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Full text of "The complete herbalist : or, The people their own physicians by the use of nature's remedies; describing the great curative properties found in the herbal kingdom; a new and plain system of hygienic principles, together with comprehensive essays on sexual philosophy, marriage, divorce, &c."

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In presenting this work on Crude Organic Remedies — the Constit- 
uents of Plants, and their Officinal Preparations — I do not propose to 
"run a tilt" against any of the systems of Medical Practice, however 
much some of thera may be opposed to common sense and reason, and 
to the Divine ordinances of Nature ; nor shall I treat with contempt 
the teachings and practices of great and wonderful names, or oppose 
the pride, interest, expectation, and conscientious convictions of a 
learned, honorable, and inlluential profession ; my object is simply to 
present many new and curious, if not startling facts, not only weU 
worthy of the earnest consideration of the more intelligent portion of 
the community, who demand reasons the most profound to lead them 
to conviction of a Truth, but of the great mass of humbler people, 
who desire, amid all the great Reforms in human society, above all 
things to secure a " sound mind in a sound body" and to feel something 
of that exalted state of happiness which alone can arise from the posses- 
sion of the most robust and rubicund physical and moral Health. 

It must be palpable to every thinking mind that Therapeutical and 
Pharmaceutical science is the very foundation of the " HEALraG Art 
Divine." In the language of Holy Writ, " The Lord Jms created medi- 
cines out oftlie earthy and he that is wise will not abJior them.''''* 

Yea, happy he that can the knowledge Rain, 

To know the Eternal God made naught in vain." 

The use of medicine is no doubt coincident with the History of the 
Human Race ; but writers generally agree that medicine first became a 
profession among the Egyptians. The priests o^ the earUer natioaa 

Ecolesiaates zsxvlii, 4. 


were the practitioners of the Healing Art, but it does not seem that 
women were excluded from the right of administering medicine for the 
pui-pose of healing the sick, since mention is made of a certain Queen 
Isis, who became greatly celebrated among them, and was worshipped 
as a "Goddess OF Health." Although the practitioners among the 
Egyptians, Assyrians, and Jews were in the habit of employing incan- 
tations, which, of course, produced their good and bad impressions 
through the medium of the imagination, yet their efSciency in curing 
diseases was mainly due to their knowledge of the medicinal virtues of 
many of the vegetable products of Nature. They seemed to look up as 
high as the stars to know the reason of the operation of tlie Herbs in 
the various affections of the human race. 

Among the Greeks, Hippocrates first caused medicine to be regarded 
as a science, while ^sculapius was the first who made medicine an ex- 
clusive study and practice. His sons, Macilaon and Podalirius, are 
celebrated in Homer's " Iliad " for their medical skill as surgeons in the 
Greek armies or during the Trojan war. Two daughters also of .^scu- 
lapius, Panakeia and Hygeia, were no less distinguished than their 
renowned brothers; the latter being the inventor of many valuable 
herbal preparations, whose success in curing diseases won for her, as in 
the case of Queen Isis of Egypt, the proud honor and deification of the 
Greeks as an especial " Goddess of Health." We have no knowledge 
that ^sculapius or his injmediate followers, the Asclepiads, ever con- 
ceived the idea of curing disease by drug or mineral preparations. Ab- 
lutions, bandages, fomentations, ointments, etc., were administered 
externally, and preparations of aromatic herbs, roots, flowers, balms, 
gums, etc., constituted their whole materia medica for all internal ail- 
ments.' Next the Pythagorean school became famous, and these were 
the first to visit the sick at their homes. 

The next most prominent medical practitioner after these was Hip- 
pocrates, the "Coan Sage," who, being one of the most sagacious, 
observing, and industrious men that ever lived, was entitled the 
'■'■Father of Medicine.''' He traveled much in foreign co\intries, devot- 
ing himself with untiling energy to the study and practice of medicine. 
His writings were numerous, and even to this day his doctrines are ex- 
tensively recognized. His practice was consistently founded on the 
phenomena of Nature as exhibited in human bemgs during health and 
disease. His materia medica was derived almost wholly from the vege- 
table kingdom. His internal remedies were purgatives, sudorifics, 
diuretics, and injections, while his external were ointments, plasters, 
liniments, etc. The great principle which directed all his operations 
was the supposed operations of Nature in superintending and regulat- 
ing all the actions of the system. This mode of practice had the good 
effect of enabling the practitioner to make himself well acquainted with 


all the phenomena of disease, and thus to diagnosticate correctly, and 
to meet the varied indications by the administration of some 7ierbal 
remedy, which would induce the crisis requisite to the removal of dis- 
ease and restoration to sound or vigorous health. 

About three hundred years before the Christian era, the Ptolemies 
founded a medical school in Alexandria, Egyj^t. The most famous of 
the professors were Erasistbatus and Herophilus, who dissected 
the bodies of criminals obtained from government. They opposed 
bleeding and violent remedies, trusting more to nature than to art. 
Herophilus paid particular attention to the action of the heart, and was 
the first to give anything like an accurate description of the various 
kinds of pulse., though Praxagoras of Cos, the last of the Asclepiadas, had 
before observed the relation which exists between the pulse and the 
general condition of the system. From that time to the present the 
pulse has been, as it were, the guide for determining the character, ex- 
tent, and probable cause of the disease afflicting the patient, and the 
descriiJtion of treatment required to produce a change for the better. I, 
however, derive great assistance from the temperament, age, sex, etc. 

We pass over the days of the Dogmatics and Empirics, the Pneu- 
matics, and other sects of medical practitioners (who, though they em- 
ployed herbal remedies as a general rule, were strangely given to the 
promulgations of theories and doctrines utterly at variance with the 
most ordinaiy ratiocinations of Philosophy and Reason), imtil we come 
to the period when Galen first made his appearance, at the request of 
the Emperor AuiiEi,ius. Galen was a native of Pergamos, bom A.D. 
130, having traveled much and written largely on subjects directly or 
indirectly connected with medicine before settling himself at Rome. 
He was entirely independent in his opinions, paid very little respect to 
authority, and so great was his learning and wisdom, and rare skill in 
medicine, that he came to be regarded by many as an "Oracle." 
Thoroughly educated in aU the schools of philosophy, he selected from 
them all excej^tthe Epicurean, which he totally rejected. His treatment 
of disease was principally by Herbal remedies. From Galen have sprung 
the sect that is now generally known as Eclectics, who do not confine 
remedies exclusively to the herbal practice, but employ many of the 
mineral substances upon which the Allopathic and Homoeopathic sys- 
tems of medicine of the present day are based. I 

About the middle of the seventeenth century, on the death of Pau- 
LUS, the Greek school of medicine terminated, the Arabians having 
conquered a large portion of the semi-civilized world, and destroyed an 
immense Alexandrian library. The Arabian physicians soon adopted 
the opinions of Galen, but, owing to the invention of chemistry, it was 
Bpeedily made subservient to medicine. They produced medical works, 
some of which have enjoyed gi'eat celebrity, without having really added 


anything substantial to medical science as previously understood. 
With AvEiiROES terminated the Arabic or Saracenic School of medi- 
cine, the great reputation of which is mainly owing to the circumstance, 
that from the eighth to the twelfth centuries, when all Europe was 
sunk in deep barbarism, the principal remains of a taste for literature 
and science existed among the Moors and Arabs. Their physicians 
added many vegetable products and a few metallic oxides in the cata- 
logue of remedies. From the employment of chemical and mineral 
remedies by the Arabian physicians may be dated the disastrous conse- 
quences of medical science that were subsequently inaugurated by that 
Prince of Quacks — Par.\celsus. 

After the Arabians, from the twelfth to the fifteenth century, the 
practice of medicine was chiefly confined to the hands of the priests, 
who, being men of great learning and followers of ^sculapius, Hippocra- 
tes, and Galen, became the principal physicians, and a little medicine 
was taught in the monasteries ; for a long time the Benedictine monks 
of Monte Casino enjoyed in this respect great reputation. The Jews 
also became celebrated physicians ; and though not allowed to adminis- 
ter medicines to Christians, yet obtained access to the courts, and even 
to the palace of the Roman pontiffs. 

The European feudal system was at length greatly shaken by the 
Crusades. Mahomet the second, about the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, captured Constantinople, and soon after the ruin of the Byzantine 
empire the Reformation occurred, and about the same time the art of 
printing was invented. These events gave a powerful impulse to the 
world of mind, and reawakened investigation into all the departments of 
science, hterature, and the arts ; but, although many works were writ 
ten, very few facts were gleaned concerning the physiological, anatomi 
cal, and pathological phenomena incident to the Structure, Health, and 
Disease of the human being. 

The alchemic art, however, was at length transferred from Arabia 
into European countries, and medical chairs were estabhshed in various 
Universities on the continent during the thirteenth century, and finally 
LiNACRE, who had been educated at Oxford, and having traveled in Italy, 
and spent some time at the court of Florence, returned to England, and 
Bucceeded in founding medical iirofessorships at Oxford and Cambridge, 
from which circumstance was laid the foundation of the London Col- 
lege of Physicians. Thus chemistry, after having been employed in 
various pharmaceutical processes, was applied to physiology, pathology, 
and therapeutics. The chemical doctors were veiy wild and extrava- 
gant in advancing unnatural theories ; but they had an ever-present 
champion in the name of Galen, who was well entitled to be called the 
"Prince of Medical Philosophers." He wa^ a philosoplier — a natural 
pliiloBopher ; for he studied Nature closely, deeply, profoundly, and de- 


duced his indications of cure from an accurate observation of her laws. 
His system, however, was destined to be utterly overthrown by an ad- 
venturous vagrant, whose quackery never had its equal on earth. This 
impudent and unprincipled charlatan was none other than Paracelsus, 
to whom the medical world is more indebted for the mineral drugging 
system than to all other physicians who have ever lived. He introduced 
the mercurial and antimonial practice, which stdl constitutes the great 
strength of the popidar materia medica of the day, and which also con- 
tinues to exhibit its terribly devastating jjower on all human constitu- 
tions that come under its sway or induence. In the fulness of his 
pride, pomp, and arrogance, Paracelsus burned, with great solemnity, 
the works of Galen and Avicenna, declaring that he had found the phi- 
losopher's stone, and that mankind had no further use for the medical 
werks of others. He lived a disappointed vagabond, and died prema- 
turely at the age of forty-eight, his famous elixir vitcB having failed to 
save him from a most horrible fate. Still his abominable doctrines pre- 
vailed, and his infatuated followers have added several hundred other 
chemical or mineral preparations to the materia medica of the great 
Quicksilver Quack. At the present day, among a certain class of phy- 
sicians, there is hardly a disease in the catalogue of human aUments in 
which the employment of merciuy, antimony, arsenic, and other deadly 
drugs is not employed. 

During the seventeenth century the doctrines of Hippocrates again 
rose to some consideration in medical philosophy. Anatomy made pro- 
gress. Harvey discovered the ckculation of the blood ; others traced 
out the absorbent system, and explained the functions and structure of 
the lungs ; while Boyle disengaged chemistry from the mystery by 
which it was surrounded, and explained its true province to be, "not 
the manufacture of solid gold, nor liquid nostrums, nor gaseous theories, 
but an investigation into the change of properties which bodies expe- 
rience in their action vipon each other." 

From this time to the beginning of the eighteenth century, notwith- 
standing many facts had accumulated in chemistry, anatomy, and phys- 
iology, physicians, as a body, held no more natural views of the true 
nature of disease than were advanced by Hippocrates, three thousand 
years before. Indeed, it is positively certain that none of the most 
eminent neio schools or sects of the present day had been more success- 
ful in curing diseases than were Hippocrates, Galen, and Sydenham. 
Meantime, however, there have arisen physicians, who, while they 
readily received aU new facts in respect to the structure of the human 
organism, stiU adhered to the instinctive inductions of Nature, and treat- 
ed diseases with most abundant success by means of Herbal prepara- 
tions alone. We have at this day as bright a galaxy of names— scholars, 
philosophers, philanthropists, and humanitarians — as ever adorned any 


age of the world, devoting themselves with a zeal and industry worthy 
of all praise to the study and practice of medicine, but, failing to per- 
ceive the grand results anticipated in their laborious researches after 
truth, do not hesitate to admit that our actual information does not in- 
crease m any degree in proportion to our experience. All their array of 
learning, and their multitudinous writings, have only served to make 
confusion worse confounded, and all from the very simple fact that they 
have neglected to follow the requirements of Xature and common sense, 
in maintaining the Herbal Practice as the only true and philosophical 
foundation of the Healing Art. Amidst all the jarrings, conflicts, and 
dogmas of the medical world, is it any wonder that the great masses are 
rapidly losing all confidence in Medical Science, and crying for a more 
natural system of medication — even one founded in the princiijles of 
irrefragable Nature ? With this view I have devoted many years of my 
life, and having traveled in numerous lands, I feel that I am now quali- 
fied, from a long medical experience and deep research into the physi- 
ology of Plants, to present to the world of suffering humanity all those 
curative elements best calculated to ensure perfect health, and the ut- 
most length of life, to all who may feel disposed to be guided by the 
doctrines and system of medication which it is the object of this volume 
to make kno\\Ti. 


In the foregoing pages we have seen, that from the earliest period in 
the history of the human race to the present time, the administration 
of the juices and essences of Herbs and Plants, in aU forms of disease, 
has ever been considered by judicious and philosophical minds as the 
most rational and natural means of reUeving the economy of all abnor- 
mal obstructions and derangements, and restoring all the functions to 
their origmal or primitive vigor and healthful workmg. Notwithstand- 
ing the innovations of the mineral practice, I have ever held most rigidly 
to the Herbal System of medication ; but having failed to meet with the 
success reasonably anticipated by i)ursuing the ordinaiy routine of The- 
rapeutics, I was fmally led to reject the many changes in medical doc- 
trines and practice, and start forth on a path of mvestigation of my 
own into the mysteries of the mineral and vegetable Kingdoms, espe- 
cially as they might bear upon the health and happiness of the human 
being; accordingly, early in my professional career 1 attempted, by 
proper chemical analyses and practical experiment, to determme the 
best specific means for the healing of the maladies of mankind. The 


results of these researches, since confirmed by many years' successful 
medical experience based upon them, have but the more strongly 
strengthened my opijosition to the use of all the mineral preparations of 
the modem schools of medicine, and to establish my faith aU the more 
firmly in the employment of iierbal elements exclusively — whether in 
the materia of roots, barks, seeds, or flowers — as the surest and safest 
means for the thorough eradication of every form of disease. 

In saying all this, however, I do not deny the fact that many mineral 
substances enter into the composition of the human being, and are ne- 
cessary for his full health and perfection — as chalk or lime is requisite 
to form bone, iron to enrich or strengthen the blood, and other mineral 
substances for the formation of the tissues, as phosphorus for the tissues 
of the brain and nerves, etc. — but I stoutly contend that all such inor- 
ganic substances are taken up by plants and distributed to the various 
tissues and elements of the human being, either in the way of food or 
medicine, in exactly the precise quantity requisite for man's perfect 
health, if rightly used, neither in excess or diminution, agreeably to the 
laws of Nature ; and their virtues are thus prepared and eUminated in a 
way far superior to any chemical manipulation ever conceived or known 
to man, with all the elements of chemical science at his command. 
That this is the case is demonstrated by chemical analyses of plants. 
Coca contains phosphorus ; twinleaf, the salts of jiotassa, lime, iron, 
magnesia, silica, etc. ; the houseleek, super-malate of hme ; Matico, the 
salts of lime, iron, sulphur, etc. Spongia usta, coxbon, silica, sodium, 
lime, magnesium, iron, and phosphorus, either in combination or free ; 
coffee, chlorogenate of potassa ; in fact, all the chemical elements com- 
posing the organism of man are also found in plants. The reader wiU 
find these chemical elements given in the history of plants, I also refer 
him to page 385, where, in the article " Treatment of Chronic Diseases," 
will be found a full explanation of the author's specialty in curing chronic 
disorders by chemically prepared herbal remedies. 

The herbal physician has, moreover, decided advantages over the 
mineral physician, with reference to the administration of mineral sub- 
stances. He gives them in natural combinations — in such chemical as- 
sociation which, for exactness and propriety, can only occur in the great 
laboratory of Nature ; while the dispenser of mineral drugs gives them 
whoUy as isolated elementary principles, as furnished by the inorganic 
chemist, who, like all humans, is liable to err. Let us illustrate this 
advantage by iodine. The algee, such as the fuel and laminarim (deep- 
sea-water plants, growing at the depth of three hundred fathoms), furnish 
this principle in abundance. The mineral physician, not content to 
administer the alterative in the best possible combination, as it exists in 
the sea-weed, subjects the plants to chemical operations, releases the 
iodine, and then either exhibits it by itself or in association with sodium, 


potassium, mercury, etc. The true herbal physician acts more wisely 
in this respect : he admimstcrs the plant in substance, tincture, extract, 
etc., and has the consciousness that the iodine which Nature furnishes 
him is pure, and not the inferior adulterated article of commerce. In 
plants where its chemical nature may be concentred into one compound 
principle, and the residue but inert matter, it is judicious to separate it 
from the plant, but radically \vrong to release but one simple elementary 
mineral quality of the jilant. 

The advocate of mineral medication may retort by asking the use of 
administering the whole plant, when the iodine alone constitutes its 
therapeutical value. Why give the refuse matter with the iodine ? To 
this sophistical argument and foolish inquiry I will reply, WTiy eat the 
whole peach, when its flavor only makes it pleasant as an edible ? Why 
not release the flavor and fatten on that delectable principle ? 

The best argument, however, in favor of herbal medication, and one 
which establishes it as the correct philosophy, is the comparison of re- 
sults from both systems ; and with these the author became fully ac- 
quainted by practical experiment, and which led him, and not prejudice, 
to adopt exclusively the herbal system of medication. I may justly 
claim this system of practice, in its most important relations, as solely 
my own, and for which I have been the recipient of all encouragement 
of scientific men and societies ; but the homage that I value most, and 
which afforded the motive and stimulated my ambition, is the gratitude 
of almost numberless invalids whom I have thus been enabled to cure 
of diseases which were pronoiuiced, and in fact are, incurable by physi- 
cians who rely upon minerals for their agents of cure. 

The true theory of disease and its cure is embodied in two chemical 
forces, which, like the ciuTcnts of electricity, are positive and negative. 
Thus, if the positive force of disease is manifested upon any organ, it 
disturbs the harmony and functional action of that organ, and the dis- 
organization will continue as long as the negative force of cure is not 
placed in antagonism ^\ith it, to neutralize the activity of the jiositive 
force. When this is done the autonomy of the organ is re-established, 
and its fimction becomes again natural and healthful. 

Again, if upon discovery any organ or tissue becomes deficient ia its 
chemical elements, it must be supplied by such plants as contain 
them ; or if any organ or tissue becomes surcharged with its chemical 
constituents, negative chemical elements must be exhibited to reduce 
them to their normal quantities. See article on "Treating Diseases 
Chemically," page 385. 

These forces in various ways control the whole organic world. Increase 
the centrifugiil force, and the earth flies into space ; remove the centripe- 
tal, and it rushes headlong to the sim. If they are as they exist, coequal, 
the earth rt>lls on in its orliit in grand precision and admirable harmony. 


Having thus philosophized, and finally realized that the entire tmi- 
verse was composed of con trary elements — of negative and fjositive prin- 
ciples — yet that the whole worked, or acted, in the most perfect harmony, 
agreeably to the wisdom of a Great First Cause, when such elements 
were not disarranged or disturbed by any violation of the laws of pristine 
Nature, I was soon led to a logical deduction of the general laws which 
govern the virtues or medicinal properties of all the varieties of i^lants, 
with a view to employ them as remedial agents in the cure of disease. 
In a word, I found in the being, man, an epitome of all creation — found 
in his organism all the elements of universal natui'e — and necessarily 
discerned that, as there are summer and winter, night and day, ia regu- 
lar and systematic succession, such alternations of nature could not but 
have the most imiiortant iulluences in respect to the health and diseases 
of the human being — Heaven's last, most perfect work. I realized that, 
in accordance with the various operations of nature, man remained in 
health, or became afflicted with disease. Hence it became necessary 
for me to fuUy understand or comprehend the cause of any deiiarture 
from the normal or natural condition of man, and to provide the cure, 
or the remedy best adapted for the restoration of the equilibrium of the 
functions of his entire organism. 

I ascertaLued by experiment what was before a preconceived idea, 
that plants afforded the best agents to antagonize the force of disease, 
and to re-establish the integrity of any organ or tissvie assaUed. The 
discovery was made apparent, however, that indiscrimiriate selection of 
medicinal plants was injudicious, and that the curative property of a 
plant was developed only in proportion as certain essential conditions 
were provided. These conditions proved to be those necessary to the 
full health of man, viz. , proper climate, air, and food. 

The first great essential of a plant which is to be selected for its 
medical qualities is its nativity. If indigenous to the locality or coun- 
try wherein found, it is a proper one to select. Plants that are intro- 
duced from other countries are lessened or deprived of their virtues, 
urdess they meet in their new home aU the essential conditions pos- 
sessed in their native place. 

The geographical distribution of plants is affected by climatic in- 
fluences, constituents of soil, heat, moisture, altitude of situation, etc. 
The flowers, shrubs, and trees which adorn the plains of India and 
South America, are not the same vdth those which clothe the valleys of 
England and North America. Nor are their medicinal properties the 
same, however those herbal products may resemble each other. The 
plants which flourish on the sea-shore of Great Britain are not the same 
as those on the coast of Africa, nor are these, again, allied to the mari- 
time vegetation of Chili, South America. Nearly aU the beautiful 
plants which adorn our green-houses are natives of a limited space neai 


the Cape of Good Hope, as are also many of our most beautiful bulbs ; 
but the medicinal properties of all become weakened and changed by 
transplantation. The curious stafehas, that smell so offensively, are 
found wild only in South Africa. They are there used for medical 
purposes by the Aborigines. The trees that bear balsam grow principal- 
ly in Arabia and on the banks of the Red Sea. The umbelliferous and 
cinciferous plants spread across Europe and Asia. The Cacti are found 
only in tropical America, while the lobiatse and carioiihyllacea are sel- 
dom discovered but in Europe. The jieculiar ranges and centres of 
vegetation, as they are termed, are all owing to chemical, climatic, a ad 
electrical influences, and yield their medicinal properties in exn.ct ratio of 
quality, in accordance with the latitudes or places in which they are 

From the many facts existing, we must believe that there is r ot a 
single disease in man that may not have its remedy or cure, in some 
herb or other, if we but knew wJiich plant, and ichere to find it, in this, 
or that, or any cHme or portion of the world — agreeably to the provi- 
dence of Nature. 

This fact or law is proven in the lower animal kingdom. Who has 
not often seen not only our famihar domestic animals, but many of the 
untamed creatures of the forests, fields, and air, seek out some one or 
peculiar herb, when laboring under sickness or derangement of the 
functions of its organism ? 

Truly, Nature has wisely implanted a definite instinct in every organ- 
ic creature, in order to serve for its health, or for its restoration to 
health from disease. In man, however, such instinct is not so plainly 
marked, but to him has been given reason and judgment, and (in some 
few of the race) a disposition to investigate the laws and mysteries of 
creation, in order to secure his own highest health and perfection, and 
to find the means for the healing of his kind, when they have become 
diseased through ignorance, perversion, and violation of the immutable 
ordinances of Creation. 

As the proverb says, " There are sermons in stones, and books in run- 
ning brooks ;" so do we behold volumes of wisdom in all the herbal king- 
dom — in every emerald and variegated leaf, in every tinted blossom — ia 
all, there is a voiceless language, eternally singing significant psalms it 
praise of ' ' Him who doeth all things well. " 

Thus we find that adaptation is the laio of the universe — and no- 
where is it more vividly portrayed than in the growth and development 
of the Herbal world. 

It will thus be seen that it is only by carefully studying the physiol- 
ogy or functions, or nature of plants, we can derive instruction for the 
proper regulation or government of our own organisms. The causes 
which iutlueuco the growth and development of plants, are conditions 


necessary to be understood, in order to preserve the health or inte^ty 
of our systems. 

Dependent upon the causes I have already named, the plants, also, 
may lose their medicinal virtues ; while much will be owing to the sea- 
son of the year when they are gathered, in order to adajit them to 
medico-chemical purposes. 

For instance, iu the Spring of the year the common Nettle plant may 
afford a palatable food for man ; but if selected at a later period, instead 
of serving as a savory vegetable, or purifier of morbid elements from 
the blood and system of man, might be converted into or act as a viru- 
lent or dangerous poison upon his organism. 

In China the Gimeng (so called from the two Chuiese words gen sing, 
"first of plants") plant or root is regarded — weight for weight — as sil- 
ver, for medicinal purposes ; whereas the same herb grown in America, 
or other countries, does not possess a tithe of the value of the Chinese 
production for healing purjjoses. 

The American chamomile, though in all respects the same as the Eu- 
ropean, is positively inert in its medicinal qualities. 

There must be, therefore, I repeat, a combination of influences to 
insure the full development of perfection of any plant. There must be 
not oidy internal but external stimuli, to develop the virtues of the 
herb. The external, as we have seen, consist of certain nutritious 
matters contained in the soil, water, atmospheric gases, electricity, 
light, and heat, besides the elements of oxygen, both in its combined or 
simple form, nitrogen, etc. 

If we take a stem cut from a pine tree, in the forests of North Caro- 
lina, and place it in contact with the trunk of a healthy growing pine, 
the former would destroy the latter in the course of the season. The 
worms generated in the severed or decayed stem will pass to the living 
tree, and rapidly cause its destruction. 

Any farmer knows that if the lordly oak be felled in June it will pass 
into a state of decay in the course of from four to eight weeks ; but if it 
be cut down at a proper season (which is in Fall and early Spring, when 
the tree is nearly destitute of sap), it affords the best timber for the 
building of ships. It may be of interest, also, to state that at such 
times the transplantation of trees should be made. The tree should be 
removed at night, and set oiat in the same relative position to the sun as 
in its former aspect. If these rules are followed, no tree will rarely 
ever die, unless its most vital f)arts are too extensively injured. 

We all know that a plant stripped of its leaves will soon perish. 
Among the reasons for this is, that the absorjation by the roots is insuf^ 
ficient to supply all the materials for its nourishment. Let us look a 
little more closely into these phenomena of natiire. There must be a 
certain number of stages for all herbal growths. First, the ascending 


eap dissolves the nutritive deposits of the root and stem, and conveys 
them to assist in the development of leaves and flowers. Hence it ia 
e\'ident that if the root, bark, or stem be gathered at this season, it will 
prove deficient in medicinal virtues, or be altogether inert. The leaves 
also will be found worthless for remedial piu'poses. On the other hand, 
if we wait a little longer, or until the plant is fully developed, we will 
find that either the bark or root, the leaves or flowers, are full of rare 
medicinal virtues. 

The precise moment when all the assimilative processes of the plant 
have been perfected — whether it be Summer or Winter, Spring or Au- 
tumn — is the time to gather it for a remedial agent in disease, inasmuch 
as we know that the laws of chemical decomposition and recombination 
know no rest ; hence, as in the case of the nettle, while it may be a 
good food in its earUer stages of development, it would prove a poison 
in a more advanced stage of its growth. 

The peculiar properties of herbs as medicines will often depend upon 
the gTeenness or ripeness of the plant, and other circumstances attend- 
ant upon its cutting, and the length of time it is kept after being 

For instance, the concrete juice of the Manna ash {Fraxinus Ormis) — 
the manna of commerce — increases in purgative qualities by age. The 
Oak-bark, for tanning hides, imj^roves in value for a period of four or 
five years after it has been stripped from the tnmk ; in the same man- 
ner, its medicinal properties are either diminished or improved, according 
to the season when the bark is gathered, or the manner in which it is 
converted into tannic acid for medical or scientific purposes. 

It must be apparent to all, that herbs are Uable to suffer from the 
vicissitudes of soil, climate, season, etc., and, as a matter of course, 
from these causes will vary the medicinal principles attributed to them. 

Repeated analysis demonstrates the fact, that specimens of the same 
plant, grown in different localities, vrill vary infinitely in the proportions 
of the medicinal principles yielded. Take, for example, the Butterfly- 
weed, or Pleurisy-root (Asclepias Tuberosa), which grows in the barren 
and sandy soil of New Jersey, and it will be found to yield from one to 
two hundred per cent, of its medicinal virtues more than the same plant 
grown in the rich alluvial soils of the West. Hence, when given as 
medicine, the quantity must correspond accordingly — be either increased 
or diminished, in order to secure its proper curative effects upon the 
system. Thus it is seen that a medicine, prepared from plants culled 
at an improi>er season, will prove entirely inert or useless, while the 
same herb, gathered at a proper time in a proper climate, especially and 
properly prepared, would secure the restoration of a patient from disease 
to health. 

There is likewise a wide difference between the vii-tues of a plant 


growing in a wild or natural condition from that of the same herb when 
artificially cultivated. The transference of plants from their native 
locations, to soils prepared by the hands of man, induces many changes 
in their individual elements. Many plants formerly used for medicines 
are now cultivated for the table alone. The small acid root of the Bras- 
sica Rujia has become the large and nutritious article of diet knowTi as 
the hirnip. The dandelion, when grown in natural localities, possesses 
well-defined medical properties, all of which are lost when the plant is 
artificially cultivated. In the cultivated plant the proportions of starch, 
grape-sugar, and other non-medical principles are largely increased, 
while that which is gathered in its wild or native state is known to pos- 
sess rare virtues in affections of the liver, kidneys, and respiratory 
organs. In the cultivated rose the stamens are converted into petals. 
The castor-oil plant in Africa is a woody tree — in our gardens it is an 
annual. The mignonette, in Europe, ia an annual plant, but becomes 
perennial in the sandy deserts of Egy^jt. 

I repeat, from what has been seen it is evident that all herbs, perhaps, 
possess some property suitable for medical purposes. These virtues may 
be found in the root of one plant, in the bark of another, in the leaves 
of another, in the blossoms of another, in the seeds of another, or in the 
whole combined. Even the color of the flower has much to do with the 
therapeutic properties of the plant--as, for instance, the Blue Vervain, 
as used in my Fits and Dyspepsia remedy, is the only kind that is used 
for medical puri^oses — all the other species being entirely useless, or else 
more or less dangerous. 

In fact, it is evident to the comprehension of the simjjlest mind that 
climatic influences have much to do with the full development of plants. 
This may be illustrated in the Tobacco raised in Cuba and that grown in 
Connecticut — the one being grown in a Southern and the other in a 
Northern climate. The poison nieotiiie is derived from the tobacco 
plant ; the exhilarating caffeine and tKeine are obtained from the coffee 
berry and tea plant. Thus it is possible that some therapeutic agent or 
other may be derived from every plant grown on the surface of the 

The Red Men of the American forests are never at a loss to know 
which plant is best, nor the time it should be gathered, to cure them of 
disease. They know how to treat their complaints in physic, surgery, 
and midwifery with a skill that far surpasses that of many a learned 
doctor of the big medical schools, with all their science, and the medical 
teachings of physicians for upwards of four thousand years. What 
other guide have the poor Indians — those untutored savages of the 
woods — but their reason and their instinct, and their practical experi- 
ence in the use of herbs ? 

This is the same in the East Indies, South America, South Sea 



Islands, Patagonia, Africa, and other lands. The negroes in the in- 
terior parts of Africa possess a knowledge of the medicinal properties of 
plants which is really svirjjrising, and, by consequence, are rarely afflicted 
with disease. The art of healing in Sumatra consists in the application 
of plants, in whose medicinal virtues they are siirprisingly skilled. In 
fact, the Sumatrans have a degree of botanical knowledge that sur- 
prises the European or American. They become acquainted at an early 
age not only with the names, but the qualities and properties of every 
shrub and herb among that exuberant variety with which their country 

In gathering herbs for medical purposes, we should not only know the 
season when they should be culled, but we should be quaUfied to com- 
prehend the principles of which the plant is composed — whether they 
be resins, alkaloids, or neutrals — and be able also to separate the one 
ingredient or element from the other, as a distinct medicinal property, or 
combine the whole for the puri^ose of a compound medical agent. 

Plants by their appearance often invite the invalid to cull them for 
hifl restoration, and assume such shapes as to suggest their curative 
properties. For instance, herbs that simu- 
late the shape of the Lungs, as Lungwort 
{see figure adjoining), Sage, Hounds-tongue, 
and Comfrey, are all good for pulmonary 

Plants which bear in leaves and roots a 
7ieart-\\he form, as Citron Apple, Fuller's 
Thistle, Spikenard, Balm, ]\Iint, White-beet, 
Parsley, and Motherwort, will yield medicinal 
properties congenial to that organ. Vege- 
table productions like in figure to the ears, 
as the leaves of the Coltfoot or Wild Spike- 
nard, rightly prepared as a conserve and 
eaten, improve the hearing and memory; 
while oil extracted from the shells of sea- 
snails, which have the turnings and curvings 
of the ears, tends wonderfully to the cure of deafness. A decoction of 
Maiden Hair and the moss of Quinces, which plants resemble the Jiairs 
of the head, is good for baldness. Plants resembling the human nose, 
as the leaves of the Wild Water Mint, are beneficial in restoiing the 
sense of smell. Plants having a semblance of the Womb, as Birthwort, 
Heart Wort, Ladies' Seal or Briony, conduce much to a safe accouche- 
ment. Shrubs and HerV)s resembling the bladder and gall, as Night- 
shade and Alkekengi, will relieve the gravel and stone. Liver-shaped 
plants, as Liverwort (see the following figure), Trinity, Agaric, Fumitory, 
Figs, etc. , all are efficacioua in bilious diseases. Walnuts, Indian nuts, 




Leeks, and the root of Ragwort, because of their form, when duly pre- 
pared will further generation and prevent sterility. Herbs and seeds 
in shape hke the teeth, as Toothwort, Pine-kernel, etc., preserve 
the dental organization. Plants of 
knobbed form, like knuckles or joints, 
as GaHngale, and the knotty odoriferous 
rush, Calamus, are good for diseases of 
the spine and reins, foot, gout, knee 
swellings, and all joint pains whatso- 
ever. ODy vegetable products, as the 
Filbert, Walnut, Almond, etc., tend to 
fatness of the body. 

Plants naturally lean, as Sarsaparilla 
or long-leaved Bosa Solie emaciate those 
who use them. 

Fleshy plants, such as Onions, Leeks, 
and Colewort, make flesh for the eaters. 
Certain plants, as the Sensitive plant, 
Nettles, the roots of Mallows, and the 
herb Neiirus, when used as outward ap- 
plications, fortify and brace the nerves. 
Milky herbs, as Lettuce and the fruit of 
the Almond and Fig trees, propagate 
milk. Plants of a serous nature, as 
Spurge and Scammony, purge the nox- 
ious humors between the flesh and the 
skin. Herbs whose acidity turns milk to 

curd, such as Gahum and the seeds of Spurge, will lead to procreation. 
Rue mixed with Cummin will relieve a sore breast, if a poultice of them 
be applied, when the milk is knotted therein ; while plants that are hollow., 
as the stalks of Grain, Reeds, Leeks, and Garhc, are good to purge, 
open, and soothe the hollow parts of the body. Many more instances of 
such adaptation of herbs and plants to difieases of the body might be 
cited if deemed necessaiy. 

The vitality of plants may be destroyed by giving them deleterious or 
poisonous substances, such as arsenic, mercury, etc. In fact, mineral 
poisons act on plants and herbs in nearly the same way they do upon 
human beings or other animals. 

The color of plants is generally under the influence of solar light ; 
hence, plants grown in darkness become etiolated or blanched. The 
green of leaves is due to nitrogen, while in proportion as the oxygen of 
the air predominates, the leaves put on varied tints, as the beautiful red 
and crimson assumed by some leaves in Autumn. 

The color of flowers^ as a general rule, is influenced by solar Ught, 



though the magnetic condition of the soil has much to do with the color. 
For instance, the petals of the common butter-cup are of as brilliant a 
yellow in town gardens enveloped in the smoke of London as on any 
covmtry hill, while the tints of the rose remain, when languishing for 
lack of a clear atmosphere. The flowers of the common hydrangea, 
which are naturally pink^ may be made blue by planting the shrub in 
soil impregnated with iron. So will certain medical preparations of 
iron turn blue the human flesh. The color of the flower of the tulips 
can be turned into white, yellow, brown, purple, and a beautiful tint of 
rose, by transplanting the plants from a poor soil to a rich one, and vice 

The fragrances of flowers and plants have their physiological or medi- 
cal uses. The use of the fragrance in leaves, bark, and wood, is appar- 
ently to preserve them from the attacks of insects ; as the emell of the 
red and Bermuda cedars (of which pencils are made) and of Camphor, 
also a vegetable product, is to keep moths and other vermin from attack- 
ing substances with which they are in contact. 

Plants sometimes distil or secrete medicinal or nutritive fluids, which 
axe contained in convenient receptacles. Such plants invariably grow 
tar from the haunts of men. away from the course of streams or vicinity 
of ponds. Whose ordination is it that such plants have such a habitude ? 
It is that Providence who, in his bountiful beneficence, places them 
where the traveler may not die of thirst or disease on his way of dis- 
covery. This is most beautifully illustrated in the Nepenthes dktillatoria 

(see cut), in which the leaves 
terminate in a most singular 
maimer, forming a sort of urn 
or vase, surmounted by a cover, 
which opens and shuts as occa^ 
sion requires. This vessel is 
suspended at the extremity of 
a thread-like appendage to a 
winged petiole, which would 
seem to be altogether unlit to 
support it. An officer of marines 
writes as follows : ' ' Three days 
after my arrival at Madagascar 

■KT »v j-^n ^ • " I lost myself during a short ex- 

Nepenthes distillatona. '' ° 

cursion into the interior, and was 
overtaken with an excessive lassitude, accompanied with a devouring 
thirst. After a long walk I was on the point of yielding to despair, 
when I perceived close to me, suspended to leaves, some smaU vases, 
Bomewhat like those used to preserve fresh water. I began to think I 
was under one of those hallucinations by whioh the sick are often visited 



in fever, when the refreshing draught seems to fly from their paxched 
lips. I approached it, 
however, with some 
hesitation, threw a 
rapid glance at the 
pitchers : judge of my 
happiaess when I found 
them filled with a pure 
and transparent liquid. 
The draught I partook 
gave me the best idea 
I have reaUzed of the 
nectar served at the 
table of the gods." 
Plants of such descrip- 
tion become extinct if 
civilization approaches 
their domain. 

Plants have attri- 
butes other than medi- 
cal which are of inter- 
est to the general read- 
er besides the botanist. 
In many instances 
there seems to be a 
strikiug affinity be- 
tween the herbal and 
animal kingdom, and 
other instances of the 
repelling character. 
For instance, a most 
remarkable instance of 
irritability by contact ia 
that exhibited by the 
"Venus's Fly -Trap," 
Dionma muscipida, a 
native of Canada, and 
nearly allied to the 
common "Sun-Dew" 
of the British com- 
mons. Its flowers 
have nothing remark- 
able about them, ex- 
cept that their petals roll up when they are about to decay ; 

Venus's Fly-Trap. 

but the 


leaves are very curiously constructed. They have broad leaf-like 
petioles, at whose extremity there are two fleshy tubes, which form the 
real leaf, and which are armed with strong, sharp spines, three on the 
blade of each lobe, and a fringe of larger spines round the margin. 

When an insect touches the base of the central spines the leaf col- 
lapses, and the poor insect is caught, been either impaled by the cen- 
tral spines or entrapped by the others. The leaf then remains closed, 
the fringe of long spines being firmly interlaced and locked together tUl 
the body of the insect has wasted away. This apparatus being the nearest 
approach to a stomach which has yet being observed in plants, an experi- 
ment was tried some years ago of feeding a dioncea (Venus's Fly-Trap) 
with very small particles of raw meat, when it was found that the leaves 
closed in the same way as they would have done over an insect, and did 
not open again until the meat was consumed. The leaves of this jilant 
possess medicinal properties, which, when properly prepared in tincture 
or decoction, have been found of exceeding efhcacy in many diseases of 
the digestive organs of the human being. 

SarraceriM, or Side-Saddle flower, the leaves of which are pitcher- 
shaped, resembling an old-i'ashioned side-saddle, six of which generaUy 
belong to each plant. Each of these pitchers wiU hold nearly a wine- 
glassful, and are generally filled with water and aquatics, which undergo 
decomposition, or a sort of digestion, and serve as a nutriment to the plant. 
This animal characteristic is also illustrated in the sensitive 2il(int 
(Mimosa Sensitiva), which the slightest touch suffices to make it close 

its folioles. If we cut with 
scissors the extreme end of one 
foUole the others immediately 
approach in succession. This 
irritation is not local, but com- 
municates from circle to circle, 
and propagates itself from leaf 
to leaf. Up to a certain point 
it gets accustomed to outside 
interference. Touching it again 
Sensitive Plant and again wiU habituate it to 

the movement and fail to re- 
spond, as if it were owing in the first instance to fright. 

The sleep of plants vaguely recalls to us the sleep of animals. 
Their period of sleep is mostly at night, and any interested person may 
observe this habit in a variety of plauts, as many of them when asleep 
are difficult to recognize in their bearing. The leaves are rolled up, or 
become reversed, as in the genus Sida and the Lupinus. The Vetch, 
the Sweet-pea, the Broad Bean, in their sleep rest their leaves during 
the night one against the other. 


Parental solicitude is displayed in the orach-root (Atrtplex liortensis). 
The leaves of this plant fall back upon the young shoots, and enclose 
them whenever the effects of the atmosphere would injure them. This 
is also seen in the chickweed at night. 

The folding of some flowers in the ateence of the sun, and the open- 
ing of others as soon as that luminary has withdrawn his beams, are 
ascribable to various causes. The white marigold closes its flowers on 
the approach of rain, and the dwarf Colendrina folds up its bright 
crimson corolla about four o'clock every afternoon ; whUe, on the con- 
trary, the plant commonly called Four o'clock^ whose flower remains 
closed all day, opens precisely at the hour of four. The evening prim- 
rose will not open its large yellow flower till the sun has sunk below the 
honzon. On the other hand, the Sun-flower is always seen bending its 
face {vis-d-vis) in the direction of the sun, and follows its course during 
the entire diurnal round, from its rise in the Orient, or East, in the 
morning, to its decline in the Hesperian region, or west, in the evening. 
The Bilphiwn laciniatum, or compass-weed, always points its leaves 
towards the north star. The Night-blowing Cereus only expands its 
flowers about midnight. Indeed, some flowers are so regular in their 
opening or shutting, that the great botanist, LiNN^EUS, formed what 
he called ''^Flora's Timepiece,^^ in which each hour was represented 
by the flower which opened or closed at that particular time. An 
arrangement of this kind may be seen in the following 

Floral Clock : 

Between 3 and 4 A.M Bind- weed of the hedgerows. 

At 5 A.M Naked stalked Poppy and most of the 


Between 5 and 6 A.M Nipplewort and the Day LHy. 

At 6 A.M Many of the Solanace^ (Night-shade) 


Between 6 and 7 A.M Sow Thistle and Spurrey. 

At 7 A.M Water Lilies, Lettuceb. 

At 7 to 8 A.M Venus' Looking-Glass. 

At 8 A.M Wild Pimpernel. 

At 9 A.M Wild Marigold. 

At 9 to 10 A.M Ice Plant. 

At 11 A.M Purslain, Star of Bethlehem. 

At 13 Most of the Ficoid, or Mesembryanthe- 

naum family. 

At 2 P.M ScUla Pomeridiana. 

Between 5 and 6 P.M Silene Noctiflora. 

Between 6 and 7 P.M Marvel of Peru. 

Between 7 and 8 P.M Cereus Grandiflorus, Tree Primrose, 

At 10 P.M Purple Convolvulus. 


In addition to the above, I would remark that certain equinoctial 
flowers open and close at a fixed time in the same day ; on the morrow, 
and for several following days, they again open and shut at the same 
regiilar hours. The Star of Bethlehem opens several days in succession 
at eleven in the morning, and closes at three. The Ficoides Noctijlara 
blows several days in succession at seven in the evening, and closes about 
six or seven in the morning. 

Besides the cases in which flowers open and shut their coroUas by the 
influence of hght, instances are known in which merely the petals roll 
up by day, and resume their natural shape after sunset. A remarkable 
circumstance respecting the effect of atmospheric influence is, that the 
same causes do not affect all plants, and yet no peculiarity of construc- 
tion has been discovered in those so affected to distinguish them from 
those that are not. 

Every student of nature can witness much more that is of general 
interest regarding the habits, so to speak, and characteristics of plants. 
They have been a favorite theme in all ages. Lovers have dwelt on 
them and given them a language. Nearly every one delights in the 
flowering plants. Who would refuse a bouquet of choice flowers ? This 
attachment to flowers was pathetically illustrated in the Highland emi- 
grants in Canada, who wept when they found that the heather would 
not grow in their newly-adopted soil. And well they might, for it is the 
flower of their native mountains, and associated with all their brightest 
and tenderest recollections. In the age of chivalry the daisy was re- 
nowned ; and St. Louis, of France, took it and a lily for a device in his 
ring, as emblematic£d of his wife and country. The thistle, like the 
famous geese of Rome, saved Scotland, and for this reason it is the na- 
tional emblem of that coimtiy. During the Danish invasion, one of 
their soldiers placed his naked foot on the spiny leaves of a thistle, and 
instinctively uttered a cry which awoke the slumbering Scots, who 
turned upon their foes, defeated, and drove them from their land. 

The poetry attached to plants, however, is not of immediate concern 
in this volume. It is their medicinal properties which engages our study 
and demands our labors. Yet I could not so weU establish their supe- 
rior fitness as curative agents above the mineral drug unless I gave that 
which is of general interest. One fact will be apparent to the reader, 
that plants have life, and hence are eminently suitable to give life to the 
Buffering patient. The lifeless inorganic mineral haa none, and can give 
DO vital element. 



That the reader may more intelligently understand the description 
of the medicinal plants in this book, the author has deemed it prudent to 
preface the part of this work dedicated to Herbal Materia Medica with 
a brief analysis of the plant, as made by the botanist. This becomes 
particularly necessary, inasmuch as a plant cannot be accurately 
described unless scientific language be employed ; but, nevertheless, 
throughout this whole work it has been the aim of the author to use the 
plainest language, and not to weary the reader by as pedantic employ- 
ment of technical terms and scientific language. 

Nothing more will be given than the anatomy of the plant, as nothing 
of systematic botany need be known to the reader to recognize the plant, 
or to acquaint himself with the medicinal properties thereof. If he has 
not a common acquaintance with a medicinal plant, but desires it for 
domestic medication, it is important that he should know that he 
employs the proper herb, and not use one which simulates it. It has 
therefore been the aim of the author to give accurate descriptions of the 
herbs, so that the gatherer may not err in his selection of the plant 
which his case may need. 

All parts of the plant are used in medicine — sometimes the seed only ; 
in others the flower, the leaves, root, rhizome ; in others two or more of 
these parts, and, again, in others the whole plant. 



The root of a plant is that portion which is usually found in the earth, 
the stem and leaves being in the air. The point of union is called the 
collar or neck of the plant. 

A fibrous root is one composed of many spreading branches, as that of 

A conical root is one where it tapers regularly from the crown to the 
apex, as that of the carrot. 

A fusiform root is one when it tapers up as well as down, as that of 
the radish. 

A r.apiform root is one when much swollen at the base, so as to be- 
come broader than long, as that of the turnip. 

A fasciculated root is one when some of the fibres or branches are 

A tuberiferous root is one when some of the branches assume the 
form of rounded knobs, as that of the potato. 


A palmate root is one when these knobs are branched. 

Aerial roots are those emitted from the stem into the open air, aS 
that of Indian com. 

A rhizoma, or root stock, is a prostrate stem either subterranean or 
resting on the surface, as that of calamus, or blood-root. 

A tuber is an enlargement of the apex of a subterranean branch of 
the root, as that of the common potato or artichoke. 

A cormus is a Heshy subterranean stem of a round or oval figure, as 
in the Indian turnip. 

A bvilb is an extremely abbreviated stem clothed with scales, as that 
of the lily. 


The stem is tliat portion of the plant which grows in an opposite 
direction from the root, seeking the Ught, and exposing itself to the air. 
All flowering plants possess stems. In those which are said to be stem- 
less, it is either very short, or concealed beneath the ground. 

An herb is one in which the stem does not become woody, but dies 
down to the ground at least after flowering. 

A shrub is a woody plant, branched near the ground, and less than 
five times the height of man. 

A tree attains a greater height, with a stem unbranched near the 

The stem of a tree is usually called the trunk ; in grasses it has been 
termed the culm. 

Those stems which are too weak to stand erect are said to be decum- 
bent, procumbent, and prostrate 

A stolon is a form of a branch which curves or falls down to the 
ground, where they often strike root. 

A sucker is a branch of subterraneous origin, which, after ninning 
horizontally and emitting roots in its course, at length rises out of the 
ground and forms an erect stem, which soon becomes an independent 
plant, as iflustrated by the rose, raspberry, etc, 

A runner is a prostrate, slender branch sent off from the base of the 
parent stem. 

An offset is a similar but shorter branch, with a tuft of leaves at the 
end, as in the houseleek. 

A spine is a short and imperfectly developed branch of a woody plant, 
as exhibited in the honey-locust. 

A tendril is commonly a slender leafless branch, capable of coiling 
spirally, as in the grape vine. 

The leaf is commonly raised on an unexpanded part or stalk which is 
called the petiole, wliile Uie expanded portion is termed the lamina. 


limb, or blade. When the vessels or fibres of the leaves expand im- 
mediately on leaving the stem, the leaf is said to be sessile. In such 
cases the petiole is absent. When the blade consists of a single piece 
the leaf is simple ; when composed of two or three more with a 
branched petiole, the leaf is compound. 

The distribution of the veins or framework of the leaf in the blade is 
termed venation. 

A lanceolate leaf has the form of a lance. 

An ovate leaf has the shape of ellipsis. 

A cuneiform leaf has the shape of a wedge. 

A cordate leaf has the shape of a heart. 

A reniform leaf has the shape of a kidney. 

A sagittate leaf is arrow-shaped. 

A hastate leaf has the shape of an ancient halberd, 

A peltate leaf is shaped like a shield. 

A serrate leaf is one in which the margin is beset with sharp teeth, 
which point forward towards the apex. 

A dentate leaf is one when these teeth are not directed towards the 

A crenate leaf has rounded teeth. 

A sinuate leaf has alternate concavities and convexities. 

A pinnate leaf has the shape of a feather. 

A pectinate leaf is one having very close and narrow divisions, like 
the teeth of a comb. 

A lyrate leaf has the shape of a lyre. 

A runcinate leaf is a lyrate leaf with sharp lobes pointing towards 
the base, as in the dandehon. 

A palmate leaf is one bearing considerable resemblance to the hand. 

A pedate leaf is one bearing resemblance to a biid's foot. 

An obovate leaf is one having the veins more developed beyond the 
middle of the blade. 

When a leaf at its outer edge has no dentations it is said to be entire. 
When the leaf terminates in an acute angle it is acute, when in an ob- 
tuse angle it is obtuse. An obtuse leaf with the apex slightly depressed 
is retuse, or if more strongly notched, emarginate. An obovate leaf 
with a wider or more conspicuous notch at the apex become obcordate, 
being a cordate leaf inverted. When the apex is cut off by a straight 
transverse line the leaf is truncate ) when abruptly terminated by a 
small projecting point it is mucronate ; and when an acute leaf has a 
narrowed apex it is acimiinate. In ferns the leaves are called fronds. 


The flower assumes an endless variety of forms, and we shall assume 
in the dissection merely the typical form of it. 


The organs of a flower are of two sorts, viz. : 1st. Its leaves or en- 
velopes ; and 2d, those peculiar organs having no resemblance to the 
envelopes. The envelopes are of two kinds, or occupy two rows, one 
above or within the other. The lower or outer row is termed the 
Calyx, and commonly exhibits the green color of the leaves. The inner 
row, which is usually of more dehcate texture and forms the most showy 
part of the flower, is termed the Corolla. The several parts of the 
leaves of the Corolla are called Petals, and the leaves of the Calyx have 
received the analogous name of Sepals. The floral envelopes are col- 
lectively called the Perianth. 

The essential organs enclosed within a floral envelope are also of two 
kinds and occupy two rows one within the other. The first of these, 
those next withhi the petals, are the Stamens. A stamen consists of a 
stalk called the Filament, which bears on its summit a rounded body 
termed the Anther, fiUed %vith a substance called the Pollen. 

The seed-beariug organs occupy the centre or summit of a flower, and 
are called Pistils. A pistil is distinguished into three parts, viz. : 1st, 
the Ovary, contaiuiag the Ovales ; 2d, the Style, or columnar pro- 
longation of the ovary ; and 3d, the Stigma, or termination of the style. 

AH the organs of the flower are situated on, or gro-mi out of, the apex 
of the flower-stalk, into which they axe inserted, and which is called 
the Torus or Receptacle. 

A plant is said to be monCEcious, where the stamens and pistils are in 
separate flowers on the same individual, dioecious, where they occupy 
Beparate flowers on different individuals, and polygamous where the 
stamens and pistils are separate in some flowers and united in others, 
either on the same or two or three different plants. 


The principal kinds may be briefly stated as foUows : — 

A follicle is the name given to such fruit as borne by the larkspur 
or milkweed. 

A legume or pod is the name extended to such fruit as the pea or 

A drupe is a stone fruit, as the plum, apricot, etc. 

An achenium is the name of the fruit as borne by the butter-cup, &c. 

A cremocarp is the fruit of the Poison Hemlock and similar plants. 

A caryopsis is such fruit as borne by the wheat tribe. 

A nut is exemplified by the fruit of the oak, chestnut, &c. 

A samara is tho name appUed to the fruit of the maple, birch, and elm. 

A berry is a fruit fleshy and pulpy throughout, as the grape, goose- 
berry, etc. 

A pome ifl such as the apple, pear, &c. 


A pepo is the name applied to the fruit of the pumpkin, cucum- 
ber, &c. 
A capsule is a general term for all dry fruits, such as lobeha, &c. 
A silique is such fruit as exhibited in Shepherd's purse, &c. 
A cone or strobile is a collective fruit of the fir tribe, magnoUa, &a 


The seed, like the ovule of which it is the fertilized and matured 
state, consists of a nucleus, usually enclosed within two integuments, 
The outer integument or proper seed coat is variously termed the 
episperm, spermoderin, or testa. 

An annual plant is one which springs from the seed, flowers and 
dies the same year. 

A biennial plant, such as the radish, carrot, beet, &c., does not 
flower the first season. 

A perennial plant is one not absolutely depending upon the stock of 
the previous season, but annually produces new roots and new accumu- 


Evert herb employed in the cure of diseases, whether in its natural 
state or after having undergone various preparations, belongs to the 
Herbal Materia Medica, in the extended acceptation of the term. It 
shall, however, be our purpose only to describe each separate herb in its 
living state, or the medicinal part thereof, and not dwell much upon the 
forms usually prepared by the apothecary or physician. In this portion 
of our work we propose to give an account of all the most important 
medicinal herbs necessary for the cure of diseases. No herb, however, 
is to be despised or regarded as worthless because of its not finding 
mention in this work ; but, as previously stated, that each and every 
plant has its virtues, though to describe all recognized as medicinal 
would make the work too voluminous, and in price far exceed the 
reach of the milUon. The various properties of medicinal agents have 
been designated as follows : — 

Absorbents or Antacids are such medicines that, counteract acidity 
of the stomach and bowels. 

Alteratives are medicines which, in certain doses, work a gradual 
cxue by restoring the healthy functions of different organs. 

Anodynes are medicines which relieve pain. 


Anthelmintics are medicines which have the power of destroying 
or expelling worms from the intestinal canal. 

Antiscorhutics are medicines which prevent or cure the scurvy. 

Antispasmodics are medicines given to relieve spasm, or irregular 
and painful action of muscles or muscular fibres, as in Epilepsy, St. 
Vitus' Dance, etc. 

Aromatics are medicines which have a grateful smell and an agree- 
able pungent taste. 

Astringents are those remedies which, when applied to the body, 
render the solids dense and firmer. 

Carminatives are those medicines which dispel flattilency of the 
stomach and bowels. 

Cathartics are medicines which accelerate the action of the bowels, 
or increase the discharge by stool. 

Demulcents are medicines suited to prevent the action of acrid 
and stimulating matters upon the mucous membranes of the throat, 
lungs, etc. 

Diaphoretics are medicines that promote or cause perspirable dis- 
charge by the skin. 

Diuretics are medicines which increase the flow of urine by their 
action upon the kidneys. 

Emetics are those medicines which produce vomiting. 

E.MMENAC1OGUES are medicines which promote the menstrual discharge. 

Emollients are those remedies which, when appUed to the solids of 
the body, render them soft and flexible. 

Erriiines are substances which, when applied to the lining mem- 
brane of the nostrils, occasion a discharge of mucous fluid. 

Epispastics are those which cause blisters when applied to the surface. 

Esciiakotics are substances used to destroy a portion of the surface 
of the body, forming sloughs. 

Exi'ECTOr.vnts are medicines capable of facilitating the excretion of 
mucus from the chest. 

Narcotics are those substances having the property of diminishing 
the action of the nen^ous and vascular systems, and of inducing sleep. 

Rubefacients are remedies which excite the vessels of the skin and 
increase its heat and redness. 

Sedatives are medicines which have the power of allaying the ac- 
tions of the systems generaUy, or of lessening the exercise of some par- 
ticular function. 

SlALAGOGUKS are medicines which increase the flow of the saliva. 

Stimulants are medicines capable of exciting the vital energy, 
whether as exerted in sensation or motion. 

Tonics are those medicines which increase the tone or healthy ac- 
tion, or strength of the living system. 



ACETA or Vinegars are medicinal preparations where viaegar is used 
ae the dissolving agent. 

^Etherea or Ethers are ethereal tinctares. 

Aqu^ or Waters consist of water impregnated with some medicuial 
substance, as a volatile oil. 

Cataplasms are external applications or poultices. 

Cerates are agents intended for external application, and are com- 
posed of wax, spermaceti, combined with fatty matter, and in which 
resins and powders, etc., are frequently amalgamated. 

Confections are medicines in the form of a conserve. 

Decoctions are solutions procured from the various parts of herba 
by boiling them in water. 

Dragees are sugar-coated pills. 

Enemas or Injections. These consist of medicinal agents in the 
form of infusion, decoction, or mixture, and designed to be passed into 
the rectum and other passages. 

Extracts. When an infusion, decoction, or tincture is reduced to a 
soft soUd mass, by evaporation, it is termed an extract. 

Fluid-Extracts. These are concentrated medicinal principles, not 
reduced to a solid or nearly semi-fluid consistence, the evaporation not 
being carried so far as in ordinary extracts. (See page 475) 

Infusions are solutions of vegetable principles in water, effected 
without boiling. 

Liniments. These preparations are designed for external application, 
and should always be of such a consistence as will render them capa- 
ble of easy apphcation to the skin with the naked hand or flannel. 

Lotions. These comprise all compounds used as external washes in 
which vegetable substances are dissolved. 

Mixtures are either liquid or solid compounds, and which are sus- 
pended in aqueous fluids by the intervention of some viscid matter, as 
mucilage, albumen, etc. 

Oils are the products of various herbs by distillation with water. 

Pills are medicinal properties formed into a mass and rolled into 
globular forms. A bolm is a large pill. 

Plasters are designed for external apphcation ; the medicinal agent is 
usually spread on cloth or chamois leather. 

Powders are medicinal herbs in a pulverized state. 

Saturates are similar to fluid-extracts, being, however, prepared 
without the employment of heat. 

Syrups are liquid medicines of a viscid consistence, produced by con- 
centrated solutions of sugar alone or mixed with honey. 

Tinctures. These are preparations obtained by subjecting medicinal 
herbs to the action of alcohol. 


Trociiees or Lozenges are medicinal substances in powder, which 
are formed into solid cakes by the aid of sugar and gum. 

Unguenta or Ointments are fatty matters, in which are incorpo- 
rated certain medicines, and are designed for external use. 

Wines. These are tinctures of medicinal agents which are insoluble 
in water, or which do not require as stimulant a solvent as alcohol, but 
which are capable of yielding their virtues to wine. 


That no error may occur, I will here append the weights and meas- 
ures employed in pharmacy, together with the symbols designating each 
quantity. It is necessary to understand but two measures, as the 
author has conformed all the soUd or liquid quantities to these meas- 
ures. These are : — 

1st. — Apothecaries' Weight. 

20 grains (gr.) 1 scruple. 

3 scruples (3) 1 drachm. 

8 drachms (3) 1 ounce. 

12 otmces (§) 1 pound (Ih). 

The doses of powders, extracts, and all such that are not fluid are in- 
tended to correspond with this weight. 

2d. — ^Apothecaries' Measure. 

60 mininis (Ifl) 1 fluid drachm. 

8 fluid drachms (f 3 ) 1 fluid ounce. 

16 fluid ounces (f ^ ) 1 pint. 

8 pints (0) 1 gallon (cong). 

The quantities of all fluids mentioned in this book agree with this 
measure, though the word fluid or the symbol (f) is omitted in most 

It is not to be supposed, however, that in all families measuring grad- 
uates are to be found ; hence a comparison of these measures with tea, 
dessert, and table spoons, etc., becomes necessary to simplify the fluid 



measTire. The weiglit of any quantity I shoiild always advise to be cor- 
rectly ascertained by scales : — * 


A drop corresponds with a minim. 

A teaspoonfol " u u fl^j^ drachm. 

A dessertspoonftd " " " three fluid drachms. 

A tablespoonful " " u oQg.iialf fluid ounce. 

A wineglassful " " " two fluid ounces. 

A teacupful " " " gill (4 f 3 ). 

In the body of this work the quantity has been stated, with but few 
exceptions, in which each medicine must ordinarily be given to produce 
its peculiar effects upon the adult patient. But there are circumstances 
which modify the dose, and demand attention, the most important of 
which is the age ; hence the following table, exhibiting the dose propor- 
tioned to the age, should receive careful reference in domestic prac- 
tice : — 


The dose for a person of age being 

1 or 1 drachm. 

That of a person from 14 to 21 years will be f or 2 scruples. 


7 to 14 

i or ^ drachm 

4to 7 

^ or 1 scruple. 


;^ or 15 grains. 


^ or 10 grains. 


i or 8 grains. 


iV or 5 grains. 


"iV or 4 grains. 

The following rule, however, is a little more simple : — 

For children under 12 years the dose of most medicines must be 

diminished in the proportion of the age to the age increased by 12 ; 

thus, at two years the dose will be \ of that for adults, viz. : — 

2Tl2 = l4°^75^^4'^^^^"4Tl2 

4 1 
16 ""^ 4- 

* The weights used in the British Pharmacopoeia are the Imperial or avordupois pound, 
ounce, and grain, and the terms drachm and scruple, as designating specific weiglits, are 
discontinued. The ounce contains IST^ grams, and the pound 7,000 grains. The Im 
perial Measure contains 8 fluid drachms to the ounce, 20 fluid ounces to the pint, and 8 
pints to the gallon. 





Common Names. Gum Arabic^ Egyptian TJwrn. 
Medicinal Part. The concrete juice or gum. 

Description. — Acacia Vera is a small tree or slirub, but Bometimes 
attains the height of forty feet. The 
leaves are bipinnate and smooth, leaflets 
eight or ten pairs. Spines sharp and in 
pairs. Flowers in globose heads, and the 
fruit a legume. 

History. — The tree inhabits the southern 
portion of Asia and the upper portion of 
Africa. The gum flows naturally from the 
bark of the trees, in the form of a thick 
and rather frothy liquid, and speedily con- 
cretes into tears ; sometimes the discharge 
is promoted by wounding the trunk and 
branches. The more raptured the tree, 
the more giim it yields. The best quality 
of Gum Arabic is colorless, or very pale 
yellow-white, shining, transparent in smaU fragments, hard but pulver- 
able, inodorous, and of a sweet and viscous taste. It invariably forma 
a white powder. Cold or hot water dissolves its own weight, forming 
a thick mucilaginous solution. 

Properties and Uses. — The gum is nutritive and demulcent, and exerts 
a remarkably soothing influence upon irritated or inflamed mucous 
surfaces, by shielding them from the influence of deleterious agents, 
atmospheric air, etc. It is useful, in diarrhoea and dysentery, to remove 
griping and painful stools, in catarrh, cough, hoarseness, consumption, 
gonorrhoea, and all inflammatory conditions of the mucous surfaces. For 
lung diseases it is especially an indispensable vehicle in which to carry 
the necessary curative and powerful cori'ective agents, while at the same 
time its nutritive qualities also exert a good influence, often supplying 
the place of food where the stomach is too weak to partake of anything 
else. It may be given almost ad libitum in powder, lozenge, or solution, 
alone or combined with syrups, decoctions, etc It constitutes the 
menstruum of my well-known Acacian Balsam, see page 4()'J. 



ADDER'S TONGUE (Erythronum Americanxjm). 

Common Names. Bog-Tooth Violet, SerpenVs Tongue, etc. 

Medicenal Parts. The bulb and leaves. 

Description. — This is a perennial plant, springing from a bulb at some 
distance below the surface. The bulb is white internally and fawn- 
colored externally. The leaves are two, lanceolate, pale green, with 
purplish or brownish spots, and one nearly twice as wide as the other. 
It bears a single drooping yellow flower, which partially closes at night 
and on cloudy days. Fruit a capsule. 

History. — This beautiful little plant is among the earliest of our spring 
flowers, and is found in rich open grounds, or in thin woods throughout 
the United States, flowering in April or May. The leaves are more 
active than the roots ; both inii3art their virtues to water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is emetic, emollient, and antiscorbutic when 
fresh ; nutritive when dried. The fresh root simmered in milk, or the 
fresh leaves braised and often applied as a poultice to scrofulous tumors 
or ulcers, together with a free internal use of an infusion of them, is 
highly useful as a remedy for scrofula. The expressed juice of the plant, 
infused in cider, is very beneficial in dropsy, and for relieving hiccough, 
vomiting, and hem.atemesis, and bleeding from the lower bowels. 

AGRIMONY (Ageimonia Eupatoria). 

Common Names. Cocklehurr or Sticklewort. 

Medicinal Parts. The root and leaves. 

Description. — Agrimony has a reddish, tapering, 
not creeping root, with brown stems covered vsdth 
soft silky hairs ; two or three feet high ; leaves 
alternate, sessUe, interruptedly pimiate. The sti- 
pule of the upper leaves large, rounded, dentate, or 
palmate. The flowers grow at the top of the stem, 
are yellow, small, and veiy numerous, one above 
another in long spikes, after which come rough 
heads hanging downwards, which will stick to gar- 
ments or anything that rubs against them. 

History. — This perennial plant is found in Asia, 
Europe, Canada, and the United States, along road- 
sides, and in fields and woods, flowering in July or 
August. Both the flowers and roots are fragrant, 
but harsh and astringent to Ihe taste, and yield 
their properties to water or alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — It is a mild tonic, alterative, 
and astringent. Useful in bowel complaints, chronic 
mucous diseases, chronic affections of the digestive organs, leucorrhoea, 
2* o 



certain cutaneous diseases, etc. A strong decoction, sweetened witl! 
honey, Ls an invaluable cure for scrofula, if persisted in for a length of 
time. It is exceedingly useful in gravel, asthma, coughs, and obstmcted 
menstruation. As a gargle for sore throat and mouth, it is very service 
Dose. — Powder, one teaspoonful ; decoction, a wineglassful. 

ALDER (Pkinos Verticillatus). 

Common Name. Winterlerry. 

Medicinal Parts. TJie bark and berries. 

Description. — This is an indigenous shrub of irregular growth, with a 
stem six or eight feet in height ; bark grayish and alternate branches. 
The leaves are ovate, acute at the base, oUve green in color, smooth 
above and downy beneath. Flowers small and white ; calyx small and 
six-cleft ; corolla divided into six obtuse segments. Fruit a berry. 

History. — Black Alder is common throughout the United States and 
England, growing in moist woods, swamps, etc., flowering from May to 
July, and maturing its fruit in the latter part of autumn. It yields its 
virtues to water by decoction or infusion. The bark has a bitterish, sub 
astringent taste, and the berries have a sweetish taste. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, alterative, and astringent. It Is 
very beneficial in jaundice, diarrhoea, gangrene, dropsy, and all diseases 
attended with great weakness. Two drachms of the powdered bark and 
one drachm of powdered golden seal infused in a pint of boUing water, 
and, when cold, taken in the course of the day, in doses of a wineglass- 
ful, and repeated daily, has proved very efiicacious in dyspepsia. Ex 
temally the decoction forms an excellent local application in gangrene, 
indolent ulcers, and some affections of the skin. The berries are cathar- 
tic and vermifuge, and form, with cedar apples, a pleasant and effectual 
worm medicine for children. 

Dose. — Powdered bark, half a drachm to a drachm ; decoction, a tea- 
gpoonful three or four times a day. 

ALE HOOF (Nepeta Glechoma). 

Common Names. OiU-go-by-the-grovnd, Oround Ivy, CaVs-Footy 
Txtrnlwof, <&e. 

Medicinal Part. T7ie leaver. 

Description. — This plant is a perennial gray, hairy herb, with a pro- 
cumbent creeping stem, varj'ing in length from a few inches to one or 
two feet. The leaves have petioles, cordate, and hairy on both sides. 
The flowers are bluish purple. The corolla is about three times as long 
OS the calyx. 

Ilistory.— This plant is common to the United States and Europe, 


where it is found in shady places, waste grounds, dry ditches, &c. It 
flowers in May or August. The leaves impart their virtues to boiling 
water by infusion. They have an unpleasant odor, and a harsh, bitter- 
ish, slightly aromatic taste. 

Properties and Uses. — It is stimulant, tonic, and pectoral, and is use- 
ful ta diseases of the lungs and Iddneys, asthma, jaundice, hypochon- 
dria, and monomania. An infusion of the leaves is very beneficial in 
lead-coUc, and painters who make use of it are seldom, if ever, troubled 
with that afiEection. The fresh juice snuffed up the nose often cures 
the most inveterate headache 

Dose. — Powder, half a drachm to a drachm ; infusion, one or two 
fluid ounces. 

ALL-HEAL (^Prthstella ViTLGARrs). 

Common Najies. Hercules Wound Wort, Panay, etc. 

Medicinal Part. T/w root. 

Description. — This shrub sometimes attains the height of five feet, 
but is usually much smaller. The stem is strong and round, with many 
joints, with some leaves thereat. The leaves consist of five or six pair 
of wings, and when chewed have a bitterish taste. The root is thick 
and long, the juice of which is hot and biting. The flower is a small 
and yellow one, and the seeds whitish yeUow, short and flat. 

Hi^to-ry. — This plant is found in England and other parts of Europe. 
In England it flowers usually until the end of summer, but in other 
parts of Europe it flowers from May to December. 

Properties and Uses. — All-heal is a iiungent and bitter tonic and anti- 
Bpasmodic. It has also vermifuge properties, and is slightly diuretic. 
It is excellent for cramps, fits, f aUing sickness, convulsions, etc. (infe- 
rior, however, to Blue Vervain). In obstructions of the liver it serves a 
good purpose. It sometimes cures the toothache by inlserting cotton 
saturated with the j aice into the decayed places of the teeth. 

ALMONDS (Amtgdalus Communis). 

Amygdala Amara, Bitter Almonds ; Amygdala Dulcis, Siceet Al- 

Medicinal Part. The kernels. 

Descnption. — The almond tree is from ten to eighteen feet high, with 
a pale-brown rugged bark, and dividing into many branches. The 
leaves are of a bright Ught green, two to four inches long, and about 
three-fourths of an inch wide. Flowers are moderately large, pink or 
white, sessile, in pairs, and appearing before the leaves. Calyx reddish, 
petals variable in size. The fruit is a hoary drupe ; stone oblong or 


ovate, hard in various degrees, always rugged and pitted -with irregnilar 
holes. Both the bitter and sweet almonds come from this tree. 

Histoi'7/. — The almond tree is indigenous to most of the southern 
parts of Asia and Barbarj', but is cultivated in Southern Europe. The 
best of the sweet kind comes from Malaga. The sweet kernel is with- 
out odor, and of a pleasant flavor ; that of the bitter is also inodorous, 
unless rubbed with water, when it exhales a smell similar to Prussic 
acid. Its taste is similar to that of peach-meats. Both vaiieties con- 
tain oil — the sweet a fixed oil, the bitter both a fixed and an essential 
oil, impregnated with Prussic acid. The oil of bitter almonds has a 
golden color, an agreeable odor, an acid bitter taste, combustible, and 
is a poison acting in the same manner as Prussic acid. One di-achm of 
this oil, dissolved in three drachms of alcohol, forms the "essence of 
almonds " much used by confectioners, perfumers, etc. The oil is also 
much used by soap-makers. 

Pr^iwrtles and Use^. — Triturated with water, sweet almonds produce a 
white mixture called emulsion, or 7mlk of almonds, bearing a remarkable 
analogy with animal milk. It is used as a demulcent and vehicle for 
other medicines. The oil is demulcent in smaU quantity, in larger 
doses laxative. It is frequently employed in cough, diseases dependent 
upon intestinal initation, and for mitigating acrimonious urine in calcu- 
lous affections. 

Dose. — Of the oil, a teaspoonful. 

ALNUS RUBRA (Tag Alder). 

Common Names. ComTuon Aldei\ Smooth Alder. 

Medicin.\l P.\rt. The bark. 

Description. — This is a well-known shrub, growing- in clumps, and 
forming thickets on the borders of ponds and rivers, and in swamps. 
The stems are numerous, and from six to fifteen feet high. The leaves 
are obovate, acuminate, smooth, and green, from two to four inches 

llistory. — The Alnua Rubra is indigenous to Europe and America, and 
blossoms in March and AjDril. The bark is the part used medicinally. 

Proj^erties and Uses. — The bark is universally acknowledged to be 
alterative and emetic, and is especially recommended for scrofula, sec- 
ondary syphilis (inferior, however, to Rock Rose or Stillingia), and cu- 
taneous diseases, of which there are many varieties, some of which 
have and some of which have not been classified. The active principle 
of Almts Rubra, as prepared for practitioners, is called Alnuin, and is 
most excellent in cases of dyspepsia produced by inactivity of the gastrio 



AMARANTH (Amaranthus Hypochondriasis). 

Common Names. Prince's Feather^ Red CocKs Comh^ etc. 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Descriptimi. — This is an annual herb, with a stout upright stem, from 
from three to four feet high. The leaves are ob- 
long, lanceolate, mucronate, green, with a red 
purplish spot, clustered flowers, five stamens. 

History. — This plant is a native of the Middle 
States, where it is cultivated in gardens as an or- . 
namental plant, but contains more medicinal virtues 
in its wild state. It flowers in August. The leaves 
impart their virtues to water. 

Properties and Uses. — Amaranth is astringent. 
The decoction drank freely is a valuable domestic 
remedy for menorrhagia, diarrhoea, dysentery, and 
hemorrhage from the bowels. It is useful as a 
local apphcation to ulcers of the mouth and throat, 
as an injection for leucorrhcea, and as a wash to 
foul, indolent ulcers. 

ANEMONE (Anemone Nemorosa). 


Common Name. Wind Flower. 

Medicinal Parts. Root, herb, arid seed. 

Description. — This is a delicate and pretty plant, with a creeping root, 
simple erect stem, six to nine inches high, bearing but a single flower ; 
leaves temate ; sepals, four to six ; stamens and ovaries numerous. 

History. — This plant is common to Europe and the United States, 
bearing purplish and white flowers in April and May. The Meadoio 
Anemone of Europe is the most active in its medicinal qualities. Its 
active principle is called Anemonine. This plant affords the Pidsatilla 
of the Homaopaths. 

Projm-ties and Uses. — Anemone in solution has been applied exter- 
nally to scald head, tdcers, syphilitic nodes, paralysis, cataract, and 
opacity of the cornea, with benefit. A decoction is sometimes used as 
an emmenagogue for secondary syphilis, whooping-cough, etc. The 
leaves, fresh and bruised, act as a rubefacient. Care should be taken 
in its internal administration, as it is acrid and poisonous. 

A plant of the same family. Anemone Cyliiulrica, is used by the In- 
dians for the cure of the rattle-snake bite. They chew some of the tops 
of the plant, swallowing but little of the saliva, then apply it to the bite ; 
in a few minutes the bite is rendered harmless. 

Dose. — Decoction, a tablespoonful ; anemonine, one grain. 


ANGELICA (Angelica Atropurpurea). 

Common Name. Mnsterwort. 

Medicinal Part. Root, herb, and seed. 

Description. — This plant is five or six feet hig-h. The root has a pnr- 
ple color ; leaves teruate. with large petioles ; calyx five-toothed, with 
equal petals, and the fruit a nut. 

Iliiitory. — The plant is perennial, and grows in fields and damp places, 
developing greenish-white flowers from May to August. The plant has 
a powerful, peculiar^ but not unpleasant odor, a sweet taste, afterwards 
pungent ; but in drying it loses much of these qualities. 

Properties and Uses. — It is aromatic, stimulant, carminative, diapho- 
retic, expectorant, diuretic, and emmenagogne. It is used in flatulent 
cohc and heart-bum. It is serviceable in diseases of the urinary organs. 
The A. Archnngelica, or Archangd. may be substituted for this. 

Dose. — Decoction, two to four ounces ; powder, thirty to sixty grains. 

ANISE (Pimpinella Anisum). 

CoMiiON Name. Aniseed. 

Medicinal Part. The fruit. 

Description. —Anise has a perennial, spindle-shaped, woody root, and 
a smooth, erect, branched stem, about ten or twelve inches in height. 
The leaves are petiolated, roundish, cordate, serrate ; flowers small and 
white, disposed on long stalks. Calyx wanting, or minute. The fruit is 
ovate, about an eighth of an inch long, dull brown, and slightly downy. 

History. — It is a native of Egyi^t, but now cultivated in many of the 
warm countries of Europe. The Spanish Aniseed is commonly used 
for medicinal purposes. The odor of anise is penetrating and fragrant, 
the taste aromatic and sweetish. It imparts its virtues wholly to alco- 
hol, only partially to water. That used in cordials is the l^tar Anise, 
which is procured from the lUicium Anisaium, a plant of Eastern Asia. 
Its volatile oil is often fraudulently substituted for the European oil of 

Frojierties and Uses. — Stimulant and carminative ; used in cases of 
flatulency, colic of infants, and to remove nausea. Sometimes addtd 
to other medicines to improve their flavor or to correct disagreeable 

Dose.— Of. the seed, twenty to forty grains; essence, thirty drops to a 

ALOES (Aloe Spicata). 

Medicinal Part. The inspissated juice of the leaves. 

Description. — The epLked aloe is an inhabitant of the southern parts 


of Africa, growing in sandy soil. The stem is woody, rotmd, and about 
four feet liigh, and from three to five inches in diameter. The leaves 
are thick and fleshy, with a few white spots. Spike a foot long- ; flow- 
ers scarlet, and filled with purplish honey. This tree furnishes the 
Cape Aloes of commerce. There are other varieties, the A. Socotrina and 
the A. vulgaris. The Socotrine aloes is an inhabitant of Socotra, and 
the Aloe Vulgaris is generally found in the East Indies and Barbary. 

History. — Aloes is of a deep brown or oUve color ; odor unpleasant, 
taste peculiar and bitter, powder a bright yeUow. These properties 
change somewhat in the different varieties. It is almost completely 
dissolved in water. 

Properties and Uses. — Aloes is tonic, purgative, emmenagogue, and 
anthelmintic. As a laxative its apphcations are limitless. It acts 
chiefly upon the rectum, causing heat and irritation about the anus ; it 
is therefore improper, unless associated with other medicines, to give it 
to patients suffering with pUes. It promotes the menstrual flow, but 
when used for this purpose it had better be combined with myrrh. Its 
chief use is as a purgative, and it should never be given in inflamma- 
tory affections, in gastritis or enteritis, or to females liable to sudden 
uterine evacuation, or during pregnancy. 

Dose. — Two to ten grains in pill. 

ASARABACCA (Asaruii Europium), 

Common Names. Hazlewort, or Wild Na/rd. 

Medicinal Parts. Boot and leaves. 

Description. — The stem of this plant is very short, simple round and 
herbaceous, bearing dark-green reniform leaves ; also one drooping 
flower of purple color, without coroUa. The fruit is a capsule. 

History. — This is a European plant, growing in moist hilly woods, and 
flowers from May to August. The root, when dried, has a pepper-like 
odor, spicy taste, and yields an ash-colored powder ; the leaves give a 
green powder, and have the same medicinal properties as of the root. 
They impart their virtues to water or alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — Emetic, cathartic, and errhine. Used princi- 
pally as an errhine in certain affections of the brain, eyes, face, and 
throat, toothache, and paralysis of the mouth and tongue. It is used 
by drunkards in France to promote vomiting. 

Dose. — Powder, 10 or 12 grains ; as an emetic, from one-half to one 

ATA-PAJ^A (Aya-pana Eupatorium). 

Medicinal Parts. The wJiole plant. 

Description. — While traveling in Paraguay, South America, some 



years ago, I became acquainted vdth a species of Enpatorivm or Lung- 
wort called Ai/a-paJia, possessed of most ex- 
traordinary virtues La consumption and other 
diseases of the chest. In Paraguay, which ia 
a very pai-adise on earth, numerous medicinal 
herbs of exceeding great value grow to the 
greatest perfection. The Aya-pana belongs 
to the class of Eupatoriutn Perfoliatum, though 
quite unlike the Jjimgicort and Thm'ough-'wort, 
indigenous to North America. The Aya-pana 
is only found on the eastern slope of the 
Andes, on the mountain sides, along the sun- 
ny banks of streams, and beautifiUly luxuriant 
on aU the tributaries to the Amazon, and La 
Plata especially. It is a perennial plant, with 
numerous erect, round, hairy stems, five to 
ten feet high, the stalk plain below, but 
branching out in numerous stems near the 
top. The leaves grow on the opposite sides of 
ya-pana. ^^ stalk in pairs, each pair being joined at 

the base. The direction of each pair of leaves is at right angles with 
that of the pair either above or beneath. The leaves are long and nar- 
row, broadest at the base where they coalesce, gradually tapering to a 
sen-ated point, wrinkled, paUsh green on the under surface, and beset 
with white silken hairs, which add much effect to their greenish-gray 
color. The flowers are snow-white, slightly tinged ■with a purpUsh hue 
at the end, very numerous, supported on hairy peduncles. The calyx 
is cylindrical, and composed of imbricated, lanceolate, hairy scales, in- 
closing from twelve to fifteen tubular florets, having their border divid- 
ed into five spreading segments. There are five black anthers united in 
a tube, through which a bifid filiform style projects above the flower, 
rendering the whole a beautiful and picturesque plant. 

nistory. — It flowers constantly during the dry or sunny season, the 
blossoms and leaves being only used for medicinal purposes. The flow- 
ers are better than the leaves, have an aromatic odor, resembling slight- 
ly chamomile, and po.ssess a strong bitter taste, somewhat hke hore- 
hound or quassia, which virtue is imparted either to water or alcohol. 
Resin, gum, balsam, and mucilage are among the principal constituents 
of the flowers. The flowers are gathered in the morning on sunny days, 
carefully dried in the sun or by ai'tificial heat, when they are put up in 
bags or cedar boxes, and become ready for medicinal use. Prepared in 
this way, the flowers and leaves retain their properties for years, im- 
proving in their virtues by age, adding to their rich honey -like yellow 
coloring matter when distilled for medical purposes. 


Properties and Uses. — This plant may rightly be regarded as a specific 
in all forms of pulmonary and bronchial affections. It has also great 
influence over the valvular action of the heart, in its healthful invigor- 
ation of the arterial and venous systems, and its wonderful power in 
expelling carbonic acid from the air-cells and pulmonary vessels, prior 
to the elimination of rich vermihon blood through the great aorta of 
the human economy. 

It is one of the ingredients of my ' ' Acacian Balsam " (see page 469), 
which, with various other remarkable medicinal agents, forms one of the 
most wonderful remedies for coughs, colds, and consumption ever com- 
pounded. The plant is not much known in this country, and only im- 
ported by myself, and can consequently not be had in apothecaries'. 

BALM (Melissa Officinalis). 

Medicinal Part. TJie herb. 

Deseription. — Balm is a perennial herb, with upright, branching, four- 
sided stems, from ten to twenty inches high. The leaves are broadly 
ovate, acute, and more or less hairy. The flowers are pale yeUow, with 
ascending stamens. 

Histcyry. — Balm is a native of France, but naturalized in England and 
the United States. It grows in fields, along road-sides, and is well 
known as a garden plant, flowering from May to August. The whole 
plant is oSicinal or medicinal, and should be collected previous to flow- 
ering. In a fresh state it has a lemon-like odor, which is nearly lost by 
drying. Its taste is aromatic, faintly astringent, with a degree of per- 
sistent bitterness. Boiling water extracts its \-irtues. Balm contains a 
bitter extractive substance, a little tannin, gum, and a peculiar volatile 
oil. A pound of the plant yields about four grains of the oil, which is 
of a yeUovsdsh or reddish-yellow color, very liquid, and possessing the 
fragrance of the plant in a high degree. The Nepeta Citriodora., a pow- 
erful emmenagogue, is sometimes cultivated and employed by mistake 
for Balm. It has the same odor, but may be distinguished by having 
both surfaces of the leaves hairy. 

Properties and Uses. — It is moderately stimulant, diaphoretic, and 
antispasmodic. A warm infusion, dranJc freely, is veiy serviceable to 
produce sweating, or as a diaphoretic in fevers. It is also very useful 
in painful menstruation, and also to assist the coxirses of females. When 
given in fevers, it may be rendered more agreeable by the addition of 
lemon- juice. The infusion may be taJsen at pleasure. 

BALMOiSnr (Chelone Glabra). 

Common Names. Snake head., Turtle Uoom. Salt rheum weed. 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

DescrijJtion. — This is a perennial, smooth, herbaceous plant, with 


simple erect stem about two or three feet high. The leaves are oppo- 
site, sessile, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, and of a dark shining 
green color. The fruit is a capsule. 

History. — This valuable medical plant is found in the United States, 
in damp soUs, flowering in August and September. The flowers are 
ornamental, and vary in color according to the variety of the plant. The 
leaves are exceedingly bitter, but inodorous, and impart their virtues to 
water and alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, cathartic, and anthelmintic ; very- 
valuable in jaimdice, liver diseases, and for the removal of worms. In 
small doses it is a good tonic in dyspepsia, debility of the digestive 
organs, and during convalescence from febrile and inflamnaatory dis- 
eases. An ointment made from the fresh leaves is valuable for piles, 
inflamed breasts, tumors, and painful ulcers. 

Dose. — Of the powdered leaves, one drachm ; of the tincture, one or 
two teaspoonsful ; of the active principle, Chehnin^ one or two grains. 

BARBERRY (Berberis Vulgaris). 

Medicinal Part. Bark and berries. 

Description. — Barberry is an erect, deciduous shrub, from three to 
eight feet high, with leaves of an obovate-oval form, terminated by soft 
bristles, about two inches long, and one-third as wide. The flowers are 
small and yeUow, in clusters, and the fruit bright-red oblong berries, ia 
branches, and very acid. 

History. — This shrub is found in the New England States, on the 
mountains of Pennsylvania and Virginia, among rocks and hard gravelly 
son. OccasionaUy it is found in the West on rich groimds. It flowers 
in April and May, and ripens its fruit in June. Its active principle is 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic and laxative, indicated in jaundice, 
chronic diarrhoea, and dysentery. The berries form an agreeable acidu- 
lous draught, useful as a refrigerant in fevers ; the bark is bitter and 
astringent, and used in the treatment of jaundice. The bark of the root 
is the most active ; a teaspoonful of the powder wiU act as a purgative. 
A decoction of the bark or berries will be found of service as a wash or 
gargle in aphthous sore mouth and chronic ophthalmia. 

BAYBERRY (Myrica Cerifera.). 

Common Name. Wax Myrtle. 
Medicinal Part. The bark of the root. 

Description. — This shrub is branching and partially evergreen, and 
varies in height from two to a dozen feet. The flowers aj^pear ia May, 




before tlie leaves are fiilly expanded. The fruits are small and globular, 
resembling berries, which are at first green, 
but become nearly white. They consist of a 
hard stone, inclosing a two-lobed and two- 
seeded kernel. On the outside of the stone 
are gunpowder-like grains, and over these is 
a crust of diy greenish-white wax. 

History. — Bayberry is found in woods and 
fields, from Canada to Florida. The bark of 
the root is the oflBcinal part, but the wax is 
also used. Water must be employed to ex- 
tract the astringent principles of the root- 
bark, alcohol to extract its stimulating virtues. 
The period at which the root should be col- 
lected is the latter part of fall. Cleanse it 
thoroughly, and while fresh separate the bark 
with a hammer or club. Dry the bark thor- 
oughly and keep it in a dry place ; then pulverize, and keep the powder 
in dark and sealed vessels. In order to obtain the wax, boil the berries 
in water ; the wax will soon float on the surface, and may be removed 
when it becomes cold and hardened. 

Properties and Uses. — The bark has been successfully used in scrofula, 
jaundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, and in other cases where astringent 
Btimulants were indicated. Powdered, it has been employed as a snuff, 
with curative effect, in catarrh of the head and nasal polypus. It is 
sometimes applied, in poultice form, to old tdcers, sores, tumors, etc. ; 
but is better for these when combined with Bloodroot. The wax pos- 
sesses mild astringent with narcotic properties. The real properties of 
Bayberry bark are found in a preparation caEed Myricin, which is a 
stimulant and astringent, and can be employed to the best advantage in 
dysentery with typhoid symptoms, chronic diarrhoea, scrofula, and fol- 
licular stomatitis. Its greatest and most salutary infliience is exerted 
over a diseased condition of the mucous surface. Myricin should be 
administered internally by the advice of a physician acquainted with 
its virtues. It may be applied externally to sores, ulcers, etc., by any- 
body ; but its immediate effects must be neutralized by a poultice of 
slippery elm 

ARBERRY (Aectostaphylos Uva-Ursi). 

Common Nami:. The Upland Cranberry. 
MEDicnsTAL Part. TJie Leaves. 

Description. — Bearberry is a small, perennial shrub, having a long 
fibrous root. The stems arc woody and trailing ; bark smooth. The 


leaves are alternate, evergreea, obovate, acute, and have short petioles. 
The fruit is a small, scarlet-colored drupaceous berry. 

History. — This plant is a perennial evergreen, common in the northern 
part of Europe and America. It grows on dry, sterile, sandy soils, and 
gravelly ridges. The berries ripen in winter, although the flowers 
appear from June to September. The green leaves, picked from the 
stems in the fall and dried in a moderate heat, are the parts used. 
These leaves are odorless until reduced to powder, when the odor 
emitted is like that of dried grass. The powder is of a light brown 
color, tinged with a yellowish green. The taste is astringent and bit- 
terish. The properties of the leaves are extracted by alcohol or water. 
A preparation called Ursin is made from them. 

Properties and Uses. — Uva Ursi is especially astringent and tonic, de- 
pending upon these qualities for the most of its good effects. It is par- 
ticularly useful in chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, profuse menstruation, 
piles, diabetes, and other similar complaints. It possesses rare curative 
principles when administered for diseases of the urinary organs, more 
especially in chronic affections of the kidneys, mucous discharges from 
the bladder, inflammation of the latter organ, and all derangements of 
the water-passages. It is also a valuable assistant in the cure of gon- 
cn-hoja of long standing, whites, ulceration of the cervix iiteri (or neck 
of the womb), pain in the vesical region, etc. Many physicians now 
rely upon it as the basis of their remedy for gonorrhoea which is accom- 
panied by mucous discharges, and for all kindred afflictions. Its tannic 
acid gives it great power in rectifying and extirpating the obstinate and 
disagreeable complaints we have mentioned. 

Dose. — The dose of the powder is ten to forty grains ; of the decoc- 
tion, one to two fluid ounces — (to make this, boil a pint and a half of pure 
water, containing one ounce of uva ursi, down to a pint) ; of the extract, 
five to ten grains. 

BEARS BED (^PoLYTRicniUM Juniperitm). 

Common Names. Hair- cap Moss, Bobiri's lii/e, Ground Moss. 

Medicinal Part. The w/wle plant. 

description. — This is an indigenous plant, having a perennial stem, 
Blender, of a reddish color, and from four to seven inches high ; leaves 
lanceolate, and somewhat spreading. The fruit a four-sided oblong 

History. — This evergreen plant is found in high, dry places, along the 
margins of dry woods, mostly on poor sandy soil. It is of darker green 
color th:in the mosses in general. It yields its virtues to boiling water. 

Properties and Usfs.—Thia plant is not much kno^vn as a remedial 
agent, but is nevertheless a valuable remedy. It is a i^owerf ul diuretic, 


and very serviceable in dropsy. It is very useful in gravel and urinary 
obstructions. It causes no nausea or disagreeable sensations in the 
stomach, and may be used with the hydragogue cathartics with decided 
advantage in dropsical affections. 

BEAD TREE (Melia Azedarach). 

Common Name. Pride of China. 

Medicinal Part. The hark of the root. 

Description. — This is an elegant tree, which attains the height of 
thirty or forty feet, ^vith a trunk about a foot and a half in diameter. 
The bark is rough ; leaves bipinnate ; flowers lilac color ; calyx five- 
pai^ted ; coroUa has five petals ; stamens deep violet ; anthers yellow. 
The finiit is a five-celled bony nut. 

History. —It is a native of China, but cultivated in the warm climates 
of Europe and America. It does not grow to any extent north of Vir- 
ginia, and flowers early in the sjaring. Its name of Bead Tree is derived 
from the use to which its hard nuts are put in Roman Catholic countries, 
viz. , for making rosaries. The recent bark of the root is the most active 
part for medicinal purijoses. It has a disagreeably bitter taste and a 
very unpleasant odor, and imparts its properties to boiling water. 

Properties and Uses. — The bark is anthelmintic, and in large doses 
narcotic and emetic. It is useful in worm fevers and in infantile re- 
mittents, in which, although worms are absent, yet the symptoms are 
similar to those accompanying the presence of worms. 

The fruit is somewhat saccharine, and is an excellent remedy to expel 
worms. Its pulp is used as an ointment for destroying lice and other 
ectozoa, as well as in treatment of scald head and other diseases of the 
skin. The oil of the nuts is useful as a local application in rheuma- 
tism, cramps, obstinate ulcers, etc. 

Dose. — Of the powdered bark, twenty grains ; of the decoction (which 
is the best form for administration — two ounces of the bark to a pint of 
water, and boUed down to a half a pint), a tablespoonful every one, two, 
or three hours, tiU the desired effect is obtained. A purgative should 
follow its employment. — See '■'■ Bsnovating Pill,''^ page 469. 

BELLADONNA (Atropa Belladonna). 

Common Names. Deadly Wight-shade, Dwale, Black Cherry, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Description. — This perennial herb has a thick, fleshy, creeping root, 
and an annual erect leafy stem about three feet high. Leaves ovate, 
acute, entire, on short petioles, and of a dull green color. The flowers 
are dark purple, and fruit a many-seeded berry. 

History. — This plant is common to Europe, growing among ruins and 



waste places, blossoming from May to August, and maturing its fruit in 
September. The leaves should be gathered while the plant is in flower. 
They yield their virtues to water and alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — Belladonna is an 
energetic narcotic. It is anodyne, antispas- 
modic, calmative, and relaxant ; exceedingly 
valuable in all convulsive diseases. It is much 
used as a preventive of scarlatina, and as a 
cure for whooping-cough. It dilates the pupil 
of the eyes very measurably, and they should 
always be watched whenever the plant is ad- 
ministered. In the hands of the educated 
herbal physician it is a very useful remedy ; 
but I caution my readers not to use it in 
domestic practice. 

BETH-ROOT (Trillium pendulum). 

CosrvioN Names. Wake Bobm^ Indian Balm, 
Belladonna. Ground Lili/, etc. 

Medicinal Part. I'lie root. 

Description. — This is an herbaceous, perennial plant, having an oblong 
^tuberous root, from which arises a slender stem from ten to fifteen 
Inches high. The leaves are three in number, acuminate, from three to 
five inches in diameter, with a very short petiole. The flowers are 
white, sepals green, petals ovate and acute, styles erect, and stigmas 

Histoi'i/. — This plant is common in the Middle and Western States, 
growing in rich soils and shady woods, flowering in May and June. 
There are many varieties, all i:)ossessing analogous medicinal properties. 
These plants may be generally kno^vn by their three net-veined leaves, 
and their solitary terminal flower, which varies in color in the different 
species, being whitish-yeUow and reddish- white. The roots have a faint 
turpentine odor, and a peculiar aromatic and sweetish taste. When 
chewed they impart an acid astringent impression to the mouth, caus- 
ing a flow of saliva and a sensation of heat in the throat and fauces. 
Trillin e is its active principle. 

Properties and Uses. — It is astringent, tonic, and antiseptic, and is 
successfully employed in bleeding from the lungs, kidneys, and womb, 
excessive menstruation, and likewise in leucorrhcea or whites, and cough, 
asthma, and difficult breathing. Boiled in milk, it is of eminent benefit 
in diarrhoea and dysentery. The root made into a poultice is very useful 
in tumors, indolent and offensive ulcers, stings of insects, and to restrain 
gangrene ; and the leaves boiled in lard arc a good application to ulcers, 
tumors, etc. The red Beth-root will check ordinary epistaxis, or bleed- 


tag of the nose. The leaves boiled in lard is a good external application 
in ulcers and tiunors. A strong infusion of powdered Beth-root, of from 
two to four tablespoonf Ills, is the most pleasant form of administration 
of this valuable remedy. 

Dose of the powdered root is one drachm, to be given in hot water ; of 
the infusion, two to four ounces. 

BIRDS' NEST (Monotropa Uniflora). 

Common Names. Ice Plant, Fit Plant, Ova-ova, Indian Pipe. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description.— T\As plant has a dark-colored, fibrous, perennial root, 
matted in masses like a chestnut vine, from which arise one or more 
short ivory-white stems, four to eight inches high, adorned with white, 
sessile, lanceolate leaves. 

History. — This singular plant is found from Maine to Carolina, and 
westward to Missoviri, growing in shady, solitary places, in rich moist 
soil, or soil composed of decayed wood and leaves. The whole plant is 
ivory-white, resembling frozen jelly, and when handled melts away like 
ice. It flowers from June to Sei^tember. It is evidently a parasite of 
the roots at the base of trees. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, sedative, and antispasmodic. It is 
useful in fevers, and employed in instances of restlessness, paias, nervous 
irritability, etc., in place of opium. It cures remittent and intermittent 
fevers, and may be employed instead of quinine. Prompt success has 
followed its use in convulsive diseases. The juice of the plant mixed 
with rose-water forms an excellent application to sore eyes, or as an in- 
jection in gonorrhoea. It is very siugular that peoi^le will use injurious 
drugs, or permit themselves to take them, when in this queer little herb 
that grows all aroimd them, and which by its singular character invites 
attention to it, they can find a sovereign remedy for numberless ills. 

Dose. — Of the powdered root, half a drachm to a drachm, two or three 
tinies a day. 

BITTER ROOT (Apoctntjm Andros^mipolium). 

Common Names. Dog^s-bane, Milk-weed, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This is a smooth, elegant plant, five or six feet high, 
with a large perennial root. The leaves are dark-green above, pale be- 
neath, ovate, and about two or three inches long and an inch wide. 
Corolla white, calyx five-cleft, and stamens five. Fruit a f oUicle. Every 
part of the plant is mUky. 

History. — This plant is indigenous to the United States, growing in 
dry, sandy soils, and in the borders of woods, from Maine to Florida, 



flowering from May to August. "When any part of the plant is wounded 
a milky juice exudes. The large, milky root is the part used for medi- 
cinal purposes. It possesses an impleasant amarous taste. It yields its 
properties to alcohol, but especially to water. Age impairs its medicinal 

Projierties and Uses. — Emetic, diaphoretic, tonic, and laxative. It is 
verj' valuable in all liver or chronic hepatic affections. In conjunction 
with Menispermin, it is excellent in dyspepsia and amenorrhcEa. WTien 
it is required to promptly empty the stomach, without causing much 
nausea or a relaxed condition of the muscular system, the powdered 
root may be given in two or three scruple doses ; but much prostration 
is apt to ensue. As a laxative it is useful in constipation. As a tonic, 
ten or twenty grains may be given to stimulate the digestive apparatus, 
and thus effect a corresponding impression on the general system. It is 
also useful as an alterative in rheumatism, scrofula, and syphihs. 

BITTER-SWEET (Aji.vra Dulcis, Solaj^um Dulcamara). 

Common Names. Mortal, Woody NigliUlmde, Felon Wort, etc. 
]\lEDiciNAL Part. Bark of root and twigs. 

DescHption. — Bitter-Sweet is a woody vine, with a shrubby stem 
eeveral feet in length, having an ashy green bark. Leaves acute, and 

generally smooth, lower one cordate, 
upper ones hastate. The flowers are 
pui-ple, and the fruit a scarlet, juicy 
and bitter berry, which, however, 
should not be eaten or used. 

History. — Bitter-Sweet is common 
to both Europe and America, growing 
in moist banks, around dwellings, and 
in low damp grounds, about hedges 
and thickets, and flowering in June 
and July. The berries ripen in au- 
tumn, and hang upon the vines for 
several months. After the foHage 
has fallen the twigs should be gath- 
ered. Boiling water and dilute alco- 
hol extract their virtues. 

Projierties and Uses. — It is a mild 
narcotic, diiiretic, alterative, diaphor- 
etic, and discutient. It is serviceable 
in cutaneous diseases, syphilitic diseases, rheumatic and cachectic affec- 
tions, ill-conditioned ulcers, scrofula, indurations, sores, glandular 
Bwellings, etc. In obstructed menstruation it serves a good purpose. 



It is of incalculable benefit in leprosy, tetter, and all skin diseases. It 
excites the venereal functions, and is in fact capable of wide application 
and use. I regard this plant as important as any in the herbal kingdom, 
and too little justice is done to it by those under whose care the sick are 
entrusted. It receives but half the homage that is due to it. 

The world knows the virtues of my " Herbal Ointment" (see page 
409), and which is in great measure due to Bitter-Sweet, as it is one of 
the ingredients. 

Dose. — Of the decoction, one or two fluid ounces ; extract, two to five 
grains ; powdered leaves, ten to thirty grains. 

BLUE FLAG (Iris Versicolor). 

Medicinal Part. The rhkmne. 

DescHftion. — Blue Flag is an indigenous plant, with a fleshy, fibrous 
rhizome. The stem is two or three feet in height, round on one side, 
acute on the other, and frequently branched. The leaves are ensiform, 
about a foot long, half an inch to an inch wide. The fruit a three-ceUed 

History. — Blue Flag is common throughout the United States, grow- 
ing in moist places, and bearing blue or purple flowers from May to 
July. The root has a peculiar odor, augmented by rubbing or pulveriz- 
ing, and a disagreeable taste. It imparts its viilues to boUing water, 
alcohol, or ether. The root should be sliced transversely, dried, and 
placed in dark vessels, well closed, and placed in a dark place ; it will 
then preserve its virtues for a long time. The oleo-resin obtained from 
it is called Iridin, its active principle. 

Properties and Uses.- — This is one among our most valuable medicinal 
plants, capable of extensive use. It is alterative, cathartic, sialogogue, 
vermifuge, and diuretic. In scrofida and syphilis it acts as a .powerful 
and efficient agent, and I employ it in my special treatment of chronic 
diseases extensively and successfully. It is useful in chronic hepatic, 
renal, and splenitic affections, but had best be combined with man- 
drake, poke, black cohosh, etc. It will sometimes salivate, but it need 
cause no apprehension ; and when this effect is established, it may be dis- 
tinguished from mercurial salivation by absence of stench, sponginess of 
the gums, and loosening of the teeth. 

Dose. — Powdered root, five to ten grains ; Iridin, one grain. 

BLUE VERVAIN (Verbena Hastata). 

Common Names. Wild Hyssop.^ Simplcr^s Joy. 
Medicinal Part. The root and herb. 

Description. — ^Vervain is an erect, tall, elegant, and perennial plant, 
3 D 



Blue Vervain. 

with a four-angled stem three or four feet high, having opposite 
branches. The leaves are petiolate, ser- 
rate, acuminate, and hastate. The flower 
is a small purplish blue one, sessile, and ar- 
ranged in long sijikes. Seeds, four. 

History. — Vervain is indigenous to the 
United States, and grows along roadsides, 
and in dry, grassy fields, flowering from 
June to September. It is also found in 
England, growing among hedges, by the 
way-side, and other waste grounds, flower- 
ing in July, and the seeds ripening soon 

Properties and Uses. — Vervain is tonic, 
expectorant, sudorific, and antispasmodic. 
It is serviceable in mismenstruation. It is 
an antidote to poke-poisoning. It expels 
worms, and is a capital agent for the cure of 
all diseases of the spleen and liver. If given 
in intermittent fever, in a warm infusion or powder, it never fails to 
effect a cure. In all cases of cold and obstinate menstruation it is a 
most complete and advantageous sudorific. When the circulation of the 
blood is weak and languid, it will increase it and restore it to its proper 
operation. The infusion, taken cold, forms a good tonic in Cases of 
constitutional debility, and during convalescence from acute diseases. 
Its value has been found to be great in scrofula, visceral obstructions, 
and stone and gravel. It will correct diseases of the stomach, help 
coiaghs, wheezing, and shortness of breath, etc. , but its virtues are mora 
wonderful still in the effect they produce upon epilepsy, or falling sick- 
ness, and fits. 

This great — very great — medicinal value of this plant was brought to 
my attention by an accidental knowledge of the good it had effected in 
a long-standing case of epilepsy. Its effects in that case were of the 
most remarkable character, and I was, therefore, led to study most care- 
fully and minutely its medicinal peculiarities. I found, after close in- 
vestigation and elaborate experiment, that, prepared in a certain way, 
and compounded with boneset, water-pepper, chamomile blossoms, and 
the best of whiskey, it has no equal for the cure of fits, or falling sick- 
ness, or anything like fits ; also for indigestion, dyspepsia, and liver 
complaints of every grade. A more valuable plant is not found within 
the whole range of the herbal pharmacopoeia. See ' '■Restorative Assimi- 
lajit,^^ page 469. 

The following application is singularly effective in promoting the ab- 
BOrptiou of the blood, effusion in bruises, and allaying the attendant 



pain : Take of Vervain, Senna, and 'WTute Pepper, of each equal parts ; 
make a cataplasm or plaster by mixing with white of eggs. 

It is also most valuable as a cure for diarrhoea, stomachic and enterio 
pains, bowel complaints, and a superexcellent tonic. 

I first brought the notice of physicians to this plant about twelve years 
ago, previous to which it was unknown as a remedy, but which is now 
used by very many physicians, whose reports of its virtues in various 
medical journals, published works, and to me by correspondence, axe aa 
flattering as my own. 

Dose. — Of the powdered root, from one to two scruples ; the dose of 
the infusion is from two to four wine-glassfuls three or four times a, 
day, if an emetic is desired. 

BLACK COHOSH (CmiciFUGA Racemosa). 

Common Names. Rattleroot, Squaw Boot, Black SnaJce Boot. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Desmption. — This plant is a tall, leafy perennial herb, with a largfe 
knotty root, having long slender fibres. The stem is simple, smooth, 
and fiirrowed, and from three to nine feet 
high. The flower is a small and fetid one. 

History. — It is a native of the United States, 
inhabiting upland woods and hillsides, and 
flowering from May to August. The root is 
the medicinal part. It contains a resin, to 
which the names of Cimicifugin or Macrotin 
have been given ; likewise fatty substances, 
starch, gum, tannic acid, etc. The leaves of 
Cimidfuga are said to drive away bugs ; hence 
its name from cimex, a bug, and fugo, to drive 

Boiling water takes up the properties of the 
root but partially, alcohol wholly. 

Projjevtics and Uses. — It is a very active and 
useful remedy in many diseases. It is slightly 
narcotic, sedative, antispasmodic, and exerts a 
marked influence over the nervous system. It is successfully used in 
cholera, periodical convulsions, fits, epilepsy, nervous excitability, asth- 
ma, delirium tremens, and many spasmodic affections, and in consump- 
tion, cough, acute rheumatism, neuralgia, and scrofula. Also, very val- 
uable in amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, and other menstrual and uterine 
affections, leucorrhoja, etc. The saturated tincture of the root is a val- 
uable embrocation in all cases of inflammation of the nerves, tic doulou - 
reux, crick in the back or sides, rheumatism, old ulcers, etc. It has an 

Black Cohosh. 


especial affinity for the uterus, and as it reduces very materially the 
ai-terial action, it is, hence, very useful in palpitation of the heart, and 
cardiac affections generally. 

It exerts a tonic influence over mucous and serous tissues, and is a 
superior remedy in a variety of chronic diseases. In my special practice 
I use it largely, and its use, in conjimction with other indicated reme- 
dies, has afforded me flattering success in many chronic affections. 

Dose. — Fluid extract, half a drachm to two drachms ; solid extract, 
four to eight grains ; of the tincture the dose is from one to three tea- 
spoonsful ; of Cimicifugin the dose is from one to six grains, 

BLAZING STAR (Liatris Squarrosa). 

Common Names. Gay Feather, DeviVs Bit, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — There are three varieties of this plant used in medicine. 
The above is the most common one. It has a tuberous root, and an 
erect annual stem from two to five feet high, linear leaves, and flowers 
sessile, and of bright purple color. 

Liatris Spicata, or Button Snake Boot, is very similar to the above. 

Liatris Scariosa, or Oay Feather, has a perennial tuberous root, with 
a stout stem from four to five feet high. The leaves are numerous and 
lanceolate, lower one on long petioles. 

History. — The two former are natives of the ]\Iiddle and Southern 
States, and the latter is foimd from New England to AYisconsin. These 
splendid natives flower from August to September. The roots have a 
hot bitter taste and an agreeable turjjentine odor. The virtues are ex- 
tracted by alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — These plants are diuretic, tonic, stimulant, and 
cmmenagogue. The decoction is very useful in gonon-hoea, gleet, and 
kidney diseases. It is also of service in uterine diseases. As a gargle 
in sore throat it is of great advantage. These plants are used for, and 
said to have antidotal powers over snake-bites. 


Common Name. Thorori(jlLwort. 

Medicinal Parts. The tops and leaves. 

Description. — Boneset is an indigenous pereimial herb, with a horizon- 
tal crooked root ; the stems being round, stout, rough and hairy, from 
one to five feet high, and the leaves vemy, sen-ate, rough, and tapering 
to along point. The flowers are white and very numerous. 

History.— BonesGt grows in low grounds, on the borders of swamps and 
streams, throughout the United States, flowering in August and Septem- 



ber. Alcohol or boiling water extracts the virtues of the parts used. It 

has a feeble odor, but a very bitter taste. It contains tannin and the 

extractive salts of potassa. It is called 

Boneset on account that it was formerly 

supposed to cause rapid union of broken 


Properties and Uses. — It is a very valu- 
able medicinal agent. The cold infusion 
or extract is tonic and aperient, the warm 
infusion diaphoretic and emetic. As a 
tonic it is very useful in remittent, inter- 
mittent, and typhoid fevers, dyspepsia, 
and general debility. In intermittent fever 
a stong infusion, as hot as can be comfort- 
ably swallowed, is administered for the 
purpose of vomiting freely. This is also 
attended with profuse diaphoresis, and, 

sooner or later, by an evacuation of the bowels. During the intermis- 
sion the cold infusion or extract is given eveiy hour as a tonic 
and antiperiodic. In epidemic influenza the warm infusion is val- 
uable as an emetic and diaphoretic, likewise in febrile diseases, ca- 
tarrh, colds, and wherever such effects are indicated. The warm 
infusion is also administered to i^romote the operation of other emetics. 
Externdlly., used alone or in combination with hops or tansy, etc., a 
fomentation of the leaves applied to the bowels is very useful in inflam- 
mation, spasms, and painful affections. 

Boneset is one of the ingredients of my " Restorative Assimilant," 
and is certainly an excellent adjuvant to the Blue Vervain. (See page 

Dose. — Of the powder, from ten to twenty grains; of the extract, 
from two to four grains ; of the infusion, from two to four wineglass- 


BLACK ROOT (Leptaj^dbia Virginica). 

Common Names. Cidvefs Physic, Tall Speedwell. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — It is perennial, with a simple, straight, smooth, herba- 
' eons stem, and grows from three to four or five feet in height. The 
leaves are short petioled, whorled in fours to sevens, lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, and finely serrated. The flowers are white, nearly sessile, and very 
numerous. Calyx four-parted, corolla small and nearly white ; stamens, 
two. The fruit is a many -seeded capsule. 

ITistory. — This plant is indigenous to the United States, but is to be 
found in good condition only in limestone countries. It is often discov- 



ered in new soil, in moist woods, in swamps, etc., but its medicinal vir- 
tues are feeble, excepting when it is found where there is limestone. 
The root is the part used. It is perennial, irregular, horizontal, woody, 
and about as thick as the forefinger. It is gathered in the fall of the 
second year. The fresh root should never be used, as it is very violent 
and uncertain in its operations. The dried root, after having been 
properly prepared, is what may be relied uj^on for beneficial effects. 
Leptandriii is its active principle. 

Properties and Uses. — The fresh root is too irritant to be used, although 
a decoction of it may, with care, be used in intermittent fever. The 
dried root is laxative, cholagogue, and tonic, and very much used in 
chronic hepatic diseases. It is an excellent laxative in febrile diseases, 
and peculiarly applicable in bilious and typhoid fevers. As a laxative 
and tonic it is very useful in dyspepsia, especially when associated with 
torpidity of the liver. In diarrhoea and dysentery, as a cathartic it fre- 
quently effects a cure in one active dose. This admirable remedy is one 
of the ingredients of my " Eenovating Pill," see page 469. 

Dose. — Powdered root, twenty to sixty grains; infusion, half an 
ounce ; leptandrin, one -fourth grain to a grain. 

BLOODROOT (Saj^guinaria Canadensis). 

Common Name. Red Pmcoofi. 
Medicinal, Part. The root. 
Description. — Bloodroot is a smooth, her 
baceous, perennial plant, with a fibrous root, 
which when cut or bruised emits an orange- 
colored juice. From each bud of the root 
stalk there springs a single leaf about six 
inches high, and which is cordate and reni- 
form. The flower is white, stamens short, 
and anthers yellow. The fruit is a two-valved 

Histori/. — Bloodroot grows throughoi\t the 
United States, in shaded woods and thickets, 
and rich soils generally, and flowers from 
March to June. Although the whole plant is 
medicinal, the root is the part chiefly used. 
The fresh root is fleshy, round, and from one 
to four inches in length, and as thick as the 
fingers. It presents a beautiful appearance when cut and placed under 
a microscope, seeming like an aggregation of minute precious stones. 
The dried root is dark brown outside, bright yellow inside ; has a faint 
virose odor, and a bitter and acrid taste. It may be readily reduced to 



powder. Its active properties are taken up by boiling water or by 
alcohol. Age and moisture impair the qualities of the root, and it ia 
of the utmost consequence to get that which has been properly gathered, 
and not kept too long. It yields several principles, among which are 
sanguinaria, puccine, chelidonic acid, a yellowish fixed oQ, Ug n in, and 

Properties and Uses. — The actions of Bloodroot vary according to ad- 
ministration. In small doses it stimulates the digestive organs, acting 
as a stimulant and tonic. In large doses it is an arterial sedative. It 
is useful in bronchitis, laryngitis, whooping-cough, and other affections 
of the respiratory organs. It excites the energies of a tori^id liver, and 
has proved beneficial in scrofula, amenorrhoea, and dysentery. Applied 
to fungous growths, ulcers, fleshy excrescences, cancerous affections, 
the powder acts as an escharotic, and the infusion is often applied with 
benefit to skin diseases. 

Dose.- — Of the powder as an emetic, ten to twenty grains ; as a stimu- 
lant and expectorant, three to five grains ; as an alterative, half a grain 
to two grains. Tincture, twenty to sixty drops. 

BOX (Buxtrs Sei^ipekvirens). 

MEDiCESfAL Part. The leaves. 

Description. — Box is a small, dense-leaved, hard-wood evergreen tree. 
The leaves are ovate, deep shining green, becoming red in autumn ; 
flowers pale yellow ; and the fruit a six-seeded globular capsule. 

History. — The box tree is a native of the west of Asia, but grows on 
dry hills and sandy elevations generally in Europe, and but rarely on 
similar soU in America. A preparation called Buxina is obtained from 
the powdered bark, but the leaves are the parts mainly used in medical 
practice. They readily impart their virtues to alcohol or water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is cathartic, sudorific, and alterative. The 
preparations of the leaves are excellent for the expulsion of worms, for 
piirging the bowels, and regulating the action of the liver ; for brealdng 
fevers, and for purifying the blood and glandular secretions. In syrup 
it Ls very valuable as a cure for all diseases of a syphilitic character, and 
may be used alone to great advantage, where the compound syrup of 
stOlingia cannot be obtained. The stillingia is preferable if it is at all 
to be had. The dose of a strong decoction, or syrup, of box, is half a 
fluid ounce, three times a day. In very severe cases the dose may be 
increased to a fluid ounce ; but this should not be undertaken excepting 
by the advice of a physician. When intestinal worms are to be destroyed 
or expelled, the powdered leaves are usually administered in, to chil- 
dren, doses of five grains ; to adults, in doses of from ten to fifteen 
grains. It possesses antispasmodic qualities, and has been given with 


good effect in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea (St. Yitus' Dance), etc. Chips 
of the wood (decoction) are useful in chronic rheumatism. The chief 
value of the Buxus Sempervirens, however, centres in its antisyphilitic 
virtues. I combine it with corydalis (Turkey pea) and the compound 
syrup of stniingia, in such a manner that it will surely cure syphilis in 
the first, second, or third stage ; also certain forms of scrofula and 
scurvy. In other diseases it is no better than many other plants men- 
tioned in this book. 

The reader will do well to remember that the common garden box 
possesses the medical qualities of the Buxus Semjiervirens to a feeble 
extent only. The powerful antisjiahilitic virtues of which I have spoken 
can be procured only from the leaves of the tree reared ta Asia, the in- 
fluences of that climate being requisite to perfect them. 

EUCHU (Barosma Crenata). 

Medicinal Part. TJie leaces. 

Description. — This plant has a slender, smooth, upright, perennial 
Btem, between two and three feet high. The leaves are opposite, flat, 
about an inch long, ovate or obovate, acute, serrated, and dotted. The 
flowers are pink, and fruit an ovate capsule. 

History. — The Buchu plant is a native of Southern Africa. It does 
not grow very prolifically. There are two other varieties from which 
the leaves are taken, and which are of equal value with the Bwrosma, 
Crenata. The leaves are the jiarts which are termed officinal. The 
Hottentots gather these leaves (which emit a sort of minty odor) and 
powder them. "The powder," says a traveler, "they have named 
Booko.^ and they use it for anointing their bodies." They also distil the 
leaves, and obtain from them a strong spirituous liquor somewhat re- 
sembling pale brandy, which they not only use for oon\'ivial purposes, 
but for the cure of vaiious diseases, particularly those which are located 
in the stomach, bladder, bowels, and kidneys. A decoction of the 
leaves is systematically applied by them, with success, we are told, to 
woiinds ; but this is an assertion of which we have no direct proof. As 
we get them, the leaves are nearly, or quite, an inch in length, and from 
a sixth to half an inch in width, elliptical, lanceolate, slightly acute, or 
shorter and obtuse ; their margin is serrated and glandular, upper sur- 
face smooth, and of a clear shining green, the under surface paler, with 
scattered oil points. They taste and smell like pennyroyal ; but are 
neither heating nor bitter when chewed. They have to be kept very 
carefully, if their odor and virtues are desired to be thoroughly preserved 
for any reasonable length of time. The leaves of aU the varieties are 
somewhat similar, and pos.scss about the same qualities. They jrield their 
volatile oU fuid extractive (upon which their virtues are mainly depen- 
dent) to alcohol or water. 


Properties and Uses. — Buchu is aromatic and stimulant, diuretic and 
diaphoretic. It is employed in dyspepsia with a palliative effect, but is 
chiefly administered in chronic inflammation of the bladder, irritation 
of the membrane of the urethra, uric acid gravel, diabetes in its first 
stage, and in incontinence of urine. It is recommended, without good 
reason, for cutaneous and rheumatic affections. I have no doubt Buchu 
is of some importance in chronic diseases of the urino-genital organs, 
for I have tried it ; but I am sure that we have many native remedies 
which are altogether superior, and which are neglected only because the 
public is so familiar with them that they do not care to give them a fair 

Dose. — Of the powder, twenty to thirty grains ; infusion, two to four 
ounces ; tincture, one or two drachms ; fl. extract, thirty to sixty drops. 

BURNING BUSH (EuoNYMUs Atropukpureus). 

Common Names. Wnhoo, Spindle Tree, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The bark of the root. 

Desc7'iption.—Wahoo is a small shrub or bush, with smooth branches, 
and from five to ten feet high. The leaves are from two to five inches 
in length, lanceolate, acute, and finely serrate. Flowers dark purple, 
and the fruit a crimson, five-celled capsule. There is another variety 
known as Euonprnvs Americanvs, which is equally useful medicinally, 
and this and the foregoing are both kno^vn by the name of Waltoo better 
than by any other title. 

History. — These plants grow in many sections of the United States, in 
woods and thickets, and in river bottoms, flowering in June. The bark 
of the root has a bitter and unpleasant taste in its natural shape, and 
yields its qualities to water and alcohol. The active principle is Ew)- 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, laxative, alterative, diuretic, and 
expectorant. It is serviceable in dyspepsia, torpid liver, constipation, 
dropsy, and pulmonary diseases. In intermittents it serves a good 

Dose. — Of the powder, twenty to thirty grains ; tincture, one to four 
drachms ; Euonymin, one-eighth to half a grain. 

BUTTER WEED (Erigeron Canadense). 

Common Names. ColVs Tail, Pride Weed, Horse Weed, Canada Flea- 

Medicinal Part. The whole plant. 

Description.— This, is an indigenous, annual herb, with a high bristly, 
hairy stem, from six inches to nine feet high. The leaves are lanceo- 
late ; flowers small, white, and very numerous. 

History. — Butterweed is common to the Northern and Middle States, 


grows in fields and meadows, by road-sides, and flowers from Jiine to 
September. It should be gathered when in bloom, and carefully dried. 
It has a feeble odor, somewhat astringent taste, and yields its virtues to 
alcohol or water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, diuretic, and astringent. It is use- 
ful in gravel, diabetes, dropsy, and ia many kidney diseases. It can 
also be employed in diarrho2a, dysentery, etc. The volatile oil may be 
used instead of the infusion. 

Z)ose. — Of the powder, half a drachm; infusion, two to four ounces; 
fl. extract, teaspoonful ; oil, from four to six drops on sugar. 

CAHINCA (CniococcA Racemosa). 

CoiniON Name. Snow Berry. 

Medicinal Part. The bark of the root. 

Description. — This is a climbing shrub, with a round branched root, 
and a stem from eight to twelve feet high. The leaves are ovate and 
smooth ; flowers white and odorless, and become yellow and redolent ; 
calyx, five-cleft ; corolla, funnel-shaped ; stamens, five. The fruit is a 
small white berry. 

History. — This plant is a native of the West Indies, Florida, and 
South America. The root has a coif ee-like taste, of a reddish-brown 
color, and a disagreeable odor. It affords the Cahincic Acid, its most 
important medicinal agent. 

Properties and Uses. — In medium doses it aids the urinary discharge, 
increases the action of the heart, and promotes perspiration. It has 
been found efficient in amenorrhoea, rheumatism, syphilis, etc., and ia 
used in Brazil as an antidote to snake-bites. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from twenty to sixty grains. 

CALICO BUSH (Kalmia Latifolia). 

Common Names. Sheep Laurel, Spoonicood, Mountain Laurel, Lamb- 

Medicinal Part. The leaver. 

Description. — This handsome plant is a shrub from four to eight feet 
high, with crooked stems and a rough bark. The leaves are evergreen, 
ovate, lanceolate, acute at each end, on long petioles, and from two to 
three inches long. The flowers are white and numerous. The fruit is 
a dry capsule. 

//(■.s<W7/. — Sheep. Laurel inhabits the rocky hills and elevated grounds 
of most parts of the United States. Its beautiful flowers appear in 
June and July. The loaves are reputed to be poisonous to sheep and 
other animals, and it is said that birds which have caton them will 
poison those who eat the birds. The leaves are the officinal part. At- 


tention was called to their medicinal virtues by the use which the 
Indians make of them, viz. , a decoction by which they commit suicide. 

Properties and Uses. — The plant, in medicinal doses, is antisyphilitic, 
sedative to the heart, and somewhat astringent. It is a most efficient 
agent in syphilis, fevers, jaundice, neuralgia, and inflammation. The 
preparation should be used with great care and prudence. In cases of 
poisoning with this plant, either man or beast, whiskey is the best anti- 
dote. Externally, stewed with lard, it is serviceable as an ointment for 
various skin diseases. 

Dose. — The saturated tincture of the leaves is the best form of ad- 
ministration. It is given in from ten to twenty drops every two or 
three hours. Powdered leaves, from ten to twenty grains. 


Common Name. BeecJi Drops. 

Medicinal Part. The plant. 

Description. — This is a parasitic plant, with a smooth, leafless stem 
from a foot to a foot and a half in height, with slender branches given 
off the whole length of it. The root is scaly and tuberous. 

History. —This plant is native to North America, and generally a para- 
site upon the roots of beech trees, flowering in August and September. 
The whole plant is of a dull red color, without any verdure. It has a 
disagreeable, astringent taste It yields its virtues to water and alco- 

Properties and Uses. — An eminent astringent. Used with benefit in 
fluxes and in diarrhoea, but possesses no property of curing cancer. It 
can be used with advantage in erysipelas. Locally applied to wounds, it 
prevents or anests the process of mortification. It is also useful as an 
application to obstinate ulcers, aphthous ulcerations, etc. , etc. It exerts 
the same influence upon the capillary system as the mineral drug tinc- 
ture of iron. 


Common Name. Indian Hemp. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This is an herbaceous annual, growing about three feet 
high, with an erect, branched, angular bright green stem. The leaves 
are alternate, or opposite, on long lax foot-stalks, roughish, with sharply 
serrated leaflets tapering into a long, smooth entire point. The male 
flowers are drooping and long, the females simple and erect. The seeds 
are small, ash-colored, and inodorous. 

History. — Cannabis Indica, or Cannabis Sativa, is a native of the 
Caucasus, Persia, but grows in the hilly regions of Northern India. It 
in cultivated in many parts of Europe and Asia ; but medicine of value 


can only be made from the Indian variety, fhe active principle of the 
plant being developed only by the heat of the climate of Hindostan. 
The dried tops and resin are the parts used. The preparations csiUed 
C/nirrus, Gimjah, Bhang, Hashish, etc., sold in this country, are most- 
ly feeble imitations of the genuine articles, and are comparatively 
worthless. Even the few specimens of the genuine productions which 
reach the shops, and are sold at high prices, are crude and inferior, and 
can in no wise impart the effects which attach to the pure article. It is 
a matter of great difficulty to procure the genuine article even direct 
from dealers in India, unless you have had years of experience as a 
practising herbal physician, and have established business connections in 
various parts of the world as an Importer of rare and pure medicinal 
herbs, barks, roots, resins, etc. 

The Cannabis Saliva, or common hemp, possesses similar properties, 
and can be substituted if the Asiatic hemp is not procurable. 

Properties and Uses. — It is narcotic, anodyne, and antispasmodic. It 
has been successfully employed in gout, neuralgia, rheumatism, locked- 
jaw, convulsions, chorea, hysteria, and uterine hemorrhage ; but it is 
chiefly valuable asan invigorator of mind and body. Its exhilarating 
qualities are unequalled, and it is a certain restorative in low mental 
conditions, as well as in cases of extreme debility and emaciation. In 
such cases it may be regarded as a real rejuvenator. It should be taken 
by the advice of one experienced in its uses, in order that its merits 
may be properly and fairly experienced. The spurious hemp should 
never be taken, as it produces, what the genuine does not, unpleasant 
consequences. I have used this article in many a preparation with 
great success. 


Common Names. American Senna, Wild Senna. 

Medicinal Part, llie leaves. 

Description. — This is a perennial herb, growing from four to six feet 
high, with round, smooth, and sUghtly hairy stenjs. The leaves have 
long petioles, ovate at base ; each petiole has eight or ten leaflets, which 
are oblong, smooth, mucronate, an inch or two long, and quite narrow. 
The flowers are bright yellow, and the fniit is a legume from two to 
four inches long. 

History. — The American Senna is to be found from New England to 
Carolina, growing in rich soils here and there. It flowers from June to 
September, and the leaves are gathered, for their medicinal v-irtues, 
while the plant is in bloom. They yield their \'irtues to alcohol oi 

Propertie^^ and Uses. — It is one of the most important herbal cathar- 
tics furnished by America, and is mentioned here solely on the ground 


that it is equally valuable as tlie foreign Senna, or ordinary Senna of 
the drug-shops, and costs much less. The analysis of the leaves shows 
that they contain albumen, mucUage, starch, yellow coloring matter, 
volatile oil, fatty matter, resin, liguin, and salts of potassa, and lime. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from a half -drachm to two and a half 
drachms ; infusion, four or five ounces 

CATECHU (Acacia Catechu). 

Common Names. Cutch, Gamhir, Terra Japotiica. 

Medicinal Part. Extract of the wood. 

Description. — Catechu i§ a small-sized tree from fifteen to twenty 
feet high. The bark is thick, and branches spreading. Leaves bipin- 
nate. Flowers numerous, white or pale yellow, and the fruit a legume. 

Histo7"y. — This tree is common to the East Indian continent, thriving 
in Bengal, and on the Malabar coast. As found in the shops it is in 
square, round, and irregular pieces, variable in color, friable, odorless, 
astringent taste. Soluble iu hot water, depositing a reddish matter on 

Properties and uses. — This is a strong astringent. In chronic diar- 
rhoea, chronic catarrh, chronic dysentery, it proves beneficial, and it is a 
valuable agent as a local ajiplication in throat diseases, especially such 
as singers are subject to. The tincture is often useful as a local appli- 
cation to fissured nipples of nufsing women. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from five to twenty grains ; of the tincture, 
from twenty minims to half an ounce. 

CEDRON (SiMABA Cedron). 

Medicinal Part. TJie seed. 

Description. — Simaba is a small tree, with an erect stem about half a 
foot in diameter, branching luxuriantly at the top. Leaves obovate, 
large, and serrated ; flowers sessile, pale brown, and the fruit a soUtary 

History. — This tree grows in New Grenada and Central America. Its 
value as a medicinal agent has long been known in Costa Rica, Trinidad, 
etc. , and from thence was communicated to scientific gentlemen in 
France. The seed, which is the part used, is about an inch and a half 
long, nearly an inch broad, and about half an inch thick. It is hard, but 
can be easily cut by a common knife. It is inodorous, but tastes Uke 
quassia or aloes, and yields its properties to water or alcohol. In South 
America the properties of these seeds were known as early as the year 
1700. At that time they were applied more especially as an antidote to 
the bites of poisonous serpents, and similar affections. 

Properties and Uses. — It is an antispasmodic, and one of the most 
valuable articles of the kind known to educated herbalists. It is very 


useful in all nervous affections, and is administered in one or two grain 
doses. As it can only be obtained from those who, like myself, import 
it especially, it is unnecessary to say that it should not be administered 
without the advice of competent herbal physicians. To give an idea of 
its value as an antispasmodic, I mention that it is a cure for hydropho- 
bia, and an antidote for the majority of acro-narcotic poisons. 

CELANDINE (Chelidonium Majus). 

Common Name. Tetter Wort. 

Medicinal Parts. Jlerb and root. 

Description. — This plant is an evergreen perennial, with a stem from 
one to two feet ia height, branched, swelled at the joints, leafy, round, 
and smooth ; the leaves are smooth, spreading, very deeply pinnatified ; 
leaflets in from two to four pairs, from one and a half to two and a half 
inches long, and about two-thirds as broad, the termtaal one largest, aU 
ovate, cuneately incised or lobed ; the lateral ones sometimes dUated at 
the lower margin, near the base almost as if auricled ; c(^or of all, a 
deep shining green ; the flowers are bright yellow, umbellate, on long, 
often hairy stocks. 

History. — Celandine is a pale green, fleshy herb, indigenous to Europe 
and naturalized in the United States ; it grows along fences, by-roads, 
in waste places, etc. , and flowers from May to October. If the plant be 
wounded, a bright yeUow, offensive juice flows out, which has a persis- 
tent, nauseous, bitter taste, with a bitiag sensation in the mouth and 
fauces. The root is the most tatensely bitter part of the plant, and is 
more commonly preferred. Drying dimtaishes its activity. It yields its 
virtues to alcohol or water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is stimulant, acrid, alterative, diuretic, dia- 
phoretic, purgative, and vulnerary. It is used internally in decoction 
or tincture, and externally in poultice or ointment for scrofula, cuta- 
neous diseases, and pUes. It is likewise good in hepatic affections, or 
liver complaints, and exerts a special influence on the spleen. As a 
drastic hydragogue, or purge, it is fully equal to gamboge. The juice, 
when applied to the skin, produces inflammations, and even vesications. 
It has long been known as a caustic for the removal of warts ; it is also 
apphed to indolent ulcers, fungous growths, etc. , and is useful in re- 
moving specks and opacities of the cornea of the eye. 

Celandine is from the Greek word Chelidon, which signifies a swallow. 
The ancients assert that if you put out the eyes of yoimg swallows when 
they are in the nest, the old ones will restore their eyes again with this 
herb. It is said that we may mar the apple of the bird's eye with a 
needle, and that the old birds ^v^l restore their sight again by means of 
this herb. Never having made any such cruel experiments, I am not 
prepared to say whether any such miraculous power of healing losa of 



eight is a virtue of the plant, or whether it is an instinct or gift inherent 
of the swallow itself. 

Celandine is also used in curing salt-rheum, tetter, or ringworm. It 
is superior to arnica as a vulnerary ; an alcoholic tincture of the root 
(three ounces to a pint) will be found an unrivalled application to pre- 
vent or subdue traumatic inflammations. 

Dose. — Of the powdered root, from half a drachm to one drachm ; of 
the fresh juice, from twenty to forty drops, in some bland hquid ; of 
the tincture, from one to two fluid drachms ; of the aqueous extract, 
from five to ten grains. 

CENTAURY (Sabbatia Angularis). 

Common Name. Rose Pink. 

MEDicrNAL Part. The herb. 

Description. — This plant has a yellow fibrous, biennial root, with an 
erect, smooth, quadrangular stem, with the angles winged, having many 
opposite branches, and growing from one to two feet in height. The 
leaves are opposite, fine-veined, smooth, en- 
tire, from one to five inches in length, and 
from half an inch to one and a half inches 
wide, clasping the stem. The flowers are 
numerous, from an inch and a quarter to an 
inch and a half in diameter, of a rich rose or 
carnation color, standing, as it were, at the 
tops of one umbrU or tuft, very like those of 
St. Jolm^s wort., opening themselves in the 
day-time and closing at night, after which 
come seeds in little short husks, in forms like 
unto wheat corn. There are three varieties 
of the Centaury in England, one kind bearing 
white flowers, another yellow, and another 
red. All have medicinal properties, although 
the American variety is considered preferable 
to the European Centaury. 

History. — This plant is common to moat 
parts of the United States, growing in moist 
meadows, among high grass, on the prairies, and in damp, rich soils, 
flowering from June to September. The whole herb is used. It has 
a very bitter taste, and yields its virtues to water or alcohol. The best 
time for gathering it is during the flowering season. In England they 
use the red Centaury in diseases of the blood, the yeUov.r in choleric 
diseases, and the white in those of phlegm and water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is an excellent tonic. It is used in all fall 
periodic febrile diseases, both as a preventive and a remedy. It is also 




serviceable as a bitter tonic in dyspepsia and convalescence from fevera 
When administered in vparm infusion it is a domestic remedy for worms, 
and to restore the menstrual secretion. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from half a drachm to a drachm ; of the cold 
infusion, a teacujiful every two or three hours ; of the tincture, a wine- 
glassful ; of the extract, from two to six grains. 

CENTTJRY PLANT (Agave Americana). 

Common Name. SouiJi American Agave. 
Medicinal Part. The inspissated juice. 

Description. — This plant, which is also sometimes called the Century 
Plant, from an erroneous idea that it blossoms but once in a hundred 
years, is the largest of all herbaceous plants. It is an evergreen, and 
does not blossom often. 

History. —It flourishes in the warmer latitudes of South America, 
where its juice is expressed by the natives and allowed to ferment. In 
this condition it is called pulque, and is used as an exhilarating bever- 
age. The natives can drink large quantities of this liquor without get- 
ting veiy much intoxicated ; but it is very severe upon those who are 
not accustomed to it. 

Properties and Uses. — The fresh juice is used by the South Americana 
to regulate the action of the bowels and kidneys, and is considered very 

valuable for dyspepsia and diseases 
of the bladder. The South Ameri- 
can women use the juice and the 
decoction to promote menstruation. 
I can say of my own knowledge 
that, in proper combination, it is a 
superior anti-syi^hilitic, and that in 
scorbutic affections it is without 
many superiors. The dose is from 
half a fluid ounce to two ounces, 
three times a day. 

The Agave Virginica, or F'alse 
Aloe, is not to be confounded with 
this, as that plant is a laxative and 
carminative . 

CHAMOMILE (Aijthemis No- 


Medicinal Part. The Flowers. 

Description. — This is a perennial herb, with a strong fibrous root. 

The stems in a Avild state are prostrate, but in gardens more upright, 




about a span long, round, hoUow, furrowed, and downy ; the leaves 
pale gi-een, pinnate, sessile, with thread-shaped leaflets. The flower-heads 
terminal, rather larger than the daisy, and of yellow color, or whitish. 

Histcyi'y. — Chamomile is indigenous to Southern Europe ; we have 
also a common or wild Chamomile {Matricaria Chamoviilla) growing in 
the United States, but it is not considered as good as the Roman 
Chamomile for medicinal purposes, which is the kind I use. The white 
flowers are the best ; they have an aromatic, agi'eeably bitter taste, and 
peculiar odor. They yield their properties to alcohol and water. 

Pr<yper ties and Uses. — Chamomile is a tonic; one or two teacupfuls 
of the warm infusion wiU usually vomit. The cold iafusion is highly 
useful in dyspepsia, and in all cases of weak or irritable stomachs, also 
in intermittent and typhoid fevers. The oil is carminative and anti- 
spasmodic, and is used in flatulency, coUc, cramp in the stomach, hys- 
teria, nervous diseases, and painful menstruation. 

A poultice of Chamomile wUl often prevent gangrene, and remove it 
when present. It is an ingredient in my " Restorative Assimilant," and 
is a most excellent adjutant and conigent in that great remedy. 

Dose. — Half a drachm to two drachms of the flowers. Of the infu- 
sion, half a teacupful to a teacupful ; of the oil, five to fifteen drops on 

CHERRY LAUREL (Prunus Laurocerasus). 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Description. — This is a small evergreen 
shrub or tree with smooth branches. Leaves 
with short petioles, oval-oblong, seirate, 
acute, and smooth. Flowers shorter than 
the leaves, calyx inferior, corolla has five 
white petals ; stamens about twenty ; and 
fruit a round, black, smooth drupe. 

History. — Originally a native of Asia 
Minor, from whence it was introduced into 
Europe in 1576, and subsequently from 
Europe to the United States. It is now com- 
mon in gardens and shrubberies. The leaves 
have scarcely any odor until bruised, then 
they have a bitter almond odor ; taste very 
bitter, aromatic, and slightly astringent. 
They impart their virtues to water and alco- 

Properties and Z7ses. —An excellent sedative. Useful lq tic-doiiloureux, 
phthisis, spasmodic cough, palpitation of the heart, and in all spasmodic 
affections. „ 

Cherry LaureL 


Dose. — Powdered leaves, four to eight grains; latirel water, ten to 
thirty drops. 

CmCKWEED (Stellaiiia Media). 

Medicinal Part. The Jierb. 

Description. — This plant is an annual or biennial weed, from six to 
fifteen inches in length, with a prostrate, brittle, and leafy stem. The 
leaves are ovate-cordate ; the lower ones on hairy petioles. The flowers 
ai-e smaU and white, petals two-parted, stamens three, five, or ten. 

History. — It is a common plant in Europe and America, growing in 
fields and arotmd dwellings, in moist, shady places. It flowers from 
the beginning of spring till the last of autumn. The seeds aie eaten by 
poultry and birds. The whole herb is used when recent. 

Properties and Uses. — It is a cooUng demulcent. The fresh leaves 
braised and applied as a poultice to indolent, intractable ulcers, even 
when of many years' standing, wiU produce most immediate and de- 
cided beneficial results, to be changed two or three times a day. The 
bruised leaves vsoU likewise be found an invaluable application in acute 
ophthalmia. An ointment made by bmising the recent leaves in. fresh 
lard, may be used as a cooling application to erysipelatous and other 
forms of ulceration, as well as many forms of cutaneous diseases. 

CHOCOLATE ROOT, Geum Rivale ( Water Avens), Geum Virgini- 
ANUM ( White Avens). 

Common Names. Throat Root, Puiple Avens. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — Geum Rivale, or Pm'jile Avens, is a perennial, deep 
green herb; woody root; leaves nearly lyrate, crer.ate-dentate, and 
from four to six inches long. The flowers are few and yellowish purple 
in color. 

Geum Viuginianum, or Throat Root, is also a perennial, with a 
smaU, crooked root. The stem is two or three feet high. The leaves 
are pinnate or lyrate ; flowers rather small and white ; and the fruit im 
achenium. The former is common to the United States and Europe, 
flowering in June or July, and the latter only to the United States, 
flowering from June to August. 

History.— ThG^e plants, with other varieties, have long been used in 
domestic practice. The whole herb contains medicinal properties, but 
the officinal and most efficient part is the root. Boiling water or alcohol 
extracts their virtues. 

Properties and Uses. — Is tonic and astringent. It is used in passive 
and chronic hemorrhages, chronic diarrhcea and dysentery, luucor- 



rhoea, dyspepsia, pulmonary affections, congestions of the abdominal 
viscera, etc. 

Dose.—Ot the powder, from twenty to thirty grains ; of the decoc- 
tion, from two tablespoonfuls to a wineglassful, three or four times a day. 


Common Names. Peruvian Bark, Jesuits' Bark. 

Medicinal Part. The bark. 

Description.— The bark is obtained from the CincJuma Calisaya, Cin- 
chona Condaminea, Cinchona Succirubra, and Cinchona Lancifolia. 
These trees are all evergreen trees or shrubs. Their generic character 
is to have opposite entire leaves ; flowers white, or usually roseate or 
purplish, and very fragrant ; calyx a turbinated tube ; corolla salver- 
shaped ; stamens, five ; anthers, liaear ; 
style, simple ; stigma, bifid. The fruit a 
capsule, ovate or oblong, filled with nume- 
rous winged seeds. About thirteen varie- 
ties of cinchona are known to commerce, 
but the above are the most important. Of 
these species the former three yield re- 
spectively the pale, yellow, and red cin- 
chona barks, and the fourth is one of the 
sources of quinine. 

History. — Cinchona is a very old dis- 
covery, and takes its name from the wife 
of the Spanish viceroy. Count de Cinchon, 
who was ciu-ed of fever by it, at Lima, 
about the year 1638. For some time after 
its introduction into Europe, the Jesuits, 
who received the bark from their brethren 
in Peru, alone used it, and kept to them- 
selves the secret of its origin ; and their 
use of it was so successful that it received 

the name which still clings to it of "Jesuits' Bark." The bark richest 
in the antiperiodic alkaloids is the Cinchona Calisaya. The geograph- 
ical range of the cinchonas appears to be exclusively confined to the 
Andes, within the boundaries of Peru, Bolivia, Equador, and New 
Granada. Thirteen species furnish the barks of commerce, and all of 
them are found growing from one to ten thousand feet above the level 
of the sea. The four species we have named at the head of this article 
are, however, the only ones recognized by the United States Pharma- 
copoeia, and are the favorites everywhere. Since the seventeenth cen- 
tury these barks have been the study of men versed in medical and 
chemical science, and they and the preparations made from them rank 


among the most important articles of the Materia Medica. It contains 
numerous active principles, but the most important, and one chiefly 
used, is quinine. 

Properties and Uses. — Cinchona bark is tonic, antiperiodic, astringent 
to a moderate extent, and eminentlj' febrifuge. It is topically (or ex- 
ternally) antiseptic, and is of much value when applied to gangrenous 
ulcerations, or used for gargles and washes in erysipelas, ulcerated sore 
throat, mouth, etc. I do not recommend the use of the bark in cases 
where the stomach is vory much weakened (although it is employed in 
every disease in which there is deficient tone), because the woody fibre 
in the powder will most generally disagree. When taken internally it 
imparts a sensation of warmth to the stomach, which gradually spreads 
over the whole body ; the pulse becomes stronger and is accelerated, 
and the various organs are gently stimulated. It may be used with 
benefit in ordinary cases of dyspepsia, general debility, and all febrile, 
eruptive, and inflammatory diseases, in whatever stage they may be. 
In all cases of night-sweating, or great feebleness, it is valuable. As 
an antiperiodic it is not surpassed by anything else used. "VVTien it 
excites nausea, add an aromatic ; if jiurging, opium ; if costiveness, 
rhubarb. . 

Quinine is a white flocculent powder, inodorous, and has a very bitter 
taste. It is very sparingly soluble iii warm water, still less so in cold 
water. It is readily soluble in hot alcohol, and tolerably so in ether. It 
is always best to administer quinine instead of the bark, unless some of 
the effects of the other i^rinciples are desired. 

Dose. — Of the powder, half a drachm to a drachm ; fluid extract, ten 
to sixty drops ; of quinine, from one to fifteen grains, according to 


Common Name. Five-Finger. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This perennial plant has a procumbent stem from two 
to eighteen inches in length. The leaves are i)almate, leaflets obovate, 
and flowers yellow, on soUtary pedicels. 

There are two varieties of this plant, the P. PamiUa, which is very 
small and delicate, flowering in Aprfl. and May, and growing in diy, 
sandy soils, and the P. Simptlcx., a larger plant, growing in richer soils, 
and flowering from June to August. 

History. — Five-finger is common to the United States, growing by 
road-sides, on meadow banks and waste grounds, and flowering from 
April to October. The root is the part used. It has a bitterish, styptic 
taste, and yields its virtues to water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic and astringent. A decoction is use- 


ful in fevers, bowel complaints, night sweats, menoiThagia, and other 
hemoiThages. It makes an excellent gargle for spongy, bleeding gums, 
and ulcerated mouth and throat. 

The PoTENTiLLA ToRMENTiLLA, or Sept-Foil of Europe, possesses 
similar qualities, and may be used by my readers ia that countiy if the 
American root is not to be obtained. 

CLEAVERS (Galium Aparine). 

Common Names. Ooose Grass, Catc7iweed, Bed-Straw. 

Medicinal Part. T/ie herb. 

Description.- — It is an annual succulent plant, with a weak, procum- 
bent, quadrangular, retrosely-j^rickled stem, which grows from two to six 
feet high, and is hairy at the joints. The leaves are one or two inches 
in length, and two or three lines in breadth ; rough on the margin and 
tapering to the base. The flowers are white, small, and scattered. 

History. — This plant is common to Europe and the United States, 
growing in cultivated grounds, moist thickets, and along banks of rivers, 
and flowering from June to September. In the gr-een state the plant 
has an unpleasant odor ; but it is inodorous when dried, ■with an acidu- 
lous, astringent, and bitter taste. Cold or warm water extracts the \ir- 
tue>3 of the plant ; boning water destroys them. The roots dye a 
permanent red. 

Properties a7id Uses.- — It is a most valuable refiigerant and diuretic, 
and wiU be found very beneficial in many diseases of the urinary organs, 
as suppression of urine, calculous affections, inflammation of the kid- 
neys and bladder, and in the scalding of urine in gonorrhoea. It is con- 
tra-indicated in diseases of a passive character, on account of its 
refrigerant and sedative effects on the system, but may be used freely 
in fevers and all acute diseases. An infusion may be made by macerat- 
ing an ounce and a half of the herb in a pint of warm water for two 
hours, of which from two to four fluid ounces may be given three 
or four times a day when cold. It may be sweetened with sugar or 
honey. It has also been found useful in many cutaneous diseases, as 
psoriasis, eczema, Uchen, cancer, and scrofula, and is more particularly 
useful in these diseases when they are combined with strumous diathe- 
sis. The best form for administration is that of the inspissated juice, 
which may be in one or two drachm doses, thi-ee times a day. 

The plant called Galium Tinctoriiim, or Small Cleavers, is nervine, 
anti-spasmodic, expectorant, and diaphoretic. It is used successfully in 
asthma, cough, and chronic bronchitis, exerting its influence principally 
upon the respiratory organs. The plant has a pungent, aromatic, pleas- 
ant, persistent taste. A strong decoction of the herb may be given in 
doses of from one to four fluid ounces, and repeated two or three timea 


a day, according to circumstances. The root of this plant will also dye a 
permanent red. 

COCA (Erythroxylon Coca). 

Medicinal Part. The herb. 

Description. — I first became acquainted with this most remarkable 
plant many years ago, while traveling in Bolivia, South America, in the 
beautiful valleys of the Cordilleras. The Coca is a bush which rarely 
attains six feet in height, and does not often exceed three. Its foUage 
is of a bright green, its flowers white, and its fruit small and red. When 
the plants are just about eighteen inches high they are transplanted 
from the seed-beds into fields called c-occdes. The ripe leaves are gath- 
ered with the fingers. They are dried by spreading them in the sun, 
sometimes on woollen cloths. The operation requires gi-eat care, for the 
plant must be protected from all dampness, which changes its color, and 
thus diminishes its value. It is then packed in bags, weighing from 
fifty to one hundred and fifty pounds, which are often transported to 
great distances. In the Vice-royalty of Lima, in the latter part of the 
last century, Castelnau represents the consumption of the leaf at three 
and a half millions of pounds, and worth one million and a quarter of 
Spanish dollars, while at the same time the total consumption in Peru 
was two and a half millions of dollars. The impoi-tance of the Coca 
trade, however, is diminishing as the Red Man disappears. The Indians 
mix the Coca with a small quantity of lime, and constantly carry a small 
bag of it on all their excursions. They take it from thi-ee to six times 
a day. Dr. GsciiuDi [Travels in Peru., page 453] mentions an Indian of 
sixty-two years of age, who was employed by him, and though at very 
hard work for five days, took no other noui'ishment, and rested but two 
hours of the night. Immediately, or soon after this, he accomplished a 
journey of one hundred miles in two days, and said that he was ready 
to do the same thing again if they would give him a new supply of Coca. 
Castelnati says he himself knew of instances as extraordinary. In the 
time of the Incas the Coca was regarded as sacred. 

Properties and Uses. — Its physiological actions are as follows : — 

1. It stimulates the stomach and promotes digestion. 

2. In large doses it augments animal heat and accelerates the pulse 
and respiration. 

3. It induces slight constipation. 

4. In moderate doses, from one to four drachms, it stimulates the 
nervous system, so as to render it more tolerant of muscular fatigue. 

5. In larger doses it gives rise to hallucinations and true delirium. 

G. Its most precious property is that of inducing the most pleasant 
visions {^^ ji/itinta^inagarici^^) without any subsequent depression of the 
nervous energies. 



7. Probably it diminishes some of the secretions. 

The Coca has doubtless many other medical properties of a high order, 
and deserves further investigation. 

It stimulates powerfully the digestive functions, while at the same 
time it exercises a calmative influence over the mucous membranes of 
the stomach and bowels. In this double action upon the stomach — 
stimiilant and calmative — it resembles Columbo. 

It is anti-spasmodic, and is of great service in many nervous disorders, 
and particularly ia spermatorrhmi and all debUities of the generative 

I make a pill from the solid extract of Coca, combined with lime and 
valuable Herbal remedial agents, which I call the Napoleon Herb Pill, 
owing to its powerful tonic properties. It is designed to cure all forms 
of debility afflicting either sex. Its powers are promptly manifested in 
cases of sexual debility, whether from seli-produced causes, long study, 
severe mental excitement, or general breaking-down of the nervous 
system from whatever cause. It is equally effectual for the female weak- 
ness and debility so universal among women at the present day. These 
pills are, with explicit directions, put up in sealed bottles. Sent, prepaid 
by mail, to any address, on receipt of $3.00 for 100 pills. We also use 
Coca in various forms in our prepared courses of medicine for special 

COLOOYNTH (CucuMis Colocynthis. ) 

Common Name. Bitter Cucumber. 

Medicinal Part. The fruit divested 
of its rind. 

Description. — Colocynth is an annual 
plant, with a whitish root, and prostrate, 
angular, and hispid stems. The leaves 
are alternate, cordate, ovate, many-lobed, 
white with hairs beneath. Flowers yel- 
low and solitary ; petals small ; and fruit 
globose, smooth, size of an orange, yel- 
low when ripe, with a thin solid rind, and 
a very bitterish flesh. 

History. — This plant is a native of the 
south of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The 
fruit assumes a yeUow or orange color 
externally during the autumn, at which 
time it is pvUled and dried quickly, either in the stove or sun. Thatf 
which is deprived of its rind, very white, Hght spongy, and with- 
out seeds, is the best article ; all others are more or less inferior in 



quality. It contains, besides oils, resins, and gnms, bassorin and the 
sulphates of lime and magnesia. Colacynthin is its active principle. 

Pr(jj)ertles and Uses. — It is a powerful hydragogue cathartic, pro- 
ducing copious watery evacuations. It should never be used alone, but 
be combined vidth other cathartics. It may be used advantageously in 
passive dropsy and cerebral derangements. In combination with hyos- 
cyamus it loses its irritant properties, and may be so employed when- 
ever its peculiar cathartic effects are desired. Hippocrates used colo- 
cynth as a pessary to promote menstruation. 

Dose. — Five to ten grains. 

COLT'S FOOT (TussiLAGO Farfara). 

Common Names. Cough TFt^'i, FoaVs Foot, Horse Hoof, and BuWs 

MEDicnsTAii Part. Tlie leaves. 

Description. — Colt's foot has a long, perennial, creeping, fibrous rhi- 
zome. The leaves are erect, cordate, sharply dentate, smooth green 
above, and pure white and cottony beneath. They do not appear until 
the flowers are withered, and are from five to eight inches long, and 
about an inch broad. The flowers are large and bright yellow. 

Histoi'y. — This plant grows in Europe, the Crimea, Persia, Siberia, 
and the East Indies, from the sea-shore to elevations of nearly eight 
thousand feet. It also grows in the United States, ki wet places, on the 
sides of brooks, flowering in March and April. Its presence is a certain 
indication of a clayey soil. The loaves are rather fragrant, and continue 
BO after having becu carefully dried. The leaves are the jiarts used, 
though all ports of the plant are active, and should always be employed, 
especially the leaves, flowers, and root. The leaves should be collected 
at about the period they have nearly reached their full size, the flowers 
as soon as they commence opening, and the root immediately after the 
maturity of the leaves. When dried, all parts have a bitter, mucilagin- 
ous taste, and yield their properties to water or diluted alcohol. 

properties and Uses. — It is emollient, demulcent, and slightly tonic. 
The decoction is usually administered in doses of from one to three or 
four fluid ounces^, and is highly serviceable in coughs, asthma, whooping- 
cough, and other pulmonaiy complaints ; also useful in scrofula. The 
powdered leaves form a good errhine for giddiness, headache, nasal ob- 
structions, etc. It is also used externally in fonn of poultice in scrofu- 
lous tiunors. 


Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — Columbo, so important in the present practice of medi- 
cine, is a climbing plant, ■with a perennial sort which is quite thick and 


brancliiiigf. The root is covered vnth a thin brown skin, marked with 
transverse warts. The stems, of which one or two proceed from the 
same root, are twining, simple in the male plant, branched in the female, 
round, hauy, and about an inch or an inch and a half La circumference. 
The leaves stand on rounded glandular-hauy footstalks, and are alter- 
nate, distant, cordate, and have three, seven, or nine lobes and nerves. 
The flowers are small and inconspicuous. 

History. — This plant inhabits the forests near the southeastern coapfc 
of Africa, in the neighborhood of Mozambique, where the natives call 
it Kalwmb. The root is dug up in the diy season in the month of March, 
and is cut in slices, strung on cords, and hung up to dry. The odor of 
Columbo is sUghtly aromatic ; the taste bitter, and also mucilaginous. 
The root is easily pulverized, but spoils by keeping after having been 
reduced to a powder. It is best to powder it only as it is required for 
use. The active principle of Columbo is called Colamhin. The root also 
yields Berberin., an excellent stomachic, which is produced from the 

Properties and Uses. — It is one of the purest bitter tonics in the world, 
and in dyspepsia, chronic dian-hoea, and dysentery, as well as in con- 
valescence from febrUe and inflammatory diseases, it can hardly be sur- 
passed as a remedial agent. It is most useful in the remittent and 
intermittent fevers of hot climates. It is used in many combinations, 
according to indications. 

Dose. — Of the powder, ten to thirty grains ; of the infusion, one or 
two ounces ; of the tincture, from one to two drachms. 

COMFREY (Symphytum Officinale). 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — Comfrey has an oblong, fleshy, perennial root, black on 
the outside and whitish within, containing a glutinous or clammy, taste- 
less juice, with divers very large, hauy, green leaves lying on the ground, 
so hairy, or so prickly, that if they touch any tender parts of the hands, 
face, or body, it wUl cause it to itch. The stalks are hollowed and cor- 
nered, very haiiy, having leaves that grow below, but less and less up to 
the top ; at the joints of the stalk it is divided into many branches, at 
the ends of which stand many flowers, in order one above another, which 
are somewhat long and hollow like the finger of a glove, of a pale, 
whitish color ; after them come small black seeds. There is another sort 
which bears flowers of a pale purple color, having similar medicinal pro- 

Histoi^y. — Comfrey is a native of Europe, but naturalized in the United 
States, growing on low grounds and moist places, and flowering all sum- 
mer. The root is officinal and contains a large amount of mucilage, 
which is readily extracted by water. 


Properties and Uses. — The plant is demulcent and slightly astringent. 
All mucilaginous agents exert an influence on mucous tissues, hence 
the cure of many pulmonary and other affections in which these tissues 
have been chiefly implicated, by their internal use. Physicians must 
nol expect a serous disease to yield to remedies which act on mucous 
membranes only ; to determine the true value of a medicinal agent, they 
must first ascertain the true character of the affection, as well as of the 
tissues involved. Again, mucilaginous agents are always beneficial in 
scrofulous and ansemic habits. Comfrey root is very useful in diarrha3a, 
dysentery, coughs, hemoptysis or bleediag of the lungs, and other pul- 
monary affections ; also in leucorrhcsa and female debility : all these be- 
ing principally affections of mucous membranes. 

It may be boiled in water, wine, or made into a syrup, and taken in 
doses of from a wineglassful to a teacupful of the preparation, two or 
three times a day. 

Externally the fresh root, bruised, forms an excellent application to 
bruises, ru^Dtures, fresh wounds, sore breasts, ulcers, white swellings, 

CTJNDURAjS'GO (Equatoria Garciana). 

Medicinal Part. The bark of the vine. 

Description. — Cundurango, or Condor Vine, a name derived from two 
words, cundur and angu., whose marvellous medicinal properties have late- 
ly been made known to the world, and which is now so greatly interesting 
the medical profession, is a climbing vine, resembling much in its habits 
the grape vine of our forests. The vines are from three to five inches 
diameter. They are quite flexible when fresh, but when dry very brit- 
tle. The bark is externally of a greenish-gray color, and has numerous 
small warty excrescences. The leaves are large, sometimes reaching 
six inches in length by five in breadth, opposite, simple, entire, dentate, 
cordate, and of a dark green color. The flowers are small, arranged in 
complete umbels ; stamens five ; petals five ; sepals five ; and filaments 
small. The fniit is a pair of pods, and seeds numerous and dark brown. 
It should be more i:)roperly called C'undurangu. as there is no o in the 
langnage of the Incas. 

History. — This plant is a native of the Andes Mountains in Soiith 
America, especially the southern iiortion of Equador, and foimd most 
plentifully in the mountains surrounding the city of Loja. It is goner- 
ally found on the western exposure of the Andes, at an altitude of 4,000 or 
5,000 feet. Its virtues were known to the Indian.s of the locality for a long 
time. The tradition is that it was regarded by them as poisonous, and 
that an Indian woman unintentionally cured her husband, who suffered 
from a very painful cancer, giving him to drink bowlfuls of decoction of 
Cuuduran^^o, believing and hoping it would prove fatal. It was intro- 


duced into medical practice by Dr. Egni^uren, brother of the Governor 
of the provtace of Loja, both of whom cured many cases of syiihilis and 
cancerous ulcers in the trial of it. The subject was brought to the 
notice of our government by our minister at Quito. The Department 
of State, at once reaUzing the value of the discovery and the intense in- 
terest with which our people would seek after information concerning 
it, published a circular, setting forth its great value as a remedy. This 
action of the government at once inspired that confidence to which the 
plant is entitled. It was tested in a case of cancer afflicting the mother 
of Vice-President Colfax, and at once asserted its value. It has since 
been used by progressive physicians, and the success it has given in can 
cerous and syphilitic affections renders it worthy of the name of a speci 
fie, equally as much so as cinchona. It is a singular coincidence that 
these two specific products of the herbal world should grow in the same 
regions. The natives insist that there are two varieties of the bark, the 
amarillo, or yellow, and bianco, or white ; but upon inspection I find 
they are the same, the difference in color depending upon the strong 
rays of the sun. When freshly cut the vines give an abundance of 
milky, viscous juice or sap, the odor of which is balsamic, and flavor 
decidedly bitter and aromatic. 

Its price is exceedingly high, but this has not deterred me from using 
it where I deemed it necessary in special cases. I can furnish it by mail, 
put up in sealed bags, at $5.00 per half pound, with directions for making 
it into syrup (which is the best method of preparing it), with dose, etc. 
The fluid extract is much higher, $3.00 per ounce. 

Properties and Uses. — An unequalled remedy for cancer, syjjhilis, ulcers, 
etc. In a short period, when taken, the typical symptoms subside, the 
pain is diminished, the discharge thickens and becomes less offensive, 
the tumor becomes softer, the deposits lessen, the expression improves, 
and a cure is speedily effected. It has also diuretic and tonic powers, 
and cures many nervous diseases. I have given this remedy competent 
trials in cases of cancer and syphilis, and the results were so satisfactory 
as to surprise me. 

Lose. — Of the powder, one to two drachms ; fluid extract, one drachm. 
(Much that is spurious is sold in the market.) 


Common Name. Balsam of Copaiba. 

Medicinal Part. The oleo-resinous juice. 

Description. — Copaiba is a tall and handsome tree, with many small, 
crooked branches, and a grayish-brown bark. The leaves are large and 
equally pinnated, leaflets in pairs of from two to five, petioles short. 
The flowers are white ; calyx four-parted ; stamens, ten ; fruit obo- 
vate, two-valved, and one-seeded. 


TLktory. — There are several species which furnish oil of copaiba, 
ail natives of South America and West Indies. The juice is ob- 
tained by deep incisions being made in the trunk during or following 
the wet season ; the balsam (which, however, is not a balsam, as it con- 
tains no benzoic acid ) flows freely, being clear, transparent, and fluid, 
but becoming pale yellowish in time. The oil is unpleasant in smell 
and taste. 

Properties and Uses. — In large doses Copaiba is an irritant, but in 
proper doses it is stimulant, cathartic, and diuretic. It exerts a favor- 
able influence on the mucous tissues of the system, diminishing exces- 
sive secretions, and for this purpose it is chiefly employed. Taken 
internally it gives warmth to the gastric region, and sometimes provokes 
nausea and emesis. It is especially useful in chronic mucous affections, 
as gonorrhoea, bronchitis, diseases of the bladder, gleet, chronic catarrh, 
diarrhoea, and dysentery, etc., etc. It was formerly regarded as a 
specific for gonorrhoea, but has lost some of its prestige. Locally it is 
an excellent application to fistulas, chilblains, old ulcers, etc. 

Dose. — From twenty to sixty drops in emulsion with yolk of egg asvA. 
miut or cinnamon water. 

CKANBERRY (High).— (Viburnum OruLUS.) 

Medicinal Part. TJie bark. 

Description. — It is a nearly smooth and upright shrub, or small tree, 
usually from five to twelve feet in height, with several stems from the 
same root branched above ; the leaves are thi-ee-lobed, three-veined, 
broadly -wedged shape, and crenately toothed on the side. The flowers 
axe white, or reddish-white ; the fruit ovoid, red, very acid, ripens late, 
and remains upon the bush after the leaves have fallen. It resembles 
the common cranberry, and is sometimes substituted for it. 

llhtory. — It is indigenous to the northern part of the United States 
and Canadas, being a handsome shrub, growing Lu low rich lands, woods, 
and borders of fields, flowering in June, and preseiiting at this time a 
very showy appearance. The flowers are succeeded by red and very 
acid berries, resembling low craiibeiTies, and which remain through the 
winter. The bark is the officinal part, as met with in diiig-stores. 
It is frequently put up by Shakers, when it is somewhat flattened from 
pressure. It has no smell, but has a peculiar, not unpleasant, bitterish, 
and astringent taste. It yields its properties to water or diluted alcohol. 
Vihurnine is its active principle. 

Proyiertieti (ind I'ses. — It is a powerful antispasmodic, and hence gene- 
rally laio\vn among American practitioners as Cramp Bark. It is very- 
effective in cramps and spasms of all kinds, as asthma, hysteria, cramps 
of females during pregnancy, preventing the attacks entirely if vised 
daily for the last two or three months of gestation. 


The following forms an excellent preparation for the reUef of spas- 
modic attacks, viz. : take of Cramp bark, two ounces ; scull-cap skunk 
cabbage, of each one ounce ; cloves, half an ounce ; capsicum, two 
drachms. Have all in powder, coarsely bruised, and add to them two 
quarts of sherry or native wine. Dose of this, half a wineglassful two 
or three times a day. 

It may here be remarked that a poultice of the fruit of the Lo^n Cran- 
berry is very efficacious iu indoleut and malignant ulcers, malignant 
scarlet fever, applied to the throat ; in erysipelas, and other similar dis- 
eases. Probably the High Cranberry will effect the same result. 

Dose. — Of the decoction, or vinous tincture, one glassful two or three 
times a day. 

CEANESBILL (Geranium Maculatum). 

Common Names. Dove's Foot, Crow Foot, Alum Root, Spotted Gera- 
niu7n, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This plant has a perennial, horizontal, thick, rough, and 
knotty root, with many small fibres. The stems are grayish-green, 
erect, round, and a foot or two high. The leaves are spreading and 
hairy, and the blossoms large, and generally purple, mostly in pairs. 
The Dove's Foot, or Cranebill, which grows in England, is a different 
plant, bearing many small bright-red flowers of five leaves apiece, though 
it possesses medicinal properties similar to the American varieties. 

Histm'y. — Geranium is a native of the United States, growing in 
nearly all parts of it, in low grounds, open woods, etc. , blossoming from 
April to June. The root is the officiual part. Its virtues are yielded to 
water or alcohol. Oeranin is its active principle. 

Projyerties and Uses.— It is a powerful astringent, used in the second 
stage of dysentery, diarrhoea, and cholera infantum ; in infusion, with 
milk. Both internally and externally it may be used wherever astrin- 
gents are indicated, in hemorrhages, indolent ulcers, aphthous sore 
mouth, ophthalmia, leucorrhosa, gleet, hematuria, menorrhagia, dia- 
betes, and excessive chronic mucous discharges ; also to cure mercurial 
salivation. Relaxation of the uvula may be benefited by gargling with 
a decoction of the root, as well as aphthous ulceration of the mouth 
and throat. From its freedom from any nauseous or unpleasant quali- 
ties, it is well adapted to iufants and persons with fastidious stomachs. 
In cases of bleeding piles, a strong decoction of the root should be in- 
jected into the rectum, and retained as long as possible. Troublesome 
epistaxis, or bleeding from the nose, wounds, or small vessels, and from 
the extraction of teeth, may be checked effectually by applying the 
powder to the bleediug orifice, and, if possible, covering with a com- 
press of cotton. With Aletri's Farinosa ( Unicorn root) in decoction, and 


taken internally, it has proved of superior efficacy in diabetes and in 
Bright's disease of the kidneys. A mixture or sohition of two parts of 
hydrastin and one of geranin will be found of unrivalled efficacy ia all 
chronic mucous diseases, as in gleet, leucorrhoea, ophthalmia, gastric 
affections, catarrh, and vdceration of the bladder, etc. A decoction of 
two parts of geranium and one of sanguinaria (Bhodroot) forms an ex- 
cellent injection for gleet and leucorrhoea. 

Dose of geranium powder, from twenty to thirty grains; of the de- 
coction, a tablespoonful to a ■wineglassful. 

CRAWLEY (CoRALLOKHizA Odontorhiza). 

Common Names. Drngoii's Claw, Cm-al root, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Besciij^tion.— This is a singular, leafless plant, with coral-Like root- 
Btocks. The root is a collection of small fleshy tubers ; the flowers, 
fi-om ten to twenty in number, are of a brownish-green color, and the 
fruit a large oblong capsule. 

History. — The plant is a native of the United States, growing about 
the roots of trees, in rich woods, from Maine to Florida, flowering from 
July to October. The entire plant is destitute of verdui-e. The root 
only is used for medical purposes. It is small, dark brown, resembling 
cloves, or a hen's claws ; has a strong, nitrous smell, and a mucilagi- 
nous, slightly bitter, astringent taste. 

Properties and Uses. — It is probably the most powerful, prompt, and 
certain diaphoretic in the materia mcdica ; but its scarcity and high 
price prevents it from coming in general use. It is also sedative, and 
promotes perspiration without producing any excitement in the system. 
Its chief value is as a diaphoretic in fevers, especially in typhus, and 
inflammatorj' diseases. It has proved effectual in acute erysipelas, 
cramps, flatulency, pleurisy, and night-sweats ; it relieves hectic fever 
without debilitating the patient. Its virtues are especially marked in 
the low stages of fevers. 

Combined with caulophyllin it forms an excellent agent in amenor- 
rhoea and dysmenoiThoea, or scanty or painful menstruation, and is un- 
surpassed in after-pains, suppression of lochia, and the febrile symptoms 
which sometimes occur at the parturient period. 

In fevers Crawley may be advantageously combined with leptandrin 
or podophyllin, when it is found necessary to act upon the bowels cr 
liver ; and mixed with dioscorein it wUl be found almost a specific in 
flatulent and bilious colic. 

Dose. — From tv/cnty to thirty grains of the powdered root, given ia 
water as wann as the patient can drink, and repeated everj- hour or two, 


according to circumstances. The powder should always be kept in well- 
closed vials. It constitutes the fever powders of some practitioners. 

CROWFOOT (Ranunculus Bulbosus). 

Medicinal Parts. The eonmis and hefrh. 

Description. — This plant is not to be confounded with the Geranium 
maculatum, which is also called Crowfoot. The cormus or root of thia 
herb is a perennial, solid, fleshy, roundish, and depressed, sending out 
radicles from its under sides. The root sends up annually erect hairy 
stems, six to eighteen inches in height. The leaves are on long petioles, 
dentate and hairy. Each stem supports several soUtary golden-yeUow 
flowers ; sepals, oblong and hairy ; petals, five, cordate ; stamens nu- 
merous and hairy. 

Ilititory. — This plant is common in Europe and the United States, 
growing in fields and pastures, and flowering in May, June, and July. 
There a great many varieties, but all possess similar quahties, and des- 
ignated by the general name of Butter-cup. When any part of these 
plants is chewed, it occasions much pain, inflammation, excoriation of 
the mouth, and much heat and pains in the stomach, if it be taken 

Properties and Uses. — This plant is too acrid to be used internally, 
especially when fresh. When appHed externally it is powerfully rube- 
facient and epispastic. It is employed in its recent state in rheumatic 
neuralgia and other diseases where vesication and counter-irritation 
are indicated. Its action, however, is generally so violent that it is sel- 
dom used. The beggars use it to produce and keep open sores to excite 
sympathy. It has been used with success in obstinate cases of nursing 
sore-mouth- — an infusion being made by adding two drachms of the 
recent root, cut into small pieces, to one pint of hot water, when cold a 
tablespoonful being given two or three times a day, and the mouth fre- 
quently washed with a much stronger infusion. 

CUBEBS (Piper Cubeba), 

Medicinal Part. The berries. 

Description. — This is a perennial plant, with a climbing stem, round 
branches, about as thick as a goose-quill, ash-colored, and rooting at the 
joints. The leaves are from four to six and a half inches long by one 
and a half to two inches broad, ovate-oblong, acuminate, and very 
smooth. Flowers arranged in spikes at the end of the branches ; fruit, 
a berry rather longer than that of black pepper. 

Uistory. — Cubebs is a native of Java and other islands of the Indian 
Ocean, growing in the forests without cultivation. The fruit is gathered 
before fully ripe, and then dried. It affords a volatile oil, which is much 


used. Cubebs has a pleasant, aromatic odor, and a hot, bitter taste. 
Cubebin is the active principle. 

Properties and Uses. — It is mildly stimulant, expectorant, stomachic, 
and carminative. It acts particularly on mucous tissues, and arrests 
excessive discharges, especially from the urethra. It exercises an influ- 
ence over the urinaiy apparatus, rendering the urine of deeper color. 
It is successfully employed La gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhoea, chronic 
bladder diseases, bronchial affections, and atony of the stomach and 

Dose. — Of the powder, half a drachm to a drachm ; tincture, two 
fluid drachms ; oil, ten to thirty drops. 

DAISY (Leucanthemum Vulgare). 

CoM\roN Names. Ox-eye Daisy, White Weed. 

Medicinal Parts. The leaves and flowers. 

Descri])tion. — This is a perennial herb, having an erect, branching, 
and furrowed stem, from one to two feet high. The leaves are few, 
alternate, lanceolate-serrate, the lower ones i^etiolate ; the upper ones 
small, subulate, and sessile. 

History. — The plant was introduced into the United States from 
Europe, and is a veiy troublesome weed to farmers in nearly every sec- 
tion. It bears white flowers in June and July. The leaves are odorous 
and somewhat acid ; the flowers are bitterish ; they impart their virtues 
to water. 

Properties and Uses.— It is tonic, diuretic, and anti-spasmodic, and, in 
large doses, emetic. It is used as a tonic instead of Chamomile flowers, 
and is sei-viceable in whooping-cough, asthma, and nervous excitability. 
Very beneficial externally and internally in leucorrhoea. Its internal 
use is highly recommended in colliquative perspiration. Externally it 
is a good application to wounds, ulcers, scald-head, and some other 
cutaneous diseases. Dose of the decoction, from a wineglassful to a 
teacupful, two or three times a day. The fresh leaves or flowers will 
destroy or drive away fleas. 

DANDELION (Leontodox Taraxacum), 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — Dandelion is a perennial, top-shaped herb, having a 
very milky root. The leaves are all radical, shining green in color, 
sessile, and pinnate. The scape or flower stem is onger than the 
leaves, five or six inches in height, and bearing a single yellow flower. 
The fruit is an achenium. 

Jlislory.— This plant is a native of Greece, but is now found growing 
abundantly in Europe and the United States, in fields, gardens, and 
along road-sides, flowering from April to November. The root only is 


the officinal part, and should be collected when the plant is in flower. 
Alcohol or boiling water extracts its properties. The young plant is 
frequently used as a salad or green, and possesses some sUght narcotic 

Properties and Uses. — The dried root possesses but httle medicinal 
virtue ; but when fresh, is a stomachic and tonic, with slightly diurctio 
and aperient actions. It has long been supposed to exert an influence 
upon the biliary organs, removing torpor and engorgement of the liver 
as well as of the spleen ; it is also reputed beneficial in dropsies owmg to 
want of action of the abdominal organs, in uterine obstnictions, chronic 
diseases of the skin, etc. Its virtues, however, are much over-rated. 

DEVIL'S BIT (Helonias Diocia). 

Common Names. False Unimrii Boot, Drooping Star Wort, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Descrijition. — This is an herbaceous perennial plant, with a largo 
bulbous root, from which arises a very smooth angular stem one or two 
feet in height. The cauline leaves are lanceolate, acute, and small ; 
the radical leaves (or those springing from the root) are broader and 
from four to eight inches in length. The flowers are small, very numer- 
ous, greenish-white, disposed in long, terminal, nodding racemes, re- 
sembling plumes. The fruit is a capsule. 

History. — This plant is indigenous to the United States, and Ls abun- 
dant in some of the Western States, growing in woodlands, meadows, 
and moist situations, and flowering in June aud July. 

Properties and Uses. — In large doses it is emetic, and when fresh, sia- 
lagogue. In doses of ten or fifteen grains of the powdered root, repeated 
three or four times a day, it has been found very beneficial in dyspepsia, 
loss of appetite, and for the removal of worms. It is beneficial in colic, 
and in atony of the generative organs. It is invaluable in uterine dis- 
eases, acting as a uterine tonic, and gradually removing abnormal con- 
ditions, while at the same time it imparts tone and vigor to the repro- 
ductive organs. Hence, it is much used in leucorrhoea, amenorrhoea, 
dvsmenorrhoea, and to remove the tendency to repeated and successive 
miscarriage. The plant wfll kill cattle feeding on it, aud the decoction, 
insects, bugs, and lice. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from twenty to forty grains ; of the decoction, 
from a wineglassful to a teacupful. 

The Helonias BuUata, with puri^le flowers, and probably some othei 
BiJecies possess similar medicinal virtues. 

DOCK (RuMEX Crispus). 

Medicinal Part. I'he root. 

Description. — There are four varieties of Dock which may be used in 



medicine : the Rumcx Aquaticvs (Great Water Dock) ; liumeo! Bntan- 
?«Va (Water Dock); Rumex Abtusifolins (Blnnt-leaved Dock); and the 
R. Crispvs, or Yellow Dock. They all possess simi- 
lar medicinal qualities, but the Yellow Dock is the 
only one entitled to extensive consideration. It has 
a deep, spindle-shaped yellow root, with a stem 
two or three feet high. The leaves are lanceolate, 
acute, and of a light green color. The flowers are 
numerous, pale green, drooping, and interspersed 
with leaves below. The fruit is a nut contracted at 
each end. 

Ilistori/.- — The Docks are natives of Europe, ex- 
cepting the blunt-leaved, which is indigenous, but 
they have all been introduced into the United States. 
Yellow Dock grows in cultivated grounds, waste 
grounds, about rubbish, etc. , flowering in June and 
July. The root has scarcely any odor, but an as- 
tringent bitter taste, and yields its virtues to water 
Dock. ^™<i alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — Yellow Dock is an altera- 
tive, tonic and detergent, and eminently useful in scorbutic, cutaneou.s, 
Bcrofulous, cancerous and syphilitic affections, leprosy, elephahtiasis, 
etc. For all impurities of the blood 
it has no equal, especially if pro- 
perly compounded with appropriate 
adjutants and corrigents. The fresh 
root bruised in cream, lard, or 
butter, forms a good ointment for 
various affections. This admirable 
alterative is one of the ingredients 
of my Blood Purifier isee page 469), 
in which it is associated with other 
eminent alteratives, making the 
compound worthy of the reputation 
it has achieved. 

DOGWOOD (CoRNus Florida). 

Common Names. Boxwood, 
Flowering Cornel, Green Ozier. 

Medicinal Part. 77ie bark. 

Description. — Dogwood is a small 
indigenous tree from twelve to thirty feet high, with a very hard ani 
compact wood, and covered with a rough and brownish bark. The tree 
is of Blow giovvth. The leaves are opposite, smooth, ovate, acute, dark 



green above, paler beneath. The flowers are very small, of a greenish 
yeUow color, and constitute the chief beauty of the tree when in bloom. 
The fruit is an oval drupe of a glossy scarlet color, containing a nut with 
two cells and two seeds. 

History. — This tree grows in various parts of the United States ; it 
flowers in AprU and May. The fruit matures in autumn. The wood is 
used for many purposes. The bark yields its virtues to water and alco- 
hol. The chemical qualities are tannic and gallic acids, resin, gum, oil, 
wax, Ugnin, Urae, potassa, and iron. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, astringent, and slightly stimulant. 
It is an excellent substitute for Peruvian bark, and may be used when 
the foreign remedy is not to be obtained, or when it fails, or where it 
cannot be administered. The bark should only be used tu its dried state. 
Cornine^ its active principle, is much used as a substitute for quinine. 

Dogwood, or green ozier, exerts its best vii'tues in the shajie of an 
ointment. It is detergent in all inflammatory conditions, destructive to 
morbid growths, and at variance with diseased nutrition. It stimulates 
granulations, increases the reparative process, induces circulation of 
healthy blood to the parts, removes effete matter, vitalizes the tissues, 
and speedily removes pain from the diseased parts. It fulfils these 
conditions iu my gi'eat healing remedy, the ' ' Herbal Ointment, " see 
page 469. 

Dose. — Of the powder, twenty to sixty grains ; extract, five to ten 
grains ; comine, from one to ten grains. 


Common Names. Wake Robin.^ Indian Turnip.^ Jack in the Pulpit., etc. 

Medicinal Part. The cormus or root. 

Descri2)tion. — This plant has a round, flattened, perennial rhizome; 
the upper part is tunicated like an onion. The leaves are generally one 
or two, standing on long, sheathing footstalks ; leaflets oval, mostly 
entire, acuminate, smooth, and paler on the under side. 

History. — It inhabits North and South America, is found in wet loca- 
tions, and flowers from May to June. The whole plant is acrid, but the 
root is the only part employed. It is of various sizes, turnip-shaped, 
dark and corrugated externaUy, and mOk-white within, seldom exceed- 
ing two and a half inches in diameter. When first dug it is too fiercely 
acrid for internal employment, as it will leave an impression upon the 
tongue, lips, and fauces, like that of a severe scald, followed by inflam- 
mation and tenderness, which, however, may be somewhat mollified by 
milk. It exerts no such influence upon the external skin, except upon 
long and continued application. The root loses its acrimony by age, 
and should always be used when partially dried. In addition to its 
acrid principle, it contains a large i^roportion of starch, with a portion 


of gnm, albumen, and saccharine matter. When the acrid matter is 
driven oil by heat, the root yields a pui-e, delicate, amylaceous matter, 
resembling arrow-.voot, very white and nutiitive. 

Properties and Uses. — It is acrid, expectorant, and diaphoretic, used 
in asthma, hooping-coug-h, chronic bronchitis, chronic rheumatism, pains 
in the chest, colic, low stages of ty]3hus, and general debility ; exter- 
nally in scrofulous tumors, scald-head, and various skin diseases. 

Dose. — Of the gi'ated root, in syrup or mucilage, ten grains, three or 
four times a day. 

ELDER (Sambucus Canadensis). 

Medicinal Parts. The flowers and berries. 

Description. — This is a common, weU-kuown native American plant, 
from five to twelve feet high, with a shruljby stem, filled with a light 
and porous pith, especially when young. The bark is rather scabrous 
and cinereous. The leaves are nearly bipinnate, antiposed. The flowers 
are numerous, white, in very large level-topped, five-parted cymes, and 
have a heavy odor. The European Elder, though larger than the Ameri- 
can kind, is similar in its general characteristics and properties. 

History. — It is an indigenous shmb, growing in all parts of the United 
States, in low, damp grounds, thickets, and waste places, flowering in 
June and July, and matuiing its berries in September and Odtober. 
The officinal parts are the flowers, the berries, and the inner bark. 

Projieriies and Uses. — In warm infusion the flowers are diaphoretic 
and gently stimulant. In cold infusion they are diuretic, alterative, 
and cooling, and may be used in all diseases requiring such action, as in 
hepatic derangements of children, erysipelas, erysipelatous diseases, etc. 
In infusion with Maiden-hair and Beech-drops, they will be found very 
valuable in all erysipelatous diseases. TJie e.vpresscdjmce of the berries, 
evaporated to the consistence of a syrup, is a valuable aperient and 
alterative ; one ounce of it will purge. An infusion of the young leaf- 
buds is likewise purgative^ and sometimes acts with violence. The 
flowers and expressed juice of the berries have been beneficially em- 
ployed in scrofula, cutaneous diseases, syphilis, rheumatism, etc. The 
inner green bark is cathartic ; an infusion of it in wine, or the expressed 
juice, wiU purge moderately in doses from half a fluid ounce to a fluid 
ounce. Large doses j)roduce cmesis or vomiting. In small doses it pro- 
duces an efficacious deobstrucnt, promoting aU the fluid secretions, and 
is much used in dropsy, especially that following scarlatina and other 
febrfle and exanthematous complaints, as well as in many chronic dis- 
eases. Beaten up with lard or cream, it fonns an excellent discutient 
ointment, of much value in burns, scalds, and some cutaneous diseases. 
The juice of the root in half-ormce doses, taken daily, acts as a hydra- 
goguo cathartic, and stimulating diuretic, and wiU be found valuable in all 


dropsical affections. The icucr barli of Elder is hydragogue and emetico- 
cathartic. Has been successfnlly used in epilepsy, by taking it from 
branches one or two years old, scraping off the gray outer bark, and 
steepiug two ounces of it in five ounces of cold or hot water for forty- 
eight hours. Strain and give a wineglassful every fifteen minutes when 
the fit is threateniag : the patient fasting. Resume it every six or eight 

ELECAMPANE (Inula Helenium). 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Descri/pUon. — This plant has a thick, top-shaped, aromatic, and pe- 
rennial root, with a thick, leafy, round, solid stem, from four to six feet 
high. The leaves are large, ovate, dark green above, downy and hoary 
beneath, with a fleshy mid-rib. The flowers are of a bright yellow color, 
and the fruit an achenium. 

History. — Elecampane is common in Europe, and cultivated in the 
United States. It grows in pastures and along road-sides, blossoming 
from July to September. The root is the part used, and should bo 
gathered iu the second year of its development, and during the fall 
months. It yields its properties to water and alcohol, more especially 
to the former. 

Properties and Uses. — It is aromatic, stimulant, tonic, emmenagogue, 
diuretic, and diaphoretic. It is much used in chronic pulmonary affec- 
tions, weakness of the digestive organs, hepatic toiT^or, dyspepsia, etc. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from one scruple to one drachm ; of the infu- 
sion, one to two fluid ounces. 

ERGOT (Secale Cornutum). 

Common Names. Spurred or Smut Bye. 

Medicinal Part. The degenerated seeds. 

Description. — Ergot is the name given to the fungoid, degenerated 
seeds of the common rye, which is the result of a parasitic plant called 
Oidium Abortifadens. 

HisUn'y. — Ergot consists of grains, varying in length, of a violet-black 
color ; odor fishy, peculiar, and nauseous. Their taste is not very marked, 
but is disagreeable and slightly acrid. They should be gathered previous 
to harvest. • 

Properties and Uses. — Ergot has a remarkable effect upon the human 
system, and when persisted ui for a length of time as an article of food 
manifests certain symptoms termed ergotism. Its chief use as a medicine 
is to promote uterine contractions in slow, natural labors. It is also 
useful in checking menorrhagia, uterine hemon-hages, and to expel 
polypi. It is also employed in gonorrhoea, amenorrhoea, paraplegia, 
paralysis of the bladder, fever and ague. 


This is a valuable remedy to the obstetrician and midwife, but its use 
should not be jiersisted in too long, as it often produces dangerous 

Dose. — Of the powder, five, ten, or fifteen gr-aius ; fluid extract, thirty 

ERYNGO (Eryngium Aquaticum). 

Common Names. Buttyrisnake Root, Rattlesnake^ Master, etc. 

Medicinal Part. TJie root. 

Description. — This indigenous, perennial herb has a simple stem from 
one to five feet high. The root is a tuber ; the leaves are one or two 
feet long, half an inch to an inch wide, and taper-pointed. The flowers 
are white or pale, and inconspicuous. 

History. — This plant is indigenous, growing in swamjis and low, wet 
lands from Virginia to Texas, especially on i^rairie lands, blossoming in 
August. The root is the officinal part. Water or alcohol extracts its 

Properties and Uses. — It is ai^hrodisiac, exciting venereal desires and 
strengthening the procreative organs. It is also diuretic, stimulant, 
diaphoretic, expectorant, and, in large doses, emetic. Very Useful in 
dropsy, nephritic and calculous affections, also in scrofula and svphilis. 
It is valuable as a diaphoretic and expectorant in pulmonary affections. 
It is a good substitute for Setiega. The pulverized root, iu doses of two 
or three grains, is very effectual in hemorrhoids and prolapsus ani. Two 
ounces of the pulverized root, added to one pint of good Holland gin, is 
effectual in obstinate cases of gonorrhoea and gleet, to be admiui.stered 
in doses of one or two fluid drachms, three or four times a day. Ey 
some practitioners the root is employed as a specific in gonorrhoea, gleet, 
and leucorrhoea ; used internally in syrup, decoction, or tincture — and 
the decoction applied locally by injection. Used externally and inter- 
nally, it cures the bites of snakes and insects. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from twenty to forty grains ; of the decoction, 
which is principally used, from two to four fluid ounces, several times » 

EYE-BRIGHT (Euphrasia Officinalis). 

Medicinal Part. T?ie leaves. 

Description. — This is an elegant httle annual plant, with a square, 
downy, leafy stem, from one to five inches in height. The leaves are 
entirely opposite, ovate or cordate, and downy ; the flowers very abun- 
dant, inodorous, with a brilliant variety of colors. The fruit is an ob- 
long pod, fiUed with numerous seeds. 

Ilislvry. — This plant is indigenous to Europe aud America, bearing 


red or white flowers in July. The leaves are commonly employed; 
they are inodorous, but of a bitter, astringent taste. Water extracts 
their virtues. 

Properties and Virtues. — Slightly tonic and astringent. Useful in 
form of infusion or poultice, in catarrhal ophthalmia ; also of service in 
all mucous diseases attended with increased discharges ; also, in cough, 
hoarseness, ear-ache, and head-ache, which have supervened upon catar- 
rhal affections. Four fluid ounces of the infusion taken every morning 
upon an empty stomach, and also every night at bed-time, has been 
found successful in helping epilepsy. 


Royal FLOWERme Fern. Osmunda Regalis. 

Common Name. Buckhorn Brake. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This Fern has a hard, scaly, tuberous root, quite fibrous, 
and a whitish core in the centre. The fronds are three or four feet 
high, bright green, and doubly pinnate. The numerous leaflets are 
sessile and oblong, some of the upper ones cut. 

History. — This beautiful Fern is found in meadows, and low, moist 
grounds, throughout the United States, blossoming in June. The main 
root or caudex is the officinal part ; it is about two inches long, and has 
the shai^e of a buck's horn. It contains an abundance of mucilage, which 
is extracted by boiling water. The roots should be collected in August, 
or about the latter part of May, and dried with great care, as they are 
apt to become mouldy. 

The Osmunda Ginnamomea., or cinnamon-colored Fern, is inferior to 
the preceding, but is frequently used for the same medical purposes. 

Properties and Uses. — Mucilaginous, tonic, and styptic. Used in 
coughs, diarrhoea, and dysentery ; also used as a tonic during conva- 
lescence from exhausting diseases. One root, infused in a pint of hot 
water for half an hour, will convert the whole into a thick jeUy, very 
valuable in leucorrhoea and other female weaknesses. The mucilage 
mixed with brandy is a popular remedy as an external application for 
subluxations and debility of the muscles of the back. For internal use 
the roots may be infused in hot water, sweetened, and ginger, cinnamon, 
brandy, etc. , added, if not contra-indicated. 

FEMALE FERN (Polypodium Vulgare). 

Common Names. Rock Polypod, Brake Root., Common Polypody. 
Medicinal Parts. The root and tops. 

Description. — This perennial has a creeping, irregular, brown root. 
The fronds are from six to twelve inches high, green, smooth, and 



deeply pinnatified. The fruit on the lower surface of the fronds is in 
large golden dots or capsules. 

Jlistori/.— This iem is common on shady rocks in woods and moun- 
tains throughout the United States. The root has a peculiar and rather 
unpleasant odor, and somewhat sickening taste. Water extracts its 

Properties and Uses. — This plant is pectoral, demulcent, purgative, 
and anthelmintic. A decoction of sjTup has been found very valuable 
in pulmonaiy and hepatic diseases. A strong decoction is a good purga- 
tive, and will exptl tenia and other worms. Dose of the powdered 
plant, from one to four drachms. Of the decoction or syrup, from one 
to four fluid ounces, three or four times a day. 

JIALE FERN (Aspidioi Filix Mas). 

Medicinal Part. The rhizome. 

Description.— Mcie Fern has a large, perennial, tufted, scaly rhizome, 
sending forth yeai'ly several leaves, three or four feet high, erect, oval, 

lanceolaifce, acute, 
pinna t-«, bright 
green, and"^, leafy 
nearly to tl^ bot- 
tom ; their stalks 
and midribs having 
tough, brown, and 
transparent scales 
throughout. Leaf- 
lets numerous, 
crowded, oblong, ob- 
tuse, and crenate 

Hi St or y. — Male 
Fern grows in all 
parts of the United 
States and Europe. 
The root has a dark 
brown epiderm, is 
almost inodorous, 
and a nauseous swest 
It contains a green fat oil, gum, resin, lignia, tannic acid, 

pectin, albumen, etc. It should be gathered from June to September. 

After gathering, it should be carefully prepared, as on the preparation 

its virtues depend. It loses its virtues in two years if not properly 


Male Feim. 



Properties and Uses. — It is used for the exiiulsion of worms, especially 
tape- worms. It was used as such by Pliny, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, 
and Galen. It was the celebrated secret remedy of Madame NoufCer. the 
widow of a Swiss surgeon, who sold her secret to Louis XVI. for 18,000 
francs. It is, in fact, a royal anthelmintic, and worthy of all the high 
commendations it has received from ages past up to the present time. 
It is one of the ingredients of my " Male Fern Vermifuge." See page 

FEVERFEW (Pyrethrum PARxnENiuM). 

Medicikal Part. The herb. 

Description. — Feverfew is a perennial herbaceous plant, with a taper- 
ing root, and an erect, round, and leafy stem about two feet high. The 
leaves are alternate, petiolate, hoary green, with leaflets inclining to 
ovate and dentate. The flowers are white and compound, and the fruit 
a wingless, angular, and uniform achenium. 

Ilistoi'y. —The lalant is a native of Europe, but common in the United 
States ; found occasionally in a wild state, but generally cultivated in 
gardens, and blossoms in June and July. It imparts its virtues to water, 
but much better to alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, carminative, emmenagogue, vermi- 
fuge, and stimulant. The warm infusion is an excellent remedy in 
recent colds, flatulency, worms, irregular menstruation, hysteria, sup- 
pression of urine, and in some febrile diseases. In hysteria or flatulency, 
one teaspoonful of the compound spirits of lavender forms a valuable 
addition to the dose of the infusion, which is from two to four fluid 
ounces. The cold infusion or extract makes a valuable tonic. The 
leaves, in poultice, are an excellent local application in severe pain or 
swelling of the bowels, etc. Bees are said to dislike this plant very 
much, and a handful of the flower-heads carried where they are \Till 
cause them to keep at a distance. 


Medicinal Parts. The leaves and root. 

Description. — Figwort has a perennial, whitish, and fibrous root, with 
a leafy, erect, smooth stem from two to four feet high. The leaves 
are opposite, ovate ; the upper lanceolate, acute, of deep green color, 
and from three to seven inches in length. The flowers are small, and 
dark purple in color. The fruit is an ovate-oblon-g capsule. 

History. — This plant is a native of Europe, but is found growing in 
different parts of the United States, in woods, hedges, damp copses, 
and banks, blossoming from July to October. The plants known by 
the names of Carpenter'" s Square., Heal All, Square Stalk, etc. {8. Mari- 


landica and S. Lanceolata), are all mere vaiieties of Figiport, possess- 
ing similar medicinal properties. The leaves and root are the officinal 
parts, and yield their virtues to water or alcohol. The leaves have 
an offensive odor, and a bitter, unpleasant taste ; the root is shghtly 

Projyerties and Uses. — It is alterative, diuretic, and anodyne ; highly 
beneficial in hepatic or liver diseases, dropsy, and as a general deob- 
Btruent to the glandvilar system when used in infusion or syrup. Ex- 
ternally, in the form of fomentation or ointment, it is valuable in 
bruises, inflammation of the mammae, ringworm, piles, painful swell- 
ings, itch, and cutaneous eruptions of a vesicular character. The root, 
in decoction and drunk freely, will restore the lochial discharge when 
suppressed, and relieve the pains attending difficult menstruation. This 
plant possesses many valuable and active mediciaal properties. 

Dose. — Of the iofusion or syrup, from a wineglassful to a teacupfuL 

riEEWEED (Erecthites Hieractifolius). 

MEDicrNAL Parts. The root and Tierl. 

Descriiition. — This plant has an annual, herbaceous, thick, fleshy, 
branching, and roughish stem, from one to five feet high. The leaves 
are simple, alternate, large, lanceolate or oblong, acute, deeply dentate, 
BessUe, and light green. The flowers are whitish, and the fniit an 
achenium, oblong and hairy. 

Hist/yiy. — This indigenous rank weed grows in fields throughout the 
United States, in moist woods, in recent clearings, and is especially 
abundant in such as have been burned over. It flowers from July to 
October, and somewhat resembles the Sowthistle. The whole plant 
yields its virtues to water or alcohol. It has a peculiar, aromatic, and 
somewhat fetid odor, and a slightly pungent, bitter, and disagreeable 

Properties and Uses. — It is emetic, cathartic, tonic, astringent, and 
alterative. The latter three qualities are the most valuable. It is an 
unrivalled medicine in diseases of the mucous tissues. The spirituous 
extract which I use in my practice is most excellent, in cholera and 
dysentery, promptly arresting the discharges, relieving the pain, and 
effecting a speedy cure. It is invariably successful in summer com- 
plaints of children, even in cases where other means have failed. 

FROST-WEED (HEiiiANTiiEMtm Canadense). 

Common Names. Rock Rose, Frost Plant, etc. 

Medjcfnal Part. The Jierb. 

Description. — Rock Roso is a pereunial herb, with a simple, ascending 



downy stem, about a foot high. The leaves are alternate, from eight to 

twelve inches long, about one-fourth as wide; 

oblong, acute, lanceolate, erect, and entire. The 

flowers are large and bright yellow, some with 

petals, and some without petals. The flowers 

open ia sunshine and cast their petals next day. 

History. — It is indigenous to aU parts of the 
United States, growing in dry, sandy> soils, and 
blossoming from May to July. The leaves and 
stems are covered with a white down, hence its 
name. The whole plant is officinal, having a bit- 
terish, astringent, slightly aromatic taste, and 
yields its properties to hot water. Prof. Eaton, 
in his work on botany, records this curious fact of 
the plant : "In November and December of 181(i 
I saw hundreds of these plants sending out broad, 
thin, curved ice crystals, about an inch in breadth 
from near the roots. These were melted away by 
day, and renewed every morning for more than 
twenty-five days in succession." 

Fro-perties and Uses. — This plant has long been 
used as a valuable remedy for scrofula, in which disease it performs some 
astonishing cures. It is used in f onn of decoction, syrup, or fluid extract, 
but had better be used in combination with other remedies. In combi- 
nation with CorydaUs Formosa and StUUngla it forms a most valuable re- 
medy. It is tonic and astringent, as well as antiscrof ulcus. It can be used 
with advantage in dian-hcea, as a gargle in scarlatina and aphthous ulcer- 
ations, and as a wash in scrofulous ophthalmia. Externally, a poultice of 
the leaves is applied to scrofulous tumors and ulcers. An oil has been 
procured from the plant which is said to be highly valuable in cancerous 

The Helianihemuvi Corynibosum., or Frost-weed, growing in the pine 
barrens and sterile lands of the Southern and Jliddle States, possesses 
similar quahties, and may be employed if the former frost-weed is not 
to be had. This excellent alterative is a constituent of that happy com- 
bination of alteratives composing my "Blood Purifier," see page 469. 

FUMITORY (FuMARiA Officinalis). 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Description. — Fumitory is an annual, glaucous plant, with a sub-erect, 
much branched, spreading, leafy and angular stem, growing from ten to 
fifteen inches high. The leaves are mostly alternate. Culpepper, who 
knew the plant which is now used, better than anybody else, said that 
" at the top of the branches stand many small flowers, as it were in a long 


spike oue above another, made like little birds, of a reddish puiple 
color, with whitish bellies, after which come small round husks, contain- 
ing small black seeds. The root is small, yellow, and not very long, and 
full of juice when it is young." The fruit, or nut, is ovoid or globose, 
one-seeded or valveless. The seeds are crestless. 

History. — Fumitory is found growing in cultivated soils in Europe 
and America, and flowers in May, June, and July. The leaves are the 
parts used. Culpepper recomm#nded the whole plant, but the modem 
decision is to use the leaves, gathered at the proper times, alone. They 
have no odor, but taste bitter under all circumstances. They are to be 
used when fresh, and possess the same qualities as Culpepper affixes to 
the fresh root, viz. : malate of lime and bitter extractive princiijles. 

Projyerties and Uses. — Its virtues are chiefly tonic, and those who suf- 
fer from diseases of the stomach know too well that a tonic, if properly 
defined, is, simple as it may be, one of the most important remedies 
for human ailments nature has provided. Its chief value is found 
in its action upon the liver. It is used, in combination, with excel- 
lent effect in cutaneous diseases, liver complaints, such as jaundice, 
costiveness, scui-vj', and in debility of the stomach. An infusion of the 
leaves is usually given in a \vineglass (full) every four hours. The flow- 
ers and tops have been applied, macerated in wine, to dyspepsid* with 
partial good effect. 

GAMBIR PLANT (Uncaria Gambir). 

Medicinal Part. EHrnct of the leaves and young slioofs. 

Description. — Gambir is a stout climbing shrub with round branches. 
Leaves ovate, lanceolate, acute, smooth, and have short petioles. Flow- 
ers in loose heads, green and pink ; calyx short, corolla funnel-shaped ; 
Btamens five, and the fruit a two-ceUed capsule. 

History. — It is an inhabitant of the East Indian Archipelago, where it 
is extensively cultivated. On the island of Bingtang alone there are 
GO, 000 Gambir plantations. It affords what is known as pale catechu. 
It is chiefly imported from Singapore. It is found in cubes which float 
on water, externally brown, internally pale brick red, breaking easily. 
Taste bitter, very astiingent, and mucilaginous. Boiling water almost 
completely dissolves it. It is used in the arts for tanning. 

Properties and Uses. — It is employed as an astringent. In various 
affections of the mouth it is an efficacious astringent. It is also excel- 
lent as a stomachic in dyspeptic complaints, especially when accom- 
panied with pyrosis. It should be used just before taking food. It is 
an excellent astringent in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. 

Dose. — From ten to forty graina 

THE completp: herbalist. 


GELSEMIN (Gelsemintjm Sempervirens), 

Common Names. Tellmo Jessamine, Woodbine, Wild Jessamine. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This plant has a twining, smooth, glabrous stem, with 
opposite, perennial, lanceolate, entire leaves, which are dark green 
above and pale beneath. The flowers are yellow, and have an agreeable 
odor. Calyx is very small, with five sepals, corolla funnel-shaped, sta- 
mens five, pistils two, and the fniit a two-celled capsule. 

History. — Yellow jessamine abounds throughout the Southern States, 
growing luxuriantly, and climbing from tree to tree, forming an agree- 
able shade. It is cultivated as an ornamental vine, and flowers from 
March to May. The root yields its virtues to water and alcohol. GeUe- 
min is its active principle. It also contains a fixed oil, acrid resin, yel- 
low coloring matter, a heavj' volatile oil, a crystalline substance, and 
salts of potassa, lime, magnesia, ii'on, and silica. 

Pro-perties and Uses. — It is an uniivalled febrifuge, possessing relaxing 
and antispasmodic properties. It is efficacioxis in nervous and bilious 
headache, colds, pneumonia, hemorrhages, leucorrhoea, ague-cake, but 
especially in all kinds of fevers, quieting all nei-vous irritability and 
excitement, equalizing the circulation, promoting perspiration, and rec- 
tifj-ing the various secretions, without causing nausea, vomiting, and 
purging, and is adapted to any stage of the disease. It may follow any 
preceding treatment with safety. Its efl:"ects are clouded vision, double- 
sightedness, or even complete prostration, and inability to open the 
eyes. These, however, pass completely off in a few hours, leaving the 
patient refreshed, and completely restored. When the effects are in- 
duced no more of the remedy 
is required. It is also of great 
service in various cardiac dis- 
eases, spermatorrhoea, and other 
genital diseases ; but its use 
should be confined entii-ely to 
the advice of the physician. 

Dose. — The tincture is the 
fonn in which it is employed. 
The dose is from ten to fifty 
drops in a wineglass half full 
of water ; to be repeated every 
two hours, as long as required. 

GENTIAN (Gentiana Lutea). 


Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This plant has a long, thick, cylindrical, wrinkled, 
ringed, forked, perennial root, browoi externally, and yellow within, 


with a Btem three or four feet high, hollow, stout, and erect ; leaves 
ovate-oblong, five-veined, pale, bright green ; the blossoms are large, of 
a bright yellow, in many-flowered whorls ; and the fruit is a capsule, 
stalked, oblong, and two-valved. 

History. — This plant is common in Central and Southern Europe, es- 
pecially on the Pyrenees and Alps, being found from 3,000 to 5,000 feet 
above the level of the sea. The root affords the medicinal portion, and 
is brought to America chiefly from Havre and Marseilles. It has a 
feeble aromatic odor, and a taste at first faintly sweetish, and then 
purely, intensely, and penuanently bitter. It imparts its virtues readily 
to cold or hot water, alcohol, wine, spirits, or suljjhuric ether. 

Properties and Uses. — Is a powerful tonic, improves the appetite, 
strengthens digestion, gives force to the circulation, and slightly elevates 
the heat of the body. Very useful in debility, exhaustion, dyspepsia, 
gout, amenorrhoea, hysteria, scrofula, intermittentSj worms, and di- 

Dose. — Of the powder, ten to thirty grains ; of the extract, one to ten 
grains ; of the infusion, a tablespoonf ul to a wineglassful ; of the tinc- 
ture, one or two teaspoonfuls. 

Uncrystallized gentianin is a most valuable substitute for quinia, 
acting as readily and efficaciously on the spleen, in doses of from ^fteen 
to thirty grains, twice a day. 

Gentiana Catesbei, or the Blue, or American Gentian, has a 
perennial, branching, somewhat fleshy root, with a simple, erect, rough 
stem, eight or ten inches in height, and bears large blue flowers. It 
grows in the grassy swamps and meadows of North and South Carolina, 
blossoming from September to December. The root is little inferior to 
the foreign gentian, and may be used as a suljstitute for it in all cases, 
in the same doses and preparations. 

Gentiana Quinqueflora, or Five -flower eel Gentian, sometimes 
called Gall-weed, on account of its intense bitterness, is very useful in 
headache, hver complaint, jaundice, etc. The plant is found from 
Vermont to Pennsylvania, and a variety of it is common throughout 
the Western States. It grows in woods and pastures, and flowers in 
September and October. It may be regarded as a valuable tonic and 
cholagogue, and deserves further investigation of its therapeutic pro- 

There is another kind of gentian {Gentiana Ocliroleuca), known by 
the names of Marsh Gentian, Yellowish-white Gentian, Straw-colored 
Gentian, and Sampson Snake-weed. It has a stout, smoothish, ascend- 
ing stem, one or two inches in height, its leaves two to foiu" inches long, 
and three-fourths to an inch and a half in width, ■with straw-colored 
flowers two inches long by three-quarters thick, disposed m a dense, 
terminal cyme, and often in axillaiy cymes. It is found in Canada 


and the Southern and Western States, though rarely in the latter, bloa- 
Bomhig in September and October ; the root is the officinal part, although 
the tojDS are often employed. They are bitter, tonic, anthelmiatic, and 
astringent. Used in dyspepsia, intermittents, dysentery, and all diseases 
of periodicity. 

To two ounces of the tops and roots pour on a pint and a half of bod- 
ing water, and when nearly cold add a half -pint of brandy. Dose, from 
one to three tablespoonfuls every half -hour, gradually uicreasiug as the 
stomach can bear it, lengthening the intervals between the doses. It is 
also used for bites of snakes, etc. 

GILLENIA (GiLLENiA Tripoliata). 

Common Name. Indian Physic. 

Medicinal Part. The bark of the root. 

Description. — Gdlenia is an indigenous, perennial herb, with an irre- 
gular, brownish, somewhat tuberous root, having many long, knotted, 
Btringy fibres. The several stems are from the same root, about two or 
three feet high, erect, slender, smooth, and of a reddish or brownish 
color. The leaves are alternate, subsessile ; leaflets lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, sharply dentated ; flowers are white, with a reddish tinge ; and 
the fruit a two-valved, one-celled capsule. Seeds are oblong, brown, 
and bitter. 

History. — This species is found scattered over the United States from 
Canada to Florida, on the eastern side of the Alleghanies, occurring in 
open hilly woods, in light gravelly soU. The period of flowering is in 
May, and the fmit is matured in August. The root yields its virtues to 
boiling water and alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — It is emetic, cathartic, diaphoretic, expectorant, 
and tonic. It resembles ipecac in action. It is useful in amenorrhoea, 
rheumatism, dropsy, costiveness, dysjjepsia, worms, and intermittent 
fever. It may be used in all fevers where emetics are required. 

Dose. — As an emetic, twenty to thirty-five grains of the powder, as 
often as required ; as a tonic, two to four grains ; as a diaphoretic, six 
grains in cold water, and repeated at intervals of two or three hours. 


Common Name. Cotton. 

Medicinal Part. The inner iark of the root. 

Description. — Cotton is a biennial or triennial herb, with a fusiform 
root, with a round pubescent branching stem about five feet high. The 
leaves are hoary, palmate, with five sub-lanceolate, rather acute lobes ; 
flowers are yellow ; calyx cup-shaped, petals five, deciduous, with a 
purple spot near the base ; stigmas, three or five ; and the fruit a three 
or five-celled capsule, with three or five seeds involved in cotton. 


History. — It is a native of Asia ; but is cultivated extensively in many 
parts of the world, and in the Southern portions of America more suc- 
cessfully than anywhere else. The inner bark of the recent root is the 
part chiettj' used in medicine. Its active principle, which is that admin- 
istered by all educated herbal physicians, is called Gossyjiiin. 

Proj^ertk'H and Uses. — The preparation Gossypiui is most excellent for 
diseases of the utero-genital organs. In these diseases it evinces its sole 
and only virtues, and it ought, on every occasion where it can be pro- 
cured in its purity, to be used in the stead of ergot, or smut rye, in 
cases of difficult labor. The latter will produce uterine inflammation, 
and puerperal fever, while gossypiin will achieve the beneficial effects 
for which ergot is usually administered, and leave the system perfectly 
free from any prejudicial after-results. The active piinciple of fresh cot- 
ton root forms a most wonderful uterine tonic, ard, if correctly prepared, 
will be found invaluable in sterdity, vaginitis, whites, menstrual irregu- 
larities, gi-een sickness, etc. I do not recommend the use of the decoc- 
tion of the root by inexperienced persons. The seeds are said to possess 
superior anti-periodic properties. 

GLOBE FLOWER, (CEPHALANTnus Occidentalis). 

Common Names. Button Bush., Pond Dogwood, etc. 

Medicinal Part. — The bark. * 

Description. — This is a handsome shrub, growing from six to twelve 
or more feet high, with a rough bark on the stem, but smooth on the 
branches. The leaves are opposite, oval, acuminate, in whorls of three, 
from three to five inches long by two to three wide. The flowers are 
white, and resemble those of the sycamore, and the fruit a hard and dry 

History. — This plant is indigenous, and found in damp places, along 
the margins of rivers, ponds, etc., flowering from Jvme to September. 
The bark is very bitter, and yields its viiiues to water and alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — Tonic, febrifuge, aperient, and diuretic. It ia 
used with much success in intermittent and remittent fevers. The inner 
bark of the root forms an agreeable bitter, and is employed in coughs and 
gravel. It deserves more notice than it receives, for my experienco with 
it teaches me that it is a valuable medicinal plant. 

GOLDEN SEAL (Hydrastis Canadensis). 

Common Names. Yellow Puccoon, Ground Iias2^berry, Turmerie 
lioot, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description.— This indigenous plant has a perennial root or rhizome, 
which is tortuous, knotty, creeping, internally of a bright yellow color, 
with long fibres. The stem is erect, eimple, herbaceous, rounded, from 



fax. to twelve inches high, bearing two unequal terminal leaves. The 
two leaves are alternate, palmate, having from three to five lobes, hairy, 
dark-green, cordate at base, from four to nine inches wide when full 
grown. The flower is a solitary one, small, white or rose-colored, aud 
the fruit resembles a raspberry, is red, and consists of many two-seeded 

UlMory. — Golden seal is found growing in shady woods, in rich soils, 
and damp meadows in different parts of the United States and Canada, 
but is more abimdant west of the Alleghanies. It flowers in May and 
June. The root is the officinal part. Its virtues are imparted to water 
or alcohol. The root is of a beautiful yel- 
low color, and when fresh is juicy, and used 
by the Indians to color their clothing, etc. 

Properties and Uses. — The root is a pow- 
erful tonic, at the same time exerting an 
especial influence upon the mucous surfaces 
and tissues, with which it comes in contact. 
Internally, it is successfully administered in 
dyspepsia, chronic affections of the mucous 
coats of the stomach, erysipelas ; remittent, 
intermittent, and typhoid fevers ; toi-por of 
the liver, and wherever tonics are required. 
In some instances it proves laxative, but 
without any astringency, and seems to rank 
in therapeutical action between rhubarb and 

A strong decoction of two parts of Golden 
Seal and one part of Geranium or Cranebill, 
is very valuable in gleet, chronic gonorrhoea, 

and leucorrhoea, used in injection. It is likewise of much benefit in in- 
cipient stricture., spennatorrhoia., and inflammation and ulceration of the 
internal coat of the bladder. Ulceration of the internal coat of the 
bladder may be cured by the decoction of Golden Seal alone. It must 
be injected into the bladder, and held there as long as the patient can 
conveniently retain it. To be repeated three or four times a day, im- 
mediately after emptying the bladder. 

Dose. — Of the jiowder, from ten to thirty grains ; of the tincture, from 
one to two fluid drachms. 

GOLD THREAD (Coptis Trifolia). 

Common Name. Mouth-root. 
Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This plant has a small, creeping, perennial root, of a 
bright yellow color ; the stems are round, slender, and at the base are 


invested with ovate, acuminate, yellowisli scales. The leaves are ever- 
green, on long, slender petioles ; leaflets roundish, acute at base, small 
and smooth, and veiny and sessile. The flower is a small starry white 
one, and the fruit an oblong capsule, containing many small black 

History. — Goldthread is found growing in dark swamps and sphagnous 
woods in the northern parts of the United States, and in Canada, 
Greenland, Iceland, and Siberia. It flowers early in the spring to July. 
The root is the medicinal part, and autumn is the season for collect- 
ing it. 

Properties and Uses. — It is a pure and powerful bitter tonic, some- 
what like quassia, gentian, and columbo, without any astringency. It 
may be beneficially used in all cases where a bitter tonic is required, and 
is decidedly efficacious as a wash or gargle, when a decoction, in various 
ulcerations of the mouth. In dyspepsia, and in chronic inflammation 
of the stomach, equal parts of goldthread and golden seal, made into 
a decoction, with elixir vitriol added in proper quantity, will not only 
prove effectual, but in loany instances will permanently destroy the 
appetite for alcoholic beverages. 

Dose. — Of the powder or tincture, from half a drachm to a drachm ; 
of the decoction, the dose is from one wineglassfid to a teacupful. The 
tincture, made by adding an ounce of the powdered root to a pint of 
diluted alcohol, is preferable to the powder. The dose is from twenty 
drops to a teaspoonful, three times a day. 

GUAIAC (GuAiACTJM Officinale). 

Common Name. Ligmim Vitce. 

JIedicinal Parts. The wood and resin. 

Beseription. — This is a tree of slow growth, attaining a height of from 
thirty to forty feet ; stem commonly crooked ; bark fun-owed ; wood 
veiy hard, heavy, the fibres crossing each other diagonally. Leaves 
bijugate ; leaflets obovate or oval, obtuse, and evergreen. Flowers light 
blue, and the fruit an obcordate capsule. 

History. —This tree is an inhabitant of the West Indian Islands, and 
on the neighboring part of the continent. The wood is used by turners 
for making block-sheaves, pestles, etc. , and is very hard and dm-able. 
Both the wood and resin are used in medicine. Alcohol is the best 

Properties and Uses.— The wood or resin, taken internally, commonly 
excites a warmth in the stomach, a dryness of mouth, or thirst. It is 
an acrid stimulant, and increases the heat of the body and accelerates 
the circulation. If the body bo kept warm while iising the decoction, it 
is diaphoretic ; if cool, it is diuretic. 


It is used in chronic rheumatism, cutaneous diseases, scrofula, and 
Byphilitic diseases. 

Dose. — Decoction of the wood, two to four ounces ; of powdered resin. 
five to twenty grains ; tincture, one to four fluid drachms. 

HAZEL (Witch) (Hama^ielis Virginica). 

Common Names. Winterbloom, Snajrping-liazelnut^ Spotted Alder. 

Medicinal Parts. The bark and leaves. 

Description. — This indigenous shrub consists of several crooked, 
branching stems, from the same root, from four to six inches in diame- 
ter and ten to twelve feet high, covered with a smooth gray bark. The 
leaves are on short petioles, alternate, oval or obovate ; flowers yeUow ; 
calyx small, petals four, and the fruit a nut-like capsule or pod. 

Histoi'y. — It grows in damp woods, in nearly all parts of the United 
States, flowering from September to November, when the leaves are 
falling, and maturing its seeds the next summer. The barks and leaves 
are the parts used in medicine. They possess a degree of fragrance, 
and when chewed are at first somewhat bitter, very sensibly astringent, 
and then leave a pungent sweetish taste, which remains for a considera- 
ble time. Water extracts their virtues. The shoots are used as divining 
rods to discover water and metals ixnder ground by certain adepts in 
the occult arts. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, astringent, and sedative. A decoc- 
tion of the bark is very useful in hemoptysis, hematemesis, and 
other hemorrhages or bleedings, as well as in diarrhoea, dysenteiy, 
and excessive mucous discharges. It is employed ^vith great advantage 
in incipient phthisis or consumption, in which it is supposed to unite 
anodyne influences with its others. 

The Indians use it in the form of poultice, in external inflammations, 
swellings, and all tumors of a painful character. 

The decoction may be advantageously used as a wash or injection 
for sore mouth, painful tumors, external inflammations, bowel com- 
plaints, prolapsus ani and uteri, leucorrhoea, gleet, and ophthalmia. 

An Ointment made with lard, and a decoction of white-oak bark, 
apple-tree bark, and witch-hazel, is a very valuable remedy for hemor- 
rhoids or piles. 

The following forms a useful preparation : Take equal parts of witch- 
hazel bark, golden seal, and lobelia leaves, the two first made into a 
strong decoction, after which add the lobelia to the hot liquid, and 
cover ; when cold, strain. This decoction, as a collyrium, will fre- 
quently and speedily cure the most obstinate and long-standing cases of 

Dose of the witch-hazel decoction alone, from a wineglassful to a tea- 
cupful, three or four times a day. 



HELLEBORE (American) (Veratrum Yiride). 

Common Names. Swamp Hdlebore., Indian Poke, Itch-weed. 
Medicinal Part. The rhizome. 

Description. — This plant has a perennial, thick, and fleshy rhizome, 
tunicated at the upper part, sending off a multitude of large whitish 
roots. The stem is from three to five feet high ; lower leaves from six 
inches to a foot long, oval, acuminate ; upper leaves 
gradually narrower, linear, lanceolate, and all alter- 
nate. The flowers are numerous and green, part 
of them barren. 

Ilistoi'y. — American Hellebore is native to the 
United States, growing in swamps, low grounds, 
and moist meadows, blossoming in June and July. 
The roots should be gathered in autumn, and as it 
rapidly loses its virtues, it should be gathered an- 
nually and kept in well-closed vessels. When 
fresh, it has a very strong, unpleasant odor, but 
when dried is inodorous. It has a sweetish-bitter 
taste, succeeded by a persistent acridity. 

Properties and Uses. — It has many very'^ valua- 
ble properties. It is slightly acrid, confiniug this 
action to the mouth and fauces. It is unsurpassed 
by any article as an expectorant. As a diaphoretic, 
it is one of the most certain of the whole materia 
medica, often exciting great coolness and coldness 
of the surface. In suitable doses it can be relied 
upon to bring the pulse down from a hundred and 
fifty beats in a minute to forty, or even to thirty. 
Sometimes it renders the skin merely soft and moist, and at others 
produces free and abundant perspiration. In fevers, in some diseases 
of the heart, acute rheumatism, and in many other conditions which in- 
volve an excited state of the circulation, it is of exceeding great value. 
As a deobstruent or alterative, it far surpasses iodine, and therefore 
used with great advantage in the treatment of cancer, scrofula, and con- 
sumption. It is nervine, and never narcotic, which property renders 
it of great value in all painfid diseases, or such as are accompanied 
with spasmodic action, convulsions, morbid irritability and irritative 
mobility, as in chorea, epilepsy or fits, pneumonia, puerperal fever, 
neuralgia, etc., producing these effects without stupefying and torpify- 
ing the system, as opium is known to do. As an emetic, it is slow, but 
certain and efficient, rousing the liver to action, and vomits without 
occasioning prostration or exhaustion like other emetics, being the 
more valuable in not being cathartic. It is peculiarly adapted as an 



emetic in whooping-cough, croup, asthma, scarlet fever, and in all cases 
where there is much febrile or inflammatory action. As an arterial 
sedative it stands unparalleled and unequalled, while in small doses it 
creates and promotes appetite beyond any agent known to medical men. 
It has recently come into use, and may be justly regarded as one of 
the most valuable contributions to the Hst. of medicines in a himdred 

Dose. — Veratrum is usually given in the form of a tincture, the for- 
mula being of the dried root, eight ounces to sixteen oiinces diluted 
.835 alcohol, macerating for two weeks, then to be expressed and fil- 
tered. To an adult eight drops are given, which should be repealed 
every three hoTirs, increasing the dose one or two drops every time 
nntU nausea or vomiting, or rediiction of the pulse to sixty-five or sev- 
enty, ensue, then reduce to one-half in all cases. Females and persons 
from fourteen to eighteen should commence with six drops and increase 
as above. For children, from two to five years, begin with two drops, 
and increase one drop only. Below two years of age, one drop is suf- 
ficient. If taken in so large a dose as 
to produce vomiting or too much de- 
pression, a full dose of morphine or 
opium, in a little brandy or ginger, is 
a complete antidote. In pneumonia, 
typhoid fever, and many other diseases, 
it must be continued from three to 
seven days after the symptoms have 
subsided. In typhoid fever, while 
using the veratrum, quinia is absolutely 
inadmissible. It is administered in a 
little sweetened water, and its employ- 
ment in moderate doses, or short of 
nausea, may be continued indefinitely 
without the least inconvenience. 

The Helleborus Niger, Black Hel- 
lebore., inhabiting the subalpine and 
southern parts of Europe, was formerly 
much used in palsy, insanity, apoplexy, 
dropsy, epilepsy, etc. , but is now more 
or less discarded. It has diuretic and emmenagogue properties, but 
as it is very toxical in effects, its use is not to be advised in domestic 

HENBANE (Hyoscyamus Niger). 

Medicinal Parts. The leaves and seeds. 

Descriptimi. — Henbane is a biennial plant. It has a long, thick, spin- 
dle-shaped, corrugated root, which is of a brown color externally, but 

HeUeboniB Niger. 


whitish internally. The stem sometimes reaches the height of two 
feet, but often stops at an altitude of six inches. The leaves are large, 
oblong, acute, alternate, and of a pale, dull green color. They have 
long, glandular hairs upon the midrib. The flowers are funnel-shaped, 
of a dull yellow color, with puri^le veins and orifice. The seeds are 
many, small, obovate, and brownish. 

History. — Henbane is original with Europe, but has been naturalized 
in America. It grows in waste groimds, and flowers from July to Sep- 
tember. The leaves and seeds are the parts medicinally used. The 
leaves are collected in the second year, when the plant is in flower ; the 
Beeds are gathered when perfectly ripe. It grows more plentifully than 
elsewhere in America, in the waste grounds of old settlements, in grave- 
yards, and around the foundations of ruined houses. Bruise the recent 
leaves, and they emit a strong narcotic odor, like tobacco. Dry them, 
and they have little smell or taste. Their virtues are completely ex- 
tracted by diluted alcohol. The active principle of Henbane is called 
Syosciamia., but all the recognized preparations are now known by the 
general name of Hyoseyamus. 

Properties and Uses. — Henbane is a powerful narcotic, but, unless im- 
properly and injudiciously xised, it is not "dangerously" poisonous, as 
we learn from King. All narcotics are ' ' dangerously " poisonous if dan- 
gerously administered. Nature grows wild her most potent medicinal 
herbs, and those which, if used by persons who understand them, are 
curative of the very worst afllictions of the human race, are also de- 
structive to a small extent if applied and administered by parties who 
have not thoroughly studied their properties. Medicinally used. Hen- 
bane is calmative, hypnotic, anodyne, and antispasmodic. It is much 
better than opium, as it does not produce constipation. It is always 
given, where opium does not agree, with the very best effects. I use it 
principally to cause sleep, and remove irregular nervous action. Com- 
bined with other preparations mentioned in many parts of this volume, 
it is most excellent for gout, rheumatism, asthma, chronic cough, neu- 
ralgia, irritations of the urinary organs, etc. The leaves make fine ex- 
ternal preparations for glandular swellings or ixlcers, etc. I instruct my 
patients never to use it, under any circumstances, without the advice of 
a good herbal physician. 

HOARHOUND (Marrubium Vulgare). 

Medicinal Part. Theherh. 

Description. — This well-known herb has a fibrous, perennial root and 
numerous annual, bushy stems, leaf^-, and branching from the bottom 
to one or two feet in height. The leaves are roundish-ovate, rough and 
veiny above, woolly on the under sui-face, one or two inches in diam- 
eter ; the flowers small and white. 


Eistorp.—Hoarhoxmd is a native of Europe, but has been naturalized 
in the United States, where it is very common. It grows on dry sandy 
fields, waste gi-ounds, and road-sides, flowering from June to September, 
The entire plant has a white or hoary appearance ; the whole herb is 
medicinal, and should be gathered before its efflorescence. It has a 
peculiar, rather agreeable, vinous, balsamic odor, and a very bitter aro- 
matic, somewhat acrid and persistent taste. Its virtues are imparted to 
alcohol or water. 

Properties and Uses. — A stimulant, tonic, expectorant, and diuretic. 
It is used in the form of syrup, in coughs, colds, chronic catarrh, 
asthma, and all pulmonary affections. The tcarrn infusion will produce 
perspiration and flow of urine, and is used with great benefit in jaun- 
dice, asthma, hoarseness, amenorrhoea, and hysteria. The cold infusion is 
an excellent tonic in some forms of dyspepsia. It Avill expel worms and 
act as a purgative in large doses. It enters into the composition of 
several syrups and candies. 

Dose. — Of the powder, one drachm ; of the infusion or syrup, from 
half to a teacupfuL 

HOUND'S TONGUE (Cynoglossum Officinale). 

Medicestal, Pakts. The leaves and root. 

Desci'iption. — This biennial plant has an erect stem one or two feet 
high. The leaves are hoary, with soft down on both sides, acute, lan- 
ceolate, radical ones petiolate, cauline ones sessUe, with cordate bases. 
The flowers are in clusters, calyx do\vny, corolla reddish puiple, and 
fruit a depressed achenium. 

History. — Cynoglossum Officinale grows on the road-sides and waste 
places of both Europe and America. The leaves and the root are the 
parts used in medicine ; but the j^ref erence I give to the root. This, 
upon being gathered, emits an unpleasant and somewhat heavy odor, 
which vanishes when it is dried. Its taste is bitter and mawkish. The 
fresh root is spoken of by several herbalists as being better than the 
desiccated or dried, but this probably arises fTom the fact that the roots 
they used had not been gathered at the proper time, dried in the cor- 
rect way, or kept in a skilful manner. The dried root is quite as active 
as the fresh, if prepared by a person who knows its qualities. 

Properties and Uses.— It is chiefly valuable for coughs, catarrhs, 
bleeding from the lungs, and other disorganizations of the respiratory 
apparatus. The leaves and root are both applied, with great benefit, 
as a poultice to old ulcers, scrofulous tumors, bums, goitre, and recent 
bruises and abrasions. In my several remedies the values of many 
of the plants described at length in these pages are most thoroughly 
embraced. The object in giving such plants a descriptive space each 
is to enable the reader, iu extraordinary emergencies, to be Ais own 


physician until he can get a better one, and to show him that what 
he treads on may, without his knowledge, contain the germs of his 

Cynoglosstjm Morrisoni, or Virginin Mouse-ear^ Begrjars' Lice, 
Dysentery Weed, etc., is an annual weed with an erect hairy, leafy 
stem, two to four feet high. Leaves three to four inches long, oblong, 
lanceolate ; flowers very small, white, or pale blue. It grows in rocky 
grounds and among rubbish. The whole j^lant has an unpleasant odor. 
The root is the medicinal part. It is very eiHcacious in diarrhoea and 
dysentery. The root may be chewed or given in powder or infusion ad 

HOPS (HuMULtrs Lupulxjs). 

Medicinal Part. The strobiles or cones. 

Description. — This well-known twining plant has a perennial root, 
with manj' annual angular stems. The leaves are opposite, deep green, 
serrated, venated, and very rough. The flowers are numerous and of a 
greenish color. Fruit a strobile. 

History. — This plant is found in China, the Canary Islands, all parts 
of Europe, and in many places in the United States. It is largely .Culti- 
vated in England and the United States for its cones or strobiles, 'vfrhich 
are used medicinally, and in the manufacture of beer, ale. and porter. 
The odor of hops is peculiar and somewhat agi-eeable, their taste slightly 
astringent and exceedingly bitter. They yield their virtues to boiling 
water, but a better solvent than water is diluted alcohol. Lupulin is 
the yellow powder procured by beating or rubbing the strobiles, and 
then sifting out the grains, which form about one-seventh part of the 
Hops. Lupulin is in globose kidney-shaped grains, golden yellow and 
somewhat transparent, and preferable to the Hops itself. LvpuUtc is 
the bitter principle of Hops, and is obtained by making an aqueous 
solution of Lupulin. 

Pnyjicrties and Uses. — Hops are tonic, hypnotic, febrifuge, antilithic, 
and anthelmintic. They are principally used for their sedative or hyp- 
notic action — producing sleep, removing restlessne.>^s, and abating pain, 
but sometimes failing to do so. A piUow stuffed with Hops is a favorite 
way for obtaining sleep. The lujmlin or its tincture is used in delirium 
tremens, nervous irritation, anxiety, exhaustion, and does not disorder 
the stomach, nor cause constipation, as with opium. It is also useful in 
after-pains, to prevent chordee, suppress venereal desires, etc. Exter- 
nally, in the form of a fomentation alone, or combined with Boneset or 
other bitter herbs, it has proved beneficial in pneumonia, pleurisy, gas- 
tritis, enteritis, and as an application to painful swellings and tumors. 
An ointment, made by boiling two parts of Stramonium leaves and one 
of Hops in lard, is an excellent application in salt rhemn, ulcers, and 


painful tumors. It is a powerful antaphrodisiac, composing the genital 
organs, quieting painful erections in gonorrhoea, etc. 

Dose. — Fluid extract, half a drachm to a drachm ; solid extract, five 
to twenty grains ; tincture (two and a half ounces of hops to one pint of 
alcohol), three to six drachms ; infusion (four drachms to one pint of 
hot water), a wineglass to a cupful of LupiMn.^ the dose six to ten 
grains ; tinct. of Lupulin (two ounces of Lupulin to one pint of alcohol), 
one to two teaspoonfuls in sweetened water. Fifteen to twenty grains 
well rubbed up with white sugar in a mortar is very efficacious in pria- 
pism, chordee, and spermatorrhoea. 

HOUSE-LEEK (Sempervivum Tectorum). 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Description. — House-leek has a fibrous root, with several tufts of ob- 
long, acute, extremely succulent leaves. The stem from the centre of 
these tufts is about a foot high, erect, round, and downy ; flowers large, 
pale rose-colored, and scentless. Offsets spreading. 

History. — This perennial plant is a native of Europe, and is so succu- 
lent that it will grow on dry walls, roofs of houses, etc. It flowers in 
August. It is much cultivated in some places. The leaves contain 
super-malate of lime. 

Properties and Uses. — The fresh leaves are iiseful as a refrigerant 
when bruised, and applied as a poultice in erysipelatous affections, birrns, 
stings of insects, and other inflammatory conditions of the skin. The 
leaves, sliced in two, and the inner surface applied to warts is a positive 
cure for them. It can be used for many skin diseases. The leaves also 
possess an astringent property, serviceable in many cases. 

HYSSOP (Hyssopus Officinalis). 

Medicinal Parts. The tops and leaves. 

Description. — Hyssop is a perennial herb, with square stems, woody 
at the base, and a foot or two in height, with rod-like branches. The 
leaves are opposite, sessile, linear, and lanceolate, green on each side ; 
flowers, bluish-purple, seldom white ; stamens four. 

HiHtory. — It is an inhabitant of Europe and this country, being raised 
principally in gardens, and flowers in July. The taste of the leaves is 
hot, spicy, and somewhat bitter, and yield their virtues to water and 
alcohol. They contain yellow oil and sulphur. 

Properties and Uses. — Stimrdant, aromatic, carminative, and tonic. 
Generally used in quinsy and other sore-throats, as a gargle with sage. 
As an expectorant it is beneficial in asthma, coughs, etc. The leaves 
applied to bruises speedily relieve the pain and remove the discolora- 




Common Name. Bitter Candy Tuft. 

Mkdicinal Part. The seeds. 

Description. — This plant has a herbaceous stem, about a foot in 
height, wath acute, toothed leaves, and bright white flowers. 

Ilintory. — The leaves, stem, root, and seeds are used ; the seeds espe- 
cially. The plant is an annual, carefully cultivated in Eui-ope, but 
grows wild also. It flowers in June and July. 

PropertieH and Uses. — The ancients employed it in gout, rheumatism, 
and diseases of a kindred nature. We use it, compounded v.'ith other 
herbal preparations, for such diseases in their worst forms, and we also 
use it by itself, in certain proportions, to allay excited action of the 
heart, particrdarly where the heart is enlarged. In asthma, bronchitis, 
and dropsy it is now considered one of the most excellent ingredients of 
certain cures for those afflictions. The dose is from one to five grains of 
the powdered seeds. 

ICELAND MOSS (Cetraria Islandica). 

Medicinal Part. The plant. 

Description and History. — Iceland Moss is a perennial, foliaceov^s plant 
from two to four inches high ; a native of Britain and the northern 
countries of Europe, particularly Iceland. It is diversified in its color, 
being brownish or grajish- white in some parts, and of a reddish hue in 
others. It is ^vithout odor, with a mucilaginous, bitter, somewhat 
astringent taste, and when dry the lichen is crisp, cartilaginous, and cori- 
aceous, and is convertible into a grayish-white powder. It sweUs up m 
water, absorbing more than its own weight of that fluid, and communica- 
ting a portion of its bitterness to it, as well as a little mucilage ; when 
long chewed it is converted into a mucUaginous pulp, and when boiled 
in water the decoction becomes a firm jelly on cooling. 

Projierties and Uses. — It is demulcent, tonic, and nutritious. Used 
as a demulcent in chronic catarrh, chronic dyscnteiy, and diarrhoea, and 
as a tonic in dyspepsia, convalescence, and exhausting diseases. Boiled 
with milk it forms an excellent nutritive and tonic in phthisis and gen- 
eral debility. Its tonic virtues depend upon its cetrarin^ which, if re- 
moved, renders the lichen merely nutritious. 

IRON WEED (Vernonia Fasciculata). 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

De.script'on. — This is an indigenous, perennial, coarse, purplish-greeu 
weed, with a stem from three to ten feet high. The leaves are from 
four to eight inches long, one or two broad, lanceolate, tapering to each 
end. Corolla showy, and dark purple. 


History. — This is a very common plant to the Western States, growing 
in woods and prairies, and along rivers and streams, flowering from Jvdy 
to September. The root is bitter, and imparts its virtues to water and 

Properties and Uses. — It is a bitter tonic, deobstruent, and alterative. 
In powder or decoction the root is beneficial in amenorrhoea, dysmenor- 
rhcea, leucorrhoea, and menorrhagia. It is useful in scrofula and some 
cutaneous diseases. 

Dose. — Of the decoction, one or two fluid ounces ; of the tincture, one 
or two fluid drachms. The leaves or powdered root make an excellent 
discutient application to tumors. 

IVY (American) (Ampelopsis Quinqijefolia). 

Common Names. Woodbine, Virginia Creeper., Five Leaves, False 
Grape, Wild icood-vine. 

Medicinal Parts. The bark and twigs. 

Description. — This is a woody vine, with a creeping stem, digitate 
leaves ; leaflets acuminate, petiolate, dentate, and smooth ; flowers in- 
conspicuous, greenish, or white ; and the fruit a beriy, acid, dark blue, 
and small. 

History. — The Ameiican Ivy is a common, familiar, shrubby vine, 
climbing extensively, and, by means of its radiating tendrils, supporting 
itself fii-mly on trees, stone walls, churches, etc., and ascending to the 
height of from fifty to a hundred feet. The bark and the twigs are the 
parts usually used. Its taste is acrid and persistent, though not un- 
pleasant, and its decoction is mucilaginous. The bark should be col- 
lected after the berries have ripened. It is like the ivy of England and 
other countries. 

Properties and Uses. — Alterative, tonic, astiingent, and expectorant. 
It is used principally in form of syrup in scrofula, dropsy, bronchitis, 
and other pulmonary complaints. An old author affirms that there is a 
very great antipathy between wine and ivy, and therefore it is a remedy 
to preserve against drunkenness, and to relieve or cure intoxication by 
drinking a draught of wine in which a handful of bruised ivy leaves 
have been boiled. 

Dose. — Of the decoction of syrup, from one to four tablespoonfuls, 
three times a day. 

JALAP (Ipomcea Jalapa). 

Medicinal Part. Tlieroot. 

Description. — Jalap has a fleshy, tuberous root, with numerous round- 
ish tubercles. It has several stems, which are smooth, browmish, slightly 
rough, with a tendency to twine. The leaves are on long petioles, the 




first hastate, succeeding ones cordate, acuminate, and mucronate. The 
calyx has no bracts ; corolla funnel-shaped, 
purple, and long. Fruit a capsule. 

Ilistory. — This plant grows ia Mexico, 
at an elevation of nearly six thousand feet 
above the level of the sea, near Chicanquiaco 
and Xalapa, from which it is exported, and 
from which last-named place it also receives 
its name. It is generally imported in bags, 
containing one or two hundred pounds. The 
worm-eaten root is the most energetic, aa 
the active part is untouched by them. It ia 
soluble Lq water and alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — Jalap is irritant 
and cathartic, operating energetically, and 
produces liquid stools. It is chietiy em- 
ployed when it is desired to produce an 
energetic influence on the bowels, or to 
obtain large evacuations. In intestinal in- 
flammations it should not be used. 
Dose. — Powder, ten gi-arns. 

JAMESTOWN WEED (Datura Stramonium). 

CoM^ioN Names. Thorn-Apple, Stinkweed, Apple-pei'u, etc. 

MEDicmAi. Parts. The leaves and seeds. 

Description. — This plant is a bushy, smooth, fetid, annual plant, two 
or three feet in height, and in rich soil even more. The root is rather 
large, of a whitish color, giving off many fibres. The stem is much 
branched, forked, spreading, leafy, of a yellowish-green color. The 
leaves are large and smooth, from the forks of the stem, and are uneven 
at the base. The flowers are about three inches long, erect, large, and 
white. The fruit is a large, dry, prickly capsule, with four valves and 
numerous black reniform seeds. There is the Datura Tatiila, or purple 
Stramonium, which differs from the above in having a deep purple stem, 

History. — Stramonium is a well-known poisonous weed, growing upon 
waste grounds and road-sides, in all parts of the United States. It is 
found in very many parts of the world. The whole plant has a fetid, 
narcotic odor, which diminishes as it dries. Almost every part of the 
plant is possessed of medicinal properties, but the ofRciaal parts are the 
leaves and seeds. The leaves should be gathered when the flowers are 
fxdl-blowTi, and carefully dried in the shade. They impart their proper- 
ties to water, alcohol, and the fixed oils. The seeds are small, reniform, 
compressed, roughish, dark brown or black when ripe, grayish-browa 


when unripe. They yield what is called Daiuria^ which may be obtained 
by exhausting the bruised seeds with boiling rectified alcohol, and 
then proceeding as for the active principle of other seeds of a similar 

Proj)erties and Uses. — In large doses it is an energetic narcotic poison. 
The victims of this poison suffer the most intense agonies, and die in 
maniacal delirium. In medicinal doses it is an anodyne, antispasmodic, 
and is often used as a substitute for opium. It is used with fair effect 
in cases of mania, epilepsy, gastritis, delirium tremens, and enteritis ; 
also in neuralgia, rheumatism, and all periodic pains. The dried and 
smoked leaves are useful in spasmodic asthma, but as there are other 
means much more certain to cure, and less dangerous, I, and other her- 
balists, seldom or never recommend them. Daturia is seldom employed 
in medicine, being a very active and powerful poison. I should advise 
my readers never to employ it, vmless they be physicians ; but I deemed 
proper to give it a place in this work, as its medicinal qualities are quite 
important, if its use is intrusted to proper and educated persons. 

JUNIPER (JuNiPERUS Communis). 

Medicinal Part. The berties. 

DeserijMon. — This is a small evergreen shrub, never attaining the 
height of a tree, with many very close branches. The leaves are 
attached to the stem in threes. The fruit is fleshy, of dark-purplish 
color, ripening the second year from the flower. 

Hvitory. — Juniper grows in diy woods and hills, and flowers in May. 
The American berries contain less virtue than those imported from 
Europe. The oil is contained in the spirituous liquor called Holland 
gin. The berries yield their properties to hot water and alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — The berries and oil are stimulating, carmina- 
tive, and diuretic. It is especially useful in averting mucous discharges, 
especially from the \irethra. 

Dose^ — Of the berries, from one to two drachms ; of the oil, from four 
to twenty minims. 

KINO (Pterocabpus Marsupium). 

Medicinal Part. Concrete juice. 

JJescription. — Kino is a leafy tree, with the outer coat of the bark 
brown, and the inner red, fibrous, and astringent. Branches smooth, 
leaves alternate ; leaflets, from five to seven, alternate, elliptical, and 
rather emarginate ; flowers very numerous, white, with a tinge of yel- 
low ; fruit a legume on a long petiole. 

lliatory. — Kino is the juice of the tree, obtained by making longitu- 
dinal incisions in the bark. It flows freely, is of a red color, and by 
drying it in the sun it cracks into irregular angular masses. The frag- 


ments are reddish, black, translucent, and ruby-red on the edges, in- 
odorous, and very astringent. "When chewed it tinges the saliva blood- 
red. Alcohol dissolves about two-thirds of it. It is chieliy imported 
from Malabar. It inhabits the Ciicur mountains and forests of the 
Malabar coast. 

Properties and Uses. — Employed in medicine as an energetic astrin- 
gent only, principally in obstinate chronic diarrhoea. It is also adminis- 
tered as an astilngent in leucon'hoea and sanguineous exudations. As a 
topical remedy, it is applied to llabby ulcers, and used as a gargle, in- 
jection, and wash. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from ten to thirty grains. 

KIDNEY LIYER-LEAF (Hepatica Americ.\na). 

Medicinal Part. The plant. 

Description. — This is a perennial plant, the root of which consists of 
numerous strong fibres. The leaves are all radical, on long, hairy pe- 
tioles, smooth, evergreen, cordate at base, the new ones appearing later 
than the flowers. The flowers appear almost as soon as the snow leaves 
the ground in the spruig. Fruit an ovate achenium. 

Hepatica Actjtaloba, or Heart Liver -leaf., which possesses the^same 
medicinal qualities, differs from the above in having the leaves with three 
ovate, pointed lobes, or sometimeie five-lobcd. They both bear white, 
blue, or purplish flowers, which api:iear late in March or early in April. 

History. — These plants are common to the United States, growing in 
woods and upon elevated situations — the former, which is the most com- 
mon, being found on sides of hills, exposed to the north, and the latter 
on the southern aspect. The plants yield their virtues to water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is a mild, mucilaginous astringent, and is 
freely used in infusion, in fevers, di^ases of the liver ; and for bleed- 
ing from the lungs, coughs, etc., it is a most valuable curative. 

Dose. — Infusion taken ad libitum. 

KOUSSO (Brayera Anthelmintica). 

Medicinal Tart. The leaves. 

Dcscri]iti"n . — This is a tree, growing about twenty feet high, with 
round rusty branches. The leaves are crowded, alternate ; leatleta 
oblong, acute, and sen-ate ; flowers small,, and becoming pur- 
ple ; the fruit so far unknown. 

History. — This tree gi-ows upon the tabh -lands of Northeastern Abys- 
sinia, at an elevation of several thou.sand feet. The flowers are the 
parts u.sed. They are gathered when in full bloom, and are used in 
their fresh state, but are equally valuable when properly dried. After 
drying th(^y are powdered, and in this forni they are mixed with warm 



water and administered. The value of this medicine has been known 
for a long time, having been introduced in the French practice over 
forty years ago. It is quite 
difficult to procure even the 
adulterated or spurious ar- 
ticle in America or England ; 
the genuine is not to be ob- 
tained at any price in the 
drug-stores. In the stores, 
however, can be obtained, at 
great cost, an active resinous 
principle, extracted from the 
flowers, and sometimes the 
unripe fruit, to which the 
names of Tcerdin and Kous- 
»in have been given. The 
dose of this is set down at 
twenty grains. 

Pr<yperUes and Uses. — In 
large doses it wUl produce 
heat of the stomach, nausea, 
and sometimes vomiting, Kousso. 

and occasionally will act 

powerfully on the bowels ; but this is only when injudiciously taken. 
Its chief property is developed in the destruction and expulsion of worms, 
especially the tape-icm'm. It is the surest of all remedies for that dis- 
tressing affliction, when compounded with other ingredients which I 
have mentioned elsewhere. Taken in the proper dose, it seems to have 
no general effect, but operates wholly and solely upon the worms. The 
dose of the jDowdered flowers in infusion is half an ounce to half a pint 
of warm water. It must be reduced for children. If the medicine does 
not operate in four hours, use castor-oil. It is one of the ingi-edients of 
my Male Fern Vermifuge. (See page 469.) 

LADIES' SLIPPER (Cypripedium Pubescens). 

Common Names. American Valerian., Zfmhcl, Nerce-root, Telbto- 
Moccasiii flower, Noah\$ Ark. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This indigenous plant has a perennial, fibrous, fleshy 
root, from which arise several round leafy stems, from twelve to eighteen 
inches high. The leaves are from three to six inches long, by two or 
three broad, oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, pubescent, alternate, gene- 
rally the same number on each side. Flowers large and very showy, 
and pale yeUow. 


History. — This plant grows here in rich woods and meadows, and 
flowers in May and June. There are several varieties of it, but as they 
all possess the same medicinal properties, a description of each is not 
requisite or desirable. 

Projxrties and Uses. — The fibrous roots are the parts used in medi- 
cine, and they should be gathered and carefully cleansed in August or 
September. The properties and uses are various. The preparations 
made from these roots are tonic and stimulant, diaphoretic, and anti- 
spasmodic, and are considered to be unequalled in remedying hysteria, 
chorea, nervous headache, and all cases of nervous irritability. Com- 
bined with a certain foreign plant of a mucilaginous character, and 
gi-owing near the sea-shore, it is an unfailing cure of fever and ague. 
The preparation has, however, to be skilfully compounded. Any one 
afflicted by fever and ague may write to me for particulars and I will 
gladly and promptly furnish them. They are also used for delirium, 
neuralgia, and hypochondria. The form of preparation is an alcoholic 

Dose. — From ten to twenty grains ; tincture, from one to three fluid 
drachms ; infusion, from one to four fluid ounces. When made into 
powder, one drachm in warm water is a dose, and may be repeated, in 
season, as often as may be required. 

LAECH (Abies Larix). 

Medicinal Part. Besinous exudation. 

Description. — Larch is a very lofty and graceful tree, with wide- 
spreading branches. The buds are alternate, perennial, cup-shaped, 
scaly, producing annually a pencil-like tuft. Male flowers drooping, 
about half an inch long, yellow ; female flowers erect, larger than the 
male flowers, and variegated with green and pink ; cones erect, ovate, 
about an inch long, purple when young, reddish-brown when ripe. 

History. — The Larch grows in the mountainous regions of Europe, 
and yields the article of use and commerce known as Venice turpentine. 
The bark contains a large amount of tannic acid. 

Properties and Uses. — The medicinal properties are those known to be 
confined to turpentine. 

LARGE FLO^M^RING SPURGE (Euphorbia Corollata). 

Common Names. Blooming Spurge^ Milk-weed, Bowman''s Boot, 

Medicinal Part. T/ie bark of the root. 

Descrij}tion. — This is a perennial plant with a round, slender, erect 
stem, one or two feet high, with a yellowish, large, and branching root. 
The leaves are scattered, sessile, oblong-obovate, smooth in some plants. 


very hairy in others, and from one to two inches in length. Flowers 
white and showy, and fruit a three-celled capsule. 

History. — This plant grows plentifully in Canada and the United 
States, in dry fields and \voods, and flowers from June to September. 
The bark of the root is the part used. The plant is readily detected by 
a milky fluid which exudes from the stem, when that is broken. This 
fluid, if applied to warts or wens, is of great benefit, in most cases ban- 
ishing the offensive excrescences. 

Properties and Uses. — It is emetic, diaphoretic, expectorant, andepis- 
pastic. As an emetic the powdered bark of the root (say from fifteen to 
twenty grains) is mild, pleasant, and efficacious. 

Dose.- — As an expectorant it is administered three grains at a time, 
mixed with honey, molasses, or sugar ; as a cathartic, from four to ten 
grains are required. It is regarded, in doses of fifteen or twenty grains, 
as one of the very best remedies ever discovered for the dropsy. It 
has cured hydrothorax and ascites when aU other means have failed. 

LARKSPUR (Delphinum Consolida). 

MEDiCESfAL Pakts. The root and seeds. 

Description. —Larkspur is an annual herb, with a simple slender root, 
a leafy stem, from a foot and a half to two feet high, with alternate 
spreading branches. The leaves are sessile ; flowers bright blue and 

Delphenum SxAPniSAGRiA, or Stavesacre., which possesses the same 
properties as Larkspur, but to a greater degree, is an elegant upright 
herb, about the same height as Larkspur. Leaves broad, palmate, and 
petioled. Flowers bluish-gray. Fruit a capsule. 

History. — Larlcspur is a native of Europe, but has become naturalized 
in the United States, growing in woods and fields. Stavesacre is native 
to Europe, growing in waste places. 

Properties and Uses. — In medicinal doses emetic, cathartic, and nar- 
cotic. It has also vermifuge properties. The whole plant contains 
an acid principle which is sure death to all kinds of domestic vermia. 
The flowers and leaves were extensively used in the United States army 
during the rebeUion, to kill Uce, and it is pretty well authenticated that 
the same substance forms the basis of the many preparations offered for 
the destruction of all noxious insects whose room is better than their 
company. The flowers are emmenagogue, diuretic, and vermifuge. 
A tincture of the seeds, it is said, will cure asthma and dropsy. Also a 
specific for cholera morbus. 

Dose. — Two ounces of the seed added to one quart of diluted alcohol 
makes the tincture, of which ten drops may be given three times a daj. 
This, however, should be used only in extreme cases. 


LAVENDEE (Lavandula Vera anb Lavandula SriCA). 

MEDicmAL Part. The flowers. 

Description. — Lavandula Vera is a small shrub from one to two feet 
high, but sometimes attaining six feet. The leaves are oblong-linear 
or lanceolate, entire, opposite, and sessile. The flowers are of lilac 
color, small and in whorls. 

Lavandula Spica is more dwarfish and more hoary than the last. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate. This plant is not used in medicine, but fur- 
nishes the oil of spike., much used in the preparation of artistical var- 
nishes and by porcelain painters. 

//i»to/'2/.— Lavandula Vera grows in the dry soils of Southern Europe, 
and flowers in July and August. It is largely cultivated in this country. 
The whole plant is aromatic, but the flowers are the parts used, and 
should be gathered shortly after their appearance, and carefully dried. 
The disease to which this plant is subject can only be prevented by not 
allowing them to grow too closely together. 

Froperties and Uses. — It is a tonic, stimulant, and carminative, useful 
mostly in diseases of the nervous system. 

LEVER-WOOD (Astrya Virginica). * 

CoM^iON Names. Iron-wood.^ Jlop-liornheam. 

Medicinal Part. The inner wood. 

Description. — This small tree of from twenty-five to thirty feet in 
height is remarkable for its fine, naiTow, brownish bark. The wood ia 
white, hard, and strong ; leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate, serrate, and 
Bomewhat downy. Flowers, fertile and sterile, green, and appear with 
the leaves. 

History. — The inner wood and bark are the parts in which reside the 
curative virtues, and the latter, which are immense, readily yield to 
water. The tree flowers in April and May, and is common to the Uni- 
ted States. The bark and wood should be gathered in August or Sep- 

Properties and Uses. — Lever-wood is anti-periodic, tonic, and altera- 
tive. It is very good in cases of intermittent fever, neuralgia, nervous 
debihty, scrofula, and dyspepsia. It is sometimes administered, with 
fair success, as a remedy for fever and ague. 

i^ose.— Decoction, one or two fluid ounces, three or four times a day. 

LIFE-ROOT (Senecio Aureus). 

Common Names. Squaw-weed, Ragwort, False Valerian, Golden 
Senecio, and Female Regulatm: 

Medicinal Parts. The root and herb. 

Description.— Li£e-ioot has an erect, smoothish stem, one or two feet 


high. Radical leaves are simple and rounded, mostly cordate and 
long petioled, lower cawluie leaves lyrate, upper ones few, dentate and 
eessile. Flowers golden-yeUow. 

History. — The plant is perennial and indigenous, growing on low 
marshy grounds, and on the banks of creeks. The northern and west- 
em parts of Europe are where it is mostly found, and the flowers culmi- 
nate in May and June. The root and herb are the parts employed for 
medical purposes. There are several varieties of this plant, but as aJl 
possess the same medicinal properties, it is unnecessary to specify them. 
The whole herb is used of aU the varieties. 

Properties and Uses. — It is diuretic, pectoral, diaphoretic, and tonic, 
and exerts a very powerful and peculiar influence upon the reproductive 
organs of females. This has given it the name of Feumle Regulator. 
Combined with the Lily, and other native and foreign plants, it is one 
of the most certain cures in the world for aggravated cases of leucor- 
rhcea ; also in cases of menstrual suppression. It will operate exceUently 
in gravel, and other urinary affections. 

Dose. — Ordinary decoction, four ounces. 

LILT (Meadow) (Lilixjm Candidum). 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Bescriiitlon. — The thick stem of this plant is from three to four feet 
high, and arises from a perennial bulb or root. Leaves scattered, lan- 
ceolate, and narrowed at the base. Flowers are large, snow-white, and 
smooth inside. 

History. — The Meadow LUy is an exotic. It is a native of Syria and 
Asia Minor. The flowers are regarded as being very beautiful, but are 
not used for medical purposes. The plant is principally cultivated for 
the flowers. The bulb is the part used for its curative properties. 
Water extracts its virtues. 

Froperties and Uses. — It is mucilaginous, demulcent, tonic, and 
astringent. It is chosen by some of our best botanical practitioners as a 
certain remedy for leucorrhoea and falling of the womb, and for those 
affections, when combined with Life-Root and other herbal preparations, 
is without an equal. Sometimes the recent root is used to advantage 
in dropsy. Boiled in milk, it is also useful for ulcers, inflammations, 
fever-sores, etc. I use it in combination with other indicated plants as 
an injection in leucorrhoea, with very gratifying success. 

LION'S FOOT (Nabulus Albus). 

CoMiioN Names. WJtite Lettuce., Rattle-snake Root. 

Medicinal Part. The plant. 

Description. — This indigenous perennial herb has a smooth stem, stout 



and purplish, from two to four feet high. Radical leaves angular- 
hastate, caiiline ones lanceolate, and all irregularly dentate. 

History. — This jilant grows plentifully in moist woods and in rich soils, 
from New England to Iowa, and from Canada to Carolina. The root, 
leaves, and juice of the jslant are employed. 

Properties and Uses.— A decoction of the root taken internally will 
operate most favorably in cases of dysentery. The milky juice of the 
plant is taken internally, while the leaves, steeped in water, are applied 
as a poultice (and frequently changed) for the bite of a serpent. 

LOBELIA (Lobelia Inplata). 
Common Names. Indian Tobacco, Wild 'Tobacco. 
Medicinal Parts. The leaves and seeds 

Description. — Lobelia is an annual or biennial indigenous plant, with 
a fibrous root, and an erect, angular, very hairy stem, from six inches to 
three feet in height. The leaves are alternate, 
ovate-lanceolate, serrate, veiny, and hairy ; flow- 
ers small, niimerous, pale-blue ; fruit a two-celled 
ovoid cajisule, containing numerous small- brown 

History. — Lobelia flowers from July to Novem- 
ber, and grows in nearly all parts of the United 
States, in fields, woods, and meadows. The whole 
plant is active, and the stalks are used indiscrimi- 
nately with the leaves by those who are best ac- 
quainted with its properties. The root is sup- 
posed to be more energ-etic, medicinally, than any 
other part of the plant. The proper time for 
gathering is from the last of JiUy to the middle 
of October. The plant should be dried in the 
shade, and then be preserved in packages or cov- 
ered vessels, more especially if it be reduced to 
powder. It was used in domestic practice by the 
people of New England long before the time of 
Samuel Thompson, its assumed discoverer. 

Properties and Uses. — Administered internally it is emetic, nauseant, 
expectorant, relaxant, sedative, anti-spasmodic, and secondarily cathar- 
tic, diaphoretic, and astringent. It is extensively used to subdue 
epasms, and will give relief in epilepsy, tetanus, cramps, hysteria, cho- 
rea, and convulsions ; but it is merely a temporary relief when admin- 
istered internally, and if not used with great skill and caution in that 
way, may do as much harm as good. Applied externally, in the form 
of an ointment, combined with healing and soothing barks and roots, it 
is decidedly the best counter-irritant known to mankind. In this shape 



its equal has never been discovered, and probably never will be. Tliia 
is one of the ingredients of the "Herbal Ointment," a full desciiption 
of which will be found on page 469 of this work. There are any num- 
ber of ofEcinal preparations of LobeUa, but it is the opinion of the au- 
thor that its chief value consists in being made into an ointment, with 
other rare and potent ingredients. There is nothing in nature that can 
favorably compare with it in this form. In other shapes it may be use- 
ful ; but it is also dangerous unless given with care. 

LOTJSEWORT (Gerardia Pedicularia). 

Common Names. Fever-weed^ American Foxgloiie, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The herb. 

Descriptwn. — The stem of this plant is bushy, tail, two or three feet 
in height. The leaves are numerous, opposite, ovate-lanceolate ; flow- 
ers large, yellow, and trumpet-shaped ; calyx five-cleft, corolla yellow, 
and fruit a two-celled capsule. 

History. — This most elegant plant grows in dry copses, pine ridges, 
and barren woods and mouutauis, from Canada to Georgia, flower- 
ing in August and Sei^tember. "Water or alcohol extracts its virtues. 

Properties aud Uses. — It is diaphoretic, antiseptic, and sedative. 
Used principally in febrile and inflammatory diseases ; a warm infusion 
produces a free and copious perspiration in a short time. Very valuable 
in ephemeral fever. 

Dose. — Of the infusion, from one to three fluid ounces. 

LinSTGWORT (PuLMONARiA Officinalis). 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Description. — This rough plant has a stem about one foot high. The 
radical leaves ovate, cordate ; cauline one, ovate and sessile. Flowers, 
blue ; calyx, five-angled ; corolla, f unnel-shai3ed ; stigma, emarginate ; 
and the fruit a roundish, obtuse achenium. (See Illustration, page 16.) 

History. — Lungwort is a herbaceous perennial, growing in Europe and 
this country in northern latitudes. In Europe it is a rough-leaved 
plant, but in this country the entire plant is smooth, which exhibits the 
pecuhar cUmatic influence. It is showy, and freely cultivated. It 
flowers in May. The leaves are used for medical purposes. They are 
vrithout any particular odor. Water extracts their properties. 

Properties and Uses. — It is demulcent and mucilaginous, and in de- 
coction very useful in bleeding from the lungs, and bronchial and catar- 
rhal affections, and other disorders of the respiratory organs. Its virtues 
seem to be entirely expended upon the lungs, and it is certainly an effica- 
cious remedial agent for all morbid conditions of those organs. It ia an 
ingredient in the " Acacian Balsam," see page 469. 



Medichstal Part. The root. 

Description. — This plant has a perennial, long, cylindrical root, about 
the thickness of a quill, and deep reddish-brown. It has several herba- 
ceous, brittle stems. The leaves are from four to six in a whorl, lanceo- 
late, mucronate, two or three inches long, and about one-third as wide. 
Flowers small and yellow. 

History. — Madder is a native of the Mediterranean and Southern 
European countries. The drug is chiefly imported from Holland and 
France. The root is collected in the third year of the plant, when it is 
freed from its outer coveiing and dried. It is valued as a dye-stuff for 
its red and purple. 

Properties and Uses. — It is sometimes used to promote the menstrual 
and ui-inary discharges, but is not in very great favor. Combined in a 
preparation with other ingredients, it is of some considerable remedial 

Dose. — Thirty grains, three or four times a day. If used frequently, 
it will color the bones red. 

MAD-DOG WEED (Alisma Plaj^tago). 

Common Name. Water Plantain. * 

Medicinal Part. The leaoes. 

DescHption. — This perennial herb has all radical, oval, oblong, or 
lanceolate leaves, from four to six inches in length, on long radical 
petioles. The flowers are small and white, and the fruit a three-cor- 
nered achenium. 

Ilistory. — It inhabits the North American continent as well as Europe, 
grows in watery places, and flowers in July. 

Properties and Uses. — It was once considered a cajjital remedy for 
hydrophobia, hence its name ; but experience has demonstrated that aa 
a cure for this horrible infliction it is impotent. In urinary diseases 
and alfections, an infusion of the leaves, which must be dried and pow-. 
dered, is very efficacious. 

Dose. — Of the infusion above mentioned, from four to six fluid ounces, 
three or four times a day. The fresh leaves, when bruised, form a very 
good but mild counter-irritant. 

MAIDENHAIR (Adi^vntum Pedatum). 

Medicinal Part. The herb. 

Description. — This is a most delicate and graceful fern, growing from 
twelve to fifteen inches high, with a slender, poUshed stalk. Frond 
pedate, wdth pinnate branches. 

Ilistory. — Maidenhair is perennial, and grows throughout the United 


States in deep woods, on moist, rich soil. The leaves are bitterish and 
somewhat aromatic, and part with their virtues upon being immersed in 
boUing water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is refrigerant, expectorant, tonic, and sub- 
astringent. A decoction of the plant is most gratefully cooling in f ebrUe 
diseases, and it is a great benefit ia coughs, catarrh, hoarseness, iufluenza, 
asthma, pleurisy, etc. The decoction, or syrup, can be used freely. 

MAGNOLIA (Magnolia Glauca). 

Common NAMEa WJdte Bay, Beaver-tree, Sweet Magnolia, Swamp 
Sassafras, etc. 

Medicestal Part. TJie bark. 

Description. — This tree varies in height from six to thirty feet, being 
taller in the South than in the North. The leaves are alternate, petioled, 
entire, and of elliptical shape. The flowers are large and solitary'-, and 
of grateftd odor. The fruit is a cone. 

History .—'Y.\iQ therapeutical virtues of these trees are found in the 
bark and fruit. The bark of both the trunk and the root is employed. 
The odor is aromatic, and the taste bitterish, warm, and pungent. It is 
gathered during the sirring and summer. It has smooth and ash-colored 
bark, elegant, odoriferous, cream-colored flowers, and can be found in 
morasses from Massachusetts to the Gulf of Mexico. It flowers from 
May to August. There are other varieties which do not require especial 
mention or description. 

Properties and Uses. — The bark is an aromatic, tonic bitter, and is 
also anti-periodic. It is used much in the stead of cinchona, and will 
remedy the intermittent fevers when cinchona has failed. It is used 
frequently as a substitute for Peruvian Bark, as it can be continued for 
a longer time and with more safety. Properly prepared it may be used 
as a substitute for tobacco, and will break the habit of tobacco-chewing. 

Dose. — In powder, half -drachm or drachm doses, five or six times a 
day. The infusion is taken in wineglassful doses, five or six times a 
day. The tincture, made by adding two ounces of the cones to a pint 
of brandy, will be found beneficial in dyspejisia and chronic rheumatism. 

MALLOW (Common) (Malva Stlvestris). 

Common Name. High-mallow. 

Medicinal Part. The Herb. 

Descnption. — This plant is a perennial, and has a round stem two or 
three feet high, and a tapering, branching, whitish root. The leaves 
are alternate, deep green, soft, and downy. The flowers are large, 
numerous, and of purple color ; calyx five-cleft ; petals five ; stamens 
indefinite ; poUen large, whitish. 

History. — The mallow is a native of Europe, but is naturalized in this 



country. It grows abundantly in fields, waysides, and waste places, and 
flowers from May to October. The whole plant, especially the root, 
abounds in mucilage. 

Pnypcrties and Uses. — It possesses the properties common to mucila- 
ginous herbs, and an infusion thereof forms an excellent demulcent in 
coughs, irritations of the air-passages, flux, affections of the kidney and 
bladder, etc. In iaflanimatoiy conditions of the external parts, the 
bruised herb forms an excellent application, making, as it does, a natural 
emollient cataplasm. 

Malva Eotundifolta, or Low-mallow, called by children, who are 
fond of eatiQg the fruit, cheeses, possesses similar qualities. 

MAIiifDRAKE (PoDOPnYLLUM Peltatum). 

CosfMON Names. May-Apple, Wild Lemon, Raccoon-berry, Wild 
Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This plant, which is illustrated by a cut, is an iadigenous 
perennial herb, with a jointed, dark-brown root, about half the size of 

the finger, very fibrous, and internally 
yellow. The stem is simple, r»und, 
smooth, erect, about a foot high, di- 
viding at the top into two petioles, 
from three to six inches long, each 
supporting a leaf. The leaves are large, 
palmate, oftener cordate, smooth, yel- 
lo\Hsh-gTeen on top, paler beneath. 
The flower is solitary in the fork of 
the stem, large, white, and somewhat 
fragrant. The fruit is fleshy, of a 
lemon color, and in flavor resembles 
the strawberry. 

There is another plant called man- 
drake, but which is the Atrapa Man- 
dragoim, a plant belonging to the 
night-shade I'amUy. The cut I give 
of this plant is quite tnithfial. It is 
not used in medicine. It inhabits the 
shores of the Mediterranean, and found 
lurking in dark woods, in the gloomy thickets on the banks of sluggish 
rivers. It is fetid, poisonous, and repulsive. Even its golden fruit has 
this nauseous odor. How, then, came it ever to usurp its dominion over 
men ? Its strong narcotic powers may have had some influence ; but 
the peculiar form of its root, in which the resemblance of the human 




shape, as will be observed, is quite apparent, probably led to its use in 

In popular belief, it became invested with half -human attributes ; and 
cries and groans attested its pain when torn from the ground. Gathered 
w^th peculiar rites under the 
shadow of a gallows, it caused 
money to multiply, but death 
overtook the daririg searcher for 
mandrake who committed an 
error in the ritual. There is 
nothing new under the sun, and 
as no small number of the old- 
time magical effects are renewed 
imder new names, our book may 
reach some spot where the man- 
drake has been brought forward 
by some new schemer, and play 
its part in deluding the sUIy. 

History. — The Mandrake is 
foimd throughout the United 
States, in low, shady situations, 
rich woods, and fields, and flow- 
ers in May and June. The fruit 
matures in September and Octo- 
ber. It is scarcer in New England than elsewhere. The Indians were 
well acquainted with the virtues of this plant. The proper time for 
collecting the root is in the latter part of October or early part of 
November, soon after the fruit has ripened. Its active principle is 
Podophyllin, which acts upon the liver in the same manner, but far 
superior to mercury, and with intelligent physicians it has dethroned 
that noxious mineral as a cholagogue. 

Properties and Uses. — Mandrake is cathartic, emetic, alterative, an- 
thelmintic, hydragogne, and sialagogue. It is an active and certain 
cathartic. As a deobstruent it has no superior, acting through and upon 
all the tissues of the system, and its action continues for a long time. 
In bilious and tyjihoid febrile diseases it is very valuable as an emeto- 
cathartic, break ng up the disease quickly. In chronic liver diseases it 
has no equal in the whole range of medicine. It can also be used as an 
alterative. In constipation it acts upon the bowels without disposing 
them to subsequent costiveness. It is also very beneficial in uterine 
diseases, and its oflfice as a great remedj' is extensive. It is one of the 
ingredients of my ' ' Renovating Pill. " See page 469. 

JJose. — Of the powdered root, as a cathartic, from ten to thirty grains ; 
of the tincture, from ten to forty drops. 

Atropa Mandragora. 



MATICO (Piper Angustifolitjm). 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Description. — This is a tall shrub, presenting a singular appearance 
from its pointed stem and branches. The leaves are harsh, short- 
stalked, oblong -lanceolate, and acuminate. Flowers her- 

History. — This plant grows at Huanaco and elsewhere 
in Peru. The dried leaves are the parts used, and have a 
strong fragrant odor, and a warm, aromatic taste. They 
contain a dark-green resin, chlorophyll, brown and yellow 
coloring matter, gum, nitrate of potassa, maticine, a vola- 
tile oil, salts, and lignin. The plant has long been used 
by the Indians of Peru in venereal diseases, but mostly 
for diseases of the mucous membranes, over which it has 
a complete mastery. Having been emijloyed as a me- 
chanical agent to stanch blood by a soldier, it has received 
the name of Soldiers' Herb. 

Properties and Uses.- — Matico is an aromatic stimulant. 
It is extremely useful to arrest discharges from m-ucous 
surfaces, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, and catarrh of the blad- 
der. As a topical agent for stanching blood it is excel- 
lent, and is used by surgeons to arrest venous hemorrhage. 
For the above affections Matico serves its office well, but its greatest use 
and efficacy is exhibited in nasal catarrh. It is an absolute specific for 
this disease. I have long employed it — even before it was admitted in 
the various pharmacopoeias — in my special treatment for catarrh, and I 
liave yet to find a case in which it failed. I use it both internally and 
topically, and combine it with such other remedial agents as are sug- 
gested by the character of each individual case. Catarrh (see page 362) 
has long been regarded by the profession as incurable, but in this 
remedy the incontrovertible aphorism that " every disease has its speci- 
fic " is still further exemplified, and human progress will ere long com- 
plete the analogy, if they but investigate the majestic tree, the lowly 
shrub, or creeping herb. 

Matico Leaf. 

MECHAMECK (Convolvulus Panduratus). 

Common Names. WildJalwp.^ Man-in-the- Earth, Man-in-the- Ground, 
Wild Potato. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This has a perennial, very large tapering root, from 
wliich arise several long, round, slender, purjilish stems, from four to 
eight feet high. The leaves are cordate at base, alternate, and acumi- 


nate, and about two or three inches long. Flowers large and white, 
opening ia the forenoon ; fruit an oblong, two-celled capsule. 

History. — Mechameck belongs to the United States, and grows in 
light, sandy soils. It flowers from June to August, but is rarely found 
in northern latitudes. The root is the officinal part. Its best solvent ia 
alcohol or spirits. Water will extract its active properties. 

Properties and Uses. — It is a cathartic if powdered and taken in doses 
of from forty to sixty grains. The infusion, taken in wineglassful doses 
every hour, is useful in dropsy, stranguiy, and calculous affections. It 
seems to exert an influence over the lungs, liver, and kidneys, without 
excessive diuresis or catharsis. The milky juice of the root is said to 
be a protection against the bite of the rattlesnake. 

MEADOW SAFFRON (CoLcnicuM Auttjmnale). 

Medicinal Parts. The cormus and seeds. 

Description. — The connus of this plant is large, ovate, and fleshy. 
The leaves are dark-green, very smooth, obtuse, above a foot long, an 
inch and a half broad, keeled, produced in the spring along with the 
capsules. Flowers several, bright-purple, with a white tube appearing 
in the autumn without the leaves. Fruit a capsule, seeds whitish and 

History. — It grows in meadows and low, rich soils in many parts of 
Europe, and is common in England. The plant is annual or perennial, 
according to the manner in which it is propagated. The root resem- 
bles that of the tulip, and contains a white acrid juice. The bulb should 
be gathered about the beginning of July, and the seeds early in August. 
ColcMcia is the active principle. 

Pi'oj)e7'ties and Uses. — It is sedative, cathartic, diuretic, and emetic. 
Used in gout and gouty rheumatism, dropsy, palpitation of the heart ; 
care should be used in its employment. The tincture is the best form 
of administration, of which the dose is from twenty to sixty drops. 

MONKSHOOD (Aconitum Napellus). 

Common Name. Wolfs-bane. 

Medicinal Parts. Leaves and root. 

Description. — This plant has a small napiform root, and simple, 
straight, erect stems, about five feet high. The leaves are alternate, 
petioled, dark-green above, paler beneath. The flowers are large, deep 
bluish-purple, sometimes white, and hairy ; fruit a capsule. 

History. — This perennial herb is a native of most parts of Europe, 
growing in wooded hills and plains, and is much cultivated in gardens. 
It flowers in May and June. All parts of the plant contain powerfully 
poisonous properties ; but the root is the part most generally employed 
for medical purposes. It yields Aconitina. 


Properties and Uses. — Although Aconite in the hands of the intelli- 
gent physician is of great service, it should not be used in domestic 
practice. In improper doses all preparations of aconite act as an 
energetic acro-narcotic poison. As a sedative and anodyne, it is useful 
in all febrile and inflammatory diseases, and, indeed, in all affections in 
which there is an increase of nervous, vascular, or muscular action. In 
acute rheumatism, pneumonia, peritonitis, gastritis, and many other 
acute disorders, it has been used with the most decided advantage. 
Its action is more especially displayed in the highest grades of fever 
and inflammation. 

Dose. — The best preparation is the alcoholic extract, formed by evapo- 
rating a tincture made of a pound of aconite and a quart of alcohol. 
The dose of this is one-eighth of a grain. 


Medicfnal Part. I'he tcliole plant. 

Description. — This marine plant has a cartilaginous, tufted, dnta,ngled 
frond, with branches marked indistinctly with transverse streaks. The 
lower part is dirty -yellow, the branches more or less purple. * 

History. — It is found growing on the Mediterranean coast, and es- 
pecially on the Island of Corsica. It is cartilaginous in consistence, is 
of a dull and reddish-brown color, has a bitter, salt, and nauseous taste, 
but its odor is rather pleasant. Water dissolves its active principles. 

Pro])crties and Uses. — It is an excellent anthelmintic. The influence 
it exercises upon the economy is entirely inappreciable, but it acts 
very powerfully on intestinal worms. Dr. Johnson says : "It destroys 
any worms domiciliating in the bowels as effectually as choke -dam2)3 
would destroy the life of a miner." This excellent vermifuge plant is 
one of the ingredients of my Male Fern Vermifuge, see page 4r>9. 

Dose. — From ten to sixty grains, mixed with molasses or syrup, or in 

The Fucus Vesiculosis, Sea-wrack., or Bladder Fucus, possesses an- 
alogovis properties. 

MOTHERWORT (Leonurus Cardiaca). 

Medicinal Parts. The tojis and leaves. 

Description. — This perennial plant has stems from two to live feet in 
height. The leaves are opposite, dark-green, rough, and downy. The 
flowers are purplish or whitish-red ; calyx, rigid and bristly ; corolla, 
purplish ; anthers in pairs, and fruit an oblong achenium. 

History. — Motherwort is an exotic plant, but extensively introduced 
into the United States, growing in fields iuid pastures, and flowering 
from May to September. It has a peculiar, aromatic, not disagreeable 


odor, and a slightly aromatic bitter taste. It yields its properties to 
water and alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — It is antispasmodic, emmenagogue, nervine, and 
laxative. In amenorrhoea from colds it is excellent, if given in warm 
infusion. It is very useful in hysteria, nervous complaints, pains pecu- 
liar to females, delirium tremens, wakefulness, liver affections, etc., etc. 
It is a very valuable remedy for many purposes, and deserves greater 
attention than it receives. 

JJose. — Decoction, two to four ounces ; extract, three to six graios. 

MULLEIN (Verbascum Thapsus). 

Medicinal Parts. The leaves and flowers. 

Description. — This biennial plant has a straight, tall, stout, woolly, 
Bimple stem. The leaves are alternate, oblong, acute, and rough on both 
Bides. The flowers are of a golden-yellow color ; calyx, five-parted ; 
corolla, five-lobed ; stamens, five ; and fruit, a capsule or pod. 

History. — Mullein is common in the United States, but was undoubt- 
edly introduced from Europe. It grows in recent clearings, slovenly 
fields, and along the side of roads, flowering from June to August. 
The leaves and the flowers are the parts used. They have a faint, 
rather pleasant odor, and a somewhat bitterish, albuminous taste, and 
yield their virtues to boiling water. 

Properties and Uses.- — It is demtdcent, diuretic, anodyne, and anti- 
Bpasmodic, the infusion being usefiU in coughs, catarrh, bleeding from 
the mouth or lungs, diarrhoea, dysentery, and piles. It may be boiled in 
milk, sweetened, and rendered more palatable by aromatics, for internal 
use, especially bowel complaints. A fomentation of the leaves in hot 
vinegar and water forms an excellent local application for inflamed 
piles, ulcers, and tumors, mumps, acute inflammation of the tonsils, 
malignant sore throat, etc. A handful of them may be also placed in 
an old teapot, with hot water, and the steam be inhaled through the 
spout, in the same complaints. 

MYERH (Balsamodendron Myrrha). 

Medicinal Part. T7ie resinous exudation. 

Description. — This plant has a shrubby, arborescent stem, epinescent 
branches, a very pale gray bark, and yellowish-white wood. The leaves 
are temate, on short petioles ; leaflets, obovate ; flowers, unknown. 

History. — The Myrrh-tree grows in Arabia, and in the regions between 
Abyssinia and the Red Sea. The juice flows naturally, like cherry-tree 
gum, upon the bark. At first it is soft and pale yeUow. but by drying 
becomes hard, darker and redder, and forms the medicinal Gum Myrrli. 
It is readily powdered, and has a peculiar, agreeable, balsamic odor, 
azid a bitter, aromatic, not unpleasant taste. 



Properties and VseJi. — It is a stimulant of the mucous tissues, and 
used to promote exijectoration, as well as menstruation ; and is highly 
useful in enfeebled conditions of the body, excessive mucous secretion, 
chronic catarrh, leucorrhoca, etc. Also in larj'ngitis, bronchitis, humoral 
asthma, and other diseases of the air-tubes, accompanied with profuse 
secretion, but expelled with difficulty. It is valuable in suppressed 
menses and cases of anajmia ; also as a local application to indolent 
sores, gangrenous ulcers, aphthous or sloughy sore throat, spongy and 
ulcerated condition of the gum, caries of the teeth, etc. 

Dose. — In powder and j^Ul, ten to thirty grains ; of the tincture, from 
half to two teasijoonfuls. 


Common Name. Prairie Hyssop. 

Medicinal Part. The plant. 

Description. — This pubescent plant has a simple stem, gro-v^ong from 
one to two feet high. The leaves are sessile, entire, and linear ; flow- 
ers are white, and fruit an achenium. 

History. — It is found in low grounds, dry hUls, and plains, from Ohio 
and Illinois extending southward, and llowering in July and Aiigust. 
The whole plant is used, and has the taste and odor peculiar to the*mint 

Properties and Uses. — It is diaphoretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, 
carminative, and tonic. A warm infusion is very useful in puerperal, 
remittent, and other forms of fever, coughs, colds, catarrhs, etc. , and is 
also of much benefit in spasmodic diseases, especially colic, cramp of the 
stomach, and spasms of infants. The cold infusion is a good tonic and 
stimulant during convalescence from exhausting diseases. It forms a 
most certain remedy for catarrh when combined with other native and 
foreign herbs and roots. 

Dose. — From one to four fluid ounces of the warm or cold infusion, 
several times a day. 

The P. Pilosvm, P. Aristatum or Wild Basil, and P. Incanum, have 
similar properties. 

NETTLE (Urtica Dioca). 

Common Name. Great Stinging JVettle. 

MEDiciNAii Parts. Tfie root and leaves. 

Description. — This is a i)erennial, herbaceous, dull-green plant, armed 
with small prickles, which emit an acrid fluid when pressed. The stem 
is from two to four feet high ; root creeping and branching. The leaves 
are opposite, cordate, hxnce-ovato, and conspicuously acuminate. Flow- 
ers are small and green. 

History . — The Common Nettle is well known both in America and in 


Europe, and grows in waste places, beside hedges and in gardens, flow- 
ering from June to September. The leaves and root are the parts iised. 
The prickles of the Common Nettle contain Formic Acid. The youji» 
shoots have been boiled and eaten as a remedy for scurA'j-. 

Projyerties and Uses. — It is astringent, tonic, and diuretic. In decoc- 
tion they are valuable in diarrhoea, dysentery, and piles ; also in hemor- 
rhages, scorbutic and febrile affections, gi-avel, and other nephritic com- 
plaints. The leaves of the fresh Common Nettle stimulate, inflame, 
and raise blisters upon those portions of the skin to which they may be 
applied, and they have, as a natural consequence, often been used as a 
powerfid rubefacient. They are also an excellent styjitic, checking the 
flow of blood from surfaces almost immediately upon their application. 
The seeds and flowers are given in wine for agues. 

Dose. — Of the poivdered root or leaves, from twenty to forty grains ; 
of the decoction, from two to four fluid ounces. 

Urtica Urens, or Dioarf Nettle., possesses similar qualities, and is 
very efficacious in uterine hemorrhage. 

Urtica Pamila, Cool-weed, Rich-weed, or Stingless Nettle, has also 
active properties. It gives reUef in inflammations, painful sweUings, 
erysipelas, and the topical poison of rhus. 

NET LEAF PLANTAIN (Goodyera Pubescens). 

Common Names. Scrofula-weed, Addefs Violet, Rattle-snake Leaf, 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

DescHption. — The scape or stem of this plant is from eight to twelve 
inches high, springing from a perennial root. The leaves are radical, 
ovate, and dark green. The flowers are white, numerous, and pubes 

History. — This herb grows in various parts of the United States, in 
rich woods and under evergreens, and is commoner southward than 
northward, although there is a variety ( Ooodyera Repens) which is plen- 
tiful in colder regions of America. It bears yellowish-white flowers in 
July and August. The leaves are the parts employed, and yield their 
virtues to boiling water. 

Properties and Uses.— It is anti-scrofulous, and is kno^^m to have cured 
severe cases of scrofula. The fresh leaves are steeped in milk and ap- 
I^lied to scrofulous iilcers as a poultice, or the bruised leaves may be laid 
on them, and in either case they must be removed every three hoiu-s ; 
at the same time an infusion must be taken as freely as the stomach wfll 
aUow. It is also good as a wash in scrofiUous ophthalmia. In my opin- 
ion scrofula is one of the most obstinate and many-shaped afflictions 
to which the human race is subjected, but in the production of this and 


other native and foreign plants, nature lias shown her great charity 
and kindness towards us. 

NIGHTSHADE (Garden) (Solanum NrGRu>i). 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Description. — This is a fetid, narcotic, bushy herb, with a fibrous 
root, and an erect, branching, thornless stem, one or two feet high. 
Leaves are ovate, dentated, smooth, and the margins have the appear- 
ance as if gnawed by insects. Flowers white or pale-violet ; fruit, a 

History. — This plant is also called Deadly Nightshade, but is not to 
be confounded with Belladonna. It is found growing along old walls, 
fences, and in gardens, in various jtarts of the United States, flowering 
in July and August. The leaves yield their virtues to water and alcohol. 

Praperticx and Uses. — It is a narcotic and sedative, producing, when 
given in large doses, sickness and vertigo. One to three grains of the 
leaves, infused in water, will produce a copious perspiration and purge 
on the day following. They have been freely used in cancer, scurvy, 
and scrofulous affections, in the form of an ointment. Very small 
doses are taken internally. These should always be prescribed^ and 
their efiEects watched by a physician. It is better to use the plant only 
in the form of an ointment. The berries are poisonous, and will pro- 
duce torpor, insensibility, and death. 

NORWAY PINE (Abies Excelsa). 

Medicinal Part. The concrete juice. 

Dtscriptiou. — This is a large tree, often having a diameter exceeding 
four feet, and attaining an altitude of one hundred and forty feet. 
Leaves are short, scattered, mucronate, dark-green, and glossy above. 

Jli.stor//. — It is an inhabitant of Germany, Russia, and Norway, and 
other northern parts of Europe, as well as of Asia. It affords the Frank- 
incense of commerce, which, when boiled in water and strained, forms 
the officinal Buryundy Pitch. 

PrvpertieK and Uses. — Burgundy Pitch is generally used externally 
to produce a redness of the surface, with a slight serous exhalation. It 
is employed as a counter- irritant in chronic diseases of the lungs, 
stomach, intestines, etc , and is regarded with favor as a local applica- 
tion in rheumatic affections. 

NUX VOMICA (Stuyciinos Nux Vomica). 

Medicinal Part. The seeds. 

Descnption. — This is a moderate-sized tree, with a short and pretty 



Nux Vomica. 

thick trunk. The wood is white, hard, and bitter. The leaves are op- 
posite, oval, and smooth on both sides. 
Flowers small, greenish-white, funnel- 
shaped, and have a disagreeable odor. 
The fruit is a berry, round, and about 
the size of a large apple, enclosing five 
whitish seeds. 

History. — It is an inhabitant of Cor- 
omandel, Ceylon, and other parts of 
the East Indies. The active princi- 
ples of the seeds are strychnine and 

Properties and Uses. — It is an ener- 
getic poison, exerting its influence 
chiefly upon the cerebro-spinal system. It is supposed to affect the 
spuial cord principally. It is a favorite medicine for paralysis and ner- 
vous debility generally. If a poisonous dose is given it will produce 
spasms like tetanus or lock-jaw. It is tonic, and increases the action 
of various excretory organs. Where want of nervous energy exists it is 
an admirable remedy. Its range of service is quite extensive, and valu- 
able for many indications ; but as great caution is required in its ad- 
ministration, it should only be employed by the educated physician. 

OAK — White, Red, and Black (Quercus Alba, Rubra, and 


Medicestal Part. The bark. 

Descri'pti<jn. — These forest-trees vary in size, according to the climate 
and soil. In diameter they are from three to six feet ; in height, from 
sixty to a hundred feet. They are too well known to require any botan- 
ical description. 

History. — Quercus is a very extensive and valuable genus, consisting 
of many species, a large proportion of which grow in the United States. 
Their usual character is that of astrmgent, and the three above described 
are those which have been more particularly employed in medicine. The 
bark of the tree is the portion used. White oak bark is the one chiefly 
used in medicine. It is of a pale brownish color, faintly odorous, very 
astringent, with a slight bitterness, tough, breaking with a stringy or 
fibrous fracture, and not readily powdered. It contains a very large 
proportion of tannic acid. Black oak bark is also used as an astringent 
externally, but is rarely employed internally, as it is liable to derange 
the bowels. It is also used in tanning and for dyeing. Red oak bark 
also contains considerable tannin, and is chiefly applied extemafly m the 
treatment of cancers, indolent ulcers, etc. 

Propertici, and Uses. — The bark is slightly tonic, powerfully astrin- 
0' I 


gent, and antiseptic. It is useful internally in chronic diarrhoea, chronic 
mucous discharges, passive hemorrhages, and wherever an internal as- 
tringent is required. In colliquative sweats the decoction is usually 
combined with lime-water. The gargle and injection are extensively 
used for sore throat, whites, piles, etc. A bath of the decoction is often 
advantageous in cutaneous diseases, but should only be used when or- 
dered by a physician. 

Dose. — Of the decoction, one or two fluid ounces ; of the extract, from 
five to twenty grains. 

QUERCUS INFECTORIA, or Dyers' Oak, is a small shrub, which fur- 
nishes the morbid excrescences, Galls, which, or the gallic acid obtained 
from them, may be used wherever an astringent is called for. 

OLD MAN'S BEAED (CnioNANTuus Virginica). 

Common Names. Fringe Tree, Poison Ash. 

Medicinal Part. Bark of the root. 

Description. — This is a shrub or small tree, growing from eight to 
twenty-five feet high. The leaves are opposite, oval, oblong, veiny, and 
smooth ; flowers are in dense panicles ; calyx very small ; corolla snow- 
white, consisting of four petals ; and fruit a fleshy, oval, purple dinipe. 

History. — This plant is very ornamental, and is much cultivated in 
gardens, from Pennsylvania to Tennessee. It grows on river-banks and 
on elevated places, presenting clusters of snow-white flowers in May 
and June. The bark of the root, which imparts its properties to water 
or alcohol, is the part used. 

Projierties and Uses.— The bark is aperient, alterative, and diuretic, 
with some narcotic properties. An infusion is recommended for bilious, 
typhoid, and intermittent fevers. To convalescents who are suflfering 
from the effects of exhaustive diseases it is an excellent tonic and re- 
storative. It can be used to advantage as a poultice for ulcers, wounds, 
and external inflammations. 

Dose. — Of the infusion, from the half a fluid ounce to two fluid oimces, 
repeated several times through the day, according to the influence it ex- 
erts upon the system. 

OLD FIELD BALSAM (Gnaphalium Polycepiialum). 

Common Names. Indian Posy, Sweet-scented Life Everlasting, 
White Balsam, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The herb. 

Descrijition.— This, indigenous herbaceous aunud has an erect, whitish, 
woolly, and much branched stem, one or two feet high. The leaves are al- 
temato, sessile, lanceolate, acute, and entire ; flowers tubular and yellow. 

Ilistory.— Old Field Balsam is foimd in Canada and various parts of 
the United States, growing in old fields and on dry barren lands, flower- 


ing' in Jtdy and Augnst. The leaves have a pleasant, aromatic smell, 
and are the parts used. They readily yield their properties to water. 

Properties and Uses. — It is an astringent. Ulcerations of the mouth 
and throat are relieved by chewing the leaves and blossoms. In fevers 
a warm infusion is found to be very serviceable ; also in quinsy, and 
pulmonary and bronchial complaints. It is also valuable, in infusion, 
for diseases of the bowels and hemorrhages ; and the leaves, applied to 
bruises, indolent tumors, and other local affections, are very eflBcacious. 

Antemaria Margabitacea, or Pearl-floicered Life Everlasting, a 
perennial, possesses similar medicinal qualities. 

OPIUM (Papaver Somnifertjm). 

Common Name, Popjiy. 

Medicinal Part. Concrete juice of unripe capside. 

Deso'iption. — An annixal herb, with an erect, rovmd, green, smooth 
stem, from two to four feet high. Leaves large, oblong, green ; margins 
wavy, incised, and toothed ; teeth sometimes tipped with a rigid hair. 
Flowers large, calyx smooth, and the fruit a large, smooth, globose cap- 
sule. There are two varieties, the black and lohite. 

History. — A native of Asia and Egypt. It grows apparently wild in 
some parts of Europe and in England, but has escaped the gardens. 
Cultivated in Asia Minor, EgyjDt, Persia, and India, for the opium ob- 
tained from it. The white variety is cultivated on the plains of India, 
and the black in the Himalayas. Its virtues have been known to the 
ancients ; for Homer speaks of the poppy gi'owing in gardens. Poppy 
capsules contain a small quantity of the principles found in opium, and 
the effect is similar, but much weaker than it possesses. They are used 
medicinally ; but opium is almost universally used. 

Properties and Uses. — Opium is a narcotic and stimulant, acting 
under various circumstances as a sedative, antispasmodic, febrifuge, 
and diaphoretic. It is anodyne, and extensively used for that purpose. 
It contains many active principles, morphia and codeia being, however, 
the most important. There is no herbal medicine more extensively 
used, as well as abused, than Opium, and though a valuable remedy, its 
indiscriminate use is pernicious, as it is capable of doing great harm. 
Laudanum and paregoric are the forms mostly used in domestic prac- 
tice, but the "soothing syrups" and "carminatives" found in every 
nursery and household all contain Cpium in some form, and work a 
great deal of mischief. 

Dose. — Opium, one grain; laudanum, twenty drops ; paregoric, a tea- 


PAPOOSE ROOT (Caulophyllum TnALiCTROiDEs). 

Common Navies. Blue Cohosh, Squaio Root, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This is a smooth, glaucous plant, pui-ple when young', 
with a high, round stem, one to three feet hij;h. Leaves bitemate or 
tritemate, leaflets oval, petiolate, pale beneath, and from two to three 
inches long. The flowers appear in May or June. 

History.- — It is a handsome perennial plant, growing in all parts of 
the United States, near running streams, and in low, moist, rich 
grounds ; also in swamps and on islands. The seeds, which ripen in 
August, make a decoction which closely resembles coffee. The berries 
are dry and rather mawkish. Its active principle is Ca ulopthyllin. 

Properties and Uses. — It is principally used as an enimenagogue, 
parturient, and antispasmodic. It also possesses diuretic, diaphoretic, 
and anthelmintic properties. It is employed in rheumatism, colic, 
cramiis, hiccough,, hysteria, uterine inflammation, etc. It is a 
valuable remedy in all chronic uterine diseases, but should be given in 
combination with such other remedies as the case requires. 

Dose. — Of the decoction, from two to four fluid ounces, three or four 
times a day. 

PAREIRA BRAVA (Cissampelos Pareira). 

Common Names. Velcct Leaf, Ice Vine. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Descriftion. — This jjlant is a shrub, with a round woody root and 
smooth stems. Leaves roundish, peltate, subcordate, and smooth 
above when full grown. Flowers sfeaU, and the fruit a scarlet, round, 
reniform, shi-ivelled berry. 

History. — This is a native of the West India Islands and the Spanish 
Main. It is sometimes imported under the name of abut a or butua 
root. It comes in cylindrical pieces, sometimes flattened, and some as 
thick as a child's arm, and a foot or more in length. The alkaloid 
obtained from it has been called Cissampelin, or Pelosin. 

Properties and Uses. — Tonic, diuretic, and aperient. Used in chronic 
inflammation of the bladder, and various disorders of the urinary 
organs. It is also serviceable in leucorrhoca and gonorrhoea. It ia 
highly beneficial in calculous affections, rheumatism, and jaundice. 

Z'ose.— Of the infusion, one to four ounces; extract, ten to twenty 

PARSLEY (Petroselinum Sativum). 
Medicinai- P.vrt. The root. 
Description. — This biennial plant has a fleshy, spindle-shaped root 


and an erect, smooth, branching stem. The radical leaves are biter- 
nate, bright green, and on long petioles ; leaflets wedge-shaped. Flow- 
ers white or greenish, and petals rounded and barely emargtnate. 

History. — Although Parsley is reared in all parts of the civilized 
world as a culinary vegetable, it is a native of Europe. The root is the 
officinal part. From the seeds French chemists have succeeded ia ob- 
taining an essential oU, named Apiol^ which has proved to be a good 
substitute for quinia in intermittent fevers, and for ergot as a partu- 

Projxrties and Uses. — It is diuretic, and very excellent in dropsy, 
especially that following scarlatina and other exanthematous diseases. 
It is also frequently used to remedy retention of urine, strangury, and 
gonorrhoea. The seeds are sometimes used as carminatives. They kill 
vermin in the head. The leaves, bruised, are a good application for 
contusions, swelled breasts, and enlarged glands. The bruised leaves 
applied to the breasts are iised by wet-nurses to " dry up " the milk. 

Dose. — Of the oil, for diuretic purposes, three or four drops a day ; of 
the infusion, two to four fluid ounces, three or four times a day. 

PARTRIDGE BERRY (Mitchella Repens). 

Common Names. One Berry, Checkerberry, Winter Clover, Deer- 
herry, Sgiiaw-vine, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The vine. 

Description.- — This indigenous evergreen herb has a perennial root, 
from which arises a smooth and creeping stem. The leaves are ovate, 
slightly cordate, opposite, flat and dark-green ; flowers are white, often 
tinged with red, in pairs, very fragrant, and have united ovaries. Calyx 
four-parted ; corolla funnel-shaped ; stamens four, inserted on the co- 
rolla. The fruit is a dry berry-like double drupe. 

History. — Partridge Berry is indigenous to the United States. It 
grows both in dry woods and swampy places, and flowers in June and 
Jtdy. The berry is bright scarlet and edible, but nearly tasteless. The 
leaves, which look something like clover, remain green throughout the 
winter. The whole plant is used, readily imparting its virtues to alcohol 
or boiling water. 

Properties and Uses. — Partridge Berry is parturient (producing or 
promoting child-birth, or labor), diuretic, and astringent. In all uterine 
diseases it is highly beneficial. The Indian women use it for weeks 
before confinement, in order to render parturition safe and easy. Ladies 
who wish to use it for that purpose, however, should consult an herbal 
physician of experience for a proper, safe, and effectual preparation. 
The remedy is exclusively American, not being used, or even noticed, by 
European practitioners. 

Dose. — Of a strong decoction, from two to four fluid ounces, three or 


four times a day. The berries are good for dysentery. They are also 
highly spoken of as a cure for sore nipples. The application for the 
nipples is made by boiling a strong decoction of the leaves down to a 
thick liquid, and then adding cream to it. It is not. however, equal to 
the Herbal Ointment, for an account of which see page 4G9. 

PENNYROYAL (Hedeoma Pulegioides). 

Common Names. Tickweed, Squmc7nmt, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The herb. 

Desenption. — This is an indigenous annvial plant, with a fibrous, yel- 
lowish root, and an erect, branching stem, from six to twelve inches 
high. The leaves are half an inch or more long, opposite, oblong, and 
on short petioles ; floral leaves similar. The flowers are quite smaU and 
light-blue in color. 

Hutory. — This plant should not be confounded with the Mentha pule- 
gioides^ or European Pennyroyal. It grows in barren woods and dry 
fields, and particiilarly in limestone countries, flowering from June to 
September and October, rendering the air fragrant to some distance 
around it. It is common to nearly all parts of the United States. It is 
said to be very obnoxious to fleas. « 

Properties and Uses. — It is stimulant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, and 
carminative. The warm infusion, used freely, will promote perspira- 
tion, restore suppressed lochia or after-flow, and excite the menstrual 
discharge when recently checked. It is very much used by females for 
this last purpose — a large draught being taken at bedtime, the feet being 
previously bathed in hot water. 

PEONY (P^oNiA Officinalis). 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — Peony has many thick, long-spreading, perennial roots, 
running deep into the groimd, with an erect, herbaceous, large, green, 
and branching stem, about two or three feet high. The leaves are large ; 
leaflets ovate-lanceolate and smooth. The flowers are large, red, and 
solitary ; and fruit a many-seeded, fleshy follicle. 

History. — This plant is indigenous to Southern Europe, and is culti- 
vated in gardens in the United States and elsewhere, on account of the 
elegance of its large flowers, which appear from May to August. The 
root is the officinal part. This, with the seeds and flowers, yields its 
virtues to diluted spirits. 

Proj^ei'ties and [fseji. — It is antispasmodic and tonic, and can be ad- 
vantageously employed in chorea, epilepsy, spasias, and various nervous 
affections. An infusion of value is made by adding an ounce of the root, 
in coarse powder, to a i)int of a boiling liquid, composed of one part of 
good gin and two parts of water. 




-Two or three fluid otmces (sweetened), three or four times a 

PERUVIAN BALSAJVI (Mykospermum Pertiiferttm). 

Medicinal Part. The bakamic exudation. 

Description. — The tree from which this is procured is large, with ,i 
thick, straight, smooth tnuxk, and a coarse, gray, compact, heavy, gran- 
ulated bark. The bark is of a pale straw color, filled with resin, which, 
according to its quantity, changes the color to citron, yellow, red, or dark 
chestnut ; smeU and taste grateful, balsamic, and aromatic. The leaves 
are pinnate ; leaflets alternate, oblong or ovate, acuminate, and emar- 
ginate. The flowers are in axillaiy racemes, and the fruit is a pendu- 
lous, straw-colored samara. 

Ilist(yry. — The tree is common to the forests of Peru, and flowers 
from July to October. The natives call it Quinquino. It contains a 
large amount of balsamic juice, which yields copiously when the bark is 
incised. Balsam of Peru, in thin layers, has a dark, reddish-brown 
color ; in bulk it is black, or of the color of molasses. The natives steep 
the fruit in rum, caU the liquid balsamito^ and use it largely for medical 

Properties and Uses. — It is expectorant and stimulant, acting especially 
on mucous tissues. Its reparative action on the lungs in consumption is 
decided, removing the secretions, healing the ulcers, and expelling the 
tuberculous matter. In all chronic diseases of the lungs and bronchial 
tubes it is without a superior. Externally it can be applied to old ulcers, 
wounds, ringworm, etc. 

This valuable remedy is one of the ingredients of my 
" Acacian Balsam," wherein it is properly combined 
with many other valuable associates. 

PINEHOOT (Sptgelia Marilandica). 

Common Names. Carolina Pink or Worm Grass. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This herbaceous, indigenous plant has 
a perennial, very fibrous, yellow root, which sends up 
several erect, smooth stems of purplish color, from six 
to twenty inches high. The leaves are opposite, ses- 
sile, ovate-lanceolate, acute, or acuminate, entire, and 
smooth. Flowers few in number and club-shaped. 
Fruit a double capsule. 

History. — It inhabits the Southern States, and is 
seldom found north of the Potomac. It was used by 
the Indians as an anthelmintic before the discoveiy of 
America, and was formerly collected for the market by the Creeks and 




Cherokees in the northern part of Georgia, but since their removal the 
supply comes from the far Southwest. 

Properties and Uses. — It is an active and certain vermifuge, especially 
among children. Given alone it is very apt to produce various unpleas- 
ant symptoms, increased action of the heart, dizziness, etc. I extract 
from the root a resinous principle, to which I have given the name of 
Spigeliin, which has all of the virtues of the root, but does not produce 
any derangement. I employ the Spigeliin in my " Male Fern Vernu- 
fuge." See page 469. 


Common Names. Wintergreen, Princess Pine, Ground HoUy, etc. 
Medicinal Part. The wlwle plant. 

Dencription. — This is a small evergreen, nearly herbaceous, perennial 
herb, with a creeping rhizome, from which spring several erect stems, 

woody at their base, and from four to 
eight inches high. The leaves are from 
two to three inches long, on short petioles, 
and of dark green-color, paler below. 
The flowers are of light-purple color, 
and exhale a fragrant odor. The pbllen 
is white, and the fruit is an erect five- 
celled capsule. 

History. — This plant is indigenous to 
the north temperate regions of both 
hemispheres, and is met with in dry, 
shady woods, flowering from May to 
August. The leaves have no odor when 
dried, but when fresh and rubbed they 
are rather fragrant. Boiling water or 
alcohol extracts their virtues. They con- 
tain resin, gum, lignin, and saline sub- 

Properties and Uses. — ^It is diuretic, tonic, alterative, and astringent. 
It is rspecially useful in scrofula and chronic rheumatism. In diseases 
of the kidneys and dropsy it exerts a decided cvirative power. In uri- 
nary diseases it is preferable to uva ursi, on account of being less obnox- 
ious to the stomach. In dropsy it cannot be so well depended upou 
without the use of Bome more active measures in combination with it. 


PLEURISY ROOT (Asclepias Tuuerosa). 

Co.MMON Names. Butterfly-iceed, Wind-root, Tubei'-root. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

J)e»eripti<m. — This plant has a perennial, large, fleshy, white, fusiform 



Pleurisy Root. 

root, from which numerous stems arise, growing from one to three feet 
high, which are more or less erect, round, hairy, green or red, and grow- 
ing in bimches from the root. The leaves are alternate, lanceolate, 
hairy, dark green above, and paler beneath. 
The flowers are numerous, erect, and of a 
beautifully bright orange color. The fruit 
is a long, narrow, green follicle. Seeds are 
ovate, and terminate in long silken hairs. 

History.— It is a native of the United 
States, more particularly of the Southern 
States, inhabiting gravelly and sandy soils, 
and flowering in July and August. The 
root is the medicinal part. When fresh 
it has a disagreeable, slightly acrimonious 
taste, but when dried the taste is slightly 
bitter. Boiling water extracts its virtues. 
Asdepin is the active principle. 

Properties and Uses. — Pleurisy Root is much used in decoction or 
infusion, for the purpose of promoting perspiration and expectoration 
in diseases of the respiratory organs, especially pleurisy, inflamma- 
tion of the lungs, catarrhal affections, consumption, etc. It is like- 
wise carminative, tonic, diuretic, and antispasmodic, but does not 
stimulate. Acute rheumatism, fever, dysentery, etc., are benefited 
by a free use of the warm infusion. It is also highly efiBcacious in 
some cases of dyspepsia. In uterine difficulties it has also been 
found of great value. Its chief use, however, is in bronchial and 
pulmonary complaints, and it serves its indications in these com- 
plaints most admirably. It is one of the ingredients of my Acacian 
Balsam. See page 469. 

Dose. — Of the powder, twenty to sixty grains, three or four times a 
day. Of a strong tincture, one or two wineglasses full four or five 
times a day, until perspiration is produced. 

POKE (Phytolacca Decandra). 

Common Names. Pigeon-berry^ Oarget., Scoke., Coakum, etc. 

Medicinal Parts. The root., leaves, and berries. 

Description. — This indigenous plant has a perennial root of large 
size, frequently exceeding a man's leg in diameter, fleshy, fibrous, easily 
cut or broken, and covered with a thin brownish bark. The stems are 
annual, about an inch in diameter, round, smooth, when young green, 
and grow from five to nine feet in height. The leaves are scattered, 
petiolate, smooth on both sides, and about five inches loug and three 
broad. The flowers are numerous, small, and greenish-white in oolor ; 
and the berries are round, dark-purple, and in long clusters. 



History. — This plant is common in many parts of the country, grow- 
ing in dry fields, hillsides, and roadsides, and flowering in July and 
August. It is also found in Europe and northern parts of Africa. The 
leaves should be gathered just previous to the ripening of the berries. 
The berries are collected when fidly matured. Phytolacciii is its active 

Properties and Uses. — Poke is emetic, cathartic, alterative, and shghtly 
narcotic. The root excites the whole glandular system, and is very use- 
ful in syphilitic, scrofixlous, rheumatic, and cutaneous diseases. It is 
an excellent remedy for the removal of mercurio-syphilitic affections. 
Very few, if any, of the alteratives have superior power to Poke, if it 
is properly gathered and prepared for medicinal use. It is an ingre- 
dient in my " Blood Purifier," which will be found fully described on 
page 469. 

POMEGRANATE (PuNiCA Granatibi). 

MEDicrNAL Parts. The rind of the fruit, and bark of the root. 
Description. — This is a small tree or shrub. The leaves are opposite, 
entire, smooth, and two or three inches long. The flowers are large, 
red, two or three, and nearly sessile. Calyx five-cleft, corolla consists 
of five much crumpled petals. The fruit is a large pericarp,* quite 
pleasant in flavor, and quite watery. 

Jlistory. — The Pomegranate is Asiatic, but has been naturalized in 
the West Indies and the Southern States. 

Properties and Uses. — The flowers and rind of 
the fruit are astringent, and are used for the ar- 
rest of mucous discharges, hemorrhages, night- 
sweats, and diarrhoea accompanying consumption. 
They are also very good for intermittent fever and 
tape-worm. The bark of the root is used as a 
sijecific for tape-worm, but its chief virtues are 
healing and balsamic, if taken for ulcerations of 
the lungs. 

Dose. — The dose of the rind or flowers in powder 
is from one to two scruples, and in decoction from 
one to three fluid ounces. 

PRICKLY ASH (Xanthoxylum Fraxineum). 

Common Names. Yellow-wood, Toothache-buf<h, 

Medicinal Parts. The bark and berrien. 

Description. — This indigenous shrub has a stem 
ten or twelve feet high, with alternate branches, which are armed 
with strong conical prickles. The leaves are alternate and pinnate, 

Prickly Anh. 


leaflets ovate and acute. The flowers are small, greenish, and appear 
before the leaves. The fruit is an oval capsule, varying from green 
to red in color. 

IIMory. — It is a native of North America, growing from Canada to 
Virginia, and west to the Mississippi, in woods, thickets, and on river 
banks, and flowering in April and May. The medicinal parts render 
their virtues to water and alcohol. Xanthoxyline is its active principle. 

Properties and Uses. — Prickly Ash is stimulant, tonic, alterative, 
and sialagogTie. It is used as a stimulant in languid states of the 
system, and as a sialagogue in paralysis of the tongue and mouth. 
It is highly beneficial in chronic rheumatism, colic, syphilis, hepatic 
derangements, and wherever a stimulating alterative is required. 
Dose of the powder, from ten to thirty grains, three times a day. The 
berries are stimulant, carminative, and antispasmodic, acting especially 
on the mucous tissues. 

The Aralia Spinosa., or Southern Prickly Ash, differs from Xanthoxy- 
lum, both iu botanical character and medicinal virtues. 


Common Names. Privy, Prim, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The leaves. 

Description. — This is a smooth shrub, growing five or six feet high. 
The leaves are dark-green, one or two inches iu length, about half as 
wide, entire, smooth, lanceolate, and on short petioles. The flowers 
are smaU, white, and numerous, and fruit a spherical black berry. In 
England the Privet is earned up with many slender branches to a rea- 
sonable height and breadth, to cover arbors, bowers, and banqueting 
houses, and brought or wrought into many fantastic forms, as birds, 
men, horses. 

History. — It is supposed to have been introduced into 1 irica from 
England, but it is indigenous to Missouri, and found growing in wild 
woods and thickets from New England to Virginia and Ohio. It is also 
cultivated in American gardens. The leaves are used for medicinal 
purjioses. They have but little odor, and an agreeable bitterish and 
astringent taste. They yield their virtues to water or alcohol. The 
berries are reputed cathartic, and the bark is said to be as effectual as 
the leaves, as it contams sugar, mannite, starch, bitter resin, bitter 
extractive, albumen, salts, and a peculiar substance called Lignstrin. 

Properties and Uses. — The leaves are astringent. A decoction of 
them is valuable in chronic bowel complaints, ulcerations of stomach 
and bowels, or as a gargle for ulcers of mouth and throat. It is also 
good as an injection for ulcerated ears with ofl:ensive discharges, leu- 
corrhffia, etc. This ingredient I use in a wash for leucorrhoea, which 
never fails to cure. 


DoM. — Of the powdered leaves thirty io sixty grains, three times a 
day ; of the decoction two to four teacupfuls. 


Common Names. Bitter-wood^ Bitter-ash. 

Medicinal Part. The icood. 

I)escrij)tion. — This is a tree growing from fifty to one hundred feet 
high, with an erect stem, three or more feet in diameter at the stem. 
The bark is grayish and smooth. The leaves are alternate, unequally 
pinnate ; leaflets opposite, oblong, acuminate, and unequal at the 
base. Flowers are small, pale or yellowish-green. Fruit three drupes, 
about the size of a pea. The Quassia Ataara, or bitter quassia, is a 
shrub, or moderately-sized branching tree, having a grayish bark. 

History. — Quassia Amara inhabits Surinam, Guiana, Colombia, Pan- 
ama, and the West India Islands. It flowers in November and Decem- 
ber. The bark, wood, and root, which are intensely bitter, are used 
to the greatest advantage in malignant fevers. For the medicinal parts 
of this tree, as they seldom reach England or America, we get as a 
substitute the Picrwna Excelsa of Jamaica and other neighbor^hg isl- 
ands, which flowers in October and November, and in the two siicceed- 
ing months matures its fruit. 

Properties and Uses. — Quassia is tonic, febrifuge, and anthelmintic. 
Cups made of the wood have been used for many years by persons re- 
quiring a powerful tonic. Any Hquid standing in one of these vessels 
a few moments will become thoroughly impregnated by its peculiar 
medicinal qualities. Wherever a bitter tonic is required, Quassia is an 
excellent remedy. 

Dose. — Of the powder, thirty grains ; of the infusion, from one to 
three fluid ounces ; of the tincture, one or two fluid drachms, and of 
the extract, from two to ten grains. 

QUEEN OF THE MEADOW (Ecpatorium PuRruiiEUM). 

Common Names. Gravel-root, Joe-jne, Trumpet-iceed. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This is a herbaceous plant, with a perennial, woody 
root, with many long dark-brown fibres, sendmg up one or more solid 
green, sometimes purplish, stems, five or six feet in height. The leaves 
are oblong-ovate or lanceolate, coarselj' serrate, and from three to six 
in a whorl. The flowers arc tubular, purple, often varying to whitish. 

History. — Queen of the Meadow grows in low places, dry woods or 
meadows, in the Northern, Western, and Middle States of the American 
Union, and flowers in August and September. The root is the officinal 
part. It has a smell resembling old hay, and a slightly bitter, aromatic 


taste, which is faintly astringent but not unpleasant. It j-ielda its 
properties to water by decoction or spirits. 

Properties and Uses. — It is diiiretic, stimulant, astringent, and tonic. 
It is used in aU chronic urinary disorders, as well as in hematuria, gout, 
and rheumatism, with moderate good effect. 

Dose. — Of the decoction, from two to four fluid ounces, three or four 
timee a day. 

RAGGED CUP (Silphium Perfoliatum). 

Common Name. Indian Cwp-iilant. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Uescription. — This plant has a perennial, horizontal, pitted rhizome, 
and a large smooth herbaceous stem, from four to seven feet high. The 
leaves are opposite, ovate, from eight to fourteen inches long by four 
to seven wide. The flowers are yellowish, and the fruit a broadly 
ovate winged achenium. 

History. — This plant is common to the Western States, and is found 
growing in rich bottoms, bearing numerous yellow flowers, which are 
perfected in August. It has a large, long, and crooked root, which is 
the part used medicinally, and which readily imparts its properties to 
alcohol or water. It wiU yield a bitterish gum, somewhat simUar to 
frankincense, which is frequently used to sweeten the breath. 

Properties and Uses. — It is tonic, diaphoretic, and alterative. A 
strong infusion of the root, made by long steejjing, or an extract, ls 
said to be one of the best remedies for the removal of ague-cake, or en- 
larged spleen. It is also useful in intermittent and remittent fevers, 
internal bruises, debility, ulcers, liver affections, and as a general alter- 
ative restorative. The gum is said to be stimulant and antispasmodic. 
The spleen is an organ whose functions the very best of the old-school 
physicians cannot define ; but that it is the seat of very many most dis- 
tressing diseases is a fact which not one of them will pretend to deny. 
It is, as nearly as can be ascertained by the most laborious research, a 
dependent of the hver and stomach, and what deranges it deranges 
both the stomach and the liver. 

SiLPHiUM Gummiperum, or Rosin-weed, and Silphium Lacini- 
atum, or Compass-weed, are used in intermittent fever, and are bene- 
ficial in dry, obstinate coughs. They often cure the heaves in horses. 

RATTLE BUSH (Baptisia Tinctoria). 

Common Names. Wild Indigo, Horsefly Weed. 

Medicinal Part. T7u- bark of the root and leaves. 

Description. — The blackish and wood root of this perennial plant 
sends up a stem which is very much branched, round, smooth, and from 
two to three feet high. The leaves are small and alternate, leaflets 


rounded at their extremity ; calyx four- cleft, and fruit a sliort> bluish- 
black legume. 

Histary. — This small shrub grows in dry places in many parts of the 
United States, and bears bright yellow flowers ia July and August. 
The fruit is of a bluish-black color in the form of an oblong pod, and 
contains iadigo, tannin, an acid, and baptisin. Any portion of the 
plant, when dried, yields a blue dye, which is, however, not equal in 
value to iadigo. If the shoots are used after they acquire a green color 
they will cause drastic purgation. Alcohol or water wUl take up the 
active properties of this plant. Medicinally, both the root and the 
leaves are valuable, and deserve to be better known than they are at 
present as remedial agents. The virtues of the root reside chiefly in 
the bark. 

Properties and Uses. — It is purgative, emetic, astringent, and anti- 
septic. For its antiseptic qualities or properties it is more highly 
esteemed than for any other. A decoction of the bark of the root is 
eflBcacious ia the cure of all kinds of external sores and ulcerations. It 
is used in decoction or syrup, for scarlatiaa, typhus, and aU oases where 
there is a tendency to putrescency. As a fomentation it is very, useful 
in ulcers, tumors, sore nipples, etc. , and may be so used if you tcannot 
get a superior remedy, as the Herbal Ointment. 

Done. — Of the decoction, one tablespoonful every two or four hours, 
as required. The decoction is made by boiling one oimce of the pow- 
dered bark ia two pints of water until they are reduced to one pint. 

RED RASPBERRY (Rubus Strigosus.) 

Medicenal Parts. TJie bark of the root, and leaves. 

Description. — This is a shrubby, strongly hispid plant, about four feet 
high. Leaves, pinnate ; leaflets, oblong-ovate. Flowers, white ; co- 
rolla, cup-shaped ; and fruit, a red berry, of a rich deUcious flavor. 

History. — The Red Raspberry grows wild, and is common to Canada 
and the Northern and Jliddle United States. It grows in hedges and 
thickets, and upon neglected fields. It flowers in May, and its fruit 
ripens from June to August. The leaves and bark of the root are the 
parts used medicinally. They impart their properties to water, giving 
to the infusion an odor and flavor somewhat similar to black tea. 

Properties and Uses. — It is very useful as an astringent. An infusion 
or decoction of the leaves has been found an excellent remedy in diar- 
rhoea, dysentery, and cholera infantum, and all diseases of a kindred 
nature. It is somewhat freely used as a wash and injection for leucor- 
rhcea, gleet, gonorrhcea, and prolapsus uteri and ani. The decoction of 
the leaves combined with cream will suppress nausea and vomiting. It 
is sometimes used as an aid in labor, and has been efficacious in promot- 


ing uterine contractions when ergot has failed. This plant is one of tho 
ingredients of my prepared remedy for the above diseases. 

Dose. — Of the decoction, from one to f oiu- fluid ounces, several times 
a day. Of the pulverized root bark, which is sometimes used, from 
twenty to thirty grains. 

The liubvs Tncialij^, or Dcirberry, and Rubiis ViUosus, or Blackberry, 
contain similar medical qualities, and may be used instead. 

RED ROOT (Ceanothus Americanus). 

Common N.\3ies. Nmo Joi-scy Tea, VTild Snow-baM. 

Medicenal Part. The bark of the root. 

Description. — This plant has a large root ^vith a red or brownish bark, 
tolerably thick, and body of dai'k-red color. The stems are from two 
to four feet high, slender, with many reddish, round, smooth branches. 
The leaves are ovate or oblong-ovate, serrate, acuminate, rather smooth 
above, and cordate at the base. The flowers are minute and white, and 
fruit a dry capsule. 

History. — This plant is very abundant in the United States, especially 
in the western portions thereof. It grows in dry woodlands, bowers, 
etc. , and flowers from June to Augrist. The leaves are sometimes used 
as a substitute for Chinese tea, which, when dried, they much resemble. 
The root, which is officinal, contains a large amount of Prussic acid. 
Ceanothine is the name that has been given to its active principle. 

Properties and Uses. — Red Root is astringent, expectorant, sedative, 
anti-spasmodic, and anti-sj-philitic. It is used %vith great good efifect in 
dysentery, asthma, chronic bronchitis, whooping-cough, and consump- 
tion. It is also successfully used as a gargle in aphthse of children, 
Bore mouth subsequent to fevers, and sore throats. 

Dose. — Of decoction, one tablespoonful three times a day. 

RHATANY (Krameria Triaxdri.\). 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — The root of this jilant is horizontal, very long, with a 
thick bark. The stem is round and procumbent, branches two or three 
feet long ; when young, white and silky ; when old, dark and naked. 
The leaves are alternate, sessile, oblong and obovate, hoary and entire. 
The flowers are red on short stalks. Calyx has four sepals, and corolla 
four petals. The fruit is a dry, hairy drupe. 

JLstory. — Rhatany flowers all the year round, and grows upon the 
sandy, diy, and gravelly hills of Peru. The root is the part, 
and is dug up iu lai-ge quantities after the rains. It was made officinal 
in 1780 by Ruiz, but long before that the natives had used it as a strong 


astringent for various diseases, afflictions, maladies, and complaints 
In Portugal, to which the Peruvians send the bulk of the roots gathered, 
it is used to adulterate red wines. The best method of extracting the 
medicinal qualities of the root, is to put it powdered in a displacer and 
pass water through. This will bring a brick-red aqueous solution, 
which will embrace all the medicinal virtues. There is a false Rhatany, 
the source of which is unknown. 

Properties and Uses. — It is a powerful astringent, and sUghtly tonic. 
It is beneficial wherever powerful astringents are required, and may be 
used to advantage, if properly prepared, for all diseases which call fot 
the application of a decided astringent. 

RHEUaiATISM ROOT (Jeffeksonia Dephylla). 

Common Names. Twin-leaf, Ground-Sqtdrrel Pea. 

MEDicrNAL Part. The root. 

Descriptio?!. — This plant is perennial, and has a horizontal rhizoma or 
fleshy root, with matted fibrous radicles. The stem is simple, naked, 
one-flowered, and from eight to fourteen inches in height. The leaves 
are in pairs, broader than long, ending in an obtuse point, smooth and 
petioled ; flowers, large and white ; and fruit an obovate capsule. 

History. — This plant is found from New York to Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, and in many parts of the Western States. It grows chiefly in 
limestone soU, but also is found in woods and near rivers, irrespective of 
limestone, and flowers in April and May. The root is the part used, 
and its virtues are extracted by water or alcohol. A chemical analysis 
of this plant showed it to contain tannic acid, gum, starch, pectin, fatty 
resin, bitter matter, similar to polygalic acid, carbonate and sulphate of 
potassa, lime, iron, magnesia, silica, etc. 

Projierties and Uses. — It is diuretic, alterative, antispasmodic, and a 
stimulating diaphoretic. It is successfully used in chronic rheumatism, 
secondary or mercurio-syphilis, dropsy, in many nervous affections, 
spasms, cramps, nervous excitability, etc. As a gargle it is useful in 
diseases of the throat. 

Dose. — Of the decoction, from two to four fluid ounces, three or foui 
times a day. Of the saturated tincture, from one to three fluid drachms, 
three times a day. 

RHUBARB (RiiEtJM Palmattim). 

MEnicraAL Paut. The root. 

JJcici'iption. — The scientific world happens to be in much argument 
as to the exact plant or plants from which Rhubarb is produced. It is, 



Rheum Palmatum. 

however, well kno-rni to all instructed herbalists that Rhubarb is the 
root of a Rheum, and that the plant 
from which the drnjj of the shops is 
obtained chiefly inhabits Chinese Tar- 
tary, and grows wild on the mountains 
and highlands of that section of the 
globe. Tliat the truth of its botanical 
identity is not elicited is owing- to a 
severe prohibition of the Chinese gov- 
ernment. Every sacrifice to obtain the 
true plant or the seed has been in vain. 

History. — There are several varieties 
met with in commerce termed the Rus- 
sian, Chinese, English, and French Rhubarb, among which the Russian 
is considered the best. The names are given, not that they are pro- 
duced in indicated countries, but of the channels by which they are 
thrown upon the market. Rhubarb has a peculiar aromatic odor, bit- 
ter, faintly astringent taste, and when chewed tinges the saliva yeUow. 
It contains oxalate of lime in abundance. 

Properties and Uses. — Rhubarb is cathartic, astringent, and tonic ; as 
a cathartic it acts by increasing the muscular action of the bowels 
rather than augmenting their secretions. It is much used as a laxative 
for infants, its mildness and tonic qualities making it peculiarly appli- 
cable. It is a valuable medicine. 

Dose. — Of the powder, as a purgative, from ten to thirty grains. As 
a laxative, from five to ten grains. As a tonic, from one to five grains. 
Of the tincture or syrup, one to two fluid drachms. 

ROSEMARY (Rosmakinus Officinalis). 

MEDicnsTAL Part. The tops. 

Description. — Rosemary is an erect, perennial, evergreen shrub, two 
to four feet high, with numerous branches of an ash color, and densely 
leafy. The leaves are sessile, opposite, and linear, over an inch m 
length, dark-green and shining above, and downy. The flowers are 
few, bright blue or white. Calyx purplish. 

History. — Rosemary is a native of the countries surrounding the 
Mediterranean, and is cultivated in nearly every garden for ite fra- 
grance and beauty. It flowers in April and May. The parts used m 
medicine are the flowering tops. 

Proj)erties and Uses.— li is, stimulant, antispasmodic, and emmena- 
gogue. The oil is principally employed as a perfume for ointments, lini- 
ments, and embrocations. 

Dose. — Of the oil, internally, from three to six drops. 
7 K 


PYROLA (EouND-LEAVED) (Pyrola Rotundifolia), 

Common Names. False Wmtergreen, tSJiin-kaf, Canker- Lettuce^ 
Pear-leaf Wintergreen, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The herb. 

DescHptio-n. — This is alow, perennial, evergreen herb. The leaves axe 
radical, ovate, nearly two inches in diameter, smooth, shining-, and 
thick. The petioles are much longer than the leaf. The flowers are 
many, large, fragi'ant, white, and droopmg. The fruit is a five-celled, 
many-seeded capsule. 

History. — This plant is common in damp and shady woods in various 
parts of the United States, flowering in June and Jiily. The whole plant 
is used, and imparts its medicinal properties to water. 

Properties and Ut!e.i. — It is astringent, diuretic, tonic, and antispas- 
modic. The decoction is much used in all skin diseases, and is good to 
eradicate a scrofulous taint from the system. It is used in injection for 
whites and various diseases of the womb. The herb is applied with 
profit as a poultice to ulcers, swellings, boils, felons, and inflammations. 
The decoction will be found beneficial as a gargle for sore throat and 
mouth, and as a wash for sore or ophthalmic eyes. Administer ii inter- 
nally for gravel, ulceration of the bladder, bloody urine, and other 
urinary diseases ; also, for epilepsy and other nervous affections. 

Pose. — Of the decoction, one fluid ounce, three times a day; of the 
extract, two to four grains. 

SAFFRON (Dyers') (Carthamus Tlnctorius). 

Common Names. Safflowei\ Bastard Saffron. 

Medicinal Part. Thejlowers. 

Pescription. — This annual plant has a smooth, striate stem, from one 
to two feet high, and branching at the top. The leaves are alternate, 
ovate-lanceolate, sessile, smooth, and shining. The flowers arc numer- 
ous, long, slender, and orange-colored. Corolla five-cleft. 

Uistory. — This plant is cultivated in England and America, although 
it is a native of Egypt and the coimtries surrounding the Mediteminean. 
The orange-red florets are the ofiicinal parts. The cultivated Saftlower 
is usually sold in the shops, and contains two coloring matters : the first 
of which is yellow and soluble in water ; the second a beautiful red, 
and readily soluble in alkaline solutions only. 

Pnq>ertics and Uses. — It will restore the menstrual discharge when 
the latter has been recently suppressed by cold, if used in warm infu- 
sion. It will also, when taken in the same form, produce an action of 
the bowels. In measles, scarlet fever, and other eruptive maladies, it is 
also considered an excellent diaphoretic. The seeds are sometimes used 
aa purgative and emmenagoguc, but, in my opinion, are of no great 


value. The infusion is made by iDoiling a drachm or two of the flowers 
in water, and may be taken tolerably freely. 

SAGE (Salvia Officinalis). 

Common Name. Garden Sage. 

Medicinal Part. TJie leaves. 

Description. — Sage is a plant with a pubescent stem, erect branches, 
hoary with down, leafy at the base, about a foot or foot and a half 
long. The leaves are opposite, entire, petioled, ovate-lanceolate, the 
lowermost white, with wool beneath. The flowers are blue and in 

Jlistory. — Sage is a native of Southern Europe, and has been natural- 
ized for very many years in this country as a garden plant. The leaves 
and tops should be carefully gathered and dried during its flowering 
season, which is in June and July. They have a peculiar, strong, aro- 
matic, camphorous odor, and a sharp, wann, shghtly bitter taste, which 
properties are owing to its volatile oil, which may be obtained by distill- 
ing the plant with water. It imparts its virtues to boiling water in infu- 
sion, but more especially to alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — It is feebly tonic, and astringent, expectorant, 
diaphoretic, and having properties common to aromatics. The infusion 
is much valued in cases of gastric debility, checking flatulency with 
speed and certainty. 

The warm infusion will cause active diuresis by checking its diapho- 
retic tendency. It is called by some a most capital remedy for sperma- 
torrhoea, and for excessive venereal desire, and I am one of those who 
know from experience in my practice that it is grand for what is termed 
sexual debility when its use is indicated. The infusion is much used 
as a gargle for inflammation and ulceration of the throat and relaxed 
uvula, either alone or combined with vinegar, honey, or sumach. 

ST. IGNATIUS' BEAN (Ignatius Amara). 

Description. — The Ignatius Amara is a branching tree with long, ta- 
per, smooth, scrambling branches. The leaves are veiny, smooth, and 
a span long. The flowers are long, nodding, and white, and smell Uke 
jasmine. The fruit is small and pear-shaped, and the seeds number 
about twenty, are angular, and are imbedded in a soft pulp. 

History. — The tree is indigenous to the Philippine Islands, and the 
seeds thereof are the St. Ignatius' Bean of the drug-shops. The bean 
yields its properties best to alcohol, but wiU also yield them to water. 
It contains about one-third more strychnia than nux-vomica, but is sel- 
dom used for the production of strychnia on account of its extreme 

Properties and Uses. — Very similar to nux-vomica seeds, but more en- 


crgetic. It is used in nervous debility, amenorrhcBa, chlorosis, epilepsy, 
worms, etc., with partial good effect, but is a dangerous article however 
well prepared, and should be used only by the advice of a professional 
gentleman, upon whose truth and ability you may place the utmost con- 
fidence. It should not be employed in domestic practice. 

Uom. — Of the powdered seed, one grain ; of the alcoholic extract, one- 
eighth of a grain. 

ST. JOHN'S "SVORT (Hypericum Perforatum). 

Medicinal Parts. The tops and flowers. 

Description. — This is a beautiful shrub, and is a great ornament to 
our meadows. It has a hard and woody root, which abides in the 
groiind many years, shooting anew every year. The stalks nin up about 
two feet high, spreading many branches-, having deep-green, ovate, ob- 
tuse, and opposite leaves, which are full of small holes, which are 
plainly seen when the leaf is held up to the light. At the tops of the 
stalks and branches stand yellow flowers of five leaves apiece, with 
many yellow threads in the middle, which, being bruised, yield a red- juice, like blood, after which come small, round heads, whe^-ein is 
contained small blackish seed, smelling like resin. The fruit is a three- 
celled capsule. 

History. — This plant grows abundantly in this country and Europe, 
and proves exceedingly annoying to farmers. It flowers from June to 
August. It has a peculiar terebinthine odor, and a balsamic, bitterish 
taste. It yields its properties to water, alcohol, and ether. 

Properties and Uses. — It is astringent, sedative, and diuretic. It 
suppresses the urine, and is very applicable in chronic urinary affec- 
tions, diarrhoea, dj-sentery, jaundice, monorrhagia, hysteria, nervous 
affections, hemoptysis, and other hemorrhages. Externally, in fomen- 
tation, or used as an ointment, it is serviceable in dispeUing hard tumors, 
caked breasts, bruises, etc. 

Dose. — Of the powder, from half a drachm to two drachms ; infusion, 
one to two oimces. 

SANICLE (Sanicula Marilandica). 

Common Name. Blnck-snake Boot. 

Medicinai^ Part. The root. 

Description. — Sanicle is an indigenous, perennial herb, with a smooth, 
furrowed stem, from one to three feet high. The leaves are digitate, 
mostly radical, and on petioles from six to twelve inches long. Cau- 
line leaves few, and nearly sessile. The flowers are mostly barren, 
white, sometimes yellowish, feilile ones sessile. 

Histortf.—\\, is common to the United States and Canada, and ia 
found Lu low woods and thickets, flowering in June. The fibrous '•oot 


is aromatic in taste and odor. It imparts its virtues to water and 

Properties and Uses. — In its action upon the system it resembles 
valerian very much, possessing nervine and anodyne properties. Do- 
mestically, it is used with advantage in intermittent fevers, sore-throat, 
erysipelas, and cutaneous affections. It is very efficacious in chorea, 
and is very beneficially employed in various nervous affections. 

Dose. — Powder, one drachm ; decoction, from one to four ounces. 


Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — The stem of this plant is twining, angular, and prickly, 
the young shoots being unarmed. The leaves are ovate-oblong, acute, 
cordate, smooth, and about a foot long. The petioles are an inch long, 
bearing tendrils above the base. Botanically, nothing is known of the 
flowers. This plant grows in New Granada,, on the banks of the Magda- 
line, near Bajorque. Great quantities are sent to Mompox and Cartha- 
gena, and from thence to Jamaica and Cadiz. 

The Smilax Syphilitica^ S. Papyracea, S. Medica^ S. China, and S. 
Sarsaparilla are all members of the same family of plants ; their medi- 
cinal qualities are similar, and they form the Sarsaparilla of commerce, 
with the exception of the S. Sarsaparilla, which is native to the Uni- 
ted States, flowering from May to August. The American plant is re- 
garded by some as inert, but why so I do not know. The plant exten- 
sively known in the South as Bamboo Brier, which is but a species of 
Sarsaparilla, certainly possesses medicinal qualities equal, if not superior, 
to commercial Sarsaparilla. Professionally, I employ the Honduras 
Sarsaparilla, which I regard as the best. 

History. — The Sarsaparilla of commerce consists of veiy long roots, 
having a thick bark of a grayish or brownish color. They have scarcely 
any odor, but possess a mucilaginous taste. Those roots that have a 
deep orange tint are the best, and the stronger the acrid and nauseous 
qualities, the better are the properties of the root. Water and alcohol 
extract its medicinal qualities. By chemical analysis it contains sal.'ie- 
parin, a coloring matter, starch, chloride of potassium, an essential oil, 
bassorin, albumen, pectic and acetic acid, and the several salts of lime, 
potassa, magnesia, and oxide of iron. 

Properties and Use^s. — An alterative. When properly prepared it ex- 
erts a favorable change over the system. It has great repute in syphi- 
litic diseases. In several chronic diseases, as of the skin, rheumatic af- 
fections, passive dropsy, etc., it is of service. Its chief use, however, 
is an adjuvant to other alteratives ; its individual properties being too 
feeble to answer all the conditions required of an alterative. 

Dose. —Of the powder, thirty grains ; of the inf itsiou or syrup, four 
fluid ounces. 


SASSAFRAS (Laurus Sassafras). 

Medicinal Part. The bark of the root. 

Description. — This is a small tree, varj'ing in height from ten to forty 
feet. The bark is rough and grayish, that of the twigs smooth and 
green. The leaves are alternate, pctiolate, bright green, very variable 
in form, smooth above and downy beneath. The flowers appear before 
the leaves, are small, greenish-yellow ; fruit an oval succulent drupe. 

History.— Indigenous to North America, and common to the woods 
from Canada to Florida, and flowering in the latter part of April or 
eaxly in May. The bark has an aromatic, agreeable taste, and similar 
odor. It yields its properties to hot water by infusion, and to alcohol. 

Proj^erties and Uses. — It is a warm, aromatic stimulant, alterative, 
diaphoretic, and diuretic. It is much used in alterative compounds as a 
flavoring adjuvant. In domestic practice it enjoys a wid-^ field of appli- 
cation and use, especially as a so-called spring-renovator of the blood. 

SAVORY (Summer) (Satureja Hortensis). 

Medicinal Part. TJie leaves, 

Descrij)tion. — This annual plant has a branching, bushy Btem,»about 
eighteen inches in height, woody at the base, frequently changing to 
purple. The leaves are numerous, small, entire, and acute at the end. 
The flowers ai'e pink-colored. Calyx tubular, corolla bilabiate, sta- 
mens diverging. 

History. — It is a native of the south of France. It is extensively cul- 
tivated for culinary purposes in Europe and America, and flowers in 
July and August. The leaves are the part employed. They have an 
aromatic odor and taste analogous to those of thyme. 

Properties and Uses. — It is a stiniulant, carminative, and emmena- 
gogue. A warm infusion is beneficial in colds, menstrual suppression, 
and wind colic, for which it is a specific. The oil iuserted into the 
<!arious teeth will often relieve the tooth-ache. 

Satureja Montan.\, or Winter Savory.^ possesses similar qualities. 

Dose. — From two to four ounces of the infusion, several times a day. 

SCULL-CAP (Scutellaria Lateriflora). 

Common Names. Blue Scxdl-Cap., Side- Flowering Scidl-Cap, Mad- 
Dorjireed, and Hood-ioort. 

Medicinal Part. The irhole plant. 

DeMription. — Scull-cap has a small, fibrous, yellow, perennial root, 
with an erect and verj' branching stem, from one to three feet iu height. 
The loaves are on petioles about .an inch long, opposite, thin, subcordato 
on the stem, ovate on branches, acuminate, acute, and coarsely serrate. 
The flowers are sir all. and of a pale-bluo color. 


History. — It is an indigenous herb, growing in damp places, meadows, 
ditches, and by the side of ponds, flowering in July and August. The 
whole plant is medicinal, and should be gathered while in flower, dried 
in the shade, and kept in well-closed tin vessels. Chemically it contains 
an essential ofl, a yellowish-green fixed oil, chlorophyU, a volatile mat- 
ter, albumen, an astringent principle, lignin, chloride of soda, salts of 
iron, silica, etc. 

Properties and Uses. — It is a valuable nervine, tonic, and antispasmodic, 
used in chorea, convulsions, fits, delirium tremens, and all nervous af- 
fections, supporting the nerves, quieting and strengthening the system. 
In delirium tremens an infusion drunk freely mil soon produce a calm 
sleep. In aU cases of nervous excitabUity, restlessness, or wakefulness, 
etc. , it exerts beneficial results. 

Dose. — Of the fluid extract, from half to a teaspoonful; of the tinc- 
ture (four ounces scull-cap to a pint oi dUuted alcohol), one to two tea- 
Bpoonfuls ; of the infusion, a wineglassful, three times a day. 


Common Name. Seneca Snake-Soot. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This indigenous plant has a perennial, fii-m, hard, branch- 
ing root, with a thick bark, and sends up several annual stems, which 
are erect, smooth, from eight to fourteen inches high, occasionaUy tinged 
with red. The leaves are alternate, nearly sessile, lanceolate, with a 
sharpish point, smooth ; flowers white ; calyx consists of five sepals, 
corolla of three petals ; and capsules are smaU, two-ceUed and two- 

Histoid . — It is found in various jDarts of the United States, in rocky 
woods and on hUl-sides, flowering in July. It is more abundant in the 
West and South than in the East. The officinal root varies in size from 
two to four or five lines in diameter, crooked, and a carinate line ex- 
tends the whole length of it. Its chemical constituents are polygalic, 
virgineic, pectic, and tannic acids, coloring matter, an oil, cerin, gum, 
albumen, salts of alumina, silica, magnesia, and iron. 

Properties and Uses. — In large doses emetic and cathartic; in ordi- 
nary doses it stimulates the secretions, acting particularly as a siala- 
gogue, expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic, and emmenagogue. In active 
Inflammatory diseases it should not be employed. In protracted pneu- 
monia, commencing stages of croup, humoral asthma, etc. , it is a good 

Dose. — Powder, five to twenty grains ; infusion or syrup, half an ounce 
to two ounces ; polygalic acid, one-fourth to oae-half grain. 



Skunk Cabbage. 

SKUNK CABBAGE (Symplocarpus Fcetidus). 
Common Names. Skunk-weed, Pole-cat weed, Meadow Cabbage. 
Medicinal Parts, llie rooU and seeds. 

Description. — This plant has been a troublesome one for botanists to 
classify ; but the term Si/mplocarpus is now 
generally preferred. It is perennial, having a 
large, abrupt root, or tuber, with numerous 
crowded, lleshy fibres, which extend some dis- 
tance into the ground. The spa the appears 
before the leaves, is ovate, spotted, and striped, 
puiple and yellowish-green, the edges folded 
taward, and at length coalescing. The flowers 
are numerous, of a dull purple within the 
spathe, on a short, oval spadix. Calyx consists 
of four fleshy, wedge-shaped sepals ; coroUa, 
none ; stamens, four ; seeds round and fleshy, 
and about as large as a pea. 

History. — Skunk Cabbage is a native of the 
United States, growing in moist grotmds, flow- 
ering iu March and April, and maturing its*Eruit 
in August and September, forming a rough- 
ened, globular mass, two or three inches ia 
diameter, and shedding its bullet-like fruit, one-third to half an inch in 
diameter, which are filled with a singular solid, fleshy embrj^o. The 
parts used are the seeds and roots, which have an extremely disagree- 
able odor, AVater or alcohol extracts their virtues. Chemically it con- 
tains a fixed oil, wax, starch, volatile oil and fat, salts of lime, sUica, 
iron, and manganese. 

Pri/perties and Uses. — Internally it is a stimulant, exerting expecto- 
rant, antispasmodic, wdth slightly narcotic influences. It is successfully 
•used in asthma, whooping-coiigh, nervous irritability, hjsteria, fits, epi- 
lepsy, convulsions, chronic catarrh, pulmonary and bronchial affections. 
Externally, La the form of an omtment, it aids reparative processes, 
discusses tumors, stimulates granulations, eases pain, etc. It is an in- 
gredient in my world-renowned " Herbal Ointment." (See page 469,) 

Done. — Fluid extract, twenty to eighty drops ; tincture (three ounces 
of root or seed to a pint of alcohol), half a teaspoonful ; syrup (two 
ounces of fluid extract to eight ounces of simple syrup), two or three 

SOAP -WORT (Saponaria Officinalis). 
Common N.^me. Bouncing Bet. 
Mkdicinal Parts. The root and leaceJt. 
Description. — This is a stout perennial, herbaceouB plant, with a stem 


from one to two feet in height. The leaves are lanceolate, smooth : 
flowers are many, large, flesh-colored, or pale-pmk, and often double ; 
fruit an oblong one -celled capsule. 

Ilustory. — This plant grows in roadsides and waste places in Europe 
and the United States. It flowers in the early part of July in Europe, 
but in America in the early part of August. The leaves and root are the 
parts used medicinally. They have a sweet and bitter taste combined, 
' ' with a subsequent persistent pungency and a benumbing sensation. " 
When the root end leaves are subjected to the extractive powers of 
water they yield a residue something like soap-suds. Their active pro- 
perties are brought out by either water or alcohol — by the latter particu- 
larly. The root gives a principle called Supmin^ which is very valuable. 

PnyperUes and Uses. — It is largely and valuably employed in the 
treatment of diseases of the liver, scrofulous, syphilitic, and cutaneous 
afliictions of a severe character ; also catarrh, rheumatism, gonorrhoea, 
whites, and green sickness. Saponin can be prepared only by a com- 
petent herbal chemist. In its absence use decoctions of the leaves and 
roots. Dose of tne decoction, from one to two fluid ounces, three times 
a day. I employ the saponaceous qualities of this plant, which I ex- 
tract from the root by chemical processes in my laboratory, as a con' 
Btituent of my " Renovating Pill." (See page 469.) 

SOLOMON'S SEAL (Convallaria Multiflora). 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — The stem of this plant is smooth, from one to four feet- 
high, and growdng from a perennial root. The leaves are alternate, 
lanceolate, smooth, and glossy above, paler and pubescent beneath; 
flowers greenish-white, and fruit a dark-blue or blackish beiTy. There 
is another variety, the Convallaria Racemosn., the root of which posses- 
ses similar qualities to that of Solomon's Seal. 

History. — Both plants are to be found throughout the United States 
and Canada. They flower from May to August. The root, which is 
the part used, is inodorous, but has a sweetish mucilaginous taste, which 
is followed by a slight sense of bitterness. 

Properties and Uses. — The root is tonic, mucilaginous, and astringent. 
The decoction is successfully used in whites, pectoral affections, meuor- 
rhagia, female debility, inflammation of the stomach and intestines 
erysipelas, neuralgia, itch, local inflammations, etc. Dose of the decoc- 
tion, one to tliree ounces, three times a day. 

SORPtEL (Wood) (Oxalis Acetosella). 

Medicinal Part. The wJtole herh. 

De^scription. — This is a smaU perennial herb, with a creeping and 
scaly-toothed root-stock. The leaves are numerous, radical, and on 




long, weak, hairy stalks ; leaflets broadly obcordate, and of yeUowish- 
gxeen color. Flowers white, yellowish at the base, and scentless. Fruit 
a five-lobed, oblong capsule. 

History. — It is indigenous to Eiirope and this country, growing in 
woody and shady places, and flowering from April to J\ine. It is in- 
odorous, and has a pleasantly acid taste. The acidity is due to oxalic 
acid, which, in combination with jwtassa, forms the binoxolate of that 
alkali. The '■'■Salts of Sorrel" formerly so much used to remove tnk- 
epots and iron-marks from linen, is merely this salt separated from the 

Properties and Uses. — Cooling and diuretic ; useful in febrile diseases, 
hemorrhages, gonorrhoea, chronic catarrh, urinary affections, scurvy, 
etc. Care is to be obseiwed in its use. 

RuMEX AcETOSA, or Garden Sorrel^ RujfEX Acetosella, or She&p 
Soi'rd, and Rumex Vesicarius possess similar qualities. 

SQUIRTING CUCUIMBER (Momordica Elaterium). 

Medicinal Part. 71ie feculence of the juice of tiie fruit. 

Description. — This hispid and glaucous plant has several stems grow- 
ing from the same root. The leaves are cordate, .Some- 
what lobed, and on long stalks. Flowers monoecious and 
yellow. Fruit oblong, obtuse at each end, separating from 
its sialk with violence, and expelling its seeds and mucus 
with considerable force, in consequence of the sudden con- 
traction of the sides. 

History. — This plant is indigenous to the south of Eu- 
rope, growing in poor soils, in waste places, and flowering 
in Jidy. The jitice around the seeds is the officinal part, 
and which, when properly prepared, forms the Elaterium 
of commerce. It must be collected a little before the 
period of ripening. 

Prf/jiertie^s and Uses. — It is an energetic hj^lragogue 
cathai'tic, operating with great violence in doses of a few 
grains, and very apt to cause diffuse inflammation of the 
stomach and bowels, characteiized by vomitiug, gripiug 
pain, and profuse diarrhoea. It is used chiefly in obstin.ate 
dropsy, and as a revulsive in cerebral affections, or wher- 
ever a revcllent effect is desired. Owing to its active 
cathartic properties, it is always best to commence with 
veiy smaU doses, from the uncertainty of tlie preparatioix. 

Dose. — From one-eighth to one-half a giaiii. 


STAK-GRASS (Aletris Farinosa), 

Common Names. Colic-root^ Ague-root^ Crow-corn^ Unicorn root, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This plant has a perennial root, with radical leaves, 
sessile, lying flat on the ground, ribbed, broad, lanceolate, smooth, the 
large ones being about four inches long. The flower-stem is from one 
to three feet high, erect and simple, bearing a bell-shaped flower, which, 
as it grows old, has a wrinkled, mealy appearance. The fruit is a tri- 
angular capsule. 

History. — It is indigenous to North America, growing in low groiLuds, 
Bandy soils, and at the edges of woods. Its flowers are white, and ap- 
pear from May to August. The root is the part used. Alcohol is the 
best solvent. 

Properties and Uses. — Its root, when thoroughly dried, is an intensely 
bitter tonic, and in decoction or tincture is of great utility in dyspep- 
sia, general or local debility, flatulent colic, hysteria, etc. It greatly 
strengthens the female generative organs, affording protection against 
miscaiTiage ; and in chlorosis, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, engorged 
condition of the uterus, prolapsus of that organ, is a very superior vege- 
table agent. 

Dose. — Of the powdered root, from five to ten grains, three times a 
day; of the saturated tincture, five to fifteen drops. 

STILLINGIA (Stillingia Sylvatica). 

Common Names. Queen^s Boot, Queen's Delight, Tawroot, and 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This perennial herb has a glabrous, somewhat angled 
stem, from two to four feet high, which, when broken, gives out a milky 
sap. The leavcH are sessile, somewhat leathery, and tapering at the 
base. The flowers are yellow, and arranged on a temiiaal spike. Fruit 
a three-grained ca^Dsule. 

History. Queen's Root grows in sandy soils, and is a native of the 
southern jjart of the United States. The root is the part used. It 
should be used as soon after being gathered as possible, as age impairs 
its properties. The latter yield to water, but are better extracted by 
diluted alcohol. Its properties appear to be owing to a very acrid oil, 
known as the Oil of Stillingia. 

Froperties and Uses. — In large doses stillingia vomits and purges, ac- 
companied wnth more or less prostration of the system. In less doses 
it is an alterative, exerting an influence over the secretory functions 
vmsui-passed hj any other known alterative. It is very extensively used in 
all the varioiis forms of primary and secondary syphilitic affections ; also 
in scrofulous, heimtic, and cutaneous affections ; also, with combinations 


of anise or caraway, for laryngitis and bronchitis. The oil, unless well 
mcorporated with some mucilaginous or saccharine substance, should 
never be used iaternally. This great alterative is one of the principal 
"sonstituents in my " Blood Puritier." See page 460. 

Dose. — Tincture, half a drachm to a drachm ; decoction, one or two 

STONEROOT (Collinsonia Canadensis). 

Common Names. Hardhack^ Uorscweed., Jleal-aU^ Richweed, Ox- 
balm, etc. 

Medicinal Part. Thejilant. 

Description. — This jilant has a knobby root, and a four-sided stem, 
from one to four feet in height. The leaves are thin, broadly ovate, 
acuminate, coarsely serrate, from six to eight inches long, and from two 
to four broad. Flowers large, corolla greenish-yellow ; stamens two, 
aaid very long ; seeds four, of which two or three are sterile. 

History. — This plant grows in moist woods from Canada to Carolina, 
and flowers from July to September. The whole plant has a strong 
odor and a pungent and spicy taste. The odor of the fresh root is 
slightly disagreeable. The whole plant is generally used, and ha$ its 
value. The chief virtues of the plant are, however, concentrated in* the 
root, which 'should always be used when fresh. Its active principle is 
CoUiiisonin, which name is derived from its discoverer, Peter Colliason. 

Properties and Uses. — It is used with good effect in chronic catarrh 
of the bladder (as are other plants mentioned elsewhere), whites, and 
weak stomach. It exerts a strong influence over all the mucous tissues. 
It is a very fair stimulant, and a gentle tonic and diuretic. The prepa- 
ration caUed CoUinsonin is very valuable as a remedy for hemoiThoids, 
and all other diseases of the rectum, and for such aftlictions I recom- 
mend it highly. It is chiefly used in inveterate and chronic cases. The 
largest dose is five grains ; the average dose two grams. The iofusion 
or decoction of the plant may be moderately used without additional 
remedies, and in some instances so may the ColUnsonin ; but in about 
every case a skilful combination of the latter with other standard prepa- 
rations is necessary to insure easy and speedy restoration to good health. 
Stoneroot is used externally — the leaves particularly — in fomentation 
and poultice, and bruises, wounds, blows, sprains, contusions, cuts, ul- 
cers, sores, etc. I cjmnot call the attention of the reader too strongly to 
the effect the preparation called CoUinsonin has ujion all affections of the 
urinary organs. It should be combined with other indicated remedies. 

SUMACH (Rnus Glabrum). 

Medicinal Parts. The bark and fruit. 

Descriptian. — Sumach is a shrub, from six to fifteen feet high, con- 


Bisting of many straggling' brandies, covered with a pale-gray bark, hav- 
ing occasionally a reddish tint. The leaves are alternate, consist of from 
six to fifteen leaflets, which are lanceolate, acuminate, acutely serrate, 
shining and green above, whitish beneath, becoming red in the fall. 
The flowers are greenish red, and fruit a small red drupe, hanging in 
clusters, with a crimson down, extremely soiu* to the taste, which is due 
to malate of lime. 

History. — Sumach grows in the thickets and waste grounds of Canada 
and the United States. It flowers in June and July, but matures its 
fruit in September and October. The bark and berries are officinal. 
The berri< s should be gathered before rains have washed away the acid 
properties which reside in their external, downy efllorescence. Both 
the bark and berries yield their active influence to water. Great care 
is to be taken in the selection of several species of Rhus, as many of 
them are highly poisonous. 

Properties and Uses. — The berries are refrigerant and diuretic; the 
bark is tonic, astringent, and antiseptic. The bark of the root has 
sometimes been used with success in decoction or syrup as a palliative 
of gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, diarrhoea, hectic fever, dysentery, and scrof- 
ula. Combined with the barks of white pine and slippery elm, in cer- 
tain particular doses of decoction, it will, with other very simple treat- 
ment, cure syphilis. 

Dose. — From one to three fluid ounces of the decoction of bark. Of 
the infusion of berries, from one to four fluid ounces. 

SWAMP BEGGARS' TICK (Bidens Connata). 

Medicinal Parts. The root and seeds. 

Description. — This herb has a smooth stem, from one to three feet 
high. The leaves are lanceolate, opposite, serrate, acuminate, and de- 
current on the petiole. Flowers, terminal ; florets, yeUow ; and fruit, 
a wedge-formed achcnium. 

Ilistoi'y. —This is a common weed, f oiind in wet grounds, rich fields, 
swamps, and ditches, from New England to Missouri. It flowers in Au- 
gust. The root and seeds are employed medicinally, and may be used 
in decoction, infusion, or tincture. 

Pro])erties and Uses. — The root and seeds are emmenagogue and ex- 
pectorant ; the seeds, in powder or tincture, have been used in ame- 
norrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, and some other uterine derangements, and an 
infusion of the root has proved beneficial in severe cough. It has been 
used wdth great success for palpitation of the heart, and for croup. For 
this latter aflliction a strong infusion of the leaves, sweetened with 
honey, and administered in tablespoonful doses every fifteen minutes 
until vomiting is produced, is regarded a cure. The leaves heated to 
the form of a poultice and laid upon the throat and chest in cases of 


bronchial and laryngeal attacks from exposure to cold, etc., are very 

BiDENS BiPiNNATA, or Sjm7m7i JVeedles, and Bidens Frondosa, or 
Beggar Tick, can be employed, medically, the same. 

SWEET GUM (LiQuiDAMBAR Styraciflua). 

Medicinal Part. The concrete juice. 

Bescnption. — The Sweet Gum tree grows to the height of from fifty 
to sixty feet. Its bark is gray and deeply furrowed, and there are corky 
ridges on the branches ; the leaves are palmate, rounded, smooth, and 
shining, fragrant when bruised, and turn a deep red in the fall. Fruit, 
a kind of strobUe. 

History. — This tree is very abundant in the Southern and Middle 
States, and can be found in the moist woods of nearly all parts of the 
Union. From incisions made in the tree a gum exudes which is resin- 
ous and adhesive, and somewhat like white tiu'pentLne in appearance. 

Properties and Uses. — As a remedy for catarrhs, coughs, and pulmo- 
naiy affections generally, it is without an equal, although physicians g^en- 
erally do not use it in their practice. It is also very valuable for fever- 
sores, fistula, scrofula, etc. , when made into an ointment. * 

Dose. — The dose internally is from ten to twenty grains, according to 

TACAIVIAHAC (Popultts Balsamipera). 

Common Name. Balsam Po^ilar. 

Medicinal Part. The buds. 

Bescription. — This tree, also called Tacamahac Poplar, attains the 
height of from fifty to seventy feet, with a trunk about eighteen inches 
in diameter. The branches are smooth, round, and deep brown. The 
leaves arc ovate, gradually tapering, and pointed, deep-green above, and 
smooth on both sides. 

History. — This tree is found in Siberia, and in the northern parts of 
the United States and Canada. In America it is in blossom in AprU. 
The leaf-buds are the officinal part. They should be collected in the 
spring, in order that the fragrant resinoiis matter with which they are 
covered may be properly separated in boiling water, for upon this their 
virtues depend. They have an agreeable, inccnse-like odor, and an un- 
pleasant, taste. The balsamic juice is collected in Canada in 
shells, and sent to Europe under the name of Tacamahaca. Alcohol, or 
spirits, is the proper solvent. The Poptdiis Balsamifera is generally 
confounded with the Populus Candicaiis, from whose buds we get the 
virtues known as the Balm of Gilcad ; but it is much the superior tree 
Jor medical purposes. 

Properties a/ui Uses. — The buds are stimulant, tonic, diuretic, and 


anti-scorbutic. In tincture they have been beneficially employed in 
affections of the stomach and kidneys, and in scurvy and rheumatism. 
Sometimes they are applied in. that form as a remedy for affections of 
the chest. The bark is known to be tonic and cathartic, and wiU prove 
of seivice in gout and rheumatism. 

Dose. — Of a tiucture of the buds, from one to four fluid drachms ; of 
an extract of the bark, five to fifteen grains, three times a day. 

PoPULUS Tremuloides, W/iite Poplar^ or Aspen, the well-known 
tree, furnishes us with Populiii and Salaciii ; and is tonic and febrifuge, 
useful in intemiittents. It has also good diuretic properties, and is 
beneficial in urinary affections, gonorrhoea, gleet, etc. 

TANSY (Tanacetum Vulgare). 

MEDicrNAL Part. The herb. 

Description. — Tansy has a perennial creeping root, and an erect herba- 
ceous stem, one to three feet high. The leaves are smoothish, dark- 
green ; flowers, golden-yellow ; fruit, an achenium. 

nistory. — Indigenous to Europe, but has been introduced iuto this 
country and cultivated by many ; but grows also spontaneously in old 
grounds, along roads, flowering in the latter part of summer. Drying 
impairs much of the activity of the plant. It contains volatile oil, wax, 
stearine, chlorophyll, bitter resin, yellow coloring matter, tannin with 
gaUic acid, bitter extractive gum, and tanacetic acid, which is crystaUi- 
zable and precipitates Hme, baiyta, and oxide of lead. 

Projierties and Uses. — It is tonic, emmenagogue, and diaphoretic. In 
small doses, the cold infusion will be found useful in convalescence from 
exhausting diseases, dyspepsia, hysteria, and jaundice. The warm in- 
fusion is diaphoretic and emmenagogue. It bears a good reputation in 
Buppressed menstruation, but should be used only when the suppression 
is due to morbid causes. 

THYME (Thymus Vulgaris;. 

Medicnal Part. The herb. 

Description. — Thyme is a small undershrub, with numerous erect 
stems, procumbent at base, and from six to ten inches in height. The 
leaves are oblong-ovate, lanceolate, and numerous. The flowers are 
bluish-purple, small, and arranged on leafy whorled spikes. 

History. — A native of Europe, but introduced into this country, and 
extensively cultivated in gardens for culinary purposes. It blossoms in 
the summer, when it should be collected and carefully dried. It has a 
strong, pungent, spicy taste and odor, both of which are retained by care- 
ful drying. The herb yields its properties to boiling water and alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — Tonic, carminative, emmenagogue, and anti- 
epasmodic. The cold infusion is beneficial in dyspepsia with weak and 


irritable stomach. The warm infusion is useful as a parturient, also in 
hysteria, dysmenorrhcEa, flatulence, colic, and to promote perspiration. 
The leaves are used externally in fomentation. 

The Thymus Serpyllus, Wild Tliijmc or Mother of Thyme, has simi- 
lar virtues to the above. 

TOLU (Myrospermum Toluiferum). 

Medicinal Part. The haUnmic exudation. 

DeacHption. — A full botanical description of this tree has not yet been 
given, but it is supposed that it is similar to the Balsam of Peru tree, 
differing only in the leaflets, which in this tree are thin, membranous, 
obovate, taper-pointed ; the terminal ones larger than the others. 

History. — It is a tree which gi-ows throughout the forests of South 
America, especially on the elevated parts near Carthagena, Tolu, and 
in the ]\Iagdaleua provinces of Columbia. The balsam is obtained by 
makmg incisions into the tree, and which flows into wax vessels. It 
is exported from Carthagena in tin, earthen, and other vessels. It has 
a pale, yellowish-red or brown color, solid and brittle, an agreeable 
vanilla-like odor, and a sweetish aromatic taste. It is soluble in alco- 
hol, ether, and essential oils. ♦ 

Projwrties and Uses. — It is, like Balsam of Pcni, a stimulant, tonic, 
and expectorant, and cannot be equalled for its curative effects in cases 
of consumption, catarrh, bronchitis, asthma, and all inflammatory, ulcer- 
ated, spasmodic, or other morbid conditions of the resijiratory organs 
and their adjuncts. The balsam dissolved in ether, and the vapor 
therefrom inhaled, is reported beneficial in coughs and bronchial affec- 
tions of long standing, and I have no doubt it is so, as its virtues in such 
complaints are very wonderful. 

TUEKEY CORN (Corydalis Formosa). 

Common Names. Wild Turkey-fea, Stagger-weed, Clwice Didytra. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Description. — This indigenous perennial plant has a tuberous root, 
and a stem from six to ten inches in height. The leaves are radical, 
rising from ten to fifteen inches high, and somewhat triteiiiate. The 
scape is naked, eight to twelve inches high, and bearing from six to ten])le nodding flowers. The fruit is a i)od-shaped, many- 
Beeded capsule.'>ry. — This beautiful little plant flowers veiy early in the si)rLag, 
and the root should only be gathered while the phuit is in flower. It 
grows in rich soil, on hills, among rocks, and old decayed timber, and is 
found westward and south of New York to North Carolina. The alka- 
loid, Corydalia, is the active priuci])le. 

Froperties and Uses. — Tonic, diuretic, and alterative. In all sj-'phi* 


Utic, scrofulous, and cachectic conditions it is one of tlie best remedies. 
Its tonic properties render it valuable as an alterative in all enfeebled 
conditions. Its tonic properties are similar to Gentian, Columbo, and 
other pure bitters. Its magical properties as an alterative renders it 
one of the most valuable remedies in the whole range of medicine. Cory- 
dalia may be substituted for the herb. It is one of the ingredients in 
my " Blood Purifier." (See page 469.) 

Dose. — Of the infusion, one to four ounces ; saturated tincture, half to 
two drachms ; corydalia, one-half to a grain. 

VALERIAN (Valeriana Officinalis). 

Common Name. Great ^Ylld Valerian. 

Medicinal Part. The root. 

Descnj)tion. — This is a large herb, with a perennial, tuberous, fetid 
root, most aromatic when growing in dry pastures, and a smooth, hohow, 
furrowed stem, about four feet in height. The leaves are pinnate, oppo- 
site ; leaflets, from seven to ten pairs, lanceolate, coarsely serrated, and 
on long foot-stalks. The tlowers are flesh-colored, small, and fragrant. 

Jlifttory. — Valerian is a European plant, growing in wet places, or even 
in dry pastures, flowering in June and July. Several varieties grow in 
America, and are used, but the English Valerian is by all odds the best. 
The ofRcinal part is the root. The taste of the root is warm, camphora- 
ceous, slightly bitter, somewhat acrid, and nauseous. The odor is not 
considerable ; it is fetid, characteristic, and highly attractive to cats, 
and, it is said, to rats also. Besides valerianic acid the root contains 
starch, albumen, valerianin, yellow extractive matter, balsamic resin, 
mucilage, valerianate of potassa, malates of potassa and lime, and phos- 
phate of lime and silica. 

Proj)e)'ties and Uses. — Valerian excites the cerebro-spinal system. In 
large doses it causes headaches, mental excitement, visual illusions, gid- 
diness, restlessness, agitation, and even spasmodic movements. In 
medicinal doses it acts as a stimulating tonic, anti-spasmodic, and cal- 
mative. It is temporarily beneficial in all cases where a nervous stim- 
ulant is required. The extract is worthless. The infusion and fluid ex- 
tract contain all the virtues of the plant. 

Dose.— Of the infusion, one or two fluid ounces, as often as may be 
prescribed by a physician. 

VANILLA (Vanilla Aromatica). 

Medicinal Part. TJie fruit or pods. 

Descrifition. — Vanilla Aromatica is a shrubby, climbing, aerial para- 
site, growing in the clefts of rocks, or attaching itself to the trunks of 
trees. It suspends itself to contiguous objects, and is truly an aerial 
plant. The stem is round, about as thick as the finger, from twenty to 


thirty feet in length, and oftener thicker at the summit than at the base. 
The leaves are alternate, oblong, entire, on short petioles, green, fleshy, 
and pointed by a species of abortive tendril. The flowers are yellowish 
white. The fniit is a species of bean, yellow or bu£E color, of an agreea- 
ble aromatic odor ; the beans must be dried with care or they will loBe 
their properties. 

History. — Vanilla grows in Mexico and other parts of tropical South 
America. There are several species which are supposed to furnish the 
Vanilla of commerce. It yields its virtues to water or alcohol. 

Properties and Uses. — It is an aromatic stimulant, and is used, in in- 
fusion, in hysteria, rheumatism, and low forms of fever. It is also 
called an aphrodisiac, powerfully exciting the generative system. Va- 
nilla is said to exhilarate the brain, jDrevent sleep, increase muscular en- 
ergj^, and stimulate the sexual propensities. 

WAFER-ASH (Ptelea Trifoliata). 

CoirMON Names. Wing-seed., Shrubby Trefoil, Swamp Dogwood, etc. 

Medicinal Part. The bark of the root. 

Description. — This is a shrub from six to eight feet in height, wiih the 
leaves trifoliate, and marked with pellucid dots ; the leaflets are sessile, 
ovate, shortly acuminate, downy beneath when young. The flowers are 
polygamous, greenish-white, nearly half an inch in diameter, and of 
disagreeable odor. Stamens, mostly four ; style short, and fruit a two- 
celled samara. 

History. — Wafer- Ash, or Ptelea, is a shrub common to America, grow- 
ing raost abundantly west of the AUeghanies, in shady, moist places 
and edges of woods, and also in rocky places. It flowers in June. The 
bark of the root is officinal, and yields its virtues to boiling water. 
Alcohol, however, is its best solvent. Ptelein is its active principle. 

Propen'ties and Uses. — It is especially tonic and unirritating. It is 
said to be very useful as a promoter of the appetite, and as a remedy for 
general debUity. It wfll be tolerated by the stomach when other tonics 
are rejected. Some think it equal, in cases of fever (intennittent), to 
quinia. In convalescence from fever it serves an admirable pur|>ose. 

Dose. — Of the powder, ten to thirty grains ; of the tincture, one or two 
drachms ; of the extract, live to ten grains ; ptelein, one or two grains. 

WALNUT (WuiTE), (JUGL.VNS Cinerea). 

Common Names. Butternut, Oil Nut, etc. 

Medic rN.\L Parts. Inner bark of the root, and leaves. 

Description. — This indigenous tree attains a height of from thirty to 
fifty feet, with a trunk about four feet in diameter ; the ljranch(!s are 
wide-spreading, and covered with a smooth gray bark. The leaves are 
alternate, twelve to twenty inches long, and consist of seven or eight 



pairs of leaflets, which are oblong-lanceolate, and finely serrate. Male 
and female flowers distinct upon the same tree. Fruit a dark-colored 
hard nut, kernel oily, pleasant-flavored, and edible. 

JtJGL AN s Nigra, ox Black Walnut, a well-kno^vn tree, is also medicinal. 

History. — Butternut is found throughout the New England, Middle, 
and Western States, on cold, uneven, rooky soils, flowering in April and 
May, and maturing its fruit at or about the middle of autumn. Its 
officinal parts are its leaves and the inner bark of the root. The latter 
should be gathered from April to July. It contains resin, fixed oil, sac- 
charine matter, lime, potassa, a peculiar principle, and tannic acid. The 
Black Wulmit flowers and ripens its fruit at the same time with the But- 
ternut. Juglandin is the active principle. 

Properties and Uses. — Butternut is a gentle and agreeable cathartic, 
and does not induce constipation after its action. In cases of habitual 
constipation or other intestinal diseases, it has considerable value. Tt 
is used in decoction in cases of fever, and in the murrain of cattle. The 
juice of the rind of the Black Walnut wUl cure herpes, eczema, porrigO; 
etc., and a decoction of it has been used to remove worms. The Euro 
pean walnut has been found to be efficacious in cases of scrofula. 

WATER PEPPER (Polygonum Punctatum). 

Common Name. Smartweed. 

Medicinal Part. The wJiole herb. 

Description. — This is an annual plant, 
with a smooth stem, branched, often de- 
cumbent at the base, of reddish or green- 
ish-brown color, and growing from one to 
two feet high. The leaves are alternate, 
lanceolate, petiolate, with pellucid dots, 
wavy, and scabrous on the margin. The 
flowers .are small, greenish-white or pui-ple, 
and are disposed in loose, slender, drooping, 
but finally erect spikes. 

History. — It is a well-known plant, grow- 
ing in England and America, in ditches, low 
grounds, among rubbish, and about brooks 
and water-courses. It flowers in August 
and September. The whole plant is offici- 
nal. It has a biting, pungent, acrid taste, 
and imparts its virtues to alcohol or water. 
It should be collected and made into a tinc- 
ture while fresh. When it is old it is almost 
worthless. The English variety of this plant possesses the same properties. 

Properties ami Uses. — It is stimulant, diuretic, emmenagogue, anti- 

Water Pepper. 


septic, diaphoretic, etc. The infusion in cold water has been found 
serviceable in gravel, colds and coughs, and in milk sicloiess. In cholera, 
the patients wrapped in a sheet moistened with a hot decoction have 

It is used as a wash in chronic erysipelatous inflammations. The 
fresh leaves bruised with the leaves of May-weed, and moistened with 
the oil of turpentine, and applied to the skin, will speedily vesicate. 
The infusion in cold water forms an exceUeut local application in the 
sore mouth of nursing women, and in mercurial ptyaUsm or salivation. 
The decoction or infusion in hot water is not so active as when prepared 
in cold or warm water. It has very many virtues ; and its office in my 
"Restorative Assimilant" (see page 469) it performs well. 

Done. — Of the infusion, from a wineglassful to a teacupful, three or 
four times a day. 

VVORMSEED (Chenopodium ANTHELMmxicuM). 

Common Name. Jerusalem Oak. 

Medicinal Part. The seeds. 

Descri'ption. — This plant has a perennial branched root, with an, erect, 
herbaceous stem, from one to three feet high. The leaves are alter- 
nate, ol)long-lanceolate, of yeUowish-green color, and marked be*ieath 
with small resinous particles. The numerous flowers are of the same 
color as the leaves. Seeds solitary and lenticular. 

Jlintory. — This plant grows in waste places in almost all parts of the 
United States, flowering from July to September, and ripening its seeds 
throughout the fall, at which time they should be collected. The whole 
plant has a disagreeable odor, and the seeds partake of the same odor. 

Properties and Uses. — Anthelmintic and antispasmodic. ExceUent t> 
expel the lumbrici from children. The oil is the best form of adminis 
tration, which may be given in doses of four to eight drops on sugar. 
The infusion with milk is also given often in wineglassful doses. 

WORMWOOD (Artemisia Absinthium). 

Medicinal Parts. T7ie taps and leaves. 

Description. — This is a perennial plant, with a woody root, branched 
at the crown, and ha\ang numerous fibres below. The whole herb ia 
covered with close, silky hoarincss ; the stems are numerous, bushy, 
and from one to two feet in height. Their lower part exists for some 
years, from which young shoots spring forth every year, decaying in 
cold weather. The leaves are alternate,, and blunted, the 
lower ones on long peticlcs, upper ones on shorter, broader, and some- 
what winged ones. 

History. — Wormwood grows nearly all over the world, from the 
United States to Siberia. It flowers from June to September. The 


tops and leaves are the parts used. The dried herb, with the flowers, 
has a whitish gray appearance, a strong, aromatic odor, and is extreme- 
ly bitter to the taste. Alcohol or water takes up its active principles. 
It yields what is known to druggists as AbsintJuiie. 

Propei'ties and Uses. — It is anthelmintic, tonic, and narcotic. It is 
used for many diseases, among which may be enunaerated intermittent 
fever, jaundice, worms, want of appetite, amenorrhoea, chronic leucor- 
rhoea, obstinate diarrhoja, etc. It is also used externally in country 
places as a fomentation for sprains, bruises, and local iatlammations. 
Taken too often, or in large quantities, it will irritate the stomach, and 
dangerously increase the action of the heart and arteries. 

Dose. — Of the powder, ten to twenty grains ; infusion, one or two 

Santonin^ a well-known antheliarntic, is the peculiar princiiile ob- 
tained from the Artemisia Sautonica. 

Dose. — Three or four gi'ains, twice a day. 

YAM (WILD), (DiORCOREA Villosa). 

Common Name. CoUg root. 

IIedicinal Part. The root 

Description. — This is a delicate twining vine, with a perennial root. 
From this root proceeds a smooth, woolly, reddish-brown stem, the sixth 
of an inch in diameter, and from five to fifteen or eighteen feet long. 
The leaves average two to four inches in length, and about three-quar- 
ters of their length in width. They are glabrous on the upper surface, 
with soft hairs on the lower. The flowers are of a pale greenish yellow 
color, and are very small. The seeds are one or two in each ceU, and flat. 

History. — There are several species of yam-root which gi-ow in the 
West Indies, and which the natives eat as we do potatoes, but these are 
not medicinally like the Dioscorea Villosa, which I have described 
above, and which is a slender vine growing wild in the United States 
and Canada, and found running over bushes and fences, and twining 
about the growths in thickets and hedges. The farther south we go the 
more prolific it is. It flowers in June and July. The root, which is 
the part used, is long, branched, crooked, and woody. From this is 
made a i)reparation called Dioscorein., or Dioscorin, which contains all its 
active qualities. 

Pro2)erties and Uses. — Antispasmodic. Half a pint of the decoction 
has been used, in almost innumerable cases of bilious colic, with great 
good effect ; the same is also employed for spasm of the bowels, and to 
allay violent nausea ; esj)ecially, however, the unaccountable nausea of 
pregnant women. Dioscorein possesses the properties of the crude root 
in a marvellous degree. I use it mainly for bilious colic ; it is the very 
best relief and promptest cure now known. I also give it in some forma 


of uterine disease (always, however, combined with other material of a 
similarly excellent character), but my use of it is chiefly for bilious 
colic, and for this I commend it to the public. 

Done. — Of the decoction, two to four ounces; tincture, twenty to 
sixty drops ; Dioscoreia, one to four grains. 

YARROW (AcniLLEA Millefolium). 

Common Names. Milfoil, TJiousand Seal, Nose-bleed. 

Medicinal Part. The herb. 

Description. — ^ Yarrow, also called TJionsand Seal, is from ten to twenty 
inches high, with a simple stem, branching at the top, and many long, 
crowded, alternate and dentate leaves spread upon the ground, finely 
cut, and divided into many parts. The flowers are white or rose-col- 
ored, and arrayed in knots upon divers green stalks, which arise from 
among the leaves. Fruit an oblong, flattened achenium. 

History. —Yarrow inhabits Europe and North America ; it is found in 
pastures, meadows, and along road-sides, flowering from May to Octo- 
ber. The jDlant possesses a faint, pleasant, peculiar fragrance, and a 
rather sharp, rough, astringent taste, which properties are due to tannic 
and achiUeic acid, essential oil, and bitter extractive, alcohol or water 
being its proper menstruum. 

Properties and Uses. — It is astringent, alterative, and diuretic, in de- 
coction. It is efficacious in bleeding from the lungs and other hemor- 
rhages, incontinence of urine, piles, and dysentery. It is valuable in 
amenorrhoea, or suppressed or restrained menses, flatulency, and spas- 
modic diseases. It forms a useful injection in leucorrhoea or whites, 
also in msnorrhagia, or profuse or too long continued menstruation. An 
ointment cures wounds, ulcers, fistulas, and the head bathed in a decoc- 
tion prevents the falling out of the hair ; while the leaves chewed in 
the mouth will frequently ease the tooth-ache. Achilles is supposed 
to be the first that left the virtues of this herb to jjosterity, hence the 
active principle of this plant is called Aclulleine, which is much used as a 
substitute for quinia in intermittent fevers in the South of Eiu-ope. 

Dose. —The infusion of Yarrow is given in doses of from a wineglass- 
ful to a teacupful, three or four times a day ; the essential oil from five 
to twenty drops. In menon'hagia or profuse menstruation, a table- 
spoonful of the saturated tincture may be given three or four times a 

Acldllea Ptarrnica, or Sneeze-wort, has leaves entirely different from 
the Yarrow, and should not be mistaken one for the other. The whole 
of this plant is pungent, exciting an increased flow of saliva ; and the 
powder of the dried leaves, when snuffed into the nostrils, produces 
sneezing, which is supposed to be owing to their Email, sharp, and mai- 
ginal teeth. 



YELLOW PARILLA (Menispermtjm Canadense). 

Common Names. Vine-majjle, Moonseed. 

Medicinal Part. Tlie root. 

Description. — This plant has a perennial, horizontal, very long woody 
root, of a beautiful yellow color. The stem is round and climbing, and 
about a foot in length. The leaves are roundish, cordate, peltate, 
smooth, glaucous green above, paler 
below, entire, and four or five inches 
in diamete*:. The flowers are in clus- 
ters, and are small and yellow. The 
fruit, a drupe, is about the third of 
an inch in diameter, and one-seeded. 

History. — Yellow Parilla grows in 
moist woods and hedges, and near 
streams, from Canada to Carolina, 
and west to the Mississippi. It flow- 
ers in July. The root, which is the 
part used, has a bitter, lasting, but 
not unpleasant acrid taste, and yields 
its virtues to water and alcohol. It is 
caUed, not without justice, American 
Sarsaparilla, and its active piinciple, 
known as menispermin, shows that it 
might have received a name less ex- 
pressive of its merits. 

Properties and Uses. — The authors 
of herbalist disi^ensatories have set 
dowTi Yellow Parilla as ' ' tonic, laxa- 
tive, alterative, and diuretic," and it seems to possess all these qualities. 
Every plant of medicinal value, however, possesses one virtue which is 
paramount to aU others. Yellow Parilla is essentially and particularly 
anti-syphilitic, anti-scrofulous, anti-scorbutic, and anti-mercurial. As 
a purifier of the blood, it is equal to the imi^orted sarsapariUa as we 
get the latter, and its active principle, menhpermin.i may be itsed with 
great good effect in all diseases arising from either hereditary or ac- 
quired impurities of the system. It exerts its influence principally on 
the gastric and salivary glands, and is found expressly beneficial in 
cases of adhesive inflammation, and where it is found necessary to 
break u^) organized deposits, and hasten disintegration of tissue. I use 
it principally for those diseases arising from a vitiated condition of the 
blood, but sometimes apply it to dyspepsia. A decoction of the plant 
may be used to advantage as an embrocation in gouty, rheumatic, and 
cutaneous affections. The dose of the meimjyermin is from one to four 
grains. When it produces vomiting reduce the dose. 

Tello-sv Parilla. 




A Physician who would cure diseases, or seek to assist Nature to throw 
off all morbid accumulations from the bodj', should have a single eye to 
the perfection, purity, or quality of the remedial agents he may feel called 
upon to employ. Plants should be gathered at a proper period, and under 
correct climatic influences, and always chosen from those in a wild or un- 
cultivated state. 

The roots of an annual plant will yield their most active medical 
properties just before the liowering season, whereas this class of roots are 
erroneously gathered after the flowering season ; in consequence, they are 
less active, and do not retain their qualities for any reliable time. The 
roots of the biennial plants are most energetic if gathered when the leaves 
have fallen from the plant, in the autumu of the first j'ear ; while the 
roots of perennial plants are most active when gathered between the decay 
of the flowers and leaves and the renewal of verdure of the following 
Spring. Bulbs are to be collected as soon as matured, or soon after the 
loss of the foliage, in order to secure their most active principles. 

Herbaceous stems shoiild be collected after the foliage, but beford the 
blossoms have developed themselves, while ligneous or woody stems 
should be collected after the decay of the leaves and previous to the vege- 
tation of the succeeding Spring. 

Barks are to be gathered in the Spring previous to flowering, or in 
Autumn after the foliage has disappeared. Spring is the best time to 
gather resinous barks, and Autumn for the others. 

Leaves are best when gathered between the period of flowering and 
maturation of the fi-uit or seeds. Biennial plants, however, do not perfect 
themselves the first year, consequently their leaves should be gathered 
only during the second year of the growtli of the plant. 

Flowers are to be collected when about to open, or immediately after 
they have expanded, although I prefer the buds. Flowers, buds, and leaves, 
are to be gathered in dry weather, after the dew is oS from them, or in 
the evening before it falls, and freed from all impurities. Aromatics 
should be collected after the flower-buds are formed, while stalks and 
twigs are best if trathered soon after the decay of the flowers. Berries, suc- 
culent fruits, and seeds are to be collected only when ripe, except in some 
few cases where the medicinal virtue is contained in the unripe article. 
Roots are to be well wa&hed, rejecting all worm-eaten or decayed portions. 
Bulbs are cleaned and dried as roots. Barks, stems, twigs, and Avoods are 
best dried iu a moderate sun-l)eat, and sliould be taken every night into a 
well-ventilated room, where the dew or rain will not touch them, and laid 
upon sticks, slats, or boards which are some few inches apart, so that the 
air may be well circulated through. The best method of drying leaves is 
to strip them from the stem, lay them loosely upon a flooring Avhere the 
sun shines moderately and the air circulates sutliciently to avoid mould — 
keep them well stirred. The custom of steaming or moistening leaves in 
order to pack them moie solidly after having been dried, is exceedingly 
improper, as the articles become thereby much deteriorated in quality 
and soon get musty. 

Seeds are dried in the same manner as stems and leaves. Aromatic herbs 
and annual plants are dried as advised for leaves similarly prepared. 




The followiu? articles, so necessary in mauy instances, will be sent, prepaid 
by mail, secmclj' packed from observation. We offer them to our parrons ije- 
cau.-e of their bein^ in many respects superior to others offered for sale at double 
the price we ask for them. 


The conversation tube suits the most 
obstinate cases of deafness, and is particu- 
larly convenient at the dinner-table and 
in company, as private conversation can 
be carried on without attracting the atten- 
tion of others. 

Conversation Tubes.— Worsted, Silk, German Silver $3. Nickle Plated, 

Ivory Mounts, $3, $3, $10. Nickle Plated $5. $5.00. 

There are thousands of persons with one or both ears supposed lo be perfectly 
useless, who in many cases might hear very well were tUe sonorous undulations con- 
veyed to them by arrificial Ear Trumpets, thus drawing blood t,o the parts .and re- 
storing healthy action. The hearing will thus t)c greatly improved, if not 
altogether cured. 


We have taken great pains to have the urinals offered below, light, soft, durable 
and of a fine finish. They are manufactured from the finest quality of vulcanized 

Fig. 91 represents 
a Day and Night 
Urinal. The long 
tube connecting the 
scrotal and penis 
portion to the reser- 
voir will allow the 
wearer to move and 
turn in bed without 
changing the 
tion of the reservoir. 
This tube can be re- 
moved and the other 
portions joined to- 
gelher, which per- 
mits it to be worn 
during the day while 
attending to busi- 
ness. Fig. 94 has a 
perfect scrotal sup- 
port attached. 

Ctiildren's Urinals, 
with reservoir, $4 ; 
without reservoir, $3 




The above syringi? is very durable, being made of hard rubber. By Insertin" the 
appropriate tubes (furnished with it), it can be used as a rectum, vaijinal or urethra 

syrinee. Thi8 
is the best 
article of the 
kind made, 
and we will 
send it by 
maU to any 
part of the 

country, packed securely from injury or observation in a nice paper box, on the 
receipt of price, $2.50. Price with only one tube, straight, male or female , as de- 
sired $2 00 

Every lady suflfering from leacorrhoea, or female weakness, should possess one 
of these syringes. Various excellent decoctions, composed of healing herbal in- 

ik, ffr^ - _ — _ .. "redients are given in these pages, which 

^^^^■|n^^-- 1 — -;f^ ~ jif injected according to directions (fol- 

W ~ =^=g=^s= = ^^ lowing at the same time my hygienic 

directions) will in the generality of cases effect a cure. Those desiring farther in- 
formation may write a brief description of their case, and I will give farther 
advice by return mail. Price, prepaid by mail, $L25. 
To parties desiring such an article, we ofTerf 
this sj'ringe as being the best in market. 
Price by mail, prepaid. 60 cents. We pack the 
above sj'ringes securely in a nice box, entirely 
secure from observation. 

Those desiring an ear syringe will find this ' 
an excellent one — made of hard rubber it is 
easily cleansed and does not get out of order. 


Price, prepnid by mail, $1.25. 

This pump is of hard rubber— cannot break easily or 

Bed Frinal, 

get out of order. Easily used and a superior article. 
Price, prepaid by mail, $.3.00. 

This urinal can be used without inconvenience by the 
invalid in bed, without the assistance of a nurse. First 
having the end of the rubber tube placed in the vessel 
under the bed, the urine will be conducted therein, 
Suitable for either sex. 

RUBBER AIR CUSHIONS. The air cushion is 
rOne of the greatest 
luxuries of the age. 
greatly contributii g 
to the comfort of in- 
valids. Those of- 
fered are of the best 
quality and most de- 
sirable styles. Chair cushions (reeded), square or rounded 
{f:ee cut),'$6. Cluiir eu.-hioiis ueeded) with back, $12. 
Carriage cushions, $8. Hospital cushions, $8. 



Food and Drinks. 

Man is an omnivorous creature, partaking of the nature both of the 
carnivorous and herbiverous animal. Hence, it is reasonable to suppose 
that man should subsist on a mixed diet, consisting both of animal and 
vegetable substances. To settle this matter, we must appeal to man's 
organization. His structure will tell us something we need not mistake. 
AH the works of the Creator show design. Everything he has made has 
a use, and is so contrived as to be adapted to that use. Lions, tigers, 
and other animals, for example, which feed on flesh alone, have a short 
alimentary canal — it being only about three times the length of an animal's 
body. Animals which eat no flesh — a sheep for example — have very long 
second stomachs ; while the duodenum, or second stomach of the human 
being, is of a medium capacity ; which fact, in connection with the pe- 
culiar formation of his teeth and his erect or upright position, prove con ■ 
clusively that man was destined to adapt himself to any clime, and to 
partake of any kind of food, animal or vegetable, as may be naturally 
suppUed for his subsistence by the hand of Providence. For instance, 
the inhabitants of the Polar regions subsist principally on animal sub- 
stances, and that, too, of the most oleaginous or fatty sorts. 

Those tribes of men, laborers, hunters, etc., living in cold climates, 
who subsist almost wholly on flesh, fish, or fowl, devour on an average 
about seven pounds per diem. In fact, the quantity of animal food con- 
sumed by some human beings, who are flesh-eaters in' practice, seems 
almost incredible. Captain Parry relates the case of an Esquimaux lad, 
who at a meal, which lasted twenty hours, consumed four pounds of raw 
as well as four pounds of broiled sea-horse flesh, one and a half pints of 
gravy, besides one and three-quarter jjounds of bread, three glasses of 
raw spirits, one tumbler of strong grog, and nine pints of water. Cap- 
tain Cochrane states, in a " Narrative of Travels through Siberian Tar- 
tary" that he has repeatedly seen a Yakut or Largouse eat forty pounds 
of meat in a day ; and it is stated that the men in the Hudson's Bay 
Company are allowed a ration of seven or eight pounds of ordinary flesh 
meat per diem. 

Charles Francis Hall, in his work called " Arctic Researches and Life 
among the Esquimaux,'''' relates his strange experiences among the tribes 
of the country, with whom he became, as it were, naturalized. Speak- 
ing of the kinds of food they used, and the enormous quantity con- 


eumed, Captain Hall remarks : — " The skin of the Mysticetus (Greenland 
whale) is a great treat to the Esquimaux, who eat it raw. The ' black 
skin ' is three-fourths of an inch thick, and looks like india-rubber. It 
is good eating in a raw state, even for a white man, as I know from ex- 
perience ; but when boiled and soused in vinegar it is most excellent." 
The Captain afterwards saw the natives cutting up the Icrang (meat) of 
the whale into such huge slices as their wives could carry ; and as they 
worked they kejDt on eating, until boat-load after boat-load was sent 
over the ice to be deposited in the villages of the vicinity. All day long 
were they eating, which led the Cajjtain to exclaim : '' ^Vhat enormous 
stomachs these Esquimaux have ! " He came to the conclusion, how- 
ever, that the Esquimaux practice of eating their food raw is a good one 
— at least, for the better preservation of their health. To one educated 
othei'wise, as we civilized whites are, the Esquimaux custom of feeding 
on uncooked meats is highly repulsive ; but eating meats raw or cooked 
is entirely a matter of education. ' ' God has made of one blood all na- 
tions of men to dwell on the whole face of the earth, and has determined 
the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitations." Take 
the Esquimaux away from the Arctic regions, and they would sooA dis- 
appear from the face of the earth. 

The Esquimaux are a hardy and happy people ; are comparatively free 
from diseases, and are never kno\vn to die of scrofula or consumption, as 
one of the consequences of eating so enormously of oleaginous or greasy 
animal substances. 

On other hand, in contrast to the gormandizing propensities of the Es- 
quimaux, there are many examples of people living in cold climates sub- 
sisting on coarse bread, not exceeding the average amount of one jjound 
of wheat, rye, or corn, daily ; but such persons, unless exceedingly ac- 
tive in their habits, seldom escape from the penalties of scrofula and con- 
sumption, for the simple reason that they soon fail to supply themselves 
with the meats or fatty animal substances necessary for the heat and life 
of the body. The Canadian teamsters live almost exclusively upon bread 
and fat, which, in a temperate climate, would produce nausea and skin 

In warm climates, as in China, Hindoostan, Africa, and the trojiics, the 
food of the natives is principally composed of vegetables and fruits — rice 
being the general diet, with only animal or other food enough to amount 
to a condiment or seasoning. Though the amount of food consumed by 
some of the nations is very small, and their habits very temperate, we do 
not find that even they are any the less Uable to many of the diseases 
which attlict those who eat largely of a mixed diet. It is reasonable to 
suppose, however, that less food and lighter clothing are required in 
warm or hot climates than iu those of the temperate and fi-igid. 

The negroes on the plantations of filississippi and Alabama grow sleek 


and live to an advanced age by subsisting largely on fat pork and homi- 
ny, com bread, sweet potatoes, rice, etc. In tlie pampas of Brazil and 
Buenos Ayres, where immense herds of wild cattle are found, the hunt- 
ers catch these bovines, strip them of their hides and horns, and, if hun- 
gry, wlU cut out a huge chunk of beef, half roast it, and eat it without 
salt or bread. In some parts of Brazil the natives feed on a flour made 
from the roots of a certain plant or tree, moistening the same with the 
juice of the orange or lemon. Others fuid support in the yam, the ba- 
nana, or plantain, etc., while they are hugely addicted to drinking a spe- 
cies of whiskey called aguardiente. 

In Asia and Africa many of the natives derive their staple nutrition 
from gum acacia, and among us many an invalid has derived healthy 
nourishment from i^reparations containing gum acacia, when his stomach 
would neither bear nor digest any other article in the shape of food. In 
Peru the Indians will subsist for a month at a time by chewing a plant 
called erythroxylLu coca, and in the mean time perform journeys of hun- 
dreds ox miles. The Hindoos live principally on rice, and are considered 
a long-lived and a very docile people. On the other hand, many of the 
Indian tribes of North America, who live on roots, barks, berries, etc., 
are very savage and warlike in their habits. The Chinese drink strong 
tea, and the Tui-ks coffee equally as strong, without apparent detriment 
to their general health. The laboring Scotch thiive partially on oatmeal 
porridge, without using a particle of meat. The Irish want nothing bet- 
ter than plenty of potatoes, cabbage, and buttermilk. The English, 
French, German, Italian, Spanish, and other civilized people of Europe 
live upon mixed diet, though each have their peculiar likes and dislikes 
in the shape of dishes, and the average health of each nation is about the 
same. So in America they eat everythiug and anything, without particu- 
lar injury to the constitution, except when eating too fast and too much 
at a time, which is a proverbial national error. 

People are liable to eat what they have been taught or educated to eat, 
without stopping to inquire concerning any physiological laws on the 
subject. Scrofula is the most prevalent of all diseases, — this fact being 
justly attributed not to pork or food of any kind, but to the manner in 
which the people are lodged, livuig in small or unventilated apartments, 
crowded together and breathing foul air and the pestiferous etliuvias of 
their own bodies. 

There can be no doubt that many of the maladies tacident to the hu- 
man race are i^roduced through the agency of improper food, over-feed- 
ing, etc., on the internal organs ; yet it can be readily shown that a fai" 
greater a.mount of maladies are induced through the medium of atmos- 
jjheric impressions and vicissitudes on the external surface of the body. 
More diseases arise from breathing foul air, or from lack of the natural 
atmospheric air, than from the worst or poorest kind of food. Disease, 


therefore, is not so much a result of the kind of food we eat, as it is in 
the quantity and quality. What may be excellent for one man may be 
very injurious for another ; custom, habits, idiosyncrasies, tempera- 
ments, etc., having a great deal to do in the digestion of food, and con- 
vertiug it into wholesome or nutritious blood, capable of supi^lyiag all the 
tissues of the body with their natural needs or stimuli. Very few people 
Beem to know what their stomachs were intended for, or even know 
where they are situated. All sorts of deleterious substances are 
crammed into the stomach by thousands of people. When any article 
of food is repulsive to any of the senses, it had better be avoided as an 
article of diet. This antipathy is so intense iu some as to amount to ac- 
tual idiosyncrasy. The sympathy and antipathy displayed by some per- 
sons with regard to alimentary food or drinks are extremely curious. 
Some notable instances are on record. Boyle fainted when he heard 
the splashing of water or liquids. SCALIGER turned pale at the sight of 
water-cresses ; Erasmus became feverish when he saw a fish. Zimmer- 
man tells us of a lady who shuddered when touching the velvety skin of 
a peach. There are whole families who entertain a horror of cheese? ; on 
the other hand, there was a physician, Dr. Starke, of Edinburgh,' who 
lost his life by subsisting almost entirely upon it. Some people iiave 
been unable to take mutton even when administered in the microscopic 
form of pills. There is a case of a man falling down at the smell of 
mutton, as if bereaved of life, and in strong convulsions. Sir J.\MEa 
Eyre, in his well-known little book, mentions three curious instances of 
idiosyncrasy : the case of a gentleman who could not eat a single straw- 
berry with imijunity ; the case of another, whose head would become 
frightfully swollen if he touched the smallest particle of hare ; the case 
of a third, who would inevitably have an attack of gout a few hours 
after eating fish. We ourselves know of a lady in Connecticut who will 
turn pale and faint at the smell of an apple. She could certainly claim 
innocence with reference to tempting any Adam. 

This ignorance of the uses of the stomach, or rather abuse of the func- 
tions, is sometimes the source of much suffering and disease. Besides 
the gastric tubes which supply the stomach with the gastric juice, which 
is necessary to dissolve the food before it can be converted into blood, it 
is extensively covered with a net-work of nerves and blood-vessels, ren- 
dering the stomach very sensitive and very hable to inflammation. This 
inflammation sometimes becomes very active, producing vomiting, pain, 
fever, etc. , all caused by imprudence in diet. It is a warning. If the 
warning be not heeded, this inflammation becomes chronic ; the nerves 
lose their sensibility ; the stomach becomes inactive, and that most dis- 
tressing of all diseases, dyspepsia (and often epilepsy or fits), takes up its 
abode as a permanent guest. Most frequently it comes on more slowly 
and without apparent warning. 


The food we eat has to be properly digested. People are apt to sup- 
pose that digestion is performed in the stomach only. This is a mistake 
The stomach performs the greater part of the work, but it is greatly as- 
sisted by other organs besides. Digestion really begins in the mouth. 
Besides the teeth, which are the true organs of digestion, there are situ- 
ated in the cavity of the mouth three small bodies called saUvary glands, 
which pour out a fluid called saliva (or spittle), which is just as necessary 
to the proper digestion of food as the gastric juice itself. The more 
thorouglily the food is mixed with saliva, the more perfect will be di- 
gestion. This should teach us to eat slowly, and to chew so well that 
every mouthful of food may contain a proper amount of it. It shoidd 
also teach us that this saliva is too valuable a substance to be contami- 
nated with tobacco-juice, or wasted in expectoration from smoking, es- 
pecially where the temperament is nervous. Saliva is constantly being 
poured into the cavity of the mouth, whether we are asleep or awake. 
As a general thing, in a healthy person, about five wine-glasses full of sa- 
liva are secreted in a day. 

We eat that the body may be supported with blood, for our food, be- 
fore it can become a part of the body, must first be converted into blood. 
A full-grown, healthy working-man consumes in one year about twelve 
hvmdred pounds of victuals and drink — that is, about eight times his own 
weight ; yet, if he should weigh himself at the end of the year, he would 
find that he weighs very little more or less than he did at the beginning. 
Now what has become of the t ./elve hundred pounds he has eaten ? It 
has been wasted away. With every motion, every breath, 3very opera- 
tion of the mind, the body has been wasted, and food has been required 
to support the waste. 

The one great cause of the wasting of the body, and of the con.stant 
demand for food, is action. If the muscles could be kept from moving, 
our lungs from breathing, and our minds from thinldng, then we might 
not require food, for there would be no waste. This condition of things, 
of course, could never exist without death speedily following. 

Exercising violently excites hunger, since it makes us breathe faster, 
and therefore causes vis to inhale more air. A man of sedentary habits 
does not require so much food as a laboring man, because he does not 
waste away as fast. Much of the wasted material of the body is carried 
off by the lungs, in the form of carbonic acid. The skin, too, does its 
share of the work. It not only assists in breathing, but it also carries 
out of the system a large portion of its dead particles. 

Children require more food in proportion than adults, because they are 
growing, and therefore, so to speak, need more to build up their bodies. 
After we have attained our growth, we neither gain nor lose our weight, 
provided we are in health, for we consume as much food as the body 
wastes. This is called a state of equilibrium. As old age comes on the 


body begins to decline in weight, and then we waste more than we con- 

Food may be distinguished into two kinds, viz. , nitrogenized and non- 
nitrogenized. The first class is called the plastic elements of nutrition, 
and is designed solely to make blood and to form the substance of the 
tissues ui the general structure of man ; while the non-nitrogenized kind 
is necessary to keep up the animal heat, by yielding hydrogen and car- 
bon, to be exhibited ia the lungs. The elements of human nutrition and 
recuperation are vegetable fibrtae, albumen, caseine, and animal flesh 
and blood ; while the elements of respiration are fat, starch, gum, cane 
sugar, grape sugar, sugar of milk, wine, beer, and spirits. The elemen- 
tary prtaciples or proximate elements of food consist in water, gum, su- 
gar, starch, lignin, jeUy, fat, fibrine, albumen, caseine, gluten, gelatine, 
acids, salts, alcohol, etc. All these elements are found ia sufficient 
abundance in either the vegetable or animal kiagdoms, and are to be 
used according to the natural wants of man, or the supply of the waste. 
No precise rules, therefore, can be laid down to suit every particular 
state of either disease or health. Every one, accordingly, should eat and 
drink only those things which he may find by experience, habits, orv'pecu- 
liarities to best agree with his condition, and reject aU substances -Vhich 
he may find injurious to his health and general well-bemg. It is the 
provocative variety, or the over-stimulation of the palate, that does the 
greater mischief to health. The plainer the food and the fewer the 
dishes, the greater will be the immunity from disease. Whether the 
diet be vegetable or animal substances, the result wiU be the same in rel- 
ative proportion to the nutriment yielded. Fish, for scrofulous and con- 
sumptive persons, is a most excellent diet, containing a principle called 

Meats contain the most nitrogen, the nitrogenous portions of our food 
make flesh, and go to supply the wear and tear and wastes of the body ; 
these are ultimately passed from the system in the urine. If more ni- 
trogenous food is eaten than is needed to supply these wastes. Nature 
converts it more rapidly into living tissues, which are, with correspond- 
ing rapidity, broken down and converted into urine. This is when the 
food is digested ; but when so much is eaten that it cannot be digested. 
Nature takes alarm as it were, and endeavors to remedy the trouble in 
one of three ways. The stomach rebels and casts it off by vomiting, it 
is worked out of the system by attacks of diarrhoea, or the human crea- 
ttire is made uncomfortable generally, and is restless both by day and 
by night ; as a further punishment his appetite is more or less destroyed 
for several meals afterwards. Little or no nitrogen is poured off with 
the perspiration, breathing, or fseces. 

Whatever diet we use, whether animal or vegetable, the secret of ita 
utility lies not only in the quantity and quality, but in the manner in 


which either kind is cooked, when so prepared for food. Much ignorance 
prevails everywhere in this matter of cooking the substances that are 
requisite for the sustenance of our bodies. Let any person, unable to 
eat broccoli or greens cooked in a quart of water, try the effect of having 
them cooked in a gallon of water, or of having the quart of water changed 
three or four times during the process of cookiag, and he will soon dis- 
cover the difference. If good potatoes are "• watery," it is because they 
are ill-cooked. Fried dishes, rich gravies, and pastry should be avoided 
because of their tendency to develop fatty acids in the stomach. 

We may reasonably suppose that the physiology of digestion is yet too 
imperfectly understood to enable us to lay down any i^recise laws as to 
what to eat, drink, and avoid. With a little vigUance, however, each 
person can ascertain for himself what foods do and do not agree with 
him. As before intimated, the peculiarities in this respect are remark- 
able. Some cannot eadure fat ; others cannot get along without it. 
Some cannot touch mutton ; others are made ill by eggs. Let each find 
out his own antipathy. Suppose the case of a healthy man — so healthy 
that he cannot be healthier. We wiU say the quantity of blood in his 
body IS thirty pounds, and that he loses one pound of this in every 
twenty-four hours. Is it not plain enough that he must eat as much 
food in the same time as will supply the waste of blood he has lost ? But 
if he should eat as much as will furnish a pound and a half of blood, he 
will have half a pound of blood too much in his system. Should he go 
on adding an extra half pound of blood daily more than is required to 
supply the tissues, what then will be the consequences ? Bursting of the 
blood-vessels. But good Dame Nature has measurably guarded against 
any such plethoric catastrophe ; for, after having supplied the waste of 
the body, the undue quantity of blood is converted into fat or adipose 
matter, thus restoring the blood's volume to a due standard. But this 
quasi fat is of no use to the body. It does not give it strength ; on the 
contrary, it is an encumbrance to the machinery, and, in more ways than 
one, is an evil. He, therefore, who eats too much, even though he di- 
gests or assimilates what he eats, and should be fortunate enough to 
escape apoplexy, or some other disease, does not add a single particle to 
his strength. He only accumulates fat, and incurs the evils thereunto 
appertaining — one among many of which I will mention— I mean the ac- 
cumulation of fat about the heart, and interfering, to a most dangerous 
degree, with the heart's action. A man's strength resides in his arte- 
rial blood — in his muscles and bones and tendons and ligatures — in his 
brawn and sinew ; and liis degree of strength depends upon the vigor, 
size, and substance of these ; and if he were to eat without ceasing, he 
could not add to their size and substance one atom, nor alter their origi- 
nal healthy dimensions. Therefore it is a most miscliievous fallacy to 
suppose that the more a man eats the stronger he grows. 
8* M 


The quantity of food taken daily should just be sufficient to restore to 
the blood what the blood has lost in restoring the waste of the body, and 
that should always be proportioned to the degree of bodily exertion un- 
dergone. But how are we to know the exact amount of the waste that is 
daUy going on in our sj^stem, in order to apportion the quantity of food 
thereto ? Nature tells us not only when, but how much we ought to eat 
and drink. 

For instance, when you are excessively thirsty, and when you are in 
the act of quenching your thirst with a draught of cold water, you know 
when you have drunlc enough by the cessation of thirst ; but there is 
another token, which not only informs you when you have drunk enough, 
but which also prevents you from drhikhig more, that is, if you drink 
water only. While you are in the act of drinking, and before your thii-st 
has been allayed, how rich, how sweet, how delicious is the draught, 
though it be but water ! But no sooner has thirst been quenched, than 
behold, in an instant all its deUciousness has vanished ! It is now dis- 
tasteful to the palate. To him, then, who requires drink, water is de- 
licious ; for him who does not require drink, water not only has no relish, 
but impresses the palate disagreeably. To a man laboring undejr the 
very last degree of thirst, even foul ditch water would be a delkiooa 
draught ; but his thirst having beep quenched, he would turn from it 
with disgust. In this instance <jt water-drinking, then, it is clear that 
the relish depends not on any flavor residiug in the water, but on some 
certain condition of the body. It is absurd to say that you cannot drink 
water because you do not like it, for this only proves that you do not 
want it ; since the rehsh with which you enjoy drink depends upon the 
fact of your requiring di'iak, and not at all upon the nature of the drink 

Now apply this to eating instead of drinldng. Place before a hungry 
workman stale bread and fat pork, flanked by a jug of cold water. 
While his hunger remains imappeased, he will eat and drink with an ea- 
ger relish ; but when his hunger has been appeased, the bread and meat 
and water have lost what he supposed to be their delicious flavor. 

If we ate only simple and natural food, plainly cooked, there would be 
no danger of eating too much — the loss of relish and the feeling of dis- 
gust, consequent upon satisfied hunger, would make it impossible. In- 
deed, this sense of satiety is as much and as truly a natural token, 
intended to warn us that we have eaten enough, as the sense of hunger 
is a token that we require food. 

As hunger instructs us when to eat, so disrelish teaches us when we 
should desist. It would seem that the very ne phis ultra of the cook's 
art is to destroy the sensation of disreUsh, which is almost as necessary 
to our health as himger itself. Thus it appears the object of modern 
cookery is to make the stomach bear a large quantity of food without 


nausea — to cram into the stomach as much as it can possibly hold with- 
out being sick. 

The rule which should regulate the quantity of food to be used is 
found ia that sensation of disrelish which invariably succeeds to satisfied 
appetites. If you be content to live plainly and temperately, you will 
never eat too much, but you wdl always eat enough ; but if you would 
rather incur the penalty of disease than forego the pleasure of diaing 
daintily, all I can say is, you are welcome to do so — but do not plead 
ignorance — blame only yourself. 

I have stated already that certain people have been known to eat 
from seven to forty pounds of meat or food in a single day. On the 
other hand, persons have lived on twelve ounces of food a day, and 
were actually exempt from disease. Dr. Franldin, in his younger days, 
confined himself solely to ten pounds of bread a week, drinking water 
only in the mean time. Rev. John Wesley lived to a great age on six- 
teen ounces a day, although he led a very active life as a preacher of 
the gospel ; and a celebrated Italian nobleman, who led a dissipated 
life till near fifty years of age, suddenly reformed his habits, and lived 
on twelve ounces a day with a single glass of wine, until he had reached 
the hundredth year of his age. Was the wine one of the means by which 
he prolonged his life ? It no doubt served to cheer his spirits. And 
this leads me to consider somewhat the nature of stimulants. By 
stimulants I mean ardent spirits, wines, and strong ales. Are they 
necessary as articles of diet ? They are not always, but have their 
uses. They are pernicious to the general organism, if too freely in- 
dulged in. Liquids which contain or make solids are better than 
wines, etc., yet both have their uses. Milk, the moment it reaches the 
stomach, is converted into curds and whey. The whey passes off by 
the kidneys — the solid curd nourishes the body. Now, if we evaporate 
a glass of wine on a shallow plate, whatever solid matter it contains 
will be left dry upon the plate, and this wUl be found to amount to 
about as much as may be laid on the extreme point of a penknife blade ; 
and a portion, by no means all — but a portion of this solid matter I wHl 
readily concede is capable of nourishing the body- — and this portion is 
only equal to one-third of the flour contained in a single grain of wheat ! 
If we want nourishment merely, why not eat a grain of wheat instead 
of drinking a glass of wine ? Yet wine has its uses as an exhilarant to 
the mind and body. 

Once placed beyond the reach of the seductions of the palate, the 
simple rule of drink what you want and as much as you want will of 
itself suggest the needful limitation. Physiology tells us plainly 
enough, not only why liquids are necessary, but how all superfluous 
quantities are rapidly got rid of. 

An interdict has been placed against hot drinks, which, if directed 


against tea and coffee so hot as to scald the mucous membrane, is ra- 
tional enough, but is simply absurd when directed against hot in favor 
of cold drinks ; the aroma of tea and coffee is produced by heat, conse- 
quently the pleasant, stimulating effect is considerably diminished when 
they are allowed to get cold. 

Great diversity prevails as to the kinds of drinks which should be 
used. Some interdict tea, others only green tea ; some will not hear 
of coffee ; others allow mild beer, but jarotest against the bitter. "WTio- 
ever very closely examines the evidence wiU probably admit that the 
excessive variations in the conclusions prove that no unexceptionable 
evidence has yet been offered. By this I mean that the evil effects 
severally attributed to the various liquids were no direct consequences 
of the action of such liquids, but were due to some other condition. 
We often lay the blame of a restless night on the tea or coffee, which 
would have been quite inoffensive taken after a simpler dinner, or at 
another hour. 

When a man uniformly finds a cup of tea produce discomfort, no 
matter what his dinner may have been, nor at what hour he drinks it, 
he is justified in the inference that tea disagrees with him ; if he finds 
that the same effect follow whether he take milk or sugar with hi*, tea, 
then he has a strong case against the tea itself, and his experience is 
evidence as far as it goes. But we should require a great deal of evi- 
dence as i^recise as this, before imjiugning the wide and massive in- 
duction in favor of tea, which is drawn from the practice of millions. 
Had tea in itself been injurious, had it been other than positively 
beneficial, the discovery would long ago have been made on a grand scale. 

The same may be said of coffee. Both tea and coffee may be hurt- 
ful when taken at improper times, or by bilious persons ; and a little 
vigilance will enable each person to decide for himself when he can, 
and when he cannot, take them with benefit. 

I may briefly state my opinion that the great objection against wines 
is its pleasantness, which is apt to lure us into drinking more than is 
needful. Wine is quite unnecessary for robust men living under healthy 
conditions ; but to them it is also, when moderately taken, quite harm- 
less. For many delicate men and women, living under certain un- 
healthy conditions, it is often indispensable. The physician must 
decide in aU such cases. 

Many think they cannot do vrithout something to drink at regular 
meals. Cold milk at meals has the disadvantage, if used freely, of 
engendering constipation, biliousness, and the long train of minor symp- 
toms which inevitably follow these conditions. 

Warm drinks arc preferable in moderate quantities. Field hands on 
cotton and sugar plantations find a wholesome drink in a mixture of 
molasses, ginger, and water. This is a safe drink for harvesters, as ai^e 


many other temperate household preparations. A recipe for many of 
these will be found in the proper department of this work. 

Whatever we eat or whatever we drink, let it be only enough barely 
to appease the instincts of hunger and thirst. If we rigidly do this, we 
shall seldom or never be afflicted with dyspepsia, liver complaints, heart 
disease, and the thousand ills to which flesh is heir, but will continue 
to enjoy unceasing rubicund health and vigorous old age. 


Clothing must be adapted to the climate in which a person lives. 
Warm or heavy clothing is rendered imperative in a northern cUmate, 
while the lightest and thinnest can only be tolerated in the torrid zones. 
It is, however, a physiological fact that the more the whole surface of 
the body is exposed to the external air, within certain limits, the more 
vigorously is its functional action performed, and the better is it enabled 
to preserve its own proper temperature, as well as to resist all unwhole- 
some impressions from vicissitudes of weather, or the extremes of heat 
and cold. It should always be as light and loose as possible without 
bodUy discomfort. 

The substances principally employed for clothing are linen, cotton, 
Bilk, wool, hair, or down. Woollens or flannels, being bad conductors 
of heat, afford the greatest immediate protection from cold ; and for 
the same reason are less debilitating to the cutaneous function than is 
generally supposed. The most healthy clothing for a cold climate, es- 
pecially the year round, is undoubtedly that made of wool. If worn 
next to the skin by all classes in summer and winter, an incalculable 
amount of coughs, colds, diarrhoeas, dysenteries, and fevers would be 
prevented, as also many sudden and premature deaths from croup, 
diphtheria, and inflammation of the lungs and bladder. Of course, the 
clothing should be regulated in amount according to the degree of the 
heat of the weather at the time prevaUing. In a very hot day, for in- 
stance, a single garment might be sufficient, but on a colder day an 
additional garment should be added, and in this way keep the equi- 
librium of the temperature of the body uniform as possible day by day, 
the year round. Winter maladies would be prevented by the ability of 
a woollen garment to keep the natural heat about the body, instead of 
conveying it away as fast as generated, as is done by linen, flaxen, 
cotton, and silken garments. Indeed, the laboring classes, or those com- 
pelled to toil in the sun, would enjoy better health by wearing light 
woollen clothing, than by wearing linen or cotton fabrics. Among the 
Irish emigrants and others who arrive in the United States during the 
summer season, we find many clothed entirely in woollen garments, 
frequently wearing heavy cloaks or coats, and actually feeling less dis- 
comfort from the heat than those of our native-bom citizens who are in 


the habit of wearing linen or cotton next to their skin, and similar fab- 
rics over these for outer clothing. It is more healthful to wear woollen 
next to the skin, esp'^.cially in summer, for the reason that woollen 
textures absorb the moisture of perspiration so rapidly as to keep the 
skin measurably dry all the time. It is curious to notice that the water 
is conveyed by a woollen garment from the surface of the body to the 
outer side of the garment, where the microscope shows it condensed in 
milhons of pearly drops ; while it is in the experience of all observant 
people, that if a linen shirt becomes damp by perspkation, it remains 
cold and clammy for a long time afterwards, and, unless removed at 
once, will certainly cause some bodily ailment, as palsy, rheumatism, 
etc. To sit down, or remain inactive with a linen or cotton shirt wet 
with perspiration, will speedily cause a chill to the whole body, leading 
not unfrequently to some sudden and fatal disease. In the night-sweats 
of consumption, especially, or of any debilitated condition of the sys- 
tem a woollen or flannel night-dress (light for warm weather) is im- 
measurably more comfortable than cotton or linen, because it prevents 
that sepulchral dampness and chilliness of feeling which are otherwise 
inevitable. The British government make it imperative that every 
sailor in the navy shall wear flannel shii-ts in the hottest dlimates, a rule 
that should be adoi^ted by all persons everywhere exposed to variable 
weather, to extreme heats and colds, merely regulating the amoimt of 
woollen garments worn to suit the variable temperatures of climates and 
seasons. In saying all this, however, we must remember that comfort 
is very much a matter of habit ; and therefore we should make due 
discrimination between .the natural sensation of health and the morbid 
sensitiveness produced by false customs. For instance, some keep their 
Vhole bodies constantly covered by many layers of wooUen garments, 
and yet go into a shivering fit at every unusual breath of cold air. The 
reason is, they never adapt their habiliments gradually to the degree of the 
heat or cold of the season. If it be deemed advisable to wear wooUen 
clothing all the year round, whether summer or winter, it does not 
follow that we are to wear more than one or two extra folds of clothing 
in addition to the under garments. The true rule is not to cover all 
parts of the body equally with the same amount of clothing. The fleshy 
parts require the least clothing, and the limbs and feet, or less muscular 
parts, the most. Yet we often wear, in addition to under clothing, a 
thick vest, coat, and overcoat ; and to these will add heavy scarfs of fur 
or wool to the neck, etc. , while the legs and feet are seldom clad in 
more than a single additional garment to the drawers and stockings. 
These parts require more clothing, especially in the winter season, than 
any other parts of the body. Furs are worn in the United States more 
for ornament than benefit. They are the warmest clothing materials 
known j yet are not adapted for general wear, iuasmuch as they are 


apt to overheat the body, and thus render it keenly susceptible to colds 
and other afflictions. By consequence, fur neck cloths, caps, etc., are 
very pernicious for the head and throat, inducing catarrhs, quinsy sore 
throat, and similar afflictions. On the contrary, a Hght woollen waist- 
coat worn constantly over the breast, summer and winter, would gnard 
against these and other evils, and insure vigorous strength to the lungs 
or respiratoiy apparatus, and thus should not be dispensed with even in 
dog-days. The simple rule is to keep the head cool and the feet warm 
at all seasons of the year. Cheap and pretty silks, of which there are 
many varieties, are materials which are admirable for ladies' evening, 
dinner, or walking dresses, and cost less in the end than other fabrics. 

While I contend that woollen or flannel clothing is the most suitable 
for the colder or even the more temperate climates, it is not for me to 
object to the use of linen or cotton clothing for those living in the toiTid 
or tropical climes. Indeed, cotton and linen would seem best adapted 
to such climes. In the north, many persons cannot wear flannel next 
to the skin, on account of inducing some pecxiliar cutaneous affection ; 
while others prefer such fabrics from choice, although exposed to all 
vicissitudes, never experiencing any evil effects from such a course. 
Such persons usually lead an active, out-door life, or are accustomed to 
exposing their bodies frequently, especially their chests, to atmospherio 

In a strictly hygienic regulation of dress, however, the color of the 
clothing is not to be disregarded. White color reflects the rays of the 
sun ; black absorbs them. Light colored clothuig is, therefore, more 
comfortable and sanitary in warm weather than dark colored, because 
the former repels the heat, while it is readily received and retained by 
the latter. The heat-reflecting or heat-retaining property of different 
fabrics varies exactly with their lighter or darker shades of color. This 
difference, however, is much greater in the luminous rays of light than 
in the non-luminous. When, therefore, we are not exposed to the sun, 
the subject of color is of very little importance. The absorbing power 
of dark surfaces renders the skins of dark-colored animals, as well as 
the darker persons or races of the human family, less liable to be 
scorched or blistered by the direct rays of the sun than are those of a 
lighter color. 

As to the cut or fashion of garments, that is a matter to be decided 
by the taste or habits of the wearer. Fashion, however, is very arbi- 
trary, and seldom consults hygiene in matters of dress. Of late years 
she has really much improved, as to the regulation of attire with regard 
to both health and elegance. The hooped skirt, which at the outset of 
its career was so mercilessly ridiculed, has proved to be a great blessing 
to the ladies, as it enables them to dispense with a heavy drag of solid 
skirts, and gives their lower limba free and easy play and motion. The 


hats or head-coverings now worn by both sexes are, in a sanitary point 
of view, far superior to those worn by our immediate ancestors, being 
very light, and affording free ventilation, which is indispensable for the 
avoidance of headaches, rushing of blood to the head, and many other 

I can therefore only say tlirit the first physiological rule for dress is 
to have all garments as light in texture and as loose in fashion as is 
consistent with bodily comfort, or such as will admit of the most perfect 
freedom in the exercise of every muscle in the body. Inequality of 
clothing, as before remarked, is a far more frequent cause of colds than 
deficient clothing. For instance, if a person exposes a part of the body 
usually protected by clothing to a strong current of cold air, lie will take 
cold sooner than by an equal exiDOsure of the whole body. A great 
safeguard against disease is to regulate the texture and quantity of 
clothing according to the temperature of the climate in which a person 
lives, avoiding extreme colds or extreme heats '; keeping the clothing 
always fresh and clean (especially that of the feet), and wearing a dif- 
ferent garment at night from that worn during the day, not omitting 
the cleanliness of the whole body in the general hygiene of wearing 
apparel. \ 


Sleep is as much a necessity to the existence of all animal organiza- 
tions as light, air, or any other element incident to their maintenance 
and healthful development. The constitutional relation of man to the 
changes of the seasons, and the succession of days and nights^ implies 
the necessity of sleep. Natural or functional sleep is a complete cessa- 
tion of the operations of the brain and sensory nervous ganglia, and 
is, therefore, attended with entire unconsciousness. Thoroughly heal- 
thy people, it is believed, never dream. Dreaming implies imperfect 
rest — some disturbing cause, usually gastric irritation, exciting the brain 
to feeble and disordered functional action. Individuals of very studious 
habits, and those whose labors are disproportionately intellectual, 
require more sleep than those whose duties or pursuits require more 
manual and less mental exertion. The waste of nervous influence in 
the brain of literary or studious persons requires a lo'jger time to be 
repaired or supplied than in those even who endure the largest amount 
of physical toil, without particular necessity for active thought while 
engaged in their daily manual pursuits. But no avocation or habit 
affects this qvaestion so much as the quality of the inge.eta. Those who 
subsist principally upon a vegetable diet, it is said, require less sleep 
than those who subsist on both animal and vegetable food. It seems 
certain that herbivorous animals sleep less than the carnivorous ; while 
the oninivora require more sleep than the herbivora and less than the 


camivora. Man, therefore, partaking- most of the omnivorous, living 
on a mixed diet of animal and vegetable food, requires more sleep than 
the ox, the horse, or the sheep, but much less than the lion, the tiger, 
or the bear. 

Physiologists are not well agreed respecting the natural duration of 
sleep. Indeed, no positive rule can be laid down on this subject ; the 
statute of Nature, however, appears to read : Retire soon after dark, 
and arise with the first rays of morning light ; and this is equally 
applicable to all climates and all seasons, at least in all parts of the 
globe proper for human habitations, for in the cold season, when the 
nights are longer, more sleep is required. 

Histoiy shows that those who have hved the longest were the longest 
sleepers, the average duration of sleep being about eight hovirs. The 
time of sleep of each individual must depend on his temperament, man- 
ner of life, and dietetic habits. For instance, John Wesley, with an 
active nervous temperament and a rigidly plain vegetable diet, and who 
performed an immense amount of mental and bodily labor, slept but 
four or five hours out of the twenty-four ; while Daniel Webster, with a 
more powerful frame but less active organization, and living on a mixed 
diet, had a "talent for sleeping" eight or nine hours. Benjamin Frank- 
lin used to say that seven hours sleep was enough for any man, eight 
hoiirs for a woman, and nine hours for a fool ! Nevertheless, the inva- 
riable rule for all whose habits are correct, is to retire early in the even- 
ing, and sleep as long as the slumber is quiet, be the time six, seven, 
eight, or nine hours. Those who indulge in late suppers, or eat heartily 
before retiring, are usually troubled with unpleasant dreams, nightmare, 
and are oftentimes found dead in the morning. Restless dozing in the 
morning is exceedingly debilitating to the constitution. Persons ad- 
dicted to spirituous liquors and tobacco, in connection with high-seasoned 
food, are in danger of oversleeping even to the extent of very consider- 
ably increasing the stupidity and imbecility of mind, and indolence and 
debility of body naturally and necessarily consequent upon those habits. 
Sleejiing in the daytime, or after meals, is not a natural law of the phy- 
siology of man. No one requires to sleep after a meal unless he has 
eaten more food than his system required. Sleep may be indulged in 
during the day when sufficient sleep is not had at night ; but this sleep- 
lessness at night need seldom occur were our habits made conformable 
to the general hygienic requirements of Nature. Children may sleep all 
they are inclined to. The position of the body is of some importance. 
It should be perfectly flat or horizontal with the head, a little varied by 
a small pillow. Sleeping with the head elevated by two or three pillows 
or bolsters is certainly a bad habit. The neck is bent, the chest is com- 
pressed, ajid the body unnaturally crooked. Children are made round- 
shouldered from their heads being placed on high piUows. The beda 


should be made of straw, com-husks, hair, various palms and grasses, 
never of feathers, which can only be mentioned in reprehension. The 
bed-clothing should always be kept scrupulously clean, and adapted to 
the season of the year, while the bed-rooms should always be sufficiently 
large and airy as best conducive to sound sleep and general vigorous 


Were all to follow the natural laws of their organization in respect to 
eating, drinking, clothing, exercise, and temperature, an occasional bath 
or washing would be sufficient ; but as the laws of life and health are 
transgressed in a thousand ways, the sum total of all the unphysiologi- 
cal habits of civilized life is a condition of body characterized by deficient 
external circulation, capillary obstruction, and internal congestion or en- 
gorgement. To counteract t'his morbid condition of the system, bathing 
of the whole body, on regular occasions, cannot, or should not, be 
omitted. For hygienic purposes, the particular process is merely a 
matter of convenience. You may bathe in a river if you like, or may 
employ the shower-bath ; but these modes are no more beneficial ^than 
the towel or sponge-bath. After the ablution, in whatever manner per- 
formed, care should be taken to thoroughly rub the body mth a crash 
towel. The best time for such purification of the body is on rising from 
bed in the naoming. The temperature of the water should be adapted 
to suit different circumstances of constitutional health and disease. 
Cold or cool baths are best for those in robust health ; but those who are 
deficient in blood, or have a low \atality, should use tepid water. 
Extremely feeble persons should commence with warm water, and grad- 
ually reduce the temperature as reaction improves. Sponging the body 
with spirits or vinegar may prove highly beneficial in many cases of 
debility, where water would be injurious. Excessive bathing tends to 
make the skin harsh and scaly by diluting the secretions of the sebaceous 
glands, the oil of which is intended to be regularly and naturally poured 
out to the surface of the skin in order to keep it smooth, glossy, and 
soft. Bathe as often as may be necessary to keep the skin clean, and 
you will then have fulfilled the requu-ements of hygienic bathing. 

Exercise.— I'liYsiCAL and Mental DEVELorjiENT. 

Everything tends to prove that man was destined to lead a life of 
bodily action. His formation — his physical structure generally, and 
that of his joints particularly his great capacity for sjjeed and laborious 
exertion — the Divine injunction, that " he shall live by the sweat of his 
t^row" — the bodily imbecility and enfeebled health invariably conse- 
quent upon sedentary habit — all go to prove that he was destined to 
lead a life of physical activity. Most people are apt to detipise many of 


tLe aids to health, because of their very simplicity. A sensible Dervish, 
in the Eastern aMegoiy, well aware of this weakness of human nature 
to despise simple things, and venerate those they do not understand, 
when called to the Sultan to cure him of a disease, did not dare to 
simply advise him to take exercise ; but he said to him : — " Here is a 
ball which I have stuffed with certain rare and precious medicines. 
And here is a bat, the handle of which I have also stuffed with similar 
medicines. Your Higness must take this ' bat and with it beat about 
this ball, untQ you perspire very freely. You must do this every day." 
His Highness did so ; and, in a short time the exercise of playing at bat 
and ball with the Dervish cured the Sultan's malady. But it should be 
remembered that there are a great many cases where medicines must 
be given to assist nature, besides the employment of exercise to facili- 
tate the recovery of the patient. 

Nevertheless, exercise is one of the chief aids of all others I must re- 
commend to be adopted as eminently essential for the remedying of bad 
health, and of preserving that which is already good. It is impossible 
for a healthy adult to be otherwise than active in body or mind, or both ; 
while it may be asserted, with abundant reason, that laziness is actually 
a disease, dependent on some abnormal condition of the organism. A 
variety of social circumstances may operate to i^roduce an iudolent dis- 
position of mind and inactive habit of body, but these also produce a pri- 
mary condition of ill-health. 

The function of respiration, by which the blood is vitalized, and the 
nutrition of the muscular structure, on which depend all the motive 
power or strength of the system, are intimately connected with the cir- 
culation of the blood, and this with active exercise. Without this, there 
must be unhealthy accumulation somewhere ; and, as the larger arteries 
are not permanently dUatable, while the veins and capillary arteries are 
Bo, this accumulation or congestion must take place in the veins and ca- 
pillary or hair-like arteries. 

When the circulation is feeble from lack of bodily exercise, or other 
cause, the blood creeps sluggishly along the minute vessels composing the 
elementary tissue of the body ; these veins and capillaries become 
gorged, which engorgement operates as a stiU further impediment to the 
free flow of the blood. The blood, when not circulated with due energy 
through the ultimate tissues, becomes deteriorated in quality, and so, ia 
turn, fails to supply that proper nutintion upon which, according to its 
degree of purity, all the tissues and fvmctions of the body depend. If 
the propelling power arising from breathing pure air and using active 
bodily exercise is not sufficiently energetic, the circulation through the 
elementary tissue is so slow that the blood loses its healthful arterial hue 
before it has reached the extremities of the hair-like arteries ; and thua 
that part of the tissue which ought to be filled with arterial blood is 


gorged only with black venous blood, from which the proper secretion 
necessary to the nutrition of the body, cannot be separated, either in due 
abundance or of a healthy quality. Hence, if this state of congestion be 
permitted to exist from lack of active exercise and consequent free res- 
piration, so as to vitalize the blood, there must needs be a sjjeedy wast- 
ing of flesh, and all the other phenomena of consumption or any other 
disease. The strength of the system is intimately connected with the 
circulation of the blood, as stimulated in its flow by means of active 
bodily exercise and pure air. 

This principle is well illustrated in the effects of gymnastics and train- 
ing, by which the muscles of any part of the body are remarkably invig- 
orated by regular systematic exercise. People of all trades and occupa- 
tions find those parts of the muscular system which are habitually the 
most exercised to be the most i^owerful. 

For healthful purposes all that is necessary is, any way, to exercise all 
parts of the body to a degree of fatigue without exhaustion ; that is, to 
a degree which will insure an energetic circulation of the blood through- 
out the entire economy. All exercises, however, to secure their full 
benefit, should be couj^ed either with some object of utility or amuse- 
ment, otherwise the mind is apt to labor adversely to the body. < 

Whea I say that exercise is what is wanted to restore to health the 
weak and languid, I mean that it is not so much exercise that is wanted 
as the exhilarating effect which the enjoyment of exercise produces. A 
man who exercises half an hour unwillingly in his wood-shed, is not bene- 
fited in the degree one is who takes an hour's walk for pleasure through 
a beautiful country. 

It is the enjoyment of exercise in which consists its chief est excellence. 
It is the diversion of the mind from the ailments of the body. The in- 
valid is by this drawn away from himself. 

What can better accompUsh this object than amusement? Laughter 
and Uvely talk may be said to be a species of exercise — mental exercise 
— which is very often as beneficial to an invalid as physical exercise. 
Anything that will induce a fit of laughtei must have an influence in 
promoting an active circulation of blood, and, as we have seen, it is ne- 
cessary to health that the blood should be duly aerated and How with en- 
ergy through the system. Whatever means may be employed to give 
rapid circulation to the blood must be conducive to health. I beUeve, 
then, most fully in vising all proper means of amusement which will cheer 
the invalid, and thus be a mental stimulus or avixiliary to the preservation 
and restoration of health. 

So, not only are amusements which afford exercise to the mental f acul^ 
ties useful, but occupation — some useful business pursuit, which requires, 
and hence secures, atteutior. and labor during several hours of each day 
— is absolutely essential to the high sanitary condition of the body, for 


nothing else will insure so constant, regular, and equally divided exer- 
cise for both mmd and body. 

Walking, running, leaping, hopping, dancing, rowing boats, etc., are 
physiologically adapted to strengthen the whole muscular system. Even 
boxing and fencing are to be advised when properly regulated. Wres- 
tling is a dangerous method of developing muscular power. Ten-pins, 
billiards, etc., are excellent exercises, but useful employment is better. 
Singing, declaiming, reading, etc., are admirable methods of cultivat- 
ing the vocal powers, and increasing the capacity of the respiratory ap- 
paratus. Riding on horseback, hunting, fishing, etc. , are all more or less 
beneficial in the prevention of disease and i^romotLag good health. Ri- 
ding in easy carriages, sailing in boats, swinging, and other passive exer- 
cises, are all to be duly considered as remedial expedients for invalids. 

Amid the many vicissitudes of fortune and the moral crosses to which 
female life is doomed, I recommend healthful exercise of the body, in 
order that the material fabric may be fortified against the thousand 
causes of disease continually assailing the sex. 

Woman comes earlier to maturity by several years than man. The 
tree of hfe blossoms and bears fruit sooner in the one sex than in the 
other. It also sooner withers and sheds its leaves, — but does not sooner 
die. Female life at any period is fully as good, — perhaps a little better 
in respect to probable duration, — than that of the male. It is during the 
period of from fourteen to twenty-one years that the seeds of female 
diseases are chiefly sown — or, at least, that the soil is specially prepared 
for their reception and growth. The predisposition to infirmities and 
disorders of various kinds is affected by acts of omission and commis- 
sion. In the first class need I mention the deficiency of healthy exer- 
cise of the body in the open air, and of intellectual exercise in judicious 
studies. The hoop and the skip-rope, even in city homes, might useful- • 
ly supersede the piano, the harp, and guitar, for one hour in the day, at 
least. In schools and seminaries there is no excuse — and, indeed, in 
many of them this salutary, pomt of hygiene is well attended to. In 
others, however, gymnastic exercises have been hastily thrown aside— 
partly because some enthusiasts have carried them to excess — paHly be- 
cause they were supposed to be inimical to the effeminacy of shape and 
features so much 'prized by parents and progeny, — but chiefly, I suspect, 
from that languor and disinclination to exertion which characterize the 
higher and even the middle classes of female youth. This deficiency of 
exercise in the open air may be considered the parent of one-half of fe- 
male disorders. The pallid complexions, the languid movements, the 
torpid secretions, the flaccid muscles and disordered functions (including 
glandular swellings), and consumption itself, attest the truth of this as- 

The exercises of email children consist in giving them the largest lib- 


erty and plenty of room. The cradle is 'a most pernicious method of 
exercising a child to sleep, and shoiild be discarded from every family. 
For the ordinary or wakeful exercises of a child, the modem "baby 
jumper" will be found a preferable contrivance. Among the poorer 
classes, the children, for want of room, to stir in, are apt to become 
sickly, puny, peevish, and often idiotic. 

The best time for exercise is in the morning, an hour or so before 
breakfast, when the stomach is partially empty. If it should happen to 
be entirely empty, or nearly so, it should be fortified with a cracker or 
two, or some other light aliment. Vigorous evening exercises may also 
be employed by persons of sedentary habits with great advantage. 
" Night work," when mental or physical, is at once a \iolation of the 
natural order of things. 

Thus, if you would preserve your health, you must take exercise, but 
not exercise exceeding your strength. Remember, the body must be 
induced to throw off its waste by action before it can be nourished. 
Nevertheless, it should also be remembered, that exercises of extreme 
severity are never required in ordinary cases of health, while in disease 
it must be incompatible with the strength and circumstances which 
Burround the patient. With plentiful bodily exercise you can scarlpely 
be ill, — without bodily exertion you cannot possibly be well. By ' ' well," 
I mean the enjojTuent of as much strength as may be consistent with 
yoiir natural physique. 

Exercise should be taken to the extent of quickened breathing and 
sensible persi)iration. If in health, walk, when possible, at least from 
one to two miles every morning before breakfast. The invalid should 
go out into the open air, and ramble to the degree of strength he may 
possess, avoiding fatigue. 

Exercise gives health, vigor, and cheerfulness, sound sleep and a keen 
appetite. Indeed, the effects of sedentary thoughtfulness are diseases 
that embitter and shorten life — interrupt rest — give tasteless meals, 
perpetual languor, and ceaseless anxiety. 

Cheerfid exercise, when at all practicable to be taken, whether active 
or passive, is absolutely an indispensable means to prevent or guard 
against disease, and to assist in the recuperative action of medicine 
when the body has become diseased. ♦ 

Air and Sunshine. 

As air may be said to be the very pabulum of life, it is highly essen- 
tial that it should be pure, — inasmuch as any deterioration of it never 
faUs to render the blood impure, and thus ultimately to affect both 
mind and body. 

Air covers the entire globe, pressing alike upon laud and water, hav- 
ing a depth of about forty -five miles. This vast ocean of air we call an 


atmosphere, from two Greek words, signifying- vapor and space, — it being 
an immense fluid sphere or globe. This atmosphere presses upon man, 
and upon every object on the surface of the earth, with a force equal to 
fifteen pounds to every square inch. A man of average size has a sur- 
face of two thousand five hundred square inches ; accordingly, the air in 
which he lives presses upon him with a weight of eighteen tons. This 
would of course crush every bone in his body, but for the fluids within 
him, which establish an equiKbrium, and leave him unoppressed. 

Pure air contains seventy-nine parts of nitrogen and twenty-one 
parts of oxygen. If we add a single part more of oxygen to the air, it 
would no longer be atmospheric air, but aqua fortis, an element capable 
of destroying everything coming beneath its terrible jaower. 

The quantity of air consumed by a man of average size at each inspi- 
ration, is from fifteen to forty cubic inches, according to the capacity of 
the lungs. Thus, in about an hour, a person consumes about six thou- 
sand and sixty -six pints, or two hogsheads of air. This air meets in the 
lirngs in one hour, about one half of that amount of blood, or twenty- 
four in twenty-four hours. In other words, the quantity of blood which 
circulates through the system is estimated to be about one-eighth of 
the weight of the body. So that a man weighing one hundred and 
fifty pounds will have in his circulation about eighteen and three- 
quarter pounds of blood. The whole of this large quantity of blood has 
been proved, by carefiol experiment, to circulate through the blood- 
vessels in the almost incredible brief period of sixty-five and seventy- 
six one-hundredths seconds of time, and that is veiy little over one 
minute ! This indeed seems wonderful, when we consider the vast ex- 
tent of vessels it has to travel through ; the arteries, the veins, and the 
minute capillaries through which it must be urged with no little force. 

The physiology of the respiratory f iinctions explains the relation of an 
abundant supply of air to the maintenance of health and the attainmeufc 
of longevity. Fresh air in the lungs is so immediately essential to life, 
that most animals in less than one minute, when deprived of it, suffo- 
cate, become unconscious, and appear to be dead, — real death occurring 
in a few minutes if air is not supplied. 

There are at least three objects to be accomplished by breathing, 
namely : the renewal of the blood and the taking of imjiurities out of it ; 
the warming of the body ; and the finishing up of the process of diges- 
tion, and the change of chyle into nutritive blood. That carbonic acid 
and water are borne out of the lungs with every breath may be easily 
proved. If we breathe into lime-water, it will become white. This is 
owing to the carbonic acid in the breath uniting with the lime, and pro- 
ducing carbonate of lime. Then if we breathe upon a piece of glass, it 
becomes wet, showing that there is watery vapor in the breath. That 
fche blood receives oxygen from the air we breathe, is proved by the fact 


that the in-going breath has one-fourth more oxygen in it than the out- 
going. The lungs, then, take out of all the air we breathe one-fourth 
of its oxygen. If we breathe it over a second, a third, or a fourth time, 
it not only has less oxygen each tiiue, and is less useful for the purposes 
of respiration, but it becomes positively more hurtful by reason of the 
poisonous carbonic acid which, at every out-goiug breath, it carries with 
it from the lungs. 

Equal in importance with the quantity of air we breathe is its purity. 
The supply of air for an ordinary man to breathe each minute, is from 
seven to ten cubic feet. Now, suppose a himdred persons to be con- 
fined in a room thirty feet in length, breadth, and height, the room 
containing nearly thirty thousand cubic feet, it follows that the whole 
air of the room would be rendered unfit for respiration on account of the 
vast volume of carbonic acid thrown out of the lungs and skin of the 
one hundred persons thus crowded together. This proves the import- 
ance of always having an abundant sujjply of pure atmospheric air 
always kept in circulation in crowded assemblies, chui'ches, school- 
rooms, theatres, factories, workshops, and dwellings. 

Consider the effect of sleeping in a small room, seven feet by liine, 
not furnished with the means of ventilation. If a person sleeps eight 
hours in such a room, he will spoil during the time one thousand nine 
hundred and twenty cubic feet of air, rendering the air of the room 
positively dangerous to breathe. Every disease is aggravated by the 
breathing of bad air ! Yet it is common to close aU the doors and 
windows where sick persons are confined, lest the patients should take 
cold. This is a bad practice. The sick should have plenty of fresh 
air. Their comfort is promoted by it, and their recovery hastened. It 
it utterly impossible for the lungs to be expanded in an impure atmos- 
phere, because the air-passages, imtated by the extraneous particles, 
spasmodically contract to keep them out. The consequence of this is, 
those persons who reside permanently in an atmosphere charged with 
foreign ingredients or miasms, find their lungs continually contract- 

All sedentary habits weaken the abdominal muscles, and thereby 
lessen the activity of the breathing process. Intense mental applica- 
tion, if long continued, powerfully diminishes the respiratory functions. 
Per.sons habitually in deep thought, with the brain laboring at its utmost 
capacity, do not breathe deep and free, and are consequently short- 
lived. All crooked or constrained bodily positions affect respiration 
injuriously. Reading, writing, sitting, standing, speaking, or laboring, 
with the trunk of the body bent forward, is extremely hurtful. In all 
mechanical or manual labor, the body should be bent or lean on the 
hip joints. The trunlv s'.iould always be kept straight. Dispense with 
bed-CLulains, if you can. In sleep the head should never be raised 


very high, as that position oppresses the hmgs ; nor should the slee^jer 
iooline toward the face with the shoulders thrown forward. 

Grates and fire-places secure much better ventilation than stovea 
No stove, especially furnaces, should be used without the means of the 
free admission of external air into the room. Lamps, candles, gas-burn- 
ers, etc., are so many methods of consuming oxygen and rendering the 
air irrespirable. Smoking lamps are a veiy common source of vitiated 
ail'. The bad air of steamboats, railroad cars, stages, omnibuses, etc. , 
are a source of constant suffering to many. I may here remark that 
the general misapprehension of the theoiy of catching cold frequently 
produces the evil sought to be avoided. More colds are taken in over- 
heated than in too cold places, and still more are owing to vitiated 
or foul air. In sleeping and other apartments, where thorough ventila- 
tion is impossible, the air may be rapidly changed and materially fresh- 
ened, by opening all the doors and windows, and then swinging one 
door violently forward and backward. The rules of ventilation apply to 
all rooms and apartments alike, whether in dwelling-houses or travelling 
vehicles. There is no necessity for breathing air which has lost a part 
of its oxygen and acquired a portion of carbonic acid. The supply of 
good air is amjile. 

In connection with a full supply of atmospheric air to every human 
being, the importance of plenty of sunshine is not to be overlooked. 
Pure air for the kmgs and bright sunlight for the eyes, is a physiological 
maxim which should never be forgotten. The nutritive process is ma- 
terially checked in aU vegetable and animal life when deprived of light 
for a considerable time. In the case of vegetables, they become etio- 
lated or blanched. Almost the entire population of our large cities 
who occupy back rooms and rear buildings where the sun never shines, 
and cellars and vaults below the level of the ground, on the .shaded 
side of narrow streets, is more or less diseased. Of those who do not 
die of acute diseases a majority exhibit unmistakable marks of imper- 
fect development and deficient vitality. During the prevalence of epi- 
demics, as the cholera, the shaded side of a narrow street invariably 
exhibits the greatest ratio of fatal cases. A certain amount of shade 
is essential to comfort, but when it reaches the point of eiicluding 
svmshine to a large degree, it becomes a positive evil. Let us always 
welcome the visits of the healthful air and glowing simshine, and look 
out continually for the essential conditions of vigor and cheerfulness. 

Old Aoe, or Longevity. 

The true jihilosophy of life is to live and enjoy — to use and not abuse 
the essentials to human longevity and happiness. As we read in Holy 
Writ, in the earlier history of man, when the air was free from infec- 
tion, the soil exempt from pollution, and man's food was plain and 


natural, individuals lived on the average four or five hundred years; 
the maximum point of longevity recorded — that in the case of Methu- 
selah — being nine hundred and sixty-nine years. Without speculating 
upon the problem whether the years of the early historians included the 
same period of time as the years of our present almanac, it is sufficient 
ifor all practical purjioses to know the general law, that human lives 
may be lengthened to one or two hundred years, or dwindled to the 
" shortest span," by our vokmtary or individual habits. If it can be 
proved that any one man has lived one hundred, two hundred, or even 
thi'ee hundred years, under favorable hygienic circtunstances, it will be 
sufficient evidence of a physiological principle that most men may attain 
to similar extreme longevity, by a mere simple obedience to the natural 
laws of his being. 

The examples of extreme longevity are too numerous to be detailed 
even in a book of many pages, but a few examples may be cited on this 
point. Haller, the celebrated English physician, during his time col- 
lected more than one thousand cases of persons in Europe who attained 
the ages of from one hundred to one hundred and seventy years. In 
Baker's " Curse of England," we find a list of one hundred individuals 
whose ages ranged from ninety-five to three hundred and seventy ! 
Twenty-two of these reached the age of one hundred and fifty and up- 
wards, and thirty exceeded one hundred and twenty years. Modem 
statistics exhibit numerous examples of persons in the United States 
and all i^arts of the world attaining more than one hundred years. In- 
deed, it was common to the American Indians, previous to the introduc- 
tion of ' ' fire-water " among them, to hve to one hundred years of age ; 
although, as a general rule, the duration of life among savage races is 
much shorter than among the civilized and cultivated people of the 

In our present artificial state of society, it is not prol)able that one in 
a thousand iiersons dies a natural death. Alas ! disease and violence 
sweep, vsdth few exceptions, the cntii^e human fan^ily to an untimely 
grave. Even the celebrated Thomas Parr, who died at one hundi-ed 
and fifty-two years of age, came to an vmnatural death by eating too 
heartily at a feast given in his honor by an English king ; while Richard 
Lloyd, who was in full health and vigor at one hundred and thirty-two 
years, died soon after from being persuaded to eat tlesh meat and drink 
malt liquor, to which he had never been accustomed in all his life before. 

On physiological principles, natural death results from a gradual con- 
Bolidation of the structures of the body. In infancy the fluids are in 
much larger proportion than the solids, but as we grow older the fluids* 
decrease and the solids increase — thus gradually changing the flexibility 
and elasticity of youth to the stiffness and immobility of age. Thus 
in a perfectly normal condition of the organism, all the fimctions, 


powers and senses decline in the same harmonious relations in which 
thej were developed. As the process of condensation goes on equally 
and imperceptibly, the motive powers grow torjoid, the nvxtritive func- 
tions are enfeebled, the sensibility becomes dull, the external senses are 
obtunded, and lastly, the mental raanifestations disappear — ^death occurs 
without a struggle or a groan. 

Certain pohtical and social economists have attempted to prove that 
old age and a vast population are not desirable things, on the groixnd 
that, while population increases geometrically, the alimentary produc- 
tions of the earth only increase arithmetically ; hence, that some scheme 
of death or destniction is requisite or indisiiensable to kill off, or clear 
the ground of existing human beings as fast as the coming generations 
demand their places. In other words, that it is necessary that disease, 
violence, pestilence, murder, wars, and death should prevail, because of 
the earth's incai^acity to produce suflBcient food for the whole race of 
human beings, were all permitted to hve out their natural lives and die 
a natural death. A small amount of rational investigation will show 
the fallacies of all such theories. Indeed, under existing governments 
and social arrangements, more than three-fourths of all the lands and 
all the labor, so far as the production of the means of human sustenance 
is concerned, is literally wasted, or worse than wasted ; while a large 
extent of the earth's surface has never yet been brought under cultiva- 
tion, and that part v^hich is cultivated the best admits of vast improve- 

Casting all speculation aside, it will not be denied that this earth was 
made the residence of man, and that God exj^ressly enjoined upon him 
lo be fruitful, and to occupy and replenish the earth, giving him at the 
same time dominion over all the vegetable and animal kingdoms, as a 
means for subsistence and happiness, while progressing through the 
gradual stages of his natural or terrestrial existence. Hence, the Crea- 
tor did not bring man into existence without first furnishing him with 
the means of an abundant supply of all the elements requisite for a long 
life of health and joy. Man, however, has grossly violated the laws of 
nature, and blundered on in his perversity, till life has actually become 
a grievous burden, and extreme old age a great and moral curse instead 
of a divine and special blessing. 

Were it necessary, a thousand reasons might be given for believing 
that the earth now has, and always will have, room and food enough 
for all the population that cin be produced by human beings who Uvo 
agreeably to the laws of their natural organisTQ. Indeed, it is a philo- 
sophical maxim that "intensive life cannot be extensive." The races 
of man have now a hurried, stimulated, forced and disorderly exist- 
ence, marrying at too early an age, bringing myriads of children into 
the world, ' ' scarce half made up," only to perish by thousands in tho 


earliest infancy, or to drawl out a miserable and unhealthy existence, if 
their lives are prolonged to manhood's estate, and sink at last, even 
then, into premature graves, from, continued and perverse abuses of the 
hygienic and dietetic rules of life. 

As already said, if the body develops itself slowly and healthfully 
(as it always will in its natural state), it is only reasonable to suppose 
that the periods of infancy, childhood, and adolescence or maturity 
would be greatly prolonged by the more simple conformity to the ori- 
ginal laws of our being ; the period of youth might and would be 
extended to what we now call " old age," say " threescore and ten," 
and "'threescore and ten" would be but the beginning of vigorous 
manhood to be indefinitely prolonged, reaching on to a hundred, or even 
two hundred years ! 

The special means to insure sound health and a long life are to avoid 
all errors in diet and personal habits. As the fluids and solids of the 
human organism are formed from the materials taken into the stomach 
as food and drink, it follows that we all ought to abstain more than we 
do from concentrated materials of aliment, and live more on fruits and 
vegetable substances, and fret ourselves less with the cares of.' the 
world ; so all individuals would be able to maintain the juices o^ the 
body, and reduce, in a large degree, the solid elements which induce 
rigidity of muscles, thickening of membrane, contraction of organs, all 
leading to disease, premature debility, old age, and death. 

Let us all then strive to return to the elementary i)rinciples of organic 
or human life. Let our diet be plain, simple, and of a juicy nature. 
Let us refrain from excesses of all kinds, whether connected with our 
mental or physical powers, and thereby secure a long lease on life, at- 
tended with a thousand blessings unknown to those who lead ' ' fast 
lives." eat and drink immoderately, and indulge in the various forms of 
intemperate or luxurious habits. It is never too late to commence a 
reform in all these things. The oldest person now living might prolong 
his life to an indefinite period, by avoiding the errors named, and sub- 
mitting himself to the prior-ordeal mandates of nature. To assist 
Nature in her work of regeneration and recuperation of the human or- 
ganism, my "Renovating Pills" will be found of most wonderful effi- 
cacy in connection with the hygienic and dietetic requirements already 
indicated. They will thus prolong the period of youth to vigorous 
manhood, and "vigorous manhood to the extremest limit of life ever yet 
vouchsafed to the human being. The already " old and feeble," so 
called, may be sure of having their lives greatly prolonged, and finally, 
in the inevitable ordinances of Heaven, or the law.s of gradual progress 
and decay, passing away with cheerful resignation and peace to that 
xnysterioiis bourne frgro which UQ mortal traveller ever has returned. 

the complete herbalist. 197 

Life, Health, and Disease. 

What is life ? In general terms life may be said to be a subtle ema- 
nation of Deity — a principle that pervades all the works of creation, 
whether organic or inorganic. It is a sort of Entity, whose nature is 
as mysterious and unfathomable as that of Divinity himself. Many 
scientific men have contended that life is electricity^ and arguments and 
experiments have been adduced to show that such is the fact. For 
instance, a scientific body of France pulverized stone, and by the use of 
electricity produced from the atoms Living insects. But this and similar 
experiments are accepted as evidence that electricity is not life, but is a 
leading phenomenon of its actuality. Life is something neither physical 
nor spiritual. It is allied to both, but is neither. It is not soul, for 
soul is something infinitely higher than life — a something of which life 
itself is but an inadequate, visible manifestation. 

Health is perhaps a subtle thing, yet most importantly palpable to 
our senses and perceptions. It is that state of the human body in which 
the structure of all the x^arts is sound, and then- functions regularly and 
actively performed, rendering the individual fit for all the duties and 
enjoyments of life. Or, in other words, it is that condition of the ani- 
mal economy when the functions of all the organs, beginning with the 
heart and lungs, act in natural and harmonious relation, the one with the 
other, and the whole together, rendering existence not only a state of 
completeness, but a pleasure, a beauty, and a charm, and therefore the 
chiefest cause and leading feature of aU from which the human being 
derives that phase of joy caUed bliss. In the various temperaments the 
phenomena of health are somewhat different ; hence, what would at once 
preserve it in one, might not jireserve it in or restore it to another, until 
some reasonable period of time had elapsed. Health varies much in 
people of the many occupations which necessity and circumstances 
compel them to adopt for a livelihood or for pleasure, and the acute- 
ness of the senses which would be necessaiy in some recreative or pro- 
ductive occupations, would be morbid in persons otherwise engaged. 
But the general symptoms of health are, in all temperaments, a spark- 
ling eye, a clean skin, a white and rose-blended complexion (unless 
where the temperament naturally prescribes a rich and glowing olive), 
ruby lips, pearly teeth, untainted breath, glossy hair, expanded chest, 
elastic spine, muscular limbs, symmetrical waist, well built and firm 
pelvis, fleshy thighs and calves, and a buoyant grace of the whole body. 
Added to these we have a rich and melodious voice (wherever the 
slightest hoarseness or discordance of tone is noticed look for dan- 
ger), and a calm and cultivated spirit in the old, a joyous spirit in the 
young. What munificent gifts are these, and who should fail, by every 
means in his power, to secure them ? Disease is the opposite of health, 


and means any departure from the normal condition of the general 
organism, or any impairment or derangement of any fmiction by which 
the regular action of any other one or of the whole are made or forced 
to work in an irregular or imuatural manner^ — producing and entailing 
disorder, pain, miserj', and death ! We see disease in the lustreless and 
phrenzied eye, in the pallid and sunken cheeks, in the parched lips, in 
the jaundiced or yellow skin, in the contracted chest, in the difficult 
respiration, in the racking cough, in the expectoration of tubercles and 
sputa from the lungs, in the palpitating heart, in the scrofulous sores 
and ulcers, in the bloated or attenuated abdomen, in the disabled legs 
and arms, in decayed teeth and toothless jaws, in fetid breath, in 
crooked spine, in the deformed pelvis, in aU derangements of the sexual 
organs, in baldness, in disordered stomach and bowels, in neuralgias, 
rheumatisms, leprosies, spasms, epilepsies, palsies, loss of the senses of 
Bight, hearing, smelling, taste and touch, hyiiochondrias, manias, drunk- 
enness, pains, aches, wounds, bruises, maimings, and in innumerable 
other agonies ! With the simple methods by which health can be pre- 
served by those who were born to health, how astonishing it is tha£ dis- 
ease and misery are the general rule, and health and pleasure the 
exception ! Who of aU the human race may now say, " I have health ! 
I am actually living in a state of nature, or in that perfect mental and 
physical condition in which I was or ought to have been bom. " Not 
one, is my reply. We may therefore regard life as a negative rather 
than a positive quality of existence. Occasionally there may be freedom 
from the slightest degree of actual suffering, and yet that pleasurable 
condition which would be natural to the regular co-oijerative work of all 
the organs of the body will be wanting. 

In health our moments fly on lightning wing, and we are scarcely 
conscious of their rapid exit ; in sickness, on the contrary, our moments 
are clogged with leaden heels, and pass in that lingering manner as to 
render our sufferings seemingly the more acute by reason of the slow 
or tardy march of time. To the sick, time does not pass lightly, but 
with the heavy tread of a giant. 

How inestunable is that state of being comprehended imder the name 
of health ! — yet how few are ever led to consider its iiriceless value and 
importance. Health, perfect health, is not to be found in oui- present 
age among the races of men ; yet even in its negative aspect, its most 
deteriorated quality, what were all the joys, aU the riches, all the ad- 
vantages of this world without its possession ? Unless all, from the 
highest to the lowest, from the king to the beggar, learn to prize health 
and avoid disease, — death, who is no respecter of persons, will continue 
to reap his rich harvests among them all. Ca'sar could not escape, nor 
could the renowTi of a thousand victories diffuse an auodynic or soporific 
influence over the pfilow of the great Napoleon, nor save the laurels of 


Mareng-0 from the blighting mists of St. Helena ! Intellectual cultiva- 
tion oftentimes sows the seeds of physical deterioration. When we see 
that the prince is equally liable to the same physical and mental mis- 
eries as the vagrant, it becomes everybody to bear in remembrance the 
axiom that a sound body is the natural basis of a sound mind, and vice 
versa, and that every rational method should be adopted to preserve 
them. I have shown brielly that there is no condition or state of man 
that is exempt from disease and death. It may now be asked, Are 
there no means of preventing the ravages of the one, and postponing 
the sad triumph of the other ? No means of restoring lost health, or of 
rendering sickness compatible with contentment, or even happiness 
itself ? Yes. The severest diseases are and may be prevented ; and 
are curable and cured — even consumption itself when judicious treat- 
ment is applied. All right-thinking persons will admit that sickness 
may be ob-sdated, disease mitigated, and even death robbed of his prey 
for years, by ajjproved remedies ritrhtly employed. 

Regulating the Passions. 

It has been truly said that we may religiously observe all the laws of. 
hygiene in relation to air, light, drink, food, temperature, exercise, 
clothing, sleep, bathing, and the excretions, and yet lack one thing— one 
grand essential to human health and happiness. Yes, if our passions 
are our masters and not our slaves, tney will nUe and ruin us instead of 
obeying and serving our behests. There is, therefore, no single hygienic 
influence more conducive to health, happiness, and long life, than a 
cheerful, equitable temper of mind ; and there is nothing that will more 
surely disorder the bodily functions, exhaust the vital energies, and 
Btamp premature infirmities on the constitution, and hurry us on to an 
early grave, than an uneven, ii-ritable, fretful, or passionate mental 

Medical men, at least, well know that a violent fit of passion will sud- 
denly arrest, alter, or modify the various organic secretions. Excessive 
mental emotion will deprave and \'itiate the secretions as readily as a 
deadly poison taken into the stomach. A paroxj'sm of anger will render 
the bile as acid and irritating as a full dose of calomel ; excessive fear 
wiU relax the bowels equal to a strong infusion of tobacco ; intense grief 
will arrest the secretions of gastric juice as effectually as belladonna ; 
and violent rage will inake the Siiliva as poisonous as will a mercurial 
salivation. There are many persons whose rage, either thoroughly real 
or exaggerated, is so violent that they froth at the mouth, and are 
thrown into spasms or violent convulsions. These fits of anger are often 
assumed, however, by designing parties for the purpose of frightening 
stem parents and guardians and others into the support of their own 
views and wishes. Such persons, finding their displays copied from 


nature of no avail, will suddenly become tame as lambs, but the effect 
upon their general health is found in the appearance of many nervous 
disorg-anizations, which, if the cause be often repeated, become per- 

Thousands of facts of the above kind could be mentioned, but enough 
has been presented to demonstrate the law that a sound body cannot 
exist unless connected with a well-balanced mind. A vigorous exercise 
of the higher mental powers, a lively cultivation of the intellectual 
faculties and the moral affections, will never fail to sustain and elevate 
the human character, while, on the other hand, the violent indulgence 
of the animal propensities and the lower order of the passions, will wear 
out the mental machinery and enervate all the physiological powers. 
Will not the inspiration of love exalt the soul to the realms of " bliss, 
exquisite bliss ? " "Will not the influence of hatred depress the soul, 
and sink it to the nethermost depth of misery and despair ? Contrast 
the emotions of benevolence, or gratitude, or veneration, or conscien- 
tiousness, or mirthfulness, or faith, or hope, ^\ath that of envy, revenge, 
jealousy, fear, grief, remorse, or despair ! The first are as refreshing 
,to the soul as the gentle dews of morn to the tender blades of grass ; 
the other as withering as the fiery blasts of a crater to the verdant vjfles. 
The one energizes the mind and reanimates the body — the other sinks, 
chills, and enfeebles both ; one manufactures, creates as it were, vital 
power — the other wastes and destroys body and soul. 

Those who would maintain permanent and uniform health and live 
to an old age, will perceive the necessity for cultivating all the nobler 
impulses of our nature with unremitting care and judgment. A\Ticn we 
"nourish wrath to keep it warm," we only add to the venom of a 
malicious heart. That anger which "dwells only in the bosom of 
fools," should have no inheritance in the bosom of the wise and 
thoughtful of our race. The "evils of life," whatever they may be, 
are often "blessings in disguise," and therefore should be met with a 
brave fortitude and courage, in.stcad of wailing, complaining and lamen- 
tation. Fretting, scolding, and fault-finding, not only aggravate all 
the necessary evils of life, but greatly multiply them. Wlien we in- 
dulge in these faults, we but sow the dragon's teeth to reap a harvest of 
greater sorrows. More than this, we dissipate un\\'isely our best talents 
and energies, and render life a curse instead of a blessing. The grand 
essential, therefore, of a cheerful mind is self-control. This is the great 
law of mental hygiene. Before any one can acquire self-government, 
he must learn to govern the animal propensities, and make them sub- 
servient to the intellectual faculties and moral sentiments. It may 
require long, patient, and thorough discijjline ; it may cost much self- 
denial, and appear to demand great teini)orary sacrifices, but it is worth 
all it may cost. Occasionally it is acquired through long years of bitter 


experience ; and sometimes the greater part of a life is spent in suffer- 
ing disappointments, troubles, and crosses, ere the mind is found at 
peace with itself, and in right relations to all surrounding nature. 
Happy are they who can, even in such expensive schools, learn the art 
of adapting themselves to the invariable laws of the viniverse, which 
they cannot successfully oppose or in any respect alter ! Indeed, 
the only guarantee a man can have for a long life of health and happi- 
ness is to constantly cherish and maintain an even, cheerful, and hope- 
ful spirit. 

Things for the Sick-Room. 

Barley Water. — Pearl barley, two ounces ; boiling water, two 
quarts. Boil to one quart and strain. If desirable, a little lemon-juice 
and sugar may be added. This may be taken freely in aU inflammatory 
and eruptive diseases : Measles, Scarlet Fever, Small-Pox, etc. 

Rice Water. — Rice, two ounces; water, two quarts. Boil one hour 
and a half, and add sugar and nutmeg to suit the taste. When milk is 
added to this it makes a very excellent diet for children. Should the 
bowels be too loose, boil the milk before adding. 

Sage Tea. — Dried leaves of Sage, half an ounce ; boiling water, one 
quart. Infuse for half an hour and strain ; may add sugar if desired. 
Balm, Peppermint, Spearmint, and other teas are made in the same 

A Refreshing Drink in Fevers. — Boil an ounce and a half of 
tamarinds, two ounces of stoned raisins, and three ounces of cranber- 
ries in three pints of water until two pints remain. Strain, and add 
a small piece of fresh lemon-peel, which must be removed in half an 

Arrow Root Jelly. — Stir a tablespoonful of arrow root powder 
into half a cupful of cold water, pour in a pint of boUing water, let it 
stand five or ten minutes, and then sweeten and flavor it to suit the 

Irish Moss Jelly. — Irish Moss, half an ounce ; fresh milk, one and 
a half pints. Boil down to a pint. Strain and add sugar and lemon- 
juice suiEcient to give it an agreeable flavor. 

Isinglass Jelly. — Isinglass, two ounces ; water, two pints. Boil 
to one point. Strain, and add one pint milk and one ounce of white 
sugar. This is excellent for persons recovering from sickness, and for 
children who have bowel complaints. 

Tapioca Jelly.— Tapioca, two large spoonfuls ; water, one pint. 
Boil gently for an hour, or until it appears like a jelly ; add sugar, wine, 
and nutmeg, with lemon-juice to flavor. 

Rice Jelly. — Mix a quarter of a pound of rice, picked and washed, 
with half a pound of loaf sugar, and just sufficient water to cover it. 


Boil until it assumes a jelly-like appearance. Strain, and season to suit 
the taste and condition of the patient. 

Grapes. — In all cases of fever, very ripe grapes of any kind are a 
beneficial article of diet, acting as both food and drink, and possessing 
cooUng and soothing properties. They are also extremely grateful to 
evers' plate. 

Toast. — To make a most excellent toast for a reduced or convalescent 
patient, take bread twenty-four or thirty-six hours old, which has been 
made of a mixture of fine wheat flour and Indian meal, and a pure yeast 
batter mixed with eggs. Toast it until of a delicate brown, and then 
(if the patient be not inclined to fever) immerse it in boiled milk and 
butter. If the patient be feverish, spread it hghtly with cranberry jam 
or calves'-foot jelly. 

Rice. — In all cases where a light and nice diet for parties who have 
been or are afflicted with diarrhoea or dysentery is required, rice, in 
almost any cooked form, is most agreeable and advantageous. It may 
be given with benefit to dyspeptics, unless costiveness accompanies the 
dyspepsia. To make rice-pudding, take a teacupful of rice, and as 
much sugar, two quarts of milk, and a teaspoonful of salt. Bake, vSvith 
a moderate heat, for two hours. Rice flour made in a batter,* and 
baked upon a griddle, makes a superb cake ; and rice-flour gmel, seasoned 
to the taste, is most excellent for the sick-room. 

Bkead Jelly. — Boil a quart of water and let it cool. Take one- 
third of a common loaf of wheat bread, slice it, pare off the crust, and 
toast it to a light browTi. Put it in the water in a covered vessel, and 
boU gently, till you find, on putting some in a spoon to cool, the liquid 
has become a jelly. Strain and cool. "When used, warm, a cupful, 
sweeten with sugar, and add a little grated lemon-peel. 

Rice Guuel. — Ground rice, one heaping table-spoonful; water, one 
quart. Boil gently for twenty minutes, adding, a few minutes before it 
is done, one table -spoonful of ground cinnamon. Strain and sweeten. 
Wine may be added when the case demands it. 

Wateu Gkuel. — Oat or com meal, two table-spoonfuls ; water, one 
quart. Boil for ten minutes, and strain, adding salt and sugar if de- 
sired by the patient. 

Sago Gruel. — Sago, two table-spoonfuls ; water, one pint. Boil 
gently until it thickens ; stir frequently. May add wine, sugar, and 
nutmeg, according to circumstances. 

Arrow-Root Grukl. — Arrow root, one table-spoonful ; sweet mOk 
and boiling water, each one half pint. Sweeten with loaf-sugar. This 
is verj' good for children whose bowels are irritable. 

Decoction oe Bran. — New wheat bran, one pint; water, three 
quarts. Boil down to two quarts, strain off the li(iuor, and add sugar, 
honey or molasses, according to the taste of the patient. 


Tapioca. — Tapioca is a very delightful food for invalids. Make an 
ordinary pudding of it, and improve the flavor agreeably to the desire 
of the patient or convalescent, by adding raisins, sugar, prunee, lemon- 
jiaice, wine, spices, etc. 

Beep Liquid. — When the stomach is very weak, take fresh lean 
beef, cut it into strips, and place the strips into a bottle, wath a little 
salt. Place into a kettle of boiling water and let it remain one hour. 
Pour off the liquid and add some water. Begin with a small quantity, 
and use in the same manner and under similar circumstances as beef 
tea. This is even more nourishing than beef tea. 

Beep Tea. — Cut one pound of lean beef into shreds, and boil for 
twenty minutes in one quart of water, being particular to remove the 
scum as often as any rises. When it is cool, strain. This is very nour- 
ishing and palatable, and is of great value in all cases of extreme 
debility where no inflammatory action exists, or after the inflammation 
is subdued. In very low cases, a small tea-spoonful may be adminis- 
tered every fifteen or twenty minutes, gradually increasing the amount 
given as the powers of life return. In cases of complete prostration, 
after the cessation of long exhausting fever, it may be used as directed 
above, either alone or in conjunction with a little wine. 

P.\NADO. — Put a little water on the fire with a glass of wine, some 
sugar, and a little grated nutmeg ; boil all together a few seconds, and 
add pounded crackers or crumbs of bread ; and again boil for a few 

FRENCn Milk Porridge. — Stir some oatmeal and water together, 
let the mixture stand to clear, and pour off the water. Then put more 
water to the meal, stir it well, and let it stand till the next day. Strain 
through a fine sieve, and boil the water, adding milk while so doing. 
The proportion of water must be small. With toast this is admirable. 

Common Milk Porridge will be foimd very palatable in ordinary 
cases. Everybody knows how to make it. 

Buttermilk Pap. — Fresh buttermilk, four parts ; water, one part ; 
mix, boil, and thicken with Indian meal. Eat with butter, sugar, or 

Coffee MiLK.^Put a dessert-spoonful of ground coffee into a pint 
of milk ; boil it a quarter of an hour with a shaving or two of isinglass ; 
let it stand ten minutes, and then pour off. 

Restorative Jelly. — Take a leg of well-fed pork, just as cut up, 
beat it, and break the bone. Set it over a gentle fire, with three gal- 
lons of water, and simmer to one. Let half an ounce of mace and the 
same of nutmegs stew in it. Strain through a fine sieve. When cold, 
take off the fat. Give a chocolate-cup the first and last thing, and at 
noon, adding salt to suit the taste. This is very valuable in all cases 
ot debility where animal food is admissible. 


Drink in Dysentery. — Sheep's suet, two ounces; milk, one pint; 
starch, half an ounce. Boil gently for thirty minutes. Use as a com- 
mon drink. This is excellent for sustaining' the strength in bad cases 
of dj'seutery. 

Crust Coffee. — Toast slowly a thick piece of bread cut from the 
outside of a loaf, until it is well browned, but not blackened. Then 
turn upon it boUing water of a sufficient quantity, and keep it from half 
an hour to an hour before using. Be sure that the liqtiid is of a rich 
brown color before you use it. It is a most excellent drink in all cases 
of sickness and convalescence. 

Cranberry Water. — Put a tea-spoonful of cranberries into a cup of 
water and mash them. In the mean time boil two quarts of water with 
one large spoonful of com or oatmeal, and a bit of lemon-peel ; then add 
the cranberries and as much fine sugar as will leave a smart flavor of the 
fruit- -also a wine-glassful of sherry. Boil the whole gently for a quar- 
ter of an hour, then strain. 

Wine Whey. — Heat a pint of new mUk until it boils, at which mo- 
ment pour in as much good wine as wiU curdle and clarify it. Boil and 
set it aside until the curd subsides. Do not stir it, but pour the whey off 
carefully, and add two pints of boiling water, with loaf-sugar. \ 

Orange Whey. — Milk, one pint ; the juice of an orange, with a por- 
tion of the peel. Boil the milk, then pnt the orange to it, and let stand 
till it coagulates. Strain. 

Mustard Wiiey. — Bruised mustard seed, two table-spoonfuls ; milk, 
one quart. Boil together for a few minutes until it coagulates, and 
strain to separate the curd. This is a very useful drink in dropsy. A 
tea-cupful may be taken at a dose, three times a day. 

Sippets. — On an extremely hot plate put two or three slices of bread, 
and pour over them some of the juices of boUed beef, mutton, or veal. 
If there be no butter in the dish, sprinkle over them a little salt. 

Chicken Broth. — Take half a chicken, divested of all fat, and break 
the bones ; add to this half a gallon of water, and boil for half an hour. 
Season with salt. 

Vegetarle Soup. — Take one potato, one turnip and one onion, with 
a Httle celery or celery seed. Slice and boil for an hour in one quart of 
water. Salt to the taste, and pour the whole upon a piece of dry toast. 
This f onns a good substitute for animal food, and may be used when the 
latter would be improper. 

Calves'-Foot Jelly. —Boil two calves' feet in one gallon of water, 
until reduced to one quart. Strain, and when cool, skim carefully. 
Add the white of six or eight eggs, well beaten, a pint of wine, half pound 
of loaf sugar, and the juice of four lemons. Mix them well, boil for a 
few minutes, stirring constantly, and pass through a Ilaunel strainer. In 
some cases the wine should be omitted. 


Slippery Elm Jelly. — Tako of the flour of slippery elm one or two 

tea-spoonfuls ; cold water, one pint. Stir, untU a jelly is formed. 
Sweeten with loaf sugar or honey. This is excellent for aU diseases of 
the throat, chest, and lungs, coughs, colds, bronchitis, inflammation of 
lungs, etc. It is very nutritious and soothing. 

Nutritive Fluids. — Below will be found directions for preparing 
three nutritious fluids, which are of great value in all diseases, either 
acute or chronic, that are attended or followed by prostration, — debility, 
whether general, or of certain organs only, derangement of the digest- 
ive organs, weak stomach, indigestion, heartburn, or sour stomach, con- 
stipated bowels, torpidity or want of activity of the liver, thin or poor 
blood. They are highly nutritious, supplying to the blood in such a form 
that they are most easily assirailated, the various elements which are 
needed to enrich it, and thus enable it to reproduce the various tissues 
of the body that have been wasted by disease. In cases where the stom- 
ach has become so weakened and sensitive that the hghtest food or 
drinks cannot be taken without causing much uneasiness and distress, 
these fluids are invaluable. They strengthen the stomach and neutralize 
all undue acidity, while, at the same time, they soothe the irritation by 
their bland and demulcent quahties. When carefully and properly pre- 
pared, according to the direction following, they very nearly resemble 
rich new milk in color and consistency, while their taste is remarkably 
pleasant. Care should be taken that all the ingredients are of the best 
quality. Soft water must be used in aU cases. Fresh rain-water is to 
be preferred, but spring water may be used if perfectly soft. Hard 
water will cause the fluids to be of a yeUow color, and if the milk is 
old, they are apt to separate. 

Fluid No. 1. — Put one pint of new milk (the fresher the better) and 
two pints of soft water in a vessel perfectly free from all greasy matter, 
over a slow fire. Rub two even tea-spoonfuls of superfine wheat flour 
and two tea-spoonfuls of carbonate of magnesia, together with a little 
milk, into a soft batter, free from lumps ; add this to the milk and water 
as soon as they begin to boil. Boil gently for five minutes— /i« longer, 
stirring constantly. Pour into an earthen or glass dish to cool, adding, 
at the same time, two tea-spoonfuls of loaf sugar, and one tea spoonful 
each of saleratus and table salt, rubbed fine ; stir until cold. The fluid 
must not be allowed to remain in a metaUic vessel of any kind, and it 
must be kept in a cool place. 

Fluid No. 2. — Put one pint of fresh mflk and two pints of soft water 
in a vessel over a slow fire. Rub together with a little fresh cream into 
a soft batter, free from lumps, one table-spoonful each of good sweet 
rye flour, ground rice, and pure starch — which add to the milk and 
M'ater as soon as they begin to boil. Boil for five minutes, stirring con- 


Btantly. Remove from the fire, and add three tea-spoonfuls of loaf su- 
gar and one tea-spoonful each of saleratus and table salt. Observe the 
same precautions as in No. 1 . 

Fluid No. 8. — Put in a vessel, over a slow fire, one pint of fresh 
milk and two pints of soft water. When they begin to boil, add one 
table-sjioonful of wheat flour, two table-spoonfuls pure starch, and two 
tea-spoonfuls of carbonate of magnesia, rubbed together with a little 
milli into a soft batter, free from lumps. Boil gently for five minutes, 
stirring constantly. Pour into an earthen vessel to cool, and add one 
tea-spoonful of the best gum arabic, dissolved in a little warm water, one 
tea-spoonful each of saleratus and table salt, and one table -spoonful of 
pure strained honey. Stir untU cold. The same precaution must be 
observed as in prej^aring No. 1. 

Directions. — One half pint or less of these fluids may be taken at a 
dose, and at least three pints should be taken during the day, and the 
amount gradually increased to two or three quarts. Commence with 
No. 1, and use two weeks : then use No. 2 for the same length of time, 
after which No. 3 is to be used for two weeks. Continue their use as 
long as necessary, taking each for two weeks before changing. In all the 
diseases enumerated above, the use of these fluids, in connection with 
proper herbal remedies, will ensure a speedy restoration to health. , 

Gum Acacia Restorative. — Take two ounces of pure white gum 
Arabic,- — procure the lump, the powdered is very apt to be adulterated, 
— pulverize it weU, and dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat in a gill of 
water, stirring constantly. When it is entirely dissolved, add three 
table-spoonfuls of pure strained honey. Let it remain over the fire until 
it becomes of the consistency of a jelly. The heat must be very gentle, 
it must not boil. If desirable, flavor with lemon or vanilla. This will 
be found a very pleasant article of diet for delicate stomachs. When 
the articles used are pure it will be transparent and of a light golden 
color. This will be borne by the weakest stomach, when everything else 
is rejected. It is hirjldy nutritious. 

Malt Infusion. — Infuse one pint of ground malt, for two hours, in 
three pints of scalding water. The water should not be brought quite to 
the boiling point. Strain, add sugar, if desired ; flavor with lemon- 
juice. This is an excellent drink in inflammatory fevers, acute rheuma- 
tism, etc. 

Peas. — Take young and fresh shelled green peas, wash them clean, 
put them into fresh water, just enough to cover them, and boil them till 
they take up nearly all the water. Season with salt, pepper, and but- 
ter. This dish, if prepared according to directions, and eaten wai-m, wiU 
not harm any invaUd — not even one suffering from diarrhoea. 

Milk. — In some cases where a milk diet is advisable, owing to the 
peculiar condition of the patient's stomach, it will cause distress. This 


is frequently the case when there is undue acidity. In such cases let it 
be prepared in the following manner, and it will be found to set well : — ■ 
Take a tea-cupful of fresh mUk, heat nearly to boiling ; dissolve in it a 
tea-spoonful of loaf sugar ; pour into a large-sized tumbler, and add 
sufficient plain soda-water to fill it. Prepared in the above directed 
manner it will be perfectly free from all unpleasant effects. 

Soups for the Convalescent. — To extract the strength from 
meat, long and slow boiling is necessary ; but care must be taken that 
the pot is never off the boil. All soups should be made the day before 
they are used, and they should then be strained into earthen jjans. 
When soup has jellied in the pan, it should not be removed into another. 
When in danger of not keeping, it should be boiled up. 

Eggs. — In cases of extreme debility, eggs are most excellent. They 
should never be boiled hard. The best way to prepare them is to beat 
them well with railk and sugar. Where it will be appropriate to the 
case, add some fine pale sherry wine. 

Milk for Infants. — Fresh cow's milk, one part ; water, two parts ; 
sweeten with a very little loaf sugar. When children are raised by hand, 
it is always necessary to dilute the milk. As the child advances in age, 
the proportion of water stated above may be gradually lessened. 

Water Gruel.— Com or oatmeal, two table-spoonfixls ; water, on« 
quart. Boil ten or fiteen minutes, and strain. Add salt and sugar to 
suit the taste of the i^atient. This should be used freely, during and 
after the operation of cathartic medicines. 


The Sick-Room. 

If there is a choice of rooms, the patient's welfare demands that he 
should be placed in the one aftording to a greater degree light, pure air, 
warmth, etc. The patient should not be put into the room which i.s 
dark and gloomy, but let it be one that is light and cheerful, and with a 
fire-place in it, if possible. 

If the illness be fever, an ophthalmic affection, brain disease, or other 
disease requiring quiet, a back room away from the family should be se- 
lected, as quiet is absolutely necessary, and the patient will not care to 
look at anything or to speak much. If, however, he be suffering from an 
accident, he will be more contented and cheerful if he is placed near to 
the rest of the family, where he can assist in the conversation, watch 
your movements, and see you at your labors. It will greatly tend to 


make him forget to a greater extent his misfortune, and it will also save 
time in waiting upon him. 

The room should be free from all unpleasant odors, and should not be 
exposed to disagi-eeable effluvia from water-closets, sinks, etc. The fur- 
niture of the room should be but very simple and plain, and, in infectious 
diseases, but very little should be placed in the room. If you have ever 
been in a hospital, you may have noticed the bare floors, the iron bed- 
steads, the absence of woollen bed-clothing, and the plaui tables, and 
most probably pitied the inmates for their lack of comforts, and involun 
tarUy the thought may have arisen in your mind that fortune is more 
propitious to you when sick, for your sick-room wouldhave at least a good 
carpet, upholstered furniture, and your bed an easy one to repose upon, 
and plentifully supplied with woollen blankets, etc. But pan and many 
more are also deluded in this respect. If you will bear in mind that 
woollen fabrics retain smells much longer than cotton and linen, and are 
therefore less sanitary, you would probably not consider them so advan- 
tageous. The room should have no upholstered chairs or sofas, cane- 
bottomed or plain wood are preferable, and it would be better if no car- 
pet was on the floor, except perhaps a narrow strip for you to walk upon 
to prevent noise, but a clean boarded floor, kept clean and sweet by 
Bcrubbing and " elbow-grease " is infinitely better. It is better to |iave 
no curtains ; but if the room looks too cheerlees without them, use light 
muslin or something which wiU easily wash. 

The position of the bed is also very important. In case of accident 
the bed should be placed where the patient feels most comfortable, only 
it should be placed where there is a good light to see and dress the 
wound ; but in fever and small-pox the bed should occupy the position 
between the door and fire-place. The reason for this is, that as fire can- 
not bum without air, there must be a draft to feed it ; as this becomes 
heated and escapes up the chimney, it is replaced by a fresh supply 
drawn in througli the door and window. This prevents a spread of the 
disease, as the chimney acts as a ventilating shaft, carrying away the 
impurities of the room. A stove will also do this, but to a much less 
extent. It is very apparent, therefore, that if a person stands between 
the bed and the fire-place, he must breathe air laden with the effluvia 
from the patient, whereas, on the other side, that is, between the bed 
and door, he inhales air that has not yet come m contact with the pa- 
tient. If, from the form of the room, the bed cannot be placed in this 
position, the space between the window and the bed should always be 
Bufn.cient to stand in. 

The room should always be fully prepared before the patient is placed 
in it, as the setting it to rights is not only annoying, but may do positive 
harm to the patient. The fire, if any is wanted, should particularly be 
previously built, for very often the chimney refuses to draw well, and 


tlie poor patient is choked with the smoke. He may suffer from a chest 
complaint, and his difficulty of breathing be so aggravated as to put him 
in a miserable plight. The windows should not be so fastened that you 
cannot open them, especially from the top. An equable temperature 
should be kept up, neither too hot nor too cold, and extremes avoided. 

The bed itself is very worthy of consideration. Unqualifiedly, the best 
is a hair mattrass, but, as this is so expensive, it cannot be expected to 
be found in every house, but, unless obliged, use no feather bed. It is 
too soft, and the patient sinks into holes, so that, in case of wounds or 
bums, you cannot get at them properly, and besides, if the feathers 
get wet, you cannot easily put them right again. Good clean straw or 
chaff, evenly packed, is far superior. It costs but little, to begin with, is 
more comfortable, far superior in a sanitary point of view, and has this 
advantage : that in case of being spoiled, it can be emptied, the cover 
washed, and rclilled without loss of time, and at a very trifling expense. 

The bed should not be too wide, for if the i^atient needs help, the at- 
tendant is obhged to move him kneeling on the bed, or at arms' length, 
should he be lying in the middle. 

It is often a matter of much concern how to change the bed-clothing 
in case of fracture or low states of disease, where the patient cannot be 
moved from the bed. The following method should be pursued : — roU 
up the clothes to be changed tightly to the middle, lengthwise, not across 
the bed ; put on the clean things with half the width rolled up close to 
the other roU, lift the patient on the newly made part, slip off the soiled 
clothes, unroll the clean ones, and the bed is made. 

Before the patient is put to bed scour the floor right well, and wash it 
with hot water with a few pennies' worth of chloride of lime, or, if you 
cannot get this, use a little quicklime, and rub it well into cracks and 
comers. The whole of the lime need not be removed, as the little par- 
ticles left sticking in the cracks and pores of the wood will prevent in- 
sects, give a clean, sweet smell to the place, and tend to keep away in- 
fection. After the room is thoroughly dried, it is ready for the sick oc- 

If aU this is done, you will have the hedlthieHt sick-chamber possible, 
and rob the disease of its exciting causes. He must then be well nursed, 
and as this is so important, the author will next consider 

Nurses and NoRsiNa. 

Next to the physician, the nurse has responsibilities that must be faith- 
fully discharged, as the life of the patient is not alone dependent upon 
the skill of the physician, but in a great measure also upon careful nurs- 
ing. Eveiy physician will tell you that he recollects cases in his practice 
where all his skill would have been unavailing had it not been for the 

. excellent nursing that the patient received. 



Tt i» a common opinion that women only can nurse. Tins is erroneous, 
as men are frequently met with, especially husbands and brothers, who 
are quite as gentle in their touch, quite as considerate about little wants, 
and far more tender and thoughtful than almost any woman. A male 
nurse has, moreover, one great advantage — his strength. Ask that wife 
■who requires lifting from the bed, and she will teU. how safe she feels in 
her husband's strong arms, and what a comfort it is to be lifted by him. 
It is a dreadful feeling for a patient not to have full confidencs in the 
power of the person assisting, and the nervous shock induced by the fear 
of being let fall, may take days to recover from. It is, therefore, not to 
be thought that nursing is peculiarly woman's work, but that men are 
just as capable. 

A nurse should have five qualifications — sobriety, cleanliness, firmness, 
gentleness, and pntience. 

Sobriety.— The drunken nurse should not be allowed to cross the door- 
BiU of the sick-room. It is no place for her, — she cannot be trusted. 
Human life is too precious to be entrusted to the care of one who cannot 
resist the temptation to indulge in intoxicating drinks. 

Cleanliness. — The nurse should not only keep the room clean, but 
always be clean herself. A very little thing will spoil the appetite of a 
Bick person, and nothing offensive, as dressings from woimds or burns, 
Bhould be allowed to remain in the room. All necessary vessels should 
be emptied as soon as done with, well washed out, and left in the open 
air. It should be remembered that bad air is just as poisonous to a per- 
son as bad food, and hence it should be frequently changed by opening 
the window. The dreaded draft wiU do no harm, but bears upon its 
wings the elements conducive to the health of both patient and attend- 
ants. The fever-poison is weakened by admixture with pure air just in 
the same proportion as spirits are weakened by the addition of water. 
The food that the patient cannot eat should not be left in the room — it 
will breed distaste for it if always in the sight of the patient. The 
drinking-water should be frequently changed, as it absorbs all the gasea 
in the room, so that if the patient is allowed to drink it, it actually puts 
back into his stomach what his body exhaled. Always give him fresh 
water, then, when he wants to drink. 

Firmness.— The lesson that firmness is not rudeness should be learned 
first. It is not to be expected that a suffering person knows as well 
what is best for him a-s those whose brains are clear. If, therefore, a 
certain thing is best to be done, do it, do it kindly, but do it, and the 
patient will thank you afterwards. 

Gentleness.— It should never be forgotten that gentleness is an abso- 
lute requirement of a nurse. If the poor patient suffers from rheuma- 
tism or a broken liml), iuid the bed-clothes nuist be changed, it should 
be done gently, and all needless Buffering avoided. If his position in 


bed requires change, do not torture him, but gently move him, and 
avoid all jerks and knocks with great care. 

Patience. — Need a word be said to the effect that of all beings nurses 
should especially be patient '? It should never be forgotten that the dif- 
ference is a great one between the nurse and the person under his or her 
care, and it should be remembered that in their own experiences they 
have been cross and irritable even when they were well, that they were 
easily put out, and so peevish and fretful from the slightest causes. 
They should then consider how it must be vnth the person taken sud- 
denly from active life and compelled to lie still in one position, or with 
one whose whole body is racked with pain. The one, therefore, who 
loses patience, however sorely tried, and who cannot bear with these 
trials for a while, should stay away from the sick-room in the capacity 
of nurse. 

Nursing, in a great measure, is a natural gift either in man or woman, 
just as much as mixsic, painting, and other things are. It is not every 
one, therefore, who is fit for a nurse, not because they wilfully do 
wrong, but they are not adapted for it. There are many good-hearted 
yet thoughtless people who would never make good, handy nurses with 
all the training in the world. 

The awkward nurse is a queer creature, and she is everlastingly get- 
ting into some trouble. If she is going up stairs with her hands full, 
she is sure to step on the bottom of her dress, and either drops what 
she is carrying or falls herself. If the fire wants coal, she throws on a 
whole scuttleful, a good part of which falls upon the fender, and the 
poor patient is so terrified that he cannot rest for hours. If she has a 
hole in her dress, or a bit of braid is loose, it will be sure to catch a 
chair or the fire-irons, bringing them down with a rattle. If of matronly 
age and wears caps, she will have strings so long that when she stoops 
over to catch the patient's whisper, the ends wiU tickle his nose or other 
parts of his face. At least one of her fingers is sure to be enveloped in 
a rag tied on with black cotton. If the patient wants a little bread and 
butter, the knife that has been used for cutting cheese or peeling onions 
is unen-ingly used. If she is cooking cabbage or frying bacon in the 
next room, she always forgets to close the door leading to the patient's 
room, fills it with a strong smell which sickens him, and then says that 
it is too bad that the patient cannot eat a morsel of food. If the patient 
thirsts, she wiU fill the glass full to the brim, put her hand under his 
head, bend his neck till his chin touches his breast, then puts the glass 
to his lips, spills a good i^art of it on his clothes, and thinks he is very 
awkward to choke over a mouthful of water. If a candle is to be 
lighted, she sticks it in between the bars of the grate, which soon fills 
the room with the rank smeU of burning tallow, and when she finally 
succeeds in lighting it, she finds she has a wick several inches long, 


gained at the expense of the melted tallow ; or if it bo gas, she takes a 
ehort bit of paper, turns the gas full on, makes a sudden blaze like a 
flash of lightning, forgets the bit of paper in her hand while she is regu- 
lating the blaze, bums her fingers, throws the lighted paper on th'^ 
floor, and puts her foot on it. All this doec not escape the patient's 
notice, and he gets so nervous and frightened that he loses his night's 
rest. If the patient is so far convalescent as to be able to sit up in bed 
to take his food, she will, of course, put the tray on his knees, then 
assist him into the sitting posture, and ten chances to one the things 
are upset all over the counteii^ane. 

Then there is the /«*-v// nurse, and there are many of this sort. Hei 
zeal to benefit the patient is so great, that she sadly overdoes it : she 
bustles in and out of the room every few minutes, wearies the patient 
by persistently asking him if he cannot eat something, which she would 
willingly walk miles to get if wanted, raising him up, tucking in the 
bed clothes, drawing up and lowering the blinds ; one, in fact, who is 
perfectly miserable if she is not constantly ou the move. The fussy 
nurse is generally a kind-hearted, loving creature, and it is her very 
goodness which makes her weary the patient, who congratulates him- 
(self on the relief gained whenever she vacates the room. 

Then we have the carelens, slocenly nurse. Doctors are always sus- 
picious of this person ; they can never feel sure that their patients reblly 
Lad the right quantity of medicine ; if she happened to remember it 
they would get it, but if not, she would make up for it by giving a 
double dose next time. There is no clean glass or cup when wanted. 
Food is taken to the patient, and if he cannot eat it, it is left there for 
hours. There are so many crumbs of bread in the bed that it feels to 
the patient like lying on a gravel walk. Cinders cover the hearth all 
over, and the fire is black. The slops, which should have been removed 
in the evening, are hid under the bed, filling the room with bad smells. 
Those bits of meat, crumbs of bread, and other matters which have 
fallen on the floor are left there ; the consequence is, that being winter, 
the mice and perhaps rats finding a warm room and something to eat, 
think it a comfortable place, and use it accordingly. No one can im- 
agine the degree of comfort these scampering animals afford to the 
helpless creature in bed. 

Next we have the cruel nurse, who does her duty, but not from love ; 
she carries out the doctor's orders exactly. In matter of duty she is 
inflexible ; if the medicine has to be taken at a certain time, she brings 
it to the minute, and worries the patient into taking it on the instant. 
Her law in all things is like that of the Modes and Persians, which 
altereth not. She may be perfectly honest in her dealings, but the 
utter absence of tenderness and compassion makes her an undesirable 


And lastly, we have what I tnist is a very rare character, the dislionest 
nurse. She drinks all the wine, and partakes pretty freely of the food 
intended for the patient, and tells the doctor that the patient ought to 
get better according to the quantity of nourishment he gets through. 
She is also dishonest in another way : she finds it a great deal of trouble 
to make the patient take his medicine, so she just empties it away, a 
regular dose at a time, so that when the doctor calls, he may see that 
the bottle is gradually emptying. 

All these characters are to be met with, and doctors find one or more 
of them in various sick-rooms every day. Now, it is not well to be too 
exacting in such matters, but as a good nurse is, next to a good physician, 
necessary to properly combat disease, it is weU to object to what are 
positive faults. 

A good nurse should be tender and compassionate, and ought to have 
all her five senses in a healthy, active condition. Sight, that she may 
be able to read directions, or read aloud to the patient, and watch the 
change of countenance. A quick-sighted nurse will not need to wait 
for the sufferer to make his demands ; she will see in a moment what is 
wanted from the motion of the eye, or the lips, or a finger. Hearing., 
that she may be able to catch the faintest whisper, and not oblige a 
weak patient to exert the voice or repeat liis requests. Feeling, that 
she may readily detect the temperature of the skin of the patient, and 
not use any application which will either scald with heat or chill with 
oold. Smell, that all impurities in the atmosphere of the room may be 
readily detected. Taste, that she may not offer food unfit to be used, 
or improperly cooked if good in itself. 

She need not be highly educated, but she should be able to read 
writing, so that she can fully understand the directi<5us on the labels. 
She ought to have a knowledge of common and every-day affairs, and 
possess the qualification of ' ' common sense. " But she must not place 
too high a valuation on her own opinion or skill, as that may cause her 
to use either in opposition to the wishes of the doctor. She must dc 
everytliing for the patient that she can, and deal with the doctor fairly. 




The ^eat difficvilty of treating disease, by those who are not physicianfi, 
Js the liability to mistake the character of the affection, being unable 
through obscurity of the symptoms to ascertain the organ or tissue af- 
fected. Without entering minutely into diagnosis, the author will en- 
deavor to simplify the study of morbid conditions of the human body, 
60 that the unscientific may more readily ascertain the disease and apply 
the ajipropriate remedy or treatment. 

1. General condition pertaining to : 

a. Temperature and dryness of skin. 

b. Condition of pulse— full and quick, or slow and weak, 

c. Appearance of tongue. v 

d. State of bowels and kidneys. " ^ 

e. Desire for food and drink. • ^ 

2. The general appearance of the patient. 

a. Size — emaciation or increase, general or local. 
h. Aspect of face or expression, 
c. Changes of color of skin. 

3. The position or posture. 

a. In bed — the manner of Ij'ing, on the back or either side, quiet, 

restless, etc. 
b Out of bed — posture, gait, stiffness, loss of power of limbs, etc. 

4. The sensations of the patient. 

Whenever any of these conditions are at variance with the normal 
state, the presumption, or rather certainty, is that some organ or tissue 
is assailed by disease. Some of the genend indications of the patient 
in many cases often make known the character of the affection, when 
not suggested by other symptoms. For mstance, the skin is remarka- 
bly moist and soft in delirium tremens ; the perspiration profuse and 
sour in acute rheumatism ; exhausting sweats in the latter stages of 
consumption or profuse suppuration ; the crackling feeling of emphy- 
sema, .and the pitting uuder pressure in dropsy. 

The pulse is hard and wiry in abdominal inflammations ; in acute 
hydrocephalus its frequency is very great, slow and labored in brain dis- 
eases, irregular in disease of the heart, almost imperceptible in cholera 
or iu the latter titugeu of the low fevers. 


The tongue covered with a thm white layer is indicative of disorder 
of the stomach ; when patchy, the stomach is considerably irritated , 
when yellow, the patient is bilious ; when shining, glazed, and chapped, 
it indicates long-continued intlammation or ulceration of the bowels; 
aphthous patches indicate imperfect nutrition, etc. 

In cholera the stools resemble rice-water ; when clay-colored, it de- 
notes a deficiency of bUe ; when yeast-like, fermentation takes place in- 
stead of digestion. 

The urine is dark-colored in fevers, very limpid and abundant in 
hysteria, scanty hi dropsies, acid in rheumatism. 

The aspect is often very significant. In scrofula the comers of the 
nose and lips are swollen, in chlorosis a waxy pallor is observed, in 
malignant diseases a sallow hue, in heart-diseases a blue color of the 
lips, in pneumonia a dusky flush, in phthisis a hectic flush. When the 
expression is anxious, it indicates disease of the heart and dyspnoea ; 
when i^inched and contracted, there is much suffering, as in the low 
forms of fever ; the skin is white in anosmia, yellow in jaundice and 
malignant cases ; it has a muddy hue in splenic diseases, blue in cholera, 
and livid in commencing mortification. 

If the patient's head is elevated by choice in bed, it denotes heart-dis- 
ease ; when he is very feeble he lies on his back ; in peritonitis the knees 
are drawn up ; in cramps or pain of the abdomen, he Ues on his side. 

In order that the reader may not have a confused idea of what is 
meant by inflammation, I will describe it insomuch as to give its 
phenomena. These are redness, heat, swelling, and jjam. When all 
these are present it constitutes inflammation. When a fever or disease 
partakes of this character, it is inflammatoiy. Chronic inflammation is 
characterized by all the essential conditions of the acute form, differing, 
however, in this, by being preceded through all its changes with symp- 
toms so mild that it is only after a certain time that the patient is much 
inconvenienced constitutionally. Inflammation always denotes increase 
of activity of the vascular system. When of a localized character, the in- 
crease is noticed La the capillary circulation ; when general, as m fevers, 
or of some important organ, the whole circulatory apparatus is abnor- 
mally active 

Miasmatic Fevers. 

These, as signified by name, owe their origin to, or are caused by, a pe- 
culiar principle to which the name of malaria or miasm has been given. 
Of the chemical nature of miasm we literally know nothing ; but we 
have abundant evidence that it is a specific cause of disease. There are, 
practically, two kinds of malaria : First, koino-miasmata, the product 
of vegetable decomposition, or terrestrial emanations ; second, Idio-mias- 
mata,, the deleterous etfluvia originatiug from the decomposition of 


matter derived from the human body. Both of these :ire prolific causes 
of disease, jOo the profession, ovmig to the siibtile nature of the miasms, 
are in a great degree ignorant as to the manner of operation. These 
two causes may act separately, and produce their different symptoms, 
or they may operate together, causing a confusion of morbid phe- 

'•Marsh gas," or the product of vegetable decomposition, owing to 
its diversification, is of course the greater cause of disease. Two re- 
quisites, heat and moist lu-e, are necessary for its production ; and 
hence, where these abound in any quantity, so proportionably is tlie 
miasm evolved. For this reason, low, marshy lands are at certain sea- 
sons veiy unhealthy, while those regions at a greater elevation are pecu- 
liarly healthy in this respect. Wherever vegetation is profuse, and to 
which abundant heat and moisture are contributed, there we may 
reasonably expect a plentiful product of miasm and consequent disease. 
Experiments have proved that in decomposition of vegetable matter, 
animal matter— infusoria— is produced in very rapid succession, having 
an exceedingly short-lived existence. These infusoria are inhaled at 
every breath, as the air contains swaiins of them, but which are imper- 
ceptible to any of the senses. It is reasonable to suppose that they, in 
a great measure, contribute largely to periodic fevers. The jliseases 
generally classed as Malaiial are Intermittent, Remittent, Yellow,' b.iid 
Tyiihus Fevers. ^ 

Intermittent Fever. 

This is commonly called Fever arid Ague, or ChiUs and Fever. As 
the name implies, the fever is not constant, as in the continual fevers, 
but inteimits, so that in its career there are well-marked jieriods of ab- 
sence of febrile symptoms. It is a fever characterized by a succession 
of attacks, with equal mtervals and intermissions, that are complete, 
but irregular, owing to the paroxysms being of uncertain duration. By 
iiitcrval is meant the time from the beginning of one paroxysm to the 
beginning of the next, and by intermission the period of time between 
the close of one paroxysm to the beginning of the next. The length of 
the interval determines the variety of ague. When the interval ia 
twenty-four hours, it is called qiwtidian; thirty-six hours, tertian; and 
when seventy-two hours, it is called quartan. These varieties dupli- 
cate, and are then called double quotidian, etc. 

The disease is announced by a paroxysm which has three stages, 
the cold, the hot, and the sweating. The cold stage is well marked ; 
the i)atient yawns, has a feeling of weakness, stretches, no apj)ctit(>, 
and no inclination to move. Paleness is observed in the face and ex- 
tremities ; the patient shakes, the teeth chatter, and the skin shrinks, 
causing horripikUiua or "goose-flesh." 


When this stage declines, the hot stage comes on, which is character- 
ized by a high fever. This is followed by the sweating stage, which 
increases from a mere moisture at first to a profuse iierspiration. After 
this the body returns to its natural temperature, and apparent health 

Duiiag the cold stage the circulation is thrown upon the internal or- 
gans, the spleen becomes congested, which organ is enlarged, causing 
what is known as the ague cake. 

A quotidian begins generally in the morning, a tertian at noon, and a 
quartan in the afternoon. The cold stage is shortest ia the quotidian, 
and longest in the quartan. Intermittent fever is more common in the 
spring and autumn than at other seasons of the year, and ia fall more 
severe and dangerous. 

Treatment. —Commence treatment with a cathartic, as senna or the 
Renovating PUl. In the cold stage give hot drinks, and even stimulants 
may be of service. Induce warmth and comfort by extra covering, 
foot-baths, bottles filled with hot water applied to the surface, etc. In 
the hot stage, cooling drinks and anything that mollifies febrile action. 

When an intermission ensues, administer Peruvian bark, or, prefera- 
bly, one of its active principles, quinine. This can be given in a large 
dose, or smaller doses repeated. Fifteen grains may be given at once or 
in successive doses. It may be taken in pills or in solution with elixir 
of vitriol. Quinine is a specific in this disease, and it rarely ever fails 
in curing every case, if the patient be placed under its influence. Pecu- 
liar head symptoms and buzzing in the ears denote the influence of this 
admirable remedy. My experience has not taught me that there is 
much danger in an overdose, and I consider it more or less harmless ; 
yet, like every other remedy, it must be judicioiisly and intelhgently 
administered. The web of the black spider rolled up in five-grain pills, 
and taken, one pill at a time every two hours, is a valuable domestic 
remedy. Decoctions of dogwood bark are successful in many cases j so 
also of the bark of the tulip tree. 

Remittent Fever. 

This is commonly called BlUovs Fever. It is a disease whose attack 
is generally sudden and well marked, without prominent premonitory 
symptoms, if any, at all times. There is sense of languor and debility 
for a few days previous to the onset ; slight headache, lack of appetite, 
furred tongue, bitter taste in the mouth in the morning, pain in the 
joints, and a feeling of uneasiness. 

The first onset is announced by a rigor or chill, distinct in character, 

though generally brief and sometimes slight, but at times severe and 

prolonged. Sometimes the chill is first felt in the feet ; at other times 

commences at the shoulder-blades, or in the back, running from thence 



through the whole body. Us^^ally there is but one well-marked chill ; 
the paroxysms of fever returning subsequently, and seldom preceded by 
a cold stage. 

The symptoms of this disease intensify at certain periods of the day ; 
preceded occasionally, but not generally, by a chill. Between this 
period of severity in the febrile symptoms and a simUar period follow- 
ing there is generally a decrease in the violence of the symptoms, dur- 
ing which the fever moderates, but does not, as in intermittent fever, 
totally disappear. It remits in severity, and hence the name. The 
pulse in the hot stage ranges from one hundred to one hundred and 
thirty. The jiaius in the head, back, and limbs are almost insufferable. 
The covering of the tongue is yellowish or dirty white, aud in severe 
cases, in the advanced stage, the tongue is parched, brown or nearly 
black in the centre, and red at the edges. Food is distasteful, and 
nausea and vomiting ensue, with frequently paiu, upon pressure, in the 
epigastrium. The bowels are at iirst costive, but become loose, and the 
fcBces are dark and offensive. 

Treatment. — Give an emetic or cathartic in the formative stage. 
When the disease is fully developed, sponge the body aU over several 
times a day with cold or tepid water, whichever is most grateful to the 
patient, and give cooling driuks, as the effervesciag draught. \Vhen 
the fever is high, moderate it with tiacture or fluid extract of ^een 
hellebore, in doses of from three to ten drops. Dover's powder should 
be given as a diaphoretic. Ice-water can be dmnk at pleasure. A 
mustard poultice should be placed over the pit of the stomach when- 
ever tenderness exists. 

Quinine is the great remedy in this disease also, and should be admin- 
istered in the same manner as advised in fever aud ague. It is to be 
given in a remission. "Whenever the fever has been subdued by large 
doses of quinine, its administration should not be abruptly ceased, but 
be continued in smaller or tonic doses for several weeks afterward. 

There is a form of fever called Congestive. It is also called pernicious 
fever. It is not essentially remittent, but may also be intermittent in 
character. The congestion may only operate upon one of the internal 
organs, or upon all of them. Congestion may ensue in the earlier or 
later stage of the disease. There is usually congestion of the brain, 
and profound stupor follows. It assumes all types of periodic fevers, 
but is more frequently quotidian or tertian. The first attack generally 
simulates a simple attack of intermittent, and excites but little atten- ■ 
tion. The second attack is severe, producing great coldness, and the 
patient has a deathlike hue of face and extremities. As the disease 
advances, the heat of the skin becomes pungent. The skin also be- 
comes dry, husky, and parched, followed, after a time, hy a cold, 
clammy Bcuaatiou. The eyes are dull aud watery, and at times glassy , 


the countenance dull, sleepy, and distressed ; the tongue trembles upon 
protrusion, indicating weakness, and is at first covered with whitish fur, 
which changes to either brown or black ; the breathing is difficult, and 
inspirations often thirty to the minute. Pressure over the liver, stom- 
ach, or bowels occasions pain ; and the mind is often disturbed, and falls 
into lethargy and stupor, or is delirious. 

The treatment is the same as in remittent fever. Quinine and the 
other remedies are of the some signal service. In stupor friction is 
to be made along the course of the spine with spirits of turpentine or 

In convalescence the diet must be light and nutritious, and as strength 
returns may be increased. Exercise out of doors should be encouraged. 
If recovery be slow, it should be hastened by wine, ale, or brandy, and 
the usual vegetable tonics. 

Any person who is suffering from almost a continuity of the disease, 
or the so-called chronic form of malarial fever, desirous of correspond- 
ing with me on the subject, I should be most happy to reply to, for in 
the vast and beneficent domaiu of Herbalism there are many remedies 
that can be advised as curative, to mention which would occu]iy too 
much space in a volume of this size. We can be eclectic in Nature's 


The first symptoms of this fever seem identical with remittent, often 
well marked by periodicity, but finally reaction occurs, and it assumes 
a typhoid character. The disease is ushered in generally with a chUl, 
severe at times, though usually moderate, of short duration, and rarely 
repeated. The chill is followed by slight fever, with increased heat of 
surface ; but this rarely rises to any considerable height, and continues 
only for two or three days, when, in cases likely to prove fatal, it is suc- 
ceeded by coldness of surface, etc. Sweating exists in many cases. 
The pulse is singular in character, but rarely rises above a hundred ; 
the tongue is moist and white for the first few days, but as the disease 
advances it becomes red, smooth, shining, and dry, having a black 
streak in the middle. The most prominent symptoms are nausea and 
vomiting. In fatal cases the vomiting is persistent, and towards the 
termination the green bihary matter thrown up changes to a thin black 
fluid, having a sediment like the grounds of coft'ee. This is the terrible 
black vomit (vomita-nigra) of yellow-fever. The bowels are generally 
costive, and the abdomen tender upon pressure. Severe headache 
generally exists, and the countenance bears a singular expression, in 
which a smile seems to play upon the lips, but the rest of the face bears 
a wild or sad look. Restlessness is common to this disease night and 
day. Blood often escapes from the uose, gums, ears, stomach, bo-wels, 


and urinary passages. The skin bears a tinged color similar to that in 
jaundice. The disease appears both endemicaUy and epidemically. At 
first the disease is hard to recognize, presenting but the usual symp- 
toms of fevers in their incipient stage, with no symptoms to distinguish 
the disease, or, if any, very obscure ; but when the severe pain in the 
back and loins exists, the conjunctiva injected, and a red flush of the 
face and forehead is present, the identity of the disease is no longer in 
doubt, especially when extraneous circumstances, calculated to suggest 
the probabiHty of an attack of yellow-fever, are also present. 

Tkeatment.— In the early stage of the attack it should be treated, 
as regards medicines, the same as a case of malarial fever. If any de- 
rangement of the stomach exists, a gentle emetic is proper ; this rouses 
the nervous system from its lethargy, promotes the action of the liver, 
and, by determining the blood to the surface, restores the capillary cir- 
culation. The best emetic for this puriwse is lobelia combined with 
boneset. The febrile stage requires a thorough bath with tepid water 
and whiskey over the entire surface, with friction by rubbing with a 
towel or the hand. Large mustard-poultices should be placed over the 
spine and abdomen. Immediately upon the decline of fever if the 
symptoms denote urgency, administer the antiperiodic remedies advised 
in intermittent and remittent fever. The sulphate of quiuia may be 
combined with tannin, because the astringent properties of the tatmin 
have a beneficial eft'ect in subduing inflammatory action of the mucous 
membranes. This remedy should not be delayed a moment if the pa- 
tient is in a period of prostration, and its retention by the stomach 
should be favored by anodynes, carmmatives, or stimulants, as the case 
may require. Oil of turpentine and Cayenne pepper can also be com- 
bined with advantage in this disease. The strength of the patient must 
be supported by every means that can be employed— gruel and weak 
animal broths, bread-water, my nutritive fluids, milk and water, etc 
are important means for this object. The revulsive influence of a 
blister over the stomach is of great service in this stage. If reaction ia 
induced and convalescence established, the remaining strength of the 
patient must be carefully husbanded by proper tonics and wholesome 
and digestible diet, increasing the. quantity as the patient gahis strength. 
All exposed to yellow-fever should avoid the night-air and sudden 
changes of temperature ; they should sleep in the highest part of the 
house ; be moderate in taking exercise ; they should take nutritious but 
not stimulating food, and never expose themselves to infected air with 
empty stomachs or when fatigued. 

Typhus Feveu. 

This is also called Ilosjutitl, Jail, Camp, Putrid, and Sfuji Fever. It 
is usually preceded by lassitude, debility, and loss of appetite, and 


ushered in by rigors and chills, and characterized by frequent exacerba- 
tions and declines during its progress. It generally presents itself as 
an epidemic, and runs a uniform course. From the third to the seventh 
day of the fever the peculiar iietecliial eruption occurs. It is of a florid, 
reddish, or reddish-pink color, disappearing on pressure, which distin- 
guishes it from the petechia; of typhoid. The breathing is hurried, the 
skin dry and hot, the tongue thickly coated, and the thirst urgent. 
There Ls great distress about the head, which often results in delirium. 
This stage of excitement continues generally, with little increase or 
abatement in the symptoms, for some time. The fever is greatest 
towards evening, least in the morning. The bowels are generally cos- 
tive, and if it continues for some time, all the secretions become vitiated, 
the body exhaling a nauseous odor, and the tongue, gums, and teeth 
become coated with a dark-brown slime. Collapse generally follows, 
voluntary powers depressed, surface relaxed, and diminished in temper- 
ature, often covered with a clammy sweat ; pulse small and tremulous. 
The tongue becomes black and dry, voice faint, breathing short, feeble, 
and very anxious. The mental functions become greatly disordered, 
the patient is restless and fearful, his delirium is low-muttering, and he 
lies in a state of stupor from which he can be scarcely aroused. Often 
an in'itating cough is present, coming on as if in convidsive paroxysms. 
In this stage of collapse the patient is disposed to lie on his back, with 
his feet drawn up, and there is a great tendency in his body to slide 
towards the foot of the bed. As the disease progresses, all the symp ■ 
toms of prostration increase. A convulsive motion of the tendons, as 
as in typhoid, is observed ; his stupor becomes fixed ; hiccough, in- 
voluntary discharges from the bowels, a cadaverous smeU of the body, 
generally occur towards the close of the disease. Death, in violent 
cases, is generally preceded by extreme prostration, cold, clammy 
sweats, involuntary fecal discharges, and a discharge of grumous blood 
from the mouth, nose, and anus ; or by convulsions. 

This is a contagious disease, and emphatically one of ijoverty and low 

Treatment. — Place the patient in a well-ventilated apartment, wash 
the body with soap and water, and give an emetic and cathartic, if the 
patient's condition requires it. Then give quinine in two or three grain 
doses every two or three hours, until its effects are observable. Con- 
trol the fever with veratmm, as advised in typhoid cases. If great 
prostration is present, add capsicum or prickly-ash to the quinine, which 
should be continued in regular doses throughout the greater j^art of the 
course of the disease. A decoction of ladies' -slipjier, or, jireferably, cy- 
pripedin, in two or three grain doses every two hours, should be given 
in delirium or tendinous convulsions. Support the strength with iced- 
milk, chicken-broth, beef-tea, milk-punch, etc. The bladder should re- 


ceive attention, and, if distended, should be evacuated by the influence 
of a sitz-bath, or by a catheter. In cases of cerebro-spinal congestions, 
make counter-irritations along the course of the spine, apply cold water 
to the head, and bottles of hot water to the feet. Convalescence is to 
be aided by the proper tonics, as golden-seal, columbo, etc., and com- 
plete repose should be allowed to the convalescent. 


These are all characterized by fever and the usual constitutional dis- 
turbances, together with an eruption or exanthem distinguishing each 
variety. They owe their origin to animal or vegetable malaria, or both 
combined, and the peculiarities of this class are, that they, when once 
affecting the system, render the patient comparatively exemjot from any 
future attack of the disease. 

Typhoid Fever. 

This is a very insidious disease, its commencement being scarcely per- 
ceptible. The patient has a sense of indisposition, but is unable to de- 
scribe his condition. He feels slight debility, a dull and hea\'y feeling 
in the head, which increases and terminates in \'iolent frontal headache. 
At full development of the disease, the limbs are weak, accompanied by 
lameness, and sometimes rheumatic pain. The bowels may at fi^st be 
constipated, but in a few days the tendency is to diarrhoea. The ^ulse 
is quickened, a creeping, chilly sensation is felt, and the skin is dry and 
warm. The tongue is but slightly coated, and the appetite often 
remains until the disease is fully developed. After the full develop- 
ment, a number of small vesicles, called sudumince, may be observed on 
the abdomen. They are small, and may escape notice unless carefully 
observed. On the fifth day after the occiurence of these, another erup- 
tion occurs, which consists of small red or purple spots, resembling tlea- 
bites. These spots are called peteohiw. If these are observed, the dis- 
ease is unmistakably typhoid fever. When the abdomen is percussed, 
it yields a drum-like resonance, and a gurgling may be heard on the 
right side, a little below the navel. Nervous symptoms arise, frequently 
delirium, great pain in different parts of the body, stupor, and a buzzmg 
noise in the head are often complained of. The tongue becomes red, 
and is protruded with much difficulty, pulse increases, eyes have a 
watery appearance, and remain partly open when asleep. The breath- 
ing becomes difficult, mouth half open, and a black substance (sordes) 
collects on the teeth. The urine becomes nearly suppressed, and has a 
dark-red appearance. The bowels bloat, and evacuations of fi-othy and 
watery excrement are frequent. If the disease is about to terminate unf a- 
voral)ly, the patient becomes stupid, with low, muttering delirium, hia 
muscles jerk, hiccoughs, picks at bcd-clothee, and labora under profound 


coma. The anatomical character of this disease is ulceration of certain 
glands, called Peyerian, of the intestines, which are sometimes perforat- 
ed by the process, when, of course, death inevitably follows. The course 
of the disease is from 11 to 21 days. 

Treatment. — If the disease is suspected, the patient should be placed 
in bed, and his bowels evacuated by warm-water injections, if costive. 
If indigestible food is contained in his stomach, an emetic of lobelia 
should be administered. Rice-gruel should then be given. The tinc- 
tiu'e of American Hellebore should, on the approach of the febrile parox- 
ysm, be given until the pulse becomes less frequent, and per.spiration 
ensues. Lye and slipperj'-elm poultices should be applied to the abdo- 
raen as long as bowel symptoms prove troublesome. Quinine and Hy- 
drastin should be exhibited, with a view to overcome the periodicity of 
the fever. At the same time a cold infusion of marsh mallow, acacia, 
and flax-seed, should be taken. Apply cold water to the head, and keep 
the feet warm. Control the fever throughout its whole course with the 
veratrum or aconite. If the patient is restless and unable to sleep, give 
a little morphine in a decoction of Ladies' -slipper. If the diarrhoea is 
persistent, let the patient take a decoction of rhus and cranes-bill. 
When the red tongue is noticed, administer the spirits of turpentine, in 
from six to ten drop doses, three or four times a day. Beef-tea, brandy, 
etc., should be given to support the strength through the course of the 
disease. During convalescence care should be taken that the patient 
does not eat hearty food. Convalescence should be assisted by golden- 
seal and other tonics. The danger in the treatment of this disease is 
over-medication, and hence only such agents as are chemically called 
for should be given, and the patient's strength well supported through- 
out the course of the fever. 


Diphtheria is scarcely more than a modification of scarlet fever. The 
patient first complains of lassitude, headache, loss of appetite, has 
rigors and chills, active and quick pulse, a light furred tongue, red- 
ness of the back of mouth, enlargement of the glands about the neck, 
a hot, dry, and pungent skin, and in most cases an exiidation upon the 
mucous surfaces of the upper air-passages. This soon becomes or- 
ganized into a tough, white membrane, covering the soft palate and 
tonsils. These sometimes degenerate into ulcers. The breathing in 
consequence of this membrane becomes hurried and difficult, pulse 
quick, and frequently the asphyxia ensuing ends in death ; it generally 
reigns as an epidemic and is regarded as contagious. 

Treatment. — The first step in the treatment should be a thorough 
emetic and an active cathartic ; free perspiration should be produced 
by aconite or veratrum, and the kidneys should be kept in vigorous 


operation. Flannel cloths, wet with the compound tincture of capsi- 
cum, mjrrh, and lobelia, should be apjDlied to the neck, changed every 
half hour, and applied as hot as the patient can bear it. Jugs of hot 
water should be applied to the feet. The intlanimation of the throat 
should be subdued by a gargle of a hot decoction of golden-seal. If 
the assumes an unfavorable aspect, give a powder containing 
one grain of quinine, one-half grain of capsicum, and one grain of hy- 
drastin every two hours. If the patches ulcerate, use a gargle of su- 
mach and wild indigo. For the difBculty of breathing give sanguinaria 
and lobelia in emetic doses for the purpose of dislodging the membrane. 
The .secretions should be increased even to ptyalism by irisin, the effecf, 
of which will be to overcome the atlhesiveness of the membrane. The 
" Herbal Ointment " used for this inirpose, and also to subdue the local 
inrtammation, acts .specifically and should be used in all cases. 

Diu-ing convalescence the diet should be nutritious, and baths, fresh 
air, and a liberal amount of fresh fruits ordered. 

Small-Pox (Variola). 

The .symptoms are divided into four pcriod.s. The period of invasion oc- 
cupies about three days, and is marked by languor, lassitude, restlessness, 
stretching, gaping, petulance, sullen mood ; these are followed by 'chills 
and rigors. Towards evening the skin becomes hot and dry, pain at^cks 
the head, loss of appetite, nau.sea, and frequently lumbago. On the 
third day, heat, fever, Hushed face, headache, and in chililren some- 
times convulsions. The period of eiiiption commences on the fourth day 
(often on the third), with the appearance of a series of small red circular 
points (papulae). They do not rise above the surface then, but can be 
seen in it, and felt by the finger. They are situated in the substance 
of the skin, and roll about uuder the finger, the size that of a small pin's 
head. These gradually enlarge, the patient in the mean time sufEermg 
severely, untD the period of suppuration arrives. The fever is now 
great, the hands, feet, and face swell, and salivation is profuse and con- 
stant. There is hoar.sencss and pain, and the saliva emits a most dis- 
agreeable odor. Then comes the period of recovery. The pustules 
scab, the fever and other unpleasant symptoms gradually disappear, 
and. if all goes right, the danger is over from the twelfth to the fif- 
teenth day after the eruption. 

What is known as on fluent small-pox is when the pustulus are very 
numerous and running together ; and when all the symptoms are very 
severe, the disease is known as m<iJi(jaaat. Variola patients emit a 
peculiar fetid odor, which is characteristic, and distinguishes it from 

TiiK.VT.MKNT. — An active purge .should be given at the outset. For 
this i)uii) a couibuiation like the " Ileyuvatiug Pills" .should be 


selected, as the catharsis produced is thoroufrh and unattended with 
subsequent debility or costiveness. Diaphoretics should be given to 
promote early appearance of the eruption. The patient should be 
placed ia a cool and well-ventilated room, and frequently sponged with 
tepid water. Not much treatment of a medicinal character is required. 
The fever should be controlled by aconite or veratrum, as in all active 
fevers. If complicated with pneumonia, pleurisy, etc., the treatment 
nece.ssary is such as is advised in those diseases. Pitting to a great 
extent may be avoided by sweet-oil applied to hands and face. 

Varioloid is but modified smaU-pox. It has aU the essential charac- 
teristics of the disease except its virulence. The treatment is the same 
as advised for small pox. 

The utility of vacciuation is a mooted question. It has unquestion- 
ably done gi-eat harm, as in many cases scrofulous and syphilitic taints 
have been implanted. Aside from this, however, it has been the means 
of almost banishing the dreadful plague from existence, and its practice 
should be encouraged. Great care, however, should be exercised in 
the selection of the vaccine virus, so that its purity is unquestionably 
established before being used as an agent of prevention. 

Chicken Pox {Varicella). 

This is a very mild eruptive disease, characterized by a slight fever 
of short duration, aud followed by vesicles which desquamate about the 
fifth or sixth day. The fever is sometimes ushered in by slight rigors, 
though there is seldom any chill. There is often headache, and vomit- 
ing occasionally. The erujition appears in one or two days after the 
inauguration of the fever. It consists of red spots at first, which 
quickly become vesicular, and are frequently attended with itching. 

Treatment. — Very little treatment ia required, except incases of 
feeble vitality, when the disease often assumes a severe character. In 
such cases the stomach and bowels should be well cleansed, the surface 
sponged with hot water, and the fever controlled with arterial sedatives. 
Tonics should be given if the patient is enfeebled. The diet should be 
nutritious, but comi^osed of easily digested articles. 

Measles (Rubeola). 

This is an acute inflammation of the entire skin, of an infectious and 
contagious nature. It is ushered in with chills, followed by heat, drow- 
suiess, para in head, back, and limbs, sore throat, dry cough, and other 
symptoms common to febrile action, growing hx violence until the fourth 
day. Then the eruption appears, producing heat and itching. The 
breaking out appears in patches of half-moon shape, which distiiigiiishes 
this disease from the other eruptive diseases. They reach their height 
at the fifth day on the face and neck, and on the legs about the seventh 
10* P 


day. Their decline is in the same order as appearance, disappearing^ 
about the tenth day, when the scarfskin peals off in the shape of scurf. 
Treatment. — If the attack be a mild one, all the treatment neces- 
sary consists in light diet, acid and demulcent drinks, as flaxseed-tea 
decoction of slippeiy-elm, etc. Sponging with tepid water is very 
grateful to the sufferer in all cases. If during the first stage the 
eruption should be tai'dy in its coming, it should be hastened by a 
warm bath, and sweating drinks made from saffron, muUeiu, penny- 
royal, summer savory, etc. If tardy on account of excessive fever, give 
tincture of green hellebore, ipecac, lobelia, snake-root, etc. In en- 
feebled constitutions stimulants are necessary. 

Scarlet Fever {Scarlatina). 

Also a contagious disease. The eruption is in the shape of pimples 
of a scarlet hue, displayed in patches over the whole surface. The 
fever is usually more intense than in measles, and accompanied by sore 
throat, swollen face, and coated tongue. The greatest degree of red- 
ness is attained at the third or fourth day. The decline is the same as 
in measles. Scarlet fever is distinguished from other diseases by the 
swollen condition of the flesh, which spreads out the fingers peculiarly. 
The throat becomes ulcerated, and swaUowiug is attended with pain 
and difficulty. There is no cough, which also distinguishes it^from 

The foUowing will show the difference between scarlet fever and 
measles : — 

In Scarlet Fever. In Measles. 

The eruption is bright scarlet. The eniption is dai-k-red color. 

It appears on the second day. Does not appear till the fourth day. 

Is quitu smooth to the touch. Is raised. 

Is in small round spots. Is larger and crescent-shaped. 

Disappears on pressure. Doss not disappear. 

The face is quite dry. Face swelled ; running from the eyes and 

and nose. 

Treatment. — This should be cooling in its nature, cooling drinks, 
sponging with cold water, etc. In ordinary cases little more is required, 
excepting a few drops of tincture of belladonna may be given several 
times per day. When high fever exists, give the remedies advised in 
measles. Hot foot-baths are advisable. As this is a prostrative disease, 
oeef-tea and the ordinary stimulants should be given from the first. 
What is called malignant scarlet fever is only a severer form than the 
above. Gargles of sage and Cayenne pepper are used to allay the throat 
affections. The abscesses in the region of the ear, and consequent deaf- 
ness, can be obviated by subduing the inllammatiou of that part by the 
usual methods. 

the complete herbalist. 227 

Nettle Rash. 

This commences with fever, lusting two or three days ; then itching 
pimples, diversified in shape, appear, which go off during the day and 
come again at night. Teething causes it sometimes, while at other 
times it is due to improper diet. 

Treatment. — This is indicated by thecaiise. If due to indigestible 
food, the stomach must be unloaded by an emetic of blood-root or 
ipecacuanha. A lotion of vinegar and water is of service. Tonics and 
simple diet wiU complete the cure. 


This disease commences with languor, aching or soreness of the 
limbs, chilliness, alternating with flushes of heat. The pulse is quick, 
skin hot, tongue foul, appetite gone, thirst, nausea sometimes; vom- 
iting, headache, restlessness, sore throat, swelling and tenderness of 
the glands of the neck, armi-pits, or groin, according to the seat of the 
cutaneous inflammation. The eruption usually makes its appearance, 
about the third day of the fever, in the form of a small reddish spot, 
somewhat elevated, painful or tender to the touch. This occurs most 
frequently upon the face, especially on the side of the nose, cheek, or 
rim of the ear. In some instances the inflammation advances slowly, 
in others it spreads quickly over large portions of the body, accom- 
panied by tumefaction, and a burning and stinging pain in aU cases. 
About the third day of the inflammation smaU blisters, filled with yel- 
low serum, appear, which break about three days afterward. On the 
fifth or sixth day they begin to dry, and on the seventh or eighth form 
crusts or scabs, which desquamate, and a new skin forms. In phlegmon- 
ous erysipelas the inflammation involves not only the skin, but the sub- 
cutaneous tissues also, and the symptoms are aU severer. It often 
assumes a very malignant type, and is then a disease of a most fatal 
character. It is liable to attack wounds ; and those who are nursing 
patients suffering with erysipelas should never wait upon a woman who 
has been but recently confined, as she wiU be very liable to contract 
puerjjeral peritonitis, a very fatal disease. 

Treatment. — Give a lobelia emetic, a mild purge, and a hot bath 
at the commencement. In the mild form cover the inflamed patch 
with collodion, and renew every two or three hours. The emetic and 
piirge should be followed with quinine in two or three grain doses every 
three hours. The inflamed surface should also be washed with a de^ 
coction of the bark, or a solution of quinine. Bruised cranberries are a 
good application. Cloths wrung out of a hot decoction of white -oak 
bark and golden-seal should be applied to the inflamed part to pre- 
vent spreading. In wounds apply lint saturated with compound tinc- 
ture of myrrh and capsicum. If the fever is violent, treat it as in all 


other febrile cases. A nutritive diet should follow medical treatment 
as soon as the disease has passed its active career. 

Rose Rash (Roseola). 

This is an eruptive disease of little importance. The febrile symp- 
toms are shght, more or less attended with gastric derangement, which 
continues two or three days before the rash appears and subsides with 
it. The eruption generally commences upon the face, is of uniform 
redness, and causes itching or tingling. The rash continues from one 
to five days, and is followed by a slight scaling off of the skin. It ia 
often the accompaniment of dentition and is not contagious. 

Treatment. — Little more is necessary than a warm bath and a few 
drops of veratnim. If the eruption is troublesome, two or three drops 
of tincture of Belladonna should be added to a tumbler of water, and a 
teaspoonful given occasionally. 


The eruption of this disease is of superficial redness, generally in ir- 
regular patches, slightly elevated, and attended with heat, tingling, and 
sometimes slight pain. It may be local or owing to constitutional dis- 
turbance. It may be caused by friction of contiguous surfaces, as in the 
groin and arm-pits, in fat infants, particularly when not frequently 
washed. When owing to constitutional causes, it usiially appeal's on. 
the face, breast or limbs. It lasts from a few days to a week or longer. 

Treatment. — If the cause can be ascertained, it should be removed 
by the proper remedies. Anoint the affected part with a little lime- 
water and sweet-oil, or bathe with a strong decoction of golden-seal. 
Glycerine may also be applied, but if you can procure the "Herbal 
Ointment" (see page469> I ad\dse its application, as it is a specific for 
this and kindred affections. 


This may be contracted from the horse, and is a very malignant dis- 
ease. It is characterized by a purulent and sometimes bloody discharge 
from the nose, a peculiar pustular eruption, and by tumors in different 
parts of the body. Its initial stage is the same as in all eruptive fevers, 
attended with neuralgic pains in the limbs. In the course of four or 
five days the eruption makes its appearance in different parts of the 
body, usually most abimdant upon the face and limbs. The discharge 
from the nose ensues in the course of a week or ten days, being at first 
yellowish, afterwards bloody, and very offensive. The body finally ex- 
hales a fetid odor, the mind wanders, delirium and coma follow, and 
by the end of the second week, or during the third, it generally proves 
fatal, if not arrcsied sooner in its course. It is fortunately very rare ; 


and attendants upon a horse affected with glanders should be very care- 
ful that they do not come in contact with the virus. The affected 
horse should be shot, as the disease is very seldom cured. 

Tkeatment.— Support the strength of the patient, and stimidate the 
emunctories. This can be best achieved by a thorough alcoholic vapor 
bath, followed by an active lobelia emetic and a brisk cathartic. After 
this give quinine, three grains, and baptisin, two grains, every two or 
three hours, for a day or two. The nostrils should be syringed with 
warm water, to which a few drops of creosote has been added, three or 
four times a day. The throat may be gargled with the same prepara- 
tion. Support the strength with chicken-broth, rice-gruel, cream, 
punch, porter, ale, etc. If this course is not effectual, repeat every 
thi'ee or four days. 

Dandy Fever {Dengue). 

This disease occasionally prevails as an epidemic in the southern sea- 
coast towns. There is pain, stiffness of the neck, back, and loins, and 
swelling of the muscles of the limbs and joints. Intolerance of light, 
restlessness, chilliness, fever, headache, a full and quick pulse, red 
eyes, a hot and dry skin, and an intense thirst prevail. The fever 
usually lasts from one to two days, when a gradual remission occurs, 
and the patient feels quite comfortable. After an interval of two or 
three days the fever returns, the pains are increased, the tongue is 
thickly coated, the stomach irritable, and the patient becomes dejected 
and fretful. Nausea is a prominent symptom, but seldom any vomiting 
occurs. About the sixth or seventh day an eruption, resemljling scar- 
latina, appears, and gives relief to the distressing symptoms. It dis- 
appears after two or three days, the color of the sldn gradually fading, 
with slight desquamation. The duration of the disease is about eight 
days. The causes are evidently miasmatic poison, in concert with epi- 
demic influence. 

Treatment. — Essentially the same as in scarlatina, accompanied 
with such remedies as advised in rheumatism. Quinine, in antiperiodic 
doses, should also be administered, and the anodynes should be given 
if the pains are severe. Tonics may be required in some cases ; and in 
convalescence, frequent baths, a generous diet, and out-door exercises 
should be prescribed. 


This affection is characterized by a greater or lesser number of livid 
spots on the skin, from extravasated blood. In simple cases the effu- 
sion is confined to the skin and cellular tissues, mostly occurring on the 
arms, legs, and breasts. The spots at first are small, and resemble flea- 
bites. The countenance is pale, and the patient complains of debility, 


loss of appetite, irreg-ularity of the bowels, and periodic fever. If al- 
lowed to progress, it will assume a form known as purpura hemorrhagica, 
in which the spots are longer, and resemble whip-marks or violent bruises. 
They are bright red at first, but become purple or .livid. A great 
variety of symptoms are presented by each case, and the disease is a 
very singular one. 

Treatment. — In the simple form a very liberal diet of fresh vege- 
tables, out-door exercise, and some simple tonic, are all that is neces- 
sary. In the hemorrhagic character, quinine, in one or two grain doses, 
should be given every three hours. Diet should consist of green vege- 
tables, salt meats, eggs, and the free use of lemonade. A liniment of 
camphor, whiskey, and turpentine should be externally applied. If in- 
ternal hemorrhage occurs, give oil of erigeron, in five -drop doses, every 
half hour ; or matico, in from five to ten grain doses, may be adminis- 
tered every twenty minutes until it ceases. 


Mouth. — The mouth is separated from the nose by the hard and soft 
palate, and communicates. It is bounded in front by the lips, and its 
sides by the cheeks. The space between the hps and teeth is called the 
vestibule. The mouth is lined by a mucous membrane, which is covered 
by numerous glands, some being mucous and some salivary. The toouth 
contains a double row of teeth, thirty-two in the aggregate, perfopning 
the first process in digestion, the ina^ticatwn of food. 

Tongue. — The tongue is an oblong, flattened, muscular body, which 
varies in size and shape ; it is the organ of taste, and also of importance 
in speech and mastication. Its posterior extremity or root is attached 
to a bone, called the hi/oid, by yellow filtrous tissue. Its anterior ex- 
tremity is called the tip ; its intervening portion its body. The mucous 
covering of the tongue is very thick ui^on its upper surface, and very 
thin upon its under siirface. Upon its upper surface are a number of 
projections, of various sizes and shapes, called pa/pill^. The largest are 
eight or nine in number, called papilhe mnximm, and are situated at the 
posterior portion of the tongue, in two convergent lines. The smallest 
papillae are fine and pointed, and are found near the middle of the 
tongue, and are termed filiform. The intermediate papilla3 are most 
abvmdant, some oi ys,'h.\ch. are conical, otlieYs, fungiform. The tongue 
assists in the process of deglutition. 

Palate. — The palate separates the back portion of the nose from 
the mouth, and is divided into two parts. The hard palate, of a bony 
base, covered by mucous memVjrane, which is continuous with that 
of the mouth ; the soft palate is the membranous separation between 
the back portion of the mouth and nose. From the middle the 
umiUi projects, about three-quarters of an inch in length; from each 



Bide of the UTula there are two divergent crescentic folds of mncous 
membrane, which are called lateral half-arches ; the space between 
which constitutes the fauces. 

Between the anterior and posterior arches of each side is the 
toiisil gland. The tonsils are about the size of an almond, and consist 
of a collection of large mucous foUicles. 

Salivary Glands. — The salivary glands are of light pink color, and 
their secretion is of great sei"vice in mastication and digestion. These 
are three in number — the parotid, submaxillary, and sublLugual. The 
parotid is the largest ; it Ues on the side of the face in front of the 
ear, and beneath the sliin. The submaxillary lies in a depression on 
the internal face of the lower jaw-bone. The sublingual is the small- 
est of the three ; it is situated under the tongue. 

PhaiTjnx. — The pharynx is a muscular and membranous sac, com- 
municating with the mouth, nose, oesophagus, larynx, and the tube 
(Eustachian) leading to the ear. Its length is about five inches, al- 
though this varies by extension and contraction. Its uses are for deglu- 
tition, respiration, and modulation of the voice. 

(Esophagus. — This is the canal that conveys the food from the pharynx 
to the stomach. Its length is about nine or ten inches, and its dia- 
meter is not uniform, gradually increasing (as it descends). Its upper 
portion is the narrowest part of the alimentary canal ; and hence 
foreign bodies which are too large to pass through the alimentary 
canal are generally arrested in the neck. It never contains air. Deglu- 
tition is performed by the contraction of the longitudinal fibres of the 
oesophagus, which shor- 
ten the passage, and by 
contraction of its circu- 
lar fibres successively 
from above downward. 
Stomach. — The stom- 
ach is a conoidal sac, 
somewhat bent or curv- 
ed, and situated below 
the breast-bone or in 
the epigastric region. 
The left* extremity is 
much the larger, and 
terminates in a rounded 
sac ; at the upper por- 
tions of this extremity 
is the cardiac orifice^ 
where the oesophagus is 
continued into the stomach, immediately below the diaphragm. 

The Stomach. 



right extremity is continuous with the intestines, and its orifice is 
called the pyhric. The structure of the pylorus is much thicker than 
that of anj' other portion. The stomach is held in its position by the 
oesophagus' and the duodenum,'" as well as by reflexions of the perito- 
neum. The upper and lower curvatures of the stomach are called the 
greater and lesser cuvatures. ° ^ Near the pyloric extremity of the stom- 
ach is a small dilatation' called the antrum pylori. The dimensions of 
the stomach are variable, depending upon the mode of life. It has four 
coats ; the peritoneal, muscular, cellular and mucous. 

In the stomach the food receives the admixtiu'e of the gastric jxiice, 
which is the solvent agent of digestion. The fluids taken into the 
stomach are for the most part absorbed from it ; the solids, with the 
exception of the insoluble parts, are by the action of the gastric juice 
reduced to a substance called chyme., which in general is grayish, semi- 
fluid, homogeneous, with a slightly acid taste and smell. The chyme is 
then poTired into the duodenum through the pyloric oriiice for the 
subsequent action of the intestines. 

Intestines. — The intestinal canal is from thirty to thirty-five feet in 
length, and is divided into large and sm.all intestines. The small intes- 
tine is four-fifths of the length of the M'hole canal, reaching from the 
pylorus to the large intestine ; it is cylindrical, and about one inch in 
diameter; there is a gradual diminution in calibre as it descends. ' | Its 
coats are the same as those of the stomach. The mucous coat is Very 
vascular, and its absorbents are very numerous. The glands are the 
crypts or follicles of Lieberkiihn, the glands of Peyer, the solitary 
glands, and Brunner's glands. 

The small intestine is divided into duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. 

The Duodenum commences at the pylorus, and is about twelve inches 
long. The common duct formed by the junction of the bile and gall 
ducts opens into it about four or five inches from the pylorus. The 
Jejunum (from jejunus, empty) constitutes the upper two-fifths of tha 
small intestine, and the ileum the remaining three-fifths. 

The large intestine reaches from the ileum to the anus, and is one- 
fifth in length of the whole canal; it differs miich from the small 
intestine, and has a sacculated appearance. It likewise has four coats. 
It is divided into cascum, colon, and rectum. 

The Cacum is a cul-de-sac or blind sac, and the commencement of 
the large intestine, and hence often called the caput coli. At the 
uiferior portion is a worm-like process called the appendix vermiformis. 
On the side of the ctecum is the ileo-ccvcal valve, an elliptical opening 
whereby the small intestine empties into the large. 

The (John is the largest portion of the large intestine ; gradually 
diminishes in diameter until it terminates in the sigmoid or S-like 
flexure on the left side. It ascends on the right side, and forming an 


arch transversely, descends upon the left side. The Rectum is the ter- 
minating portion of the large intestine, and reaches from the sigmoid 
llexure to the amis. It is somewhat barrel-shaped, being larger in the 
middle than at either end. 



This is characterized by inflammation of the mouth. It may involve 
the whole membrane, or be confined to isolated portions. The first 
prominent symptom is a loss of taste, and a sensation similar to that 
produced by scalding liquids. The surface is red, very tender, and 
painful. The inflammation may extend to the fauces, nasal passages, 
and Eustachian tube. The stomach often becomes irritable, bowels loose, 
and the patient debilitated and emaciated. When caused by vitiated 
secretions, produced by the disturbed condition of the lymphatics while 
suckling, it is known as '■'•■nursing sore-mouth,^'' or technically, follicular 
sti/matitis. It may then extend to the stomach and bowels, causing 
ulceration, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysentery, and great prostration of the 
nervous system ; and if not arrested, the mucous membranes of the air 
passages are involved, producing cough, expectoration, tuberculous de- 
generation and death. The teeth may fall out, and the gums be ab- 

AphthoB or Thrush is another form of stomatitis. It is generally cha- 
racterized by small vdcers scattered over the surface, or in patches of 
white exudation, which may become thick and absorbed, and leave a 
raw-looking surface, or a foul spot. Children are very liable to it, and it 
is generally caused by acidity of the stomach, or general derangement 
of that organ by imjiroper diet or unhealthy milk. 

Treatment. — This depends upon the cause, which, if ascertained, 
should be removed. If due to carious teeth, they should be removed, 
and if owing to dyspepsia, the i^roper remedies should be given. The 
mouth should be frequently washed with a warm decoction of golden 
seal. The system should be supported with tonics, a generous diet, and 
a liberal use of fresh succulent vegetables, as grapes, etc., should be 
prescribed. Sage-tea gargles are very useful. The mother should also 
pay attention to her diet, so as not to supply the babe with improper 
milk. If due to acidity of the stomach, the necessary absorbents 
should be administered. 


This is inflammation of the substance of the tongue, involving its 
muscular structure. It usually commences with a throbbing pain in the 
tongue, followed soon after mth redness and swelling. In the course 



of a few hours the tongue enlarg-es so much as to fill the whole mouth, 
forces open the jaws, and protrudes from the mouth. Some fever usu- 
ally accompanies it. Swallowing- is usually almost impossible, speech 
gone, abscesses may form, and the tongue may even become mortified. 
Treatment.— If due to a disordered state of the stomach, an active 
lobeUa emetic should be given, and followed with an anti-bilious purge, 
like the Renovating Pill. If due to scalds or bums, the mouth should be 
washed with mucUage of flaxseed and slippery elm. If due to merouiy, 
vai)or baths should be taken, a free use of the syrup of stillingia resorted 
to, and equal parts of charcoal and yeast used as a gargle. 

Quinsy {Tonsillitis). 

This consists of inflammation of the tonsils, which may in many 
cases extend to the adjacent tissues. It usually commences with a slight 
chill, followed by much febrile excitement, uneasy feeling in the throat, 
and difficulty of swallowing, which increases in severity very rapidly 
imtil at last deglutition becomes almost impossible. There is a constant 
disposition to swallow, in order to free the fauces from a tenacious, 
colorless mucus which adheres to that part. The respiration is not 
much affected unless in bad cases. From the commencement there ia 
fever, severe headache, imd a rapid pulse. The tennination is usually 
an abscess, which at length opens, and a discharge of very fetid pus en- 
sues, which affords relief. The duration of the disease is usually about 
a week, and is scarcely ever fatal. 

Treatment.— Administer a free lobeha emetic, and anoint the throat 
thoroughly with the Herbal Ointment. In ordmary fonns this will be 
sufficient. If an abscess, however, forms, it should be evacuated by 
an incision. In malarial districts, quinine in anti-periodic doses may be 
necessary, and if the fever is severe, veratrum should be given. The 
throat should be gargled with a decoction of golden seal, and to prevent 
termination into induration and permanent enlargement, alteratives 
should be given, especially in strumous habits. 


This is characterized either by acute, sub-acute, or chronic inflamma- 
tion of the pharj-nx. There is slight pain upon pressure, or in the act 
of swallowing. It is seldom attended with fever, but in severe cases 
abscesses may form, causiiig great difficulty in swallowing and breath- 
ing. In the acute form the inflammation is usually limited to the 
mucous membrane, and simply constitutes an erythematic affection. 
The chronic form is known as " dcrcjymaii'ssore throat,'''' and is attended 
with a dry, hacking cough, hoarseness, and a sense of fatigue of the 
vocal organs after a slight exercise. 

Treatjnient. — The treatment of simple pharyngitis is but little moie 


than merely to regulate the stomach and bowels, the external applica- 
tion of cold packs, and a few days' resj;. In the chronic form an in- 
vigorating and tonic course of treatment should be pursued, in connec- 
tion with rest, baths, and pure air. To relieve the local difficulty, one 
grain of stillLngia may be mixed with a drachm of sugar, divided into ten 
powders, of which one should be taken every two hours. The inhala- 
tion of hot vapor from bitter herbs is to be recommended. Blood-root 
■ in connection ^vith constitutional treatment is highly beneficial. Patients 
will find that my "Acacian Balsam" in the chronic form is a virtual 
specific ; the Herbal Ointment should also be outwardly appUed. If 
owing to a comi^licated constitutional disorder, or if it exists in associa- 
tion with catarrh, it constitutes an affection requiring the most skilful 
treatment, and those who may wish my advice in such cases may refer 
to page 390 for general directions for consultation. 

Parotitis {Mumps). 

Mumps is an inflammatory affection of the salivary glands, especially 
the parotids. It generally commences with slight fever, stiffness of the 
jaws, and a slight pain or swelling in one jr both parotid glands. The 
parts are hot, painful, and very tender upon pressure. Mastication and 
swallowing become painful, which causes considerable nervous irrita- 
bility. Metastasis to the breasts of the female and to testicles of the 
male is liable to occur, especially if the patient is subjected to undue 
exposure. Inflammation of the brain may occur in some cases. It 
reaches its height in about four days, disappeaiing entirely about the 

Treatment. — Keep the patient qixiet, and give a mild purge. For 
external application a liniment of goose-fat and can^phor is very bene- 
ficial. If there be much fever, resort to the usual anti-febrile treat- 
ment. If inflammation of the brain should ensue, resort to active 
cathartics, and give small doses of macrotin and quinine. The " Herbal 
Ointment " will be found a superior remedy, see page 4G9. 


This is an inflammation of the oesophagus, or that portion of the 
alimentary canal which conveys the food from the pharynx to the 
stomach. Heat and pain, increased by swallowing, at some point along 
the tube, are the earliest symptoms. Occasionally there is pain between 
the shoulders, and, perhaps, tenderness on pressure, with more or less 
difficulty in swallowing. Hiccough, an eructation of glairy muciis, and 
vomiting, are sometimes present. There is also more or less constitu- 
tional disturbance. Ulcers and abscesses may form. It may become 
chronic, and stricture of the canal at any part of its passage may result, 


which may so effectually prevent deglutition as to cause death by 

Treatment. — In the acute forna, the stomach should be cleansed by 
a lobelia emetic, and the bowels opened by a purge. The surface 
should be sponged with hot water, and sufficient tincture of veratrum 
given to maintain a gentle diaphoi'esis. In the chronic form the altera- 
tives are to be administered, and the bowels occasionally purged. The 
patient should be confined mostly to a vegetable diet of fluid character. 
Frequent sips from a decoction of golden seal and slippery elm should 
be taken. Stricture of the oesophagus should only be treated by a 
competent phitsiciau, as the means employed for its cure might do more 
harm in improper hands than any possible good. 

Inflammation op the Stomach {Gastritis). 

This usually commences in the acute form with violent vomiting and 
a burning pain in the region of the stomach. Swallowing becomes diffi- 
cult, thirst is intense, tongue is dry and smooth, headache often violent, 
delirium and prostration are present. If the stomach only is inflamed, 
there is constipation ; but if the bowels also are affected, there is 
diaiThoea. The attendant fever is as common, and the disease may 
assume such a gravity that death inevitably ensues, especially in per- 
foration of the stomach. Chronic gastritis is a common disorder. It is 
generally of a mild character, unless of long continuance, when it niay 
occasion considerable organic disorder. Its approach is gradual, present- 
ing a variety of symptoms, but may be known from dyspepsia in there 
being more pain at some particular point, and more frequent vomiting 
after taking food. 

Treatment. — Give an emetic, and cleanse the stomach by means of 
large draughts of warm water. Counter-irritation should be resorted to 
over the stomach. The vomiting may be checked by opium, and the 
tincture of crawley may be given to control the fever. If produced by 
a con'osive poison, the necessary antidotes will, of course, be required. 
All solid foods should be withheld, and the drinks should bs mucilagi- 
nous, as marshmallow, slippery elm, gum-water, etc. 

The trc;itment of chronic gastritis is not so easily stated. It depends 
greatly upon associated conditions and complications. Diet is an import- 
ant element in the treatment. My '* Restorative AssimUant" internally, 
and "Herbal Ointment" exteraally, generally cure each case; but 
some cases are of such a serious character that a cure can only be 
effected by special symptomatic treatment. Those desiring to consult 
me are referred to questions, page 390. 

Cancer op the Stomach. 
The early .symptoms of cancer of the stomach are usually similar to 
chronic gastritis. The appetite is impaired, and frequent nausea and 


vomiting supervene. The pain in the stomach is of a lancinating char- 
acter. The gastric functions are impaired, and the mucous discharges 
become sour and purulent, finally bloody, and if subjected to micro- 
scopical examination, cancer cells are found. The complexion has a 
yellowish -white, waxen appearance, which distinguishes cancer from 
other diseases of the stomach. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists chiefly in combating the 
symptoms as they occur. Cundurango should be given a fair tiial in all 
cases. If the disease has reached a certain stage, no remedy will pro- 
duce a radical impression ; but I have the assurance that I have cured 
many cases of well-defined cancer of the stomach, in more or less 
advanced stages of the disease, by the employment of consistent and 
energetic chemical treatment. 

Heart-Burn {Oastral(jia). 

Two forms of heart-bum are commonly observed : one, attended by 
acid eructations, causing irritation of the throat and fauces; and 
in the other, the ejections from the stomach are rancid and alkaline, 
and connected with a gnawing pain and distention of the stomach. It 
pruicipally occurs during digestion, and may be of every grade of sever- 
ity. It is caused by excess of acid, or an accumulation of gas, in the 

Treatment. — This depends upon the cause. If acid, administer 
pulverized charcoal, with a little magnesia, or, what is just as good, 
compound spirits of lavender. If alkaline, give lemon-juice as often as 

Gastralgia, or Gastrodynia. 

This is a neuralgic affection of the stomach, and is often a symptom 
of dyspepsia. The appetite is generally impaired, though sometimes 
remains good. There is a gnawing pain in the stomach, and a strong 
disposition to vomit. The tongue is usually foul, the skin cool, and 
pulse quite disturbed. 

Treatment. — If owing to long-continued use of indigestible or im- 
proper food, abandon it, and change to other articles. Take quinine, 
and a little cherry laurel water, to subdue the neuralgic affection, and 
tonics to restore the tonicity of the stomach. 

Spasm of the Stomach. 

This consists of a sense of paiu, stricture, or contraction, occurring 
in paroxysms. The stomach feels as if rolled into a ball, or drawn 
towards the back. It assumes different degrees of violence, being often 
exceedingly painfid. 

Treatment. — It is instantly relieved by a dose of some preparation 


of wild gnm, in combination with a fourth of a grain of gelsemin. 
External application of the "Herbal Ointment" acts equally as specifi- 

Water-Brash {Pyrosis). 

This also occurs generally in paroxysms. The pain is intense, and of 
a burning character. An eructation of a thin, insipid, watery liquid 
occurs, and, when discharged, affords momentary relief. 

Treatment. — Quinine and the general tonics will remove this diffi- 
culty. Certain habits, as inebriety, anxiety of mind, etc., are to be 
overcome, and a generous diet indulged in. 

Dyspepsia, or Indigestion. 

This is one of the most common affections in the whole catalogue of 
diseases. Scarcely a human being lives that has not or will not be a 
victim to this harassing disease. In simple indigestion, the symptoms 
vary much in nature and severity. One may suffer severely, while 
another has merely slight depression of spirits. Loss of appetite, nausea, 
vomiting, constipation alternating with diarrhoea, furred tongue, foul- 
ness of breath, palpitation of the heart, pains in various parts, dull 
headache, hjiiochondriasis, etc., are present in all cases. The patient's 
appetite may at one time be wholly lost ; at other times it is morbid 
and ravenoiis, which, if indulged in, will only add to his misery. There 
is seldom any healthy feeling of hunger, but, in place pf this, the 
patient has a most miserable sensation of hollowness or sinking at the 
region of the stomach. Nausea and vomiting are the most distressing 
symptoms of dyspepsia ; the former may occur soon after the food is 
swallowed, or it may be deferred for an hour or two. The matter 
ejected is most frequently sour, and mixed with bile, often having the 
flavor of rotten eggs, which is due to a gas kno\vn as sulphuretted 
hydrogen. This gas, in ascending, often brings the solid food into the 
throat and mouth, making the patient almost a ruminant animal. Suf- 
fering is experienced when the stomach is full or empty, though it differs 
in various cases. Sometimes not much uneasiness is felt until several 
hours after eating, when all its attendant horrors are manifested. This 
is due to fermentation of the food. Water-brash, gastralgia, spasm of 
the stomach, etc., are constant companions of the dyspeptic, and his 
days are most miserably spent, whQe his nights are not much better, 
because his sleep is not refreshing; the body is not reposed, and he is 
the frequent victim of honnble nightmares. A dyspejjtic patient suffers 
from every variety of indisposition, and it is easy to learn from his 
dejected countenance and woe-begone look that he yearns for that com- 
fortable human existence that only a healthy digestive apparatus 
affords to man. He is fretful and peevish, dissatisfied with others and 


with himself ; has individually no comfort, and allows but little to those 
around him ; everything that was formerly bright and cheerful now 
bears a gloomy aspect; his smiles are derisive, his opioions cynical ; and 
everything that is bright, cheerful, and lovable has gone with the 
enjoyment of good health. The disease is in fact a maladj' that em- 
braces in its symptoms and consequences nearly every physical and 
mental torture known to mankind. 

Treatment. — WTien it arises from inertia of the stomach, it may be re- 
moved by stomachics. If produced by bad habits, it can only be cor- 
rected by strict adherence to the physiological laws controlling the 
digestive functions. When it occurs from softening of the mucous mem- 
branes and a deficiency of the gastric secretion, alnuin is a good reme- 
dy ; and chelonin acts well in chronic inflammation of the organ. 
When dependent upon nervous debihty, herbal phosphorus and cypre- 
pedin act weU. Constipation should be reheved by leptandrin and simi- 
lar cathartics. Diet and hygiene form a very important part in the treat- 
ment, and these should receive very careful attention. Fresh air, 
baths, friction, out-door exercise, careful avoidance of overloading the 
stomach, are indispensable adjuncts to all treatment. It is but just to 
myself, and eminently due to my readers, to acquaiat them with my 
mode of treating dysjjepsia, and which, I confidently assert, is attended 
with as specific results as can be expected from any medicinal agents. It 
is my sincere beUef that failure is impos.sible if the remedies are taken 
faithfully, for a reasonable length of time. I advise in all cases and in 
all forms of the disease, my "Restorative AssimUant," "Renovating 
Pills," and " Herbal Ointiuent." The Assimilant is taken internally, in 
prescribed doses, three times a day ; the pUls are taken as occasion re- 
quires, to keep bowels regular, and the Herbal Ointment is rubbed exter- 
nally, once or twice a day, over the region of the stomach and bowels. 
The philosophy of this treatment is obvious ; the Assimilant restores the 
tonicity of the digestive organs, increases secretion of gastric juice, pro- 
motes chymification, stimulates the accessory organs of digestion, and, 
by its assimilative properties, increases the functional action of the 
absorbents, and restores the chemical process of digestion to its healthy 
state. The pills increase the peristaltic motion of the bowels, augment 
biliary discharges, stimulate the mesenterio glands, while, at the same 
time, they give tonic power to the whole alimentary canal. The oint- 
ment, by its discutient properties, removes aU inflammation, localizes 
healthy blood to the organs and tissues, and prevents centralization of 
morbific agents. 

These remedies at once assert their value, and gain complete mastery 
over the disease in a short time ; and should any of my dyspeptic read- 
ers, though faithless in medicinal relief from repeated failures, be 
pleased to give them a ti-ial, the author is confident that the medicines 



will cure them and restore them to vigorous health, so that they rnay 
once more enjoy the boon of healthy digestive organs. (See page 469.) 


The liver is the largest glandular organ in the body ; its office is to 
secrete bile. It is oblong and ovaJ in shape, and occupies the position 
on the right side, under the lower ribs. It weighs from four to five 
pounds ; it measures from ten to twelve inches transversely, and from 
six to seven antero-posteriorly ; its greatest thickness is from four to five 
inches. On the upper surface it is convex, and on the lower concave. 
Its color is of a reddish-brown, with occasional spots of black. 

The under surface of the liver presents a deep fissure, called umbdical 
or longitudinal, reaching from the anterior'" to the posterior" notch, 

containing the r e- 
mains of the umbili- 
cal vein of foetal life. 
Sometimes this fis- 
sure is converted into 
a foramen,' or open- 
ing, the right and left 
lobes being connect- 
ed. At right angles 
to this fissure is Mo- 
ther, called the trans- 
verse^'^ fissure, con- 
tauiing the portal 
vein, hepatic artery, 
and hepatic duct, 
bound together by the capsule of Glisson^ a membrane of cellular tissue. 
The ffall-bl-adiler^" lies in a deep depression upon the under siu'face of the 
right lobe of the liver. The lobulus guadratus' is that portion of the liver 
included between the depression occupied by the gall-bladder and the 
longitudinal and transverse fissures. At the posterior and inferior por- 
tion of the liver is a triangular lobe called the lobulus Spigelii^ The elon- 
gated ridge lomniug from the lobulus Spigelii outwardly is the lobulus 
caudatui'.'' These lobules are, however, all contained in the two lobes of 
the liver. The tiyht labe^ is the largest and thickest, and the lefP ter- 
minates in a thin cutting edge. The structure of the liver may be seen 
by tearing the liver of any animal. This will show a granulated an-ange- 
nient, and each of these granules is usually called an acinus. These aci- 
ni consist of a terminal branch of the portal vein and hepatic artery, to- 
gether with the incipiwit radicles of the hepatic duct and hepatic vein, 
and in the capillary network thus constituted are numerous cells, which 
Betirete the bile. 


The liver is liable to a variety of disorders, and, when affected, exerts 
a marked influence on the organs and tissues of the body. The func- 
tions of the organ are so important that impairment arising from any or- 
ganic cause quickly distm-bs the harmony and health of the whole econ- 
my. Its office Ls to eliminate the superfluous carbon from the blood. 
T his carbon enters into chemical combination with other substances, 
forming the compound known as bUe, and which is poured iuto the duo- 
denum, or upper bowel, where it assists greatly in the process of diges- 



Inflammation may he confined to its outside covering, or involve the 
entire substance of the liver. It usually makes its appearance with 
sympathetic fever, jiain, a sense of tension on the right side, inability 
to lie on the left side, difficulty of breathing, a dry cough, vomiting, 
and a troublesome cough. As the morbid action increases, high fever, 
with hot skia, thirst, and scanty urine is observed. The pain is acute 
and lanciaating. and is apt to run up to the right collar-bone, and to 
the top of the shoidder. The pain is increased by coughing, breath 
tng, and lying on the left side. A soreness is felt by pressing over the 
liver, and usually, when enlarged, is readily recognized by the touch. 
The puLse is full and hard, bowels costive, stools clay-colored, and 
the tongue is covered with a dark-brown, or even black coat, and there 
is a bitter taste in the mouth. 

Treatment. — Evacuate the stomach and bowels, and apply tiot 
packs, rubefacients, or even vesicants iu some cases, to the region of the 
liver. The purges should be such that will thoroughly evacuate the 
bowels with watery discharges, as jalap, elaterium, etc. Promote 
perspiration by a spirit vapor bath, or by American hellebore, or- other 
diaphoretics. When the urine is red and scanty, an infusion of marsh- 
mallow, pumpkin-seeds, or trailing arbutus should be given. Quimne, 
gelsemin, and irisin may be necessary in some cases. . 


Chronic inflammation of the liver usually involves the entire organ, 
and may be the result of the acute form, although it exists independ- 
ently of it. It is a disease veiy common in the South and West, and 
Ls evidently owing to malarial poison, ui connection with heat and at- 
mospheric vicissitudes. It is a very insidious disease, and the whole 
organ may assume a pathological condition before attracting any spe- 
cial attention. The most common symptoms are a disordered stomach, 
occasional vomiting, a sense of fulness and weight in tlie rijjbt side, ir 
11 Q 


regular bowels, pains in one or both shoulders, unhealthy stools, yel- 
lowness of skin, eyes, and urine, a short dry cough, disturbed appetite, 
febrile exacerbations towards night, and general emaciation. The pa- 
tient is generally despondent, his temper is imtable and peevish, and 
he is frequently the prey to the dread of some impending evil. The 
exercise of his mental faculties is often impossible in a literary or argu- 
mentative direction, and the loss of the cherished attribute of manhood 
is most frequently added to his misery. If the patient be a female, 
sexual congress becomes to her a revolting union, and her husband's 
approaches create in her only a feeling of disgust and scorn. 

Treatment. — The diet should be regulated, outdoor exercise should 
be taken, baths liberally used, and chafing liniments applied over the 
liver ; keep the bowels open with leiitandrin, or decoction of the plant, 
and give one-tenth of a grain of gelsemin with two gi-ains of quintue, 
every three or four hours, until about twenty doses have been taken. 
This may be followed by dandelion and blackroot in small doses four or 
five times a day. An alterative like irisin may also be given. I also most 
strongly advise my "Restorative Assimilant," "Herbal Ointment," 
and "Renovating Pnis ;" to be used about the same as ordered in dys- 
pepsia. The pOls, esjiecially, exercise specific control over morMd con- 
ditions of the liver, and frequently cure the disease, unaided b;;^ other 
remedies. ^ 

It is frequently the case that chronic inflammation of the liver is so 
complicated that it will not respond to any ordinary treatment. In such 
cases a careful analysis of the symptoms and general condition of the 
patient must be made, and the treatment so modified and varied as to 
suit all the conditions of the case. In these cases it is difficult to desig- 
nate the required treatment, as each individual case is characterized by 
its owm pathological jihenomena, and requires essentially particular 
treatment. My success in the treatment of these stubborn cases has ex- 
ceeded even my cwn anticipations in many instances, and I now like to 
combat the "bilious" foe with my herbal weapons — and success usu- 
ally crowns my efforts. Those who wish to consult me are referred 
to page 390. 


The result of chronic inflammation of the areolar tissue of the entire 
organ is often induration or cirrhosis of the liver. The tissues become 
so firm, and ultimately so constricted, as to diminish the caliber of the 
portal vein, hepatic artery, and duct, resulting in the wasting away or 
atrophy of the lobular striicture, and the hepatic cells become studded 
with fat. This condition sadly interferes with the circulation of the 
blood through the portal vein, producing inflammation of gastric and in- 
testinal linings. It is the /tob-nailed liver of some writers. The usual 


symptoms are constipation, a dry skin, hig-li-colored urine, fickle appe- 
tite, and derangement of the nervous ■ system. The spleen often be- 
comes enlarged, while the liver diminishes in size, the pain becomes more 
intense, and frequently the kidneys are also involved. Digestion is 
feeble, chiUs, hectic fever, and night-sweats are often present, and fre- 
quently a dropsical condition of the lower Mmbs and abdomen is ob- 

Treatment. — All alcoholic stimulants should be avoided, and the 
action of the Hver aroused by jirickly ash, leptandrin, dandelion, emetics, 
etc. The tonics should be given, and Indian hemp should be administered 
in sufficient quantities to maintain a gentle influence upon the bowels 
and kidneys The alteratives, if indicated, should be exhibited, and 
continued as long as required. 

This disease is certainly an unfavorable one for treatment in its 
advanced stages, but my treatment in well-defined cases has been 
attended with the most favorable results, and I hope ere long that the 
result of my investigations into the morbid character of the disease in 
aU its phases, that I have made for many years, will enable me to still 
more rob the disease of its formidable nature. 


These concretions are generally oval or pear-shaped, and formed 
in the gall-bladder or hepatic ducts. They vary in size, from that of a 
small pea to a fowl's egg, and ia chemical composition present choles- 
terine, coloring matter, and the salts of lime, magnesia, etc. They 
occur oftener in females than in males, from the fact that their inactive 
life is more conducive to their formation. They give rise to a dull, 
heavy pain in the region of the liver, and more or less febrile excitement. 
In their passage through the duct they cause the most excruciating pain, 
which is accordingly intensified in proportion to the size of the stone. 
Impaction of the cystic duct, vidth complete obstruction and taflamma- 
tion, ulceration, and perforation of the duct and bladder may occur, 
givmg rise to great difficulties. 

Treatment. — To reduce the spasm, Dover's powder, or other ano- 
dynes, should be given, and hot packs or fomentations should be 
applied externally. A vapor bath and lobelia emetic often afford great 
relief. Belladonna plasters should be applied over the region of the 
liver, as they dilate the cystic duct, and alleviate the pains. Thorough- 
wort is a good remedy, and should be freely taken. If the stones can 
be found in the alvtne discharges, their chemical character should be 
definitely ascertained, and the proper chemical treatment resorted to in 
order to prevent their re-formation. Those who may desire my services 
in this respect can forward to me the stones, and on receipt I will care- 
fully analyze them, and suggest the proper treatment. 


Jaundice {Icterus). 

The most prominent symptoms are yellowness of the skin, eyes, and 
urine, owing to the deiJosit of the coloring matter of the bile in the 
blood. The api^etite is impaired, the food is loathed, an uncomfortable 
feeling of a load at the pit of the stomach is felt. The stomach is sour, 
sometimes there is sickness and vomiting, a bitter taste in the mouth, a 
dull pain at the right side, sleepiness, and an uncomfortable feeling of 
lassitude at all times distresses the patient. The ui-ine is heavily tinged 
w'ilh bile, and the stools clay colored. It is usually idiopathic, but may 
be a concomitant of other diseases. Torpidity of the liver is the chief 
cause, yet any functional disorder of the organs may cause it. 

Tkeatment. — If caused by inactivity of the liver, the organ should 
be aroused by a lobelia emetic and active antibilious purges. I can 
certainly advise no better cathartic for this purpose than my Renovating 
Pill. The liver should be further stimulated to action by the applica- 
tion of an irritating plaster over the region of the Uver. Tonics, like 
quinine, poplar, and liriodeudron, may be necessary in some cases. The 
diet should consist of vegetables, and as much out-door exercise 
should be taken as the patient can bear. 

The liver is the seat of many other diseases, but as they are more or less 
rare, of difficult detection, and treatment difficult, I deemed it prudent not 
to enter upon any consideration of them. The organ may hypertroj)hy or 
atrophy, its blood-ve.ssels may become diseased, it may be affected bj' syph- 
ilitic taint, it may become fatty, it may degenerate into a waxy or albumi- 
nous mass ; disease may change it into a pigment or nutmeg liver ; it may 
be the seat of hydatids or parasites, tumors or cancer may assail it. and 
finally it may be the seat of tuberculous matter of a miliary character. 
The symptoms produced by these morbid conditions are so obscure, and 
many of them the common property of all, that none but a skilful 
physician is capable of recognizing the identity of the affection ; and I 
advise all patients who are suffering from any liver disease that presents 
phenomena, not recognizable in the simj^ler affections of the organ, to 
intrust his case to a competent physician. 

I have devoted nearly a lifetime to the study of liver diseases, and I 
am ready to maintain that my success in their treatment is greater than 
by any other system of medication. I am daily consulted with refer- 
ence to some chronic disease of the liver, both in person or by letter, and 
patients under treatment are scattered in all sections of the coimtry. 
Constant coramiinication by correspondence enables me to ti*eat such 
cases as satisfactorily as by personal interview, as is attested by the 
gratifying success achieved iu all cases. (See page 390.) 




The org'an ' ' ', occupying the right of the following cut, is the 
Bpleen. It is a soft vascular organ, of a purplish color. It is not a 
true gland, as it has no duct. 

The shape of the spleen is irregular and variable, but it is generally 
the section of an ovoid, with a convex suii'ace resting against the dia- 

Ppleeii and Pancreas. 

phragm, opposite the ninth, tenth, and eleventh ribs, and a convex sur- 
face directed towards the stomach. 

It varies in size more than any other organ in the body. It is gene- 
rally five inches long and three wide, and weighs from five to seven 
ounces. The proper substance of the spleen is a soft, pulpy mass, of a 
reddish -brown color, resembling grumous blood. Its office in the econo- 
my is not well understood, but is evidently concerned in the blood- 
depurating process. It is numerously supplied with lymphatics. The 
long and flat gland lying between the spleen and duodenum, in the left 
of the cut, is the Pancreas^ or sweet-hread. It is of a light-pink color, 
and is about seven inches long. Its right extremity ", or head is much 
the thickest part, and is often called the lesser pancreas. Its left 
extremity gi-adually diminishes in. breadth until it touches the spleen 
''•'"'. The superior edge has a groove for the passage of the splenic 
artery. Its structure is conglomerate. Its excretory duct is called 
the duct of Wirsungtvs. 

Its -secretion is somewhat similar to saliva, hence it is often called the 
abdominal salivary gland. Its secretion contains a larger amount of 
solid matter than the saliva, and assists in the process of digestion. 

The functions of the spleen have formerly been the cause of miich 
controversy, nor are they better understood at the present day ; but the 
organ is evidently concerned somewhat in the blood-making process 


buc that it performs a very important part is doubtful, as the whole 
organ has been removed without affecting the health in the least. 
In some countries, the practice of removing the spleen in pigs, for the 
purpose of facilitating the fattening practice, has been resorted to, 
which fact has suggested to some over-confident analogists the propriety 
of removing the spleen in the human subject as a remedy for debility. 

Splenitis prevails most in malarious districts, and is a frequent result 
of chills and fever. A feeling of weight, tightness, sometimes pain in 
the left side, which is increased by pressure, or an attempt to lie on the 
left side, are the earliest symijtoms. The organ enlarges— sometimes 
so much that it can readUy be felt by the hand. It is known by the 
name of "ague-cake," and causes numbness and weakness of the legs, 
difficulty of breathing, palpitation of the heart, obstinate constipation, 
vomiting of food, piles, dry skin, and occasionally dropsical affections. 

Tkeatment. — This does not differ much with the treatment advised 
for acute and chronic inflammation of the liver. Quinine, in oombina- 
tion mth leptandrin and irisin, is indicated in all cases. Counter-irx'ica- 
tion should also be made over the splenic region, and, when compUcated 
with dropsy, the required directions should be administered. My 
"Restorative Assimilant," " Herbal Ointment," and " Renovating Pills" 
cure every case, if taken for a reasonable length of time. ^ ,-v 

The spleen may also be affected with drojisy, or become studded with 
tuberculous matter. In such events the treatment is the saind as for 
dropsy and tubercular depositions of any other internal organ. 

Diseases op the Pancreas. 

The pancreas is rarely the seat of disease. The symptoms of its 
morbid conditions are usually obscure. It may be affected by inflam- 
mation, passive or acute. In typhoid, typhus, and puerperal fevers, it 
occasionally becomes involved in inflammatiorf! The symptoms of dis- 
ease of this gland are usually pain in the epigastrium, enlargement and 
tenderness, a sensation of heat and constriction, salivation, nausea and 
vomiting, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, despondency, chills, alternated 
with flushes of heat, and debility, with great emaciation. The vomiting 
in some instances is very obstinate ; the matters ejected are thin, ropy, 
and of a sour or saltish taste. Jaundice is often observed. 

TUE.VTMENT. — Control the disease by equalizing the circulation with 
hot i^acks, veratrum, aconite, mild purges, etc. In the chronic form, 
administer mandrake, l>lue flag, and poke-root, as these remedies are 
known to increase the functions of this gland. Lobelia and capsicum, ia 
some cases of chronic congestion and inflammation, act with decided 
benefit. In all diseases of this gland it would be well, however, to 
intrust the treatment to a competent herbal physician. 

the complete herbalist. 247 

Diseases op the Bowels. 

The intestinal tube is very seldom affected throughout its whole 
extent, but inflammation may iavolve any portion of it at one time. If 
the duodenum is affected it is called Duodenitis, if the ctecum or bUnd 
gut is inflamed, it receives the name of Typhilitis, if it involves the 
small intestine, it is called Enteritis. These diseases are very rare, 
however, and their consideration as separate affections is of not much im- 
portance, except to the nosolog-ist. The treatment is upon general prin- 
ciples and corresi^onds withthat given in all inflammatory affections of 
the intestinal mucous membrane. Dysentery is a typical case of enteric 
inflammation, hence we will commence with the consideration of it. 

Dysenteky {Colitis). 

This is also known as bloody flux, and consists of an inflammation of 
the membrane of the colon and rectum, and characterized by small 
mucous or bloody evacuations, griping, and straining. The disease 
comes on with loss of appetite, costiveness, lassitude, shivering, heat of 
skin and quick pulse. These are followed by griping pain in the bowels 
and a constant desire to go to stool. The passages are mostly small in 
quantity, and comj)osed of mucus mixed with blood. These passages 
are attended with severe griping and straining, technically known as 
tormina and tenesmus. Nausea and vomiting sometimes attend the 
early stages. When the natural faeces pass off, they are usually formed 
in round compact balls, called scybala. Fever is commonly present, with 
a feeble, almost thread-like pulse. The discharges have but little odor 
at first, but become exceedingly offensive as the disease advances. The 
chronic form is characterized by frequent small evacuations, consisting 
mostly of mucus, but sometimes mixed with pus, bUe, fteces and blood. 
The symptoms are the same, but less intense than in the aciite form. 
Emaciation, debUity, dropsy, and consumption result, if not arrested. 
When the liver and stomach become disordered at the commencement, 
it is called bilious dysentery. Various forms of the disease are known 
as adynamic, intermittent and remittent, typhous, rheumatic and epi- 
demic dysentery ; but it is not necessary to classify the disease under 
these heads. 

Treatment. — A free lobelia emetic may be given at the outset, and 
the bowels evacuated by a purge ; castor-oil with laudanum is the best 
for this purpose. After the purge, take twenty grains of quinine and 
one drachm of leptandrin, divide into six powders and take one every 
hour until all are taken. The tenesmus should be relieved by injecting 
into the rectum five or six ounces of starch water, containing about 
twenty drops of laudanum, as often as is necessaiy. Ipecacuanha is a 
superior remedy. Gelsemin may be given afterwards, and if required 
the fever should be coutroUed by veratram. The patient should lie 


quietly in bed, and his diet should consist of grapes, baked apples, flour 
porridge, bread, rice, coffee, beef -tea and ripe fruit. The astringents are 
of course necessary, and for this purpose tannic and gallic acids, kino, 
rhatany, opium, capsicum, cranesbill, etc. , can be given. Tonics should 
be combined when the patient is weak, and if the debility is very great 
the alcoholic stimulants should be administered. I can with safety 
recommend my ' ' Restorative Assimilant " as a sure cure for both acute 
and chronic dysentery, as well as for all bowel complaints. The Herbal 
Ointment should be rubbed externally on the whole abdomen to relieve 
the inflammation. In the chronic form, the astringents, with such other 
remedies as may be indicated by the symptoms, are all that is necsssary. 


This common disorder is characterized by frequent and urgent de- 
mands to evacuate the bowels. It is usually preceded by a sense 
of indigestion, fulness of stomach, flatulency, and more or less echo 
pains. The pain generally subsides after an evacuation, and re- 
turns as an indication' of another discharge. The discharges may be 
thick, consisting of ingesta, or they may be serous, or of a rice-water 
appearance. Sometimes they consist of disintegrated mucous mem- 
branes, blood, and bile. There is usually a disagreeable sinkin^^ sen- 
sation in the abdomen along with the discharge, with exhaustion, a 
cool skin, and a feeble irregular pulse. It may bo attended with fiver, 
indicating extensive imtation of the mucous coat. The urine is usiially 
scanty. When the discharges are composed of senim, and highly 
colored with either yellow or green bile, it is called blUous diarrhoea ; 
when composed principally of mucus, it is known as mucous diarrhoea, 
and when of a thin, watery character, the name of serous diarrhoea is 
given to it. The disease may become chronic. 

TiiEATMENT. — If it occurs in children, a little paregonc, or essence of 
peppermint or spearmint, usually cures in a short time. Opium in com- 
bination with ipecac, as in the Dover's powder, is an excellent remedy. 
The astringents are all indicated. Starch injections, as advised in dysen- 
tery', should also be resorted to, and counter-iiiitation of the abdomen 
is also serviceable. In the chronic form the tonics should be combined 
with the astringents. I cannot recommend my ' ' Restorative Assimilant " 
(see page 4G9) too strongly. It is certainly an admirable remedy for 
this complaint, relieving it most instantly. 

Chr(mic diarrhoea may often be so dependent upon a vitiated con- 
dition of the system that it becomes quite difficult to cure. In such 
cases the most careful treatment is necessary to overcome the disease. 
During the war, and also afterwards, the author was considted for thia 
nlftjctiori by those who contracted it in the army in thousands of cases; 
but under proper treatment all recovered. 


By this is understood a collection of excrementitious matters in some 
pai-t of the intestinal tube. It is mai-ked by unfreqnency of stool, and 
by the recun-ence of fulness and tension ia parts of the abdomen. It 
occurs in patients of a lax and weak habit of body, or it may arise 
from rigidity of the muscles. It may also be due to imperfect func- 
tional action of the stomach, liver, pancreas, etc., in which case the in- 
tellectual faculties are dull, the complexion is sallow, the skin dry, luine 
scanty, acidity of the stomach, and headache. Sometimes the accumu- 
lation of faical matter is so great that the masses can be felt through 
the abdominal walls. It is frequently caused by an atonic condition of 
the muscular structure of the intestines, and in very many cases it re- 
stdts from neglect to attend to the calls of nature. These calls should 
be imperative, and whenever the desire arises they should not be disre- 
garded, but obeyed as quickly as opportunity allows. I once knew a 
sea-captain who only evacuated his bowels when in port, and who re- 
marked to me that when he " battened dowTi the hatches of his vessel, 
he also battened down the hatches of his body, and no matter how long 
the voyages, no stools are made. " The consequences were, that when- 
ever he came to port he had a hard time to be relieved of his fsecal ac- 
ciimulations. In many other cases no movement of the bowels was 
observed for ten or twelve weeks. Constipation is attended with vari- 
ous sympathetic afEections, and finally deranges the blood, impairs the 
health, tone, and vigor of the whole system. It is frequently the cause 
of pUes, strangury, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, ajioplexy, 
epilepsy, dyspepsia, insanity, etc. 

Treatjient. — The cause of the difficulty should be carefully studied, 
and the proper treatment resorted to. The diet should be composed of 
laxative articles of food, as fresh fruits, unbolted-llour bread, etc. If 
dependent upon a lax state of the muscular fibres, golden seal, in com- 
bination with mandrake and blackroot are the ijroper remedies, and 
when due to vitiated secretions of the stomach, liver, etc. , the American 
Columbo should be given. In atony of the bowels, nux vomica shoiild be 
carefully administered with the cathartics. Cathartics and enemas are of 
course indicated for present relief in aU cases, and those should be se- 
lected which operate sufficiently, without causing irritation of the mu- 
cous membranes. Kneading the bowels often overcomes habitual consti- 
pation. There exists no better remedy than my " Renovating Pills," they 
cure every case of habitual constipation. The bowels may become ob- 
structed from other causes. Intussusception, or invagination of the 
bowels, or when one part of the bowel is drawn into another portion, 
produces coini)lete closure of the canal. The bowels also become 
twisted. Those conditions mav be known by the vomiting of stercora- 


ceous or faecal matter, and when this is observed, instant medical aid 
should be called for, as the condition is one of great danger, and re- 
quires intelligent treatment. 

Intestinal. Worms. 

Every animal seems to be a nest for other animals, and man is no 
exception to the rule. There are five varieties of intestinal worms, all 
more or less familiar to every one of my readers. 

1. Ascaris lumhrkmdc^. — This worm resembles the common earth- 
worm, and is supposed to belong to the same species. It varies in size 
from four to eighteen inches in length ; it also varies in color, having in 
some instances a whitish pink hue, and in others a dull, dirty -yellow 
color. It feeds on the chyme found in the intestines, upon absori^tion 
from which the growth of the hiiman system depends. They are gene- 
rally found in the smaller intestines. 

2. Ascaris vermiculuris. — This worm is sometimes improperly called 
the thread-worm, for there is another variety more like a thi-ead than 
this. It is commonly called the maw-worm, and is the smallest known. 
The male is exceedingly small, but the female is about half an inch 
long. It is very slender, and about the size of small sewing-thread. 
From the fact that it inhabits the rectum chiefly, it is often called the 
scat-worm. This is the animal so troublesome and annoying to children, 
but is occasionally also found in adults. The child infested with thsm 
runs about during the day apparently well, but when night comes it com- 
plains of itching in the rectum, which is sometimes excessively annoying. 

3. Tricocephalus dispar. — This is the long thread-worm, from one to 
two inches in length, but sometimes reaches a length of four inches. It 
Is like a small thread, except at the posterior extremity, where it is 
enlarged. It is not so often found as the others. It is of light color. 
The male is smaller than the female, and differs little in shape. It is 
common to aU parts of the intestinal canal. 

4. Ttiuia solium or vulffaris. — This is the common tape-worm. Of 
this family there is but one variety in the United States, though there 
is another peculiar to other i)arts of the world. It varies greatly in 
length and size. The ordinary length is from seven to fifteen feet, but 
it sometimes arrives at the enormous length of one hundred feet. It is 
of a Hat, ribbon-hke shape, about one-quarter of an inch in breadth in 
the largest places, and tapers to almost a mere thread at the caudal 
extremity. Its color is whitish or yellowish ; and it is made up of nu- 
merous segments or joints, which are most distinct and perfect at a dis- 
tance from the head. These segments resemble a gourd-seed, and are 
iour-oided. The head is smaller than most of the body, with a small 
point in the centre with o])oi!ings. It is supposed that this animal can 
exist or reproduce itself if but a single joint exists, but this is doubtful 



unless the head exists. Wlien the head is evacuated the remainder will 
decay and be also expelled. This animal is hermaphrodite, and im- 
pregnates itself. It inhabits the small intestines. Persons affected 
with this worm frequently pass joints, but it often remains in the body 
for a long time without its presence being thus revealed. 

5. Taiiia lata, or hothrioecphnlus latus. — This is the broad taj^e- 
worm, and does not exist in this country unless imported. It is found 
in Central and Western Eui-ope. It is much broader, and the joints are 
shorter than in the common long tape-worm. The joints are more per- 

Sections of the Tape \\ orni. 

feet, well developed, and thrown oil' in connected rows, and by a cavity 
in the centre, and not in the border of the joint. It varies in length 
from one to twenty feet. 

Almost every variety of symptoms is found to result from the irrita- 
tion that worms produce in the human system. The symjotoms, however, 
occur mostly in children, and are generally produced by the long, round, 
or common worms. The abdomen is prominent, full or bloated ; the 
ai)petite variable and cai^ricious ; sometimes deficient and sometimes vo- 
racious. The breath is usually offensive, the tongue has a white-coated 
appearance, and often the upper lip will be much swollen. The eye- 
lids also swell often, sometimes so much that the child can barely see ; 
and occasionally swollen iDatches will present themselves iu other parts 
of the body. Children troubled with worms are apt to pass restless 
nights, and frequently start in their sleep. Paleness around the mouth, 
extending up the sides of the nose, is another common symptom. Itch- 
ing of the anus is the most common and only particular effect produced 
by the small worms. St. Vitus' dance and epilepsy often result from 
verminous iiTitation, but the latter is usually harmless when jiroperly 
treated. A dry, choking cough is a symptom peculiar of worms. Itch- 
ing of the nose is a common symptom, and the child is almost inces- 
santly rubbing that member. 


The symptoms of tape-worm are somewhat peculiar, and deserve a 
brief notice. Tersons of all ages are subject to them, but they are most 
common to middle age. The distui-bance they occasion is that of great 
uneasiness and distress, which often, sooner or later, destroys the gene- 
ral health. Uneasiness in the head, sometimes pain, slight giddiness 
and ringing in the ears, are the symptoms most complained of. The 
countenance changes frequently from a flushed to a pale condition; 
twitching of the muscles, especially those at the mouth, and a pinched, 
contracted appearance of the nostrils, accompanied with itching, are 
peculiar symptoms of tape-worm. The appetite is variable, the eyelids 
swollen, the breath offensive, etc., and other symptoms common to 
other worms are present also in tape-wonn. Nausea occurs at times, 
A\ith ejections of frothy mucus. The patient gTits his teeth in sleep ; 
and the abdomen seems fuU, with contraction of the navel. After a 
night's sleep there is a sensation of an animal moving about in the 
bowels, accompanied by darting pains, which subside after eating. The 
patient becomes weak and nervous, and finally, worn out with excite- 
ment, gets hyi^ochondriacal and even deranged. Of course, the most 
unequivocal symptom is a discharge of joints of the worm. 

Treatment. —This varies with the symptoms of each case. If con- 
vulsions exist, the first step should be to subdue these by brisk frictiop 
and warm applications along the spine and abdomen. Anti-spasmodiAs 
In these cases should be given ; also sweating drinks. If these symp- 
toms are relieved, the compound powder of senna and jalap may be 
given with pink and wormwood in sufficient doses to produce free 
evacuations of the bowels. This is to be repeated for two or three days, 
and is usually successful. It is equally reliable in the treatment of the 
long thread-worm. The powder is composed of three drachms each of 
the above herbs decocted in a pint of water ; dose, a tablespoonful. It 
produces sometimes alarming symptoms, but these, however, are harm- 
less and of short duration. Pinkroot and wormwood are good remedies, 
however, given in any form. The melia azedarach, or the Pride of 
China, given in decoction, is a favorite remedy ; so also is the burr of 
the red cedar, the efficacy depending upon the turpentine it contains. 
Santonine in doses of three or five grains is efficacious, and very service- 
able because it is tasteless, and therefore readily administered. Blue ver- 
vain is a good remedy, and for this reason my ' ' Restorative Assimilant " 
is so efficient for the expulsion of worms. .Seat, or maw-worms, are 
best expelled by injections of moderately strong salt and water, or soap- 
suds. Turpentine in emulsion also makes an efficient injection. 

For tape- worm various remedies are used. Kousso, pumpkin-seeds, 
and tur))entine have each a good reputation. Male Fern, however, ia 
the most specific remedy that can be used. It is certain to dislodge the 
distressing enemy. 


My "Male Fern Vermifuge" is withoiit doubt the best vermifuge 
ever compounded and offered to the public. It instantly expels the 
minor worms, and the tape-worm is quickly dislodged by it. It is com 
posed of such articles as make it applicable to every variety of worms, 
and it is veritably infallible in its effect. (See page '469.) 

I admonish all persons to avoid eating pork that is not well cooked, 
for it is an estabUshed and indisputable fact that tape-worm is caused 
by eating raw pork, provided that it is not in a healthy condition. That 
which is commonly kno^vn as "measly pork" contains the germs of 
tape-worm, and should not be eaten unless thoroughly cooked. Tape- 
worm is most prevalent among the peasants of Central Europe, being 
they subsist largely on raw pork. 


This is an inflammation of the serous membrane lining the^abdominal 
cavity, and investing the viscera, and may be either acute or chronic. 
During the early stages of the disease there is a feeling of lassitude, pain 
in the back and limbs, chills alternating with flushes of heat, headache 
and a feeling of uneasiness about the abdomen. As soon as the febrile 
action is established, the pain becomes sharp and severe. The abdomen 
is very tender, the slightest pressure by the hand causing most intense 
pain. The patient lies on his back, with his knees drawn up and shoul- 
ders elevated, finding that this relaxes the abdominal muscles, and pre- 
vents pressure by the bedclothes. Nausea, vomiting, thirst, constipation 
and suppression of urine, are frequent symptoms. The face is pale and 
contracted, respiration is oppressed, each inspiration aggravates the 
pain ; pulse is frequent and small, tongue moist, and the patient is 
generally wakeful. The abdomen becomes tympanitic, and when a fatal 
termmation is approached it becomes very much distended. The pulse 
also becomes feeble and quick, and the countenance assumes a ghastly 
appearance. It is very rapid in its course, death sometimes occurring 
within twenty-four hours. Puerperal peritonitis is only another variety 
of this disease, and attacks women in child-bed. It may arise idiopathi- 
cally, or it may be caused by vvovmds, blows, falls, etc. 

Treatment. — The stomach and bowels should be evacuated by an 
emetic and purge. If associated with malarial influence quinine should 
be given. The fever should be controlled by veratrum. A large mustard 
plaster or turpentine stupe should be applied to the abdomen. Large 
doses of opium to allay the pain are also indicated. The patient should 
drink freely of marsh-mallow or flaxseed tea, and be supported by tonics, 
beef-tea, etc. 

Summer Complaint {Cholera Infantum). 

This is a complaint which usually attacks children between the ages of 
two months and three years ; it occurs in the warm season, and is chiefly 


coniined to cities. It is very fatal. It commences with a profuse diar- 
rhcea, stools thin and variously colored. The stomach becomes irritable, 
and rejects everything. Loss of flesh, languor, and prostration follow, 
and stools become colorless and odorless, skin is dry and harsh, head ;ind 
belly hot, thirst is great, and fever at night-fall. Delirium is present iu 
many cases, indicated by violent tossing of the head, etc. 

Treatment. — The child should be removed to a vicinity abounding in 
pure air, if possible ; otherwise, in a large and airy room, and may even 
be taken into the open air occasionally. Its food should consist of the 
farinaceous articles of diet, if weaned ; otherwise, of its mother's milk ; 
mucilaginous drinlvs can also be given. If the vomiting be obstinate, 
give camphor, or a little opium, or combined, as in paregoric. The 
astringents, as turmeric and cranesbill, must be given to check the diar- 
rhoea. Rhubarb is a good remedy, also leptandrin, prepared chalk, etc. 
Lime-water is grateful, and should be given. Charcoal is the proper 
remedy when the stools are very offensive. 

Cholera Morbus. 

This is characterized by violent purging and vomiting of bilious matter, 
attended with griping, sickness and a constant desire to go to stool. The 
attack is usiially abrupt, but it is sometimes preceded by loss of api')jQ- 
tite, nausea, headache, chilliness, colicky pains, etc. It occurs genej^- 
ally at night, and the vomiting and purging occur in quick successioir. 
The evacuations are usually copious, consisting of the ingesta first, but 
afterwards of a sour, acrid, serous liquid, causing a scalding sensation in 
the throat ; there is slight tenderness over the abdomen, hiccough, anxie- 
ty, restlessness and exhaustion. The pulse is quick, small and feeble, 
the skin cool and moist, or bathed in clammy perspiration. It is quite 
a serious disease and runs a rapid course — death often occurring within 
twenty-four hours. 

Treatment. — If the stomach is overloaded with indigestible food a lo- 
belia emetic should be given in connection with warm ginger tea. Hot 
packs or mustard plasters should be placed on the abdomen, and bottles 
of hot water to the feet. Lumps of ice should be placed in the mouth to 
allay the patient's thirst. Oi)ium is a very good remedy, and may be 
given by mouth or by injection. A tea made of chamomile flowers or 
columbo often succeeds weU. Where great exhaustion is felt, a brandy 
toddy should be given. 

Asiatic Cholera. 

This is an endemic disease of India, and visits other lands by travel- 
ling in what is called the cholera cycle. The Hindoos caU it jiurrhee 
morlii (rapid death) ; the Mahometans, cuncrum vaiuU (diaiThoea and 
vonxitLug) ; and the Arabs, d houwah (hurricane). It is evidently 


caused by a noxious malaria arising from human or animal decomposi- 
tion. It is characterized by three stages. The first is marked by 
derangement of the digestive organs, rumbling in the bowels, pain in 
the loins or knees, twitching of the calves of the legs, impaired appetite, 
thirst, and especially a slight diarrhoea. These .symptoms continue from 
a few hours to several days. The pulse is frequently very slow, the 
tongue is furred, and a sense of great debility is present in all cases. In 
the second stage vomiting occurs, and the characteristic rice-water stools 
make their appearance. These stools are thin and watery, and have a 
peculiar spermatic odor. The cramps become excessively severe, draw- 
ing the muscles into knots. The tongue is pale and moist, pulse feeble, 
the breathing hurried, with distress about the heart, great thirst, and 
the secretion of urine nearly stopped. The thin, colorless fluid dis- 
charged by vomiting and purging is the watery portion of the blood, and 
when so much has been discharged that the blood cannot circulate 
freely, the patient smks into the third, or stage of colld'pse. This is 
characterized by great prostration, the pulse being hardly perceptible, 
skin cold and clammy, face blue or purple, eyes much sunken, hands 
dark-colored, looking like a washerwoman's, breathing short and 
laborious, a sense of great heat in the stomach, intense thirst, inanition, 
and death. Recoveries from the third stage seldom occur. 

Treatment.— In the first place the diarrhoea should receive prompt 
attention. The patient should lie in bed, and from five to ten drops of 
laudanum every two or three hours should be given. The astringents 
should also be administered. Morphine can also be given. The diet 
should be carefully regvdated, and every symptom promptly met with 
an appropriate remedj'. In the second stage the treatment should be 
energetic, quinine should be given, and the sinking powers sustained with 
tonics, beef -tea, etc. ApiU containing opium, camphor, and cayenne pep- 
per should also be administered. Brandy may also be given freely. I 
also advise my " Restorative Assimilant " as a good remedy ; it should 
be taken in full doses. Its success has been very gratifying wherever it 
has been used. 

In the thud stage the above remedies are to be pursued with increased 
energy, especially the stimulants, and every effort should be made to 
promote the warmth of the body. 

Prolapsus op the Rectum. 

This is more common to children than to adults, and is frequently 
a sequel to protracted diarrhoea, the falling caused by the debOity occa- 
sioned thereby. It is also associated with disease of the digestive 
organs, and is peculiar to persons of feeble habit, or of a scrofulous or 
tuberculous diathesis. It causes pain in the lumbar region, constipation, 
Bometimes diarrhoea, cardiac irritation, and general prostration. 


Treatment. — The bowels should be replaced as soon as possible tc 
prevent inflammation, that would naturally follow. The bowel can be 
replaced with the finger, well greased with sweet oil, gently pressing the 
tumor within the fundament. Cold water should be applied to the 
parts, and a decoction of white oak bark should be injected. A T- 
bandage should be applied to restrain the bowel from protrusion. 

An.\l Fistula. 

This consists of an abscess occurring in some portion of the cellular 
tissue around tlie anus. As suppuration occurs the pus can be detected 
by the touch, and which sooner or later makes its way to the surface, 
and is discharged. While the abscess is forming the patient is consider- 
ably feverish, and feels a tenderness about the anal region. At first the 
discharge is a bloody pus, which in time becomes watery and acrid, or 
sanious. The channel through which it passes is called the fistula. If 
it communicates with the rectum, the fistula is said to be complete ; but 
if it does not perforate the mucous membrane, it is said to be incomplete 
or blind. Fistula is more liable to occur in scrofulous and consumptive 
persons than in others, though it may be caused by piles, habitual con- 
stipation, or the presence of foreign bodies in the rectum. 

Treatment. — During the active inflammatory state the bowels 
should be evacuated by a mild purge, and if the pain is severe, an opiiite 
may be given. Flaxseed poultices, or hot fomentations, should be applied, 
and as soon as fluctuation is quite e\adent, an incision should be made, 
and the pus evacuated. A weak decoction of white oak bark may then 
be injected, and the parts dravni together by adhesive straps. The 
poultices should be continued as long as there is any hope to prevent a 
fistulous opening. If the fi.stula does occur, it gives great annoyance, 
and is quite difficult to cure. The surgical treatment consists in intro- 
ducing a ligature through the fistulous opening into the bowels and out 
the anus, securing it to a small piece of cork, and twisting it once 
or twice a day until it cuts through, or by dividing the septum by 
a knife, and healing it from the bottom. Others cauterize the fistula, and 
attempt to stimulate adhesive granulations in that way. I grant that 
success attends aU these surgical operations, but T do not see the pro- 
priety of subjecting the patient to all the attendant pain and confine- 
ment to bed when a cure can be as radically effected in as short a space 
of time by purely medicinal treatment. I have cured very many cases, 
and in no instance have resorted to cantei'ization or the knife. Cou- 
Bultation, either in person or by letter, is free with reference to such 
cases. (See page 390). 

Pii,ES {Hemoi-rhoids). 
By these arc understood the existence of small excrescences within 


the rectum and around the anus, which are characterized by a varicose 
condition of the hemorrhoidal veins. They may be situated either 
internally or externally, and when blood is discharged they are called 
bleeding piles, if not, blind piles. The tumors vary in size from a pea 
to a hen's egg. Thej* are more common in women than men, owing to 
the sedentary habits of the former. They are caused by olisbructiou of 
the portal circulation, drastic purgatives, habitual constipation, preg- 
nancy, uterine misplacement, etc. 

Treatment. — If costiveness exists, give some mild purgative, as 
Benna and leptandrin, or the " Renovating Pill," and keep bowels gently 
open, so as to secure one passage a day. Thoroughwort, in decoction, 
is also very useful. A compound decoction, or an ointment made of 
witch-hazel, white oak bark, and sweet-apple tree, applied to the 
tumors, very often cures them. In congestion of the liver, or derange- 
ment of the portal circulation, resort to the treatment advised in chronic 
hepatitis. If there is much inflammation, apply a slippery elm, stramo- 
nium, or poke-leaf poultice. Daily injections of cold water are also 
very useful. The diet should be regulated, and fatigue should be 
avoided. As a remedy for either internal or external piles, I can recom- 
mend nothing better than my "Herbal Ointment." If thoroughly 
applied to the tumors about twice a day, it gives instant relief, and 
cures them in a short time. 


These are diseases affecting the lymphatic glands. The lymphatic 
system is that particular system of organs inservient to the formation 
and circulation of lymph, and consists of glands and vessels. When any 
of these glands become inflamed, the affection is lymjihangeitis, angeio- 
leiicitis, or lympJiadenitis. 


This is commonly known as " King's Evil," and derives its name from 
the Latin scrofa, a sow, because it was supposed that it also affects 
swine. It is most apt to occur in persons of sanguine temperament, 
with thick upper lip. When fully developed, it gives rise to a deposit 
of tuberculous matter. It is characterized by a morbid state of the 
system, manifested by glandular swellings, chiefly in the neck, suppu- 
rating slowly, and healing with difficulty. At first there appear small, 
hard, movable kernels about the neck, just under the skin. These are 
the affected lymphatic glands. No redness or soreness is perceptible at 
first, but when in course of time they reach the size from a filbert to a 
hen's egg, or even larger, they come to a head and break, discharging a 
watery fluid, or a mixture like whey and curd. No great pain is seldom 
if ever felt. WTien the ulcers heal, they are apt to leave a puckered 


condition of the skin, and ugly scars. There is scarcely any tissne or 
organ in the body that scrofula does not assail, and it forms the basis, 
in many cases of disease, of all their virulence and stubbornness. 
Strumous habits are very common, being mostly hereditary ; biit they 
may also be contracted by bad habits, or be the sequel to low vitality or 
prostrating diseases. The taint is apt to become universal if in marriage 
the health of either party is not considered of equal importance with 
affection, etc., etc. It impairs the functions of all the organs; it 
renders the mental faculties more or less imbecile ; it gives to the 
I>atient a heavy, sullen, and forbidding appearance, and is destructive 
of all beauty of form or sprightliness of character. It is so serious a 
disease that no one affected with the taint, however slight it may be, 
should defer such rational treatment as will cure him of one of the 
greatest enemies of mankind. 

Treatment. — How lamentable it is that we have no Kings now a 
days, whose "sacred toiach" will cure the prevalent scrofula. In olden 
times persons believed that if the scrofulous patient could get into the 
presence of the King, and be touched by his royal hand, his disease 
would vanish in nothingness. Hence the name of "King's Evil." 
This folly reached its height in the reign of Charles II. and after the 
Restoration ; the number who flocked to the royal palaces to receive the 
"touch" is said to have been immense— no less than ninety-two Ihou- 
sand in twelve years. If Kings are no longer divine, and whose sacred 
touch no longer cures, we are not left hopeless, for the products made 
by a divine hand as manifested in the herbal world afford us abun- 
dant agents of cure, if we but have the wisdom not to ignore them, and 
the inteUigence to use them properly. 

Rational treatment should be preventive and curative. The pre- 
ventive treatment consists in regulating the diet and to supply aU the 
chemical material lacking in the histogenic character of the tissues. 
The habits should be conformed to well-established hygienic laws, and 
the digestive and assimilative organs should especially be elevated in 
tonicity and healthfulness. Exercise and bathing are very important, 
and must not be neglected. ^Vhen it manifests itself by its characteris- 
tic features, tumors, ulcers, etc., the herbal alteratives alone will effect 
the cure. The best of these are rock- rose, stillingia, corydalis for- 
mosa, yellow-dock, fig-wort, sarsapariUa, etc. If the system is debili- 
tated the tonics should also be given to give tone to the various organs 
of the body. The ulcers should be treated as all chronic indolent 
ulcers— the best application to them being my " Herbal Ointment." My 
"Blood Purifier" (see page 469) is composed of the choicest alteratives 
known, and acts specifically in the cure of this disease, and ever since it 
has been given to the pul)lic, its success was asserted in every case in 
which it received a comj)eteut trial. 


Certain cases of scrofula, in which nearly all the tissues and organs are 
involved, and where the vitality of the system is at a low poiat, energetic 
special treatment is necessary. In such cases the author can be con- 
sulted, according to directions given on page 390. 

Tabes Mesenterica. 

This consists of an engorgement and tubercular degeneration of the 
mesenteric glands, followed by emaciation and general disorder of the 
nutritive functions. It occurs particularly in chUdren of a scrofulous 
diathesis, and in those who are weaned too soon, or fed on indigestible 
substances. The disease is often owing to irritation in iuflammation 
of the lining membrane of the intestines, giving occasion to enlarg- 
ment of the glands of the mesentery, or duplicature of the peritoneum. 
Diarrhoea, emaciation, loss of appetite, or sometimes immoderate appe- 
tite, hardness and swelling of the abdomen, and toward the end hectic 
fever, are the chief symptoms of this disease. Recovery is seldom from 
this disease, if it has attained such a stage in which the glands have 
become extensively disorganized. 

Treatment. — Dige.stible f ood, fresh air, etc. must be provided for 
the i^ationt, and the bowels should be kept soluble. The treatment 
advised in scrofula should be resorted to in this disease. The patient's 
strength is especially to be well supported by good food, tonics and sti- 
mulants. This disease is commonly known as ' ' opneme " in certain 
localities, which literally means taldnrj of or wasting away, and per- 
sons can yet be found who ascribe the miserable condition of the child 
to the power of witchcraft, and the celebrated ' ' witch doctors " do 
vet find employment and supply their amulets or engage in heathenish 
incantations. I advise every mother when the first symptoms of this 
disease are recognized to at once engage skilful medical aid, and her child 
may oftentimes be saved. 


The larynx is a canal formed of cartilages, whose various movementa 
regulate the voice. It is situated in the median hue in the upper and 
anterior part of the neck. It can readily be felt from the exterior, and 
is commonly called ' ' Adam's Apple. ' ' It forms the commencement of 
the wind-pipe, and in shape is cylindrical below and prismatic above. 
It is larger in males than in females, which accounts in a measure for 
the different quality of the voice between the sexes. 

It is composed of five cartilages ; viz., thjToid, cricoid, two arytenoid, 
and epiglottis. The thyroid is the largest ; it occupies the upper anterior 
portion of the larynx. The cricoid is next in size, and situated at the 
base of the larynx. Its form is that of a laterally-compressed thick 


ring. The arytenoid cnrtilnges are two in number, pyramidal in shape, 
and situated at the upper and back portion of the larynx. The eiyiglottis 
is a thin, oval, cartilaginous plate, behiad the root of the tongue, and 
attached to the angle of the larynx ; it resembles a leai ia shape, and 
is perforated with numerous foramina or holes. During deglutition it 
is pressed over the rima glottidis^ thus preventing either solids or liquids 
from entering the respiratory tract. 

Within the larynx are two ligaments on either side. The inferior liga- 
ments are usually called the total cJiords, though they are more properly 
ligaments. The space between them is called the rima glottidis, and the 
space between the superior ligaments is the glottis. The larynx is lined 
with mucous membrane, inflammation of which constitutes laryngitis. 


The trachea ' (see figure) is a cylindrical tube, four or five inches long, 
reaching from the larynx to the point of division into the bronchial tubes. 
It is formed of from sixteen to twenty cartilaginous rings, united by 
elastic ligamentous tissue. It is lined vidth mucous membrane contin- 
uous with that of the larjTix, which is extremely vascular, and covered 
with numerous follicles. 

The hroncld " ' or bronchial tubes are essentially of the same stKuc- 
ture and arrangement as the trachea ; the right bronchus is shorter and 
of larger diameter than the left. The bronchial tubes ramify into 
numerous sub-divisions, which finally terminate in the lobules of the 

In front of the first two lings of the trachea and upon the sides of 
the larjTix is the thyroid gland. It is sometimes much enlarged, consti- 
tuting goitre. 

The Lungs. 

The lungs are the organs of respiration properly ; they are two in num- 
ber, and situated in the chest, placed side by side, being separated from 
the abdomen by the diaphragm. 

The size varies with the capacity and condition of the chest, age, in- 
spiration, expiration, and disease. They are conical in shape, are longer 
posteriorly than anteriorly, and have concave bases. The color of the lungs 
is of a pinkish gray, mottled with black ; these black spots are more nu- 
merous in adult life than in infancy. The vight lung is shorter but larger 
than the left, whose transverse diameter is somewhat diminished by the 
position of the heart. It has three lobes, the left having but two. 

The structure of the lungs is spongy, and its compression between 
the fingers produces a crackling sound called crepitntion. It consists 
of air-vesicles"", held together by cellular tissue, called parenchyma., 
through which blood-vessels and air-vessels are ramified. A certain 



number of air-cells communicate with each other, and with a single 
branch of the bronchial tube ; these are separated from neighboring cella 
by partitions of parenchyma, and thus are formed the lobules in which 
the aeration of the blood is performed. 

The Lungs. 

The pleura is a serous membrane investing each lung, and then reflected 
upon the walls of the chest. That portion in contact with the chest ia 
called the pleura costalis ; that covering the lungs, the pleura j)uImoiialis. 




This is the " running at the nose " or " cold in the head," so frequently 
contracted. It consists of acute inflammation of the Schneiderian or 
mucous membrane of the nose, and the sinuses connecting with it. It 
causes considerable annoyance, and often creates some constitutional dia- 


turbance. It is caused by the partial application of cold, as to the back 
of the head or neck, to the feet, etc. , and the effect is especially apt to 
be produced after perspiration from heat or exertion. When it reigns 
epidemically it is called influenza. 

TiiEATiMENT. — It will Usually subside without any treatment, but the 
subsidence can be greatly hastened by hot baths, a draught of ginger 
tea upon retiring, and the inhalation of some hot aromatic vapors, such 
as of balm, water -pepper, etc. 


This consists of chronic inflammation of the nostrils, with an uneasy 
feeling, heat, and stiffness of the nose, swelling of the mucous mem- 
brane, and an offensive discharge. The nostrils are sometimes closed, 
owing to the thickness of the membrane. The discharge is often quite 
purulent, of a j'ellowish or greenish color, or sanious, and tinged with 
blood. It is very frequently associated with ulceration, and caries or ne- 
crosis of the bone. The breath is usually extremely offensive, and the 
sense of smell is occasionally lost. It is frequently the result of scrofu- 
lous, scorbutic, or syphilitic taint, and is a serious and disgusting disease. 

Treatment. — The constitutional symptoms should receive special at- 
tention, and if owing to or connected with scrofulous or syphilitic taint 
the general treatment for those diseases should be given. The storri^ch 
and bowels should receive careful attention, the digestion being in-^g- 
orated by alnuin, vibumin, etc. A salt water bath should be taken 
every morning to stiinulate the emimctories. The vapors of tar, naph- 
tha, astringent and narcotic herbs are very beneficial ; an inhaling of 
mecca oil through an atomizer is successful and necessary in obstinate 
cases. Tonics, as quinine, etc., are necessary in some cases. Those 
persons who may wish the treatment to be directed by a competent 
physician, and who desire prompt relief and cure, may consult me, as I 
have given special attention to this disease, and have cured the most 
obstinate cases. 


We now come to a disease that is a bane to the existence of many a 
person. The catarrhal patient is never happy, for he knows that he is 
inseparably connected with a disease that is excessively annoying to 
himself and no less disagreeable to those with whom he comes in con- 
tact. It consists of inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the 
nose and sinuses or cavities connecting with it. It is a very common 
affection, arising from repeated colds, damp a])artments, wet feet, in- 
sufBcient clothing, hot roon\s, a sudden check of perspiration, and a 
rheumatic or scrofulous disposition predisposes to an attack. The 
symptoms are weariness, pains in the back and limbs, frontal headache, 


increased discharge from the nose, hoarseness, sore throat, impaired 
vision, fever, constant hawking-, cough, and, if the disease continues, 
partial or complete deafness. By the constant dropping of the secre- 
tions into the throat, the catarrhal intlammation is made to extend to the 
mucous membrane of the throat and larynx, causing gastritis, tonsillitis, 
laryngitis, pharyngitis, and bronchitis. Consumption is not an unfre- 
quent sequel to catarrh, and it may so undermine the vitality of the 
system that the most energetic and rational treatment wLU only re- 
establish it. A case that illustrates the ravages of catarrh in its ordi- 
nary severe forms is given in the following letter : — 

Washington, D. C, April 3, 1871. 
Dr. O. Phelps Brown. 

Respected Sir : — My catarrh, which had almost destroyed 
my power of speech, had nearly lost me the senses of smell and taste, 
and was rapidly extending to the lungs, by dropping down, has dis- 
appeared. I owe this great blessing to your course of treatment. I 
applied to you by advice of acquaintances, with many doubts ; but a 
"drowning man catches at a straw," and I wrote you a full description 
of my sufferings. I cannot be too grateful to Providence for having 
directed me to do this. Use my name in any way you please for the 
benefit of others afflicted as I was, etc. 

S. Brown Mills. 

This patient describes the effect of nasal catarrh, as developed ia 
himself, but partially. He has omitted to say that his breath was so 
offensive that people could not sit in the room with him; that the 
matter was discharged so copiously that it descended into the stomach, 
causing vomiting, reducing him in strength and flesh to a comparative 
skeleton ; that he had inflammation and elongation of the soft palate 
(uvula) ; had lost his appetite, and was troubled with hectic fever. 

He was subject to the usual despondency and hopelessness of patients 
suffering from long-standing catarrh, and it required every effort to 
arouse his drooping spirits to anything like natural vivacity. In fact, 
the symptomatic hopelessness and great depression of the spirits in 
catarrhal patients is often a greater barrier to speedy cure than the 
pathological condition of the disease itself. 

Treatment. — It is only in the chronic form that catarrh presents diffi- 
culties requiring the most patient and skillful treatment. 

It is not merely a local disease, but dependent upon a vitiated con- 
dition of the blood ; hence, merely local treatment will prove ineffec- 
tual : therefore the only successful method of treating this disease, is in 
combining proper local treatment with appropriate constitutional medi- 

For years this complaint baffled the skill of physicians universally, 
and I myself, came to the conclusion, that to really eradicate the disease 



from the system, a combination of remedies were required : a remedy to 
cleanse the blood ; a remedy for local application ; a remedy to circulate 
the bloood, thus arousing the system to action and a medicine to stimu- 
late the liver, to aid the system in throwing off the disease. The follow- 
ing treatment meets all these requirements and has proved effectual in 
curing many thousands of individuals — many of whom represented 
cases of long standing in the most advanced stages of this really 
dangerous complaint : 

Accident first brought to my notice Dr. Lane's Catarrh Cure, and I 
tested it with perfect success in many instances, in conjunction with my 
Blood Purifier, Herbal Ointment, and Renovating Pills. 

The following treatment is what I advise in cases of catarrh : A 
course of the Blood Purifier, consisting of six bottles, taken inter- 
nally to^cleanse the blood. The Herbal Ointment well rubbed in at 
least once a day across the small of the back, sparingly over the stomach 
and bowels, and about the forehead and between the eyes to arouse 
action, assist digestion, soothe the nervous system, and remove irri- 
tation. The Renovating Pills taken only often enough to keep the bowels 
soluble and regulated to one passage per day. They arouse the liver to 
action and thus aid in throwing off disease. . \ 

Dr. Lane's Catarrh Cure may be snuffed up the nostrils from the paljn 
of the hand ; or, a small syringe may be used ; or the Nasal Douche, 

which is preferable to any other 
contrivance for the purpose (see 
illustration) of conveying the ca- 
tarrh cure gently but thoroughly 
to the afflicted membranes. The 
price of the " Nasal Douche " is 
seventy-five cents and ten cents 
extra for postage. The catarrh 
cure should be diluted with warm^ 
soft water, in preference to 
cold, as the latter has a tenden- 
cy to produce irritation, or spas- 
modic action. Those prefering 
the douche will find it of very 
great convenience and efficiency, 
as all parts of the inflamed 
surface can be reached by its 

Catarrh can be mastered by 
the above treatment, and I know 
of no other that will thoroughly 

Dr. O. Phelps Brown's 
Kasal Duuuhc .'\i>pumtu8. 


and permanently cure it. Rational treatment will succeed in this, as in 
other diseases, and those suffering from its presence should act promptly 
in arresting its progress. 

We consider the following medicine sufficient to cure the generality 
of cases : a course of Blood Purifier consisting of six bottles, the price 
of which is five dollars ; two bottles of Dr. Lane's Catarrh Cure of 
double strength, one dollar and fifty cents each, three dollars ; one large 
pot of Herbal Ointment, fifty cents, and a small box of Renovating 
Pills, twenty-five cents : total, eight dollars and seventy-five cents. 

Those desiring to send for my course of treatment for catarrh, may 
send the money by post office order, or registered letter at my risk, and 
I will promptly forward the medicine on the receipt of the same by ex- 
press with full directions for use. Sufferers should not fail to possess 
the Nasal Apparatus, illustrated above, as by its use the nasal cavities 
can be thoroughly cleaned and medicated. 

I have spoken thus confidently regarding the above treatment, know- 
ing how successful ii has proved in thousands of cases of catarrh. 

I am willing to give my advice, or opinion when desired to do so, in 
any case, free of charge, either at my office or by letter. Address Dr. 
O. Phelps Brown, 21 Grand St., Jersey City, N. J. 


This consists of an inflammation of the parts composing the larynx, 
especially the mucous membranes, and may be either acute or chronic. 
When it is known that in the larynx are situated the vocal organs, 
and that the aperture for the air to reach the lungs is situated at the 
apex, it can readily be conceived why inflammation impairs the voice 
or impedes the respiration. In the acute form there is hoarseness, a 
pain about the larynx or "Adam's apple," cough, and difficulty of 
swallowing. If the inflammation is violent the patient's life is in im- 
minent danger from strangrdation, caused by closure of the rima 
ghtticUs. The voice is often completely lost. In bad cases the patient 
starts up suddenly in bed begging for air ; his lips assume a livid or 
purplish color, the surface becomes cold, the pulse frequent and feeble, 
the countenance ghastly, perspiration clammy, and finally death occurs 
from insufficient aeration of the blood. The chronic form is more com- 
mon than the acute, and is generally associated with induration or 
ulceration of the mucous membrane. It causes great debility, emaci- 
ation, night-sweats, loss of appetite, vomiting and diarrhoea, and the 
patient often dies in a state of hectic exhaustion. 

Trk.\tment. — Control the circulation with veratrum, administer an 

emetic and purge, and apply hot packs to the throat. Hot water 

should be used frequently as a gargle. The inhalation of hot vapors, 

aa that of belladonna, lobelia, stramonium, mullein, sweet fern, etc., 



gives great relief. Some practitioners use ice-bags in place of hot packa 
to the throat. They seem to answer the same purpose. In case of 
impending strangulation, no objection should be made to laryngotomy, 
if in the opinion of the physician or surgeon it is deemed necessary. 
In the chronic form the disease demands the same treatment, though 
modified to suit the conditions of the case. A gargle of golden seal, 
and a syrup of Ceanothus Americanus, or frost-wort, taken internally, 
are very beneficial. Mecca oil is also used with great advantage. 
Tonics and stimulants become necessary if the strength is failing. I 
can offer to the patient an almost sure cure in my " Acacian Balsam," 
which is to be taken internally, and my "Herbal Ointment," applied 

If complicated, or owing to syphilitic contamination, special treatment 
(see page 390) is advised. 


Inflammation of the bronchial mucous membrane is of common 
occurrence. Its severity is proportionate to the size of the tube in- 
volved. The disease may exist independently, but is often associated 
with limg diseases. It may exist either in the acute or chronic form. 
Iq the former variety, affecting the large and middle-sized tubes, 
coryza, sore throat, hoarseness, and slight chills are the first symptoms ; 
lassitude and pain in the limbs are also present, and as the disease pro- 
gresses there is a sensation of heat, soreness, and rawness of the 
bronchial surface, oppressed breathing, and a sijasmodic cough and pain. 
The cough in the early stage is followed by a clear, frothy expectoration, 
with a saline taste, which changes to yellowish or greeuish sputa, or it 
may be streaked with blood. If the small tubes are involved, the pulse 
is extremely frequent, great difl&culty of breathing, blue appearance of 
the countenance, coldness of surface, and a tendency to asphyxia is 
noted. As soon as the disease becomes chronic the febrile symptoms 
disappear, but the pulse remains frequent, and the cough and dyspnoea 
are persistent, though to some extent relieved by free expectoration. 
The sleep is irregular, and night-sweats frequent, occasioning great 
debility. The cough becomes croupy, and diarrhoea often attests ap- 
proaching dissolution. 

Treatment. — A hot bath, hot packs, and veratrum will often termi- 
nate the career of the acute form at the outset. In the more screre forma 
an emetic should be given, and the hot packs or chafing liniments to 
the chest and throat frequently renewed. Blood-root and other expec- 
torants should be given, and quinine should be administered if the dis- 
ease is associated with malarial influence. The tonics may become neces- 
sary to sustain the strength. The vapors of mecca oil, goose-grease, 
and bitter herbs are beneficial. In the chronic form the treatment 


varies with the cause. If owing- to syphilitic taint the treatment for 
that disease should be given, and if rheumatic in origin, colchicum, in 
connection with tonics, is the treatment indicated. The inhalation of 
the various vapors before alluded to should also be instituted, and the 
strength of the patient carefully husbanded by tonics, beef-tea, wine 
whey, etc. A remedy that combines both tonic and expectorant quali- 
ties is found in my " Acacian Balsam," which generally cures the worst 
cases very quickly. The " Herbal Ointment " should at the same time 
be thoroughly rubbed upon the chest, throat, and back. Consultations, 
either in person or by letter, will receive carefxd and prompt attention. 


Croup is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx and 
trachea, or windpipe. It is one of the scourges of childhood. False 
membranous croup is owiag to an oozing of a peculiar fluid, which 
thickens into apparent membranes, and adheres to the surface of the 
windpipe. In membranous croup, there is much greater danger than in 
the simpler form. 

The symptoms are, difficult breathing, hoarseness, loud and shrill 
cough, with fever. When the symptoms are violent at first, the disease 
will be in all probability not fatal, as the membranous croup comes on 
insidiously, and is scarcely ever ushered in by high inflammation. 

Treatment.— An early and effective emetic is indicated in all cases. 
Some mechanical emetic, as ipecacuanha, alum, etc. , should be preferred. 
Flaxseed poultices, my "Herbal Ointment," and irritating liniments 
Bhould be applied to the neck. The Dover's powder should be given to 
promote perspiration and rest. Inhalation of vaijor from hot water and 
mullein leaves is of great service. The bowels should be kept regular. 
In membranous croup, if the membrane cannot be dislodged by emetics, 
and suffocation is imminent, tracheotomy becomes necessary. Croup 
may often be prevented by tying a bag containing powdered rosin, 
which is electro-negative, around the throat at night. 


This is commonly called lung fever. It is characterized by inflamma- 
tion of the parenchyma or texture of the lungs. The patient is gener- 
ally found lying on his back, complains of pain in his side, has more or 
less difficulty of breathing, a cough at first dry, but soon accompanied 
by bloody phlegm. As the disease becomes severe, the phlegm becomes 
very tenacious, so that it will adhere to the spit-cup if turned upside 
down. Three characteristic stages are observed in this disease, viz., 
congestum.^ he-patization^ and softening. In the iirst stage the lungs be- 
come engorged with blood or congested, and if the lungs are percussed a 
dull sound is elicited, and if the ears are applied to the chest a nxinute 


crackling sound is heard, similar to thab produced by rubbing fine hair 
between the fingers and thumb. It is only heard during inspiration, and 
is caused by the air breaking up the mucous adhesions. The urine ia 
scanty and high colored. In the second stage the lungs become solid, 
or hepatized, resembling the liver. Some writers call it red softening. 
The dulness becomes more distinct upon percussion, and a whistling 
sound is heard if the ear is placed to the chest. The cough is more or 
less dry, but the fever is aggravated. There is great prostration, rest- 
lessness, complete loss of appetite, constipation, a loaded brown tongue, 
and the respiration is hurried and imperfect. In the third stage the 
lung softens and becomes filled mth matter, and portions of the lung 
are apt to give way. The cavities may be detected by increased reso- 
nance at some parts by percussion, and the cavernous breathing by aus- 
cultation. There is also a metallic tinkling heard, and the sputum be- 
comes more liquid, looking like prune-juice, and the general condition 
of the patient worse in every respect. If the disease advances into this 
stage, recovery is not very probable. 

Pneumonia may be double or single ; the right lung sufPers, however, 
more frequently than the left. If pleurisy is associated with it, it is 
called j)leuro-p7heumonia. When characterized by great debility .and 
prostration, and is of a low type, it is called typhaid pneumonia. 'Jhe 
pneumonia of children is called lobular^ as it is generally confinec^ to 
one or two lobes of the lung. 

Treatment. — Bleeding formerly was done in each case, and is again 
receiving attention by some physicians, but I deem it injudicious, as a 
general thing, though it may be of benefit in some plethoric cases. The 
treatment should be commenced with a mUd cathartic, and the fever 
should be controlled with veratrum. The expectorants should be ad- 
ministered, and in cases of great prostration, beef-tea and alcoholic 
stimulants must be given. The chest should be blistered, and a cloth 
smeared with lard should be placed on the raw surface. Sleep should 
be promoted Vjy lujiulin or the opiates, and if great difficulty of breath- 
ing exists, turjientine should be poured on hot water, and the patient 
allowed to breathe the vapor. Fresh air, quietude, and rest, with 
frequent sponging of the body with tepid water, should not be neglected. 


This is characterized by diflicult breathing, occurring in paroxysms, 
accompanied by a wheezing sovind, a great desire for fresh air, and un- 
attended by fever or organic disease of the lungs or heart. It is evi- 
dently caused by an irritable condition of the ccrebro-spinal system or 
medulla-oblongata, which deranges the nervous influence through the 
cervical and pneumogastric nerves. It is also called Phthmc. The attack 
generally comes on suddenly, but in some cases for a few days befoi-e 


the onset there is loss of appetite, flattilence, belching of wind, langTior, 
chilliness, and drowsiness. The attack generally occurs at night, when 
the nervous system is at its lowest ebb. At iirst a sense of tightness, 
with a feeling of constriction about the chest, is felt, which inten- 
sifies into a fearful struggle for breath. The patient assumes various 
postures to facilitate in emptying and filling the lungs, and the feeling 
that he must have fresh air, induces him to rush to the window and put 
his head far out to catch the stirring breeze. The hands and feet are 
cold, the expression haggard and anxious, the body wet with perspira- 
tion, and the pulse irregular. The paroxysms usually last for some hours, 
when breathing becomes more easy. If the symptoms subside without 
expectoration it is called dry asthma^ but when any phlegm is raised it 
is known as Jmmoi'al asthma. The paroxysms may recur every night, 
remitting gradually in severity, before a final subsidence takes place. 
The veiy troublesome complaint, which seems to combine the peculiari- 
ties of asthma and coryza, occurring in some persons during hay -mak- 
ing, or even later, is called hay adhma. This complaint is often a dis- 
tressing one. 

Treatment. — During the paroxysm the inhalation of vapor of hot 
water, or that arising from a decoction of anti-spasmodic herbs, such as 
conium, belladonna, etc. , lessens the severity of the spasm. The follow- 
ing preparation is a veiy good remedy : Ethereal Tincture of Lobelia § ij ; 
Tincture of assaf cstida, 3 i ; laudanum, 3 ss ; fluid extract of stillingia, 
§ ij ; simple syrup, 3 iv ; mix, and take a tablespoonf ul every two hours. 
Electro-magnetism, smoldng stramoniuna leaves, inhaling the smoke 
from burning paper, dipped in a solution of saltpetre, are all beneficial. 
The anti-spasmodics, especially cherry-laurel water, should be taken to 
prevent the occurrence of frequent attacks. In hay asthma, changes 
of locality will often save the patient from an attack. The tincture of 
lobelia is a very good remedy. Quinine and nux vomica carefully ad- 
ministered are good remedies. Chloride of lime placed in a saucer in 
the sleeping-room often gives relief. My " Acacian Balsam" internally, 
and the " Herbal Ointment" rubbed externally on the chest, and up and 
down the spine, have cured many cases. Many interesting cases have 
come under my notice and treatment, but space forbids any allusion to 
thein. By si^ecial treatment I think every case can be cured. 


This is characterized by inflammation of the pleura or serous mem- 
brane enclosing the lungs. The disease usually commences with a chill, 
which is succeeded by a sharp, lancinating pain in the side ; cough, 
short and quick breathing, and fever. The pain is usually called a stitch 
in the side, and is felt somewhere hi the mammary region. It is in- 
creased by inspu-ation, cough, and motion, lying on the affected side, d 


by pressure. As the pain subsides, the effusion of a serous liquid occurs 
into the pleural cavity. The cough is usually short and dry, though a 
little frothy mucus may be expectorated. Severe pairi often attends, 
and the patient tries to suppress the cough as much as possible. The 
breathing is more or less difficult in most cases, and the patient is said 
to have a catch in his breath. When the effusion is both sudden and 
copious, the function of one lung may be more or less suspended. The 
fever is usually considerable, and presents the usual phenomena of 
febrile affections. At some stages the patient's voice is said to be cego- 
•phoTums^ or similar to a goat's. 

Tre.\tment. — Commence with a mild cathartic, and though opposed 
to bleeding, yet if there is a human ailment requiring bleeding it is 
pleurisy, as it often gives prompt relief from pain. Sweating should 
be encouraged at the outset, and for this purpose the tincture of 
Virginia snake-root, in teaspoonful doses, every half-hour, is the best. 
It may be given in an infusion of catnip, balm, or pleurisy root. The 
affected side may be fomented with hops, tansy, wormwood, etc., 
applied very hot, or it may be blistered. The fever is to be con- 
trolled and the perspiration kept up with full doses of veratrum. 
Dover's powder may be given to procure sleep. The diet should be^ of 
the very lightest kind. The alteratives may be given if the effusio^ is 
not absorbed, and should these fad, the surgeon may perform paraeen- 
toiis, or tapping of the side. 


Literally the word asphyxia means pulseless, and was for a long time 
only used in that sense, but is now applied generally to all cases of sus- 
pended atdmation. It is produced by the non-conversion of venous or 
blue blood of the lungs into arterial, or red blood. Death is caused in all 
cases from want of oxygenized blood, and the stagnation that results 
in the pulmonary capillaries. There are several varieties of asphyxia ; 
and as life can in many cases be revived, I shall state the procedure 
of resuscitation in each case. 

Asphyxia by Extreme Cold. 

When a person is subjected to extreme cold, the first .symptoms are 
painful feelings, followed by sensations similar to those produced by 
inhalation of carbonic acid gas. He becomes benumbed, indifferent to the 
danger of his situation ; the muscular system becomes enervated, step 
grows tottering, speech imperfect ; and as these intluences increase, the 
breathing becomes irregular and slow, the muscular powers fail, and 
he sinks into a state of insensibility and death. 

Treatment. — Rub the person with snow if practicable, or the whole 


body may be submerged in cold water for a short time. These applica- 
tions should be gradually increased in temperature until the surface 
approaches a natural state, or the muscles and joints are sufficiently 
relaxed to admit of free motion. Then resort to artificial respiration 
as in drowning. 

Asphyxia by Inhalation of Gases. 

Some gases cause death by spasmodic closure of the glottis, others 
by want of oxygen. Carbonic acid gas is the most common noxious 

Treatment.— Place the patient ia a region where pure air abounds, 
and then practise artificial respiration. 

Asphyxia by Submersion, Drowning. 

Death in this case is not caused by the stomach and air passages 
being filled with water, but ensues ia consequence of the person being 
plunged in a medium unfit for respiration. In no case where the body 
is recovered immediately after drowning, should the means of resusci- 
tation be left unemployed. Life has been revived even ia cases that 
were submerged half an hour. 

Treatment. — 1st. Treat the patient instantly, on the spot, in the 
open air, freely esposiag the face, neck, and chest to the breeze, except 
in severe weather. 

2d. Send for the nearest medical aid, and for clothiag, blankets, etc. 

3d. Place the patient gently on the face, the forehead resting on 
his wrist. This empties the mouth of fluids, and allows the tongue to 
fall forward, which leaves the entrance to the pipe free. 

4th. Turn the patient slightly on his side, and apply ammonia, snuff, 
or other ti-ritating substances, to the nostrils ; then dash cold water on 
the face, previously rubbed briskly until it is warm. If there be no 
success, iastantly — 

5th. Replace the patient on his face, and turn the body gently, but 
completely, on the side and a little beyond, and then on the face, 
alternately ; repeating these measures with deliberation, efficiency, and 
perseverance, fifteen times to the minute. When the patient reposes 
on the chest, this cavity is compressed and expiration takes place ; the 
pressure is removed when turned on the side, and inspiration occurs. 

6th. When ia the prone position, niake equable but efficient press^ire 
along the spine, augment expiration, and remove it before rotation on 
the side, to facilitate iaspiration. 

7th. Induce circulation and warmth, while contiauing these measures, 
by rubbing the limbs upward with. Jirtn pressure and with energy, using 
handkerchiefs, etc. 

8th. lleplace the patient's wet clothing by such other covering as 


can be instantly procured, each bystander furnishing a coat or waist- 
coat. Meantime, and from time to time, let the surface of the body be 
slapped freely with the hand, or let cold water be dashed brisMi, over 
the surface, previously rubbed dry and warm. 

Let the patient often inhale diluted pure hartshorn, as this stimulates 
the respiratory organs. 

Consumption (Phthisis). 

This is a constitutional affection manifesting itself in most essential 
changes in the tissue of the lungs. It may be acute or chronic. The 
acute form, or galloping consumption, commences with chills, fever, 
rapid pulse, cough, pain and diflBculty of breathing, which are soon fol- 
lowed by night-sweats, hectic fever, great emaciation, exhaustion, and 
if its course is not arrested, death. The chronic variety is, however, 
that which we usually meet with. 

For the sake of convenience, I will class the symptoms of consump- 
tion into four general stages, viz. , the Incipient stage ; the Solidification 
stage; the Maturation or Softening stage ; and the U her ation and Sup- 
puration stage. 

The first stage of Tubercular Phthisis is generally stated to be that to 
which the physical signs indicate a deposit in the lungs. Evideni;ly, 
however, there is, and must be, an antecedent state of disordered health 
before the most skilful observer can detect the sound which indicates 
the least shade or degree of solidification of the lungs, whether by 
means of the stethoscope, or other methods usually resorted to by the 
profession for such purpose. When the physical signs are observed, the 
use of the stethoscope, etc. , may be regarded as little more than profes- 
sional display, without a particle of advantage, except as developing in 
some degree the actual amotrnt of lesion or injury then sustained by the 
tissues of the lungs. There must be a causative agent that originates 
the predisposition or tendency to the deposit of tubercles in the tis- 
sues, or which elaborates or prepares the material in the system, from 
which only tubercle is formed. But we should not wait to see tlie 
physical signs developed if we would expect uniform and Jiapeful treatment 
of tubercular confiumjition. 

From my own long experience in the specialty of thoracic diseases, I 
do not hesitate to say that the actual first set of symptoms of consump- 
tion consists simply in the wasting of flesh, particularly if this is attended 
with, or by, a low scale of health and strength. Such loss of muscle, 
plumpness, as well as juices and fat, is first noticed in three princip;U 
places. The first region of flesh-consuming is usually the face ; the 
second, the hands ; the third, over the sacral or hip bones. The saci'al 
region, where it first gives out, is lame and sore. The hands look poor 
and ' ' Bcrawny ; " the muscles of the arms and legs are soft and flabby. 


If the face shows it first, the eyes stare; the brow, temples, and 
scalp look lean ; the muscular tissues of all the limbs soon waste, and 
the pectoral muscles, as also all the chest muscles, waste away, and 
then the breathing is already become imperfect and weak. 

The diminished respiration is soon attended with cough ; then pains 
are felt through the breast or thorax. 

The patient next is sensible of something WTrong, and is conscious of 
a sense of general debihty. The fact is, nutrition is lost. The vital 
powers are flagging, for the wasting of tlie hody^ in sjyilc of eating^ is 
more rapid than the repair. 

Then comes a state of Kpirit depression — not the cauM of consump- 
tion, but caused by the already deficient \dtaUty, and all the more 
helping on the grand catastrophe ; for it is a law oi our being, that 
where nerve structure is not itself nourished, it, too, will fail in its 
work, just as surely as muscle fibre fails of power fi<j»n the same cause. 
To recapitulate : — 

1. — Incipient This may present itself at a very early age, or 
may appear in middle age, and the first indications are, generally, a 
subdued and saddened feeling, the former buoyancy of spirits subsides, 
and the person becomes languid. The face begins to assume a sickly 
- hue, and, to a practised eye, tells a sad tale. The skin becomes whiter, 
and a nervousness and sometimes irritable disposition of mind appears ; 
and if any hint be given about consumption threatening, the person 
rebels against it, and will not tolerate such an idea. The appetite and 
digestion frequently become impaired, and may manifest itself ia 
capricious fancies for certain sorts of food. A sUght cold or any ex- 
citement will bring on diarrhoea. The breath is short, and the breath- 
ing hurried ; running or walking up an incline, or ascending a flight of 
stairs, is unpleasant, and attended by a fluttering and palpitation of the 
heart. The strength and weight of the body diminish, but this varies. 
The sleep is disturbed, the skin becomes hot, there are burnings of the 
palms of the hands, and cold feet ; a short, dry, teasing cough, or 
tickling, or hawking up of mucus from the throat appears. There is 
also a feeling of fecerishncss and uneasiness after meals, which are 
unfavorable symptoms, indicating the first w^/i'^assimilation of the food, 
which, if not rectified, will inevitably deposit the germ of tubercles, 
and hence no time should now be lost in opposing the disease, before 
it lays siege to the citadel of the body. 

2. — SoUdificatimi. The cough, which at first appeared very trifling, 
now begins to assume an anxious aspect, and becomes troublesome. It 
may not as yet be attended with expectoration, and if it be, the matter 
expectorated is of a ropy and viscid nature. The breathing becomes 
more impeded; hectic fever sets in, with chills and heats, while the 
weakness of lioth body and mind increases, although the intellect ia 
12* S 


sometimes extremely bright or sound to the very last. Pains, like 
those of pleurisy, are felt about the chest, and are indications of those 
iiijlttmmatory effusions and adhesions which attest the jirogress of the 
disease, and the infraction of the lung structure, and the impeding of 
the access of air to the ceils of the lungs. The blocking up of the air- 
cells constitutes the stage of Solidification, and thus interferes with the 
due motives or functions of the chest, and, if not arrested, creates an 
afflux of fluid to the parts, thus promoting congestion and fresh de- 
posits in the lungs. 

^.—Maturation and S»ftening. In this stage, all the former symp- 
toms are aggravated, and consumption is now confirmed. Fresh de- 
posits in the lungs occur, and hasten the maturation and softening. 
These local lesions in their turn re-act on the system at large, aggravat- 
ing the general infection and depressing the vital powers. Hence the 
advancing inertia of aU the vital powers— the universal languor, loss of 
flesh, and strength, and weight. The cheeks and lips become blanched 
— painfully contrasting with the circumscribed hectic patch of the for- 
mer. The expectoration is changed, and becomes more copious, opaque, 
and viscid, more massive, and frequently streaked with blood, ^or mixed 
with flocculent, wool-like, or curdy particles. It is most troublesoriie in 
the mornings, and when going to bed. The feverishness and general 
exhaustion increase ; restless nights, with perspirations, hurried breath- 
ing, change in voice, and emaciation also increases. The appetite fails 
—either constipation or diarrhoea, more frequently the latter, comes on, 
with great increase of cough and vomiting after meals. If the disease 
advance to this stage, it will require much vigilance and judgment to 
arrest its progress, as the mischief in the lungs is now very great, and 
ulcers, rapidly forming, constitute what is called tubercles. 

4. — Ulceration and Suppuration. The disease now assumes a totally 
different aspect, and becomes exceeding formidable in its nature and 
results. The cough becomes more severe, and the expectoration green- 
ish, yeUow, or even sometimes like tufts of wood chewed, appearing, 
when viewed in water, like jagged round balls. Hemorrhage, or bleed- 
ing from the lungs, is likely to come on, and the difficulty of breathing 
is very great. The patient can scarcely lie down ; many times he must 
be kept with his head bolstered up in a chair, or in his bed, when sleep 
is desired. Sometimes the voice is reduced to a mere whisper, while in 
others it remains quite strong to the last. The perspiration, or night- 
sweats, are very coj)ious, and very exhaustive of the vitality of the 
organism. The ulcers or tubercles in the lungs increase, causing large 
excavations, from which issue copious expectorations, sapping and un- 
dermining the foundation of the entire system. 

The most unpractised eye can now at once detect the ravages of this 
disease in the altered appearance of the whole frame ; the body ia 


reduced to a mere skeleton ; the eyes are suiiken ; cheek bones promi- 
nent, with sunken cheeks ; the head bends forward ; the chest is wasted, 
and the breathing becomes distressingly painful. The mental faculties 
generally become impaired ; yet a gracious God. amid all this suffering, 
frequently permits the faculties to remain intact until the last ember 
bums out. 

Treatment. — This resolves itself into such a management of the 
case as will tend to prevent the development of the disease, or its 
removal when it exists. It will be seen that consumption has its origin 
in a vitiated and defective condition of the general organism. This 
may occur as the result of hereditary predisposition, or from defective 
nutrition, oi from imperfect development of either a part or the whole of 
the organic structure, and general disobedience to the physiological law 
of the general organism. Whenever this predisposition exists, the de- 
fective organization, as far as practicable, should be remedied by a 
faithful adherence to the laws of physiology and dietetics. Children 
possessing this organization should not be confined too closely in schools 
or to study, but should be reared in the country, and be exposed to 
fresh air and out-door exercise. Both boys and girls should be allowed 
to ramble through the fields, and indulge in those gymnastic exercises 
which tend to give strength and vigor to the system generally, such as 
jumping the rope, rolling the hoop, flying the kite, hoeing, wheeling, 
riding on horseback, etc. , and not be studiously confined in-doors, be- 
cause it is a "delicate child." Tidy mothers should not be horrified 
if they find their child of fraU organization making mud-pies, or that 
he has torn his frock in climbing an apple-tree. Their diet should be 
plain and nutritious, consisting of bread and mUk, oatmeal porridge, 
baked apples and milk, vegetables, and a liberal amoimt of meat once 
or twice a day. Their sleeping apartments should be well ventilated, 
and they should be warmly clad in aU seasons. Misses, upon the 
approach of the catamenial flow, should be well instructed that the feet 
should be kept warm and diy, that washing and bathing in cold water 
should be avoided, and all exposure to cold and moisture is hurtful. 

The medicinal trca'.ment of consumption has been extensive, and to 
enumerate aU that has been tried and recommended would fill a volume. 
Some recommend inhalations ; these answer their purpose well for tem- 
porary relief. The disease must be treated upon general principles. 
The cough should be allayed by appropriate remedies, the occasional 
diarrhoea checked by the astringents, the debility removed by tonics, 
and vitality stimulated by alcoholic liquors. It is beyond question, that 
spirit-drinkirg has been beneficial in a. number of cases, if taken rgug- 
larly and moderately. Phosphorus is a good remedy, especially if given 
in a form as it exists in erytlirqxylon coca. External irritants, as Croton 
oil to the chest, answer very welL The blood of the consumptive con- 


tains too much oxygen, and too little caibon ; hence to supply this defi- 
ciency cod-liver oil, which is a highly carbonaceous food, is excellent. 
It gives warmth to the body, and supplies the disease with material for 
destruction, without expense to the body. The chalybeates may also be 
given to give strength and enrich the blood in its red particles. Change 
of climate is rarely beneficial. The diet must be highly nutritious ; fresh 
air, occasional baths, and plenty of friction, should not be neglected. 
"While investigatiag the best means of treating this disease, I deemed 
that if a combiiiation could be made that would prove remedial to all 
the morbid characters of consumption, that would antagonize each 
pathological condition as they arose, thus holding the disease in abey- 
ance, and allow the forces of reparation and recuperation to mend the 
ravages of the disease, that such a combination would most surely cure 
the disease. After various experiments, I, finally, by intimate know- 
ledge of the chemical elements of plants and the pathology of the dis- 
ease, was led to compoimd the " Acacian Balsam," which has stood the 
test for years, and the thousands of testimonials of the permanent cure 
of many bad cases of consumption attest its virtues. 

It is a superior exhilartmt. It purifies all the fluids and secretions in 
the shortest reasonable period. It nourishes the patient who is too 
much reduced to partake of ordinar^^ food. It will supply the place of 
food for a month at a time. It strengthens, braces, and vitahze^ the 
brain. It heals all internal sores, tubercles, ulcers, and inflammations. 
It stimulates, but is not followed by reaction. It at once obviates ema- 
ciation, building up wasted flesh and muscle, as the rain vivifies and 
enhances the growth of the grass. It is without a rival as a tonic, and 
it immediately supplies electricity or magnetic force (as if it were a bat- 
tery) to every part of the enfeebled and prostrate body. In conjimc- 
tion with the balsam, I also advise external application of the " Herbal 
Ointment" (which answers all the purposes of counter-irritants) to the 
chest, throat and back, and the bowels regulated with the "Renovat- 
ing Pill" (see page 469). 


The heart is a hollow muscular organ, surrounded by a membranous 
sac called tlie pericardium. It lies between the two pleuraj of the 
lungs, aud rests upon the cord-like tendon of the midrift", in the cavity 
of the chest. 

Its sliajie is conoidal, though it is somewhat flattened upon that side 
that rests upon the tendon of the diaphragm. Its apex inclines to the 
left side, touching the walls of the thorax between the fifth and sixth 
ribs. It meaHureti about five inches and a half from its apex to its baise, 
three and a half inches in the diameter of its base, aiul wcirjIiH about si:^ 
or eight ounces. It contains four caoities, which perform two functions : 



that of receiAnng the blood and emptying the blood into the lungs, and 
that of receiving it again after it has been oxygenated, and distributing 
it throughout the vascular system. The receptacles are inirides, and 
the ventricles propel the blood to the lungs and through the body. 

The auricle and ventricle of the right side receive and propel the 
venous blood mto the lungs. The auricle and ventricle of the left side 
receive and propel the arterial blood throughout the system. 

The blood circulntes as follows : The ascending and descending vena 
cavse empty the blood (venous) into the right auricle ; from here it 
passes to the right ventricle, through an opemng protected by a valve, 
downwards ; from the right ventricle it is propelled through the pul- 
monary artery, which divides into two branches, to the limgs ; in the 
lungs it is oxygenated by the inspired air ; it is then brought from the 
lungs, by four pulmonary veins, into the left auricle. The left auricle 
has an opening communicating with the left ventricle, protected by 
a valve opening do «ti wards, and from the left ventricle it passes into 
the aorta, thence to be distributed throughout the body. 

The right auricle is a cavity of irregular shape, somewhat oblong, and 
like a cube ; anteriorly it has a convexity 
which is called its sinus ; superiorly there is 
an elongated jDrocess resembling the ear of an 
animal, whence the term auricle. Its walls 
are thin, and composed of muscular fibres, 
which are called musculi 2')ectinati, on account 
of their parallel arrangeiuent, resembling the 
teeth of a comb. The superior ^, and in- 
ferior vena cavse enter the auricle from be- 
hind. The elevation between the orifices is 
called the tuberculiim Loweri. The coronary 
veins oj^en into this cavity, and their orifices 
are protected by the valves of Thebesius. 
The opening to the ventricle is circular, and 
surrounded by a dense white line. '^^'^ Heart. 

The right ventricle^, is a triangular cavity, with thick walls, and of 
greater capacity than any other cavity of the heart. Its muscular 
structure is in the form of large fleshy bundles, called colum/ice carnece, 
from which proceed thin, white cords, called cli&rdm tendinece, which are 
attached to the edge of the tricuspid valve. This valve is circular, 
having at its lower edge thi-ee spear-jiointed processes, whence its name. 
It closes downwards, and prevents the blood from returning into the 
auricle, and, therefore, it passes out by the puhnonary artery '' . The 
valves protecting the orifice of the pulmonary artery open outwards, and 
are called the semi-lunar valves. They are formed by three half-moon- 
ehaped folds of the lining membranes, and their use is to prevent th* 


blood returning from the artery to the ventricle, when it dilates. 
Behind each valve is a pouch or dilatation, called the Sinus of VaUalva, 
into which the blood Hows by its reflux tendency upon the dilatation of 
the ventricle, and thus these valves are closed. The pulmonary artery 
is of the same diameter as the aorta, but its walls are thumer. After its 
origin it curves upwards and backwards, and divides into two branches, 
the right of which is larger than the left ', and passes under the arch of 
the aorta. 

The lift auricle ^, is more concealed from its natural position than the 
right. The four pulmonary veins enter into it, which give it a quad- 
rangular shape. Its walls are muscular and somewhat thicker than 
those of the right auricle. The partition between the auricles is not 
always perfect even in adult life. 

The left ventricle *, forms by its cavity the apex of the heart ; it is 
like a cone in shape. Its walls are thick, and its columns cnrnece nume- 
rous, strong and jirojecting ; the chordcz tendinca are well developed, and 
attached to the bicuspid or mitral valve. This valve consists of two 
leaflets, one of which is much larger than the other. The contraction of 
the ventricle closes the valve, and the blood passes out by th« aorta °. 
The heart is supplied with blood by the right and left coronary . arte- 
ries" '^; the veLus which accompany them empty by a common trunk 
into the right auricle. 

It will thus be scon what a complex piece of machinery the human 
heart is, and how vital the organ must be. It will be apparent to every 
reader that the least interruption or derangement of its functional ac- 
tion is sure to be manifested upon the integrity of the general system. 
Any valvular derangement or breaking down of the septum between the 
auricles and ventricles will allow the commingling of arterial with ve- 
nous blood, threatening death with asphyxia. Atrophy and hypertrophy 
interfere with the muscular action of the walls of the heart, and, in 
fact, it vdW be ob^aous from the complex character of the structural 
anatomy and the importance of the functional actions of the heart, that 
any disease assailing the organ is attended with danger. 

In circvdation the contraction of all the cavities is followed by their 
dilatation. The contraction is called the systole ; the dilatation, the 
diastole. What is called the imjndse of the heart occurs during the 
diastole. The heart's impulse is the shock communicated by its apex to 
the walls of the thorax, in the neighborhood of the fifth and sixth 
ribs. The imjmlse is not the .same as the arterial pulse. The heart 
emits two sounds, first and second, followed by an interval. The first 
are the longest. The following table shows the connection of the 
Bounds of the heart with its movements : — 

First Sound. — Second sta^re of ventricultir diastole. Ventricular svstole, and auricu- 
lar diastole. Impulse iigaiuat the cUufit. l;>ui;>ti iu tlxo urtuiies. 


Second Sound. — First stage of ventricular diastole. 

Interval.— ?>hoTt repose, then auricular systole, and second stage of ventricular dias- 
tole, etc. 

Each cavity of the heart will hold about two fluid ounces, but it is 
probable that the ventricles do not entirely empty themselves at each 
stroke ; they will therefore discharge about one and one-half ounces at 
each pulsation. Reckoning 75 pulsations to the minute, there will pass 
through the heart in this time 113 ounces or 7 lbs. of blood. The whole 
quantity of blood in the human body is equal to about one-fifth of its 
weight, or 28 lbs. in a person weighing 140 lbs. This quantity would 
therefore pass through the heart once in four minutes, or about fifteen 
or twenty times an hour. It is very probable that circulation is much 
more rapid than this estimate. The number of contractions of the 
heart in a minute is about 70 or 75. The frequency of its action gradu- 
ally diminishes from the commencement to the end of life. Just after 
birth it ranges from 140 to loO, in old age 05 to 50. Age, sex, muscular 
exertion, emotions, and temperament exert a controlling influence over 
the heart's action. In persons of sanguine temperament the heart beats 
more frequently than in those of the phlegmatic, and in the female 
sex more frequently than in the male. Its action is also increased after 
a meal, and by rising from a recumbent to a sitting or standing posture. 
The time of day also affects it ; the jjulse is more frequent in the morn- 
ing, and becomes gradually slower as the day advances. 

The pulse is always a sure index of health or disease. In inflamma- 
tion and fevers the pulse is much more frequent than during health. 
"WTien the vital powers decline it becomes frequent and feeble. In ner- 
vous affections with more oppression than exhaustion of the forces, the 
pulse is often remarkably slow. 

The membrane lining the interior of the heart is called the endocar- 
dhun, and the enveloping membrane on the exterior the peiHcardium. 



This is the most common disease of the heart, and may be connected 
with various structural changes of the organ, yet it frequently exists 
independently of any organic lesion, and is often sympathetically de- 
pendent upon dyspepsia, hypochondria, hysterics, mental agitation, 
venereal excesses, mastvu'bation, etc. It may also be due to a low and 
deficient state of the blood, or anmmia. The impulse is weak, flutter- 
ing, or ttimultuous, generally increased by trifling causes. The beats 
are increased in frequency, sometimes marked by intermission, and oc- 
casionally accompanied by a bellows murmur. The comijlexion is gen- 
erally pallid and bloodless, the lips and inside of mouth also pale, the 


pulse quick and jerking, and the pcatient complains of breathlessnesa 
and fainting. He dislikes animal food, but relishes acids. In females 
the deficiency of menstrual flow is superseded by the whites, or some- 
times the flow becomes very profuse. 

Treatment. — During the paroxysm a compound of yellow jessamine, 
Bcull-cap, and ladies'-slipper should be given, in sufficient doses every 
hour, until relieved. The feet should be bathed in warm water and 
the patient avoid all exertion or excitement. If due to anemia, the 
proper remedies as well as nourishing diet should be prescribed. If co- 
existent with dyspepsia, hypochondria, etc., the proper treatment for 
those affections should be instituted. 

Angina Pectoris. 

This disease presents rather difficult pathological features. By some 
writers it is called neuralgia of the heart. The principal symptoms are, 
violent pain about the breast bone, extending towards the arms, anxiety, 
difficulty of breathing, and sense of sufEocation. The paroxysm may 
be brought on by fast wallcing, over-eating, or violent exercise, but they 
may also come on when the i3atient lies quietly in bed. If connected with 
ossification, or other morbid conditions, it is an affection of great danger. 

Treatment. — During the paroxysm the most powerful stimulating 
and narcotic anti-spasmodics are required. The feet should be placed 
in warm water, a large mustard plaster should be applied over the car- 
diac region, and one drop of the tincture of aconite may be given every 
minute or two, until the spasm is relieved. If it is associated ^vith any 
organic disease of the heart, the proper treatment for such disease 
should be instituted, and if due to a neuralgic affection of the organ, 
the proper remedies for neuralgia should be given. Patients suffering 
from this dangerous disease should lose no time in consulting some well- 
skilled physician. 


This consists of inflammation of the sac in which the heart is con- 
tained. It does not essentially differ from other serous inflammations, 
as there may be exudation and liquid effusion, the quantity varying 
from a few ounces to a few pints. The disease is usually ushered in 
with a slight chill, followed with fever, or it may commence with faint- 
ing. Pain, oppression, weight, palpitation, cough, hurried and difficult 
respiration, frequent and irregular pulse, inability to lie on the left side, 
headache, delirium, faintuess, anxiety, debility, restlessness, and great 
nervous irritability usually attend the attack. The face and extrenu- 
ties are swollen, and the urine scanty and high-colored. The essential 
conditions of fever are always present, the jmlse sometimes attaining 
120 to the uiJnutc. If the acute form advances for eeveral weeks it 


becomes chronic, or may by insidious advances be chronic from tb . 
first. The symptoms are nearly the same as in the acute form. 

Treatment. — The treatment should be commenced by a lobclr 
emetic, an active purge, and the application of hot packs to the chest. 
The tincture of veratrum should be given in sufficient quantities to con 
trol the inflammation and lessen the action of the heart. Usually, from 
two to five drops every half hour is sufficient. If associated with rheu- 
matism, colchicum, cannabis sativa, or macrotys racemosa, should be 
given. In malarial districts, qivinine becomes necessary. Blistering or 
local depletion may be necessary in some cases. 


This is an inflammation of the internal liniag of the heart. There is 
at fii'st pain about the heart, whose disordered action may be violent, 
or else feeble, in-egular, and intermitting. There is more or less diffi- 
culty of breathing, and the organ gives forth some abnormal sounds, 
such as the bellows murmur, the rasping and sawing murmur, arising 
from thickening of, or deposit on, some of the valves. One or more of 
the above symptoms occurring during the course of acute rheumatism, 
may be considered a sign of endocarditis. The patient generally lies on 
his back, and his pain may sometimes be so slight as scarcely to be no- 
ticed, but in dangerous cases there is extreme anguish, liable to be 
followed by orthopnoea, or necessity of being in the erect posture 
to be able to breathe, followed by restlessness, delirium, and death. 
The murmurs may occur at any stage of the disease, from the very 
beginning towards the close. 

Treatment. — The treatment is essentially the same as for pericar- 
ditis in the commencement of the attack, with the exception that it 
may be necessary to administer stimulants in some cases. Leeches may 
be applied to the cardiac region, and between the shoulders. Digitalis 
and veratrum should be cautiovisly administered to control the heart's 
action. If associated with rheumatism, colchicum should be given. 
Mustard poultices, blisters or hot packs may be applied to the chest to 
hasten the absoi^jtion of the dej)Osit of lymph. 

If myocarditis, or inflammation of the entire substance of the heart, 
complicates either pericarditis or endocarditis, the active treatment ad- 
vised in the latter diseases will remove it. 

Chronic Valvular Disease of the Heart. 

Tliis frequently results from chronic endocarditis. They may either 
be contracted or distorted, preventing accurate closure, or ulceration 
may occur through the valves. Vegetations and a jieculiar deposit may 
take jjlace under the tissue of the valves, and occasioujilly there is a 
deposition of cartilaginous or osseous matter, and in rheumatic or gouty 


subjects, of the urate of soda, or the valves may become atrophied or 
wasted away. The effects in slight cases may occasion but little diffi- 
culty, but in severe it is apt to produce hypertrophy and dilatation, 
dropsy, local inllammations, and ultimately death. These results are 
owing to an impediment in the forward movement of the blood, and to 
the regurgitation of the same, producing an accumulation behind. This 
is plainly illustrated in an affection of the mitral valve. If its orifice is 
contracted by deposits, the blood accumulates in the left auricle by the 
impediment, and distends it ; congestion of the pulmonary veins is the 
consequence ; the lungs share in the congestion, and pulmonary apo 
plexy may be the result. This of course occasions an insufficient supply 
of blood to the general system, which the heart is willing to relieve, 
and, therefore, makes greater efforts, but becomes hypertrophied or en- 
larged in so doing. Again, suppose some insufficiency in the mitral 
valve, owing to ulceration, for example, the blood will regurgitate into 
the left auricle at each pulsation, it produces the same effects. If the 
sernilunar valves are contracted, a less supply of blood is sent to the gen- 
eral system, but congestion of the heart and consequent enlargement 
and dilatation of the left ventricle may occur. The general symptoms of 
valvular disease is difficulty of breathing, increased by muscular efforts' -or 
emotion, palpitations, the pulse intermittent or jerky. Distinctive miir- 
murs accompany these affections ; in mitral deficiency we hear a prolong- 
ed munuur in a low key, like whispering the word ''who;" in contrac- 
tion of the aortic valves we have a comparatively superficial sound like 
whispering the letter " z ; " in regurgitations we hear squashing sounds. 
Treatment. — The mitigation of the urgent symptoms may be accom- 
plished by ladies'-slipper, hops, or henbane. In violent action of the 
heart cherry laurel water may be given with the henbane. Hot foot- 
baths and mustard plasters may also be necessary. In sudden palpita- 
tion and difficulty of breathing, the compound spirits of lavender should 
be given. Collinsonia is the proper remedy if hypertrophy of the valves 
is suspected. In valviilar insufficiency the tonics and a liberal diet 
should be prescribed. Conium, belladonna, digitalis, irisin, veratrum, 
stramonium, and cannabis sativa, are also extensively used in various 
combination, if they are indicated. 

Atrophy op the Heart. 
This may result from various causes. When it exists, greater reso- 
nance accompanies percussion, and the two sounds of the heart will be 
more feeble, but more distinctly heard. The symptoms are pallor, cold- 
ness and dropsy of the extremities, cough, irregular respiration, palpita- 
tion, oppression ; in females, irregularity or vicarious menstruation. It 
may occur with the exhausting diseases, as cancer, consumption, dia- 
betes, etc. 


Treatment. — The patient should avoid all excesses in mental and 
bodily exercise. The diet should consist of rich animal broth, with a 
liberal amount of fats and sugar, cod-liver oil, and the tonics should be 

Hypertrophy and Dilatation op the Heart 

As these are generally coexistent, they should be considered together. 
The dimensions of the heart may be increased either by augmentation 
of its muscular walls, or enlargement of its cavities. The former is 
hypertrophy, the latter dilatation. The most prominent symptom is 
difficulty of breathing, produced by any exertion; also palpitations, 
which are sometimes so violent as to shake the whole body. The 
secondary signs are violent headache, vertigo, buzzing in the ears, flashes 
of light, pulmonary congestion, pneumonia, apoplexy of the lungs, con- 
gestion of the liver, bilious disorders, and general and local dropsy. 
The patient's sufEering is often extreme, and, unable to lie in bed, he Ls 
forced to assume constantly a sitting posture, with the body bent for- 
ward. Death usually occurs suddenly in syncope or fainting. Valvular 
disease is the most frequent cause, though they may be caused by rheu- 
matic irritation, excessive exertion of the organs from any cause, as 
violent exercise, jilaying on wind instruments, violent passions, intem- 
perance, etc. 

Treatment. — The exciting cause should be removed, especially valvu- 
lar disease. The patient's habits of life and occupation sliould be regu- 
lated, and his diet moderated. Mild cathartics should occasionally be 
given and passive exercise engaged in. Digitalis is the special medicine ; 
cherry laurel water is also used for the same purjiose. These should be 
carefully administered. The tincture of aconite and colchicura should 
be given where it has resulted from rheumatism. In dilatation the 
tonics, cod-liver oil, and animal food should be prescribed. Digitalis is 
also specially required. Wild cheny bark is an excellent tonic, and as 
nervous symptoms are very apt to be present in females, opium, bella- 
donna, valerian, etc. , may be given with advantage. Every etf ort should 
be made to enrich the blood. 

Cyanosis, or Blue Disease. 

In this disease the skin bears a leaden or puiple tinge over the whole 
body. There is a reduction of warmth, and labored breathing. It is 
due to the admixture of blue or venous blood with arterial or red blood, 
and caused by the right and left sides of the heart remaining open after 
birth, or by obstruction of the pulmonary artery, thereby withholding 
the blood from the lungs and preventing arterialization. It is a disease 
confined to infants, and is almost necessarily fatal. 

Tbeatment. — The circulation must be sedated by allowing the child 


complete rest, or by the careful administration of veratrum ; good food, 
fresh air, and protection from extremes of heat and cold are necessary. 
Apply friction to the head and body by some soft cloth. If syncope 
occurs, the child should be placed in a warm bath, and camphor applied 
to its nostrUs. 

The heart is liable to be assailed by other diseases. Softening of the 
heart may take place without inflammation ; it may result in rupture of 
the heart. Various indurations of the heart may occur, as of the 
fibrous, cartilaginous and osseous character. Fatty degeneration is a 
rare disease. Tubercle^ cancer^ and polypi are also noticed. 

The heart is the most important organ in the body ; hence its diseases 
to the physician are full of interest. Nothing gives to a person greater 
anxiety than the suspicion or knowledge that he is affected with heart 
disease. The dread of sudden death is universal, and so it generally 
occurs in cardiac diseases. The most important requisite in the treat- 
ment is its early application, as most of the diseases can be cured if 
treatment is bestowed in time, and hence it behooves every one who 
feels some abnormal action or uneasiness about the heart to engage 
treatment, or seek competent medical aid as soon as possible. Those 
who desire to consult me are referred to page 390. My experience i^n 
the treatment of heart diseases has been in extent second to none in this 
country, and the success has been most gratifying. ^ 



Inflammation of the arteries is rare in the acute form. The symp- 
toms are pain and tenderness along the course of the vessel, attended 
with a thrill or throbbing. Lymph is effused within the vessel, often 
producing a complete arrest of the circulation, and resultiug ia gan- 
grene. It is highly probable that ia spontaneous senile gangrene the 
cause is arteritis. Chronic arteritis is more common, but difficult to 
discover. Deposits occur in the arteries, exciting ulceration, or ossifica- 
tion may occur in old age. 

TuEATMKNT. — Give a mild purge, a hot bath, and sufficient veratrum 
to control the circulation. The inflamed part should be fomented, blis- 
tered, or stimulating liniments and counter-irritation may be appUed. 
The alteratives are always indicated. 


This is a pulsating sac, filled with blood, which communicates with 
an artery. True aneurism consists of a sac formed by one or more of 
the arterial coats. False aneurism is owing to a complete division of 


the arfcerla^ coats, either from a wound or external ulceration ; the sac 
formed of cellular tissue. Every artery may be affected with any 
aneurism, Lat the aorta, carotids, axUlary, brachial, iliacs, femorals, 
and popliteals are the arteries most commonly affected. The tumor at 
finst is small, gradually increasing-, soft and quite compressible, being 
filled only with Huid blood. It pulsates synchronously with the heart, 
and is increased by jiressure on the side furthest from the heart. A 
peculiar thrill is imparted to the hand, and which can be heard if the 
ear is applied. The strength of the part is much impaired as the tiimor 
enlarges, and the circulation in the extremity weaker. During the 
progress of the tumor the adjacent parts are displaced and absorbed, 
even bone is rendered carious and absorbed by constant pressure of the 
aneurism. The pain and numbness increase, and the general health 
fails, and at length the tumor may burst, oi^ening upon the skin or some 
internal cavity, and i^rovQ fatal. 

Tkeatment. — Complete rest, and the frequent application of hot- 
packs to the tumor should at first be jirescribed. A stimulating lini- 
ment may be rubbed over the part. One composed of the compound 
tincture of myrrh and the oil of origanum answers the purpose well. 
The " Herbal Ointment" is an excellent application. The gentle appli- 
cation of electro-galvanism should be resorted to if the above treatment 
does not suffice. Pressure by well-secured pads, or by the thumbs and 
fingers, continued for a long time, is often tried and successful in some 
cases. If the above treatment fails, some competent surgeon should be 
consulted, who wiU in laracticable cases ligate the artery. Valsalva had 
a curious plan of treatment for aneurism. It consisted of repeated blood- 
letting, with food enough merely to support life. A cure worse than 
the disease. 

Phlebitis and Varicose Veins. 

This is an inflammation of the veins. The signs are pain and tender- 
ness in the course of the vessel, which soon becomes cord-like and 
knotted, by which it may be distinguished from arteritis. There are 
swelling and redness of the adjacent parts, the redness being in streaks. 
The limb below the part is swollen, from obstruction of the circulation 
and effusion of serum. Pus is a frequent production of phlebitis, in 
which case perfect occlusion of the vein above occurs, with the forma- 
tion of an abscess, or the pus passes into the heart and produces 
excessive prostration. Varicose veins are the sequel generally to 

Treatsient. — The treatment consists in fomentations, leeching, and 
occasional purging. The alteratives should also be given. The topical 
application of tinctures of lobelia and arnica are also useful. Rest is 
enioined. The abscesses and consequent ulceration should be treated 



upon general principles. If the veins become varicosed, astringent 
applications, and careful baudaginj^, shoiUd be resorted to. 

The best method of curing varicose veins, however, is by elastic 
stocking's. These give an equable pressure, which can be so regulated 
as to afford any compression desired, on every part of the leg where 
the varicose veins exist. If the veins are varicosed throughout the 
whole length of the limb, the full-length stocking should be worn ; if 
confined only to the leg, the stocking represented on the right-hand 
side of the cut is alone necessary, and in some cases the knee-caps and 
anklets are only required, depending upon the situation of the varicose 

veins. These elastic 
contrivances are not 
only radical cures, 
but patients suffering 
from varicose veins 
have no idea what 
ease and comfort 
they afford. They 
give a very agreeable 
support to the limb, 
prevent varicose uj- 
cers, besides quickly 
reducing the enlarged 
Elastic Storkincrs, Knee-Caps and Anklets. veins tO natural size. 

Measurement :— Size of aukle, calf and knee. They are made of the 
best silk, are very durable, and not so expensive as not to be afforded by 
the poorest sufferer. All those desiring these admirable contrivances 
are requested to correspond with the author ; — preliminary correspond- 
ence as to size, measurement, etc., is in all cases essential to secure 
that perfect adaptation which is indisi:)ensably necessary in order to 
afford relief and cure. Great harm is done if the elastic appliance is 
not eligible in every respect, and therefore patients should hesitate 
before purchasing those inferior, half cotton articles, which are pur- 
chasable everywhere ; they do not fulfil the conditions reciuired of 
them, and are capable of doing great injury, owing to the unequal 
compression they afford. Prices as above. 

Milk Leo (Phlegmasia Dolens). 

This is caused by inflammation of the crural veins, hence called 
crural phlehitis. The inflammation is owing to the pressure of the 
gravid womb. The popular idea that in this disease the woman's milk 
has fallen into her leg, and which has inflamed, is absurd. The disease 
begins h\ from two to seven weeks after delivery, with ))ain in the lower 
bowel, groin, or thigh. In several days the pain dimmishes, and the 


limb bepiins to swell, in the calf first most frequently, and from thence 
extending upward. The skin becomes entirely white, smooth, and 
glossy, does not pit when pressed, is painful to the touch, and is hotter 
than the skin of the other limb. Fever is always present. 

Tkkatment. — The patient should lie upon her back, with the swelled 
limb placed upon pillows, or a bolster, raised so that the foot shall be 
a little higher than the hip, and she should by no means endeavor to 
walk until the leg is nearly well. A narrow blister can be applied along 
the course of the vein, and digitalis may be carefully administered. 
Take an old flannel petticoat, with the hem cut off, and the gathers let 
out, and dip it in vinegar and hot water, equal parts, wring it out, and 
cover the whole limb with it. A blanket or oiled silk may be placed 
underneath to keep it from wetting the bed. Repeat this and keep it 
up for six hours, and when it becomes tedious to the patient, it should 
be removed, and the limb bathed with warm sweet oil, two parts, and 
laudanum, one part, and then covered with flannel. In two or three 
hours return to the hot water and vinegar, keep up for five or six hours, 
then resume the warm sweet oil and laudanum, and in this way alter- 
nate until the inflammation is subdued, or until the calf of the iimb can 
be shaken. The bowels should be gently moved, and the diuretics 
administered, and in cases whei'e the inflammation lasts, and the fever 
is considerable, veratrum should be given. If recovery does not take 
place after the active inflammation has subsided, the limb should be 
entirely enveloped by a spiral bandage, or, what is much better, the 
full-length elastic stocking represented on the foregoing page should be 
worn. This gives immediate relief, reduces the leg to natural size, and 
permits the patient to exercise without any injurious results following. 
Those desiring this indispensable article are requested to correspond 
with the author. 


ScuuvY (Scorbutus). 

This disease was known to the ancients. The first distinct account 
of scurvy is contained m the history of the Crusades of Louis IX. 
against the Saracens of Egypt, during which the French army suffered 
greatly from it. Lord Anson's voyage, in which more than eighty of 
every hundred of the original crews perished from the disease, is fami- 
liar to every reader of history. This disease illustrates the importance 
of vegetable food to the human being, as it is a direct result of a diet 
free from vegetable substances. It used to be very prevalent in the 
English and American navies, but is now obviated by the ration of lime- 
juico in th« former, and fresh or desiccated vegetables in the latter. It 


commences with a feeling of langTior, or general debility and mental 
despondeixcy ; a sense of fatigue is experienced on the slightest exer- 
tion ; the face is either pale or sallow, and presents an appearance of 
puffiness ; the gums are swollen, soft, and of a purplish color, and 
bleed easily ; the breath becomes offensive, and an eruption appears on 
the body. The mucous surfaces frequently bleed, the feet become 
swollen and hard and painful, and a disposition is e\nnced to inflam- 
mation of a low grade of the \iscera, and also to hemoiThagic efEusions. 
The tongue and appetite remain unaffected, and death is produced 
either by debiiity or hemon-hage— the intellect remaining sound to the 

Treatment. — Nothing will avail in the absence of fresh vegetable 
food, and hence the chief treatment consists in giving vegetable food, or 
the vegetable acid, as citric acid or lemon-juice. Cabbage and potatoes 
are excellent, aud milk is a good article of diet. If fresh vegetables 
cannot be obtained, dried fmits should be substituted. If the disease 
has advanced, and there is sponginess of the gums, myricin, rhusin, 
and hydrastin may be given in combination with capsicum and cream. 
If active hemorrhage occurs, the oils of turijentine, solidago, and mecca 
oil may be used to advantage. If chronic blood derangement folld^vs, 
as is often the case, the alteratives should be given, of which ^py 
" Blood Purifier " (see page 409) is the best. 

Bleedestg from the Nose (Epistaxis). 

There is no part of the body more disposed to hemorrhage than the 
mucous membrane of the nose. The blood effused through this mem- 
brane escapes generally through the nostrils, but may enter the mouth 
through the i^osterior nares. It is often symptomatic of diseases of the 
liver, spleen, and other organs, aud generally attends the last stages of 
malignant and low fevers. It may be slight or dangerously profuse. 
In plethoric or robust patients it constitutes often a means of relief to 
the vascular system. 

Treatment. — When it becomes necessary to check the hemorrhage, 
the patient should be placed in a cool room, the head elevated or held 
upright, and the feet plunged in warm water containing mustard. 
The neck should be bared, and cold water aspersed over it and the face. 
Lemonade and cooling drinks may also be given. When it becomes 
habitual, or periodic, and especially if it be vicarious of menstruation, 
it may be anticipated by local depletiou on the nape of the nock. In 
the passive states of the disease, the astringents should be injected 
into the nose. Tannin, matico, Monsers solution, etc., are the best. 


If it will not stop, the nostrils should be plugged both anteriorly and 


This is a hemorrhage from the respiratory organs. The blood that 
is expectorated comes from three different sources. It may come from 
the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes, from a vessel ulcerated 
in a tuberculous cavity as in consumption, and from an aneurism of the 
aorta, or from the large trunks arising from it, in which case it soon 
proves fatal. Some cases depend on suppression of the menses, and 
are habitual and not dangerous, but in the majority of cases it is caused 
by disease of the heart, or consequent to irritation of tubercles. It 
may be simple, the blood being all spit up, or it may be attended by an 
infiltration of blood into the minute tubes and air cells, rendering a 
portion of the lung solid. The symptoms are some degree of pain or 
oppression at the chest, with cough, which brings up mouthfuls of 
blood, fluid or clotted. The quantity may vary from a tea-spoonful to 
several pints, so that the patient may be suffocated by the abundance 
of the blood. 

Treatment. — A free current of air should be allowed to pass over the 
patient, his covering should be light, and a mild purge should be given 
to him. The feet should be placed in hot water. If dependent upon 
derangement of the menses, the sitz-bath (hot) should be ordered, and 
matico or other astringents be given. Or it may be arrested by putting 
one drachm of the oil of origanum in a pint bottle, and allow the patient 
to inhale the vapor. If matico, tannin, or other vegetable astringents 
are not at hand, common salt, acetate of lead, sulphuric acid, and alum 
may be used in case of emergency. Small doses of digitalis should be 
given to control the circulation. 


This is hemorrhage from the stomach. Whatever irritates the mucous 
surface of the stomach, or iuterrupts the return of blood from that 
organ is liable to cause this disease. Blows and injuries received by the 
abdomen, violent concussions of the trunk, pressure, intemperance, 
worms, powerfiil emetics, suppression of menstrual discharge, appli- 
cation of cold, or of cold and moisture to the lower extremities 
during perspiration, or the catamenial flow, prolonged constipation and 
pregnancy, are all liable to cause it. The blood is usually vomited 
profusely, is sometimes mixed with food, and generally of dark color. 
The jjremonitory symptoms are pain or tension about the stomach, 
.with faiutness or a sense of sinking, or of anxiety at this region, flatu- 
lent or acrid eructations, lassitude with irregular chills and flushes ot 

13 T 


Treatmenj. — Apply ice to the region of the stomach, and orive a full 
dose of the oil of turpentine conjoined with castor oil, to be repeated 
if rejected. Administer the astringents, ia all cases the vegetable, but 
if not at hand, acetate of lead, creasote, tincture of iron, alum whey, 
sulphuric acid, etc., can be given. During the discharge total absti- 
nence is to be observed, but afterwards, mild mucilaginous drinks and 
farinaceous food in small quantity may be given, and the transition tn 
solid and more nutritious food should be carefully conducted. 


The source of the blood voided through the urethra may be either 
from the kidney, bladder, or urethra. When it proceeds from the 
kidneys, it is attended with a sense o.f heat and pain in the loins, and 
sometimes with coldness of the extremities, and the blood is intimately 
mixed with the urine. "WTien the disease is in the ureters, there is a 
sense of pain in their course, and fibrous shreds having the shape of the 
ureters are voided. When the hemorrhage is from the bladder, it is 
usually preceded by heaviness and tension in that region, extending to 
the perineum, groins, and small of back ; the urine is passed with diffi- 
culty ; the blood is little, if at all, combined with the urine. If ":^rom 
the urethra, the blood is red, liquid and i^ure, and comes away generally 
droji by drop. 

Treatment. — This depends upon its seat and cause. If from the 
kidneys, the oils of origanum, copaiba, cubebs and turpentine should be 
administered, and hot packs applied externally. If the urine is alkaline, 
as in typhus fever and scurvy, the acids should be given. If from the 
bladder or urethra, matico or other vegetable astringents should be 
injected. The avoidance of stimulants and absolute rest should be 
insisted on in every case. 


If in man a large venous trunk is compressed or obliterated, so that 
the blood no longer circulates through it, while the collateral vessels 
can relieve but imperfectly, dropsical effusion is sure to t;ike place. 
The effusion is proportionate to the size and importance of the vein 
obliterated. If, for instance, in the vena cava, or large vein in the 
abdomen, an obstacle should prevent the return of the blood, the two 
lower extremities and the scrotum will become filled with serum. If 
the trunk of the portal vein is more or less obUterated, the serous col- 
lection takes place in the abdomen. If the obstruction occurs at the 
very centre of circulation, namely the heart, and the return of blood 
everywhere embaiTassed. the drojjsy becomes general ; hence dropsy is 
one of the most common symptoms of heart diseases. Dropsy is often 
caused by cold, applied in such a manner as to check the sccrctiorw of 


the skin ; is often connected with eruptive diseases, as scarlatina ; it 
may result from granular degeneration of the kidneys, debility, exhaus- 
tion from loss of blood, etc. ; or from obstruction to the return of 
venous blood, owing to tumors, hypertrophy of the liver, glandular 
enlargements, etc. 

Bright's Disease of the Kidney. 

This is a dropsy owing to a disease of the kidneys. Dr. Bright, of 
England, first pointed out, 1827, the frequent connection which exists 
between dropsy and what has since been called granular degeneration 
of the kidneys, or " Bright's Disease." This state of the kidneys is not 
an inflammation, but a slow degeneration of its structure, commencing 
by an abnormal deposit of fat in the cells lining the httle tubes iu the 
kidneys. It is a degeneration similar to the tubercular deposit, or the 
fatty liver common in consumjition, and may properly receive the name 
of fatty kidney. It is a slow, insidious disease, beginning generally 
much further back than the patient is aware of. By degrees the tubes 
of the kidneys become blocked up with excessive fatty dejiosits ; the 
result of this is, that the tubes become dilated, so as to press on the 
network of the portal veins which surroimd them. The veins being 
thus compressed, the capillaries which open into them are unable to 
discharge their contents, and so become distended with blood, and 
either aUow serum to exude from their walls, or else bui-st and admit 
the escape of red particles and fibrine. This may be illustrated in a 
familiar way. If the mouth of all the little brooklets that flow into a 
brook be effectively dammed up, bo that the brook received none of 
their supply, the brooklets by constant accession would naturally over- 
flow their banks and inundate the adjacent land, and the brook go dry. 
So as the accumulation of the fat goes on, the portal networks of veins 
and the uriniferous tubes waste away or become atrophied, and hence 
shrinking of the Iddney and deficiency of the kidney ensue. Albumen 
is always present in the urine in this disease This can be discovered 
by boiling the urine in a small tube, the albumen becoming like the 
white of an egg boiled. Urea, a natural constituent of the urine, is 

The syinptoms in the first stage are weakness and dyspepsia, and the 
blood loses its red particles very rapidly, but there is little to call 
attention to the kidneys. In the second stage the symptoms are a 
pallid, pasty complexion, a dry hard skin, drowsiness, weakness, indi- 
gestion, and fi'equent nausea, often retching the first thing in the morn- 
ing, and palpitation of the heart. A most characteristic symptom is 
that the patient is awakened several times in the night with desire to 
make water. In the third .stage, if the patient is exposed to cold, the 
kidney becomes congested ; anasai'ca or general diopsy with perhaps 


ascites, makes its appearance ; debility increases, the urinary secretion 
becomes more inefficient, urea and other excrementitious matter accu- 
mulate in the blood ; a drowsiness and coma, signs of effusion of blood, 
are sure precursors of death. It is caused by intemperance, privation 
of air and light, and neglect of proper exercise ; frequent exposure to 
cold, and the other causes of scrofula and consumption. 

Treatment. — This is one of those harassing complaints which phy- 
sicians in family practice seldom have the patience to investigate and 
manage with sufficient care. 

The condition of the stomach, bowels and skin should receive especial 
attention. Free action of the skin should be maintained, as in thia 
way the kidneys are relieved and the blood purified. Stimulating 
diuretics should not be used. Mecca oU, tonic teas, etc. , may be given. 
There is no better specific agent than helonin, from three to ten grains 
a day. Eupurpurin and popului may also be given with good effect. 
Vapor baths are beneficial, and counter-irritation should be made over 
the region of the kidneys. 

It is my confident belief that this grave disease can be cured in 
nearly every instance if not too far advanced. I am induced to such 
a belief by the success that attends my treatment. I should be h^ppy 
to correspond with any one of my readers who may suspect this affec- 
tion, and shall cheerfully analyze any iirine that may be sent to me for 
that purpose, as in my laboratory there are all conveniences for that pur- 
pose. (See page 390). For those under my treatment the analyses are 
gratuitously made, but to others a fee of $5 must in all instances be 


This is a collection of water in the belly, though sometimes the fluid 
is outside of the peritoneum and next to the muscles. There is a sense 
of distension and weight, especially on the side on which the patient lies. 
When the collection is large, the breathing becomes short and difficult, 
and the swelling is uniform over the whole abdomen. In some instances 
the fluctuation may be heard when the patient moves about. This 
sound distinguishes this complaint from pregnancy or peritonitis. There 
arc generally loss of appetite, dry skin, costiveness, scanty urine, ojspres- 
Hion of the chest, cough, colic pains, and variable pulse. A frequent 
cause of this complauit is chronic inflamm.-ition of the peritoneum ; it 
is also produced by scarlet fever, hob-nailed liver, and other diseases of 
that organ — in short, whatever obstnicts the portal circulation. 

Treatment.— The remedies for this disease are mainly diuretics 
and purgatives. Digitalis is an excellent remedy, but sliould be cau- 
tiously administered. The patient should have as a constant drink an 
infusion of two parts of hair-cap moss, and one each of juniper berries 
and dwarf -elder bark ; also an infusion of queen of the meadow. The 


purgatives that produce watery stools, such as elaterium, should be 
given. The compound infusion of parsley is about the best agent to 
promote the absorption of the fluid. The skin should be kept well 
open, and the strictest temperance both in eating and drinking must 
also be observed. If aU medicinal treatment fails, the surgeon should 
be called, who will perform jmracentesis abdominis^ or tapping the 
abdomen ; but this should be deferred until all other means have failed. 


This is a dropsy of the pleura, rarely existing as an independent 
affection, but generally associated with a general dropsical condition of 
the system. It is particularly liable to be connected with organic heart 
disease. When the effusion is slight, only a slight uneasiness is felt in 
the lower part of the chest, but as it increases, the patient suffer.s 
uneasiness in assuming the recumbent posture, a cough and difficulty of 
breathing being the result. The latter often becomes very severe, the 
face swells, the cheeks assume a purple and the lips a livid hue, the 
skin is dry, urine scanty, bowels constipated, thirst, and more or less 
mental excitement ensues. 

Treatment. — If owing to heart disease, that affection should receive 
special attention. The fluid may be evacuated by means of small doses 
of elaterium and podophyllum, followed by a free use of chimaphila, 
galium aparine, and aralia hispida. Other diuretics may also be used, 
and the general rules of treatment observed as advised in Ascites. 

Dropsy op the Heart. 

This consists of a collection of fluid within the pericardium. There 
is a feeling of uneasiness, or pressure in the cardiac region, a slight 
cough, diflBcult and irregular respiration, faintness, disinclination to lie 
down, a feeble pulse, capricious appetite, disturbed sleeji and delirium. 
If there is stupor, cold extremities, the perspiration clammy, and the 
action of the heart very much disordered, it usually proves fatal. 

Treatment. — Same as for Hydrothorax. Tapping may become 
necessary in both cases. 

Dropsy op the Ovaries. 

This consists of an accumulation of fluid in one or more cells within 
the ovary, or in a serous cyst connected with the uterine appendages. 
The ovary loses its original form and structure, and frequently attains 
an immense size, containing several gallons of water. The effusion 
sadly interferes with respiration, and it causes exhaustion and often 
peritonitis. The serum may exist within the cavity of the abdomen, 
or be confined within the cystic tumor. As the tumor enlarges, it 
ascends the pelvis and occupies more and more of the abdominal cavity, 


and may float loosely in the fluid within it, and form adhesions to the 
peritoneum, omentum, or neighboring viscera. 

Treatment. Galvanism is often very successful. The current 
should be passed through the tumor, and be as sti-ong as the patient 
can bear it, and should be passed in all directions for half an hour 
several times a day. The hydragogue cathartics and diuretics should 
also be given, and the alteratives administered. The strength of the 
patient should be weU supported. 

This disease is curable by medicinal treatment alone in its early 
stages if propei'ly treated, but may become so far advanced under 
improper management, that tapping becomes necessary, or, if the 
patient's strength will allow, the removal of the whole tumor. 

The author would be pleased to correspond with any lady suffering 
from this serious disease. 

Dkopsy of the Scrotum (Hydrocele). 

This is a collection of water in the membrane which surrounds the 
testicles. It is often caused by rheumatism, gout, scrofula, €tc. In 
some cases the accumulation is very large. It may be distuigui's)ied 
from scrotal hernia by pressing the tumor towards the anus ; i| it 
bounds rapidly forward it is hydrocele. 

Treatment. — The following is excellent. Take queen of the 
meadow, one ounce ; colt's foot, one-fourth pound ; yellow parilla, 
one-fourth pound. Make one quart of decoction or syrup, and take one 
table-spoonful three times a day. A suspensory bandage should be 
worn. These can be had from me at reasonable prices. In some cases 
the scrotum must be tapped, and the vinous tincture of hemlock bark in- 
jected to prevent the return of the effusions. 

I have under my treatment at all times many dropsical patients, and 
if received under my care at a reasonable early stage, no necessity for 
tapping arises, and th3 patient is cured by medicinal treatment alone. 
Any one desirous of consulting me, may refer to page 390 for the neces- 
sary question to be answered. 



The kidneys are two hard glands for the secretion of urine, placed in 
each lumbar region, just above the hips; they are outside of the perito- 
neum, or lining membrane of the abdomen, and surrounded with an 
abundance of fat. The right kidney is rather lower than the left, on. 
account of the superposition of the liver. The length is about four in- 



ches, and the breadth two inches. The shape is oval, resembling a 
bean ; the position upright, and the fissure (or Mlum) is directed to the 
spinal column. The upper end of the kidney is rather larger than the 
lower. It is covered by a strong fihvoii^ capsule. The color is a reddish 
brown. Upon making a longitudinal sec- 
tion of the kidney, as represented in cut, 
two different structures are presented. The 
internal is of a darker color, and consists of 
about fifteen of what are called the cones 
of Malfdghi^^ which are arranged in three 
rows, the apex of each converging towards 
the hilum. This constitutes the medullary 
portion of the kidneys. ■ The external 
structure is of lighter color usually, is ex- 
tremely vascular, and of a granulated ar- 
rangement ; it constitutes the cortical por- 
tion. The urine is formed in the tortuous 
tubes of the cortical substance,^ between 
whose walls are a number of small bodies 
called corpuscles of MalpigJii. At the apex 
of each cone is the papilla renalis, and iu the 
centre of each papilla is a slight depression, 
called foveola. Each papilla is surrounded 
by a small membranous cup, called infimdibulum* into which the urine 
is first received as it oozes from the orifices of the papillas. Four or 
five of these infundibula join to form a common trunk, called calyx,^ and 
the junction of about three calyces forms a common cavity, called the 
pelvis,^ which is conoidal in shape, and from which proceeds the ureter,' 
the excretory tube of the kidney, which conveys the urine to the blad- 
der. The ureter is a cylindrical tube of the size of a quUl, with thin, 
extensible walls. It enters the inferior fundus of the bladder very 
obliquely, and opens by a very small orifice. 

Just above the kidney, and reposmg on its upper extremity, placed 
one on each side, are two small bodies, varying much in size, called the 
supra-renal caj)sules} They have no secretion, consequently no duct, 
but evidently perform important functions in foetal life, when they aro 
much larger. 

The Kidney. 


The bladder is a musculo-membranous sac for the reception of urine. 
It is situated in the cavity of the pelvis, behind the pubic bones, and in 
front of the rectum in the male, but in the female the uterus and vagina 
are between the rectum and bladder. In shape the bladder is oval, the 
larger end being downwards ; in women it is more spheroidal ; in chil- 


dren it is pear-shaped. It is divided into a superior and valeTioT fundus, 
a body, and neck. 

Its dimensions vary with health and disease. Ordinarily it will hold 
about a pint. At the neck of the bladder is a circular muscle, called 
the sjihincter, which, in a state of contraction, retains the urine in the 
bladder imtil the necessity to voiding it arises. The urethra is described 
under anatomy of the sexual organs. 



This is inflammation of the kidneys, and which may occur either in its 
Bubstance, its lining membrane, or in its capsule. The symptoms are 
deep-seated pain in the small of the back, extending down the groins in 
one or both sides, increased by pressure ; urination either increased or 
diminished, urine scanty and high-colored, and mixed with blood or 
gravelly matters. If both kidneys are affected the urine may be sup- 
pressed, and comatose symptoms present themselves. Chills, fever,, de- 
ranged stomach, and constipation nearly always attend it. The testicle 
is retracted, which distinguishes this disease from lumbago, etc. It 
runs very rapidly into suppuration, the sign of which is the appearance 
of pios in the urine. 

Treatment. — The disease should be controlled by the use of hot 
packs, vapor baths, lobelia emetics, mild purges, and the internal admin- 
istration of aconite and veratrum. The mucilaginous drinks should be 
drunk, and the opiates given if the pain is very severe. In chronic 
nephritis, where there is debility of the organ, the best remedies are 
turpentine, copaiba, buchu, uva ursi, pareira brava, and pipsissewa. 


This is the diabetes insipidus of some writers. By this term is under- 
stood the excessive secretion of pale, Mmpid urine, without sugar. 
The principal symptoms are insatiable thirst and the elimination of a 
large quantity of urine. These symptoms are usually preceded "by a 
variable appetite, constipation, and derangement of the functions of the 
skin. The copious flow of urine may only be occasional, following over- 
mental or physical excitement. It may be distinguished from diabetes 
incUitu^ by the absence of sugar in the urine. 

Treat.ment. — The skin should receive special attention, and excess 
of drinking should be avoided. The constitutional debihty should be 
overcome with baths, and the general tonics ; apocynin, from one-eighth 
to one-fourth of a grain, four or five times a day, is a specific for this 



This is characterized by increase of urine, containing eugax. The 
first indications of this disease are languor, dry, and harsh skin, intense 
thirst, pain in the small of back, constipation, with alternate chill and 
fever. After a time the general health gives way, and there are muscu- 
lar weakness, loss of sexual power, pain in the loins, coldness of extrem- 
ities, a burning sensation in the hands and feet, loss of weight, and a 
chloroform odor of breath. The gums become spongy, the teeth decay, 
the mind becomes depressed and irritable, and the appetite voracious. 
Consumption is often a sequel to this disease. The urine has a sweetish 
taste, due to the presence of sugar, which can readily be discovered by 
adding yeast to the urine, which gives rise to various fermentation. 

Treatment. — A healthy state of the general system should be main- 
tained by fresh air, frequent baths, and a generous diet. No saccharine 
or starchy articles of food should be eaten. The bowels and liver should 
be gently stimulated by small doses of leptandrin and leontodin. Great 
success is obtained by the use of unicorn root. Mecca oil has also been 
successfully employed in this disease. 

Diabetic patients who may desire the author to treat them, may con- 
sult him as directed on page 310. 

Gravel (Lithiasis). 

This disorder consists in the deposition from the urine, within the 
body, of an insoluble sand-like matter. In health the urine carries off 
the results of the waste and disintegration of the tissues in a soluble 
state, but when these matters are in excess the urine frequently deposits 
them after being voided, on cooling. This often occurs after irregulari- 
ties of diet, without actually being a morbid condition, but when the 
accumulation is excessive it causes a serious disease. The graveLs are 
chemically either urates, lithates, phosphates, or oxalates, according to 
the diathesis of the patient. The passage of gravel or renal calculi from 
the kidneys to the bladder through the ureters, causes the most excruci- 
ating pain. When anything in the bladder, as a mucous shred or a large 
gravel, acts as a nucleus, the constant accessions to this nucleus form 
what is known as stone in the bladder, which may be of various sizes. 

In gravel the patient has a dull aching pain in the back, attended with 
urgent and frequent desire to urinate, preceded by cutting or scalding 
pains in the urethra, neck of bladder, or in the course of the ureters. 
In stone we have the same symptoms, but the sudden stoppage of the 
stream during micturition is always suggestive of its presence in the 
bladder, and the patient has a constant desire to relieve the pain by pull- 
ing at the end of his penis. 

Treatment. — Diluents should be freely used, and a strict attentiou 


paid to diet. Animal food should be sparingly eaten, and alcoholic 
drinks totally avoided. The chemical nature of the grayel should be 
ascertained, and when this is done the chemical opposites administered. 
No treatment will avaU, if not in chemical opposition to the diathesis of 
the patient. If medicinal treatment is ineffectual after a stone has been 
formed, the surgeon should be consulted, who will remove it by an oper- 
ation caUed lithotritij or another termed Utlwiitripsy. 

Unless the stone be too large, my experience is that solvent treatment 
will prove effectual in nearly every case. The solvent treatment consists, 
of course, of such herbal agents as are chemically opposed to the nature 
of the calculus. By such a course of medication my success has been 
most gratifying. 

Ischuria, or Suppression of IJRmE. 

This frequently attends inflammatory diseases, especially acute 
nephritis. It may either arise from an irritation of the kidney beyond 
the point of secretion, or from a torpor or paralysis of the kidneys. It 
is important to distinguish it from retention of mine. It is sometimes 
very dangerous, being attended with vomiting, drowsiness, coma a^d 
convulsions. A vicarious secretion from the skin, bowels, etc. , is also 
often established. It is evidently due to a sort of paralysis of the nerve 

Treatment. — Leeches may be placed over the loins, and digitalis or 
squill administered. The demulcent drinks shoxild be freely used. If 
uric acid is in excess, some carbonate may be given. If dependent 
upon torpor, the stimulating diuretics, as turpentine, should be used. 
Frequent hot sitz -baths are also beneficial. 

Incontinence op Urine (Enuresis). 

This is often associated with some constitutional weakness. The 
bladder may be exclusively irritated and not be able to hold the urine, 
or the little circular muscle at the neck of the bladder may be debili- 
tated or paralyzed, o\\'ing to acridity of the urine. In some cases it may 
be owing to debUity of the kidneys. 

Treatment. — A course of tonics, sea-bathing, cold baths, warm 
clothing, etc. , together with astringents and stimulating diuretics, wUl 
usually cure it. Small doses of the extract of belladona will also afford 
relief. In case of paralysis of the bladder, nux vomica, electricity, coun- 
ter-irritant application to the spine, and local irritants are necessary. 


This is an inflammation of the bladder. The symptoms are pain 
above the pubcs, tenderness on pressure, the pain extending into the 
penis, scrotum, and perineum, producing straiuing and pain in urination ; 


sometimes pain over the abdomen, which is swollen, or the inflamma- 
tion may extend to the peritoneum, causing peritonitis. It may termi- 
nate in suppviration, the pus appearing in the urine, or, if the ^abscess 
occurs in the coats of the bladder, it may open suddenly. It is caused 
by direct irritation as by a catheter ; also by gonorrhoea, difficult labor, 
turpentine, cantharides, etc. When the inflammation becomes chronic 
it is called " Catarrh of the Bladder.'''' 

Treatment. — Mucilaginous drinks should be freely used, such as de- 
coctions of marsh-mallow, uva ursi, etc. Dover's powder may be given 
to relieve the pain. About three graias of populin and one-fourth of a 
grain of gelsemium given three or four times a day, exerts a marked bene- 
ficial influence in this disease ; linseed oil and esaential tincture of 
hydrangea are also remedies of great value. The chronic form will 
require special treatment, in accordance to condition and nature of each 


The principal divisions of the nervous system are the brain, spinal 
marrow, and nerves. The tissue of this system is included in mem- 
branes or sheaths, and consists of two differently colored pulpy materials, 
one of which is white or medullary.^ and the other gray., cortical., or 
ciiieritimis. The sheath of the nerves is called the neurilemma., and the 
internal material ncurine. All ganglia and nervous centres consist of a 
mixture of white fibres and gray globules. 

An anastomosis is the interchange of fasciculi between two trunks, 
each fasciculus remaining unaltered, although in contact with another. 
A combination of anastomoses into a network is called a 2)lexus. 

Spinal Marrow. 

The spinal marrow is the medullary column included within the bones 
or vertebraj of the spinal column. It has three coverings : 1st, The 
dura mater., which is a white fibrous membrane, and forms the external ; 
2d, The arachnoid., a serous membrane, forming the middle covering. 
It is extremely thin and transparent ; 3d, The pia mater., a cellular mem- 
brane, forming the immediate covering. It is very vascular, consisting 
almost entirely of vessels. 

The Brain. 

The brain consists of four principal parts : medulla oblongata, pons 
varolii, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Like the spinal marrow it also has 
three coverings bearing the same names. The dura mater adheres very 
firmly to the bones of the cranium, and consists of two laminae, which 
are divided into folds called falx cerebri^ tentorium., and falx corebdli. 


The medulla oblongata is the upper part of the spinal cord ; it is coni- 
cal in shape, and extends from the first bone of the spinal column to the 
pons varolii. Its divisions are the corpon pyramidale^ oUvare and resti- 

The pons varolii is cuboidal in shape, and situated just in front of the 

The cerebrum is the largest mass composing the brain. It is oval in 
shape, and weighs from three to four i^ounds. It is divided into two 
hemispheres, each hemisphere consisting of an anterior, middle, and 
posterior lobe. The surface presents a number of convolutions, or gyi% 
each separated by deep fissures, or sulci. The interior of each hemi- 
sphere is medullary in character, and the surface of each convolution is 
cineritious for the depth of about one-sixth of an inch. 

The ventricles of the brain are five in number : they are called the 
right and left lateral, the third, fourth, and fifth ventricles. 

The more minute anatomy of the cerebmm is exceeding complex, and 
not of special imiiortance in a popular work of this kind. 

The cerebellum constitutes about one-sixth of the brain, and"^ is con- 
tained between the occiput and tentorium. It is oblong and flattened 
in shape, and composed of white and gray substances. ^ 

Cranial Nerves. 

These are nine in number, and all emerge from the foramina, or 
opening at the base of the brain. They are designated by their tf unc- 
tion as well as numerically, viz. : 1st, olfactory ; 2d, optic ; od, motor 
oculi ; 4th, patheticus ; 5th, trifacial ; 6th, motor externus ; 7th, facial 
and auditory ; 8th, pneumogastric, glosso-pharyngeal, and spinal acces- 
sory ; 9th, hypoglossal. 

According to function the cranial nerves may be divided into three 
classes, viz. : nerves of special sense, including the 1st, 2d, and the audi- 
tory branch of the 7th ; nerves of motion, including the 3d, 4th, Gth, 
facial branch of the 7th and 9th ; compound nerves, comprising the 8th 
and 5th. 

The principal nerve of the arm is the hrachial ; of the foreami, the 
ulnar and radial ; of the thigh, the great sciutic, which divides, about 
©ne-third above the knee, into two large branches, the peroneal and 
poj)liteal ; further on the popliteal is called the posterior tibial. In the 
pelvis there are ih.B pudic, gluteal, and lesser ischiatic. 

The sympathetic nerve is distributed with all the other nerves of the 
body, and by means of plcjxuses supplies all the internal organs. 

The nervous system is a complex piece of machinery, and its anatomy 
requires much study before any competent familiarity with it can be 
gained. The physician, who has an iuade(juate knowledge of the ana- 
tomy of the nervous system, and philosophy of nervous phenomena, at 


the physiology pertaining thereto, cannot hope to treat diseases assailing 
the system with any material success. Competence in this respect is the 
reward only of a long devotion, and practical experience. 



This consists of inflammation of the cerebral substance, and due to 
long exposui-e to a vertical sun, the inordinate use of ardent spirits, 
cold, fright, external injury, the sudden disappearance of an old dis- 
charge, and it sometimes occurs as a consequent on small-pox, or erysi- 
pelas of the face and scalp, and fevers. The symptoms are violent in- 
flammatory fever, hot and dry skin, flushed countenance, suffused eyes, 
quick and hard pulse, the arteries of the neck throb, and delirium. The 
senses are morbidly acute, there being intolerance of light and sound. 
The person is extremely restless, the muscles of the face are spasmodi- 
cally contracted, the upper eye-lids hang down, and as the disease pro- 
gresses, blindness and deafness ensue. The countenance is vacant or 
idiotic, the eye loses its lustre, the pupils become dilated, and the eyes 
often squint. In the still more advanced stage, the discharges pass off 
involuntarily, the countenance becomes pale and sunken, the pulse 
weak and in-egular, the coma more profound, and death soon closes the 
scene. It is commonly called " Brain Fever." 

Treatment. — This should be most energetic. Bleeding to fainting 
has been the practice of many physicians, but I deem it unnecessary, as 
revulsion can be made by other means. Leeches may, however, be ap- 
plied to the scalp. The hair shoidd be closely shaved from the head, 
and ice, alcohol or ether, with water, applied to the head. The decoc- 
tion of ladies' -slipper should be given internally. At the outset purga- 
tives should be given. Those that act thoroughly, such as gamboge, 
colocynth, etc. , are the best. The bladder should be emptied every 
day. In the stage of coUapse, stimulants may be given. 


This is a condition in which all the functions of animal life are sud- 
denly stopped, except the pulse and the breathing. There is neither 
thought nor feeling, nor voluntary motion ; and the patient suddenly 
falls down, and lies as if in a deep sleep. The disease assaUs in three 
different ways. The first form of attack is a sudden falling do\vn into 
a state of insensibility and apparently deep sleejo, the face being gener- 
ally flushed, the breathing stertorous, or snoring, the pulse full and not 
frequent, with occasional convulsions. From this mode of attack death 
often occiu's immediately, but in some cases recovery occurs, with the 


exception of paralysis of one side, or the loss of speech, or some of the 
senses. The second mode of attack begins with sudden pain in the 
head, and the patient becomes pale, faint, sick, and vomits. His 
pulse is feeble, has a cold sldn, and occasionally some convulsions. He 
may fall down, or be only a little confused, but soon recovers from all 
the symptoms, except the headache ; this will continue, and the patient 
will sooner or later become heavy, forgetful, unable to connect ideas, 
and finally sink into insensibility from which he never rises. This mode 
of invasion, though not so frightful as the first, is of much more serious 

The third fonn of attack is where consciousness is retained, but 
power on one side of the body is suddenly lost. The patient retains 
his mind, and answers questions rationally, either by signs or words. 
He may either die soon, or live for years, with imperfect speech, or a 
leg dragging after him, or an arm hanging uselessly by his side. 

Those persons who have large heads, red faces, short and thick necks, 
and a short, stout, square biuld, are more predisposed to this disease, 
than thin, pale and tall persons. Literary men, especially editors, lawyers, 
doctors, etc., are subject to this disease, owing to mental overwork. 

The symptoms preceding an apoplectic attack are headache, vertigo, 
double vision, faltering speech, inability to remember certain words, 
sometimes forgetfulness of one's one name, a frequent losing of a train 
of ideas, and occasionally an unaccountable dread. It is caused by 
whatever hurries the circulation as strong bodily exercise, emotional ex- 
citement, exposure to the sun or severe cold, tight cravats, etc. 

Treatment. — If the face is turgescent and red, and the temporal 
arteries throb, and the pulse full and hard, the patient should be placed 
m a semi-recumbent position, with his head raised, his clothes loosened, 
particularly his neck-band and shirt coUar, and then quickly as possible, 
cold water or ice should be api^lied to the head, leeches to the nape of 
the neck, and mustard plasters to the calves of the leg. Tight Ugatures 
may also be tied around the thighs, sufficiently tight to arrest the 
venous circulation ; they should be removed gradually as consciousness 
returns. Administer a stimulating purgative, as a few drops of croton oil. 
Injections may also be given. If the patient is old, and the pulse feeble, 
the ice applications, ligature, etc., may be omitted, and instead apply 
warm flannels and warm bricks to the body, and administer camphor. 
To prevent future attacks, gentle tonics should be given, and the skin 
kept healthy by daDy bathing and friction. The bowels must not be 
permitted to become costive. The diet should bo well regulated. The 
mind .should 1)C kept cheerful and hopeful, and free from all excitement. 
Intoxicating drinks should be totally avoided, and sexual congress should 
be of rare occurrence. In fact every thing that might provoke an at 
tack should be avoided. 

the complete herbalist. 303 

Congestion of the Brain. 

This consists of an accumulation of blood in the cerebral vessels. The 
countenance is flushed, the eyes sufEused, light becomes intolerable, and 
there is singhig in the ears, vertigo, momentary loss of speech, and 
sometimes delirium. Simple congestion is merely a functional affection, 
and in a slight or moderate degree involves no immediate danger. It 
may, however, produce apoplexy and sudden death. It is caused by 
any mechanical impediment to the return of blood from the head, as tu- 
mor of the neck, heart disease, etc. It is a concomitant to nearly every 
inflammatory cerebral affection. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in diverting the blood from 
the head by hot mustard foot baths, and an active cathartic. Ice or 
cold water may also be applied to the head, and the circulation reduced 
by veratrum. The treatment is the same as advised in apoplexy, in all 
essential particulars. 


The injury done to the brain in this case is the same as in apoplexy, 
with the exception of the clot. It is essentially congestion of the brain. 
Persons who are exposed by necessity of pursuit to the extreme heat of 
the sun, should be protected by a wet cloth or cabbage-leaves placed on 
the head and under a light hat. The symptoms are first dizziness, fol- 
lowed by intense headache. Thirst becomes excessive, the pulse indis- 
tinct at the wrist, violent throbbing of the carotid and temporal arteries, 
and insensibility ensues by a convulsive shivering of the body. 

Treatment. — Place the patient immediately in a cool and shady place, 
and instantly apply, copiously, cold water, or, what is better, pounded 
ice in a bag, to the head. Make friction over his legs to reUeve the 
congested state of the brain. Application of tuiiDentine by friction on 
the spine is also of service. Inhalation of ammonia or hartshorn is bene- 
ficial, and a small quantity of the carbonate of that substance may be 
given internally. Continue this treatment until the patient is out of 
danger, or until death ensues. In plethoric patients, bleeding from the 
arm is required, and in this instance only is bleeding advisable. After 
the patient becomes conscious and apparently out of danger, he is to be 
removed to his home, and a brisk cathartic administered, to effect re- 
vulsion. In no case should he be allowed again to expose himself to 
sun during the first four or five days after the occurrence of the sun- 
stroke. The application of water or ice to the head should be abandon- 
ed by gradual increase of temperature, to prevent any reaction 


This is an unsound manifestation of intellectual power. The indica- 
tions which should excite alarm are headache, vertigo, mental confusion. 


fretful temper, inaptitude for usual occupations, defective articulations, 
dimness of vision, and flightiness of manner. The patient is also avfare 
that he is not right, he shuns his old friends, has frightful dreams, ii 
tortured with vdcked thoughts. If it exists with general paralysis it is 
frequently incurable. Derangement is manifested in various ways, 
viz: — 

1st Maina.—Thia is characterized by general delirium, in which tho 
reasoning faculty is disturbed and confused, if not lost, ideas absurd, 
wandering, or erroneous ; conduct violent, excited, and extremely mis- 
chievous. The maniac's hair is crisped, he neglects his family and busi- 
ness, suspects his friends, dislikes the light, and certain colors horrify 
him, his ears are sometimes very red, noise excites and disturbs him, 
and he has frequent fits of anger and melancholy, without any cause. 
His delirium extends to all subjects, and the entire intellect, affections 
and will are in a chaotic wreck. 

In pverpernl mania occurring after delivery, the delirium is frequently 
extreme, there being a tendency to suicide or child-murder. Maniacs 
in general have a disposition to murder or suicide. 

2d. Monomania. This is characterized by mental aberratibn o^ one 
subject. The patient seizes upon a false principle, and draws from it 
injurious conclusions, which modify and change his whole life and char- 
acter. In other cases the intellect is sound, but the affections and dis- 
position being perverted, their acts are strange and inconsistent. At- 
tempt is made to justify their hallucinations by plausible reasoning. 

M. Dementia. This is a condition in which the weakness of intellect 
is induced by accident or old age. The ideas are numerous, but vague, 
confused and wandering; the memory is impaired, and the manners 
childish, siUy and undecided. 

ith. Moral 3Iania. Moral insanity is a condition in which there is a 
perversion of the natural feelings, affections, temper, habits, and moral 
dispositions. The conduct is eccentric, and an uncontrolable destruc- 
tive tendency, or a propensity to every species of mischief, are frequently 
the leading features. A slight insanity is popularly called "a kink in 
the head;" in Scotland, "a bee in the bonnet." 

If insanity is characterized by fear, moroseness and prolonged sadness, 
it is called hjpemania or mdancli/>lia. If religion is the theme of deli- 
rium, it is termed theomania. If amatory delusions rule, it is called 
erotomania. If the suicidal tendency is strong, it is designated a.utopha- 
mania, and if characterized by aversion to man and society, it is called 
misanthrojda. If the tendency is to stealing, it constitutes kleptomania. 
Close confinement, and low diet, such conveniences as prisons afford, are 
the best cures for this species of mania. 

It is a pitiful sight to see the thousand fancies in regard to themselves 
of the insane. One Imagines himself as an inspired individual, and 


charged with the conversion of the world, while another sincerely be- 
lieves that the devil has entered into him, and he curses God, himself 
and the universe. Still another believes that he controls the world, and 
directs the movements of the planets. One believes that all the wisdom 
is concentrated in him, and offers to teach the wisest. Another imag- 
ines himself some grand king, is proud, withdraws from his fellows, and 
will allow no one to come in his presence without proper acts of homage. 
Yet another is Napoleon, or some other great general, and he fights his 
battles anew, and majestically marshals his imaginary army. Idioci/ is 
owing to a congenital deficiency of mind, and in consequence the idiot 
may oiten be a deaf-mute, and be governed by insane passions. 

The cause of insanity is hereditaiy predisposition, constant revolution 
in the mind of some painful thought, injured feelings which cannot be 
resented, mortified pride, perplexity in business, disappoiated affections 
or ambition, political or religious excitement, loss of friends or property, 
and in general, whatever worries the mind or creates a deep distress. 
Another prolific cause is masturbation. 

Treatment. — The real character of the malady should be ascertained, 
and, if possible, the pathological condition giving rise to the disorder cor- 
rected. Out-door exercise, lively amusements, fresh air and daily bath- 
ing, contribute largely to establish a cure. The exciting cause should 
be removed. The stomach and bowels should receive due attention. 
The tonics should be given to improve the general health of the patient. 
Ladies'-slipper, scuUcap, cannabis indica, gelsemium, aconite, veratrum, 
belladonna, quinine, opium and lupul in, stand in good repute for this dis- 
order. The moral treatment should be such as is best adapted to the con- 
dition of the patient. It is probably best, when practicable, to place the 
patient in some well-conducted insane asylum, where he will have pro- 
jicr attendance and treatment. If this is not feasible, the physician should 
make such arrangements as wUl best seciire the patient, if of vicious dis- 
position, from harming himself or others, but in no case should vinneces- 
sary restraint be placed uxjon the patient. 

I have conducted the treatment in many cases of insanity, many of 
whom I had never seen, and wherever my instructions were faithfully 
can-ied out, a cure was generally effected. If any of my readers have 
relatives or friends who may have become insane, and who may desire to 
know my opinion of the case, or its chances for cure, and will describe 
the case to me fuhy, I will cheerfully state them. (See page 390 for 

Delirium Tremens. 

This is also called mania apotu^ and in common parlance it is the ' ' hor- 
rors" or "jim-jams." It is caused by the sudden withdrawal from the 
habitual or prolonged use of alcoholic stimulation. Its most prominent 


characteristics are delirious hallucinations, fear, muscular tremors, weak- 
ness, watchfulness, and the want of sleep. The symptoms are incessant 
talking, fidgeting with the hands, trembling of the limbs, a rapid pulse, 
profuse sweating, and a mingling of the real with the imaginary. The 
patient's face is pale and sallow, his eye is rolling, quick and expressive, 
and is busy day and night, and can scarcely be confined to his room. He 
is unwilling to admit that anything ails him, answers questions ration- 
ally, and does whatever he is bidden at the time. Then he begins to 
wander again, the expression becomes wild, the eyes vacant or staring, 
and becomes the victim of pitiful and ludicrous illusions of senses, phan- 
tasms and hallucinations of every kind ; he sees imaginary objects, such 
as rats, mice, lice, dogs, cats, snakes, and hears and miagines the most 
extraordinary and absurd delusions. In favorable cases, sleep ends the 
crisis about the third or fourth day ; where death occurs, the delirium is 
active until sudden suspension of breath ensues. 

Treatment. — Sleep is the cure for this disease, and opium and its 
preparations are the sovereign remedies. Give one-third or one-half of a 
grain of morphia ; if this does not produce sleep, give thirty drops of 
laudanum every two hours till sleep is prodiiced. A draught or two of 
the patient's accustomed drink may also be given, and large ^oses of 
ojiium may be dispensed with if cold ai)plications are made to the head, 
and the use of a tepid bath, prolonged for ,i. few houi^s. Lupulin^is also 
a good remedy. 

Headache (Cephalalgia). 

This, in its widest acceptation, includes all uneasy sensations of the 
head. It may be confined to one spot, or embrace one side, as in hemi- 
crania ; or it may be diffused, and of indefinite extent. It may be felt 
in the depths of the brain, or only in the scalp and cranium, and con- 
tinue for an instant, or last for days and weeks. It is usually paroxysmal, 
and the pain may be simple or very Adolent. It is a constant attendant 
to the different forms of inflammation of the brain. It is caused by 
various conditions; decayed teeth may cause it. Wlien confined to one 
side, the pain is of a lancinating character ; when due to a disordered 
stomach, it occurs in the forehead and temples ; when it occurs from a 
congestive state of the brain, it is of a dull, heavy, aching character ; 
when due to spinal irritation, there is a protracted jiain in the top or 
back j)art of the head ; and when it is accompanied by nausea and vomit- 
ing, it is called '■'■ sick-hedddche.'" 

TKEAT>rENT. — Immediate relief may frequently be obtained by 
thoroughly evacuating the stomach, and drinking hot tea or coffee, 
followed by adding ten drops of tincture of belladonna to a tumblerful of 
water, and takLiig one tea-spoonful everj' ten or fifteen minutes. A hot 
foot-bath and bathing the head in stimiUating linimentB also afford relief 


in some cases. If it is due to a full habit, the diet must be regulated. 
In some bad cases cold applications to the head, leeches to the temples, 
and hot sinapisms to the spine may be required. Rubbing my ' ' Herbal 
Ointment " on the forehead, temples, and nape of neck gives instant relief. 


Among the causes of this distressing complaint are disappointment, 
misfortunes of a heavy character, care, masturbation, excessive mental 
labor, undue anxiety, costiveness, neglect of cleanluiess, indigestion, 
sedentary occupations, living in close and gloomy apartments, or wet 
and marshy localities, excessive indulgence in sexual pleasures, or any- 
thing which tends to weaken and disturb the nervous system, or over- 
stimulate the brain. The mental symptoms are countless. The chief one 
is a constant dread of some unexplainable evil ; the patient fears that his 
wife, if he has one, is unfaithful, or hates him, or that his business is 
going to ruin, and he will be redixced to beggary, or that his friends 
despise him, or that he will be charged with the commission of some 
monstrous crime, or that he has all, or a majority of the worst physical 
diseases that surgeon or physician was ever summoned to treat. These 
are the lightest symptoms, and if not immediately attended to, will be- 
come aggravated, and go on increasing in violence and extent until the 
sufferer dies naturally from exhaustion and misery, gets hopelessly in- 
sane, or perhaps commits suicide. The organs of sense are more or less 
deranged, and external sensations are magnified and corrupted even as 
those of the mind are. Thus, the eye appears to see aU sorts of forms 
which it dnes not see; the smell detects odors which do not exist; the 
touch demonstrates to the brain objects with which it does not come 
in contact ; the taste is perverted and disordered to an extent which 
seems, to an uninterested observer, impossible ; and the ears convey 
imaginary sounds of the most perplexing and terrific character. The 
queer fancies of the hypochondriac are often of such a character as to 
obliterate pity for the unhappy individual, and provoke both disgust and 
laughter. Cases have been known where the victim imagined that he 
was a teapot, or had glass legs which would break upon the lightest 
exertion, or was made of jelly, and could not move without dissolving 
into an undistinguishable mass of gelatinous matter, or was as large as 
an elephant, or as small as a pipe-stem ; or had horns growing from the 
head, or a bottle attached to the end of the nose, or was covered with 
creeping and venomous insects. Hypochondria is also productive of 
fainting spells, cold surface of the body, an eye either glassy and un- 
naturally brilliant, or without any lustre, palpitations, pains in the 
stomach, pale and livid countenance, and occasional paroxysms of fever. 
Treatment. — A cure may be effected by the employment of such medi- 
cines as wUl restore tone to the stomach and nervous system, and also by 


removing, as far as is possible, all the causes which lead to the origin and 
l)eri)etuation of the malady. Whern it is within the scope of the patient's, 
means he should be kept continually on the move (without fatigue), a con- 
stant change of scene being one of the most desirable of self-acting reme- 
dies. All allusions to his real or fancied miseries should be avoided, or, if 
found necessary, of the kiudcst and most consoling description. It is 
always the case that the hypochondriac wUl be the harshest, the most 
suspicious, and the most vmgenerous in every way, towards his best 
friends. This is an unfailing tjq:ie of the disease. The friends must bear 
these annoyances patiently and self-denyingly. To lose one's temper 
with such a sufferer is to commit a great crime ; out-of-door exercise 
must be as constant as is consistent with the weather and the jjatient's 
circumstances. Leave the hj'pochondriac alone as little as possible. 
Let him eat and drink but moderately of nourishing but easily-digested 
food, and above all things keep him from the use of stimulating drinks 
and tobacco. Music has been found highly beneficial in these cases — 
anything is good, in fact, which affords lively amusement. A cold or 
tepid sponge bath shoidd be taken morning and evening, and the itile of 
" early to bed and early to rise," should never be violated. The bowels 
must always be kept open- — a good passage every twenty -four Ijours 
being required— and where the patient is extremely weak, a good *sub- 
stantial tonic, such as " Restorative Assimilant," should be administered 
three times a day. When the patient has a fainting smell, and thinks 
he is dying, give him motherwort tea, with spirits of camphor in it, if 
no other assistance happens to be at hand. This is only general treat- 
ment for temporary benefit. To eradicate the disease thoroughly it is 
necessary to know all about the individual case, and the chief causes of 
its origin and development. Nature's remedies may then be applied 
without fear of failure. 


This disease affects one tissvie only — the nervous, and pain is the only 
symptom. The pain is of every degree of intensity. It may affect 
every nerve, but is more commonly confined to the most important. The 
tearing pain comes on sitddenly and in paroxysms. It may be so agoniz 
ing as to cause a temporary loss of reason. 

AVhen the fifth pair of nerves is affected it is called tic doideiireux ; 
and face ache when confined to the facial nerve and branches. It is 
called sciatica when the pain begins at the hip and follows the course of 
the sciatic nerve. It may also occur in the female breasts, the womb, 
in the stomach and bowels, hands and feet, etc. 

Treatment. — This is palliative and radical. The palliative treat- 
ment consists in the administration of aconite, hyoscyamus, ladios'- 
slipner, belladomia, opium, morphine, lupulin, cicuta, etc. These can 


either be applied locally, or taken internally. Morphine and aconitin 
should be injected pubcutaneously, and immediate relief follows. In 
sciatica, blistering along the course of the nerve often cures. Ten grains 
each of aconitin and extract of belladonna and one drachm of lard, 
form an excellent ointment for external application. The ' ' Herbal Oint- 
ment " (page 469) arrests the pain almost instantly. The radical treat- 
ment consists in removing the cause. If due to malarial influence, 
quinine should be given. If associated with kidney disease, that organ 
should receive attention. The alteratives are serviceable in many 

Bilious Colic. 

This is neuralgia of the mesenteric net-work of nerves, or rather 
hy])era3sthesia of the plexus. By hyperoesthesia is meant excessive 
sensibility or passability. It is characterized by shai-ji twisting pain ex- 
tending from the navel to the lower portion of the abdomen. It occurs 
in itaroxysms, and is of <a most excruciating character. The patient is 
restless, hands, feet and cheeks are cold, and the pulse is small and 
hard. The abdomen is tense and distended ; obstinate constipation, 
and usually nausea and vomiting occur. The fits usually last from a 
few moments to several hours. The matter vomited up is generally 
bilious matter. 

Treatment. — Administer an active purgative injection immediately, 
and give internally wild yam, camphor, etc. , every fifteen minutes until 
the pain is relieved. A strong decoction of wild yam root is a specific 
cure for this affection. Scull-cap and high-cranberry bark are also good. 
The latter is called cramp bark on accoujit of its excellence in spasmodic 
affections. The vomiting may be checked by laudanum. Hot bathe, 
fomentations, etc. , are also usef uL 


This consists in spasmodic contraction of the midriff, and a certain 
degree of constriction, which arrests the air in the wind-pipe, thus pro- 
ducing sudden, short, convulsive inspirations, attended by slight sound, 
and followed immediately by expiration. It is often a symptom of low 
forms of fever and inflammatory diseases, or caused by the excessive 
use of alcohol or tobacco. 

Treatment. — When purely nervous, suddenly attracting the mind 
will cure it. Hence the common advice to the hiccoughing patient, 
" think of your sweetheart" is so often effectual, because the fond ob- 
ject absorbs the whole mind. When dependent upon a disordered state 
of the stomach, an emetic will relieve it. In fevers it denotes debUity, 
indicating the need of stimulants. 


WnoopiNG Coucn (Pertussis"). 

This is a hypersesthesia of the pneumo-gastric nerve, and not due 
to inflammation, as may be supposed. It is a contag-ious disease. It 
consists of a convulsive cough, attended by hissing and rattling in the 
WTndpipe, and ineffectual efforts to expel the breath. This is repeated 
until a quantity of thick, tenacious mucus is expectorated, when the 
breathing again becomes free. The paroxysms apparently threaten 
suffocation, and the agitation affects the whole body. Blood is some- 
times started from the nostrils, but, not^vithstanding the violence of the 
symptoms, it is rarely ever dangerous. 

Treatment. — An emetic may be given at first. Liniments of olive 
oil or the " Herbal Ointment" should be applied to the spine. The anti- 
spasmodics are or course indicated, such as belladonna, a decoction of 
bitter almond, or of cherry seed, etc. Lobelia is a good remedy, as is 
also skunk cabbage ; daily vapor inhalations are also serviceable ; cochi- 
neal has a good reputation ; it should be used with stillingia. 

Spasm op the Glottis. -v 

This is also called the crowing disease ox faUe crouj). It is comnjon to 
children, and rarely occurs in adults. It is a spasmodic disease, and 
distinguishable from croup by the absence of fever. The child is sud- 
denly taken with an impossibility of taking breath, and struggles 
convulsively for a time, its head thrown back, face pale, legs and arms 
stiff, and when it begins to breathe it is of a crowing character. 

Treatment. — In the paroxysm set the child in an upright position, 
exposed to a fuU draught of cool and fresh air, and sprinkle cold water 
in its face. Loosen all its clothes around Ihe neck, slap it shghtly on 
the back, and apply friction along the spine. If not successful, place it 
in a warm bath, and then sprinkle cold water in its face. If due to 
teething, use the proper remedies, and give some gentle physic. 

This is characterized by the sudden loss of consciousness and .sensi- 
bility, accompanied with spasms and convulsions. It comes on sud- 
denly, and epileptics, by the sudden attacks, are at all times in danger. 
They may be taken while descending a flight of stairs, while traversing 
the bank of a precipice, while crossmg a street crowded with vehicles 
drawn at fnll speed, or while in a throng of people whose feet would 
trample them to death, esiiecially in case of an alarm of fire, a great pubhc 
meeting or pageant, or other sudden danger. But all those afllictcd in 
this terrible way are actually aUve to the dangers of which they are the 
constant expectants. Epilepsy, in its severer forms, is a terrible disease 
to witness. It is productive of great distress juid misery, and liable to 


terminate in -n-orse than deatli, as it is apt, in many cases, to end in fa- 
tuity or insanity, and so carrying perpetual anxiety and dismay into all 
of tliose families which it has once visited. 

The leading symptoms of Epilepsy are, a temporary susjiension of con- 
sciousness, with clonic sjjasms, recurring at intervals ; but so various are 
its forms, and so numerous its modifications, that no general description 
of the disease can be given. I will first describe the most ordinary type 
of the disease, and then note some of the several variations which occur 
from the standard type. 

A man in the apparent enjoyment of perfect health suddenly utters a 
loud cry, and falls instantly to the ground, senseless and convulsed. He 
strains and struggles violently. His breathing is embarrassed and sus- 
pended ; his face is turgid and livid ; he foams at the mouth ; a choking 
sound is heard in his wind-pipe, and he appears to be at the point of 
death from apnoea, or suspension of breath. By degrees, however, 
these alarming phenomena diminish, and finally cease, leaving the 
patient exhausted, heavy, stupid, comatose, or in a death-like condition. 
His life, however, is no longer threatened, and soon, to all appearances, 
he is perfectly well. The same train of morbid jihenomena recur, again 
and again, at different, and mostly at irregular intervals, perhaps 
through a long course of years, notwithstanding the best medical science 
has been exercised to prevent and cure the distressing malady. This is 
the most ordinary form of Epilepsy. 

The suddenness of the attack is remarkable : in an instant, wheu it is 
least expected by himself, or by those around him, in the luiddk, of a 
sentence or of a gesture, the change takes place, and the unfortunate 
sufferer is stretched f oammg, struggling, and insensible on the earth. 

In this country, Epilepsy is commonly called the '■^ Falliny Skkiiens,'''' 
or more vaguely, " Fits." The cry, which is frequently, but not always 
uttered, is a piercing and teiTifying scream. Women have often been 
thrown into hysterics upon hearing it, and frequently it has caused preg- 
nant females to miscarry. Even the lower animals are often startled, 
and appalled by a scream so harsh and lumatural, and parrots and other 
birds have been known to drop from their perch, apparently frightened 
to death by the appalling sound. 

In most of the cases of fits, which have come under my notice and 
treatment, the first effect of the spasms has been a twisting of the neck, 
the chin being raised and brought round by a succession- of jerks towards 
the shoulder, while one side of the body is usually more strongly agi- 
tated than the other. The features are greatly distorted, the brows 
knit, the eyes sometimes quiver and roll about, sometimes are fixed -and 
staring, and sometimes are trrnied up beneath the lids, so that the cornea 
cannot be seen, but leaving visible the white sclerotica alone ; at; the 
Bame time the mouth is twisted awry, the tongue thrust between the 


teeth, and, caught by the violent closure of the jaws, is often severely 
bitten, reddening by blood the foam which issues from the mouth. The 
hands are firmly clenched and the thumbs bent inwards on the pahns, 
the amis are generally thrown about, striking the chest of the patient 
with great force. Sometimes he will bruise himself against surrounding 
objects, or inflict hard Icnocks on the friends and neighbors who have 
hastened to his assistance. It frequently happens that the urine and 
excrements are expelled during the violence of the spasms, and sen;inal 
emissions sometimes take place. The spasmodic contraction of the 
muscles is occasionally so powerful as to dislocate the bones to which 
they are attached. The teeth have thus been fractured, and the joints 
of the jaw and of the shoulder put out or dislocated. 

This is the most severe^ yet the most common form in which an epi- 
leptic attack occurs. Fortunately, there is a largo class of cases in which 
the symptoms are milder. Sometimes there is no convulsion at all, or, at 
least, is very slight and transient ; no turgescence of the face ; no foam- 
ing of the mouth ; no ciy ; but a sudden suspension of consciousness, a 
short period of insen.sibility, a fixed gaze, a totter, perhaps, ^a look of 
confusion, but the patient does not fall. This is but momentary.^ Pre- 
sently consciousness returns, and the patient resumes the action in 
which he had been previously engaged, A^dthout always being aware that 
it has been interrupted. 

Between these two extremes of epilepsy there are many links or 
grades. Sometimes the sufferer sinlis or slides down quietly without 
noise ; is pale ; is not convulsed ; but is insensible, much like one in a 
state of syncope, or fainting. 

As it is impossible to give any single description of epilepsy Mdiich will 
inchide all its varieties, of course it is still more difficult to offer a strict 
definition of the disease. We can only say it is a malady that causes a 
sudden loss of sensation and consciousness, with spasmodic contraction 
of the voluntary muscles, quickly passing into violent convulsive distor- 
tions, attended and followed by stupor or sleep, recurring in paroxysms, 
often more or less rcgiilar. Yet all these circumstances may in turn be 
wantmg. There may be no convulsion, no interruption of conscious- 
ness, no subsequent coma or stupor, or even a recurrence of the 

The duration of the attacks is variable. They seldom continue longer 
than half an hour ; the average duration may be said to be from five to 
ten minutes. Attacks that spread over three or four hours generally 
consist of a succession of paroxysms, with indistinct intervals of coma- 
tose exhaustion. In the long-continued fits, or in the protracted suc- 
cession of fits, the patient often dies. 

The periods at which the i)aroxysms return are extremely variable. 
Most commonly they visit the sufferer at irregular periods of a few 


months or weeks ; sometimes are repeated at intervals of a few days ; 
sometimes every day or every night, and very frequently many times 
in the twenty-four hours. 

The epileptic attack may come on for the first time at any age. It may 
beg-in in infancy during the first dentition, or teething ; more commonly 
about the age of seven or eight years, during the time of the second 
dentition ; more frequently still, from fourteen to sixteen, shortly before 
the age of puberty. It is apt to occur for a few years siibsequently to 
this. The first fit may not occur till between thirty and forty ; or it may 
occur at sixty, or even at a later period of life. 

Treatment. — There is perhaps no disease where a greater diversity 
of medical treatment has been instituted than in Epilepsy. The whole 
pharmacopoeia has been exhausted, and each remedy extolled for its 
virtues. One medical man says he cures the disease by trephining; 
another thinks the oil of turpentine the best remedy ; still another recom- 
mends the vapor of chloroform. This doctor applies ice, the other cau- 
terizes the back with a hot iron, and yet another speaks highly of a 
compound of camphor, valerian, assafoetida, naphtha, and oil of cajeput. 

Unless rational treatment is employed, the disease cannot be cured. 
If occurring in infants, it should be ascertained if it is not due to teeth- 
ing or worms, and the proper treatment instituted, if so caused. If 
connected with derangement of the catamenia, masturbation, or sperma- 
torrhoea, the treatment for these complaints is necessary. The anti- 
Bpasmodics are indicated in every case, the best of which is blue vervian, 
although valerian, belladonna, scuUcap, etc., are also good. The general 
condition of the system should receive strict attention. 

On page 469 I have given a remedy which will prove in eight cases 
out of ten a simple and certain cure. I make no secret of its com- 
position. I have sent the prescription to many thousands gratuitously. 
A fair trial will convince every one that it is one of the most potent 
remedies ever discovered for the cure of epilepsy, falling sickness, or 
fits. When this medicine is taken, the spasms gradually grow lightei 
and lighter, and finally disappear altogether, restoring the patient to the 
most perfect normal health. Its effect is truly wonderful. The time 
to accomplish a cure is usually from two to three months. 


This is a nervous condition confined to females, though well marked 
cases of hysteria are occasionally met with in males. The invasion of 
the disease is sudden and irregular, but in many cases decidedly period- 
ical. The princi])al characteristics consist in alternate fits of weeping and 
laughing, with a sensation as if a ball was rolling towards the stomach, 
chest, and neck, producing a sense of strangulation. Consciousness is 
lost in violent cases, but it remains clear as a general thing, which dis- 


tinguishes it from (ipilepsy. It is dependent upon irregularity of nervous 
distribution in very impressible persons. 

Treatment. — During the paroxysms, the feet should be placed in 
warm water, and a hot mustard plaster applied to the lower jiart of the 
abdomen. A decoction of equal parts of ladies' -slipper and scullcap 
should be given until the spasm subsides. A tea made of ginger and 
bayberry, the tincture of castor, and assafoetida, are also good. The 
state of the womb should receive attention, and if dependent upon in- 
digestion and constipation, tonics and laxatives are the i^roper remedies. 
I have never met with the annoyance or difficulty in the treatment of 
this disease that so many practitioners speak of, but regard the disease 
US easy of cure. 


This IB an affliction of rare occurrence, and appears to be constitu- 
tional, or dependent uiion some derangement of the nervous and mus- 
cular system which baffles inquiry. The sufferer is suddenly seized by 
it, and, although powerless to move, or speak, and to all appearance 
dead, is partially sensible of all that is going on around. In some cases, 
however, the senses are suspended. The body and limbs are not gen- 
erally rigid, but will remain in the positions in which the bystand- 
ers may place them. Many years ago, when the light of science was not 
60 bright, or shed so extensively as it is now, men and women were buried 
alive while cataleptic. The catalepsy, or trance, often lasts for weeks, 
the sufferer, in the meantime, pai'taking of no novu-ishment whatever. 

" Absence of mind " is a slight form of catalepsy. 

Treatment. —During the paroxy.sms the head should be showered 
wath cold water, followed by hot foot-baths and stimulating liniments, 
with friction to the abdomen and spine. Some aromatic stimulant, as 
peppermint sling or compound spirits of lavender, should also be ad- 
ministered. For the toning of the nervous system and preventing 
rccun-ence of the trance, the "Restorative Assimilant" answers all 
purposes admirably. 

St. Vitus's Dance (Chorea). 

This is characterized by iiTcgiilar contractions of the voluntary mus- 
cles, especially of the face and limbs, there being incomplete subserviency 
of these muscles to the will. It is a disease which usually occurs beforo 
puberty, and is generallj' connected with torpor of the system and of the 
digestive organs in particular. The spasms do not continue during sleep, 
and often, by a strong effort of the will, they can in a measure be con- 
trolled. Its duration is long, but usually devoid of danger, unless it 
merges into organic disease of the nervous centres, or of the heart, or 
into epilepsy. 


Treatment. — The general system should be strengthened, and the 
intestinal canal stimulated. Purgatives once or twice a week, with ap- 
propriate regimen, will fulfil these. A mild purgative, like the "' Reno- 
vating Pih," should be used. The decoction of scuUcap and ladies'- 
slipper is very beneficial. It is cured in a short time by my " Restora- 
tive Assimilant." 

Locked-Jaw (Tetanus). 

This is a disease of the true spinal system, and is manifested by spasm 
and rigidity of the voluntary muscles. When the muscles of the neck 
and face are affected, it is termed Trismus, or locked-jaw ; when the 
muscles in front, Einprosthotoiios : when the muscles of the back, Opis- 
thototios ; and when bending to either side, Pleurosthotonos. 

Tetanus may be either acute or chronic ; the former is the most fre- 
quent and most formidable ; the latter, apt to be partial, mUder, and 
more subject to treatment. 

It is called traiunatic when it follows a wound or injury, and idiopathic 
when of spontaneous origin. 

Acute traumatic tetanus is more common in hot climates, and in mili- 
tary practice, and may follow a slight bruise or puncture, especially if 
some nerve has been injured. The symptoms may appear in a few houi's, 
or in many days ; at first, there is a stiffness and soreness about the 
neck and face, the contraction of the muscles causing a ghastly smUe ; 
chewing and swallowing are difficult, the forehead is wrinkled, eyeballs 
are distorted, nostrils dilated, and the grinnuig countenance is expres- 
sive of horror. Respiration is rapid, the tongue protrudes, and the 
saliva dribbles. The mind is clear until just before death, which gener- 
ally takes place in a few days. 

Treatment. — The indications are to remove all sources of irritation 
and diminish the spasm. The wound is to be cleansed from aU foreign 
bodies, pus to be discharged by a free incision, if necessary, and warm 
anodyne poultices and fomentations are to be applied. Excision of the 
wound, or division of the nerve leading to it, may be done by the sur- 
geon. Nutrition and opium are indispensable ; the latter may be used 
either externally or internally. A lobelia emetic, if it can be adminis- 
tered, should be given, and a brisk pm-gative should be given. Tobacco, 
either by the mouth, or in enema, is an excellent relaxant. Camphor, 
assafoetida, etc., may also be used as antispasmodics. Cannabis indica 
internally, and ice to the spine, have been used advantageously in some 
cases. If, in opinion of the attending physician, it is necessary, chloro- 
foim or ether may be used as an anaesthetic. 

Paralysis (Palsy). 
The most characteristic symptom of cerebral hemorrhage is paralysis. 


Very slight efEusion produces this effect, and, in general, its intensity is 
in direct ratio of the extent of the effusion. It also arises from disease 
of the brain or its niembranes, injuries of the brain and spinal cord, 
diseases of the cord or its membranes, or any injury of the large nervous 
networks, the action of lead, etc. The nerves of motion as weD as those 
of sensation may be paralyzed, and when it exists on one side of the body 
it is called hemiplegid, and when confined to the lower limbs, paraplegia. 
\Mien the muscles of the mouth or of an extremity are affected, it is 
called ^wr^jai paralj'sis, and when both sides, whether in their extent or 
in some of their parts, are deprived of motion, it is termed general 

At the verj^ moment of the effusion it acquires all at once its highest 
degree of intensity, then remains stationary or begins to diminish. 
Sometimes the paralyzed part has not previously experienced any 
disturbance with respect to either sensation or motion; sometimes, 
however, the patient has experienced in these parts pricking sensations, 
numbness, permanent or transient, an unusual feeling of cold, a sense 
of weight, and a certain degree of debility. The part paralyzed suggests 
the locality of the effusion or injury, but these are only of interest tp the 
pathologist. When the affected muscles degenerate or atrophy,^it is 
called loastiiig palny, and when characterized by slow progress, and increases to such extent that the agitation prevents sleep, 
all locomotion, difficulty of chewmg and swallowing, etc., it is called 
paralysis agitans. 

Treatment. — If dependent upon cerebral hemorrhage, the treatment 
of apoplexy should be instituted, and afterwards the use of derivatives 
such as purgatives, alteratives, diuretics, etc., and the use of local stim- 
ulants. The patient should be restricted in his diet, and all causes of 
cerebral excitement, whether physical or moral, should be avoided. 
The bowels should be well acted upon, and the condition of the bladder 
attended to. When the organic disease is removed, and all symptoms 
of vascular excitement have subsided, recourse should be had to nux 
vomica, or strychnine, tonics, and galvanism. In giving .strychnine, the 
lowest dose should be given at first, and cautiously increased. Macrotin, 
viburnin, xanthoxylin, and rhusin are also good remedies. The local 
treatment consists in stimulatmg liniments, blisters to the spine, etc. 

Those who may desire my counsel and opmion of their cases, as to 
nature and curableness, will please write as directed on page 390. 

This is caused by the bite of a mad dog or other hydrophobic animals. 
The human subject is not as liabh: to hydrophobia as the lower animals, 
and it is consoling to know that only about one-tenth of those bitten are 
attacked by hydrophobia. 


The interval of the bite and appearance of the disease varies from 
twelve days to two months. The wound heals like any other bite, but 
on approach of the disease the scar begins to have sharp pains, and the 
part feels cold, stiff, or numb. The j^atieut feels a strange anxiety, is 
depressed in spirit, has an occasional chill, disturbed sleep, and spas- 
modic twitches. The appetite is lost, and, as the disease progresses, 
thirst appears, and he attempts to drink ; but, the moment the water 
approaches his mouth, a spasmodic shudder comes over him, he pushes 
it back with horror, and the awful fact of his condition is known to him, 
and pitiful expressions escape him. His throat becomes full of glain, 
viscid mucus, which he continually tries to clear away. He strives to 
bite his attendants, suffers great depression of spirits, and finally dies 
from exhaustion, or in a horrible spasm. 

Treatment. — The wound should be cut out, cups or suction applied 
to it, or thoroughly cauterized, and the patient should be kept quiet. 
Copious draughts of whiskey have been advised by some. 

The red chickweed or scarlet pimpernel is said to be an absolute re- 
medy. Four ounces of this should be boiled in two quarts of water un- 
til reduced to one quart, and a wine-glassful taken twice a day. The 
■wound should also be bathed by the same. The common rose-beetle 
(ceta)iiaamata)^ found so commonly on rose-bushes, is an effectual remedy. 
I desire in this connection to draw attention to a most absurd, ridicu- 
lous superstition which prevails ; that is, if a person be bitten by a dog 
which is in perfect health, but afterwards goes mad, the person also will 
be affected, so they Insist upon the dog being destroyed, for fear it 
should go mad at any fu.ture period. Instead of this the dog should be 
carefully taken care of. Patients would then have the satisfaction of 
knowing that there was nothing wrong with it, and their minds would 
be at rest. 


Humid Tetter (Eczema). 

This consists in the appearance of minute shining vesicles, not larger 
than the head of a small pin, on different portions of the body. They 
are usually clustered together, and surrounded by a red ring. The 
fluid in the vesicles becomes opaque in a few days, and finally forms 
light, thin scales, which fall off. In most cases a fresh crop appears aa 
soon as the first crop is matui'ed, in which case yellow crusts form over 
the diseased patch, and chronic tetter exists for weeks or mouths. The 
red eczema is the worst form of this disease. 

Treatment. — Low dii^t, cooling diinks, gentle purgatives and warm 
bathe should be prescribed. The acetic tinctiu'e of blood-root should be 



externally applied. It speedily cures all cases. 
elm poultices, etc. , are also useful. 

Celandine, tar, slippery- 

Tetter, Shingles (Herpes). 

Tetter is a transient non-contagious eruption, consisting of circum- 
scribed red patches, upon each of which are situated clusters of vesicles, 
about the size of a pea. After a few days the vesicles break, pour out a 
thin fluid, and form brown or yeUow crusts, which fall ofE about the 
tenth day, leaving the surface red and irritable. The eiiiption is attend- 
ed with heat, tingling, fever, and restlessness, especially at night. 
Ringworm is a curious form of tetter, the mflamed patches being ring- 
like in form. 

Treatment. — Light diet, and gentle laxatives. If the patient is old 
the tonics should be given. The elder- flower ointment is an excellent 
external ai)plication. The acetic tincture of lobelia is also good. No- 
thing better, however, can be used than the " Herbal Ointment," men- 
tioned on page 469. 

iTcn (Scabies). ^ ^ 

This annoying disease is caused by minute white insects, the acarus 
scdbei or sarcoptis /loiyiinis, which insinuate themselves beneath the 
Bkin. It is said that these insects travel in pairs, male and female, hus- 
band and wife evidently, and that the female is very much the smaller. 
Under the microscope the animal appears as in the cut, which gives a 

The Itch Insect. 

front, back and side view of it. The elegance of the animal is beyond 
question, mid his mode of burrowing under the skin is sagacious. ^\^Ien 
placed upon the skin he proceeds to make a hole through it, which he 
does by hia head and fure-ieet. Into this he insinuates his whole body. 


Like the mole, he makes a channel many times his own length, at the 
end excavating a chamber, where he takes his siesta, and from whence 
he saunters forth in quest of provender. As age aj^proaches, tired of 
the home of his youth, he digs onward, scoops out another, in which he 
ends his days, beloved and respected by all his neighbors. 

Itch is characterized by a vesicular eruption, and makes its appear- 
ance between the fingers and in other soft portions of the skin. If the 
pimples are scratched a watery fluid is poured out which forms small 
scabs, and if th§ disease is not cured, extensive sores occur. It is more 
common among the poor, but James I. of England said that it was only 
fitted for kings, so excellent is the enjoyment of scratching. It may be 
a royal luxury, but I am quite sure that persons having the itch would 
consent for it to be entirely monopolized by kings. A siniilar disease 
is caused by the aoarus saechari, an insect very common in brown 

Treatment. — -Whatever kills the Little animal will cure the itch. This 
Is best achieved by suljihur. It should be made into an ointment with 
lard, and thoroughly rubbed into the skin before the fire, morning and 
evening for a few days. This will put an end to the "squatter sove- 
reignty '' of whole colonies. An ointment made from veratrum also does 
well. Another method is equally if not more efficacious. Rub the en- 
tire surface of the body over with soft soap for half an hour — then a 
warm bath for half an hoiir, washing it thoroughly ofP, and exciting the 
fikin to active circulation. Then an ointment, prepared as follows, 
should be rubbed over the entire surface : Take eight ounces of lard 
and into it thoroughly rub two ounces of flour of sulphur, and one ounce 
of carbonate of potash, making an even and uniform mixture, and it ia 
leady for use. This, after it has remained on the skin for three hours, 
may be well washed off, and the disease is entirely annihilated. In per- 
bons of tender skin, or where considerable inflammation has been set 
up by continued scratching, it may be necessary to anoint with hard 
Boap instead of soft, for it does not contain as much alkali, and leave 
out the carbonate of potash in the ointment — for reason of its being too 
stimulating. In these instances, it will take longer to cure the disease, 
but it is just as certain in its results. This mode of treating this dis- 
ease is an entirely successful one — and no one need " to scratch " if 
these simple directions be attended to. 

Watery Blebs (Pemphigus). 

This is characterized by loss of appetite, febrile symptoms, at first, fol- 
lowed by a bright red eruption of a smarting or burning sensation. In 
the centre of this eruption, minute vesicles appear, which gradually en- 
large in blisters in the shape of bubbles and contain a wateiy fluid. They 
vary in size from a split pea to that of a hen's egg, and rise very rapidly. 


and break in a few days, leaving a raw surface, which soon becomea 
covered with a crust. 

Treatment. — The surface of the body should be bathed, and the 
bowels opened by a gentle purge. The inllamed surface should be cov- 
ered by a slippery-elm poultice, and be kept moist with tincture of 
lobelia. When the constitution is feeble, quinine, alnuin, etc., should 
be given. The diet should receive especial attention, and out-door ex- 
ercise enjoyed. 


This is a small blister, or vesicle, about the size of a chestnut, which 
at first contains a darkish fluid, which dries into a crust, falls off, and 
leaves an indolent ulcer. It is always connected with a vitiated consti- 
tution, and is dependent frequently upon imperfect diet, although 
chronic disease, such as syphilis, phthisis, dyspepsia, and poisonous 
mineral medicines, not unfrequently produce it. 

Tre.\tment. — The digestive organs should be corrected, and the 
blood nourished and eniiched by wholesome diet and tonics. The local 
applications should consist of emollient poultices, and kept constantly 
moist with the tincture of hydrastin, baptisin, or myrrh. A poultice 
of equal parts of baybeny, white pond -lily and slippeiy-elm is very bene- 
ficial. The cause, however, is always to be ascertained before the treat- 
ment is interjjosed. 

Crusted Tetter (Impetigo). 

The eruption in this disease consists, at first, in slightly elevated pus- 
tules or pimples, closely collected together, with an inllamed edge. 
These break, and the surface becomes red, excoriated, shining, and fuU 
of pores, through which a thin, unhealthy fluid is poured out, which 
gradually hardens into dark, yellowish-green scabs. These scabs some- 
times look like honey dried upon the skin, and hence the name of 
"honey disease." It is very common on the ears and lips of children. 
It is also called the milk crv-st, when it covers the whole face. 

Treatment. — Give a purgative, and let the patient take a hot bath. 
As a local application equal parts of blood-root and white pond-lily, say 
one ounce, and cider vinegar, six ounces, mix, and let stand twenty -four 
hours, and apply as a wash with a sponge four or five times a day. The 
oxide of zinc ointment is also good, but the best and speediest cure is 
the " Herbal Ointment," described on page 469. 

Papulous Scale (Ecthyma). 

This consists of mattery pimples developed on a highly inflamed 
ekin, appearing chiefly on the extremities and rarely met with in chil- 
dren in the acute form. It is either acute or chronic. The cruptiuo i» 


the acute foim is preceded by a slight fever, and m about thirty-sis 
hours red spots appear ou the skin, accompanied by heat and tingling-. 
On the second day, the centres of these spots are raised by the pus con- 
tained, to which the name of pldyzaeious pufitnle is given. This stage 
is accompanied by much pain. Maturation occurs from the fourth tc 
the sixth day, and the disease usually terminates in two weeks. The 
chronic form is more common, and afflicts young children oftener than 

Treatment. — For the acute form, low diet, gentle laxatives, and 
the application of oxide of zinc ointment. The pustulated surface 
should also be covered with slippery-elm poultices, and kept constantly 
moist with tincture of lobelia. In the chronic form, in addition to the 
above, the tonics should be given, and the blood should be enriched by 
proper medication and nutritious diet. 


The eruption in this disease makes its appearance as a small red spot, 
elevated a little above the general skin, usually occurring first on the 
limbs. The scales occurring on these patches occur in layers, one above 
the other, and have a bright silvery lustre. This is the lepra alphoides. 
The Hebrew leprosy was a variety of this form. What was known as 
the Leuce was generally not scaly, but consisted of smooth, shining 
patches, on which the hair turned white and silky, and was totally in- 
curable. When leprosy is of dark livid color, it is called Icpm nigricans^ 
and when copper-colored, it is due to syphilis, and is termed lepi'a syplii- 
litica. The of the Arabs is what is known as El£p)]ianHasis^ and 
the Greek leprosy includes the varieties met with at the present day. 
Leprosy is endemic in Egypt, in Java, and certain parts of Norway and 

Treatment. — The means best adapted for its removal, are, a mild, un- 
iiTitating diet, emollient fomentations, sulphui-eous baths, fumigations, 
etc. , but often all treatment is ineffectual. A warm solution of the ses- 
quicarbonate of potash is effectual in some cases. An ointment of glyce- 
rine and hydrastin, and the acetic tincture of blood-root, are also service- 
able, but as a topical remedy, nothing could be superior to my "Herbal 

Dry Tetter (Psoriasis). 

This differs from leprosy in the eruption being more irregular. The 
spots sometimes come out in thick clusters, and blend in various ways. 
The eruption is not circular as in leprosy, but consists of irregular 
patches of every extent, and the surface is more tender and irritable 
than in leprosy. There are many varieties of this disease. The 


" Baker's Itch," "Grocer's Itch," and "■Washerwoman's Scall," are only 
different varieties of psoriasis. 

TiiEATMENT. — The acetic tincture of blood-root or oxide of zinc 
ointment, may be applied to the eruption, and the skin should be kept 
clean, and the pores open. The inflammations may be lessened by 
emollient and soothing applications. Sea bathing- is very good. The 
general health should be attended to in all cases, and the tonics given in 
necessary cases. 


This name is from the Greek pityron^ signifying bran. It is charac- 
terized by patches of yellowish, or reddish yellow color, covered with 
fine branny scales, accompanied by smarting, itching, and burning. It 
may occur at any part of the body, under three or four varieties of 

Treatment. — The treatment advised in psoriasis will answer in this 

Lupus. "" ,,^ 

This is the "Jacob's Ulcer" of common parlance, and from itsj rapa- 
city it is named Lupus^ which is the Latin name for tcolf. It re also 
called "noli me tangere," toucJi mc not. It occurs in a variety of forms, 
generally upon the face. It commences by slight thickening and eleva- 
tion of the skin, usually not larger than a wheat grain. A thin, hard, 
brownish scab appears on its svu-face. The disease extends, usually 
slowly, but sometimes very rapidly, and cases have occurred where the 
whole nose has been destroyed in a mouth. It is very rapacious, destroy- 
ing even the bones in its progress. 

Treatment. — When it first makes its appearance it should be tho- 
roughly destroyed with caustics, and healed by zinc ointment. At the 
same time, the alteratives should be given. My ' ' Blood Purifier " (see 
page 469) is excellent for this purpose. Early institution of treatment 
will only prevent destruction of tissue. 


This is characterized by the development of tumors upon the skin, 
varying in size from the head of a pea to that of an apple, or even 
larger. Eventually these tumors ulcerate, and discharge an unhealthy 
pus, ta some cases affecting the bone, and resulting in mortification and 
death. It is endemic ia Lisbon. At first there is a discoloration of the 
skin of the face, the lobes of the car lengthen, and the wings of the nose 
spread out ; then the face becomes tuberculous, the features are puffed 
out, the lips thicken, the whiskers, eyebrows, and eyelashes fall out. 
The tubercles ulcerate after some years, there is ozoena, the fingers and 


boes mortify, and the body exhales a most loathsome odor. This is the 
leprosy of the ancient Egyptians. 

Treatment. — The parts should be thoroughly bathed with a strong 
solution of the scsquicarbonate of potash, and stillingia and other 
alteratives administered. Where the parts become swoUen, painting 
with the tincture of iron, followed by astringent poultices, has been 
found very beneficial. When confijied to the extremities, amputation 
may become necessary. 


This is a small pimple or tubercle which appears on various parts of 
the face. The disease leads to no particular evil results, save that it is 
unpleasant, slightly painful, and disfiguring. It commonly afflicts the 
young and robust of both sexes, and generally indicates strong passions, 
and too great an indulgence in animal food, or neglect of ablutions and 
out-of-door exercise. It is sometimes, in its more severe forms, the 
consequence of solitary practices. The common form of the disease is 
an eruption of hard, distinct, inflamed tubercles which remain un- 
changed for a long time, or else slowly advance to partial suppura- 
tion. They are to be seen on the forehead, cheeks, and chm, and 
sometimes on the nose. It is commonly known as the brandy face or 
rum blots. 

Treatment. — Attention to the general health becomes necessary. 
It is not well to drive them in by lotions, as they are then liable to 
break out in some internal organ. Attention to diet, plenty of ex- 
ercise, a pure imagination, and a clean body, together with open and 
regular bowels, wUl soon effect the disappearance of this troublesome 
enemy of good looks. 

Warts and Corns. 

Warts consist of collections of hypertrophied cutaneous papillae, or 
loops of veins, arteries and nerves. These loops, frequently, without 
any apparent cause, take on a disposition to grow, and by extending 
themselves upward, they carry the scarf-skin along with them, which 
thickens, and the whole forms the wart. 

Corns consist in excrescences confined mostly to the toes and soles of 
the feet, resulting from wearing tight shoes. They occasionally form 
on the elbows and knees, or on the extremities of the fingers. When 
occurring between the toes, they are called soft corns. 

Bunions consist of an enlargement, tliickening, and inflammation of 
the mucous bursa at the side of the ball of the great toe. Occasionally 
the bursa suppurates, and a fistulous oi^ening left after the pus has 

Treatment. — Corns may be ciu'ed by shaving them closely and 


applying nitro-muriatic acid or chromic acid ointment. For soft corns 
acetic acid is better. Warts should be clipped off with the scissors, and 
chromic acid applied, or any other cauterizing agent will answer. The 
tincture of thuja is also excellent. Bunions are cured by bathing them 
frequently in the oil of erigeron. 


This is dependent upon an altered condition of the nerves of the skin, 
and consists in a painful sensation of itching. There is no perceptible 
alteration in the appearance of the skin, and the itching is generally the 
result of sympathy, through the nerves, with some diseased condition of 
a distant part. It more frequently affects the fundament, the scrotum, 
or the vulva of females. 

Treatment. — The following is usually all the treatment that is re- 
quired : — Take oleo-resin of lobelia, grs. xx ; aconitin, grs. iij ; sul- 
phate of sanguinaria, grs. x ; glycerine, 3 ij. Mix. Apply the omtment 
to the part three or four times a day. Lead-water and opium are 
also beneficial. 

Macule, or Spots. 

This affection, which is characterized by an increased hue of tfee pig- 
ment of the skin, consists of freckles and moles. EpheUs lenticular is, 
or common freckles, appears in small 3'ellowish, brownish, or greenish- 
yellow, irregular, rounded spots, caused particularly by the influence 
of the sun's rays upon the parts. It occurs generally in females, 
owing to their fine skin. EpheUs hepatiai is observed in females 
during pregnancy. EpheUs violacea is caused by the long use of 
nitrate of silver. Moles are dark colored patches, usually covered 
with hair. Need or motker^s marks are called aneurisms by anas- 
tomosis, or an inter-connection and enlargement of the arterioles of 
the skin. Leuc<:>])athia, or Albinif<m, consists of a diminution of the 
coloring matter of the skin. It is found in all races, but is most strik- 
ing in the black. 

Treatment. — Freckles may be removed by keeping out of the sun, 
and frequently washing the face in a solution of lactic acid. Fresh 
buttermilk answers the same purpose. The best remedy, however, 
is to be found in my "Floral Bloom." It quickly removes freckles, 
moth patches, etc., and makes the skin clear and transparent. Moles 
and mother's marks belong to surgery, and may in many instances be 
removed. Albinism is incurable. 

Scalleu Head (Tinea Favosa). 

This is caused by an insect by the name of achorioii Sehi'nileinii. The 
eruption tijvcs the shape of large flattened pustules, which have an 


irregular edge, and are surrotmded by inflammation. Sometimes they 
appear first behind the ears, and at other times upon the face, spread- 
ing thence to the scalp. The face is usually involved to some extent 
wherever the eruption may originally show itself. Scalled head ia 
mostly confined among children. In the outset of the disease the pus- 
tules on the scalp are generally distinct ; — on the face they rise in 
iiregular clusters. They are attended by much itching, and the efforts 
to relieve this torment hasten their breaking. When broken they 
discharge a viscid matter and run together, gradually forming sores of a 
vicious character. These sores are covered by yellowish-greenish scabs 
which present a revolting appearance. 

Treatment. — The hair should be shaved close to the scalp, and the 
head thoroughly washed with soap and water, after which the zinc oint- 
ment should be applied in the morning and the tar ointment in the even- 
ing. Alteratives should also be given. This course, if persisted in, wiU 
remove the disease. 

Tinea Sycosis. 

This is commonly known as "Barber's Itch," and is confined to the 
face, especially to that portion covered by the beard. It is character- 
ized by inflammation of the hair follicles, causing an eruption of small 
pustules forming incrustations eventually. It may be consoling to those 
who suffer with it to know that it is caused by a parasite with the humble 
name of microHporon mentagrapliytes. 

Treatment. — Shave the beard, and paint the part with a strong tinc- 
ture of iodine for a few days. Follow this with a poultice, composed of 
equal parts of lobelia, blood-root, myrrh, and slippery-elm. Depilation, 
or pulling out the beard, may be necessary in some cases to effect the 

Baldness (ALorECiA). 

This may be partial or general, temporary or permanent, and occur at 
any period of life. Senile baldness usually takes jalace gradually, the 
hair first becoming thin on the crown, or on the temples and forehead. 
It is owing generally to the general loss of the nutritive functions of the 
hair, and of the follicular apparatus. Loss of color of the hair (canities) 
may depend upon advanced age, disease, or deep mental emotion. It 
usually occurs gradually, after the age of forty. Cases are recorded in 
which the loss of color was complete in eight days, while in others the 
hair was almost completely blanched in a single night. 

Treatment. — If the hair f oUicles are not destroyed, baldness may be 
cured. The tincture of cantharides, lac sulphur, shampooing, etc., are 
each to be recommended. Tonics and strict cleanliness also promotes 
the growth of the hair. In my ' ' Woodland Balm " (page 469) the bald 


or graj -will find a remedy which has no supeiior for restoring the hair 
to a healthy growth and natural color. 


These grow in the body without forming attachments to its structures, 
have an independent life of their own, and possess the power of repro- 
duction and generation. Several species infest the human body, some 
appearing always in the same organ and some in a particular tissue, and 
appearing oftenest where that tissue is plentiful. Scarcely any portion 
of the body is exempt from such growths. Their origin is a subject for 
two suppositions — that of generative reproduction, and of accidental or 
spontaneous development of germs that take on modes of life and devel- 
opment characterizing them afterwards. The first supposition is more 
philosophical, comports more with analogy, and is unquestionably the 
true theory. The interest attached to these growths, however, is their 
effect upon the system and cause of disease. Their presence in the sys- 
tem causes morbid phenomena, disordered functional action, and loss of 
health. The mischief they do in the system depends upon their number, 
size, rapidity of growth, and species. When numerous or iarge they 
imbibe so much nutriment as to rob the system of its necessary susten- 
ance. Their habitation is generally a seat of irritation or intlamiiiition, 
and more particularly when their location is in a cavity, and when they 
possess power of motion. 

Psychodiara.—IIi/datids.— These are organized bemgs, consisting of a 
globe-like bag of albuminous matter ; the texture divided in layers, and 
containing a limpid, colorless fluid richer in gelatin than albumen. They 
live by imbibition, have no sensibility or power of motion, and appear 
more like a vegetable than an animal in their modes of life and repro- 
duction. There are two kinds of hydatids, the acephidocyst, or cyst 
without a head, and the echiiiococciis, which is not different from the 
other in form but in containing minute animals (vermiculi echinococci) 
■within it. The former is common to the human body, and generated be- 
tween layers of membrane. The usual abode of hydatids is in the lungs, 
liver, ovaries, spleen, kidneys, etc. The hydatids occuiTing in the womb 
are often mistaken upon expulsion for products of conception, and their 
presence in that organ often produces similar signs as in pregnancy. 

SterdmintJin. — These consist of solid porous texture, perforated by 
canals or cavities, which serve the purposes of digestion. These animals 
ure hermaphrodite, i. e., having both sexual organs on one individual. 
The varieties of tapeworm belong to this class. So also the cystlcercm, 
which occurs in the muscular structure and in the wateiy portion of the 
eye. The Hver-fluke— f/i.s'M«a hepatieum — also belongs to this class 
but which rarely occurs in man, but is supposed to cause the well-knowa 
" rot " in sheep. 


CcelelmintM.— This class has a higher organic development than the 
preceding. It embraces several species of worms having hollow cylin- 
drical bodies, distinct alimentary canals, with a mouth at one extremity 
and an anus at the other, a nervous system, and the sexual organs 
on different animals. The common intestinal worms belong to this 
class ; so also the tnchina spiralis— causing the disease described below 
which is an animal which exists within the minute, white, ovate cysts 
imbedded in the muscles. The guinea-worm {filaria medimnsis), so 
common to Africa and Asia, but unknown in this coimtry, is a hair-like 
worm developed beneath the skm, especially in the scrotum and lower 
extremities It can be withdrawn when a pustule ensues, by care and 
patience, wrapping it around a stick until the end appears. 

The strongulus (jlgas is an animal that locates itself exclusively in the 
kidney, and sometimes attains an enormous size. Its body is round, 
but tapers toward both ends. It sometimes attains a length of three 
feet, and a thickness of half an inch. It causes impau-ment of func- 
tions, waste of the renal structure, and sometimes inflammation, with 
pain and bloody urine. It is sometimes expelled through the water 

Treatment. — The treatment of parasites is indicated by their char- 
acter or place of abode. If they exist in the alimentary canal, such 
remedies as are known to expel them should be employed. Anything is 
a good remedy that is harmless to the system but destructive of life to 
them. Various agents are poisonous, such as cherry-laurel water, cam- 
phor, oil of cubebs, oil of turpentine, copaiba, etc., but these must be 
employed at proper seasons and in such quantities that they will not 
harm the general system. 


This is a disease caused by the tricliina spiralis which infests various 
animals, especially swine. If the meat of the hog affected is eaten raw 
or insufBciently cooked, it is most lilcely to cause this dangerous disease. 
Thorough cooking destroys the parasites. The symptoms are extensive 
gastric disturbance, with nausea and a tendency to vomit ; associated 
with rheumatic pains, stiffness of the muscles, irregular pulse, intermit- 
tent fever, which is violently aggravated iu paroxysms, thirst, restless- 
ness, j^ervous excitement, and utter wakefulness. The face generally 
swells, great prostration ensues, and the patient generally dies in a para- 
lyzed condition. 

Treatment. — In the early stage an active lobelia emetic should be 
given, and followed by a full dose of castor oil or spirits of turjientine. 
An alcoholic vapor bath shotdd be taken, and sufficient veratrum to 
control the fever. If sleeplessness prevails, opium should be given. 
The above treatment may be repeated if not at first successful. 



The first requisite of an infant is plenty of pure and fresh air. It 
should be kept in open air as much as possible, and when in-doors in 
weU-ventilated rooms. When carried in the open air, their heads 
Bhould not be enveloped in blankets, and when sleeping, their faces 
should not be covered with the bed-clothes. The infant needs and 
should have all the oxygen a pure air affords, which is so essential to 
its proper growth. 

The Skin. — The skin of infants sho^^ld be kept clean, to render them 
less liable to cutaneous diseases. The unctuous covering of a new-bom 
child should be removed as soon as possible. This can readily be done 
by smearing it with pure lard, and then washing with white Castile 
soap and water. Do not use the brown Castile soap, as it contains 
oxides of iron, which are iiTitating substances. Infants should be 
washed eveiy day with warm water, to be followed in course of timo 
with tepid water, then temperate, and finally, at an age of some 
months, with cold water. ^ 

Clothing. — The young child should be amply clothed, care being 
taken that they are sufficiently loose, to admit free motion in all direc- 
tions. Flannels should be placed next to the skin in winter, and cotton 
in summer. 

Food. — Proper regimen is of the utmost importance to the health of 
the young. Until the fii'st teething, the proper and natural food is the 
mother's milk. If the mother is unable to nurse her child, a wet-nurse 
should be procvired. If the mother's milk is insufficient, cow's milk, 
sufficiently diluted with water and sweetened with loaf sugar, should 
be taken in addition. This should be taken from a sucking-bottle, 
which, when not in use, should be kept in water, to prevent becoming 
sour. A nursing woman should pay the greatest attention to her 
health also, and, for obvious reasons, a scrofulous or consumptive 
mother should never suckle her offspring ; she should also place a check 
upon her passions, as violent passion, grief, envy, hatred, fear, jealousy, 
etc. , tend to derange the character of the milk, and often superinduce 
disorder of the infant's stomach, and throw it into convulsions. The 
diet of the mother should receive strict attention. Her drink should 
be simply water, or weak black tea, and her food plain and wholesome. 
Pastry and the richer articles of food should not be eaten. She should 
take daily moderate exercise to induce better assimilation of aliments. 
When her milk is scanty, a sufficiency can frequently be induced by 
placing a bread and milk poultice, over which a moderate quantity of 
mustard is sprinkled, on the breasts. 

Weaning. — The child should be weaned after the appearance of ita 


first teeth. Nature then designs it to have different food. Spring and 
fall are the proper seasons for weaning ; no child should be taken from 
the breast in the midst of summer. The weaning shoiUd be a gradual 
process, and the food to be given should be of the character of milk. 
Bread and milk, boiled rice and milk, soda-crackers and milk, soft boiled 
eggs, roasted potatoes and milk, preparations of sago, arrowroot, 
tapioca, oatmeal gruel, rice pudding, and similar substances are all 
indicated. My nutritive fluids, given on page 205, can also be given 
with good service. From these, in course of time, more solid articles 
of food can be given them. Sugar in moderate quantities is whole- 
some. Excessive eating shovdd not be suffered. Water is the best 

Sleep. — A child should always sleep in a loose gown, to prevent restless- 
ness. Nature should govern its sleep, and which should never be induced 
by opiates. It should be allowed to sleep to a natural awakening, and 
should not be aroused for any avoidable purpose. Its covering should be 
warm but Uyht.^ thus avoiding pressure upon its tender limbs ; the infant 
should lie on its side, alternating at times from right to left, to prevent 
distortion of the spine. The body should be placed with the head to the 
north, and this rule applies to all, as the action of electric currents is to 
the north, thus allowing greater repose to the brain. Strong sunlight 
or moonshine should be excluded from their sleeping apartments. What 
I have thus far written is not only preservative of good health, but 
preventive of many species of illness to which infants are liable. Chil- 
dren are very liable to disease, necessitating great precaution in a 
variety of matters, the most important of which are the foregoing. 
When it is known that death destroys about one half of humanity before 
the age of five years, the physical life of ch'^dren is of the utmost 
importance. While young, the moral, intellectual, and religious facul- 
ties should be shaped, as the child often indicates the man. 

The baby exhibits indisposition by cries, struggles, etc., and if 
these are carefully noted, every mother may know what ails the 

A baby suffering from stomach-ache sheds tears copiously., and utters 
long and loud cries. As stomach-ache is paroxysmal in character, so will 
its cries remit, and enjoy repose, to be followed by movements up and 
down of the legs and the peculiar cry. 

To cry in inflammation of the organs of the chest is painful ; it there- 
fore does not cry or shed tears, but utters a muttering cry, abruptly 
completed, and coughs after long breaths. 

In diseases of the brain, the child shrieks piercingly, followed by 
moaning and wailing. In extensive congestion, there is quiet dozing 
and probably snoring. 

Loss of appetite, fretfulness, restlessness, thirst, great heat of skin. 


are all indications of disease, and require that solicitude and treatment 
that every fond mother should know how to bestow. 


Many children are lost from teething. The process of dentition often 
occasions fits. Its symptoms are, swollen and inflamed gnms, fever, 
pain, and heat in the head, sore mouth, etc. Scarification of the gums 
is often resorted to ; but if proper attention be paid to the case iu its 
inception, no such barbarous and injurious method of palliation need 
be embraced. Bathing the head with dUuted spirits, and the feet with 
warm mustard water; keeping the bowels free and regular by the 
simplest of herbal laxatives ; and placing a plaster (composed of two- 
thirds flour mustard, one-third flour, and sufficient vinegar to produce 
the requisite moisture) between the shoulders, will generally obviate all 
danger and mitigate the pain and suffering. "When the speckled sore 
mouth incidental to teething makes its appearance, treat the child as 
above, but wash the mouth with a mild solution of borax, and use for 
diet (if the child be weaned) gum-arabic water, and barley or rice 
water. If the stomach is acid, and the bowels are gi-iping, admpister 
mild doses of magnesia. Warm baths are always beneficial to children 
who are teething ; but great care should be taken that the littlei ones 
do not catch cold after the baths. 

The teeth should appear about the sixth month, though it is often 
later. The two incisors of the lower jaw are generally the first, and 
then those of the upper jaw follow. Between the twelfth and sixteenth 
months the grinders come, and next the eye teeth. The others soon 
follow, so that by the age of two years, the child has its full set of 
mUk teeth, twenty in number. There are instances of children being 
bom with full sets of teeth, as is recorded of Richard III. and Louis 



This is duo to the presence of lithic or uric acid in the blood. The 
attack usually makes its appearance in the night. The i^atient is first 
awakened by an intensely burning and wrenchuig pain in the ball of the 
gi-eat toe, or some other small joint. This pain continues for about 
twenty-four hours, and is accompanied by fever. It then remits, and 
the patient may get sleep, though for several successive days he 
fcuffcrs from the attacks. A similar visitation will likely result after a 
considerable interval. Recovery from the first attack may be complete 
—the skin peeling off from the red and swollen joint, !uid leaving it strong 


and snpple as ever ; but, after several repetitions of the attacks, the joint 
becomes stiff, owing to the deposit of lithic acid concretions or chnlk 
ktones. It is a disease entirely local in its character. It vitiates the 
blood, affects the general system, and the attack is generally preceded 
by general symptoms, irritability of temper, unpleasant sensations in the 
stomach and head, and uncomfortable feelings of body and mind are 
premonitory symptoms of this disorder. The paki is most excruciating. 
The stomach, heart, lungs, head, eyes, etc. , may also be subject to gouty 
inflammation. It is caused by luxury and indolence, in the plurality of 

Treatment. —During the paroxysm the anodynes should be given 
and apphed ; subcutaneous injection of morphine is best. The constitu- 
tional treatment should be composed of chimaphilin and apocynin in 
combination ; colchicum is also a very good remedy ; chloroform liniment 
may also be externally appUed. The patient's habits must be regulated, 
and his diet simplified, to prevent recurrence of the disease. 

Those who may desire consultation with the author, in regard to this 
disease, are referred to page 390. Consultations, either in person or by 
letter, from those who may desire treatment, are carefully and gratui- 
tously attended to. 


This very painful affection is most frequently brought on by exposure 
to wet and cold after violent and fatiguing exercise of the muscles. The 
acute form is characterized by high fever, with a full bounding pulse, 
furred tongue, and a profuse sweat which has a sour smell. The urine 
is scanty and high colored ; the joints swell and are slightly red and very 
tender. The pain is agonizing when the patient attempts to move. If 
the aif ection changes from one part to another it is called metastatic^ 
and is very dangerous, as it may suddenly seize the lining membrane of 
the heart, and prove fatal. 

The chronic form may follow the acute form, but is more often an in- 
dependent disease. It differs from the acute form in the absence of 
fever. The fingers and limbs may frequently be rendered useless by 
rheumatism, by the great distortion ensuing. It is due to the presence 
of lactic acid in the blood. 

Treatment. — The bowels should be evacuated by a purgative, and 
the tinctures of black cohosh and veratrum given until free perspiration 
is produced. The tincture of black cohosh, two parts, and tincture of 
colchicum, one part, in doses of from twenty to forty drops, is also a very 
valuable remedy. For articular rheumatism the alteratives should be 
given. My " Blood Purifier" is a sure and efficient cure, and the pain is 
almost instantly relieved by the apiilication of the ' ' Herbal Ointment " 
(see page 469). 


Electricity may be resorted to in the chronic form. The treatment 
does not materially differ from that advised in the acute. 

Fomentations of hops and cicuta, or stramonium leaves, placed upon 
the inflamed and swollen joints, will materially relieve the pain. 

Rheumatism in the chronic form is often a very difficult disease to 
cure ; but if properly treated, hy purely chemical medication, the acid 
condition of the blood will be negatived, and the patient relieved of his 
painful malady. Of the thousands of cases that have been under my 
care, I do not recall one failure. 

Hip Disease (Morbus Coxarius). 

This is a disease of the hip-joint, and common to scrofulous children. 
At first there is slight pain, commonly felt in the knee, lameness, and 
stumbling in walking, tenderness in the gi"oin, and pain is produced by 
pressing the head of the bone suddenly against the socket. The limb is 
longer than the other, which is owing to a depression of the pelvis on 
the diseased side, the weight of the body being supported on the oppo- 
Bite limb. If the disease is not ai-rested, destruction of the head of the 
bone and socket results, and the thigh-bone is drawn up, constituting a 
spontaneous dislocation. Often an abscess forms and opens exterijally. 
The toes may be turned inward or outwai'd. * 

This disease may be positively ascertained in the follo^\'ing way : — 
Remove the clothing of the patient and place him on any flat surface, as 
a bench, or table ; if he is placed so that the spine everj'where touches 
the table, the i^atient's knee on the affected side will be drawn up, the 
weight of the leg resting on the heel. If now his knee will be pressed 
down, the spine will be bent inwards, so that it no longer touches the 
table. This is an unerring diagnosis. 

Treatment. — At the commencement of the disease a large irritating 
plaster should be placed over the entire hip, and caused to remain until 
a thorough counter-irritation is effected, and a discharge ensues. Per- 
fect rest is necessary, and the limb should be confined in a caiwcd splint. 
Iodine may also be externally api)lied, and the general health improved 
by tonics, alteratives, and nutritioTis food. Counter-extension as advised 
in cases of fracture is advisable in all cases. A competent siirgeon should 
direct the treatment. 

WniTE Swelling (Hydrarthrus). 

This disease occurs most frcqiiently about the middle period of life, 
but is, however, very often seen in children. It will never appear before 
the age of puberty without a deviation from health, but not always so 
when it makes its appearance in after-life. It is a disease of the knee- 
joint characterized by swelling and white color, owing to the tension of 
the skin. It is of two varieties ; both, however, destroy the sjmovial or 


articular membrane of the joint. One begins with a trifling stiffness, 
slight swelling, and in effect reduces the membrane to a pulpy, degen- 
erate mass. The swelling increases gradual!}', and when the part is 
touched, it reveals the presence of fluid. Finally the cartilages ulcerate, 
and the disease assumes such characters that amputation becomes abso- 
lutely necessary. The other form begins with pain in the joint, which 
is severe at one point, and attains its height in a week. It is character- 
ized by inflammation of the syno'S'ial membrane, and in a few days the 
joint becomes swollen from a collection of water. 

Treatment.— At the commencement bathe the jjarts with the follow 
ing liniment : — oil of hemlock, 3 iv. ; dissolve as much cami^hor in it as 
it will take up, and add twelve drops of croton oil, and three drachms of 
tincture of iodine. Bathe the limb thoroughly, after which apply hot 
cloths wrung from a strong infusion of arnica flowers and lobelia, and 
change as often as they grow cool ; with each change apply the liniment. 
This wall arrest the disease if applied at the onset. The patient shoidd 
be purged, and the compound sjTup of chimaphila be administered to 
him. If the disease is farther advanced, and openings exist, they should 
be enlarged, and ointments and poultices applied, and the constitution 
supported by tonics and antiseptics. Sphnts and entire rest may be 
necessary in some cases, and when connected with a scrofulous diathesis, 
my ' ' Blood Purifier " should be taken internally, and the ' ' Herbal Oint- 
ment " applied externally. These will quickly eradicate the disease. 

Hectic Fever. 

Hectic fever is remittent, dependent upon local irritation, and rarely, 
if ever, idiopathic. It is attended by great and increasing debility, a 
weak, quick pulse, hurried respiration on any exertion, and increased 
heat of the skin. The febrile exacerbations are preceded by a slight 
chfll, are slight at first, but soon become more evident, especiaUy in the 
evening. The skin is at first dry, and the increased heat is more evident 
in the hands and face. The fever terminates in a free, profuse perspira- 
tion. The bowels are at first costive, but soon become relaxed, and an 
exhausting diarrhoea comes on ; the urine is various, generally it is pale, 
and does not deposit ; while there is generally a pallor of the surface, 
the cheeks present what is aptly termed the '' hectic blush." As the 
disease advances, the whole frame becomes emaciated, the eyes sink in 
their orbits, but are brilliant and expressive ; the ankles and legs some- 
times swell, and the sleep is feverish and disturbed. Finally the debility 
becomes so great that the jjatient expii'es while making some slight 

Hectic fever accompanies nearly all forms of disease connected with 
great debility, especially scrofula and consumption. It may also be met 
with in surgical practice in disease or injury of the joints. 


Treatment. — This depends much upon the cause or causes which 
give rise to it. If the digestive mucous membrane is diseased, the 
treatment consists in strict attention to diet, and in the administration 
of tonics, diaphoretics, and diuretics. The antiseptics should be given. 
Strychnine in doses of one-eighth of a grain is decidedly the best agent 
for this piu-pose. CheiTy-laurel water should also be given. The fever 
is controlled, like other fevers, with veratrum. If associated with con- 
eumption, the " Acacian Balsam " (page 4G9) will cure it. Stimulants are 
very serviceable to counteract the debility. Generous diet and clean- 
liness are not to be neglected. 

Curvature of the Spine. 

Curvature of the spine is due to caries or destruction of the bodies 
of the vertebrae. There are several varieties of curvature ; what is known 
as lateral curvature consists in the distortion of the spinal column either 
to the one side or the other. In this case there may be no caries of the 
spine. It consists in depression of one shoulder, the body being thrown 
out of its axis, by the curvature. This affection is caused by occupa- 
tions which keep the body in a laterally distorted position, and tak one 
side of the body more than the other. It is produced in childrea who 
study their lessons at school, with one elbow resting on a high desk, 
etc. In PotVs Curvature of the Spine, the angular curvature is produced 
by caries of the vertebrae, or ulceration of the substance between the 
vertebrae, followed by more or less loss of power over the lower ex- 
tremity. In examining the spine, one or more of the spinous processes 
is found to project beyond the others. Hump-backs are usually caused 
by curvatures of the spine, but they may also be caused by projection of 
the sternum, or deviation of the ribs. 

Treatment. — If associated with scrofula, the treatment for that dis- 
ease should be instituted. In lateral distortion, calisthenic exercises 
should be engaged. In Pott's disease extensive counter-irritation should 
be made over the diseased part, and vigorous tonics given. 

The treatment, however, best adapted to obviate all curvatures of the 
spine, is purely mechanical, and consists of braces, supporters, etc. 
Nothing else will achieve any satisfactory results. By mechanical ap- 
pliances the spine is rendered straight, and compelled to maintain that 
position until a cure is effected. These mechanical appliances should 
be applied early, and be accurately adjusted and well fitted. 

I am constantly applying such appliances in my office, and the results 
are excellent in nearly all cases. Those who cannot avail themselves of 
a personal consultation, may send age of patient, nature of curvature, 
height, and measure around the waist, and a suitable appliance will be 
sent. Preliminaiy correspondence free. 



Imperfections OF the Human Form. 

These embrace those only which are of shghter degree, and of idio- 
pathic origin. They are usually acquired more or less early in life. 
Not unfrequently they result from bad management of the infant, hav- 
ing its head always too highly bolstered up, and the chest compressed 
by tight clothing. The school-room, however, is the arena where the 
human form is robbed the most of its symmetry. It is gratifying to 
know that greater attention is now paid to this evil, but still to a great 
extent the seats and desks provided for the pupils are perfect outrages 
upon their physical natures. The seats are invariably too high and the 
desks too low, obliging the piq^il, for five or six hours, to sit with his 
head down, his spine curved backwards, and his feet dangling in space. 
This unnatural position soon causes a loss of erect carriage, and induces 
stooped shoulders, and incapacious chests. It is but rarely that we see 
persons having an erect posture in standing or walking, and but few 
have that prominent chest, so necessary to the perfection and elegance 
of the human form, and to the full breathing capacity for the lungs . 
The shoulders should be in the perfect form thrown backwards, and the 
body erect, the only curve in the spine being the natural inward one in 
the lumbar portion. 

Treatment. — Elegance and symmetry of form can only be gained 
by proper gymnastic and calisthenic exercises. These should be of such 
a character as to be best adapted to overcome the particular deformity. 

Liidy's Shoulder Brace Applied. 

Gentleman's Shoulder Brace .^.pplied. 

In all cases suitable braces should be worn. These gently force back 
the shoulders, thereby increasing the volume and capacity of the chest, 


and enable the wearer to maintain the erect posture without fatiguing 
effort. In all pulmonary diseases, or where there exists an insufficient 
capacity of the chest, these braces should be worn. In the male they 
take the place of suspenders, and in the female they can be made to 
serve the purpose of sustaiumg the weight of the skirts. Nothing could 
be more conducive to health than these appliances ; they often prevent 
the onset of consumption in those predisposed hereditarily to that dis- 
ease. It is a well-known fact that the man or woman having an erect 
form and expanded chest is much less liable to disease, and at aU events 
possesses greater vigor of health. The reason of this is obvious. 

It is particularly advisable that every person having a defective form 
should wear a shoulder brace. The braces represented in the above 
cuts are of the author's own invention, and he does not hesitate to claim 
for them a decided superiority over all other braces for this purpose. 
They are worn with great comfort, gently obliging the wearer to main- 
tain the erect posture, and enabling him to thorouglily inflate his lungs, 
which in course of time will lead to permanence of the upright stature 
with an expanded chest. 

AU persons desiring these superior braces can obtain them hy aj^dress- 
ing the author. Price two dollars. ' 


An abscess is a collection of pus or matter in the substance of some 
part of the body. "When the matter is poured out from some part, the 
process is called su]ipuratwn, when it collects in a tissue, it is an abscess. 
It commences with all the symptoms of inflammation, fever, pain, red- 
ness, and swelling. The centre is firm, with swelling surroundmg it. 
The formation of pus is indicated by rigors, an abatement of fever, and 
a feeling of weight, tension, and throbbing The centre softens, which 
is tei-med pointing, mid Jluctuatiou is felt. There is a natural tendency 
to discharge the pus, which is more apt to be towards the skin. It is 
less apt to open into serous than into mucous tissues. The abscesses that 
form in scrofulous cases are called cold, because the conditions of in- 
flammation are absent. They heal, after the discharge of pus, by a pro- 
cess called granulation. 

Tkeatment.— The indication to be fulfilled in the treatment of ab- 
scess is to prevent the formation of pus, to evacuate it when formed, 
and to heal the parts so as to prevent further secretions. To prevent 
its formation cold applications and leeches should be applied to the part, 
the patient purged, and restricted to a low diet. When matter is form- 
ed warm fomentations and poultices should be applied, to hasten the 
progress of the pus to the surface. If abscesses distinctly ?)Oi«t they 
need not be opened, but allowed to burst themselves, but if they occur 
in loose cellular tissue, under hard Ekin, and show a tendency to bur- 


row, tliey should be evacuated by a free incision. After evacuation the 
poultices should be continued, or the parts be dressed with stimulating 
ointments, of which the "Herbal Ointment," page 469, Ls the best. 

Felon (PARONYcniA). 

This is also called icMtlow, and is an abscess of the fingers, of which 
there are three kinds, the first situated upon the surface of the skin, 
the second under the skin, the third within the sheath containing the 
tendons of the fingers, and sometimes involving the covering of the bone. 
The latter form is the most terrible, and begins with redness, swelling, 
and a deep-seated and throbbing pain, which becomes so excruciating as 
to banish all sleep, and nearly drive the patient to distraction. Relief 
is only secured by discharge of pus. 

TuEATMENT. — Carry the hand in a sling and use poultices. A poul- 
tice made of equal parts of slippery-elm, poke-root, flaxseed meal, and 
lobelia seeds, mixed with hot lye, and changed twice a day, is an admir- 
able application. When the pain becomes great, the abscess should be 
laid open with a knife, cutting down to the bone. Nothing will insure 
loss of bone but a thorough and deep incision. This is most painful, 
but will give instant relief. After the evacuation, the treatment ia to 
be followed as in ordinary abscess. 


Ulcers are breaches of continuity of surface, being caused by disease 
or unrepaired injury. A simple or healtJty ulcer has its surface covered 
with a thick, creamy, yellow pus, not too profuse, and modorous. The 
granulations are small, florid, pointed, sensitive, and vascular. Ascrofii- 
loris ulcer is one occuniug in debilitated constitutions, most frequently 
upon the neck and joints. They originate in the cellular tissue, beneath 
the skin, exist generally in clusters, and are characterized by imperfect 
and slow suppuration. An iiuhlent ulcer occurs most frequently in the 
lower extremities of old persons, and is the most conunon of all ulcers. 
It is owing most frequently to a sore having been neglected or badly 
treated. Its surface is smooth, glassy, concave and pale. The dis- 
charge is thin and serous, and the surrounding tissue is swollen, hard, 
and of a dusky-red color. It is painless, and the patient is ai)t to let it go 
unnoticed, unless it by accident, exposure, or over exertion, it inflames 
and becomes painful. An irritable ulcer is one havmg an excess of or- 
ganizing action, with a deficiency of organizable material. It is super- 
ficial, having an equal surface of a dai-k hue, and often covered with 
tenacious fibrin. It occurs most frequently near the ankle. It is very 
sensitive, and attended with great pain. A phagedenic ulcer is one of 
irregular form, with ragged, abiiipt edges, and uneven brown surface, 
looking aa if gnawed by an animal. It is attended with burning pain, 
15 w 


and great constitutional disturbance. A Tdricose ulcer is dependent upon 
a varicose condition of the veins, and usually occurs in the leg just 
above the ankle. They are indolent, and mostly moist on the surface. 

Treat.ment. — -In the simple ulcer the treatment is simply protective. 
Water dressings are the best, as they keep the parts clean and remove 
the liquid pus. The " Herbal Ointment " is equally good. If the granula- 
tions become too luxuriant, an astringent wash, or slightly cauterizing 
them, becomes necessary. In scrofulous ulcers constitutional treatment 
must be instituted. The soft infiltrated tissues surrounding the ulcers 
should be destroyed by escharotics, and after the slough is removed, the 
healthy granulated surface treated as a simple ulcer. In indolent ulcers 
the sore should at first be cleansed by povdtices. Healthy granulation 
should be aroused by lightly touching the ulcer with nitrate of silver, 
sulphate of copper, etc., or the same effect may be produced by strips 
of adhesive plaster being placed over the entire surface of the ulcer. In 
irritable ulcer the treatment should first be constitutional, and tonics and 
stimulants administered. The part should be relaxed, rested, and ele- 
vated. This should be followed by a light po\iltice, or. warm-water 
dressing, or if there is great pain, fomentations of the-^infusion of 
opium, conium, or belladonna should be applied. In the treat'ipent of 
phagedenic ulcers, fresh air and good diet are all-important, yhe se- 
cretions miist be corrected, and a Dover's powder given at night. 
The ulcer should be thoroughly destroyed by escharotics, followed by 
warm poultices. In varicose ulcer cold water, rest, regiilar bandaging, 
or laced stocking, constitutes the treatment. Strapping with strips of 
adhesive plaster, by the support afforded, is excellent in all cases of 

My " Herbal Ointment " (page 469) acts most admirably as a local ap- 
plication in all cases of ulcer. It causes healthy granulation, relieves 
the pain, and speedily causes union of the edges. 

Boils (Furunculus). 

Boils occur most frequently in the young, and in those of plethoric 
habit, in those parts where the skin is thickest. They are usually gre- 
garious, and depend upon derangement of the stomach and intestines, 
and frequently succeed eruptive diseases. The swelling is of a conical 
shajie, having a hard, red, and painful base, and a yellow apex. If left 
to itself it bursts and discharges pus, and a core or slough of cellular 
tissue ; when completely emptied, the heat and pain subside. 

Treatment. — Poultices and warm fonaentations should be applied 
early, and as soon as pus has formed, the boil should be opened, after 
which the granulated wound should be dressed with basilicon ointment. 
If my " Herbal Ointment " is procurable, if may be applied from the first, 
as it speedily draws the boil to a head, and quickly heals it after discharge. 

the complete herbalist. 339 

Carbuncle (Anthrax). 

This is a serious disease ; it is a solitary inflammation of the cellnlai 
tissue and skin, presenting a flat, spongy swelling of a livid hue, and at- 
tended with dull heavy pain. It varies in size, and its progress is slow. 
Like the boil, it appears more often upon the neok, the shoulders, the 
back, buttocks, and thighs. The constitutional symptoms are low 
throughout, and the attendant fever is apt to be typhoid in character ; 
prostration and delirium often terminate the case. It most frequently 
attacks high livers of an advanced age. 

Treatment. — During the formation, apply either fomentations and 
poultices, or cold water dressing. An incision in the form of a cross 
should be made free and early, which may be followed by caustic appli- 
cations, in order that the dying parts may thoroughly be removed. 
After this is done, the wound is to receive ordinary treatment. 

Chilblain's (Pernio). 

This is an affection of the skin, produced by sudden alternations of 
cold and heat, most commonly affecting the toes, heels, ears, or fingers. 
It is attended with itching, swelling, pain, and slight redness at first ; 
it may afterwards become of a livid hue, with vesications and ulcerative 
fissures, which are difficult to heal. 

Treatment. — Wash the parts thoroughly, and then apply tallow, and 
if on the hands, draw on a pair of old gloves, especially at night. The 
' ' Herbal Ointment " is a sure and rajjid cure for chilblains. 

Burns and Scalds. 

There are three principal divisions of these injuries, which may be 
produced by hot fluids, vapor, flame, or solids. 

1st. Those which produce mere redness and inflammation, termina- 
ting in resolution, and perhaps desquamation. 

2d. Those causing blisters on the skin, which often dry up and heal ; 
but if the true skin has been injured and inflamed, suppuration, and 
ulceration vnll result. 

od. Those causing the death of the part, in which there is not much 
pain, and which are followed by sloughs. 

Extensive burns, even if superficial, are very dangerous, and those 
upon the trank are more dangerous than those upon the extremities. 
The symptoms are paleness and shivering, with a feeble, quick pulse, 
often prostration, coma, and death. The greatest danger is during the 
first four or five days, from collapse ; subsequently from an affection of 
the head, chest, or abdomen, or from prostration. 

Treatment. — Bathing the part in cold water will mitigate the pain, 
heat, and inflammation. Afterwards it must be protected from the air 


by raw cotton, or some bland unctuous substance. My ' ' Herbal Ointment " 
gives instantaneous relief. Glycerine and carbolic acid are used by 
some, and linseed oil and lime water, or linseed oil, prepared chalk, and 
vinegar, by others. The indication is only to exclude the air. The 
blisters should be discharged of their contents, care being- taken that the 
skin is not removed. The nervous excitement is to be calmed by 
opium, and sinking prevented by stimulants, but care is to be taken 
that over-stimulation does not result. The separation of sloughs is to 
be promoted by rest, poultices, and fomentations. In joints passive mo- 
tion is to be made to prevent stiffness. 

Goitre (Bronchocele). 

This is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, an organ that if it 
performs any functions at all, does so only in foetal life. It generally 
commences by moderate increase of the gland, or thickening of the 
neck, and advances gradually until a portion or the whole gland be- 
comes enormously swollen. It causes dyspnoea, and sometimes obstructs 
circulation to the brain, when the tumor acquires considerable mag- 
nitude. It is more common to females than males, and generally^ occurs 
before puberty. The species of idiocy sometimes associated wittf goitre 
is called Cretinism. 

Treatment. — Alteratives and discutients. The alteratives, svich as 
Btillingia, rock -rose, etc. , are to be preferred, and externally iodine may 
may be applied. Those who may desire my counsel m this disease 
nxe referred to page 390. 

Rupture (Herni.\). 

This signifiea a protnasion of the abdominal \'iscera. The predispos- 
in"- cause is a weakness of the abdominal walls, at the natural open- 
ings. This weakness may be increased by injury, disease, or pregnancy, 
or it may also be due to congenital difficulty. The exciting causes 
are muscular exertion, jumping, straining, playing on wind instru- 
ments, coughing, lifting weights, tight clothes, parturition, straining at 
Btool, etc. 

Hernia is divided, according to the site of the protusion, into incpdnal, 
ventro-iitffiiinal. umbilical, ventral, perineal, vaginal, pudendal, thyroi- 
deal, and iwhiatic ; in condition, into reducible, irreducible, and stran- 
gulated, and if the contents arc entirely intestinal it is called enterocele, 
but if it contains omentum it is termed epiplocele. 

The symptoms of hernia are a painful swelling forming at some 
part of the abdomen, which is compressible and soft, and can be made 
to disaiipear by pressure in the proper direction, and it often disappears 
Bpontaneously. An enterocele is smooth, elastic, and globular, retires 


suddenly and with a gairg-ling noise. An epiplocele is more irregular 
in form, has a doughy feel, and retires slowly without noise. 

Reducible hernia is one in which the contents of the sac can be reduced 
with proper manipulation. Irreducible hernia is owing to adhesions, 
or from membranous bands stretching across the sac, etc., when the 
contents cannot be replaced; and when the contents of the sac are 
incarcerated, with intlammation and an interruption to the passage 
of fajces, it is called strangulated. The more common forms are the 
inguinal and umbilical. Inguinal hernia is called scrotal when the intes- 
tine has descended from the groin into the scrotum. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in reduction and retention. 
This can only be achieved m the reducible hernia. Reduction is effected 
by a manipulation called taxis, the patient being placed in a recumbent 
position, and the muscles of the abdomen relaxed ; gentle and steady 
pressure is made by the hand in the direction of the descent. Retention 
is effected by continued and suitable pressure by means of the pad of a 
well-fitting truss. By constant and caref id use of a truss, a radical cure 
may be effected. A lobelia emetic, or the patient may be chloroformed, 
to relax the muscles, may be resorted to, if replacement cannot be per- 
formed without them. In irreducible hernia, the treatment consists in 
carefidly regvdatmg the bowels, avoiding great exertions, and wearing a 
suitable truss to prevent further protrusion. Strangulated hernia, if it 
cannot be reduced by taxis, becomes a subject for the surgeon. Radi- 
cal cures may also be performed by the surgeon. 

I have constantly manufactured for my patients a most excellent 
truss, which effects many cures. It is a light appliance, and occasions 
no pain or inconvenience to the wearer. It is the most comfortable 
truss that can be worn, is 
cleanly and durable, and 
easily adjusted. It is called 
the " Champion Truss" — 
a distinction to which it is 
clearly entitled. It is the 
greatest triumph of skill 
and genius ever attained 
in this or any other coun- 
try for the retention and radical cure of hernia or rupture. Its quali- 
ties may be briefly stated, as follows, viz. : — 

It is worn with perfect ease and safety. 

It keej)s its place under all circu7mtances. 

It never gets out of order. 

/te pressure is equalized a-nd gentle. 

It makes no pressure on the sjdiie. 

It is a/ppUaxble to single or ihublc rupture. 

Dr. O Phelps Brown's Champion Truss. 



These qualities are all that are required of a truss, either for reten- 
tion or cure, aud any trass lacking in any of them does not fulful its 
purjwse, and is capable of doing great injury. Its perfect adjustment 
is weU represented in the following cuts. The most violent paroxysms 

Front View. Back View. • '^ 

of coughing, muscular exertion, falls, etc., will not move it from its 
properly applied position. This indispensable quality of retention must 
be possessed by every truss, otherwise it is useless. 

Patients desu-ing the " Champion Truss," will please send the follow- 
ing measurement, viz., around the body where the truss is worn, and 
Btate whether right, left, or double. Trusses of the highest mechanical 
perfection are also furnished for every other variety of rupture. 

The price of the "Champion Truss," with medical advice pertaining 
thereto, is twelve dollars. 


The eye is one of the most delicate as well as the most complicated 
organs of the body, and its diseases are but very imperfectly understood 
by the ordmary practitioner. A great deal of mischief has been done by 
improper treatment of diseases of the eye, and I may also include the 
ear, and many persons who now mourn the loss of sight and hearmg, 
partially or wholly so, might yet be in enjoyment of those senses if they 
but had received the proper treatment. Under this head I shall include 
those diseases only which are capable of treatment in domestic practice. 

This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva or mucous membrane of 
the eyelids. The sensation is as if particles of sand had insinuated 
themselves beneath the Uds, accompanied by heat, paiu, and increased 


lafihrymal secretion, also intolerance of light. In severe cases, head- 
ache, nausea, constipation, loss of appetite, etc., are present. The 
causes of this form of inflammation are mostly local, as particles of 
sand, dust, insects, etc. 

Treatment. — Remove the cause. If due to foreign particles in the 
eye, they should be removed. Bathe the eye thoroughly in water, rub- 
bing towards the nose. If iron or steel is suspected, a vial cork, rubbed 
smooth with flannel, should be touched to all parts of the eye, which 
will remove the particles. WTien the eye is relieved, a mQd purgative 
may be given, and cold water applications made to the eye. In severer 
cases, lotions of nitrate of sUver, sulphate of zinc, etc. , become neces- 

Catarrhal Ophthalmia. 

This is due to exposure to cold. The white of the eye becomes in- 
flamed and very red, and generally there is a thin mucous discharge, which 
in severe cases becomes thick and purulent. This condition of the eye 
is accompanied by chilliness, aching of the bones, and some degree of 

Treatment. — Apply cold soft water to the eyes with little muslin 
packs, and give a purgative. If this will not relieve the inflammation, 
cold slippery-elm ijoultices, or the domestic practice of applying ' ' smear 
case " to the eyes, may be resorted to. In obstinate or chronic cases a 
solution of four grains of sulphate of zinc to the ounce of water may be 
applied two or three times a day with a small brush. The eye should 
also be bathed with a decoction of golden seal. My ' ' Herbal Ointment " 
(page 469) is excellent in all ophthalmic diseases. 

Purulent Ophthalmia. 

The symptoms of this disease peculiar to children are similar to the 
Catarrhal Ophthalmia of adults. The eyes are kept constantly closed, 
the lids are red and swollen, and glued together by thick purulent mat- 
ter becoming dry. The skin is dry and the bowels irregular. It is 
generally due to exposure to damp and cold, injuries in washing the 
child, acrid matter, or to a scrofulous con.stitution. 

Treatment.— In the treatment of this affection the eyes should be 
thoroughly washed in a cold, weak solution of hydrastin, four or five 
times a day. Saturate packs with cold water, containing a little tinc- 
ture of lobelia, and apply to the eyes and change when they grow warm. 
The bowels should be kept open with gentle laxatives. Some cases may 
need a solution of vegetable caustic, sulphate of zinc, or nitrate of 
silver. If caused by a scrofulous condition, use alteratives, of which 
the " Compound extract of Rock-rose and Stillingia " is the best (see page 


Scrofulous OrnTnALMiA. 

This disease is chiefly confined to children. The child scarcely can 
bear the light, the lids are spasmodically closed, and the head constantly 
turned away from the light. The eye is not very red, but a few of the 
large vessels are considerable injected. It is very liable to recur, and 
may jirove obstinate, and cause ulceration of the cornea. 

Treatment.— In this disease it is very important that the general 
health should be looked after. The local treatment before advised 
should be resorted to, and the constitutional treatment should be veiy 
active and energetic. 

Stye (Hordeolum). 

This is a small painful pustide on the margin of the eyelid, having its 
origin in ciliary follicles. 

Treatment. — It may usually be cured by applying spirits of harts- 
horn by means of a small steel needle, puncturing the tumor slightly. 
If this does not remove the inflammation, slippeiy-elm poultices should 
be applied, and tonics and alteratives given. 


This complaint is due to anaesthesia of the optic nerve. The patient 
sees objects indistinctly, even when they are lit up by a bright light ; 
they appear surrounded with a fog or mist, and no effort nor the em- 
ployment of artificial means increase the distinctness. The outlines 
of objects appear not only indistinct, but also broken, and thus dis- 
figured, the faculty of distinguishing colors is frequently lost, and 
double vision is not infrequent. This condition, as above described, is 
more properly amhly(/pi<-(-, it is only called amaurosis when the vision is 
entirely lost. 

Treatment. — Electro-galvanism is one of the most promising reme- 
dies. Powdered bay-berry root, taken as snuff, is occasionally useful. 
Blisters behind the ear often afl;ord relief. Nux vomica should also be 
given. The disease is often very obstinate, but I have cured some of 
the most unpromising cases. 

Foreign Bodies in the Eyes. 

These should be sought for by inverting the lids, and having the 
patient turn the eyes in every direction. If it be found to adhere 
to the mucous membrane of the cornea or conjunctiva, it can usually be 
removed by a silk handkerchief wrapped aroivnd a probe. If lime, 
mortar, or lye should get into the eye, it should be removed, and the eye 
washed with a weak solution of vinegar aud water. The en.suiug 
inflammation Khould receive usual treatment. If the forei^jn bodies 


enter tbe interior chamber of the eye, the surgeon should only re- 
move it. 

Foreign Substances in the Ear. 

Children frequently put peas, beans, kernels of com, etc., into the 
ear, which, if allowed to remain, will produce active inflammation. 
Foreign bodies may also enter the ear by accident. These should 
all be quickly removed. It should be done by syringing the ear with 
warm water, or by means of forceps. Excessive accumulation of wax 
is to be removed by syringing with warm water frequently, and not 
by ear-scoops. 

Ear Ache (Otalgia). 

This is a neuralgic affection, and is caused by local inflammation, 
cold and exposure, and carious teeth. 

Treatment. ^ — If caused by inflammation, a warm poultice of slip- 
pery-elm, moistened with laudanum, should be appUed, and frequently 
changed. If caused by carious teeth they should be removed ; sweet 
oil and laudanum dropped in the ear often gives relief, and the common 
practice of blowing hot tobacco smoke into the ear is also usefiU. 

Many of the eye and ear diseases are surgical in their character, such 
as strabismus, a few cases of cataract, etc. , but a great many of them 
are amenable to medical treatment. Even cataract, which heretofore 
was considered eminently surgical, may in many cases be entirely cured 
by medicinal treatment alone. I have cured a case, in which there was 
total bhndness for ten years, in the short space of two months. The 
patient ever since is in the full enjojonent of sight. My treatment has 
also been equally successful in cases of deafness. I regard all cases 
subject to relief or cure in which the tympanum or drum of the ear is 
not destroyed. If persons suffering from chronic diseases of the eye or 
ear wall write and state their cases fully to me, I will cheerfully give 
my oiDinion by return mail. 


Cancer (Carcinoma). 

This is a malignant tumor. In the first stage it is hard, in the second 
stage it ulcerates. The seat of cancer is in the female breast, the skin, 
the tongue, the stomach, the womb, the lips, etc. It rarely occurs in 
subjects under thirty years of age. It is at first a small hard tumor, 
movable, but eventually it forms deep and superficial attachments. It 
grows in general slowly, is irregular in shape, and painful. The pain is 
mostly sharp, lancinating, and is much increased on pressure. In the 


course of time tbe tissiie beneath the skin is absorbed, and becomes 
attached to it, and it presents a bluish, nodulated appearance. Ulcer- 
ation usually takes place by absorption of the skin, and as sloughing 
proceeds, the edges become ragged and everted, having a bluish puiple 
color, and discharges a fetid, sanious jius. 

There are five varieties of cancer, though microscopically they are 
essentially the same. 

Scir}'/iiis is hard, firm, and transparent, and of a grayish color, occur- 
ring most frequently in the female breast, skin, etc. 

UncepJudoid is soft and brainlike in its appearance, and hemorrhagic m 
character, frequently met with in the globe of the eye, testes, nares, etc. 

Colloid resembles glue or honey ia the comb, and usually occurs in the 
internal viscera. 

Melanosis, or melanotic cancer, is of a black color, either soft or hard, 
and occurs mostly upon serous membranes. 

Ejiitheli(d cancer is usually found upon the lips. 

These various forms may exist separately, or one variety may beesso- 
ciated with or take the place of another. 

Treatment. — As long as this disease was regarded as purely local in 
character, the only treatment resorted to was extirpation either by cau- 
terizing agents or by the knife ; but since the pathology of tlie disease is 
better understood, and its constitutional character ascertained, the treat- 
ment employed has been considerably modified. I have long ago held 
that cancer was a constitutional affection, so instructed my patients, and 
based my treatment upon that opinion. 

It is well to remove the tumor by the knife or cautery, but the liabil- 
ity to recurrence is always great unless constitutional treatment is em- 
ployed. The cauterizing agents are blood-root and chloride of zinc 
made into a paste, and then applied to the cancer, the skin ha%'ing first 
been removed by a blister. This is reapplied until the whole mass is 
dead, when in course of time it comes away as a slough. The expressed 
juices of poke, laui-el, blood-root, and yellow-dock answer the same pur- 

The constitutional treatment consists in toning up the general system, 
abstaining from fatty diet, bathing, and the employment of alterative 
treatment. Recently, a plant has been brought into notice by the name 
of CunduraiKjo {Equntoiia Garciana, see page 74) which is destined to 
revolutionize the treatment of cancer. I have tried it in several cases, 
and it answered every exiiectation. I regard it as a virtual specific in 
cancer, and shall, notwithstanding its vciy high price, employ it in every 
case, thereby hoping to make my success in the treatment of this malig- 
nant disease more certain. It is a matter of regret that spurious arti- 
cles are in the market, thus bringing the genuine article, which is yec 
dilficult to obtain, into disrepute. 



SypMlis is occasioned by a specific poison which is conveyed by con- 
tagion or actual contact. It first shows itself upon the genital organs in 
the form of a small yellowish pimple, or pimples, the presence of which 
is at first made manifest by itching and slight soreness. The pimples 
(called chancres) break, and gradually change into a red, hard-edged 
shallow ulcer. This ulcer is circular or oval in form, and is surrounded 
by a ragged border. The skin and tissue in the immediate vicinity be- 
come inflamed, and, unless proper remedies be immediately applied, the 
virus is absorbed into the system, and the consequences are of the most 
deplorable character. There are many kinds of chancre, viz : — inflam- 
matory, indurated or hard, sloughing or perishing, phagedenic or eat- 
ing, and gangrenous or likely to mortify. Next in order, if stringent 
curative measures be not adopted, is the bubo^ which is a swelling of the 
glands of the groin, caused by the absorption of the poison. The bubo 
wUl usually make its appearance in about a fortnight after the sore is 
discovered. It advances to suppuration, and also becomes a sore, when 
it receives the name of " glandular chancre." Sometimes growths re- 
sembling certain vegetables ajipear, in the male, upon the organ and on 
the membrane lining of the foreskin. In the female, they will be found 
in and at the entrance of the vagina, and sometimes on the neck of the 
womb. These are primary symptoms, and, if quickly but radically extir- 
pated or cured, will not result in any very serious constitutional derange- 
ment ; but if neglected, the virus is absorbed into the blood, and the 
infection reaches the entire system. When the disease becomes consti- 
tutional, the results are most deplorable. The syiDhilitic ulcer then 
appears at various parts of the body, more usually upon the arm and 
forearm, f orehetid, shin and chest. These ulcers are quite characteristic, 
so that the experienced surgeon at once knows their specific nature upon 
sight. The affections of the skin and mucous membrane are called 
secondary^ those appearing upon the bones, etc., are tertiary. In these 
advanced stages of the disease the gravity is .such as should urge each 
affected person to employ comjDetent surgical or medical aid, and not 
longer to postpone svich active treatment as is required. Neglect of so 
important a duty on the part of the patient will result seriously to him, 
as the progress of the disease is unerringly from bad to worse in every 

Treatment. — In primary syphUis, the chancre should be destroyed 
effectually by nitrate of silver, nitric acid, or caustic potash, and heal 
the parts by mUd dressing. If this is effectually done, with projier con- 
stitutional treatment, no secondary symptoms wUl supervene. 


In secondary and tertiary syphilis the treatment is very important, 
and must be correct in order to eliminate the disorganizing taint. 

The treatment is necessarily alterative and tonic. The following may 
each be specifically employed, either singly or judiciously combined : — 
Phytolaccin, corj-dalin, chiraaphilin, tincture of kalmia, menispermin, 
ceanothus americanus, sarsaparilla, stillingia, and by some iodide of 
potassium, but never mercury. Mercury in any form is not a specific, 
and in effects most pernicious. When buboes appear, they should be 
discussed by a mixture of tincture of iodine, 31].; tincture of arnica, 
3 ij. ; tincture of scrophularia, 3 ij- This should be applied by wetting 
pads of linen with it and securing them by adhesive strips. If sup- 
puration has taken place, the treatment of abscess is to be employed. 

During treatment, the patient should abstain from all fat meats, 
spirituous liquors, and excesses of every kind. 

If any person is conscious that he or she is affected with a syphilitic 
taint they should never many, for the offspring will surely be miserable 
objects of pity, and conjugal bliss very uncertain. The taint mu*t be 
thoroughly eradicated, so that not a vestige remains, before a marriage, 
physically pure, can occur. 

If rightly treated, sjiihilis is not a formidable to cure, yet 
how many suffer hopelessly on, after having for years been subjected to 
mercurial treatment. Purely chemical herbal treatment will only re- 
move the serious disorder from the system, as attested by the thousands 
of cases under my treatment, in which every trace of the disease has 
been obUterated from the economy. 


This Ls vulgarily known as dap, so named from the French clajrpe, 
a bow-string. It received this name on account of the chordee occurring 
in the disease. This is caused by the %'iolcnce of the inflammation, 
which abnormally expands the cavernous body of the organ and is pain- 
fully drawn dowmwanls, so that the urethra occupies the relative posi- 
tion of the string to a bow-gun. 

This is a of the mucous membrane which lines the private 
parts of the male and female, and is communicated as is syphilis, by 
contagion, or actual contact. It commences with itchiug and uneasi- 
ness about the private parts, and a peculiar feeling of soreness in the 
urethra, or urinary canal. A scalding sensation is also felt when the 
patient makes water. In a day or two a whitish matter makes its ap- 
pearance at the orifice of the urethra, and this will soon increase greatly 
in quantity, and assume a greenish-yellow color. The parts will be 
much inflamed, and the urethra will become thickened and very sore. 
The consistency and (luantity of the pus-like discharge vary in different 
persons. It usually makes its appearance in from three to five days 


after exposure. It may propagate itself upon other mucous membranes 
after inoculation. 

Treatment. — A purgative should be taken at first, and at the same 
time the parts should be thoroughly packed with cold or hot water. 
The following are the remedies mostly employed as internal remedies •. 
— Oil of copaiba and cubebs, matico, gelsemin, oil of erigeron, oil of 
tui-pentine, etc. These oils should be taken in medium doses, and in em- 
ulsion with acacia, etc. The internal injections are vegetable astrin- 
gents, sugar of lead, sulphate of zinc, etc. The injections should not be 
strong, and be carefully made, otherwise orchitis may follow. Applying 
cold water relieves the chordee. 

The treatment is not difficult, and, if properly directed, will soon re- 
lieve the patient. 


This is one of the results of abused or neglected gonorrhoea. It is a 
continued discharge of a thin and clear character, after the inflamma- 
tory and painful early symptoms have disappeared. It is caused by de- 
debility of the parts, or by unhealthy action of the glands in the 
tainary passage. It is sometimes, especially in persons of a scrofulous 
habit, a fixture for years, and constitutes a drain upon the system, the 
effects of which can only be obviated by the most scrupulous care and 
attention. The old style of treatment involved the of cauterizing 
injections, and the bougie, together with blisters applied to the peri- 
noBum. It had the effect of imperfectly remedying, or else of aggravat- 
ing the complaint, and rendering it next to impossible of cure. 

Treatment.- -Same as for acute gonorrhoea, but it should be more 

Those who may wish to intrust their cases to my treatment, may 
rest assured that they will be quickly cured, and everything held con- 
fidential. The fear of exposure docs frequently much mischief, and the 
dread of losing caste in society, or a feeling of shame, often tempts the 
sufferer to withhold his case from the family physician for treatment, or 
he may endure his mental and physical torture in silence as long as he 
can, and then finally intrust his case to the ignorance of a companion, 
who may know some recipe, or he may employ the treatment of some 
incompetent, uneducated physician, found everywhere, especially in 
large cities, who also maltreats the case, so that finally the disease, which 
at first was readily curable, has become a very serious affection. 

The wrong of such a course is obvious, and I advise the reader, who 
has or may become unfortunate in this respect, to confide his or her 
case to some honorable and competent physician, as soon as the disease 
manifests itself. 



This is a couditiou of the org-anism characterized by loss of vitality, or 
deterioration and diminution in the quality and tone of the vital forces. 
It is one of the chief predisposing causes of disease, and is of itself a 
condition characterized by all the elements of ill health. The principal 
causes of delnlity are improper nourishment, impure air, excessive 
bodUy and mental exercise, want of exercise, long exposure to intense 
heat or cold, intemperance, depressing states of the mind, and of course 
a prostrative disease. When not a heritage of the organism, it is gen- 
erally produced by some flagrant violation of physiological law, deplet- 
ing the vital forces by the disorganization of organic functions which 
ensues, or by the loss of vital elements through the eliminating organs, 
chiefly the kidneys. 

That the reader may have a correct understanding of what is meant 
by vitality, it may be weU to give its physiological sense. Though derived 
from the Latin vita^ life, it has a somewhat different signification from 
that which is expressed by the word life. It signifies the constituent 
principle or essence of life rather than the entity itself. Hence vitality 
is not properly life, but the element conducive to its perfection and pro- 
longation. It is that principle that gives to the physical organization its 
vigor, elasticity, and tone, to the mental organs, acuteness, vivacity and 
sprightliness, and to the whole organisni a high standard of health. 
If the habits are not in violation of hygiene or physiology, and the 
expenditure of the vital forces not exceeding the production, the normal 
condition of the organism would be one of health and vigor, and almost 
complete immunity from disease. If the expenditure exceeds the pro- 
duction it engenders the condition termed debUity: Improper and sin- 
ful habits of life, especially in the young, are alarmingly destructive of 
vitality in consequence of engendering diseases characterized by losses 
of vital secretions. The intemperate very frequently incur the penalty 
of over-indvilgence in intoxicating beverages by inducing structural 
diseases of the internal organs, especially Bright's disease of the kidney, 
wherein the blood becomes devitalized by loss of its albumen through 
the urine. In the male economy at an age often quite immature 
there is induced an affection characterized by involuntary expenditure 
of a secretion, directly by an improper and sinful life. The element 
thus constantly expended, and which occurs invariably without any 
exercise of the voluntary powers, is beyond all (piestion the most 
highly organized and more intrinsically vital than any other secre- 
tion of the organism. This affection, peculiarly ma.sculiue, is one of 
the most prolific causes of debility, and is conducive to greater physical 
misfortune than any other pathological condition induced by violation 
of physiological laws. The chemical nature of the secretion is highly 
phoephatic, and as phosphorus is a very important constituent of nerve 


tissue, its constant involuntary escape from the organism, whether in 
the urine or otherwise, preys fearfully upon the nerve tissue for phos- 
phatic supply, and eventually, and often quite rai)idly, produces atony 
of the nerve-centres, and a general intonicity of the nervous system, or 
what is more commonly known as nervous debility. Of the various sys- 
tems composing the organism the nervous can least afford to lose its 
vitality, or to become enfeebled. It is the principal or controlling sys- 
tem of the organism, the others being more or less subordinate. If by 
any depleting causes its just complement of the vital forces becomes 
reduced, its individual integrity is not alone compromised or destroyed, 
but muscular action, circulation, digestion, assimilation, and the mental 
operations also become enfeebled, hence the vitai standard of the nervous 
system is of extreme importance to the general welfare of the whole 

Precisely the same pathological condition results from another cause, 
a sedentary habit of life. It is due to such exciting causes that clergy- 
men and other persons of sedentary habits suffer so frequently from 
nervous or general debility. When the muscular system is permitted 
to degenerate from want of proper exercise it gives to the organism 
a condition of laxity or intonicity which in the male induces the pre- 
viously mentioned loss of a highly vitalized secretion, and in the female 
an uncompensated loss of nervo-electric force. Debility is the result 
in both cases, though the devitalization is more rapid in the male, pro- 
portionally to the physical vigor inherent to the different sexes, than in 
the female. This is explained by the fact that in the male economy 
a greater loss of the phosphates occurs. In all persons of studious 
habits, and where bodOy exercise is insufBcient, the urine is loaded 
with phosphates, which is indicative of the breaking down of nerve 
tissue. Consequently in the male there is not only the usual phosphoric 
loss due to nervous waste, but the sujier-addition of the involuntary 
loss of a secretion which, as has been stated, is highly phosphatic in 
its chemical nature, makes the depletion of the phosphorus essential to 
a vital condition of the organism, doubly great. 

In a debilitated condition of the nervous system, or, as it is usually 
denominated, nervous debility, from whatever cause the loss of vitality 
may ensue, there is in general quite a train of symptoms, as may be sup- 
posed when this more important part of the economy has become devi- 
talized. This form of debility may usually be recognized hj a marked 
facial expression, a characteristic mannerism, and by a peculiar mental 
state. The skin of the face is pale and sallow, and usually affected with 
acne ; there is a dark circle around the orbits, the pupils are dilated and 
sluggish, the eyes become lustreless, and the face has a haggard, trou- 
bled furtive expression. These physiognomic characteristics are due to 
atony or want of tone in the cerebral nerve-centres, and from the same 


cause the devitalized patient is listless, shy, retiring and easily con- 
fused, society loses its charms, and solitude is preferred, but has, how- 
ever, no compensating or satisfying influence over the patient. There 
is a want of steadiness and decision in his locomotion, his inferior ex- 
tremities are deficient in power, and all the movements are suggestive 
of a mind ill at ease. The mental operations are confused, speech be- 
comes awkward and often without directness ; memory is defective, and 
the patient is usually absent-minded and given to reverie. Pains in the 
lumbar region, and a sense of weight and aching in the loins are experi- 
enced. The appetite is capricious, and digestion feeble. The mind is 
deficient in power of attention, the imagination is constantly peiwaded 
with vague erotic dreams, the moral sense is blunted and the perceptions 
are dull and confused. Pains in the course of the principal nerves and 
extreme nervous sensibility are experienced. The patient also can fix 
his mind on any subject with difficulty ; his attention wanders, and he 
is given to day-dreams and erotic visions. 

The urine, of course, contains phosphates, the source of \^hich, 
whether nervous or secretional, is easily determined by analyzation or 
microscopical examination. Urates are also found in the urine. Those 
who suspect such vital loss, may with sufficient certainty for all practi- 
cal purposes ascertain the fact by a simple experiment. The morning 
urine should be placed in a clean half-pint bottle, and let it stand from 
forty-eight to seventy-two hours. If there is then found a remarkably 
peculiar or cloudy sediment or deposit at the bottom, the fact is quite 
evident that some of the losses alluded to occur, and proper aid should 
be sought at once. 

Such, briefly, are the e\idences of a devitalized nervous system. The 
condition, as is palpable to every one, is fraught with danger to the 
general welfare, and even to life, if the process of depletion of the vital 
forces continues too long, or if, by special virulence of the exciting 
cause, the devitalization is rapid in occurrence. Any loss of vital power 
should be regarded with solicitude and deep concern by every one who 
places a proper estimation upon vigor of the organism and its special 
functions. Careful and judicious treatment must not be neglected, 
as by such a course only can revitalization be speedily and adequately 
effected. As soon as loss of vital force becomes apparent, so soon 
should the services of a competent and experienced physician be en- 
gaged. In any stage of devitalization, rehabilitation of the organism 
with vitality can again be accomplished, the only requirement being 
employment of competent medical aid, and the exhibition of vitalizing 
remedies. Revitalization can, however, only be effected by herbal re- 
medies, as their organic nature alone affords the elements required for 
reiiudowment of the system with vital force. Minerals are lifeless, and 
can therefore impart no vital element. 


Those desiring to consult the author with reference to debility or 
loss of vitality from any cause whatever, may refer to page 385, where 
his mode of treatment is described, and to page 300, where the neces 
sary questions are asked. 


This is a disease characterized by a constant and insatiable desire for 
coition, and so called because the satyrs of mythology were greatly ad- 
dicted to excesses. The disease is accompanied by a strange power of 
frequent congress without exhaustion. It is a nervous disease, depend- 
ent upon a disordered state of the cerebellum. 

Treatment.— It can be cured by alow diet, frequent shower baths, 
physical out-door labor, ice bags to the cerebellum, a hard bed, and 
hop pillows. 

Stricture of the Urethra. 

This is a diminution or contracted condition of the tube, and may be 
eithev s^wsnwdie or permnne/it. Spasmodic stricture depends on spasm 
of the muscles of the perineum, or upon contraction of the muscukir 
portion of the urethra. Exposure to cold and indulgence in drink 
favor an attack, which usually occurs after dinner. It generally occurs 
in persons with permanent obstruction. The urine is suddenly retained , 
the desire to urinate causes incessant straining, the bladder becomes dis- 
tended, the countenance anxious, the pulse quick, the skin hot, and at 
last the urine dribbles, or the bladder may burst, and extravasation oc- 
curs into the peritoneeum or perinajum. There is another varietj' of this 
aifection, termed inflammatory stricture, caTised by abuse of injections, 
exposure, or intemperance during acute gonorrhoea. 

Fermanen t stricture is a contraction from permanent inflammation, 
plastic deposit having taken place in the tissue beneath the mucous 
membrane. The occasion of this inflammation m^ay be gonorrhoja, vene- 
ry, kicks or blows, riding on horseback, acrid urine, drinking, etc. It 
is situated frequently in the membranous portion of the urethra, 
usually a few inches from the meatus. The extent and degree of con- 
traction vary. Sometimes the stricture is verj' tight, but limited, as if 
a thread had been tied around the urethra ; more frequently it is of 
greater extent, containing from a quarter of an inch to several inches. 
Several strictures may exist at once. Permanent stricture comes on 
gradually, occurring mostly in middle-aged men. Urination is frequent, 
tedious, and painful ; the stream is thin, twisted, or forked ; and a few 
drops pass after urination, which had collected behind the stricture. 
There is pain in the periuajum, thighs, and loins ; erection is often jjainful ; 
chill and fever constantly occurrmg as in ague ; the testicles, rectum, and 
bowels sympathize, and the general health is greatly impaired. It is a 


disease that causes extreme annoyance, pain, and dLsorder, and should 
receive early and competent treatment. 

Treatment. — The indication iu spasmodic stricttire is to overcome 
the spasm, and relieve the bladder. This is usually effected by warm 
hip baths, Dover's powder, laudanum enemata, and cold water upon the 
genitals. A favorable mental impression is made by pouring water 
from a can, in a small stream, from some height, into a vessel containing 
water, in imitation of urination. A few sniffs of ether will usually 
relax the spasm, but if these means fail, the urine should be drawn of by 
a catheter. 

In permanent stricture dilntntwn by means of flexible bougies is the 
usual method of cure. Great caution is necessary in the use of these. 
Some use caustic applications, and in some cases puncturation is resort- 
ed to. In some cases opening the urethra may be necessary, as the stric- 
ture is so extensive and complete that no other means ai"e available. 

These surgical means may at times be necessary, but I have curbed very 
many cases by purely medicinal treatment, and it is very seldor^ that J 
employ bougies, but compel absorption of the deposit by alterative 
treatment. In some cases, however, I frequently combine dilatation 
with medication. Those desiring consultation are referred to page 390. 


This is inflammation of the prostate gland. It usually accompanies 
gonorrhoea, but may exist independently. The discharge is similar to 
that of urethral inflammation, and when the result of chronic inflam- 
mation the discharge is called prostatorrhoea. The gland is frequently 
enlarged. Chronic inflammation is commonly brought on by gleet, stric- 
ture, horse exercise, etc., and is most frequently met with in advanced 
life, and disappears upon the removal of the cause. The gland is also 
enlarged in old persons — a hypertrophy independent of inflammation. 
The bladder sympathizes, and becomes ii'ritable ; the urine is foetid, mu- 
cous, and its stains are often retaiued. It causes mo.^t intense suffering. 

Tkeatment. — Leeches, rest, counter-ii-ritation, alteratives, laxatives, 
and enemata constitute the usual treatment. In hypertrophy of tho 
organ, the usual treatment should be instituted. The medicinal treat- 
ment, as in stricture, is important, and should only be intrusted to those 
who fully understand the anatomy of the organ, and the pathology of 
the disease. 


This is the liernia hurrwralis of older writers. Swelled testide is a com- 
mon accompaniment of mumps. It is often the result of an injury, but 
oftencr of gonorrhrea and its treatment ; exercise, wet and cold often in- 
duce it. Tho gland enlarges greatly, fever attends, causing intense pain. 


It is usually confined to one of the glands, and mostly the epididymis. 
The cord is often swollen and painful. 

Treatment. — Low diet and the recumbent position are essential 
Th'3 weight of the tumor should be supported by a suspensory bandage. 
After the acute symjitoms have subsided, friction with astringent lotions, 
and compression by adhesive straps, will be useful. The hardness and 
swelling are likely to remain unless discussed by the alteratives. 


This is a varicose condition of the veins of the spermatic cord. The 
causes are such as to i^roduce obstruction to the return of blood: 
constipation, corpulence, tight belts around the abdomen, and warm 
climate. It is usually coexistent with genital weakness. The left 
side is more frequently affected than the right, because the left sperma- 
tic vein is more likely to be compressed by the fasces in the sigmoid or 
S-shaped flexure of the rectum, and because it is longer and not so di- 
rect in its course. The swelling is pear-shaped and feels lUce a bunch 
of earth-worms. 

Treat.ment. — The cause, if ascertained, should be removed, and the 
scrotum constantly bathed in cold water, and supported with a suspen- 
soiy bandage. 

The veins are sometimes obliterated by a surgical operation. It can 
usually be overcome by proper medical treatment, however, and the 
operation should only be the last resort. 

I use for my patients a self -ad justing susi^ensory bandage, which can 
be so arranged that any extent of compression can be made, and which 
in construction is simi^le and very durable. It is the only perfect sus- 
pensory bandage or scrotal supporter luade, and the only one from 
which any great benefit can be expected. It is eminently serviceable in 
this disease as well as in orchitis, and no one suffering from these dis- 
eases should do without them. Sent by mail, postage prepaid, on 
receipt of $3. 

Diseases op the Female Oroajjs op Gekeration. 

The genitalia of the female is the controlling centre of her whole 
economy. If the womb and its appendages are in a healthy state, the 
female figure preserves its artistic rotundity, her mind its spriglitliness, 
and her humanity its benevolence and sympathy. When diseased, she 
becomes fretful, peevish, and inconsolable. The province of the phy- 
sician, therefore, becomes one of great importance, and it is his duty that 
he should not only thoroughly understand the pathology of uteruie dis- 
eases, but in his humanity he should combine a fine feeling of compas- 
sion, with correct ideas of the treatment required. He should prove 


worthy of the trust confided to him, in sympathy, considerateness, and 
skill. " 

No greater trust can fall upon him ; he is not only accountable foi 
the physical welfare of the patient, but bears a further resjionsibility. 
If his treatment is not judicious and rational, his patient becomes a 
victim to a gloomy depression of spirits, and to an irrepressible feeling 
of languor and misery, that sternly bid away all brightness of life. He 
will but poorly do his duty if he follows but the beaten track of a 
routine practice, and, after successive trials, consigns his suffering 
patient, by pronouncing her incurable, to a condition but little better 
than the grave. Uterine diseases are not incurable, but when properly 
treated they yield kindly to medication, as the disposition of all womb 
affections is to get well, needing but proper medical assistance to stimu- 
late and ennourage the forces of recuperation to overcome the assaults 
of disease. (See page 390) .x 

Vulvitis. \ 

This is characterized by redness and slight tumefaction of skin, 
covered with mucus, while in neglected cases the parts are found much 
excoriated. It generally arises from want of cleanliness, or from the 
acrid character of the vaginal and uterine secretions. It may, how- 
ever, be produced by excessive marital indulgence or syphilitic taint. 
The symptoms consist of great pain and tenderness, a mucous dis- 
charge, a smarting in passing urine, and a constant pain about the 
ioins and thighs. 

Treatment. — This should be treated by hot packs, elm poiiltices, 
and a wash of a weak solution of sulphate of zinc, or tincture of 
myrrh. Quinine, macrotin and leptandrin should be given internally. 
The parts should be thoroughly cleansed every day. 


Inflammation of the clitoris, both acute and chronic, may exist from 
want of cleanliness, or be produced by indiscretions. It is accom- 
panied with burning, itching, and smarting sensations. Enlargement is 
the usual result of either acute or chronic inllammation, in which case 
there is extension of the labia, producing irritation, and labial leu- 

Trkatment. — When the parts are inflamed, sitz-baths. hot packs, 
and laxatives will usually relieve it. In case of hypertrophy, it may be 
painted once or twice a week with a weak tincture of iodine, and tlie 
compound syrup of stillingia given internally. When there is extensive 
enlargement, amputation .sli )uld be resorted to. 


Imperforate Hymen. 

This is not likely to be discovered until the commencement of men- 
stmation. It may then be suspected, if the female has all the symp- 
toms which accompany the menses, without the discharge of the fluid, 
and if these symptoms should occur at regular periods, accompanied 
with a sense of weight and fulness of the vagina, especially if an 
enlargement is perceptible in the lower abdomen, with paia and ten 

The symptoms ameliorate in a few days, but return at each menstrual 
period. If by inspection a hemispherical tumor, of a livid or bluish 
color, soft and fluctuating, is discovered, the fact is most certain, that 
it is caused by an imperforate hymen. In most cases the membrane is 
thin, but it is sometimes from one-fourth to three- eighths of an inch 

Treatment. — Press the finger against it gently, and attempt to 
lacerate it by the finger-nail. If it will not yield, perforation should 
be made by a proper instrument in the hands of a surgeon. 


This consists of either acute or chronic inflammation of the vagina. 
It may be confined entirely to the mucous membrane, or it may extend 
to the ceUular tissue beneath. It is attended with pain, swelling, 
and redness of the vaginal caual ; the mucous membrane is of a vivid 
red color, and the folds are more developed and prominent than is 
natural. At the first stage there is an arrest of the secretions, but 
after a few days serous exudation occurs, which becomes purulent, and 
of a yellowish or greenish color. The disease may arise from cold, 
which is the most frequent cause ; from injuries to the vagina by 
\'ioleuce, imprudence in the marital association, exertion after delivery, 
high living, etc. 

TiiKATMENT. — A gentle purgative should be taken, and the vagina 
fre(|ueutly injected with warm water, the patient kept quiet, and the 
inflammation controlled by veratrum. Astringent injections are also 
useful The chronic form should be treated as vagmal leucorrhoea. 


Though this is not a disease but a healthy function, but as, from 
various causes, derangement of the function occurs, it is proper that it 
should be perfectly understood. Menstruation is the term applied to 
the phenomenon that attends the rupture of what is called the Gradjian 
follicles of the ovary, and the discharge of an ova, or egg. It is a bloody 
discharge from the female genitals — not differing from ordinary blood, 


excepting' that it does not coagulate, and in its peciiliar odor. The 
blood comes from the capillaries of the womb and vagina. 

Menoplidnia, or the first appearance of the menses, is usually prece- 
ded by a discharge of a fluid whitish matter from the vagina, by 
nervous excitement, and by vague pains and heaviness in the loins and 
thighs; numbness of the limbs, and sv/elling and hardness of the 
breasts. The first appearance is an evidence of capacity for conception. 
It generally appears about the age of fourteen, but varies from nine to 
twenty-four years. In warm climates women begin to menstruate 
earlier, and cease sooner than in temperate regions ; in the cold climates 
the reverse of this holds as a general rule. The manifestations of ap- 
proaching puberty are seen in the development of breasts, the expansion 
of the hips, the rounded contour of the body and limbs, appearance of 
the purely feminine figure, development of the voice, and the child be- 
comes reserved, and exchanges her plays for the pursuits of ^voman- 
hood. .; 

More or less indisposition and irritability also precede each su(fcessive 
recurrence of the menstrual flux, such as headache, lassitude, im- 
easiness, pain in hack, loins, etc. The periods succeed each other 
usually about every twenty-eight days, although it may occur every 
twenty-two, twenty, eighteen, fifteen, or thirty-two, thirty-five, and forty 
days. The most important element is the regularity of the return. In 
temperate climates each menstrual jieriod ordinarily continues from three 
to six days, and the quantity lost from four to eight ounces. The menses 
continue to flow from the period of puberty till the age of forty-five 
or fifty. At the time of its natural cessation, the flow becomes irregu- 
lar, and this iiTegularity is accompanied occasionally with symptoms of 
dropsy, glandular swellings, etc., constituting the crit teal j)Cfio(l, turn, 
or clmiKje, of life ; yet it does not appear that mortality is increased by 
it, as vital statistics show that more men die between forty and fifty 
than women. 

It should be the duty of every mother or female in charge of a child, 
in whom age or actual manifestations suggest the approach of puberty, 
to acquaint her with the nature of her visitation, and the importance of 
her conduct in regard to it. She should be taught that it is perfectly 
natural to all females at a certain period, and that its arrival necessi- 
tates caution on her part with regard to exposure to wet or cold. The 
author has made the acquaintance of the history of many cases of 
consumption, and other diseases, which were directly induced by folly 
and ignorance at the first menstrual flow. The child is often kept in 
extreme ignorance of the liability of womanhood occurring to her at a 
certain age, and hence when she observes a flow of blood escaping from 
■3 part, the delicacy attached to the locality makes her reticent with re- 
gard t^ inquiry or exposure ; she naturally becomes alarmed, and most 


likely attempts to stanch the flow, with bathing or applying cold water 
to the part, thus doing incalculable mischief. 

This purely feminine physiological function should be well studied 
and understood by all females. At least they should know that the 
phenomenon is a natural one, liable to disorder, and that the best 
interests of their general health demands care and prudence on their 
part to maintain regularity, etc. , of the flow. Disregard of such a duty 
will surely entail much misery. 


This may occur in three forms. 1st. "Where evacuation has never oc- 
curred, or retenti/jn of the meases. 2d. Where there has been no secre- 
tion. 3d. Suppression. There are cases where the secretion has been 
perfect, but the discharge prevented by occlusion of the vagina, or im- 
perforate hymen, etc.; again, secretion may never have occurred, owing 
to a congenital deficiency of the ovaries ; and there are cases where 
the uterus and ovaries are sound, yet no flow from the vagina. 
The most common variety, however, is suppression after they had 
once been regularly established. It may cease by degrees, as in con- 
sumptive and scrofulous patients, or occurs as the resiilt of cold, which 
induces inflammation of the uterus or ovaries. It may also be induced 
by excessive venery, wot feet, ice water, insufficient clothing, bathing, 
fear, grief, anxiety, emetics, drastic purgatives, falls, copulation during 
flow, etc. The symptoms are weight, paiu in the head, loins, and uterine 
regions, hot skin, apoplexy and epilepsy in some cases, vicarious hemor- 
rhages, palpitation of the heart, constijiation, chills, loss of appetite, etc. 

Treatment.— Give a hot foot-bath, if the suppression be recent, and 
apply hot mustard poultices to the breasts. Internally give tansy, thyme 
or wintergreen tea, keep the patient warm, and allow but gentle exer- 
cise. A compound decoction of seneca, cotton root, and Indian hemp 
is also very beneficial. In obstinate cases, a hot sitz-bath should be given 
during the operation of the medicine, so as to centre the blood in the 
pelvis. If this does not succeed, the system should be invigorated by 
quinine, blue cohosh, life root, wine, etc., and then the above treatment 
repeated. The chronic form of the disease should be treated by sup- 
porting and invigorating remedies, such as bayberiy, black cohosh, sitz- 
baths, galvanism, tonics, etc. 


Painful menstruation occurs generally in single v/omen, and is produced 
by inflammation or ulceration of the mouth of the womb, neuralgia of 
the womb during menstruation, indiscretions, constipation, and a ner- 
vous irritable temperament. The symptoms are restlessness, heat, 
fhished face, weight and heaviness iu the head, pain in tlie back, and 


pelvic regions, sometimes so severe as to cause fainting'. After a time 
the pain becomes bearing down, accompanied by a shreddy discharge, 
or blood-clots. In yonng and plethoric subjects, but little effect is pro- 
duced on the general health, bi\t in nervous persons the health fails, 
and, not unfrcquentlj, consumption ensues. Women subject to dysmen- 
orrhoea are liable to cancer after the t'lra of life. 

Treatment. — When the disease is produced by inflammation or ulce- 
ration of the mouth of the womb, hot sitz-baths, with hot vaginal injec- 
tions frequently repeated, in connection with ten or fifteen drops of the 
tincture of cravvley every two or three hours, will usually relieve it. 
Mild purges should also be taken. When due to neuralgia, black co- 
hosh should be given, and the treatment of neuralgia instituted. Sene- 
cin, gossypiin, and gelsemin, are also valuable. 'WTien prodiiced by an 
initable constitution, ladics'-slipper, scullcap, etc., should be given. 
Out-door exercises "and a nutritious diet should be prescribed. 


This is characterized by profuse, prolonged, or too frequent menstru- 
ation, separately or conjoined. It is accompanied by headache, hot 
skin, full pulse, weight in the back, hips, loins, pelvis, etc. It is caused 
by hot rooms, abortion.s, leucorrhcsa, falls, maiital excesses, long walks, 
constipation, etc. The health gives way, the patient becomes bloodless, 
and exhaustion ensues upon the least exercise. 

Treatment. — This should be treated by wild cherry, gelsemin, uni- 
corn root, beth root, and injections of a decoction of golden-seal, ma- 
tico, and cinchona. If the hemorrhage is active, a strong decoction of 
tannin or cranesbill may be injected, and ten or fifteen grains of cayenne 
pepper administered. The oil of erigeron is also useful. Tonics should 
be given in relaxed condition of the system. 

Vicarious Menstruation. 

This is a discharge from some other part than the utcnis, usually oc- 
cui-ring in the unmarried. In the married, they are usually barren. The 
blood may escape from any part of the skin or mucous membrane, in 
the form of bleeding from the nose, lungs, etc. 

Tre.\t.mknt.— Ten or fifteen drops of the oil of solidago should be 
given four or five times a day, in connection with sitz-baths, tonics, etc. 
Life root is especially valuable. 


This is a disease characterized by chronic anaemia, or bloodlessness, 
affecting females about the age of puberty. In some instances it is un- 
doubtedly depciidciit upon a nervous affection, but in most instances it 
13 connected with disordered menstruation and o^ther causes. The red 


corpuscles of the blood are pale and small, and diminished in numbers. 
The countenance assumes a wax-like hue, which is so remarkably cha- 
racteristic, that the disease is called by nurses ' ' green sickness. " The 
appetite is irregular, with craving for particular kinds of food, the urine 
is thick and full of sediment, and there is usually vertigo, headache, 
backache, hysterical affections, dysmenorrhcea, and leucorrhcea. The 
tongue is flaccid and indented at the edges, the pulse is weak and quick, 
and there is a feeling of general languor, with great indisposition to 
bodily or mental exercise. 

Treatment. — When arising from feeble and imperfect digestion, 
give piickly ash, alder, golden-seal, and nux vomica, cautiously. The ani- 
mal oils are also very serviceable. The great object in the treatment of 
this disease is to restore the general health, and not to force menstruation 
by agents having that power. The patient wants strength and blood, 
and when that is achieved, menstruation will be natural. Baths, fric- 
tion, out-door exercise, and a nutritious diet should not be neglected. 

Cessation op the Menses. 

We have already stated that this usually occurs between the ages of 
forty and iifty, but in some cases it occurs much earlier, in others much 
later. The courses become irregular, often staj'ing away two or three 
months. Nausea and vomiting, swelling of the abdomen, tenderness of 
the breasts, etc. , are the prominent symptoms. Pregnancy may some- 
times be suspected, and there are frequently uterine pains, a dragging 
sensation in the back and loins, accompanied by violent headache, a 
loaded tongue, and .symptoms of indigestion. A sudden return of the 
menses mitigates the symptoms, which usually last longer than is natu- 
ral, and also more profuse. 

Treatment. ^If the symptoms are slight, regulate the bowels and 
diet, bathe the surface, and occasionally wear a pack, saturated with 
equal parts of whiskey and water, upon the lower bowel. If more severe, 
take unicorn root in decoction. Ladies'-slipper, wafer-ash, and black 
cohosh, are also very good. The tonics should also be given in debili- 
tated subjects. In fact the constitutional symptoms should be met with 
such remedies as are indicated, as soon as they manifest themselves. 


This is commonly known as the tchites. It consists of a discharge 
from the vagina, or inner cavity of the womb, of a catarrhal character, 
varying in color from a light to a yellowish-green, or reddish-brown. It 
is usually due to inflammation of the mouth and neck of the womb 
[cervicitis)., but it is also caused by congestion and inflammation of the 
interior membrane of the organ (endo-cervicitis), in which case it is more 
serious, and more diflEicult to cure. There are few females who are not 


occasionally subject to moderate leucorrhoea. It may be known by the 
dischargfe, but also by the attendant pain and a sense of heaviness in the 
loins, abdomen, and tnig-hs, disordered digestive functions, palpitation of 
the heart, etc. It causes great impairment of the general health when 
long continued. 

Treatment. — Wear flannels next to the skin, and pay attention to 
the general health. Keep the pores open by the proper medicines. In 
acute cases inject cold water, and in chronic, warm water. This will 
modify' the inflammation. After this, injections of a strong decoction 
of golden-seal, white-oak bark, or cinchona, should be frequently used, 
and witch-hazel taken internally. Dog-wood, bayberry, black and blue 
cohosh, and gelsemin, are also used for the same purpose The astrin- 
gent injections are also serviceable. Rest and quiet are important in 
the treatment of the disease. Patients should, however, intrust the 
treatment to an intelligent physician, who should ascertain the cause, 
when, if the proper treatment is given, the disease will soon be cured. 

Ulceration op the Womr. 

This is chiefly confined to the neck of the organ, occurring most 
frequently in those who have borne children. It is caused by ex- 
cesses in married life, imprudence during menstruation, as standing, 
walking, lifting, etc. , and very often premature efforts after abortion 
or labor. There is always more or less discharge associated with ulcera- 
tion, which in quality is mucous, purulent, or starchy, and in color, 
milky,, yellowish, or brownish, — often tenacious masses of mu- 
cus, like starch, come away. It affects the general health similarly to 

Treatment. — Rest should be observed, and marital excesses aban- 
doned. The treatment for leucorrhoBa should be instituted. Vaginal 
injections of rcd-raspbcrry leaves and golden-seal prove very beneficial 
in this disease. The constitutional treatment in this disease is more 
important than any local api)lications, and should take precedence. 

Falling op the Womb (Prolapsus Uteri). 

This is denoted by pain in the back and loins, heat in the vagina, 
painful copulation, painful and irregular menstruation, constipation 
and diarrhoea in alternation, irritable bladder, etc. The mouth of the 
womb can be more readily felt than is natural, feeling spongy and hot, 
and very tender on pressure. It may be ulcerated, and bleed upon 
the slightest touch. The patient has all the symi)toms of dyspepsia, 
hysteria, neuralgia, palpitation, cough, and difficulty of breathing. It is 
directly caused by weakness of the broad and lateral ligaments, and 
remotely by various causes. It is a disease severe in its effects, causing 
much suffering and impaiiineut of healtli. 


Treatment. — The patient should observe perfect quietude. The 
Inflammation and ulceration of the womb treated as previously described. 
The womb should be gently replaced to its normal position, the bowels 
kept open by mild laxatives, and the vagina injected with a warm de. 
coction of hemlock and white oak bark. Pessaries do more harm than 
good, but abdominal supporters to sustain the weight of the bowels 
should be worn in aU cases. (See page 370) 

Utereste Dropsy (HYDROjrETRA). 

This is an accumulation of fluid in the womb, caused by inflamma- 
tion and constitutional debility. During the first months the symptoms 
resemble those of pregnancy ; but by introducing the finger, so as to 
touch the neck of the womb, and pressing the tumor, fluctuation of 
fluids is felt. The menses are usually suppressed, and general debility 
will appear, if the disease continues. The patient may die from ex- 
haustion, or the walls of the womb may be ruptured from the pressure 
of the fluid, causing fatal peritonitis. 

Treatment. — A tordc and hygienic treatment should be prescribed, 
and if you can introduce a catheter into the womb and evacuate the fluid, 
it should be done, but it is better to intrust this to an able physician. 

Anteversion and Retroversion. 

If the womb falls forward upon the bladder, and towards the pubes, 
it con-stitutes anteversion. In this case the top or fundus of the womb 
is turned forward to the bladder, and the mouth towards the rectum. 
When the womb falls over backwards, between the rectum and the vagina, 
it is said to be retroverted. In this case the fundus is turned towards 
the rectum, and the neck towards the bladder. If the womb is antevert- 
ed and turned upon itself, it is a7i(ejlexed, and when retroverted and 
turned upon itself it is called retTOJlexion. These displacements may occur 
suddenly or gradually, causing great distress. The usual symptoms are 
costiveness and straining at stool, frequent urination, painful menstrua- 
tion, pain in the lumbar region, and down the limbs, neuralgia, hyster- 
ics, and nervous debility. It is a serious affection, and should receive 
early attention and proper treatment. 

Treatment.— The organ is first to be replaced to its normal position, 
and then the treatment for falling of the womb instituted. Such im- 
portant diseases should, however, be confided to the care and direction 
of a competent physician. Great relief is at all times gained by 
wearing abdominal supporters. 


These consist of a formation of small cysts or bladders of water in 
Ihe uterus, developed from the inner membrane, and vary in size from 


half a pear to a partridge's egg. They are usually oval, vrith a thin 
wall, opaque, and contain a thin fluid. They are most frequently in 
clusters, and numerous. The symptoms simulate those of early preg- 
nancy, such as nausea, vomiting, enlargement of the womb, fulness of 
the breasts, suppression of the menses, etc. In a few months, the patient 
feels a weight and uneasiness about the abdomen, followed by uterine 
pains, hemorrhage, and expulsion of the hydatids. 

TuEATMENT. — If the flooding is excessive, control it by injecting 
vinegar or astringents and administer ten or fifteen drops of the oil of 
erigeron every fifteen minutes. If the pain is not sufficient to expel the 
masses, give a warm infusion of blue cohosh or cotton root. Ergot may also 
be given. After the expulsion the patient should receive tonic treatment. 



The first sign of pregnancy is a cessation of the menstrual flOw. This 
will generally be noticed between two and three weeks after conception, 
and about the same time the woman will discover her breasts to be eiiarg- 
ing, and notice that the rings around the nipple are darker, and cover more 
space than usual. She will also, to a greater or lesser degree, experience 
nausea in the morning, and often be afilicted by vomiting, while she 
will experience dull pains in the "small" of the back, a decided disin- 
clination for exertion, and considerable nervousness. As the womb in- 
creases in size and weight (which becomes apparent between the second 
and third months after conception), it sinks lower into the cavity of the 
pelvis (or part of the trunk which bounds the abdomen below), and pro- 
duces much suffering, especially when the pehds is small or narrow. 
After the fourth month, the womb, finding insufficient accommodation 
in the pelvis, mounts higher, and seeks room in the more capacious and 
yielding belly. Then the distress in the back, fnd the sickness and 
vomiting are somewhat modified, or in some conii)aratively disappear 
altogether. When the condition of pregnancy is first discovered, the 
woman, no matter how robust, should avoid all over-exertion or excite- 
ment, and should bear in mind constantly St. Paul's motto of "modera- 
tion in all things." A state of indolence is productive of disastrous, or, 
at least, painful conseiiuences. Judicious exercise, and a determination 
to be cheerful and contented, will do much towards suppressing the 
usual annoyances of pregnancy, while moping and idling will increase 
them, and will almost invariably l)ring about a hard labor. Tluis the 
poor working woman, providing she does not labor too hard, or expose 
herself impnulently to the vicissitudes of the weather, rarely suffers so 
much in child-bed as the woman who lives only to be petted and admir- 


ed, and who seldom breathes the air of heaven in its delicious ptirity. 
Among the many incidental afflictions of pregnacy, are costiveness and 
piles. These are produced by the pressure of the enlarging womb upon 
the lower bowel. This, becoming filled with hardened matter, in turn 
presses upon the womb, and endeavors to crowd it out of the way. The 
combined and continual pressure of the womb and bowel upon the 
,water-pipe, causes great difficulty in making water, and their unmter- 
rupted weight upon the ascending veins produces congestion in the 
lower bowel, and hence the appearance of painful and disagreeable 
piles. The stomach and bowels should be kept in the best possible 
order. To prevent or ameliorate piles, use seidlitz powders every day, 
and inject into the bowels half a pint of pure cold water every morning. 
With regard to nausea, if it continues after the first three months, eat 
nothing but plain, yet nourishing food, and use chamomile flower tea as a 

The habit of swathing or bandaging during any period of pregnancy is 
decidedly injurious, unless the woman be of a very fragile form and de- 
bilitated constitution. The child quickens about the end of the fourth 
month, when its motions will often produce hysterics and fainting fits, 
and the mother (for such she then is) becomes peevish, irritable, thin, 
and weak. Great care must be taken to combat this peevishness and 
irritabihty by fixing the mind upon pleasant thoiights, and mixing with 
lively company, if it be available. It wUl be as well, too, for the woman 
to he down a little while, two or three times a day, and not to remain 
in an erect position too long without taking a little rest. During the 
last three months, the woman will generally sufi'er much uneasiness ' ' all 
over," and will experience trouble in the attempt to get a perfect night's 
rest. They should not touch opiates under these circumstances. When 
varicose swellings of the veins of the legs are produced, a good plan is to 
wear a laced stocking over the affected parts, and this should be adjust- 
ed so as not to press too tightly upon the limb. It should be arranged 
so that the pressure will be equal throughout its length. Sometimes deli- 
cate women have convulsive fits hi the last stage of pregnancy. These 
are dangerous, and no time should be lost in calling in an experienced 
midwife to take charge of the case. However, a two-grain opium pill 
administered internally, an injection of warm suds, and mustard plasters 
applied to the feet, and between the shoulders, will not fail of giving 
speedy relief. Also bathe the feet in warm water. The habitual use of 
the warm bath will often prevent these convulsions. 

Palpitation of the heart, cramps of the legs and thighs, tooth-ache, 
pufl:"y swellings, suppression of urine (use parsley tea for this), lethargy 
and headache are always accompaniments of pregnancy. For cramps 
and swellings, bathe the parts with warm water and red pepper, or mus- 
tard. K the swellings are very troublesome, apply fomentations of bit- 


ter herbs. In order to prevent sore nipples (which, if neglected, merge 
into caked and broken breasts), bathe them daily several times with 
alum-water, or a decoction of white oak l)ark. This bathing should be 
commenced about six weeks before confinement. Fox-glove (digitalis) 
is recommended by many for palpitation of the heart ; but I discounte- 
nance its use. A little compound spirits of lavender, in water, and mod- 
erate doses of Turkey rhubarb will alleviate the attacks. 

All pregnant women should wear flannel drawers and keep the feet 

All expectant mothers may greatly render a coming labor more easy 
and painless, if, at about the eighth month, they thoroughly rub my 
''Herbal Ointment" (see page 472) externally on the abdomen once a 
day, and continue until labor, and at about the middle of the ninth 
month they should lubricate the vagina and womb with the ointment. 
This has the effect of making the mouth more dilatable, the soft 
parts more yielding, and consequently a safe and comparatively easy 

The time of labor to every expectant mother causes constant Solici^tude, 
and scarcely any woman approaches the period fearless of the result, but 
very anxious as to the suffermg or safety of life. In the present con- 
dition of civilized woman, we well know that the phenomenon of child- 
birth is attended with pains of an agonizing character, but that the suf- 
fering is mostly owing to habits of life, dress, etc. , now characterizing 
woman, is equally certain. It would be an anomaly in nature if a pro- 
cess, so natural to females as child-birth, was originally ordained to be 
agonizingly painful, and it is quite evident that the pain now character- 
izing nearly all cases of labor is an infliction imposed by nature in con- 
sequence of violation of some of her laws. We are glad to see intelli- 
gent women approaching this subject, and have seen no brighter gleam 
of sunshine than Mrs. Stanton's recent address at San Francisco, which 
no false delicacy should prevent being reproduced in every paper in the 
land. She said, " We must educate our daughters that motherhood is 
grand, and that God never cursed it. And the curse, if it be a curse, 
may be rolled off, as man has rolled away the curse of labor, as the curse 
has been rolled from the descendants of Ham." While saying that her 
mission among woman was to preach a new gospel, she tells the women 
that, if they suffer, it is not because they are cursed by God, but be- 
cause they violate his laws. What an incubus it would take from wo- 
man could she be educated to know that the pains of maternity are no 
curse upon her kind. We know that among Indians the squaws do not 
suffer in child-birth. They will step aside from the ranlvs, even on the 
march, and return iu a .short time bearing with them the new-bom 
child. What an r.bsurdity, then, to suppose that only culightened Chris- 
tian women arc cursed. But Mrs. Stanton saya that one word of tact is 


■worth, a volume of philosophy, and gives her experience as follo-ws : "I 
am the mother of seven children. My girlhood was spent mostly in the 
open air. I early imbibed the idea that a girl was just as good as a 
boy, and I carried it out. I would walk five miles before breakfast, or 
ride ten on horseback. After I was married I wore my clothing sensi- 
bly. The weight hung alone on my shoulders. I never compressed my 
body out of its naturn.l shape. My first four children were bom, and I 
suffered but very little. I then made up my mind that it was totally 
unnecessary for me to suffer at all ; so I dressed lightly, walked every 
day, lived as much as possible in the open air, ate no condiments or 
spices, kept quiet, listened to music, looked at pictures, read poetry. 
The child was bom without a particle of pain. I bathed it and dressed 
it and it weighed ten and one -half pounds. That same day I dined 
vdth the family. Everybody said I would die, but I never had a relapse 
or a moment's inconvenience from it. I know this is not being delicate 
and refined, but if you would be vigorous and healthy in spite of the 
diseases of your ancestors and your own disregard of nature's laws, try.'' 
While we heartily endorse all that Mrs. Stanton has said in this matter, 
we could not advise every mother to " dine with the family " on the day 
of her labor. It would be an exceedingly dangerous proceeding ; but if 
every woman would be willing to practise the same initiatory training, 
which is so healthful, because in accordance with physiological laws, 
there is probably no doubt but that she would also be able to ' ' wash her 
own baby " and " dine with the family," on even as substantial a dish as 
pork a^ beans. 


Child-bed fever is a very fatal disease, and frequently follows jiarturi- 
tion. Scrofulous women are peculiarly liable to it. The disease mani- 
fests itself in every degree of intensity. The usual symptoms are 
weight and soreness in the lower part of the abdomen, accompanied by 
lassitude and debility, capricious appetite, imperfect after-discharge, 
spongy condition of the gums, constipation, and scanty and high-color- 
ed urine. These symptoms continue for two or three days after delivery, 
when the patient will be seized with chills and rigors. These are soon 
followed by a hot and pungent skin, pain in the head, nausea, and 
sometimes vomiting. The jmlse becomes hard and quick, respiration 
rapid, the secretions are arrested, and the pain centres in the lower part 
of the abdomen and becomes very severe. The bowels are bloated, and 
very tender, and the lochia or after-discharge is entirely suppressed. In 
many cases delirium is present, also agitation and a sense of impending 
death. The worst form is when it presents the appearance of malignant 
scarlet fever. 

Treatment.— The bowels should be freely opened with a purgative, 


after which opium should be administered in tolerably large doses. 
Warm slippery-elm emulsions should be frequently injected into the 
vagina, with a view to bring on the lochial discharge. The fever is to 
be controlled by aconite or veratrum. Tonic stimulants and carmina- 
tives should be used, according as the disease shows excitement or de- 
pressiou. In the low form, quinine and camphor are indicated. In the 
gangrenous form, put charcoal and yeast poultices to the abdomen, and 
give a decoction of wild indigo in wine and yeast four or five times a day. 

Inversion op the Uterus. 

This may be partial or comi^lete. When partial, it may be known by 
the absence of the fundus or top of the womb behind the pubic bones, 
and the presence of a large solid tumor in the vagina, accompanied by 
profuse hemorrhage, intense pain in the pelvis, violent straining, vomit- 
ing, fainting, cold clammy sweat, and feeble Complete inversion 
is recognized by the presence of a reddish li\ad tumor filling the vagina, 
and protruding beyond it. It may occur spontaneously in atony of the 
womb, or from irregular contractions, or it may be cavtsed -by violence 
in extracting the after-birth, shortness of the cord, delivery in the up- 
right position, tumors, etc. '^ 

TREATiiENT. — Watch the tumor carefidly, and at the moment when 
there is no contraction, the fundus should be pressed with one finger, 
and indented like the bottom of a bottle, and make continued pressure 
until reposition is sure. Then control the hemorrhage, if any is present, 
with ice to the pelvis, or vinegar injections, and give stiuiulanjU if the 
patient is exhausted. • 


Abortion or mi'scirriarre signifies the expulsion of the foetus from the 
uterus, before it is sufficiently developed. The causes may be either 
natural or violent. Among the most prevalent causes, are mercury, 
constitutional syphilis, either in the father or mother, small pox, sudden 
and violent excitement of the blood-vessels by surprise, fright, anger, 
etc. It may also be caused by disease of the embryo, disease of the 
afterbirth, or direct violence to the abdomen. If it occurs Lq the early 
stage, the patient feels languid, and despondent, and is troubled 
with alternate chills and flashes of heat; there is nausea, palpitation, 
pain in the back, and tendemes.s over the abdomen. The breasts 
become flabby, and there is more or less hemorrhage. In the more 
advanced stages, the pains are more severe, and frequently the hemor- 
rhage is so violent that the life of the patient is endangered, unless the 
proper remediid agents are employed. If miscai'riage occurs once, it is 
liable to recurrence, and hence pregnant women should be very careful. 

Tkkatuent. — Those predisposed to abortion, should carefully avoid 


purgatives and diuretics, should indulge in no violent exercise, and take 
a cold sitz-bath every morning on rising, followed by brisk friction with 
a crash towel. Unicorn root and bayberry should also be taken inter- 
nally. The pain should be subdued by hyoscyamus, and the hemor- 
rhage checked by the oil of erigeron, or cayenne pepper and matico 
may be taken. If abortion, however, defies treatment, a strong de- 
coction of cotton root, or ergot, should be taken to promote rapid 
expulsion of the fcetu.?. After it is expelled, if hemorrhage occurs, 
the oil of erigeron should be given, and much care observed, until the 
lilacenta is removed. During convalescence the patient's strength 
should be maintained to prevent weakness of the womb. 

Inflammation and Abscess op the Breasts. 

During and after pregnancy the breasts are very liable to become 
mtlamed and sore. The patient shivers, has paiu in the head, loss 
of appetite, is constipated, and her urine is high-colored, and pulse 
quick. The breasts become red, painful, and swollen, and if the in- 
flammation is allowed to continue, an abscess is formed, which, sooner or 
later, opens and discharges. Cold during nursing, accumulatiou of milk, 
injuries, diseases of the womb, scrofula, etc. , are the principixl causes. 

TiiEATMENT. — Subdue the inflammation by applying the following : — 
Take arnica flowers, 3 j. ; lobelia leaves, 3 ss. ; hops, 3 ij. Make a 
strong decoction, and apply cloths wrung from it hot as the patient can 
bear, and repeat every fifteen or twenty minutes. A small dose of 
aconite may be given internally to control the fever. A mild purgative 
should also be taken, and if the patient is debilitated, the general tonics 
should be exhibited. If the abscess, however, will occur, it should be 
opened, and then poulticed with slippery-elm. For caked breasts, apply 
hot packs, and change them frequently, and between each application 
bathe the breasts with a liniment composed of equal parts of lime- 
water, sweet-oil, spirits of camphor, and oil of horsemiut. 

Sore Nipples. 

This is one of the most common and troublesome difficulties connected 
with the breasts, after child-birth. It is very frequently caused by want 
of cleanliness on the part of the mother or child. 

Treatment. — Wash with castile soap and warm water after each 
nursing of the child, and then sprinkle the nipple with very fine pow- 
dered hemlock bark. Or make and use the following ointment : — Take 
balsam of fir, 3 j. ; white wax, 3 ij. ; melt together, then add ten grains 
each of tannin and powdered bayberry. Apply this as often as neces- 
sary, previously washing the breasts. Cover the nipple with folds of 
linen during the intervals of nursing. My Herbal Ointment (page469)j 
is a speedy cure for this painful affection. 
16* ^ 



Relaxation of the Abdominal Muscles. 

One of the most frequent sequels of pregnancy is a permanent relaxa- 
tion of the abdominal muscles, more or less in degree. The abdomen 
becomes pendulous, occasioning great inconvenience, suffering, and 
often inducing malposition of the womb, and other affections. 

The only way to remedy this relaxed condition is by artificial support, 
which is to be kept lap until the muscles have again attained their full 
powers of contraction. Ladies are therefore in the habit of wearing 
bandages, though these but inadequately supply the necessary siipport, 
owing to the difficulty of proper application, so as to secure the equali- 
zation of pressure, and the stability of position, necessary. Mechanical 
appliances should only be used for the puii^ose of support. These are 
called abdominal supporters. Decidedly the best supporter is the one 
represented in the cut, an appliance so arranged 
as to supply the firmest support by means of 
elastic springs. It gives no uneq,suiess to the 
wearer ; on the contrary it affords the most com- 
fortable support, enabling the sufferer,' Vho be- 
fore could scarcely walk, to do so with the 
utmost facility, occasioning no pain or inconve- 
nience. Supporters are absolutely necessary in 
all cases, as no medicinal treatment will overcome 
the relaxation, on account of the constant suj^er- 
imposed pressure of the bowels. These sup- 
porters should also be worn in all cases of uterine 
misplacements, as they afford the greatest relief, 
and serve as an almost indispensable adjunct to 
the required medicinal treatment. 

Another supporter, represented by the ad- 
joining cut, is also a meritorious one, having 
many excellent qualities. It is especially well 
adapted to corpulent females. Equality 
of siipport under all circumstances 
is gained by au elastic band in the 
pad at front. These supporters are 
the result of thorough study as to the 
requirements of such appliances, and the 
author is convinced that they are the 
best articles for the purjiose designed. 
Their many qualities will at once be ap- 
parent both to the professional man or 
to the patient. 
of the waist. 

Dr. O. PhelpK Brow-n's Ab 
dominal Supporter. $1 

Abdominal Supporter. $3. 
The measure required is the size around the lower part 


This should never be attempted except by a physician or competent 
midwife, but, as it may sometimes take place in railroad cars, in 
voyages, etc., the duty may fall to the lot of almost any woman or 
man, and hence it is important that they should know how to proceed. 
These hints may also be useful to perhaps many in the backwoods, 
where the population is scarce, and where the nearest doctor lives ' ' a 
day's journey " away. 

How DO YOU Know that the Patient is in Labor? 

This the mother frequently knows herself, but she may sometimes 
be deceived by what are spurious pains. If she is in labor, she will 
have what is called " C07ne and go " pains, which at first are moderate and 
wide apart, but which finally become more intense and succeed each 
other at shorter intervals. She will describe those as bearing down 
pains, and frequently they are so severe as to cause cries and gestures, 
the former being of a mourning or complaining character, the other 
twdsting and writhing. She will also have a mucous discha,rge from the 
vagina, which is called a ' ' shoic. " She will probably wish to void her 
urine often, and to relieve her bowels, which should be encouraged. 
During this stage the mouth of the womb is dilating. Now it will be 
weU for you to pass your finger well up into the vagina, and you will 
most probably find that the mouth of the womb is dilated, and in extent it 
depends upon the time at which you may make the examination. When 
the pains become " thick and fast," you may again make an examina- 
tion, and you will probably find a fluctuating tumor, which is the bag 
of waters. If this does not burst itself, you may rupture it with your 
finger, but do not allow yourself to be frightened at the forcible rush of 
the waters. If you have withdrawn your hand, you may again insert it, 
and you will most likely find the head about descending into the vagina. 
If it is the head or breech it will be a natural labor (which I hope it 
may always bo, for I do not believe I could teach you how to proceed in 
what is called a jireternatural labor). If the head is there, all right. 
You may give the soon-to-be-mother your hand, or you may tie a sheet 
to the bed-post and let her pu.ll at that, or if her husband is present, or 
if you are he himself, let her press him around the neck whenever an 
expulsive pain occurs. This wdll greatly aid her, and you do not know 
how thankful a woman is in such a case, when she observes apparent 
assistance on your part. After a few good pains, the head of the child 
will be born, and then the worst is over, for usually one pain more will 
cause the birth of the whole child. 

What will, You do Next ? 

As soon as it is bom, you will probably hear the child gasp and cry, 


which is caused by pain ensuing upon sudden expansion of its lungs. If 
it does not do this, take the child, and shake it gently, give it a few slaps 
on the buttocks, and empty its mouth of any secretions that may be 
found there. By doing this, the child may soon cry — when it is all 
right. If, however, it should not be so easily resuscitated, sprinkle a 
little water on its face, and if it looks blue in the face, cut the cord, 
and let it bleed a little ; then put your mouth to that of the baby, and 
while holding its nose shut, blow your own breath into it and fill its 
lungs, and then press gently on its chest, in imitation of expiration. Do 
this as long as there is any hope, and your efforts may often be crowned 
with success. We will suppose, however, that the baby is a struggling, 
ciying, healthy darling. Then, as soon as you do no longer feel the cord 
pulsate, you can separate it from the mother. To do this take a few 
Btrands of thread and tie it round the cord, not so tight as to cut 
through, about two inches away from the navel. Then take a pair of 
scissors and cut the cord through about half an inch away from the li- 
gature, not on the side, however, towards the navel ; you can put two 
ligatures on the cord, if you like, and cut between thenx Then take 
the baby away, but be careful how you do it, or else an accideirf may be- 
fall you, and hand it to the proper person to be washed and ':dressed. 
The baby is very slippery, so take it up in this way : put its neck 
between the thumb and forefinger of your left hand, and put the 
palm of the right under its buttocks ; you then have it secure, but 
do not be too anxious about its safety, or you might choke it. 

What Next ? 

You must now pay attention to the exhausted but joyous mother, 
rejoiced that she has passed such an agony of pain as you can form no 
conception of, such that you have never felt and never can feel, unless 
you have been or will be a mother, and yet she will now greet you with 
a sweet, smiling countenance. Her anxiety, however, is not over until 
she is relieved of the after-birth. By the time that you have got 
through with your duty to the baby, you will probably find the after- 
birth expelled into the vagina, by the after-pains. If such is the case, 
take the cord and pull gently downwards and a little upwards, but by 
no means pull so hard as to tear the cord, or invert the womb If it 
will not come, wait, and in a short time try again, and you will most 
probably find it to come away readDy. If you should find her floodhiff, 
take a rag, saturate it with vinegar, or take a lemon, divest it of its 
rind, and then pass it into the womb and squeeze it. This causes con- 
traction of the organ, and stop.s the hemorrhage. You may also apply 
ice to the spine for this, and if you have ergot in the house, 
give a pretty large of that. After delivery of the after-birth, 
take a towel, and pass it around the pelvis of the mother, and bind it 


pretty tig-htly ; cover her up warmly, and allow her to sleep, and so 
recover strength, as you may suppose that she is very much exhausted 
by this time. 

Tour Work is not Done Yet. 

The baby has to be washed. This is a tedious job, unless you know 
low to proceed. All babies are covered with more or less unctuouv 
matter, and this chould be removed, or else it is liable to get a skin 
disease. After you have got your rag (a soft woollen one is the best) 
and some pretty warm water, smear the child over with pure, lard or 
sweet oil, and then use castile soap and water, and you will soon have it 
clean. Be careful, however, not to get soap into its eyes, or else you 
will have to treat it in a few days after for sore eyes. Now you have 
got it clean, but you must not put on its clothes, until you have dressed 
the navel, and put on its belly-band. To dress the navel, take a well- 
worn cotton rag, cut it into patches of about four inches in diameter j 
take three or four of these and cut a hole through the middle of them. 
Cut also a little bandage, half an inch wide, and wrap it rou