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Jt f 


Complete Dog Book 





All Rights Reserved 
Copyright in ENcaAND 




The Bench Show standards and scales of points 
presented in this book are those laid down by the 
Specialty Clubs in America and Great Britain, 
and are used in judging the most important shows 
in this and other countries. They will be found an 
admirable guide for the uninitiated and will enable 
the expert judge and fancier to refresh his mind in 
regard to the mandates of the fancy, whenever he 
may feel the necessity of so doing. Changes occur 
in these standards from time to time, and it is the 
intention of the publisher to incorporate them in 
successive annual editions, corrected and revised up 
to the latest expressions of the various Clubs. 

The second part of this book has been devoted to 
the breeding and management of dogs in health and 
their care and treatment in disease. The aim here 
has been to present in simple language highly im- 
portant technical knowledge which will enable an 
amateur to establish a kennel of dogs and conduct 
it successfully. It is an interesting and profitable 
occupation, for there is always a demand for well- 
bred puppies of all breeds. 

W. A. B. 





The Origin of the Dog - - - - 9 

Guard Dogs: 

TheMastifF 12 

The St. Bernard - - - - - 16 

The Newfoundland ----- 24 

The Great Dane ----- 29 

Coursing Hounds: 

The Scottish Deerhound - - - - 33 

The Irish Wolfhound - - - . 37 

The Russian Wolfhound - - - - 42 

The Greyhound ----- 45 

The Whippet ------ 49 

Scenting Hounds: 

The Bloodhound - - - - - 51 

The Otterhound ----- 55 

The Foxhound ------ 57 

The Harrier ------ 61 

The Beagle -------63 

The Basset Hound ----- 66 

The Dachshund - 7^ 

Shepherd Dogs: 

The Old English Sheep Dog . - - 73 

The Collie, Rough-coated - - - 77 

The Collie, Smooth-coated - - - - 82 

The German Shepherd Dog - . - 83 

The Shetland Collie ----- 94 




Gun Dogs: Page 

The Pointer ----.. ^y 

The English Setter - - - - - 104 

The Irish Setter - - - - - -114 

The Gordon Setter - - - - - 117 

The Griffon - - - - - -120 


The Chesapeake Bay Dog - - - - 123 
The Irish Water Spaniel - - - - 126 

The Flat-coated Retriever - - - - 129 
The Curly-coated Retriever - - - 131 
The Labrador ------ 134 

Working Spaniels: 

The Spaniel Family - - - _ ij6 
The English Springer - - - - 138 

The Field Spaniel - - - - - 140 
The Cocker Spaniel - - - - 144 

The Clumber Spaniel - - - - - 148 
The Sussex Spaniel - - - - - 151 

The Welch Springer - - - - - 1 54 

Working Terriers: 

The Old English Broken-Haired - - - 158 
The Black and Tan or Manchester - - 159 

The Fox Terrier, Smooth - - - - 163 

The Fox Terrier, Rough - - - - 168 

The Airedale - - - - - -169 

The Bedlington - - - - - 172 

The Scottish - - - - - -175 

The Skye - - - - - - 178 




The Clydesdale - - - - - -i8i 

The Dandle Dinmont - - - - 184 

The West Highland White - - - - 191 

The Irish Terrier - - - - - 196 

The Welsh Terrier ----- 201 

The Sealyham ----- 203 

The White English ----- 206 

Specialty Dogs: 

The Bulldog ao8 

The Bull Terrier and Miniature - - 218 

The Boston ------ 223 

The French Bulldog - - - - 228 

The Dalmatian - - - - - -232 

The French Poodle ----- 236 

The Chow ------- 239 

Toy and Lap Dogs: 

The King Charles Spaniel - - - - 242 

The Prince Charles Spaniel - - - 242 

The Blenheim Spaniel ----- 242 

The Ruby Spaniel ----- 242 

The Japanese Spaniel ----- 248 

The Yorkshire Terrier - - - - 251 

The Italian Greyhound - - - - ^55 

The Pomeranian ----- 257 

The Schipperke ------ 262 

The Pekingese ----- 265 

The Brussels GrifFon ----- 268 

The Toy Poodle - . - - - - 270 

The Maltese - - - - - -271 

The Pug ------- 273 




Foreign Dogs: Page 

The Eskimo and Samoyede - - - - 277 

The Russian Sheep Dog - - - - 279 

The Norwegian Elkhound - - - - 279 

The Dobermann Pinscher - . - 280 
The Boxer - - - - - - -281 

The Papillon - - - - - - 282 

The Chihuahua ------ 283 

Diseases of Dogs: 

Diagnosis ------- 284 

Care, Diet, Nursing - - - . 286 

Distemper - 288 

Intestinal Parasites ----- 292 

Skin Diseases ------ 297 

Stomach and Bowels - - - - 302 

Eye, Ear, and Throat 308 

Nervous Diseases - - - - - 315 

C^RE AND Management: 

Sleeping Quarters - - - - - -319 

Bedding - - - - - - - 321 

Feeding - - - - - - - -322 

Watering - - - - - - - 324 

Washing - - - - - - -3^4 

Exercise ------- '326 

Grooming -..-.- . 327 

Fleas and Lice - - - - - - 327 

The Laws of Breeding - - - . 329 

Heredity and Evolution - - - - 330 

In-breeding - - - - - - - 33^^ 




Correlation ------ ^^3 

Atavism ------- ^34 

Pre-natal Impressions - - - - 335 

Telogeny ------- 336 

Whelping Table ----- ^37 

The Brood Bitch ------ 338 

Nursing and Weaning - - - - 340 

Training -------- 344 

Effects of Training ----- 345 

Training Age ------ 345 

Rewards and Punishments - . . 346 

Training Methods - - - - - - 348 

House Breaking ----- 3^0 

Minding the Whistle 351 

List of Illustrations 

Terjuers ------ Frontispiece 

Engush Mastiff -------~i6 

Dane, St. Bernard, Newfoundland - - - 24 

Greyhound, Russian Wolf Hound, Whippet - 40 

American Wolfhound, English Greyhound - 48 

English Bloodhounds ------ 56 

American Beagle, American Bred Foxhounds 72 

Old Engush Sheep Dogs, Collies - - - - 80 

American Bred Collie, Police Dog - - - 88 

American Bred English Setter and Puppies - 104 

Irish Setter, English Setter, Pointer - - 112 

Irish Water Spaniels, Chesapeake Bay Dog - 128 

Cocker Spaniel, Wealdstone Field Spaniels 136 

Clumber Spaniel, Cocker Spaniel - - - 152 

Cairn Terrier, Sealyham Terrier, Old English 
Sheep Dog, Wire-haired Fox Terrier, Welsh 
Terrier - - - - - - - - -168 

Airedale, Airedale Puppies ----- 176 

Irish Terrier, Scottish Terrier, West Highland 
White Terrier, Wire-haired Fox Terrier, 
Skye Terriers, Welsh Terrier - - -184 




The Bulldog -------- 208 

French Bull, Chow Chow, French Poodle, Dal- 
matian __----___ 216 

English Toy Spaniel, Blenheim Spaniel, The 
Pomeranian, Yorkshire Terrier, The Schip- 

peke ---------- 240 

Japanese Spaniel, Japanese Spaniel's Puppies, 
Pekingese, Brussels Griffon - - - - 264 

English Pugs -_---_-_ 272 

Doberman, Norwegian Elkhound, Samoyed, 
Chihuahua -------- 280 



Although the exact origin of the dog is shrouded 
in that old and familiar refuge of the scientists, "the 
mists of antiquity," their family history is easily 
traced back through the bronze age and the stone 
age to the geological drift that first evidenced the 
use of fire, which is ordinarily accepted as indicating 
the advent of man upon the earth. Further than 
this science sayeth not. Statues and carvings exist 
which show there were dogs in the most ancient 
times resembling in important particulars the breeds 
of the present, but it has never been decided whether 
these dogs or those of to-day were descended from 
some dog-like ancestor or were relatives of the fox, 
the jackal, or the wolf. On this subject it may be 
said that there is a resemblance in appearance be- 
tween some breeds of dogs and foxes. They are 
unlike, however, in character and habits, for the 
fox is not a social animal and does not hunt in 
packs, and foxes also have a peculiar odor that 
dogs have not. It may also be stated that despite 
the many cases referred to of crosses between foxes 
and dogs, there is not on record a duly authentic 
case of such a cross ever having occurred. 

What has been said about the lack of relationship 
between dogs and foxes does not hold good in refer- 
ence to wolves and jackals, for the latter so closely 


resemble many breeds of dogs in general appear- 
ance, structure, habits, instincts, and mental qual- 
ities that they may be regarded as of one stock. It 
is impossible to formulate a definition that will in- 
clude all the varieties of the domestic dog that 
exclude all of the wild species. In addition to their 
marked similarity in size, appearance, and an- 
atomical structure, both wolves and jackals can be 
and frequently are trained, while domesticated dogs 
frequently become wild, consorting and inter- 
breeding with the former, assuming their habits 
and changing their characteristics back to a wolf- 
like hound. The wolf and jackal when trained 
wag their tails, lick their masters' hands, crouch or 
throw themselves on their back in submission, come 
when called, jump about when caressed, and in 
high spirits run around in circles or in figure eights, 
their plaintive howl changing to a businesslike bark. 

There are so many breeds of dogs so unlike in size 
and appearance that it is difficult to reconcile their 
being derived from a common ancestry. The marked 
disparity in size, however, between the tiny toy 
Spaniel and the St. Bernard is no greater than the 
disparity between the Percheron horse and the 
Shetland pony, the Patagonian and the pigmy. 

In the origin of species Darwin reports several 
interesting experiments, one being the breeding to- 
gether promiscuously of a large number of fancy 
pigeons of totally different sizes, varieties, and 
types. The result was one uniform type, the com- 
mon wild wood pigeon. In the face of these experi- 
ments it is probable that the breeding together of 



several varieties of horses would revert back to one 
uniform type, the wild horse, and the mating of all 
the different varieties of dogs would result in an 
animal in all respects similar to the wild dogs which 
are to be found in different parts of the world, par- 
ticularly in Africa. 

There is conclusive evidence to prove that the 
people who lived in the monolithic age, in both the 
Eastern and Western hemispheres, possessed dogs, 
living with them on the same terms of intimacy as 
exist to-day, and later the Chaldeans, the Assyrians, 
the Greeks, and the Romans owned dogs that were 
the progenitors of those of the present time. 

In fact, the prehistoric drifts, the ashes of fires 
and mould in caves revealing man's first presence 
on the globe also reveal the presence of the dog. 
The history of the dog is the history of man, their 
origin is coexistent, their lives have been lived to- 
gether, and the extinction of the human race would 
likely be punctuated by the extinction of the dog. 

In the last half century great care has been given 
to the breeding of dogs. Thanks to dog shows and 
their rigid rules of registration demanded by the 
Kennel Club, the various canine types have been 
brought to a high state of perfection and kept un- 
compromisingly distinct. The elimination of the 
nondescript cur is steadily progressing, and the 
meeting on the streets of dogs that do not bear re- 
semblance to some recognized breed is becoming 
more and more uncommon, for within the last two 
years even the amateur dog owner is alive to the 
importance of keeping breeds distinct. 




The Mastiff is one of the oldest and most typical 
of British dogs. It is probable that he owes his 
origin to the dogs of similar type that were used by 
Assyrian kings for lion hunting. There is also a 
similarity between them and the fierce MoUosian 
dog of the ancient Greeks. However this may be, 
there is no question but what the Mastiff has been 
cultivated in the British Isles for many centuries. 
It is mentioned in Roman history of the eighth year 
of the Christian era that the MoUosian dogs of the 
Greeks were pitted against the Pugnaces of Britain 
and that the latter overpowered them. It is also 
further stated by the same writer, Gratiu^ Falliscus, 
that there were two kinds of British Pugnaces, a 
large and a small type, the latter probably being 
the prototype of the present Bulldog. 

The word "Mastiff" is derived from the Latin 
massiviuSy meaning massive or large, but at differ- 
ent times the names Tie-dog and Ban-dog have been 
applied to the Mastiff. At an early date they were 
undoubtedly used to guard flocks and herds as well 
as homes. Later they were trained to fight bulls, 
bears, lions, and other animals imported for that 



purpose. Three well-trained Mastiffs, it is recorded, 
were considered a fair match for a bear, four for a lion. 

Fashions in dogs fluctuate. At one time the MastiflF 
was the pride of the British Show Ring and one of 
the most popular breeds in the couutry, but for 
some reason hard to understand — for the Mastiff is 
one of the most impressive of dogs — the public lost 
interest in the breed, and for the past twenty years 
it has steadily declined in favor, and the classes, 
once so well filled, are now deserted. It is to be 
hoped sincerely that ere long interest in this mag- 
nificent breed will be reawakened and that a reso- 
lute effort will be made to regain some of their old 
time popularity and glory, for as guards and com- 
panions they are unsurpassed 

In the selection of Mastiff puppies two to four 
months old, look for: Great size; massive, short 
head; deep, square muzzle; big, well-chiseled skull; 
short, deep, round body; straight forelegs and 
enormous bone. 

The standard of the Old English Mastiff Club is 
as follows: 

General Character and Symmetry (value lo). 
— ^Large, massive, powerful, symmetrical, and well- 
knit frame. A combination of grandeur and good 
nature, courage and docility. 

General Description of Head. — In general out- 
line, giving a square appearance when viewed from 
any point. Breadth greatly to be desired, and 
should be in ratio to length of the whole head and 
face as 2 to 3, 



General Description of Body (Height and 
Substance) (value lo). — Massive, broad, deep, 
long, powerfully built, on legs wide apart and 
squarely set. Muscles sharply defined. Size a 
great desideratum, if combined with quality. Height 
and substance important if both points are pro- 
portionately combined. 

Skull (value 12). — Broad between the ears, fore- 
head flat, but wrinkled when attention is excited. 
Brows (superciliary ridges) slightly raised. Muscles 
of the temples and cheeks (temporal and masseter) 
well developed. Arch across the skull of a rounded, 
flattened curve, with a depression up the center of 
the forehead from the medium line between the eyes 
to half way up the sagittal suture. 

Face or Muzzle (value 18). — Short, broad under 
the eyes, and keeping nearly parallel in width to 
the end of the nose; truncated, i. e., blunt and cut 
off square, thus forming a right angle with the upper 
line of the face, of great depth from the point of the 
nose to underjaw. Underjaw broad to the end; 
canine teeth healthy, powerful, and wide apart; in- 
cisors level, or the lower projecting beyond the 
upper, but never sufiiciently so as to become visible 
when the mouth is closed. Nose broad, with widely- 
spreading nostrils when viewed from the front; flat 
(not pointed or turned up) in profile. Lips diverg- 
ing at obtuse angles with the septum, and slightly 
pendulous, so as to show a square profile. Length 
of muzzle to whole head and face as i to 3. Cir- 
cumference of muzzle (measured midway between 



the eyes and nose) to that of the head (measured 
before the ears) as 3 to 5. 

Ears (value 4). — Small, thin to the touch, wide 
apart, set on at the highest points of the sides of 
the skull, so as to continue the outline across the 
summit, and lying flat and close to the cheeks when 
in repose. 

Eyes (value 6). — Small, wide apart, divided by 
at least the space of two eyes. The stops between 
the eyes well marked, but not too abrupt. Color, 
hazel-brown, the darker the better, showing no haw. 

Chest and Ribs (value 8). — Neck slightly arched, 
moderately long, very muscular, and measuring in 
circumference about one or two inches less than the 
skull before the ears. Chest wide, deep, and well 
let down between the forelegs. Ribs arched and 
well rounded. False ribs deep and well set back to 
the hips. Girth should be one-third more than the 
height at the shoulder. Shoulder and arm slightly 
sloping, heavy, and muscular. 

Forelegs and Feet (value 6). — Legs straight, 
strong, and set wide apart; bones very large. El- 
bows square. Pasterns upright. Feet large and 
round. Toes well arched up. Nails black. 

Back, Loins, and Flanks (value 8). — Back and 
loins wide and muscular; flat and very wide in a 
bitch, slightly arched in a dog. Great depth of flanks. 

Hindlegs and Feet (value 10). — Hindquarters 
broad, wide, and muscular, with well-developed 
second thighs. Hocks bent, wide apart, and quite 
squarely set when standing or walking. Feet round. 



Tail (value 3). — ^Put on high up, and reaching to 
the hocks, or a little below them, wide at its root 
and tapering to the end, hanging straight in repose, 
but forming a curve, with the end pointing upward 
but not over the back when the dog is excited. 

Coat Color (value 5). — Coat short and close 
lying, but not too fine over the shoulders, neck and 
back. Color, apricot or silver fawn or dark fawn- 
brindle. In any case muzzle, ears, and nose should 
be black, with black around the orbits, and extend- 
ing upward between them. 


This noble breed of dogs has a strong hold on 
popular sentiment, as they are associated with the 
saving of life in Alpine snows. The breed probably 
originated in Switzerland, certainly the name did, 
but the dog that we know to-day is largely the 
product of the fanciers of other lands, England in 

For hundreds of years the monks of St. Bernard, 
a monastery in the Alps at the apex of the pass of 
that name, kept a kennel of large dogs, which ac- 
companied the monks who daily patrol the pass to 
guide and assist travelers, and they undoubtedly 
from time to time detected travelers who had fallen 
helpless in the snow and* would have escaped the 
human eye. These occurrences served as a basis 
upon which some remarkable stories have been 
written of dogs patroling the pass alone and making 
miraculous and thrilling rescues. 



English MasdiF, Ch. Beowul/. 


The most celebrated of the Hospice dogs of the 
last century was Barry, who is said to have as- 
sisted in the rescue of over forty wanderers. This 
dog, mounted, is now in the museum at Berne, 
Switzerland. He was smooth coated and bears little 
resemblance to the modern St. Bernard. 

Just what the origin of the Hospice breed was it 
is impossible to say, but it is not unlikely that they 
sprang from the Pyrenean sheep dog. At least it is 
recorded that when the kennels were devastated by 
distemper, which occurred several times, and the 
dogs which were left showed signs of degenerating 
from inbreeding, the monks introduced the blood 
of the native Shepherd as well as the Great Dane 
and the Newfoundland. Through this intermixture 
of blood the stamina of the breed was restored, and 
by careful selecting the type was fixed with a reason- 
able degree of certainty. 

The monks have never been partial to the rough- 
coated dogs, as they found that their heavy coat 
and feathering soon clogged up with snow and 
handicapped their movements. Consequently they 
retained the smooth coats for the Hospice kennels 
and disposed of the rough coats to Swiss fanciers, 
and it was from these fanciers that most of the an- 
cestors of the dogs with which the public is now 
familiar were obtained. Since then English fanciers 
have introduced the blood of the Mastiff and the 
Bloodhound, and the result of this intermixture of 
breeds is the St. Bernard of to-day, a magnificent 
animal that commands attention in any company 



for his size, beautiful coat, coloring, and majestic 

As a rule the St. Bernard is docile in tempera- 
ment and affectionate in disposition. 

The monks were very particular about markings, 
and type was not so important so long as the dog 
was big and strong. White, orange, and black were 
the colors looked for, a white blaze running up the 
face and joining the collar of the same color that 
circled the neck and crossed the shoulders and 
chest. The body was patched with orange and the 
orange color gradually deepened in color as it ap- 
proached the white until it became black at the 
fringe. Particularly desired was a spot in the 
center of the white on the forehead. The idea of 
these markings being the representation of the stole, 
the chasuble, and scapular of the vestments of 
their order. Present-day fanciers do not attach so 
much importance to these markings. 

In the selecting of St. Bernard puppies at from 
two to four months and after, look for great size 
and massiveness; head medium in length, with very 
deep, square muzzle, decided stop, massive skull, 
but the substance well distributed, not broad like a 
Mastiff. The puppy should show signs of growing 
tall, and promise enormous bone, short, deep body. 
A rich orange is the favorite color, with white 
collar, blaze, and dark shadings. The roughs show 
more coat as puppies than the smooths. 

The standard adopted by the St. Bernard Club 
of America is as follows: 



General Character. — Powerful, tall (upstand- 
ing), figure erect, strong and muscular in every part, 
with powerful head and most intelligent expression. 
In dogs with a black mask the expression appears 
more stern, but never ill-natured. 

Head.— Like the whole body, very powerful and 
imposing. The massive skull is wide, slightly 
arched and sloping at the sides, with a gentle curve 
into the very well developed cheek bones. Occiput 
only slightly developed. The supra-orbital ridge is 
strongly developed and forms nearly a right angle 
with the horizontal apex of the head. Between the 
two supra-orbital arches and starting at the root of 
the muzzle runs a furrow over the whole skull; it is 
very deep between the supra-orbital arches and 
strongly defined up to the forehead, becoming grad- 
ually more shallow toward the base of the occiput. 
The lines at the sides, from the outer corner of the 
eyes, diverge considerably toward the back of the 
head. The skin on the forehead forms somewhat 
deep wrinkles, more or less distinct, and converging 
from the supra-orbital arch toward the furrow over 
the forehead; especially in action they are more 
visible, without in the least causing the expression 
to become stern. The stop is sudden and rather 

Muzzle. — The muzzle is short, not snipy, and its 
depth, taken at the stop, must be greater than the 
length. The bridge of the muzzle is not arched, but 
straight, and in some dogs slightly broken. From 
the stop over the entire bridge of the muzzle to the 



nose runs a rather wide, well-marked, shallow fur- 
row. The flews of the upper jaw are strongly de- 
veloped, not cut at right angles, but turning with a 
graceful curve into the lower edge, and are slightly 
overhanging. The flews of the lower jaw must not 
be pendant. The teeth, in proportion to the con- 
formation of the head, are moderately strongly de- 
veloped. A black roof to the mouth is desirable. 

Nose. — Is very substantial and broad, with well- 
dilated nostrils, and, like the lips, always black. 

EIars. — Are of moderate size, set rather high, 
with very strongly developed burr. They stand 
slightly outward at the base, then drop with a sharp 
bend to the side and lie closely to the head without 
a fold. The flap is thin and forms a rounded triangle, 
slightly elongated toward the point, the front edge 
lying closely to the head, whereas the back edge 
may stand away from the head somewhat, especially 
when the dog is listening. Ears lightly set on, which 
at the base lie close to the head, give it an oval and 
too slightly marked appearance, whereas a strongly 
developed base gives the skull a squarer, broader, 
and much more expressive appearance. 

Eyes. — Set more to the front than the sides, are 
of moderate size, brown or nut-brown, with a ss^a- 
cious and good-natured expression, set moderately 
deep. The lower eyelids do not as a rule fit close 
to the eyeballs, and form toward the inner corner 
an angular wrinkle. Eyelids which are too pendant 
and showing conspicuously the lachrymal glands or 
a red, thick haw are objectionable. 



Neck. — Is set on high, very strong, and in action 
is carried erect; otherwise horizontally or slightly 
downward. The junction of head and neck is dis- 
tinctly marked by a line. Neck very muscular and 
rounded at the sides, which makes it appear rather 
short. Clearly noticeable dewlaps, but too much 
development of this is not desirable. 

Shoulders. — Sloping and broad, very muscular 
and powerful, withers strongly defined. 

Chest. — Well arched, moderately deep, not reach- 
ing below the elbows. 

Back. — ^Very broad, slightly arched in the loin 
only; otherwise perfectly straight as far as the 
haunches, sloping gently from the haunches to the 
rump, and merging imperceptibly into the root of 
the tail. 

Hindquarters. — Well developed, thighs very 

Belly. — Showing distinctly where it joins the 
very powerful loins, only slightly drawn up. 

Tail. — Starting broad and powerful directly from 
the rump; is long, very heavy, ending in a blunt tip. 
In repose it hangs straight down, turning gently 
upward in the lower third. In a great many speci- 
mens the tail is carried with the end turned slightly 
to one side (as in all former hospice dogs, according 
to old pictures), and therefore hangs down in the 
shape of a "P." In action all dogs must carry their 
tails more or less turned upward, but not too erect 
or over the back; a slight curling over of the tip is 



Forearms. — ^Very powerful and extraordinarily 

Forelegs. — Straight, strong. 

HiNDLEGs. — Slightly bent on the hocks, and ac- 
cording to the presence of single or double dew- 
claws, the feet turn outward more or less, which, 
however, must not be understood to mean cow- 

Feet. — Broad, with strong toes moderately well 
closed up, and knuckles rather high. The single or 
double dewclaws set on low, so as to be almost on a 
level with the pad of the foot, give a greater surface 
and prevents the dog from breaking easily through 
the snow. There are dogs which have on their hind 
feet a regularly developed fifth toe (thumbs). The 
so-called dewclaws (wolf-sklaun) which sometimes 
occur on the hindlegs are imperfectly developed 
toes; they are of no use to the dog and are not taken 
into consideration in judging. 

Coat. — Is very dense, broken haired (stock haar- 
ing), lying smooth (flat), tough, without feeling 
rough to the touch. Thighs slightly bushy. The 
tail at the root is covered with longer and more 
dense hair, which gradually becomes shorter toward 
the tip. The tail is bushy, but not forming a flag. 

Color and Markings. — White, and orange and 
white; orange in all its various shades, white with 
light to dark barred brindle patches, or these colors 
with white markings. The colors orange or light 
brindle and dark are of entirely equal value. The 
following markings are absolutely necessary: White 



chest, feet and tip of tail, noseband (white muzzle); 
white spot on nape and a blaze are very desirable. 
Never self-covered or without white. Faulty are all 
other colors except black shadings on the face and 

Height. — ^At shoulder of the dog (measured with 
the hound measure) ought to be thirty-nine inches; 
of the bitch, thirty-seven inches. The bitches are 
throughout of a more delicate and finer build. 

All variations not in accordance with these points 
are faulty. 


The long-haired is perfectly similar, with the ex- 
ception of the coat, which is not "stock haaring" 
(broken haired), but moderately long, flat or slightly 
wavy, but which ought never to be either rolled or 
curly, neither ought it to be shaggy. On the back, 
especially from the region of the haunches to the 
rump, the hair is generally more wavy. This is, 
however, also slightly noticeable in the short- 
haired dogs, even in those from the hospice. 

The tail is bushy, well covered with moderately 
long hair. Rolled or locky hair on the tail is not 
desirable. A tail with parted hair or feathered is 
faulty. Face and ears are covered with short, soft 
hair. Longer silky hair is allowable at the base of 
the ears; in fact, this is nearly always present. 
Forelegs only slightly feathered. Thighs bushy. 

Faults are all such formations as indicate a New- 
foundland cross, such as swayback, disproportion- 


ately long backs, hocks too much bent, and spaces 
between the toes, with upward growing hair. 

No scale of points has been adopted. 

Color and Markings. — The following white 
markings are absolutely necessary: Noseband (white 
muzzle) blaze, chest, legs, and tip of tail. A color 
or a spot on the nape is very desirable. 


This magnificent breed of dogs shares with the 
St. Bernard the honor of being a life-saving breed. 
The fact that the postage stamp of the Island of 
Newfoundland bears their portrait indicates the re- 
gard in which they are held in their native land. 
Abroad, they have been the subjects of painters and 
writers, and more than one has received the medal 
of the Royal Humane Society. 

While there is no exact information as to how the 
breed originated, it is probable that early settlers 
from Europe carried with them dogs of large size. 
The island, on account of its fishermen, has always 
been in close communication with other countries, 
and these dogs undoubtedly were reinforced from 
time to time with dogs brought out by sea captains 
or fishermen, and from this parent stock the New- 
foundland was evolved. 

The hazardous calling of the fishing banks natu- 
rally developed a race of men combining strength, 
vigor, and the coolest of courage. The same con- 
ditions that develop men develop their dogs. In 
their native home the Newfoundlands share all the 



duties and dangers of their owners. They assist in 
hauling in the nets. They drag the sledges across 
the snow in the depths of winter, and when the men 
are away, as they frequently are for weeks, it is left 
to the dogs to guard the homes and watch over the 
women and children. Newfoundlands are as much 
at home in the water as on land, and Nature 
has provided them a coat that protects them against 
the exigencies of their stern climate. 

No dog has been the subject of more popular 
sentiment than the Newfoundland. The greatest 
portrait artists have portrayed them, poets have 
sung of them, and writers in all languages have re- 
lated their heroic virtues. It is generally agreed 
that the Newfoundland breed are worthy of the 
honors and distinctions that have been heaped upon 
them. They are unsurpassed in strength, courage, 
and intelligence. Their great docility recommends 
them as companions and guards. The ready forti- 
tude with which they da$h to the assistance of per- 
sons in distress, particularly in danger of drowning, has 
gained them universal recognition as the friendsof man. 

While the native home of these dogs lies at our 
doors, they have never become popular in this 
country. Large, bJ; ck dogs of unknown breeding 
are sometimes shown as Newfoundlands, and occa- 
sionally a good one appears, but they are so seldom 
met with that but few shows provide classes for 
them. In England the breed is on a stronger basis. 
A club looks after their interest and a standard has 
been provided for them. The description and points 



laid down are all from the standpoint that the New- 
foundland dog is an aquatic dog without an equal. 

In choosing Newfoundland puppies at from two 
to four months old, look for great size of typical, 
moderately long head, muzzle free from lippiness, 
but not snipy; dark eyes, not much stop; medium 
ears, set close to side of head; big, short body; 
rather short legs with enormous bone; coat dense 
and almost like fur. In the white-and-blacks the 
color should be equally distributed. 

The following is the British Newfoundland Club's 
standard description and scale of points: 

Symmetry and General Appearance. — The dog 
should impress the eye with strength and great 
activity. He should move freely on his legs, with 
the body swung loosely between them, so that a 
slight roll in gait should not be objectionable; but 
at the same time a weak or hollow back, slackness 
of the loins, or cowhocks should be a decided fault. 

Head. — Should be broad and massive, flat on the 
skull, the occipital bone well developed; there should 
be no decided stop, and the muzzle should be short, 
clean cut, rather square in shape, and covered with 
short, fine hair. 

Coat. — Should be flat and dense, of a coarseish 
texture and oily nature, and capable of resisting the 
water. If brushed the wrong way it should fall back 
into its place naturally. 

Body. — Should be well ribbed-up, with a broad 
back. A neck strong, well set onto the shoulders 
and back, and strong, muscular loins. 



Forelegs. — Should be perfectly straight, well 
covered with muscle, elbows in but well let down, 
and feathered all down. 

Hindquarters and Legs. — Should be very strong; 
the legs should have great freedom of action, and a 
little feather. Slackness of loins and cowhocks are 
a great defect; dewclaws are objectionable, and 
should be removed. 

Chest. — Should be deep and fairly broad, and 
well covered with hair, but not to such an extent 
as to form a frill. 

Bone. — Massive throughout, but not to give a 
heavy, inactive appearance. 

Feet. — Should be large and well shaped. Splayed 
or turned out feet are objectionable. 

Tail. — Should be of moderate length, reaching 
down a little below the hocks; it should be of fair 
thickness and well covered with long hair, but not 
to form a flag. When the dog is standing still and 
not excited it should hang downwards, with a slight 
curve at the end; but when the dog is in motion it 
should be carried a trifle up, and when he is excited, 
straight out, with a slight curve at the end. Tails 
with a kink in them, or curled over the back, are 
very objectionable. 

Ears. — Should be small, set well back, square 
with the skull, lie close to the head, and covered 
with short hair, and no fringe. 

Eyes. — Should be small, of a dark brown color, 
rather deeply set, but not showing any haw, and 
they should be rather widely apart. 



Color. — ^Jet black. A slight tinge of bronze or a 
splash of white on chest and toes is not objec- 

Height and Weight. — Size and weight are very 
desirable, so long as symmetry is maintained. A 
fair average height at the shoulders is 27 inches for 
a dog and 25 inches for a bitch, and a fair average 
weight is respectively: Dogs, 140 pounds to 150 
pounds; bitches, no pounds to 120 pounds. 

Other Than Black. — Should in all respects fol- 
low the black except in color, which may be almost 
any, as long as it disqualifies for the black class, but 
the colors most to be encouraged are black-and- 
white and bronze. Beauty in markings to be taken 
greatly into consideration. 

Dogs that have been entered in black classes at 
shows held under kennel club rules where classes 
are provided for dogs other than black shall not be 
qualified to compete in other than black classes in 

Black dogs that have only white toes and white 
breasts and white tip to tail are to be exhibited in 
the classes provided for black. 

Value of Points. — Shape of skull, 8; ears, 10; 
eyes, 8; muzzle, 8; neck, 4; chest, 6; shoulders, 4; 
loin and back, 12; hindquarters and tail, lO; legs 
and feet, 10; coat, 12; size, height, and general 
appearance, 8; total, 100. 




The Great Dane, or Boarhound, as it was for- 
merly called, is of ancient type^ and there are coins 
which were made before the Christian era that bear 
an impression of a large, long-headed, powerful dog 
of the general proportions and appearance of the 
present Great Dane. 

In Germany the ears of these dogs are still cropped, 
presumably to give them what is considered a more 
alert and striking appearance, but this practice has 
been abolished in most other countries. 

In earlier times the breed was used as a protector 
of property and person, as well as a hunter. A 
stronger type of dog was designated the Ulmer 

With the introduction of dog shows the breed re- 
ceived greater attention in its native country, where 
a club has been established for the purpose of pro- 
moting and encouraging its propagation upon lines 
which the club has laid down according to its con- 
ception of what the correct type and features should 

The disposition of the Great Dane, like that of 
all dogs, naturally is docile, although dogs vary 
somewhat in their temperaments. This docility 
should be fostered when young, at which time 
character in the dog, as in the youth, is to a great 
extent formed. If a Great Dane is spoiled in his 
upbringing he is, on account of his great size and 
power, more than ordinarily dangerous, which fact 
» 29 


emphasizes the necessity for great care being ex- 
ercised in his rearing and absolute control being 
obtained over the animal. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Great Dane puppies at from two to four months 
old and after, are: Great size; a long, telescopic 
head, almost free from stop; deep, square muzzle; 
small, deep-set eye; narrow skull, small ears, short 
body, deep chest, well-sprung ribs, straight forelegs, 
and great bone. 

The standard of the Great Dane as approved by 
the Great Dane Club of America is as follows: 

General Appearance. — The Great Dane (Deut- 
sche Dogge) combines in his whole appearance size, 
strength, and refinement as hardly any other breed. 
He has not the heavy and clumsy look of the MastiiF, 
nor the lightness of the Greyhound, but holds about 
the middle relation between these extremes. Im- 
mense size, with strong, albeit elegant conformation; 
high stepping and proud bearing; head and neck 
high; tail, when quiet, hanging down; when excited, 
straight or only slightly raised above back. 

Head. — Rather long, more high and pressed in 
on the sides than broad and flat appearing; seen 
from the side shows decided stop; line of forehead 
and nose must be parallel with each other; viewed 
from the front the forehead should not appear 
much broader than the strong, developed muzzle; 
cheeks very little developed. The head should 
from all sides appear squarish and clean in all its 
lines; nose large, bridge straight or only slightly 




arched; lips blunt, forming a right angle with line 
of head, and with medium yet distinct flews; jaws 
even, eyes medium large, round, and with sharp 
expression; brows well developed; ears high set on, 
moderately wide between, and standing erect, hav- 
ing a pointed crop. 

Neck and Shoulders. — Neck long, strong, and 
slightly arched, with well-defined line where con- 
necting with head; from shoulder to head gradually 
growing finer; no dewlap; shoulder long and sloping. 

Chest. — Moderately broad, ribs fairly sprung, 
reaching far back, deep in front; should go almost 
down to elbow joint. 

Body. — Back moderately long; loin slightly arched, 
croup short, slightly dropping, and running in fine 
lines to stern; seen from above, the broad back con- 
nects well with the fairly sprung ribs; thighs should 
be strongly developed and hams well muscled up. 
Under line of body a graceful curve, well tucked 
up in flank. 

Tail. — Medium length, reaching just to the 
hock, strong at root, end well tapered, but should 
never, even under excitement, be carried high over 
the back or curled. 

Forelegs. — Elbow well down at right angle to 
shoulder blades, and neither turned in nor out; 
forearm well muscled; the whole leg strong, and, 
seen in front, appears, on account of muscle develop- 
ment, slightly bent; seen from the side, perfectly 
straight from elbow to pastern. 

Hindquarters. — Long, well muscled, and well 



let down; fairly bent; seen from behind^ stifle must 
appear entirely straight, neither in nor out. 

Feet. — Catfoot; neither turned in nor out; well 
arched and closed toes; nails strong and curved; 
dewclaws not desired. 

Coat. — Short, dense, and smooth, slightly longer 
on underside of tail. 

Color. — A. Brindle; body color from the lightest 
fawn to the richest golden tan; always with black, 
or at least dark stripes. B. Whole-colored, 
fawn in the different shades, whether entirely one 
color or darker shadings of the same on muzzle, 
eyebrows, and back; also all black and all white. 
The nose in brindle or whole-colored dogs (except 
all whites) always black. Eyes and toenails dark. 
White markings not desirable. C. Spotted (Har- 
lequin), body color white, with irregularly-formed 
but regularly-distributed spots of black; other colors, 
except markings as the above, are faulty. Harle- 
quins or all white dogs have sometimes wall eyes, 
flesh-colored or spotted nose and white nails, which 
are permissible in these colors. 

Size. — ^The height of dogs should not be under 
30 inches; bitches 28 inches or more. Length should 
not exceed height at shoulders. 

Value of Points. — General appearance and type, 
12; head, 18; neck, 8; chest and brisket, 5; back and 
loins, 7; legs and feet, 9; bones and muscle, 6; croup, 
4; tail, 7; movement, 8; height, 6; color and mark- 
ings, 6; condition and coat, 4. Total, 100. 





This magnificent breed of dogs has occupied a 
prominent place in the romantic history of Scotland, 
and looks well the part they have played as companion 
to Highland Chieftains. They have a most noble 
presence, and are at once docile, sagacious, and 
undeniably courageous. As companions and guards 
they are unsurpassed, for they never forget their 
friends, and their attachment for their owners is a 
blind devotion that will lead them to fight for their 
protection with the utmost desperation. 

In the field the Deerhound not only has a very 
keen nose, but can run down the deer, jackrabbit, 
coyote, or wolf, and can kill them alone and un- 
aided. He will tree a mountain lion or a black bear, 
and would not hesitate to fight a grizzly if in pro- 
tection of his master. No dog combines more 
beauty, strength, and utility than these aristocrats 
of the canine world. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Deerhound puppies at from two to four months old 
and after, are: A long, level head, dark eye, long 
neck, well-placed shoulders, great bone, deep chest, 
well-sprung ribs, big hindquarters, short body. 

The Scottish Deerhound standard and description 
is as follows: 

Head. — The head should be broadest at the ears, 



ing slightly to the eyes, with the muzzle taper- 
lore decidedly to the nose. The muzzle should 
)inted, but the teeth and lips level. The head 
d be long, the skull flat rather than round, with 
y slight rise over the eyes, but with nothing ap- 
:hing a stop. The skull should be coated with 
rately long hair, which is softer than the rest 
e coat. The nose should be black (though in 
blue-fawns the color is blue), and slightly 
ine. In the lighter colored dogs a black muzzle 
iferred. There should be a good mustache of 
r silky hair, and a fair beard. 
Rs. — ^The ears should be set on high, and, in 
e, folded back like the Greyhound's, though 
I above the head in excitement without losing 
old, and even in some cases semi-erect. A 
ear is bad. A big, thick ear, hanging flat to 
lead or heavily coated with long nair is the 
of faults. The ear should be soft, glossy, and 
. mouse's coat to the touch, and the smaller it 
\ better. It should have no long coat or long 
:, but there is often a silky, silvery coat on the 
of the ear and the tip. Whatever the general 
the ears should be black or dark-colored. 
CK AND Shoulders. — ^The neck should be 
-that is, of the length that befits the Grey- 
1 character of the dog. An over long neck is 
lecessary nor desirable, for the dog is not re- 
1 to stoop to his work like a Greyhound, and 
st be remembered that the mane, which every 
specimen should have, detracts from the ap- 



parent length of neck. Moreover, a Deerhound 
requires a very strong neck to hold a stag. The 
nape of the neck should be very prominent where 
the head is set on, and the throat should be clean- 
cut at the angle and prominent. The shoulders 
should be well sloped, the blades well back, and not 
too much width between them. Loaded and straight 
shoulders are very bad faults. 

Stern. — Stem should be tolerably long, tapering, 
and reaching to within i}4 inches of the ground 
and about iK inches below the hocks. When the 
dog is still, dropped perfectly straight down or 
curved. When in motion it should be curved, when 
excited in no case to be lifted out of the line of the 
back. It should be well covered with hair, on the 
inside thick and wiry; underside longer, and toward 
the end a slight fringe not objectionable. A curl 
or ring tail very undesirable. 

Eyes. — ^The eyes should be dark; generally they 
are dark brown or hazel. A very light eye is not 
liked. The eye is moderately full, with a soft look 
in repose, but a keen, far-away look when the dog 
is aroused. The rims of the eyelids should be black. 

Body. — The body -and general formation is that 
of a Greyhound of larger size and bone. Chest 
deep rather than broad, but not too narrow and flat- 
sided. The loin well arched and drooping to the 
tail. A straight back is not desirable, this forma- 
tion being unsuitable for going uphill, and very 

Legs and Feet. — ^The legs should be broad and 



flat, a good broad forearm and elbow being desir- 
able. Forelegs, of course, as straight as possible. 
Feet close and compact, with well-arched toes. 
The hindquarters drooping and as broad and power- 
ful as possible, the hips being set wide apart. The 
hindlegs should be well bent at the stifle, with great 
length from the hip to the hock, which should be 
broad and flat. Cow hocks, weak pasterns, straight 
stifles, and splay feet very bad faults. 

Coat. — The hair on the body, neck, and quarters 
should be harsh and wiry, and about three or four 
inches long; that on the head, breast, and belly is 
much softer. There should be a slight hairy fringe 
on the inside of the fore and hind legs, but nothing 
approaching "the feather" of a Collie. The Deer- 
hound should be a shaggy dog, but not overcoated. 
A woolly coat is bad. Some good strains have a 
slight mixture of silky coat with the hard, which is 
preferable to a woolly coat, but the proper coat is a 
thick, close-lying, ragged coat, harsh or crisp to the 

Color. — Color is much a matter of fancy. But 
there is no manner of doubt that the dark-blue-grey 
is the most preferred. Next Qome the darker and 
lighter greys or brindles, the darkest being generally 
preferred. Yellow and sandy-red or red-fawn, es- 
pecially with black points — /. ^., ears and muzzles — 
are also in equal estimation, this being the color of 
the oldest known strains, the McNeil and the 
Chesthill Menzies. White is condemned by all the 
old authorities, but a white chest and white toes, 



occurring as they do in a great many of the darkest- 
colored dogs, are not so greatly objected to, but the 
less the better, as the Deerhound is a self-colored 
dog. A white blaze on the head or a white collar 
should entirely disqualify. In other cases, though 
passable, yet an attempt should be made to get rid 
of white markings. The less white the better, but 
a slight white tip to the stern occurs in the best 

Height of Dogs. — From 28 inches to 30 inches, 
or even more if there be symmetry without coarse- 
ness, which is rare. 

Height of Bitches. — From 26 inches upwards. 
There can be no objection to a bitch being large, 
unless too coarse, as even at her greatest height she 
does not approach that of the dog, and therefore 
could not have been too big for work, as over-big 
dogs are. Besides, a big bitch is good for breeding 
and keeping up the size. 

Weight. — From 85 pounds to 105 pounds in dogs; 
from 65 pounds to 80 pounds in bitches. 


It is clearly attested both by history and tradi- 
tion that there existed in Ireland in early times a 
large, rugged hound of Greyhound form, used to 
hunt the Irish elk, the wolf, the red deer, and the 
fox. This dog was known to the Romans, who car- 
ried them back after their invasion of the island, 
and there are records of them being presented to 
Norwegian kings. In course of time the wolves dis- 



appeared, the elk became extinct, and with them 
all but passed away a noble breed of dogs. In fact, 
it has been claimed that the real Irish Wolfhound 
became extinct about one hundred years ago. This 
was vigorously denied by others, who, while they 
admitted that the breed had deteriorated, asserted 
that there was still existent enough of the old blood 
to restore the breed to a resemblance of its original 
type. The leader in this movement was Captain 
Graham, who for a score of years devoted himself to 
the resuscitation of the breed with conspicuous 

There have been many theories advanced as to 
the origin of the Irish Wolfhound, but the opinion 
of Captain Graham is probably nearest the truth, 
for it is his belief that the Irish Hound that was 
kept to hunt wolves never became extinct, but is 
now repeated in the Scottish Deerhound, only altered 
a little in size and strength to suit the easier work 
required of it, that of hunting the deer. The old 
Irish Wolfhound was called upon to hunt the wolf 
and the Irish elk, an immense animal standing six 
feet high at the shoulder, with a spread of antlers 
of ten or twelve feet, and it required a much more 
powerful hound to cope with these animals than the 
deer which are now existent. 

One thing is certain: the chief factor in the re- 
suscitation of the Irish Wolfhound has been the 
Scottish Deerhound. In building up the breed 
Captain Graham secured bitches from three strains, 
which it was believed were direct and pure de- 



scendants of the old line, although they were not 
nearly as large as those mentioned in early writings. 
These were crossed on the Scottish Deerhound and 
the Great Dane. Later on Borzoi blood was in- 
troduced through a dog named Koratai. These 
matings and the mixing of the blood -of these breeds 
resulted in progeny with both size and bone, but 
unshapely in form. By careful elimination and se- 
lection they were eventually graded up to a fixity 
of type, and for the past thirty-five years they have 
been among the most attractive dogs seen at shows. 

There is naturally a great deal of similarity be- 
tween the Scottish Deerhound and the Irish Wolf- 
hound, for much of the same blood is in their veins. 
The Irish dog is larger, more powerful, and less 
elegant in outline. His coat is also harder in texture 
and his jaw more powerful. 

As in the case of most big dogs, the great diffi- 
culty in breeding the Irish Wolfhound is to insure 
straight forelegs and sound hindquarters. Of course, 
a great deal depends upon the rearing of the dogs 
in this particular connection. A puppy may be 
found sound and straight in limb and become in- 
curably defective by his faulty bringing up. This is 
the tendency, and such faults as cow hocks (which 
are very prevalent in the breed), crooked forelegs, 
or splay feet, once estabfished become hereditary, 
and should be carefully avoided. A little white on 
the chest is perfectly immaterial, and color is but 
of secondary importance, the favorite color being 
grizzle or wheaten. 



The chief points to look for in the selection of 
frish Wolfhound puppies at from two to four months 
old and after, are: A long, level head, great strength 
of muzzle, big nostrils, enormous bone, big body, 
deep chest, big hindquarters, moderately short body. 

The Irish ^plfhound's standard description is as 

General Appearance. — ^The Irish Wolfhound 
should not be quite so heavy or massive as the Great 
Dane, but more so than the Deerhound, which in 
general type he should otherwise resemble. Of 
great size and commanding appearance, very mus- 
cular, strongly though gracefully built, movements 
easy and active; head and neck carried high; the 
tail carried with an upward sweep with a slight 
curve toward the extremity. 

The Minimum Height and Weight of dogs 
should be 31 inches and 120 pounds; of bitches, 
28 inches and 90 pounds. Anything below this 
should be debarred from competition. Great size, 
including height at shoulder and proportionate 
length of body, is the desideratum to be aimed at, 
and it is desired to firmly establish a race that shall 
average from 32 inches to 34 inches in dogs, showing 
the requisite power, activity, courage, and sym- 

Head. — Long, the frontal bones of the forehead 
very slightly raised and very little indentation be- 
tween the eyes. Skull not too broad. Muzzle long 
and moderately pointed. Ears small and Greyhound- 
like in carriage. 





Neck. — Rather long, very strong and muscular, 
well arched, without dewlap, or loose skin about the 

Chest. — ^Very deep. Breast wide. 

Back. — Rather long than short. Loins arched. 

Tail. — Long and slightly curved, of moderate 
thickness, and well covered with hair. 

Belly. — Well drawn up. 

FoREQUARTERS. — Shouldcrs muscular, giving 
breadth of chest, set sloping. Elbows well under, 
neither turned inwards nor outwards. 

Leg. — Forearm muscular, and the whole leg 
strong and quite straight. 

Hindquarters. — Muscular thighs and second 
thigh long and strong as in the Greyhound, and 
hocks well let down and turning neither in nor out. 

Feet. — Moderately large and round, neither 
turned inwards nor outwards. Toes well arched 
and closed. Nails very strong and curved. 

Hair. — Rough and hard on body, legs, and head; 
especially wiry and long over eyes and underjaw. 

Color and Markings. — ^The recognized colors 
are grey, brindle, red, black, pure white, fawn, or 
any color that appears in the Deerhound. [Captain 
Graham states that he has seen several perfectly 
black-and-tan Deerhounds.] 

Faults. — Too light or heavy a head, too highly 
arched frontal bone, large ears and hanging flat to 
the face; short' neck; full dewlap; too narrow or 
too broad a chest; sunken or hollow or quite straight 
back; bent forelegs; overbent fetlocks; twisted feet; 



spreading toes; too curly a tail; weak hindquarters 
and a general want of muscle; too short in body. 


In Russia, the land of their birth, these hand- 
some, stately, high-bred dogs are known as Borzoi 
or Psovoi, and are used for coursing and wolf hunt- 
ing. They are carefully trained to run up alongside 
of a fleeing wolf, collar him by the neck just under 
the ear, and never loose their hold, no matter how 
often they may roll over together, until the hunter 
comes up and either muzzles or dispatches the 

When slipped in pairs, which is the usual pro- 
cedure, the art comes in in having them so evenly 
matched in speed that they can range up on either 
side of the wolf simultaneously, pin him by the neck, 
and hold him safely without injury to themselves. 

In the early trials that these dogs were given on 
western wolves they did not perform as satisfactorily 
as had been expected of them, probably due to the 
fact that they lacked experience and training. 

Their aristocratic appearance is very much in 
their favor as companions. Some question has been 
raised as to their disposition, and there is no dis- 
puting that many of them are snappy, quarrelsome, 
and uncertain, while others are sweet and lovable 
as it is only possible for a dog to be. It may be 
safely said that all depends upon the way they have 
been raised. 



The points to look for in Borzoi puppies at 
from two to four months old and after, are: A 
phenomenally long head, rather Roman in shape of 
muzzle, very well filled up under the eyes, small eyes, 
set in obliquely; very narrow skull, with occipital 
bone well developed; powerful neck; very narrow 
shoulders; long, straight forelegs; very deep chest; 
loin arched; graceful outline. 

The following is the Borzoi Club's standard of 
points, the height at shoulder being fixed at a very 
low minimum : 

Head. — long and lean. The skull flat and nar- 
row; stop not perceptible, and muzzle long and 
tapering. The head from the forehead to the tip of 
the nose should be so fine that the shape and direc- 
tion of the' bones and principal veins can be seen 
clearly, and in profile should appear rather Roman- 
nosed. Bitches should be even narrower in head 
than dogs. Eyes dark, expressive, almond-shaped, 
and not too far apart. Ears, like those of a Grey- 
hound, small, thin, and placed well back on the head, 
with the tips, when thrown back, almost touching 
behind the occiput. 

Neck. — The head should be carried somewhat 
low, with the neck continuing the line of the back. 

Shoulders. — Clean and sloping well back. 

Chest. — Deep and somewhat narrow. 

Back. — Rather bony and free from any cavity 
in the spinal column, the arch in the back being 
more marked in the dog than in the bitch. 



Loins. — Broad and very powerful, with plenty 
of muscular development. 

Thighs. — Long and well developed, with good 
second thigh. 

Ribs. — Slightly sprung at the angle; deep, reach- 
ing to the elbow and even lower. 

Forelegs. — ^Lean and straight. Seen from the 
front, they should be narrow, and from the side, 
broad at the shoulders and narrowing gradually 
down to the foot, the bone appearing flat and not 
round as in the Foxhound. 

HiNDLEGS. — ^Just a trifle under the body when 
standing still; not straight, and the stifle slightly 

Muscles. — ^Well distributed and highly developed. 

Pasterns. — Strong. 

Feet. — Like those of the Deerhound, rather long. 
The toes close together and well arched. 

Coat. — Long, silky (not woolly), either flat, 
wavy, or rather curly. On the head, ears, and front 
legs it should be short and smooth. On the neck 
the frill should be profuse and rather curly. On 
the chest and rest of body, the tail, and hind- 
quarters, it should be long. The forelegs should be 
well feathered. 

Tail. — Long, well feathered, and not gaily car- 

Height. — At shoulder of dogs, from 28 inches 
upward; of bitches, from 26 inches upward. 

Faults. — Head short or thick. Too much stop. 
Parti-colored nose. Eyes too wide apart. Heavy 



ears. Heavy shoulders. Wide chest. "Barrel" 
ribbed. Dewclaws. Elbows turned out, wide be- 


The Greyhound is probably the oldest member of 
his race. From time immemorial they have been 
popular as companions at home and in the hunting 
field. As a result of the time and care that have 
been spent upon them, they are the most highly de- 
veloped domestic animal in existence. 

In elegance of form, dignity, and cleanliness 
Greyhounds are worthy of their long descent. They 
are much more affectionate and intelligent than is 
usually believed, and in point of speed, courage, 
fortitude, endurance, and sagacity, they are the 
equals of any dog that lives. Well-bred Greyhounds 
know no fear, turn from no game animal on which 
they are sighted, no matter how large or ferocious, 
pursue with the speed of the wind, seize the instant 
they come up with the game, and stay in the fight 
until they or the quarry are dead. 

The general supposition that Greyhounds are 
devoid of the power of scent is a mistake, as can be 
attested by anyone who has ever hunted them in the 
West on large game. The uses to which they are 
put do not require keen olfactory organs; conse- 
quently their sense of smell has deteriorated some- 
what from lack of use, but it is far from being 
entirely gone 

' 45 


Coursers have no regular standard of size and 
weight, but the medium sized dog of about sixty- 
five to seventy pounds' weight is usually the most 

With them the head is a part of the dog's anatomy 
of little or no account, since he has no particular use 
for it except to kill with his jaws. For this purpose 
the longer and stronger the jaws are the better. 
Ears again count for nothing, but a small eye is ob- 
jectionable, since it is with his eyes that the Grey- 
hound sights the hare, and a rather large eye, set 
in not too close, enables him the better to see puss's 
many turns. A long and muscular neck is a great 
essential, set well into obliquely placed shoulders. 

The forelegs should be as straight as gun barrels, 
but the elbows should not be turned in, which pre- 
vents a dog from getting down to his work. Rather 
they should be turned out a trifle. The chest 
should be deep, the ribs gradually widening as they 
reach their terminus. The loins should be slightly 
arched, very broad and thick, like two big Atlantic 
cables traversing the dog's back, and merging into 
broad and big hindquarters, the muscles of which 
should resemble two big, round loaves of bread 
stuck on the dog. The thighs should be wide and 
very muscular, both first and second thighs, the 
stifles well bent and the hocks well let down, being 
formed so as to appear from behind perfectly par- 
allel and free from the slightest taint of what is 
called "cow-hocks." 

Flat or long loins are very objectionable, by which 



the dog loses control over his hindquarters. The 
dog should be well "cut-up" under his loins in order 
that he may have greater freedom for the working 
of his hind limbs. Briefly, the dog should be com- 
paratively short-coupled on the top, but should, 
when standing, cover a lot of ground below, and he 
should be neither too long on the leg nor too short. 

Color is an altogether immaterial point; a good 
Greyhound, like a good horse, cannot be a bad color. 
The tail should be long and strong, since it is to the 
dog what the rudder is to the ship. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Greyhound puppies at from two to four months old 
and after, are: A long neck, well-placed shoulders, 
great bone, deep chest, well sprung ribs, and big 

The following standard and scale of points is 
commonly used by bench-show judges, but, as 
previously stated, is given little consideration by 
practical coursing men: 

Head. — The head of the Greyhound should be 
long, lean, and tapering; narrow across the skull as 
compared 'With some breeds, but should have suffi- 
cient width to allow for brain room. The eyes 
should be full, clear, and bright; the ears should be 
small and folded back close to the head; the jaws 
strong and level, not pig-jawed; the teeth strong 
and sound, so as to be able to hold the hare. The 
furrow between the eyes should be slightly marked, 
with little or no stop; the eyebrows should not be 



Neck. — The neck should be long, lean, and 
arched, so as to enable the dog to catch up the hare 
without stooping. It should be set on to the head 
cleanly, and should widen gradually as it goes into 
the shoulders. 

Coat and Color. — The coat should be short, 
smooth, and glossy. The color is of slight im- 

Loin, Back Ribs, and Hindquarters. — ^Therc 
should be good length from shoulders to back ribs, 
which should be well-sprung to afford good attach- 
ment for the muscles of the loins. A slight arch is 
permissible, but not to such an extent as to form a 
roach or wheel-back. The hindquarters should be 
powerful and muscular and show great length by 
reason of well-bent stifles. 

Shoulders and Forelegs. — Shoulders should be 
oblique. Forearm of good length, in line with the 
shoulders. Forelegs should be perfectly straight. 
The leg should be twice as long from the fetlock 
joint or knee as from the latter to the ground. 

Chest. — Should be deep, but not so deep as 
to interfere with the irregularities of the ground 
when running at full speed. It should not be too 
wide nor. too narrow; a happy medium. 

Feet. — ^The Greyhound may have either the cat- 
foot or the hare-foot, provided the toes are well 

Tail. — Fine, free from fringe, and nicely curved 
toward the end. 

Scale of Points. — Head, lo; neck, lO; chest and 


American Wolfhound, Old BiU. 
Englith Greyhound, Fascmadng Witch. 


forequarters, 20; loin and back ribs, 15; hind^ 
quarters, 20; feet, 15; tail, 5; color and coat, 5. 
Total, ICO. 


This graceful breed is nothing more or less than 
a miniature Greyhound, and was originally known 
as a snap dog by the colliers and working men in 
the north of England, who originated the breed, 
and used them for rabbit coursing. In later years 
these dogs have been taught straight running. 
That is, they are held in leash at a given mark by 
an attendant while the owner or some other person 
standing at the other end of the track shakes a 
handkerchief at the dogs and encourages them to 
race for it. There is an official starter, and the dogs 
are liberated at the^shot of a pistol and immediately 
make a dash, straining every nerve to get at the 
handkerchief. The usual course is two hundred 
yards, and the dogs are handicapped according to 
weight or previous performances. 

The origin of the Whippet was probably ob- 
tained by a cross between the small Greyhound and 
the white English Terrier. They are keen little 
sportsmen, easily kept in condition, and of a most 
companionable disposition. 

In selecting a Whippet puppy at from two to 
four months old, the points to look for are almost 
identical with those of the Greyhound, of which it 
is a miniature, except that less bone is required and 
probably a little more arch of loin, both of which 



variations are calculated to give the Whippet a 
little more speed, if less "staying" power, speed 
only being the great desideratum in the Whippet. 

The points of the Whippet may be briefly summed 
up by saying he should be an exact duplicate in 
miniature of the Greyhound. 

The following is the description of the Whippet, 
as formulated by the Whippet Club: 

Head. — Long and lean, rather wide between the 
eyes, and flat at the top; the jaw powerful, yet 
clearly cut; teeth level and white. 

Eyes. — Bright and fiery. 

£ars. — Small, fine in texture, and rose shape. 

Neck. — Long and muscular, elegantly arched, and 
free from throatiness. 

Shoulders. — Oblique and muscular. 

Chest. — Deep and capacious. 

Back. — Broad and square, rather long, and 
slightly arched over loin, which should be strong 
and powerful. 

Forelegs. — Rather long, well set under dog, pos- 
sessing fair amount of bone. 

Hindquarters. — Strong and broad across, stifles 
well bent, thighs broad and muscular, hocks well 
let down. 

Feet. — Round, well split up, with strong soles. 

Tail. — ^Long, tapering, and nicely carried. 

Coat. — Fine and close. 

Color. — Black, red, white, brindle, fawn, blue, 
and the various mixtures of each. 

Weight. — 20 pounds. 




This is one of the oldest as well as one of the least 
understood of all breeds of dogs. The most extrav- 
agant tales are related and stories written about 
them. The name suggests a ferocious animal, 
whereas they are of the most kindly nature, entirely 
lacking in all of the qualities which their name 
implies. They are the gentlest of companions, and 
if of pure breeding far less dangerous than any of 
the other big breeds. In the days of the bow and 
arrow the Bloodhound was trained to hunt the stag, 
and was expected to track the wounded deer by the 
blood that dropped from the wounds of the arrow, 
all of which has been done away with for many 

A great deal has been written about hunting 
slaves in southern States in pre-war times. As a 
matter of fact the dogs that were used to trail the 
runaways were small foxhounds and not blood- 
hounds. The stories told of Bloodhounds following 
the scent of a man through crowded streets are also 
gross exaggerations. It is impossible for them to do 
so. Therefore they are of little or no use to the 
police authorities in detecting criminals in crowded 
cities. In the country, however. Bloodhounds 
can be used to capture criminals. They will make 
out a scent that is several hours old and follow it 



accurately. Repeated trials, however, indicate that 
it is impossible for them to carry these trails where 
they have been crossed by cattle, sheep, or horses. 

The Bloodhound has been crossed on nearly all 
of the sporting breeds, and doing so improves their 
voices as well as their power of scent. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Bloodhound puppies at from two to four months 
old, and even afterward, are: Great length of head, 
narrowness of skull, great depth and squareness of 
foreface, big nostrils, long ears set low, great bone, 
and short back. 

The following description of the Bloodhound has 
been adopted by the Association of Bloodhound 
Breeders : 

General Character. — The Bloodhound pos- 
sesses in a most marked degree every point and 
characteristic of those dogs which hunt together by 
scent (Sagaces). He is very powerful, and stands 
over more ground than is usual with hounds of other 
breeds. The skin is thin to the touch and extremely 
loose, this being more especially noticeable about 
the head and neck, where it hangs in deep folds. 

Height. — ^The mean average height of adult dogs 
is 26 inches, and of adult bitches 24 inches. Dogs 
usually vary from 25 inches to 2^ inches, and 
bitches from 23 inches to 25 inches; but in either 
case the greater height is to be preferred, provided 
that character and quality are also combined. 

Weight. — The mean average weight of aduit 
dogs in fair condition is 90 pounds, and of adult 



bitches 80 pounds. Dogs attain the weight of no 
pounds, bitches 100 pounds. The greater weights are 
to be preferred, provided (as in the case of height) 
that quality and proportions are also combined. 

Expression. — ^The expression is noble and digni- 
fied, and characterized by solemnity, wisdom, and 

Temperament. — In temperament he is extremely 
affectionate, neither quarrelsome with companions 
nor with other dogs. His nature is somewhat shy 
and equally sensitive to kindness or correction by 
his master. 

Head. — ^The head is narrow in proportion to its 
length, and long in proportion to the body, tapering 
but slightly from the temples to the end of the 
muzzle, thus (when viewed from above and in front) 
having the appearance of being flattened at the 
sides, and of being nearly equal in width throughout 
its entire length. In profile the upper outline of the 
skull is nearly in the same plane as that of the fore- 
face. The length from end of nose to stop (midway 
between the eyes) should be not less than that from 
stop to back of occipital protuberance (peak). The 
entire length of head from the posterior part of the 
occipital protuberance to the end of muzzle should 
be 1 2 inches or more in dogs, and 1 1 inches or more 
in bitches. 

Skull. — ^The skull is long and narrow, with the 
occipital peak very pronounced. The brows are 
not prominent, although, owing to the deep-set 
eyes, they may have that appearance. 



FoREFACE. — ^The foreface is long, deep, and of 
even width throughout, with square outline when 
seen in profile. 

Eyes. — The eyes are deeply sunk in the orbits, 
the lids assuming a lozenge or diamond shape in 
consequence of the lower lids being dragged down 
and everted by the heavy flews. The eyes corre- 
spond with the general tone of color of the animal, 
varying from deep hazel to yellow. The hazel color 
is, however, to be preferred, although very seldom 
seen in red-and-tan hounds. 

Ears. — ^The ears are thin and soft to the touch, 
extremely long, set very low, and fall in graceful 
folds, the lower parts curling inward and back- 

Wrinkle. — The head is furnished with an amount 
of loose skin, which in nearly every position appears 
superabundant, but more particularly so when the 
head is carried low; the skin then falls into loose, 
pendulous ridges and folds, especially over the fore- 
head and sides of the face. 

Nostrils. — ^The nostrils are large and open. 

Lips, Flews, and Dewlap. — In front the lips 
fall squarely, making a right angle with the upper 
line of the foreface; while behind they form deep, 
hanging flews and, being continued into the pendant 
folds of loose skin about the neck, constitute the 
dewlap, which is very pronounced. These char- 
acters are found, though in a less degree, in the bitch. 

Neck, Shoulders, and Chest. — The neck is 
long, the shoulders muscular, and well sloped back- 



ward; the ribs are well sprung, and the chest well 
let down between the forelegs, forming a deep keel. 

Legs and Feet. — ^The forelegs are straight and 
large in bone, with elbows squarely set; the feet 
strong and well knuckled up; the thighs and second 
thighs (gaskins) are very muscular; the hocks well 
bent and let down and squarely set. 

Back and Loin. — The back and loins are strong, 
the latter deep and slightly arched. 

Stern. — ^The stern is long and tapering, and set 
on rather high, with a moderate amount of hair 

Gait. — ^The gait is elastic, swinging, and free, the 
stern being carried high, but not too much curled 
over the back. 

Color. — ^The colors are black-and-tan, red-and- 
tan, and tawny; the darker colors being sometimes 
interspersed with lighter or badger-colored hair, 
and sometimes flecked with white. A small amount 
of white is permissible on chest, feet, and tip of 


The Otterhound is one of the oldest of sporting 
breeds, and no attempt will be made to indicate their 
ancestry. In general form they are not unlike a 
Bloodhound, with something in the shape of the 
skull and jaw, curve of throat, and texture of the 
coat that suggests the Dandie Dinmont. They are 
a rugged breed. Everything about them conveys 
the impression of usefulness, and they are capable 



of coping with as many different conditions as any 
other breed of dog. They have also been used in 
the creation of other breeds, and the Airedale in 
particular undoubtedly owes his water-loving traits 
to a touch of the Otterhound. The early Otter- 
hounds were said to have been much smaller in 
size than those of the present day. There are no 
packs in this country, but in England otter hunting 
is termed the queen of summer sports, and is in fact 
the only form of chase that may be followed during 
the summer months. It is good sport, for the quarry 
is a wily, resourceful animal, with haunts of its own 
choosing, with the odds always in its favor. It 
is also engaged in during the best days of the year 
when Nature and the weather are to be found at 
their finest. 

The general points to look for in the selection of 
Otterhound puppies are those of Bloodhounds with 
a dense coat. 

The points for which the Otterhound should be 
bred are: A head resembling that of a Bloodhound, 
but flatter and harder, with a long, narrow forehead; 
dark eyes which are sunken and showing the haw; 
black nostrils and rough-haired muzzle, with full, 
hanging lips and large, thin, pendulous ears, well 
coated with coarse hair, but with no tendency to 
feather. The neck should be throaty; the chest 
deep rather than wide; the back strong, long, and 
straight, and the ribs deep; rather loose but strong, 
powerful, sloping shoulders; elbows well let down. 
Perfectly straight legs and muscular thighs are in- 


English Bloodhounds. 
Ch. Knoxcrift, Ch. Bernie, Ch. Bernie, Jr. 


dispensable. Formerly the feet were large and well 
webbed with firm, hard soles, but of late years Otter- 
hounds have been bred with the cat feet of Fox- 
hounds. The stern should be carried in a sloping 
position, and should be well coated with hair and 
tapering. The coat should be dense and of fair 
length. Otterhounds should be large, and are of 
several colors, brown, tan, and grizzle being the 
commonest seen, but grizzle-brown, white and 
cream-bufF, black-tan, and cream-tan are all found. 
Height for dog should be not less than 25 inches, 
and for bitches not less than 23 inches. In general 
appearance they should be large, rugged, and sym- 
metrical, full of hound character, with a look of 
great endurance and determination. 


It has been claimed that the Foxhound is the 
most perfect member of his race, and that no dog 
equals him in beauty of conformation, nose, and 
courage. However that may be, more time and 
money have been spent upon them than on any 
other breed. 

The Foxhound is said to be the result of a cross 
between the Bloodhound and the Greyhound. They 
have been recognized as a distinct breed, however, 
for nearly three centuries. At the present time in 
this country there are two distinct types of Fox- 
hounds — the American and the English. The Eng- 
lish hound is larger and heavier-boned than his 
American cousin. English breeders have established 



a high standard of excellence as to size, conforma- 
tion, general symmetry, beauty of form and style, 
but this has been done at the expense of nose, speed, 
endurance, and fox sense. 

The English hound is more satisfactory to hunt 
clubs in the East, where the majority hunt to ride, 
for English dogs are better trained and broken, 
more evenly matched as to speed, and not fast 
enough to get away from the rider. They also pre- 
sent a more pleasing appearance to the eye. 

The American hound is descended from hounds 
brought to this country in pre-Revolutionary days 
by the sport-loving gentry of Virginia, Maryland, 
and Carolina, who bred them on purely utilitarian 
lines, and succeeded in producing a family of dogs 
which admirably filled the purpose for which they 
were desired, and which are now scattered all over 
the United States. 

The American hound lacks the uniform size and 
the regular markings of the English hound. They 
are lighter in bone and muscle, but far excel them in 
brains and fox sense. Their noses are keener, and 
they will strike out boldly and search the likely 
place for the fox, and will then drive them faster 
and harder and give tongue with sweeter voices 
than their English rivals. 

Snipiness, coarse skull, cow hocks, flat sides, un- 
straignt forelegs, and open feet are unpardonable 
faults in a Foxhound. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Foxhound puppies at from two to four months old 



and after, are: A long, level head, big nostrils, 
square muzzle, great bone, deep chest, short back. 

The American Foxhound standard and value of 

Head. — ^The skull should be fairly long, slightly 
domed at the occiput, with cranium broad and full. 

Ears. — Ears set on moderately low, long, reach- 
ing, when drawn out, nearly, if not quite, to the end 
of the nose; fine in texture, fairly broad, with almost 
entire absence of erectile power, setting close to the 
head, with the forward edge slightly inturned to the 
cheek; rounded at tip. 

Eyes. — Eyes large, set well apart, soft and hound- 
like; expression gentle and pleading; of a brown or 
hazel color. 

Muzzle. — Muzzle of fair length, straight and 
square cut, the stop moderately defined. 

Jaws. — Level; lips free from flews; nostrils large 
and open. 

Defects. — A very flat skull, narrow across the 
top; excess of dome; eyes small, sharp, and terrier- 
like, or prominent and protruding; muzzle long and 
snipy, cut away decidedly below the eyes, or very 
short. Roman nosed or upturned, giving a dish- 
face expression. Ears short, set on high, or with a 
tendency to rise above the point of origin. 

Body, Neck, and Throat. — Neck rising free and 
light from the shoulders, strong in substance, yet 
not loaded, of medium length. The throat clean 
and free from folds of skin; a slight wrinkle below 
the angle of the jaw, however, may be allowable. 



Defects. — A thick, short, cloddy neck, carried on 
a line with the top of the shoulders. Throat show- 
ing dewlap and folds of skin to a degree termed 

Shoulders, Chest, and Ribs. — Shoulders slop- 
ing, clean, muscular, not heavy or loaded, convey- 
ing the idea of freedom of action with activity and 
strength. Chest should be deep for lung space, 
narrower in proportion to depth than the English 
hound, 28 inches in a 23-inch hound being good. 
Well sprung ribs; back ribs should extend well 
back; a three-inch flank allowing springiness. 

Defects. — Straight, upright shoulders; chest pro- 
portionately wide or with lack of depth; flat 

Back and Loin. — Back moderately long, mus- 
cular, and strong. Loin broad and slightly arched. 

Defects. — Very long or swayed or roached back; 
flat, narrow loin. 

Forelegs and Feet — Forelegs. — Straight, with 
fair amount of bone; pasterns short and straight. 

Feet. — Fox-like; pad full and hard; well arched 
toes; strong nails. 

Defects. — Out at elbows; knees knuckled over 
forward or bent backward. Forelegs crooked. Feet 
long, open, or spreading. 

Hips, Thighs, Hindlegs, and Feet — ^Hips and 
Thighs. — Strong and well muscled, giving abund- 
ance of propelling power; stifles strong and well let 
down; hocks firm, symmetrical, and moderately 
bent; feet close and firm. 



Defects. — ^A long tail; teapot curve or inclined 
forward from propelling power; open feet. 

Tail. — Set moderately high; carried gaily, with 
slight curve, but not turned forward over the back. 
It should have a good brush. 

Defects. — A long tail; teapot curve or inclined 
forward from the root; rat tail with absence of 

Coat. — A close, hard, hound coat of medium length. 

Defects. — A short, thin coat or of a soft quality. 

Height. — Dogs should not be under twenty-one 
nor over twenty-four inches; bitches should not be 
under twenty nor over twenty-three inches, measured 
across the back at the point of the withers, the dog 
standing in a natural position with his feet well 
under him. 

Color. — Any true hound color. 

General Appearance. — A typical hound, solid 
and strong, with the wear-and-tear look of the dog 
that can last in the chase and follow his quarry to 
the death. 

Value of Points. — Skull, 5; ears, lO; eyes, 5; 
muzzle, 5; neck, 5; chest and shoulders, 15; back, 
loins and ribs, 15; forelegs, lo; hips, thighs, and hind- 
legs, 10; feet, lO; coat, 5; stern, 5; Total, 100. 


There was a time when the Harrier was a distinct 

breed of dogs used in England to hunt the hare, 

and there exists to-day an Association of Master 

Harriers who keep a Stud Book and have done 

k 61 


everything they could to keep up a distinct strain. 
Their efforts in a way, however, have proven in 
vain, for it is the usual practice in making up a 
pack of Harriers to simply go to Foxhound kennels, 
choose a number of undersized Foxhounds, and call 
them Harriers. 

If the pack is to be hunted on foot, they will do 
very well, if averaging i6 inches at the shoulder. 
If they are to be followed on horseback, 20 to 22 
inches is a more popular size. For these reasons the 
Harriers, while resembling the Foxhound in many 
points, lack the uniformity in size and type that 
distinguishes that breed. There are packs of Har- 
riers that will average in weight as low as 40 or 45 
pounds; others run up to 70 or 75 pounds. They 
also vary in appearance, some as a result of crosses 
to that breed, resemble the Beagle in type and 
character, and there are other old packs that take 
after the Bloodhound* Some are low-set and 
sturdy, others light and racy; consequently there is 
no established type. There are, however, certain 
leading features common to all, and these are: 
Long heads, free from "stop;" square muzzles; 
sloping shoulders; straight forelegs; round, catlike 
feet; short backs; well-sprung ribs; strong loins; 
sound hindquarters, with well-bent stifles. Height 
about 18 inches, weight 56 pounds, and any hound 




These deservedly popular little dogs are the 
loveliest of the hound family. They are the merriest 
little fellows imaginable, shrewd workmen, with the 
keenest of noses and the most musical of voices. 
They are used in hunting rabbits, either singly or 
in packs of five or ten couples. Although pretty 
and affectionate enough to make the sweetest of 
pets, they never forget that their true mission in 
life is to run the rabbit, and never are they more 
appreciated than when their bell-like melodious 
voices open up upon the trail. 

As the country has settled up and feathered game 
been exterminated, lovers of field sports who have 
heretofore devoted their time in the field to bird 
shooting over setters and pointers, have been obliged 
to discard their bird dogs in favor of the little hounds, 
for even in the immediate vicinity of the large cities 
one can usually find rabbits plentiful enough to 
furnish good sport. 

The origin of the Beagle is lost in obscurity, but 
It is quite probable that he was evolved from the 
Foxhound by selecting the smallest specimens and 
breeding them together until the proper size was 
arrived at. The typical Beagle is designated in 
some standards as a miniature Foxhound. This is 
a mistake. He is a distinct breed, although having 
many points in common with all hounds, such as 
short back, compact body, straight legs, round feet, 
powerful loins, and nicely-placed shoulders. The 



true Beagle head has a skull free from coarseness, 
but with plenty of room; a soft, pleading eye; wide 
and large nostrils; deep, pendulous lips, and thin, 
long, low-set ears. It is always difficult to get such 
a head on a perfect body and legs. In color, the 
blue mottle is very typical and greatly admired, 
but black, tan-and-white, black-and-tan, lemon-and- 
white, or any other hound color is perfectly allow- 

The limit of height for the Beagle is i6 inches; 
the Pocket Beagle should not exceed lo inches, and 
specimens of 8 inches are sometimes shown. 

In selecting Beagle puppies, look for a compact 
body, straight forelegs, a roomy head with well- 
defined stop, and a square muzzle. 

In buying a Beagle don't take one which is much 
over 14 inches at the shoulder. Don't get one 
which is too much like a Foxhound. A good Beagle 
has the same lines, but is cobbier and has not such 
a clean-cut throat. Don't take a second look at a 
Beagle which is light in bone, out at elbows, or 
weak in the ankles. Don't select one which has 
weak, splayed feet. Don't take one with coarse, 
thick ears, set on high. 

The following is the standard of points laid down 
by the Beagle Club: 

Head. — Of fair length, powerful without being 
coarse; skull domed, moderately wide, with an in- 
dication of peak; stop well defined, muzzle not 
snipy, and lips well flewed. 

Nose, — Black, broad, and nostrils well expanded, 



Eyes. — Brown, dark hazel, or hazel, not deep-set 
or bulgy, and with a mild expression. 

Ears. — ^Long, set on low, fine in texture, and 
hanging in a graceful fold close to the cheek. 

Neck. — Moderately long, slightly arched, and 
throat showing some dewlap. 

Shoulders. — Clean and slightly sloping. 

Body. — Short between the couplings; well let 
down in chest; ribs fairly well sprung and well 
ribbed up, with powerful and not tucked up loins. 

Hindquarters. — Very muscular about the thighs; 
stifles and hocks well bent, and hocks well let down. 

Forelegs. — Quite straight, well under the dog, 
of good substance, and round in bone. 

Feet. — Round, well knuckled up, and strongly 

Stern. — Of moderate length, set on high, thick, 
and carried gaily, but not curled over the back. 

Color. — Any recognized hound color. 

Coat. — Smooth variety: smooth, very dense, and 
not too fine or short. Rough variety: very dense 
and wiry. 

Height. — Not exceeding i6 inches. 

General Appearance. — ^A compactly-built hound 
without coarseness, conveying the impression of 
great stamina and vivacity. 

Classification. — It is recommended that Beagles 
should be divided at shows into rough and smooth, 
with classes for "Beagles not exceeding i6 inches 
and over 12 inches," and "Beagles not exceeding 
12 inches." 



Value of Points. — ^Head, 20; ears, 10; eyes and 
expression, lO; body, 15; hindquarters, lo; legs and 
feet, 20; stern, 5; coat, 10. Total, 100. 


These quaint-appearing dogs are of very ancient 
descent, and have existed in France in exactly the 
same type that they present to-day for centuries. 
They are essentially hunting dogs, possess mar- 
velous powers of scent and wonderful voices, their 
clear, bell-like notes surpassing in sweetness those 
of any other hound, and when once heard are never 

For hunting on foot they are claimed to be su- 
perior to Beagles, their short, crooked legs almost 
incapable of becoming tired. Their natural pace is 
about seven miles an hour. 

Basset Hounds have the best of tempers. In fact, 
their dispositions seem to be almost too mild and 
inoffensive for a sporting dog, although when 
trained to follow wounded game, for which purpose 
they are most useful, they take up a trail with the 
utmost keenness and will never give up until it is 
brought to bay, when they give tongue fiercely, but 
show no desire to go into close quarters. 

The late Mr. Dalziel has said of this breed: 
"Basset Hounds have excellent tongues for their 
size. They are willing workers, and when in good 
training and condition will hunt every day and 
thrive on it. They are clever at their work, and 
when game is missed when breaking covert, often 



succeed in 'ringing' it back within gunshot. As a 
breed the Basset Hound is highly prized, being, per- 
haps, the purest in existence in France. They bring 
large prices and many could not be bought on any 
terms. They are employed in hunting roebuck, 
deer, wild boars, wolves, foxes, hares, and rabbits, 
but where trained to enter on only one species of 
game will keep to it exclusively. They move 
slowly and allow plenty of time for the shooter to 
take his vantage station, hence their popularity in 
the estimation of shooters. They work best in 
small woods, furze fields, and the like, for they do 
not drive their game fast enough for work in the 
large forests. The latter are usually cut by streams 
and deep ravines set with rocks and boulders, which 
the short, crooked-legged hound surmounts with 
great difficulty, and while eventually they will 
bring their game out, the long time which they 
take to do so would seriously tell against the sport. 
It is therefore more practical to run them in the 
smaller coverts, where their voices can readily be 
heard through the hunt, directing the shooter to 
the proper posts of vantage. 

In build the Basset is long in the barrel and is 
very low on his pins; so much so that when hunting 
he literally drags his long ears on the ground. He 
is the slowest of hounds, and his value as such 
cannot be overestimated. His style of hunting is 
peculiar insomuch that he will have his own way. 
Each hound tries for himself, and if one of them 
finds and "says" so, the others will not blindly 



follow him and give tongue simply because he does, 
as some hounds accustomed to work in packs are 
apt to do. On the contrary, they are slow to ac- 
knowledge the alarm given, and will investigate the 
matter for themselves. Thus under covert Bassets 
following a trail go Indian file, and each speaks to 
the line according to his own sentiments on the 
point, irrespective of what the others may think 
about it. In this manner it is not uncommon to see 
the little hounds when following a mazy track 
cross each other's route without paying any atten- 
tion to one another; in short, each of them works 
as if he were alone. This style I attribute to their 
slowness, to their extremely delicate powers of 
scent, and to their innate stubborn confidence in 
their own powers. Nevertheless, it is a fashion 
which has its drawbacks, for should the individual 
hound hit on separate tracks of different animals, 
unless at once stopped and put together on the 
same one, each will follow its own find, and let the 
shooter or shooters do his or their best. That is 
why a shooter who is fond of that sort of sport 
rarely owns more than one or two of these hounds. 
One is enough, two may be handy in difficult cases, 
but more would certainly entail confusion, precisely 
because each one of them will rely only on the evi- 
dence of his own senses. 

In selecting puppies, look for length of head and 
a narrow skull, with prominent occipital bone; fore- 
face deep and square, ears long and low-set, long 
body, deep chest, big quarters, and plenty of bone. 



The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Basset Hound puppies at two to four months old 
and after, are: Very long head; narrow skull, show- 
ing occipital bone well developed; deep, square fore- 
face; long, loose ears, set on low; great bone; long 
body; big quarters; deep chest. 

The following description will act as a guide to 
breeders and exhibitors: 

General Appearance. — That of a large hunting 
hound of classic mien, with the Bloodhound type of 
head, the dog being merely dwarfed in the legs. 

Head. — Long, very narrow, with occiput well 
developed, and showing no perceptible "stop" or 
indentation below the temples; muzzle deep, square 
at the end, and with heavy-hanging flews. 

Eyes.— -Rather small, sunken, and almond-shape, 
showing the haw with a soft pellucid expression and 
reposeful dignity. 

Ears. — ^Very long, set on low, soft and velvety, 
and folding as in the Bloodhound. 

Neck. — Muscular and strong, but free from coarse- 
ness, with dewlaps well defined. 

Body. — Long, large, flat on back; ribs well sprung, 
and loins broad and powerful, with strong and 
powerful quarters. 

Shoulders. — Sloping and laid well back. 

Chest. — Deep, not broad, showing breast bone 
well developed. 

Tail. — Moderate in length, carried in sickle 
fashion and slightly "feathered" or fringed with 
longer hair on the underneath side. 



Legs. — ^The forelegs should be short, crooked at 
the knees, with large, strong, broad feet, turning 
slightly out. The dog must be perfectly sound on his 
legs — that is to say, he must not "knuckle over," 
which is a fatal blemish. He can scarcely have too 
much bone, owing to the abnormally large body his 
limbs have to support. 

Coat. — In the smooth variety the coat should be 
short and dense, the skin thick, yet free from coarse- 
ness; on the contrary, a certain amount of "quality" 
should be manifest, indicating high breeding. In 
the rough variety the coat should be about an inch 
and a half in length, and harsh to the touch. 

Color. — ^The color should be distributed in 
patches upon a white body, as in the Foxhound, 
and the same colors are admissible, viz., black-and- 
tan, hare-pied, or any recognized . hound color. 

Value of Points. — Head (skull, eyes, muzzle, 
occiput, flews), 20; ears, lo; neck, dewlap, chest, 
and shoulders, lO; forelegs and feet, 15; back, loins, 
and quarters, lO; stern, 5; coat and skin, lo; color 
and markings, 10; character and symmetry^ 10. 
Total, 100. 


These long, low, and peculiarly-shaped dogs are 
the national dogs of Germany. They are classified 
with the hounds, but in reality are terriers, as their 
work is almost entirely underground. 

They derive their name from the fact that in 



their native land they are used to draw the dachs, 
an animal similar to our badger. Their long, low 
structure, powerful legs, strong claws, sharp teeth, 
muscular jaws, and fierce fighting spirit admirably 
adapts them for underground work of this char- 
acter. They are also used in following the fox, and 
will track the fox or badger to his haunts and fight 
him in his burrow. They have fair noses, and are 
sometimes trained to follow wounded deer. At- 
tempts have been made to use them for rabbit 
dogs, but they are not such capable workers as 
either hounds or Beagles, lacking in both nose and 

There is nothing aristocratic about the Dachs- 
hund's appearance, and they have never become 
popular in America. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Dachshund puppies at from two to four months 
old and after, are: A long, level head; small eye; 
ears set rather low; long body, showing distinct arch 
in loin; deep chest; great bone; short legs. 

The following standard is used by most American 
and British judges: 

General Appearance. — ^The dog should be long, 
low, and graceful, not cloddy. 

Head. — Long, level, and narrow; no stop. 

Skull. — Long and narrow; peak well developed. 

Eyes. — Intelligent and somewhat small; follow 
body in color. 

Jaws. — Strong, level, and square to the muzzle. 

Teeth. — Canines recurvent. 



EIars. — ^Long, broad, and soft, set on low and well 
back; carried close to the head. 

Chest. — Deep and narrow; breast bone prom- 

Loin. — ^Well arched, long, and muscular. 

Body. — Length from back of head to root of 
stern, 2}4 times the height at shoulder; fore ribs 
well sprung; back ribs very short; quarters very 

Forelegs. — Very short and strong in bone, well 
crooked, not standing over; elbows well clothed with 
muscle, turned neither in nor out. 

HiNDLEGS. — Smaller in bone and higher. 

Feet. — Large, round, and strong, with thick 
pads and strong nails; hind feet smaller. The dog 
must stand true — i. e.y equally on all parts of the 

Stern. — Long and strong, flat at root, tapering 
to the tip; hair on under side coarse; carried low 
except when excited. 

Coat. — Dense, short, ahd strong. 

Color. — ^Any color. Nose to follow body color; 
much white objectionable. 

Skin. — ^Thick, loose, supple, and in great quantity. 

Height at Shoulder. — From 7 to 9 inches. 

Weight.— Dogs, about 21 pounds; bitches, about 
18 pounds. 




The Old English Sheep Dog is a highly intelli- 
gent, picturesque, affectionate, and useful member 
of the pastoral class, resembling in important par- 
ticulars of conformation, appearance, and character 
the herd dogs of continental countries from Spain 
to Russia. They all undoubtedly trace their origin 
at some early period to a common ancestry. The 
continental dogs were as a rule larger and fiercer 
than the Sheep Dogs of to-day, and it is probable 
that the early progenitors of the breed, who lived 
in a time when it was necessary to defend the flocks 
against bears and wolves, were larger, stronger, and 
fiercer than those we have now. 

The herding instincts of the Sheep Dog are deeply 
seated, and as stock dogs they are unequaled. They 
are also said to make capital retrievers for sports- 
men, being easily controlled, soft-mouthed, good 
water dogs, and stay at heel by inclination. They 
learn readily, and are always anxious to please their 
masters. There is practically no limit to what they 
can be taught to do, and their sphere of usefulness 
is a wide one. 

There is a popular idea that this breed is tailless. 
This is a mistake. The tail is usually amputated, 
the custom originating with the drovers of England. 
According to law, dogs used for working purposes 



were exempt from taxation, and they adopted the 
docking of the tail to distinguish dogs which came 
under the ruling. There will be found in many 
litters of Sheep Dogs one or two puppies without 
tails, while all the other puppies have them. These 
cases are accounted for on the ground of inherited 
^ [ ( effect, for it is claimed by Darwin that a continued 
• ' ' process of breeding from animals which suffer dock- 
ing will produce puppies that are natural bob-tails. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Old English Sheep Dog puppies at from two to four 
months old and after, are: Great size, big, massive 
heads, and heavy muzzles; short, round bodies, 
deep chest, and great bone, with as much coat as 

The following is the Old English Sheep Dog 
Club's standard: 

Skull. — Capacious, and rather squarely formed, 
giving plenty of room for brain power. The parts 
over the eyes should be well arched, and the whole 
well covered with hair. 

Jaw. — Fairly long, strong, square, and truncated; 
the stop should be defined to avoid a Deerhound 

Eyes. — Dark or wall eyes are to be preferred. 

Nose. — Always black, large, and capacious. 

Teeth. — Strong and large, evenly placed, and 
level in opposition. 

Ears. — Small, and carried flat to side of head, 
coated moderately. 

Legs. — The forelegs should be dead straight, with 



plenty of bone, removing the body a medium 
height from the ground, without approaching leggi- 
ness; well coated all round. 

Feet. — Small, round toes; well arched, and pads 
thick and hard. 

Tail. — Puppies requiring docking must have an 
appendage left of from i}4 inches to 2 inches, and 
the operation performed within a week from birth, 
preferably within four days. 

Neck and Shoulders. — The neck should be 
fairly long, arched gracefully, and well coated with 
hair; the shoulders sloping and narrow at the points, 
the dog standing lower at the shoulder than at the 

Body. — Rather short and very compact; ribs 
well sprung and brisket deep and capacious. The 
loin should be very stout and gently arched, while 
the hindquarters should be round and muscular, 
and with well let down hocks, and the hams densely 
coated with a thick, long jacket in excess of any 
other part. 

Coat. — Profuse, and of good, hard texture; not 
straight, but shaggy and free from curl. The under- 
coat should be a waterproof pile when not removed 
by grooming or season. 

Color. — Any shade of gray, grizzle, blue, or blue 
merled, with or without white markings, or in re- 
verse; any shade of brown or sable to be considered 
distinctly objectionable and not to be encouraged. 

Height. — Twenty-two inches and upward for 
dogs, slightly less for bitches. Type, symmetry, 



and character are of the greatest importance, and 
on no account to be sacrificed to size alone. 

General Appearance. — A strong, compact-look- 
ing dog of great symmetry, absolutely free from 
legginess or weaselness, profusely coated all over, 
very elastic in its gallop, but in walking or trotting 
he has a characteristic ambling or pacing move- 
ment, and his bark should be loud, with a peculiar 
pot casse ring in it. Taking him all round, he is a 
thick-set, muscular, able-bodied dog, with a most 
intelligent expression, free from all Poodle or Deer- 
hound character. 

Value of Points. — ^Head, 5; eyes, 5; color, 10; 
ears, 5; body, loins, and hindquarters, 20; jaw, lo; 
nose, 5; teeth, 5; legs, lO; neck and shoulders, 10; 
coat, 15. Total, 100. 


The life story of the Collie is the history of pastoral 
life, for from the first day that man herded flocks 
he had a dog to help him. There is a similarity in 
character and appearance between the sheep and 
cattle dogs of all countries, which points to their com- 
mon origin, while the cunning and outward look of all 
indicate their descent from the wild dogs of nature. 

The Collie or Sheep Dog in all countries is con- 
sidered superior to other dogs in instinct and in- 
telligence, and his countenance discloses sagacity, 
alert eagerness, and devotion to his master. There 
is a great diflference between the Collie of the bench 
shows and the old working Collie of the Highlands, 




The Collie of the bench shows is a fancier's creation ; 
a more graceful and beautiful animal does not exist. 
He was produced from the old working, type, but 
remote crossing and careful selection continued for 
many years has so radically changed him that he is 
now almost a breed of his own. 

The working qualities of the bench show Collie 
have been so sadly neglected that they are all but 
lost. Certainly they are not to be compared in this 
respect with the Collie of the hills, bred on purely 
utilitarian lines. In appearance, however, the bench 
show Collie is a much handsomer and more attrac- 
. rive type, for the working dog is on the nondescript 
order. The latter vary in size and color; some are 
smooth coated, some are rough; some have prick 
ears, others half-dropped or drop, while many have 
what is known as a watch eye. Some of the best 
workmen will weigh under forty pounds. Occa- 
sionally you will see among the shepherds large, 
handsome black, white, and tan specimens with 
fair coats, but more will be all black in color, smooth 
coated and small in size. The most popular among 
the Scottish shepherds is the small black-and-white 
type with medium coats. 


The Rough-coated Collie is a purely Scottish-bred 

dog, and, like all varieties of sheep and cattle dogs, 

used in pastoral life and agricultural pursuits, is of 

great antiquity. Indeed, it is generally assumed 

that of all the varieties of the domesticated dog, the 
• 77 


Collie or Sheep Dog is the oldest, and probably the 
one variety from which all breeds have been evolved. 
This idea has doubtless arisen from the fact that the 
Collie most resembles the wild dog, and that there 
is a great similarity in form and character between 
the sheep and cattle dogs of all countries, which 
points to a common origin. The little differences 
may be accounted for by the variations in char- 
acter of the different countries which call for dogs 
somewhat different in build, but all are more or less 
of the same type and character — the Dutch, Ger- 
man, Belgian, French, Spanish, etc. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of . 
Collie puppies at from two to four months old and 
after, are: Great length of head, which should be 
level and wedge-shaped, but should not run into 
coarseness or width at the base of the skull, which 
should be narrow. Ears small; body short and round; 
tail short; forelegs straight. The biggest puppies 
are apt to be the best if they are not coarse, but pos- 
sess the desired points. The foregoing applies to 
both roughs and smooths, the latter requiring to be 
very smooth in coat, short but dense. The more 
coat the roughs have the better. 

The following are the standard description and 
points as laid down by the Collie Club for the two 

Head. — Skull flat, moderately wide between the 
ears, and gradually tapering to the eyes. There 
should be but a very slight prominence of the eye- 
brows, and a very slight depression at the top. 



The proper width of skull necessarily depends 
upon the combined length of skull and muzzle, for 
what would be a thick or a too broad skull in one 
dog is not necessarily so in another of the same 
actual girth, but better supported by length of 
muzzle. It must also be considered in conjunction 
with the size of the dog and should incline to light- 
ness, accompanied by cleanness of outline of cheeks 
and jaws. A heavy-headed dog lacks the bright, 
alert, and fuU-of-sense look so much to be desired. 
On the other hand, the attenuated head is most 
frequently seen with small Terrier eyes, which show 
no character. 

Muzzle should be of fair length and tapering to 
the nose, which should be black; it must not show 
weakness or appear snipy. The teeth of good size 
and even. English standard says, "Mouth the 
least bit overshot," but this is by no means desir- 
able, and if at all exaggerated should be treated as 
a malformation. 

Eyes. — There being no "brow'* in which to set 
the eyes, they are necessarily placed obliquely, the 
upper portion of the muzzle being dropped or 
chiseled to give them the necessary forward look- 
out. They should be of medium size, never showing 
too light in comparison with the color of coat, nor 
with a yellow ring. Expression full of intelligence, 
with a bright "What-is-it?" look when on the 
alert or listening to orders. This is of course largelv 
contributed to by the throwing up of the ears which 
accompanies the qui vive attitude. 



Ears. — ^The ears can hardly be too small if car- 
ried properly. If too small they are apt to be thrown 
quite erect or prick-eared; and if large they either 
cannot be properly lifted off the head or, if lifted, 
they show out of proportion. When in repose the 
ears are folded lengthwise and thrown back into the 
frill; on the alert they are thrown up and drawn 
closer together on the top of the skull. They should 
be carried about three-quarters erect. A prick- 
eared dog should be penalized. So much attention 
having of late been given to securing very high car- 
riage of ears, it has resulted in reaching the other 
extreme in some cases, and it is now necessary to 
guard against that. 

Neck. — Should be muscular and of sufficient 
length to give the dog a fine upstanding appear- 
ance, and show oiF the frill, which should be very 

Body. — Rather long, ribs well rounded, chest 
deep but of fair breadth behind the shoulders, 
which should have good slope. Loin slightly arched, 
showing power. 

Legs. — Forelegs straight and muscular, with a 
fair amount of bone, the forearm moderately fleshy; 
pasterns showing flexibility without weakness; the 
hindlegs less fleshy, very sinewy, and hocks and 
stifles well bent. Feet oval in shape, soles well 
padded, and the toes arched and close together. 

Tail. — Moderately long, carried low when the 
dog is quiet, the end having an upward "swirl;" 
when excited, carried gaily but not over the back. 






Coat. — ^This is a very important point. The 
coat, except on the head and legs, should be abun- 
dant, the outer coat harsh to the touch, the inner 
coat soft and furry and very close; so close that it is 
difficult on parting the hair to see the skin. The 
mane and frill should be very abundant. The mask 
or face smooth, the forelegs slightly feathered, the 
hindlegs below the hocks smooth. Hair on tail 
very profuse, and on the hips long and bushy. 

Color. — Immaterial, though a richly-colored or 
nicely-marked dog has undoubtedly a considerable 
amount of weight with judges. The black-and-tan 
with white frill and collar, or the still more showy 
sable with perfect white markings will generally 
win, other tnings being equal. 

Size. — Dogs, 22 to 24 inches at the shoulder; 
bitches, 20 to 22 inches. Weight — dogs, 45 to 60 
pounds; bitches, 40 to 50 pounds. 

Expression. — This is one of the most important 
points in considering the relative value of Collies. 
"Expression," like the term "character," is difficult 
to define in words. It is not a fixed point as in color, 
weight, or height, and is something the uninitiated 
can only properly understand by optical illustration. 
It is the combined product of the shape of the skull 
and muzzle, the set, size, shape, and color of the 
eyes, and the position and carriage of the ears. 

General Character. — A lithe, active dog, with 
no useless timber about him, his deep chest snowing 
strength, his sloping shoulders and well-bent hocks 
indicating speed, and his face high intelligence. 



As a whole he should present an elegant and pleas- 
ing outline, quite distinct from any other breed, 
and show great strength and activity. 

Faults. — Domed skull, high, peaked occipital 
bone, heavy, pendulous ears, or the other extreme, 
prick ears, short tail or tail curled over the back. 

The following scale of points are those adopted 
by the Collie clubs of England. The club does not 
recommend point judging, the figures merely show- 
ing on which "properties** the greater stress is laid: 

Value of Points. — ^Head and expression, 15; 
ears, lo; neck and shoulders, 10; legs and feet, 15; 
hindquarters, 10; back and loins, lO; brush, 5; coat 
with frill, 20; size, 5. Total, 100. 


The Smooth-coated Collie is or should be an ex- 
act replica of his rough-coated brother in every 
detail and particular, but with a short, dense, 
double coat which looks smooth to the eye, but 
which is harsh and weather-resisting. The Smooth- 
coated Collie is an English edition of his Scotch 
cousin, and is doubtless a manufactured variety to 
a great extent, as seen to-day on the show bench, 
although a form of smooth Collie or Sheep Dog has 
been indigenous to the agricultural districts of 
England from time immemorial almost. 

The smooth Collie, as an all-around utility dog, 
probably cannot be excelled. His short, sleek, 
dense, weather-resisting coat is undoubtedly an ad- 
vantage to him over his rough brother in snowy 



weather, and is less cumbersome to carry. He is 
more difficult to breed to type because of his smooth 
coat, which lays bare an anatomy which a rough 
coat covers, and without which defects of body 
cannot be hidden in the smooth variety. The or- 
thodox color of the smooth is much the same as in 
the rough-coated variety. 

There also exists in Scotland a type known as the 
Bearded Collie. These dogs bear considerable re- 
semblance to the old English Sheep Dog. In fact, 
it is easy to imagine that the latter would assume 
the form and appearance of Bearded Collies if for 
a few generations they were bred for working pur- 
poses alone. The Bearded Collie is a hardy-looking 
dog with a very nice temper. They are capable of 
a good day*s work and can endure much cold and 
wet without discomfort. The head of a Bearded 
Collie has something about it which suggests the 
Dandie Dinmont, while they possess a dignity and 
grandeur which reminds one of the Deerhound, the 
Otterhound, and the majestic animals which inhabit 
mountainous countries. 


The interest in this remarkable breed of dogs has 
developed so rapidly that we are gratified at being 
able to present this authoritative article by Jay 
Hall, one of the most successful exhibitors of the 
breed in this country: 

This native German breed resembling the wolf in 
general appearance is known throughout the world 



by many different names. Commonly called the 
Police Dog, by reason of the large number used in 
night patrol duty on the police force of German 
cities, it is known in England as the Alsatian Wolf 
Dog. It is often referred to as the Belgian Police 
Dog and as the French Police Dog. In America, 
prior to the entrance by the United States into the 
World War, it was known by its true name — the 
German Shepherd Dog. In 191 8 the American 
Kennel Club arbitrarily dropped the word "Ger- 
man," naming the breed plainly **The Shepherd 

The breed is known in Germany as the Deutscher 
Schaferhiind (or German Shepherd Dog), but when 
trained for police duty is designated as the Policei- 
hund or police dog. It has been stated that as early 
as 191 1 more than 400 police stations in Germany 
had been provided with specially-trained dogs of 
this species. 

Primarily a herding dog descended from the long- 
haired dogs of South Germany, he lends himself to 
training of varied character. A nose hunter, keen 
of scent, he makes aft admirable trailer of man or 
game. In common with the Shepherd Dog of any 
race, he, by reason of his close and constant com- 
panionship with man, is generally obedient and 
sagacious. His physical makeup adapts him to 
tireless sustained effort, and the breeders respon- 
sible for the fixed type that exists wisely provided 
for a combination that, while it preserves a certain 
beauty of outline, has lost nothing in usefulness as 



a working dog. The Shepherd has been found 
readily adapted to training both for Red Cross and 
police purposes, and has been used extensively in 
these fields chiefly by the Germans. 

In Germany the breed is sponsored by the Ger- 
man Shepherd Dog Club, an active organization 
with a membership of many thousands widely 
spread throughout the country. The Stud Book 
published by this club is a model of excellence. In 
fact, personally I have never seen a stud book of 
any breed of animals that was superior to it. It 
was founded in 1899. Six root stocks mark the 
beginning of the breed. 

No breed of dog has gained favor more quickly 
with the public than has this b^eed in America. 
From obscurity in 1904, when the breed was first 
introduced into the United States, to-day (1921) 
finds that the Shepherds benched run one, two, 
three in number at nearly all our more important 

Perhaps the greatest misnomer, on the part of the 
uninformed public, of the true and natural disposi- 
tion of dogs of this breed is a natural result of the 
commonly given name "Police Dog." By nature 
the Shepherd is quick, affectionate, intelligent, 
faithful, of fine mind and memory, devoted to its 
master, and zealous in his interest. It is these very 
attributes that constitute a fine groundwork for the 
training of certain of these dogs for police service. 

It is well then to consider that the true dog of the 
breed is a shepherd by type, and that only specialized 



training transforms him to a police dog. As a 
police dog his fine basic characteristics are ac- 
centuated and developed to a point of usefulness 
for the particular work at hand. 

The idea of using dogs for civic protection is by- 
no means new. Louis XI, who ruled in France 
early in the fifteenth century, provided the famous 
town of Mont St. Michel with a dog corps, and 
St. Malo, close by, was protected in a similar manner. 

While it is generally recorded that the city of 
Ghent in Belgium was the first city to establish a 
systematic and regular school for the training of 
police dogs and putting them into local service 
after training them, it is claimed that the honor of 
introducing the modern police dog on the continent 
really belongs to Dr. Gerland, who introduced the 
practice at Hildesheim, Germany, early in 1896. 
During the five years that followed the experiment 
was taken up by practically every country in Europe, 
and several foreign countries, including Japan, sent 
representatives abroad to investigate the plan and 

In the training and instruction of these dogs for 
police duty they are taught to seize an object with- 
out seriously hurting it; to hunt for vagabonds and 
defend the uniforms; not to accept anything from 
strangers nor to be petted by them; to guard an 
object placed on the ground; to keep individuals at 
bay without biting until human help arrives, but 
to attack if necessary if flight is attempted; to follow 
through a house where dwellings or buildings re- 



quire searching; not to be afraid of firearms; to run 
into alleys, behind houses and outbuildings, and 
into many places where the human eye could not see 
unless provided with a light; to follow his master 
with or without leash at distances ranging to a 
maximum of 150 feet; to bark loudly to announce 
a find. These dogs are finally trained to respect 
and protect a police uniform, and seem instinctively 
to know the uniform. If a man attacks its master, 
the dog becomes furious and savage, and often jumps 
at the throat of the aggressor. After their training 
is completed and when they are not on active duty 
they remain in their kennels all day, seeing only 
the trainers who care for them, and as they are on 
duty throughout the night, they have no means of 
becoming familiar with the public. 

The first essential of training this breed is to 
inculcate absolute obedience. It has been found 
that the greater the intelligence of the dog the 
more difficult it is to teach them a routine. The 
dog's own individuality is likely to assert itself. 
Rare discretion must be used by the skilled trainer. 

The following essentials are enumerated as nec- 
essary in their training for police use: A dog must 
be taught to give tongue when quarry is found or 
breaks from cover on a run, to curb its hunting in- 
stincts and stop abruptly at cry or whistle of com- 
mand. Where resistance is oflFered it is taught to 
leap at the wrist or throat of the culprit, and while 
prowling by itself to rout from bushes or shadows 
all marauders. 




The dog's early education for police service leads 
him to suspect all strangers. He cannot be in- 
timidated, coaxed, or lured. He will refuse all food 
when offered by strangers, even though he may be 
extremely hungry. A properly trained police dog 
is irreproachable in morals, mien, and manners. 
He will face pistol fire unflinchingly and leap sav- 
agely to attack. A well-trained dog will easily clear 
a seven-foot obstacle, and can broad-jump a small 
stream or creek twelve to fifteen feet across. The 
dog's education enables him to ferret out hidden 
goods, to find coins that have been dropped; in fact, 
to search out every clue of the criminal that may be 
of service in leading to his eventual discovery and 
arrest. These dogs are quick to sense the presence 
of criminals with whom they have had previous 
contact, and have been known to pick men out of 
a crowd under these conditions. 

We would again forcefully call to the reader's 
attention the fact that these characteristics are 
peculiar to those of the breed trained for this special 
duty or purpose. The well-bred Shepherd untrained 
for police use is an admirable companion, loyal, 
affectionate, well mannered, obedient and in no way 
savage or solitary. 

The illustration reproduced is that of the Grand 
Champion of the Breed in America, 1920, Grand 
Champion Van Halls Rex Buckel. 

Listed below is the standard of the breed as es- 
tablished by the German Shepherd Dog Club (S. V. 
Munick, E. V.) in alliance with Specialty Clubs 


American bred collie, Ch. Starbit. 
Police dog, Grand Chunp, Vantudl'i Rex Bucket. 



maintaining stud books as well as the Field Trial 
Alliance of the breeders' associations of working dog 
breeds and also the Alliance with (P. H. Z.) (Police 
dog breeding). Translated from the German by 
Leo F. F. Wanner, of Hempstead, L. I. 

General Appearance. — ^The German Shepherd 
is a medium-size dog. He is rather long in body, 
strong, and well muscled. He is so full of life that 
when at attention nothing can escape his sharp 
senses. The average height for dogs is 60 centimeters 
(24 inches), and for bitches between 55 and 58 
centimeters (22 to 23^^ inches). The height is to 
be established with a standard laid alongside of the 
elbow and taken in a straight line from the top of 
shoulder blade to the ground; coat parted and 
pressed down so that the measurement will show 
only the actual height of the bone frame or structure 
of the dog. For the Shepherd Dog as a working dog 
the most desirable height is between 55 and about 
64-65 centimeters (22 and about 26 inches). The 
working value of dogs above or below these heights 
is lessened. 

The traits and special characteristics are watch- 
fulness, courageous loyalty, strict honesty and ar- 
istocratic appearance, all forming a combination 
which makes the clean-bred German Shepherd an 
ideal companion and watch dog. It is desirable to 
try to improve his appearance, but nothing must be 
done which will in any way detract from his use- 

Head. — Size of head should be in proportion to the 



body, not plump; in appearance clean cut, medium 
wide between ears. Forehead seen from the front 
only very moderately arched, without or with only 
slightly indicated center furrow. Cheeks form a 
very slight curve to muzzle, without any promi- 
nence whatsoever at the front. The skull slopes in 
a slanting line without any abrupt stop at the fore- 
head, continuing into a cone-shaped, pointed, long, 
and dry muzzle. The muzzle is strong, the lips dry 
and tight, firmly fitting together; the bridge of the 
nose straight, very nearly following out the elongated 
line of the forehead. Jaws and teeth are very strong, 
teeth meeting in a scissors-like manner, sharply 
overlapping each other, but they must not be over 
or undershot. 

Ears. — Medium size, set high on the head, broad 
at the base and pointed at the tips. They are car- 
ried erect and turned to the front. Occasionally we 
find Collie or soft-eared dogs, but the erect ear is 
always desirable. The breeding of dogs with erect 
ears is desirable, although it is immaterial how a 
herding dog carries his ears. Trimmed and soft 
ears are to be discarded. Puppies and young dogs 
usually do not straighten their ears before the fourth 
or sixth month and sometimes even later. 

Eyes. — Medium size, almond-shaped, set a little 
obliquely and not protruding; color as dark as pos- 
sible. The expression should be lively, intelligent, 
and show distrust of strangers. 

Neck. — Strong, with well-developed muscles of 



medium length, without any loose folds of skin. 
Carried high when excited, otherwise straight. 

Body. — Chest deep, but not too broad. Ribs 
flat. Stomach moderately tucked up. Back straight 
and strongly developed. The length of the body 
should exceed the shoulder height of the dog. 
Short-coupled and long-legged dogs should be dis- 
carded. The Shepherd Dog should never run wild. 
The handiness and elasticity required of a herding 
dog is attained by good angles at hindquarters, 
broad, powerful loin, long, sloping croup. 

Tail. — Heavily coated, reaching the hock, and 
often forming a slight hook twisted to one side. At 
rest the tail hangs in a slight curve. When excited 
and in motion the curve is accentuated and the tail 
is raised, although it should never be lifted beyond 
a vertical line. The tail therefore should never be 
laid over the back, either straight or curled. It is 
natural that bob-tails should appear, but they should 
not be used for breeding. Docked tails are to be 

FoREQUARTERS. — Shouldcrs long and sloping, well 
muscled, and set on flat against the body. Legs 
straight viewed from every angle. 

Hindquarters. — Leg broad, powerfully muscled; 
upper thigh quite long and viewed from the sides, set 
at an angle with the long lower thigh. Hock strong. 

Feet. — Round, short, compact, and arched. Pads 
very hard, nails short, strong, and generally dark in 
color. Dewclaws usually appear on the hind leg. 



Dewclaws are not faults nor are they desirable 
points in the standard. They generally cause a 
spread action behind, also injuries, and therefore it 
is essential that they be removed immediately after 
the puppies are whelped. 

Color. — Black, iron-gray, ash-gray, reddish-yel- 
low, reddish-brown (either solid color or with regular 
markings of reddish-brown to whitish-gray). Fur- 
thermore pure white, or white with dark patches 
intermingled (blue-red brindle), also dark brindle 
(black patches on gray, yellow, or light brown 
body), with lighter colored markings. The so- 
called wolfs color (coloring of the dog in his wild 
state), white markings on chest and legs are per- 
mitted. The undercoat, except in black dogs, is 
always light in color. The color of a puppy can 
only be ascertained after his top coat comes in. 

Coat. — ^The following types are classified solely 
according to the texture of their coats : 

A. — ^The Smooth-Coated German Shepherd Dog. 

B. — The Rough-Coated or wire-haired German 
Shepherd Dog. 

C. — ^The Long-Coated German Shepherd Dog. 

A very close undercoat is characteristic of each of 
the three types. 

A. — ^The Smooth-Coated German Shepherd Dog: 
The top coat is very dense, each single hair straight, 
harsh, and lying close to the body. The head, in- 
cluding the inner ear, front of legs, and paws, 
covered with short hair, and the neck with longer 
and thicker hair. The fore and hind legs have a 



short feather extending to the pasterns and hock 
respectively. Length of coat varies; this .accounts 
for the great variety of different length coats. Too 
short a coat is a fault. A smooth coat which is too 
long collects dirt, and usually means either a poor 
or no undercoat. 

B. — ^The Rough-Coated or Wire-Haired German 
Shepherd Dog: This type is very rare, especially 
clean-bred instances. The coat is generally shorter 
than that of the smooth-coated variety. The 
shorter haired parts of the smooth dog, such as 
head and legs, are, in the rough-coated dog, covered 
with still shorter wire hair. This wire hair also 
forms on the lips and eyes, more or less developed 
beard and eyebrows. Each single hair should be 
very stiff, hard, and wire-like to the touch, as in 
the rough-coated German Pinscher. The tail is 
without feather. In other respects the rough-coated 
dog corresponds to the smooth-coated type, with 
the exception of the muzzle, which in the former is 
a trifle broader and stronger. 

C. — The Long-Coated or Old German Type 
Shepherd Dog: This type is also growing scarce. 
They are still found in southern and eastern Ger- 
many as working dogs. As a rule they result from 
crossing the smooth and rough-coated types. The 
clean bred Old Type German Shepherd Dog is very- 
scarce. The coat is thick, long, and tangled, rougn 
to the touch. Hair of head falls to the side, partly 
covering the eyes, and forms a mustache as well as 
a goatee. The paws are long-coated and the tail 

^ 93 


bushy. In southern Germany they have medium- 
size, hanging ears. In northern Germany, par- 
ticularly in Hanover and Braunschweig, they are 
found with erect ears. The long-coated Shepherd 
Dog is generally all white in color. 

Faults. — ^All physical defects which tend to 
lessen the utility and endurance, especially a com- 
bination of short back and legginess in a dog; built 
too coarse or too fine; weak or sway back, straight 
quarters as well as any point of the running gear 
which would affect length and evenness of stride, 
elasticity, and endurance. Furthermore, too short 
or too soft a coat and absence of undercoat; skull 
too coarse or lacking in depth. Muzzle too short 
or stumpy or too weak, pointed muzzle, also over 
and undershot. Splay foot; long-coated paws, ex- 
cept in long-coated type; hanging as well as badly- 
carried ears for any length of time, except in long- 
coated old German type dogs; rolled or badly-carried 
tail, cropped ears and docked tails. 


This breed of dog bears the same relationship in 
size and appearance to the rough Collie as the tiny 
Shetland pony does to some of the larger breeds of 
horses native to Scotland. They resemble them in 
everything but size. 

A good specimen of this dog should be an absolute 
replica in miniature of the ordinary Collie. They 
are a true breed inasmuch as they breed to size and 
type, and in their native country are used for driv- 



ing and gathering the sheep inhabiting these wind- 
swept isles. In later years they have been bred more 
as companions and pets than for utility, and for 
this purpose they are excellent as they have the in- 
telligence and faithful heart of the larger dog to a 
high degree. 

The chief points to be looked for in the selection 
of Shetland Collie puppies are those of the Scotch 
Collie on a reduced scale. 

The general description of the breed is as follows: 

The average weight is about 7 pounds for bitches, 
and up to 10 pounds or thereby for dogs. 

Length or Body, from root of tail to shoulder, 
15 inches. 

Height at Forearm, 9 inches to 10 inches. 

Length of Head, from occiput to tip of nose, 
5 inches to 6 inches. The head should be flat and 
not over thick in skull, with the muzzle tapering to 
the nose; mouth clean-teethed and level. 

Ears. — Semi-erect, small, and placed high on the 

The Eye should be well placed and small and dark, 
with the ordinary intelligent Collie expression. 

The Front Legs are straight, strong boned, and 
short, and beautifully feathered, with plenty of 
chest frill. 

Hindquarters strong and well feathered, with 
the legs clean. 

Tail well feathered and carried as the ordinary 

Color. — They are found in various colors, such 



as black-and-tan, black-tan-and-white, black-and- 
white, sable-and-white, and, in that northern cli- 
mate, they may be found wholly white. 

The Outer Coat is long and glossy, a trifle softer 
in texture than the ordinary Collie, but with the 
usual woolly undercoat. This softness of outer 
coat may perhaps be accounted for by climatic con- 
ditions. For instance, the little Shetland sheep car- 
ries a much finer, softer, and more valuable coat 
than the sheep of our country. 




The Pointer deservedly occupies a high place in 
the esteem of American sportsmen, for he is at- 
tractive in form and possesses fine field qualities. 
The pointing dogs, from which they are descended, 
originated in Spain during the Middle Ages, and early 
in the seventeenth century crossed the mountains 
into France, and eventually found their way over 
to England. These early Spanish dogs were so 
heavy, coarse, and cumbersome that English sports- 
men, with the object of lightening up their heavy 
frames and gaining more speed, crossed them with 
the Foxhound. In the colonial days of this country 
there were many enthusiastic sportsmen, partic- 
ularly in Maryland and the Carolinas, who imported 
Pointers from abroad. These were judiciously 
mated, new dogs brought over from time to time, 
and eventually their progeny became scattered 
throughout the country, making warm friends and 
admirers, so that to-day they are one of the most 
popular of America's sporting breed. 

The Pointer as a rule does not make up to strangers 
as readily as a Setter, but to his owner he is an affec- 
tionate and loyal companion. Pointer admirers 
claim that as a class their short-haired favorites are 
more naturally inclined to point than Setters; that 
they are more easily broken, retain their training 



longer, and are more obedient in the field. No 
question will be raised over the fact that their short- 
ness of coat constitutes a strong recommendation 
for warm climate or for summer shooting on the 
prairies or in sections of the country where cockle 
burrs, sand fleas, nettles, and other pests abound 
and annoy long-haired dogs to distraction. 

There is a group of English breeders who are al- 
ways attempting to improve the Pointer by Fox- 
hound crosses. There is another group, led by 
William Arkwright, Esq., of Sutton, Scarsdale, 
Derbyshire, who have vigorously opposed these 
crosses. Mr. Arkwright has always stood firmly 
for pure breeding. He is the foremost living au- 
thority on the breed, his opinions have been closely 
followed by American breeders, and as a result our 
American strains have been kept pure and have 
arrived at a most gratifying regularity of type, 
combined with brilliant field qualities. 

There are no accurate records of the Pointers 
brought to this country previous to 1870. At that 
time the magazine Forest and Stream was founded, 
and it soon attained a wide circulation among 
sportsmen and fanciers, who began recording in its 
columns the descriptions and pedigrees of various 
celebrated dogs as well as the pedigrees, records, 
and appearance of the Pointers that were being 
brought to this country from abroad. 

The first of these of importance was Sensation, 
imported by the Westminster Kennel Club. This 
dog was widely heralded, but he never rose above 



mediocrity either as a sire or in the field. Bang 
Bang, a smaller dog of the celebrated Price strain, 
brought over at the same time, was in every way 
his superior, and one of his sons. Consolation, was 
pronounced the handsomest specimen of his day. 
A few years later the club imported Naso of Kippen, 
a dog of pronounced character, who had a great 
influence upon his breed. There was also a noted 
field dog in St. Louis by the name of Sleaford, and 
later a dog named Bow, a son of Price's Bang, which 
was his equal in the field and his superior on the 
bench. St. Louis sportsmen then imported Faust, 
a magnificent animal both in appearance and in the 
field. The dog, however, that made the greatest 
impression on the breed was Croxtieth. He was not 
particularly attractive in appearance, being on the 
large order, generally coarse, ungraceful in action, 
with a long, narrow head. He was fast in the field, 
however, and his sons were better than their sire. 
Among them may be mentioned Trinket, Trinket's 
Bang, Ossian, Robert le Diable. The next dog to 
be imported was Meteor, who was considerably 
overestimated. He was followed by a symmetrical 
dog named Graphic, that was widely advertised and 
did considerable winning, but was of ordinary 
ability. In the same kennel were Brackett, Meally, 
and Lad of Bow. One of the latter's sons. Lad of 
Rush, did considerable winning in the nineties. 
Hempstead Farm Kennels imported Duke of Hesson, 
and there was another dog named Tammany, that 
did considerable winning about this time. The 



blood, however, that made the greatest impression 
upon our present-day dogs was a combination of the 
old English Mike-Romp, the most conspicuous suc- 
cess of this combination being Rip Rap, by King of 
Kent-Hops. Among other great descendants of 
King of Kent were Maid of Kent, Kent's Elgin, 
Strideway, and Hal Pointer. Jingo, who was the 
same blood as Rip Rap on his sire's side, and also 
founded a family. Among his progeny are Young 
Jingo, Lad of Jingo, Jingo's Pearl, Jingo's Boy, 
Pearl's Dot, Syrano, and Two Spot, all names that 
look well in Pointer pedigrees. 

Following these dogs came Alfred's John, one of 
the greatest bird dogs that has ever been seen at 
American field trials. At one time there was some 
uncertainty of his breeding, and while he left some 
good sons and daughters, they were not regarded 
with the favor of those that we have previously 

Another dog that made a great impression upon 
the breed was Fishel's Frank, a consistent winner 
all over the country, and whose son, Comanche 
Frank, ran some celebrated races, eventually be- 
came a double champion, and whose daughter, 
Mary Montrose, was the first bird dog to win the 
Edward Dexter cup. She was brought out and 
handled by Robert Armstrong, a son of Edward 
Armstrong, who won the first field trial ever run in 

The Pointer standard is as follows: 

Skull. — Of good size, but not as heavy as in the 



old Spanish Pointer, and in a lesser degree his half- 
breed descendants. It should be wider across the 
ear than that of the Setter, with the forehead rising 
well at the brows, showing a decided stop. A full 
development of the occipital protuberance is in- 
dispensable, and the upper surface should be in two 
slight rounded flats, with a furrow between. 

Nose. — Long (4 inches to 4^^ inches) and broad, 
with widely opened nostrils. The end must be 
moist, and in good health is cold to the touch. It 
should be black or very dark brown in all but the 
lemons and whites, but in them it may be a deep 
flesh color. It should be cut ofi^ square and not 
pointed — known as the "snipe nose" or "pig jaw." 
Teeth meeting evenly. 

Ears, Eyes, and Lips. — Ears soft in coat, mod- 
erately long and thin in leather, not folding like the 
Hound's, but lying flat and close to the cheeks, and 
set on low, without any tendency to prick. Eyes 
soft and of medium size; color brown, varying in 
shade with that of the coat. Lips well developed 
and frothing when in work, but not pendant nor 

Neck. — ^Arched toward the head, long and round, 
without any approach to dewlap or throatiness. It 
should come out with a graceful sweep from be- 
tween the shoulder blades. 

Shoulders and Chest. — ^These are dependent on 
each other for their formation. Thus, a wide and 
looped chest cannot have the blades lying flat 
against its sides; and consequently instead of this 



and their sloping backward, as they ought to do in 
order to give free action, they are upright, short, 
and fixed. Of course, a certain width is required to 
give room for the lungs, but the volume required 
should be obtained by depth rather than width. 
Behind the blades the ribs should, however, be well 
arched, but still deep; this last, depth of back ribs, 
is especially important. 

Back, Quarters, and Stifles. — ^These constitute 
the main propellers of the machine, and on their 
proper development the speed and power of the dog 
depend. The loin should be very slightly arched 
and full of muscle, which should run well over the 
back ribs; the hips should be wide, with a tendency 
even to ruggedness, and the quarters should droop 
very slightly from them. These last must be full 
of firm muscle, and the stifles should be well bent 
and carried widely apart, so as to allow the hind- 
legs to be brought well forward in the gallop, in- 
stituting a form of action which does not tire. 

Legs, Elbows, and Hocks. — ^These chiefly bony 
parts, though merely the levers by which the muscles 
act, must be strong enough to bear the strain given 
them, and this must act in the straight line of pro- 
gression. Substance of bone is therefore demanded, 
not only in the shanks, but in the joints, the knees 
and hocks being especially required to be bony. 
The elbows should be well let down, giving a long 
upper arm, and should not be turned in or out, the 
latter being, however, the lesser fault of the two, as 
the confined elbows limit the action considerably. 



The reverse is the case with the hocks, which may 
be turned in rather than out, the former being gen- 
erally accompanied by the wideness of stifles which 
I have already insisted on. Both hind and fore 
pastern should be short, nearly upright, and full of 

Feet. — All-important; for, however strong and 
fast the action may be, if the feet are not well shaped 
and the horny covering hard, the dog will soon be- 
come footsore when at work, and then will refuse 
to leave his master's heels, however high his courage 
may be. Breeders have long disputed the com- 
paratively good quality of the round, catlike foot 
and the long one resembling that of a hare. In the 
Pointer my own opinion is in favor of the cat foot, 
with the toes well arched and close together. This 
is the consideratum of the M. F. H., and I think 
stands work better than the hare foot, in which the 
toes are not arched, but still lie close together. In 
the Setter the greater amount of hair to a certain 
extent condones the inherent weakness of the hare 
foot; but in the Pointer no such superiority can be 
claimed. The main point, however, is the closeness 
of the pads, compared with the thickness of the 
horny covering. 

Stern. — Strong in bone at the root, but should 
at once be reduced in size as it leaves the body, and 
then gradually taper to a point like a bee's sting. 
It should be very slightly curved, carried a little 
above the line of the back, and without the slightest 
approach to a curl at the tip. 



Symmetry and Quality. — ^The Pointer should 
display goodly proportion, no dog showing more 
difference between the "gentleman" and his oppo- 
site. It is impossible to analyze the essentials, but 
every judge carries the knowledge with him. 

Texture. — ^The coat in the Pointer should be 
soft and mellow, but not absolutely silky. 

jCoLOR. — ^There is now little choice, in point of 
fashion, between the liver and the lemon whites. 
After them come the black and whites (with or 
without tan), then the pure black, and lastly the 
pure liver. Dark liver-ticked is, perhaps, the most 
beautiful color of all to the eye. 

Value of Points. — Skull, lo; nose, lo; ears, 
eyes, and lips, 4; neck, 6; shoulders and chest, 15; 
back quarters and stifles, 15; legs, elbows, and 
hocks, 12; feet, 3; stern, 5; symmetry and quality, 
7; texture of coat, 3; color, 10. Total, 100. 


The English Setter is one of the handsomest of 
sporting dogs. Their abundant coats give them an 
advantage over the Pointer in facing cold, wet, 
windy weather, or brambles and briars in a rough 
country. Their admirers also claim they possess 
more dash and vim, do not thicken up so quickly 
with age as the Pointer, and that they improve in 
their work from year to year. The picture pre- 
sented by a well-bred Setter with soft, expressive 
eye, low-set ear, head chiseled on classic lines, clean- 
cut neck, graceful outline, and attractive coat and 



coloring, leaves nothing to be desired in point of 
beauty. In addition, they possess the sweetest and 
most companionable of dispositions. 

The modem Setter is said to be descended from 
Spaniels which had been trained to stop and set 
the birds instead of flushing them. The time and 
place, however, where this first occurred is shrouded 
in obscurity. The excellences of our present-day 
Setters can be attributed largely to Edward Lave- 
rack. This gentleman, about 1825, secured a brace 
of Setters, Ponto and Old Moll, from the Rev. Mr. 
Harrison, of Carlisle. These dogs he mated, their 
progeny in turn were interbred, and this formulae 
of breeding was continued for upward of fifty years, 
in the course of which time Mr. Laverack created a 
strain of Setters bearing his name, which were as 
famous for their field qualities as for their beauty. 

The types of all breeds of dogs have been de- 
termined almost entirely by bench shows, and if 
these had been the only influence that had operated 
upon the English Setter family, there would be but 
one recognized type of English Setter. This, how- 
ever, is not the case, for half a century ago, just 
about the time that bench shows were getting upon 
a sound basis, practical sportsmen in both Europe 
and America instituted field trials for Bird Dogs. 
These contests have enjoyed a remarkable vogue, 
and as a result we have had bench show Setter 
fanciers developing a type of Setter which expressed 
their ideals of what an English Setter should be, 
and another group of field trial men devoting all of 



their attention to developing field qualities with an 
entire disregard for size, color, general type, con- 
formation, and other things that the bench-show 
men hold most dear. The only question that con- 
cerned the field-trial man was utility, his only 
standard "the survival of the fittest." 

The conclusions that men arrive at in writing a 
bench-show standard as to how a practical working 
dog should be built and how his head should be sup- 
ported on his neck or his shoulders placed in rela- 
tionship to his body, is more or less whimsical and 
subject to change. There is no way of determining 
that which is right and that which is wrong. There 
is always danger of overemphasizing the importance 
of some point at the expense of others and losing 
sight of the fact that under the laws of correlation it is 
impossible to change one point without changing all 
others to a greater or less degree. 

The field-trial men have never permitted details of 
conformation to detract from their single object of 
practical performance. As a result of the operation 
of the law of the survival of the fittest, a field trial 
type has been evolved that is easily recognized, 
and breeds truer to type than the bench-show dogs 
that have been fashioned in response to the opinions 
of men who were without means for determining the 
accuracy of their judgment. The bench-show win- 
ning Setter to-day is a very elegant animal, but no 
more so than the field trial dog, with every element 
of utility expressed in his countenance, written in 
his frame, and recorded in his pedigree. 



The bench-show Setters of to-day have a Laverack 
foundation. Half a century ago this was more or 
less mixed with native blood, which disappeared 
before rapid importations of dogs from abroad. 
These early importations were nearly all Laverack, 
or at least the Laverack strain predominated. 
Those that followed them were often mixed with 
other Old English Setter strains, and all of them were 
distinguished by much grace and beauty, par- 
ticularly in coat, color, and general outline. Many 
of them had been bench-show winners abroad and 
a few had appeared at English field trials. Occa- 
sionally they were placed in America, but on the 
whole they were all lacking the speed, dash, en- 
durance, and unquenchable spirit necessary to win 
American stakes. Their names are regarded with 
disfavor in field trial pedigrees. 

Among the first Laverack dogs to be brought to 
this country were: Pride of the Border and Fairy; 
then came Emperor Fred and Thunder; Plantagenet 
and Foreman were prominent in bench shows in 
the early '8o's, and shortly afterward Rockingham, 
Princess Beatrice, Count Howard, Monk of Furness, 
and Cora of Wither all had the center of the stage. 
In the '90's Albert's Ranger was attracting a good 
deal of attention, and later came Mallwyd, Sirdar, 
Stylish Sargent, Dido B, Bloomfield Racket, Blue 
Bell, Moll O'Leck, Meg O'Leck, Stylish Bell Bonner. 
All of these dogs while attractive in appearance 
lacked rugged character and the well-balanced pro- 
portions of the field-trial strain. Most of them were 



bred in England or were descended from dogs of 
English breeding which, although they might have 
proven fairly satisfactory workmen under old coun- 
try conditions, were unable to cope either in speed, 
style, endurance, or quick, snappy way of working 
with the field-trial type. 

The history of the field trial strain is as follows: 
About the time the Laverack strain of Setters were 
in their zenith in England, Mr. R. L. Purcell Llew- 
ellin, who for several years had been experimenting 
with various families of setters, purchased a num- 
ber of Mr. Laverack's best dogs of the pure Dash- 
Moll and Dash-Lill Laverack blood. These Lave- 
racks he crossed with some entirely new blood, which 
he obtained in the north of England, represented by 
Mr. Statter's and Sir Vincent Corbet's strain since 
referred to as the Duke-Rhaebes, the latter being 
the two most prominent members of this blood. 

The result of these crosses was eminently suc- 
cessful, particularly at field trials, and swept every- 
thing before them. Their reputation spread to 
America, and many were purchased by sportsmen 
in different sections of the United States and Can- 
ada, so that this line of breeding soon became firmly 
established in this country. 

The name that stands out most conspicuously in 
the foundation of the field-trial Setter in America is 
Count Noble. This dog was purchased from Mr. 
Llewellin by Dave Samborn, of Dowling, Michigan, 
who, after trying him out on the prairies, was on 
the point of returning him to England, but was per- 



suaded not to do so by the late B. F. Wilson, of 
Pittsburgh. The character and qualities that Sam- 
born objected to were those to which Mr. Wilson 
attached the highest importance. On the death 
of Mr. Samborn, Count passed into the hands of 
Mr. Wilson, who gave him opportunity to demon- 
strate his sterling qualities and his reputation was 
soon established from coast to coast. 

The body of this famous dog, mounted, is now in 
the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, where it is vis- 
ited annually by many sportsmen. Other famous 
names are: Gladstone, Sue, Druid, Ruby and 
Gath and their descendants; Bohemian Girl, Rod- 
erigo, Gath's Hope, Gath's Mark, Count Gladstone 
IV, Antonio, Tony Boy, Geneva, Mohawk, Lady's 
Count Gladstone, Rodfield, and Count Whitestone 
II. Thousands of the descendants of these famous 
dogs are scattered all over the country, and many 
of them in field trials have perpetuated the fame of 
this branch of the Setter family. The men who for 
half a century have owned and bred and raised them 
have always been deeply concerned with the abso- 
lute purity of the line of breeding of their dogs, and 
have never tolerated an out-cross of any kind and 
object to a dog whose reputation is based solely 
upon some bench-show performance. 

The question of formation, weight, and color 
have always been of minor importance. Every- 
thing has been predicated upon their performance 
in the field, and as a result of this devotion to the 
single standard of utility they have succeeded in 
s 109 


establishing a general type easily recognized, but 
for which no standard has ever been written. 

The standard of the bench-show Setter as ap- 
proved by the English Setter Club of America is 
as follows: 

Head, Eyes, and Ears. — ^The form of the skull 
is an . eminent characteristic. It should be long, 
with moderate dome, with but little difference be- 
tween the width at the base of the skull and the 
brows, and with a moderately defined occipital 

The brows should be at a sharp and decided angle 
from the muzzle. 

The stop should be well defined and clean-cut, 
with a slight furrow between the eyes. 

The muzzle should be long, fairly square, of width 
in harmony with the skull, and without any fullness 
under the eyes. 

The lips should not be too full nor too pendant. 

Between the eyes and point of the nose the line 
of the muzzle should be straight; a dish-face or 
Roman nose is objectionable. 

The nose should be black or dark liver in color, 
except in white, lemon-and-white, orange-and-white, 
or liver-and-white dogs, when it may be of lighter 
color. The nostrils should be wide apart and large 
in the openings. 

The jaws should be of equal length; an overshot 
or undershot jaw is objectionable. 

The ears should be carried closely, hung well 
back and set low; of moderate length, slightly 



rounded at the ends; the leather thin and soft and 
clothed with silky hair. 

As a whole, though avoiding extremes, the head 
should be light rather than heavy, clean-cut, and of 
length and size in harmony with the body. 

The eyes should be bright, mild, intelligent, and 
of a dark-brown color. 

Neck. — ^The neck should be long and lean, 
arched at the crest, and not too throaty. 

Shoulders, Chest, and Ribs. — The shoulders 
and chest should not be too heavy; they should be 
formed to permit perfect freedom of action to the 

The shoulder blades should be long, wide, sloping 
well back, and standing moderately close together 
at the top. 

The chest between the shoulder blades should be 
of good depth, but excessive width at this point is 

Back of the shoulders the ribs should spring 
gradually to the middle of the body, and then 
gradually lessen to the back ribs, which should 
have good depth. 

Back, Loin, and Hips. — ^The back should be 
strong at its junction with the loin, sloping upward 
in a slight rise to the top of the shoulders, the whole 
forming a graceful outline of medium length; any 
sway or drop in the back is objectionable. 

The loin should be strong, with moderate length, 
slightly arched, but not to the extent of being 
roached or wheel-backed. 



The hip bones should be wide apart and without 
too sudden droop to the root of the tail. 

Forelegs. — ^The arm should be flat, muscular, 
strong, with bone fully developed, and with muscles 
hard and devoid of flabbiness; of good length from 
the point of the shoulder to the elbow; well let down 
at such angle as will bring the legs fairly under the 

The elbows should have no tendency to turn 
either in or out. 

The pastern should be short, strong, and nearly 
round, with the slope from the pastern joint to the 
foot, deviating slightly from the perpendicular. 

HiNDLEGS. — The hindlegs should have wide, 
muscular thighs, with well-developed lower thighs. 

The stifles should be well bent and strong. 

The hocks should be wide and flat; the cow hock 
is to be avoided. 

The pastern should be short, strong, and nearly 
round, with the slope from the pastern joint to the 
foot deviating slightly from the perpendicular. 

Feet. — ^The feet should be closely set and strong, 
pads well developed and tough, toes well arched 
and protected with short, thick hair. 

They should point straight from rear to front. 

Stern. — The stern should taper to a fine point, 
with only length enough to reach the hocks, or less; 
the feather must be straight and silky, falling loosely 
in a fringe and tapering to the point when the tail 
is raised; there must be no bushiness whatever. It 
should not curl sideways above the level of the back. 


Irish Setter, Ch. Tyronne Paddy. 

English Setter, Count Whitestone. 

Pointer, Ch. Mary Montrose. 



Coat. — The coat should be flat and of moderate 
length, without curl; not too long or soft or woolly. 
The feather on the legs should be thin and regular. 

Weight, Size, Color, and Markings. — Weight: 
Dogs, about forty to forty-five pounds; bitches, 
thirty-five to fifty pounds. 

Height: Dogs, about twenty-two to twenty- 
three inches; bitches, twenty-one to twenty-two 

Colors: Black, white and tan; black and white; 
blue belton; lemon and white; lemon belton; orange 
and white; orange belton; liver and white; liver 
belton, and solid white. 

Marking: Dogs without heavy patches of color 
on the body, but flecked all over preferred. 

Symmetry. — The harmony of all the parts is to 
be considered. Symmetrical dogs will be slightly 
higher at the shoulders than at the hips. The judge 
is specially directed to look for balance and har- 
mony of proportions and an appearance of breeding 
and quality, and to avoid massiveness and coarse- 

Movement and Carriage. — ^An easy, free, and 
graceful carriage, suggesting rapidity and endurance. 

A merry tail (whipping from side to side) and a 
high carriage of head. 

Stiltiness, clumsiness, or a lumbering gait are 

Value of Points. — ^Head, eyes, and ears, 12; 
neck, 4; shoulders, chest, and ribs, 14; back, loin, 
and hips, 12; forelegs, 10; hindlegs, 12; feet, 6; 



stern, 3; coat, 3; weight, size, color, and markings, 
3; symmetry, 5; movement and carriage, 16. Total, 


The Irish Setter by most authorities is conceded 
to be the purest bred member of the bird dog family. 
This is singular, in view of the fact that very little 
is known about his origin, and while he is frequently 
alluded to by writers of a century or more ago, 
they have failed to tell what kind of a dog he was 
either in color or form. In all probability he was a 
red-and-white dog; a smart, active animal, full of 
courage, tireless energy, inclined to be headstrong, 
and with a nose quite as good as any other dog used 
for a similar purpose. The American Irish Setter 
of forty years ago was of this stamp, a favorite 
among sportsmen, and a successful competitor at 
the early field trials. In those days there was no 
particular praze for coat or coloring, and no crit- 
icism was aimed at dogs of a light red color or those 
with white markings, so long as they were cour- 
ageous and capable workmen in the field. With the 
advent of dog shows came a demand in the standards 
for a dark red, mahogany-colored coat. A yellowish 
coat was not tolerated, and bench-show judges 
looked with disfavor upon dogs with white mark- 
ings, no matter how useful they might be in other 
respects. As a result fanciers bred largely for color. 
Workmanlike qualities were forgotten, and al- 



though they succeeded in getting beautiful dark, 
rich, solid red dogs, it was at the expense of their 
utilitarian qualities, and the Irish Setter, once a 
reckless daredevil, frequently headstrong and diffi- 
cult dog to break, became so timid that many of 
them would not stand training. 

That the Irish Setter is a beautiful dog ho one will 
deny, but if he is to regain his former laurels as a 
field dog, the demand for a certain color and shade 
of coat must be forgotten, and dogs must be bred 
largely on account of their field merits alone. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Irish Setter puppies at from two to four months old 
and after are almost identical with those of the 
English Setter, with color added, which should, of 
course, be a deep red. 

The following is the published description and 
standard of points of the Irish Red Setter Club: 

Head. — Should be long and lean. The skull oval 
(from ear to ear), having plenty of brain room, and 
with well-defined occipital protuberance. Brows 
raised, showing stop. The muzzle moderately deep 
and fairly square at end. From the stop to the 
point of the nose should be long, the nostrils wide, 
and the jaws of nearly equal length, flews not to 
be pendulous. The color of the nose dark mahogany 
or dark walnut, and that of the eyes (which ought 
not to be too large), rich hazel or brown. The ears to 
be of moderate size, fine in texture, set on low, well 
back, and hanging in a neat fold close to head. 



Neck. — Should be moderately long, very mus- 
cular, but not too thick, slightly arched, free from 
all tendency to throatiness. 

Body. — Should be long. Shoulders fine at the 
points, deep and sloping well back. The chest as 
deep as possible, rather narrow in front. The ribs 
well sprung, leaving plenty of lung room. Loins 
muscular and slightly arched. The hindquarters 
wide and powerful. 

Legs and Feet. — The hindlegs from hip to hock 
should be long and muscular; from hock to heel, 
short and strong. The stifle and hock joints well 
bent, and not inclined either in or out. The fore- 
legs should be straight and sinewy, having plenty of 
bone, with elbows free, well let down, and, like the 
hocks, not inclined either in or out. The feet small, 
very firm; toes strong, close together, and arched. 

Tail. — Should be of moderate length, set on 
rather low; strong at root and tapering to a fine 
point; to be carried as nearly as possible on a level 
with or below the back. 

Coat. — On the head, front of legs, and tips of 
ears should be short and fine; but on all other parts 
of the body and legs it ought to be of moderate 
length, flat, and as free as possible from curl or 

Feathering. — ^The feather on the upper portion 
of the ears should be long and silky; on the back of 
the fore and hind legs long and fine; a fair amount 
of hair on the belly, forming a nice fringe, which 
may extend on chest and throat. Feet to be well 



feathered between toes. Tail to have a nice fringe 
of moderately long hair, decreasing in length as it 
approaches the point. All feathering to be as 
straight and flat as possible. 

Color and Markings. — ^The color should be a 
rich golden chestnut, with no trace whatever of 
black; white on chest, throat, or toes, or a small 
star on the forehead, or a narrow streak or blaze 
on the nose or face not to disqualify. 

Value of Points. — Head, lo; eyes, 6; ears, 4; 
neck, 4; body, 20; hind legs and feet, lO; fore legs 
and feet, lO; tail, 4; coat and feather, lO; color, 8; 
size, style, and general appearance, 14. Total, 100. 


This handsome breed of Setters derive their name 
from the Dukes of Gordon, who owned a most 
important kennel of black-and-tan and black-white- 
and-tan Setters at a period considerably in advance 
of dog shows. No claim is made that the Dukes of 
Gordon originated the breed, and it has also been 
conclusively proven that they were not responsible 
for the prejudice against white markings which was 
developed at bench shows after classes were pro- 
vided for them in 1861, which resulted in complete 
elimination of those specimens containing white in 
any form. 

The early history of the Gordon Setter is wrapped 
in much mystery, considering the fact that they are 
of comparatively recent origin. A great many 
writers have stated that in the early days of the 



breed the Duke crossed one of his best dogs on a 
black-and-tan Collie named Maddy which lived on 
the estate and was remarkably clever in finding 
grouse. It is said that she did not point them, her 
habit being to stop and watch the birds as soon as 
she had them located. It is conceded, even by those 
who deny the authenticity of this story, that occa- 
sionally one sees the tail of the Collie in strains that 
trace back to the Duke's kennel, and it is also 
notable that many Gordon Setters display in work- 
ing birds a desire to go round their game, just as a 
Collie goes round a flock of sheep. 

Another theory is that the breed is the result of 
crossing the ordinary Setter on the leggy, black 
Springing Spaniel. There is a similarity in the 
physiognomy of the Gordon Setter and the Field 
Spaniel, and the latter in early days was a leggy dog 
of Setter-like type, so that this cross could have 
been made without affecting the working character- 
istics of the Setter. This is a plausible explanation 
of the dog's origin. 

Still another theory provides that the black-and- 
tan Setter has been produced by a cross with the 
Irish Setter and the black Pointer, which latter is a 
Scotch product. This likewise is more feasible than 
the Collie story. All of the explanations are, how- 
ever, mere conjecture, and there exists no definite 
or conclusive information on the subject. 

At the present time the breed no longer exists in 
purity at the Gordon estates. The dogs there now 
arc heavily crossed with the Laverack and other 



strains. They lack sufficient speed for present-day 
field trials, but make steady, reliable shooting dogs, 
as they have splendid noses and biddable disposi- 
tions. Their strikingly handsome coloring and in- 
telligence commend them to many people. 

In selecting Gordon Setter puppies the usual 
Setter points should be looked for, such as long 
head; square muzzle; well-developed occipital bone; 
short body; deep chest; straight forelegs; short, 
straight tail, and the typical black-and-tan mark- 
ings, the tan of a rich, dark mahogany. 

In general appearance the Gordon Setter differs 
from his English cousin, in that he is heavier all 
over, showing strength rather than speed in his 
makeup. His skull is broad between the ears, 
slightly rounded, with well-developed occiput. Muz- 
zle well carried out to a well-developed nose, show- 
ing no snipiness or pinched appearance. Lips and 
flews should be heavier than those of the English 
Setter. Eyes dark, with rather a bold look; ears 
well let down, so as to show the formation of the 
skull, and, not too heavily feathered. The coat is 
usually shorter and stronger than that of the English 
Setter, and must be entirely devoid of curl. The 
black should not under any circumstances show 
brown or rustiness, but be dense, jet black; the tan 
should be deep, rich mahogany. The tan should be 
carried a trifle above the foreleg and should be 
sharply defined where it meets the black. Black 
pencilings should appear on the knuckles; on the 
hindlegs the insides should be tan, also the inner 



portion of the breeching and the same color should 
show slightly down the front of the stifle. The hind 
pasterns and the hind feet should be penciled like 
the fore feet. On the head the tan should not ex- 
tend too far up the lips toward the top of the muzzle, 
but about half way. The underjaw and throat 
should be tan, a spot on each cheek and above each 
eye, and there should also be tan on the inside of 
the ears. There should be no running together of 
colors, but the edges should be clear and well defined. 
Value of Points. — ^Head and neck, 25; neck, 5; 
shoulders and body, 25; legs and feet, 15; stern or 
tail, 5; color and markings, 25. Total, 100. 


The Pointing Griffon is distinguished from the 
Griffon Hound, from which he undoubtedly sprang. 
They are mentioned as far back as the sixteenth 
century, and paintings and drawings of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth represent them practically as 
they are to-day. 

The celebrated artist, Percival L. Rosseau, who 
has had much to do with their introduction in this 
country, in discussing them in an article which he 
wrote for Forest and Stream a few years ago, 

"A race of dogs that has survived for four cen- 
turies must have remarkable qualities, and the 
Griffon is par excellence a dog for swamps and rough 
country. His coat affords protection from cold and 
dampness, thorns and briars, and as a mixed-game 





dog for any shooting in rough country he has no 

"As a race they are built more for strength and 
endurance than for speed, although individuals 
under favorable conditions have shown as good 
speed and range as any other breed of bird dog. 
They are at their best, however, in close, careful 
ranging, covering the roughest ground thoroughly, 
and in America are especially adapted to grouse, 
woodcock, and snipe shooting. They are natural 
retrievers on land and water, easily broken to any 
kind of game, and their puppies show a higher 
average of nose and hunting qualities than any other 
existing breed of dogs. The sportsmen who love 
rough shooting and derive their greatest pleasure 
from a mixed bag will find the GriflFon admirably 
adapted to their purpose." 

The following standard has been adopted for all 
Wire-haired Pointing Griffons: 

Head. — Big and long; hair rough and thick, not 
too long, but with mustache and eyebrows well 
marked; skull not too wide; nose long and square; 
stop not too pronounced. 

Ears. — Medium, flat, not wrinkled, placed not 
too low; hair short, slightly mixed with long wire 

Eyes. — ^Large, not covered by eyebrows; color, 
yellow or brown; expression, always intelligent. 

Nose. — ^Always brown. 

Neck. — Fairly long and straight. 

Chest. — Deep, not too wide. 






Height. — Males, 22 to 24 inches; females, 20 to 
22 inches. 

Shoulders. — Fairly long and oblique. 

Ribs. — Well arched. 

Forelegs. — Straight and vigorous; hair thick 
and rough. 

Hindlegs. — ^Hair thick and rough; thighs long 
and well muscled; hocks well turned. 

Back. — Vigorous loins, thick and strong. 

Feet. — Round and firm; toes well closed. 

Tail. — Carried horizontally, point slightly raised; 
hair thick but not feathered; docked generally one- 
third to one-half. 

Coat. — Color preferable, steel-gray with liver 
marking or liver mixed with white or roan; ad- 
mitted also, white-and-liver and white-and-orange. 

Hair. — Hard and rough, resembling somewhat 
pig bristles; never curly or woolly; undercoat fine 
and downy. 




These splendid retrievers are the only sporting 
dogs which have a clear claim to the distinction of 
being absolutely American. They are native to the 
shores of the historic Chesapeake Bay, and have a 
racial tree that considerably antedates the period of 
dog shows. 

There are a number of stories in regard to their 
origin. Among them are two recorded in Forest and 
Stream nearly half a century ago: 

One is that a vessel from Newfoundland ran 
aground near an estate called Walnut Grove, on 
the shores of the Chesapeake. On board the ship 
were two Newfoundland dogs which were given by 
the captain to Mr. Law, the owner of the estate, in 
return for the kindness and hospitality shown him 
and his crew. It is claimed that a cross between 
these two Newfoundlands and the common yellow- 
and-tan hound of that part of the country was the 
origin of the Chesapeake Bay Dog. 

Another story is that about the year 1807 the 
good ship Canton^ of Baltimore, fell in at sea with 
an English brig bound from Newfoundland to Eng- 
land that had met disaster and was in a sinking 
condition. The crew were taken aboard the Cantotiy 
also a pair of puppies that eventually became the 
property of the captain of the Canton^ and by him 



were taken to Baltimore. The dog puppy, a dingy 
red in color, was named Sailor, and the bitch, black 
in color, was called Canton. Both of these dogs 
eventually attained great reputations as duck re- 
trievers, and Sailor and Canton are said to be the 
foundation of the breed. This all may be so, for 
there is no doubt that as a retriever of dead and 
wounded ducks no dog equals the Chesapeake. His 
brave heart, unlimited powers of endurance, and 
dense coat fit him eminently for braving the roughest 
weather. Nothing daunts him, and a good specimen 
of the breed will swim for miles in a rough sea 
covered with broken ice after a wounded bird. It 
is one of the few breeds that has always been kept 
pure, and although at one time it was confined 
largely to the duck marshes on the Maryland coast, 
to-day there are good specimens in various parts 
of the country. 

The Chesapeake standard is as follows: 

Head. — Skull broad and round, with a medium 
stop; nose medium, short-muzzle pointed, but not 
sharp. Lips thin, not pendulous. Ears small, set 
well up on head, hanging loosely, and of medium 
leather; eyes medium large, very clear, of yellowish 
color, and wide apart. 

Neck. — Of moderate length, with a strong mus- 
cular appearance; tapering to shoulders. 

Shoulders, Chest, and Body. — Shoulders slop- 
ing, and should have full liberty of action, with 
plenty of power without any restrictions of move- 
ment. Chest strong, deep, and wide. Barrel round 



and deep. Body of medium length, neither cobby 
nor roached, but rather approaching hoUowness; 
flank well tucked up. 

Back Quarters and Stifles. — Back quarters 
should be a trifle higher than shoulders; they should 
show fully as much power as forequarters. There 
should be no tendency to weakness in either fore- or 

Legs, Elbows, Hocks, and Feet. — Legs should 
be medium length and straight, showing good bone 
and muscle, with well-webbed hare foot of good size. 
Toes well rounded and close pasterns slightly bent, 
and both pasterns and hocks medium length; the 
straighter the legs the better. 

Stern. — Tail should be medium length, varying 
from: males, 12 inches to 15 inches, and females 
from II inches to 14 inches; medium heavy at base, 
moderate feathering on stern and tail permis- 

Coat and Texture. — Coat should be thick and 
short, nowhere over one and one-half inches long, 
with a dense, fine, woolly undercoat. Hair on face 
and legs should be very short and straight, with 
tendency to wave on the shoulders, neck, back, and 
loins only. The curly coat or coat with a tendency 
to curl not permissible. 

Color. — Should be as near dead grass as possible, 
varying from a tan to a faded brown. The dark- 
brown or liver color is not permissible, the dead 
grass color being correct. A white spot on breast or 
toes permissible. 

• 125 


Weight. — Males, 65 to 75 pounds; females, 55 to 
65 pounds. 

Height. — Males, 23 inches to 26 inches; females, 
21 inches to 24 inches. 

Symmetry and Quality. — ^The Chesapeake Dog 
should show a bright, happy disposition and an 
intelligent expression, with general outlines good and 
denoting a worker. 

Color and coat is extremely important, as the 
dog is used for duck hunting. The color must be 
as nearly that of his surroundings as possible, and 
with the fact that dogs are exposed to all kinds of 
adverse weather conditions, often working in ice 
and snow, the color of coat and its texture must be 
given every consideration when judging on the 
bench or in the ring. 

Value of Points. — ^Head, including lips, ears, 
and eyes, 12; neck, 8; shoulders, 10; back quarters 
and stifles, 12; elbow, legs, and feet, lO; stem, 6; 
symmetry and quality, 10; coat and texture, 13; 
color, 13; tail, 6. Total, 100. 


As to the origin of the Irish Water Spaniel there 
is very little authentic information. Mr. McCarthy 
seems to have been one of, if not the first, exhibitor 
of the breed and a successful one, although the Irish 
Water Spaniel was previously kept largely in Ireland 
for sporting purposes and a valued member of 
"Ireland's Reds"— Red Setter, Red Spaniel, Red 
Terrier, Red Wolfhound. 




The most feasible theory of his origin is a cross 
between the Poodle and the Irish Setter. There is 
much in common in type and character between the 
Poodle and Irish Water Spaniel — viz., in coat, con- 
formation, head, and general character, while in 
disposition the dog inherits all the dash and de- 
termination of the Irish Setter, and partakes of his 
color, which we can quite understand would be 
deepened by crossing in again to the Poodle. The 
Irish Water Spaniel partakes, too, of the great in- 
telligence of the Poodle, who, although regarded as 
a trick and fancy dog, will hunt and retrieve on 
land or water with most Spaniels. The breed has 
never made the progress with the public that it 
merited by their many good qualities. They are 
smart and upstanding in appearance, combining in- 
teUigence and endurance with a dashing tempera- 
ment that make them charming companions. They 
are also splendid guards for children; will play with 
them by the hour and act as their guards in time of 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Water Spaniel puppies at from two to four months 
old and after, are: A clean head, dark eye, long 
ears, short back, short whip tail, good size and bone, 
straight forelegs, and a dark, close coat. 

The following description and scale of points is 
followed by bench-show judges: 

Head (value lo) is by no means long, with very 
little brow, but moderately wide. It is covered with 
curls, rather longer and more open than those of 



the body nearly to the eyes, but not so as to be 
wigged like the poodle. 

Face and Eyes (io) are very peculiar. Face 
very long and quite bare of curl, the hair being short 
and smooth, though not glossy; nose broad and 
nostrils well developed; teeth strong and level; eyes 
small and set, almost flush, without eyebrows. 

Topknot (io) is a characteristic of the true breed, 
and is estimated accordingly. It should fall be- 
tween and over the eyes in a peaked form. 

Ears (io) are long, the leather extending, when 
drawn forward, a little beyond the nose, and the 
curls with which they are clothed two or three inches 
beyond. The whole of the ears are thickly covered 
with curls, which gradually lengthen toward the 

Chest and Shoulders (7>^). — ^There is nothing 
remarkable about these points, which must, never- 
theless, be of sufficient dimensions and muscularity. 
The chest is small compared with most breeds of 
similar substance. 

Back and Quarters (j}4) also have no pecu- 
liarity, but the stifles are almost always straight, 
giving an appearance of legginess. 

Legs and Feet (io). — ^The legs should be straight 
and the feet large but strong; the toes are some- 
what open, and covered with shorty crisp curls. In 
all dogs of this breed the legs are thickly clothed 
with short curls, slightly pendent behind and at the 
sides, and some have them all around, Hanging in 
ringlets for some time before the annual shedding. 



No feather like that of the Setter should be shown. 
The front of the hindlegs below the hocks is always 

Tail (io) is very thick at the root, where it is 
clothed with very short hair. Beyond the root, 
however, the hair is perfectly short, so as to look as 
if the tail had been clipped, which it sometimes 
fraudulently is at shows, but the natural bareness 
of the tail is a true character of the breed. 

Coat (io) is composed of short curls of hair, not 
woolly, which betrays the Poodle cross. A soft, 
flossy coat is objected to as indicative of an ad- 
mixture with some of the land Spaniels. 

Color (io) must be a deep pure liver, without 
white; but, as in other breeds, a white toe will oc- 
casionally appear with the best litter. 

Symmetry (5) of this dog is very great. 


There are three varieties of the Retriever — the 
curly-coated, the flat-coated (formerly described as 
the wavy-coated), and the Labrador. The first and 
last named are the two oldest varieties, the flat- 
coated dog being of modern manufacture — ^in all 
likelihood the product of the two, with a splash of 
Spaniel, Newfoundland, or Setter. 

As to the real origin of the Curly-coated Re- 
triever there is no authentic information, but there 
can be little doubt that he has been manufactured 
by a cross with the Poodle, the Irish Water Spaniel, 
and the Newfoundland, Labrador, or Setter. When 



and by whom he was first evolved, however, it is 
impossible to say, beyond pointing to the fact of 
his existence at the end of the eighteenth and be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century, as shown by old 
prints and paintings, which was certainly before the 
advent of the flat-coated variety, either as a sport- 
ing or bench-show dog. 

Be that as it may, we have the dog before us 
whose features are quite distinct from any other 
variety, and which have long been thoroughly rec- 
ognized. Indeed, at one time the Curly-coated Re- 
triever was by far the most popular of the three 
varieties, but he has been somewhat supplanted in 
the aflfections of the devotees of this breed by the 
flat-coat. Still a large number of shooting as well 
as show men hang tenaciously to the curly-coat, 
and declare that in all that goes to constitute an all- 
round sporting dog he stands without his equal in 
the field. 

The main reason the dog has lost some favor with 
sportsmen is: first, because of the trouble involved 
in keeping his coat in order, more particularly for 
the show bench; and secondly, because he has been 
to a great extent supplanted by his flat-coated 

In size, head, and general conformation, the flat- 
coated variety differs but little from the curly-coat. 
The points and features are all practically the same, 
the only real difference being in coat. This, as 
already stated, should be flat, the outer coat rather 
harsh to the touch, there being an undercoat for 



warmth, the outer one being for weather resistance. 
The legs, both before and aft, and the tail should be 
feathered, and the feet protected by well-feathered 

In breeding flat-coated Retrievers the object is to 
produce a strong, well-made, useful dog, showing 
quality — a workman in architecture, with the finish 
of a gentleman. Length of head, good shoulders, a 
strong loin and quarters, with straight forelegs, and 
a flat coat are the chief points to aim at and pre- 
serve. The flat-coats have rarely the same spring 
of rib as the curly-coats, in which they reveal their 
unmistakable Setter ancestry; but this should be 
cultivated. Light eyes are a prevailing defect in 
the flat-coats, and should be avoided as much as 
possible, as it is invariably an indication of un- 
certain temper or a headstrong disposition. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
flat-coated Retriever puppies at from two to four 
months old and after, are: A long, level head, free 
from lippiness; dark eye; nicely balanced skull 
small ears set close to side of head; short back 
short, straight tail; deep chest; well sprung ribs 
straight forelegs; well boned, and a flat, close, dense 


The Curly-coated Retriever is a much older breed 
than the Flat-coat, which has to a great extent dis- 
placed him in the aflfections of the public. The 
Flat-coat has a Setter or Spaniel ancestry, while the 



progenitor of the Curly-coat was undoubtedly a 
Poodle, a breed at one time plentiful in England 
and used for sporting purposes. 

The Curly-coated Retriever is a beautiful dog, 
and many of them as workmen are the equal of the 
Flat-coats. They are fully as intelligent, but are 
believed to be slightly inferior in nose, naturally 
harder mouthed, and more difficult to train and 

The only physical difference of importance be- 
tween the two breeds lies in the character of their 
coats, that of the typical Curly-coat being a close 
fitting, inseparable nigger curl, each knot being 
solid, and the small locks and curls so close together 
as to be impervious to water. All parts of the body 
should be covered as if clothed in astrachan from the 
occiput to the tip of the tail. The curls on the head 
should finish in a straight line across the occiput, 
the hair on the face being short and smooth. 

The coat requires a good deal of attention. It 
should never be combed or brushed. If the old coat 
does not shed it should be carefully pulled out, and 
open-coated dogs, which do not grow the short, 
crisp curl, should be clipped all over with horse 
clippers, as that usually induces the new coat to 
come out stronger and more tightly curled. 

In selecting Curly-coated Retrievers look for the 
conformation and points that distinguish the short, 
crisp coat typical of this breed. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Curly-coated Retriever puppies at from two to 



four months old and after are identical with those 
of the flat-coated variety, except the coat, which 
should be short and crisp at the age given. This 
description of coat is most likely to develop into 
the small, tight curls so desirable. 

The Curly-coated Retriever Club publishes the 
following standard and scale of points: 

Head. — ^Long and narrow for the length. 

Ears. — Rather small, set on low, lying close to 
the head, and covered with short curls. 

Jaws. — ^Long and strong, free from lippiness, with 
good, sound teeth. 

Nose. — ^Wide-open nostrils, moist and black. 

Eyes. — Dark, cannot be too dark, rather large, 
showing great intelligence and splendid temper; a 
full Pug eye an objection. 

Coat. — Should be one mass of short, crisp curls 
from the occiput to the point of tail; a saddle-back, 
or patch of uncurled hair behind shoulders and 
white patch on chest should be penalized; but few 
white hairs allowed in an otherwise good dog. 
Color, black or liver. 

Neck. — ^Long, graceful, but muscular and well 

E laced and free from throatiness, such as a Blood- 

Shoulders. — Very deep, muscular, and obliquely 
Chest. — Not too wide, but decidedly deep. 
BoDV. — Rather short, muscular, and well ribbed up. 
Legs. — Forelegs straight, with plenty of bone; 
not too long, and set weU under body. 



Feet. — Round and compact, with toes well 

Loin. — Powerful, deep, and firm to the grasp. 

Tail. — Should be carried pretty straight, and 
covered with short curls, tapering toward tip. 

General Appearance. — A strong, smart dog, 
moderately low on leg, active, lively, beaming with 
intelligence and expression. 

Value of Points. — ^Head, lo; jaws, 5; eyes, 5; 
neck, 5; chest, 5; legs, 5; loins, lO; ears, 5; nose, 5; 
coat, 15; shoulders, 5; body, 5; feet, 5; tail, 5; gen- 
eral appearance, 10. Total, 100. 


This breed of dogs is a compatriot of the New- 
foundland, and although they have played an im- 
portant part in the evolution of the Flat-coated 
Retriever, one of the most important sporting dogs 
in Britain, they have never succeeded in attracting 
much attention to themselves. 

The Labrador is a sort of Smooth-coated New- 
foundland in disposition and character, and a Flat- 
coated Retriever in appearance. Their names in- 
dicate their origin. The breed first made its appear- 
ance at those maritime towns in England that were 
engaged in the fishing industry with Newfoundland. 
There is no question about this breed being one of 
the most intelligent of all dogs, lending themselves 
promptly to all useful purposes. They are extremely 
courageous and industrious, and are unsurpassed for 
amiability and faithfulness. Their rough-and-ready 



appearance indicative of endurance, and their keen 
powers of scent were at once recognized by sports- 
men, but they have not attracted the attention of 
the fanciers, and the breed is in practically the same 
position that it was over half a century ago. 

There is no club for the Labrador either in this 
country or in England; consequently there is no 
fixed standard. It is, however, generally agreed 
that it should follow closely the standard for Flat- 
coated Retrievers, with the exception that the 
Labrador should be slightly smaller in size and 
lower on leg. The head should also be thicker and 
the muzzle squarer. The coat should be as smooth, 
also shorter and denser. The Labrador runs to light 
eyes. This should not be considered an objection. 
The Labrador is frequently used for out-crosses on 
Flat-coated Retrievers that have been too closely 




The name borne by this family of beautiful dogs 
indicates that the parent stock came from Spain. 
In response to special environment or to gratify the 
fancy of breeders, or bred to serve useful purposes, 
they have since divided into several important 

Just when the Spaniel came to England it is 
impossible to say, for while the early writers refer 
to Water Dogges and Water Spaniels, their descrip- 
tions are so lacking in clarity that it is impossible 
to form an opinion that is free from reservations. 

The fact that many of the older writers refer to 
the presence among English sportsmen of a dog 
used for retrieving wild fowl that was known as the 
Water Dogge, has prompted writers to jump to the 
conclusion that this dog was the parent Spaniel 
type. This is a great mistake. The Water Dogge 
was not a true Spaniel, but on the contrary was de- 
scended from the French Barbet, the ancestor of 
the Poodle. This early Water Dogge, if old pictures 
and engravings are to be believed, was quite similar 
to the modern Irish Water Spaniel and presented 
the same general confirmation, coat, and topknot. 
It is probable that both are of Barbet ancestry; 
certainly the Irish Water Spaniel is not of true 
Spaniel type. 



The old English Water Spaniel, the progenitor of 
the modern family of Spaniels, was a distinct breed. 
Early paintings portray him as being much like the 
Springer of to-day, differing principally in the char- 
acter of his coat, which was curly. The old English 
Water Spaniel was crossed occasionally with other 
breeds and the progeny mated with careful selec- 
tion, and from them we have derived the various 
families of modern Springers, Field Spaniels, Cockers, 
Sussex, Welch, and diminutive toys. Some of these 
breeds are useful to the sportsman, others are simply 
pets; but from the forty-pound Springer to the five- 
pound toy, they all resemble each other in marked 
amiability of character and unusual intelligence. 

Another important branch of the old English 
Water Spaniel breed is the setter family. All setters 
are of Spaniel origin, and early writers refer to the 
setting Spaniel in contradistinction to those that 
sprang in and flushed the game, which were known 
as Springers. There is also another breed of dogs 
mentioned by Cuvier and other authorities, as the 
Alpine Spaniel. This dog is said to have been the 
progenitor of the St. Bernard and the Clumber. 
However this may be, there is no question but what 
there is a similarity in coloration between the 
Clumber and the St. Bernard, as well as a further 
resemblance in their massive structure and peculi- 
arities of the head, eyes, and flews. 

The Old English Water Spaniel broke up into the 
several groups of Spaniels we have enumerated, but 
unfortunately while the breeds were being created 


the parent breed was lost. There have been several 
attempts to resurrect the parent type without much 
success, and nothing can be said about them other 
than that in appearance they probably resembled 
the modem Springer, the principal difference being 
a curlier coat. Like him, they were a useful dog 
that would hunt fur or feather and retrieve from 
land or water. 


This is probably the prototype of the whole of 
the sporting Spaniel family. Some of the earliest 
records speak of the "Springing Spaniel," and he is 
no doubt a contemporary of the "Setting Spaniel," 
the two dogs doubtless being the only Spaniels in 
existence at one period. They were probably much 
the same in type and conformation, the former 
being taught to "spring" at his quarry in flushing 
it, and the other to "set" it; hence the distinction. 
From the latter the Setter was doubtless evolved, 
and from the "Springing Spaniel" the whole of the 
beautiful varieties we now possess have emanated, 
leaving the original a derelict on the sands of time. 
It is probably incorrect to say that the old English 
Springer has ever become extinct, for although he 
never gained a footing on the English show bench 
until very recently, when, through the instrumen- 
tality of Mr. W. Arkwright and the Sporting Spaniel 
Society, the Kennel Club was induced to place him 
on the register, yet he has been kept in his purity in 
many shooting kennels in different parts of the 



country, the owners of which have preferred utility 
to beauty, ignoring what they have termed 
"elongated monstrosities" of the show ring. 

The English Springer is, with the Norfolk Spaniel, 
one of the most rational dogs in point of architecture 
of all the Spaniel varieties, viewed from the vantage 
point of utility. He may be any color almost, and 
is a leggy dog in comparison to the Field Spaniels, 
with a short and more symmetrical body, straight 
front, flat coat, a long head, a square muzzle, rather 
narrow skull, and low-set ears. His eyes and ex- 
pression, gait and feathering are distinctly Spaniel. 
He combines strength with activity, courage with 
docility, and all the characteristics of a workman. 
He is a dog of from 40 to 50 pounds in weight. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
English Springer puppies at from two to four 
months old and after, are: A long head, lean skull, 
distinct stop, square muzzle, short, well-balanced 
body, straight forelegs, longer in proportion than 
the Field Spaniel, flat coat, down-carried tail. 

The following description appears in British 

Skull. — ^Long and slightly arched on top; fairly 
broad, with a stop, and well-developed temples. 

Jaws. — ^Long and broad, not snipy, with plenty 
of thin lip. 

Eyes. — Medium size, not too full, but bright and 
intelligent, of a rich brown. 

Ears. — ^Long, low set, and lobular in shape. 

Neck. — Long, strong, and slightly arched. 



Shoulders. — ^Long and sloping. 

Forelegs. — Of a fair, moderate length, strong 
boned and straight. 

Body. — Strong, with well-sprung ribs; good girth, 
and chest deep and fairly broad. 

Loin. — Rather long, strong, and slightly arched. 

Hindquarters. — ^Very muscular; hocks well let 
down, stifles moderately bent, and not twisted in- 
ward or outward. 

Feet. — Rather large, round, and hairy. 

Stern. — ^Low-carried, not above the level of the 

Coat. — Thick, firm, and smooth or slightly wavy; 
it must not be too long. The feathering must be 
moderate on the ears and scanty, but continued down 
to the heel. 

Color. — Black, liver, yellow, as self-colors, and 
pied or mottled with white or tan or both. 

General Appearance. — An active, compact dog, 
upstanding, but by no means stilty. His height at 
shoulder should about equal his length from the 
top of the withers to the root of the tail. 


This is one of the most popular varieties of the 
Sporting Spaniel, and to all intents and purposes 
is, in its present form, a modern creation, dating 
from somewhere about the advent of dog shows. 
The Field Spaniel is lower on leg and longer in body 
in proportion than any other Spaniel. This an- 
atomical formation in the first place had its origin 



in the production of a Spaniel better adapted for 
getting under gorse and brushwood than was the 
Springer and a dog that was less active than 
the Cocker. It is from these two older varieties, 
with an admixture of the Sussex, that the beautiful 
Field Spaniels of to-day, in all their pretty colors, 
were first evolved. The colors are black-and-tan, 
black, liver, liver-and-tan, black-and-white, black- 
tan-and-white, liver-roan, blue-roan, etc. The blacks 
at one time were the most popular, but the craze 
for great length of body and lowness on leg was 
carried to such extremes that the breed at once 
degenerated into little less than elongated mon- 
strosities. It lost the beautiful chiseling of head, 
at least in many of the specimens exhibited, and 
straightness of forelegs, and the activity which all 
sporting Spaniels should possess more or less. A 
reaction among sporting men set in, and, owing to 
their efforts and those of the Sporting Spaniel Club, 
happily the heavy-headed, crooked-fronted, and 
sluggish crocodile-like pattern are now happily al- 
most obsolete. 

We have to-day, too, a more rational type of dog, 
one that possesses all the features of an animal well 
fitted to perform the work originally prescribed for 
him, and yet free from the abnormalities which so 
disfigured the dog at one stage of his career. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
puppies at from two to four months old and after 
of all the varieties of Field Spaniels, black and 
colored, are practically identical, and are: A long 

10 141 


head, narrow skull, distinct stop; square muzzle, 
long body, flat back, short legs, the forelegs being 
straight and showing great bone, with a flat coat 
and down-carried tail. 

The following description standard and scale of 
points has been adopted by the Spaniel Club: 

General Appearance. — Considerably larger, 
heavier, and stronger in build than the "Cocker," the 
modern "Field Spaniel," is more active and animated 
than the "Clumber," and has little of the sober 
sedateness characteristic of the latter. He should 
exhibit courage and determination in his carriage 
and action as well as liveliness of temperament, 
though not in this respect to the same restless de- 
gree generally possessed by the "Cocker." His 
conformation should be long and low, more so than 
the "Cocker." 

Intelligence, obedience, and good nature should 
be strongly evident. The colors most preferred are 
solid black or liver, but liver-and-white, black-and- 
white, black-and-tan, orange, and orange-and-white 
are all legitimate Spaniel colors. 

Head (value 15.) — ^Long and not too wide, elegant 
and shapely, and carried gracefully; skull showing 
clearly-cut brows, but without a very pronounced 
"stop;" occiput distinct and rising considerably 
above the set-on of the ears; muzzle long with well- 
developed nose, not too thick immediately in front 
of the eye, and maintaining nearly the same breadth 
to the point; sufficient flew to give a certain square- 
ness to the muzzle and avoid snipiness or wedginess 



of face; teeth sound and regular; eyes intelligent in 
expression and dark, not showing the haw, nor so 
large as to be prominent or goggle-eyed. 

Ears (io) should be long and hung low on the 
skull, lobe-shaped and covered with straight or 
slightly wavy silky feather. 

Neck (5) long, graceful, and free from throati- 
ness, tapering toward the head; not too thick, but 
strongly set into shoulders and brisket. 

Shoulders and Arms (10). — ^The shoulder blades 
should lie obliquely and with sufficient looseness of 
attachment to give freedom to the forearms, which 
should be well let down. 

Legs and Feet (15). — ^The forelegs should be 
straight, very strong and short; hindlegs should be 
well bent at the stifle joint, with plenty of muscular 
power: Feet should be of good size, with thick, 
well-developed pads, not flat or spreading. 

Body and Quarters (20) long, with well-sprung 
ribs; strong, slightly arching loins, well coupled to 
the quarters, which may droop slightly toward the 

Coat and Feather (15). — ^The coat should be as 
straight and flat as possible, silky in texture, of 
sufficient denseness to afford good protection to the 
skin in thorny coverts, and moderately long. The 
feather should be long and ample, straight or very 
slightly wavy, heavily fringing the ears, back or 
fore legs, between the toes, and on back quarters. 

Tail (10) should be strong and carried not hfgher 
than the level of the back. 




The Cocker Spaniel, unlike the field varieties, is 
free from any abnormalities, being a rationally built 
and symmetrical little dog, full of buoyancy and 
beaming with intelligence, and of tireless energy. 
Those features and characteristics in the dog ac- 
count for his popularity. 

As to his origin there is the same mystery, but 
little doubt exists that the Cocker is among the most 
ancient of the Spaniel family. He derives the name 
from the fact that he was first used as an aid to the 
gun in shooting woodcocks, being a handy little dog 
in getting through the dense thickets and bramble, 
while as a retriever he has probably not his equal 
for nose and cleverness. At all the leading shows 
in America the Cocker section is a very large one, 
the classes numerous, and the interest in this merry 
little sportsman probably keener than it is in Eng- 
land. A few years ago this breed showed signs of 
degenerating as sporting dogs, having drifted into 
toyishness on the one hand and become too low on 
leg in many cases, although, to the credit of breed- 
ers it may be said, that the true type of the dog 
was never lost. 

Cockers even vary very much in size and type. 
We have the Devonshire Cockers and the Welsh 
Cockers, and others indigenous to diflferent dis- 
tricts of the country to which they are more or less 
adapted, but happily there is only one type now rec- 
ognized in the show ring, and that is the short- 



coupled, sturdy, well-balanced, good-fronted flat- 
coated dog with a nicely chiseled head, dark eye, 
and square muzzle, who looks like and is a work- 
man from stem to stern, a dog of from 23 to 27 

The chief points, therefore, to aim at in breeding 
Cocker Spaniels are compactness of body, straight- 
ness of forelegs, squareness of muzzle, dark eyes, 
and flat coats, with a down-carriage of stern. Com- 
mon defects in the breed, especially the colored 
variety, are crooked fronts, light eyes, and cock- 
tails, which are an abomination alike to sporting 
men and to good judges. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Cocker Spaniel puppies, any color, from two to 
four months old and after, are: A nicely balanced 
head, distinct stop, square muzzle, dark eye, short, 
compact body; well balanced in proportion to 
length of leg, down-carried tail and flat coat. 

The Cocker Spaniel standard is as follows: 

Skull (8). — ^Not so heavy as in other Sporting 
Spaniels, with smooth forehead and clearly defined 
eyebrows and stop, the median line distinctly 
marked and gradually disappearing until lost rather 
more than half way up a well-developed, rounded, 
and comparatively wide skull, showing no prom- 
inence in the cheeks, which, like the sides of the 
muzzle, should present a smooth, clean-cut ap- 

Muzzle (io). — Proportionately shorter and lighter 
than the Field Spaniel, showing no fullness under 



the eyes, the jaws even and approaching square- 
ness. Teeth sound and regular, the front ones 
meeting. Lips cut off square, preventing any ap- 
pearance of snipiness. Nose well developed in all 
directions and black in color excepting in the reds, 
livers, parti-colors of these shades, and in roans of 
the lighter lines, when it may be brown or black. 

Eyes (7). — Comparatively larger, round, rather 
full, yet never goggled nor weak, as in the toy 
Spaniel kinds. They should be dark in the blacks, 
black-and-tans, the darker shades of parti-colors 
and roans. In the reds and livers and in the parti- 
colors and roans of these colors they should be 
brown, but of a shade not lighter than hazel. 

Ears (4). — ^Lobular, set low, leather fine, and not 
extending beyond the nose; well clothed with long, 
silky hair, which should be straight or wavy. 

Neck and Shoulders (15). — ^Neck sufficiently 
long to allow the nose to reach the ground easily, 
muscular, free from throatiness, and running into 
clean-cut, sloping shoulders, which should not be 
wide at the points. 

Body (18). — Comparatively short, compact, and 
firmly knit together, giving the impression of a 
concentration of power and untiring activity. Chest 
deep rather than wide, not narrow-fronted nor yet 
so wide as to interfere with free action of the fore- 
legs. Ribs well sprung, deep, and carried far back; 
short in the coupling and flank, free from any 
tucked appearance. Back and loin immensely 
strong and compact in proportion to the size of the 



dog, the former level and the latter slightly arched. 
Hips wide, with quarters considerably rounded and 
very muscular. 

Legs and Feet (i8). — Forelegs short and straight, 
though proportionately longer than in any of the 
other breeds of short-legged Spaniels; strongly boned 
and muscled, with elbows well let down and straight, 
short, strong pasterns. Hindlegs proportionately 
short. Stifles well bent, strong thighs clearly de- 
fined. Hocks clean, strong, well let down, bent and 
turning neither in nor out, the hindquarters from 
a back view presenting an impressive combination 
of propelling power. Feet neither small nor large, 
round, firm, not spreading, and with deep, strong, 
horny pads and plenty of hair between the toes. 
They should turn neither in nor out. 

Stern (5). — Should be set on and carried level 
with the back, and when at work its action should 
be incessant in this the brightest and merriest of the 
whole Spaniel family. 

Coat (10). — Flat or slightly waved, silky, and 
very dense, with ample Setter-like feather. 

Color and Markings (5). — Blacks should be jet 
black and reds, livers, etc., should never be faded 
or "washy" shades, but of good, sound colors, white 
on the chest of self-colors, while objectionable, 
should not disqualify. 

Weight. — Not under 1 8 nor exceeding 24 pounds. 

General Description. — A neat-headed, wide- 
awake, serviceable-looking little dog with an ex- 
pression of great intelligence; short in body when 



viewed from above, yet standing over considerable 
ground for one of his inches upon strong, straight 
front legs, with wide, muscular quarters suggestive 
of immense power, especially when viewed from 
behind. A downward tendency in front he ought 
not to possess, but should stand well up at the 
shoulders like the clever little sporting dog that he 
is. Massive in appearance by reason of his sturdy 
body, powerful quarters, and strong, well-boned 
limbs, he should nevertheless impress one as being 
a dog capable of considerable speed, combined with 
great powers of endurance, and in all his movements 
he should be quick and merry, with an air of alert- 
ness and a carriage of head and stern suggestive of 
an inclination to work. 


This handsome and useful member of the Spaniel 
family is of ancient lineage, and his solemn and 
majestic aspect mark him as a true aristocrat of 
long descent. The Clumbers are deserving of their 
popularity with shooting men, for no dog is a more 
capable assistant to the gun as they are by inclina- 
tion the keenest and most persevering of hunters, 
have the best of noses, and, considering their massive 
build, have remarkable powers of endurance. 

The Clumber Spaniel is easily trained, easily con- 
trolled, and unusually intelligent. They take natu- 
rally to retrieving, are good water dogs, and as all- 
round workmen have no superiors. 

There is a good deal of mystery about the origin 



of this breed, and history carries them back to the 
middle of the eighteenth century. About that time 
the French Due de Noailles presented a kennel of 
Spaniels to the second Duke of Newcastle, whose 
Nottinghamshire country place is known as Clum- 
ber Park. Here the breed is said to have originated; 
certainly it is here that it received its name. 

There is no trace of their origin in France, for 
there at the present day at least the Clumber is ac- 
cepted as a purely English product. It has been 
suggested that the Duke, finding that the Spaniels 
that had been presented to him were too fast, re- 
duced their pace by crossing them on some heavier 
breed. What the cross or crosses were will never 
be known, but the Clumber's general type, his 
massive frame, powerful limbs, white coat with 
lemon markings, and his solemn and majestic aspect 
and demeanor suggest the St. Bernard. There is 
also a theory that they owe their origin to a cross of 
Baron Cuvier's Alpine Spaniel, a dog indirectly re- 
lated to the St. Bernard. 

The Clumber Spaniel has been very successful in 
the English Spaniel trials, and the most convincing 
evidence of their worth is the tenacity with which 
the owners of old strains hang on to them and con- 
tinue to breed and shoot over them year after year. 

In selecting Clumber puppies look for short, 
massive heads, square muzzles, well marked stop; 
low-set, massive body of moderate length; big bone; 
flat, dense coat; down-carried tail and pale orange 
or lemon markings. 



The standard and value of points is as follows: 

General Appearance and Size. — General ap- 
pearance, a long, low, heavy-looking dog, of a very 
thoughtful expression, betokening great intelligence. 
Should have the appearance of great p)ower. Sedate 
in all movements, but not clumsy. Weight, of dogs 
averaging between 55 and 65 pounds; bitches, from 
35 to 50 pounds. 

Head. — ^Head large and massive in all its dimen- 
sions; round above eyes, flat on the top, with a 
furrow running from between the eyes up the 
center. A marked stop and large occipital pro- 
tuberance. Jaw long, broad, and deep. Lips of 
upper jaw overhung. Muzzle not square, but at 
the same time powerful-looking. Nostrils large, 
open, and flesh-colored, sometimes cherry-colored. 

Eyes. — Eyes large, soft, deep set, and showing 
haw. Hazel in color, not too pale, with dignified 
and intelligent expression. 

EIars. — Ears long and broad at the top, turned 
over on the front edge, vine-shaped, close to the 
head; set on low and feathered only on the front 
edge, and there but slightly. Hair short and silky, 
without the slightest approach to wave or curl. 

Neck and Shoulders. — ^Neck long, thick, and 
powerful; free from dewlap, with a large rufF. Shoul- 
ders immensely strong and muscular, giving a heavy 
appearance in front. 

Body and Quarters. — Body very long and low, 
well ribbed up, and long in the coupling. Chest of 
great depth and volume. Loin powerful and not 



too much arched. Back long, broad, and straight; 
free from droop or bow. Length an important char- 
acteristic, the nearer the dog is in length to being 
two and one-half times his height at shoulder the 
better. Quarters shapely and very muscular, neither 
drooping nor stilty. 

Legs and Feet. — Forelegs short, straight, and 
immensely heavy in bone. Well in at elbow. Hind- 
legs heavy in bone, but not as heavy as forelegs. 
No feather below hocks, but thick hair on back of 
legs just above foot. Feet large, compact, and 
plentifully filled with hair between toes. 

Coat and Feather. — Coat silky and straight, 
not too long, extremely dense; feather long and 

Color and Markings. — Color, lemon and white, 
and orange and white. Fewer markings on body 
the better. Perfection of markings, solid lemon or 
orange ears, evenly marked head and eyes, muzzle 
and legs ticked. 

Stern. — Stem set on a level and carried low. 

Value of Points. — General appearance and size, 
lo; head, 15; eyes, 5; ears, lO; neck and shoulders, 
15; body and quarters, 20; legs and feet, lO; coat 
and feather, 10; color and markings, 5. Total, 100. 


This handsome breed derives its name from the 
county of Sussex, where it originated, or at least has 
existed for many years. The Sussex is one of the 
oldest of the Spaniel family. The breed, however, 



have been kept pure only by excessive in-breeding, 
which has impaired their constitutions. In conse- 
quence puppies are often delicate and hard to raise, 
but are hardy after they arrive at maturity. 

The well-bred Sussex is a beautiful Spaniel, for 
his symmetrical proportions are clothed in a rich 
red coat that would lend distinction to any dog. 
In the field they are most reliable workmen, some- 
what slower to be sure than the leggier Springer, 
but surpassing them in patience and perseverance. 
They will force their way through the thickest cover 
and allow nothing to escape them. They diflFer 
from the rest of the Spaniels by giving tongue on 
scent, and those who are accustomed to them can 
tell by the difference in their tone whether they are 
after fur or feather. 

The modern Field Spaniel gets his size and weight 
from the Sussex Spaniel, and in years gone by they 
have undoubtedly been resorted to in developing 
other breeds. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Sussex Spaniel puppies at from two to four months 
old and after, are: A short, massive head, square 
muzzle, well-defined stop, lengthy body on short, 
straight forelegs; great bone, flat coat of a deep 
golden color, down-carried tail. 

The descriptive particulars of this breed are as 
follows : 

Head. — ^The skull should be moderately long, and 
also wide, with an indentation in the middle, and a 
full stop; brows fairly heavy; occiput full but not 


Clumber Spaniel, Hempstead Bingo. 
Cocker Spaniel, BrookMde Marcus and Brookside Ariitocntt. 


pointed, the whole giving an appearance of heavi- 
ness without dullness. 

Eyes. — ^Hazel color, fairly large, soft and languish- 
ing, not showing the haw overmuch. 

Nose. — ^The muzzle should be about three inches 
long, square, and the lips somewhat pendulous; 
the nostrils well developed and liver color. 

Ears. — ^Thick, fairly large, and lobe-shaped; set 
modjerately low, but relatively not so low as in the 
Black Field Spaniel; carried close to the head, and 
furnished with soft, wavy hair. 

Neck is rather short, strong, and slightly arched, 
but not carrying the head much above the level oif 
the back. There should not be much throatiness in 
the skin, but well-marked frill in the coat. 

Chest and Shoulders. — The chest is round, es- 
pecially behind the shoulders, deep and wide, giving 
a good girth. The shoulders should be oblique. 

Back and Back Ribs. — ^The back and loin is 
long, and should be very muscular, both in width 
and depth; for this development the back ribs must 
be deep. The whole body is characterized as low, 
long, level, and strong. 

Legs and Feet. — The arms and thighs must be 
bony, as well as muscular, knees and hocks large 
and round, and with short hair between the toes. 
The legs should be very short and strong, with great 
bone, and may show a slight bend in the forearm, 
and be moderately well feathered. The hindlegs 
should not be apparently shorter than the forelegs or 
be too much bent at the hocks, so as to give a Settery 



appearance, which is so objectionable. The hind- 
legs should be well feathered above the hocks, but 
should not have much hair below this point. The 
hocks should be short and wide apart. 

Tail should be docked from five to seven inches, 
set low, and not carried above the level of the back; 
thickly clothed and moderately long feather. 

Coat. — Body coat abundant, flat, or slightly 
waved, with no tendency to curl; moderately well 
feathered on legs and stern, but clean below the 

Color. — Rich golden liver. This is a certain sign 
of the purity of the breed, dark liver or puce denot- 
ing unmistakably a recent cross with the black or 
other variety Field Spaniels. 

General Appearance. — Rather massive and mus- 
cular, but with free movements and nice tail action, 
denoting a tractable and cheerful disposition. Weight 
from 35 to 45 pounds. 

Value of Points. — ^Head, 10; eyes, 5; nose, 5; 
ears, 10; neck, 5; chest and shoulders, 5; back and 
back ribs, 10; legs and feet, lO; tail, 5; coat, 5; 
color, 15; general appearance, 15. Total, 100. 


The Welsh Springer is a smart, active Spaniel, 
more lightly built and smaller than Field Spaniels, 
being very little larger than the Cocker. They are 
invariably white in color, with red or deep orange 
markings. They have beautifully chiseled heads, 



small Clumber-shaped ears, and are generally most 

The Welsh Springer is undoubtedly an old breed 
that has been used by the sportsmen of Wales, who 
refer to them not as Spaniels, but as Starters. 
They are eminently sportsmanlike in appearance, 
and have proven themselves to be capital workmen 
in the field, so that their future popularity is as- 
sured. They have made great headway on the 
English benches, and their classes are well filled with 
specimens of uniform type. 

The Welsh Springer is a dog of from 30 to 40 
pounds weight, proportionate in all his parts, with 
a well-balanced head, straight front, grand spring of 
rib, and powerful hindquarters. He may be de- 
scribed as an enlarged Cocker, but shows less feather- 
ing than is found in most of the other varieties, and 
the ears are also shorter. As in all Spaniels, snipiness 
and thick heads are common defects, and the Welsh 
Springer is no exception. This said, the breed is at 
once a rational one, and possesses all the traits of 
his English cousin, while the uniformity of color and 
its irregular distribution give to a gro.up of Welsh 
Springers quite a picturesque appearance. In this 
way the variety has made great headway on the 
show bench and enlisted a number of enthusiasts 
within its ranks, who are much devoted to the breed 
not only for its general beauty, but also for its won- 
derful prowess in the field. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 



Welsh Springer puppies at from two to four months 
and after, are almost the same as those of the Eng- 
lish Springer, the recognized color being, of course, 

The following is the description formulated by 
the Welsh members of the Sporting Spaniel Society: 

Skull. — Fairly long and fairly broad, slightly 
rounded, with a stop at the eyes. 

Jaws. — Medium length, narrow (when looked at 
downwards), straight, fairly square, the nostrils 
well developed, and flesh-colored or dark. A short, 
chubby head is objectionable. 

Eyes. — Hazel or dark brown, medium size, in- 
telligent, not prominent nor sunken nor showing 

Ears. — Comparatively small, covered with feather 
not longer than the ear, set moderately low, and 
hanging close to the cheeks. 

Neck. — Strong, muscular, clean in throat. 

Shoulders. — ^Long and sloping. 

Forelegs. — Medium length, straight, good bone, 
moderately feathered. 

Body. — Strong, fairly deep, not long, well-sprung 
ribs. Length of body should be proportionate to 
that of leg. 

Loin. — Muscular and strong, slightly arched, well 
coupled up and knit together. 

Hindquarters and Legs. — Strong; hocks well 
let down; stifles moderately bent (not twisted in or 
out), not feathered below the hock on the leg. 

Feet. — Round, with thick pads. 



Stern. — Low, never carried above the level of 
the back, feathered, and with a lively motion. 

Coat. — Straight or flat, and thick. 

Color. — Red or orange-and-white (red prefer- 

General Appearance. — Symmetrical, compact, 
strong, merry, active, not stilty, built for endurance 
and activity. 

Weight. — Between 30 and 42 pounds. 






This ancient English breed of working Terriers 
is one of the few breeds for which a specialist club 
does not exist, and there is a decided call for one 
to save it from utter extinction. A quarter of a 
century must have elapsed since a specimen of this 
breed was exhibited. As a kennel terrier and com- 
panion the name of the Old English Terrier is prom- 
inent in the history of country sport, and he is 
doubtless the progenitor of the more popular and 
plentiful Fox Terrier. 

The Black-and-Tan Broken-haired Old English 
Terrier is a dog of very great antiquity. He appears 
in some of the oldest prints and paintings, and no 
sportsman^s establishment of the olden time was 
considered complete without him. To-day his ranks 
are thinned even in the hunting field, whilst he is 
now nearly unknown on the show bench. Such a 
sterling Terrier in make and shape, in hardihood 
and grit should not be allowed to lapse into ob- 
scurity. No breed either from the point of view of 
antiquity, tradition, appearance, and utility was or 
is more deserving of perpetuation. Those who know 
agree that they possess traits to be cherished in the 
heart of anyone who loves a dog for his worth and 
not for what he would fetch in the market, 



Fox-Terriers and Airedales, two popular breeds 
which have circled the world, owe most of their 
Terrier traits, external and internal, to their part 
progenitor, the Old English Broken-haired Terrier, 
while the latter has almost entirely passed away. 

The chief differences between the Old English 
and the Welsh Terrier are in size, the latter being 
a few pounds heavier. The Old English Terrier 
had a long, strong, punishing jaw, level mouth, flat 
skull, free from cheekiness, and a small, dark, de- 
termined eye; good bone, coat hard to the touch; 
colors, black-and-tan and grizzle-and-tan. 


There was a Black-and-Tan Terrier in England 
before the days of dog shows, less graceful in out- 
line and coarser in type, to be sure, than those of 
to-day. These early dogs did not present the fancy 
marks of penciled toes and dotted brows; their tan 
was smutty, but nevertheless they were sound, 
game, and useful dogs, the most accomplished of 
rat killers whether in the pit or along water courses. 

The Manchester district was a noted center for 
two "poor men's sports" — rat killing and rabbit 
coursing. A fancier by the name of John Hulme, 
with the idea of producing a dog that could be used 
at both contests, bred a whippet bitch to a cele- 
brated rat-killing dog, a cross bred terrier dark brown 
in color. The result of this cross was very satis- 
factory, the dogs proved useful, and other fanciers 
in the neighborhood took to breeding them, and the 


Manchester school of terriers was launched. They 
advanced in popularity rapidly and soon spread 
over the British Isles and were brought to this 
country in considerable numbers. The name Man- 
chester was dropped as being too restricted in its 
design ation, and they have since been known as 
the Black-and-Tan Terrier. 

As a sagacious, intelligent pet and companion 
and as a house dog, no breed is superior to the well- 
bred Black-and-Tan. There is a sleek, well-bred 
appearance about them that no other dog presents. 
Their long, clean heads, keen expression, glossy 
coat, whip tail, and smart, wide-awake appearance 
always command attention. Their cleanly habits 
and short coats also admit them to homes that shut 
out their rough-haired brothers. 

The Black-and-Tan Terrier, with all his refine- 
ment, has lost none of his gameness. He is still 
per se a vermin dog, unequaled and is capable of 
holding his own in a rough-and-tumble scrap with 
anything living of his weight. 

In his early history the Black-and-Tan was a 
cropped dog, and many still admire the alert ap- 
pearance of a head well set off by a pair of well- 
cropped ears. When the Kennel Club passed the 
edict forbidding cropping many fanciers rebelled 
and some gave up the breed. For a number of years 
those that stuck to it had their work cut out for 
them to get rid of the large, heavy ear that could be 
trimmed long and fine with a certainty of its stand- 
ing erect, and produce in its f)lace the small, thin 

1 60 


ear which makes the best appearance when carried 
semi-erect. Fanciers finally succeeded in breeding 
them, and the Black-and-Tan will undoubtedly en- 
joy a recurrence of popularity. 

The toy Black-and Tan Terrier is probably more 
popular to-day than its larger brother, from which 
it differs only in size, being nothing more or less than 
a vest-pocket edition. Its show points are the same. 
It should be simply a miniature, the smaller the 
better. The regulation weight is seven pounds, but 
many specimens are under five. 

In selecting Black-and-Tan Terriers, either large 
or small, look for a long, flat head, free from stop; 
a lean skull, small, dark eye; long neck, short back, 
clean shoulders, straight forelegs, whip tail, and the 
typical black, glossy coat with tan markings. 

The following is the standard and scale of points: 

Head. — Long, flat, and narrow, level and wedge- 
shaped, without showing cheek muscles; well filled 
up under the eyes, with tapering, tightly-lipped 
jaws and level teeth. 

Eyes. — Very small, sparkling, and dark, set 
fairly close together, and oblong in shape. 

Nose. — Black. 

Ears. — ^The correct carriage of the ears is a de- 
batable point since cropping has been abolished. 
Probably in the larger breed the drop ear is correct, 
but for toys either erect or semi-erect carriage of 
the ear is most desirable. 

Neck and Shoulders. — ^The neck should be 
fairly long, and tapering from the shoulders to the 



head) with sloping shoulders, the neck being free 
from throatiness, and slightly arched at the occiput. 

Chest. — ^Narrow but deep. 

Body. — Moderately short and curving upward at 
the loin; ribs well sprung, back slightly arched at 
the loin and falling again at the joining of the tail 
to the same height as the shoulders. 

Legs. — Must be quite straight, set on well under 
the dog, and of fair length. 

Feet. — More inclined to be cat than hare-footed. 

Tail. — Moderate length, and set on where the 
arch of back ends; thick where it joins the body, 
tapering to a point, and not carried higher than the 

Coat. — Close, smooth, short, and glossy. 

Color. — ^Jet black and rich mahogany tan, dis- 
tributed over the body as follows: On the head the 
muzzle is tanned to the nose, which, with the nasal 
bone, is jet black; there is also a bright spot on each 
cheek and above each eye; the underjaw and throat 
are tanned, and the hair inside the ear is of the same 
color; the forelegs tanned up to the knees, with 
black lines (pencil marks) up each toe, and a black 
mark (thumb mark) above the foot; inside the hind- 
legs tanned, but divided with black at the hock 
joint; and under the tail also tanned; and so is the 
vent, but only sufficiently to be easily covered by 
the tail; also slightly tanned on each side of chest. 
Tan outside of hindlegs — commonly called breech- 
ing — is a serious defect. In all cases the black 
should not run into the tan, or vice versa, but the 



division between the two colors should be well 

General Appearance. — ^A Terrier calculated to 
take his own part in the rat pit, and not of the Whip- 
pet type. 

Weight. — For toys not exceeding 7 pounds; for 
the large breed, from 16 pounds to 20 pounds is 
most desirable. 


The smart appearance, graceful conformation, 
and attractive coloring of the Fox Terrier has made 
him the most popular member of the Terrier family. 

In tracing the origin of the breed, it is impossible 
to go far into the past, the late 6o's apparently being 
the starting point of the modern Fox Terrier. Just 
what he sprung from is also a sealed book. Possibly 
it was from the white English Terrier or the Black- 
and-Tan Terrier crossed upon the Bull Terrier, or 
the Beagle, and more probably it was from still more 
heterogeneous sources. 

The modern Fox Terrier was originated by Fox- 
hound Masters, who wanted a game little sports- 
man of uniform size and appearance to replace the 
nondescript Terriers which were used to bolt the 
fox that had gone to earth. Before this time any 
dog that was plucky and whose size would permit 
him to go to earth was known as a Fox Terrier, no 
matter what his coat, color, or his general appear- 
ance might be. 

There are no Fox Terrier pedigrees which date 



before the 6o's, and there is much doubt and ques- 
tion connected with some since that time. In the 
history of the breed there are three dogs which 
stand out conspicuously, and from them the Fox 
Terrier as a breed takes descent: Old Jock, Trap, 
and Tartar. Of these Old Jock was undoubtedly 
the best. He was exhibited as late as 1870, and was 
said to have been a smart, well-balanced Terrier, 
somewhat leggy and wanting in jaw power. Tartar 
is said to have been much on the Bull Terrier type, 
while old Trap's sire is said to have been a Black- 
and-Tan. It is unquestionable from these ante- 
cedents that breeders have produced the modem 
Fox Terrier, a most impressive testimonial to their 

The question arises whether the Fox Terrier of 
to-day is as useful and intelligent as his prede- 
cessors. If there is anything to his name Terrier, 
derived from terruy the earth, he should be able to 
go to ground. This is absolutely precluded by the 
size of some of the dogs that are shown on the 
benches, and one of the greatest dangers to the 
breed lies in the leaning of judges toward the large 
size, on the grounds of the oft-repeated aphorism 
that a good big one is always better than a good 
little one. The fact should never be lost sight of 
that a Terrier who cannot go to earth is not a 

In judging Fox Terriers both smooth and rough, 
the following standard is used: 

Head. — ^The skull should be flat and moderately 



narrow^ and gradually decreasing in width to the 
eyes. Not much "stop" should be apparent, but 
there should be more dip in the profile between the 
forehead and top jaw than is seen in the case of a 

The cheeks must not be full. 

The ears should be V-shaped and small, of mod- 
erate thickness and drooping forward close to the 
cheek, not hanging by the side of the head like a 

The jaw, upper and lower, should be strong and 
muscular; should be of fair punishing strength^ but 
not so in any way to resemble the Greyhound or 
modern English Terrier. There should not be much 
falling away below the eyes. This part of the head 
should, however, be moderately chiseled out, so as 
not to go down in a straight slope like a wedge. 

The nose, toward which the muzzle must grad- 
ually taper, should be black. 

The eyes and the rims should be dark in color, 
small, and rather deep set, full of fire, life, and in- 
telligence; as nearly as possible circular-shape. 

The teeth should be as nearly as possible to- 
gether, I. e.y the upper teeth on the outside of the 
lower teeth. 

Neck. — Should be clean and muscular, without 
throatiness, of fair length, and gradually widening 
to the shoulders. 

Shoulders. — Should be long and sloping, well 
laid back, fine at the points and clearly cut at the 



Chest. — Deep and not broad. 

Back. — Should be short, straight, and strong, 
with no appearance of slackness. 

Loin. — Should be very powerful and very slightly 
arched. The fore ribs should be moderately arched, 
the back ribs deep, and the dog should be well 
ribbed up. 

Hindquarters. — Should be strong and muscular, 
quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long 
and powerful; hocks near the ground, the dog stand- 
ing well up on them like a Foxhound, and not 
straight in the stifle. 

Stern. — Should be set on rather high and carried 
gaily, but not over the back or curled. It should be 
of good strength, anything approaching a "pipe 
stopper" tail being especially objectionable. 

Legs. — ^Viewed in any direction must be straight, 
showing little or no appearance of ankle in front. 
They should be strong in bone throughout, short 
and straight in pastern. Both fore- and hindlegs 
should be carried straight forward in traveling, 
the stifles not turned outward. The elbows should 
hang perpendicularly to the body, working free of 
the sides. 

Feet. — Should be round, compact, and not large; 
the soles hard and tough; the toes moderately 
arched and turned neither in nor out. 

Coat. — Should be smooth, flat, but hard, dense, 
and abundant. The belly and under side of the 
thighs should not be bare. 

1 66 


Color. — White should predominate; brindle, red, 
or liver markings are objectionable. Otherwise this 
point is of little or no importance. 

Symmetry, Size, and Character. — ^The dog 
must present a generally gay, lively, and active ap- 
pearance; bone and strength in a small compass are 
essentials, but this must not be taken to mean that 
a Fox Terrier should be cloggy or in any way coarse; 
speed and endurance must be looked to as well as 
power, and the Symmetry of the Foxhound taken 
as a model. The Terrier, like the Hound, must on 
no account be leggy, nor must he be too short in 
the leg. He should stand like a cleverly-made 
hunter, covering a lot of ground, yet with a short 
back, as before stated. He will then attain the 
highest degree of propelling power, together with 
the greatest length of stride that is compatible with 
the length of his body. Weight is not a certain 
criterion of a Terrier's fitness for his work; general 
shape, size, and contour are the main points; and if 
a dog can gallop and stay and follow his fox up a 
drain it matters little what his weight is to a pound 
or so. Though, roughly speaking, it may be said 
that he should not scale over twenty pounds in 
show condition. 

Value of Points. — ^Head and ears, 15; neck, 5; 
shoulders and chest, 15; back and loin, 10; hind- 
quarters, 5; stern, 5; legs and feet, 20; coat, 10; 
symmetry and character, 15. Total, 100. 

Disqualifying Points. — Nose: White, cherry, 



or spotted to a considerable extent with either of 
these colors. Ears: Prick, tulip, or rose. Mouth: 
Much undershot or much overshot. 


The Wire-Haired Fox Terrier is identical with 
his smooth-coated brother, with the single exception 
of the character of his coat, which should be harder, 
more wiry, and broken. This coat should not be so 
long as to make his owner look shaggy, while a coat 
that is soft and woolly or one that has a suggestion 
of silky hair about the head or elsewhere cannot be 
tolerated. The wiry, crisp, and heavy coat is the 
only distinguishing trait of the breed, so too much 
importance cannot be attached to its character. It 
is not unusual to get both smooth and wire-coated 
specimens out of one litter. For a number of years 
the Smooth Coats had all the call, but of late the 
Wires have been coming to the fore rapidly, al- 
though their preparation for the ring — that is, the 
trimming of their coats — is an annoying proposition 
to many breeders. Practically all Wire-Haired Fox 
Terriers require trimming, and the line between 
legitimate trimming and faking — and consequent 
disqualification — is very faint. Under the Kennel 
Club Rules the free use of the brush and comb are 
admissable. It is also legitimate to remove dead 
coat or soft, superfluous hair or long, odd hair from 
the head, ears, limbs, and body. This is done with 
the thumb and forefinger and a special comb made 
for that purpose. The use of clippers, however, to 







even up a coat or the application of rosin, alum, or 
similar agents to stiiFen and harden the coat will, if 
detected, lead to disbarment. It is a common prac- 
tice, when a dog is not to be exhibited for some time, 
to clip him all over, as this has a tendency to 
strengthen and improve the coat. No objection can 
be raised to this practice. 

This variety of the breed should resemble the 
smooth sort in every respect except the coat, which 
should be broken. The harder and more wiry of 
texture the coat is the better. On no account should 
the dog look or feel woolly, and there should be no 
silky hair about the poll or elsewhere. The coat 
should not be too long, so as to give the dog a shaggy 
appearance, but at the same time it should show a 
marked and distinct difference all over from the 
smooth species. 


A few years ago there appeared at the dog shows 
in the north of England a big, useful-looking sort 
of a Terrier whose ancestors were a cross of the old 
border Terrier, the Bull Terrier, and the Otter- 
hound. They were known sometimes as the Water- 
side Terrier, on account of their fondness for that 
element, inherited from their Otterhound ancestors. 
Later they were known as the Bradford Terrier. 
These dogs were so workmanlike in appearance and 
had such appealing countenances that they at- 
tracted the attention of the public, and a club was 
fr>rmed that promoted their interests and eventually 



settled upon the name of Airedale Terrier, as they 
were very numerous in the valley of that river. 

Since then the breed has grown very rapidly in 
public favor, and deservedly so, for they possess 
many sterling qualities. The Airedale is the largest 
of the Terrier family, and will do anything in the 
way of hunting vermin but go to earth. This their 
size precludes. They have excellent nose, and will 
hunt all sorts of game, make splendid rabbit and 
partridge dogs, can be trained to trail wounded 
deer, and are used successfully in bear hunting. 

The Airedale takes to water like a Spaniel, and 
will retrieve ducks in all kinds of weather. As com- 
panions they are unexcelled, displaying the utmost 
devotion to their masters and an interest in all of 
their affairs. They are wideawake about a house, and 
take naturally to horses. No more useful breed 
exists for a country home. 

In buying one of these dogs do not take one that 
is shy or listless. Don't accept one which is soft, 
scanty, or long-coated. Don't take one which is 
weak muzzled or chiseled out below the eye. Don't 
choose one with a long back or heavy shoulders. 
Don't take one which is out at the elbows or is not 
perfectly straight in front or clean in bone. Don't 
accept one which is light-eyed. Don't pick one 
with weak ankles or splay feet. Don't have any- 
thing to do with one which has a poor mouth or 
which lacks in gameness. Don't choose one which 
weighs under 38 pounds. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 



Airedale puppies at from two to four months old 
and after, are: A long, level head, strong muzzle; 
small, dark eye; narrow skull; neat, small, V-shaped 
drop ears; a long neck, narrow shoulders, short body, 
deep chest, straight forelegs, and hard, dense coat. 

The standard description and points printed be- 
low give readers a clear outline of what a perfect 
Airedale Terrier ought to be: 

Head (value 5). — Long, with flat skull, but not 
too broad between the ears, narrowing slightly to 
the eyes, free from wrinkle; stop hardly visible, 
and cheeks free from fullness; jaw deep and power- 
ful, well filled up before the eyes; lips tight. 

Ears (5). — ^V-shaped, with a side carriage; small, 
but not out of proportion to the size of the dog. 

Nose (5). — Black. 

Eyes (5). — Small and dark in color, not prom- 
inent, and full of Terrier expression, with teeth 
strong and level. 

Neck (10). — Should be of moderate length and 
thickness, gradually widening toward the shoulders 
and free from throatiness. 

Shoulders and Chest. — Shoulders long and slop- 
ing well into the back; shoulder blades flat, chest 
deep, but not broad. 

Body and Back (10). — Short, strong, and straight; 
ribs well sprung. 

Hindquarters (10). — Strong and muscular, with 
no drop; hocks well let down. 

Tail. — Set on high and carried gaily, but not 
curled over the back. 



Legs and Feet. — ^Legs perfecdy straight, with 
plenty of bone; feet small and round, with good 
depth of pad. 

Coat. — Hard and wiry, and not so long as to 
appear ragged; it should be also straight and close, 
covering the dog well over the body and legs. 

Color (io). — ^The head and ears, with the excep- 
tion of dark markings on each side of the skull, 
should be tan, the ears being of a darker shade than 
the rest, the legs up to the thighs and elbows being 
tan; the body black or dark grizzle. 

Size. — Dogs, 40 to 45 pounds weight; bitches, 
slightly less. 

Scale of Points. — Head, 5; eye, 5; color, lO; 
ears, 5; body, loins, and hindquarters, 20; jaw, lO; 
nose, 5; teeth, 5; legs and feet, lO; neck and shoul- 
ders, IO; coat, 15. Total, 100. 


This breed in appearance resembles a miniature 
Deerhound. They originated among the sport- 
loving miners and gypsies in the north of England, 
who have bred them for a great many years, and 
have produced a useful type of . dog of undeniable 
gameness which will cheerfully tackle anything that 
wears hair. 

Their looks are against their ever becoming great 
public favorites, but as all-around workmen in a 
rough country for rabbit coursing, ferreting, and to 
work to the gun, they are unequaled. They have 
exceptionally keen noses, take readily to the water, 



are devoted to their masters, but are usually sus- 
picious of strangers. They have many good qualities 
which will recommend them to all those who admire 
a game working Terrier. 

In buying a Bedlington don't look at a short- 
legged, stumpy-built dog, as they should be active 
and of racy build. Don't pay any attention to one 
with bad teeth or a large, full eye. Don't pick one 
that has a thin, silky coat that would not protect 
its owner from water or exposure to the elements. 
Don't look at one with a full, rounded body and well- 
sprung ribs, and, last of all, don't accept one which 
is not game as a pebble and an energetic workman. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Bedlington puppies at from two to four months 
old and after, are: A long, snaky head; narrow 
skull; small eye; drop ears, lying close to the side of 
the head; short body; short sickle tail; straight fore- 
legs, and dense lint coat. 

The standard of the breed is as follows: 

Skull. — Narrow, but deep and rounded; high at 
occiput, and covered with a nice silky tuft or top-knot. 

Jaw. — Long, tapering, sharp, and muscular; as 
little stop as possible between the eyes, so as to 
form nearly a line from the nose-end along the joint 
of the skull to the occiput. The lips close-fitting, 
and no flew. 

Eyes. — Should be small and well sunk into the 
head. The blues should have a dark eye; the blue- 
and-tan ditto, with amber shade, livers, sandies, 
etc., a light-brown eye. 

11 173 


Nose. — ^Large, well angled. Blues and blue-and- 
tans should have black noses; livers and sandies, 
fleidi-colored noses. 

Teeth. — Level, or pincer-j awed. 

Ears. — Moderately large, carried well forward, 
flat to the cheek, thinly covered and tipped with 
fine, sjlky hair; they should be filbert-shaped. 

Legs.— Of moderate length, not wide apart, 
straight and square set, and with good-sized feet, 
which are rather long. 

Tail. — ^Thick at root, tapering to a point, slightly 
feathered on lower side, 9 inches to 11 inches long, 
and scimitar-shaped. 

Neck and Shoulders. — Neck long, deep at base, 
rising well from shoulders, which should be flat. 

Body. — ^Long and well proportioned, flat-ribbed, 
and deep; not wide in chest; back slightly arched, 
well ribbed up, with light quarters. 

Coat. — Hard, with close bottom, and not lying 
flat to the sides. 

Color. — Dark blue, blue-and-tan, liver, liver- 
and-tan, sandy, sandy-and-tan. 

Height. — ^About 15 to 16 inches. 

General Appearance. — A lightly made up, lathy 
dog, but not shelly. 

Weight. — Dogs, about 24 pounds; bitches, about 
22 pounds. 

r\ 174 



Scotland may truly be termed the land of Terriers. 
A half a dozen or more breeds, all long and low, all 
rough-coated, and all prick-eared except the Dandie, 
hail from the land of heather, nor is it extraordinary 
that Scotland should have so many varieties of 
Terriers, for it is a country of cave and cleft and 
cavern, in which Terriers have a wide sphere of 
usefulness. Dogs, like man, are molded by en- 
vironment, and it is easy to comprehend how a 
rugged land would develop a rugged dog and a race 
of men noted world-wide for their steadfast deter- 
mination, deep-seated affection, and canny intelli- 
gence naturally have as friends and companions a 
race of dogs possessing all of their masters' sturdy 

Scotland's Terrier is a proud title, but the dogs 
that bear it are worthy of their name, for the Scot- 
tish Terrier of to-day is a veritable paragon of game- 
ness, intelligence, and all-around usefulness on land 
or water, above or below ground; and with it all he 
is the most sensible and intelligent of companions. 

To dive deep into the antiquity of the Scottish 
Terrier is simply to invite trouble, for the Scottish 
are a touchy race on everything pertaining to birth 
and pedigree. They are as loyal to their dogs as 
they are to their clans. To suggest or intimate that 
Scotland's dogs are not as old as their most cherished 
traditions or that their blood is not as pure as the 
water in their mountain lakes is sheer heresy. We 



venture to say, however, that these grand little dogs 
did not have their birth in any particular locality in 
Scotland. They are indigenous to all the highlands 
and descend from the old highland Terrier, a little, 
long-backed, short-legged, snipy-faced, prick- or 
crop-eared dog, in color mostly sandy-and-black, 
game as a pebble, lively as a cricket, and in all a 
most charming companion. The crosses that were 
made on this parent stock many years ago were all 
with the best of working Terriers. No breed of dogs 
has been more carefully bred than the Scottish 
Terrier, and to-day they are extraordinarily well 
fixed in type and characteristics. 

The enthusiasm expressed by admirers of the 
breed is well founded. For ratting, ferreting, rabbit- 
hunting, partridge-treeing, working along hedge- 
rows or water courses, retrieving from land or water 
and as all-around assistants to the gun, they are 
unexcelled. They are cleanly about the house, ex- 
traordinarily patient with children, the -best of 
guards for house or barn, and distinguish intuitively 
between the intruder and the casual observer or 
occasional visitor. 

In selecting puppies under four months of age, 
look for a long, level head, a strong jaw, small, 
dark eye; small, erect ears, carried closely together; 
short, round body; short sickle tail; great bone; 
straight forelegs, and a dense, hard coat. 

The standard is as follows: 

Skull (value 7>^). — Proportionately long, slightly 
domed, and covered with short, hard hair about ^ 






inches long or less. It should not be quite flat, as 
there should be a sort of stop or drop between the 

Muzzle (j}4). — Very powerful, and gradually 
tapering toward the nose, which should always be 
black and of a good size. The jaws should be per- 
fectly level and the teeth square, though the nose 
projects somewhat over the mouth, which gives the 
impression of the upper jaw being longer than the 
under one. 

Eyes (5). — ^A dark brown or hazel-color; small, 
piercing, very bright, and rather sunken. 

Ears (5). — ^Very small, prick or half-prick (the 
former is preferable), but never drop. They should 
also be sharp-pointed, and the hair on them should 
not be long, but velvety, and they should not be 
cut. The ears should be free from any fringe at 
the top. 

Neck (5). — Short, thick, and muscular, strongly 
set on sloping shoulders. 

Chest (5). — Broad in comparison to the size of 
the dog, and proportionately deep. 

Body (15). — Of moderate length, but not so long 
as -a Skye's, and rather flat-sided; well ribbed up, 
and exceedingly strong in hindquarters. 

Legs and Feet (10). — Both fore- and hindlegs 
should be short and very heavy in bone, the former 
being straight and well set on under the body, as 
the Scotch Terrier should not be out at elbows. 
The hocks should be beat, and the thighs very mus- 
cular, ajid the feet strong, small, and thickly covered 



with short hair, the forefeet being larger than the 
hind ones. 

The Tail (2>^). — Should be about 7 inches long, 
never docked, carried with a slight bend, and often 

The Coat (15). — Should be rather short (about 
two inches), intensely hard and wiry in texture, and 
very dense all over the body. 

Size (10). — From 15 to 20 pounds, the best weight 
being as near as possible 18 pounds for dogs and 16 
pounds for bitches when in condition for work. 

Color (2>^). — Steel or iron-grey, black-brindle, 
brown-brindle, grey-brindle, black, sandy, and 
wheaten. White markings are objectionable, and 
can only be allowed on the chest, and to a small 

General Appearance (10). — ^The face should 
wear a very sharp, bright, and active expression, 
and the head should be carried up. The dog, ow- 
ing to the shortness of his coat, should appear to 
be higher on the leg than he really is; but at the same 
time he should look compact and possessed of great 
muscle in his hindquarters. In fact, a Scottish 
Terrier, though essentially a Terrier, cannot be too 
powerfully put together, and should be from about 
9 to 12 inches in height. 


This is one of the oldest breeds in Scotland, hav- 
ing its origin in the islands from which it now takes 
its name. The breed was originally called Scottish 



Terrier. In fact, all of the Scottish varieties of 
Terriers were first so designated. Dr. Caius, one of 
the earliest writers on dogs, indicates the existence 
and type of the Skye Terrier in his work "Englishe 
Dogges." He describes them as "Iseland dogges, 
brought out of barbarous borders from the utter- 
most countryes northwards," and says that "they, 
by reason of the length of their heare, show neither 
of their face or their body, and yet these curres, 
forsooth, because they are so strange, are greatly 
set by, esteemed, taken up, and made of, in room of 
the Spaniell gentle or comforter." 

The Bishop of Ross, who wrote a little later in 
the sixteenth century, says: "There is also another 
kind of scenting dog of low height, but of bulkier 
body, which, creeping into subterraneous burrows, 
routs out foxes, badgers, martens, and wildcats 
from their lurking places and dens," which doubt- 
less referred to the ancestors of our modern Skye 

Professor Low describes the dogs of the Island of 
Skye as follows: "The Terriers of the western islands 
of Scotland have long, lank hair almost trailing to 
the ground." This breed has been brought to per- 
fection as a show dog, but its enormous coat and the 
size is a distinct disadvantage to the dog in pur- 
suing his natural calling. Few, if any, show dogs 
are used for actual work, and therefore it is needless 
to decry the bench type which are calculated to 
keep intact the distinctive features and charac- 
teristics of this game, hard-bitten, and very hand- 



some Terrier. The Skye Terrier is a most com- 
panionable and faithful dog to those to whom he 
attaches himself, although he is not, speaking gen- 
erally, as open in disposition as his cousin, the 
Scottie. He is one of the most snappish dogs that 
goes to a show, and often dangerous to handle. 
This surliness in the Skye is a natural characteristic, 
probably inherited, the outcome of nervousness 
created by the fact that he is buried in such long 
thick hair that he can scarcely see. 

The chief points to look for in Skye Terrier 
puppies from two to four months old and after, are: 
A long head; strong muzzle; dark eye; long body; 
well-sprung ribs; deep chest; short, heavy-boned 
legs, and a profuse coat of good texture. In the 
prick-eared variety the ears should be bolt upright; 
and in the drop-eared, the ears should fall forward 
in the manner of other drop-eared Terriers. 

The following is the standard laid down by the 
Skye Terrier Club of Scotland: 

Head. — ^Long, with powerful jaws, and incisive 
teeth closing level, or upper just fitting over under. 
Skull wide at front of brow, narrowing between 
ears, and tapering gradually toward muzzle, with 
little falling in between or behind the eyes. Eyes 
hazel, medium size, close set. Muzzle always black. 

Ears (prick or pendant). — ^When pricky not large, 
erect at outer edges, and slanting toward each other 
at inner, form peak to skull. When pendant^ larger, 
hanging straight, lying flat, and close at front. 

Body. — Pre-eminently long and low. Shoulders 

1 80 


broad, chest deep, ribs well sprung and oval-shaped, 
giving flattish appearance to sides. Hindquarters 
and flank full and well developed. Back level and 
slightly declining from top of hip joint to shoulders. 
Neck long and gently crested. 

Tail. — ^When hanging, upper half perpendicular, 
under half thrown backward in a curve. When 
raised, a prolongation of the incline of the back, 
and not rising nor curling up. 

Legs. — Short, straight, and muscular. No dew- 
claws. Feet large and pointing forward. 

Coat (double). — An under, short, close, soft, and 
woolly. An over, long, averaging ^yi inches, hard, 
straight, flat, and free from crisp or curl. Hair on 
head shorter, softer, and veiling forehead and eyes; 
on ears, overhanging inside, falling down and min- 
gling with side locks, not heavily, but surrounding 
the ear like a fringe, and allowing its shape to ap- 
pear. Tail also gracefully feathered. 

Color (any variety). — Dark or light-blue or grey, 
or fawn with black points. Shade of head and legs 
approximating that of body. 

Size. — Average height at shoulder, 9 inches. 

Weight. — Dogs, 18 pounds; bitches, 16 pounds. 


This breed, originally exhibited as Skye Ter- 
riers, are simply the more silky-haired specimens of 
this variety. Skye Terrier enthusiasts have always 
regarded them as bad-coated specimens, more fitted 
for the drawing-room than the cairns, just as Fox 



Terrier experts would regard a soft-coated Wire- 
Haired as a bad Fox Terrier. The silky-coated dog, 
however, has his devotees, and along in the eighties 
a division was made in the Skye Terrier classes, the 
hard-coated, long and low variety being accorded, 
by weight of public opinion, the tide of Skye Terrier, 
to which their character, working fitness, and tra- 
dition gave them an irresistible claim, while the 
leggier and more silky-coated specimens were given 
the name of Clydesdale or Paisley Terriers. Since 
then the Clydesdale fanciers have developed the 
differences in the two dogs and by selection have 
cultivated the silkiness and lighter colors of the 
coat, which they have made a sine qua non of the 
variety. In all other essentials the character and 
conformation of the two varieties are practically 
one and the same. The coat of the Clydesdale 
should be long, straight, and silky; in both texture, 
color, and quality it should resemble that of the 
best Yorkshire Terriers, which has been largely 
used in its manufacture. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Clydesdale Terrier puppies are almost identical 
with those of Skye Terriers. 

The following is the standard description and code 
of points formulated by the Skye and Clydesdale 
Terrier Club, which is purely a Scottish combina- 
tion, from which it will be seen that color and coat 
absorb one-half of the complement of lOO points; 

General Appearance. — A long, low, level dog 
with heavily-fringed, erect ears and a long coat like 



the finest silk or spun glass, which hangs quite 
straight and evenly down each side, a parting ex- 
tending from the nose to the root of the tail. 

Head. — Fairly long, skull flat and very narrow 
between the ears, gradually widening toward the 
eyes and tapering very slightly to the nose, which 
must be black. The jaws strong and the teeth level. 

Eyes. — Medium in size, dark in color; not prom- 
inent, but having a sharp. Terrier-like expression. 
Eyelids black. 

Ears. — Small, set very high on the top of the 
head, carried perfectly erect, and covered with 
long, silky hair, hanging in a heavy fringe down the 
sides of the head. 

Body. — ^Long, deep in chest, well ribbed up, the 
back being perfectly level. 

Tail. — Perfectly straight, carried almost level 
with the back, and heavily feathered. 

Legs. — ^As short and straight as possible, well set 
under the body, and entirely covered with silky 
hair. Feet round and cat-like. 

Coat, — ^As long and straight as possible, free from 
all trace of curl or waviness; very glossy and silky 
in texture, with an entire absence of undercoat. 

Color. — ^A level bright steel-blue extending from 
the back of the head to the root of the tail, and on 
no account intermingled with any fawn, light, or 
dark hairs. The head, legs, and feet should be a 
clear, bright golden tan, free from grey, sooty, or 
dark hairs. The tail should be very dark-blue or 



Scale or Points. — ^Texture of coat, 25; color, 25; 
head, 10; ears, 10; tail, 10; body, lO; legs and feet, 
10. Total, 100. 


Originating on the borders of Scotland, and made 
famous by Sir Walter Scott in his "Guy Manner- 
ing," the Dandie partakes in type and character of 
all of Scotland's Terriers, being short on leg and 
long in body. His ears, however, are drooped in- 
stead of being prick. Doubtless the Dandie and the 
Border Terrier, which is a smaller dog with drop 
ears, and with which the Dandie is often con- 
founded, have a common origin. The Dandie un- 
doubtedly was a Border Terrier previous to the ap- 
pearance of Sir Walter Scott's novel, being kept by 
such sporting personages as James Davidson, of 
Hindlee, a friend of Scott's, who was the original 
of the character of Dandie Dinmont, immortalized 
by the novel. 

The difference in type of the three Border Ter- 
riers, the recognized Border Terrier (who may or 
may not be the original), the Bedlington, and the 
Dandie, is due to breeding by selection and to cross- 
ing. The Dandie is the one breed who retains most 
of his Scottish ancestry in body conformation and 
in head, and his fusion with the English broken- 
haired terriers is seen in his drop ears. Prick ears 
are characteristic of all the Scottish varieties of 
terriers; drop ears are a fixed feature of their English 


t TC 







Some Dandie Dinmont enthusiasts pride them- 
selves on the purity of their strains, for which they 
allege they can claim direct descent through the 
Terriers of Mr. E. Bradshaw Smith, of Ecclefechan, 
a great enthusiast of the breed in the early and middle 
part of the nineteenth century, or those of Hugh 
Purvis, or direct to the "Guy Mannering" dogs. 
Such descent in no way denotes purity, because, it 
is alleged, for instance, that Purvis crossed his 
dogs more than once with a brindled Bull Terrier 
in order to maintain their courage. However, the 
type of the Dandie has long been so fixed both in 
color and conformation that occasional crosses have 
not, according to the records, in any way altered it, 
and to-day it is more sharply defined than at any 
other period in its history. 

The great novelist Scott singularly omitted to 
give us a definite description of his dogs when he 
created the "Dandie Dinmont," but subsequently 
he wrote: "The race of Pepper and Mustard are 
in the highest estimation at the present day not 
only for vermin killing, but for intelligence and 
fidelity. Those who, like the author, possess a 
brace of them consider them as very desirable 
companions." This proves that Walter Scott kept 
Dandie Dinmonts, and that he gave a true defini- 
tion of the dogs' splendid character and disposition. 
AU those who have ever kept the breed since that 
time will bear willing testimony to the fact. 

The Dandie is one of the gamest of Terriers, the 
most sensible of dogs, and most devoted of canine 



companions. He is besides a hardy, handy-sized 
dog, makes a capital house dog, and is just as much 
at home in the kennel. He is a rough-and-tumble 
sort, to which nothing comes wrong, the tackling 
of fox or badger underground or one of his own 
species above ground, and besides his exceptional 
power and pluck he stands unexceDed and rarely 
equaled for common sense and docility. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Dandie puppies at from two to four months old 
and after, are: A moderately short head, strong 
muzzle, large, dark eye; rather strong, well-beveled 
skull; close-set, drop ears; strong neck, rather long 
body, distinct arch of loin, great bone, and short 

The standard of points of the Dandie Dinmont 
Terrier are as follows: 

Head. — Strongly made and large, not out of pro- 
portion to the dog's size, the muscles showing ex- 
traordinary development, more especially the max- 

Skull broad between the ears, getting gradually 
less toward the eyes, and measuring about the same 
from the inner corner of the eye to back of skull as 
it does from ear to ear. The forehead well domed. 
The head is covered with very soft, silky hair, which 
should not be confined to a mere topknot, and the 
lighter in color and silkier it is the better. 

The Cheeks, starting from the ears, propor- 
tionately with the skull, have a gradual taper to- 
ward the muzzle, which is deep and strongly made, 



and measures about three inches in length, or in 
proportion to skull as three is to five. 

The Muzzle is covered with hair of a little darker 
shade than the topknot and of the same texture as 
the feather of the forelegs. The top of the muzzle 
is generally bare for about an inch from the back 
part of the nose, the bareness coming to a point 
toward the eye, and being about one inch broad at 
the nose. The nose and inside of mouth black or 
dark color. 

The Teeth. — ^Very strong, especially the canine, 
which are of extraordinary size for such a small dog. 
The canines fit well into each other, so as to give the 
greatest available holding and punishing power, and 
the teeth are level in front, the upper ones very 
slightly overlapping the under ones. (Many of the 
finest specimens have a "swine mouth," which is 
very objectionable, but it is not so great an objec- 
tion as the protrusion of the under jaw.) 

Eyes. — Set wide apart, large, full, round, bright, 
expressive of great determination, intelligence, and 
dignity; set low and prominent in front of the head; 
color, a rich, dark hazel. 

Ears. — Pendulous, set well back, wide apart, and 
low on the skull, hanging close to the cheek, with a 
very slight projection at the base; broad at the 
junction of the head and tapering almost to a point, 
the fore part of the ear tapering very little, the taper- 
ing being mostly on the back part, the fore part of 
the ear coming almost straight down from its junc- 
tion with the head to the tip. They should har- 



monize in color with the body color. In the case of 
a Pepper dog they are covered with a soft, straight, 
brownish hair (in some cases almost black). In the 
case of a Mustard dog the hair should be mustard 
in color, a shade darker than the body, but not 
black. All should have a thin feather of light hair 
starting about two inches from the tip and of nearly 
the same color and texture as the topknot, which 
gives the ear the appearance of a distinct point. 
The animal is often one or two years old before the 
feather is shown. The cartilage and skin of the ear 
should not be thick, but rather thin. Length of ear 
from three to four inches. 

Neck. — ^Very muscular, well developed, and 
strong, showing great power of resistance, being 
well set into the shoulders. 

Body. — ^Long, strong, and flexible; ribs weU 
sprung and round; chest well developed and let 
well down between the forelegs; the back rather low 
at the shoulders, having a slight downward curve 
and a corresponding arch over the loins, with a very 
slight, gradual drop from top of loins to root of tail; 
both sides of backbone well supplied with muscle. 

Tail. — Rather short, say from eight to ten inches, 
and covered on the upper side with wiry hair of 
darker color than that of the body, the hair on the 
under side being lighter in color and not so wiry, 
with nice feather about two inches long, getting 
shorter as it nears the tip; rather thick at the root, 
getting thicker for about four inches, then tapering 
off to a point. It should not be twisted or curled in 



any way, but should come up with a curve like a 
scimitar, the tip, when excited, being in a perpen- 
dicular line with the root of the tail. It should 
neither be set on too high nor too low. When not 
excited it is carried gaily and a little above the level 
of the body. 

Legs. — ^The forelegs short, with immense mus- 
cular development and bone, set wide apart, the 
chest coming well down between them. The feet 
well formed and not flat, with very strong brown or 
dark-colored claws. Bandy legs and flat feet are 
objectionable. The hair on the fore legs and feet 
of a Pepper dog should be tan, varying according 
to the body color from a rich tan to a pale fawn; of 
a Mustard dog they are of a darker shade than its 
head, which is a creamy white. In both colors 
there is a nice feather about two inches long, rather 
lighter in color than the hair on the fore part of the 
leg. The hind legs are a little longer than the fore 
ones, and are set rather wide apart, but not spread 
out in an unnatural manner, while the feet are much 
smaller; the thighs are well developed, and the hair 
of the same color or texture as the fore ones, but 
having no feather or dewclaws; the whole claws 
should be dark, but the claws of all vary in shade 
according to the color of the dog's body. 

Coat. — ^This is a very important point. The hair 
should be about two inches long; that from skull to 
root of tail a mixture of hardish and soft hair which 
gives a sort of crisp feel to the hand. The hair should 
not be wiry; the coat is what is termed pily or 

li 189 


penciled. The hair on the under part of the body is 
lighter in color and softer than on the top. The skin 
on the belly accords with the color of dog. 

Color. — The color is Pepper or Mustard. The 
Pepper ranges from a dark bluish-black to a light 
silvery-grey, the intermediate shades being pre- 
ferred, the body color coming well down the shoulder 
and hips, gradually merging into the leg color. The 
Mustards vary from a reddish-brown to a pale 
fawn, the head being a creamy white, the legs and 
feet of a shade darker than the head. The claws 
are dark as in other colors. (Nearly all Dandie 
Dinmont Terriers have some white on the chest, 
and some have also white claws.) 

Size. — ^The height should be from eight to eleven 
inches at the top of shoulder. Length from top of 
shoulder to root of tail should not be more than 
twice the dog's height, but preferably one or two 
inches less. 

Weight. — From fourteen pounds to twenty-four 
pounds, the best weight as near eighteen pounds as 
possible. These weights are for dogs in good work- 
ing condition. 

The relative value of several points in the standard 
are apportioned as follows: 

Head, lo; eyes, lO; ears, lO; neck, 5; body, 20; 
tail, 5; legs and feet, lO; coat, 15; color, 5; size and 
weight, 5; general appearance, 5. Total, 100. 




These hardy little dogs are native to Argyleshire 
and the west coast of Scotland, sections of the coun- 
try that are the natural home of the fox, the wild- 
cat, the badger, and the otter. 

It is a great mistake to believe that these dogs, 
on account of their general similarity in conforma- 
tion, are an offshoot of the Scottish Terrier, pro- 
duced by breeding together the albino sports, which 
are common in northern latitudes. On the contrary, 
the White Highland Terrier was of established type 
and ancestry years before the present Scottish 
Terrier had emerged from his heterogeneous an- 

Three hundred years ago King James the First of 
England wrote to Edinburgh to have half a dozen 
Terriers procured from Argyle and sent to France 
as a present, and there are other records to show that 
as early as sixteen hundred these white terriers of 
Argyle and the wind-swept western coast were the 
best in Scotland. 

The West Highland Terrier has always been a 
workman. His conformation permits him to work 
through the crevices, under the rocks, and to go to 
earth after his prey, and he has the pluck to do so. 
The small, compact bodies of these dogs encompass 
an unusual amount of Terrier character. It is im- 
portant that the jaws and teeth be strong, the feet 
slightly turned out, as better adapted for scrambling 
up rocks than a straight fox terrier foot. 



Their color is most natural, for white has always 
been a favorite for working dogs as most easily dis- 
tinguished. For a time these dogs were shown as 
Poltalloch Terriers, as a strain of unusual excellence 
was owned in that section for many years. Good 
specimens are to be found, however, at various 
places on the west coast. 

In summing up this breed it can be said that they 
are intelligent, faithful, and as persistent in pursuit 
of prey and as desperate fighters as any dog that 

In the selection of White Highland Terrier puppies 
at the age of four months the same points should be 
looked for as in Scottish Terriers, with the variation 
in color. 

The following is the standard and scale of points: 

General Appearance of the West Highland 
White Terrier is that of a small, game, hardy- 
looking Terrier, possessed with no small amount of 
self-esteem, with a varminty appearance, strongly 
built, deep in chest and back ribs, straight back, 
and powerful quarters on muscular legs, and ex- 
hibiting in a marked degree a great combination of 
strength and activity. The coat should be about 
lyi inches long, white in color, hard, with plenty of 
soft undercoat, and no tendency to wave or curl. 
The tail should be as straight as possible, and car- 
ried not too gaily, and covered with hard hair, but 
not bushy. The skull should not be too broad, being 
in proportion to the terribly powerful jaws, but 
must be narrow between the ears. The ears shall 



be as small and sharp-pointed as possible and car- 
ried tightly up and must be absolutely erect. The 
eyes of moderate size, dark hazel in color, widely 
placed, rather sunk or deep-set, with a sharp, bright, 
intelligent expression. The muzzle should be pro- 
portionately long and powerful, gradually tapering 
toward the nose. The nose, roof of mouth, and pads 
of feet distinctly black in color. 

Color. — ^Pure white; any other color objec- 

Coat. — ^Very important, and seldom seen to per- 
fection; must be double-coated. The outer coat 
consists of hard hair about two inches long and free 
from any curl. The undercoat, which resembles 
fur, is short, soft, and close. Open coats are ob- 

Size. — Dogs to weigh from 14 to 1 8 pounds, and 
bitches from 12 to 16 pounds, and measure from 8 
to 12 inches at the shoulder. 

Skull. — Should not be too narrow, being in pro- 
portion to his powerful jaw, proportionately long, 
slightly domed, and gradually tapering to the eyes, 
between which there should be a slight indentation 
or stop; eyebrows heavy. 

Eyes. — ^Widely set apart, medium in size, dark 
hazel in color, slightly sunk in the head, sharp and 
intelligent, which, looking from under the heavy 
eyebrows, give a piercing look. Full eyes and also 
light-colored eyes are very objectionable. 

Muzzle. — Should be powerful, proportionate in 
length, and should gradually taper toward the nose^ 



which should be fairly wide. The jaws level and 
powerful, the teeth square or evenly met, well set, 
and large for the size of the dog. The nose and roof 
of mouth should be distinctly black in color. 

Ears. — ^Small, carried erect, but never drop, and 
should be carried tightly up, terminating in a sharp 
point. The hair on them should be short, smooth 
(velvety), and they should not be cut. The ears 
should be free from any fringe at the top. Round- 
pointed, broad, and large ears are very objection- 
able, also ears too heavily covered with hair. 

Neck. — ^Muscular and nicely set on sloping shoul- 

Chest. — ^Very deep, with breadth in proportion 
to the size of the dog. 

Body. — Compact, straight back, ribs deep and 
well arched in the upper half of rib, presenting a 
flattish side appearance; loins broad and strong; 
hindquarters strong, muscular, and wide across the 

Legs and Feet. — Both forelegs and hindlegs 
should be short and muscular. The shoulder blades 
should be comparatively broad and well sloped 
backward. The points of the shoulder blades 
should be closely knit into the backbone, so that 
every little movement of them should be noticeable 
when the dog is walking. The elbow should be 
close in to the body, both when moving or standing, 
thus causing the foreleg to be well placed in under 
the shoulder. The forelegs should be straight and 



thickly covered with short, hard hair. The hind- 
legs should be short and sinewy. The thighs very 
muscular and not too wide apart. The hocks bent 
and well set in under the body, so as to be fairly 
close to each other either when standing, walking, 
or trotting. The fore feet are larger than the hind 
ones, are round, proportionate in size, strong, 
thickly padded, and covered with short, hard hair. 
The hind feet are smaller and thickly padded. The 
under surface of the pads of feet and all the nails 
should be distinctly black in color. Hocks too much 
bent (cow hocks) detract from the general appear- 
ance. Straight or weak hocks, both kinds are un- 
desirable and should be guarded against. 

Tail. — Five or six inches long, covered with 
hard hairs, no feather, as straight as possible, car- 
ried gaily, but not curled over back. A long tail is 

Movement. — Should be free, straight, and easy 
all around. In front the leg should be freely ex- 
tended forward by the shoulder. The hind move- 
ment should be free, strong, and close. The hocks 
should be freely flexed and drawn close in under the 
body, so that when moving oflF the foot the body is 
thrown or pushed forward with some force. StiflF, 
stilty movement behind is very objectionable. 

Value of Points. — General appearance, 5; color, 
10; coat, 10; size, 7>^; skull, 73^; eyes, 5; muzzle, 
5; ears, 7; neck, 7>^; chest, y}4; body, lO; legs and 
feet, 7}^; tail, 5; movement, j}4. 




Coat. — ^Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl 
is a serious blemish, as is also an open coat, and 
any black, grey, or wheaten hairs. 

Size. — ^Any specimens under the minimum weight 
or above the maximum weight are objectionable. 

Eyes. — Full or light colored. 

Ears. — Round-pointed, drop, semi-erect, also ears 
too heavily covered with hair. 

Muzzle. — Either under- or overshot, and de- 
fective teeth. 


Although there is the usual mystery about the 
exact origin of the Irish Terrier, his excitable tem- 
perament, keen intelligence, pluck, and determina- 
tion as well as his sociable and vivacious instinct 
clearly indicate that he is a worthy product of the 
country whose name he bears. In Ireland this breed 
is used for bolting foxes and for vermin and rabbit 
hunting. They have no superior as companions, 
and are game, all-around sporting propositions, 
ready to take an active part in anything resembling 
sport or pleasure. They ^re undoubtedly a very old 
breed of dogs, and present-day bench show winners 
are not unlike those depicted in the sporting scenes 
of half a century ago. 

At the present time red is the most fashionable 
color. The wheaten color specimens that come out 
from time to time as a rule have softer coats than 
the reds. The Irish Terrier as a breed have an 



expression peculiar to themselves, and a good one is 
sometimes referred to as having the map of Ireland 
on his face, the chiseling of the head being a little 
stronger than either the Airedale or the Fox Terrier, 
without being at all coarse; their eyes should be 
hazel rather than very tiark. 

In selecting Irish Terrier puppies look for a long, 
level head, a strong muzzle, a rather narrow skuD, 
dark eyes; small, neat V-shaped ears; short back, 
narrow shoulders, straight forelegs with plenty of 
bone, and strong, well-knit feet. The coat should 
be hard to the touch and not too long. The puppies 
that are dark in color and have the shortest coats 
usually develop the best, and a little white on the 
chest is no real detriment. 

The following is the standard and scale of points: 

Head. — Long; skull flat, and rather narrow be- 
tween the ears, getting slightly narrower toward the 
eye; free from wrinkles; stop hardly visible except 
in profile. The jaw must be strong and muscular, 
but not too full in the cheek, and of a good punishing 
length. There should be a slight falling away below 
the eye, so as not to have a Greyhound appearance. 
Hair on face of same description as on body, but 
short (about a quarter of an inch long), in appear- 
ance almost smooth and straight; a slight beard is 
the only longish hair (and it is only long in compar- 
ison with the rest) that is permissible, and that is 

Teeth. — Should be strong and level. 

Lips, — Not so tight as a Bull Terrier's, but well 



fitting, showing through the hair their black lin- 

Nose. — Must be black. 

Eyes. — A dark hazel color, small, not prominent, 
and full of life, fire, and intelligence. 

Ears. — Small and V-shaped, of moderate thick- 
ness, set well on the head, and dropping forward 
closely to the cheek. The ear must be free of fringe, 
and the hair thereon shorter and darker in color 
than the body. 

Neck. — Should be of a fair length, and gradually 
widening toward the shoulders, well carried, and 
free of throatiness. There is generally a slight sort 
of frill visible at each side of the neck, running nearly 
to the corner of the ear. 

Shoulders and Chest. — Shoulders must be fine, 
long, and sloping well into the back; the chest deep 
and muscular, but neither full nor wide. 

Back and Loin. — Body moderately long; back 
should be strong and straight, with no appearance 
of slackness behind the shoulders; the loin broad 
and powerful and slightly arched; ribs fairly sprung, 
rather deep than round, and well-ribbed back. 

Hindquarters. — Should be strong and muscular, 
thighs powerful, hocks near ground, stifles mod- 
erately bent. 

Stern. — Generally docked; should be free of 
fringe or feather, but well covered with rough hair; 
set on pretty high, carried gaily, but not over the 
back or curled. 

Feet and Legs. — Feet should be strong, toler- 



ably round, and moderately small; toes arched, and 
neither turned out nor in; black toenails most de- 
sirable. Legs moderately long, well set from the 
shoulders, perfectly straight, with plenty of bone 
and muscle; the elbows working freely clear of the 
sides; pasterns short and straight, hardly notice- 
able. Both fore and hind legs should be moved 
straight forward when traveling, the stifles not turned 
outwards, the legs free of feather, and covered, like 
the head, with as hard a texture of coat as body, 
but not so long. 

Coat. — Hard and wiry, free of softness or silki- 
ness, not so long as to hide the outlines of the body, 
particularly in the hindquarters; straight and flat, 
no shagginess, and free of lock or curl. 

Color. — Should be "whole-colored," the most 
preferable being bright red, red, wheaten, or yellow- 
red. White sometimes appears on chest and feet; 
it is more objectionable on the latter than on the 
chest, as a speck of white on chest is frequently to 
be seen in all self-colored breeds. 

Size and Symmetry. — ^The most desirable weight 
in show condition is: for a dog, 24 pounds, and for 
a bitch, 22 pounds. The dog must present an active, 
lively, lithe, and wiry appearance; lots of substance, 
at the same time free of clumsiness, as speed and 
endurance as well as power are very essential. 
They must be neither "cloddy nor cobby," but 
should be framed on the "lines of speed," showing a 
graceful "racing outline." 

Temperament. — Dogs that are very game are 



usually surly or snappish. The Irish Terrier as a 
breed is an exception, being remarkably good- 
tempered, notably so with mankind, it being ad- 
mitted, however, that he is perhaps a little too ready 
to resent interference on the part of other dogs. 
There is a heedless, reckless pluck about the Irish 
Terrier which is characteristic, and, coupled with 
the headlong dash, blind to consequences, with 
which he rushes at his adversary, has earned for 
the breed the proud epithet of "the dare devils." 
When "off duty" they are characterized by a quiet, 
caress-inviting appearance, and when one sees them 
endearingly, timidly pushing their heads into their 
masters' hands it is difficult to realize that on occa- 
sions, at the "set on," they can prove they have the 
courage of a lion and will fight unto the last breath 
in their bodies. They develop an extraordinary de- 
votion to, and have been known to track their 
masters almost incredible distances. 

Scale of Points. — ^Head, ears, and expression, 
20; legs and feet, 15; neck, 5; shoulders and chest, 
10; back and loin, 5; hindquarters and stern, lo; 
coat, 15; color, lO; size and symmetry, 10. Total, 

White nails, toes, and feet, minus 10; much white 
on chest, minus lO; dark shadings on face, minus 
5; mouth undershot or cankered, minus lO; coat 
shaggy, curly, or soft, minus lO; uneven in color, 
minus 5. Total, 50. 




This handy breed is one of the smartest of guards 
and companions, and particularly keen on any- 
thing in the vermin line. They are indigenous to 
the country whose name they bear, and are undoubt- 
edly of considerable antiquity and have been bred 
true to type for the last thirty years. At one time 
they were exhibited as old English broken-haired 
Terriers, and at another time certain fanciers at- 
tempted crossing with the wire-haired fox terrier, 
with the object of securing longer heads. The Welsh 
Terrier Club, however, took a very strong position 
against cross-bred dogs and refused to recognize 
any dogs whose pedigrees were not pure Welsh. 
Thereby they have succeeded admirably in preserv- 
ing all of the older characteristics of the breed. 

There is no better working terrier than the Welsh- 
man. They are not quarrelsome, show very little 
jealousy, can be kenneled and exercised together 
better than any other breed, and as a breed are dead 
game. They are not so easily aroused or excited as 
fox terriers or an Irishman, but once get them 
started and they are afraid of nothing on earth and 
will go through to the finish. They are splendid 
water dogs, very affectionate companions, and no 
better guards nor more capable assistants to the 
gun will be found in the terrier family. 

The Welsh Terrier in appearance is a small, 
beautifully proportioned, and useful dog of about 
twenty pounds weight, with a sporty look and a 


keen, intelligent, lively disposition. They should 
have straight forelegs and cat-like feet. Their 
beads are shorter than either the Fox Terrier, the 
Irish Terrier, or Airedale, but as a rule they run 
truer in coat and color. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Welsh Terrier puppies at from two to four months 
old are almost identical with those detailed for 
Wire-haired Fox Terriers, with the variation of color. 

The following is the standard description adopted 
by the Welsh Terrier Club since the year 1886: 

Head. — ^The skull should be flat and rather wider 
between the ears than the Wire-haired Fox Terrier. 
The jaw should be powerful, clean-cut, rather 
deeper, and more punishing, giving the head a 
more masculine appearance than that usually seen 
on a Fox Terrier. Stop not too defined; fair length 
from stop to end of nose, the latter being of a black 

Ears. — ^The ear should be V-shaped, small, not 
too thin, set on fairly high, carried forward and 
close to the cheek. 

Eyes. — ^The eye should be small, not being too 
deeply set in or protruding out of skull; of a dark 
color, expressive and indicating abundant pluck. 

Neck. — ^The neck should be of moderate length 
and thickness, slightly arched, and sloping grace- 
fully into the shoulders. 

Body. — ^The back should be short and well 
ribbed up, the loin strong, good depth, and moderate 
width of chest. The shoulders should be long, 



sloping, and well set back. The hindquarters 
should be strong, thighs muscular, and of good 
length, with the hocks moderately straight, well let 
down, and fair amount of bone. The stern should 
be set on moderately high, but not too gaily carried. 

Legs and Feet. — The legs should be straight and 
muscular, possessing fair amount of bone, with up- 
right and powerful pasterns. The feet should be 
small, round, and cat-like. 

Coat. — ^The coat should be wiry, hard, very 
close, and abundant. 

Color. — ^The color should be black-and-tan, or 
black grizzle-and-tan, free from black penciling on 

Size. — The height at shoulder should be 15 
inches for dogs; bitches proportionately less. Twenty 
pounds shall be considered a fair average weight in 
working condition, but this may vary a pound or 
so either way. 


For many years this attractive breed of Terriers 
has been carefully bred by a small group of British 
sportsmen who have cherished them for their ad- 
mirable working qualities, and have never been in- 
terested in the fads or the mandates of the bench- 
show world. It may be stated without fear of con- 
tradiction that no breed is better adapted to go to 
earth, and that, pound for pound, they represent 
as much determination and dead game courage as 
any dog that lives. 



A few years ago a number of prominent bench- 
show fanciers became interested in the breed and 
brought them to the notice of the public. Since 
then they have enjoyed considerable vogue on both 
sides of the water, for they are sporty little prop- 
ositions and the most entertaining and useAil of 

The standard is as follows: 

The Sealyham should be the embodiment of 
power and determination in a Terrier. Of extraor- 
dinary substance for its size, yet free from clumsi- 
ness. The ideal being the combination of the 
Dandie Dinmont with a Bull Terrier of twenty 
pounds; otherwise any resemblance to a Fox Terrier 
in either make, shape, character, or expression 
should be heavily penalized. 

Head. — ^The skull unusually wide between the 
ears (this being a characteristic of both the Dandie 
and the Bull Terrier), slightly rounded and domed, 
with practically no stop, and a slight indentation 
running down between the brows. Long, powerful 
level jaws, wider and heavier than in a Fox Terrier, 
the upper finishing in a large, black nose with wide 

Body. — Comparatively short between back of 
neck and set-on of tail, but of good length from the 
junction of the humerous and shoulder blades to 
the back of the hindquarters, thus giving great 
flexibility. Very deep, well ribbed up, witn com- 
paratively wide front; the chest well let down be- 



tween the forelegs, giving large heart and lung 
room, the latter being very important for a dog 
that has to stay long underground. 

Coat. — Dense overcoat, the top being hard and 
wiry, considerably longer than that which a Wire- 
haired Fox Terrier is shown with, especially on 
head, throat, and neck. 

Ears. — Of medium size, set on low, and carried 
closely against the cheek. This is a very important 
jx)int, as high-setting and forward carriage gives a 
Fox Terrier character and expression, and is usually 
indicative of that blood. 

Hindquarters. — ^Wide and massive, with strong 
second thighs and backs extremely well bent. 

Legs. — Short, heavily boned, the forelegs as 
straight as is consistent with the body, being well let 
down between them. 

Feet. — Of medium size, round, with thick pads, 
and very strong nails. The fore feet being larger, 
though not quite so long as the hind. 

Eyes. — Set somewhat wide apart, of medium size, 
and very dark. 

Teeth. — Strong, large, and square, the canines 
fitting closely between each other. Undershot or 
much overshot jaws should be a disqualification. 

Neck. — Of medium length, but extremely strong 
and muscular. 

Tail. — Docked and carried gaily. 

Color. — ^AU white, or white with lemon, tan, 
brindle, or badger-pied markings on head and ears. 




(Black IS objecdonable, even on head and ears; a 
Jarge black spot on the body should almost be a 
disqualification as showing Fox Terrier blood.) 

Size. — Dogs between nine inches and twelve 
inches at the shoulder; bitches somewhat smaller. 
Weight being no criterion, as a thirteen-inch dog 
might weigh only fourteen pounds and a ten4nch 
twenty-four pounds. 


This is a comparatively new breed, and is the 
only Terrier that bears the national name. There 
is no evidence to show where it originally sprang 
from, who produced it, or for what reason. 

Before the institution of dog shows the generic 
term "Terrier" was applied to all earth dogs, and it 
would be difficult to prove that a white Terrier re- 
sembling those now under consideration existed at 
that time. There is little difference between the 
white English Terrier and the Manchester black- 
white-and-tan, except in color, for they are of 
similar shape and general character. 

The standard as laid down by the White English 
Terrier Club is as follows: 

Head. — Narrow, long, and level; almost flat skull, 
without cheek muscles, wedge-shaped, well filled up 
under the eyes, tapering to the nose, and not lippy. 

Eyes. — Small and black, set fairly close together, 
and oblong in shape. 

Nose. — Perfectly black. 

Ears. — Cropped and standing perfecdy erect. 



Neck and Shoulders. — ^The neck should be 
fairly lone and tapering from the shoulders to the 
head, with sloping shoulders, the neck being free 
from throatiness, and slightly arched at the occiput. 

Chest. — Narrow and deep. 

Body. — Short and curving upward at the loins; 
sprung out behind the shoulders, back slightly 
arched at loins, and falling again at the joining of 
the tail to the same height as the shoulders. 

Legs. — Perfectly straight and well under the 
body, moderate in bone, and of proportionate 

Feet. — Feet nicely arched, with toes set well to- 
gether, and more inclined to be round than hare- 

Tail. — Moderate length, and set on where the 
arch of the back ends, thick where it joins the body, 
tapering to a point, and not carried higher than the 

Coat. — Close, hard, short, and glossy. 

Color. — Pure white; colored marking to dis- 

Condition. — Flesh and muscles to be hard and 

Weight. — From 12 to 20 pounds* 




The origin of the Bulldog is closely associated 
with the Mastiff; in fact, he was originally a smaller 
variety that was used for bull baiting, the larger 
variety being used in battles with the bear. 

Jesse says the first mention of a Bulldog occurs in 
1631 or 1632 in a letter written by Prestwich Eaton^ 
of St. Sebastian to George Wellingham, London, 
asking for a good Mastiff and two good Bulldogs. 
The sport of bull baiting was initiated with the dis- 
appearance of the wild oxen from the woods in the 
reign of King John, toward the close of the twelfth 
or beginning of the thirteenth century. We read 
that: "William, Earl Warren, Lord of Stamford, 
standing upon the castle walls of this town, saw 
two bulls fighting for a cow in the meadow. The 
butcher's dog pursued one of the bulls, which, 
maddened with the noise and the multitude, galloped 
through the town. This sight so pleased the Earl 
that he gave the meadows, called the Castle Mead- 
ows, where first the duel began, for a common to 
the butchers of the town, on condition that they 
find a mad bull six weeks before Christmas for the 
continuance of the sport every year." 

"Bull baiting," writes Marples, "became a very 
fashionable British sport, and was at one time pat- 
ronized by persons of the very highest rank,' from 



si ^ 

i- • 8 

3 112 


the King and Queen of England down, just as bull 
fighting in Spain is to-day the leading and most 
fashionable sport, in which matadors take the place 
of Bulldogs. As the sport developed and became 
popular, naturally the breeding of dogs best adapted 
for bringing down the bull followed, and in this way 
originals of our present-day Bulldogs were evolved, 
but of course not so pronounced in type nor so per- 
fectly fitted structurally and anatomically for their 
specific avocation. It was no doubt found that a 
less heavy and more agile dog than a Mastiff would 
be better for the purpose, and either smaller speci- 
mens would be used or the MastiflF became dwarfed 
by crossing, probably with a terrier. As the bull 
always attacks his canine foes head down so as to 
catch them up with his horns, the dogs would be 
taught to seize him by the nose, which indeed would 
be the natural mode of attack of the dog in such 
circumstances. The type of dog that would be sug- 
gested to careful students of the sport, even in the 
old days, would be a low-set, powerful-fronted and 
jawed dog, with light quarters, and whose nose 
receded from his lower jaw to enable him to breathe 
while hanging on his quarry, his light hindquarters 
further assisting him in hanging on the bull, whose 
habit in such circumstances invariably is to whirl 
the dog in the air in his frantic endeavor to shake 

him off." 

Theoretically, the Bulldog may be anatomically 
adapted to holding bulls, but the present show dogs 
are simply exaggerated monstrosities that by no 



possible stretch of the imagination could either 
catch or hold a bull or escape his feet and horns. 

The modem Bulldog cannot be accepted as any- 
thing more than a conspicuous example of the 
breeder's art. They have lost, however, none of 
their old-time courage and tenacity, and will go to 
their death as cheerfully as their ancestors did three 
hundred years ago. Bulldogs are not fierce in dis- 
position; in fact, they are among the kindest of the 
canine race, free from treachery, and the most 
faithful of companions, all of which in a great measure 
accounts for their popularity. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Bulldog puppies at from two to four months old 
and after, are: A massive head, with long, sweep- 
ing underjaw, well turned up, not necessarily short 
nose, but must be retrouss6 — ^laid well back, massive, 
broad foreface, big skull, little ears, short back and 
tail, short legs, with enormous bone. 

The following are the description and standard as 
approved by the English Bulldog Club of Amer- 

General Appearance, Aptitude, Expression, 
Etc. — ^The perfect Bulldog must be of medium size 
and smooth coat, with heavy, thick-set, low-swung 
body; massive, short-faced head; wide shoulders and 
sturdy limbs. The general appearance and attitude 
should suggest great stability, vigor, and strength. 
The disposition should be equable and kind, reso- 
lute and courageous (not vicious or aggressive), and 
the demeanor should be pacific and dignified. 



These attributes should be countenanced by the 
expression and behavior. 

Gait. — ^The style and carriage are peculiar, his 
gait being a loose-jointed, shuffling, sidewise motion, 
giving the characteristic "roll." The action must, 
however, be unrestrained, free, and vigorous. 

Proportion and Symmetry. — ^The "points" 
should be well distributed and bear good relation 
one to the other, no feature being in such promi- 
nence from either excess or lack of quality that the 
animal appears deformed or illy proportioned. 

Influence of Sex. — In comparison of specimens 
of different sex due allowance should be made in 
favor of the bitches, which do not bear the char- 
acteristics of the breed to the same degree of per- 
fection and grandeur as do the dogs. 

Size. — ^The size for mature dogs is about 50 
pounds; for mature bitches, about 40 pounds. 

Coat. — ^The coat should be straight, short, flat, 
close, of fine texture, smooth and glossy. (No 
fringe, feather, or curl.) 

Color of Coat. — ^The color of coat should be 
uniform, pure of its kind, and brilliant. The various 
colors found in the breed are to be preferred in the 
following order: (i) Red brindle; (2) all other 
brindles; (3) solid white; (4) solid red, fawn, or 
fallow; (5) piebald; (6) inferior qualities of all the 

{Note. — ^A perfect piebald is preferable to a muddy 
brindle or defective solid color.) 

Solid black is very undesirable, but not so objec- 



tionable if occurring to a moderate d^ree in piebald 
patches. The brindles^ to be perfect, should have a 
fine, even, and equal distribution of the composite 
colors. In brindles and solid colors a small white 
patch on the chest is not considered detrimental. 
In piebalds the color patches should be well defined, 
of pure color, and symmetrically distributed. 

Skin.— The skin should be soft and loose, es- 
pecially at the head, neck, and shoulders. 

Wrinkle and Dewlap. — ^The head and face 
should be covered with heavy wrinkles, and at the 
throat, from jaw to chest, there should be two 
loose, pendulous folds forming the dewlap. 

Skull. — ^The skull should be very large, and in 
circumference in front of the ears should measure 
at least the height of the dc^ at the shoulders. 
Viewed from the front, it should appear very high 
from the comer of the lower j aw to the apex of the 
skull, and also very broad and square. Viewed 
from the side, the head should appear very high 
and very short from the point of the nose to occiput. 
The forehead should be flat (not rounded nor 
"domed"), neither too prominent nor overhanging 
the face. 

Cheeks. — ^The cheeks should be well rounded, 
protruding sidewise and outward beyond the eyes. 

Stop. — ^The temples of frontal bones should be 
very well defined, broad, square, and high, causing 
a hollow or groove between the eyes. This indenta- 
tion or stop should be both broad and deep, and ex- 
tend up to the middle of the forehead, dividing the 



head vertically, being traceable to the top of the 

Eyes and Eyelids. — ^The eyes, seen from the 
front, should be situated low down in the skull as 
far from the ears as possible, and their corners should 
be in a straight line at right angles with the stop. 
They should be quite in front of the head, as wide 
apart as possible, provided their outer corners are 
within the outline of the cheeks when viewed from 
the front. They should be quite round in form, of 
moderate size, neither sunken nor bulging, and in 
color should be very dark. The lids should cover 
the white of the eyeball when the dog is looking 
directly forward, and the lid should show no "haw." 

Ears. — ^The ears should be set high in the head, 
the front inner edge of each ear joining the outline 
of the skull at the top back corner of skull, so as to 
place them as wide apart and as high and as far 
from the eyes as possible. In size they should be 
small and thin. The shape termed "rose ear" is 
the most desirable. The "rose ear" folds inward 
at its back lower edge, the upper front edge curving 
over, outward, and backward, showing part of the 
inside of the burr. (The ears should not be carried 
erect or "prick-eared" or "buttoned," and should 
never be cropped.) 

Face. — ^The face, measured from the edge of the 
cheek bone to the tip of nose, should be extremely 
short, the muzzle being very short, broad, turned 
upward, and very deep from the corner of the eye 
to the corner of the mouth. 



Nose. — ^The nose should be large, broad, and 
black, its tip being set back deeply between the 
eyes. The distance from the bottom of stop between 
the eyes to the tip of the nose should be as short as 
possible, and not exceed the length from the tip 
of the nose to the edge of under lip. The nostrils 
should be wide, large, and black, with a well-<lefined 
line between them. (The parti-color or "butterfly 
nose" and the flesh-color or "Dudley nose" are de- 
cidedly objectionable, but do not disqualify for 

Chops. — ^The chops or "flews" should be thick, 
broad, pendant, and very deep, completely over- 
hanging the lower jaw at each side. They join the 
under lip in front and almost or quite cover the 
teeth, which should be scarcely noticeable when the 
mouth is closed. 

Jaws. — ^The jaws should be massive, very broad, 
square, and "undershot," the lower jaw projecting 
considerably in front of the upper jaw, and running up. 

Teeth. — ^The teeth should be large and strong, 
with the canine teeth or tusks wide apart, and the 
six small teeth in front, between the canines, in an 
even, level row. 

Neck. — ^The neck should be short, very thick, 
deep, and strong, and well arched at the back. 

Shoulders. — ^The shoulders should be muscular, 
very heavy, wide-spread, and slanting outward, 
giving stability and great power. 

Chest. — ^The chest should be very broad, deep, 
and full. 



Brisket and Body. — The brisket and body should 
be very capacious, with full sides, well-rounded ribs, 
and very deep from the shoulders down to its lowest 
part, where it joins the chest. It should be well let 
down between the shoulders and forelegs, giving 
the dog a broad, low, short-legged appearance. 
The body should be well ribbed up behind, with 
the belly tucked up and not rotund. 

Back. — The back should be short and strong, 
very broad at the shoulders and comparatively nar- 
row at the loins. Behind the shoulders there should 
be a slight fall in the back, close the top of which 
should be higher than the top of the shoulders, 
thence curving again more suddenly to the tail, 
forming an arch (a very distinctive feature of the 
breed), termed "roach-back," or, more correctly, 

Forelegs. — ^The forelegs should be short, very 
stout, straight, and muscular, set wide apart, with 
well-developed calves, presenting a bowed outline, 
but the bones of the legs should not be curved or 
bandy nor the feet brought too close together. 

Elbows. — The elbows should be low and stand 
well out and loose from the body. 

HiNDLEGS. — The hindlegs should be strong and 
muscular and longer than the forelegs, so as to ele- 
vate the loins above the shoulders. Hocks should 
be slightly bent and well let down, so as to give 
length and strength from loins to hock. The lower 
leg should be short, straight, and strong, with 
stifles turned slightly outward and away from the 



body. The hocks are thereby made to approach 
each other and the hind feet turned outward. 

Feet. — ^The feet should be moderate in size, com- 
pact, and firmly set. Toes compact, well split up, 
with high knuckles, and with short and stubby nails. 
The front feet may be straight or slightly out- 
turned, but the hind feet should be pointed well 

Tail. — ^The tail may be either straight or 
"screwed" (but never curved or curly), and in any 
case must be short, hung low, with decided down- 
ward carriage, thick root and fine tip. If straight, 
the tail should be cylindrical and of uniform taper. 
If "screwed,** the bends or kinks should be well 
defined, and they may be abrupt and even knotty, 
but no portion of the member should be elevated 
above the base or root. 

Value of Points. — Proportion and symmetry, 5; 
attitude, 3; expression, 2; gait, 3; size, 3; coat, 2; 
color of coat, 4; skull, 5; cheeks, 2; stop, 4; eyes and 
eyelids, 3; ears, 5; wrinkle, 5; nose, 6; chops, 2; 
jaws, 5; teeth, 2; neck, 3; dewlap, 2; shoulders, 5; 
chest, 3; ribs, 3; brisket, 2; belly, 2; back, 5; fore- 
legs and elbows, 4; hind legs, 3; feet, 3; tail, 4. 
Total, 100. 


The points and characteristics of this subdivision 
of the British Bulldog may be summed up in the 
simple statement that he should be an exact dupli- 
cate in miniature of the larger specimens in every 








point and detail. The origin of the miniature Bull- 
dog is not very clear, but is doubtless of a later date 
than that of his bigger brothers. In the breeding 
of any variety odd miniature specimens will crop 
up in litters, and these have no doubt suggested to 
some fanciers the idea of propagating a race of 
pigmy Bulldogs probably designed for ladies' pets. 
It is on record that many toy specimens, as they 
were first called, have been reproduced in the Bull- 
dog breeding centers of London, Sheffield, Birming- 
ham, Nottingham, etc., and it is doubtless from 
these that the present-day and more perfected race 
of miniatures have sprung. 

It is also a matter of record that in the distant 
past many of these toy specimens were exported to 
France. They were, for the greater part, prick- 
eared or tulip-eared in the old days, and in later 
years re-imported French Bulldogs have been used 
to cross with English-bred toys for the purpose of 
fixing the size. This cross, happily not largely re- 
sorted to, had the disadvantage of perpetuating the 
hideous bat and tulip ears, and of rather spoiling the 
correct British type. 

The chief points to look for in Miniature puppies 
are identical with those in the larger variety, ex- 
cept that the smaller the puppy the better, if good 
in points. 




The Bull Terrier has been aptly described as the 
game cock of the canine race. He is, unquestionably, 
the embodiment of courage as well as the essence of 
docility. A good Bull Terrier is staunch and true as 
steel when called upon to defend his master or his 
home, and on other occasions is gentle, harmless, and 
the most tractable of companions. 

The clean cut, statuesque appearance of the Bull 
Terrier has given him a prominent position in the 
Terrier family. His smooth, white coat is always in 
condition, and he is more cleanly about the house, and 
can be accepted on closer terms of intimacy than the 
long-haired varieties. 

There is no uncertainty about the origin of the Bull 
Terrier. When bull fighting was abolished, the sports 
of the day, the gamesters and the cock fighters, took 
up dog fighting and badger baiting. For this purpose 
they wanted a dog with a longer and more punishing 
jaw and one that was faster on his feet than the 
BuUdog but possessed of all the latter's courage and 
endurance. They crossed the Bulldog on the agile, 
alert, little Terrier that was used in the country and 
secured dogs with a punishing head of fair length, 
powerful jaw muscles and a strong terrier-like body 
and limbs. These dogs, like their ancestors, were of 
various colors. This type of Bull Terrier is still 
being bred by doc fighters. 

There was another class of fanciers to whom we are 
indebted for the modern Bull Terrier. They began 



by refining the fighting-dog type. They bred for 
longer heads, straighter limbs, and a more graceful 
outline, and in this direction accomplished a great 
deal. Their dogs, however, were short-faced com- 

Eared with those of to-day and of many colors; fawn, 
rindle, black-and-white, etc. 
About fifty years ago, James Hinks, a clever 
fancier of Birmingham, England, swept the show 
benches with a pure white strain of Bull Terriers. 
His dogs were highly refined, straight on their legs, 
graceful and smart in appearance, with long wedge- 
shaped, clean-cut heads. In fact, there was nothing 
about them that suggested the Bulldog, and it was 
charged that the pugnacity and courage of the old 
breed had been lost. To prove that his strain had not 
lost their fighting spirit, Hinks backed his bitch. 
Puss, against one of the old bull-faced type for a five- 
pound note and a case of wine. Puss killed her 
opponent in thirty minutes, and her own injuries 
were so slight that she was able to appear at a Bench 
Show on the following day. It is said that Hinks 
used the Pointer and Dalmatian in producing his 
strain. However that may be, they became very 
popular and soon drove their short-faced rivals of 
various colors off the Bench, and for many years the 
breed enjoyed great popularity. 

The edict of the Kennel Club, abolishing cropping, 
gave them ^ temporary set-back from which they 
soon recovered as by careful selection, breeders soon 
obtained a small ear to replace the thick, heavy ear 
so essential to a good crop. At the present time 



there is a strong movement to bring back the brindles 
and other colors which indicate strength. This will 
also have a good influence in checking the spread of 
deafness; for while white Bull Terriers are prone to 
deafness, this predisposition is not apparent in other 

In selecting puppies over six months old, look for a 
long head and straight foreface, free from stop; level 
mouth; closely set, dark eye; small ears, short back 
and tail; straight front and big rib. 

The following is the Bull Terrier Club's standard 
description and scale of points: 

Head. — Should be long, but with due regard first 
to type. Skull as nearly flat as possible and widest 
between the ears. Viewed from above it should taper 
gradually and merge into the muzzle without per- 
ceptible break in the line. There should be a slight 
indentation down the middle, but without "stop" 
and with as little brow as possible. Foreface filled 
right up to the eyes. Preferably the foreface should 
have a decided "downness." Eyes, very small, black, 
set high on the head, close together and obliquely. 
They should be either almond-shaped or triangular, 
preferably the latter. Wall-eye is a disqualification. 
Muzzle wide and tapering, but without so much taper 
as to make the nose appear pinched. Muzzle should 
be neither square nor snipy, but should present a 
rounded appearance as viewed from above. Nose 
broad, wholly black, and with wide-open nostrils. 
Dudley or wholly flesh-colored nose is a disqualifica- 
tion. Underjaw strong and well defined. Lips 



should meet closely and evenly all around, should not 
run too far back, and there should be an entire 
absence of "lippiness." Teeth sound, strong, clean, 
regular, and meeting evenly. Any deviation from 
this rule, such as "pig paw,'* "undershot" or "over- 
shot" is a bad fault. . Ears when standing erect 
should not cause noticeable wrinkling of the skin on 
the head. Ears should be cropped, should be 
straight and of moderate length. It is important 
that there be as little cheek as possible, but where it 
is present it should not be bunchy or prominent, but 
should merge gradually into the lines of the muzzle 
and neck. 

Neck. — Slightly arched, tapering from shoulders 
to head, and free from looseness of skin. 

Shoulders. — Strong and muscular, but without 
any appearance of heaviness or "loading." Shoulder 
blades wide, flat, and sloping well back. 

Back. — Short, strong, and muscular. Should be 
higher at withers than hips. There should be no 
slackness nor falling away behind the withers, but 
back should be slightly arched at loin, with loins 
well developed and slightly tucked. Ribs well 
sprung, close together and intercostal muscles well 
developed; back ribs deep. Chest deep from withers 
to brisket and wide from front to back ribs, but 
should not be broad as viewed facing the dog. 

Tail. — Short in proportion to the size of the dog, 
set on low, broad where it joins the body and taper- 
ing to a point; should be straight and should not b^ 
carried above the level of the back. 


Legs. — Should have big, round bone and strong, 
straight, upright pasterns. The whole foreleg 
should be reasonably straight, but without the 
stiltiness of the Fox Terrier. Thighs somewhat 
long, with muscle well developed, but without 
"loading." Hocks short, fairly straight, well let 
down, and should turn neither in nor out as viewed 
from behind. 

Feet. — Of the cat pattern, with toes short, well 
arched, and close together. Pads strong and nails 

Coat. — Short, close, stiff to the touch, and with 
fine gloss. 

Color. — White. Markings, although objection- 
able, are not a disqualification. 

Weight. — Is not a matter of importance, so long 
as the specimen is typical. 

Faults. — Light bone; round eyes; badly placed 
eyes; light eyes; domed skulls; butterfly noses; 
noticeable cheekiness; dished faces; lippiness, throat- 
iness; teeth not meeting evenly; long or slack backs; 
long, thick, or "gay" tails; loose shoulders; crooked 
elbows; loaded shoulders or thighs; weak pasterns; 
pig feet; toes turning either in or out; markings. 


Bull Terriers weighing less than 15 pounds are 
usually described as Toy Bull Terriers. The points 
of these should be exactly the same as for the 
larger variety. The most popular weight for Toy 
Bull Terriers is not exceeding 10 pounds. 




The Boston Terrier is one of the few breeds that 
is distinctly of American origin. Their name indi- 
cates their nativity, and all that can be learned of 
their ancestry points to their having been of a pit 
bull terrier origin. Pit bulls are usually the result 
of a cross between bulldogs and terriers, and vary 
in form. Some have the long, clean head of a 
terrier; others, the round, almost puggish head of 
the bulldog. The round-headed, short-faced brindle 
dogs that were a result of these crosses could not 
win against the terrier types in their own classes, 
and as they were crowded out their admirers suc- 
ceeded in having classes organized for them, and 
these classes were eventually recognized by the 
American Kennel Club. 

In the early history of the breed theire was no 
established type, some favoring the bulldogs, while 
others were partial to those that were on the terrier 
order. As late, as 1894 the American Kennel Club 
canceled a Boston Terrier pedigree because the sire 
was a bulldog. The registrar of the Boston Terrier 
Club, when called upon for an explanation, stated 
that it was necessary to resort to the bulldog cross 
to retain certain characteristics of the bulldog, 
namely, the rose ears, flat skull, and short, tapering 
tail, and further asserted that the Boston Terrier 
at that time was becoming too strongly terrier. 

At the present time the best opinion on this sub- 
ject is that the Boston should be neither bulldog 



nor terrier in type, but a happy medium. The Bos- 
ton Terrier has proven to be the great conunerdal 
success of this country, and no other breed has ever 
attained such preat popularity in so short a time. 
The tendency from year to year has been to reduce 
them in size, and as a result of careful selection they 
have become well fixed in type and much of their 
early irr^^arity has disappeared. 

The description, standard and value of points as 
adopted by the Boston Terrier Club is as follows: 

General Appearance. — ^The general appearance 
of the Boston Terrier should be that of a lively, 
highly intelligent, smooth-coated, short-headed, com- 
pactly built, short-tailed, well-balanced dog of me- 
dium station, of brindle color and evenly marked 
with white. 

The head should indicate a high degree of intelli- 
gence and should be in proportion to the size of the 
dog; the body rather short and well knit; the limbs 
strong and neatly turned; tail short; and no feature 
being so prominent that the dog appears badly 

The dog should convey an impression of deter- 
mination, strength, and activity, with style of a 
high order; carriage easy and graceful. 

A proportionate combination of "color" and 
"ideal markings" is a particularly distinctive feature 
of a representative specimen, and dogs with a pre- 
ponderance of white on body, or without the proper 
proportion of brindle and white on head, should 



possess sufficient merit otherwise to counteract their 
deficiencies in these respects. 

The ideal "Boston Terrier expression" as indicat- 
ing "a high degree of intelligence" is also an im- 
portant characteristic of the breed. 

"Color and markings" and "expression" should be 
given particular consideration in determining the 
relative value of "General Appearance" to other 

Skull. — Square^ flat on top, free from wrinkles; 
cheeks flat; brow abrupt, stop well defined. 

Eyes. — Wide apart, large and round, dark in 
color; expression alert, but kind and intelligent; 
the eyes shovdd set square across brow, and the out- 
side comers should be on a line with the cheeks as 
viewed from the front. 

Muzzle. — Short, square, wide, and deep; free 
from wrinkles; shorter in length than in width and 
depth, and in proportion to skull; width and depth 
carried out well to end. Nose black and wide, with 
well-defined line between nostrils. The jaws broad 
and square, with short, regular teeth. The chops of 
good depth, but not pendulous, completely cover- 
ing the teeth when mouth is closed. The muzzle 
should not exceed in approximate length one-third 
of length of skuU. 

Ears. — Small and thin; situated as near corners 
of skull as possible. 

Head Faults. — Skull "domed" or inclined; fur- 
rowed by a medial line; skull too long for breadth, or 



vice versa; stop too shallow; brow and skull too 

Eyes small or sunken; too prominent; light color; 
showing too much white or haw. Muzzle wedge- 
shaped or lacking depth; down-faced; too much cut 
out below the eyes; pinched nostrils; protruding 
teeth; weak lower jaw, showing "turn up.*' Poorly 
carried ears or out of proportion. 

Neck. — Of fair length, slightly arched and carry- 
ing the head gracefully; setting neatly into the 

Neck Faults. — Ewe-necked; throatiness; short 
and thick. 

Body. — Deep, with good width of chest; shoulders 
sloping; back short; nbs deep and well sprung, car- 
ried well back to loins; loins short and muscular; 
rump curving slightly to set-on of tail. Flank slightly 
cut up. The body should appear short, but not 

Body Faults. — Flat sides; narrow chest; long or 
slack loins; roach back; sway back; too much cut 
up in flank. 

Elbows. — Standing neither in nor out. 

Forelegs. — Set moderately wide apart and on a 
line with the points of the shoulders; straight in 
bone and well muscled; pasterns short and strong. 

HiNDLEGS. — Set true; bent at stifles; short from 
hocks to feet; hocks turning neither in nor out; 
thighs strong and well muscled. 

Feet. — Round, small, and compact, and turned 
neither in nor out; toes well arched. 



Leo and Feet Faults. — Loose shoulders or 
elbows; hindlegs too straight at stifles; hocks too 
prominent; long or weak pasterns; splay feet. 

Tail. — Set on low; short, fine, and tapering; 
straight or screw; devoid of fringe or coarse hair, 
and not carried above horizontal. 

Tail Faults. — ^A long or gayly carried tail; ex- 
tremely gnarled or curled against body. 

{Note. — ^The preferred tail should not exceed in 
length approximately half the distance from set-on 
to hock.) 

Color. — Brindle, with white markings. 

Ideal Markings. — ^White muzzle, even white 
blaze over head, collar, breast, part or whole of fore- 
legs, and hindlegs below hocks. 

Color and Markings Faults. — All white; ab- 
sence of white markings; preponderance of white on 
body; without the proper proportion of brindle and 
white on head; or any variations detracting from the 
general appearance. 

Coat. — Short, smooth, bright, and fine in texture. 

Coat Faults. — Long or coarse; lacking luster. 

Weights. — Not exceeding 27 pounds, divided as 
follows: Lightweight, under 17 pounds; middle- 
weight, 17 and not exceeding 22 pounds; heavy- 
weight, 22 and not exceeding 27 pounds. 

Disqualifications. — Solid black, black-and-tan, 
liver and mouse colors. Docked tail and any arti- 
ficial means used to deceive the judge. 

Value of Points. — Skull, 12; ears, 2; eyes, 5; 
muzzle, 12; neck, 3; body, 15; elbows, 4; forelegs, 



5; hindl^y 5; color, 4; ideal markings, lO; feet, 5; 
tail, 5; coat, 3; general appearance and style, 10. 
Total, 100. 


Authorities are of the opinion that the French 
Bulldog is strictly of French origin, yet they are 
willing to admit that in recent years importations 
from England have been used as a cross with the 
narive dog, and that this cross has led to a nearer 
approximation to the Bridsh type. 

The chief difference between English and French 
specimens is in foreface and front; in most other 
points the two breeds are very nearly identical. 
The body of the Frenchman should be short and 
rotund, with a distinct roach and light but sound 
quarters. His shoulders should be strong, and he 
should stand on short, fairly stout limbs for his size. 
He should not exceed 22 pounds, be extremely agile, 
and indeed almost terrier-like in action and move- 
ment. The fundamental difference is seen in the 
foreface, which in the French should show some 
slight protrusion of the underjaw and some turn-up 
but no lay-back, which, through English Bulldog 
optics, give the dog the appearance of being frog- 
faced. The eyes should be set far apart and a good 
distance shown between the eye and the ear, and 
the skull should be flat. The ears, of course, should 
be on the lines of the ears of a bat, but it is satis- 
factory to note that large ears are deprecated. The 
tail again, like that of the English variety, should 



be short, low set, and tapering to a point, but noth- 
ing is said in the standard about a "screw" tail. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of the 
French Bulldog puppies at from two to four months 
old and after, are: Squareness and shortness of fore- 
face, massiveness of skull, large eye, deep stop, 
small, neat ears; shortness of body; good spring of 
rib; and straight legs, showing great bone. 

The following is the description of the breed as 
approved by the French Bulldog Club of America: 

General Appearance. — ^The French Bulldog 
should have the appearance of an active, intelligent, 
muscular dog, of heavy bone, smooth coat, com- 
pactly built, and of medium or small stature. 

Proportion and Symmetry. — ^The points should 
be well distributed and bear good relation one to 
the other, no feature being in such prominence from 
either excess or lack of quality that the animal ap- 
pears deformed or ill proportioned. 

Influence of Sex. — In comparison of specimens 
of different sex, due allowance should be made in 
favor of the bitches, which do not bear the char- 
acteristics of the breed to the same marked degree 
as do the dogs. 

Weight. — ^A lightweight class under 22 pounds; 
heavyweight class, 22 pounds, and not over 28 

Head. — ^The head should be large, square, and 
broad, cranium almost flat; the underjaw large and 
powerful, deep, square, broad, undershot, and well 
turned up. The muzzle should be well laid back 




and the muscles of the cheeks well developed. The 
stop should be strongly defined, causing a hollow or 
groove between the eyes and extending up in the 
forehead. The nose should be extremely short, 
broad, and very deep; nostrils broad and black, 
with well-defined line between them. (Dish-face 
undesirable.) The nose and flews should be black. 
The flews should be thick, broad, pendant, and very 
deep, hanging over the lower jaw at sides. Tusks 
must not show. Front teeth may show slightly. 

Eyes. — ^The eyes should be wide apart, set low 
down in the skull, as far from the ears as possible, 
round in form, of moderate size, neither sunken nor 
bulging, and in color dark. No haw and no white of 
the eye showing when looking forward. 

Neck. — ^The neck should be thick and well 
arched, with loose skin at throat. 

Ears. — ^The ears shall hereafter be known as the 
bat ear, broad at the base, elongated, with round top, 
set high in the head, but not too close together, and 
carried erect, with the orifice to the front. The 
leather of the ear fine and soft. 

Body. — ^The body should be short and well 
rounded. The chest broad, deep, and full, well 
ribbed, with the belly tucked up. The back should 
be a roach back, with a slight fall close behind the 
shoulders. It should be strong and short, broad at 
the shoulders and narrowing at the loins. 

Legs. — ^The forelegs should be short, stout, 
straight, and muscular, set wide apart. The hind- 
legs should be strong and muscular, longer than the 



forelegs, so as to elevate the loins above the shoul- 
ders. Hocks well let down. 

Feet. — ^The feet should be moderate in size, com- 
pact, and firmly set. Toes compact, well split up, 
with high knuckles, and short, stubby nails; hind- 
feet slightly longer than forefeet. 

Tail. — ^The tail should be either straight or 
screwed (but not curly), short, hung low, thick root 
and fine tip, carried low in repose. 

Color, Skin, and Coat. — ^Acceptable colors are: 
All brindle (dark preferred) and any color except 
the following, which constitute disqualification: 
Solid black, black and white, black and tan, liver 
and mouse color. (Black as used in the standard 
means black without any trace of brindle.) The 
skin should be soft and loose, especially at head and 
shoulders, forming wrinkles. Coat moderately fine, 
brilliant, short and smooth. 

Disqualification. — Other than bat ears, any 
mutilation, solid black, black and white, black and 
tan, liver and mouse color, eyes of diflFerent color, 
nose other than black, and hare lip. 

Value of Points. — ^Proportion and symmetry, 5; 
expression, 5; gait, 4; color, 4; coat, 2; skull, 6; 
cheeks and chops, 2; stop, 5; ears, 8; eyes, 4; wrin- 
kles, 4; nose, 3; jaws, 6; teeth, 2; shoulders, 5; back, 
5; neck, 4; chest, 3; ribs, 4; brisket, 3; belly, 2; 
forelegs, 4; hindlegs, 3; feet, 3; tail, 4. Total, 100, 




This attractive breed of dogs comes from Dal- 
matia and the country adjacent to the Gulf of 
Venice. In their native land they serve the purpose 
of the Pointer and resemble them closely in con- 
formation and appearance. 

In this country their sporting proclivities have 
never been developed, but they display such marked 
fondness for the stable and the companionship of 
horses that they are known as coach dogs. The well- 
bred coach dog*s devotion to horses is really second 
nature or an instinct. He will assume the duties of 
guard about a stable, follow the horses at exercise, 
and take up a position between the wheels of a car- 
riage on the road, without any particular training. 
He is peculiarly adapted for the purpose, as he is of 
a size and build that will enable him to keep easy 
pace with the horses for a long distance. He is big 
enough and plucky enough to command the respect 
and caution of intruders. His smooth, short coat is 
always clean, and his symmetrical proportions, in- 
telligent features and clean, white body, evenly 
spotted with black, make him an attractive addition 
to any equipage. By reason of his markings, he is 
also easier seen at night than any other breed. 

The Coach Dog is usually of friendly disposition, 
though inclined to be distrustful of those who take 




liberties with the equipage to which he may be at- 
tached, and although he is sometimes said to be 
deficient in intelligence, the fact that he is usually a 
clever member of all performing dog acts contra- 
dicts this opinion. 

In selecting puppies, it is well to remember that 
they are bom pure white, the spots developing with 
age. Puppies curl their tails, which often become 
straight with age. After that general symmetry, 
soundness, clean pointer-like heads, and distinctness 
of spots are the points to be looked for. 

The standard and scale of points of the Dalmatian 
I Club is as follows: 

The Dalmatian in many respects much resembles 
the Pointer, more especially in size, build, and out- 
line, though the markings peculiar to this breed are a 
very important feature, and very highly valued. 

In General Appearance the Dalmatian should 
represent a strong, muscular, and active dog, sym- 
metrical in outline, free from coarseness and lumber, 
capable of great endurance, combined with a fair 
amount of speed. 

The Head should be of fair length, the skull flat, 
rather broad between the ears, and moderately well 
defined at the temples — /. ^., exhibiting a moderate 
amount of "stop," and not in one straight line from 
the nose to the occiput bone, as required in a Bull 
Terrier. It should be entirely free from wrinkle. 

The Muzzle should be long and powerful, the 
lips clean, fitting the jaws moderately close. 

The Eyes should be set moderately well apart^ 



and of medium size, round, bright, and sparkling, 
with an intelligent expression, their color greatly 
depending on the markings of the dog: in the black* 
spotted variety the eyes should be dark (black or 
brown); in the liver-spotted variety they should be 
light (yellow or light brown). The rim around the 
eyes in the black-spotted variety should be black; 
brown in the liver-spotted variety; never flesh- 
colored in either. 

The Ears should be set on rather high, of mod- 
erate size, rather wide at the base, tapering to a 
rounded point. They should be carried close to the 
head, be thin and fine in texture, and always spotted, 
the more profusely the better. 

The Nose in the black-spotted variety should 
always be black; in the liver-spotted variety, always 

Neck and Shoulders. — ^The neck should be 
fairly long, nicely arched, light, and tapering, and 
entirely free from throatiness. The shoulders 
should be moderately oblique, clean, and muscular, 
denoting speed. 

Body, Back, Chest, and Loins. — ^The chest 
should not be too wide, but very deep and capacious; 
ribs moderately well sprung; never rounded like 
barrel hoops (which would indicate want of speed) ; 
the back powerful; loin strong, muscular, and 
slightly arched. 

Legs and Feet are of great importance. The 
forelegs should be perfectly straight, strong, and 
heavy in bone; elbows close to the body; fore feet 



rounds compact, and well arched; toes cat-footed, 
and round, tough, elastic pads. In the hindlegs the 
muscles should be clean, though well defined, the 
hocks well let down. 

Nails. — In the black-spotted variety, black and 
white; in the liver-spotted variety, brown and white. 

The Tail should not be too long, but should be 
strong at the insertion, gradually tapering toward 
the end, and free from coarseness. It should not be 
inserted too low down, but carried with a slight 
curve upward, and never curled. It should be 
spotted, the more profusely the better. 

The Coat should be short, hard, dense, and fine, 
sleek, and glossy in appearance, but neither woolly 
nor silky. 

Color and Markings. — ^These are most important 
points. The ground-color in both varieties should 
be pure white, very decided, and not intermixed. 
The color of the spots in the black-spotted variety 
should be black, the deeper and richer the black the 
better; in the liver-spotted variety they should be 
brown. The spots should not intermingle, but be 
as round and well defined as possible, the more 
distinct the better. 

Value of Points. — Head and eyes, lo; legs and 
feet, 15; ears, 5; coat, 5; neck and shoulders, lO; 
body, back, chest, and loins, lO; color and markings, 
30; tail, 5; size, symmetry, etc., 10. Total, 100. 




The Poodle is naturally a sporting dog^ and was 
formally used for that purpose. No d(^ surpasses 
him as a retriever from the water, and he is still 
used for that purpose in £urop>e. The breed is well 
distributed over the Continent, and there are 
Russian and German Poodles, as well as those of 
France, which is generally considered their native 

No dog surpasses the Poodle in inteUigence; in 
fact, no dog is his equal, and he is best kno^yn to the 
public as the star artist in all companies of perform- 
ing dogs. He has a quality of mind that borders on 
the human; his reasoning powers are evident to all 
with whom he is associated, and there is apparently 
no limit to his aptitude for learning. Poodles are 
divided into two varieties, and both have escaped 
the greatest popularity simply on account of the 
quality of their coats, which require considerable 
attention to keep in show condition. In all other 
respects they require no more attention than other 
dogs, and all who are familiar with the breed are 
firm in their belief that no dog is so interesting a 

There are two varieties of Poodles recognized on 
the show bench — the corded and the curly-coated. 
The only difference between them lies in the char- 
acter of the coat. The coat of the curlies is kept 
short and combed out to give it a flufiy appearance. 
The coat of the corded is encouraged to grow out 



until it attains abnormal lengths. The two varieties 
are identical. A curly-coat that is not combed out 
will grow a corded coat, for if the curls are not inter- 
fered with they will twist into little cords which in- 
crease in length steadily as the unshed old hair and 
the new growth entwine into rope-like cords, which, 
if not cut or broken off, will eventually drag along 
the ground and impede locomotion. It is this fact 
which accounts for the curly variety being more 
popular than the showier corded variety. 

The Poodle is usually shown fantastically clipped, 
the pattern varying with the tastes of the owner. 
It is the rule to shave the face, legs, and loins, with 
the exception of tufts of hair here and there, and a 
lion-like mane and body covering. 

Both the curly and the corded varieties are di- 
vided by weight, the large class scaling as high as 
seventy pounds, and the toys in the vicinity of five 

Soundness of color is desired; black, white, brown, 
and blue are correct. It is said that the whites are 
most intelligent, next the blacks, and then the 
browns and blues. 

In selecting puppies, look for long heads, dark 
eyes, and narrow skulls, with clean neck and shoulders, 
straight forelegs, short backs, and well sprung ribs. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
Poodle puppies at from two to four months old, 
whether large or toy, are: Great length of head, 
dark eyes, narrow skull, short back, well-sprung 
ribs, clean neck and shoulders, straight forelegs. 


The following are the description and points as 
laid down by the Poodle Club: 

General Appearance. — ^That of a very active, 
intelligent, and elegant-looking dog, well built, and 
carrying himself very proudly. 

Head. — ^Long, straight, and fine, the skull not 
broad, with a slight peak at the back. 

Muzzle. — Long (but not snipy) and strong — not 
full in cheek; teeth white, strong, and level; gums 
black, lips black and not showing lippiness. 

Eyes. — ^Almond-shaped, very dark, full of fire and 

Nose. — Black and sharp. 

Ears. — ^The leather long and wide, low set on, 
hanging close to the face. 

Neck. — ^Well proportioned and strong, to admit 
of the head being carried high and with dignity. 

Shoulders. — Strong and muscular, sloping well 
to the back. 

Chest. — Deep and moderately wide. 

Back. — Short, strong, and slightly hollowed, the 
loins broad and muscular, the ribs well sprung and 
braced up. 

Feet. — Rather small, and of good shape, the toes 
well arched, pads thick and hard. 

Legs. — Fore set straight from shoulder, with 
plenty of bone and muscle. Hind legs very mus- 
cular and well bent, with the hocks well let down. 

Tail. — Set on rather high, well carried, never 
curled or carried over back. 

Coat. — Very profuse, and of good, hard texture; 



if corded, hanging in tight, even cords; if non- 
corded, very thick and strong, of even length, the 
curls close and thick, without knots or cords. 

Colors. — All black, all white, all red, all blue. 

The White Poodle should have dark eyes, black 
or very dark liver nose, lips, and toenails. 

The Red Poodle should have dark amber eyes, 
dark liver nose, lips, and toenails. 

The Blue Poodle should be of an even color, 
and have dark eyes, lips, and toenails. 

All the other points of White, Red, and Blue 
Poodles should be the same as the perfect Black 

N. B. — It is strongly recommended that only 
one-third of the body be clipped or shaved, and that 
the hair on the forehead be left on. 

Value of Points. — General appearance and move- 
ment, 15; head and ears, 15; eyes and expression, 
lO; neck and shoulders, lO; shape of body, loin, 
back, and carriage of stern, 15; legs and feet, 10; 
coat, color, and texture of coat, 15; bone, muscle, 
and condition, 10. Total, 100. 


This breed is undoubtedly descended from the 
Arctic dog. They come from the north of China, 
where they are used to draw sledges and also for 
hunting. The head and ears and general expression 
as well as their fur-like coat and curled tail, all in- 
dicate their relationship to the Esquimaux. They 
are sometimes referred to as the edible dog of China, 



fiiom the fact that the Chinese breed them for food, 
puppies eight to ten months old being selected for 
that purpose. Although Chows have been brought 
to this and other countries for the past one hundred 
years, it is only within the last quarter of a century 
that they have been received with much favor. At 
the present time they are very popular. 

There is a good deal of character to the Chow, 
despite the fact that he is sometimes referred to as 
a Chink. No dog has a braver spirit or is more de- 
voted to his master. They are not, however, what 
may be called sociable, and do not make up with 
strangers, and hold themselves aloof even from their 
own species. They are not quarrelsome, but will 
not evade a combat, and in a mix-up can hold their 
own with any dog of their size. Their homing in- 
stinct is remarkable and it is almost impossible to 
lose them. They will find their way for miles 
through a country entirely new to them, and if 
they become separated from their masters in a 
crowd will thread their way through with the utmost 
confidence in their own ability until they find him; 
all of which are traits inherited from their Arctic 

Up to the present time there has been no interest 
shown toward dwarfing this breed to increase their 
popularity as pets. Dogs weighing from Torty to 
fifty pounds are considered by judges as the most 
typical of the breed. The most popular color is the 
red, with black next, and following in favor is the 
red with white markings, fawn, white and blue. 



The chief points to look for in the selection of 
puppies of from two to four months old, are: Short 
faces, short backs, dense coats, great bone, short 
feet, and well-twisted tails. 

The standard description issued by the Chow 
Chow Club is as follows; 

Head. — ^Large and massive; skull flat and broad, 
with little stop; well filled out under the eyes. 

Muzzle. — Moderate in length, and broad from 
the eyes to the point (not pointed out at the end like 
a fox's); lips full and overhanging. 

Nose. — Black, large, and wide. (In cream or 
light-colored specimens a pink nose is allowable.) 

Tongue. — Black. 

Eyes. — Dark and small. (In a blue dog light 
color is permissible.) 

Ears. — Small, pointed, and carried stiflly erect. 
They should be placed well forward over the eyes, 
which gives the dog the peculiar characteristic ex- 
pression of the breed — viz., a sort of scowl. 

Teeth. — Strong and level. 

Neck. — Strong, full, set well on the shoulders, 
and slightly arched. 

Shoulders. — Muscular and sloping. 

Chest. — Broad and deep. 

Back. — Short, straight, and strong. 

Loins. — ^Powerful. 

Tail. — Curled, well carried over back. 

Forelegs. — ^Perfectly straight, of moderate length, 
and with great bone. 



HiNDLEGS. — Same as forel^, muscular, and with 
straight hocks. 

Feet. — Small, round, and cat-like, standing well 
on the toes. 

Coat. — ^Abundant, dense, straight, and rather 
coarse in texture, with a soft, woolly undercoat. 

Color. — ^Whole-colored black, red, yellow, blue, 
white, not in patches (the under part of tail and 
back of thighs frequently of a lighter color.) 

General Appearance. — ^A lively, compact, short- 
coupled dog, well knit in frame, with tail curled well 
over the back. 

Disqualifying Points. — Drop ears, red tongue, 
tail not curled over back, white spots on coat, and 
red nose, except in yellow or white specimens. 

N. B. — Smooth Chows are governed by the same 
scale of points, except that the coat is smooth. 

The points to avoid are: Other than black tongues, 
long faces, drop ears, open coats, bad fronts, long 
backs, and very straight stifles, which latter is a 
rather common defect in the breed. 


King Charles, Prince Charles, Blenheim, 

AND Ruby 

The four Spaniels classified as toys were until a 
recent period all known as King Charles Spaniels. 
The division into four varieties is governed entirely 
by their color, as they are alike in all other respects. 
In fact, it is not an unusual occurrence for the four 
varieties to be present in one litter. 



The King Charles is a glossy black with rich ma- 
hogany markings, tan spots over the eyes, on the 
cheeks, the lining of the ear, and the lower parts of 
the legs and under part of the tail. White is not 
permissible in the variety, although at one time 
black-and-white was accepted as a desirable color. 

The Prince Charles was produced by the inter- 
breeding of the black-and-white and black-and-tan 
King Charles Spaniels. They are a pearly white, 
with evenly distributed glossy black markings cover- 
ing the body in patches; tan over the eyes and on the 
cheeks; ears lined with tan, and with tan under the 

The Blenheim is red and white in color. They 
should be pearly white, with patches of rich red 
chestnut or ruby red, evenly distributed over the 
body. The ears and cheeks must be red and a 
white blaze should extend from the nose to the fore- 
head and then curve between the ears. Much im- 
portance is attached to the presence in the middle 
of the blaze of a spot of red the size of a dime. This 
mark is called the Blenheim spot, and in connection 
with a profuse m^-ne, is considered as adding much 
to the beauty of the breed. 

The Ruby is, as its name indicates, a rich, un- 
broken ruby red, the nose, of course, being black. 
The Ruby is the latest member of this family, but 
one already very popular, and many good specimens 
are being shown. 

There is no question about the long descent and 
aristocratic associations of the Toy Spaniels, for 




they have been the favorites of royalty for many 
years. They are frequently mentioned in history 
and occupy prominent positions in the portraiture 
of various periods. They were popular with royalty 
in the days of Henry the Eighth and Queen Eliza- 
beth. Charles the Second was devoted to them^ 
and during his reign they were said to have overrun 
Hampton Court and other palaces. The unhappy 
Queen of Scots went to the scaffold accompanied by 
her spaniel, and the Marlborough family, dating 
from the first duke, had a red-and-white spaniel at 
their country place, Blenheim, that was known by 
that name. 

It is generally believed that the toy spaniel came 
from Spain in much their present form, or were bred 
from Cocker Spaniels in England. They resemble 
the Cocker in disposition, have the same colors and 
markings, and the Blenheim spot previously re- 
ferred to is frequently present on the forehead of 

The portraits of Van Dyke, Boucher, and Greuze, 
in which spaniels are frequently introduced, show 
the toy spaniel of the past had a longer nose and 
smaller head than those of the present day, and that 
their ears were longer and often dragged on the 
ground. The Blenheims of Marlborough were also 
used for working the coverts for pheasant and 
woodcock shooting, and were said to have had 
splendid noses, which many still possess. 

The fact that the dogs in the old portraits differed 
but little from the authentic portraits of Cockers in 



the beginning of the last century confirms the be- 
lief in their relationship. 

The contention that the toy spaniel is descended 
from the Japanese Spaniel is contradicted by differ- 
ences in character, as the Jap has more of the dispo- 
sition of the Pug. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of all 
English Toy Spaniel puppies at from two to four 
months old are the same, except, of course, color, to 
which some weight should be given according to the 
standard laid down. They are: Diminutiveness 
compatible with soundness and robustness, extreme 
shortness of face, large eyes, lofty skull, short body, 
nicely proportioned all around, low-set and rather 
long ears. 

The following are the standard description and 
points of the four varieties as laid down by the Toy 
Spaniel Club: 

Head. — Should be well domed, and in good speci- 
mens is absolutely semi-globular, sometimes even 
extending beyond the half-circle, and absolutely pro- 
jecting over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the up- 
turned nose. 

Eyes. — ^The eyes are set wide apart, with the 
eyelids square to the line of the face — not oblique or 
fox-15ke. The eyes themselves are large, so as to be 
generally considered black; their enormous pupils, 
which are absolutely of that color, increasing the de- 
scription. From their large size there is almost a 
certain amount of weeping shown at the inner 
angles; this is owing to a defect in the lachrymal duct. 



Stop. — ^The "stop," or hollow between the eyes, 
is well marked, as in the Bulldog, or even more so; 
some good specimens exhibiting a hollow deep 
enough to bury a small marble. 

Nose. — ^The nose must be short and well turned 
up between the eyes, and without any indication of 
artificial displacement afforded by a deviation to 
either side. The color of the end should be black, 
and it should be both deep and wide, with open 

Jaw. — ^The lower jaw must be wide between its 
branches, leaving plenty of space for the tongue 
and for the attachment of the lower lips, which 
should completely conceal the teeth. It should also 
be turned up or "finished," so as to allow of its 
meeting the end of the upper jaw, turned up in a 
similar way as above described. 

Ears. — ^The ears must be long, so as to approach 
the ground. In an average-sized dog they measure 
20 inches from tip to tip, and some reach 22 inches, 
or even a trifle more. They should be set low on the 
head, and be heavily feathered. In this respect the 
King Charles is expected to exceed the Blenheim, 
and his ears occasionally extend to 24 inches. 

Size. — ^The most desirable size is from 9 pounds to 
12 pounds. 

Shape. — In compactness of shape these Spaniels 
almost rival the Pug, but the length of coat adds 
greatly to the apparent bulk, as the body, when the 
coat is wetted, looks small in comparison with that 
dog. Still it ought to be decidedly "cobby," with 



strong, stout legs, broad back, and wide chest. The 
symmetry of the Toy Spaniel is of importance, but 
it is seldom that there is any defect in this respect. 

Coat. — ^The coat should be long, silky, soft, and 
wavy, but not curly. In the Blenheim there should 
be a profuse mane, extending well down in the front 
of the chest. The feather should be well displayed 
on the ears and feet, where it is so long as to give the 
appearance of their being webbed. It is also carried 
well up the backs of the legs. In the King Charles 
the feather on the ears is very long and profuse, ex- 
ceeding that of the Blenheim by an inch or more. 
The feather on the tail (which is cut to the length 
of about 3^ or four inches) should be silky, and 
from 5 to 6 inches in length, constituting a marked 
"flag" of a square shape, and not carried above the 
level of the back. 

Color. — The color varies with the breed. The 
King Charles is a rich, glossy black and deep tan 
spots over the eyes and on cheeks, and the usual 
markings on the legs are also required. The Ruby 
Spaniel is a rich chestnut red. The presence of a 
few white hairs intermixed with the black on the 
chest of a King Charles Spaniel, or intermixed with 
the red on the chest of a Ruby Spaniel shall carry 
great weight against a dog, but shall not in itself 
absolutely disqualify; but a white patch on the 
chest or white on any other part of a King Charles 
or Ruby Spaniel shall be a disqualification. The 
Blenheim must on no account be whole-colored, but 
should have a ground of pure pearly white, with 



bright rich chestnut or ruby red markings evenly 
distributed in large patches. 

The ears and cheeks should be red, with a blaze 
of white extending from the nose up to the forehead 
and ending between the ears in a crescentive curve. 
In the center of this blaze there should be a clear 
"spot" of red of the size of a sixpence. The tricolor, 
or Charles the First Spaniel, should have the tan of 
the King Charles, with markings like the Blenheim 
in black instead of red on a pearly white ground. 
The ears and under the tail should also be lined with 
tan. The tricolor has no "spot," that beauty being 
peculiarly the property of the Blenheim. The club has 
resolved that the All-red Toy Spaniel be known by the 
name of "Ruby Spaniel." The color of the nose to 
be black. The points of the "Ruby" to be the same 
as those of the "King Charles," differing only in 

Value of Points. — King Charles, Prince Charles, 
and Ruby Spaniels: Symmetry, condition, and size, 
20; head, 15; stop, 5; muzzle, lO; eyes, lo; ears, 15; 
coat and feathering, 15; color, 10. Total, 100. 
Blenheim: Symmetry, condition, and size, 15; head, 
15; stop, 5; muzzle, lO; eyes, lO; ears, 10; coat and 
feathering, 15; color and markings, 15; spot, 5. 
Total, 100. 


These diminutive Orientals have for a number ot 
years enjoyed a remarkable vogue in both this 
country and in Europe. They are not as popular 



to-day as they were a few years ago, but a good 
specimen never fails to command admiration and 
a handsome price. 

The Japanese Spaniel is a native of Nippon. In 
general appearance, they resemble the Toy Spaniel 
species, but are in no ways related. Like them, they 
are short-faced toys quite similar in shape and alike 
in coat, except that black-and-white is the prevail- 
ing color. 

The Jap differs from the Toy Spaniel in the shape 
of the head, which is less domed, and the placement 
of the eye, which is more to the side. The ears are 
placed higher on the head, the nostrils are smaller, 
the foreface is wider and not so deep. 

The first Japs imported were on the large order, 
many of them scaling over ten pounds. Later it 
was learned that in Japan only the diminutive spec- 
imens weighing in the vicinity of five pounds were 
in demand, and that these dogs were carried in the 
sleeves of the ladies of rank and fashion. There 
was an immediate slump in the values of the larger 
Japs and a craze for the smallest obtainable. Many 
were imported and English and American breeders 
also devoted themselves to bantamizing the Jap. 
They succeeded admirably, and now there are many 
small-sized Japs of splendid quality in this country. 

The Japanese Spaniel, particularly the dwarfed 
specimens, are delicate and hard to raise. Dis- 
temper carries oflF many and they are susceptible to 
many diseases. 

The Jap has, above all things, the appearance of an 



aristocrat, with a finished dignity and self-satisfied 
air of importance that is an amusing contrast to his 
diminutive size. They make interesting companions 
and affectionate pets. 

Points to look for in puppies are very similar to 
those given for English Toy Spaniels. 

The following is the description and points laid 
down by the Japanese Spaniel Club: 

General Appearance. — That of a lively, highly- 
bred little dog, with dainty appearance, smart, com- 
pact carriage, and profuse coat. These dogs should 
be essentially stylish in movement, lifting the feet 
high when in motion, carrying the tail (which is 
heavily feathered, proudly curved, or plumed) over 
the back. In size they vary considerably, but the 
smaller they are the better, provided type and quality 
are not sacrificed. When divided by weight, classes 
should be for under and over seven pounds. 

Coats. — ^The coats should be long, profuse, and 
straight, free from curl or wave, and not be too flat. 
It should have a tendency to stand out, more par- 
ticularly at the frill, with profuse feathering on the 
tail and thighs* 

Color. — ^The dogs should be either black-and- 
white or red-and-white — /• e.y parti-colored. The 
term red includes all shades of sable, brindle, lemon, 
and orange, but the brighter and clearer the red the 
better. The white should be clear white, and the 
color, whether black or red, should be evenly dis- 
tributed patches over the body, cheeks, and ears. 

Head. — Should be large for size of dog, with 



broad skull, rounded in front; eyes large, dark, set 
far apart; muzzle very short and wide and well 
cushioned — /. e.y the upper lip rounded on each 
side of nostril, which should be large and black, ex- 
cept in the case of red-and-white dogs, when a 
brown-colored nose is as common as a black one. 

Ears. — Should be small, set wide apart, and high 
on the dog's head, and carried slightly forward, 

Body. — Should be squarely and compactly built, 
wide in chest, "cobby** in shape. The length of the 
dog's body should be about its height. 

Legs and Feet. — The legs should be straight and 
the bone fine; the feet should be long and hare- 
shaped. The legs should be well feathered to the 
feet on the front legs and to the thighs behind. The 
feet should also be feathered. 

Value of Points. — Head: Size of head, 5; shape 
of skull, 5 ; shortness of nose, 5 ; width of muzzle, 5 ; 
eyes, lO; ears, 5; coat and feathering, 15; color and 
markings, 10; legs and feet, lO; action, shape, style, 
and carriage of tail, 20; size, 10. Total, 100. 


This elegant breed make most interesting pets 
and companions, for they are keen, active, and in- 
telligent, and on the show bench never fail to attract 
attention on account of the length, color, quantity, 
and quality of their coat. 

It would naturally be supposed that the finest 
specimens of this breed would be found in the homes 



of the rich, but as a matter of fact they are ahnost 
invariably in the homes of the poor, usually in the 
hands of some working man whose wife and family 
are devoted to dogs and are quite ready to convert 
their home into a kennel and give their pets the 
constant attention which they require, not only to 
grow these wonderful coats, but also to preserve 
them. It may also be mentioned that considerable 
skill is also essential. The feet of even the puppies 
are stockinged to prevent scratching of the hair on 
any part of their bodies. They are combed and 
brushed every day, periodically bathed, and the 
skin carefully watched and kept in a healthy condi- 
tion by a careful selection of diet and the applica- 
tion of various preparations, such as olive oil, 
cocoanut oil, and vaseline, as well as other carefully- 
guarded private preparations which stimulate the 
roots of the hair. Necessarily these dogs lead a life 
of imprisonment. They are given woolen cloths or 
cushions and smooth, soft mats to sleep upon, and 
every precaution is taken to prevent them coming 
in contact with anything that would mat their coats. 

At birth all Yorkshire Terriers are black. When 
from three to six months of age a blue shade begins 
to develop at the roots of the hair. This gradually 
changes until they are from twelve to eighteen 
months, at which age the coat should be a real 
golden tan, deepening at the head, with the ears 
and legs almost mahogany. 

In selecting Yorkshire Terrier puppies diminutive- 
ness, shortness of back, and lightness of bone should 



be looked for^ as well as anything that indicates the 
long, straight coat, with the dark tan on head and 

The following are the description and standard of 
points of the Yorkshire Terrier Club: 

General Appearance. — Should be that of a long- 
coated Toy Terrier, the coat hanging quite straight 
and evenly jdown each side, a parting extending 
from the nose to the end of the tail. 

The animal should be very compact and neat, 
the carriage being very upright, and having an im- 
portant air. The general outline should convey the 
existence of a vigorous and well-proportioned body. 

Head. — Should be rather small and flat, not too 
prominent or round in the skull, not too long in the 
muzzle, with a perfectly black nose. The fall on 
the head to be long, of a rich golden tan, deeper in 
color at the sides of the head about the ear roots, 
and on the muzzle, where it should be very long. 
The hair on the chest a rich bright tan. On no ac- 
count must the tan on the head extend on to the 
neck, nor must there be any sooty or dark hair in- 
termingled with any of the tan. 

Eyes. — Medium, dark, and sparkling, having a 
sharp, intelligent expression, and placed so as to 
look directly forward. They should not be prom- 
inent, and the edge of the eyelids should be of a 
dark color. 

Ears.— Small V-shaped, and carried semi-erect, 
or erect, covered with short hair, color to be of a 
very deep, rich tan. 

u 253 


Mouth. — ^Perfectly even, with teeth as sound as 
possible. If an animal has lost any teeth through 
accident it is not a fault, providing the jaws are even. 

Body. — ^Very compact, and a ^3od loin. Level on 
the top of the back. 

Coat. — ^The hair on body moderately long and 
perfectly straight (not wavy), glossy like silk, and 
of a fine silky texture. Color, a dark steel blue (not 
silver blue) extending from the occiput (or back of 
skull) to the root of tsul, and on no account mingled 
with fawn, bronze, or dark hairs. 

Legs. — Quite straight, well covered with hair of a 
rich golden tan, a few shades lighter at the ends 
than at the roots, not extending higher on the fore- 
legs than the elbow, nor on the hindlegs than the 

Feet. — ^As round as possible, and the toenails 

Tail. — Cut to medium length; with plenty of 
hair, darker blue in color than the rest of the body, 
especially at the end of the tail, and carried a little 
higher than the level of the back. 

Tan. — All tan hair should be darker at the roots 
than in the middle, shading to a still lighter tan at 
the tips. 

Weight. — ^Three classes: 5 pounds and under; 
7 pounds and under, but over 5 pounds; over 7 

Value of Points. — Formation and Terrier ap- 
pearance, 15; color of h^ on body, 15; richness of 
tan on head and legs, 15; quality and texture of 



coat, lO; quantity and length of coat, lO; head, lO; 
mouth, 5; legs and feet, 5; ears, 5; eyes, 5; tail 
(carriage of), 5. Total, 100. 


The Italian Greyhound is a very old breed, de- 
scended from the dwarfed Greyhounds that were 
kept as domestic pets. For delicacy, refinement, 
grace, and gentleness they have no equals. There is 
little of the aggressive spirit about them, their most 
striking trait being their universal docility. They 
are too light for work of any kind and have no in- 
clination in that direction, and many will play with 
a rat or rabbit without a thought of animosity. 

The delicate lines of the Italian Greyhound, their 
soft, pleading eyes, gentle natures, and cleanly 
habits commend them to the public. It may be 
mentioned, however, that they are not as fragile as 
they appear. They have much stronger constitu- 
tions than is generally supposed. Naturally they 
are not able to endure much cold or dampness, but 
other than that they require no pampering, and 
many are extremely long lived. 

One of the peculiarities of the breed lies in their 
action, as they have a high-stepping walk much like 
the high-school horses of a circus ring. 

The chief points to select for in puppies at from 
two to four months are diminutiveness, slightness, 
and apparent fragility, with a distinct arch of loin. 

The following are the points and standard descrip- 
tion of the Italian Greyhound Club: 


General Appearance. — ^A miniature English 
Greyhound^ more slender in all proportions, and of 
ideaJ elegance and grace in shape, symmetry, and 

Skull. — ^Long, flat, and narrow. 

Muzzle. — ^Very fine. Nose dark in color. Teeth 

Ears. — Ears rose-shaped, placed well back, soft 
and delicate. 

Eyes. — Rather large, bright, and full of expres- 

Neck. — ^Long and gracefully arched. 

Shoulders. — ^Long and sloping. 

Chest. — Deep and narrow. 

Back. — ^Curved, and drooping at the hindquarters. 

Forelegs. — Straight, well set under the shoulder; 
fine pasterns, small delicate bones. 

HiNDLEGs. — ^Hocks Well let down. Thighs mus- 

Feet. — ^The long "hare's foot." 

Tail. — Rather long, fine, with low carriage. 

Coat. — Skin fine and supple. Hair thin imd 
glossy like satin. 

Color. — Preferably self-colored. The color most 
prized is golden fawn, but all shades of fawn — red, 
mouse, blue, cream, and white — are recognized; and 
blacks, brindles, and pied are considered less de- 
sirable. Black and tan terrier markings not al- 

Action. — ^High stepping and free. 

Weight. — ^Two classes. One of 8 pounds and 



under, and one over 8 pounds. A good small dog 
is preferable to an equally good large one, and a 
good large dog is preferable to a poor small one. 

Value of Points. — Skull, 6; muzzle, 8; ears, 8; 
eyes, 5; neck, 8; shoulders, 5; chest, 5; back, 8; fore- 
legs, 8; hindlegs, 8; feet, 8; tail, 8; coat, 4; color, 3; 
action, 8; Total, 100. 


This vivacious and interesting breed that has 
strongly causht the fancy of the country is nothing 
more or less than a pocket edition of the old-fashioned 
Spitz, a dog always popular with the Germans. 

The Pomeranian derives its name from the prov- 
ince of Pomerania, in the north of Germany. Here 
these dogs are very numerous, being, in fact, the 
house dog of that country, and are there bred to a 
state of perfection. The ancestors of the Pom- 
eranians are undoubtedly related to the Samoyede 
and the Esquimaux. They both present a foxy 
head, prick ears, curled tail, and a marked similarity 
in coats. What the Germans did was to take the 
material at hand and reduce it in size by careful 
selection and in-breeding, so as to make them more 
acceptable as house pets. This has been done 
slowly. The old-fashioned Wolf Spitz or Wolf 
Sable, a direct descendant of the Esquimaux, 
weighed from 25 to 50 pounds. Thirty years ago 
the Pomeranian of the show bench weighed from 
fifteen to twenty-five pounds. To-day dozens of 
them are benched weighing well below five pounds, 



and all have the beauty, the vivacity, and the 
marked characteristics of their early ancestors, the 
same foxy head and ears, the short back, and the 
enormous coat of their seventy-five pound Arctic 

The old-fashioned twenty-pound Pomeranian or 
Spitz dog was usually white or sable in color. To- 
day they range in color from all shades of black to 
black-and-tan, orange, and tri-color. 

There is to-day no more popular pet dog than the 
Pom. They are very intelligent and faithful, as 
well as more active dian most toys, and their di- 
minutive size, vivacious manner, and wonderful 
coat and coloring is always sure to attract attention, 
particularly that of the fair sex. 

The Pomeranian inherits from his rugged northern 
ancestors a sturdy constitution. They are more 
easily raised than most breeds, while their popularity 
makes them profitable. 

During the period that breeders were devoting 
themselves to bantamizing the Pomeranian no at- 
tention was paid to color. Sires were selected for 
their size alone. Beautifully colored puppies, how- 
ever, appeared from time to time, and this has 
prompted many breeders to turn their attention to 
color breeding. While no fixed principle has been 
arrived at, a point has been reached whereby some 
colors can be produced at will. Orange sires and 
black or chocolate bitches produce usuaUy chocolate 
puppies. Chocolate sires and orange or sable 
bitches produce pure orange puppies. The blues are 



descendants of the blacks, but blue parents seldom 
have blue puppies unless there is more blue behind 
them. Orange and sable parents do not produce 
blue puppies. After birth puppies frequently change 
their colors, black puppies becoming blue, and blues 
frequently turning into blacks and beautiful shades 
of sable. 

In selecting puppies, look for small size, light bone, 
prick ears, short backs, and thick, heavy coats. 

The following are the standard description and 
points of the breed, as laid down by the Pomeranian 
Club, and which have been adopted by other clubs: 

Appearance. — ^The Pomeranian in build and ap- 
pearance should be a compact, short-coupled dog, 
well knit in frame. His head and face should be fox- 
like, with small, erect ears that appear sensible to 
every sound; he should exhibit great intelligence in 
his expression, docility in his disposition, and 
activity and buoyancy in his deportment. 15 

Head. — ^The head should be somewhat foxy in 
outline, or wedge-shaped, the skull being slightly 
flat (although in the toy varieties the skull may be 
rather rounder), large in proportion to the muzzle, 
which should finish rather fine, and be free from 
lippiness. The teeth should be level, and on no 
account undershot. The head in its profile may ex- 
hibit a little "stop," which, however, must not be 
too pronounced, and the hair on head and face 
must be smooth or short-coated. 5. 

Eyes. — ^The eyes should be medium in size, rather 
oblique in shape, not set too wide apart, bright and 



dark in color, showing great intelligence and docility 
of temper. In a white dog black rims round the 
eyes are preferable. 5. 

Ears. — ^The ears should be small, not set too far 
apart nor too low down, and carried perfectly erect 
like those of a fox, and, like the head, should be 
covered with soft, short hair. No plucking nor 
trimming is allowable. 5. 

Nose. — In black, black-and-tan, or white dogs 
the nose should be black; in other colored Pome- 
ranians it may more often be brown or liver-colored, 
but in all cases the nose must be self, not parti- 
colored, and never white. 5. 

Neck and Shoulders. — The neck, if anything, 
should be rather short, well set in, and lion-like, 
covered with a profuse mane and frill of long, straight 
hair sweeping from the underjaw and covering the 
whole of the front part of the shoulders and chest, 
as well as the top part of the shoulders. The shoul- 
ders must be tolerably clean and laid well back. 5. 

Body. — ^The back must be short and the body 
compact, being well ribbed up and the barrel well 
rounded. The chest must be fairly deep and not 
too wide. 10. 

Tail. — ^The tail is a characteristic of the breed, 
and should be turned over the back and carried flat, 
being profusely covered with long, spreading hair, i o. 

Coat. — Properly speaking, there should be two 
coats, an under and over coat, the one a soft, fluffy 
undercoat, the other a long, perfectly straight and 
glistening coat covering the whole of the body, being 



very abundant round the neck and fore part of the 
shoulders and chest, where it should form a frill of 
profuse standing-ofF, straight hair, extending over 
the shoulders, as previously described. The hind- 
quarters, like those of the Collie, should be similarly 
dad with long hair or feathering from the top of the 
rump to the hocks. The hair on the tail must be, 
as previously described, profuse and spreading over 
the back. 25. 

Color. — The following colors are admissible: 
White, black, blue or grey, brown, sable, shaded 
sable, red, orange, fawn, and parti-colors. 

The whites must be quite free from lemon or any 
color, and the blacks, blues, browns, and sables, 
from any white. A few white hairs in any of the 
self-colors shall not absolutely disqualify, but should 
carry great weight against a dog. 

In parti-colored dogs the colors should be evenly 
distributed on the body in patches; a dog with a 
white foot or a white chest would not be a parti- 
colored. Whole-colored dogs with a white foot or 
feet, leg or legs, are decidedly objectionable, and 
should be discouraged, and cannot compete as whole- 
colored specimens. 

In mixed classes — i. e.y where whole-colored and 
parti-colored Pomeranians compete together — the 

Preference should, if in other points they are equal, 
e given to the whole-colored specimens. 
Shaded sables must be shaded throughout with 
three or more colors, as uniformly as possible, with 
no patches of self-color. 



Oranges must be self-colored throughout, and 
light shadings are allowed, though not desirable. lo. 


The Schipperke conies from Belgium, where he is 
the popular watch dog of the baizes used on Flemish 
canals. There is a ledge one foot wide that runs 
about the canal boats a short distance from the top. 
Here the Schipperke (pronounced Skip-per-kee, the 
Flemish for little skipper) spends his time. He is 
trained to race around this ledge, acting as guard 
and sentinel, an office for which he is particularly 
well fitted, as he is the most wide awake, liveliest, 
and inquisitive of canines. The slightest noise at- 
tracts his attention, and he never neglects to in- 
vestigate the cause. 

The Schipperke is always shown tailless. To be 
sure he is bom with a tail that curls up over his 
back like a Pomeranian and suggests that as his 
descent, but it was decreed on the canal boats 
many years ago that the presence of the tail pre- 
vented his owner from turning on the narrow ledge 
as rapidly as he could without it. Occasionally, it 
was said, that his tail precipitated him into the 
water, and as a result a systematic docking was de- 
creed. Continued for years, docking has had its in- 
fluence upon the caudal appendage, for some are 
now bom tailless and others have only a stump. 
Those bom with normal taib are docked. This 



operation should be performed by a skillful vet- 
erinarian, as the whole of the tail is removed, a 
much more delicate operation than the case in the 
docking of terriers. 

The Schipperke is a very good water dog and does 
not mind a ducking in the least. He is also a first- 
class ratter. 

There is no limit to his prying liveliness. They 
are bright, smart, and very affectionate, so much so 
as to be usually intensely jealous. While they con- 
stitute themselves guardians of the household, they 
usually select one member of the family as their par- 
ticular property, and to them devote the greater 
part of their attention. 

The standard description and code of points 
adopted by the Schipperke Club (England) are as 

Head. — Foxy in type, skull should not be round, 
but broad, and with little stop. The muzzle should 
be moderate in length, fine but not weak; should be 
well filled out under the eyes. 

Nose. — Black and small. 

Eyes. — Dark brown, small, more oval than round, 
and not full; bright and full of expression. 

Ears. — Shape: of moderate length, not too 
broad at base, tapering to a point. Carriage: stifHy 
erect, and when in that position the inside edge to 
form as near as possible a right angle with the skull, 
and strong enough not to be bent otherwise than 



Teeth. — ^Strong and level. 

Neck. — Strong and full, rather short, set broad 
on the shoulders, and slightly arched. 

Shoulders. — ^Muscular and sloping. 

Chest. — Broad and deep in brisket. 

Back. — ^Short, straight, and strone. 

Loins. — ^Powerful, well drawn up hx>m the brisket. 

Forelegs. — Perfectly straight, well under the 
body, with bone in proportion to the body. 

HiNDLEGS. — Strong, muscular; hocks well let 

Feet. — Small, catlike, and standing well on its 

Nails. — Black. 

Hindquarters. — ^Fine, compared to the fore- 
parts; muscular and well-developed thighs, tailless, 
rump well rounded. 

Coat. — Black, abundant, dense, and harsh, smooth 
on the head, ears, and lees, lying close on the back 
and sides, but erect and thick round the neck, form- 
ing a mane and frill, and well feathered on back of 

Weight. — ^About 12 pounds. 

General Appearance. — ^A small, cobby animal, 
with sharp expression, intensely lively, presenting 
the appearance of always being on the alert. 

Disqualifying Points. — Drop, or semi-erect ears. 

Faults. — ^White hairs are objected to, but are not 





At the present moment this breed is on the high 
tide of popularity. Just how long they will continue 
in that envied position it is impossible to say, as 
fashions in the pet-dog world fluctuate rapidly, but 
it is safe to say that their interesting personality will 
always command a strong following. 

The Pekingese share with the Chows the honor 
of being the national dogs of China. That they 
are a very old breed is indicated by the fact that 
at the looting of the summer palace there were 
found bronze statues of these dogs two thousand 
years old. It is further claimed that the first dogs 
brought to England in i860 were taken from within 
the walls of the sacred city, and that since then few 
from the Royal Kennels have found their way into 
the outer world. There is, however, no difliculty in 
procuring them from other sources, as they are bred 
extensively in all the towns in China between Pekin 
and the sea. 

The Pekingese has been classified among the 
spaniels by some authorities, which is a mistake, as 
they are not of spaniel descent and have no spaniel 
instincts or characteristics. On the contrary, they 
are very much like the Pugs in disposition and tem- 
perament, and undoubtedly there is a relationship 
between them. 

The Pekingese is a much hardier dog than the 
Jap, easier bred and raised, and able to adapt them- 
selves readily to most climates. There has been a 



decided movement toward dwarf specimens of late 
years^ and the inbreeding that has been practiced 
with this object in view has weakened their constitu- 
tions, but not to serious extent. 

The admirers of the breed are very enthusiastic 
over their dispositions. They are said to be most 
affectionate and faithful companions, and lend them- 
selves to domesticity with cat-like love of comfort. 
They accept gracefully all the luxuries of civiliza- 
tion. They display much of the independence and 
pugnacity of the Pug and a most amusing self-pride 
and conscious dignity in the presence of other dogs 
or strangers. 

In the selection of Pekingese puppies at from two 
to four months old, look for: Diminutiveness com- 
patible with soundness and robustness; shortness 
and width of foreface; large eyes, deep stop, well- 
wrinkled forehead, moderately short and compact 
body, shortness of leg and great bone, with an 
abundant and dense fur-like coat, tail well feathered, 
and showing an indication to curl well over body. 

The standard and scale of points is as follows: 

Expression. — Must suggest Chinese origin com- 
bined with quaintness and individuality, directness 
and independence, courage, boldness, self-esteem, 
and combativeness rather than prettiness, dainti- 
ness, or delicacy. 5. 

Head. — Massive, broad skull, wide and flat be- 
tween the ears (not dome-shaped) ; wide between the 
eyes. 10. 

Nose. — Black, broad, very short and flat. 5. 



Eyes. — ^Large, dark, prominent, round, lustrous. 5. 

Stop. — Deep. 5. 

Ears. — ^Heart-shaped, not set too high, leather 
never long enough to come below the muzzle, not 
carried erect, but rather drooping, long feather. 5. 

Muzzle. — Very short and broad, not underhung 
nor pointed, wrinkled. 5. 

Mane. — ^Profuse, extending beyond shoulder 
blades, forming ruff or frill round front of neck. 5. 

Shape of Body. — Heavy in front, broad chest, 
falling away lighter behind, lion-like, not too long 
in the body. 10. 

Coat and Feather and Condition. — ^Long, with 
thick undercoat, straight and flat, not curly nor 
wavy, rather coarse, but soft; feather on thighs, legs, 
tail, and toes, long and profuse. 10. 

Color, — ^All colors are allowable — red, fawn, 
black, black-and-tan, sable, brindle, white and parti- 
colored, black masks, and spectacles round eyes, 
with lines to ears are desirable. 5. 

Legs. — Short, forelegs heavy, bowed out at el- 
bows; hindlegs lighter, but firm and well shaped. 5. 

Feet. — Flat, not rounded; should stand well up 
on toes, not on ankles. 5. 

Tail. — Curled and carried well up on loins; long, 
profuse, straight feather. 10. 

Size. — Being a toy dog, the smaller the better, 
provided type and points are not sacrificed. Any- 
thing over 18 pounds should disqualify. When di- 
vided by weight, classes should be over 10 pounds 
and under 10 pounds. 5. 



Action. — ^Free, strong, and high, crossing feet or 
throwing them out in running should not take off 
marks. Weakness of joints should be penalized. lo. 


This pert, wide-awake and amusing breed orig- 
inated, as their name indicates, at the Belgian cap- 
ital. It is said, however, that English dogs, the 
Yorkshire, the Ruby Spaniel, and the Irish Terrier 
were associated in the manufacture, while some 
authorities claim that as far back as the 70's the 
miners of Yorkshire possessed a little, wiry, red- 
coated dog similar in appearance and disposition to 
the Belgian dog, that accompanied them to their 
work stowed away in a roomy pocket. 

The Belgian Griffon gets his short, turned-up nose 
from the Toy Spaniel; his light-colored topknot can 
be attributed to the Yorkshire; while his independ- 
ence, the character of his coat and color must be 
credited to the Irish Terrier. By careful selection 
the type of these dogs is well fixed, and they breed 
remarkably true considering their recent origin. All 
breeders find themselves confronted from time to 
time with litters containing long faces, fluffy coats, 
and over sized. 

In Belgium there are two varieties, the rough and 
the smooth coated. It is, however, a misnomer to 
apply the term griffon to the smooths, as the word 
means rough. The rough coats are by far the most 
popular in Belgium, as well as elsewhere, and the 
breed has caught on rapidly wherever introduced, 

268 ' 


for they are bright, entertaining pets and companions, 
and their dignity in relation to their size is most 

In Belgium the breed is cropped as well as docked, 
but in this country, as will be seen from the accom- 
panying standard, the mutilation is not permissible. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
puppies at from two to four months old and after 
are: Extreme shortness of face, short, compact 
bodies, crisp coats, good sound red color, and 

The following are the standard description and 
code of points laid down by the Griffon Bruxellois 
Club, as revised at the general meeting in Brussels: 

General Appearance. — A lady's pet dog, in- 
telligent, sprightly, robust, of compact appearance, 
reminding one of a cob, and captivating the atten- 
tion by a quasi-human expression. 

Head. — Large and rounded, covered with rather 
coarse hair, rough, somewhat longer around the 
eyes, nose, and cheeks. 

Ears. — Semi-erect when not clipped, erect when 

Eyes. — ^Very large, black or nearly black; eye- 
lashes long and black; eyelids often edged with 
black; eyebrows furnished with hair, leaving the 
eye perfectly uncovered. 

Nose. — ^Always black, short, surrounded with 
hair, converging upwards and going to meet those 
that surround the eyes; the break or stop in the nose 
well pronounced. 

w 269 


Lips. — ^Edged with black, furnished with a mous- 
tache; a little black in the moustache is not a fault. 

Chik. — Prominent, without showing the teeth, 
and furnished with a small beard. 

Chest. — Rather wide and deep. 

Legs. — As straight as possible; of medium length. 

Tail. — Upwards, and cut to the two-thirds. 

Color. — Red. 

Texture of Coat. — ^Harsh and wiry, rather long 
and thick. 

Weight. — Small dogs, male and female, 5 pounds, 
maximum. Big dogs, 9 pounds, maximum. Large 
bitches, 10 pounds. 

Faults. — Pale eyes; silky tuft on head; brown 
toenails; showing teeth. 

Disqualification. — Brown nose; white marks; 
tongue protruding. 


The Toy Poodle is a miniature replica of the 
French Poodle, and, like them, one of the most in- 
telligent, affectionate, and interesting of canine pets. 

The points to look for in selecting puppies at 
from two to four months being: Great length of 
head, narrow skull, short back, well-sprung ribs, 
clean neck and shoulders, straight forelegs. 

Under the rules of the Poodle Club, which have 
been recognized by the American Kennel Club, the 
maximum weight limit is ten pounds, the standard 
and value of other points being as follows: 

The Head should be long, straight, and fine, not 



too broad between the eyes, with a slight peak at 
the back; the muzzle long, not snipy, and beautifully 
tapered underjaw; teeth level; lips black, and not 
showing lippiness. 

The Ears long and broad, dropping close to the 

Eyes. — Almond-shaped; black or dark brown if 
brunette; blue or light brown if blonde; this where 
the coat is white or lemon; in other colors the eyes 
generally follow the color of the coat. 

Chest. — Full, deep ribbed; loins slender, back 
short, slightly curved; tail should not be carried 
over the hip. 

Legs. — Straight and well formed; feet round, with 
toes well arched; pads thick and hard. Should stand 
well up on his toes. 

Coat. — Is curly; of a wiry texture. 

In action is quick, proud, and graceful. 

Value of Points. — General appearance and 
movement, 15; head and ears, 15; neck and shoul- 
ders, lO; body, back, and tail carriage, 25; color, 
coat, and texture, 15; legs and feet, 10; bone, muscle, 
and condition, 10. Total, 100. 


These diminutive specimens of the canine race, 
as their name indicates, are descended from native 
dogs of the Island of Malta or Melita, in the Med- 
iterranean Sea. They are amongst the oldest of 
breeds. Certainly there are none older, for they are 
mentioned three hundred years before the Christian 



era. The principal thing about them that attracts 
the interest of the public is their soft, silky, snowy- 
white coat. They were more popular twenty-five 
years ago than at the present time. 

The Maltese does not thrive well except in a 
moist climate. Even in England, where the climate 
is damp, the most expert fanciers have their hands 
full in keeping them in condition. 

The Maltese as a rule breeds very true to type. 
They are an ornament to a parlor or a carriage, but 
there their usefulnesis begins and ends, for many of 
them are snappish, and few of them have the in- 
telligence of the average pet dog of other breeds. 

The points to be considered in Maltese Terriers 
are: size — the smaller the better, if sound — luxuriant 
coat, and short body. 

In selecting Maltese puppies at from two to four 
months old, those are likely to make the best dogs 
which are the smallest (not weaklings), possess most 
coat, shortest bodies, and shortest legs. 

The following is the standard description and 
points of the Maltese Club of London: 

Head. — Should not be too narrow, but should be 
of a Terrier shape, not too long, but not apple- 

Ears. — Should be long and well feathered, and 
hang close to the side of the head, the hair to be 
well mingled with the coat at the shoulders. 

Eyes. — Should be a dark brown, with black eye 
rims, and not too far apart. 

Nose. — Should be pure black. 


English Pugs: Ch. Crock o( Gold; Turret Shadrac; Stars and Stripes; 
Turret Sambu; Kentucky Babe; Fiddle Head and puppies. 


Legs and Feet. — ^Legs should be straight, feet 
round, and the pads of the feet should be black. 

Body and Shape. — Should be short and cobby, 
low to the ground, and the back should be straight 
from the top of the shoulders to the tail. 

Tail and Carriage. — Should be well arched over 
the back and well feathered. 

Coat: Length and Texture. — Should be a good 
length, the longer the better, of a silky texture, not 
in any way woolly, and should be straight. 

Color. — It is desirable that they should be pure 
white, but slight lemon marks should not count 
against them. 

Condition and Appearance. — Should be of a 
sharp Terrier appearance, with a lively action; the 
coat should not be stained, but should be well 
groomed in every way. 

Size. — The most approved weights should be 
from 4 to 9 pounds, the smaller the better, but it is 
desirable that they should not exceed lo pounds. 

Value of Points. — Head, 5; ears, 5; eyes, 5; 
nose, 5; legs and feet, 5; body and shape, lO; tail 
and carriage, lO; coat and length, 20; color, 15; con- 
dition and appearance, lO; size, 10. Total, 100. 


There exists a popular opinion that this interest- 
ing breed of toy dogs had its origin through a cross 
of the Bulldog on some smaller breed. This suppo- 
sition is incorrect. The Pug is a very old breed, and 
shares with the Greyhound the honors of long de- 




scent. It is probable that the Pug originated in 
China, a land whose dogs are characterized by short 
noses and curled tails. The Dutch, through their 
East Indian Trading Company, brought these dogs 
to Holland, and later they came to England, where 
they were known for a time as Dutch Pugs. About 
the middle of the last century two enthusiasts. Lady 
de Willoughby and Mr. Morrison, established kennels 
in England, and both succeeded in creating an ex- 
traordinary vogue. The stock from their respective 
kennels presented distinct characteristics and were 
known accordingly. The Willoughby Pugs were 
silver fawn, with very black marks and distinct 
tracings. The Morrisons were of a brighter golden 
fawn. The two strains have since been crossed so 
many times that these characteristics have been 

The Black Pug is a more recent production, and 
appeared about 1886, and has since divided pop- 
ularity with the fawns. They are all alike in every- 
thing but color. 

For many years the Pug was the most fashionable 
of pet dogs, but long since has resigned that position 
to the Spaniels and some of the newer breeds. They 
still, however, have many staunch admirers. 

Pugs are not lacking in intelligence, as is some- 
times supposed, but are, on the contrary, highly in- 
telligent, wide awake, and alert, prompt to give 
warnings of the approach of strangers. They make 
the most interesting of companions. Their natural 
cleanliness, freedom from smell, and the slight care 



necessary to keep them in perfect condition go far 
to recommend them as house pets. 

The chief points to look for in the selection of 
puppies at from two to four months old, are: Short, 
square faces, great wrinkle, short backs, great bone. 

The following is the standard description and scale 
of points issued by the Pug Club: 

Body. — Short and cobby, wide in chest, and well 
ribbed up. 

Legs. — Very strong, straight, of moderate length, 
and well under. 

Feet. — Neither so long as the foot of the hare 
nor so round as that of the cat; well split up toes, 
and the nails black. 

Muzzle. — Short, blunt, square, but not upfaced. 

Head. — Large, massive, round, not apple-headed, 
with no indentation of the skull. 

Eyes. — Dark in color, very large, bold, and prom- 
inent; globular in shape, soft and solicitous in ex- 
pression, very lustrous, and when excited, fiill of 

Ears. — ^Thin, small, soft like black velvet. There 
are two kinds — the "rose" and the "button." Pref- 
erence is given to the latter. 

Markings. — Clearly defined. The muzzle or 
mask, ears, moles on cheeks, thumb-mark or dia- 
mond on forehead; back trace should be as black as 

Mask. — The mask should be black. The more 
intense and well defined it is the better. 

Wrinkles. — Large and deep. 




Trace. — ^A black line extending from the occiput 
to the tail. 

Tail. — Curled tightly as possible over the hip. 
The double curl is perfection. 

Coat. — Fine, smooth, soft, short, and glossy; 
neither hard nor woolly. 

Color. — Silver fawn, apricot fawn, or black. 
Each should be decided to make the contrast com- 
plete between the color and the trace and mask. 

Size and Condition. — ^The Pug should be multum 
in parvOy but this condensation (if the word may be 
used) should be shown by compactness of form, well- 
knit proportions, and hardness of developed muscle. 
The weight recommended as being the best is from 
12 to 1 6 pounds (dog or bitch). 

Symmetry. — Symmetry and general appearance, 
decidedly square and cobby. A lean, leggy Pug and 
a dog with short legs and long body are equally 

Value of Points. — Symmetry, lO; size, 5; con- 
dition, 5; body, lO; legs, 5; feet, 5; head, 5; muzzle, 
5; ears, 5; eyes, 10; mask, 5; wrinkles, 5; tail, 5; 
trace, 5; coat, 5; color, 5; general carriage, 5. Total, 




It is to the writings of Arctic explorers that one 
must go to gather much that is enlightening con- 
cerning the various breeds of dogs which have been 
used for generations by the semi-nomadic people of 
these latitudes for traversing the barren, trackless 
regions of the North. 

In a general way these sledge dogs of the North 
may be divided into two classes — the Samoyede and 
the Eskimo. The Samoyede are smaller in size, less 
powerful, and not so wolfish in appearance as the 
Eskimo. They have pointed muzzles, sharply erect 
ears, strong, bushy tails, and short bodies. Although 
they are of the Spitz type, the wolf nature is always 
apparent, and one cannot doubt their white Arctic 
wolf ancestry. In general appearance they are more 
beautiful than the Eskimo, their thick coats being 
particularly decorative. Some of them are entirely 
black, with a patch of white on the chest, and many 
of the white ones have black about the head. 

The Eskimo, although not so attractive in appear- 
ance, is larger and much more nearly allied to the 
wolf. His resemblance to his wild relative is ac- 
centuated by his long, snipy muzzle and his erect, 
triangular ears, although it may be noted that his 
Eskimo owner has a fancy for the ear carried low. 



The eyes are set obliquely like those of the wolf, 
and the formidable jaws are well equipped with 
powerful teeth. They have strong, arched necks, 
a broad chest, excellent body qualities, muscular 
quarters, and splendid running gear. Their usefulness 
is written into their frames, and they are capable of 
accomplishing long journeys with tireless endurance. 
The tail is long and bushy, and in the adult is usually 
carried over the back. The coat is dense, hard, and 
deep, especially on the back, where it may be from 
two to four inches in length, with a woolly under- 
coat to resist the penetrating snow and cold. It is 
longer about the neck and thighs and shorter on the 
legs and head. In color the Eskimo is the same as 
the wolf — black, or a rusty black, with a light greyish 
marking on chest, belly, and tail. Often a pure white 
dog may be seen, as Peary's Lion, who was very 
little different from the Siberian breed, and in all 
there is the characteristic light spots above the eyes. 
The height of the Eskimo dog averages 22 inches at 
the shoulder. 

Many lupine traits are observable in the Eskimo 
dog. He does not habitually bark, but has a weird 
wolfish howl. He is remarkable for his thievishness 
and his destructiveness toward small animals. Pos- 
sibly he inherits from the wolf, with whom he is so 
often crossed, his facility, noticeable even in im- 
ported specimens of his kind, in picking the flesh 
from a fish as cleanly as if the bones had been 
scraped by a surgical instrument. They will devour 
almost anything from their own harness to tar rope. 



A pair of greasy trousers is a luxury, and they are 
content if they get a good meal three times a week. 


This interesting breed of dogs was first brought 
into England in Baltic trading ships, and were 
called Russian Terriers, but there is nothing of the 
terrier about them either in appearance or character. 
On the contrary, they are sheep and cattle dogs of 
long descent, and resemble very markedly the 
familiar English Bobtail Sheepdog. 

The Owtchar is the largest of all European shep- 
herds, many specimens standing thirty inches or 
more at the shoulder. They are strongly built, and 
are capable of defending the flock against wolves 
and other predatory enemies. They have massive 
heads, occasionally cropped ears, and the general 
proportions of the bobtail. That is to say, their 
length is egual to their height. Their chief char- 
acteristic is a long, dense coat, tangled, towsled, and 
matted like the fleece of a neglected Highland black- 
face sheep. Their greater size, untidiness, and the 
fact that they are often seen with a tail of natural 
length, distinguish them from the old English sheep 


This breed of dogs has been developed in Scan- 
dinavian countries, and although referred to as 
hounds, properly speaking are all-purpose dogs used 
for elk and bear hunting, as well as for black cock 



shooting. They are remarkable for their scenting 
powers, and it is said that under favorable condi- 
tions they will catch the scent of an elk or a bear 
three miles away. 

The breed is very old, dating back to Viking times, 
and among their notable characteristics are intelli- 
gence, courage, and great endurance. In appear- 
ance they are rather short in stature, with an average 
height of about 20 inches. The head, which is car- 
ried high, is large and square, broad between the 
ears; muzzle of good length; stop well defined; ey'*^ 
dark and full of expression ; the ears sharply pointed, 
erect, and very mobile; the neck short and thick; 
chest broad and deep; the back straight and not too 
long. The tail is thick and heavy, and carried over 
the back. As in most northern dogs, the coat is 
long and deep on the body, with a dense, woolly 
undercoat. About the head it is short and smooth. 
In color it is all shades of grizzly brown, black and 
brown, or black. Tan is rare. A white patch on the 
chest is frequent, as are white feet. 


This breed resembles the Manchester terrier, and 
undoubtedly originated through the crossing of dogs 
of that breed with some one of the continental 
varieties. At the present time they are the most im- 
portant of German terriers. In appearance they are 
well built and muscular, about the weight of an 
Airedale, and are lively, game, good tempered, 
courageous, and devoted. Their coat is coarser than 



that of the Manchester terrier, but the distribution 
of their black-and-tan markings is the same. There 
is often a white patch on the chest. The tail is 
docked to a length not greater than six inches. The 
ears are cropped, but neither too closely nor too 
pointedly for smartness. The muzzle is long, and 
moderately fine; cheeks well muscled; eyes prefer- 
ably dark brown, expression friendly and intelligent. 
Generally they are a shapely dog, alert, sagacious, 
and attractive. 


This breed is widely distributed in Germany, 
where it shares in popularity with the Dachshund. 
In appearance the Boxer resembles the Boston of our 
show benches, and, like the Boston, is of mixed 
ancestry, doubtless a cross of the bull and smooth- 
coated terrier, with the blood of the latter predom- 
inating; that is, he is a terrier of bulldog character, 
with clean-cut head, wrinkled between high-set, 
cropped ears, muzzle broad and blunt, stop well de- 
fined, cheeks well cushioned, and the jaws often 
undershot. The back is short and level, the shoulders 
sloping, long and muscular, the chest deep, but not 
broad, the ribs well rounded, and the belly slightly 
drawn up. The legs are straight, the tail placed 
high and docked, the coat short, hard, and glossy; 
color, yellow or brindle, with or without a black 
mask. White patches are allowed. The height for 
dogs is 2i>^ inches; for bitches, 20 inches. 




This breed is sometimes referred to as the squirrel 
spaniel. It is not, however, any more of a spaniel 
than is the Pekingese, and one of the countless 
stories in regard to its descent is that its ancestors 
were tiny, silky-haired lap dogs which the Spaniards 
brought over from Mexico in the sixteenth century. 
It is undoubtedly a very old breed, as cjpgs of sim- 
ilar type are seen in portraits in Spanish galleries as 
well as in paintings by Watteau, Fragonard, and 
Boucher. The name is evidently derived from its 
ears, which stand erect like the wings of the butterfly. 
There is another variety with drop ears. The fact 
that the tail is long and bushy and carried over the 
back like a squirrel is the reason that the name 
Squirrel Spaniel is sometimes applied to them. 

The Papillon is a lively little dog, with an abun- 
dant coat of long, silky hair. The head is small, the 
skull slightly domed, the muzzle rather snipy. 
About the face and on the front of the legs the coat 
is short; the eyes are dark, round, set somewhat low; 
the expression is alert and intelligent; the back is 
straight and rather short, but not so cobby as that 
of the Blenheim or the toy Pomeranian. The legs 
are short, straight, and rather fine. The average 
height is about nine inches, and in weight from five 
to eight pounds. In color they are ruby, red ma- 
hogany, reddish chestnut, dark yellow, or white 
with these patches. 




The Chihuahuas are but little known outside of 
this country, as they are natives of Chihuahua, one 
of the largest States of Mexico, bordering on the 
State of Texas. They are one of the most diminutive 
of breeds, and by many are believed to have been 
in the early days wild, and to have inhabited the 
dense forest land of Northern Mexico, some claim- 
ing that they were as expert as a squirrel in climbing 
trees, and were also adepts at burrowing. They 
are remarkably game little dogs, very exclusive 
in their affections, and perhaps the smallest of 
the canine family. Some very good specimens 
may be so small as to stand with all-fours in the 
palm of one's hand, and not weigh more than 
twenty-three ounces, while other specimens turn the 
scales at four pounds. Their legs are very slender 
and their toenails very long and strong. In the 
wild specimens this was very serviceable to them in 
making their homes, as they lived in holes in the 
ground. Apart from their size, the most striking 
peculiarity and feature is the head, which is round, 
and from which projects a very short and pointed 
nose and large, standing ears, and also a peculiar 
skull formation, found only in this race. In color 
they vary somewhat in shade, reddish black and 
fawn; hair short, fine, and thick. The name is pro- 
nounced Chi-wa-wa. 




The books devoted to the diseases of dogs are 
usually so technical that the amateur who refers to 
them for guidance finds only a confusing array of 
diseases, symptoms, and complications. It is well 
to know that most of the diseases enumerated are 
of such rare occurrence that it will not be necessary 
to consider them; and further, that all the symptoms 
in connection with certain diseases are seldom present 
in the patient. The greatest mortality among dogs 
occurs during puppyhood or early youth, and is 
the result of worms and distemper; among older 
dogs indigestion is the chief ailment. 

When called upon to minister to a sick dog do not 
be in a hurry about administering medicine. First 
be sure you know what ails the patient, and care- 
fully consider the history of the case and the liability 
to certain diseases at certain ages or under certain 
conditions, and then begin looking for symptoms 
that will confirm or refute your diagnosis. 

Do not fail to ask yourself the question, "Is the 
patient suffering from worms?" If a young dog, 
from two months to a year old, which has never 
been treated for worms, the fact that all dogs have 
worms will strengthen the opinion that it has them; 
and if the patient has the symptoms, treat for them. 
If, on the contrary, the dog has none of the symp- 



toms, or has been treated for worms, we must look 
for some other disease. 

If the patient is from four months to a year old, 
and is cutting his teeth, or has been at a dog show 
or associated with dogs which have, and acts listless 
and out of sorts a few days afterward, your suspi- 
cions should be directed toward distemper, if it has 
never had the disease; and by studying the symp- 
toms you can arrive at a positive opinion and treat 

If your patient is an aged dog and has had dis- 
temper, and for no accountable cause is slowly 
going oiF in flesh and refuses to fatten, no matter 
how much he eats, and if his breath is foul, his 
bowels are irregular, and he seems all out of sorts 
and run down, indigestion should be suspected, due 
either to poor food, a weakness of the stomach's 
digestive glands, or irritation set up by worms. 

The condition of a sick dog's bowels should 
always be considered. Constipation and diarrhea 
are common ailments that are responsible for much 
ill health. Besides the character and frequency of 
passages, both diseases are accompanied by strain- 
ing and in some cases colicky pains. 

When a dog comes out of the kennel in the morn- 
ing stiflF, sore, and barely able to move, is all humped 
up, and the history of the case shows that he was 
given either a hard run the day before, jumped into 
a pool while heated, became chilled by a cold rain, 
or slept in a draught or on a bed of wet straw, 
rheumatism should be suspected. 
» 285 


When the animal is found sitting on his haunches^ 
his forelegs braced apart so as to expand the chesty 
his breathing accelerated, and the membranes of the 
eye dark and congested, and the history of the case 
is the same as that last given, pneumonia is in- 

If pressure upon the walls between the ribs causes 
him to flinch and groan, the pleura or membrane 
surrounding the lungs is affected, and we have 

If the small veins of the eye show a yellowish 
tinge, it is an indication of a disordered liver, and 
the treatment for jaundice should be administered. 

If a dog has been in good health and is suddenly 
taken sick, exhibiting violent symptoms of pain and 
great distress, with attempts to vomit or a rigidity 
of the muscles, poison should be suspected, par- 
ticularly if he has been allowed to run about freely, 
or other dogs in the neighborhood have been sim- 
ilarly affected. 


Absolute cleanliness, an unfailing supply of fresh 
air, a suitable temperature, plenty of fresh water, 
general comfort, and last, but not least, companion- 
ship, are needed by a sick dog. Locking a dog in a 
darkened room or stall, or an unaccustomed change, 
will work havoc with a sick dog. He wants to see 
his master, relies upon his companionship, and turns 
to him as if to a god, with a sublime confidence in 
his master's ability to help him in his difficulty. A 




word of approbation is often worth more than drugs, 
and he will frequently eat and take nourishment 
simply to please his master. 

Diet. — If the dog is down with some febrile dis- 
order that is rapidly weakening him, it is important 
that he take some nourishment, and necessarily it 
must be of the lightest and most sustaining char- 
acter. Medical practitioners and trained nurses 
have brought the dietary of the sick-room to a per- 
fection that the canine practitioner can study with 
good results. There are foods prepared by Spratt's 
patent for this purpose that are very useful. Milk, 
mutton broth, gelatine, and raw eggs are valuable 
foods. Boiled rice is easy of digestion. Raw beef 
or mutton, minced or chopped fine, fed a few tea- 
spoonfuls at a time, will act in many cases as a tonic 
to an exhausted stomach, and should be resorted to, 
as there is always danger of a disordered stomach 
rebelling against long-continued liquid food. A tea- 
spoonful otbrandy or port wine will frequently cause 
the stomach to retain food that would otherwise be 
rejected. It is best given in the form of an eggnog 
and fed a few teaspoonfuls at a time. 

A dog will eat small quantities of food offered 
from his master's hand which he will refuse from a 
dish. Do not allow food to remain before him after 
he has declined to eat. Remove it at once and offer 
it at some future time. 




Thb most dreaded of all diseases of the dog gen- 
erally develops in the first year of life at a period 
approaching maturity, or is associated with the cut- 
ting of the permanent teeth. The disease has been 
compared to typhoid fever in man, but really re- 
sembles measles, as both are infectious infantile dis- 
orders transmitted through similar channels, and 
one attack successfully overcome renders immimity 
from a second. For a great many years distemper 
was thought to be the result of kenneling in damp, 
cold, or poorly ventilated buildings, defective drain- 
age, exposure, general neglect, improper or putres- 
cent food, and other anti-hygienic conditions. This 
is a mistake, as distemper, like many other diseases, 
is due to a germ, and unless the germ is present dis- 
temper never exists. The unhygienic conditions 
previously mentioned simply favor its propagation 
and dissemination, as dogs living in an unhealthy 
atmosphere have low powers of resistance. 

There are innumerable channels through which a 
dog may be infected with distemper. The germ is of 
remarkable vitality, and is conveyed through the air 
or on a person's clothes, or a dog which has already 
had the disease can convey the germ to a well dog. 
The use of kennel, feeding dishes, or shipping crates 
that have been used previously by an affected 
animal is a common mode of inoculation. Dog 
shows are active mediums for the spread of the dis- 
ease, and when portable benching is used it is highly 



important that it should be thoroughly cleansed 
and disinfected. 

Symptoms. — Distemper attacks dogs in different 
ways, but the most familiar form is that in which 
the membranes of the eyes and nasal passages are 
affected, the principal symptom being a catarrhal 
discharge. Any attack of this kind is usually pre- 
ceded by listlessness and lack of appetite. The 
patient avoids the light and courts solitude. All the 
symptoms of a common cold then manifest them- 
selves, as sneezing and a dry, husky cough. Com- 
plications, however, frequently develop early in the 
disease and result in the death of the animal. The 
symptoms mentioned are those of the catarrhal 
form, and a great many people have an idea that 
this is the only form in which distemper appears, 
and that a dog does not have the disease unless there 
is a discharge from the nose. This is a mistake, for 
in some cases the virus attacks the intestines alone, 
and in others the liver or the bronchial tubes. The 
action of the virus that is least understood, and in 
which the symptoms are most commonly ascribed 
to some other cause, is when it is concentrated upon 
the brain and nervous system. In this form the 
animal dies from collapse or develops epileptic 
spasms and convulsions with other symptoms that 
are ascribed to worms, and accordingly the puppy 
is doped without avail, for in these cases death 
ensues in a few hours or the patient lingers along for 
a week, and a post-mortem reveals neither worms 
nor any other exciting cause, and from the absence 



of all catarrhal symptoms distemper is not suspected. 
In the treatment of distemper most breeders and 
owners make the mistake of neglecting the pre- 
monitory symptoms and do not begin to treat or 
properly care for the patient until the disease is fully 
developed. As previously stated, the disease de- 
velops slowly. First, the dog is off his feed, then the 
cough develops; and, presuming that the dog is 
otherwise well and the cough will pass off in a day 
or two, the patient is allowed usually to occupy his 
usual quarters, sleep out of doors and exercise in 
all kinds of weather, or dismissed from the mind 
until the eyes show a suspicious stickiness or the 
nose discharges a purulent mucus. The owner 
always should be on the lookout for distemper, and 
when a dog, at the distemper age, which has never 
had the disease presents a suspicious symptom, 
should lose no time in placing him in good, warm, 
dry, comfortable quarters, and keeping him there 
until he has entirely recovered. The prime factor 
in treating this disease is good care and nursing. 
The patient's bedding must be changed frequently, 
discharges from the nose and eyes carefuUy sponged 
away, and the appetite catered to, and highly nutri- 
tious and easily digested foods given. (See chapter 
on nursing.) If there are any symptoms of worms, 
treat for them with vermifuges. 

Treatment. — ^The specific germ of this disease has 
never been isolated, therefore a true culture of the 
germ has never been made. The best-known rem- 
edy is Dent's Distemperine, the result of experi- 



ments made by veterinarians connected with the 
United States Department of Agriculture, and in a 
public test, showing that ninety per cent of the cases 
in which it was used recovered. 

Vomiting. — ^A number of complications are liable 
to develop with or follow a case of distemper. 
Among them are vomiting, which can be prevented 
by carefully selecting those foods that the stomach 
digests most easily; but if the stomach refuses to 
retain even the most digestible of these, give from 
two to four drops of Schell's strength of hydrocyanic 
acid, combined with from two to eight grains of 
pepsin and ten to forty grains of bismuth. 

Diarrhea. — Diarrhea must not be checked unless 
it is very severe and the discharges are tinged with 
blood. In such cases give a gruel made of toasted 
wheat flour and milk. The tannate or sub-gallate of 
bismuth is useful in these cases in doses of from ten 
to forty grains, and one dose may give satisfactory 
results; if it does not, from five to ten grains of chalk 
with from five to twenty grains of ether or laudanum 
should be administered in a little milk or soup. 

Fits. — Epileptic fits and derangement of the 
nervous system are difficult to treat during the 
course of the disease. If they are caused by cutting 
teeth, lance the gums; if due to worms, treat for 
them before the system becomes too debilitated to 
stand the drugs necessary to remove them. If, 
however, the convulsions are severe, frequent, and 
exhausting, they can be relieved by giving bromide 
of potash in doses of from five to twenty grains four 



or five times a day, either in a capsule or watery 
solution. If the excitement is extreme the bromide 
can be combined with from three to ten grains of 
chloral. The latter drug should be mixed with 
mucilage to prevent its irritating the throat. 

In conclusion, the owner should be cautioned 
again against exposing the dog to the cold during 
the course of the disease or convalescence. In some 
cases after a few days' treatment a marked improve- 
ment will be observed in the patient's condition, 
and the caretaker, correspondingly elated and en- 
couraged by a spring-like day, particularly if the 
weather has been damp and stormy, will admit the 
puppy to the kennel yard for a breath of fresh air. 
The puppy, after blinking in the sun and stretching, 
often will select some damp spot on which the sun 
strikes and curl up for a nap. A few moments' ex- 
posure under these conditions are sufficient to induce 
serious conditions, and the next morning all the 
symptoms are present, or the labored breathing in- 
dicates a fatal congestion of the lungs. 


Until a very recent period worms were thought 
to be of a spontaneous origin, brought about by the 
influence of heat upon decaying vegetable matter, 
and it was, and still is, freely asserted that puppies 
are born with worms inherited from the mother 
while still in utero. This is a mistake, as worms 
spring from individual eggs, and have a complete 
life history of their own. 



Round Worms. — ^The principal species are round 
worms and tape worms. The first-named commonly 
infest puppies, and consequently are most dreaded 
by breeders. In shape and size they resemble 
common angle worms, but in color are lighter, being 
almost white or only a pale pink. In adult dogs 
these worms, when full grown, are from three to 
seven inches long; in puppies they are about half 
that length and as thick as common white string. 
Round worms live in the small intestines, sometimes 
coiled in such masses as to obstruct the passage^ 
and occasionally they wander into the stomach or 
are passed by the bowels. 

It is easy to understand that when one dog in a 
kennel is infected with worms millions of eggs will 
be passed with the feces. These are scattered all 
over the floors, bedding, feeding and drinking pans. 
They get on the dog's coat, are licked off and swal- 
lowed and in numbers of ways gain entrance to the 
digestive tracts of other dogs, where they soon hatch 
out and in ten days are fully developed. This rapid 
development accounts for the popular belief that 
puppies are born with worms, for breeders who have 
held post-mortems on puppies scarcely ten days old 
have found in their stomachs fully developed round 
worms could account for their presence in no other 
way. They overlooked the fact that the prospective 
mother, confined in a kennel infested with worms, 
would get these eggs attached to her coat, belly, 
and breasts, and the young, as soon as born, would 



take these eggs into their stomachs with the first 
mouthful of milk. 

Symptoms, — Worms are responsible for so much 
sickness and so many symptoms that it is prac- 
tically impossible to mention all of them; but their 
presence can safely be suspected in all dogs which 
have not been recently treated for them, as well as 
in cases where the patient is run down, unthrifty, 
and out of sorts. 

Other symptoms are: a hot, dry nose; weak, 
watery eyes; pale lips and gums; foul breath; mean 
hacking cough, and a red, scurfy, pimply or irritated 
condition of the skin, and harsh, dry, staring coat 
that is constantly being shed. Wormy dogs some- 
times have a depraved appetite, and will eat dirt 
and rubbish. Some days they are ravenously 
hungry, the next day they will not eat at all; their 
sleep is disturbed by dreams and intestinal rumbling; 
the urine is high colored and frequently passed; 
bowels irregular; stomach easily unsettled; watery 
mucus is frequently vomited, and the mouth is hot, 
sticky, and full of ropy saliva. Puppies which are 
full of worms bloat easily and are pot-bellied. After 
feeding their stomachs distend disproportionately to 
the amount of food consumed. Their bodies are 
also subject to scaly eruptions and their bowels to 
colicky pains; they do not grow as rapidly as healthy 
puppies should, and instead of playing with each 
other they curl up and sleep hour after hour; they 
get thinner, weaker, and more lifeless from day to 
day, and if they do not waste away or die in fits 



and convulsions with frothing at the mouth and 
champing of the jaws, grow up coarse-jointed, 
rickety, and misshapen. Puppies with worms are 
also liable to paralysis of their rear limbs, and on 
removal of the worms the puppies regain control of 
the affected parts. 

Prevention. — The prevention of worms is a subject 
of importance to every breeder. There should be a 
continuous fight kept up against fleas and dirt. 
There is nothing better than coarse soap, plenty of 
hot water and a scrubbing brush; dash buckets of 
boiling water over the floors and walls and white- 
wash the kennels frequently. Change the bedding 
twice a week and burn all old straw, litter, and 

Treat your puppies at two, four, and six months 
old for worms. Treat all brood bitches for worms, 
and give them a bath ten days before whelping, so 
as to cleanse their coats of any eggs that may be 
attached to breasts or coats. The mixing of a tea- 
spoonful of powdered charcoal with a dog's food 
once a day will tend to keep the intestines clear of 
the mucus where the eggs find a most hospitable 

Treatment. — Many different drugs are recom- 
mended for the expulsion of worms, and some of 
the prescriptions handed down by the old school of 
horse doctors and dog men are more to be dreaded 
than the worms, as it is an unfortunate fact that 
about as many dogs are killed by medicine as by 
worms. The drugs in common use for worm cures 



are areca-nut, santonine, calomel, and turpentine. 
They are all very powerful, and should be com- 
pounded with care. As an illustration, areca-nut is 
an irritant only a little less severe than powdered 
glass. Santonine is a poison that frequently causes 
fits and convulsions. Calomel usually acts on the 
liver and not on the worms, while turpentine severely 
irritates the kidneys. The safest and most effectual 
remedy for round worms is Dent's Vermifuge. It can 
be obtained from druggists in either liquid or capsule 
form, and will be found more economical and re- 
liable than anything the druggist can prepare. The 
capsules are of soft, elastic gelatine, the dose is ac- 
curately regulated, and they are easily administered. 
Tapeworms. — ^As their name indicates, tape- 
worms are made up of flat joints or sections half an 
inch or less in length that resemble pieces of white 
tape. These sections will sometimes be found 
scattered about the kennel in the feces or hanging 
from the anus of an affected dog. There are a num- 
ber of species of tapeworms. The head of the tape- 
worm, which is the smallest part and is scarcelv 
larger than a thread, has a blind or sucker mouth 
by which it attaches itself to the intestines and 
through which it draws its nourishment. The tape- 
worm does not lay eggs, as the round worm does, 
but reproduces itself by the segments that form the 
body. These segments are smallest at the head, and 
as they recede gradually increase in size and are re- 
placed by new segments until finally they become 
full grown or ripe. When this stage is reached they 



detach themselves from the body of the worm and 
are passed in the feces. 

Symptoms. — ^The indications of tapeworms are in 
some cases similar to those of round worms, but 
often they are indefinite. Their presence, however, 
may be suspected in adult dogs with voracious ap- 
petites which remain unthrifty and out of sorts, or 
in dogs affected with chorea, partial paralysis, or 
nervous affections, and those which are generally 
out of sorts. A dog presenting these symptoms 
which has been treated for round worms without 
results or been given tonics without improvement 
in his condition, should be treated for tapeworms. 
One of the best remedies for both round and tape- 
worms — which makes it very valuable for puppies — 
is an emulsion of pumpkin seed. This is the active 
principle of Dent's Vermifuge. We have found it 
very effective in both old and young dogs, and for 
round worms as well as tapeworms. We do not wish 
our readers to infer that the others are not as good, 
but what we wish to say is that for such diseases as 
worms and distemper the specially prepared rem- 
edies are more reliable than ordinary prescriptions. 


This disease, like itch in man, is due to the pres- 
ence of a small insect which burrows or tunnels 
through the skin, and in these canals the female 
deposits her eggs, which hatch out in about two 
weeks. The young then continue the burrowing 
operations of their parents, occasioning the most in- 



tolerable itching. Mange is a local affection, but 
the uneasiness and loss of sleep caused the animal 
by the continued scratching and biting in its efforts 
to allay the itching have a very debilitating effect 
upon the system, and if neglected will soon trans- 
form the healthy, sleek-coated pet into one of the 
most loathsome and pitiful of objects. The disease 
generally makes its appearance first at the elbows, 
under the forelegs, on the chest, forehead, base of 
the ears or root of the tail, and then spreads all over 
the body. 

Causes. — In dogs this affection, the commonest 
of direct skin diseases, is the result of contact with 
a dog or other animal similarly affected, or is con- 
tracted by occupying the yard, kennel, or shipping 
crate of an animal so affected. 

In humans the skin cocci which causes dandruff 
and baldness are transmitted usually through hats, 
hat racks, and the use of public brushes and combs 
in hotels and barber shops. 

Treatment. — In the treatment of mange and other 
skin diseases, absolute cleanliness must be insisted 
upon. Upon a dog showing signs of having this 
affection it should be immediately removed from its 
quarters, the bedding burned, and the entire kennel 
washed and disinfected. The dog's entire body 
should then be washed in lukewarm water with a 
good dog soap to soften and break up scabs and 
scales. A mange lotion should then be applied to 
all affected parts and the thoroughness with which 
the medicinal agents are applied is fully as important 



as the remedy which is used, for there are many lo- 
tions that will cure this disease, providing they are 
properly used. Among them are sulphur and lard 
ointment, sulphur and lime solution, crude oil, crude 
oil and sulphur, coal tar, glycerine, cocoanut oil, as 
well as the regular mange cures, such as Dent's 
Lotion, Ashmont's, Eberhardt's, and others. Re- 
peat the application every day for four or five days, 
then wash clean with lukewarm water. Repeat the 
application for another week or ten days, and again 
wash, and if the skin is not in a healthy condition 
repeat the application. Blood purifying pills should 
also be given three times a day, so as to thoroughly 
cleanse the system. 

For parasitic conditions of the human scalp 
Dent's Mange Lotion is used by hair dressers and 
barbers in cases that will not yield to ordinary 
treatment. Only a small quantity should be used 
at a time, but it is highly important that it be 
rubbed thoroughly into the scalp. 

This mange lotion destroys the parasites and skin 
cocci that cause dandruff and premature baldness, 
and in connection with a good dog soap, is a treat- 
ment for diseases of the human scalp that no one 
need hesitate about trying or recommending to their 

Eczema. — Similar in appearance to mange, but 
different in its origin, this disease is due to an im- 
pure condition of the system, and not to a burrowing 

Causes. — Lack of exercise; dirty, damp kennels; 



too heating a diet; fleas, lice, and local irritation; 
indigestion and neglect. 

Symptoms. — ^The belly, elbows, inside of thighs, 
and back of the forelegs are the parts first affected; 
the hair sacs or follicles are principally the seat of 
the disease. These become inflamed, and when the 
animal affected is white the hair at the roots has a 
reddish, rusty look. 

If prompt means are not taken to check the dis- 
ease the inflammation runs on rapidly, the enrire 
skin and subcutaneous tissues are involved, and the 
hair drops out from the affected follicles; purulent 
matter now exudes and pustules form that break 
open, and the matter from them runs together and 
forms scabs that crack open and bleed, and the 
animal becomes an exceedingly pitiful and loath- 
some object, and emits a very disagreeable odor. 

This disease is not so contagious as mange, but 
is more difficult to cure. 

Treatment. — ^To insure a radical cure of this dis- 
ease, internal treatment is of fully as much con- 
sequence as external applications, and in obstinate 
cases both must be persevered in for some time. To 
cleanse the system use a good blood purifying pill, 
and to the affected parts apply one of the lotions or 
try the following prescription: 

Wright's solution of coal tar, i ounce. 

Goulard's extract of lard, i drachm. 

Glycerine boracis, i ounce. 

Distilled water to make 8 ounces. 

Directions: Bathe parts frequently. 



Another useful ointment for eczema is: 
Resorcin, i scruple. 
Creolin, 20 minims. 
Almond oil, i drachm. 
Lanolin, i ounce. 
Apply night and morning to affected parts. 
Warts. — The condition of the system that gives 
rise to warts is not well understood, and they appear 
upon the healthiest dogs quite as readily as upon 
those which are debilitated or unthrifty. The lips, 
gums, tongue, and entire mucous membrane of the 
mouth are frequently affected. Their appearance is 
objectionable, and it is advisable to remove them. 
A few scattering warts can be clipped off with a 
pair of sharp curved surgeon's scissors and the stumps 
touched with nitrate of silver to check the bleeding. 
Touching with a hot iron is one of the safest and 
surest methods of removing warts, and the pain 
occasioned by this operation is not severe. 

When there are a large number of warts and the 
mucous membrane is covered with them, or they 
appear in large bunches, they are not so easily dis- 
posed of. Too many of them must not be removed 
at any one time, no matter by what means, or severe 
inflammation will be set up that may be extremely 
difficult to control. Therefore in these cases clip 
off only a few at a time and then sponge the mouth 
with a solution of chlorate of potash, a teaspoonful 
to a glass of water. 

Large warts may be removed by ligating them 
with a silk cord or catgut close to the skin. 
» 301 


The perverted state of the skin which gives rise 
to warts can generally be corrected by using a blood- 
purifying pill, and it is wise to give all warty 
dogs a course of treatment with them, so that there 
will not be a recurrence of the excrescences. 


Dogs have powerful organs of digestion, but the 
heavy task they put upon them in the way of gorg- 
ing upon all kinds of food, the recklessness they 
show in swallowing stones, coal, dirt, and bones, 
and the carelessness of owners in feeding frequently 
result in a loss of tone and power of the dog's stomach, 
and render it unable to perform its important 
function in the process of digestion, and the food 
eaten, instead of being made fit for the nourishment 
of the body, acts as a heavy load and irritant to the 
stomach, or produces disorders and diseases of the 
bowels, such as indigestion, diarrhea, and con- 

Indigestion. — This is the commonest of all canine 
diseases and the greatest cause of unthriftiness and 
ill health. The appetite is irregular, wholesome food 
is refused or eaten mincingly and slobbered about, 
and a preference is shown for garbage and indi- 
gestible matter. There is generally considerable 
thirst, and the food taken into the stomach is fre- 
quently vomited in a more or less altered condition 
and mixed with slime and mucus. If it remains in 
the stomach it ferments and generates gas, which 
distends the abdomen and causes pain and uneasi- 



ness. The breath is foul and offensive, the gums 
inflamed, the tongue coated, and the bowels de- 
ranged. The animal is dull, listless, and out of sorts. 

Treatment, — Carefully regulating the diet and at- 
tention to sanitary conditions will effect a cure in 
ordinary attacks. If there is much pain and systemic 
disturbance, remedies must be administered. If the 
stomach is full and there is gaseous distention, 
vomiting can be induced by giving two teaspoon fuls 
of wine of ipecac as a first dose and a teaspoonful 
every ten minutes thereafter until the stomach is 
emptied. On the contrary, if severe vomiting exists, 
ten or fifteen grains of the subnitrate of bismuth 
may be given to settle the stomach. If thete is a 
state of constipation or diarrhea the remedies that 
are recommended for such conditions should be 
administered. The patient should be fed an easily 
digested diet, such as raw lean beef, chopped fine, 
gelatine, meat soups, and stale whole-wheat bread, 
boiled rice, and fresh milk. 

In this disease, as in worms and distemper, 
Dent*s Condition Pills will be found efficacious, as 
they are made from drugs especially selected for 
dogs, and assist in the digestion of foods as well as 
tone up the organs of digestion. For the benefit of 
owners, however, who do not have them on hand 
we give two useful prescriptions: 

Bicarbonate of soda, 2 drachms. 
Tr. rhubarb, 3 drachms. 
Tr. Gentian, 4 drachms. 
Tr. nux vomica, i drachm. 



Liq. bismuth, i ounce. 
Water, 6 ounces. 

Dose, a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful after 

For those who prefer powders, take: 

Ingluvin, >^ to 2 scruples. 

Carbonate of bismuth, ^ to 2 drachms. 

Powdered nux vomica, i to 3 grains. 

Mix and divide into 12 powders, and give 
one three times a day after feeding. 

Constipation. — ^This aihnent is common to all 
dogs, and is due generally either to neglect or igno- 
rance upon the part of the owner. Regular exercise 
and discrimination in feeding will keep most dogs' 
bowels in good condition and thereby determine the 
condition of the animal; for biliousness, disorders of 
the liver and kidneys, and the attendant conditions 
of foul breath, loss of appetite, languor, rough coat, 
and general unthriftiness are frequently due to the 
fact that there has been absorbed into the system 
certain poisonous products thrown off by the refuse 
matter that has for several days been lodged in the 
large intestine. 

Causes. — ^The fecal matter in the intestines be- 
comes hard, dry, and lumpy unless there is an un- 
failing supply of water for drinking purposes. Con- 
finement in restricted quarters or chaining brings 
about a state of the nervous system that manifests 
itself by costiveness. If proper opportunity is not 



given dogs to relieve themselves, fecal matter ac- 
cumulates in the lower bowels and brings about 
paralysis of that part. A concentrated diet, like 
one of all meat, has not sufficient residue to properly 
stimulate the bowels. Wheat flour is constipating. 
Graham flour, oat and corn meal are not, but on 
account of the excessive residue will, if continued 
too long, overtax the bowels. Vegetables, such as 
cabbage, greens, and onions, have a laxative action 
on the bowels on account of certain medicinal ele- 
ments, as well as their large amount of water. 

Symptoms. — Continued straining and the passage 
of hard, dry, lumpy matter; congested eyes; loss of 
appetite; coated tongue; oflFensive breath, and a list- 
less, out-of-sorts appearance. As the feces get 
pressed into the lower bowels in a compact mass, 
colicky pains occur and the belly becomes hard and 

Treatment. — ^The first thing to do is to unload the 
bowels, not by strong purgatives that will only 
complicate matters, but by an injection either of 
soapsuds or a teaspoonful of glycerine. If the»owner 
does not care to use one of the regular remedies the 
following pills are useful. They should be made by 
a druggist: 

Ext. belladonna, 3 to 12 grains. 
Powd. rhubarb, 6 to 30 grains. 
Powd. nux vomica, i to 6 grains. 

The smaller quantities for small and the larger 
for the large breeds of dogs. The above should be 



carefully mixed and divided into 12 pills, one to be 
given twice a day after food. 

In all cases the cure must be looked for through 
a change in the diet and system of management. 
See that your dog's supply of fresh water is unfail- 
ing and that he is exercised daily. If he has been fed 
largely on meat and wheat bread, feed with the 
meat a quantity of freshly chopped cabbage, spinach, 
dandelions, or beet tops. Substitute oatmeal, corn- 
meal, or graham bread for the wheat flour, or, better 
still, feed Spratt's Dog Cakes, as they are an ad- 
mirably balanced ration that keep the bowels in a 
healthy condition. By a variation of these different 
foods and a course of treatment with Dent's Condi- 
tion Pills, the system can be toned up and habits 
will become regular and the general health and ap- 
pearance improved. 

Diarrhea. — ^This disease, of common occurrence 
among young puppies and old overfed dogs, refers 
to abnormal changes in the character and frequency 
of the passages of the bowels. In this disorder the 
membranes of the bowels are not diseased, but 
simply pass off matter that irritates them. When the 
bowels themselves become inflamed and ulcerated 
the disorder is known as dysentery, and it is obvious 
that a simple attack of diarrhea, if not properly 
attended to, is liable to run into the much more 
serious case of dysentery. 

Causes. — Errors in diet and indigestion are the 
common causes. The eating of decayed and irritat- 
ing food, often brought about by leaving stale food 



over from one meal to another, foul water, and in- 
juries caused by blows or kicks, will bring on this 
disorder. The retained excretions of constipation 
also throw off poisons that will unduly stimulate the 
bowels, A severe chilling and cold that forces the 
blood to the intestines will also set up diarrhea. 
Worms are a common cause, and among puppies 
changes in the milk of the nursing mother or the 
abrupt change to cow's milk are frequent causes. 
Diarrhea is also brought on by the injudicious use 
of salts and calomel. 

Symptoms, — These are of course evident, and in- 
dicate the severity of the attack by their character 
and frequency. In an acute attack vomiting of 
offensive matter accompanies the loose, watery dis- 
charge from the bowels. Blood is sometimes present 
as a result of piles or a congestion of the membranes, 
as well as small amounts of mucus. In a simple 
attack of diarrhea the general health suffers but 
little, but if not checked the weakness becomes 
excessive, and among puppies the mortality is high. 

Treatment. — ^As the disease is simply nature's ef- 
fort to throw off irritating matter, it should be assisted 
by giving a dose of castor oil to empty the intes- 
tines. The diet should be attended to. Feed milk, 
three parts, mixed with lime water, one part, and a 
milk porridge made by browning wheat flour and 
then mixing it with milk. Spratt's special foods are 
very useful in these cases. A good diarrhea mixture 
in severe cases is: 



Laudanum^ i drachm. 
Tr. rhubarb, 4 drachms. 
Peppermint, water to make 4 ounces. 

Dose, a teaspoonful to two tablespoonfuls 
three times a day. 

But generally all that will be necessary to do is 
to attend to the diet as previously described. Where 
worms are the cause, and their presence is always to 
be suspected, particularly if the nature of the dis- 
charge is variable, sometimes lumpy and covered 
by mucous froth and small air bubbles, their expul- 
sion must be accomplished by suitable vermifuges. 

Diarrhea in young puppies can generally be cured 
by changing the diet. Feed less milk, and for it 
substitute beef tea or wheat bread soaked in blood 
gravy. If there is much pain, give five or ten drops 
of paregoric. Precipitated chalk in doses of one- 
fourth teaspoonful for small puppies and one-half 
teaspoonful for puppies of two months and over, is 
a harmless and useful remedy in these cases, and 
the dose may be repeated every two or three hours. 


Some affections of the eye arise from debility, 
others are due to injuries. Ingrowing lashes or the 
presence of irritating bodies are also common 

Eye: Symptoms. — Increased sensitiveness to the 
light; dimness of the eyeball; an excessive flow of 
tears from the eyes, running down over the cheeks; 



from the corner of the eye a discharge which thickens 
and becomes purulent, gluing together the swollen 
lids. Sometimes at the roots of the hair at the edge 
of the lids there appear small pustules. These break 
and discharge matter that dries into crusts, matting 
the hair, gluing the lids together, and destroying 
the lashes. 

Treatment. — Do not expose the animal unneces- 
sarily to the light; bathe the eye every hour with 
warm water to soften the discharge, and use a small 
wedge-shaped piece of sponge to remove accumula- 
tions of matter. Restrict the diet, give Dent's purify- 
ing pills three times a day, and apply several times 
a day a saturated solution of boracic acid. Another 
useful lotion is: Zinc sulph., 15 grains; morph. sulph., 
4 grains. Water to make 4 ounces. It snould also 
be dropped between the lids. 

Canker of the Ear. — ^The ear is the most com- 
plicated structure in the body and subject to 'a 
variety of disorders, the largest number of which 
are generally considered under one head of canker — 
a most painful disease that if neglected will result 
in deafness. 

Water dogs are most frequently affected, not only 
by water gaining entrance to the ear, but by the 
shocks to the system following the exposure they 
undergo, bringing on an unsettled condition of the 
digestive system, skin, and blood. 

Thorns, injuries, pulling the dog's ears, accumu- 
lation of wax and foreign substances entering the 
ear are also responsible to a degree for these ail- 



ments. Attention to the dog's general health and 
condition, judicious selection of food, and the treat- 
ment of all intestinal disorders, with attention to all 
those details that will keep the blood pure and the 
stomach healthy, will be found the real secret for 
the prevention as well as cure of affections of the ear. 

There is also a condition of the ear confounded 
with canker in which the edges of the ear become hot, 
dry, and scaly, and the roots of the hair are covered 
with a whitish scurf. The dog is continually shaking 
bis head or scratching at his ears to relieve the irrita- 
tion. These cases should be treated for what they 
are; that is, a form of eczema, and the scurf is the 
eggs of lice. The ears should be washed and soaked 
in warm water until all scurf and scales are removed, 
then carefully dried and mange lotion applied to the 
affected parts. The ointment recommended for 
eczema is also useful in these cases. 

In another class of cases, as a result of injuries 
or inflammation, the entire flap of the ear becomes 
greatly swollen, very feverish and tender, and a 
quantity of fluid forms between the cartilage and the 
skin of the ear. These cases are difficult to treat. 
The swellings are lanced easily and the fluid drawn 
off, but the ear fills up again in the course of a few 
hours. The best treatment is to insert on the inside 
of the flap a seton of tape from above downward, 
which will keep the wound open until the discharge 
ceases, when it can be withdrawn and the openings 
treated by dusting iodoform over them twice a day. 

When the membrane lining the external passage 




of the ear is inflamed and otherwise affected we 
have external canker of the ear. At first there is a 
redness and slight swelling, which is seldom noticed, 
or no importance is attached to it. The dog will 
shake his head and show uneasiness. This is fol- 
lowed by ulceration and suppuration; a black, 
offensive discharge develops which may extend both 
ways. Sometimes it runs back into the head and 
involves the ear drum and the small bones of the 
ear, producing internal canker; but more often it 
runs outward and involves the outer passages, and 
we have external canker. The ear will be found red 
and swollen, the exudation dries and forms scabs, 
pus is generally present, and there are numbers of 
bright red spots on the inside of the flaps and along 
the ear passage. The dog holds his head on one side 
and shakes it violently as though to get something 
out of it, and will slide along the floor on his ear or 
dig at it with his paw. The flaps of the ear become 
bruised and ulcerated, and the tips become cracked 
or split and are very sore. 

Treatment. — ^The general health should be at- 
tended to first. If the disease is chronic, but the 
animal^s digestion is good, cod-liver oil emulsion 
four times a day is useful. If the system is deranged 
and the blood is out of order — and in most cases it 
is — it is highly important that the system be thor- 
oughly cleansed and the blood cooled and purified 
by giving blood-purifying pills three times a day. 
If the dog is troubled with worms, take measures 
to secure their expulsion. 


Cleanliness of the parts is, of course, important, 
but too much washing and neglecting to dry the ear 
properly will retard healing. The ear should be 
washed carefully with lukewarm water and dog 
soap, and, if necessary, use a small syringe to soften 
and remove all hardened wax. After washing, dry 
the ear carefully and do not wash again until it is 
necessary to do so from an accumulatipn of wax or 
purulent discharges. It must be borne in mind that 
too much washing at this stage is very harmful. 
The ear should be carefully dried with soft cotton 
and a canker lotion injected into the ear passage. 
Dent's canker lotion is very good. The best of the 
lead and zinc lotions commonly used for this pur- 
pose is: 

Oxide of zinc ointment, 2 drachms. 
Resorcin, 10 grains. 
Almond oil, i ounce. 

In treating canker of the ear, have an assistant 
take the dog between his knees and turn the head 
to one side, so that the canker lotion can be care- 
fully and slowly injected into the ear. 

Coughs. — In themselves, coughs, no matter of 
what character, are not a disease, but simply an 
evidence of some other derangement of the system. 
To decide what particular disease is indicated by 
the cough is in some cases very difficult, for in many 
cases annoying coughs are the only symptoms that 
animals otherwise in the best of health present. It 
is quite important that all coughs be given atten- 




tion, for the first symptom of many dangerous dis- 
eases is a simple cough that^ if treated in time, might 
prevent a serious illness. 

Causes. — Most coughs are associated with some 
derangement of the respiratory organs and air 
passages. They may be produced, however, by a 
small bone or other hard substance sticking in the 
throat. Worms are responsible for some coughs 
through reflex actions, as well as by inducing accu- 
mulations of mucus. 

Symptoms. — Coughs vary in character, as do the 
diseases of which, in many cases, they are the most 
prominent symptom. The cough of distemper has 
a peculiar husky, hollow sound. It loosens as the 
secretions of mucus become abundant and the huski- 
ness disappears. It is sometimes accompanied by 
snifl9ing, retching, and vomiting. In the case of 
common colds the cough is slight and generally 
soft and moist. In laryngitis or sore throat the 
cough is hoarse, brassy, and can be induced by 
sligntly choking the upper part of* the throat. It is 
accompanied by more or less pain in swallowing, 
and in some cases difliculty in breathing. In cases 
of acute bronchitis the cough at first is short, dry, 
and dull. It soon becomes easier and looser, and 
can be excited by pressure on the chest. In chronic 
bronchitis the cough is hacking and persistent, and 
continues week after week without change in char- 
acter or severity. In pneumonia the cough is at 
first short, dry, and intermittent. Later it becomes 
more frequent, and the matter brought up is of a 



reddish tint like iron rust. This is considered 
diagnostic of the disease. In pleurisy the cough is 
short, dry, hacking, and very psunful. In asthma 
the cough is wheezy, the breathing jerky, and the 
entire appearance is that of suffocation. 

Treatment. — ^All coughs do not yield to the same 
treatment. Some of the chronic coughs following 
colds, distemper, pneumonia, and bronchitis are re- 
lieved by cod liver oil. Dent's Distemperine will 
cure many, while a cough syrup as follows is good 
for others: 

Liquor morphia, 2 drachms. 
Syrup of squills, i oz. 
Syrup of lemon, i oz. 
Water to make three ozs. 

Dose, from half a teaspoonfiil to a dessert 
spoonful three or four times a day. 

Dogs afflicted with hacking, gagging stomach 
coughs should first be treated for worms with vermi- 
fuge, and then have their systems toned up by a 
course of treatment with condition pills. 

Goiter. — Bronchocele and Goiter are terms ap- 
plied to enlargements of the thyroid glands that are 
located in the neck on each side of the windpipe 
about halfway down to the chest. The cause of 
these enlargements is not known. Some appear 
over night, others are slower about developing. 
Generally they are free from redness or pain, and 
to the touch are soft and elastic. Occasionally they 
are very hot and painful and increase in size so 



rapidly as to interfere with breathing, and the patient 
dies of suffocation. This affection is very common 
among puppies and is not unusual among old dogs. 
They are unsightly affairs, dangerous in some cases, 
and should be removed. 

Treatment. — ^The commonest treatment is paint- 
ing with the tincture of iodine. Three applications, 
with an interval of two days between each applica- 
tion, is sufficient in some cases; in others it will be 
necessary to use Dent's Goiter treatment, both 
internal and external, to effect a cure. 


The nervous system of the dog is very highly 
developed, and consequently subject to a variety of 
disorders, the most frequent being chorea, a dis- 
ease whose pathology is not well understood, and 
fits due commonly to worms, indigestion, distemper, 
teething, etc. 

Chorea. — The most satisfactory theory in re- 
gard to the cause of this disorder is that the brain 
cells controlling a certain muscle or set of muscles 
are so weakened by the poison of distemper or some 
other cause as to induce them to send out muscular 
impulses without natural mental impulse or will- 

There is a form of chorea, due to a disturbed 
nervous system, induced by blows or injuries or to 
the presence of intestinal parasites which have de- 
ranged the digestive organs. This form of chorea is 
generally curable. The form which follows dis- 



temper is not so amenable to treatment. There is 
also another form of chorea that follows the use of the 
imperfect vaccines and innoculations for distemper 
that have been used so generally the last few years. 
Chorea from this cause is almost always fatal. 

Symptoms. — ^These are so prominent and char- 
acteristic that there is no mistaking the disease, and 
the peculiar involuntary twitching of the muscles 
once seen is never forgotten. The entire body may 
be affected. Generally it is only one set of muscles, 
those of the foreleg or of the neck and shoulders, in 
which case the head bobs up and down in a most 
helpless manner. Where the hindlegs are affected 
the dog will suddenly drop one of the limbs from 
the hip downward, as if there were an entire loss of 
strength and power. This is particularly noticeable 
if it attempts to jump on a chair or table, for after 
one or two attempts it falls on its side or in a heap 
completely helpless. 

The top of the head is often affected, and twitches 
and throbs in a most peculiar manner, and the jerk- 
ing is commonly observable about the muscles of 
the eyelids, lips, and face. In severe cases of chorea 
the general health is affected, and the animal shows 
signs of suffering, probably due to anxiety and ap- 
preciation of its helplessness. In mild cases it does 
not affect the animal's general health, and some field 
dogs have it all their lives without affecting their 
usefulness. The owner, however, is annoyed by the 
constant muscular movements and is always anxious 



to efFect a cure. Some cases are quiet during sleep^ 
others are worse. 

Treatment. — The disease occurs in the best-reg- 
ulated kennels, but dogs properly treated for dis- 
temper are less liable to the disease than those which 
are given too powerful remedies. 

In a case of chorea the first thing to do is to look 
after the animal's general health. See that the 
bowels act properly, and this is accomplished best 
by dieting and the feeding of foods possessing lax- 
ative properties, and not by resorting to physics. 
If there is the slightest suspicion of worms, treat for 
them, as they torment the nervous system beyond all 
measure and are the cause of many attacks. 

If there is a tendency to constipation use well- 
boiled oatmeal, mutton broths with stale bread, 
beef well boiled, or raw, lean beef chopped. Give a 
condition pill after each meal to assist the stomach 
in the process of digestion. If there is much de- 
bility and weakness give emulsion of codliver oil. 
The other drugs used are: arsenic, iron, nux vomica, 
bromide of strontia, and strychnine in various doses 
depending upon the age and size of the patient. 

This disease is so slow in yielding to medicine that 
many valuable dogs are given up as incurable which 
could be cured if their owners only would persist in 
the treatment and not be discouraged too easily. 
Dent's special remedies can be recommended as 
easily administered and adapted to dogs of all 
ages and sizes. Of course, if administered at the 
II 317 


first appearance of the disease the chances for re- 
covery are much greater than in old or neglected 

Fits. — ^Fits and convulsions are of commoner oc- 
currence in dogs than in other domestic animals, 
because the nervous organization of the dog is more 
highly developed and sensitive. 

Causes. — ^These are various, such as excitement, 
worms, teething, exhaustion, overheating, indiges- 
tion, and epilepsy. 

Treatment. — During the convulsions the body 
should be kept warm and the head cold by applying 
ice to it or bathing it in cold water. This will re- 
lieve the patient, after which the cause should be 
sought and removed. If from worms, give vermifuge; 
if due to teething, remove the milk teeth when loose 
and lance the gums where the second teeth are 
attempting to force their way through; if the result 
of indigestion or a weak stomach, apply the reme- 
dies suggested for the cure of indigestion. 



The health and happiness of a dog depend upon 
its surroundings and the attention given its sleeping 
quarters, food, grooming, washing, and habits of life; 
for a healthy dog which is forced to occupy dirty, 
vermin-infested quarters and subsist on unwholesome 
food, and which is seldom or never exercised, 
groomed, or washed, will soon be in a miserable con- 
dition — dull, lifeless, rough-coated, and out of sorts. 


Every dog should be provided with sleeping quar- 
ters that he may consider his own. For a small pet 
dog a basket is all that is necessary, and for bedding 
there is nothing better than a folded Turkish towel, as 
it can be washed easily and kept clean. Women are 
partial to cushions for their pets. If these have re- 
movable linen covers that can be changed and washed 
two or three times a week, no objection need be 
raised to them, but the fancy velvet or plush-covered 
affairs commonly used are abominable, as it is im- 
possible to keep them clean. 

Large dogs which sleep in the house can be given 
a rug. This should be aired and dusted daily and 
washed at least once a week. Another good bed con- 
sists of a woodeii frame about six inches deep over 


which is tacked a piece of canvas or burlap, like the 
head of a drum. 

If a dog is kept out-of-doors it must be provided 
with a kennel. A very simple one may be made from 
a kerosene barrel, the objectionable smell being 
removed by burning a handful of shavings in the 
barrel. This will ignite what remains of its past con- 
tents and the flames can be smothered by turning the 
open end of the barrel to the ground. With a piece of 
canvas hung over its front, that the dog can push 
to one side when going in or out, this will make a 
water and wind-proof kennel that is free from crevices 
that harbor vermin. 

If it is concluded to have a carpenter construct 
a kennel, have the entrance at the side and not at 
one end. A bench open in front, but protected at the 
sides and top, on which a dog can rest and enjoy the 
air, will add to its comfort. The top should be re- 
movable so as to permit of easy and thorough clean- 
ing of the sleeping apartment. 

Whenever it is possible to do so, place the kennel 
under a shed that is open to the south or east. This 
will render it cooler in summer and warmer in win- 
ter, and in every way more comfortable than if the- 
roof of the kennel be exposed directly to the ele- 

If a number of dogs are kept larger buildings must 
be provided, and the architect and builder should be 

Kennels should always be placed on clay or 
black soil, for fleas are very partial to and breed in 



the sand, and inmates of a kennel located on sandy 
soil are sure to be infested with fleas. 

If the dog is to be kept on a chain, a strong wire 
on which is an easily sliding ring should be stretched 
from a post near the kennel to another post or 
tree some distance away, so that by snapping the 
dog's chain to the sliding ring he will have greater 
opportunity to exercise than if he were chained to his 
kennel or post. In these days of cheap wire netting 
it is better to provide a dog with a yard in which 
he can exercise freely, as the constant tugging when 
on a chain sometimes affects a dog's throat and chest 
or the conformation of his shoulders. 


In warm weather a dog requires little or no bed- 
ding and is probably more comfortable on bare boards. 
During cold weather oat straw makes the warmest 
and most comfortable bed, as it does not mat and 
is free from the seeds and dust that are the chief 
objections to hay. During the fall and summer pine 
shavings make a good bedding, as they are ob- 
jectionable to fleas, and this property can be inten- 
sified by sprinkling them with turpentine. In flea- 
infested sections some breeders mix tobacco scraps 
with the bedding. Another excellent practice is to 
lay a strip of tarred paper under the bedding. 
Every momine the bedding should be stirred up and 
examined. Ir it is dusty, damp, dirty, or packed 
down, it should be renewed, and to insure its being 
fresh should be changed once a week at least. 




The dog is a carnivorous animal and in a state 
of nature lives on an all-meat diet. Domestication 
and association with man have so altered its organs 
of digestion that it now thrives best on a mixed diet — 
one containing meat, grain, and vegetables. Meat 
does not afFect the scent of a dog nor does it cause 
germ diseases or worms, as is frequently stated, and a 
dog which has sufficient exercise would thrive on an 
all-meat diet. But when the life led is artificial and 
the opportunities for exercise limited, the danger 
from feeding too much meat lies in the fact that meat 
is so stimulating that it loads the system with 
impurities that the organs of the body are unable 
to eliminate, thereby resulting in diseases of the skin. 

Dogs should be fed twice a day. In the morning 
give a light meal, consisting preferably of one or two 
Spratt's Dog Cakes. These should be fed dry, so 
that the dog will gnaw at them, thereby stimulating 
the secretion of saliva that is important to insure 
complete digestion. Feed a heavy meal at night, 
allowing the animal to eat until satisfied, for a dog 
always sleeps best on a full stomach. Dogs should 
never be allowed to nose over their food. As soon as 
they show that they have had enough the remnants 
of the meal should be immediately removed. 

Feeding time affords the owner a favorable op- 
portunity of informing himself as to the health 
of his dogs. If a dog does not eat his evening meal 
with the usual gusto, take it away and let him fast 



until the next day. Then try him again, and if he 
still refuses to eat, or only noses his food, consider him 
sick and take means to restore him to health. All 
that most cases require are a few doses of Dent's 
Condition Pills. If the bowels are constipated and 
the liver is out of order, it may be necessary to give 
a laxative pill to insure a good cleansing of the 
system. Cases due to worms or distemper should 
be given proper treatment. 

Pet dogs suffer from overfeeding and the promiscu- 
ous use of sweets and other candies that produce 
indigestion and other ailments. The proper diet 
for them is Spratt's Dog Cakes, stale or toasted 
bread and milk, a little well-cooked, lean meat, beef 
broths, etc., with an occasional bone of good size. 

If but one or two dogs are kept, table scraps, if 
fresh, not too highly seasoned, and free from chicken 
or fish bones, make a satisfactory and wholesome diet. 

Where a number of dogs are kept, an excellent 
food can be prepared by boiling sheep or beef heads 
until soft and then thickening the liquor in which 
they are boiled with stale bread, crackers, vegetables, 
and meal. 

Nearly all dogs are fond of boiled liver, and it can 
be given with good results once or twice a week, 
as it has a very desirable laxative effect upon the 

Dog cakes have come into general use in the last 
few years, and although some dogs refuse to eat 
them, a little tact and perseverance upon the part 
of the owner will accustom the dog to them. They 



form a very satisfactory diet and the trouble of 
feeding is reduced to the minimum. 

Puppies can be weaned by dipping their noses 
into a pan of milk. They proceed to lick the milk 
off from their noses and soon learn to lap it. They 
should be fed at least six times a day on milk that 
has been scalded; to it can gradually be added 
broken crackers and other solid food. Sour milk 
also should be given two or three times a week, as 
it is a preventive of worms. 


Dogs can go several days without food and escape 
serious consequences, but any restriction in their 
supply of drinking water will be followed by eruptions 
of the skin and a disgusting odor from the body. It is, 
therefore, important that dogs have before them at 
all times an unfailing supply of fresh water. During 
warm weather this must be frequently changed, 
to insure its being cool and pure. Earthenware 
crocks make good drinking vessels, as they can be 
kept clean without much labor, and are not easily 
tipped over. No benefit is derived from placing a 
lump of sulphur in the water, as sulphur is a mineral 
that will not dissolve in water. 


Dogs from time to time require washing to re- 
move the accumulations of dirt and the fine scales 
that the skin is constantly exfoliating. 



When washing dogs every precaution should be 
taken to prevent the animal contracting cold. If the 
bath is to be given out of doors during the summer, 
a warm, sunshiny day should be selected; if in the 
house, see that the room is properly heated, and 
do not allow the animal to enter the open air until 
the coat and skin are thoroughly dry. In washing 
large breeds, such as St. Bernards, they can be 
placed on some clean surface; collies and setters can 
be placed in an ordinary tub, while a footpan answers 
for small dogs. Fill the receptacle with lukewarm 
water as high as the dog's knees. The animal's coat 
should then be moistened all over, beginning at the 
neck and shoulders, either pouring on the water from 
a small tin cup or using a sponge. Dog soap should 
then be rubbed well into the coat, more water gradu- 
ally added, and the animal carefully rubbed until 
a profuse lather is produced. The head should be 
washed last and care exercised that soap or water 
does not gain entrance to the ears or eyes. Allow the 
lather to remain on a few moments and then rinse off 
with clean water. 

The animal must now be carefully dried with a 
coarse towel, those made from a salt sack cut into 
suitable sizes being efficient and durable. 

Even after a dog has been thoroughly dried there 
is danger of its taking cold, and while most authori- 
ties advise giving a freshly washed dog a warm 
kennel or a bed before the fire, a better procedure 
is to blanket it lightly and induce it to exercise for 
fifteen or twenty minutes. The natural warmth of 



the body, induced by exercise and retained by a 
blanket, will restore the natural circulation quicker 
than artificial heat. If the weather is such that the 
dog cannot be safely exercised out-of-doors, ex- 
ercise him in a warm room and give him a warm 
bed of clean straw. A good meal at this time will 
nourish him and stimulate his powers of resistance. 
Therefore, the best time to wash a dog is about one 
hour before feeding time. 

When washing long-haired toy breeds, such as 
Yorkshires, place the dog in a pan and cleanse his 
coat by brushing him with a long-handled hair brush 
kept saturated with the soapy water. By preserving 
the part of the hair down the dog's back, all danger of 
snarling the coat will be avoided. Rinse in clear 
water and dry by brushing before a fire with 
two or more ordinary hair brushes that can be 
alternately warmed and used. 

When washing collies it is advisable to dissolve 
the soap in the water instead of applying it directly 
to the dog's coat, and in drying this breed brush the 
hair the wrong way and force the air into the coat 
with a fan. 


Dogs require plenty of exercise and unless they 
get it are unhealthy and liable to attacks of skin 
diseases, indigestion, constipation, and other bowel 
complaints. Some of the active breeds, like collies 
and setters, will get all the exercise they require 
if turned loose for a thirty-minute run, twice a day. 



Large breeds, like St. Bernards, are not so easily taken 
care of. They require a slow walk for at least an 
hour every day, and if it is not given them their 
bones and muscles do not develop properly. Pet 
dogs, such as toy spaniels or pugs, should be given 
a run every day, and it is an excellent idea to teach 
them to chase a rubber ball indoors, as in this way 
they can be given considerable exercise. On returning 
from exercising a dog, don't forget to examine his 
feet for cuts, pieces of glass, thorns, or splinters. 


There is an old stable adage that a grooming 
is worth more than a feed. This is also true of dogs. 
A dog should be brushed and rubbed down every 
day. Brushes and combs are, of course, useful 
implements for removing snarls and burrs, but after 
the coat is straightened out and the snarls removed, 
nothing is so good for putting on the finish as the 
naked hand, and a little care of this kind will work 
wonders in the dog's appearance. 


Fleas are the greatest annoyance dogs have to 
contend with. The common flea does not lay her 
eggs on the dog, as commonly supposed, but in piles 
of rubbish, cracks in the floor, carpets, and rugs. 
These eggs hatch out in about four weeks, and jump 
upon the first dog that comes their way. The lather 
from most dog soap will kill fleas and lice; but if 



the dog is returned to flea-infested quarters, he will 
probably accumulate another crop. The importance 
of keeping the yard and kennel clean, and the neces- 
sity ot using some good disinfectant are evident. To 
properly disinfect a kennel sweep up and bum all 
old bedding and rubbish and then scrub the walls 
and woodwork with common brown soap and plenty 
of warm water; also dash buckets of boiling water 
over the floors and woodwork. Hot water, soap, and 
elbow grease are the best all-around disinfectants. 
To destroy odors, sprinkle the quarters with one of 
the commercial disinfectants. 




TeIe breeding of dogs and other domesticated ani- 
mals U an art and not a science. Galton, a writer on 
hereditfr who has been extensively read and followed, 
reduced the breeding problem to an arithmetical 
proposition and laid down a simple rule that each 
parent contributed one-half to the physical and men- 
tal make-up of the offspring; consequently the grand- 
parents each Contributed one-fourth; the great-grand- 
parents, one-sixteenth, and remoter ancestors pro- 
portionately fractional parts. 

These conclusions, from a mathematical point, 
are correct; from \ practical breeder's aspect, they 
are monumental it-rors. Galton's theories did not 
explain the mysterious changes that are constantly 
taking place in animals. They were flatly con- 
tradicted by the fact that individual peculiarities 
are frequently lost in one generation, and no solu- 
tion was offered for the perplexing problem why some 
animals with certain traits or characteristics impress 
them conspicuously upon their offspring, while other 
peculiarities fully as pronounced in the individual 
are absent in the progeny. If Galton's rule was 
founded upon facts, the generally accepted breeders' 
aphorisms of "like begets like," and "breed from the 
best," would be above criticism or qualification, 
and as it is the soundness of these two apothegms 
as a general working rule for the breeder will not be 



questioned; but it can be truly said that they do >t 
constitute the beginning and the end of the breeci^* 


The great forces in nature are heredity ant evo- 
lution. They are radically opposed to eac* other 
and in slow but unceasing conflict. Heredity, the 
master and passive force, is opposed "O change 
and makes all living things a product vf their an- 
cestors, with all their defects and weak ^esses as well 
as their excellences. 

Evolution, on the contrary, is con?iantly effecting 
changes in both the physical and mental make-up of 
animals, so as to adapt them better to the conditions 
under which they live. Heredivy, the base upon 
which all breeders operate, can be relied upon to 
transmit from parents to young all of the physical 
and mental peculiarities that have become fixed and 
have existed in the family for a number of genera- 
tions, but it will not transmit with any degree of 
certainty individual peculiarities that are not family 
traits. Whenever individual peculiarities appear, 
heredity aims to remove and obliterate them, and 
is concerned only in the perpetuation of the estab- 
lished family type. 

As an illustration, a certain strain of fox terriers 
may have splendid legs and bodies, but as a rule 
are short in head. A dog of this strain may come 
out with a long, clean, and in every way desirable 
head, and his body and general conformation be fully 



up to the high standard of his family. A dog of this 
kind would be bred too extensively and bitches with 
all kinds of head would be sent to him. If a number 
of his puppies be examined after they arrive at or 
approach maturity, it will be seen that while as 
a rule these puppies display the general symmetry 
that distinguishes the family of the sire, they still 
have the family defects in head. The sire had a good 
head, but heredity would not transmit it with any 
degree of certainty because it was not a characteristic 
of the family or a dominant trait. 

The successful breeder, while he does not lose sight 
of the excellences of individuals, concerns himself 
chiefly with the excellences of families. If he has a 
fox terrier bitch which is symmetrical and generally 
desirable, with the exception that she has a soft 
coat, he does not breed her to a dog with a good 
coat unless he is sure that good coats are a character- 
istic of the family of which the dog is a member. 
If he had a bad-bodied, but nice-headed, collie, he 
would look around for the best dog which came from 
a family which were noted for their good bodies. It 
is by having a thorough knowledge of pedigrees and 
the general characteristics of certain families that 
breeders succeed in making those combinations of 
blood that are known as successful nicks, and these, 
when arrived at, should be adhered to as closely as 




In connection with the breeding subject there are 
certain laws and principles that must be observed. 
The most important of them is in-breeding. In the 
development of our most valuable breeds or domestic 
animals, in-breeding has been the main reliance of 
the breeder, and it has been practiced so closely and 
extensively that among some people the word in-bred 
has been accepted as synonymous with pure bred. 
This is a great error. Animals can be in-bred without 
being pure bred, and pure-bred animals are not 
necessarily in-bred. Correctly speaking, in-breeding 
is simply the mating together of animals closely 
related. The results of judicious in-breeding are 
a uniformity of type and a smoothness and finish 
that can be arrived at so quickly in no other way, 
and it makes possible the perpetuation of desirable 
characteristics. The effects of careless, injudicious 
in-breeding are loss of size and strength, weakened 
constitutions, susceptible to disease, and impotency. 
The continuance and closeness with which in-breed- 
ing can be practiced with safety depend upon the 
character of the animals the breeder is attempting 
to improve. With breeds of recent origin, among 
which there is much irregularity, slight relationship 
and little likeness in either shape, size, or temper- 
ament, in-breeding can be practiced frequently with- 
out fear of bad results, until such time as uniformity 
is arrived at. After that it must be practiced with 
care. Among animals that are pure bred, more or 


less related, and which breed true to a uniform type, 
in-breeding should not be practiced any more than 
is necessary to keep the blood pure or to preserve 
successful nicks. 


This principle is, that change in one organ or 
part of the body cannot be accomplished without 
modifications and changes in other parts of the 
system, and explains the difficulty breeders have in 
producing freakish specimens that will breed true to 
type, as nature insists through the operation of this 
law that a careful balance be kept between all the 
organs and parts of the body. A lone-backed dog in 
nature's plan should have a long head, and vice 
versa. Terrier breeders who have been trying for 
long heads and short backs know how difficult it is 
to circumvent this principle. It is also understood 
that a high degree of development in one part of the 
body is accomplished only with a lack of develop- 
ment in other parts, and this applies to special senses 
and mental traits as well as physical features. As 
an illustration: In reptiles, fishes, or long-snouted 
herbivorous animals, the increased development of 
the bones of the face is at the expense of the cerebral 
cavity. The lower forms of apes have large faces and 
small heads. In man the bones of the face are com- 
paratively small, while those covering the brain are 
largely developed. This is worthy of consideration 
by setter and pointer breeders, for the bench show 
standards call for setters with long, square muzzles, 

" 333 


bench-show advocates deplore the fact that the type 
of setter developed by field trials has lost the old 
square muzzle and become what they term snipy- 
muzzled, and assert that this is an evidence of lack 
of intelligence. A greater error is impossible of 
conception, and the so-called snipy muzzle of field 
trial dogs is to competent biologists the strongest 
evidence of increased mental capacity, and the 
aggressive bird-hunting instinct of dogs bred from 
field trial ancestry is sufficient evidence that the 
American setter and pointer are being developed 
upon natural lines, for the relations existing between 
structure and function are such that by developing 
and breeding for bird-hunting instincts we will arrive 
at a structure that is useful, rational, and will breed 
true to type. 


This factor or principle in breeding is called 
by breeders casting back, or throwing back, and 
refers to the occurrence of an individual which re- 
resembles its grandparents, great-grandparents, or 
some remote ancestor more than it does its parents. 
Cases of atavism occur most frequently when cross- 
breeding has been resorted to at some more or less 
remote period. The purer bred and more uniform the 
type for the greatest number of years, the less fre- 
quent the appearance of cases illustrating this prin- 
ciple. Atavism is not the result of a failure or loss of 
power of heredity, and the only conclusion to be 



drawn from its occurrence is, that a trait or character- 
istic that had been dominant in the family of some 
ancestor had by process of nature been suppressed 
or held dormant until by another peculiar process of 
nature it received an opportunity to assert itself 
and become dominant. 


There is a widespread belief that an impression 
made upon the mother's mind while she is carry- 
ing her young will influence their intra-uterine de- 
velopment, and in this way abnormalities, birthmarks, 
and peculiarities in structure and color are accounted 
for. This belief owes its popularity as much as any- 
thing to the fact that the Bible credits Jacob with 
breeding cattle which were ring-streaked, spreckled, 
and spotted, simply through the influence upon the 
minds of the females of the herd made by a row of 
peeled rods. Modern biologists attach no great im- 
portance to mental impressions; birthmarks are 
largely the result of inflammations of the uterus, 
and the resemblances, fancied or otherwise, of arms 
and legs to lower animals are simply cases of arrested 
embryonic development or the result of mechanical 
pressure from the ligaments of the uterus or the 
umbilical cord. It is generally conceded that the 
habitual mental condition of the mother has an 
influence upon the fluids supporting the embryo, 
but this cannot be regarded as a direct mental im- 
pression upon either the foetus or its development. 




This subject, "Does the first impregnation of the 
female have any influence upon the progeny of subse- 
quent breeding to other sires?" has been for years, 
and still remans, a disputed question. Scientists are 
arrayed on both sides of the question. Among dog 
breeders, the popular opinion is that it does, and 
many of the breeders who look wth suspicion upon 
a bitch which has suffered a misalliance have had 
personal experiences with which to support their 
















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A bitch usually comes in season for breeding twice 
a year. The first time when she reaches maturity, 
which will be at from seven to ten months of age, 

Her condition can be recognized by restlessness, 
frequent urination, attention to other dogs, and a 
mucous discharge from the vagina, at first thin and 
watery, later streaked with blood, and finally of 
the appearance of pure blood. She should be isolated 
at once and carefully protected from the attentions 
of other dogs. 

A bitch can be bred the first time that she comes 
in season, but it is better to wait for the second sea- 
son before asking her to take up the burden of 
maternity, for it is a heavy drain upon the system. 
It is important that both of the parents of a pros- 
pective litter be of good health and free from worms 
or skin diseases: most of the puppies which die be- 
fore reaching maturity are the progeny of unhealthy 
parents. The period of gestation in the bitch is 
from fifty-seven to sixty-three days; sixty-one bdng 
the average. 

It is easier to raise puppies during the spring and 
summer than it is during the fall and winter, and 
for that reason make the matings accordingly. The 
whelping table indicates the dates puppies can be 
expected after the service dates. 

During the period of gestation the bitch should 
be exercised regularly but not violently, her diet 
should be varied and wholesome, such as Spratt's 



Cakes, whole wheat bread, vegetables, well-cooked 
meat varied with raw i^ieat, boiled rice, fresh milk, 
and soups mixed with some preparation of bone 
meal so as to provide bone-making material for her 
prospective litter. About the third week it is well 
to treat the mother for worms, and a few days be- 
fore she is due to whelp give her a dose or two of olive 
oil as constipation should be avoided at this 'time. 
What is needed is a mild purgative. Olive oil is 
usually sufficient, but if she is badly constipated, a 
mixture of olive oil and castor oil may be necessafy. 

Strong, healthy bitches can usually be trusted to 
take care of themselves. If possible they should be 
allowed to occupy their customary quarters. It is 
important that they be quiet, comfortable, warm, 
and free from draughts. Provide plenty of clean 
wheat or oat straw in which she can make her own 
nest, and after she has her puppies the less she is 
bothered the better. The person who looks after 
her should be one to whom she is accustomed. 
She may refuse food for the first few hours after her 
labors, but light nourishment should be offered her, 
such as warm milk or beef tea. Do not neglect to 
have a bowl of fresh water by her at all times. 

In the case of pet dogs that have lived under highly 
artificial conditions the whelping is not always so 
easily carried on, and assistance is frequently neces- 
sary. If no veterinarian is available and the labor 
pains have begun and continue without result. 
Ergot may be resorted to. The dose of the extract 
is about ten drops for a ten-pound bitch, fifteen for 



one weighing twenty pounds, etc; it should be ad- 
ministered in a teaspoonful of water and given by the 
mouth. If a puppy is bom and the mother is unable 
to break the membrane in which it is enclosed, the 
umbilical cord should be severed with a pair of 
sharp scissors and the membrane broken with the 
fingers. If a puppy is born and the mother is unable 
to develop any signs of life by licking, and she is 
obliged to turn her attention to another that is being 
born, the apparently lifeless puppy should be quietly 
removed, and, for a few moments, placed in a bowl 
of warm water up to its neck. A finger should then 
be moistened with a drop of brandy and applied 
to the puppy's tongue. This will sometimes start 
a puppy to breathing, after which it should be 
carefully dried, warmed, and returned to the dam as 
promptly as possible. 

After the puppies are all born, restrain any desire 
to examine them. Leave them with their mother, 
who should be offered warm milk every hour. 


The important point in feeding the nursing mother 
is to select and carefully prepare her food, and feed 
it in smaller quantities, and at shorter intervals 
than usual, so as not to overload or disturb hftr stom- 
ach, as a derangement of the mother's stomach 
is reflected in her puppies. A good diet for a nursing 
bitch is as follows: For the first day after whelping she 
should be fed milk and raw eggs in the proportion 




of two eggs to the pint of milk, not a large quantity 
at any one time, but every two hours. The second 
day give a pan of fresh milk to which lime water 
has been added in the proportion of a cup of lime 
water to a pint of milk; this should be thickened 
with well-boiled rice, dog cakes, or stale bread; at 
noon give a more substantial meal, adding meat, either 
cooked or raw, minced fine and in the proportion 
of one third the amount of biscuits or cereal; at 
night feed equal quantities of meat, vegetables, and 
cereals softened with milk or soup, and before going 
to bed, a drink of milk may be offered. The meat 
should be lean, free from fat, and mixed with the 
vegetables, and the cereals so that it cannot be 
picked out. 

Some bitches are so solicitious for the care of their 
puppies that they are loathe to leave them for ex- 
ercise. After the first day they should be encouraged 
to leave for a short walk at least twice a day. Watch 
the condition of their bowels. If there is any tend- 
ency to constipation give olive oil in suitable doses. 
If the bowels are too loose give bismuth in doses of 
ten grains up to a dram. 

Leave the mother and her puppies alone as long 
as they are doing well. Simply see that they have a 
warm, comfortable nest if the weather is cold, and 
a cool {$lace in the heated days of summer. Use 
every precaution to protect them against flies, for a 
few flies will keep a bitch and her puppies miserable. 
When the puppies are a week or ten days old their 
eyes open, they begin to crawl about, and there is 



more expression to their whines and attempts at 
barking. The mother must now be encouraged to 
leave them for an hour or two each day for a slow, 
quiet walk. After the first two weeks she will likely 
spend less and less time with them, but at night she 
should always be with them as they require her 
presence to keep them warm. It requires two or 
three weeks to wean a litter of puppies. Milk is, of 
course, the staple diet. It should be fresh and of full 
strength, as the milk of a bitch is stronger than that 
of a cow. To teach puppies to drink milk, simply dip 
their noses into the pan; they will lick it off their lips, 
and after two or three times they will do their own 
dipping, and in a short time are lapping industriously. 
The milk can then be thickened with puppy meal, 
stale bread, Spratt's puppy cakes, boiled rice, and in 
a few weeks they will be ready for a still more sub- 
stantial diet. It is well to bear in mind that the rule 
in feeding puppies should be little and often — ^four 
or five times a day. Sprinkle bone meal over their 
food. Egg shells well beaten up are good with beef 
or mutton bones to gnaw, but beware of fish and 
chicken bones. 

In drying up a bitch do not make the mistake 
of taking the puppies away too soon, and be sure to 
allow some of the puppies to nurse until her breasts 
are entirely dry. In case it is necessary to destroy a 
litter of puppies, always allow one or two of them to 
live and nurse the mother until her breasts are dry, 
otherwise she will undergo great suffering and it is 
liable to leave her with caked breasts. When the 



puppies are six weeks old treat them for worms with 
Dent's puppy vermifuge. This treatment should be 
repeated every two or three months until they are 
grown, and after that give them a dose of Dent's 
vermifuge twice a year. 

As a usual thing the first puppies born are the 
strongest, and the popular opinion is that they will 
grow up that way. There is, however, no fixed rule 
about these things. In large litters the last puppy 
is usually the smallest, and breeders usually agree 
that it will never attain the size of its predecessors. 
This may be borne in mind when selecting puppies. 
The number of puppies that a bitch will bring up 
safely depends upon her size and strength. As a gen- 
eral rule, it is not wise to ask too much of her. 

If the mother is short of milk, it is well to provide 
a foster mother. The breed is of no importance 
so long as the individual is sound and healthy. 
Puppies can be brought up on a bottle if necessary. 
Ordinary cow's milk is not as good in these cases as 
Spratt's special food for that purpose, or one of the 
peptonized milks or infant's foods that are used for 
babies. As we have said before, the principal thing 
to be avoided is intestinal parasites; therefore be sure 
that the mother is free from them before her puppies 
are brought into the world. 



The power of speech is the only limit to the pos- 
sibilities of a dog's education; for amiability, rare 
intelligence, powers of reasoning, and wonderful in- 
stincts are coupled with a devotion to and faithful- 
ness for its master that prompt it to obey his every 
wish,' and as a result the human race in all ages and 
under all conditions has looked upon the dog with 
a friendly eye, cultivated his companionship, and, 
by training, has adapted his powers and instincts 
to various uses. It is stated by authorities on agri- 
cultural subjects that without the trained collie, 
sheep raising in large sections of the Highlands of 
Scotland could not be profitably conducted. In the 
far north commercial connections and explorations 
are possible only through the hardihood of the 
Eskimo Huskie, and field sports without carefully 
broken dogs would prove tame and uninteresting and 
degenerate into 'mere butchery. 

The education of the dog which is intended as a 
house pet or companion is fully as important as that 
of the breeds previously mentioned, for a carefully 
trained dog is a far more agreeable and useful com- 
panion than one which is allowed to grow up without 
proper attention to the development of his mental 
powers and instincts, and a man who loves dogs and 
nas come into possession of a valuable puppy should 



no more think of neglecting its education than he 
would that of his children. 


Under training a dog's appearance improves and 
it acquires a knowing, keen, sagacious appearance 
that distinguishes it from the heavy, stupid expres- 
sion and sleepy looks of one whose education has 
been neglected, and there is no excuse for a man 
or woman owning a dog which will not come when 
called, which barks at horses and strangers, climbs 
over you with muddy paws, kills chickens, tears up 
carpets and curtains, and conducts itself generally 
like a spoiled child, when by a little early training 
it could have been taught to come promptly at com- 
mand, walk quietly at heel, lie down at a word, 
retrieve from land or water, guard any object that 
may be given it, go on errands, bring your slippers or 
paper, do little tricks that amuse its master and his 
friends, and conduct itself decorously and mannerly, 
so that every one will admire it. 


A dog, like a child, must have a period of infancy, 
but do not defer its lessons until the period of youth- 
fulness has passed. There is considerable difference 
in the time required for development in the various 
breeds. Small dogs are fully developed in less than 
one year, medium-sized dogs in from ten to eighteen 
months, while the St. Bernards and other large 



dogs require about two years to attain their full 
growth. Females usually develop faster and learn 
easier than males. The training of a high-spirited 
dog of one of the medium-sized varieties may be 
begun when it is four or five months old; that of 
one of the toy breeds should be started about a 
month or so earlier, and of a St. Bernard, Great 
Dane, or other large breed a couple of months 

If you have come into posssession of a timid puppy, 
which is afr^d of loud noises or new scenes, do 
not attempt to train him until he overcomes his 
nervousness. The best way to do this is to take your 
dog around with you to different places where there 
are loud noises. If the puppy is only a little fellow, 
pick him up in your arms and hold him, but do 
not talk to him or tell him too much. Dogs are very 
observing animals and pay a great deal of attention to 
your actions, and if you begin to pet a young or timid 
dog every time he hears a new noise, he will believe 
from your actions that there is really something to 
fear; if, however, you pay no attention to the noise, 
he will be impressed by your lack of concern and soon 
come to the conclusion that there is nothing to fear. 


A young puppy, that is, one under four or five 
months ot age, should never be whipped — a good 
scolding will answer the purpose better — and in 
talking to your dog do not confuse him by shouting 



or yelling at him, and, above all, do not give two or 
three different commands without giving him time to 
understand or obey any one of them. Always speak 
in your ordinary tone of voice and go about things 
coolly and rationally, remembering you have plenty 
of time and that what the puppy does not learn to- 
day may be inculcated to-morrow. Always use the 
same words in ordering a dog to do the same things. 
The importance of doing this cannot be too forcibly 
impressed upon all those who desire to attain suc- 
cess in training. 

The whip should be used sparingly, and never even 
scold a dog, much less whip him, unless you are 
absolutely confident that the dog knows what he 
is being punished for. When you whip a dog, and 
it is seldom necessary to do so, apply the lash slowly 
and deliberately, with well-marked intervals be- 
tween each stroke, and let the last stroke be the 
lightest, giving the dog plenty of time for reflection 
before continuing the walk or lesson, or allowing him 
to do anything else. Do not whip a dog and then 
get effusive; let him reason it out for himself and 
conduct yourself quietly, and your pupil will most 
likely crawl up to you. If then given a kindly word, 
or a pat on the head, he will go on with the work or 
lesson with a distinct remembrance of having been 
detected in the commission of fault and of being 
punished for committing it, and you will have re- 
tained his confidence and affection^ which are ab- 
solutely necessary for success. 

It is all very well to praise a dog after he has 



obeyed you, or has performed some trick, but never 
praise him while performing; keep quiet until he has 
finished and then bestow your favor. 


All the lessons are rudimentary, short, gentle, and 
easy, and should be taught in a way that does not 
altogether check the pupil's spirit of playfulness, 
although the trainer must be careful not to indulge 
too freely in play. The main consideration at first 
is to give the dog a slight idea of what control really 
is and to encourage a desire to please you; care, 
however, must be exercised that the lessons are 
not continued so long as to tire and disgust the 

A puppy's first lesson must be given when you are 
alone, as in no other way can you hope to hold his 
attention; ten minutes at a rime is long enough 
for a lesson, repeated three or four times a day, 
and if there are any signs of tiring or disgust end the 
instruction sooner. The trainer will be obliged to 
exercise considerable judgment in deciding where the 
attention to the lesson ends and is succeeded by 
sulkiness. Inasmuch as the lessons should be car- 
ried on so as to interest the dog and with some re- 
gard to its pleasure, it is advisable to reward your 
pupil after each lesson with some tid-bit, such as a 
small piece of boiled liver. 

The training of dogs and children is accomplished 
along the same general lines, as neither must be 



forced or crowded; interest must be stimulated by 
words of encouragement or rewards, and attention 
to the task at hand enforced by gentle and carefully 
gloved firmness. The first lesson should be so ad- 
ministered as to make it easier to inculcate the 
second, and a feeling of regard and confidence be- 
tween teacher and pupil should be cultivated at all 

In training dogs, the fact should always be borne 
in mind that a puppy which has lived in the world 
only five or six months has not had a very lengthy 
opportunity to gain knowledge of the world's aflFairs, 
and its brain is as yet undeveloped. We do not ex- 
pect any display of intelligence in a child five or six 
months old, and it is unreasonable to expect more 
of a dog of that age than you would of a child several 
times as old. Simply bear in mind that a puppy 
is anxious to please you, and as soon as his little, 
undeveloped, playful brain comprehends what you 
want he will do it. It may test your own patience 
and intelligence to make him understand your wishes, 
but perseverance and kindness will attain the desired 

If your dog is kept in a kennel or on a chain, let 
him have a good run to loosen up his joints and work 
ofiF some of his enthusiasm before you start in with his 




This is the first lesson that should be taught a 
dog. Dogs are naturally clean animals, but puppies, 
like children, are thoughtless. It is an absolute 
necessity that dogs which are to be kept in the house 
should be clean in their habits, and any mistakes they 
may make after they are eight or ten weeks old 
should receive prompt attention and correction. Of 
course, a two-months-old puppy is too young to be 
whipped; if it makes a mistake call its attention to 
what it has done and then immediately put it out of 
the house, and in a few days it will probably under- 
stand why it was put out. If this does not produce 
the desired effect, wait until you catch it in the act 
and rub its nose in the mess it has made, and after 
scolding it put it out of the house. A young puppy 
must never be punished unless caught in the act, if 
the proper effect is desired. An old, hardened of- 
fender may be switched, but the whip as a rule should 
be used sparingly, as there is always danger of con- 
fusing and cowing a dog. 

In teaching dogs cleanliness, give them opportuni- 
ties for emptying themselves. If not so provided with 
an opportunity, nature's necessities will compel 
them to relieve themselves where they are kept, and it 
would be unreasonable to punish a dog for what it 
could not help. All dogs should be taken out-of-doors 
the last thi^g at night and the first thing in the morn- 
ing, and during the day several times, as opportuni- 



ties of this kind are absolutely necessary if they are 
to be kept in good health. 


As a rule it does not take very long to train a dog to 
come to the whistle. Always use the same whistle, 
and it is advisable to blow it in a peculiar way, so 
that the pupil will learn to understand its meaning. 
You must be careful about punishing a dog for not 
obeying the whistle. A good way to teach a dog 
to obey promptly is to take him out for a run just 
before he has had his dinner, and when he is keen 
with hunger he will probably range away. When 
he is some distance away blow a sharp blast of the 
whistle, and, if necessary, call him in, and when he 
returns hand him a piece of meat. Repeat this 
several times during your walk, and after a repetition 
of this lesson for a few days he will appreciate the 
meaning of this call and return to you as soon as he 
hears the whistle. It is possible to elaborate upon 
this branch of his training and teach him to obey 
a series of blasts as: Stop, at one blast; drop, at two 
blasts; or come in, on three. 

"Home,'* or "Go home," are words that every dog 
should understand and should be taught to obey. 
Begin by allowing the puppy to follow you only a 
short distance, fifty or sixty feet, then turn around 
and order him back home, if necessary advancing 
toward him threateningly, and he will most likely 
scamper back. The distance can be gradually in- 


creased until he will understand and obey the order, 
no matter how far away you may be from your 

"Kennel up" is a term that explains itself, and there 
is no difficulty in teaching a dog to go to his kennel 
when he hears it a few times and has been chased 
into his kennel with a light switch. If he sleeps in 
the house, the word basket or bed can be substituted 
for kennel. 

"Quiet." Does are prone to be noisy, and when 
they bark too often, or keep it up longer than neces- 
sary at the approach of a stranger or upon hearing 
a strange noise, they should be cautioned with the 
word quiet, repeated several times, and, if neces- 
sary, enforced with a switch. 

"No" is the most useful word in the vocabulary 
of either dog or man, and your dog must be taught 
its meaning if he is to be a useful and pleasant coni- 
panion. Whenever he does anything that you do 
not want him to do, say "no." If he is out with you 
on the street and attempts to pick up any refuse, call 
out "no" sternly and order him to you; if he does not 
come, go to him and scold him and then lead him 
away. If he does not profit by your scolding, switch 
him and repeat the switching at every repetition of 
the act. 

Some dogs are too friendly with every one they 
meet, and while you want your dog to be good- 
natured and pleasant, you do not want him to mix 
promiscuously, as he will be apt to follow some 
stranger or be easily stolen. To teach one of these 


promiscuous mixers and chummy dogs to exercise 
more discretion in the way he makes up with people, 
have a few strangers chase him away. This will 
alarm him and he will hustle back to you for protec- 
tion, and will soon develop more or less suspicion of 
strangers and give you more of his affection. This 
must be done carefully, because if he is chased 
back too often or is scared too much he will become 
a timid dog. 


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