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Full text of "The complete confectioner, pastry-cook, and baker. Plain and practical directions for making confectionary and pastry, and for baking; with upwards of five hundred receipts: consisting of directions for making all sorts of preserves, sugar-boiling, comfits, lozenges, ornamental cakes, ices, liqueurs, waters, gum-paste ornaments, syrups, jellies, marmalades, compotes, bread-baking, artificial yeasts, fancy biscuits, cakes, rolls, muffins, tarts, pies, &c., &c. With additions and alterations"

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Practical Confectioner, Chestnut Street. 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1844, by 


in the clerk's office of the district court of the United States in and for 
the eastern district of Pennsylvania. 

J. Fagan, Stereotyper. 

J. & W. Kite, Painters. 


msn * 




ALMOST every foreigner who visits this country re- 

marks with astonishment the almost universal neglect 
of that art upon which, more than any thing else, de- 
pends the health and comfort of a people ; and by many 
scientific men have most of the prevalent diseases of 
this country, especially the dyspepsia, been ascribed to 
the hurried, crude and unwholesome manner in which 
our food is prepared ; of latter years, more attention has 
been paid to cooking ; but the handmaiden of that pa- 
rent art, confectionary, is still neglected and unknown, 
yet it is of little less importance than the graver branch 
referred to. Confectionary is the poetry of epicurism ; 
it throws over the heavy enjoyments of the table the 
relief of a milder indulgence, and dispenses the delights 
of a lighter and more harmless gratification of the ap- 
petite. The dessert, properly prepared, contributes 
equally to health and comfort ; but " got up" as con- 
fectionary too often is, it is not only distasteful to a 
correct palate, but is deleterious and often actually poi- 

In introducing to the American public the modes by 
which the table of hospitality may be enriched and 



adorned, we have consulted every authority, French or 
English, within our reach ; but the basis of our little 
work is to be found in Read's Confectioner, a late Lon- 
don publication. 

Having for many years been connected with the old- 
est, most extensive and successful confectionary estab- 
lishment in the country, we have been enabled to make 
from our own experience many important modifications 
and to introduce many additional receipts, particularly 
in relation to the various articles of luxury which the 
bounty of our soil and climate render almost exclusively 

The volume has thus been increased in size, and we 
trust improved in value. 

Trusting that our efforts to advance the popular 
knowledge of the art which has for many years engaged 
our attention, may meet with approbation, we present 
the result of our labours to a candid and indulgent 

Chestnut Street, 

Die. 1843. 


MUCH as there has been written in Cookery Books on the art of 
Confectionary, there are few, very few works on the subject now 
extant which are practically written, and these are difficult to be 
obtained, even at high prices; and, having been published some years 
since, they do not contain any of the modern improvements, or arti- 
cles which have been introduced within these few years. The object 
of the present Treatise is to supply this deficiency, and to convey in- 
struction in as plain and concise a manner as possible to the inexperi- 
enced, or young apprentices, that they may be enabled to learn their bu- 
siness more efficiently than many masters can or will instruct them in it. 

The style and character of the present work will be found quite 
different from anything which has preceded it. In the part relating 
to Sugar-boiling I have endeavoured to show the causes of the effects 
which take place at the different stages, with the uses to which each 
of the processes is applied. The deficiency on Hard Confectionary 
which occurs in all other works will be found amply supplied in this. 
In the proportions for medicated lozenges I have preferred those 
which are ordered by the different Colleges of Surgeons in their 
pharmacopoeias to those used by the trade, as being more likely to 
contain the true quantities of the different drugs which should com- 
pose them. It is from this source that they were originally derived, 
as at one time they formed no inconsiderable part of pharmacy ; but 
they are now only made by confectioners. 

The Section on Ices I have endeavoured to render as plain and 
intelligible as possible, and although I have given general as well as 
definite rules for the mixture of each sort, yet the last cannot at all 
times be implicitly followed, but must be modified or altered with 
respect to the flavouring matter so as to suit the taste of the em- 
ployer or the parties for whom they are intended ; this should always 
be most scrupulously attended to, if it is wished to give satisfaction, 
as no fixed rules can be given which will admit of their being made 
to please all persons. 

The business of confectionary is divided into several branches, 
some of them being quite distinct and separate from each other. 
The branch known as Hard Confectionary is literally the whole of 
the business, according to the strict meaning of the word, which is 
derived from the French words confitures cornfits, things crusted 
1* " (v) 


over with dry sugar ; and confiturier confectioner, a maker or seller 
of comfits or other sweetmeats. The other branches are the Orna- 
mental and Soft Confectionary. The latter relates to everything 
connected with the oven, or all sorts of cakes and soft biscuits, and 
more particularly to the preservation of fruits; the other, as the 
name implies, to every description of ornaments necessary for the 
decoration of the table. Hard Confectionary still remains a distinct 
branch or trade of itself; in fact, many persons' sole occupation is 
the making of lozenges and comfits, termed pan-work. Some also 
combine with these the different articles connected with sugar-boiling 
and preserving. The latter are in general blended together, and 
mostly practised by cooks and pastry-cooks; but the chief business 
of a confectioner is alone connected with the ornamental department, 
and everything necessary for the dessert. 

I have thought it requisite to mention this specifically, so as to 
prevent the occurrence of errors which parents and guardians of 
families often fall into respecting the nature of the business, and alsc 
with regard to the capacity of the child which they intend should be 
brought up to it. I have heard many say, " Never mind ; he is a 
stupid fool, and may do very well to make cakes." If making cakes 
were the sole object he would have to accomplish, perhaps he might 
do very well ; but even this requires more ingenuity than is generally 
considered ; and if the welfare of the child is studied, so as to enable 
him to obtain his livelihood in a respectable manner, they must find 
some means of enabling him to acquire a considerable' deal more 
knowledge than is general with a common-place education, to enable 
him to compete with the talent at present in the labour-market. The 
person adapted for this business should be neat and cleanly in his 
habits, of a lively and ingenious mind, have a quick conception of 
design, a delicate taste, with a general knowledge of architecture, 
mythology, and the fine arts ; for they are as requisite in the con- 
struction of a Piece Montee, or an allegorical subject to embellish 
the table, as to an architect or sculptor in the construction of an ex- 
pensive building or monument. I do not mean to infer that his in- 
formation must be so extensive, or that he will be required to make 
the tour of Italy, Rome, and Greece, to study the original masters ; 
but let him take Nature for his guide ; and if he possess the rudi- 
ments or principles of the art of design, he cannot fail, with a little 
attention and perseverance, to become an adept in the higher or orna- 
mental branches of his business* 



SECT. I. Confectionary. 

Clarification of Raw Sugar. .. 

To clarify Loaf Sugar 

Degrees of boiling Sugar 


Small Thread 

Large Thread 

Little Pearl 

Large Pearl 


To ascertain the degree of 
the blow 

The Feather 


The Ball 

The Crack 


SECT. II. Syrups. 

General Rules and Observa- 



Raspberry Syrup 

Pine-apple Syrup 

Raspberry Vinegar Syrup .... 

Strawberry Syrup 

Currant Syrup 

Morello Cherry Syrup 

Mulberry Syrup 

Gooseberry Syrup 

Lemon Syrup 

Orange Syrup 

Orange-Flower Syrup 

Sirop de Capillaire. Syrup of 

Syrup of Liquorice 

Syrup of Violets 

Syrup of Pinks 

Syrup of Roses 

Syrup of Wormwood 

Syrup of Marshmallows 

Syrup of Sarsaparilla 

Syrup of Coltsfoot 

I Syrup of Ginger 23 

1 Syrup of Almonds 24 

; Sirop de Pistache 24 

i Syrup of Coffee 24 

j Syrup of Rum Punch 24 

I Brandy and Wine Syrups .... 24 

' SECTION III. Crystallized Su- 
gar, and articles crystallized, 
commonly called Candies. 
Crystallized or Candied Sugar. . 25 

I Fruits to Crystallize 25 

j Crystallized Chocolate 26 

! Liqueur Rings, Drops and other 

Devices 26 

To form a Chain with Liqueur 

Rings 27 

SECT. IV. Candy Bonbon 

Ginger Candy 27 

Peppermint, Lemon and Rose 


i Coltsfoot or Horehound Candy 
I Artihcial Fruit, Eggs, &c 


Burnt Almonds 28 

Burnt Almonds Red 28 

( Filberts and Pistachios 28 

j Common Burnt Almonds 28 

i Orange Prawlings 29 

| Lemon Prawlings 29 

| SECT. V. Crack and Caramel. 

\ Barley Sugar 29 

i Barley Sugar Drops 29 

: Barley Sugar Tablets or Kisses 29 

j Acid Drops and Sticks 30 

i To extract the Acid from Can- 
died Drops, &c 30 

Raspberry Candy 31 

Clove, Ginger, or Peppermint 

Candy 31 

Brandy Balls, &c 31 

! Nogat 32 

I Almond Rock 32 

1 Almond Hardbake 32 





To make a Silver Web 33 

To make a Gold Web 33 

Chantilly Baskets 33 

Grape, Orange, or Cherry Bas- 
kets 34 

Almond Baskets 34 

Spanish Candy 34 

Vases or Baskets, &c., in Span- 
ish Candy 34 

SECT. VI. Chocolate, 

Cacao Nuts 35 

Roasting 35 

The Making of Chocolate 36 

Vanilla Chocolate 36 

Cinnamon, Mace or Clove Cho- 
colate 37 

Stomachic Chocolate 37 

Chocolate Harlequin Pistachios 37 
Chocolate Drops, with Nonpa- 
reils 37 

SECT. VII. Lozenges. 

Peppermint, No. 1 38 

Peppermint, No. 2 38 

Peppermint, Nos. 3 and 4 38 

Transparent Mint, No. 5 38 

Superfine Transparent MintLo- 

zenges 39 

Rose Lozenges 39 

Cinnamon Lozenges 39 

Clove Lozenges 39 

Lavender Lozenges 39 

Ginger Lozenges 39 

Nutmeg Lozenges 39 

Rhubarb Lozenges 39 

Sulphur Lozenges 39 

Tolu Lozenges 39 

Ipecacuanha Lozenges 39 

Saffron Lozenges 40 

Yellow Pectoral Lozenges ... 40 

Lozenges for the Heartburn ... 40 

Steel Lozenges 40 

Magnesia Lozenges 40 

Nitre Lozenges . . . 40 

Marshmallow Lozenges 40 

Vanilla Lozenges 40 

Catechu Lozenges 40 

Catechu a 1' Ambergris 40 

Catechu with Musk 4i> 

Catechu with Orange-flowers.. 40 

Catechu with Violets 40 

Ching's Yellow Worm Lozenges 40 

Ching's Brown Worm Lozenges 41 

Bath Pipe 41 

Peppermint or other Pipes .... 41 

Brilliants 41 

Refined Liquorice 41 

SECTION VIII. Pastile Drops. 

Chocolate Drops 42 

Coffee Drops 42 

Cinnamon Drops 43 

Clove Drops 43 

Vanilla Drops 43 

Violet Drops 43 

Catechu Drops 43 

Ginger Drops 43 

Lemon Drops 43 

Rose Drops 43 

Peppermint Drops 43 

Orange-flower Drops 43 

Orgeat Drops 43 

Raspberry Drops 43 

SECT. IX. Com/its. 

Scotch Caraway Comfits 44 

Bath Caraways 45 

Common Caraways 45 

Cinnamon Comfits 45 

Coriander Comfits 46 

Celery Comfits 46 

Caraway Comfits, pearled 46 

Almond Comfits 46 

Cardamom Comfits 46 

Barberry Comfits 46 

Cherry Comfits 47 

Comfits flavoured with Liqueurs 47 

Orange Comfits 47 

Lemon Peel or Angelica 47 

Nonpareils 47 

To colour Nonpareils or Comfits 47 


Raspberry Comfits 47 

Ginger Comfits 47 

Clove Comfits 48 

To colour Loaf-sugar Dust ... 48 

SECT. X. Fruit Jetties. 

Apple Jelly 49 

Quince Jelly 43 

Red Currant Jelly 4g 

White and Black Currant Jelly 49 



Violet-coloured Currant Jolty . . 49 

Cherry Jelly 49 

Barberry Jelly 49 

Raspberry Jelly 49 

Gooseberry Jelly 49 

Blackberry Jelly 49 

SECT. XI. Marmalades or Jams. 

Apple Marmalade 50 

Quince Marmalade 50 

Apricot Marmalade or Jam ... 50 

Cherry Marmalade or Jam ... 50 

Orange Marmalade 50 

Grape Marmalade 50 

SECT. XII. Of Fruit and other 

Fruit Pastes and Cakes 51 

Apple or Pippin Paste 51 

Apple Cheese 51 

Apricot Paste 51 

Green Apricot Paste 52 

Currant Paste 52 

Black Currant Paste 52 

Raspberry Paste 52 

Cherry Paste 52 

Peach Paste 52 

Plum Paste 52 

Damson Cheese ... 52 

Quince Paste 53 

Orange Paste 53 

Lemon Paste ... 53 

Raspberry Cakes 53 

Clear Cakes, or Jelly Cakes . . 53 

Marshmallow Paste 54 

Arabic Paste 54 

Date Paste 55 

Jujube Paste 55 

Senegal Paste 55 

White Liquorice Paste 55 

Black Liquorice Paste 55 

Jujube Gum 55 

Gomme des Dattes 56 

Gum of Violets 56 

Almond Paste Orgeat Paste. . 56 
SECT. XIII. Fruits Preserved 
with Sugar. 

WET FRUITS ... 56 

Green Apricots, wet 57 

Green Apricots, pared wet 58 

Ripe Apricots, wet 58 

Ripe Peaches, whole, wet 58 

Ripe Nectarines, wet 58 

Figs, wet 58 

Greengages, wet 58 

Mogul Plums 59 

Damsons, wet 59 

Green Gooseberries, wet 59 

Green Gooseberries in the form 

of Hops, wet 59 

Cucumbers or Gherkins, wet. . 59 

Green Melons 60 

Ripe Melons, w et 60 

Lemons, whole, T vet 60 

Oranges, whole, wet 60 

Whole Orange Peels 60 

Orange or Lemon Peels, wet. . 60 

Orange or Lemon Chips 61 

Angelica, wet 61 

Eringo Root 61 

Pine Apple, whole, wet 61 

Pine Apple Chips or Slices ... 61 

Cherries, wet or dry 62 

Whole Cherries 62 

Grapes in Bunches 62 

Currants in Bunches, wet 62 

Barberries in Bunches, wet. . . 63 

Raspberries, whole, wet 63 

Pears, whole, wet 63 

Pears, Red, wet 63 

Quinces, Red or White, wet. . 64 

Ginger, wet 64 

Candied Fruit 64 

Dried Fruit 64 

SECT. XIV. Compotes. 

Green Apricot Compote 65 

Ripe Apricot Compote 65 

Compote of Apples, with Jelly. 65 

Apple Compote 65 

Grape Compote 65 

Currant Compote 65 

Raspberry Compote 66 

Strawberry Compote 66 

Macedoine of Fruits 66 

Cherry Compote 66 

SECT. XV. Brandy Fruits.. . . 66 
SECT. XVI. On Bottled Fruits, 

or Fruits Preserved without 

Sugar 67 

SECT. XVII. Of Cooling Drinks 

for Balls and Routs. 
Gooseberry, Currant, Raspberry 

and Strawberry Waters 68 


Cherry Water 69 

Apricot and Peach Water 69 

Orgeat Water 69 

Lemonade 69 

Orangeade 69 

SECT. XVIII. ices. 

To freeze Ices 70 

Cream Ices 72 

Raspberry, fresh fruit and Jam 72 

Strawberry 73 

Currant, fresh & preserved fruit 73 

Barberry Ice 73 

Apricot, fresh Fruit, and Jam. . 73 

Peach Ice 73 

Pine Apple, fresh & preserved ft. 73 

Ginger Ice 73 

Brahma Ice 73 

Orange Ice Cream 73 

China Orange Ice Cream 74 

Cherry Ice Cream 74 

Harlequin Ice 74 

Lemon Ice Cream 74 

Mille Fruit Crcarn Ice 74 

Custard Ices 74 

Custard for Ices 74 

Plornbiere Ice, or Swiss Pudding 74 

The Sauce 75 

Almond or Orgeat Ice Cream . 75 

Pistachio Ice Cream 75 

Filbert Ice Cream 75 

Chestnut Ice 75 

Burnt Filbert Ice Cream 75 

Burnt Almond Ice Cream .... 75 

Coffee Ice Cream 75 

Chocolate Ice 76 

Tea Ice 76 

Vanilla Ice 76 

Noyau Cream Ice 76 

Maraschino Cream Ice 76 

Water Ices 77 

Currant Water lee 77 

Cherry Water Ice 77 

Gooseberry Water Ice 77 

Raspberry Water Ice 77 

Apricot Water Ice 77 

Peach Water Ice 77 

Damson Ice 77 

Pine-Apple Water Ice 78 

Fresh Pine- Apple Water Ice. . 78 

Apple-water Ice 78 

Pear- Water Ice 78 

Orange- Water Ice 78 

Lemon-Water Ice 78 

Maraschino- Water Ice 78 

Punch-Water Ice 78 

Roman Punch Ice 79 

Mille Fruit Water Ice 79 

SECT. XIX.- Jellies. 

Calves' Feet Jellies 79 

Coffee Jelly 79 

Tea Jelly, Green or Black 79 


Strawberry Jelly 80 

Pine- Apple Jelly 80 

Jelly of Apricots 80 

Orange Jelly 80 

Blanc Mange 80 

SECT. XX. Essences. 

Lemon, Orange, and Bergamot. 81 

Essence de Cedrat 81 

Allspice, Cloves, Cinnamon, or 

Nutmegs, &c 82 

Ginger, Peppermint, Vanilla, 

and Almonds 82 

SECT. XXI. Meringues, Icing. 

Dry, in the form of Eggs 82 

Kisses 83 

Italian Meringues 83 

Mushrooms 83 

Icing for Wedding or Twelfth 

Cakes, &c 84 

On piping Cakes, Bon-bons, &c. 84 

SECT. XXII. Gum Paste. 

For Ornaments . 85 

For Gilding on 86 

Papier Machee 86 

To gild Gum Paste, &c 86 

To Bronze Gum Paste 87 

On the Construction of Assiettes 

and Pieces Montees 87 

Of Pieces Montees 88 

Biscuit Paste to imitate Marble 

Rocks, &c 88 

Confectioners' Paste 89 

Assiettes Monies, or Dressed 

Plates 89 

On Modelling 90 

Modelling Tools 92 

Modelling Wax 92 



SECT. XXIII. On Colours. 

To Prepare Cochineal 92 

Carmine, Yellow, Prussian Blue. 

Sap Grsen, & Spinach Green 93 

Vermilion and Cinnabar 94 

Bole Ammoniac, Umber, Bistre, 

andBLck 94 


Purple, Lilac, Orange, Gold, Le- 
mon, and Green 94 

SECT. XXIV. Distillation. 


Orange-Flower, & Rose Water 96 
Cinnamon, Pepper mint, Lemon- 
Peel, & Black-Cherry Water 97 

Distilled Spirituous Waters for 

Liqueurs 98 

Hungary Water 98 

Maraschino de Zara 98 

Kirchenwasser. . , .99 

Eau Divine 99 

Eau de Cologne 99 

Curasao 99 

Eau de Melisse des Cannes. . . 99 

The English Method 99 

Spirit of Coffee, and Almonds . 99 
Spirit of Tea, and Usquebaugh. 100 



Ratafia de Cafe 100 

Ratafia de Cacao 100 

Ratafia des Noyaux 100 

Ratafia of Cherries 101 

Ratafia des Cassis 101 

Ratafia of Raspberries 101 

Ratafia des Fleurs des Oranges 101 

Ratafia d'CEillets 101 

Ratafia d'Angelique 101 

Vespetro 101 

Chr&ne de Barbade 101 

Chrdme d'Orange 101 

Ratafia d'Anis 101 

Ratafia de Brout des Noix 102 

SECT. XXV. The Stove or Hot 
Closet 102 





Abernethy, American, Brighton, 
Buttered, Captains, Drop, Fil- 
bert, Lemon, and Naples ... 105 

Queens, Rout, Savoy, Seedy, 
Wine, York, and Powder. . . 106 

Drops, and Cracknels 107 

SECT. I. The Oven. 

Cakes 107 

Savoy Cakes 108 

Cold Mixtures 108 

Almond Savoy Cakes and Al- 
mond Hearts 109 

VeniceCake 109 

Savoy, to represent a Melon . . 109 
Savoy, to imitate a Hedgehog.. 109 
Bordeaux or Parisian Cakes . . 110 

Italian Bread 110 

Rice Pound Cake 110 

Wafers 110 


Almond Cakes 110 

Almond Savoy Ill 

Bride,* Bath, and Banbury 111 

Breakfast 112 

Cinnamon, Currant, Caraway, 
Common Cheese, Curd Cheese, 

and Almond Cheese 112 

Lemon Cheese, Derby, Diet 
Bread, Ginger, Lord Mayors, 

and Lunch 113 

Moss, Macaroon, Plum, Pound, 

and Prussian 114 

Queens, Queen's Drops, Rout, 

Raspberry, and Ratafias. ... 115 
Savoy, Sponge, Seed, Shrews- 
bury, Tea, Twelfth, and York- 
shire 116 



York Drops, Anne Page's, York 
Cakes, Jumbles, Cinnamon 
Biscuit, Hazlenut Kisses, and 
Vanilla Biscuit 117 

Trifle, Cocoanut, Sans Soucies, 
Cocoa Biscuit, Lady Cake, 
and Lady Fingers 118 

Spoon Biscuit, Small Biscuits 
with Almonds, Biscuits with 
Cream, Biscuits glazed with 
Chocolate 119 

Biscuits glazed with Orange. 120 

PETS, &,c. 

Almond Bread, Colchester, and 

Diet 120 

French Rolls, Short Bread, 

Queen's Ginger-Bread, Spice 
Ginger-Bread, Thick Ginger- 
Bread, and Sweetmeat Nuts. . 121 

Spice Nuts, Muffins, Wheat 
Muffins, Rice Muffins, Rice 
Cakes, and Buckwheat Cakes 122 

Flannel Cakes, Indian Slappers, 
Jolmny-Cake, Corn Bread, 
Crumpets, and Rusks 123 

Sweet Rusks, Tops & Bottoms 124 



Ingredients, &c 125 

Puff, Short, and Tart Pastes . . 126 

Apricot Tart r 126 

Covered and Raspberry Tarts . 127 
Mince Pies, and Raised Pie. . . 127 




Brown or Diet Bread 134 

Bread not liable to become Bit- 
ter 134 


Yeast to Preserve 135 

Potatoe Yeast 135 

Dr. Lettsom's Method 135 

Artificial Yeast 135 

Patent Yeast ' . . 136 



The Old Method 141 

Modern Method 142 


Bread Corn 143 

Rice 145 

Potatoes 145 

Bread made of Roots 147 

Ragwort 1 47 

Turnip Bread 147 

Apple Bread 148 

Meslin Bread 148 

Salep Bread 143 

Oat and Barley Bread 148 

Debretzen Bread 148 

Millet Bread 149 

Maize Bread 149 

Homminy Cake 149 

Bean Flour Bread 149 

Buckwheat Bread 149 

Acorn Bread 150 

Oatmeal Cakes 150 

Oatmeal and Pease Bread .... 150 

Chestnut Bread 150 

Potatoe Bread 150 

Rye Bread Barley Bread 150 

The Bread Tree 151 

Bread Fruit Bread 152 

Sago Bread . . 152 

Casava Bread 153 

Plantain Bread 1 53 

Banana Bread 153 

Moss Bread 154 

Dried Fish Bread )54 

Earth Bread J54 



As SUGAR is the basis or ground-work of the confectioner's art, it is 
essentially necessary that the practitioner should carefully study and 
observe the difference in its qualities, the changes which it undergoes 
or effects when combined with other articles in the process of manu- 
facture, and also the different forms which it assumes by itself at va- 
rious stages. Without this knowledge, a man will never become a 
thorough and efficient workman, and it can only be acquired by prac- 
tice and experience. 

The first process which it undergoes in the hands of the confec- 
tioner, is that of clarification. It is conducted on the same principle 
as the refining of sugar, although not carried out in every particular. 

Clarification of Raw Sugar. For every six pounds of sugar re- 
quired to be clarified, take one quart of water, the white of an egg, 
and about half a teacupful of bullock's blood. Less than a pint will 
be sufficient for 112 pounds; but if a very fine, transparent, and 
colourless syrup is required, use either charcoal, finely powdered, or 
ivory black, instead of the blood. Put the white of the egg in the 
water and whisk it to a froth, then add either of the other articles 
mentioned, and the sugar, place the pan containing the ingredients 
on the stove-fire, and stir them well with a spatula, until the sugar is 
dissolved, and is nearly boiling. When the ebullition commences, 
throw in a little cold water to check it; this causes the coarser parts 
to separate more freely, by which means the whole of the impurities 
attach themselves to the clarifying matter used ; continue this for 
about five minutes, using about one pint of water to every six pounds 
of sugar, or more, until you consider the whole of the dross is dis- 
charged, and there remains a fine clear syrup. Then place it by the 
side of the stove, and carefully remove with a skimmer the scum 
which has formed on the top: it may also be taken off as it rise?, but 
1 find the best method is to let it remain a short time after it is clari 
fied before it is removed, otherwise, if you take it off as it rises, part 
of the syrup is also taken with it. When either charcoal or black is 
used, it must be passed through a filtering-bag made of thick flannel, 
in the shape of a cone, having a hoop fastened round the top to keep 
it extended, and to which strings are sewn that it may be tied or sus- 
pended in any convenient manner: what runs out at first will be 
2 13 


quite black; return this again into the bag, and continue doing so 
until it runs fine and clear. 

If a little lime, about a spoonful, or any other alkali is added to the 
sugar with the water, &c., it will neutralize the acid which all raw 
sugars contain, and they will be found to stand much better after they 
have been manufactured, by not taking the damp so soon. This is 
not generally done by the trade, but it will be found beneficial if 

To clarify Loaf Sugar. This is clarified by mixing the whites of 
eggs with water, without any other assistance, for having been pre- 
viously refined, it does not require those auxiliaries again to separate 
the coarser parts, unless it is of an inferior quality, or an extra fine 
syrup, as for bon-bons and other fancy articles, is required. When it 
is necessary to have a very fine sparkling grain, in that case break 
your lump into email pieces and put it in a preserving-pan, with a 
sufficient quantity of water to dissolve it, in which has been mixrd 
the while of an egg and powdered charcoal,* as for raw sugar, fol- 
lowing those instructions already given. After the sugar has bem 
drained from the bag, pass some water through to take off any which 
may be left in the charcoal, which you use for dissolving more sugar. 

The scum should always be reserved, when charcoal or black is not 
used, to mix with the articles of an inferior quality. 

The best refined loaf sugar should be white, dry, fine, of a brilliant 
sparkling appearance when broken, and as close in texture as pos- 
sible. The best sort of brown has a bright, sparkling, and gravelly 
look. East India sugars appear finer, but do not contain so much sac- 
charine matter, yet they are much used for manufacturing the best 
sort of common sweetmeats, when clarified, instead of loaf sugar. 

Degrees of boiling Sugar. This is the principal point to which the 
confectioner has to direct his attention; for if he is not expert in this 
particular, all his other labour and knowledge will be useless: it is 

* Charcoal varies in its qualities, according to the wood from which 
it is prepared. That made from porous woods, such as the willoAv, 
alder, &c., is the best for clarifying liquids ; animal charcoal, or bone 
black, is also equally good, on account of its light and porous nature ; 
that made from hard woods is only fit for fuel, as it does not possess the 
clarifying and decolouring properties like that made from the more soft 
and porous woods. When newly prepared, or if it has been kept free from 
air, it has the property of absorbing all putrid gases ; " it is also capable 
of destroying the smell and taste of a variety of animal and vegetable 
substances, especially of mucilages, oils, and of matter in which extrac- 
tive abounds ; and some articles are said to be even deprived of their 
characteristic odour, by remaining in contact with it, as vak-rian, galba- 
num, balsam of Peru, and musk. The use of charring the interior of 
water-casks, and of wrapping charcoal in cloths that have acquired a bad 
smell, depend upon this property. None of the fluid menstrua with which 
we are acquainted have any action whatever, as solvents, upon carbon."- 
Paris'* Pharmacologia. 


the foundation on which he must build to acquire success in his under- 

There are seven essential points or degrees in boiling sugar; some 
authors give thirteen, but many of these are useless, and serve only 
to show a critical precision in the art, without its being required in 
practice; however, for exactness, we will admit of nine, viz:--l. 
Small thread. 2. Large thread. 3. Little pearl. 4. Large pearl. 
f> Thp blow. 6. The feather. 7. Ball. 8. Crack. 9. Caramel. 
This last degree derives its name from "a Count Albufage Caramel, 
of Nismop, who discovered this method of boiling sugar." Guntet's 

In describing the process, I shall proceed in a different manner to 
other writers on the subject, by classing it under different heads, ac- 
cording to the uses to which it is applied. 


Under this head are comprised the degrees from the small thread 
to the large pearl ; for at these points the sugar is kept in a divided 
state, arid remains a fluid of an oily consistency. A bottle which 
holds three ounces of water will contain four ounces of syrup. The 
method of ascertaining those degrees, according to the usages of the 
trade, is as follows: 

Small Thread. Having placed the clarified syrup on the fire, let 
it boil a little, then dip the top of your finger in the boiling syrup, 
and on taking it out apply it to the top of your thumb, when, if it has 
attained the degree, on separating them a small ring will be drawn 
out a little distance, about as fine as a hair, which will break and re- 
solve itself into a drop on the thumb and finger. 

Large Thread. Continue the boiling a little longer, repeat, the 
same operation as before, and a larger string will be drawn. 

Little Pearl. To ascertain this degree, separate the finger from 
the thumb as before, and a large string may be drawn, which will 
extend to nearly the distance the fingers may be opened. 

Large Pearl. The finger may now be separated from the thumb 
to the greatest extent before the thread will break. 


This takes the degrees of the blow and feather. The particles of 
the sugar being now brought together within the sphere of their 
activity, the attraction of cohesion commences, whereby they attach 
themselves together and form quadrilateral pyramids with oblong and 
rectangular bases. This is generally, but improperly, termed candy, 
thereby confounding it with the degrees at which it grains, also 
termed candy. This certainly seems " confusion worse confounded ;" 
but if things are called by their proper names, many of those seem- 
ing difficulties and technicalities may he avoided which tend only to 
confuse and embarrass the young practitioner, without gaining any 


desired end or purpose. If it were generally classed into the degrees 
of crystallization, the true meaning and use would at once be ex- 
plained and understood by the greatest novice. 

The nature and principle of this operation are these. First, as in the 
case of syrup (the first four degrees), when the water has absorbed as 
much sugar as it is capable of containing in a cold state, by continu- 
ing the boiling, a further portion of the solvent (water) is evaporated, 
and sugar remains in excess, which, when exposed to a Jess degree 
of heat, separates itself, and forms crystals on the surface and sides 
of the vessel in which it is contained, and also on anything placed or 
suspended in it. But if it is exposed too suddenly to the cold, or dis- 
turbed in its action by being shaken, or if the boiling has been con- 
tinued too long, the crystals will form irregularly by the particles 
being brought in too^ close contact, and run too hastily together, form- 
ing a mass or lump. 

To obtain this part in perfection, the boiling should be gradual, and 
continued no longer than till a few drops let fall on a cold surface 
show a crystalline appearance, or after being removed from the fire 
a thin skin will form on the surface. It should then be taken from 
the fire and placed in a less hot but not cold place, and covered or 
put into a stove or hot closet to prevent the access of cold air. A 
few drops of spirits of wine, added when the sugar has attained the 
proper degree, will conduce to a more perfect crystalline form, scarcely 
attainable by any other means, as it has a great affinity with the water, 
thereby causing the sugar to separate itself more freely. It must be 
used with caution, as too much will cause it to grain. 

To ascertain the Degree of the Blow. Continue the boiling of 
the sugar, dip a skimmer in it and shake it over the pan, then blow 
through the holes, and if small bubbles or air-bladders are seen on 
the other side, it has acquired this degree. 

The Feather. Dip the skimmer again into the sugar, and blow 
through the holes as before, and the bubbles will appear larger and 
stronger. Or if you give the skimmer a sudden jerk, so as to throw 
the sugar from you, when it has acquired the degree, it will appear 
hanging from the skimmer in fine long strings. 


Sugar, after it has passed the degree of the feather, is of itself 
naturally inclined to grain, that is to candy, and will form a powder 
if agitated or stirred : for as the boiling is continued, so is the water 
evaporated until there is nothing left to hold it in solution : therefore 
that body being destroyed by heat, which first changed its original 
form to those we have already enumerated, as this no longer exists 
with it, it naturally returns to the same state as it was before the 
solvent was added, which is that of minute crystals or grains, being 
held together by the attraction of cohesion, unless, as before stated, 
they are separated by stirring, &c. 


The sugar being evaporated by boiling from the last degree, leaves 
a tnin crust of crystals round the sides of the pan, which shows it has 
attained the candy height; and this crust must be carefully removed, 
as it forms, with a damp cloth or sponge, or the whole mass will 
candy if suffered to remain. To prevent this is the chief deside- 
ratum, all further proceedings for which specific rules will be given 
in their proper places. 

The remaining degrees can be ascertained after the following man- 

The Ball Provide a jug of clean cold water, and a piece of 
round stick. First dip in the water, then in the sugar, and again in 
the water ;* take off the sugar which has adhered to it, and endea* 
vour to roll it into a ball between the finger and thumb in the water: 
when this can be done, it has attained the desired degree. If it forms 
u large hard ball which will bite hard and adhere to the teeth when 
r'at^n, it is then termed the large ball, et contra. 

The Crack. Follow the directions given for the ball. Slip the 
su^-ar off from the stick, still holding it in the water, then press it 
between the finger and thumb; if it breaks short and crisp, with a 
slight noise, it is at the crack. 

Caramel. To obtain this degree it requires care and attention, 
and also to be frequently tried, as it passes speedily from the crack to 
the caramel. Try it as before directed, and let the water be quite 
cold, or you will be deceived. If on taking it off the stick it snaps 
like glass, with a loud noise, it has attained the proper degree ; it will 
also, when it arrives at this point, assume a beautiful yellow colour; 
after this it will speedily burn, taking all the hues from a brown to a 
black; therefore, to prevent this, dip the bottom of the pan into a 
pail of cold water as soon as it comes to caramel, as the heat which 
is contained in the pan and sugar is sufficient to advance it one de- 
gree; also be careful that the flame of the fire does not ascend round 
the sides of the pan, which will burn it. 

In boiling sugar, keep the top of the pan partially covered from the 
time it commences boiling until it has attained the ball or crack: the 
steam which rises, bein.^ again thrown on the sides, prevents the 
formation of the crust or .crystals. 

To prevent its graining, add a little of any sort of acid when it is 
at the crack a table-spoonful of common vinegar, four or five drops 
of lemon-juice, or two or three drops of pyroligneous acid : any of 
these will have the desired effect; this is termed greasing it: but 
remember that too much acid will also grain it, neither can it be 
boiled to caramel if there is too much. A little butter added when 
it first commences boiling will keep it from rising over the pan, and 
also prevent its graining. About as much cream of tartar as may be 
laid on a sixpence, and added to seven pounds of sugar with the water, 
or equal quantities of cream (if tartar and alum in powder, added when 

* This should be performed as speedily as possible. 


it boils, will also keep it from candying. If sugar is poured on a 
stab that is too hot it is very apt to grain; this is frequently the case 
after several casts have been worked off in rotation ; therefore, when 
you find it inclined to turn, remove it to a cooler spot, if possible, and 
not handle it any more than is necessary. 

Sugar that has been often boiled or warmed is soon acted upon by 
the atmosphere, whereby it becomes clammy and soon runs, as it is 
weakened by the action of the fire. Acid causes the same effect. 

If it has passed the degree you intended to boil it at, add a little 
water, and give it another boil. 


THESE are either the juices of fruits, or a decoction or infusion of 
the leaves, flowers, or roots of vegetables, impregnated with a suffi- 
cient quantity of sugar for their preservation and retaining them in a 
liquid state. 

A great portion of this class comes more under the notice of the 
apothecary than the confectioner; but it may now be considered, with 
lozenges, as a branch of pharmacy in the hands of the latter, the 
most agreeable of which are now manufactured by him to supply the 
place of fresh fruits, &c., when out of season, for the making of cool- 
ing drinks, ices, &c., for balls and routs. 

General Rules and Observations. Two things are essentially 
necessary to be observed, which are: the proper methods of making 
decoctions and infusions. These require some knowledge of the 
nature and properties of vegetable matter. 

The virtues of most plants are extracted by infusion, and this is 
generally the case with aromatic plants, and those whose proper- 
ties depend on an essential oil ; for, in boiling, the whole of the 
aroma of the plant is dispersed, and the syrup loses that delicate 
flavour for which it is prized. 

Aromatic herbs, and the leaves of plants in general, yield their 
virtues most perfectly when moderately dried. Cold water extracts 
from these in a few hours, the lighter, more fragrant and agreeable 
parts, and then begins to take up the more ungrateful and grosser. 
By pouring the same liquor on fresh parcels of the herb, it becomes 
stronger, richer, thicker, and balsamic. 

Those only should be decocted whose principles consist of muci- 
lage, gum, or resin, and require boiling to extract them. 

The compact resinous woods, roots and barks, yield their virtues 
most freely while fresh. Dry, they yield little to cold or moderately 
warm water, and require it to be boiling. By this process the grosser, 
more fixed saline and mucilaginous parts are dissolved, the resinous 
melted out, and the volatile dissipated. 

Infusions. " These are watery solutions of vegetable matter, 
pbtained by maceration, either in hot or cold water, with the assist- 


ance of ebullition. In selecting and conducting the operation, the 
following general rules should be observed : 

"1st. Infusion should always be preferred before decoction, where 
the virtues of the vegetable substance reside in volatile oil, or in 
principles which are easily soluble ; whereas, if they depend upon 
resino-mucilaginous particles, decoction is an indispensible operation. 

" 2nd. The temperature employed must be varied according to the 
circumstances of each case, and infusion made with cold is in general 
more grateful but less active than one made with heat. 

" 3rd. The duration of the process must likewise be regulated by 
the nature of the substances ; for the infusion will differ according to 
the time in which the water has been digested on the materials ; thus 
the arorna of the plaut is first taken up, then in succession the colour- 
ing, astringent, and gummy parts. 

Decoctions. " These are solutions of the active principles of vege- 
tables, obtained by boiling them in water. 

" 1st. Those principles only should be decocted whose virtues re- 
side in principles which are soluble in water. 

" 2nd. If the active principle be volatile, decoction must be an in- 
jurious process; and if it consists of extractive matter, long boiling, 
by favouring its oxidizement, will render it insipid, insoluble, and 

"3rd. The substances to be decocted should be previously bruised 
or sliced, so as to expose an extended surface to the action of the 

" 4th. The substances should be completely covered with water, 
and the vessel slightly closed, in order to prevent as much as possi- 
ble the access of air; the boiling should be continued without inter- 
ruption, and gently. 

"5th. In compound decoctions, it is sometimes convenient not. to 
put in all the ingredients from the beginning, but in succession, ac- 
cording to their hardness, and the difficulty with which their virtues 
are extracted; and if any aromatic or other substances containing 
volatile principles, or oxidizable matter, enter into the composition, 
the boiling decoction should be simply poured upon them, and covered 
up until cold. 

" 6th. The relative proportions of different vegetable substances 
to the water must be regulated by their nature. The following 
general rule may be admitted. Of roots, barks, or dried woods, from 
two drachms to six to every pint of water: of herbs, or flowers, half 
that quantity will suffice. 

" 7th. The decoction ought to be filtered through linen while hot, 
as important portions of the dissolved matter are frequently deposited 
on cooling ; care must also be taken that the filter is not too fine, for 
it frequently happens that the virtues of a decoction depend upon the 
presence of particles in a miuutely divided state." Paris's Phar- 

All acid syrups ought to have their full quantity of sugar, so as to 


Dring them to a consistence without boiling 1 , because the very action 
of much heat destroys their acidity, and makes thorn liable to candy ; 
and this more particularly holds good where the infusion or juice, &c., 
has any (Vagrancy in flavour, because the volatile oil is dissipated by 
boiling. The same observation is also applicable to those infusions 
of llowers which give out their colour, and which is necessary to be 
retained, such as violets, pinks, &c., as boiling injures them. 

Those syrups which are made from decoctions, and do not take a 
sufficient quantity of sugar to bring them to a due consistence with- 
out boiling, require to be clarified so as to render them transparent; 
but this is often an injury, as the whites of eggs take off some of their 
chief properties with the scum; therefore, the decoction should first 
be rendered clear by settling or filtering, and the sugar should be 
clarified and boiled to the height of the feather or bail before the 
decoction is added, when it must be reduced to the proper degree. 

The best and most general method of making syrups is to add a 
sufficient quantity of the finest loaf-sugar, in powder, with the juice 
or infusion, &c., stirring it well until a small portion settles at the 
bottom, then place the pan in a larger one containing water ; this is 
termed the bain-rnarie ; put it on the fire, and the heat of the water 
as it boils will dissolve the sugar; when this has been thoroughly 
effected, take it off and U;t it cool ; if more sugar is added than the 
quantity above named, it will separate in crystals, and not leave suffi- 
cient remaining in the syrup for its preservation. (See observations 
on Sugar- boil ing). When cold, put it into small bottles, fill them, 
cork closely, and keep in a dry cool place. Be particularly careful 
that no tinned articles are used in the making of syrups from the jnice 
of red fruits, as it will act on the tin and change the colour to a dead 

Raspberry Syrup. One pint of juice, two pounds of sugar. 
Choose the fruit either red or white, mash it in a pan, and put it in a 
warm place for two or three days, or until the fermentation has com- 
menced. All mucilaginous fruits require this, or else it would jelly 
after it is bottled. Filter the juice through a flannel bag, add the 
sugar in powder, place in the bain-marie, and stir it until dissolved ; 
take it off, let it get cold, take off' the scum, and bottle it. 

[Pine-apple Syrup. Take one and a half pints of syrup boiled to 
the ball, add to this, one pint of the juice of the best Havanna pine- 
apples; let it then come to a boil, remove the scum, and bottle 
when cool.] 

Raspberry Vinegar Syrup. One pint of juice, two pints of apple 
vinegar, four pounds and a half of sugar. Prepare the juice as before, 
adding the vinegar with it, using white vinegar with white rasp- 
berries; strain the juice and boil to the pearl. 

Three pounds of raspberries, two pints of vinegar, throe pounds of 
sugar. Put the raspberries into the vinega'r without mashing them, 
cover the pan close, and let it remain in a cellar for seven or eitrht. 
days : then filter the infusion, add the sugar in powder, and finish in 


the bain-marie. This is superior to the first, as the beautiful aroma 
of the fruit is lost, in the boiling, as may be well known by its scenting 
the place where it is done, or even the whole house ; the fruit may 
ak-o be afterwards used with more for raspberry cakes. 

[Str&wberry Syrup. Make as pine-apple ; taking care to strain 
carefully at least twice, through a tine flannel bag, so as to remove 
entirely all sediment, and the small seed of the fruit.] 

Currant Syrup. One pint of juice, two pounds of sugar. Mix 
together three pounds of currants, half white and half red, one pound 
of raspberries, and one pound of cherries, without the stones; mash 
the fruit and let it stand in a warm place for three or four days, 
keeping it covered with a coarse cloth, or piece of paper with holes 
pricked in it to keep out any dust or dirt. Filter the juice, add the 
sugar in powder, finish in the bain-marie, and skim it. When cold, 
put it into bottles, fill them, and cork well. 

Morello Cherry Syrup. Take the stones out of the cherries, mash 
them, and press out the juice in an earthen pan ; let it stand in a cool 
place for two days, then filter; add two pounds of sugar to one pint 
of juice, finish in the bain-marie, or stir it well on the fire, and give 
it one or two boils. 

Mulberry Syrup. One pint of juice, one pound twelve ounces of 
sugar. Press out the juice and finish as cherry syrup. 

Gooseberry Syrup. One pint of juice, one pound twelve ounces 
of sugar. To twelve pounds of ripe gooseberries add two pounds of 
cherries without stones, squeeze out the juice, and finish as others. 

Lemon Syrup. One pint and a quarter of juice, two pounds of 
sugar. Let the juice stand in a cool place to settle. When a thin 
skin is formed on the top, pour it off and filter, add the sugar, and 
finish in the bain-marie. If the flavour of the peel is preferred with 
it, grate off the yellow rind of the lemons and mix it with the juice 
to infuse, or rub it off on part of the sugar and add it with the re- 
mainder when you finish it. 

Orange Syrup. As lemon syrup. 

Orange-Flower Syrup. Picked orange flowers one pound, sugar 
three pounds. Take one half of the sugar and make a syrup, which 
boil to the large pearl, put the flowers in a basin or jar, and pour the 
syrup on them boiling hot, cover the jar or basin quite close and let 
them infuse in it for five or six hours, then drain off the syrup, boil 
the remaining portion of sugar, and pour over them as before; when 
cold, strain and bottle. 

Sirop de Capillaire. Syrup of Maidenhair. There are sevrral 
sorts of Maidenhair, but the best is that of Canada, which has a 
pleasant smell joined to its pectoral qualities. The true Maiden- 
hair Capillus Veneris is a native of Italy and of the southern 
parts of France. It has an agreeable but very weak smell. Common 
or English Maidenhair Trichomanes is usually substituted for the 
true, and occasionally for the Canadian. Its leaves consist of small 
round divisions, growing as it were in pairs. It grows on rocks, old 


walls, and shady banks, and should be gathered in September. 
Black Maidenhair Adianthum Nigrurn. has smooth and shining 
leaves, the middle rib being black, and the seeds are all spread on the 
back of the leaf. It grows on shady banks, and on the roots of trees. 
White Maidenhair Wall Rue Tent Wort Ruta Murana Salvia 
Vilte. The 1 en VPS of this are shaped something like rue, and covered 
;ill over the back with a small seed-like dust. Golden Maidenhair 
Muscns Capillaris grows in moist places, and the pedicle arises 
from the top of the stalk. I have given these particulars, because I 
find they are often substituted one for the other by persons who are 
not aware that there is any difference. Although all of them have 
nearly the same qualities, only two have a volatile oil, but they aro 
all mucilaginous. 

Canada capillaire two ounces, sugar two pounds. Chop the 
capillaire into small bits, and make as orange-flower syrup. By this 
method the oil is not allowed to escape, which being exceedingly 
odoriferous and volatile, is soon dissipated if boiled ; or make a cold 
infusion (See Infusions) of the plant by putting one quart of water to 
tour ounces of capillaire, add four pounds of sugar, and finish in the 
bain-marie, adding one ounce of orange-flower water.* [This is a 
fashionable and delicate syrup, but is rarely obtained genuine.] 

Simple Fyrup, flavoured with orange-flower water, is usually sub- 
stituted for it. 

Syrup of Liquorice. Liquorice-root two ounces, white maidenhair 
one ounce, hyssop half an ounce, boiling water three pints; slice the 
root and cut the herbs small, infuse in the water for twenty-four 
hours, strain and add sufficient sugar, or part sugar and honey, to 
make a syrup; boil to the large pearl. An excellent pectoral. 

Syrup of Violets. One pound of violet flowers, one quart of water, 
four pounds of sugar. Put the flowers cleared from their stalks and 
calx, into a glazed earthen pan ; pour on the water boiling hot, and 
stop the pan quite close; let it remain in a warm place for a day, 
then strain off" the infusion through a thin cloth ; add the sugar, and 
place in the bain-marie: stir it well and heat it until you can scarcely 
bear your finger in it; then take it off, and when cold, bottle. A 
laxative. This syrup is often adulterated by bring made with the 
flowers of hearts-ease, or columbine scented with orrice-root, and 

Syrup of Pinks. Clove pinks, one pound eight ounces, water 
two pints and a half, sugar, three pounds. Let the flowers be fre.-;h 
gathered, cut off the white points of the petals and weigh them. 
Finish as syrup of violets. This syrup may be made with a cold in- 

*The pectoral quality of this syrup for it is often sold for such pur- 
poses in shops would be much improved if made with the addition of 
liquorice-root, as ordered by the Pharmacopeias " Five ounces of ca- 
pillaire, two ounces of liquorice-root, six pints of water ; white sugar a 
sufficient quantity ; two ounces of orange-flower water." 


fusion of the flowers, first pounding 1 them with a little water in a 
marble mortar. Finish as before. If the flowers of the clove pink 
cannot be obtained, use other pinks, adding a few cloves to infusor 
with them, so as to give the flavour. 

Syrup of Roses. The dried leaves of Provence roses eight 
ounces, double rose leaves six onnces, water one quart, sugar four 
pounds. Pour the water on the leaves when nearly boiling, into a 
glazed earthen vessel, cover it quite close, and let it. remain in a 
warm place for a day ; then strain and finish as violets. The leaves 
of the damask rose are purgative. 

Syrup of Wormwood. There are three sorts of wormwood most 

fenerally known, the common, sea, and Roman. The first may be 
istinguished by its broad leaves which are divided into roundish 
segments, of a dull green colour above, and whitish underneath; iu 
taste is an intense and disagreeable bitter. The sea wormwood has 
smaller leaves and hoary both above and underneath ; it grows in 
salt marshes, and about the sea coasts; the smell and taste are not 
BO strong and disagreeable as the common. The Roman differs from 
the others by the plant being smaller in all its parts ; the leaves are 
divided into fine filaments and hoary all over, the stalk being either 
entirely or in part of a purple colour. Its smell is pleasant, and the 
bitterness not disagreeable : it is cultivated in gardens. The sea 
wormwood is generally substituted for it. 

The tops of Roman wormwood two ounces, water one pint, sugar 
two pounds. Make an infusion of the leaves in warm water, strain, 
add the sugar to the infusion, and boil to the pearl. If the common 
wormwood only can be obtained, put the tops into three times the 
above quantity of water, and boil it over a strong fire until reduced 
to a pint. This will deprive it of part of its bitterness and disagree- 
able smell. 

Syrup of Marshmallows Sirop de Guimauve. Fresh mallow 
roots eight ounces, water one quart, sugar three pounds. Cleanse 
the roots, and slice them; make a decoction (See Decoctions), boiling 
it a quarter of an hour, so as to obtain the mucilage of the root; 
strain, and finish as wormwood. One ounce of liquorice-root and one 
ounce of white maidenhair, with a few stoned raisins, may bo added. 
[Syrup ofSarsaparilla.Ua\f& pound of bruised sarsaparilla root, 
two ounces of ground orange peel, one ounce liquorice-root, sassafras 
bark bruised, two ounces, one gallon of water; boil to half a gallon, 
strain; to each pint of liquor add one pound of sugar; put on the fire 
till it boils, and take off the scum which arises.] 

Syrup of Coltsfoot. Fresh Coltsfoot flowers one pound eight 
ounces, water one quart, sugar three pounds. Pick the flowers about 
February, and make an infusion of them with hot water; strain, and 
finish as wormwood syrup. Two or three handfuls of the leaves may 
be pounded and infused instead of the flowers. 

Syrup of Ginger. Ginger two ounces, water one pint, sugar two 


Slice the root if fresh, or bruise it if dried; pour the water on it 
boiling", and let it macerate in a warm place for a day, then strain, 
and boil to the pearl. 

[Another. A better flavoured and a richer ginger syrup is made 
in the following manner. Take any quantity of scraped, white, Ja- 
maica ginger and infuse for several days in good spirits of wine; 
decant the clear liquor when sufficiently saturated with the ginger, 
and add to the hot sugar, previously boiled to the ball or feather, a 
sufficient quantity of the liquor to impart to the syrup the agreeable 
aroma of the ginger root. 

The spirit will be rapidly driven off' when it is poured into the 
boiling syrup, and a bland and beautiful syrup will be the result; let 
it cool, and bottle immediately.] 

Syrup of Almonds Strop de Orgeat. One pound of sweet 
almonds, four ounces of bitter ones, one pint and a half of water, sugar 
three pounds, orange-flower water two ounces. 

Blanch the almonds, and as they are blanched throw them into cold 
water; when they are finished, take them out and pound them in a 
marble mortar, sprinkling them with a little orange-flower water to 
prevent their oiling, or use water with the juice of a lemon; add 
sufficient in the pounding to reduce them to a paste, and when quite 
fine add half a pint more water; mix, and strain through a tamis 
cloth twisted tight by two persons: receive the milk which comes 
from the almonds into a basin; what is left in the cloth must be 
pounded again with some of the water, and strained. Continue this 
until the whole of the milk is obtained, and the water, is consumed ; 
then clarify, and boil the sugar to the crack; add the milk of 
almonds, and reduce it to the pearl ; then strain it again, add the 
orange-flower water, and stir it well until nearly cold ; when cold, 
bottle ; shake the bottles well for several succeeding days, if you see 
it at all inclined to separate, which will prevent it. 

Sirop de Pistache is made in the same manner, colouring it green 
with a little spinach. 

Syrup of Cnff'ce. Fresh roasted Mocha coffee two pounds, watei 
one quart, sugar three pounds eight ounces. Grind the coffee in 
mill, and make a cold infusion with the water in a close vessel ; let 
it stand for a day, then filter it through blotting paper ; add the sugar, 
and finish in the bain-rnarie. 

Syrup of Rum Punch. Jamaica rum one quart, the juice of twelve 
or fourteen lemons, sug^r four pounds. Rub off' the yellow rind of half 
of the lemons on a piece of the sugar, and scrape it off' with a knife 
into a basin as it imbibes the oil; clarify and boil the remaining por- 
tion to the crack ; strain the juice into the rum, and add to it the 
su^ar with that on which the peels were rubbed ; mix together, and 
give it one boil. The yellow rind of the peels may be cut oft' very 
thin, and infused in the spirit for some days before the syrup is made 

Brandy and Wine Syrups may be made in the same manner. 




Crystallized or Candied Sugar. Provide a round mould, smaller at 
the bottom than the top, of any size you may think proper, made 
either of tin or copper, with holes pierced round the sides about three 
inches asunder, so as to fasten strings across in regular rows from the 
top to the bottom, leaving sufficient room for the sugar to crystallize 
on each string without touching, or it will form a complete mass ; 
paste paper round the outside to prevent the syrup from running 
through the holes. Have the mould prepared, and let it be clean and 
dry ; take sufficient clarified syrup to fill the mould, and boil it to the 
degree of crystallization or the feather, and add a little spirit of wine; 
remove it from the fire, and let it rest until a thin skin is formed on 
the surface, which you must carefully remove with a skimmer; then 
pour it into the mould, and place it in the hot closet, where you let it 
remain undisturbed for eight or nine days, at 90 degrees of heat, or 
half that time ut 100 ; then make a hole, and drain off the super- 
fluous sugar into a pan placed below to receive it; let it drain quite 
dry, which will take about twelve hours; then wash off the paper 
from the mould with warm water, place it near the fire, and keep 
turning it to warm it equally all round ; then turn it up and strike 
the mould rather hard upon the table, when the sugar will relieve 
itself and come out : put it on a stand or sieve in the closet, raise the 
heat to 120 degrees, and let it remain until perfectly dry; Particular 
attention should be paid to the heat of the closet, which must be kept 
regular and constant, and this can easily be accomplished at a small 
expense with many of the patent stoves which are now in general 
use, and also without causing any dust. A Fahrenheit's or Reaumur's 
thermometer should be so placed that the heat may at all times be 

This may be coloured with prepared cochineal, or other liquid 
colour, or by grinding any particular colour with the spirits of wine, 
and adding it to the syrup before it comes to the feather. 

fruits to Crystallize. Have a square or round tin box, smaller at 
the bottom than the top, with wire gratings made to fit at convenient 
distances, and having a hole with a tube or pipe to admit a cork, and 
drain off the syrup. Take "any of the preserved fruits wet (which 
see), drain from them the syrup, and dip them in lukewarm water to 
take off any syrup which may adhere to them ; dry them in the 
closet ; when dried, place them in layers on the grating?, side by 
side, so as not to touch each other; continue in this manner with any 
sort of fruit until the box is full ; then fix the whole with a weight, 
to keep it steady. Boil a sufficiency of clarified sugar to fill the box 
to the degree of crystallization or the blow, add a little spirit of wine, 
and remove it from the fire. When a thin skin has formed on the top, 
remove it carefully with a skimmer, and pour the sugar into the 


mould ; place it in the closet at 90 degrees of heat, and let it remain 
for twelve hours, then drain off the syrup into a pan from the tube at 
bottom, and lot it remain in the closet until quite dry; then turn 
them out by striking the box hard upon the table, separate them care- 
fully, and put them in boxes with paper between each layer. When 
different fruits, paste, knots, &c., are mixed together indiscriminately, 
it is termed rnille-fruit candy. Any sort of fruit or gum pastes, when 
thoroughly dried, may be crystallized in the same manner. When 
the syrup is drained off, if you find the size of the crystals is not large 
enough, another lot of syrup may be prepared and poured over it ; 
let it remain in the closet for seven or eight hours, then drain and 
finish as before. 

If small pieces of stick are pushed down at each corner, or in any 
other vacancy, when you fill the mould, one of these may be with- 
drawn at any time you may wish to ascertain the size of the crystals, 
which will save the trouble of giving a second charge of sugar. 

Crystallized Chocolate. Prepare some sugar, as in the preceding 
articles, and pour it into the box. When a thin crust is formed on the 
top, make a hole on one side, and push the articles previously shaped 
with chocolate, as for drops, gently under with your finger ; put them 
in the stove to crystallize, as other articles. After the syrup is 
drained off, and the articles dried, they must remain until quite cold 
before being turned out, as the chocolate continues soft for some 

Liqueur Rings, Drops, and other Devices. These are all made 
after the same manner. A square box is necessary, which you fill 
with very dry starch powder. Sugar, powdered very fine and dried, 
will answer the same purpose. The depth of the box should be 
suited to the articles intended to be made. Shake the box, or pass a 
knife repeatedly through the powder, that it may be solid ; smooth 
the surface with a straight piece of wood; have a thin piece of flat 
board, on which is fastened a number of little devices, about an inch 
asunder, and to suit the width of the box ; these may be made eithei 
of lead, plaster, or wood, in the form of rings, diamonds, stars, bot- 
tles, scissors, harpp, shoes, or any other form your fancy may suggest; 
make the impressions in the powder in regular rows, until thel>ox is 
full ; then prepare some sugar as for the preceding articles, boiling it 
to the blow, and flavouring it with any sort of spirit or liqueur, such 
as brandy, rum, noyau, Maraschino, cinnamon, rosoiis, &c., colouring 
the syrup accordingly. It should be prepared in a pan with a lip to 
it. When a thin skin has formed on the top, place a cork in the lip 
of the pan, but not to close it, allowing a space for the sugar to run 
out, the cork being merely to keep back the skin ; then fill the im- 
pressions you made in the powder and place them in the stove at 90 
degrees; let them remain a day, then take them out, and their sur- 
faces will be found quite hard and solid ; brush the powder from them 
with a light brush, when they may either be painted, crystallized, or 
piped. Many of these bon-bons are beautifully piped and coloured to 


represent doers, horses, costumes, and theatrical characters ; the fur 
on the robes is imitated with white or Coloured sugar in coarse grains, 
and lace-work is done by means of a pin. 

Liqueur drops are mnde with the impression of half a ball to any 
required size, or other forms. If the flat parts of two are moistened, 
put ton-ether, and dried in the stove, they will form drops perfectly 

To form a Chain with Liqueur Rings. Have some moulds to form 
the impressions in powder, as in the preceding, in the shape of the 
links of a chain ; fill them with syrup at the blow, as before, and put 
them in the stove for a day ; when they are hard and fit to be taken 
out, place them on their ends in the powder ; have another mould of 
a link in two halves, and with this form the impression between each 
of the others so as to make it complete; then fill them, and finish as 


THK articles that come under this head are made by the sugar 
being brought to the ball, when it is grained by rubbing it against the 
sides of the pan. From this all fancy articles are made, such as fruit, 
eggs, cups, vases, &c. 

Ginger Candy. Take clarified syrup and boil it to the ball ; flavour 
it either with the essence of ginger or the root in powder ; then with 
a spoon or spatula rub some of it against the side of the pan until you 
perceive it turn white ; pour it into small square tins with edges, or 
paper cases, which have been oiled or buttered, and put it in a warm 
place, or on a hot stone, that it may become dappled. The eyrup 
should be coloured yellow, while boiling, with a little saffron. 

Peppermint, Lemon and Rose Candy are made after the same 
manner, colouring the lemon with saffron, and the rose with 

Coltsfoot or Horehound Candy. Make a strong infusion of the 
herbs, (See Infusions under the head of Syrups,) and use it for dis- 
solving the sugar, instead of taking syrup; raw sugar is? mostly used 
for those candies. Boil it to the ball, grain it and finish as ginger 

Artificial Fruit, Eggs, fyc. Prepare moulds with piaster of Paris 
from the natural objects you wish to represent; make them in two, 
three, or more pieces, so as to relieve freely, and have a hole at one 
end into which the sugar may be poured ; let them be made so as 
each part may be fitted together exactly ; and for this purpose make 
two or three round or square indentions on the edge of one part, so 
that the corresponding piece when cast, will form the counterpart, 
which may at all times be fitted with precision. Let the object you 
would take the cast from be placed in a frame made either of wood 
or of stiff paper, embed a part of it in fine sand, soft pipe-clay, or 


modelling wax, leaving as much of the mould exposed as you wish to 
form at one time, and oil it with sweet oil ; mix some of the prepared 
plaster with water, to the consistency of thick cream, and pour over 
it; when this is set, proceed with the other portions in the same 
manner until it is complete. Let them dry and harden for use. 

Take a sufficient quantity of syrup, (clarified with charcoal or 
animal black) to fill the mould, and boil it to the small ball ; rub 
some of it against the side to grain it ; when it turns white, pour it 
into the moulds: take them out when set, and put them into the 
stove at. a moderate heat to dry. The moulds must be soaked for an 
hour or two in cold water previously to their being used, which will 
be found better than oiling them, as it keeps the sugar delicately 
white, which oil does not. Colour your articles according to nature 
with liquid colours (see Colours) and camel's-hair pencils, or the usual 
pigments sold in boxes may be used. If a gloss is required, the 
colours should be mixed with a strong solution of gum Arabic or 
isinglass, to the desired tint. Eggs and fruit may be made as light 
and apparently as perfect as nature, by having moulds to open in two, 
without any orifice for filling them. Fill one half with the grained 
sugar, immediately close the mould, and turn it round briskly that it 
may be covered all over equally. To accomplish this, it is necessary 
to have an assistant that it may be done as speedily as possible. 

Burnt Jlhnonds. Take some fine Valencia or Jordan almonds, and 
sift all the dust, from them ; put a pint of clarified syrup into the pan for 
each pound of almonds, and place it with the almonds on the fire; boil to 
the ball, then take it off and stir the mixture well with a spatula that 
the sugar may grain and become almost a powder, whilst each almond 
has a coating. Put them into a coarse wire or cane sieve, and sift all the 
loose sugar from them, and also separate those which stick together. 
When cold, boil some more clarified syrup to the feather, put in the 
almonds, give them two or three boils in it, take them from the fire, and 
stir them with the spatula as before, until the sugar grains; sift and 
separate them, and keep them in glasses or boxes. A third coat may be 
given them in the same manner as the second, if they are required 

Burnt Jllmonds Red. The same as the last, using prepared cochi- 
neal to colour the syrup whilst it is boiling. 

Filberts and Pistachios. These are done the same as burnt almonds, 
but they are usually denominated prawlings, the nuts being only put 
into the sugar for two or three minutes before it is taken from the 
fire, and stirred. 

Common Burnt Jllmonds. These are made with raw sugar and 
skimmings, if you have any. Put some water with the sugar to dis- 
solve it; when it is near boiling, add the almonds, and let them boil 
in it until it comes to the small ball ; or when the almonds crack, take 
them from the fire, and stir them with a spatula until the sugar grains 
and becomes nearly a powder ; put them into a sieve, and separate 
the lumps. 


Orange Prawlings. Take four or five Havanna oranges, and cut 
off the peel in quarters, or small lengths; take off all the pith or 
white part of the peel, leaving only the yellow rinds, and cut in small 
pieces, about an inch long, and the size of pins. Have about a pint 
of clarified sugar boiling on the fire; when it comes to the blow, put 
in the pieces of peel, and let them boil until the sugar attains the 
small ball; take them off, and stir them with the spatula until the 
sugar grains and hangs about them; sift off the loose sugar; when 
cold, separate and keep them in a dry place. 

Lemon Prawlings. As orange. 


THESE comprehend all articles in sugar-boiling which eat short and 
crisp. They are used for all sorts of ornamental sugar-work. The 
rules and observations already laid down under this head must be par- 
ticularly noted, especially those for greasing the sugar so as to prevent 
its graining. 

Barley Sugar. Boil some clarified loaf sugar to the crack or cara- 
mel degree, using a little acid to prevent its graining: pour it out on 
a marble slab, which has been previously oiled or buttered. Four 
pieces of iron, or small square bars, are usually employed to form a 
sort of bay to prevent the sugar running off the stone, which is neces- 
sary in large casts. When the edges get set a little, remove the 
bars, and torn them over into the centre. This is occasionally fla- 
voured with lemons. When it is required, pour a few drops of the 
essential oil of lemons in the centre, before the edges are folded over, 
then cut it into narrow strips with a large pair of scissors or sheep- 
shears. When nearly cold, twist them, put them into glasses or tin 
boxes, and keep them closed to prevent the access of air. It is sel- 
dom boiled higher than the crack, and saffron is used to make it the 
colour of caramel. 

This derives the name of barley sugar from its being originally 
made with a decoction of barley, as a demulcent in coughs, for which 
it is now most generally used. 

Barley Sugar Drops. Boil some sugar as for the preceding. Spread 
some finely powdered and sifted loaf sugar on a table or tea-tray, 
with a piece of stick, round at the end similar to the half of a ball; 
make several holes, into which you run the sugar from a lipped pan, 
or it may be dropped on an oiled marble slab with a funnel, letting 
only one drop fall at a time; or from the lip pan, separating each 
drop with a small knife, or a straight piece of small wire; take them 
off the stone with a knife, mix them with powdered loaf sugar, sift 
them from it, and keep in glasses or tin boxes. 

Barley Sugar Tablets or Kisses.. Spread some sugar, as for the 
last; have a piece of wood about an inch and a half thick, with the 


surface divided into small squares, each being about an inch, and half 
an inch in depth ; with this form the impressions in the sugar, and 
fill them with sugar boiled as for drops, flavouring it with essence of 
lemon ; or instead of this it may be poured out in a sheet on an oiled 
marble slab, as for barley sugar, and when nearly cold divide it into 
pieces with a tin frame, having small square divisions, when the whole 
sheet may be divided at once by pressing hard on it so as to cut it 
nearly through. When cold, separate them and mix them with 
powdered sugar, take them out and fold them separately in fancy or 
coloured papers, with a motto on each. They are also occasionally 
made into balls thus: First cast the sugar in a sheet on an oiled 
marble slab ; when the edges are set, fold them in the middle, then 
oil a small square tin with edges to it, put the sugar in this, and 
place it under the fire-place of the stove so as to keep warm ; cut off 
a piece and roll it into a pipe, then cut it into small pieces with a pair 
of shears, and let your assistant roll it into small balls under his hand 
on a sand-stone; marble is too smooth for this purpose. Many lads 
who are used to it can turn eight or ten under each hand at one time. 
When they are finished, put them into powdered sugar, wrap them 
in fancy papers, fringed at the ends, put a motto in each, and fasten 
them with small bands of gold paper. Sometimes a cracker is folded 
up in each, which is made with two narrow strips of stiff paper, a 
small piece of sand or glass paper is pasted on the end of each, and 
these are placed over each other with a little fulminating powder be- 
tween, a piece of thin paper is bound round it, and pasted to keep 
them together; when these are pulled asunder, the two rough sur- 
faces meeting cause the powder to explode, and out flies the ball of 
sugar with the motto. This innocent amusement often causes much 
mirth in a companj'. 

Acid Drops and Sticks. Boil clarified sugar to the crack, and 
pour it on an oiled marble stone: pound some tartaric or citric acid 
to a fine powder, and strew over it about a half or three quarters 
of an ounce of the former, according to its quality, and less of the 
latter, to seven pounds of sugar ; turn the edges over into the mid- 
dle, and mix the acid by folding it over, or by working it in a similar 
manner as dough is moulded, but do not pull it ; put, it in a tin rubbed 
over with oil or butter, and place it under the stove to keep warm; 
then cut off a small piece at a time, and roll it into a round pipe ; 
cut them off in small pieces the size of drops, with shears, and let 
your assistant roll them round under his hand, and flatten them. Mix 
them with powdered sugar, sift them from it, and keep them in boxes 
or glasses. 

When flavoured with lemon, they are called lemon-acid drops, 
with otto of roses, rose-acid drops. The sticks are made in the 
same manner as the drops, without being cut into small pieces. 

To extract the Acid from Candied Drops, <fyc. All the articles 
which have acid mixed with them are extremely liable to grain, when 
they are useless for any purpose whatever, except, to .sell for broken 


pieces, as they cannot be boiled again unless the acid is extracted 
The method of doing this is at present not generally known in the 
trade, and it is kept by many that are in possession of it as a great 
secret. A sovereign is often paid for this recipe alone. However 
groat the secret may be considered, it is only returning to the first 
principle in the manufacture of sugar. When the juice is expressed 
from the canes, it contains a considerable quantity of oxalic acid, 
which must be destroyed before it will granulate into sugar: for this 
purpose lime is employed, which has the desired effect; so will it also 
in this case, but chalk or whitening is most generally used. Firet 
dissolve your acid sugar in water ; when this is thoroughly accomplish- 
ed, mix in a sufficient quantity of either of these alkalies in powder 
to cause a strong effervescence ; after it has subsided, pass it through 
a flannel bag, according to the directions for clarifying sugar. The 
filtered syrup will be fit to use for any purpose, and may be boiled 
again to the crack or caramel degrees as well as if no acid had ever 
been mixed with it. Let the pan it is dissolved in be capable of con- 
taining as much again as there is in it, or the effervescence will flow 

Raspberry Candy. This may either be made from raw or refined 
sugar. Boil it to the crack, and colour it with cochineal ; pour it on 
a stone rubbed over with a little oil or butter, cut off a small piece, 
and keep it warm to stripe or case the other part, when finished; to 
the remainder add a little tartaric acid (not so much as for drops), 
and some raspberry-paste, sufficient to flavour it. The residue of 
raspberries used for making vinegar, and preserved with an equal 
quantity of sugar, or even less, as for raspberry cakes, does very well 
for this purpose. Fold the edges over into the centre, and attach it 
to a hook fixed against the wall: pull it towards you, throwing it on 
the hook each time after having pulled it out; continue doing this 
until it gets rather white and shining, then make it into a compact 
long roll, and either stripe it with the piece you cut off, or roll it out 
in a sheet with a rolling-pin, and wrap it round it so as to form a sort 
of case; then pull it into long narrow sticks, and cut them the required 

Clove, Ginger, or Peppermint Candy. These are all made in the 
same way as raspberry, using the essential oil of each for flavour. 
For clove, the mixture, whilst boiling, is coloured with cochineal ; 
ginger with saffron ; but the peppermint must be kept perfectly 
white, except the stripes, which is done by cutting off as many pieces 
from the bulk as you have colours, which should be in powder ; put a 
sufficiency in each piece to give the desired tint, and keep them 
warm. When the remaining portion of the sugar is pulled, lay them 
over the surface in narrow stripes, double the roll together, and the 
face each way will be alike. Pull them out into long sticks, and 
twist them ; make them round by rolling them under the hand, or 
they may be cut into small pieces with a pair of shears or scissors. 

Brandy Halls, <fr. These are made from loaf sugar, boiled to .he 


crack, and coloured either with cochineal or saffron, and finished in 
the same way as acidulated drops, without being flattened. 

No vat. Two pounds of sweet almonds, one pound of sugar, one 
pound of water. Blanch the almonds, and cut them in slices, dry 
them at the mouth of a cool oven, and if slightly browned the better; 
powder the sugar, and put it into a stewpan, with the water; place 
it on the fire to melt, stirring it with a spatula until it becomes a fine 
brown, then mix in the almonds, and let them be well covered with 
the sugar; pour it out on an oiled marble stone. It may be made 
into a thick or thin sheet, and cut with a knife into small pieces, such 
as dice, diamonds, &c. The surface may be strewed with currants, 
fillets of pistachios, or coarse sugar, and cut into different forms with 
tin cutters. It may also be formed into baskets, vases, &c. Oil the 
interior of a mould, and spread the nogat over it, whilst warm, as 
thin and even as possible. To save the fingers from being burnt, it 
may be spread with a lemon. Detach it from the mould when warm, 
and let it remain until cold that it may retain its shape perfectly, then 
fasten the different parts together with caramel sugar. For baskets, 
a handle of spun sugar may be placed over it, or ornamented with it 
according to fancy. These may be filled with whipped or other 
creams when required to be served. 

Jllmond Rock. This is a similar production to nogat, and is made 
with raw sugar, which is boiled to the crack. Pour it on an oiled 
stone, and fill it with sweet almonds, either blanched or not; the 
almonds are mixed with the sugar by working them into it with the 
hands, in a similar manner as you would mix anything into a piece 
of dough. If they were stirred into the sugar in the pan it would 
grain, which is the reason why it is melted for nogat. Form the rock 
into a ball or roll, and make it into a sheet, about two inches thick, 
by rolling it with a rolling-pin. The top may be divided into diamonds 
or squares by means of a long knife or piece of iron: when it is 
nearly cold cut it into long 1 narrow pieces with a strong knife and 

Almond Hardbake. Oil a square or round tin with low edges; 
split some almonds in half, put them in rows over the bottom, with 
the split side downward, until the surface is covered ; boil some raw 
sugar to the crack, and pour it over them so as to cover the whole 
with a thin sheet of sugar. Cocoa nut, cut in thin slices, currant, 
and other similar candies, are made as the hardbake, except that the 
sugar is grained before it is poured over. 


To attain proficiency in this part, it requires much practice, and 
also a good taste for design, and to be expert in the boiling of sugar, 
taking particular care to avoid its graining. Baskets, temples, vases, 
fountains, &c., are made by these means. It may almost be termed 
the climax of the art. The moulds for this purpose may be made 


either of copper or tin, so as to deliver well. Let them be slightly 
rubbed all over, on the part you intend to spin the sugar, with butter 
or oil. 

Boil clarified syrup to the degree of caramel, taking care to keep 
the sides of the pad free from sugar. The moment it is at the crack, 
add a little acid to grease it (see Sugar Boiling). When it has at- 
tained the required degree, dip the bottom of the pan into cold water, 
take it out, and let it cool a little; then take a common table-spoon, 
dip it in the sugar, holding the mould in your left hand, and from the 
spoon run the sugar over the mould, either inside or out, with the 
threads which flow from it, which may be either fine or coarse, ac- 
cording to the state of the sugar; if they are required very coarse, 
pass the hand over them two or three times; for when it is hot it 
flows in finer strings than it will when cooler ; form it on the mould 
into a sort of trellis-work ; loosen it from the mould carefully, and let 
it remain until quite cold before it is taken off, that it may retain its 
shape. When the sugar gets too cold to flow from the spoon, place 
it by the side of the stove or fire to melt. Young beginners had bet- 
ter draw their designs for handles of baskets, &c., on a stone with a 
pencil before it is oiled, and then spin the sugar over them. 

To make a Silver Web. Boil clarified syrup to the crack, using the 
same precautions as before observed, giving it a few boils after the 
ncid is added ; dip the bottom of the pan in water and let the sugar 
cool a little; then take the handle of a spoon, or two forks tied to- 
gether, dip it into the sugar, and form it either on the inside or out- 
side of a mould, with very fine strings, by passing the hand quickly 
backwards and forwards, taking care that it does not fall in drops, 
which would spoil the appearance of the work. With this may be 
represented the hair of a helmet, the water of a fountain, &c. Tako 
a fork, or an iron skewer, and hold it in your left hand as high as you 
can, dip the spoon in the sugar, and with the right hand throw it over 
the skewer, when it will hang from it in very fine threads of con- 
siderable length. 

To make a Gold Web. Boil syrup to caramel height, colouring it 
with saffron, and form it as directed for the last. It can v be f olded up 
to form bands or rings, &c. Fasten it to the other decorations with 

If any of the strings or threads of sugar should pass over those 
parts where they are not required, so as to spoil the other decorations 
in the making of baskets or other ornaments, it may be removed with 
a hot knife without breaking or injuring the pieco. 

Chantilly Baskets. Prepare some ratafias, let them be rather small, 
and as near of a size as possible; boil some sugar to the caramel de- 
gree, rub over the inside of a mould slightly with oil, dip the edge 
of the ratafias in sugar, and stick them together, the face of the rata- 
fias being towards the mould, except the last two rows on the top, 
which should be reversed, remembering always to place their faces 


to meet the eye when the sugar is cold ; take it out, and join the bot- 
tom and top together with the same sugar; make a handle of spun 
snorar, and plnce over it. Some sugar may be spun over the inside 
of the basket, to strengthen it, as directed for webs. Line the inside 
with pieces of Savoy or sponge cakes, and fill it with custard or whip- 
ped cream, ur the slices of cake may be spread with raspberry jam. 
Half fill it with boiled custard, then put in a few Savoy or almond 
cakes, soaked in wine, and cover the top with whipped cream; or it 
may be filled with fancy pastry, or meringues. All sorts of fancy 
cakes may be made into baskets or ratafias. 

Grape, Orange, or Cherry Baskets. These are made similar to the 
last; the oranges nre carefully peeled and divided into small pieces, 
taking off the pith. Insert a small piece of stick or whisk in the end 
of each, dip them in caramel, and form them on the inside of an oiled 
mould. Cherries and grapes may be used either fresh, or preserved 
wet, and dru-d. Dip them in caramel, and form them as oranges. 
Each of these, or nny other fruit, after being dipped in caramel, may 
be laid on an oiled marble slab separately, and served on plates in a 
pyramid, with fancy papers, flowers, &c. The baskets are finished 
as Chants !l-v with spun sugar. 

Jtlmnnd Baskets. Blanch some fine Jordan almonds, and cut them 
into thin slices, and colour them in a small copper pan over the fire 
with prepared liquid colour (see Colours). Put them into the pan, 
and pour in colour sufficient to give the desired tint; rub them about 
in the pnn with your hand until they are quite dry : form them as for 
u Chantilly basket, or else form them on an oiled marble slab, and 
ypin suiiar over them on each side. Afterwards arrano-e them in 
a mould, or build them to any design, first having a pattern cut out 
in paper, and form them on the stone from it. 

Spanish Candy. Oil a quart of clarified syrup to the crack. Have 
some icing- previously prepared as for cakes, or mix some fine pow- 
dered loaf sugar with the white of an egg to a thick consistency as 
for icing; take the sugar from the fire, and as soon as the boiling has 
gone down stir in a spoonful of this or the icing, which must be done 
very quickly, without stopping. Let it rise once and fall ; the second 
time it rises, pour it out in a mould or paper case, and cover it with 
the pan to prevent its falling. Some persons pour it out the first time 
it rises, and immediately cover it as before. It may be made good 
both ways. If it is required coloured, add the colouring to the syrup 
whilst it is boiling, or with the icing, adding more euar to give it the 
same stiffness as before. 

Vases or Baskets, ^*c., in Spanish Candy. Prepare .some plaster 
moulds, as for grained sugar; soak them in water before you use 
them; prepare some sugar as for the last, and fill thp moulds. When 
finished they may be ornamented with gurn-paste, piping, or gold- 
paper borders. Fill them with flowers, meringues, fancy pastry, 
caramel, fruits, &c. They may also be made in copper or tin moulds, 
by first oiling them before they are filled. 



Cacao Nuts. The cocoa or cacao nut, of which chocolate is made, 
is the seed of I he fruit of a tree common in South America and the 
West Indies. The seeds of the nuts, which are nearly of the shape 
of an almond, are found to the number of from thirty to forty in a 
pod. The pods are oval, resembling a cucumber in shape. The dif- 
ferent sorts are distinguished by name, according to the places which 
produce them, thus, the cacao of Cayenne, Caraccas, Berbice, and 
the islands of St.. Magdalen and Domingo. These all differ in the 
size of their almonds or seed, quality and taste. The most esteemed 
is the large Caraccas, the almond of which, though somewhat flat, 
resembles the shape of a large bean. The next are those of St. Mag- 
dalen and Berbice. The seeds of these are less flat than those of the 
Caraccas kind, and the skin is covered with a fine ash-coloured dust. 
The others are very crude and oily, and only fit to make the butter 
of cacao. The kernels, when fresh, are bitter, and are deprived of 
this by being buried in the ground for thirty or forty days. Good nuts 
should have a thin brittle skin, of a dark black colour; and the ker- 
nel, when the skin is taken off, should appear full and shining, of a 
dusky colour, with a reddish shade. Choose the freshest, not worm- 
eaten, or mouldy on the inside, which it is subject to be. 

Equal parts of the cacao of Caraccas, St. Magdalen, and Berbice, 
mixed together, make a chocolate of first-rate quality ; and these pro- 
portions give to it that rich and oily taste which it ought to have. 
That made from the cacao of Caraccas only is too dry, and that from 
the islands too fat and crude. 

Roasting. Take a sufficient quantity of nuts to cover the bottom 
of an iron pot two or three inches deep, place them on the fire to, 
roast, stirring them constantly with the spatula that, the heat may be 
imparted to them equally. A coffee-roasting machine would answer 
for this purpose admirably, taking care not to torrefy them too much, 
as the oil of the nut suffers thereby, and it becomes a dark brown or 
black, grows bitter, and spoils the colour of the chocolate. Musty or 
mouldy nuts must be roasted more than the others, so as to deprive 
them of their bad taste and smell. It is only necessary to heat them 
until the skin will separate from the kernel on being pressed between 
the fingers. Remove them from the fire, and separate the skins. If 
you have a large quantity, this may be accomplished by putting them 
in a sieve which has the holes rather large, but not so much as to 
allow the nuts to pass through; then squeeze or press them in your 
hands, and the skins will pass through the rneshes of the sieve; or, 
after being separated from the nuts, they may be got rid of by win- 
nowing or fanning them in a similar manner to corn. When they 
are separated, put them again in the fire, as before directed, stirring 
them constantly until warmed through, without browning. You may 
know when they are heated enough by the outside appearing shiny ; 


again winnow, to separate any burnt skin which may have escaped 
the first time. 

The Making of Chocolate. An iron pestle and mortar is requisite 
for this purpose, also a stone of the closest grain and texture which 
can be procured, and a rolling-pin made of the same material, or of 
iron. The stone must be fixed in such a manner that it may be 
heated from below with a pot of burning charcoal, or something 

Warm the mortar and pestle by placing them on a stove, or by 
means of charcoal, until they are so hot that you can scarcely bear 
your hand against them. Wipe the mortar out clean, and put any 
convenient quantity of your prepared nuts in it, which you pound 
until they are reduced to an oily paste into which the pestle will sink 
by its own weight. If it is required sweet, add about one-half, or 
two-thirds of its weight of loaf sugar in powder; again pound it so 
as to mix it well together, then put it in a pan, and place it in the 
stove to keep warm. Take a portion of it arid roll or grind it well on 
the slab with the roller (both being previously heated like the mor- 
tar) until it is reduced to a smooth impalpable paste, which will melt 
in the mouth like butter. When this is accomplished, put it in another 
pan, and keep it warm until the whole is similarly disposed of; then 
place it again on the stone, which must not be quite so warm as pre- 
viously, work it over again, and divide it into pieces of two, four, 
eight, or sixteen ounces each, which you put in moulds. Give it a 
shake, and the chocolate will become flat. When cold it will easily 
turn out. 

The moulds for chocolate may either be made of tin or copper, and 
of different devices, such as men, animals, fish, culinary or other uten- 
sils, &c. ; also some square ones for half-pound cakes, having divi- 
visions on the bottom which are relievoed. These cause the hollow 
impressions on the cakes. 

The Bayonne or Spanish chocolate is in general the most esteemed. 
The reason of its superior quality is attributed by some to the hard- 
ness of the Pyrenean stone which they employ in making it, which 
does not absorb the oil from the nuts. They do not use any pestle 
and mortar, but levigate their nuts on the stone, which is fixed on a 
slope ; and in the second pounding or rolling the paste is pressed 
closely on the stone, so as to extract the oil, which runs into a pan 
containing the quantity of sugar intended to be used, and is placed 
underneath to receive it; the oil of the cacao and sugar a re then well 
mixed together with a spatula, again mixed with the paste on the 
stone, and finished. 

Vanilla Chocolate, Ten pounds of prepared nuts, ten pounds of 
sugar, vanilla two ounces and a half, cinnamon one ounce, one drachm 
of mace, and two drachms of cloves, or the vanilla may be used 

Prepare your nuts according to the directions already given. Cut 


the vanilla in small bits, pound it fine with part of the sugar, and 
mix it with the paste ; boil about one-half of the sugar to the blow 
before you mix it to the chocolate, otherwise it will eat hard. Pro- 
ceed as before, and either put it in small moulds or divide it in 
tablets, which you wrap in tinfoil. This is in general termed eatable 

Cinnamon, Mace or Clove Chocolate. These are made in the same 
manner as the last, using about an ounce and a half or two ounces 
of either sort of spice, in powder, to that quantity, or add a suffi- 
ciency of either of these essential oils to flavour. 

Stomachic Chocolate. Four ounces of chocolate prepared without 
sugar, vanilla one ounce, cinnamon in powder one ounce, ambergris 
forty-eight grains, sugar three ounces; warm your paste by pounding 
in the heated mortar, or on the stone, add your aromatics in powder 
to the sugar, and mix it well with the paste; keep it close in tin 
boxes. About a dozen grains of this is to be put into the chocolate 
pot when it is made, which gives it an agreeable and delightful fla- 
vour, and renders it highly stomachic. It may also be used for flavour- 
ing the chocolate tablets. 

Chocolate Harlequin Pistachios. Warm some sweet chocolate by 
pounding it in a hot mortar; when it is reduced to a malleable paste, 
take a little of it and wrap round a blanched pistachio nut, roll it in 
the hand to form it as neat as you can, throw it in some nonpareils of 
various colours ; let it be covered all over. Dispose of the whole in 
the same manner; fold th-jm in coloured or fancy papers, with mot- 
toes; the ends should be cut like fringe. Almonds may be -tone the 
same way, using vanilla chocolate, if preferred. 

Chocolate Drops, with Nonpareils. Have some warm chocolate, as 
for pistachios; some add a little butter or oil to it to make it work 
more free ; make it into balls about the size of a small marble, by 
rolling a little in the hand, or else put some of the paste on a flat 
piece of t*uod, on which you form, and take them off with a knife. 
Place them on sheets of white paper about an inch apart. When the 
sheet is covered, take it by the corners and lift it up and down, let- 
ting it touch the table each time, which will flatten them. Cover 
the surface entirely with white nonpareils, and shake off the surplus 
ones. When the drops are cold they can be taken off the paper 
easily. The bottom of the drops should be about as broad as a six- 
pence. Some of them may be left quite plain. 

Good chocolate should be of a clear red brown. As the colour id 
paler or darker, so is the article the more or less good. The surface 
should bo smooth and shining. If this gloss comes off by touching, 
it indicates an inferior quality, and is probably adulterated. When 
broken, it ought to be compact and close, and not appear crumbly. 
It should melt gently in the mouth when oaten, leaving no roughness 
or astringency, but rather a cooling sensation on the tongue. The 
latter is a certain sign of its being genuine. 



THESE are composed of loaf sugar in fine powder, and other sub- 
stances, either liquid or in powder, which are mixed together and 
made into a paste with dissolved gum, rolled out into thin sheets, and 
formed with tin cutters into little cakes, either oval, square, or round, 
and dried. 

One ounce of gum tragacanth, and one pint of water. Let it 
soak in a warm place twenty-four hours; put it in a coarse towel or 
cloth, and let two persons continue twisting it until the whole of the 
gum is squeezed through the interstices of the cloth. One ounce of 
this dissolved gum is sufficient for four or five pounds of sugar; one 
ounce of dissolved gum Arabic to twelve ounces of sugar. 

Either of these gums may be used separately, or in the proportion 
of one ounce of gum dragon to three ounces of Arabic mixed to- 
gether. These are generally used for medicated lozenges; but gum 
Arabic alone is considered to make the best peppermint. 

Peppermint Lozenges, No. 1. Take double-refined loaf sugar, 
pound and sift it through a lawn sieve; make a bay with the su^ar 
on a marble slab, into which pour some dissolved gum, and mix it 
into a paste as you would dough, flavouring the mass with oil of 
peppermint. One ounce of this is sufficient for forty pounds of loz- 
enges. Some persons prefer mixing their gum and sugar together 
at first in a mortar ; but as it is indifferent which way is pursued, that 
may be followed which is most convenient. Roll out the paste on a 
marble slab until it is about the eighth of an inch in thickness, using 
starch powder to dust it with, to prevent its sticking to the slab and 
pin. Before cutting them out, strew or dust over the surface with 
powder mixed with'lawned sugar, and rub it over with the heel of 
your hand, which gives it a smooth face. This operation is termed 
" facing up." Brush this off, and again dust the surface with starch 
powder, cut them out, and place in wooden trays. Put them in the 
hot closet to dry. Note All lozenges are finished in the same 

Peppermint Lozenges, No. 2. These are made as No. 1, adding a 
little starch-powder or prepared plaster as for gum paste to the paste, 
instead of using all sugar. 

Peppermint Lozenges, Nos. 3 and 4. Proceed in the same manner 
as for No. 2, using for each, more starch powder in proportion. Use 
smaller cutters, and let the paste be rolled thicker. 

Transparent Mint Lozenges, No. 5. These are made from loaf 
sugar in coarse powder, the finest having been taken out by sifting it 
through a lawn sieve. Mix it into a paste with dissolved gum Arabic 
and a little lemon juice. Flavour with oil of peppermint. Finish a? 
for No. 1. 


Superfine Transparent Mint Lozenges. The sugar for these must 
be in coarser grains. Pass the sugar through a coarse hair sieve. 
Separate the finest by sifting it through a moderately fine hair sieve. 
Mix and flavour as the others. 

Note. The coarser the grains of sugar, the more transparent the 
lozenges. The finer particles of sugar being mixed with it, destroy 
their transparency. The solution of gum should be thicker in pro- 
portion as the sugar is coarse. 

Rose Lozenges. Make your paste as No. 1, using the essential oil 
or otto of roses to flavour them; or the gum may be dissolved in rose 
water, and a little essential oil may be added to give additional fla- 
vour, if required. Colour the paste with carmine or rose pink. 

Cinnamon Lozenges. Gum tragacanth, dissolved, two ounces, 
lawned sugar eight pounds, cinnamon in powder one ounce, essential 
oil ten drops. 

Mix into a paste, and colour with bole ammoniac. A stomachic. 

Clove Lozenges. Sugar eight pounds, cloves three ounces, gutn 
tragacanth two ounces. 

Each lozenge should contain two grains of cloves. A restorative 
and stomachic. 

Lavender Lozenges. Make as rose lozenges, using the oil of laven- 
der instead of rose. 

Ginger Lozenges. Eight pounds of sugar and eight ounces of the 
best ground ginger. Mix into a paste with dissolved gum. Essence 
may be used instead of the powder, colouring it with saffron. A 
stimulant and stomachic. 

Nutmeg Lozenges. Sugar eight pounds, oil of nutmegs one ounce, 
dissolved gum sufficient to mix into a paste. A stimulant and stoma- 

Rhubarb Lozenges. - Sugar four pounds, best Turkey rhubarb, in 
powder, ten ounces. * 

Sulphur Lozenges. Four pounds of sugar, eight ounces of sub- 
limed sulphur, gum sufficient to make a paste. For asthma and the 

Tolu Lozenges. Sugar four pounds, balsam of tolu three drachms, 
or the tincture of the balsam one fluid ounce, cream of tartar six 
ounces, or tartaric acid one drachm, dissolved gum sufficient to make 
a paste. These may also be flavoured by adding a quarter of an ounce 
of vanilla, and sixty drops of the essence of amber. The articles 
must be reduced to a fine powder with the sugar. A pectoral and 

Ipecacuanha Lozenges. Sugar four pounds, ipecacuanha one ounce, 
apothecaries' weight, dissolved gum sufficient to make a paste. Make 
960 lozenges, each containing half a grain of ipecacuanha. An ex- 
pectorant and stomachic, used in coughs. 


Saffron Lozenges. Saffron dried and powdered, four ounces, euga 
four pounds, dissolved gum sufficient. An anodyne, pectoral, em- 

Yellow Pectoral Lozenges. Sugar one pound, Florence orris-root 
powder twelve drachms, liquorice-root, six drachms, almonds one 
ounce, saffron in powder four scruples, dissolved gum sufficient to 
make a paste. Make a decoction of the liquorice to moisten the gum 

Lozenges for the Heartburn. Prepared chalk four ounces, crab's 
eyes prepared two ounces, bole ammoniac one ounce, nutmeg one 
scruple, or cinnamon half an ounce. Make into a paste with dis- 
solved gum Arabic. 

Steel Lozenges. Pure iron filings or rust of iron one pound, cinna- 
mon in powder, four ounces, fine sugar seven pounds, dissolved gum 
a sufficient quantity to make a paste. A stomachic and tonic. 

Magnesia Lozenges. Calcined magnesia eight ounces, sugar four 
ounces, ginger in powder two scruples, dissolved gum Arabic suffi- 
cient to form a paste. 

Magnesia two ounces, sugar eight ounces, sufficient gum Arabic 
to make a paste, Dissolved in orange-flower water. 

Nitre Lozenges. Sugar four pounds, sal-nitre one pound, dissolved 
gum tragacanth, sufficient to make a paste. A diuretic internally ; 
held in the mouth it removes incipient sore throats. 

Marshmallow Lozenges. Marshmallow roots in powder one pound, 
or slice the root and make a strong decoction, in which you dissolve 
the gum, fine sugar four pounds. Mix into a paste. If six drops of 
laudanum be added, with two ounces of liquorice, the pectoral quality 
of these lozenges will be improved. Good for obstinate coughs. 

Vanilla Lozenges. Sugar four pounds, vanilla in powder, six 
ounces, or sufficient to give a strong flavour. Make into a paste 
with dissolved gum. 

Catechu Lozenges. Sugar four pounds, catechu twelve ounces. 
Make into a paste with dissolved gum. 

Catechu a PJlmbergris. To the paste for catechu lozenges add 
sixteen grains of ambergris. 

Catechu with Musk. The same as for catechu, adding sixteen 
grains of musk. 

Catechu with Orange-flowers. As before, adding twelve drops of 
essence of neroli. 

Catechu with Violets. As before, adding Florence orris-root in 
powder, three drachms. These are all used to fasten the teeth, and 
disguise an offensive breath. 

Ching's Yellow Worm Lozenges. Fine sugar twenty-eight pounds, 
calomel washed in spirits of wine one pound, saffron four drachms, 
dissolved gum tragacanth sufficient to make a paste. Make a decoc- 


tion of the saffron in one pint of water, strain, and mix with it. 
Each lozenge should contain one grain of mercury. 

Ching's Brown Worm Lozenges. ^Calomel washed in spirits of 
wine (termed white panacea of mercury}, seven ounces, resin of jalap 
three pounds eight ounces, fine sugar nine pounds, dissolved gum 
sufficient quantity to make a paste. Each lozenge should contain 
half a grain of mercury. 

Panacea, one ounce, resin of jalap two ounces, sugar two pounds. 
Dissolve a sufficient quantity of gum in rose-water to make a paste. 
Make 2520 lozenges, weighing eight grains each, and containing a 
quarter of a grain of calomel and half a grain of jalap. 

These lozenges should be kept very dry after they are finished, as 
the damp, acting on the sugar and mercury, generates an acid in them. 

Note. In mixing these, as well as all other medicated lozenges, the 
different powders should be well mixed with the sugar, in order that 
each lozenge may have its due portion. If this is not attended to, 
the perfect distribution of the component parts cannot be depended on, 
and one lozenge may contain double or treble the quantity of medi- 
cated matter it ought to have, whilst others contain comparatively 
none ; therefore those that have the greatest portion may often prove 
injurious by acting contrary to what was intended. 

Bath Pipe. Eight pounds of sugar, twelve ounces of liquorice. 
Warm the liquorice and cut it in thin slices, dissolve it in one quart 
of boiling water, stir it well to assist the solution ; let it settle, when 
dissolved, to allow any impurities or bits of copper which are often 
found in it to fall down ; pour it off free from the sediment; dissolve 
the gum in the clear part, and mix into a paste as for lozenges. Roll 
out a piece with your hand in a round form ; finish rolling it with a 
long flat piece of wood, until it is about the size of the largest end of 
the stem of a tobacco-pipe. Dry them in the stove as lozenges. 
These may be also flavoured with anise-seed by adding a few drops 
of the oil, or with catechu or violets by adding the powders of orris- 
root or catechu. 

Peppermint or other Pipes. Any of the pastes for lozenges may be 
formed into pipes by rolling it out as directed for Bath pipes. They 
are occasionally striped with blue green, and yellow, by making 
strips with liquid colour on the paste and twisting before you roll it 
out with the board. 

Brilliants. Take either of the pastes for peppermint lozenges 
from No. 1 to 4, and cut it into small fancy devices, such as hearts, 
diamonds, spades, triangles, squares, &c. 

Refined Liquorice. Four pounds of the best Spanish juice, and two 
pounds of gum Arabic. Dissolve the gum in warm water, as for 
Bath pipe. Strain and dissolve the gum in the solution of liquorice. 
Place it over a gentle fire, in a broad pan, and let it boil gradually, 
stirring it continually (or it will burn) until it is reduced to a paste. 
Roll it into pipes or cylinders of convenient lengths, and polish by 


putting them in a box and rolling them together, or by rubbing them 
with the hand, or a cloth. This is often adulterated by using glue 
instead of gum, and by dipping the pipes in a thin solution, which 
gives them a beautiful gloss when dry. In establishments where 
this is manufactured on a large scale, the liquorice is dissolved in a 
large bain-marie, and stirred with spatulas which are worked by a 


CHOOSE the best treble-refined sugar with a good grain, pound it, and 
pass it through a coarse hair sieve; sift again in a lawn sieve to take 
out the finest part, as the sugar, when it is too fine, makes the drops 
heavy and compact, and destroys their brilliancy and shining appear- 

Put some of the coarse grains of sugar into a small drop pan (these 
are made with a lip on the right side, so that when it is held in the 
left hand the drops can be detached with the right), moisten it with 
any aromatic spirit you intend to use, and a sufficient quantity of 
water to make it of a consistence just to drop off the spoon or spatula 
without sticking to it. Colour with prepared cochineal, or any other 
colour, ground fine and moistened with a little water. Let the tint 
which you give be as light and delicate as possible. Place the pan 
on the stove fire, on a ring of the same size. Stir it occasionally 
until it makes a noise, when it is near boiling, but do not let it boil , 
then take it from the fire, and stir it well with the spatula until it is 
of the consistence that when dropped it will not spread too much, 
but retain a round form on the surface. If it should be too thin, add 
a little coarse sugar, which should be reserved for the purpose, and 
make it of the thickness required. Have some very smooth and even 
plates, made either of tin or copper; let them be quite clean, and 
drop them on these, separating the sugar from the lip of the pan with 
a piece of straight wire, as regularly as possible. About two hours 
Afterwards they may be taken off with a thin knife. If you have not 
the convenience of tin or copper plates, they may be dropped on 
smooth cartridge paper. Wet the back of the paper when you want 
to take them off. Cover the bottom of a sieve with paper, lay them 
on it, and put them in the stove for a few hours. If they remain 
too long, it will destroy their fragrancy. 

Chocolate Drops. One pound of sugar, one ounce of chocolate. 
Scrape the chocolate to a powder, and mix it with the sugar in coarse 
grains, moisten it with clean water, and proceed according to the 
instructions already given, but do not mix more than can be dropped 
out whilst warm at one time. If any remains in the pot, it will grease 
the next which you mix, and will not attain the consistence required. 

Coffee Drops. One ounce of coffee, one pound of sugar. Make a 


strong and clear infusion of coffee, as directed for coffee ice, and uso 
it to moisten the sugar. Make the drops as above. 

Cinnamon Drops. One ounce of cinnamon, one pound of sugar* 
Pulverize the cinnamon, and sift it through a lawn sieve. Mix it 
with the sugar, and add two or three drops of the essential oil. If 
the flavour is not strong enough, moisten it with the water and pro- 
ceed as before. The flavour may be given with the essential oil only, 
colouring them with bole ammoniac. 

Clnve Drops. Make as cinnamon. 

Vanilla Drops Make as cinnamon, using a little sugar to pound 
the vanilla. Use sufficient to give a good flavour ; or it may be 
moistened with the essence of vanilla; but this greases it as choco- 

Violet Drops. One pound of sugar, one ounce of orris-powder. 
Moisten with water, and colour violet. 

Catechu Drops. One pound of sugar, three ounces of catechu. 
Make as violet. These may also have the addition of a little musk 
or ambergris about fifteen grains. 

Ginger Drops. Mix a sufficient quantity of the best powdered 
ginger to give it the desired taste, or flavour it with the essence of 
ginger, and colour it with saffron. Moisten with water, and make as 

Lemon Drops. Rub off the yellow rind of some lemons on a piece 
of rough sugar, scrape it off, and mix it with the coarse sugar. Use 
sufficient to give a good flavour, and colour with saffron a light yel- 
low ; moisten with water, as others. 

Rose Drops. Moisten the sugar with rose water, and colour it with 

Peppermint Drops. Moisten the sugar with peppermint water, or 
flavour it with the essence of peppermint, and moisten it with water. 

Orange-flower Drops. Use orange-flower water to moisten the 
sugar, or flavour it with the essence of neroli and moisten with 

Orgiat Drops Make milk of almonds, as directed under the head 
of Orgeat Syrup, using a little orange-flower water; moisten the 
s-ugar with it. 

Raspberry Drops. Press out the juice of some ripe raspberries 
through a piece of flannel or cloth, and moisten the sugar with it. 
All fruit drops are made in the same way, that is, with th'e expressed 
juice, except pine-apple. When you first rub off the rind of the 
fruit on sugar, pound the pulp of the fruit, and pass through a hair 
sieve. Scrape off the sugar on which the rind was rubbed, and mix 
it with a sufficient quantity of the pulp to give the desired flavour to 
the coarse grains, and moisten it with water. The whole of these 


grease the sugar* and require the same precautions as chocolate 


A COPPER comfit-pan is requisite for this purpose. A bar, having 
chains at each end, with a hook and swivel in the centre, is attached 
to it, by which it is suspended from the ceiling or a beam, so as to 
hang about as high as the breast over a stove or charcoal fire, that the 
pan may be kept at a moderate heat and at such a distance as to 
allow it to be swung backwards and forwards without touching the 
fire or stove. A preserving-pan, containing clarified syrup, must be 
placed by the side of the stove, or over another fire, that it may be 
kept hot, but not boiling; also a ladle for throwing the syrup into the 
pan, and a pearling cot. This last somewhat resembles a funnel, 
without the pipe or tube, and having a small hole in the centre with 
a pointed piece of stick or spigot fitted into it, which, being drawn 
out a little, allows the syrup when placed in it to run out in a small 
stream. A piece of string tied several times across the centre of the 
top of the cot, and twisted with the spigot, allows it to be drawn out 
and regulated at pleasure. 

Scotch Caraway Comfits. Sift two pounds of seeds in a hair sieve 
to free them from dust, put them into the comfit-pan, and rub them 
well about the bottom with your hand until they are quite warm ; have 
some clarified loaf sugar in syrup and boiled to the small thread ; give 
them a charge by pouring over them about two table-spoonfuls to com- 
mence with ; rub and shake them well about the pan, that they may 
take the sugar equally, until they are quite dry. Be careful in not 
making them too wet in the first charges by using too much syrup, 
or they will lie of a lump and get doubled, and you will have diffi- 
culty in parting them. It will prevent their sticking together if the 
hand is passed through them between every swing of the pan, and 
also add to their smoothness. Do not let the heat under the pan be 
too strong, or it will spoil their whiteness. Give them four or five 
charges, increasing the quantity of syrup a little each time, and let 
each charge be well dried before another is given, dusting them at 
the last charge with flour. Sift them in a hair sieve, and clean the 
pan. Put them in again, and give them four or five charges more, 
with a dust of flour at the last ; then sift them and clean the pan. 
Proceed in this manner until they are one-third of the required size. 
Put them into the stove or sun to dry until the next day, then clarify 
and boil some sugar to the large thread, keep it warm as before, divide 
the comfits, and put part of them in the pan, so as not to have too 
many at one time, for as they increase in size you must divide them 
into convenient portions, so that you may be enabled to work them 
properly without encumbering the pan. Give them four or five 
charges of syrup, proceed ing in the same manner as before, until they 


are two-thirds or more of the required size, and stove them until the 
next day. Continue in this manner with each portion alternately, 
until they are all done. On the third day, boil the syrup to the small 
pearl, and give eight or ten charges as before, without using flour, so 
as to finish them, lessening the quantity of syrup each time. Swing 
the pan gently, and dry each charge well. Put them in the stove 
for half an hour or an hour after each charge, and proceed alternately 
with each portion until they are finished, when they should be about 
the size of peas. Put them in the stove for a day, then smooth them 
with the whitest loaf sugar in syrup, boiled to the small thread ; add 
two or three table-spoonfuls of dissolved gum Arabic with it to give 
them a gloss. Give three or four charges with a very gentle heat, 
the syrup being cold and the pan scarcely warm. Work and dry 
each charge well before another is added : when finished, dry them 
in a moderate heat. It is the best way, if possible, to dry comfits in 
the sun, as it bleaches them. If the stove is at a greater heat than 
the sun in a moderately warm day, which is from 70 to 80 degrees of 
Fahrenheit, it will spoil their whiteness. 

Bath Caraways. These are made in the same way, but only half 
the size. 

Common Caraways. Sift the seeds, and warm them in the pan, as 
for Scotch caraways. Have some gum Arabic dissolved, throw in a 
ladleful, and rub them well about the pan with the hand until dry, 
dusting them with flour. Give them three or four coatings in this 
manner, and then a charge of sugar, until they are about one half the 
required size. Dry them for a day, give them two or three coatings 
of gum and flour, finish them by giving three or four charges of sugar, 
and dry them. These are made about the size of Bath caraways. 
Colour parts of them different colours, leaving the greatest portion 

Cinnamon Comfits. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree, of which there 
are two sorts. The inferior quality is that usually sold for cinnamon, 
and is otherwise known as cassia, or cassia lignea. This breaks short, 
and has a slimy mucilaginous taste, is thicker, and of a darker colour 
than the cinnamon, which is the inner bark. This breaks shivery, 
and has a warm aromatic taste, and is of a reddish colour. 

Take one pound of cinnamon bark, and steep it in water for a few 
hours to soften it; cut it into small pieces about half an inch long, 
and the size of a large needle. Dry it in the stove. Put your pieces, 
when dry, into the comfit-pan, and pour on them a little syrup, as for 
Scotch caraways, proceeding in the same way until they are one- 
third the required size. You must not use your hand for these as 
you would for caraways, as they are liable to break in two. Dry 
them in the stove, then suspend the pearling pot or cot from the bar 
of the pan or ceiling, so as to hang over the centre of the pan ; boil 
some clarified loaf sugar to the large pearl, and fill the cot ; put some 
of the prepared comfits in the pan, but not too many at a time, as it 


is difficult to get them to pearl alike. Keep the syrup at the boiling 
point : open the spigot of the cot so as to allow it to run in a very 
small stream, or more like a continued dropping; swing the pan 
backwards and forwards gently, and keep a stronger fire under the 
pan than otherwise. Be careful that the syrup does not run too fast, 
and wet them too much, but so that it dries as soon as dropped, which 
causes them to appear rough. If one cot full of sugar is not enough, 
put in more until they are the required size. When one lot is 
finished put in sieves to dry, and proceed to another; but do not let 
them lie in the pan after you have finished shaking them. They 
will be whiter and better if partly pearled one day and finished the 
next. Use the best clarified sugar to finish them. 

Coriander Comfits. Proceed with these as for Scotch caraways, 
working them up to about the same size. The next day pearl them 
to a good size, as for cinnamon. 

Celery Comjits. Put one pound of celery seed into the pan, and 
proceed as for Scotch caraway comfits, working them up to the size 
of a large pin's head. Dry and pearl them as cinnamon. 

Caraway Comfits, pearled. When the comfits are about the size 
of Bath caraways, dry and pearl them as cinnamon. 

Jllmond Comfits. Sift some Valencia almonds in a cane or wicker 
sieve, pick out any pieces of shell which may be amongst them, and 
also any of the almonds which are either very small or very large, 
using those which are as near of a size as possible; take about four 
pounds, put them in the comfit-pan, and proceed in precisely the same 
way as for Scotch caraways; or, they may first have a coating of 
dissolved gum Arabic; rub them well about the pan with the hand, 
and give them a dust of flour; then pour on a little syrup at the 
small thread, work and dry them well, then give them three or four 
more charges, and a charge of gum with a dust of flour. Proceed in 
this way until they are one-third the required size, then dry them 
for a day, and proceed and finish as for caraway comfits. For the 
cheaper or more common comfits, more gum and flour are used in 
making them. 

Cardamom Comfits. The seeds should be kept in their husks until 
they are required to be used, as they lose much of their flavour and 
virtues when deprived of them. They are often mixed with grains 
of paradise, but these have not the aromatic taste of the cardamom, 
and are more hot and spicy. Break the husks of the cardamoms by 
rolling them with a pin ; separate the skins from the seeds, put two 
pounds into the comfit-pan, and proceed as for Scotch caraways. 
Make them a good size, and quite smooth. 

Barberry Comjits. Pick the barberries from the stalks, and dry 
them in a hot stove on sieves ; when dry, put about two pounds into 
the comfit-pan, and proceed as for almond comfits, giving them first a 
charge of gurn and flour, and finish as others. Make them of a good 
size and quite smooth f finish with very white loaf sugar with syrup. 


Cherry Comfits. These are made from preserved cherries, dried. 
Roll them in your hand to make them quite round, dust them with 
powdered loaf sugar, and dry them again; then proceed as for bar- 
berry comfits. Any other preserved fruits may be made into comfits 
after the same manner. 

Comfits flavoured with Liqueurs. Blanch some bitter almonds, or 
the kernels of apricots or peaches; let them soak in hot water for an 
hour, then drain them, and put them into any sort of liqueur or spirit 
you may desire. Lower the strength of the spirit water, that the ker- 
nels may imbibe it the better, cork the jug or bottle close, and let 
them infuse in it until the spirit has fully penetrated them, which will 
be about fourteen or fifteen days ; then take them out, drain and dry 
them in a moderate heat ; when dry, proceed as for almond comfits. 

Orange Comfits. Take some preserved orange-peel, and cut it into 
small thin strips ; dry them in the stove, and make as cinnamon 

Lemon Peel or Angelica may be made into comfits after the same 
manner. Let the strips of peel be about the size of the pieces of 
cinnamon, and thoroughly dried before working them in the pan. 

Nonpareils. Pound some loaf sugar, and sift it through a fine wire 
sieve ; sift what has passed through again in a lawn sieve, to take 
out the finest particles, so that you have only the fine grain of sugar 
left without dust. Put about two pounds of this into the comfit-pan, 
and proceed as for Scotch caraways, working them well with the 
hand until they are about the size of pins' heads. 

To colour Nonpareils or Comfits. Put some of your comfits or non- 
pareils into the comfit-pan, shake or rub them about until warm, then 
add a sufficient quantity of prepared liquid colour (see Colours) to 
give the desired tint ; be careful not to make them too wet, nor of 
too dark a colour, but rather light than otherwise ; shake or rub them 
well about, that they may be coloured equally; dry them a little over 
the fire, then put them in sieves, and finish drying them in the stove. 
Clean the pan for every separate colour. 



Raspberry Comfits. Prepare some gum paste made with sugar, or 
the scrapings of the comfit-pan pounded and sifted through a lawn 
sieve. It may be flavoured with raspberry jam, by mixing some with 
the paste. Colour it with prepared cochineal ; mould it into the 
form of raspberries, and dry them in the stove ; when they are per- 
*ectly dry and hard, pearl them as for cinnamon comfits, working 
them until the size of natural raspberries. Colour them when dry 
with cochineal, as comfits. 

Ginger Comfits. Flavour gum paste with powdered ginger, make it 


into small balls about the size of coriander seeds, or peas; dry, and 
proceed as for Scotch caraways. Colour them yellow when finished. 

Clove Comfits. Flavour sugar gum paste with the oil of cloves, and 
mould it in the form of cloves. Dry and finish as others. 

Any flavour may be given to this sort of comfits, and they are 
moulded to form the article of which it bears the name, or cut into 
any device with small cutters. Dried, and finished as other comfits. 

To colour Loaf-Sugar Dust. Pound some sugar, and sift it through 
a coarse hair sieve ; sift this again through a lawn sieve, to take out 
the finer portions. Put the coarse grains into a preserving pan, and 
warm them over the stove fire, stirring it continually with the hand ; 
pour in some liquid colour to give the desired tint, and continue to 
work it about the pan until it is dry. 


THESE are the juices of mucilaginous fruits, rendered clear by fil- 
tering them through a flannel bag, and adding an equal weight of 
sugar; boil to the consistence of a jelly. If the boiling is continued 
too long they will become ropy, or more like treacle. 

Apple, Jelly. Take either russet pippins, or any good bakingf apples ; 
pare and core them, cut them in slices into a preserving pan^contain- 
ing sufficient water to cover them ; then put them on the fire, and 
boil them until they are reduced to a mash. Put it into a hair sieve, 
that the water may drain off, which you receive in a basin or pan ; 
then filter it through a flannel bag. To every pint of filtered juice 
add one pound of loaf sugar, clarify, and boil it to the ball. Mix the 
juice with it, and boil until it jellies; stir it with a spatula or wooden 
spoon, from the bottom, to prevent burning. When it is boiled enough, 
if you try it with your finger and thumb, as directed in sugar-boiling, 
a string may be drawn similar to the small pearl : it may also be 
known by its adhering to the spatula or spoon, or a little may be 
dropped on a cold plate; if it soon sets, it is done. Take off the scum 
which rises on the top. This is in general used for pouring over pre- 
served wet fruits. This jelly may be coloured red with prepared 

Quince Jelly. This is made as apple jelly. The seed of the quince 
is very mucilaginous. An ounce of bruised seed will make three 
pints of water as thick as the white of an egg. 

Red Currant Jelly. Take three quarts of fine ripe red currant?, 
and four of white ; put them into a jar, tie paper over the top, and 
put them into a cool oven for three or four hours, or else into a pan 
of boiling water; when they are done, pour them into a jelly bag; 
what runs out at first put back again; do this until it runs fine and 
clear. To each pint of filtered juice add one pound of loaf sugar 
clarified and boiled to the ball: mix the filtered juice with it, and 


reduce it to a jelly, stirring it well from the bottom with a spatula. 
What scum forms on the top take off with a skimmer, put it into pots 
or glasses, and when cold cut some pieces of paper to the size of the 
tops, steep it in brandy, and put over it ; then wet some pieces of 
bladder, put it over the top of the pot or glass, and tie it down. 

White and Black Currant Jelly. These are made in the same way, 
using part red currants with the black ones. 

Violet-coloured Currant Jelly. This is made as red currant jelly, 
mixing two pounds of black currants with ten of red. 

Cherry Jel/y. Pick off the stalks and take out the stones of some 
fine ripe Morello cherries, and to every four pounds of cherries add 
one pound of red currants; proceed as for currant jelly. 

Barberry Jelly. Take some very ripe barberries, pick them from 
their stalk?, and weigh them. To every pound of fruit take three- 
quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, add sufficient water to make it into 
a syrup, put in the barberries, and boil them until the syrup comes to 
the pearl, taking off any scum which may rise. Then throw them 
into a fine hair or lawn sieve, and press the berries with a spoon to 
extract as much juice as possible from them. Receive the syrup and 
juice in a pan, put it again on the fire, and finish as apple jelly. 

Any of these jellies may be made without fire on the same principle 
as clear cakes. Get the fruit ripe and fresh gathered, obtain the juice 
by expression, and filter it through a flannel bag; add an equal weight 
of sugar to that of filtered juice, stir it well together until the sugar 
is dissolved, and place it in a warm place or the sun for a few day?, 
when it will be a fine jelly. Those made in this manner retain the 
natural flavour of the fruit. 

Raspberry Jelly. Take one and a half gallons of ripe raspberries 
and a half gallon of ripe currants, press out the juice and filter it; to 
a pint of juice add one pound of loaf sugar, and finish as other jellies. 

Gooseberry Jelly. Make as currant jelly ; or it may be made of 
green gooseberries, as apple jelly. 

[Blackberry Jelly. Make as currant jelly using half a gallon of 
raspberries to one gallon of black currants; finish as usual.] 


MARMALADE is generally a term applied to a preserve made either 
of oranges, lemons, apples, pears, quinces, or plums; but I know nn 
difference between marmalades and jams, as they are each of them 
the pulp of fruits reduced to a consistence, with sugar, by being boiled. 
If it contains too much sugar it will crystallize, or what is termed 
candy. The top and sides of the vessel which contains it will be 
covered with a thin coating of sugar; and if there is not enough in it, 
or it is not sufficiently boiled, it will soon ferment. Keep them in a 
cool dry place. 


Apple Marmalade. Pare and core some good apples; cut them in 
pieces into a preserving pan, with sufficient water to cover them; put 
them on the fire, and boil until they are reduced to a mash, then pass 
the whole through a colander; to each pound of pulp add twelve 
ounces of FUgar; put it on the fire, and boil it until it will jelly ; try 
it as directed for apple jelly ; put it into pots when cold, and cover 
the top with paper dipped in brandy, or pour over it melted mutton 
suet, and tie it over with paper or bladder. 

Quince Marmalade. Make as apple, colouring it with prepared 
cochineal, if required red; let the fruit be quite ripe. 

Green JJpricot Marmalade or Jam. Prepare the fruit by blanching 
and greening (as for green apricots, wet). When they are green, 
pulp them by rubbing them through a coarse hair sieve or colander ; 
for each pound of pulp clarify and boil to the blow one pound of loaf 
sugar; mix it with the pulp and boil it until it will jelly ; take off' any 
scum which may arise with a skimmer. This jam is of an excellent 
green colour, and is very useful for ornamenting and piping almond 
bread, &c. 

Cherry Marmalade or Jajn. Take out the stones and stalks from 
some fine cherries and pulp them through a cane sieve ; to every three 
pounds of pulp add half a pint of currant juice, and three-quarters of 
a pound of sugar to each pound of fruit ; mix together and boil until it 
will jelly. Put it into pots or glasses. 

Currants, raspberries, plums, and gooseberries are all made in the 
same manner. Pulp the fruit through a cane sieve, the meshes of 
which are not large enough to admit a currant to pass through 
whole. To each pound of pulp add one pound of loaf sugar, broken 
small, and boil to the consistence of a jelly. 

Orange Marmalade Take the same weight of sugar as of oranges; 
cut the oranges in half, squeeze out the juice, and strain it ; boil the 
peel in water until they are quite tender, and a strong straw may be 
passed through them; then drain them from the water, scoop out the 
pulp, leaving the rind rather thin; cut it into thin fillets; boil the 
juice of the oranges with the sugar, and skim it when it is nearly 
done ; add the peels, and finish as others. Part of the peels may be 
pounded and mixed with the marmalade, instead of the whole being 
cut in fillets; but then it is not so clear, and is a practice which is 
now almost abandoned, except by a few private persons. Lemon 
marmalade is made in the same way. 

[Grape Marmalade. Put green grapes into a preserving pan, with 
eufficient water to cover them. Put them on the fire and boil until 
reduced to a mash ; put the pulp through a sieve the meshes of which 
are not sufficiently large to admit the seed to pass through ; to each 
pound of pulp add two pounds of the best loaf sugar and boil to the 
consistence of a jelly.] 



Fruit Pastes and Cakes. These are the pulp of fruits, reduced by 
h'-'at to a kind of marmalade, with the addition of from half a pound 
to a pound, and in some cases, double the weight of sugar to each 
pound of pulp, which is evaporated to the required consistence. They 
can be formed into rings, knots, &c., and either crystallized or 

.tipple or Pippin Paste. Take any quantity of good dressing apples, 
pure, core and put ihern into a preserving pan with a little water, or 
just sufficient to cover them. Boil until they are reduced to a mar- 
malade, sUrring them to prevent burning. To every pound of 
reduced pulp add half or three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, clari- 
fied and boiled to the blow ; pass the pulp through a hair sieve before 
you mix the sugar with it; put it on the fire and let it boil for three 
or four minutes, keeping it constantly stirred from the bottom, when 
it will be sufficiently evaporated. If it be required coloured, add 
liquid colour sufficient to give the desired tint when you mix the 
sugar. Spread the paste on small tin or pewter sheets (these should 
be about a foot wide, by a foot and a-half long, and perfectly level) 
with a thin knife, about the eighth of an inch in thickness; put them 
in the stove for a day ; take them out, and cut the paste into long 
narrow strips, about a quarter of an inch in width; if the paste is 
dry enough, the strips can be easily pulled off; form them into rings 
or knots, or cut into diamonds to form leaves, or any other device your 
fancy may suggest. Put them in boxes with a sheet of paper between 
each layer. Tiiis paste is occasionaly flavoured with lemon, and is 
principally used for ornamenting the tops of twelfth cakes. 

Apple Cheese. Pare, quarter, and core your apples as for paste ; 
put them into a jar, and cover the top with the parings ; tie paper 
over the top, and bake them in a moderate oven until they are quite 
done; take off the parings, and pass the apples through a hair-sieve 
into a preserving pan. To each pound of pulp add half a pound of 
loaf sugar clarified and boiled to the blow ; place it over a slow fire, 
stirring it constantly from the bottom until reduced to a stiff paste, 
which will not stick to the hand ; put it into small moulds, hoops, or 
glasses. Dry in a moderately warm stove for a few days; take them 
out of the moulds, turn them, and place them again in the stove to 
finish drying. Keep in boxes as paste-knots, or cover the glasses 
with brandy papers. 

Apricot Paste. Take ripe apricots, put them in a preserving pan 
with as much water as will cover them; let them simmer on the fire 
for two or three minutes, or scald until they are tender; drain the 
water from them, and pass the pulp through a hair sieve ; to each 
pound of pulp take three-quarters of a pound of sugar, which you 
clarify and boil to the blow; put the apricots on the fire, and let 


them simmer, stirring them constantly until reduced to a thick mar- 
malade; then add the sugar; mix it well with the paste, and let it 
hoil a minute or two longer; take it from the fire, and put into 
moulds, pots, or crimped paper cases; or it may be spread on small 
plates, as for apple paste, and formed into rings or knots. Place in 
the stove until dry. If put in paper cases, the paper must be wetted 
to get out the paste. Take it out of the moulds, turn it, and put it 
again into tho stove to finish drying. 

Green Jlpricot Paste. Take apricots before they are ripe, scald as 
the last, and green them. (See Greening Fruit.) Pass the pulp 
through a sieve, and reduce it; to each pound of reduced pulp add 
one pound of loaf sugar clarified and boiled to the blow. Finish as 
ripe apricot paste. 

Currant Paste. Put any quantity of ripe currants, either red or 
white, or a part of each mixed, into a hair sieve, press out their juice 
into a preserving pan; put it on the fire, and keep it constantly stir- 
red until evaporated to a thick consistence. To each pound of re- 
luced pulp add three-quarters of a pound or a pound of loaf sugar 
clarified and boiled to the blow. Let it boil a minute or two, and 
finish as others. 

Black Currant Paste is made the same as the last. These currants, 
not being so juicy as the others, may be put into a jar, tied over, and 
baked in a moderate oven, or put into a kettle of boiling water for a 
few hours, to extract the juice from them. 

Raspberry Paste. As currant paste. 

Cherry Paste. Take ripe cherries, deprive them of their stalks 
and stones, put them in a preserving pan, and boil them a little; then 
pass them through a hair sieve, reduce the pulp, and weigh it. To 
each pound add a pound of loaf sugar; add it to the paste, and finish 
as apricot. 

Peach Paste. Choose some very fine and ripe peaches, take off the 
skin, and cut them in small pieces into a preserving pan ; put them 
on the fire, and reduce to a thick consistence, stirring it continually. 
For each pound of reduced pulp take half or three-quarters of a 
pound of sugar; clarify and boil it to the blow ; add it to the pulp; 
put it again on the fire, and let it boil a few minutes. Finish as 
other pastes. 

Plum Paste. Plums of any kind are preserved in the same man- 
ner, whether green-gages, magnum-bonums, Orleans, damsons, &c. 
Take out their stones, and boil the fruit in a little water, as for npri- 
cot paste; pass them through a sieve, and for each pound of reduced 
pulp take a pound of sugar; clarify and boil it to the blow; mix it 
with the paste, and evaporate to the required consistence. 

Damson Cheese. Pick the stalks from the damsons, put them in a 
jar, tie it over, and bake in a cool oven; when done, pass them 
through a sieve into a preserving pan; put it on the fire to reduce. 


For each pound of pulp take half a pound of sugar, boiled to the 
blow ; mix with the paste, and finish as for apple cheese. This, as 
well as all the pastes, may be evaporated to the required consistence 
by means of a water bath, which is done by placing the pan in which 
it is contained in another with water, which is kept boiling; this pre- 
vents the possibility of its being burnt, but it occupies more time. 
The kernels of the fruit may be blanched and added to it just before 
it is taken from the fire. Put it into moulds or hoops; dry them in 
the stove, first on one side and then on the other. All plums are 
done in the same manner. 

Quince Paste. Proceed as for apple paste. 

Orange Paste. Squeeze the juice from Seville or sweet oranges, 
ind boil the peels in three or four waters to take off part of their bit- 
terness. In the first put a little salt. When they are quite tender 
remove tho white pith or pulp, and pound them quite fine in a mortar, 
with part of the juice, using sufficient to make them into a paste; 
then pass it and the remaining portion of the juice through a sieve 
into a preserving pan ; put it on the fire, and reduce to a marmalade ; 
weigh it, and for each pound take three-quarters of a pound of loaf 
sugar ; clarify and boil to the blow ; mix it with the paste, evaporate 
over a gentle fire to a good consistence, and finish as apple. The 
rinds of the oranges may be pared off" before they are squeezed, which, 
if boiled in one water, will be sufficient, as the pith of the peel is 
extremely bitter and indigestible, and the flavour or essential oil is 
contained on!y in the yellow porous part. 

Lemon Paste. Make as orange paste, using part of the juice and 
double the weight of sugar ; or it may be made by using only the 
pounded peel with the same weight of sugar. 

Raspberry Cakes. Take ripe raspberries, press the juice from half 
of them, and put the pulp back with the others; reduce them on the 
fire. To each pound of pulp add two pounds of loaf sugar in pow- 
der; put it again on the fire, stirring it constantly until it is evapo- 
rated to a very thick paste. Have a tin ring, with a handle by the 
side, about the size of an old penny piece, and twice the thickness; 
wet the ring, and place it on your small pewter or tin plates, fill it 
with the paste, smoothing over the top with a knife ; then remove the 
ring, and the cake will remain. Lay them off in rows, and make 
three or four marks on the top with the handle of a table spoon ; put 
them in the stove to dry, turn them with a thin knife, and put them 
again in the stove to dry perfectly. Place them in boxes, with paper 
between each layer. 

The residue from the making of raspberry vinegar may be employ- 
ed for this purpose, or they may be made by adding a pound of fine 
powdered sugar to a pound of jam. Any of the fruit pastes may be 
formed into cakes like these, or into drops, by forcing them out oa 
paper with a small pipe and bladder attached to it. 

Clear Cake.s, or Jelly Cakes. Take the filtered juice rf fruits, aa 


for jelly (see Jellies); to each pint of juice add one pound of loaf 
sugar, dissolve it in the juice thoroughly, place it on the fire and heat 
it, but it must not boil; put it into small pots, moulds, or glasses, so 
as to form cakes about half an inch thick ; place them on the stove, 
which must not be too hot, or they will melt instead of forming a 
jelly ; about seventy-five or eighty degrees Fahrenheit is quite hot 
enough. When a crust has formed on the top, take out the cakes by 
carefully turning the knife round the sides of the pot, place them on 
small plates of tin or pewter, and dry on the other side. When dry 
they can be cut into diamonds, squares, or any shape you please. 
These are certainly some of the most delicate and beautiful of this 
class which were ever invented, fit even to gratify the palate of the 
most fastidious. The fruit from which they are made should be 
gathered as fresh as it possibly can, except apples, as the mucilage 
is injured by keeping, and if the fruit has fermented it is entirely 

Pastes formed with Gum Pate de Guimauve Marsh-Mallow 
Paste. Gum Arabic three pounds, roots of fresh marsh-mallows 
eight ounces, one dozen of rennet apples, loaf sugar three pounds. 
Peel, core, and cut the apples in pieces. Cleanse the roots, and 
slice them lengthways in an oblique direction; add this to seven 
pints of water; soft or river water is the best when filtered; put it 
on the fire and boil for a quarter of an hour, or until reduced to six 
pints ; pound and sift the gum through a hair sieve ; strain the de- 
coction into a pan with the gum ; put it on a moderate fire, or into a 
bain-marie, stirring it until the gum is perfectly dissolved; then 
strain it through a coarse towel or tamis cloth, the ends being twisted 
by two persons ; add it to the sugar, which has been previously cla- 
rified and boiled to the feather ; dry it well over the fire, keeping it 
constantly stirred from the bottom. When it has acquired a thick 
consistence, take the whites of eighteen eggs, and whip them to a 
strong froth ; add them to the paste, and dry until it does not stick to 
the hand when it is applied to it ; add a little essence of neroli, or a 
large glassful of double orange-flower water, and evaporate again to 
the same consistence. Pour it on a marble slab well dusted with 
starch-powder, flatten it with the hand ; the next day cut it into strips, 
powder each strip, and put them in boxes. Powder the bottom that 
they may not stick. 

Pate de Gomme Arabique Arabic Paste. Very white gum Arabic 
two pounds, sugar two pounds, orange-flower water four ounces, the 
whites of twelve eggs. Pound and sift the gum, add it to the water, 
dissolve and evaporate it over a slow fire, or in the bain-marie, stir- 
ring it constantly until it is reduced to the consistence of honey with 
the sugar in syrup. Whip the whites to a strong snow ; add it to the 
paste with the orange-flower water, gradually ; stir and finish aa 
marsh-mallow paste, for which this is mostly substituted, and much 
used for coughs. It should be very white, light, and spongy. 


P&te des Dattes Date Paste. Dates one pound, gum Senegal 
three pounds, loaf sugar in syrup two pounds and a half, orange- 
flower water four ounces. Make as marsh-mallow paste, using rather 
more water to dissolve the gum. 

Pate des Jujubes Jujube Paste. Jujubes four ounces, currants 
washed and picked four ounces, raisins stoned one pound, sugar two 
pounds, very white gum Arabic two pounds and a half. Open the 
jujubes, and boil them with the currants and raisins in two quarts of 
water until reduced to three pints, strain the decoction through a 
tamis cloth, twisted by two persons; add the sugar in syrup with the 
gum, which has been previously pounded and dissolved in a sufficient 
quantity of water; evaporate it by a moderate heat, as pate de gui- 
mauve; pour it into tin moulds slightly oiled, having edges about a 
quarter of an inch deep; dry in the stove, take it out of the tins, and 
cut it with a pair of scissors into small diamonds. 

Patede Gomme Senegal Senegal Paste. Gum Senegal two pounds, 
sugar one pound. Dissolve the gum in orange-flower water and 
common water; or dissolve it in common water, and flavour with 
essence of neroli ; add the sugar, when clarified and boiled to the 
blow ; evaporate, and finish as pate de jujube. This is usually sold 
for jujube paste, or else picked gum Arabic made into a paste as 
Senegal, and coloured with prepared cochineal or saffron. 

Pate de blanche Reglisse White Liquorice Paste. This is made 
the same as marsh-mallow paste, using liquorice-root instead of mal- 
low. It may be made without the eggs, and finished as jujubes. 

Pate de Reglisse noir Black Liquorice Paste. The best refined 
liquorice one pound, gum Arabic four pounds, loaf sugar two pounds, 
Florence orris-root one ounce. Dissolve the gum and liquorice in 
seven pints of water, keeping it stirred over a slow fire ; add the 
sugar in syrup with the orris-root, evaporate to a paste, and finish as 

Gomme des Jujubes Jujube Gum. Jujubes one pound, very white 
and picked gum Arabic two pounds, powdered sugar two ounces. 
Pound the jujubes in a marble mortar with five pints of water, put 
the whole into a pan and boil until reduced to three ; strain the decoc- 
tion through a cloth, beat up the white of an egg with a glass of 
water, and mix part of it with the decoction as it boils; throw in a 
little at a time of the remaining part, to check the ebullition. When 
it is all used, take off the scum, put it again on the fire to evaporate 
the water, adding at the same time the gum and sugar, powdered and 
passed through a horse-hair sieve. Stir it with the spatula until dis- 
solved. When it is of the consistence of honey, place it in the bain- 
marie, and neither stir nor touch it, that it may be clear. When it 
has acquired body enough, so as not to stick to the back of the hand 
when applied to it, pour it into moulds previously oiled with good 
olive oil, as for jujubes ; place in the stove to finish drying ; when 
dry take it out, and cut in small pieces. 


Pate de jujube and white liquorice may be done in the same man- 
ner, using only half the quantity of sugar. 

Gamine des Duties. One pound of dates, two pounds of very white 
picked gum Arabic, sugar two ounces. Make as jujubes. 

Gum of Violets. Violet flowers one pound, picked sum two pounds, 
sugar four ounces in syrup. Pour three pints of water at the boiling 
point on the flowers in an earthen jar; stop it perfectly close, and keep 
it in a warm place for ten or twelve hours; strain the infusion by ex- 
pression into a flat pan or dish, place it on an inclination, and let it 
rest for an hour that the feces may subside; pour off the clear gently 
from the bottom or settling, and add to it six grains of turnsole 
bruised, and six grains of carmine, as this clear infusion is not suffi- 
ciently coloured to give it the beautiful tint of the violet. Mix in the 
powdered gum and sugar, stir it over a moderate fire until dissolved, 
pass it through a sieve, and finish in the bain-marie as jujubes. 

Any of these gums, when dry, may be crystallized. 

Jllmond Paste Orgeat Paste. One pound of sweet almonds, a 
quarter of a pound of bitter almonds, two pounds of sugar. Blanch 
the almonds, and throw them into clean cold water as they are done, 
to preserve their whiteness ; let them soak for a day, then dry them 
in a cloth, and pound them quite fine in a mortar, sprinkling them 
with orange-flower water or lemon juice to prevent their oiling; 
then with a spatula rub them through a fine wire sieve ; what will 
not pass through, pound again until tiiey are quite fine; clarify the 
sugar and boil it to the ball; mix the almonds with it, and stir it well 
over the fire with the spatula until it comes together; then take it 
from the fire, and put it into an earthen pan to cool ; when cold, 
pound it again, make it into sticks or tablets, dusting the board or 
stone with powdered sugar; or put into pots, and tie bladder over it, 
to be used as wanted. 


WET FRUITS. Most of the fruits are first prepared by being 
blanched, that is, boiled in water; they are then drained and put into 
boiling syrup, where they remain for a day. The syrup being now 
weakened with the juice of the fruit, it is poured off, more sugar is 
added, and it is reduced again to syrup by boiling, and poured hot 
over the fruit: this is continued until it is fully saturated with suirar, 
which may be known by the syrup being no longer weakened with 
the juice of the fruit. Keep them in a dry but not warm place, as 
too much heat will cause them to ferment, more especially if they 
are not fully incorporated with sugar; nor in a damp place, or they 
will become mouldy. 

All green fruits require to be greened, so as to bring them to their 
original colour, for in blanching they assume a yellowish cast: this is 
probably occasioned by a portion of the alkali being extracted in the 


boiling 1 . The green colour of fruits and leaves depends upon an 
excess of alkali ; and in proportion as acid or alkali prevails in them, 
so are they coloured from red to violet, blue, and green ; therefore if 
alkali is added to the water, the colour is retained. This is exempli- 
fied in the everyday domestic duties of the cook, who uses soda, pot- 
ash, or muriate of soda (common salt), in boiling her greens or cab- 
bages. I have here stated the principle on which their colour depends, 
to show that there is no necessity for green fruits being kept for some 
time in brass or copper pans, whereby they take up a portion of ver- 
digris, which often proves injurious. 

Prick your fruit several times with a fork or large needle, to allow 
the sugar to penetrate the more freely. As you do them, throw them 
into a pan of cold water, which prevents their turning black at the 
places where they are pricked ; add a little soda or potash, and set the 
pan by the side of the stove to heat gradually, but not to boil, or at 
the most only to simmer; when the fruit swims, take it out with a 
skimmer and put it into cold water; if they are not green enough, 
drain them and put them again into the water they were first boiled 
in, or else into a weak syrup; place them by the side of the stove to 
heat gradually as before, stirring them occasionally. They may be 
covered with vine leaves, or a handful of spinach ; if salt is used in 
greening them, they will require to be soaked for a few hours in clean 
cold water, to again extract that portion which they have absorbed, 
or it will spoil their flavour. It is best to blanch fruits which are 
very juicy in hard or pump water, or with the addition of a little alum 
to river water. 

Green Jlpricols, wet. Get the apricots before the stone is formed in 
them, when they can be pierced through with a pin or needle ; put 
them into a bag with plenty of salt, and shake them about in it to take 
off the down and silkiness of the skin ; take them out and put them in 
cold water. Or this may be done by making a strong ley with wood 
ashes; strain it through a cloth; let it be quite clear; make it boiling 
hot and throw in your apricots; let them remain about a minute, take 
them out, and put them into cold water ; then take off the fur when 
they are cool by either rubbing them with your hands in the water, 
or drain, and rub them in a towel or coarse cloth. Put them into 
another pan of cold water, and place them over a slow fire to heat 
gradually and scald. When they are quite soft and can be crushed 
between the ringer and thumb, take them out and throw them into 
cold water; drain them quite dry in sieves; make a thin syrup, that 
is, at the small thread ; boil it in a flat preserving pan, put in the 
apricots, give them a few boils, and take off any scum that rises; 
have sufficient syrup in the pan that the fruit may float; pour them 
with the syrup into an earthen pan, and keep them covered until the 
next day ; then drain off the syrup, add more syrup or sugar to it, and 
boil to the large thread ; put in the fruit, and let the syrup boil over 
them four or five times: repeat these operations for five days, increas- 


ing the syrup a degree each day until it has attained the large pearl, 
taking off the scum each time : it must not exceed this, or it will 
crystallize; put them in dry pans covered with syrup, for use; or, 
when cold, drain them from the syrup, and put them into small glasses 
by themselves, or mixed with other fruits preserved in the same man- 
ner; fill the vacancies with apple jelly, wet a piece of bladder and 
tie it over the top. 

Green .Apricots, pared wet. Pare off the skin with a small knife, 
and throw them into cold water as you do them ; green, and finish as 
the former. 

Ripe .Apricots, wet. Have the fruit not too ripe, make an incision 
in the side to take out the stone, or they may be cut in halves, and 
peeled or preserved with the skin on; have a preserving pan on the 
fire with water boiling, throw them in, and as they rise to the top 
take them out and put them into cold water. If they are blanched 
too much they will break, therefore it is better to have two pans of 
cold water to throw them in, so as those may be separated which are 
broken ; drain them from the water, and put them in a thin syrup 
vthich is boiling on the fire; do not put in too many at a time; put 
in the hardest first, and give them about a dozen boils; take them 
out carefully and put them in an earthen pan ; give the soft ones only 
two or three boils; cover them with the syrup and let them remain 
until the next day; drain the syrup from them, add more sugar to it, 
and boil and skim it until it has acquired the degree of the large 
thread; give the apricots two or three boils in it; the soft ones only 
require to have the syrup poured on them boiling hot ; repeat this for 
four or five successive days, and on the last day boil the syrup to the 
large pearl. If you find, after they are finished, that the syrup has 
been boiled too high, mix a little powdered alum with a spoonful of 
water, and add to it. 

Ripe Peaches, whole, wet. Get the finest peaches, without any 
green spots on the skin; prick them all over with a large needle to 
the stone, throw them into cold water, blanch, and finish as ripe 

Ripe Nectarines, wet. Preserve as peaches. 

Figs, wet. Get the figs nearly ripe, prick them four or five times 
with the point of a knife, throw them into cold water, put them on the 
fire and boil until they are tender; finish as ripe apricots. 

Greengages, wet. Let the fruit be not quite ripe but sound, prick 
them with a fork or needle, and throw them into cold water; scald 
and green them ; when they are of a fine green, increase the heat ; 
take them out with a skimmer when they swim, and throw them into 
cold water; drain them on sieves; put them in syrup that is boiling; 
give them two or three boils in it ; pour them into an earthen pan ; 
drain the syrup from them the next day, add more sugar and boil to 
the thread, taking off any scum which may arise; pour the syrup 


over them boiling hot; repeat this for five or six days, and finish as 
for green apricots. 

Mogul Plums. Take the largest Mogul plums, with clear skins, 
not quite ripe, prick them all over with a fork and throw them into 
coid'spring water; scald..them until tender, taking care not to have 
too many in the pan at a time, nor blanch them too much, as they 
will soon break in pieces; take them out and throw them into cold 
water, drain, and put in just sufficient fruit to cover the bottom of the 
pan ; cover with boiling syrup, and let them have a dozen boils in it; 
finish as ripe apricots. 

It would be a needless repetition, to give separate directions far 
preserving every sort of plum, as the instructions already given will 
enable any person of ordinary discernment to manage any other sort 
not mentioned. 

Damsons, wet. Prick the damsons and throw them into boiling 
syrup, and let them boil in it until the skins burst, skimming it as 
they boil; do not put in any more than will swim; let them remain 
until the next day ; drain the syrup, and add more sugar to bring it 
to the proper degree; give them a few boils in it, and repeat the same 
on the next day ; finish as other plums. 

Green Gooseberries, wet. Get some fine large gooseberries, prick 
them three or four times with a large needle, and throw them into 
cold water; put them on the fire to blanch; when they rise tnl>; 
them out and throw them into cold water, green them, and preserve 
as green apricots. 

Green Gooseberries in the form of Hops, wet. Take the finest green 
gooseberries for this purpose, slit each gooseberry in four or six slits, 
but so as not to come asunder, and take out the seeds. Take a needle 
and white thread, make a knot at the end, and pass the needle through 
the stalk end of the gooseberry that is split ; take another and do the 
same, making the end of one go partly into the other; continue this 
until you have six or eight on the thread, which will resemble a hop; 
fasten the end of the thread, and dispose of all of them in the same 
manner, throwing them into cold water as they are finished : blanch 
them, and let them lie in the water they were blanched in all night; 
the next day green them, and finish as for green gooseberries, wet. 

Cucumbers or Gherkins, wet. Let them be clear, free from all 
spots, and of a good green ; prick them all over with a fork, throw 
them into a pan of water mixed with a handful of salt, let them lie in 
this for a day or two, then take them out, put them into fresh water 
and blanch them until tender ; the next day drain and green them in 
a weak syrup; increase the degree of the syrup each day, giving 
them a few boils in it each time; if the cucumbers are large, you can 
cut them in two and take out the seeds. After the second boiling in 
the syrup, let them remain in it for two or three days before it is 
boiled again : finish as green apricots ; a few pieces of ginger may be 


Green Melons. Proceed as for encumbers. They may be preserved 
either whole or in slices. When dried and candied, it imitates green 

Ripe Melons, wet. Cut the melons in slices, and pare off the out- 
side skin ; let them lie in salt and water for two or three days, take 
them out, drain and blanch in fresh water until tender ; throw them 
into cold water; when cold, drain them on sieves; give them a 
boil in thin syrup the next day, increase the degree of the syrup, and 
pour it boiling hot over them. A little lemon-juice, vinegar, or a 
handful of bruised ginger may be added to the syrup, which will much 
improve the flavour; boil the syrup, increasing it a degree for three 
or four days, as for other fruits. 

Lemons whole, wet. Choose some fine large lemons with clear 
skins, carve the rind with a small penknife, into flowers, stars, diamonds, 
or any design your fancy may suggest, taking care not to cut deeper 
than the white pith of the peel ; throw them into a pan of cold water, 
put them on the fire and let them boil gently until a strong straw or 
the head of a pin will penetrate the rind ; throw them into cold water; 
when cold, drain them dry, and put them into a thin syrup when boil- 
ing ; give them five or six boils in it, and put them in an earthen pan; 
the next day drain the syrup from them, and add more sugar or syrup 
to increase it a degree ; boil it and when it boils, pour it over the 
lemons: repeat this for two days ; on the third day let the lemons boil 
in the syrup for four or five minutes; the next day boil the syrup and 
pour it over them; when you find the syrup has penetrated the 
lemons, and they look clear, drain the syrup from them, adding more 
if necessary, so as to have sufficient to keep them well covered ; put 
them in glasses, and pour the syrup over them. When cold, cut a 
piece of bladder to the size of the glass, wet it, and tie it down. 

Oranges whole, wet. These are preserved the same as lemons. 

Whole Orange Peels. Choose your oranges of a fine clear skin ; 
make a hole at the stalk end, large enough to admit the end of a 
spoon, with which you take out the pulp; throw them in salt and 
water, and let them remain for three or four days or a week ; drain 
them from this, and put them into a pan of fresh water, and let them 
boil until the end of a straw may be pushed through the peel ; throw 
them into cold water; with the end of a spoon clear out any part of 
the pulp which may have adhered to them; drain off the water; put 
them in a tub or pan, and pour boiling syrup over them ; let them 
remain in this for three or four days; take them from the syrup and 
boil it again, adding more as the peels imbibe it, so as to keep them 
well covered ; boil the syrup once every four or five days, and pour 
it hot over them ; do this until it has fully penetrated them. 

Orange or Lemon Peels, wet. Cut the fruit in half; express the 
juice, and throw the peels into salt and water, as for whole orange 
peels, preserving them in the same way. If you have any quantity, 
put them one in the other, and pack them in rows round the bottom 


of a large tub or cask ; proceed in this manner, putting them in lay- 
ers until it is half or three parts full ; have a hole near the bottom, 
with a cork fitted into it. When the syrup requires boiling, draw it 
oft' at the hole. 

Orange or Lemon Chips. Cut the thickest peels into long thin 
pieces, turning them off so as to make but one or two chips from a 
peel, in a similar manner as you would pare off the rind of an apple, 
only, instead of holding the knife in an oblique direction, so as to 
take off the surface, it is held more parallel, so as to cut the whole 
substance of the peel. Let them be as near as possible of the same 
thickne.^, or the peel may be sliced across, so as to form rings; pre- 
serve them as for whole orange peels. If they are wanted in a hur- 
ry, they may be blanched without being put into salt and water. Boil 
them until they can be crushed between the finger and thumb; drain 
them from the water, and pour boiling syrup over them as for others. 

Angelica, wet. Cut some stalks of fine tender angelica into pieces 
about six inches long, or any other suitable length. Put them into a 
pan of water on the fire until they are soft, then put them into cold 
water; draw off the skin and strings with a knife, and put them into 
cold water again ; next boil them until they look whitish ; let them 
cool; drain them from the water, and put them in an earthen pan; 
pour boiling syrup over them until they float. The next day drain it 
off, without disturbing the angelica; boil with more sugar, if re- 
quired, taking off any scum which may rise; pour it over the stalks 
whilst it is hot; repeat this for seven or eight days, builing the syrup 
the last time to the large pearl. 

Eringo Root. Choose your roots without knots ; wash them clean, 
and boil in water until they are tender; peel oft' the outside skin, slit 
them, take out the pith, and throw them into cold water ; drain, put 
them into a thin syrup, and give them a few boils; afterwards finish 
as angelica. 

Pine Apple whole, wet. Take oft' the top and stem of the pine ; 
prick the apple with a pointed knife in six or eight places, or more, to 
the centre ; put the pine in a pan with plenty of water, and boil it 
until tender ; take it out and throw it into cold water ; when cold, 
drain it quite dry, and pour over it, boiling hot, some syrup at the 
small thread. In two days pour off the syrup and boil it to a degree 
higher, adding more sugar if necessary; repeat this every third day, 
until the pine is sufficiently impregnated with the sugar; the last 
time the sugar must be at the large pearl. The top of the pine is 
greened and preserved as other green fruits, putting it in its proper 
place when finished. Carefully skim the sugar each time, that the 
pine may be quite clear. 

Pine Apple Chips or Slices. Take off the top and stalk, and pare 
the outside of the pine; cut it into slices half an inch thick; strew 
over the bottom of a pan with powdered sugar ; cover it with slices 



of pine-apple, then a layer of sugar, and again of pine, and so alter- 
nately until the whole is disposed of, covering- the top with a layer 
of sugar ; place it in a warm place or stove for three or four days; 
then boil it with the juice of two or three lemons for ten minutes or 
a quarter of an hour, taking off any scum which rises. If the syrup 
is too thick, add a little water; continue this boiling for three or four 
days, when it will be fit for use. 

Cherries, wet or dry. Take the best Kentish or May Duke cher- 
ries; cut a quill as if you were going to make a pen, only, instead of 
its being sharp, it must be round at the end ; hold the cherry in your 
left hand, and with the other push the quill into it by the side of the 
stalk, as far as the top of the stone ; then take hold of the stalk, and 
with the aid of the quill pull the stone out with the stalk, without 
breaking the fruit in pieces, which would be the case otherwise. Put 
sufficient clarified sugar into a preserving pan for the cherries to 
swim; boil it to the blow, and throw in the prepared fruit; let them 
boil in it for five or ten minutes, keeping them under the syrup by 
pushing them down with a flat piece of wood having a handle at the 
back. The next day drain off the syrup; reduce it by boiling; put 
in the cherries and boil them again for five minutes; repeat this for 
four days, giving the cherries a few boils in the syrup each day. If 
they are required dry, drain the syrup from them, spread them on 
sieves, and dry in the stove at a good heat, turning them every day. 
Put only sufficient on the sieves so as just to cover the bottom. Keep 
them in boxes prepared, or in glasses. 

Whole Cherries. Shorten the stalks of some fine cherries ; put 
them into an earthen pan, with a layer of powdered sugar and a layer 
of cherries, covering the top with sugar; let them stand for two or 
three days ; put them on the fire in a preserving pan, and let them 
boil in the syrup for three or four minutes; repeat this for four days. 
Keep them in syrup, or dry, when they are wanted, as the preceding ; 
they may also be tied together to form bunches, and preserved in the 
same manner. 

Grapes in Bunches. Get some bunches of fine grapes, before they 
are perfectly ripe ; take out the stones with a large pin or needle ; put 
them in a preserving pan, with plenty of water and a little salt ; let them 
simmer on the fire about a quarter of an hour; cover the pan, and let 
them stand in this water until the next day ; pour this off, and add 
fresh ; in a few hours drain them dry, and put them into a thin syrup, 
which must be boiling on the fire ; give them a few boils in it, or the 
grapes may be put into the syrup when cold, and heat it gradually 
until it boils ; put them in an earthen pan ; the next day drain off the 
syrup, reduce it to the small pearl, adding more sugar if necessary, 
and skimming it; pour it boiling over the grapes; repeat this four or 
five times, finishing with syrup at the large pearl, and keep them 
well covered in it. 

Currants in Bunches, wet. Take the finest currants you can get, 


either red or white ; stone them with a pin or the nib of a pen, tak- 
ing care not to cut them more than is necessary ; tie six or eight 
bunches together with a piece of thread, or they may be tied to a 
wnall piece of stick. Take as much clarified sugar as will allow the 
currants to float; or put one pound of sugar to each pound of cur 
rants; clarify and boil it to the blow ; put in your fruit, and let them 
have five or six boils : take the scum off with paper; repeat the boil- 
ing next day when they are finished. If you boil them again, the 
byrup will become a jelly, when you can put them in glasses. 
Barberries in Bunches, wet. Proceed as for currants. 
Raspberries, whole, wet. Take the finest and driest raspberries you 
can get, but not over-ripe. Take the same quantity of sugar in 
weight as you have of raspberries ; clarify and boil it to the blow ; 
put in the fruit, and give them a dozen boils, taking off the scum 
with paper; drain off the syrup, and put them into pots that are very 
dry ; cover them with apple jelly, or make a jelly with the syrup the 
raspberries were boiled in, with the addition of a little currant or 
cherry juice when cold. Tie them over with brandy papers and 

Pears, whole, wet. Take some fine large pears, either eating or 
baking, but those for eating must not be too ripe; they are fit for this 
purpose when the pips are black. Throw them into a pan of water, 
with two ounces of alum ; put them on the fire, and scald them until 
tender; take them out, and throw them into cold water; pare off the 
rind very thin and even ; prick them several times with a fork or pin 
to the core, and scald them again until they are quite soft, or until 
the head of a pin or straw will pass through them ; a little lemon 
juice may be added to the water in the second boiling, or with the 
syrup; when they are finished blanching, throw them into cold water; 
when cold drain them from this, and put them into a thin syrup at 
the small thread ; give them two or three boils in this; skim, and put 
them in an earthen pan ; the next day drain off the syrup, and add 
more sugar, and reduce it another degree; boil your pears in it, as 
before, and repeat the process for four days, finishing with the syrup 
at the large pearl. Keep them in covered pans for use. 

Pears, Red, wet. Take some good baking or other pears ; pare 
and cut them in half, and take out the cores with a little scoop for the 
purpose; if they are first blanched a little, they can be pared easier 
and better. Boil them in water, with sugar sufficient to make it only 
just sweet, a little lemon juice, and a few allspice or cloves. Put u 
piece of pewter, or a pewter spoon, in the bottom of the pan, and 
boil them until they are quite tender and of a fine red ; or prepared 
cochineal may be added instead, using sufficient to give the desired 
tint; take out the fruit, and add enough sugar to the water they were 
boiled in to make a syrup; boil to the large thread; put in the pears, 
and give them two or three boils in it; skim, and put them in an 
earthen pan; boil the syrup twice more, and pour it on them, raising 
it to the degree of th.e large pearl. Keep them in dry pans for use. 


Quinces, Red or White, wet. Preserve as pears. 

For these preserves it is a good plan to have flat pieces of wood, 
like covers, to put on the fruit, so as to keep it under the syrup. 

Ginger, wet. This article is mostly imported from India and China, 
in jars or pots. Divide the largest races or roots from the smaller 
ones; take largest for preserving, as the smaller ones will serve for 
planting; clean and cut the roots into neat pieces, and throw them 
into cold water as you do them. Boil them three times in fresh water, 
throwing them into cold each time, or soak them in water for four or 
five days; drain, and boil in fresh water till tender; take them out, 
and throw them into cold water, in which has been mixed a little 
lemon juice or vinegar; peel them, and throw them into the water 
again as they are done, to keep them white; let the roots remain in 
this a few hours, then drain them dry on sieves; put them in an 
earthen pan; pour over them, when cold, a thin syrup, at the small 
thread; let them be well covered with the syrup; in two or three 
days drain off the syrup; add more sugar, and boil to the large thread ; 
when cold pour it over the ginger. After three or four days boil the 
sugar a degree higher, and pour it in hot; continue this until your 
roots look clear and are fully impregnated with sugar ; finish with the 
syrup at the large pearl. 

Candied Fruit. Any fruit or peel which has been first preserved 
in syrup may be candied. 

Take the fruit out of the syrup and let it drain on sieves; then dip 
the sieve with the fruit into lukewarm water, to wash off the syrup 
from the surface; take it out, let it drain, and dry it in the stove. 
Boil some fresh syrup to the blow; put in the fruit and give it a boil 
in it. The fruit when it is put in will reduce the sugar, it must there- 
fore be boiled to the same degree again. With a spoon or spatula 
rub the sugar against the side of the pan, to grain it; when it begins 
to whiten put the fruit in the white part separately: with two forks 
take it out and lay it on sieves or wire frames, for the sugar to drain 
from it. 

Dried Fruit. Any of those fruits which are preserved with syrup 
may be dried: they are also better when fresh dried. Warm the 
fruit in the syrup ; take it out and drain ; spread it on sieves or wires ; 
put them in the stove to dry, turning them frequently until perfectly 
dried. When the fruit is drained from the syrup, it may be dusted 
with loaf-sugar when you put it in the stove, and for two or three 
times when you turn it. Too much heat will blacken the fruit, 
therefore let the heat of the stove be about 100 or 110 of Fahren- 
heit's thermometer. 


THESE are prepared in the same way as wet fruits, and served in 
compotiers, which are deep glass dishes belonging to the dessert 


In summer, ripe fruits are simply blanched and boiled up in a thin 
syrup, a little lemon-juice is added, and served ; these are only for 
present use. Tn winter, take those fruits which are preserved in 
syrup, drain, dip them in luke-warm water, and serve in a thin syrup, 
with the juice of a lemon. 

Green Apricot Compote. Prepare your fruit as for green apricots, 
wet; throw them into syrup that is boiling; take them off the fire, 
and let them remain for four or five hours ; drain off the syrup, and 
boil to the thread ; pour it over the fruit; when cold, serve. 

Ripe Apricot Cvmpoie. Cut the apricots in half, and peel them ; 
blanch them in water that is just sweetened; drain them from this; 
add sugar to the water, and boil to the thread ; pour it over the apri- 
cots; let them remain in it for two or three hours; then drain and 
boil the syrup again to the large thread ; pour it over the apricots; 
add the juice of a lemon, with some of the kernels blanched ; when 
cold, serve. 

Peaches, nectarines, and green-gages are done as these. 

Compote of Apples, with Jelly. Pare some fine pippins very neat- 
ly ; core them with an apple corer; put them into syrup, and boil 
gently; put only just sufficient syrup to cover them, that it may be 
reduced to a jelly ; if it has not body enough, cut a few in pieces and 
put with it; when the apples look clear and are tender, take them 
out; add to the apples, while boiling, the juice and yellow rind of a 
lemon, with a few cloves. Strain the syrup, and reduce it to a jelly ; 
pour part into the compotier, and when cold dress the apples taste- 
fully on it. The hole where the core was taken out may be filled 
with any sort of marmalade or jelly. Cut the remaining part of the 
jelly in pieces or croutons, and place round or over them ; orna- 
ment them with red currant or other jelly, in any way that your 
fancy may dictate. 

Apple Compote. Take some fine apples; peel and cut them in 
halves, quarters, or thick slices, and take out the cores; blanch them 
in a very thin syrup until tender; take them out, and add more sugar 
to that which they were boiled in, with the yellow peel and juice of a 
lemon and a few cloves ; reduce it to the small pearl ; put in the 
apples, and give them a few boils in it; let them remain until cold ; 
take off the scum, if any; strain the syrup, and serve. 

Pears and quinces are done as these, or coloured as for pears wet, 
which see. 

Grape Compote. Pick and stone some fine ripe grapes; put them 
in boiling syrup at the large pearl; give them three or four boils in 
it; let them cool, take off the scum, and serve. 

Currant Compote. Take the largest currants you can get, either 
red or white; pick out the seeds, and throw them into boiling syrup 
at the large pearl ; give them two or three boils, and let them stand 
in the syrup ; take off the scuin, and serve when cold. 


Raspberry Compote. Choose some very fine and dry raspberries ; 
boil some syrup to the blow, take it from the fire, and throw in the 
raspberries; let them stand for four or five hours; stir them gently ; 
put them on the fire, and let the syrup just boil; take off the scum, 
and when cold serve. 

Strawberry Compote. Take off the stalks, and throw them into 
syrup at the small thread ; when it is near boiling 1 , take them off, let 
them cool, and serve; or they may be prepared by putting them in 
the compotier, and covering them with white currant jelly warrneri 

Macedoinc of Fruits. Put some of all sorts of fruits, prepared 
compotes, together, and serve in the same glass, with syrup and a 
little lemon-juice. 

Cherry Compote. Cut off the stalks of some fine cherries about 
half way ; wash them in cold water, and let them drain quite dry ; 
boil some syrup to the large pearl; throw in the cherries, and let 
them boil quickly for five or six boils; take them off, and let them 
remain until cold ; take off the scum, if any, and dress them in the 
compotier, with their stalks upwards; pour in the syrup, and serve, 
adding the juice of lemon. 

Damsons, mulberries, Orlean plums, and barberries are done the 
same way, taking out the stones of the plums and barberries; the 
cherries may be also stoned. 


ALL fruits may be preserved with brandy ; but only the best sort 
of plums, such as apricots, magnum-bonums, peaches, green-gages, 
mirabelles, &c., with cherries and pears, are those usually done. 

The fruit should be gathered before it is perfectly ripe, when it is 
prepared by blanching, &c., precisely the same as if it were intended 
for wet fruits; those preserved in this manner are often taken from 
their syrup and put in brandy; when the fruits are blanched put them 
for a day or two in a thin syrup, then take them out and arrange them 
in glasses; cover them with white brandy, into which you have 
mixed five ounces of powdered white sugar candy, and tie them over 
with bladder. Cherries are an exception to this rule. Take some 
fine Morello cherries, and cut off half the stalk; put them into brandy, 
and stop them close for a month ; drain off the brandy, and to each 
quart add eight ounces of powdered loaf sugar or white sugar candy ; 
dissolve and pour it over the cherries. Keep them well covered with 




CHOOSE wide-mouthed bottles, which are made for this purpose; 
]et them be clean and perfectly dry ; gather the fruit during dry 
weather, and fill the bottles if possible on the same day; shake the 
fruit well down by knocking the bottom edge of the bottle on the 
table; prepare some corks or bungs (which are made for fruit bottles 
by being cut the contrary way of the grain); pour b iling water over 
them, which will deprive them of any smell or di/t ; repeat this a 
second time, if necessary, letting them remain in the water each 
time until it is cold ; cork the bottles well, and tie them over with 
wire or string. M. Appert recommends that they should be luted 
with a mixture made of fresh slaked lime and soft cheese; this is to 
be spread on rags and tied over the mouth of the bottle ; they are 
then placed in a boiler and cold water as far as their mouths ; a cover 
is put on with a piece of linen round it to prevent evaporation, the 
water is then heated to boiling, and is kept at this point undl it ia 
considered that the fruit is boiled in their own water or juice ; the 
fire is then withdrawn, and they are suffered to remain in the water 
for an hour, when it may be drawn off. The method which I in 
general pursue is to raise the water to the boiling point, and keep it at 
this heat for about an hour, according to the nature of the fruit; they 
are then suffered to remain in the water until it is cold. I find this 
way generally successful. When they are taken out, cover the 
mouth of the bottle with melted rosin or bottle wax. 

This method is much superior to that of preparing them with water, 
which renders the fruit flat, dead, and insipid, the whole of the fla- 
vour of the fruit being imparted to the water, except when bottled 
very green, when it does not lose it so much. 

A method t have tried with pretty good success, is to obtain the 
fruit before it is ripe, bottle it, and fill the bottles with cold spring 
water, in which are dissolved some oxymuriate of potass, cork them 
close, and cover the mouths with rosin. Plums done in this way had 
the natural bloom on them. I found these were better than those 
done in a similar manner by heat. A few bottles of them fermented. 
After the fermentation was over I corked them close, and in six 
months I opened some, when they had a smell like wine, and were 
not so flat as those which were well preserved by heat, and filled 
with water ; these certainly look well to the eye, but they are only 
fit to be used for large pies, when the water should be made into a 
syrup with sugar, and put in with it. 

The first method, which is the same as Appert's, or nearly so, is 
decidedly the best; it retains the natural flavour, and may be used 
for any purpose it is required, it, being as good as fresh fruit. 


The pulp or juice of fruits may also be preserved in the same way } 
if the fruit is not ripe enough to pulp, put it into a jar, and stop it 
close, place it in a kettle of cold water, heat it until it boils, and let 
it continue at this point for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour; take 
it out and pass the pulp through a hair-sieve j bottle, and finish as 

This method of M. Appert's is not altogether original, but was an- 
ticipated by the experiments of Mr. Boyle. A system somewhat on 
the same principle has been practised by many in the trade for years, 
which is this. The fruit is bottled and carefully corked, the bottles 
are then placed on the top of the oven, where they are suffered to 
remain for twenty-four or forty-eight hours, according to the tempera- 
ture, which is generally from 120 to 140 Fahrenheit's thermometer. 
Atone place I ascertained the heat during the process, and it averaged 
130. Another system practised is that of heating the bottles in a 
cool oven. 

The principle endeavoured to be accomplished is to destroy the 
small portion of oxygen contained in the bottle after being corked, by 
converting it into carbonic acid gas; but some other unknown agent 
must be produced, as this may be done without heat, which the fer- 
mentation of the fruit would cause by itself; for, according to the 
experiments of Hildebrand, had the oxygen of the atmosphere 
remained unaltered, it would have caused putrefaction ; for he found 
that oxygen mixed with a small quantity of azote, promoted putrefac- 
tion more than pure oxygen. He found that hydrogen gas was the 
greatest preservative, nitrous next, and after this carbonic. These 
Experiments were tried on meat, but they may be equally applicable 
In respect to fruit, when the auxiliary produced by heat is not 
definitely known. 

Fruit should always be bottled and boiled on the same day it is 
gathered ; for the longer the fruit lies together the more it sweats ; 
fermentation commences, which is accelerated in the bottles by heat, 
and there is great danger of their bursting. 

All decayed or bruised fruit should be carefully excluded, and that 
should be preferred which is not quite ripe. 

When finished, the bottle should be kept in a cool dry place. 


THESE may be made either with fresh fruit, jam, or syrups. The 
last merely requires the addition of water and lemon-juice to make 
them palatable. 

Gooseberry, Currant, Raspberry, and Strawberry Waters. Mash 
either of these fruits when ripe, and press out the juice throirgh a 
hair-sieve, add a little water to it, and give it a boil; then filter it 
through a flannel bag, some syrup, a little lemon-juice and water, to 
make it palatable, but rich, although not too sweet, which is often the 
fault with these and compotes ; ice them the same as wine, and serve. 


Cherry Water. Pound the cherries with the stones to obtain the 
flavour of the kernel, and make as above. 

Jjpricot and Peach Water as cherry water : or, if made from jam, 
add a few bitter almonds pounded quite fine, using a little water and 
lemon-juice to pound them with; add them to the jam with water 
and lemon-juice to palate; strain it through a lawn sieve, ice, and 

Orgeat Water. Blanch half a pound of sweet almonds and one 
ounce of biiter; pound them very fine in a mortar, using water to 
prevent their oiling ; use one quart of water and a glass of orange- 
flower water, and make as directed for orgeat syrup; add sugar to 
palate, strain it through a lawn sieve, ice, and serve. 

Lemonade. Rub off the yellow rinds of six lemons on sugar; 
squeeze out their juice, and add to it a pint and a half of water, and 
half a pint of syrup, the white of an egg, with the sugar which has 
imbibed the oil from the rind ; mix them well together ; if not to 
your palate, alter it; strain through a flannel bag, ice, and serve. 

Orangeade is made as lemonade, using China oranges instead of the 


[THERE is no article of the dessert kind that deserves a more ele- 
vated position than well-made ices, as well for their intrinsic merit 
..a for the agreeable gout which they impart to a well-got-up enter- 

Philadelphia has for a long time enjoyed a pre-eminent reputation 
in the manufacture of these delicious compounds ; the rage however 
for cheap articles, without a due regard to their merits, has made sad 
inroads into the business; and, in order to accommodate this spirit of 
retrenchment, ignorant pretenders have consented to the base prac- 
tice of making inferior articles, which they palm off on the unwary 
under the specious guise of economy. With these persons it is a 
custom to use three-fourths milk and only one-fourth of the legiti- 
mate article, cream, and, in order to procure a sufficient body, to in- 
termix boiled flour, arrowroot, or potatoe flour ; also to flavour with 
tartaric acid instead of fresh lemons, tonquin bean instead of vanilla, 
and inferior fruits when the best only should be used. 

We mention these facts in order to caution young beginners against 
any such fatal mistakes. The best ingredients should always be 
used. Obtain your cream invariably fresh from a dairyman who is 
tenacious of his reputation, and who is known to produce a pure rich 
article; it cannot be too good, and if not used immediately should be 
kept in ice until wanted. Good cream cannot be had (even where 
large quantities are used) for a less price than twenty cents per 
quart. Use cream entirely, and on no account mingle the slightest 


quantity of milk, which detracts materially from the richness and 
smoothness of the ices. Always use the finest flavoured to he ob- 
tained, and follow implicitly the following very copious directions, 
and you will be certain to be rewarded by a fine article, of which 
you may well be proud :] 

Utensils requisite for making. 1st. Pewter pots of various sizes, 
suitable to the quantity of mixture intended to be frozen. Tin or 
zinc will not answer the purpose, as it congeals the mixture too 
quickly without allowing it a sufficient time to become properly in- 
corporated, and forms it in lumps like hailstones. 

2d. Half pint, pint, pint and a half, and quart moulds, and some in 
the form of fruits made to open in the centre with a hinge : these 
also require to he made of the same material. 

3d. Ice pails. These should be adapted to the size of the pots, 
about the same depth, and eight or ten inches more in diameter; if 
even greater, it is immaterial, the depth being the principal consider- 
ation, for the deeper it is the greater caution is required to prevent 
the salt from entering the mixture; for as the ice dissolves, the pot 
descends, and the water runs under the cover, which, being salt, 
spoils the contents; neither have you a sufficient basis whereon the 
pot rests so as to mix your creams, &c., with the spatula; conse- 
quently, half your exertions are lost by its constant sinking when you 
apply the least effort to scrape it from the sides. There should be a 
hole near the bottom, with a cork fitted into it, so as to be drawn at 
pleasure, that the water may be allowed to run off' when there is too 

4th. The spatula. This is an instrument somewhat resembling a 
gardener's spade ; it should be made of stout copper and tinned, the 
blade being about four inches long by three in width, round at the 
end, and having a socket to receive a wooden handle ; this is for 
scraping the cream, &c., from the sides of the pot as it freezes, and 
for mixing it. 

5th. Either a large mortar and pestle, or a strong box and mallet 
for pounding the ice. 

6th. A spade wherewith to mix the ice and salt together, fixing 
your pails, &c. 

7th. A tin case or box, with a kind of drawer fitted to it so as to 
be drawn out at pleasure, and having shelves or divisions ; this is for 
keeping the ices in the form of fruits, after they are finished, until 
required for the table. 

To freeze Ices. This is accomplished through the medium of ice. 
Of itself it does not contain sufficient frigorific power to congeal a 
liquid body to the required consistence without an auxiliary ; the 
usual one employed is that of salt. As a general rule, take about 
two pounds to every six pounds of ice, which 1 think wil! be learly 
the quantity required. I cannot state precisely, as it is the custom 
to mix it by guess ; but note, the freezing quality depends on the 


quantity of salt which is used, consequently, the more there is mixed 
with the ice the quicker are the creams, &c., frozen. 

Pound a sufficient quantity of ice small, and let some salt be well 
mixed with it; place the pot containing the mixture in a pail, which 
you fill (the latter) with pounded ice and salt as far as the lid ; strew 
a handful of salt on the top of the ice, let it remain a few minutes until 
you have similarly disposed of others, as three or four may be done at 
a time if required, then whirl them round briskly by means of the 
handles for five minutes, take off the lids one at a time, and with the 
spatula stir or carry the unfrozen part well round the sides, turning 1 
the pot also with the left hand ; continue this for two or three minute?, 
which serves to soften what has already frozen, as well as helps to 
freeze the remaining portion ; then scrape it from the sides, put on 
the lids, whirl round again briskly, as before directed, repeating the 
game operations every four or five minutes. As it forms into con- 
sistence, do not spare your labour in well working or mixing it 
together when you scrape it down, so as to make it perfectly smooth 
and free from lumps, for the smoothness of your ice depends on this 
operation ; continue to freeze until the whole is well set. Ice when 
well frozen should be about the consistence of butter, tough to the 
feel, of a good colour, and without any lumps in it. Those which 
contain too much syrup cannot be frozen to the degree required, and 
those which have too little freeze hard, and feel short and crisp, like 
compressed or frozen snow, which arises from having too many watery 
particles in it, by the excess of either water or milk according to the 
nature of your ice. In either case it may be ascertained when you 
commence freezing, by the first coat which is formed round the sides. 
It should then be altered by either adding more cream or water, with 
juice, or pulp of fruit, or other flavouring matter in proportion, as the 
case may be, if too rich, and vice versa, by the addition of more syrup, 
&c., when poor; but at all times the necessity of altering them should 
be avoided, as the component parts cannot be so perfectly blended 
together, without considerable extra labour, as if they were properly 
mixed at the commencement. 

During the time of freezing, or after the creams, &c., are moulded 
and set up, if there is too much water in the pail, the frigorific power 
is lessened ; a little increases it, as at first it is only a solution of the 
salt ; but as the ice dissolves and mixes with it, it decreases; there- 
fore, when it comes to the top drain it off, and fill up with fresh salt 
and ice. 

When the ices are properly frozen, take out the pots, drain off the 
water, empty the pail, again replace them and fill them with fresh 
Bait and ice, as before ; then spread the creams over the sides of the 
pot, when they are ready for use, if they are intended to be served in 
a shop or by glassful Is. Should it be required for moulds, line the 
bottom with a piece of paper, before you put it on ; if there is no im- 
pression or figure on the top, you may cover that also with paper ; in 
filling them press it well in, so as to fill every part; leave a little pro- 


jecting above the surface to form the top, which you put on ; pack 
the moulds in a pail, and fill the vacancies with pounded ice well 
mixed with plenty of salt, strew a handful also on the top. 

Ices should be moulded from half an hour to an hour before they 
are required to be served. 

When you want to turn them out, wash the mould well in cold 
water that no salt may remain on it; take off the bottom and top> and 
the ice will come out easily. 

For fruit moulds, fill each with either cream or water ice of the 
same kind as that which you would represent, and for the better re- 
semblance to nature, preserve the stone with the stalk and leaves of 
each, which put in their proper places, allowing the leaves to project 
outside; close the mould, wrap it in paper, and place it in ice as 
others; when you want to turn them out, wash the shape in luke- 
warm water to take off the paper, and be careful that you do not 
injure the leaves, as they will often be found frozen to it ; dip it again 
in water, open it and take out the ice, which you colour to nature 
with camel's-hair pencils and liquid colour (see Colours); the down 
or bloorn is represented by dusting it with dry colour in powder, tied 
in a small thin muslin bag, or by means of a dry camel's-hair pencil ; 
line the shelves of the case with paper or vine leaves, and put in 
the fruit as it is finished ; let the case be surrounded vviih pounded ice 
and salt, as for moulds. 

Ices may be divided into three classes, viz : cream, custard, and 
water. These derive their names from the basis of which they are 
composed, the flavouring matter mixed with it giving the other defi- 
nition : thus we say, raspberry cream and raspberry water; but cus- 
tard ices are not so particularly defined as the others by the basis, and 
either only receives the name of the flavour given to it, or as that of 

Cream Ices, These are composed entirely of pure fresh cream, 
with the juice or pulp of fruit either fresh or preserved, and syrup or 
sugar so blended together as the taste of one may not predominate 
over that of another ; but if either is in excess it should be that of 
the fruit. 

Raspberry of fresh fruit. One quart of raspberries, one quart of 
cream, three-quarters of a pound or a pound of sugar, a few ripe 
currants and gooseberries, or currants and ripe cherries may be added, 
instead of all raspberries, which is much approved by some, and the 
juice of two lemons; * mash the fruit, and pass it through a sieve to 
take out the skins and seeds ; mix it with the other articles ; add a 
little prepared cochineal to heighten the colour; pnt it in the pot and 

* The quantity of fruit required for these ices will depend, in a great 
measure, on the quality of the fruit and the seasons in which it is pro- 
duced ; a pint and a half will be found sufficient when it is good in fine 
seasons ; the quantity stated in each weight is the greatest required. 


Note. All ices made with red fruit require this addition of cochi- 

Raspberry, from Jam. One pound of jam, one quart of cream, 
about, six ounces of sugar or syrup, to palate, and the juice of two 
lemons. Mix as before. 

Strawberry. As raspberry. 

Currant Ice from fresh Fruit. One pint and a half of ripe currants, 
half a pint of raspberries, one quart of cream, the juice of two 
lemons, and twelve ounces of sugar. Mix as raspberry. 

Currant Ice. Preserved Fruit. The same proportions as raspberry, 
using either jam or jelly. 

Barberry Ice. Use the sameproportions as before. For fresh barber- 
ries, first soften them by either boiling them in the syrup you intend 
to use, or put them in a stew-pan, and stir them over the fire until 
tender ; pass them through a sieve, mix, and freeze as raspberry. The 
barberries, having much acid, do not require any lemon-juice to be 
mixed with them. 

Apricot. Fresh Fruit. Twenty-four fine ripe apricots, one quart of 
cream, twelve ounces of sugar, the juice of two lemons, with a few 
of the kernels blanched ; mash the apricots, rub them through a sieve, 
mix, and freeze. 

Jlpricot, from Jam. Twelve ounces of jam, one quart of cream, 
the juice of two lemons, eight ounces of sugar, a few kernels or bit- 
ter almonds blanched and pounded fine ; rub the whole through a 
sieve, and freeze. 

Peach Ice. The same proportions as apricot. 

Pine Apple Fresh Fruit. One pound of fresh pine apple, half a 
pint of syrup in which a pine has been preserved, two or three slices 
of pine apple cut in small dice, and the juice of three lemons ; pound 
or grate the apple, pass it through a sieve, mix, and freeze. 

Pine Apple Preserved Fruit. Eight ounces of preserved pine, four 
slices cut in small dice, one quart of cream, the juice of three lemons, 
and sufficient syrup from the pine to sweeten it; pound the preserved 
pine, mix lemons with the cream, &c., and freeze. 

Ginger Ice, Six ounces of preserved ginger, one quart of cream, 
half a pint of the syrup from the ginger, sugar sufficient to sweeten 
it with, and the juice of two lemons; pound the ginger in a mortar, 
add the cream, <fec., and freeze. 

[Brahma Ice. One quart of cream, the whites of ten eggs, one 
and a half pounds of powdered sugar of the best quality ; mix the 
whole in a tip saucepan ; put it on the fire, stirring constantly, until 
it boils oncfc , then add two wine-glasses of Curacoa, half a glass of 
orange-flower water; put it into the pot, and freeze.] 

Orange Ice Cream. Six oranges, three lemons, one quart of crearn, 


and twelve ounces of sugar or of syrup, to palate; rub off the yel- 
low rind of two or three of the oranges on part of the sugar, scrape 
it off with a knife, squeeze out the juice of the oranges and lemons, 
and strain it; mix it with the cream and the sugar on which the rind 
was rubbed, add the other part of the sugar, dissolve and freeze. 

China Orange Ice Cream. Eight oranges, two lemons, one quart 
of cream, twelve ounces of sugar ; rub off the rind of four or five of 
the oranges and one lemon on sugar, squeeze, and strain the juice; 
add the cream, fcc., mix, and freeze. 

Cherry Ice Cream. Two pounds of cherries, one quart of cream, 
and twelve ounces of sugar or syrup; pound the cherries, with the 
stones, in a mortar, adding a few ripe gooseberries or currants if ap- 
proved of; pass the pulp through a sieve, add the cream and sugar 
with the juice of two lemons and a little cochineal, mix, and freeze. 

With preserved fruit it is made the same way, adding a little 
noyau, or a few bitter almonds pounded for the flavour of the kernel. 

[Harlequin Ice. This is formed by putting a small quantity of each 
kind of ice into the same mould, taking care to have as great a va- 
riety of colours as possible placed so as to produce a contrast; cover 
the mould with salt and ice as before directed, and let it remain half 
an hour, when it will be fit to turn out. When the colours are tastily 
disposed of, it produces a good effect for the table, but is not much ad- 
mired on account of the jumble of flavours.] 

Lemon Ice Cream. Six large lemons, one quart of cream, and 
twelve ounces of sugar or half pint of syrup; grate off the peels of 
three of the lemons into a basin, squeeze the juice to it, let it stand 
for two or three hours, strain, add the cream and syrup, and freeze or 
mix as Seville orange ice. 

Mille Fruit Cream Ice. Make a lemon cream ice, and flavour it 
with elder flowers, mix in some preserved dried fruits and peels cut 
in small pieces. Before it is moulded, sprinkle it with prepared co- 
chineal, and mix it a little, so as it may appear in veins or marbled. 

Custard Ices. These are similarly composed to the cream ices, 
with the addition of six eggs to each quart of cream. All kinds of 
nuts, liqueurs, essences, infusions, or biscuits, are principally mixed 
with it. 

Custard for Ices. One quart of cream, six eggs, and twelve ounces 
of powdered loaf sugar; break the eggs into a stew-pan, and whisk 
them together ; add the cream and sugar ; when well mixed, place 
it on the fire, and continue stirring it from the bottom with the whisk, 
to prevent burning; until it gets thick; take it from the fire, con- 
tinue to stir it for a few minutes, and pass it through a sieve. If the 
custard be suffered to boil, it will curdle. 

Plombiere Ice, or Swiss Pudding. Take one pint and a half of 
cream and half a pint of milk, and make them into a custard witl 
seven yolks of eggs; flavour it either with Curac,oa, Maraschino, or 


rum ; freeze the custard, and add about a quarter of a pound of dried 
cherries, orange, lemon, and citron peel, and currants; mix these in 
the iced custard. The Cura^oa, or rum, &c., may be poured over the 
tVuit when you commence freezing 1 , or before, which I consider pre- 
Iciabie to flavouring the custard. Prepare the mould, which is round, 
and something in the shape of a melon, made to open in the centre 
u >:h a hinge. Strew over the inside with some clean currants^ fill 
the mould, and close it; immerse it in some fresh ice mixed with 
wit. Before it is required to be turned out, prepare a dish a3 
i->i'ou s : 

The Sauce.. Make a little custard, and flavour it with brandy ; 
dissolve some isinglass in water or milk, and when it is nearly cold 
add sufficient to the custard to set it ; pour it into the dish you intend 
tn serve it on. As soon as it is set, turn out the pudding on it and 
eel ve. 

Almond or Orgeat Ice Cream. One quart of cream, eight ounces 
of sweet almonds, two ounces of bitter almonds, twelve ounces of 
sugar, and two ounces of orange-flower water ; blanch the almonds, 
and pound them quite fine in a mortar, using the orange-flower water 
in pounding, to prevent their oiling: rub them through a sieve, and 
pound again the remaining portion which has not passed through, 
until they are fine enough; then mix them with the cream, and make 
it into a custard with eggs, as the preceding ; strain, and when cold, 

Pistachio Ice Cream. One quart of cream, eight ounces of pis- 
tachios, and twelve ounces of sugar; blanch and pound the pistachios 
with a little of the cream ; mix and finish as orgeat ice, flavouring it 
with a little essence of cedrat, or the rind of a fresh citron rubbed on 
sugar ; or the custard may be flavoured by boiling in it a little cinna- 
mon and mace and the rind of of a lemon. 

Filbert Ice Cream. One quart of cream, one pound of nuts, and 
twelve ounces of sugar or one pint of syrup; break the nuts, and roast 
the kernels in the oven ; when done, pound them with a little cream, 
make a custard, and finish as almond ice. 

Chestnut Ice. As the preceding, taking off the husks and skin. 

Burnt Filbert Ice Cream. Use the same proportions as in filbert 
ice ; put the kernels into the syrup, and boil till it comes to the 
blow; stir the sugar with a spatula, that it may grain and adhere to 
the nuts; when cold, pound them with the sugar quite fine; make 
a custard, and mix them with it, allowing for the sugar that is used 
for the nuts; mix, and freeze as the others. 

Burnt Almond Ice Cream. Make as burnt filbert ice. 

Coffee Ice Cream. One quart of cream, five ounces of Mocha coffee, 
and twelve ounces of sugar ; roast the coffee in a coarse iron or other 
stew-pan, keeping it constantly stirred until it is a good brown colour; 


throw it into the custard cream whilst it is quite hot, and cover it 
closely ; let it infuse for an hour or two, then strain and freeze. 

The cream may be made with an infusion of coffee, thus: take the 
quantity of coffee, fresh roasted and ground to a fine powder ; put this 
into a common glass bottle or decanter, and pour on it sufficient cold 
river water to moisten the powder and make an infusion ; stop the 
bottle close, and let it remain all night; the next day filter the infu- 
sion by passing it through some fine lawn or blotting paper placed in 
a glass funnel ; by this process a very strong and superior infusion is 
obtained, which contains the whole of the aroma of the coffee. Dr. 
Ratier observes, "I have tried this process with boiling and with 
cold water; nnd I have assured myself, by comparison, that the pow- 
der drained by the cold water, and treated then with boiling water, 
gave nothing but a water slightly tinted with yellow, and devoid of 
odour and flavour. It is, besides, proper to pass an equal quantity of 
water to the first, over the grounds, in order that the second water 
may serve for new powder." Use this for flavouring the custard, 
and freeze. 

Chocolate Ice. One quart of cream, six ounces of chocolate, and 
ten ounces of sugar ; dissolve the chocolate in a little water, or make 
the sugar into a syrup, and dissolve it by putting it on the side of the 
stove, or over the fire ; add the cream and eggs, and make it into a 
custard as before ; when cold, freeze. 

Tea Ice. One quart of cream, two ounces of the best green tea, 
nnd twelve ounces of sugar ; put the tea into a cup, and pour on it a 
little cold river water in which has been dissolved a small portion of 
carbonate of soda, about as much as may be placed on a fourpenny 
piece ; let it remain for an hour or two, then add a little boiling 
water, sufficient in the whole to make a very strong infusion ; or the 
boiling water may be dispensed with, adding more cold water in pro- 
portion, and letting it soak longer, when a superior infusion will be 
obtained ; strain it, and add to the cream and eggs. Finish as the 

Vanilla Ice. One quart of cream, half an ounce of vanilla, twelve 
ounces of sugar; cut the vanilla into small pieces, and pound it with 
the sugar until it is quite fine, add it to the cream and eggs, make it 
into a custard, strain, and when cold freeze, or it may be flavoured 
with the essence of vanilla. (See Essences). 

Noyau Cream Ice. Make a custard cream, and flavour it with 
noyau ; finish as almond ice. 

Maraschino Cream Ice. Make as noyau, flavouring it with Mara- 
schino de Zara. All liqueur ices are made the same way, using the 
different liqueurs with which each is named, or they may be made in 
this way : Take a quart of cream, put it into the ice-pot with six 
ounces of sugar, which you place in the ice; work or whisk it well 
about the sides with a whisk for five minutes ; add a glassful of 


liqueur, work this well together, then whisk the whites of two eggs 
to a strong froth, add two ounces of sugar to them, mix this well with 
the cream, and freeze to the required consistence. This produces a 
very beautiful, soft, and mellow cream. 

Water Ices. These are the pulp or juice of fruits mixed with 
syrup, lemon juice, and a little water, so as to bring them to a good 
h'iivour and consistence when frozen. 

Currant Water Ice. Two pounds of ripe currants, eight ounces of 
raspberries and ripe cherries, one pint of syrup, and one pint of water. 

Pick and mash the fruit, and strain it through a sieve, add the 
syrup and water, put it in the ice-pot and freeze. 

Cherry Water Ice. Cherries two pounds, either Kentish or May 
Duke, ripe gooseberries four ounces, one pint of syrup, half a pint of 
water, and the juice of two lemons ; pound the cherries with the 
stones in a mortar, pa?s the juice of the fruit through a sieve, mix 
the syrup and water with it, and freeze ; if it should^not freeze suffi- 
ciently, add a little more water. 

Gooseberry Water Ice. Ripe gooseberries two pounds, the red hairy 
sort is the best, one pound of cherries, one pint of syrup, one pint of 
water, and the juice of two lemons; mash the fruit and pass it through 
a sieve, mix it with the syrup and water, and freeze. 

Raspberry Water Ice. One quart of ripe raspberries, four ounces 
of ripe cherries and currants, half a pint of syrup, half a pint of water, 
and the juice of two lemons. Mash the fruit and p.iss the juice 
through a sieve, mix the syrup water and lemon with it, and freeze. 

Raspberry Water Ice. Two pottles of the best scarlet pines, one 
pint of syrup, half a pint of water, and the juice of two lemons. 

Mix as currant. All red fruits require the addition of a little pre- 
pared cochineal to heighten the colour. 

Apricot Water Ice. Eighteen or twenty fine ripe apricots, accord- 
ing to their size, half a pint of syrup, half a pint of water, the juice 
of two lemons. 

Mash the apricots and pass them through a sieve, mix the pulp 
with the syrup water and lemon-juice, break the stones, blanch the 
kernels, and pound them fine with a little water, pass them through 
a sieve, add it to the mixture, and freeze. 

Peach Water Ice. One pound of the pulp of ripe peaches, half a 
pint of syrup, half a pint of water, the juice of two lemons. Mix as 
apricot. If the fruit is not ripe enough to pulp, open them and take 
out the stones, put them in a stew-pan with the syrup and water, boil 
until tender, and pass them through a sieve; mix in the pounded 
kernels; when cold, freeze. 

Damson Ice. One quart of damsons, one pint of syrup, half a pint 
of water. Mix as peach ice. Magnum-bonums, Orleans, green- 
gages, or any other plum may be done in the same way, 


Pine-appk Water Ice. Half a pint of pine syrup, one pint of water, 
the juice of two lemons, and three or four slices of preserved pine 
cut into small dice; mix and freeze. 

Fresh Pine-apple Water Ice. One pound of pine-apple, one pint 
of syrup, half a pint of water, and the juice of two lemons. Cut the 
pine in pieces, and put it into a stew-pan with the syrup and water, 
and boil until tender ; pass it through a sieve, add the lemon-juice, 
with two or three slices of the pine cut in small dice, mix and freeze 
when cold. The pine may be pounded instead of being boiled, and 
mixed with the syrup, &c. 

The whole of these ices may be made with preserved fruit instead 
of fresh. 

One pound of jam or jelly, one pint of water, the juice of two lem- 
ons, and syrup sufficient to make it palatable. 

Apple-Water Ice. Pare and core some fine apples, cut them in 
pieces into a preserving pan with sufficient water for them to float, 
boil until they are reduced to a marmalade, then strain : to a pint of 
apple-water add half a pint of syrup, the juice of a lemon, and a little 
water ; when cold, freeze. 

Pear-Water Ice. Prepare as apple ice. 

Orange-Water Ice. One pint of China orange-juice, one pint of 
syrup, half a pint of water, the juice of four large lemons. 

Rub off the yellow rind of six oranges and two lemons on sugar, 
scrape it off and mix with the strained juice, syrup and water. 

Lemon-Water Ice. Haifa pint of lemon juice, half a pint of water, 
one pint of syrup, the peels of six lemons rubbed off on sugar, or the 
yellow rind may be pared or grated off, and the juice squeezed to it 
in a basin ; let it remain for an hour or two, then strain, mix, and 
freeze; whip up the whites of three eggs to a strong froth, with a 
little sugar, as for meringues; when the ice is beginning to set, work 
this well in it, which will make it eat beautifully soft and delicious; 
freeze to the required consistence ; if the ice is to be served in glasses, 
the meringue may be added after it has been frozen. Orange- water 
ice may be done the same. 

Maraschino -Water Ice Make a lemon ice as the above, using less 
water, and making up the deficiency with Maraschino; but be careful 
the taste of the lemon does not prevail too much ; add more water and 
syrup to correct it if it does. Noyau and all other liqueur ices are 
made the same way, using that to flavour the lemon ice which it bears 
the name of. Champagne and wine ices the same. 

Punch-Wafer Ice. Make either a good lemon ice, or use sorno 
orange-juice with the lemons, in the proportion of one orange to two 
lemons; either rub off the yellow rind of the lemons on sugar, or pare 
it very thin, and soak it in the spirit for a few hours ; when the ice 
is beginning to set, work in the whites of three eggs to each quart, 
beaten to a strong froth, and mixed with sugar as for mprmwuo, or 


add the whites without whisking them; when it is nearly frozen, take 
out the pot from the ice, and mix well with it a glass each of rum 
and brandy, or sufficient to make it a good flavour; some like the 
taste of the rum to predominate, but in this case of course you will be 
guided by the wish of your employer. In general the prevailing fla- 
vour distinguishes it by name, as rum-punch or brandy-punch ice; 
after the spirit is well mixed, replace the pot and finish freezing. If 
champagne, arrack, or tea is added, it is then termed champagne- 
punch ice, arrack-punch ice, &c. 

Punch a la Romaine Roman Punch Ice. Make a quart of lemon 
ice, and flavour it with a glass or two of each, of rum, brandy, cham- 
pagne, and Maraschino; when it is frozen, to each quart take the 
whites of five eggs and whip them to a very strong froth ; boil half a 
pound of sugar to the ball, and rub it with a spoon or spatula against 
the sides to grain it ; when it turns white, mix it quickly with the 
whites of eggs, stir it lightly together, and add it to the ice; when 
cold, mix it well together, and serve it in glasses; less sugar must be 
used in the ice, so as to allow for that which is used in making the 

Mille Fruit Water Ice. Make a good lemon ice, with a pint of 
syrup, half a pint of water, and as much strained lemon-juice as will 
give it the desired flavour, with some elder flowers infused in syrup; 
when the ice is frozen, mix it in some preserved green fruits and 
peels cut in small dice ; if any large fruits are used, such as apricots, 
peaches, pine-apples, &c., they must be also cut in dice like the peels; 
sprinkle it with prepared cochineal, and mix it a little so as it may 
appear in veins. 


[Calves' Feet Jellies. Boil down one set of calves' feet in four 
quarts of water till it is reduced to one half, then strain through a 
sieve, in order to remove the bones; when settled and cold take off 
the grease on the surface, then boil, with the following additions : 
twelve eggs, three pints of good Madeira wine, and two pounds of 
loaf sugar, the juice of four lemons; stir the mixture well with a 
whisk or spatula, and filter through a fine flannel bag. Jellies of 
Champagne and other wines are made in the same manner. 

Coffee Jelly is made the same as preceding, using, instead of Ma- 
deira wine, a decoction of coffee, prepared as follows: infuse half a 
pound of roasted Mocha coffee, pulverised or ground, in one quart of 
water, strain off the decoction, and add to it a little brandy. 

Tea Jelly Green or Slack. Treat in the same way, using an in- 
fusion of half an ounce of tea to one quart of water. 



Strawberry Jelly. One pound of picked strawberries, press them 
Lghtiy, and put them in four ounces of clear syrup; cover the infu- 
sion, and let them stand all night; strain through a bag on the fol- 
lowing morning: in the mean time clarify half a pound of sugar ; 
when nearly clarified add to it a few drops of prepared cochineal, to 
give it a fine red colour; after which, strain it through a sieve, and 
add to it an ounce of clarified isinglass, the juice of two sound lemons, 
and afterwards the fruit; stir the jelly gently, and put it in a mould 
placed in ice. 

N. B. To clarify isinglass, take one ounce of the best Russia, cut 
it in small pieces, wash it several times in clear warm water, put it on 
the fire in a small pan with one pint of soft water, let it boil suffi- 
ciently, taking care to skim it well; when it is reduced to one-half, 
strain through a napkin into a clean vessel. The sugar and isinglass 
should be only lukewarm when you mix them. These remarks apply 
to all jellies of this kind. 

Pine. Apple. Jelly. Take a fine ripe pine apple, cut it small, and 
strain the juice through a hair sieve, then throw it into the boiling 
syrup, let it boil up, and when nearly cold strain it through a silk 
sieve, add a little caramel to give the jelly a fine yellow tinge ; 
then the juice of two fine lemons, and an ounce of clarified isinglass. 
Proceed as before. 

Jelly of Jlpricots. Take the stones out of one dozen and a half of 
fine ripe apricots and boil them in the syrup, which, in this case, 
should be as light coloured as possible; when boiled sufficiently to 
extract the flavour, strain through a napkin, add the necessary quan- 
tity of isinglass, and finish as usual. 

Orange Jelly. Squeeze the juice out of twelve Havanna oranges 
and one lemon, strain through a fine linen cloth, then mix with the 
syrup boiled to the ball ; add the clarified isinglass, filter through a 
fine flannel bag, and finish as before. 

The foregoing will suffice for all fruit jellies. 


Take four ounces of sweet almonds blanched, half an ounce of 
bitter almonds, pound them in a clean mortar, moisten them gra- 
dually with orange-flower water, mix this with one quart of fresh 
cream and one ounce of clarified isinglass, put into a saucepan, con- 
stantly stirring till it boils, then pass through a fine sieve, and form 
into a mould, and put on ice. 

Blanc Mange may be flavoured with vanilla, Mocha coffee, maris- 
chino, pistachios, and strawberries ; in which case the bitter almonds 
should be left out.] 



THE essences or essential oils sold for general use are or ought to 
be obtained by distillation ; but for many purposes they may be ob- 
tained equally as good, and, in some cases, superior, without. As 
these are often adulterated with olive or nut oils, or with spirits of 
wine, the fixed oils may be detected by pouring some of the suspected 
essence on a piece of clean writing paper, and holding it before the 
fire ; the quantity of fixed oil it contains will remain, leaving a greasy 
mark, whereas the pure essential oil will evaporate without leaving 
any appearance ; if spirits of wine be added, pour a little water or oil 
of turpentine into the adulterated sample, and it will turn milky, as 
the two will not unite without producing this effect. It is often 
sophisticated with the oil of turpentine, which is the lightest of all 
essential oils ; in this case, rub a drop over the hand and hold it by 
the fire, when it may be recognized by the smell, or if burnt it will 
give out a dense black smoke. 

Rectified spirits of wine dissolve the volatile oil and resin of vege- 
tables (their taste and smell most frequently reside in these), whilst 
water acts on the saline and mucilaginous parts. Proof spirit, which 
is a mixture of both these, extracts all their virtues, and through this 
we are enabled to obtain the essence or tincture of any vegetable, of 
superior quality to that generally sold, and at considerably less ex- 
pense. The essential oil of lemons or oranges is obtained by rubbing 
off the yellow rind on the rough surface of a piece of loaf sugar, which 
is much superior for flavour to that produced by any other means. 
Scrape off the sugar after it has imbibed the oil, and dry it in a gentle 
heat, put it into small glazed pots, and tie them over with bladder ; it 
will keep any length of time unimpaired. The same observation 
holds good as regards all fruit whose flavour or essential oil resides in 
its peel. 

Essence of Lemon. Eight ounces of lemon peel, ten ounces of rec- 
tified spirits of wine. Pare or grate off the yellow rind of the lemon 
very thin and weigh it, put it into a bottle and pour the spirit on it, 
stop it close, and let it steep for fourteen days, when it is fit for use. 
Proof gin or white rum will serve equally well, but not such as is 
generally sold at the gin-shops; this is excellent for ices, creams, 
lemonade, &c. In many establishments, where quantities of peel are 
thrown away, the cost of this would be comparatively trifling, com- 
pared with the price of the inferior oil generally sold. 

Essence of Orange. Make as lemon, using only four ounces of the 
yellow rind. 

Essence of Bergamot. From the peel of the bergamot lemon. 

Essence de Cedrat. From the yellow part of the fresh citron peel ; 
it may also be obtained by pressing the yellow part of the peel be- 
tween two glass plates, and by the distillation of the flowers of the 


Allspice, Cloves, Cinnamon, or Nutmegs, $~c. Two ounces of spice, 
one pint of proof spirit. Bruise the spice, put it into a bottle, stop it 
close, let it remain fourteen days, and filter for use. 

The oil from nutmegs is often extracted from them by decoction, 
before they are brought to the market, and their orifices closed again 
with powdered sassafras; this may be ascertained by the lightness of 
the nut; if it is punctured with a pin, the oil will be pressed from it 
when good. These oils may be obtained by expression or distillation ; 
they hold resin in solution, and consequently sink in water. The 
essences usually sold are made by adding half an ounce of the pure 
oil to one pint of spirits of wine. 

Essence of Ginger. The best Jamaica or China ginger two ounces, 
proof spirit one pint. Powder the ginger, mix it with the spirit, stop 
close, and let it steep for twelve or fourteen days. 

This is the same as is sold for " Oxley's concentrated essence of 
Jamaica ginger," a mere solution of ginger in rectified spirit 
Paris 9 s Pharmacologia. 

Essence of Peppermint. " A spirituous solution of the essential oil, 
coloured green by spinach leaves." Ibid. This essential oil is ob- 
tained by distillation. Four pounds of dried leaves yield one ounce. 

Essence of Manilla. Vanilla two ounces, water ten ounces, rectified 
spirit three-quarters of an ounce. Cut the vanilla in small pieces, 
and pound it fine in a marble mortar, with loaf sugar (about a pound), 
adding tho white of an egg and the spirit. Put it into a glazed pot, 
tie a piece of writing paper over it, and make a hole in it with a pin ; 
stand the pot in warm water, keeping it at that heat for twenty-four 
hours, then strain for use. 

One drachm of this is equal to an ounce of vanilla, and is excellent 
for flavouring ices, creams, liqueurs, &c. 

Essence of Bitter Almonds. This is obtained by distilling the cake 
or residue of the almonds after the oil has been expressed from them. 
It is a deadly poison, containing prussic acid, like all other nuts or 
leaves, which possess the bitter principle. Flies drop dead when 
passing over the still when it is in operation. The essence usually 
sold is one ounce of oil to seven ounces of rectified spirit. 



Dry Meringues in the form of Eggs. Ten whites of eggs, twelve 
ounces of sugar. 

Obtain the newest laid eggs, and separate the white from the yolk 
very carefully; put the whites into a pan, which must be quite free 
from grease; whisk them to a very strong froth so as it will support 
an egg, or even a greater weight; have the sugar pounded and sifted 
through a lawn sieve, and mix it as lightly ns possible; spread some 
pieces of board about an inch thick, then with a table or dessert spoon 

^,^^_ 83 


drop them on the paper about two inches asunder, dust them with fine 
powdered loaf sugar, blow off all that does not adhere, and put them 
into a co' oven to bake until they are a nice light brown ; if the oven 
should be too warm, when the surface gets dry or hardened cover 
them with paper ; as soon as they are done take them off with a knife, 
press the inside or soft part down with the top or the back of a spoon, 
place them on sieves, and put them into the stove to dry ; when they 
are required to be served fill them with any kind of preserved fruit or 
cream, if it is rather acid the better, and put two together. 

The quality of the meringues will depend on the eggs being well 
whipped to a very strong froth, and also on the quantity of sugar, for 
if there is not enough they will eat tough. 

[Kisses. Twelve ounces of sugar powdered very fine and passed 
through a silk sieve* the whites of six eggs beaten to a strong froth ; 
mix and lay out on paper, as for dry meringues: when baked, place 
two together. The size should be about that of a pigeon's egg.] 

Italian Meringues. One pound of sugar, the whites of six eggs. 
Clarify the sugar and boil it to the blow ; in the mean time whip up 
the whites as for the last, take the sugar from the fire and rub it a 
little against the sides of the pan to grain it ; as soon as it begins to 
turn white, mix in the whipped eggs, stirring the sugar well from 
the bottom and sides of the pan with the whisk or spatula; lay them 
off, and bake as dry meringues; these may be coloured by adding the 
liquid colour to the syrup so as to give the desired tint ; and either 
of them may be flavoured by rubbing off the peel of oranges, lemons, 
or cedrats on sugar, and scraping it off as it imbibes the oil ; or it 
may be flavoured with vanilla, by cutting it in small pieces and pound- 
ing it with some sugar, or with any liqueur by adding a spoonful or 
two when you mix the eggs or sugar. They may also be varied in 
form, and baked on tin or iron plates instead of wood, that the bottoms 
may be quite firm. The tops may be covered with almonds or pis- 
tachios, blanched and cut small or in fillets, or with currants, or 
coloured sugars; the whole depending on the taste and ingenuity of 
the artist. 

Mushrooms. To make these, take either of the pastes for merin- 
gues or light icing, as for cakes; put some into a bag in the shape of 
a cone, with a tin pipe at the end, the same as used for Savoy bis- 
cuits; lay them off in drops the size you wish them to be, on iron 
plates rubbed quite clean and dry, bake them as you would merin- 
gues, make also a smaller drop to form the stalk ; when they are 
baked, take them off the tin and scoop out a little with your finger 
from the bottom near the edge, to form the hollow rough surface 
underneath ; then dry them in the stove ; scrape some chocolate and 
dissolve it in a little warm water, and rub a little over the rough part 
underneath ; then place the stalk in the centre, fixing it with a little 
icing, and let the flat part which was on the tin be placed outermost 
to represent where it was cut. 


Icing for Wedding or Twelfth Cakes, &c. Pound, and sift some 
treble-refined sugar through a lawn sieve, and put it into an earthen 
pan, which must be quite free from grease; to each pound of sifted 
sugar add the whites of three eggs, or sufficient to make it into a 
paste of a moderate consistence, then with a wooden spoon or 
spatula beat it well, using a little lemon-juice occasionally, and more 
white of egg if you find that it will bear it without making it too thin, 
until you have a nice light icing, which will hang to the sides of the 
pan and spoon ; or, if it is dropped from the spoon, it should remain 
on the top without speedily losing the form it assumed. A pan of 
icing, when well beat and finished, should contain as much again in 
bulk as it was at the commencement: use sufficient lemon-juice to 
give the icing a slight acid, or it will scale off the cake in large pieces 
when it is cut. Many prefer the pyroligneous acid to the lemon- 
juice, but the flavour is not so delicate, and it always retains a smell 
of the acid ; neither did I ever find, as some assert, that it improves 
the quality and appearance of the icing; the only advantage derived 
from it is that of economy. 

On piping Cakes r Bon-bons, "c. This is a method of ornamenting 
wedding, twelfth-cakes, and other articles with icing, by means of 
small pipes or tubes; these are most generally made with writing- 
paper folded in the form of a cone, in the same manner as a grocer 
makes up his papers for small lots of sugar, tea, &c. The tube is 
filled with icing, made as for cakes, the base of the cone, or the place 
where it was filled, is turned down to prevent the sides opening, and 
the escape of the icing; the point is then cut off with a sharp knife 
or scissors, so as to make a hole sufficiently large to form the icing, 
when squeezed or pressed out, in a thread of the required size, and 
which will either be fine or coarse according to the length of the 
point which is cut off. If the hole at the point of the cone is not per- 
fectly straight when the icing is pressed out, it will form a spiral 
thread, which is very inconvenient to work with. Stars, borders, 
flowers, and different devices, are formed on cakes after they are iced, 
the execution of which depends on the ability and ingenuity of the 
artist. Baskets, Chinese and other temples, &c., are formed on moulds 
by these means, first giving them a coating of white wax, which is 
brushed over them after it is melted, and when cold, the icing is 
formed on it like trellis-work ; when finished, the mould is warmed, 
and the icing easily comes off. Some of the pipes which are used 
cannot be formed with paper, as the tape and star-pi pcs, which are 
made of tin, having a bag fastened to them in a similar manner to 
that generally used for dropping out Savoy biscuits, macaroons, &c., 
only much smaller, the point of the tin tube of the one being fluted to 
form a star, and in the other it is flat, so that when the icing is forced 
or squeezed through, it comes out in a broad thin sheet, like a piece 
of tape. I employ a set of pipes made of tin, with small bags fastened 
to them ; these are of different dimensions ; the orifice of the round 
ones commences at the size of a common pin, and the tape pipes from 


a quarter to half an inch in width. I find these much hetter than 
paper ones, as the trouble and time which is lost in constantly making 
new ones is amply repaid by the others, as they are not very expen- 
sive and are always ready for use. These pipes should be in the 
hands of the confectioner what the pencil or brush is to the painter, 
capable of performing wonders with men of genius. Some of the 
bon-bons, which may be seen in the shops, are proofs of what I assert; 
and many things are so cleverly done, that many persons would be- 
lieve that they were either formed in a mould or modelled. I have 
not space to enlarge further on this subject, but much more might be 
given in explanation ; therefore the artist must be guided by his own 
genius and fancy.* 


TAKE one ounce of picked gnm-tragacanth ; wash it in water, to 
take off any dust or dirt; put it into a clean pot, and pour on it rather 
more than half a pint of water, or sufficient to cover the gum about 
an inch; stir it frequently, to accelerate the solution; it will take 
twenty-four hours to dissolve; then squeeze it out through a coarse 
cloth, as directed for lozenges, taking care that everything employed 
in the making is very clean, or it will spoil the colour; put it into a 
mortar, adding gradually six or eight ounces of treble-refined sugar, 
sifted through a lawn sieve; work it well with the pestle, until it is 
incorporated and becomes a very white smooth paste; put it into a 
glazed pot, cover the paste with a damp cloth, and turn the pot upside- 
down on an even surface, to exclude the air. When it is wanted, 
take a little of it and put it on a clean marble, and work some more 
sugar into it (which has been sifted through a lawn sieve) with the 
fingers, until it is a firm paste, which will break when pulled ; if it is 
not stiff enough, it will roll up under the knife when you cut it from 
the impressions in your paste-boards; if it is too stiff, work in a little 
of your prepared paste with it, to soften it. When your paste works 
harsh and cracks, it has too much gum in it ; in this case, use a little 
water to work it down ; and if the gum is too thin it will crack, and 
dry too soon from the excess of sugar, therefore add pome more 
strained gum that has not been mixed with sugar. The same obser 
vation also holds good with respect to lozenges. If it is required 
coloured, add a little prepared cochineal, or any other colour in fine 
powder; mix it on the stone. If they are to be flavoured with any 
essence, add it at the same time. This paste is fit to be eaten, and is 
the foundation of gum-paste comfits, dragees, &c. 

Gum Paste for Ornaments. Take some of the prepared paste, as 

* An excellent work for the use of the ornamental confectioner is Page's 
" Acanthus," which may be obtained of any bookseller. 


for the last, and work into it on the stone some very fine starch pow- 
der, using equal quantities of starch and sugar. This may also be 
made with rice flour, instead of starch. These are chiefly used for 
pieces montees. It may be moulded or modelled into any form, or 
cut out from figures or borders carved in wood, called gum-paste 
boards, using a little starch-powder to prevent its sticking whilst 
working it ; a little tied up in a small muslin bag is the handiest for 
use. When you want to get the paste from the impressions in the 
boards, take a small piece of paste and press it at each end ; if it does 
not come out very readily, moisten the piece, and touch that in the 
impression at three or four places, which, being damp, adheres to it 
and draws it out. 

Paste ft) r gilding on. Take some dissolved gum, as before, and 
make it into a paste with a little starch-powder to finish it; or it may 
be made with some of the prepared sugar gum-paste, finishing it with 

Papier Mdchee. Take the cuttings of either white or brown paper, 
and boil them in water until reduced to a paste; press the water 
from it when cold enough, and pound it well in a mortar ; put it into 
a pan or glazed pipkin, with a little gum Arabic, Senegal, or com* 
mon glue, made into rather a thick mucilage with water; this is to 
give it tenacity ; place it on the fire and stir it until well incorpo- 
rated ; if it is not stiff enough when cold, flour may be added to make 
it of the proper consistence; it should be about the same substance as 
gum paste. This may be used for forming the rocks of a piece mon- 
tee, or for vases, cassolettes, &c. ; in fact anything you desire may be 
made with it, as with gum paste ; it is very durable, not being easily 
broken, and is very light; it is now much used, instead of compo- 
sition, for the decorations of rooms and articles of furniture. It is 
from this that paper trays, snuffboxes, &c., are manufactured, and it 
is much used in France for making various beautiful little ornaments 
for containing bon-bons, &c. It may be moulded or modelled into any 
form, or cut from impressions in wood or plaster, &c. When the 
object is dry, give it a coating of composition, made with parchment 
size, and whitening or lamp-black, mixed to the consistence of oil 
paint, according to the colour it is required. Smooth it with glass 
paper, and paint or gild as wood, or japan it.* 

To gild Gum Paste, tyc. Those articles which are gilt are seldom 
intended to be eaten, therefore first give them a coating of parchment 
size and whitening, as the papier m&chee, or paint them with oil 
colour. When this is dry, brush over a coat of gold size, and let it 
remain until nearly dry, or so as it will stick to the fingers a little ; 
then take a small dry brush, termed by gilders a tip, rub a little 

* For further particulars, and for the method of taking the impressions 
of moulds with composition, see the 'Guide to Trade The Carver and 
Gilder,' Knight & Co., p. 53. 



grease over the back of your hand, and pass the brush over it gently ; 
apply it to the gold leaf, which it will take up, and place it on the 
part you intend to gild ; blow on it to make it smooth ; the gold leaf 
may first be divided into small pieces with a knife on a leather pad or 
cushion, to suit the size of your work ; rub it over gently with a piece 
of wool, to make it appear glossy. Those parts which have not taken 
the gold, just breathe on, then apply a small piece of the leaf, and rub 
again with the wool. If your piece is intended to be eaten, let the 
paste be perfectly dry and smooth ; then prepare some mucilage of 
gum Arabic, strain it, and grind it well with an equal portion of white 
sugar candy ; lay it over the part you intend to gild with a stiff 
brush ; when dry, breathe on it, so as to moisten it, and gild as 

To Bronze Gum Paste. Prepare your object, if not to be eaten, as 
for gilding, giving it a coat of invisible green, prepared with turpen- 
tine, a little japan gold size, and a small portion of oil ; when it is 
nearly dry, dip a fitch pencil in some bronze powder, shake off the 
loose pieces which hang about the brush, and apply it to the parts you 
wish to assume the appearance of copper, which are in general the 
most prominent. 

Another method. Smooth your finger with sand-paper, and give it 
a coat of isinglass dissolved, or parchment size; when this is dry, 
give it a coat of colour made as follows : Take a sufficient quantity 
of prepared indigo, with verditer blue, and a little spruce ochre or 
saffron, in such proportions as to make a deep green ; grind theth to- 
gether with white of egg and powdered sugar-candy, or with parch- 
ment size; give it a coat of this, and when nearly dry apply the 
bronze as before. 

On the Construction of jJssiettes and Pieces Montees. To be a profi- 
cient in this part requires a general knowledge of the fine arts, par- 
ticularly the principles of architecture ; for without this, however well 
your piece may be finished with regard to workmanship, it still re- 
mains a dull, heavy, unmeaning mass, having no proportion nor a 
particle of true design in it. I have seen many pieces, and some in 
the principal shops, with these defects, although otherwise well exe- 
cuted. My limits will not allow me to enter into the details neces- 
sary to illustrate this part, therefore the artist must refer to books on 
the subject; but in the absence of these it is best to work from some 
correct drawing, which, with the few notes I shall subjoin, may serve 
for general purposes. 

There are many prevailing styles or orders of architecture, as the 
Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, Saxori, Norman, Gothic, &c. The Gothic 
is the most beautiful, being pointed, and is generally used for cathe- 
drals and churches. The Norman is plain and simple, with semi- 
circular arches. The Saxon is after the same style, into which are 
introduced some ornamental workings. The Egyptian is more flat 
and square, embellished with hieroglyphics. In the Grecian and 


Roman architecture there are five orders, viz., Tuscan, Doric, Tonic, 
Corinthian, and Composite ; and a building may be denominated Ionic, 
Corinthian, &c., merely from its ornaments. The number of columns, 
windows, &c., may be the same in either order, but varied in their pro- 
portions. The height of the columns in each is, for the Tuscan, 
seven times its diameter; Doric, eight; Ionic, nine; Corinthian, ten; 
Composite, ten. The Tuscan is quite plain, without any ornament 
whatever; the Doric is distinguished by the channels and projecting 
intervals in the frieze, called tryglyphs; the Ionic by the ornaments 
of its capital, which are spiral, and called volutes ; the Corinthian by 
the superior height of its capital, and its being ornamented with 
leaves, which support very small volutes; the Composite has also a 
tall capital, with leaves, but is distinguished from the Corinthian by 
having the large volutes of the Ionic capital. The Grecian and 
Roman orders differ in some respects as to the style of each, but for 
particulars refer to works on the subject. These orders are adopted 
for buildings, with various modifications, in most parts of the world. 

The Chinese have a peculiar kind of style, which needs no descrip- 
tion, as it is generally represented in this country on our delft ware, 
&c. The Swiss style, which is something of the Gothic, is very well 
adapted for pieces montees, as well as the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian 
orders, they being more light and elegant. 

Of Pieces Montees. These are in general made to represent build- 
ings of all descriptions, fountains, trophies, vases, cups, helmets, the 
last being generally mounted on pedestals and filled with flowers, 
fruit, &c. ; also rocks, bridges, fortifications, &,c. &c., the building, &c., 
being generally made with gum-paste, confectioners' or almond pastes. 
The bodies of rocks may be formed with pieces of rock sugar, cakes, 
biscuits, &c., of all descriptions, being fixed together with caramel 
sugar; those not intended to be eaten may be made with papier m- 
chee and common gum-paste ; the rocks or bottoms of these are often 
formed with pieces of cork, flocks, and paper, the surface being 
afterwards covered with a coating of very thin icing, which is applied 
with a brush. 

To construct your pieces with accuracy, first cut out your intended 
design in stout paper, in suitable parts to be put together; then roll 
out the paste thin on a marble stone; lay your pattern on it, and cut 
your paste to it with a small sharp-pointed knife; let it dry, and fix 
it together with some dissolved gum, or a little gum-paste made rather 
thin with water. Cut your ornaments or decorations from paste- 
boards; let them dry a few minutes, and fix them in their proper 
places. Water may be represented with a piece of looking-glass, and 
falling water with silver web or spun glass. 

Biscuit Paste to imitate Marble JRocks, $~c, for Pieces Montees. 
Prepare some paste as for Savoy cakes (see p. 94); take one-third 
of the mixture, and add to it some dissolved chocolate; stir the whole 
well together, and divide into two equal portions; to one part add 
some more of the mixture, when you will have a light and dark 


brown ; mix together some prepared cochineal or carmine and infu- 
sion of saffron, to make a dark orange, and stir this into another por 
tion of paste; divide it, and add to one part some more of the paste, 
which will give a light and dark orange; butter or paper a square 
tin, and put in a spoonful of each coloured paste in rotation, spread- 
ing it with the spoon so as it may appear in layers, beginning with 
the dark colours, and so alternately until the whole is used; or one- 
half of each may be put into another tin, and mixed all together, so 
that it may appear in veins ; bake it in a moderate oven, and when 
cold cut it into pieces as it is required, to represent pieces of rock, 
marble, &c. For variety, the paste may be coloured with spinach 
green, infusion of saffron, red, and blue, and either put in layers or 
mixed together as before. 

Pate cT Office, or Confectioners' Paste. Take one pound and a 
quarter of fine flour, and ten ounces of loaf sugar sifted through a 
fine sieve; make a bay, and put in it a sufficient quantity of the yolka 
or whites of eggs, or whole eggs, to make it into a moderate stiff 
paste; work it well, and make^it quite smooth; let it remain covered 
over for a short time, that it may get mellow. If this paste is re- 
quired white and delicate, use the whites only of the eggs. This is 
used for the frame-work or building of the pieces montees, or for the 
bottom or foundation on which you build your biscuits, sugar, &c. 
Roll it out on an even board or marble slab until it is about one-sixth 
of an inch in thickness, or more, according to the weight it has to 
bear. Dust your sheet, and roll it on the pin ; then lay or roll it over 
a baking-plate slightly buttered ; press out any air-bladders which 
mayj>e underneath, and prick it with the point of a sharp-pointed 
knife in -a few places; lay on your patterns, cut it out to the desired 
form, and bake in a moderate oven ; or it may be cut out when the 
paste is half baked, and finish baking it afterwards ; or it may be 
dried in the stove instead of being baked. If it should be blistered 
when it is taken from the oven, put it immediately on an even board, 
and place another on it ; remove it when it is cold, and it will be 
quite straight. 

This paste may be made with the addition of half an ounce of dis- 
solved gum-dragon, pounding it well in a mortar, and using less eggs. 
Each of these may be coloured to any desired tint, when it should be 
dried in a stove instead of being baked. Fix the parts together, when 
finished, with some of the same paste made thin with dissolved gum, 
or with caramel sugar ; ornament it with spun sugar, or with coloured 
sugar-sands. (See Coloured Sugar). 

From this paste, or almond paste, may be made cottages, temples, 
fountains, pyramids, castles, bridges, hermits'-cells, vases, or any 
other required forms, which are to be made in different pieces and put 
together afterwards, or formed in moulds, and either baked or dried 
in the stove. 

dssiettes Montees, or dressed plates. These are composed of pieces 


of wire of different sizes to suit the dimensions of the piece, which 
is bound round with silver or tissue paper, and fastened with paste. 
These wires, after they are fashioned to the desired figure, are fixed 
with binding wire, and the whole is finished with stout Bristol-board 
or card paper, ornamented gold borders and papers, and decorated 
with gum paste. They are placed in the centre of the table, with 
bon-bons, &c. 

On Modelling. This art is most important to the confectioner. It 
is not so difficult to accomplish as is generally supposed ; it only re- 
quires patience and perseverance, with a close attention to the pro- 
portions and orders of nature. A few modelling tools, and facility in 
handling the paste, is all that is requisite to become an expert model- 
ler. The form of the body must first be made with the fingers, the 
more minute parts with the tools and a pair of scissors; the last is 
very useful for dividing the fingers on the hands and the toes of a 
human figure. The proportions necessary to form it are these : the 
whole length of a human being is six times the length of his feet, 
eight times of his head (that is, from the crown to the chin), ten 
times of his face, or the distance from the crown to the mouth ; the 
thumb is as long as the nose or the biggest joint of the middle finger ; 
the fore finger is shorter than the third, and the little finger is shorter 
than the third by one joint ; the width of the wrist is as long as the 
thumb, end about a quarter ; this varies; the ear is also the length 
of the nose, its breadth half its length; the arm is three times the 
length of the head, or four faces; the leg, from the knee-joint to the 
bottom of the foot, measures two heads and a-half; the foot, which is 
one-sixth of the human stature, if divided into three parts, will con- 
tain first the toes from the top of the large one to the lowest joint of 
the little one; next the middle of the foot, and lastly the heel and 
instep. There is also a slight difference between the proportions of a 
male and female. In infancy and very early youth the form is very 
much alike in both sexes. The head is oval, very much extended 
backwards, with the forehead and top of the head comparatively flat; 
the jaw-bones are short and have little depth ; the bones of the nose 
are short and flat ; in the male subject, the elevation of the frontal 
sinuses at the eyebrows, which characterizes the male head, is want- 
ing ; and the neck is very small in proportion to the head. In old age 
the cheeks and mouth fall in, because of the wasting of the teeth ; 
the nose and chin approach each other ; the fat is absorbed, and the 
muscles shrink, which covers the surface with wrinkles ; and in time, 
the bones too are wasted, and the figure bends beneath its own 
weight. With these directions proceed to model the human figure, 
referring to anatomical plates for the position of the muscles, &c. 
When the figure is complete, proceed to dress it in any style or cos- 
tume you may fancy, making it from the same paste, and colouring 
it, giving the figure any attitude you may think proper, but always 
prefer the graceful, avoiding the stiff and awkward. The modelling 
of animals and birds is on the same principle, the wings of the latter 



being pushed or cut in moulds or pasteboards. Flowers are mostly 
done with cutters in the form of the leaf of the flowers you would 
wish to represent ; form the calyx in a mould, and fasten it on a piece 
of wire ; fix the leaves on the calyx to imitate nature, and colour 
them accordingly. 




Modelling Tools. No. 1 is termed the rose-stick, the thin flat end 
being used for forming the leaves of roses out of modelling wax by 
flattening a piece of it on a table until it is of the required form and 
size ; the other end is used for fluting and making borders. 

No. 2 is by some termed a foot tool, being used for forming the 
edges and borders to wax baskets, the circular end being necessary 
for working underneath any part, or circular mouldings, and also for 
the paws of animals. 

No. 3. The curved thin end is used as a cutting tool, and for the 
formation of leaves ; and the opposite end for fluting. 

No. 4 serves as a gouge, and is used in the formation of leaves for 

The curves of each tool are also requisite for different purposes in 
modelling, and for forming the raised and depressed parts in the 
human figure, animals, &c. They should be made of beech, as it 
relieves better when used about fat or modelling wax. There are 
many others, but these will be found quite sufficient for most purposes, 
with the dotting or pointing tool, which a common skewer, or piece 
of round pointed stick will supply its place. The tool usually made 
for this purpose has a concave or semicircular hollow at the thick end, 
for making beading, or else with a flat round end, similar to a tam- 
bour needle; the last being used for working up the leaves of roses, 
&c., in the hollow of the hand, when they are made of gum-paste. 

Modelling Wax. This is made of white wax, which is melted and 
mixed with lard to make it malleable. In working it, the tools and 
the board or stone are moistened with water to prevent its adhering ; 
it may be coloured to any desired tint with dry colour. 


MANY of the colours prepared for use in this art come more pro- 
perly under the denomination of dyes, alum and cream of tartar 
being used as a mordant ; and many of them are prepared in the 
same manner as for dyeing. One of the principal colours requisite 
for the confectioner's use is coccinella, or cochineal. The sorts gene- 
rally sold are the black, silver, foxy, and the granille. The insect ia 
of two species, the fine and the wild cochineal ; the fine differs from 
the wild in size, and is also covered with a white mealy powder. The 
best is of a deep mulberry colour, with a white powder between the 
wrinkles, and a bright red within. A great deal of adulteration ia 
practised with this article^ both at home and abroad ; it is on this 
account that persons prefer the silver grain, because it cannot be so 
well sophisticated. Good cochineal should be heavy, dry, and more 
or less of a silvery colour, and without smell. 

To prepare Cochineal Pound an ounce of cochineal quite fine, 
and put it into a pint of river water with a little potash or soda, and 


iel it boil ; then add about a quarter of an ounce powdered alum, the 
same of cream of tartar, and boil for ten minutes; if it is required for 
keeping, add two or three ounces of powdered loaf sugar. 

Carmine. Reduce one ounce of cochineal to a fine powder, add to 
it six qunrts of clear rain or filtered water, as for cochineal. Put this 
into a large tin saucepan, or a copper one tinned, and let it boil for 
three minutes, then add twenty-five grains of alum, and let it boil 
two minutes longer; take it off the fire to cool; when it is blood 
warm pour off the clear liquor into shallow vessels, and put them by 
to settle for two days, covering them with paper to keep out the dust. 
In case the carmine has not separated properly, add a few drops of a 
solution of tin, or a solution of green vitriol, which is tin dissolved in 
muriatic acid, or the following may be substituted : one ounce and a 
half of spirit of nitre, three scruples of sal-ammoniac, three scruples 
of tin dissolved in a bottle, and use a few drops as required. When 
the carmine has settled, decant off the clear which is liquid rouge. 
The first sediment is Florence lake, which remove, and dry the 
carmine for use. This preparation is by far superior to the first, for 
in this the same colour is obtained as before, which is the liquid rouge, 
the other and more expensive parts being invariably thrown away. 
The carmine can be obtained by f .he first process, as can be seen if 
the whole is poured into a cleai Dottle and allowed to settle, when 
the carmine will be deposited in a layer of bright red near the 
bottom. It produces about half an ounce of carmine. 

Yellow. Infuse saffron in warm water, and use it for colouring 
any thing that is eatable. The English hay-saffron is the best ; it is 
taken from the tops of the pistils of the crocus flower ; it is fre- 
quently adulterated with th flowers of marygolds or safflower, which 
is known as the bastard saffron, and is pressed into thin cakes with 
oil. Good saffron has a strong agreeable odour, and an aromatic taste. 
Gum paste and other articles which are not eaten may be coloured 
with gamboge dissolved in warm water. 

Prussian Blue may be used instead of indigo, if preferred, but must 
be used sparingly. 

Sap Green. This is prepared from the fruit of the buckthorn, and 
is purgative. 

Spinach Green. This is perfectly harmless and will answer most 
purposes. Wash and drain a sufficient quantity of spinach, pound it 
well in a mortar, and squeeze the pounded leaves in a coarse cloth to 
extract all the juice; put it in a pan and set it on a good fire, and stir 
it occasionally until it curdles, which will be when it is at the boiling 
point; then take it off and strain off the water with a fine sieve; the 
residue left is the green; dry it and rub it through a lawn sieve. 
This is only fit for opaque bodies, such as ices, creams, or syrups. 

Another green is made with a mixture of saffron or gamboge, and 
prepared indigo; the lighter the green the more yellow must be used. 


Vermilion and Cinnabar are preparations of mercury, and should 
never be used ; they are of a lively red colour, but carmine will 
answer most purposes instead. 

Bole Ammoniac. There is also the French and German bole. These 
earths are of a pale red, and possess alexipharmic qualities; they are 
frequently used in confectionary for painting and gilding. - 

Umber. This is of a blackish brown colour; it is an earth found 
near Cologne. 

Bistre. This is an excellent light brown colour prepared from wood 

These browns are harmless, but sugar may be substituted for them 
to any shade required by continuing the boiling after it has passed the 
degree of caramel until it is burnt, when it gives a black-brown, but 
water may be mixed with it so as to lessen the shades. Dissolved 
chocolate may also be substituted in some cases for the brown colours. 

Black. Blue-black is powdered charcoal, or ivory black, which is 
obtained from the smoke of burnt ivory; but bone black is generally 
substituted instead ; either of these may be used, but are only required 
for painting gum paste, when not intended to be eaten. 

Obtain any of these colours in fine powder, and mix them with 
some dissolved gum Arabic, a little water, and a pinch of powdered 
sugar candy; mix them to the required consistence for painting. For 
sugars they must be used in a liquid state, and be added before it has 
attained the proper degree ; it may also be used in the same manner 
for ices, creams, &c., and for icings it can be used either way. 


Purple. Mix carmine or cochineal, and a small portion of indigo. 

Lilac. The same, making the blue predominate. 

Orange. Yellow, with a portion of red. 

Gold. The same, but the yellow must be more in excess. 

Lemon. Use a solution of saffron. 

Green. Blue and yellow. 


THIS art is of great importance to a confectioner, as it enables him 
to make his own oils, waters, and spirits for liqueurs and ratafias, 
instead of purchasing at a high rate those vile adulterations which 
are often sold. 

The still or apparatus for distilling consists of a cucurbit, which is 
a copper pot or boiler, and contains the wash, dregs, or infusions to 
be distilled. A cover, with a large tapering neck or pipe in the cen 
tre, is fixed on, and a continuation of small pipe, made either of tin 


or pewter, of several feet in length, is bent into a spiral form, and 
termed the worm. This is placed in a tub containing water, which 
is fastened on to the end of the neck. The joints or crevices are 
luted, to prevent evaporation, with a paste made of linseed meal, or 
equal portions of slacked lime or whitening, flour and salt, moistened 
with water, and spread on rags or pieces of bladder, when it is applied 
to the joints and crevices. The water in the tub where the worm is 
should be kept quite cold, except in distilling oil of anise-seeds ; and 
for this purpose a tap or cock should be placed about half-way down 
the tub, that the top of the water may be drawn off when it is warm. 
Again fill it with cold water, and keep coarse cloths dipped in cold 
water to put round the alembic or still in case it should boil too fast. 
It is by these means that the steam or vapour which rises with the 
heat is condensed, and runs out at the end of the pipe in a small stream. 
If the operation is well conducted, it should never exceed this. When 
the phlegm arises, which is a watery insipid liquor, the receiver must 
be withdrawn, for if a drop of it should run in, it must be cohobated, 
that is, re-distilled, as it will thicken the spirit and spoil the taste. 

The still should not be filled above three parts full, to prevent it 
rising over the neck, should it happen to boil violently, as in this case 
it would spoil what is already drawn, which must be re-distilled. 


To obtain these from plants or peels, the articles should be infused 
for two or three days, or even longer, in a sufficient quantity of cold 
water, until it has fully penetrated the pores of the materials. Foi 
this purpose roots should be cut into thin slices, barks reduced to a 
coarse powder, and seeds slightly bruised ; those of soft and loose 
texture require to be infused two or three days, the harder and more 
compact a week or two, whilst some tender herbs and plants require 
to be distilled directly. After the solvent has fully penetrated, distil 
it with an open fire ; that is, a fire under the still like a common 
washing copper, which immediately strikes the bottom. Regulate 
the fire so as to make it boil as speedily as possible, and that the oil 
may continue to distil freely during the whole process; for the longer 
it is submitted to an unnecessary heat without boiling, a greater por- 
tion of the oil is mixed with the water than there would otherwise be. 
The oil comes over the water, and either sinks to the bottom or 
swims on the top, according as it is lighter or heavier than that fluid. 
What comes over at first is more fragrant than that towards the end, 
which is thicker, and should be re-distilled by a gentle heat, when it 
leaves a resinous matter behind. 

All essential oils, after they are distilled, should be suffered to stand 
some days in open bottles or vessels, loosely covered with paper to 
keep out the dust, until they have lost their disagreeable fiery odour, 
and become quite limpid : put them into small bottles, and keep them 


quite full in a cold place. The light oils pass over the swan neck of 
the common still, but the heavier ones will not so readily, therefore a 
large low head is preferable ; the heavier oils are those from cloves, 
allspice, cinnamon, &c., or such as contain a portion of resin. 

Some plants yield three times as much oil, if gathered when the 
flowers begin to fall off, as lavender; others when young, before 
they have sent forth any flowers, as sage ; and others when the 
flowers begin to appear,^as thyme. 

All fragrant herbs yield a large portion of oil when produced in 
dry soils and warm summers. Herbs and flowers give out a larger 
quantity of oil after they have been partly dried in a dry shady place. 
Four pounds of the leaves of the dried mint yield one ounce of oil, 
but six pounds of fresh leaves only three drachms and a-half. This 
oil is more fine and bright when rectified that is, re-distilled. 

After the distillation of one oil, the worm should be carefully 
cleansed, bypassing a little spirit of wine through it, before another 
is proceeded with. 

A great quantity of oil is wasted by confectioners when they pre- 
serve their lemon and orange peels by boiling them in open vessels 
instead of a still ; what is saved by this means alone would soon repay 
the expense of the apparatus. 


These are obtained in a similar manner to the oils, with a high 
narrow-necked still, and differ from them by the oil being retained or 
united with the water. Plants for this purpose should be gathered 
fresh on a dry day, as the water drawn from them in this state is 
more aromatic when they are dry ; for the oil is mixed with an aque- 
ous fluid in the plant, which concretes and separates in drying. 

Herbs should be bruised and steeped for a day in about three times 
their quantity of water when green, but considerably more when dry ; 
but at all times sufficient water should be added that some may be 
left to prevent the herbs or flowers being burnt to the bottom of the 
still. After all the water is drawn, the distillation should continue 
so long as any taste or smell of the ingredients comes over ; and the 
fire should be so regulated that the water may run in a small con- 
tinued stream. 

If a superior article is required, it must be re-distilled by a gentle 
heat, with the addition of a little pure spirit (about one-twentieth 
part) which has not got any bad smell. 

Orange-Flower Water. The leaves of orange flowers three pounds, 
water three pints. 

Rose Water. As orange flower, using either the damask or pale 
single rose. Neither the purgative quality of the damask, nor the 
astringent quality of red roses, rises in distillation, but is contained in 
the water left in the still. 


Cinnamon Wait'r. Cinnamon one pound, water two gallons. 
Bruise or break the spice, and infuse it in water for two days. Some 
consider it sufficient to simmer the spice in the still for half an hour, 
putting back what comes over, and filtering the whole when cold 
through a flannel bag or blotting paper. 

Peppermint Water. Dried herb one pound and a half, or green 
herb three pounds, to a gallon of water. 

Lemon-Peel Water. Two pounds of fresh peel to the gallon. 

Black-Cherry Water. Twelve pounds of ripe fruit to a gallon of 
water. Bruise the fruit in a mortar so as to break the stones, that 
the flavour of the kernel may be obtained. 

Angelica, star, anise-seed, caraway, lavender, rosemary, myrtle, 
vanilla, raspberry, strawberry, and all other waters, are made in the 
same manner; the first half of the water which comes over is the best 
and strongest. 


Spirits and alcohol are obtained by the distillation of fermented 
articles. The peculiar taste of each depends on the essential oil of 
the article from which it is prepared being held in solution : there- 
fore, by knowing the nature of its oil, alcohol may be made to imitate 
any desired spirit. A few drops of nitric ether added to malt spirit 
will impart to it the flavour of cognac brandy ; and two scruples of 
benzoic acid, mixed with one quart of rum, will give it the taste of 
arrack. Brandy is generally recommended for the use of the confec- 
tioner in making spirits for liqueurs, but a superior article may be 
made with less expense from rectified spirits of wine, or pure spirit 
which has neither taste nor smell, as the spirit afterwards drawn will 
only have the flavour of the articles with which it is required to be 
impregnated. Rectified spirits may be obtained from the dregs of 
beer, cider, ale or wine, suitable for any purpose, as well as from 

Spirits rise in the still with less heat than watery infusions, there- 
fore it is best to distil by means of the bain-marie, that is, by the still 
being placed in another vessel containing water. This method is 
more safe, as it prevents accidents, and the articles from being burnt. 

Common spirits may be deprived of their impurities by mixing them 
with an equal quantity of water, and distilling them by a gentle heat, 
or in a water-bath. Continue the operation until the phlegm arises, 
which will appear rnilky and is of a nauseous taste. A great quan- 
tity of the oil which it retained will remain in the water. If the 
spirit was very impure, a second rectification may be necessary, as 
before. A very pure and tasteless spirit may be obtained by mixing 
with the spirit, after rectification, one-fourth of its weight of pure dry 
salt of wormwood or tartar. Let it stand a little time in a gentle heat, 
and distil in the bain-marie. A small portion of alum being added, 


prevents any of the salt being brought over with the spirit. The 
result is pure alcohol. It may be reduced to proof spirit by mixing 
twenty ounces of alcohol with seventeen of water, by weight. 

Distilled Spirituous Waters for Liqueurs. Orange, rose, pink, jes- 
samine, and all other flowers, are made by adding eight pounds of 
the leaves or petals of the flowers to a gallon of pure proof spirit. 
Put them in a cold cellar or ice-house to infuse for a week. Distil in 
the bain-marie to drynese. If they are distilled on an open gentle 
fire, water should be added to the articles when they are put on the 
fire, so as to prevent their being burnt. 

Lavender, mint, rosemary, angelica, the yellow rind of lemon and 
orange peels, and bergamot, lemon, vanilla, ginger, and orris-root for 
violet, and other herbs, are made by adding two pounds of the plant, 
&c., partly dried, to a gallon of pure proof spirit. Let it steep in a 
jar close covered for twelve or fourteen days in a cool place, and dis- 
til in the bain-marie. Myrtle and balm-me/tssa?, one pound to the gal- 
lon. If any of the waters appear rather turbid when they are first 
drawn, they will become clear and bright by standing a few days. 
Filter them through blotting paper-placed in a glass or earthenware 
funnel over a bottle to receive them. 

Strawberries, raspberries, &c., sixteen pounds to the gallon. 

Cinnamon, coriander, caraways, cloves, &c., are made by adding 
one pound of the bruised seed or spice to the gallon of proof spirit. 
Cardamoms four ounces, nutmegs and mace three ounces to the gallon. 

Hungary Water^ or Jiqua Reginse. Fresh gathered rosemary flow- 
ers in full bloom, four pounds to the gallon of pure proof spirit. It 
may also be made with the addition of one pound of each of marjo- 
ram and lavender flowers, and two quarts more of spirit. Distil im- 
mediately. Half a pound of sage leaves, and two ounces of ginger, 
are recommended as an excellent addition by foreign writers. 

Maraschino de Zara. Morello cherries nine pounds, black wild 
cherries seven pounds, or sixteen pounds of Morello cherries,* one 
pint and a-quarter of Kirchenwasser, spirit of roses one ounce and 
a-half, spirit of orange flowers one ounce and a-half, of jessamine a 
quarter of an ounce, peach or cherry leaves one pound and a-quarter ; 
pick the stalks from the cherries and press out their juice, pound the 
stones and skins with the leaves in a mortar, and steep all together 
for a fortnight, some only filter the infusion, and add to it four 
pounds and a-half of treble-refined sugar; dissolve and strain through 
a jelly-bag ; but a superior spirit may be obtained by the addition of 
four quarts of rectified proof spirit ; distil with the bain-marie, and 

* Genuine Maraschino is the spirit of Morello cherries, as Kirchen- 
wasser is of black cherries. Maraschino may also be made from goose- 
berries. Ripe gooseberries 102 pounds ; black cherry leaves bruised, 12 
pounds ; ferment as Kirchenwasser ; distil and rectify it. 


^^ ^ ^ ., ^_ 

Kirchenwasser. Get some small black cherries and a few Morello 
cherries quite ripe, take off their stalks and put them in a cask with 
the head off, cover the top or surface of the cherries with mortar or 
wood ashes mixed to a consistence with water, let them stand for six 
weeks or two months, during which time they will ferment, then 
take off the covering and distil them. 

Eau Divine. Essence of bergamont and lemon, of each one 
drachm, rectified spirit one gallon^ fresh balm leaves two ounces; 
distil with the bain-marie; add orange-flower water five ounces. The 
liquor is made by adding to this four pounds of treble refined sugar 
dissolved in two gallons of water. 

Eau de Cologne. Spirit of rosemary two quarts, essence of berga- 
mot four ounces, balm water two quarts, essence of cedrats and citrons 
four ounces, neroli two drachms, rosemary two ounces, spirits of wine 
ten quarts; draw fourteen quarts. 

Balm water two pints and a-quarter, spirit of rosemary three pounds 
and a-half, oil of rosemary one drachm, essence of lemon three 
drachms, of cedrats two drachms, of neroli two drachms and a-half, 
of bergamot three drnchms, rectified spirit twelve pounds, distil in 
the bain-marie, and keep in a cool place for some time. 

Curagao. This is a species of wild or bitter orange ; the dried 
peel may be obtained from the chemists ; the yellow peel of Seville 
oranges, dried and powdered, will answer as well; use one pound to 
the gallon of rum or rectified spirit, and distil as the others. 

Eau de Melisse des Carmes. Spirit of balm eight pints, spirit of 
lemon and citron four pints ; spirit of nutmegs, musk, and coriander, 
of each two pints, spirit of thyme, cinnamon, anise-seed, marjoram, 
hyssop, green-verdigris, or the vitriol of iron, sage, angelica-root, and 
cloves, of each one pint; distil, and keep in an ice-house for twelve 
months. Supposed to be the original recipe of the barefooted Car- 
melites, now in possession of the Company of Apothecaries of Paris. 

The English Method. Fresh bairn leaves four ounces, fresh lemon- 
peel two ounces (the yellow rind), coriander seeds and nutmegs, of 
each one ounce, angelica-root, cinnamon, and cloves, of each half an 
ounce, rectified spirit two pounds, brandy two pounds, powder the dry 
ingredients, and steep the whole in a close vessel with the spirit for 
four or five days. Two pints of rectified spirit and one pint of balm- 
water may be used instead of the spirit and brandy; distil in the 
bain-marie nearly to dryness; re-distil and keep it for some time in a 
cold cellar or ice-house. This is an elegant and beautiful cordial. 

Spirit of Coffee. One pound of the best Mocha coffee, fresh roasted 
and ground, add to it one gallon of rectified proof spirit, let it infuse 
for a week, and distil in the bain-marie. 

Spirit of bitter Jllmonds. One pound of blanched almonds, one 
gallon of proof spirit; pound the almonds quite fine with a little 
water, to prevent their oiling, add them to the spirit with an ounce 


of bruised angelica-root, steep for a week, and distil in the bain- 

Spirit <>f Tea. Four ounces of the best tea to a gallon of rectified 
proof spirit, pour a little cold water on the tea and let it infuse for 
three or four hours, add it to the spirit, and distil it in a week. 

Eseubac Usquebaugh. Saffron one ounce, catechu three ounces, 
ambergris halt a grain, dates without their kernels, and raisins, each 
three ounces, jujubes six ounces, anise-seed, cloves, mace, and cori 
ander seed one drachm, cinnamon two drachms, proof spirit six quarts, 
pound the ingredients, infuse for a week and distil. The whole of 
these spirituous distilled waters are for making liquors and for fla- 
vouring ices, liqueurs, bon-bons, drops, &c., or anything in which 
liquors are introduced. 


These are made by mixing equal proportions of any of the spirits, 
water, and sugar together, that is, one pint of spirit, one pint of 
water, one pound of the treble-refined sugar; dissolve the sugar in 
the water, add it to the spirit, and filter through blotting-paper ; being 
perfectly clear and colourless when drawn, they require to be coloured 
of the same tint as the articles from which they were extracted, and 
for this purpose none but those which are perfectly harmless should 
be employed, as prepared cochineal, infusion of saffron, burnt sugars 
or indigo. 


These are liqueurs made by the infusion of the ingredients in spi- 
rits, and are similarly composed to the spirituous wafers, but instead 
of being distilled they are simply filtered, and sugar is added to them. 

Ratafia de Cafe. Fresh roasted Mocha coffee ground, one pound, 
proof spirit one gallon, loaf sugar one pound and a half; infuse for a 
week, string it every other day, filter, bottle, and cork close. 

Ratafia de Cacao. Cacao of Caracca one pound, West India cocoa 
nuts eight ounces, proof spirit one gallon, roast the nuts and bruise 
them, add them to the spirit and infuse for fourteen days, stirring 
them occasionally, filter and add thirty drops of essence of vanilla 
and two pounds of sugar. 

Ratafia des Noyaux. Haifa pound of bitter almonds, half a pound 
of sweet almonds, proof spirit one gallon, (peach or apricot kernels 
may be used instead of the bitter almonds), three pounds of loaf sugar; 
beat the almonds fine with part of the sugar, steep the whole together 
for twelve or fourteen days, and filter; this liqueur will be much im- 
proved if rectified spirit is reduced to proof with the juice of apricots 
or peaches. 


Ratafia of Cherries. Morello cherries eight pounds, black cherries 
eight pounds, raspberries and red or white currants of each two 
pounds, coriander-seeds three ounces, cinnamon half an ounce, mace 
half an ounce, proof spirit one gallon; press out the juice from the 
fruit, take one-half of the stones of the cherries and pound them with 
the spices, and add two pounds and a half of sugar, steep for a month 
and filter. 

Ratafia des Cassis. Ripe black currants six pounds, cloves half a 
drachm, cinnamon one drachm, black currant leaves one pound and a 
half, Morello cherries two pounds, sugar five pounds, proof spirit eight 
quarts; bruise the spice, infuse a fortnight, filter, and bottle. 

Ratafia of Raspberries. Raspberries quite ripe eight pounds, proof 
spirit one gallon, quarter of an ounce of cinnamon and cloves, steep 
for fourteen days, stirring it occasionally. Currants and strawberries 
are made the same. 

Ratafia des Fleurs des Oranges. Fresh orange-flowers two pounds, 
proof spirit one gallon, sugar two pounds; infuse for eight or ten 

Ratafia d^CEillets. The petals of clove pinks, with the white parts 
pulled off, four pounds, cinnamon and cloves twenty-five grains, proof 
spirit one gallon, sugar three pounds. Infuse for a month, filter, and 

Ratafia d? Jlngelique. Angelica seeds one ounce, angelica stalks 
four ounces, bitter almonds four ounces, one drachm each of cinnamon 
and cloves, proof spirit six quarts, loaf sugar four pounds. Blanch 
and pound the almonds with some of the sugar, or a little water; 
pound the other ingredients a little, and bruise the stalks. Infuse for 
a month, stirring it occasionally. Filter and bottle. 

Vespetro. Coriander seed one ounce, angelica seed two ounces, 
fennel and anise-seed of each two drachms, two lemons, two oranges, 
the zest of two citrons, two quarts of rectified spirit and two pounds 
of sugar, caraway seeds four grains. Bruise the ingredients, pare 
off the yellow rind of the lemons and oranges, and squeeze the juice. 
Dissolve the sugar in a pint of water. Infuse the whole together for 
fourteen days. Strain, filter, and bottle. 

Chreme de Barbade. The yellow rind of three oranges and three 
lemons, cinnamon four ounces, mace two drachms, cloves one drachm, 
rum nine quarts, fresh balm leaves six ounces. Infuse and distil in 
the bain-marie, or strain; add an equal quantity of suorar with water 

Chreme c?' Orange. Thirty-six sweet oranges, sliced, tincture of 
saffron one ounce and four drachms, orange-flower water four pints, 
rectified spirits two gallons, water eighteen quarts, loaf sugar eigh- 
teen pounds. Dissolve the sugar in the water: mix the other articles 
and infuse for a fortnight. Filter and bottle. 

Ratafia d\4nis. Star anise-seed four ounces, proof spirit one gal- 


Ion. Infuse for a fortnight ; add two pounds of sugar, or a pint and 
a-half of syrup, and a little essence of vanilla. 

Ratafia de Brout des Noix. Young walnuts, when the shells are 
not formed, number eighty, mace, cinnamon, and cloves, of each half 
a drachm, proof spirit one gallon. Pound the nuts in a mortar, add 
them and the spice to the spirit, with two pounds of sugar. Infuse 
for two months, stirring it occasionally ; press out the liquor through 
a cloth. Filter and bottle. 


THIS is a useful and indispensable appendage in confectionary; it 
is generally constructed like a cupboard in the recess of a wall. The 
walls or sides should be composed of bricks, or wood lined with tin 
or sheet iron, to retain the heat, with pieces of wood nailed or fastened 
in the sides, about four inches asunder, to form a groove for trays or 
boards to rest on, which is necessary for the drying of lozenges, com- 
fits, bon-bons, &c. ; there should also be a few strong 1 shifting shelves 
made either of small bars of round iron or wood, like a grating, on 
which candy pots or sieves may be placed ; the grooves for these 
should be so constructed as to be capable of inclination so as to drain 
off the syrup from the candy pots without taking them from the 
shelves ; the door should be made to shut close, with a small door at 
the top to let out any excess of heat. I have before remarked that it 
may be heated by means of many of the modern stoves. At places 
where the oven is heated with wood, furze, &c., a common iron pot 
or crock with three legs is filled with the live embers, or it may be 
filled with burning charcoal and covered with wood ashes, which is 
replenished night and morning, which gives the heat required. 



WE now come to a very important, because a very difficult, branch 
of the art of baking, whether exercised as a profession, or by private 
individuals, namely the manufacturing of what are technically called 
"fancy goods" The reader scarcely need be informed, that this 
term includes all those varieties of baked manufactured eatables, in 
which such ingredients as sugar, eggs, spice, and butter, are used, 
with many other not necessary to enumerate here. 

It ought to be observed^ that the following directions for making 
the kind of goods alluded to, have been all tested, and found to be so 
exceedingly accurate as to proportions, that a deviation in a quantity 
so small as an egg, or even half an egg, will deteriorate the quality 
of the article. These directions are not generally known in the trade, 
and out of the trade they are entirely, we believe, unknown. They 
will be found, therefore, a valuable acquisition to those ladies who 
manage their own domestic affairs, and who are in the habit of mak- 
ing little knick-knacks for their children, or their dessert tables. 

Previous to giving the directions in question, it will be necessary 
for our readers to be made acquainted with the mode of preparing 
certain articles, which are more or less employed in the manufactur- 
ing fancy goods. We are aware that there are many private indi- 
viduals who would object to use the preparation called " honey-wa- 
ter," as well as that called " prepared treacle," on the ground of their 
consisting chiefly of drugs. As regards, however, the use of carbo- 
nate of ammonia (honey-water), it may be safely affirmed, that there 
is, in small quantities, nothing unhealthy in it, but on the contrary. 
The truth however is, the carbonate of ammonia used in biscuits, 
&c., is volatilized by the heat of baking, and of course it all escapes. 
Its operation is therefore mechanical, and the only effect it has upon 
the biscuit is to make it light. 

With regard to the article called prepared treacle, which consists 
of treacle, alum, and pearlash, we have to observe, that alum taken 
in considerable quantities is decidedly unwholesome, it being of a 
powerfully astringent nature; but in the very small quantity here 



prescribed, and considering that treacle is an asperient, and will con- 
sequently counteract the effects of the alum, we should say, that 
there can be no harm in using it. Pearlash, being an alkali, we 
should consider rather beneficial than otherwise, as it would prevent 
the treacle of the ginger-bread turning acid on the stomach. 

Having made these preliminary observations, we shall at once 
proceed to give directions for making those preparations used in 
pastry and fancy goods. The break alluded to in making fancy bis- 
cuits, is an instrument similar to that used in manufacturing ship- 
biscuits, but of course of much smaller dimensions. 


Blanched Jllmcmds. Cover your almonds with water, in a stew- 
pan ; set the pan on the fire, and strain them off as soon as the water 
begins to boil, by which means the skins will peel off easily ; put 
them under the oven for a night, in a sieve, and they will be dry and 
fit for use. 

Icing for a Cake. Take one pound of double-refined sugar, 
pound it fine, and sift it through a lawn sieve; then beat the whites 
of three eggs in a very clean pan, with a whisk, till they are a strong 
froth, and hang round the pan, leaving the bottom clear; then, with 
a wooden spoon, beat in your sugar, a little at a time, with about a 
tea-spoonful of lemon-juice beat it till it becomes a nice thick smooth 
batter, and will hang round the pan to any thickness you may choose 
to spread it. Then, when your cake is nearly cold, spread your 
icing nicely over the top, and round the sides, with a pallet-knife; let 
it stand in a warm place, where it will be safe from hurt, and it will 
eoon dry. 

Prepared Treacle. Dissolve two ounces of alum in a quarter of a 
pint of boiling water, and stir it into seven pounds of treacle ; ihon 
dissolve four ounces of American pearlash in a quarter of a pint of 
cold water, and well incorporate it with the treacle by stirring. 

Rennet. Milk is turned into curds and whey by means of rennet, 
which is the stomach of a calf taken out as soon as it is killed, well 
cleansed from its contents, then scoured inside and rubbed with salt ; 
when thoroughly salted, it is stretched on a stick to dry. A bit of 
this is to be soaked in boiling water for several hours, and the liquid 
put. in milk-warm from the cow, or made of that warmth. Use alone 
can prescribe the exact quantity : never use more than enough to turn 
it, as it hardens the curd. The gizzard skin of fowls and turkey may 
be prepared in the same way, and answer the same purpose. 



Aberndhy Biscuits. (See Seed Biscuits.) 

American. Rub half a pound of butter into four pounds of flour, 
add a full pint of milk, or water; well wet them up; break your 
dough well, and bake them in a hot oven. 

Brighton. Take one pound and a quarter of good moist sugar, and 
roll it till it is fine; then pass it through a sieve with two pounds and 
a half of flour ; rub in two ounces of butter ; make a hole in the mid- 
dle ; strew in a few caraway seeds ; pour in half a pint of honey- 
water, and a quarter of a pint of milk; beat it well with your hand 
till about half the flour is incorporated; then mix it together; roll it 
out in thin sheets; cut them out, and place them on your buttered 
tins about two inches apart ; wash with a little beer ; and bake them 
in a good steady heat. 

Buttered. Rub one pound of butter into seven pounds of flour ; wet 
up with one quart of warm water, and half a pint of good yeast ; break 
down smooth ; prove your dough well ; and bake in a strong heat. 

Captains. Rub four ounces of butter into seven pounds of flour ; 
wet up with a quart of water; break your dough smooth; and bake in 
a good strong heat. 

Drop. Warm your pan ; then put in one pound of powdered loaf 
sugar and eight eggs ; beat it with a whisk till it becomes milk- warm ; 
then beat it till it is cold ; stir in a pound of sugar, two ounces of fine 
sifted flour, with about half an ounce of caraway seeds ; put your bat- 
ter into the bladder, and drop it through the pipe, in quantities about 
the size of a nutmeg, on wafer-paper ; sift sugar over the top, and 
bake in a quick oven. 

Filbert. Rub a pound of butter into three pounds and a half of 
flour ; make a hole, and put in ten ounces of powdered loaf sugar ; 
wet up with four table-spoonsful of honey water, one of orange-flower 
water, and three-quarters of a pint of milk ; break your dough smooth ; 
mould them as large as a nutmeg, and as round as you can ; cut them 
twice across the top each way, about half through, with a sharp knife ; 
place them on your tin ; and bake them in a steady heat. 

Lemon. Prepare your dough as for filbert biscuits, only leave out 
the orange-flower water, and use about six drops of the essence of 
lemon ; cut them out, and dock them with a lemon docker; bake them 
in a good steady heat. 

Naples. Take six ounces of good moist sugar, and six ounces of 
loaf; a quarter of a pint of water; and proceed the same as for diet 
cake, with six eggs, and three-quarters of a pound of flour; have your 
tins papered; fill them nearly full of the batter; sugar over the tops; 
and bake them in rather a brisk oven. These biscuits are, in fact, 
nothing more than diet-bread batter, fancifully dropped into tin, 


papered with white paper, and baked in a warm oven, with a little 
sugar sifted over the top. 

Queens. Rub one pound of butter into two pounds of flour ; mix 
one pound of powdered sugar with it; then make a hole and pour in 
a quarter of a pint of milk, to mix it up with; you may add a few 
caraways, if you choose ; roll the paste in sheets of the thickness of a 
halfpenny ; cut them with an oval to about the size of an egg; place 
them on clean tins, but see that they do not quite touch, prick them 
with a fork, and bake them in a slow oven till they begin to change 
colour; when they are cold, they will be crisp. 

Rout. Powder one pound of loaf sugar, and soak it in three parts 
of half a pint of milk ; let it stand two hours ; then add two table- 
spoonsful of honey water, and one egg ; rub half a pound of butter into 
two pounds of flour ; make a hole in it, and mix it up with your sugar 
and milk. Or you may rub half a pound of butter into two pounds 
of flour, make a hole and put one pound of powdered sugar in the 
middle; then pour in three parts of half a pint of milk, and two table- 
spoonsful of honey water ; mix it up together ; let it lie ten minutes ; 
cut it out, and place them in buttered tins, see they do not touch ; 
wash with milk, and bake auickly. 

Savoy. Powder and sift one pound of loaf sugar; sift one pound 
of flour; warm a pan, and put in the sugar; break one pound of egg 
upon it; beat both together with a whisk till it becomes warm beat 
till it is cold, and then stir in your flour; have a bladder and pipe 
ready ; put your batter into the bladder, and force it through on sheets 
of paper ; sift sugar over them and bake in a quick oven ; when cold 
turn them up, and with a washing brush wet the bottom of the paper; 
turn them back again, and in five minutes they will come off easily. 

Seedy. Rub one pound of butter into seven pounds of flour ; roll 
one pound of moist sugar fine, and put into the middle with two 
ounces of caraway seeds; wet up with one pint and a half of milk, 
and one pint of honey water; bake in a hot oven. 

Wine. Take two pounds of flour, two pounds of butter, and four 
ounces of sifted loaf sugar ; rub the sugar and the butter into the flour, 
and make it into a stiff paste with milk ; pound it in a mortar; roll it 
out thin, and cut it into sizes and shapes to your fancy ; lay them on 
buttered paper, in a warm oven, or iron plates brushed with a littlr 
milk. When done, you can give them a glaze by brushing them ovt. 
with a brush dipped in eggs. A few caraway seeds may be added 
if thought proper. 

York. Prepare your mixture as for filbert biscuits ; dock them with 
the Duchess of York, or any other docker they are best baked in a 
hot oven, and not washed over. 

Powder. Dry your biscuits in a slow oven ; roll them and grind 
them with a rolling-pin on a clean board till the powder is fine; sift 
it through a fine hair-sieve, and it is fit for use. 


Drops. Take half a tea-cup of water, six eggs, and one pound of 
sifted loaf sugar whisk them- together till thick; then add a few 
caraway seed?!, and eighteen ounces of flour mix it lightly together, 
and drop the mixture on wafer-paper, about the size of a small wal- 
nut; sift sugar over them, and bake in a hot oven. 

Cracknels. Rub six ounces of butter into three pounds and a half 
of flour make a hole, and put in six ounces of powdered loaf sugar 
wet up with eight eggs and a quarter of a pint of water break your 
dough smooth make them and dock them like a captain's biscuit 
form them on your reel; drop them into a stew-pan of water boiling 
over the fire when they swim take them out with a skimmer, and 
put them into a pailful of cold water; let them remain full two hours 
before you bake them you may drain them in a cloth or in a sieve 
bake them on clean tins in a brisk oven, or on the bottom of the oven. 



Cakes. Rich pound-cake ; twelfth, or bride-cakes : butter two 
pounds twelve ounces, sugar one pound twelve ounces, currants five 
pounds, citron one pound and a-half, almonds six ounces, nutmegs, 
mace, and cinnamon, of equal parts, in powder, two ounces; eggs 
twenty, brandy half a pint these proportions allow for the cake 
being iced. If more sugar is preferred, the quantity must be the 
same as the butter ; but less is used in this instance, that the cake 
may be light, and also to allow for the fruit, which would make it 
too sweet. Double the quantity of almonds may be used if required, 
as some persons prefer more. 

Warm a smooth pan, large enough for the mixture ; put in the 
butter, and reduce it to a fine cream, by working it about the pan 
with your hand. In summer the pan need not be warmed, as it can 
be reduced to a cream without; but in the winter keep the mixture 
as warm as possible, without oiling the butter. Add the sugar and 
mix it well with the butter, until it becomes white and feels light in 
the hand. Break in two or three eggs at a time, and work the mix- 
ture well, before any more is added. Continue doing this until they 
are all used and it becomes light ; then add the spirit, currants, peel, 
spice, and almonds, some or most of these being previously cut in 
thin slices, the peel having also been cut into small thin strips and 
bits. When these are incorporated, mix in the flour lightly : put it 
in a hoop with paper over the bottom and round the sides, and placed 
on a baking-plate. Large cakes require three or four pieces of stiff 
paper round the sides ; and if the cake is very large, a pipe or funnel, 
made either of stiff paper or tin, and well buttered, should be put in 
the centre, and the mixture placed round it ; this is to allow the mid- 
dle of the cake to be well baked, otherwise the edge would be burnt 
two or three inches deep before it could be properly done. Place the 
tin plates containing the cake on another, the surface of which is 


covered an inch or two thick with sawdust or fine ashes to protect 
the bottom. Bake it in an oven at a moderate heat. The time re- 
quired to bake it will depend on the state of the oven and the size of 
the cake. When the cake is cold, proceed to ice it. (See Icings for 
Cakes.) Wedding-cakes have generally, first, a coating on the top 
of almond icing ; when this is dry, the sides and top are covered 
with royal or white icing. Fix on any gum paste or other orna- 
ments whilst it is wet ; and when dry, ornament it with piping, 
orange-blossoms, ribbon, &c. ; the surface and sides are often covered 
with small knobs of white sugar candy whilst the icing is wet. 

Twelfth-cakes are iced with white or coloured icing, and deco- 
rated with gum paste, plaster ornaments, piping-paste, rings, knots, 
and fancy papers, &c., and piped. 

Savoy Cakes (hot mixture). One pound of loaf sugar powdered, 
one pint of good eggs, and fourteen ounces of flour. Warm a pan, 
free from grease, with the sugar in it in the oven until you can 
scarcely bear your hand against it; then take it out and pour in the 
eggs: whisk the whole together with a birch or wire whisk until it 
is quite light and cold, when it will be white and thick. If it should 
not whisk up well, warm it again and beat it as before ; or it may be 
beat over the stove fire until it is of the warmth of new milk. When 
it is finished, sift the flour and stir it in lightly with a spoon, adding 
a few drops of essence of lemon to flavour it. Butter some tin or 
copper moulds regularly, so that there is not more on one place than 
another, nor too thick either, with rather less on the top of the mould 
than the sides. Dust it with loaf sugar sifted through a lawn sieve. 
Knock out all that does not adhere, and again dust it with fine flour ; 
turn it out, and knock the mould on the board as before. Tie or pin 
a piece of buttered paper round the mould, so as to come two or three 
inches above the bottom. Fix the mould in a stand and nearly fill it. 
Bake in a moderate oven. When done, the top should be firm and 
dry. Try it by pushing in a small piece of stick or whisk, and if it 
comes out dry, it is done. The surface of the cake should be quite 
smooth. There is as much art in buttering the mould properly as in 
preparing the mixture, if not more. 

Cold Mixtures. Separate the yolks from the whites when you 
break the eggs. Put the yolks into a clean pan with the sugar, and 
the whites in another by themselves. Let the pans be quite free 
from grease. If they are rubbed round with a little flour, it will 
take off any which may be left about them. Wipe them out with a 
clean cloth. Beat up the yolks and sugar by themselves, with a 
wooden spoon, and afterwards whip up the whites to a very strong 
froth. If they should happen to be rather weak, a bit of powdered 
alum may be added. When the whites are whisked up firm, stir in 
the yolks and sugar. Sift the flour and mix it in lightly with the 
spatula, adding a little essence of lemon to flavour it. Fill the 
moulds and bake as before. When cakes are made in this way, the 


should be quite fresh and pood, otherwise the whites cannot be 
whipped up. When weak, pickled eggs are used. I find a good 
method is to beat the eggs first by themselves, over a fire, until they 
are warm ; then add the sugar, and whip it over the fire until it is 
again warm, or make as for hot mixtures, and heat it twice. 

Almond Savoy Cakes and Almond Hearts. One pound of blanched 
sweet alrnonds (four ounces of them may be bitter), two pounds of 
sugar, one pint of the yolks of eggs, half a pint of whole eggs, one 
pound of flour, and the whites of twelve eggs beat to a firm froth. 

Pound the almonds with the sugar in a mortar, and sift them through 
a wire sieve, or grind them in a mill, and mix them with the sugar 
in the mortar. First mix the whole eggs well with the almonds and 
suar, then add the yolks by degrees, stirring the whole until quite 
light ; then mix in the whites, and afterwards the flour, lightly ; pre- 
pare some moulds as for Savoy cakes ; but some only butter them. 
Fill the moulds three parts full and bake them in a moderate oven. 
For almond hearts, butter some tins in the shape of a heart, but with- 
out bottoms; cover a baking-plate with paper; place the tins on it, 
and fill them nearly three parts full with the mixture: dust a little 
sugar on the top, and bake them in a moderate oven. 

Venice Cake. Take a Savoy cake and cut it in slices, half or 
three-quarters of an inch thick, in a parallel direction from the bot- 
tom to the top; spread over each slice with raspberry or apricot jam, 
or some of each alternately, or any other sort of preserve. Replace 
each piece in its original form ; when completed, make an icing as 
directed for cakes, with four whites of the eggs to a pound of sugar, 
which will make it rather thin. It may be coloured with cochineal, 
&,c. ; spread it over the cake, which, being thin, will run into the 
flutes and mouldings of the cake, when it will appear of the same 
form as before. Let it dry in the mouth of the oven, but be careful 
it does not get discoloured. When it is dry, ornament it with piping. 
Savoy cakes are often done in the same manner, without being cut in 
slices, to ornament them ; or they may be done without icing, and 
either piped or ornamented with gum paste borders, &,c., which are 
fixed on with dissolved gum Arabic. Volutes or high and projecting 
figures are supported with small wire. 

Savoy Cake to represent a Melon. Bake a cake in a melon-mould ; 
when cold, cover it with icing as for a Venice cake. Whilst it is 
wet, stick on some pieces of loaf sugar, to imitate the surface of the 
melon. Strew over it some yellow and green sugar-sands ; or paint 
it when dry to imitate nature. Form the stalk, leaves, &c., out of 
gum paste, and fix them in the centre, on the top. 

Savoy Cake to imitate a Hedgehog. Bake a cake in a mould of that 
tbrm ; blanch some Valentia or Jordan almonds; cut them into smalt 
fillets and stick them over the surface, to form the quills or prickles 
of the hog. Put in two currants for the eyes. 


Bordeaux or Parisian Cakes. Make a mixture as for pound-cake?, 
leaving out the fruit, peel, spices, &c. ; bake it in a round or oval 
hoop. When haked and cold, cut it into slices, half an inch thick ; 
spread each slice over with jam or marmalade. The outside of the 
cake may be cut round, or fluted to form a star ; and the centre of 
the cake is occasionally cut out to about an inch and a half from the 
edge, leaving the bottom slice whole : this may be filled with pre- 
served wet or dry fruits, creams, or a trifle. The top is ornamented 
with piping, wet or dry fruits, and peels, or piped with jam and 

Italian Bread. One pound of butter, one pound of powdered loaf 
sugar, one pound two ounces of flour, twelve eggs, half a pound of 
citron, and lemon-peel. Mix as for pound-cake. If the mixture 
begins to curdle, which it is most likely to do from the quantity of 
eggs, add a little of the flour. When the eggs are all used, and it ia 
light, stir in the remainder of the flour lightly. Bake it in long, nar- 
row tins, either papered or buttered : first put in a layer of the mix- 
ture, and cover it with the peel cut in large thin slices; proceed in 
this way until it is three parts full, and bake it in a moderate oven. 

Hice Pound-Cake. One pound of butter, one pound of powdered 
loaf sugar, twelve ounces of flour, half a pound of ground rice, and 
twelve eggs. Mix as Italian bread, and bake it in a papered hoop. 
If it is required with fruit, put two pounds of currants, three-quarters 
of a pound of peel, one nutmeg, grated, and a little pounded mace. 

Wafers. Pour ounces of sugar, four ounces of butter, eight ounces 
of flour, the yolk or white of one egg, and half a tea-cupful of milk or 
water. Melt the butter in the water; mix the egg, sugar and flour 
together, adding, by degrees, the melted butter and water; or, instead 
of the butter, it may be made into a thin batter with cream, and a 
little orange-flower water, or any other essence, to flavour it. The 
mixture may be coloured. Make the wafer-tongs hot over the hole 
of a stove or clear fire. Rub the inside surfaces with butter or oil, 
put in a spoonful of the batter, and close the tongs immediately ; put 
them on the firo, turning them occasionally until the wafer is done, 
which a little practice will soon enable you to ascertain ; roll the 
wafers on a small round stick, stand them on their ends in a sieve, 
and put them in the stove to dry ; serve them with ices. 


Mmond Cakes. Take one pound of sweet Valentia, or Province 
almonds cover them with boiling water in a saucepan ; let them just 
boil up, then strain them out of the water, and rub them out of their 
skins; cut about two ounces of them into thin slices; put the rest into 
a mortar, with one pound and a half of loaf sugar, the whites of six 
eggs, and one table- spoonful of orange-flower w'ater; pound it fine; 
lay your wafer-paper on the tin, and drop your almond cakes on it 


about the size of a walnut then drop a few of your cut almonds on 
each of them, and bake them in a slow oven. 

Almond Savoy. Take one ounce of bitter and three ounces of sweet 
almonds; boil and skin them; put them into a mortar, with the yolks 
of six eggs, and half a pound of loaf sugar, pounded very fine ; then 
\\hitk up the whites of the eggs to a strong froth, and mix it as lightly 
as you can with the rest ; then stir in four ounces of flour as lightly 
as you can ; bake it in a slow oven, if in a hoop you must paper it, 
and sugar your cake over the top; but if in a shape, you must butter 
the shape; then shake fine sugar over into it before you put in the 

Bride. Wash and pick one pound and a half of currants very 
clean; dry them in a cloth stone four ounces of Muscatel raisins 
add a quarter of an ounce of mace, and half as much cinnamon; pound 
it fine in a mortar; boil four ounces of Jordan almonds in a little 
water; strain the water off, skin them and pound them fine; take 
two ounces of citron, two ounces of candied orange, and two ounces 
of candied lemon peel; cut them into thin slices; break eight good 
new eggs into a basin ; take one pound and a quarter of fine flour, and 
sift in one pound of loaf sugar powdered fine warm a pan, and beat 
one pound of best butter with your hand, till it comes to a very fine 
cream ; put in your sugar, and beat it together till it is fine and white 
then put in a fifth part of your flour ; give it a stir, and put in 
nearly half your eggs; continue to beat it; add a little more flour, 
and the rest of your eggs; beat it again; stir in the rest of your flour 
and currants then add your almonds, raisins, candied peel, spice, 
and half a gill of the best brandy mix all well together ; paper your 
hoop with double paper round the side and bottom ; put in your cake, 
and take in a very slow oven. 

Bath. Take one pound and a quarter of good moist sugar ; roll it 
fine put in a pan with three-quarters of a pint of water; let it stand 
all night; rub three ounces of butter into four pounds and a half of 
flour; make a hole and pour in your sugar with half a pint of honey 
water rub it out thin cut out, and place them on buttered tins 
wash with water, and bake in a quick oven. 

Banbury. Take one pound and a half of flour, and one pound of 
butter; roll your butter and part of the flour out in sheets; wet up 
the rest of your flour with one or two table-spoonsful of good yeast, 
and about a quarter of a pint of water; roll out your paste in a large 
sheet; double it up and roll it out again; do the same five times; cut 
it up in square pieces, not more than one ounce and a half have a 
few currants mixed with a little candied peel chopped fine, a little 
moist sugar, and a little brandy put two tea-spoonsful on each piece; 
bring the two corners together over the middle, and close them up in 
an oval shape ; turn the closings downwards ; shake a little powdered 
sugar over the lops put them on a cold tin ; let them stand awhile 
in the cold to prove them, and bake them in a steady oven. 


There is another method, which is as follows : 

Take two pounds of currants, half an ounce each of ground allspice 
and powdered cinnamon; four ounces each of candied orange and 
lemon peel ; eight ounces of butter, one pound of moist Fugar, and 
twelve ounces of flour ; mix the whole well together; roll out a piece 
of puff paste; cut it into oval shapes; put a small quantity of your 
composition into each, and double them up in the shape of a'puff; put 
the whole on a board, flatten them down with a rolling-pin, and sift 
powdered sugar over them do not put them too close together ; bake 
them on iron plates in a hot oven. 

Breakfast. Put a tea-spoonful of good yeast into two pounds of 
flour ; mix the yeast and a little of your flour with a half pint of warm 
milk, about the consistence of batter. When your paste has risen 
well, take a little milk, melt three ounces of butter in it; put a tea- 
spoonful of salt, and the yolks of eight eggs into the flour and yeast, 
and with the milk and butter mix it well into dough. Be careful that 
neither your butter nor milk is so hot as to scald the flour or yeast, 
and also that your dough is not too soft. Make your paste into cakes 
about two inches thick ; pnt them into buttered hoops : lay the hoops 
on iron plates, and when they are lightly risen, bake them in a warm 
oven. When done, cut them into slices half an inch thick, and butter 
each slice as you would a roll ; then cut them into pieces, and serve 
up for breakfast or tea. 

Cinnamon, Currant, and Caraway. Rub one pound of butter into 
three pounds and a half of flour; make a hole, and put in one pound 
of powdered loaf sugar; then wet it up with half a pint of honey 
water, and half a pint of milk. Divide your dough into three parts; 
add to one part a little powdered cinnamon ; to another a few cur- 
rants: to the other a few caraway seeds. Roll them in sheets to the 
thickness of the currants; cut them about the size of a penny-piece; 
wash with a little milk, and bake in a good steady heat. 

Common Cheese. Take four ounces of butter ; heat it with a wooden 
spoon in a warm pan, till it comes to a fine cream. Then add four 
ounces of powdered sugar; beat it well ; add the yolk of one egg ; 
beat again then add one whole egg; beat ail well together, and mix 
in four ounces of clean currants. Lay your puff paste in the patties ; 
fill them half full ; shake a little sugar over, and bake them in a good 

Curd Cheese. Warm one pint of new milk ; stir in a bit of rennet; 
keep it warm till a nice curd appears ; break it to pieces, and strain 
the whey through a hair-sieve. Then, having your mixture prepared 
as for common cheese-cakes, but without any currants, put it into the 
sieve with the curd, and rub it all through together. Then mix in 
your currants; fill them out, and bake them in a good heat. 

Almond Cheese. Take three or four bitter, and one ounce of sweet 
almonds ; boil and skin them ; put them into a mortar, with two ounces 
of loaf sugar, and the yolks of two eggs; pound them fine. Then rub 


two ounces of butter to a cream, and mix all together. Put puff paste 
in the patties; fill them three-parts full with the batter; lay a few cut 
almonds over the top; sugar over, and bake them in a steady oven. 

Lemon Cheese. Prepare your mixture as for common cheese-cakes, 
and grate the rind of a nice fresh lemon, and mix with it. The cur- 
rants may be left out or not. 

Derby. Rub one pound of butter in two pounds and a half of flour; 
make a hole, and put in one pound of powdered loaf sugar; beat two 
eggs with three table-spoonsful of honey water, and as much milk as 
will make up half a pint. Add half a pound of currants; mix all up 
together ; make them what size you please, and bake them in a steady 

Diet Bread. Whisk the yolks of twelve and the whites of six eggs 
together, so as just to break them. Put a quarter of a pint of water 
into a saucepan, or small stew-pan ; add a pound of loaf sugar, and put 
it on the fire. Take it off just before it boils; put in the eggs, and 
stir it well together till cold ; then stir in lightly one pound of flour, 
and put your mixture into square tins prepared. Sift sugar over the 
tops, and bake in a warm oven, till they are dry and firm on the tops. 
A few currants or caraway seeds may be occasionally used to vary 

Ginger. Prepare your dough as for Bath cakes, but add as much 
ground ginger as will give them a pleasant taste ; cut them about 
the thickness of a shilling, and full as large as a penny-piece ; wash 
them with water, and bake quick. 

Lord Mayors. Put one pound of sifted loaf sugar and eight eggs 
into an earthen pan ; whisk them well for about five minutes, until 
quite thick. Then add a few caraway seeds, and a pound of flour ; 
mix it all up lightly with a spoon, and drop them on paper, about the 
size of a small tea-cup; place them on iron plates; sift sugar or car- 
away seeds on the top, and bake in a hot oven. When done, take 
them off the papers, and stick two together. 

Lunch, or School. Rub half a pound of moist sugar into two 
pounds of flour ; make a hole in the middle of it, and put in a table- 
spoonful of good thick yeast (not bitter) ; warm half a pint of milk 
rather more than blood-warm, but not hot enough to scald the yeast ; 
mix it with the yeast and a little of the flour, about one-third part. 
When it has risen, which will be in about three quarters of nn hour, 
if the yeast is good, melt half a pound of butter in a little more 
milk ; be careful it is not hot enough to scald the yeast. Add 01? 
pound and a-half of currants, a little candied peel, and grated rind 
of lemon, and a tea-spoonful of powdered allspice, mix all together; 
butter your hoop, or tin, put it in, and set it in a warm place to rise. 
When it has risen, bake it in a warm oven. When you think it is 
done, stick in a small twig of your whisk, and if it comes out dry it 
is done; but if it is sticky, it is not sufficiently baked. The cake 


should be mixed up rather softer than bread dough. A few yolks of 
eggs mixed up with it will make it eat much better. 

Moss. Rub a little rout cake paste through a fine sieve, and it will 
look like moss. Gently squeeze a little together, about the size of 
half-a-crown, and bake them on wafer paper of a light colour. After 
they are done, touch the tops with cochineal. If they are made up 
round, the finger pressed in the middle, and two or three caraway 
comfits put in, they will resemble birds' nests, with eggs in them ; 
and to make the resemblance more complete, just touch the tops 
with a green colour. 

Macaroon. Prepare your mixture as for almond cakes (but do not 
cut your almonds), and add two spoonfuls of orange-flower water ; 
lay them out on the wafer-paper, in an oval shape ; sift sugar over 
them, and bake them in rather a brisk oven ; when lightly coloured 
over, they are done. 

Plum. Set a sponge with one pound of flour, half a pint of warm 
milk, and about three table-spoonfuls of good yeast. Then take four 
ounces of butter, four ounces of powdered sugar, two eggs, and four 
ounces of flour. Proceed to beat it up the same as for pound cake ; 
then put in your sponge, and beat all well together ; after which, add 
one pound of currants, nicely cleaned. Paper your hoop to put it in ; 
bake it without proving, and in a slow oven. 

Pound. Take one pound of butler, beat it with your hand in a 
warm pan till it comes to a fine cream ; put in one pound of powder- 
ed loaf sugar beat it together to a nice cream. Previously, have 
one pound and a quarter of flour, sifted ; put in a little, and give it a 
stir ; put in four eggs, and well beat it ; then take a little more flour, 
and four more eggs, as before, and beat it well again ; then stir in 
the remainder of your flour. If you bake them in small cakes, but- 
ter your tins; if in large cakes, paper your tins. Sugar over the top, 
and bake them in a moderate heat. Some persons use this method : 
Sift one pound of loaf sugar, and add to it one pound of fresh butter, 
melted a little, and worked with the hand to the consistency of 
cream ; beat them together, and while doing so, add ten eggs ; keep 
beating the whole till well incorporated. Take four ounces of can- 
died orange or lemon peel, shred or cut small, a few currants, and 
one pound of flour; mix the whole well together, and put in a hoop ; 
sift some sugar on the top, and then bake in a warm oven. 

Prussian. Rub four ounces of butter into seven pounds of flour ; 
wet up with one quart of milk, warm, one pint of warm water, four 
yolks of eggs, and half a pint of good thick yeast ; but if you are 
obliged to take more yeast, leave out some of the water, or you will 
make them too poor : let your dough lie about ten or twenty minutes ; 
mould them up round, about half or three quarters of a pound each ; 
place them on your tins, about two inches from each other, and 
put them in a warm place, and prove them well. Bake in a good 


steady heat, and melt a little butter to wash them wjth when they 
are done. 

Queens. Melt one pound of butter a little, in a preserving pan, 
and then work it with the hands to the thickness of cream ; put to it 
one pound of fine loaf sugar, well sifted, and beat it up for a minute 
or two ; add eight eggs, and two spoonfuls of water ; beat it up for 
two minutes, and add twenty ounces of flour, and a handful of cur- 
rants ; mix it well together ; put them in small round tins, bake 
them in a hot oven, and in about five minutes give the tins a smart 
tap, and the cakes will fall out. 

Queen's Drops. Prepare your mixture the same as for pound- 
cakes, but add about two ounces more of flour, one pound and a-half 
of currants; drop them on whited-brown paper, in drops about the 
size of a large nutmeg, about two inches from each other ; put your 
sheets on tins, and bake them in a steady oven. 

Rout. Take one pound of sweet almonds, boil them and skin them ; 
then take one pound of loaf sugar, pound both in a mortar, and get 
as much as you cin through a sieve ; put the rest into a mortar 
again, with four yolks of eggs, and the rind of a nice lemon ; pound 
it very fine, and put in what" has passed through your sieve, and mix 
it all together ; cut them in blocks, or make them in any shape you 
please. Sprinkle them lightly with a little water ; sift sugar over 
them, and put them on tins that have been rubbed with a bit of but- 
ter. See that they have room, so as not to touch each other ; bake 
them in a rather brisk oven till they are lightly coloured over. If 
you see them coloured too deep at the bottom, put cold tins over 

Raspberry. To one pound of raspberry jam put one pound of loaf 
sugar, powdered, and sifted fine ; mix it well together, and have a 
ring made of tin, with a handle on the side of it, about the size of a 
penny-piece ; place the ring on a sheet of paper ; fill it with the jam, 
and move your ring, and the cake will remain ; do the same till the 
whole is done. Make the tops smooth with your knife as you fill 
them ; then put them in a warm place to dry, till they get a little 
set ; then take the crooked end of the handle of a spoon, and make 
five or six marks on the top of each cake. Set them to dry again, 
till they are fit to be removed ; then take them off with the point of 
a knife ; ftave a box prepared to put them in, and lay slips of paper 
between every layer of cakes. 

Ratafias. Take four ounces of bitter, and four ounces of sweet 
almonds boil and skim them ; put them into a mortar, with one 
pound of loaf sugar, and the whites of four eggs ; pound it together 
very fine, and drop them out upon white-brown paper. See that they 
are all about the size of a nutmeg, and full an inch apart ; shake 
sifted sugar over them, and bake them in tins, in a slow oven : when 
they are all of a colour they are done ; when cold they will come off* 
the paper. 


Savoy. Take care that the shape in which it is to be baked ia 
clean and dry ; butter it, and sift sugar into it, but turn out all the 
sugar that does not stick to the butter; then have half a pound of 
sifted sugar, and six ounces of sifted flour ; warm your pan, put in 
your sugar, break in four whole eggs, and then one yolk ; whisk it 
till it is first warm, and then cold ; then stir in your flour, and turn 
your butter into the shape, and bake it in a slow oven ; it will take 
about one hour. When done, turn it out bottom uppermost : it will 
look very handsome for the middle of the table. 

Sponge. To three-quarters of a pound of powdered sugar, break 
three-quarters of a pound of eggs into a warm pan whisk it till it is 
cold, and stir in half a pound of flour have your tins ready buttered 
and sugared ; put about three parts of a table-spoonful into each of 
them, sift sugar over them, and bake them in a brisk oven. 

Seed. Proceed as directed for pound-cakes, but instead of currants 
and candied lemon-peel, substitute a few caraway seeds omit the 
sugar on the top. 

Shrewsbury. Powder three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, and 
mix it with one pound and a quarter of flour chop three-quarters of 
butter into pieces amongst it, with the scraper -then add one white 
and three yolks of eggs mix it together to a smooth paste; roll it 
into thin sheets, and cut out your cakes about the size of half a crown 
place them on clean tins not to touch bake them in a slow oven 
till they begin to change colour. 

Tea. Beat eight eggs into a pan with a whisk till they come to a 
good head then add one pound of loaf sugar powdered beat both 
together till it becomes thick and whitish then stir in one pound of 
sifted flour, but do not beat it again take a spoon in your left hand 
and a knife in your other lay a sheet of paper on your tin; take up 
a spoonful of batter, and with your knife strike as much out of the 
spoon as will make a cake the size you like see that they are about 
an inch apart, and make them as round as you can bake them in 
a rather brisk oven till they are nicely coloured over; if they do not 
come off the paper easily, when cold, damp the bottom as directed in 
Savoy biscuits. You may vary these cakes by dropping caraway 
seeds, sugar, or currants, on the top, before you bake them. 

Twelfth. Prepare your mixture as for pound-cake, plujn-cake, or 
bride-cake, which you please if you prepare it for pound-cake, take 
two pounds of currants, four ounces of candied orange and lemon peel, 
to every pound of sugar make them of any size you please when 
done, ice them over, as directed in page 104, and lay on your orna- 
ments while the icing is wet. You may get the ornaments from the 
wholesale confectioners. 

Yorkshire. Rub four ounces of butter into seven pounds of flour, 
wet up with one quart of warm milk, one pint of warm water, and 
half or three-quarters of a pint of good yeast, let it prove about twenty 


minutes, make it into cakes and put them on warm tins see that they 
have room so as not to touch when well proved, make a hole in the 
middle, the size of a large thimble bake them in a hot oven when 
done, wash them with a little melted butter. 

York Drops. Bruise eight ounces of sweet almonds in a mortar, 
having bleached and dried them as directed add the whites of three 
eggs, and rub them with the pestle till quite fine then add the 
whites of four more eggs, and one pound of sifted loaf sugar mix all 
well together, and lay it out on paper the size of large peas ; bake in 
a warm oven, or on iron plates, and when done and cold, take them 
off the paper. 

{Anne Page's. One pound of butter, two pounds of flour, one pound 
of the best loaf sugar, two ounces of caraway seed, half a pint of 
good rose-water. Rub the sugar into the butter, and then mix care- 
fully in the sifted flour and caraway seed with the rose-water. Roll 
the mass thus formed into sheets to about the thickness of a dollar, 
and shape with small tin cutter ; lay them on baking-dishes, and bake 
in a moderate oven. 

These are commonly called A. P.'s. 

York Cakes. Rub into six ounces of butter one pound of sifted 
flour ; then mix together half a pound of pulverized loaf sugar, four 
ounces currants, well washed and dried, and half an ounce of pow- 
dered cloves ; rub in with the butter and flour half a pint of warm 
milk ; roll out the paste into thin sheets, and cut with a round cutter, 
and bake at a moderate heat 

Jumbles. Half a pound of butter, half a pound of the best loaf 
sugar, pulverized, half a pound of finely-sifted flour ; rub intimately 
together with three eggs and half a wineglass of rose-water, add 
half an ounce of ground cinnamon and one grated nutmeg ; bake in 
a moderate heat on waxed tins. 

Cinnamon Biscuit. Grind in a clean mortar a quarter of a pound 
of sweet almonds, blanched ; to which add, gradually, the whites of 
three eggs, and then three-quarters of a pound of the best pulverized 
loaf sugar, and two ounces of ground cinnamon ; form into a paste, 
which should be laid out on greased tins, in diamond or other shapes ; 
ice with cold water, to produce a gloss, and bake. 

Hazlenut Kisses. Beat one pound of pulverized white sugar with 
the whites of eight eggs over a slow fire until they are light, then 
add four ounces of blanched filberts, cut fine ; lay them out on paper, 
and bake in a slow oven. 

Vanilla Biscuit. Beat with a whisk the whites of ten eggs to a 
very strong froth, add three-quarters of a pound of finely-pulverized 
loaf sugar, ten ounces of sifted flour, three cloves of vanilla pulve- 
rized with three ounces of loaf sugar. Stir all these ingredients to- 
gether for one minute, and put the batter into paper bag or cornet ; 
lay out on waxed tins, and bake in a moderate t)ven. 


Trifle. Place several alternate layers of Savoy biscuit and bitter 
almond rnaccaroons in a handsome glass bowl, or dish, and saturate 
them with the best Madeira wine; cover the surface of the top layer 
with any kind of jelly, jam, or marmalade (red currant jelly is gene- 
rally preferred) ; then take the whites of four eggs, half a pound of 
pulverized loaf sugar, the juice of one sound lernon, a little rose-wa- 
ter, and one pint of cream ; whisk all to a froth, and put lightly into 
the bowl, in the shape of a cone ; and ornament according to fancy, 
with coloured sugars. 

Cocoanut Cakes. One pound of blanched sweet almonds, the whites 
of twelve eggs, three pounds of the best pulverized loaf sugar, three 
large cocoanuts, finely grated. 

Pound the almonds in a clean mortar, with the whites of the twelve 
eggs, until the mixture is perfectly smooth, then add the pulverized 
sugar and the grated cocoanut, and work the whole in the mortar into 
a tolerably stiff paste ; form the cakes about the size of a walnut, and 
lay out on baking-plates previously well waxed. 

Sans Soucies. One pound of blanched sweet almonds, the whites 
of three eggs, two pounds of pulverized loaf sugar. 

Pound the almonds with the whites of the eggs until reduced to a 
smooth paste, and then gradually mix in the sugar. Roll a portion 
of the mass thus formed in powdered sugar, and cut them into pieces 
about an inch long, and form them into the letter S, and bake on wax 

Cocoa Biscuit. Three-quarters of a pound of blanched sweet 
almonds, half an ounce of good Caracas cocoa, previously roasted, 
two eggs, three pounds of pulverized loaf sugar. 

Incorporate in a clean mortar the almonds, cocoa, and the eggs, 
until the mass becomes perfectly smooth, then add the sugar, with a 
small portion of vanilla, in powder. Form the biscuit with a tin cut- 
ter of fancy shape; lay on waxed plates, glaze the surface of the 
cakes with cold water, and bake in a tolerably quick oven. 

Lady Cake. Two pounds of powdered loaf sugar, half a pound of 
fresh butter, seven ounces of blanched sweet almonds, and one 
ounce of blanched bitter almonds. 

Beat in a clean mortar the almonds till reduced to a smooth paste, 
adding occasionally a little rose-water, to prevent them from oiling ; 
add the sugar and butter ; then add the whites of thirty fresh eggs, 
previously whisked to a very strong froth ; then mix in, very lightly, 
two pounds of finely-sifted flour, and bake in tin pans about twelve 
nches long, eight broad, and two inches deep. This cake requires 
a quick oven thirty to thirty-five minutes will be sufficient time. 
When cool, ice as before directed, and .score with a sharp knife. 

Lady Fingers. Put the yolks of four eggs in a small basin with 
four ounces of pounded sugar, on which you have grated the peel of 
one good fresh lemon ; work this well with a spatula for five minutes ; 


after which, beat up the whites of the four eggs, and when they are 
very stiff, pour a fourth part of them on the yolks, which you after- 
wards mix with the remainder of the whites, with the addition of 
two ounces of sifted flour, stirring continually, to make the whole 
very smooth. 

Then form your biscuits on half sheets of white paper, folded in 
buch a manner that they are only three inches in length, and no 
larger than your finger. As soon as one sheet is full, cover your bis- 
cuits with fine sugar, and place on a baking-plate, which you put in 
the oven as soon as the surface of the biscuits become glossy by the 
melting of the sugar. Bake in a moderate oven, and when they have 
acquired a fine colour take them out ; when sufficiently cool, remove 
from the paper by moistening the opposite side, or with the blade of 
a very thin knife. Place them afterwards two and two, with their 
backs to each other, in order not to injure the glossy sides. 

Biscuit d la Cuilliere (Spoon Biscuit). Mix the yolks of three eggs 
with four ounces of fine sugar and half a clove of vanilla, powdered 
and passed through a silk sieve ; after working these ingredients for 
five minutes, add a whole egg, then work them again for five minutes; 
after which add another whole egg, and continue to work them for 
five minutes longer; then beat up the whites of the first three eggs 
to a very stiff froth, and mix them, together with two ounces of dried 
and finely-sifted flour, to the former ingredients : when the batter is 
quite sleek, lay out on paper, and bake as Lady-fingers. 

Small Biscuits with Almonds. Prepare three yolks as usual ; work 
them ten minutes with four ounces of sugar and an ounce of pounded 
bitter almonds; add a whole egg, and work together full five minutes 
longer ; then beat up the whites very stiff, and mix them with the 
yolks, together with one ounce and a half of wheat flour dried in the 
oven and passed through a fine sieve: work this batter till it is quite 
sleek, and then pour it in small copper moulds formed like small 
melons, carefully buttered and covered twice with sugar. Mask the 
biscuit with fine sugar, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Biscuits with Cream. After mixing the yolks of three eggs with 
four ounces of fine sugar, (on which half the peel of a small lemon 
has been grated), work the mixture for ten minutes ; then beat up 
the three whites as usual ; mix them gradually with the yolks, toge- 
ther with one ounce and a half of dried sifted flour, and four spoonsful 
of whipped cream, well drained: the whole being lightly mixed toge- 
ther and very sleek, put it in moulds or cases, covering the tops of 
the biscuits with fine sugar ; when the sugar is melted, put the bis- 
cuits in a gentle oven, and let them bake twenty or twenty-five 
minutes. When taken out of the oven, be careful to put them on 
their sides to prevent their sinking. 

Biscuits glazed with Chocolate. Prepare the same ingredients as 
the last, but flavour them with half a clove of vanilla pounded and 
passed through a silk sieve ; then put them in a case ten inches in 


length by seven in width, which you put in a gentle oven. In forty 
or fifty minutes after, see if your biscuit feels tolerably firm ; if it does, 
take it out of the oven, and as soon as it is quite cold, turn the case 
and take out the biscuit, which you cut into small squares, lozenges, 
&c. : then mix the white of an egg with an ounce of finely-powdered 
white sugar and three ounces of chocolate, which, after being grated, 
you have dissolved for a few minutes in the mouth of the oven: work 
the whole with a silver spoon for five minutes, adding a little white 
of egg to make it rather thick and glossy, and then cover the top of 
the biscuit thickly with it, smoothing it with a spatula ; after which 
put the biscuit for five or six minutes in the oven, and then let cool. 

Biscuits glazed with Orange. Rub the peel of a fine orange on a 
piece of sugar, then scrape off all the coloured parts, and, after bruis- 
ing them with a rolling-pin, mix them with three ounces of fine sugar 
and tha white of an egg; beat the whole for five or six minutes, then 
glaze the biscuit (prepared like the last, except you omit the vanilla) 
with it. Flavour the biscuit with either the half of an orange peel, 
lemon or citron, or with coffee. If you wish to glaze them a la rose, 
colour the glazing with vegetable red, and add one drop of essence 
of roses to it.] 


Almond Bread. Having bleached and dried eight ounces of sweet, 
and once ounce of bitter almonds, bruise them in a mortar; add one 
egg, and with the pestle rub it all very fine. If you find it getting 
oily before it becomes fine, increase the quantity of egg. When fine, 
grate into it the rind of one lemon; and add one pound two ounces of 
sifted loaf sugar. Mix with yolks of eggs, until it becomes a soft 
batter; now add to the rest two ounces of flour, and mix all well toge- 
ther ; then pour your batter into square flat buttered tins, with the 
sides and ends turned up about two inches high; bake in a warm 
oven, and when cold, ice it over with the icing (see article to ice, 
bride, and other cakes, p. 104), and sprinkle some nonpariel sugar- 
plums on the top. You may cut it in any shape or form, and mix 
it with your rout cakes. 

Colchester. Prepare your dough as for Bath cakes; cut it with a 
Colchester cutter to about the thickness of a penny-piece, wash it 
with milk, bake it quick, wash it with egg and milk, while hot; when 
baked and cold, cut them apart. 

Diet. Put three-quarters of a pound of loaf sugar into a saucepan, 
with a quarter of a pint of water; put it over a steady fire and stir it 
till it is dissolved; beat six eggs with a whisk in a pan; when the 
sugar boils, pour it gently on the eggs, keeping it well beat till cold ; 
then stir into it three-quarters of a pound of fine sifted flour ; have 


your frames papered, fill them three parts full with the batter, sift 
sugar over them, and bake them in a steady oven. 

French Rolls. Set a sponge with a quart of warm water, and half 
or three-quarters of a pint of good yeast ; let your sponge rise and 
drop, then melt one ounce of butter in a pint of warm milk, and one 
ounce of salt, to wet up with; it will take about seven pounds of flour 
altogether; let it lie about half an hour, ihen put them on warm tins; 
prove them well, and bake them in a quick oven. 

Short Bread. Rub one pound of butter into three pounds of flour; 
make a hole and put in one pound of powdered sugar; then wet up 
with a quarter of a pint of honey water, a quarter of a pint of milk, 
and two eggs; break them in round pieces about as big as a walnut; 
roll them round or oval, to the size of a tea-saucer ; pinch round the 
edge; place them at the distance of one inch from each other on clean 
tins, not buttered ; cut half a pound of candied orange or lemon peel 
into pieces, and lay them on the top of your cakes; bake them in a 
good steady oven. 

Queen's Ginger-Bread. Take two pounds of honey, one pound and 
three-quarters of the best moist sugar, three pounds of flour, half a 
pound of sweet almonds blanched and cut thin, half a pound of candied 
orange; peel the rinds of two lemons, grated, and an ounce of pow- 
dered cinnamon, half an ounce of nutmeg, cloves, mace, and cardi- 
moms, mixed and powdered, and a wine-glassful of water; put your 
honey and water into a pan over the fire, and make it quite hot; mix 
the other ingredients into the flour, and pour in your honey, sugar, 
and water, and mix all well together; let it stand till next day : make 
it into cakes and bake it; rub a little clarified sugar until it will blow 
in bubbles through a skimmer, and with a paste-brush rub over your 
ginger-bread when baked. 

Spice Ginger-Bread. Take three pounds of flour, one pound of 
moist sugar, four ounces of candied lemon or orange peel, cut small, 
one ounce of powdered ginger, two ounces of powdered allspice, half 
an ounce of powdered cinnamon, a handful of caraway seeds, and 
three pounds of treacle ; rub the butter with your hand into the flour; 
then add the other ingredients, and mix it in the dough with the trea- 
cle; make it into cakes or nuts, and bake them in a warm oven. 

Thick Ginger-Bread. Prepare seven pounds of treacle, rub three- 
quarters of a pound of butter into twelve pounds of flour; mix three 
ounces of caraway, two ounces of ground coriander seeds, and two 
ounces of ground allspice, with your flour and treacle; mould it well 
together, make it into cakes, point them, butter the sides, and place 
them close together on buttered tins ; put up-sets round them, wash 
with milk, and bake in a steady heat; when they arc done, wash with 
egg and milk. 

Sweetmeat Nuts. Prepare seven pounds of treacle ; mix four ounces 
of ground ginger, six ounces of ground allspice, eight ounces of cari- 


died lemon and orange, cut small, with nine pounds of flour; wet it 
up with your treacle, then beat into your dough four pounds of butter, 
and five pounds of good moist sugar; lay them off on buttered tins, 
about the size of walnuts, flat them down, wash them with water, and 
bake them in a slow oven. 

Spice Nuts. Prepare seven pounds of treacle; rub half a pound of 
butter into nine pounds of flour; mix four ounces of ground allspice, 
four ounces of ground ginger, two ounces each of caraway and cori- 
ander seeds powdered with your butter, flour, and treacle; roll half a 
pound of moist sugar, and strew it over the top, so that you take a 
little in every piece you cut from it; roll them out in long rolls about 
the size of your finger; cut them in pieces the size of a nutmeg; 
place them on buttered tins, but not to touch ; wash with water or 
small beer, and bake in a good steady oven. 

Muffins. Muffins are baked on a hot iron plate, arid not in an oven. 
To a quarter of a peck of flour add three-quarters of a pint of yeast, 
four ounces of salt, and as much water (or milk) slightly warmed, as 
is sufficient to form a dough of rather a soft consistency. Small por- 
tions of the dough are then put into holes, previously made in a layer 
of flour about two inches thick, placed on a board, and the whole is 
covered up in a blanket, and suffered to stand near a fire, to cause 
the dough to rise ; when this is effected, they will each exhibit a 
semi-globular shape; they are then placed on a heated iron plate, and 
baked ; when the bottoms of the muffins begin to acquire a brownish 
colour, they are turned, and baked on the opposite side. 

[Wheat Muffins. Melt a small piece of butter into a quart of milk, 
and set it aside until cold beat four eggs very light, and make a 
batter by adding alternately and very gradually a little milk and a 
little flour, until the batter is of the proper consistence, which is quite 
thin then add a large spoonful of yeast, if you do not use the pow- 
ders as directed in the note on page 123. Bake them in muffin-rings 
on a griddle, and butter them before serving, they must be torn 
asunder to butter, as cutting them open renders them heavy. 

Rice Muffins. Rice muffins are made in the same manner exactly 
as rice cakes, except that the batter of the former is thinner that is, 
to a quart of milk and three eggs, you put less rice and less flour. 

Rice Cakes. Boil half a pint of rice until quite soft, setting it aside 
until perfectly cool ; beat three eggs very light and put them with a 
pint of wheat flour to the rice, making it into a batter with a quart 
of milk ; beat it well, and set it to rise with a spoonful of yeast, or use 
the yeast powders as directed above. Bake on a griddle, and butter 
them before sending them to table. 

Buckwheat Cakes. To a quart of buckwheat meal put a little Indian 
meal (say a table-spoonful) and a little salt; make them into a batter 
with cold water, taking care to beat it very well, as the excellence 
of buckwheat cakes depends very much on their being well beaten ; 


then put in a large spoonful of good yeast,* and set to rise ; when 
sufficiently risen, bake them a clear brown on a griddle. They are 
usually buttered before being sent to table. 

Flannel Cakes. Melt a table-spoonful of butter in a quart of milk, 
and after stirring it well, set it away to cool ; then heat four eggs 
very light, and stir them into the milk in turn with half a pound of 
sifted flour; put in a spoonful of yeast, and set it aside. These are 
baked on a griddle like buckwheat cakes, and are always buttered 
before being sent to table. 

Indian Stoppers, To a pint of Indian meal, add a handful of wheat 
flour and a little salt; beat three eggs very light and stir them, in turn 
with the meal, into a quart of milk. These cakes require no yeast, 
and should be baked as soon as mixed. They are baked on a griddle, 
and buttered before serving. 

Johnny-Cake. To a quart of sifted Indian meal (for this cake 
coarse meal should always be used) add a pint of warm water, and a 
tea-spoonful of salt ; mix the meal gradually into the water, and 
when mixed beat it very haid, until quite light, then spread it out 
smoothly and evenly upon a board. Let this board be then placed 
before the fire, having something to support it behind ; when done, 
cut it in squares, and send it to table, without butter. 

Corn- Meal Bread, To a pint of sifted corn-meal (not too fine) add 
a small piece of butter and two eggs, well beaten ; make it into a 
batter with new milk, and put in a spoonful of yeast. It will require 
an hour to rise. This bread is best baked, in small tin pans.] 

Crumpets. Crumpets are made of batter composed of flour, water 
(or rnilk), and a small quantity of yeast. To one pound of the best 
wheaten flour you may add three table-spoonfuls of yeast. A portion 
of the liquid paste, not too thin (after being suffered to rise), is 
poured on the heated iron plate, and baked, like pancakes in a pan. 

Rusks. Rub six ounces of butter into four pounds of flour ; set a 
sponge with a pint and a-half of warm milk, and a half pint of yeast; 
when the sponge rises, add four ounces of good moist sugar, mix it 
up together, let it prove a little, then roll it out about the size of a 
rolling-pin ; flat it down with your hand, and place the cakes at a 

* Many persons now make use of the yeast powders, and give them a 
decided preference. They certainly possess the advantage of requiring 
less time, and thereby enabling you to make muffins, buckwheat cakes, 
&c. which, set with yeast, require some hours in the preparation at 
a quarter of an hour's notice. The ingredients are the super-carbo- 
nate of soda and tartaric acid, to be used in the following manner : 
A spoonful of soda, and a spoon two-thirds full of tartaric acid, are to be 
dissolved separately in a little water. The soda is to be put into the bat- 
ter when it is partly beaten, taking care that it is perfectly dissolved ; and 
the acid is to be added when the cook is ready to begin baking, as they 
must not be allowed to stand after the effervescence takes place. 


distance from each other, so as not to touch ; prove them well, and 
bake them in a moderately heated oven; when cold, cut them in 
slices; place them to touch on the tins, and brown them off in a 
brisk oven. 

Sweet Rusk&. Cut a diet bread cake into thin long slices; lay 
them on iron plates and brown them quickly, in a very hot oven ; 
turn them when of a light-brown colour ; and when of a similar 
colour on the other side, they are done. 

Tops and Bottoms. Prepare your mixture as for rusks, make it 
into small balls about the size of a large walnut, place them on your 
tins in straight rows just to touch ; prove them well ; bake them in 
a moderate heat : when cold, draw a sharp knife between every row ; 
to cut your balls out square, turn them on their side, and cut them 
through the middle one at a time : place them on the tin as close as 
you can, with the cut part upwards ; put them in a brisk oven ; 
watch them till they are nicely browned over ; then they are done. 


[The first grand object for our consideration is the proper method 
of making paste ; for upon our skill in that important branch of 
the pastry-cook's art, will the success of our future operations mainly 
depend. Whenever the paste happens to be ill made, its bad ef- 
fects will invariably appear in the baking; and if even by chance 
the colour should turn out tolerably well, it will be still highly unsatis- 
factory to competent judges ; in short, paste thus made will always be 
heavy, have an unpleasant flavour, and, above all, be very indi- 
gestible ; and, indeed, it is owing to the general ignorance that pre- 
vails respecting its proper amalgamation, that good pastry is so rarely 
made ; and that the number of good family pastry-cooks is so small. 

It is much more easy to bake pastry than to make it. The oven 
requires care, constant attention, and practice, it is true ; but the art 
of making pastry is quite another thing an art that admits of no 
mediocrity a good memory, taste practice, and dexterity, being ab- 
solutely necessary in that branch of the business; for it is really 
from the manner of mixing the various ingredients of which it is 
composed that it acquires its good or bad quality. 

An indispensable requisite is cleanliness in those who have to pre- 
pare elegant viands, and the most scrupulous attention must be paid 
to delicate management and order. In a pastry-cook these requi- 
sitions are absolutely indispensable. 


I shall now endeavour to give directions for the composition of this 
delicate and elegant kind of paste. 


Ingredients. Twelve ounces of fine-sifted flour, twelve ounces of 
butter, two drachms of fine salt, and the yolks of two egg's. 

Manner of Working. Having placed the twelve ounces of flour 
on the board, make a small hole in the middle ; in which, put the 
two drachms of salt, the yolks of two eggs, and nearly a glass of 
water ; and with the ends of the fingers of your right-hand gradually 
mix in the surrounding flour, adding a little water where necessary, 
till the paste is of a proper consistence, rather firm than otherwise ; 
then prove it by leaning your hand on the board, and working it for 
some minutes, when the paste will become soft to the touch, and 
glossy in appearance. 

It is of importance to observe, that this paste should be neither too 
stiff nor too soft, but of a proper medium ; yet it will be better when 
it is a little too soft than when too stiff. 

The same process must be attended to in summer as in winter; 
though many persons pretend that this kind of paste should be made 
stiffer in summer than in winter, on account of the difference in the 
two seasons. As far as regards the hardness of the butter, this mode 
of reasoning has certainly some truth in it; for, inasmuch as the 
winter is favourable to the work, so does the heat of summer render 
our operations troublesome and difficult, and prevent them sometimes 
from having the desired effect, particularly in the making of puff 

The reason why summer paste should not be made softer than that 
made in winter, is this: if, when the paste is soft, it be buttered, 
and afterwards placed on ice, as is practised in summer, the butter, 
which is a greasy substance, will become quickly congealed by the 
coldness of the ice ; while the paste, which is only a moist body, will 
scarcely be affected by it ; and, consequently, the butter being fro- 
zen, and the paste soft, it will follow that, in working it, the butter 
not being held by the paste sufficiently firm to unite with it, will 
break into small pieces ; and after having received the two first turns, 
will appear in small lumps, like large peas. On rolling it again, and 
placing on the ice, the cold acts with greater force on the small par- 
ticles of butter, which quickly become like so many icicles, and the 
paste, in consequence, will be completely spoiled ; for, in baking, 
these particles of butler melt, and, separating themselves from the 
paste, render it incapable of uniting with them. 

When the paste has been made as above, take three-quarters of a 
pound of butter, in pieces, which for twenty minutes has been in a 
pail of spring water, thoroughly imbued with a few pounds of pounded 
ice previously well washed ; then squeeze and work well in a napkin 
ia order to separate the water from it, and at the same time to render 
ir soft, and above all, of an equal consistence; then as quickly as pos- 
rible roll the paste on a marble slab, into a square, and placing the 
butter in the middle, cover with an equal thickness of paste, by rais- 
ing the paste over it. After rolling it out two or three feet in length, 


fold it into three parts by doubling one part over the other; after 
which roll it out again, and fold it once more into three equal parts 
now roll it to a greater length, envelope it with a clean linen cloth 
which has been dusted with some sifted flour lay this on some finely 
pounded ice, taking care to have several folds of cloth between the 
paste and the ice, to prevent the moisture striking through place on 
the top of the paste a dish containing some pounded ice this serves 
to keep the surface of the paste cool, and also to prevent it becoming 
soft by the action of the air. After three or four minutes, remove 
the dish, and turn the paste upside down, instantly covering it as 
before. This operation should be performed three times in the same 
manner, and with the same precautions. 

Lastly, roll it out two or three times according to what you intend 
to make of it, and use it as expeditiously as possible, lest the heat of 
the season should render it too soft to handle, or prevent its having 
the desired effect in baking. 

Thus, in less than half an hour, it is possible to make very fine pufF 
paste, having previously everything ready the ice pounded,' the but- 
ter frozen, and the oven quite hot, otherwise it cannot be done. This 
is important, as it is sometimes an hour before the oven can be made 
hot ; and therefore the paste should not be begun to be made till the 
oven is half heated. The following is another method.] 

Puff Paste. Take one pound of flour, and one pound of good firm 
butter; cut your butter into slices; roll it in thin sheets on some of 
your flour; wet up the rest with about a quarter of a pint of water; 
see that it is about as stiff as your batter; roll it to a thin sheet; cover 
it with your sheets of butter; double it in a three double; do the same 
five times; then double it up; lay it in the cold to use when you want 
it, keeping the air from it: you ought to make it before the sun rises, 
unless you have a cold place to make it in. The following is another 
method : Take one pound of flour, and eight ounces of butter; rub 
the butter into the flour with your hand, and make it into a paste with 
water, to the consistence of very thick batter; roll out your paste 
thin; break eight ounces more butter into pieces of the size of a shil- 
ling, and put them in all parts of your paste ; fold it up ; and after stand- 
ing a short time, roll it out again ; when it has been rolled out three 
times, it is fit for use. 

Short Paste. Rub one pound of butter into one pound and a quar- 
ter of flour; wet it up stiff" with cold water; work it smooth, and it is 
fit for use. 

Tart Paste. Eight ounces of butter rubbbed into a pound of flour 
with your hand, and made into a stiff paste with water, is an excel- 
lent paste for tarts. 

Jlpricot Tart. J,,ay your puff paste in patties; put your jam in the 
middle, and bake them in a brisk oven; or you may bake your puff 
paste first with. a bit of bread in the middle; then take out the bread 
. fill the hoje with j am > ^ vy iH Ipoff very handsome. 


Gwered Tart. Take your short paste; cut it into pieces to the size 
of your patties; roll them out thin; lay in the bottoms; put your fruit 
as high as you can ; put a pinch of sugar on the top; close your tart; 
Bpr+nkle water over it; put a pinch of powdered loaf sugar on the 
top; and hake them in a good steady heat. 

Raspberry Tart. Take your short paste; cut it into pieces of 
nearly the size of your patties; about the thickness of a penny-piece; 
then with your thumb drive it thin in the middle; leave it thick at 
the edge ; cut it round close to the patty, and notch it with the back 
of your knife; thin your raspberry-jam with a little water, and fill 
the tart three parts full ; bake them in a brisk oven. Or you may 
made them with puff paste, in the same manner as apricot tarts, if 
you choose. 

Mince Pies. Stew three pounds of lean beef till it is tender; chop 
it fine with one pound and a half of beef suet, one dozen of apples, 
and one pound of stoned raisins ; mix all together, with three pounds 
of currants, washed and picked clean, half a pound of citron, half 
an ounce, together, of cloves, cinnamon, and mace, pounded fine, a 
little allspice, a pint of brandy, and three half pints of cider, and 
one pound and a half of good moist sugar ; squeeze it close down 
in a glazed pan, and it will be fit for use ; then roll your puff paste 
in sheets, about the thickness of a penny-piece ; cut out the tops to 
the size of your pies ; put your cuttings for bottoms ; fill them to 
your fancy ; cover and close them ; and bake them in a steady oven. 

Raised Pie. Take seven pounds of flour; then take one pound of 
mutton suet, clarified down ; put it into a saucepan with one pint and 
a half of water, and set it over the fire till it boils ; make a hole in 
the middle of your flour, and pour in your liquor boiling hot; then 
mix in your flour with a spoon till you can bear to put your hand in ; 
mix it till it becomes a nice smooth piece of dough; cover it over 
with a cloth; and raise your pies with as much of it as will make the 
size you want ; when filled and nicely closed, wash with egg, and 
lay on your ornament. Your oven must be brisk, if for small pies: 
but if for large ones, a more steady heat will be best. 



BAKING, or the art of making bread, is amongst the earliest modes 
resorted to by the more advanced portions of mankind for the prepa- 
ration of food. In the early ages, however, loaf or leavened bread 
was unknown, as it is amongst uncivilized nations to this day. The 
North American Indians contrive, by pounding their maize, or Indian 
corn, to make a sort of cake, which they bake by means of hot cin- 
ders. This serves them, and, indeed, occasionally the Anglo-Ameri- 
cans, as a substitute for loaf or leavened bread, and may be called 
unleavened bread. But in some parts of the world bread is not 
known ; in others it may be known, but is not used as amongst the 
people inhabiting the vast Pampas on the Rio de la Plata, where 
scarcely anything is eaten but beef. 

Bread may be thus defined ; A nutritive substance made of corn, 
generally wheat, or other farinaceous or mealy vegetables, ground or 
reduced into flour or meal, that is, a powder more or less fine, and 
kneaded or mixed with water, and baked in an oven, upon hot ashes 
or other grise. This process makes unleavened bread, or, in other 
words, untermented bread, or what is now called biscuits. To lea- 
vened or fermented bread, that is, the bread generally used in our 
houses, there must be an addition, yeast, or some other substance 
which has the property of promoting fermentation. 

The origin or etymology of the word bread is not without interest. 
Home Tooke says, bread is brayed, grain, from the verb to bray or 
pound in a mortar, the ancient way in which flour was made. The 
meaning of bread, therefore, is something brayed brayed wheat, or 
wheat bread pease brayed, or bread oats brayed, or bread, &c. 
The word bread was spelt differently in different ages; thus we have 
brede, breed, &c. Dough, Home Tooke says, comes from the Anglo- 
Saxon word deaw-ian, to wet, to moisten. Dough, or dow, means 
wetted. The bread, that is, brayed corn or grain, by being wetted 
becomes dough. 

Loaf comes from the Anglo-Saxon word hlif-ian^ to raise, to lift up. 



Thus, after the bread or brayed corn has been wetted, by which it 
becomes dough, then follows the leaven, by which it becomes loaf, 
that is, raised. Leaven is derived from the French word lever, to 

Bread, in some countries, is not made entirely of meal, much less 
of wheaten flour. In many parts of Sweden, the bread is composed 
partly of the bark of trees, particularly during winter. 

In Westphalia, a kind of very coarse black bread is made, of which 
the peasants bake one large loaf for the whole week. This is divided 
for use with a saw. It is called pumpernickel, and is sometimes 
exported. In many parts of Germany, bread is made of grain nearly 
entire, or but just bruised, which is very coarse, and frequently forms 
part of the food of horses. 

The Romans, before they had acquired the art of baking, were 
called, either by way of distinction or reproach, the pulse-eating peo- 
ple. According to some authorities, indeed, the earlier nations knew 
no other use of their meal than to make of it a kind of porridge. 
Such was the food of the Roman soldiers for several centuries, or at 
most their skill extended no farther than to knead unleavened dough 
into cakes or biscuits. Even at present, as has been before intimated, 
there are many countries where the luxury of bread is unknown. 

Loaf-bread is seldom used in the northern parts of Europe and Asia, 
except by the higher classes of inhabitants. You never see loaves in 
Sweden, though in the towns rolls are common enough. Gottenburg 
is a considerable town, containing between twenty and thirty thou- 
sand inhabitants. In the year 1812 it was crowded with merchants 
from all parts of Europe, being at that time the great connecting link 
between Great Britain and the Continent. Towards the end of that 
year only, the captain of an English packet ordered a Gottenburg 
baker to bake for him a quantity of bread, amounting altogether to 
the value of one pound sterling. The baker was astonished, and in 
fact confounded, at so great an order, and refused to comply till the 
captain gave him security that he would carry off and pay for the 
loaves, declaring that he could never dispose of so great a quantity 
of bread in Gottenburg, if it were left on his hands. In the country 
parts of Sweden, nothing in the character of bread is to be met with, 
excepting rye cakes, which are represented as nearly as hard as flint, 
and which are only baked twice a year. 


Baking, as a business or profession, was never confined to the baking 
of common bread alone, that is to say, bread in every-day use. A 
baker we take to mean a person who bakes and prepares any farina- 
ceous substance intended for human food. If this definition be cor- 
rect, then it will follow that not only loaf-bread baking, biscuit-baking, 
fancy-bread baking, belong to the business of the baker, but also pas- 


try making and confectionery. We know, indeed, that all these 
branches are frequently to a" certain extent practised by the same 
individual, and therefore, in a work of this kind, they ought all to be 
treated of, which we intend to do under separate heads. 

The ancients had a great variety of spice bread and sweetmeats, 
and these, there is every reason to believe, were produced by the 
persons called bakers ; pastry-cooks and confectioners being unknown 
as separate professions. The Asiatics were exceedingly fond of 
sweetmeats, and there can be little or no doubt that a similar taste 
was introduced by them among the Romans, when they were carried 
to Rome to practise their calling there. The Rhodians, we are told, 
had a particular kind of bread sweetened with honey, so exquisitely 
pleasant, that it was eaten with other delicacies after dinner by way 
of dessert. 

The French, who are excellent bakers, have a great variety of 
breads, and these for the most part have been long introduced into 
Great Britain. The common bread of that country, or bread for gen- 
eral use, may be divided into three classes: wheaten bread, made 
of the finest flour, sometimes called firsts; second, or household 
bread, made of flour somewhat coarser, called seconds; and brown 
bread, made of flour called thirds, and sometimes of flour of various 
degrees coarser than thirds. The coarseness or fineness of flour 
(supposing the wheat of the same quality) depends upon the dressing, 
or the separating of the flour from the husks of the wheat, after it 
has been reduced to a powder. The finest flour is entirely separated 
from the bran or husks the other description not entirely so, but the 
broad bran is removed from the coarsest flour. The writers in many 
of our celebrated Encyclopedias say, that " our household bread is 
made of the whole substance of the grain, without the separation of 
either the finest flour or the coarsest bran." This is a mistake 

In making pure wheaten loaf bread, no other ingredients should 
be employed but flour, water, yeast, or some other innocent ferment- 
ing matter. Various other ingredients are used, principally by those 
engaged in making bread for sale. The London bakers employ alum, 
for the purpose of making the bread whiter, &c. Homo-baked bread 
is never so white, even when made from the same flour, as that pro- 
duced by the public baker ; but of this we shall speak when we come 
to describe the methods of bread-making used by public bakers; 
present we shall confine ourselves to bread as made in families for 
daily use. 

The goodness of bread, whether baked at home or abroad, will de- 
pend, firstly, upon the quality of the flour employed ; secondly, upon 
the quality of the yeast; and, thirdly, upon the skill and care of the 
baker. The process of baking, though simple enough, requires some 
experience on the part of him or her who may undertake to perform 
it. We need scarcely say, that experience is only to be acquired in 
one way, and that way is too obvious to need pointing out. To judge 


of flour, experience is also necessary ; but any one may form a pretty 
accurate idea whether it is good or bad, by attending to the follow- 
ing directions : If flour is of a fine white colour, it may be pro- 
nounced good, so far as colour is concerned ; but if it be brown, it 
shows that either it was made from bad wheat, or that it has been 
coarsely dressed that is, particles of bran, more or less fine, have 
been left in it. Brown flour, however, may be of a good, sound qual- 
ity, and fine white flour not so. To judge of flour, take a portion in 
your hand and press it firmly between your thumb and fore-finger, at 
the same time rubbing it gently, for the purpose of making a level 
surface upon the flour. By this means you will be able to ascertain 
the colour, by observing the pressed and smooth surface ; and the act 
of pressing and smoothing it, will enable you to ascertain these facts. 
If it feel loose and lively in the hand, it is of good quality ; if on the 
contrary it feels dead or damp, or in other words clammy, it is de- 
cidedly bad. 

Flour ought to be a few weeks old before it is used ; but it will 
keep good much longer, if kept in a dry place covered over. But it 
is, perhaps, better to trust to your miller or mealman, who, if you are 
a good and constant customer, will take care to serve you with good 
flour for his own sake ; for if he employs any tricks, he is sure to be 
discovered when the bread comes out of the oven. 

It has been found by analysis, that wheat flour consists of three 
principal substances, namely, starch, gluten, and sugar, and a very 
small portion of albumen ; of these, the starch is the most nourish- 
ing as food. The gluten resembles animal glue in its tenacious qua- 
lities; and its smell, when subjected to a strong heat, is fcetid, like 
burning horn or feathers. It will not ferment in warm water and 
yeast, but like a piece of flesh will become putrid. Mr. Edlin says, 
that " this substance is totally different from vegetable matter, but 
rather resembling animal." The gluten in wheat-flour is the cause 
of its forming an adhesive paste with water, and of its rising in 

Starch forms the most considerable part of wheat-flour, and there 
is reason to believe, from so many persons subsisting on potatoes, 
which contain much starch and no gluten, that it is the most nutri- 
tious ; but starch cannot be made into bread, because it wants the 
mucilaginous gluten to give it tenacity, and the saccharine matter, 
or sugar, to induce fermentation. 

From experiments made by Mr. Edlin, it appears that a pound of 
wheat contains three ounces of bran, ten ounces of starch, six drachms 
of gluten, and two drachms of sugar ; which, with the loss of two 
ounces in grinding and reducing the flour to starch, make one pound, 
or sixteen ounces. From this it appears that he did not discover the 
albumen, which M. Seguin considers the fermenting principle. 

Mr. Edlin also ascertained by experiment, that starch, isinglass, 
and sugar, mixed in proper quantities, and fermented with yeast, will 
make a light and porous bread. 


Flour-paste may be considered as merely a viscid and elastic tis- 
sue, the interstices of which are filled with starch, albumen, and 
sugar. We know that it is from the gluten that the dough derives 
its property of rising on the admixture of leaven ; the leaven acting 
on the sweet principle of the wheat, gives rise in succession to the 
vinous and acetous fermentation, and of consequence to alcohol, 
acetic, and carbonic acids. The latter gas tends to fly off, but the 
gluten resists its disengagement, expands like a membrane forms a 
multitude of little cavities, which give lightness and sponginess to 
the bread. 

To judge of good yeast, no positive directions can be given. Yeast 
should always be fresh, and if made from table ale it is better, because 
less bitter than that made from very strong ale. If the yeast is sour, 
the dough will not rise. Originally what is called leaven was uni- 
formly employed, and it is now sometimes used as a substitute for 
yeast. Those who use it, keep a pound or more dough from baking 
to baking. It is kept in a wooden barrel, or bowl, covered with flour. 
Before it is fit to use, it must be both stale and sour. Bread made in 
this way is said to be more digestible, bat it is not so pleasant to the 
taste. Leaven is now only used at sea. 

A good oven is necessary for the production of good bread. If the 
oven be heated, as in country places, by dry wood, furze, or fern, 
burnt in the oven itself, it ought to be built round, not long, as there 
will be in the former case a greater equality of heat. The roof 
should be from twenty inches to two feet high in the centre; the 
mouth no larger than will be sufficient to admit the bread. But many 
people who make their own bread send it to be baked at the baker's. 
We have seen good ovens attached to a stove, and heated by the 
kitchen fire. These are not sufficiently capacious to contain loaves 
enough for the consumption of a large family, but they answer the 
purpose of a small family very well. To save room, it will be neces- 
sary, in stove ovens, to bake in tins. Bread thus baked is much more 
smooth and neat than when baked in the ordinary way ; but the plea- 
sant crispness of the crust is wanting. 

The ovens used in London and some other large towns are, for the 
most part, heated by a furnace placed on one side. The heat in these 
ovens is very equable, and the baker is enabled to keep it up at all 
times with very little trouble, and with less expense than by the old 


Under this head we shall give directions for making bread of wheat 
flour only. The manufacturing of barley flour, rye flour, and a mix- 
ture of different kinds of flours, with or without the addition of vari- 
ous other nutritive substances, &c., into bread, will be treated of 

Family or Home-Baked Bread. An expeditious and simple method 



of making bread for a small family is as follows : Take half a bushel 
of flour ; put all this flour excepting about four pounds into a tub or 
pa!), and ia winter place it before the fire to warm. Mix six ounces 
or half a pound of powdered salt with the flour but it would be bet- 
ter to work the salt in with the dough. Then take a pint of good 
fresh yeast, and well mix it with a sufficient quantity of blood-warm 
water". Make a deep hole in the middle of the flour ; pour the water 
and yeast gradually into the hole of the flour, mixing the water and 
flour with your hands till both become well incorporated. Cover this 
mixture up, and place it near the fire till it has well risen, that is to 
say, fermented. Then work the other flour into it with your fists, 
til! it becomes a nice, smooth, tough dough. Make this dough into 
loaves, and bake in an oven properly heated: if too hot, your bread 
will be burnt outside, and not done inside. It will take from an hour 
and a half to two hours in baking, but the bread should always remain 
in the oven half an hour after it has become brown; or, as it is tech- 
nically called, it will not be soaked through. This is a method we 
have known to be used with success in many families, though not 
aware that it ever has been published before. 

For large bakings, the following method is best. : 
The common way is to put the flour into a trough, tub, or pan, suf- 
ficiently large to permit its swelling to three times the size it at pre- 
sent occupies. Make a deep hole in the middle of the flour. For 
half a bushel of flour take a pint of thick fresh yeast that is, yeast 
not frothy mix it with about a pint of soft water made blood-warm. 
The water must not be hot. Then gently mix with the yeast and 
water as much flour as will bring it to the consistence of a thick or 
stiff batter pour this mixture into the hole in the flour, and cover it 
by sprinkling it over with fluur lay over it a flannel or sack, and in 
co!d weather place it near, not too near, the firo. This is called lay- 
ing the sponge. When the sponge or this mixture of water, yeast, 
and flour has risen enough to crack the dry flour by which it was 
covered, sprinkle over the top six ounces of salt (more or less to 
suit the taste) : mind, the time when the salt is applied is of great 
importance. We have seen directions in which we are told to mix 
the salt with the water and yeast. The effect of this would be 
to prevent fermentation, or, in other words, to prevent the sponge 
from rising. Aft^r the salt is sprinkled over the sponge, work it 
with the rest of ihe flour, and add from time to time warm water 
(not hot) till the whole is sufficiently moistened ; that is, scarcely as 
moist as pie-crust. The degree of moistness, however, which the 
mixture ought to possess can only be taught by experience whpu 
the water is mixed with the composition, then work it well by push- 
ing your fists into it then rolling it out with your hands folding it 
up again kneading it again with your fists, till it is completely 
mixed, and formed into a stiff, tough, smooth substance, which is 
called dough great care must be taken, that your dough be not too 
moist on the one hand, and on the other that every particle of flour 


be thoroughly incorporated. Form your dough into a lump like n 
large dumpling, again cover it up, and keep it warm to rise or fer- 
ment. After it has been rising about twenty minutes, or half an 
hour, make the dough into loaves, first having shaken a little flour 
over the board to prevent sticking. The loaves may be made up in 
tin moulds, or if it be desired to make it into loaves to be baked with- 
out the use of moulds, divide the dough into equal parts, according 
to the size you wish to have your loaves make each part into the 
form of a dumpling, and lay one dumpling, if we may so speak, upon 
another then, the oven being properly heated, by means of an in- 
strument called a peel, a sort of wooden shovel, put in your loaves, 
and immediately shut the door as close as possible. A good deal of 
nicety is required in properly placing the loaves in the oven they 
must be put pretty closely together. The bread will take from an 
hour and a-half to two hours to bake properly. 

Brown or Diet Bread is made of flour from which the coarsest flake 
bran only is removed. This bread is made as in the preceding direc- 
tions. By boiling a pound and a-quarter of bran in a gallon of the 
water in which the bread is made, and then straining it, there will 
be an increase of one-sixth more than if mixed with plain water. 

Bread not liable to become bitter. This process is an invention of a 
Mr. Stone. He took a tea-spoonful of yeast and mixed it with three 
quarters of a pint of warm water. He then took a bushel or fifty- 
six pounds of flour, and having put it into the kneading trough, and 
made a hole in the middle of it large enough to contain two gallons 
of water, he poured in his small quantity, and took a stick and stir- 
red it until it was as thick as a batter pudding having covered this 
sponge with a sprinkling of flour, it was left to ferment for an hour, 
at the end of which time he took a quart more of warm water and 
poured in, and repeated the operation of stirring it in with more flour, 
and again sprinkling it with flour, when it was again left for two 
hours, when it will be found to have risen and broken through the 
flour then add three quarts or a gallon of water, and stir in flour to 
the consistence of butter, and again cover it with dry flour and in 
about three or tour more he mixed up his dough ; which done, he 
covered it up warm and let it stand to prove four or five hours more, 
when he made up his loaves and baked them. The bread was as 
light and as porous as if one pint of yeast had been made. 

Having, as we trust, explained the process of baking as it is prac- 
tised by those who adhere to its simple principles, and who employ 
no other ingredients than those necessary to produce good bread, we 
shall now proceed to describe the methods pursued by the public 
baker; and, at the same time, give a description of a public bake- 
house, and the duties of the persons employed therein. 



Previous to entering upon the subject of public baking, by which 
80 large a portion of the people are supplied with their daily bread, it 
will be necessary to lay before our readers some of the various me- 
thods by which yeast is compounded. Of brewers' yeast, or the yeast 
of ale and beer, we have already spoken, and therefore it will be 
necessary again to revert to it. Several of the following directions 
for the preparations of yeast have been long before the public, and 
some of them the writer has not had an opportunity of testing by 
experience, but there is no reason to doubt of their efficiency ; of the 
patent yeast, however, now pretty generally used by the public 
bakers, he can speak with confidence, having witnessed the whole 
process of making it, and experienced its perfect applicability to the 
manufacturing of bread. We shall first, however, treat of the mode 
of preserving brewers' yeast. 

Yeast to Preserve. Take a quantity and work it well with a whisk, 
till it becomes thin; then procure a wooden dish or platter, clean and 
dry, and with a soft brush lay a thin layer of yeast on the dish, and 
turn the top downwards to keep out the dust, but not the air, which 
is to dry it. When the first coat is dry, lay on another, and let that 
dry, and so continue till the quantity is sufficient ; by this means, it 
may soon be made two or three inches thick, when it may be pre- 
served perfectly good, in dry tin canisters, for a long time. When 
you use it for baking, cut a piece and lay it in warm water till it is 
dissolved, when it is fit for use. 

Potatoe Yeast is made of mealy potatoes boiled thoroughly soft 
they are then skinned and mashed as smooth as possible, when as 
much hot water should be put on them as will make a mash of the 
consistency of good beer yeast. Add to every pound of potatoes two 
ounces of treacle, and when just warm stir in for every pound of 
potatoes two large spoonsful of yeast. Keep it warm till it has done 
fermenting, and in twenty-four 'hours it will be fit for use. A pound 
of potatoes will make nearly a quart of yeast, and it is said to be 
equally as good as brewers' yeast. 

The following are Dr. Let (sow's directions for making another Pre- 
pared Yeast. Thicken two quarts of water with four ounces of flour, 
boil it for half an hour, then sweeten it with three of brown sugar ; 
when almost cold, pour it along with four spoonfuls of bakers' yeast 
into an earthen jug, deep enough for the fermentation to go on with- 
out running over; place it a day near the fire ; then pour off the thin 
liquor from the top, shake the remainder, and close it up for use, first 
straining it through a sieve. To preserve it sweet, set it in a cool 
cellar, or hang it some depth in a well. Always keep some of this 
yeast to make the next quantity that is wanted. 

Artificial Yeast. Take two ounces of flour, boil it in a quart of 


water, till it comes to the consistence of a thin jelly, pour it into a 
machine for impregnating water with fixed air ; then put into the 
lower vessel some coarse powdered marble, and pour on it some sul- 
phuric acid diluted with water. The apparatus is now to be adjust- 
ed, and the upper vessel put in its place, and nearly stopped. The 
fixed air now passes through the valve, and ascends into the middle 
and upper part of the machine, where the gas is absorbed by the 
flour jelly in considerable quantity ; and in the course of a few hours 
the matter will be found so strongly impregnated, as to be in a state 
of fermentation. This artificial yeast may now be put into a bottle 
for use. The great advantage of this yeast is, that it may be made 
in situations where it is impossible to procure brewers' yeast. The 
foregoing operation need not be performed but once by the same in- 
dividual, as the process may be carried on by mixing this artificial 
yeast, which was invented by the late Mr. Henry, with the preced- 
ing preparation recommended by Dr. Lettsom, which it will cause to 
ferment the same as brewers' yeast. 

Another artificial yeast is made as follows : Take half a pound 
of fine flour, the same qi antity of coarse brown sugar, and a quarter 
of a peck of bruised malt ; boil these over the fire for a quarter of 
an hour, in half a gallon of water, then strain the liquor through a 
sieve into an upright jug, and when cooled to 80 degrees of heat, add 
one pint of the artificial Seltzer water, or, if procurable, Seltzer wa- 
ter itself, or water impregnated with fixed air the mixture will 
soon begin to ferment : it should then be set before the fire, and 
when ebullition ceases, the yeast will sink to the bottom. Pour off 
the clear liquor, and the yeast will be fit for use. 

Patent Yeast, which is extensively used by the London bakers, and 
which is, perhaps, preferable to all other yeasts, is made as follows : 
Take half a pound of hops and two pailfuls of water, mix and boil 
in the oven till the liquid is reduced to one pailful ; strain the decoc- 
tion into the seasoning tub, and when it is sufficiently cool put in half 
a peck of malt. In the mean time, put the hops, strained off, again 
into two pailfuls of water, and boil as before till they are reduced to 
one ; strain the liquid while hot into the seasoning tub. The heat 
will not injuriously affect malt, previously mixed with tepid water. 
Boil the hops again as before, and strain off as before into the season- 
ing tub. When the liquor has cooled down to about blood-heat, strain 
off the malt, and add to the liquor two quarts of patent yeast set 
apart from the previous making. It ought to be observed, that brew- 
ers' yeast will not answer the purpose.* To the malt and hops some 
add a little flour, but the patent yeast is quite as good without the 
flour, which in summer is apt to make the yeast go sour. By the 

* If this be the case, it may be fairly asked, by what means the first 
patent yeast was generated ? The answer is, by a chemical process si- 
milar to that invented by Mr. Henry, and which we rtavo given under 
the head of ARTIFICIAI.YEAST. 


above process five gallons of very good yeast may be made, which 
will be ready for use the day after it is made. It occupies in manu- 
facturing from about seven o'clock in the morning till two or three in 
the afternoon ; but it gives very little trouble to the baker. 


These ingredients are now considered indispensable by the London 
Dakers in the manufacturing of second or household bread, that is, > 
the bread in daily use in the metropolis. The effects of alum upon 
bread are not well understood : but it is generally said to bleach and 
act as an astringent. Accum says, that " the theory of the bleaching 
property of alum, as manifested in the panification (making into bread) 
of an inferior kind of flour, is by no means well understood ; and 
indeed it is really surprising, that the effect should be produced by so 
small a quantity of that substance, two or three ounces of alum being 
sufficient for a sack of flour. From experiments in which I have 
been employed, with the assistance of skilful bakers, I am authorized 
to state, that without the addition of alum, it does not appear possible 
to make white, light, and porous bread, such as is used in this me- 
tropolis, unless the flour be of the very best quality." 

Mr. A. Booth, the lecturer on Chemistry, asserts, that "alum 
bleaches from the attraction of alumina, one of its constituent parts, 
to the colouring matter of the flour, and also acts as an astringent on 
the bread." 

If these opinions are to be relied upon, of course the question is 
settled, as to the indispensability of alum in making London bread. 
Accum asserts, that he, in conjunction with skilful bakers, has tested 
the thing by experiments, which prove that alum cannot be dispensed 
with. For our part, we are inclined to think, that the whiteness of 
the London bread is owing, in some degree, to the process of baking, 
a process widely differing from that followed by women in making 
home-baked bread ; which, as we have elsewhere asserted, is never 
so white or so porous, though made of the same flour, as bakers' bread. 
Accum, whatever talent he might possess as a chemist, was a fraudu- 
lent writer, and therefore his assertions are not to be relied on, as to 
the experiments which he alleges he had made. We agree with 
him, however, in his observation, that " the theory of the bleaching 
property of alum, &c., is by no means well understood." 

The quantity of alum used in baking is much less than the public 
generally imagine, even by the most fraudulent of cheap-bread bakers, 
and indeed much smaller than many of the bakers themselves ima- 
gine. This may appear a strange assertion, and it is probably one 
never made before in print; but a little explanation will make the 
point quite clear. It is well known that the bakers are liable to a 
heavy fine if alum is found on their premises. To avoid this liability 
as much as possible, they have long been in the habit of buying the 


alum ready powdered at the druggists, under the appellation of stuff'. 
The druggists keep this stu/, which the bakers imagine is unadul- 
terated ground or powdered alum, but which is, in fact, a compound, 
consisting of one part alum, and three parts of muriate of soda, that 
is, common table salt. This compound is made by pounding the salt 
with the alum in a mortar, and is kept by the druggists in pound 
packages, which they sell at twopence each. For this statement we 
have the authority of several druggists, and the evidence of our own 
eyes. It may appear extraordinary that the bakers should suffer 
themselves to be so cheated; but be this as it may, we believe it to be 
the fact. It should be recollected, that few bakers are readers, par- 
ticularly of scientific or medical works. In the fourth edition of 
Gray's supplement to the Pharmacopoeia and Treatise on Pharma- 
cology, under the head of stuff, this term is thus defined : " Alum, in 
small crystals, one pound, common salt three pounds, to mix with 
flour for baking." We have the evidence of our own senses for know- 
ing, that the respectable bakers of home or household bread do not put 
more than half a pound or eight ounces of stuff to a sack of flour; and 
this stuff", as we have shown on the authority of Gray, only contains 
one-fourth part, or two ounces, of alum, the remainder being common 
salt. Some persons, however, will ask for powdered alum, but the 
druggist, knowing from the quantity required and the appearance of 
his customer that it is wanted for baking, uniformly serves him with 
the before-described mixture of salt and alum. This we have fre- 
quently seen done. The object of the druggist is profit. It would 
be scarcely worth his while to sell powdered alum for twopence a 
pound. Gray, in his book, puts it down at one shilling and sixpence 
a pound. This is ridiculously too high to sell by the pound, but it is 
generally charged a penny an ounce. The writer, giving this infor- 
mation to his baker, he exclaimed, " You don't say so! the infamous 
rogues why the rascally druggists cheat us before we can cheat our 
customers ! !" 

Such being the case, it seems almost inconceivable, that so small 
a quantity as two ounces of alum in two hundred and eighty pounds 
of flour, the weight of a sack, should have any effect in bleaching it; 
especially when we consider that one hundred parts of alum contain 
but a fraction more than ten parts of alumina, the only constituent in 
alum, as we are informed, that possesses the property of bleaching. 
Nevertheless, there can be no doubt that alum, though perhaps not 
by itself, yet in conjunction with other ingredients, has the effect of 
whitening the bread. A circumstance occurred, which we have from 
indisputable authority, of a baker leaving out of his dough, by acci- 
dent, his usual quantity of stuff, containing not more than two ounces 
of alum. The consequence was a batch of brown bread, which he 
was obliged to sell at half price. 

Alum, it is true, is used in small quantities for the most part in 
quantities too small to affect the health, perhaps, materially ; but still, 
as it only whitens the bread, and makes it otherwise more pleasing 


to the eye, while it deteriorates its wholesomeness, and injures its 
flavour, one would suppose that the great majority of people would 
prefer home-baked bread, as it is called, or bread without alum. 
This, however, they do not do ; and there is little probability that 
they ever will. The Londoners in particular do not like home-baked 
bread. There have been many instances of persons being induced 
for the sake of their health to eat it for a time, but they always re- 
turn to the alumed bread ; and we question whether there is a single 
baker in the metropolis who sells sufficient home-baked bread to sup- 
port himself and his family. _ 

Formerly every baker was his own mealman or miller. This is 
.he case now in Glasgow, and in other parts of Scotland. The ba- 
kers buy their own wheat, and manufacture it into flour at their own 
mills, which are held by them as joint-stock proprietors. 

It seems to be generally agreed, that alum in bread is detrimental 
to the health of those who consume it. The fact, however, is, that 
the bakers eat the same bread as their customers; and it appears 
very improbable, that there should be a set of men who knowingly 
poison themselves. The following is Dr. Ure's opinion upon the ef- 
fects of alum eaten in bread : 

"The habitual and daily introduction of a portion of alum into the 
human stomach," says Dr. Ure, in his Dictionary of Chemistry, 
" however small, must be prejudicial to the exercise of its functions, 
and particularly to persons of a bilious and costive habit. And, be- 
sides, as the best sweet flour never stands in need of alum, the pre- 
sence of this salt indicates an inferior and highly acescent food, which 
cannot fail to aggravate dyspepsia, and which may generate a calcu- 
lus diathesis in "the urinary organs." 

To ascertain whether oltim is present in bread, crumble a portion 
when somewhat stale into cold distilled water ; then squeeze the 
mass through a piece of cloth, and pass the liquid through a paper 
filter. A limpid infusion will thus be obtained. A dilute solution 
of muriate of baryta, dropped into the filtered infusion, will indicate 
by a white cloud, more or less heavy, the presence and quantity 
of alum. 

It is said, that to counteract the costive quality of alum, when 
consumed in large quantities, the bakers frequently use jalap in the 
composition of their bread. This we do not believe. Dr. Darwin 
says, that when much alum is used, it may be distinguished by the 
eye in the place where two loaves have stuck together in the oven : 
they break from each other with a much smoother surface than those 
which do not contain alum. We believe this to be correct ; indeed 
the bakers say, that this is one of their reasons for using alum. 

When the statute was enacted by king John for regulating the 
price of bread, and during many of the subsequent statutes of assize, 
the baker was his own manufacturer, purchasing his own corn, and 
having it ground and separated into flour, pollard, and bran. Accord- 
ing to Pownall's work on the assize of bread, which we have no 


doubt is correct, this flour, or the flour from which the bran and pol- 
lard only are separated, was found, from an unvaried series of experi- 
ments made from age to age, through the course of many hundred 
years, to be three-fourths in weight of the whole grain of wheat, 
taking all sorts of wheats together ; and the bread made from this 
flour has always been decreed the standard of the food of bread corn. 
But, by insensible degrees, the manufacture of bread became separated 
into two distinct employments. To this cause Mr. Edlin attributes 
the custom the pernicious custom, as he considers it of making 
bread from other flour than that we have described, which many per- 
sons assert is more wholesome and more nutritious than that made of 
the finest flour. The miller not considering himself liable to the 
assize laws, made different kinds of flour, some of which was ex- 
tremely fine and white. The bread made of this flour was so very 
white, and pleasing to the eye and palate, that in the course of a few 
years it got into general use, and the people, particularly the Lon- 
doners, refused to buy the bread made of the whole of the grain, 
except the husks, or coarse and fine bran. 

To this circumstance, perhaps, may be attributed the almost uni- 
versal use of alum in bakers' bread not made of the finest flour; and 
very little of it is so made, for it is impossible from a second flour, 
which is the flour generally used, to make bread white without the 
employment of the bleaching properties of this ingredient. 

The assize of bread has been for some time abolished, and the baker 
is entitled to sell his bread for as much as anybody is willing to give 
for it. There is very properly still a heavy penalty attached to sell- 
ing bread short of weight. 

Potatoes, called by the bakers fruit, are used by them for the pur- 
pose of aiding the fermentation, and, as they say, for the purpose of 
improving the appearance of the bread, and not for saving flour. 
Indeed, in the small quantities in which we have seen them used, not 
more than seven or eight pounds to two hundred and eighty pounds 
of flour, there can be little or nothing gained by them. Potatoes, 
however, as well as damaged rice, are no doubt used in large quan- 
tities by cheap, fraudulent bakers. We utterly disbelieve the stories 
about bakers using ground bones to adulterate bread, for this reason 
namely, that the expense of making them fit for such a purpose would 
be much greater than the cost of flour itself. 

There are instances on record of convictions having been obtained 
against bakers for using gypsum, chalk, and pipe-clay, in the manu- 
facture of bread. 

Carbonate of ammonia, which is sometimes used by bakers in pro- 
ducing light and porous bread from sour or damaged flour, does not 
appear to be liable to the same objections as those urged against 
alum; as the action of the former upon the bread is merely mechani- 
cal, no part of this salt remaining in bread after it is baked. During 
the operation of baking, it causes the dough to swell up into air bub- 
bles, which carry before them stiff dough, and thus it renders the 


dough porous ; the salt itself is at the same time totally volatilized, 
and not a particle remains in the bread. Caibonate of ammonia, 
however, has not, like alum, the property of bleaching the bread. 

It is said, that the carbonate of magnesia of the shops, when well 
mixed with flour in the proportion of twenty to forty grains to a pound 
of flour, materially improves it for the purpose of making bread. It 
is recommended to be employed when the flour is new, or of a bad 
quality. Mr. Davy, professor of Chemistry, says, that this substance 
must be most intimately mixed with the flour, previous to laying the 
sponge: and gives it as his decided opinion, that not the slightest 
danger can be apprehended from the use of so innocent a substance, 
in such small quantities as he recommends. 


Having briefly described the utensils of a bakehouse, and having 
descanted at some length (but not longer, it is hoped, than the im- 
portance of the subject requires) upon the ingredients used by public 
bakers in the manufacture of bread, we shall proceed at once to show 
the methods they generally employ. We must observe, however, 
that the first method described was witnessed by Mr. Edlin nearly 
forty years ago ; and the second, which is the mode now generally 
followed, has been witnessed by the writer himself in all its details. 

The Old Method. To make a sack of flour into bread, the baker 
bakes that quantity of flour, and empties it into the kneading trough 
it is then carefully sifted through a wire sieve, which makes it lie 
lighter and reduces any lumps that may have been formed in it. The 
next process is 10 dissolve two ounces of alum, technically stuff, or 
some call it rocky, in a little water placed over the fire. This is 
then poured into the seasoning tub, and four or five pounds of salt are 
added to it, with a pailful of water pretty hot, but not too much so. 
When this mixture, technically liquor, has cooled to the temperature 
of about 84, from three to four pints of yeast are mixed in it, and the 
whole having been strained through the seasoning sieve, is emptied 
into a hole made in the mass of the flour, and mixed up with a portion 
of it to the consistence of thick batter. Dry flour is then sprinkled 
over the top. This is called the quarter sponge, and the operation is 
denominated setting. The sponge must then be covered up with 
sacks or woollen cloths to keep it warm, if the weather be cold. 

In this situation it is left three or four hours, when it gradually 
swells and breaks through the dry flour laid upon its surface. 
Another pailful of water, impregnated with alum and salt, is now 
added and well stirred in, and the mass sprinkled with flour and 
covered up as before. This is called setting half sponge. 

The whole is then well kneaded, with about two pailsful of more 
water, for about an hour, when the dough is cut into pieces with a 
knife; and to prevent it spreading, pinned or kept at one end of the 


trough by a pin board. In this state it is left to prove, as the bakera 
call it, for about four hours. After the proving process* is over, the 
dough is again well kneaded for about half an hour. It is then 
removed from the inside of the trough to its lid, where it is cut into 
pieces, and weighed into the quanties suitable for each loaf. 

The operation of moulding the dough can be learnt only by prac- 
tice. It consists in cutting the masses of weighed dough, each into 
two equal parts. They are then kneaded either round or long, and 
one placed in a hollow made in the other; and the union is completed 
by a turn of the knuckles on the centre of the upper piece. The 
loaves are left in the oven from one hour and a half to two hours. 
They are then taken out, and, to prevent their splitting, are turned 
their bottom side upwards. They are afterwards covered up with a 
blanket to prevent as much as possible evaporation, by which weight 
is lost, and the bread becomes dry and unpalatable. 

Mr. Edlin has made one mistake in the above account; namely, as 
regards the time when the salt and alum are incorporated with the 
flour. These ingredients ought never to be put into the sponge. If 
thi.y were, the salt would retard the fermentation, and this Mr. Accum 
as a chemist ought to have known, and not, like many others, have 
copied and adopted Mr. Edlin's error. 

With the exception just alluded to, the foregoing mode of making 1 
bread was pursued by the bakers some years ago, and is still practised 
by some of them ; but the following is the process now pursued. 

Modern Method. Take a peck of potatoes (about eight pounds) and 
boil them with their skins on then mash them in the seasoning tub, 
add two or three quarts of water, about the same quantity of patent 
yeast (as directed to be prepared, page 136), and three or four pounds 
of flour; stir together well, and cover the mixture up close with a 
sack, and let it stand from six to twelve hours, when it will have 
become what is called ferment. Then empty a sack of second flour 
into the trough some sift it in and take a little less than one quar- 
ter of the sack of flour, and pin or block it up to one end of the trough 
with the pin-board. Then bring the seasoning tub with \heferment 
in it to the trough, pour in a sufficient quantity of warm water in 
summer, cold stir up the mixture with the hands, and mash any 
lumps of potatoes (fruit) that may be in next, strain it through a 
sieve for the purpose of separating the skins of the potatoes; then 
pour the mixture liquor into the flour which had been previously 
pinned or blocked up at one end of the trough, and mix it well into 
the flour with the hands sprinkle a little flour over the top, and let 
it stand five or six hours, during which time the sponge will have 
risen twice. The first rising is suffered to break and go down. In 
about an hour or so, according to the heat of the bakehouse, the sponge 
rises a second time, and just as it is about again to break, or when 
the air escapes by the bursting of the bubbles, a sufficient quantity 
of water (about three pailsful) to make up the batch is poured into the 
sponge from the seasoning tub, the water having dissolved in it pre- 

L^fc^'' THE BAKER - 14 

viously about four pounds of salt and eight ounces of what is called 
stuff (some 'use more than a pound or sixteen ounces of stuff). 
The liquor ought to be well mixed with the sponge; which being 
done, the pin-board is taken away, and the whole of the flour is well 
worked up into one mass, which is blocked up by the pin-board to one 
end, and left about an hour in summer, and two hours in winter, to 
prove; the vacant part of the trough is then sprinkled with flour to 
prevent the dough from sticking, the pin-board is knocked out, and 
the dough is pitched out of the trough on to the lid of the opposite 
trough, when it is cut into masses and weighed technically scaled 
off. These masses are then moulded into shape and put aside in a 
regular manner, to be finally moulded into loaves, taking care to 
mould those first which were first scaled off. Previous to the mould- 
ing, the oven must be well swabbed out, or cleaned with the swabber 
or scuttle, and the up-sets chalked to prevent the bread sticking to 
them. They are then placed at the back and on each side of the 
oven by means of the peel ; the long loaves, or the quartern and half- 
quartern bricks, are put into the oven, packed together as close as 
possible the common round bread is also packed close but the cot- 
tage bread must be placed separately, each loaf by itself, or it will 
not be crusted all round. After placing the loaves in the oven, or, as 
the bakers say, setting the batch, which requires a good hand to do 
properly, an up-set is placed in front of it. The potatoes for the next 
ferment are put into a tin or iron kettle, generally round, but some- 
times in the form of a fish-kettle, and placed in the oven to boil. 
When the potatoes are done, and while they are hot, the ferment for 
the next batch must be mixed. Twenty-four hours elapse from the 
mixing the ferment to the time when the bread is taken out of the 


Under this head we intend to treat of the various substitutes which 
have been used at different times, and in different countries, for bread 
made of wheat flour. We allude to bread made of rye, barley, oats, 
peas, beans, buckwheat, maize, farinaceous roots, and of mixed sub- 
stances, <fcc. This subject is not without interest, independent of 
utility, and a work of this kind would scarcely be complete if it were 
not introduced. We shall enter upon it with few general remarks. 

Bread Corn properly so called, of which bread is made in this 
country, and other civilized nations, comprehends the seeds of all 
cerealia, or farinaceous grass-like plants, for they all contain a farina- 
ceous or mealy substance of a like nature ; and which substance is 
chiefly composed of starch. The seeds or grain in common use are, 
first and principally, wheat,- second, rye; and third, barley. 

Wheat is the only grain from which really good, porous, or light 
bread can be made ; but rye and barley are occasionally used, as well 


as other grain. The bread, however, is of an inferior quality. A 
sort of bread is also made from oats, maize, rice, millet, &c. 

Rice is said, and no doubt truly, to nourish more human beings 
than all the other seeds together used as food ; arid it is by many con- 
sidered the most nutritive of all kinds of grain. Accum, in the Art 
of making Bread, says, that " it has been ascertained, that one part 
of rice contains as much food and useful nourishment as six of wheat ;" 
an assertion by the way which we are much inclined to disbelieve. 
But be this as it may, there is no doubt that rice makes a very nou- 
rishing and healthy food, notwithstanding the prejudices that prevailed 
against it, on the unfounded allegation that it caused diseases in the 
eye. Rice is the principal food of most of the eastern nations, a fact 
which shows that it is not unhealthy. Rice is not, however, often 
made into bread without the addition of flour, and when it is, it forms 
a loaf of very inferior quality. 

Maize is frequently employed as bread-corn in America, but it will 
not by itself make good loaf-bread ; but unleavened cakes are made 
of it, very nutritive and palatable. 

Oatmeal is seldom used for making loaf-bread, but is extensively 
used in the north of Great Britain in making unleavened bread, com- 
monly called oat-cakes. It may be observed here, that the objection 
to biscuits, oat-cakes, maize-cakes, and other unleavened bread, on 
the ground of their being unhealthy, and of course not nutritive, ap- 
pears to be without foundation. There can be no doubt, however, 
that they are inferior as food to good wheaten loaf-bread. 

The seeds of leguminous plants, such as pease and beans, are some- 
times used as substitutes for bread-corn. They yield a great deal of 
meal, which is of a sweetish taste, but it forms a coarse bread, and is 
generally considered neither palatable nor digestible. Dr. Cullen 
says, that "on certain farms in his country, upon which the legumi- 
nous seeds are produced in great abundance, the labouring servants 
are much fed upon this kind of grain ; but if such servants are removed 
to a farm upon which the leguminous seeds are not in such plenty, 
and they are, therefore, fed with the cereafia (wheat, barley, &c.), 
they soon find a decay of strength ; and it is common for servants, in 
making such removals, to insist on their being provided daily, or 
weekly, with a certain quantity of the leguminous meal." It does 
not, however, follow, that pease or bean-flower bread would be found 
generally so nutritive or digestible as wheat-flour bread. A great 
deal may be attributed to habit, and the laborious employment of 
farmers' servants in the open air. 

All the vegetable substances from which bread is made, contain 
more or Jess of starch, or what is otherwise called amylaceous fecula, 
and this is the most valuable and nutritive part of all such substances, 
whether they consist of grain, or roots, &c. 

We scarcely need observe, that the potatoe, amongst roots, is the 
most extensively used as a substitute for bread. In many countries, 


particularly Ireland, it is almost the exclusive food of the poor. The 

potatoe contains a great deal of starch. 

Rict. notwithstanding its rough and dry qualities, as a farinaceous 
vegetable, is capable of being converted into bread, without the addi 
lion of any other substance. The Americans, however, make bread 
of rice by" washing it in water till perfectly clean. They then, after 
the rice has been sufficiently drained, put it into a mortar, and reduce 
it while damp into a sort of powder; it is then completely dried, and 
passed through a hair-sieve. The flour thus obtained, it is said, is 
then generally mixed with a little Indian corn-meal, and boiled into 
a thickish consistence, which is sometimes mixed with boiled pota 
toes, and fermented and baked in tins, or pans, in the usual manner. 
The bread, we are told, made in this way, is light and wholesome 
" pleasing to the eye. and agreeable to the taste." 

Tfct a sort of bread may be made from rice, without the addition of 
any other kind of meal. Let a sufficient quantity of rice-flour be put 
into a kneading trough, and at the same time let a due proportion of 
flour be boiledrinto which throw a few handsful of rice in the grain, 
and boil it till it is broken. This compound will form a thick and 
viscous substance, which is poured upon the flour, and the whole is 
kneaded with a mixture of salt and yeast, or other fermenting matter. 
The dough is then covered with flannel or other cloths to keep it 
warm, and left to rise. This dough, though firm at first, in the course 
of fermentation becomes as liquid as soup, and is quite incapable of 
being worked into loaves, in the usual manner, by the hand. The 
following is the mode by which this difficulty is surmounted: The 
oven is heated while the dough is rising; and it being sufficiently hot, 
the dough is put into a tin pan, which is covered with a paper, or 
large leaves. The tin is then placed in the oven, and immediately 
reversed or turned upside down ; the heat prevents the dough from 
spreading, and, in ract, fixes it in that shape given it by the stewpan 
or box. "This bread is said to be "both beautiful and good;" but 
when it gets stale, it becomes very much deteriorated as indeed 
does all bread in which there is rice" 

Potatoes, mixed in various proportions with meal, are frequently 
employed in the making of bread. The London bakers all use them 
in greater or less quantities not, as they say, to save flour, but to 
assist fermentation. There are various ways 'in which potatoes may 
be used with meal in the production of bread, potatoes alone will 
not make good bread ; the potatoe is not of an adhesive quality, and 
the bread is not only brown and heavy, but crumbles to pieces. 
M. Parmentier, to render it more adhesive, mixed with the potatoe- 
meal a decoction of bran, and sometimes honey and water; either of 
which, he says, much improved it, by rendering it lighter, better 
coloured, well tasted, and sufficiently consistent. 

He obtained also, he adds, well-fermented bread, of a good colour 
and taste, by mixing some potatoe pulp with meal of wheat, or pota- 



toe-meal, with the addition of yeast and salt. After repeated trials, 
he recommends, in times of scarcity, a mixture of potatoes with the 
meal of wheat, in preference to the meal of any other grain. Where 
no flour or grain can be obtained, Parmentier recommends the use of 
bread made from the amylaceous (partaking of starch) powder of 
potatoes, potatoe pulp, mixed and fermented, with the addition of 
honey. Potatoe-meal, when mixed with water, acquires a gluey 
consistence, but bread made from this and the flour of wheat is never 
of a good colour. That, however, which is made of a mixture of the 
pulp with the flour of wheat, is much whiter. Parmentier, we are 
informed, made bread very much resembling that of wheat, by mixing 
four ounces of amylaceous powder of potatoes, one drachm of muci- 
lage, extracted from barley, one drachm of the bran of rye, and one 
drachm of glutinous matter, dried and pounded into powder. 

A German writer upon country affairs, of thn name of Khyogg, 
who has obtained the name of the Rustic Socrates, recommends, that 
potatoes well boiled and carefully peeled should be put into a knead- 
ing-trough, covered with boiling water, and beaten or bruised till they 
are converted into a kind of soup, throughout of one consistence. 
This soup may be mixed with the flour of wheat in the proportion of 
one-fourth, one-third, and even one-half; and if the flour be of good 
quality, the bread will be found pleasant, nourishing, and wholesome. 
This is the principal food of the peasantry in German Lorraine, and 
the people of that country are remarkable for their healthy, robust, 
and vigorous constitutions; the young men are tall and handsome, 
and the country is thickly populated. 

In Vogstand and in Saxony, potatoes are prepared for bread by 
peeling them, grating them very fine, and by putting the pulp into a 
milk-pail, or some other suitable vessel. It is then mixed with cold 
water, which is allowed to remain upon the pulp twenty-four hours. 
The water is then drawn off, and other water added, and again drawn 
till the water comes off quite pure. The potatoe pulp is then drained 
through a clean cloth, and then spread upon a plate, or some other 
surface, till dry. After this, it is reduced to a fine powder, mixed 
with an equal portion of wheat flour, and made into bread by the 
usual process. 

We have thought it right to lay before our readers the various 
ways in which it has been recommended to employ potatoes in mak- 
ing bread in times of scarcity ; but after all, our own opinion is, that 
the best and most economical mode of using potatoes is simply to boil 
them as they do in Ireland, where, it is much to be regretted, they 
stand instead of all other food to the mass of the population. 

Many other substances have been employed in making bread other 
than those of the flour of farinaceous vegetables, such as wheat, bar- 
ley, rye, Indian-corn, oats, &c. The latter grain makes an excellent 
unleavened bread, and is much eaten in Scotland, Lancashire, and 
several of the northern English counties. It is called oat-cake, and 
ii preferred by many persons to wheaten bread. 


Bread mad* of Moots. M. Parmentier, late chief Apothecary in the 
Hotel des Invalides, whose authority we have before quoted, has pub- 
lished numerous and very curious experiments on the vegetables, 
which in times of scarcity might be used in the subsistence of ani- 
mals, as substitutes for those usually employed for that purpose. The 
result of these experiments in the mind of M. Parmentier was, that 
starch is the nutritive part of farinaceous vegetables, and that thd 
farina of plants was identical with the starch of wheat. The plants 
from which he extracted this farina are the bryony, the iris, gladiolus, 
ranunculus, fumaria, arum, dracunculus, mandragora, colchicum, fili- 
pendula, helleborus, and the roots of the gramen caninum arvense, or 
dog grass of the fields. 

The mode employed by M. Parmentier to extract the starch, or 
farina, from these vegetables, was merely bruising and boiling. The 
roots were cleansed and scraped, then reduced to a pulp, which being 
soaked in a considerable quantity of water, a white sediment is de- 
posited, which when properly washed and dried will be found to be 
pure starch. M. Parmentier converted this starch into bread by 
mingling it with an equal quantity of potatoes reduced to a pulp, and 
employing the usual quantity of yeast or other leaven. The bread, 
we are informed, had no bad taste, and was of excellent quality. 

From these experiments of M. Parmentier, it appears, that it is 
chiefly the amylaceous matter or starch of grain that is nutritious ; 
and, that the nutritive quality of other vegetable substances depends 
in a great measure on the quantity of that matter which they contain. 
Starch formed into a jelly, and diffused in water, will keep a long 
time without, change. 

Ragwort. Bread has been made in times of scarcity from the roots 
of this plant. When ragwort root is first taken out of the ground, it 
is Boff, and viscous, but becomes hard in a short time, and may be pre- 
served in that state for years without being at all deteriorated, pro- 
viding it be kept in a dry, airy place. When this root is ground and 
reduced to flour, which it may easily be, it has an agreeable nut-like 
taste. It is said to be easily digested when made into bread, and to 
be more nutritive and "exhilarating," than wheaten bread. The 
same properties and effects are attributed to radishes, but we appre- 
hend not truly. 

Turnip Bread is made of turnips mixed with equal quantities of 
wheat flour. The turnips must be first washed clean, then pared and 
boiled. Mash them and press the water out of them at least the 

freater part. Mix with an equal quantity in weight of coarse meal 
our make the dough in the usual manner, and when risen, form it 
into loaves, and bake it rather more than ordinary bread ; when taken 
from the oven it will be light and sweet, with a little taste of the 
turnip. " After it has been allowed to stand," says our authority, 
"twelve hours, the taste of the turnips is scarcely perceptible, and 
the smell is quite gone. After an interval of twenty-four hours, it 


cannot be known that it has turnips in its composition, although it 
has still a peculiar sweetish taste: it appears to be rather superior to 
bread made only of wheat flour, is fresher and moister, and even after 
a week continues very good." We are of opinion, however, that it 
cannot be so good as wheat bread ; for, independent of other consi- 
derations, turnips do not contain so much starch or nutritive matter 
as wheat. 

Apple Bread. A bread said to be very superior to potatoe bread 
has been made from the use of common apples with meal. Boil one- 
third of peeled apples ; while quite warm, bruise them into two-thirds 
of flour, including the proper quantity of leaven, or yeast; knead 
without water, the juice of the fruit being quite sufficient. When 
this mixture has acquired the consistency of paste, put it into a ves- 
sel to rise for about twelve hours. By this process may be obtained 
a very sweet bread, full of eyes and extremely light. 

Meslin Bread. A good bread is made in many parts of England 
from what is called meslin, which is a mixture of rye and wheat. 
This is raised on one and the same ground at the same time, and 
passes through the processes of reaping, thrashing, grinding, and 
dressing, in the mixed state. 

Salep Bread. Dr. Percival recommends the employment of orchis 
root in powder, or, as it is called, salep. He says, that an ounce of 
salep, dissolved in a quart of water, and mixed with two pounds of 
flour, two ounces of yeast, and eighty grains of salt, produced a 
remarkably good loaf, weighing three pounds two ounces ; while a 
loaf made of an equal quantity of the other ingredients, without the 
salep, or powdered orchis root, weighed but two pounds twelve ounces. 
If the salep be in too large quantities, its peculiar taste will be dis- 
tinguishable in the bread. 

Oat and Barley Bread. The Norwegians, we are informed, make 
bread of barley and oatmeal baked between two stones. This bread, 
it is added, improves by age, and may be kept thirty or forty years ! ! 
At their great festivals, they use their oldest bread; and it is not 
unusual, at the baptism of a child, to have bread that was baked at 
the baptism of the grandfather. 

Delretzen Bread. In some parts of Hungary, Debretzen for in- 
stance, they have a peculiar mode of fermenting bread without yeast, 
by means of a leaven made in the following manner. Two large 
handsful of hops are boiled in four quarts of water ; this decoction is 
poured upon as much wheaten bran as it will moisten, and to this are 
added four or five pounds of leaven. When the mass is warm, the 
ingredients are well worked together, so as to be thoroughly mixed. 
It is then deposited in a warm place for twenty-four hours, and after- 
wards divided into small pieces, about the size of hens' eggs, which 
are dried by being placed upon a board and exposed to dry air, but 
not to the sun ; when dry, they are laid up for use, and may be kept 
for six months. 


The following is given as the mode by which bread is made from 
the above-described ferment. For baking six large loaves, six good 
handsful of these balls are dissolved in seven or eight quarts of warm 
water this mixture is poured through a sieve atone end of the 
bread-trough, and after it three quarts of warm water, the remaining 
mass being well pressed out The liquor is mixed up with flour suf- 
ficient to form one large loaf; they then strew this mass over with 
flour, the sieve with its contents is put upon it, and the whole is 
covered up and kept warm and left to rise, or till the flour upon it 
begins to crack. Fifteen quarts of warm water, in which six hands- 
ful of salt have been dissolved, are then poured upon it through the 
sieve ; the necessary quantity of flour is added, and the whole is well 
kneaded together. The dough is then covered up and kept warm for 
half an hour. It is then formed into loaves which are kept for another 
half hour in a warm room ; and after that they are put into an oven, 
where they remain for two or three hours according to their size. 

There is certainly an advantage in this kind of ferment which ie, 
its capability of keeping for a long time, and of being made in large 
quantities. On this account it would be convenient on board of ships, 
or in the camp of an army. 

Millet Bread. Bread made of millet, if eaten when warm, is pretty 
palatable, but when cold, it becomes dry and crumbly. Besides, 
though nutritive when boiled, it is not so in bread, but becomes a 
very powerful astringent. According to Pliny, however, it would 
appear, that millet was in very general use as food in Italy among 
the peasantry. " There is no grain," he says, " more heavy, or which 
swells more in baking." Probably the Italians had some method for 
counteracting its astringent properties. It is said to be an excellent 
leaven, and has been recommended for malting. 

Maize Bread is made of maize, or Indian-corn flour, which is in 
common and extensive use in nearly all parts of North and South 
America. Knead the flour with a little salt and water into a stiff 
mass roll out into thin cakes, and bake on a hot iron. A hoe is 
frequently used in America. Another kind of maize bread is called 

Homminy Cake, To make this the Indian-corn, freed from the 
husks, is boiled with a small portion of French beans, until the whole 
becomes a pulp; this is made into cakes, ana 1 baked over hot embers, 
or it may be eaten in the pulp, which is frequently the case. 

Bean Flour Bread. Take a quarter of a peck of bean flour and one 
ounce of salt; mix it into a thick batter with water pour a sufficient 
quantity of this batter to make a cake in an iron kettle ; and bake 
over the fire; it will require frequent turning. 

Buckwheat Bread is thus directed to be made by the Board of 

Agriculture : Take a gallon of water, set it over a fire, and when it 

boils, let a peck of buckwheat flour be mixed with it, little by little, 

and keep the mixture constantly stirred, to prevent any lumps being 


150 fHE BAKER. 

formed, till a thick batter is made. Then add two or three ounces 
of salt, set it over the fire again, and allow it to boil an hour and a 
half; pour the proper proportion for a cake into an iron kettle, and 
bake it. 

Bread is made of ripe acorns deprived of their husks or 
skins, and beaten into a paste. To extract the astringent quality of 
the acorns, put the paste into water for a night, and then press the 
water from the paste. The mass when dried and powdered must be 
kneaded up into a dough with water, and raked out into thin cakes, 
which may be baked over embers. This bread is said not to be dis- 
agreeable, and no doubt was considered a great luxury by our British 
ancestors in the time of the oak-worshipping Druids. 

Oatmeal Cakes are thus made : To a peck of oatmeal add a few 
table-spoonsful of salt; knead into a stiff paste with warm water; roll 
the paste into thin cakes, and bake it in an oven, over a hot iron plate, 
or on embers. Sometimes oat-cake is fermented a little, which makes 
the cakes light and porous. 

Oatmeal and Pease Bread. To a peck of pease flour, and a like 
quantity of oatmeal, previously well mixed, by passing the two flours 
through a sieve, add three or four ounces of salt ; knead into a stiff 
mass with warm water ; roll out into thin cakes ; and bake in an oven. 
In some parts of Lancashire and Scotland, this kind of bread is made 
into flattened rolls, and they are usually baked in an iron pot. 

Chestnut Bread is made from horse-chestnuts, which are seldom 
or never used for food in this country, though their nutritious quali- 
ties are well known to the people in the southern parts of Europe, 
particularly in some districts of Italy, and in the island of Corsica, 
where it is the chief and almost the whole of the food of the peasantry. 
To make this bread, take a peck of horse-chestnuts; peel the skins 
off them ; let them be bruised into a paste ; dilute the mass with water, 
which destroys their astringency, and then strain them through a 
sieve ; a milky liquor is thus separated, which on standing deposits a 
fine white powder; this, on being dried and ground into flour, is found 
to be without smell or flavour. It is then made up, sometimes by 
itself, and not unfrequently with an equal portion of wheat flour, into 
a paste, with warm milft and a little salt, and when baked makes a 
very eatable bread. 

Potatoe Bread. Boil the potatoes, and rub them through a cullen- 
der or sieve, and, while hot, rub them in with the flour, which ought 
to be previously dried. The potatoes should be in proportion to the 
flour of one-third or one-half! Milk and water is sonetimes used for 
making potatoe bread. 

Eye Bread Barley Bread and bread made of equal parts of rye 
flour and wheat flour, or of equal parts of barley flour, rye flour, and 
wheat flour are made in the same way as already described. Milk, 
or milk and water, is preferred, in making rye bread, to pure water. 


The Bread Trtt. Various substances have been employed in dif- 
ferent parts of the world as substitutes for making bread, in the 
absence of farinaceous or flour-yielding vegetables. The bread tree, 
or rather the fruit of this tree, ranks first among the substances alluded 
to. The bread tree is common in many parts of the east. It is very 
abundant at Surinam, where extensive avenues may be seen of it, 
loaded with luxuriant crops of fruit. As a brief account of this extra- 
ordinary tree cannot fail to be interesting to our readers (previous to 
giving a description of the mode of preparing the fruit for food), we 
beg to lay before them the following remarks and extracts. > 

All the species of the bread fruit tree, of which there are eight, are 
natives of the South Sea islands. More than one hundred and fifty 
years ago, this tree had excited great interest amongst Europeans, 
and particularly amongst the people of Great Britain. Dampier, who 
performed his voyage round the world in 1688, thus describes it: 

"The bread fruit as we call it, grows on a large tree as big and 
high as our largest apple trees; it hath a spreading head, full of 
branches and dark leaves. Tne fruit grows on the boughs like 
apples; it is as big as a penny loaf when wheat is at five shillings the 
bushel ; it is of a round shape, and hath a thick tough rind. When 
the fruit is ripe it is yellow and soft, and the taste is sweet and plea- 
sant. The natives of Guam use it for bread. They gather it when 
it is full grown, while it is green and hard; then they bake it in an 
oven, which scorcheth the rind and maketh it black ; but they scrape 
off' the black crust, and there remains a tender thin crust ; and the 
inside is soft, tender, and white, like the crumb of a penny loaf. 
There is neither core nor stone in the inside, but all is of a pure sub- 
stance like bread. It must be eaten new, for if kept more than twen- 
ty-four hours, it becomes hard and choaky ; but it is very pleasant 
before it is too stale. This fruit lasts in season eight months in the 
year; during which the natives eat no other sort of bread kind. I 
did never see this fruit anywhere but here. The natives told us 
there was plenty of this fruit growing on the rest of the Ladrone 
islands; and I did never hear of it anywhere else." 

So much for Dampier's account, which, however, does not appear 
to be quite correct. The great circumnavigator, Cook, thus describes 
the fruit in question: " It grows on a tree about the size of a mid- 
dling oak. Its leaves are frequently a foot and a half long, of an 
oblong shape, deeply sinuated like those of the fig-tree, which they 
resemble in consistence and colour, and in the exuding of a white 
milky juice upon being broken. The fruit is about the size and shape 
of a child's head, and the surface is reticulated, not much unlike a 
truffle. It is covered with a thin skin, and hath a core about as big 
as the handle of a small knife. The eatable part lies between the 
bkin and the core. It is as white as snow, and somewhat of the con- 
sistence of nev? bread. It must be roasted before it is eaten ; being 
divided into three or four parts. Its taste is insipid, with a slight 


sourness, somewhat resembling that of the crumb of wheaten bread, 
mixed with a Jerusalem artichoke." 

The above is the sober and satisfactory account of the bread tree 
and its fruit, as given by the illustrious Cook. Dr. Hawkesworth's 
description of its advantages is amusing, but extravagant. He says, 
" if a man plants ten bread fruit trees in his lifetime, which he may 
do in about an hour, he will as completely fulfil his duty to his own 
and future generations, as the natives of our less temperate climate 
can by ploughing in the cold winter, and reaping in the summer's 
heat, as often as those seasons return. Even if, after he has procured 
bread for his present household, he should convert the surplus into 
money, and lay it up for his children." 

The bread fruit tree has been planted in some of the West India 
colonies, but with little success as to any advantages to be derived 
from it. Indeed, its fruit appears to us to have been greatly exag- 
gerated with respect to its beneficial application as food for the use 
of man. It has been observed, however, that " even in those colonies 
into which the bread fruit has not been generally introduced as an 
article of food, it is used as a delicacy ; or whether employed as bread, 
or in the form of pudding, it is considered as highly palatable by the 
European inhabitants." 

Bread Fruit Bread. To prepare the fruit for use instead of bread, 
it must be roasted, either whole, or cut into three or four pieces. It 
is also cooked in an oven, which renders it soft, and something like 
a boiled potatoe ; not quite so mealy as a good one, but more so than 
those of an inferior description. The Otaheitans make three dishes 
of it, by putting either milk or the milk of cocoa-nut to it, then beat- 
ing it to a paste with a stone pestle, and afterwards mixing it with 
ripe plantains, bananas, or mahie. 

This mahie is a preparation of the ripe bread fruit, for which it is 
substituted during the season, just before gathering a fresh crop. It 
is made thus : The fruit is gathered just before it is perfectly ripe, 
and being laid in heaps, is closely covered with leaves; in this state 
it undergoes a fermentation, and becomes disagreeably sweet. The 
core is then taken out entire, by gently pulling the stalk, and the 
fruit is thrown into a hole which is dug for that purpose, generally in 
the houses, and neatly lined in the bottom and sides with grass; the 
whole is then covered with leaves, and heavy stones laid upon them. 
In this state it undergoes a second fermentation, and becomes sour ; 
after which it undergoes no change for many months. It is taken out 
of the hole as it is wanted for use, and being made into balls, it is 
wrapped up in leaves, and roasted or baked. After it is baked, it will 
keep five or six weeks. It is eaten both cold and hot, and the natives 
seldom make a meal without it. To Europeans, however, the taste 
is said to be as disagreeable as that of a pickled olive generally is the 
first time it is eaten. 

Sago Bread is made from the wood of the sago tree, in the follow 


ing manner: The natives of the islands of Banda and Amboyna saw 
the body of the tree into small pieces, and, after bruising and beating 
them in a mortar, pour water upon the fragments. This is left for 
some hours undisturbed, to let the pithy farinaceous matter subside. 
The water is then poured off, and the meal, being properly dried, is 
formed into cakes, or fermented and made into bread, which, it is 
said, is nearly as palatable as wheaten bread. The Hottentots make 
a kind of bread from another species of sago tree. The pith of this 
tree is collected, and tied up in dressed calf, or sheep-skin, and then 
buried in the ground for several weeks, which renders it mellow and 
tender. It is then made into cakes, which are baked under hot em- 
bers. Others roast the sago tree pith, and make it into a kind of 

The sago of commerce is made from the pith of this tree, but it is 
granulated by passing it through a sieve. It acquires its brown 
colour from drying it on hot stones. 

Casava Bread is made in the Caribbee Islands, from a very poi- 
sonous root called Jatropa Maniat, rendered wholesome by the extrac- 
tion of its acrid juice, which the Indians use for poisoning their 
arrows. So powerfully poisonous is this juice, that a tea-spoonful is 
sufficient to take away the life of a man. The root of the maniat, 
after being washed, scraped clean, and grated in a tub, is enclosed in 
a sack made of rushes, of very loose texture. This sack is suspended 
upon a stick placed upon two wooden forks. A heavy vessel is sus- 
pended to the bottom of the sack, and is so contrived as to press the 
juice out of the roots. When the juice is all taken from the roots, 
Jiey become a sort of starch, which is exposed to smoke in order to 
dry it ; when well dried, it is passed through a sieve : it is now called 
casava. It is baked into cakes by laying it on hot plates of iron, or 
on hot earth. The article called tapioca is the finest part of casava, 
collected and formed into small tears, by straining the mass, while it 
is still moist, so as to make it into small irregular lumps. 

Plantain Bread is made from the fruit of the plantain tree. This 
fruit is about a foot long, and from an inch and a half to two inches 
in diameter, and has a tough skin, within which there is a soft pulp, 
of a sweet flavour. The fruit is generally cut when green ; the skin 
is taken off, and the heart is roasted in a clear cold fire for a few 
minutes: it is then scraped, and served up as bread. This tree is a 
native of the East Indies, and other parts of the Asiatic continent, but 
is cultivated on an extensive scale in Jamaica. It is said, that with- 
out this fruit the West India islands would be scarcely inhabitable, as 
no species of provisions could supply its place. Wheaten bread flour 
is not so agreeable to the negroes, and they greatly prefer it to the 
fruit of the bread tree. 

Banana Bread is made of the fruit of the banana tree. This fruit 
is about four or five inches long, of the shape of a cucumber, and of a 
highly grateful flavour. They grow in bunches that weigh twelve 


pounds and upwards. The pulp of the banana tree is softer than that 
of the plantain tree, and of a more luscious taste. When ripe it is a 
very pleasant food, either undressed, or fried in slices like fritters. 
All classes of people in the West Indies are very fond of it. When 
preparing for a voyage, they take the ripe fruit and squeeze it through 
a sieve; then form the mass into loaves, which are dried in the sun, 
or baked on hot ashes, having been previously wrapped up in leaves. 

Moss Bread, or bread made of moss, is prepared from a species of 
the tribe lichen, called rein-deer moss, which contains a considerable 
quantity of starch. The Icelanders form the lichen islandicus into 
bread, and it is said to be very nutritive. The moss is collected in 
the summer, dried, and ground into powder of which bread gruel 
and pottage are made. It is also boiled in milk or whey, till it cornea 
to a jelly. It should be previously steeped some hours in warm water, 
in order to extract the bitter matter with which it is impregnated, 
which is not only disagreeable as to taste, but is also a purgative. 

Dried Fish Bread. W^e have shown that a great variety of sub- 
stances are used as substitutes for flour bread. We now come to 
dried fish, which appears to be an odd thing to make bread of. In 
Iceland, Lapland, Grim Tartary, and other parts of the north, a kind 
of bread is made of dried fish, beaten first into powder, sometimes 
with the inner bark of trees, and then made up into cakes. 

Earth Bread. But the strangest substitute for corn bread that has 
ever been employed, is a kind of white earth found in Upper Lusatia, 
of which the poor in times of scarcity have frequently made bread. 
This bread earth, if we may so designate it, is dug out of a hill where 
salt-petre had formerly been worked. When heated by the sun it 
cracks, and small globules proceed from it like meal, which ferment 
when mixed with flour. It is said on good authority, that on this 
earth, made into bread, many persons have subsisted for a considera- 
ble time. An earth very similar is found in Catalonia. 




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KETS, for TABLE DECORATION furnished at shortest 


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the day and evening for the reception of visitors. 
COFFEE, TEA, CHOCOLATE, ICES, and every variety 
of Refreshment served at a few moments' notice. 



(prepared from the choicest fruits), BON-BONS, 
CHRISTMAS GOODS, DRAGEES and every variety of 
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