Our subject's father served his country in the 
civil war, enlisting in company F, Twenty-fifth 
Michigan infantry, remaining in the army from 
1862 to 1865. Eight years later he went to 
Kansas, in 1873, taking up a homestead about 
thirty miles southwest of Topeka, and here the 
family experienced many discouragements, suf- 
fering from the hot winds and grasshopper raids, 
and the hard winter of 1873. Becoming dissat- 
isfied in that locality, our subject's father and 
family returned to Michigan. In 1879 E. H. 
Goble and family came to Antelope county, Ne- 
braska, taking up a tree claim on the northeast 
(luarter of section thirty-one, township twenty- 
eight, range seven, and here they built a small 
frame house and planted fifteen acres of timber. 
E. H. Goble died, February 23, 1887. 

G. Gol)le, our subject, in 1888, took up a home- 
stead in the southwest quarter section thirty-one, 
township twenty-eight, range seven. On this 
homestead he built a sod house, in which he lived 
four years, and then built a frame house. In 
1901 he bought out the heirs' interests in his 
father's tree claim, and moved onto that farm, 
where he now resides, and he has a well-improved 
and valuable property there. 

In 1906 Mr. Goble was united in holy matri- 
mony to Miss Elizabeth Hobson, and Mr. and Mrs 

Goble have had two children born to them, whose 
names are as follows: Harold and May. Mr. and 
I\Irs. Goble and family are pleasantly situated in 
their fine home, and enjoy the respect and high 
regard of all who Imow them. 


Herman A. Kruetzfeldt, a well-to-do farmer, 
energetic and industrious, a typical representa- 
tive of the sturdy German race, who came to this 
country to establish a home and accumulate a 
competence for his old age, resides on his farm, 
the northwest quarter of section thirty, township 
twenty-eight, range one. Although not one of the 
oldest settlers of Nebraska, Mr. Kruetzfeldt, since 
coming to this part of the country, has always 
done his share for the benefit of his community. 

Mr. Kruetzfeldt was born in the village of 
Stein, province of Holstein, Germany, August 9, 
1863, the year before that region was ceded by 
Denmark to Germany. He is the son of Joachim 
and Anna (Klindt) Kruetzfeldt, also natives of 
Holstein. On coming to America in 1881, Mr. 
Kruetzfeldt sailed from Hamburg to New York 
in the "Cymbria, " which some years later 
foundered at sea. 

He came directly to Davenport, Iowa, and for 
six years worked as a farm hand in Scott county. 
He then moved to Cass county, renting a farm 
from his father-in-law for fifteen years. In 1900 
he came to Pierce county, Nebraska, where he has 
since made his home. His farm is a fertile tract 
of land, on which is a beautiful grove surround- 
ing the substantial buildings, and an orchard of 
goodly size. 

Mr. Kruetzfeldt was married in Davenport, 
Iowa, February 18, 1885, to Miss Augusta Gottsch, 
a native of Scott county, and daughter of Joac- 
him and Magarita (Lamp) Gottsch, natives of the 
village of Stein, Denmark, whence the father 
sailed the seas some eight or nine years. Mr. and 
Mrs. Kruetzfeldt have had four children : Hari-y, 
William, Arnold and Maud. Harry was educated 
at a business college in Davenport, Iowa, and is 
manager of the Edwards & Bradford Liimber 
Company at McLain ; William received his educa- 
tion in Wayne, Nebraska, and is manager for the 
same company at Belden, and Arnold is being edu- 
cated at the college at Wayne. 

In politics, Mr. Kruetzfeldt votes the demo- 
cratic ticket. He belongs to the Sons of Herman 
lodge, and he and his family worship at the Ger- 
man Lutheran church. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kruetzfeldt and family are highly 
respected by all who know them. 


The gentleman above named, now deceased, 
was a prominent old settler and well-known resi- 
dent of Howard county, Nebraska. Mr. Vorhes 
died in Grand Island in February, 1902, and his 



death was deeply felt by all who knew him, as 
he was looked upon as one of the leading public- 
spirited men of the county, and held in the high- 
est esteem and respect by his fellow men. 

Peter D. Vorhes was born in New York state, 
February 15, 1830. He moved to Michigan with 
his parents when a small boy, and when a young 
man, in company with his brother Fred, went to 
California, remaining in that country for about 
fifteen years. There they were engaged in black- 
smithing, prospecting, mining, etc., saw a great 
deal of the western life, and succeeded in getting 
together some property. 

Peter returned to Michigan, and was mar- 
ried there to Miss Emil J. Goodman of Oakland 
county, and they made that locality their home 
up to the spring of 1877, when the family, con- 
sisting of himself, wife and daughter, Ada Jane, 
now the wife of W. E. Baliman, came to Howard 
county, and settled on a homestead, which our 
subject purchased, on section thirty-two, town- 
ship thirteen, range nine. They worked hard, 
and passed through all the early Nebraska times, 
meeting many discouragements in the early days, 
but gradually succeeded in improving their 
homestead. At one time a prairie fire swept the 
country, and burned a barn and granary contain- 
ing his season's seed and grain supply. The 
house which he built was the first frame built 
in his section of the country, some of the lumber 
being brought by team from Omaha. 

In 1890 Mr. Vorhes built a home in Grand 
Island, and moved to that city, where he engaged 
in the Avagon-making business. In 1891 he re- 
turned to the farm and remained two years, and 
then went back to Grand Island, which remained 
his home until his death. He was known as a 
prosperous and progressive farmer, his success 
due entirely to his thrift and industry. 


Among the worthy citizens given to America 
by the fatherland, none stand higher in his own 
community than the Wagner brothers, John and 
Matthew. John Wagner was born near the town 
of Bittburg, in the village of Meserieh. Rhine 
Province, Prussia, September 2. 1842. He was 
employed at farm labor the years he lived in the 
fatherland, and naturally found farming a con- 
genial occupation on reaching the new world. 

According to the custom of the old country, 
he served something over three years in the 
Prussian army, from 1863 to 1866, during whicli 
time he participated in the wars with Schleswig, 
Holsteine and Austria, in 1864 and 1866, respec- 
tively, in the artillery service. He began his 
military career in Berlin, and was honoralily dis- 
charged there at the end of his enlistment. 

In 1868 the brothers emigrated to America, 
sailing from Antwerp to Liverpool, and on April 
15, thence on the "Erin," landing in New York 
the 9th of May. Preceding direct to Chicago, 

John Wagner worked there ten days to secure 
funds for transportation to Monmouth, Illinois. 
In Julj' he went to Milwaukee, and soon after to 
a farm three miles from Waukegan, Illinois. 
About the first of September he found employ- 
ment on a railroad, then being constructed 
through Iowa, and first set foot on Nebraska soil 
at Omaha some time in November. Omaha was 
then a comparatively small town, and the gate- 
way to the west. In the spring Mr. Wagner se- 
cured employment as driver in the government 
service, and was stationed at Cottonwood Springs, 
near the junction of the North and South Plattes. 
During the six months he worked here, he had 
many hard experiences. One day, while working 
on the bridge across the North Platte river his 
revolver fell into the river ; in grabbing for it, he 
jerked his watch from his pocket, and so far as 
known both are there in the river to this day. 
Lice, "chinches"' and sand fleas were numerous 
in every camp. For safety from the Indians, 
men dug short tunnels into the hills for sleeping 
quarters. In these they spread grass, and rolled 
up in their blankets with their rifles and revolvers 
at their sides. One time, in swimming the Platte, 
the current carried him a mile and a half down 
the stream before he could make a landing on 
the other side. 

While at Cottonwood Springy Mr. Wagner 
became acquainted with Mr. Zeph and Mr. 
Hengstler, now for years neighbors in Knox 
county. Returning to Omaha, Mr. Wagner se- 
cured work with Louis Crow, who established 
the first packing house in the city, it being located 
at Fifteenth and Douglas streets, and remained 
in his employ three years. For a short time the 
brothers worked in Plattsmouth, and then re- 
turned in the spring of 1871, to Omaha, to pur- 
chase oxen, a wagon and supplies for their trip to 
Knox county, which was recommended to them as 
being a desirable place to locate. Travel was 
slow as they had no feed, and were compelled to 
stop after a few hours' travel to allow the oxen to 
graze. In coming, they followed up the Little Elk- 
horn to near where Osmond now stands, and then 
turned to the northwest, over the watershed, 
into the valley of Bazile creek. At that time in 
Creighton there was but one sod shanty on the 
east side of the creek. George Quimby had laid 
out a townsite called Mansfield, about a mile 
south of the present site of Bazile Mills. Here 
Mr. Wagner, with his brother, arrived on Good 
Friday, which fell in April that year, a few hours 
before the "Bruce Colony," which had wandered 
out on the Elkhorn, crossed back to Niobrara, 
and finally reached their destination from the 
north, instead of from the south, as they had at 
first intended. Henry Mecke and Sebastian Zeph 
had preceded them a short time, and secured 
claims in the neighborhood. Mr. Wagner located 
a homestead claim a mile north and west from 
Creighton, and in tlie fall returned to Omaha, 
where he worked until spring. 




While here, he married, and in the spring 
started for his new home with his young wife. 
The railroad extended to "West Point or Wisner, 
and here Mr. "Wagner engaged a settler, living 
eight miles from "West Point, to bring him to 
Creightou. Here he purchased a cow, some 
chickens, and secured some wheat. There being 
no way to take the cow with him at the time, Mr. 
"Wagner returned some mouths later, walking 
nearly all the way to "West Point — a little less 
than sixty miles — and on foot led the cow back 
to his Knox county home, purchasing a milk 
bucket at Norfolk on the way. How many young 
men these days would walk a hiuidred miles to 
supply the source of milk and butter for their 
family ? 

There was a log house on Mr. "Wagner's 
homestead, built by an early pioneer who had 
become discouraged and abandoned his claim. 
Here the family lived some years, until a more 
commodious frame house could be erected. Here 
Mr. "Wagner lived until October, 1903, when he 
came to town, that his children might attend 
parochial school. 

Mr. "Wagner was first married October 25, 
1872, to Miss Lydia Horst, a native of the prov- 
ince of Hanover, Germany, who came to America 
in 1867. Her people died in Germany, and she 
came to the United States when twelve years old, 
with neighbors, and lived first in Illinois, later in 
Iowa, and finally moved to Omaha. Nine chil- 
dren were born to Mr. and Mrs. "Wagner. The 
eldest, Helen, is the wife of A. R. Johnson of 
Plattsmouth; Margaret is married to Frank 
Abbenhaus, a farmer living near Bloomfield ; 
Katie, with her husband, John H. Abbenhaus, is 
now living on a claim in Tripp county. South 
Dakota; Mary Theresa died at the age of eiglit 
years ; Mathew J., is part owner of an elevator in 
Creighton ; Ann, the wife of "Wm. Young, lives in 
Antelope county; Prank H., is in business with 
Mathew; Leonard J., cultivates the home farm; 
and Mary, the youngest is housekeeper for her 
brother, Leonard J. The wife and mother died 
August 19, 1890. 

On January 22, 1894, Mr. "Wagner was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Franceska M. Haak, a native of 
"Washington county, "Wisconsin, born March 19, 
1851. Her parents, Franz and Catherine 
(Gersing) Schneider, were natives of Germany, 
and came to America in 1847. They moved to 
Xeltraska in 1873, settling in Knox county. Here 
they endured many hardships, the girls having 
to work in the fields with the men in order to 
nuike a living for the family. At times their only 
food was corn bread and water for breakfast and 
supper, and the same with a small piece of bacon 
for the noon meal — not a very nutritious ration 
for young women pitching wheat in the fields all 
day. Franceska Schneider was married to Peter 
Haak, September 12, 1878. He was a German, but 
boi'n in Poland, June 22, 1848, and died on his 
farm north of Creighton, March 21, 1893. During 

the early years of his residence in Knox county, 
he freighted across the country to Yankton for 
the merchants at Bazile Mills. He worked for a 
time in the reconstruction of a railroad through 
tlie country, and at times during his absence, 
Indians came to the house to ask for food. Mrs. 
Haak always gave them what she had, having no 
fear of them, and never had any of their stock 
molested. Their children are: Leo, who farms 
on the homestead claim near "Winnetoon ; Luke 
Z., residing on the timber claim secured by his 
father; and Mary C, who keeps house for her 
younger brother. 

Of their second marriage, Mr. and Mrs. "Wag- 
ner are the parents of one daughter, Adelia C, 
a student in the parochial school in Creighton. 

During the first years of the settlement of 
northern Nebraska, great herds of Texas cattle 
were driven across the country to the Niobrara 
to issue as beef to the Indians. They were al- 
lowed to cross the farms of the settlers, tramp- 
ling the crops and where they had passed, ' the 
ground was pressed so hard it required a re-plow- 
ing. No satisfaction was given the settlers for 
this destruction of their crops, and little com- 
plaint was made ; the cattlemen carried arms, and 
were too ready to use them. Blizzards caused 
great suffering. Mr. "Wagner had his face, nose 
and cheeks frozen in such a storm. He allowed 
the oxen to flounder their own way through the 
open prairies, he not daring to lose his hold on the 
wagon, as he might never have found it again, 
nor his home. Crossing the Little Blkhorn at 
through. Mr. "Wagner had to walk several miles 
in his wet clothes before he found a cabin in 
which to spend the night, and did not get his 
clothing dried until along in the next day. In 
the blizzard of 1888 he lost thirteen cattle, a good 
share of all he had. After "the winter of the 
deep snow," 1880 and 1881, snow lasted until 
into the summer. Enough was found in the 
canyons near Bazile Mills to freeze ice cream at 
the Fourth of July picnic. 

Money and work were so scarce that Mr. 
"Wagner walked to "West Point — sixty miles 
— several seasons to labor in the harvest fields, 
and then walked home with the proceeds and a 
few provisions. To save matches, they were 
carefully split into four pieces, and each piece 
being made to do the service of a whole match. 
Groceries for a year or two were hauled from 
Yanktoii, fifty miles away. And for coffee, queer 
substitutes were found. They used parched corn 
at Dry Creek, dried peas at "West Point, wheat at 
Pierce, and burnt bread at Bazile Mills. 

Mr. "Wagner leans toward the populist princi- 
ples in political matters. The family all worship 
at the altar of the Catholic church, and the three 
youngest children have been educated in paroch- 
ial schools, which were established at Creighton 
in 1903. 

After years of struggle and hardship, Mr. 
"Wagner has secured a competencj', and is enjoy- 



ing his ease in his comfortable village home. On 
another page will be found portraits of Mr. and 
Mrs. Wagner. 


Neils Jorgenson, one of the best known and 
most highly respected citizens of Valley county, 
Nebraska, has been a resident of central Nebraska 
for the past twenty-six years. He has acquired 
a valuable property through his industry and 
thrift, supplemented by good management and 
honest dealings, and well merits the success he 
has attained. 

Mr. Jorgensen was born in the village of 
Horseus, Linerip district, province of Jutland, 
Denmark, February 4, 1847, a son of Jurgen and 
Mina (Janssen) Neilson. He received his educa- 
tion in the schools of his home country, and later 
engaged in farming. In the summer of 1884 he 
came to America, sailing from Hamburg to New 
York, the voyage lasting two weeks. Locating 
in Cedar county, Nebraska, he engaged in farm 
labor for nearly two years, and in 1885 moved 
to Holt county, where he homesteaded one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of land, six miles north of 
Amelia, and this remained the home place until 
1893, when he came to Valley county, and pur- 
chased four hundred and eighty acres in section 
ten, township twenty, range fourteen, which is 
now the home place. He owns one hundred and 
sixty acres in Elyria township, and a quarter 
section in Garfield county. The family lived in 
a sod house for a time, and in 1901 built a sub- 
stantial frame dwelling, and good barns and other 
farm buildings from time to time. He also lived 
in a sod house for seven years in Holt county. 

On August 11, 1884, Mr. Jorgensen was mar- 
ried to Miss Hannah Worm, who also was born 
in Denmark, and came to America in 1884. She 
is a daughter of Wilhelm and Carin (Jensen) 
Worm. Mr. and Mrs. Jorgensen have had five 
children, namely: William, who resides at home; 
Henry, married, and residing on the Garfield 
county farm; and Walter, Mena and Nora, who 
are residing under the parental roof. 

Mr. Jorgensen is a prosperous and successful 
man of affairs, owning eight hundred acres of 
good land, all in Nebraska. He is a man inter- 
ested in all pertaining to the welfare of his home 
state and county, and is widely and favorably 
known. Mr. Jorgensen has served twelve years 
as moderator of his school districts, numbers 
forty-five and fifty-four, which record demon- 
strates his interest along educational lines. 


John E. Blomquast, son of Ole and Margaret 
Blomquast, was born in Sweden, April 21, 1843, 
second in a family of tliree children, and is now 
the only survivor of the family, a brother and 

sister being deceased, and his father died in 
February, 1871, and the mother in August, 1868. 

On July 25, 1869, Mr. Blomquast was joined 
in wedlock to Miss Augusta Eklund, also a native 
of Sweden, who came to America in 1869, a 
daughter of Alex and Breta Eklund. Her father 
died in 1887 and the mother in 1900, both in 
Platte county, Nebraska. She has a brother re- 
siding in New Zealand, Australia. 

In 1877 Mr. Blomquast located in Platte coun- 
ty, homesteading one hundred and sixty acres, 
which remained the home place about twenty-two 
years, during which time he purchased eight hun- 
dred acres more. 

In 1900 Mr. Blomquast retired from farm life, 
and moved to Newman Grove, Madison county, 
where he built a fine home, which is his present 
residence, and in 1905 sold his Platte county in- 

In 1894 Mr. Blomquast became interested in 
banking, and was vice president of Newman 
Grove State Bank until 1905, and has also been 
vice president of the Citizen's Bank in Newman 
Grove for several years. He served Platte county 
as supervisor for one year, and was on the school 
board about twenty years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Blomquast have had three chil- 
dren : John A., who is married, lives in Boise City, 
Idaho; Albertina B., died March 21, 1908, she 
had been married to Eric Hollgrin, and lived in 
Newman Grove, two children being born to them ; 
and Alfred E., who resides in Walla Walla, 

Mr. Blomquast is well known, having been 
prominent in business circles, and is a progressive 
man, alive to all the interests of his state and 


The Hancocks were the fourteenth family to 
locate in Sherman county, and have always stood 
for the best interests and welfare .of their com- 
munity. William Hancock, who has spent most 
of his life in the county, well remembers pioneer 
conditions and experiences. He was born August 
14, 1861, in Sullivan county, Indiana, and is a son 
of Samuel and Rachel (Davis) Hancock, the 
father a native of Georgia and of Irish extraction, 
and the mother a native of Ohio, of German 
descent. Samuel Hancock, who was an orderly 
sergeant in the union army during the civil war, 
brought his family to Sherman county in 1873, 
and secured a homestead, where he spent his 
remaining days. His wife died in 1887 and he in 
1900. William is the fifth of eight children, and 
he has one brother in Colorado, a brother and 
two sisters in Nebraska, two sisters in California, 
and a sister in Oregon. 

William Hancock received most of his educa- 
tion before coming to Nebraska, and there learned 
to help with improving and operating the land. 
As a young man, he spent some time in construe- 



tion work for the B. & M. and the Union Pacific 
railroads, and later engaged in farming on his 
own account. His first purchase of land was one 
hundred and sixty acres, which he secured in 
1895, later owning and operating various farms, 
and in 1905 he bought his present estate of one 
hundred and sixty acres of land in section 
twenty-nine, township fourteen, range fifteen, 
where he has erected a very comfortable residence 
and other buildings, and made many needed im- 
provements. His land is now in a high state of 
cultivation, and he is accounted one of the most 
successful farmers of the vicinity, being widely 
and favorably known, as he is one of the oldest 
settlers in the county. He has always been much 
interested in the cause of education and other 
movements for the public welfare, and for the 
past ten years has served school district number 
thirteen as school treasurer. 

Mr. Hancock was married at Loup City, May 
11, 1892, to Miss Cora Castner, who was born in 
Ohio, a daughter of Elijah and Eliza (Kitchen) 
Castner, both of German descent, the former a 
native of New Jersey and the latter of Ohio. Her 
father died in Pennsylvania in 1899, and her 
mother in Ohio in 1877. She has two brothers in 
Pennsylvania, a brother in Ohio, and a sister in 
Sherman county, Nebraska. Nine children have 
blessed the union of Mr. Hancock and wife, all 
at home, namely: Harold L., Earl S., Arthur L., 
Cecil J., Sadie 6., Hemple M., Fern H., Ernest W. 
and Russell. 

For two years after their marriage, Mr. and 
Mrs. Hancock lived in a sod house before building 
a frame dwelling. 

In politics Mr. Hancock is a democrat. He 
is a member of the A. 0. U. W. and the Degree 
of Honor. 


In selecting land on which to build a perman- 
ent home, much is to be considered. The task is 
less difficult in a country where civilization has 
marked the causes and effects of the elements on 
human work, but in a pioneer country, where 
little except the boundless prairie is in evidence, 
the task becomes one of more difficulty. To decide 
unwisely means many years of futile toil before 
one is convinced of the waste of time and endeav- 
ors, while a wise judgment brings reward beyond 
the expectations of all. 

Among the early settlers of Cedar county, who 
have been intimately identified with its growth 
and development, may be mentioned Mr. Hirseh- 
man, who is a native of the state of Wisconsin, 
having been born there in 1855, the son of Fred- 
land and Anna Myra Hirschman. As may be sup- 
posed, both parents were foreign born, the father 
being an Austrian and the mother a Prussian. 
The father came to this country on a sailing vessel, 
and was forty-two days on the sea. He took a 
lively interest in the affairs of his adopted coun- 

try, and when the civil war broke out, he enlisted, 
and served for some time under Sherman. 

Mr. Hirschman lived with his parents in Wis- 
consin until 1871, when the whole family decided 
to join the westward migration. They took the 
overland route, and drove from Wisconsin to 
Cedar county, Nebraska, where they purchased 
what was known as the "Joseph Knox home- 
stead." There was nothing but a small "shanty" 
on the place at that time, which has long since 
been replaced by a comfortable and commodious 
home. The farm itself has been improved in 
many ways, and is now very valuable. 

Following the usual experience of the early 
settlers, Mr. Hirschman and his people suffered 
many hardships. For the first four years they 
were unlucky enough to have the grasshoppers 
take all the crops. Then during the second win- 
ter after their arrival in Nebraska, they suffered 
much by reason of an unusually heavy snowstorm. 
They also lost all of the crops in 1894 by the hot, 
dry winds prevalent during the greater part of 
that summer. 

However, Mr. Hirschman persevered in his 
efforts, and by the exercise of unending thrift and 
economy, was able to add, little by little, adjoin- 
ing lands, until he is now the possessor of about 
seven hundred acres of highly-improved land, an 
estate quite as valuable as any to be found in 
that section of the state. 

In 1879, just eight years after coming to Ce- 
dar county, Mr. Hirschman married Miss Bertha 
Dreason. They are the parents of four children. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hirschman have always been 
thoroughly interested in the growth and develop- 
ment of the state, and they enjoy a more than 
local prominence. 


Robert G. Baird, retired farmer, son of Hugh 
and Martha (Brown) Baird, was born in Ran- 
dolph county, Illinois, October 31, 1839. He was 
the fifth of ten children, of which only three are 
living, Mr. Baird and a brother and sister who 
reside in Illinois. His parents were natives of 
South Carolina, but died in Randolph county, 
Illinois, his mother in November, 1880, and his 
father in 1856. 

Robert G. Baird was educated in his home 
schools, and later engaged in farming in Ran- 
dolph county. On May 11, 1861, Mr. Baird en- 
listed in the service of his country from the state 
of Illinois for state service, subject to call of the 
United States, and on June 11, one month later, 
was assigned to company H, Twenty-second Illinois 
infantry, serving something over three years, 
receiving his discharge July 8. 1864, in Spring- 
field, Illinois. He enlisted in the first company 
organized in Randolph county. While in the 
service, he participated in the battle at Belmont, 
serving mostlv on detached duty. After he_ re- 
turned to Illinois, Mr. Baird engaged in farming. 



On January 18, 1866, he married Mary J. Mc- 
Donald, who was born in Randolph county, 
Illinois. Her parents were William and Jane 
(McClelland) McDonald, both of Scotch-Irish 
descent, who came from South Carolina to 
Randolph county, Illinois, at an early date. Mrs. 
Baird was the eighth in a family of twelve chil- 
dren, five of whom are now living. 

In the fall of 1871, our subject came with his 
family, in company with his brother, James Baird, 
and family, to Merrick county, Nebraska, where 
he homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres in 
section twelve, township fourteen, range six, 
which has since that time remained' the home 
place, with the exception of eight years spent in 
Illinois, between 1877 and 1884. 

Mr. Baird was instrumental in organizing his 
school district, number twenty-one, and served 
in the various offices of its boards for many years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Baird are charter members of the 
First Presbyterian church in Merrick county, 
which was organized at Central City in 1872. 
They have had ten children: "Wm. H., deceased 
in infancy; Prudence A., deceased in 1902; Hugh 
A., who is married, and has three children, and 
lives in Central City; Lucinda B., married to W. 
S. Desh, who have four children, and reside in 
Central City; Mary J., married to M. G. Scudder, 
who have four children, and reside in Central 
City; Martha A., who was married to C. H. 
Crites, has four children, and lives in Central 
City (Mr. Crites, a Union Pacific brakeman, was 
killed while on duty, in 1906) ; Elizabeth, who re- 
sides at home ; Robert B., Avho is married, and re- 
sides in Merrick county; Cora A., married to 
George E. Bockes, Central City; and David M., 
married, who lives on the original homestead, and 
has one child. 

In the spring of 1910, Mr. Baird retired from 
the farm, and moved to Central City, where he 
purchased a good home, their present residence. 
He is an active man of affairs, interested in all 
pertaining to the welfare of his home state and 
county, and is widely and favorably known. 


Few men in the priesthood have won higher 
favor in their community than John G. McNamara, 
pastor of St. Andrews Catholic church of Bloom- 
field. "Father Mack," as he is familiarly called 
is a favorite with both Protestants and Catholics! 
and has been a power for good in his parish. 

John G. McNamara was born in Wisner Ne- 
braska, March 1, 1872, a son of James and Mar- 
garet (Carpenter) McNamara, both natives of old 
Ireland, the father from County Mayo, the moth- 
er from Queen's county. James McNamara came 
to America in 1863, sailing from Queenstown in a 
full-rigged ship, and landed in New York, Avhence 
he came west to Kankakee county, Illinois. Here 
he farmed for eight years, and after his marriage, 
March 7, 1871, came west with his bride and set- 

tled in Cuming county. The mother emigrated 
to the States in 1868, the voyage lasting six 
weeks. After living for a time in Cincinnati, she 
came to Kankakee, where her marriage took 
place. Mr. McNamara bought a farm, six miles 
from Wisner, Nebraska, and resided here until 
1903, when he retired from active life, and moved 
to Wisner to make his home. 

"Father Mack" was reared on his father's 
farm near Wisner, attending the country schools 
for five years, and for three years the Guardian 
Angels' parochial school at West Point. For 
five years he was a student of St. Francis' College 
at Quincy, Illinois, graduating in the classical 
course, and finished in theology and philosophy 
in Mt. St. Mary's Seminary at Cincinnati, grad- 
uating March 4, 1897, the day of McKinley's 
inauguration. His first appointment was as 
assistant to the priest in Norfolk, Nebraska, 
where he officiated about eighteen months, and 
was next sent to the Church of the Sacred Heart 
at Omaha for one year. Jackson, Nebraska, was 
his next field of labor, and after a year of services 
there, he was assigned to the Bloomfield church, 
November 4, 1900. 

When "Father Mack" came to the parish here, 
the church, a small one, was in the low ground 
near the creek. He soon formed plans for some- 
thing better. He purchased several acres of land 
on the high ground in the southeast part of town, 
and built a substantial rectory in 1901. In 1903 
a commodious church building was erected on the 
lot adjoining. This was entirely paid for within 
four years, though the effort necessary to accom- 
plish this was great, especially when it is con- 
sidered that the parish is small and many of the 
parishioners poor. When this was all accom- 
plished," Father Mack" thought to let building en- 
terprises rest the remainder of his pastorate here, 
but the needs of a school, where the young of his 
parish might receive better education under the 
supervision of teachers of their faith, began to 
stir himself again, with the result that in the 
summer of 1910 a three-story modern school build- 
ing was erected opposite the pastoral residence — a 
building modern in all its details, which, with all 
equipments, will cost in the neighborhood of 
twelve thousand dollars. 

To all of these enterprises "Father Mack" has 
given freely of his time, his thought, his energy 
and his money. His heart and soul have been in 
this work, and it is little wonder he stands 
high in the affection of his flock, and in that of 
his neighbors and fellow townsmen. A man who 
can in ten short years come into a small and im- 
poverished parish and add so many sightly edi- 
fices to the public buildings of a town, is truly a 
public benefactor. 


Herbert Hodges, an early settler of Nance 
county, is now owner of extensive farm lands in 



that locality, and enjoys a comfortable compe- 
tence and enviable name by his efforts in helping 
build up the best interests of his section. He 
enjoys a nice home in Pullerton township, where 
he has spent many j'ears. 

Mr. Hodges was born in Kent comity, Michi- 
gan, October 8, 1869. He is the eldest of three 
children in the family of Frank and Jane Hodges, 
two born in Michigan and a daughter after coming 
to Merrick county, where the family settled when 
Herbert was four years old. They moved into 
Nance county in the fall of 1877, the father pur- 
chasing three hundred and twenty acres of farm 
land on sections thirty-one and thirty-two, town- 
ship seventeen, range sis, and erecting a dwelling 
on the first-named section. Here our subject grew 
to manhood, receiving his early education in the 
public schools, and later attending the Commercial 
College at Omaha. In 1891 he began working 
rented land for his father, and also got together 
a bunch of stock, and was successful in building 
up his farm, gradually putting improvements on 
it, planting trees and groves, and got it in first 
class condition, then changed his residence to 
where he OAvned one hundred and sixty acres, 
which has been his home farm ever since. He 
is now the owner of four hundred and fifty-four 
acres of land, three hundred and fifty-four acres 
being situated in section thirty-one, Fullerton 
township, and one hundred acres in section twen- 
ty-six. Timber Creek township, Nance county. 

Mr. Hodges was married January 1, 1893, to 
Miss Lillie Vosburgh, daughter of Willis and 
Minerva Vosburgh, who made Nance county their 
home for a number of years. Her father is now 
dead, while Mrs. Vosburgh makes her home in 
California. Mr. and Mrs. Hodges have four 
children, namely: Nellie, Stella, Herbert F. and 
Pearl, all now living at home. Both of Mr. 
Hodges' parents are deceased. 

Mr. Hodges is a man of sterling character, 
energetic and capable, a good business man, and 
has been very successful during his career. He 
has taken an active interest in local affairs dur- 
ing his residence in Nance county, helping to es- 
tablish the schools, etc., and for the past seven- 
teen years has been a member of the school board 
of district number fifty-three. 


Theodore Wheeler, one of Atkinson's first 
])usiness men, and now living retired from active 
work, first came to Nebraska in 1880. October 10 
of that year he filed on a homestead and timber 
claim, fifteen miles northwest of town. He and a 
son, Willard A. Wheeler, opened a store at Atkin- 
son, January 1, 1881, as soon as a building could 
be erected, and they continued in business until 
1885, when the store was sold. During this time, 
they were also interested in a ranch, the son man- 
aging the store and the father the ranch. In 1887 
the ranch was rented, and the father has since 

been a resident of Atkinson. The two men con- 
tinued business in the line of raising cattle and 
sheep until 1904, when they sold out. 

Theodore Wheeler was born in Mendonville, 
New York, September 27, 1830, and lived in his 
native place until 1860, when he removed to the 
state of Illinois. He resided near the county seat 
of Kankakee county two years, then moved to 
Iroquois county, and lived on the "Hurricane 
Farm." which was the property of Lemuel Milk. 
until he came to Nebraska in 1880. His contract 
with Mr. Milk provided for a partnership, which 
was very satisfactory to both parties during its 
life. Upon making the trip to Nebraska, Mr. 
Wheeler traveled as far as Wahoo by rail, and 
as there was then no railroad reaching to Holt 
county, he made the rest of the journey by wagon. 

Mr. Wheeler is a son of George W. Wheeler, 
who ws born in Mohawk Valley, New York, 
December 19, 1799, a few days after the death of 
the first president of the United States, after 
whom he was named, and his christening occurred 
on the day of Washington's funeral, although 
the news of the death of the illustrious man was 
not received until three weeks after his demise — 
so slow was the dissemination of news in those 

Mr. Wheeler's marriage occurred in Mont- 
gomery county. New York, June 26, 1859, when 
he was united with Miss Elizabeth Andrews, who 
was born in Oppenheim, New York, daughter of 
Sabina and Elizabeth (Bartlett) Andrews. Two 
children blessed their union, Willard A. and 
Elma. The latter died in 1881, at the age of 
nineteen years, and was the first person interred 
in the cemetery at Atkinson. 

Willard A. Wheeler was born in Montgomery 
county. New York, February 19, 1860, and was 
but a few months old when his parents removed 
to Illinois. He was reared in the latter state, and 
there became a valuable assistant to his father 
in carrying on the farm. Since attaining man- 
hood, he has been his father's business partner in 
all vent^ires in which the latter has been inter- 
ested. He managed their store five years, and 
after its sale was appointed postmaster at At- 
kinson under Cleveland during his first admin- 
istration, his commission being dated in the fall 
of 1885, and his term ending four years later. 
In 1890 he went to Hot Springs, South Dakota, 
and there opened a real estate and abstract office, 
in which he continued six years. In 1897 he 
began active management of the Wheeler ranch, 
remaining there until 1903, and soon after his 
return to Atkinson, established a cement block 
factory that has since then been furnishing ex- 
cellent building material in many varied forms, 
to customers over a wide area of territory. He 
has built up an excellent trade in the plainer 
styles of artificial stone, and also keeps a stock 
of many varieties for special use. and he is also 
able to manufacture on short notice any form of 



concrete product for either plain or ornamental 

The first marriage of Willard A. "Wheeler 
took place June 6, 1886, his bride being Miss 
Laura Graham, daughter of Samuel L. and 
Belle (Taylor) Graham, who died eighteen months 
after their marriage, leaving one daughter, who 
died in infancy. 

Mr. Wheeler was married again at Hot 
Springs, South Dakota, to Miss Carrie Olsen, a 
native of Norway, who died February 19, 1904. 

Father and son are life-long democrats, and 
have always given their hearty support to the 
candidates of" their party who have been worthy 
of their allegiance. The elder Mr. Wheeler be- 
came a member of the Masonic order in the 
lodge of Chebanse, while living in Iroquois county, 
Illinois, and is now the only charter member 
left of the lodge at Atkinson, in which his son 
has received three degrees. While a resident of 
Hot Springs, the latter joined the Chapter, and 
served as high priest in that branch of the order. 
He was also a member of the Commandery there. 

One of the early experiences which the 
Wheelers remember of their early life in Nebras- 
ka, is the blizzard of October 15 to 17, 1880, 
which overtook them while they were excavating 
the cellar for their new store building, and this 
had to be shoveled out later, as it was entirely 
filled. The building preceding the one they then 
erected was a mere shack, and theirs was the first 
pretentious store building in the town, the lum- 
ber for it being hauled from Niobrara, seventy 
miles across the open country, six days being 
required for the round trip necessary to bring 
each load. Mr. Wheeler also erected the first 
barn that was made of lumber, the previous ones 
used there being of sod with hay roofs. 

At the time of the blizzard of January 12, 
1888, Willard Wheeler, then serving as post- 
master, happened to be at home eating dinner 
when the storm arose, and so severe was it that 
he could not return to the office, where his depu- 
ty kept lone watch until the closing hour, with 
no work to attend to, as none ventured out in so 
severe a storm for their mail. 

One of the sad events which occurred during 
their early years in Nebraska was the tragic 
death of the Biglow brothers, who were caught 
by the caving in of a well they were digging. They 
had come to the state with Mr. Wheeler, and he 
was one of the many neighbors who came from 
miles around and dug desperately to accomplish 
their rescue. However, on account of the caving 
in of the sandy soil, this work was fraught with 
great danger. Although one of them lived four 
days, it was five days before their bodies could 
be reached, on account of the conditions above 
described. This untoward event cast a gloom 
over the entire settlement, which was then small, 
and could ill afford to spare any of its citizens. 

The elder Mr. Wheeler freighted all the mer- 
chandise for their general store from Neligh, 

and frequently was in the wagon train with Mr. 
Peacock, a prominent and well-known settler of 
Rock count}^ Deer, antelope and elk were plen- 
tiful in the earliest days, and venison was at 
times their only meat during the first few years. 
Freighters from the west frequently killed cattle 
on the ranges as they came eastward, and sold 
meat to the settlers, who did not ask whose cattle 
had been killed — necessity knowing no law. 
"Doe" Middleton, Ardmore, "Kid" Wade and 
other noted "rustlers" were well-known figures 
on the frontier, and were frequently to be seen 
in the Atkinson stores. Fuel was hard to get 
in the first years, and coal was to be had only 
at the railroad terminus, and at one time cedar 
posts, standard mediums of exchange, were the 
only fuel available at the stores. 

Billie Reed, who had shot the sheriff at 'Neill, 
was caught in Atkinson, five men in the posse 
suspecting that he was in Mr. Wheeler's house, 
which they surrounded, much to the fright of 
Mrs. Wheeler. It transpired, however, that he 
was hiding in a store across the road, from 
which he was finally dislodged. At his trial, 
where he was supported by all the cattlemen of 
that region, he was cleared. Those wild days 
are now but a memory, and stand in strange 
contrast to the present staid, well-settled condi- 
tion of the country, exciting wonder that so 
great a change could take place in the space of 
time that has marked comparatively a few short 


John Halligan, a prosperous and progressive 
farmer of Boone county, is the owner of a valua- 
ble estate in Manchester precinct. By his thrift 
and energy, aided by a natural business ability, 
he has gathered about him an ample sufficiency of 
this world's goods to guarantee immunity from 
want in his old age. 

Mr. Halligan was born in Kings county. Ire 
land, on March 18, 1848, being the fourth of six 
children in the family of John and Ann Halligan. 
When John was two years of age, the father, 
mother and four children came to America, their 
first settlement being in Montgomery county. 
New York state. They remained there for several 
years, then removed to Racine county, Wiscon- 
sin, and later to Juneau county, that state, where 
our subject received his early education. The 
father was a farmer, he dying in Juneau county 
about 1855, and his wife died at the home of 
our subject in 1879, in Boone county, Nebraska. 

Our subject came into Boone county in 1874, 
homesteading on section ten, township twenty, 
range five, and later removed to section twelve, 
M'hich is his present location. He had a fine 
farm of three hundred and twenty acres, situated 
in Jennings valley, improved in splendid shape, 
with good buildings and every equipment for 
carrying on a model stock and grain farm. 



Since coming to Nebraska, Mr. Halligan has 
experienced the real old-time hard.ships and 
difficulties familiar to the pioneers of the west. 
He has been intimately identified with the growth 
and development of the county in which he chose 
his home, and through it all has become success- 
ful in a marked degree, gaining the friendship 
and esteem of all with whom he has had to do. 
He is prominent along educational lines, a man 
who is recognized by all as a clear thinker, fluent 
speaker, and, although not an office holder, is 
ever active in political matters. 

Mr. Halligan was married in Platte county, 
Nebraska, October 30, 1877, to Miss Ellen Tierney, 
her family having settled in Boone county in the 
same years as our subject. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Halligan have been born six children, the follow- 
ing of whom are now living: Dr. Raymond S. 
who is married, and the father of two children; 
he is a graduate of the medical department of 
the Northwestern University, Chicago, and is 
now living in Flint, Michigan ; Gerald P., Anna 
and John Emmett. Mr. Halligan has one brother 
living in Albion. 

For the past twenty years Mr. Halligan has 
been a director of school district number sixty- 


Mr. W. S. Brown, known throughout this 
section as an able and progressive farmer, resides 
in his pleasant home on section one, township 
twenty-five, range three, and is one of the respec- 
ted citizens of the county. Since coming to this 
locality, many years ago, he has always taken a 
foremost place in the development of this region. 
He has succeeded in building up a good farm, 
and may be classed among the self-made men 
of the locality, and has gained the respect and 
esteem of his fellow men. 

Mr. Brown is a native of the state of Ohio, 
and was born October 30, 1842, the son of W. B. 
and Myra Brown, both from Pennsylvania. Both 
{)arents were of German descent. In 1850, when 
our subscriber was only eight years old, the 
family removed to Livingston county, Illinois. 
It was here that he grew up and received his 
education, and it was in this state, also, that he 
was married. 

In 1880, Mr. Brown came to Pottawottomie 
county, Iowa, but remained there only five years, 
when he again moved, this time coming to Wayne 
county, Neliraska, where, the year before, he had 
])ouglit a farm of three hundred and twenty 
acres, which lias since been his home. He has 
made niany improvements on the place since it 
came into his possession, and it is now one of the 
best-e(|uipped in the county, with buildings, 
grove and orchard and well-tiUed fields. 

In 1861, Mr. Brown was united in marriage 
to Miss Almyra Zigler, of Illinois, who died in 

In 1871, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Martha Hart, of Ohio, who died in 1896. He is 
the father of eight children, all by the second 
wife. Their names are Cora Bell, Lawrence, 
Mary, Chester, deceased, Leroy, Lucy, Bertha 
and Wayne. 

He was again married in 1900, this time to 
Miss Laura Frederick, of Ohio. 

Mr. and Mrs. Brown are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and Mr. Brown is 
a republican. ' 


One of the most successful early settlers of 
Staunton county is the genial Fred Feyerherm, 
now retired, living in the county seat. He has 
been successful, not only as a landed proprietor, 
but as a merchant and honored county official 
as well. 

Mr. Feyerherm was born in the town of Bar- 
walde, province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Febru- 
ary 26, 1852. Here he spent the years of his 
childhood and youth, as his parents, Frederick 
W. and Eleanor (Rindfleisch) Feyerherm, did not 
leave Germany until 1868. They sailed from 
Hamburg on the steamer "Utonia," and arrived 
in New York city after a voyage of fourteen days. 
The father settled with his family in Cuming 
county, where a brother had preceded him, and 
lived out his days on the farm. 

Fred remained at home with his parents, 
working the farm for his father, until he was 
twenty-four years old. He was then married at 
Rock Creek to Miss Bertha Schultz, daughter of 
John M. and Sophie (Dewitz) Schultz, natives of 
Altruednitz am Oder, in the province of Bran- 
denburg, who came to this country in 1867. After 
his marriage, Mr. Feyerherm took charge of his 
father's farm in his own right, living there some 
seven years or more. 

In 1883, he removed to Staunton county, and 
bought a farm about five miles from the county 
seat, to which the family moved after a year's 
residence on the farm. Mrs. Feyerherm was a 
delicate woman, and her strenght did not prove 
equal to the demands made upon it by the work 
on the farm in those early days, and it was hoped 
that a few years of the greater ease in town 
would fully restore her to health. Mrs. Feyerherm 
once had the unusual experience of reading her 
own obituary. A neighbor died when Mrs. Fey- 
erherm was critically ill, and the report went out 
that she had passed away. 

Coming to town, Mr. Feyerherm engaged in 
the implement business, continuing in that line 
for twenty-one years, until his election as county 
treasurer in the fall of 1905. He served the public 
in this capacity so acceptably that he was called 
upon to fill the position a second term, carrying 
every precinct in the county. This is an endorse- 
ment of his administration of wliieh any official 
might be proud, when it is considered that he is 



a republican, while the county is strongly demo- 

Mr. Feyerherm passed through the vicissitudes 
of a pioneer's life in Nebraska, and has seen the 
country develop from the time when it was almost 
entirely wild, with flocks of antelope ranging 
over the prairies, to its present state. Indians 
gave them but little trouble, although when the 
men were away working, their incessant begging 
for bread or flour used to make the feminine por- 
tion of the household nervous. 

Of the nine children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Feyerherm, seven are living. Their names are as 
follows: Ella (Mrs. Alfred Glaus), of Lewiston, 
Minnesota; Fred; Clara (Mrs. Henry Schwartz), 
of Menominee, Wisconsin ; Eric, Edith, Irene and 

Mr. Feyerherm and his family are members 
of the St. "John 's Lutheran church of Staunton. 
This family is well known socially, their musical 
talents alone being sufficient to bring them into 
notice. All of the children have fine voices, and 
they are also pianists of no ordinary ability. 
The young ladies are members of an excellent 
female quartet, which has attracted more than 
local attention, being recognized as splendid 
talent in western Nebraska. 


Isaac F. Billings, who resides in section twenty- 
six, township twenty-seven, range eight, Antelope 
county, Nebraska, is one of the progressive farm- 
ers of that locality. He is a gentleman of firm 
characteristics, whose high standing as a worthy 
citizen is well merited. Mr. Billings is a typical 
pioneer of northeastern Nebraska, has lived many 
years in this section of the country, and has taken 
an active interest in the growth and development 
of this region, building up for himself a substan- 
tial home and fortune. 

Mr. Billings was born March 25, 1843, in 
Tioga county, Pennsylvania, and was the eldest 
of five children in the family of Charles and 
Lucinda (Fields) Billings. Our subject's father 
was born in 1816, in the state of New York, and 
was a descendant from Ireland. He died in 1901. 
The mother of our subject was a native of Ver- 
mont, born in 1828, and died in 1895. Our sub- 
ject, with his parents, moved from Pennsylvania 
to Michigan, where he lived seven years, and from 
thence to Illinois, where they lived one year, then 
moving to Minnesota, where they took up a home- 
stead, on which they built a log house, sixteen by 
sixteen feet, where the father and mother and 
five children lived for twenty years. In 1877, 
the family came overland, in a covered wagon, to 
Nebraska, where Mr. Billings took up a home- 
stead and timber claim in Holt county, near what 
is known as "Gunter bridge," near Ewing. 
Here the family experienced many hardships in 
those pioneer days, and, like so many other brave 
pioneer farmers, they lost tlieir crops by the 

grasshopper raids. The winters of 1880 and 1881 
were very hard for a family just starting in this 
section of the country. Antelope and deer were 
plentiful in those days, which proved to be very 
fortunate for our subject and family, as the snow 
was very deep, and they could not get to market 
at Norfolk, that being the nearest market, and 
they could occasionally go out and bring down a 
deer, keeping themselves supplied with meat. 

On November 14, 1884, Mr. Billings was 
united in marriage to Miss Blanche Ball, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Billings are the parents of the follow- 
ing children : Arthur, Charles, Earl and Mabel. 
Arthur is married to Miss Bertha Rankin. Mrs. 
Billings' parents were early settlers in Nebraska. 
They drove from Jo Daviess county, Illinois, to 
Blaine township, Nebraska, in the early days, 
taking up a homestead. Her father was born in 
the state of New York, and was a descendant 
from England. 

Mr. Billings took up a homestead in section 
two, township twenty-six, range nine, in Holt 
county, Nebraska, and built a log house, as he 
was close to the Elkhorn river, and could get logs 
easily. In 1902, he came to Antelope county, and 
bought three hundred and twenty acres of land 
from Mr. Comstock, and is now owner of one of 
the finest farms in Antelope county, which is 
known as the "Prairie Belle Farm." 

Mr. Billings relates many interesting remin- 
iscences of early days in Nebraska. In Septem- 
ber, 1879, a severe prairie fire burned its way 
across the prairie, and to save the hay, Mr. Bil- 
lings plowed a fire guard around his stacks, and 
then started a back fire. His fire burned back 
about two rods,' when a tumbling weed, which 
was ignited, blew back, and set fire to the stack, 
and the fire then swept on. Mr. Billings had to 
run for shelter to a cornfield, which was near. 
The fire jumped Elkhorn river, and swept on 
toward O'Neill, but Mr. Billings' house and 
buildings escaped. 


Norton Wright, owner of the Walnut Grove 
Farm, through his long residence in Pierce coun- 
ty, Nebraska, and his wide experience in farming, 
has become thoroughly versed in the growth and 
development of that region. He is one of the 
leading citizens of his community, and has ac- 
(juired valuable possessions by his industry and 
good management, supplemented by honesty and 

Mr. Wright was born in Ocean county, Michi- 
gan, August 9, 1869, and is the son of Amos and 
Josephine (Crawford) Wright, the father being 
a native of Canada, and the mother of the south- 
east part of Michigan. The Wright family moved 
from Michigan to Butler county, Nebraska, in 
1874, driving across country, the trip occupying 
thirty-six days, camping by the wayside. They 
settled in Butler county, living the fii'st six years 



in a sod house. The first year they failed to get 
a crop planted, and the two following years the 
grasshoppers took every blade of wheat and corn. 
In 1880, the father filed on a homestead in Ante- 
lope county, eight miles west of Plainview. 

During the following winter, snow drifted 
over the barn to such a depth that a tunnel was 
necessary, and during this winter they burned 
hay 'for fuel most of the time, and cornstalks were 
hauled half a mile for the same purpose. A son 
riding out from O'Neill was from early morning 
until midnight making eighteen miles, on account 
of the snow, having to borrow a mule to complete 
the journey, his horse becoming exhausted on the 
way. Flour, at times, could not be procured, and 
johnny cake was their only food. But they lived 
to attain comfort and competence before leaving 

The elder "Wright returned to Michigan in 
1889, where he and his wife passed the remainder 
of their days. One half-section he sold for six 
hundred dollars — it could not be bought now for 
sixteen thousand dollars. 

Norton Wright was united in holy matrimony, 
April 10, 1889, to Miss Emma Davis, a native of 
Jefferson county, Pennsylvania, born July 22, 
1869. Her parents, Oathniel and Maggie (Riegel) 
Davis, were also natives of that state. They came 
west in February, 1870, and settled in Madison 
county, remaining thirteen years, when they 
bought a settler's timber claim in the southeast 
quarter of section seven, township twenty-seven, 
range four, and later sold to Mr. Wright, and 
wliich he has since extensively improved. In the 
blizzard of 1888, he made his way some forty rods 
to the school house, and safely returned with a 
nephew. He escaped the three-day blizzard, 
beginning October 15, 1881, by fortunately re- 
turning home from the range the evening before. 
To Mr. and. Mrs. Wright, five children have 
been born, named as follows: Charles L., Mag- 
gie M., Henry 0., Loretta (died in 1907) and 
Winetta. Ava, an adopted daughter, has been 
with them almost since infancy. They are a fine 
family, and enjoy the esteem and respect of all 
wlio know them. 

Mr. Wright has two hundred and forty acres 
of land, on which is a ten-acre grove. The grove 
to the M'est of the house is of fine growing wal- 
nuts, which gives the farm its name. An orchard 
of about one hundred trees, some of which have 
been bearing a number of years furnishes an 
abundance of fruit — apples, cherries and plums 
lieing the principal varieties. The farm supports 
from fifteen to twenty horses, thirty to forty cat- 
tle, and a hundred and fifty cows. ' 

All this is the result of the personal effort of 
Mr. and Mrs. Wright. Few in the west began 
with as little, few suffered greater privation, and 
not many have attained from such a small begin- 
ning such great success. At the time of their mar- 
riage, this worthy couple l_acked the price of a 
license fee, and had to borrow the amount from 

a friend. Hand in hand and side by side they 
have struggled along, adding dollar to dollar and 
acre to acre, until they have now attained a com- 
petency. They built, in the summer of 1910, a 
handsome ten-room house that is not excelled in 
appearance and surroundings by any in the coun- 
ty. Surely, Walnut Grove Farm is a comfort 
to the owner, and a credit to the community. 
We are pleased to call your attention to a large 
view of Walnut Grove Farm on another page of 
this work. 

Mr. Wright is a staunch republican. 


What persistence in an idea, what persever- 
ance in a course laid out will do is illustrated in 
the life of Doctor Hiram H. Hoagland, of Plain- 
view, Nebraska, who, by the exercise of those 
traits, accomplished his purpose of becoming a 
physician against conditions and discouragements 
that would have appalled a less resolute man. 

Born in Fox township, Sullivan county, Penn- 
sylvania, October 19, 1832, the first twenty-two 
years of his life were spent there. While still a 
youth, he began the study of medicine in the office 
of Doctor Webster, of Hill's Grove, Pennsylvania, 
and was making good progress in his profession. 
His mari-iage in his twentieth year delayed ma- 
terially his progress in his profession, as the sup- 
port of an ever-increasing family drove him to 
the earning of daily bread at a time when he 
should have been prosecuting his studies. For 
sustenance he found work at the blacksmiths' 
ti-ade in various towns throughout Pennsylvania, 
reading in the office of some local physician in 
each town where he happened to reside. 

He was still busily pursuing his studies when 
the war broke out, and during the latter year of 
the war enlisted in company C, First New York 
veteran cavalry, in September, 1864, and served 
until the close of hostilities, seeing service in 
West Virginia, near Charleston, guarding the 
salt works. 

Having attained the desired proficiency in his 
chosen profession. Doctor Hoagland returned to 
Bradford county after the war, and began prac- 
tice, continuing in the profes.sion there and in 
Susquehanna county until 1871, when he came 
west. Ijocating in Carroll county, Iowa, he prac- 
ticed there four years, then removed to Denison, 
Crawford county, Iowa, where he was engaged in 
practice until his removal to Nebraska, in 1880. 

In the spring of that year, he came to Ante- 
lope county, and filed on a homestead claim, eigln 
miles west of Plainview, and began the life of a 
pioneer. His de.sire was to abandon the practice 
of medicine, but a colony from Denison would 
have no other physician, and his fame as a healer 
soon spread throughout the countryside. About 
ten years after settlement in Nebraska, he bought 
a tree claim, the seventh claimant on the same 
land, planted his trees, and made good his title. 



In 1898, he removed to Plainview, and has, since 
1908, served as justice of the peace, having filled 
the same office for twelve years in Antelope 

Doctor Hoagland was first married in Brad- 
ford county, Pennsylvania, in 1852, to Miss Fannie 
Harrington, who died at Elmyra, New York. Of 
six children born to them, but two survive, 
Gertrude, wife of Frank Crandall, of Chicago, 
and George, living at Elmyra, New York. 

Of his second marriage, in Carroll county, 
Iowa, to Miss Lodema Colclo, two children were 
born, botli of whom have followed the mother to 
the grave. 

The Doctor was married in Antelope county, 
Nebraska, to his present wife, who was Miss Ella 
Passmore, a native of Jo Daviess county, Illinois. 
Their four children are : Vera, a teacher of South 
Dakota; Erma, who was for a time teaching in 
Nebraska and South Dakota ; Ora Delos, the only 
son, is a student of the Plainview schools, class 
of 1912, as is Lida Mary, the youngest. 

The Doctor has had a varied life, extending 
from the old established customs and institutions 
of the east to the wild and open country of the 
western frontier. He has passed through the 
scenes of peace and war, and knows what it means 
to earn his daily bread by the brawn of his sinewy 
arm, as well as by the brain and skill of the pro- 
fessional man. He bears up well the weight of 
his many years, and has won, by his sterling char- 
acter and worth, the respect and good will of all 
his fellow townsmen. 


A leading old-timer of eastern Nebraska is 
found in the gentleman above mentioned, having 
come to Howard county in the year of 1879, when 
that region was just beginning to be settled by 
many who had come to this new country to build 
up a home and fortune through industry and 
perseverance, and who by dint of good manage- 
ment and oft times much privation, have accum- 
ulated a competence, and helped to make the his- 
tory of the west. 

Mr. Smith was born in Elk county, Pennsyl- 
vania, near St. Mary's, February 28, 1861. When 
our subject was nine years of age, the family of 
father, mother, brother and three sisters moved 
into Benton county, Indiana, where the father fol- 
lowed farming, and here they remained nine 

In February of 1879, the family, excepting 
two sisters who had married, moved into Howard 
county, Nebraska. One of the sisters was married 
to Vincent Horak, and one to Lewis Anstett, and 
both families later became residents of Howard 
county. Vincent Horak died on his home farm in 
St. Libory district, in June, 1901, survived by his 
widow and eight children. 

Upon first coming to Howard county, our 
subject's father homesteaded on section eighteen, 

township thirteen, range nine, which remained 
the home farm until his death, which occurred 
March 25, 1905. The mother had passed away in 
June of 1903. 

Mr. Sinith had, upon coming to Howard 
county, remained on the homestead farm several 
years, assisting his father to break up the land. 
On becoming of age, he took up a timber claim 
on the southeast (juarter of section twelve, town- 
ship thirteen, range ten, which has always re- 
mained his home farm. This is well equipped 
with good buildings, and is known as Sunny-Side 

Mr. Smith .was married to Miss Flora Rice, 
on the Rice homestead farm in Howard county, 
July 15, 1886. Miss Rice was a native of Illinois, 
and came into Howard county in 1881. Mr. and 
Mrs. Smith have nine children — a charming fam- 
ily: Viola and Laura, who are teachers in the 
public schools; Leo, Margaret, Carl, Catherine, 
Elizabeth, Paul and Bertha, all of whom reside 
under the parental roof. 

Mr. Smith is active in all matters of import- 
ance to his home, county or state. He has passed 
through much of the early hardships of pioneer 
life, and is a self-made man. He has been treas- 
urer of his school district, number forty-six, for 
fifteen years. 


Peter Christian and wife are to be classed 
with the honored pioneers who came to Nebraska 
at a time when they had to endure many adverse 
conditions, and win their way to success by un- 
tiring energy and industry. They have been 
identified with the upbuilding and progress of 
central Nebraska, and were among the number 
who began their life there in sod shanties. 

Mr. Christian was born in the town of Faa- 
borg, isle of Fyen, Denmark, the second child of 
Jens Christian and wife. He first saw the light 
of day May 18, 1848, and had one brother and 
one sister. He was the only one of his family to 
come to America, which he did after receiving a 
common school education in his native land. He 
came in 1866, sailing from Copenhagen in the 
"Prairie Queen," making a landing at Chris- 
tiana, where three hundred more emigrants were 
taken aboard. They landed in New York city, 
May 1. 

Mr. Christian first followed lumbering, river 
driving and farming in Wisconsin, locating first 
in Winnebago county. He was married at Berlin, 
Wisconsin, March 8, 1873, to Hannah E. Clausen, 
daughter of Jacob and Karen Clausen, who came 
from Denmark in 1866, and now reside at Den- 
mark, Brown county, Wisconsin. Mrs. Christian 
was the eldest of their children — two sons and 
three daughters — all of whom live in Wisconsin, 
except Mrs. Christian. Mr. Christian's parents 
died in Denmark, both about 1876, and his brother 
and sister still live in 'their native country. 



In the fall of 1877, Mr. Christian and wife 
moved to Brownsburg, Hendricks county, Indiana, 
where he was superintendent of a big farm owned 
by a wealthy citizen of Indianapolis. In the 
spring of 1881, he drove with a prairie schooner 
to Valley count}', traveling over the trail taken 
by others, who were going in the same general 
direction. The journey lasted seven weeks, de- 
lays being caused by having to ford streams or 
ferry, all bridges having been washed away by 
the unprecedented floods of the spring. Even 
the bridge across the Missouri river at Platts- 
mouth was swept away. They had but about fif- 
teen dollars cash capital, and had many hard 
years before them. They located on the home- 
stead on the northeast quarter of section twelve, 
township seventeen, range sixteen, and this i-e- 
mained their home for many years. He became 
interested in selling windmills, pumps, etc., and 
erected the first implement store in the then new 
town of Arcadia, in 1884, remaining in that busi- 
ness until 1895. Prior to engaging in that line, 
he had paid considerable attention to the stock 
business, and for the past fifteen years has been 
extensively interested in buying and selling, feed- 
ing and sliipping cattle and hogs. He has been a 
pioneer business man along various lines, and has 
always had the best interests of the region at 
heart. He sold the original homestead tract, but 
still owns his first purchased farm near Arcadia. 
He and his wife now reside in one of the finest 
modern homes in Arcadia, and have a large num- 
ber of friends there. They have an adopted son, 
Jesse W. Christian, who is a carpenter, builder 
and contractor by occupation. He lives in Arcad- 
ia, is married, and he and his wife, who was Miss 
Emma Stone, are parents of three sons and three 
daughters. Mr. Christian and wife have . also 
taken into their home at various times other 
children who were in need of tender care and 
attention, and are possessed of kind hearts and 
generous natures. 

Mr. Christian has assisted in no small way in 
the upbuilding and welfare of Arcadia, not only 
as a business man, but as a citizen who is always 
ready to help in any measure of progress. Mrs. 
Christian well remembers their early days in the 
dirt-roofed sod house, which offered such poor 
protection from the storm and rain. In those 
times she often remained at home to care for the 
cattle and hogs, while her husband worked away 
for a time to help with their finances, during her 
full share to help make a start in the new home. 
Mr. Christian has been a life-long republican, 
easting his first American vote for Grant at the 
time of his first campaign. He has weathered 
many of the storms and blizzards that swept the 
west, and one hailstorm that he encountered was 
especially severe, having torn the top of liis buggy 
to a sliapeless wreck. 


Alex. E. Cunningham, an agriculturist of 
prominence in Madison county, Nebraska, resides 
in Battle Creek precinct, on section twenty-seven, 
township twenty-three, range two, and is one of 
those substantial citizens whose integrity and 
industry, thrift and economy have added so much 
to the material wealth and growth of Nebraska. 

Mr. Cunningham is a native-born Nebraskan, 
his birth occurring on his father's homestead farm 
in Madison county, April 13, 1873. He is a son of 
Augustus M. and Mary E. (Ellis) Cunningham, 
who were both natives of Pennsylvania. The 
father came to Madison county, Nebraska, in 1871, 
and this has remained his home ever since. He 
served in the civil war, enlisting in Company A, 
First Pennsylvania infantry, in 1861, and received 
his honorable discharge in 1864. During his 
service, he was wounded at the battle of Gettys- 

Our subject's father moved to Nebraska in 
1871, as before stated, coming from Pennsylvania, 
his native state. After his arrival here, he took 
up a homestead claim on section twenty-seven, 
township twenty-three, range two, which remains 
the old homestead farm to this day, and where our 
subject now resides. On this land was built a 
shanty, ten by twelve feet, where three families 
lived a part of one winter. 

During the first years of residence on the fron- 
tier of the far west, our subject's parents and 
family, like so many of the brave sons who came 
to this new, unsettled region, endured many hard- 
ships and privations, as well as frequent dangers. 
The first few years, the grasshoppers came in 
hordes, and cleaned up crops and pasture, leaving 
barren wastes of ground, where but a short time 
before their arrival, plentiful and promising 
crops had been growing almost ready for harvest. 
This was about the greatest source of losses the 
early settlers had to endure. Many times the 
family were compelled to burn hay and cornstalks 
to keep warm in the winter, as wood and coal were 
hard to get, and the price too high to permit of 
using for fuel in this region. As late as 1894, 
the family again lost the season's crops by the 
hot winds, which came as a result of the great 
drouth of that year, all vegetation being burned 
to a crisp. But those are days which have passed 
to history, and our subject now enjoys the com- 
fort and prosperity which time and improvement 
have brought to this section of the country. He 
now owns three hundred and twent.y acres of fine 
land and a good home. 

Mr. Cunningham was united in marriage in 
1906 to Mrs. Effie Cunningham, a native of Illi- 
nois. Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham have had two 
children to bless their union, Arthur and Leona. 
Mrs. Cunningham had one sou by her former 
marriage, Newell Cunningham, wlio resides with 
his step father. 

Mr. Cunningham is a republican. 




It is probable that among the early settlers of 
Nebraska there is not a one who is more widely 
Imow than the above, who is now a resident of 
Loup City. He came to this county in 1883, and 
since that time has made it his home. For more 
than a quarter of a century he has lived in Loup 
City, and during this long period of time he has 
accomplished many things for the city. It is 
indebted to him for Jenner's Park, one of the 
well-known resorts of the locality, and much of 
its progress in other ways can be traced to his 
enterprise and public spirit. 

Henry Jenner was born in London, England, 
on the 14th of March, 1861, and was the second 
of eight children born to Henry and Jemima 
Garches (Bond) Jenner. But of this large fam- 
ily, five of the children are still living — three 
sisters in England and one brother, Robert, in 
Loup City. Both parents died in the old country. 

Mr. Jenner received his elemeutaiy education 
under private instructors, and after spending 
seven years in the famous school at Eaton, en- 
tered King's College in London, where he re- 
mained four years. After leaving this college, 
he engaged in the business of brewing for three 

In 1882, he came to America, sailing from 
Liverpool to New York in the "City of Chester," 
and located in Sherman county, Nebraska. The 
next year, in company with his brother, Robert 
Bond Jenner, he bought three hundred and 
twenty acres of land, about seven miles south 
of Loup City, where they lived for five years, 
then sold and moved to town, where Mr. Jenner 
engaged in the creamery business in partnership 
with H. M. Mathew. 

In September, 1892, Mr. Jenner married Miss 
Laura Lee Smith, a native of Tennessee. Her 
father, Andrew Jackson Smith, came to Sherman 
county, Nebraska, in 1879. His wife, who was 
Loania V. V. Norton before marriage, followed 
with the children the next spring. Three chil- 
dren have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Jenner — 
Constance, Henry and Robert. 

Mr. Jenner is one of the younger men among 
the early settlers, but his liberal education and 
natural progressiveness have tended to make him 
remarkable among the sturdy pioneers. He has 
always been interested in all measures tending 
to the betterment of the conditions in his adopted 
home, and has not hesitated to give freely of 
both time and means in order to accomplish the 
end sought. For fourteen years he served as 
water commissioner, superintending the munici- 
pal water works. 

About 1898, he purchased some land adjoin- 
ing the city limits, seven acres of which he has 
devoted to a private amusement and zoological 
park, known as Jenner's Park. He now has 
about two hundred animals of various kinds here, 
and many interesting curios from many parts 

of the world. Besides these, there are all kinds 
of devices for amusing both young and old, a 
splendid dancing and refreshment pavilion, etc. 
The grounds are beautified by the many and 
rare flowers, which are kept in the finest possible 
order, as well as the many tiny ponds filled 
with hundreds of darting, flashing gold fish. It 
is a park which would do credit to a much 
larger city than Loup City. 

Mr. Jenner's long residence in this city, to- 
gether with his remarkable personality, have 
made it possible for him to come in contact with 
many hundreds of people, and he is respected 
by every one with whom he has an acquaintance. 

Mr. Jenner was reared in the Episcoj^al 
church. He is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias order and of the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen. In politics he is a republican. 


One of the oldest of Nebraska's citizens, one 
who has for nearly forty years been a resident 
of Cedar county, is Frank A. Thoene, now living 
retired from active farming, in Hartington. 

Mr. Thoene was born in the village of Arpe, 
province of Westphalia, Germany, December 24, 
1833, a son of Fred and Elizabeth (Jutte) Thoene. 
He lived in his native land, engaging in farm 
labor, until his emigration to America in 1861. 
Sailing from Bremen in a full-rigged ship, after 
a voyage of six weeks he landed in New York, 
July 15, 1861, and proceeded at once to Detroit, 
Michigan, where friends from his native village 
had preceded him. Here he found work in a fac- 
tory for a time, but quit work to enlist in the 
army, going to the front in October of 1861. 

The company in which he was enrolled went 
to St. Louis, Missouri, to join Sigel's Brigade, 
and was mustered in as Company G, Fifth Mis- 
souri Volunteer Infantry, and was quartered for 
a time at Benton Barracks. His company was 
the only only one of the regiment that was not 
engaged in a mutiny on the Arkansas border, 
but was for a time under arrest with the others. 
They saw service in the Ozark region, between 
St. Louis and southwest Missouri, and were 
marched through the south part of the state to 
Cape Girardeau, and were tran.sported thence to 
St. Louis by boat, serving in all thirteen months. 

After his discharge, Mr. Thoene returned to 
Detroit. Here he worked for six months, and 
then journeyed to the northern peninsula, and 
worked in the copper mines for two and a half 
years. Prom that time until 1872, he was em- 
ployed in Detroit in a wholesale store, resigning 
his position to remove to Nebraska. On reaching 
Cedar county, he settled in Bow valley, on a 
homestead, to which he has continually added 
until he now owns thirteen hundred and sixty 
acres of as fine land as is to be found in Nebras- 
ka. Foreseeing the future development of the 
state, he early began buying at a time when he 



secured titles at from four to nine dollars an 
acre. One farm of two hundred and eighty acres 
lies within a mile of Hartington to the west, and 
is a very valuable tract of laud. In March. 1907. 
Mr. Thoene resigned the reigns of management 
to his sous, and, purchasing a cottage in Hart- 
ington, retired to a life of greater ease. 

Mr. Thoene was married at Detroit, Michigan, 
in the fall of 1866, to Miss Otilda Arens, born in 
Westphalia in 1838. Her death occurred in 
March, 1911. Of their eleven children, eight are 
living, two having died in infancy and one in 
maturity. The ones attaining maturity are 
Prank A;, junior, farming in Cedar county; Ma- 
tilda, deceased, who was the wife of Theodore 
Peitz ; Joseph occupies part of the old home 
farm; Touey cultivates one of his father's farms 
at Pordyee ; Mary is the wife of Peter Lauer, 
living two miles west of Hartington ; Henry is 
farming in Texas ; Lizzie, who is the wife of John 
Stappert, lives on their farm in Bow valley ; Pred 
is farming near St. Helena, and John, the young- 
est, shares the old home farm with Joseph. 

Mr. Thoene, being a soldier at the time, was 
allowed to cast his first vote in 1861, although 
he had been in America but a short time. He 
supported the democratic party until 1880, but 
has since been a republican. He was reared a 
Catholic, and is now a member of the church in 
Hartington. He is a comrade of Post No. 179, 
Grand Army of the Republic, at Hartington. 
He was one of the first assessors of his precinct, 
and held that office for several years. 

Mr. Thoene, like other settlers, endured many 
hardships during the early days. The first year 
he raised a good crop on the small acreage he 
had broken, but the second year the grasshoppers 
took everything he had sown. His first .year he 
had twelve acres of corn, twelve of wheat and 
twelve of oats. He raised six hogs, hauled five 
dressed ones to Yankton, and got only $31.00 for 
the lot, all the cash they had to live on for two 
years, until the crop of 1874 was raised. For- 
tunately the grasshoppers passed over his land in 
later years, when others were suffering severe 
losses. The family suffered from blizzards, too, 
that of October, 1880, taking toll of him to the 
extent of eight or ten head of stock, while a 
neighbor lost all he owned. 

But, withal, life in Nebraska has been a suc- 
cessful one for Mr. Thoene. He suffered many 
liitter trials and endui-ed many hardships, but 
he endured to the end, and in the evening of life 
Mr. Thoene can take life easy without a thought 
or care of the morrow. 


Among the early settlers in eastern Nebraska, 
who labored for the upbuilding of that region 
and has met with marked success and gained 
a high station as a citizen, none commands higher 
respect and esteem than the subject of this 

review. Mr. Farrell is a gentleman of active 
public spirit, and has been prominent in local, 
county and state affairs for many years past, 
and is universally esteemed as a worthy citizen. 

Thomas P. Farrell, son of John and Catherine 
(0 'Conner) Farrell, was born in Canada, 
December 25, 1858, and was the eldest in a family 
of nine children, of whom one brother resides 
in Oregon, one in North Dakota, and another in 
Idaho, and three sisters live in Merrick county, 
Nebraska. The mother died in 1899, as did also 
the father, both on the old homestead in Ne- 

In April, 1871, when twelve years of age, Mr. 
Farrell came with his parents to Merrick county, 
Nebraska, where the father homesteaded one 
hundred and sixty acres in section thirty-four, 
township thirteen, range seven, in Chapman 
township. He received his education in the 
schools of Canada and Nebraska, and later en- 
gaged in farming. 

About 1882, Mr. Farrell, our subject, pur- 
chased eighty acres, which was his home place 
twenty-five years, but he is now living on his 
father's homestead. He has been prosperous and 
successful, and owns something over two hun- 
dred acres of fine farming land, all under culti- 
vation. In politics, Mr. Farrell is a populist, and 
was a member of the Nebraska state senate, rep- 
resenting the eighteenth district two terms, from 
1897 to 1901 inclusive. He also served nine years 
on the school board of his district. 

Mr. Farrell was married June 10, 1884, to 
Miss Sarah Gallagher of Wilkesbarre, Pennsyl- 
vania. Mr. and Mrs. Farrell have had ten chil- 
dren born to them, seven of whom are living: 
Veronica, wife of John Malloy, has one child and 
lives in Saunders county, Nebraska; Teressa, 
Paul, Gertrude, Thomas, Vivian and Ragina, all 
of whom reside under the parental roof; Ed- 
ward, deceased; Agnes and Harry, deceased in 

Mrs. Farrell's father, Barney Gallagher, died 
in 1907, and her mother still lives in Palmer, 
Nebraska. A sister lives in Canada, one in Los 
Angeles, another in the state of Washington, 
and still another in Chicago. She has a brother 
residing in South Dakota, one brother and two 
sisters in Merrick county. 

Mr. Farrell is one of the well known men of 
this part of the state, and has been closely iden- 
tified with the interests of Nebraska. He is a 
progressive man of affairs, and is widely and 
favorably Imown. 

C. A. LYON. 

Mr. C. A. Lyon, who resides on section five, 
township twenty-nine, range five, Knox county, 
is one of the leading old-timers in this section, 
and has always done his full share in the better- 
ment of conditions throughout tlie community 
in which he lives. 



Mr. Lyon is a native of New York state, and 
was born at Buffalo, February 2, 1842. He is a 
son of Lewis and Samanthe Lyon, of Irish and 
English descent respectively. Our subject's 
grandmother, on his mother's side, was in Boston 
at the time of the famous tea party, and well 
remembered tliat stirring event. His great 
grandfather, Ethan Allen, served in the revolu- 
tionary war. 

Mr. Lyon's early childhood was spent in his 
native city, and at the tender age of three years, 
his parents moved to Wisconsin, where the family 
remained until he was ten years old. and then 
they migrated to Iowa. His education was ob- 
tained in the public schools of Wisconsin and 
Iowa, where he spent his boyhood days. While 
living in Iowa, he enlisted in Company F, 3rd 
Regiment of Iowa Infantry, under Captain C. 
A. Neweomb, and served through the entire war. 
He was wounded at Blue Mills, Missouri, was 
laid up for some time, and in February, 1862, 
was discharged on account of another disability. 
In August, 1862, he re-enlisted at West Union, 
Iowa. He saw active service and participated 
in many battles and minor engagements, being 
wounded again at Springfield, Missouri. 

He received his discharge in August, 1865, 
and returned to his home in Iowa, remaining 
there engaged in a harness shop and farming up 
to 1872. In the month of May of that year, he 
started out by wagon team for Nebraska, and 
selected a location in section nine, township 
twenty-nine, range five, filed on a homestead, 
and begun to build up a farm. He at once put 
up a dugout and sod house combined, in which 
they lived for several years. During the first 
three years, the grasshoppers took about all they 
raised, which was a serious hardship in those 
days, times being extremely hard for the poor 
settler at the best. In 1894, the hot winds burned 
up all his crops. He managed to make a bare 
living, often himself and family being without 
the common necessaries of life. Many times dur- 
ing his early residence here in Nebraska, the 
entire settlement was forced to fight for days 
the stubborn prairie fires that threatened their 
homes and stock. 

After a hard struggle for existence. Mr. Lyon 
finally begun to accumulate a nice property, and 
at the present time he is the owner of a valuable 
estate and beautifiil home, situated on section 
five, township twenty-nine, range five, consisting 
of three hundred and twenty acres of the finest 
land in the county. 

October 1, 1867, Mr. Lyon was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Sara A. Howard, ;md to thom two 
children were born, both now inai'i-icd ,-iiiil set- 
tled in comfortable homes in this local it.\-. Mary, 
the elder, is the wife of James C. S<|uires. while 
Inez married John Neyens. 

Mr. Lyon has always l)een active in local 
affairs, and has done miich toward promoting 

the growth of the commercial and agricultural 
interests of Knox county. During the early days 
he served as county superintendent of schools, 
and proved a most popular and efficient official. 
He is a stockholder and director of the First 
National Bank of Bazile Mills. 


Okeley E. Green, an able reiDresentative of 
the commercial and financial interests of Nance 
county, is president of one of the leading banks 
in Genoa, also one of the large land-owners of 
this section of the state. He is actively interested 
in the cattle business, breeding and raising thor- 
oughbred stock, and is quoted as an authority 
on all matters pertaining to that line of work. 
With his family, he occupies a beautiful res- 
idence in Genoa, and all are popular members of 
the social life of the pretty little city. 

Mr. Green is a native of Astabula county, 
Ohio, born on March 20, 1854, and when an in- 
fant about one year of age, removed with his 
parents to Illinois, where his childhood was spent. 

In 1875 he went to Iowa, locating at Walnut, 
where, in company with his brother, F. H. Green, 
he engaged in the hardware, implement and 
grain business. They were very successful in 
their venture, and carried it on for a number of 
years, remaining there up to 1883, at which time 
our subject came to Nebraska, and purchased 
the Bank of Genoa, and was the sole owner and 
manager of the same for about thirteen years. 
He then reorganized the institution, taking in 
L. L. Green and others, and incorporated it under 
the name of the Commercial State Bank. In 
1899 they again reorganized it as the First Na- 
tional Bank of Genoa, electing Mr. Green as its 
president, which office he still holds. 

Mr. Green is owner of a fine stock farm, com- 
prising fourteen hundred acres, known through- 
out the entire country as "Cloverdale, " which 
is devoted to the breeding of pure-bred Hereford 
cattle exclusively, and he has a large herd, con- 
taining some of the finest animals of this breed 
in the west. He also has one thousand acres of 
highly-cultivated land in South Dakota, all under 
his personal supervision. 

Mr. Green has always taken a foremost part 
in every movement formulated for the advance- 
ment of his county and state. He was school 
director for twenty years, and in 1888 was elected 
a member of the Neliraska legislature. The fol- 
lowing term he was nominated again, but posi- 
tively declined re-election, as he desired to devote 
his time entirely to his various private enter- 
prises. He is a strong democrat, a leader of his 
party in local aflfairs. 

Mr. Green was married in 1879 at Walnut, 
Iowa, to Miss Maude M. Perrigo. of Boscobel. 
Wisconsin, and to them have been born two 
children, one of whom died in infanev. while a 



daughter, Ethel I., married Sherman Leonard. 
They live at Nampa, Idaho, and are the parents 
of one child, a son. 

Our subject is a direct descendant of General 
Green, of. revolutionary fame, who distinguished 
himself in various famous battles, particularly 
at Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Gei-mantown, 
etc., and who succeeded General Gates in com- 
mand of tlie southern army in 1780. Our sub- 
ject's father was Leander L. Greene, also prom- 
inent in the affairs of his time. 

Onr subject is prominent in Masonic circles, 
having been high priest of the local chapter 
since 1890. He was worshipful master for sev- 
eral years, of his blue lodge. He was the prime 
mover in organizing the chapter and blue lodge 
in Genoa. 

Mrs. Green also holds a prominent position 
in social circles. She was grand matron of the 
Nebraska state Eastern Star for one year, and 
for several years was a grand officer, and is now 
local matron of the Genoa Eastern Star, also 
chairman of the board of the Eastern Star home 
at Plattsmouth, Nebraska. 


Fred Kaczor, proprietor of one of the most 
valuable estates in Knox county, Nebraska, 1;; 
bee}i a resident of that locality for fifteen years, 
and lives on section eleven, township thirty-four, 
range twelve. He is one of the foremost farmers 
and stock men, and, after many years' hard labor 
in building up his business, is now prepared to 
enjoy the remaining years of his life in peace 
and comfort. 

Mr. Kaczor is a native of Germany, born 1841 
in Brandenburg village, province of Prussia. 
The father died when our subject was a small 
boy. In 1869 Mr. Kaczor left his native land on 
a sailboat, and spent fifteen days on the sea. He 
landed in Canada, where he worked in a tannery, 
and after a residence of about thirteen years here, 
went to Holt county, Nebraska, where he bought 
a tree claim, remaining there fifteen years. In 
1895, Mr. Kaczor came to Boyd county, Nebras- 
ka, and took up the homestead where he now 
lives, first putting up a sod house, and later a 
good frame house. 

In 1867, Mr. Kaczor was united in marriage 
to Miss Tena Aldt, and Mr. and Mrs. Kaczor 
were the parents of nine children. Mrs. Kaczor 
died in the year of 1902, deeply mourned by her 
husband and family, and a host of friends and 


John O'Neill, retired farmer, son of Felix and 
Penelope O'Neill, was born in the state of Massa- 
chusetts, February 17, 1848. He was an only 
child. His father died in 1848, and the mother 
in 1896. 

In 1857, our subject went with his mother to 
Wisconsin, where tliey remained two years, from 
thence going to Minnesota, where they lived one 
year. Prom there they went to St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, where our subject was employed in the 
glass factory. Later the family returned to Wis- 
consin. On January 29, 1870, Mr. O'Neill was 
married to Miss Mary J. Mathews, of Racine, 

On June 1, 1874, Mr. O'Neill, with his wife 
and two sons, came across the plains to Boone 
county, Nebi-aska, where they homesteaded one 
hundred and sixty acres of land in section eight, 
township twenty, range five, west, which re- 
mained his home farm until 1903, when Mr. 
O'Neill retired from active farm life, and moved 
to Albion, where they built a fine home in which 
they now live. 

Mr. O'Neill has been prosperous and success- 
ful, and owns four hundred acres in Boone coun- 
ty, aside from valuable city property. He is a 
member of the Albion city school board, and has 
served seventeen years as a director of his school 
district, number forty-nine. He is also a member 
of the Ancient Order of United Workmen lodge. 

Mr. and Mrs. O'Neill have had ten children, 
eight of whom are living: Phillip B., who re- 
sides in South Dakota; John P., married and 
lives in Albion, and has one daughter; Edith M., 
who is married to E. J. Brady, has five children, 
and lives in South Dakota; Mary, married to T. 
A. Thompson, and lives in Albion ; Geneveive, 
Anna and Frances reside under the parental roof ; 
Catherine and Ellen, who both died in infancy; 
and Thomas P., who is married, and lives in 

Mrs. O'Neill has four brothers, one of whom 
resides in Albion, one in Fremont, Nebraska, 
another in Palo Alto, California, and the other 
in the state of Mississippi. Her father died 
September 21, 1888, and her mother died March 
9, 1898. 

Mr. O'Neill is one of the early pioneers who 
has passed through much of Nebraska's history, 
and met all the discouragements and hardships in- 
cidental to pioneer life. He is widely and favora- 
bly known, and since 1900 has been president of 
Boone County Agricultural Association, one of 
the largest of its kind in Nebraska. 


Eugene W. Huse, editor of tlie "Wayne Her- 
ald," has been reared in a print shop. Coming, 
as he does, of a journalistic family, it would 
be strange if he had not made this his vocation. 

Mr. Huse was born in Janesville, Minnesota. 
Deceml)er 14, 1870, and was only two years of 
age wlien the family moved to Ponca. Here he 
attended the town schools, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1890. Then he began work in the office 
of the "Ponca Journal," which his fatlier estab- 
lished. In 1899, he accompanied his father to 



Klamath Palls, Oregon, where for four years 
they published the "Klamath Republican." 
Selling that journal, they returned to northeast- 
ern Nebraska in October, 1903, and published 
the "Wayne Herald" for a year. On the sale of 
that paper a year later, Mr. Huse was employed 
by E. Cunningham, the purchaser, to edit and 
manage it for him, and this arrangement contin- 
ued two years. 

In the fall of 1906, Mr. Huse was employed to 
take the management of the "Daily Express" at 
Beatrice, Nebraska. The paper had been used 
in furthering political ambitions to its detriment, 
and Mr. Huse was instructed to give attention to 
building up the paper rather than to fostering 
political factions. He succeeded beyond the ex- 
pectations of himself or the owner. "Walt Mason, 
of the "Emporia Gazette," with whom Mr. Huse 
had become well acquainted in Beatrice, pays 
him a glowing tribute on his success in managing 
the "Express." 

Mr. Huse returned to Wayne in 1909, bought 
the "Herald, and is now issuing a twelve-page 
weekly, all home print, that is not excelled for 
news and typographical make-up by any of its 
class in Nebraska. 

Mr. Huse was married in Wymore, Nebraska. 
August 19, 1896, to Miss May Fisher, whom he 
met while she was visiting a relative in Pouca. 
She was born in Selins Grove, Sus(|uehanna 
county, Pennsylvania, a daughter of Benjamin 
and Lydia (Snyder) Fisher. They have three 
daughters: Olive, Dorothy and Edith. 

Mr. Huse is a staunch republican in political 
views and gives the party candidates his hearty 
support. He is a member of the Masonic order, 
the Odd Fellows, the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, and the Modern Woodmen of Ameri- 

Mr. Huse remembers several of the early bliz- 
zards that swept the west since their family came 
to the state. Ponea was at times threatened with 
prairie fires in the early days, and all were called 
out to fight them. 

Mr. Huse has seen the west in all phases of 
its development; has seen the old towns that 
were the first centers of civilization on the fron- 
tier wilderness; has seen towns, like mushrooms, 
spring up over night, and has seen the open, 
boundless plain develop into a highly cultivated 
farming community with its pastures, meadows 
and fields interspersed with groves of fine, tall 
trees closely resembling those of the original 
forests further east. 


In presenting to the public a history of Ne- 
braska, the list would not be complete without 
having mentioned the name of the gentleman 
aliove named. Mr. Bean is one of tlie leading old 
settlers of Platte county, Nebraska, having re- 

sided in this locality for the past forty-three 

Henry C. Bean, son of Henry and Abolinia 
(Kisbert) Bean, was born in Cumbach, Germany, 
on January 7, 1830. When nineteen years of age, 
he came to America, landing in New York City, 
where he remained for a couple of years, and 
from thence going to Jersey City, where he 
worked in a whalebone factory. In 1854, Mr. 
Bean went to California, and engaged in mining, 
remaining there until the spring of 1859, when 
he returned to New York for six months. He 
then returned to his mining interests in Califor- 
nia, making this trip by water. 

In April, 1866, Mr. Bean was married to Miss 
Mary Leavey in New York state. Miss Leavey 
was born in Ireland, but later became a resident 
of New York state. Mr. and Mrs. Bean soon 
moved westward, and Mr. Bean was employed 
by the Union Pacific Railroad Company, which 
was then extending its line west. Mr. Bean be- 
ing with the advance work, and reaching the 
point where Cheyenne, Wyoming, is now lo- 
cated, helped to pitch the first tent in the chosen 
site of that western city. He later was em- 
ployed by the government in construction work 
at Fort Russel, Wyoming. In the fall of 1868, 
Mr. Bean came with his family to Nebraska, locat- 
ing in Dawson county, where they resided six 
months, and then came into Platte county, where 
he homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of 
land in section thirty-four, township seventeen, 
range one, west, and also pre-empted and timber- 
claimed three hundred and twenty acres in Holt 

Mr. Bean and family lived on the homestead 
for forty-one years, making it a fine and highly- 
improved place, which is situated four and one- 
half miles southwest of Columbus. Mr. Bean was 
instrumental in organizing his school district, 
that of number five, and for over thirty years 
served in the various offices of its board. He 
also served as precinct assessor six terms. In 
1906, our subject retired from farm life, and 
moved to Columbus, where he purchased a good 
home, their present location. 

Mr .and Mrs. Bean have had nine children 
born to them, whose names follow: Cornelia L., 
resides in Chicago; Fred E., who is married, and 
has one child, and lives on the original home- 
stead; Sophia, now Mrs. Alvin Phillips, lives in 
Columbus; Nellie who is married to Charles 
Olcott and has five children, resides in Polk 
county, Nebraska; one infant deceased; Emma, 
married to Howard Smith, who has one child, 
lives in Colorado Springs. Colorado ; George in 
California, and Charles and Martha, who still 
reside with their parents. 

On September 1, 1860, Mr. Bean enlisted in 
Company K, Ninth United States Infantry, serv- 
ing five years. The principal battle he engaged 
in was that of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Later 
he was on guard duty along the Mississippi river. 




and from there was sent to California, Idaho, 
Oregon and Washington, where he was engaged 
in fighting Indians, and was wounded in a 
skirmisli with them. He received liis discharge 
in September, 1864, in San Francisco, California, 
and after the war, he visited his old home in 
Germany for six months. 

Mr. Bean is one of the best known men of his 
county, having, as before stated, resided therein 
for forty-three years. He has been prosperous 
and successful. 


Among the leading old settlers and public- 
spirited citizens of Stanton county, Nebraska, 
the gentleman above mentioned deserves a fore- 
most place. Mr. Hohneke has aided in no slight 
degree in the development of the agricultural 
and commercial resoui'ces of this region, and has 
nolily performed his part in advancing the cause 
of i)rogress in this section of the country. 

Mr. Hohneke is one of the adopted sons of 
our state, and was born in 1860 in the province 
of Brandenburg, Germany. His early years 
were spent in his native land, but in 1873, he, 
with his parents, Fred and Agost Hohneke, came 
to this country, and, joining in the stream of em- 
igrants going west, came on to Stanton county, 
where the father took up a homestead located on 
section two, township twenty-four, range two, 

The first few years here on the claim were 
long and hard, owing to the heavy losses of crops 
occasioned by the ravages of the hordes of grass- 
hoppers. Prospects brightened somewhat later 
on, however, and conditions improved. They 
took up a timber claim near by, and among the 
first things done by the subscriber's father was 
to plant an orchard and grove on the original 
liomestead claim. 

Today there is a remarkably fine tract of or- 
chard and grove, about twelve acres in extent, 
which forms one of the valual)le assets of the sub- 
scriber, who still lives on the old homestead. 
Many impx-ovements have been made since the 
days when he first came here as a boy. The old 
log house which was erected with great expendi- 
ture of time when they first came, has disap- 
peared, for one thing, in order to make room for 
a more modern home, a picture of which appears 
on another page. 

In 1886, Mr. Hohneke was united in marriage 
to Miss Amelia Hellegos. 

In 1889, he was again married, to Miss Anna 
Whittenburg, who is still living. Tlieir home has 
))een blessed with eight children, named as fol- 
lows: Mary, Minnie, Ella, Edith, Mate, Fred, 
Henry and Louise. Mr. Hohneke and his family 
have always taken a prominent part in all social 
lines in the neighborhood. 

Mr. Hohneke himself is reckoned among our 
most prosperous and substantial citizens, and 
enjoys the respect of a wide circle of friends. 


J. H. Lybolt, one of the old settlers of the re- 
gion where he chose his home in the early days, 
occupies a good home and valuable property in 
section twenty-one, township twenty-six, range 
six, Antelope county, Nebraska. He has done his 
share in the upbuilding of his locality, and is 
well and favorably known throughout this part 
of the state. 

Mr. Lybolt is a native of Schuyler county. New 
York, where he was born on a farm in 1845, and 
grew up to his young manhood days in his birth- 
place, receiving his education in the country 
schools, and helping his father work the home 
farm. On June 12, 1862, our subject enlisted in 
the civil war, Company E, One Hundred Seventh 
New York Volunteers under Captain Morgan, 
at Elmja-a, New York; was sent to Arlington, 
Heights, Fort Lyons, Virginia, and while there 
the regiment was without guns ten days in camp, 
when after receiving their guns they partici- 
pated in the second battle of Bull Run, South 
Mountain and Antietam — from light of day until 
after dark — then on to Maryland Heights; then 
to Harper's Ferry where they felled timber; and 
under General Burnsides across to Fredericks- 
burg, where our subject was sent on a furlough. 
He again joined his regiment in May, and was 
active in the battle of Gettysburg, and served un- 
der General Slocum. He participated in the battle 
of Stevens Station, and from there to Lookout 
Mountain. General Grant then had command of 
the army and General Gary of the Second Divi- 
sion ; our subject was sent to guard the railroad 
from Murfreesboro to Chattanooga. On the 4tli 
day of May our subject's regiment broke camp 
and started with General Sherman on his famous 
march to Atlanta, starting from Dallas, where 
they were one hour and fifteen minutes in the 
battle, and lost one hundred ninety-seven men 
out of five hundred ; they then went to Pump- 
kin Vine Creek, and then General Sherman took 
his command around the city of Atlanta, and left 
our subject's corps, (20th) in front of the city, 
and the next day the regiment moved into Atlan- 
ta, from where they started to tlie sea by the 
way of Davidboro. They were in camp at Savan- 
nah all winter. They participated in battles at 
various points, finally coming to Washington, 
where our subject with his regiment partici- 
pated in the Grand Review. Mr. Ly))olt was 
with the oldest regiment in the division. When 
he enlisted there were one hundred and twelve 
men in his company, and only sixteen were left 
to be mustered out on June 4. 186.5. After the 
war our .subject returned home and in 1869 start- 
ed for the west, coming to Saunders county, Ne- 



braska where he homsteaded land in southwest 
quarter, section twenty-two, township fifteen, 
range six, east, where he remained about twelve 
years, and in 1879 moved to Antelope county, Ne- 
braska where he took up a tree claim in section 
twenty-two, township twenty-seven, range six, 
where he and a friend built a shanty so it would 
stand on two claims, and here they "batched" it 
for several years. The grasshoppers and hot 
winds destroyed all the crops in 1874 and 1875, 
which made it very hard for a young man with- 
out means. They had to burn hay and corn for 
fuel in those days, corn being six cents a bushel, 
and they had to go way to the Platte river for 
wood. Mr. Lybolt now owns two hundred forty 
acres of land, twenty-five acres of which are de- 
voted to trees. 

Mr. Lybolt was married to Miss Margaret 
Caddock, to which union one child was born: 
"William, who is married to Ethel Baynard, and 
they are the parents of two children. Mrs. Lybolt 
died in 1901. 

In 1906 Mr. Lybolt was again married, this 
time to his schooldays sweetheart, Miss Stevens. 
Her father's land and of our subject's father 
joined in New York state. 

Mr. Lybolt 's father, Jacob Lybolt, was born in 
New York, and fought in the war of 1812, and 
participated in the battle of Sackett's Harbor. 
Our subject's mother was a native of New Hamp- 

Mr. Lybolt is a member of the I. 0. 0. P., 
Woodmen, and Workmen lodges, and is higlily 
respected by all. 


Peter Kuehl, proprietor of one of the most 
valuable farms in Pierce county, Nebraska, has 
been a resident of that locality since 1886. He is 
prominently known throughout the county as one 
of the foremost farmers and stockmen in Ne- 
braska, and after many years of hard labor in 
building up his farm is now prepared to enjoy 
the remaining years of his life in peace and 

Mr. Kuehl is a native of Germany, being born 
in the village of Hensted, province of Holstein, in 
May, 1855. Mr. Kuehl 's father was Hans Kuehl, 
who was born in Germany. 

Our subject came to America in 1872, landing 
in New York City after a fourteen days' voyage 
on the ocean, and after spending one and one- 
half days in this city, and several months in Chi- 
cago, he went to Clinton county, Iowa, where he 
lived three years and three months! He then 
went to Sandusky county, Ohio, where he resid- 
ed three years, and thence to Douglas county, 
Nebraska, where he lived eight years, and experi- 
enced suffering through the memorable hailstorm 
of 1884. Mr. Kuehl then took up a homestead in 
Pierce county, Nebraska, in 1886, situated in tlie 
southeast quarter of section three, Dry Creek 

township, and has been a resident of this county 
for twenty-four years. He has experienced all 
the discouraging incidents subject to the early 
days, and gives an interesting story of the bliz- 
zard of 1888. On that memorable day, with his 
hired man, he started from home at twelve o'clock 
to go after the children at the school house 
which was one mile from home. They reached 
the school house, and with the two children, Liz- 
zie and Henry, started for home, but became lost 
and did not reach their destination until very late 
in the evening. 

Peter Kuehl was married in 1877, to Miss 
Sophia Ohm, also a native of Germany, being 
born at Meehlenberg. They are the parents of 
eleven children, a fine family, whose names are 
as follows: Lizzie, Henry, Minnie and Willie, 
twins, John, Anna, Tillie, Peter, Alice, George, 
and Herman. Three are married : Lizzie, wife of 
Charles Wasberg, has two children and lives in 
the state of Colorado; Henry was married to 
Miss Elsa Pulton, and they have two children, and 
Willie was joined in wedlock to Miss Lizzie 
Ci'ouse and they have three children. 

Mr. Kuehl is a staunch republican, voting 
that ticket in both state and local elections. He 
owns four hundred and eighty acres of land in 
Pierce county. 


The name of Irvine is a familiar one to all 
who have passed any length of time in Howard 
county, in that this family is among the very ear- 
liest settlers of tliat part of Nebraska, and the 
gentleman above mentioned has passed through 
all the ups and downs of pioneer life, ever taking 
a prominent part in the upbuilding of his county 
and state. 

James Irvine is a native of Lauderdale, Kirk- 
hill village, Scotland, born on October 7, 1846. 
He was the second child in a family of nine, con- 
sisiting of seven boys and one girl. His parents 
were James and Janet (Lock) Irvine, both of 
whom were born and reared in Lauderdale. Mr. 
Irvine grew up in his native country, leaving 
there for the United States in 1869, and landing 
in New York on June 8th. His first location was 
at Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he remained for 
several months, then went to Cascade, Iowa. 
There he engaged in farming, but after only one 
year in the vicinity came on to Nebraska, stop- 
ping at Omaha. He was accompanied by his 
brother George, and two friends, James Baxter 
and Alex Lamb, arriving in Howard county about 
the first of April, 1871. Our subject filed home- 
stead rights in southeast quarter, section twen- 
ty-four, township fourteen, range twelve, proved 
up on one hundred and sixty acres, and later sold 
the land. About 1899 he purchased his present 
farm which is situated on section sixteen, of which 
about two hundred and sixty acres are under cul- 
tivation. In the fall of 1909, Mi-. Irvine purchased 



three hundred and twenty acres, which was the 
west half of section nine, and in February, 1910, 
added to it three hundred and twenty acres ad- 
joining it, lying in section eight, so he is now 
owner altogether of nine hundred and sixty acres 
in Logan and P'airdale precincts. He engages in 
mixed farming and stock raising, running a large 
bunch of high grade Shorthorn cattle, also raises 
a herd of hogs each year which he disposes of at 
the nearby markets. His place is completely 
equipped with substantial buildings and improve- 
ments of all kinds, and he is classed among the 
progressive and well-to-do residents of Howard 

Mr. Irvine was joined here in 1873 by his 
father, mother and two brothers, other members 
of the family coming here prior to that time, so 
that all were early settlers in the locality. Mr. 
James Irvine, senior, died here November 13, 
1906, while the mother passed away in 1881. On 
November 28, 1876, our subject Avas united in 
mari'iage to Margaret Jane Welsh, daughter of 
Peter Welsh, who is an early settler of Howard 
county, the ceremony taking place at the home of 
her parents in Kelso precinct. Mrs. Irvine's fam- 
ily were natives of Canada, settling in Howard 
county about 1876, and both her mother and 
father died here. Five children were born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Irvine, namely : Martha Jane, Adelaide 
B., George L., Glenn W., and Clarence S., the first 
two married, while the three others are single. 

During 1884 to 1890 inclusive, Mr. Irvine was 
county commissioner of Howard county, and at 
other times held precinct office. Politically he is 
a democrat. 


One of the early settlers of Valley county, who 
has been indentified with much of the history and 
development of that region, is Carl Lueck, who 
owns a large farm, and raises considerable stock. 
He was born in the village of Kleiusabien, pro- 
vince of Pomerania, in Germany, May 9, 1857, and 
is the fifth of six children born to William and 
Hannah (Beig) Lueck, botli of whom died in Ger- 
many. He has one brother living in Germany, 
and the others are deceased. He received his 
education in his native land and reached man- 
liood on his father's farm. He emigrated to 
America in 1881, crossing the North Sea from 
Stettin to Hull in the "Otto," and embarked 
at Liverpool, April 27, on tlie "Spain," landing 
in New York the 8th of ]May. He came direct 
to Merrick county, Nebraska, and after spend- 
ing two years there, he came to Valley county 
in the month of January, 1883, making his home 
here since that time. He secured a homestead 
of one hundred and sixty acres on the north- 
west quarter of section ten, township seventeen. 
range fifteen, and improved and developed 
it until he had a well-equipped stock and 
grain farm. He is a successful man of busi- 

ness and has now ac(iuired six hundred and foi'ty 
acres of fine farming land, lying in sections 
three, nine and ten, where he raises considerable 
stock. He has been active and interested in local 
afl'airs, helped organize school district number 
fifty-nine, of which he served as moderator for 
several years. He is well and favorably known 
in his part of the county and is counted a useful, 
public-spirited citizen, with a reputation for hon- 
est and upright dealing. 

January 13, 1883, Mr. Lueck married Miss Jo- 
hanna Marks, a native of the village of Oenhau- 
sen, Westphalia, Germany, who came to America 
in 1872. She is a daughter of Ernest and Char- 
lotte Marks. They settled in Dane county, Wis- 
consin, and moved on west to Valley county in 
1880. Eight children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Lueck, namely: Helena J., died in in- 
fancy; Frederick William, of Valley county; 
Otto R.. at home; Hannah S., married F. F. Cook 
and they live in Valley county; Carl H., junior, 
at home ; Minnie, deceased ; Martha L. and Henri- 
etta Susan at home. The family are prominent 
socially and have a large circle of friends. Mr. 
Lueck, with his family, is a member of the Evan- 
gelical church, and he is a republican in politics. 

Like the typical pioneer of the west, Mr. 
Lueck lived for a time in a sod house. Deer and 
antelope were to be found in the country when 
he came, and one antelope was secured for the 
family larder. Among the early privations of the 
first settlers were the dry years, especially 1894, 
M'hen Mr. Lueck raised notliing but a littfe corn. 


Among the pioneer settlers of Madison coun- 
ty, Nebraska, who came to this locality in the 
early seventies and endured many privations 
and hardships in the early days, is William L. 
Will, who now resides in section thirty-six, town- 
ship twenty-two, range one, where he is sur- 
rounded by a host of good friends, and many ac- 
quaintances and neighbors, respected and esteem- 
ed by all with whom he has to do. 

Mr. Will is a native of Vermont state, where 
he was born August 20, 1846, and is a son of Wil- 
liam and Phoebe (Roach) Will; tlie father was 
born in England, and in the very early days came 
to America, embarking in a sail boat ; he died 
when our subject was but a child of four years. 
The mother was a native of Vermont state, a 
daughter of Phineas Roaeli, and died in 1897. 

In 1870 Mr. Will came to the west, locating in 
Madison county, Nebraska, where he took up a 
homestead in section twenty-eight, township 
twenty-one, range two ; here he put up a sod house 
in which he lived fourteen years, then building a 
good frame house. 

In those early days of pioneer life on the 
western frontier, Mr. Will experienced many 
hardships and discouragements. Columbus, thir- 
ty-five miles distant, was the nearest market 



place, taking two days to cover the journey to 
and fro. Grasshoppers were a great source of 
destruction during the first years of residence 
here and in 1873 and 1874 they devoured the en- 
tire crops of those years ; prairie fires were anoth- 
er danger that had to be fought and almost con- 
tinually checked, the rolling, seething mass of 
flames utterly destroying everything in their path, 
leaving nothing but wide stretches of blackened 
ground where a few moments before had waved 
the green grasses of the open prairie. Our sub- 
ject and family often fought these fires to save 
their lives and property. 

In 1870 Mr. Will was united in marriage to 
Miss Sarah Jane Harris, a native of Indiana, and 
daughter of Warren H., and Susan (Harris) 
Harris. Mr. and Mrs. Will are the parents of five 
children, namely : Phoebe, Dr. C. L. Will, Myrtle, 
Roxy, Lewis, and Murl. 

In 1901 Mr. Will took charge of the Hurne 
ranch, the land where he now resides, and has a 
fine home where he and his family enjoy the es- 
teem and respect of a host of friends. 


Stillman Gates has one of the pleasantest 
homes of Sargent, Nebraska, surrounded by a 
beautiful lawn and well kept flowers and shrubs. 
He has lived there since the spring of 1909, re- 
tired from active life, and owns thirty-eight acres 
of well improved land in the place. He is a na- 
tive of Chautauqua county. New York, born Oc- 
tober 6, 1835, eldest of the five sons and three 
daughters of Lorison and Salome (Felt) Gates. 
The father was born in New York and the moth- 
er in Vermont, and they were married in Elling- 
ton, New York, December 4, 1834. Stillman Gates 
has in his possession his grandfather's gun, 
which was made in 1803, an original flint-lock, 
made over into a cap lock, and later arranged to 
take shot for amunition. In the spring of 1837 
the family moved to Huron county, Ohio, wliere 
they lived until 1852, and where 'the following 
children were born to them : Lorison, Salome, Ira, 
Jane, Hosea, Goodwin and Ruth. In the fall of 
1852 they came to Porter couutv, Indiana, their 
home for a number of years. The father was an 
ordained minister of the Christian church, and 
held difi'erent pastorates in Ohio. Several years 
before his death he moved to LaPorte, Iowa 
where he passed away September 17, 1902,' in his 
eighty-ninth year. His wife had died in Porter 
county, Indiana, January 3, 1869. Of their eight 
children, but three now survive : Stillman, Hosea 
and Jane. Hosea lives in Fort Dodge, Iowa, and 
Jane, Mrs. Clark, lives in Estherville, loM'a. 

Stillman Gates left home about the time he 
reached his majority, and was married in Wlieat- 
field, Jasper county, Indiana, April 2, 1857, to 
Mary McNeal, daughter of James and Hope (Gif- 
ford) McNeal of St. Lawrence county. Five chil- 
dren were born to this union: James Lorison, 

married and living in Arkansas, has seven chil- 
dren: Herbert, married and living at Broken 
Bow, has eleven children; Harry S., married and 
living in Omaha; Frederick A., deceased; Sa- 
lome, wife of Oliver L. Swick, of Custer county, 
has six children. Thus it may be seen that Mr. 
Gates has twenty-four living grandchildren. He 
lived in Indiana after his marriage for many 
years and there his wife died. He now has one 
great grandchild, a daughter born to Mrs. Howe 
Gates, son of Herbert P. Gates. 

Mr. Gates was married (second) in Jasper 
county, Indiana, to Susannah Brown, January 12, 
1873. In the spring of 1877 they moved to Tama 
county, Iowa, and in June, 1879, he made a trip 
with a horse to Custer county, Nebraska, looking 
for a location. He then made an entry on a 
homestead on section five, township nineteen, 
range twenty, also a timber claim, and returned 
to Iowa. In December of the same year he mov- 
ed with his family from their Iowa home to, the 
homestead, having a four-horse team and wagon, 
with a house, six by sixteen feet, on wheels. They 
made the trip in the dead of winter and encount- 
ered many hardships before reaching their desti- 
nation. During the early years they did their 
trading at Grand Island, making many trips over 
the road. Gates postoffice in Custer county was 
named for Mr. Gates and for many years he serv- 
ed as postmaster. The local church and school 
house were built on his farm. He was one of the 
first settlers in his locality and for many years 
was active in the upbuilding and growth of the 
community, being the friend of progress along all 
lines. He served for a number of years as justice 
of the peace and in other local offices. He had a 
country store at Gates and was one of the best 
known men in the county. He owned five hun- 
dred and sixty acres of choice land, and was suc- 
cessful as a farmer and stockman. In the spring 
of 1909 he retired from the farm and moved to his 
present place in Sargent, where he has every con- 
venience obtainable and enjoys the well earned 
ease to which he is entitled. 

On Januai-y 11, 1910, at Taylor, Loup county, 
Nebraska, Mr. Gates was united in marriage with 
Mary A. Cummins, an old resident of Nebraska, 
coming in 1884. Her maiden name was Downing 
and she was born in New York state, a daughter 
of Henry and Mary Downing. She has two broth- 
ers living, John Downing, living on the old home 
place, in St. LaAvrence county, New York, and 
George E., of De Kalb, New York. By her first 
marriage she has four surviving children, name- 
ly : Frank Calkins, married and living in Wyom- 
ing; Eva, wife of Robert Ledger, of Garfield 
county, Nebraska, has two children; Theodore 
Calkins, married and living in Sargent, has three 
children ; Lillian, wife of Fred Robbing, of Paw- 
nee county, Nebraska. Another daughter, Gracie, 
married Frank York and died in 1905, leaving 
one daughter, Inez. Mr. York lives in Garfield 
county, Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Gates have a 



wide circle of friends and are active in moral, 
educational and all progressive lines. 


The present prosperity enjoyed by the people 
of the great state of Nebraska is in reality due 
to the efforts of those men of perseverance and 
stalwart determination who came to the state 
when it was still young, before it had developed 
into an agricultural and commercial centre ; when 
the howl of the lonely coyote or the distant thun- 
der of the hoofs of the flying bison took the place 
of the whir of farm machinery or the chime of 
the chnrch bells. 

John H. Koester, the subject of this sketch, 
was born in 1852 in Germany, the son of H. and 
Teua Koester. As his father was a small farmer, 
John remained at home and secured a good edu- 
cation, helping on the farm when not engaged in 

In 1869, he decided to come to America, and 
with relatives, came by steamer to New York, 
thence by train to Iowa. They remained in this 
state until 1884, when they removed to Cedar 
county, Nebraska. Here, after a short time, Mr. 
Koester bought a quarter-section of fine land 
from W. A. Pollock, who was one of the original 
settlers, which is situated in section thirty-six, 
township thirty, range two, east. 

Here Mr. Koester had lived ever since, adding 
improvements from time to time until now his 
farm is regarded as one of the most valuable in 
that community. 

For the first four years after coming to Cedar 
county, Mr. Koester "batched it" in his little 
house, but becoming tired of a lonely life, mar- 
ried Miss Hannah Clawson in 1888. Three chil- 
dren have been born to them, all of whom are liv- 
ing, Katie M., Carl PI., and Frank E. 

]Mr. and Mrs. Koester have made hosts of 
friends in the community and are much respected 
by all who know them. 


The gentleman above mentioned is one of the 
prosperous younger members of the farming and 
ranching community of Merrick county, Nebras- 
ka, whose entire career has been passed in this 
state, he being born here March 31, 1877, three 
and a half miles north-east of Chapman, where 
his father was a pioneer. Our subject was second 
in a family of seven children born to William 
and Margaret (Donovan) Laub, who had five sons 
and two daughters. The father came to Merrick 
county, Nebraska, in company with his brother, 
Frederick Laub, in the spring of 1871 and home- 
steaded land in the north-east (|uarter section 
thirty-two, township thirteen, range seven. In 
October, 1874, Mr. Laub, Sr., married Miss Mar- 
garet Donovan, and all their children were born 
on the old homestead farm in Merrick county. 

The father's death occurred at his home in Cen- 
tral City, October, 1907, survived by his widow 
and five children. A biographical sketch of the 
father appears on another page of this work. 

John P. Laub, subject of this sketch, was 
brought up on the farm and received the usual 
schooling and also had the advantage of a busi- 
ness college course. He went out in life for him- 
self about his twenty-first year, and has been en- 
gaged in various enterprises, such as farming, 
hardware business, owner and operator of a 
threshing machine, and is now engaged in the ce- 
ment business. 

Mr. Laub was married to Miss Minnie Hollis- 
ter, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John D. Hollister, 
at their home in Chapman, Nebraska. Mrs. Laub 
is also a native-born of Merrick county. Mr. and 
Mrs. Laub have two children: Donald Roy, and * 
Robert Neal. 

Mr. Laub is a Merrick county boy, who is 
known as one of the most energetic young busi- 
ness men of the county, and is affilliated with the 
republican party, having been committeeman of 
his county on the central committee. 

Both Mr. Laub and his wife can be classed 
amongst the pioneers of Merrick county. They 
are well known young people, having many 


The state of Illinois has given her quota of 
settlers to the West, and among the most worthy 
of these in Nebraska, may be mentioned Oscar F. 
Hunt. He was born near Chicago on June 16, 
1850, and is a son of Stephen G. and Louisa (Sal- 
sbury) Hunt, both of whom are now deceased. 
The family settled in Knoxville, Iowa, in 1852, 
remaining there up to 1857, at which time they 
went to Hi;ntingtou county, Indiana, which was 
their home for about eight years, Oscar attending 
the country schools in their vicinity. From there 
they returned west, settling in Knox county, Mis- 
souri,' and it was while they were making this trip 
across the country that news reached them of the 
assassination of President Lincoln, which left an 
indelible memory upon our subject's mind. 

While in Missouri Mr. Hunt learned the car- 
penter's trade and followed the work there for 
several years, coming to Nebraska in 1886. He 
was undecided in which part to locate, but trav- 
eled on through the state until he reached the 
in June, his family following in September of 
that year. The tract on which he first located 
has been his home up to the present time, and he 
northern border line, and arrived in Knox county 
has improved it wonderfully, planting groves, re- 
modeling the buildings, etc. When he took this 
place there was no bi-ush or a tree large enough 
to furnish even a switch, and so rapidly have 
those Mr. Hunt planted grown that the largest 
have already been felled for fuel, and the second 
growth is coming on. Mr. Hunt's first 



employmeut after reaching the vicinity, was 
with Bayha Brothers as a carpenter, and 
after a short time he began independently, 
since then having worked at Santee, Yank- 
ton, Sioux City and Mason City, Iowa, and has 
gone as far west as Seattle in his work. In 1898 
Mr. Hunt retired from the building Inisiness and 
engaged in farming, having a fine tract of land 
in a splendid location, and is making a success of 
it. He was also a homesteader in Lyman county, 
but sold out after proving up on the land. 

On March 30, 1873, Mr. Hunt was united in 
marriage to Miss Amanda Hiatt, who is a native 
of Ohio. They have three children, as follows: 
Anna M., wife of Chas. Wort, they having recent- 
ly moved to Butler county, Missouri; Fred L. 
who for eighteen months was in the army, sta- 
tioned in the Philippines as quartermaster ser- 
geant of Company C, First South Dakota Volun- 
teer Infantry; and Flora B., still living with 
her parents on the home farm. 

Mr. Hunt is a republican in politics, and takes 
a lively interest in state and national affairs. 
Both himself and wife are members of the Bap- 
tist faith. 


Among the well-known pioneers of Nance 
county who have for many years worked hard to 
accumulate a competence, and when this has been 
accomplished, has retired to make way for oth- 
ers, we mention the gentleman above, who is 
now enjoying the fruits of an honorable and suc- 
cessful career. He is now a resident of FuUerton, 
I'here he owns a beautiful home and enjoys the 
esteem and friendship of a large number of con- 
genial people. 

Archibald S. Campbell was born in Greene 
county, Tennessee, May 26, 1836, and is the 
second in order of birth in a family of ten chil- 
dren in the family of Adam and Susannah Camp- 
bell, who were natives of that state, and spent 
their entire lives there, the former dying in his 
sixty-ninth year and the mother at the age of 
sixty-two, at the old homestead. Our subject 
lived in his home county until he was twenty-one 
years of age, receiving his education there, and 
following farming during this time. He was mar- 
ried there to Miss Nancy Jones at tlie home of 
her parents, on September 24, 1854, her par- 
ents being also life residents of Greene countj\ 
The newly-married pair settled on a farm, and re- 
mained in that vicinity for three years, then, with 
their little son, Landon W., left the county, trav- 
eling overland by team and wagon to Atchison 
county, Missouri, v'here they located on a tract 
of unimproved land, and began to make a home 
for themselves. This they operated up to the 
spring of 1883, at that time coming to Nance 
county, Nebraska, which was still a thinly-settled 
region. Mr. Campbell purchased land in both 
Boone and Nance counties, engaged in the stock 

business, raising and shipping cattle, etc., and 
also farmed considerable land. During those 
early years, he at different times owned and 
operated large tracts of land, and also handled 
real estate extensively, doing a loan business 
throughout the section, and became especially 
well knoAvn to the non-resident property owners, 
handling a great deal of business by reason of 
his prompt attention to their wants, and having 
a high reputation for honesty and integrity. 

At one time Mr. Campbell owned about 1800 
acres of land in Nance, Boone and Greeley coun- 
ties, but as it advanced in value, he sold until at 
the present time he owns three hundred and 
twenty acres in Nance county, and the same 
amount in Thomas county, Kansas. 

In 1893, Mr. Campbell moved to Fullerton, 
purchasing some land just inside of the city lim- 
its, on which he l)uilt a fine home, which is situ- 
ated on a high spot near the outskirts of Puller- 
ton, giving a splendid view of Loup river valley 
and from which the entire town can be seen. This 
is one of the most beautiful locations in the town, 
having elegant trees, fine lawns, and is one of the 
show places of Fullerton. 

During the year 1862, Mr. Campbell lived in 
Omaha, and well remembers the early days of Ne- 
braska, becoming familiar with the exact condi- 
tions then existing relative 'to land values, the 
o]iportunities afforded settlers in the region, etc. 
At that time John I. Redick, of Omaha, offered 
our subject sixty acres of well improved land ly- 
ing within what is now the town site of that 
place, on the basis of fifteen dollars per acre, 
and this land is at the present time valued at 
.$4,000 a front foot. 

Mr. and Mrs. Campbell have had nine chil- 
dren, eight of whom are still living, namely: 
Landon W., married, father of two children, and 
residing at Oberlin, Ohio ; Martha Susannah, wife 
of Dr. I. C. Murphy, of Fullerton; William A. T., 
married, father of two children, living in Seattle, 
Washington; Jacob N., married, having a family 
of six children, also living in Fullerton; Mary 
Helen, wife of G. H. Ellsworth, two children, 
they living in Iowa City, Iowa ; John B., married, 
five daughters, living in Xance county; Robert 
A., of Wenatchee Valley, Washington, and Al- 
bert B., of Seattle, Washington. The family is 
prominently known throughout the region, and 
have been identified with its social life during 
their residence here. Mr. and Mrs. Campbell are 
members of the Presbyterian church, and at the 
present time, Mr. Campbell is an elder of the 


Alexander Maring, a retired farmer residing 
at Atkinson, Nebraska, is a native of Belmont 
county, Ohio, born April 10, 1841, and lived there 
until tliirteen years of age. He is a son of Moses 
and Eleanor (Monroe) Maring, natives of New 




Jersey and Peuusylvauia, respectively. In 1854 
the family removed to Appanoose county, Iowa, 
then on the frontier, where deer and other game 
were plentiful, and furnished a large part of food 
for the settlers. 

At the outbreak of the war, Mr. Maring offer- 
ed his services and became a member of Company 
D, Sixth Iowa Volunteers, enlisting July 17, 1861, 
and serving until the close of the hostilities. The 
first important battle in which he participated 
was Shiloh, and there he received a baptism of 
fire. He was also a participator in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the second battle at Jackson, the as- 
sault on Mission Ridge and the battle of Knox. 
While spending the winter at Scottsboro, Ala- 
bama, Mr. Maring veteranized, December 25, 
1863, and took a thirty-day furlough before the 
activity of spring affected the army. He took 
part in the Atlanta campaign, and after the fall 
of that stronghold, marched with Sherman to the 
sea. The regiment was in Goldsboro, North Car- 
olina, when word reached them of General Lee's 
surrender, and were near there when they heard 
the sad tidings of Abraham Lincoln's death. After 
his participation in the grand review at Wash- 
ington, which was the most impressive military 
pageant of modern times, Mr. Maring returned 
home. They made the journey from Washington 
to Parkersburg, West Virginia, by rail, traveled 
thence to Louisville, Kentucky by boat, and were 
there mustered out, being later paid and dis- 
charged finally at Davenport, Iowa, July 27, 

Near the end of the war and while on furlough, 
Mr. Maring lived on the home farm until his mar- 
riage, then rented land and began farming on his 
own account. He iirst made a visit to Nebraska 
in 1873, and woi-ked one season six miles west of 
Belleview. At that time Omaha was a compara- 
tively small town, giving little promise of devel- 
oping into the present large and important city. 
In 1879 he rented land in Missouri two years, 
then purchased one hundred and twenty acres 
of land near New Town, Missouri, remaining 
there until his return to Nebraska, which was 
made in 1884. He has, since that time, been a 
resident of Holt county and at first pre-empted a 
quarter section of land four and one-half miles 
south of Emmet, which he later converted into 
a timber claim. He also homesteaded one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of land tliere, and carried 
on fanning on this land until 1908. when he 
purchased a house in Atkinson, and moved into it. 
Mr. Maring 's marriage occurred April 3, 
1863, near Centerville, Iowa, when he was united 
with Miss Lucinda Maring, daugliter of Jacob 
and Rebecca (Bruce) Maring. Six children were 
born to them, namely: Leander, deceased; Lo- 
gan is living on a Kinkaid homestead in Garfield 
county; Thomas has a ranch eight miles south 
of Atkinson ; John occupies the home farm, south 
of Emmet; Joseph, a twin of William (who is 

deceased), has a ranch eighteen miles northeast 
of O'NeilL 

In politics Mr. Maring is a republican, and 
while living nearer to O'Neill was an active and 
prominent member of the local post of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. He is a highly honored 
citizen, and can look back with pleasure on the 
record won while in his country's service. 

Mr. Maring well remembers the events of 
the blizzard of January 12, 1888, and was out 
in the storm most of the afternoon of that day, 
getting his stock under shelter. After coming 
to the state, he lived four years in a sod house 
before erecting a frame dwelling, and he and 
his wife experienced the usual difficulties and 
hardships that attended pioneer life there. An- 
telope were plentiful when they first settled there, 
and when a boy in Iowa, Mr. Maring frequently 
saw black wolves, although they had been ex- 
terminated before he reached maturity. He 
would consider the wonderful development made 
in the West since he left his native state as al- 
most incredible had he not been a witness of it. 
The open country of the early days has given 
place to thickly settled communities, and Mr. 
Maring and his family have contributed their 
full share in the advancement of agricultural 
and commercial activity in the region where they 
now live. 


One of those who has achieved considerable 
distinction among the old settlers is Mat Dreesen, 
who is the owner of a fine farm in Cedar county. 
He has spent many years of unremitting toil, 
but is now reaping the benefits of his thrift and 
careful management. 

Mat Dreesen was born in Wisconsin in 1870, 
and in 1873, in company with his parents and 
brother, he took the long trip across the plains ■ 
to Cedar county, Nebraska. He still retains 
possession of the timber claim which the parents 
took up at an early date. 

Many and obvious disadvantages were to be 
contended with by the settlers at that time. The 
nearest market towns were Sioux City and Yank- 
ton, and going to market meant a long and ted- 
ious trip. Grasshoppers and prairie fires in sum- 
mer, and blizzards in winter, were also to be 
reckoned with. Even so late as 1894, the crops 
were destroyed by the hot winds prevailing 
throughout the season. However, most of them 
persisted in their efforts to make a habitable 
country out of those forbidding plains, and the 
years have told the story of the success of these 
tried and true pioneers. 

In 1893, Mr. Dreesen was married to Miss 
Maud J. Suing. Four children have been born 
to them: Lillian, Frederick. Elmo and Otis. 
Mrs. Dreesen is a daughter of Bernhard and 
Magdeline (Kock) Suing. Her parents were 



natives of Germany, and were married in Balti- 
more, but came to Nebraska in 1886. 

Mr. Dreesen is treasurer of his school district, 
number fourteen. 

We present a family group portrait of IMr. 
Dreesen and family on another page. 


E. Lorenzo Sargent, one of the prominent 
business and professional men of Cedar Rapids, 
Boone county, Nebraska, is possessed of excep- 
tional ability, and has made a place for himself 
among the leading residents of his community 
by his honest efforts and energetic labors. 

Mr. Sargent is a native of Lerapster, Sullivan 
county. New Hampshire, born on July 1, 1846, 
and was the ninth of ten children in the family 
of Asa and Charity Sargent. He remained on 
his father's farm until his fourteenth year, as- 
sisting in the farm work and attending the local 
school, living, in his early years, the usual life 
of the New England farm boy. His father died 
Mdien he was tive years old, and the mother kept 
her family together on the farm until each was 
ready to start out for himself. 

Lorenzo Sargent secured work in the cotton 
factory, and followed that employment for two 
years, then went to Oakland county, Michigan. 
His later education was received in the Utica 
schools, and in 1864 he enlisted in Company D, 
of the Twenty-second Michigan Volunteer Infan- 
try, saw hard service with his regiment. He 
was mustered out at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 
on September 8, 1865, going immediately to Mar- 
shall, Michigan, where he was a teacher in the 
High School for one term. He then made up his 
mind that he wanted to enter the mercantile 
field, and began work in a hardware store, re- 
ceiving as wages his board and room, soon ad- 
vancing until he had gained a good position in 
the line of work he most desired. He remained 
in Marshall for seven years, then went to Olivet, 
Michigan, where he started for himself, carry- 
ing on a successful trade for several years. 

He then came to Boone county, Nebraska, 
and he purchased a piece of land close to what 
is now the town of Cedar Rapids, building the 
first house in that place, and was the first white 
man to settle there. This is now a thriving town, 
with a population of one thousand people, and 
is one of the cleanest and most progressive little 
villages in the whole state of Nebraska. 

Mr. Sargent farmed and carried on a success- 
ful stock business up to 1889, at which time he 
opened his office and engaged in the real estate, 
insurance and loan business. He is a member of 
the Boone County Bar Association, and is con- 
nected with several lodges, being confidential 
adviser for numerous non-resident property own- 
ers, as well as very many of his home people. 
He has for the past twenty-five years been a 
member of the school board, has served as vil- 

lage clerk, and takes an active interest always 
along educational and moral lines. 

Mr. Sargent was united in marriage in Roch- 
ester, New York, on June 1, 1870, to Miss Rosa 
B. Sherman, who was a native of that place, and 
daughter of former Chief of Police Sherman. To 
them has been born one son, Winfield R., who is 
married, and a well-known citizen of Cedar Rap- 
ids, being connected with the American Order of 
Protection. He has three children. 


Through exceptionally good management and 
persistent labor, the gentleman named above has 
acquired a well-developed farm, and is enabled 
to enjoy the comforts of modern farming. He 
is one of the progressive and successful farmers 
of this locality, and for many years has been iden- 
tified with the agricultural development of this 
section of the country. 

Mr. Schmutz is a native of the province of 
Holstein, Germany, -where he was born Septem- 
ber 29, 1853, the son of John and Margaret 
Schmutz. He received his education in Germany, 
and spent the years of his childhood and young 
manhood in the little village where he was born. 

In 1882, our subscriber left his native land 
for America, believing that here alone he would 
be able to find the opportunity to make the most 
of himself. He came first to Iowa, where he re- 
mained four years, and worked out; then, in 
1886, he came to Wayne county, Nebraska, and 
located, later purchasing the farm which is still 
his home. He has made many improvements 
since buying the farm, and it is now one of the 
best-equipped in the community. Mr. Schmutz 
owns one hundred and sixty acres of land. 

December 14. 1888, Mr. Schmutz was united 
in marriage to Miss Helen Lage, and they were 
the parents of five children, named as follows : 
Emma, Ida, Adele, Henry and John, wlio died 
when eight years old. Mr. Schmutz died Novem- 
ber 2, 1909. 


Reuben Dickinson, retired farmer, resides in 
Schuyler, Colfax county, Nebraska, where he is 
one of the foremost and most substantial citizens 
of the locality. He is one of the oldest settlers 
of Colfax county, having lived here close to two- 
score years. He has always been a potent factor 
in the upbuilding of his home county and state, 
and has been amply rewarded for his steadfast- 
ness to the best interests of all, now being a well- 
to-do, prosperous citizen. 

Mr. Dickinson is a native of England, his 
birth occurring in Cambridgeshire, Isle of Ely. 
April 2, 1846, a son of David and Mary (Wright) 
Dickinson, natives of Lincolnshire, England. He 
was fourth in the family of five children, and has 
one brother residing in England, and a sister in 



Oklahoma. His father died in Colfax county, 
Nebraska, in the year 1881, and the mother 
passed away in England in the early fifties. 

Mr. Dickinson grew to manhood in his home 
country, receiving the usual school advantages, 
and later engaging in farming. In May of 1864, 
he came with his uncle and aunt to America, 
locating in Camden, New Jersey, for a few 
months. He then went to Henry county, Illinois, 
where he followed farming part of the time, and 
when not engaged in that, was employed on the 

On December 28, 186.5, Mr. Dickinson was 
united in marriage to Miss Alice Parson, a native 
of Illinois, her birth occurring in Whiteside 
couuty. The marriage took place in Atkinson, 
Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Dickinson have had twelve 
children born to them, whose names are 
as follows: Mary R., wife of John 

Clement, they having four children, and 
residing in Yuma, Colorado ; Louisa, also 
married, she and her husband, Alfred Childrey, 
and four children being residents of Stanton 
county, Nebraska; David is married, has seven 
children, and resides in Stanton county, Nebras- 
ka ; Edward, also married, has one child, and 
lives in Stanton county; Joseph resides in Mis- 
soula, Montana; William, married, lives in Stan- 
ton county, and has one child ; Emily, who re- 
sides at home, is a student in a Lincoln business 
college; Alice, wife of Homer Pont, has three 
children, and resides in Colfax county; Frank 
is a student at Lincoln University; and Harry, 
Beulah and Viola, all of whom are deceased. 
Mrs. Dickinson died on May 14, 1902, on the 
home farm, deeply mourned by her husband and 
family and many kind friends. 

In the spring of 1873, Mr. Dickinson came 
with his wife and three children to Colfax coun- 
ty, Nebraska, taking up a homestead of eighty 
acres on the north half of southwest quarter of 
section eighteen, township twenty, range four, 
which remained the home place about six years. 
He then moved on his farm of two hundred and 
forty acres, which was located one mile east of 
the old homestead place, living on this farm, 
which he had purchased, until 1904. Mr. Dick- 
inson then retired from farming, and moved to 
Schuyler, where he purchased a good home, and 
now resides. 

On January 27, 1904, Mr. Dickinson was united 
in marriage to Miss Ann Russell, also a native of 
England, the marriage ceremony taking place 
in Atkinson, Illinois. 

Mr. Dickinson is a prosperous man of affairs, 
and owns two hundred and sixty acres of fine 
farm land, aside from good city property in 
Schuyler. He has served as school moderator 
for his district, number thirty-two, in the early 
days. In the early seventies, Mr. Dickinson 
lielped to organize United Brethren church, and 
has been active in many other ways in the best 
interests of his home county and state. 

Mr. Dickinson has passed through the many 
hardships and trying experiences that beset the 
early settler on the western frontier. He is wide- 
ly and favorablv known. 


The gentleman above mentioned is counted 
e oldest settlers in Holt county, Nebras- 
ka, and since locating here in 1873 has taken a 
foremost part in the development of this region, 
and has one of the most beautiful homes in Holt 
county. Mr. Montgomery is of the opinion that 
the average man here is much better off financial- 
ly than in Illinois, which is his former residing 
place, as the land here costs less and crops grow 
just as well with less labor, one man taking care 
of one hundred and sixty acres as easily as he 
could fifty acres in Illinois. Since locating here, 
Mr. Montgomery has had fair success every year, 
with the exception of 1894, when his crops were 
burned out by hot winds, and that year every one 
suffered some loss. Our subject has two hundred 
and forty acres of good land in Antelope county, 
and four hundred and eighty acres in Holt coun- 

Mr. Montgomery was born April 8, 1858, in 
Warren county, Illinois. His father, Alfred, was 
born in 1822 in the state of Kentucky, as was 
also our subject's mother, who was Nancy 
Thompson. She died when our subject was a 
small boy. In the year of 1881, Mr. Montgomery 
came to York county, Nebraska, and worked 
there for two years. In 1883, he came to Holt 
county, where he took up a homestead in section 
twenty-five, township twenty-seven, range nine, 
and, buying a log house, moved it on this claim, 
living in this house five years, and planted twelve 
acres of fine trees on the land. This claim is 
still his residing place, where he and his family 
reside and enjoy the respect and high regard 
of all who know them. 

On October 5, 1887, Mr. Montgomery was 
united in marriage to Miss Luella Miller, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Montgomery are the parents of six 
children : Alfred ; Hugh ; Thomas and Theodore 
H. (twins) ; Frank, and George. 

Mr. Montgomery devotes a great deal of at- 
tention to fine stock, and has a splendid lot of 
high-grade Shorthorn milch cows, and also about 
sixteen head of good work horses. 


William E. Bishop, a large land-owner of 
Pierce county, Nebraska, has done his share to- 
ward the development of the agricultural re- 
sources of that region. He is a man of wide ex- 
perience, and his good business judgment and 
integrity have placed him among the prosperous 
men of" bis county. Mr. Bishop has an elegant 
home in the beautiful little city of Pierce, where 



his family is among the popular members of soc- 
ial and educational circles. 

Mr. Bishop is a native of Guilford, Connecti- 
cut, and a sou of Jonathan and Fanuie M. (Gris- 
wold) Bishop, the former a descendant of John 
Bishop, who was born in Guilford, Kent county, 
England, and it was after that town that our 
subject's birthplace was named. He was born 
in the first stone house ever erected by the Eng- 
lish in New England, which was owned by the 
Bishop family for three generations. His boy- 
hood was spent in that vicinity, and he was mar- 
ried there in 1867 to Ellen A. Stone, a daughter 
of Charles M. and Ellen M. Stone, the former a 
descendant of James Stone, who was a member 
of the first colony settling in Guilford, Connecti- 
cut. The mother of Charles M. Stone was a de- 
scendant of Governor William Leete, one of the 
first executives of that state. 

In the spring of 1868, Mr. Bishop and his 
young wife migrated to Linn county, Missouri, 
where they purchased a farm and cultivated it 
for ten years, during which time he ran a planing 
mill for one year. In 1878 they returned to the 
old home place in Guilford, and spent a year 
visiting relatives, and rid their bodies of malaria 
acquired in Missouri. The following year they 
returned, bringing with them two young men who 
wished to locate in the west, and, shortly after, 
they sold their farm, and, loading their goods 
on wagons, came across the country to Pierce 
county, Nebraska, being seventeen days on the 
road, spending the nights camped out under their 
wagons, except two or three, when they were 
able to find lodging with friendly settlers along 
the way. They readied Pierce on April 1, 1879, 
the town at that time consisting of just seven 
buildings, and the population comprising ten men 
and three women. Mr. Bishop was interested in 
a tract of thirty-two hundred acres of land, sit- 
uated eleven miles north of Pierce, which was 
subsequently made into a fine ranch. Lumber 
for the ranch house was hauled a distance of 
sixty-five miles, from Wisner, then the nearest 
railroad point, and except for the help of a car- 
penter for one week, Mr. Bishop did the entire 
work of building. During these first years on 
the ranch, Mrs. Bishop often spent many days 
with only a dog for companionship. There were 
but four neighbors between their ranch and 
Pierce, and their nearest neighbor north was 
twenty-four miles away. For a number of years 
not a friendly light could be seen from their win- 
dows at night. 

_ They engaged in cattle and sheep raising dur- 
ing the first years, and later engaged in horse and 
niule breeding. Remaining on the ranch for 
eight years, they built a good residence in Pierce, 
and have made that their home since that time.' 
The ranch has been sub-divided in a number of 
smaller farms, each supplied with a complete set 
of buildings, and the entire tract is now under 

In October, 1880, the country in their vicinity 
was swept by a terrific blizzard. Mr. Bishop was 
away from home, accompanied by a neighbor, 
whose unfinislied house was open to the weather. 
The neighbor's wife and foster daughter, five 
years old, being in the unfinished house, Mrs. 
Bishop sent for them, and found the two nearly 
frozen, with the child in convulsions. She had 
them brought to her house, and succeeded in get- 
ting the frost warmed out of them, they coming 
out of their experience with no serious results. 

After locating in Pierce, Mr. Bishop became 
interested in different enterprises, dealing large- 
ly in lands, and at times having as much as five 
thousand acres under his control. He has been 
one of the leading business men since coming 
here, and has also held various public offices, 
serving as county surveyor for twelve years, and 
precinct assessor for many terms. He is a mem- 
ber of the Congregational church, while his wife 
is an Episcopalian. In polities he is a staunch 
republican. He has been a Mason since March 
9, 1886, and is a charter member of Evergreen 
lodge, number one hundred and fifty-three, which 
he served several years as Master, and many years 
as treasurer. He is also a charter member of the 
Norfolk lodge of Elks. 


Hanford N. Smith, who resides in the beauti- 
ful and progressive city of St. Paul, is a man 
who enjoys to the fullest extent the confidence 
and respect of all with whom he has to do since 
locating here many years ago. 

Mr. Smith was born in Tompkins county. New 
York, August 7, 1832, making him one of the 
oldest men in this section of the country. He 
spent his boyhood in New York state, at the age 
of twenty-two years going into northern Wiscon- 
sin, where he spent the winters in the lumber 
camps, and during the summers sailed the great 
lakes, having a captain's commission. .He is one 
of the pioneer sailors, and well remembers tlie 
difficulties encountered in navigation during the 
earlier days. He next went to California, and 
entered the mining region, spending about two 
years in the west, then returned to Wisconsin, 
and again sailed the lakes, following this work 
up to about 1861. 

At the breaking out of the war, Mr. Smith 
enlisted in the Wisconsin Infantry, Company E, 
Fourteenth regiment, and served until the close 
of the struggle. He saw much hard service as 
a soldier, the principal battles in which he par- 
ticipated being the battle of Shiloh (after which 
action he was made commissary sergeant of the 
Fourteenth Wisconsin Regiment as a reward for 
conspicuous bravery on the battlefield) ; the bat- 
tle of luka, Corinth, a three-days' engagement, 
and the battle of Vicksburg, a siege of forty- 
seven days. After tlie surrender of Vicksburg, 
his regiment was discharged, this occurring on 



December 12, 1863, aud ou the same day Mr. 
Smith re-enlisted, although his furlough of thirty 
days was spent in Wisconsin and New York state. 
He was married in January, 1864, while on this 
furlough, to Harriet Garrison, of Tompkins coun- 
ty, New York, and after several days' visit with 
friends in the vicinity of his birthplace, returned 
to his post in the army, later taking part in the 
battles of Fort Duressa, Champion Hill, Yellow 
Bayou, the engagement with Price and Marma- 
duke, near Kansas City, Missouri, which resulted 
in the capture of Marmaduke, and the action at 
Nashville, Mobile, besides many other minor 

After leaving the army, Mr. Smith returned 
to Wisconsin, taking up hi.s old work on the 
lakes, and continued up to December, 1872, at 
which time he had the misfortune to have a bad 
wreck, and this decided to give up the perilous 
business of sailing. He looked about for a new 
location, and finally decided on Nehi-aska. coming 
here in February of 1873. He took up a home- 
stead on section eighteen, township ten, range 
thirteen, of Howard county, and there remained 
for several years, succeeding in building up a 
fairly good farm. 

In 1876, he went into the Black Hills, where 
he engaged in mining, putting in about a year in 
that region, then returned to Nebraska, settling 
in St. Paul, where Mrs. Smith died, December 
20, 1877. 

Mr. Smith has been one of the prominent bus- 
iness and public men of his region for the past 
forty years. He has held various high offices of 
his county, being elected county sui)erintendent 
of public instruction in 1874, and serving for two 
years. In 1894 he became assessor, holding office 
for five years, and after a lapse of ten years was 
again elected for a two-year term. He has also 
served as water commissioner for one term. For 
many years he was justice of the peace, and 
through these different positions has become fa- 
miliarly known to every resident of the county, 
and gained the respect and esteem of all by his 
straight-forward actions and sterling integrity. 

Mr. Smith was married the second time, May 
20, 1884, to Mrs. Laura Oglesbee, of St. Paul, 
and to them have been born three children : 
Iliuiford Nelson, Jr., Addie May and Clara, all 
of whom are married and settled in comfortable 
lunnes in St. Paul, where they are surrounded 
b\- a host of warm friends. 


Among the early settlers in the eastern part 
of Neliraska, who came here when the place was 
still practically a wilderness, and out of its wild 
state succeeded in building up a good home and 
valuable possessions, is the gentleman above 
named. Mr. Koch has spent all but five of 
liis span of fifty-nine years in Nebraska state, 
which well entitles him to the name of old set- 

tler. He is recognized as one of the leading old- 
timers and worthy citizens of his locality. 

Jacob D. Koch, son of Joseph and Mary 
(Rheinfrank) Koch, was born in Pike county, 
Ohio, July 18, 1851, and was second in a family 
of thirteen children. He has six brothers and 
four sisters residing in Nebraska, the other 
children being deceased, as are also the parents. 
The father died on his home farm in Cass county, 
Nebraska, in Febi'uary of 1903, the mother also 
passing away in Cass county, her death occur- 
ring in the year 1896. 

In 1856, Mr. Koch, subject of this sketch, with 
his parents, drove overland from Ohio to Nebras- 
ka, locating in Cass county. Here Mr. Koch re- 
ceived his education, and later engaged in farm- 
ing. In 1882, he purchased one hundred and 
twenty acres on Mira Valley of Valley county, 
in section twenty-one, township eighteen, range 
fourteen, which is still his home place. He now 
has two hundred and forty acres in the tract. 

In Spptembri- of 1872, Mr. Koch was united 
in marriai:-!' lo ^liss Mary Janssen, a native of 
Germany, born near Marienhoff, East Fresin. In 
1869, she came to America with her father, Rein- 
hardt Janssen, who settled in Cass county, Ne- 
braska, near Plattsmouth. Her mother was Mary 
Hoester before marriage. To Mr. and Mrs. Koch 
were born eight children, two of whom died in 
infancy: Joseph R., who is married, and has 
four children ; Andrew, also married, has two 
sons; Edward, married, has one child, and James, 
man-ied, has four children, all of Valley county, 
and Harry and Fred, who reside under the par- 
ental roof. 

In the spring of 1883, Mr. Koch moved, with 
his wife and children, on the Valley county farm. 
Mrs. Koch died, June 12, 1889, on the home farm, 
survived and deeply mourned by her husband 
and six children. 

Mr. Koch is a prosperous, successful man of 
affairs, owning a fine stock and grain farm of 
two hundred and forty acres. He makes a spec- 
ialty of Galloway cgittle. Mr. Koch was instru- 
mental in organizing his school district, number 
nine, of which he served as director for some 
years. Mr. Koch has resided in Nebraska for 
fifty-four years, and has passed through much 
of Nebraska's history, and is widely and favora- 
bly known. 

On January 12, 1896, in Cass county, Nebras- 
ka. Mr. Koch was married to Johanna Janssen, 
sister of his first wife. Mr. and Mrs. Koch have 
had two children, sous, namely: Jacob Daniel 
and George William, who reside at home. Mrs. 
Koch's father died in Nebraska in 1878, and her 
mother passed away in 1862 in Germany. 

In 1906 Mr. Koch built a new home on his 
farm, and the farm is well improved in every 
way. Mr. Koch and family are highly esteemed 
and respected, and are surrounded in their home 
by a host of good friends and neighbors. In 
polities he is a republican. 



In the dry year, 1894, Mr. Koch raised a little 
corn in the low places, but not enough to be 
profitable, and in 1896 lost nearly all his grain 
by hail. 

Mr. Koch lived for a time in a log dug-out in 
Cass county, but has enjoyed having a much 
better dwelling since coming to Valley county. 


The gentleman above mentioned is a native- 
born Nebraskan, having been born on a farm in 
Madison county locality, January 8, 1872. Since 
attaining his maturity, he has been closely identi- 
fied with every movement for the benefit of the 
region, and assisted materially in its development 
and growth, as did his father before him. Mr. 
Haase resides in Norfolk precinct, in section 
eight, township twenty-four, range one, where 
he has a pleasant home and valuable estate. 

Mr. Haase is a son of Fred and Louisa 
(Raasch) Haase, the father being a native of 
Germany, who left his native land when he was 
but fifteen years of age, embarking on a sailboat, 
and being on the sea eight weeks. 

In 1868 he came to Nebraska from Wisconsin 
by the usual route of those days — driving by ox 
team — locating in Madison county, where he took 
up a homestead, and on this land built a log 
house. Here he experienced many hardships in 
those very first days of settlement, some forty 
odd years ago. The grasshoppers destroyed all 
the ci-ops during the first years, which was very 
discouraging to the new settlers in the almost 
unpopulated country, where work, food and 
money were scarce. They also fought prairie 
fires many times to save their homes and lives. 
Deer and antelope were plentiful then, and fre- 
quently could be seen grazing in large herds. 
Our subject remembers many of these incidents, 
and relates many interesting instances of the 
earlier days, when he was but a young lad. 

In 1891 Mr. Haase was united in marriage 
to Miss Matilda Doomer, who is a native of Ne- 
braska, and daughter of William and Rosie 
(Miller) Doomer. Mr. and Mrs. Haase are the 
parents of the following named children: Al- 
vina, Adolph, Elsie, Eimel and Leona. They are 
a fine family, and in their pleasant home are sur- 
rounded by a host of good friends and acquaint- 

Mr. Haase is one of the younger old settlers 
in Madison county, and has a bright future be- 
fore him. He now owns three hundred and nine- 
ty acres of fine land, three acres of which he has 
set to trees. He is a member of the Lutheran 
church, and is a democrat. 


For nearly forty years the gentleman named 
aliove has been identified with the farming inter- 
ests of Greeley county, and during this time he 

has acquired a valuable estate of nearly five hun- 
dred acres by dint of his industry and thrift. 
He is now retired from active management of 
his possessions, and is living in the city of Scotia, 
one of the substantial and highly esteemed citi- 
zens of the community. 

David W. Locker, the son of John L. and 
Harriet (Glass) Locker, was born in Dayton, 
Ohio, on the 18th of December, 1846. He was the 
eldest of seven children, six of whom are now 
living. The father was a native of Bishopsheim, 
province of Baden. Germany, who came to this 
country in 1842. He died in his eighty-fifth year, 
on the first of February, 1905, while the mother, 
in her eighty-seventh year, is still living in Sco- 

The first few years of Mr. Locker's life were 
spent in Dayton, Ohio, and Niles, Michigan, when 
the family moved to Lake county, Indiana, and 
there he grew to manhood, receiving his educa- 
tion in the local schools. When only fifteen years 
of age, in 1862, our subject did what so many 
other patriotic boys did — enlisted at Indianapolis 
in the Twenty-fourth Indiana Battery, Light Ar- 
tillery, and served until the close of the war, re- 
ceiving his discharge on August 3, 1865. During 
his three years of service, young David was in 
many decisive and dangerous engagements. At 
one time the detachment followed closely on the 
heels of Morgan and his men on his memorable 
raid through Kentucky and Ohio. His battery 
marched over four thousand miles during its 
service, and at one time traversed three hundred 
miles from Knoxville, Tennessee, to Tunnel Hill, 
Georgia, to take part in that campaign. He was 
present at the siege of Knoxville and the fall of 
Nashville, and took part in minor engagements 
at Horse Shoe Bend, Cumberland River, Ken- 
tucky, Sweetwater, Tennessee, Resaca, and at 
the fall of Atlanta at the close of that memora- 
ble campaign. He served under Thomas tiie 
latter part of the war, and was under his com- 
mand when peace was declared. 

After the war was over, Mr. Locker returned 
to the old home in Indiana, but soon after went 
to Chicago, Illinois, where he learned carpentry, 
and worked at his trade for twelve years. Then, 
realizing that greater opportunities were to be 
found in the west, he went to Kansas in 1871, 
but remained there only a few months. He then 
went to the Indian Territory, but remained there 
only eight months. Next he proceeded to Ar- 
kansas, where he spent two years, and then final- 
ly decided to locate permanently in Greeley coun- 
ty, Nebraska. He took up a homestead of one 
hundred and sixty acres, and also a timber claim 
of equal size adjoining, in section six, township 
seventeen, range eleven. 

On January 24, 1880, in Lake county, Mr. 
Locker married Miss Mary Brandt, a native of 
Hanover, Germany, who came to America with 
her parents, Dietrich and Anna (Bishop) Brandt, 
when only three years of age. Her parents were 



natives of Hauover and Bremen respectively. 

Mr. and Mrs. Locker have had four children 
born to them: Edward H., living in Greeley 
county, on part of the old farm; Ella, now Mrs. 
Henry Thurnagle, of Grand Island; Anna J., now 
Mrs. Arthur Schilling, of Greeley county; and 
William D., who, with his wife and one child, 
is now living on the old homestead. 

Mr. Locker has been associated with all move- 
ments of public interest ever since his first resi- 
dence in the eoi;nty. He was instrumental in 
organizing school district number twelve, serv- 
ing on the board for fourteen years. He has also 
served the public for two terms as supervisor 
in the county board. For the past three years he 
has also been president of the Scotia Indepen- 
dent Telephone Company. 


Magnes Olsen, retired farmer of Hartington, 
is one of Sweden's creditable contributions to 
American citizenship. He was born where Char- 
lottenberg now stands, then only a farming dis- 
trict, on August 22, 1833. His father, Ole Dahl, 
died before Mr. Olsen emigrated to America, 
and his mother had been dead some years at 
that time. Mr. Olsen farmed in the old country 
until his migration to America in 1868. In his 
journey hither, he crossed the North Sea from 
Guttenberg to Hull, thence by rail to Liverpool, 
when he embarked on the "City of Paris" for 
New York, which was reached after a voyage of 
twelve days. He came west, reaching Chicago 
on the 24th of June, whence he journeyed to 
Lisbon, Illinois, and worked eleven days in the 
cornfields there for money to take him to Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, where many of his countrymen 
had settled. Here he lived for five years, farm- 
ing most of the time prior to his migration to 

A colony of friends made the trip overland 
with ox teams, the journey extending into the 
sixth week before their destination was reached. 
Mr. Olsen settled on a homestead a mile north- 
west of where Hartington now stands. He has 
herded cattle manj' times over the present town- 
site when there was nothing here but waving 
prairie grasses. He lived on his homestead seven 
years, and then sold, buying a quarter section 
ten miles southwest of Hartington, on which he 
resided until 1910, when he retired from active 
farming, and moved to town. 

Mr. Olsen was married in Norway, February 
15, 1858, to Miss Bertha Jansen. Oii his migra- 
tion to America, the wife remained in the old 
country for a year, while Mr. Olsen earned and 
•saved enough to send for her and the children, 
and a joyous reunion it was, after the absence 
of a year. Ten children were born to them, of 
whom only one is deceased. The living are: 
Olaf, farming five miles north of town; John 
resides in Hartington ; Mary is the wife of Steve 

Seim, a retired farmer, who is street commission- 
er of Hartington ; Chris lives in Laramie, Wyom- 
nig; Dina is married to Mike Markeson, who 
resides in Lawton, Oklahoma; Peter is living in 
Hartington; Julius in Omaha; and Simon and 
Edward, the youngest, have homesteads in Ly- 
man and Tripp counties, South Dakota. Clara, 
the deceased child, was born next after Julius. 

The early days in Nebraska were fraught 
with many trials; markets were distant, and 
prices low; grasshoppers destroyed the crops for 
three years, leaving little or nothing in their 
wake. In 1880, Mr. Olsen made eighteen trips 
to Yankton and two to Vermillion, disposing of 
his crop and freighting provisions back to Cedar 
county. Deer and antelope were plentiful in the 
sixties, but it was but a short time until they 
were all killed or driven off. 

There was much suifering at times during 
the severe blizzards, and in that of January 12, 
1888, John was away from home, teaching school. 
Wheat and other grain found a market at St. 
Helena, whence it was shipped to St. Louis by 
boat. The price of it was paid half in cash and 
half in trade at the store. The Indians were 
fairly good neighbors on the whole, but occas- 
ionally sold a settler his own axe if he were neg- 
lectful in bringing it in when staking out his 
cattle. Mr. Olsen lived during the first winter 
in a sod house with a hay roof, but built a better 
dwelling the following spring. 

Church services were not so numerous in the 
early days, though there was a congregation 
near Hartington. Mr. Olsen and others drove 
forty miles across the country to the southwest 
to organize a congregation, with the Reverend 
N. G. Tvedt. Religious fervor was not at ebb 
tide, even if the settlements were small and few 

Mr. Olsen is independent in politics, and, like 
most all Scandinavians, is a member of the Luth- 
eran church. 


William Laub, deceased, was for many years 
one of the leading citizens of Merrick county, Ne- 
braska, and to his efforts were due much of the 
prosperity enjoyed in that region. He was a man 
of strong character and during his lifetime en- 
joyed the esteem and respect of all with whom he 
came in contact, and his memory is cherished by 
a host of warm friends throughout the country. 

William Laub, son of Phillip and Anna Laub, 
was born in German.y, province of Bavaria, 
March 29, 1843, and was third in a family of elev- 
en children. Three brothers reside in Merrick 
county, Nebraska ; one sister in Omalia ; one sis- 
ter in Kansas, and the others are deceased, as are 
also the parents. In 1S4S our subject came with 
the family to America locating in Illinois where 



Mr. Laub received his education and later engag- 
ed in farming. 

In the spring of 1871, in company with his 
brother, Frederick Laub, came to Merrick county 
Nebraska, and timber-claimed one hundred and 
sixty acres in the north-east quarter section thir- 
tj'-two, township thirteen, range seven, west, 
which remained the home place until April of 
1900, when Mr. Laub retired from the farm and 
moved to Central City where he built a fine house, 
living there until the time of his death, Novem- 
ber 17, 1907. He was survived by his wife and 
six children: Alvin S., who is married and lives 
in Central City, has one child; John P., married 
has two children and resides in Chapman; Wil- 
liam Edward, deceased April 15, 1909, survived 
by his wife and three children who reside in 
Chapman, Nebraska; Mary Elida, married to 
Thomas Costello, has three children and lives in 
Cozad, Nebraska; Alice Rachel, married to Harry 
Parsons, lives in Central City ; and Daniel Earl, 
who is married and lives on the old timber claim. 

Mr. Laub served on the school board of his 
district number fifty for a number of years, and 
later was also a member of the city council in Cen- 
tral City. He was prosperous and successful, and 
owned nine hundred and sixty acres of stock and 
grain farming land in Merrick county, and also 
splendid city property. 

On October 1, 1874, Mr. Laub was married to 
Margaret Donovan of Pennsylvania who came to 
Nebraska in 1868. Mrs. Laub lives in the Central 
City home surrounded by a large circle of friends. 

Mr. Laub Avas a man of affairs, interested in 
all pertaining to the welfare of his state and coun- 
ty. He passed through the trying experiences 
and discouragements of frontier life, and was the 
first man to ship a car-load of grain out of Chap- 

Mrs. Laub is carrying on the large stock and 
farming interests left her by her husband. 


Prominent among Knox county, Nebraska, old 
settlers is Thomas Stoural, who since the fall of 
1873 has made this region his home, and who has 
done his share in the developing of the agricul- 
tural resources of this section of the county. Mr. 
Stoural lives on section eleven, township 'thirty, 
range six, where he has built up a valuable pro- 
perty through his industry and good manage- 

Mr. Stoural is a native of Bohemia, born in 
1857, and is the son of Albert and Magdaline 
Stoural. When but a young man, our subject 
left his native home for America, to make a for- 
tune for himself. After landing in the United 
States, in 1870, Mr. Stoural first came to Chicago. 
Illinois, where he stayed two years and worked 
out. He then came to Knox county, Nebraska, 
with his parents, where they took up homesteads 
and tree claims. First our sul)jeet built a sod 

house in which he lived five years, then building 
a good frame house. 

Mr. Stoural has struggled and worked faith- 
fully to build up his home and gain a competence 
for himself, and in the earliest days of his settle- 
ment here he endured many hardships and dan- 
gers. For the first few years he worked out in 
Knox county to make money to keep up his home- 
stead. He suffered severe losses through the 
grasshopper pests which destroyed all his crops 
during the first years of his residence on the 
homestead. The Indians were a source of uneasi- 
ness to the settlers of the region in those days, 
and they experienced many a scare from them, 
but the Indians were not so hostile to the settlers 
of this locality as they were to other portions of 
Knox county. 

Mr. Stoural was united in marriage in 1884, 
to Miss Antonia Divis, and they are the parents 
of seven children, named as follows: Minnie, 
Emanuel, Clara, George, Frank, Martha and 

Mr. and Mrs. Stoural and family are higlily 
esteemed and respected by all who know them, 
and they are one of the substantial families of 
the community. 


Frank Birch, one of the oldest settlers of the 
region wliere he chose his home in the early days, 
occupies a good home and valuable property in 
section twenty-nine, township twenty-six, range 
three, in Pierce county, Nebraska. He has done 
his full share in the upbuilding of his locality, and 
is well and favorably known throughout this 
part of the state. 

Mr. Birch is a native of St. Lawrence county. 
New York, born December 8, 1855, and is the son 
of Thomas and Mary (Williams) Bircli. Our sub- 
ject's grandfather was a native of Vermont, 
where he followed the occupation of ship build- 
ing. The father, Thomas Birch, was born in New 
York state, and after he was grown to manhood 
and married, he was drafted in the army, and 
died in a short time of M'ounds received in the 
battle of the Wilderness in 1863, our subject be- 
ing but a small boy at that time. Mr. Birch's 
mother was born in 1836 and died in 1900. Her 
father was born in England and ran away from 
his native land and came to America. 

Mr. Birch grew up in New York state, where 
he received a common school education and was 
early obliged to make his own way in the world, 
his father dying when the boy was six or seven 
years of age, he was bound out for his board and 
clothes, receiving but a scant amount of either. 

When nineteen years of age, he bought the 
remainder of his time, seventeen months, for ten 
dollars per month and began life for himself. 

In 1879 he came to Nebraska and secured land 
in section twenty-nine, township twenty-six, 
range tliree, it then being an entirely undevel- 





oped country. He filed first on a timber claim 
and later on a pre-emption, and here he built a 
board shack, in which he lived for a time. As his 
means increased he erected good barns and otiier 
buildings, besides a substantial nine room house. 
We show a view of the premises with its fine sur- 
rounding grove and orchard on another page of 
this work. 

Mr. or Mrs. Birch was in charge of 
Birch postofiSce for fifteen years. This 

office was established on his farm when 
star routes were the order of the day. 
Mr. Birch is now in very comfortable circum- 
stances, but passed through many hardships and 
privations during his early settlement here. 

Mr. Birch was united in matrimony January 
30, 1884, to Miss Jane Woodward, also a native of 
St. Lawrence county, daughter of Richard and 
Caroline (Coleman) Woodward, natives of Eng- 
land and Canada, respectively. Mr. and Mrs. 
Birch are the parents of four children : Minnie, 
who graduated from the Wayne Normal in 1908 
and received a three-year certificate, is the wife 
of Lee Graeser; Harry, graduated at Wayne in 
April, 1911 ; Homer, now attending the Wayne 
institution, and Allan. 

Mr. Birch has a fine farm of three hundred 
and fifteen acres, seven acres of which is a fine 
grove of trees. This place is known as Elmwood 
Dairy Farm, with fifteen to twenty cows supply- 
ing cream throughout the year. Mrs. Birch is a 
member of the Free Methodist church. In poli- 
ties Mr. Birch is independent of party lines. 


Mr. Buffington is one of the well known old 
timers of eastern Nebraska, having come here 
when the country was a barren prairie, and when 
it was being settled by those brave pioneers who 
came here prepared to suffer all kinds of hard- 
ships and privations in order to make a success 
and acquire a home and fortune. Many of these 
pioneers have remained and seen the wilderness 
develop into a fertile tract, and are now the own- 
ers of fine farms and are leading citizens of their 
locality. Mr. Buffington resides on section twen- 
ty-one, township twenty-four, range eight, in 
Staunton township, where he owns three hundred 
and twenty acres of good land, having twenty 
acres of fine orchard and grove trees. 

Mr. Buffington is a native of Ohio, born Oc- 
tober 9, 1850, in the same house that his father, 
George Buffington, was born in. From Ohio Mr. 
Buffington moved to Illinois where he was em- 
j)loyed by the Panhandle railroad as boiler-maker 
and maeliinist for fifteen years. Mr. Buffington 's 
father served in the Civil war, enlisting in 1863 
in One Hundred Sixty-first Ohio Volunteers un- 
der General Seigel. In 1877, our subject came to 
Washington county, Nebraska, and from there he 
went to Holt county in 1885 where he took up a 
homestead in section twenty-four, township twen- 

ty-four, range thirteen, building on this land a 
sod house. 

Mr. Buffington was united in matrimony, 
April 11, 1879, at Blair, Washington county, 
Nebraska, to Miss Catherine Thyme. Mr. 
and Mrs. Buffington have one child, Minnie, 
who is the wife of Allen Wilson, living 
in Stanton township. They have two chil- 
dren, Clarence J. and Katie E. In 1889, Mr. Buff- 
ington with his family came to Antelope county, 
Nebraska, and bought his present farm of three 
hundred and twenty acres of land, on which, as 
before stated, there are twenty acres of trees. 

Mr. Buffington is of English descent, his ances- 
tors having come from England, although his 
father and mother were born' in Ohio. They had 
five children: John, Sarah, Ellen, Jacob and 

His brother John served five years in the war 
of the rebellion, enlisting in 1861 and serving un- 
til '65. He was wounded twice. He died in 1896. 
His sister Carrie, the youngest, died in 1859. His 
other sisters are still living; his sister Sarah now 
resides in Blair, Washington county, Nebraska. 
Sister Ellen lives in Herman, Washington county, 

On January 12, 1888, Mr. Buffington M'ho then 
lived in Holt county, started to walk to town to 
get some thread for his wife. When but two and 
one-half miles from home he was overtaken by 
that famous blizzard of that day and forced to 
return ; when he was about sixty rods from the 
house (which was made of sod) he was so blind- 
ed by the storm that he lost his way and was driv- 
en into a grove which was near the house. Here 
he thought he would be able to locate the house 
but failed and became so exhausted that he laid 
down on what he supposed to be a snow drift, 
when a very strong gust of wind turned him com- 
pletely over and when he stopped rolling found 
himself lying up against the house which he had 
been looking for, into which he hurried utterly 
exhausted from his experience with the blizzard, 
said to have been the worst in the history of Ne- 

Mr. Buffington is a broad minded man and one 
whp has won the respect and esteem of all by his 
many sterling qualities. A view of the family 
home is presented on another page of this volume. 


John Porterfield, an energetic and thrifty 
resident of Fvillerton, has for many years follow- 
ed the occupation of contractor and builder in 
Nance county, and in this work has accumulated 
a comfortable property, and gained the esteem 
and respect of his fellowmen. In the past year 
he has become acting manager of tlie Edmunds 
Creamery company's station in Fullerton, which 
position he is now filling to the satisfaction of his 

Mr. Porterfield is a son of James and Eliza 



Porterfield, born March 2, 1844, in Dover, Illinois. 
He was reared there, following farming during 
his younger years, and on August 27, 1857, was 
married to Frances A. Belden, of New York state, 
who had been a teacher in the public schools of 
that state for several years. The year following 
their union they settled in Atchison county, Kan- 
sas, there engaging in farming, and remained for 
a number of years. He then learned the stone 
masonry trade, also that of builder, and started 
in the contracting business, going to Genoa, Xc 
braska, in 1882. He only lived in that city for one 
year, then moved to FuUerton, which has been his 
permanent residence since that time. Here he 
has followed his trade and become one of the 
prominent business men of the section, handling 
many large contracts, and proving his ability and 
true worth as a master of that vocation. In the 
winter of 1909. Mr. Porterfield began buying 
cream, poultry, and eggs, since which time he has 
been continuously employed in that line of work. 

Mr. and Mrs. Porterfield have had eight chil- 
dren, six of whom are now living, namely : James 
C, of Boise City, Idaho ; Alice, wife of Franklin 
Hollensteiner, living in Missoula, Montana ; Cyn- 
thia, wife of Chas. E. Carter, they living in Ful- 
lerton ; Helen, now Mrs. Roy Wilbur, also of Mis- 
soula, Montana, and Mabel and Marion, twins. 
The latter lives at home, and is a teacher in the 
Fullerton schools, while the former is the wife of 
E. H. Davis, and resides in Wolbach, Nebraska. 
The entire family are well known, and enjoy a 
large circle of friends. 

In 1895 Mr. Porterfield was elected police 
judge of his county, and served ten consecutive 
years, or five terms. He was president of the 
school board for a number of years, also serving 
in that body in various other capacities. In 
1884 he held the office of street commissioner, and 
also marshal of the village, and, in fact, has, 
during his career in Nebraska, been almost con- 
stantly in the service of the people. 


To find office equipment equal to that of a city 
hospital, a country physician who almost annual- 
ly takes post-graduate courses, thus keeping 
abreast of the times, in the far west in a practical- 
ly new country, is a surprise indeed. A hasty vis- 
it to the office of Dr. H. A. Skelton, of Spencer, 
will give one that surprise, and convince him of 
the unusual. 

Dr. Skelton 's first recollections of Nebraska 
date back to the latter part of December, 1881, 
when his father, J. B. Skelton, an attorney from 
the middle west, settled in O'Neill, and began the 
practice of his profession. He Avas horn in India- 
na, where he read law, was admitted to the bar, 
and practiced at Princeton, in Gibson county, for 
a number of years. He attained the age of sixty- 
six years, passing away in 1896 at Monette, Mis- 

souri, where he had resided for some years prior 
to his demise. 

H. A. Skelton was born in Princeton, Indiana, 
on May 16, 1867, and there attended the city 
schools from which he graduated in 1883. 

Instead of following the lines of least resis- 
tance and adopting his father's profession, the 
boy had a strong bent for the art of healing, and 
wisely yielded to the impulse, as after events 
proved. He began the study of medicine in 1886 
under the tutelage of Dr. J. E. Shore, remaining 
with this preeepter for five years. He then at- 
tended the lectures in Drake university at Keo- 
kuk, Iowa, graduating in 1891, after which he im- 
mediately began his practice at Page, Nebraska. 
He continued at that point up to 1902, then came 
to Spencer, being received with favor from the 
first, since which time he has enjoyed a wide and 
lucrative patronage. One secret of his success 
is the fact that he has not allowed himself to stag- 
nate, being ever on the alert to absorb new ideas 
in recognized medical therapy, thoroughly fa- 
miliarizing himself with advanced science through 
a course in the Chicago Clinic in 1899, and again 
in 1900 and 1901. In 1904, 1907, and 1909 he 
took up a higher course of study in the Polyclinic 
college, and it is his intention to spend some time 
each year in the famous medical schools of the 
country, to better fit himself for coping with the 
ills flesh is heir to. 

Dr. Skelton has in his office equipment one of 
the largest static electrical machines known to 
the medical profession, including all of the latest 
attachments and improvements. In 1909, feeling 
that there was great need of a place where spec- 
ial cases might be under the constant care of a 
phj'sician. Dr. Skelton established a hospital in 
Spencer, which is the only one along the line of 
the Northwestern, north of Norfolk, and to show 
that his judgment is correct, it is interesting to 
know that there is seldom a vacant bed in the in- 
stitution, which is a boon to suffering humanity, 
along the borders of the two states and a source 
of gratification as well as revenue to the physi- 

Dr. Skelton is descended from a long line of 
patriotic ancestors, his father serving during the 
entire period of hostilities in the eivil war, while 
his maternal grandfather. Colonel Duncan, was 
a native of Raleigh, North Carolina, and located 
in Evansville, Indiana, in 1813. He was a kins- 
man of the Logans in the old north state, ances- 
tors of the famous cavalry officer, "The Black 
Eagle," whose father moved further west and 
settled in Jackson county, Illinois. Colonel Dun- 
can fought in the battle of Tippecanoe in the war 
of 1812, and drew a pension for his services un- 
til 1898, when he died, having almost attained the 
century mark. On his paternal side, a great- 
great-grandfather was a colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary war, also the war of 1812, besides serving 
in the famous battle in northwest Ohio. He was a 
native of Lexington, Kentucky, passing away, at 



au advanced age, in Ohio, where for many years 
prior to his death he had resided. 

Dr. Skelton was married at Page, Nebraska, 
Jauuar.y 1, 1896, to Miss Ruby Chase, a native of 
Iowa, daughter of Perry and Delia (Hanley) 
Chase, who were early settlers in Page. Two chil- 
dren were born to Dr. and Sirs. Skelton, Perry 
and Harold, both intelligent and sturdy young 
westerners, and the pride of their parents' hearts. 

Dr. Skelton is a Mason and an Odd Fellow. 
Politically, he is a staunch supporter of republi- 
can principles as expounded by Roosevelt and 


Walter Havens, a capable and successful busi- 
ness man of Loretta. is one of the earliest settlers 
in Boone county, and has passed through all the 
trying experiences and hardships incidental to 
pioneer life in the west. 

Our subject is a son of William and Mary Ha- 
ven, and was born in McLain county, Illinois, on 
October 19. 1848, he being the eldest of three chil- 
dren. When he was an infant of two years of 
age his parents moved to Delaware county, Iowa, 
where he received his education and grew to 
manhood, following farming with his father there 
up to 1877. On October 1 of that year, Mr. Ha- 
vens came into Nebraska, locating on a homestead 
on section thirty-four, township twenty-one, range 
seven, and begun to develop a farm. He passed 
through pioneer experiences on that place, and 
succeeded in improving his homestead in good 
shape, remaining on it up to 1892, at which time 
he sold the same and moved to Boone, making 
that his home for a number of years, still fai'ming 
in the vicinity on rented land. In 1905 he in- 
vested in the hotel and livery business in Loret- 
ta, and has carried this on since that time — also 
dealing in real estate and buying, selling and ship- 
ping stock. 

Mr. Havens has one brother, William, who also 
resides in Loretta, and a sister married and liv- 
ing in Albion. His father died here in March, 
1907, while his mother makes her home in Albion, 
the entire family being well known throughout 
this part of Nebraska. 

On January 1, 1867, Mr. Havens was married 
in Iowa, to Miss Nancy Wheelus, and of their un- 
ion three children were born, Fred, wdio died in 
1881 : Minnie, wife of Fred Barnes, and mother of 
three children, they living in Loretta, and Wil- 
liam A. Havens, also married and living with his 
family of three children, one mile west of Loret- 
ta. Mrs. Walter Havens died in 1875, and four 
years later our subject was married the second 
time, to Miss Leora Galyean, also of Iowa, they 
being the parents of two children, J. Ernest Ha- 
vens, married and living in Loretta, and Gertie L.. 
who is now Mrs. Harry E. Williams, also living in 
Boone county. 

Mr. Havens has been active in local affairs in 

Boone county since settling here. He has held 
different township offices, and was for a number 
of years director of school district number seven- 


Prominent on the list of prosperous and suc- 
cessful farmers of Wayne county, is the above 
named gentleman, who has for many years occu- 
pied the valuable farm located on section twenty- 
two, township twenty-five, range three. For 
more than a quarter of a century, he has been as- 
sociated with the agricultural interests of this re- 
gion and has accumulated his property by per- 
sistent and honest labor. He is well known 
throughout the locality, and has gained the high- 
est esteem of all with whom he has had to do. 

Mr. Splittgerber was born in Prussia, Ger- 
many, in 1831, and is the son of William and 
Christna Splittgerber. He grew up in his native 
land, received his education there, and was mar- 
ried there in 1852. His first wife died and he 
was again married in 1874. 

It was not until he was nearing middle age 
that he came to America, on account of the op- 
portunities that it offered his family. He came 
by way of Bremen to Baltimore in 1881, and at 
once came to the west, where he bought the farm 
of one hundred and sixty acres which has been 
his home since that date. He has added to it, un- 
til he now owns one thousand, one hundred and 
twenty acres of land. He has made extensive im- 
provements since that time, and the comfortable 
home and well-equipped farm now speak elo- 
(luently of thrift and good management. 

In 1874, long before he left Germany, Mr. 
Splittgerber was united in marriage to Miss Al- 
bertina Falk. They were the parents of a large 
family : five boys and three girls. There were two 
children by the first marriage, whose names are: 
Emil and Helen. 

Those born of the second marriage are : Hugo, 
Hulda, William, Emma, Agnes, Bernhard, Carl 
and Gustave. 

The family attend the German Lutheran 
church, and Mr. Splittgerber is a democrat. 


William Buckley, a typical pioneer of north- 
eastern Nebraska, who is respected and esteemed 
as a public-spirited and upright citizen, is hon- 
ored as a veteran of the civil war. He is a native 
of Pennsylvania, born March 8, 1846, a son of 
James and Hannah (Sanford) Buckley, natives 
of Pennsylvania. His grandfather eame^ to 
America from England as a young man. The 
parents spent their lives in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Buckley spent his boyhood and early youth 
of Pennsylvania. His grand father came to 
cation, and being reared to the occupation of me- 
chanic. He enlisted in 1863 in Company K, One 



Hundred and Fifty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteer 
Infantry, under General Carl Warren, command- 
er Fifth army corps, and received his honorable 
discharge in 1865. He participated in many im- 
portant battles and \vas wounded two times in the 
battle of Five Forks, Virginia. He was wounded 
once previously. Upon leaving the army he re- 
turned to his former home and engaged in black- 

In 1880, Mr. Buckley brought his family to Ne- 
braska, and took up a homestead in Stanton coun- 
ty. They lived a few years in a "dug-out," then 
he erected a comfortable frame house. He has 
made all needed improvements, and has developed 
a good stock and grain fai-m, at the same time do- 
ing his share to aid in the upbuilding of his com- 
munity, and the advancement of educational 
measures and other movements for the general 
welfare. He is one of the substantial men of his 
region, of unquestioned integrity and reliability, 
and has many warm friends. 

In 1877, Mr. Buckley was united in marriage 
with Miss Anna Landies, a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and daughter of William Landies and Re- 
becca June (Beck) Landies. One child has been 
born of this union : Hannah Jane, now Mrs. 
William Mabe. 

The family reside on section twenty-eight, 
township twenty-four, range one. 

James David Mabe, his grandson, makes his 
home with Mr. Buckley during such times as he 
is not in attendance at school. 


H. P. Lichty, an agriculturist of prominence 
in Antelope county, Nebraska, resides in Eden 
precinct and is one of those substantial citizens 
whose integrity, thrift and economy have added 
so much to the material growth and wealth of Ne- 
braska. Agriculture forms the basis of wealth in 
that part of the country, as indeed in most sec- 
tions of the United States. It is therefore of great 
importance that the class of people who inhabit 
the great farming regions of the country should 
represent those elements of sterling worth so 
prominently displayed by the majority of the ear- 
ly settlers and their descendants. 

Mr. Lichty is a descendant from Switzerland, 
his father, George Lichty, having come from that 
country to America when but a small boy, and. 
with his parents, settled in Pennsylvania. 

Our subject's parents were George and Mary 
(Blair) Lichty, the father was born in 1813, and 
the mother was a native of Pennsylvania, being 
born in that state. They came to Iowa in 1854. 
Our subject's brother was in the civil war, enlist- 
ing in 1861 in the Twenty-fourth Iowa Regiment, 
and was wounded twice. 

Mr. Lichty was joined in holy matrimony to 
Miss Jane Miller, and seven children have "been 
born to them whose names are as follows : Jane, 
who is the wife of Mr. Swan, and has two chil- 

dren; Alexander, who is married to Lizzie Hie- 
ter and has three children; David, who married 
Hattie Napier, has two children; John, married 
Mable Clifton and has one child; Walter, who 
married Lulu Bledsoe, and Robert and Flossie. 
Mrs. Lichty 's people were early settlers in Ne- 

Mr. and Mrs. Lichty first lived on the Otto 
reservation where Mr. Lichty bought one hundred 
and twenty acres of land, and while residing 
there they were hailed out twice. Mr. Lichty 
with his family then came to Antelope coirnty and 
took up a claim of one hiindred and sixty acres 
and built a good frame house in which he now 
lives, and has added to his possessions until now 
he owns nine hundred and sixty acres of fine land, 
twenty acres of which are given over to trees. 

Mr. Lichty is affilliated with the Workman 
and I. 0. 0. F. lodges, and enjoys the highest re- 
spect and regard of the community. 


James T. Buchanan, since 1883 a resident of 
Pierce county, Nebraska, has identified himself 
with the interests of the eastern part of the state, 
and by building up a fine farm and lending his 
influence for good citizenship, he has become one 
of the deservedly successful and prosperous citi- 
zens of his locality. 

Mr. Buchanan is a Virginian by birth, having 
been born in Smyth county, June 18, 1857. He is 
the son of James L. Buchanan, who was born in 
1818; the mother was Nancy H. Buchanan, who 
was born in 1820. 

During the civil war, Mr. Buchanan's father 
enlisted in the confederate army, serving three 
years and was promoted to a captaincy, which 
office he filled creditably to the cause. 

In March, 1884, our subject moved to Boscow 
county, Texas, and in 1888 to Ellis county, where 
he remained four years, coming to Pierce county 
Nebraska, in October, 1891, where he rented a 
farm. He continued to rent until 1908, when he 
bought one hundred and twent.y-two acres of good 
land, being that part of the southwest quarter 
of section twenty-four, township twenty-eight, 
range two, which lies south of the Burlington 

Among other misfortunes Mr. Buchanan lost 
all his crops by hail in 1905. 

Mr. Buchanan was married October 4, 1874, 
to Miss Betty Kincanon, and seven children have 
been born to this union: Ollie, wife of B. A. 
Thompson; Maggie, wife of Albert Parsons; 
Leonard, who married Susan Hughes; William 
Jackson married Verna Moore; Nancy, wife of 
Luther Bolen ; Ernest, died in 1901, and Clarence, 
who is the youngest of tlie family. 

Mr. Buchanan takes an interest in local affairs, 
at all times lending his aid and influence for 
good government and the bettering of conditions 
in his community. He is a democrat. 




Enevold Nielsen, a prominent farmer of How- 
ard county, is one of the men who carries on a di- 
versified system of agriculture in a most success- 
ful manner, with results that richly reward his 
thrift and industry. 

Mr. Nielsen was born in Denmark, November 
16, 1866, and was the eldest child in the family 
of Niels and Mariane Envoldsen, consisting of 
four boys and three girls. When Enevold was a 
lad of six, the father came to America, going 
fii'st to Chicago, where he secured employment 
at his trade as a carpenter, remaining there for 
a few months, then came on to Howard county. 
Here he took a homestead on section twelve, 
township thirteen, range twelve, proved up on 
an eiglity-acre tract, and made it his home until 
his death, in 1906. He was survived by his wife 
and four children. 

Enevold Nielsen, the mother and his brother 
and two sisters, left Denmark about a year after 
the father had come to this country, intending 
to join him in his new home. One daughter died 
on the trip across, and tlie others arrived safely 
at Grand Island in the spring of 1873. 

Our subject spent his boyhood on the home- 
stead, assisting his father until he was twenty- 
one years of age, then returned to Denmark for 
a visit. He spent four months there and upon 
liis return to Nebraska purchased eighty acres of 
land adjoining the home place, and started to de- 
velop a farm for himself. He succeeded in build- 
ing up a comfortable home, adding to his acreage 
as he became more prosperous, and now owns one 
hundred and twent.y acres of well improved land 
on section twenty-four, township thirteen, range 
twelve. His farm is one of the best equipped 
and most productive in the locality, supplied with 
all good, substantial farm buildings, and he is re- 
garded as a progressive and up-to-date agricul- 

Mr. Nielsen was married at his father's home 
on September 10, 1889, to Annie Petria Petersen, 
wlio was born in Denmark and came to this coun- 
try the year previous to her marriage. To them 
have been born six children, five of whom are 
now living. They are named as follows: Chris- 
tina, Mary, Niels, Martin and Inger, all residing 
on the homestead and forming a most interesting 
family group. Niels (1) died when about two 
and one-half years old. 

Mr. Nielsen has been active in local and coun- 
ty afl:'airs, helping in every way possible to ad- 
vance the best interests of his community. He 
has for a number of years been a member" of the 
school board in district number twenty-eight. 


Althougli still a young man, the gentleman 
whose name heads this personal history has ac- 
complished much in the way of securing for him- 

self a good home and competence, gained through 
strict attention to his duties in carrying on suc- 
cessfully a thirty-acre farm on section two, town- 
ship seventeen, range thirteen, in Valley county 
Nebraska. The greater part of his life has been 
spent in that state, and he has become well and 
favorably known to all residing in the vicinity 
of his home. 

James A. Brannon was born in Fairfield, 
Iowa, on December 18, 1868. His parents died 
when he was but eighteen months old, and he 
was adopted at that age by Mr. and Mrs. Lemuel 
Cross, who came into Hamilton county, Nebraska, 
in 1879, bringing our subject with them, and his 
early education was acquired in the schools of 
that county, later attending the Valley county 
schools, as the family moved to the latter coiinty 
in 1884. At the age of twenty-one James went 
into Custer county and pre-empted eighty acres 
in Sargent township, although he still made his 
home a part of the time in Valley county with his 
foster parents. 

Mr. Cross served all through the civil war. He 
was a member of Company E, of the Second Iowa 
Infantry, and achieved considerable distinction 
as a brave soldier. He died in July, 1881, and 
left behind him many sincere friends in Hamilton 
county. His widow now resides at Comstock, 

On April 19, 1893, Mr. Brannon was married 
to Sylvia E. Green, who was born and raised in 
Valley county, a daughter of Joseph and Emeline 
(Van Horn) Green, they being early settlers in 
the locality. The father was a native of New 
York, while the mother was born in Ohio, her 
parents moving to Clinton, Iowa, while she was 
a girl. Mr. and Mrs. Brannon have one son, 
Riley U. Brannon, who lives at home, and also 
Elsie M., an adopted daughter. 

The family have a very pleasant and com- 
fortable home, consisting of thirty acres of the 
original Green homestead, the estate lying one 
and a half miles south of North Loup. Mr. and 
Mrs. Brannon are members of the Seventh Day 
Baptist church. He affiliates with the Modern 
Woodmen of America, and is a populist and 
prohibitionist in political views. 


The gentleman above mentioned has the dis- 
tinction of being one of the very earliest settlers 
in the town of Newman Grove, Nebraska. He 
is also a pioneer merchant of that now thriving 
city, and at the present time is successfully 
carrying on an extensive real estate business. 
Mr. Gutru and his family enjoy the comforts of 
a modern residence, and are among the promin- 
ent members of the social life of their beautiful 

Levi Gutru was born in Norway on May 30, 
1855, and was the third in order of birth in a 
family of eight, resulting from the union of 



Gulbrandt and Ingeburg Gutru, and he grew 
to manhood in his native land. In June, 1872, 
he took passage on an emigrant ship bound for 
the United States, and landed iu New York in 
due time, going directly to Dane county, "Wis- 
consin, for settlement, there going to work on 
a farm, and in the winter working iu the pine 
woods. The following year he was joined by 
his father, mother and the balance of the chil- 
dren, the father taking a farm, and all living to- 
gether up to 1877, when our subject left Wis- 
consin and came to Nebraska. 

Mr. Gutru bomesteaded in Boone county, but 
ouly lived on the pl-ace a short time, then re- 
moved to a claim about four miles east of New- 
man Grove, which he occupied for five years, 
at the end of that time returning to Boone coun- 
ty, where he again engaged in farming and 
stock raising. About 1887, at the time Newman 
Grove came into existence as a town, Mr. Gutru 
moved there, being one of the original settlers. 
He at once engaged in the stock business, buying, 
selling and shipping cattle and hogs, and con- 
tinued in the business up to 1907. He was also 
for many years in the implement business there, 
and was one of the successful merchants of the 
place. Several years ago he started a real 
estate ofSce, and has handled many large deals 
in lands in Nebraska and the adjoining states. 
Since locating here, Mr. Gutru has been active 
in the development of the region, and has watched 
every change that has come to that portion of 
the state. 

Mr. Gutru was united in marriage, October 
11, 1877, to Miss Ingeborg Oleson, at Newman 
Grove. To. Mr. Gutru and his good wife have 
been born seven children, two of whom are now 
deceased, the surviving five named as follows: 
Ida Marie, who is the wife of Archie Robinson; 
George Henry, a prominent banker of Newman 
Grove; Marian, wife of George B. Howell, they 
hvmg in South Dakota, and Lily and Jeanette, 
living with the old folks. Thev are a very inter- 
esting family, and are honored with the "respect 
and esteem of all who know them. Mr. Gutru 
and his family occupy one of the handsome resi- 
dences m Newman Grove, and are popular in 
business and social circles. 

The father of our subject is dead, but his 
mother and two brothers still make Wisconsin 
their home. One sister lives in Boone county, 
and a brother is a well-known resident of New- 
man Grove. Mrs. Gutru 's father and mother are 
deceased, two brothers living in diiferent parts 
of Nebraska. 


James W. Johnson, a successful stock and 
grain farmer of section twenty-nine, township 
fourteen, range fifteen, Sherman county, Nebras- 
ka, is widely and favorably known as" a man of 
affairs and influence in his community. He has 

spent most of his life in Nebraska, and is one of 
the younger men among the state's early set- 

Mr. Johnson was born at Newton, Iowa, July 
24, 1866, and is a son of Robert and Maiy (Wat- 
son) Johnson, third in a family of ten children. 
The father is mentioned at length elscAvhere in 
this work. Five sons — George E., Walter, Frank, 
Charles and Ernest — live in Valley county, Ne- 
braska. Three daughters — Mrs. Maggie Van 
Scoy, Mrs. Fanny Sample and Mrs. Kate Paulser 
— live in Valley county. 

At the age of twelve years, James W. John- 
son came with his parents to Hall county, Ne- 
braska, where the family remained three years, 
then moved to Valley county, where the father 
secured a homestead, on which he still resides. 
The son received his earlj' education in Iowa, 
and grew to manhood on his father's farm, learn- 
ing all kinds of farm work. In 1889, he pur- 
chased one hundred and sixty acres of land in 
Sherman county, which he operated for sixteen 
years, and in 1905 secured the one hundred and 
forty-acre farm where he now lives. He erected 
a very comfortable home, and otherwise improved 
the place, bringing it to a high state of cultiva- 
tion. He has always taken an active interest in 
public affairs in his community, and has served 
many years as a member of the school board, 
being now director of district number thirteen, 
and he has also served as township clerk. 

March 2, 1902, Mr. Johnson married Miss 
Frances Huckelberry, a native of Marion county, 
Illinois, daughter of Philip and Matilda (Hewett) 
Huckelberry, both also born in Illinois. Her 
father died in Sherman county in 1904, and her 
mother now resides in Burt county, Nebraska. 
Mr. Huckelberry and wife had eight children, 
those besides Mrs. Johnson being: a daughter 
iu Indiana, a daughter in Illinois, two sons and 
two daughters in Nebraska, and one son in Illi- 
nois. To Mr. Johnson and wife three children 
have been born, namely: Alta M., a student iu 
the St. Paul Business College; Mata, a student 
in the same institution; and Ellen Marie at 

Mr. Johnson is a populist in political faith, 
and, fraternally, a member of the Modern Wood- 
men of America. 

On his first Sherman county farm, Mr. John- 
son lived for eight years in true pioneer style 
before building a modern frame dwelling. 


Energetic efforts and intelligence go hand in 
hand in the building of one 's fortune, regardless 
of the vocation to which they are applied. One 
of the highly-improved farms in Cedar county is 
that owned by Frank Speeht, who is the possess- 
or of a fine quarter-section there. The comforta- 
ble circumstances of this gentleman have been 




brought about by the exercise of unceasing in- 
dustry and labor, good judgment and thrift. 

Mr. Specht is not only an old settler, but is 
also one of the "native sons" of Cedar county, 
or very near it, having been born in Jones coun- 
ty, Iowa, about three weeks prior to the start to 
Nebraska in 1873. His parents, Frederick and 
Sophia Specht, were Germans, and came to this 
country in 1S69, the trip on an old-style sailing 
vessel taking six weeks. They came to Iowa at 
once, and lived there until 1873, when they re- 
moved to Cedar county, coming by the overland 
route. They bought one hundred and sixty acres 
here, and built a tiny dug-out. Later, a slab 
house, fourteen by fourteen feet, was built, tbe 
walls plastered with clay, and here they lived 
for ten years. 

Misfortune attended their early years, in the 
way of prairie fires, plagues of grasshoppers, and 
heavy snows. Sioux City, many miles away, was 
their nearest market at this time, and often dur- 
ing those early days they burned weeds and corn- 
stalks to keep warm, as they had to go twenty- 
five miles for wood. Despite these discourage- 
ments, the family remained, and gained the high 
esteem and respect of their fellow settlers. The 
son now farms one hundred and sixty acres ad- 
jacent to the old homestead, which he has ae- 
(|uired since his marriage, and he has improved 
the land and built a comfortable modern home 
for himself and family. 

In 1897, Mr. Specht was united in marriage 
to Miss Sarah Merrick, also a native of Iowa, and 
to them two children have been born, Henry F. 
and Edward J. 


The late John R. Orvis was one of the most 
prominent citizens of Sargent, and was a very 
early settler of Custer county, passing through 
various stages of its history. He was well known 
as a business man of ability and enterprise, and 
enjoyed the esteem and confidence of all with 
whom he had dealings. He was a son of Victor 
M. and Lucretia (Tyler) Orvis, born in Cattarau- 
gus county, New York, November 27, 1835. He 
was the eldest of their seven children, only three 
of whom now survive: Henry C, of Burwell. 
Nebraska; one daughter in California, and an- 
other daughter in Iowa. The parents were born 
in the state of New York, and both died in Iowa. 

In early childhood, Mr. Orvis was taken 
))y his parents to Illinois, where he was reared 
on a farm, and received the usual educational 
advantages of a farmer's son in those times. 
Later he engaged in farming, and also conducted 
a blacksmith shop. He was married in Monroe 
county, Wisconsin, April 24, 1859, to Miss Chaney 
M. Sweet, who was of New York birth, daughter 
of George W. and Malvina (Camp) Sweet, na- 
tives of New York. The father served in the 

civil war, took a homestead in Custer county in 
November, 1877, and died in North Loup in 
1891. The mother died in Sargent, Nebraska, 
in April, 1910. Mrs. Orvis has a sister in Mich- 
igan and a brother in Illinois. 

Mr. and Mrs. Orvis made their first home on 
tlie Illinois farm, where they lived until 1863, 
when they removed to Fayette county, Iowa, 
where he established a general mercantile busi- 
ness. In the spring of 1877, they came overland 
with their six children to Custer county, Ne- 
braska. He secured a homestead of one hundred 
and sixty acres of land at West LTnion, and also 
a timber claim of eighty acres adjoining. This 
was the home place, and for fifteen years Mr. 
and Mrs. Orvis conducted a hotel in connection 
Avith farming. 

In 1905, Mr. Orvis sold his farming interests 
to his youngest son, and retired from active life, 
locating in Sargent, where he erected a fine 
home. This Avas his home until his death, March 
23, 1910. He left a widow and eleven children: 
Clara R. married Henry Groif, and they live in 
Sargent; Laura E., wife of Elias Whaley, lives 
in Colorado, and they have five children ; Ida 
M. married Leonard Bisco, and died October 12, 
1887, and is survived by her husband and three 
children; Harris W., died October 1, 1867; Lillie 
B., is the wife of Joseph Simler, of Sargent, and 
they have four children; Cinda E., wife of God- 
lop Zeller, of Sargent, has five children ; James . 
A., of Custer county, is married, and has three 
children; Wilbur R. and Willis J., twins, the 
former of whom is married, lives in Sargent, and 
has five children, and the latter died August 25, 
1875 ; George V., of Walworth, Nebraska, is mar- 
ried, and has two children.; Burt L., married, and 
living in West Union, Nebraska, has three chil- 
dren. Mrs. Orvis lives in the pleasant home in 
Sargent, where she is surrounded by a large 
circle of friends, and where many of her children 
are near at hand. 

Portraits of John R. Orvis, deceased, and Mrs. 
Chaney Orvis will be found on another page of 
this volume. 


Perseverance and diligence are the stepping- 
stones to success. These characteristics, supple- 
mented by honesty and good citizenship, are 
among the many attributes possessed by the gen- 
tleman herein named. 

Anton Hummel was born in Pennsylvania, 
January 6, 1838, and was youngest of five chil- 
dren in the family of Anthony and Francisco 
Hummel, who had three sons and two daughters. 
Our subject was born and raised on a farm in 
Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, and in Septem- 
ber, 1861, enlisted in Company I, One Himdred 
and Fifty-first Pennsylvania Infantry, and par- 
ticipated in the battles of Gettyslnii-g and Chan- 
cellorville, and received his dischai-ge at Har- 



risburg, Pennsylvania, in the fall of 1862, when 
he returned home. 

In July, 1866, Mr. Hummel was married to 
Miss Ursula Jacobs, to which union four children 
have been born: John, married and living in 
Central City; Anna, residing at home; Magde- 
lina, also at' home ; and Chris, married and living 
on the home farm. Mrs. Hummel, the mother, 
died on the home farm, October, 1890. 

In March, 1880, Mr. and Mrs. Hummel and 
four children came to Merrick county, Nebraska, 
where they purchased land and made a home, 
selling the same in 1883, returning to Pennsyl- 
vania for a four months' stay, then returned to 
Merrick county, and purchased one hundred and 
sixty acres of land on section fourteen, township 
fourteen, range seven, which has remained the 
home farm until this date, where Mr. Hummel 
now owns three hundred and twenty acres in the 
farm and forty acres of hay land. 

Mr. Hummel and family are well known, and 
have the respect and esteem of many friends, 
and are prosperous and successful. 


One of the very last of the earliest settlers 
in the old town of Niobrara was the venerable 
Christian G. Benner, who remained after most 
of the buildings had been moved away. For over 
fifty years he was a resident of the town. His 
death occurred September 3, 1910. 

Mr. Benner was born near Chillicotlie, Ohio, 
on December 2, 1827. When about seven years 
of age, the family moved to Noble county, Indi- 
ana, which place was then on the frontier of 
civilization, and made that their home up to 
1844, when they again migrated west, settling in 
Lee county, Iowa, near the banks of the Des 
Moines river. As a young man, Christian followed 
rafting and freighting on that stream, also on 
the Mississippi river, floating logs as far down 
as St. Louis. In 1848, he went to Appanoose 
county, remaining for about five years, then 
removed to Glenwood. In the fall of 1855, he 
moved to Sioux City, and there, in company with 
a brother, William Benner, opened the first hotel 
in the town, the building being a double log 
structure, and fitted up in a very orderly man- 
ner indeed, in marked contrast to the fine hos- 
telries to be found there at the present time. 
They ran the place for three years, at which time 
our subject came to Nebraska, landing in Nio- 
brara on the first day of June, 1858. He at first 
engaged in farming, and during his early resi- 
dence in the section, freiglited across the prairie 
to Sioux City, and sometimes went as far as 
Omaha with Mr. Westermann, who was an Indian 
trader. At one time, Mr. Benner took a six 
weeks' hunting trip up the Niobrara river, when 
deer, elk and antelope were to be seen on every 
side. Buffaloes were still (|uite plentiful, and 
their hides were a staple article of commerce. 

During the flood of 1881, Mr. Benner took his 
wife to the Draper House in order to be out of 
the way of the worst of the waters, and then 
turned his attention to the work of rescue, with 
others, helping save a number of settlers whose 
homes were submerged. 

Mr. Benner told the writer that he remem- 
bered when the Santee tribe were removed to 
the reservation east of town, after the massacre 
at New Ulm, Minnesota. 

Mr. Benner was married in Centerville, Iowa, 
on December 21, 1849, to Lorania Fuller, who 
died in Niobrara, June 9, 1883. Of their ten 
children, eight survive, only one of whom, 
William C, is now living in Knox county, and 
he farms a fertile tract of land lying on the old 
site of Niobrara. 


Hugo Vogel, who is now a resident of Fuller- 
ton, Nebraska, was formerly a resident of section 
twenty-six, Loup Ferry township. He is a strik- 
ing and impressive representative of Nebraska 
brawn and muscle, having spent almost his entire 
career on a farm in the great western country. 
He has passed through all the varied experiences, 
gaining an enviable reputation as a progressive 
agriculturist, and is highly esteemed in the local- 
ity in which his honorable and useful career is 
being run. 

Mr. Vogel is a native of Germany, born Janu- 
ary 10, 1845, and is the fifth in a family of eight 
children, the parents being John and Waldburga 
Vogel. When Hugo was nine years of age, the 
entire family, with the exception of one daugh- 
ter, who died in infancy, came to the United 
States, landing in New York City on July 4, 
1853. They went immediately to North Glosen- 
bury, Connecticut, remaining tliere for four 
years, the father engaged in making of fine cut- 
lery. At that time, which was in the spring of 
1857, Mr. Vogel. Hugo and one daughter moved 
into Iroquois county, Illinois, where they pur- 
chased a small farm and began mixed farming, 
being joined by the balance of the family later 
on in the same year. The father died there in 
1860, and the mother followed him in 1876, and 
there are now living two girls and three boys — 
our subject and one brother, Julius, in Gage 
county, Nebraska, another brother, Carl, in Iro- 
quois county, Illinois, while the sisters, Mrs. Mary 
Rosenbaum and Mrs. Augusta Lutz, are now liv- 
ing in Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Hugo Vogel settled in Fullerton in March. 
1880, making his home in the town for two years. 
He then purchased two hundred and forty acres 
on section twenty-six. township sixteen, range 
seven, moving his family on the farm in the 
spring of 1882, where they continued to reside 
until April, 1910, when they moved to tlieir home 
in Fullerton, which they intend making their 
permanent residence. Mr. Vogel was one of the 



first settlers in this portion of Nance county, and 
passed through all the early Nebraska times. He 
was elected county commissioner in the same 
year of settling on his farm, serving for three 
years, and was also supervisor of his district, 
which was one and the same office, the system 
having changed during later years. He has al- 
ways been interested in the development of the 
region along educational lines, and was director 
of school district number eleven for a number of 

On February 15, 1876, Mr. Vogel was mar- 
ried at Paxton, Illinois, to Miss Mary Elizabeth 
Cunningham, who is a daughter of Philander and 
Julia Cunningham, and a native of Pennsjdvan- 
ia, her parents coming into Illinois about 1855 
from that state. After his marriage, Mr. Vogel 
started farming for himself on a rented place. 
One son was born in Illinois, Frederick, he dying 
in Nance county in 1885, while Harry A. and 
Helen Louise are both living at home now. 

Mr. Vogel and his family are well known 
throughout their section of tlie country, and are 
held in the highest esteem. They have a pleas- 
ant home in Fullerton, and a valuable estate, the 
farm place being supplied with substantial farm 
buildings, and producing good crops of small 
grain. He also engages in stock raising, and 
takes especial pride in keeping his farm in the 
finest shape, having planted many trees, and also 
has a very fine orchard. 

Mr. Vogel is a prominent Knight of Pythias. 


Although versatility is a striking character- 
istic of many western men, few have won signal 
success in as many lines as Dell Akin, editor and 
postmaster, living at Atkinson, Holt county, Ne- 
liraska. At one time or another he has followed 
the various vocations of merchant, Indian trader, 
clerk, farmer and ranchman, editor and post- 
master, in all of which he has ac(|uitted himself 
in a credital)le manner, showing him to be essen- 
tially a son of the west. He first saw the light 
at Osage, Mitchell county, Iowa, September 23, 
1860, a son of Ben F. and Elizabeth (Butler) 
Akin, natives, respectively, of Pennsylvania and 
New York. In 1882 the family came to Holt 
county, and the father filed claim to a homestead 
on Red Bird creek. 

As a boy, Dell Akin attended the common 
schools, and the high school at Osage, Iowa, then 
one of the best institutions of its kind in that 
l)ai-t of Iowa, and in 1877 he came to Holt county, 
Nebraska, where he opened a small store, trad- 
ing with the Indians some years at the mouth of 
Red Bird creek, they crossing the Niobrara from 
their reservation in what is now Boyd county. 
At that time Paddock was the county seat, al- 
tliough little business was transacted "there. In 
the spring of 1879, Mr. Akin disposed of his store, 
and spent two years in Nio})rara. where he was 

employed as clerk by various merchants. He 
was living there at the time of the memorable 
flood of 1881, and helped efficiently at the work 
of rescuing those who were marooned. He was 
awakened by the sound of water, sprang from 
bed to find himself ankle deep in icy 
water, and by the time he had taken his soaked 
trousers from the floor, he was knee deep in 
the water. As he reached the sidewalk, he was 
thrown aside by a piece of ice which struck him. 
He and a Mr. Moore procured a boat, and did 
noble work in caring for those in distress. One 
amusing incident was connected with a woman, 
who, with a child and dog, was sitting on top of 
a table above the water, and when Mr. Akin 
reached her, she would not go first, leaving the 
child and dog, and did not wish to have either 
of them taken first without her, so he had to take 
all three on his back, and carry them to the boat 
at the door. Upon reaching it, he slipped, dump- 
ing his load into the boat with such force as 
nearly to capsize it. The woman's husband had 
fled at the first sign of danger, making his escape 
to higher ground, and leaving his family to their 
fate. One man, too tipsy to care for himself, 
was found perched on the shelving of the Bone- 
steel store, and taken away by boat, being too 
much overcome from the effects of drink to help 

Soon after the incidents just related, Mr. 
Akin moved to O'Neill. He had filed claim on 
a homestead and timber claim, five miles east of 
the town, in 1879, and lived there from 1881 until 
1885, perfecting his title. He then traded his 
land for a ranch, southwest of Atkinson, lying in 
Holt and Rock counties, which he owned luitij 
1902, and sold it to invest in land nearer the 

In 1890, Mr. Akin moved into Atkinson, but 
still operated his ranch, and raised cattle and 
horses for the market. In 1900, he purchased 
the Atkinson "Graphic" from Lee Henry, and 
has since ably conducted this sheet as a staunch 
advocate of republican principles. Since assum- 
ing charge, he has greatly increased the circula- 
tion, and has one of the progressive papers of his 
part of the state. He has an editorial page that 
keeps its readers in touch with the leading issues 
and questions of the day, and the news depart- 
ment is kept up to a high standard. 

In 1902. Mr. Akin was appointed to the office 
of postmaster of Atkinson, taking office in No- 
vember of that year. He takes an active interest 
in the campaigns of the republican party, and 
makes his influence felt at all times, especially 
when a campaign is in full swing. He is now 
the precinct central committeeman, and has the 
confidence of his fellow workers in the cause. 

September 23, 1882, Mr. Akin was married in 
O'Neill to Miss Fannie Scott, a native of ]\Iissouri. 
Three children have been born to this union:' 
Bertha, wife of James Russell, of Portland, Ore- 



gou ; Jesse, of Atkinson, and Frank, now in Port- 

Mr. Akin married (second) in Atkinson, 
March, 1902, Miss Luella Boehme, a native of 
Sangamon county, Illinois, whose father, Conrad 
Boehme, was one of the earliest railroad men in 
Holt county. Mr. Boehme is mentioned at con- 
siderable length elsewhere in this work. By his 
second marriage, Mr. Akin became the father of 
two children, Erma and Dell, junior. 

Mr. Akin was living on his ranch at the time 
of the notable blizzard of January 12, 1888. 
Seeing it coming, he got the cattle to their sheds 
before the storm broke, but spent most of the 
day shoveling snow, which drifted into the sheds 
so fast that the cattle were lifted on the drifted, 
trampled snow until their backs touched the poles 
of the roof. 

For a time after moving on his ranch in Holt 
and Rock counties, Mr. Akin lived in a sod house. 
The family used hay and big hay-burners (still 
in use in the sand hills), though they never used 
it twisted as it had to be prepared before the in- 
troduction of the hay-burners into the state. 
Deer, antelope and elk were to be found when 
Mr. Akin first came to Nebraska, and there are 
still buffalo on the Yankton agency, Mr. Akin at 
one time seeing a buffalo cow that had strayed 
from the herd and passed through Holt county. 
In an early day, Mr. Akin was caught in the 
river in a hail storm so severe that the bark was 
torn from many trees, and they were killed. 

Mr. Akin relates humorous sides of the Indian 
scare of 1881. Soldiers from Fort Randall were 
shooting off condemned ammunition, and when 
a mail carrier jokingly asked them the cause, 
they solierly remarked to him that "Hell's broke 
loose." Without waiting to hear more, the ques- 
tioner hastened to spread the alarm through the 
country side, with the result that part of the 
country was almost depopulated, and some of 
the fugitives never returned to their homes. Mr. 
Akin and a Mr. Parker rode toward the reserva- 
tion to investigate the cause of the rumor, not- 
withstanding Mrs. Parker's tears because she 
thought her husband was going into dire danger. 
Upon reaching the river, the two picketed their 
horses, and swam across to Mr. Lamoraux's (a 
squaw-man living on the north side of the 
stream), and found there was no foundation for 
the scare. 

Mr. Akin knew "Doc" Middleton. "Kid" 
Wade and others of their gang, and spent freely 
of his time and money in the effort to help liring 
to justice the murderers of County Treasurer 
Scott. In spite of threats, he kept at work on 
the case as long as he saw a hope of carrj'ing out 
a successful prosecution. Mr. Akin is one of the 
best known men in the county, and, during his 
active life, has been identified with its measures 
of progress and advancement. He is well liked 
and popular, and has numerous friends. 


This gentleman has resided in Boone county, 
Nebraska, for over twenty years, becoming fa- 
miliar to all there, and he occupies a foremost 
position among them as an energetic agriculturist 
and public-spirited citizen. He is a representa- 
tive farmer, owns a fine estate, and makes his 
home in Ashland precinct. 

Thomas A. Bunker was the eldest of two sons 
born to Obadiah and Parmelia Bunker, he first 
seeing light on July 13, 1842. His birthplace was 
in Caledonia county, Vermont. The Bunker fam- 
ily trace their ancestors back to the coming of the 
Mayflower, and our subject is the only member 
of his family now living, his mother departing 
this life in 1859, and his father in 1888. About 
1862, the family removed to New Hampshire, but 
shortly afterwards Thomas returned to his old 
home in Vermont, where he received his educa- 
tion, later going to Wisconsin, where he worked 
in the pine woods for some years. 

While there he was married in 1869 to Miss 
Emma Hoyt, and they settled in Iowa, and en- 
gaged in farming and stock raising. About 1871, 
they went to Howard county, Iowa, remaining 
up to 1889, at which time they migrated to Boone 
county, purchasing land in section twenty-six, 
township twenty-one, range seven, which has been 
their home farm up to the present time. 

Mr. Bunker has made a success of farming, 
and is now owner of one of the finest farms in 
Boone county. He has a very pleasant home. 
They had one daughter, who died in 1876. 

In reviewing the history of the Bunker fam- 
ily, going back to the Pilgrim days, three broth- 
ers came over on the Mayflower, landing at Pil- 
grim Rock. One went to sea, and Avas lost. One 
entered the revolutionary war, and after return- 
ing from war, disappeared, and all trace of him 
was forever lost. The remaining brother located 
in Massachusetts, and the grandfather of our 
subject settled in Vermont. He was a captain in 
the militia of Vermont in liis day, and noted as 
the strongest man in Caledonia county, living to 
the ripe old age of ninety-eight years. 

The father and mother of Mrs. Bunker are 
deceased. She has one brother and one sister, 
the Hoyt family also tracing their descent from 
the Pilgrim days. 


One of the oldest citizens in point of residence 
in Wayne county, Nebraska, is John T. Bresslei-, 
mayor of the city of Wayne. He first came to 
the county in April. 1870, and filed on a home- 
stead in the southeast corner of the county, a 
few miles from the old county seat. La Porte. 
He lived on the land six or seven years, and 
then moved to La Porte, having been elected 
coianty treasurer, in which office he served four 
years. During this time, he organized the Logan 



Valley Bank, the first financial institution in the 
county. He was interested in real estate during 
the same period, and was instrumental in getting 
many of the early settlers located in the county. 

In 1881, he moved to "Wayne, with the change 
of the county seat, and bought the Bank of 
Wayne County, which was consolidated with the 
Logan Valley Bank. This was later reorganized 
into the First National Bank, and of this Mr. 
Bressler owned a controlling interest, and served 
as president until 1889. Selling part of his hold- 
ings at this time, he became vice president, and 
has held that office since. He holds large areas 
of real estate in "Wayne county, and deals in real 
estate and farm loans within a wide radius of 
"Wayne. He is the local representative of many 
non-resident owners of lauds in the west, attend- 
ing to their interests as assiduously as he would 
his own. 

Mr. Bressler was born in Huntington county, 
Pennsylvania, January 14, 1849, attending only 
the country schools. His parents, Daniel and 
Mary Ann (Tannyhill) Bressler, spent their en- 
tire lives in the Keystone state. A brother, An- 
derson Bressler, came to "Wayne in 1898, and is 
engaged in the insurance business. 

Mr. Bressler was married in Dakota county, 
Nebraska, July 21, 1880, to Miss Julia Fair, a 
daughter of Mark and Jane Fair. Six children 
have been born to Mr. and Mrs. "Bressler. They 
are: Maude, George (who died at the age of two 
and a half years), Ruth, Kate, John T. and Doro- 

Mr. Bressler was living in Nebraska during 
the time of the grasshopper raids. He lost crops 
several years, and his crops were entirely de- 
stroyed in 1874. He passed through three of the 
most notable blizzards of the last forty years — 
those of April 12 to 14, 1873; October 15 to 17, 
1880, and that of January 12, 1888, in which he 
was for a few minutes bewildered and lost in 
getting his children home from school. Mr. 
Bressler reached the country before the Indians 
were entirely subdued, and when a neighbor, 
named Munson, living but two miles distant, was 
killed and scalped by them, he realized the dan- 
ger was great, and sought safety for a few weeks. 

Mr. Bressler is a leading repablican, high in 
the councils of his party. He was a delegate to 
the convention at St. Louis tliat nominated Mc- 
Kinley in 1896, and was Nebraska's member of 
the notification committee that officially carried 
the news to Canton. He was appointed one of 
the five government directors who represented 
the United States on the board of the Union Pa- 
cific railroad when the government withdrew 
from the management. He served one term in 
the State Senate, being elected in 1894, and was 
elected Mayor of Wayne in the spring of 1909. 

Mr. Bressler is a member of the Odd Fellows' 
and Masonic lodges of "Wayne, and the Chapter, 
Council and Commandary of Norfolk. 


John "W. Buseh, retired farmer and an old 
settler of Colfax county, Nebi-aska, is a promin- 
ent and substantial citizen of Schuyler, where lie 
and his family now reside. Mr. Busch has lived 
in Colfax county for the past forty-two years or 
more, and has been persistent and faithful in his 
duty to his home state and county, and well de- 
serves the prosperity and comfort he now enjoys. 

Mr. Busch is a sturdy son of Germany, his 
birth occurring in that country, January 1, 1848. 
He is a son of Christ and Dora (Mueller) Busch, 
and was eldest in a family of seven children. He 
has one brother residing in Howells, Nebraska. 
One brother died in Germany. He has three sis- 
ters in Colfax county and one in Germany. The 
parents are deceased, their deaths occurring in 
their native land of Germany. 

In the fall of 1867, Mr. Busch came to Amer- 
ica, locating in "Wisconsin, where he followed the 
occupation of farming. In the spring of 1869, he 
came to Colfax county, and bought eighty acres 
of good land in the east half of the northwest 
quarter of section four, township seventeen, range 
three, which remained his home place for thirty- 
four years. On January 14, 1873, Mr. Busch was 
married to Miss Mary Brum, who was also a na- 
tive of Germany. Mrs. Busch died in January. 
1884, survived by her husband and five children : 
George, who is married and living in Schuyler; 
Minnie, wife of "William Schuldt, has two children, 
and resides in Schuyler ; Frank, also married, has 
one child, and lives in South Dakota ; and Johnnie 
and Clara, both of whom died in infancy. 

Mr. Busch is a democrat in politics, and in 1894 
was elected county treasurer, serving his constitu- 
ents well for two terms. He also served in the 
various offices of his school district, number thir- 
teen, for many years. 

On April 18, 1884, Mr. Busch was united in 
marriage to Anna Schebal, who was also born in 
Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Busch have one child, 
Lilly, who is the wife of Reverend Carl "Wilhelm, 
who reside in Dorrance, Kansas. 

Mr. Busch has been prosperous and successful, 
and owns six hundred and forty acres of good 
farm land. In 1903, he retired from the farm, and 
moved to Schuyler, where he purchased a fine 
home, which is the present dwelling place. Mr. 
Busch is one of the earliest settlers of his county, 
has passed through all the discouragements ami 
hardships incidental to pioneer life, and is widely 
and favorably known. He is a director in Schuy- 
ler National Bank, also of Richmond State Bank, 
president of Schuyler Savings Bank, and a stock- 
holder in Howells State Bank. 


Prominent among Antelope county old settlers 
may be mentioned the name of John Christon, 
who, since the fall of 1885, has made this region 


his home, and has done his share in tlie developing 
of the agricultural resources of this section of the 
county. Mr. Christen lives on section thirty, town- 
ship twenty-seven, range eight, where he and his 
family enjoy the respect of all who know them, 
and their friends are many. 

Mr. Christon was born April 14, 1876. in Car- 
roll county, Illinois, and is the son of Peter and 
Anna M. (Jensen) Christon, both natives of Den- 
mark, the father being born in 1856, and died in 
1895. Mr. Christon 's father came to Nebraska in 
the very early days, and took up a homestead in 
section thirty, township twenty-seven, range 
eight, Antelope county, where our subject now 
lives. He first built a board shanty, and here they 
experienced great difficulty in keeping warm, hav- 
ing to burn cornstalks to keep the children from 
freezing to death. In 1904 they suffered the loss 
of almost all their crops by reason of the severe 
drought of that year. 

On March 4, 1901, Mr. Christon was united in 
marriage to Miss Ernestine Iburg, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Christon are the parents of four children, 
whose names are as follows: Carl, Irvin, Marie 
and "Walter. 

Mr. Christon has made a good home, and is 
justly entitled to the competency he has attained 
as the result of constant and intelligent effort. He 
has done his share in the developing of the coun- 
try as a pioneer settler, and he and his family are 
enjoying the respect and esteem of a host of 
friends and acquaintances. 


Ralph J. Jewell, marble dealer at Plainview, 
Nebraska, is a typical westerner — energetic, 
sturdy and reliable. He first came to Nebraska in 
the fall of 1878, and filed on a timber claim, and a 
year later filed on a homestead claim, moving on 
it in March, 1880. The land lay in Antelope 
county, five miles southwest of Plaiuview, which 
then consisted of but a few houses. 

In 1888, Mr. Jewell moved to town, and for 
two years was proprietor of a liotel, and then went 
to Pierce, where he learned baking, and was in 
business there one year. He was in the dray busi- 
ness a few years, and then rented a farm, one mile 
west of Plainview, which he cultivated some five 
years, spending his spare time in the sale of mon- 
uments and tombstones, which later became his 
regular vocation. Moving into town, he built a 
bakery, and worked at that business until tlie 
building burned. He rebuilt, and for three and a 
half years was engaged in furnisliing the town 
people their daily bread. 

Mr. Jewell again entered the marble and gran- 
ite business, in which he has since been engaged. 
In 1904, he formed a partnership with Harvey 
Stocking, and opened an office in the main part 
of town, each bringing to bear in the business a 
reputation for energy and reliability. In 1910, 
he sold his interest, and the following spring pur- 

chased and took control of the entire establish- 

Mr. Jewell was born in Litchfield county, 
Connecticut, July 2, 1852, and lived in his native 
county until 1869. He lived at Canaan, Connecti- 
cut, two years, and then moved to Denison, Iowa, 
where he engaged in farming until he migrated to 
Nebraska. He is the son of Milo and Sarah (Mc- 
Lava) Jewell, the former of English, and the lat- 
ter of Scotch-Irish descent. 

Mr. Jewell was married in Denison, Iowa, No- 
vember 22, 1876, to Miss Hattie Bush, daughter 
of Drury and Maria (Hutchens) Bush. The 
mother of Mrs. Jewell died at her daughter's resi- 

Of six children born to Mr. and Mrs. Jewell, 
four lived to be grown: Clara Belle, the eldest, 
who married Loren William Box, they having two 
children, Ralph and Gladys, died August 22, 1906 ; 
Elmer is owner of a farm, three miles from Long 
Pine; Fred ran a restaurant and bakery at Ute, 
Iowa, for a time, and then spent a year in New 
Mexico, returning to Ute in 1911 ; Viola, who is 
an expert trimmer, married William Smith, who 
is a popular clerk in Plainview. 

Mr. Jewell is a republican, and is affiliated 
with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and 
the Modern Woodmen of America lodges, and, 
with his wife, is a member of the Congregational 

During the severe blizzard of January 12, 1888, 
and the memorable hailstorm of June, 1890, Mr. 
Jewell was living in town, and so escaped the dan- 
gers and discomforts of those living in the coun- 
try, who had cattle out in the storm to be rescued. 
One of his most discouraging experiences occurred 
during his first year's residence in the west. To 
get wood for fuel, he had to go nine miles beyond 
Neliegh, a distance of about thirt.v-five miles. On 
the return trip, the axle-tree of his wagon broke, 
but a nearby settler loaned him a wagon, on which 
to get his load home. The return of the borrowed 
wagon necessitated fifty miles more travel, which, 
together with delay and repairs on his own ve- 
hicle, made it a very expensive load of wood. 
Rather than risk the time and expense, the fam- 
ily, after that, burned hay. 

Mr. Jewell has traveled much over northeastern 
Nebraska, has a wide acquaintance with the coun- 
try and the sturdy people who have developed it, 
and enjoys their confidence and respect to a de- 
gree that few have done who have had as exten- 
sive dealings with so many and such a varied 
class of citizens. 


The life of the gentleman here named furnishes 
an example worthy of the emulation of the rising 
generation, as through good management, persist- 
ent efforts, strict honesty and painstaking care, 
Mr. Hoes has acquired a valuable estate in How- 
ard county, and is known throughout the locality 




as one of the leading old settlers. His home is now 
in Grand Island, Nebraska, having moved there 
a short time ago. 

Albertes M. Hoes is a native of Maryland, born 
on July 28, 1851, and, with his parents, settled in 
northern Illinois when he was a child of six years. 
There he grew to manhood, and spent some time 
in different parts of the country, living in Cali- 
fornia with his family for a number of years. He 
is a brother of John H. Hoes, whose sketch ap- 
pears in this volume. 

Mr. Hoes first came to Howard county, Ne- 
braska, in 1883, settling on a tract of land on 
section three, township fourteen, range nine, on 
May 6. He developed a good farm, passed through 
the pioneer period here, made his place one of the 
paying stock and grain tracts in his section, and, 
with his family, is prominent among Howard 
county's well-to-do old-timers. 

On January 16, 1881, Mr. Hoes was married to 
Idella McBride, the ceremony taking place in Cali- 
fornia. Mrs. Hoes is a native of Ohio, and both 
her father and mother are now deceased. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hoes had no children of their own, al- 
though they have raised two adopted children, 
one a girl, now the wife of Clyde Applegate, well 
known in Howard county, and the other a boy, 
now married and living in Polk county. 

Our subject takes a lively interest in all county 
and state affairs, and has held numerous precinct 


As an old settler of Valle.y county, Nebraska, 
an agriculturist of untiring energy and persever- 
ance, and worthy citizen, the gentleman here 
named needs no introduction to the people of his 
locality. He has spent over twenty-four years 
of his life in their midst, has gained a host of 
staunch friends and incidentally acquired a good 
home, and placed himself in a position to be 
counted among the substantial citizens of this 

Mr. Murschel was born in Iowa City, Iowa, 
April 2, 1868, and was fourth of five children in 
the family of John G. and Charlotte (Doll) Mur- 
schel, who had three sons and two daughters. The 
parents died in Iowa City, both passing away in 
the year 1899, survived by four of their children : 
Albert ]\Iurschel, who lives in New York City; 
George J. lives in Santa Clara, California; and 
Emma, now Mrs. Emma K. Ahrens, resides in 
Iowa City, Iowa. 

Otto Murschel, the principal subject of this 
sketch, lived in Iowa City until attaining the age 
of eighteen years. He received the usual school- 
ing, and in ins eighteenth year left his Iowa home, 
going to Omaha, Nebraska, remaining there for 
six years. Mr. Murschel, prior to his eighteenth 
year, worked in a drug store, and when in Omaha 
was connected with the barber trade. In his 
twenty-fourth year he returned to Iowa to attend 

business college in Iowa City, and took a com- 
mercial course there for one year, returning to 
Omaha when he had completed same. Shortly 
after, on May 10, 1893, he came to Ord, Valley 
county, taking up his occupation as bai'ber. He 
then engaged in the restaurant and bakery busi- 
ness, in which he continued until the fall of 1909. 

Mr. Murschel, during his residence in Ord, 
has been actively connected with the democratic 
party, and also actively engaged in the upbuild- 
ing of Ord and also of Valley county, and is a 
young man progressive along all helpful lines. 
He was a member of the city council in 1902, 
served as city clerk of Ord in 1903, and creditably 
filled the important office of mayor for a period 
of three years, taking the chair in 1904. In 1906 
he was a candidate for county treasurer, and de- 
feated. In the fall of 1909, he was nominated by 
his party for county clerk, being elected in a re- 
publican county, and is the only county official 
of democratic faith. 

Mr. Murschel was united in marriage in Coun- 
cil Bluff's. Iowa, January 3, 1895, to Miss Anna 
Hansen, who is a native of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Murschel has always stood for progress- 
ive, modern improvements in city affairs. 


Christian Ender, well known and highly re- 
spected as a leading citizen of Howard county, 
Nebraska, resides on section five, in Elba precinct. 
He is a truly successful agriculturalist, and his 
entire estate bears evidence of good management, 
thrift and prosperity. 

Mr. Ender was born in Switzerland on Novem- 
ber 1, 1845, and the first six years of his life 
were spent in that counti-y, then with his parents 
and two brothers he came to America, locating at 
fii-st in Washington county, Wisconsin, where they 
settled on a farm and remained for about thirteen 
years, during which time our subject received his 
education, attending the common schools only. 
The old folks remained in Minnesota from the time 
of settling there in 1864, the father's death occur- 
ring in 1907, while the mother still makes it her 

Christian Ender, junior, enlisted in Company 
A, Fifty-third Wisconsin Volunteers, on March 
13, 1865, this being the last call for troops, and, 
with his regiment, only got as far as St. Louis, 
Missouri, shortly afterwards being mustered out 
at Madison, Wisconsin, on the r2th of August, 
1865. He then returned to his home in Minneso- 
ta, remaining there for two years, then enlisted 
in the United States Regular Army for three 
years of service, and at the end of that 
time re-enlisted for five years. During these 
years he came through Nebraska with his com- 
pany, on frontier service, continuing in the army 
up to 1873, at which time lie was discharged at 
Fort Laramie, Wyoming. In 1871, tlie regiment 
was stationed near Elba, Howard county, Ne- 



braska, on the North Loup river, and at that time 
Mr. Ender took up a pre-emption claim on section 
five, township fifteen, range eleven, and proved 
up on the tract. Later he filed on a homestead 
on section six, also proving up on this. 
He had been married in Omaha in April, 
1869, to Miss Bertha Johnson, of that 
city, and, after filing on his homestead, his 
wife and their two children held the claim down 
and started to build up the home while he re- 
mained in the service of the government. During 
Mrs. Ender 's career as a pioneer here, she met 
with numerous frontier experiences, at various 
times having trouble with the bands of Indians 
who infested the country, and had she not been a 
woman of more than ordinary spirit, would have 
become intimidated by these hardships, and given 
up the struggle, but she stuck to her little home 
until joined by her husband, who went out of the 
army about 1874, and settled on his homestead 
. with his family, which they developed together 
into a productive and well-improved farm. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ender have had eight children, 
six of whom are now living, namely: Christian, 
III., William, Margaret, Mary, Sarah and Annie, 
all married and living in Howard county, the 
entire family being well known and highly re- 
spected as worthy and progressive citizens. Por- 
traits of Mr. and Mrs. Ender and their children 
appear on another page of this volume. 


Christian H. Ender, III, was born in Omaha, 
Pebrua,ry 6, 1870. His early education was re- 
ceived in Howard county, and he has spent nearly 
all his life on a farm, during his boyhood helping 
his father in carrying on the home place, and 
since then owning extensive farming interests on 
his own account. He attended the U. B. College at 
Gibbons, Buffalo county, for six weeks, remaining 
with his parents until his twenty-ninth year, then 
starting for himself, purchasing land on section 
eighteen, township sixteen, range eleven, which 
he has converted into a model farm. He has 
erected fine buildings of all kinds, and engages 
in stock and grain rasing on a large scale. Mr. 
Ender is proprietor of considerable land, his 
home farm being admirably situated on the North 
Loup river, making it one of the best located in 
that section of the country for the purpose to 
which he has it devoted. 

During his younger years, Mr. Ender learned 
the jeweler's trade, and has done considerable 
of this work in his section, known far and wide 
as the "Country Jeweler" of this locality. 

Mr. Ender was married in 1889 to Rose Eliza- 
beth Nelson who is a native of Illinois, coming 
to York county, Nebraska, with her parents in 
1881. They have a family of five children, named 
as follows : Edward A., William Glenn, Ruth, Alice 

and Bertha, all bright and interesting yoimg peo- 
ple, and all living at home at the present time. 

Mr. Ender has always taken an active and lead- 
ing part in the affairs of his vicinity. He was di- 
rector of school districts number eleven and 
fourteen for thii-teen years during his 
early residence in his present locality. 
He at one time held the ofSce of president 
of the Independent Telephone Company, and 
at present is shipper of the Farmer's Co-operative 
Society at Cotesfield. 


It is impossible to give a complete history of 
north-eastern Nebraska without including a sketch 
of the life of William Nicolay, who is one of the 
most prominent of the old settlers of this region. 
Mr. Nicolay owns a farm in section thirty-one, 
township twenty-three, range two, but has retired 
and lives in Battle Creek where he and his family 
enjoy the high esteem and respect of all who know 
them, and their friends and acquaintances are 

Mr. Nicolay is a native of Germany, his birth 
having occurred August 24, 1847, in the province 
of Holstein ; he is a son of Carson and Margurite 
(Tyson) Nicolay, both natives of Holstein Ger- 
many. Mr. Nicolay grew to manhood in his native 
land, receiving the usual school advantages, and 
after reaching the required age, served in the 
army of the German Empire, participating in the 
war between France and Germany in 1870. 

In 1881, Mr. Nicolay left the fatherland, sail- 
ing from Bremen to New York on the steamship 
"Bremen;" he had heard such glowing accounts 
of the prosperous country of America, and of the 
clieap land to be obtained there, that he decided 
to try his fortunes in the New World. After land- 
ing in the United States, Mr. Nicolay proceeded 
westward to Iowa, remaining there one year. In 
1884 he came to Madison county, Nebraska, where 
he bought one hundred and sixty acres of fine 
land, known as the Fannie Bauer homestead, and 
"batched" it until 1888. Mr. Nicolay now owns 
three hundred and twenty acres of good land, 
which is well improved, and has a fine orchard of 
two acres. 

Mr. Nicolay was united in marriage, October 
10, 1888, to Miss Catherine Borcher, a native of 
Germany, and a daughter of Deithlif Borclier, wlio 
was a native of Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Nicolay 
are the parents of five children whose names are 
as follows: Willie, Bertha, Marguret, Theresa and 
Nina. Mr. Nicolay and family are well and favor- 
ably known in the community in which they re- 
side, and have many good friends and acquaint- 
ances. They are members of the German Luth- 
eran church, and Mr. Nicolay is a democrat. 



Mott E. Vandenberg, now retired from active 
life and a resident of Sargent, Nebraska, became 
well known as a success stockman of the central 
part of the state and for his specializing in short- 
horn cattle. He has long been identified with the 
best interests of Custer county, where in early 
years he was an original homesteader, taking up 
the breeding of high-grade stock. He was 
born at Cape Vincent, Jefferson county. New York, 
December 8, 1855, the only child of Cornelius and 
Sarah (Chase) Vandenberg. The father, of Hol- 
land ancestry, was born in Saratoga, New York, 
and died in that state in August, 1856. The moth- 
er was also born in Saratoga and was of English 
parentage. She died in 1883. His father was in 
railroad service and died while our subject was a 
young boy, and he had to make his way in the 
world and gain an education in the local schools. 
He engaged in various occupations while a young 
man and spent some time as a teacher in the New 
York schools. He took a commercial course in 
Bryant & Stratton's College, from which he grad- 
uated in 1873, having made a specialty of banking 
methods. In the spring of 1878 he decided to seek 
the larger opportunities offered to young men in 
the west and came to Custer county, pre-empting 
one hundred and sixty acres of land on section 
twenty-three, township nineteen, range eighteen. 
He hauled lumber from Grand Island for 
building, and started in the cattle business on 
his own account. Later he secured a homestead 
and timber claim comprising three hundred twen- 
ty acres of land on sections twenty-five and 
twenty-six, township nineteen, range eighteen, 
which was his home place for many years. He 
was married on New Year's eve, 1884, at the 
home of the bride's parents at Douglas Grove, 
Custer county, to Miss Martha Comstock, who 
was born in Jefferson county. New York, and 
came to Custer county with her parents in March, 
1882. For several years she was a teacher in Ne- 
braska scliools, and attended the first teachers' 
institute in the county, held at Broken Bow. Her 
parents, DeWitt and Martha (Bennett) Com- 
stock, now live at Comstock, and are mentioned 
elsewhere in this work. Mr. and Mrs. Vanden- 
berg became parents of five children : Evert D.. 
of Dillon, Montana; Alison G. and Elosia, at 
home; Mort is deceased, and Nielson (also at 

Mr. Vandenberg passed through an early 
period of Nebraska history and was one of the 
organizers of school district number one hundred 
and eighty-eight, serving for some time as di- 
rector of the board. He and his wife made their 
home on the homestead for many years and be- 
came the owners of seven hundred acres of well 
improved and equipped land. For twenty- 
five years he specialized in pure bred Poland China 
hogs, having one of the oldest estaltlished herds of 

the big type of these hogs in the west. In 1907 he 
retired from farm life and moved to Sargent 
where he purchased a comfortable home which is 
now the residence of the family. They are well 
known and highly respected as a representative 


James Sullivan, a prosperous retired farmer of 
Hartington, was born November 9, 1840, seven 
miles from the city of Wexford, Ireland, in the 
county of the same name. His parents, Daniel and 
Ellen (Doyle) Sullivan, emigrated to America in 
1858 with their three sons and one daughter, sail- 
ing from Liverpool to New York in a steamer of 
the Black Ball line, being three weeks and three 
days on the ocean voyage. They landed at Castle 
Garden the latter part of June and arrived at 
Madison, Wisconsin, their destination, the 6th or 
7th of July. The family resided in Madison, 
where the three sons, of whom James was the 
youngest, found work to support their aged par- 
ents, the father being an invalid and unable to 
perform hard manual labor. For a few years, 
James was engaged in farm labor, and then 
farmed on shares for three years before coming 
to the west. 

Mr. Sullivan migrated to Nebraska with a col- 
ony of friends, driving across the country in a 
prairie schooner. They crossed the Missouri river 
pi Sioux City and reached St. James on the 4th of 
July, 1866. He settled eight and a half miles east 
of where Hartington is now located, at the village 
of Waupaniea, now deserted by all its inhabitants, 
leaving only a name. The school later established 
on Mr. Sullivan's farm perpetuates the Indian 
name, being called the Waupaniea school. 

Ml-. Sullivan filed on a homestead and later on 
a timber claim, to both of which he perfected title ; 
to these he later added forty acres, making a fine 
tract of three hundred and sixty acres of fine 
farming and grazing land. Grasshoppers proved 
to be a pest from the very start, and seriously re- 
duced the crops raised, some years destroying ev- 
ery thing that had been sown. On one occasion at 
harvest time Mr. Sullivan, who had been wearing 
two shirts during the chill of the early morning, 
removed one as the day grew warm and left it 
on a shock of wheat ; while the men were at din- 
ner a cloud of grasshoppers descended, and when 
Mr. Sullivan looked for his shirt he found it eaten 
into shreads. They were not always so bad as 
anticipated; one spring the wheat in Mr. Sulli- 
*'an's fields was a foot high when the pests ar- 
rived ; they fcegan eating their way into his field, 
but after covering an acre or two, arose and sailed 
awav on the wind. With favorable rains the 
wheat sprouted again and the entire field averaged 
forty-two bushels to the acre. The land m those 
days of virgin soil frequently produced forty-five 
or more bushels to the acre, and less tlian thirty 
was considered a poor crop. 



Mr. Sullivan's first dwelling was a log house 
covered with slabs and earth, but he soon built 
a more commodious dwelling in which he lived in 
comfort until retiring and moving to town in the 
fall of 1901. He owns a neat cottage residence 
in the south-west part of town, and having worked 
hard the early years of his life is now enjoying his 
reward and is taking life easy, free from worry or 
care of the morrow. 

Mr. Sullivan was married in Madison, "Wiscon- 
sin, in November of 1865, to Miss Ann Lacy, who 
was born in the community from which Mr. Sul- 
livan came. She was a daughter of Patrick and 
Ann (Bulger) Lacy who died in old Ireland be- 
fore their children emigrated to the states. Mrs. 
Sullivan came to America with a brother who 
settled in Wisconsin, near Madison. Mr. and Mrs. 
Sullivan had six children born to them, four of 
whom are living ; they are : Daniel, who is farming 
eight miles east of Hartington; Moses, lives in 
Laurel, Nebraska; Laura, wife of John Waltz, 
with whom our subject now lives, in Hartington ; 
and John, who cultivates the home farm at Wau- 
capana. Mrs. Sullivan died in January, 1911. 

Mr. Sullivan well remembers the worst blizzard 
that swept the country since the coming of white 
settlers, that of January, 1869. He had started for 
some posts he had bought of a neighbor nine miles 
from home, and was six miles from home when the 
storm overtook him. The snow drifted so badly 
that he lost the track he was retracing, and was in 
the storm from ten in the morning until two in the 
afternoon; driving was out of the question, so he 
led the team, and in doing so froze his hands until 
he feared he might lose them. He finally found 
himself at a neighbor's a mile and a half from 
home, and put his horses into the stable, where 
another belated traveler had already crowded his, 
packing eight horses into a space intended for 
only three. After resting himself and horses he 
again breasted the storm, anxious to get home 
where he knew his wife was worrying over his 
absence. He was stiff from cold from again lead- 
ing his team, but the warmth of his home soon 
made him comfortable again. 

Waucapana was on the old Indian trail be- 
tween Santee and Ponca, and at times from five 
hundred to a thousand of them camped near Mr. 
Sullivan's home. They were in the main good 
neighbors ; true, they were careless with fire, and 
one season allowed the flames to get into a corn- 
field of Mr. Sullivan's, and burnt it off, but he 
found them less vicious than many of the early 
settlers pronounced them to be. He came home 
one day to find his house full of them, and his wife 
and child frightened nearly to death. He pre- 
tended to be very angry, and drove them from 
the house. His team, which in his haste he left 
untied, were frightened at their red blankets, 
and i-an away; but, fortunately, circled around, 
and got back nearly to the house, where he caught 
them uninjured, with no damage done. 

Like most of the pioneers, Mr. Sullivan lived 
for a time in a log house which was later replaced 
with a frame structure. He made farming a suc- 
cess, accumulated a competency, and is now en- 
joying the fruits of a well-spent life. Reared a 
Catholic, he lias with his family ever remained 
faithful to the church. In politics he was a dem- 
ocrat, and gives his support to all worthy can- 
didates which his party honors as its leaders. 

He is a good citizen, a good parent, neighbor, 
friend ; such men are a loss to the mother country 
in their emigration and a distinct gain to the 
newer country of their adoption. 


Oliver S. Wolcott, who for many years has 
been a resident of Merrick county, Nebraska, is 
well known all over the county as a prominent 
and worthy citizen. Mr. Wolcott is a Canadian 
by birth, born April 14, 1830, and was the young- 
est of three children in the family of Asa and 
Elizabeth Wolcott who were natives of Canada. 
The Wolcott family — father, mother, daughter 
Mary, and sons, Rodger and Oliver, moved from 
Canada to Kane county, Illinois, in the fall of 
1840 ; the father died January 9, 1852. The fam- 
ily remained in Illinois for some years and finally 
became separated; Roger married and moved to 

Oliver Wolcott, the subject of this sketch, was 
married to Miss Calista Harris February 4, 1852. 
in Kane county, Illinois, and about the fall of 
1857, he, with his wife and one young son, Walter, 
moved to Lafayette county, Wisconsin, where 
Roger Wolcott lived. Mother Wolcott remained 
in Illinois with her daughter Mary, but in a few 
months' time she also moved to Wisconsin, where 
she joined the boys. Mary married and moved to 
Galesburg, Illinois, where in later years she died. 
In the fall of 1861 Oliver Wolcott with his wife 
and four sons moved to Harrison county. Iowa; 
Mother Wolcott coming to make her home with 
them later on. Mr. Wolcott followed farming 
and stock raising and was a pioneer of Harrison 
county, Iowa. 

In March, 1878, Mr. Wolcott and his son Wal- 
ter made a trip overland V»y team from Harrison 
county, Iowa, to Merrick county, Nebraska, with 
a view of obtaining land there, and returned to 
Iowa in the same way they had come. Later, 
Walter and his family moved to Central City. 

In June, 1880, Mr. Wolcott and family moved 
to Merrick county, Nebraska, going to their liome- 
stead farm fifteen miles northwest of Central City 
on the Loup river. Mr. Wolcott became an active 
factor in the building up of his home county, and 
is known for his integrity and straight forward 
dealings. He is a quiet, forceful man who has 
made a success of life, and added to his land liold- 
ings until at one time he owned about one thous- 
and four hundred acres of choice land. 



lu April, 1907, Mr. Wolcott retired from the 
farm to make his home in Central City where he 
has a pleasant home where he and his wife resided 
until Mrs. Wolcott "s death which occurred August 
31, 1911. Since that time Mr. "Wolcott has made 
his home with his son-in-law, 0. D. Burke. Mr. 
Wolcott is still an active man and takes a keen 
interest in his home town where he also has con- 
siderable valuable business property. His son, 
Reuben, has the home farm of nine hundred and 
twenty acres. Mr. Wolcott is a pioneer of three 
states, and in the early days of this portion of 
Nebraska, with their hardships and discourage- 
ments, are well known to him. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Wolcott lived with him until her death in April, 
1889, in her eighty-fifth year. She also had seen 
much of the early settler's life. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wolcott have had seven children, 
five of whom are living: Walter W.. born in Ill- 
inois, married and living in Central City; George 
J., born in Wisconsin, married, and living in 
Central City; Reuben, born in Wisconsin, mar- 
ried, and living on the old farm; Oliver, born in 
Wisconsin, deceased; Henry, born in Iowa, de- 
ceased ; Lily, now Mrs. Benjamin Colburn, was 
born in Iowa, and now resides near Palmer, and 
Donzella, wife of 0. D. Burke, born in Iowa, who 
lives in Central City. 

The Wolcott family are well known and en.ioy 
the confidence and esteem of a laree circle of 
friends and acquaintances. Oliver Wolcott is a 
descendant of the English family of Wolcott that 
came to America and settled in the New England 
states about 1621. Oliver Wolcott of this family 
being a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, and Secretary of the Treasury in Washing- 
ton's cabinet. One branch of the family went 
into Canada in after years and the subject of 
this sketch was of this family. 

The Wolcott descendants hold an annual re- 
union. Tlie 1910 reunion is to be held in Con- 
necticut ; at the 1908 reunion held at Warren. 
Ohio, about three hundred descendants were pres- 
ent, among them being the Oliver Wolcott of our 


A typical pioneer of western life is repre- 
sented l)y the above gentleman. He is an agricul- 
turalist of prominence in Knox county, Nebraska, 
and one of those substantial citizens whose in- 
tegrity, industry, thrift and economy have ad- 
ded so much to the material wealth and growth 
of that state. 

Mr. Jewell was born in England, August 20. 
1818. his birthplace being Liverpool. He grew 
to the age of seven years in that city, and then 
with his parents took passage in a sailing boat 
for America. The trip was made in six weeks, 
the small ship being buffeted by the storms which 
swept the sea. and by the time it reached its des- 
tination the passengers were exceedingly glad to 

once more behold land. The family remained 
in New York for bout a year and then went to New 
Jersey, where the father spent eleven months 
working as a carpenter, which trade he had 
learned as a boy in England. The next location 
was in Ford county, Illinois, where the father 
followed his trade, and later purchased two hun- 
dred and forty acres of land, which he worked. 
He bought this land at $17.00 per acre and sold it 
for $37.00 per acre. In 1866, they left that 
country and started west in a wagon, arriving in 
Otoe county, Nebraska, after a long and tire- 
some journey. Mr. Jewell's father had made 
money on the increase in value of his Illinois land, 
and on reaching his destination looked around 
for a suitable location, purchasing two hundred 
acres of land in Nemaha county, and paying seven 
dollars per acre for the entire tract. Their 
first dwelling was a dugout, which they occupied 
during the winter. For a couple of years things 
went fairly well, then they were struck by the 
grasshopper raids, which destroyed about all their 
crops and put them back considerably in the 
work of building up the farm. Dui-ing 1870, 
1871 and 1872 they escaped the pests, but the fol- 
lowing three years were visited with them con- 
tinuously, and sufi'ered a great amount of dam- 
age. The nearest trading point from the Jewell 
farm was Nebraska City, which was also their 
postoffice. They went through the usual hardships 
familiar to the pioneers of those days, but kept up 
a brave spirit, and as years went on and the 
country became more thickly settled, their trials 
grew less and they prospered in a large degree. 

William P. Jewell worked on his father's 
place until he was twenty-two years old, and then 
started for himself. He had learned the carpen- 
ters' trade from his father, and worked at that 
around Nebraska City principally. In 1892 he 
bought ninety-seven and one-half acres in Nemaha 
county, Nebraska, and lived there until coming 
to Knox county. In 1900 Mr. Jewell came into 
Knox county for settlement, purchasing one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of land from George Utley. 
an old settler in the locality. This was improved 
in good shape, and since Mr. Jewell has owned 
it he has added much to it in the way of build- 
ings, groves, etc., making it one of the finest 
places in that part of the county. Since coming to 
Knox county, Mr. Jewell has purchased another 
quarter section, the northwest quarter of section 
ten, situated one and one-half miles from his home 

Mr. Jewell was united in marriage to Miss 
Anna Huptman in November, 1885, and to them 
have been born six children : Lyde, Arly, Nettie, 
Bessie, Maggie and Lawrence. 


DeLane A. Willard, a substantial Inisines.s man 
of Genoa, Nebraska, is also one of tlu' prominent 
pioneers of that section, having settled here about 



1866, and has made it his permanent home since 
that time. He is now engaged in the real estate 
business, enjoying a large patronage, and build- 
ing up a nice fortune. He is also owner of large 
tracts of land in different locations in Nance and 
adjoining counties. Mr. Willard has the distinc- 
tion of being the oldest settler in his locality, and 
is known throughout the country as "the father 
of Nance county. ' ' 

Mr. Willard was born in Winchester, New 
Hampshire, on August 10, 1840, and is a son of 
Paul aiul Nancy Willard, the former dying in 1850, 
and the later in 1895. Our subject has one broth- 
er in Oklahoma, and three sisters living in the 
east, the family consisting in all of eight children. 
He grew to manhood in his native state, and when 
about nineteen went to Twin Rivers, Wisconsin, 
where he became overseer in a wood and wire fac- 
tory, spending one year in that work. His next 
move was to Michigan, there also taking charge 
of a wood and wire business for his brothers, 
George and William Willard, remaining for about 
eighteen months, and going to Detroit, where he 
was a factory overseer for three years. In 1861, 
he returned to his old home in the east, and spent 
two years, employed in the government gun fac- 
tory at Middletown, then went back to Michigan, 
afterwards to the south, visiting Vicksburg and 
various other places of note, finally landing in 
Chicago. There he attended business college, and 
after completing a course of study went to Oma- 
ha, where, with two others, they started a queens- 
ware establishment in 1866. Mr. Willard later 
sold his interest, and, in partnership with Wm. 
B. Dale, opened a general merchandise store at 
Columbus, Nebraska, carrying a fifty thousand 
dollars stock of goods. 

In 1867, he established a trading post just east 
of the Pawnee Indian reservation, in Nance coun- 
ty, continuing the same for two years, at which 
time the reservation was put on the market, and 
he purchased three sections of this land, on part 
of which he laid out the town of Genoa. He had 
previously owned twelve hundred acres in Platte 
county, and had considerable in real estate during 
all of the time he had been here. During the set- 
tlement of Genoa, Mr. Willard was the prime mov- 
er in all matters relating to its formation. He 
has held various offices in his township, and dif- 
ferent positions of trust, at one time serving as 
president of the Genoa National Bank, and still 
carries stock in the same, and being one of the 
board of directors. For two years he acted as 
supervisor in Nance county, and was chairman 
of the town board for a number of years. In ed- 
ucational matters he has taken an active interest, 
being a member of, also director of the school 
board for several years. 

Mr. Willard was married in Genoa, December 
25th, Christmas Day, 1880, to Miss Lottie Ander- 
son, who is a native of Sweden and came to 
America with her parents when a young girl. 
They have had eight chikli-en, seven of whom are 

still living, named as follows: Grace, Blanche, 
Hazel, Earl, Paul, Karl and Ellen, all living at 
home with the exception of Grace and Blanche, 
who are married. The family have a beautiful 
home and are popular members of the social life 
of their city. 


C. Arthur Youll, of Butte, has been a resident 
of Nebraska since early in the year 1889, when 
he sojourned for some nine months at Coleridge, 
in Cedar county, prior to making permanent set- 
tlement in Boyd county, awaiting the opening of 
the reservation to settlement. 

Mr. Youll is a native of Illinois, born in DeKalb 
county on October 10, 1861, and is a son of James 
and Sarah Youll. The former was one of the first 
men employed in the original factory of the Marsh 
Harvester Company, when the first of those ma- 
chines were made. In 1865, the family migrated 
to Delaware county, Iowa, settling along the 
Maquoketa river. After they had been there five 
years, tlie mother's death occurred, and our sub- 
ject was sent to Steuben county, New York, to 
make his home with his grandfather, remaining 
for four years. He started out for himself when 
but twelve years of age, coming alone to Indiana 
and securing work in Steuben county, remaining 
in the vicinity four years. He then pushed on to 
loM^a, and was employed by the Sioux City and 
Pacific Railway Company, working between Mis- 
souri Valley and Sioux City, and later in the 
yards at Blair, Nebraska. He spent some time in 
Ida county working around a livery barn at Bat- 
tle Creek, and about January of 1889, came into 
Nebraska. From the date of his filing on a 
homestead some four miles east of Butte, Mr. 
Youll resided on his farm for nineteen years, ad- 
ding a half section to the original tract of 160 
acres which he developed into a well tilled stock 
and grain farm. This he sold on 1908, and the 
following summer he spent in Wyoming visiting 
a brother-in-law, returning to Butte in the fall, 
and since that time has been running a feed barn 
located near the center of the business district. 
In June, 1910, he purchased the livery stable and 
hack business of a competing establishment, se- 
curing at the same time the mail carrying contract 
between Butte and its railway connection at 
Anoka. Mr. Youll is a man of untiring energy, 
industrious and diligent, and by fair and honest 
methods in conducting his business, secures his 
full share of the trade for his house. 

At the time of coming west, Mr. Youll drove 
through from Iowa to Cedar county in a covered 
wagon containing his goods, camping along the 
road way. He followed this same mode of trans- 
portation coming to Boyd county, and while on 
the way the party was overtaken by a severe rain 
storm which caused them considerable incon- 
venience and several days delay. 

Mr. Youll was mnrried in Battle Creek, Iowa, 




ou January 1, 1886, to Miss Anna Belle, and to 
them have been born six children, four of whom 
survive, as follows : Bernice Isa, Thelma and Al- 
bert. They have a very pleasant home, and have 
a large circle of warm friends and acquaintances. 
In politics Mr. Youll is a republican, and has 
always taken an active interest in local affairs, 
although he has never sought office. 

from Boone, Iowa, going by rail to Madison, Wis- 
consin, where the company was mustered out and 
discharged, April 20, 1866, the balance of the 
regiment being discharged some time later. 


Charles H. Nichols, retired farmer, son of Nath- 
an and Martha (Hall) Nichols, was born in Lewis 
county. New York, May 17, 1846, the sixth in a 
family of eight children, four of whom are still 
living. He has a brother and a sister in the state 
of Wisconsin, and a sister residing in New York 
state. The parents are deceased, the father dying 
about 1888. and the mother in 1892. 

About 1854, Mr. Nichols, with his parents, went 
to Dane county, Wisconsin, where they followed 
farming, and lived until 1876, when our subject 
came to Boone county, Nebraska, and homesteaded 
one hundred and sixty acres of land in section 
twenty-four, township twenty, range six, which 
remained the home farm until 1906, when Mr. 
Nichols retired from active farming, and moved to 
Albion, where he built one of the finest homes in 
the place. 

On April 25, 1863, Mr. Nichols was married 
to Miss Elizabeth Melum, a native of Norway, 
who came to America in 1862, and she is a daugh- 
ter of Alec and Elizabeth Melum, both of whom 
are deceased. Mrs. Nichols has one brother resid- 
ing in the state of Wisconsin, one sister in Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, and another sister in the state 
of Minnesota. 

Mr. Nichols, in the early days, served on the 
school board of district number twenty-three for 
several years. He has been prosperous and suc- 
cessful, and owns a section of land in Boone coun- 
ty, which is mostly under cultivation. 

Mr. and Mrs. Nichols have had two children: 
Morgan H., who is married, and has two sons, and 
lives in Chadron, Nebraska ; and Charles A., who is 
married, and has six children, and lives on the 
original homestead. 

Mr. and Mrs. Nichols have passed through 
much of Nebraska history, and have been factors 
in the forwarding of all interests in the direction 
of progression, and hold the esteem and friend- 
ship of all who know them. 

February 1, 1865, Mr. Nichols enlisted in Com- 
pany E, Fiftieth Wisconsin "Volunteer Infantry, 
and went from Madison, Wisconsin, to St. Louis, 
Missouri. Later he did patrol duty in Missouri, 
and was then sent to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 
where they did guard duty. In September, 1865, 
Company E was sent by steamboat to Fort Sully, 
Dakota, for the purpose of guarding Indians, 
which duty they performed until March, 1866, 
when they began a march of six hundred and 
eighty miles to Boone, Iowa, by way of Sioux City, 


The prosperity enjoyed within the borders of 
Wayne county is due in large measure to the en- 
terprise and thrift of the farmers in that region. 
Their well-improved and well-tilled farms are 
evidence of good management and painstaking 
care, and speak eloquently of the industry and 
thrift of their owners. Among the most sucessful 
of this region was the gentleman above named. 
He was a substantial farmer, who acquired a 
good home by persistent industry and honest 
dealings, and was highly esteemed as a citizen. 

Mr. Granquist was a native of Sweden, where 
he was born December 7, 1857. He remained at 
home, going to school, and helping his parents, 
Nels and Martha (Anderson) Granquist, who were 
farmers, until 1881. The parents were born, lived 
and died in Sweden. 

In 1881, Mr. Granquist determined to come to 
the land of opportunity, as America was regarded. 
He accordingly sailed from Christiana to New 
York City by steamship, and at once started for 
the west. He first came to Sioux City, Iowa, but 
remained here only a short time, going next to 
Omaha, where he spent the winter. In the spring 
of the following year, he went on to Washington 
county, Nebraska, where he worked for the rail- 
road. From there he proceeded to Bancroft, 
where he remained for about three years. Final- 
ly, in 1890 he came to Wayne county, and bought 
the farm of one hundred and sixty acres, which 
was his home until his death. He made many im- 
provements on the place, and it is now among 
the best in the county. He added eighty acres 
to the first purchase, and at the time of his death 
owned two hundred and forty acres. 

In 1888, Mr. Granquist was united in marriage 
to Miss Enger Paulson, of Wayne county. They 
were the parents of ten children, named as fol- 
lows: Carl, Anton, Nelse, Julia, Anna (deceased), 
Anna (two Annas), Edward, Edith, Minnie (de- 
ceased), and Plarry. 

Mr. Granquist died December 15, 1910, after 
an illness of only six days. He was a member 
of the English Lutheran church, and a republi- 


Thomas Lynch, senior, was born in Kerry 
county, Ireland, in 1828, and grew up to young 
manhood in his native land, and in about 1846, 
came to America to seek his fortune, first locating 
in Dayton, Ohio, and some few years later, or 
about 1851, was married to Johanah Foley. 

In about 1856, Mr. Lynch, with his wife and 
voung son, came to Omaha, Nebraska, and to 
Platte county, Nebraska, in 1858, where they 



squatted on land near what is now Platte Cen- 
ter, and as soon as surveys were made, Mr. Lynch 
took up his homestead, and this original home- 
stead farm is still in the Lynch family, and is 
located four miles southeast of Platte Center. 

Mr. Lynch Avas a pioneer frontier settler, com- 
ing to Platte county in the Indian days, when it 
took courage and endurance to make a home, and 
secure the needed supplies for the home and farm. 
He was a quiet, industrious man, always working 
for the betterment of conditions for his family, 
and ready at all times to give assistance to his 
fellow men. 

Mr. Lynch made a success of life, and at the 
time of his death had a fine farm of five hundred 
and twenty acres of choice land. He was a man 
of known integrity, having the esteem and con- 
fidence of his neighbors and many friends in 
Platte county. Mr. Lynch died on the homestead 
farm October 14, 1901, and on May 24, 1907, Mrs. 
Lynch passed away. 

Mrs. Thomas Lynch also was born in Kerry 
county, Ireland, her birth occurring in the j^ear 
of 1832, coming to America when about fifteen 
years of age. She was a woman greatly beloved, 
and was prominent in church and social life, and 
a christian woman known for her many good and 
charitable deeds. She came of a pioneer family 
of Platte county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lynch are survived bj' three sons 
and four daughters, named as follows: James 
Ljoich, who is married, and lives in the state of 
Idaho ; Katherine, who is now Mrs. Michael Mor- 
ris; Daniel, married, and living in the state of 
Wyoming; Nellie, who was Mrs. Clarence 6er- 
rard, of Columbus, Nebraska, died February 27, 
1911 ; and Margaret, Thomas and Mary. 

James and Daniel Lynch are successful men, 
that have made other states their homes. 

Thomas Lynch and sisters, Margaret and Mary, 
live in their fine, modern, new home, one-half mile 
northwest of Platte Center. The children were 
all born on the old farm, Thomas and his sisters, 
Margaret and Mary, being the last to leave the 
old home, in March, 1909. 

The Lynch family is one of the old families 
that experienced all the hardships of the first set- 
tlers ' life, from the sod-shanty-log-eabin days to 
the days of a finely-equipped farm, elegant new 
home, and easy financial standing. The children 
are worthy representatives of Platte county, en- 
joying the friendship of the many, and giving 
of their hospitality along social and church lines. 
In the new home place, joining the corporation 
limits of Platte Center, Thomas Lynch engages 
in the breeding of registered stock, making a 
specialty of Duroc Jersey hogs and fine cattle, 
having forty acres of land in the tract. 


A history of the norteastern part of Nebraska 
would not be complete without including a sketch 

of the life of Anthony Shrader, who is one of 
the most prominent old settlers of this region. 
He has been a resident of this section of Nebraska 
for the past twenty-eight years, and at present 
is residing in section twenty-nine, township 
twenty-seven, range eight, where he has developed 
a good farm, and enjoys a comfortable home, and 
the confidence and esteem of all. 

Mr. Shrader was born August 29, 1823, in 
Amherst county, Virginia, and his father, John 
Shrader, was also born in Virgiuia, but of Ger- 
man descent, and our subject's mother, Phoebe 
(Walton) Shrader, was also born in Virginia. 
Prom Virginia our subject moved to Livingston 
county, Illinois, where he resided for thirty years, 
and while living there, in December, 1863, enlisted 
in the civil war in Compauj' I, Second Illinois Ar- 
tillery, under Captain Barnett, and also was under 
General Sherman through the south from 1863 
to 1865. He participated in some of the most 
memorable battles of the war, including the bat- 
tles of Jonesboro, Chicaraauga and Kenesaw 
Mountain. After an active and creditable war 
service, he was mustered out in June, 1865. 

Mr. Shrader came to Nebraska in 1883, and 
homesteaded land in section twenty-two, township 
twenty-seven, range eight, Antelope county, and 
on this land built a good frame house. Later Mr. 
Shrader bought one hundred and sixty acres more 
land, with ten acres of fine grove, in section twen- 
ty-nine, and this is the home place at the present 

On June 13, 1878, Mr. Shrader was married 
to Miss Mary Lake, and Mr. and Mrs. Shrader 
have had the following named children born to 
them: William, who is at home; George, de- 
ceased ; Albert, who is married to Miss Mary Cush- 
man, they having three children; and Charles, 
who is married to Miss Susan Harvey, who have 
two children. 

Mr. Shrader, during his residence on his home 
place, improved the property with a good set of 
farm buildings, fences, etc. He often had hard 
times in the early days, and, among other draw- 
backs, he lost his entire crops during the drouth 
and hot winds of 1894. Mr. Shrader has now sold 
all his land to his son William, having retired, 
and now lives with his son. 


The above named gentleman was one of the 
most prominent and successful farmers of Wayne 
county, Nebraska, until his removal to Randolph, 
Cedar county. He is an old soldier, having been 
a private in Company K, Thirty-eighth New Jer- 
sey. He enlisted in 1864. and served for ten 
months. He is a man of patriotic spirit, untiring 
energy and active mind, and has done his full 
share towards developing the matchless resources 
of this section, where he has made his home for 
so many years. He has a wide acquaintance and 
an enviable reputation. A portrait of Mr. Weber 
will be found on another page. 



Mr. Weber is a native of New Jersey, born in 
1847. He spent his early life in that state, and, 
after attaining his manliood years, enlisted in the 
army. After he was mustered out of service, 
he returned to New Jersey, where he remained 
until 1877. 

At this time he decided to go west, where the 
country was newer and land cheaper, and where 
greater opportunities awaited the young man. 
He came first to Mills county, Nebraska, and 
lived in this locality for seven years. He then 
came to Wayne county, and took up a home- 

Conditions of living were then entirely dif- 
ferent from now in the same locality. Deer and 
antelope were plentiful at that time, with an 
occasional elk during the first few years of his 
residence. Prairie fires, however, were a con- 
stant peril to the settler, and the subscriber had 
several times been compelled to fight fires in 
order to save his own farm buildings. But, 
although he has met with the reverses common 
to the life of the pioneer, yet he has every reason 
to be proud of the results which are the outcome 
of his labors. He has an exceptionally fine farm, 
and comfortable home, with a thrifty orchard 
comprising six acres, as well as a valuable grove 
all of his own planting. 

In 1867, Mr. Weber was united in marriage 
to Miss Sarah Taylor, and nine children have 
been born to them: Delia, now Mrs. Burlington 
Cunningham, of Bloomfield; Tilton, formerly a 
farmer and business man of Randolph, met with 
an automobile accident, April 26, 1910, which 
caused his death; John; Mary, now Mrs. J. H. 
Young, also of Bloomfield; Lillie, married to J. 
D. Lumdson, of Peters, Nebraska ; Elizabeth, the 
wife of Walter H. Weber, she dying in 1907 ; 
Anna, now Mrs. HaiTy Hunt; Euphenia, now 
Mrs. H. L. Sherwood, of South Dakota; Caroline, 
now Mrs. H. F. Taylor, of Randolph. 


The man whose name heads this personal his- 
tory is one of the pioneers of this region, and is 
classed among the leading old settlers of his 
locality. He has watched the growth and pro- 
gress of Pierce county, Nebraska, from its early 
settlement. Mr. Gast resides in the northwest 
quarter of section twenty-seven, township twen- 
ty-seven, range four. 

Mr. Gast is a native of the village of Bi-iesen, 
West Prussia, his birth occurring August 14, 
1850. He grew to manhood there, and followed 
the occupation of farming, his father owning a 
farm of four hundred and eighty acres, an unus- 
ual holding in that country. He spent three 
years of his life in the German army, 1871 to 
1874, inclusive, being called into service after 
the Franco-Prussian war. John Gast, the father, 
was born in 1813, and died in 1874. The mother, 

Caroline (Formazieu) Gast, was born in 1822, 
and attained the age of eighty-five years and 
six months. 

When Mr. Gast left Germany for America, 
he sailed from Hamburg, March 13, 1884, and 
spent sixteen days on the sea, going through the 
terrible storm of March 22, 1884, landing in New 
York. Mr. Gast lived in Cass county, Nebraska, 
two months, coming thence to Pierce county, 
when he bought the farm on which he now re- 
sides. He lost crops twice by hail, and in 1894 
lost everything by drought. 

Our subject has been twice married, the first 
time in 1885 to Miss Hannah Fisher, the result 
of this union being five children, who are named 
as follows: Ernest, Richard, Elsie, Gustave and 
Lena. The two older sons are married, and op- 
erate farms of their own. His second marriage 
occurred in 1895 to Miss A. Guse, one son, 
Walter, being born to them. 

Mr. Gast is a member of the German Luther- 
an church, and is independent in politics, cast- 
ing his vote for the best man. 


The gentleman above mentioned is one of the 
popular pioneers of Howard county, bears an 
excellent reputation as a patriotic citizen and 
successful business man, and is one of the lead- 
ers in local affairs in that city. Although at 
present retired from active labor, and residing 
in one of the handsome homes in St. Paul, he 
was for many years intimately identified with 
the agricultural interests of the county, and has 
been a potent factor in its development. 

Walter F. Hill was born in Medina county, 
Ohio, on January 8, 1843, and at about the age 
of fourteen, engaged in the saw-mill business 
with his father and two brothers, continuing in 
the work for a number of years. At the begin- 
ning of the civil war, he enlisted for six months, 
but on account of an accident, was unable to 
serve until 1864, when he entered the army in 
August, serving in Company D, One Hundred 
and Seventy-eighth Ohio Regiment of Infantry, 
and took part in some of the principal engage- 
ments toward the close of the war, among them 
being the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, be- 
sides different skirmishes. He received an honor- 
able discharge on May 18, 1865, at Nashville, 
Tennessee, having several months previous re- 
ceived injuries which resulted in his confinement 
in a hospital for three months. 

After leaving the army, Mr. Hill returned 
to his home in Ohio, and worked at railroading 
for about one year and a half, then began farm- 
ing, and was successful in the work, eoutinuing 
at it all the time he remained in Ohio, which was 

up to 1873. . -rrr ItU 

On March 20, 1870, he was married to W eltha 
A. Bohara, a native of Portage county. ( Huo, who 
was a teacher in the public schools m that vicm- 



ity for a number of years. They came to Ne- 
braska in the spring of 1873, locating in Howard 
county, where Mr. Hill homesteaded one hun- 
dred and sixty acres on section twenty-two, 
township fourteen, range ten, and proved up on 
the land. He later purchased another quarter 
in the same section, and succeeded in develop- 
ing a fine stock and grain farm. He afterwards 
added to his acreage until he owned in all about 
four hundred acres, all of which he has now dis- 
posed of. 

A short time ago, Mr. Hill retired from active 
farming, and bought a fine residence in St. Paul, 
where himself and wife are popular members of 
tlieir social circle. Mr. Hill was one of the prin- 
cipal organizers of school district number eleven, 
and for about twenty years served as its director 
and treasurer. Mr. and Mrs. Hill were among 
the earliest families to settle in this part of 
Howard county, and have passed through all 
the various stages of its development, becoming 
widely known through their aid in furthering 
in every way possible the best interests of their 
locality. Mr. Hill has a brother living in St. 
Paul, also one brother who lives in Ohio, and 
Mrs. Hill has a brother living in Kansas, another 
in Iowa, and a sister, who still makes Ohio her 
permanent home. 


Prank S. Kull, who takes a leading part as 
an agriculturist and stock raiser in the afl'airs 
of Valley county, Nebraska, where he possesses 
many broad acres of land, resides on section 
thirteen, township nineteen, range fourteen. 

Mr. Kull was born in Walworth county, Wis- 
consin, Pebruary 3, 1868, and was ninth of ten 
children in the family of John and Margaret 
(Runkle) Kull, who had five sons and five daugh- 
ters. The parents are both deceased. Pour 
brothers and three sisters are still living, but 
our subject is the only one residing in Nebraska. 

Prank grew up in Wisconsin on the farm, 
and in his tweny-first year, the fall of 1889, he 
came to Valley county to look over the land, 
and in Pebruary of 1890, closed the purchase 
of the northwest quarter of section thirteen, town- 
ship nineteen, range fourteen, and moved to his 
new home in the same month. He now has a 
fine grain and stock farm, which is well improved 
with good buildings, etc., and has a five-acre 
orchard set out, which is in a promising condition. 

Mr. Kull has had some state troop exper- 
ience, having enlisted in the Nebraska National 
Guards, which was called into active service 
during the Sioux Indian uprising; and he was 
also a member of the state militia for six years. 

On March 4, 1891, Mr. Kull was married to 
Miss Alice Lewis at the parents' home, Miss 
Lewis being born near Kankakee, Illinois. The 
Lewis family came to Valley county from Illinois 
in 1888, and were of the older Valley county 

families. The father, Henry F. Lewis, was born 
in Ohio, and died on his way home from Cali- 
fornia in 1905, and Mrs. Henry Lewis now. resides 
in Ord. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kull have one child, Edwin, who 
was born in 1893. They are widely known, and 
have the respect and esteem of many friends. 
Mr. and Mrs. Kull have enjoyed several seasons 
of extensive travel down the coast and through 
tJie south. 

Mr. Kull is a wide-awake young man, and 
passed through the hard Nebraska years of 
1893 and 1894, but stuck to it, and added to his 
land holdings until now he owns thirteen hun- 
dred and seventy-five acres of Valley county land. 

He has made a success of farming and stock 
raising, and is considered one of the prominent 
young men of Valley county. He has had much 
to do toward the upbuilding of the country's 
prosperity for the past twenty years. 

The discouragements of the early days were 
many. Hail ruined his crop in 1893, the follow- 
ing season drought burned everything, and 1895 
was little better, he having raised no corn, and 
the small crop of oats he harvested could be sold 
for only nine cents when hauled to market. 

In politics, Mr. Kull is independent. 

0. H. TEXLEY. 

0. H. Texley, one of the old settlers of the 
region where he chose his home in the early days, 
occupies a good home and valuable property in 
section twenty-eight, township twenty-one, range 
four, of Madison county, Nebraska. He has done 
his full share in the upbuilding of the localit.y, 
and is well and favorably known throughout 
that part of the state. 

Mr. Texley is a native of Norway, born Janu- 
ary 10, 1833. He is a son of Hellick and Emma 
Texley, who were farmers in that country, and 
his boyhood was spent on the home place. 

In 1868, Mr. Texley left his mother country 
and emigrated to America, embarking at Chris- 
tiana on a steamship, which landed at Quebec in 
July of that year, and he went directly to Dane 
county, Wisconsin. He remained in that place 
for two years, then came to Omaha, where he 
bargained for a team to bring him to Wisner, 
paying thirty dollars for the trip. Prom there 
he pushed on to Madison county, where he filed 
on a quarter-section in Shell Creek township, 
built a sod shanty, and begun as a pioneer. 

Por the first four years, everything he raised 
was destroyed by grasshoppers before the time 
for gathering, and this, together with other un- 
favorable conditions, made times very hard for 
the early settlers. Columbus was their market 
place in those days, and it was a distance of many 
miles from their home, often a dangerous trip on 
account of the severe storms, dangers from the 
Indians — who were sometimes hostile — and wild 
beasts, which were plentiful all over the plains 



at that time. Another menace was from the 
prairie fires, which swept the region from time 
to time, and on many occasions he, together with 
his family and neighbors, was obliged to fight 
fires for days in order to save his possessions 
from destruction. 

Mr. Texley was married in June, 1863, in Nor- 
way, to Miss Mary Thompson, a native of Nor- 
way, who was born March 1, 1883. Mr. and Mrs. 
Texley have a family of seven children, namel.y : 
Hellick, Ole, Gilbert, Georgina, Emma, Anna and 

George Leibert, a progressive and successful 
young farmer and stockman of Custer county, 
has lived in the county since 1887, and has been 
identified with the best interests of his region. 
He was born in Jo Daviess county, Illinois, August 
30, 1875, youngest of the nine children of An- 
drew and Lena (Hoop) Leibert. The father was 
born in Germany in 1820, and came to the United 
States in 1848, settling in Guilford township, Jo 
Daviess county. He was married in Illinois about 
1855, to Lena Hoop, who came from Germany to 
the United States about 1851. In 1886, they 
moved from Illinois to Missouri, and the follow- 
ing year went on to Custer county, Nebraska. 
They lived on a rented farm until 1892, when he 
purchased the southwest quarter of section 
thirty-four, township twenty, range eighteen, and 
both he and his wife died on that farm, he Sep- 
tember 22, 1903, and she October 15, 1901. Of 
their nine children, six now survive : Henry, 
Fred and George, of Custer county; Charles, of 
Clinton, Iowa; Mrs. John Hess and Mrs. Henry 
Hess, of Jo Daviess county, Illinois. The father 
of these children was a veteran of the civil war, 
and was highly honored as an upright and sub- 
stantial citizen. 

George Leibert accompanied his parents to 
Custer county in 1887, and remained with his 
father on the home farm until the latter 's death. 
He was married in Adams county, Iowa, Decem- 
ber 25, 1901, to Elizabeth Cora Roach, daughter 
of John and Sarah Roach, who was born on a farm 
near Corning, Iowa. Her father died in Iowa 
in 1908, and her mother still resides in Corning. 
Her brothers, Clyde and James, reside in Custer 
county, Nebraska; John, another brother, lives 
in Grand Island; Homer and Fred live in Corn- 
ing, Iowa, and her sister. Belle, is the wife of 
Fred Leibert, brother of George. John Roach 
was a veteran of the civil war. 

Mr. Leibert lives on and owns the original 
Custer county home farm of two hundred acres, 
a well equipped and stocked farm, one mile north 
of Sargent. It contains a comfortable residence, 
with pleasant surroundings, and has been occu- 
pied by the family continuously since 1892. Mr. 
Leibert is one of the well-known young farmers 
of Custer county, and he and his wife are well 
known in social circles, having many friends. 

They have three children: Ralph G., Ernest E. 
and Howard H., all at home. They also have in 
their home Lena A. Leibert, daughter of Mr. 
Leibert 's brother, Nicholas, who is an orphan. 


It is a noticeable fact that among the western 
states, a remarkably large percentage of the pros- 
perous farmers in almost every community are 
foreign born, but the greater part of these are 
men who came out here when the country was 
new, and by means of whose struggles and efforts 
the country has been built up and advanced to its 
present state. One of the leading farmers of 
Cedar county is Prank Keiter, who was born in 
West Farland, Germany, in 1847, the son of 
Frank and Louise Keiter. 

Mr. Keiter i-emained in his native country 
until 1888, when he embarked on the steamship 
"Ider" at Bremen, bound for New York City. 
He had a well-defined plan in mind, and at once 
boarded a train for the west, where he had heard 
that land was cheap and plentiful. With the 
savings of a life-time, he purchased a quarter- 
section in section nineteen, township thirty-one, 
range one. Cedar county, Nebraska. 

Many times Mr. Keiter and his wife have met 
with grievous discouragements in their western 
home. In 1894, the crops were an entire failure, 
owing to the hot winds, which fairly burned up 
everything in the ground, and in 1900, another 
heavy blow came, when a severe hailstorm de- 
stroyed all crops. However, they remained, and 
after each failure, began again the process of re- 
pairing the loss. They still reside on the old 
home farm, which has been improved in every 
way, so that it is one of the valuable farms in 
the county, now comprising four hundred acres. 

In 1881, a few years before leaving Germany, 
Mr. Keiter was united in marriage to Miss Mary 
Kieser, and of this union ten children have been 
born: Frank; Joseph; Mary, now Mrs. Prank 
Oberiter, of Danber, Iowa ; Henry, Katie, Charles, 
Clara, Annie, Emma and Vera. 

Mr. and Mrs. Keiter and family are prominent 
factors in the social life of the community, and 
possess the respect of all who know them. 

Mr., Keiter served the emperor of Germany 
four years as a soldier in the Franco-Prussian 
war, a member of the Sixteenth Regiment of 
Infantry, and saw active service in several hard- 
fought battles. The division in which he served, 
in one hour's time, was reduced from three 
thousand men to seven hundred, who were able 
to respond to roll call. 


Among the prominent and successful farmers 

and ranchmen of Merrick county. Nebraska, and 

now citizen of Central City, we wish to mention 

the name of Russell S. Powell, who is well known 




all over the surrounding country as a man of 
ability, industrious,^ and a citizen of true worth. 
Mr. Powell is a son of James E. and Mary (Carter) 
Powell, and is a native of New York state, born 
in Madison county, April 14, 1864. He was the 
fourth of seven children, and has five brothers 
and one sister in Nebraska. The mother lives 
in Riverdale, Nebraska, at the advanced age of 
seventy-four years. The father died, November 
la, 1880, in Merrick county, Nebraska. 

When three years of age, our subject went to 
Clinton county, Iowa, with his parents, where 
tliey lived two years, farming, and in September, 
1870, the family came overland, in company with 
George D. Moore and family, to Merrick county, 
Nebraska, and the Powells homsteaded eighty 
acres, three and a half miles west of where Cen- 
tral City now stands. Russell Powell engaged 
in farming. On October 22, 1884, he was married 
to Miss Francis L. Prouty, who was born in Wis- 
consin, and who came with her parents to Ne- 
braska in 1868. Mr. and Mrs. Powell have had 
five children : Florence M., J. Edwin, Ray, Harold 
and Roy Elmer, all of whom reside under the par- 
ental roof, and an infant, deceased. Mr. and Mrs. 
Roy Elmer, all of whom reside under the paren- 
tal roof, and an infant, deceased. Mr. and Mrs. 
Powell have passed through the early history of 
Merrick county, and are widely and favorably 
known. Mrs. Powell's parents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Ira Prouty, live in Rogers, Arkansas, as do also 
one brother and two sisters. Two sisters reside 
in St. Louis, Missouri, and one is deceased. 

In 1889, Mr. Powell assumed the management 
of the J. M. Chadwick feed and sale ranch, where 
he lived five years. He later, at various times, 
purchased three hundred acres of land in Merrick 
county. In March, 1910, he retired from the 
farm, moved to Central City, and purchased a 
good home, where he now lives. Mr. Powell 
served in the school board of district number 
eight for six years. 

Mr. Powell is Past Grand and Past Chief 
Patriarch in the local Odd Fellows lodge, and 
is also a member of Masonic lodge and Modern 
Woodmen of America. 

It was not always the poor of Europe that 
sought the shores of America — men who were 
impoverished in the crowded east, and came to 
the new world to improve their conditions — for 
the wealthy and cultured often found the name 
of liberty a guiding star, lighting their path to 
the west. Of such Avas the family of John J. 
Lenger. He was born in Bohemia, and came of 
a family of wealth and influence, receiving a 
superior education, and attained to the dignity 
of judge in the courts of his native country. A 
remote ancestor was a German who settled in 
Bohemia, fell in love with a Ceeh maiden, and 

for generations a German name has been handed ' 
down to their descendants. i 

Religious persecutions made life nearly in- 
tolerable in the old country when a new dynasty 
came into power, and the Lenger family, of the 
John Huss Lutheran faith, felt the onus of this 
persecution, and so strong became the desire for J 
religious liberty that, foregoing all the prestige 
of wealth and position, our subject turned his 
back on his native land, and, accompanied by his 
family, set out for the new world in 1865. His 
wife, Katherine Dulesh, although of Bohemian 
birth, was of French and English ancestry. Her 
great grandfather, wlio was a wealthy member 
of the English gentry, had frowned upon his 
daughter's love for a young Frenchman who had 
visited England on matters of business, and, 
while seemingly acquiescing, the young couple 
made their plans, he going to Bohemia, where 
he had a comfortable estate, and the girl follow- 
ing soon after, their marriage taking place then. 
After some years, her father visited them, and, 
finding them so happy and comfortably situated, 
opened his heart and purse strings by buying 
them lands, etc., and departed, happy in 
the knowledge that his child was so contented 
and well settled in life. Mr. Dulesh afterward 
became governor of the province in which he 
lived in Bohemia, and lived to be one hundred 
and ten years old, dying on his own estate in 
tliat country. 

Our subject was versed in all the arts and 
sciences, and included in his education was a 
thorough knowledge of forestry and surveying, 
the latter vocation standing him in good stead, 
as it furnished him a means of livelihood in Da- 
kota at a time when money was hard to get, and 
the farm failed to j'ield enough to pay for the 
seed needed the following year. On coming to 
America, his wife stipulated that they make the 
voyage in a steampship and Mr. Lenger accord- 
ingly engaged passage, but before time came to 
sail, the ship was disabled, and they had their 
passage money refunded, and were obliged to em- 
Isark in a sailing vessel. On the voyage, terrific 
storms swept the sea, and all the masts of their 
vessel were carried overboard. Although dis- 
abled severely, they finally made port, after a 
rough trip, lasting sixteen weeks. On landing, 
they learned that the ship on which they had 
intended sailing had been lost at sea, with all on 
board perishing. Their own vessel had been 
given up as lost, and \vas so reported in the mar- 
itine journals. 

Mr. Lenger first settled in Wisconsin, whither 
some friends had preceded him. Here, with the 
dust of monarchy scarcely brushed off his slioes, 
he Avas chosen spokesman of his race, and in the 
campaign of 1868, carried four or five townships 
in Manitowoc county, in -which he made his home 
for a number of years. Some time was spent in 
Chicago, but he had not established himself in 
any business up to 1869, living on the money 



brought from his home country, but finally, real- 
izing the necessity of choosing some occupation, 
came with his family to Yankton county. South 
Dakota, where he filed on a homestead, which he 
later relinquished, and acquired a tract of land 
situated on Beaver creek. Here he was soon 
appointed deputy county surveyor under Cai'l 
P. Meyer, and was later elected to fill the ofiice 
as principal. While on a survey, near the James 
and Dakota rivers, several years later, his son- 
in-law, Donald Higbee, was drowned. The latter 
was an expert swimmer and athlete, having the 
distinction of saving fourteen lives in the memora- 
ble flood of 1881, but in swimming across the 
James river, in company with other members of 
the survey party, he struck a deep, cold eddy 
of the stream, and without a moment of warning, 
sank to the bottom. 

After coming to Nebraska, Mr. Lenger and 
his family endured all the vicissitudes of pioneer 
life, but persevered through all, and won a large 
measure of success, where so many others had 
failed. His earthly career was ended, February 
12, 1907, while Mrs. Lenger 's demise occurred 
January 20, 1904. They left eight children, who 
are named as follows: John, landlord of the 
leading hotel of Winnetoon, who is an expert 
musician, and leader of many bands in this part 
of Nebraska, and now the leader of the Niobrara 
Northwestern Band, and who organized one of 
the first Indian bands in the United States from 
the Santee Sioux; Lucy, Mary, Anna, Frank H.. 
Flora, Rosa and Harriet, all held in the highest 
esteem as prominent members of society in their 
respective communities, the last mentioned hav- 
ing been assistant superintendent of the Cook 
County Hospital at Chicago, and now lives in 

Mr. Lenger was a man of great mental acu- 
men, and his native refinement and love for the 
higher things of life, also his musical ability, 
have been transmitted to his children, all dis- 
playing the talent to a remarkable degree. 


Jacob N. Campbell, one of the leading busi- 
ness men of FuUerton, Nebraska, is at the pres- 
ent time filling the position of manager of the 
Fullerton Milling Company in that thriving little 
city. He has been prominent in business circles 
for many years in different parts of the state 
of Nebraska. 

Mr. Campbell was born in the northwestern 
part of Missouri, near the village of "Watson, on 
March 31, 1865, and was the fourth eliild in the 
family of Archibald nd Nancy Campbell, who 
were the parents of nine. Jacob was reared on 
the home farm, and received his early education 
in the countrj^ schools, later attending the high 
school, and also the Nebraska State Normal 
School at Peru. 

He returned to his father's homestead, taking 

active management of the farm for four years, 
at which time, 1887, he was imited in marriage 
to Carrie L. Horn, of his home vicinity. They 
continued on the home farm for one year, then 
the place was sold, and Mr. Campbell came to 
Nance county, and began farming in the Loup 
valley, near Fullerton. He gathered together 
quite a bunch of stock, and remained on that 
farm for nine years. In March, 1898, he re- 
moved to Omaha, having been appointed secre- 
tary of the Nebraska State Commission of the 
Trans-Mississippi Exposition, and held the po- 
sition for one year. In April, 1899, he received 
the appointment of assistant superintendent of the 
State Industrial school at Kearney, filling that 
position for one year, then became superinten- 
dent of the school, remaining as such for one 
year. He then returned to Fullerton and estab- 
lished himself in the harness business, which he 
carried on for about five years. In August, 1905, 
he was placed in charge of the Farmer's Elevator 
company in Fullerton, and continued as its man- 
ager for two years, and put the organization on 
a sound and successful basis. He became manag- 
er of the Fullerton Milling company in August, 
1907. He has also been active in public life, hold- 
ing different offices within the gift of the county. 
During 1891 and 1892 he was county supervisor, 
and in the fall of the latter year was elected to 
rei^resent the ISth senatorial district, serving for 
one term, then was re-elected and during both 
terms won much approbation for the work he did 
in the interest of his section of the state. During 
the presidential campaign of 1896, Mr. Campbell 
was prominent in the democratic party, being 
chosen to cast an electoral vote for Bryan and 

Mr. and Mrs. Campbell have a family of six 
children, all living and they enjoy one of the 
beautiful homes of their city. The children are 
named as follows: Valore P., Harry L., Archie 
W., Joel W., June Bryan, and Marjorie B., and 
together they form a very interesting and happy 


The venerable gentleman whose name is the 
title of this article is one of the early builders of 
Holt county and now lives retired at Atkinson. 
He is a native of Rutland county, Vermont, born 
November 12, 1832, son of Selah and Lydia 
(Fennel) Moulton, the parents both also natives 
of Rutland county. The father was of Irish des- 
cent, his ancestors having come from northern 
Ireland a generation or two before. He died at 
the age of fifty-eight years and his wife at seven- 
ty-four. In 1834 the family removed to Licking 
county, Ohio, and there Charles was reared and 
received his education. 

About 1848 our subject began learning the 
cacpenter's trade and followed it in Ohio until 
his removal to the vicinity of Hamilton, Marion 



county, Iowa. He rented land about a year, then 
purchased eighty acres of good land, and when 
not working on his farm worked at his trade in 
Hamilton. He lived there until 1876, when he 
moved three miles north to Bussey. through 
which town the railroad had passed and where 
there was a station. At that time there was no 
station at Hamilton. In the fall of 1877 Mr. Moul- 
ton moved to Indianola, Warren county, Iowa, 
and six months later removed to Palmyra, in the 
same county, and thence in 1883 to Atkinson, 
reaching the last-named town in March. His first 
night's experience there was not very pleasant — 
he and a friend were given beds on the floor, as 
the hotel was very crowded, and when they 
awoke in the morning they beheld the entire 
floor covered with lodgers and one man occupy 
ing a barber chair as his couch. 

Upon locating in Nebraska Mr. Moulton filed 
on a homestead eight miles north of Atkinson and 
later purchased a timber claim scath of the town. 
In June, 1910, he filed on an additional two hun- 
dred acres of land twelve miles south of Atkinson, 
which he was able to do under the Kineaid law. 

After living seven years on his first homestead 
he moved to the timber claim, where he had erect- 
ed a comfortable residence. During much of this 
time he followed his trade, while his sons cared 
for the farm work. In 1906 he was able to retire 
with a competence and has boi^ght property in 
the town. The first place he purchased in Atkin- 
son he sold in March, 1910, and purchased his 
present home in the southern part of the town, 
where he and his good wife enjoy the fruits of 
their former toil and tal<e pleasure in meeting 
their friends, 

Mr. Moulton 's marriage occurred in Newark, 
Ohio, September 23, 1853, when he was united with 
Charlotte Cordelia Phillips, a native of Livingston 
county. New York, born May 23, 1831. daughter 
of David and Charlotte (Gilbert) Phillips, na- 
tives respectively of Massachusetts and New York 
states. The father was born in Bristol county, 
Massachusetts, and lived to lie seventy-five years 
of age. The mother, M'ho was born' at Bristol, 
New York, attained the age of ninety-six vears. 
The family moved to Ohio in 1855, Mrs. Moulton 
having preceded the others in 1851. 

Mr. Moulton and wife became the parents of 
four children, of whom l)ut two survive, namelv : 
Orrie, living on a farm four miles south of At- 
kinson, and Roy, who lives with his parents when 
not working at his trade. Both learned eai'pen- 
try from their father, and in him tlioy had a 
teacher w<<io held them up to a higli staiidaid of 
work and efficiency. When the fallicr liad Jeai-n- 
ed the trade it was necessary for a workman to 
understand many branches of it which are not 
generally needed in this day and generation, as, 
for instance, it was necessary for liim to make 
from rough timber, sash, doors, blinds, mouldings, 
and other fittings and accessories now manufac- 
tured in factories and mills and for sale in lum- 

ber yards. These parts, which were formerly 
made by hand, Avere well and substantially form- 
ed and fitted in place, with the expectation that 
they were built for long use. Many doors which 
Mr. Moulton made in the early eighties are now 
in use in Atkinson and as good as the day they 
were hung. 

Mr. Moulton is a republican in politics and 
cast his first presidential vote for John C. Fre- 
mont, having voted for the head of the republican 
ticket in each presidential election held since that 
time, and with the exception of a single one, has 
not since missed a state election, that occasion be- 
ing when he was away from home and working in 
Cheyenne, being engaged in bridge and building 
construction work at the time the railroad was 
pushing through to the west, in 1868. 

Mr. Moulton had crossed the plains to Denver 
in May, 1868. returning by way of Cheyenne in 
December, and at that time the Indians were still 
hostile, so that he had many interesting and ex- 
citing experiences. At the time of the blizzard of 
January 15, 1888, Mr, Moulton was sick with rheu- 
matism, leaving the feeding of the stock to be at- 
tended to by his wife, and though this was a most 
difficult task she accomplished it. The snow had 
drifted so deeply around the well that she had to 
dig out around the windlass before the bucket 
could be lowered and raised, and it had drifted 
so deep around the barn that it was necessary to' 
cut steps down to the door and clear a space away 
so that the door could be opened. 

When his claim was first occupied by him, 
Mr. Moulton often saw deer and antelope, and at 
the time he crossed the plains in 1868 butfalo were 
still plentiful. He proceeded as far west as the 
"one-thousand mile tree," and saw the first of 
the seven engines that pulled into Cheyenne when 
the road was completed. He shared the common 
lot of the pioneer settler of Nebraska in fighting 
the prairie fires, being engaged in this strenuous 
work at one time from a Saturday morning until 
Monday noon, when he was safe from its menace, 
after sixty hours of danger. The hail storm of 
1910 did not damage his crops, although his son 
lost seventy acres of corn through it. 

Although Mr, Moulton has never occupied a 
log or sod house in Nebraska, the house in which 
he was reared was most primitive, being built of 
logs and so open that it was possible for squirrels 
to get in and steal his horde of hickory nuts. At 
that time in his Ohio home the deer were so tame 
they often came up with the cows at night, and 
the black timber wolves were very often found 
prowling about a farmyard and preyed on the 
settlers' young pigs. He has been a pioneer in 
three states. He is highly respected as a useful, 
upright citizen and has always shown great in- 
terest in every movement tending to advance the 
general welfare and prosperity of the communi- 
ty. Mrs. Moulton 's paternal grandfather was 
David Phillips, a sea-captain, who was buried at 




David Primrose needs no introduction to the 
people of Nebraska. He is one of the leading 
men of affairs in the town of Primrose, which 
town was named after himself, he being one of its 
chief founders, and known throughout Boone and 
the surrounding counties as a man of broad mind, 
culture and ability. He is also one of the largest 
landowners in that section of Nebraska, and by 
virtue of his sterling character and honest efforts 
to better conditions in his locality has gained 
high esteem in the hearts of his fellowmeu. 

Mr. Primrose was born in Ireland on June 16, 
1844. He was the third child in the family of 
William and Margaret Primrose, who had six chil- 
dreii and grew up in his native land. When he 
was twenty years of age he came to America, 
landing in New York City, where he spent a little 
time, and later lived in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Primrose came to Boone county, Nebraska, 
in March, 1874, and immediately filed on a home- 
stead in section ten, township nineteen, range 
eight. He also took a timber claim in the same 
section, and developed both in good shape. He 
later settled on section sixteen, which is now his 
home farm, consisting of half a section, and four 
hundred and eighty aerfes on section ten, all being 
very choice land admirably located in the Cedar 
river valley. 

Mr. Primrose is the owner of over three thou- 
sand acres of land in Nebraska, situated in Boone, 
Perkins, Greely and Wheeler counties. 

The town of Primrose was laid out in 1902, and 
occupies part of section sixteen, belonging to our 
subject, and the town was named in his honor. 
This is now a growing little town, and is beauti- 
fully situated on the Columbus branch of the Un- 
ion Pacific railroad. 

Mr. Primrose was united in marriage to Belle 
Jane Patterson, in Dublin Precinct, in July, 1876. 
Mrs. Primrose was born in Ireland and came to 
America with her parents when a small child. She 
was a woman of fine character, had many friends, 
and was deeply mourned at her death, which oc- 
curred on the home farm. July 6, 1899- ^Tr. and 
Jlrs. Primrose were the parents of eleven chil- 
dren, all born in Boone county, and named as fol- 
lows: Belle G., Martha, John, William, Mary, Da- 
vid, Lucy, George and Sarah. Samuel and Sar- 
ah (No. 1) are deceased. The family are among 
the prominent pioneers of Boone county, and Mr. 
Pi-imrose has always taken an active part in the 
affairs of his county and state, in 1908 being ap- 
pointed to fill the unexpired term of county com- 
missioner. He was urged to accept the nomina- 
tion the following term, but refused on account of 
his extensive business interests. He is vice presi- 
dent of the Primrose State bank. 

Mr. Claus Loge, who has for the last (luar- 

ter of a century resided in Wayne county, Ne- 
braska, and during this time has acquired a fine 
property as a result of his industry and good 
management, is widely known in this locality and 
is held in the highest esteem as a farmer and a 
citizen. He has a comfortable home, pleasantly 
located on section eleven, township twenty-five, 
range three, and is regarded as one of the promi- 
nent men of the community. 

Mr. Loge is a German by birth, as he first saw 
the light of day in the province of Holstein, July 
25, 1832. He received his education in his native 
laud, and remained there dm-ing the years of his 
young manhood, helping his parents on their 
farm. He was also called upon for military ser- 
vice during the war between Germany and Den- 
mark in 1857 and 1858, and served for sixteen 

In 1878, he decided to come to America, as it 
offered much greater opportunities for his chil- 
dren than could be found in the old country. He 
accordingly embarked on the steamer "Freesia, " 
with his family, and made the trip from Hamburg 
to New York. He came first to Potawattomie 
and Shelby counties, state of Iowa, where he 
remained for about six years. In 1885, the 
family removed to Wayne county, Nebraska, 
where Mr. Loge bought a quarter section 
of fine land, upon which he made considerable 
improvements. This farm was the home 
of the family for some time, but it has since 
been given to the son, John, who now re- 
sides there. Mr. Loge himself then bought the 
farm where he lives, of one hundred nd sixty 
acres, which his son Henry now owns. 

In 1863, Mr. Loge was united in marriage to 
Miss Mary Rath, and they are the parents of four 
children: John, Henry, Lena and Bertha, the 
two latter being deceased. Bertha dying in Ger- 

Mrs. Loge died in 1902. 


Among the early settlers in Antelope county. 
Nebraska, who has been instrumental in the de- 
velopment and growth of the agricultural and 
commercial resources of this section of the coun- 
try, Charles E. Hemenway takes a leading place. 
Mr. Hemenway resides on a fine farm in section 
twenty-three, township twenty-six, range eight, 
Antelope county, where he enjoys the fruits of 
his labor of years gone by, surrounded by comfort 
and plenty. " Mr. Hemenway is a veteran of the 
civil war, "a worthy citizen, and a good neighbor, 
and richly deserves all the success which has 
come to h'im. We call attention to a view of his 
residence which is presented on another page. 

Mr. Hemenway was born in Dupage ^0""!^' 
four miles east of Wayne. Illinois. :\Iay W. 1»47. 
His father, Charles, was born May 12. 181a, in 
North Hampton, Massachusetts, and las mother 
Lucv W. (Fay) Hemenway, was born July 20, 



1820, in Worcester, Massachusetts. Our subject's 
grandfather was in the war of the revolution, and 
served at the battle of Saratoga. Mr. Hemen- 
way's ancestors came from Boston, England, 
three brothers of the family coming to America 
from England in the early part of the eighteenth 
century. After landing they separated, one go- 
ing to Massachusetts, one to Connecticut and one 
to New York. Our subject lived in his native 
state until he enlisted in the army during the civil 
war, in roinpany C, One Hundred Fifty-Third Illi- 
nois Volunteers under Generals Thomas, A. J. 
Smitli, and Milroy. Mr. Hemenway enlisted on 
Christmas day, 1864, and during his enlistment 
served on detatched service, hunting guerrillas 
throughout Tennessee and in July and August, 
1865, as provost guard at Memphis. He received 
an honorable discharge September 24, 1865. 

In 1867 Mr. Hemenway came to Omaha, then 
returned to Illinois, and finally, in 1870, came to 
Nebraska, and here took up a homestead in An- 
telope county, in section twenty-three, township 
twenty-sis, range eight. He built a dug-out and 
"batched it" for three years. Norfolk, the post- 
office was forty-eight miles away. Columbus, 
Wisner and Yankton, the nearest market places 
were seventy-five miles away. Like many of those 
pioneer settlei-s of this western country, Mr. Hem- 
enway experienced many great hardships. Dur- 
ing the years of 1874, 1875 and 1876, tlie grass- 
hoppers destroyed all his crops, and many times 
they fought the prairie fires to save their home. 

During the blizzard of October 15, 1880, Mr. 
Hemenway acted as guide to a hunting party of 
twelve, from the coast; among them being: Col. 
Marble, and C. C. Holton, then collector of cus- 
tom at Boston, Massachusetts. The party was 
caught in a storm seventy-five miles west of Mr. 
Hemenway 's place, and several were in favor of 
starting to back tract, but Mr. Hemenway threat- 
ened to shoot any man who would touch the 
horses. The next morning they started to find the 
nearest sod-house which was about forty-five 
miles away. By the aid of Mr. Hemenway 's" com- 
pass they were able to get within a half a mile of 
the sod house. On reaching this point Mr Hem- 
enway found land marks which directed him to 
the house where they remained until the next day 
when the storm abated. 

March 4, 1873, Mr. Hemenway married Miss 
Elizabeth Graham, who was born sixteen miles 
south of Lincoln, England, May 25, 1846. 

Mrs. Hemenway, Avith her parents, came to 
America in 1856 ; coming from Liverpool to Que- 
bec, Canada, on a sail boat. They were on the 
ocean five weeks. Prom Quebec they moved to 
Wisconsin, and in 1871 moved to Doiiglas county. 
Nebraska, where Mrs. Hemenway taught school 
until she married Mr. Hemenway. After the 
grasshopper raids in Antelope county, Mrs. Hem- 
enway went back to Douglas county to teach 
again and help earn money to put in new crops. 
She being the mother of a child at that time, Mrs. 

Hemenway 's parents cared for the infant while 
she taught school. Mrs. Hemenway taught the 
first school in district number seven. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hemenway have had the follow- 
ing children born to them : Jessie, wife of Elmer 
Cary, the parents of eight children; Merrit C, 
who" is married to Josie Patros, and has four chil- 
dren ; Archie, who is married to Anna Patros ; Ag- 
nes, Stanley, who lives in Wyoming, is married to 
Opal Okee, and has one child ; Loretta, wife of 
James Brown, has three children; Oliver, married 
to Cora Mintun, and Oscar. Another child, 
Dewight, was killed on Thanksgiving day in 1900, 
by a fall from a horse. 

Mr. Hemenway was a broom-maker by trade, 
having learned from his father in 1867-8, while 
in Illinois. From broom corn raised on his own 
farm Mr. Hemenway made the first two thousand 
brooms which were sold in Omaha, then a town of 
about four thousand population. 

At the time the Indians stole a number of 
horses from the neighborhood in 1870, the settlers 
thought it would be impossible to cross Cache 
creek owing to the quicksand, but they trailed 
the Indians to the spot where they had crossed. 
When the pursuers' horses became jaded, two of 
the freshest horses were sent on to Wm. Inman's 
place where it was known they must pass owing 
to a widely burnt tract to the north. Sure enough 
they came that way, but Mr. Inman being absent, 
they were afraid to attack the Indians, so set the 
dogs on tliem. It was months before the horses 
were finally recovered. When the Indians passed 
Fort Randle, the soldiers knew that the horses 
belonged to white men and knew that tliey had 
not been bought, so they took possession and ad- 
vertised in the Omaha papers. The owners recov- 
ered most of them at the Whetstone agency, but 
they were so thin it was hardly worth bringing 
them home. The Indians had ridden them nearly 
to death. 

Mr. Hemenway is a popular citizen and served 
his county as commissioner in 1882; he served 
as assessor six years, and also as supervisor three 
years, and was re-elected assessor in 1909 for a 
term of two years. 


James W. Gould, one of the many English- 
born residents of Pierce county, Nebraska, who 
have added much to the stability and progress 
of the region, was born in Sheffield, England, 
where his father was employed in the iron mills, 
January 2, 1868. 

He was little more than an infant when the 
family emigrated to the United States, remem- 
bering but two or three incidents in his native 
city, one being tlie solid blocks of buildings which 
he was suiprised to learn was not the rule in 
western towns. Sailing from Liverpool in Aug- 
ust, 1871,' on the "Nevada," after a voyage of 
eight days the family landed in New York and 




came direct to Chicago, where the father stopped 
to work in the rolling mills, while his wife and 
son proceeded to Belvidere where they had kin. 
The father was in Chicago during the memorable 
fire and remained to work for a time cleai'ing 
away the ruins. 

In the spring of 1872 they came to Nebraska, 
reaching Plainview April 22, located on a home- 
stead now a part of the town, and here the father 
sjjent the remainder of his life. 

Our subject's parents are both deceased. The 
fatlier, James Gould, was born August 13, 1827, 
in Staffordshire, near Litchfield, England. He 
died at Plainview, Nebraska, February 28, 1904, 
at the age of seventy-six years. He was married 
to Ellen Rickett at Rotherham Old Church, York- 
shire, May 28, 1855. Two children, a son and a 
daughter, were born to them. Their daughter 
died in England, and the son is the subject of 
this sketch, at whose residence the father died. 
The story of the elder Gould's life would be a re- 
cital of the pioneer days that every old settler re- 
members. Grasshoppers came and ate his crops. 
Droughts and floods also performed their part in 
the desperate struggle for existence. But through 
it all he remained. Despondency and often de- 
spair settled down like a dark pall over the scat- 
tered settlements in Nebraska. Many became dis- 
couraged and moved away, but this sturdy old 
Ijioneer clung to his home and weathered all the 
storms of adversity. His faith in this country 
was justified. He lived to see eastern Nebraska 
become one of the richest and most productive 
portions of this great commonwealth. His wife, 
our subject's mother, who was born in Grantham. 
Lincolnshire, died about 1905, and now they lie 
side by side in the Plainview cemetery, a few 
blocks from where they settled thirty-two years 

James W. Gould, our subject, grew to manhood 
in Plainview, living the wild life of the frontier, 
becoming fond of hunting and fishing and at 
times played at cowboy, herding cattle on the 
open range. 

Mr. Gould's fondness for play when a boy 
came near costing him his life. He had an Indian 
pony and frequently carried a broomstick for a 
gun ; his mother had sent him to a family some 
seven miles away to exchange squashes for some 
citrons to make preserves, and on the way back 
a settler from Hungaria, supposing from his 
dark complexion and aquiline features that some 
Indian boy was out alone, coveted his pony and 
gun, and took lawless means to get them. He fol- 
lowed after the boy with a large horse pistol, and, 
kneeling, took aim and fired. Mr. Gould was 
watching him, taking no alarm until tlie shot was 
fired. Putting spurs to his horse, as soon as he 
rounded a sand hill, he doubled back and saw the 
would-be murderer following his trail on horse- 
back. Sometime after reaching home, the Hun- 
garian, returning from a long, fruitless chase, 
stopped at the elder Gould's and told a wild tale 

of having been attacked by Indians and having 
chased them beyond Creighton. 

Another incident tliat nearly cost him his life 
was an unexpected attack by a bull dog in which 
his face was so lacerated that hope of recovery 
was abandoned; his teeth were rained and his 
growth was stunted for at least ten years. 

He enjoyed the advantage of the village 
school and adopted farming as his profession in 
life and has made a comfortable success. He be- 
gan doing carpenter work in 1890, and although 
never regularly apprenticed, can turn out as fine 
work as any regular tradesman in the region. 

Mr. Gould was married in Madison, Nebraska, 
at tlie house of Stephen Stork, an old friend from 
England, November 11, 1895. The bride. Miss 
Wiego L. Hanson, was born in the village of Clip- 
pinge, near Copenhagen, Denmark, January 31, 
1866, a daughter of Peter and Ann Elizabeth 
(Robertson) Hanson, who embarked at Copenha- 
gen for the western hemisphere on the "America" 
and after three weeks landed in New York, May, 
1870. To Mr. and Mrs. Gould seven children were 
born, five of whom are living: George Burnham; 
Harold R., Helen E., James, Jr., and Eugene Her- 
bert, all attending Plainview schools. 

JMr. Gould is a republican, and is a member of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and Mod- 
ei-n Woodmen of America lodges. 

Mr. Gould was the first white child to find 
habitation in Plainview, and has witnessed the 
wonderful development of the prairie, and has 
had a hand in that development. Their worst 
experience with prairie fires was in the fall of 
1879 when it burned barns, sheds, wheat stacks 
and everything but the dwelling, which was with 
great difficulty saved. Our subject has seen the 
Sioux Indians in their war paint ; a party escaped 
from the reservation, and on their way to the 
Ponca country were overtaken and rounded up on 
Willow creek and brought to Plainview, that 
George Burnham, who spoke French, might give 
the orders to them through an Indian who under- 
stood the same language and thereby get them 
back to Dakota. The most ludicrous Indian scare 
some years later filled the town with refugees 
some of whom took no time to dress, but came 
wrapped in the blankets under which they had 
been sleeping. After waiting long with no Indians 
heaving in sight, some braver than the rest rode 
north to investigate, and learned that the shoot- 
ing was done by a party of whites returning 
somewhat hilariously from a charivari. Mr. Gould 
often passed over an old Indian battle-ground 
near a ranch he owns not far from Verdel, Knox 
county, where for years skulls and other bones 
thickly strewed the ground. 

Mr. Goul<l is fond of huntiiit;- Mini fishing, and 
with N. M. Nelson and others frequently spends a 
few weeks in camp in the lake region of Cherry 

During the span of his life the ojx'n country 
has become a thickly populated region, and where 



only the prairie grasses waved, each year grain 
fields are undulating in the summer winds, and 
the cornfields fill the bins with a golden harvest. 
This is surely the land of opportunity. 

We are pleased to call attention to a view of 
the Gould's large residence on another page to- 
gether with illustrations of the primitive dwell- 
ing of 1870 and another of later additions to the 
first small house. 


Julius Zellmer, a prominent and Avell-knowu 
stockman and farmer of section twenty-two, town- 
ship twenty-four, range one, of Stanton county, 
is a native of West Prussia, Germany, born in 
1860, a son of John and Wilhemina Zellmer, who 
spent their lives in that country. 

Mr. Zellmer reached maturity in Germany, 
and there received a common school education, 
leaving home in 1880 for America. He sailed 
from Hamburg and landed in New York City, 
whence he came to Nebraska. He had decided 
there were better opportunities in the west for a 
young man to make his fortune, and having little 
money to make a start, he secured a claim from 
the government. He is a most industrious and 
persevering farmer, and has developed a good 
farm. He has made all possible improvements 
on his place, and now makes a specialty of stock 
raising, being successful in all lines of his work. 
He is well laiown throughout the county as a 
progressive and public-spirited citizen, who is 
much interested in the welfare nd upbuilding of 
his community, and has the respect of all. He at 
first erected a small frame house, which was his 
home for several years, and he has since erected 
a more commodious and comfortable residence 
and various buildings for housing his stock and 
grain. He has a fine five-acre grove of fruit and 
shade trees, which add much to the value and 
beauty of his estate. 

Mr. Zellmer was married in 1888 to Miss So- 
phia Stangal, and they are parents of six chil- 
dren, namely: Emma, Anna, Adelia, Otto, Al- 
dora and JMina. 

Mrs. Zellmer was born in West Prussia and 
is a daughter of Carl and Marie Stangal. Both 
' her husband have many friends in Stan- 


ton county, and are interested in securing good 
educational advantages for their community. 
They were forced to undergo many privations in 
their early life on the farm, and have had the 
pleasure of watching the wonderful develop- 
ment of the region they have lived in so many 


Among the prosperous citizens of Antelope 
county, Nebraska, who have spent many years in 
this locality is the subject of this review, Jacob 

Wiegand, owner of a valuable estate in Crawford 

Mr. Wiegand was born in Villa of Berteroda, 
Saxony, Germany, March 28, 1849. When he was 
five years old, with his parents he came to Ameri- 
ca. His father was William Wiegand, born July 
21, 1809; married in 1844; died September, 1882. 
His mother, Katherina Wiegand, was born June 
17, 1817, and died .July 18, 1900. Our subject's 
father was a farmer in Germany, and in 1854 
with his family left their native land and came 
to America to find cheap land and make 
a home. They left Bremen on a sailboat, 
the Nebraska, and experienced a severe 
storm at sea, the mast of the boat was broken 
and they thought they would all be lost. They 
landed in New York where tbey stayed a few 
days, then started out to see a brother of the fath- 
er who lived in Rock Island, Illinois, and got as 
far as Chicago and were delayed there six weeks 
until the railroad was built as far as Rock Island ; 
remained there for fifteen years, then started for 
the far west, as they thought in those days. They 
drove from Rock Island to Dodge county, Ne- 
braska, and took up a homestead in 1869 and liv- 
ed there eighteen years. Fremont, Nebraska, 
was the market place, which was twenty-six miles 
from the claim. He built a small frame house at 
first, but added to it as he prospered. The grass- 
hoppers took all the crops the first six years, and 
they sufl'ered greatly during the blizzards of 1873 
and 1888 ; they also sufi'ered from hailstorms and 
hot winds. Our subject's father and family, like 
a great many other early settlers experienced 
many hardships, but through all of this they pros- 
pered and came to the front. In early days they 
had to burn hay, sunflowers, and cornstalks, and 
it took one to feed the fire all the time, the rest 
to bring in the fuel. Antelope, deer and wild turk- 
eys were very plentiful in those early days. 

On April 28, 1874, our subject was married in 
Pebble precinct. Dodge county, to Miss Henriet- 
ta Wilhelmina Schmudo, who was born Septem- 
ber 2, 1855, in West Prussia, Germany. She came 
to America when she was a little girl five years 
old with her parents Gottlieb and Anna (Walter) 
Schmudo, from West Prussia, fifty miles from 
Berlin. They came to America in a sailboat. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wiegand are the parents of three 
children who are named as follows: Julietta, M. 
E., born 1875, married in 1894 to J. H. Mumm and 
they have five children : Hilda Rosina, born 1883, 
married in 1909 to E. J. Harris; Walter Rav 
mond, born 1891 ; William Julius, born 1877, died 
1878; Arthur Frederick, born 1879, died 1899; 
Clara Doretha, born 1881, and died 1899 ; she was 
married to L. R. Riley, and lived only six weeks 
after marriage. 

In 1887 our subject wih his family moved to 
Antelope countj , where he bought land from Mr. 
Roberts and improve<l tlie farm until now he has 
one of the most beautiful places in Crawford 
precinct. He has two luindred acres of land, six 



acres of which are covered with beautiful trees. 
Mr. Wiegand belongs to the German Lutheran 
church, and is a republican in politics. 

Mrs. Wiegand 's father died in April, 1857, in 
Germany and her mother, who was born in 1822, 
died in iS82 in Nebraska. 


William B. Chilvers, a highly respected, retir- 
ed business man of Pierce, Nebraska, is an ex-sol- 
dier of the civil war. He has spent a useful ca- 
reer, accumulating a valuable estate through 
many years of hard labor, and is classed among 
the successful citizens of his county, using his ut- 
most endeavors to assist in developing the com- 
mercial and educational interests of that part of 

Mr. Chilvers is a native of the village of Ter- 
rington, county of Norfolk, England, and was 
born October 19, 1835. He was left an orphan at 
the age of six years, and was reared by his grand- 
father. With an uncle, George Burnham, he emi- 
grated to the United States, landing in New York 
on October 1, 1851. They lived in Chicago for 
four years, during which time our subject served 
a three years' apprenticeship to a carpenter; in 
those days everything had to be hand-made, 
which required considerable skill ; he was kept 
nine moutlis making mouldings, finding the de- 
signs and quantites daily on a trestle board. 

In 1855 the family moved to Boone county, 
Illinois, near Belvidere, where Mr. Chilvers work- 
ed at his trade, and for four years, with an uncle, 
was interested in the lime and stone business. In 
the spring of 1861, he rented land and started a 
crop, but after the outbreak of hostilities, he 
disposed of his growing crops and enlisted in 
Company B. Xinetj'-fifth Illinois Infantrj^ and 
served until the close of the war; with his regi- 
ment he took part in seventy-five engagements. 
He was color bearer at the siege of Spanish Fort, 
carrying the colors into the fort at the time of 
a successful assault at one o'clock in the morning 
In this engagement, the colors were pierced by 
bullets in nine places, and at the Siege of Vicks- 
burg, a ball passed through Mr. Chilvers' cap, 
grazing his scalp, and during his career as a sol- 
dier, this was the only wound he i-eceived. He 
was among the troops on the disastrous Red River 
expedition, but escaped capture and imprison- 

After the close of the war, he returned to Bel- 
videre, following his trade up to 1871, at which 
time he came to Pierce county, Nebraska. Since 
coming here he has done as much as any other 
one man in building up the locality. He secured 
the contract to erect the first building in Pierce, 
which was the hotelof George D. Hetzel; the 
lumber was hauled in wagons from Sioux City. 
This was followed by the school house in 1872. He 
had the honor of building the first store in the 
town, that of Herman Mewis, erected in the fall 

of 1874, the lumber for this building being hauled 
from Wisner, then the terminus of the nearest 
railroad. « 

Mr. Chilvers homesteaded on a tract at Plain- 
view, also filed on a timber claim, on which 
ground a part of Plainview now stands. He put 
up a frame house, which was the first one of its 
kind in that part of the state. He worked on his 
farm during the good seasons, and when failures 
and hard times came on, followed his trade at 
Bazile Mills, Creightou, and other points. He was 
appointed postmaster at Plainview, first known 
as Roseville, and held the office for six years, Mrs. 
Chilvers attending to official duties while Mr.Chil- 
vers was away working at his trade. He served 
eight years as county clerk and recorder. In 1880 
he begun the business of abstracting, and has 
been engaged in the work ever since. In 1900 he 
was elected clerk of the district court, and is still 
serving, this being his third term. 

Mr. Chilvers was married at Sharon, Wiscon- 
sin, on October 6, 1872, to Irene Ellen Pilcher, a 
native of Lancaster, Ohio ; their daughter, Eliza 
May, was the first white child born in Plainview 
settlement. She died August 13, 1900, aged twen- 
ty-six years, after graduating in the Plainview 
normal college. There are seven children still liv- 
ing: John P., Alfred W., George W., Prances, 
Nellie, Charles H., and Oma. 

Our subject has been a staunch republican al- 
ways, casting his first vote for Preemont. He is a 
charter member of the Grand Army at Pierce, and 
is a prominent member of the Masonic lodge, be- 
ing one of the charter members and organizers of 
the Norfolk lodge, and later of the lodge at 
Pierce, of which he has been secretary since its 



Larke Sorensen, deceased, one of the prosper- 
ous farmers of Howard county, Nebraska, was 
born in LoUand, Denmark, in 1845. He grew up 
there, and in 1869 married Johannah Jorgensen, 
soon afterwards coming to America, crossing in 
the steerage. 

After landing in New York, he went to Cook 
county, Illinois, where the young man worked in 
the quarries, remaining there up to 1871, then 
with his family, consisting of himself, wife, child 
and his father, came to Nebraska, settling in 
Grand Island. Shortly after arriving in Nebras- 
ka, father, son and several other men from Grand 
Island left the town and traveled through the 
country in a northwesterly direction, traversing 
wide prairies and rough regions until they reach- 
ed the Loup river. There they built a float of 
large trees, crossed the river, and on coining to 
the tract of land that lay between Oak and Turk- 
ey creeks, decided that would be a good place in 
which to establish the Danish colony, which was 
the object of their search, the region at that time 



being inhabited only by Indians and wild ani- 
mals. Mr. Sorensen and other members of this 
company of men were self-reliant, independent, 
and unafraid of the trials and discouragements 
to be met with in settling a new country, and 
were ambitious of building up a permanent home 
for themselves in the great west, and prepared to 
endure any amount of hardship and privation in 
so doing. 

Mr. Sorensen took up a homestead of Oak 
creek bottom land, and after spending a few 
weeks there returned to Grand Island, leaving his 
father on the claim, he being the only white man 
for miles around. Our subject brought his fami- 
ily to their new home, and they began a struggle 
to improve the land, going through every form 
of frontier existence, often suffering from the se- 
vere winters, etc., but ever striving and hoping 
for better times, until at last their labor was re- 
warded, being able to raise good crops and hav- 
ing a well equipped farm. They lived on the 
homestead during the lifetime of the father and 
husband, which occurred on February 5, 1887, 
and his loss was greatly deplored by the entire 
community. He left behind him a wife and six 
children, the latter named as follows: Mary, 
now widow of Peter Peterson, who -^vith her four 
children, lives in Dannebrog precinct; Anna, 
now Mrs. Krogh, motlier of one child, living at Ny- 
sted;"Wil]iam, father of five children, living in the 
village of Dannebrog, where he is engaged in the 
creamery business ; Emil, wlio has two children, 
the family living west of Nysted; Sophus, mar- 
ried, and has one son, living on the original home- 
stead at Nysted; and Fred S., who resides on a 
farm near Alba, father of two children. 

Mr. Sorensen was prominently known through- 
out this part of Nebraska as the founder, in part- 
nership with Fred Olsen and Jacob Winn, of the 
early settlement of Nysted. He was always an 
active worker in aiding the development of his 
community, and in all public affairs, besides be- 
ing an earnest worker in the Lutheran church. 
Mrs. Sorensen is still living on their homestead. 


Among the early settlers in Nebraska, we find 
the names of many adopted sons who were born 
under other skies but whose industry and thrift 
have enabled them to rise to positions of trust and 
affiuence. One of the best-lmown and most re- 
spected farmers of this community is Otto Schon- 
ing, who assisted in the organization of Valley 
county and was the first homestead settler in this 
portion of the North Loup valley, being at that 
time the furthest settler up the valley. He now 
has a fine grain and stock farm of one hundred 
and eighty-six acres. 

Otto Sehoning, the subject of this sketch, was 
the fifth of nine children born to Carl and Char- 
lotte (Koenigsberg) Sehoning, and was born in 
the city of Platha province of Poramerania, Prus- 

sia, September 23, 1841. Two of the family are 
living in Germany, and a third died since 
Mr. Sehoning visited his native land in 1900. He 
grew to manhood there, and served the usual 
military term of tliree years in the Prussian army, 
participating in the hostilities on the Russian 
line in 1863, with Denmark in 1864, and the Aus- 
trian M^ar of 1866, in the battle of Koenigsberg. 
Like many another young fellow, he concluded 
in 1868, to come to America, sailing from Bremen 
to Baltimore, the voyage lasting sixteen days. For 
the first few years he remained in Wisconsin, 
working on a farm near Milwaukee. 

In the spring of 1872, he purchased a team and 
wagon and began to make arrangements to go to 
Nebraska; in the fall he came overland to Val- 
ley county, taking a homestead on section twelve, 
township eighteen, range thirteen, and he has 
lived there continuously up to this date. 

In May, 1878, he was married to Miss Amelia 
Braun, the daughter of Christian Braun, a Ger- 
man who had come directly from the old country 
to Valley county, taking up the homestead adjoin- 
ing that of Mr. Sehoning on the north. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sehoning have nine children liv- 
ing, named as follows: Martha, Mrs. Fred Sim- 
on of Grand Island; Otto and Julius, both farm- 
ing in Tripp county, South Dakota ; Hattie, em- 
ployed in Omaha; Emma, Mrs. Hugh Watson, 
living near Hall, Cairo county, Nebraska; Herm- 
an, Paul, Emil and Frieda. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sehoning and family have many 
friends and a wide circle of acquaintances. Mr. 
Sehoning for many years has been a member of 
the school board of district number fifty, and at 
one time was school treasurer. 

In 1875, Fred Bartz, a brother-in-law of Mr. 
Sehoning, together with the parents of the lat- 
ter, came to this country, and the year previous 
another brother-in-law, John Kriewald, came to 
America. Mr. Bartz took up homestead land in 
Valley county and Mr. Kriewald bought railroad 
land adjoining in the same neighborhood as Mr. 
Sehoning. The father and mother made their 
home with Mr. Kriewald and family, the former 
living until 1885 and the latter until the spring of 

All of the people mentioned in this sketch 
were pioneers of Valley county and in common 
with other early settlers, suffered many hardships 
during the first years of their settlement. How- 
ever, by reason of their early struggles the coun- 
try has steadily developed, and many of those old 
settlers are still living today, enjoying the fruits 
of their early toil. 

Mr. Sehoning first resided in a small log dug- 
out for seven years, when he built a small log 
house above ground, and in 1894 the present 
dwelling in spite of the drought of that year when 
he raised no corn. There were deer in those days 
—sometimes the fleet-footed animals ran through 
the door-yard. Mr. Sehoning shot twenty-three 
during the early years of his pioneering "in Ne- 



braska. Twice hail destroyed his crops and twice 
the grasshopper left his fields bare; in 1874 
they took everything. 


Henrj^ Watcher, who resides in section five, 
township twenty-four, range one, in Madison 
county, Nebraska, is one of the leading citizens 
and old timers of this section of the country. 
He has always done his full share to aiding in 
the betterment of conditions throughout the com- 
munity in which he lives. 

Mr. Wachter is a native of Wisconsin state, 
where he was born in July, 1860, and is a son 
of August and Gusta Wachter, both natives of