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Full text of "A complete course in dressmaking"

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Lesson 12 










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Complete 
Counce in 
Drej^mohna 

in 




Lejiron JCII 

Menlr 
Clolhes 

and 

IndeAr 

How to tailor men's 
shirts, nightshirts, 
pajamas, bath robes 
and drawers. Making 
neckbands, cuffs, soft 
collars and neckties 
explained in detail. 
Learn to make men's 
clothes a man's way. 



Isabel VeJVyses Chnover 



p^vey 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN 

DRESSMAKING 

BY 

ISABEL DeNYSE CONOVER 




LESSON XII 

HOW TO MAKE MEN'S CLOTHES 

CLEANING MATERIALS 

INDEX 



NEW YORK 
EDWARD J. CLODE 



-T 



c^ 6 



\<\ 



?> 



COPYRIGHT, 1921, 1922, BY 
EDWARD J. CLODE 



Entered at Stationers' Hall 



CUCUOSOi 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



IAN-4'23 



LESSON XII 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS 
AND UNDERWEAR 

PART I 

Why not try 
your hand at 
making men's 
clothes ? 

Of course, it 
would be poor 
economy to at- 
tempt a suit or 
overcoat. They 
require careful 
tailoring every 
inch of the way, 
besides a par- 
ticular cut and 

a more particular Fig. (/) Hell like the gift you make him 

fitting. Making 

men's coats and suits is a trade quite apart 

from dressmaking. 

But how about shirts and underwear ? 

HE would appreciate the gift you made 

[1] 




A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



HIM. You'll stretch your clothes' dollar a 
long way, too, if you spend it over the piece 
goods counter instead of in the haberdasher 
shop. A shirt will cost only the price of four 
yards of twenty-seven inch madras. If you 
get the making habit, you can cut down on 
the cost of underwear, nightshirts and pa- 
jamas, too. 

When you 
have made your 
first shirt or pa- 
jamas or bath- 
robe or smoking 
jacket, you'll be 
surprised how 
easily the work 
slips along. It 
won't take as 
long as it would 

Fig. (2) A shirt will cost only the price of tO have turned 
four yards of madras out some f r jj|y 

garment for 
yourself. About the most forbidding state- 
ment that can be made about men's clothing 
is, "There is only one right way to stitch and 
finish them." It's not like a blouse where you 
can choose between three or four different 
ways of turning your seams. Men's shirts 

[2] 




HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

and underwear are not so very difficult to 
stitch but they must be stitched thus and 
so, if you expect HIM to like them. 

My first little piece of advice to you is to 
look over the clothes HE already has. Ex- 
amine the seams — jot down in your memory 
whether there are two stitchings or one, 
whether it's a plain seam or a lapped-felled 
one, whether the garment has reinforcements 
and linings, etc. Get a good mental picture 
of how the finished garment, you are planning 
to make, ought to look. 

In this lesson I am going to give you a few 
examples of different types of men's clothing 
that are practical for a woman to attempt 
to make. The making of these garments will 
serve as a review of many items you have 
already studied. I shall tell you about the 
finishing of the various garments but not the 
pattern making. You can secure patterns for 
shirts, underwear, etc., from any commercial 
pattern company. Making men's patterns 
is also a trade by itself. 

You will find that making men's clothes is 
largely applying the finishes you have learned 
in making women's and children's clothes. 

[3] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



MEN'S SHIRTS 

A Coat Shirt with Collarband: Prac- 
tically all shirts are made in coat style now, 
that is with an opening all the way down the 
front. Fig. 3 is a good example of this kind of 
shirt. 

Be sure your material is really a shirting. 
A man dislikes having a shirt made out of 
fabric which might be termed queer. If you 
choose silk, get a fairly heavy quality. A 
sleazy shirt goods is never satisfactory. A 
heavy quality of crepe de chine makes a good 
looking and good wearing shirt. There are 
striped habituas, too, that come especially 
for shirtings. 

Medium and fine madras is excellent for a 
cotton shirt but clumsy heavy madras is 
not intended for shirts. Finecambricor muslin 
are the materials used for plain white shirts. 

Almost every man likes a fine silk and wool 
flannel shirt for the cold weather. Suitable 
flannels come in endless striped effects. 

Cutting the coat shirt: Fig. 4 shows the 
pieces of the shirt pattern placed on the goods, 
folded lengthwise through the center. You 
can buy such a pattern, which will be an 

14] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

exact duplicate of a ready-made shirt, from 
any commercial pattern company. 

You may find it necessary to rearrange the 




F*Z- (j) A regulation style coat shirt 

[5] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



pieces according to the width of your material. 
Follow the plan of placing the largest pieces 
on the goods first and then fitting in the smaller 
pieces. 

Making a Coat Shirt: About the best 
advise I can give is the general statement that 
I have made before. Do as much of the 
finishing as you can while the pieces are flat, 



^Ci^n£ "De-ck tain^ 



Cuff 


y*™~~1 




1 B< 


^^, rro-nC t 


\ Slcevre |||l|| 




y facing K^%£ 


-s%%2%&>^/\ t-x^i 



10 kc 



Fig. (4) The shirt pattern arranged for cutting 



that is before the seams are closed. It will 
facilitate the work, to face the front closings 
first. There are two ways of doing this. 

You can cut a facing of the material, hem 
the back edge and join this to the edge of the 
shirt as shown in Fig. 5. In this case, after 
the facing is turned into its finished position 
and pressed in shape, stitch along the front 
edge of the shirt about one-eighth of an inch 
from the edge. Also, at the bottom of the 
facing stitch from the edge of the shirt to the 

[6] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

back of the facing, from there run the stitching 
down one-eighth of an inch and then stitch 




W 



Fig. (5) Fac- 
ing the front 
closing 



Fig. (6) Fac- 
ing the front 
with butcher's 
linen 



Fig. (7) The 

front closing 
completed 



back to the front edge. This holds the facing 
in place. Below the facing turn a narrow 

[7] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

hem on the front edge, continuing it around 
the bottom and up the vent at the sides. 

A somewhat quicker way of finishing the 
front closing is to use a facing of butchers' 
linen. This will give a finish on the outside 
which is identical to the one just described. 
Cut the facing of butchers' linen, making the 
back edge the selvedge edge of the goods. 
Turn under the front edge of the shirt one- 
sixteenth of an inch, that is, just roll the 



^ m 



Fig. (8) Most shirts have fullness either side of the back 

edge enough to turn off the raw edge. Turn 
under the lower edge of the butchers' linen 
facing a seam's width and place it along the 
edge of the shirt, as shown in Fig. 6. Then 
turn back the edge of the shirt again and 
stitch, as shown in Fig. 7. Continue the 
narrow hem around the bottom. A man's 
shirt has fullness either side of the back to 
give freedom of movement. Run gather 
threads at the top of the back as shown in 

[8] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



fronts and backs, 



Stitch around neck 




Fig. (?) Interlining the neckband 



Fig. 8. Stitch yokes to 
making lap-felled seams. 

Making Collarband 

to prevent 
stretching. The 
collarband must 
be stiff, so make 
it three or four 
ply of goods: 
that is, interline 
it with one or 
two thicknesses 
of linen or some other firm material. Cut 
these interlinings the shape of the outside, but 
without seams. Baste the interlinings to one 
piece of the neckband. Stitch the two pieces 
for the neckband together, running the stitch- 
ing across the ends 
and top. (See Fig. 
9.) Slash the seams 
around the top and 
ends. Trim off the 
raw edges to within 
one-quarter inch of 
the stitching. Turn 
the neckband right side out and press. Stitch 
around the outer edges again. (See Fig. 10.) 
Stitch the neckband to the shirt, inserting the 

[9] 




Fig. (id) Stitching the neckband 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



edge of 
band. 



the shirt between the edges of the 




Fig. (//) The sleeve vent 



Finishing the 
Sleeves: Slash the 
back of the sleeve 
for a vent. The 
back edge of the 
vent is finished with 
an extension and 
the front edge with 
a pointed facing. 

Cut the material 
for the extension 
one and three-quarter inches wide and about 
one-half inch longer than the vent. Fold 
under a seam at the top and stitch one edge 
of the extension to the slash as shown in Fig. 
11. Note that edges of 
extension and sleeve are 
even at bottom, but that 
extension projects nearly 
a seam's width beyond the 
slashed edge at top of 
vent. Turn under the free 
side of the extension a 
seam's width, fold the ex- 
tension through the center 




and stitch again. 
12.) 



(See Fig. Fig. {12) Facing the back 
edge of the sleeve vent 

[10] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



The Fig. 13 shows a 
pattern for a pointed fac- 
ing which would finish one 
inch wide. Line CD is 
parallel to AB and one 
inch from it, while line 
GH is parallel to the first 
two lines and one-half inch 
from CD. Point E is cen- 
terway between points A 
and C and point F is one 
and one-quarter inches 
above it. In cutting out 
the pattern add the regula- ** V) x H 

tion seam allowance, three- Pigm (/j) Diagram/or mak _ 

eighths of an inch, at all ing pointed facing for sleeve 

points. 




In joining the facing to the front edge of 
the slash, turn under 
the top and side AB a 
seam's width and join 
the tdgtGH to the edge 
of the slash. (See Fig. 
14.) Fold the facing 
along the line CD and 
stitch as shown in Fig. 

Fig. {14) Finishing tie front of 15 * £ a P the # facing 

the sleeve vent over the extension and 

[HI 




A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




jacing stitched in 
place 



stitch across the top of the ex- 
tension as shown in Fig. 16. 

Next stitch the sleeve to the 
armhole with lap-felled seam 
and join the sleeve and under- 
arm seams in one continuous 
seam. This seam, too, is best 
finished lap-felled. 

Gather the lower edge of the 

Fig. (15) The pointed sleeve as shown in Fig. 17. 
Note that the fullness is thrown 
either side of the vent and not 

at the underarm 

seam; also that the 

extension at the 

back of the vent 

is turned back. " 



To Make a 
French cuff, lay the 
two pieces for the 
cuff with the wrong 
sides of the mate- 
rial together and 
stitch around the 
outside. (See Fig. 
18.) Cut off the 
seams diagonally 




Fig. ( 7< 5) The vent completed 

[12[ 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 




at the corner, turn 
cuff right side out, 
lay it onto sleeve 
with the raw edges 
even with the bot- 
tom of the sleeve 
and stitch one 
thickness of the 
cuff to the sleeve. (See Fig. 19.) Fold under 
the free edge of the cuff and stitch it over the 
raw edges on the wrong side of the sleeve. 
(See Fig. 20.) Work a buttonhole in the 
facing and sew a matching button to the 



Fig. {if) Placing the fullness in the 
bottom of the sleeve 




Fig. {18) The two pieces for a French cuff 

[13] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



extension on the vent. Also work four but- 
tonholes in the cuff as shown in Fig. 21. 
Fold the cuff double and fasten with cuff 
links as shown in Fig. 22. Turn a narrow 
hem on the back of the shirt at the lower edge. 

Work a buttonhole at the center-back of 

the neckband and 
buttonholes in the 
front of the neck- 
band and left 
front of the shirt. 
Sew small pearl 
buttons to right 
front. 

An Outing or 
Work Shirt: 

With the excep- 
tion of the collar 
and cuffs, an out- 

Fig. (/p) The first stitching in joining the m S ° r W0I "k shirt 

cuff to the skeve is about the same 

proposition as the 

regulation shirt. The usual shirt of this type 

is made with a detached collar and band cuff, 

as shown in Fig. 23. 

If it's a work shirt, denim, chambray or 
khaki will give good service. Khaki is also 
excellent for an outing shirt. However, 

r 14 i 




HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



outing shirts for less strenuous wear are 
made of silk such as pongee or the regular 
cotton shirtings. 

Making an Outing Shirt: Here, too, finish 
the front closings first as described in the 
regulation shirt. 
If the back of 
the shirt extends 
all the way to 
the shoulder, 
just face the 
back with the 
yoke. To do 
this, turn under 
the lower edge 
of the yoke a 
seam's width 
and press it. 
Then, lay the 
yoke on top of,,. ' s 
the back and***** 
stitch across the 
lower edge of the yoke twice, running one 
stitching near the edge and the other about 
one-quarter of an inch from the edge. Make 
lap-felled seams at the shoulder. 

To make the collar, place the two pieces for 
the outside collar with the right sides together 

[15] 




The cuff stitched to the sleeve the 
second time 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



and stitch around the outer edges. (See 
Fig. 24.) Cut off the corners diagonally # to 
within an eighth of an inch of the stitching 
and turn the collar right side out. If the 
material you are using lacks sufficient body, 

interline the col- 
lar. To do this, 
cut a collar of 
butchers' linen 
without seams, 
and baste it to 
one thickness of 
the outside collar 
before stitching. 

After the collar 
is turned right 
side out, press it 
and stitch around 
the outer edge 
again. Now you 
are ready for the 
collarband. Cut 
the two outside 
pieces with seams and the interlining without 
seams. Baste the interlining to one of the 
outside pieces. Place one outside piece on one 
side of the collar and one on the other with 
what will be the top of the collarband when 

[161 




Fig. (21) The cuff completed 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



finished, along the raw edge of the collar. 
(See Fig. 25.) 

Stitch around the ends and across the bot- 
tom, as shown in Fig. 25. 
Turn the collarband into 
its finished position and 
press. Join it to the neck 
edge of the shirt, inserting 
the raw edge of the shirt 
between the two thick- 
nesses of the band. 

Finishing the Sleeve: 

Sew extensions to the vent, 
as described in making the 
regulation shirt. Lay the 
two thicknesses for the 
band cuff with the right 
sides together and stitch 
across the ends and bot- 
tom. Then turn the cuff 
right side out and press it. 
If the material is sleazy, Fig. (22) Mthejkeve looks 
add an interlining as the 
collar was interlined. Turn 
wrong side out and place the cuff over the 
sleeve, with the raw edge of the cuff even with 
the lower edge of the sleeve. Stitch one 
thickness of the cuff to the sleeve. Turn the 

[17] 




A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




Fig. (23) An outing or work skirt with attached collar 



[18 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 




Fig. (24) Stitching the two collar pieces together 

sleeve right side out and stitch the free edge 
of the cuff to the sleeve. Stitch around the 
outer edge of the cuff again. 




Fig. (25) Sewing the neckband to the collar 

Finish with buttons and buttonholes. (See 
Fig. 26.) 

Hem the top of the pocket, turn under raw 
edges and press it. Then stitch 
it to the left side front. 

A Tucked Bosom Shirt: 

A dressier type of shirt is shown 
in Fig. 27. Such a shirt would 

be made of a fine cotton shirting / ^J ) 

or silk. You can use your plain 
shirt pattern in copying it 6) A w 

Draw the outline of the bosom cuff 

[19] 




A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




Fig. {27) CoaJ shirt with tucked bosom 



20 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



on the plain front as shown in Fig. 28. See 

lines ABC. Place the pattern on another 

piece of paper and trace 

along the lines AB and 

BC, also across the 

shoulder, neck and front 

edge down to point A. 

This will give you the 

outline for the bosom. 

Add seams beyond the 

lines AB and BC. 

Again, place the pat- 
tern on' another piece of 
paper and trace around 
the outer edges of the A* 
shoulder, armhole, under- 
arm seam, lower edge and 
front up to the /bosom 
line, AB. From there, 
trace along the lines AB 
and BC. This gives you 
the pattern for the front 
of the shirt. Add seams 
beyond the lines AB and ^ 

■Qfi, Fig. (28) Making the ■pattern 

-dC • for the bosom front 

Tuck two straight 
pieces of material solid with one-quarter-inch 
tucks, leaving the front edges plain for a space 

[21] 




A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




of one and one-half inches. Place 
these pieces one on top of the other 
with the wrong sides of the goods 
together and place the pattern on 
top, as shown in Fig. 29. Mark 
around the outer edge of the pat- 
tern and cut out the bosom front. 

Making a Bosom-front Shirt: 

First of all join the bosom sections 
to the front, double stitching the 
seams. Then proceed to finish the 
front and close the seams as 
described in making the regulation 
shirt. 

F Jng a? bos U om ^ y° u want a stm ° attached cuff 
to close with cuff links, finish the 
sleeve vent with extensions as 

described in making the regulation shirt. 

Then interline the cuff and join it to the lower 

edge, as the band cuff was joined 

to the sleeve of the outing shirt. 

In this case, however, the edge 

of the vent finished with the 

narrow extension is turned back 

before the cuff is joined to the 

sleeve. (See Fig. 30.) 

A Nightshirt: Fig 31 shows fX^l/JZi 
you a regulation nightshirt. It s links 

[22] 




HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 




&£• (J 1 ) d regulation stile ntghtshir 

the style that is used both for cotton night- 
shirts and those of flannel. Whether you are 

[23] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



A,- 



! I 



L L 



_-E 



£._^_j 



[ '~\ f" / r 

° \ I / 

F/£. (j^) Diagram/or making 
facing pattern 



using cambric or muslin? 
flannel or outing flannel, 
the way of making is the 
same. 

Making a Nightshirt: 

You will notice that the 
front of the nightshirt 
has a slashed closing which 
is finished practically the 
same as the vent in the 
sleeve of the shirts, de- 
scribed in the first part of 
this lesson. 

Fig. 32 shows a dia- 
gram for the pointed fac- 
ing pattern. You can 
make it any desired width, 
remembering that the 
width from A to C is half 
the width from C to E. 
Make your diagram with- 
out seams and add them 
beyond the outer edges 
afterward. 

After the pattern has 
the seams added, fold it 

[241 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



along the line CD. Place the front of the 
shirt pattern on top of this pattern, with the 
front edge centerway between lines CD and 
EF and the neck edge a seam's 
width from the top of the ex- 
tension pattern at the side. 
Mark along the neck edge of the 
shirt pattern. Turn the shirt 
pattern over onto the other half 
of the extension pattern and 
mark the neck edge again. This 
will give you a new curved upper 
line as the dotted line Fig. 33. 
Add a seam beyond the dotted 
line and cut off the portion which 
extends above this new seam 
allowance. This shapes the top 
of the extension so it will exactly 
fit the neck of the garment when 
it is sewn on. 



Finish the right front of the 
slash in the shirt with a plain 
extension. Turn under the seam 
allowance across the bottom and 
along the side EF of the pointed 
extension. Then stitch the i Fig (?j) Thepat _ 

pointed extension tO the edge Of tern folded and new 

the slash, letting the extension upper edge marked 




[25 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



project nearly a seam's width beyond the 
edge of the slash at the bottom. (See Fig. 
34.) Fold the extension along the line DC 
and stitch as in Fig. 35. 

Join the yoke to the back and close the 
shoulder seams next, 
making lap-felled 
seams. Then you are 
ready for the collar. 
Interline the collar as 
the neckband of the 
regulation shirt was in- 
terlined. In joining it 
to the neck of the shirt, 
first stitch the outside 
collarpiece to the neck 
edge, then turn under 
the free edge of the 
collar and stitch it over 
the raw edges of the 
right side of the shirt. 




Fig' (34) Stitching facing to 



f ront slash 

Face the lower edges 
of the sleeves with the cuff piece before the 
sleeves are joined to the armholes. To apply 
the facings, turn under the upper edges and 
press them. Then place the facing pieces on 
the wrong side of the sleeves with the lower 
edges of the sleeves and facings even and stitch 

[26] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



across the sleeves. Turn the facing pieces onto 
the right side of the sleeves, press and stitch 
across the top. Close the sleeve and under- 
arm seams in a continuous stitching, making 
a lap-felled seam. 

Turn narrow hems at the lower edges and 
side vents. 

PAJAMAS 

Pajamas: Of course 
you want to know how 
to make men's pajamas, 
too. There is nothing 
nicer for a gift than a pair 
of silk pajamas, or even a 
pair of cotton poplin ones 
can be made to look very 
attractive. 

The style that is shown 
in Fig. 36 is suitable for 
either silk or cotton. Flan- Fi ^ &) ™e closing finished 
nel ones are sometimes made in this style or 
the neck is cut high and finished with a narrow 
band collar. You can secure either style in a 
commercial pattern. 

Cutting the Pajamas: Fig. 37 shows the 
pattern for the pajamas placed on material 

[27] 




A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




F& (j^) Pajamas are another easr-to-make 
man's garment 



28] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

folded double lengthwise. The exact placing 
of the pieces may vary according to the width 
of the material, but do not fail to make a 
layout. 

Making Pajamas: The shoulder seams 
ought to be closed first. Make these lap- 
felled seams. 

The front and neck edges are best finished 
with a facing. This ought to be cut the same 
shape as the pattern at these points and about 
four inches deep. 




Fig. (j7) Diagram showing pajama pattern placed on the goods 

Mark a line on the pattern four inches back 
from the front and neck edges. Lay the 
pattern on another piece of paper and run the 
tracing wheel along the front edges across 
the shoulder seams, across the bottom and 
along the lines just marked. This gives pat- 
terns for the facing pieces. Where any curved, 
pointed or jagged edge is to be faced the facing 
ought to be cut to fit it in this manner. 

[29] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




F*S : G<£) The first stitching in 
facing the front of the pajamas 



Fig, (jp) The front Joeing 
completed 



[30] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

Join the front and back facings at the 
shoulder, making open seams. Place the 
facing on the right side of the coat and stitch 




Fig. (40) Finishing the right Fig. (41) Finishing the left side 
side of the trousers of the trousers 



along the edge as shown in Fig. 38. Cut 
off the seam close to the stitching and turn 
the facing onto the wrong side. Turn under 

[31] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

the raw edge a seam's width, press, and stitch 
as shown in Fig. 39. 

Join sleeve to armhole with a lap-felled 
seam, and close underarm and sleeve seams, 
making these lap-felled seams, too. Hem 

lower edge of sleeve 

and coat. 

Turn a hem at the 
top of the pocket and 
stitch it to left front. 
Finish closing with 
buttons and button- 
holes. The left side 
of a man's pajamas 
always laps over the 
right side. 

In making the trous- 
ers finish fly first. 
Usually there is an 
extension beyond the 
The underrating center-front. Face 
right front extension 
for a button-stand. (See Fig. 40.) Turn in 
extension on left front and stitch to position 
(See Fig. 41.) Cut a buttonhole-stand as 
shown in Fig. 42. Fold this through center, 
stitch around outer edges as shown in Fig. 43 

[321 




HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

and turn right side out. Work buttonholes 
and stitch buttonhole-stand to left front as 
shown in Fig. 44. 





Fig. (43) Stitch- 
ing the underlap 



Fig. {44) The underlap stitched in 
place 



Join inner leg seams, lap-felling them and 
then, close crotch seam. Make lap-felled 
seams here, too. Join a casing to the top. 
Hem the lower edge of the trousers as shown in 
Fig. 45. 

[S3] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



UNDERWEAR 

Coat and Trousers Set: A suit of sum- 
mer underwear is shown in Fig. 46. The 
style may vary a little according to the make 
of commercial pattern you use but the general 
finishing is the same. 

The best material to buy for such a garment 
is soft cross-barred muslin. It wears well 
and is cool. 

Making the Coat Part: 
Turn a regulation hem 
at the front edges but 
stitch it four times for a 
tailored finish. (See Fig. 
47. ) Remember to press 
the hem before stitching. 
It helps to keep the 
stitching even. 

F *S* (45) Hemming the bottom AT , , . , , 

of the pajamas JN ext close the shoulder 

seams. These ought to 
be double stitched. 

Neck edge needs a shaped facing. Use 
the front and back patterns as a guide in 
making the facing patterns. (See Figs. 48 and 
49.) Line BE is the center-front. The fac- 
ing need only extend a seam's width beyond 
the center-front. Measure in from the neck 

[34] 




HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 




Fig* (4&) Summer underwear consisting of coat and 
knee length drawers 



35 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

edges two and one-quarter inches and mark 
lines, as the dotted lines BC and FG. Place 
the patterns on another piece of paper and 
trace along the dotted lines. This gives you 
patterns for front and back facings that will 
finish about one and a half inches wide. 



If you use these patterns the seam in the 
facings will come on the shoulder 
the same as in the garment, and 
the center-back of the pattern 
ought to be placed on the fold of 
the goods in cutting. However, 
it is better to lap the facing pieces 
at the shoulder three-quarters of 
an inch to take up the seam allow- 
ance and add a seam at the center- 
( back (See Fig. 50.) Lapping 
hem tailored the lacing pieces three-quarters ot 
*>M four stitch- an mcn at tne shoulder takes up 

just the regulation seam allowance 
on the front and back of three-eighths of an 
inch. Trace the new facing pattern onto 
another piece of paper, making it a continuous 
piece from front to back. 

Make lap-felled seams at the underarm and 
finish the armholes and lower edges with 
narrow hems. 



[36] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

Making the Trousers: The crotch ought to 
be reinforced, so lap your pattern at the inner 
leg seam and mark for the reinforcement. (See 
Fig. 51.) Place these pieces on another piece 
of paper and trace along the line ABC and the 
crotch edge. This gives you a pattern for the 




Fig. (48) Making the front pat- 
tern for the neck facing 




Fig. {49) Marking the back 
pattern for the neck facing 



reinforcement. Add a seam beyond the curved 
edge. 

In addition to the crotch reinforcements, the 
front must be faced. Fig. 52 shows the front 
edge of the trouser marked for the facing. 

[371 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




F*& (5°) Tfe neck facing patterns 



Line AB is the front edge and CD is the facing 
line. Place a piece of paper under the pat- 
tern and trace the facing, marking around the 
outer edge of the pattern from D to A, from 

A to B and from 
B to C. Trace 
"^ along the dotted 
line CD. Incut- 
ting out the fac- 
ing pattern, al- 
low a s e a m 
beyond the line 
CD. In making 
the trousers, the crotch seam is closed from 
the inner leg seam up to points. From EtoA 
the seam is left open. Place point E three 
inches from B. Fig. 53 shows the fronts 
joined at the crotch seam from point B to E. 

Join your two front fac- 
ing pieces from point E to 
B. (See Fig. 54.) Then 
stitch the facing pieces to 
the front edges of the 
trousers placing them on 
the wrong side of the 
trousers. (See Fig. 55.) 
Turn the facing pieces onto _ , N 

a • i ^ .j *Vli ^ Fig. (si) Marking for the 

the Tight Side Of the trOUS- crotch reinforcement 

[381 




HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



ers. Turn under the sides, press them and 
stitch as shown in Fig. 56. 

Next close the center-back seam and the 
leg seams, making lap-felled seams. Turn 
the trousers wrong side 
out and apply the crotch 
reinforcement, as shown 
in Fig. 57. On the right 
side of the trousers work 
a tailors' bar tack at the 
bottom of the front clos- 
ing. (See Fig. 58.) 

The upper part of the 
trousers ought to be fin- 
ished with a yoke band, rs 
There is usually a seam 
at the center-back of 
the band. Stitch the < 
two pieces for the out- 
side band at the center- 
back, as Shown in Fig. Fig. (52) Marking the drawers 
59. Close the Seam in pattern for the front facing 

the lining band the same 
way. 

Then stitching the outside band to the 
lining band at the top, back and front ends. 
Fig. 60 shows the band and lining stitched at 
the back and Fig. 61 shows the front ends 

[39] 




A*~ 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

stitched. Trim the seams close to the stitch- 
ing and turn the band right side out. Press it 
and stitch it to the top of the trousers; first 
stitching one edge to the trousers, then turn- 
ing under the free edge and stitching it in 
place. Stitch around the outer edge and twice 





Fig- (S3) 



Stitching the front 
seam 



F& (54) The front facings 



across the bottom for a tailored finish. (See 
Figs. 62 and 63.) 

It's a good plan to make the back adjustable 
by straps at the waistline. Fold the edges of 
the strap, as shown in Fig. 64. Then turn 
back the end and work two eyelets in the end, 
as in Fig. 65. Stitch the straps to the back, 
as shown in Fig. 66. Lace the eyelets with tape. 

[40] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



Hem the bottom of the trousers. 

Union Suit: Some men prefer the union 
suit style of underwear instead of the coat 
and trousers just described. A typical union 
suit is shown in Fig. 67. You can obtain a 
style similar to this in most commercial pat-! 





Fig. (55) The front facings 
stitched to the drawers 



Fig. (56) The facings 
stitched a second time 



terns. It, too, ought to be made of a soft 
cross-barred muslin. 

Making a Union Suit; Here you cannot 
finish the front closing until the upper and 
trousers have been joined. Start by closing 
the shoulder and underarm seams. Also 

[41] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

turn a narrow hem at the armholes. Then 
lay aside the upper until you have the trousers 
ready to join to it. 

Union suits are made with the center-back 
seam open and a wide lap added. The lap 
must be the same shape as the trousers in 




Fig> {57) The crotch reinforced 



order to fit over the trousers comfortably. 
Trace the back portion of the trouser pattern 
on another piece of paper. Then place the 
front portion with the leg seam lapping over 
the outline of the leg seam of the back pattern 
and trace around it. (See Fig. 68.) The leg 

[42] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

seam must be lapped enough to take up the 
seam allowance on both edges. That is, if 
the seam allowance is three-eighths of an 
inch on each edge, the edges must be lapped 
three-quarters of an inch. In Fig. 68, CB is 
the back and ABB the front. Point D is 
three inches from the leg seam. Draw a line 
on the pattern where you want the outer edge 





Fig. {58) Stay- 
ing the bottom 
of the closing 
with a tailors' 
tack 



Fig. (jg) Back seam of 
yoke band 



of the lap to come as line HGFED. This will 
also serve as a facing line. Add seams 
beyond the dotted lines and cut out the pat- 
tern for the facing and extension along lines 
HC, CBD, DE, EFGH. 

Make lap-felled seams at the leg joinings. 

The left back is finished with the extension. 
Cut the extension piece a single thickness and 
finish the outer edge with a shaped facing. 

[43] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Join it to the left back with a lap-felled seam. 
(See Fig. 69.) Fig. 70 gives a front view of 
this portion of the trousers. 

The right back is faced with a piece cut the 
same shape as the extension. (See Figs. 71 
and 72.) 

Hem the lower edges of the leg portions. 

Now you are ready to join the trousers to 




Fig. (66) The two pieces for Fig. (61) The front edge of the 

the yoke band stitched to- yoke band 

gether 

the waist. Make a lap-felled joining at the 
waistline. 

The front edges finish all the way down to 
the extension and facing on the, trouser part 
with straight extensions. To join the ex- 
tension to the front edge, place it on the wrong 
side of the goods and stitch as shown in Fig. 
73. Turn under the free edge a seam's width, 
fold it through the center and stitch as shown 

[441 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

in Fig. 74. Stitch the extension four times 
for a tailored finish. (See Fig. 75.) 

On the left front, lap the lower edge of the 
upper extension over the trouser extension 
and stitch as shown in Fig. 76. Lap the left 
front over the right front, bringing the upper , 
extensions on top of each other and the left 
trouser extension over the right trouser por- 




Fig. (62) The yoke band 

stitched to the top of the 

drawers 



Fig- {63) The drawers completed 



tion and stitch from A to B and across the 
upper extension. (See Fig. 77.) 

Finish the neck edge with a shaped facing, 
as described in making the coat of the other 
underwear set. 

[45] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

BATH ROBES 

A Blanket Bathrobe: Do you know that 
t a practical bathrobe can be made out of a 
'flannel blanket? If the blanket has a border 
fso'much the better. It will serve as a trim- 
|ming. Fig. 78 will give you some idea of how 
the finished garment will look. 

Any heavy flannel makes a nice bathrobe 
'or if it is for summer you can substitute 
Turkish towelling material. 



(^^> LB> 



\Fig. (64) The strap for the back Fig. (6$) The eyelets 

worked in the strap 

Cutting the Bathrobe: Diagram, Fig. 79, 
shows the pattern for the bathrobe laid on the 
material folded double. Note that the lower 
edge and sleeves are laid along the outer edge 
of the blanket. 

Making, the Bathrobe: If the front edges 
are on the selvedge or finished edges of the 
blanket they need no other finish. If the 
•front edges are raw, face them with the same 
^material to a depth of four inches, using the 

[46] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



pattern as a guide to cut the facings. (See 
Diagram 80.) Bind the back edges of the 
facing pieces. Lay the facing on the right 
side of the front and stitch as shown in Fig. 81. 
Turn facing onto wrong side of robe and roll 
edge so that seam comes on the wrong side. 
(See Fig. 82.) This gives a thin edge. Baste 
the facing and press the edge. Stitch along 
the edge again. (See Fig. 
83.) 

Usually a blanket robe 
is made without a seam 
at the underarm, but should 
there be a seam for any 
reason, make it a lap-felled 
seam. 

If the material is very 
heavy and is firm enough Fig. (66) 
not to fray, the seam can 
be double stitched with 
the edges raw as shown in Fig. 84. Double 
stitch the shoulder joining in the same manner 
also the sleeve seams. 

Usually a bathrobe sleeve has fullness in 
the* upper portion at the back above and 
below the elbow. The pattern is always 
notched at the points between which the 
fullness is to be taken up. It is a good plan 

[47] 




The straps 
stitched to the drawers 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




F*g* (fy) A summer union suit 



[48 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

to run a gather thread between these two 
points and draw up the material just enough 




Fig. {68) Drawers pattern lapped and marked for facing 



so that it will fit the under portion of the 
sleeve. 

[49] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Before the seam is closed shrink out as 
much of the fullness in the upper sleeve as 
possible. To do this, cover the material with 
a wet cloth, duck or canvas preferred, and 

steam with a hot 



iron. Bring the 
iron down 
squarely on the 
wet cloth. Let 
it stand a sec- 
ond, then re- 
move, allowing 
the steam to rise. 
It is surprising 
how much full- 
ness can be 
taken out of 
woolen material 
in this way. 

The neatest 
finish at the 
lower edge of the 

Fig. (69) The extension sewn to the left back sleeve is given 

by turning the 
hem, pressing it and then hand felling it in 
place. 

Make lap-felled seams in stitching the 
sleeve to the armhole. If there is a dart 




50 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



at the neck either side of the front, stitch it 
as shown in Fig. 85. On the right side of the 
garment stitch a second time as in Fig. 86. 

In a blanket robe, where the lower edge is 
straight, there is 
usually fullness 
at the back of 
the neck. Lay 
this material in- 
to pleats. (See 
Fig. 87.) 

Sateen is a 
good material to 
use for the col- 
lar and pocket 
lining. Cut the 
lining just a trifle 
smaller than the 
outside. In 
stitching ease 
the outside to 
the lining at all 
points. In stitch- 
ing lining to col- 
lar stitch across ends and around bottom. 
(See Fig. 88.) Cut off the seam [to within 
a quarter of an inch of the stitching and cut 
off the corners diagonally so that they will not 

[51] 




Fig. (70) Front view of extension 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



be bulky. Turn the collar right side out. 
If the outside has been eased or held into the 
size of the lining, it will roll beyond the seam 

and hide the lining. 
On the other hand, if 
the lining is cut the 
same size as the out- 
side collar, it is apt 
to sag below the out- 
side collar and show 
when the collar is fin- 
ished. Stitch around 
the collar a half inch 
from the edge for trim- 
ming. Join the collar 
to the neck with a 
facing. In joining lin- 
ing to pocket leave 
space free so pocket 
can be turned right 
side out. (See Fig. 
89.) After pocket is 
turned right side out, 
turn in raw edges and 
slip-stitch. Join 




Fig. (7/) The right back faced 



pocket to robe as shown in Fig. 90. 

Bind the lower edge of the robe and turn 
the hem as shown in Fig. 91. Make straps 

[521 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

for the cord to pass through as shown in Fig. 
92. Stitch these at waistline at the sides. 
(See Fig. 93.) Slip-stitch frogs to left-side 
and sew buttons to right side of closing. 

SMOKING JACKETS 

A Smoking Jacket? ^^ 

When I talked about /^ — ■ 

coats and not making / 
them in the first part / 
of this lesson, I did not / 
intend to exclude smok- 
ing jackets. A smoking 
jacket is the acceptable 
gift to nine out of 
every ten men. It is 
the luxury that per- 
haps HE won't have 
unless you make it for 
HIM. 

Then too, a smoking 
jacket isn't really a 

COat. There is V 'ery Fig. (72) Front view of right side 

little in the way of tailoring in making one. 

In the way of example, I have selected a 
regulation style that can be obtained in 
almost any commercial pattern. (See Fig. 

[53] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

94.) Velvet, a heavy corded silk or a wool 
brocade makes a nice jacket. 




Making a Smoking Jacket : Fig. 95 shows 
the pattern for a smoking jacket placed on the 
goods. Of course, you 
"" may have to rearrange 
your pattern to suit the 
width of goods that you 
are using. 

First of all in making 
the jacket, tape the Fig. (74) 
front edge to prevent s %t ^nZ 
stretching. 1 hen close 
the shoulder seam, mak- 
ing an open seam. The 
) £,,«,. next step is to join the 
sion sewn to front under collar to the neck 
dosing e dg e> Here press open 
the edges of the seam 
across the lapel and turn the raw Fig. (75) 
edges down into the coat across the J^ n t e J{™' d 

back. with four 

stitchings 

If the material you are using 
hasn't much body, face the front and the 
collar with tailors' canvas. (See Lesson on 
coat making.) Stitch the front and collar 
facing to the outer edge of the collar and the 

[54] 



H OW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

front edge of the coat and then turn it into 
its finished position. 

Make an open seam at the underarm. 
Stay the bottom of the coat with strips of 
tailors' canvas and turn up the hem catching 
it to the canvas. Then line the coat and 









Fig. (7*5) As the lower front of the Fig. (77) The drawers stitched 
drawers looks before the two sides are together below the front closing 
joined 



make the sleeves the same as a woman's 
coat would be finished. 

When the jacket is finished, bind the collar, 
the front and lower edges with silk military 
braid. 

The frogs can be made of soutache or rat- 

[55] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



tail braid. To make a frog, draw a diagram 
as shown in Fig. 96, making line AC about 

three inches long 
and line EBD 
about two inches 
long. Start the 
braid at point B, 
pass it to point 
A and back to B, 
tacking it 
together at B. 
From here, pass 
it around point 
C and back to B> 
tacking it again. 
Then pass it 
around point E 
and back to B 
and tack it. From 
there pass it 
around point D 
and back to B 
and tack it again, 
slipping the end 
under. If you 
have any diffi- 
culty, mark your 
diagram on a 




Fig. (78) Blanket Bathrobe 



56] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 




Gotta* 

&&• (79) The pattern placed on the blanket 

piece of material and baste the braid to the 
material, catching just the braid together 
securely where it crosses. When the frog 
is finished, it can be ripped from the material. 
Sew a braid-covered button to the end of 




Fig. (80) Cutting the front facing 

[57] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 





Fig. (<?/) The front faced 

the frog on the right side of the coat and loop 
the frog on the left side of the coat over the 
button. 



I 



=DD 



"1 



Fig. (82) The lower front corner Fig. (83) Stitching for a tailored 

finish 

[58] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 




Fig. (£5) Stitching the 
shoulder dart 



Fig. (84) Double stitching the seams 



OVERALLS 

Overalls: If you can make a pair of boy's 
trousers, there is no reason why you cannot 
run up a pair of overalls in an hour or so. 
The process is about the same. 

For instance, a pair of blue jean, denim or 
[59] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



khaki overalls, as shown in Fig. 98, is mostly 
a matter of double stitched seams. 

Making the Overalls: Finish a fly in the 
front the same as in making boy's trousers. 




Fig. (86) The dart 
stitched a second time 



Fig. (87) The back pleats 



Then double stitch the front and back seams 
either side of the fly. 

Double stitch the side leg seams, leaving 
room for a vent at the top. Finish the vent 
with a continuous facing, as shown in Fig. 99. 

[60] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 




Fig. (88) Stitching the two pieces 
of the collar together 



Fig. (89) The pocket lined 



On the back edge of the vent, the facing forms 
an extension and on the front edge it is 
turned back and caught in place. Sew a 
button to the facing on 
the back and work a 
buttonhole in the front. 
Turn one-inch hems at 
the bottom of the over- 
alls and narrow hems at 
the top. Hem the straps 
and stitch them to the 
back, as shown in Fig. 
100. Work buttonholes 
in the ends and button 
them to the bib. 



J^ 


II 


A - - 


'i 


y^]\ 




a* 


1 


fi 


1 


\ 


I 


I 


! 


\ 

\ 


J 




Fig- (90) Stitching the pocket 
to the bathrobe 



[61 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Hem the top of the sockets and turn and 
press the outer edges. Stitch them on as 
shown in the lai fo e illustration. 

CAPS 

Making a Sectional Cap: In any of the 

commercial patterns, you can find a cap 



/ 
/ 
i 
i 

i 
i 

mini tii nmij'jjij^jjf 

i 

i 




Fig (p/) Hemming the lower edge 



similar to the one shown in Fig. 101. It's the 
regulation eight section cap that is good 
looking in tweed, serge or linen. I am using 
this particular cap as an example but all 
caps are made in the same way. 

The first step in making the cap is to join 
the sections with open seams. (See Fig. 102.) 

[62] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

Stitch either side of the seams as shown in 
Fig. 103. Then stay the lower edge with 
tape. (See Fig. 104.) Close the lining seams 
and stay each seam with a piece of tape. 






Fig. {92) The belt 
strap 



Fig. {93) Stitching the 
belt strap to the bathrobe 



(See Fig. 105.) Cut a circular top interlining 
of coarse lightweight canvas and baste it to 
the top of the lining as in Fig. 105. 

The top facing for the peak ought to be a 

[63] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




Fi Z* (94) d smoking jacket makes a nice gift 

[64] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



'FRONT AND COLLAR FAC/W 



'UPPER 'siitVE A \CUFf 



FRONT ° V — "^V wyOfr^ SLEJEVE I ofnMP,? 



[iB/lCft 




F/£. (pj) !Tfo pattern for the smoking jacket placed on the goods 

little larger than the under facing. (See 
Fig. 106.) In joining hold it to the size of 
the under facing. (See Fig. 107.) Cut the 
foundation peak of stiff buckram or cardboard. 
Fig. 108 shows the facing slipped over the 
foundation peak. 

Join the peak to the outside cap as in Fig. 
109. Then, stitch lining to outside across 



i 
• 

i 
i 

Fig. (p<5) Diagram for making braided frog 

[65] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

back. (See Fig. 110.) Turn it inside the 
cap. Turn under the raw edges of lining 
across peak and slip stitch them in place. 

NECKTIES 

Necktie: I wonder if you haven't odd 
lengths of silk tucked away that would make 
the nicest kind of ties. Nearly every woman 

has. 

Brocades and 
poplin silks left 
over from coat 
linings make 
good ties. You 
know you can 
piece the tie in 
the center and it 
Fig. (97) Tkefrof finished doesn't take very 

much goods. A 
four-in-hand such as is shown in Fig. Ill can 
be cut either on the straight or the bias. 

Making a Pattern for a Necktie: Figs. 112 
and 113 show the first diagram in making a 
necktie pattern. AB in each diagram is the 
center back. These two edges will be put 
together to make the complete pattern. When 
you make your diagram make one continuous 

[66] 




HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 




Fig. (98) Overalls are as easy to make as a pair of 
boys* wash trousers 



67] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




diagram of Figs. 112 
and 113. The pages in 
this book are too short 
to show them in one 
diagram. 

Considering Fig. 112 
first which is the short 
end of the tie, draw 
Facing the side vent lines AC and BD parallel 
intheoweraik to each other and one 

inch apart. Mark points 
six and one-half inches from the back as G and 
H. Make points C and D seventeen inches 
from A and B. Continue the line CD to 
points L and M> making the space from L to C 
and from M to D three-quarters of an inch. 
Also continue the line BHD one 
and three-quarter inches beyond .O 
D. See point N, Fig. 112. Draw 
lines from point N to points M 
and L. Draw lines from L and 
M to G and H. This gives you 
the finished lines for the short end 
of the tie. 

In making the diagram, Fig. 113 
place the lines BF and EA one 
inch apart. Mark points six and f^t ( T °°) The 

i i c • i r i back of the over- 

one-half inches from the center- ails 




68 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS ~AND UNDERWEAR 




Fig. (101) A cap suitable j or 
tweed or linen 





Fig. {104) Staying the lower 
edge of the cap 




Fig- U05) Thi top is interlined 



Fig. {102) The sections of the 
cap stitched together 




Fig. (103) 
Each seam 
should be 
stitched on 
either side 




Fig. {106) The peak fac- 
ings 



69 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 





Fig. (107) The fac- 
ings joined 



fig. (108) The facing 
slipped over the founda- 
tion peak 




Fig. (iQ$ The peak joined to the 
outside cap 




Fig. (//a) The lining sewn to the cap 

[to] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



back as points JK. 
Make the distance from 
A to E twenty-six inches. 
Continue the line EF 
and mark points O and 
P one inch beyond the 
original lines. Continue 
the line BF to point i£, 
placing j£ two inches 
below line EF. Draw 
lines from ^ to D and 
and from D and to 
J and K. This gives 
you the outline of the 
finished tie. 



tvt jj a *. Fig- {in) It takes only a little 

IN OW add the amount material to make a necktie 

to the sides of the tie 

that you want the silk to turn under. (See 

Figs. 114 and 115.) 



The Fig. 114 is a tracing of the diagram 
Fig. 112 with the turn-unders added and Fig. 
115 is a tracing of diagram 113 with the turn- 
unders added. Draw lines parallel to lines AC 
and BD placing the lines three-quarters of an 
inch beyond the original lines. See lines 
1-2 and 3-4 Fig. 114. Continue the 




71 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



original line CD at the bottom 
to points 5 and 6, placing point 
Ax. — ,"E 5 two and three-quarter inches 

beyond point M and point 6 
one and one-half inches beyond 
point L. Now draw lines which 
continue the diagonal lower 
edge lines until they touch the 
J h new side lines. This gives you 

the finished pattern for the 
short end of the tie. The lower 
line will be from points 7 and 
8 to the point. 

Add the turn-unders to 
the long end of the tie in the 
same way, making point 5, 
Fig. 115 two and one-half 
inches from point O and point 
6, two inches from point D. 

Bring the two diagrams 

together at the center-back, 

. points AB. (See Fig. 116.) 

Fig. (f/2) Half of £* * * v r ^i „_• j 

the diagram for the Mark the center 01 the tie and 
on this center line, mark point 
1, one inch from line AB. 



i 



L. 



A^M 



'si/ 

N 



necktie pattern 



Measure at right angle to this line and 
mark a point on the upper line as point 2. On the 

[72] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



B-.-.-A 



K 






J 






'a 



Fig. (//j) 7^* oMdr ^ 
0/ M^ diagram for the neck- 
tie pattern 




Fig. (1/4) Allowing for the turn-, 
unders on the pattern 

[73] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



B A 

\ / 




F*g* ( I7 S) The turn-unders added to the 
other end of the pattern 

[74] v 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 



A 2 



l A 



z\_ 



^^ 4 B 

Fig. (//<5) Marking for the hack seam 



other side of line 

AB y mark point 

3 on the center 

line, placing it 

one inch from 

line AB. Also 

from this point, 

draw a line at 

right angle to the center line and mark a 

point on the lower line as point 4. Draw a 

line from point 2 to point 4. This gives you 

a bias seam at the back. In tracing the new 

patterns for each end, allow seams at the 

bias joining. 

A necktie sets better if it # has interlining 
of cotton flannel. Use your original diagrams, 
Figs. 112 and 113 to make a pattern for the 




Fig. {iif) Making the pattern for the interlining 

interlining, bringing them together at the 
center-back into a continuous pattern. (See 
Fig. 117.) 

On the short end of the tie mark a point 
thirteen inches beyond the center-back, as point 

[75] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

1. From here, draw line at right angle to 
the center lines of the tie. Where this line 
touches the upper line, point 2, draw a 
diagonal line to the lower line, as line 2-3. 
On the long end of the tie, mark a point 
twenty inches from the center-back, as point 
4. From point 4, draw a line at right angle 



Fig, (//<?) The flannel inter linings joined to the back-stay 

to the center line. Where this line touches the 
upper line, point 5, draw a diagonal line to 
the lower line, as line 5-6. The flannel in- 
terlinings should extend only from line 2-3 
to line GH and from line 5-6 to line JK. 
Trace these portions without adding seams. 
From G to J can be stayed with canvas. 

Lap the canvas back-stay over the cotton 
flannel interlinings, as shown in Fig. 118. 



S 



Fig. {119) An outside stay for the back of the necktie 

Crease the silk for the outside collar along 
the lines, AGL, BHM, BKD and AJO, Fig. 

[76] 



HOW TO MAKE MEN'S SHIRTS AND UNDERWEAR 

112 and 113. Press the silk and stitch a 
narrow hem at the bottom. Slip the silk 
over the interlining and turn under one of 
the raw edges, slip-stitch it in place. Re- 
inforce the center-back of the tie on the wrong 
side with a piece of silk cut on the straight or 
a piece of ribbon. (See Fig. 119.) 



[77] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

PART II 

MATERIALS 

AND HOW TO TEST THEM 

Can you tell whether a piece of goods is 
wool or cotton, or part wool and part cotton ? 
Do you know good wool when you see it ? 
Do you know that shoddy may be all wool ? 
Can you distinguish silk from artificial silk? 
Can you tell whether or not a material will 
give good service ? 

Nature of the Fibers: In order to judge 
and test fabrics intelligently one must know 
something of the nature of the various fibers 
from which these fabrics are made. The 
fibers most used in dress fabrics are wool, 
silk, cotton, artificial silk, and linen. Each 
of these fibers has certain characteristics which 
distinguish it. 

Wool is the hairy covering of the sheep 
and is kinky and elastic — not smooth and 
straight like the hair of most other animals. 
It is covered with many overlapping scales 

[78] 



MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM 

like the shingles of a roof. Because of its 
kinkiness, scales, and elasticity it can be 
spun into very fine yarn. Wool fibers may 
be from one to eight inches long. When wet 
wool becomes soft and plastic and if pressed, 
the fiber scales become entangled causing 
the wool to felt. This is the reason wool 
requires careful laundering. Since it is a 
poor conductor of heat, it is suitable for winter 
fabrics. 

Silk is a solid rod-like filament secreted 
by the silk worm, a kind of caterpillar. This 
fiber the worm spins about itself, forming 
an envelope or cocoon. The long strong 
even filaments are many yards in length and, 
when reeled from the cocoons, make the better 
grades of silk. The short waste ends, when 
spun into so-called "spun silk" yarn, make 
the poorer grades. 

Cotton is a flat twisted tubelike vegetable 
fiber, varying from a little less than one inch 
to two inches in length. It is not as strong 
as silk or linen but is stronger than wool. It is 
less elastic than silk or wool but more so than 
linen. Being a good conductor of heat it is 
chosen for our warm weather garments. The 
spinning qualities of cotton depend upon the 
length, twist, and fineness of the fiber. 

[791 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Mercerized Cotton is chemically treated 
cotton. Cotton cloth or yarn is immersed 
in a strong caustic soda or caustic potash 
solution, then stretched and washed. This 
causes the fibers to lose most of their twist 
and to become round, smooth, and glossy. 
If cotton is well mercerized the fibers very 
closely resemble silk in appearance. 

Linen is a vegetable fiber obtained from the 
stems of the flax plant. A single filament 
may vary from a few inches to several feet 
in length and has a complex structure. It is 
very smooth, lustrous and silky looking. It 
is stronger than wool or cotton but not as 
strong as silk. Linen is more readily injured 
and disintegrated than cotton by strong 
washing powders or chemicals. It is even a 
better conductor of heat than cotton and, 
therefore, makes the coolest garments. 

Artificial silk is of vegetable origin, being 
made by a chemical process from cotton or 
wood pulp. It is a smooth solid filament, 
similar to silk in appearance and with a luster 
even greater than silk. Herein lies its chief 
value for in wearing quality and durability 
it does not begin to equal silk. When wet the 
fiber swells somewhat and loses strength so 
that it must be handled with great care, 

[801 



MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM 

but in drying again it recovers its original 
strength. Normally it is about one-half as 
strong as silk and has almost no elasticity. 

To Determine the Kinds of Fibers in 
Cloth: Perhaps most of us think we can 
recognize an all wool, all silk, all cotton, or all 
linen fabric by its appearance and feel. Some- 
times we can. But to recognize a material 
in which the cotton and linen fibers have been 
carded in the same yarn, or to tell silk from 
artificial silk, silk from mercerized cotton, 
new wool from shoddy, or to detect the 
presence of a very small amount of wool, 
cotton or silk in a fabric, is a more difficult 
problem than the eyes and fingers alone can 
solve. 

Different kinds of fibers are now so cleverly 
mixed and woven that the microscope and 
chemical tests are the only means by which 
one can accurately determine the fiber content 
of a piece of cloth. Some of the chemical 
tests are very simple and can be readily per- 
formed in the home. 

Animal and Vegetable Fibers: The 

fibers described in the preceding paragraphs 
fall naturally, according to their origin, into 
two groups, animal fibers (wool and silk) and 
vegetable fibers (cotton, linen, and artificial 

[81] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

silk.) All animal fibers are similar in chemi- 
cal composition, are proteins, and therefore 
are similarly affected by heat, acids, alkalies, 
and other chemical reagents. All vegetable 
fibers are similar in composition, are cellulose, 
>and react similarly toward reagents but very 
differently from the animal fibers. For ex- 
ample, strong acids weaken and destroy 
vegetable fibers but do not readily destroy 
animal fibers. Animal fibers will readily 
dissolve in hot alkali solutions while vegetable 
fibers are little affected by them. This ex- 
plains many of the precautions necessary in 
laundering fabrics. For example, woolens 
and silks must be washed in a neutral soap 
solution, or one which contains no free alkali. 
Burning Test: When testing a woven 
cloth, ravel out a single warp yarn* and a single 
filling yarn* and burn each of these separately. 
This is necessary because the threads running 
lengthwise may be of one kind of fiber while 
those running crosswise are of another. If 
the yarn flames and burns quickly, emitting 
the odor of burning wood, it is cellulose or 
vegetable fiber. Cotton, linen, and artificial 
silk yarns all burn in this way. If it is a 
cotton yarn the fiber ends of the unburned 
portion remaining in your fingers will be 

*Warp yams are those running lengthwise in a cloth while filling yarns are those 
running crosswise. 

[82 1 



MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM 

brushlike — its fibers tending to separate. If 
it is a linen yarn the fiber ends remain closely 
in contact. 

If a yarn burns with difficulty, emitting a 
very disagreeable odor like burning hair or 
feathers, it is protein, or animal fiber. Wool 
and silk both burn in this way. A woolen 
yarn as it burns rolls up, forming a little ball 
at the end; silk, unless it is weighted with 
metallic salts to make it appear of heavy 
quality, does the same thing. If the silk yarn 
is heavily weighted with metallic salts, it 
not only does not roll up but there remains 
after the burning a white or gray ash. 

Boiling-Out Test: The presence of cotton 
or other vegetable fibers in a woolen cloth or 
yarn is determined by a boiling-out test. 
When cotton is carded with wool in the same 
yarn it is often impossible to tell by the appear- 
ance or by burning that the cotton is there. 
A very simple chemical test will reveal its 
presence. Dissolve one ounce of caustic potash 
or caustic soda or a tablespoonful of lye in a 
pint of water. Boil a small sample of the 
cloth in a little of this solution for fifteen 
minutes. The wool will dissolve but cotton, 
if present, will remain. Strain the solution 

[831 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

and the residue will give an idea of the amount 
of cotton present. 

To Identify Silk when Associated with 
Cotton or Wool: The boiling-out test as 
given above for wool and cotton may be ap- 
plied to silk and cotton since silk is soluble in 
lye and cotton is- not. One can readily identify 
silk in a wool mixture by the appearance of the 
fibers. 

To Tell the Difference Between Silk and 
Artificial Silk: The three following tests 
may be applied: 

(1) Pull out single yarns from the cloth and 
burn. Silk, an animal fiber will burn slowly 
and give a disagreeable odor; artificial silk, 
a vegetable fiber, will flame, burn quickly, 
and give almost no odor or the odor of burning 
wood. 

(2) Moisten a yarn and try to pull it apart. 
As we learned previously, artificial silk fibers 
are very weak when wet and can be easily 
torn, while the strength of silk is not affected 
by moisture. 

(3) The boiling-out test may also be used 
to distinguish between silk and artificial silk. 
Silk, an animal fiber, will readily dissolve in 

[841 



MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM 

alkali while artificial silk, a vegetable product 
will not. 
To Distinguish Linen from Cotton: 

Cotton fabrics are now so cleverly finished to 
look like linen that even experts are often de- 
ceived. If a fabric is all linen or all cotton or 
is woven with a cotton warp and a linen filling 
as many of them are, it is possible to detect the 
difference between the cotton and linen in the 
following ways : 

(1) By Appearance: Boil a sample of the 
cloth for fifteen minutes in a soap solution, 
rinse thoroughly, and dry. This will remove 
any starch or dressing. Now the linen threads 
will still present a smooth, lustrous appearance 
while the cotton will be less smooth and dull. 

(2) By Tearing: Linen is stronger than 
cotton and tears with greater difficulty. The 
ends of torn linen yarns show very uneven 
but parallel, glossy fibers, while the* ends of 
torn cotton yarns show rather even, curly, 
dull-looking fibers. 

(3) By Burning: The burning test may be 
applied for the purpose of observing burned 
ends of the yarn as previously explained. 

Since linen and cotton are both cellulose 
there is no satisfactory chemical test for 
distinguishing one from the other. This 

[85] 



A C OMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

means that if a fabric is woven of yarn in 
which linen and cotton are carded together 
none of the above tests or any chemical test 
will reveal its exact nature. A cloth appearing 
to be all cotton may contain a very small 
percentage of linen or a cloth appearing to be 
all linen may contain a small percentage of 
cotton. (Because of this fact the microscope 
is really the only means of determining cor- 
rectly the true nature of linen and cotton 
fabrics.) 

Judging the Quality of Fabrics: An 

examination of fabrics reveals some very im- 
portant facts as to their general character and 
quality. 

Firmness of Weave: A cloth to be durable 
and to hold its shape should be firmly woven. 
Its firmness may be determined by the 
following simple tests: 

(1) Pulling Test: Pull the sample in all 
directions. The yarns should have about 
the same elasticity and remain in their original 
positions. The cloth should retain its original 
form. 

(2) Creasing Test: Crease a sample of 
cloth between the thumb and fingers. A good 
piece of wool or silk will spring back into 
shape, due to their natural elasticity. If a 

[861 



MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM 

wool fabric remains creased, it is probably 
due to the use of shoddy or reworked wool 
which has lost most of its elasticity in chemical 
treatments or remanufacture, or to a poor 
grade of virgin wool. If a silk fabric remains 
creased it is probably heavily weighted to 
make it appear of good quality. Cotton and 
linen crease rather easily, linen much more 
readily than cotton. 

(3) Thumb Nail Test: Rub the edge of 
the thumbnail diagonally across the cloth. If 
the threads are loose they will move out of 
position following the direction of the mov- 
ing nail. 

(4) Sewing Test: Run a pin or needle 
back and forth through two thicknesses of the 
cloth as if sewing them together. Then with 
the needle still holding the cloth, pull the two 
pieces in opposite directions. If the threads 
separate much and do not return to their 
original position, the material would not stand 
much strain and would pull out at the seams. 

(5) Light Test: Hold the sample to the 
light and observe the closeness of the threads. 
In a firm well woven cloth the threads should 
be even, straight, lie parallel, and be close 
together. 

[87] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Quality of Yarns: Yarns vary in quality 
according to the length, diameter, elasticity, 
and strength of the fibers, and the twist and 
ply of the yarn. 

Wool yarns are of two kinds — worsted and 
woolen. A worsted yarn is usually made of 
longer fibers than woolen yarn and is therefore 
stronger. It is also combed, which causes the 
fibers to lie parallel in the yarn; while woolen 
yarns are carded, causing the fibers to lie 
crisscross. Cloths made of worsted yarns 
will wear better than those made of woolen 
yarn. They are, however, likely to wear 
shiny. Shoddy is wool which has been re- 
covered from old garments and reworked 
or made over into new material. In the proc- 
ess it loses a good deal of its original elasticity 
and many of the fibers are crushed and broken. 
If the original wool was a very good grade, 
the shoddy may still make a better material 
and give better service than a poor grade of 
virgin wool. A poor shoddy because of its 
short torn fibers has a dead feel, has very 
little strength, and will tear easily. 

The strongest silk yarns are made of groups 
of long continuous filaments which lie parallel 
and are well twisted. A yarn of carded spun 
silk or short filaments may be woven to give 
good service but is not as strong. 

[88] 



MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM 

Likewise the best grades of cotton yarns 
are the well twisted plied yarns, made of 
long-stapled combed fibers. 

Pull out single warp and filling yarns from 
your sample of cloth and examine carefully 
the evenness, twist, ply, elasticity, and 
strength. Untwist a yarn and examine the 
arrangement of the fibers. Then gently pull 
the fibers apart, being careful not to tear them, 
and observe their length. 

Finish and Weighting: A material is 
often weighted and finished with foreign sub- 
stances to give it more body and the appear- 
ance of a very good grade of goods when in 
reality it is very poor. 

A woolen fabric is sometimes weighted and 
finished with a mass of very short wool fibers 
from clippings called flocks. These are sprin- 
kled thickly over the surface and pressed 
well into the cloth. Then the cloth is filled 
and finished. This makes it thicker and 
heavier but the little fibers soon rub and 
brush off with wear and leave a threadbare, 
miserable looking fabric. If a sample of cloth 
is rubbed and brushed thoroughly any surface 
finish of this kind is quickly revealed. 

Most silk materials are weighted more or 
less with tin salts or other metallic salts. 

[89] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Burn a sample of silk cloth. If it is heavily 
weighted, an ash retaining the original weave 
and form of the silk will remain. A pure silk 
leaves almost no ash when burned. Many 
soft silks are finished with gelatin, dextrin, or 
some gluelike substance. Such silks easily 
spot with water. 

Cotton fabrics are frequently padded or 
filled with starch, clay, or other chemicals. 
If such a material is rubbed thoroughly be- 
tween the fingers some of the filling will be 
removed. 

Detecting Yarn Dyed and Piece Dyed 
Fabrics: The way in which materials are 
dyed makes a difference in their value. There 
are wool dyed, yarn dyed, and piece dyed 
fabrics. Have you ever noticed that a piece 
of woolen material may look like a solid color 
at a distance and when you examine it or put it 
under a magnifying glass that there are several 
colors in the yarn ? This is a piece of wool 
dyed goods. The wool was dyed before it 
was spun into the yarn. Blue and red wool 
twisted into one piece of yarn will give a very 
pretty purple. You can tell wool dyed goods 
by raveling out and untwisting a piece of the 
yarn. Some of the very best worsted and 
coatings are wool dyed. 

[90] 



MATERIALS AND HOW TO TEST THEM 

The great mass of woolen goods are yarn 
dyed. That means that after the yarn is 
spun it is dyed before it is woven into the 
cloth. This makes a very good material but 
each'fiber of the yarn hasn't the life nor the 
elasticity that a wool dyed fiber has. If you 
ravel a piece of yarn dyed goods and untwist 
a piece of the yarn, the fibers will all be one 
color and they will cling together and will 
not spring apart as in a wool dyed goods. 

Piece dyed fabrics are dyed after the cloth 
is woven. Cheaper grades of woolens are 
piece dyed. If you untwist the yarn of a 
piece dyed fabric you are apt to find fibers 
here and there in the center of the yarn that 
are not dyed. 

Cotton materials ^are either yarn dyed, 
piece dyed or printed. The same is true of 
linens. Where the pattern is woven in the 
goods, such as a checked or striped gingham, 
the material is yarn dyed. Chambrays are 
also yarn dyed, while percales are piece dyed. 
You can tell the difference by raveling the 
threads. As a general rule the yarn dyed 
goods will hold its color better than a piece 
dyed goods. 

Color Tests: Is the material fast color? 
Have you ever had a coat that faded in 

1911 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

streaks from exposure to sunlight, or a dress 
that faded so badly in the first washing that 
it looked like an old one ? Few dyes are fast 
to light, water, washing and crocking. Woolen 
fabrics used in coats and dresses should be 
fast to light and water but not necessarily to 
washing. A gingham should be fast to wash- 
ing. 

To test wool and silk fabrics for fastness to 
water, twist a piece of material with a piece 
of white muslin. Place it in warm water 
and allow it to stand for one-half hour. If 
the color bleeds into the white, it is not fast. 

To test for fastness to washing, wash a 
sample of material in hot soapsuds, rinse, 
and dry. Compare the color with that of the 
original goods. 

To test for fastness to crocking, cover the 
eraser of a lead pencil with a white cloth. 
Blow on it and rub the colored sample. The 
color should not rub off. 

RENOVATING NOTES 

Dry Cleaning: Dry cleaning implies 
cleaning without the use of water. Much of 
the dirt adhering to garments is held by oil or 
grease. If this is dissolved the dirt is loosened 

1921 



RENOVATING NOTES 



and readily removed. The best solvents for 
oil and grease that are cheap enough to use in 
large quantities are gasoline, benzine, and 
benzole. Any one of these liquids is satis- 
factory for cleaning providing it shows no 
oily deposit or foreign matter. 

Caution: All of these solvents are very in- 
flammable and form explosive mixtures with air. 
They should be used out-of-doors. If you use 
them in a room, have all the windows open and 
do not have afire or flame in the room. 

Just dipping a garment up and down in 
gasoline or a cleaning fluid does not clean the 
garment thoroughly. All dry cleaning estab- 
lishments use a gasoline soap or powder which 
is especially prepared for this purpose. You 
can buy them at any drug store. You will 
obtain the best result by having three con- 
tainers filled with gasoline or the cleaning 
fluid. The containers should be large enough 
to give room for rubbing the garment. Put 
the gasoline soap or dry cleaning powder into 
the first container and wash the garment 
in this. The soap or powder acts merely as 
soap would in water. Rinse the garment 
thoroughly in the other two containers. This 
process will remove grease spots and ordinary 
dirt but not stains. Hang the garment in 

[93] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

the open air and allow it. to remain there until 
the gasoline or solvent has evaporated. If a 
strong odor remains, hang the garment over a 
radiator or register so that hot air can pene- 
trate the fabric and carry away the odor. 

Carbon tetrachloride which can be obtained 
in any drug store is a very excellent solvent 
for removing oil and grease spots. It is 
absolutely safe since it cannot burn or explode 
but is too expensive to use in large quantities. 

To Clean and Freshen Velvet: Dry clean 
velvet according to the general directions 
given for dry cleaning. Brushing velvet with 
a soft brush against the pile while in the 
cleaning fluid will help to remove the dirt 
and grease spots. Water spots or creases 
which are due to flattened pile may be removed 
by steaming. Remove the lid from a steaming 
tea kettle, then holding the velvet taut over 
the escaping steam, brush gently with a soft 
brush against the pile. Work quickly for 
the steam should not be allowed to condense 
on the velvet. Or, the velvet may be evenly 
moistened on the wrong side, then gently 
brushed while being moved slowly over the 
smooth surface of a hot flat iron placed on end. 

To Clean Lace and Chiffon Veils: Veils 
may be dry cleaned but dry cleaning will not 

[94] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



remove creases and wrinkles. The following 
method will make them look like new. Make 
a suds from a good grade of neutral soap and 
warm water. Wash the veil in this by 
dipping it up and down and gently squeezing 
the suds through it. Rinse thoroughly in 
warm water. Squeeze out the water, then 
smooth it out on a clean cloth over a carpet 
or on the top of a bed. Carefully pull into 
shape and pin along the edges so that the 
veil will be slightly stretched and have its 
original shape and size, then allow to dry. 



REMOVAL OF STAINS 

Since the substances causing spots and 
stains are various and differ in composition, 
the reagents used in removing them must 
also be various. While an agent may remove 
one kind of stain perfectly, it may tend to 
set another kind. For this reason it is help- 
ful to know the cause of the stain. If the 
cause is not known examine the spot care- 
fully and judge whether it is grease, paint, 
dye, fruit stain, grass stain, or of some other 
nature. Even the same kind of stain cannot 
always be removed by the same agent. All 
inks are not made of exactly the same chemi- 

[95] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

cals and therefore cannot always be removed 
by the same agent. I can say, however, 
that all stains are removed more easily when 
fresh. 

Before attempting to remove a stain study 
the nature of the fabric — its weight, weave, 
fiber and color. 

A firmly woven fabric may stand hard rub- 
bing or laundering while a light weight, 
delicate, loosely woven one will not; the 
slightest rubbing of such a cloth may displace 
the threads permanently and cause an ugly 
spot more unsightly than the stain. 

A wool or silk fabric may stand laundering 
if the water is neither hot nor cold, but 
neither wool nor silk will stand wringing or 
twisting. 

Hot water always felts or shrinks wool 
and may turn silk yellow. 

Wool and silk are destroyed by alkalies 
while most acids will not injure them unless 
allowed to dry in the fiber. 

Cotton and linen may be boiled — strong 
alkalies will not injure them unless allowed 
to dry in the fibers, while strong acids will 
readily destroy them. Weak acids may be 
used on them if used quickly and then 
neutralized. 

[%1 



RENOVATING NOTES 



If a garment has color, attention must be 
given to that. Often a spot could be easily 
removed but for the color. Merely soaking 
it in water may cause it to bleed; cr aga A , 
though the color is fast to water, the dye 
may be such that it will be affected by the 
chemical which would take out the spot. 
Dyes are of endless variety and variously 
affected by the same chemical; and since it 
is not possible to know from its color, the 
nature of the dye, the only thing to do is to 
try out the reagents to be used in removing 
the stain on an unexposed portion of the 
garment, for example, on the underside of 
the hem. 

Reagents Used for Removing Spots and 
Stains: 

These absorbents are 
often used for preliminary 
treatment to remove large 
Absorbents quantities of staining sub- 

Biotting Paper stance. For example, if a 

s^h bottle of ink is spilled, most 

Commeai of the ink can be absorbed 

quickly with cornmeal or 
bran. Blood may be ab- 
sorbed with starch, grease 
or wax with blotting paper 

[97] 



Bran 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



Solvents 
Water 
Organic Solvents 

Gasoline 

Benzine 

Benzole 

Turpentine 

Alcohol 

Chloroform 

Ether 

Carbon-Tetra- 
chloride 



Ac ids and Alkalies 
Acids 

Oxalic — Saturated 

solution 
Acetic — 10% solu- 
tion 
Lemon Juice 
Vinegar 
Alkalies 

Ammonia — Dilute 
Sodium bicarbonate 

(Baking soda) 
Ammonium carbon- 
ate 



Bleaching Agents 
Hydrogen Peroxide 



Borax 



and a hot iron. After such 
treatment, the remaining 
stain may have to be re- 
moved by other methods. 

Water is the universal 
solvent. However, it often 
affects the- finish of the 
cloth and will not readily 
dissolve substances such as 
grease or oils, in which case 
organic solvents (such as 
gasoline, alcohol, or ether) 
should be used. 

Any acid will neutralize 
or destroy the action of any 
alkaline substance and vice 
versa. Therefore, if a gar- 
ment has been spotted with 
an acid substance, touch 
the spots with ammonia. 
If spotted with alkali, touch 
the spots with dilute oxalic 
or acetic acid. 

This may be used on all 
fibers. It is especially suit- 
able for silk and wool. 

Use only on cotton or 
linen. 



98 



RENOVATING NOTES 



Use only on cotton or 

linen. Javelle water may 

javeiie Water be purchased -at the drug 

store, or it may be made as 

follows : 

1 lb. sodium carbonate 
(Sal Soda) 

% lb. chloride of lime 

2 qts. cold water 
Allow this mixture to 
stand for several hours. 
Then pour off the clear 
liquid for use. Keep in a 
dark place. 

To obtain the most satisfactory results appjy 
Javelle water to a stain and allow it to remain 
for about a minute, then treat it with oxalic 
acid. Let stand for a few seconds and rinse 
thoroughly. 

Methods of Applying Reagents: There 
are three methods for removing stains — 
laundering, sponging and spotting. The meth- 
od chosen will be determined by the nature 
of the spot or stain, and the fabric. 

Laundering: Soak the stain for several 
hours in cold water, if cotton or linen; or 
lukewarm water, if wool or silk. Rub with 

[99] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

a neutral soap if necessary, then launder the 
garment in the usual way. This method can 
be used only if the color is fast. 

Sponging: Place the stained material 
wrong side up on a pad made of several thick- 
nesses of clean white soft cloth or blotter. 
This is the best method for applying solvents, 
such as gasoline, carbon tetrachloride, and 
benzole. The cloth or blotter will absorb any 
superfluous liquid as well as any grease or 
substance to be removed and also prevent 
spreading. Sponge the spot gently with a 
soft white cloth; or better, with a piece of 
material like the garment if it is colored, for it 
may prevent the removal of color from the 
garment. Change the pad as soon as it be- 
comes soiled. 

Spotting: This method is best when chemi- 
cal reagents must be used. One should work 
quickly, for most of them will injure fabrics 
more or less if allowed to remain in contact 
any length of time. Place the stained fabric 
over a pad of soft white cloth or blotter and 
apply a few drops of the chemical with a 
medicine dropper. After a few moments 
rinse thoroughly with clear water. If neces- 
sary repeat the process but be sure always to 
rinse thoroughly. Instead of using the pad, 

[100] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



the stained portion of the fabric may be gently 

stretched over a small bowl. 

Specific Spots and Stains: 
Acid Substances sometimes change or de- 
stroy the color of dyed materials in which 
case the color can often be restored by- 
neutralizing the acid with an alkali. 
Acids rarely stain white fabrics but can 
injure the fibers. 

(1) Rinse vthe spot with water, then 
neutralize the acid with ammonia. 
Rinse again thoroughly. 

(2) Sprinkle the stain on both sides with 
sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) 
and moisten with water and allow 
to stand. Rinse with water. 

(3) Ammonium carbonate may be used 
in the same way. 

Alkalies may also change or destroy the 
color of the fabric or will destroy silk 
and wool. Rinse the spots thoroughly 
and apply one of the following agents: 

(1) Lemon juice — as long as the spot is 
alkaline lemon juice will remain 
yellow in color, but the color will 
disappear when the spot becomes 
acid. 

(2) Vinegar. 

[101] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

(3) Dilute acetic acid. 

Rinse thoroughly after using reagent. 

Blood is of a protein nature. Heat coagu- 
lates proteins, therefore, hot water will set 
blood stains if applied before the protein 
is removed. Use one of the following: 

(1) Cold water — soak the stain in cold 
or lukewarm water until it turns 
light brown in color. Then wash 
in hot soap suds as in ordinary 
laundering. Stains on wool and silk 
should be sponged with lukewarm 
water. 

(2) Ammonia (for washable materials) — 
Add two tablespoonfuls of household 
ammonia to one gallon of water. 
Soak the stains in this and then 
launder. 

(3) Hydrogen peroxide — This will often 
remove the last trace of a stain, and 
can be used on wool and silk pro- 
viding it does not change the color 
of the fabric. 

(4) Javelle water — May be used as a 
last resort. 

Candle Wax consists of paraffin and a dye. 
Cover the spot with a blotting paper and 
press with a warm iron. This will remove 

[1021 



RENOVATING NOTES 



most of the paraffin. Then sponge with 
alcohol or some other organic solvent to 
remove the coloring matter. 
Coffee can be removed by the use of one of 
the following agents : 

(1) Boiling water poured from a height. 
This is effective in removing fresh 
stains from cotton or linen. 

(2) Sponge silk or wool with lukewarm 
water. If a grease spot from cream 
remains, sponge with an organic 
solvent. 

(3) Ordinary laundering will remove 
most coffee stains. 

Chocolate or Cocoa can be removed as 
follows : 

(1) Ordinary laundering. 

(2) Borax and cold water — This method 
can be applied only to washable 
material. Sprinkle the stain with 
borax and soak in cold water. Rinse 
in boiling water. 

(3) Sponge with lukewarm water. Any 
grease spots remaining may be re- 
moved by sponging with an organic 
solvent. 

Fruit Stains — at least, nearly all of them — 
when fresh can be removed by boil- 

[ 103 ] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

ing water. They are difficult to 
remove when dry. Most of them 
are set by alkalies, therefore it is 
wise to avoid the use of soap. 

(1) Boiling water for white or fast 
colored fabrics. Stretch the stained 
material over a bowl and pour boiling 
water upon it from a height. A 
little rubbing between treatments 
may help. 

(2) Warm water for silk or wool. Sponge 
the stain. 

(3) Lemon juice and sunlight. 

(4) Dilute acetic acid or oxalic acid. 
Apply the acid solution and then 
treat with boiling water. 

(5) Hydrogen peroxide made very slight- 
ly alkaline with ammonia. This can 
be used on silk and wool after spong- 
ing with warm water. 

(6) Javelle water — Use only on cotton 
and linen. 

Grass or foliage stains are due to the green 
coloring matter, the chlorophyl, in the 
plants. This is soluble in alcohol and 
other organic solvents but is insoluble in 
water. 
(1) Alcohol — Apply by sponging. 

[1041 



RENOVATING NOTES 



(2) Hot water and soap as in ordinary 
laundering will often mechanically 
remove the stain. 
Grease can be removed by one of the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Warm water and soap as in ordinary 
laundering will remove grease spots 
from washable materials. 

(2) Absorbents — Blotting paper, French 
chalk or white talcum powder will 
remove much of the grease from a 
delicate fabric; cornmeal or salt are 
good for rugs or coarse materials. 
Spread a layer of the absorbent 
material over the stain and work it 
about gently; then shake or brush it 
off and repeat until the stain is 
removed. 

(3) Organic solvents — Carbon tetrachlo- 
ride and chloroform are excellent 
grease solvents. Benzole.is also very 
good. Sponge the stain gently with 
the solvent over a pad until dry to 
prevent leaving a ring. 

Inks for writing vary widely in composition, 
therefore, no one agent will remove all 
ink stains. 

(1) Absorbents — If a large quantity of 
[105] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

ink is spilled, spread cornmeal, salt, 
French chalk, bran, or talcum powder 
thickly over the spot. This will 
absorb the ink and prevent it from 
spreading. Renew the absorbent as 
it becomes soiled. When the dry- 
absorbent ceases to take up the ink 
make it into a paste with water and 
apply. 

(2) Milk — Soak the stain for a day or 
so in milk, changing the milk when it 
becomes discolored. 

(3) Oxalic Acid — Apply oxalic acid and 
allow to stand for a minute, then 
rinse with water. Add a few drops of 
ammonia and rinse again thoroughly. 
Repeat if necessary. 

(4) Hydrogen peroxide — Occasionally 
this is helpful. 

(5) Javelle water — Apply Javelle water 
and allow it to act for about a 
minute. Then apply oxalic acid. 
Rinse thoroughly. Repeat this treat- 
ment as many times as is necessary. 

Iodine stains can be removed with: 

(1) Ammonia. 

(2) Alcohol. 

[106] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



C3) Boiling for five or ten minutes (if on 
a wash material). 
Iron rust stains are treated thus : 

(1) Oxalic acid — Apply oxalic acid, a 
few drops at a time until the stain 
appears a bright yellow, then rinse 
thoroughly with hot water. Neu- 
tralize any remaining acid with am- 
monia and rinse again. 

(2) Lemon juice and salt — Sprinkle the 
stain with salt, moisten with lemon 
juice, and place in the sun. Add 
more lemon juice and salt from time 
to time. Wash thoroughly. 

Meat juices and gravies are similar to 
blood stains, therefore use the same pre- 
cautions and methods for removing them. 
Grease spots sometimes remain after the 
meat stains are removed. Remove these 
with organic solvents. 

Mildew is removed as follows: 

(1) Soap and water as in ordinary laun- 
dering, then bleach in the sun. 

(2) Sour milk — Soak the stains over 
night and then place in the sun. 
Repeat the treatment several times. 

(3) Lemon juice — Moisten the stain with 
lemon iuice and hang in the sun. 

[107] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

(4) Javelle water — This is most effective 
for old stains. Apply the Javelle 
water and allow it to remain on the 
stain for one minute. - Then apply 
oxalic acid. Rinse thoroughly. Re- 
peat the treatment if necessary. 

Milk and Cream spots are similar to those 
from blood and meat juices. They con- 
tain protein. 

(1) Cold or lukqwarm water should be 
used to remove the protein. Follow 
this treatment with hot water and 
soap. 

(2) Cold or lukewarm water followed by 
chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 
gasoline, or other grease solvent. 

Mud spots should be brushed carefully 
before treating and then one of the follow- 
ing agents applied: 

(1) Soap and water as in laundering. 

(2) Alcohol, gasoline or benzine. 

Paint and Varnish should be treated by 
scraping off as much of the paint or 
varnish as possible and then apply one of 
the following agents : 

(1) Soap and water will often wash out 
fresh stains. 

[108] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



(2) Turpentine — Sponge the stains with 
turpentine and rinse with turpentine. 

(3) Carbon-tetrachloride, chloroform, or 
benzole. 

(4) A mixture of benzole and alcohol. 
Perspiration often changes the color of a 

fabric, which color can sometimes be 
restored. While the perspiration from 
most of the body is acid, that from the 
armpits is alkaline. Therefore, use a 
weak acid or weak alkali to neutralize it 
according to the source. 
To remove perspiration stains from white 
goods : 

(1 ) Soap and water, then hang in the sun. 

(2) Javelle water. 

Tar, Road Oil, Etc., can be removed by 
the following: 

(1) Turpentine. 

(2) Turpentine, followed by washing in 
soap and hot water. 

(3) Benzole. 

(4) Carbon-tetrachloride. 

(5) Lard. Rub the lard into the stain, 
then wash in hot soapsuds. 

Tea should be treated as follows: 

(1) Borax and boiling water. Soak in a 
,[109] 



A .COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

borax solution, then rinse in boiling 
water. 

(2) Strong soap solution. Boil the stain 
in this solution. 

(3) Lemon juice and sunlight. 

(4) Javelle water. 

Water spots some materials. The water 
probably dissolves some of the dressing, 
distributing it unevenly and, on evaporat- 
ing, rings remain. The only satisfactory 
method for removing such spots is to 
dampen the entire garment and press 
while damp, or steam it thoroughly. 

DYEING MATERIALS 

How about the streaked and faded dresses 
and dresses of an unbecoming color ? Do you 
know how to dye them ? There is something 
so satisfactory in turning the dingy fabrics 
into smart new shades or subduing the glaring 
color of a dress that you simply can't wear. 

Here are some helps that will save you time 
and help you to always have good results. 

Be Sure the Dye Suits the Goods: 
Not all dyes are alike. Some dyes are made 
just for woolen and some just for cotton or 
linen. Other dyes are good for either an 

[110] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



animal or cotton texture. Make sure you 
know what the texture of your material is. 
Determine whether it is all wool, cotton, silk 
01 linen, or whether it is a mixture. See 
Testing Materials page 78. Read the label 
on the package of dye and see if the dye is 
suited to your goods. 

Weigh your goods. One package of dye 
may not be enough. Read the directions on 
the package and make sure. Don't skimp 
your dye if you want a dark shade. 

Wash the Garment Before Dyeing: The 

garment or material must be washed well 
before it is dyed. If there are spots of dirt 
on the material, the dye is apt to settle into 
them and they will show after the garment 
is dyed. Wash the garment with soap and 
water, rinse in clear water. Wring out the 
garment and put it into the dye pot while it 
is wet. 

The Container: Use a large container, 
Any pot, pan or wash boiler will do that is 
not galvanized. It is a good plan to put water 
into the container and the material in, and 
see if it is sufficiently large so that the material 
is well covered with the water. There must 
be room also to stir the goods around and lift 
it up and spread it around. You need two 

[1111 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

sticks to lift and stir the goods while it is 
being dyed. After you have tested the size 
of the container, wring out the garment or 
material. 

Dissolve the Dye Before Putting in 
the Material: Put water enough in the 




[112] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



container to well cover the goods, and heat 
the water until it is lukewarm. Then stir in 
the dye. Keep stirring until it is all dissolved, 
which probably will be when the water starts 
to steam. You can tell if all of the dye is 
dissolved by taking a spoonful of it up and 
letting the fluid run off the spoon gradually. 
If the fluid appears a clear color, and there are 
no particles in it, the dye is dissolved. 

There is danger of the goods spotting if the 
dye is not dissolved when the material is put in. 
Put the goods in wet. The cooler the dye is, 
the better. If the dye is boiling, it attaches 
itself quickly to the material, and will settle 
in spots before you can submerge the whole 
garment. 

Stir the goods continually, lifting it up and 
pulling it apart, and spreading it out. Do 
not cram the goods down into the bottom of 
the dye pot. 

Goods Looks Lighter After it is Dried: 

Remember that the goods will dry very 
much lighter than it looks in the pot. Wash 
the goods thoroughly after taking it out of 
the dye pot. Woolens, cottons and linens 
ought to be washed with soap and water. 
Wash silk in clear water. Keep rinsing until 
the water runs clear. 



[113] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Pressing Before the Goods is Dry: 

Don't let the wrinkles dry in the garment. 
Press them off while they are quite damp. 
Always press woolens from the wrong side 
or, if you are pressing from the right side, 
cover the material with a damp cloth. Press 
silk with a lukewarm iron. A hot iron rots it. 

To Lighten the Shade: If the goods turns 
out darker than you anticipated you can 
lighten it by washing it in a strong suds 
made of yellow laundry soap. If this does 
not give the desired result, boil the material 
in soapy water, using yellow soap. 

Matching Shades: It is practically im- 
possible to dye goods to exactly match a 
shade of another piece of goods. Dye all 
materials that you want to match at one time. 

If Goods is Streaked: The best results 
will be obtained if you dye it a darker shade 
of its original color. If you try to dye it a 
different color, the streaks will probably 
show. 

Cold Water Dyeing: This means color- 
ing without the boiling process. It is satis- 
factory for light shades, and is especially 
good for tinting silks. 

There are many good cold water dyes and 

[114] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



soaps on the market, or you can use the 

regular dye. If you dissolve a quantity of the 

regular dye in a small 

quantity of water and 

bottle it, you can use 

it as you would bluing 

in the rinse water. 




Choosing the Color: The original color 
of the goods influences the new color. You 
can't dye a piece of goods a lighter shade of 
any color. For instance, it is impossible 
to dye navy blue a medium or light shade of 
red. The result would be purple, as blue 
and red combined make a purple. 

Here is a little chart of colors that will tell 

[115] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

you just what to expect when you are dyeing 
over an old shade: 

Red dye on yellow material gives scarlet. 

Pink dye on light yellow material gives shell 
pink. 

Red dye on an orange material gives a light 
bright red. 

Pink dye on an orange material gives a 
ccral pink. 

Red dye on brown material gives a red 
henna. 

Red dye on dark blue material gives purple. 

Pink dye on light blue material gives 
lavender. 

Red dye on purple material gives a reddish 
purple. 

Red dye on green goods gives brown. 

Red dye on gray gives a dull red. 

Red dye on taupe goods gives a darker red. 

Blue dye on yellow goods gives green. 

Blue dye on orange goods gives greenish 
blue. 

Blue dye on brown goods gives dull blue. 

Light blue dye on light yellow gives Nile 
green. 

Blue dye on green goods gives bottle green. 

Blue dye on purple goods gives a bluish 
purple. 

[116] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



Yellow dye on brown goods gives golden 
brown. 

Yellow dye on purple goods gives greenish 
brown. 

Yellow dye on green goods gives bright 
green. 

Brown dye on orange goods gives tobacco 
brown. 

Brown dye on purple goods gives chocolate 
brown. 

Brown dye on green goods gives olive green. 

Orange dye on purple goods gives light 
reddish brown. 

Orange dye on green material gives myrtle 
green. 

Green dye on purple material gives dull 
dark green. 

The same result holds true if you reverse 
the colors above, that is, using yellow dye 
on red goods produces scarlet, and so on down 
the table. It will give you the key to mixing 
colors, too. If you mix red and yellow dye, 
it will dye white goods scarlet, etc. 

Natural silks such as pongee will not take 
a jet black. It is wise not to attempt to dye 
them black. They take an unattractive blue 
black. 

Overdyeing: By overdyeing, I mean dye- 

[1171 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

ing over an old shade. These are a few of the 
safe choices you may make : Black will cover 
any color. However, the original color of 
the goods will influence the kind of black 
that you produce. For instance, if you dye 
red material black, you are apt to get a rusty 
black. In order to counteract this, add the 
complementary color to the black dye. In 
this case, it would mean adding green to the 
red dye. You know when you mix comple- 
mentary colors in equal proportions and in 
their brightest shades, it produces black. 

Navy blue will cover almost any shade 
except black. 

Dark brown will cover any color except 
black. 

Dark green will cover any medium or light 
shade. 

Garnet will cover any medium shade except 
navy blue. 

Light blue, light green, pink or yellow will 
only cover white or a very delicate shade. 

Purple will cover only light shades. 

Orange will cover only very pale shades 
or white. 

Gray will cover only white. 

Bleaching: If you want to remove the 
[118] 



RENOVATING NOTES 



color in cotton or linen goods before dyeing 
them, try this plan: boil the goods for 
one hour in a solution of strong washing 
powder or sal soda. Rinse thoroughly. Then 
add a teaspoonful of baking soda and tea- 
spoonful of chloride of lime to a quart of 
boiling water. Soak the material in this 
solution until the color is sufficiently removed. 
Rinse thoroughly and spread in the sun to 
dry. Then boil the material to remove any 
of the lime. It must be remembered that this 
process will weaken the fiber of the material 
somewhat. 

Woolen materials or silk can be bleached 
by sulphur fumes. This can be done by 
hanging the material or garments in a closet 
and burning a sulphur candle under them. 
The sulphur candles sold for disinfecting will 
do. Remember in doing this, that the sulphur 
fumes are poisonous. Do not go into the 
closet until it is well aired. 



[119] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

PART III 
EASY MAKE-OVERS 




Fig. (/2o) Contrasting bands make an old waist into an 
overblouse 

[1201 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



Get one hundred per cent, wear out of 
your clothes! 

That doesn't mean to wear them till they 
fall apart whether they are in style or out. 
You really are not getting one hundred per 




Fig. (121) Gingham collars and cuffs will freshen up a 
batiste blouse 

[121] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



cent, out of your clothes, unless you enjoy 
wearing them and they make you look your 
best. 

Of course, no one really enjoys parading 
around in clothes that speak right up and 




Fig. (122) The too-tight waist can be made larger with insets 

11221 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



say "We made our appearance season before 
last!" But then, you don't have to wear that 
variety of clothes any more — not if you are 
handy with the needle and use a little imagina- 
tion. 

See your clothes not as they are but as 
they ought to be. 

Making-over need not be a tedious process 
of ripping and pressing and turning and com- 




Fig. (/2j) A front panel is an easy way of 
increasing the size of a lingerie waist 

[123 1 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



pletely recutting. Touching-up is the most 
successful way of making-over. Just a new 
collar, a skirt panel or a little embroidery will 




Fig. (124) A V-neck can be made high if you add a bosom 

[124] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



often change a nondescript garment into a 
smart one. 

Here are a few suggestions that you may 
be able to apply to the clothes that have taken 
the back hooks in your closet. 

Giving the 
Tuck-in Blouse 
an Over-the- 
Skirt Style: If 

you happen to have 
a chiffon blouse left 
from the time 
when all chiffon 
blouses tucked 
sedately inside 
thetopof the skirt, 
add a band and 
have an over- 
blouse. 

Fig. 120 gives 
the idea of how to 
do it. Cut off the 
lower edge of your 
blouse until it 
hangs an equal 
distance from the r 

n i| i Ftg. {725) Pm tucked panels add a pretty 

nOOr all tile Way trimming as well as making a skirt larger 

[125 1 




A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



around. Then add straight bands, front and 
back and fasten them with buttons at the 
sides. Or, just use snaps and sew on the but- 
tons for trimming. 

If you can't 
match the color of 
your blouse in chiff- 
on use a contrasting 
shade. Perhaps 
your blouse is tan 
and you have a 
navy blue suit. In 
this case, overbands 
of navy blue chiffon 
would be prettier 
than a matching 
shade. 

A binding at the 
neck and cuffs of 
the contrasting ma- 
terial will add to the 
appearance of the 
waist. 

Gin^Uam for 
Collar and Cuffs: 

The odds and ends 
,from one of 

Fig. (126) A center-front tnset panel 
is another way 0/ enlarging a skirt VOUr Summer ging- 

[1261 




EASY MAKE-OVERS 



ham frocks will give an old high-collared 
batiste blouse just the right touch. 

Checked gingham, is especially nice for the 
round, flat Eton collar. Even pongee and 




Fig, {127) Even if you have to add a yoke to the skirt 
it wont show tj you wear it with an overblouse 

[127] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

crepe de chine waists have the gingham 
trimming. 

The Blouse that is Tight: A pleated 
inset of the blouse material at the side front is 




Fig. {128) Inset bands are an easy way of 
lengthening a skirt 

[128] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



a smart way of remending the too-tight 
blouse. Fig. 122 shows a white crepe de chine 
that has pleated insets of striped crepe de 
chine added. A bias of the striped crepe 




Fig. {129) Lace side panels will make a nonde- 
script silk frock smart 

[129] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

de chine is also used to bind the collar and 
cuffs. 

Another way of making a tight blouse 
fuller across the front is to add a panel. 




Fig. (/jo) Fabric flowers are one of the smart waist' 
line finishes 

(See Fig. 123.) This method is especially good 
for remodelling a lingerie blouse of voile or 
batiste. 

Making a V-neck Round : You may 
have several V-neck wash blouses that you 
wish were high necks with flat round collars 

[130] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 




Fig. (/Ji) A high waistline made'long 

that all the girls are wearing. Well, the answer 
is, add a bosom front and the collar of 
your heart's desire. It can easily be done, 
you know. 

If your blouse is a white batiste, you 
can make your trimmings and bosom 
front of colored organdie, gingham or dotted 
swiss. (See Fig. 124.) 

The Too-Tight Skirt: Pin-tucked panels 
at the sides is a practical way of making 
a small skirt larger. Besides giving style, 
the tucks make it possible to piece the 
panels as much as you please. The joinings 

[131] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



will never show under the tucks. (See 
Fig. 125.) 

Another way of enlarging a skirt is to 
add a center-front inset panel. (See Fig. 
126.) Such a style is good looking in 
cottons or silk. For instance, you might make the 




Fig. (132) A waistline dress can be made straight 
hanging by adding an inset section 

inset panel .in a blue crepe de chine, white, 
tan or gray and use blue crepe de chine covered 
buttons at the center-front. Of course, the 
waist of the dress ought to have a matching 
panel. 

[132] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



If a Skirt is Tight at the Waistline, raise 
it and cut a little off the top — provided of 
course, there is material enough in the hem 
to lengthen it. If the skirt is too short to 




%• USS) Even the deep V-neck is collarless 

raise, cut off the top and add a straight piece 
of lining at the top, gathering it to the skirt 
belt. Such a skirt can be worn with an over- 
blouse. (See Fig. 127.) 

[133] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

To Make a Skirt Narrower: Try on 

the skirt and pin out the surplice goods in the 
seams. Stitch along the pinned lines and 
cut off the extra goods. 




Fig. {134) Oval and round necks are bound 



To Lengthen a Skirt: add inset bands. 
(See Fig. 128.) This illustration shows an 
organdie dress lengthened with dotted swiss 
bands but the same idea can be used for other 

[134] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



material. Gingham might be lengthened with 
tucked organdie bands. Crepe de chine could 
be lengthened with pleated chiffon bands. 
Even fine serge or velour would look attractive 
with pleated chiffon insets. 

Overpanels Offer Possibilities: If you 

have a plain silk slip, dress it up with over 




Fig. {135) Binding or cording is 
the best finish for a square neck 

panels of thread lace. You can make a plain 
little frock into an elaborate afternoon or 
evening costume with just a yard and a half of 
lace divided and made into panels for the 
sides of the dress. (See Fig. 129.) 

Waistlines are Important: The wrong 
waistline finish will take all the style out of a 

[135] 



A C OMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

dress. Waistlines must be loose and long. 
If the dress is fancy then the waistline de- 
mands nothing more elaborate than a narrow 
material sash or a narrow ribbon girdle. 
However, when the dress is unadorned then 
waistlines go in for all sorts of frivolities. 
One of the favorite fancy waistlines h made 




Fig. {136) Cut off the tight 

silk sleeve and add a thread 

lace jr ill 

[1361 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



of a series of material flowers. These are of 
goods the same as the dress. It is a finish 
that may be safely copied in cotton or silk. 
(See Fig. 130.) 

Fagot a piece to the lower edge of a blouse 
to give the new long-waisted look. (See 
Fig. 131.) 




Fig. {137) A chiffon puff is stylish for a silk 
or velvet frock 

[137] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Making a Waistline Dress Straight 
Hanging: Avoid the pinched in waisty 
look. Fashion is designing on straighter, bulkier 
lines. If you have a normal waistline dress, 
add a straight section at the waistline, to give 
it a straight hanging appearance. Fig. 132 
shows a cloth dress that has been treated in 
this way. 




Fig. {138) Slashed sleeves will 
add style to a cloth frock 



138] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 




&&• ( J 39) The dress that is worn under the 
arms can be converted into a sleeveless dress 

[139] - 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




Fig. (140) Try adding a crepe silk 
top to the cloth dress that is tight 
through the upper part 

[140] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 




Fig. {141) New sides of contrasting material will 
also help out the too-tight dress 

[141] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




Fig. {142) A suit can easily be changed 
into a coat dress 

[142] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 




Fig. {143) A skirt and coat suit can 
be made into a coat and dress suit by 
attaching the skirt to a silk overblousc 

[143] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




Fig. (144) The three-piece suit with the jacket on 
[144] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



The inset section is pleated chiffon in a 
matching shade. 

To accomplish such a result, rip your waist 
and skirt at the waist line. Try on the waist 
and cut it off an even distance from the floor 
all the way around. Lap the lower edge of 
the waist over the pleated section and stitch 




Fig. {145} A little girVs dress can be lengthened 
with a scalloped band 

[145] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



along the edge of the cloth. Cut off the top 
[of the skirt and join it to the bottom of the 
pleated section, lapping it over the pleated 
section. If you have material enough to 
make a narrow material sash, it will add to the 
style of the dress. If you are short of goods, 




Fig. {146) Fagotting is another way of letting 
down a frock 

[146] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



wear the dress with a fancy metal or compo- 
sition girdle. 

Dresses are Collarless: Just eliminating 
trimming from an old dress, adds style these 
days. There is the question of collars. There 
really aren't any you know. V-necks, round 




F*&- (147) Try lattice work for letting down a 
silk or cloth frock 

[147] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 




Fig. (148) The tight dress will often work over into a skirt 
arid trimming for an overblouse 

[1481 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



neck, bateau necks and square necks have 
taken to bindings. (See Figs. 133, 134, 135.) 
Just a bias fold of goods will add more style 
than an elaborate and expensive collar. 




Fig. {149) A maris worn shirt makes a nice frock 
for Miss Three-Year-Old 

[149] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Sleeves are Fancy: If you have a silk 
frock with a long tight sleeve, cut it off cap 
length, and add a frill of lace or a puff of 
chiffon. (See Figs. 136 and 137). 

Your cloth frock, too, will be the smarter 
for having a long sleeve, slashed at the back 
and gathered into a narrow band cuff. (See 
Fig. 138.) 

If Your Dress Is Worn Under the Arms, 

make a sleeveless dress of it. This gives an 
opportunity to cut the armhole low. (See 
Fig. 139.) 

For the Dress with Tight Waist, add a 

long-waisted upper portion and use the old 
waist for trimming. Fig. 140 shows a twill 
dress that is remodelled with canton crepe 
body part, bands of the twill being used to 
trim the waist. 

Another way of making a tight waist larger 
is to add side sections. (See Fig. 141.) 
Here paisley silk in straight side sections 
gives an old crepe silk an up-to-date style, as 
well as making it large enough for comfort. 

Making a Suit into a Dress: If you have 
a suit too many and are a dress short, convert 
your suit into a dress. Almost any suit can 

[150] 



EASY MAKE-OVERS 



be made into a dress similar to Fig. 142. 
It isn't necessary to rip the suit completely 
apart, either. 

The skirt will probably do just as it is. 
Cut away the front of the coat to give a 
panel front effect and fit the sleeves. Wear 
the dress with a lingerie blouse or vest. 

Making Your Old Suit Three-piece: 

Any coat and skirt suit can be made into the 
so-called three-piece coat and dress suit by 
adding a silk top to the skirt. It is just a 
matter of attaching the top of the skirt to the 
bottom of an overblouse. 

Canton crepe is a very good silk to use for 
the upper part of the dress. The material 
that is cut off the top of the skirt can be used 
for band trimming on the upper. (See Fig. 
143.) 

It is considered quite smart to have the 
blouse part of the dress and the lining of the 
coat match. Often, too, they are contrasting 
color to the suit material. A black or dark 
blue twill or velour suit might have a waist 
and coat lining of gray beige, royal blue or 
henna. Fig. 144 shows the three-piece suit, 
worn with the jacket. 

[151] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Lengthening a Little Girl's Dress: Or- 
gandie and other light cotton stuffs can be 
lengthened with a double scalloped fold of 
fine net. (See Fig. 145.) And silk frocks 
can be lengthened by splitting the material 
and fagotting it together. (See Fig. 146.) 

Lattice-work trimming is another way of 
letting down Mary's frock whether it is cloth, 
cotton or silk. (Fig. 147.) 

If the dress is tight as well as short, use 
the waist for trimming and join the skirt to 
an underbody. It can be worn with a blouse, 
trimmed with the skirt material. (See Fig. 

148.) 

A Child's Frock from a Man's Shirt: 

Those shirts that are frayed at the neck and 
cuffs will make perfectly good little frocks for 
Miss Three-year-old. Use the back of the 
shirt for the front of the dress and the fronts 
of the shirt for the backs of the dress. (See 
Fig. 149). 

These make-over problems are a good 
review for some of the things you studied in 
the other eleven lessons. Even if you haven't 
clothes to make over, see if you can copy all 
the make-over styles shown. 

Study the lessons in their consecutive order. 

[152] 



INDEX 



Afternoon Clothes 

Applied Shirrings 

Appliqued Flowers 

Aprons 

Aprons, Bungalow (see Bungalow) . 

Aprons, Child's 

Aprons, Cutting of 

Aprons, Pocket 

Aprons, Slip-on 

Aprons, Strings 

Aprons, Waistband 

Aprons, Waistline 

Arm Measure 

Arrowhead Tack 

Artificial Silk, Testing of 

B 

Babies' Clothes 

Back Measure 

Back, One-Piece 

Back, Width of 

Back and Yoke in One 

Banded Collar 

Bar Tack 

Basque Dress 

Bath Robes 

Bertha Collar 

Bias Edge 

Bias Folds 

Binding Edges 

Blanket Bath Robe 

Blanket Stitch 

Bleaching 

Block Pattern 

Bloomer Playsuit 

Bloomers 

[153] 



Lesson 


Pi 


I 


9 


VI 


15 


III 


12 


II 


21 


II 


45 


X 


39 


II 


19 


II 


26 


II 


32 


II 


24 


II 


24. 


II 


21 


I 


107 


VII 


4 


XII 


80 


IX 


3 


I 


107 


VIII 


9 


VIII 


100 


VIII 


45 


IV 


48 


VII 


3 


VI 


80 


XII 


46 


VIII 


23 


II 


6 


VII 


*1 


II 


7 


XII 


46 


IX 


7 


XII 


118 


II 


45 


X 


74 


III 


69 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Lesson Page 

Blouse Dress, Russian VI 63 

Bloused Dress VI 70 

Blouses IV 23 

Blouses, Closings (see Closings) IV 25 

Blouses, Collars (see Collars) IV 29 

Blouses, Costume IV 77 

Blouses, Cuffs (see Cuffs) IV 55 

Blouses, Edges (see Edges) IV 18 

Blouses, Fitting of IV 89 

Blouses, Lingerie IV 82 

Blouses, Overblouse VIII 53 

Blouses, Patterns VIII, IV 10, 23 

Blouses, Revers IV 40 

Blouses, Sleeves (see Sleeves) IV 34> 65 

Blouses, Sports' IV 79 

Blouses, Tailored IV 24 

Blouses, Trimmings (see Trimmings) . IV 8 

Blouses, Types of IV 1 

Blouse, Boy's Buster Brown XI 5 

Blouse, Middy XI 17 

Blouse, Outing Shirt XI 11 

Blouse, Russian XI 28 

Blouse, Sailor XI 23 

Blouse, Smock XI 14 

Blouse, Tuck-in XI 26 

Blouse, Child's, with Buttoned-on Skirt X. 77 

Boat-Shaped Collar VIII 25 

Boat-Shaped Neck Outline VIII 18 

Bosom Front VIII 51 

Bosom Front, Men's Front, tucked XII 19 

Box-Coat VII 59 

Box-Pleat Closing IV, VIII 38,28 

Boys' Clothing XI 5 

Boys' Blouse3 (see Blouses, Boys')... XI 5 

Boys' Coats XI, VII 51, 75 

Boys' Hats XI 57 

Boys' Middy Blouse XI 17 

Boys' Overalls XI 73 

Boys' Shirts XI 11 

Boys' Smock XI 14 

Boys' Trousers (see Trousers) XI 33 

Boys' Underwear XI 67 

Braid and Tassel Trim VI, VII 19,7 

Braiding VI 10 

Brassieres 23 

Brassieres, Garter Supports Ill 29 

Brassieres, Pattern Ill 16, 24, 31 

[154] 



INDEX 



Lesson Page 

Bungalow Apron, Block Pattern II 45 

Bungalow Apron, Making of II 58 

Business Clothes I 14 

Bust Measure VIII, I 100, 106 

Buster Brown Blouse XI 5 

Button, Crow Foot VI 16 

Button-on Trousers, Boys' XI 49 

c 

Camisole, Ribbon Ill 54 

Cap, Boys' (see Hats, Boys') XI 57 

Cap, Infants' IX 60 

Cap, Sailor XI 64 

Cap, Sectional XII 62 

Capes VII 71 

Capes, Children's X 125 

Capes, Infants' IX 47 

Cat Stitch IX 14 

Chain Stitch Ill n 

Chemise, Envelope Ill 33 

Chemise, Flounced Ill 50 

Chemise, Step in Ill 46 

Chest, Fitting of IV 90 

Chest, Measure I 107 

Chest, Width of VIII 100 

Children's Clothes X 1 

Children's Aprons X 39 

Children's Capes X 125 

Children's Coats, Top VII 78 

Children's Dresses (see Dresses, 

Child's) X 33 

Children's Pleated Skirt, Fancy X 112 

Children's Rompers X 18 

Children's Shirred Overblouse X 113 

Children's Trimmings (see Trimmings, 

Child's) X 4 

Children's Underwear X 125 

Circular Appliques X 15 

Circular Drawers Ill 58 

Circular Skirts V 7 

Cleaning XII 92 

Closings, Box Pleat ITf, VIII 38, 28 

Closings, Duchess VIII 31 

Closings, Front (with revers) IV 43 

Closings, Lapped VIII 27 

Closings, Lapped Center-Front * IV 25 

Closings, One-Sided 1 VIII 35 

[155] 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



32 
59 

51,75 
71 



^1 . o, r, Lesson Page 

Closings, Slot Seam VIII 31 

Closings, Tab VIII 

Coat, Box VII 

Coat, Boys' XI VII 

Coat, Capes ' VII 

Coat, Collar VIII 83 

Coat, Draping of VIII 89 

Coat, Eton VII cc 

Coat, Finishing of VII 79 

Coat, Flaring VII 60 

Coat, Infants' IX 41 

Coat, Cape of Infants' IX 41, 47 

Coat, Lapel VIJ 54 

Coat, Lined VII 26 

Coat, Norfolk VII 48 

Coat, Pattern for VIII 80 

Coat, Peplum VII 41 

Coat, Pockets (see Pockets) VII 13 

Coat, Raglan Top VII 69 

Coat, Semi-Fitting VII 27 

Coat, Shirt, Men's XII 4 

Coat, Sleeve VIII 88 

Coat, Top VIII, VII 91, 78, 62 

Coat, Trimmings (see Trimmings, 

Coat) VII 3 

Coat, and Trousers Set XII 34 

Coat, Unlined VII 26 

Coat, Wraps VII 66 

Collar, Banded IV 48 

Collar, Bertha VIII 23 

Collar, Boat-Shaped VIII 25 

Collar, Coat VIII 83 

Collar, Convertible IV 

Collar, Fancy IV 

Collar, of Long Waisted Dress VI 

Collar, Pattern for IV, VIII 29,19 

Collar, Pointed Neck VIII 20 

Collar, Revers IV 40 

Collar, Rolling IV 31 

Collar, Round Flat IV 44 

Collar, Sailor IV 53 

Collar, of Straight-Hanging Dress VI 28 

Collar, with Back Closing VI 36 

Collar, U-shaped Neck VIII 21 

Collar, of Waistline Dress » VI 52 

Collarband, Men's Coat Shirt XII 9 

Color Tests XII 01 

[156] 



42 
52 



INDEX 



Colors for Auburn-Haired Women .. 

Colors for Blondes 

Colors for Blondettes 

Colors, Combination of 

Colors for Florid Complexions 

Colors for Gray-Haired Women 

Colors for Sallow Complexions 

Colors for Stout Women 

Commercial Patterns, Use of 

Convertible Collar 

Cording 

Costume Blouse 

Cotton, Testing of 

Couching 

Country Clothes 

Cozywrap 

Cross Stitching 

Cross-Stitching Edge 

Cuff, Deep 

Cuff, Finishing of 

Cuff, French, Men's 

Cuff, Straight Plain 

Cuff, Turn Back 

Cuff, Turn Back for 

D 

Daisies . 

Dance Frock 

Dart-Fitted Sleeves 

Deep Cuff 

Diaper 

Double Point Patch Pocket 

Draped Skirt 

Draping of Coat 

Draping of Fitted Lining 

Draping Skirts 

Drawers, Circular 

Drawers, Envelope 

Drawers, Step-in 

Drawers, Waist, Boy's 

Drawn Work Insertion 

Dresses 

Dresses, Basque 

Dresses, Blouse, Russian 

Dresses, Bloused 

Dresses, Choosing of 

Dresses, Dance 

[157] 



Lesson 


Page 


I 


56 


I 


49 


I 


53 


I 


65 


I 


62 


I 


57 


I 


59 


I 


64 


II 


60 


IV 


42 


VI 


15 


IV 


77 


XII 


79 


VI 


10 


VIII 


8 


IX 


53 


IX 


12 


IV 


18 


IV 


55 


IV 


61 


XII 


12 


IV 


62 


IV 


60 


IV 


58 


X 


II 


VI 


9i 


VIII 


7i 


IV 


55 


IX 


17 


V 


43 


VIII 


96 


VIIL 


89 


VIII 


3 


VIII 


92 


III 


58 


III 


68 


III 


64 


XI 


70 


IV 


16 


VI 


22 


VI 


80 


VI 


63 


VI 


70 


VI 


1 


VI 


9i 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



Lesson 

Dresses, Long Waisted VI 

Dresses, Patterns VI 

Dresses, Russian Blouse VI 

Dresses, Straight-Hanging VIII, VI 

Dresses, Straight Hanging with Back 

Closing VI 

Dresses, Surplice VI 

Dresses, Trimmings (see Trimmings, 

Dress) VI 

Dresses, Waistline VI 

Dresses, Children's 

Dresses, Bloomer Play-Suit X 

Dresses, Blouse with Buttoned-on Skirt X 

Dresses, Guimpe X 

Dresses, Gymnasium Suit X 

Dresses, Middy with Pleated Skirt X 

Dresses, Overblouse with Box-Pleated 

Skirt X 

Dresses, Party X 

Dresses, Raised Waistline X 

Dresses, Smock and Bloomers X 

Dresses, Straight-Hanging X 

Dresses, Yoke X 

Dresses, Infants' IX 

Dry Cleaning XII 

Duchess Closing VIII 

Dyeing XII 

E 

Edges, Cross-Stitching IV 

Edges, Embroidered Ill 

Edges, Finishing of 

Edges, Bandings, Woven II 

Edges, Bias II 

Edges, Binding II 

Edges, Braid, Rickrack II 

Edges, Facing II 

Edges, Hem 

Edges, Piping 

Edges, Tape II 

Edges, Frilled IV 

Edges, Pointed IV 

Edges, Whipping IX 

Embroidered Edging Ill 

Embroidery, Button VI 

Embroidery, Running Stitch IV 

Embroidery, Stitches VII 

[158] 



Page 
42 
22 
63 
58,22 

34 
85 

4 
SO 

74 
77 
66 
103 
94 

105 
117 

54 
46 

33 
43 
18 
92 

3i 
no 



18 
7 

6 
16 

7 
13 
13 

5 
10 

15 
20 

8 

8 

7 

*4 

18, 22 

9 



INDEX 



Lesson 

Embroidery, Wool IV 

Envelope Chemise Ill 

Envelope Drawers Ill 

Equipment, Sewing I 

Eton Jacket VII 

Etiquette, Clothes I 

Evening Clothes I 

F 

Fabric Fruit X 

Facing Edges II 

Facing, Neck VI 

Fagotting VI, IX 

Fancy Collar IV 

Fashion Magazine, Use of I 

Feather Stitching IX 

Fibers XII 

Fitted Lining, Draping of VIII 

Fitting IV 

Fitting Lining VIII 

Flaring Coat VII 

Flounced Chemise Ill 

Flowers, Appliqued ^ . Ill 

French Cuff, Men's XII 

French Knots IX 

Frilled Edge IV 

Front Closing (Revers) IV 

Fullness IV, VIII 

Fur Trimming VI, VII 

G 

Garter Supports Ill 

Gathered Scallops IV 

Gertrude Petticoat IX 

Girdles VI 

Golf Clothes I 

Gored Skirt V 

Guimpe Dress X 

Gymnasium Suit X 

H 

Hand Sewing (see Sewing, Hand) .... I 

Hand Worked Loops IV 

Hang of Skirt V 

Hats, Boys', Four Section Crown XI 

Hats, One-Piece Cap XI 

Hats, Rolling Brim XI 

Hats, Sailor Cap XI 

[1.59] 



Page 
14 
33 
68 
109 
55 
5 
xo 



13 
13 
75 
8,13 
52 
18 

15 
81 

3 
89 

7 
60 
50 
12 
12 

IX 

20 

43 
83,43 
17,4 



29 
10 
3i 
19 
7 
15 
66 
103 



93 
22 

58 
63 
57 
61 
64 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Lesson Page 

Hem II 5 

Hip Measure I, VIII 108, 101 

Hip Yoke Skirt V 28 

Honeycomb Smocking IV 11 

Hood, of Infants' Cape IX 49 

I 

Infants' Clothes IX 3 

Infants' Cap IX 60 

Infants' Cape IX 47 

Infants' Coats IX 41 

Infants' Cozywrap IX 53 

Infants' Diaper IX 17 

Infants' Hood IX 49 

Infant's Kimono IX 36 

Infants' Petticoat IX 31 

Infants' Dress IX 18 

Insertion, Drawn Work IV 16 

Insets, Pleated VI 7 

Insets, Shirred VI, VII 6, 9 

Insets, Tucked VI 4 

J 

Jacket, Eton VII 55 

K 

Kimono, Infants' IX 36 

Kimono Sleeve II 54 

Knickerbockers, Boy's XI 33 

Knotted Braid VII 12 

L 

Lace Tabs Ill 15 

Lace Trimming Ill 3 

Lapel, Peak VII 54 

Lapped Center-Front Closing IV 25 

Lapped Closing VIII 27 

Lattice Work VI 7 

Layette IX 3 

Layout, Definition of II 21 

Lazy Daisy Stitch IX 10 

Lengthening Sleeve IV 72 

Lined Coats VII 26 

Linen, Testing of XII 80 

Lingerie Blouse IV 82 

Lining of Waistline Dress VI 53 

Long-Waisted Dress VI 42 

Loops, Hand Worked IV 22 

[160] 



INDEX 



M 



Machine Attachments (Sewing) 

Machine Binder 

Machine Cording Foot 

Machine Edge Stitcher 

Machine Hemmer 

Machine, Hemmer, Wide 

Machine Quilter 

Machine Ruffler 

Machine Tucker 

Machine, Sewing 

Magazines, Use of 

Making Over 

Materials, Dyeing 

Materials, Testing of 

Measurements, Taking of 

Medallions 

Men's Clothing, Bath Robes 

Men's Caps 

Men's Neckties 

Men's Nightshirts 

Men's Overalls 

Men's Pajamas 

Men's Shirts 

Men's Smoking Jacket 

Men's Underwear 

Men's Union Suit 

Mercerized Cotton, Testing of 

Middy Blouse 

Middy with Pleated Skirt 

Mourning Clothes 

N 

Narrowing Sleeve 

Neck Facing 

Neck Measure 

Neck Outlines, Boat-Shaped 

Neck Outlines, Pointed 

Neck Outlines, Round 

Neck Outlines, Square 

Neck Outlines, U-Shaped 

Neck, Pointed 

Neck, Size of 

Neck, V- 

Neckties • 

Nightgowns 

Nightgowns, Child's 

[ 161] 



Lesson 


Page 


I 


77 


I 


Si 


I 


85 


I 


84 


I 


77 


I 


79 


I 


86 


I 


83 


I 


82 


I 


73 


I 


18 


XII 


92, 120 


XII 


no 


XII 


78 


I 


106 


III 


5 


XII 


46 


XII 


62 


XII 


66 


XII 


22 


XII 


59 


XII 


27 


XII 


4 


XII 


53 


XII 


34 


XII 


4i 


XII 


80 


XI 


17 


X 


94 


I 


15 


IV 


69,72 


VI 


75 


I 


107 


VIII 


18 


VIII 


16 


VIII 


18 


VIII 


15 


VIII 


16 


VIII 


20 


VIII 


98 


IV 


25 


XII 


66 


III 


73 


X 


138 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



Lesson Page 

Nightgowns, Yoke . . Ill 76 

Nightshirt, Men's XII 22 

Norfolk, Coat VII 48 

o 

One-Piece Back VIII 

One-Piece Cap, Boy's XI 

One-Sided Closing VIII 

Outing Shirt, Boy's XI 

Outline Stitch IX 

Oval Patch Pockets V 

Overalls, Boy's XI 

Overalls, Men's XII 

Overblouse, Boy's XI 

Overblouse, Child's with Box-Pleated 

Skirt X 

Overblouse, Shirred X 

Overblouse, Ladies' VIII 

P 

Pajamas XII 

Party Dress X 

Patch Pockets VII 

Patch Pockets, Double Point V 

Patch Pockets, Pointed V 

Patch Pockets, Pointed Outline V 

Patch Pockets, Scalloped Top V 

Patch Pockets, Square V 

Patch Pockets, Tab V 

Patterns, Aprons (see Aprons) II, X 

Patterns, Back, One-Piece VIII 

Patterns, Bloomers Ill 

Patterns, Blouses VIII, IV 

Patterns, Brassieres Ill 

Patterns, Camisole Ill 

Patterns, Cape, Infants' IX 

Patterns, Changing Size of VIII 

Patterns, Chemise, Envelope Ill 

Patterns, Closings (see Closings) VIII, IV 

Patterns, Coats (see Coats) VIII 

Patterns, Coats, Infants' IX 

Patterns, Collars (see Collars) IV, VIII 

Patterns, Commercial Use of II 

Patterns, Cozywrap IX 

Patterns, Cuffs (see Cuffs) IV 

Patterns, Drawers (see Drawers) Ill 

[162] 



9 

57 
35 
11 

9 
49 
73 
59 
23 

105 
"3 

53 



27 
117 

13 

43 

42 

50 

4i 

44 

21,39 

9 

69 
10,23 

16 

54 

47 

78 

33 
27,25 

80 

4i 
29,19 
60 
53 
55 
58 



INDEX 



Lesson 

Patterns, Dresses (see Dresses) Vi, VIII 

Patterns, Edges (see Edges) IV 

Patterns, Hood, Infant's Cape IX 

Patterns, Kimono, Infant's IX 

Patterns, Linings VIII 

Patterns, Neck IV 

Patterns, Neck Outlines (see Neck Out- 
lines) VIII 

Patterns, Nightgowns (see Night- 
gowns ) Ill 

Patterns, Petticoats Ill, IX 

Patterns, Pockets (see Pockets and 

Patch Pockets) V 

Patterns^ Revers IV 

Patterns, Size, Testing of VIII 

Patterns, Skirts (see Skirts) V, VIII 

Patterns, Sleeves (see Sleeves) VIII, IV 

Patterns, Strings II 

Patterns, Tucks VIII 

Patterns, Waistband II 

Patterns, Yokes VIII 

Peak Lapel VII 

Peg Top Rompers X 

Peplum Coat VII 

Petticoats Ill 

Petticoats, Child's X 

Petticoats, Gertrude IX 

Pin Tucks VII 

Piping II 

Placket V 

Pleat, Addition of IV, V 

Pleated Insets VI 

Pleats, Organ VI 

Pleated Skirt V 

Pleated Skirt, Child's Fancy X 

Pockets VII 

Pockets, Apron II 

Pockets, Double Point Patch V 

Pockets, Oval Patch V 

Pockets, Patch VII 

Pockets, Pointed Outline Patch V 

Pockets, Pointed Patch V 

Pockets, Scalloped Top V 

Pockets, Slashed V, VII 

Pockets, Square Patch V 

Pockets, Tab Patch V 

Pockets. Tabs and Pockets in One V 

[163] 



Page 
22,58 
18 
49 
36 
7 
25 

13 

73 
77,3i 

4i 

40 

98 
7,96 
62,65 

24 

45 

24 

4i 

54 

29 

4i 

77 

131 

3i 
12 
10 

19 

85,74 

7 

11 

63 
112 

13 
26 

43 
49 
13 
50 
42 

53,14 
4i 
44 
52 



Lesson 


Page 


V 


56 


IV 


8 


VIII 


20 


VIII 


16 


V 


42 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



Pockets, Welt 

Pointed Edges 

Pointed Neck Collar 

Pointed Neck Outline 

Pointed Patch Pockets 

Q 

Quilling VI 14 

R 

Raglan Sleeve 

Raglan Top Coat 

Renovating 

Revers, Blouse with 

Revers, Collar 

Revers, Frill , 

Revers, Front Closing 

Ribbon, Organ Pleated 

Rickrack Braid 

Riding Habit 

Rolling Brim Hat 

Rolling Collar 

Rompers 

Rompers, Drop Seat 

Rompers, Peg Top 

Rompers i Underleg Opening 

Roses 

Rosettes • 

Rose Trimming 

Round Flat Collar 

Round Neck Outline 

Running Stitch Embroidery 

Russian Blouse, Boys' 

Russian Blouse Dress 

s 

Sailor Blouse, Tuck-in 

Sailor Cap 

Sailor Collar 

Sailor Overblouse 

Scalloped Banding 

Scallops 

Scallops, Gathered 

Seams 

Seams, Double Stitched 

Seams, French 

Seams, Hemstitched 

[164] 



IV 


73 


VII 


69 


XII 


92, 120 


IV 


40 


IV 


40 


IV 


44 


IV 


43 


VI 


IX 


II 


18 


I 


8 


XI 


61 


IV 


3* 


X 


18 


X 


26 


X 


29 


X 


18 


X 


4-10 


X 


12 


III 


9 


IV 


44 


VIII 


18 


IV 


18,22 


XI 


26 


VI 


63 


XI 


26 


XI 


64 


IV 


53 


XI 


23 


IX 


16 


III 


14 


IV 


10 


I 


95 


I 


99 


I 


97 


IV 


82 



INDEX 



Lesson 

Seams, Lap Felled I 

Seams, Slot I 

Sectional Caps, Men's XII 

Semi-Fitting Coat VII 

Sewing Equipment I 

Sewing, Hand-Felling I 

Sewing, Back Stitch I 

Sewing, Basting I 

Sewing, Blind Stitching I 

Sewing, Overcasting I 

Sewing, Running Stitch I 

Sewing Machine Attachments 

(see Machine Attachments i 

Sheer Materials IV 

Shirred Insets VI, VII 

Shirred Overblouse, Child's X 

Shirring VI 

Shirring Applied VI 

Shirts, Boy's, Outing XI 

Shirts, Men's XII 

Shirts, Collarband XII 

Shirts, French Cuff XII 

Shirts, Outing XII 

Shirts, Tucked Bosom XII 

Shirtwaists (see Blouses) 

Shortening Sleeve IV 

Shoulder VIII, IV 

Silk, Testing of XII 

Skirts, Circular V 

Skirts, Draped VIII 

Skirts, Draping of VIII 

Skirts, Gored VIII, V 

Skirts, Hip Yoke V 

Skirts, Pleated V 

Skirts, Pockets (see Pockets) V 

Skirts, Regulating Hang of V 

Skirts, Two Piece VIII, V 

Skirts, Types of V 

Skirts, Wrapped V 

Slashed Pockets V, VII 

Sleeves, Armhole VIII 

Sleeves, Bloused Dress ; VI 

Sleeves, Coat VIII 

Sleeves, Dart-Fitted VIII 

Sleeves, Infants' Dress IX 

Sleeves, Kimono II 

Sleeves, Lengthening IV 

[165] 



Page 
10 1 
104 

62 

27 
109 

93 

89 

90 

94 

92 

88 

77 
88 

6,9 

113 

11 

15 
11 

4 

9 

12 

14 
19 

72 
99,89 
79 
7 
96 
92 

96,15 
28 

63 
4i 
58 
20 

1 
32 
53,14 
73 
75 
88 

7i 
24 

54 
72 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 

Lesson Page 

Sleeves, Armholes VIII 73 

Sleeves, Making of VIII 68 

Sleeves, Narrowing IV 69, 72 

Sleeves, Patterns for VIII, IV 62, 65, 34 

Sleeves, Raglan IV 73 

Sleeves, Sewing In IV 67 

Sleeves, Shortening IV 72 

Sleeves, Straight-Hanging Dress VI 29 

Sleeves, Two-Piece VIII 76 

Sleeves, Waistline Dress VI 54 

Sleeves, Widening IV 72 

Slip-On Apron II 32 

Slot Seam Closing VIII 31 

Smock and Bloomer Dress X 46 

Smock, Boys' XI 14 

Smocking, Honeycomb IV 11 

Smocking, Stroked IV 13 

Smoking Jacket XII 53 

Sports' Blouse IV 79 

Sports' Clothes I 5 

Square Neck Outline VIII 15 

Square Patch Pockets V 41 

Stains, Removal of XII 95 

Step-in Chemise Ill 46 

Step-in Drawers Ill 64 

Stitching, Blanket IX 7 

Stitching, Cat IX 14 

Stitching, Cross IX 12 

Stitching, Feather IX 15 

Stitching, Lazy Daisy IX 10 

Stitching, Machine ^ VI 11 

Stitching, Outline IX 9 

Straight-Hanging Dress with Back 

Closing VI 34 

Straight-Hanging Dress VI, VIII 22, 58 

Straight Trousers, Boys' XI 42 

Street Clothes I 11 

Strings, Apron II 24 

Stroked Smocking IV 13 

Style I 1 

Styles for Older Women I 46 

Styles for Short Women I 35 

Styles for Slim Girls I 23 

Styles for Stout Girls I 24 

Styles for Stout Women , I 32 

Styles for Tall Women I 40 

Styles for Thin Women I 43 

[166] 



INDEX 



Lesson 

Styles for Young Women I 

Surplice Dress t . . . . VI 

T 

Tab Closing VIII 

Tabs, Lace Ill 

Tacks, Arrowhead VII 

Tacks, Bar VII 

Tacks, Tailors' VII, VI 

Tailors' Tacks VI, VII 

Tailored Blouse IV 

Tassels VII 

Tassel and Braid Vt 

Tennis Clothes I 

Testing Materials XII 

Top Coat VIII, VII 

Traveling Clothes I 

Trimmings, Blouse 

Trimmings, Edges (see Edges) IV 

Trimmings, (see Embroidery) IV 

Trimmings, Insertions ~ IV 

Trimmings, Loops IV 

Trimmings, Scallops IV 

Trimmings, Smocking (see Smocking) . IV 

Trimmings, Children's X 

Trimmings, Circular Appliques X 

Trimmings, Daisy X 

Trimmings, Fabric Fruit X 

Trimmings, Rose X 

Trimmings, Rosette X 

Trimmings, Coat VII 

Trimmings, Arrowhead Tacks VII 

Trimmings, Bar Tack VII 

Trimmings, Bias Folds VII 

Trimmings, Embroidery VII 

Trimmings, Fur VII 

Trimmings, Knitted Braid VII 

Trimmings, Pin Tucks VII 

Trimmings, Ribbon VII 

Trimmings, Shirred Insets VII 

Trimmings, Tailors' Tacks VII 

Trimmings, Tassels VII 

Trimmings, Dress VI 

Trimmings, Braiding VI 

Trimmings, Button VI 

Trimmings, Cording VI 

[167] 



Page 
28 
85 



32 

*5 

4 

3 

3,i6 

l6 > 3 

24 

6 

19 

6 

78,86 

91,62 

12 



1 + 
16 
22 
IO 
II 

4 
15 
11 

13 

4-10 

12 

3 

4 

3 
13 

9 

4 
12 
12 

6 

9 

3 

6 

4 
10 
16 
15 



A COMPLETE COURSE IN DRESSMAKING 



Lesson 

Trimmings, Couching VI 

Trimmings, Embroidery 

(see Embroidery) VI 

Trimmings, Fagotting VI 

Trimmings, Fur VI 

Trimmings, Girdles VI 

Trimmings, Insets VI 

Trimmings, Lattice Work VI 

Trimmings, Machine Stitching VI 

Trimmings, Quilling VI 

Trimmings, Shirring VI 

Trimmings, Tailors' Tacks VI 

Trimmings, Tassel and Braid VI 

Trimmings, Tucked Insets VI 

Trimmings, Infants' IX 

Trimmings, Stitching (see Stitching) . . IX 

Trimmings, Underwear Ill 

Trimmings, Appliqued Flowers Ill 

Trimmings, Chain Stitch Ill 

Trimmings, Embroidered Edging Ill 

Trimmings, Lace Ill 

Trimmings, Medallion Ill 

Trimmings, Rose Ill 

Trimmings, Scalloped Ill 

Trimmings, Tabs, Lace Ill 

Trousers, Boys' Button-on XI 

Trousers, Knickerbockers XI 

Trousers, Straight XI 

Tucked Bosom Shirt XII 

Tuck-in Sailor Blouse, Boys' XI 

Tucks, Allowing for VIII 

Tucks, Pin VII 

Tunic VI 

Turn-Back Cuff IV 

Two-Piece Skirts VIII, V 



Page 
10 

14 

8 

17 

19 

4-7 

7 

11 

14 
11 
16 
19 

4 

5 

7 

3 

12 
11 

7 

3 

5 

9 
14 
15 
49 
33 
42 

19 
26 

45 
12 

55 
60 
20 



u 

U-Shaped Neck Collar 

U-Shaped Neck Outline 

Underwear, Boys' 

Underwear : Children's 

Underwear, Children's Gertrude Petti- 
coat 

Underwear, Children's Nightgown .... 
Underwear, Children's Underwaist . . . 

[168] 



VIII 


21 


VIII 


16 


XI 


67 


X 


126 


X 


131 


X 


138 


X 


135 



INDEX 



Underwear, Men's 

Underwaist 

Union Suit 

Union Suit, Boys' 

Unlined Coats 

V 

V-Neck 

Vest Front 

W 

Waist, Boys' Drawers 

Waist Measure 

Waistband 

Waisted Dress, Long 

Waistline 

Waistline Apron 

Waistline Dress 

Waistline Tunic 

Waistline, Sloping of 

Welt Pockets 

Whipping Edges 

Widening Sleeve 

Wool Embroidery 

Wool, Testing of 

Work Shirt, Men's 

Wrap 

Wrapped Skirt 

Y 

Yarns, Testing of. • 

Yoke Dress 

Yokes 



Lesson 


Page 


XII 


34 


X 


»35 


XII 


4* 


XI 


67 


VII 


26 


IV 


25 


VIII 


38 


XI 


70 


I 


108 


II 


24 


VI 


42 


VIII 


101 


II 


21 


VI 


SO 


VI 


55 


II 


22 


V 


56 


IX 


s 


IV 


72 


IV 


14 


XII 


78 


XII 


14 


VII 


66 


V 


32 


XII 


88 


X 


43 


[I, IV 


4i,83 



[169 







* I*? 86 * 













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