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H I S T O R Y 



O R 

ANN :U. A L . R : & : G 1ST E R, 

■ •'•-•• o P • 1 1 b 

Rife, Pr^grei"s,ian.d Events, 


TheSrvTE of the Belligerent Powers at the Commence- 
n'enVof the War; their Intererts and Object m Us 

Continuance: * __ 

Intertperfed with 

The Characters of the able and dihnterefted Statesmen, to 

T whofe Wisdom and Integrity, and of the HEROE^whofe 

Courage and Conduct, we are indebted for that NAVAL a nd 

MILITARY Succefs, which is not to be equalled in the 

Annals of this or any other Nation. 

With the Additions of 
A Detail of the Landing of the Forces at Cape Breton r,&c .the 
Progress of the Fleet in their navigating the Rive. f s J-^w- 
rfnce, and a daily Account of the Siege of Quebec. 
!vhile in the Pofftffion of the French, and afterwards in the 
Hands of the English , with the different Military Order. 
that were iflued on the Occasion, taken hom CEpt. JOHN 
KNOX's Historical Journal of the War in America. 


Illuftrated with 

A Number of Heads, Plans, Maps, and Charts. 

Piinted by JOHN Dame-Street- 




TOHlLw m«t 

*. ■ 

• e 

F. LIBBiE & CO,, 
)V 221905 



WE have taken the earlieft Opportunity that a 
judicious Infpection, and mature Confidera- 
tion of Events could give us, of prefenting to the 
Public, A Complete History of the late 
War, not lefs important than, we hope, ufeful 
and correct, written with an Impartiality, which 
mould be the Guide of every Hiftorian, and from 
which we have not deviated through national Affec- 

We have taken up our History from the Com- 
mencement of the War, and have bellowed upon it 
all the Pains, fo interesting a Subject requires, which, 
however, we mull acknowledge, deferves much more 
fkilful Undertakers. None was ever more formed to 
excite Curiofity, from the Importance of the Events, 
the Dignity of the Perfons engaged, the greatnefs of 
the Actions performed, and the amazing Revolutions 
of Fortune - 9 for the Reader will here find the fcattered 

a z Accounts 


Accounts of this War, which has been carried on in 
the four Quarters of the World, united in one con- 
nected Narrative, and continued to the Peace. 

To effect this from the Materials that offered, 
has been a Work of more Labour, than may at firft 
appear, and to render thefe Tranfactions (which have 
not been lefs our Amazement, than the World's in 
general) the more confpicuous and clear, we have 
added, in Notes, the Accounts tranfmitted from the 
Commanders of our Fleets and Armies, and publifhed 
by Authority, when Facts were recent, and the im- 
mediate Object of univerfal Attention. Thefe will 
illuftrate and confirm the Hiftory^ and our Readers 
muft be pleafed to fee fo many curious and import- 
ant Pieces, which, while they give the cleareft Evi- 
dence, fupport the national Character to future Ages-. 
In many Places we find them filled with the Actions 
of inferior Officers, which, with lefs Care in their 
Superiors, would have been loft in the Multiplicity 
of Events : This Care, not lefs commendable than 
ufeful, will excite Officers to feize every opportunity 
of immortalizing their Fame, and doing Honour to 
their refpective Corps. Some of thefe Letters muft 
be ufeful in forming the young Soldier, as they are 
very expreffive of that Character, pointing out the 
Care, Circnmfpection, Anxiety, and Perfeverance 
neceffary to form a Wolfe, or a Gr anby. 

In the Improvement to this new Edition of the 
Hiftory of the late War, will be found fome of the 
moft ftriking and interesting Events, that have hap- 
pened during the Arn^rican War, and related with a 



Circumfpection in Detail, which could not have been 
expected, but from one, who had been perfonally 
engaged in many of them. , Foi- thefe we mufl ac- 
knowledge our Obligation to Capt. John Knox, 
Author of the Hiftorical Journal of the Campaigns 
in North America^ and without whofe Adiftance we 
fhould not have been able to give thefe Additions to 
this Work ; which, to the Veteran will be pleafmg, 
and to the young Soldier ufeful in inftrudting him in 
the Duties of that Command, to which he may hope 
to arrive. It is not to be fuppofed thefe Additions 
are confined merely to the Gentlemen of the Military 
Profeffion, as every Man of defirable Feelings mufl 
be curious refpecling the Circumftances, that lead to 
wreft the Empire of North America from France, to 
place it under the Dominion of the Britifh Govern- 
ment, adding fuch Weight and Importance to her 
Interefts, and Glory to her Arms, as but few King- 
doms have experienced. 

a 3 THE 



OR I G I N of the troubles in 
North America , page I 
Admiral Bofcaiven and General 
Braddock fent to America, 3 
Different operations undertaken, 

Two French men of war taken 

by Adm. Bofcanven. ib. 

Gen. Braddock defeated near 

Fort du Quefne, 5 

— Diejkau defeated, and taken 

by Gen. Johnfon. ib. 

Seizure of the French trading 

fhips, ib. 

French threaten an invafion, 6 
Fort St. Philip in the ifland of 

Minorca, befieged, and taken 

by the French, ib. 

|Sea- fight off Minorca, between 

Admiral Byng, and M. Ga- 

Ujfoniere, ib. 

M.dcc.lvi 1. 
French threaten the invaiion of 

Hanover, 7 

Treaty with Rujfia, ib. 

Alliance with the King of 

PruJ/ia, ib. 

Rife of the Houfe of Branden- 

bourg, 8 

Ground of the quarrel between 

her Imperial Majefiy and the 

King of Prujfia, 9 

Treaty of Peter jboufg, 10 

«==- — of Vet -failles, 1 1 

King of Prujfia enters Saxony 

and Bohemia, 1 1 

Battle of Lowofefz, 1 2 

Saxon army furrenders, ib. 

State of the Englijh Miniftry, 1 3 

The characters and deiigns of 

the feveral factions, 14 

A coalition of parties, 17 

Oftuego taken by the French, ib„ 

Calcutta taken by the Nabob, 1 8 

Angria reduced by Adm. Wat- 

Jon, 19 

State of the confederacy againfl; 

the King of Prujfia, ib. 

The French pafs the Wefer, 22 

King of Prujfia enters Bohemia^ 

Battle of Prague, ib. 

M. Schnverin killed ; M. Broivti 
■ wounded and dies, 23 

Prague invefted, ib. 

Count Daun takes command of 
the Aujlrian army, ib. 

Battle of Colin, 24 

Confequences of the battle of 
Colin, 25 

King of Prujpa evacuates Bo- 
hemia, ib. 
Battle of Haftenbeck, 26 
Convention of Clojler-fe<vern,\h. 
Expedition to Rochfort, ib. 
Ruffians enter Prujfia, 27 
Aufirians befiege Scbweidnitz, 


French and Imperialijls make in« 

curiions into Brandenbourg, ib. 



Swedes enter Pomerania, 27 
Battle of Norkitten, 28 

General Lebvould defeated, ib. 
Melancholy ftate of the King of 

Prujfia, ib. 

Battle of Rojbacb, 30 

Schtveidnitz taken by the Au- 

jirians, 32 

Prince of Bevern attacked in his 

entrenchments under Brejlau, 


Surprized by a party of Croats, 


Brejlau taken by the Auftrian$, 


The P ruffian garrifon that fur- 
renderea at Schtveidnitz dif- 
perfe the party of Auft: ians 
that were conducting them to 
prifon, and join their King's 
army, 33 

King of Prujfia marches into Si- 
lefa % ib. 

Battle of Liffa, 34 

Brejlau retaken, 35 

Auft r ians driven out of Silefia, 


Ruffians and Swedes retire, ib. 

Hanoverians refume their arms, 


Cruelty of the French, ib. 

Condition of their army, ib. 
Caftle of Harburg befieged , 3 7 
Preparations for an expedition 
to Louifbourg, and laid afide, 


Tort William Henry taken, 41 

Exploits of Adm. Watfon and 

Col. Clive in India, 42 

Chandenagore, a French fort 

taken, 43 

Victory over the Nabob, 44 

Nabob taken and beheaded, ib. 

Revolution in Bengal, 45 

Treaty advantageous to the Eaft 

India company, ib. 

Admiral Watfon dies, ib. 


French re ire to Hanover, 46 
The taking of Hoy a, 47 

Mind en taken, 48 

Diftrefs of the French, 49 

Generofity or the Duke de Ran- 
dan, ib. 
The French retire beyond the 
Rhine, ib. 
Recovery of Embden by Com. 
Holmes, 50 
Alterations in the French mini- 
ftry, 5 1 
The D. de Belle'Jle\ fpeech in 
the French council, ib. 
The ftate of the Englijb affairs, 


Subfidy treaty with the King of . 

'uffia, 54 

Affairs of Sweden and Ruffia, ib. 
Schweidnitz taken by Lhe King 

of Pr uffia, . 5 5 

He enters Moravia and inverts 

Olmutz, ib. 

Conduct of Count Daun, eg 
He attacks the Pruffian convoy, 

Siege of Olmutz raifed, ib. 

King of Prujfia marches into 

Bohemia, 58 

Allies pafs the Rhine, 59 

Battle of Crevelt, 60 

Count de Gifors, the D. of Bel- 

leijle's only fon killed, 61 
Action at Sangerjhaufen, 62 

at Meer, 6 $ 

Allies repafs the Rhine, 65 

Retreat from Bohemia,* 65 

Meafures of Count Daun, ib. 
The King of Great-Britain put 

under the Ban of the Empire, 

Retreat of the Prujfians from 

Bohemia, 69 

Battle of Cuftrin, 70 

King of Prujfia marches into 



Saxony , and joins Prince 

Henry, * 74 

General Oberg defeated at Z,« «- 

werenhagen, 75 

King of Prufjia furprifed at 

Hohkirchen, 77 

M. &i'A& and Prince Francis of 

Brunfwick killed, ib. 

Affair at Gorlitz, 80 

M, Daun invefts Drefden, 8 1 
The Suburbs of Drefden burnt, 

8 3 
M. Daun retires from before 

Drefden, 84 

King of Prufjia raifes the fiege 
of Nets and Cofel, ib. 

Death of the Duke of Marlbo- 
rough, ib. 
A Recapitulation of fome great 
events, 85 
Difpolitions for the winter, 86 
Some reflections on the King of 
Prufftds conduct in Saxony, 

8 7 
The burning of the iliips at St. 

Mala, by Com. Ho<we t 90 

Taking of Cherbourg, 91 

Defeat of St. Cas, 94 

Operations in America, 95* 
Englijh army defeated at Ticon- 

deroga, 115 

They take Front enac, 1 1 8 

The French abandon Fort du 

Quefne, \ \ % 

Goree taken, 121 


The inclination of the powers 
at war at the doling of the 
la ft campaign, 1 26 

The King of Spain's death ap- 
prehended, 127 
Condiiion of the King of Pruf- 
fia, Emprefs £hieen, Siueden, 
Holland, France and England, 

The allied army moves, 135 
Battle of Bergen, ib» 

Plan of the campaign, 1 36 

Gen. Macguire defeated, 138 
Bamberg pillaged, ib, 

Heffe abandoned by the allies, 

r. I39 

Expedition to the Weft Indies 
under Hopfon and Moore, 140 

Account of MartinicOy ib. 

Failure there, 141 

Guadaloupe invaded, and a de- 
fcription of that ifland, 142 

Bafje Terre attacked and burn- 
ed, 143 

Gen. Hopfon dies, 144 

Operations againft GrandTerre, 


*• Contents of the Additions taken from Capt. Knox' J Hiflorical 
Journal of the Siege &/*Cape Breton. 

A particular detail of the land- 
ing the forces at Cape Briton, 

Journal of the fiege by Gen. 

Amherft, 98 

Articles of capitulation, 109 
A defcription of the town and 

harbour of Louifbourg, 110 
Adm Bofcaivens letter to Mr. 

Pitt, in 

Lord Howe killed, 1 13 

Lady Howe's application to the 

people of Nottingham, in fa- 
vour of her fecond fon, 1 14 

Gen. Abercrombie y s account of 
his expedition againft Ticon- 
deroga, 1 15 

Col. Bradftreet's letter on the 
reduction of Fort Frontenac^ 

Gen. Forbes's letter on his tak- 
ing Fort du Quefne, 1 20 
Com. Keppefs letter refpecting 
the taking of Goree } . ib. 



The inhabitants capitulate, 145 
Gen. Barringtons letter to the 

government on the occafion, 

Bravery of a French lady, 146 
Marie gal ante taken, 148* 

Progrels of the French after the 

battle of Bergen, 1 54 

Munjier and other p aces taken, 

Motions of Prince Ferdinand, 

• 58 

Battle of Minden, 1 59 

Hereditary Prince of Brunfwick 

defeats the Duke oi-Brifac, 

Prince Ferdinand's order after 

the battle of Minden, 1 61 
The French pafs the Wefer, ib. 
Lord George SackvMe refigns 

the command of the Briti/b 
forces ; Marquis of Granby 
fucceeds him, 164 

The French driven to Marpurg, 


Siege of Munjier, ib. 

Project of France for an invafi- 
on, 166 

feature bombarded, 167 

Aclion of Cape Lagos, 168 

M. de la Clue, the French ad- 
miral dies of his wounds, ib. 

Admiral Bofcavuen's account of 
the a&ion, ib. 

Count Dohna difgraced and fuc- 
ceeded by Wedel, 171 

Battle of 'Lulichau, ib. 

Ruffians take Francfort on the 
Oder, 172 


* Additions from Capt. Knox'x Journal. 
Col. J. Clawerings account of his operations at Quebec, ib. 

his expedition, 149 

Gen- Barringtons letter of the 
taking of Guadaloupe and 
Grand Terre, 153 

Com. Moore's letter, 156 

A lilt of the fhipping employed 
for the reduction of Quebec 
under Adm. Saunders, which 
failed from Louijbourg, 187 

Journal of the progress of the 
fleet in navigating the river 
St. Lawrence, 1 89 

Arrive at the Lfland of Orleans 
near Quebec, 1 08 

Preparations for a defcent near 
the Falls of Montmorenci, 1 99 

Great imprudence of the gre- 
nadiers in the attack, 201 

Orders occaiioned by their mif- 
earriage, 203 

Lift of the killed and wGunded, 


Gen. Wolfe's letter reflecting 

Admiral Saunders's letter, 211 
Movements of the forces from 

the Point de Levi, and the 

lfland of Orleans, for the 

heights of Sillery, 215 

Order for the defcent, 2 1 7 

The defcent made good and the 

hill afcended, 219 

Battle of Qvebec, 221 

General Wolfe and Monckton 

wounded, 222 

State of the Number of the 

French and Englifb armies, 

Lift of the killed and wounded, 

The form of taking pofTeiTion of 

the town, 233 

Gen. Monckton's letter on the 

taking of Quebec, 235 

Brig. Gen. Toivnjhend's on the 

lame, ib. 

Admiral Saunders's on the fame, 

A particular 


Battle of Cunnerfdorf, 1 73 

King of FruJJia repafTes the 

Oder, ib. 

Gen. Pulkammer killed, 176 
Soltikoff zndDaun communicate 

on their future operations, 

Parallel of the King of Pruffia 
and Prince Ferdinand of 
Brunfwick, ib. 

Plan of the campaign in North 
America , 178 

Ticonderoga and Croivn Point 
abandoned, 181 

Colonel Totvnjhend killed, ib. 

Expedition to Niagara, 182 

Sir William John/oris account 
of it, ib. 

Colonel Prideaux killed, 184 

Sir William John/on defeats the 
French that came to relieve 
Niagara, 1 86 

Takes the fort of Niagara, ib. 

The expedition againft Quebec, 


Defcription of the Ifle of Or- 
leans neaf Quebec, 194 

Defcription of the town and 
harbour of Quebec, 200 

Action at the Falls of Montmo- 
renci, 242 

General Wolfe indifpofed 243 

Difembarkation of the forces 
near Cillery, 244 

The battle of Quebec, 245 

French defeated, 246 

Gen. Wolfe killed, 247 

M. de Montcalm killed, ib. 

Quebec furrenders, 248 

Terms of capitulation, ib. 

State of the town, when taken 
pofTefllon of, with fome other 
particulars, 249 

Movements of Gen. Amherfi, 
on Lake Champlain, 261 

Prince hlenrf's, march into Sax- 

ony, and Gen. Vehla defeated, 


K. of Prujfia's furprillng march 
into Saxony, 264 

PruJJians defeated at Max en, 


Again defeated at Meijfen, 267 

Munfter furrenders to the allies, 


Hereditary Prince of Brunfwick 
defeats the Duke of Wurt em- 
berg at Fulda, ib. 

The D. of Broglio difappointed 
in his attempt on Prince Fer- 
dinand, near Munfter, 276 

The preparations at Vannes and 
Brejl, ib. 

Remarkable behaviour of Adm, 
Saunders, and Gen. Tovjn- 
jhend, " 27 1 

French fleet defeated near Belle- 

ifle* 272 

Admiral Flawfte's account of 
his engagements with M. de 
Confians, 273 

Lift of the two fleets, 277 

Gen. To<wnfh end's arrival from 
the fleet, 279 

French fleet under M. d?Ache 
twice beaten, 280 

M. de Lally takes Fort St. Da- 
iWs, and repulfed at Tan- 
jour, ib. 

Lays fiege to Madrafs which he 
is obliged to raife, 281 

M. Lally's remarkable letter, ib. 

Behaviour of the French in Ger- 
many, 282 

The Duke de Belleijle's letter on 
the occafion, ib- 

Reflections on the ftate of $e 
powers at war, 286 


Nothing decided in the w«r, and 
the ftate of the fevera'powers 
concerned, 288 



Great Britain and PruJJia pro- 

pofe an accommodation, 291 
Difficulties in concluding a 

peace, 292 

State of the Englijh garrifon at 

Quebec, 294 

Defigns of Monf. Levi, 295 
Preparations for a liege, ib 

Gen. Murray's refolutions on 

the occafion, 296* 

Battle of Sillery, and Gen. 

Murray defeated, 320 

Quebec befieged, 327 

The Englijh fleet under Lord 

Colville arrives, ib. 

M. Levi raifes the fiege, 328 
General Murray 's letter on the 

occafion, ib. 

Diftrefs of Saxony, 334 

Preparations for opening the 

campaign, " 335 

LofTes fuilained by the King of 

PruJJia, 336 

Theatre of the war in the Eaft 

of Germany, 337 

Battle of Landjhut, 340 

PruJJian army under Fouquet 

deftroyed, 341 

The Aujiriar.s take Glatz, 342 

King of PruJJia marches to- 
wards Si left a, and deceives 
M. Daun, 343 

Siege of Drejden, ib. 

— — raifed by M. Daun, 345 

Brejlau befieged by the Aujlri- 
am, 347 

Caufe of the flownefs of the 
allies and French, 348 

A Difference between Broglio 
and St. Germain, 349 

Mar pur g and Dillenburg taken 
by the French, 350 

Battle of Corbach where the 
Hereditary Prince was wound- 
ed, 351 

Surprife and defeat of M. Glou- 
bitz at Ermfdorf, 352 

Actioh at Warbourg, 3 53 

Prince Ferdinand's letter on the 
occafion, 354 

The Marquifs of Granby's let- 
ter, 356 

Prince Ferdinand's order after 
the day of battle, 358 

Laudohn blocks u^Schvjeidnitz^ 


March of the King of Prujta 9 

from Saxony to Lignitz, $6z 


* Additions from Capt. 

A particular and circumftantial 
detail of the fiege of, and 
proceedings at Quebec, under 
the command of Gen. Mur- 
ray, 296 

Gen. Murray prepares for a 
fiege, ib. 

The battle and defeat of Sillery, 

A ; . 2 97 

Tm- Britijh garrifon in Quebec 

be^eged, 300 

Oiden for the working parties, 

Great firt in the town, 305 

Intelligence by deferters from 

ths enemy, 30S 

Knox'i Journal, &c 

Arrival of the Leojlojf frigate, 
commanded by Capt. Deane, 


Enemy's batteries firfl opened, 


The Vanguard, commanded by 
Com. Svoanton, and Diana 
frigate by Capt. Schomberg, 
come into the bafon before 
the town, 316 

The French fleet above Quebec 
taken, 317 

The fiege raifed, 318 

Lord Cqtville with the fleet ar r 
rive, 323 


Laudohn defeated near Lignitz, Ruffians befiege Colberg, 3 88 

363 Battle of Torgau, 390 

Daun forms the blockade of M Daun wounded, ib. 

Schweidnitz, and compelled Siege of Colberg raifed, 393 

to raife it, 366 The allies raife the liege of Got- 

Action between General Hulfen tingen, 394 

and the army of the Empire> Winter quarters and fufferings 

ib. of the Britift troops, ib. 

Intercepted letter from the King Popular debates in England con- 

of Pruffia to the Marquis cerning the German war, 395 

a" Argens, 367 Thurot fails from Dunkirk, 401 

Situation of the French and Puts into Gottenburgh and Ber- 

Englijh armies, 370 gen, ib, 

Hereditary Prince furprifes a Puts into the IJle of Hay, ib. 

body of French in Zierenberg He takes Carrickfergus, 403 

ib. Sails from thence, ib. 

General Bulozv takes Marburg He is killed, and the whole 

373 fquadron taken, 403 
Defeated by Monf. Stainvillc, Capt. Elliot's account of the 

ib. engagement, ib. 

Hereditary Prince marches to War in America, 404 

the Rhine, paffvS that river, General Amherfi goes down th« 

374 river St. Lawrence. 4.05 
Cleves taken and JVefel befieged General Murray marches from 

ib. Quebec, ib. 
Battle of Campen, 377 Montreal furrenders, 408 
Allies defeated, ib. Cherokee war, 409 
Lord Dotvne killed, ib. Affairs of the Eaft Indies, 412 
Hereditary Prince repalTes the Lally defeated by Colonel Coote, 
Rhine, 378 413 
Siege ol ' Wefel Taifed, ib Col. Coote's account of his pro- 
Death and eulogium of George ceedings in the Eajl Indies, 

II. 379 4*4 

Accellion of George III. and his M.dcc lxi. 

reiolution of fupporting his Preliminary remarks, 421 

allies, ib. Treaty propofed and entered 

Ruffians and Auftrians enter into by the belligerent pow- 

Brandenburgh, 384 ers, 424 

General Hulfen retreats from Mr. Stanley lent to Paris, and 

Saxony to Berlin, ib. M Buffiy to London, 426 

Evacuates it, and the city capi- French machinations with Spain, 

tulates, 385 427 

Enemy retires out of Brandon- Difficulties in the negotiation, 

burgh, after having pillaged 428 

it, 387 Deilgn of the campaign in Heffe, 

Jmperialijis make themfelves and of the expedition off Belle- 

mafters of Mifnia, ib. ijle, 429 



Prince Ferdinand's plan, 430 
Allies enter into Heffe and Tbu- 

ringia, ^ 43 1 

French retire, ib. 

Hereditary Prince repulfed at 

Fritzlar, 432 

Gen. Breidenback killed, ib. 
Faitzlar taken, ib. 

Blockade at Marpurg and Zie- 

genhayn, 433 

Siege of Cajfel, ib. 

Battle of Lange nj alt ze, 434 
Broglio reinforced from the 

Loiver Rhine, 435 

Hereditary Prince defeated at 

Stangerode y lb. 

Siege of CaJJel, &c. raifed, and 

the allies retire behind the 

Dymel, 436 

The negotiation continued, ib. 
Proportion oiuti pojfdetis, 437 
Debate concerning the periods, 

Belleifle defcribed, 439 

Englijh repulfed at Lochmaria 
bay, 440 

Gen. Hodgfon and Commodore 
Keppel's account of their pro- 
ceeding at Belleifle, 441 
They make good their landing, 

• 442 
Palais befieged, 445 

Town abandoned, 446 

Citadel capitulates, ib. 

England and France agree to 
treat of a feparate peace, 447 
Epochas propofedby England, 


Court of Vienna agree, 


Objects of the negotiation, 449 
Propofals of France with regard 

to Europe, Afia, Africa, and 

America, 450 

French memorial concerning 

Spain, 4^3 

Indignation of the Englijh Mi- 

nifter, ib. 

Englijh anfwer to the Trench 
memorial, 454 

Motions of the French and al- 
lied armies, 455 

General Sporcken attacked, 456 

French pafs the Dytnel, ib. 

Pofition of Prince Ferdinand, 


Junction of Broglio and Soubife, 

Battle of Kirch Denkern, and 

the French defeated, 45-8 

Prince Ferdinand's account of 

the battle, 459 

French threaten Hanover, 460 
Remarkable behaviour of Lord 

Geo. Lenox, and Major Waljh, 

Prince Henry of Brunfwick 

killed, 462 

Taking of Dor ft en, ib. 

Various movements of the ar- 
mies, 463 
Deftru&ion of Schartsfelts-caf- 

tie, ib. 

Prince Xauier of Saxony takes 

Wolfenbuttle, and inverts 

Brunfivick, 464 

Detachments from Prince Sou- 

hife take and abandon Emb~ 

den, ib. 

Attempt on Bremen, 465 

Sufferings of Loiver Weftphalia, 

Condition of the King of Pruf- 

fta, 466 

Motions of the Ruffians and of 

Laudobn, 468 

Breflau cannonaded, ib. 

Tottleben removed, and Colberg 

befieged, 469 

Ruffian magazines in Poland de- 

flroyed, 470 

War transferted to Pomerania, 

King of Pruffia quits his ftrong 

camp, ib. 



Scbweidnitz taken by a coup Court of Spain refufes, 497 

de main, 471 The minifters mutually with- 
Gen. Platen repulfed, 473 draw, ib. 
Knoblock made prifoner at Blockade of Pondicberry, 498 

Treptoiv, ib. Fleet difperfed in a ftorm but 

Prince Wurtenburg retreats, 474 returns again, 499 

Colberg taken, ib. Gen. Laity's letter on the occa- 

RuJJians winter in Pomerania, fion, 500 

ib. Town furrenders, 501 

The negotiation refumed, 475 Mabie taken, ^ ib. 

French conceffions, ib. Enterprifes of Mr. La<w, ib. 

Difference concerning the Ger- Mogul's army defeated by Major 

man alliance, 477 Carnac, 502 

■ -concerning the cap- Nabob of Bengal depofed, ib. 

tures antecedent to the deck- Coaft of Sumatra ravaged by the 

ration of war, 478 Count d Efi x aing, 503 

Treaty breaks off, and Meffieurs Dominica taken by Lord Roth 

Stanley and BuJJy recalled, and Sir James Douglafs y ib, 

479 M.dcc.lxii. 

Conduct of Spain during the State of Europe in the beginning 

negotiation, 480 of this year, 504 

6>tf«z/£ minifter's memorial, 48 1 111 ftate of the Britijh alliance, 

Treaty between France and 505 

Spain, ib. Condition of the Northern Poiv- 

Difference in the Englijh mini- ers, 506 

ftry, 482 War reaches to the Southern, 

Mr. Pitt refigns, 483 ib. 

Lord Granville's fpeech on the Family Compact, ib. 

occafion, 484 Some articles from it, 508 

Fa lfity of it detected, ib. Obfervations upon them, ib. 

Difputes concerning the refigna- Confequences of this treaty to 

tion, 485 Europe, 509 

Addreffes, 487 War declared againft Spain, ib. 

Mr. Pitt's letter to Aid. Beck- State of Spain and Great Bri- 

ford, 488 tain at the beginning of the 

His remarkable character and war between them, 510 

grandure of abilities, ib. Advantages and difadvantages 

Parliament meets, 491 on each fide, ib. 

Difpute with Spain, ib. Portugal threatened, and the 

Reprefentation of the Earl of melancholy ftate of that king- 

Briftol, 492 dom, 5 1 1 

Difpofi tion of the court of Ma- Arrogant proportion of the 

drid, ib. French and Spanijh minifters 

Treaty between France and to the court of Lijhon, 513 

Spain, 495 Anfwer to that court, 514 
England defires a communica- Refolution of the court of Por- 
tion, ib. tuga/, 516 


C O N T 

French and Spanijh Minifters 
depart, 516 

War declared by thofe powers 
againfl: Portugal, ib. 

Death of the Emprefs Elizabeth 
of Rujfta, and her character, 

State of the power of RuJJia on 

her deceafe, 518 

Her neohew Peter III. fucceeds, 


Entire change of fyftem, and 
peace with Prujfia, 521 

Peace between Prujfia and Swe- 
den, ib. 

The Czar enters into an alli- 
ance with theKingofiVtf^w, 


"War with Denmark threatened, 
and its caufe, ib. 

Campaign between the Prujfians 
and Auftrians opens, 523 

Prujfians obtain advantages in 
Saxony and Silefia, ib. 

Sudden revolution in Rujfia, 524 

Caufe of the revolution in Ruf- 
fta, _ ^ 525 

Czar irritates the clergy and 
foldiery, 526 

Differences with the Czarina, 

Czar depofed by the Senate, 

His imprifonment & death, 529 
The Czarina declared Emprefs, 


Effect of the revolution in Ruf- 
fia on the King of Prujfia' s 
affairs, 531 

Situation of the new Emprefs, 

> ib. 

Ruffian conqueft reftored, 533 

Ruffians quit the PruJJian camp, 


King of Prujfia draws Marflial 
Daun from Buckerfdorf, 534 

Schiveidnitz beiieged, ib. 

Marflial Laudohn attacks the 

E N- T S. 

Prince of Bevern and is re- 
pulfed, 34 

Difpofition of the French and 
allied armies, 53 c 

Battle of Grabcnftein, 536 

Lord Granby drives the French 
from Hambourg, 537 

Prince Xa<vier of Saxony de- 
feated, and Gottingen evacu- 
ated, 538 

War in Portugal, 540 

Miranda, Braganza and Cha- 
ves, taken, 542 

Almeida beiieged and taken, 

• 543 

Count de la Lippe arrives in Por- 
tugal, 544 

Surprife of Valentina d? Alcan- 
tara by Gen. Burgoyne, ib. 

Affair of Villa Velha, 545 

Spaniards retire, 546 

Expedition againfl: Martinico, 


Troops land at Cas Navire, ib. 

Attack of the ports near Fort 
Royal, 549 

Fort Royal furrendered, 550 

General Monckton's and Admi- 
ral Rodney' i letter relative to 
the conqueft of Martinico t 


St. Lucie, the Grenades and St. 
Vincent taken, 560 

Preparations for war againfl: the 
Spanijh Weft Indies, 561 

Commanders for the Expedition 
againfl: the Havannah ap- 
pointed, and departure of the 
fleet, 563 

Pafs through the old ftraits 
of Bahama, 564 

Town and harbour of Havan- 
nah cefcri bed, 564 

Troops land, 566 

The tiege of Fort Mora, ib. 

Diftrefs of the Englijb forces, 

5 6 7 


Succours arrive 

America , 
The Fort ftormed, 
Operations againft 





The Havannah furrenders, ib. 
Letters from the Earl of Albe- 
marle and Admiral P acock re- 
lative to their operations, 573 
An expedition againft the Phi- 
lippine Jflands, undertaken by 
Gen. Draper and Adm. Cor- 
nijh, 578 

Departure of the forces, 579 
City of Manila invefted, 581 
The place ftormed and taken, 

Geh. Draper and Adm. Comijb's 

account of the expedition, 


Propofals for peace, 592 

State of the Miniftry and par- 
ties, 593 

Dukes of Bedford and Niver- 
nois employed in the negoti- 
ation, 596 

Newfoundland taken and re- 
taken, ib. 

War in Germany , 600 

Hereditary Prince defeated at 
Johannijberg, 605 

Caffel invefted, 606 

Remarkable cannonade at Buck- 
er Muhl, 607 

French take Amoneb erg , 608 

Cajjel furrendered to the allies, 


War in Weftphalia^ concluded, 


Lord Granbfs letter of thanks 
to the army, 609 

Siege and furrender of Schtveid- 
nitz, 611 

War transferred to Saxony, 61 z 

Aujirians defeated at Freyberg, 


Pruffians ravage the Empire, ib. 

Preliminaries of peace between 

Great Britain and France ', 

. 613 

Mr. Fo x comes into adminiftia- 
tion, 624 

Preliminaries approved by par- 
liament, 625 

Peace of Hubertjbourg between 
Auftria and Prujfia, 626 

Conclufion, ib. 

A Lift 

Ships of War, taken, defrayed, or loft, during the late War. 

FRENCH Line of Battle Ships. 
'Taken. Guns. Defroyed. 


Soleil Royal 

Bien Aime 





The fee 







P Foudroyant 















• 64 




St. Anne 


Arc en Ciel 










Taken. Guns. Taken. Guns, 














La Folle 




















Fleur de Lys 







ENGLISH Men s/ War taken and deftroyedby the FRENCH, 

this whole War. 


Guns, Taken. 

FRENCH Ships loft by Accident. 


Warwick, retaken 

. 60 

Merlin, retaken 


Greenwich, fince loft 




Winchelfea, retaken 



Blandford, reftored 




Hawke, retaken 










70 Concord 

64 Sauvage 

60 Harmonie 

50 Zenobie 

50 Minerve 




ENGLISH Ships loft this War by Accident, 


Prince George 

Invincible, F. 



Due d' Aquitaine, F. 


Mars, F. 

Raifonable, F. 






90 Humber 

84 Huflar 

74 Leoftoffe 

70 'Lyme 

70 Tartar's prize, F, 

54 Biddeford 

64 Mermaid 

64 Queenborough 

64 Ferret 

60 Pheafant, F. 

60 Peregrine 

50 Diligence 

50 Scorpion 





SPANISH Line of Battle Ships. 
























San Genaro 



San Antonio 









N. B. There were two fhips of war taken on the (locks, at 
the Havannab. 



I I ] 



O R, 

I S T O R Y 

O F T H E 



Origin of the troubles in North America. Admiral Bof- 
cawen and General Braddock fent thither. Operations 
intended. Two French men of war taken. Braddock 
defeated. Gen. Jobnfon repulfes x the French. French 
threaten an invajion. Fort St. Philip befieged and taken* 
Treaty with Ruff a^ the fpirit of it. Alliance with the 
King of Prufjia. Ground of the Quarrel between her Im- 
perial Majcfly and that Monarch. Treaty of Peterfbourg* 
Treaty of Verf allies. King of Prufia enters Saxony and 
Bohemia. Battle oj Lowofttz. Saxon army furrenders, 

HE original plan of this work propofed no more 
than, that each volume fhotild contain a narra- 
tive of thofe events which diftinguifh its own 
Year- But, becaufe we have entered upon our 
undertaking in the heat of an almoft general and very im- 
portant war, I thought it would not be unnecefTary or 
difagreeable to look a little farther back. It would be 
difficult, perfectly to underftand the operations of the 
feveral powers at war, without reviewing the tranfa£tions 
of the preceding years; nor would it be eafy to enter into 

B the 

2 The History of the War. 1755. 

the fpirit of thefe, without examining the caufes which 
more nearly or remotely operated to produce thofe troubles 
that have involved fo many parts of the world in one com- 
mon diflra£tion. 

The war in which all parties and interefls feem now to 
be fo perfectly blended, arofe from caufes which originally 
had not the leaft connection : the uncertain limits of the 
Englifh and French territories in America; and the mutual 
claims of the Houfes of Auftria and Brandenbourg on the 
dutchy of Silefia. It is no wonder that the two former 
powers feizing on a country in which they confidered the 
right of the natural inhabitants as nothing, fhould find it a 
very difficult matter to fettle their own. For a long time 
neither of thefe powers were fufficiently acquainted with 
the geography of America, to enable them to afcertain the 
limits of their feveral pretenfions with any tolerable exact- 
nefs; nor, indeed, were thefe matters deemed of fuffici- 
ent moment to call for a very laborious difcuffion. At the 
treaty of Utrecht, whilfr. fo many more important interefls* 
or what then feemed more important, were difcufTed, the 
limits of Nova Scotia, then called Acadia, were expreffed 
only in general terms, and left to be put on a more certain 
footing by fubfequent negociations. Thefe negociations 
purfued with no vigour, and drawn out into an exceffive 
length, feemed only to increafe the former confufion. 
After the accefiion of the prefent Royal Family, a French 
connection, perhaps neceflary from the circumftances of 
the time, and afterwards a certain negligence of all af- 
fairs but thofe of our domeftic polity, fuffered this im- 
portant point to vanifh almoft wholly out of our confl- 
deration. During this interval, our colonies on the con- 
tinent of North America, extended themfelves on every 
fide. Whilft agriculture and the maritime commerce flou- 
rifhed on their coafts, the Indian trade drew feveral of our 
wandering dealers far into the inland country, and beyond 
the great mountains. Here they found themfelves in a de- 
lightful climate, in a foil abundantly fruitful, and watered 
with many fair and navigable rivers. Thefe advantages, 
joined to thofe of the Indian trade, appeared to compenfate 
for its remotenefs from the fea. It was judged, that as the 
firft fettlers on the coafl, we had a good right to the inland 
country; and, if fo, to the navigation of the Mifiifippi, 
which opened another door to the ocean. With thefe 


C ■ * 

.//■'/ '/j 

. 4JM£. jBOjSC^L WEJf 

l 155* ^ e History of the War* 3 

views, a company of merchants and planters, obtained a 
charter for a confiderable tract of land near the river 
Ohio, on the weftern fide of the Alleganey mountains, but 
within the province of Virginia; and the adventurers be- 
gan to fettle purfuant to the terms of their patent. 

Now began to (hoot forth the feeds of another difpute* 
which had long lain unobferved, but which proved altoge- 
ther as thorny and intricate as that concerning the limits 
of Acadia. The French pretending to have firft difcb- 
vered the mouths of the Mifiifippi, claimed the whole ad^ 
jacent country, towards New Mexico on the eaft, quite 
to the Apalachian or Alleganey mountains on the weft. 
They drove off the new fettlers, and built a new fort called 
du Quefne, on the forks of the River Monongahela, a 
fituation which commanded the ehtrance into all the coun- 
try on the Ohio and Miffifippi. 

The reader will obferve, that I do not pretend to decide 
concerning the right of either nation in this conteft. It is 
evident enough, that the confideration of the right had 
much lefs influence on both parties, than the confideration 
of conveniency. Should the French be able to unite Ca- 
nada to their colonies at the mouth of the Mifiifippi by a 
pofleffion of all that vaft country which lies between them, 
the Englifh colonies muft lofe all fhare in the Indian trade in 
time of peace ; and in time of war be expofed to continual 
dangers, or to the ruinoufly chargeable defence of a frontier 
more than fifteen hundred miles in length. If on the con- 
trary, the French fhould fail to make good thefe claims on 
the Ohio, and thofe on Nova Scotia, their two colonies 
entirely difunited, and the entrance into one (hut up for the 
winter feafon by froft, and the entrance into the other dif- 
ficult in all feafons by the banks at the mouth of the Mifii- 
fippi, muft certainly lofe all their value to France, and in 
their fall involve much of the fortune of their great fettle- 
ments in the Weft Indies. 

Both nations being fully perfuaded of this, no longer 
looked on the affair of the Ohio as a matter of indifference. 
They prepared to cut the gordian knot of the long and in- 
tricate negociation by the (word. Ships were fitted out, and 
fome troops filently fent off from Breft. General Braddock 
failed to Virginia with about fifteen hundred regular 
troops ; twenty four men of war under the Admirals 1 755» 
Bofcawen and Moftyn were ordered to America, to 
intercept the French fupplies. Orders were fent to our co- 

B 2 lonies 

4 %? History of the War. *755« 

lonies to arm ; and three operations were actually under- 
taken, one againft: Fort du Que fne under Braddrck ; the 
other two againft the French forts in Nova Scotia, and 
the Fort of Crown Point on the Frontiers of New York. 
The two courts in the mean time breathed nothing but 
peace, and exchanged reciprocal profeffions of friendfhip, 
and good will, which deceived neither party. 

' They who are of opinion that the paflions and characters 
of the ruling men influence all public concerns as much as 
the public interefts themfelves, thought they faw other 
caufes operating to haften this breach. On the death of 
a great Minifter, which happened fome time before, the 
adminiftration was new moulded. Some perfons then taken 
in, were confidered as belonging to a party not perfectly 
united with the remains of the old adminiftration.- It was 
thought, that the leading man of this party propofed to 
•work out the old fervants of the crown, in order to make 
way for a more uniform fyftem. As long as peace fubfifts, 
government is fupported by itfelf ; and any change is diffi- 
cult. But the conduct of a war, is a thing critical to a 
miniflry. The leader of this party therefore, confcious of 
his own talents, which all men acknowledge to be confpi- 
cuous, and of his connections which were confiderable, 
"warmly pufhed on a war, feconded by the fairnefs of the 
public motives, and the general voice of the people. In 
this war his friends relied, that things muft neceffarily be 
fo embarraffed, that the old party would find themfelves 
obliged to retire, and to leave the flage clear for them to 
ferve their country according to their own plans, and on 
their own terms. This defign was believed to be pufhed 
forward by another great man of that party, who had play- 
ed a game nearly of the fame kind before, and in whom an 
advanced age had not abated any thing of his natural fire 
and love of violent councils. 

Things came to a crifis by the taking of two French 

men of war by the Admirals Bofcawen and Mof- 
June io. tyn. The operations by land were carried on with 

vigour; but whether conducted with equal judg- 
ment, we (land too near the time to decide. However, the 

French fort at Beaufejour was taken, and foon 
June 1 6. after thofe on St. John's river were abandoned; 

by which we remained mafters of all Nova Scotia. 
The principal expedition was that againtl Fort du Quefne, 


1755- The History of the War. 5 

under General Braddock. That General abounding too 
much in his own fenfe for the degree of military knowledge 
he poilefled, commanding in a country which he did not 
know, and carrying on a fpecies of war in which he had no 
experience, fuffered himfelf, when he had advanced within 
10 miles of Fort du Quefne, to be furprifed by an ambuf- 
cade of French and Indians, His army was feiz- 
ed with a panic from the unufual appearance, and July 9, 
horrid cries of the favages ; they fled in confu- 
fion ; they were totally defeated with a confiderable {laugh- 
ter, efpecially of their officers. The General himfelf, after 
having five horfes killed under him, was mortally wounded ; 
wiping away all the errors of his conduct by an honourable 
death for his country. 

The nation was fomething confoled for this lofs in the 
fignal advantage gained by General Johnfon, who com- 
manded the expedition defigned againft Crown 
Point. He was attacked in his intrenchments by Sept. 7. 
the French General Diefkau, but the aflailants 
wanting cannon, and firing from too great a diftance, were 
totally defeated, and Dieikau himfelf was made prifoner. 
This victory, the' ver honourable for Mr. Johnfon and 
the provincial troops under his command, yet as it was 
gained late in the ieafon, and as the army was in no very 
good condition, had no confequences. On the whole* 
we feemed, after allowing for this viclory, and lor the dif- 
Jodgment of the French from Nova Scotia, to have had the 
worft part in the campaign ; confidering the fanguine ex* 
pe£tations which had been formed, and the great fuperiori- 
ty of ftrength which we exerted, or were able to have ex- 
erted, in that part of the world. 

During this fummer, our court took a refolution not to 
wait the precarious operation of o-ir arms in America for 
redrefs of the grievances complained of, but to ftrike fuch 
a blow as would at once put a fecurity into our hands, for 
the evacuating the places the enemy had fortified in our 
territories, and difable them in the two moil material points, 
the refources of their trade, and their feamen. Their 
merchant fhips were every where attacked, as if war had 
been actually declared, and vaft numbers brought into our 
ports. The French made all Europe refound with com- 
plaints of what they called a fo unjuft, and a 
violation of the lav/ of nations fo flagrant and unprecedent- 

B 3 «J, 

6 « The History of the War. l 15&> 

cd. But, whether it was that they were really in no con- 
dition to a£t, or that they intended to influence the other 
courts in their favour, by a mew of extraordinary modera- 
tion, they contented themfelves with this, and neither de- 
clared war, nor made any fort of reprifal for feveral months 
after. At length they began to acl: ; feveral bodies 
1756. of troops moved to the coafts of Picardy, Nor- 
mandy and Britany; and all things threatened an 
invafion on fome part of this kingdom. Under the fhadow 
of this ftratagem, they got ready in the harbour of Toulon 
a fleet of twelve men of war of the line, with the utmoft 

expedition, which convoyed an army of about 
April 18. eleven thoufand men, under the command of the 

Duke de Richlieu to the ifland of Minorca. In a 
A ,| few days they opened the trenches before St. Phi- 

A P nl 2 *' lip's fort. 

This was done whilft the nation trembled under a fhame- 
ful panic, too public to be concealed, too fatal in its con- 
fequences to be ever forgotten. The real invafion did not 
leffen our fears of the imaginary one ; it threw us into a 
confufion that fuffered us to be fenfible of nothing but our 
own weaknefs. We did not look upon ourfelves fufficientlv 
fecured by the arrival of the Hanoverian and Heflian troops, 
which the fame weaknefs had induced us to call to our affift- 
ance. The miniflry feemed to have been infected with the 
common terror ; for though they had very early notice of 
the French defigns, fuch was the apprehenfion of the in- 
vafion, or fuch the ill contrived difpofition of our navy, 
that Admiral Byng was not difpatched to the Mediterranean 
before the 5th of April, and then with a fquadron of no 
more than iofhips of the line. 

The engagement with the French fleet under M. Ga- 

liflbniere ; the retreat of Byng by which the gar- 
May 12. rifon of fort St. Philip was cutoff from all hopes 

of relief; the furrender of that garrifon after 
June 29. nine weeks open trenches ; the fentiments of the 

court and the public, on the different merits of 
the governor and the admiral; the oppofition of fome, who 
thought the one too highly honoured, and the other too 
feverely cenfured ; and the meafures which rather indigna- 
tion at our loiTes and difgraces, than a cool fenfe of things 
obliged us to take, are known to all the world. Our affairs 
\yere in fuch a condition that we were driven to the expe- 

1757- ^ History of the War. j 

dient of a court martial to revive the Britifh fpirit, and to 
the unfortunate neceflity of fhedding the blood of -^ , 
an Admiral, a perfon of a noble family, as a fa- e • H* 
crifice to the difcipline of our navy. I 757* 

From this melancholy picture, let us turn our eyes ano- 
ther way, and review the fteps by which this war came 
to involve the reft of the contending powers. The French, 
amongft the other plans they formed for diftrefiing our 
affairs, made no fecret of their defign of attacking his 
Majefty's German dominions. Thefe countries evidently 
had no fort of connexion with the matters which gave 
rife to the war. But being under a Sovereign fo remark- 
ably affectionate to his native country ; they judged he 
might be terrified into a relaxation of his rights in Ame- 
rica, to preferve Hanover from the calamities with which 
it was threatened. Their politics, however, in this in- 
ftance proved as unfuccefs/ul as they were unjuft. No 
motion was made towards an abatement in our claims with 
regard to America ; his Majefty took other methods for 
the prefervation of the peace of Germany. His Britifh fub- 
je&s by their reprefentatives, not more generoufly than rea- 
fonably, refolved to defend the Hanoverians if attacked in 
their quarrel. To anfwer this purpofe, the miniftry enter- 
ed into a fubfidy treaty with the Emprefs of Ruflia, in 
virtue of which fhe was to hold fifty five thoufand men in 
readinefs to be fent on a requifition wherever the Britifh 
fervice required. 

The alliance with Ruflia was chofen for reafons which 
were then fufficiently plaufible ; though it is to be hoped 
they can never fubfift again. The long ill underftanding 
between the King of Pruflia and our court, and his clofe 
connexion with that of Verfailles, raifed no ill -grounded 
apprehenfions that he might be induced to a£r. a dangerous 
part on this occafion. Ruflia was therefore a proper ally, 
who had both a political and perfonal enmity to this mo- 
narch, and who would be fure to employ a great power 
with great vigour in fuch a caufe. But this fyftem was in 
a fhort time totally reverfed. The King of Pruflia had 
been too well apprifed of the clofe conjunction of the courts 
of Petersburg and Vienna, and of the real motive to that 
conjunction, to have the leaft defign of embroiling himfelf 
with England. Matters were therefore very foon explain- 
ed, and the treaty between his Pruffian Majefty and this 

B 4 court. 

8 The History of the War. 1757. 

court, to keep all foreigners out of the Empire, was figned 
at London in January 1756. Thefe treaties were cenfured 
as inconfiftent with each other; but in reality they were 
confident enough, aiming precifelv at the fame objecl, to 
oppofe the fchemes meditated by France for difturbing the 
affairs of Germany. 


If reflecting on the fentiments of thefe courts, there was 
fomething unexpected in the alliance between Great Bri- 
tain and Prufiia; it was foon followed by another alliance 
of a nature infinitely more furprifing. The Fmprefs Queen 
of Hungary, finding England in no di'pofition to co-operate 
in her defigns, had recourfe to other meafures. The houfe 
of Auilria, which had formerly united Europe to preferve 
her from the power of France, now entered herfelf into the 
xnofl intimate union with that power. By this extraordinary 
revolution the whole political fyflem of Europe afTumed 
a new face; it was indeed a revolution fo extraordinary, 
hat we fhall be juflified if we interrupt the courfe of this 
narrative, to look back at the caufes which produced it. 

The houfe of Brandenbourg, a little more than two cen- 
turies ago, was in a very humble condition. But by the 
part me took in the reformation, which put into her hands 
the eftates of the Teutonic order ; by a marriage from 
which me acquired the dutchy of Cleves ; and by an un- 
common fuccefTion of able princes who carefully improved 
every turn in the affairs of Germany to their advantage, 
fhe raifed herfelf by degrees to a confiderable ffate, to an 
electorate, and at laft to a royalty, not only in name but in 
power. The late King of Pruilia, in order to flrengthen 
this power, though he pafTed almoft his whole reign in the 
moil profound peace, gave his whole attention tohisarmy; 
frugal in all other refpe&s, in this alone he was expenfive ; 
it was his bufinefs, and what was perhaps of greater mo- 
ment, it was his only diverfion. Thus in a reign apparently 
inactive, there was always kept up an army of near one hun- 
dred thoufand men, in as much exercife as they could have 
in war, and formed with the moft perfect difcipline. 

- When his prefent Majefty' came to the throne, he imme- 
diately fhewed a difpofition of employing effectually that 
military force, which his father had fpent his life only in 
forming and training. He managed his difpute with the 
Bifhop of Liege by the fummary method of force ; and 
feenied difpofed to carry all things with fo high an hand, as 







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13 2-P^ <fQ 

1757- ^he History of the War. 9. 

made him indeed much refpefited, but much dreaded too 
by the Princes of the Empire, who faw that there was 
another power to be feared in Germany, befides that or 
Auftria. But thefe were fmail matters, rather figns of the 
difpofition of this Prince, than exertions of it. He medi- 
tated much greater things; and only waited an op- 
portunity to make good the antient claims of his family on 
the moil: confiderable part of the dutchy of Silefia. The 
right to that dutchy had been a very intricate affair ; but the 
houfe of Auftria availing herfelf of the greatnefs of her 
power, and a diflention between the Elector Frederick II. 
and his fon, prevailed with the Elector to give up that 
right for an equivalent; then fhe perfuaded his fon to con- 
firm the treaty ; and at the fame time for a trivial confi- 
deration to give up the equivalent itfelf. The King of 
Pruilia, not thinking himfelf bound by thefe acts, though 
confirmed by a long pofielTion, took advantage of his own 
power, and the embarraiFed circumftances of the houfe of 
Auftria, to refume what their power and the embarraiTed 
circumftances of his family had formerly deprived him of. 
For immediately on the death of Charles the 6th, 
when the Auftrian greatnefs feemed irrecoverably Dec. 
loft, he entered into Silefia, and made himfelf mafter I 740. 
of the whole country with little oppofition. Then 
uniting with the French and Bavarians, he fecured his 
conquefts, by two decifive victories, and by a trea- T 
ty which yielded him the greateft part of Silefia •* 
and the whole county of Glatz. But the caufe '4 
of the Emperor which the King of Pruflia had embraced, 
foon caufed a renewal of hoftiliiies ; the Queen of 
Hungary faw herfelf defeated in three pitched June 2, 
battles ; her new ally the King of Poland, driven 1744. 
from his German dominions, and the King of 
Pruflia entering Drefden in triumph, where he gave the 
law in a treaty, by which Silefia was once more 
folemnly confirmed to him : in return to which Dec. 1745. 
he guarantied the Queen of Hungary the reft 
of her dominions. 

The Queen of Hungary could not eafily lofe the me- 
mory of the wound (he had received in the lofs of one of 
the fineft and richeft parts of all her dominions Silefia, 
which me had juft yielded, extended in length two hundred 
miles along the courfe of the large and navigable river Oder. 

A country 

io The History of the War. i 75o> 

A country of the mofl exquifite fertility and higheft: cultiva- 
tion ; abounding with men, abounding with valuable manu- 
factures, and yielding a clear yearly revenue of eight hundred 
thoufand pounds fterling. The peace was hardly concluded 
by which fhe refigned this valuable territory, than (he fet on 
foot practices for recovering it. She entered into a treaty with 
the court of Peterfbourg, of an innocent and fimply defen- 
sive nature, fo far as appeared to the public ; but 
May 22, fix fecret and feparate articles were added to it ; 
i 746. one of which provides, that in cafe his PrufTian 
majeHy mould attack her majefly the Emprefs 
Queen, or the Emprefs of Ruflia, or even the republic of 
Poland, that this attack mould be confidered as a breach of 
the treaty of Drefden ; that the right of the Emprefs Queen 
to Silefia ceded by that treaty mould revive ; and that the 
contracting powers mould mutually furnifh an army of 
fixty thoufand men to re-invefl the Emprefs Queen with 
that dutchy. 

To this fo extraordinary a treaty, the King of Poland 
was invited to accede ; and he did fo far accede to it, as to 
mew he perfectly agreed in his fentiment with thefe courts. 
But his Situation in the jaws of a formidable enemy, and 
the experience of pad misfortunes, had rendered him fo 
wary, that he declined figning the treaty ; but ftilt, with 
the confent of the parties concerned, whom he fully con- 
vinced of his refolution to co-operate in all their meafures. 
Ke defired and they agreed, that in the fuccefs of their arms 
he mould have a fliare in the fpoil, on the footing of a 
treaty for the eventual portion, of the King of 
May 18, Prufila's dominions made in the laft war. On 
1 745. thefe conditions the King of Poland without ac~iu~ 
ally figning, was underlrood, and received as a 
party to the treaty of Peterfbourg. 

In confequence of thefe meafures, all fort of means were 
employed to embroil the King of PruiTia's affairs in the 
North, and particularly to render him perfonal'iy odious to 
the Czarina. When their machinations had taken full ef- 
fect, and RufHa was fixed in the unalterable enmity to that 
monarch, preparations of magazines and armies were made 
in Bohemia and Moravia ; and the King of Poland, under 
pretence of a military amufement,drew together about fixteen 
thoufand men, with which he occupied the flrong and im- 
portant poft of Pima. The Queen of Hungary faw that (he 


iT$6. ^ History of the War. h 

flood in need of yet ftronger fupports than thefe in the 
arduous bufinefs fhe had undertaken. She found that Great 
Britain, which had often done fo much for her diftreffes, 
would do little for her ambition : fhe therefore had recourfe 
to France, who joyfully accepted an alliance, that promifed 
to confound the whole Germanic body, and concluded a 
treaty with the Emprefs at Verfailles the ift of May 1756? 
a remarkable aera in the political hiftory of Europe. 

The fecret articles of the treaty of Peterfbourg, the 
fountain of the prefent troubles, and the fleps ta*ken to put 
that treaty in execution, though formed and carried on 
with as much fecrecy as earneftnefs, could not efcape the 
vigilance of his Pruflian majefly, who watched all their mo- 
tions, and had perfect intelligence of their mod: hidden de- 
figns. When, therefore, he perceived that by the breach 
between England and France, the Emprefs Queen would 
take advantage of thefe troubles to avail herfelf of her al- 
liances and her armament ; he ordered his minister at Vienna 
to demand a clear explication, and proper affurances con- 
cerning the preparations he faw making: and receiving only 
a dry and equivocal anfvver, that the Emprefs had taken 
meafures for her own fecurity and that of her allies and 
friends, the King believed himfelf no longer bound to pre- 
ferve any terms ; a dangerous war was to be kept out of his 
own territories at any rate; and being always in perfect rea- 
dinefs for aclion, he fell upon Saxony with a confiderable 

At firfl the King of Pruflia feemed only to demand a 
free paflage for his troops, and an obfervance of 
the neutrality profefled by the King of Poland; Aug. 29. 
but as he had very good reafon to diftruft fuch a 
neutrality, he demanded as a fecurity, that the Saxon 
troops mould quit the ilrong pofl: they occupied, and dif- 
perfe themfelves immediately. This demand was refufed, 
and the King of PruiTia in confequence of that refufai, 
immediately formed a fort of blockade about the Saxon 
camp at Pirna, with a view to reduce it by famine, fince 
its inacceffible fituation rendered an attack unadvifeable. 
There were in Bohemia two Auilrian armies under Marshal 
Brown and Marfhal Picolomini; to keep them in a we, Marfhal 
Schwerin had entered Bohemia from the county of Glatz; 
and Marfhal Keith had penetrated into that kingdom on the 
fide of Mifnia. But theKingof Pruflia, not entirely confidingin 
thefe difpofitions ; and ftill app'rehenfive that Marfhal Brown 


12 The History of the War. j 75^- 

might be able to convey fome relief to the Saxons, refolv- 
ed to bring him to action, to the luccefs of which he knew 
his own prefence would greatly contribute. He therefore 
left the blockade of the Saxon army, joined his forces under 

Keith, and engaged the Aultrians at Lowofitz. 
Dec. i. Here he obtained a victory, which though it was 

not undifputed with regard to the field of battle, 
yet with regard to the confequences it was as decifive as 
could be wifhexl. Marfhal Brown found it impracticable to 
relieve the Saxons, notwith (landing the judicious efforts he 
made tor that purpofe ; and that army, after a vain attempt 
to retire from their difficult pott, which had one fault, that 
it was as difficult to leave it as to force it, were obliged to 
furrender prisoners of war. The King of Poland quitted 
his German dominions ; and the PruiTians took up their 
winter quarters in Saxony, feizedupon the revenues, levied 
exorbitant contributions, and obliged the country to furnifh 
recruits. This unhappy people faw their country exhauft- 
ed, and forced to bear the burthen of a war againil itfelf. 
It was then that the King of Pruffia confuking the rules 
of policy more than thofe of politenefs, made himfelf mat- 
ter of the archives at Dresden, in doing which fome rough- 
refs was ufed towards the Queen; but he made himfelf 
amends for the clamour induftrioufly raifed on this pretence, 
by acquiring the originals of thefe pieces, which evinced 
to the world the reality of the defign againft him, and 
which therefore in a great meafure juftifled the means he 
had taken to come at them, as well as the extraordinary 
feverities he ufed towards the unlortunate Saxons. 


State of the Englijh minifry. The char a tiers and defigns 
of the feverai factions. A coalition. Gfvego taken by 
■ the French. Calcutta taken by the Nabob, Angria re- 
duced by Admiral Wat fan. 

WHILST the King of Pruffia parted the winter 
in the moff. vigorous preparations for carrying on 
the war, his ally Great Britain p efented a \ T ery different 
face of things. The lofs of Minorca plunged the people 
into the utmoft grief mixed with fhame. for fuch a blot 
on the national honour, and with indignation not only 


1 7. 5 7' ^be History of the War. 13 

againd thofe who had a&ed weakly, but thofe who had 
provided infufficiently for the maintenance of that important 
pofltfllon. The public refentment* which atfirft feemed to 
have no other obecl than Byng, was foon turned againd the 
minidry. The c'amour in parliament was great ; without 
doors it was exceffive. AddrefTes praying a drift enquiry 
into the caufe of our misfortunes, were prefented from 
all parts of the kingdom. The minidry, notwithdanding 
this general difcontent, had a real drength 5 and they 
might have flood, had they agreed amongd themfelves. 
The commons could not be brought to any angry votes ; 
and the refult of the enquiry into the lofs of Minorca, was 
as favourable as they couid have wifhed. But Mr, Fox 
(now Lord Holland) thought it not advifeable to bear a large 
proportion- -of the odium caufed by counfels, in which he 
had little fhare. Perhaps he thought this embarraffment, 
a Situation not unfavourable to the arrangement he had 
always a med at; he therefore fuddenly threw up an em- 
ployment, which he hoped to refume augmented with 
greater power. 

On the removal of this principal prop, the whole dru&ure 
of the minidry fell to pieces. The Duke of Newcadle, the 
Lord Chancellor, the fird lord of the admiralty refigned; and 
the chiefs of the party by whofe manoeuvres they 
were difplaced, naturally fucceeded to the ma- Dec. 4. 
nagement of affairs. They who had refigned 1756. 
gave t em no apparent oppofition in parliament ; 
but whether it was, that the new miniftry were them- 
fel\es too frefh from oppofition, and fome of them too 
full of the popular manners, that; introduced them to court, 
to be perfectly agreeable in the clofet, or that they had 
made their bottom too narrow, after holding their em- 
ployments for fome months, to the great concern of the 
public, they in their turn were obliged to quit 
their pods. Thus was the helm of government April 5. 
a fecond time abandoned. The cafe of the 1757. 
King and the nation was at that juncture truly 
deplorable. We were without any ally who could do us 
the lead fervice, engaged in a .war hitherto unfuccefsful, 
with the mod formidable power in Europe ; we alinod 
defpaired of our military virtue ; public fpirit appeared 
utterly extinguifhed, whiift the rage of faction burned wkh 
the utmod violence ; our operations were totallv fufpend- 


14 The History of the War. i 757. 

ed: and having no miniftry eftablifhed, we had no plan to 

Three factions divided the ruling men of the nation, 
for the grofs of the people feemed to have no further views 
than a redrefs of their grievances, by whatever means 
that could be brought about ; the firft of thefe factions 
was compofed of thofe who had grown to place and power, 
or had formed their connexions under the old miniftry. 
They were fome of the moft refpectable perfons in the 
nation, and had undoubtedly the greateft parliamentary 
intereft. They had at the fame time another intereft 
hardly lefs considerable, that of the monied people ; but in 
fome points, and tlofe material too, they were weak. 
They were not at all popular ; a matter of great cenfi- 
deration in a government like ours ; and they were fup- 
pofed by the grofs of the people, not to be under the 
direction of great political abilities. 

The fecond faction, though not fufpected of the want 
of fufficient ability, was yet more unpopular than the 
former; they had not attempted to preferve even the ap- 
pearances eiTential to popularity ; and to them the more 
efiential, as their parliamentary ftrength was, however 
refpe&able, much inferior to the firft. If their influence 
at one court was able to ballance that of the old miniftry, 
by means of a then powerful connexion, that very con- 
nection made them far worfe at another court, and worfe 
with the generality of the people, who entertained or pre- 
tended at leaft to entertain, fufpicions of a nature the more 
dangerous, as they were only dropped in hints and whif- 
pers, and never could corhe to a full and open explana- 

The third party, had little parliamentary and lefs court 
influence ; but they had a prodigious popularity, which 
fupphed every other defect. The abilities of their leader 
were of the moft (hining kind ; his application equal to 
his abilities ; hisdifintereftednefs were confefied by his ene- 
mies ; and though it would have fhined in the days of he- 
roifm, was now the more valued, and fet off to the greater 
advantage by the general felfifhnefs which prevailed among 
the men of bufinefs. The nation repofed the moft perfect 
confidence in his integrity and love to his country. This 
party, confeious where its ftrength lay, cultivated with 
great care the popularity which was the bafis of their 

power i 

1757- ^e History of the War. 15 

power ; even perhaps fo as to impair on fome occafions 
the dignity of government. 

Thefe three factions differed from each other extremely 
with regard to power, the grand object of all factions. But 
in the general fcheme of their politics, the firll two were 
pretty much agreed. Looking on France as the mod con- 
flant and mofl dangerous enemy of Great Britain, they 
dreaded the increafe of her power and influence among the 
neighbouring nations as the greateft of all evils. To pre- 
vent fo dangerous an aggrandifement, they thought it 
absolutely neceflary to preferve a conftant attention to the 
ballance of power, and to feek our particular fafety and 
liberty in the general fafety and liberty of Europe. A 
clofe connection was therefore to be kept up with the 
powers of the continent, not only by continual negotiati- 
ons, but by large fubfidies, and even by aflifting them 
with our troops if the occafion mould require fuch af- 
fiflance. For this purpofe, as well as to fecure effectually 
our prefent happy, eftablifhment, a confiderable regular 
land force ought to be conftantly maintained. Our navy, 
they thought, ought by no means to be neglected ; but 
it was only to be cultivated and employed fubferviently 
to the more comprehenfive continental fyftem. Thefe 
parties were far from being friends to arbitrary power, 
or in any fort averfe to parliaments ; they loved the confti- 
tution ; but they were for preferving the authority of go- 
vernment entire, and in its utmoft lawful force. To make 
government more eafy, knowing that many would difturb 
it, from difaffection or difguft, or mi (Taken notions of 
liberty, they thought it juft to rule men by their interefts, 
if they could not by their virtues, and they had long 
been in the practice of procuring a majority in parliament, 
by the diflribution of the numerous lucrative places and 
employments which our conftitution leaves in the difpofal 
of the Crown. Several believed that no other method was 
practicable, confidering the nature of mankind, and our 
particular form of government. 

But the third and popular party, was influenced bv 
different principles. They looked indeed on the power of 
France in the fame light with the two former, and were 
of the fame opinion concerning the neceffity of fetting 
bounds to it. In the means of attaining this end they 
differed. Our fifuation they thought dictated a narrower, 


i6 The History of the War. 1757. 

but a more natural, a fafer, and a lefs expenfive plan of 
politics, than that which had been adopted by the other 
party. We ought never to forget, faid they, that we are 
an ifland ; and that this circumltance, fo favourable both 
to our political and to our civil liberty, prefcribes to us a 
conduct very different from that of any other nation. 
Our natural ftrength is a maritime ftrength, as trade is 
our natural employment ; thefe mud always go hand in 
hand, and they mutually fupport each other. But, if 
turning our back to our real interefts, and abandoning our 
natural element, we enter that inextricable labyrinth of 
continual politics ; if we make ourfelves parties in 
every controverfy ; if we exhauft cur w r ealth in purchafing 
the ufelefs and precarious friendfhip of every petty prince 
or flate ; if we wade the blood of our people in all the 
quarrels that may arife on the continent ; fo far from go- 
ing in the right way to reduce France, that we attack her 
on theftrong fide, and only deftroy ourfelves by our ill judg- 
ed efforts againfl: the enemy. That we can have nothing to 
fear from the fuperiority of France on the continent, whilft 
w r e preferve our fuperiority at fea ; that we can always cut 
the finews of the enemy's ftrength by deftroying their 
traffic ; that to fear an invafion from a power weak in its 
marine, is the idleit of all fears ; that in cafe an invafion 
were poffible, a well trained national militia, fupplying by 
their zeal the defects of their difcipline, would prove our 
beft. protection ; that a Handing army is in whatever fhape 
dangerous to freedom ; and that a government like ours, 
connected by its very effence with the liberty of the fub- 
jecl 5 . can never be in want of the fupports ofdefpotic power. 
As little is parliamentary influence neceffary. A govern- 
ment pleafing to the people, as every good government 
muff be, can never be generally oppofed ; and men need 
no bribes to perfuade them to their duty. 

Thefe notions, fo oppofite in their extremes, might be 
reconciled in a medium, and ufed to temper each other. 
For as, on one hand, it would be very abfurd to make no 
fort of advantage of our infular fituation, but to engage in 
all the bufmefs of the continent without referve, and to 
plunge ourfelves into real evils out of a dread of poffible 
mifehiefs ; fo en the other hand, to think ourfelves' wholly 
unconcerned in the fortunes of our neighbours on the 
continent, or to think of aiding them in any cafe, only 


1756. *fbe History of the War. 17 

by the way of diverfion with our fleets^ would be a way 
of proceeding, dill more extravagant than the former. If 
fuch notions were reduced to practice, we might foon lofe 
all thofe advantages derived from a fituation which we 

The reafonablenefs of fuch a temperament, could not 
be perceived during the ferment of that time, in which 
thefe topics were bandied to and fro with infinite heat. 
The refignation, or rather deprivation, of the popular mi- 
niitry, only increased their popularity, and the general 
difcontent ; the people could not believe that good mea- 
fures could be purfued, when thofe, in whom- alone they 
confided, were not employed ; almoil all the corporations 
of the kingdom prefented the deprived miniders with their 
freedom, and addrefied them in the warmed manner, tefti- 
fying the mod intire approbation of their conduct, and 
the fincered concern to fee them out of employment. 

This conflict, between an old edablifhed intered, and the 
torrent of popularity, continued for a long time, and the 
nation was almod ruined by it. It is not eafy, nor perhaps 
quite proper, to attempt to trace the deps by which fo hap- 
py a coalition, as we have feen take place, was brought 
about. But it was formed in fuch manner, has held to- 
gether with fuch folidity, and produced fuch 
excellent effects, as I believe the mod fanguine June 29. 
could not have hoped for at that time. Mr. Pitt was 1757. 
again redored to the office of fecretary of date, the 
Duke of Newcadle was placed at the head of the treafury, 
Mr. Fox was appointed paymader of the forces. This ar- 
rangement, which gave'very general fatisfaclion, was how- 
ever difliked by thofe, whom their violent attachment to 
their party had infpired with a narrow and exclufive fpirit. 
It was the bed meafure, becaufe it was an healing mea- 
fure ; and it was little lefs than impoflible for any parti- 
cular party to carry on public bufinefs on its fingle bot- 

It was high time that our domedic difTentions mould be 
compofed at lad. From every quarter of the 
world, in which we had any concern, we heard Aug. 14. 
of nothing but lofles and calamities. In America 1756. 
we lod the Fort of Ofwego. That fort, fitua- 
ted at the mouth of the Onondaga river, commanded a 
commodious harbour on the Lake Ontario. It was buijt 

C by 

18 The History of the War. 1757. 

by General Shirley, and defigned to cover the country of 
the Five nations; to fecure the Indian trade; to interrupt 
the communication between the French northern and 
fouthern eftablimments ; and to cpen a way to our arms to 
attack the forts of Frontenac and Niagara. For thefe pur- 
pofes, fome frigates had been fitted out for cruizing, and 
a number of boats prepared for the tranfportationof troops ; 
but they all fell to the enemy with the fort, where one hun- 
dred pieces of cannon were, and a confiderable quantity of 
provifion. One thoufand fix hundred men were made prifon- 
ers of war. The place made but a trifling refinance, fcarce 
holding out three days; the attempts to relieve it were too 
late. The French demohfhed the fort. 

Ourlofies were not confined to America, The Eafr. India 
company received a blow, which would have fhaken an 
eftablifhment of lefs ftrength to its foundations. The news 
of the war between France and England had not yet reach- 
ed India, but a new and very formidable enemy was raifed 
up in that quarter. The Nabob of Bengal (the Nabobs 
are a fpecies of viceroys to the Grand Mogul, grown al- 
moft independent in their feveral provinces,) irritated at 
the protection given to one of his fubjecls in the Englifh 
fort of Calcutta, and, as it is faid, at the refufal of fome 
duties to which he claimed a right, levied a great army, 
and laid ilege to that place. The Governor, terrified by 
the numbers of the enemy, abandoned the fort with feve- 
ral of the principal perfons in the fettlement, who faved 
themfelves with their valuable efTe££s on board the 

Thus defeated, Mr. Hoi well, the fecond in command, 
bravely held the place to the lafi: extremity, with a few 
gallant friends, and the remains of a feeble garrifon. A 
very noble defence was inefficient to keep an untenable 
place, or to affect an ungenerous enemy. The fort was 
taken, and the garrifon being made prifoners, 
June 26. were thruft into a narrow dungeon. Hoi well, 
with a few others, came out alive, to paint a 
fcene of the moft cruel diMrefs which perhaps human nature 
ever fufrered. The Eait India company loft their principal 
fettlement in Bengal, and a fort, which fecured to them 
the mod valuable part of their trade. 

In the fpace of this unfortunate year, w r e were dripped 
of Minorca and Ofwego j we apprehended an invafion of 


1757- '*b e History of the War. \g 

Great Britain it'elf: our councils were torn to pieces by 
factions ; and our military force was every where in con- 
tempt. Amidfl thefe Idles, we considered as 
fome advantage, the reduction of the principal Feb. 13. 
fort' of Angria, a piratical prince, who had been 
many years troublefome to the Englifh trade in the Eafl 
Indies. This fervice was performed by Admiral Watfon in 
the beginning of the year. 



State of the confederacy againfl the King of PruJJia. French 

pafs the Wefer. King of Priifpa enters Bohemia. Battle 

of Prague. Prague invejled. Count Daun takes the com- 

mand of the Aufrian army. Battle of Colin. 

HAT turn the Englifli politics were like to take 
in the year 1759, feemed for fome time uncertain. 
The new miniftry did not feem well eftablifhed ; nor was 
it well known, whether they would purfue the plans and 
preferve the connections of the old. Abroad, every thing 
was prepared for opening the campaign with the utmofl 
eclat. All Europe was in motion. 

France, in order to demonstrate to the Queen of Hun- 
gary, the advantageous choice fhe had made in connecting 
herfelf with the houfeof Bourbon, formed two great armies. 
The firft was compofed of near eighty thoufand men, the 
flower of the French troops, attended with a vail artillery 
and commanded by Marfhal d'Etrees, a General of the befr. 
eftablifhed reputation (he had in her fervice. Under him ferved 
Marfhal de Contades, Marfhal Chevert, and the Count de St. 
Germain, all officers of high character, and all fit to com- 
mand in chief, if Marfhal d'Etrees had not been appointed to 
that eminence. This formidable army pafied the Rhine, 
and marched by Weftphalia, in order to invade the King of 
PrufuVs dominions in quality of allies to the Emprefs 
Queen, and guardians of the liberties of the Empire, and 
to no other intent, as it was pretended ; but in reality, with 
a view to reduce Hanover alfo. They judged that their 
operations againfl the King of Pruflia might be executed, 
and their fcheme to drive the King of England into fome 
conceflions with regard to America, might be compkated 
by one and the fame blow. The fecond army was com- 

C 2 manded 

20 tfbe History of the War. 1757- 

manded by the Prince de Soubife ; it confifted of- about 
twenty-five thoufand men. This army was defrintd to 
ftrengihen the Imperial army of execution ; but before 
it had palled the Rhine, it made itfelf matter of Cleves, 
Meurs and Gueidres, whilft: a detachment from d'Etrees's 
army feized upon the town of Embden, and whatever elfe 
belonged to Pruflia in Eall Friefland. 

As foon as the King or Pruflia had entered Saxony in 
the beginning of the preceding Cummer, procefs was com- 
menced againfl him in the Emperor's Aui.c council, and 
before the diet of the Empire. It is not difficult to con- 
ceive how the affair muit. have been decided ; when thofe 
who feared the King of Prufik, believed they had a fair 
opportunity to reduce him : and when thofe who feared the 
houfe of Auftria, were, by that very fear, obliged to fup- 
port the power they dreaded : accuflomed as they were 
to the influence of a family in which the Empire had fo 
long been in a manner hereditary; and over-awed by the 
appearance of a confederacy, the moil: formidable the world 
had ever yet feen. Accordingly the King of Pruflia w r as 
condemned for contumacy : and the Fifcal had orders to 
notify to him that he was put under the ban of the Fra- 
pire, and adjudged fallen from all the dignities and pof- 
feilions which he held under it. The circles of the Em- 
pire were ordered to furnilh their contingents of men and 
money to put this fentence in execution ; but the contin- 
gents were collecled (lowly, the troops were badly compo- 
fed, and probably this army had never been able to Q.Q., if 
it had not been for the affutance offered under the Prince 
de Soubife. 

The Auftrians, who were principals in the quarrel, were 
not behind their auxiliaries in the greatnefs of their prepar- 
ations; they made the moft ftrenucus efforts, by which they 
afiembled a body of upwards of one hundred thoufand men 
in Bohemia, and committed the command to Prince Charles 
of Lorrain,affiitedbyMarfhal Brown. In the north ail things 
threatened the King of Pruffia. The Czarina, true to her 
refentments and her engagements, had fent a body of %ty 
thoufand men commanded by Marfhal Apraxin, who were in 
full march to invade the Ducal Pruflia, wbilir. a ftrong fleet 
was equipped in the Baltick, to co-operate with that army, 
Attho' the King of Sweden was allied in blood and inclination 
to his Priiilian majeily, yet the jealoufy 'which the Senate 


2757- Vb e History of the War. 21 

entertained of their fovereign ; the hope of recovering their 
antient poffeilions in Poinerania by means of the prefent 
troubles, and in fine their old attachment to France, newly 
cemented by intrigues and fubfidies, made their ill inclina- 
tions, to the caufe of PruiTia more than fufpicious. Hitherto 
indeed nothing more than the tendency of their councils was 
fully known, The Duke of Mecldenbourg took the fame 
party, and agreed to join the Swedim army when it mould 
be affembied, with fix thoufand men ; a proceeding which 
he has fince had reafon to repent bitterly. Thus were the 
forces of five mighty dates *, each of which had in their 
turn been a terror to all Europe, united to reduce the heir 
of the MarquifTes of Brandenbourg ; and in fiich a point of 
danger and glory, had the great and formidable abilities of 
his PrufTian majefty placed him, with little, in comparifon, 
that could enable him to fuftain the violence of fo many 
fhocks, except what thofe abilities fupplied. But his 
aftaniihing ceconomy, the incomparable order of his finances, 
the difcipline of his armies beyond all praife, afagacity that 
forefaw every thing, a vigilance that attended to every thing, 
a conftancy that no labour could fubdue, a courage that no 
danger could difmay, an intuitive glance that catches the 
deciilve moment, all thefe feemed to form a fort of ballance 
to the van: weight againil him, turned the wifhes of hi* 
friends into hopes, and made them depend upon refources 
that are not within the power of calculation. 

The only army that appeared in his favour was a body of 
between thirty and forty thoufand Hanoverians and Heflians, 
who with fome reinforcements of his own troops, formed 
an army of obfervat ; on, commanded by his Royal Highnefs 
the Duke of Cumberland ; this army was ported on the 
Wefer, to watch the motions of Mar/hal d'Etrees. The 
vaft and unwieldy body of the French, encumbered as the 
French armies always are by an immenfe baggage, and an 
innumerable multitude of mouths without hands, made a 
very flow progrefs through the rough and barren country 
that lies between the Rhine and the Wefer. All the abili- 
ties of the French general were employed in finding fubfif- 
tence for his troops. His Royal Highnefs on the other 
hand, difplayed great abilities in throwing all pofllble im- 
pediments in his way. But when thefe impediments were 

C 3 removed 

* Auftria, Ruffia, France, Sweden, the Empire. 

22 The History of the War. 1757. 

removed by the fupcrjority of numbers, the Hanoverian 
army gradually gave u ay, yielding to that fupericriry, and 
the French troops pa fled the Wefer without oppofition. 

In the mean time, his Pruflian majefty being determined 
according to his n:axim, to lay the cloth as far from home as 
poflible ; made his diTpofition for carrying the war into 
Bohemia as fpeedilj as the feafon would admit. Three 
great bodies of his troops entered into that kingdom by 
three very different ways, but nearly at the fame time. 
Mf.r(hal Schwerin penetrated into it from Silefia. The 
Prince of Bevern entered with the corps under his com- 
mand from Lufatia, ana defeated as a preliminary to a more 
decrfive victory, a body of twenty-eight thoufand 
Apr. 2 1, Auftrians who oppofed him. The King himfelf 
prepared to enter Bohemia at a great diflance from 
the corps commanded by theie Generals ; and as he deemed 
difpofed to march towards Egra, the enemy imagined he 
intended to execute fome defign diftinct from the objecl: of 
his other armies. With this idea they detached a bodv of 
twenty thoufand men, to obferve his motions. The King 
of Pruflia finding that this feint had all its effect, made a 
fudden and mafterly movement to his left, by which he cut 
off all communication between that detachment and the 
main army of the Aufrrians. Spirited with the advantage, 
he puihed onwards with the utmoil rapidity to Prague, 
where he joined the corps under the prince of Bevern and 
Marfhal Schwerin, who had advanced with inconceivable 
diligence to meet him. Never were operations executed 
with more judgment, celerity and fuccefs. 

The Auftrian army was little fhort of one hundred thou- 
fand men, and the fifuation of their camp, forti- 
May 6. fled by every advantage of nature, and every 
contrivance of art, fuch as on common cccafions 
might juftly be considered as impregnable ; but the Pruf- 
fians, being nearly as numerous as the enemy, infpired by a 
fociety of danger with their King y and filled with thai noble 
enthufiafm, which, whilft it urges to daring enterprifes, al~ 
mcftenfures their fuccefs, pajTed morafles,climhed precipices, 
faced batteries, and after a bloody and obftinate rchftance, 
totally defeated the Auftrians. They took their camp* mili- 
tary chefl, cannon, all the trophies of a complete victory, 
The lofs on the fide of the victors, as well as the vanquish- 
ed* was very great ; but both iides had yet a greater lofs in 


*757- The History of the "War. 23 

the death of two of the beft generals in Europe. Marlhal 
Schwerin was killed at the age of eighty-two, with the 
colonels ftandard in his hand at the head of his regiment, 
Marfhal Brown received a wound? which^ from the chagrin 
he fuffered rather than from its own nature, proved mortal. 
About forty thoufand of the Auftrian army took refuge 
in Prague. The reft fled different ways. The King of 
Pruflia loft no time to inveft the place, and to cut off all 
fuccours. If on one hand fuch an immenfe garrifon 
made an attack unadvifeable, on the other that- formidable 
number itfelf feemed to make the reduction of the place by 
famine the more certain. The King of Pruflia not relying 
folely on this, prepared to bombard the town. On the 29th 
of May, at midnight, after a moft dreadful ftorm of rain 
and thunder, as if it were to difplay how much more 
ruinous the malice of men may be, than the greateft terrors 
of nature, on the fignal of a rocket, four batteries, which 
difcharged every twenty-four hours two hundred and eighty^ 
eight bombs, befides a vaft multitude of red hot balls, be- 
gan to pour deftru£tion on that unfortunate city, which was 
foon in flames in every part. The garrifon made a vigo- 
rous defence, and one well conducted and defperate fally : 
but they were repulfed with great lofs. The principal 
magiftrates, burgeffes, and clergy, feeing their city on the 
point of being reduced to an heap of rubbiih, made the 
moft moving fupplications to the commander to liften to 
terms. The commander was deaf to their prayers. Twelve 
thoufand of the moft ufelefs mouths were driven out of the 
city. The Pruflians forced them in again. The affairs of 
the Emprefs feemed verging to inevitable deftruction ; a 
whole army was upon the point of furrendering prifoners 
of war; the capital of Bohemia on the point of being ta- 
ken, and with it all the reft of that flourifhing kingdom. 
The fanguine friends to the King of Pruflia began to com- 
pute the diftance of Vienna. 

In this defperate fltuation of affairs, Leopold Count Daun 
entered on the ftage, and began to turn the fortune of the 
war. This General never had commanded in chief before ; 
"but he was formed, by a long courfe of experience in 
various parts of Europe, under the greateft Generals, and 
in the moft illuftrious fcenes of actions. Though of a very 
noble family, he had, without the leaft afliftance from 
court favour, rifen infenfibly by the flow gradation of mere 

C 4 merits 

24 tfbe History of the War. 1757. 

merit, with much efleem and without any noife. This 
General arrived within a few miles of Prague, the day 
after the great battle. He collected the fugitive parties of 
the Auftrian army, and retired to a pofl of great ftrength, 
from whence he fed the troops in Prague with hopes of re- 
lief. But as no man better underftood the fuperiority of 
the PrufTian troops, and as he was fenfible of the impreffion 
which the late defeat had leit upon his men, he carefully 
avoided to precipitate matters by an hafty action. He 
knew that the fituation he had chofen would embarrafs the 
Pruffians ; that a large party of their army muff be always 
employed to watch him ; and this would weaken their ef- 
forts againfl the great body fhut up in Prague, whilfr. his 
own forces gained time to recover their fpirits, and to in- 
creafe in ftrength by the daily fuccours, which his court 
exerted all their powers to fend him : with thefe ideas he 
waited in his entrenched camp at Colin, to act as events 
fhould direct 

The King of Prufiia was not lefs fenfible than Count 
Daun of the effects of this conduct. He determined at al! 
adventures to difiodge him from the poft he held ; but 
whether it was that the King feared to weaken his army, 
which had actually an army to befiege, or whether he was 
blinded by a train of uniform fuccefs, which made him 
believe his arms irrefiftahle under every difadvantage, or 
whatever were his motives or neceflities, the whole army 
employed in this undertaking, including the Prince of 
Bevern's corps, did not exceed thirty-two thoufand men, 
cavalry and infantry ; and with thefe he was to attack fixty 
thoufand men, in one of the ftrongeft fituations 
June 18. which could be chofen, and defended by a vaft 
train of artillery. Whatever the mod impetuous 
and well regulated courage, whatever an ardor infpired by 
the remembrance of fo many victories could do towards 
overcoming every kind of difadvantage, was done by the 
Pruflians on this occafion. They returned to the attack 
feven times : in none of their victorious battles had their 
bravery been more confpicuous. Both the King's brothers 
were in the field ; and they did every thing that could be 
expected from the King of Pi uflia's brothers. The King 
himielf at the head of his cavalry, made one furious and con- 
cluding charge. Every thing was tried, and every thing was 
unfuccefsful. The want of a fufEciently numerous infantry, 


1757- Tb e History of the War. 25 

in a ground where his cavalry could not' fupport them, the 
want of an equal artillery, the advantageous fituation of the 
enemy, their numbers* their bravery, their General, obli- 
ged the King of Pruffia to quit the field. What his lofs 
was is not fo certain ; it was undoubtedly great in the acli^ 
on, but fUll greater by a defer tion, and the innumerable 
ill confequences that follow a defeat. 

Though the King of Pruffia was defeated in this battle* 
and though he brought on his defeat in a great meafure, 
by fome errors of his own, yet whatever fmall rjlemilh his 
military (kill might have fuffered, his reputation was raifed 
higher than ever, in the opinion of all judicious men, by 
the noble and candid manner in which he acknowledged 
his miftake, by the firmnefs with which he bore his mif- 
fortune, and by thofe aftonifhing ftrokes of genius and 
heroifm, by which he retrieved his lofs. The fmiles of 
fortune make conquerors; it is her malice which difcovers 


Confequence of the battle of Colin. King of Pruffia evacu- 
ates Bohemia. Battle of Hafienbeck. Convention of 
Clojler-feven. Expedition to Rochjort. Ruffians enter 
Pruffia, Aufrians beftege Schvueidnitz. French and Im- 
perialists make incurfions into Brandenburgh. Swedes enter 
Pomerania. Battle of Norkitten. General Lehwald de- 
feated. Bad condition of the King of Pruffia. 

EVER was the old obfervation, urie bataille perdue 
a un mauvais cu, more verified than in the confe- 
quences of the unfortunate battle of Colin. Though the 
King retired unpurfued by his enemies, he was obliged to 
rejoin his own army before Prague without delay, and to 
raife the blockade of that place. The imprifoned Auflrians 
with joy received Count Daun their deliverer, and their 
united forces became greatly fuperior to the Pruffians. 
The King was in a fhort time obliged to evacuate Bohemia, 
and take refuge in Saxony. The Auftrians harafied him as 
much as pofTible ; but their armies, notwithfbnding their 
great fuperiority, were not in a condition from their late 
fufferings to make -any deciilvef attempt upon him, as the 


26 The History of the War. i 757- 

frontiers of Saxony abound with fituations eafily defend- 

The King of PrufTia's misfortunes now poured in upon 
him at once, and from every quarter. The army com- 
manded by the Duke of Cumberland, who continually re- 
tired before the French, after tjiey had pafled the Wefer, 
came however to a refolution to make a ftand a t Haften- 
bcck, within a few miles of Hammelen, where it was 
judged that the fuperior numbers of the enemy might be 
the lead: prejudicial; but notwithflan-'ing the advantages 
of the fituation, the bravery of the Hanoverians and the 
conduct of the Duke, the allied army was driven from the 

field of battle, and retreated towards Stade. By 
July 25. taking this route his Ro)al Highnefs wa^ driven 

into a fort of cvl de jac. Unable by his fituation 
to retire, or by his frrength to advance, he was compelled 

to fign the remarkable capitulation of Cloffer- 
Sept. 7. (even, by which thirty eight thouiand Hanoverians 

laid down their arms, and were difperfed into dif- 
ferent quarters of cantonment. The French army had 
a little before this changed its commander. D'Etrees, 
the favourite of all the military men, was removed from 
the command, which was conferred on the Duke de Rich- 
lieu, who excelled him and all mankind in the profefiion of 
a courtier. The Hanoverians were now qufte fubdued 
and all the French force, let iooie by this treaty, was ready 
to fall upon the King of Pruflia's dominions. 

An enterprize was concerted in England againfl the coafl 
of France, to make a diversion in his favour, by drawing 
a part of the French army on the defence of their own 
country. England propofed to compafs another great de- 
fgn, and which me had equally at heart, bv the expedi- 
tion, which was to give an effectual blow to the marine of 
France. The deftination of this armament was kept a pro- 
found fecret, and whilft it exercifed the penetration of all 
the politicians of Europe, it nlied France with the moft 
ferious alarms. The Englifh fleet at lall appeared before 

Rochfcrt. Some time was fpent before it could 
Sept. 21. be refolved what plan was to be followed in the 

attack; at laft it was refolved to fecure the fmall 
ifleof Aix, from whence fome obftru&ion was apprehended 
to their landing. The ifland was foon reduced ; but as 
a good deal of time was confumed in thefe deliberations and 


1757- Vfo His.tory of the War. 27 

actions, the militia of the country had time to gather, and 
there was an appearance of two camps on the fhore. The 
commanders now took into confederation the badnefs of the 
coaft, the danger of landing, the time the enemy had to 
put the place in fuch a pofture of defence, as might make 
any fudden attempt, or coup de main, unfuccefsful : in 
confequence of thefe deliberations, they unanimoufly re- 
folved to return without making any attempt. , 
The difappointment of the nation was equal Sept. 29. 
to the fanguine hopes we had conceived; nothing, 
could exceed the general difcontent. The military men 
blamed the plan of the expedition. The Minifters, and 
with them the public voice, exclaimed at the execution. 
A court of enquiry , of officers of reputation, cenfured the 
commander; a court martial, of officers of reputation, 
acquitted him. The expedition ferved only in England to 
increafe and imbitter our diflentions, and to turn our at- 
tention to vain difputes. It did nothing towards relieving 
the King of Pruffia. 

The Ruffians, who had made for a lorg time a dilatory 
march and feemed uncertain of their own refolution, all 
at once haftened their motions. They entered the Ducal 
Pruffia under Mar. Apraxin and Gen. Fermer, and marked 
their progrefs by a thoufand inhuman cruelties. A large 
body of Auftrians entered Silefia, and penetrated as far as 
Breflau. Then they made a turn backwards, and laid fiege 
to the important fortrefs 6f Schweidnitz, juftly confidered 
as the key of that dutchy, which was the caufe of the war. 
Another body entered Lufatia, and made themfelves maf- 
ters of 2ittaii. Twenty-two tjj'oufand Swedes pierced 
into the Pruffian Pomerania, took the towns of Anclam and 
Demmein, and laid the whole country under contributions. 
Richlieu, freed from all oppofition on the fide of Hanover, 
made his way into Halberftad, and the old marche of 
Brandenburgh, firft exacting contributions, and then plun- 
dering the towns. The army of the Empire, reinforced by 
that of the Prince de Soubife, after many days, was at 
lad on full march to enter Saxony; this left the Auftrians at 
liberty to turn the greater! part of their forces to the reduc- 
tion of Silefia. General Kaddick pierced through Lufatia, 
pa{Ted by the Pruffian armies, and, fuddenly prefenting 
himfelf before the gates of Berlin, laid the King of Pruffia's 
capita] under contribution ; and though he retired on the 


28 The History of the War. 1757- 

approach of a body of PrufTians, yet he flill kept poflefliorJ 
of his former poll:, in order to interrupt the communica- 
tion of the King with Silefia. The fate which feemed to 
have threatened the Emprefs fome months ago, was now 
looked upon as the certain lot of her antagonifl. All his 
endeavours to retrieve his affairs had hitherto been equally 
brave and unfuccefsful. General Lehwald had orders at 
any hazard to engage the Ruffians ; with thirty thoufand 
he attacked double that number flrongly entrenched, at a 

place called Norkitien; but after feveral of thofe 
Aug. 30. wonderful efForts, which the Pruffians alone 

knew how to make, he was compelled to retire; 
hut he retired in excellent order, without being purfued, 
having killed five times more of the enemy, than he had 
loft of his own men, and mare formidable after his defeat, 
than the Ruffians after their victory. The King of Pruffia 
exerted himfelf upon every fide ; his enemies almofl always 
fled before him ; but whilff he purfued one body, another 
gained in fome other part upon him, and the winter came 
on fafr, as his fbength decayed, and his adverfaries multi- 
plied from every quater. The following letter which ap- 
peared in the public papers about this time, paints the con- 
dition of that diflrefled monarch, in fo full a manner, that 
I fhall attempt no other defcription of it. 

" Many perfons, who faw the King of Pruffia, when 
he pafTed lately through Leipfic, cannot exprefs how much 
he is altered. They fay he is fo much worn away, that 
they fcarce knew him. This, indeed, is not to' be won- 
dered at 5 he hath not a body of iron like Cha les XII. 
and he endures as great fatigues as he did. He is as much 
on horfeback as Charles was, and often -lies" upon the 
ground. His inward fufferings cannot be lefs than his out- 
ward: let us cafl our eyes on a map of the Pruffian domi- 
nions; and meafure what he hath left of the many fair pof- 
feflions he had in the month of April lafl, of which a fpace 
of feven months hath ftript him. Whence can he have 
men? he is fhut out from the Empire; and from whence 
can he draw money? the dutchy of Gueiders, the dutchy 
of Cieves, the principality of Moers, the county of Lin- 
gen, the county of Lipftadt, the principality of Minden? 
Eaft-Friefland, Embden, and its infant company, part of 
the archbifhoprick of Magdeburgh, fome other parts of 
the marche, Ducal Pcmerania, a great part of Silefia, a 


s 757* ^ History of the War: 29 

great part of the kingdom of PruiTia, Berlin itfelf, almoft 
all his dominions, in fhort, are either taken from him, or 
Said under contribution, and poffefTed by his enemies, who 
collect the public revenues, fatten on the contributions, and 
with the money which they draw from the electorate of 
Hanover,, and other conquefts defray the expences of the 
war. This picture certainly differs greatly from that which 
the King of Pruflia might have iketched out, the day he 
took iirms to enter Saxony. Add to this the Duke of Cum- 
berland's convention which deprived him of alL his allies, 
and left him without any afliftance whatever, excepting four 
or five hundred thoufand pounds frerling, which the Britiih 
parliament may give him. Add like wife fome domeftic 


BattU of Rojbacb. Schvjeidnitx taken by the Auflrians. 
Prince of Severn attacked in bis entrenchments. Br e flan 
taken by the Auflrians. King of Pruffla marches to Silefla. 
The battle of LifJ'a. Brejlau retaken. Auflrians driven 
out of Site fa* 

HIS was the King of Pruffia's fituation, when the. 
will of Providence, and his own wonderful abilities, 
as wonderfully changed the fcene. His Majeily deferred to 
bring on a decifive action, diurelTed as his affairs were, un- 
til the approach of winter; had he marched to attack th - e 
Imperial army, whilfr. it was at a confiderable di fiance, he 
mull either have left Saxony expofed to the infults of the 
A"u (Irian parties, or have greatly weakened his own forces 
employed in the principal action. He therefore fuffered 
the army of the Empire to advance to the frontiers of 
Mifnia, and even to threaten the fiege of Leipfic, before 
he began to act againft them: he however moved towards 
them, leaving an army in Lufatia to obferve the Auflrians. 
On his firft motions, the enemy retired with precipitation. 
But when they had reinforced tbemfelves with numbers and 
courage fufficient to perfuade them to advance, the King of 
Pruffia in his turn retired. His. refokuion feemed to have 
been to fight as near Mifnia as pofiib.le, and as deep in 
the winter, as he conveniently might ; for if he ffiouM 
have the good fortune to fuccecd againif the Imperial ar* 

1 > 

30 The History of the War. l 757' 

my, fuch a blow, at fuch a feafon, would effectually difa- 
ble them from acYmg any thing to his prejudice, for that 
year at leaft; but if, on the contrary, he mould fail, Sax- 
ony was at hand, in which it would prove difficult for the 
enemy to make any impreffion whilft the winter continued. 
As for the time to be loll by following this plan, and the 
advantage it would afford the Auftrians in their defigns on 
Silefia, they were not to be compared with the advantages 
which the King received from it. He knew that Schweid- 
nitz was flrong, and excellently provided; the prince of 
Bevern was frrongly polled near it to obftrucT: the enemy's 
operations; the winter would lean heavier on the befiegers; 
and on the whole, he had reafon to truft that his troops, 
animated by his own prefence and example, would prove 
far fuperior to the enemy, in enduring all the hardfhips of 
a winter campaign. 

After fome time fpent in various movements, between 
the allied army of the Imperialifts and French on one fide, 
and the PruiTians on the other, the King refolved to give 
battle to his enemies, who were now advanced to the con- 
fines of Mifnia. On the 24th of October, the King had 
taken his refolution; at that time his army happened to be 
divided into feveral corps, fome of them at a diftance of no 
lefs than twenty leagues afunder; yet fuch were the fpirit 
and excellent difpofitions of the Pruffians, that the junction 
of all thefe corps was fully effected on the 27th, and the 
King advanced towards the enemy. The enemy fell back 
at his approach, and repalled the Sala ; they were followed 
-*j clofe. The two armies met near the village of 

iNov -5- Rofbach. 

The united army, commanded by the prince of Saxe 
Hilburghaufen and the prince of Scubife, was fifty thoufand 
men com pleat. But the troops of the Circles were new 
raifed, and many of them not well affected to the fervice, 
nor to their French allies. The Pruffians did not amount 
to twenty-five thoufard ; but then they were Pruffians, and 
led on by the King of Pruffia. As foon as the armies were 
formed, and the battle going to begin, which was to decide 
the fate of lb many nations, and to determine between force 
and virtue, the King of Piuffia addrefled his troops nearly 
in the following words, 

" My dear friends, the hour is come, in which all that 
« e is, and all that ought to be dear to us, depends upon 

" the 

Uorn 3,4 January 17 n xh 

<-'/•• Huhrttfifsn. . 

*?5?* ^ History of the War. ji 

* l the fwords which are now drawn for the battle. Time 
* c permits me to fay but little ; nor is there occafion to fay 
* c much. You know that there is no labour, no hunger, 
* € no cold, no watching, no danger that I have not fhared 
u with you hitherto; and you now fee me ready to lay down 
*' my life with you? and for you. AH I afk, is the fame 
* c pledge of fidelity and affection that I give. And let me 
** add, not as an incitement to your courage, but as a tef- 
* e timony of my own gratitude, that from this hour, until 
<* you go into quarters, your pay mall be double." Acquit 
<c yourfelves like men, and put your confidence in God." 
The efF:-£t of this fpeech was fuch as cannot be defcribecL 
The general emotion burft in an univerfal fhout, and the 
looks and demeanor of the men were animated to a fort of 
heroic phrenzy. In this difpofition, which prognosticated 
fuccefs, the engagement began. 

In the beginning of the aclion, the French cavalry came 
©n with great fpirit, but they were repulfed ; fome regi- 
ments having gained an eminence, defended themselves 
bravely, but in the end they were totally routed. The in- 
fantry, both French and Imperialifts, made but a faint re- 
finance. The King of Pruflia in perfon, expofed to the 
hotteft fire, led on his troops; the enemy gave way in every 
part; they were feized with a panic, and (led in the utmoft 
diforder. They left three thoufand men dead on the field 
of battle; fixty-three pieces of cannon, and many colours. 
Eight French generals, two hundred and fifty officers of dif- 
ferent ranks, and fix thousand private men were taken. Night 
alone faved from total dellruciion the fcattered remains of 
an army that in the morning was fo numerous and fo for- 

I have not undertaken on this, nor (hall I undertake upon 
any other occafion, in thefe preliminary chapters, to enter 
into the detaihof -a-ri the various manoeuvres of every battle ; 
they are matters little underftood by, and little interesting 
to, the generality of readers Befides, the accounts are 
fometimes inaccurate, and feldom or never confident with 
each other. 

The glorious fuccefs of the battle of Rofbach, was fuch 
as hardly wanted to be improved; the enemy was left to- 
tally incapable of action. The King was fet free on that 
fide; but it was a freedom which gave him no refpite from 
his labours ; it only gave him an opportunity of undergoing 


32 The History of the War. 1757. 

new labours in another part. The Auftrians had . a vafl 
force, and had now begun to make a proportionable pro- 
grefs in Silefia. The dependance which the King had up- 
on the fidelity of his Generals there, feemed fhaken by 
fomething which then appeared, and dill feems ambiguous 
in their conduct. The Auftrians afier a fiege from the 
27th of October to the nth of November, carried on un- 
der infinite difficulties and with a prodigious lofs, had re- 
duced Schweidnitz, and obliged the Pruflian garrifon of 
four thoufand men to furrender pri loners of war. Soon af- 
ter, as they had intelligence of the victory of Rofbach, and 
knew that the King of Pruflia was on full march to the 
relief of Silefia, the Auftrians refolved to lofe no time to 
attack the prince of Bevern in his ftrong camp under the 
■walls of Breflau. A treble fuperiority incited them to this 
attempt. They attacked the prince's army with great refo- 
lution, and their attack was fuftained with amaz- 
Nov. 22. ing intrepidity. The {laughter of tfce Auftrians 
was prodigious. A great part of their army had 
retired from the field of battle, and the reft were preparing 
to retire ; when all at once the Pruflian generals unexpect- 
edly took the fame refolution. A part of their army had 
fuffered a great deal in the engagement. They became 
apprehenfive of a total defeat, in cafe their intrenchments 
fhould be forced in any part. With thele ideas they re- 
treated from the ftrong poft they occupied, and retired be- 
hind the Oder. The Auftrians returning, with aftonifh- 
ment faw themfelves mafters of the field of battle, which 
they had but juil been obliged to relinquish. What is re- 
markable, and what gave rife to many conjectures, the 
prince of Bevern going to reconnoitre without efcort, and 
attended only by a groom, was taken two days after the 
battle by an advanced party of Croats, a fmallbody of whom 
had croiTed the Oder. 

This ad-vantage, though dearly bought, was immediately 
-t followed with many others. Breflau, the capital 

4" of Silefia, immediately furrendered, where, as 
well as at Schweidnitz, they found vaft ftores of provifion, 
ammunition and money. All Silefia was on the point of 
falling into their hr.nds. Fortune feems everv where to 
have thrown the King of Pruilia's affairs into diftra&ion, 
in order to raife, and as it were, to found his glory in efta- 
biiiliing trum; and to have been even fo jealous of his ho- 

1757- The History of the War. 33 

nour as not to permit his own excellent generals and incom- 
parable troops to triumph any where but in his own pre* 

The King immediately after the battle of Rofbach, with 
thofe troops which he had a few days before collected from 
places an hundred miles diftant from each other, began a 
march of upwards of two hundred more, and led them 
from engaging one fuperior army, to engage another ftill 
more fuperior ; from danger to hardfhip, and fwm hard- 
fhip to renew danger. In the mcil rapid march he pafTed 
through Thuringia, through Mifnia, through Lufatia, in 
fpite of the efforts of the Generals Haddick and Marfhal, 
who were polled in Lufatia to obflrucl him ; and entering 
Silefia arrived the 2d of December at Parch witz upon the 
Oder. Here he was joined by the Prince of Bevern's 
corps who crofTed that river to meet him. 

About this time an incident happened which wa l s very 
remarkable; one of thofe agreeable adventures that relieve 
the mind amidft the perpetual horror that attend? a narra- 
tive of battles and bioodfhed. The garrifon of Schweid- 
nitz had feen, with the greater! reluctance, the capitulation 
which bound their hands from the Service of their King 
and Country. Whilft the Auftrians were conducting them 
to prifon, on their route they chanced to hear of the victory 
iheir matter had gained at Rofbach ; animated with this 
news, they unanimouily rofe upon the efcorte which con- 
ducted them, and which happened not to be very Mrong, 
and entirely difperfed it. Thus freed, they marched on not 
very certain of their way, in hope to rejoin Torn e corps of 
the PruiTian troops. The fame fortune which freed them, 
led them direclly to the army commanded by the King 
himfelf, which was battening to their relief. Great was 
the joy on both fides at this unexpected meeting, for the 
prifoners had heard nothing of his majefty's march. This 
little incident, whilft it added a confiderable ftrength to the 
army, added likewife to its fpirit, and feemed an happy 
omen of fuccefs in the future engagement. 

As his PrufTian majefty approached to Breflau, the Auf- 
trians confiding in their fuperiority, abandoned their flrong 
camp (the fame which had been occupied by the Prince of 
Bevern) and refolved to give the King battle. Pie was 
marching with the utmofl diligence not to difap- p 
point them ; and they met near the village of 

D Leuthen. 

34 ^he History of the War. i 757- 

Leutben. The ground which the Auflrians occupied was 
very advantageous, and every advantage of the fituation was 
improved to the utmofl, by the diligence and fkill of Count 
Daun; who remembering that he was the only General who 
had ever carried the field from the King of Pruffia, knew 
better than any body how difficult it was to obtain fuch a 
victory. All the difpofitions were made accordingly ; the 
ground they occupied was a plain, except that in fome part 
it had fmall eminences ; thefe they furrounded with artillery; 
the ground was alfo interfperfed with thickets, which they 
fought to turn to their advantage. On their right and left 
were hills on which they planted batteries of cannon. The 
ground in their front was interfered by many caufeways ; 
and to make the whole more impracticable, the Auflrians 
had felled a vail many trees, and Scattered them in the way. 
The King of Pruflia was not terrified with this fituation, 
nor with the confcioufnefs that above feventy thoufand ex- 
cellent troops, commanded by Count Daun, were fopofted. 
The Pruflians, who did not exceed, as it is faid, thirty-fix 
thoufand men, attacked them with their ufual refolution. 
It was almofl impoffible, at the begining of the engage- 
ment, for the Pruflian horfe to acl, on account of the 
impediments we have jufl mentioned, but a mofl judicious 
difpofition of the King himfelf overcame that difadvan- 
tage ; he had in his firfl difpofitions placed four battalions 
behind the cavalry of his right wing, forefeeing that 
General Nadafli, who was placed with a corps de referve 
on the enemies left, defigned to take him in flank. It 
happened as he had forefeen ; that General's horfe attacked 
the King's right wing with great fury ; but he was re- 
ceived with fo fevere a fire from the four battalions, that 
he was obliged to retire in diforder. Then the King's flank 
being well covered and fupported, was enabled to acl: with 
fuch order and vigour, that the enemy's right was obliged 
to give way. The Pruffian artillery, which was incom- 
parably ferved, had filenced that of the enemy, concur- 
ring to maintain the King's infantry, and to enable them 
to act in grounds where their horfe could give them but 
little afliflance. The Auflrians made a gallant refiflance 
during the whole battle. The panic of the enemy did not 
here, as at Rofbach, do half the bufmefs ; every foot of 
ground was well difputed. The Auflrians rallied all their 
forces about Leuthen, which was defended upon all fides 


1757 Vt> e History of t he War. ^ 

with intrenchments and redoubts. After reiterated attacks 
made with the utmoft impetuofity, and fuftained with great 
firmnefs, the Pruflians mattered the poft ; then the Aurtri- 
ans fled on all parts; they were entirely routed. The 
King purfued them to Liffa. Six thoufand of the Auftrians 
were (lain, fifteen thoufand were made prifoners; and an 
immenfe artillery, upwards of two hundred pieces of cannon 
were taken. 

This great and decifive action was fought on the very 
day of the next month after the no lefs important and de- 
cifive battle of Rofbach. The confequences that followed 
the action of Leuthen, declared the entirenefs of the vic- 
tory. Notwithstanding the rigour of the feafon, the fiege of 
Breflau was immediately undertaken, and profecuted with 
fuch fpirit, that by the 29th of December it furrendered ; 
and with it furrendered the garrifon of thirteen thoufand 
men prifoners of war ; the blockade of Schweidnitz was 
formed as clofely as the inclemency of the winter would 
permit ; whilft the Pruffian parties not only re-pofleiTed 
thofe parts of Silefia which belonged to the King, but 
penetrating into the Auftrian d^vifion, reduced Jagerndorf, 
Troppau, and Tetfchen, and left to the Emprefs Queen, 
except a forlorn garrifon in Schweidnitz, no fort of footing 
in that country, in which a few days before me reckoned 
her dominion perfectly eftablifhed. 


Ruffians and Swedes retire. Hanoverians re fume their arms. 
Cruelty of the French. Condition of their army. Cafile of 
Ilarburgbcfieged. Recapitulation of the events of the year 

1757- ' 

AS the misfortunes of his Pruffian majefty, after the 
battle of Colin, came on him all at once, fo his fuc- 
ceffes, after his victories at Roibach and Liifa, flowed upon 
him all at once likewife, and in a fall tide. The Ruffians, 
though they had repulfed General Lehwald, fuffered fo 
much in that action, and their barbarous method of mak- 
itag war had fo deftroyed the country, that they feemed to 
themfelves to have no way of fafety left but in retiring out 
of the Pruflian territories. This extraordinary retreat of 
fo great an army, and fo lately victorious, and Hill poffefTed 
of a good fea-port in the country, could fcarcely be ac- 

D 2 counted 

36 The History of the War. 1757. 

counted for on thofe motives we have afugned, and aflonifh- 
ed all Europe, whilil it left General Lehwald at liberty to 
turn his arms into Pomcrania agatnft the Swedes. The 
Swedes on this occafion did nothing worthy of their ancient 
military fame ; but every where retiring, left the Prufllans 
an eafv conqveft, not only of the Pruftian but of every part 
of the Swedifh Pomerania, excepting the port of Stralfund ; 
they left their allies of Mecklenbonrg quire expofed to all 
the refentinent of the King of Pruffia, who chaftifed them 
with the molt fevere contributions and levies. The French, 
who had been ravaging the old marche of Brandenburgh, 
evacuated that country immediately after the battle ofRof- 
bach. But one of the greateft revolutions of fortune in the 
war, and one of the mod glorious and important confe- 
quences of that victory, was, that the Hanoverian troops 
were enabled to refume their arms. 

From the moment the capitulation of Cloder-feven was 
flgned, the Duke de Richlieu, who came to the command 
only to reap the advantages? and fully the honour of an- 
other's conqueft, feemed to think of nothing but how tore- 
pair, from the plunder of the unhappy Hanoverians, the 
fortune which he had Chattered by a thcufand vices. The 
moft exorbitant contributions were levied with the moft. in- 
flexible feverity ; every exaction , which was fubmitted to, 
only produced a new one (fill more extravagant ; and all the 
orderly methods of plunder &d not exempt them from the 
pillage, iicentioufnefs, and infolence of the French foldiery. 
However, in jufiice to merit, we rr/uft exempt from this 
general charge the conduct of the Duke de Randan, Gover- 
nor of Hanover for the French ; who faved the capital of 
the Fleclorate from utter ruin by the ftricfcnefs of his dif- 
cipline, by the prudence, the juitice and moderation of all 
his conducl: ; a conduct which does more real honour to his 
name, than the moil fplendid vi8:ories. .* 

The Duke de Richlieu's rapacioufnefs and oppreflion, 
whilft they leaned fo heavily on the conquered people, did 
the conquering army no kind of fervice. Intent on!\ on t 
plunder, which he did net confine to the enemy, he relaxed 
every part of military difcipline; and that numerous armj r 
which Marlhal d'Etrees had fuftained, and' brought in health 
and. fpirits through the difmal de'arts of Weftphalia, under 
all the oppofltion of a fkilful adverfary, were now, in full 
peace, ia the quiet pofiefiion of a conquered and plentiful 


I757» Tb e History of the War. 37 

country, reduced in their numbers, decayed in their health, 
and their fpirits, without deaths, without fubiiftance, with- 
out order, without arms. In this condition they began at 
laft to perceive that the Hanoverians, with the yoke of the 
capitulation about their necks, were ftill formidable. As 
they had broke, almoft every arti'cle or that treaty, they 
made nofcruple to add another breach in order to fecure them 
in all the reft, They attempted actually to take their arms 
from the Hanoverian and Heffian troops. Theie gallant 
troops, who had with-a (ilent grief and indignation (ecn the 
diftreffes of their ruined country, were ravifhed to find that 
the viCtorv at kofbach encouraged their fovereien to refent 
at laft ttiis and all the other indignities they had JuiFered. 
They began to collect and to a&> and under the command 
of the gallant Prince Ferdinand of Brunfwick, reinforced 
wuh a body of Priiffian troops, they broke from their con- 
finement. They reduced the town of Harburg, and laid 
clofe liege to the caftle, which it muft be owned was defend- 
ed very bra,ve!y. In all other refpecb the French did net 
feem in a condition to maintain their ground any where. 
Thofe troops, which a few months before had fo Submitted 
as to make it neceflary to declare that they were not prifo- 
ners of war, in order to explain their condition, were now 
on the point of punifhing their adverfaries to almofl: the fame 
{freights. Such was the force of French military difcipiine, 
and fuch the triumphs of Voltaire's hero. 

The King of Pruilia now law the full effect of his coun- 
fels and his labours. His dominions were free^ ; his allies 
were enabled to aflift him ; and his enemies defeated, broken, 
and flying every where before him. In what light pofterity 
will view thefe things is uncertain ; we under whole eyes, 
as we msy fay, they were atchieved, fcarcely believed what 
we had fee-n. And perhaps in all the records of time, the 
compafs of a (ingle year, on the fcene of a (ingle country, 
never contained fo many finking events, never difpiayed fo 
many revolutions of fortune ; revolutions not. only beyond 
what might have been expected, but far beyond what the 
mod fagacious forefight, reafonjng from. experience, and the 
nature of things, could pofliblv have imagined. The King 
of Pruilia at firft triumphant : the whole power of the Au- 
ftrians totally defeated ; their hopes utterly ruined : then 
their affairs fuddenly re-eftabl:(hed, their armies victorious, - 
and the King of Pruilia in his turn hurled down ; defeated ; 

D 3 abandoned 

38 The History of the War. 1757. 

abandoned by his allies ; furrounded by his enemies ; on the 
very edge oldefpair: then all at once raifed beyond all hope, 
he fees the united Auftrian, Imperial, and rench power 
levelled with the ground ; forty thoufand Hanoverians, a 
whole army, fubmit to eighty thoufand French, and are 
only not prifoners of war. The French are, peaceable matters 
of all the country beetween the Wefer and the Elbe : anon, 
thefe fubdued Hanoverians refume their arms ; they recover 
their country, and the French in a little time think them- 
felves not fecure to the eaftward of the Rhine. Five hun- 
dred thoufand men tr action. Six pitched battles fought. 
Three great armies annihilated. The French army re- 
duced and vanquished without fighting. The Ruffians vic- 
torious, and flying as if they had been vanquifbed. A con- 
federacy, not of fmaller potentates to humble one great 
power, but of five the greateff powers on earth to reduce 
one fmail potentate ; all the force of thefe powers exerted 
and baffled. It happened as we have related ; and it is not 
the hiftory of a century, but of a fingle campaign. 

C H A P. VII. 

Preparations of an expedition to Lovifbourg. Laid afde. Fort 
Will tin -Henry taken. Exploits of Admiral H atfon and 
Colonel Chve in India. Cbandenagore a French fort taken. 
•Viclory over the Nabob. Nabob taken and beheaded. Revo- 
lution in Bengal. Treaty advantageous to the Baft -India 

company. Admiral Watfon dies. 


WITH regard to the part we had in the tranfacHons 
of this year, though it was not fo full of ftriking 
events, nor does it afford fuch a fplendid fubjecr. fox narra- 
tive, yet it is as interefling to an Er.glifh reader, and may 
perhaps prove more infiruclive ; as it fhews us in fo ftrong 
a light, the miferable confequences of our political divifions, 
which produced a general unfteadinefs in all cur purfuits, 
and iniufed a languor and inactivity into all our military ope- 
rations. Fox, whilft cur commanders abroad knew not who 
were to reward their fervices or puniffi their neglects, and 
were not allured in what light even the beft of their actions 
would be corfidered, (having reafon to apprehend that they 
might not be judged of as they were in themfelves, but as 
their appearances might anfwer the end of fome ruling fac- 
tion ;) 

1757- ¥be History of the War. 39 

tion ;) they naturally wanted that firmnefs and that enter- 
prizing resolution, without which the bed capacity, and in- 
tentions the moff. honeft, can do nothing in war. The at- 
tachment of mofl: men to their parties, weakened their af- 
fection to their country. It has been imagined that mini- 
flers did not always wifh fuccefs even to their own fchemes, 
left obnoxious men mould acquire credit by the execution 
of them ; as it was fufpecled that officers even at the ex- 
pence of their own reputation, did not exert their faculties 
to the utmofl, left a difagreeable minifterial fyftem fhould 
eflablifh. the credit of its counfels by the vigour of their 
operations. For my part, I think that thefe refinements, in 
which there is often as much malice difcovered as penetra- 
tion, have carried the matter infinitely too far. But certain 
it is, that thefpirit of perfonal parties and attachments, ne- 
ver carried to greater lengths than at that time, proved of 
very bad confequences, if it had no other effecT: than to 
raife and to give a colour to fuch fufpicions as we have firfr. 
mentioned. Whatever was the caufe, it is mofl certain, 
that our fuccefs in America this year, no more anfwered to 
the greatnefs of our preparations and our hopes than it did 
in the two preceding. 

The attack upon Crown Point, which had been a princi- 
pal object of our attention in the beginning, feemed at this 
time to be laid afide ; and an expedition to Louifbourg, un- 
doubtedly a more confiderable object in itfelf, fupplied its 
place. Lord Loudoun was to command the land forces in 
this expedition ; Admiral Holborne the navy. The former 
left New York with a body of fix thoufand men, 
and failed to Halifax,, where he was joined by the July 9. 
latter, who had failed from Cork^on the 7th of 
May with a confiderable fleet, and much the fame number 
of land forces, which his Lordfhip had brought from New 
York. When the united armies and fleets were on the point 
of departing for Louifbourg, news arrived at Halifax, that 
the Breft fleet confifting of feventeen fhips of the line befides 
frigates, with great fupplies of military ftores, provifions, 
and men* were arrived at the harbour which they were pre- 
paring to attack. This news immediately fufpended their 
preparations. Councils of war were held one after another. 
The remit of the whole news was, that as the place was fo 
well reinforced, the fleet of the French rather fuperior to our 
navy, and the feafon fo far advanced, it was the more pru- 

D 4 cent 

4-0 The History of the War. i 757. 

dentcourfe to defer the enterprize to a more favourable op- 
portunity. This refolution feems to have been moil: eligible 
in their circumftances, becaufe the council of war was al- 
mofl unanimous in it. 

Lord Loudoun returned to New York, and the Admiral 
now freed from the care of the tranfports fet fail tor Louif- 
bourg, in hopes, as it was faid, of drawing the French fleet 
to an engagement. But upon what grounds this hope was 
conceived, 1 confefs I cannot fee; as it could not be ima- 
gined, that the French fleet having no fort of occafion to 
fight in order to protect Louifbourg, would chufe out of a 
bravado to bring on an unneceffary battle. However it was, 
the Englifh fquadron. continued to cruize off that harbour 
until the 25th of September, when they were overtaken by 
a terrible florm, in which one of the mips was loft, eleven 
difmailed, and the reft returned to England in a very mat- 
tered condition. This was the end of the expedition to 
Louifbourg from which fo much was expected. But it was 
riot the worft confequences which attended it. 

Since Qfwego had been taken, the French remained en- 
tirely mailers of all the lakes, and we could do nothing to 
ohflruct: their collecting the Indians from all parts, and 
obliging them to act in their favour. But our apprehenfions, 
(or what iha.ll they be called ?) did more in favour of the 
f rench than their conquefts. Not fatisfied with the lofs of 
that important fortrefs, we ourselves abandoned to the mer- 
cy of the enemy all the country of the Five Nations, the 
only body of Indians who preferved even the appearance of 
friendship to us. The forts v/e had at the Great carrying 
Place were demolifhed ; Wood Creek was induftrioufjy 
flopped up and filled with logs ; by which it became evident 
to all thofe who knew that country, that our communi- 
cation with our allied Indians was totally cutoff; and what 
was worfe, our whole frontier left perfectly uncovered to the 
irruption of the enemy's lavages, who foon availed them- 
felves of cur errors. For after the removal of thefe bar- 
riers, and the taking of Fort William Henry, of which we 
fhall fpeak prefently, they destroyed with fire and fword the 
fine fettlerlnents which we poffeiled on the Mohawks river, 
and on thole grounds called the German flats. Thus with a 
vaft increafe of our forces, and the cleared: fupcriority over 
the enemy, we only abandoned our allies, expofed cur peo- 
ple, and relinquished a large and valuable tract of country. 


1757- ^ je History of the War. 41 

The French foon made us feel effectually the want of what 
we had loft, and what we had thrown away. 

A confiderable fort called Fort William-Henry, had been 
built on the fouthern edge of the Lake George, in order to 
command that lake, and to cover our frontiers; a garrifon 
of two thoufand five hundred men defended it. General 
Webb with about four thoufand men was polled at no great 
diftance. No fooner had the French learned that Lord 
Loudoun with the body of the army was gone on the Louif- 
bourg expedition, than they prepared to take advantage of 
his abfence. They drew together all the forces which they 
had at Crown Point, Ticonderoga, and the adjacent polls; 
they added a confiderable body of Canadians, and a greater 
number of Indians than they had ever yet employed; the 
whole made near eight thoufand men. With thefe and a 
very good artillery, Monfieur Montcalm prepared to befiege 
Fort William-Henry. It is faid that the advances of this 
commander were not made with fo much fecrecy as to pre- 
vent General Webb from having early intelligence of his 
motions; but unfortunately no credit being given to this 
intelligence, orders were not fent to collect the militia In 
fufncient time, which in conjunction with his own forces, 
and with thofe in the fort had either obliged the French to 
relinquim their attempt, or to have made it a very great 
hazard. But the fiege being now regularly formed, and 
the befiegers meeting but little oppofnion from 
within, and no diflurbance at all from without, Aug. 3. 
the place was in fix days furrendered by the ad- 
vice of general Webb ; whofe intercepted letter . 
]Vlonfieur Montcalm lent into the fort. 

The garrifon marched out with their arms, and engaged 
not to ferve during eighteen months. 'I he French lavages 
paid no regard to the capitulation, but falling upon our men 
as they. marched out, dragged away the little effects they 
had left, hawling the Indians and Blacks in our fervice out 
of their ranks, fcalping fome, carrying off others, and com- 
mitting a thoufand outrages and barbarities, from which 
the French commander endeavoured in vain to retrain 
them. All this was fuffered by two thoufand men with 
arms in their hands, from a diforderly crew oi favages. 
Flowever, the greatefl part of our men, though in a bad 
condition, got to Fort Edward, fome by flight 5 fGrne hav- 
ing furrendered thernfelves to the French, were by them 


42 The History of the War. i 757. 

fent home. The enemy demolifhed the fort, carrier off 
the provifion, ammunition, artillery, and the veffels which 
avc had prepared on the lake, and departed without attempt- 
ing any thing farther. Neither was any thing farther at- 
tempted on our fide. And thus was finifhed the third cam- 
paign in North America, where we had actually near twen- 
ty thou I and regular troops, a great number of provincial 
forces, and a great naval power or upwards of twenty mips 
of the line. 

A war between the maritime powers is felt in all parts of 
the world. Not content with inflaming Europe and Ame- 
rica, the difientlons of the French and Englifh purfued the 
tracls of their commerce, and the Ganges felt the fatal ef- 
fects of a quarrel on the Ohio. But here the fcene is 
changed greatly to the advantage of our nation ; the bra- 
very of Admiral Watfon and Colonel Clive, re-eftablifhed 
the military honour of the Englifh, which was finking there 
as it had dor.e in r/.l ether places. Admiral Watfon with 
no more than three mips of the line, failed from Madrafs, 

and after a tedious voyage arrived at the port of 
Dec. 5. Balafore in the kingdom of Bengal, where ftrength- 

ening his force with what recruits he could draw 
together, he entered the Ganges, and after a fhort refinance 

made himfelf mailer of Bafbudgia fort which 
Jan. 30. commanded that part of the river. This opened 

him a paffage to the fort of Calcutta, the late 
principal feltlement of the company in Bengal, and the fcene 
of the deplorable fufferings of fo many of our unfortunate 
countrymen. Animated with revenge at the affecting fight 
of this place, our fhips and land forces attacked it with fo 
much ipirits, that the Indians furrendered it on the fame 
day it was approached. A few days after Hugiy, fituated 
higher u"p the Ganges, was reduced with as little difficulty. 
The Nabob, who faw that the torrent of the Englifh va- 
lour could not he refilled, by fuch feeble dams as forts de- 
fended by Indians, drew down a whole army' confifling of 
ten thouiand horfe, and twelve thoufand foot, to drive them 
from their conquefls. Infinitely inferior as our troops were in 

number, they did not hefitate to attack the Nabob's 
Feb. 5. army. Though our forces did not entirely rout the 

Indians, yet they made a great daughter amongft 
them ; and they had fo much the advantage of the field, 
, that the Nabob was in a fhort time glad to con- 

clude a treaty of peace, by which the Englifh 


1757- The History of the War. 43 

Eaft-India company was re-eftablifhed in all its antient pri- 
vileges; an immunity from all taxes was granted, and a 
reftitution promifed for all that the trade had fuffered in the 
taking of Calcutta. 

When all obfl: ruction on the fide of the Indians was re- 
moved, and the company's officers had taken pofleflion of 
their antient eftablifhments, the Admiral turned his arms 
againfr. the French. He refolved to attack Chandenagore, 
fituated fomewhat higher on the river than Calcutta ; a place 
of confiderable flrength, and the principal fettlement of the 
French in that part of the Eaft-Indies. In this expedition 
. Colonel Clive commanded feven hundred Europeans and one 
thoufand fix hundred Black foldiers. The admirals Watfon 
and commanded the fleet, if it may be called a fleet, 
which confided of no more than three fhips of the line, 
the Kent, the Tyger, and the Sahfbury. The French pre- 
pared in the beft manner they could to receive them, and 
funk feveral large vefTels both above and below their fort ; 
but the admiral having by carefully founding found a fafe 
pafTage without being driven to the neceflityof weighing up 
any of the fhips, made fo fevere a fire upon the fort, in 
which he was feconded by Colonel Clive's batteries 
on the fhore, that the place capitulated in iefs than May 24. 
three hours. Five hundred Europeans and feven 
hundred Blacks furrendered prifoners of war; one hundred 
and eighty three pieces of cannon were found in the place, 
befides a confiderable value in goods and money. Four forts 
coft our troops no more than four days to reduce them. 

The judicious timing of thefe feveral operations, as well 
as thofe which followed, was not lefs laudable than the gal- 
lant fpirit with which they were executed. Eefore the 
French were alarmed, care was taken to re-poflefs all the 
ports we formerly held; to humble the Nabob by fome ef- 
fectual blow ; and by a treaty tie up his hands from acting 
againfl: us. This Prince had (hewed hin.<r. If from the mo- 
ment of his figning that treaty, very little inclined to abide 
by the ftipulations he had made. He indeed promifed a- 
bundantly, but always deferred the performance upon fuch 
frivolous pretences, as evidently demonffrartd his ill inden- 
tions. 7 he Er.glifh commanders underftood this proceed- 
ing perfectly well ; but they refolved to difTembie their ienfe 
of it, until they had broken the French power in this pro- 
vince, which they had greater reafon to dread, frnall as it 


44 The History of the War. 3 757, 

was, than all the armies of the Nabob. When they had 
fully accomplifhed this by the taking of Chandenagore, they 
deliberated whether they ought not to re-commence hoftili- 
ties with the Indians. . A resolution in the affirmative had 
been attended with great difficulty and danger, if a moft 
fortunate incident had not helped to enfure fuccefs. 

The Nabob Stiraja Doula, the fame who had the laft year 
taken Calcutta, had fhewn to his own fubje£ts the fame vio- 
lent and perfidious fpirit, which formerly and (till dihVeffed 
the Englifh. His Generals were moftly difcontented, and 
fome of them entered into a confpiracy againft him. Jaffier 
Ali Cawn one of his principal officers, a man of great power 
•and intereft, was at the head of this confpiracy. As foon 
as their defigns- were ripened, they communicated them to 
the Englifh government in Calcutta? praying their affiilance. 
The chiefs there did not hefitate long what party they 
fhould take; they entered tnt6 a treaty with Jaffier Ali Cawn 
and the confpirators ; and in confequence of this treaty, our 
troops immediately took the field under Colonel Give. The 
admiral undertook to garrifon the fort of Chandenagore 
■with his feamen, in order to leave the greater number of 
land forces for the expedition. A detachment of fifty fea- 
men with their officers were added to ferve as gunners. A 
twenty gun fhip was flationed above Hugly, in order to 
preferve a communication between Colonel Clive and the. 

Their preliminary meafures being thus judicioufly taken* 
they advanced up the river, and in a few days brought the 
Nabob's army of about twenty thoufand men, exclufive of 
thofe who favoured the confpirators, to an aQion, 
June 22. which was decifive in favour of the Englifh. Two 
confiderable bodies commanded by Jaffier and Roy 
Dolub remained inactive in the engagement, The Nabob- 
feeing himfelf ruined by the treachery of his officers and the 
cowardice of his troops, fled with the few who continued 
faithful to him. 

Jaffier Ali Cawn now declared himfelf openly ; and en- 
tering Muxadavat the capital of the province with 

26th. an army of his friends and victorious allies, he was 

placed by Colonel Clive in the antient feat of the 

Nabobs, and received the homage of all ranks of people as 

Suba of Bengal, Bahar and Orixa. The depofed Nabob 

was foon after made prifoner, and put to death in his prifon 


1758- ¥ke History of the War. 45 

by the conqueror. In about thirteen days this great revo- 
lution was accomplimed; and with lefs force and trouble 
than is often required to take a petty village in Germany, 
was transferred the government of a vaft kingdom, yielding 
in^its diraenfions to few in Europe,. but tancne in the ferti- 
lity of its foil, the number of its inhabitants, and the rich- 
nefs of its commerce. By the alliance with the new Nabob, 
and by the reduction of Chandenagore, the French were 
entirely driven out of Bengal and all its dependencies. This 
was one of the articles of the treaty. By the other articles, 
a perpetual alliance offenfive and defensive was made be- 
tween the parties. The territories of the company were 
enlarged, and upwards of two millions flerling was ftipula- 
ted to be paid as an indemnification to the Eafr. India com- 
pany, and the fufFerers in the taking of Calcutta. The new 
Nabob, full of gratitude to thofe to whom he owed his dig- 
nity, gave, befides the above large fums, about fix hundred 
thoufand pounds, as a gratuity to the fea fquadron and the 
troops. However fhort of expectation our enterprifes in 
America fell this year, thofe in the Eait-Indies greatly ex- 
ceeded every thing we could hope from the forces which were 
employed. And it may be doubted whether all the great 
powers engaged in the prefect bloody wars in Europe, in 
which fuch torrents of blood were fpilled, and fo many 
millions of treafure are waded, will in the conclufion reap 
amongft them fo much folid profit as the Englifh Eaft-India 
company did with a handful of men in a ihort campaign. 
'The joy of the nation at thefe flgnal fuccefles, was not a 
little damped by the death of admiral Watfon, 
who loft his life by theunwholefomnefsof thecoun- Aug. 16". 
try, in which he had eftablifhed a great and lading 
reputation. Colonel Cliye ilill lives to enjoy the fortune 
and honour he has acquired by his gallant actions. 


French retire out of Hanover. The taking of Hoy a. Min- 
den taken. Dijlrefs of the French. Generoftty of the Duke 
de Randan. The French retire beyond the Rhine, Recovery 
of Embden by Commodore Holmes. 

LL the bloodfhed of the lafl campaign in « 

Germany, and thofe lofTes which both the '^ ' - 
victorious and vanquished felt fo very feverely, produced no 


4.6 The History of the War. 175S. 

overtures towards peace from any of the power's at war. 
And perhaps nothing fo fingular ever happened, as that fo 
many ilates, united, if not againfl: their real interefts, yet 
againft all their former habits of connection, full of fo ma- 
ny occafions of jealoufy, abounding with matter of com- 
plaint againft each other, and even involved in misfortunes 
which uiually deftroy a mutual confidence, that not one of 
thefe powers either from fear, or hope, or wearinefs, or 
levity, defifted from their hoftilities againft the King of 
Pruflia; nor did that monarch acquire one ally more by the 
admiration of his fuccefifes, than he had formerly gained 
through companion to his misfortunes. All the confede- 
rates preferved the fame attachment to each other, to him 
the fame animofity. It is equally a matter of great admi- 
ration, how the refources even of thefe great ffates, could 
keep pace with their ambition, and in a very few months 
fupply the place of great armies almoft wholly deftroyed. 
The King of Pruflia by his victories had added to his natu- 
ral refources. Thefe refources were more confiderable 
than is commonly imagined ; and the pofTefllon of Saxony 
which yielded him great fupplies, faved his own revenue. 
Pie was indeed not quite fo frem as at the beginning of the 
war ; but then the condition of the enemy was in many 
refpe£is far worfe than his. His troops had befides acquired 
a high reputation, and a clear fuperiority over all others. 
The confideration, however, of an army greatly harrafTed, 
and a moft fevere winter, obliged him to reftrain his ardor, 
and to attempt nothing againft the Auftrians in the months 
of January, February and March. The fame inaction, 
owing to much the fame caufes, prevailed amongft the 
Hanoverians for a little time : but having been reinforced 
about the middle of February by a body of Pruflian horfe, 
they put their whole army once more in motion. 

The Duke de Richlieu had been recalled, and the Count 
of Clermont now commanded the French troops. This 
was their third commander in chief within the fpace of a 
year; a circumftance alone fufflcient to fhew the unfteadi- 
nefs of their councils, and the irregularity of their opera- 
tions. In effecl, they every where retreated before the Ha- 
noverians, whofe main body marched on the right to the 
country of Bremen ; whilft a fecond body under General 
Zaftrow kept on the left towards GifTorn. They puihed 
the French rrcm pod to poll. They obliged them to eva- 

1758- '^v History of the War. 47 

cuate Otterfberg, Bremen and Werdem The caftle of 
Rotterberg was taken in fix hours. A confiderable detach- 
ment under Count Chabot was pofted at Hoya, a ftrong 
fort upon the Wefer> and a place of fuch confequence that 
prince Ferdinand refolved to didodge the enemy from it, 
He appointed for that fervice the hereditary Prince of 
Brunfwick, with four battalions of foot, and fome light 
horfe. This Prince, not twenty years of age, had already 
entered into the courfe of glory under the aufpices of his 
uncle, and full of, ardor to fignalize himfelf, with joy em- 
braced the occafion ; and here he gave an earneft of his 
fame, in one of the moft lively and beft conducted a£tions 
in the war. The firft fruits of this young hero were fuch 
as would have done honour to the maturity of the moft ex- 
perienced foldier. 

The Prince had a broad and deep river to pafs. He had 
no means of tranfporting his men, but a fingle 
float; fo that a long time muft be fpent in get- Feb. 23* 
ting them over : what was worft, before half his 
troops were pafled, a ftrong wind arofe, which rendered the 
float unferviceable, and entirely cut off all communication 
between the Prince and the moll confiderable number of 
his party, whilft the party he was going to attack was fu- 
perior to him, had his whole body been together. In this 
exigence the Prince came to a resolution worthy of him- 
felf. He refolved not to fpend any time in attempts to 
bring over the reft of his troops, much lefs to make any at- 
tempts to return to them ; but to urge on boldly, in fuch 
a manner as to poffefs the enemy with an opinion of his 
ftrength, and to attack them brifkly before they could be 
undeceived. Therefore, between four and five o'clock in 
the morning, they marched with the utmoft fpeed directly 
to the town of Hoya. When they had approached within 
a mile and a half of the place, another accident was on the 
point of defeating the whole enterprife. Their detachment 
fired by miftake upon four of the enemies dragoons, who 
were patrolling; the firing was caught from one to another, 
and at laft became general. This ^qiuq^ more than enough 
to difcover their motions and alarm the enemy. But the 
fame fpirit influenced the conduct of every part of this af- 
fair; a bold countenance became neceflary, and it was 
aHumed ; they marched with the utmoft diligence to the 


48 Tfo History of the War. 1758. 

town, and encountered the enemy at the bridge; a fierce 
fire, well fupported on either fide, enfued. The ground 
was fuch, that the Prince could not bring up his whole de- 
tachment equally. Senfible of this difadvantage, he formed 
a defign to overcome it, as judicious, as it was refolute, 
which was to turn the enemy by attacking them in the rear ; 
to execute this defign, it was neceffary to make a circuit 
about the town. Every thing fucceeded: The attack on 
the enemy's rear was made with bayonets fixed, a terrible 
{laughter enfued. The French abandoned the bridge, and 
fied in confufion : The Prince having cleared the town of 
the enemy, joined the party he had left. The Coupt de 
Chabot threw himfelf, with two battalions into the cattle, 
with a refolution to maintain himfelf there; but in a little 
time he capitulated, furrendering the place, his ftores, 
and magazines, his troops being permitted to march out. 
The Prince, who had no artillery, and who, on account of 
the badnefs of the roads, defpaired of bringing up heavy 
cannon, fufTered them to depart. Six hundred and feventy 
men were made prifoners in the action, and a place of 
much importance, and which opened a pafiage over the 
Wefer, fecured to the Hanoverians, with the lofs of lefs 
than one thoufand men killed and wounded. I have dwelt 
on this action, and defcribed it as particularly as I could, 
though nothing decifive in itfelf, becaufe it is not in pitched 
battles between great armies, where the moil: mafierlv 
flrokes of conduct are always difplayed ; thefe lefler affairs 
frequently call for as much or more of fagacity, refolution, 
and prefence of mind, in the commander; yet they are of- 
ten fiightly palled by, as matters of no confequence, by the 
generality of people, who rather confider the greatnefs of 
the event, than the fpirit of the action. 

Prince Ferdinand continued to advance, with his right 
on one fide of the Wefer, and his left on the other; the 
French continued to retire, and fucceffively abandoned all 
the places they had occupied in the electorate, except Min- 
den. A garrifon or four thoufand men defended that place ; 
but it was clofely inverted, and in nine days the 
March whole garrifon furrendered prifoners of war. Se- 

14. veral fkirmifhes happened between the advanced 
parties of the Hanoverian army and the French, 
always to the advantage of the former. The wretched con- 
dition of the French troops is hardly to be defcribed or ima- 
gined : 

1758* The History of the War. 49 

gined: officers and foldiers involved in one common diftrefs; 
the officers forgot their rank, and the foldiers their obedi- 
ence ; full hofpitals, and empty magazines ; a rigorous fea- 
fon and bad covering ; their baggage feized or abandoned, 
and the huflars and hunters of the allied army continually 
harafling, pillaging, and cutting them off. It was no alle- 
viation to their mifery, that the inhabitants of the country, 
which they abandoned, were reduced to the fame extremi- 
ties. The favage behaviour of fome of their troops at their 
departure, took away all compafliou for their fufFerings j 
but this was not univerfal. The Duke de Randan, who 
commanded in Hanover, quitted the place with the fame 
virtue, that he had fo long held it. Refentment had no 
power to perfuade him to acl: with rigour, in the adverfe 
turn of the French affairs, than the pride of conqueft had 
in their profperity. When he had orders to evacuate the 
place, there were very confiderable magazines of corn and 
forage, amafled for the ufe of the army ; he had full time, 
to burn them, and he had precedents enough to have jufti- 
fied the action : but he left tfie whole in the hands of the 
magiftrates, to be gratuitoufly diftributed to the poor : he 
employed all his vigilance to prevent the leaft diforder 
amongft his troops, and was himfelf the laft man that 
marched out of the town. This behaviour, which did fuch 
honour to his name and country, has made his memory for 
ever dear to the Hanoverians, drew tears of love and grati- 
tude from his enemies, and acknowledgments from the 
generous Prince againft whom he ferved. 

The French, through extreme difficulties, marched to- 
wards the Rhine in three columns. The feveral fcattered 
bodies, which had united at Munfter, formed the right. 
The body which came from Paderborn, and which was 
commanded by the prince of Clermont in perfon, marched 
in the middle. The forces which had occupied Hefle were 
on the left. In this order they reached the Rhine, which 
they all pafled, except a body urder Count Clermont, who 
ftill remained at Wefel, and refolved to maintain that poft. 
The French army, which about four months before had 
pafled the Rhine in numbers, and in a condition to make 
the mofl powerful enemies tremble without any adverfe 
ftroke of war whatfoever, by a fate almoft unparalleled, 
now repa(Ted it like fugitives, in a condition the moft de- 
plorable, reduced to lefs than half their original numb^, 

E and 

$o T'be History of the War. 1758. 

and clofely purfued by the enemy, which they had obliged 
to lay down their arms. 

The fame ill fortune, and the fame defpair of their af- 
fairs followed them every where On the arrival of a fmall 
Englifh fquadron, commanded by commodore Holmes be- 
fore Embden, and their taking an advantageous 
March fituation, which cut off the communication be- 

14. tween the town and the mouth of the river Ems ; 
the French garrifon, confuting of four thoufand 
"" men, immediately evacuated the place. As foon 
as Mr. Holmes difcovered their defign, and that they were 
tranfpoi ting their artillery and baggage up the river, he 
ordered out a few armed boats to purfue them. Thefe took 
fome of the enemy's veflels, in which were the fon of an 
officer of diftin&ion, and a confu.erable fum of money. 
The commodore without delay reftored the fon to his fa- 
ther, and offered to return the money, on receiving the 
officer's word of honour, that it was his private property. 
This affair is mentioned, not only to do juftice to the judi- 
cious conduct by which a place of fo much confederation 
was fo eafily carried, but alfo to that generofity of fpirit, 
which fo nobly diftinguimes almoft all thofe, who hold any 
rank in our fervice. 


Alterations in the French minifry. The jlaie of the Englijb 
affairs in the year 1758. Subftdy treaty with the King 
of Prujpa. Affairs of Sweden and Riiffia. Scbweidnitz 
taken. King of Pruffia enters Morazm and itruefis 01- 
mutz. Conduh of Count Daun. Attacks the Prujfan 
convoy. Siege of Qlmutz raifed. King of Pruffia marches 
into Bohemia. 

WHILST the French arms fuffered fuch difgraces 
abroad, they endeavoured by an alteration of their 
councils at home, to reftore their credit. Their miniflers 
had been long the fport of female caprice ; it was their 
power of pleafing a miflrefs who governed their King, that 
alone qualified them to ferve their country. Some of the 
moft able men were turned out of their employments with 
difgrace ; others retired from the publick fervice with in- 
dignation ; a certain low character had for a long time ap- 

I75&* %"b e History of the War. 51 

peared in all the proceedings of France, both within and 
without. Even in their domeftic difputes, and where fome- 
thing of a free and manly fpirit appeared, this fpirit 
evaporated, and fpent itfelf upon unworthy and defpicable 
objects. Thefe contefts which involved the church, the 
law and the crown, weakened them all; and the ftate felt 
all the ill effects of difunion of its orders, without feeing 
an augmentation of power thrown into the fcale of any. 
But now taught by their misfortunes and difgraces, they 
were obliged to an alteration in their conduct: they were 
obliged to call men to the public fervice upon public prin- 
ciples : at a time indeed, when in many refpe£ts things 
could only be altered, not mended : and wife and able mi- 
nifters could do little more by their penetration and public 
fpirit, than to fee and lament the ruin, caufed by the want 
of thofe virtues in their predeceffors. The duke de Belle- 
ifle, known to all Europe for his great abilities, and his 
great exploits, was at length placed at the head of the mili- 
tary department, as fecretary of war. 

There appeared in the common prints a fpeech, faid to 
be made by that nobleman in council ; which, if it be not 
authentic, contains at leaft fuch fentiments, as would come 
not unnaturally from a French patriot, and one who had 
ferved his King and country with honour during better 

iC I know, faid he, the flate of our armies. It gives me 
" great grief, and no lefs indignation: for befides the real 
t( evil of the diforder in itfelf, the difgrace and infamy 
M which it reflects on our government, and on the whole 
" nation, is dill more to be apprehended. The choice of 
M officers ought to be made with mature deliberation. \ 
te know but too well to what length the want of difcipline, 
*' pillaging and robbing have been carried on by the officers 
*< and common men, after the example fet them by their 
<e generals. It mortifies me to think I am a Frenchman ; 
" my principles are known to be very different from thofe 
" which are now followed. I had the fatisfa&ion to retain 
" the efleem, the friend fhip and the confideration, of all 
<e the princes, noblemen, and even all the common people 
cc in all parts of Germany where I commanded the king's 
<c forces. They lived there in the midfl of abundance ; 
<( every one was pleaed ; it fills my foul with anguifh, to 
" find that at prefent the French are held in execration ; 

E 2 « that 

52 Fhe History of the War. 1758. 

se that every body is difpirited, and that many officers pub- 
" lickly fay things that are criminal and highly punifhable. 
€< The evil is fo great that it demands immediate redrefs. 
** I can eafily judge, by what partes in my own bread, of 
*< what our generals feel from the fpeeches they muft daily 
" hear in Germany, concerning our conduct ; which indeed 
f * would lofe much to be compared with that of our allies. 
" I muft particularly complain of the delays and irregularity 
" of the pofts ; a fervice which is very ill provided for. I 
€6 am likewife difpleafed with the negligence of our generals 
** returning anfwers ; which is a manifeft breach of their 
<( duty. Had I commanded the army, a thoufand things 
* c which are done, would not have been done ; and others, 
" which are neglecled, would have been executed. I 
" would have multiplied my communications; I would have 
€e had ftrong pofts on the right, on the left, and in the 
** centre lined with troops. I would have had magazines 
(c in every place. The quiet and fatisfa£tion of the country 
u fhould have been equal to their prefent difaffe&ion, at 
" being harrafled and plundered; and we fhould have been 
« c as much beloved, as we are at prefent abhorred. The 
** confequences are too apparent to need being mentioned. 
* c I muft infift on thefe things, becaufe late redrefs is better 
" than the continuation of the evil." 

M. de Belleifle being eftablifhed in his office, turned all 
his attention to the cure of the evils, which he lamented ; 
and exerted all the power that remained in the nation, to 
put their army in Germany once more upon a refpe&able 
footing. The expedition into Germany was originally a 
meafure as contrary to the true interefts of France, as it 
was of juftice and equity ; but having adopted that mea- 
fure, the confequences which arofe feemed to demand that 
it fhould be purfued with vigour. Therefore the connection 
with the Emprefs Queen was drawn clofer than ever, and 
nothing was omitted to give a greater ftrength, and a better 
order to the army on the Rhine. But thefe endeavours 
which ftrained all the finews of France, already too much 
weakened by the almoft total ruin of feveral efTential bran- 
ches of their trade, drew away all the refources neceflary 
to fupport their navy. It was then in a fufficiently bad 
condition, from a want of feamen and ftores ; and there 
were no means found, or little attention ufed, to reftore it : 
fo that from a deficiency in the marine, it feemed to be 


1758- Tie History of tie War. 53 

equally impracticable to feed the war in America, or to 
preferve the coafr of France itfelf from infults. Such was 
the condition of our enemies, at the opening of the cam- 
paign of 1758. 

As to England, far from being exhaufled by the war, or 
difpirited by our ill fuccefs, our hopes rofe from our disap- 
pointments, and our refources feemed to be augmented by 
our expences ; with fuch eafe and alacrity were the necef- 
fary fupplies granted and raifed. Many errors and many 
abufes which the war difcovered without making fatal, were 
corrected. The fpirit of our officers were revived by fear 
or by fhame. Our trade was well protected by the fu- 
periority, and prudent diflribution of our naval force. The 
revenue was frugally managed, and the whole flate well 
cemented and bound together in all its parts, by the union 
of the administration, by the patnotifm which animated it, 
and by the entire confidence which the people had in the 
prefiding abilities and intentions. As France perfifted in her 
attachment fo the enemies of his Pruflian majefly, Great 
Britain entered into flill clofer engagements with that 
monarch, the luflre of whofe virtues, fet off by his late 
wonderful fuccefles, quite turned our eyes from the objec- 
tions which were railed againft the confiflency of that alli- 
ance with our interefts. How far it is confident with them, 
is, I think, a much more difficult point to fettle, than the 
adherents to either party feem willing to allow. But it 
ought to be confidered, that the circumflances of affairs 
in the beginning of the war, hardly admitted of any other 
choice ; it had been the height of madnefs, to have been 
on ill terms with his Pruflian majefly at that time ; and it 
was impoffible to have kept good terms with him, without 
being on very bad ones with Vienna. Things were in an 
ill fituation ; and the ballance of Germany was in danger 
of being overfet, what party foever fhcuid prevail. It 
was impoffible that England could have flood neuter in 
this contefl : if (he had, France would not have imitated 
her moderation ; (he would gladly have joined with the 
King of Pruffia to diflrefs Hanover, and reduce Auflria. 
Thefe two powers fo exerted, would doubtlefs compafs 
their end, unlefs we interpofed to prevent it ; and we muft 
fooner or later have interpofed, unkfs we were refclved 
tamely to fee France and her allies giving laws to the conti- 
nent, In a word, France would certainly have joined with 

E 3 one 

54 ^he History of the War. 1758. 

one party or the other, and the party which fhe joined, 
would certainly, by that union, prove dangerous to the 
common liberty, and mud therefore be oppofed by us ; we 
muft have been in fpite of us engaged in the troubles of 
Germany, as we ever have been, and ever fhall be, as long 
as we are a people of confideration in Europe. The alliance 
with Pruffia was pointed out to us by the circumftance of 
his acting on the defenftve. The King of Pruffia medita- 
ted no conquefts. But her Imperial majefty indifputably 
aimed ar the recovery of Silefia, which was to difturb the 
fettled order of things ; and this defign was the only caufe 
of the troubles in that part of the world. I am fenfible 
that this is, notwithftanding all that may be faid, a queftion 
of fome intricacy, and requires a confideration of many 
more particulars, than the brevity of our defign will allow. 
But whether we chofe our party in this alliance judicioufty 
or not, we have, I imagine, very great reafon to be pleafed 
with a meafure, which has induced France to engage fo 
deeply in the affairs of Germany, at fo ruinous an expence 
of her blood and treaiure.. Our miniftry was at this time 
fully convinced of the prudence of the choice that had been 
made, and refolved to fupport his PrufTian majefty, and 
the army under Prince Ferdinand, in the mod effectual man- 
ner ; one hundred thoufand pounds were voted for the 

Hanoverian and Heffian forces ; and a convention 
Ap. II. between the King of Pruffia, and his Britannic 

majefty, was figned in London, whereby the 
King of Great Britain engaged to pay his Pruffian majefty 
the fum of fix hundred and feventy thoufand pounds Ber- 
ing ; and each of the contracting powers engaged to con-., 
elude no peace without the participation of the other. 

The northern courts made no alteration in their fyftem. 
In Sweden, fome real plcts to difturb the eftablifhed con- 
flitution ended in the ruin of their contrivers ; fome ficti- 
tious plots were fet on foot to give a fancYion to meafures 
againft the crown party, which anfwered their ends ; and, 
as the ruling power continued the fame, and the internal 
difFenfions the fame, the hoftilities againft the King of 
Pruffia were refolved with the former animofity, but pro- 
mifed to be purfued with the former languor. In Ruffia, 
the Emprefs did not think her intentions well feconded by 
her minifters. The great delays, and the unaccountable 
retreat in the laft campaign, gave ground to fufpecl, that 


1758. 7*be History of the War. 55 

me had been betrayed by her minifters, or her generals. 
Marfhal Aprazin was removed from the commard, and was 
put under arreft. He juftified bis conduct by exprefs orders 
from Count Beftuchef. Beftuchef was removed from his 
office, and put under arreft alfo. Count WoronzofF fuc- 
ceeded Beftuchef in his employment, and the generals 
Brown and Fermor took the command of the army in the 
place of Apraxin. 

As foon as the feafon permitted the King of Pruffia to 
re-commence his operations, he laid fiege to 
Schweidnitz, and pufhed it with fo much vigour, April 3. 
that the place furrendered in thirteen days. The 
garrifon reduced by ficknefs during the blockade, and' by 
their lofTes during the fiege, from feven to little more than 
three thoufand men, yielded themfelves prifoners of war. 
By this ftroke, the King of Pruflia left his enemies no foot- 
ing in any part of his dominions. His next confideration 
was how to guard againft their future attempts, and at the 
fame time to make a vigorous attack upon fome part of 
the Auftrian territories. His forces were well ftationed for 
both thefe purpofes ; for befides the troops which Count 
Dohna commanded on the fide of Pomerania, a confider-? 
able body was pofted between Wohlauand Giogau, in order 
to cover Silefia from the fury of the Ruffians, in cafe they 
fhould make their inroad that way. An army, in a little 
time after was formed in Saxony, commanded by his bro- 
ther Prince Henry, which confifted of thirty battalions, and 
forty-five fquadrons. It wasdeftined to make head againft 
the army of the Empire, which by amazing efforts made 
during the winter, and by the junction of a large body of 
Auftrians, was now in a condition to a6r. again. A ready 
communication was kept up between all the King of Pruf- 
iia's armies, by a proper choice of ports 

The King refolved to make Moravia the theatre of the 
war this year. Moravia was frefh ground ; a country, 
as yet untouched by the ravages of war. If he mould 
fucceed in his operations in this country, his mecefles by 
opening to him the neareft road to Vienna, muft prove 
more decifive than they could any where elfe. If he mould 
fail, the Auftrians were at a diftance from the centre of 
his affairs, and would find it difficult to improve their ad- 
vantages to his ruin. After the reduction of Schweid- 
nitz, the King ordered two bodies of his troops to poft 

E 4 themfelves 

$6 fbe History of the War. 1758. 

themfelves in fuch a mariner, as to make it appear that he 
intended to carry the war into Bohemia. Whilft he drew 
away the enemies attention from the real obje&s by thefe 
difpofitions, the main of his army by a very 
May 3. rapid march, entered into Moravia in two co- 
lumns, and made themfelves matters, in a fhort 
time, and with little or no oppofition, of all the pofts ne- 
ceffary to cover the troops to be employed in the (iege of 
Olmutz. On the 27th of May the trenches were opened 
before that city. 

MarfhalDaun was no fooner apprifed of the King's march 
towards Moravia, than he took his route through Bohemia 
to that province. Notwithstanding that the Emprefs Queen 
omitted ( no poflible endeavours to afTemble a large army 
againft the King of Pruflia, though me had for that pur- 
pofe exhaufted the Milanefe and Tufcany, and fwept up 
the lad recruits in her Danubian territories, Marfhal Daun 
was not yet in a condition to give the King of Pruflia bat- 
tle ; neither did his character lead him to truft that to for- 
tune, which he might enfure, though more flowly, by 
conduct. This wife general took his pofts from Gewics to 
Littau, in a mountainous country, in a fituation where it 
was impoflible to attack him. He had the fertile country of 
Bohemia, from whence he readily and certainly drew fup- 
plies, at his rear. He was from his pofition at the fame time 
enabled to harafs the Pruflian army before Olmutz, and to 
intercept the convoys which were brought to them from 

Olmutz, by the extent of its works, and other advan- 
tageous circumftances, is a city which it is very difficult 
compleatly to inveft. So that fome of the King's pofts be- 
ing neceflarily weakened by occupying fo great an extent 
of country, were attacked by Daun's detachments from time 
to time, with fuch fuccefs, that abundant fuccours both 
of men and ammunition were thrown into the place. Thefe 
attacks were always made by night, and very few nights 
pafTed without fome attack. The fuccefs was various. But 
the operations of the (lege were greatly difturbed by thefe 
continual alarms. Befides, it is faid that the Auftrians, be- 
fore the King's invafion of this province, had deftroyed all 
the forage in the neighbourhood of Olmutz. The horfe 
were obliged to forage at a great diftance, which harrafTed 
them extreamly. Marfhal Daun took advantage of all thefe 
circumftances. It was in vain that the King of Pruflia 


1758. The History of the War. 57 

endeavoured by all the arts of a great commander to pro- 
voke or entice him to an engagement. He profited of the 
advantages he had made, without being tempted by them 
to throw out of his hands the fecure game he was play- 

The great object of Marfhal Daun was the Pruflian con- 
voys. On receiving advice that a large and important one 
was to leave Troppau on the 25th of June, he took mea- 
fures to intercept it. He ordered general Jahnus, who was 
at Muglitz on the left, to advance towards Bahrn, and a 
detachment which was at Prerau at a confiderable difiance to 
the right, to march to Stadt-Leibe ; fo that thefe two corps 
fhould on different fides attack the convoy at one and the 
fame time. To further the execution of this project, Mar- 
fhal Daun himfelf approached the Pruflian army, and di- 
rected all his motions as if he intended to give them battle. 
However, the King was too great a mailer in the game of 
generalfnip, which was now playing, to be deceived by this 
feint. He detached a confiderable party under general Zie- 
then, to fupport his convoy, which was already about feven 
thoufand ftrong. Before this detachment could come up, 
the convoy was attacked, but the Auftrians were repulfed. 
But Marfhal Daun, who provided for every thing, quickly 
reinforced his parties who renewed the engagement the next 
day. They firff. fuffered the head of the convoy to go un- 
molefted; but as the center was ftill embarrafled in a dan- 
gerous defiie, they eafily cut off the head from the reft, and 
then they attacked the centre with the greateft fury. The 
Pruflians made as good a refiftance as the* nature of the 
ground would fuffer. General Ziethen did every thing 
which could be expected from an accomplifned officer; but 
in the end they were entirely routed ; all the waggons in 
thatdivifion were taken ; the rear was pufhed back towards 
Troppau; the head alone with great difficulty arrived at the 
Pruflian camp. 

This was a fatal flroke, becaufe it came at a time when 
it was impoflible to repair it. The fit^ e of Olmutz had 
been all along attended with great difficulties: and now the 
news which every day arrived of the nearer and nearer ap- 
proach of the Ruffians, called the King loudly to the de- 
fence of his own dominions. Already the CofTacks and 
Calmucks made incurfions into Silefia, and by their ravages 
and cruelties, announced the approach of the great army. 


58 *fhe History of the War. 1758. 

The fiege muft be raifed ; Moravia mud: be abandoned ; 
Marfhal Daun muft have the honour of freeing his coun- 
try, and dnving away fuch an adverfary as the King of 
Prufiia, from a coi:queft deemed certain; all was performed 
-without a battle, b) a icries of the moll refined and vigor- 
ous manoeuvres that ever were put in practice. 

When the King of Pruflia faw that the unprofperous fitu- 
aticn of his affairs obliged him to retreat; he took a refo- 
lution, fuch as a victory infpires in others. He took advan- 
tage even of the excellent movement of Marfhal Daun, by 
which that able general had advanced his quarters to Poz- 
nitz, and placed himfelf fo as to fupport Olmutz in the 
moil effectual manner; by this movement, however, he 
was obliged to uncover the frontiers of Bohemia. The 
King of Pruflia? whom nothing could efcape, was fenfible 
of this advantage, and therefore, inftead of falling back 
upon Silefia, which ftep would immediately have drawn 
the Auftmn armv into his dominions, he determined to re- 
treat from one part of the enemies territories into another. 
The day before the fiege was raifed the firing of the Pruf- 
fians continued as brifk as ever, and mewed no fort of figrs 
of an intention to depart; but in the night the 
July 1. whole army took the road to Bohemia in two co- 
lumns, and gained an entire march upon the Au- 
ftrians. So that notwithstanding the utmoft efforts which 
the enemy could make to overtake and harafs the King 
upon his march, he advanced into Bohemia with little mo- 
leftation, feized upon a large magazine at Leutomiflel, de- 
feated fome corps of Auftrians who had attempted to diflurb 
him in his progrefs, and arrived at Konigfgratz, one of the 
moft important polls in Bohemia, with all his fick and 
wounded, with all his heavy baggage, all his heavy artil- 
lery, and military ftores complete. This place he poflefltd 
after driving from it a body of feven thoufand Auftrians who 
were entrenched there. He immediately laid this city and 
feveral other diftricls under contribution ; but his plan not 
admitting any further operations on that fide, he took no 
other advantage from this momentous poft. He foon re- 
entered Silefia, and marched with the moft amazing dili- 
gence to encounter the Ruflians, who had at this time 
united their divided corps under Brown and Fermor, and 
fixed the long fluc^ating plan of their operations, by en- 
tering the New Marche of Brandenburgh, and laying fiege 

. to 

1758. fbe History of the War. 59 

to Cuftrin. The reduction of this place could leave them 
but a few days march to Berlin ; Count Dohna was not in 
a condition to oppofe their progrefs, the King was ftill at 
a great diftance. But it is neceffary to break our narrative 
of his affairs, however interefting, to take a view of the 
operations of the armies on the Rhine. We leave the King 
of Pruflia in full march, to give one body of his enemies 
battle, after executing a retreat from the other, in a man- 
ner that did his military genius the greateft honour. So 
that on the whole, it is difficult to fay, which gained the 
greateft glory, the King of PruiTta by his retreat* or Mar- 
fhal Daun by the meafure which obliged him to it. 


Allies pafs the Rhine. Battle of Crevelt. Aclion at Sangerf- 
haufen. Aflion at Meer. Allies repajs the Rhine. 

PRINCE Ferdinand had it not in his power to cut 
off the retreat of the French over the K nine ; but he 
prtffed them clofely, and prepared himfeif to crofs that ri- 
ver in purfuit of them. His defign was to carry the war 
beyond the Maefe, and thereby oblige the Prince de ^ou- 
bife to abandon the enterprise he was preparing againft 
Heffe Caffel. His Highnefs executed the pafiage 
of the Rhine at Herven with the corps imraedic». June 1. 
ately under his command ; then he fent the br dge 
with which he ferved himfeif fo well up the river to Rees; 
the reft of the troops paffed there; the whole army were 
over before the 7th of June. Th :y of the I a ft age 

faw with aftonifhment a paffage of the Rhine by a French 
monarch, unoppofed, at the head of a mighty army. We 
faw that river paffed by the enemies of France, in the 
prefence of an army of fifty thoufand of that nation ; it 
was an action which did not need the exaggerations of rhe- 

The French army retired as the Prince advanced, and 
took an advantageous camp which threatened to retard the 
operations of the allies: their right was under Rheinberg; 
but the Prince by his well judged motions turned their left 
flank towards the convent of Campe, by which the French 
found themfelves obliged to quit their advantageous poft, 


60 The History of the War. 1758. 

and to retire into Meurs: they ftill kept towards the Rhine: 
the Prince advanced on the fide of the Maefe. 

It was evident, that whilft the French continued only to 
retire, it would prove impoffible for them to hinder the 
allies from executing the plan they propofed : they there- 
fore thought it advifeable to change their countenance. 
They had fallen back as far as Nuys; they now returned 
on their (leps, and advanced as far as Crevelt, within a 
few miles of Prince Ferdinand's camp. The Prince made 
the difpofitions for a battle, with his ufual vigour and pru- 
dence. He carefully reconnoitred the fituation of the ene- 
my. He found that their right was at a village called 
Vifchelon; their left extended towards Anrath, where it 
was covered with a wood : Crevelt, which was in the front 
of their right, was occupied by a party of their troops. 
His highnefs refolved upon three attacks : the firft and real 
attack was on the flank of the enemy's left wing ; the 
other two were defigned to divert their attention, and pre- 
vent their fuccouring the obje£t of his principal attack ; 
for which purpofe he recommended to his generals to make 
the beft ufe of their heavy artillery, and not to advance too 
far unlefs they were perfectly aflured of the fuccefs of the 
main operation. 

Having made thefe wife difpofitions, and perfectly learn- 
ed the beft routes by which the enemy might be 
June 23. approached, his highnefs put himfelf at the head 
of the grenadiers of his right wing, and advanced 
on the fide of Anrath in two columns. A cannonading vio- 
lent and well fupported opened the action: the Hanove- 
rian artillery was greatly fuperior to that of the French ; 
but though the French loft many men, they loft no ground 
in this way, and their pofition in the wood made a clofe 
attack absolutely necefTary : the hereditary Prince of Brunf- 
wick put himfelf at the head of the firft line of foot, and 
with his ufual fpirit, advanced with the whole front dire6U 
ly to the wood. Here a furious fire of fmall arms coith 
menced, which continued without the fmalleft interm.iffion 
for two hours and a half. All the Hanoverian battalions 
threw themfelves into the wood : two ditches well lined 
with infantry were oppofed to their fury: they were forced 
one after another : the enemies battalions were pufhed 
back, they were entirely broken, and fled out of the wood 
in a diforder which was irreparable: their cavalry 9 who kept 


1758. ¥b* His tor V of the War. 61 

the bed countenance poflible, in fpite of the terrible fire 
of the Hanoverian artillery, and in fpite of the vigorous 
attempts of the Hanoverian horfe, who had by this time 
found means to gain the plain, covered the retreat of their 
fcattered infantry, and faved them from utter ruin: the 
right wing and the centre, though they fuflfered grievoufly 
by the cannonading, were no where broken, but retreated 
towards Nuys in the moft °perfe£r. order. 

Seven thoufand of their beft troops were killed, wound- 
ed, and taken prifoners ; but there was nothing in this 
battle fo grievous to France, and fo affecting even to the 
enemy, as the fate of the count de Gifors. This young 
nobleman, the only fon of the duke de Belleifle, not above 
twenty-five years of age, newly married to the heirefs of 
an illuftrious houfe; himfelf the laft hope of a moll: noble 
family, was mortally wounded at the head of his regiment, 
which he brought up with the moft heroic courage, and 
infpired by his example to make incredible efforts. He 
had been educated with all the care an excellent father 
could beftow on a fon of an uncommon genius, who was 
alone able to fupport the reputation of his family. To the 
pureft morals he had united the politeft manners ; he had 
made a great proficiency in learning ; he knew many 
branches of it, and loved all ; he had feen every part of 
Europe, and read courts and nations with a difcerning eye ; 
and wanted nothing to fulfil all hope, and to make him a 
perfect and lafting ornament and fupport to his country, but 
a knowledge in the military art; he entered that courfe of 
glory and danger, and fell in his flrfl campaign. The un- 
happy father and minifter faw his private misfortunes keep 
pace with the public calamities, and the tears of his family 
mingled with thofe of his country. 

Prince Ferdinand gained a victory at Crevelt, which did 
the greateft. honour to his military capacity, and to the 
bravery of his troops. But it was a victory neither entire 
nor decifive : the French army on their own frontiers was 
quickly and ftrongly reinforced ; fo that they were not 
only in a condition in fome fort to make head againfl the 
allies, but were enabled to detach a confiderable reinforce- 
ment to the army of the Prince de Soubife on the other (ido; 
of the Rhine. 

Altho* the Prince had reafon to imagine that he fhould 
not be able to keep his ground on this fide of the Rhine for 


62 The History of the War. 1758. 

any confiderable time, this did not hinder him from im- 
proving to the utmoft, the advantage he had obtained. 
Whilft the French, difabled by their late defeat, were in 
no condition to oppofe him, he palled the Rhine with a 
large detachment, and appeared on the 28th of June before 
Dufftldorp, a city advantageoufly iltuated on the river, and 
belonging to the Eleclor Palatine. A fevere bombardment 
obliged it to capitulate on the 7th of July: the garrifon, 
confiding of two thoufand men, marched out with the ho- 
nours of war. Prince Ferdinand placed here three battali- 
ons of Hanoverians, and threw a bridge of boats acrofs the 
river ; by that means he multiplied his ports and communi- 
cations on both fides of the Rhine; and threw a new and 
no fmall impediment in the way of the French, to retard 
their progrefs, in cafe he mould find himfelf compelled to 
retire. After this, the army of the allies and that of France, 
fpent feveral days in making various marches and counter- 
marches, as if they both propofechto "bring on an aclion, to 
which, however, it does not appear that either party was 
very ftrongly inclined. 

Prince Ferdinand Hill retained his hopes that the Prince 
of Yfenburg who commanded the Heflian troops, would 
find the Prince of Soubife employment for fome time. He 
had originally laid his plan in luch a manner, that by pafling 
the Maefe, and transferring the feat of war into the enemies 
country, he might draw the French from the Rhine, and 
perhaps oblige the Prince of Soubife to come to the aflift- 
ance of the main army under Marfhal de Contades, who 
commanded in the room of count Clermont, being now the 
fourth commander of the French troops fince they entered 
Germany. But whilft Prince Ferdinand pleafed himfelf 
with thofe hopes, and ftill continued to act as far as circum- 
fiances would admit, in purfuance of this plan, he received 
an account which difconcerted all his meafures. 

The duke de Broglio, fupported by the corps of the prince 
de Soubife, with a much fuperior force, attacked 
July 23. and defeated the Heftian army of feven thoufand 
men near Sangerfhaufen : this opened to them 
the pofTefiion of the Wefer : they might a£i: in Weflpbalia, 
on which fide foever they pleafed, and it was to be feared, 
that if they availed themfelves of the advantages they had, 
they might be able to intercept the Britim troops. Thefe 
troops having been landed at Embden, were now on their 


1758. %*be History of the War: 63 

march under the command of the duke of Marlborough to- 
reinforce the allied army. The prince in this fituation of 
affairs, had no option left but an engagement with the 
French army, or a retreat over the Rhine : the former was 
not eafy to compafs, as the French induftxiouily declined a 
battle, and it became extremely dangerous to remain long 
in a pofition with the enemies army on his left, and the 
flrong fortrefs of Gueldre on his right. In this fituation his 
fubfiftence became every day more difficult. To repafs the 
Rhine had its difficulties too ; the roads which led to that 
river were rendered almoft impaflable by the heavy rains ; 
the river itfelf was fo fwelled with them, that the bridge at 
Rees had been for fome time ufelefs. 

Thefe difagreeable circumftances of the allied army did 
not efcape the penetration of Monf. de Chevert, one of the 
ablefl commanders among the French. He formed a plan 
upon them, which, if it had fucceeded, mufl have put the 
allies into the greateft perplexity. This general had fome 
time before palled the Rhine, with an intention of making 
himfelf mailer of Duffeldorp, and he had prepared all things 
with great ability for that enterprize : the rains ufually 
heavy for that feafon, and fome other crofs accidents, had 
fruflrated his intentions. But perceiving that the fame ac- 
cidents which defeated his defign, proved alfo unfavourable 
to the enemy, he refolved to turn his difappointment into 
an advantage, and from the ruins of his firffc project to 
build another of yet greater importance, Baron Imhoff was 
ported to the right of the Rhine in a ftrong fituation near 
Meer. He was to cover the bridge at Rees ; to fecure a con- 
siderable magazine ; and to keep open communication be- 
tween the Englim reinforcements and the main army. The 
plan of Monf. Chevert was to diflodge Imhoff, to burn the 
bridge at Rees, to make himfelf mafter of the magazine, 
and to render the junction of the Englilh troops with the 
Hanoverians impracticable. To execute this judicious 
fcheme, he united feveral detachments from the garrifon of 
Wefel, to a confiderable corps which he intended to have 
employed in the fiege of Duffeldorp. The whole made 
near twelve thoufand men: the troops under Imhoff were 
but fix battalions, and four fquadrons, hardly three thou- 
fand in all. 

When that General was apprifed of the deflgns and mo- 
tions of the French, he faw it was in vain to expect fuccours 


64 The History of the War. 1758. 

from the army of Prince Ferdinand : the fwell of the river 
had rendered all relief impofiible ; all his hopes were there- 
fore in his genius and the bravery of his troops. He con- 
fidered that though the poffc he occupied v/as fufficiently 
flrong, the enemy might make themfelves mafters of Rees, 
by turning his camp, and thus execute one of the princi- 
pal parts of their defign ; he confidered the great differ- 
ence between attacking and being attacked ; he confidered 
the effect of an attempt altogether unexpected by the 
enemy ; he therefore took the refolution of abandoning 
his port, and going out to meet them. Perceiving that the 
French were marching into difficult ground, he did not 
lofe a moment to begin the action. He ordered 
April 5. a fmall party, which he had ported in a little 
coppice, to fall upon the enemies left, which he 
obferved to be uncovered ; and appointed the fire of this 
party, as a fignal for all the reft to advance, and make the 
onfet with bayonets fixed. The French thus vigoroufly 
and unexpectedly attacked, fell into confufion ; their cou- 
rage ill feconded the wifdom of their general ; they did not 
ftand half an hour; they left on the field of battle eleven 
pieces of cannon, many prisoners, and much baggage to 
the Hanoverians, who drove them under the cannon of 

This fignal advantage over fuch a prodigious fuperiority 
was not more gallantly obtained than well purfued and im- 
proved. Imhoff faw that the rains had increafed to fuch a 
degree, as to leave no hopes for the allied army to pafs by 
the bridge of Rees. Having taken proper care of his ma- 
gazines, he quitted his poft at Meer, and being reinforced 
by fome parties, who pafled the river in boats, he marched 
with the utmoft diligence towards the route of the Englifh 
forces, and happily effected a junction, which had hitherto 
been attended with fo many difficulties. 

Prince Ferdinand in his retreat met with no obflruction, 
but juft what was fufficient to difplay more fully the gal- 
lantry of his officers, and the fpirit of his troops. A town 
called Wachtendonck was on his left, as he retreated ; this 
place, though not fortified, is a pod: of much importance, 
and being an inland furrounded by the river Niers, is ex- 
tremely difficult of accefs : the French had thrown a body 
of troops into this place. The hereditary prince, the firft 
in every active fervice, was employed to force it. The 


i<75^ ?be History of the War. 6g 

did fhe forget that this monarch had expended his treafures* 
employed his armies, and even expofed his perfon in her 
caufe, when it was not only abandoned, but attacked by 
almoft all the reft of Europe. However the violent pro- 
ceedings of the Auhc council, drew no one ftate or perfon 
from the Kings of Great Britain and Pruflia; they rather 
had a contrary effect, in routing the whole Evangelic body 
to a fen<e of their own danger. Much leis were they able 
to flop the progrefs of the allied arms. v 

The Kmg of Pruflia conducted his retreat out of Bohe- 
mia in admirable order. Ths Generals Jahnus and Laudohn 
for feveral days hung upon his rear with two ftrong bodies. 
They took advantageous pofts, fornetimes on one fide, forne- 
times oil the other, fornetimes together, fornetimes fepa- 
rately, and threw all poflible impediments in his way. But 
the vigour of the Pruilians drove them with lofs from every 
port. So that by the 6th of Auguft, they were obliged 
entirely to defift from their pwfuit. The King of Pruflia 
freed from all moleftation, marched with theutmoft diligence 
by Wifoca, Politz, Landfhut, and arrived on the 20th at 
Franckfort on the Oder. Here he joined the troops under 
Count Dohna. The army was now in a condi- 
tion to act, and they did not lofe a moment's time Sept. 22. 
to march againft the enemy. All their vigour and 
expedition was not more than neceflary. The Ruffians had 
beiiesed Cuftrin from the 15th. Though thefe people 
fcarcely emerged from barbarifm, had not the moil perfect 
(kill in operations of this nature, they fupplied that deficien- 
cy by a ferocity that fcrupled nothing, by numbers whofe 
lives they did not regard, and by a moft formidable artillery, 
which rudely but furioufly managed, only fprcad the more 
general and indiscriminate deft ruction. In effect, they 
threw fuch a multitude of bombs and red hot balls into that 
unfortunate city, that in a fhort time it was on fire in every 
quarter. Of the wretched inhabitants fome were burned, 
fome buried in the ruins, fome killed by the balls that fell 
like hail in the ftreets: the furviving majority fafe neither 
within nor without their houies, abandoned their homes 
and their fubflance, and fled, many of them almoft naked, 
out of the fide which was not inverted. Never was beheld 
a more deplorable fpectacle ; nor was it eafy to fay which 
formed the more wretched appearance, thofe who perifhed, 
or thofe who efcaped. Mean while the Governor firm in 

F 3 his 

"jo tfhe History of the War. 1758. 

his courage and fidelity, did every thing for the defence of 
the walls and ruins of the place; but the walls built in the 
old manner did not promife a fuccefsful defence ; the enemy 
had ported themfelves in the fuburbs, and in the firing of 
the town, the principal magazine of the befieged was blown 

The protector and avenger of his dominions, was now 
however at hand. On the 25th, the King of Pruffia's whole 
army paffed the Oder at GluftebifTel, about twenty Englifh 
miles to the north-eafl of Cuilrin. The Ruffians on the 
fir it notice of his approach, broke up the (lege of that place, 
and marched towards the villages of Zwicker and Zorn- 
dorff. It was the King's intention to wind round the left 
flank of their army, and to take them in the rear, by which 
he hoped to throw them into confufion But in this he 
found himfelf difappointed. The Ruffian Generals had 
forefeen his purpofe and made excellent difpofitions. As 
the ground did not admit them to extend greatly in length, 
they threw themfelves into a fquare body compofed of four 
lines, forming a front almoft equal on every fide, and on 
every fide furrounded by cannon and chevaux de frize. In 
this formidable difpefition they waited the attack of the 

It was on the 25th of Auguft that the King of Pruflla, 
after a march of fifty fix days, from the midft of Moravia, 
brought his army in prefence of the Ruffians. The King 
had never been perfonally engaged with that enemy before. 
His troops had never obtained any advantage over them. 
The whole fortune of the war depended upon the event of 
this day. The PrufTians were now in the clofeft fenfe to 
fight for their country, which was ready to fall under one 
of the fevered: fcourges with which Providence has chaftifed 
a nation. Nothing was wanting which could infpire the 
foldiers with revenge. Every where the marks of the ene- 
mies cruelty were before their eyes ; the country defolated 
on every fide, and the villages in flames all round the field 
of battle. 

At nine o'clock in the morning the battle began by a fire 
of cannon and mortars which rained on the right wing of 
the Ruffians without the leaft intermiffion for near two 
hours. Nothing could exceed the havock made" by this 
terrible fire, nor the conflancy with which the Mufcovite 
foot, raw and unexperienced, fuflained a (laughter that 


1758. *?he History of the War: 7? 

would have confounded and difperfed the compleateft vete- 
rans. They fell in their ranks; new regiments ftill prefled 
forward to fill their places, and to fupply new flaughter. 
When the firft line had fired away all their charges, they 
rufhed forward on the Pruflians. That firm hody of the 
Pruflian infantry which had often flood, and often given fo 
many terrible mocks, by one of thofe unaccountable move- 
ments of the human mind, that render every thing in war 
fo precarious, gave way in the prefence of their Sovereign, 
and when they had in a manner fecured the victory, retired 
in diforder before the half broken battalions of the Musco- 
vites. Had the Ruffian officers known how to profit of this 
diforder; had they immediately thrown in their horfe with 
Vigour to compleat it, and entirely break that body ; this 
had probably been the lad day. of the Pruflian greatnefs. 
The King was not fo negligent. For juft in this anxious 
moment, whilft the battle was yet in fufpenfe, by a very 
rapid and mafterly motion, he brought all the cavalry of his 
right to the center, which with General Sedlitz at their 
head, burfting in upon the Ruffian foot, uncovered by their 
horfe, and difordered even by their advantage, pufhed 
them back, with a moft miferable flaughter. The repulfed 
battalions of Pruffia had time to recollect, and to form 
themfelves ; and now returning to the onfet with a rage 
exafperated by their late difgrace, they entirely turned the 
balance of the fight. The Ruffians were thrown into the 
moft horrid confufion. The wind blew the dull: and fmoke 
full in their faces. They no longer diftinguifhed friends or 
enemies. They fired upon each other. In this diffraction 
they plundered their own baggage which flood between the 
lines, and intoxicated themfelves with brandy. Orders 
were now no more heard nor obeyed. The ranks fell in 
one upon another; and being crammed together in a narrow 
fpace, every fhot difcharged by the Pruflians had its full 
effect: whilft the Ruffians kept up only a fcattered fire, 
without direction or effect, and quite over the heads of their 
enemies. It was now no longer battle, but a horrid and 
undiftinguifhed carnage. Yet ftill, (which is a wonderful 
circumftance) the Ruffians thus diffracted and ilaughteredj 
kept their ground. The action continued without inter- 
million from nine in the morning until feven at night. At 
laft the night itfelf, the fatigue of the Pruflians, and a judi- 
cious attack on their right wing, which drew their attention 

F 4 on 

72 The Historv of the War* 1758. 

on that fide, gave the Ruffian army forne refpite to' recover 
their order, and an opportunity of retiring a little from the 
fcene of their difader. On their fide near ten thoufand fell 
upon the fpot, they had more than ten thoufand wounded, 
mod of them mortally : nine hundred and thirty nine offi- 
cers, not including the inferior, were killed, wounded, and 
taken prifoners ; of two particular regiments confiding be- 
fore the battle of four thoufand five hundred and ninety five 
effective men, only one thoufand four hundred and feventy 
five were left : their whole lofs on this bloody day was twen- 
ty one thoufand five hundred and twenty nine men. That of 
the Pruffians in every way did not amount to two thoufand. 

The Gazettes of both parties warmly difputed the vain 
honour of the field of battle. On the mod: diligent en- 
quiry, it appears that both parties fpent the night on or very 
near the place of action. But this is an affair of little con- 
fequence. The Pruffians had all the fruits, and mod of the 
proofs of a victory the mod complete and decifive. A vafl 
train of artillery taken, the military cheft, a number of 
prifoners, many of them officers of high rank ; the retreat 
of the Ruffian army, the next and the following days ; their 
General Fermor's requed for leave to bury the dead ; their 
incapacity to advance or form any new enterprife ; the King 
of Pruffia's unmoleded operations againd his other enemies ; 
all thefe form the mod clear and certain demondration of a 
victory, in all the points for which a victory is defirable. 

Nothing lefs indeed, than a very complete victory could 
have done any effential fervice to the King's affairs at that 
time, when four armies of his enemies were making their 
way to one common center, and threatened to unite in the 
heart of Brandenbourg. The King renewed the attack on 
the Ruffians the next morning. The event of the lad day 
had fhewed them, that there was noway of fafety but in a 
retreat, and in effect they retreated before the Pruffians as 
far as Landfperg on the frontiers of Poland. The King of 
Pruffia was convinced that their late check mud wholly dif- 
able them from attempting any thing material againd his 
dominions on that fide ; and he faw clearly that whatever 
he might hope to gain by improving his advantage againd 
the Ruffians, he mud lofe far more by allowing his other 
enemies to make a progrefs on the fide of Saxony. He 
fatisfied himfelf therefore with leaving a fmall body of 
troops under Count Dohna, to obferve the motions of the 
Muscovite army -, and marched with the greated part of his 


I75&- Fhe History of the War. 73 

forces and the utmoft expedition to the relief of Prince 

Marfhal Darin having laid afide his firft project for pafllng 
-the Elbe at Meiffen, enterprifed nothing new on the fide of 
Saxony for fome days ; he contented himfelf with taking a 
pofition at Stolpen to the Eaftward of the Elbe, by which, 
whilft he preferved to himfelf an eafy communication with 
the army of the Empire, he interrupted the communication 
between Bautzen and Drefden ; he favoured the operations 
of General Laudohn, who had advanced through the 
Lower Lufatia to the confines of Brandenburgh ; and by- 
drawing the attention of the Pruffian forces which were left 
in Silefia to the northward of that dutchy, he facilitated the 
progrefs of the Generals Harach and de Ville in the fouthern 
parts. Admirable difpofttions without queftion, if the time 
had not called for more vigorous meafures, and if the refcue 
of Saxony from the King of PrufTia had not been the great 
object of the campaign ! It is not impoffible that the court 
of Vienna had Rill fuch an hankering after Silefia, as in- 
duced them to flacken their efforts on the fide of Saxony, in 
hopes, that if Marfhal Daun could protract the operations 
there, fo as to find full employment for the King of PrufTia, 
their other forces might reduce Silefia with greater facility ; 
and thus perhaps by aiming at two fuch difficult objects at 
once, as it generally happens, they loll them both. Upon 
any other fuppofition, it is not very eafy to account for the 
feeming inactivity of Marfhal Daun, whilft he had fo fair a 
game in his hands. However advantageouflv Prince Henry 
might have chofen his poft, or however flrongly he might 
have fecured it, yet the prodigious (uperiority of the com- 
bined armies feems to have more than over-balanced that 
advantage, a> d to have juftrfied, nay to have demanded 
fome bold and decifive attempt. 

£n fact, this appeared at length to be the Marfhal's own 
opinion. For when the ftrong Fortref of Scnneftein moil 
unaccountably furrendered, with a garrifen of 'ofte thoufand 
four hundred men, to the Auffyian General Mac- 
Guire after the refiftance of ro more than a fingle Sept. 5. 
day; Marfhai Daiin proppfed that the Prince of 
Deux-Ponis ihould attack Prince Henrv, whilft the grand 
army of the Auftrians laying bridges between two fires, at 
a fmall diftance from each other, fhould pa's the 
Elbe, and falling at the fame time on the Pruf- Sept. 10. 
Hans, fecond the attack of the Impenahfts, and 


74 The History of the War. *758. 

cut off the retreat of their enemies towards Drefden. Thb 
was to bring matters to a fpeedy decifion. But now the 
King of Pruflia by the mod rapid marches had reached the 
frontiers of Saxony. The whole defign was difconcerted ; 
and far from being able to diflodge Prince Henry, they 
found themfelves utterly unable to prevent the King his 

brother from joining him, with his whole army. 
Sept. ii. On his approach General Laudohn abandoned 

his advantages in the Lower Lufatia, and fell 
back upon Marfha! Daun ; who himfelf retired from the 
neighbourhood of Drefden and fell back as far as Zittau. 
The army of the Empire poffeffed of the ftrong poll of 
Pirna, which the Saxons had occupied in the beginning of 
the war, kept their ground ; but did not undertake any 
thing. Thus in fifteen days the King of Pruffia, by his 
unparalleled fpirit, diligence and magnanimity, fought and 
defeated a fuperior body of his enemies, in one extremity 
of his dominions, and baffled without fighting another 
fuperior body in the other extremity. 

Thefe advantages, glorious as they were, were not the 
only ones which followed the victory at Zorndorf. The 
Swedes who directed their motions by thofe of their Ruffian 
allies, haftened their operations when that army had ad- 
vanced into Brandenburgh. General Wedel was detached 
from Saxony, to flop their progrefs ; and the Prince of Be- 
vern, now Governor of Stettin, gave them fome oppcfition. 
All this, however, had proved ineffectual, if the news of 
the defeat of the Ruffians had not alarmed the Swedes in 
fuch a manner, as to make them return with more expedi- 
tion than they had advanced. Tho' the King of Pruffia's 
affairs began to put on a better appearance by thefe efforts, 
the fortune of the war ftill hung in a very dubious fcale. 
The enemy was itill fuperior. The Swedes and Ruffians 
had ftill fome footing in his dominions. The Auftrians and 
Imperialifts were yet in Saxony; and if the King's armies 
had it in their power to take ftrong fttuations, the enemy 
had the fame advantages. The condition of things was ex- 
tremely critical, and the lead error or misfortune threat- 
ened ftill to plunge the King of Pruffia into an abyfs of 


1758. Tbe History of the War. 75 

C H A P. XII. 

General Oberg defeated at Lanwerenhagen. King of Pruffia 
furprifed at Hochkircben. Marfhal Keith and Prince Francis 
of Brunjwick killed. Affair at Gorlitz. King of Pruffia 
marches into Silejia, Marfhal Daun invejls Drefden, The 
fuburbs burned. King of Pruffia raifes the fiege of Neifs 
and Cofel. He returns into Saxony. The Auflrians retire 
into Bohemia. Difpojttions for the winter. 

THE operations of the armies in We ft ph alia, feemed 
for a long time to languifh. The grand army of the 
French under Marfhal de Contades, was wholly unable to 
drive Prince Ferdinand from the pofls which he had chofen 
fo judicioufly along the Lippe, The other divifion of the 
French forces under the Prince de Soubife, had made no 
great progrefs on the fide of HeiYe-Caffel, againff. the Prince 
Ifenburg, who ftill kept his ground in that principality, in 
order to protect the courfe of the Wefer, and to cover the 
electorate. The French were fenfible that an attack on the 
principal army of the allies, would prove a very dangerous 
attempt, in which even if they mould have fome fuccefs, 
their progrefs into the King's electoral dominions mud be 
very flow and difficult. But as the body of the allies em- 
ployed in HefTe-Caflel was far the weakeft, and as an advan- 
tage on that fide promifedthem the command of the Wefer, 
and a better paflage into the heart of the enemy's country, 
they determined to make an attempt there. To further 
this defign, a confiderable detachment was made from the 
army of Marfhal de Contades, which increafed the Prince 
of Soubife's corps to at leafl: thirty thoufand men. Prince 
Ferdinand, who was fufficiently aware of the enemies plan, 
had fome time before fent General Oberg with a ftrong re- 
inforcement to join the Prince Ifenburg; but notwithftand- 
ing this reinforcement, the whole force of the allies in HefTe 
did not exceed fifteen thoufand. This body was attacked by 
the French at Lanwerenhagen, and their great 
fuperiority, especially in point of cavalry, obliged Sept. 30. 
the allies to retire with the lofs of about one thou- 
fand five hundred men. The allies unable to keep the field, 
had however fome woods in their rear which covered their 
retreat, and they preferved fo good a countenance as pre- 

vented their defeat from becoming total. 


76 The History of the War. 1758. 

Great confequences might have been apprehended from 
this affair. But the vigilance of Prince Ferdinand, who had 
eftabliihed the moft ready communications all along the 
Lippe, fuffered the victorious army to reap but little advan- 
tage from their victory. That accomplished General ad- 
vanced with the utmoft expedition towards Rheda, and the 
Prince Ifenburgh having fallen back upon him, they joined 
in fuch a manner as perfectly to iecure the Wefer, without 
lofing any thing on the fide of the Rhine. And although 
thefe neceflary motions, in fome fort uncovered the electorate, 
fo as to lay it open to the incurfions of the enemy's light 
troops, who penetrated even to the gates of Hanover ; yet 
the French were not in a condition to eftablifh any consider- 
able body, or to take any peft of moment in that part. 

During this time, the armies of the King of Pruflia and 
Marfhal Daun, made no very remarkable movements. The 
Marfhal kept his advantageous camp at Stolpen, by which 
he preferved a communication with the army of the Empire. 
The army was fecured by its inacceilible Situation, but it 
enterprifed nothing of confequence. The King of Pruffia 
on the other hand, having taken pofTeSTion of the important 
pod of Bautz,en, which lies fo opportunely for commanding 
at once both Mifnia and Lufatia, extended his right wing to 
Hochkirchen. By this pofition he preferved a communi- 
cation with the army of his brother Prince Henry, he pro- 
tected Brandenburg from the incurfions of the Auftrians, 
and at the fame time that he fecured thefe interesting ob- 
jects, he was better fituated for throwing fuccours into 
SileSia, than he could be any where elfe confidently with his 
general plan. The two armies kept the moft watchful eye 
upon each others motions. The principal aim of the King 
of Pruflia, feemed to have been the preventing Marfhal 
Daun from communicating with Bohemia. The great in- 
tention of Marfhal Daun was to cut off the King from 
Silefia. Things were fo balanced, that it did not feem pof- 
fible by mere Skill in marches and pofitionsto anfwer thefe 
ends very fully : therefore a battle feemed inevitable. But 
it feemed too that confidering the fituation of both armies, 
a battle could not be attempted without extreme danger to 
the party who Should begin the attack. 

Marmal Daun faw that if any more time was loft without 
action, the very feafon muft oblige him to evacuate Saxony, 
and thus give up all the fruits of the campaign. He came 


1758* ' Tbe History of the War. 65 

bridge on his approach had been drawn up. The prince fee- 
ing that if he attempted to get down this bridge, the ene- 
my would gain time to recollecl: themfelves, threw himfelf 
into the river ; his grenadiers, animated by fo gallant an 
example, plunged in after him, and furioufly attacking the 
enemy with their bayonets, in a few minutes drove them 
from that port ; this advantage, joined to that gained by- 
general ImhofF, and the uncommon resolution which ap- 
peared in both thefe a&ions, awed the French.. They 
found that their troops, raw, undifciplined and little fit for 
hard fervice, were not to be relied upon; and they feared 
to bring on an a&ion, which by being decifive againft them 
might draw on the mod fatal confequences. So that the 
prince repaffed the Rhine in moft excellent order, even 
with lefs trouble than he had at firft paffed it ; and indeed 
with little moleftation, but what he met with from the 
weather. Such exceflive rains had fallen, that he in vain 
attempted a paflage at Rhlneberg, or at his bridge . 

of Rees: he effected it a little lower at a place 

n j r^ • .u r an d 10. 

called Gnethuyfen. 

Although Prince Ferdinand was obliged to pafs the Rhine, 
and to a 61 more upon the defenfive for the future; yet his 
vigorous coudu6t in the beginning was very glorious to him, 
and very advantageous to the common caufe. The French 
fuffered greatly in their military reputation ; the Hano- 
verians had gained a fuperiority over them, and now fo 
much of the campaign was wailed, that notwithftanding 
the greatnefs of their numbers, it was not probable that 
they would find themfelves able to make any confiderable 
progrefs in their defigns againft the King's electoral domi- 
nions for this year. The advantage gained by Broglio and 
Soubife was not attended with the confequences, which 
might have been apprehended. Prince Ylenburg kept fo 
good a countenance in a ftrong pofl: he had chofen, that 
the French did not choofe to attack him again ; and fince 
Prince Ferdinand had repaffed the Rhine, he might always 
be well fupported. 


66 The History of the War. 1758. 


Retreat from Bohemia. Meafures of Count Daun. Battle of 
Cujirin. King of Pruffia marches into Saxony , and joins 
Prince Henry. 

BY the retreat of the Pruflians from Moravia, the war 
had aflumed a new face. The Generals who conduct- 
ed it had changed hands. The King of Pruflia was obliged 
to a£r. upon the defensive; Marfhal Daun was now in a con- 
dition of dilplaying his talents in an offen five war. The af- 
fairs of the King of Pruflia were fcarce ever in a more criti- 
cal fituation than at that time. The Ruffians feemed at firft 
difpofed to enter into Siiefia ; but now they had united their 
feveral disjointed corps, penetrated into the New Marche 
of Brandenburgh, and having commenced the fiege of Cuf- 
trin, a place that threatened them with no great oppofiti- 
on, they were arrived wi'hin a few days march of Berlin. 
Count Dohna puffed with a greatly inferior force at Frank- 
fort on the Oder, watched without being able to obftrucl: 
their progrefs. In Pomerania, the Generals Weedel and 
Manteufel oppofed almoft the fame ineffectual efforts to the 
arms of Sweden. The army of the Empire, and a confi- 
derable body of Auflrians under General Haddick, advanced 
into Saxony, and poffefling themfelves by degrees of thofe 
ftrong polls, which com pofe the frontiers of Mifnia, they 
continual!} ftreightered the quarters of Prince Henry. That 
Prince was ftror.gly encamped at Dippolfwalde, with about 
twenty thousand men, in order to cover Drefden, and com- 
mand the courfe of the Elbe. Thus circumftanced, the 
King could not find his account in remaining long in Bohe- 
mia, where it was impoflible to effect any thing decifive. 
Every thing depended upon his being able to drive the Ruf- 
fians out of his territories, who with a mighty force ruined 
every place they arrived at, and feemed not only to make 
war agairft him, but ag -infl human nature itfelf. 

Marfhal Daun was foon apprifed of the King of Pruflia's 
intentions : but he confidered that if he was to purfue the 
King into Siiefia, he muft encounter with difficulties almoft 
infuperable; feveral ftrong places flood in his way, and it 
would prove eafy tor the Pruflian troops left for the defence 
of that dutchyj to t?ke an advantageous camp under one of 
thofe places, and thus oblige them to wafte unprofitably the 


1758. The History of the War. fa 

time, which might be employed in the execution of more 
judicious projects. Befides that in this manner of proceed- 
ing he could never act in concert, nor preferve any effectual 
communication with the feveral bodies of his allies. To 
pufh forward with his whole force directly to Berlin, could 
at beft be regarded as a coup de main> which could prove 
nothing decifive in the campaign, even fuppoflng the project 
Ihould fucceed, but it was rather probable that it would 
not fucceed, as the King of Pruflia might clear his hands of 
the Ruffians before the army of Marfhal Daun could, for 
want of fubfiftance arrive in the Lower Lufatia. Every 
conflderation therefore pointed out the relief of Saxony as 
the great object of the Auflrian operations. It was an object 
apparently to be compared with greater eafe, and if com- 
pafTed, productive of more folid advantages than any other. 
The army of the Empire already fuperior to that of Prince 
Henry could co-operate in the cfefign, and the recovery of 
Saxony once effected, the King of Pruflia would fee himfelf 
entirely diverted of one of the principal refources he had to 
rely upon in the war, for money, rrovifions, and forage; 
whilft his hereditary dominions ftripped of this flrong bar- 
rier, defencelefs in themfelves, and aflaulted on three fides 
by powerful armies, could fcarce find them employment to 
the end of the campaign. 

Marihal Daun having refolved upon his plan of operations 
fuffered the King of Pruflia to continue his march towards 
the Ruffians, without any moleftation: he contented himfelf 
with leaving a confuierable body of troops under the gene- 
rals Harfch and de Ville, on the fouthern frontiers of Sile- 
fia, in order to form fome enterprife on that fide, which 
might draw the attention and forces of the Pruflians as far 
as poflible from the great object of his operations. When 
he had made thefe difpofitions he marched towards Saxony, 
through the , country of Lufatia, by Zittau, Ccrlitz, and 
Bautzen. His firft project was bold. He prcpoied to crofs 
the Elbe at Meiffen; by which the communication between 
Drefden andLeipfic would be cut off at one ftroke. Then 
he propofed to attack Prince Henry in his camp at Seidlitz, 
whilft the army of the Empire fell upon him in another 
quarter. Thus the Prince was to be put between two fires, 
and his retreat into Drefden to be rendered impracticable 5 
but upon mature conflderation, this project was laid afide. 
Marfhal Daun reflected that the fortrefs of Sonneflein, of 

F 2 which 

68 The History of the War. i 758. 

which he was not yet in poflefTion, would prove no 
Sept. 3. fmall impediment to his defigns. He confidered 
that the pofition of Prince Henry oppofite to the 
army 0/ the Fmpire was too advantageous, to make an at- 
tack upon him advifeable : and unleis the Prince could be 
induced to attack the Imperialifts firft, a point not to be ex- 
pected in his circumftances, he might always find it eafy to 
throw himielr into Drefden, and by proper motions to pre- 
ferve a free communication with the King. Marihal Daun 
was obliged to renounce his firft defign, but he was left at 
full liberty to form and to execute luch other plans for the 
relief of Saxony as his prudence could fuggeft. 

About that time the imperial court elated with their re- 
cent fuccefs, began to ihew with what moderation they 
were likely to behave if it continued and increafed. They 
entirely threw off all the little appearance of refpecl: they 
had hitherto retained for the King of Great Britain, and 
feveral others of the moil refpeclable Princes and perfonsof 
the Empire. They made the abufe of their authority go 
hand in hand with the fuccefs of their arms. On the 21ft 
of Auguft a conclufion of the Aulic council was iffued again ft 
the King of Great Britain, as Elector of Hanover, againft 
the Landgrave of Hefie Caflel, againft Prince Ferdinand of 
Brunfwick, the Count of Lippe Buckebourg, and in general 
againft all the adherents to the King of PruiTia, threatening 
them with penalties, in dignity in pericn and eftate. In con- 
fequence of this decree, letters avocatory were iffued, no- 
tifying to the fovereign Princes, that if they did not within 
a limited time, difperfe their armies, brerk off their con- 
nection with the King of Pruflia, pay their quota of Roman 
months, and fend their contingents to the army of execution, 
they were to be put under the ban of the Empire. To all 
other perfons who held any dignity in the Empire, orders 
were given and penalties were threatened fuitable to their 
condition. They in lhort went all lengths, but that of 
actually and formally putting them under the ban, which 
they would not have failed to do, if their fuccefs had an- 
fwered its beginnings. So little regard had the court or 
Vienna to former iervices of the moft interefting nature; 
and fo entirely did ihe feem to forget that ihe owed to the 
King of Great Britain, net only that power which fhe 
now unjuftly and ungratefully turned againft him, but al- 
moft the very being of the Houfe of Auitria. So entirely 


1758. The History of the War. 77 

to a refection of giving the King of Pruffia battle. But 
even ir/fhe vigour of this refolution, appeared the extreme 
caution which chara&erifes that able General. Having 
communicated his defign to the Prince of Deux-Ponts, and 
fettled meafures with him, he marched in the dead of a 
very dark night, in three colums, towards the right of the 
King of Pruffia's camp. Notwithflanding the darknefs of 
the night, notwithflanding the necefTary divifionof 
the Austrian army, the greatnefs of their nura- Oct. 14. 
bers, and the length of way they had to march, 
yet fuch was the wife conduct and great good fortune of 
this defign, that they all arrived at the fame time at the 
Pruffian camp, none having loft their way, without difco- 
very, without confufion, and began the attack with the 
utmofl regularity and refolution at five o'clock in the morn- 

How the King's out-guards were kept fo as to make fuch 
a furprife practicable, is hard to fay. It is hard to accufe 
the vigilance of fo able a commander, or the attention of 
fo many finifhed officers as ferved under him. To fpeak 
of treachery is a way of accounting for misfortunes, more 
common than reafonable. However it was, the Pruffians 
had no time to ftrike their tents, when they found the 
enemy fn the midft of the camp, and an impetuous attack 
already begun. Scarce had the battle begun, when a de- 
feat feemed certain ; not fo much from the confufion of 
the troops, as the irreparable lofs of two officers in the 
highefl command, and of the greatefl merit. Marfhal 
Keith received two mufquet balls, and fell dead upon the 
fpot. Prince Francis of Brunfwick had his head fhotoff by 
a cannon ball as he mounted his horfe. The King of Pruf- 
fia had then the whole of affairs to fuftain alone, at the 
time when he moll wanted affiilance. Bui his prefence of 
mind, his flrmnefs, his activity, remedied in fome meafure 
the effects of this unforefeen attack, and the loffes and dis- 
orders it had occafioned ; he was every where prefent, and 
infpired his troops with an ardor like his own. The King 
ordered fome detachments from his left, to reinforce his 
right wing ; but in the moment the orders were received, 
the left itfelf w r as furioufSy attacked. General Retzow who 
commanded in that quarter, with difficulty repulfed the 
Auftrians, and was not able to afford any considerable affif- 


yS The History of the War. 1758. 

tance to the right, which was alone obliged to fupport the 
whole weight of the grand attack. 

The Auftrians in the beginning of the engagement had 
beaten them out of the village of Hochkirchen ; as the fate 
of the day depended upon that poft, the hotteft of the dif- 
pute was there. The PrufTians made three bloody and un- 
fuccefsful attacks on the village ; on the fourth they carried 
it; but the Auftrians pouring continually frefti troops upon 
that fpot, drove them out at length after reiterated efforts, 
and a prodigious {laughter on all (Ides. Then the King 
defpairing of the fortune of that field, ordered a retreat : 
his troops, which had been fuddenly attacked in a dark 
night by fuperior numbers, and had run to arms fome half 
naked, and all in the utmoft confufion, had, notwithstand- 
ing, made a moft vigorous refinance ; and maintained the 
fight for near five hours. They made their retreat in good 
order without being purfued, Supported by the good coun- 
tenance of their cavalry, and the fire of the numerous and 
wellferved artillery, which was placed in the centre of their 
camp. They loft in this bloody action at leaft feven thou- 
fand men, killed, wounded and prifoners, together with 
many cannon. The Auftrian account allowed their own 
lofs in killed and wounded to amount to near five thoufand. 

The King of Pruftia, in retiring from Hochkirchen, in 
facl only altered the pofition of his right wing, which fell 
back as far as WeiiTenberg. His left ftill remained at Baut- 
zen. This pofition was nearly as good as the former. The 
great lofs was the lofs of reputation, which always attends 
a defeat, and the lofs of two great generals which attended 
this in particular. Marfhal Keith was a Scotchman born. 
He engaged with his brother the Lord Marfhal in the Re- 
bellion of 1 715. Being obliged to relinquish his country on 
this occafion, he entered into the troops of Spain, and after- 
wards paffing into RufTia, he obtained a confiderable com- 
mand, and performed many fignal fervices in their wars 
with Turkey and Sweden ; and ferved them alio, in peace by 
feveral embaffies. But finding the honours of that country 
no better than a fplendid fervitude, and not meeting with 
thofe rewards, which his long and faithful fervices deferved, 
he left that court for one where merit is better known and 
better rewarded ; and having been employed fince the be- 
ginning of the war in a diftinguifhed command in the King 


175&» ¥be History of the War: jg 

of Pruflia's armies, he fell at lail in a fervice that was wor- 
thy of him. 

If the King of Pruffia loft fome reputation in fuffering 
himfelf to be furprifed in this affair ; he fully retrieved it 
by his extraordinary conduct. in the courfe of the action, 
and his admirable efforts after it. On the whole, perhaps, 
when all circumftances are confidered, the King of Pruffia 
will appear greater in this defeat, than in any viclory he 
ever yet obtained. The wing of his army that was attack- 
ed, was furprifed at a diftance from him, the two Generals 
that commanded it (lain in the firft onfet, his other princi- 
pal Generals wounded, the whole wing in confufion with- 
©utajeader ; to come, in thefe defperate circumftances, in 
hafte from another quarter; to recover all; twice to re- 
pulfe the enemy, and at lad: to retire, overborne only by 
numbers and fatigue, without being purfued, is fuch an 
inftance of great Generaifhip, as perhaps has never been 

Whilfl: thefe things were doing in Saxony, the Ruffians 
made no farther attempts on the fide of Brandenburgh ; 
they remained in their camp near Landfperg, until the 21ft 
of September ; when after feveral feigned motions, made 
to cover their real defign, they began their retreat towards 
Pomerania, where they arrived on the 26th. 

It was impoffible lhat they fliould keep their ground in 
that province during the winter, unlefs they could fecure 
fome fea-port, from whence they might be fupplied with 
proviilons. The little town of Colherg was very opportune 
for that purpofe, as it is a fea-port on the Baltic!?, and fo 
meanly fortified, that the redaction of it appeared to be as 
eafy as expedient. On the third of October, they formed 
the (lege of this inconfiderable place, with a body of fifteen 
thoufand men. But fuch was the bravery of Major Heydon 
the Governor; and fuch the incapacity of the Ruffians for 
operations of this nature, that this little town, defended only 
by a rampart, without any outwork, and lined with a very 
feeble garrifon, held out againft the repeated attacks of the 
enemy twenty-fix days, and then obliged them to pjp. 
raife the fiege, without any fuccours whatfoever 
from without. This was the laft enterprife of the Ruffians. 
Their vaft army retired with difgrace, firft from Branden- 
burgh, and then from Pomerania ; not being able to mader 
one place of ftrength in either country ; but having de- 

8o The History of the War. . 1758. 

flroyed with the mod favage barbarity both the open towns 
and defencelefs villages ; leaving as ftrong imprefiions of 
contempt for their incapacity, as of horror for their 

After the defeat which the King received at Hochkirchen, 
he omitted no meafures to prevent the enemy from making 
any material advantage of it. He perceived clearly, that 
the advantage they propofed to derive from it, was to cover 
the operations of their armies in Silefla ; and that they had 
no longer any ferious defign upon Saxony during this cam- 
paign. The King therefore, made no fcruple to reinforce 
his army by confiderable detachments from that of Prince 
Henry, which were brought up by that Prince himfelf. 
And as he faw that Neifs, the fiege of which had been al- 
ready formed and profecuted with great vigour, muft cer- 
tainly furrender if it were not fpeedily fuccoured, he re- 
folved to march into Silefla. 

To the execution of this defign, the greateft difficulties 
flarted up on all fides. The army of Marfnal Daun, lately 
victorious, had no other bufmefs than to intercept him. To 
fight was dubious ; to avoid it hard. If he could even 
avoid a battle, he had much to apprehend from the efforts 
of the enemy to harrafs him on his march. If he mould be 
fo happy as to efcape or conquer thefe difficulties, yet his 
march entirely uncovered Saxony, and abandoned that moil 
interefting pofTeffion very poorly defended, to all the force of 
two powerful armies. 

On the other hand, if the ccnfideration of Saxony fhould 
detain him in his prefent fituation, Silefia ran the fame 
rifque, and the fame or greater difadvantages muff enfue to 
his affairs, by fuffering the Auifrians to obtain a footing 
there. This dilemma, which would have rendered a 
meaner genius entirely inactive, and hindered him from 
taking any refolution, only obliged the King of Pruffia to 
take his refolution with the greater fpeed, and to execute 
it with the greater vigour. 

On the 24th of November at night, he quitted his camp 
at Dobrefchutz, and making a great compafs he arrived, 
without any obftruction from the enemy, in the plain of 
Gorlitz. A body of Auflrians had in vain endeavoured to 
fecure this poft before him ; rhofe that arrived were defeat- 
ed, with thelofs of eight hundred men. By this happy march, 
all the advantages of Marfhal Daun's fludied pofition, of all 


1758- The History of the War. 81 

the fruits his boafled victory at Hochkirchen, were lofl in a 
moment, and an open paffage to Silefia lay before the Kiiig< 
He purfued his march with the greateffc diligence. General 
Laudohn, with twenty tour thoufand men was fent to pur- 
fue him. That aclrve general continually harraffed his rear 
guard ; but the King continued his march without interrup- 
tion, and fuffered him to take many little aovantageo, rather 
than by delaying to conteft fmall matters, to endanger a de- 
fign, which might be decifive of the whole campaign. 

On the other hand, Daun, not content with the obftacles 
which General .Laudohn threw in the King's way, fent a 
large body of horfe and foot by another route to reinforce 
the army which under the Generals Harlch and De V.lle had 
formed the (lege of Neifs, and the blockade of Cofel. But 
he perceived that ai! thefe meafures would probably prove 
ineffectual, as his principal project, which was to cover 
Silefia, had been defeated. He therefore turned his views 
towards Saxony, and fatisfying himfelf with detaching Ge- 
neral Laudohn, which might create an opinion that the 
whole Auftrian army purfued, he followed the King iO 
further than Gorhtz; when piace fie immediately quitted, 
and having by forced marches gained the Fihc, he 
paffed that river at Pirna, and advanced towards Nov. 6. 
Drefden. At the fame time the army of the Em- 
pire, by its motions having obliged the Pruffian army then 
extremely weakened by the detachments that had been 
drawn from it, to retire from its pofi: before Drefden, fome 
miles to the weflward of that city, cut off their communica- 
tion with Leipfic, whilft Marfhal Daun attempted to cut off 
their communication with Drekien ; hut they found means 
to throw themfelves into that city, and afterwards to retire 
to the other fide of the Eibe. The Auflxians and Imperial- 
ifts began at once to invert thole two impei rant places ; 
another party advanced towards Tc;gau, and attempted that 
town. It feemed utterly impofiible to prevent t ,e Aufti»ans 
from becoming mailers of Saxony, who in a manner co- 
vered the whole country with their forces. 

In the mean time, the King of Ppiffia drew nearer and 
nearer to Neifs. The fiege of that fortrefs was commenced 
on the 4th of Auguft ; on the 3d of October it was com- 
pletely inverted ; and the place was puihed on one fide with 
the greatefl vigour, and on the other maintained with the 
moft confummate {kill and bravery, until the approach of 

G the 

82 The History of the War. 1758. 

the King of Pruffia obliged the Auftrians, on the iff. of 
November, to raife the fiege, leaving a confiderable quantity 
of military (lores behind them. The fame terror obliged 
the parties employed in the blockade of Cofel, to leave 
that place at liberty, and to fall back, together with the 
armies of the Generals Harfch and De Ville into Bohemia, 
and the Auftrian Silefia. 

The King of Prufiia, when he had thus by the report of 

his march, without fighting, driven his enemies 
Nov. 9. out of Silefia, loft not a moment to return by the 

fame route, and with the fame expedition to the 
relief of Saxony. Two bodies of his troops had moved for 
the fame purpofe out of Pomerania, one under Count Dohna, 
and one under General Wedel. The co r ps under Wedel 
had thrown itfelf into Torgau, repulfed the Auftrians, who 
had attempted that place, and purfued them as far as Eulen- 
burg. The grand operation of the Auftrians was againft 
Drefden. Marfhal Daun, with an army of fixty thoufand 
men, came before that city, on the very day on which the 
King of Pruflia began his march to oppofe him, fo that he 
might well imagine his fuccefs certain againft a place meanly 
fortified, and defended only by twelve thoufand men. The 
fame day he began to cannonade it, and his light troops, fup- 
ported by the grenadiers of the army, made a fharp attack 
upon the fuburbs. The Governor, Count Schmettau, faw 
that from the weaknefs of the fuburbs it would prove im- 
poftible for him to prevent the enemy from poffefting them- 
felves of them by a coup de main, and if they fucceeded in 
this attempt, the great height of the houfes, being fix or 
feven ftories, and entirely commanding the ramparts, would 
render the reduction of the body of the place equally eafy 
and certain. Thefe confiderations determined him to fet 
thefe fuburbs on fire. 

It is well known that the fuburbs of Drefden compofe 
one of the fineft towns in Europe, and are greatly fuperior 
to that which lies within the walls. Here the moft wealthy 
part of the inhabitants refide, and here are carried on tbofe 
feveral curious manufactures for which Drefden is fo fa- 
mous. Count Daun forefaw this coniequence of his at- 
tempt. He endeavoured to intimidate the governor from 
this meafure, to which he knew the cruel reafon of war 
would naturally lead him, by threatening to make him per- 
fonally anfwerable for the fteps he mould take; but Count 


iJ$S. ^ History of the War. 8* 

Schmettau anfwered with the firmnefs that became a man 
of honour and a foldier, that he would anfwer whatever he 
(hould do, and would not only burn the fuburbs, in cafe 
Marfhal Daun advanced, but would likewife defend the city 
itfelf ftreet by ftreet, and at laft even the caftle, which was 
the royal refidence, if he mould be driven to it. When 
the magiftrates were apprifed of this refolution, they fell at 
the feet of Count Schmettau, and implored him to change 
his mind, and to have mercy on that devoted part of their 
city. The part of the royal family, who remained ihDref- 
den, joined their fupplications to thofe of the magiftrates ; 
they prayed him to (pare that laft refug«*of diftrefled roy- 
alty, and to allow at leaft a fecure refidence to thofe, who 
had been deprived of every thing elfe. All entreaties were 
vain. Schmettau continued firm in his refolution. He told 
them that their fafety depended on themfelves, and on Mar- 
fhal Daun; that if he made no attempts, the fuburbs mould 
be ftill fecure ; but that if he took any farther fteps, the 
neceflity of his mafter's fervice, and his own honour, would 
compel him to a£t very difagreeable to the lenity of his dif- 
pofition. The magiftrates retired in defpair. Combuftibles 
were laid in all the houfes. 

At three o'clock next morning, the fignal for ^ 
firing the fuburbs was given, and in a moment 
a place fo lately the feat of eafe and luxury, flourifhing in 
traffick, in pleafures and ingenious arts, was all in flames. 
A calamity fo dreadful needs no high colouring. However, 
as little mifchief attended fuch a combuftion, as the nature 
of the thing could admit. Very few loft their lives; but 
many their whole fubftance. When this was done, the 
Prufllan troops abandoned the flaming fuburbs, and retired 
in good order into the city. 

Marlhal Daun faw this fire, which, whilft it laid wafte the 
capital of his ally, made it more difficult for him to force 
it, he fent in fome empty threats to the governor. But 
the Saxon minifter at Ratifbon, made grievous complaints 
to the Diet, of what he reprefented as the moft unparalleled 
a£t of wanton and unprovoked cruelty, that had ever been 
committed. The emiflaries of the court of Vienna fpread 
the fame complaints ; and they made nO fcruple to invent, 
and to alter fafts in fuch a manner as to move the greatefl 
pity towards the fufferers, and the greateft indignation 
againft the King of Pruflia. All thefe, however, were in 

G 2 a fhort 

84 The History of the War, 1758. 

a fhort time abundantly confuted, by the authentic certi- 
ficates of the magiftrates of Drefden, and of thofe officers 
of the court, who were perfectly acquainted with the tranf- 
a£tion. By thefe certificates it appears, that only two hun- 
dred and fifty houfes were confumed. Though this was a 
terrible calamity ; it was nothing to the accounts given in 
the gazettes of the Auftrian faction. By thefe certificates 
it appears alfo', that the people were not furprifed, but had 
fufficient notice of the governor's intentions, to enable them 
to provide for their fafety. In a word, all the charges of 
cruelty againft the Pruflian commander and foldiery, were 
fully overthrown. 

This* fire made a coup de main impracticable; regular 
operations demanded time, and the King of Pruflia was now 
in full march towards Saxony. Marfhal Daun retired from 
before the place on the 1 7th. The King, after crofling Lu- 
fatia, palling the Elbe, and joining his troops under Count 
Dohna and General Wedel, arrived triumphantly at Drefden 
on the 20th. The armies of Marfhal Daun and the Em- 
pire gave way towards Bohemia, into which kingdom they 
foon after finally retreated, without enterprifing any thing 
further. Six (leges were raifed almofl at the fame time ; 
that of Colberg, carried on by General Palmbach, under 
the orders of Marfhal Fermor ; that of Neifs, by M. 
de Harfch; that of Cofel; that of Drefden, by Marfhal 
Daun; the blockade of Torgau, by M. Haddick ; and 
that of Leipfic by the Prince of Deux-Ponts. 

About the time that the Auftrians retired into winter 
quarters, the French did the fame ; and the Hanoverians 
permitted them to do it without moieftation, the feafon be- 
ing too far advanced, and their army perhaps not of fuffi- 
cient firength for offenfive operations; and Prince Ferdi- 
nand kept the field no longer The Britiih troops had no 
occafion of fignalizing their bravery this year , but without 
a battle the nation fuffered a confiderabie lofs, and was 
touched with a very deep and general forrow. The Duke 
of Marlborough died in Munfter, the 20th of Oclober, of 
a fever, contracted by the fatigues of the campaign. Never 
did the nation lofe in one man, a temper more candid and 
benevolent, manners more amiable and open, a more pri- 
mitive integrity, a more exalted generofity, a more warm 
and feeh-ng heart. He left all the enjoyments, which an 
ample fortune and an high rank could beftow in the public 


1758. The History of the War. 85 

eye; and which every milder virtue, every difpofition to 
make and to be made happy, could give in a domellic life: 
he left thefe for the fervice of his country, and died for 
its defence, as he had lived for its ornament and happi- 

If we compare the events of this year with thofe of the 
laft, we fhall find in the actions of the prefent year, perhaps 
fomething lefs of that aflonifhing eclat ; fewer battles ; not 
fo many nor fo ftriking revolutions of fortune; but v we may 
difcover upon all fides far greater management, and a more 
fludied and refined conduct; more artful movements, a more 
judicious choice of ports, more quick and vigorous marches. 
If in the laft year, the King of Prullta was the hero of the 
imagination, he is this year the hero of the judgment; and 
we have, I think, reafon to admire him upon jufter princi- 
ples. Obliged to evacuate Moravia, he throws himtelf into 
Bohemia, and executes a retreat with all the fpirit of an 
invafion. He inarches more than an hundred miles through 
an enemy's country, followed and harrailed by large armies, 
who are unable to obtain any advantage over him. Gain- 
ing at length his own territories, he engages the vail: army 
of the Ruffians and defeats it. He is unable to follow his 
blow, but he difables them from finking any againft that 
part of his dominions, which he is obliged to leave. Whilft 
he is engaged with the Ruffians on the frontiers of Poland, 
the Auftrians and [mperiahfts enter Saxony. Before they 
can do any thing decifive, the King is himfelf fuddenly in 
Saxony, and by his prefence^, at once difconcerts all their 
projects. The fcene is ag.tin changed, they furprife I im 
in his camp at Hochkirchen, two of his generals are killed, 
his army defeated, his camp is taken They attack Sdefia 
with a formidable army. Notwithstanding his late defeat ; 
notwithstanding the great fuperiority of his enemies; not- 
withftanding the advantage of their pods; he -makes an 
amazing (weep about ail their forces, eludes their vigilance, 
renders their pofitions unprofitable; and marching with an 
aflonifhing rapidity into the remoteft pars of Silefia, 
obliges the Auftnan armies to retire with precipitation out 
of that province. Then he flies to the relief of Saxony, 
which his enemies had again profited of his abfence to in- 
vade; and again by the fame rapid and well conducted 
march, he obliges them to abandon their prize. Defeated 
by the Auftrians he acquired by his conduct all the advan- 

G 3 tages 

86 "The History of the War. l 15%- 

tages of the mod complete victory. He guarded all his pof- 
fefiions in fuch a manner, as to enable them all to endure 
his abfence for fome fhort time; and he conducted his 
marches with fuch fpirit, as did not make it neceflary to 
them to hold out any longer; he made twice the circuit of 
his dominions, and in their turn he relieved them all. 

Nor was the conduct of Prince Ferdinand of Brunfwic 
lefs worthy of admiration. Placed at the head of a body 
of troops, who were but lately obliged to lay down their 
arms, he found the enemy in pofleflion of the whole open 
country, and of all the ftrong places in it. Commencing 
the campaign in the midft of a fevere winter, without any 
place of ftrength in his hands, he drove the enemy from all 
thofe they held. He obliged them to repafs the Rhine, he 
followed and defeated them in a pitched battle. Being af- 
terwards obliged by the great force of France on its own 
frontier, and the numerous armies they had in different pla- 
ces, to repafs the Rhine; he defended Lippe againft num- 
bers greatly fuperior, and though they defeated a part of 
his army, they were not able to turn their victory to the leaft 
advantage. Prince Ferdinand's campaign may well pafs for 
a perfeft model of defenfive operations. 

The Auflrians, in taking winter quarters, difpofed their 
forces fo as to form a chain of an amazing length, from 
the frontiers of Moravia, pafling through Bohemia, all along 
the fkirts of Silefia and the borders of Saxony. There the 
Imperial army joined this chain, and continued it through 
Thuringia and Franconia, where it was united to the quar^ 
ters of the Prince de Soubife. Thefe troops had fallen back 
from HefTe CafTel, finding themfelves unable to maintain 
their ground in the landgraviate. The Prince de Soubife's 
cantonments extended weftward along the courfe of the 
Maine and Lahn, to meet thofe of the Marfhal de Contades 
which ftretched to the Rhine, and continued the chain be- 
yond it quite to the Maefe, fo as to command the whole 
courfe of the Rhine, on both fides both upwards and down- 
ward. Prince Ferdinand was unable to extend himfelf to 
fuch a length ; and efpecially found it impracticable to efta- 
blifh quarters on the other fide of the Rhine; but he dif- 
pofed his troops in the mod advantageous manner in the 
bifhoprics of Munfter, Paderborn, and Hildefheim, and 
in the landgraviate of Tieffe CafTel. The feveral bodies 
might all unite with eafe> and fupport each other. To pre- 


1758. Tfo History of the War. 87 

ferve a communication between this and the Pruffian army, 
as well as to break fome part of that formidable chain of 
the enemy, the King fent fome bodies of his troops into 
Thuringia, who difpoflefTed the army of the Empire of feve- 
ral of their pofts there, and threatened to penetrate flill 

The King of Pruffia, when he had a fecond time driven 
the Auflrians and Imperialifts out of Saxony, refolved to 
keep no meafures with that unhappy country He declared 
that he was refolved no longer to confider it as a depofit, 
but as a country which be had twice fubdued by his arms. 
He therefore ordered thofe of the King of Poland's privy 
council, who flill remained at Drefden, to retire at a very 
fhort warning. But if the King of Pruflia had a right, as 
perhaps he had, to confider Saxony as a lawful conqueft, 
he certainly feemed not to confider the people as fubjects, 
when he continued to exaQ: the moil fevere contributions; 
and in a manner too, very little becoming a lawful fovereign ; 
for he furrounded the exchange with foldiers, and confi- 
ning the merchants in narrow lodgings on flraw beds, he 
obliged them by extreme fufTering, to draw bills on their 
foreign correfpondents for very large fums. This city had 
been quite exhaufled by former payments, and had not 
long belore fuffered military execution. An enemy that 
a£ted thus, had a£ted feverely; but when a country is en- 
tirely^oflefTed by any power, and claimed as a conqueft, 
the rights of war feem to ceafe ; and the people have a claim 
to be governed in fuch a manner as becomes a jufl Prince; 
efpecially when no extreme neceflity in his affairs compels 
him to thefe rigorous courfes. To retaliate on thefe mife- 
rable people fome part of the cruelties committed by the 
Ruffians on his dominions feems to be very unreafonable, 
as it is but too obvious, that the barbarity of that people 
could not be reft rained, however it might be exafperated 
by the total deflru£tion of Saxony. Such retaliations are 
odious and cruel. We heartily wifh we could praife the 
King of Pruffia as much for his temperate ufe of his con- 
quer!:, as for thofe wonderful and heroic qualities by which 
he obtained it. We might be confidered as partial in our 
account, if we had omitted to take notice of what is alledg- 
ed againfl: the King of Pruffia, when we have fpoken fo 
fully of the outrage committed by his enemies. It is now 
time to turn our eyes from this great theatre towards leffer 

G 4 events, 

88 "The History of the War. i 758. 

events, but fuch as will employ us altogether as agretab'y ; 
the operations of the Britifh fleets and armies in Europe and 
An. erica againfl: the French. 


The burning of the pips at St. M aloes. Taking of Cher- 
burg. Dfeat at St. Cas. Operations in America. Siege 
and taking of j^GuiJhourg. Enghfh army arjeated at Ti- 
conderogu. C I hey take F, ontenac. Th>- trench abandon Fort 
du ®hiefne. Condujion of the annals of the year 1758. 

IN the beginning of this year, the good condition of our 
navy and our army ; the fpirit and popularity of the 
miniftry ; the wife choice of commanders, in contemrt of 
vulgar and trivial maxims; the prevalence of the corn ary 
to all thefe amongfl the enemy; gave us the beft grounded 
hope^ of a vigorous and fucceisful campaign. Concern tug 
the theatre of our operations there wa • fome doub: It 
was the opinion of feme, that our puih in Europe (liquid 
be made on the fide of Germany; and that we ought to 
flrengthen the armv of Prince Ferdinand with fuch a ref- 
peclable body of troops, as might enable that finifhed com- 
mander to exert all his talents, and to improve to the utmoft 
the advantages he had already obtained over the French. 
They imagined, that if an early and considerable reinforce- 
ment were fent to the Prince, whilft the Fiench army was 
yet in a diflrefled condition, and if in this condition it 
fhould receive any confiderable blow, they would find it 
extremely difficult to retrieve it : and receiving this blow, 
on the frontier of their own territories,. the Prince might 
carry the war into France itfelf ; and thus very probably 
bring matters to a fpeedy decifion. That in purfuing this 
plan a diverfion on the coaft of France was by no means 
excluded : and that on the contrary it mufr, on this plan, 
be attended with confequences infinitely more important 
tnan it could otherwife; that otherwife, France might 
laugh at the little defultory efforts of an handful of men, 
who were to be embarked and dif-embarked with great dif- 
ficulty and hazard, and which would always be obliged to 
fly at the firft approach of an enemy. That whilft the 
French had only an army, greatly inferior in number, to en- 
gage on the fide of Germany, they would always find them~ 


1758. Tbe History of the War. 89 

felves well able to a£t abroad, and defend themfelves at 

On the other hand it was ftrongly urged, that we ought 
to make the deftru£tion of the French marine our great ob- 
ject, and to confider all continental operations only in a fe- 
condary light. That by fending a large body of Englifh 
troops to the King's army on the Rhine, we mud: necefla- 
rily weaken our efforts in America, and on the coaft of 
France ; ant! by drawing away all our forces, we muft (hake 
that internal fecurity, which invigorated all our operations 
abroad. That whilft we maintained an army of fifty thou- 
fand foreigners in Germany, it would be the greateft impru- 
dence to fend alio a large body of our own national troops 
into the fame country, and by that means not only fquander 
away our men, but employ almoft every penny granted for 
the land fervice, out of Great Britain ; a method which 
could not fail of exhaufting us in a very fhort time. That 
the force already in Germany was fufficient to keep the 
French engaged, and that the propofed expeditions to France 
would, by attacking the coaft, now in one part, now in 
another, and keeping all parts in continual alarms, neceflarily 
detain a very confiderable part of their forces at home, and 
thus make a powerful diversion, whilft we were purfuing what 
ought lobe the grand perpetual object of all our operations, 
the deftru&ion of the French maritime power. 

The latter opinion prevailed ; but it was however fo far 
modified by the arguments on the other fide, that after fome 
time a few regiments were fent into Germany, as we have 
before related. Thefe and better reafons, no doubt, deter- 
mined the operations on the coaft of France ; but whilft 
theneceflary preparations were making, their deftination 
was kept an inviolable fecret ; and now, as they had the 
year before, infpired France with no little terror. Two 
fquadrons, by the latter end of May, were in readinefs for 
failing. The greater under Lord Anfon, the fmaller under 
Commodore Howe, which was fo defigned to convoy the 
tranfports, and to favour the landing and re-imbarkment. 
The land forces confifted of fixteen battalions, and nine 
troops of light horfe : they were commanded by the Duke 
of Marlborough. They failed from Portfmouth : 
but as foon as the fleet fet fail, the fquadron of my June 1. 
Lord Anfon fepa rated from the reft, and bore off 
to the Bay of JBiicay* in order to fpread the alarm more 


go The History of the War. 1758. 

widely, and to obferve the French fquadron in Breft. The 
other part of the fleet, which was commanded by Commo- 
dore Howe, with the tranfports, arrived without any acci- 
dent in Cancalle Bay, at a fmall diftance from the city of 

St. Maloes. Here the troops landed without op- 
5th. pofition, and having fortified a poll: near Cancalle 

(a poft by nature well fitted for defence) for the 
fecurity of their retreat, they marched in two columns to St. 
Maloes. When the army arrived there it was foon vifible, 
that the town, ftrongly fituated on a peninfula, communi- 
cating with the main land only by a long and narrow caufe- 
way, was by no means a proper object of a coup de main ; 
and though for want of outworks, it was ill qualified to 
fufbiin a regular fiege ; yet our forces were, for want of 
ftrength and artillery fufficient, altogether as ill qualified 
for fuch an operation. They were therefore contented with 

fetting fire to about an hundred fail of {flipping 
8th. many of them privateers, which lay under the 

cannon of the town, and to feveral magazines 
filled with naval ftores. The damage was very confider- 
able ; yet, what is remarked, the enemy did not fire 
a fingle fhot on the detachment employed in this fervice. 
Having nothing more to do on this fide, they retired to 

Cancalle ; and re-imbarked with as little oppo- 
12th. fition as they met with at landing ; the land and 

fea commanders having made all the difpofitions 
with great judgment. 

Before the fleet returned, they reconnoitered the town of 
Granville on the coaft of Normandy ; but finding that a 
large body of troops were encamped in the neighbourhood, 
they made no attempt there. From thence they moved to- 
wards Cherbourg, and made the proper difpofitions for 
landing near that place ; but a hard gale blowing into the 
fhore, and the tranfports beginning to fall foul on each 
other, it became extremely hazardous to attempt landing. 
Befides the provifions were near exhaufted, and the foldiers 
by being fo long cooped up in the tranfports, were grown 
fickly. It became highly neceffary to return home, and 
they arrived at St. Helen's on the 29th of June. 

The fuccefs of this expedition, by which the French fuf- 
fered very much, with fcarce any lofs on ourfide, and though 
it fufficiently anfwered the inlention of the armament, it fell 
fomewhat fhort of the expectations of the public, who 


1 758. The History of the War. gi 

had formed much greater hopes, than it was poflible for the 
nature of fuch enterprises to fulfil. However their hopes 
were again revived ; by feeing that every thing was prepared 
for another expedition, and that our armies and fleets were 
to keep in conftant action during the fummer. The time 
was now come when we were to turn the tables upon 
France, and to retaliate by real attacks, the terrors which 
had been raifed by her menaces of an invafion. The Duke 
of Marlborough had now taken the command of the Englifh 
forces in Germany ; and General Bligh fucceeded him in 
his command. Prince Edward refolved to go upon the ex- 
pedition, and to form himfelf for the fervice of his country 
under fo brave and able a commander as Howe. It is eafy 
to imagine, how much the fpirit, the prefence and example 
of the gallant young prince, who went with the utmoft 
chearfulnefs through all the detail of a midihipman's duty, 
infpired both the feamen and the troops. 

On the firft of Auguft, the fleet fet fail from St. Helen's. 
In a few days they came to anchor before Cherbourg. The 
French had drawn a line ftrengthened by forts, along the 
moft probable places for landing. They had drawn down 
three regiments of regular troops, and a confiderable body 
of militia to the {hore, and had in all appearance threatened 
a very refolute oppofition to the defcent of the Englifh 
forces. But the commodore difpofed the men of war and 
bomb ketches fo judicioufly, and made fo fharp a fire upon 
the enemy, that they never ventured out of their 
entrenchments ; fo that the landing was effected Aug. 6. 
in excellent order, and with very little lofs. The 
French who made fo poor an oppofition to the landing, had 
{till many advantages from the nature of the ground which 
they occupied ; but they neglected them all ; and abandon- 
ing by a moft lhameful defpair their forts and lines on the 
coafts, they iuffered the Englifh to enter Cherbourg the 
day after the landing, without throwing the leaft obftacle 
in their way. It mull be remembered too, that the whole 
number of Englifh forces on this expedition was rather fhort 
of fix thoufandmen. 

Cherbourg is on the land fide an open town ; neither is 
it very ftrongly defended awards the iea. The harbour is 
naturally bad. But the place is well iltuated, in the midft 
vof the channel, for protecting the French, and annoying 
the Englifh commerce in time of war and perhaps of fa- 

gz The History of the War. 1 75%- 

cilitating an invafion on England it felf. Monfieur Belidor 
the famous engineer, had demonftrated its importance, and 
propofed a plan tor the improvement and defence of the 
harbour, a: well as for the fortifications of the town. This 
plan was approved and partly put in execution by the build- 
ing a mole, digging a bafon and making iluices and flood 
gates with excellent materials and a vaft expence. The 
work had been for a confiderable time difcontinued ; but in 
this expedition, that work of io great ingenuity, charge, 
and labour, was totally deftroyed. Whilft our humanity 
regrets the unhappy neceflity of war, we cannot help think- 
ing that the Engliih nation was freed by the fuccefs of this 
expedition, from what might one day be the occafion of no 
trivial alarms. 

When this work of deitxuc~tion was over, all the veffels 
in the harbour burned, and hoftages taken for the contribu- 
tions levied on the town, the forces re-imbarked> 

1 6th. with great fpeed and fafety without any interrup- 
tion from the enemy, and with the fame expedi- 
tion, care and conduct, as they had been firft landed ; the 
army having continued ten days unmolefred in France. 

The nation exulted greatly in this advantage, efpecially 
as it almoft accom panied the news of our glorious fucceffes 
in America. Nothing was omitted to give the action its ut- 
mofl eclat; the brafs cannon and mortars taken at Cher- 
bourg, were drawn from Kenfington to the tower, quite 
through the city, in great pomp and order, adorn- 
Sept. 1 6. ed with ftreamers, attended by guards, drums, 
mufic, and whatever elfe might draw the attention 
of the vulgar. They who cenfured this proceflion as too 
oftentatious, did not confider, how forcibly things of this 
nature ftrike upon ordinary minds, and how greatly they 
contribute to keep the people in good humour, to fupport 
the many charges and loffes that are incident to the moft 
fuccefsful war. 

The fleet when it ■ left Cherbourg, was driven to the 
coaft of E gland ; but the troops were not difembarked ; 
it was refolved, that the coafr. of France mould have no 
refpite; and accordingly the) failed towards St. Maloes, 
and landed in the bay of St. Lunar at a fmail diftance from 
the town of St. Maloes. This choice of a place for land- 
ing, mud neceffarily have furprifed all thofe who remem- 
bered upon what reafons the attempt againfl that place had 


1758. *fhc History of the War. 93 

been fo recently laid afide. There was no other object of 
fufficient confederation near it. The town was at lead in 
as good a pofture of defence as it had been then ; and the 
force which was to attack it had fince then been confider- 
ably leflened. There is undoubtedly fomething very unac- 
countable as well in the choice as in the whole conduct of 
this affair. The perfons in the principal commands, fhifted 
the blame from one to another. There is nothing more 
remote trom ourdefign, than to fet up forjudges in mat- 
ters of this nature ; or ungeneroufly to lean on any officer, 
who, meaning well to the fervice of his country, by fome 
misfortune or miftake fails in fuch hazardous and intricate 
enterprifes. We fhall be Satisfied with relating the facts as 
they happened. 

As foon as the troops were landed in the bay of St. 
Lunar, it became evident that the defign a gain ft St. Maloes 
was utterly impracticable. Other projects were then pro- 
posed, but they all feemed equally liable to objection. Whilft 
they debated concerning a plan for their operations, the 
fleet was in the greater!: danger. The bay of St. Lunar is 
extremely rocky ; and the experience of the people of the 
country, together with what he faw himfelf, convinced the 
Commodore that it was impoflible to remain anv longer 
in this road with tolerable fafety. Therefore he moved 
up to the bay of St. Cas, about three leagues to the weft- 

The fleet was feparated from the land forces ; but it was 
flill eafy to preferve a communication between them ; and 
as no attack was yet apprehended, they made no fcruple to 
penetrate farther into the country. In two days they ar- 
rived at the village of Matignon, having had feveral (kir- 
mifhes with fmall bodies of the enemy, who horn time to 
time appeared on their flanks, and who always disappeared 
when they were brifkly encountered. By this time the 
Duke d'Aiguillon, Governor of Britanny, was advanced 
within fix miles of the Englifh army, with a body of twelve 
battalions and fix fquadrons of regular troops, and two 
regiments of militia. This determined the council of war 
to retreat; they wanted but three miles to the bay of St. 
Cas. But in this little march a cor.fiderable time was 
confumed, and the French army was clofe upon them be- 
fore they could be compleatly reitfgbarked. A very fteep 
hill formed a fort of amphitheatre about the bay of St. 

94 Fhe History of the War. 1758. 

Cas, where the embarkation was making ; but before the 
laft divifion, which confifted of all the grenadiers of the 
army, and the firft regiment of the guards, could get off, 
the French had marched down this hill, through an hollow 
way, and formed themfelves in a long line againft the few 
Englifh troops that remained. There remained in this 
exigency only the expedient of afluming a bold countenance, 
and attacking them with vigour. The bravery of our troops 
on this defperate occaflon, was worthy of a better fortune. 
The (hips and frigates feconded their efforts, and made a 
fevere fire upon the enemy. All was to no purpofe ; their 
ammunition was at laft fpent ; the enemies numbers pre- 
vailed ; our little body attempted to retreat, but they fell 
into confufion, they broke, an horrible flaughter followed, 
many ran into the water and met their fate in that element. 
The more was covered with dead bodies. General Drury 
was drowned. Sir John Armitage, a young volunteer of 
great fortune and hopes, was (hot through the head. Seve- 
ral officers, men of large fortune and consideration fell. At 
length the firing of the frigates ceafed, and the French 
immediately gave quarter. About four hundred were made 
prifoners, fix hundred were killed and wounded. 

In the midft of this carnage, in the midft of a fire that 
daggered the braved: feamen who managed the boats, Com- 
modore Howe exhibited a noble example of intrepidity and 
fortitude, by ordering himfelf to be rowed in his own boat 
through the thicker! of the fire, to encourage all that were 
engaged in that fervice, and to bring off as many men as 
hisveffel could carry. 

This affair difpirited the people of England, and elated 
the people of France far more than an affair of fo little 
confequence ought to have done. It was in facl: no more 
than the cutting off a rear guard. There is often more 
bloodfned in in Germany, which make no figure 
in the Gazettes. And certainly, if our expeditions to the 
coaft of France were planned with any judgment, on our 
part we had rather reafon to congratulate ourfelves that 
we were able to land three times on that coaft, with fo in- 
confiderable a lofs. The French indeed had reafon to mag- 
nify this lo r s ; and they did greatly magnify it in order 
to confcle their people, who had feen their trade fuffer fo 
much, and their country fo long infulted with impunity. 


1758. Tbe History of the War. 95 

Whatever our fuccefles were on the coaft of France, they 
did not affect us in the fame manner with thofe which we 
had in America. From this part of the world we had long 
been ftrangers to any thing, but delays, misfortunes, difap- 
pointments, and difgraces. But the fpirit which had been 
roufed at home, diffufed itfelf into all parts of the world 
where we had any concern, and invigorated all our opera- 

Admiral Bofcawen with a powerful fleet of men of war 
and feveral tranfports failed for Halifax from England, Feb. 
the 19th. He had the chief command in the expedition a- 
gainft Louifbourg, and in particular the direction of the 
naval operations. General Amherft, from whofe character 
great things were expected, and who juftified thefe expec- 
tations, was to command the land forces. Thefe amounted 
to about fourteen thoufand men, including forne light troops, 
fitted for the peculiar fervice of the country. The whole 
fleet confiding of one hundred and fifty one fhips, fet fail 
from the harbour of Halifax. On the fecond of June they 
appeared before Louifbourg. They were fix days on the 
coaft before a landing was found practicable * ; fuch a pro- 

* The importance of the aclion (the landing of the forces at Cape 
Breton) and the peculiar difficulties ivith which it ivas attended, 
has prevailed ivith us to take in an account of it (penned hy an 
officer <who <was prefent) from capt. John Knox's Hiftofieal Journal 
of the Campaigns in North America. # 

" We had variety of weather, and generally very unfavour- 
able until the fixth of June, on which day it was intended the 
army fhould land at a place which General Amherft and our Bri- 
gadiers had before made choice of: for this purpoie the fignal was 
thrown out, and the troops got into their boats ; but, the wind 
riling foon after, with a profpect of angry weather, at the fame 
time a lumpy fea running, with a very frightful furf on fhore, and 
a fog at the fame time thickening, it was not thought practicable 
to difembark at that juncture, and we were all ordered back into 
our fhips. The weather continued obftinate until the morning of 
the eight, when we were again ordered into the boats, the fwell 
being abated, and the wind more moderate ; the frigates at the 
fame time edged in fhore, to attack the enemy's intrenchments, 
and to cover the landing. After the fhips had beenfome time en- 
gaged, a fignal was made for the troops to put off, and they 


g6 "The History of the War. t 75%- 

digious furf fwelled all along the fhore, that no boat could 
poiTibly live near it. The French not truiting to this ob- 
itacle, had drawn intrenchments in every part where it 


rowed up and down, making feints, as if intending to land in dif- 
ferent places, and thereby divert the enemy's attention from any 
particular part of their coaft : this in a great meafure anfwer- 
ed our wiflies, and Brigadier Wolfe (whofe flag-ftaff was broken by 
a fwivel fhot) pumed aihore, with his detachment, under a furious 
fire, and landed upon the left of the enemy's works, then brifldy 
engaged, and routed them ; the remainder of the army followed 
the example without lofs of time, landing almoft up to their waifts 
in water. The ardour of the troops, in this enterprife, is not to 
be conceived nor parallelled ; many boats were aeftroyed, and 
feveral brave fellows drowned : yet our whole lofs at landing, I 
am well allured, did not exceed one hundred and ten men, of all 
ranks, killed, wounded, and drowned. The enemy fled with great 
precipitation, and Brigadier Wolfe purfued them almoft to the 
gates of the town, with the light infantry, rangers, Frafer's High- 
landers, and the grenadiers of the ift, 15th, 17th, and 2zd regi- 
ments. I can only account for the unloldier-like behaviour of the 
enemy on this occafion, by their apprehenfions, perhaps, of being 
cut off from the garrifon by fome of the divifions, whom they fuf- 
pected would land elfe where for that purpofe ; and of being there- 
by hemmed in between two fires : they were very well entrench- 
ed in a circular form round the Cove, were numerous, and had 
many pieces of ordnance mounted, from twenty-four pounders 
downwards, with fome mortars, &c. which were all well ferved. 
Thefeffcas you may fuppofe, with their intrenching tools, (tores, 
ammunition, and fome provifions, fell into our hands : they had 
fome Indians among them, for we found the corpfe of one ot their 
chiefs, a ftout fellow, with uncommon large limbs and features ; 
he had a medal and crucifix of filver, both hanging by a chain 
from his neck. Though many lives were loft, in this defcent, by 
the overfetting of the boats, occaiioned by an uncommon great 
furf, yet, I believe, we benefited by it in a very remarkable 
manner, for, when the boats were lifted up, by the violence of 
the fwell, to a confiderable height, the enemy's fhot, which 
would probably have done execution, had we been upon ftill wa- 
ter, palled under us : and in like manner fome flew over us, in 
our quick transition from high to low j this is the only reafon that 
I can afiign for our not lofing more men by the enemy's fire. The 
weather continued rough and unfavourable, fo that we had no 
communication with our fleet for feveral days ; corfequently, 
having no tents on ihore, and a very fhort allowance of provifions, 


1758. The History of the War. g^ 

might be poffible to land, fupported them with batteries in 
convenient places, and lined them with numerous 
infantry. At length the furf, though violent at beft, June 8. 
was observed to be fomewhat abated, and the Ad- 
miral and General did not lofe a moment to avail themfelves 
of this opportunity of landing ; they made all their difpo- 
fition for it with the higheil judgement. They ordered 
the frigates towards the enemies right and left, to rake 

our fituation was far from being comfortable. On the night of 
the 11th, the enemy deftroyed the grand baitery which is oppo- 
fite to the harbour's mouth, and retired into the town ; in confe- 
qnence thereof, Brigadier Wolfe received orders to march with a 
large detachment, and take porTeifion of the Light-houfe Point, 
which, with the ifland batteries, form the entrance of the harbour. 
We had an incredible deal of labour on our hands, cutting and 
making fafcines, gabions and hurdles ; intrenching our camp and 
pofts, erecting bJockhoufes, throwing up redoubts, making roads 
for our artillery, through a vile country, partly rough, but in ge- 
neral fwampy ; advancing our lines or approaches, conftructing 
batteries, and fkirmifhing continually with the rabble in the woods 
round our camp, who are very troublefome neighbours : fuch are 
the employments of the army, often by night as well as by day ; 
fuch the toils we have to encounter, in the progrefs of this enter- 
prife ; yet with inexpreflible pleafure I behold the zeal of the 
troops furmounting every difficulty, in all which they have noble 
examples before them in our general officers. On the night of the 
19th Brigadier Wolfe opened #1 the ifland battery, which how- 
ever was not filenced until the 25th ; he alfo quieted the fire of a 
frigate that gave usi much annoyance. — We then (for I was upon 
that fervice) got orders to rejoin the army with our artillery, and 
leave a fmall detachment with fome fhip-guns at the Point,'to pre- 
vent the enemy's repairing tjfcieir works and batteries on the ifland. 
On the 26th, a. party of the enemy fa Hied out, and attempted to 
deftroy one of our blockhoufes by tire, coping thereby to favour a 
coup they had projected (as we furmife) of greater importance ; 
but they were difappointed and beat back to their garrifon with 
fome lofs. A command of marines were landed for the firft time, 
and took poft at the Cove, which is to be relieved from the fleet. 
On the night of the 30th we had a fmall alarm from that quarter, 
the marines having apprehended an attack from the favages and 
other irregulars. , The enemy funk four ihips in the harbour's 
mouth, to obftruCt, the channel and prevent our fleet's going in ; 
the troops are growing fickly, particularly the New -England-men, 
their diforders moftly the fmall-pox. 

H them 

9$ The History of the War. 1758. 

them on their flanks. The troops were in three divifions 
in order to make good their landing. That on the left was 
commanded by General Wolfe, and was deftined to the real 
attack. The divifions in the centre to the right, were 
only defigned for feigned attacks, to draw the enemies at- 
tention to all parts, and to diftracl: their defence. 

When the fire of the frigates continued about a quarter 
of an hour, General Wolfe's divifion moved towards the 
land ; the enemy referved their fhot until the boats were 
near in more, and then directed the whole fire of their can- 
non and mufquetry upon them. The furf aided their fire. 
Many of the boats overfet, many were broken to pieces, 
the men jumped into the water, fome were killed, fome 
drowned ; the reft fupported and encouraged in all difficul- 
ties, by the example, fpirit, and conduct of their truly gal- 
lant commander, gained the more, took poft, fell upon the 
enemy with fuch order and refolution, that they foon obliged 
them to fly in confufion. As foon as this pod was made 
good, the centre moved towards the left, and the right fol- 
lowed the centre, fo that the landing was compleated, 
though not without much time and trouble, in an excellent 
order, and with little lofs. 

The operations of a fiege however minute and unenter- 
taining to many readers, yet as we have an opportunity of 
introducing that taken down by General Amherft, it can not 
be unexceptionable, (a) The operations againfl Louifbourg 


(a J Major General Amherft's Journal of the fiege of Louifbourg. 

On the 28th of May, I had the good fortune to meet Admiral 
Bofcanven with the fleet and the troops coming out of the har- 
bour of Halifax. Lieut. Gen. Bragg 's regiment, from the bay of 
Funayy joined the fleet this day. 

The 29th we had fine weather ; the fliips kept well together ; 
the whole conlifted of one hundred and fifty-feven fail. The 
Dublin went very fickly into Halifax. 

The 30th the wind blew hard in the afternoon ; the fliips were 
greatly difperfed. 

The 31ft the wind fometimes contrary, obliged us to tack, and 
it blew freih. 

The 1 ft of June Capt. Rous in the Sutherland came from off the 
harbour of LouiJbourgh y faid, two fhips had got in the 30th ; that 


175&- tt e History of the War. 93 

for feveral days went on very flowly, owing entirely to the 
prodigious furf and the rough weather, which made it ex- 
tremely difficult to land the artillery ftores, and inftruments 


there were thirteen fail in the harbour. We faw the entrance of 
Gabarus at night. 

The 2d it was foggy in the morning ; about twelve faw Louif- 
bourg and the ihips in the harbour. The fleet, with about a third 
of the troops, anchored in Gabarus bay j and this evening, with 
Brigadiers Generals Lawrence and IVolfe, I reconnoitred the fhore 
as near as we could, and made a difpcfition for landing in three 
places the next morning, in cafe the troops arrived. 

The enemy had a chain of polls from Cape Noir to the flat 
Point, and irregulars from thence to the bottom of the Bay ; fome 
works thrown up at the places which appeared practicable to 
land at, and fome batteries. 

On the 3d moft of the tranfports came in this morning, all well 
prepared for landing ; but the furf on iliore was fo great, it was 
impofTible to land. This day Brigadier General Whitmore arrived 
from Halifax, at which place I have left Col. Morickton to com- 
mand. As one Bay was found to have lefs furf than the others, 
a difpofition was made to land the next morning in one place in- 
ftead of three. 

The 4th the wind and furf were fo very high, Admiral Bofcdwen 
told me it was impracticable to land. 

The 5th a great fwell and fog in the morning, and the Admiral 
declared it hull impracticable to land. 

The 6th an appearance of change of weather, in the morning 
early : I wasrefolved to feize the firft opportunity ; the fignal was 
made to prepare to land between five and fix o'clock, and at eight 
all the men were in the boats : The r'og came on again, and the 
fwell encreafed during the time the men were getting into the 
boats, and the Admiral again declared it impracticable to land. 
I ordered the troops on board their respective fhips, firft acquaint- 
ing them with the reafon for fo doing. 

The 7th the weather bad in the morning, in the afternoon the 
fwell rather decreafed, and gave us great hopes of landing at day- 
break the next morning, for which orders were given ; and Bragg's 
regiment, who were in a number of floops, to fail under convoy, 
by the mouth of the harbour to Lorembec ; fending at the fame 
time a proportion of artillery deftined for the light-houfe Point, 
with orders to make all the mow they could of landing, but not 
to land till further orders, intending to draw the enemy's attention 
on that fide. 

H z From 

ioo The History of the War. 1758. 

to be employed in the. liege; however, the excellent con- 
duct of the Generals Amherfl and Wolfe, by degrees over- 
came all the difficulties of the weather, which was ex- 

From the 2d to this time, the enemy have been reinforcing 
their polls, adding to their works, cannonading and throwing 
{hells at • the Aim's, and making all the preparations they can to 
oppoie our landing. Seven tranfports were now miffing with 
troops oh board, three of which came" in at night. The Admiral 
gave all neceffary Orders for the frigates to cover our landing. 

On the 8th the troops were aiTembled in the boats before break 
of day, in three diviiions - 9 and Commodore Durell having viewed 
the c$aft by order of the Admiral, and given me his opinion the 
troops might land, without danger from the furf, in the bay on 
our leitj the Kennington and Halifax fnow began the fire on the 
\tfty followed- by the Grammont, Diana and Shannon frigates in 
the centre, and the Sutherland and. Squirrel upon the right. When 
"the fire had continued about a quarter "of an hour, the boats upon 
the left rowed into the more, under the command of Brigadier 
General" Wolje, whofe detachment was competed of the four eldeil 
Companies of grenadiers, followed by the light infantry, (a corps 
of five hundred and forty men, chofen as markfmen from the dif- 
ferent regiments, ferve as irregulars, and are commanded by 
Major Scott,- who was Major of the Brigade) and the companies 
of rangers, fupport'ed by the Highland regiment, and thofe by 
the eight remaining companies of grenadiers. 

The dfvili.dn on the -right, under the command of Bn'o-adier 
G^ii. Whitmore, confuted of the Royal, Lajcelles, Monckton, Forbes r 
Anfiruther and Webb, and rowed to our right by the white Point, 
as if intending to force a landing there. 

The centre diviiion, under the command of Brigadier General 
Lawrence, .was formed of Afnherft\s> Hopjon's, Otivays, Wbit- 
mores, Lawrence's, and Wharburtans, and made, at the fame 
time, a ilrow of landing at the frefh water Cove'. This drew the 
enemy's attention to every part, and prevented their troops, polled 
along the coait, from joining thoie on the right. 

The enemy acted very wifely, did not throw away a fhor, till 
the boats were near in fhore, and then dire6ted the whole fire of 
their cannon and. mulketry upon' "t'hein. The furf was lb great, 
that a place could hardly be found to get a boat on fhore. Not- 
withftariding the fife of the enemy, and the violence of the furf, 
Brigadier fVdfe purfued his point, and landed jutt at their left of 
the Co~cey rock po it, attacked the enemy, and forced them to 
retreat. Many boats overfei, feveral broke to pieces, and all the 
men jumped into the water to get on ihore. 


1758. ^he Hi story of the War. 101 

tremely unfavourable, the .ground which was nigged in 
feme places and boggy in others, and the refiftance of the 
garrifon which was considerable. The French had five men 


So foon as the left divifion was landed, the rffid detachment of 
the centre rowed at a proper time to the left, and followed ; then 
t«he remainder of the centre divifion, as faft as the boats could 
take them from the fhips ; and the right divifioii followed the 
centre in like manner. 

It took up a great deal of time to land the troops ; the enemy 7 ? 
retreat, or rather flight, was through the rougher! and worfr. 
ground I ever faw ; and the puifuit ended with a cannonading 
from the town, which was fo far of ule, that it pointed out how 
near i could encamp to ipveft it : On which the regiments marched 
to their ground, and lay on their arms. The wind encreaied, 
and we could not get any thing on /bore. 

The lofs of his -Majefty's troops at landing is, Capt. BaillieanA. 
Lieut. Cutbbert, of the Highland regiment ; Lieut. Nicboljon of 
mine, four ferjeants, one corporal, and thirty-eight men killed, 
twenty-one were of my regiment, (the grenadiers) of which eight 
were fliot, and the reft drowned in trying to get on fhore. 

Five lieutenants, two ferjeants, one cotporai, and fifty-one men 
wounded ; "and ot the five companies of rangers, one enfign and 
three private killed, one wounded, and one miffing. 

On the enemy's fide, two captains of grenaciiers, and two 
lieutenants, are prifoners ; one officer killed, and an Indian chief: 
Several men likewife killed ; and, I imagine, about ieventy men 
taken prifoners : They weie lent on board as faft as poftible. By 
fomeof the prifoners I had in:elligence, that Marilial St. 'Julieiiy 
Colonel, commanded in the Cove : That there were five battalions 
in the town, namely, Bourgogne, Arlo'ts^ Royal Marine,, Cambife, 
and Folontaires Etrangers y with about feven hundred Canadians. 
The three firft regiments wintered in Louifbourg ; Volontairs 
Etrangers came there not long fince with part of the fleet, and 
Cambife the night before we landed. 

We took from the enemy three 24 pounders, (even 9 pounders, 
and feven 6 pounders, two mortars and fourteen fwivels ; all 
which were placed along the fhore, to prevent our landing ; with 
ammunition tools, and ftores of all kinds. 

The 9th. Lieut. Gen. Bragg $ regiment returned in their Hoops 
from Loremhec. The weather continued extremely bad ; theiurf 
fo great, that we could get only fomeof our tents on fhore in the 

The 10th the furf ftill continued, and it was with great diffi- 
culty that we got any thing on fhore. 

H 3 The 

102 The History of the War. - 1758. 

of war of the line in the harbour, who could bring all their 
guns to bear upon the approaches of the Englifh troops, The 
firft thing done was to fecure a point called the ltght-houfe 


The 1 1 th the weather grew clear and better, and the light 6 
pounders, which I had ordered on fhore immediately after the 
troops were now only landed, and iome artillery itores with them. 

On the 12th, from intelligence I had received, that the enemy 
had deuroyed the grand battery, and called in their out-pofts, I 
detached Brigadier Wolfe with one thoufand two hundred men, 
four companies of grenadiers, three companies of rangers, and 
fome light infantry rouno the N. E. harbour to the Light Houfe 
Pointy with an intention to filence the IJland baitery, and, at the 
fame time, to attempt to deftroy the lliips in the harboui ; fend- 
ing, at the lame time by Tea, the proportion of artillery, tools, &c. 
that had been ordered for this fervice. 

I received, this day, a report from Brigadier Wolfe, that he had 
taken pofTefrlon of the Light Houfe Point, and all the pofts on 
that fide the harbour, which the enemy had abandoned, leaving 
feveral cannon, which were rendered ufelefs, tools, &c. and a great 
quantity of fifh at Lorembec. The weather continued extremely 
had -, but we got fome tools on fhore this night, fo that, on the 
13th. we began to make a communication from the right to the 
left in front of the camp ; and I ordered three redoubts on the 
moft advantageous ground in the front. A party of the enemy 
came out this day towards our camp, but were foon beat back by 
the light infantry, before two picquets could well get up to their 
affiftance. We worked at three redoubts in front all night. 

The 14th the enemy cannonaded us a great part of the day. 
The furf ftill continued fo great, that it was with the greateft dif- 
ficulty we could land any thing. The fleet, under the command 
of Sir Charles Hardy, which appeared yefierday for the firft time, 
was in the night blown off to feW, 

The 1 5th I fent four more mortars in a floop to the Light Houfe, 
but we could not get any artillery landed on this ihore. At night 
twodeferters from the V olontaires Etr angers came in; faid they had 
five killed and forty wounded in the fkirmifh on the 13th. 

The 16th, the firft fine weather, we landed twelve days pro-» 
vifion, and got many things on fhore, but could not land any 

The 17th I got Colonel Bafiide on horfeback, and, with Col, 
Williamfon and Major MKeller, we reconnoitred the whole 
ground as far as we could ; and Colonel Bafiide was determined 
in his opinion of making approaches by the Green Hill, and con- 
fining the deftruction of the fhips in the harbour, to the Light 


1758. Vbe History of the War. 103 

battery, from whence they might play upon thefe vefTels, 
and on the batteries on the other fide of the harbour. Gene- 
ral Wolfe performed this fervice with his ufual vigour and 


Houfe Pointy and the batteries on that tide. I added two 8 inch 
mortars and three royals to the Light Houfe batteries. 

The 1 8th we had fine weather. Some Indians tooK three of 
the tranfports men at the bottom oiGabarus bay who landed there 
contrary to orders. The road for the artillery was pufhed on as 
faft as poflible. We got three 23 pounders on fhore, though the 
furf was great the beginning of the day. 

The 19th the batteries on the Light Houfe were, intended to 
have been opened this night, but could not be got ready fo foon. 
V 'Echo , a French frigate of thirty-two guns, was brought in to- 
day ; had got out of the harbour the 13th at night, and was 
bound to Quebec: By her we have intelligence, that the Bizane 
got out the day we landed, and the Comette fince our arrival off 
the harbour. 

The 20th the ljland Battery and mips fired at the batteries on 
the more, who began their fire this laft night. The enemy burnt 
an old ihip at the bottom of the harbour. 

T>e 2 1 ft very bad weather, and the furf high. The enemy 
difcovered us making the road for the artillery, and connonaded 
us i threw fome mot into the left of the camp, but did not oblige 
me to decamp any part. An advanced redoubt towards Green 
Hill was thrown up this night. 

The 22d the bad weather continued ; we were employed on 
the road, and getting up a Block Houfe on the left by the Miray 
road, to fecure the communication to the N. E. harbour and Light 
Houfe, and to hinder any parties from going into the town. 

The 23d the Admiral affured me there were above an hundred 
boats loft in landing the troops and provisions. This day fine 
weather ; and we now have on more twelve 24 pounders, and 
fix 1 2 pounders. The enemy fired a great deal from their ihipping 
and ljland Battery, and threw fome fhot into the left of the camp. 
Colonel Meffer<vey y and mofb of his carpenters, taken ill of the 
fmall-pox, which is a very great lofs to the army. Gabions and 
fafcines are landed, and carried forward as faft as poilible, to 
make an epaulement to Green Hill. The batteries at the Light 
Houfe fire with fuccefs againft the ljland Battery , and I hope will 
foon filence it. 

On the 24th the enemy fired on the Light Houfe Batteries from 
the town and ihipping, and on our advanced redoubt, which was 
finiflied, they fired from the town. Colonel Baftide remained 
fixed in his opinion of advancing by Green HUL We had this 

H 4 j day 

io4 The History of the War. i?5&. 

celerity, and took poiTefTion of this and all the 
June 12. other ports in that quarter. His fire from this pofr. 

on the 25th filenced the ifland battery, which 
was that mod immediately oppofed to his ; but the fhips 
flill continued to bear upon him until the 21 ft of the follow- 

day in the park of artillery thirteen 24 pounders, and feven 12 

The 25th the cannonading continued night and day : In the 
evening the Ijland Battery was filenced ; their own fire had helped 
to break down part of their works : Fafcines and gabions were 
forwarded to Green Hill as fa ft as poffible. All the men employed 
at work, and making the necefTary communication. The enemy 
fired, a good deal at our advanced redoubt. 

The 26th a fmall alarm on the left of a party that had advanced 
from the town ; had got up to the Block Houfe, which was not 
quite finifhed. They had with them a barrel of pitch to fet it on 
fire : The guard on it was not fufficient to oppofe a large party • 
but a detachment was fent out fo quick, that they were forced to 
retreat without effecting their defign, though two of the men had 
been in the Block Houfe, they were driven into the town with great 
precipitation. Three hundred pioneers ordered to Green Hill: Ad- 
miral Bofcanven landed two hundred marines, and took the poi^ at 
Kennington Cove, which is of great eafe to the army. I defired of 
the Admiral four 32 pounders and two 24 pounders to leave at the 
Light Houfe, to keep the Ifland Battery in ruin, that with a pro- 
per number of men intrenched there, Brigadier Wolfe, with his 
detachment, might be able to come round the harbour, bringing 
his artillery with him ; and to try to deftroy the fhipping, and to 
advance towards the Wefl Gate. 

The 27th one brafs 24 pounder was loft in twelve fathom 
water, by fhipping off the catamaran *, as they were coming from 
the fhip to land it. The cannon I requefted of the Admiral were 
landed this night at the Light Houfe. 

The 28th a great many popping fhots and cannonading. As 
the poft at Green Hill was covered, we began the road over the 
bog, and throwing up an epaulement. Colonel Meffervey and his 
fon both died this day ; and of his company of carpenters of one 
hundred and eight men, all but fisteen in the fmail-pox, who are 
nurfes to the lick. This is particularly unlucky at this time. 

The 29th cannonading continued.; the frigate fired conftantly 
at the epaulement -, we purfued working at the road which coft a 
great deal of labour : At night the enemy funk four fhips in the 
harbour's mouth ; Apollo, a two deck'd one, la Fidelle of thirty- 
* A kind of raft much ufed at fea. 

1 758. 'The History of the War. 105 

ing month, when one of them blew up, and communicat- 
ing the fire to two others, they alio werein a fhorttime con- 
fumed to the water edge. This was a lofs not to be repair- 
ed ; 

fix guns, la Chevre, and la Bicbe y of fixteen guns each, and they 
cut 01T moft of their mails. Remains in the harbour rive of the 
line of battle, and a frigate of thirty fix guns. 

The 30th, at night, fome firing at Kennington Cove : The ma- 
rines thought they faw Indians : The frigate fired ali night at 
the epaulement, as the men worked in the night time. 

The lft of July, the enemy crept out in the morning to get 
fome old pallifades and wood. Brig. Wolfe and Major Scott's light 
infantry puflied them in with a very brilk lire ; and the Brigadier 
took poll on the hills, from whence it was intended to try to 
demolifh. the fhipping ; we marched forward on the right 3 forced 
the enemy back to Cape Noir with a fmart fire. 

The 2d, the epaulement and road went on heavily, from the 
extreme badnefs of the ground : The enemy continued their 
cannonading, and threw fome fheiis : We lkirmifhed all day with 
parties out of the town. 

The 3d, a great cannonading from the town and fliipping on 
the batteries. Brig. Wolfe was making an advanced work on the 
right, thrown up at fix hundred and fifty yards from the covered 
way, with an intention of erecting a battery to deflroy the de- 
fences of the place, it being pietty well on the capital of the Ci- 
tadel Bajlion ; and the falling of the ground from this place, to- 
wards the works, would hinder difcovering as much of the works, 
as would be necelTary to do them any coniiderable damage. In 
the evening the fea officers thought feme of the flu'ps would try 
to get out of the harbour. The batteries on the left immediately 
played on them, but it grew fo dark they could not continue. 

The 4th a great fog ; when there were glares of light, the 
cannonading began ; five hundred men were kept continually 
making fafcines. 

The 5th very bad weather ; the epaulement was haftened on 
as much as pollible, it fwallowed up an immenfe number of faf- 
cines, coft fonie men, as the frigate cannonaded on it without 

The 6th a floop failed out of the harbour with a flag of truce 
to Sir Charles Hardy , to carry fome things to their wounded ofn- 
cers and piifoners. 

The many difficulties of landing every thing in almoft a conti- 
nual l'urf, the makh g of roads, draining and palling of bogs, 
and puaing ourfelves under cover, render our aporoach to the 
place much longer than I could wifli. 


106 The History of the War. 1758. 

ed ; the approaches drew near the covered way, and things 
were in a good condition for making a lodgment in it; the 
enemies fire was considerably flackened ; the town was con- 

On the 7th we had very foggy weahei ; cannonading conti- 
nued all day, and many popping fhots from the advanced pofls. 

The 8th I intended an attack on fome advanced pofts at Cape 
Noir, but it did not take place. Col. Bajiide got a contuiion by 
a mufket ball on his boot, which laid him up in the gout. 

The 9th, in the night, the enemy made a Sortie where Briga- 
dier Lawrence commanded: they came from Cape Noir, and 
though drunk, I am apprehenfive furprifed a company of grena- 
diers of Forbes's, commanded by Lord Dundonald, who were 
polled in a Fleecke on the right. Major Murray, who commanded 
three companies of grenadiers immediately detached one, and 
drove the enemy back very eaiily. Whitmore and Bragg s grena- 
diers bthaved very well on this occalion. Lord Dundonald was 
killed, Lieut. Tetv wounded and taken prifoner, Capt. Bontein 
of the engineers taken prifoner : one corporal, three men killed ; 
one ferjeant, eleven men milling; feventeen men wounded : The 
Sortie was of five picquets, fupported by fix hundred men ; a 
Captain, Chevalier de Chauvelin was killed, a Lieutenant wound- 
ed and taken prifoner : feventeen men killed, four wounded and 
brought off prifoners, beiides what wounded they carried into 
the town, one of which, a captain, died immediately. The ene- 
my fent out a flag of truce to bury their dead, which when over, 
the cannonading began again. The frigate was fo hurt, ihe 
hauled clofe to the town ; the mips fired very much againft Briga- 
dier Wolfe's batteries. 

The 10th, the road at the epaulement went on a little better ; 
the enemy fired a great deal, and threw many iliells. 

The 1 1 th, a waggoner was taken off by fome Indians between 
the block-houfe and the left of the N. E. harbour. 

The 1 2th, it rained very hard all night ; not a man in the de- 
tachment could have a dry thread on ; we made an advanced 
work to Green Hill ; at night the waggoner who had been taken, 
luckily made his efcape, faid, they were two hundred and fifty 
Canadians. The Citadel Bajiion fired very fmartly. 

The 13th, the enemy threw a great many fhells ; we perfect- 
ed our works as fall: as we could ; bad rainy weather ; the ene- 
my was at work at Cape Noir to hinder us taking pofTeffion near 
that point, which is of no confequence ; fome deferters came in, 
faid a floop of Miray got in three days ago. 

The 14th, the batteries were traced out laft night, with an 
intention to place twenty four pounders, divided in four different 


1758. The History of the War. 107 

fumed to the ground in many places, and the works had fuf- 
fered much in all. Yet the enemy {till delaying to furren- 
der, gave occafion to add one brave aclion to the others, 


batteries, to deftroy the defences, and a battery of feven mortars, 
with fome twelve pounders to ricochet* the works and the town. 

The 15 th, the cannonading and firing continued j the*enemy 
tried to throw fome fhells into the camp, fuppofed to be intended 
againft our powder magazine : At ten at night the Light Houfe 
battery fired fome rockets as a fignal of fliips failing out of the 
harbour f; Sir Charles Hardy anfwered it; the frigate got out, 
and Sir Charles Hardy's fleet got under fail and went to fea. Be- 
fore day break, Capt. Sutherland, polled at the end of the N. E. 
harbour, was attacked, and there was a great deal of firing j the 
grenadiers of Brigadier Wolfe's corps marched to fuftain him, and 
all the light infantry ; it was over before they could get up, and by 
a deferterfrom the enemy, they were only one hundred men which 
came from Miray, where they left Monf. de Bojhiere, who had, 
on the other fide the water, three hundred men with boats to pafs. 
Major Scott, with the light infantry, purfued, but could not 
get up with them. I encamped a corps forward. 

The 1 6th, towards night, Brig. Wolfe pufhed on a corps and 
took poffeiTion of the hills in the front of the Barafoy, where we 
made a lodgment ; the enemy fired very brifkly from the town 
and ihipping. 

The 17th, a great fire continued from the town and fhipping ; 
we refolved to extend the parallel from the right to the left. The 
fleet returned. 

The 1 8th, all laft night the enemy fired mufketry from the co- 
vert way, and tried to throw iliells into the camp. 

The 19th, I relieved the trenches by battalions, the fourteen 
battalions forming three brigades ; a fmart fire from the covert 
way, the batteries on the left fired againft the baftion Dauphine 
with great fuccefs. 

The 21 ft, one of the ihips in the habour, that had fome pow- 
der in her blown up, made a great explofion, and fet the ihip on 
fire, which foon caught the fails of two more ; they burned very 
faft, and we kept firing on them the whole time, to try to hinder 
the boats and people from the town to get to their afilftance; the 

* Is half charging a gun, by which the bullet fkips upon the 
ground like ftones when ikimm'd upon the water. 

f This was probably the ihip which brought news to France 
of the Englijh landing, and efcaped notwithftanding the vigilance 
of fo great a fleet. 


108 The History of the War. . 1750, 

which had been difplayed during the courfe of this fiege- 
The Admiral who had all along done every thing pnfljble to 
fecorid the efforts of the land forces, notwithstanding the 


Entreprennant J, Capricieux\\, and Superb (|, were the three bur- 
ned fhips ; the Prudent and Bienjaifant remained. 

The 2zd, two batteries on the right opened v/ith thirteen 24 
pounders, and another of feven mortars, and fired with grear. 
fuccefs ; the enemy fired very well from the town for fome time, 
and threw their fliells into our works. Our fhells put the citadel 
in flames, I ordered Col. Williamfon to confine his fire as much 
as he could to the defences of the place, that we might not de- 
li; oy the houfes. A Lieut, of the Royal Americans, going his 
rounds on an advanced port, loft his way, and was taken prifoner 
near Cape Noir. A battery was begun on the left for four 24 

23d, The cohorns were ufed at night, and the French mortars 
fent to throw rlones from the trenches. The enemy fired all 
forts of old iron, and any ftufF they could pick up. Col. Bajlide 
was out to-day for the firft time fince he received the contufion. 
Our batteries fired v/ith great fuccefs. This night the fhells fet 
fire to the barracks, and they burnt with great violence. 

On the 24th, the fire was very brilk on our fide, and the ene- 
my's decreafed. The Admiral gave me four hundred feamen to 
help to work at the batteries, &c. and two hundred miners added 
to a corps of one hundred already eiiabliihed, that v/e might make 
quick work of it, and they were immediately employed. The 
four gun battery opened, and another of -five erecling. One of 
the mtn of war in the harbour, the Bienfaifani \ fired at our 
trenches at high-water, and the Citadel and Bajlion Dauphine 
fired againit the four gun battery ; but our men firing fmall arms 
into the embrazures, beat the enemy off their guns. 

The 25th, the batteries fired with great fuccefs. The Admiral 
fent me word, he intended to fend in boats with fix hundred men, 
to take or deftroy the Prudent and the Bienfaifant in the harbour. 
I ordered all the batteries at night to fire into the works as much 
'as poflible, to keep the enemy's attention to the land. The mi- 
ners and workmen went on very well with their approaches to the 
covered way, though they had a continued and very fmart fire 
from it, and grape ihot, and all forts of old iron from the guns of 
the ramparts. We continued our fire without ceafing, and a Rico- 
chet : The boats got to the fhips at one in the morning, and took 
them both : They were obliged to burn the Prudent as fhe was 

X Of 74 guns. I! Of 64 guns each. - 


i75#- The History of the War. 109 

feveritv of the weather, refolved on a ftroke, which, by being 
decifive, might gain him the poffefTion of the harbour, and 
make the reduction of the town a matter of little difficulty. He 


aground ; and they towed off the Bienfaifant to the N. E. har- 

The 26th, the Admiral came on fhore, and told me he propo- 
fed fending fix ihips into the harbour the next day. Juft at this 
time I received a letter from the governor, offering to capitulate, 
and the articles were agreed upon. . 

Articles of capitulation between their excellencies Adm. Bofcawen 
. and Major General Amherft ; and his excellency the Chevalier 
Drucour, governor of the ijland o/"Cape Breton, o/^Louilbourg, 
the ijland of St. John, and their appurtenances. 

I. The garrlfon pf Louijhourg fhail be priibners of war, aijsfr 
(hall be carried, to England in the ihips of his Britannick Ma- 


If. All the artillery, ammunition, provifions, as well as the 
arms of any kind whatfoever, which are at prefent in the town of 
Louijhourg, the iflands of Cape Breton and St. John, and their ap- 
purtenances, ihall be delivered without the lean: damage, to fuch 
commiiTaries as ihall be appointed to receive them, for the ufe of 
his Britannick Majefly. 

III. The governor ihall, give his orders that the troops which 
are in the ifland of St. John and its appurtenaces, fhail go on 
board fuch ihips of war, as the Admiral ihall fend to receive 

IV. The gate, called Porte Dauphine y ihall be given up to the 
troops of his Britannick Majefty, to-morrow at eight o'clock in 
the morning, and the garrifon, including all thofe that carried 
arms, drawn up at noon, on the Efplnnade, where they ihall lay 
down their arms, colours, implements, and ornaments of war. 
And the garrifon ihall go on board in order to be carried to Eng- 
land in a convenient time. 

V. The fame care fhall be taken of the fick and wounded that 
are in the hofpitals, as of thofe belonging to his Britannick Ma- 

. VI. The merchants and their clerks, that have not carried 
arms mall be fent to France, in fuch manner as the Admiral fliall 
think proper. > 

Louijhourghj 26th July, 1758. 

(Signed) Le Chevalier de DRUCOUR. 

A Del- 

no The History of the War. 1758. 

refolved to fend in a detachment of fix hundred Teamen in 
boats, to take or burn the two (hips of the line which re- 
mained, and if he mould fucceed in this, he propofed the 


A Defcription of the Town and Harbour of Louifbourg, "with 
References pointing out the approaches of his Majejifs Forces. 

A. The Town of Louijbourgh. 

B. The citadel. 

C. A lake, where the fiming- 

barks winter. 

D. Stages for drying fifh. 

E. A battery of twenty guns, 

erected fince 1 748. 

F. The Dauphin battery of 

thirty guns, which defends 
the Weil-Gate, being that 
which was fiift delivered 
to the Englijh. 

G. The Ifland-battery of forty, 

guns, iilenced the 24th of 
June, by the Light- houfe 
battery at I, under the di- 
rection of Major-General 

H. A fmall battery of eight 

I. The Light-houfe battery ta- 
ken by Major Gen. Wolfe, 
June 1 2th, from whence 
the mips in the harbour 
were deftroyed, at X. 

K. A battery of fifteen guns, 
ufed for the deftruction of 
the iliipping. 

L. The grand battery of forty 
guns deftroyed by the 
French the 12th, when all 
the out parties were or- 
dered into the works of 
the town. 

M. A battery of fifteen guns, 
deftroyed the fame time. 

N. Houfes inhabited by fifher- 

O. A lake. 

P. Rivers, from whence the in- 
habitants have their frefh 

Q^ A pond, which defends part 
of the works, and makes 
this part very difficult of 

R. The grand beach. 

S. Rocks under water. 

T. The Careening place de- 
fended from all winds. 

V. The green hill, from whence 
the town was annoyed by 
a redoubt caft up the 21ft 
of June, under the direc- 
tion of Col. Baflide. 

W. The place where the enemy 
funk four mips on the 29th, 
<viz. The Apollo, a two- 
deck'd fhip, la Fidelle of 
36 guns, le Chevre and 
la Biche, of 16 guns each. 

X. The ftation of the French 
men of war that were de- 
ftroyed from the Light- 
houfe and other batteries, 
erected for that fervice. 

Y. The place where the Pru- 
dent was fet on fire, by the 
boats from the fleet, June 
25 th. 

Z. The north eaft harbour, to 
which place the Bienfai- 
fant ftiip of war was tow- 
ed by the boats of the fleet 
from Y. 

Aa. Capt. 

APLan ofihe Harbour and Towtn of Louis rourg mthe 

ISLAND of CAPE BR ETOK Drawn on the Spot. 

A £ <rale of ,500 Totses . 

bi i- 1 f 1 

50 too sloo goo -fop 500 

■1 1 

1758* STife History of the War. hi 

next day to fend in fome of his own great fhips, which might 
batter the town on that fide of the harbour. This was not 


Aa. Capt. Suther la nd's poft that mand of Forbes 's grena- 

was attacked before Day, diers. On this occafion 

on the 15 th of July, who Bragg' s and IVhitwore's 

made a gallant defence, grenadiers behaved with 

and cleared himfelf of the uncommon intrepidity, 

enemy, without any aflift- (they were detached by 

ance, the reinforcement Major Murray) and repuK 

coming too late. fed the French, who in this 

Bb. Where the block-houfe was expedition loft fome able 

erected, the 22d of June, officers, with many foldi- 

near Miray * road, to fe- ers. It was after this affair 

cure the communication to the enemy fent a flag of 

the North Eaft harbour truce to bury the dead, 
and Light-houfe. 

Cc. Cape Noir baftion, where * Miray, a lake fome ixay in 

the enemy made a fally of land from Louifbourg harbour y 

their picquets the 9th of lying between the town and the 

July s fupported by fix hun- North-eaft harbour : bert Monf. 

dred chofen men ; by them de Bofbiere had on the other fide 

Lord Dundonald was un- of that lake three hundred and 

fortunately furprized. He tauo men, with boats to pafs 

was pofted on the right of o<ver. 
the Green-hill , with a com- 

Extracl of a Letter from Admiral Bofcawen, to the Right Hon. 
Mr. Secretary Pitt, dated Namur, Gabreufe Bay, z%th of 
July, 1758, 

IWilJ not trouble you with a particular detail of the landing 
and fiege, but cannot help mentioning a particular gallant 
action in the night between the 25 th and 26th inftant : The boats 
of the fquadron were in two divifions, detached under the com- 
mand of Capt. Laforey and Balfour, to endeavour either to take 
ot burn the Prudent of 74 guns, and Bienfaifant of 64, the only 
remaining French mips in the harbour ; in which they fucceeded 
fo well, as to burn the former, me being a-ground, and took the 
latter, and towed her into the N. E. harbour, notwithstanding 
they were expofed to the fire of the cannon and mufquetry of the 
Ifland battery, Point Rochefort, and the Town, being favoured 
with a dark night. Our lofs was inconfiderable, {even men kil- 
led, and nine wounded. 

I have given the command of the Bienfaifant to Capt. Balfour, 


ii2 The History of the War. I 15$> 

more wifely planned by the admiral, than gallantly and fuc- 

cefsfully executed by Captain Laforey. In fpite 
July 25. of the fire from the mips and the batteries, he 

made himfelf mafter of both thefe (hips ; one he 
towed off, the other, as (he ran aground, was fet on fife. 
This fuoke, in fupport of the fpirited advances of the 

land forces, was conclufive. The town furren- 
July 26. dered the next day. The garrifon were prifoners 

of war, and amounted with the irregulars and 
feamen to five thoufand fix hundred and thirty feven. 

The taking of Louifbourg was an event the mod defired 
by all our colonies ; that harbour had always been a recep- 
tacle convenient to the enemies privateers, who infefted the 
Englifu trade in North America. It was the mod effectual 
blow which France had received from the commencement 
of the war. By the taking of Louifbourg, the loft the 
only/ place from whence ihe could carry on the cod fifhery; 
and the only place fhe had in a convenient fituation for the 
reinforcements that were fent to fupport the war in the 
other parts of America ; and with Louiibourg fell the ifland 
of St. John's, and whatever other inferior ftations they 
had for carrying on the fifhery towards Gafpefie and the 
bay de Chaleurs, which our fhips foon after this event en- 
tirely deftroyed. It is incredible how much this fuccefs in 
America, joined to the fpirit of our other meafures, ope- 
rated to raife our military reputation in Europe, and to fink 
that of France, and confequently how much it influenced 
our moil effential interefts and thofe of our allies. 

The plan of our operations in America were, however, 
by no means confined folely to this object, important as it 
was. Two ether attempts were prcpofed : the fir ft at- 
tempt was with a great force to drive the French from Ti- 
cor.deroga and Crown Point; in which, if we could fuc- 
ceed, the enemy would lefe thofe pofts from which they 
were in the beft condition to moleft our colonies, and by 
lofing them, would lay open an eafy road into the very 

and the Echo, a frigate, to Capt. Laforey ; Mr. Affleck and Mr. 
Bicherion, Lieutenants who boarded the Bienfaifant, fucceeded 
thofe gentlemen in the Mtna firefhip and Hunter floop, 

I have only farther to aiiure his Majeity, that all his troops and 
officers, both Tea and land, have iupported the fatigue of this 
fiege, with great firmnefs and alacrity. 


1758. The History of the War. i^ 

heart of their fettlernents in Canada. The fecond attempt 
was to be made with a confiderable, though an inferior 
force, from Pennfylvania againft Fort du Quefne : the fuc- 
cefs of this attempt would eftablifh us in the poffeflion of 
the Ohio, [See the map of America at the latter end) and 
break off the connexion between Canada and Louifiana. 

Gen. Abercrombie, commander in chief of our forces in 
America, conducted the firft of thofe expeditions. He em- 
barked upon Lake George with near fixteen thoufand troops, 
regulars and provincials, and a numerous artillery on the 
5 th of July; and after a profperous navigation, arrived the 
next day at the place where it had been propofed to make 
the landing. They landed without oppofition. The enemies 
advanced guards Pied at their appearance. The Englifh ar- 
my proceeded in four columns to Ticonderoga. As the 
country through which their march lay was difficult and 
woody, and the guides which conducted the march to this 
unknown country, were extremely unfkilful, the troops 
were bewildered, the columns broke and fell in upon one 
another. Whilfl: they marched on in this alarming diforder, 
the advanced guard of the French, who had lately fled be- 
fore them, was bewildered in the fame manner; and in the 
fame diforder fell in with our forces. A fkirmifh. enfued, 
in which this party was quickly defeated with the lofs of 
near three hundred killed, and one hundred and forty-eight 
prifoners. The lofs on the Englifh fide was inconsiderable 
in numbers; but great in confequence. Lord Howe was 
killed. This gallant man, from the moment he landed in 
America, had wifely conformed and made his regiment con- 
form to the kind of fervice which the country required. 
He did not fuffer any under him to encumber themfelves 
with fuperfluous baggage; he himfelf fet the example, and 
fared like a common foldier The fir ft to encounter dan- 
ger, to endure hunger, to fupport fatigue ; rigid in his dis- 
cipline, but eafy in his manners, his officers and foldiers 
readily obeyed the commander, becaufe they loved the 
man; and now at the moment when fuch abilities, and 
fuch an example were the mod: wanted, were fatally loft, a 
life which was long enough for his honour but not for his 
country. It adds indeed to the glory of fuch a death, and 
to the confolation of his country, that we ftill pofTefs the 
heir of his titles, his fortunes and his virtues, whilft we 

v I tremble 

U4 The History of the War. 1758. 

tremble to fee the fame virtues expofing themfelves to the 
fame dangers. * 

Excepting this lofs, the army had hitherto proceeded 
fuccefsfully. In a little time they appeared before Ticon- 
deroga. This is a very important poft, and as 
July 8. ftrongly fecured. The fort is fituated on a tongue 
of land between Lake George and a narrow gut, 
which communicates with the Lake Champlain. On three 
fides it is furrounded with water ; and for a good part of 
the fourth it has a dangerous morafs in front; where that 
failed, the French had made a very flrong line upwards of 
eight feet high, defended by cannon, and fecured by four 
or five thoufand men. A great fall of trees with their bran- 
ches out ward, was fpread before the entrenchment for about 
an hundred yards. 

The General caufed the ground to be reconnoitred ; and 
the engineer made fo favourable a report of the weaknefsof 
the entrenchment, that it appeared practicable to force it 
by mufquetry alone. A fatal refolution was taken, in con- 
fequence of this report, not to wait the arrival of the artil- 
lery, which on account of the badnefs of the ground, could 
not be eafily brought up, but to attack the enemy without 

* Soon after tiie news of Lord Howe's death arrived, the fol- 
lowing acivertiiement appeared in the public papers; an applica- 
tion worthy of a Roman matron, in the virtuous times of the re- 
public, and which could not fail of fuccefs, where the leafl fpark 
of virtue exiiled. 

*■ To the Gentlemen, Clergy, Freeholders, and Burgejjes, of the 
6 Tewn and County of the Town of Nottingham. 

* As Lord Howe is now abfent upon the public fervice, and 
"' Lieut. Col. Howe Is with his regiment at Loui/hourg, it reils up- 

* on me to beg the favour of your votes and intereft, that Lieut. 

* Col. Howe may fuppiy the place of his late brother, as your 

* reprefentative in parliament. 

' Permit me therefore to implore the protection of every one 

* of you, as the mother of him, whofe life has been loft in the 
' fervice of his country. 

Albemarle Street, Sept. CHARLOTTE HOWE. 


1 758^ The History of the War. 115 

lofs of time. They were confirmed in this precipitate refo- 
lution, by a rumour that a body of three thoufand men were 
on their march to join the French at Ticonderoga, and ve- 
ry fhortly expected to arrive. 

When the attack began, the difficulty of the ground, and 
the ftrength of the enemies lines which had been fo little 
forefeen, was but too feverely felt. Although the troops 
behaved with the utmoft fpirit and gallantry, they fuffered 
fo terribly in their approaches, and made fo little impreffion 
on the entrenchment, that the General feeing their reitera- 
ted and obftinate efforts fail 0$ fuecei's, being upwards of 
four hours expofed to a moil terrible fire, thought it necef- 
fary to order a retreat, to fave the remains of the army. 
Near two thoufand of our men were killed, wounded and 
taken prifoners; the number of the taken being very incon- 
fiderable. This precipitate attack, was followed by a re- 
treat as precipitate; mfomuch that our army 
gained their former camp to the fouthward of July g. 
Lake George, the evening after the acYion. (b) 


(h) General Abercrombie'^ Account of his Expedition againji 


Camp at Lake George, July 12, 1758. 

THE embarkation of the artillery, (lores and provifions be- 
ing compleated on the evening of the 4th inilant ; next 
morning at break of day the tents were (truck, and all the troops, 
amounting to fix thoufand three hundred and fixty-feven regulars, 
officers, light infantry, and rangers iucludeo, and nine thoufand 
and twenty-four provincials, including officers and b?tteau men, 
embarked in about nine hundred batteaux, and one hundred and 
thirty-five whale boats, the artillery to cover our landing, being 
mounted on rafts. 

At five in the evening, reached Sabbath Day Points (twenty 
five miles down the Lake) where we halted till ten, then got un- 
der way again, and proceeded to the landing place (a cove lead- 
ing to the French advanced guard) which we reached early next 
morning the 6th. 

Upon our arrival, fent out a reconnoitring party j and having 
met with no oppofition, landed the troops, formed them in four 
columns, regulars in the centre, and provincials on the flanks, 

I 2 and 

1 1 6 Wi? History o//^ War. 1758. 

To repair the misfortune of this bloody defeat, General 
Abercrombie detached Col. Bradflreet, with about three 
thoufand provincials againft Fort Frontenac. The Colonel 
with great prudence and vigour, furmounted great difficul- 

and marched toward the enemy's advanded guard, compofed of 
one battalion, pofled on a logged camp, which, upon our ap- 
proach they deferted, firft fetting fire to their tents, and deftroy- 
ing every thing they could ; but as their retreat was very preci- 
pitate, they left feveral things behind, which they had not time 
either to burn or carry off. In this camp we likewife found one 
prifoner and a dead man. 

The army in the foregoing order continued their march through 
the wood on the weft-fide, with a defign to invefl Ticonderoga- y 
but the wood being very thick, impafTable with any regularity to 
fuch a body of men, and the guides unfkilful, the troops were be- 
wildered, and the columns broke, falling in one upon another. 

Lord Howe, at the head of the right centre column, fupported 
by the light infantry, being advanced, fell in with a French party, 
fuppofed to confift of about four hundred regulars, and a few 
Indians, who had likewife loft themfelves in the retreat from the 
advanced guard ; of thefe our flankers killed a great many, and 
took one hundred and forty-eight prifoners, among whom were 
live officers and three cadets. 

But this fmail fuccefs coft us very dear, not as to the lofs of 
numbers, for we had only two officers killed, but as to confe- 
quence, his lordfhip being the firft man that fell in this fkirmifh ; 
and as he was, very defervedly, univerfally beloved and refpecled 
throughout the whole army, it is eafy to conceive the grief and 
confternation his untimely fall occafioned -, for my part, I cannot 
help owning that I felt it moft heavily, and lament him as fin- 

The 7th, the troops being greatly fatigued, by having been 
one whole night on the water, the following day conftantly on 
foot, and the next day under arms, added to their being in want 
of provilion, having dropped what they had brought with them, 
in order to lighten themfelves, it was thought advifeable to return 
to the landing place, which we accordingly did about eight that 

About eleven in the forenoon, fent off Lieut, Col. Bradflreet, 
with the 44th regiment, fix companies of the firft battalion of the 
Royal Americans, the batteau men, and a body of rangers and 
provincials, to take poffeffion of the Saiv-tnill, within two miles 


I75&- The History of the War, 117 

ties, brought his army to Ofwego, where he embarked on 
the Lake Ontario, and arrived at Frontenac the 25th of 
Augu'L This fort (lands at the communication of Lake 


of Ticonderoga*, which he loon effected : as the enemy who 
were ported there, after deftroying the mill and breaking down 
their bridge, had retired fome time before. 

Lieut. Col. Bradftreet having iaid another bridge a-crofs, and 
having fent me notice of his being in poffefiion of that ground, I 
accordingly marched thither with the troops, and we took up our 
quarters there that night. 

The prifoners we had taken being unanimous in their reports, 
that the French had eight battalions, fome Canadians and colony 
troops, in all about fix thoufand, encamped before their fort, who 
were intrenching themfelves, and throwing up a breaft-work, and 
that they expected a reinfoi cement of three thoufand Canadians, 
befides Indians, who had been detached under the command of 
Monf. de Levy, to make a diverlion on the fide of the Mohawk 
river ; but upon intelligence of our preparations and near ap- 
proach, had been repeatedly recalled, and was hourly expected ; 
it was thought molt advifeable to lofe no time in making the at- 
tack j wherefore early in the morning of the 8th, I fent Mr. Clerk, 
the engineer, acrols'the river on the oppoiite fide oi" the fort, in 
order to reconnoitre the enemy's entrenchments, 

Upon his return, and favourable report of the practicability of 
carrying thofe works, if attacked before they were finifhed, it wa9 
agreed to {form them that very day : Accordingly the rangers, 
light infantry, and the right wing of Provincials, were ordered 
immediately to march and poll: themfelves in a line, out of can- 
non (hot of the intrenchments ; the right extending to Lake 
George , and the left to Lake (Hhamplain, in order that the regular 
troops, deftined for the attack of the intrenchments, might form 
on their rear. 

The Piquets were to' begin the attack, fuilamed by the grena- 

* A fort built about two years ago on the narrow paiTage or 
communication between Lake George and Champluln. It has all 
the advantages that nature or art can give it, being defended on 
three fides by water, which is furrounded by rocks, and on the 
half of the fourth fide by z fwamp, and where that fails, there 
the French had erected an intrenchment and breaii work about 
nine feet high. It is in the way to Crown Point, and mud be ta- 
ken by our forces before they can march thither. (See the Plate. ) 

% 3 CUSia, 

1 1 8 The History of the War. 175S. 

Ontario with the river St. Lawrence, the entrance into 
which river it in fome manner commands. However, for a 
poll of fiich moment, it was poorly fortified, and poorly 

gani'onedc It was taken without the lofs of a 
Aug. 27. man on our fide, in lefs than two days after it 

had been attacked. The garnfon, confilfing of 
one hundred and thirty men, v\ere made prifoners ; nine 
armed (loops were taken and burned : and a great quan- 
tity of provifions amaiicd there [or the ufe or their gar- 
rilons to the fouthward, was deitroyed. Col. Bradftreet 
having performed this important fervice, returned. Many 
were or cpinicn, that fo fine a poll: ought to be kept and 
ftrongly garrifoned; others thought that it would be impof- 

diers, and by the battalions : the whole were ordered to march up 
brifkly, ruili upon the enemy's fire, and not give theirs, until they 
were within the enemv's breaft-woik. 

Afte'i thefe orders we-e iffued, the whole ^.rmy, except what had 
been left at rhe landing-place to c vei jul guard the batteaux and 
whale boats, and a Pr gifhent at the Sa<w-mill> were 

put in motion, i iconderoga, where they unfor- 

tunate uric -.-, not only much fironger than 

had been represented, and the breait-work at lealt eighi or nine 
feet his - but iifcewife tit ^rcunc beroie ir covered with' felled 
trees, the branches pointed dut'waids, which fo fatigued and re- 
tarded the advancing of the troops, that nctwithiiancing all their 
intrepidity and bravery, which I cannot too much commend, we 
fuilained fo confidejable a lofs, without any profpett of better 
fuccefs, that it was no longer prudent to remain before it ; and it 
was therefore judged neceilary, for the preieivation of the re- 
mainder of fo many brave men, to prevent a total defeat, that 
we mould make the belt retreat poffible : Accordingly, after fe- 
veral repeated attacks, which lafted upwards of four hours, un- 
der the moii difadvantageous circumhhances, and with the lofs of 
four hundred and fixty-four regulars killed, twenty-nine miffing, 
one thoufand one hundred and feventeen wounded- and eighty- 
{even Provincials killed, eight milling, and two hundied are! thirty- 
nine wounded, officers oh both included, I retired to the camp 
we occupied the night before, with the broken remains of feveral 
corps, fending away all the wounded to the batteaux, about three 
miles diiiance : and early the next morning we arrived there our- 
felves, embarked, and reached this place the evening of the 9th. 
Immediately after my return here, I fent the wounded officers and 
men tkr.t could be moved, to Fort Edivard and Albany. 


1758. Tfo History of the War. 119 

fible to preferve a place at fuch a diftance from our own ef- 
tablifhments. (c) 

It is very poffible, that the fuccefs of Col, Bradflreet 
greatly facilitated that of the expedition under Gen. Forbes. 
The General had a very tedious and troublefome march, 
through a country aimer! impaflable, very little known, and 
continually haraited on his route by the enemy's Indians. 
An advanced guard of this army, confuting of about eight 
hundred men under Major Grant, had mod unaccountably 
advanced to Fort du Quefne, with a defign as it fhould feem 
of reducing the place by a coup de main-, but the garrifon 
fuddenly fallying out and attacking them warmly on all fides, 
killed and made prifoners many of this party, and difperfed 
the reft. This was, however, their* laft fuccefs ; for the 
body of the army being conducted with greater (kill and 
circumfpection, baffled all their attempts; fo that theFrench 

(c) Colonel Bradftreet'i Letter to General Amherft, on the Reduc- 
tion of Fort Frontenac. 

Of<wego, Aug. 31, 1758. 

Landed with the troops within a mile of Fort Frontenac with- 
out oppofition, the 25th. The garrifon furrendered prifoners 

of war the 27th, between feven and eight in the morning.- It 

was a fquare fort of one hundred yards the exterior fide, and had 
in it one hundred and ten men, fome women, children, and Indi- 
ans, fixty pieces of cannon, (half of which were mounted) fixteen 
fmall mortars, with an immenfe quantity of provifions and goods, 
to be fent to the troops gone to oppofe Brig. Gen. Forbes, their 
weftern garrifons, Indians, and to iupport the army under the 
command of M. Levy, on his intended enterprife againft the Mo- 
hawk river, valued by the French at 8co,ooo livres.— We 

have likewife taken nine vefTels, from eight to eighteen guns, 
which are all they have upon the lake, two of which I have 
brought here ; one richly laden ; and the others with the provifions 
I have burnt and deftroyed, together with the fort, artillery, ftores, 
&c. agreeable to your excellency's inftructions, iliould I fucceed. 
The garrifon made no fcruple of faying, that their troops to the 
fouthward and weftern garrifons will fuffer greatly, if not entirely 
ftarve, for want of the provifions and vefTels we have deftroyed, 
as they have not any left to bring them home from Niagara. 
The terms on which the garrifon furrendered were prifoners of 
war, until exchanged for equal numbers and rank. 

I 4 being 

120 The History of the War. i 758. 

being convinced by feveral fkirmifhes that all their efforts 
to lurprize the troops, or interrupt their communication 
were to no purpofe, and being confcious that their fort was 

r.ot tenable againft a regular attack, they wifely 
Nov. 24. abandoned the place after deftroying their works; 

and fell down the Ohio, to the numbers of four 
or five hundred men, towards their more fouthern fettle*- 

ments. Gen. Forbes once more erected the En- 
25th. glim flag on Fort du Quefne. Without any re- 

fiftance we became matters in the third year af- 
ter the commencement of hoflilities, of that fortrefs, the 
contention for which had kindled up the flames of fo gene- 
ral and deftruclive a war. This place with its matters has 
changed its name, and is called ■ Pittsburgh, with a propriety 
which does not need to be pointed out. (d) 


(d) Brigadier General Forbes'.* Letter on his taking of Fort cu 


I Have the pieafure of acquainting you with the fignal fuccefs 
of his majefty's arms over all his enemies on the Ohio, by 
having obliged them to burn, and abandon their Fort du Quefne, 
which they effected upon the 24th inft. and of which I took 
poileffion with my light troops the fame evening, and with my 

little army the next day. The enemy made their efcape down 

the river, part in boats, and part by land, to their forts and feY- 
tlements upon the Mifji/ippi, having been abandoned, or, at leaii, 
not feconded, by their friends the Indians, whom we had prevr- 
oully engaged to a£t a neutral part, after thoroughly convincing 
them, in feveral fkirmifhes, that all their attempts upon our ad- 
vanced potts, in order to cut off our communication, weie xain, 
and to no purpofe ; fo they now feem all willing, and well dilpo- 
fed to embrace his majefty's moft gracious protection. 

Give me leave, therefore, to congratulate you upon this Im- 
portant event, of having expelled the French from Fort du Quefne, 
and this prodigious tradt of fine rich country; and of having, in 
• a manner, reconciled the various tribes, and nations of Indians, 
inhabiting it, to his majefty's government. 

So far I had wrote you the 26th, but being feized with an inflam- 
mation in my ftomach, and liver, the fharpeit and moft fevere of 
ail diftempers, I could proceed no farther j and, as I have a thou- 
sand things to fay, have ordered Major Halkett down the coun- 
try, in order to explain the motives upon which I proceeded, and 


> 1 

AV ,vx iv cuiuiace nis majeity's moit gracious protection. 

Give me leave, therefore, to congratulate you upon thi 
portant event, of having expelled the French from Fort du 
and this prodigious tra6l of fine rich country; ana of havil 
a manner, reconciled the various tribes, and hatiojps of hn 
inhabiting it, to his majefty's government. 

So far I had wrote you the 26th, but being feized with an ii 
station in my ftomach, and liver, the fharpeit and moft fev< 
ail diftempers, I could proceed no farther ; and, as I have a 
fend things to fay, have ordered Major Halkett down the 
try, in order to explain the motives upon which I proceeded 

1758. fhe History of the War. 121 

Notwithstanding the unhappy affair at Ticonderoga, the 
campaign of 1758 in America was very advantageous, and 
very honourable to the Englifh intereft. Louifburgh, St, 
John's, Frontenac, and du Quefne reduced, remove from 
our colonies all terror of the Indian incursions, draw from 
the French thofe ufeful allies, free our frontiers from the 
yoke of their enemies forts, make their fupplies difficult, 
their communications precarious, and all their defective or 
oflenfive operations (ineffective ; whilft their country unco- 
vered of its principal bulwarks, lies open to the heart, and 
affords the mod pleafing profpects of fuccefs to the vigorous 
meafures which we may be allured will be taken in thenexf 
campaign. Gen. Amherfl is now commander. 

It would be doing great injuftice to the fpirit and conducx 
of the miniftry, not to obferve, that they emitted to diftrefs 
the enemy in no part, and that their plans of operation were 
as extenfive as they were vigorous. 

Two mips of the line with fome frigates, were 
fent early in the fpring to the coafr. of Africa, to Mar. 9. 
drive the French from their fettlements there. 
They entered the river Senegal, and in fpite of the obftruc- 
tion of a dangerous bar, which the fhips of war 
could not pafs, they obligtd the Fiench fort May 1. 
which commands the river to furrender. And 
on the 29th of December following, Commodore Keppel, 
with the of fome troops under the command of 
Lieut. Col. Worge, made himfelf matter or the ifland of 
Goree and its forts ; the garrifon furrendering at difcretion 
to his majeity's fquadron (e). By thefe fuccefTes, we have 

tak< n 

the various, and almolt infurmountable difficulties I had to grap- 
ple with. 

I iliail leave this as foon as T am able to ftand ; but God knows 
when, or if ever I reach Philadelphia. 

I expect the heads of all the Indians in here to-morrow, when 
I hope very foon to finiili with them. 

(e) Commodore Keppel'j Letter to Mr. Secretary Pitt, on his t-ahing 

the IJlund of Goree. 
S IR, 

I Arrived here with the fcmadron under my command the 28th 
of December paft in the evening ; and the next morning, 


122 The History of the War. 1758. 

taken from the enemy one of the mod valuable branches of 


agreeable to his Majefty's inttructions, I attacked with the fliips, 
fhe fort and batteries on the ifland of Goree, which were foon re- 
duced to afk to capitulate ; and the Governor's demands were, to 
be allowed to march trie French troops out of the garrifon with 
the honours of war. His terms I absolutely rejected and began a 
frefh attack j it was, however, but of a very fhort duration, when 
the ifland, forts, garrifon, &c. iurrendered at difcretion to his 
majefty's fquadron. 

Lieut. Col. Worge had his troops embark'd in the flat-bottomed 
boat?, in good- order an i ance, with the 

tranfports, to a j delcent, when lid be found practi- 

cable or requifite. 

Two days after the furrender of the ifland, I ordered it to be 
delivered up, with the cannon, artillery, ftores, and provifions, 
&c. to the officers and troops, Lieutenant Colonel Worge thought 
fit to garrifon the place with ; and the colonel is taking all jma- 
ginable pains to fettle and regulate the garrifon in the beft man- 
ner, and as fa ft as things will admit of. 

The inclofed, Sir, is the ftate of the ifland, with the artillery, 
ammunition, and provifions, found in the place at its furren- 

French, made prifoners of war, three hundred. 

Blacks, in arms, a great number; but I am not fufEcientiy 
informed as yet to fay precifely how many they amount to. 

The lofs the enemy fuitained, as to men, is fo very differently 
feted to me by thofe that it have been enquired of, that I muft de- 
fer giving the number till another opportunity. 

Iron ordnance of different bores, ninety three ; one brafs twelve- 
pounder ; iron iwivels mounted on carriages, eleven ; brafs mor- 
tars mounted on beds, two of thirteen inches ; ditto, one of ten 
inches ; iron, one of ten inches. In the magazine, powder, one 
Irandred barrels. Provifions ©f all fpecies for four hundred men 
for four months. 

Explanation of the Plan of the Ifland of Goree. 

A. The negroe village. 

B. The company's gardens, c5V. 

C. The ilayery. 

D. The negroes fountain. 

E. The company's fountain. 

F. The governor's fountain. 

G. The hofpital. 

H. The chapel. 

I. The officers houfe unfiniihed, 
K, Hutts for labourers. 
L. The barracks for carpenters. 
M. The apartment for bombar^ 

N. Qffi- 

1758. 27"? History of the War;, 123 

their commerce, and one of the moll capable of abundant 


N. Officers, ftore-houfes, and 
barracks for foldiers. 

O. The pharmacy and engi- 
neer's laboratory. 

P. The armourer's apartment 
and forge. 

Q^ The governor's apartment 
and garden, &c. 

R. A ciftern. R. R. A ciftern 

5. A powder magazine. 
T. Shades for water calks. 

W. The landing beach, and en- 
try into the parade. K 

V. The court of the fort of St. 

X. The iliambles. 

Y, The burying place. 

Z. Ditto for the negroes. 

6. A rain water ciftern. 

Explanation of the Batteries. 




The grand battery 9 guns. 

The falute battery 7 
/r m < ioguns. 

(fmall) 3 

St. Philip's battery 5 guns. 

St. Peter's battery 5 guns. 

Citadel of St. Mi- 7 6 

chael, en barbet 3 

North point bat- 7 9 guns. 

tery 3 1 fplit. 

Mortar battery 8 guns. 

Weft point battery 5 guns. 

A battery unfiniili'd 3 gun^. 

Negroe batteries 10 guns. 

)ar- > 
ill. J 

f Four half moon 

1 1. < batteries en ba 
C bet on the h 

12. Two flanking bat- 7 
teries for the bay 3 

13. Three paiTage 


3 guns. 

4 guns. 
7 guns. 

14. Three brafs one 7 4 mortars. 

iron mortars. 3 1 damage. 
15. On St. Francis 7 12 guns, 
fort 3 1 



1 10 pieces. 

A Geographical Account of the River Senegal. 
The river Senga, or Senegal, is one of thofe channels of 
the river Niger, by which it is fuppofed to difcharge its waters 
into the Atlantic ocean : The river Niger, according to the bell; 
maps, rifes in the eaft of Africa •> and after a courfe of three 
hundred miles, nearly due weft, divides into three branches, the 
moft northerly of which is the Senegal, as above; the middle is 
the Gambia, or Gambra ; and the moft fouthern, Rio Grande. 
Senegal empties itfelf into the Atlantic ocean in 1 6° north lat. 
The entrance of it is guarded by feveral forts, the principal of 
which is Fort Lewis, built on an iiland of the fame name. It 
is a quadrangular fort, with two baftions, and of no inconfidera- 
ble ftrength At the mouth of the river is a bar ; the beft feafon 
for palling it, is from March to Auguft i or September, or rather 


124 The History of t he War. 1758* 

From the Faff Indies we have this year heard nothing 
remarkable. It does not feem that the French, notwith- 
standing the great ftruggle they made to fend out a ftrong 
armament under Gen. Lally, have been in a condition to 
enterprife any thing. It is faid, and probably with good 
foundation, that the greateft part of that force was dwind- 
led away with ficknefs during the voyage. Our naval force 
was exerted with fpirit and effect in the Mediterranean. 
The French found that the pofleffion of Minorca could not 
drive us from the dominion of the Mediterranean, where 
Admiral Ofborn gave the enemies maritime ftrength fuch 
blows, as they muff long feel, and which merited him the 
greater!: of all honours, to be joined with the conquerors of 
Louifbourg, in the thanks of the representative body of 
their country. 

The coming year feems big with great events. In Ger- 
many the affairs of the rival powers of Pruffia and Auftria, 
appear to be more nearly balanced than at any time fince 
the beginning of the war. This force is as great as ever, 
and their animofity is no way lefTened. Great fteps are ta- 
ken to aflemble powerful armies en the Rhine ; whilft Great 
Britain has fent out two confiderable armaments, one to the v 
Weft Indies, the other to Africa; the fuccefs of which muft 

from April to July, becaufe the tides are then higher!. The 
Englifo had formerly fettlements here, out of which they were 
driven by the French, who have engroiTed the whole trade from 
Cape Blanco to the river Gambia, which is near five hundred 
miles. The Dutch were the fir ft who fettled in Senegal, and built 
two forts. The French made themfelves matters of them in 1678. 
In 1692 the Englijh feized them j but next year the French re- 
took therm, and have kept them ever fince. They built Fort 
Leims in 1692, and have beyond it a multitude of other fettle- 
ments, extending two hundred leagues up the river. The princi- 
pal commodities which the French import from this fettlement are, 
that valuable article of gum fenega, hides, bees-wax, elephants 
teeth, cotton, gold duft, negroe Haves, oftrich feathers, amber- 
greafe, indigo, and civet. 

Formerly we were obliged to buy all our gum fenega of the 
Dutch, who purchafed it from the French ; and they fet what price 
they pleafed on it. But as the trade to Africa is now opened, by 
this important acquifition, the price of this valuable drug, which 
is fo much ufed in feveral of our manufactures, is much reduced. 

175^* '^be History of the War. 125 

go a great way towards determining the iffue of the war. 
Other great preparations are alfo making on the part of 
Great Britain. In the mean time, the Dutch enraged at 
the captures of their fhips, make complaints, and threaten 
armaments. The death of the Princefs of Orange, which 
happened at a moft critical juncture, adds more perplexity 
to affairs in that quarter. If we look to the fouthward, the 
clouds feem gathering there alfo. The imminent death of 
the King of Spain, will be an event fruitful of troubles. In 
this affair the King of Sardinia, the houfe of Auftria^ and 
the houfe of Bourbon, will find themfelves concerned ; to 
fay nothing of the maritime powers. In a word, the flame 
of war threatens to fpread in every part of Europe. 


[ 126 ] 



O R, 


O F T H E 

W A R. 

For the YEAR 1759. 


The inclinations of the Powers at war at the clofing the lafl 
campaign. The King of Spain's death apprehended. Con- 
dition of the King of Pruffia, Emprefs Queen, Rnfpa, 
Sweden, Holland, France, and England. 

WHOEVER reflects upon the conclufion of the 
feveral campaigns fince the year 1755? w ^ ea ~ 
fily perceive that at the end of the lafl, the for- 
tune of the feveral powers at war feemed more nearly up- 
on a balance, than it had been at the clofe of anv of the 
former. The campaign was rather lefs bloody, than that 
which immediately preceded it ; and it was not concluded 
with any action of fuch an eclat, as could greatly raife, or 
deprefs the hopes of any of the contending parties. All 
parties became more cautious ; becaufe it became every 
day more evident, that the fortune of war was not to be 
decided by any Tingle ftroke, however confiderable. The 


5759- ^ History of the War. 127 

prize was referved for the player of the fkilful game ; for 
the moft attentive patience : for the greateft depth of re- 
fources. An equality of this kind feemed at la ft to pro- 
mife Europe fome repofe. All fides might now give jlti4 
receive honourable and equitable terms ; and peace might 
be fettled on that footing, on which it has been ufually made, 
for fome time paft, in our part of the world. But the great 
defigns entertained by each power; revenge imbittered by 
the blows which all had felt in their turns, the considerati- 
on of the vaft expences that fell upon all, and which a peace 
at that time would have made fruitlefs ; even the hopes 
arifing from the equivocal appearances of the laft campaign, 
eftranged every court from the difpofition to peace. Info- 
much that there were no terms directly offered by any of 
the belligerent powers; nor did any of the neutral interpofe 
their mediation. Befides thefe, another caufe operated 
powerfully ; a great event was hourly expected about this 
time; an event which threatened to involve the Southern 
parts of Europe in the calamities of that war, that had (o 
long wafted the Northern; and which, whenever it mould 
take place, threatened to render the political fyftem infi- 
nitely more intricate, and probably to give the war quite a 
new turn. 

The late King of Spain, by the force of a conjugal affec- 
tion, rarely feen in that dignity, fince the death of his 
Queen had been given up to a melancholy, which preyed 
upon his health, and affected his understanding. His death, 
or incapacity, appeared inevitable within a fhort time. The 
King of Naples, Don Carlos, was next in the order of fuc- 
ceffion. In the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, it had been 
agreed, that the dutchies of Parma, Placentia,and Guafta'la, 
fhould be reftored to the houie of Auftria, in cafe Dcia 
Carlos ihould ever come to the crown of Spain. Thefe 
countries were at the end of that war, in the hands of the 
Emprefs Queen, or her allies. Her Imperial Majefty had 
fet up a claim to the reverfion of thefe dutchies, en the ex- 
tinction of iffue male in the houfe of Farnefe. But the 
ambition of the Queen of Spain to make all her children 
Sovereigns, put powerful bars in her way to it. This am- 
bition was one of the caufes which made the laft fo general 
a war. The peace of Aix la Chapelle, which put a period 
to that war, after fettling thefe contefted dutchies as an 
eftablifhment for Don Philip, fecond fon to the King of 


128 The History of the War. . 1750. 

Spain, provided, that whenever the event, which we have 
mentioned above, fhould take place, that is to fay, the ac- 
ceffion of Don Carlos to the crown of Spain, then the king- 
dom of Naples and Sicily mould pafs to the infant Don 
Philip, and the dutchies which formed his eftablifhment 
mould revert to the houfe of Auftria. 

The King of Naples, not without reafon, looked upon 
this article of the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, as injurious to 
his rights; accordingly he never acceded to it. No method 
in this cafe could be feen, which might prevent matters 
from coming to extremities, except the fituation of the Em- 
prefs, engaged as fhe was with a powerful adverfary, who 
kept her forces {trained to the utrnoft pitch. She was in no 
condition to engage in a new war, however interefting the 
object: might be. Her ally France, who fo ineffectually 
aflifted her in Germany, could not probably affift her with 
more effect in Italy; (he therefore feemed to have no other 
part left, than to acquiefce for the prefent, and wait in 
iilence a more favourable opportunity to affert her claims. 
The event ol the King of Spain's death has fince happened. 
It has produced none of thefe immediate effects which were 
apprehended ; and this probably proceeded from the caufe 
which we have juft now hinted. A dead calm at prefent 
broods over Italy. But in this tranquillity and filence there 
are materials gathering, which may in no very diftant period 
burft in a terrible temped over that delightful country. 
They are very nearly the fame that produced the laft trou- 
bles there, and may not only. revive them, but fpread the 
horrors of war once more over all Europe. 

Such were the inclinations of the powers at war at the 
opening of this year ; their ftrength feemed alio very entire ; 
in particular, the refources of the King of PrufTia appeared 
affonifhing, after the great blows he had fuffered ; and after 
the advantages he had gained, but gained at fo high a price. 
He was flill able to (hew himfelf the father and benefactor, 
as well as the protector of his people. In the midft of the 
devouring waffe of fuch an expenfive war, from the funds 
of his ceconomy he was enabled to remit the taxes to thofe 
parts of his dominions, which had fuffered from the Ruffian 
barbarity; he even advanced money to thofe which had 
fuffered the mod: confiderably. 

**To take a nearer view of his fituation, we muff obferve, 
that the whole kingdom of Pruffia flill remained in the 


1759- ^ je History of the War. 125. 

hands of the Muscovites. The dutchy of Cleves, together 
with his other pofleffions on the Rhine, could yield him 
nothing; they were held by the French \ but in thefe ref- 
pe&s, his fituation was not worfe than it had been, almoft 
from the beginning of the war. He had to balance thefe 
lofTes, the rich country of Saxony, which he had twice in 
one campaign wrefted from the hands of the Auftrians. Add 
to this, the renewal of the fubfidy. treaty with Great Britain, 
on the advantageous terms of the former year. Thefe were 
undoubtedly great fupports; and the King feemed as'entire 
in power, and more advanced in reputation than ever. 

But to a more critical examination, things had an afpe£fc 
not quite fo favourable. This appearance was rather fpe- 
cious than entirely folid; and whilfl: all without looked full 
and fair, within there was a decay of fubftance, and an 
hollownefs that rung at the flighted touch. That incom- 
parable body of troops, which at the beginning of the war 
had given him fo great a fuperiority, no longer exifted in 
the fame perfons. If his troops derived advantages from a 
Jong feries of aclive fervice, thefe advantages were equally 
on the fide of the enemy. His army had known what it 
was to be beaten ; and it is no wonder, if a fort of wearinefs 
and defpair began to creep upon them, after fuch an infi- 
nite train of unrewarded fatigues, when they faw that fo 
many wonderful exploits had not yet ended the war in 
their favour. Many of his bed generals had been killed in 
battle, or died, or had retired, or were difgraced. The 
hoards which he had amaffed before the war, by this time 
muft have been entirely fpent ; his dominions- mud have 
been greatly exhaufted, both of men and money. Saxony 
could no longer yield fuch fupfflies as formerly. The in- 
digence of the fubdued mhabitants, fet bounds to the rapa- 
city of the conqueror. The fubfidy of Great Britain did 
a great deal ; but it could not fupply the deficiencies on 
this, and on every other fide. Thefe circumftances, pro- 
bably, made the King of Pruflia more cautious and dilato- 
ry than ufual. 

The court of Vienna had as great burthens to fuftain 
as the King of Pruflia, and file had fuffered much greater 
blows. That power has a ftrength, fomewhat unaccount- 
able and peculiar to herfelf. More deficient in pecuniary 
funds, than any other great power in Europe, (he is better 
able to fubfift, and to do conficterable things without them-. 

K For 

i%o The History of the War. l 159° 

For by a long habit, the whole {late is formed to its necef- 
fities; and the fubject is more ready to fupply free quarter, 
and to indore military licence than any other. The coun- 
try is abundantly fruitful in all its parts. And \vhilft the 
war is carried on near home, an arbitrary government, 
operating on fo exteniive an object* can hardly fail of fuch 
refources, as mud ferve an Auftrian army; which is dill 
paid in a great meafure, as v Tacitus defcribes the troops of 
the antient Germans to have been ; they have a plentiful ta- 
ble in lieu of pay *. 

And indeed it mud be owned, that there is no Sovereign 
who is more highly honoured in his dominions, or obeyed 
with a greater mixture of love and reverence, by all his 
fubjects, than her Imperial Majefty. So that having a very 
ample power, very willing obedience, a large territory and 
many men, not fufficiently employed in the arts of peace, it 
perhaps may be guefied, in what manner (he has been able 
to fupply her many and great loCTes, and to continue a 
war, like the prefent, better than dates more abundant in 
money. She is befides, and this is a matter of no fmali 
confequence, fupported by the countenance, the authority, 
and the forces of the Empire. And (he has for her allies 
the fird, and mod formidable names in Europe. In the 
wars which this power carried on in the fad, and in this 
century, though ufualfy not very fuccefsful, (he has always 
been the lad to defire a peace; though frequently flow in 
her operations* Ihe makes amends by an extraordinary per- 

This flownefs could not efcape general obfervation, in 
the actions of the lad year. That the Auftrians did not 
play with Efficient fpirit, the great game which was in 
their hands, after the battle of Hochkirchen, and the entry 
of the Ruffians into the New Marche of Branden burgh, 
feems hardly difputable. Perhaps it was that the court of 
Vienna, by an error common to many courts, but particu- 
larly fo to this, and often fatal to it, interfered too much 
and too minutely, in the operations of the campaign. 

It is not impoflible that the character of Marma! Daun 
himfelf, might have had fome fhare in this inactivity; a 
character almod in all things the direct reverfe of that of 

: * Nam epul<e, et quanquam incompti, largi tamcn apparatus 
fro Jiipendio cedunt. Tacit, de moribus Germ. §. 14. 


1759- ^ je History 0/ /^ War, 131 

his Pruflian Majefty. He faw that the King, active, refo- 
lute and advantageous, wafted himfelf even by that activity 
and fpirit, to which he owed his moft brilliant fucceffes. 
Should the Auftrians carry on the war in the fame fpirit, 
they might fuffer in the fame manner, without being ever 
able to equal, much lefs to exceed that great Monarch, in 
a ftile of action peculiarly his own. Daun therefore, by 
principle, feems to have kept his army from coming to 
action, in order to oppofe a ftrength entire, and recruited 
by a long reft, to that of the King of Pruffia, wafted by the 
efforts it was obliged to make inceffantly, and on every 
fide. His defign Teemed to be, that the ifTue of the war 
mould rather arife from the general refult and concurrence 
of all the operations, gradually producing a folid though a 
flow advantage, than from the effects of a bold, quick, and 
mafterly ftroke. In fact, the Auftrians felt all the benefits, 
and all the inconveniencies which ufually attend this fort of 
conduct, a conduct which probably loft them Saxony in the 
laft campaign, and which has fecured them the pofleflion 
of what they now hold in that country. The Auftrians 
and PrufTians watched the time and one another, and came 
very late to action. 

The court of Peterfburg ft ill adhered to its old fyftem, 
in fpite of the late ill fuccefs of her arms, and all the ef- 
forts of the Britifh minifter, to withdraw her from her al- 
liance. If fhe had fome lofs of men, it was the leaft lofs 
fhe could feel: and fhe thought that whilft the war was 
carried on at the expence of others, the reduction of fo near, 
fo dreaded, and fo heated a rival as the King of Pruftia, and 
the opportunity of the forming her troops to fervice, and 
perfecting her officers, were objects of confequence enough 
to keep her clofely attached to her firft fentiments. 

The Swedes preferved likewife the fame connexion; but 
they continued as before, an inconfiderable, and inglorious 
part of the war. 

Holland preferved her neutrality; but it was a neutrality 
little refpected, and indeed in itfelf little refpectable. Di- 
vided in her councils, attentive only to private interefts, the 
difgufted the Englifh, and neither pleafed nor ferved the 
French. For fome of the fubjects of that republic had car- 
ried on the trade of France in their bottoms, which fubject- 
ed them to frequent captures from the Englifh men of war 
and privateers This produced loud complaints in Holland, 

K 2 and 

132 The History of the War. 1759. 

and warm remonftrances to the court of London. Thefe 
complaints met with little attention,, being in many refpefts 
but indifferently founded. The affair was drawn out in 
length, until thedifpute was extinguifhed by the deftru&ion 
of its obje6t; fome of the French colonies were reduced, 
and the trade in the others, grown too fmall and too hazard- 
ous to be continued longer with any hope of advantage. 

The affairs of France and England were partly connected 
with the general fyftem, and partly diftincl: and independent. 
France perceived that the ftrength of the Englifh, and the 
exertion of that ftrength, increafed continually in America; 
fhe knew from the natural inferiority of her colonies, and 
the feeble ftate of her navy, that fhe could not in reafon 
hope for great fuccefs in that quarter; for which reafon, 
although me fent a fleet under Monf. Bompart into the 
Weft Indies, and fome men of war, with as many ftore and 
tranfport {hips as fhe could fteal out of the river St. Law- 
rence, her great efforts were to be made in Europe; fhe 
had two objects ; the recovery of Hanover, and the invafion 
of thefe ifknds ; in either of which if fhe fucceeded, there 
could be tfo doubt, but that it would prove a fufficient ba- 
lance for all that fhe had fuffered, or had to apprehend in 
any other part of the world. 

With regard to the firft obje£f., though it was difficult 
to attain it, and though if it fhould be attained, it did not 
promife to anfvver her purpofes fo well as the latter, yet it 
was upon that fhe chiefly depended. Hitherto indeed the 
fuccefs which France had in Germany, was not at all pro- 
portioned to the prodigious efforts which fhe made; fhe 
began to find herfelr much exhaufted ; the wants of the 
French obliged them to pay little refpecl: to neutral, or 
even to friendly powers ; fo that the efteem and afllftance 
which they had in Germany, diminifhed continually. 
They eat up the country, and feized on fuch towns as 
were convenient to them, without any ceremony: yet 
freed from ail thefe reftraints, their army had made very 
little progrefs; their generals had not displayed any great 
abilities, and their army, in itfelf very badly compofed, 
was deficient in discipline, to a degree which is fcarcely 
credible. They kept neither guards, nor polls, nor cen- 
tinels ; a great part of their troops wandered from the 
camp into the neighbouring towns, and returned drunk. 
Their councils of war were held in a tumultuous and difor- 


, 759- ^e History of the War. 133 

derlv manner ; and all their defigns were perfe&ly known 
in the camp of the allies, where a very different picture was 
exhibited, with regard to regularity and caution. 

The French troops have feveral eflential defeats in their 
conftitution, which prevent them from equalling thofe of 
Germany, and other nations. Several regiments are in a 
manner hereditary in great families, who placed at their 
firft outfet at a very high point of military rank, think it 
unnecelTary to attain the qualifications, which lead others 
to it Step by llep. As to the reft of the officers, as their 
pay is fmall and their hopes little, few ftudy the art military, 
as a profeflion: they ferve becaufe it is the fafhion to do fo, 
and that it is thought neceflary to be a gentleman. Thus 
they difpatch their bufir.efs as a difagreeable tafk ; and hav- 
ing little tolofe in the Service, it is almoft impoffible to pre- 
serve a due Subordination. The common men are little 
more than abject vaiTals, and therefore want that high fpirit 
which in their gentry makes fome amends for the want of 
knowledge and affiduity. And as they are corrupted by the 
example of their fuperiors, fo by their negligence they are 
left without any reftraint. The officers do not choofe to 
incur the ill will of their men, or to give themfelves trouble, 
by exercifing that wholefome feverity in which the health 
and vigour of military difcipline confilt. 

The German common people are indeed in a flill lower 
ftate of vaflalage than the French, and might therefore be 
fuppofed naturally, no better foldiers ; but their bodies are 
more robuft and hardy ; their treatment is fevere and rigo- 
rous, their Subordination is mofl exa£t, which makes their 
difcipline perfecl ; and Germany is fo habituated to war, 
that all the people may be laid to be born foldiers. Thefc 
things give the Germans a great Superiority over the French; 
a fuperiority which was more vifible in this, than in any 
former war. 

TheSe defects in their army were increafed by the low 
ftate of their finances, which cauftd their troops to be 
very ill paid. The French court made Some attempts to 
keep up their credit, by changing their former methods of 
railing money. Mr. Silhoute was made comptroller of the 
finances, and the farmers general were removed from their 
former employment of finding the Supplies. New methods 
were deviSed, which might ftave off the entire ruin of their 
finances, until their armies in Germany could ftrike fome 

K 3 efTe&ual 

134 ¥fa. History of the War. i 759- 

effectual blow, or their project of an invadon, which qui- 
eted the minds of the people in fome degree, fhould be put 
in execution. 

With regard to the latter project, France had formerly 
found that the bare report of fuch a defign had ferved many 
material purpofes; but in England things had, lince then, 
been greatly changed. The threats of an invafion increafed 
our internal ftrength, without raifing any apprehenfions ; 
they in a great meafure executed the militia act, which 
hardly any thing elfe could have put in execution; they in- 
creafed the regular troops, both in their number and their 
fpecies. England for the firft time faw light horfe and 
light foot. There reigned in both houfes the mod perfect 
and unprecedented union. Among the great men there was 
no difference that could in the lead affect the conduct: of 
the war. The difpute concerning the preference of the 
continental and the marine lyftem, was entirely filenced ; 
becaufe a fyifem took place which comprehended both, and 
operated in both as fully as the warmeft advocates of either 
could defire. Never did England keep a greater number 
of lard forces on foot, on the continent of Europe, in 
England, in America, when me 'urned all her power to her 
land forces only. Never did me cover rhe jeas with fuch 
formidable fleets, when her navy alone engaged her atten- 
tion. Such is the effect when power and patriotifm unite ; 
when liberty and order kifs; and when a nation fits with a 
happy fecurity under the (hade of abilities which me has 
tried, and virtues in which fhe dares to confide. 


The allied army moves. Succe/sful fkirmifies on the fide of 
the allies. Battle oj Bergen, Prince Ferdinand retires to 
Windeken. Plan of the campaign* General Woherfnovj' > s 
expedition into Poland. Prince Henry's into Bohemia and 
Franconia. General Macguire defeated. Bamberg pilla- 
ged. Prince Henry returns to Saxony. Heffe abandoned 
by the allies. 

THE feizing of Francfort in the laft year, by a moft 
flagrant violation of the liberties of the Empire, had 
given the French and their allies the mod: material advan- 
tage they had acquired in the campaign; for it fecured to 


1759' *£&* History of the War. 135 

them the courfe of the Maine, and the Rhine, and made it 
eafy to them to receive every kind of reinforcement and 
fupply* » It%fecured likewife that communication between 
them, the Imperial, and the Auftrian armies, and formed 
that chain, from which they derived no fmall benefit of 
mutual fuccour and concurrence in their operations. Much 
depended upon their being diflodged from that port; as 
well with regard to the fortune of his Britannick Majefty's 
army, as to that of the King of Pruffia. Such a llroke muft 
necelTarily have the grea||ftiniluence on the events of the 
whole enfuing campaign. Prince Ferdinand, fenfible of 
this, as foon as the feafon permitted him to enter upon 
action, drew his troops out of their cantonments ; and at 
the head of thirty thoufand men, prepared to diflodge them, 
before they could receive the fupplies,^of which they were 
ia daily expectation. The reft of his army, confifting of 
about ten or twelve thoufand men, were left to guard the 
electorate, and to watch the biihoprick of Munfler. Some 
detachments of Hanoverians and Pruflians had, \n the latter 
end of February, driven the Imperialists and Autmjans from 
the pofts, which they occupied at Erfurth and ifcfinach, 
and fome places in the country or HeiTe ; this drew atytrong 
body of the enemy into that part, which pufhed them back; 
but the hereditary prince of Brunfwick, who led the army 
of the allies through ways^, before deemed impaflable to an 
army, defeated them in fome fevere fkirmifhes ; feveral 
places of importance were taken ; feveral whole battalions 
were made prifoners, with their officers. The French, 
alarmad at the vivacity of this beginning, judged it but the 
prelude to fomething more decifive. Accordingly the Duke 
of Broglio took an advantageous poft, near Bergen, at a 
village between Francfort and Hanau, which it was necef- 
fary the Allies mould mailer, before they could penetrate 
to his line. This place he had made his right, and fecured 
his flanks and centre in fuch a manner, that the attack could 
only be made at that village. 

In this difpofition was the French army when the Allies 
approached ; they formed themfelves under an eminence, 
and began the attack on the village of Bergen, between 
nine and ten in the morning, with great intrepidity. They 
were received with a very fevere fire, which the enemy 
had prepared for them ; they made three attacks in the 
fpace of about two hours, and were every time repulfed. 

K 4 Prince 

136 The History of the War. . 1759. 

Prince Ferdinand now obferved that the enemy dill kept 
a. good countenance in their poft, and that his own troops 
began to fall into fome diforder. This able general, who 
never rifques his fortune on a fingle throw, began to think 
of a retreat, whilft his lofs was yet inconfiderable, and the 
diforder of his men eafily to be repaired. But a retreat in 
the face of a victorious enemy, was hazardous ; and the 
day was not yet above half fpent. In this exigence he made 
fuch movements, as flrongly indicated "a defign of falling 
once more upon the village, in the enemy's right, and of 
making at the fame time a new attack upon their left. 
Thefe appearances were farther countenanced by a cannon- 
ade, on both thefe pofls, fupported with an uncommon fury. 
The French deceived by thefe manoeuvres, kept clofe in 
their pofts ; they expected a new and a lively attack every 
moment ; they returned the cannonade as brifkly as they 
could; and in this pofture things continued until night came 
on, when the prince made an eafy retreat, without diforder, 
or moleflation, and halted at Windeken. 

In this action the lofs of the allies was about two thou- 
fand in every way : that of the French was by no means 
lefs conflderable. The allies indeed fufFered nothing in 
their reputation ; their countenance through the whole 
action having been excellent. Prince Ferdinand gained 
as much honour, and difplayed as much (kill, as could 
have been obtained, or fhewn upon a more fortunate occa- 
sion. The event however was, in its confequences, far 
from indifferent ; for the allies having miffed this blow, 
the French ftill kept Francfort, and all advantages, which 
they drew from that fituation ; they had time and means to 
receive their reinforcements; and they acquired in a fhort 
fpace fuch a fuperiority, as obliged prince Ferdinand to 
content himfelf with acting on the defenfive, for a long 
time after. 

The advantages which would have arifen from another 
iffue of that battle appeared more fully, from the operati- 
ons which were carrying on the fide of Bohemia, and 
which probably were defigned to concur with thofe of the 
prince, in fome grand and comprehenfive fcheme. There 
is no doubt, that the army of the allies, and thofe of his 
Pruflian Majefly, had determined to act in concert, and had 
fettled fome plan for that purpofe ; and though it mould 
Hot be difcovered with equal certainty, what that plan was, 


1*759- ^ e History of the War. 137 

it may not however be unpleafant to trace it ; as far at 
leaft as a reafonable conjecture, guided by the lights derived 
from the tendency of each operation, may lead us. For if 
we fucceed at all, in fuch an attempt, it diffufes a wonder- 
ful clearnefs over the whole narrative. 

It is not impoilible then, that it was defigned in the firfi: 
place, to keep the Ruffians at a diftance, until the latter end 
of the fummer, by the c'eftru&ion of their magazines in 
Poland. That on the other fide prince Ferdinand mould 
attempt to drive the French towards the Rhine, and to get 
between them and the army of the Empire; which having 
thus lofl: its communication with the French, prince Henry 
mould rufh out of Saxony, and fall upon them in Bohemia 
and Franconia, and cut off alfo their communication with 
the great body of the Auftrians. Then the Imperialifts, 
would find themfelves fituated between two hoftile and fu- 
perior armies; whilft in Bohemia, Marfhal Daun would be 
either obliged to try his fortune fingle handed, with the 
King of Pruflia, or totally to abandon that kingdom, into 
which it was in the power of the Pruffians to enter, in op- 
pofite parts at once. 

The firft part of this plan was executed with great fpirit 
and fuccefs. So early as the 23d of February the Pruffian 
general Woberfnow maiched into Poland from Glogau in 
Silefia, with forty-fix fquadrons, and twenty-nine battalions, 
where they routed fome bodies of Cofiacks; and after hav- 
ing deftroyed feveral immenfe magazines, particularly one 
at Pofen, faid to be fufficient for the fubfiftence of fifty 
thoufand men for three months, they returned without any 
lofs into Silefia* on the 1 8th of April. 

As for the iecond Act of this military drama, it was exe- 
cuted with as great fuccefs, and with fome advantages 
more (hiking than the firil. Prince Henry commanded the 
Pruffian troops in Saxony, which the public accounts called 
forty thoufand men. He had certain intelligence, that fome 
movements, which had purpofely been made by the King 
of Pruffia, had drawn the greateft part of the Auftrian 
troops, which had been polled as a watch upon Saxony, 
towards the frontiers of Silefia. He immediately took ad- 
vantage of this opening, and entered Bohemia in 
two columns: one marched towards Peterfwade: April 15. 
the other, which was commanded by General 
Hulfen, made its way by Pafberg and Commottau. The 


ij? The History of the War. 1759. 

firft penetrated as far as Lobofchutz, and Leitmeritz, the 
enemy Hying before them, and every where abandoning or 
burning the vaft magazines which they had amafled in all 
thofe parts. 

The body under Genera! Huffen did as much fervice, and 
it had a more active employment. The pafs of Pafberg, 
ftrong in itfelf, was defended by a coflfiderable body of 
Auftrians. General Hulfen having conducted his cavalry 
by another way, fo as to fall directly on their rear, attacked 
them with his infantry in front, and drove them out of all 
their intrenchments ; one general, fifty-one officers, and no 
lefs than two thoufand private men, were made prifoners 
on this occafion. The Pruffians loft but feventy 
April 22. men killed and wounded. They returned into 
Saxony with hoftages for the contributions they 
Itad exacted. 

After this fatiguing expedition, the prince gave his troops 
a few days to reft, and then led them once more to a&ion. 
He directed his march through the Voigtland, towards the 
army of the Empire ; they entered Franconia by the way 
of HofF; they attacked General Macguire, who command- 
ed a body of Auftrians and Irnperialifts, Here they were 
bravely refilled for the whole day ; but the numbers and 
fpirit of the Pruffians prevailing, Macguire gladly took ad- 
vantage of the night to make a retreat, having loft about 
five hundred men. A ^w fkirmifhes more decided the fate 
of Franconia. The army of the Empire retreated, as the 
Pruffians advanced, and abandoned the rich bifhopricks of 
Bamberg and Wurtzburg to contribution. The 
May 16. town of Bamberg furrendered upon terms ; but 
fome confufion happening before the capitulation 
was eompleatly finiihed, a party of Croats came to blows 
with a party of Pruffians, who had by this time poffeffion 
©f one of the gates; this was refented as an infringement 
©f the capitulation. A pretence was given to plunder the 
place; it was given up to pillage, by order of the comman- 
ders, for two days, in a very unrelenting and licentious 
manner. This produced loud and juft complaints againft 
the Pruffians, and in due time a fevere retaliation. Prince 
Henry had pufhed back the army of the Empire, as far as 
Nuremberg ; he had difabled a great part of the circle of 
Franconia from giving them affiftance ; and thus far he 
kad accomplilhed the objects of his expedition. But as 


1759- Th e History of the War. 139 

that part of the plan, which prince Ferdinand was to have 
executed, had failed, it was impoflible on one hand to hinder 
the French army from fuccouring that of the Empire, or 
on the other, to prevent a body of Auftrians from availing 
themfelves of his abfence, to penetrate into Saxony. In 
thefe circumftances any farther Qay in i ? ranconia was ufe- 
lefs, and might be dangerous. His army, loaded with booty 
and contribution, returned to their old fituation. The Au- 
ftrians retired into Bohemia at their approach. 

Appearances were hitherto favourable enough to the 
Pruflians: however none of the great ends propofed by the 
general plan were fully anfwered. The Ruffians, notwith- 
standing the deftru&ion of their magazines, continued their 
march towards Silefia. Count Dohna, who had raifed great 
contributions and levies in the dutchy of Mecklenburg, was 
preparing to oppofe them on the fide of Brandenburgh ; 
other parties under other commanders, were pofted at thofe 
places where their irruption was the mod apprehended. 
The approach of this army brought things nearer and nearer 
to a crifis. The eyes of all Europe were fixed with anxiety 
and expectation on their progrefs. It appeared the more 
formidable, becaufe the progrefs of the French arms was 
very rapid after the battle of Bergen. 

Prince Ferdinand finding that another attack was not ad- 
vifable, retreated continually. The French poflefled them- 
felves of Hefle without oppofition ; they met as little in 
making their way through the bifhoprick of Paderborn; and 
whillt. their grand army, under Marfhal de Contades, pulhed 
the allies in that quarter and on the fide of Hefle, M. 
d'Armentieres was ported by Wefel, to advance on that fide 
as occafion fhould require. The condition of the allied 
army was extremely dubious ; whilft the French increafcd 
in their numbers and fpirit. Their new fuccefs gave them 
reafon to hope for a campaign as fortunate as that of 1757. 


140 The History of the War. *759- 

C H A P. III. 

Expedition to the Weft Indies under Hopfon and Moore. Ac- 
count of Martinico. Fail-are there. The Caufes of it. 
Guadaloupe invaded. Defcription of that ijland. Baffe 
Terre attacked arid burned. Gen. Hopfon dies. Operati- 
ons againjl Grand Terre. Several paffes forced. The in- 
habitants capitulate. Bravery of a French lady. Mary- 
galante taken. 

GREAT Britain was not content with the efforts which 
fhe had made in Germany: America, the interefts 
or, which had given rife to the war, was the object which 
principally engaged her attention. This was indeed the 
proper object of her natural ftrength, and by her fuccefs in 
this quarter, fhe moll effectually laid the axe to the root of 
the enemy's naval power, and cut away one great part of 

the refources which fed the war. A fquadron of 
Nov. nine (hips of the line, with fixty tranfports, con- 
1758. taining fix regiments of foot, in the end of the 

laft year, failed for the Weil: Indies, in order to 
attack and reduce the French Caribbee iflands. General 
Hopfon commanded the land forces; the fleet in the expe- 
dition was to be under the orders of Commodore Moore, 
then in the Weil Indies. 

Their firft object was Martinico, the firft in reputation 
cf the French Caribbees, the feat of government, the centre 
of all the trade which Fiance carries on with thofe iflands; 
fbong both by nature and art. This ifland lies in the 15th 
degree N. lat. The fhore is on every fide indented with 
very deep bays, which they call Cul deSacs ; and the fands, 
only difcoverable at low water, form in many places a hid- 
den, and almoft infurrnountable barrier. A lofty ridge of 
almofl impaffable mountains, runs north weft and fouth eafl 
quite through the ifland ; all the fpace on both fides is inter- 
fected at inconfiderable diftances with deep gullies, through 
which the water pours down in the rainy feafons, with 
great impetuofity. In other refpects, the ifland is pleafant 
and fruitful ; well watered, and well cultivated, abounding 
■with plantations and villages all along the fea coaft. The 
two principal places are St. Pierre, and Port Royal ; both 


1759- y^ 6 History of the War. 141 

towns confiderable in this part of the world, for tbeir mag- 
nitude, trade and ftrength. 

By this fhort defcription may be difcerned, how defirable 
fuch a conqueft was<> and the difficulties which naturally 
oppofed themfelves to it. They were the greater, becaufe 
at this time there was in the ifland a confiderable number 
of regular troops. They have at all times a numerous and 
well armed militia, not contemptible for their difcipline, 
and well fuited to the fervice.of the country ; add to this^ 
that they can bring into the field a large body of negroes, 
habituated to arms, and in general well affe£ted to the in- 
terefts of their matters. 

The Englifh forces landed without oppofition, on the; 
weft fide of Port Royal harbour, after the men, 
of war had driven the enemy from their bat- Jan. 6. 
teries and entrenchments. But on their landing, 
they found that the nature of the country proved a greater 
obftru&ion to their progrefs, than the ftrength of the enemy. 
Thefe profound gullies, inclofed by deep, and almoll: per- 
pendicular precipices, proved an unfurmountable obfTacle 
to the regular march of the troops, or the conveyance of 
cannon. The enemy had broke up the roads; and five 
miles of fuch roads, and through fuch an impracticable 
country, were to be paffed before Port Royal could be at- 
tacked by land. The commander, therefore, of the force?, 
judged the difficulties on the land-fide infurmountable ; the 
naval commander held it impoflible to put the cannon afhore 
nearer to the fort. Some jealoufy feems to have arifen. 
The refult of the whole Was, that the forces were reim- 
barked on the day of their landing. 

Very little was done at Port Royal; bur it was- hoped, 
that more would be done at St. Pierre. They accordinglv 
fet fail for that place; but when they had arrived 
before it, and examined the coait, new difficul- 19th. 
ties.arofe, which produced a new deliberation. 
Tney determined that the fort could not be reduced, with- 
out fuch detriment to the troops and the (hipping, that 
they could afterwards make little ufe of their iuccefs; and 
in this they had probably good reafon. The conduct of 
the officers afterwards plainly demonilrated, that no mean 
views had any influence on their councils ; they agreed to 
abandon their enterprize againft Martinica. But having 
been foiled in this their firft attempt, they reiolvcd not to 


142 The History of the War. 1 1S9- 

return with the difgrace of having done nothing worthy of 
the greatnefs of the armament, and the expectation of their 
country. They confidered, that the ifland of Guadaloupe 
was an object though not of fuch an 'eclat, of full as much 
real confequence as Martinico; and they knew, that it was 
neither fo ftrong in troops or fortifications. Their firft 
failure might lead to an advantage, as confiderable as that 
which they had miffed. In purfuance of thefe refolutions, 
they fet fail for Guadaloupe. 

The ifland is called Guadaloupe, from a refemblance 
which it bears to a chain of mountains of the fame name 
in Old Spain. To fpeak with exa&nefs, Guadaloupe is 
rather to be confidered as two iflands, divided from each 
other by a fmall arm of the fea, or fait-water river, not 
above three hundred feet over where it is wideft. One of 
thefe iflands is called the Grand Terre ; the other more 
particularly and by diftinction, Guadaloupe ; they are to- 
gether in a circle about ninety leagues. The firff. is nearly 
deftitute of frefh water, and not perfectly cultivated ; but 
it is otherwife with Guadaloupe. No part of the world 
is furnifhed Avith more or better. No lefs than fifty ri- 
vers, in that fmall circuit, throw themfelves into the fea; 
many navigable by boats, for two, fome even for three 
leagues into the country. Not to mention the numberlefs 
fprings which rife among the rocks, and after a thoufand 
beautiful meanders, lofe themfelves in the larger ftreams. 
The firfl: accounts which we have of that country, are la- 
vifh in the defcription of its beauties; and the latefr. agree 
with them, that no part of the Weft Indies, perhaps of the 
world, affords more agreeable and romantic fcenes. It is 
full of high mountains; one of which towers far above the 
reft, and is a volcano, continually emitting fmoke and fire. 
From hence they have confiderable quantities of fulphur. 
They have alfo hot baths, fit for all the medicinal purpofes 
in which fuch waters are ufed. The land ifi the valleys is 
extremely fertile ; it produces the ufual A^fcpfr. India com- 
modities, fugar, indigo, coffee, cotton, ana ginger : the 
mountains abound with game: fo that there is nothing in 
the ifland wanting, for the convenience and delight of life, 
in an air more temperate and falubrious than is commonly 
breathed between the tropics. 

The French began to plant colonies in this ifland as early 
as the year 1632. But for a long time this, together with 


1759- tte History of the War. 143 

all their other colonics, continued in a languishing condi- 
tion: It was in the beginning of the prefent century, that 
they began to emerge. After the peace of Utrecht had 
given France time to breathe, (he turned her attention 
ftrongly to thefe iflands; Guadaloupe partook however lefs 
of this care than Martinico, and yet, by its natural advan- 
tages, it does not fall fhort of that ifland, neither in the 
quantity, or the goodnefs of its produce ; if it does not 
greatly exceed it in both ; as it certainly does in its capacity 
to receive all forts of improvement. The importance of 
this ifland, until its late conqueft, was very little known in 
England. The reafon was this.; by an old regulation, the 
people of Guadaloupe were forbid to trade direclly with 
Europe, but were obliged to fend all their produce to 
Martinico, from whence they had all their European 
commodities. A Grange regulation, to be continued in an 
age fo enlightened as this, by a nation fo enlightened as 

The Englifh made attempts upon this ifland in 1691, s*id 
1703; but they were neither powerful enough, nor con- 
duded with fufficient ability to produce any permanent ef- 
fect; the troops wafted the country, and retired with their 
booty. But on this occafion, of which we are going to 
fpeak, they were more able, ftrong, and fortunate. 

On the 23d of January, the fleet came before the town 
of Bafle Terre, the capital of the ifland, a place of confi- 
derable extent, large trade, and defended by a ftrong for- 
trefs. This fortrefs, in the opinion of the chief engineer, 
was not to be reduced by the Ihipping. But Commodore 
Moore, notwithstanding this opinion, brought four men of 
war to bear upon the citadel ; the reft were difpofecl againft 
the town, and the batteries which obftru&ed the landing. 
About nine in the morning a fire from all Tides began^ 
which continued with the utmcft furv until night, when 
the citadel, and all the batteries, were effeaually filenced. 
During this cannonade the bombs, that were continually 
lhowered upon the town, fet it on fire in feveral places. It 
burned without interruption the whole of this and the fol- 
lowing day; when it was almoft totally reduced to aflies. 
The lofs was prodigious from the number of warehoufes in 
the town, full of rich, but combuftible materials. Nothing 
could be more ftriking, than the horror of the fpedacle, 


144 Fhe History of the War. j 759- 

from the mutual and unremitted fire of fo many great fhips 
and batteries, heightened with a long line of flames, which 
extended along the fhore, and formed the back ground of 
this terrible picture. 

In this lively engagement, our lofs was very inconfidera- 
ble. The next day the forces landed without op- 
Jan. 24. pofition, and took pofleflion of the town and cita- 
del. Notwithstanding this fuccefs, the ifland was 
far from being reduced. The country is rugged and moun- 
tainous, and abounded with paflfes and defiles, of a difficult 
and dangerous nature. The inhabitants had retired with 
their armed negroes into the mountains ; and all feemed 
prepared to defend their poffefTions bravely, and to the laft 

General Hopfon died on the 27th of February, and Ge- 
neral Barrington fucceeded him. He embarked part of his 
forces for the Grand Terre, where Colonel Crump attack- 
ed and reduced the towns of St. Anne, and St. Francois ; 
whilft this attack diverted the enemy's attention, the Gene- 
ral fell upon the ftrong poll of Gofier, and poflefled him- 
felf of it; and thus the Grand Terre was in a manner re- 
duced, and difabled from fending any relief to the other 

There is a confiderable mountain, not far from the town 
of Bafle Terre, called Dos d'Afne, or the Afs's Back; thi- 
ther a great part of the enemy had retired. It is a port of 
great ftrength, and great importance, as it keeps a watch 
upon the town, and at the-fame time forms the only com- 
munication there is between that town and the Capes 
Terre, the plained, pleafanteft, and mod fruitful part of 
the whole ifland. It was not judged practicable to break 
into it by this way; and all the reft of Guadaloupe was in 
the enemy's pofleflion. Therefore a plan was formed for 
another operation, by which it was propofed to furprize 
Petit Bourg, Goyave, and St. Mary's, and by that way to 
march into Capes Terre, which might be eaflly reduced. 
But this defign failing, it was neceflary to attempt thofe 
places by main force. Col. Clavering and Col. Crump 
landed near Arnocville, and attacked the enemy, ftrongly 
intrenched at a port, ftrong by nature, called Le Corne. 
This was forced ; another intrenchment at Petit Bourg had 
the fame fate; a third near St. Mary's yielded in the fame 
manner. An opening being, at laft made into the Capes 


1759* The History of t be War. 145 

Terre, the inhabitants faw, that the beft part of the coun- 
try was on the point of being given up to fire and fword; 
they came in and capitulated ; their poffeffions, 
and their civil and religious liberties were granted May 1. 
to them. 

Three fmall iflands, near Guadaloupe, Defeada, 
Santos and Petite Terre, furrendered a few days 19th. 
after, and on the fame terms. 

This capitulation was hardly figned, when the French 
fquadron under M. Bompart appeared before the ifland, 
and landed at St. Anne's, in the Grand Terre, the Gene- 
ral of the French Caribbees, with fix hundred regular 
troops, two thoufand buccaneers, and a large quantity of 
arms and ammunition. The capitulation was made at the 
mod critical time ; for had this reinforcement arrived but 
a day fooner, the whole expedition had probably been 

Thus came into the pofleffion of Great Britain, this 
valuable ifhnd, after a campaign of near three months, in 
which the Englifh troops behaved with a firmnefs, cou- 
rage and perfeverance, that ought never to be forgotten. 
Intolerable heat, continual fatigue, the air of an unaccuf- 
tomed climate, a country full of lofty mountains and fteep 
precipices, ports flrong by nature and by art, defended by 
men who fought for every thing that was dear to them ; a!l 
thefe difficulties only increafed the ardour of our forces, 
who thought nothing impofTible under commanders, who 
, were not more diflinguifhed for their intrepidity and (kill, 
than their zeal for the fervice of their country, and the 
perfect harmony and good understanding that fubfifted be- 
tween them. There is nothing perhaps fo neceflary to in- 
i'pire confidence into the foldier, as to obferve that the offi- 
cers have a perfect confidence in one another fa J. 


(a) The Hon. Gen. Barrington\r Letter to the Right Hon. Mr. Se- 
cretary Pitt, particularifmg his proceedings at Guadaloupe, 
May 9, 1759. 

IN my laft letter of the 6th of March, I had the honour to ac- 
quaint you, that the troops under my command 2XGuadakupe, 
(except the garrifon of Fort Royal) were all embarked, with 

L their 

146 tfbe History of the War. *759- 

It mull not be omitted, that many of the inhabitants 
exerted themfelves very gallantly in the defence of their 
country. A woman, a conliderable planter in the ifland, 


tkeir baggage, &e. without the lofs of a man. The fleet (ailed 
the nest morning for Fort Louis t but from the very great difficulty 
of turning to windward, were not able to reach it till the iith, 
at four in the afternoon, when all the fhips of war, but only 
twenty five of the tranfports, came to an anchor ; the others were 
either driven much to leeward, or prevented by the winds and 
throng currents from weathering the point of Saintes. 

I went on $xore at Fort Louis that evening to fee the Fort, and 
the works carrying on by the detachment that had already been 
&n.t thither from Ba£e£erre. 

On the iztht I went la a boat to reconnoitre the two coafts of 
this Bay, as well the Grand Terre £de, as that of Guadaloupe, to 
nod a proper place for making a defcent ; but Commodore Moore 
having acquainted me in the evening of that day, that he had re- 
ceived certain Intelligence of a French fquadron of ihips of war, 
coail&iag of nine of the line and two frigates, being ieen to 
the northward of Burbadoes^ and that it was therefore neceilary 
for him to quit this place, with all the fhlps of war under his 
comm&od, and go into Prince Rupert's Bay, m the ifland of Da~ 
mint£Q t as a Stuation more advantageous for the protection of Baf- 
jeisrre t and this place as well as the Englijb iflands; I thought it 
adviieahle %h,z nest day to call together the General Officers to 
consider what, in our prefent Htuation, was beS to be done, and 
it was determined ; notwithstanding the divided (late of the troops 
by the Reparation of the tranfports, tht weak ilate of Fort Louis t 
and the iaipofftbilliy of Supplying it with, water hut from the fhips ? 
snd the many diiEcakles which then appeared, that it would be 
moS tor his Majefiy's tervlce, and the honour of his arms, to do 
the utmoU: to keep pofleiflon of the Fort, and to wait fome fur- 
ther intelligence of the motions of the enemy. 

Commodore Moore failed the next morning for Prince Ruperfs 
Bay, with aU the fhips of war, except ths Roebuck of 40 guns, 
which he left, as fome protection to the tranfports. 

From this time to the 17th, f continued to direct, works to be 
made for the fecuricy of the catnp y and for the finiming, as we\i 
as ilrerigthening the lines, when, the chief engineer, who was on 
board one of the traniports that could not before get up, being 
arrived , and having made to me a report of the weaknefs of the 
Fort, f thought it neceflarv to call a council of war to coniider 
the Hate thereof; and it being debated whether the Fort might 


1759- The History of the War. 147 

particularly diftinguifhed herfelf; me was called Madam 
Ducharmy: this amazon put herfelf at the head of her fer- 
vants and flaves, and acquitted herfelf in a manner not in- 
ferior to the braveft men. 


not be made tenable, and kept as a garrifon for his Majefty's 
fervice, on a more circumfcribed plan, though it appeared im- 
poflible to keep it in the prefent extent of out-polls ; it was de- 
termined, after much confideration, that from its weaknefs and 
bad contlruction, its being commanded by feveral heights very 
contiguous to it, as well as the great difficulty (I may indeed fay 
the impoffibility) of procuring for the prefent, and eftablifhing a 
conftant fupply of water, and other more neceiTary things for the 
fupport and defence of a garrifon in this part of the world, not 
to be tenable. However, Sir, I was determined to hold it, until 
fome future event might convince me what was bell to be done 
for his Majelly's fervice. 

I reflected on the flate of the army under my command, and of 
the little probability there was of fucceeding in any attempt of 
reducing the Country by the troops I had, without the aflillance 
of the fhips of war to cover them in landing. But however I de- 
termined to make a defcent on the coaft of Grand Terre ; and for 
that purpofe I ordered Col. Cru?np y with a detachment confiding 
of fix hundred men, to go in fome of the tranfports that carried 
mbft guns, and endeavour to land between the towns of St. Anne 
and St. Francois, and detlroy the batteries and cannon, which was 
happily executed with very little lofs. 

As I imagined by my fending Col. Crump to attack the towns of 
St. Anne and St. Francois, the enemy would be obliged to detach 
fome of their troops from the poft of Gojier, I ordered, two days 
after he failed, the oni^' three hundred men I had left to be put on 
board tranfports, and lye ofF that town ; and in the morning of the 
29th, I went to reconnoitre the battery and intrenchments, and 
perceiving that the enemy appeared lefs numerous than for fome 
time before, I made adifpofition for forcing them by two different 
attacks. This was executed the next morning at fun-riling, with 
great fpirit and refolution by the troops; and notwithstanding the 
fire of the enemy from their intrenchments and battery, both were 
foon carried with little lofs, and the enemy drove into the woods. 
The troops immediately deflroyed the cannon and battery, with 
the town. 

This being happily effected, I ordered the detachment to force 
its way to Fort Louis ; and, at the fame time, fent orders for the 

L 2 garrifon 

148 The History of the War. l 1S9- 

Soon after the reduction of Guadaloupe, the 

May 26. ifland of Marigalante furrendered itfelf upon 

terms fimilar to thofe which were granted to the 


garrifon to make two Tallies, one to the right, in order to put the 
enemy between two fires, and the other to attack their lines, as I 
knew that which I had juft made would oblige them to fend troops 
to oppofe our paffage on that fide. The firif. was made, but the 
latter, by fome miftake, was not executed ; which, had it been 
done, we muft have inevitably been in poiTeffion of their lines. 
The detachment from Gojter forced their paffage with fome lofs, 
notwithstanding a very ftrong pafs that the enemy were poffefTed 
of, and took poffeflion of a battery of three twenty-four pounders, 
which would, the next day, have played upon our camp. 

Governor Dejbrifay, whom I had left at Fort Royal in BaJJe- 
terre y having been killed by the blowing up of fome cartridges 
that took fire from the wadding of a twenty-four pounder that was 
difcharged from the upper baftion of Fort Royal> at a body of the 
enemy, on the 23d of March ; I appointed Major Melvill, who 
commanded the detachment of the 38th regiment from the Lee- 
ward IJlandsy to be governor in his room. Major < Trollone J a 
lieut. of the 63d regiment, and two private men, were likewife 
killed by this accident ; and a capt. another iieut. and three men 
wounded : And the parapet of that baftion levelled with the 
ground by the explofion. 

At the fame time that I was acquainted with this accident, I 
was told, that the enemy had erected a bomb-battery, and thrown 
feveral fhells into the fort ; and that they had, for fome time paft, 
been working, as the garrifon fufpected, upon another battery -, 
I therefore ordered Governor Metoill to cauie a fortie (fally) to 
be made from the garrifon in order to deftroy it. Accordingly a 
detachment of three hundred men . Tallied out under the com- 
mand of Capt. Blomer, on the ift of April ', and without much 
difficulty forced the enemy's intrenchments, and got into the work, 
which proved to be a battery of one eighteen-pounder, and one 
twelve nearly compleated. Our people fpiked the guns, and re- 
turned to the garrifon with the lofs of only fix men killed, and fix 

As I thought the fort, by this accident, might want the aifift- 
ance of the chief engineer, I fent him thither immediately, as well 
as the commanding officer of the artillery, that no time might be 
loft in putting it again in a proper ftate of defence. 

The remaining part of the tranfports, with the troops, being 


1759- ^ e History of the War. 149 

former id and. This is a fmall place, but theconqueit is of 
confequence, as the French by this are left no footing in the 
Leeward illands : Martinico is one of thofe to the wind- 

now arrived ; nine having come on the 23d of March, and the 
others by one or two in a day ; as I had long intended, fo foon 
as it was in my power to make an attack on the Guadaloupe fide, 
as the enemy had there fome potts of infinite confequence, I form- 
ed, upon the information of fome Negroes, who promifed to con- 
duct the troops in flat-bottom boats by night, adefign of furpriz- 
ing Petit Bourg, Guoya<ve, and St. Marie's, at the fame time. 
The firfb was to be effected by Brig. Crump, who, the moment he 
had made himfelf mafter of it, was to march to bay Mahaut, and 
deftroy the batteries there, as weil as a large magazine of provi- 
fions that the enemy had collected from the Dutch, and to hinder 
any more arriving : The latter, under Brig. Clwvering, after he 
had furprifed St. Marie's and Guoyaqje, was to march into the 
Capefterre, and reduce that fine country. The fuccefs of this 
appeared not only to me, but to the gentlemen who were to exe- 
cute it, almoft infallible : But the night proved fo bad, and the 
Negroe conductors were fo frightened, that they run feveral of 
the boats on the fhoals, of which that coaft is full ; fo that tho* 
Brig. Clavering did land with about eighty men, yet the place was 
fo full of mangroves, and fo deep in mud, that he was obliged to 
return, but not without the enemy's difcoveringour defign. 

This obliged me to attempt by force, what could not be effect- 
ed upon a fafer plan: But as I then was laid up in a moil fevere 
fit of the gout in my feet, head, and ilomach, I fent Brigadiers 
Cla<vering and Crump to reconnoitre the coaft near Arno<ville ; and 
upon their report, I ordered one thoufand three hundred regulars, 
and one hundied and fifty of the Antigua volunteers, to land un- 
der the protection of the Woolwich man of war : What happened 
afterwards, you will fee by the following letter which I received 
at Petit Bourg from Brig. Clattering, on the 25th of April. 

At M. Poyen's, Capejierre, Guadaloupe, April 24, 1759. 

S I R, 

ON Thurfday the 12th of April, at day-break, I landed with 
the troops which you put under my orders, confiding of 
one thoufand three hundred men, exclufive of the Antigua volun- 
teers, at a Bay not far diftant from Arnoville. The enemy made 

Lf 3 no 

150 The History of the War. 1 159- 

ward. Thefe beginnings were happy omens of the fuccefs 
of the more important undertaking, which was to be carried 
on in another part of America. The reputation of our 


no oppofition to our landing, but retired, as our troops advanced, 
to very ftrong intrenchments behind the river Le Corn. This poll 
was to them of the greateil importance, as it covered the whole 
country to the bay Mahaut, where the provifions and fupplies of 
all forts were landed from St. Eujiatia, and therefore they had ve- 
ry early taken poffefiion of it, and had fpared no pains to flrengthen 
it, though the fituation was fuch as required very little afliftance 
from art. The river was only acceflible at two narrow palTes, on 
account of a morafs covered with mangroves, and thofe places 
they had occupied with a redoubt and well pallifaded intrench- 
ments, defended with cannon, and all. the militia of that part of 
the country. We could only approach them in a very contracted 
front, which was at leaft reduced to the breadth of the roads, in- 
terfered with deep and wide ditches. Our artillery, which con- 
fided of four field pieces and two hawbitzers, were ordered to 
keep a conftant fire on the top of the intrenchments, to cover the 
attack made by Duroure's regiment and the Highlanders^ who, on 
this occafion, behaved with the greateft coolnefs and refolution, 
keeping up, as they advanced, a regular platoon firing. This be- 
haviour fo intimidated the enemy, that they abandoned the firfl 
intrenchment on the left, into which the Highlanders threw the'm- 
felves, fword in hand, and purfued the enemy, with part of Du-> 
roure's regiment, into the redoubt. 

The enemy (till kept their ground at their intrenchments on the 
right, from whence they annoyed our people very much, both 
with mufquetry and cannon ; and though thofe who had carried 
the firft intrenchments had got into their rear, yet, till a bridge 
could be made to pafs the river, they could not get round to at- 
tack this poft. This took us up near half an hour ; but however 
we got up time enough to take near feventy of the enemy prifo- 
ners, as they were endeavouring to make their efcape, amongft 
whom were fome of the moft confiderable inhabitants of the 

We found in both the intrenchments fix pieces of cannon. Our 
lofs was one officer and thirteen men killed, and two officers and 
fifty two men wounded. 

So foon as the ditches could be filled up for the pafTage of the 
artillery, we proceeded on our march towards Petit Bourg. A 
confiderable number of the enemy had lined an intrenchment 


*759' Tie History of tie War. 151 

arms there, except in the reduction of Louilbonrg 5 had 
hitherto not been very great. But other commanders were 
now appointed, and other maxims prevailed. However, 


about half a mile on the left of the road, but when they perceived 
we were endeavouring to furround them, they abandoned it, keep- 
ing always about two hundred yards in our front, fetting fire to 
the fugar-canes, which obliged us more than once to leave the 
road, to avoid any accident to our powder/ 

The troops arrived late on the banks of the river LezarJ, be- 
hind which, at the only ford, the enemy had thrown up very 
ftrong intrenchments, protected with four pieces of cannon on the 
hill behind them. 

Having reconnoitred the fide of the river, and finding it might 
coft us very dear to force the palTage at the ford, I therefore kept 
up their attention all the night by firing into their lines, during 
which time I got two canoes conveyed about a mile and a half 
down the river, where being launched, we ferryed over, before 
break of day in the morning, a fufficient number of men to at- 
tack them in flank, whilft we fhould do the fame in front: The, 
enemy loon perceived their danger, and left their intrenchments 
with the greatetl precipitation. 

Thus we paired without the lofs of a man, it ill purfuing them 
to Petit Bourgy which place they had fortified with lines, and a 
redoubt filled with cannon. 

We found Capt. Uvedale there, in the Granada bomb, throw- 
ing fhells into the fort. The enemy did not remain in it long, 
when they faw our intention of occupying the heights round them, 
but left us matters of that, and the Port, with all the cannon 
round the place. 

We halted here the 14th, to get provisions for the troops. 

On the 15th at daybreak, Brig. Crump was detached with 
feven hundred men to the bay Mabaut, and at the fame time Capt. 
Steel with one hundred to Guoya-ve, about feven miles in our 
front, to deftroy a battery there. The panick of the enemy was 
fuch, that they only difcharged their cannon at him, and aban- 
doned a poll: that might have been defended againft an army. He 
nailed up feven pieces of cannon, and returned the fame evening 
to Petit Bourgy Brig. Crump returned likewife the next day with 
his detachment from the bay Mahaut, where he found the town 
and batteries abandoned. Thefe he burnt, with an immenfe 
quantity of proA ifions, that had been landed thereby the Dutch, 
and reduced the whole country, as far as Petit Bourg. 

L 4 The 

152 The History of the War. 1 759- 

we poftpone the narrative of thefe very interefting events, 
to conflder thofe which intervened on the continent of Eu- 
rope, in which too we are to fee our arms no lefs diftin- 

guifhed ; 

The heavy rains on the fucceeding days had fo fwelled the ri- 
vers, that it was impoffible for the troops to advance; however, 
this delay gave us an opportunity of ftrengthening the pofl at 
Petit Bourg. 

On the 1 8th in the evening, the Antigua volunteers took pof- 
feflion again of Guoya<ve ; they were fupported early the next morn- 
ing by a detachment commanded by Lieut. Col. Barlow , who had 
orders to repair the road for the pafTage of the cannon. 

On the 20th, after leaving two hundred and fifty men to guard 
Petit Bourg, the remaining part of the detachment, with the can- 
non, moved on to Guoyave, in order to proceed afterwards to St. 
Marie's, where we were informed the enemy were collecting their 
whole force to oppofe us, and had likewife thrown up intrench- 
ments, and made barricadoes on the road to prevent our approach 
to it. We were not long before we perceived them ; but, at the 
fame time, we found, as well by our own obfervation, as by the 
information of the guides, that it was not impoflible to get into 
their rear by roads the enemy thought impracticable, and confe- 
quently had guarded with very little care. 

A detachment was immediately formed under Col. Barlow, for 
this fervice, and orders were fent to haften the march of the ar- 
tillery, which, from the badnefs of the roads, had not been able 
to get up. The firfb ihot from our cannon, placed very near their 
intrenchment, with the alarm that was given by our detachment 
in the rear, made the enemy very foon fenfible of the dangerous 
iituation they were in, and indeed their precipitate flight only fa- 
ved them from being all taken prifoners. 

We purfued them as far as the heights of St. Marie's, where 
we again formed our men, for a frefh attack on the lines and bat- 
teries there. 

Whilfr the barricadoes were levelling for the artillery, we at- 
tempted a fecond time to pafs the woods and precipices that co- 
vered the flanks of the enemy's lines ; but, before we could get up 
our cannon, they perceived our movement, and began to quit their 
lines to oppofe it, which made us refolve, without any further 
delay, to attack them immediately in front ; and it was accord- 
ingly executed with the greater!: vivacity, notwithstanding the con- 
fidant firing of both their cannon and mufquetry. They abandoned 
here all their artillery, and went off in fo much confufion, that 
they never afterwards appeared before us, 


1759- f^e History of the War. 153 

guifhed; and to behold England emerging from the rub- 
bifli of low principles and timid condu£t> once more become 
the pride and terror of Europe, and acling in a manner 
not unworthy the mod illuilrious periods of her hiflory. 


We took up our quarters at St. Marie's that night, and the 
next day entered the Capejierre,- which is the richer!: and moft 
beautiful part of this or any other country in the Wert- Indies. 
Eight hundred and feventy Negroes, belonging to one man only, 
furrendered this day. 

Here MefT. de Glaiwvilliers and Duqueruy, deputed by the prin- 
cipal inhabitants of the ifland, met me to know the terms you 
would grant them ; and, as I accompanied them to Petit Bourg 
the next day, and there prefented them to you, it is not necelTary 
for me to mention any tranfaction fince that time. 

I cannot, however, conclude, without doing juftice to thofe, to 
whofe merit is due the fuccefs that has attended the King's arms 
on this occafion ; I mean the fpirit and conftancy of the troops : 
To Brig. Crump, without whofe concurrence I never undertook 
any thing, but chiefly to yourfelf, Sir, who planned the whole 
enterprise, and who furnimed me with all thefe means, without 
which, neither bravery or prudence can little avail. 

/ have the honour to be. &c. 


The Hon. General Barrington'j Letter to the Right Hon. Mr. Se- 
cretary Pitt, dated Head Quarters, in the Capefterre, Guada- 
loupe, May 9, 1759. 

I Have the fatisfadtion to inform you, that by great perfeve- 
rance, and changing entirely the nature of the war, by carry- 
ing it on by detachments, I have at length made inyfelf matter of 
Guadaloupe and Grand Terre. This is a work, Sir, that, I be- 
lieve, the moll fanguine (considering our total feparation from the 
fleet) could not expeft to have been performed by fo fmall a bo- 
dy of men. 

I mall not in this trouble you with a detail, as I have done my- 
feif the honour of fending it to you in my other letter. I fhall 
only fay in general 1 , that the great good conduct and zeal of Bri- 
gadiers Cla<vering and Crump, and the bravery of the troops, got 
the better of every obilacie ; forced the enemy in all their in- 


154 ^ History of the War, 1759. 


Progrefs of the French after the battle of Bergen. Munfl&r 
and other places taken. Situation of the French, and sf 
the Allies. Motions of Prince Ferdinand. Battle of Min- 
den. Hereditary Prince of Brunfwick defeats the Duke 
of Brifac. The French pafs the Wefer, L. G. S. refigns 
the command of the Britijh forces; Marquis of Granby 
fucceeds him. The French driven to Marpurg. Siege of 
Munfler. M. a^Eirees arrives at the French camp. Pro- 
ject of France for an invafion. Havre bombarded. Aflion 
off Gape Lagos. French fleet defeated. 

WE left the army of Prince Ferdinand upon the retreat, 
ever fmce the battle of Bergen. The French ad- 
vanced with great vivacity ; their light troops made incur- 


trenchments, and flrong paflesj took fifty pieces of cannon, and 
advanced as far as the Capejlerre, the only remaining unreduced 
part of the country. This at laft brought the enemy to terms. 
My fituation was fuch, that it was abfolutely neceffary, that what 
was done ihould not be procraftinated, as I was determined to 
grant no truce for time enough for the inhabitants to recover from 
their fears. Mr. Moore was abfent, the thing prefTed ; and fome 
refolution was to be taken immediately. That, which I took, 
was according to the befh of my underftanding, and I hope, Sir, 
you will approve of it. 

I believe, Sir, the infinite confequence and value of Guada- 
hupe and Grand Terre, is not perfectly known in England, as 
(if I am rightly informed) there is more fugar grown here than 
in all the Lee-ward Ijlands put together ; befides great quantities 
of cotton and coffee. The country, efpecially the Capejlerre 9 
the fineft I ever faw, watered with good rivers every mile or 
two 5 and a port belonging to it, where all the navy of England 
might ride fafe from hurricanes. All this, can be explained much 
better, than I can by letter, by Brig. Clavering, whofe infinite 
zeal for his Majefty's fervice, and talents as a foldier, I hope will 
recommend him to protection. Such men are rare ; and I think 
I may venture to aflure you, there are few things in our profeffi- 
on, that he is not equal to, if it ihould be thought fit to honour 
him with the execution of any future commands. 

I have 

1759- Vb e History of the War: 155 

fions almoft to the gates o£ Hanover. The Prince ftill con- 
tinued to retire, but he left garrifons in Lipftadt, Ritberg, 


I have appointed Col. Crump to the government, who, fince 
governor Haldane left us, I have made act as Brigadier: His 
merit is very great, both as a foldier, and a man of judgment ; 
he is of this part of the world ; underftands the trade, cuftoms, 
and genius of the people -, and as he thinks nobly and difintereft- 
edly, he would not have accepted of the government, but in hopes 
of advancing himfelf in the army by that means. I cannot fay, 
how very ufeful, and how much our fucceffes are owing to his 
good conduct, and great zeal. 

As I have now nothing to fear from the land, I am repairing, 
as well as I can, Fort Louis, and fortifying the ifle of Cocbon, 
for the greater fecurity of the harbour. The poor people here 
are in a miferable condition, but I mall do every thing in my 
power to procure them the things they want. 

I have the honour to fend you inclofed the capitulation of the 
governor, as well as that of the inhabitants. The latter have 
behaved, in all their dealings, with great candour; and it is a 
juftice I owe them, to acquaint you with it. 

It has not as yet been poflible for me to go round this ifland to 
fee the different pofts that mud be occupied, 1 therefore cannot 
yet determine the exact nnmber of troops that will be neceflary to 
be left for their defence. 

The great afliitance I have received from Capt. Lynn, of his 
Majefty's fhip the Roebuck, in the different fervices I have been 
carrying on for the reduction of thefe iilands, ought not to be 
forgot by me, as well as his firft lieutenant, Mr. Keating; both 
whom I beg leave to recommend to your favour. 

I find it is impoffible (from the different parts of the Iilands 
where they are to be received) for me to procure a return of the 
artillery and ftores (which have been delivered up, in confequence 
of the capitulation) to fend by this opportunity ; but I hope to be 
able to have the honour of lending it very loon. 

I cannot help congratulating myfelf, that I had juft figned the 
capitulation with the inhabitants of the Grand Terre, when a mef- 
fenger arrived in their camp to acquaint them, that M. Beauhar- 
nois> the general of thefe iilands, had landed at St. Anne's, on 
the windward part of that ifland, with a reinforcement from Mar- 
tinico, of fix hundred regulars, two thoufand buccaneers, and two 
thoufand ftand of fpare arms for the inhabitants, with artillery and 
mortars, under the convoy of M. Bompart's fquadron. Thisfup- 


i $6 Tie History of the War. t 759* 

Munfter and Minden, in order to retard the enemy's pro- 
grefs: their principal defign feemed to be to cot off his 

port, had it arrived there an hour fooner, muft have made the 
conquett of that ifland very difficult, if not impofiible. As foon 
as he heard the capitulation was hgned, he reimbarked again. 

Commodore MooreV Letter to the Right Hon. Mr. Secretary Pitt, 
dated Cambridge, in Prince Rupert'i Bay, Dominique, May 
ii, 1759, 

BY the Griffin, which arrived here on the 1 7th of April, I 
was honoured with your letter, fignifying his Majefty's moil 
gracious approbation of my conduct, and of the behaviour of 
thofe under my command, which I took the liberty t© communi- 
cate to thofe gentlemen : And give me leave to fay, Sir, nothing 
can contribute fo much to our happinefs, as being honoured with, 
and executing orders to the honour of his Majefty's arms. 

Give me leave, Sir, to congratulate you on the capitulation of 
the iiiand of Guadaloupe and Grand Terre, which Major Gen, 
Barrington lends to you by this exprefs ; in gaming which, 
great honour is due to the troops. The ftrong hold, the enemy 
had, could not be conquered but by great conduct and refolu- 

I hope the conqueft will prove as great an acquisition as it ap- 
pears to me. 

It is with great pleafure, I think I may fay, Sir, that on this 
expedition, great unanimity has been kept up between the £wo 
corps, as well in obedience to his Majefty's commands, as. from 
our own inclinations. It has ever been my wiih to have fuclf har- 
mony fubfift, and I flatter myfelf I have always fucceeded. 

I beg leave to acquaint you, Sir, that, on the 2d inft. being 
informed, the French fquadron, under the command of M. Bom- 
party was to windward of Marigalante, I put to fea in the night, 
and endeavoured to get up with them ; but, after beating five 
days, and having gained very little, two of our cruizers, that 
I had fent different ways, to watch the enemy's motions, faw 
them, the 6th inft. return betwixt the two iflands into Fort 
Royal. From the almoft conftant lee currents, it being very dif- 
ficult for mips to get to windward, it muft always be in the ene- 
my's choice, whether they will come to a general action or not. 
Their fquadron confifls of nine fail of the line, and three fri- 

I fhall, in conjunction with Gen. Barrington, give every affiir.- 
ance in my power to any other fervices. 


1759* ®* History of the War. 157 

retreat to the Wefer, to which he kept very clofe, as he 
knew the infinite confequence of that communication. How- 
ever, if the enemy failed to compafs that object, all the 
precautions of the Prince proved alfo ineffectual to retard 
the progrefs of their arms. Ritberg was furprifed, Lipftadt 
was blockaded, Minden was taken by a (Fault, where a garri- 
fon of one thoufand five hundred men were made prifo- 
ners, and where immenfe magazines fell into their hands. 
D'Armentieres advanced againft Munfter ; he attempted to 
take the place by a coup de main. Though foiled in his 
attempt with confiderable lofs, he did not defift ; he drew 
up his cannon from Wefel, and after a fhort 
fiege, made himfelf mafter of the city; the gar- July 25. 
rifon of four thoufand men, became his prifoners. 
Nothing feemed able to withftand the rapid torrent with 
which the French over-ran the whole country ; they no 
longer hoped, the conqueft of Hanover ; it was with them 
an abfolute certainty. Elated with the fair appearance of 
their fortune, they kept no bounds. The French minifter, 
the Duke of Belleiile, in his letters to the Marfhal Con- 
tades, fpeaks only of the means of fecuring their conqueft, 
and preventing another expuliion from Hanover ; and for 
this end propofed the mod cruel and unwarrantable expe- 
dients. Nor was there lefs dread and dejection vifible on 
the fide of the allies, than pride and confidence on that of 
the French. The archives and mod valuable moveables 
were fent off from Hanover to Stade. All things feemed 
haftening to the fame pofture which drew on the famous ca- 
pitulation of Clofter Seven. 

In this general gloom that overfpread the fortune of the 
allies, the Prince kept himfelf unmoved and attentive to his 
defigns. He did not fuffer himfelf to be difconcerted by 
blows, which he had probably forefeen, and the ill conse- 
quences of which he knew how to prevent. The body of 
the French army after the taking of Minden, had ported 
themfelves near the city', to which the right of their army 
extended; their left was protected by a very fteep hill ; in 
their front was a large morafs ; and a rivulet covered their 
rear. Nothing could be more advantageous than this fitua- 
tion ; and whilft they continued in it, nothing could be en- 
terprifed againft them. The army of the allies, after a con- 
tinued retreat, began at I a ft to advance, and fixed their 


158 The History of the War. 1759. 

camp altogether as advantageoufly at Peterfhagen, a place 
about three leagues from the enemy. 

Things were brought to that pafs, that nothing but a bat- 
tle could hinder the French from taking winter quarters in 
the deflorate. There was no poffibility of attacking them 
with any hope of fuccefs in the camp which they then oc- 
cupied. The point was to draw them from that poft into 
the plain ; but the movements neceflary to effe6t this were 
extremely hazardous to an inferior army, in fight of the 
enemy. The operations of Prince Ferdinand, on this oc- 
cafion, difplayed fo penetrating and uncommon a genius, 
fuch a guarded boldnefs, fuch a certainty of the grounds he 
went upon, fuch a perfect pofTeflion of himfelf, that per- 
haps there is no inftance in hiflory of generalfhip fo com- 
pleat and finifhed; for which reafon we fhall endeavour 
from the befl lights we have, to draw out at length the 
feveral parts that concurred to form this remarkable piece ; 
we could indeed wifh that the authentick accounts of fo ve- 
ry memorable an event, had been more clear and explicit ; 
but we muft content ourfelves with the materials we have. 

On the 29th of July, Prince Ferdinand forfook his camp 
on the Wefer, and marched towards Hillen, a village con- 
fiderably to his right, with the greateft part of his army : 
However he took care to leave on the brink of that river, a 
body under General Wangenheim ; which extended to the 
town of Thornhaufen, where they were intrenched, and 
fupported by a confiderable artillery. He had the day be- 
fore detached the Hereditary Prince of Brunf- 
Ju!y 28. wick, with fix thoufand men, to make a compafs 
towards the enemy's left flank, and to poft: himfelf 
in fuch a manner, as to cut off the communication of their 
convoys from Paderborn. 

The French were not inattentive to thefe movements ; 
their Generals immediately held a council of war; and the 
refult was, that they gave completely into the fnare that 
was laid for them. They faw, as they imagined, the allied 
army divided and disjointed ; and now the happy moment 
prefented itfeif, for the attack of General YVangenheim, 
who they knew was not ftrong, and who feemed at a great 
diftance from the red of the army, fo that it appeared im- 
poilible that he could be relieved. This body being routed, 
as it eafily might, it was obvious that they mould then be 
able to place themfelves between Prince Ferdinand's army 


*-159- ^ e History of the War. 159 

and the Wefer, and cut off his communication with that 
river ; the great object at which they aimed, through the 
whole campaign, and in which was involved the certain de- 
finition of the allies. 

Full of thefe ideas they left their advantageous pod, and 
in eight columns paffed the morafs in their front, . 
and advanced into the plain. The Duke of Brog- °' 

lio was to lead the attack, by falling upon that body that lay 
near the river, which feemed to prefent him an allured and 
eafy victory. He marched on, therefore, with great confi- 
dence ; but as foon as he had gained an eminence which lay 
along his front, he was ftruck with the utmoft furprife, 
when, inftead of a few pofts weakly guarded, he beheld the 
whole army of the allies drawn up in excellent order, ex- 
tending from the banks of the Wefer, quite to the morafs, 
in the front of the late French camp. This was a ftroke 
entirely unexpected ; they believed the Prince to have been 
at Hillen ; but he had marched up, and the whole army was 
joined in the night. This difcovery for a while put a flop 
to the motions of the French ; they were hemmed in be- 
tween the allies, the morafs and the river. Their fituation 
was difagreeable, but it was now impoffible to recede. 

The allies, finding the French flower than they expected, 
began to advance, and threatened the enemy's centre. This 
was compofed almofl: wholly of horfe ; but it was the 
flower of their cavalry, who anticipated the (hock of the 
allies, and began the engagement. The brunt of the bat- 
tle was almofl: wholly fuflained by the Englilh infantry, and 
fome corps of Hanoverians, which flood the reiterated 
charges of fo many bodies of horfe, the ftrength and glory 
of the French armies, with a refolution, fteadinefs, and ex- 
pertnefs in their manoeuvre, which was never exceeded, 
perhaps never equalled. They cut to pieces or entirely 
routed thefe bodies. Two brigades of foot attempted to 
fupport them, but they vanifhed before the Englifli infantry. 
Waldegrave's and Kingfley's regiments diftinguifhed them- 
felves in a particular manner this day ; nor were their com- 
manders lefs diftinguifhed. The enemy's horfe, which com- 
pofed their centre, being entirely difcomfited, and their 
right, which attacked Wangenheim, having made no fort of 
impreflion/they thought of nothing but a retreat. 

At this point of time the Prince fent orders to Lord 
George Sackville, who commanded the whole Britifh, and 


160 The History of the War. i 159- 

feveral brigades of the German cavalry, to advance. That 
cavalry formed the right wing of the allies, extended to the 
morafs, and if it could have charged at the inftant of the 
enemy's retreat, fuch a {hock at that time, and in that fitua- 
tion, would in all probability have left the French without 
an army in Germany. But the orders were not fufficiently 
precife, or they were not fufficiently underftood by theEng- 
lifh commander ; fo that there was fome delay in waiting 
for an explanation. The critical minute paffed away ; the 
Britifh cavalry loft their fhare in the glory of the action ; 
and the French retreated in fome order, favoured by the 
fpirited and well-judged efforts of the Duke of Broglio, 
and the advantages which the poffeflion of Minden gave 

What is remarkable, the French attributed their misfor- 
tune in this battle to the fame error in their difpofition, 
which loft them the battle of Blenheim ; that of compofing 
their centre almoft wholly of cavalry, without any proper 
fupport of foot. 

The battle was over ; but then it was that the effects of 
Prince Ferdinand's admirable difpofitions appeared in their 
full luftre. The French not having been molefted by the 
Britifh cavalry in their retreat, had an opportunity of re- 
gaining their former advantageous poft. They had, indeed, 
loft, the honour of the day, and miffed the ftroke which 
they had meditated. They had likewife loft a great number 
of men. But all thefe loffes and difgraces might be repaired, 
and there feemed nothing decifive in the day of the Minden. 
It had certainly happened, as it then appeared, if the Prince 
who forefeen this, and neglecting nothing which could be 
provided, had not formed the plan of detaching away the 
Hereditary Prince in the manner already related. At five 
in the morning of that day, this young hero attacked a 
large body of the French under the Duke de Brifac ; this 
body, though pofted in a moft advantageous manner, h< 
entirely defeated, and obliged them to take refuge in Min- 
den. The news of this blow came with an ill omen to M. 
de Contades, in the inftant when the Englifh infantry began 
to engage his centre. The enemy himfelf could not help 
admiring the dexterity of the ftroke under which he funk : 
and full of afionifhment at a conduct at once fcedaring an( 
judicious, paid the juft applaufe to a General, who could 
detach with fecurjty fo large a body from his army, whei 


i759- ?ife History of the War. igt 

Fie was going to attack an enemy already much fuperior to 
iiim in numbers. 

This happy ftroke decided the affair, all the pafles thro* 
which the French could draw fuccour or provifion, were 
feized. They relinquifhed their flrong poff. ; they fled 
through Minden, and palling the Wefer, retreated to the 
eaftward of that river ; thus lofing all the advantages which 
they had made in the campaign, and forced to retreat thro* 
a country different from that through which they had ad- 
vanced, and in which they had taken no meafures to pro- 
cure fubfiflence. 

The lofs of the French in this action amounted to about 
feven thoufand men killed, wounded and prifoners ; among 
whom were many officers of confiderable rank. The lofs 
of the allies was not more than two thoufand. The Eng- 
lifh, as they gained the greatefl: glory, fo they were the 
greatefl: fufferers. Twelve hundred of the killed anri wound- 
ed were of that nation. The Prince on the day after the 
battle paid the due honours to thefe illuftrious corps, as well 
as to feveral of the Hanoverians who had behaved in the 
fame gallant manner. He did juftice to the merit of the 
officers ; he diftinguifhed their names, and even particula- 
rifed fo low as captains. To fome in the mod obliging 
manner he fent confiderable prefents ; and he omitted ijo- 
thing to (hew that he knew what it is to be well ferved, and 
how to encourage the troops and officers to do their duty 
with fpirit and chearfnlnefs. 

Although the Englifli had the greatefl: fhare in the ho- 
nour of this fignal day, and that the Prince acknowledged 
their merit in the ftiongefl terms, (a) yet a cloud was cafl: 


(a) Prince Ferdinand's Orders the Day after the Battle of 


HIS Serene Highnefs orders his greatefl: thanks to be given to 
the whole army for their bravery and good behaviour yes- 
terday, particularly to the Britijh infantry, and two battalions of 
Hanoverian guards ; to all the cavalry of the left wing, and to 
General Wangenheims corps, particularly the regiment of Hoi- 
fiein> the Hejfian cavalry, the Hanoverian regiment du Corps and 
Hamerjlin's ; the fame to all the brigades of heavy artillery. Hii 

M Serene 

i6z tfbe History of the War. ?759- 

over their trkimph. There were fome expreffions in the 
orders for the rejoicing, which were fuppofed to convey a 
very fevere refit c"iion on Lord George Sackville, commander 


Serene Highnefs declares publickiy, that next to God he attri- 
butes the glory of the day to the intrepidity and extraordinary 
good behaviour of theie troops, which he allures them he ihail 
retain the ilrcngeft fenfe of as long as he lives ; and if ever upon 
any dccauon he ihall be able to ferve tbefe brave troops, or any of 
them in particular, it will gi?e him the utmoft pleafure. His 
Serene Highnefs orders his particular thanks to be iikewife givea 
to General Sporcken, the Duke of Holjlein, Lieutenant Generals 
Imh^ff-^nd Urff. His Serene Highnefs is extremely obliged to the 
Count deBucheburg, for his extraordinary care and trouble in the 
management of the artillery, which was ferved with great effect ; 
Iikewife to the commanding officers of the feverai brigades of ar- 
tillery, *viz. Colonel Bro<wne 9 Lieutenant Colonel' Hutte y Major 
Hafje, and the three Englijh Captains, Phillips, lyrumnmnd, and 
Foy. His Serene Highnefs thinks hirafeif infinitely obliged to 
Major Generals Waldegra<ve and King/ley , for their great courage 
and good order, in which they conducted their brigades. His 
Serene Highnefs further orders it to be declared to Lieutenant 
General the Marquis of Gr^a^v, that he is perfuaded, that if he 
had had the good fortune to have had him at the head of the caval- 
ry of the right wing, his prefence would have greatly contributed 
to mdht the<iecHlon of that day more complete and more brilliant. 
In fhort, his Serene Highnefs orders, that thofe of his Suite whole 
behaviour he moil: admired be named, as the Duke of Richnnnd y 
Colonel Fitzrey t Captain Legonier, Colonel Watfen, Captain Wil- 
fan, aid de eamp to Major General Waldegrave, Adjutant-Gene- 
rals Erjtojf, Buloiv, Durendolle. the Count Tohe and Malerti ; his 
Serene Highnefs having much reafon to be fatisfied with their 
conduct. -Anti his Serene Highnefs defires and orders the generals 
of the army, that upon all occafions when orders are brought to 
them'by his atdde camps, that they be obeyed punctually, and 
without delay. 

Prince Ferdinand, in the orders of the id of Avguft, having 
omitted Captain Machean, fent the following, wrote in his own 


S I R, 

T is from a fenfe of your merit, and a regard to juitice, that 
I do in this manner declare I have reafon to be infinitely 


*759- ^ je History of the War. 163 

chief of the Englifh forces. The Prince required with an 
emphafis, which feemed particularly pointed, that his orders 
by his aids de camps for the future mould be more exactly 
obeved. In a manner dill lefs to be mifunderftood, he ex- 
prelTed his concern that the Marquis of Granby had not 
had the command of the Bntifh cavalry. Had he com- 
manded, his highnefs made nO doubt that the fuccefs of .he 
day had been much more complete and brilliant. The fe- 
vere infmuation concerning the difobedience to orders, and 
the remarkable compliment to a fubordinate officer, were 
clear declarations. 

The news of a victory fo glorious to our troops, and of 
a cenfure fo difgraceful to their commander, came at once 
to England. In proportion to the joy which filled all hearts, 
in proportion to their opinion of the great general to whom 
they owed fo feafonable an advantage, was their. indignati- 
on againft the unfortunate commander to whom it was at- 
tributed that this advantage was not greater. The public, 
as ufual, judged definitively upon the firft charge. They 
never pardon a general whofe error it is to fall fhort. In 
vain they are prayed tofufpend their judgment, and to wait 
for a full difcufTion ; the matter is already decided ; they 
have a fact againft an officer, and they louk upon all rea- 
foning in his favour, not o much a defence of his conduct, 
as the exertion of eloquence and artifice to vallate a nealect: 


fatisfied with your behaviour, activity, and zeal, which in fo coft- 
fpicuous a manner you made appca; at the battle of Tbornbanfen 
on the firft of Augujl. The talents you pofTefs in youi profeltion 
did not a little contribute to render our fire fuperior to that of the 
enemy ; and it is to you and your brigade that I am indebted for 
having filenced the fire of a battery of the enemy, which extreme- 
ly galled the troops, and particularly the Britijb infantry. 

Accept then, fir, from me, thejuft tribute of my molt perfect 
acknowledgments, accompanied with my fincere thanks. I fliali 
be happy in every opportunity of obliging you, defiring only oc- 
cafions of proving it ; being with the molt diftinguifhed efteem, 

Tour devoted and 

entirely affectionate fer<vant> 


164 ^ History of the War. *759- 

of duty. This indeed makes the cafe of officers particular- 
ly hard ; but then it always (hews them what they have to 

The merks of the matter are mil regarded in the fame 
light by the public. But the heat, the eagernefs, and curiofi- 
ty of the firft movements being over, the matter will be 
heard, whenever it comes to be again difcufled with lefs at- 
tention, but with lefs paftion too. It is not for us to deliver 
any opinion in fo nice a controverfy. We have in points of 
lefs moment hitherto declined it ; and we {hall always de- 
cline it until the proper judges before whom it probably will 
come, fhall have taught us what to think. There is indeed 
no doubt that if the cavalry of the allies right wing,iituated 
as it was, had been brought to act at the critical time when 
it had orders to move, the battle of Minden had proved as 
decifive as that of Hocfted. But whether it was a fault in 
die giving or the delivering of the orders, or whether it was 
fome mifapprehenfion in him who received them, we cannot 
but fincerely pity a commander of fuch admirable talents, 
who, by the error or the misfortune of a moment, loft an 
opportunity that would have ranked him for ever with the 
Marl boroughs and the Brunfwicks. 

A few days after the battle his lordfhip refigned his com- 
mand and returned to London. He was but a few days in 
London when he was deprived of all his military employ- 
ments. The Marquis of Granby, whom the opinion of 
Prince Ferdinand, and the defires of the whole army had 
pointed out, fucceeded him in his command. A generous 
and ardent courage, an affability of manners that flowed 
from no artifice, a manly freedom and opennefs of foul, a 
chearful and unreferved converfation, a munificence that 
knew no bounds, fo many qualities of the man and of the fol- 
dier, endeared him to the whole army, and rendered Eng- 
lifti and foreigners, his inferiors, his equals and his fuperior 
in command, unanimous in his favour. 

Whiift thefe changes were making, Prince Ferdinand 
loft no time to improve his victory, by the purfuit of the 
French, who retired in the utmoftdiftrefs. The allies were 
not indeed able to overtake the main body of their army, 
but they harafTed them extremely, and the French were 
obliged to facrifice a great part of their army piece-meal to 
preferve the reft entire. The neceflity of providing fubfif- 
tence drove them towards Caffel. The Prince purfued 


1759- The History of the War. 165 

them, obliged them to evacuate that place, and once mor e 
freed that poor diftrefled country from the French tyranny 
The caflle of Ziegenhayn, after an hour's defence, gave 
the allies about four hundred prifoners. After this 
the Hereditary Prince of Bruniwick, equally con- Aug. 23. 
fpicuous in the greater and the lefTer operations of 
war, made a private march at night in order to 27. 
furprife a corps of French irregulars, command- 
ed by the famous j artizan Fifcher, which were pojled at 
Wetter, where it was convenient for the allies to encamp. 
This corps he entirely routed, killing a great number and 
taking four hundred. The French threw a garrifon into 
Marpurg, in hopes of putting fome flop to the rapid career 
of the allies. In efTecl this did prove an obftacle for fome 
days, but at length the caftle furrendered,and the 
garrifon, confiding ot between eight and nine hun- Sept. r 1. 
dred men, became prifoners of war. 

Here a bound was fet to the progrefs of the allied arms. 
Not that they were (lopped by any confiderable obitrucYion 
from the main body of the French in that quarter, but from 
fome effe<5ts in another quarter of the unfuccefsful begin- 
ning of the campaign, from which the battle of Minden 
had not yet perfectly difengaged them. Munfter was ftill 
behind them, and ftill in the hands of the enemy, who had 
a powerful garrifon in that city. M. de Contades, who 
even after his defeat exceeded the allies in numbers, and 
had now no further view of an offenfive campaign, fent a 
ftrong body under d'Armentieres, which was reinforced 
by fome troops from the Lower Rhine, to near fifteen 
thoufand men, to cover that place. Prince Ferdinand 
had before detached General Imhofffrom Cartel in order to 
reduce it. On the approach of d'Armentieres, ImhofFwas 
obliged to raife the fiege. But being foon after re- 
inforced, the French commander retired in his Sept. 6. 
turn towards Wefel, the poiTefiion of which place 
had all along proved of infinite importance to the French in 
all their operations. The fiege of Munfter was again re- 
fumed, but the bufinefs threatened to be difficult and tedious. 
This however was the only rub which the allies encountered. 
In all other refpefts they were perfedly fortunate. They had 
driven their enemy two hundred miles before them, and at 
the end of the campaign, after all their efforts, and all their 

M 3 f anguine 

i66 ?^ History 0/ /fo War. . 1759. 

fanguine hopes of conqueft, fet them down juft where they 
had begun it. 

The event of the battle of Minden, and the fubfequent 
misfortunes of the French arms, threw Versailles into the 
utmoft confufion. The news of that defeat arrived juft as 
the king was taking horie to hunt. He retired filent and 
dejected into the apartment of Madam de Pompadour, and 
for fome time faw none of his rninifters. The Duke of Brog- 
lio and Ma rlli al de Contades mutually accufed each other 
for the ill conduct of that day. The public acquitted Brog- 
lio. Beljeifle and his General Contades loft all reputati- 
on : but the duke ftill preferved his employment and a con- 
fjderable part of his influence at court. 

As fcon as the firft confufion and (urprize of fo unexpect- 
ed an event was a little abateu ; it was refolved to fend re- 
inforcements to their army in Germany, and at the fame 
time to fend thither fome officer of experience and authori- 
ty, who might judge, and compofe, it nofTible, the dilrer- 
ences which fubfified between the commanders ; as well as 
to aflift in rhe deliberations for retrieving their affairs. Pub- 
lic misfortunes call great men from their obfeurity. M. de 
Etrees was chofen on this occafion, and inverted with an au- 
thority which he unwillingly accepted When he 
Sept. 25. arrived at the French camp, he could not avoid 
a figh on viewing of the ruins of that army, 
■which had triumphed under his command at Haftenbeck. 
However, his behaviour to M. de Contades was polite and 
generous. The old Marechal toid him that he was not 
come to take his command, but to ferve under him ; and 
whilft he affifled him with his advice, he would receive his 

Whilft the French endeavoured to piece up their broken 
fortune jn Germany, they made fome fhow of pufhing the 
other part of their fcheme with vigour. All their ports 
were full of the preparations for an invafion of the Britifh 
dominions. Men of war, tranfports and flat-bottomed boats, 
now almoft a word of ridicule, were prepared with greater 
ligence. They talked of a triple embarkation. Moafieur 
Thurot was to command a fmall fquadron and feveral tranf- 
ports from Dunkirk, which it was believed were intended 
for Scotland. This man from a mafter of a merchant (hip 
became a captain of a privateer, in which capacity he greatly 
annoyed the Englifn trade, and acquired a reputation. At 

a time 

1759- The History of the War. 167 

a time when France does not abound with great men, his 
fervices in this way and his daring fpirit, recommended him 
to a command in the king's fervice. 

The defign againft England, as the voyage hither is the 
fhortefl, was to be attempted from Havre, and fome other 
ports of Normandy, in flat-bottomed boats. The third 
embarkation, which was fuppofed againft Ire)and, was to 
be made from Vannes in the Lower Brittany, where a large 
body of troops was aiTembled, commanded by the Duke 
d'Aiguillon governor of that province. This embarkation 
was to be covered by the fleet under M. de Conflans, which 
was preparing with great diligence in Breft. Had this defign 
been fuch as it was reprefented, and had it been put into 
execution, there is no doubt but fuch an attempt upon both 
kingdoms, at three different places at once, muft have thrown 
the whole into no fmall confufion. But excellent meafures 
were taken on the part of England to fruftrate their defigns, 
whatever they might have been. 

A fquadron under Commodore Boys was ftationed before 
Dunkirk. Admiral Rodney was fent to bombard Havre, 
which fervice he performed with fuccefs. Admiral Hawke 
blocked up the harbour of Breft with a ftrong fquadron, 
whilft a letter kept a watch upon that of Vannes. Thefe 
precautions were continued the whole fummer, during which 
time the French proceeded rather flowly, but after the 
battle of Minden had deftroyed their hopes in Germany, 
they turned to this object with the greater attention. What 
ilTueit had we (hall relate in its proper place. But their firft 
attempts on the ocean proved as unfuccefsful as their arms 
on land. 

A great fleet was equipped at Toulon, which fome defti- 
ned for America, whilft others believed it was defigned to 
unite itfelf with that of Breft to favour the invafion. Ad- 
miral Bofcawen "who commanded in the Mediterranean, 
blocked up this fquadron, until fome unfavourable weather 
and the foulnefs of his mips obliged him to return to Gib- 
raltar to refit. The French took this opportuni- 
ty to fail out, and they proceeded with great dili- Aug. 14. 
gence to the (heights. 

They had arrived very near Gibraltar before the admiral 
had notice of their approach ; but notwithftanding that our 
Ihips were not perfectly prepared to fail, the admiral ufed 

M 4 fuch 

168 The History of the War. *759> 

fuch great expedition that in two hours after the account ar- 
rived the Englifh fleet was out at fea. 

The Englifh fleet was compofed of fourteen (hips of the 
line befides frigates. The enemy had twelve of the line. 
They were fuperior in the bulk of their (hips and in the 
number of men, if they were inferior in the number of vef- 
fels ; and it is the opinion of many perfons of judgment, 
that if they had formed a line of battle, and fought Mr. 
Bofcawen in order, they might very well have hoped for a 
better ifiue of this matter than they found. But the evil 
genius of France operating on the cowardice or incapacity 
of their commander, induced them to feparate their fleet 
and fly. The Englifh mips were newly refitted ; they pro- 
ved better failors ; and the men, animated with the fpirit- 
ed example of their admiral, engaged the French fhips as 
they could ^overtake them ; and they overtook fome of them 
off Cape Lagos in Portugal. A brifk engagement enfued. 
Two of the enemy's mips, the Ocean and the Redoubt- 
able, were run on more and burned. The firft was the 
(hip of M. de la Clue, the French admiral, who efcaped 
te— land ; but being grievoufly wounded, and, as it is faid, 
having loft both his legs, he died foon after. Two other 
capital mips, the Centaure and Modefte, were taken. 

The fcattered remains of their fleet with difficulty got 
into the harbour of Cadiz, where they were foon after 
blocked up, and where they (till remained. This action 
happened on the 1 8th of Auguft ; and it gave a great eclat 
to the Britifh arms, which, in the fame month, had triumph- 
ed fo fignally both by fea and land (b). 


(h) Admiral Bofcaiveti's Letter to Mr. Cleveland, Secretary to 
the Admiralty ', dated, Namure, off Cape St. Vincenty Auguji 
zo, 1759. 

"T Acquainted you in my laft of my return to Gibraltar to refit. 
X As foon as the fhips were near ready, 1 ordered the Lime 
and Gibraltar frigates, the firft to cruize off Malaga, and the laft 
from EJlepona to Ceuta Pointy to look out, and give me timely 
notice of the enemy's approach. 

'* On the 17th, at eight in the evening, the Gibraltar made the 
fignal of their appearance -, fourteen fail on the Barbary more to 
the eaftward of Ceuta, 

" I gat 

*759- Tie History of the War. 169 


Count Dohna difgraced. Wedel fucceeds him. The Ruffians 
enter Sile/ia. Battle of Zulichau. Ruffians take Frankfort 
on the Oder. General Laudohn joins them. King ofPruJfia 
joins Wedel. Battle of Cunnerjdorf King of Pruffia re- 
pajfies the Oder. Soltikoff and Daun communicate. King 
of Pruffia detaches General Wunfch into Saxony, Parallel 
of the King of Prujfia and Prince Ferdinand of Brun- 

AS the king of Pruflia's vi&ory at Rofbach had given 
the Hanoverians an opportunity to free their coun- 
try, it might be expected that the affair at Minden would 


*' I got under fail as faft as poffible, and was out of the bay be- 
fore ten, with fourteen fail of the line, the Shannon and JEtna 
fireihip. At day light I faw the Gibraltar, and foon after {tven 
fail oflarge mips lying to ; but on our not anfwering their iignals, 
they made fail from us. We had a freili gale, and came up with 
them faft, till about noon, when it fell little wind. About half 
an hour paft two, fomeof the headmoft ihips began to engage ; 
but I could not get up to the Ocean till near four. In about half 
an hour, the Namurs mizen maft and both top- fail yards were 
ihot away; the enemy then made all the fail they could. I fluff- 
ed my flag to the Newark , and foort after the Centaur of feventy- 
four guns ftruck. I purfued all night, and in the morning of the 
19th, faw only four fail of the line ftanding in for the land, (two 
of the beft tailors having altered their courfe in the night). We 
were not above three miles from them, and not above five leagues 
from the fhore, but very little wind. About nine the Ocean ran 
amongft the breakers, and the three others anchored. I fent the 
Intrepid and America to deftroy the Ocean. Captain Pratten 
having anchored, could not get in ; but Captain Kirk performed 
that fervice alone. On his firft firing at the Ocean {lie (truck. 
Captain Kirk fent his officers on board. M. de la Clue having one 
leg broke, and the other wounded, had been landed about half an 
hour; but they found the Captain M. leCom'e de Came, and 
feveral officers and men on board. Captain Kirk, after taking 
them out, finding it impolfible to bring the (hip off, fet her on 
fire. Captain Beniley, of the PVarfpight, was ordered againft the 

7 enter a ire 

170 The History of the War. *759* 

have ferved to free his Pruffian majefty from fome of the 
numerous armies that opprefled him. But as this battle 
was fought in the middle of the feafon for action, and as 
Munfter ftill continued in the poiTeffion of the French, 
Prince Ferdinand could not venture, at that time, to make 
any detachment from his army in the king's favour, with- 
out rifquing all the advantages which he had obtained from 
his victory. The king of Pruilia was therefore left alone 
to flruggle with the Auftrians, Ruffians, Imperialiits, and 
Swedes. , 

The Ruffians, whofe motions goveVned thofe of all the 
other armies, left their camp at Pofna in Poland, and quit- 
ting the Viftula, drew near to the banks of the Oder. They 


Temeraire of feventy-four guns -, and brought her off with little 
damage, the officers and men all on board. At the fame time 
Vice-Admiral Broderick with his divifion burnt the Redoubtable,. 
her officers and men having quitted her, being bulged j and 
brought the Modefte, of fixty-four guns, off very little damaged. 

* s I have the pleafure to acquaint their lordiliips, that moil of 
liis majefty's ihips under my command failed better than thofe 
of the enemy. 

** Inclofed I fend you a lift of the French fquadron, found on 
board the Modefte. 

" Herewith you will alfo receive the number of the killed and 
wounded on board his majefty's fhips, referring their lordihips for 
further particulars to Captain Buckle. 

Lift of the French Squadron under the command of M. de la Clue. 

Ships. Guns. 

L'Ocean 80 burnt. 

Le Redoutable 74 burnt, 
Le Centaure 74 taken. 
Le Souverain 74 efcaped. 
Le Guerrier 74 efcaped. 
Le Temeraire 74 taken. 
Le Fantafque 64 loft comp. 
Le Modefte 64 taken. 

Le Lion 
Le Triton 
Le Fier 
L' Oriflamme 
La Chimere 
La Minerve 
La Gracieufe 



loft compa- 
ny coming 
thro' the 


" In this engagement the Englijh had thirty-fix men killed, and 
one hundred and ninety-fix wounded. 

1759- ^ History of the War. i^i 

were under the command of a Ruffian nobleman, Count 
Soltikoff. Count Dohna, who had been ordered to oppofe 
them, faw that their numbers were too confiderabie, and 
their pofts too ftrong to be attacked with* any profpecV of 
advantage, fo that he contented himfelf with obferving their 
motions, and haraffing their march. This conduct feemed 
more dilatory and timid than the circumftances, or the in- 
clinations of the king could bear. He is faid to have re- 
proached that General in fo fevere a manner, for a conduct 
in which he was in all probability very juftifiable, that he 
took the firft opportunity to refign his command, and, under 
the pretence of recovering his health, retired to Berlin. 
The king immediately put General Weden into his place" 
with pofitive orders to engage the Ruffian army at all events. 
To enable him to obey his commands, he reinforced him 
with feveral detachments from his own army. The pofitive- 
nefs of the king's orders on this occafion may perhaps he 
cenfured ; but it muft be owned, that the time required a 
courfe next to defperate. His hereditary dominions were in 
the utmofl: danger, and nothing but fome great and fortu- 
nate flroke could effectually prevent the junction of the 
Auftrian and Ruffian armies, an event which, of all others, 
he had the greatefr. reafon to dread. 

Fortified in fome meafure by the reinforcements he had 
received, and in confequence of his orders, General Wedel 
refolved to attack the Ruffians on their march. 
They had got to Zulichau and directed their courfe July 2". 
to CrofTen in Silefia, to get before the Pruffian ' J " 

army, and to make good the paffage of the Oder. The 
fituati'on of the Ruffians was very advantageous; ported 
upon eminences, defended by a powerful artillery, and near 
feventy thoufand ftrong. The Pruffian army fell ffiort of 
thirty thoufand ; and they had greater difadvantages than 
their inferiority of number to get over". They had a bridge 
to pafs, and fuch a narrow defile to ftruggle through, that 
fcarce a third of a battalion could march in front. The 
ground was fuch, that the cavalry could not fupport their in- 
fantry. Yet with all thefe difficulties the attack was long 
and refolute. But this refolution made their lepulfe, which 
all thefe difadvantages had rendered inevitable, far more 
bloody and diftrefsful. Four thoufand feven hundred were 
killed or prifoners: the wounded came to three thoufand. 
General Woberfnow, an officer of great ability, was killed^ 


ij2 The HrsTORV of the War. 1 159- 

and Gentrd Mantcuffel was wounded. The Pruflians were 
obliged '<■ retire, hut they were not purfued,and they pafied 
theOdei without moleftation. The Ruffians feized upon 
the town., of Croflen and Frankfort on the Oder. 

The king of Piuffia,fince the beginning of the war, had 
i, ver hitherto obtained an advantage where he was not per- 
sonally prelent. His prefence now became more neceflary 
than ever. Since the action at Zulichau, the Ruffians had 
p. netrated a confiderable way into his territories, and had 
en poffeffion of the important city of Frankfort upon the 
Oder. He therefore marched with ten thoufand of his 
beft troops, to join the broken army of Wedel, in order to 
drive this formidable and determined enemy from his coun- 
try. Prince Henry commanded the remainder of his army, 
which was too well ported to fear any infult during his ab- 
f_nce. The eyes of all were fixed upon his march, and his 
foldiers, who remembered Zorndorf, eagerly longed to try 
their fVength once more with the fame antagonifts. 

Marfhal Daun was not unapprifed of the motions of the 
Ruffians, or the defigns of the king of Pruffia. He knew 
that the great fault of the Ruffian tFoops, was the want of 
a regular and firm cavalry, which might be depended upon 
in a day of action. This defeat was a principal caufe of 
their misfortune at Zorndorf in the laft year; a misfortune 
which diftoncerted alt the operations of that campaign. As 
this was the only want which the Ruffians were under, fo it 
was that which Daun was befl able to fuppiy at a fhorr warn- 
ing. With this view he fele£ted about twelve thoufand of 
his horfe, and there is no better horfe than that of the 
Auftriaiis, which with about eight thoufand foot, he placed 
under the command of General Laudohn, one of the ableft 
officers in that fervice. This body was divided into two 
columns, one of which marched through Silefia, and the 
other through Lufatia. By extreme good fortune and con- 
duel, with little lofs or oppofition, they both joined the 
Ruffian army, and were received with tranfports of joy. 
In the mean time the king of Pruffia, who was unabte 

to prevent this ftroke, joined General Wedel at 
Aug. 4. Muhlrofe, and took upon him the command of 

the united armies. But ftill finding himfelf too 
weak for the decifive acYion he was preparing to attempt, 
he recalled General Finck, whom he had fent fome time 


1759* *fhe History of the W ar. 173 

before into Saxony with nine thoufand men, in order to op- 
pofe the Imperialifls in that country. With thefe reinforce- 
ments he was not able to raife his army to fifty thoufand 
compleat. That of the Ruffians fince the junction of Lau- 
dohn, was upwards of ninety thoufand. They had befides, 
taken a poft, which they had fo ftrongly entrenched, and 
defended with fuch a prodigious number of cannon, that it 
was extremely difficult and hazardous to attempt them, 
yet under thefe accumulated difadvantages, it was abfolute- 
fy neceffary that he fiiould fight. The detachments from 
Count Daun's army already menaced Berlin ; Saxony, 
which he was obliged to leave expofed, had become a prey 
to the Imperialifts ; and the Ruffians united with the Aul- 
trians, encamped before his eyes in Silefia, the befl and 
richefl: part of his dominions. In fhort, his former repu- 
tation, his prefent difficulties, his future hopes, every mo- 
tive of honour and of fafety demanded an engagement ; the 
campaign battened to a decifidn, and it was evident that no- 
thing farther could be done by marches and choice of poits. 
The fanguine temper of other generals has often obliged 
them to fight under difadvantages; but the King of Pruffia's 
circurraftanees were fuch, that from the multitude of his e- 
nemies, he was neither able to confult tiroes nor fituations. 
Raftinefs could hardly dictate any thing which, in his con- 
dition, would not have been recommended by prudence. 

When the attack was refolved, the King's troops put 
themfelves in motion at two in the morning, and 
having formed themfelves iu a wood, advanced Aug. 12. 
towards the enemy. It was near eleven, before 
the action began. The principal effort of the King of Pruf- 
iia was againft the left wing of the Ri,iffian army. He be- 
gan according to his ufual method, with a fierce cannon- 
ade, which having had the effect he defired from it, he 
attacked that wing with feveral battalions difpofed in co- 

The Ruffian entrenchments were forced with great 
Slaughter. Seventy-two pieces of cannon were taken. But 
mil there was a defile to be palled, and feveral redoubts to 
be mattered, which covered the village of Cunnerfdorf. 
Thefe were attacked with the fame reiolution, and taken 
one after another. The enemy made another (land at the 
village, and endeavoured to prtferve their ground there, 
hy puihing forward feveral battalions of horfe and foot; 


174 ?*&* History of the War. l l59» 

but their refill ance there, proved not more effectual than 
it had done every where elfe; they were driven from poft 
to pod, quite to the lad redoubts. For upwards of fix 
hours fortune favoured the Pruffiaris, who every where 
broke the enemy, with an unparalleled daughter. They 
had driven them from alrnofl all the ground which they 
had occupied before the battle; they had taken more than 
half their artillery ; fcarce any thing feemed wanting to the 
mod: complete decifion. 

The King in thofe circumftances wrote a billet to the 
Queen to this effect ; " Madam, we have beat the Ruffi- 
* c ans from their entrenchments, in two hours expecYto 
" hear of a glorious victory." This news arrived at Ber- 
lin, juft as the poft was going out, and the friends of the 
King of Pruffia throughout Europe, exulted in a certain 
conchifive victory. Mean time, fortune was preparing for 
him a terrible reverfe. 

The enemy, defeated in'almofl every quarter, found 
their left wing, mattered as it was, to be more entire than 
any other part of the army. Count Sol tikoff therefore af- 
fembled the remains of his right, and gathering as many as 
he could from the centre, reinforced that wing, and made 
a ftand at a redoubt which had been erected on an advan- 
tageous eminence, in a place called The 'Jew's burying 
ground. Nothing was wanting to finifh matters in favour of 
the King, but to drive the Ruffians from this their lafl 
hope. But this enterprize was difficult. It is confidently 
faid, that the Prufiian generals were unanimous in opinion, 
that they mould not endeavour at that time to pufti any fur- 
ther the advantages they had obtained. They reprefented 
to the King, that the enemy was flill very numerous, their 
artillery confiderable, and the poll: which they occupied of 
great ftrength, that his brave troops, who had been en- 
gaged for fo long a time, in the fevered a&ion, perhaps, 
ever known, and in one of the hotted days ever felt, were 
too much exhaufted for a new attempt; an attempt of fuch 
extreme difficulty, as might daunt even troops that were 
quite frefh. That the advantage he gained would be as de- 
cifive in its confequences as that at Zorndorf ; and whilft 
the enemy filled the gazettes of their party, with frivolous 
difputes of the field of battle, he would be reaping, as he 
did then, all the effects of an unqueftioned victory. That 
the enemy would be obliged to retire immediately into Po- 

l 159' ^ e History of the War: j-j^ 

land, and to leave him at liberty to act: in other quarters^ 
where his prefence was full as neceffary. 

Thefe reafons were very cogent; and for a few moments 
they feemed to have fome weight with the King. But his 
character foon determined him to a contrary refolution. He 
could not bear to be a conqueror by halves. One effort 
more was alone wanting to that victory, which would free 
him for ever from the adverfary, which had leaned heavieft 
on him during the whole war. 

Once more he put all to the hazard. His infantry, ftill 
refolute, and fupported by their late fuccefs, were readily 
brought to act again. They drew on their bodies fainting 
with heat and labour to a new attack. But the enterprise 
was beyond their ftrength. The fituation of the enemy was 
impregnable ; and their artillery, which began to be fupe- 
rior to that of the Pruffians, on account of the. difficulty of 
the ground, which made it impofiible for the latter to bring 
up any other than a few fmall pieces, repulfed thefe feeble 
battalions with a great (laughter. With an aftonifhing, per- 
haps, with a blameable perfeverance, the Prufftan infantry 
was brought to a fecond attack, and were a fecond time 
repulfed, and with a lofs greater than at firft. Thefe ef- 
forts being unfuccefsful, the affair was put to the cavalry. 
They made redoubled but ufelefs attacks; the horfes were 
{pent, as well as thofe they carried. 

It was jufr. at that time, when the Pruflian horfe was 
wafted by thefe unfuccefsful efforts, that the greatetl part 
of the Ruffian, and the whole body of the Auftrian cavalry, 
which had been hitherto quite inactive, and which was 
therefore quite frefh, rufhed down upon them, broke them 
19 pieces, forced them back upon their foot, and threw the 
whole into irreparable diforder. The whole army was fei- 
zed with a panic; and in a few minutes thofe troops, fo 
lately victorious and irrefiftable, were totally difperfed and 
defeated. The King did every thing to reftore the field, 
hazarding his perion, even beyond his former daring, and 
prodigal of a life, which he feemed to think, ought not to 
be fepa rated from conqueft. Thrice lie led on his troops 
to the charge ; two horfes were killed under him ; feveral 
balls were in his cloaths. The efforts of (kill, courage, and 
defpair, were made, and proved ineffectual ; a fingle error 
outweighed them all. Scarcely a general, hardly an inferior 
officer in the army was without fome wound. That of Ge- 

1 7 6 77 1 i : ruR Y of the W A R. I 759. 

irticularry unfortunate, tor to that 
the la lure 1 1 ihe horfe which he commanded, was 
cipelly attributed. It was to the fpirit and conduct of 
,».!■ officer, thai a great part of the fuccefs atZorndorf 
owing, and the laft campaign. It is known, that if it 
J, j,! not K'. n fol 1 i'ealonable movement of the horfe, the 
lc Pruffian army had then been in great danger of a 


The night, and the prudent ufe of fome eminences, 
which were defended as well as circumftances would admit, 
preferred the PrufTian army from total destruction. How- 
ever, this lofs was far greater than any which they had fuf- 
tained from the beginning of the war. All their cannon 
was taken, the killed, wounded, and prifoners, by the moft 
favourable account?, were near twenty thoufand. Gene- 
ral Putkammer was killed on the fpot. Thefe generals 
v. bote names are fo diftinguiihed in this war, Itzenplitz, 
liiilfen, Kinck, Wedel, and Seidlitz, were among the 
wounded; as was the Prince of Wurtemberg, and five ma- 
jor generals. The «nemy could not have fewer than ten 
thoufand killed on their fide. For hardly ever was a more 
bloody battle. 

When the King of Pruffia found himfelf obliged 
ihe field, he lent another difpatch to the Queen, exprefled 
in this manner. " Remove from Berlin with the royal fa- 
•« miiy. Let the archives be carried to Potzdam. The 
" tov\n may make conditions with the enemy." We mould 
in vain attempt to draw the picture of the court and city, on 
the receipt of fuch news in the midft of the joy, which they 
indulged 'or .that which they had received hut a tew hours 
b( Fore. The terror was increafed by the indifiintt relation 
rhat ioon followed, which gave them only to underfiand, 
that their armv was totally routed; that there was no ac- 
count ot the King, and that a Ruffian army was advancing 
to take pcfieffion of their city. 

The day after the battle, the King of Pruffia repafled 
the Oder, and encamped at Retwein. From thence he 
1 d to Fufienwalde, and placed himfelf in fuch a man- 
ner, that the Ruffians did not venture to make any attempt 
upon Berlin. Pie continually watched their army, a part 
ol which ,inftead of turning towards Brandenburgh, marched 
, where it joined that of the Auftrians. Here the 
heral Sohikoff, for the firfi tupe, met Marfhal 


1 7 59. The Hi s T or y 0/ the War . 1 - y 7 

Daun, and amidft rejoicings and congratulations .confulted 
about the meafures for improving the^r fuccefs. 

The Ruffian and Auflrian armies thus united, fcarce 
feemed from their flrength and their victories, to have any 
other deliberation left, than of what part of the Pruffian 
dominions they fhould take pofTeffion. The King was twice 
defeated with a vail lofs. He was cut off from all commu- 
nication with the army of his brother Prince Henry; yet 
to the aftonifhment of all the world, the fuperior, the vic- 
torious and united army acted upon the defenfive, and^were 
curbed in all their motions, and fruftrated in all their de- 
figns, by the inferior, the beaten and divided. Nothing 
ever {hewed the genius of the King of Pruffia more fully, 
than his conduct after the battle of Gunner fdorf. In a few 
days after fo terrible a defeat, every thing was in order in 
his camp. He fupplied the lofs of his artillery from his 
(lores in Berlin. He recalled General Kleiil, with about 
five thpufand men from Pomerania; in prefence of two fuch 
armies as thofe, of Marfhal Daun and Count Soltikoff, he 
detached fix thoufand men from his fmall body, to the relief 
of Saxony, where the army of the Empire had availed itfelf 
of his abfence, to reduce the whole country. Hall, Wit- 
temberg, Leipfic, Torgau and at lad Dreiden itfelf, had 
opened their gates to the Imperialifts.. With the remain- 
der of his troops, he put himfelf between the Ruffians and 
Great Glogau, covered that city, which was the object of 
the enemy's defigns, and faw them foon after, notwithstand- 
ing their two victories, obliged to return again into Poland ; 
and to leave him free for the reft of the campaign. 

What was done by the King of Pruffia fince that time, 
will be the fubject of another chapter ; after we have re- 
lated the proceedings of the Engliih and French in America, 
to which the order of time directs our prefent attention. 
But we cannot difmifs the affairs of Germany, in which 
two fuch battles as thofe of Minden and Cunnerfdorf were 
fought, with events fo different for the common caufe, 
without obferving fomething concerning the two generals 
who conducted them. 

They are certainly in reputation the firft in Europe, 
which probably never produced two greater men ; though 
they differ as much in their characters, and in the kind of 
talents they poflefs, as they agree in the greatnefs of their 
abilities^ for war. The King of Pruffia, rapid, vehement, 

N impatient? 

178 The History of the War. *759* 

iptientf often gives decifivc blows ; but he often mifles 
his itroke, and wounds himielf. Prince Ferdinand is cool, 
. "'iberate, exact, and guarded; he fees every poflible ad- 
vantage, he takes it at the moment, purfues it as far as it 
D; but never attempts to pufh it farther. Nothing 
in the man difturbs the commander. In him, we do not 
e a pcrfon who is a great foldier; it ?s the idea of a per- 
icct general ; it is a general in the ab{tra£t. Ferdinand 
ft:rTers his temper to be guided by his bufmefs. He never 
precipitates matters; he takes them in their order and their 
courfe, and trufts nothing to fortune. The King on the 
other hand, leads, and even forces circumftances ; he does 
not endeavour to remove, but to over-leap obftacles ; he 
puts all to the rifque ; and by fuffering Fortune to play her 
part in his defigns, he acquires a fplendor and eolat in his 
actions, which mere wifdom could never give him. Prince 
Ferdinand is famous for never committing a fault. The 
King of PrufTia is above all the world, in repairing thofe 
he has committed. Like fome of the great matters in 
writing, whenever he makes, or feems to make a miftake, 
it is a fignal to the obferver, to prepare for fome great 
and admirable ftroke of fpirit and conduct. His errors 
ieem to be fpurs to his abilities. He commits an error, 
he repairs it ; he errs again ; and again aftonifhes us by 
his manner of efcaping. We ftiould often condemn the 
commander, but that we are alfo forced to admire the 

. CHAP. VI. 

Plan of the campaign in North America. 'Three expeditions. 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point abandoned. Colonel Town- 
fiend killed. Expedition to Niagara. Colonel Prideaux 
killed. Sir William Jobnfon defeats the French. Takes 
Fort Niagara. Confequences of this. 

THE theatre of our operations in America, is of fuch 
a vaft extent, that if we had perfevered in the courfe 
we purfned for fome time, in attacking but one place at 
once, the war would inevitably be fpun out to an extreme 
length, without bringing on any thkig decifive; and it 
would luue rendered our natural iuperiority of little life, 
ig the French to colled, a< they had hitherto 


*759* ^be History of the War. xj& 

done, thek ftrei-gih into one fingle point, which enabled 
them to contend with us,, with a force fufficient for the fer- 
vice in that country. This year another method was follow- 
ed. It was propofed to attack the French in all their ftrong 
ports at once; to fall as nearly as pofiible at the fame time 
upon Crown Point, Niagara, and the forts to the iouth of 
Lake Erie, whilft a great naval armament, and a confider- 
able body of land forces mould attempt Quebec^ b}' the 
river St. Lawrence. 

This plan was very advifable, as it tended to weaken, by 
diffracting the refinance of the enemy, and whilft we ad- 
hered to it, it was clearly impoffible for the French to 
maintain their ground in any of thofe places which were at~ 
tacked, without very weakly defending, or even deferring 
fome of the others ; and if, by the means of fuch diver- 
fions, any of thofe places £hould fall into our hands, the 
campaign could not be faui to be fpent to no purpofe. But 
befides the end in diffracting the enemy's defence, there was 
another propofed of no lefs confequence ; which was to 
make a concurrence in all the various operations, fo that 
whillt they divided the enemy, they might mutually fup- 
port one another. 

General Amherfl, who commanded the American forces 
in chief, with the mod coniiderable body, amounting, in 
regulars and provincials, to about twelve thoufand men, was 
to attack Ticonderoga and Crown Point by Lake George ; 
the reduction of thofe forts would naturally lay open the 
Lake Champlain, where, having eftablifhed a fufficient naval 
force, he was by the River Sorel, which forms the communi- 
cation between this Lake and the great River St. Lawrence, 
to proceed directly to Quebec, the capital of Canada. Here 
he was to make a junction with General Wolfe and Admi- 
ral Saunders, who having entered the river St. Lawrence at 
the oppofite quarter, would probably have commenoed the 
fiege of Quebec, by the time that General Amherfl: might 
find it practicable to join them. It was not doubted, that 
if this junction could be effected, the reduction of that city 
would follow of oourfe. 

The third of the grand operations was againfl: the fort, 
near the fall of Niagara ; a place of very great confequence 
both in war and in peace. The reduction of this was com- 
mitted to Brigadier General Prideaux, under whom Sir 
William Joknfon commanded the provincials of New-York, 

N 2 and 

i8o The History of the War. 1759. 

and feveral Indians of the Five Nations, who were engaged 
in our fervice by the credit that gentleman had obtained a- 
rnong their tribes. 

The object of this operation lay too remote from the o- 
thers, to expect, with any great confidence, that they could 
be afTifted by its fuccefs in any other manner than by weak- 
ening the enemy's forces. However it was hoped, that, if 
they mould be fortunate enough to take Niagara early in the 
feafon, the troops might be embarked on the Lake Ontario, 
and finding no longer any cbftru&ion from Fort Frontenac, 
which was deftroyed laft year, might fall down the river St. 
Lawrence, and poffibly either make 'themfelves mailers of 
Montreal, or by their approach, at leaft, draw fuch a force 
to that part, as greatly to facilitate our defigns upon Quebec 
and Crown Point. But if this fcheme, in addition to its 
own end, mould not facilitate either of the other two capi- 
tal undertakings, it would probably, as it was the mofl im- 
portant place the French, had in that part of the world, 
draw all the troops they had upon the Lakes to attempt its 
relief, which would leave the fort, on thofe Lakes, expofed 
to a fourth, though inferior expedition, which was made a- 
gainft them, under General Stanwix. In reality, it after- 
wards had that effect. 

The army under General Amherft was the firft in mo- 
tion. The Lake George, or, as the French call it, Lake 
Sacrament, is a long, but, in proportion, narrow water, a- 
bout forty miles in length, and enclofed on either fide with 
marfhy grounds. This communicates by another "long and 
very narrow ftreight with Lake Champlain. This fireight 
is fecured at each fide by a fort ; that to the fide of Lake 
George, is called Ticonderoga; that to the Champlain 
Lake, is called Fort Frederick, or Crown Point ; both ex- 
tremely ftrongin their fituation ; and the former of which 
had repulfed our troops with a very confiderable daughter, 
as has been related amongft the events of the laft year. 

General Amherft, after he had palled Lake George, ar- 
rived with very little oppofition from the enemy before Ti- 
conderoga ; at firft the French made fome appearance, as 
if they meajit to defend the place ; but as they knew the 
frrengrh of our forces, a3 they faw that the preparations for 
the attack were making with as much judgment as vigour, 
and as the enterprise which was preparing againft Quebec, 
did not leave them a force fo confiderable as they had there 


1759- Tb e History of the War. i s i 

in the preceding campaign, they abandoned their fort in the 
night, having damaged it as much as they could, T . 
and retired to Crown Point. ~ } 

General Amherfl: immediately fet himfelf about repair- 
ing the fortifications of this pofl, which effectually feciired 
the Lake George ; covered our colonies, and wab of Such 
va(r importance, to enable him to pufh forward his offen- 
sive operations, or to favour his retreat, in cafe of a reverfe 
of fortune. The on^y lofs of any confequence which tne 
Eriglifh army Suffered, in making this valuable acquifition, 
was the death of Colonel Townfend, who was killed, in re- 
connoitring, by a (hot from the fort. The Steady bravery, 
the promifing genius, and the agreeable manners of this offi- 
cer, cauSed this lofs to be confidered as a very great one. 
They compared this melancholy event with the death of 
Lord Howe ; they remembered how much thefe young Sol- 
diers refembled each other, both in their virtues, and in the 
circumftances of their fate: Both dear to the troops, and 
having both loft their lives on an expedition againft this 

Although the general had reafon to imagine, that the 
fame reafons which had induced the enemy to abandon 
their fort and lines at Ticonderoga, would perfuade them 
alfo to relinquiih Crown Point; he took all his meafures 
with the fame care, as n he expected an obftinate defence at 
the fort, and an attempt to Surprize him on his march. He 
remembered how fatal Security had proved to us, in that 
part of the world, upon many occafions. 

The French abandoned the fort as it had been Sorefe^n. 
The general retired with about three thoufand five hundred 
men to the bottom of Lake Champlain, and polled himfelf 
at the ifland called Ifle du Noix. He was (till pretty Strong 
on the lake, having feveral armed boats and floops, with 
which he hoped to prevent the progrefs of the Englim into 
the interior parts of Canada. General Amherfl:, as foon as 
he had taken polTeflion of Crown Point, ufed every « 
endeavour to attain a naval Superiority on the lake, °* 4* 
and in the mean time began to fortify this poll:, as he had 
that at Ticonderoga. To this time the French were actu- 
ally eftablifhed in the heart of our territories ; So that dur- 
ing a war of three years, we had, in effect, been only acting 
on the defenSive. It was on the day on which Mr. Am- 
herfl: took poffeflion of Crown Point, that he received the 

N 3 agreeable 

182 fbt HrsTORY of the War. 1759. 

agreeable news oi the reduction or Niagara, by the troops 
undei Sif V. Johnfon ; and he had the pleafure and 

enct, lent of feeing two of the great objects of the 

campaign .iccompllhcd, whilft he >ared htrrifetf to co- 

sccomplimmenf o: the third, which was 
to be decifive or the whole. The body which had been 
ftpi »inted fbr Niagara, under General Prideaux, without 
ai acci lent arrived at the tort, which lies at the bottom 
of the lake, towards the fouth- weft (a). 


fa) Sir William JohnforCs Letter to ?>"ajor-General Amber (I, on his 
Conquejl of the Fort at Niagara, z$th July, 1759. 

S I R, 

I Have the honour to acquaint you, by lieutenam Montcrieff, 
Niagara furrendered to his majefty's arms the 25th inftant. 
A detachment of twelve hundred men, with a number of 
Indians, under the command of MeiTrs. Aubry and de Lignery, 
collected from Detroi, Venango, and Prefque ljle, made an attempt 
to reinforce the garrifon, the 24th in the morning ; but as I liad 
intelligence of them, I made a difpoiiticn to intercept them. The 
evening before, I ordered the light infantry and picquers. to take 
poll: on the road upon our left, leading from Niagara Falls to the 
fort : In the morning, I reinforced thefe with two companies of 
grenadiers, and part of the 46th regiment. The r.dion began a- 
bout half an hour after nine ; but they were fo well received by 
the troops in front, and the Indians on their flank, that, in an 
hour's time, the whole was compleatly ruined, and all their offi- 
cers made prifoners, among whom are Monf. Aubry, De Lignery 9 
Marin, Repentini, &c. to the number of feventeen. I cannot 
afcertain the number of killed, they are fo difperfed among the 
woods, but their lofs is great. 

As this happened under the eyes of the garrifon, T thought 
proper to fend my laft fummons to the commanding officer for his 
furrendering, which he liftened to. Lieut. Moncrieff will in- 
form you of the ftate of our ammunition and provifions : I hope 
care will be taken to forward an immadiate fupply of both to 
Ofivego. As the troops that were defeated yetlerday were drawn 
from rhofe polls, which lie in General Stanivix's route, I am in 
hopes it will be of the utmoft confequence to the fucceis of this 
expedition. The public ftores of the garrifon, that can be faved 
from the Indians, I mall order the affiftant quarter-mafter-gejjeral, 
and the clerk, to take an account of, as foon as poflible. 


1759* ^be History of the War. 183 

This is, without exception, the moft important poft in 
America, and fecures the greatefl number of communica- 
tions. For it is fituated at the very entrance of a ftreight, 
by which the Lake Ontario is joined to that of Erie, which 
is conriecled with the other three great feas of frefh water, 
by the conrfe of the vaft river St. Lawrence, whiqh runs 
through them all, and carries off their fuperfluous waters to 
the ocean. A little above the fort, is the cataract of Nia- 
gara, which is efteemed the moil: remarkable in the world, 
for the quantity of water, and the greatnefs of the fall. This 
fall would interrupt the commerce between the lakes, but 
for a road which the French have made up the hilly country 
that lies up the ftreight ; fo that there is here a good carry- 
ing-place, and not very tedious ; for after a portage of a- 
bout eight miles, you reimbark again, and proceed without 
any interruption to the Lake Erie. 

As the great communication of thofe who go by water is 
along this ftreight, and carrying place, fo thofe who travel 
by land, are obliged to crofs it. The lakes are fo difpofed, 
that, without a fomewhat hazardous voyage, the Indians 
cannot any otherwife pafs from the north-weft to the fouth- 
eaft parts of North-America, for many hundred miles. The 
fort of Niagara, thus naturally commands all the Five 
Nations, and all thofe Indian tribes that lie to the north- 
ward of the lakes, as well as thofe that are fcattered along 
the banks of the Ohio, Ouabache, and Miftifippi, and ac- 
cording as it is poflTefled by the Englifh or the French, con- 
nects or disjoins the colonies of Canada and Louifiana, pro- 
tects or lays open our own, and is in all refpecls of fo muck 
confequence, that it was the opinion of perfons, the moft 
converfant in American bufmefs, that this attempt ought 
to have been made much earlier ; and, that if fuch an at- 

As all my attention at prefent is taken up with the Indians, 
that the capitulation I have agreed to may be obferved, your ex- 
cellency will ex£ufe my not being more particular. 

Permit me to affure you, in the whole progrefs of the fiege, 
which was fevere and painful, the officers and men behaved with 
the utmoft chearfulnefs and bravery. I have only to regret the 
lofs of General Prideaux and Colonel Joknfon. I endeavoured to 
purfiie the late General's vigorous meafures, the good effects o£ 
which he deierved to enjoy. W. JOHNSON. 

N 4 

v '/ the War. 1759. 

(, made at fuch a time, had fuccecded, it would have 
conlr j , much to the fecurity of thofe parts of 

puj C oloni , which were the moft expofed, and would 
have, al th. time, greatly facilitated all our offenfive 

. ind fliortened th< war. 
From the time that the French were acquainted with this 
p| ac( . r < ully poflefled with an opinion of its im- 

MC*c, both with regard to commerce, and to dominion. 
The) made Icveral attempts to eftablifh themfelves here; 
but the Indians, who feemed more fenfible of the confequen- 

!ian we were, conftantly oppofed it. They guarded 
this fpot lor a long time, with a very fevere and prudent 

twhilft we neglected, confiding in our ftrength, to cul- 
tivate the friendfhip of the Indians, the French, fenfible of 
their weaknefs, omitted no endeavour to gain thefe favage 
people to their interefts, aud they prevailed at laft, under the 
name of a trading houfe, to ereel a ftrong tort at the mouth 
of the Hi-eight, on the very beil: harbour, not only on this, 
but on any of the lakes ; an harbour which is fafe from e- 
very wind, and open for the whole year. A French officer, 
an able and enterpridng man, had been a prifoner among 
the Iroquois for a long time, and having, according to their 
cuftom, been naturalized, he grew extremely popular a- 
mongft: them, and at laft acquired his liberty. 'He com- 
municated to the then governor of Canada, the plan of an 
eftablifhment at Niagara, and he himfelf undertook to exe- 
cute it. He returned amongfr. the Iroquois, and pretending 
great love for their nation, which was now his own, told 
them, that he would gladly come to make frequent vifits to 
his brethren ; but it was proper for that purpofe, that they 
mould allow him to build an houfe, where he might live at 
eafe, and according to his own manner: at the fame time, 
he propofed to them, advantages in trade from this eftab- 
lifhment. A requeft, which feemed a compliment to thofe 
to whom it was made, was readily granted. The houfe 
was built. Bv degrees this houfe extended itfelf; it was 
flrcngthened by various additions ; and it grew at laft to a 
regular fortrefs, which has ever finceawed the Five Nations, 
and checked our colonies. 

The fiege of ibis place had not been long formed, before 
July ^o ( ^ er!era ^J :>r ^ eaux Was killed in the trenches, by 
the burfting of a cohom. As foon as this acci- 

1759* ^ be H i s t on y of the War; 185 

dent happened, which threatened to throw a damp on. the 
operations, an exprefs was fent to General -Amherft, who* 
always attentive to the fervice, loft no time to fend an offi- 
cer of character to command in his place. But the com- 
mand, which in the interim devolved upon Sir • -William 
Johnfon, could not have been better bellowed. He '. /bjint- 
ted nothing to continue the vigorous meafures of the.^fite 
general, and added to them, every thing his own genius 
could fuggeft. Refpe&ed by the regular troops, dear to the 
provincials, alrnoft adored by the Indians, porTerled-of that 
genius for acquiring popularity amongft all kinds of men, 
and that verfatile difpofition, which we fo feldom fee united 
with difintereftednefs and integrity, he employed thofe 
talents folely for the benefit of his country. The troops, 
remembering that it was under that general the firft ad- 
vantage had been obtained over the French, pufhed on the 
fiege with fo much alacrity, that in a few days they had 
brought their approaches within an hundred yards of the 
covered way. 

The French were alarmed at the imminent danger of this 
interefting place. They therefore collected all the regular 
troops and provincials, which they could draw from all their 
pods about the lakes, and to thofe joined a large body of 
favages, in order to give the Englifh battle, and to raife the 
(iege. They amounted in all tofeventeen hundred men. 

When General Johnfon was. apprized of their approach, 
he ordered his light infantry, fupported by fome grenadiers 
and regular foot, to take p-oil on the road to his left, by 
r hich the French were to tak? their route. He placed his 
ldians on his flanks. Whilft he took meafures to receive 
the French, who came to relieve the pUce, he pofted a 
ftroug body, in fuch a manner, as to fecure his trenches 
from any attempt of the garrifon during an engagement. 

In this difpoiition he waited to receive theene- -r , 
my. At nine in the morning the engagement be- ^ " Io 
gan ? by a violent and horrid fcream of the enemy's favages, 
according to their barbarous cttftom. It was this fcream, 
perhaps the moft horrid found that can be imagined, which 
is faid to have ftruck a panic into the troops of General 
Braddock, and was one of the principal caufes of that de- 
feat? by which our endeavours in America were fo lon^ 
fruftrated 5 but on this occafion it had no effecT:. The e- 


1 86 The History of the War\ 1759. 

nemy was fo well received by the troops in front, and 
by the Indians on their flanks, that, in lefs than an hour's 
time, their whole army was ruined.' The purfuit was hot 
and bloody ; and it continued for five miles. Seventeen 
officers were made prifoners, among whom were the firft 
and fecond in command. 

This action was fought in fight of the fort ; 
July 25. anc j j t was n0 f ooncr concluded in favour of our 

troops, than the general fummoned the garrifon to furren- 
der ; fending a lift of the prifoners, and remonftrating on 
the ill effe&s of their holding out longer, particularly with 
regard to the Indians. The capitulation was figned that 
night. The garrifon, confiding of about fix hundred men, 
furrendered prifoners of war, and were conducted to New- 
York. The fort and ftores were given up to the Englifh 

This was the fecond very important fervice performed by 
General Johnfon in this war, and a fecond time he had the 
good fortune to make the Commander in chief of the enemy 
his prifoner. It muft not be omitted, to the honour of this 
gentleman, that though he was not regularly bred a foldier, 
the moft compleat officer could not have made more excel- 
lent difpofitions for the battle, or have conducted the fiege 
from the beginning to the end, with a more cool andfteady 
refolution, or with a more compleat knowledge of all the 
neceffary manoeuvres of war. The taking of Niagara broke 
off effectually that communication, fo much talked of, and 
fo much dreaded, between Canada and Louifiana, and by 
this ftroke, one of thecapital political defigns of the French, 
which gave occafion to the prefent war,, was defeated in its 
ifireQ: and immediate object. 


1759- ^ e History of the War. 187 


The expedition againfl Quebec * The JJle of Orleans occupied. 
Defcription of the town and harbour of Quebec. Situation 
of the French army. Action at the Falls of Montmorenci. 
General Wolfe ftckens. The camp removed to Point Levi. 
The troops go up the river. The battle of Quebec. Gene- 
ral Wolfe killed. French defeated. M. de Montcalm hilled. 
Quebec furrenders. Movements of General Mmherfl on 
Lake Champlain. 

THE confequences which attended the reduction of the 
fort of Niagara, as well as thofe upon Lake Cham- 
plain, were very interefling; but the great and central 


* As ive have in other places, vohere the incidents vuere many, 
and the objecls as ivell as difficulties great, introduced into this 
hijiory, the circumfiantial relations given by captain John Knox, 
in bis hijlorical journal of the campaigns in North- America ; fo 
jhall voe here, vchere the ccnauefl oj Qi:cbec, and with it that of 
all Canada are the objecl ; not lefs from the dangers and diffi- 
culties oj this fervice, than the great variety that appeared in it, 
fhevuing the ability of the commander, marking him not more the 
foldier, than the good man, endued voith a humanity, perfeverance 
and courage, as have not yet been exceeded. 'This addition mufl be 
conftdtred valuable, as it fhevos the nature as iu ell as the fer- 
vice neevfjary m an American War, the orders given on the oc- 
cafton, and the manoeuvre neceffary for an army to follow, voith 
the navigation of the river St. Laivrence, and a defcription of 
the country on its banks. 

The Liji of the Naval Force that failed from Louifbourg for the 
Jiege of Quebec, under the command of Admiral Saunders, the 
\th of June, I 759. 
Ships' Names. Guns. Commanders. 

NeDtune '< $ Admiral Saunders, Comman- 

P I der in chief, Capt. Hartwell. 

Princefs Amelia ■ — 80 Admiral Durell. 

Dublin — — 74 Admiral Holmes. 

Royal William — 84 Captain Piggot. 

Van-guard -— 74 Captain Swanton. 

Terrible — — 74 Captain Collins. 

Captain — — 70 Captain Amherft. 

Shrewfbury — * 74 Captain Pallifer. 


The History of the War. i 759- 

tion to which all the reft tended, and to which even 
thofr > be only fubfervient, was that againft Quebec, 

the capital of Canada ; and as this was to be the decifive 


Ships' Nui:' 


1 ) \onihire 



lipid — 



Alcide — 



Sonjerfet — ■ 



Prince Frederick 

■ — 





Med way — 



Prince of Orange 






Orford — 



Stirling Caftle 






T) ident ■ — 

— . 





Frigates, — -Diana 








3 2 





— . 


Sloops, — Seahorfe 












— . 

























— . 













Rodney cutter 



Captain Gordon. 
Captain Fovvkes. 
Captain Douglafs. 
Captain Hughes. 
Captain Booth. 
Captain Wheelpck. 
Captain Proby. 
Captain Wallis. 
Captain Lord Cclvilie. 
Captain Spry. 
Captain Everet. 
Captain Mantle, 
Captain Legge 
Captain Roufe. 
Captain Schomberg. 
Captain Deane. 
Captain Handkerfon. 
Captain Lindfay. 
Captain Le Forey. 
Captain Smith. 
Captain Elphinftone. 
Captain Campbell. 
Captain Bond. 
Captain Hamilton. 
Captain Scott. 
Captain Doak.^ 
Captain Cleland. 
Captain Greenwood, 
Captain Adams. 
Captain jervis. 
Captain Carpenter. 

Captain M 

Captain Montford. 
Captain Rickards. 

Captain — : , 

Captain Chads. 
Captain Smith. 
Captain Douglafs, 


1759- ?b e History of the War. 189 

flroke, it was proper that the greateft force fhould have 
been employed againft it. If we reckon the maritime force, 
there is no doubt that we employed a greater number of 


The Bonetta and Rodney, as alfo the Charming Molly, Europa, 
Lawrence, Peggy and Sarah, Good Intent, and Profperity, tran- 
fport cutteTS, were appointed founding velTels. 

I had the inexpreflible pleafure to obferve at Louijbourg, that 
our whole armament, naval and military, were in high ipiritsj 
and, though, by all accounts, we mail have a numerous army and 
variety of difficulties to cope with, yet, under fuch admirals and 
generals, among whom we have the happinefs to behold the moil 
cordial unanimity, together with fo refpeclable a fleet, and a body 
of well-appointed regular troops, we have reafon to hope for the 
greateir. fuccefs. 

The prevailing fentimental toaft among the officers is — Britijb 
colours on every French fort ', port, and garrifon in America. 

"June 7th. Moderate weather all latt night ; this day it blows 
freih. At five P. JVi. Newfoundland bore north, at three leagues 
diltance ; the land covered with fnow ; and, as the wind comes 
moftly from- that quarter, the air is exceedingly cold. 

By the 1 8th our fhip came to an anchor, in fight of the iflands 
of Bic and Barnaby in the river St. Lawrence : the former bore 
W. by S. at nine leagues, and the other about eight leagues S. 
W. and by W. of our courfe ; here we met the Richmond frigate, 
and a tender of Admiral DuYelfs fquadron. A midiliipman wajs 
nftantly lent on board of us, who gave us the following intel- 
ligence : 
c That Mr. Durell had taken poiTeffion of the ifland oiCoudre, 
and had proceeded to Orleans ; that he alfo took three prizes, 
befides fome imail craft, laden with flour and other provifions ; 
but that three frigates and ten tranfports had efcaped them, and 
got up to the town, which is about thirty-five leagues from 
hence : that the enemy have almoft finiined a large three-decker 
at Quebec ; and, by fome packets that were intercepted, the 
admiral has received information, that provifions, and particular- 
ly bread, are fcarce in the French army.' — This gentleman adds, 
that they have got a good number of pilors, which they decoyed, 
in their paffage up the river, by hoifting French colours with the 
ufual fignals «. Our 

* Upon the van of Mr. Dureli's fquadron having appeared 
under French colours, exprefles were fent up to Quebec with the 
joyful tidings ; for the enemy expected fome promifed fuccours 


ic;o The History of the War. 1759. 

men again (]• Quebec, than againft the Champlain forts ; but 
the land forces, from fome caufe, fell much fhort of the 
number originally propofed, for they did not exceed feven 


Our fleet are all in fight, though far a-ftern of us ; however, 
the wind fpringing up fair, and the weather clear and moderate, 
we again weighed and failed until feven in the evening, when the 
whole came to an anchor between the two iflands before-mentioned. 

The distance between Bic and the fouth fliore is between four 
and five miles, both lands high and woody ; before our mips came 
within two miles of the ifland, we found from {qvqti to eight fa- 
thoms and an half, in our foundings ; the N. E. end of it is rocky, 
and very long ledges run out from it. Though the river is of an 
extenfive breadth between Bic and the north fhore, I obferved the 
channel here is on the fouth fide of the river, and of the foregoing 
ifland ; all our fleet kept that courfe. We "found two other fhips 
of Mr. DurelVz fquadron at anchor here ; faw a great number of 
feals and porpuffes to-day, with which this river abounds. At 
night fell fome rain, and the wind freshened. 

On the 19th, the fleet weighed at four o'clock this morn- 
ing ; wind variable : foon after we had thick weather and a vio- 
lent ilorm ; we reefed and double-reefed, but at length were 
obliged to come to an anchor, and, finding a ftrong current to en- 
counter with, which drove our fhip from her mooring, we were 
under a neceility of paying out one hundred and forty fathoms of 
cable ; this blowing weather was attended with heavy rain. To- 
wards noon it cleared up, and the wind and fwell abated : before 
four P. M. the wind fair, and weather more moderate. A parcel 
of fmall birds flew about our fhip to-day from the more ; they 
are very tame and familiar ; o,ne of them, having perched on the 
ihrouds, fubmitted to be made a prifbner : it is about the fize of 
afparrow, its head and body of a copper colour, interfperfed with 
black ; its wings and tail are black and white ; its beak of ebony, 
curved-like, though much fharper than thofe of a hawk or par- 

from France, and the greateil rejoicings imaginable were made 
throughout the whole country : but they foon changed their note ; 
for when a number of canoes had put off with pilots, and thofe 
who remained on fhore did not fee their friends return, but, on 
the contrary, faw the White colours ftruck, and Britijb flags 

hoKled in their place their confirmation, rage, and grief were 

inconceivable, and had fucb an effedt on a Prieft, who flood upon 
the more with a telefcope in his hand, that he dropped down, and 
mil ant It expired. 

1759* STfe History of the War. * %g% 

thoufand men, regulars and provincials, though»the origi- 
nal plan intended nine thoufand for that expedition, inde- 
pendent of the junction of thofe under General Amherft, 


rot, and with this farther difference, that the extremities of the 
upper and lower beaks crofs each other ; we gave it grain to eat, 
but it preferred feeding on flies, and whatever it could find in the 
crevices of boards. — At {even o'clock P. M. the Richmond frigate 
palTed us, on board of whom was General Wolfe, wh© politely 
faluted us, hoping we were all well on board : at eight, came a- 
breaft of a fmall ifland on the fouth fide of the river, a*id at nine 
came to an anchor in twenty fathom water. We faw an im- 
menfe number of fea-cows rolling about our fhips to-day, which 
are as white as fnow : we diverted ourfelves in firing at them, and 
I obierved fome of them, that were ftruck on the back with ball, 
did not feern fenfibie of it, nor did our fhot make any imprefiion 
on their fkin or coat, but bounded as it would upon a ftone ; that 
part of their body which they expofe above the water may he 
from twelve to fifteen feet in length, but their thicknefs I cannot 
be a judge of, having never feen them out of that element. I wiih 
I was able to give a particular defcription of this animal, from my 
own authority; but, as that is not in my power, I Jhall pre- 
fent the reader with the account given by an eminent French 
author, Monfieur Corneille, in his own words ; and, for the fatif- 
faclion of fuch of my readers as do not underftand the French 
language, I fhall attempt to annex a tranflation of it : 

'* C'eft un animal fort monftreux et amphibie, qui furpafTe 
" quelque fois les bceufs en grolfeur. II a la peau comme celle 
" d'un chien marin, et la gueule d'une vache, ce qui eft la caufe 
*' que quelques-uns l'ont nomine vache marine — a l'exception 
" qu'il a deux dents qui fortent dehors recourbees en bas et longues 
" d'une coud£e. Elles font aufi eftimees que l'yvoire, et on les 
** employe aux mefmes ouvrages. Cet animal a rarement plus 
M d'un ou de deux petits. 11 eft robufte et fauvage d'abord, et 
" tres difficile a prendre, fi ce n'eft en terre; il arrive peu qu'on 
*' le prenne en l'eau. On dit qui ne mange ni chair ni poifTonjet 
* que fa pature confifte en des grandes et longues feiiilies d'une 
" certaine herbe, qui croit au fond de la mer." 

" It is an amphibious animal, and generally of fo large a fize,. 
" as even to exceed fome oxen : it has a fkin like to that of a fea- 
'■ dog, and a mouth like a cow (which is the reafon of their be- 
" ing called, by fome authors, a fea-cow) with this exception, 
" that it has two projecting teeth, crooked downwards, to the 
** length of about half a yard - 7 thefe teeth (or tufks more proper- 

The History of the War. *759< 

wliofc afliftance on the occafion was taken for granted. In 
this expedition General Wolfe commanded the land forces. 
_ fleet v. as under Admiral Saunders. 


" ly) areas valuable as ivory, and are applied to the fame life. 
*' This animal has feldom more than one or two young ones ; it 
" it ltrong, extremely wild, and very difficult to be taken, except 
" on ihore : it feldom happens that they are taken^in the water. 
" It is averred that they neither eat flefh nor fiili, but that their 
" foodconlifts of large leaves of a certain fubmarine weed, known 
*' by the name of lea {orrel." 

I {hall here fubjoin what I was afterwards told by a Miflionary 
of Quebec, with whom I fometimes converfed about thefe and 
other curiofities in this country : — The inhabitants, fays he, of the 
E. and N. E. parts of Acadia, frequently take thefe lea-cows by 
the following ihatagem ; — they tie a bull to a ftake, fixed on the 
iliore, in the depth of about two feet of water; they then beat and 
otherwife torment him, by twitting his tail, until they make him 
roar ; which as foon as thefe animals hear, they make towards the 
ihore, and, when they get into fhallow water, they crawl to the 
bull, and are then taken with little difficulty : their fore-feet are, 
in all refpects, like thofe of a cow*; the hinder feet are webbed, or 
joined by a membrane, like a goofe : they have no hair about 
them, except on their head, which is generally white or grey ; 
tfcey are covered with a hard fcaly fubllance or ihell, which, how- 
ever, turns to no account ; thefe people, as well as the favages, 
eat fome parts of this animal, and what they diflike they boil, w 7 ith 
its fat, to an oily or greafy fubftance, with which they faveor cure 
the fkins of other animals for leather. 

20th. Agieeable and warm weather to-day ; w r ind variable, 
and little of it. At eight A. M. we doubled the entrance of 
Tadoufac buy on the north fide, and Red JJland on the fouth : I 
am iniormed, that within this bay is an excellent harbour, which 
communicates, by the river Seguenny, with Hudjotis bay, and 
is navigable lor large trading velTeisfor nine or ten leagues up the 
country *. The entrance of that bay or harbouF does not appear 
to be above half a mile over, and may be eafiiy know T n ; for, on 
well ficje, a little to the fouthward. of the entrance, is- a fmall 
. I ifland, of a reddiili fandy colour, with fome grafs on it, but 
clear of wcod or bullies. Here the river 67. Lawrence is not a- 
bove ei^ht units or three leagues over, and the lands all round 
arc lofty, and thickly covered with trees ; as we came a-breaft 


* Sec Dr. Douglafs's Hiitory of America. 

1*759° ffie History of 'the War. 193 

The whole embarkation arrived in the latter 
end of June in the Ifle of Orleans, a, few leagues 26th. . 
from Quebec, without any accident whatsoever, 


of Tadoufac, we encountered the ftrongefl rippling current I ever 
faw ; it runs nine or ten knots in an hour, and, at the fame time, 
the wind dying away, drove back fome of our tranfports, and ma- 
ny ot them luckily efcaped falling foul of each other, particularly 
of the fmaller craft. Another of the birds, defcribed yefterday, 
vifited us to-d?.y ; there is a trifling difference between it and the 
former, I ttieaa as to its plumage being fbmewhat brighter than 
the firll is j they were glad to meet, feem to like our European 
grain, end havo a pretty wild chirping note : we think they are 
male and female, and that the laft, by his iprightlineis, is the 
cock. At one P„ M. came to an anchor off the iflands, weighed 
again at eight in the evening, and anchored about ten at night; I 
believe the reafon of our weighing in the evening proceeded from 
many mips being drove from their anchors in the afternoon, by the 
rapidity of the current, which, however, does not run with equal 
force every where, 

aift. Wind W.'N. W. and blows frefh; continually anchoring 
and weighing again, as before. At ten A. M. law' a few houfes on 
the fouth more, and beyond rhem a great fire in the woods. At 
one P M cume to an anchor off a neat fettlement, confining of 
thirty or forty houfes, on the fame fide of the river, and a large 
tr. ct of clear cultivated land adjoining to them ; I lament our not 
having a Pilot on board, from whom I could learn the bearings, 
diftancesj and many other particulars of this country and naviga- 
tion, The habitations before-mentioned are the firil we have feen 
fince we entered the river St. Lawrence ; quite calm this even- 

2 2d. At eight A. M. the feet weighed ; anchored at two P. M. 
and in an hour after weighed again ; we did not run long before we 
had a fignal to drop, and accordingly we came to anchor in twenty 
fathom water, off a fme large fettlement or village, on the fbutta 
ihore, with a neat church to it ; the wind variable with fbme rain. 
Here we have iflands on every fide of us, with no remarkable cur- 
rent. The lands on the ibuth fide of the river feem to be tole- 
rably well cultivated. We made ieveral tacks from north to 
fouth to-day, and got from five to ten and an half fathom water. 
Between five and fix P. M. weighed again , with a fair wind, but 
blowing fo frefh, that we were obliged to reef; we failed until 
nine at night, and then anchored in fifteen fathom water, clofe 
under the north ihore. The Matter of the Good-will tranlport, 

O whfc 

194 ffl e History of the War. 1759. 

notwithflanding the ill fame of the river St. Lawrence, and 
the reports of its dangerous navigation, probably fpread 
for political purpofes They landed upon the Ifle of Or- 

who is an elderly man, one of the younger brothers of Trinity- 
houfe, a pilot for the river Thames, and an experienced mariner, 
fays, he has failed up Toft of the principal rivers in Europe, and 
that he efteems the river St. Laivrence to be the fineft river, the 
farei! navigation, with the beft anchorage in it, of any other with- 
in his knowledge ; that it is infinitely preferable to the Thames or 
the Rhone, and that he has not yet met with the leair. difficulty in 
working up. He added, * when we go higher up, if they ihould 
put a French pilot on board of me, ye mall fee, Matters, how I 
will treat him.' — We have had frequent opportunities of fpeaking 
with other fhips in this voyage, and, by one of them, we are 
told, that a Midfhipman of Admiral DurelPs ihip was furprifed 
on the ifle of Coudre, and made prifoner. We alfo learn, that a 
(hip has been intercepted, bound to France, on board of whom 
was a female relation of the Governor-General of Canada, with 
feveral nuns, and fome families of difli notion; all of whom were- 
returned by the Admiral to Quebec, under a flag of truce, that 
they might be convinced of the generofity and humane behaviour 
of the Britijb troops, and, we hope, in a little time, as evidently 
to convince them of their valour, in the reduction of their capital 
and Canada. 

It is reported, by French pilots, that fome frigates and fixty 
tranfports got up trie river laft autumn, while Sir Charles Hardy i 
fquadron was at Gafpce. 

23d. Weighed between two and three A. M. weather moderate, 
and wind fair: in about five hours after, came to an anchor in 
twenty-five fathom water ; the reafon of our not working up with 
more difpatch does not proceed from any obftru&ions in the navi- 
gation, but in the neceffity there is of founding as we advance j 
for which purpofe, a number of boats are out a-head. By the 
fituation of this river, the capital, and the upper country, it fa 
not poffible for a fleet to fail to Quebec, without its Governor's 
having the earlier! notice of it ; this is apparently a great advan- 
tage. We have fettlements now on each fide of us, the land un- 
commonly high above the river; which mow us large fignal-fires 
every where before us:— Mr. DurelPs fquadron, and the iiland of 
Coudre are juft difcernible. At ten A. M. the rear divifion com- 
ing ciofe up with us, we weighed ; — at two P. M. made the iiland 
of Coudre, and failed by the Admiral and feven fhips of the line, 
who were at anchor in a place called the Narrows, which is near 


1759- The History of the War. 195 

leans, which is formed by the branches of the river St. 
Lawrence. This ifland is about twenty miles in length, and 
feven or eight in breadth, highly cultivated, and affording 


two miles over, with very deep water. The river is of a great 
breadth between the ifland and the fouth country, but the channel 
is on the north fide. Coudre is large, for the moil: part cultivated, 
and, by the number of houfes, it feems to have been tolerably 
well inhabited ; churches, crucifixes, and images are now to be 
feen almoft every where. The land on the north fide of the ifland 
is the higheil: 1 ever remember to have feen, and juflly deferves 
the name of a mountain : it is a barren rock, having neither trees 
nor grafs on it, and only producing a fliort kind of heath, with a 
few llirubs on the lower part. At a fniall ditlance, north-weft of 
this promontory, flands another, and between the two lies a beau- 
tiful vale, in which is (ituated the pleafant looking village (with a 
large parifli church) of St. Paul : here we had in our view a num- 
ber of cattle, particularly horfes, and feveral men and women ; I 
think I never faw a fettlemcnt in a more defirable place, and the 
buildings theieof appear clean and decent. Betweed Coudre and 
the north more is a mod rapid current ; the Mailer of the Good- 
will fays it runs near ten miles in an hour; here we got toul of 
another tranfport, and luckily cleared her again without any acci- 
dent. At five P. M. came to an anchor at fomewhat better than 
a mile's dillance W. S. VV. of Coudre, and about two miles from 
a draggling fettlement, alfo on the north fide, called St. Jojepb. 
One of our founding-boats was tired at from the Ihore, upon 
which a boat, full of men and officers from the i 51I1 regiment, 
who were aftern of US, put oiF to amufe the enemy, until the 
other fhould take all the foundings along (bore ; our people made 
feveral feii ts, as if intending to land at different places, to each 
of which the enemy directed a heavy fire, but they were not 
within reach ol their fhot ; thefe unhappy natives paid dear for 
this behaviour, as will appear in the fequel of this work. The 
man of war's boat executed her commiifion without any farther 
molellation, and the detachment or the 15th returned to their 
tranfport. The weather, (ince we entered the river St. Laivrence, 
has been in gene: al moderate, and free from fogs, at lead fince we 
doubled Antjcoili Ifland ; whenever it was gloomy and threatened 
rain, there appeared a thick haze upon the higheil eminences, but 
nothing more than one ufuatly meets with in other more equal cli- 
mates. This evening we have lulrry clofe airs. 

24th. Clear weather, and very warm ; wind at S. S. W. and blew 
hard ; by the violence of the wind, and the ilrength of the tide, 

O 2 many 

196 The History of the War. x 759- 

every kind I fhm<?nt to the foldiers and faiWs after 

tins if] 'nds quite up to the bafon of Quebec, 

it v.. ry to poflefs it in order to act againft the 

town ; 

many (hips were drove from their moorings : two tranfports ran 
foul of us lalt night $ happily no damage was fuftained. About 
noon ic was fqually, which rendered our fituation unpleafant ; to- 
wards evening it was more moderate: at night we had violent 
thunder and lightning, fucceeded by an uncommon fall of heavy 
rain, and a profound calm. 

25th. Fine weather but no wind: the fleet weighed at two 
o'clock A. M. and worked higher up with the tide of flood for 
two hours, and then came to an anchor ; the GgoI-ivHI moored 
in five fathom water, where, had we remained until the lowed 
ebb, we fliould have found ourfelves in a very dangerous Situation : 
however it was difcovered fufficiently eaiiy for us to move for the 
north more, which is very bold ; here we found the channel, with 
ten fathom water. -Along the iouth more, and ahead of us, we 
difecver many iflands, and the river here being feveral leagues in 
breadth, is in mofb places {hallow and rocky. A trading fchooner 
ftruck on a rock, near to the place where we hrd anchored, and 
inftantly went to pieces ; the weather being moderate, the crew 
were laved, with fome few calks of wine. The air extremely 
fultry, and we were vifited by mufketas, which were very trouble- 
fome for a few hours, until difperfed by fome welcome breezes, 
that blew favourably for the fleet. — At three P. M a French pilot 
was put on board of each tranfport, and the man, who fell to the 
Good-iviWs lot, gafconaded at a moil extravagant rate, and gave- 
us 10 understand it was much againit. his inclination that he was 
become an EngUJb pilot. The poor fellow aiTumed great latitude 
in his converfarion j faid, ' he made no doubt that fome of the 

* fleet would retun to England, but they mould have a difmal 

* tale to carry with them ; for Canada mould be the grave of the 
1 whole army, and he expected, in a mort time, to fee the walls 

* of Quebec ornamented with Engliih fcalps.' Had it not been 
in obeuience to the Admiral, who gave orders that he mould not 
be ill ufed, he would certainly have been thrown over-board. At 
four P. M wc puffed the Traverfe> which is reputed a place of 
the gieatefl: difficulty and danger, between the entrance of St. 
Laiv rente and Quebec: it lies between Cape Tourmenle (a re- 
markably high, black-looking promontory) and the eaft end of 

■ :ns on the (larboard fide, and ljle de Mada*ie on the lar- 
board. Off Orleans we met fome of our lhips of war at anchor. 


1JS9* ^ 3e jH lS ' rol ^ Y of the War, tgj 

town ; for the moit wefterly point of this ifland advances 
towards. an high point of land on the continent, called Point 
Levi. Both of thefe fhut up the view of the northern and 


Here we are prefented with a view of a clear, open country, with 
villages and churches innumerable ; which laft, as alfo their hou- 
fes, being ail white-limed on the outiides, gives them a neat ele- 
gant appearance from our (hips. At five in the evening we had a 
violent itorm of- rain, and at fix we anchored in fifteen fathom wa- 
ter. As foon as the Pilot came on board to-day, he gave his di- 
rections for the working of, the Chip, but the Mailer would not 
permit him to fpeak ; he fixed his Mate at the helm, charged him 
not to take orders from any perfon except himfelf, znd, going for- 
ward with his trumpet to the forecastle, gave the neceiFary inftruc- 
tions. All that could be faid by the commanding-officer, and the 
gentlemen on board, was to no purpofe ; the Pilot declared we 
lhould be loft, for that no French ftip ever prefumed to pafs there 
without a Pilot; ' aye, aye, my dear (replied our fon of Nq tune) 
' but d me I'll convince you, that an Englifoman mall go 

* where a Frenchman dare not (hew his nofe.' The Richmond. 
frigate being clofe aftern of us, the commanding officer called out 
to the Captain, and told him our cafe ; he inquired who the Maf- 
ter was? — and was anfwered from the forecaftle by the man him- 
felf, who told him * he was old Killick, and that was enough.* 
I went forward with this experienced mariner, who pointed out 
the channel to me as we paifed, {hewing me, by the ripple and 
colour of the water, where there was any danger ; and diftin- 
guifhing the places where there were ledges of rocks (to me invi- 
fible) from banks of fand, mud, or gravel. He gave his orders 
with great unconcern, joked with the founding-boats who lay off 
on each fide, with different coloured flags for our guidance; and, 
when any of them called to him, and pointed to the deeped wa- 
ter, he anfwered; ' aye, aye, my dear, chalk it down, a d d 

? dangerous navigation — eh, if you don't make a fputter about it, 
' you'll get no credit for it in England, &c.' After we had clear- 
ed this remarkable place, where the channel forms a complete zig- 
zag, the Matter called to his Mate to give the helm to fomebody 
elle, faying, ' D me, if there are not a thoufand places in 

* the lhames fifty times more hazardous than this; I am alhamed 

* that Englijhmen ihould make fuch a rout about it.' — The French- 
man afked me, if the Captain had not been here before ? J allured 
him in the negative, upon which he viewed him with great atten- 
tion, lifting, at the fame time, his hands and eyes to heaven with 
aftoniihment and fervency. 

O 3 26th, 

198 The History oftbe\\ T AR. 1 159- 

louthern channel, which environ the ifle of Orleans, fo 
that the harbour of Quebec appears to be a bafon landlocked 
uj on all fides. The poffefTion of both thefe points was 


26th. We had inceffant rain, thunder and lightning all this night 
part. Our divifion weighed early this morning: at feven A. M. 
came to an anchor off the pariih of St. Lawrence, on the ifland 
of Orleans, in eighteen fathom water: this is the deeped courfe 
of the liver, the channel on the north fide of the ifland having on- 
ly a fuflicient depth of water for boats, and other fmall craft, as 
we are told; but of this, I prefume, we mall be better informed, 
befoie many months are elapfed. Here we are entertained with a 
moil agreeable profpect of a delightful country on every fide ; 
wind-mills, water-mills, churches, chapels, and compact farm- 
houfes, ali built with ftone, and covered, fome with wood, and 
others with ftraw. The lands appear to be every where well cul- 
tivated, and, with the help of my glafs, I can difcern that they 
are fowed with flax, wheat, barley, peafe, &c. and the grounds 
are inclofed with wooden pales. The weather to-day is agreea- 
bly warm ; a light fog fometimes hangs over the Highlands, but 
in the river we have a fine clear air. Where we now ride, the 
tide does not run above fix knots an hour, and we have good an- 
chorage ; the reft of our fleet are working up, and, by the fitua- 
tion of affairs, I am inclined to think we are happily arrived at the 
place, that, to all appearance, will be the theatre of our future 
operations. In the curve of the river, while we were under fail, 
we had a tranfient view of a ftupendous natural curiofity, called 
the water- fall of Montmorency, of which I hope, before the clofe 
of the campaign, to be able to give a fatisfactory relation. A 
point of land running from the weft end of Orleans, and inclin- 
ing to the fouthward, intercepts our profpect of Quebec at pre- 
fent, from which we are now between five and fix miles ; the 
country-people, on the fouth fhore, are moving their effects in 
carts, and conducting them, under efcorts of armed men, to a 
greater diftance. At ten o'clock A. M a fignal was made for 
the Quarter-Mafters 0/ regiments, by which we conjecture the 
army will be ordered to prepare to land. At three P. M. another 
fignal was made for the tranfports to work up under the Commo- 
dore's ftern, and we foon after anchored again* off the parifh church 
of St. Lawrence. 

Halving accompanied our fleet to their flat ion off the Ifland of Or- 
leans near Quebec, inhere the forces encamped, (26 June) we 
Jhall pafs over the intermediate time to the 31/? of July, as not 


1 1S9- ^ e History of /^ War. 199 

neceflary, as they might be employed either with great ad- 
vantage againft the town, or much to the annoyance of the 
befiegers; for whilft the enemy continued mailers of thofe, 

any thing material happened until the unfavourable attack of 
the enemies -works, of <which the particulars are as follow ; 


Camp at Montmorency, ^i 'July* . 

" — The troops are to hold themfeives in readinefs co-morrow, 
" to execute the orders of yefterday, viz. to endeavour to pene- 
" trate into the French camp, between Beauport and the fall," 

Eight o'clock. — The troops at Point Levi were ordered to be 
ready to imbark immediately, boats coming from the fleet for this 
purpofe. Nine o'clock. — Ordered, that the 15th and 78th regi- 
ments with Brigadier-General Monckton be ready to imbark : the 
43d and 48th, light infantry under Major Bailing, and the marines 
remain here to defend our batteries and redoubts. Ten o'clock. — 
The Louijbourg grenadiers, with thofe of the 15th, 43d, 48th, 
and 78th, a detachment of the Royal Americans, the two regi- 
ments before-mentioned, and Brigadier Monckton, imbarked, ren- 
dezvoufed at the point of Orleans, put off immediately, and re- 
mained half-channel over, waiting for farther orders. The de- 
tachments of chofen men, with an officer of each regiment, who 
have been in readinefs, fince the evening of the 27th, for a parti- 
cular fervice, were this day countermanded. Eleven o'clock.— - 
Two armed tranfport-cats *, drawing little water, worked over, 
and grounded a-breaft of the Point de Lejl, weflward of the fall 
of Montmorency. A cannonading enfued between thofe fhips 
(fupported by Admiral Saunders in the Centurion) and a detached 
battery which the enemy oppofed to defend the fording-place at 
the foot of the water-fall, and lalled near two hours : at the fame 
time our batteries on the eminence to the eaftward brifldy enfiladed 
the enemy's works at the left extremity of their camp, and alfo 
their detached battery and redoubt on the beach below. 

Twelve o'clock. — The 43d regiment ordered to be ready at a 

* Lieutenant William Gamier, of the Van-Guard, command- 
ed the cat neareft in fhore, in which he difplayed great bravery 
and fteadinefs. I have not the pleafure to know the gentleman's 
name who commanded the other ; he behaved with equal honour, 
but Gamier 's veffel was more expofed to the enemy's fire of fmall 
arms as well as artillery. 

O 4 - moment's 

200 The History of the War. 1759. 

it was importable for a fhip to lie in the harbour of Quebec. 

ii thole polls were pofTefled, which was done with 

little difficulty, the harbour and town of Quebec appeared 


moment's warning * Weather extremely hot. The enemy throw 
fliells at the troops (to little purpofe) who are in their boats half 
channel over". Two corps of the enemy, one regulars, the other 
militia, made a motion towards the rear of their left, as if they 
intended to crofs the river of Montmorency at the upper Ford, and 
march into General Wolfe's camp ; whereupon the 48th regiment 
received orders to march immediately up the country fome miles 
to the weftward of our batteries, and then to ilrike into the woods, 
and return to their camp, as much undifcovered as poffible j this 
had the defired effecl, for the two French battalions alfo returned 
from the upper Ford, croiTed the river Charles, and marched up 
towards Sillery, to watch the motions of the 48th regiment. 

Three o'clock. — Colonel James received an order from General 
Wolfe, that the 43d, and 48th regiments, and Major Dalling's 
light infantry, do hold themfelves in readinefs to embark, the mo- 
ment boats may arrive for them ; that thefe corps are to leave pro- 
per guards to take care of their camps, who, with the marines, 
are to have charge of this important poll: ; and the Colonel is de- 
fired to remain in command, until farther orders. 

Four o'clock. — The Centurion, and the two armed cats, renew- 
ed a very brifk fire on the enemy's detached works. 

Half pall four o'clock.— A heavy cannonading now from every 

Five o'clock. — Very gloomy weather; fome of the boats, in 
attempting to land, ilruck upon fome ledges, which retarded our 
operations ; and, by the enemy's ihot and mells, the boats were a 
little confufed j the enemy abandoned the right of their camp, and, 
with their whole army, lined their intrenchments from the centre 
to the left. 

Half paft five o'clock. — The fifft divifion of the troops, con- 
filling or all the grenadiers of the army, made a fecond attempt, 
landed at the Point de Left, and obliged the enemy to abandon the 
detached battery, and redoubt, below the precipice + : by this 


* Colonel James and Major Elliott agreed and ordered, that the 
regiment ihould embark, land, and fight by companies under their 
own officers, which afforded the highell latisfaclion to the foldi- 
ers; this method, on a fervice of this nature, does not admit of 

f They pretended it was the want of ammunition that obliged 
them to defert thefe works under the hiil. 

1759* ^ History of the War. 201 

full to the view, at once a tempting and difcouraging fight. 
For no place feems poifeiled of greater benefits or nature; 
nor any of which nature feems more to have confulted the 


time the troops to the eaftward of the fall were in motion to join, 
and fupport the attack ; but the grenadiers, impatient to acquire 
glory, would not wait for any reinforcements, but ran up the hill, 
and made many efforts, though not with the greatetl regularity, 
to gain the fummit, which they found lefs practicable than had 
been expected: in this Situation they received a general difcharge 
of mufketry from the enemy's breaftworks, which was continued 
without any return ; our brave fellows nobly referving their fire, 
until they could reach the top of the precipice, which was incon- 
ceivably fteep ; to perfevere any longer they found now to little 
purpofe ; their ardour was checked by the repeated heavy fire of 
the enemy, and, as if conicious of their mi (take, the natural con- 
fequence of their impetuofity, they retired in diibrder (in fpite of 
the mofl unparalleled valour and good conduct, on the part of 
their officers) and took fhelter in the redoubt and battery on the 
beach, where Brigadier Moncktor??, corps were now landed and 
formed ; thofe under Brigadiers Totvnjbend and Murray being alfoi 
at hand, ready to futiain their friends. The General, feeing the 
iituation of affairs, night drawing ona-pace, and the ammunition 
of the army damaged with the dreadfulleft thunder- florm and fall 
of rain that can be conceived, fent to iiop Brigadier Tcwnjbend, 
and ordered Brigadier Monckton to reimbark his divinon, and the 
Scattered corps of grenadiers, in the beit manner he could, the 
ilat~ bottomed boats being at hand for that purpofe. The enemy 
did not attempt to purfue; their ammunition mutt undoubtedly 
have fhared the fame fate with our own,, for the violence of the 
ftorm exceeded any defcription I can attempt to give of it. 

A few Indians came down' to fcaip fome of our wounded on 
the beach. 

Upon this occafion it nx&tsi, that Lieutenant Henry Peyton, .of 
the Royal Americans, dtfplayed fo much gallautry ; for he, 
being at the fa??ie tune badly nmunded\ raljed hinifeif up, 
and 'with his double-barrelled fufH killed, ttvo of thofe bar" 
harians, one after the other, before they could execute their 
inhuman praclice ; and muj} then hn<ve fallen a facrifce to 
others, but that Providence, willing to reward fo much me- 
rit, threw an hone ft Highlander in his w?v, i* hap/ 
took him up, and laid him in the bo-zv of one of the boa:-, 
then ready to put off. 

20Z 'The History of the War. j 75P- 

Quebec, fays F. Charlevoix, can boaft of a frefli water 
harbour, c: pable of containing an hundred men-of war of 
tl e line, at one hundred and twenty leagues diftance from 


By the excellent difpofnion which Brigadier Monckton made on 
the beach, after he had collected all the troops that were on more, 
he leimbarked them without farther lofs, bringing away as many 
of the wounded as he could come at ; and the army returned to 
their refpe&ive camps. As the tide had left the armed cats dry, 
the Admiral fent orders to have the officers and men taken out, 
and the huiks burned, left they mould fall into the enemy's hands, 
to whom they might be ferviceable on fome future occafion. The 
lofs of our forces this day, killed, wounded, and milling, includ- 
ing all ranks, amounted to four hundred and forty-three ; among 
whom were two Captains, and two Lieutenants, flain on the fpot ; 
one Colonel*, fix Captains, nineteen Lieutenants, and three En- 
figns wounded. 

The enemy fuftered moft from our batteries on the eminences to 
the eaftward, having, as I was afterwards informed, at Quebec, 
near two hundred men and officers killed and difabled. 

The object of this day's operations was to penetrate into the 
enemy's camp, and force them to a battle, in hopes, as their army 
(though infinitely fuperior in numbers) confifted moftly of militia 
and peafants, they would have yielded an eafy victory to our re- 
gular forces ; and notwithstanding the variety of difficulties we had 
to encounter with, fuch as intrenchments, traveries, redoubts, and 
fortified houfes, that were loaded with fwivels and other fmall pie- 
ces of field artillery (almoft innumerable) it is more than probable 
we would have carried our point (though with great lofs) had it 
not been for a chain of concurrent circumila^ces that defeated the 
General's plan and expectations: to enumerate thefe may feem 
necelTary. — The obftru&ion our boats met with in their firft at- 
tempt to land, by which much time was loft, occasioned by a ledge 
of rocks expending along the north fhore, from the right to the 
leir cr the front of their camp; the ftorm of uncommon heavy 
rain, that not only damaged our powder, but rendered the preci- 
pices f to the enemy's works fo flippery, as to become impofTible 
ior men to afcend them ; thefe, together with the ill-timed zeal 
our grenadiers, who, regardlefs of difcipline and the commands 


* Burton of the 48th regiment. 

t At the foot of their parapet on the fummit, were felled trees 
laid lor fome yards down the llope, by which they became itill 
u:t*re inacceffible. 

1J59- 22* History of the War. 203 

the Tea. It lies on the moil: navigable river in the univerfe. 
The river St. Lawrence up to the ifle of Orleans, that is for 
about one hundred and twelve leagues from its mouth, is 


of their officers, were eager to diftinguim themfelves under a man, 
of whom they, and indeed the foldiery in general, had the high- 
eft opinion and confidence : — to which I may fubjoin the refrieat of 
the tide, then more than half ebb ; and the hafty approaching 
night, beginning to expand her dreary wings, with a farther prof- 
peel: of unfavourable weather. Befides all thefe, other circumstances 
there are not lefs deferving of attention ; for, had we fucceeded, the 
river Charles remained afterwards to be crofTed, before we could 
invert the garrifon ; and the French army would probably have 
occupied the high ground behind it, and intrenched there: our 
army was already greatly diminifhed, and would have been confi- 
derably more fo, if the General had perfevered ; all which deter- 
ring incidents, critically concurring, prevailed on his Excellency 
to withdraw his troops, and give up the project for the prefent. ■ 


Camp at Montmorency, Aug. r. 
" The check, which the grenadiers met with yefcerday, will, 
" it is hoped, be a leifon to them for the time to come ; fuch im- 
*' petuousy irregular, and unfoldierlike proceedings deftroy all or- 
" der, make it impoifible for their commanders to form any dif- 
" poiition for an attack, and put it out of the General's power to 
" execute his plan. The grenadiers could notfuppofe, that they 
" alone could beat the French army, and therefore it was necef- 
" fary, that the corps under Brigadier Monckton and Brigadier 
" Toivnjbend fhould have time to join, that the attack might be 
" general; the very firil hre of the enemy was fufficient to repulfe 
" men who had loft all fenfe of order and military difcipline; 
" Amberft's and the Highland regiments * alone, by the foldier- 
" like and cool manner they were formed in, would undoubtedly 
" have beat back the whole Canadian army, if they had ventured 
" to attack them. The lofs, however, is inconfiderabie, and may 

" be 

* Major Paul. Irvzttgvra.S2.t the head of Amberfl's regiment ; 
Colonel Frafer being confined by a "wound he had received before 
that day, I cannot recollect who was then at the head of his 
Highlanders : the reader may remember that thefe corps were 
commanded by Brigadier Monckton, and were part of his brigade 

204 Xt* History of the War. i T59- 

no where lefs than from four to five leagues broad ; buta- 
bove that iile it narrows, To that before Quebec it: is not a- 
bove a mile over. Hence this place gut the name of Quebeis 
or Quebec, which, in the Algonquin tongue, fignifics a ftrait. 


*' be eafily repaired, when a favourable opportunity offers, if tbe 
" men will ibew a proper attention to their officers. 

The killed^ ivounded, and miffing of this army •, in the .dif r 
fernjices -where <we ha-ve been employed, fince our arrival i 
Quebec, amount to 

Killed. Wounded. Milling. 
Commiflioned Officers, 10 47 

Serjeants, — 9 26 

Drummers, — 7 

Rank and file — 163 575 17 

Total 182 655 17 

Total of every rank, regulars, marines, artillery and rangers, 854. 

Major General Wolfe's Letter, and Admiral Saunders's, to Mr. 
Secretary Pitt, relative to the Operations at Quebec. 

Head Quarters at Montmorenci, in the River Saint Laurence, 

1 Sept. 2, 1759. 
S I R, 

Wifli I could, upon this occafion> have the honour of trans- 
mitting to you a more favourable account of the progrefs of 
his Majeity's arms ; but the obstacles we have met with, in the 
operations of the campaign, are much greater than we hadreafon 
to e pe£t, or could foreiee ; not fo much from the. number of the 
enemy (tho ? fuperior to us) as from the natural ftrength of the 
country, which the Marquis de Montcalm feems wifely to depend 

When I learned that fuccours of all kinds had been thrown in- 
to Quebec; that five battalions of regular troops, compleated from 
the beft of the inhabitants of the country, fome of the troops of 
the colony, and every Canadian that was able to bear arms, be- 
sides feveral nations of favages, had taken the field in a very ad- 
vantageous fituation ; I could not flatter myielf that I fhould be 
able to reduce the place. I ibught however an occahon to attack 
their army, knowing well, that with thefe troops I was able to 
fight, and hoping that a victory might difperfe them. 


l 759- The History of the War. 205 

The city is the fe"*at of the governor and the intendant, 
and the fupreme tribunals of ju it ice for all the French North 
America ; it is alio an epifcopal lee, and a place of con- 

We found them encamped along the more of Beaufort, from 
the river St. Charles to the falls of Montmorenci, and intrenched 
in every accellible part. The 27th of June we landed upon the 
ifle of Orleans ; but receiving a meffage from the Admiral, that 
there was reafon to think the enemy had artillery, and a force 
upon the point of Levi, I detached Brigadier Monckton with four 
battalions to them from thence. He paifed the river the 29th at 
night, and marched the next day to the point; he obliged the 
enemy's irregulars to retire, and pofFeffed himfeif of that poll : 
The advanced parties upon this occafion had two or three fkir- 
miilies with the Canadians and Indians, with little lots on either 

Colonel Carleton marched with a detachment to the Wefter- 
moft point or the ifle of Orleans, from whence our operations 
were likely to begin. 

It was abioluteiy neceffary to pofTefs thefe two points, and for- 
tify them ; becaufe from either the one or the other, the, enemy 
might make it impofiible for any iliip to be in the bafon of Quebec, 
or even within two miles of it. 

Batteries of cannon and mortars were erected with great dis- 
patch on the point of Levi, to bombard the town and magazines, 
and to injure the works and batteries : The enemy* perceiv- 
ing thefe works in fome forwardnefs, paffed the river with 
fixteen hundred men to attack and deilroy them. Unluckily 
they fell into co.Tufion, fired upon one another, and went back 
again; by which we loll an opportunity of defeating this large 
detachment. The effect of this artillery has been fo great (tho' 
acrofs the river) that the upper town is considerably damaged, 
and the lower town entirely deitroyed. 

The works for the fecurity of cur hofpitals and (lores on the 
ifle of Orleans being finiihed, on the 9th of 'July at night, we 
palled the North channel, and encamped near the enemy's left, 
the river Montmorenci between us. The next morning Captain 
Dank's company of Rangers, polled in a wood to cover fome 
workmen, were attacked and defeated by a body of Indians, and 
had fo many killed and wounded, as to be almoil difabled for the 
reft of the campaign : The enemy alfo fullered in this affair, and 
were in their turn drive: off by the neareft troops. 

The ground, to the eafeward of the falls, feemed to be (as it 
really is) higher than that on the enemy's fide, and to command 


The Hi s t or y of the W a r . i 759. 

able trade. It is large in extent, and elegant in many 
or its build ngis both public and private. It confifts of an 

a;' the lower? which is narrow, is 


II in a manner which might be made ufefui to us. There is be- 
the falls, which may be palled for fome hours 
in the latter part of the ebb and beginning or the wood tide; -and 
I had Dopes, that pofiibly means might be found of pafling the 
river above, fo as to right the Marquis de Montcalm, upon terms 
of left difadvantAge than directly attacking his increnchments. In 
reconnoitring the river Mont mover r i , we found it tcrdable at a 
place about three miles up ; but the oppoiite bank was intrench- 
ed, and fo deep and woody, that it was to no purpofe to attempt 
a paffage there. The efcort was twice attacked by the Indian^ 
who were as often repulfed ; but in thefe rencounters we had forty 
(officers and men) killed and wounded. 

The 1 8th of July, two men of war, two armed (loops, and 
two tianfports, with fome troops on board, palTed by the town 
without any lofs, and got into the upper river. This enabled me 
to reconnoitre the country above, where I found the fame attenti- 
on on the enemy's fide, and great difficulties on ours, arifing from 
the nature of the ground, and the obftacles to our communicati- 
on with the fleet. But what I feared moil, was, that if we iliould 
fend between the tov/n and the river, Capt. Roupj, the body firii 
.1 could not be reinforced before they were attacked by the 
enemy's whole jiimy. 

twithdanoing thefe difficulties, I thought once of attempt- 
ing it at St. Michael's, about three miles above the town ; but 
perceiving that the enemy were jealous of the deiign, were prepa- 
ring againd it, and had actually brought artillery and a mortar 
(which, being fo near to Quebec, they could increafe as they plea- 
led) to play upon the ihipping ; and, as it muft have been many 
hours before we could attack them, (even mppofing a favourable 
night for the boats to pais by the town unhurt) it feemed fo ha- 
zardous, that I thought it beft todefiit. 

However, to c:;ue the enemy's force, and to draw their at- 
tention as high up the river as pcilible, and to procure fome in- 
telligence, I lent a detachment under the command of Col. Carle- 
to land at the Point de 'Trenipe, to attack \ /hatever he might 
fend there, bring oft fome prifoners, and ail the ufefttl papers he 
could get. I had been informed that a number of the inhabitants 
' , had retired 10 that place, and that probably we 
ihoul.i ] -. in rasine of provifiots there. 

The Colonel vas fired upao by a I Indians the moment 

1759- Tb e History of the War. 207 

built upon a ftrand, at the foot of a lofty rock, upon which 
the upper town Hands. This rock extends itfelf, and con- 
tinues with a bold and fteep front, weftward along the river 


he landed, but they were fbon difperfed and driven into the woods : 
he fearched for magazines, but to no purpofe, brought off fome 
prifoners, and returned with little lofs. 

After this bufinefs, I came back to Montmorenci, where I found 
that Brigadier Toiunfhend had, by a fuperior lire, prevented the 
French from erecting a battery on the bank of the river, from whence 
they intended to cannonade our camp. I now refolved to take 
the firft opportunity which prefented itfelf of attacking the ene- 
my, though polled to great advantage, and every where prepared 
to receive us. 

As the men of war cannot (for want of a fufficient depth of 
water) come near enough to the enemy's intrenchments to annoy 
them in the leaft, the Admiral had prepared two tranfports (draw- 
ing but little water) which upon occafions could be run a-ground, 
to favour a defcent. With the help of thefe vefTels, which I un- 
derftood would be carried by the tide clofe in more, I propofed to 
make myfelf mafter of a detached redoubt near to the water's 
edge, and whofe fituation appeared to be out of mufquet ihot of 
the intrenchment upon the hill : If the enemy fupported this de- 
tached piece, it would necefTarily bring on an engagement, what 
we moft wifhed for; and if not, I fhould have it in my power to 
examine their fituation, fo as to be able to determine where we 
could belt, attack them. 

Preparations were accordingly made for an engagement. The 
31ft of July in the forenoon, the boats of the fleet were filled 
with grenadiers, and a part of Brigadier Moncktoris brigade from 
the point of /Levi : The two brigades under the Brigadiers Toivn- 
Jhenctzm] Murray were ordered to be in readinefs to pafs the ford, 
when it mould be thought neceiTary. To facilitate the pafTage 
of this corps, the admiral had placed the Centurion in the chan- 
nel, fo that fhe might check the fire of the lower battery which 
commanded the ford : This fhip was of great ufe, as her fire was 
very judicioufly directed. A great quantity of artillery was placed 
upon the eminence, fo as to batter and enfilade the left of their 

From the vefTel which run a-ground, neareft in, I obfervecf 
that the redoubt was too much commanded to be kept without 
very great lofs ; and the more, as the two armed fhips could not 
be brought near enough to cover both with their artillery and 
mufquetry, which I at firft conceived they might. But as the 


j»o8 The History of the War. , 759- 

li e ioi a confide rable way. Another river from 
rhc north-weft, c:iiled St. Charles, tails here i::Lo the tor- 
fi a J w a filing the iuot of the reck on which Quebec 


emy feeined in fonie confufion, and we were prepared for an 

tioii, 1 H proper time to make an attempt upon their 

intrenchments. Ciders were fent to the Brigadiers Generals to 
b read; with the corps under their command. Brigadier Monckton 
i) lanu, and the Biigadiers Toi^njbend and Murray to pafs the 

At a proper time of the tide, the llgnal was made, but in row- 
ing towards the ftiore, mr.ny of the boat^ grounded upon a ledge 
that runs off a coniiderabie diftance. This accident put us into 
ibme difoider, lofi: a great deal of time, and obliged me to fend an 
officer to i\op Brigadier To-zvnjbensfs march, whom I then obferved 
ro*be in or, ticn. While the feamen were getting the boats off, 
i'c enemy fired a number of /hells and ihot, but did no conside- 
rable damage. As foon as this diiorder could be fet a little to 
rights, and the boats were ranged in a proper manner, feme of 
the officeis of the navy went in with me, to find a better place 
to land : we took one flat-bottomed boat with us to make the ex- 
periment, and as loon as we had found a fit part of the fhore, the 
troops were ordered to diiembark, thinking it not yet too late for 
the attempt. 

The thirteen companies of grenadiers, and two hundred of the 
fecond Royal American battalion, got firft on fhore. The grena- 
diers were ordered to form themfelves into four diflinct bodies, and 
to begin the attack, fupported by Brigadier Monckton 6 i CQi^s > 2.s icon 
as the Troops had pafled the ford, and were at hand to affift. But 
whether from the noife and hurry at landing, or from fome other 
caufe, the grenadiers, inftead of forming themfelves as they were 
directed, ran on impetuoufly towards the enemy's intrenchments 
in the utmoft diforder and confuiion, without waitino- for the 
corps which were to fuftain them, and join in the attack. Brigadier 
Monckton was not landed, and Brigadier Town jb end was /till at a 
confiderabie diftance, though upon his march to join us, in verv 
great order. The grenadiers were checked by the enemy's iirft 
fire, and obliged to ilieiter themfelves in or about the redoubt, 
which the French abandoned upon their approach. In this iltua- 
tion they continued for fome time, unable to form under (o hot 
a fire, and having many gallant officeis wounded, who (carelefs 
ol their perfons) had been folely intent upon their duty. I faw 
the abiblute neceility of calling them off, that they might form 


i759* ^he History of the War. 2od 

{lands ; the point on which the town is built, thus becomes 
a fort of peninfula by the junction of thefe rivers ; fo 
that whoever attacks Quebec, muft either make his ap- 

themfelves behind Brigadier Moncklorfs corps, which was now 
landed, and<irawn up on the beach, in extreme good order. 

By this tiew accident", and this fecond delay, it was near nighty 
a fudden ftorm came on, and the tide began to make ; fo *that I 
thought it moft advifeable, not to perfevere in fo difficult an at- 
tack, left (in cafe of a repulfe) the retreat of Brigadier Tokvnjbend's 
corps might be hazardous and uncertain. 

Our artillery had a great effect upon the enemy's left, where 
Brigadiers Town/bend and ■ Murray were to have attacked ; and, 
it is probable that if thofe accidents I have fpoken of, had not 
happened, we fhould have penetrated there, whilft our left and 
centre (more remote from our artillery) muft have bore all the 
violence of their mufquetry. 

The French did not attempt to interrupt our march. Some of 
their favages came down to murder fuch wounded as could not be 
brought off, and to fcalp the dead, as their cuftom is. 

The place where the attack was intended, has thefe advanta- 
ges over all Others hereabout. Our artillery could be brought 
into ufe. The greateft part, or even the whole of the troops, 
might act at once. And the retreat (in cafe of a repulfe) was fe- 
cure, at leaft for a certain time of the tide. Neither one or other 
of thefe advantages can any where elfe be found. The enemy 
were indeed pofted upon a commanding eminence. The beach 
upon which the troops were drawn up, was of deep mud, with 
holes, and cut by feveral gullies. The hill to be afcended very 
fteep, and not every where practicable. The enemy numerous in 
their intrenchments, and their fire hot. If the attack bad fuc- 
ceeded, our lofs muft certainly have been great, and their's incon- 
fiderable, from the fhelter which the neighbouring woods afford- 
ed them. The river St. Charles ftill remained to be palled, be- 
fore the town was in veiled. Ail thefe chcumftances I confider- 
ed ; but the defire to act in conformity to the King's intentions, 
induced me to make this trial, perfuaded that a victorious army 
finds no difficulties. 

The enemy have been fortifying ever fince with care, fo as to 
make a fecond attempt ftill more dangerous. 

Immediately after this cheek, I fent Brigadier Murray above the 
town with twelve hundred men, directing him to aftift Rear Admi- 
ral Holmes in the deftruction of the French mips (if they could be 
got ar) in order to open a communication with Gen, Amherji. The 

P , Brigadier 

2to The History of the War. l l59- 

proaches above the town, and overcome the precipice which 
1 have mentioned, or crofs the river St. Charles, and at- 
tempt it upon that fide. The former of thofe methods muft 


Brigadier was to feek every favourable opportunity of righting 
(brne of the enemy's detachments, provided he could do it upon 
tolerable terms, and to uie all the means in his power to provoke 
them to attack him. He made two different attempts to and upon 
the North tliore without fuccefs; but in a third was more fortunate. 
He landed unexpectedly at de Cbambaud, and burnt a magazine 
there, in which were Come provifions, feme ammunition, and all 
the ipaie (lores, clothing, arms, and baggage, of their army. 

Finding that their ihips were not to be got at, and little prof- 
peel of bringing the enemy to a battle, he reported his fjtuation 
to me, and I ordered him to join the army. 

The prisoners he took informed him of the furrender of the 
fort of Niagara ; and we discovered, by intercepted letters, that 
the enemy had abandoned Carillon and Crown Point, were reti- 
red to the iOe Aux Noix ; and chat Gen. Amberji was making pre- 
parations to pais the Lake Cbamplain, to fall upon M. de Biur/e- 
maquis corps, which confifts of three battalions of foot, and as 
many Canadians as make the whole amount to three thoufandmen. 

The Admiral's dlfpatches and mine would have gone eight or 
ten days fooner, if I had not been prevented from writing by a 
fever. I found myfelf fo ill, and am tiill fo weak, that I begged 
the general officers to confult together for the public utility. They 
are ail of opinion, that (as more ihlps and provifions have now 
got above the town, they ihould try, by conveying up a corps of 
four or five thouland men (which is nearly the whole ftrength of 
the army, after the points of Levi and Orleans are left in a pro- 
per ftate of defence) to draw the enemy from their prefent fitua- 
tion, and bring them to an acHon. I have acquiefced in their 
propofal, and we are preparing to put it in execution. 

The Admiral and I have examined the town, with a view to a 
general affault ; but, after confuldng with. the chief engineer, 
who is well acquainted with the interior parts of it, and, after 
viewing it with the utmofl: attention, we round, that though the 
batteries of the Lower Town might be eafily fiienced by the men 
of war, yet the bufinefs of an affault would be little advanced by 
that, iince the few paiTages that lead from the Lower to the Up- 
per Town, are carefully intrenched ; and the upper batteries can- 
not be affected by the ftups, which muil receive confiderable da- 
mage from them and from the mortars. The Admiral would rea- 
dily join in thb, or many other raeafure, for the public fervice; 


1759* ^ je History of the War. 2,1 1 

appear to a prudent commander wholly unadvifeable, and 
the latter extremely difficult. If the former method fhould 
be attempted, they would have that dangerous precipice to 


but I could not propofe to him an undertaking of fo dangerous a 
nature, and promifmg fo little fuccefs. 

To the uncommon ftrength of the country, the enemy have ad- 
ded (for the defence of the river) a great number of floating bat- 
teries and boats. By the vigilance of thefe and the Inctians round 
our different pofts, it has been impoffible to execute any thing by 
furprize. We have had almoft daily fkirmiflies with thefe Sava- 
ges, in which they are generally defeated, but not without lofs 
on our fide. 

By the lift of difabled officers (many of whom are of rank) you 
may perceive, Sir, that the army is much weakened. By the na- 
ture of the river, the moft formidable part of this armament is de- 
prived of the power of acting, yet we have almoft the whole force 
of Canada to oppofe. In this lituation, there is fucd •<. choice of 
difficulties, that I own myfelf at a lofs how to determine. The 
affairs of Great Britain, I know, require the moil vigorous mea- 
fures j but then the courage of a handful of brave men fhould be 
exerted only where there is fome hope of a favourable event. 
However, you may be allured, Sir, that the fmaii part of the cam- 
paign which remains, ihail be employed (as far as I am able) for 
the honour of his Majefty and the intereft of the nation, in which 
I am fure of being well leconded by the Admiral and by the 
Generals. Happy if our efforts here can contribute to the fuc- 
cefs of his Majefty's arms in any other part of America. 

I have the Honour to be, 

With the greatefl Refpecl, Sir, 

Tour moft obedient, and moft humble Servant, 


Sterling-Caftle off Point Levi, in the River St. Lawrence, $tb of 

September, 1759. 

S I R, 

IN my letter of the 6th of June, I acquainted you I was then 
off Scutati, ftandiug for the river St. Lawrence. On the 26th, 
I had got up, with the firft divifion of the fleet and tranfports, as 

P z far 

2i2 The History of the War. 1759. 

overcome, defended by the enemies whole force, which 
the attack would draw to this quarter. On the other hand, 
the country from the river St. Charles to the northward, 


far as the middle of the ifle of Orleans , where I immediately pre- 
pared to land the troops, which I did the next morning. The 
lame day the lecond and third divifions came up, and the troops 
from them were landed likewife. 

I got thus far without any lofs or accident whatever ; but, di- 
re&ly after landing the troops, a very hard gale of wind came on, 
by which many anchors and fmall boats were loft, and much da- 
mage received among the tranfports, by their driving on board 
each other. The mips that loft moft anchors I fupplied from the 
men of war as far as I was able, and in ali other refpe&s, gave 
them the beft afTiftance in my power. 

On the 28th, at midnight, the enemy fent down from Quebec 
feven firefhips -, and though our mips and tranfports were fo nu- 
merous, and neceffarily fpread fo great a part of the channel, we 
towed them all clear and a-ground, without receiving the leaft 
damage from them. The next night General Monekton crofted 
the river, and landed with his Brigade on the South more, and 
took poft at Point Levi ; and General Wolfe took his on the weft- 
molt point of the Ifle of Orleans. 

On the 1 ft of July, I moved up between the Points of Orleans 
and Levi ; and, it being refolved to land on the north fhore, be- 
low the falls of Montmorenci, I placed on the 8th inft. his majef- 
ty's floop the Porcupine, and the Bofcavjen armed veffel, in the 
channel between Orleans and the North ihore, to cover that land- 
ing, which took place at night. 

On the 17th, I ordered Captain Rous of the Sutherland, to 
proceed, with the firft fair wind and night tide, above the town of 
Quebec, and to take with him his majefty's fhips Diana and Squir- 
rel, with two armed floops, and two catts armed and loaded with 

On the 1 8th, at night, they all got up, except the Diana, and 
gave General Wolfe an opportunity of reconnoitring above the^ 
town, thofe ihips having carried fome troops with them for that 
purpofe. The Diana ran a/liore upon the rocks off Point Levi, 
and received fo much damage, that I have fent her to Bofioti with 
twenty-feven fail of American tranfports, (thofe which received 
moft damage in the gale of the 27th of June) where they are to 
be difcharged ; and the Diana, having repaired her damages, is 
to proceed to England, taking with her the maft mips, and what 
trade may be ready to accompany her. 


1759- ^ e History of the War. 213 

for more than five miles, is extremely rough, broken and 
difficult, full of rivulets, gullies, and ravines, and fo con- 
tinues to the river of Montmorenci, which flews by the 


On the 28th, at midnight, the enemy fent down a raft of fire- 
itages, of near a hundred Radeaux, which fucceeded no better 
than the fue-ihips. 

On the 31ft, General Wolfe determined to land a number of 
troops above the falls of Montmorenci : , in order to attack the ene- 
my's lines ; to cover which, I placed the Centurion in the channel, 
between the We of Orleans and the falls, and ran on ihore, at 
high water, two catts which I had armed for that purpofe, againif. 
.two fmall batteries and two redoubts, where our troops were to 
land. About fix in the evening they landed, but the General not 
thinking it proper to perfevere in the attack ; foon after, part of 
them re-embarked, and the reft crofted the falls with General 
Wolfe ; upon which, to prevent the two catts from falling into 
the enemy's hands (they being then dry on ihore) I gave orders to 
take the men out and fet them on fire, which was accordingly done. 

On the 5th of Augufl, in the night, I fent twenty flat-bottom- 
ed boats up the river, to the Sutherland, to embark twelve 
hundred and fixty of the troops, with Brigadier General Mur- 
ray , from a poft he had taken on the fouth ihore. I fent Admiral 
Holmes up to the Sutherland, to act in concert with him, and give 
him all the afliftance the (hips and boats could afford. At the 
fame time I directed Admiral Holmes to ufe hisbeft endeavours to 
get at, and deilroy the enemy's ihips above the town ; and for 
that purpofe I ordered the Lo<weftojfe y and Hunter (loop, with two 
armed (loops and two catts, with provifions, to pafs Quebec and 
join the Sutherland; but the wind holding wefterly, it was the 
27th of Augufl before they got up, which was the fourth attempt 
they had made to gain their paiTage. 

On the 25th, at night, Admiral Holmes and General Murray •, 
with part of the troops, returned ; they had met with, and de- 
ftroyed a magazine of the enemy's cloathing, fome gunpowder, 
and other things ; and Admiral Holmes had been ten or twelve 
leagues above the town, but found it impracticable at that time to 
get farther up. 

General Wolfe having refolved to quit the camp at Montmorenci, 
and go above the town, in hopes of getting between the enemy 
and their provifions, (fuppofed to be in the ihips there) and by that 
means force them to an action, I fent up, on the 29th at night, 
the Seahorfe and two armed (loops, with two catts laden with 
provifions, to join the reft above Quebec, and having taken off all 

P3 the 

214 The History of the War. j 759- 

foot of a fteep and woody hill. On the fide of the. river St. 
Lawrence is a bank of land of great extent, which prevents 
theappu ach ot any coniiderable veflel. 


the artillery, lroni the camp at Montmorenci, on the 3d inft. in the 
afternoon the troops embarked from thence, and landed at Point 
Levi. The 4th, at night, I fent all the flat-bottomed boats up, 
and this night a part of the troops will march up the fouth more, 
above the town, to be embarked in the mips and veffels there, 
and to-morrow night the reft will follow. Admiral Holmes is alfo 
gone up again to aflift in their future operations, and to try, if, 
with the affiftance of the troops, it is practicable to get at the 
enemy's ihips. 

As General Wolfe writes by this opportunity, he will give you 
an account of his part of the operations, and his thoughts what fur- 
ther may be done for his majefty's iervice. The enemy appear 
numerous, and feem to be ftrongly polled ; but let the event be 
what it will, we ihall remain here as long as the feafon will per- 
mit, in order to prevent their detaching troops from hence againfl: 
General Amherfi , and I ihall leave cruizers at the mouth of the 
river, to cutoff any fupplies that may be fent them, with Ariel or- 
ders to keep that ftation as long as poffible. The town of Quebec 
is not habitable, being almoft entirely burnt and deftroyed. 

I enclofe you the prefent difpofition of the ihips under my com- 
mand : twenty of the victuallers that failed from England with 
the Echo, are arrived here, one unloaded at Louijbourg, having 
received damage in her paflage out, and another I have heard no- 
thing of. No ihips of the enemy have come this way, that I have 
had any intelligence of, iince my arrival in the river except one, 
laden with flour and brandy, which was taken by Captain Drake- 
of the Lizard. 

Before Admiral Durell got into the river, three frigates, and 
feventeen fail, with provisions, Acres, and a few recruits, got 
up, and are thofe we are fo anxious, if poffible, to deftroy. 

Yeft erday I received a letter from General Amherfi (to whom I 
have had no opportunity of writing fmce I have been in the river) 
dated Camp off Crown Point, Auguft 17th, wherein, he only de- 
fires I would fend tranfports and a convoy to Neiv York, to carry 
to England fix hundred and feventy prifoners taken at the furren- 
der of Niagara. 

I would have wrote to you fooner from hence, but while my 
difpatches were preparing, General Wolfe was taken very ill ; he 
has been better fince, but isftill greatlv out of order 

I ihall 

l 759* Tbe History of the War. 215 

In this advantageous fituation was the French army poll- 
ed* upon what was deemed the only acceffible fide of Que- 
bec? all along from the river St, Charles to that of Mont- 


I ihall very fbon fend home the great fhips, and have the ho- 
nour to be, 

With the greatefi refpecl^ Sir^, 

Tour mofi obedient 9 andmofi bumble fer*vani 9 


From the impracticability of a general affault on the itywn t <wbicb 
the General has declared in his Letter y .ive ft) all follotu him in 
his dejign of taking his forces from the Point de Levi, and the 
Jfland of Orleans, to the heights of Sillery abo<ve the toivn, in 
order to hring the enemy to an engagement^ <which he moji hap- 
pily effecJed. 

Stpt. 11. ORDER of troops in the line of boats. 

Number of Boats. 

— Light infantry leads. • 

— Bragg's regiment. 

— Kennedy's ditto. 
— - Lafceiles's ditto. 

— Anftnither's ditto. 
C Detachments of Highlanders 
\ and American grenadiers. 

" Captain Chads, of the navy, has received the GeneraFs di- 
** rections in refpect to the order in which the troops move, and 
" are to land ; and no officer muft attempt to make the leaft al- 
*' teration, or interfere with Captain Chads 7 particular province, 
•* left, as the boats move in the night, there may be dif order and 
** confufion among them. The troops mull go into the boats 
** about nine to-morrow night, or when it is pretty near high wa- 
" ter ; but the naval officers, commanding the different divifions 
u of boats, will apprize them of the fitteit time i and, as there 
V. will be a neceffity for remaining fome part of the night in the 
" boats, the officers will provide accordingly ; and the foldiers 
" will have a jill of rum extraordinary to mix with their water 5 
*' arms and ammunition, two days provifions, with rum and wa- 
** ter, are all that the foldiers are to take into the boats ; their 
4t mips, with their blankets, tents, &c< will foon be brought up. 


— , 













5 th 




P a S I G 

2i6 The History of the War. *759- 

morenci, entrenched at every attackable fpc^, with the ri- 
ver and fandbank abovementioned in their Iront, and thick 
impenetrable woods upon their rear. It is impolTible to 


" Firfi, For the flat-bottomed boats, with the troops on board, 
to rendezvous a-breaft of the Sutherland, between her and the 
fouth more, keeping near her : — one light in the Sutherland^ 
main top-maft ihrouds. 

" Secondly, When they are to drop away from the Sutherland, 
— flie will ihew two lights in the main top- maft fhrouds, one 
over the other. The men to be quite filent, and, when they 
are about to land, muft not, upon any account, fire out of the 
boats ; the officers of the navy are not to be interrupted in 
their part of the duty; they will receive their orders from the 
officer appointed to fuperintend the whole, to whom they are 
anfwerable. Officers of artillery, and detachments of gun- 
ners, are put on board the armed Hoops to regulate their fire, 
that, in the hurry, our troops may not be hurt by our own ar- 
tillery ; Captain York, and the officers, will be particularly 
careful to diftinguifh the enemy, and to point their fire againtl 
them ; the frigates are not to fire till broad day-light, fo that no 
miilake can be made: the officers commanding floating batte- 
ries will receive particular orders from the General. The troops 
to be fupplied to-morrow with provifions to the 14th. The 
troops oidered for the firft embarkation to be under arms at the 
head-quarters to-morrow morning at four o'clock." 
Great preparations are making, throughout the fleet and army, 
to furprize the enemy, and compel them to decide the fate of 
Quebec by a battle : all the long-boats below the town are to be 
filled with feamen, marines, and fuch detachments as can be fpa- 
red from Points Levi and Orleans, in order to make a feint off 
Beauport and the Point de Left, and endeavour to engrofs the at- 
tention of the Sieur de Montcalm, while the army are to force a 
defcent on this fide of the town. The officer of our regiment, 
who commanded the efcert yefterday on the reconnoitring party, 
being afked, in the General's hearing, after the health of one of 
the gentlemen who was reported to be ill, replied, — ' he was in a 

• very low indifferent fiate ;' which the other lamented, faying, 

• he has but a puny, delicate conftituticn.' — This ftruck his Ex- 
cellency, it being his own cafe, who interrupted, ' Don't tell me 
' o{^ ccnlti.ution, that officer has good fpirits, and good fpirits 
1 will carry a man through every thing.' 

J 2th. A foldier of the Royal Americans deferted this day from 


J 7 59- ^ je History of the War. 217 

imagine a ftronger pod- a poll at once more deftbfible in 
it felt', or better calculated for fucccuring a city, on which 
fide foever it fhouid be attacked. Thus polled, they greatly 


the fouth fliore, and one came over to us from the enemy, who 
informed the General, ' that he belonged to a detachment compo-* 

I fed of two officers and fifty men, who had been i'ent acrofs the 

* river to take a prifoner ; that the French generals fufpedt we are 

* going higher up, to lay wafle the country, and deftroy fuch 
' iliips and craft as they have got above ; and that Moniieur Mont-? 
' calm will not be prevailed on to quit his fituation, infilling that 
' the flower of cur army are flill below the town j that the reduc- 
' tion of Niagara has caufed great difcontent in the French army, 
'that the wretched Canadians are much ' dhTaiisfied, and that 

* Monfieur de Levis is certainly marched, with a detachment of 
f the army, to Montreal, in order to reinforce Mr. Bourlemacque, 
' and flop General Amherftz progrefs.' This fellow added, ' that, 

* if we were fairly larded on the north fide of the river, an incre- 

* dible number of the French regulars would actually defert to us.' 
—-In confequence of this agreeable intelligence, the following 
orders were this day iffued to the army. 


Onboard the Sutherland, 12th Sept. 
*' The enemy's force is now divided, great fcarcity of proviii- 
4< ons now in their camp, and univerfal difcontent among the 
" Canadians-, the fecond officer in command is gone to Montreal 

II or St. Johns, which gives reafon to think, that General Am-* 
*' her/I is advancing into the colony: a vigorous blovj fruck by 
" the army at this j unci ure may determine the fate oj Canada. 
" Our troops below are in readinefs to join us; all the light ar- 
" tillery and tools are embarked at the point of Levi, and the 
iC troops will land where the French feem lea It to expect it. The 
" firfl body that gets on jfliore is to march directly to the enemy, 
" and drive them from any little pod they may occupy ; the offi- 
" cers muff, be careful that the fucceeding bodies do not, by any 
" miftake, fire upon thofe who go on before them. The batta- 
?' lions muft: form on the upper ground with expedition, and be 
'* ready to charge whatever prei'ents itfelf. When the artillery 
" and troops are landed, a corps will be left to fecure the land- 
" ing-place, while the red march on, and endeavour to bring the 
.' French and Canadians to a battle. The officers and men will re- 
" member vuhat their country exp eels from them, and what a de* 
" ter mined body of foldiers, inured to war, is capable of 'doing, 


2i8 The History of the War. ^1S9- 

exceeded in nnmber the befiegers, being about eight thou- 
fand men, under an able, and hitherto fortunate commander, 
M. de Montcalm, who, though he was fupe-ior in number 


" again (I five weak French battalions, mingled with a diforderly 
" pea/an try. The foldiers muft be attentive and obedient to theii 
" officers, and vcfolute in the execution of their duty.'* 

The Brigadiers Monckton and Murray, with the troops under 
their command, leimbaikect this day, from the pariih of St. Ni- 
cholas, and returned to their fhips. This evening all the boats of 
the fleet below the town were filled with marines, &.c. &c. cover- 
ed by frigates and Hoops of war, worked up, and lay half-chan- 
nel over, oppofite to Beauport, as if intending to land in the 
morning, and thereby fix the enemy's whole attention to that quar- 
ter y the fhips attending them are to edge over, at break of day, 
as near as poihble without grounding, and cannonade the Freneb 
intrenchments. At nine o'clock this night, our army in high fpi- 
rits, the firft divifion of them put into the flat-bottomed boats, 
and, in a fhort time after, the whole fquadron moved up the ri- 
ver with the tide of flood, and, about an hour before day-light 
next morning, we fell down with the ebb. Weather favourable* 
a ftar-light night. 


Tburfday, Sept. 13, 1759. 
Before day-break this morning we made a defcent upon the 
north fliore, about half a quarter of a mile to ihe eaftward of 
t'dlery ; and the light troops were fortunately, by the rapidity of 
the <~u;rent, carried lower down, between us and Cape Diamond $ 
we had, in this debarkation, thirty flat-bottomed boats, contain- 
ing about fixteen hundred men. This was a great iurprize on the 
enemy, who, from the natural ftrength of the place, did not fuf- 
pec:, anu consequently were not prepared againll, fo bold an at- 
tempt, The chain 01 centfies, which they had polled along the 
fummit of the heights, galled us a little, and picked off fevera* 
men *, and tome officers, before our light infantry got up to dif- 
Jodge themf. This grand enterprife was conducted, and executed 


* In the boat where I was, one man was killed 5 one feaman, 
with rour ibldiers, were (lightly^ and two mortally wounded. 
< i* Captain Donald M Donald; a very gallant officer, of Frafeii 
Highlanders, commanded the advanced-guard of the light infan- 

* r 7> 

1759- ^e History of the War. 219 

to the Englifh, refolved to rifque nothing, and wifely relied 
on the natural ftrength of the country. 
When Gen. Wolfe faw the fituation of the town, the nature 


with great good order and difcretion ; as fail as we landed, the 
boats put off for reinforcements, and the troops formed with 
much regularity: the General, with Brigadiers Monckton and 
Murray, were a-iliore with the firft divilion. We loft 1^0 time 
here, but clambered up one of the fteepeft precipices that can be 
conceived, being almoft a perpendicular, and of an incredible 
height. As foon as we gained the fummit, all was quiet, and not 
a ihot was heard, owing to the excellent conduct of the light 
infantry under Colonel Howe ; it was by this time clear day-light. 
Here we formed again, the river and the fouth country in our 
rear, our right extending to the town, our left to Sillery, and 
halted a few minutes*. The General then detached the light 
troops to our left to route the enemy from their batrery, and to 
difable their guns, except they could be rendered ferviceable to 
the party who were to remain there; and this fervice was foon 
performed. We then faced to the right, and marched towards 
the town by files, till we came to the plains of Abraham; an 
even piece of ground which Mr. Wolfe had made choice of, while 
we flood forming upon the hill. Weather fhowery: about fix 
o'clock the enemy firft made their appearance upon the heights, 
between us and the town; whereupon we halted, and wheeled to 
the right, thereby forming the line of battle f. The firft difpo- 


try, and was, confequently, among the foremoft on fliore ; as 
foon as he and his men gained the height, he was challenged by a 
centry, and, with great prefence of mind, from his knowledge of 
the French fervice, anfwered him according to their manner : it 
being yet dark, he came up to him, told him he was fent there, 
with a large command, to take poft, and defired him to go with 
all fpeed to his guard, and to call off all the other men of his 
party who were ranged along the hill, for that he would take care 
to give a good account of the B — Anglois, if they fhould per- 
fift ; this finejfe had the defired effecl, and faved us many lives, 

* The hill they climb'd, and halted at its top, of more than mor- 
tal ft ze : 
Tow' ring they fee m'd, an hojl angelic, clad in .burning arms f 
\ Quebec was then to the eaftward of us in front, with the 
enemy under its walls. Our right was flanked by the declivity 


220 The History of the War. 1759. 

of the country, the number of the troops, and their porti- 
on, though of a fanguine temper and highly adventurous, 
he began to defpair; but, however another commander 


firion then was: <{ Grenadiers of Louijbourg on the right, forty- 
" feventh regiment on the left, twenty-eighth on the light, and 
" the forty-third on the left ;" part of the light infantry took poft 
in the hoiiies at Sillery, and the remainder occupied a chain of 
houfes which were opportunely fituated for that purpofe, and co- 
vered our left flank, inclining towards our rear ; the General then 
advanced fome platoons from the grenadiers and twenty-eighth 
regiment below the height on our right, to annoy the enemy, and 
prevent their getting round the declivity between us and the main 
river, which they had attempted. By this time the fifteenth and 
thirty-fifth regiments joined us, who formed a fecond line, and 
were foon after followed by the forty-eighth and fifty-eighth, two 
battalions of the fixtieth and feventy-eighth regiments, (High- 
landers) by which a newdifpofition was made of the whole ; 'viz. 

* firft line, thirty-fifth to the right, in a circular form on the (lope 

* of the hill; fifty-eighth, left; grenadiers, right; feventy-eighth, 
' left ; twenty-eighth, right ; forty-feventh, left ; forty-third, in 

* the centre.' General Wolfe, Brigadiers Monckian and Murray, 
to our front line ; and the fecond was compofed of the fifteenth, 
and two battalions of the fixtieth regiment, under Brigadier Tszvn- 
Jbendy with a referve of the forty-eighth regiment, under Colonel 
Burton, drawn up in four grand diviiions, with large intervals.. 
The enemy had now likewife formed the line of battle, and got 
fome cannon to play on us, with round and canifter-iliot ; but 
what galled us mo ft was a body of Indians and other markfmen 
they had concealed in the corn oppofite to the front of our right 
wing, and a coppice that itood oppofite to our centre, inclining 
towards our left ; but Colonel Hale, by Brigadier Manckton's 
orders, advanced fome platoons, alternately, from the forty-fe- 
venth regiment, which, after a few rounds, obliged thefe fculk- 
ers to retire : we were now ordered to lie down, and remained 


and the main river to the fbuthward, and what is called the lower 
road leading (weftward) from the town, with the river Charles 
and the north country, were on our left. If the reader will at- 
tend to this defcription, obferving the cardinal points, he may 
thereby form as lively an idea of the field of battle as if a plan 
were laid before him; and, though our firft difpofition was after-: 
wards altered, yet our fituation, with that of the enemy, and 
the fcene of action, could not vary. 

1 j $g. ffce History of t be W a r . 2 2 1 

might have thought inaclion in fuch circumftances juilified 
to himfeif, or even to the world, by fuch ftrong appear- 
ances, Wolfe refolved to leave nothing unattempted, but, 
/ . amidft 

fome time in this pofition. About eight o'clock we had two pie- 
ces of fhort brafs fix-pounders playing en the enemy, which threw 
them into fome confullon, and obliged them to alter their difpofi- 
tion, and Montcalm formed them into three large columns j about 
nine the two armies moved a little nearer each other. Tne light 
cavalry made a faint attempt upon our parties at the battery of 
Sillery, but were foon beat off, and Monlleur de Bougainville* 
with his troops from Cape Rouge, came down to attack the flank 
of our fecond line, hoping to penetrate there ; but, by a mafterly 
difpofition of Brigadier Toivnjhendy they were forced to defiil, 
and the third battalion of Royal Americans was then detached to 
the firft ground we had formed on, after we gained the heights, 
to preferve the communication with the beach and our boats. A- 
bout ten o'clock the enemy began to advance briikly in three co- 
lumns, with loud iliouts and recovered arms, two of them in- 
clining to the left of our army, and the third towards our right, 
firing obliquely at the two extremities of our line, from the dis- 
tance of one hundred and thirty — , until they came within forty 
yards; which our troops withitood with the greateft intrepidity 
and firmnefs, ftill referving their fire, and paying the ltricleir. obe- 
dience to their officers: this uncommon fteadinefs, together with 
the havoc which the grape-fhot from our field-pieces made among 
them, threw them into fome diforder, and was moil critically 
maintained by a well-timed, regular, aj>d heavy difcharge or our 
fmall arms, fuch as they could no longer oppok* ; hereupon they 
gave way, and fled with precipitation, fo that, by the time the 


* When the General formed the line of battle, he ordered the 
regiments to load with an additional ball. The forty-third and 
fony-feventh regiments, in the centre, being little affected by the 
oblique fire of the enemy, gave them, with great calmnefs, as 
remarkable a clofe and heavy ciiicharge, as I ever faw performed 
at a private field of exercife, infomuch that better troops than we 
encountered could not polTibly withltand it : and, indeed, well 
might the French officers fay, that they never oppofed fuch a 
fhock as they received from the centre of our line, for that they 
believed every ball took place, and fuch regularity and difcipline 
they had not experienced before ; our troops in general, and par- 
ticularly the central corps, having levelled and fired,— com me tine 
-coup de canon. 

222 *the History of the War. 175£» 

amidft the choice of difficulties which lay before him, to 
pitch upon thole where the valour of his troops might be 
employed with the bed; profpeft: of fuccefs. 
_ As 

cloud of fmoke was vanifhed, our men were again loaded, and, 
profiting by the advantage we had over them, purfued them al- 
1110ft to the gates of the town, and the bridge over the little river, 
redoubling our fire with great eagcrnefs, making many officers and 
men prifoners. The weather cleared up, with a comfortably 
warm fun-fhine : the Highlanders chaced them vigoroufly to- 
wards Charles's, river, and the fifty-eighth to the fuburb clofe to 
Johns gate, until they were checked by the cannon from the two 
hulks j at the fame time a gun, which the town had brought to 
bear upon us with grape-fliot, galled the progrefs of the regiments 
to the right, who were likewife purfuing with equal ardour, while 
Colonel Hunt Walfo, by a very judicious movement, wheeled the 
battalions oiBraggz and Kennedy's to the left,and flanked the cop- 
pice where a body of the enemy made a ftand, as if willing to 
renew the action ; but a few platoons from thefe corps completed 
our victory. Then it was that Brigadier Toyonfhend came up, 
called off" the purfuers, ordered the whole line to drefs, and reco- 
ver their former ground. Our joy at this fuccefs is inexpreflibly 
damped by the lofs we fuftained of one of the greateft heroes 
which this or any other age can boail of, — General JAMES 
WOLFE, who received his mortal wound, as he was exerting 
himfelf at the head of the grenadiers of Louijbourg ; and Briga- 
dier Monckton was unfortunately wounded upon the left of the 
forty-third, and right of the forty-feventh regiment, at much the 
fame time -, whereby the command devolved on Brigadier Town- 
Jhend, who, with Brigadier Murray, went to the head of every 
regiment, and returned thanks for their extraordinary good beha- 
viour, congratulating the officers on our fuccefs. There is one 
incident very remarkable, and which I can affirm from my own 
knowledge, — that the enemy were extremely apprehenfive of be- 
ing rigorouily treated ; for, confeious of their inhuman behaviour 
to our troops upon a former occafion, the officers who fell into 
our hands molt piteoufly (with hats off) fued for quarter, repeat- 
edly declaring they were not at Fort William Henry (called by 
them Fort George) in the year 1757. A foldier of the Royal A- 
mericans, who deferred from us this campaign, and fought againft 
us to-day, was found wounded on the field of battle; he was 
immediately tried by a general court-martial, and was iliot to death, 
purfuant to his fentence. While the two armies were engaged 


"or vrcnerai; 


s 759* ^ e ^ ISTORY °f tfy War. 223 

As foon as he had fecured the wed point of the ifle of 

Orleans, and that of Levi, he erected batteries there of 

cannon and mortars, on the high ground, from the point 


this morning, there was an incefTant firing between the town and 
our fouth batteries. By the time that our troops had taken a little 
refrefhment, a quantity of intrenching tools were brought on fhore, 
and the regiments were employed in redoubling our ground, and 
landing fome cannon and ammunition. The officers who are prin 
foners fay, that Quebec will iurrender in a few days : fome defer- 
ters, who came out to us in the evening, agree in that opinion, 
and inform us, that the Sieur de Montcalm is dying, in great ago- 
ny, of a wound he received to-day in their retreat. Thus has 
our late renowned commander, by his fuperior eminence in the 
art of war, and a moil, judicious coup d' eclat, made a conqueft of 
this fertile, healthy, and hitherto formidable country, with a 
handful of troops only, in fpite of the political fchemes, and 
moft vigorous efforts, of the famous Montcalm, and many other 
officers of rank and experience, at the head of an army confide- 
fably more numerous. My pen is too feeble to draw the charac- 
ter of this Britijb Achilles j but the fame may, with juftice, be 
faid of him as was laid of Henry IV. of France: He *vas pof- 
feffed of courage, humanity, clemency, generofity, affability, and 
politenefs. And though the former of thefe happy ingredients, 
how efTential foever it may be in the compofltion of a foldier, is 
not alone fufficient to diftinguifh an expert officer ; yet, I may, 
with ftri& truth, advance, that Major General James Wolfe* 
by his great talents, and martial difpofition, which hedifcovered 
early in life, was greatly fuperior to his experience in generaiiliip, 
and was by no means inferior to a Frederic, a Henry, or a Fer- 

" When the matter match'd his mighty mind, 
** Up rofe the Hero : on his piercing eye 
* s Sat obfervation, on each glance of thought 
" Decifion follow'd, as the thunderbolt 
" Purfues the Mam." 

The ftrength of our army, this day in the action, will bed ap- 
pear by the following return ; to w T hich I mall fubjoin that of the 
enemy, as delivered to me afterwards by an intelligent French- 



The Hi 

tory of the War. 


of Levi, which iooks towards the town; thefe fired conti- 
nually upon the place; Admiral Saunders was Rationed be- 

lon r 

OFFICERS prefent: Rank and File, &c. 
Commiffioned. | Staff. (N.Com. 





























! C 


























28th|Bragg 7 s 

3 5th!Orway's 
1 Lawrence's 

i :H K 

4j a 




2 2d I f LiOUllDOUrg 

40th <Cornpanie: 
5othj Cor Grenad. 



























Total 1 3] 6 




i 2I 





1 1 


1 1 


1 1 






1 1 


6 4 








3 1 


















1 1 










60 1 






s!4Blio9 1 1 6 7 | 5 

_' _' 

4 | I|2 





3 2 7 







Total of all Ranks, including General Officers, &c. 4828, 

One M:\jor-General, three Brigadiers-General, one Qnarter-Maf- 
ter-Generai, one Aid Quarter- Mallei -General, one Adjutant-Ge- 
neral, four Majors of Brigade, two Aids de Camp. 


Right Column. 

Troupes de Colohie ero 

Regiment deia Sarrecoo 

Reg. de Languedoc 550 

Des Milices, and ) 

one fix- pounder j ft OQ 


Centre Column. 

Left Column. 

Reg. de Berne 360 ! RoyaleRoufillon6$6 

Reg. deGui-7 , : La Colonie 650 

enne j * D Des Milices 2300 

Des Milices 1200 



{ n- The History of the War. 225 

low in the north channel of the iile of Orleans, oppofite to 
Montmorenci ; Admiral Holmes was Rationed above the 
town, at oqcj to diftraci the enemies attention, and to pre- 

nfieur de Bougainville's corps, from Cape Rouge, confiding of 
five companies of grenadiers, cavalry, Canadian volunteers, lava- 
ges, and militia, two thoufand and iixry ; total of the enemy nine 
.1 live hundred and eigh 
De 1 who are come over to us fince the action, inform us x 

thai it was very difficult to perfup m f and 

other commanders, that the fl our an: behind 

town ; and, after the Marq 
the river Charli r, and taken :i vie-., of us, be 
* at liit got to the weak udc of tni 
4 we me :r to crush them with our 

\em all befort twelve clock." — Every coppice, bufli, 
cover, thai Hood on our ground thi e cut down be* 

tore night, and applied to the the liouics 

WereaD fortified, and fevej il redoubts thrown up round qui coup, 
which is about one thou find j ten 

O R ti E R 

11 Parole, Wolfe; counteifign, En 

. maining general -lie car'.i 

pportunity to expiefs the praife -uct 

" and bravery of the troops; and d it, 

" fufHciently proves the fup 

<c number of Inch tioup-. ">//& 

" that the ' fo 

u glorious a day, and ha \ '/'/ °P* 

jujl encomiums 
\* obliged ro undergo, to reap 1 ill 

" lie (upp< . 1 a tru< period 

" which will determine, in all proba , in laboi. 

il the troops are to i iill of rum , and \ 

" frelh proviiions the d to-morroW The regiments and 

" corps to give returns of their kilh and 

M the ftrengl qr corps. The pioneers of the different regi- 

'* ments to buiv the dead : the corps are to fend all their tools, 
u not immediately in ufe, to the artilie y park. All French 
" papers, or letters found, are delircd to be fent to the head 
" quarters. No foldier to prefume to llrolc beyond the out-polls. 

Q^ Vrmi 

226 The History of the War. 1759. 

vent any attempts from the enemy againft: the batteries that 
played upon the to* n 

After this wife difpofition was made of the fleet, General 
Wolfe cauled the troops to be tranfported over the north 


94 Arms that cannot be drawn are to be fired into the fwamp, Bear 
" the head quarters. The admiral has promised the continuance 
* of all the affiftance which the naval fervice can fpare, to eafe 
" the troops of the fatigues which the farther operations will re- 
" quire of us. General Town/bend has the fatisfaclion to ac- 
i£ quaint the troops, that General MoncktotCs wound is not dan- 
44 gerous ; the commanding officers of the corps will order the 
" rolls to be called every half-hour, to prevent marauding, 
« &c. &c." 

Lair, night Brigadier Ta'vanJbend J went with a detachment of 
two hundred men, to the French general hoipital, fituated on the 
river Charles, and about a mile from the town ; this is a convent 
of nuns of the Auguftine order, who, — from principles of charity 
and piety, — take care of all lick and wounded men and officers ; 
lands are appropriated for the fupport of this inuitution 5 betides 
which, the French king endows it with a yearly falary, and a table 
is kept there at his expence for convaiefcent Officers, Directors, 
Surgeons, Apothecaries, &c. &c. The Brigadier found an Officer's 
guard at the convent, but he immediately took poifefilon of the 
place, by polling a Captain's command there ; the unfortunate 
Marquis de Montcalm was then in the houfe, dying of his wound, 
attended fey the Bilhop and his Chaplains. A tranfport, a fchoo- 
ner 7 and a parcel of boats, with ordnance and (tores, pafled the 
town I2& night ; the enemy fired brifkiy on them, but without any 
efieft The garrifon appear to be at work upon their ramparts, as 
if refclved to prolong the liege. Somedelerters, who came out 
to us this day, informed us, that Monlleur de Levis, who has re- 
joined and collected their fhattered forces, had intended to furprife 
the rear of our camp at day-break this morning, but, upon recon- 
noitring our J&tuarion, and finding we had made fuch excellent nib 
of our time, hi ereSing redoubts and other works, prudently de- 
clined the undertaking. The Sieur * de Montcalm died late lalt 

* The appointments of this great man, as Lieutenant-General, 
and Commander in Chief, &c. &c. did not exceed a thouland fols 
per day ; and I have been credibly informed that all his other 
emoluments did not amount to more than the like fum ; the whole 
equivalent to about nine hundred and thirty pounds fierllng, per 
annum. • 


1759* € fhe History of the War. ^ 

channel of the river St. Lawrence, to the north-eaft of Mont- 
morenci, with a view of palling that river, and bringing 
the enemy to an engagement. Some heights which com- 

night j when his wound was dreffed, and he fettled in bed, the 
Surgeons who attended him were deiired to acquaint him ingenuoufly 
with, their fentiments of him, and, being anfwered that his wound 
was mortal, he calmly replied, ' he was glad of it :' his Excellency 
then demanded, — * whether he could furvive it long, and how 
4 long ?' He was told, ' about a dozen hours, perhaps more, per- 

* adventure lefs.' * So much the better,' rejoined this eminent 
warrior ; * I am happy I ihall not live to fee the furrender of 

* Quebec •' He then ordered his Secretary into the room to adjuft: 
his private affairs, which as foon as they were difpatched, he was 
viiited by Monfieur de Ramfey, the French King's Lieutenant, and 
by other principal Officers, who defired to receive his Excellency's 
commands, with the farther meafures to be purfued for the de- 
fence of Quebec, the capital of Canada. To this the Marques 
made the following anfwer, — 4 I'll neither give orders, nor inter- 
' fere any farther ; I have much bufinefs that muft be attended 

* to, of greater moment than your ruined garrifon and this wretch- 

* ed country : my time is very fhoit, — therefore pray leave me— - 
4 I wifh you all comfort, and to be happily extricated from your 

* prefent perplexities.' He then called for his Chaplain, who, 
with the Bifhop of the colony, remained with him till he expired. 
Some time before this great man departed, we are allured he paid 
us this compliment, — * Since it was my misfortune to be difcom- 
' fited and mortally wounded, it is a great confolation to me to be 

* vanquifhed by fo brave and generous an enemy : If I could fur- 

* vive this wound, I would engage to beat three times the number 

* of fuch forces as I commanded this morning, with a third of 

* their number of Britijh troops.' 

We are drawing artillery and ammunition aihore, with all ex- 
pedition; in which we are much favoured, at prefent, by the 
weather, and have found a convenient road for the purpofe, lead- 
ing directly from the cove to the camp ; — this, is the place that 
had been intended for our defcent yefterday, but, the morning being 
dark, and the tide of ebb very rapid, we were imperceptibly car- 
ried a little lower down, which proved a favourable circumftance j 
for there was a ftrong intrenchment that covered the road, lined by 
a detachment of one hundred and fifty men. It is ftill much more 
fortunate that the General had not deferred the execution of his 
project to another day ; for two French regiments, with a corps of 
lavages, were actually under orders of readinefs to march at fix 

Q^2 o'clock, 

228 '. tv Tbe, History of the War. 1759. 

manned tbe enemies mtrenchmcnts, and a ford above, and 
another below the falls, encouraged bim to this attempt ; 
but upon reconnoitring the ground, tbe oppofite fhore was 


o'clock* os the morning of tbe 13th, and intrench themselves im- 
mediately along the heights ; but happily our troops were in pof- 
feilion of that ground, before the enemy had any thoughts of ftir- 
ling. Several, men and Officers wounded to-day in camp, by (hot 
andiheHs from the town. The French regulars, in the late en- 
cagemeht, hred Hugs of lead and iron from their finall arms ; fome 
of themw&re found in the fcot-poaches of the Officers that were 
made prifoners, who, being challenged upon this fubje& t replied, 
with a %nitk&nt fnnig, — * It was their cuftom, wtthout any ill 
( defign.* A Sag of truce came from the garrifbn this afternoon, 
requeuing petmiSon to bury their dead ; all that were within our 
reach we had interred before. — Brigadier Moncktvn took the op- 
portunity in this reflation to pafs the town to his tent at Point Levi, 
of which notice was fent to the Governor and to our batteries on 
the Couth ihore. 

After otti late worthy General , of renowned memory, was car- 
ried of! wounded, to the rear of the front line, he defired thofe 
who were about him to lay him down ; being silked if he would 
hare a Surgeon ? he replied, * it is needleis; it is all over with 
' me.' One of them then cried out, * they run, fee how they 

* run* * Who runs?' demanded our hero, with great earneftnels, 
like a. peribn routed from lleep ? The Officer anfwered, * The 

* enemy, Sir ; Egad they give way everywhere.' Thereupon the 
Genera! rejoined, ' Go one ofjou, my lads, to Colonel Burton — ; 

* tell him to xwireb "Webb'x regiment -with all [peed do-von 1o 

* C3tarfes'* river ^ to a, be retreat of tbe fugitives from the 

* bridge: Then, taming on his fide, he added, * Novo, God be 

* pro? fed, I vaUl die in peace .-' and thus expired *. 


* Various accounts have been circulated of General Wolffs 
manner of dying, his kil words, and the Officers into whole hands 
he fell : and many, from a vanity of talking, claimed the honour 
of tzts^ alter he was wounded ; but the foregoing 

drcum&ances were afcertained to me by Lieutenant Brown, of the 
grenadiers of Lauijhowrg, and the tweoty-fecond regiment, who, 
with Mr. Henderfin, a volunteer in the lame company, and a pri- 
vate man, were the three perfbns who carried his Excellency to 
rear • which an artillery Officer feeing, immediately flew to his 
i ;e ; and thefe were all that attended him in his dying mo- 
ments. I do not recoiled the artillery Officers name, or it jhould 
be chearfullj recorded here. 


1759- fbe History of the War. 229 

found fo (!eep and woody, that he could not hope to put his 
defign in execution, which was by moving towards the ene- 
mies flank, to draw them to an eng -igement. To bring 


Myrmidonum, Dolopitmque, aul cluri miles Uiyj 
'Temperet a lachrymis ? 

This reiignatiori, and greatnefs ajf foul, calls to myfcnenabi 
an anno r Itory of Epamrnondas, the Thebn?; i who, 

having received in fight a mortal wontn 1 fword, which was 

left in his body, lay in <- lire till ho r.. ice that 

his troops h?d obtained a vit>.ory, and tb> itted it to I. 

out, faying, at that initant, * This is not the end of my life, my 

* fellow- foldterg; it is now your Epami was born, who dies 

* in fo much glory.' 

15th. Wet weather to-day: more defertera coming out to us, 
they info r Monfieur J commands i" the 

town, and the f ' Officers oi" the garrifon, ate fettling the 

iminarii 1 'on ; t'.\it the Indians h one 

of their their refpe&ive dis- 

tricts ; that the cith Canadi -.. tri- 

fled, and impatient to haye the town delivered up to tie. 
nadian waft taki i by a partv of Highlanders ; they found 

him concealed the roa om 

the cove lie Grid Ik 1. id been thei i ng, previous to 

our landing ; and v. 

though famiihing with left he fhould not get 

quarter He . 

ly, to join the othei ; ring 

cannon and fton 

camp. We are co .om 

the town, n - ire Cpirit ieriugour 

defenitble two thouland a* I in making taurines and 

gabions, to us to carry on approaches; \ parcel qf Jailors. 
i fonic huules on the beach under ( ape Diaitoonf, in k rcli 
at ulun re fired upon, and ma j ' 

brought up a mortar to their fouth-well baftion to bombard 
ouv Ihips above the town, and have thrown feveral iheJIs for that 
purpofe, withou a i The wind inifted to the N. W. this 

evening, and the weather cleared up ; three deferter- efcaped to 
our camp at night-tall. 

The enemy acknowledged to have had near fifteen hundred, kil- 
led, wounded, and prifoners, on the 13th inftant; among the : 

Q.3 tcr, 

230 The History of the War. Ij 759- 

the French to an a£tion was his Tingle object. . He had 
found that any attempts to alTault the city would prove to 
no purpofe, whtlft the fleet could only batter the lower 


ter, which amounted to almoft three hundred, are included one 
Lieutenant-Colonel, nine Captains, five fi; il and fecond Lieutenants, 
and two Cadets. Befides Monfieur de Montcalm, the two next in 
command were alio killed, viz. Monfieur de Senefergue and Mon- 
fieur de St. Ours, Brigadiers. This great lofs fell moftly on the 
regular troops. 

A LIST of the Killed, Wounded, and Mifling, on the 13th 

of September. 








1 <u 











. CO 

































- 4! 

a a 
rt a 











• J— "S 




■^ ^ 

















5 2 




15 th. 













35 th - 











43 d 










































6o i 3 dB. 
































Lou. Gr. 




, 3 























Staff. Killed, one Major-General : Wounded, one Brigadier, 
one Quarter-Mafter-General, one Adjutant-General, one Major 
of Brigades, one Aid de Camp, one Engineer. 

AH ranks killed, wounded, and mifling, fix-hundred and fixty-four. 

1 6th. 

1759* Tb e History of the War. zgi 

town, and muft fuffer greatly by the cannon and bombs of 
the upper, whilft they were employed in this ineffectual 
fervice ; for after the reduction of the lower town, the paf- 


1 6th., Cloudy weather, and blows frefh. About ten o'clock 
laft night the enemy beat a chamade, and an Officer was fent to 
the General ; we flattered ourfelves they were about to capitulate, 
but it was only to requefl permiflion to fend their women and 
children, over Charles's river, into the country - 9 which was 
generoufly granted We profited by this cefTation, having advanced 
a large detachment, with a covering party, nearer, and — oppo- 
fite to Port St. Louis, to clear the ground of bruih, take poft, and 
throw up a fpacious redoubt, it being intended to erect a battery 
there : thefe parties were augmented to day, and the enemy are 
endeavouring, by a very hot fire, to route them thence. The fe- 
cond in command of the marine department, with a Prieft, and 
thirty Canadians, were this day brought in prifoners by a party of 
Highlanders. The enemy feem to be more lavifh of their ammu- 
nition than heretofore, neither fparing our camp nor the fouth 
batteries. We are drawing up more artillery, and large parties; 
are employed in cutting fafcines, &c. the mofl effectual preparations 
are making to haften the reduction of this capital, and, in a day 
or two, we hope to open a formidable fire upon the upper town, 
and the woiks on this fide of it ; which, however, do not feem 
calculated to bear much battering, 


17 th. " Complaints have been made that great diforders have 
** been already committed, in the neighbourhood of the camp, by 
** the foldiers ; which has obliged the country people, who were 
*' coming in with frelh provisions, to return. Gen. loiunjhend takes 
" the earlieft occafion of declaring to the troops, that, whilil he 
" has the honour to command them, he thinks it his duty to in- 
** dulge them in no acts of licentiouihefs, the only circumftance 
" which can fully the glory they have acquired, and prolongs the 
<c reduction of this country ; he is determined to prefer<i>e the fame 
" good dijcipline kept up by their late General, and, like him, to 
** grant every proper indulgence , ixjhich the good of the fer<vice 
" and good dijcipline diclates. One Field-Officer, four Captains, 
" twelve Subalterns, and four hundred men with arms, to parade 
" this afternoon, at four o'clock, for work : the Engineers will 
" order tools for them, and will conduct them. Neither Officer 

nor foldier to be allowed to go near the French general hofpital j 

Q^4 '* the 


232 The History of the W a r . * 7 59- 

• to the upper were extremely flcep, and moreover fo 
well intrenched, that this advantage would prove little to- 
wards the reduction of the place. 


f< the guatU there, and that in Major Dallingz redoubt, to be at- 
" tentive that this order be obeyed. Three Captains, fix Subalterns, 
u and five hundred men, to parade to-morrow morning, at day- 
" break, for fafcine- making. The piquets and working parties 
" to parade, for the iuture, at four o'clock \n the afternoon. 
'-' The- Brigadier of the day will difpofe of the piquets in the fol- 
" lowing redoubts : 

*' Advanced redoubt — 1 '■' ZW/zWs redoubt — 1 


" Field-artillery redoubt — 2 " The hofpital poll — 1 

" Right redoubt — 1 

'• The reft will be difpofed of by the Brigadier of the day, where 
" he mail think proper ; all out-pofts and piquets to fend a guide 
" to the parade at four o'clock in the afternoon, to attend the 
" relief." 

Wet weather to-day. The Admiral moved the fleet up into 
the bafon, and is preparing to attack the lower town : the artillery 
which we have now in this camp confifts of- twelve heavy twenty- 
four pounders of brafs, four light ditto, fixteen of twenty-two 
pounders, and eight of iron ; four thirteen-inch brafs mortars, 
and- one of iron ; four brafs ten-inch mortars, and eight of eight 
inches j four brafs twelve-pounders, and fixteen ditto fix-pounders ; 
eleven royal howitzers of five inches and an half, and thirty of 
four. inches and three quarters -, in all, fixty pieces of cannon, and 
fifty-eight mortars, &c. — The enemy fire now, almoft inceffantly^ 
into our advanced works, our camp, and our batteries on the fouth 
fide of the river ; an Officer of the twenty-eighth regiment, fitting 
at the door of his tent, had qne of his legs fo Shattered by a fhot 
from the town, that he was compelled to undergo immediate ampu- 
tation. A new battery is to be erected this afternoon, contiguous 
to the advanced redoubt, for cannon and mortars. Between the 
hours of two and three an Officer came out to our camp with pro- 
pofals to capitulate, upon which the Admiral was inirantly fent 
for.- At four the working party for the advanced works and bat- 
tery were paraded, and we lay fome time on our arms to wait the 
event ; between five and fix we were ordered to the left of the 
line, to cut down all the under-wood and cover that flood within 
half a mile of our flank and rear ; which employed us until almoft 
nine. The army are Ordered to be very alert this night, the town 
having agreed to capitulate, upon condition that it is not relieved, 
before to-morrow morning, by the troops under Meffieurs de Levis 


1 159- The History of t/je War. 233 

The only point left, therefore, was by every means to 
Entice or force the enemy to an engagement; and to this 
end no means were omitted, by fending detachments up the 


and de Bougainville, who have fignified their intentions to the 
Sieur de Ram fey of endeavouring to difpofTefs us of this ground 
with all the force of Canada. 

1 8th. The garrifon capitulated this morning, and the articles 
were duly ratified and exchanged. The fleet and army aie to take 
pofTeflion of the upper and lower towns this afternoon. 


" The capital of Canada having this day furrendered to his 
Britannic Majefty's arms, upon terms honourable to our victori- 
ous army, all acts of violence, pillage, or cruelty, are fcrictly 
forbidden. The garrifon to have the honours of war ; the in- 
habitants to lay down their arms, and are, by the capitulation, in- 
titled thereupon to his MajenVs protection. The foldiers ought 
therefore to coniider, that Quebec belongs now to his Britannic 
Majefty, and not to the French King ; that it may be a garrifon 
to trie troops, and mufl be preferved with that view ; that its 
early fubmiifion, even before a gun tvas Jired agairiji it y has 
iaved the troops from much fatigue, and, perhaps, illnefs ; that 
the fubmiilion of the whole colony, on this occafion, may de- 
pend upon the behaviour of the foldiers ; that our fupplies this 
winter will be effected by it, it it. oonfequentlv the higheft of- 
fence againtl the King s fervice to infringe an order, which, by 
the articles of war, is death. After this warning no perfon can 
expect mercy upon conviction before a court-martial. This 
order to be read at the head of every company. 

" The form of taking pofTeilion of the T OWN. 

" The gates to be taken pofTeilion of by Lieutenant-Colonel 
" Murray, and three companies of grenaoiers, after which the 
" hour will be appointed when the army fhall march in. Fifty of 
" the Royal Artillery, Officers in proportion, one field-piece, 
" with a lighted match following them, will march to the grand 
•' parade, followed by the Commanding Officer and his party, fent 
" to take pofTeilion of the town ; to whom all keys of forts will 
" be delivered ; from which party Officers' guards will immediate- 
•' ly be fent o rake pofTeiTion of all ports and outlets from the town. 
" ComniifTaries of flores and provifions, with each a party, mufl 
*' be put in pofTeffion by the like Officers of the garrifon of all 

** artillery 

234 The History of the War. 1759. 

river, and by every appearance of a defign to attack the 
town on that fide. But the Marquis de Montcalm, \tt 
choofing his poft, was well apprifed of its importance. He 


" artillery and ftores of every kind, provifions, &c. &c. for his Ma- 
'* jefty's fervice ; abftra&s oi which they are to deliver in, figned, 
** to the Englijh Commiffary, that nothing be concealed or em- 
M bezzelled. During this time the Commanding Officer of artil- 
** lery will hoift the Union flag of Great Britain at themoft con- 
M fpicuous place of the garrifon ; the flag-gun will be left on the 
'.' grand parade, fronting the main-guard. The piquets to be dif- 
** pofed of by the Brigadier of the day, according to yefterday's 
*' orders." 

The keys of the ports were given up this evening to General 
To-vonjhendy and fafe-guards were fent into the town, purfuant to 
the treaty : the Louijbourg grenadiers marched in, preceded by a 
detachment of the artillery, and one gun, with the Britijb colours 
hoifted on its carriage : the Union flag was difplayed on the cita- 
del. And Captain Palifer, with a large body of feamen and in- 
ferior Officers, at the fame time took poffemon of the lower town, 
and hoifted colours on the rammit of the declivity leading from 
the high to the low town, in view of the bafon and the north and 
fouth countries below Quebec. Deferters are coming in from 
Monfieur de Lewis's army every hour, and the Canadians are fur- 
rendering by whole families, to fubmit to the GeneraPs mercy. A 
body of the enemy took poft in an intrenchment on the north fide 
of Charles's river, and have got fome cannon there ; they had the 
prefumption to fire at our men palling through the environs of the 
town and the limits of our camp, pretending that they were not in- 
cluded in the capitulation ; however, a fpirited meflage was fent 
to Monfieur de Ramfey, in which it was threatened ' to difannul 

* the capitulation, profecute the fiege with the utmoft rigour, and 

* ftorm the town, if he, or any of his troops by his connivance, 

* ihould perfevere in that, or in any other ungenerous act or pro- 
c cedure ; and infilling that all fuch parts of the country, north and 
' fouth, as are and have been reputed in the diftrict of Quebec, 
4 (ball be comprehended in the treaty.' This vigorous menace 
had the defired effect, and an Officer was immediately fent to that 
quatter to command them to defift from all farther acts of hoftility: 
Major Elliot y with a detachment of five hundred men, were in- 
ftantly fent to take poffeffion of the enemy's late intrenched camp, 
and to difarm the inhabitants of the village of Beauport. A noted 
rebel, by name Long, by birth a Briton, and formerly a pilot in 
our fervice, is made a prifoner, and has been fent in irons on board 


1759- Vhe History of the War. 235 

knew fufficiently the nature of the country up the river, and 
he trufted to it ; and therefore kept himfelf clofely in his 
poll:, difpofing his parties of favages, in which he was very 



one of our fhips of war ; this fellow was a great partifan among 
the French banditti in Nova Scotia, where he has frequently 
proved a defperate thorn in the fides of his countrymen. 

The Honourable General Monckton's letter to the Right Honourable 
• Mr. Secretary Pitt, dated, River St. Lawrence, Camp at Point 
Levi, September I 5, 1759. 

S I R, 

I Have the pleafure to acquaint you, that, on the 13th inftant, 
his majefty's troops gained a very fignai victory over the 
French, a little above the town of Quebec. General ft'olfe, ex- 
erting himfelf on the right of our line, received a wound pretty 
early of which he died foon after, and I had myfelf the great 
misfortune of receiving one in my right breaft by a ball that 
went through part of my lungs (and which has been cut out un- 
der the blade bone of my moulder) juft as the French were giv- 
ing way, which obliged me to quit the field. I have therefore, 
Sir, defired General Tovonjhend, who now commands the troops 
before the town (and of which I am in hopes he will be foon in 
poflefiion) to acquaint you with the particulars of that day, and 
of the operations carrying on. I have the honour to be, &c. 


P. S. His majefty's troops behaved with the greateft fteadinefs 
and bravery. 

As the furgeons tell me that there is no danger in my wound, 
I am in hopes that I mall be foon able to join the army before the 

The Honourable Brigadier General Toivnjhend's letter to the Right 
Honourable Mr. Secretary Pitt t dated, Camp before Quebec , 
Sept. 20, 1759. 

S I R, 

I Have the honour to acquaint you with the fuccefs of his ma- 
jefty's arms, on the 13th inft. in an aclion with the French, on 
the heights to the weft ward of this town. 

It being determined to carry the operations above the town, the 
pofts at Point Levi, and /' IJle d 'Orleans, being fecured, the gene- 
ral marched with the remainder of the force, from Point Levi, 
the, 5th and 6th, and embarked them in tranfports, which had 


236 Tl-d History of the War. ' 1759. 

ftrong, in fuch a manner, as to make any attempt upon 
him by furprifq absolutely impofhble. In the mean time, 
from the town, firefhips and boats were letdown the ftream 


paffed the town for that purpofe. On the 7th, 8rh, and 9th, a 
movement of the fliips was made up, by Admiral H-Jmes, in or- 
der to amufe the enemy now potted along the North fhore ; but 
the transports being extremely crowded, and the weather very 
bad, the general thought proper to cantoon halt his troops on the 
South fliore ; where they were refrefhed, and reimbarked upon 
the 1 2th at one in the morning. The light infantry,, commanded 
by Colonel Hoive, the regiments of Bragg, Kennedy, Lafcelles> 
and Anjlruiher, with a detachment of Highlanders* and the 
American grenadiers, the whole being under the command of 
Brigadier Monckion and Murray, were put into flat-bottomed 
boats, and, after fome movements of the fliips, made by Admiral 
Helmes, to draw the attention of the enemy above, the boats fell 
down with the tide, and landed on the North more, within a 
league of Cape Diamond, an hour before day-break : the rapidity 
of the tide of ebb carried them a little below the intended place 
of attack, which obliged the light infantry to fcramble up a 
woody precipice, in order to fecure the landing the troops by 
diflodging a captain's poft, which defended the fmall intrenched 
path the troops were to afcend; After a little taring, the light 
infantry gained the top of the. precipice, and difperfed the Cap- 
tain's poft -, by which means, the troops, with a very little loft, 
from a few Canadians and Indians in the wood, got up, and were 
immediately formed, The boats, as they emptied, were fent 
back for the fecond embarkation, which I immediately made. 
Brigadier Murray, who had been detached with Anjlruiher s 
battalion to attack the four gun battery upon the left, was re^ 
called by the general, who now faw the French army eroding the 
river St. Charles. General Wolfe thereupon begun to form his 
line, having his right covered by the Lou ijb our g grenadiers ; on 
the right of thefe again he afterwards brought Otways ; to the 
left of the grenadiers were Brtgg's, Kennedy's, Lafcellefs, High- 
landers, and Anjiruther's ; the right of this body was commanded 
by Brigadier Monckton, and the left by Brigadier Murray ; his 
rear and left were protected by Colonel Howe's light-infantry, 
who was returned from the four gun battery before-mentioned, 
which was foon abandoned to him. General Montcalm having 
collected the whole of his force from the Beaupart fide, and ad- 
vancing, fhewed his intention to flank our left, where I was im- 
mediately ordered with General Amberjl's battalion, which I form- 


1759* ■ Tl>t History of the War, % -7 

to deftroy the {hipping, which, as they almoil wholly filled 
the channel, were greatly endangered. But by the extraor- 
dinary fkill and vigilance of Admiral Saunders, every vef- 


ed enpotence. My numbers were foon after encreafed by the ar- 
rival of the two battalions of Royal Americans 5 and Webb's Was 
drawn up by the general, as a referve, in eight fubdivifions with 
large intervals. The enemy lined the bullies in their fiont with 
fifteen hundred Indians and Canadians, and I dare fay 
had placed molt of their beft markfrnen there, v/ho kept up a very 
galling, tho' irregular, fire upon our whole line, who bore it with 
the greater! patience, and good order, referving their fire for the 
main body now advancing; This fire of the enemy was however 
checked by our pofts in our front, which protected the forming 
our own line. The right of the enemy was compofed of half of 
the troops of the colony, the battalion of La Sarre Languedoc, 
and the remainder of their Canadians and Indians. Their centre 
was a column, and formed by the battalions of Bear ti and Gui- 
enne. Their left was compofed of the remainder of the troops 
of the colony, and the battalion of Royal Rouftllon. This was, 
as near as I can guefs, their line of battle. They brought up 
two pieces of fmall artillery againil us, and we had besn able to 
bring up but one gun ; which being admirably well ferved, galled 
their column exceedingly. My attention to the left wiil not per- 
mit me to be very exact with regard to every circumfcance which 
parTed in the centre, much iefs to the right ; but it is mod cer- 
tain, that the enemy formed in good order, and that their attack 
was very brifk and animated on that fide. Our troops referved 
their fire, till within forty yards, which was fo well continued, 
that the enemy every where gave way. It was then our general 
fell at the head of Bragg' s, and the Louijbourg grenadiers, advanc- 
ing with their bayonets: About the fame time RrigaJier-gerieral 
Monckton received his wound at the head of Lafcelles's. In the 
front of the oppofite battalion fell, alfo Marihai Montcalm ; and 
his fecond in command is fince dead of his wounds on board our 
Meet. Part of the enemy matifi a fecond faint atrack. Part took 
to fome thick copfe wood, and feemed to make a ;land h was 
at this moment, that each corps feemed in a manner to e« Ch~ 
felf, with a view to its own peculiar character. The grenadiers, 
" Bragg s, and Lalcelles's, prelTed on with their bayonets. Brigadier 
Murray, advancing with the troops under his command, brifklv 
compleated their rout on this fide ; when the Highlanders, fup- 
ported by Anflruthers, took to their broad fwordc, and drove part 
into the town, and part to the works at their bridge airj the r 'ver 
St. Charles. The 

238 The History of the War. j 759- 

fel of this kind fent againfl them was towed afhore without 
doing the leaft mifchief. 

The general finding that all his efforts to decoy the enemy 
to an engagement had proved unfuccefsful, and, fenfible 


The action, on our left and rear, was not fo fevere. The 
houfes, into which the light-infantry were thrown, were well 
defended, being fupported by Colonel Hoive, who taking poll 
with two companies behind a fmall copfe, and frequently Tallying 
upon the flanks of the enemy during the attack, drove them often 
into heaps, againft the front of which body I advanced platoons of 
Amber/i's regiment, which totally prevented the right wing from 
executing their firft intention. Before this, one of the Royal 
American battalions had been detached to preferve our communi- 
cation with our boats, and the other being fent to occupy the 
ground which Brigadier Murray's movement had left open, I re- 
mained with Amherjl's to fupport this difpoiltion, and to keep the 
eneiny's right, and a body of their favages, which waited ftill 
more towards our rear, oppofite the potts of the light-infantry, 
waiting for an opportunity to fall upon our rear. 

This, Sir, was the fituation of things, when I was told, in the 
action, that I commanded : I immediately repaired to the centre, 
and finding the purfuit had put part of the troops in diforder, I 
formed them as foon as poilible. Scarce was this effected, when 
M. de Bougainville , with his corps from Cape Rouge of two thou- 
fand men, appeared in our rear. I advanced two pieces of artil- 
lery, and two battalions towards him : upon which he retired. 
You will not, I flatter myfelf, blame me for not quitting fuch ad- 
vantageous ground, and Hiking the fate of fo decilive a day, by 
feeking a frefh enemy, polled perhaps in the very kind of ground 
he could wifli for, viz. woods and fwaraps. 

We took a great number of French officers upon the field of 
battle, and one piece of cannon. Their lofs is computed to be 
about fifteen hundred men, which fell chiefly upon their regu- 

I have been employed, from the day of action to that of the 
capitulation, in redoubting our camp beyond infult, in making a 
road up the precipice for our cannon, in getting up the artillery, 
preparing the batteries, and cutting off their communication with 
the country. The 17th, at noon, before we had any battery 
erected, or could have any for two or three days, a flag of truce 
came out with propofals of capitulation, which I fent back again 
to the town, allowing them four hours to capitulate, or no farther 
treary. The Admiral had, at this time, brought up his large 


ijgg, ¥h€ History 0/ ife War. 239 

that they defired nothing more than to aft defenfively, un- 
til the feafon itfelf mould fight for them, and oblige the 
Engtiih to retire, he came at laft, in fpite of all difficulties, 


Ships as intending to attack the town. The French officer return- 
ed at night with terms of capitulation, which, with the Admiral, 
were confidered, agreed to, and figned at eight in the morning, 
the i8thlnftant. The terms we granted, will, I flatter myfelf, 
be approved of by his majefty, confidering the enemy aflembling 
In our rear, and what is far more formidable, the very wet and 
cold feafon, which threatened our troops with ficknefs, and the 
$eet with fonxe accident ; It had macje our road fo bad, we could 
not bring up a gun for fome time ; add to this, the advantage of 
entering the town, with die walls in a .defenfible ftate, and the 
being able to put a garrifon there ftrong enough to prevent all 
furprize. Thefe, I hope, will be deemed fufficient confide rations 
for granting them the terms I have the honour to tranfmit to you. 
The inhabitants of the country came in to us fail;, bringing in. 
their arms, and taking the oaths of fidelity, until a general peace 
determines their fituation, 

I have the honour to inclofe herewith a lift of the killed and 
wounded ; a lift of the prifoners as perfect as I have yet been able 
to get it ; and a lift of the artillery and ftores in the town as well 
as thofe fallen into our hands at Beauport in confequence of the 
victory. By deferters we learn, that the enemy are re-affembling 
what troops they can, behind the Cape R^uge ; that M. de Lewy 
is come down from the Montreal fide to command them ; fome 
fay, he has brought two battalions with him ; if fo, this blow 
has already affifted General Amherft. By other defer ters, we 
learn, that M. de Bougainville, with eight hundred men, and 
provifions, was on his march to fling himfelf into the town the 
i8th, the very morning it capitulated, on which day we had not 
compleated the inveftiture of the plaee, as they had broke their 
bridge of boats, and had detachments in very ftrong works on the 
other fide the river St. Charles. 

I fliould not do juftice to the Admiral, and the naval fervice, 
if I negledied this occafion of acknowledging how much we are 
indebted for our fuccefs to the conftant aiTiftance and fupport re- 
ceived from them, and the perfeft harmony and correfpondence, 
which has prevailed throughout all our operations, in the uncom- 
mon difficulties, which the nature of this country, in particular, 
prefents to military operations of a great extent, and which no 
army can itfelf folely fupply ; the imrnenfe^labour fn artillery, 
ftores and provifions ; the long watchings-and attendance in boats; 


2 4-0 tfbt H r s t o r y of the \V a n . 1 j 59. 

to the refolution of attacking them in their intrenchments 
on the fide of Montmoienci. The place where the attack 
was to be made, was choien with great judgment, as the 


the drawing up our artillery by the Teamen even in' the, heat of 
action ; it is my duty, fhort as my command has been, to ac- 
knowledge, for that time, how great a fliare the navy has had in 
this fuccefst'ul campaign. 

I have the honour to be, &c 


Vice Admiral Saunderis Letter to the Right Honourable Mr 
J\ Secretary Pitt. 


I Hive tqgf greateft pleafarjpi acquainting you that the town 
and citadel of Quebec fu^ndered on the 18th inftant, and I 
inclofe you a copy of the articles of capitulation. The army took 
poffeiftoji of the gates on the laad fide the fame evening, and fent 
fate-guards into the town to p'rqferve order, and to prevent any 
thing from being deftroyed ; and Captain Pallifer, with a body 
* of feamen, landed in the lowejj&wn, and did the fame. The next 
day our army marched in, ana near a thoufand French officers, 
foldiers and feamen, were embarked on board fome Englifh catts, 
who fhall foon proceed for France, agreeable to the capitulation. 
I had the honour to w r iite to ycu the 5th inft. by the Rodney 
. rter. The troops, mentioned in that letter, imbarked on board 
the iTups and veifels above the town, in the night of the 6th inft. 
12nd at four in the morning of the 13th began to land on the north 
Wiore, about a mile and a half above the town. General Mont- 
Balm with his whole army, left their camp at Beaufort, and 
fciarched to meet him. A little, before ten both armies were form- 
ed, and the enemy began the attack. Our troops received their 
fire, and referved their own, advancing till they were fo near as 
to run in upon them, and pufli them with their bayonets ; by 
which, in a very iittle time, the French gave way, and fled to 
the town in the utmoft diforder, and with great lofs ; for our 
tioops purfued them quite to the walls, and killed many of them 
upon the glacis, and in the ditch ; and if the town had been 
further off, the whole French army muft have been deftroyed. 
About two hundred and fifty French prifoners were taken that 
day, among whom are ten captains, and fix fubaltern officers, all 
01 whom will go in the great iliips to England. 

\ forry to acquaint you, that General Wolfe was killed \if 
the actio;, -, and General Monckton iliot through the body -, but 


I 759- ^ e History of the War. 241 

only place thereabouts in which the artillery could be brought 
into ufe ; as there, and there only, the greatefr. part, or 
even the whole of the troops, might act at once, and that 

he is now fuppofed to be out of danger. General Montcalm, and 
the three next French officers in command, were killed $ but I 
muft refer you to General Tonxjnjhend (who writes by this oppor- 
tunity) for the particulars of this action, the (late of the garrifon, 
and the meafures he is taking for keeping pofTefflon of it. I am' 
now beginning to fend on fhore the (lores they will want, and 
provifions for five thoufand men ; of which I can furniili them 
with a fufficient quantity. 

The night of their landing, Admiral Holmes, with the fhips 
and troops, was about three leagues above the intended landing 
place : General Wolfe, with about half his troops, fet off in 
boats, and dropped down with the tide, and were, by that means, 
lefs liable to he difcovered by the French centinels, polled all 
along the coafl. The /hips followed them about three quarters 
of an hour afterwards, <fnd got to the landing place juft in the 
time that had been concerted, to cover their landing ; and confi- 
dering the darknefs of the night, and the rapidity of the current, 
this was a very critical operation and very properly and fucceff- 
fully conducted. When General Wolfe, and the troops with him, 
had landed, the difficulty of gaining the top of the hill is fcarce 
credible : it was very fteep in its afcent, and high, and no path 
where two could go a-breaft : but they were obliged to pull them- 
felves up by the (lumps and boughs of trees, that covered the 

Immediately after our victory over their troops, I fent up all 
the boats in the fleet with artillery, and ammunition ; and ort 
the 17th went up with the men of war in a difpofition to attack 
the lower town, as foori as General Totvn/hend (hould be ready 
to attack the upper ; but in the evening they fent out to the camp 
and offered terms of capitulation. 

I have the farther pleafure of acquainting you, that during 
this tedious campaign there has continued a perfect good un- 
derilanding between the army and the navy. I have received 
great ailiftance from Admirals Durell and Holmes, and from all 
the captains : Indeed every body has exerted themfelves in the 
execution of their duty ; even the tranfports have willingly af- 
fifted me with boats and people on the landing the troops, and 
n»3ny other fervices. 
>% I have the honour to be, &c. 


ft there 

24* The History of the War. 1 759* 

there retreat, in cafe of a repulfe, was fecure, at leaft for 
a certain time of the tide. Having determined upon the 
place where the attack was to be, which was at the mouth 
of the river Montmorenci, the beft difpofitions for it were 
made, both on the part of the Admiral and of the 
July 30. General. But notwithstanding that the whole 
was conducted with equal vigour and prudence, it 
was totally defeated by one of thofe accidents which fo fre- 
quently interpofe to the difgrace of human wifdom, and 
which demonftrates that fhe is far from being the fole arbi- 
trefs of war. 

The Englifh grenadiers, who led the attack, had orders, 
immediately after their landing, to form themfelves on the 
beach ; but inftead of forming themfelves as they were di- 
rected, from the hurry and noife of their landing, or from 
an ill-governed ardor, they rufhed impetuoufly towards the 
enemies entrenchments in the utmoft diforder and confufi- 
on, without waiting for the corps which were to fuftain 
them, and join in the attack. In this diforder, they were 
met by a violent and fteady fire from the entrenchments, 
by which they were thrown into more confufionj and obliged 
them to fhelter themfelves behind a redoubt, which the 
French had abandoned on their approach. 

The General perceiving that it was impoflible for thefe 
grenadiers to form under fo fevere a fire, that the night 
drew on, a violent temped was gathering, and the tide began 
to make, faw clearly that he had nothing further left, than 
to order a retreat, with as little difadvantage as poflible. He 
therefore called off thofe troops, and having formed behind 
Brigadier Monckton's corps, which was on the beach in excel- 
lent order, the whole repaired the river without moleftati- 
on, the General expofing his perfon with that intrepidity, 
which diftinguifhed him both during the attack, and the 

The lofs in this check was not inconfiderable ; and the 
event on the whole was fuch, as to difcourage any further 
attempts upon that fide. They returned to the old meafures. 
The General again fent fome bodies above the town, and 
fome men of war failed up the flream for more than twelve 
leagues. They received intelligence that the enemy had 
a mailed fome magazines of provifions in the interior coun- 
try, and they propofed, by getting between them and the 
town, to draw the French army from their entrenchments, 


1759* ^ History of the War. 243 

to the long-defired engagement; but if they failed to com- 
pafs this, they might at leaft deftroy the fhips of war which 
the enemy had in the river, and help to open a communi- 
cation between them and General Amherft, on whom their 
laft expectations were fixed, and who, they flattered them- 
felves, was on his march to their afliftance. 

But though they fucceeded in deftroy ing fomeof the ene- 
mies magazines, there was nothing of great moment in 
this. They could not come near the men of war. How- 
ever they received intelligence from fome prifoners^ of the 
fuccefs of Sir William Johnfon againfl: Niagara ; they 
learned likewife, that the French had fmoothed the difficul- 
ties in the way of General Amherft, by abandoning Crown 
Point and Ticonderoga. But this intelligence, otherwife 
fo pleafing, brought them no profpe£t of the approach of 
any afliftance from that quarter. The feafon wafted apace. 
The General fell violently ill,confumed by care, watching, 
and a fatigue, too great to be fupported by a delicate confti- 
tution, and a body unequal to that vigorous and enterprifing 
foul that it lodged. It was not enough for him to efcape 
from fo great an expedition uncondemned and unapplauded; 
to be pitied, was, he thought, but a milder cenfure j and he 
knew that no military conduct can thine, unlefs it be gild- 
ed with fuccefs. His own high notions, the public hope, 
the good fuccefs of other commanders, all turned inward 
upon him, opprefied his fpirits, and converted disappoint- 
ment into difeafe. As foon as he had a little recovered, he 
difpatched an exprefs with an account of his proceedings to 
England, written indeed in the ftile of defpondency, but 
with fuch perfpicuity, clearnefs, and elegance, as would 
have ranked him amongft our beft writers, if his military 
exploits had not placed him among our greateft command- 

He refolved, when he fent away his account, to conti- 
nue the campaign to the laft poftible moment ; and after a 
deliberation with his officers, determined, that any further 
attempts at Montmorenci were to little purpofe, and that 
their principal operations fhould be above the town, in or- 
der, if poifible, to draw the enemy to an action. But the 
defign of Wolfe was deeper, and more particularly direct- 
ed than it had been before. The camp at Montmorenci 
was broke np, and the troops were conveyed to the fouth- 
eaft of the river, and encamped at Point Levi. The fqua- 

R 2 dron 

244 ^be History of the War. l l59- 

dron under Admiral Holmes made movements up the river 
for feveral days fncceflively, in order to draw the enemies 
attention as far from the town as poflible. This fucceeded 
in fome meafure; for, though it could not perfuade the 
Marquis de Montcalm to quit his port, it induced him to 
detach Bougainville with fifteen hundred men to watch 
their motions, and to proceed along the weftern (hore of 
the river, whilft the Englifh army directed its march the 
fame way on the eaftern bank. 

When Gen. Wolfe faw that matters were ripe for action, 
he ordered the (hips under Admiral Saunders to make a 
feint, as if they propofed to attack the French in their en- 
trenchments, on the Beauport (hore below the town, and 
by their motions to give this feint all the appearance of a 
reality which it poflibly could have. This difpofition be- 
ing made below the town, the General embarked his forces 
about one in the morning, and with Admiral Holmes's di« 
vifion went three leagues further up the river than the in- 
tended place of his landing, in order to amufe the enemy, 
and conceal his real deflgn. Then he pujt them into boats, 
and fell down fliently with the tide, unobferved by the 
French centinels pofled along the fhore* The rapidity of 
the current carried thefe boats a little below the intended 
place of attack. The mips followed them, and arrived 
juft at the time which had been concerted to cover their 
landing. Considering the darknefs of the night, and the 
rapidity of the current, this was a very critical operation, 
and it required excellent heads both on the part of the 
marine, and the land fer vice, to preferve a communication- 
and to prevent a difcovery and copfufion. 

As the troops could not land at the fpot propofed, when 
they were put on (hore an hill appeared before them ex- 
tremely high and fteep in its -afcent ; a little path winded 
up this afcent, fo narrow that" two could not go abreaft. 
Even this path was intrenched, and a captain's guard defend- 
ed it. Thefe difficulties did not abate the hopes of the Gene- 
ral, or the ardor of the troops. The light infantry under 
Colonel Howe laying hold of flumps and boughs of trees, 
pulled themfelves up, difiodged the guards, and cleared the 
path ; and then all the troops mrmounting every difficulty, 
gained the top of the hill, and as fail as they afcended form- 
ed themfelves, fo that they were all in order of battle at 
day break. 


*?/ )) /J 

■> tfi*/ <*&: '1f&$. 

*759* ^e History of the War. 245 

Montcalm, when he heard that the Englifh had afcended 
the hill, an4 were formed on the high ground at « 
the back of the town, fcarcely credited the intel- ° P • *3* 
ligence, and ftill believed it to be a feint to induce him to 
abandon that ftrong poll, which had been the objecl of all 
the real attempts that had been made fince the beginning of 
the campaign. But he was foon, and fatally for him, un- 
deceived. He faw clearly, that the Englifh fleet and army 
were in foch a fituation, that the upper and lower town 
might be attacked in concert, and that nothing hut a battle 
could pofiibly fave it. Accordingly he determined to give 
them battle, and quitting Beauport,' pafTed the river Si. 
Charles, and formed his troops oppofite to oors. 

He filled the bufhes that were in his front with detach- 
ments of Indians, and his befl markfmen, to the number of 
about fifteen hundred ; his regular forces formed his 
left ; his right was compofed of the troops of the colony, 
fuppor ted by two battalions of regulars. The reft of the 
Indians and Canadians extended on that fide, and attempted 
to out-ftank the left of the Englifh, which was formed to pre- 
vent that defign, in a manner which the military men call 
Potence ; that is, in a body which prefents two faces to the 
enemy. Here Brigadier General Townfiiezid commanded 
fix regiments, and the Louiibourg grenadiers were difpofed 
in a line to the right of this body, extending to the river. 
A regiment was drawn up behind the right for a referve. 
It was formed in eight fubdivifions, with large intervals. 
The light infantry under Colonel Howe, protected the 
rear and the left. The difpofitions on both fides were ju- 
dicious, and the engagement on both fides began with 

The Englifh troops were exhorted to referve their fire ; 
and they bore that of the enemy's light troops in front, 
which was galling, though irregular, with the utrnoft pa- 
tience and good order, waiting for the main body of the e- 
nemy, which advanced faft upon them. At forty yards dif- 
tance, our troops gave their fire, which took place in its 
full extent, and made a terrible havock among the French. 
It was fupported with as much vivacity as it was begun* 
and the enemy every where yielded to it; but juft in the 
moment, when the fortune of the field began to declare 
itfelf, General Wolfe, in v/hpfe life every thing feemed in- 
cluded, fell : General Monckton, the next to him in, ££fn- 

R 3 . mancii 

246 "The History of the War. 1759. 

mand, fell immediately after, and both were conveyed out 
of the line ; the command now devolved on General Town- 
friend. It was at a very critical time. For, though the 
enemy began to fall back, and were much broken, the lofs 
of the two generals was a very difcouraging circumftance, 
and it required great temper and great exertions to fupport 
the advantages that had been gained, and to pufh them to 
their proper extent. General Townftiend mewed himfelf 
equal to (o arduous a duty 3 the trcops preferved their fpirit, 
and each corps feemed to exert itfelf with a view to its pe-^ 
culiar character. The grenadiers with their bayonets, the 
Highlanders with their broad fwords, and the reft of the 
forces, with a Heady and continued fire, drove the enemy 
in great diforder from every poft, and compleated their 
defeat. During the whole action, Colonel Howe with his 
light infantry covered the left wing in fuch a manner, as en- 
tirely to fruftrate the attempts of the enemies Indians and 
Canadians upon that flank. 

The field now feemed to be compleatly decided, when a 
new enemy appeared, which threatened to bring on a frefli 
engagement, and to put all again to the hazard. M. de 
Bougainville, whom the feigned movements of the Englifh 
troops had drawn up the river, turned back on difcovering 
their real defign, and now appeared on the rear of the army, 
with a body of two thoufand men. But fortunately the main 
body of the French was, by this time, fo broken and difper- 
fed, that the general was able to eftablifh his rear, and to 
turn fuch an oppofition on that fide, that the enemy retired 
after a very feeble attempt. 

In this decifive a£tion our troops loft about five hun- 
dred men; on the fide of the enemy at leaft fifteen 
hundred were killed. But however glorious this victory 
was, and however important in its confequences, it muft be 
admitted that it was very dearly bought. Soldiers may be 
raifed; officers will be formed by experience; but the lofs 
of a genius in war, is a lofs which we know not how to re- 
pair. The death of Wolfe was indeed grievous to his coun- 
try, but to himfelf the rnoft happy that can be imagined ; 
and the moft to be envied by all thofe who have a true reiifh 
for military glory. Unindebted to family, or connections, 
unfupported by intrigue or faction, he had accomplished the 
whole bufinefs of life at a time, when others are only be-r 
ginning to appear; and at the age of thirty-five, without 


i75P- The History of the War. 247 

feeling the weaknefs of age or the viciflitude of fortune, 
having fatisfied his honeft ambition, having compleated his 
character, having fulfilled the expectations of his country, 
he fell at the head of his conquering troops, and expired in 
the arms of victory. 

The circumftances that attended the death of fuch a per- 
fon, are too interefting to be pafTed over in filence, and they 
were indeed fuch as fpoke the whole tenor of his life. He 
firft received a wound in his hand ; but, that he might not 
difcourage his troops, he wrapped it up in his handkerchief, 
and encouraged his men to advance : foon after Jie received 
another ball in his belly ; this alfo he diflembled, and ex- 
erted himfelfas before; when he received a third in his 
bread, under which he at laft funk, and fufFered himfelf, 
unwillingly, to be carried behind the ranks. As he lay 
ftruggling with the anguifh and weaknefs of three grievous 
wounds, he feemed only folicitous about the fortune of the 
battle. He begged one, who attended him, to fupport him 
to view the field ; but as he found that the approach of death 
had dimmed and confufed his fight, he defired an officer, 
who was by him, to give him an account of what he faw. 
The officer anfwered, that the enemy feemed broken ; he 
repeated his queftion a few minutes after with much anxie- 
ty, when he was told that the enemy was totally routed, and 
that they fled in all parts. Then, faid he, u I am fatisfied;" 
and immediately he expired. 

Without the fame advantages, the enemy alfo had an heavy 
lofs in this battle, which, no doubt, contributed to their de- 
feat. M. de Montcalm, commander in chief, was killed on 
the fpot; an officer who had done the higheft fervices to his 
country throughout the whole American war, and perfectly 
fupported his reputation in this laft fcene of it, having made 
the mod perfect difpofitions that human prudence could fug- 
geft, both before the battle and in the engagement. It is 
fomething remarkable that, in both armies, the firft in com- 
mand mould be killed, and the fecond dangeroufly wounded. 
But General Monckton happily recovered, the French offi- 
cer died a little after the battle. 

Five days after the action, the enemy feeing that the com- 
munication between the town and the army was 
cut off, and that the Englifh fleet and troops were Sept. 18. 
preparing with all vigour for a fiege, furrendered 

R 4 the 

248 The History of the War. x 759- 

the city of Quebec upon terms of honour * to the garrifon, 
and advantage to the inhabitants, who were preferred in 
the free exercife of their religion, and the pofTeflion of their 


* Articles of Capitulation demanded by Mr. de Ram/ay, the Kings 
Lieutenant, commanding {be high and loiv Toixjns of Quebec, 
Chief of the 'Military Order of St. Lewis, to bis Excellency 
the General of the Troops of his Britannic Majefly. — " The 
" Capitulation demanded on the Part of the Enemy, and grant' 
" ed by their Excellencies Admiral Saunders and General 
** Tovunfhend, &c. &c. &c. is in Manner and Form as here- 
" after expreffed, 

I. Mr. de Ramfay demands the honours of war for his garrifon, 
and that it mall be fent back to the army in fafety, and by the 
fhorteft route, with arms, baggage, fix pieces of brafs cannon, 
two mortars or howitzers, and twelve rounds for each of them. — 

The garrifon of the town, compofed of land forces, marines, 
and failors, mail march out with their arms and baggage, 
drums beating, matches lighted, with two pieces of French 
cannon, and twelve rounds for each piece; and mall be em- 
barked as conveniently as poflible, to be fent to the firft port in 
f* France? 

II. That the inhabitants fhall be preferved in the pofTeflion of 
their houfes, goods, effects, and privileges.— 14 Granted, — upon 
" their laying down their arms." 

III. That the inhabitants fhall not be accountable for having 
carried arms in the defence of the town, forafmuch as they were 
compelled to it, and that the inhabitants of the colonies, of both 
crowns, equally ferve as militia. — " Granted." 

IV. That the effects of the abfent Officers and citizens fhall 
not be touched. — " Granted." 

V. That the inhabitants fhall not be removed, nor obliged to 
quit their houfes, until their condition mail be fettled by their 
Britannic and moft Chrijiian Majefties. — " Granted." 

VI. That the exercife of the Catholic, Apoflohc, and Roman 
religion fhall be maintained ; and that fafe-guards fhall be granted 
to the houfes of the clergy, and to the monatteries, particularly 
to his Lordiliip the Bifhop of -Quebec, who, animated with zeal 
for religion, and charity for the people of his diocefe, defires to 
refide in it conftantly, to exercife, freely, and with that decency 
which his character and the facred offices of the Roman religion 
require, his epifcopal authority in the town of Quebec, whenever 
.•■■ hall think proper, until the pofTeffion of Canada mall be de= 


I 759' ^be History of the War. 249 

civil rights, until a general peace fhonld decide their future 
condition. The fortifications of the city were in tolerable 
order ; the houfes almofl totally demolifhed *. A garrifon of 


cided by a treaty between their moil Chrijiian and Britannic Ma~ 
jefties. — " The free exercife of trie Roman religion is granted, 
** like wife fafe-guards to all religious perfons, as well as to the 
" Bifhop, who fhall beat liberty to come and exercife, freely 
*' and with decency, the functions of his office, whenever he 
** fhall think proper, until the polTeffion of Canada fhall have 
" been decided between their Britannic and moil Chrijiian Ma- 
4 ' jefties." 

VII. That the artillery and warlike (lores fhall be faithfully 

given up, and that an inventory of them fhall be made out; 

" Granted." 

VIII. That the lick and wounded, the CommhTaries, Chaplains, 
Phyficians, Surgeons, Apothecaries, and other people employed 
in the feryice of the hofpitals, fliall be treated conformably to the 
cartel of the 6th of February, 1759, felled between their moll 
Chrijiian and Britannic Majeflies. — '* Granted." 

IX. That before delivering up the gate and the entrance of the 
town to the Englijh troops, their General will be pleafed to fend 
fome foldiers to be polled as fafe-guards upon the churches, con- 
vents, and principal habitations. — " Granted." 

X. That the King's Lieutenant, commanding in Quebec, fliall 
be permitted to fend information to the Marquis de Vaudreuil, 
Governor-General, of the reduction of the place, as alfo that the 

General may fend advice thereof to the French Miniftry. \ 

" Granted." 

XI. That the prefent capitulation fliall be executed according 
to its form and tenour, without being fubjeft to non-execution 
under pretence of reprifals, or for the non-execution of any pre- 
ceding capitulations. — ?' Granted." 

Duplicates thereof taken and executed by, and between us, at 
the camp before Quebec, this 18th day of September, 1759. 


* Slate of the Totvn, on the Surrender ro the Forces. 

08. ill. The city of Quebec f confifts of two towns, diftin- 
guifhed by the high and low town : they are feparated from each. 


f Said to be derived from keh-heh, which is an old Algonquin 


2S° The History of the War '759* 

five thoufand men under General Murray, were put into 
the place, with a plenty of provisions and ammunition for 
the winter. The fleet Tailed to England foon after, fearing 
left the letting in of the frofts mould lock them up in the 
river St. Lawrence. 


other by a fteep cliff of rock, which is a natural fortification to 
near two thirds of the upper town, at the fame time that it ferves 
as a fhelter to the low town from the keen, penetrating, north-weft 
winds ; the buildings were, in general, very good, until deftroyed 
by our artillery, during the fiege - s andcontiited, befides dwelling- 
houfes, a number or churches, colleges, convents, and other 
public edifices, which, in the city as well as the country through- 
out, are built of a durable kind of grey i/h ftone, whereof they 
have great plenty in this province. There is a large parcel of 
vacant ground within the walls of the upper town, which, how- 
ever, does not furniili them with many gardens, the land being 
fo barren and rocky as not to bear cultivation ; and the few that 
they have within the city, being naturally of a /hallow foil, are 
indebted to borrowed mold from other places. The itreetsof the 
high town are broad but uneven, running upon a declivity from 
the fouth, where they are higheft, to the north. Thofe of the 
low town are narrow, ilanding on a confined fpot of ground, which 
was formerly overflowed by the tide to the foot of the precipice, 
and, by the retiring of the waters, pointed out a place, at the 
head of a fpacious and moft delightful baton, commodious, in all 
reflects, for merchants to build and inhabit, for the convenience 
of trade f. Their principal public buildings were the cathedral, 
of which only the walls remain : the bifhop's palace, the colleges 
of the Jefuits and Recollecls, the convents of the Urfulines and 
Hotel de Dieu, with their churches, a feminary for the education 
of youth, almoft beat to pieces, with a neat chapel adjoining; a 
ftately, but unfinished, houfe for the Knight s- Ho [pit all er s , the 
lntendant\ magnificent palace in the fuburbs of St. Rogue, and 
the church of Madame la Vi£loire f in the low town, of which 


Indian expreflion, and implies,-—* What is ftreight.' This is the 
etymology given by French and other hiftorians, who advance that 
the Aborigines firft expreffed themfelves to that effect, with admi- 
ration, upon their difcovering the ftreight formed in that part by 
Cape Diamond, and fome eminences jutting into the river from the 
fouth fhore. 

t The tide rifes here eighteen feet and a half. 

1759* ^ History of the War. 251 

Thus the capital of French America was furrendered to the 

Englifh, after a moft fevere campaign of near three months; 

and perhaps, if the whole be confidered, tfyere never was 


the walls only are fianding *. I am credibly informed they had a 
fine painting in that church, reprefenting a town in flames, with 
an infcription fetting forth, that, in the year 171 1, when this capi- 
tal was threatened with a fiege by Walker and Hill, one of their 
pious women, pretending to be inipired, prognosticated, * that this 

* church and lower town would be deftroyed by the Britijh, per- 

* haps hereticks, in a conflagration, before the year of our Lord 
' 1 760 ;' which made fo great an impreffion on all ranks of peo- 
ple, that they dedicated two days, every year, to failing and wor- 
ship, and implored the interceflion of their patronefs with the Al- 
mighty, to protect that church and city from fire and fword, &c. 
In the corner-houfes of the ftreets are niches in the walls, with 
ftatues, as large as the life, of St. Jofeph, St. Urfula, St. Augujiine,§x« 
Dennis, and many others ; with the like figures in the fronts of 
their churches and other religious houfes, which have an agreeable 
effect to the eyes of pafTengers. The caftle, or citadel, and refi- 
dence of the late Governor-General, fronting the Recollects' col- 
lege and church, and fituated on the grand parade, which is a 
fpacious place furrounded with fair buildings, is curioufly erected 
on the top of a precipice, fouthof the epifcopal houfe, and over- 
looks the low town and bafon : whence you have a moft extenfive 
and delightful piofpect of the river downwards, and the country 
on both fides, for a very confiderable diftance. This palace, call- 
ed Fort St. Louis, was the rendezvous of the grand council of the 
Colony. There is, befides, another citadel on the fummit of the 
eminence of Cape Diamond, with a few guns mounted in it ; but, 
excepting its commanding view of the circumjacent country for a 
great extent, and of the upper as well as lower river for many 
leagues, it is otherwife mean and contemptible. Moft of the 
other public buildings carry a ftriking appearance, particularly the 
Jefuits' college, Urfuline and Hotel de Dieu convents, with their 

.churches ; the Bifhop's palace and chapel of eafe adjoining, and, 
above all, the fuperb palace of the late French Intendant, with 
its out-offices and fpacious area, would be ornaments to any city 
in Europe: but the refidence of the Bifhop, by its fituation on the 


* In the year 1690, we fent an army to befiege Quebec, under 
the command of Sir William Phipps, who, after wafting time, and 
lofing many men and fome fhips, was obliged to retire ; the church 
of La Vitloirt was built to commemorate the raifing of this fiegt\ 

z$z History of the War. '759 

anemcjuuiii oj :ucj± difficulty car<ffe$i on v/fth k rfTtfre ga!~ 

]tfv. perfeSeftnce, or accomf&llied wkh rrvep<f vi£$y* aiul 

>+^ity. A oify ilion^ i/r filiation and fortifications, was to 

lop of fTie precipice between the high and low town, fufrered 
viay confOftibly frgmopr bakeries, as did that of the Governor- 
Gefcra) be^rewnenfekw^ed, whkiL are/ bojji buUt oj^bri&. tKey 

rng coninicucufly expoTed to our view from the fouth fee bf 
the* liver. *> ^ — ' ^ ^ s ' "^~ ~> 

On the right of the defcent, leading to the row town, ftands a 
fbrtely old fiouje, faid to be the fir it built of (tone in this city ^ 
vind, over the frontdoor of it, is engraved a dog gnawing a large 
fteihy bone, which he has got tinder and between his fore-feet, 
with the following whimfical infcription : 

- . — ♦ c~u^. J e J u i s j e chien qui rottge Vos, 
^^~^- / yfanj en perdre un feu/ morceau : 

. ^ .'* Ls temp viendra, qui riejl pas *uenu % 
Je mardrai celui> qui maura mordu. 

The true meaning of this device I never could learn, thong 
made all poffible inquiries, without being gratified with the leaf; 
information refpecting its allufion. I have been informed, thu* 
die ft rit proprietor or the houfe had been a man of great natural 
abilities, and pofFelfed a plentiful fortune, which he, after many 
difappointments and loffes in trade, had fcraped together, by 
means or the mod indefatigable indit'ftry. Now whether the 
foregoing device had any reference to thefe particulars of his ow:x 
private affairs -, or that we may rather fuppofe the bone with flefU 
on it to refemble Canada, and the dog, an emblem of fidelity, to 
reprefent the French fettled there, a§ if determined faithfully to 
defend that colony for their King and country, the lavage 
natives, who may, perhaps, be alluded to by the two laft lines o. 
the infcription - 7 I will not take upon me to determine, but fab 
it to the more penetrating capacity of the curious reader. 

The cuftom-houfe is alio m the low town, where the Collet: 
13 fplendidly lodged ; and this is almoft the only houfe in t] 
quarter, which, by its particular fituation, efcaped the flames ac 
ravages made by our mercilefs meifengers of destruction in the i\ 

The principal ftrength of Quebec confifts in its. lofty fituatioi: 
fhip-guns cannot have fufficient elevation to do it any confiderab • 
damage, and it is too hazardous an undertaking for bomb-ketL 
to attempt to deftroy it, becaufe they, or any other floats that >r 
he oppoled to it, would lie almoft at the mercy of a furious 

>n the feveral batteries erected one above another* down tc 


l 159- ^°' e ^ IST0RY tf' the War. 2^3 

be attacked. An army, greatly fuperior in number to the 
befiegers, was potted under the walls of that city in an im- 
pregnable fituation. Tha/ arm/ was to bedftrced to a battle 

level o£ the water ; ami afiy mip/bfbug'ht ^ga^mflflt irHift -YU^toip 
"> wNth the floo^ibtodC«ff^d>Qn^Q^il^^vft^'o(>bJ) 1 < a«4 tfcei'- 
.^retire * it was fopth^ie, ajid otl^r obvious reajpns, that the irjp-^ 
' -mortal /^S7jfr wifel^cm'ened kmnej>i5r thejjafuth uo^~oftheYfvpsf~- fkdat &£/,W notice only he cofiii h^fe Coj&mmiicated vrtith 
t^ie heights ppp<tfU£ tp the gaVlfekr wlj^fe he rgrff^fjii*, batteries 
wiih fcjmtyjh fu«£ejs* 

The communications between the low and % high town, from 
their prodigious natural fteepnefs, are difficult at all times to be 
sicended, and were refpeetively defended, when the place fur- 
rendered, by traverfes, batteries, and flank fires, thrown up every 
where, that fcoured all thofe paffages, fo as to render them en- 
tirely inacceHIble,. in cafe a defcent had been made below : if the 
General had executed that plan, we fhould certainly have been 
cut £0 pieces ; for, in that cafe, the enemy would have thrown in 
Come thoufands of rnufketry from their \camp, and lined all the 
defences above, infomuch that I think it would have been im- 
practicable for a Jingle man to have efcaped unhurt 5 and it is to 
be obferved, that our batteries muft have remained totally fiient, in 
an undertaking.of this kind ; it was for'thefe*reafons that Major 
M'Kellur diverted the ( General from making the experiment. I 
would not b« underilood-to defogate from his Excellency's merit, 
by his entertaining thoughts of putting fo arduous and*defperate 
an enterprife into execution j it was natural in the Comgaander of 
the expedition, and quite uniform with his inherent 'intrepidity . 
but he was unacquainted with the interior parts of the city, and 
therefore difplayed his equally innate wifdom in fubmitting to the 
opinion of the Engineer, who was no ftranger to the infurmount- 
abie difficulties I have pointed out. Befides the occaiional flank 
Jires before-mentioned, to fcour the avenues throughout the citv, 
its defences conliftedof twe've batteries, defigned for an hundred 
and fifty pieces of cannon, but did not mount more than one hun- 
dred and fix, whereof fome were of fmall account ; the gr.eate& 
number of them, particularly that called Le Cierge en Barbette^ 
pointed to the bafon and the iouthfhore, to defend the anchoring- 
ground and the channel to the upper river : ilicit were moftly 
thirty-fix pounders j the reft, except a few of eighteen*, were 
coiiipoiedof twelves, and from that downward \o lours and tfaree- 
pounders ; — befides feveral mortars of different calibres, bedded 
iu various places for the annoyance of /hipping The ramparts, 

254 ^ Je History of the War. l 759> 

againft: the inclmations of a wife and cautious commander. \ 
A theatre of more than five leagues was to be filled, and 
operations of that extent to be carried on in the eye of the ^ 


or line of fortification to the country fide, confifts of an entire wall \ 
of mafonry of a modern conitru6tion, and feems to be part ofade- 
lign intended to be cannon-proof; there are no batteries on it, ex- [7} 
cept a few flank fires about the ports of St. Louis, St. Jean, Palais, V 
and one or two other places ; this line of {tone-work extends, \ 
from the S. S. W. corner behind the citadel of Cape Diamond, to 
the north corner near the lower road leading from the count™ to ^ 
St. Racque, where, by the afTi (lance of nature, it forms a ftro) 
angle, and runs away in a long curtain eaftward, excluding thai 
whole fuburb, to Port Palais, and a little beyond it : whence it 
terminates to the low town with the dicing flope of the rock, and 
with no other defence than a regular piquet-work on its fummit, 
with loop-holes for mufketry, and two worm-eaten nine-pounders, ( 
pointed to the (hand, at the entrance of the little river ; at the 
eaft end of the upper town is a wall of mafonry, which joins to I 
the piquet work before-mentioned on the north-eaft, and runs 
fouth, feemingly intended to cover a fteep bye-way leading to the 
fally-port from the lower town, and may be effectually protected 
by mufketry, as it is of a good height, with a foot-bank, fupported ^ 
by fcaffolding, which gives fmall arms a great command over that 
quarter, the men being well covered above*. On the flank op 
pofite to the fouth fhore, from the fbuth-weft angle, all round 
Cape Diamond, is another ilockade work, running with great 
iymmetry down to the dock-yard in the low town, with loop- 
holes for mulketry. But this feems to me to be the moft available 
part of the whole. There is no ditch round the town, nor any 
kind of outworks ; and, though it would be an undertaking of 
immenfe labour and great expence, I think it very practicable to 
iurround the town, on the land-fide, by a moat communicating 
with the rivers St. Lawrence and St. Charles, which, together 
with natural fprings in the rocks, would keep it for ever fufBcient- 
ly fuppiied with water, and would render that part of the town 
impenetrable. Perhaps fome may think I talk of impoffibilities • 
Ibut, when we take a view of the flupendous works of this nature 


* In an adjoining honfe was quartered the grenadier company 
of Oitvay's regiment, with a relerve of a fpare apartment for a 
Subaltern's guard, which always mounted there, in my time ; 
whence this place was called the fally-port at Ot-zvay's grenadier 
guard. I know no other name for v, , 



1759- ^e History of the War. 255 

fuperior army, by lefs than feven thoufand men. In this 
contefl with fo many difficulties, one may fay with nature 
itfelf, the genius of the commander fhewed itfelf fuperior to 


caauJ on in other countries, even through rocks,of much greater 
m and extent, they may, with me, be confirmed in the vera- 
citv \j£ the old adage, Nihil mortalibus arduum eji. 

The line of mafonry, encompailing the city on the weft* is re- 
vefted, on the inilde, with a great body of earth, in which are 
two fpacious vaults with fally-ports communicating to the coun- 
try ; whether thefe are defigned for cafemates, and are rendered 
bomb-proof, I cannot^ake upon me to advance ; at prefent they 
ferve as ftore-houfes, for the reception of wheelbarrows, pickaxes, 
and other intrenching tools. At fome diftance within the line, 
are a chain of citadels or redoubts of mafonry, extending from 
Cape Diamond down to the hangman's redoubt, which is near the 
ftrong angle, before defcribed, weftward of the palace-gate ; I 
have been informed, that thefe were the antient limits of the city, 
and that they had a common garden wall between each of thefe 
bulwarks, for the defence of the inhabitants againft the incurfions 
of the Indians ; but this part of the garrifon, by all that I can 
learn, has undergone many revolutions, fince the year 171 1, when 
it was menaced with a fiege by Sir Hoveden Walker and Colonel 
Hilly as has been already obferved. The ground to the north- 
weft of Cape Diamond, within the walls, is high and command- 
ing, and an excellent fpot whereon to erect cavaliers or grand bat- 
teries, which would top the works of the place confiderably, 
range the adjacent country for a vaft extent, and even the upper 
river as far as Sillery, where it would be almoft irnpoffible for 
iliips to ride in any kind of fafety ; upon the whole, it is in the 
power of art to render Quebec as impregnable to the land-fide, as 
it is naturally, by its lingular inacceilible fituation, to the river ; 
and it might then, with a garrifon of ten thoufand men at leair, 
be defervedly ftyled the Bergen op Zome of the new world. — The 
general hofpital ftands near a mile from the town on the VV. N. 
W. fide of it, and is a very irately building : it is fituated on the 
kbtith fide of the river Charles > which meanders agreeably under 
its walls, and confifts of a fpacious dome, looking to the eaft, 
with two greatwings, one fronting the north, and the other the 
fouth ; — in this houfe is a convent of nuns of the A 'ugujline order, 
who have lands particularly appropiiated for their maintenance ; 
and the filters, from religious motives, have aiilgned the principal 
parts of this habitation for the reception of rick and wounded 
*> Officeis and foldiers, to whom they are cxceedinciy humane ana 

tender ; 

056 The History of the War. 1 759* 

every thing. All the difpofitions to that daring but judicious 
attempt, near Sillery, which at laft drew Montcalm from his 
entrenchments, were fo many mafter-pieces in the art of war. 


render ; the trench King has hitherto endowed this hofpital with 
a bounteous falary for the fupport of a Phyfician, Surgeons, Di- 
rectors,- Clerks, Stewards, Inipector, &c. for whom there is a very 
decent table, as likewife for luch Officers of the troops as hap- 
pened to labour under any infirmity. Thefe women are fubject to 
the direction of a Mother- Abbefs, who is fifter to M. de Ram/ay, 
the late Governor ; and, according to their monadic cuftoms, al- 
lumes the name of ' Sainte Claude? Every foldier pays a weekly 
if ipend, while he is here, befides his allowance of fait provifions ; 
and then he is not at any farther expence. They eat and drink 
well of fuch things only as are fit for them, in the foop and lpoon- 
meat way; whatever beverage the Surgeons think proper to direct 
is provided for them, and no men can lie more clean or comfortable 
than they do. Our ioldiers were taken equally as good care of; 
for the nuns make it a point of confcience, and perform every 
mental office about the fick as unconcerned, and with the fame 
indifference, that one man would attend another ; when our poor 
fellows were ill, and ordered to be removed from their own odious 
regimental hofpitals to this general receptacle, they were indeed 
rendered inexprelTibly happy ; each patient has his bed with cAr- 
tains alloted to him, and a nurfe to attend him ; fometimes fhe 
will take two, three, or more, under her care, according to the 
number of fick or wounded in the houfe. The beds are ranged 
in galleries on each fide, with a fufficient fpace, between each, for 
a perfon to pats through ; thefe galleries are fcraped and fwept 
every morning, and afterwards fprinkled with vinegar, fo that a 
Granger is not fenfible of any oftenfive fmell whatfoever ; in 
fummer, the windows are generally open, and the patients are al- 
lowed a kind of fan, either to cooi them in clofe fultry weather, 
or to keep off the flies, which) at that feafon, by reafon of the 
vicinity of iome marfhes, together with the river Charles, are 
numerous and troublefome. Every Officer has an apartment to 
himfelf, and is attended by one of thofe religious lifters, who, in 
general, are young, handlbme, and fair ; courteous, rigidly re- 
served, and very refpe&ful ; their drefs confifls of a black, fome- 
times a white, gown, with a bib and apron, a clofe cap on their 
head, with a forehead-cloth down to their brows ; .their breads 
and neck entirely covered ; the fleeves are made long, fo that not 
above half the arm from the elbow is in fight : their clothes fweep 
the ground ; on the top of the head is pinned a fquare piece of 


ij$g. The History of the War. 257 

But it is certain, that thefe things, notwithftanding the ex- 
traordinary abilities of the general, could never have been 
compafled, had not the marine co-operated with an unani- 

black fhalloon, which ferves as a cloak, flowing carelefsly over 
their ihoulders, a little below their waift. Every woman wears a 
filver crucifix, about three inches in length, which hangs by a 
black riband from the neck to the girdle or apron-firing ; and, in 
this drefs, they make a very decent, grave, and modetl -appear- 
ance : they are not under the fame rettraint as in other Popijh 
countries; their office of nurfing the ilc k furniflies them with op- 
portunities of taking great latitudes, if they are fo difpofed ; but 
I never heard any of them charged with the leaft levity. Jn the 
fouth wing of this edifice is a fuperb church, and, in the other, 
a very neat chapel ; in both of them are feveral images and Scrip- 
ture-paintings as large as the life. 

The chapel is fmall and extremely neat, void of all fuperflitious 
pageantry ; within the chancel ftands a table with a green cloth 
on it, as in the eftablifhed church of England ; the walls are 
covered with boards, which, with the rails of the chancel,-— 
feats, and a compact gallery for fingers, are painted an olive 
colour. Here, as well as in the church, are lamps burning, both 
by day and night, according to the Romifb cutlom ; but whatever 
may be deficient in this is amply compenfated in that of the Urfu- 
linesy within the city j where no art has been fpared to render it, 
throughout, as oftentatioufly glittering and captivating as poflible. 
This convent is dedicated to St. Urfala t their Patronefs, whofe 
defcent the nuns have traced to Scotland } me is faid to have been 
killed by the Indians in her endeavours to reform them, and to 
fow the good feed of chriftianity in this country ; in commemo- 
ration of this pious woman and her martyrdom, they have erected 
her ttatue agajnll the wall of the edifice, tyith an arrow (being 
the inftrument by which fhe was killed) transfixed in her breaft. 
The Hotel de Dieu is a fpacious fair building, with an attic llory ; 
and feems as if intended, in procefs of time, to be enlarged in the 
form of a fquare ; but, at prefent, it confifts of two wings only, 
making a faliant angle. By an infcription, I perceived it was 
conftru&ed, in the year 1639, at the fole expence of Mary de 
Figneroty Dutchefs of Aiguillon ; of whom T faw a tolerable 
portrait, on her knees in a praying pcfture : her Grace dedicated 
this houfe to St. Jofeph, who is alfo the patron of Cinada. I 
had a view of many other paintings of angels, faints, &c. but they 
are too indifferent to deferve any notice j the filters of this convent 


258 The History of the War. x 759- 

mity, diligence, and {kill, which never could have taken 
place, but from that perfect love to their country, that ani- 
mated all thofe that were concerned in this expedition. Here 


are, in general, elderly women, lefs polite and complaifant than 
in the other two nunneries ; which I impute to their remarkable 
aufterity. There is iuch a famenefs in all the churches and chapels 
of the different religious houfes, that a farther defcription of them 
will be unnecefTary. Trie inhabitants of this city, before it was 
befieged, did not exceed fix thoufand feven hundred of both fexes, 
and of all ages ; though I have heard it aflerted, previous to our 
fleet and army failing up the river, that the males of Quebec, fit to 
bear arms, amounted to between feven and eight thoufand : this 
probably has been taken from fome late exaggerated accounts of 
the French ; or perhaps it was intended therein to include the 
fencible men within the city and diftrict,or government ox Quebec; 
but even this calculation mult be erroneous ; for in the difpofitions 
agreed upon by the enemy in a council of war for the defence of 
their capital, we find that the brigade of Quebec, which com- 
pofed the right of their army in camp, did not exceed three thou- 
fand five hundred men ; and the troops ordered to remain withia 
the town, called La milice de la <ville, were muttered at no more 
than fix hundred and fifty ; to which if we add three hundred 
ftudents who were fn arms, and as many merchants and other 
volunteers, who were actually refidents of the place, we can per- 
ceive that thefe, fummed up together, fall greatly fhort of the 
numbers boaited of by French travellers and writers. It is true, 
there has been an immenfe increafe of inhabitants, throughout 
the colony, within thefe forty years paft, if we may credit what 
we have been told by the clergy upon the fpot ; one of thefe 
reverend fathers afTured me, that, when our army landed on the 
ifland of Orleans, their whole force, in and about the garrifon, 
amounted to twenty-two thoufand men, though fome of them 
afterwards, who were not actually muftered, were allowed to de- 
part, for the defence of their refpective parifhes. To all thefe, if 
we could fubjoin the number of Canadians who were actually 
employed this year at Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Niagara, and 
the other numerous fortreffes throughout, what the French 
would impofe upon us to be, the extent of this great 
colony ; and compare them with the ftate of the country in the 
year 1714, and afterwards in 1747, as delivered to us by the 
hiftorians of thofe times ; we fhall find the French inhabitants of 
Caruida amazingly multiplied, notwithstanding their lofTes from 


1759- The History of the War. 259 

was no murmuring nor difcontent, nor abfurd jealoufy • no 
mean competition between the land and fea-fervice ; but the 
mod zealous endeavours to fecond each others efforts, and 
the moft generous inclinations on each fide, to give a due 
praife to their mutual fervices. 

When the news of this decifive action arrived in England, 
we all remember, though it is very difficult to defcribe, the 
various and mixed emotions with which every one was af- 
fected. But two days before this came, was received the 
exprefs which General Wolfe had fent off after the affair 
of Montmorenci. When the general doubted, the public 
thought they had reafon to defpair. But whilft this gloom 
was frefh and in the midft of the general defpondency ; a 
fecond exprefs arrives, and brings all at once an account of 
the victory, the taking of Quebec, and the death of Gene- 
ral Wolfe. The effect of fo joyful news, immediately on 

time to time (not by ficknefs, for it is a remarkable healthy climate, 
but) by the accidents of war, to which they have been expofed 
for many campaigns paft. Father Charlevoix tells us, * That 

* Monfieur Vaudreuil, late Governor-General of Canada (and 

* father, or uncle, to the prefent Governor) acquainted the French 
c Miniftry, in the year 17 14, that this colony had actually no 

* more than four thoufand four hundred and eighty fencible men, 
' independent of the twenty-eight companies or the King's troops 
' (regulars, amounting to fix hundred and twenty-eight men) 

* which, he added, are difperfed in the extent of an hundred 

* leagues ;' and Doctor Douglas, late of Boflon, in his American 
hiftory, fets forth, * That, in 1747, all their militia, or fighting 

* men, who were capable of marching and fatigue, did not ex- 
' ceed twelve thoufand, exclusive of regulars and Indians, the 
■ latter being computed at one thoufand ;' who, I am credibly 
informed, have fince much decreafed. I perceive I have been 
infenfibly led, from a calculation of the fencible men who were 
inhabitants of Quebec only, to the numbers throughout this ex- 
tenfive province of Canada, which, though I had intended to 
have referved them for another opportunity, may as well, while I 
am treating upon that fubject, be fpecified here ; and I have been 
affured by one of the fathers of the Recollects, that, independent 
of the forces from old France, and feveral fmall tribes offavages, 
the Canadians bearing arms in different places, at the commence^ 
ment of this campaign, amounted to twenty-feven thoufand men, 
from the age of fixteen to fixty. 

S 2, fuch 

260 The History of the War. *759 

fuch a dejeQion, and then the mixture of grief and pity, 
which attended the public congratulations and applaufes, 
was very fingular and affecting. The fort of mourning 
triumph, that manifefred itfelf on that occafion, did equal 
honour to the memory of the general, and to the humanity 
of the nation. 

A little circumftance was talked of at that time, and it 
deferves to be recorded, as it {hews a flrmnefs of fentiment, 
and a juftnefs of thinking, in the lower kind of people, that 
is rarely met with even amongft perfons of education. Th* 
mother of General Wolfe was an object marked out for 
pity by great and peculiar diflrefs ; the public wound pierced 
her mind with a particular affliction, who had experienced 
the dutiful fon, the amiable domeftic ccaracler, whilfr. the 
world admired the accomplished officer. Within a few 
months {he had loft her huffyand ; fhe now loft this fon, her 
only child. The populace of the village, where (he lived, 
unanirnoufly agreed to admit no illuminations or firings, or 
any other fign of rejoicing whatfoever near her houfe, led 
they fhould feern, by an ill-timed triumph, to infult over 
her grief. There was a juftnefs in this ; and whoever knows 
the people, knows that they made no fmail facriflce on 
this occafion. 

The nation, which never fuffers any public fervice to 
pafs unrewarded^, proceeded to honour the merits of the 
living and of the dead; The minifter himfelf made the 
motion for this purpofe in the houfe of commons, and ali 
the force of eloquence was difplayed in fetting off thefe 
fervices in their proper light A magnificent monument 
was voted for the deceafed general in Weftminfter Abbey ; 
the living Generals and Admirals received the greateft of 
honours, the thanks of their country, by their represen- 

It k not known with certainty in what manner the 
French difpofed of the remainder of their army after the 
battle of Quebec, It is probable that they retired towards 
Montreal and Trois Rivieres, the only places of any con- 
fequence which they had left in Canada. In order to de- 
prive them of fubfiftence in any attempt th^y might be in- 
duced to make towards the recovery of Quebec in the 
winter, the country along the river was laid wafte for a 


1759* * be n^TORT 

very considerable extent. A meafere^ which, fcr the fake 
of humanity* we coold have wiihed not to have been found 

Whilft the operations were thus fuccefsfully carried ©a 
in the river St. Lawrence* General Amheril was not want» 
mg in his endeavours on the fide of Lake Chaimptain, 
Though the retreat of the French from Crown Point and 
Ticonderoga had left him entirely mafter ©f Lake George* 
he found that the command of Lake Champlain was Hill 
an object of fome difficulty. Mr. Bourlemaque, who com- 
manded in that part., had retired to fchelfle deNcix* at the 
bottom of the lake, where he had three thoufand five hun- 
dred men ftrongly entrenched ; he had likewife four flout 
armed Hoops* by which he could ealily defeat any attempts 
by boats. 

General Amherd found it neceflary to attain a nava! fu- 
perioFity upon the Lake Champlain* before he cou?d hope 
to pufh his operations any further ; but this was a work of 
fo much time, that it made it abfolutefy impoflible to attain 
the great end of the campaign, the communication with 
General Wolfe, who was left, in the manner we have feen* to 
the exertion of his fingle ftrength. The naval preparations 
were not perfectly accomplished before the 10th of Octo- 
ber. They confided of a great radeau, eighty four feet in 
length, and twenty in breadth, which carried fix twenty- 
four pounders ; the reft confided of a brigantine and a 

.Covered by thefe the army was embarked in boats in a 
mofl excellent difpofition, and proceeded a confi- 
derable way up the lake ; but as the feafon was 0£L 11; 
far advanced, and the weather growing cold and 
tempeftuous, he judged it highly dangerous to venture his 
troops much upon the water in open batteaux ; for the 
waves run as high on this lake as at fea in an hard gale of 
wind. Befldes, he could not hope at this advanced feafon 
to a& at fuch a diftance as the Ifle de Noix with any eflfecV; 
he therefore wifely poftponed his operations on that fide to 
another year, and contented himfelf for the prefent with 
the efforts of his little marine, which exerted itfelf with 
great activity ; they blocked up two of the enemies flrong- 
eft veflels in a bay, but the French abandoned 
them in the night, and funk them in a deep wa- 0£t 15. 
ter, the crews making their efcape; thefe they 

S 3 were 

262 The History of the War. 1759. 

were in hopes to weigh up. The French appearing no 
where to oppofe them, the armed (loops returned 
06t. 21. to Crown Point foon after the troops, which were 
difpofed in winter quarters. 
The memorable and vigorous campaign of 1759, which 
made full amends for the inactivity of the former, was thus 
happily clofed. By the taking of Niagara, Ticonderoga, 
and above all, Quebec, the French, in the little remaining 
part of Canada, are invefted upon every (ide. The troops 
which they have ender Mr. Levy at Montreal, and thofe 
under Mr. Bourlemaque at Ifle de Noix, can neither be re- 
crdited with men, nor properly fupplied with military (lores, 
all communication with France being cut off. So that in 
the opening of the next campaign, if they are attacked 
with vigour from the fide of Quebec, whilft General Am- 
herd advances with his body by Lake Cham plain, of which 
he has now the entire dominion, the refiftance will be no 
more than fufficient to give reputation to the conqueft ; and 
it will depend more upon our own fentiments of convenience 
what part of North America we (hall leave to France, than 
to any efforts they may make in that part of the world ; 
happy if our European fyftem fhould fo far concur, as to 
leave us free to conclude a peace in America upon its own 


Prince Henry 9 s march into Saxony. General Vehla defeated. 
King of Prujfia enters Saxony. PruJJians defeated at 
Maxen. Again defeated at Meiffen. Marjhal Daun oc- 
cupies the camp at Pima. Munjler fur renders to the allies. 
Hereditary Prince of Brunj-wick defeats the Duke of 
Wurtemburg at Fulda. March of the Hereditary Prince of 
Brunfwick to Saxony. 

WE took notice, in the preceding part of our narra- 
tive, of that movement of the King of Pruffia, by 
which he got between the Ruffians and Great Glogau, and 
thereby baffled their defign upon that important place. This 
movement, at once daring, prudent and neceffary, hindered 
the Ruffians from taking winter quarters in his dominions ; 
but at the fame time it unavoidably cut off all communica- 
tion with the army of Prince Henrv. 


1759- SB» History 0/ /£<? War. z6i 

That prince, feeing that he could not fecond the opera- 
tions of the King, his brother, on the fide of Silefia, con- 
trived another expedient, of co-operating with him, which 
was immediately to direct his march towards Saxony. There 
was no object, the pofTeffion of which was more intereft- 
ing; on that account it was very proper ; but this march 
anfwered alfo another end ; for it drew the attention of 
Marfhal Daun ta the fide of Saxony, and difabled him from 
affifting the defigns of the Ruflians againft Glogau, either 
with his whole army, or with any confiderable detachment 
from it. The whole country of Lufatia, through which 
this projected march lay, was in a manner overfpread with 
the enemy. Marfhal Daun, with the main army of the 
Auftrians, lay at a place cailed Sorau, oppofite to the prince's 
camp. Five bodies of Ruffians occupied as many advanta- 
geous pofts between the Bober and the Neifs. General 
Laudohn pofTeffed the whole country along the Spree, with 
feveral Auftrian corps. To get round Marfhal Daun, it 
was necefTary to make a vaft circuit, and to march between 
the Auftrian and Ruffian armies for more than fixty Englifh 

Before the prince entered upon this arduous defign, by 
feveral bold movements he obliged Marfhal Daun to retreat 
from Sorau to Gorlitz, and from Gorlitz as far as Bautzen* 
keeping himfelf as much as poffible between the prince and 
Saxony. But his royal highnefs having perceived the di- 
rection in which Marfhal Daun was moving, made a com- 
pafs to the northward of the Auflrians, into the Lower 
Lufatia, pafled the Neifs at Rothenburg, and marching 
with the utmoft expedition arrived at Hoyers 
Werda in two days from his leaving his pofts near Sept. 25. 
Zittau. This rapid march brought them quite 
unexpected upon a body of five or fix thoufand Auftrian 
irregulars, commanded by General Vehla, who were fitu- 
ated in all fecurity behind the town. They were routed 
with no fmall {laughter. Having diflodged this corps, the 
prince's army had leifure to repofe themfelves after fuch a 
fatiguing march, for two days ; and then continued their 
progrefs towards the Elbe, which river they 
crofted at Torgau, having received notice that Oct. 2. 
Marfhal Daun had crofted it before them near 
Drefden. Thus was the grand theatre of the war once more 
transferred into Saxony, and that miferable country, con- 

S 4 tinually 

264 Sfo History of the War. 1759. 

tinually haraffed, continually tofTed from hand to hand, the 
fport of violence and fortune, fuffered equal diftreffes from 
its deliverers and its enemies. 

The Pruflian army, from the beginning of this war, has 
been particularly dithnguifhed for its marches ; and there 
is certainly nothing in all the various operations of war, 
which more particularly diftinguifhes good troops, and able 
and fpirited leaders. But this march of prince Henry over 
fuch a tra£t of country, almoft every where occupied by 
the enemy, in fo fhort a time, and with fo little lofs, is 
perhaps one of the nioft extraordinary, and the bed con- 
ducted, of the marches, that have been made by the Pruf- 
fian, or any other army* 

This lortunate flroke, together with the retreat of the 
Ruffians, afforded fome hope, that, notwithstanding his re- 
peated difaflers, the King of PruiTia might flill conclude 
the campaign to his advantage. The detachments under 
Finck and Wimfch had no fooner entered Mifnia, than 
they attained a fuperiority over the united armies of Auftria 
and the Empire ; all the places which in fo fhort a time 
they had feized, in as fhort a time were reduced to the 
obedience of their former mafters. Wunfch had engaged 
their army, and defeated one of its wings. This victory 
gave them the poileffion of every thing to the gates of 
Drefden, the only town which remained to the enemy of 
all thofe they had taken. They found themfelves unable 
to prevent prince Henry from paffing the Elbe; they found 
themfelves unable to prevent General Hulfen trom coming 
to his relief with a considerable detachment ; they found 
themfelves unable to prevent the king from join- 
Nov. 12. ing himfelf to thofe; when, after obliging the 
Ruffians to evacuate Silefia, he marched to their 
relief, leaving General Itzenplitz, with a part of his army, 
to keep the Ruffians from availing themfelves of his abfence. 
On this the army of the empire retired. Marfhal Daun 
fell back towards Drefden. All the King of PrufTia's ports 
were left unmolefted, and after all his lolfes, and all his ne- 
ceflary detachments, he ftill faw himfelf at the head of a 
gallant army of fixty thouiand men, in high fpirits, and 
ready to execute the'moft defperate of his orders, notwith- 
standing the advanced feafon, and the great extremity of 
{he cold, 


*759* Vbe History of the War. 265 

It is true, that Marfhal Daun was fuperior to him in num- 
bers, and yet more fo in fituation. He could at any time 
take pofleflion of the famous camp at Pirna, where he 
could not be attacked with any profpect of fuccefs; but 
then the freezing of the Elbe, the fnow on the mountains 
which divide Bohemia from Saxony, and the continual mo- 
leftations which might be expe&ed from the Pruflian par- 
ties, made this fituation as dangerous, in fome refpe£ts, as 
it was defirable in others. 

It was the opinion cflf many, that thefe advantages on the 
fide of the King of Pruflia, well purfued without aiming 
at more, would, in a fhort time, infallibly have obliged Mar- 
fhal Daun to relinquifh his ftrong poll:, and to retire into 
Bohemia, abandoning Drefden, and with it all the fruits of 
his victorious campaign. But the King, poflefTed by an 
idea of the ill fituation of the Auftrians, thought that ad- 
vantages of greater moment, and more decifive, might be 
drawn from it. He knew, that the pafles into Bohemia 
were fo difficult, that by fome pofts properly chofen and 
ftrongly guarded, the fubfiftence of the Auftrians might be 
made impracticable, and even their retreat rendered fo dif- 
ficult, that Marfhal Daun would find himfelf compelled to 
fight at a difadvantage, and to put to the hazard of the 
field, all that his caution and prudence had been fo long 
and fo painfully procuring. 

Upon this plan the King having obliged Marfhal Daun to 
retreat as far as Plauen, advanced himfelf as far as Keffel- 
dorf ; and ordered General Finck, with a ftrong corps, to 
turn the Auftrians, and feize the defiles of Maxen and Ot- 
tendorf, through which alone it feemed poflible for the 
Auftrians to communicate with Bohemia. This was fo fuc- 
cefsfully executed, that there appeared no doubt that the 
King had effectually fecurcd one of his principal objects, 
and had placed Daun between two fires. 

Whilft the Pruflians enjoyed this fecurity, Marfhal Daun, 
who was aware of their defign, had fo occupied all the 
eminences about this rough and dangerous place, and all 
the pafles into it, that the Pruflians were hardly attacked, 
when their defeat feemed inevitable. It is probable that 
they had got too far into thefe defiles, and had not taken 
proper meafures to fecure a retreat, or any fort of com- 
munication with the grand army. They became too late 
fenfible of their fituation, and they made, for a whole day, 


266 The History of the War. i 759- 

the mod intrepid efforts to difengage themfelves from it ; 
but they were foiled in every attempt, with confiderable 
lofs or men, and of the moil: part of their artillery. 

Night put a ftop to the engagement ; the Auftrians em- 
ployed it effectually, to entangle the Pruflians, by guarding 
with double ftrength and vigilance, every avenue through 
which it waspoftible for them to efcape. So that 
Nov. 26. when the morning appeared, they faw the hills 
covered upon every fide with great bodies of their 
enemies, and every defile prefented a wall of bayonets, 
through which it was impofiible to penetrate. Thus galled 
with the lofTes of the preceding day, in which it is faid 
they had exhaufted almoft all their ammunition, ftripped 
of the greateft part of their cannon, furrounded by the 
enemy on all quarters, no refource, no profpe£t of relief ap- 
pearing, the army loft all hope, and all fpirit. To make 
any efforts in this condition, General Finck thought would 
only be to throw away unprofitably the lives of many brave 
men, which might be referved for a more hopeful occafion ; 
he therefore, notwithftanding the known rigour of his 
mafter, the apparent fhame of the thing, and the thoufand 
circumftances of embarraffment that mull: have arifen to a 
man of honour at fuch a juncture, came to a resolution of 
furrendering the whole army prifoners of war. Nineteen 
battalions and thirty-five fquadrons, compofing near twenty 
thoufand men by the Auftrian account, above twelve by 
the Pruffian confeffion, fixty-four pieces of cannon, many 
ffandardsand colours were taken on this occafion. 

It was unqueftionably the greateft blow which the Pruf- 
fians had felt from the beginning of the war ; confidering 
the critical time, the numbers taken, and the lofs of repu- 
tation, which arofe from the manner in which they were 
taken. It is no wonder, that fuch an extraordinary advan- 
tage, thus cheaply obtained, fhould greatly have elevated 
the friends of thehoufe of Auftria. They had put the cheat 
upon the PruiTians, they had caught their enemy in the 
very trap which they had laid, as they thought, with fuch 
addrefs for them. They had now received a full indemni- 
fication for the capture of the Saxon army, which had fur- 
rendered in much the fame manner, and very near this 
place, in the year 1756. 

The King of Pruffia had not time to recover from this 
ftroke, under which he was yet ftaggering, when he receiv- 

I 759* ^e History 0/ /^ War. 267 

ed Another blow, and a fevere one. General Durceke was 
pofted at the right of the Elbe, oppofite to Meif- 
fen ; but on the approach of a large body of Auf- Dec. 4. 
trians, they prepared to retreat over the river 
into that place into which they thought their retreat fecure; 
but having been obliged by an hard froft to withdraw their 
bridge of boats, a thaw fupervening, when they attempted 
to lay a bridge of pontoons, fo many great fragments of ice 
floated in the river, that they found it impracticable ; they 
were therefore under the . neceffity of pafling over their 
army in boats. Whilft they ftruggled with thefe difficul- 
ties, their rear guard was attacked by the Auftrians with 
great fury, and all the men that compofed it, together with 
the general, were killed or made prifoners. The lofs of 
the Pruflians on this occafion, is faid to have been three 
thoufand killed and taken ; and this fecond furprize brought 
a new difcredit, as well as a great detriment to the Pruflian 

Marfhal Daun was not Jo carried away with this flood of 
fuccefs, as to depart in the leaft degree from his ufual cauti- 
ous management. Two advantages were now obtained, 
which, with a very few efforts, might be improved, to the 
entire deftru&ion of the King of Pruflia. At leaft, many 
generals would have thought fo ; but Marfhal Daun thought 
that the fame conduct, which, with no rifque, and with 
little lofs, had reduced the king fo low, was the mod like- 
ly, if purfued, to bring on his entire ruin. He refolved to 
give that monarch no fort of chance to recover his fortune ; 
Daun, after the two great victories he had himfelf newly 
obtained, retired behind Drefden ; and as if he had been 
beaten, as often as he was victorious, he took refuge in the 
impregnable camp at Pirna, having fodifpofed matters, that 
the King of Pruflia, now too weak to fend out any great 
detachments, could not prevent his communication with 

Whilft the King of Pruflia carried on his unfuccefsful 
campaign in Saxony, through all the rigours of the fevereft 
winter, for many years felt in Europe ; the army of the al- 
lies kept the field with better fortune.. It is true, things 
had been fo difpofed by the obftinate refiftance of Munfter, 
and the reinforcements which arrived in the French army, 
that Prince Ferdinand did not find himfelf in a condition to 


26S The History of the War, *759° 

force them to a deci'ive action; and therefore -the fitn- 
arion of the two armies had continued much the fame for 
a confiderable time. At length Munfter, after a feries of 

operations, fometimes a fiege, fometimes a block- 
Nov. 20. ade, now broken off, and now refumed, 3t laft 

funendered, and the garrifon capitulated for their 


Not long after this, the Hereditary Prince of Bnrnfwick, 
all whofe enterprises are diftingnifhed with a peculiar eclat 
ard fplendour, that mark them- for his own, performed 3 
ftrvice that curbed the French, even more than the lofs of 
Manlier. Prince Charles of Bevern was alfo engaged in 
this defign. 

The Duke of Wnrtemburg had renewed his treaty of 
fubfidy with France, and having recruited and augmented 
iiis troops, he lay at Fukia, a great way to the right of the 
French army. The Hereditary Prince formed a defign to 
attack him at that dittance. 

On the 28th of November, taking a fmall, but well 
chofen corps of horfe and foot, and difengaging them from 
their baggage, he arrived in two days at Fulda, where the 
Wurtemburgers enjoyed themfelves in full fecurity. A feu 
de pye had been ordered for that day ; the troops were all 
in their beft clothes : the Duke had invited all the ladies in 
the town to his table, and to a ball, which he intended to 
have given that very day ; but the Hereditary Prince dif- 
coF.certed their meafures, both of war and diverfion. A 
large party of the Wurtemburg troops were ported in a 
flairr before the town. The Hereditary Prince fell upon 
them unawares in their front and flank, and drove them 
into, the town, into which he clofely purfued them. Here 
they n:ade fome appearance of maintaining their ground 
for fome minutes, but they were foon' driven out on the 
other fide, and hotly puriued by the Prince of Brunfwiek ; 
without the town they were met by Prince Charles of Be- 
vern, who had made a cempafs about the place, and at- 
tacked them vigorously as foon as they had got out of it. 
Four battalions made fome refinance, and were all cut to 
es or made prifoners; the reft, with the Duke himfelf, 
covered by the refi fiance of thefe battalions, made a mift 
to efea-pe. Above a thoufond prifoners were made on this 
occation j and the Piince returned to the camp of the allies, 


1759* ^ e History of the War. 26$ 

after having effectually difabled this corps from performing 
any thing considerable ; and this action was of the greatefl: 
conference, as, by the difpofitionof that corps at Fulda., 
there was an appearance as if the French meant to form a 
communication with the army of the Empire, for the mu- 
tual extenfion and fecurity of their winter quarters. 

This enterprife was only the prelude to another, which 
promifed to be much more extenllve in its confequences. 
The feafon was now grown too fevere to fufFer the allies to 
puSh any further the advantages they had obtained oyer the 
French ; at the fame time it difabled the French from at- 
tempting any thing considerable againft them. BeSides 
fthefe advantages of the feafon, by poKTeSTing Munfter, the 
allies were no longer obliged to keep fo large a body of men 
in Weftphalia. Thefe were the considerations which fuf- 
fered Prince Ferdinand to turn his eyes to the diftrefTed Slate 
of the King of PrulTia's affairs. After the two great blows 
which that monarch had fuffered, there was 00 hope of dif- 
lodging MarShal Daun with his Single force ; and he was 
utterly unable to avail himfelf, as heretofore, of the rigour 
of the feafon, to Strike a decisive blow. Prince Ferdinand, 
diflant as he was from his diftrefled ally, and fo near to an 
enemy Superior in numbers, did not hefitate to Send him 
fuccours, to enable him, if poSTible, to make a final effort. 
He detached therefore twelve thoufand of his belt men, 3nd 
placed them under the command of the Hereditary Prince 
with wbofe vigour and diligence he was perfectly acquaint- 
ed, and under whom he knew the ioldiers would endure any 
hardship withchearfulnefs. They marched from 
Koridorff, and in the depth of the late fevere fea- 0£h 11. 
fon, without lofing a man by Sicknefs or defertion, 
in fifteen days, marched near three hundred miles, and 
joined the King of Pruffia at Freybourg. 

This junction raifed for a while the fpirits and hopes of 
the Pruman army, but, in effect, it did more honour to 
the abilities of the Hereditary Prince, than fervice to the 
King. The feafon which fought equally againft all fides, 
the inacceffible camp at Pirna, and the caution of MarShal 
Daun, rendered it impoffible for thQ King, notwithstanding 
this reinforcement, to make any attempt. So that after 
Several movements in hopes of bringing the Auftrians to an 
engagement, he was obliged at length to defiil, and to fuffer 


27° ?& History 0/ //fo War. 1759. 

the fhattered remains of his army to repofe in winter quar- 
ters, after the fruitlefs fatigues of fo long, fo laborious, and 
io bloody a campaign. 

The King of Pruflia did not derive the benefits that were 
expected from this detachment ; the French had no fooner 
notice of it, than they attempted to avail themfelves of the 
weaknefs it caufed in the allied army. The Duke of Broglio 
was now at the head of the French troops ; he had lately 
returned from Verfailles, having ruined the character of M. 
de Contades, eftablifhed his own, removed his rival, and, in 
fpight of feniority, had acquired the Marfhal's ftaff, and 
the command of the army. He thought he had now an op- 
portunity for an action of eclat to diftinguifh his entrance 
into command. He attempted to attack Prince Ferdinand 

by furpriTe. But finding him perfectly prepared, 
Dec. 24. and all his pofts well guarded, he thought it moll: 

prudent to retire to his former quarters; and 
with this abortive attempt clofed the operations of the Ger- 
man campaign, from whence France had entertained fuch 
fanguine hopes ; leaving to Prince Ferdinand the glory of 
taking Munfter in the prefence of one of their armies, and 
of fectiring his own ports againft all their efforts, after he 
had, from an inferior number, detached twelve thoufand 
men three hundred miles from his camp. 


The preparations at Vannes and Brefi. The Englifi) fleet dr hen 
from their flation. Tbe aclion near Belleifle. French fleet 
defeated. War in the Eaft Indies in 1 758. French fleet 
under M. D' Ache twice beaten. M. de Lally takes Fort 
St. David's, and repulfed at Tanjour. Lays fiege to Ma- 
drafs. Obliged to raife the fiege. Conclufit on of the annals 

°f '-i 759- 

THE feverityof the winter could not put a flop to the 
operations of the land armies ; it had no more effect 
upon the operations at fea, which went on with vigour, in 
fpight of the inclemency of the feafon. The invafion pro- 
jected by France, which the engagement off Cape Lagos 
had retarded, was by no means laid afide. 

The preparations for a naval equipment in the har- 
bour of Breft, and for transporting a body of forces from 


1759- ^he History of the War. 271 

Vannes, went on continually. The winter did not delay 
thefe preparations, becaufe it was hoped that, in that feafon, 
the Britilh fleet might be obliged to take refuge in their 
own harbours; and thus might afford an opportunity for the 
French fleet to come out unoppofed, and to execute the ob- 
ject of their deftination before the Britifh navy could be in 
readinefs to encounter them. 

In fact, they were not wholly difappointed in their ex- 
pectations. A violent ftorm forced Sir Edward Hawke to 
quit his ftation oflf Breft. He came with his whole fleet to 
anchor in Torbay. 

The French fleet availed itfelf of his abfence 
to put to fea. The whole Englifh nation was Nov. 14., 
alarmed ; but it .was an alarm which produced no 
hurry or difturbance, but vigorous, cool, and fettled me- 
thods for defence. 

And now the event of the whole war was put to the 
iflue ; for upon the good or ill fuccefs of this ftroke every 
thing depended. Admiral Hawke loft not a mo- 
ment's time to put again to fea, 'and to feek the Nov. 14. 
French fleet. Both fquadrons put to fea on the 
fame day ; Sir Edward Hawke from Torbay, M. de Con- 
flans from Breft* There was a difference of but one (hip 
of the line in their forces. 

It is impofTible here to pafs over the gallant behaviour of 
one ©f our Admirals, as it helps to mark the genius and fpi- 
rit of this happy time, and as this is one of the fined in- 
ftances of it. Admiral Saunders came into port from his 
Quebec expedition immediately after Hawke had failed. 
After fuch a long voyage and fo fevere a campaign, un- 
broken by fatigue, and ftill infatiated with glory, he deter- 
mined immediately to fet fail again, and partake in the honour 
and danger of the coming engagement. For this purpofe 
no time was to be loft, and he had no orders. But he 
thought the exigencies of his country fufficient orders ; and 
he knew that at this time the letter of military difcipline 
would never be fet againft its fpirit. He therefore fet fail 
without waiting for orders with ten (hips ; but fortune did 
not favour the generofity of his intentions, and he did not 
join the Britifh fleet time enough for the engagement. 

As Sir Edward Hawke concluded that the firft rendez- 
vous of the enemy's fleet would beat Quiberon, he directed 
his courfe with all diligence for that bay. But 1 -ere again 

vC ! i US • 

272 ¥he History of the War. 1759- 

fortune for a while feemed to declare for the French ; for 
a ftrong wind blown in an eafterly point, drove the Englifh 
fleet a great way to the weftward ; but at length it became 
more favourable, and bore them in diredly to the more. 
About eio-ht o'clock the headmoft (hips difcovered the enemy 
bearing to the northward, between the ifland of Belleifle 
and the main land of France. 

Hawke faw at laft what he had fo long, and fo ardently 
wifhed for, (though hitherto in vain) the enemy in his 
reach. But yet there were fuch difficulties in his way, as 
would have checked a very cautious commander, or per- 
haps any commander in circumftances lefs critical to the 
public fafety. On the flighted infpe&ion of the chart it 
will appear, that all this fea is fown thick with fands and 
fhoals, and mallows, and rocks ; our pilots were by no 
means well acquainted with it ; and the wind blew little 
lefs than a violent ftorm, and the waves ran mountain high. 
In thefe circumftances they were to attack a very ftrong 
fquadron of the enemy on their own coaft, with which they 
were perfectly acquainted. All thefe difficulties only ani- 
mated the Englifh Admiral. In one of the fineft mips in 
the world, commanding the flower of the Britifh navy, and 
feconded by fome of the moft tried and braveft officers in 
the fervice ; and, above all, not dubious of himfelf, he 
ordered the (hips neareft the enemy immediately to chafe, 
and, by engaging them, to give time for the reft of the fleet 

to come up. 

Marfhal Conflans had two choices, either to fly, or to 
ftand and fight it out. But he followed neither perfedly ; 
for fome time he appeared as if he meant to fight ; but 
after giving the Britifh (hips time to come near him, when 
it was too late, he crowded all the fail he cou ; d carry ; at the 
fame time he (hewed an attention to keep his fquadron to- 

At half an hour after two, the aaion began with great 
fury. In two hours the enemy had loft three fhips of the 
line,' one ftruck, two were funk outright. Hawke ordered 
his (hip to referveher fire, to oafs by all the others, and to 
be laid along fide of the Solei! Royal, the beft (hip in the 
French navy, and commanded by M. de Confians ; the 
matter remonftrated on the almoft inevitable danger of the 
coaft. Hawk anfwered, " You have done your duty in this 
" remonftrance ; now obey my orders, and lay me along 

" fide 


1759- ^ e History of the War. 373 

" fide the French admiral." A French (hip of feventy 
guns generoufly put himfelf between them ; Hawke was 
obliged to beftow here the fire he had referved for a greater 
occafion, and atone broadfide funk her to the bottom. The 
/headmoft of the Englifh fhips fired on the enemy as they 
came up to them, and then paffed on to others, leaving 
thofe behind to improve their fuccefs, and deftroy or take 
them ; and by this method they had got up quite to the 
van of the enemy, and would have totally deftroyed their 
fleet, had not night interpofed to fave them. Before night 
came on, the enemy's fleet was much difperfed ; but*m the 
eagernefs of the purfuit, two of the Englifh mips unfortu- 
nately run upon a fand, called the Four, and were loft. The 
enemy fled to their own coaft. Seven fhips of the line 
threw overboard all their guns, and efcaped into the River 
Villaine ; about as many more got out to fea, and made for 
other ports. 

Nothing could be conceived more dreadful than the night 
which fucceeded this ac-tion. A violent ftorm blew all night 
long. It was a pitchy darknefs ; a dangerous coaft furround- 
ed them on almoft all fides. A continual firing ofdiftrefs 
guns was heard, without knowing whether they came from 
friend or enemy ; and on account of the badnefs of the coaft 
and the darknefs of the night, our people were equally un- 
able to venture to their afllftance. 

When morning came on, they found the French Admi- 
ral had run his fhip, and another called the Heros, on fhore; 
the firft was fet on fire by the enemy, the other by our fea- 
men. Thus concluded this remarkable action fcj, in which 


(c) Sir Edward Hsnvke's Letter to Mr. C 'lev /and, Secretary to 

the Admiralty. 

Royal George , off Penris Point, Nov. 24. 

S I R, 

IN my letter of the 17th, by exprefs, I deiired you would ac- 
quaint their lordfhips with my having received intelligence' if" 
eighteen fail of the line and three frigates of the Breji fquadron, 
being difcovered about twenty-four leagues to the N. W. of Belle- 
ijle t fleering to the eaflward ; all the prifoners however agree, that 

T on 

274 Vb* History of 'the War. *759- 

the French had four capital (hips deflroyed, one taken, 
and the whole of their formidable navy, in which con- 
fined the lad hope of their marine, mattered, difarmed, 
and difperfed. The long threatned invafion which was to 


on the day we chafed them, their fquadron confifted, according to 
the accompanying lift, of four fhips of eighty, fix of feventy-four, 
three of (even ty, eight of fixty-four, one frigate of thirty-fix, one 
of thirty-four, and one of iixteen guns, with a fmall veflel to look 
out. They failed from Brefi the 1 4th inft. the fame day I failed 
from Torbay. 

Concluding that their firft rendezvous would be Quiberon, the 
inftant I received the intelligence, I directed my courfe thither 
with a preft fail. At the firft wind blowing hard, at S. by E. and 
S. drove us confiderably to the weftward. But on the 18th and 
19th, though variable, it proved more favourable. In the mean 
time, having been joined by the Maidjione and Coventry frigates, 
I directed their commanders to keep a head of the fquadron : one 
on the (larboard and the other on the larboard bow. At half pad 
eight o'clock in. the morning of the 20th, Belleijle, by our reckon- 
ing, bearing E. by N. one fourth N. the Maidjione made the 
fignal for feeing a fleet, I immediately fpread abroad the fignal for 
a line abreaft, in order to draw all the fhips of the fquadron up 
with me. I had before lent the Magnanime a-head, to make the 
land. At three fourths pad nine me made fignal for an enemy. 
Oblerving, on my difcovering them, that they made off, I threw 
Out the fignal, for the feven fhips neareft them to chafe, and draw 
into a line of battle a-head of me, and endeavour to flop them 
till the reft of the fquadron mould come up, who were alfo to 
form as they chafed, that no time might be loft in the purfuit. 
That morning there were in chafe the Rochejier, Catbam, Port- 
land, Falkland, Minerva, Vengeance and Venus, all which joined 
me about eleven o'clock ; and, in the evening, the Sapbire from 
.Quiberon bay. All the day we had very freili gales, at N. W. and 
W. N. W. with heavy fqualls. 

Marfhal Conflans continued going off under fuch fail as his 
iquadion could carry, and at the fame time keep together, while 
we crowded after them with every fail our fhips could bear. At 
half paft two, P. M. the fire beginning a-head, I made the fignal 
for engaging. We were then to the fouthward of Belleijle ; and 
the French Admiral headmoft, foon after led round the Cardinals*, 
while his rear was in action. About four o'clock the Formidable 
ftruck, and a little after, the Tbefee and Superb were funk. About 

* Rocks fo called. 


I 759« Vbe History of the War. 275 

repair their loffes in every part of the world, was difli- 
patedi and the credit of their arms broken along with their 
forces. The behaviour of the Englifh captains and leamen,, 


five the Heros ftruck, and came to an anchor, but it blowing 
hard, no boat could be fent on board her. Night was now come, 
and being on a part of the coaft, among iflands and ihoals> of 
which we were totally ignorant, without a pilot, as was the 
greateft part of the fcmadron, and blowing hard on a lee more, I 
made the fignal to anchor, and came to in fifteen fathom water, 
the ifland of Dumer bearing E. by N. between two and three 
miles, the Cardinals W. half S. and the iteeples of Crozie S. E. 
as we found next morning. 

In the night we heard many guns of diftrefs fired, but blow- 
ing hard, want of knowledge of the coaft, and whether they 
were fired by a friend or an enemy, prevented all means of re- 

By day-break of the 21ft, we difcovered one of our mips dif- 
mafted afhore on the Four §, the French Heros alfo, and the §qUH 
Royal, which under cover of the night had anchored among us, 
cut and run a/hore to the weftward of Crozie. On the latter's 
moving, I made the Fjjex'% fignal to flip and purfue her, but fhe 
unfortunately got upon the Four, and both ihe and the Refolution 
are irrecoverably loft, notwithstanding we fent them all the affift- 
ance that the weather would permit. About fourfcore of the 
Refolution's company, in fpite of the ftrongeft remonftrances of 
their captain, made rafts, and, with feveral French prifoners be- 
longing to the Formidable, put off, and I am ^uaid, drove out to 
fea. All the EJfexs are faved (with as many of the ftores as pof- 
fible) except one lieutenant and a boat's crew, who were drove 
on the French fhore, and have not bt;cn heard of : the remains of 
both mips have been fet on fire. We found the Dorfetjhire, Re- 
venge, and Defiance, in the night of the 20th put out to fea ; as 
I hope the Siviftfure did, for me is ftill miffing. The Dorfetjhire 
and Defiance returned next day, and the latter faw the Revenge 
without. Thus, what lofs we have fuftained has been owing to 
the weather not the enemy, (qvqii or eight of whofe line of battle 
ihips got to fea, I believe, the night of the action. 

As foon as it was broad day-light in the morning of the 21 ft, I 
difcovered feven or eight of the enemy's line of battle ihips at 
anchor, between Point Penris, and the river Villaine ; on which 
I made the fignal to weigh, in order to work up and attack them ; 
but it blowed fo hard from the N. W. that inftead of daring to 
caft the fquadron loofe, I was obliged to ftrike top gallant mafts. 

§ A Sand Bank. T 2 Moft 

276 The History of the War. *1E>9- 

on the contrary, added as much to the glory of the Britifh. 
arms, as to the fafety of their country. Perhaps there ne- 
ver was a naval engagement of fuch extent, in which no 


Moll of thofe iliips appeared to be a-groimd at low water ; but 
on the flood, by lightening them, and the advantage of the wind 
under the land, all except two got that night into the river Vil- 

The weather being moderate on the 2ad, I fent the Portland, 
Chatham, and Vengeance to deftroy the Soleil Royal and Heros. 
The French, on the approach of our iliips, fet the firft on fire, 
and foon after the latter met the fame fate from our people. In 
the mean time I got under way, and worked up within Penris 
Point, as well for the fake of its being a fafer road, as to deftroy, 
if poflible, the two ihips of the enemy which ftill lay without the 
Villaim ; but before the fhips I fent a-head for that purpofe 
could get near them, being quite light, and with the tide of flood, 
they got in. 

All the 23d we were employed in reconnoitring the entrance of 
that river, which is very narrow, and only twelve feet water on 
the bar, at low water. We difcovered at leatl feven, if not 
eight, line of battle ihips about half a mile within, quite light, 
and two large frigates moored acrofs, to defend the mouth of the 
river ; only the frigates appeared to have guns in. 

By evening I had twelve longboats fitted as fire-ihips, ready to 
attempt burning them, under convoy of the Saphire and Coventry ; 
but the weather being bad, and the wind contrary, obliged me to 
defer it, till at leaft the latter fhould be favourable ; if they can, 
by any means be deftroyed, it iliall be done. 

In attacking a flying enemy, it was impoflible in the fpace of a 
fhort winter's day, that all our ihips fhould be able to get into 
action, or all thofe of the enemy brought to it. The commanders 
and companies of fuch as did come up with the rear of the French, 
on the 20'ih, behaved with the greateft intrepidity, and gave the 
ftrongeft proof of a true Britifh fpirit. In the fame manner I am 
fatisfied, would thofe have acquitted themfelves, whofe bad go- 
ing ihips, or the diftance they were at in the morning, prevented 
from getting up. Our lofs by the enemy is not confiderable ; for 
in the fhips which are now with me, I find only one lieutenant, 
and thirty-nine feamen and marines killed, and about two hun- 
dred and two wounded. When I confider the feafon of the year, 
the hard gales of wind on the day of action, a flying enemy, the 
fhortneis of the day, and the coaft w T e are on, I can boldly affirm, 
that ail that poflibly could be done, has been done. As to the lofs 


l 759* The History of the War. %jj 

captain was accufed, nor even in any degree fufpe&ed of 
mifbehaviour or cowardice ; in which thofe who engaged, 
and thofe who did not, gave proofs that they were equally 
ardent in the fervice of their country. 


we have fuftained, let it be placed to the neceflity I was under of 
running all rifks to break this flrong force of the enemy : had we 
had but two hours more day-light, the whole had been"totally 
deftroyed or taken, for we were almoft up with their van when 
night overtook us. 

Yefterday came in here the Pallas, Fortune (loop, and the Pro- 
ferpine fire-fhip. On the 1 6th I had difpatched the Fortune to 
Quebec, with directions to Captain Duff, to keep directly on his 
guard. In his way thither he fell in with the Phebe, a French fri- 
gate of forty guns, under jury-mafts, and fought her feveral hours. 
During the engagement lieutenant Stuart, 2d of the Ramillies, 
who I had appointed to command her, was unfortunately killed ; 
the furviving officers, on confulting together, refolved to leave 
her, as me proved too ftrong for them. I have detached captain 
Young to ^uiberon bay with live mips, and am making up a flying 
fquadron to icour the coaif. to the ifle of Aix, and if practicable, 
to attempt any of the enemy's fhips that may be there. 

/ am, Sir, c jfc. 


L I S T of Ships <with Sir Ed<ward Hatvke, Nov. 20, 1759. 
Ships. Guns. Men. Commanders. 

{Sir Edward Hawke, 
Captain Cambell. 
("Sir Charles Hardy, 
'' ( Captain Evans. 
Captain Graves. 
Captain Buckle. 
J. Young, Efq; Commodore. 
Sir John Bentley. 
Captain Fortefcue. 
Hon. Captain Keppel. 
Right Hon. Lord Howe. 
Captain Speke. 
Hon Captain Edgcumbe. 
T 2 Swiftfure, 

Royal George, 

































278 I'he History of the War. l 759* 

Thofe who think fiich matters deferving of their notice, 
have obferved, that this decifive naval engagement, the 
furrender of the Pruffian troops at Maxen, and the taking 
of Munfter, happened on the fame day, the 20th of No- 









Sir Thomas Stanhope. 




Captain Denis. 




Captain Gambier. 




Captain Wiilet. 




Captain Warn, Shirley. 




Captain Storr. 




Captain O'Brien. 




Captain Shirley. 




Captain Maplefden. 




Captain Rowley. 




Captain Digby. 




Captain Baird. 

The following Frigates joined Sir Edward Hawke between UJbant 

and Belleijle. 




Captain Duff. 




Captain Arbuthnot. 




Captain Drake. 




Captain Lockhart. 




Captain Hood. 




Captain Harrifon. 




Captain Nightingal 




Captain Burflem. 




Captain Diggs. 


3 2 


Captain Strachan. 

LIST of the French Squadron which came out of Breft, Novem- 
ber 14, 1759. 

Le Soleil Royal, 


Le Tonnant, 


Lc Formidable, 



1200 M. Conflans, Admiral. 

M. Beaufremont, Vice-Ad^' 

M. de St. Andre du Verger, 

L' Orient, 

1 759- ^be History of the War. 279 

This was the conclufion of the French affairs in Europe. 
The iflue of the campaign in America had not been more 
favourable to them. Although the events in the Eaft Indies 
belong properly to the laft year, yet, as the accounts did 
not arrive until this, and that the actions there were of 
great importance, and equally fortunate on our fide, it is 
proper that we mould take fome notice of them here. 


L' Orient, 

Le Glorieux, 
Le Thefee, 
Le Robufte, 
Le Jufte, 
Le Superbe, 
Le Dauphin, 
Le Dragon, 

Guns. Men. 






Le Northumberland, 64 

Le Sphinx, 
Le Solitaire, 
Le Brilliant, 
Le Bizarre, 
La Vefta^e, 
Le Calypfo, 















M. Guebriant, Chief d'Efca- 

Le Prince Noir, a fmall vefTel to 
look out. 

The above ihips were all in company when the action began, 
except the Hebe frigate. 

General To<wnJhend came from the fleet in the vefTel that 
came exprefs, the fate of the enemy being determined ; he refufed 
to be put on fkore when Admiral Saunders declared his in- 
tentions of feeking the enemy, but went with him as a volun- 

T 4 The 

i8o The History of the War. 1 159' 

1 lie Fnglifh had by no means that fuperiority-ovcr the 
French in the Eaft Indies, which they had in America. It 
was here the French Teemed to have made thofe efforts, by 
which they hoped in fome degree to balance their lofies in 
other parts. They had a very Strong fquadron under M. 
d'Ache in thofe Teas. hi. de Lally, an officer of credit, and 
of greater rank than had ufualiy been fent on that fervice, 
commanded a body of two tboufand Europeans, a great 
army, in a country where the name of an European is it- 
felf a Strength. 

In the beginning, their fuccefs feemed proportioned to 
their forces ; they took the fort and city of St. David's. 
But in a very fhort time the ill hear of Fiance, which in no 
part of the world fet well on their affairs, began to influence 
them here. M. d'Ache, in two naval engagements, was 
worded, and prevented from co-operating with the land 
forces for the reft of the campaign. And had the Spirit and 
conduct of Admiral Pococke been as well feconded by fome 
of his captains, as it was by others, there is great reafon to 
believe, that the French naval power had been as effectually 
ceflroyed irr thofe feas, as it had been in thofe of Europe. 

Notwithstanding thefe checks, it was necefiary that Mar- 
fhal Lally fhould aa. But it was not only the difgrace of 
the French fleet, but an extreme want of money which de- 
layed his operations. A Prince of the country, the King of 
Tanjour, appeared the only refource which was open. To 
this Prince he applied for a considerable fum of money, 
which being abioiutely refufed, he carried the war into his 
dominions, and laid fiege to his capital city. But after ly- 
ing Several days before it, and after having even made a prac- 
ticable breach, the Skill of feme Engliih gunners, the want 
cl provisions and ammunition, and the diforders which 
reigned in his army, obliged him to return without the 
money, and with the mortification of being beaten from a 
place, only fortified after the Indian manner. 

This failure in then pecuniary expectations, and their 
repulfe from an Indian town, were bad encouragements to 
the. undertaking of an emcrpnze againft an European ene- 
my, and a fortification in fome degree regular. But having 
ki. eo upon a Dutch \eiTel, as it is thought much with its 
own confent, which contained a large treaiure, they fet 
out at length to befiege Madrafs. But here their fuccefs 


1759- ^ e History of the War. 281 

was no better than at Tanjour, though their flrength was 
greater, and their efforts much more obftinate. 

Colonel Draper and Major Brereton defended the place 
with the utmoft fkill and bravery. Mr. Pigot likewife with 
equal generofity and prudence, feconded their endeavours, 
by the fupplies of {lores and ammunition, which were ad- 
mirably diftributed, and co operated with the military with 
a firmnefs and intrepidity, by which he obtained an honour 
equal to any in the defence of the place. WJhilft the town 
was defended with great fpirit within ; parties were continu- 
ally fent out, which fo infefled the roads through which the 
enemy's convoys were to pafs, that their army in the trench- 
es were infinitely weakened bv the detachments which thev 
were obliged to fend out. After a ilege of more than two 
months, they were obliged to abandon their enterprise, and 
by that means renounce for ever all thofe fanguine hopes, 
which they had entertained from the forces in this part of 
the world. The Englifh on the contrary, went on from fuc- 
cefs to fuccefs. Whilft they defeated the French on the 
Eaflern coaft of the great peninfula of India, on the weftern 
they took the great and opulent city of Surat from the pow- 
ers of the country, with very little lofs. 

General Lally left Madrafs in the utmoft tranfports of 
rage and defpair, which a man of honour and ability in his 
profeHion can feel, who is ill feconded by his troops, ne- 
glected by thofe who ought to fupport him, and cheated by 
the villainy of contractors, and of all thofe who turn war 
into a low traffic (a). His letter is a ftrong and very linking 


(a) General Lally s Letter to M. de Lyrit, dated Madrafs, the 
1 \th of February , i 759. 

A Good blow might be ftruck here : There is a /hip in the 
road of twenty guns, laden with all the richer of Madrafs, 
which it is faid will remain there till the 20th. The Expedition 
is juft arrived, but M. Gorlin is not a man to attack her : for fhe 
has made him run away once before. The Brijhl on the. other 
hand did but juft make her appearance before Si. r ±homas ; and 
on the vague report of thirteen ihips coming from Porto Novo, flie 
took fright ; and after landing the provision's with which fhe was 
laden, fhe would not {lay long enough even to take on board 
twelve of her own guns, which fhe had lent us for the fiege. 


-\z ' K tory r War. 17 

picture of thefe agitations ; and certainly it is worthy of re- 
mark, that every where there ihould appear fornething 
more unaccountably wrong and weak in the managerr.e: : 
of the French, than has been in the conduct of that or 
aimoft any other nation at any time. It feems to argue an 


If I war the judge of the point of honour of the company's offi- 
xrmld break him like gkfe, as well as Come others of them. 
The FuUUe, or Harlem? or even the afore kid Bri/iel, with the 
twelve guns re&ored to her, would be sufficient to make them- 
leives matters of the EngHjb ihip, if they could manage fo as to 
get to the windward of her in the night. Maugendie and Tremil- 
lier are (aid to be good men ; and were they employed only to 
transport two hundred wounded men, that we have he: g 
ier rice would be of importance. 

remain ftill in the lame pofition : the breach made thefe 
1 the time within fifteen tones of the wall of the 
pkee, and never holding up our heads to look a 

I reckon we fbal! at our arrival at Pondkberry endeavour to 

learn iome other trade, for this of war requires too much patience. 

Of fifteen hundred Cifays which attend our army, I reckon 

near eight hundred are employed upon the road to Pttitdi- 

cberry, fadtn with fugar, pepper, and other goods; and as for the 

Cauiii ifaey are all employed & the lame purpose, from the firtt 


I am taking my meafures from this day to fet fire to the BZori 

.?#, aed to blow up the powder mf 

You never imagine, that fifty French delerters, and one 

f/>, are actually {bopping the progrefs of two thouland 

2 r,d company's troops, which are ftill here ex- 

anding the exaggerated account that every 

makes here, according to his own fancy, of the daughter that has 

been of them ; and you will be ftill more fnrprife ell you, 

: v v.'-;-t '.'■".- ■.:.--; '■..'.-.'.. ."-.;■ i: :\-: -,i.- '!r. v '.-:'::': ?.:r.- 

t<i, and for the batteries which failed, or to fpeak more properly, 

from the commencement of the fiege to this day. 

I have wrote to M. 42V Larche, that if he peruft, in not coming 
here, jet who will rahe money upon the Paieagtr s for me, I will 
not do it : And I renounce (as I informed you a month ago I 
would do) meddling dkecSly or indirectly with anything w> 
ever, that may have relation to your adminifln civil 

or militarr. For I had rather go, and command the Caffrei of 
i&z; an remain in ths <5W?& ; which it is impoffible 


1 759- ^ tY History vf th? War. 2S3 

eifemial and radical tault in fame fuperior part of their go- 
meet, more eafily indeed viable in its confequences, t: 
difcoverable in its caule. 

In Europe thev received offers of peace from the king? of 
Great Britain and Pruilia. But as thev did not expect, from 
their fituatior, ~eous or honourable terms, they 

refolved to a<5r, in one inilance, the Roman part, and (till 
hold out, determined to hazard the tail extremities; perhaps, 
hoping fomething favourable from the fortune of their al 
llnce their own had deierted them ; and re contract 

their plan, and to make one ftrcng effort in one r. her 

than unprofitable to waite their ftrength uponfeveral infe- 
rior obje€ts. T'r : .< effort could be made with any profpeft of 
:efs only in Germ .:) But the (upplies far 


but the fire of the En«Ujb mud dettroy, looner or later, c 
-^h that from H hould not. 

Signed, LALLY 

/ have tie hememr t: h. 

P. S. I think it neoeiTary to apprize yc. as If. Je 

Sot/pire has refilled to take upon him the command of this a:. 
which I have offered to him, and which : >owered to ac- 

cept, by having received from the court a duplicate of my com- 
million, you mult of m. .*ther with the council, tuk 

upon you. For my part. 1 ur.- ertake only to br: 
either to Arc*: Vmdemjh* Send >re vour or. 

come your k 5 :t upon mv arrival 


(*) The Dae de Btliri tfr's I e:tor to Marftial Cfcaffcdb, dated 

J'Al peurcj'.- w T AM (till 

ne ion parti uc : Jl ..: v.: : I: it, : 

cepemlant bten imponarr, et ever, ve tarn, and \ 

hien client:, ous pui&ons eliMittal that we thou Id raife 

liter de grc: ibutiocs. Je I llv 

ne vois ce reiFbu;. . nos other re no<t ur- 
Depentes les plus 

pour le> rep p;>, tiie tifeOps, hut in the money 

^ued*: mq the t . 

284 The History of the War. 1759- 

this great charge were difficult to a nation, whofe trade was 
wholly deftroyed. On this occafion they did not fcruple to 
break in upon the public faith, and to find fupplies for one 


rons avoir du Pais enemy; d'ou 
\\ faudra egaiement tirerdeslub- 
fiftances de toutes Efpeces,inde- 
pendamment de l'Argent, c'eit 
a. dire des Foins, des Paiiies, des 
Avoines pour l'Hy ver,des Bleds, 
des. Beftiaux, des Chevaux, et 
meme des Hommes pour recru- 
ter toutes nos Troupes Etran- 
geres. La Guerre ne doit pas 
etre prolongee, et peut-etre fau- 
drat-il, fuivant les livenemens 
qui arriveront d'ici a la Fin de 
Septembre, faire un veritable 
Defert en avant de la Ligne des 
Quartiers, que Ton jugera a pro- 
pos de tenir pendant l'Hyver, 
aim que 1'Ennemi fetrouvedans 
une Impoiiibiliie reelle d'en 
pouvoir approcher en nous re- 
fer vant de la ieule- 
ment fur la Route qui pourra 
nous convenir o'e prendre dans 
ie milieu de l'Hyver, pour 
enlever nous inemes les Quar- 
ters des Fnnemis. Celt pour 
pouvoir reoipliF cet Objet, 
que je fais travailler fans Ra- 
lache a toule cequ'il faut pour 
que toutes vos Troupes, fans 
Exception, foient bien habillees, 
bien armees, bien equipees, et 
bien reparees, en tout Point, 
avant la Fin de Novembre,avec 
des Tentes neuves, pourque fi 
cela convient aux Affaires Poli- 
tiques ou Militaires "du Roy," 
vous puifiiez afTembler ie tout 
ou partie de votre Armee pour 
agir ofTeniivenient et avec Vi- 


country ; from whence we mud 
like wife procure fubfiftence of 
all kinds, (independently of the 
money) that is to fay, hay,itraw r 
oats for the v/inter, bread, corn, 
cattle, horfes, and even men to 
recruit our foreign troops. The 
war muft not be prolonged, and 
perhaps it may be necefTary, ac- 
cording to the events which may 
happen between this time and 
the end of September, to make 
a downright defart before the 
line of the- quarters, which it 
may be thought proper to keep 
during the winter, in order that 
the enemy may be under a real 
impoflibility of approaching us : 
at the fame time referving for 
o.urfelves a bare fubfiftence on 
the route, which may be the 
moft convenient for us to take 
in the middle of winter to beat 
up, or feize upon the enemy's 
quarters. That this object may 
be fulfilled, I caufe the greater! 
affiduity to be ufed in preparing 
what is necefTary for having all 
your troops, without exception, 
well cloathed, well armed, well 
equipped, and well refitted in 
every refpect, before the end of 
Novemher y with new tents, in 
order that, if it lhall be advifea- 
ble for the king's political and 
military affairs, you may be able 
to afTemble the whole, or part 
of your army, to act offenlively, 
and with vigour, from the be- 
ginning of January, and that 


l 159- The History of the War. 285 

year in an expedient, that (truck at the fources of all future 
credit. They flopped the payment on many public bills 
and funds*. The King threw in his own plate into the pub- 
lic flock as an example, and a requefl that others fhoulrl 
contribute in the fame manner from their private fortune, to 
the neceilities of the Mate ; tho' feveral of the nobility, and 
many churches and convents fent in their plate, there was 
yet a general backwardnefs to give into this method of fup- 
ply, and to trull: the public with fo confiderabie a part of their 
fubftahce at the inflant when they faw it fo notorioufly 
break its faith in other particulars. 


guer, des le commencement de you may have the fatisfaction to 

Janvier, et que vous ayez la fhew our enemies, and all Eu- 

Satisfaction de montrer a nos rope, that the French know how 

Ennemis, et a toute l'Europe, to act and carry on war, In all 

que les Francois fcavent agir et feafons, when they have fuch a 

faire la Guerre en toutesSaifons, general as you are, and a mi- 

quand ils ont un general tel que nifter of the department of war, 

vous, et un Miniltre Militaire that can forefee and concert 

qui fcait prevoir et fe concerter matters with the general, 
avec le General. 

Vous fentez, Monf. le Mare- You muft be fenfible, Sir, that 

chal, que ce que je vous dis what I fay to you may become 

peut devenirnonfeulement utile not only ufeful and honourable, 

et honorable, mais peut-etre but perhaps even necefTary with 

meme necefTaire relativement a refpect to what you know, and 

ce que vous fcavez, et dont je of which I fliall (ay more in my 

vous parlerai encore dans ma private letters. 
Lettre particuliere. 

(Signe) M. Due de Belleifle. 

* The French court ftopt payment of the fallowing public 
debts, viz. i. The three kinds of rents created on the ports. 2 
Thole conftituted upon thecheft of redemption. 3. The coupon. 
of bills on the fame chert. 4. Thole of the two royal lotteries. 

5. The reimburfement of bills drawn to bearer on the fame chert. 

6. The bills of the two royal lotteries. 7. The rents created 
on the two fols per pound of the tenth penny. 8, The reim- 
burfement of the capitals of rents. 9. The payments of bills 
difchargeable in nine years, under the name of annuities, to. 
Thofe of the new actions on the benefit of the farms. 11. 

the bills drawn by the colonies upon the governments amount; 
to 1,333,000 1. 

286 The History of the War. *759- 

Hovever, thefe refources, fuch as they are, will enable 
them to keep the war on foot. They turn their whole at- 
tention to Germany, where they have very greatly augment- 
ed their army, and placed it under a general, from whom 
they have fome hopes, after their repeated difappointments, 
and the frequent changes they have made. They propofe 
alio another army under the prince de Soubife ; if they can 
compafs this latter project, as it is believed they may, the 
fyftem of Germany is (fill in very imminent danger. For 
notwithstanding the tried goodnefs of our troops, and the 
admirable commander at the head of them, it is certain, 
even with any reinforcements we may be able to fend, we 
mall find it very difficult to contend with two armies, fup- 
pofing that we fhall have no other than French armies to 
contend with, and that the King of Pruffia fhould be able, 
as he has hitherto been, to find employment for the many, 
the powerful, and the implacable enemies that furround 

It is certain he is much reduced ; and that his refources 
are nearly exhaufted. Thefe are fa6ts which cannot be con- 
cealed ; and yet fome glimmering of hopes may be Hill per- 
ceived, when we confider the admirable talents for war and 
government, which that monarch pofiefles ; and when we 
confider even the events of the latt (to him) unfortunate 
campaign ; whereafter having fuffered four capital defeats, 
and having obtained no one cor.fiderable advantage, he has 
yet continued in fome fort fuperior in the field ; the enemy 
lias not been able to make the leatt impreffion upon his do- 
minions, and he has, at laft, more than divided Saxony 
with them ; the city of Drefden is all that they pofTefs in 
that country, and the acquifition of which has been the only 
fruit of four campaigns, and four victories in one campaign, 
and the efforts of the united forces of Auflria, Ruffia, and 
the Fmpire, to fay nothing of France and Sweden. 

As for Great Britain, fhe lias only to fear from her con- 
nections. In no one year fince fhe was a nation, has fhe been 
favoured with fo many fuccefles, both by fea and land, and 
in every quarter of the globe ; nor have her officers, both 
by fea and land, ever done more honour to their country, 
by their (kni and bravery. And with regard to the internal 
adminifcraiior., it fuffices to fay, that whitft France be- 
came bankrupt, without delay or murmuring there have been 
more than fix millions borrowed in England at a very eafy 

rate ; 

f 759' ^ e ^ IST0RY °f ?b e War: 287 

rate; and that the intereft on this immenfe Turn has been 
made good by a fmgle tax upon malt, which will fcarce be 
felt by the people. By this the resources of England may 
be imagined ; efpecially if we confider, that highly as we 
are taxed for the neceffary charges of the war ; we have not 
been prevented from great and expenflve voluntary exertions 
of public fpirit and beneficence. The cities of London and 
Weftminfter, and after their example other towns made a 
large fubfcription for enlifting foidiers. Subfcriptions were 
alfo carried on to a great amount, for cloathing the enemies 
prifoners, abandoned through the neglect or poverty of their 
Sovereign ; and for administering to the relief of the fami- 
lies of thofe who had fallen in the battles of Quebec and 
Minden. Thus actuated by the warmeft patriotifm, which 
far from extinguiming, feemed to kindle a beneficence to- 
wards our enemies in their diftrefs. 

The condition of Europe, which all people thought 
would have been decided in this campaign, is nearly as du- 
bious as ever ; and the difficulties which oppofe themfelves 
to a peace are rather augmented than diminifhed. Here 
then we clofe the fcene, and conclude the events of the pre- 
fent year ; in the next we hope, notwithstanding appear- 
ances, after fo many fcenes of horror, to have the more 
pleafing tafk of relating the fteps taken to a general peace, 
on terms as particularly advantageous to our own country, 
as the mixed interefts of Europe, and the various fortunes 
of the powers embarked in the fame caufe, will admit. 

T H E 

[ 288 ] 



O R, 



W A R. 

-For the YEAR 1760. 


Nothing decided in' the war. State of the feveral powers 
concerned* Great Britain and PruJJia propofe an accommo- 
dation. Difficulties in concluding a peace. The condition 
and hopes of France. Demands on the King of Prufpa. 
Treaty J aid to be between Rufpa and Aujlria* 

F all the wars which have harafied Europe for more 
than a century had not proved it, the events of the 
laft campaigns mud; have Satisfied every thinking man, 
that victories do not decide the fate of nations. Four 
moil bloody, and to all appearance mod ruinous defeats, 
which he fullered in that year, had defpoiled the King of 
Pruflia of no more than a fingle town. After thefe accu- 
mulated blows he (lill found himfelf in a condition to make 
good his winter-quarters; to cover his dominions; and to 
tempt the favour of fortune in another campaign. 


1760. The History of the War. 289 

To carry our attention a little further back ; who could 
have imagined, that when the French had compelled the 
Hanoverian troops to lay down their arms, when they had 
tbruft them into a defencelefs corner, had bound them down 
with the yoke of a ftrict and fevere capitulation, and had 
poffeffed themfelves of every place which could boaft the 
fmalleft (hare of (trength in the'king's German dominions, 
that in a few months they fhould. .find themfelves compelled 
to fly before their captives; and. after having fuffered a 
confiderable defeat, ihould be puttied back almoft on their 
own territories. 

On the other hand, it might have been fuppofed that 
the effects of thefe advantages under the management of a 
very great commander, who was* befides largely reinforced* 
could have been fruftrated only by the lofs of fome great 
battle. But the fact was otherwife. The Hanoverians, 
without any adverfe ftroke in that campaign, were obliged 
to repafs the Rhine and the Lippe; and fince that time, 
fortune having decided nothing by the events of fi-ve years 
war, has given to prince Ferdinand the pofleflion of a great 
part of Weftphalia in the manner of a conquered country, 
and yet fees him abandoning Hefle, and with difficulty co- 
vering the borders of Hanover. 

In fhort, the victory of Crevelt could not enable the 
Duke of Brunfwick to defend the Rhine. The battle of Ber- 
gen did not give Marfhal Broglio an entrance into Hanover. 
The great victory of Minden did not drive the French 
from the Maine. We have feen armies, after complete 
victory, obliged to act as if they had been defeated ; and 
after a defeat, taking an ofTenfive part with fuccefs, and 
reaping all the fruits of victory 

Thefe reflexions are ftill more ftrongly enforced by the 
fortune of the King of Pruflia. Covered with the laurels 
of Lowofitz, Prague, Roibach and Lifla, when he began 
after fo many compleat triumphs, to purfue his advantages, 
and to improve fuccefs into conqueft, the fcene was fud- 
denly altered. As foon as he attempted to penetrate with 
effect into the enemies country, without having fuffered 
any very fignal blow, without any confiderable miftake 
committed upon his fide, fortune, who hath as it were at- 
tached herfelf to the defenflve, immediately forfook him. 
He was not abie to take a (ingle place. And thoftr advan- 
tages, which, at other times and fuuations, would have laid 

U the 

290 The History of the War. 1760. 

the foundation of a lading empire, have in his cafe only 
protracted a fevere deftiny, which fome think in the end 
inevitable; but which as many, as great, and as entire 
victories fince obtained over his forces, have not been yet 
able to bring upon him. 

The balance of power, the pride of modern policy, and 
originally invented to preferve the general peace as well as 
freedom of Europe, has openly preserved its liberty. It 
has been the original of innumerable and fruitlefs wars. 
That political torture by which powers are to be enlarged 
or abridged, according to a ftandard, perhaps not very ac- 
curately imagined, ever has been, and it is to be feared 
will always continue a caufe of infinite contention and 
bloodfhed. The foreign ambaffadors conftantly refiding 
in all courts, the negotiations inceflantly carrying on, fpread 
both confederacies and-quarrels fo wide, that whenever hof- 
tilities commence, the theatre of war is always of a pro- 
digious extent. All parties in thofe difTufive operations, 
have, of neceffity, their ftrong and weak fides. What they 
gain in one part is loft in another ; and in conclufion, their 
affairs become fo balanced, that all the powers concerned 
are certain to lofe a great deal ; the moll: fortunate acquire 
little ; and what they do acquire is never in any reafonable 
proportion to charge and lofs. 

Frequent experience of this might prove one of the 
ftrongeft grounds for a lading peace in Europe. But that 
fpirit of intrigue, which is the political diftemper of the 
time, that anxious forefight which forms the character of 
all the prefent courts, prevent the falutary effects which 
might refult from this experience. Thefe modern treaties 
of peace, the fruits not of moderation but neceffity ; thofe 
engagements contracted when all the parties are wearied 
and none fatisfied, where none can properly be called con- 
querors or conquered, where after having fought in vain 
to compel, they are content to over-reach them in the very 
moment they are formed, and from the very ac\ of 
forming them, with the feeds of new diffentions, more im- 
placable animofities, and more cruel wars. For if to for- 
ward the work of peace, any member in thefe alliances 
fhould acquire a ceffion of any importance in its favour, 
this afterwards becomes a ground for another alliance, and 
for new intrigues to deprive them of their acquisition. To 
fettle the peace of Germany, Silefia was yielded in 1 745 


1760. fhe History of the War* 291 

to tjie King of Pruffia, and that ceffion gave occafion for 
the war of 1756. 

The kings of Great Britain and Pruflia chofe the mo- 
ment of fuccefs, to propofe an accommodation; and they 
defired that the oppofite powers fhould concur with them 
in nominating fome place for a congrefs. Some fpoke of 
Leipfic, as a means of indemnification to that unfortunate 
city; the States General would have given a town of theirs ; 
King Staniilaus offered Nancy, his capital : but the time of 
peace was not yet come. The two kings made a display of 
moderation ; and they had reafon to think that if their pro- 
pofals fhould be accepted (which probably they did not then 
expeel) they muft naturally take .the lead in that negotiation, 
and muft give the whole a turn to their advantage. But 
the adverfe alliance unanimoufly rejected their efforts, and 
the refufal of fome of its members was couched in terms 
fufficiently haughty. 

To fpeak impartially, they could not at that time have 
accepted proportions for peace. France had fuffered in 
every quarter: in her prefent condition fhe could fcarcely 
look for very favourable terms. As they had now aban- 
doned in defpair all attempts by fea, and confequently all 
efforts in North America and both the Indies, all their 
hopes were centered in Germany. Hitherto their fortune 
in that country had not been very encouraging. But ftill, 
in that country lay their beft and indeed their only profpect. 
The ftrength and perfeverance of the two empreiTes, the 
wafted condition of the King of Pruflia, the enormous ex- 
pence of the German war to England, which muft gradually 
exhauft the refources of her credit, and with them the pa- 
tience of an inconftant people, had infpired with no fmall 
hope. All thefe confederations confirmed their refolution 
of hearkening to no terms, until by acquiring ftiperiority, 
or at leaft an equality, they might be a (lured of procuring 
fuch as were not very difadvantageous or humiliating. 

The emprefs queen upon her part had a moral certainty, 
that fhe could not procure, by a treaty propofed at fuch a 
juncture, thofe objects for which fhe had begun, and with 
fuch fteadinefs in every fortune had carried on the war. In 
reality, her circumftances then were, and they ftill continue, 
very intricate and embarraffed. It was neceffary that fhe 
fhould have allies of great power ; but if they have done 
her great fervices, they have formed high pretenfions ; in- 

U 2 deed 

&dg The History <of the War, 176a 

deed fc> high, that if ihe and her allies cannot abfolateiy pre- 
fcribc the terms of peace, if is imfsofible that they fhouM 
atS be in any degree iadsfel 

Her fituation m this refpe<9: has pufked ad mtemedmetn s 
the war between her awl the King of Pruflia. Even 'the 
ceflion of all Scie€a in her favour 5 cannot procure a' peace 
for that monarch, The Ramans wi$l never let foofe their 
h©1d of the ducat pcu$Ia ; a -country conquered by their owe 
arms, a i&oHeSion which rendered, the King 010H formida- 
ble to them, and which is their Kbfe indemnification for 
what they' have expended in a war entered into for other 
. views than thofe of glee y, or even of revenge, ft has beecu 
confidently a&erted, that the emprefs <|ueeu of Hungary 
- has actually guarantied the poSeffion of that country t<i its 
«onc|oerors. This is ksdeed. a very extraordinary fep, and 
the fitfit is not fufEciently authenticated. But the report Is 
not altogether improbable. We may be fare that if fuck 
a guarantee has beets made, it has been entered into upon 
fome reciprocal engagement of equal force, and for an ob- 
ject equally important. 

Nothing hut the t&& ckfperate neceHity, nothing in ^hort 
hat being conquered in the exoH: abfelute fenfe^ will ever 
Induce the King of Pruffia to fubrnit to both thefe cefuons* 
By fuch a (ubmtfison, be£de being defpoited of that con- 
queH, which is the great glory of his reign, and confiitutes 
the firmed fopport of his revenue* he will fee his heredi- 
tary dominions curtailed of another province from whence he 
derives his royal title? and what makes it of infinitely greater 
importance its his eyes, the heft commercial part of his 
territories? and that only part of his territories, by which 
he could have hoped to become in any degree a maritime 

But though It were poffibfe that his Pruffian Maje&y 
could be brought to fubmit to thefe humiliating terms, a 
great deal M\ remains to be adjufted. There are other de- 
mands* which, though not <b high in their nature, nor ib 
-ftrongty enforced, are notwithstanding conf?derabk, and 
'cannot, with any decency, be totally negieded. What is 
the nature of thft bargain between the Emprefs and the Se- 
nate of Swedes?- has not yet been made pubtick. Be it 
what it will, this u probably the feaft perplexing part of the 

it feme indemnification for the King of Poland, on 


I ¥54 Yls Hjstoet &f the Wae* 293 

whofe dominions the greafcef! calamities cf tlsc war lia^e 
fallen, feems absolutely neceflfary ; ami ©ss what piinctple 
can Auflria ever expecl an ally* If ihe £hoBk$ feeasre all tlbe 
beneiifcs of the pacification to heifelf, and leave I© fees con- 
federates nothing but the fufienisgs of a war in which they 
were involved purely in her quarrel? 

This, variety of demands* aft to be- falisfkd out of fche do- 
minions of a fingle prince, muft neceffarify perplex the 
work of peace with airaoft iiifurmouBtable difBcukies* It 
ought not indeed to be concealed, fehat there are circum- 
stances which feem to lead to feme folutkm of this embar- 
raflment. But if they are attentively concerned, they w3f, 
I believe, be rather found to increafe it.. 

Great Britain has had remarkable fuccefs againfl France 
at fea, in America, and in the Indies* On the continent of 
Europe, her fortune is, even at this day, tolerably balanced: 
the two weak parts, therefore, in the oppofite alliances, (I 
fpeak only with regard to the events of the prefent war) are 
France and Pruffia. As therefore France will expe& feme 
cefSons from Great Britain, it is teafonable that they foouM 
be bought by tome moderation of the rigorous terms which 
otherwife would have been irapofed on Pruffia. 

All the Sacrifices to peace mult be made out of the ad- 
vantage acquired by Auftria and Great Britain. Bat when 
Great Britain fhall have confented to fome conceflkms, to 
forward this great work, what return can the Emprefs 
Queen make, but an abatement of her demands upon Si!e- 
fia? That is, by giving up that grand, favourite, and in- 
deed to her fok object, for which fhe has brought upon 
herfelf a heavy war, difgu^ed her antient and natural al- 
lies, and purchafed the aid of her natural enemy* at the 
price of places which the be ft blood of Europe has been fb 
often thed to preferve in her 1 amity. To all who consider 
the character of that court, it will appear very plainly that 
{he will hazard atmoft any thing, and even rifk thofecon- 
fequences to which her imprudent alliance with France has 
expofed her, rather than accept a peace which muft deprive 
her of her hopes of Silefia. 

When thefe things are weighed, it wi'l not appear won- 
derful that there have been fo few fe as overtures for 
peace; and that the longer the war cencinues, the. greater 
difficulties feem to oppofe themfelves to any . concluiion 
of it. 

U3 The 

294 The History of the War. 1760. 

The only hope that remains of any happy conelufion, is 
that fome of the great members of the alliance, wearied and 
exhaufted, will at length fly off, and thereby throw the reft 
into fuch confufion, that a peace will be fuddenly huddled 
up; and all difficulties not removed, but forgotten, by not 
allowing time to weigh and ftudy what may be gained or 
loft. This muft produce a fyftem of pacification, the na- 
ture of which it is impofTible to forefee; becauie it cannot 
be faid upon which fide this defection will begin ; but prin- 
cipally becaufe the war ftill continues, in the event of which, 
in fpight of all that can be conjectured from the ftrength and 
prefent condition of the powers concerned, fortune will 
have fo large a fhare. But we may predict without rafhnefs, 
that the firft overtures will be between Great Britain and 
France: for they never think of peace in Germany. 


State of the Englifi garrifon at Quebec. Defgns of Monf. 
Levi. Preparations for a Jiege. French army marches 
from Montreal. Their Jlrength. Battle of Sillery. Gen. 
Murray defeated. Quebec befieged. The Englifh feet 
under Lord Colville arrives. French veffels deflroyed. Levi 
raifes the fie ge. 

THIS was the poflure of Europe at the clofe of the 
campaign of 1 75,9. And all thoughts of peace being 
entirely removed, the war was profecuted in this part of 
the world with the utmoft vigour as foon as the feaion per- 
mitted them to recommence operations. 

But in America, the feverity of winter was not able whol- 
ly to interrupt the pregrefs of the war. Canada had been 
fuppofed conquered, by the taking of Quebec. Indeed 
without the pofTefrion of that place, it had been impofiible 
to reduce that country; but flill a great deal remained to 
ccmpleat the advantage to which the taking of Quebec had 
only given an opening. The French troops, after their de- 
feat, had retired into the heart of their country. And the 
Englifh navy, having provided the town fufficiently with 
military (lores and provifions, fet fail, fearing left they 
fhculd be overtaken by the froft. Ten battalions, two com- 
panies of the artillery, one of American wood-rangers, in 
all about feven thoufand men, formed the garrifon which 


1760. fbe History of the War. 295 

was left in Quebec to command Canada during the winter, 
and to facilitate the entire reduction of that province in the 
enfuing campaign. They were under the orders of Gene- 
ral Murray. 

As the river St. Lawrence is commonly (hut up by ice, 
for the greater part of the winter, all communication with 
Europe was cut off. The conquering army was therefore 
fubjecl: to be inverted in Quebec. The French command- 
er, M. Levi, was fenfible of this advantage ; and he faw 
that it was the only refource by which he could have any 
chance of preferving Canada. He accordingly prepared to 
make ufe of this laft and only opportunity; and he was not 
without fome profpect of fuccefs. 

He knew that the fortifications of Quebec were weak 
and incomplete, without any kind of outwork ; that the 
town was almoft a general ruin, fince the late fiege; and 
that the Englifh garrifon had been much enfeebled, and 
greatly reduced in their numbers by the fcurvy. He knew 
alfo, that by fome misfortune, no provifion had been made 
to prevent his attaining a fuperiority on the river ; as no 
veffels had been left, on a fuppofition, that they could 
not be ufeful in winter. 

The winter had pafTed in fkirmifhes always terminating 
in favour of the Englifli, by which they enlarged the fphere 
of their fubfiftence. M. Levi had indeed propofed, during 
the rigour of the feafon, to attempt the place by a coup de 
main; and had made preparations for that purpofe. But 
the activity of the garrifon was fuch ; and all the outpofls 
fo well fecured, that he thought it more prudent to abandon 
that defign, and to poflpone his operations, to the opening 
of the fpring, when a regular fiege might be formed. 

The forces which flill remained in Canada, were not un- 
equal to the attempt. Ten battalions of regular troops, 
amounting to near five thoufand men ; fix thoufand of ex- 
perienced militia of Canada; about three hundred favages. 
This was the force which M. Levi had collected at Mont- 
real, and with which he took the field on the 17th of 
April, 1760. 

His provifions, ammunition, and heavy baggage, fell 
down the river St. Lawrence, under the convoy of fix fri- 
gates from 44 to 26 guns. By this fquadron, which there 
was nothing to oppofe, he acquired the undifputed com- 
mand of the river, a point of the greatefl importance to 

U 4 the 

296 The History of the War. 1760, 

the whole defign. In ten days march, the French army 
arrived at the heights of Abraham three miles from Quebec. 

When Gen. Murray perceived the approach of the ene- 
my, he had two parts to take, either to keep within the 
town, and confiding in his troops, which though -weak as 
an army, were flrong as a garrifon, to fuftain the fiege to 
the utmoft extremity ; or to march out, and by trying the 
fortune of the field, to avoid the tedious hardmips of a 
fiege, in a place which feerned to him fcarcely tenable. 

He refolved on the latter part*. But when he came to 


* In the Progrefs of the American Campaign, we have been careful 
and attentive to introduce from Capt. Knox's Journal every Re- 
lation that could be confidered interejling : This that voe have 
novo come to, is the Particula s of the unfortunate Defeat at 
Sillery, by vohich voe tvere in Danger of loftng our Conquefls in 
Canada, and voith them the City of Quebec, its Metropolis ; 
nvhofe Prefervation and Defence, is no lefs memorable than its 
Conquejl ; being attended voith a tedious and heavy Service 5 
and though in the Narration there is not that Variety necejfary 
to make it (to fomej more entertaining, yet as it does Honour to, 
the Governor and the Regiments that fupported it, to pafs it in 
Silence might be confidered as depriving them of that Degree 
of Honour they are entitled to, and vohich voe have been care- 
ful to preferve to others. 

GEneral Murray had no fooner determined what part to take,, 
{April 20) than he prepared for it, by calling off his out- 
poits, which he did from the houfes at St. Rocque and the poft at 
Point Levi, and feu ing fire to the two blockhoufes that he had 
erected there. All the Britijh merchants were reviewed, and, a* 
their own requeft, formed into an independent company of vo- 
lunteers, to be commanded by Lieutenant Grant, of the fifty- 
eight ; h regiment ; this gentleman they particularly made choice of, 
and they, including their fervants, amount to about one hundred 
in miiiiher. The fick and wounded of our garrifon, who are capable 
of unng their arms, are to have their firelocks, bayonets, and am- 
munition near them in readinefs, and all the troops are to be quke 
alert and prepared to turn out, or march out, at a moment's warn- 
ing. The naval armament of the enemy are fallen down to Cape 
Rouge i and they pretend that there are four French topfail yefiels 
below at the Trav.erie, 


1 7 6q. The History of the War. 297 

review his ability for this undertaking, he could poiTibly 
draw into the field no more than three thoufand men. How- 
ever he was not frighted by the enemy's great fuperioritv, 



Monfieur de Levi, and his army, occupied the village and 
neighbourhood of St. Foy laft night, and his advanced pofts pof- 
fefled the coppice contiguous to the general hofpital ; early this 
morning our light troops pufhed out, and, with little difficulty, 
drove them to a greater diltance : 

'Tis not in mortals to command fuccefs. 
But we'll do more, ive'll deferve it. 

28th. About (tven o'clock our army marched out to the heights 
of Abraham, with a refpeclabfe artillery, confining of eighteen 
pieces of cannon, viz. two twelve-pounders, with fixteen Ex- 
pounders, and two howitzers ; we alfo carried out our tools, as if 
intending to intrench ourfelves, and cover the town ; which feem- 
ed to be the fole refolution taken by the Governors, previous to 
our march. Upon coming to our ground, we defcried the enemy's 
van on the eminences of the woods of Sillery, and the bulk of 
their army to the right marching along the road of Sr. Foy, in- 
clining, as they advanced, in order to conceal themfelves. Upon 
this difcovery, and our line being already formed, the troops were 
ordered to throw down their intienching-tools and march forward, 
|his being deemed the decifive moment to attack them, in hopes 
of reaping every advantage that could be expected over an army 
not yet thoroughly arranged. In confequence of this refolution, 
our forces advanced with great alacrity ; the forty-eighth regi- 
ment, the fifteenth, and fecond battalion of the tixtieth, forming 
the right brigade, under Col. Burton ; the twenty-eighth, feventy- 
cighili, and iorty-feventh, the left under Colonel Frafir; the fif- 
ty-eighth was the right centre co-p?, ard the forty -third the left 
centre, commanded by Colonel James. The fecond line was 
compofed of the thirty- frith, and the third bn'talion of Royal 
Americans, drawn up, to appear mo: e numeroufc, two deep. — 
Our right flank was covered by Major Dalljng's corps of light in- 
fantry, and our left by the company of volunteers and rangers, 
under their refpecthre conitnandants, Captains M* Donald and 
Hazen. The artillery were placed occafionally, in front, in the 
intervals, or on the Hanks, as circumftance:- night require, com- 
manded by Major Godiv'n, and a (lifted by Major M'Keilar, our 
cjiief engineer. Thus did our little army advance, weak, in point 


298 The History of the War. 1760. 

He determined to engage; and he grounded his refolution 
011 the following reafons. 


of numbers, when compared with that of the French, but pow- 
erful in every other refpect ; and having an enemy to encounter, 
who, by frequent experience ancFlepeated trials, were unaccuf- 
tomed to ftand Jong. before us.- Our field-pieces were exceedingly 
well fetved, and did amazing execution; as foon as we came 
within the range of mufketry, the light infantry attacked the 
French grenadiers on the left of their army, and routed them : at 
the fame inttant the volunteers and rangers engaged their right, 
lepulfed them in like manner, and poffeifed themielves of a re- 
doubt occupied before by the enemy; the centre polls, feeing 
their right and left give way, fled without firing a fhot. Whilil 
we gained this fmall advantage over their van, the main body of 
their army advanced with great expedition, completely formed in 
columns, in fpite of the utmoil efforts exerted on our part to pre- 
vent them ; one of thefe columns came, without lofs of time, to 
fuftain their flying grenadiers, now purfued by our light infantry, 
who, being overpowered with great lofs, retired to the rear, and 
were of little Service afterwards; the enemy, profiting thereby, 
inftantly wheeled round fome rifing grounds, and charged our right 
wing vigorously in flank, while M. de Levi, with another divisi- 
on, made the like movement on our left, and then the action be- 
came obftinate on both fides. The General immediately ordered 
the thirty-fifth Irom the fecond line, to fupport our light wing ; 
and the third battalion of the Sixtieth the left, who acquitted 
themielves with great honour. Quebec being the grand object, 
ihe enemy feemed regardleis of our centre, hoping, if they could 
out-flank us, they would be able to get between us and our gar- 
lifon ; and this it was that attracted their greateft attention. They 
Sustained their right and left wings with frei"h reinforcements; and 
Fortune, who appeared for fome time undetermined on whom to 
confer her laurel, at length inclined to the more numerous army. 
The enemy poffeiTed themfelves of two redoubts upon our left, 
which gave them a great advantage ; but, by an excellent move- 
ment or the forty-third regiment, ordered by Colonel Ja?nes, from 
the centre, to fupport the third battalion of Americans on the 
Text, both thefe corps made a vigorous effort to recover thofe 
Works, and fucceeded ; they maintained them for fome time with 
admirable firmnefs, but, at length, being reduced to a handful, 
they were compelled to yield to fuperior numbers. In the courfe 
«f the action we were infenfibly drawn from our advantageous 
fituation into low fwampy ground, where our troops fought al-~ 


1760. The History of the War. zgg 

Firft, that his army, notwith {landing its inferiority, was 
in the habit of beating the enemy. That they had a fine 
train of field artillery; that to fhut themfelves up at once 


moft knee-deep in difTolving wreaths of fnow and water, whence 
it was utterly impracticable to draw off our artillery under thofe 
unhappy circumftances, after this infeebled army, had performed 
prodigies of valour, exceeding all defcriptionj having the whole 
force of the country to contend with, and our communication 
with the town in danger of being intercepted we were obliged 
to give up the conteft. The troops being ordered to fall back, 
a command they were hitherto unacquainted with, as if feniible of 
the critical pofture of our affairs, they drew a natural conclufi- 
on j and, growing impatient, fome of them cried out, Damn it 9 
<what is falling back but retreating? The inference was immedi- 
ately communicated to the whole, and accordingly put in execu- 
tion. This difcomfit was however fo regularly conducted, that 
the enemy did not purfue with that fpirit which the vaft import- 
ance of their victory required ; the truth was, they were very 
roughly handled ; and from their ioiTes, which fell moftly upon 
the flower of their army, they were heartily fick of it. The ac- 
tion was immenfely warm for near two hours, and we had eleven 
hundred, of all ranks, killed, wounded, and prifonersj the ene- 
my, by their own acknowledgment, loft confiderably above that 
number ; and I am induced to think, if the invalids of our gar- 
pifon had been able, or one thoufand frefh men only could have 
been brought up to fuftain us, we fhould not have quartered 
within the town this night, nor permitted our antagonifts to in- 
camp fo near us ; for they loft no time in intrenching themfelves, 
within nine hundred yards of our walls. The ftrength of our ar- 
my, in the morning, was three thoufand one hundred and forty ; 
and that of the enemy amounted to fifteen thoufand, as we have 
been informed by prifoners and deferters ; though by a ftate which 
I faw, and was copied from a return in the poiTeilion of M. 
Vaugeulin y the French Commodore, they made eighteen thoufand, 
viz. troupes de France^ five thoufand j de la coionie, three thou- 
fand ; milice> eight thoufand five hundred ; Acadians and fava- 
ges, thirteen hundred ; cannoniers, &c. two hundred *. 

* I cannot think but this return mull be exaggerated ; the copy 
I received from Capt. David Maitland, of the 43d regiment, who 
was made prifoner on the 28th, and, on the 29th, was, with others, 
fent on board the Commodore to be tranfmitted to Montreal. This 
Worthy officer is fince dead, and moft defervedly regretted by all 
his acquaintances. 


3oe> Tie History of tie War, 176a, 

w ; ..thirv the walls, was putting all upon the fingfe chance of 
holding out tor a confiderable time a wretched fortification; 
a chance which an a&ion in the field could hardly alter, at 


In the evening returns were called for of the effectives we had 
taken into the held, and thole who were killed and wounded, &c. 
1 he guards are reduced to one Captain, feven Subalterns, with 
the Like number of Serjeants, Corporals* and Drummers, and one 
hundred and fi/iy privates; thofe who mounted yefterday were 
not relieved until night-fall ; we annoy the enemy as much as 
ptfllibie with /hot and ihell, and our advanced blockhoufe has. 
great command of their works. Our weather, in the whole courfe 
of this unlucky day, has been exceedingly mild and pleafant. All 
the men, and officers off duty, are ordered to parade for fatigue 
at five o'clock to-morrow morning. Late this night the Governor 
xffued out the following orders : 


''The 28th of April has been unfortunate to the Britijb arms, 
u but affairs are not io deiperate as to be irretrievable j the Ge- 
cc neral often experienced the bravery of the troops he now com- 
** mands, and is very lenfibJe they will endeavour to regain what 
" they have loft j the fleet may be hourly expected, reinforcements 
"• are at hand ; and ihall we lofe, in one moment, the fruits of 
" fo much blood and treafure ? Both officers and men are exhorted 
44 patiently to undergo the fatigues they muff fuffer, and to e£~ 
M pole themfelves chearfuliy to lome dangers - y a duly they ow; 
** to their King, their Co urtry, and themselves." 


29th. The enemy's fleet have fallen down to the Fouhn by S£l- 
kry, and their boats are continually employed in landing their 
ft ores, artillery, and proviilons. The army have thrown up a line 
of couniervallation this night: their right extending to the Fan- 
Ion, and their left towards. St. Charles's river, beyond our chain 
of blockhoufes : by their attention to one particular fpot, oppo- 
site to St Lewis'* baftion, we fufpect they are erecting a battery, 
having provided a quantity of fafcines and gabions for that pur- 
pofe. We aie opening embrafures in the curtains for cannon, re- 
vetting the parapet wall with fafcine-work ; and our carpenters 
are employed in preparing and laying platforms for guns. The 
enemy have brought up a piece of ordnance to bear upon our 
'atge advanced blockhoufe, being much annoyed at their work by 
the fire of its artillery. 30th. 

E^SOo TJse History of the Was, - _goi 

the fame time that it gave an additional one, and perhaps a 
better; and in fine, that if the event was not profperous, he 
«tiight, after holding out to the lafr. extremity, retreat, with 


30th. Eniign Ma<w y of the forty-third regiment, with two non- 
commiflioned and twenty volunteers, tallied out laft night, hoping 
to get a prifoner for intelligence ; but unfortunately, his fight not 
being equal in goodnefs to his fpirit and ability, lie fell into the 
enemy's hands, and fix of his men were killed and woundeci. The 
French wee, forwarding their works with great diligence, notwith- 
standing the warm falutations they receive from our cannon and 
mortars; we ihall afhortly be able to open a continual line of Ere 
from Cape Diamond down to the hangman's redoubt. The ad- 
vanced blockhoufe hlew up this morning, by a rpark falling on 
ibme loofe powder, which communicated with their magazine.: 
the officers and men fufTered confiderably, but no lives, weTe loft. 
The troops fit for duty, by the returns made to the head quarters, 
amount to two thoufand and one hundred, and no more: they 
incamped this evening at the alarm-potts. Frequent flags of truce 
pais and repafe between us and the enemy, for neceffaries for our 
OTHcers who areprifoners; they are treated with great politenefs, 
and are to be fent to Montreal for their better accomnrodaiion. 
Immenfe irregularities are hourly committed by the foldieiy, in 
breaking open ftore and dwelling houfes to get. at liquor: this i; 
ieemingly the refult of panic and defpair, heightened by drunken- 
nefs; one man was hanged this evening in terrorem^ without any 
trial, which it is hoped will effectually prevent farther diforders, 
and influence the foldiers to a lively ienfe of their duty Fine 
weatheT, wind atS. E. but lcanty. Returns are called for of the 
names of fuch officers as were killed and wounded on the unio 
tunate twenty-eighth; and a repot t is ordered to be made by each 
regiment, to the Adjutant-General, of any eamahies that may 
happen in thecouTfeof the liege, among the cominillicned, nor> 
coramiUioned officers, and private men ; wherein the names of the 
former are to be ipecified. Eight captains gna.ds mounted this 
night, and the orderly hours are at nine in the morning, and im- 
mediately after guard-mounting in the evening. 

May t ft. The Rsuehsrfe nigate (ailed this morning with a fa'iT wind 
and pieafant weather, foi Lvtijbeurg and Halifax^ in order to batten 
up a fleet and fuccours to our relief. A lbkiier, who was made 
prifoner lait campaign, efcaped from Montreal^ and came into 
town this night j he fays that country is left almofl defolate, the 
whole force of Canada being engaged in this enterprise; and he 
has been informed,, that the enemy loft fome of their beft artille- 

302 The History of the War. 1760. 

what mould remain of the garrifon, to the ifle of Orleans or 
Coudres, and there wait for reinforcements. 


ry, with a great quantity of ammunition and other (lores, by the 
late ftorm ; which difperfed their fleet, oveifet fome of their flore- 
vefTels, and itaved others to pieces. (This is a moft remarkable 
inftance of the kind interpofition of Providence, in behalf of the 
troops of this garrifon and the Britijh arms in America.) It be- 
ing of the utmoit confequence at prefent, the governor injoins all 
officers to attend the men on every kind of fatigue, and keep 
them clofe to their work. Any officers who choofe to go volunteers 
M^on forties *, are defired to give in their names at the head quar- 
ters, and his Excellency promifes to recommend them' to his Ma- 
jefty ; any Serjeant who choofes to go volunteer upon the like fer- 
vice, aud can find twelve men, alio volunteers, will be well re- 
warded. In confequence of this intimation, two or three Ser- 
jeants only, and a few privates, did offer themfelves ; but not one 
commiffioned officer mewed any inclination to go out of his own 
proper turn : the fenfe of the gentlemen upon the publication of 
this order was, that, if the General mould think proper to com- 
mand a corps, a large detachment, or final 1 party, from any par- 
ticular regiment, to fally out, they were ready and willing chear- 
fully to execute his Excellency's orders, to the utmoft of their 
power, in their regular tour of duty. We maintain a brifk fire on 
the enemy's works, which are neverthelefs in great forwardnefs. 


" In order to eafe the troops as much as poflible, the General 
" is pleafed to order that only one half of the men off duty mail 
" work at a time, with the lame proportion of officers to overfee 
" and forward whatever may be neceifary for the honour of our 
" king and country, and to be relieved every fix hours ; the men 
li coming off work are not to quit until the relief comes. The 
" working parties to be difmiffed this day at half after one for 
" dinner ; and half of the men, with their proportion of officers, 
'* to parade at half paft two for work, and continue till relieved; 
*' the men's victuals to be always ready drelTed for them about the 
" time of relief, that they may get their proper reft; but thole 
" men, when off duty or fatigue, are never to ftray from camp; 
" any women who are detected giving liquor to foldiers, upon any 
" account, will be moft feverely punifhed. 

* A party that fallies out of a town fecretly, to annoy the be- 
flegers and retard their operations. 


1760. *fbe History of the War. 303 

It is not eafy to comprehend the prudence of engaging in 
the open field, an army four times fuperior ; efpecially when 
the weaker army had it in their power to keep upon the de- 



" The women are commanded to remain in the barracks, and 
" there to cook the men's victuals ; men muft work day and night ; 
" the commanding officer of each working party is to ftand half 
" an hour in relieving: a corporal to conduct the relief to the 
" place he works at, and is to deliver over to the relieving officer 
" the directions he receives from the Engineer ; the working-par- 
" ties to be relieved this night at ten o'clock. Captain Addijon 
" is appointed to act as Major to this garrifon." 

. 2d. We are exerting our molt ftrenuous efforts towards a vigor- 
ous defence both in the high and low town ; and our men are 
thoroughly recovered from their late irregularities and defpondent 
ftate of mind. If the enemy have, or do ftill entertain, thoughts 
of (forming the place, it feems now too late, and they have let 
flip a golden opportunity : had they followed their blow on the 
28th, 29th, or 30th, before the foldiers recollected themfelves, 
I am ftrongly inclined to think, notwithftanding the active zeal 
and fpirit of the governors and officers in general, Quebec would 
have reverted to its old mafters. We no longer harbour a thought 
of vifiting France or England, or of falling a facrifice to a merci- 
lefs fcalping knife. We are roufed from our lethargy ; we have 
recovered our good humour, our fentiments for glory ; and we 
feem, one and all, determined to defend our dearly purchafed gar- 
rifon to the laft extremity. Batteries are erecting to enfilade the 
road leading to the lower town j two noble cavaliers are begun 
upon the commanding rocky eminence between the citadel of 
Cape Diamond and Port St. Louis, which is a v/oik of labour, the 
earth being borrowed from other places ; and we are throwing up 
traverfes in different parts of the city. Fine weather to-day, the 
wind fluctuating between the S. W. and N. W. points, which is 
as perverfe as it can blow. We have opened more batteries, and 
maintain a heavy fire on the enemy's works ; the General and 
Lieutenant-governor vifit the guards and working parties frequent- 
ly, to encourage the men, and influence them to diligence and 
alertnefs. — All the troops off duty are ordered to be at their alarm- 
potts this day at one o'clock, and the convalefcents, at the fame 
hour, at the pods allotted for them, with their arms and accou- 
trements. In cafe of an alarm, the guard which firff. obferves 
the enemy approaching, is to beat to arms ; . and the Drummers of 
the other guards are to do the fame, that it may be communicated 


304 37* History of the War. 1760. 

fenfive in a ftrong pod ; and Quebec may well be confidered 
at lead as a ftrong retrenchment. It is as hard' to under- 


through the whole garrifon. Each regiment is immediately to 
fend an officer to Citadel-hill to receive orders for the regiment ; 
and all the fatigue-parties are inftantly to join their corps. The 
alarm-pofts afligned to the troops are as follow : the fifteenth re- 
giment, at St. Johns baftion j the twenty-eighth, at St. Louis's 
baftion: and the lower flank within the cafmate ; the thirty-fifth 
between Otvuay's grenadier guard and Palace-gate*, the forty- 
third, ftockades by the citadel next Cape Diamond ; the forty- 

feventh, Cape Diamond; the forty-eighth, lower baftion, 

and the lower flank of the upper cafmate; the fifty-eighth, the 
_ — baftion, and the loop-holes behind their own regiments 1 bar- 
racks ; the fecond battalion of Royal Americans, Urfuline bafti- 
on $ the third battalion of Royal Americans , ftockades about the 
citadel; the feventy-eighth, Citadel-hill ; the grenadiers of the 
ten regiments upon Citadel-hill, who are to feparate from their 
regiments, and incamp there to-morrow, under the command of 
Major Adclijon. The alarm-pofts of the convalescents are the fif- 
teenth, twenty-eighth, and fifty-eighth, between Palace-gate and 
Gtivafs grenadier guard; the thirty-fifth, and third battalion, 4 
between Otway's and the Bifhop's palace ; the forty-third, Vau- 
dreuiUhouje ; the fecond battalion, the nine gun-battery, and the 
itockade-work adjoining ; the feventy eighth, Barrier-hill guard, 
by the nine-gun battery, and the ftockade-work adjoining ; the 
forty-feventh and forty-eighth, the Bifhop's palace. The rangers 
are advanced every night between the town and the enemy's 
works, and return in the morning. 

3d. Some of my readers, efpecially thofe who are unacquainted 
with military affairs, may be riefirous to know the neceffity for 
the; troop:- ineamping within the walls of a town when beiieged ; 
for their information, therefore, I ihail only offer what naturally 
occurs to me upon this occafion; it is impoffible to have troops 
altogether fo alert in quarters as in tents ; for foldiers cannot take 
thofe indulgencies in camp which they may be too much induced 
to do in their barracks, where their bedding, &c. lie convenient 
for them. In the next place, by the extenfivenefs of the garrifon, 
men could not be {o ibon aiTembled upon any fudde'n emergency, 
as in a compact incampment, contiguous to their alarm-pofts, 
which will not admit of the lead confufion or delay in turning 
out for fervice ; ?.nd, moreover, (a confideration not unworthy of 
the greateft general, and deferved particular attention in our cir- 
earaftances) the troops are lefs accidents and danger in 


1760. The History of the War. 305 

ftand how the chance of holding out a fortrefs, fhould not 
be leflened after a defeat of the troops, which compofe the 


tents than in houfes of ftone, brick, or wood, as it is well known, 
that foldiers are fubjeft to a greater number of cafualties from 
fplinters than from ihot or fhell. Laftly, the practice is neither 
unprecedented nor uncommon, where there is vacant ground, and 
the town is extenfive enough to admit of incamping ; though 
there were fome among us who affected to be of a different opi- 
nion, and that has partly induced me to offer my fentiments, and 
to exprefs my approbation of this procedure. The fortified houie 
was accidentally fired to-day by a wad from one of our own guns, 
which, communicating, by the frefhnefs of the wind, with the 
ftockades and adjoining houfes, fwept away alraofl that whole 
quarter of the town ; luckily the Intendant's palace efcaped the 
fury of the flames, though all his out-offices, with one of our 
blockhoufes which flood oppofite to the jettee, the piquet-work 
contiguous thereto, together with fome of our boats and naval 
ftores, were deltroyed ; all the guards immediately turned out 
and beat to arms, the troops manned their alarm-pofts, and re- 
mained there for fome hours *. As it was apprehended the ene- 
my might feize this opportunity to ftorm the place, and the cen- 
tries feeing fome motions in their camp, our batteries played in- 
ceffantly upon them, obliging them to abandon their works, and 
retire from the range of our guns ; at length two boats came down . 
under a flag of truce, and the French, taking the advantage of, 
the cefTation, returned to their trenches, as did our troops, in 
like manner, to their refpective occupations. Fine weather, tho' 
cool for the feafon ; wind unfavourable for mips to work up. 

4th. A return of the grenadiers was called for to-day, fpeci- 
fying thofe only fit for duty. The women are not to be allowed 
to light fires in any of the barracks, or other buildings in their 
diftrids, as houfes will be allotted for them near to each regi- 
ment's incampment for wafhing and cooking. The working par- 
ties, for the future, are always to carry their arms, and each 
corps a bell-tent, wherein to lodge them j the grenadiers are to 
do duty with their regiments, but fatigue by themfelves. Com- 
manding officers of regiments are to take care that the chimnies 
of cooking-houfes and the quarters of their convalefcents are re- 

* I never faw men fo attentive to their duty, or more determin- 
ed to make a vigorous defence, than our foldiers were at the time 
of this conflagration, in cafe the enemy had thought proper to at* 
tack us; we had not the leaft noife or confufion among us. 

X gularly 

306 Tbe History of the War. 1760. 

garrifon, who muft neceflarily fuffer by fuch an event, both 
in numbers and in fpirit ; it is equally difficult to conceive 


guiarly fwept, as they fee the bad confequences that may arife 
from a neglect of it ; and, in cafe fire happens by fuch neglect, 
the perfons occupying fuch houfe are threatened with fevere pu- 
niihment. The Provott has received orders to hang all ftragglers 
and marauders; it is once more injoined, that neither officer nor 
foldier ftir out of camp, except when upon duty ; any man guilty 
of a breach of this order will be puniflied in an exemplary man- 
ner : it is again repeated, that half of the officers off duty do at- 
tend the working parties, and keep their men clofe to their bufi- 
nefs. The flag of truce, that came down yefterday by water, 
was, on account of the officers who are prifoners, to procure far- 
ther refreshments and neceflaries for them. Another was fent to- 
day from the general hofpital by the lower road ; the purport of 
it was to convey fome branches of the fpruce-tree into town, to 
make beverage for the governor's table : application was made for 
this favour before, and it was pofitively refufed, from a notion 
that it was wanted for the ufe of the garrifon ; as the fpruce was 
accompanied with many polite compliments, his Excellency fent 
M. de Le<vi a Cbejhire cheefe in return. The troops are indefati- 
gable in forwarding their work ; and our batteries fire vigoroufly 
on the enemy, who remain very quiet in their camp and trenches; 
this inclines us to think that no mealures will be taken on their 
part, until the arrival of a fleet. Wind (till perverfe, blowing 
frefh at W. N. W. 

5th. A French (loop, from Sillery, pafTed our batteries lail night 
undifcovered, until ihe was almoft out of reach of our artillery, and 
failed down the river. M. Bourlemacque was wounded in the 
thigh on the 28th ultimo. An unlucky accident happened at one 
of our batteries, by fome fparks of fire having reached one of the 
cherts of ammunition, which inftantly blew up, and, communi- 
cating with the mens' arms, difcharged fome of them, whereby 
three lbldiers received fhot wounds; a Lieutenant and feveral others 
of the forty-third regiment were moft feverely fcorched ; very 
fortunately the fire did not reach to another cheft adjoining, which 
lay alio open, and was full of loaded fhells, ready for embafTy ; 
had the flafli reached thefe infernal meflengers, we fhould proba- 
bly have had a large breach made in the rampart, and ioft many 
lives. We had a fmart froft laft night, and the air was extreme- 
ly cold ; the wind continues to blow down the river. The ene- 
my have got another frigate at the Foulon, and their approaches 
were advanced this night within (tvQn hundred yards of the Ur- 


i j6o. The History of the War. 307 

how the remains of that garrifon, which mould be driven 
from Quebec, could have fafely retreated to the iile of Or- 

fuline baftion, under cover of a fmall coppice oppofite to that 
quarter j they are drawing cannon to-day from their camp to the 
trenches, fo that we may foon expect to hear from them. We 
have mounted only five captains guards for fome days ; ten wo- 
men per regiment are ordered immediately to join the artillery ; 
they will be employed in fowing up fand-bags, and making wads 
from old junk for the guns ; their names are to be fent to the 
head quarters, as they will be paid for their labour. The guards 
are not to pay any compliments, during the fiege, except to the 
rounds ; and the officers commanding guards are ordered to be 
extremely punctual in having their men under arms every morn- 
ing, one hour at leaft before day-light ; and remain fo until it is 
thoroughly clear and light abroad. The Governor has made ma- 
ny promotions in the room of thofe that became vacant on the 
difaftrous 28th of April. The wind is variable this evening, 
which we hope will be productive of a Britijh gale. Such con- 
valefcents as are able are to repair to Port St. Louis every morning 
at feven o'clock, to make and fill fand-bags ; the reft are to re- 
main and make wads in their quarters. 

6th. We mail very foon have a mod formidable line of fire a- 
gainft the enemy of near one hundred and forty pieces of cannon : 
for this purpofe we are ftripping all our batteries next the river of 
their guns, planks, and platforms. The parapet wall, furround- 
ing the country fide of the town, is now ftrengthcned confidera- 
bly, being revetted with fafcines, and a quantity of earth ram- 
med down between the lining and mafonry work ; this has been 
executed with aftonifhing diligence and perfeverance, by day and 
night, from Cape Diamond to the Hangman's redoubt. We have 
likewife added to the miferable defences eaftward of Palace-gate, 
and round that quarter which overlooks the jettee and river St. 
Charles ; the enemy are alfo very diligent, yet perfectly quiet. 
Many fignals are made on both fides of the country downward, 
whence we conjecture there mult be a fleet in the river. Our 
rangers fallied out laft night, went up to the enemy's trenches 
unperceived, poured in a fmart volley, and returned immediately, 
without having a fingle fhot fired at them ; they are advanced 
every evening about half-way between the town and our chain of 
blockhoufes, where they remain on their arms until day-break. 
A foldier of the Royal Americans deferted laft night from one of 
thofe timber fortreiTes, which occasioned the counterfign's being 
changed. The General has received fome partridges, as a prefent, 

X 2 from 

308 The History of the War. 1760. 

leans or Coudrefs, or have remained in either of thofe places, 
with any tolerable fecurity, whilft the enemy were, as they 


from M. de Levi. Our weather is very favourable j wind un- 
fettied. The names of the officers who command the invalids 
of each corps are to be fent, every evening, to the head quar- 
ters ; they are ordered to continue all night with their men : thefe 
convalefcents are to be reviewed on their alarm-pods at fun-fet. 

7th. Twofoldiers, who deferted from this army laft campaign, 
returned to us early this morning : by them we are informed, that 
the enemy fay they will not fire a gun at us, until they open a 
battery of forty pieces of cannon together ; but where they will 
procure them, thefe men fay, they cannot conceive ; for, after 
having ftripped their ihips of their bed and heavieft metal, they 
did not fee above twenty-fix pieces, of different dimenfions, in 
their park. That they are in the greateft diftrefs for provifions, 
each man having only one quarter of a pound of frefh meat, and 
half a pound of bread, per day ; that a detachment of five thou- 
fand men are thrown into the trenches every night, each of whom . 
is ferved with a j ill of brandy, but the reft of their army do not 
receive any ; and that their favages, who amount to three hun- 
dred and fifty, are very clamorous for liquor. Thefe deferters add, 
that, on the 28th of April y we repulfed the French army at two 
different times with immenfe lofs, and that, if M. Bourlemacque, 
who is the life and fpirit of the troops, had been wounded earlier 
in the day, we fhould have gained a complete victory. The ene- 
my, fay they, compute their lofs in the action at eighteen hun- 
dred killed and wounded, and near five hundred fince that day by 
our fhot and fhells; but that they heard an Aid-Major, or Adju- 
tant, acquaint fome of their officers, that they had confiderably 
above two thoufand killed and difabled in the engagement. The 
deferters affure us moreover, that there is a fleet in the river, but 
whether Englijb or French is yet uncertain ; and that the foldier, 
who deferted from one of our blockhoufes on the 5 th inftant, was 
iliot to death by the French centinels, as he was creeping over 
their intrenchments, from a fufpicion that he belonged to zfortie, 
and was fent forward to reconnoitre their fituation. The enemy 
had fome refpite from our batteries to-day, our firing being lefs 
frequent than heretofore. Towards evening the wind changed to 
the S. S. E. and blew frefh. 

8th. The enemy remain very quiet, and we have maintained an 
inceffant fire upon their trenches all this night ; fome deferters, 
who came in to us this morning, fay, that it is incredible the 
execution made among them by our fhot and fhells ; that their 


1760. The History of the War. 309 

were, confefTedly matters of the river. Thefe are matters 
not fo eaflly comprehended by thofe who are at a diftance 


officers are lavifli in their encomiums on our gunners, and the ad- 
mirable fervice of our artillery : (Have they never experienced 
this before?) Fine weather to-day, and a Britijh wind blows at 
E. S. E. Our troops are in great fpirits, and work with the ut- 
moft diligence : we are drawing up heavy cannon to our new bat- 
teries from thofe next the river ; as thefe guns are dragged up a 
continual afcent, it renders this work immenfely laborious to our 
brave fellows, and the officers generoufly affift them as much as in 
their power, when they meet with any difficulty. Intelligence 
has been received from our officers at the general hofpital, that 
the enemy propofe to ftorm the town this night ; but our gallant 
foldiers actually fay, they had better defift> left they catch a tar- 
tar ; concluding their fentiments with the fpeech of an honeft 
Briton at the memorable battle of Agincourt: Damn them, if they 
do come, there is enough of them to fight > enough to be killed, 
and enough to run away. It is recommended to the officers to 
fend all their ufelefs linen to Dr. RuJJel, for the fervice of the 
hofpitals. The Doctor having reprefented, that there is a root 
growing in different parts of this garrifon, which cannot be diftin- 
guifhed from a parfnip, and is poifonous j the foldiers are ordered 
not to eat any roots they find any where : fome men fuffered to- 
day by thofe wild fpontaneous plants, and their recovery is doubt- 
ful. The officers are enjoined not to interfere with the gunners, 
except thofe who are appointed for that fervice. As there is no 
wine to be had at prefent even for money, the general has very 
feafonably ordered two gallons of brandy to be delivered out to 
every officer, which the quarter-mafters of regiments are oidered 
to receive immediately from the commifTary ; nothing can be more 
acceptable to us in our prefent fituation, except a fupply of fre/h 
provifions, thofe iffued from the (lores being fo inconceivably hard 
and fait, as to become difguftful. Great movements towards 
tvening in the enemy's camp. 

9th. M. de Levi has agreeably difappointed us ; we never cea- 
fed firing all this laft night: our line muft have appeared immenfe- 
ly tremendous to the enemy, and fuch as perhaps the mod expe- 
rienced among them never beheld before, for we have not a mor- 
tar or gun mounted that was not employed, and without the 
fmalleft intermiffion ; one half of the garrifon ftood to arms, at 
our alarm-pofts, from fun-fet in the evening until one o'clock this 
morning, when they were relieved by the other half, who conti- 
nued, until five, prepared to give the enemy a warm reception, if 

X 3 they 

3*o The History of the War. 1760. 

from the fcene of action ; there circumftances may have 
given thefe reafons their due weight ; and they had the 


they had been difpofed to ftrike their coup -, from which we are 
inclined to think they were deterred by the uncommon weight of 
our numerous artillery. The French floop, that whifked by the 
town on the 4th inftant, returned about midnight, and worked up 
to the Foulon : by this we flatter ourfelves that a fleet is at hand ; 
we hailed the floop without firing at her ; but fhe took no notice 
of us, and an officer, from the citadel of Cape Diamond, inqui- 
red, <why fbe did not flay heloixj to pilot up the French armada ? It 
blows freih to-day, with a delightful gale at eaft-iouth-eaft. 


About eleven o'clock this forenoon we had the inconceivable fa- 
tisfattion to behold the Leojioff frigate fail up into the bafon, and 
come to an anchor; for a little time we were in fufpenfe, and ail 
our perfpectives were employed in viewing her ; but we were foon 
Convinced of her being Britijh, though fome among us, who had 
found means to enrich themfelves by the American war, and were 
afraid of lofing their acquifitions, were cunningly wife ; they en- 
deavoured to allay the joy of the troops, thinking it too prema- 
ture; and ftrenuoufly infifted fhe was a French {hip: at length, 
Captain Deane, having faluted the garrifon with twenty-one guns, 
and put off in his barge to come afhore, difiipated all appre- 
henfions. The gladnefs of the troops is not to be expreffed: both 
officers and foldiers mounted the parapets in the face of the ene- 
my, and huzzaed, with their hats in the air, for almofr. an hour^ 
the garrifon, the enemy^s camp, the bay, and circumjacent coun- 
try for feveral miles, refounded with our fliouts and the thunder 
of our artillery ; for the gunners were fo elated, that they did 
nothing but fire and load for a confiderable tfme : in fhort, the 
general fatisfaction is not to be conceived, and to form a lively 
idea of it is impofTibie, except by a perfon who had fuffered the 
extremities of a fiege, and been deftined, with his brave friends 
and valiant countrymen, to the fcalping knives of a faithlefs con- 
queror and his barbarous allies. I believe I may venture to ad- 
vance, that the garrifon of Vienna, when clofely befieged, and 
hard preffed, above fourfcore years ago, by the Turks, were not 
more rejoiced on fight of the Chriftian army, under the famous 
Sobiejki, marching to their relief, than we of Quebec were upon 
the arrival of the Leojioff, with the agreeable intelligence of a 
Britijh fleet being matters of the river St. Lawrence, and nigh at 


1760. The History of the War. gu 

greater influence from the character of the general ; a man 
of the mod ardent and intrepid courage, paiftonjately deil- 


hand to fuftain us. Captain, Deane left England in March laft, 
with fome fhips of the line and other frigates, under the com- 
mand of Commodore S*wanton y from whom he parted at fea, and, 
not being able to rejoin them, ke kept his courfe, knowing his 
fhip to be a good failor, and made the bell of his way hither $ 
he fpoke with Lord Celvilfc's. fleet from Halifax, who were crui- 
fing off Newfoundland feven days ago ; and was told they re- 
ceived orders to rendezvous at the ifland of Bic. The London 
news-papers, fraught with the defeat of Confians, Thurot, and 
many other intetefting events, were fent to the French generals, 
early in the evening, by a flag of truce. We have not only the 
pleaiiire to be afcertained of the promotion of General Monckton 
to the command of the feventeenth regiment, and of General 
Townjbend to the twenty-eighth ; but likewife the fatisfaction of 
being allured, that General Murray fucceeds the former in the 
fecond battalion of Royal Americans, and is confirmed in his go- 
vernment of Quebec : we alfo learn, that the reduction of Mont- 
real, with the remainder of the colony, is the plan laid down for 
this fummer, and is to be profecuted by General Amherjl, in con- 
cert with the greater! part of this garrifon, and a reinforcement 
from Lwijbourg. A fculking party of the enemy came near the 
block-houfe, number two, laft night, in hopes of taking a pri- 
foner; but the ferjeant was not to be furprifed, for, as foon as 
they came within piftol-fhot, they were fired upon, and immedi- 
ately turned tail : this morning we found one Frenchman who had 
been killed ; and, as a quantity of blood lay on the ground as far 
as our men could venture to trace it, we conclude that feveral 
were wounded. The boats of the fquadron at Cillery have been 
in conftant motion fince the arrival of the Leojlojf, and two brigs 
have made their appearance there, which we never perceived be- 
fore. The parole of the day is Deane, and the counterfign is 
Sivanton. A ferjeant of one of our advanced guards reported to 
me this day, that he faw fix of the enemy carried off from a par- 
ticular place where they had been at work, being killed by a fin~ 
gle fhot from one of our guns. The governor acquainted the 
garrifon, in public orders, with the fuccefs of his Majeity's arms 
and the fuperiority of the Britifh fleets over thofe of the enemy 
in Europe ; afterwards his Excellency proceeds thus : * A ftrong 

* fquadron is at hand, and the general does not doubt but both 

* officers and men will exert their utmofl vigour and fpirit on the 

* prefent occafion, in order to put a final period to the war in this 

X 4 * part 

312 The History of the War. 1760. 

rousof glory, and emulous of the reputation Wolfe had ac- 
quired. He knew that a bold and fuccefsful ftroke, and 


f part of the world.' One hundred and fifty additional gunners 
from the regiments are fent to join the artillery, and are to remain 
with them until farther orders. One man per regiment, who has 
been ufed to the fea, is to be fent to the head quarters immedi- 
ately with all their neceflaries, arms, and ammunition ; thefe men 
are to be put on board a fchooner, which is to be difpatched down 
the river exprefs. The troops are defired to defift from work, and 
return to camp ; and the officers are deiired to infpect their arms 
and ammunition : they are to keep one half of their men always 
under arms on the ramparts and at their alarm-pofts ; the remain- 
der are to be ready to turn out, with their arms, in an inftant ; 
the fituation of affairs, and the circumftances of the enemy, now 
grown defperate, render it neceifary to take every precaution that 
human prudence and forefight can dictate, to prevent a furprize. 
Repeated aiTurances have been received that the French Generals 
are meditating a dernier effort for the recovery of this fortrefs ; 
but herein they have verified the old adage, Uocca/ton perdue ne 
fe retrowve pas toujours: For our forces, inftead of flackening or 
growing fupine at the profpecl of being foon relieved by a fleet, 
exert themfelves to the utmoft of their power, for the defence of 
the garrifon, and the honour of his Majefty^ arms. The con- 
valefcents are under orders to be ready to come to their alarm-pofts 
on the fhorteft notice, with their firelocks and accoutrements. It 
blows cold this night, with the wind at eaft. 

10th. The garrifon were under arms this night, as on the pre- 
ceding ) and we kept a conftant fire on the enemy's works. A 
fchooner failed this day to haften up the fleet, but was obliged 
to return with the evening's tide, having loft her rudder. The 
enemy unmafked their batteries to-day. Two of our guns burft 
on the line, whereby two men were killed, and the like number 
wounded. Captain Deane took a French letter of marque off 
Gafpce bay, laden with ftores and provisions, and fent her into 
Halifax : fhe mounted twenty-fix guns. All the troops, including 
the convalefcents, are to take watch this night, at their refpeclive 
alarm-pofts, as before. Fell fome rain this afternoon, which 
lulled the wind : in the evening came on thick hazy weather. 


1 ith. This morning the enemy opened their batteries • one was 
oppofed to Cape Diamond, a fecond againft the citadel, and the 


1760. The History of the War. 313 

well purfucd, might fo difable the enemy, who were in no 
likelihood of receiving fpeedy or confiderable fuccours from 


third the Urfuline baftion ; their mot are twenty-four, eighteen, 
and twelve -pounders. They likewife bombarded us with three 
nine-inch mortars, and we returned this falute with great vigour; 
a few of our men were wounded by their ihot, but their fhells 
have not as yet done any execution *. We have moft agreeable 
weather to-day, and the wind favourable for the fleet. 

The troops have compleated all our works ; and, including 
flank-fires, we have got near an hundred and fifty pieces of can- 
non on the ramparts, between Cape Diamond and the Hangman's 
redoubt. We now take it alternately to ftand to our arms, both 
day and night, at our alarm-potts, one half relieving the other. A 
floop failed this morning in quell: of the fleet. One of our guns 
burft on the line, without any difafter happening. The garrifon 
have received the fame orders, with refpect to their remaining 
alert, as before ; with this difference, that, as the General will 
have no man expofed to the enemy's fire but when neceffity re- 
quires it, he directs, that, inftead of being drawn up on the 
ramparts, they are to keep under cover below, leaving a funicient 
number of centinels to give them intelligence of the enemy's ap- 
proach ; the regiments are then inftantly, as well the refting men 
as the others, to be difpofed of upon the ramparts, according to 
the former directions they have received on this head : every fol- 
dier, not on duty, is commanded to have his arms and ammunition 
clofe by him in his tent ; but they are not to load until called up- 
on to man their alarm-pofts. Briik firing between us and the 
enemy this evening ; by their fhells flying over the town, they 
feem to be intended againft the Leofloff riding at anchor in the 
channel off Cape Diamond : they have nearly got her direction. 
Wind variable towards evening. 

1 ith and 12th. A return of the killed and wounded of each 
corps is to be given in every evening at orderly time, fpecifying 
only the cafualties of the preceding twenty-four hours. It is ex- 
pected that every convalefcent will make one hundred wads per 

* As four Officers of the forty-third regiment were fitting on 
the ground in a foldier's tent, eating a dim. of peafe-porridge, a 
iliell pitched within a yard of the door of the tent, and they had 
barely time to ftretch themfelvs at their length, when the /hell 
burft ♦ but, by being extended flat on the ground, they happily 
received no other damage than lofing their mefs, which was over- 
fet in the buftle. 

day ^ 

*J4 The History of the War. 1760. 

France, that the way to conqueft would lie plain and open 
before him ; and he might expect the honour of the total 


day ', the Officers appointed to command them are to report, in 
writing, in the evening, the number of men who worked, and the 
number of wads made that day : thefe Officers are enjoined to 
continue with their men, and fee that they do their utmoft ; every 
foldier muftaiiift, as far as he is able. Some cohorns are prepar- 
ing to play into the Boyaux*, which the enemy are advancing 
upon their left. All the guns bearing on the enemy r s batteries are 
ordered to be chalked, that they may be diftinguifhed from the 
ieft ; and the gunners are defired to regulate their fire by that of 
the French^ taking care that the guns are well pointed, and ram- 
med home ; which will prevent the like accidents that have al- 
ready happened by the burfting of cannon. A French fhot will 
not fit Britijh gims ; the^governor recommends it to the artillery 
officers to be very attentive to that particular, and to fire flow and 
fure. The additional gunners' arms are to be infpected, that we 
may be certain they are in good order ; and care muft be taken to 
lay them and their ammunition in fuch places on the ramparts, 
where they will be fecured from wet or other accidents. We are 
throwing up a ravelin on the outfide of Port St. Louis ; one 
Captain, four Subalterns, four Serjeants, and two hundred rank 
and file, are employed on this fervice, from nine at night until 
break of day. We have had fierce cannonading and bombarding, 
between the town and the enemy, for thefe lait thirty-fix hours ; 
but with little lofs on our fide, except a few men being wounded ; 
and we perceive this evening, that we have difmounted fome of 
their guns, though they are (till extremely lavifh of their fhells* 
The troops have continued under arms both day and night, one 
half relieving the other, as before; and the foldiers, feeing there 
ss a neceffity for our being thus harafTed, are amazingly alert, 
and take pleafure in doing their duty. On the night of the i ith 
we were alarmed, and the whole garrifon flood to their arms un*- 
tfl morning ; this was occafioned by the enemy's fending down a 
brig for intelligence, and the Leoftoff's firing at her, as fhe pafTed. 
During this time the French, who before had been quiet for fome 
hours, renewed their thunder, but the fuperiority of ours foon 
put them to filence. Cold, cloudy weather, with a brifk eafterly 

13th. We did not moleft our neighbours much laft night, but 
we have renewed our fire this morning, and continue it with ouf 

* Works or branches advanced from a trench in fortification. 


1760, The History of the War. 315 

redu&ion of Canada, before the arrival of the reft of the 
king's forces to his aiMance. 


ufual vigour ; they amufed us, about midnight, with two rockets, 
one from their fleet, and the other from Point Le vi ; which obliged 
us to beat to arms, man our defences, and remain there until it 
was clear day-light : as thefe are the cuftomary fignals for military 
achievements, we expected, every moment, to fee the enemy's 
columns advanced to the charge ; the troops were well prepared, 
and the foldiers orderly and in good fpirits: about five o'clock 
half of the garrifon returned to their tents. We are now dis- 
tributing our powder and provifions in different places for fafety, 
the enemy having directed their fhells at our magazines, and par- 
ticularly at the 'Jefuits college, knowing the ufe we have con- 
verted it to. The Porcupine (loop of war is thoroughly repaired, 
and has taken her guns on board. The French fire very brifkly 
this afternoon, which we return ten fold : a notion prevails among 
t us, that they have burft one of their mortars. Fine weather, 
wind eafterly until the evening, when it became variable, and 
died away ; (the fafety of this garrifon depending on the anival 
of a Britijh fleet induces me to be thus particular with refpect to 
the winds.) ♦ 

14th. The enemy were perfectly quiet all laft night; this 
morning they gave us a few fliot, and at noon fome fhells, but we 
foon (ilenced them ; and, to prevent any accident happening by 
their fire, we have difperfed all our provifions and ammunition 
into various ftores. The ravelin, on the outfide of Port St. 
Louis, is nearly finillied ; the carpenters and fafcine-layers are 
ordered to encamp on the right of St. John's gate, to be the more 
readily at hand for any fervice required. That our men may be 
as little expofed as poflible to the enemy's fire, they are ordered, 
in palling to or from camp to the battel ies, to go along St. Louis- 
ftreet, and under cover of the ramparts. Moderate weather this 
day, with a dropping rain and wind wefterly: at noon it was 
variable, but in the evening it fprang up eafterly, and blew a 
fleady gale. 

The troops on the watch, both day and night, as before. The 
enemy have been very fparing of their ammunition thefe laft 
twenty-four hours, in which time we have had only two fhells 
from them : we feem to regulate our fire by theirs, being at pre- 
fent equally quiet. The new works, on the outfide of Port St. 
Louis, are completed, all the men oft duty having been employed 
thereat fince four o'clock ; an Officer's guard is polled in the 


£)6 The History of the War. 1760. 

Thus depending on fortune, on the tried goodnefs of his 
troops, and his own courage to animate them, he marched 


ravelin, and, as the greateft vigilance and alertnefs is expected 
from ihem, they are to be excufed fatigue during the day. 


At night-fall came to an anchor in the bafon, to the unfpeakabie 
joy of this haraiTed garrifon, the Van-guard fhip of war, Com- 
modore Swanlon, with the Diana frigate, Captain Schotnherg> 
and the armed fchooner, which was fent down the river on the 
23d ultimo ; our gunners immediately gave the enemy a general 
difcharge of all our artillery, three times repeated, without any 
return j and Captain Deane repaired inftantly on board the Com- 
modore to acquaint him with our fituation, and to concert mea- 
fures for our relief. 

16th. We had an Officer and twelve men advanced laft night,' 
under cover of a riling ground, beyond the blockhoufe No. two ; 
fifty French grenadiers, with a Captain and two Officers, crept 
upon them unperceived, and gave them a brifk fire ; which our 
little party fpiritedly returned, and then fell back to the block- 
houfe, left they mould be furrounded : our Officer loft three men,' 
two of whom were fcalped, and otherwife barbaroufly butchered ; 
the third was wounded, and made prifoner, as we fuppofe. This 
affair caufed an alarm throughout the garrifon ; our drums beat to 
arms, and the troops flood upon their defence until it was clear 
day-light. This aft of cruelty, perpetrated by men, who are the 
fiower and boafl of the French armies, (les grenadiers de France) 
and under the eyes of their Officers, obliges me to digrefs a little 
in this place : — that the natural troops of France, namely the re- 
gulars, did give quarter, on the 28th of April, to feveral of our 
Officers, I confefs -, but that they did refufe protection to others, 
is equally certain. Four of my particular acquaintance, one of 
whom was flightly wounded, were among the prifoners, and, be- 
ing conduced to fome Officers of the regiment de la Sarre, their 
uniforms faced with fcarlet, they, one and all, waved their hands, 
and cried aloud, — Allez <vous en, — Allez <vous en ; but, the fel- 
lows having already got fom& booty from their captives, and be- 
ing promifed more, if they would efcort them to the general hof- 
pital, they accordingly took them there, and delivered them up 
fafe ; for which they were better rewarded than they knew they 
could expect to have been, in the prefent fituation of affairs, for 
their fcalps. It is no lefs true, that, when our army began to 


1760. "the History of the War. 317 

out of the city, and defcended from the heights #f Abra- 
ham with the army mentioned above, and twenty field pie- 

r ; 

give way, feveral Officers, who, by flight wounds, were rendered 
incapable of retreating with the reft, were never more heard of ; 
though, as I obferved before, others were more humanely treated, 
for which they may thank their own money, the avarice of their 
captors, and the (inking ftate of the French finances, now no lon- 
ger able to reward fcalping, as heretofore ; moreover, it has w been 
always the practice of the French to preferve fome prifoners, to 
fave their own credit, and keep up an appearance of generofity 
and chriftianity. — As a farther proof of this charge, I have to 
add, that, of the immenfe number of wounded men, who were 
unavoidably left on the field of battle, twenty-eight only were 
fent to the hofpital, the reft being given up as victims to glut the- 
rage of their lavage allies, and to prevent their forfaking them. 
But to return to the occurrences of the memorable 16th of May : 
A ranging Officer and twelve men, being advanced, laft night, 
clofe by the river St. Charles^ not far from the general hofpitai, 
furprifed a courier, who fwam acrofs that river with his horfe, and 
was returning with difpatches for M. de Levi from thelower coun- 
try, where he was detached for intelligence; by him we learn, that 
there are fonie draggling mips in the river, and that he faw a fleet 
enter the gulph, which we fuppofe to be Lord Colville's. The 
wind continues eafterly. 

FRENCH FLEET above QUEBEC taken and deftroyed. 

Early this morning the Vanguard and frigates worked up with 
the tide of flood, and attacked the French fquadron ; at firft M. 
Vaugeulin mewed an appearance of engaging, but foon made off; 
our mips forced the Pomona aihore, and burned her ; then pur- 
fued the others ; drove the Atalanta alfo afhore near Point au 
Tremble, and fet her on fire ; took and deftroyed all the Teft, ex- 
cept la Marie, a fmall (loop of war, who, to avoid being taken, 
threw her guns over-board, and efcaped to St. Peter s lake, above 
the Three Rivers ; after the Commodore, eminent for his valour, 
great abilities in naval affair s, faithful fer vices, and long ex- 
perience, had performed this morning's notable bufinefs, he fell 
down to the channel off SUhry, laid his broadfide to the right 
flank of the enemy's trenches, and infiladed them for feveral 
hours fo warmly, that, between his fire and that of the garriibn, 
they were entirely driven from their works. M. de Levi fent two 
field-pieces to play upon the Vanguard, but without any effeel ; 


3 1 8 The History of the War. 1760. 

ces. The right and left of the enemy's van pofTefTed them- 
felves of fome fmall woody eminences; the main army 


for, by the (hip's fheering in the current, fhe brought fome of her 
guns to bear upon thofe of the enemy, and obliged them to re- 
tire. Friday afternoon. We have the pleafure to fee feveral large 
bodies of Canadians filing off towards Charlebourg and Beauport> 
and others down the fouth country, that have found means to get 
acrofs the river ; hence we flatter ourfelves, that M. de Levi is 
going to raife the fiege. Some deferters, who are jufl arrived, 
confirm us in our conjecture, by afTuring us, that the militia are 
ordered to return to their refpective pariihes, and the regular and 
colony troops to march back to Jacques Cartier ; they add, that 
our artillery has done amazing execution in the enemy's camp ; 
that the regiment de Guienne loft five hundred men in the late en- 
gagement, and near three hundred, fince that day, by our fhot 
and fhells -, this corps confifled of two battalions. 


Other deferters are coming in to us, who inform us, that the 
enemy have abandoned their camp and works, except the grena- 
diers and picquets, who are intrenched up to their necks, to cover 
the retreat of the army. In confequence of this intelligence, the 
Governor has fent an order to the batteries to fire a ricochet *, 
hoping our fhot may overtake them in their flight, and fcour the 
circumjacent country to a great extent ■, after the gunners had 
prepared to execute thefe directions, I believe I may venture to 
advance, that there never was fuch tremendous firing heard (even 
at Bergen op Zoom, when it was befieged, or elfewhere) as our 
artillery difplayed this evening for near two hours. The light in- 
fantry are ordered to be immediately completed to five hundred 

* By elevating their guns, at leaft, ten degrees above the level, 
that the fhot may bound and roll after they itrike. Mortars and 
howitzers are likewife frequently ferved in this manner with great 
fuccefs, their fhells doing the execution of fhot and fhell. The 
furprifmg effect our artillery had upon this fortrefs, when we can- 
nonaded and bombarded it acrofs the river, is to be imputed to 
this method of firing ; and fhot will extend conflderably farther 
than when -difcharged point blank. It is a very advantageous in- 
vention, and is afcribed to the celebrated Mar dial de Vauban ; 
for guns are loaded with a fmaller quantity of powder than ufual, 
and are confequently lefs damaged 


1760* The History of the War. %ig 

marched by the road of St. Foix ; and formed themfelves 
under the melter of the woods. Whilfl the body of the 


rank and file, and they, with the grenadiers, are enjoined to hold 
themfelves in readinefs to march at a moment's warning. This 
favourable profpect makes no alteration in the ufual fatigues and 
duty of the garrifon. Half the troops are to take the watch this 
night, and the remainder are likewife under orders of readinefs to 
march at the ihorteft notice. When Commodore SwantoK got 
off Gafpee, in his pafTage hither, he looked into that hay, and 
there difcovered the French ftore-fhip, which had been obliged to 
put in -there laft November, where me has fince remained : the 
greateft part of her crew were Spaniards and Italians, with about 
fourfcore French regular foldiers, and twenty failors of the fame 
nation ; this mip, which is frigate-built, was unrigged, and haul- 
ed up into a creek for the winter ; flie is between four and five 
hundred tons burden, was formerly Britifb, called the King George, 
but now the T<wo Brothers, and commanded by M. de Bufte $ ihe 
came from Bourdeaux , was pierced for twenty-fix, but mounts 
only twenty-two guns, nine pounders : her cargo, befides the fol^- 
diers, confifts of twenty-four guns and carriages of twenty-four 
pounders, three hundred barrels of powder, a quantity of pro- 
visions, wine and brandy, a large parcel of blankets, fmall arms, 
lead and cannon* mot, with two iron mortars and beds, a great 
number of fhells, and a variety of other ftores ; this valuable 
prize is now in charge with the Eurus floop of war, and is ex- 
pected up to-day. She was the chief of M. de Levi's hopes, as 
they had intelligence of her being at Gafpee foon after me arrived 
there ; but, fortunately for us, the winter then fetting in, it was 
not poflible for her to profecute her voyage * the greateft part of 
her crew deferred her at Gafpee, and wandered through the woods 
until they reached fort Cumberland in Nova Scotia, where they 
made loud complaints of the ill ufage they received, and declared, 
if it had not been for the regular foldiers, they would have cut 
off the Frenchmen, and bore away for Halifax. 

17th. The enemy difcharged a volley of mufketry from their 
intrenchments towards the garrifon, which, as we fuppofed, was 
prendre leur derniere conge ; for a Lieutenant *, with a fmall re- 
connoitring party, being lent out, found the trenches abandoned, 
marched into them, and immediately tranfmitted notice thereof to 
the governor ; whereupon the light infantry and grenadiers in- 

* Lieutenant M'Alpin, of the Royal Americans, a briik, active 


320 The History of the War. 1760, 

enemies army was yet unformed, the Englifh troops attack- 
ed their van, both on the right and left, with the utmoil; 


ftantly puflied out, and early this morning his excellency followed 
with a detachment from the ten regiments, and the whole pro- 
ceeded to Lorette ; eagerly hoping to come up with the cream of 
the French army, and pay them off for all our fufferings fince the 
27th ultimo. Unfortunately they had croffed the river Cape Rouge > 
before we reached Lorette : fome ftragglers however fell into our 
hands, and we had nearly furprifed a body of Indians in the ham- 
let of St. Foy y who, upon light of our van, threw down their arms 
and packs, fet up a hideous fhout, difperfed themfelves, and got 
inftantaneoufly clear of us. All the lick and wounded of the ene- 
my, among whom were many Officers, who had been diftributed 
among the neighbouring houfes and parifhes, were made prifoners: 
and the General, perceiving it to no purpofe to continue the pur- 
fuit any farther, refrefhed his troops, and marched back to his 
garrifon, where he found a polite billet from M. de Levi, recom- 
mending the prifoners and the wounded in the general hofpital to 
his excellency's care, and affuring him he was fo tender of the 
people who had taken the oath to his Britannic majefty, that he 
did not infift on their taking up arms, though he had compelled 
them to work for his army, which, he laid, he had a right to do, 
in this or any other country, by the rules of war. Our lofs, 
during the liege, by every accident, men and Officers included, 
did not exceed thirty, killed and wounded ; and, now that our 
affairs have re-affumed their former fuccefsful complexion, to take 
a retrofpective view of the different works performed here within 
thefe twenty days by a handful of men, who have been con- 
tinually haraffed wuh labour and watching, both day and night, 
is indeed ftupendous, beyond conception : however they at length 
find themfelves well recompenfed for all their toils, and are fo 
happy, and infuch high fpirits, that it is impoiiible, even at this 
time, to exprefs their ardent defire for new enterprizes, to which 
they are encouraged by their confidence in our two governors, the 
greater! dependence on the Officers their fellow-labourers, and 
their own fhength, far furpaffing, till now, their moft fanguine 
ideas. The enemy certainly abandoned their camp, and retired 
in the moft precipitate manner, leaving their tents, cannon, mor- 
tars, petards *, fcaling-ladders, and intrenching-tools almoft in- 

*"An engine filled with combuftibles, and fixed by fcrews with 
a poi -t-fufe, to the gate of a town, with a view, by its burfting, 


t^So. The History of the WafL gzt 

irnpetuofity, and drove them from the eminences, thottgh 
they were well maintained; the advanced pofts of the French 


numerable, fire-arms in great abundance* ammunition, baggage, 
and feme provifions behind them; we are at a lofs to what caufe 
to impute this fhameful flight of an army fo fuperior in numbers* 
fo well provided beyond what we could have expected, and, in 
fhort, with fo many other advantages over us, except to a fuf- 
picion, as we furmifed, and were afterwards confirmed in by the 
prifoners and deferters, of our frigates landing fome frefh troops 
above to charge them in the rear, while the garrifon fhoUld fally 
out, and thereby take them between two fires ; this wife con- 
jecture ftruck them with fuch a panic, that they inftantly forfook 
every other confideration, except their fafety, by a hafty and 
inglorious retreat. The lofs of the enemy, from the 27th of 
April, inclufive, has fallen moftly on their regular and colony 
troops, having one hundred and fifty-two Officers killed and 
wounded ; of the latter twenty-two are fince dead. The Indians 
committed great diforders in their camp by getting drunk, plun- 
dering the Officers' baggage, and cutting up tents : to this end 
they fell upon a fmall guard of grenadiers, who had the charge of 
the Officers' effects, and fcalped every man, except one, who made 
his efcape. All the deferters agree, that our artillery did im- 
menfe execution in their trenches, which is partly evident from 
the handles of the wheel-barrows, and other tools, being tinged 
with the blood of their late mailers ; at the time that our fhips 
worked up to attack their fquadron, they were fo prepoffeffed 
with our making a ftvongfortie to penetrate into their camp, that 
they prepared a large column of felect men to oppofe us : and, 
while this body were forming, a fhot from the garrifon took them 
in flank, killed fifteen on the fpot, and difabled feveral others 
The regiments are ordered to have their barracks cleaned out as 
foon as poffible, that they may break up camp. The guards are 
directed to pay our deliverer, Commodore Sivanton, the compli- 
ments of a Brigadier-General ; and the centries are reminded to 
reft to the Captains of his majefty's fhips. The commanding Of- 
ficers of regiments are delired to make their men give in to their 
Quarter-Mafters the tents cut up and taken from the enemy's 
camp this day, in order to be given to Doctor Rujfel, to make 
lint for their brother-foldiers who are wounded. All the dead, 

to make a breach or opening ; which it feldom fails to do, if pro- 
. perly executed ; it was partly to prevent an attempt of this kind 
that the governor erected a ravelin to cover Port St. Louis. 

Y for 

322 The History of the War. 1760* 

centre gave way, without a blow, 2nd fell back upon their 
main army. 


for the future, are to be interred in the burying-ground of the 
feminary. Detachments are ordered to level the enemy's intrench- 
ments, and huts, which they had erected for ftorehoufes. 

1 8th. The troops decamped this day, and returned to their 
quarters. Lord Colviiie's fleet are at length arrived in the bay, 
and were faluted by the garrifon. In the evening four Officers 
and one hundred light infantry were ordered out to fcourthe coun- 
try. The French Officers and others at the general hofpital affirm, 
that M. de Levi did not intend to fight us, upon his marching 
down with his army into our precincts, except he fhould be at- 
tacked ; and much lefs had he any thoughts of opening a battery 
againft the town; his plan being only to inveft the place, and 
have every thing in readinefs, in cafe a French fleet fhould poflefs 
the river St. Lawrence before a Britijh, or that the Tivo Brothers 
ftorefhip, from Gafpee, on which was his principal dependence, 
had arrived time enough to enable him to befiege us in form: but 
the Canadians, elated with the fuccefs of their victory, befought 
their General, in the moft earneft manner, * to proceed with the 
4 artillery and ammunition in his pofTeflion, alluring him, if he 

* would make a breach or opening in any part of our works, 

* they would force their way in, without requiring the lead af- 

* fiftance from the regular troops.' An extraordinary guard is 
mounted at the F-ouhn, to take charge of the artillery and ftores 
found in the enemy's camp, until they can be removed. 

19th. The Leojloff and Diana not being yet returned, the Hun' 
te,r floop worked up this morning in queft of them ; and, in fome 
hours after, the Diana and Hunter returned to the fleet before 
the town, but the other unfortunately ran upon fome unknown 
rocks, and inftantaneoufly went to the bottom : luckily the Offi- 
cers and men were preferved, and taken on board the other frigate ; 
this difafter however happened in an excellent caufe, for it was 
not until after they had completely deftroyed the enemy's fquadron, 
being fix in number. The la Marie was laden with wounded 
Officers and foldiers, therefore went off" early in the day ; and, 
the navigation of St. Peter's lake being veTy fhallow, ihe thought 
proper to lighten, by heaving her guns over-board, as has been 
already related, to prevent her falling into our hands, or fharing 
the fate of her colleagues. We have now in the bafon fix fliip3 
of the line, with feven frigates and floops of war : a moft grateful 
proipeft to the remains of our fhattered army, and the Britijh 
traders, who wintered here with us. It is amazing to fee the ef- 

1760. the History of%the War. 323 

Hitherto the fortune of the field was favourable to the 
Englifh ; but now the advantages they had obtained brought 


feet of our artillery in the environs of the late French camp and 
circumjacent country, for the extent of almoft two miles ; the 
ground being ploughed up by our richochet firing. The enemy 
did not bury our dead, but fufFered rhem to be fcalped and 
mangled in an unheard of manner, drew them away clear of their 
camp, and left them for ravenous birds and beafts to prey upon. 
The detachment of light infantry returned to-day; they found 
the enemy in the neighbourhood of Cape Rouge, where they have 
eftablifhed a new polt : as our people received orders not to mo- 
left them, except they were attacked, they contented themfelves 
with bringing off a number of cattle from their precincts. One 
half of the men off duty are ordered immediately for fatigue $ 
they are to be employed in replacing the ftores and provisions that 
had been difperfed for fafety, in different places, during the liege. 
One Major, five Captains, ten Subalterns, thirty non-commiflion- 
ed Officers, ten Drummers, and five hundred privates, are ordered 
to paiade to-morrow morning, at four o'clock, with arms and 
ammunition complete.-—' General Murray returns his hearty 
thanks to both Officers and men, for the great Zealand diligence 
they have fhewn during the fiege, by which the moll fanguine 
expectations of the enemy have been effectually defeated ; he 
will not fail, by the firft and earlieft opportunity, to report the 
fame to his majefty : he cannot doubt but this little army has an 
entire confidence in thofe that command them, and will chear- 
fully afllft in accomplilliing the conqueft of a country now at 
its laft gafp. — Thofe Officers and foldiers who lent money to the 
Government, in the beginning of the winter, are defired to ap- 
ply to the Secretary, who will pay them the principal and in- 

20th. Ships are working up, by every tide, with ftores, liquor, 
and provifions of all kinds j the Captains' guards are now reduced 
to two only. In the late naval engagement between our frigates 
and thofe of the enemy, which, from firft to laft, continued one 
hour and two thirds, we had two feamen killed and feveral 
wounded ; M. Vaugeulin, and his men, are prifoners ; moft of 
the other crews went afliore and efcaped ; before the French 
fhips were burned, Captain Deane humanely fent a flag of truce 
to the enemy, to acquaint them with his intentions ; and therefore 
defired they might take their wounded men out of them, which 
was complied with. 

Y % The 

324 The History of the War. 1760. 

them full on the main army of the French, which formed 
in columns, and advanced with great rapidity to fupport 


The Major's detachment, of five hundred men, attempted to 
crofs Charles's river this morning, but, the waters being too high, 
they were obliged to defift, and return to the garrifon ; their defti- 
nation is to fearch the neighbouring hamlets for fire-arms, and to 
compel the inhabitants to come and level the enemy's intrench- 
ments. There is a man here who is a Britijh fubject, and, when 
a boy, was made prifoner by the Indians on the back fettlements 
of New-England, was afterwards fold to the French, and has 
lived here for many years ; but, (till retaining his natural affection 
for his own people, upon the' furrender of Quebec, lail year, he 
fubmitted to the Governor, and made him an offer of his fervice ; 
his name is Davis, and, by his converfing fluently in the French 
tongue, has rendered himfelf ufeful to his excellency in the capaci- 
ties of dorneftic and purveyor, during the courfe of this winter. 
After the 28th of April, this man, being fent down the river in a 
canoe, in fearch of a fleet, was taken by one of the veflels de- 
tached by the enemy at the time of the blockade ; from thence 
he was put afhore, and tranfmitted to the French camp, either 
on fufpicion of his being a fpy, or in hopes, from the good ufage 
he had always met with in Canada, he would render them fome 
notable fervice : at firft they gave him kind and foothing treatment, 
but, feeing it was ineffectual, they threatened to hang him, if he 
would not be communicative, and give them intelligence of our 
real numbers, operations, &c. &c. Davis, however, being 
thoroughly attached to the Britijh intereft, remained impenetrably 
feeret, pleading ignorance of the military, and of all our trans- 
actions ; at length the fiege being raifed, he was left at liberty and 
came back to us. By him we learn, that the enemy buried twelve 
hundred men the day after the action -, that their whole lofs was 
nineteen hundred, among whom one hundred and fixty Omcers 
were killed and wounded ; and, of the latter, twenty-eight are 
fince dead : that, in their camp and trenches, they had near a 
thoufand killed and difabled by our artillery ; and that, in the 
courfe of the liege, the enemy had refolved on two particular 
nights to ftorm the garrifon, for which purpofe every neceflary 
preparation was made, and would have been executed, had it not 
been for the inceffant and formidable fire we maintained on both 
thefe critical nights, which rendered it impoflible for men to 
fland before it ; they alfo had fcoutsto reconnoitre us in the night- 
time,, and finding we were not to be furprifed, they refigned their 
project. Davis farther adds, that every man of the conquered 


1760. The History of the War. 325 

their broken vanguard. The fire became very hot, and flop- 
ped the progrefs of our troops ; whilfl thofe of the enemy 


country, fit to bear arms, joined M. de Levi after the engage- 
ment, except the citizens of Quebec. This day I procured the 
reading of a manufcript fragment found in the enemy's camp 5 
it was part of the journal of a French Officer, wrote in an epifto- 
lary manner, as if intended to be tranfmitted to Europe ; the 
author therein ' exprefled great aftonifhment at feeing us march 

* out of our garrifon on the morning of the 28th of April-, and 
' much greater at our temerity in advancing to give them battle ; 

* for that it was not their intention to fight or diilurb us, but only 
'.to cut off our communication with the country by a line of in- 

* trenchment, and wait the arrival of a fleet, which would deter- 

* mine their and our fate together with that of Canada-, that, if 

* we had kept our high advantageous ground with our artillery, 

* on the day of action, inftead of marching down into a morafs 
' of fnow and water, it is probable we might have carried the 
4 day, and obliged them to defert their enterprife.' This felf-fuf- 
ficient journalilt adds, * that the Britijh behaved well, until they 

* advanced upon us with their bayonets, which, according to 
' Cuftom, threw us into confullon, and compelled us to give up 

* the conteft.' — I ihall only obferve, in anfwer to this affertion 
from the pen of an enemy, that the armaments of that nation, 
both by fea and land, have always preferred engaging at an im- 
moderate distance, and that, confcious of their being remarkable 
for their backwardnefs to clofe fighting, they are ever ready to 
reflect on their enemies in this particular, hoping, by fuch a re- 
crimination, to extol themfelves and flrike terror into our forces to 
fucceeding generations ; moreover, there are fo many recent inftan- 
ces, as well as antient records, of the prowefs of the Britijb 
troops, and the modefty of the French* in fighting or pufhing 
bayonets, that they are afhamed of it, and, not daring to acquit 
themfelves of fo juft a reproach, when occafion offers, they are, 
forced to have recouife to their own fruitful inventions and difin- 
genuous fubterfuges : — I fhall only fubjoin, that I have frequently 
had the honour of meeting them in the courfe of my fervice, and 
I never faw them difpofed to come to the diftance of piitol-flaot, 
much lefs to bayonet- pufhing. 

25th. Several tribes of Indians have fent a deputation to the 
Governor to treat for peace. The troops and women are now 
directed to be victualled at the ufual allowance, as in the winter. 

An Officer failed, this day, exprefs to General Amherjl y by- the 
way of Bofim. Captain Deane has been tried for the lofs of the 

Y 3 *W* 

326 tfhe History of the War. 1760. 

having fupported their centre, wheeled round the. flanks of 
ihe Britifh army to the left and right, and formed a femi- 
circle, which threatened to clofe upon our rear, Proper 
movements were made to protect the flanks ; but it was 
evident the army was in the greatest danger, not only of a 
defeat, but of feeing itfelf furrounded, and its retreat to 
Quebec entirely intercepted. Near one thoufand men, fol- 
diers and officers, (a third of the army) had been, by this 
time, killed and wounded. Nothing could be now thought 
of but as fpeedy a retreat as poflible; and in this there 
were difficulties, which nothing but the bravery of the for- 
diery and the {kill and fpirit of the officers could overcome. 
They gained Quebec with little lofs in the purfuit; but 
they were obliged to leave their cannon, which they could 
not bring off, on account of the wreaths of fnow, which 
even in this advanced feafon, and in the temperate latitude 
of 47, full lay upon the ground. The French loft at leaft 
two thoufand in the action. 

When the account of this victory arrived in Europe, the 
French were, for a while, infinitely elated. The blow was 
fenfibly felt in England. Our fanguine hopes were at once 
funk. If Quebec was loft, it was evident that the greateft 
difficulties muft have arifen to our affairs in America, and 
the reduction of Canada muft become the work of more 
than one campaign. Nobody imagined that the town could 
hold out longer after fuch a defeat ; and the fleet fent from 

Leoftoff y and honourably acquitted. Captain Scbomfrerg, and Ma- 
jor Maitland y Deputy-Adjutant General, fell down the river to 
take their pafTage for England; they are charged with difpatches 
from Lord Col<vilk y General Murray , and Commodore Stuanton : 
the General fent a very fenfible and truly fpirited letter to the Se- 
cretary of State, containing a moft fatisfaftory account of the 
various occurrences previous and fubfequent to Mil our late 
troubles and difficulties ; but, as I have already given a minute 
detail of thefe feveral tranfactions, I think it needlefs to trefpafs 
on -the reader by a repetition of them. 

30th. This day we had divine fervice, and a folemn thanks- 
giving, for the fuccefs of his majetiy's arms in Canada, 

Here I fhall clofe the account of this memorable and fatiguing 
iiege, of much credit to the perieverance and courage of the 
Mritijb troops, 


ij6o. The History of the, War. 327 

Europe to reinforce the place was then at a great diftance. 

Neverthelefs all things were prepared at Quebec, for a 
vigorous defence. The late check he had received, only 
roufed the governor to more flrenuous efforts. He knew 
that the lofs of the place would be attributed to the teme- 
rity of his councils ; he was fenfible that in proportion to 
the honours paid by the public to thofe who had conquered 
Quebec, would their indignation fall upon thofe by whom 
it mould happen to be loft , and that in general nothing 
makes a worfe figure, than a rafhnefs which is not fortu- 
nate. Thefe thoughts were perpetual flings to a mind like 
his, paffionately defirous of glory; and that very difpofltion 
which led him to fight unfuccefsfully with a weak army, 
gave him activity and fuccefs in the defence of a weak forti- 

The French, whofe whole hope of fuccefs depended on 
perfecting their work before a Britim fquadron could ar- 
rive, loft not a moment's lime to improve their victory. 
They opened trenches before the town the very night of 
the battle. But it was the nth of May before they could 
bring two batteries to play upon the fortifications. They 
were greatly 'deficient in this refpect. Their accounts fay, 
they had no more than twelve pieces of iron artillery, 
which carried twelve pound balls. The Englifh train, was, 
without comparifon, fuperior. Before the French had opened 
their batteries, one hundred and thirty two pieces of cannon 
were placed on the ramparts. The fire of the befiegerswas 
therefore always flack, interrupted, and of little effect. 

Notwithstanding the weaknefs of the enemies fire, the 
fuperiority of the Englifh artillery, and the refoiution of the 
governor and garrifon, the relief of the place depended en- 
tirely on the early arrival of the Britifh fleet, which was 
looked out for every hour with the moil anxious expectati- 
on. Had any French fhips of force come before the Eng- 
lifh, it was the general opinion that the place muft inevi- 
tably have fallen into their hands. 

On the 9th of May, to the great joy of the garrifon, 
an Englifh frigate anchored in the bafon, and brought them 
an account that the Britifh fquadron, commanded by Lord 
Colville, was then in the river. On the 16th, a fhip of 
the line and a frigate arrived ; the next morning the two 
frigates were fent to attack the French fquadron above the 

Y 4 town. 

328 The History of the War. i7^Qr 

town. They executed their commiflion fo well, that, in a 
moment, all th« French veffels, of whatever kind; weredii- 
perfed, and the greateft part deftroytd or taken. 

M. Levi, who had the mortification to behold from the 
eminences this aclion, which, at one ftroke, put an end to 
all the hopes he had conceived from the late victory, was 
pcrfuaded that thefe frigates, by the boldnefs of their man- 
ner, mud have been the vanguard of a confiderable rein- 
forcement; and that too clofe at hand: He therefore raifecl 
the fiege in the utmoft hurry and precipitation, leaving be- 
hind all bis artillery, and a great part of his ammunition 
and baggage, although Lord Colville, with the reft of the 
fquadron, did not arrive at Quebec until two days after (a). 


(a) The Hon. James Murray's Letter to Mr. Secretary Pitt, dated 
Quebec, May 25, 1760. 

S I R, 

HAVING acquainted General Amherji, three weeks ago, that 
Quebec was befieged by an army of fifteen thoufand men, I 
think it neceflary, to do myfelf the honour of addrefling directly 
to you, the more agreeable news of the liege being raifed, left, by 
your receiving the former intelligence, before the latter, fome 
inconvenience might arife to his Majefty's fervice. 

By the journal of my proceedings, fince I have had the com- 
mand here, which I have the honour to tranfmit to you, you will 
perceive the fuperiority we have maintained over the enemy, du- 
ring the winter, and that all Lower Canada, from the Point Au 
Tremble \ was reduced, and had taken the oath of fidelity to the 
King. Yon will, no doubt, be pleafed to obferve, that the ene- 
my's attempts upon our pofts, and ours upon theirs, all tended to 
the honour of his Majefty's arms ; they were always baffled, and 
we were conftantly lucky. 

I wifh I could fay as much within the walls ; the exceflive cold- 
nefs of the climate, and conftantly living upon fait provifions, with- 
out any vegetables, introduced the fcurvy among the troops, which, 
getting the better of every precaution of the officer, and every re- 
medy of the furgeon, became as univerfal as it was inveterate, info- 
much, that, before the end of April, one thoufand were dead, and 
above two thoufand of what remained, totally unfit for fervice. 

In this fituation, I received certain intelligence, that the Che- 
yaKer de Levi was afTembling his army, which had been cantoned 


j^6o. The History of the War. 329 

Thus was fortunately preferved from the mod imminent 
danger, the mod: confiderable place we had taken in the 
war; and that which gave us the moft decifive advantage. 


in the neighbourhood of Montreal s that he had compleated his 
eight battalions, and forty companies of the Troops de Colonie, 
from the choice of the Montrealifts j had formed thefe forty 
companies into four battalions ; and was determined to befiege 
us, the moment that St. Lawrence was open, of which he was 
entirely matter, by means of four King's frigates, and other craft, 
proper for this extraordinary river. 

As I had the honour to acquaint you formerly, that Quebec 
could be looked upon in no other light than that of a ftrong can- 
tonment, and that any works I fhould add to it, would be in that 
ftile, my plan of defence was, to take the earlieft opportunity of 
entrenching myfelf upon the heights of Abraham, which entirely 
commanded the ramparts of the place at thedifrance of eight hun- 
dred yards, and might have been defended by our numbers againft: 
a large army. J3ut the Chevalier de Levi did not give me time to 
take the advantage of this fituation j the 23d, 24th, and 25th of 
Aprils I attempted to execute the projected lines, for which a 
provifion of fafcines, and of every neceiTary material, had been 
made, but found it impracticable, as the earth was ftill covered 
with fnow in many places, and every where impregnably bound 
up by the froit. 

The night of the 26th, I was informed, the enemy had landed 
at Point Au Tremble ten thoufand men, and five hundred barbari- 
ans. The poft we had taken at the embouchure of the river Cap- 
rouge (the moft convenient place for difembarking their artillery 
and ftores, and for fecuring their retreat) obliged them to land 
where they did, twenty miles higher up. 

The 27 th, having broke down all the bridges over the Caprouge t 
and fecured the landing places at Sillery, and the Fou/on, I march- 
ed with the grenadiers picquets, Amherji\ regiment, and two 
field pieces, and took poit fo advantageoufly, as to fiuftrate the 
fchemes they had laid of cutting off our polls. They had begun 
to form from the defile they were obliged to pafs, but thought 
proper to retreat, on reconnoitring our pofkion; and about four 
this afternoon we marched back to town, having wirhdrawn all 
our pofts, with the lofs of two men only, though they did every 
thing in their power to harafs the rear. 

The enemy was greatly fuperior in number, it is true j but 
when I considered that our little army was in the habit of beating 


330 The History of the War. 1760. 

The triumph of the French, and the anxiety of England, 
were but fhort. The account of the fiege, and the raifmg 
it, followed clofe on the heels of each other. And there 


that enemy, and had a very fine train of field artillery; that {hut- 
ting ourfelves up at once within the walls, was putting all upon 
the fingle chance of holding out for a confiderable time, a wretch- 
ed fortification ; a chance which an action in the field could hard- 
ly alter, at the fame time it gave an additional one, perhaps a 
better, I refolved to give them battle; and if the event was not 
profperous, to hold out to the laft extremity, and then to retreat 
to the ifle of Orleans, or Coudres, with what was left of the gar- 
lifon, to wait for reinforcements. 

This night the necelTary orders were given, and half an hour 
after fix next morning, we marched with all the force I could 
mutter, viz. three thoufand men, and formed the army on the 
heights, in the following order ; Amherft^s, Anftrutkers 2d bat- 
talion of Royal Americans, and Webb\, compofed the right Bri- 
gade, commanded by Col. Burton: Kennedy?,, Lafcelles's, High- 
landers, and Toivnjh end's, the left brigade, commanded by Col. 
Frafer : Otivay's, and the third battalion of Royal Americans x 
were the corps de referve. Major Dalling's corps of light infantry 
covered the right flank, and Capt. Hazzenh company of rangers, 
with one hundred volunteers, under the command of Capt. Do.nald 
Macdonald, a brave and experienced officer, covered the left, The 
battalions had each two field pieces. 

While the line was forming, I reconnoitred the enemy, and 
perceived their van had taken pofFefTion of the rifing grounds, 
three quarters of a mile in our front, but that their army was up- 
on the march, in one column, as far as I could fee. I thought 
this the lucky moment, and moved with the utmoft order to at- 
tack them before they had formed. We foon beat them from the 
heights they had pofTelTed, tho' they were well difputed ; and 
Major Dalling, who cannot be too much commended for his be- 
haviour this day, and his fervices during the winter, forced their 
corps of grenadiers from a houfe and windmill they had taken 
hold of, to cover their left flank. Here he, and feveral of his offi- 
cers were wounded; his men, however, purfued the fugitives to 
the corps which were now formed to fuflain them. They halted, 
and difperfed along the front of the right, which prevented that 
wing from taking advantage of the firfr. impreffion they had made 
on the enemy's left. They had immediately orders given them to 
regain the flank, but, in attempting this, they were charged, 


1760. The History of the War. ^\ 

was nothing now to cloud the profpect of the certain re- 
duction of Canada, by the united efforts of three Englifh 
armiesjwho* by different routs* were moving to attack thofe 


thrown into diforder, retired to the rear, and from the number of 
officers killed and wounded, could never again be brought up, 
during the action. Qt<uoay\ was inftantly ordered to advance, 
and fuftain the right wing, which the enemy iri vain made two at- 
tempts to penetrate. On theie occafions, Capt. face, with the 
grenadiers of Otivay's, were diftinguiihed. While this paffed 
there, the left were not idle 3 they had difpofTeffed the enemy of 
two redoubts, and fuitained with unparalleled firmnefa the bold 
united efforts of the enemy's regulars, Indians and Canadians, 
till, at lalt fairly fought down, and reduced to a handful, though 
fuftained by the 3d battalion o&Royal Americans from the referve, 
and Kennedy*^ from the centre* where we had nothing to fear, 
they were obliged to yield to fuperior numbers, and a frefh column 
of Roujftllon, which penetrated. 

The diforder of the left was foon communicated to the right -, 
but the whole retired in fuch a way, that the enemy did not ven- 
ture upon a brifk purfuit. We left molt of our cannon, as the 
roughnefs of the ground, and the wreaths of fnow, made it im- 
poffible to bring them off; what could not be brought off were 
nailed up. 

Our killed and wounded amounted to one third of thofe in the 
field ; that of the enemy, by their own confeflion, exceeds two 
thoufand five hundred men ; which may be readily conceived, as 
the action lafted an hour and three quarters. 

Here I think it my duty to expreis my gratitude to the officers 
in general, and the fatisfaction I had in the bravery of ali the 

On the night of the 28th, the enemy opened trenches againft 
the town ; and, at. the fame time, we fet to work within, to fortify 
it, which we never had in our power to attempt fooner, from the 
feverity of this climate during the winter, and the abfolute ne- 
ceffity of executing works of more immediate importance lafi au- 
tumn, before the froii fet in. I wanted' the affiftance of Major 
Mackeller, the chief engineer, dangerouily wounded in the action; 
his zeal for, and knowledge in the fervice, is well known ; but 
the alacrity of the garrifon made up for every defect. 

My journal of the fiege, which accompanies this, fets forth in 
full what was done ; and I flatter myfelf, the extraordinary per- 
formances of the handful of brave men I had left, will pleafe his 


$$% The History of the War. 1760. 

parts of it which flill remained to France. In the mean 
time that haughty power was obliged to fit the important 
fpedtator of the ruin of her colonies, without being able 


majefty, as much as they furprifed us who were eye witneffes to 

Great praife is due to Commodore Snxjanton, and the Captains 
Sckomberg and Dearie j I have not words to exprefs the readinefs, 
vivacity, and valour they (hewed in attacking and destroying the 
enemy's fquadron. Captain Deane has loft his (hip ; but it was in 
a good caufe, and he has done honour to his country. 

The morning of the 27th of May, I had intended a ftrong for- 
tie, to have penetrated into the enemy's camp, which, from the 
information of the prifoners I had taken, and the concurrent ac- 
count of the deferters, I conceived to be very practicable. 

For this purpofe, 1 had ordered the regiments of Amherjl, 
Town/bend, Lafcelles, Anjlrutber, and Highlanders , with the 
grenadiers and light infantry under arms, but was informed by 
Lieut. M i Alpin,o\ my battalion (whom I fent out to amufe the 
enemy with fmall (allies) that their trenches were abandoned. 

J inftantly pufhed out at the head of thefe corps, not doubting 
but we muit have overtaken and forced their rear, and had ample 
revenge for the 28th of April ; but 1 was difappointed, for they 
had croffed the river Caprouge, before we could come up with 
them. However, we took feveral prifoners, and much baggage, 
which would otherwife have efcaped. They left their camp 
Handing ; all their baggage, ftores, magazines of provifions and 
ammunition, thirty- four pieces of battering cannon, four of which 
are brafs twelve pounders, ten field pieces, fix mortars, four pe- 
tards, a large quantity of fcaling ladders and entrenching tools be-- 
yond number ; and have retired to their former afylum, Jacques 
Cartier. From the information of prifoners, deferters and fpies, 
provifions are very fcarce : ammunition does not abound j and the 
greater!: part of the Canadians have deferted them. At prefent 
they do not exceed five thoufand men. The minute I am joined 
with that part of my garrifon, which was fent from hence laft au- 
tumn, I (hall endeavour to co-operate with Mr. Amherjl, towards 
compleating the reduction of this country ; though, if rightly in- 
formed, he can hardly act by the lakes before the month of July, 
of which I am the more convinced, becaufe from the intelligence 
iorwarded to him lafl February, of the enemy's defigns, by Lieut. 
Montujor, he would certainly have been upon them before now, 
had it been at all practicable. 


1760. *fhe History of the War. 333 

to fend them the fmallefl fuccour. It was then (he found 
what it was to be inferior at fea. 

We fhall refume the American affairs, when we have re- 
viewed the fcenes that began, about this time, to open on 
the theatre of Europe. 


Major Mai t land, the bearer of thefe difpatches, who has acted 
as Adjutant-General this lad winter, is well acquainted with all 
our tranfa&ions here ; he has a thorough knowledge of the coun- 
try, and can give you the belt, lights with regard to the meafures 
farther to be taken, relative to his majefty's views in Canada. 

I cannot 'finifh this long letter, without obferving how much I 
think myfelf obliged to the Lieut. Governor, Colonel Burton ; 
his activity and zeal were confpicuous during the whole courfe of 
this winter's campaign, and I flatter myfelf, Sir, you will be 
pleafed to lay his fervices before his majeity. 

P. S. Since I have wrote the above, a nation of Indians has 
furrendered, and entered into an alliance with us. 

/ have the honour to be, 

With great regard, . 

S 1 R, yours, &c. 


Admiralty-Office, June 27, 1760. 

CAPTAIN Schomberg arrived this morning, with difpatches 
from Lord CofoiUe, and Commodore Stvanton, dated at Que- 
bec, the 24th of May, giving an account, that, on the nth of 
that month, the latter arrived at the Ifle of Bee, in the river St. 
Lawrence , with the Van- guard and Diana, where he intended to 
wait for fuch of his fquadron as had feparated from him in his paf- 
fage from England; but having, on the 14th, received advice 
from Brig. Gen. Murray, that the enemy had befieged Quebec, he 
got under fail with the utmoft difpatch, and anchored above Point 
Levi the 15th in the evening, where he found the Leojloffe, one 
of his fquadron, which arrived a few days before, and whofe com- 
mander Capt. Deane, immediately came orfto him with a mefTage 
from the General, earneftly recommending the fpeedy removal of 
the French naval force above the town, confiding of two frigates., 


334 The Historv of the War. 1760. 


Di/lrefs of Saxony. M. Broglio commands the main body of 
the French army. St. Germain commands on the Rhine. 
Englijh army reinforced. King of Prufp.a? s lojj'es. The a- 
tre of the war in the eafl of Germany. Pofitions of the 
Auflrian and Prufftan armies. Battle of Landjhut. Pruf- 
fian army under Fouquet defrayed. 

A Winter remarkably fevere fucceeded the bloody cam- 
paign of 1758. At Bareith in the night of the 16th 
of December, the cold was infupportable. Reaumur's 
thermometer was funk to fifteen, which is precifely the fame 
degree it fell to in 1709. A year like this diftinguifhed by 
the intenfenefs of the cold, and the fury of war. Birds 
dropped dead in their flight. At Leipfic ten centinels were 
froze to death. An infectious difeafe, which began in the 
armies, difTufed itfelf among the inhabitants of Saxony, and 


two armed fhips, and many fmaller veffels ; in confequence of 
which he ordered Capt. Schomberg of the Diana, and Capt. Deane 
of the Leofloffe, to flip their cables early the next morning, and 
attack the enemy ; but they were no fooner in motion, than the 
enemy fled in the greateft hurry and diforder : the Pomona, one 
of the frigates, was driven on fhore above Cape Diamond ; the 
Atalanta, the other frigate, run afhore, and was burnt at Point 
Au Tremble, about ten leagues above the town ; and moil of the 
other fliips and veffels were likewife driven afhore, or effectually 

The night following, the enemy raifed the fiege of Quebec 
very precipitately, leaving their cannon, fmall arms, ftores, &c. 
behind them. 

The Leojlojfe run upon fome unknown rocks in purfuit of the 
enemy, and was irrecoverably loft, but the officers and men were 

Lord Colville failed from Halifax, with the fquadron under 
his command, the 22d of April, but did not arrive at Quebec till 
the 1 8th of May, having been much retarded in his paifage by 
thick fogs, great quantities of ice, and.contrary winds. 

[ Gazette Extraordinary. ] 

1760. Fbe History of the War. 335 

made a dreadful havock a A peftilential contagion raged a- 
mong the cattle. Famine was foon added to the reft of 
their calamities ; and every mifery that can afflicl mankind, 
was poured out upon that unfortunate people with the moft 
liberal meafures. There was no profpect of an allevation of 
thefe diftrefles. On the contrary, the fufFerings of the peo- 
ple only made their fovereigns more earneft for revenge ; 
and out of the general want a refource arofe to their armies, 
who were the more readily recruited, becaufe the fcanty 
pay and fubfiftence of a foldier, became an object, of envy 
to the wretched peafantry in moft of thefe countries v- and 
death feemed more honourable and lefs certain by the fword, 
than by penury and difeafe. 

France and England vied in their endeavours to augment 
their forces in Germany. M. Broglio had now the com- 
mand of the grand army, and the fole conduct of the gene- 
ral plan of operations. He had early, in this year, been 
honoured with the ftafF of a marftial of France. And no- 
thing was omitted to give luftre to his command, and to 
furnifh him with every means of exerting his talents. His 
corps was augmented to near one hundred thoufand effective 
men. Thirty thoufand drawn out of their quarters in Duf- 
feldorp, Cleves, Cologne and Wefel, and compleated by 
draughts from France, formed a feparate army on the Rhine, 
under the Count de St. Germain. This difpofition was 
made not only to divide the attention of the allied army, but 
to prevent the ill confequences of the mifunderftanding 
which was known to fubfift between this general and the 
Duke de Broglio. The third army propofed at the clofe of 
the foregoing campaign did not appear. 

On the fide of England, the preparations were not lefs 
conllderable in proportion to her ability for that kind of war. 
Six regiments of foot commanded by Major General Grif- 
fin, were forthwith fent to reinforce the allied army. 
Elliot's regiment of light horfe foon followed them. At 
the opening of this campaign, we had in Germany twelve 
regiments of heavy, and one of light horfe ; and twelve 
regiments, with two Highland battalions of foot ; the whole 
amounted to near twenty-two thoufand men. In the courfe 
of the fummer, they were further reinforced to near twenty- 
five thoufand. Such a number of Britifh troops, ferving 
in one army, had not been feen on the continent for two 


336 The History of the War. 1760. 

hundred years pail. The allied army Indeed fell fhort of the 
French in numbers ; but they exceeded it in the quality of 
the troops. Thofe newly arrived from England were frefh 
but not undifciplined ; the old were indeed haraiTed, but 
(hey had been accuftomed to victory. 

In the beginning of the year, the death of the 
Jan. 31. Landgrave of Heffe CalTel had excited fome ap- 
prehenfions ; the difpofitions of the fucceflbr were 
uncertain ; and his withdrawing himfelf from the caufe of 
the allies would have made a breach in their army, that it 
•would have proved almoft impoflible to flop. But thefe 
fears were foon diflipated. The new Landgrave, among the 
very firft acts of his government, gave the ftrongeff. proofs 
of his fteady adherence to the fyftem of his father, and even 
agreed to add confiderably to the Heflian troops in the pay 
of Great Britain ; fo that all things promifed as favourably 
for the allies, as could have been expected from their ir- 
remediable inferiority in numbers. 

The King of Pruffia was under far greater difficulties ; 
he had felt the heaviefl blows, and was mod fcanted in the 
means of healing them. 

His lofTes were not to be reckoned by the men killed and 
prisoners, but by armies deftroyed or taken. Forty generals 
had died, or were {lain in his fervice, fince the firfl of Oc- 
tober 1756, exclufive of thofe who had been wounded, 
difabled, or made prifoners. And this alone would have 
been a lofs not to be repaired, if thefe murdering wars, 
which cut off fo many experienced officers, did not at the 
fame time, form fo many more to fupply their places. The 
king had renewed his alliance on the former terms with 
Great Britain. By his indefatigable indnftry, no gaps were 
ieen in his armies. But they were no longer the fame 
troops; and if the King of Pruffia had formerly the merit of 
ablv commanding the mod: excellent armies, he has now to 
fill up the mod; remarkable deficiency on the part of his 
troops by his own heroifm ; and to undertake far more ar- 
duous enterprizes, than his firfl, with infinitely weaker in- 
struments. His affairs wore a bad afpect in the opening of 
the former year. In this, they feemed altogether defpe- 

The Ruffians had fufFered ; but they were fufficiently .re- 
inforced. The Swedes, who had been generally obliged to 


1760. ffl* History of the War. 337 

give ground in the winter, had, in that of 1 759, the advan- 
tage in feveral fmart fkirmifhes, and had even taken prifo- 
ner the Pruflian general ManteufFel. As to the Auftrians, 
vi&orious for a whole campaign almofl without fighting, 
their armies and magazines were full, their corps compleat, 
their men frem, vigorous, and full of refolution. Several 
{kirmifhes of confequence had been fought during the cef- 
fation of the great operations ; and they were generally to 
their advantage. 

The King of Pruflia was fenfibie, that in this, as in the 
former- campaigns, he mould be attacked by four armies ; 
and that his dominions would be inverted upon every fide. 
As thefe operations were very extenfive and complicated, to 
enable the reader to form an idea of the campaign, it will 
not be amifs to fay fomething of the ground the king had to 
defend, which is circumftanced in this manner. 

To the north is Pomerania. This country is Very open ; 
and it is defended on that part on which the Swedes gene- 
rally a£t, with but few, and thofe mean, fortifications, An- 
clam, Demmein and Paflfewalk. But then the Swedifli 
army is not numerous, and if they fhould attempt to pene- 
trate far into the country, they mud; leave Stetin, in which 
there is always a ftrong garrifon behind them to their left, 
which would render their fubfiftence difficult, and their re- 
treat, in cafe of any misfortune, extremely hazardous ; and 
they have not fufficient ftrength to mailer this place by a 
regular fiege. This has always proved a check to the pro- 
grefs of that army, even when they have been otherwife 

- This fame country to the eaftward of the Oder, is one 
great object of the Ruffian defigns. Its chief ftrength in 
this quarter is the town of Colberg ; a place they have 
frequently attempted, but always without fuccefs. And 
their failure, in this inftance, has been the main caufe why 
they have never been able to take winter quarters in the 
King of PrufhVs dominions, or even during the campaign, 
to make any confiderable impreffion upon Pomerania. For 
thev can have no communication with their own country by 
fea, for want of this port^ On their rear, lies the exten- 
five and inhofpitable defert of Waldow ; and this, with the 
uncertain difpofition of the city of Dantzick, renders their 
fupplies of provifion from Poland difficult and precarious* 

Z Neither 

338 The History of the War. 1760. 

Neither is it poflible, in thefe circumflances, to unite their 
forces with thofe of Sweden a£ting in the fame country. 
The Oder flows between them ; which is fo commanded by 
the city of Stetin, as to make all communication between 
thefe armies in a great meafure impracticable. Infomuch, 
that on the fide of Pomerania, the force of thefe two powers 
is compelled to aft Separately, without concert, and there- 
fore weakly and ineffectually. 

To the weflward, the King of Pruflia is Sufficiently co- 
vered by the city of Magdebourg, the ftrongefr. place in his 
dominions, and in that part of Germany. Here are his 
greatefl magazines, and his principal founderies; and this 
is the repofitory of whatever he finds neceflary to place out 
of the reach of fudden infult. 

To the Southward he is obliged to defend Saxony and Si- 
lefia. Both of thefe countries on their frontiers towards 
Bohemia, rife into very rough, broken, and mountainous 
grounds, abounding in advantageous pofts and ftrong fitua- 
tions. Lufatia lies between them ; a level fandy plain, (in- 
terfperfed with pine-woods,) extending without any obfta- 
cle to the very gates of Berlin. Through this country the 
king's communication between Silefia and Saxony muft be 
kept up, and therefore it has been from the beginning of 
this war, the great fcene of thofe remarkable marches and 
counter-marches, by which his PrufTian majefty has acqui- 
red fo great a reputation ; and alfo of thofe bold and fudden 
attempts which have diftinguifhed fome of the generals of 
the adverfe party. As an army cannot be advantageoufly 
pofled in this territory, it has not been ufual for a confider- 
able body to remain there long ; and it is particularly un- 
favourable to defenfive operations. This country may be 
confidered as the curtin, and the frontiers of Saxony and 
Silefia as the baftions, that flank the fort of fortification 
which the king is to maintain- 
No part of that monarch's territories are naturally more 
defencelefs than the eaftern ; at the fame time that it is at- 
tacked by the mod powerful of his enemies. A country al- 
together fandy and level, extends along both fides of the 
Oder, from the northern frontier of Silefia, until it meets 
Pomerania, a country of the fame kind. There is no re- 
fpe&able fortification on this fide; and the river Warta, 
that falls here into the Oder, makes the tranfport of pro- 


1760. The History of the War. 339 

vifions, and, confequently, the fubfiftence of the armies that 
ad againft him, more eafy. 

As to Silefia 9 it is covered on the Bohemian fide with 
mountains, and it contains places of fuch ftrength as to be 
above the neceflity of yielding to the firft army that appears 
before them. Indeed it is to be remarked, that fuch a de- 
gree of ftrength feems fufficient for the kind of fervice 
which has diftinguifhed this war. Never was a war of fuch 
a length and extent, in which fewer fieges of confequence 
have been formed ; and the late fervice, which affords fo 
large a field for experience in every other fpecies of military 
operations, affords very little matter of improvement in the 
art of reducing or defending ftrong places. 

The King of Pruffia's defign feems to have been to fave 
himfelf as much as poffibie to the end of the campaign ; the 
only time when his fuccefs might be decifive, and his ill 
fortune not ruinous. He therefore formed a defensive plan. 
In purfuance of this he withdrew his out-pofts from Frey- 
berg, and drawing a chain of cantonments from the foreft 
of Tharandt on his right to the Elbe, he took a mofl ad- 
vantageous camp between that river and the Multa ; ftrong- 
ly intrenching it where it had not been previoufly fortified 
by nature ; and furnifhed it with fo numerous an artillery, 
that they reckoned in their front only two hundred and fifty 
pieces of cannon. 

In this fituation he covered the mofl: material parts of 
Saxony, kept the attention of Marfhal Daun's army en- 
gaged, and was enabled to fend out reinforcements to Prince 
Henry, or elfewhere, as occafion fhould require, without 
expofing one part whilft. he defended the other. 

Whilfr. the king's army defended his conquefts in Mifnia, 
Prince Henry had affembled an army about Frankfort on 
the Oder, and took various pofitions about that place and 
Croffen. In this pofition, he commanded three principal 
communications, in fuch a manner as to protect at once 
Silefia, the New Marche of Brandenburgh, and the ave- 
nues to Berlin ; all which were threatened by feveral bodies 
of the enemy. General Fouquet had eftablifhed his quar- 
ters near the county of Glatz, and whilft he covered that 
fide of Silefia, he communicated with Prince Henry, and 
was fo difpofed as to fend to or receive fuccours from him, 
as either party mould happen to be prefled. 

Z 2 Marfhal 

340 ¥be History of the War. 1760. 

Marfhal Daun, asfoon as he faw that the King of Pruflia 
had fortified himfelf in thispoft, he too buried him'felf in en- 
trenchments, and kept the mod attentive eye upon all his 
majefly's motions. Whilft he confined himfelf in this po- 
fition, in order to tie down the King of Pruflia, general 
Laudohn, with a ftrong but light and difincumbered army, 
moved from the camp he had occupied during the winter in 
Bohemia, and presenting himfelf alternately on the fide of 
Lufatia, and on the frontiers of Silefia, threatened fome- 
times to penetrate as far as Berlin, fometimes by a bold ftroke 
to effect a junction with the Ruffians, and attack Prince 
Henry, fometimes to fit down before Glatz, Schweidnitz, 
or Breflau ; and thus the alarm was fpread upon every fide, 
not knowing where the dorm would fall. 

At length he declared himfelf. Having by feveral feints 
perfuaded general Fouquet that his intentions were againft 
Schweidnitz, that general marched thither a confiderable 
body of his troops, and left Glatz uncovered. As foon as 
Laudohn perceived this movement, he, on his fide, made 
another, and poffefled himfelf of Landfhut ; and when he 
had taken Landfhut, he pretended a defign of fecuring this 
poft by leaving a fmall body of troops there. This feint 
alfo fucceeded, and drew general Fouquet from Schweid- 
nitz back again to Landfhut. He drove the Auftrians from 
that place without difficulty ; but in the mean time Lau- 
dohn made himfelf mafter of feveral important pafTes, by 
which he was in fome fort enabled to furround the corps of 
General Fouquet. 

The commander finding himfelf in thofe dangerous cir- 
cumftances, had nothing left but to fortify his poft, for- 
merly made a very ftrong one, with additional works ; 
which he did with fuch effect, that it had more the refem- 
blance of a regular fortification than an entrenchment. 
However, the army he commanded was far from numerous ; 
and he was obliged to weaken it ftill farther by a detach- 
ment of two thoufand men, to preferve, if poflible, a com- 
munication with Schweidnitz. 

Laudohn longed to diftinguifh himfelf by fome capital 
ftroke ; he had now, by a fenes of very artful movements, 
procured a moft favourable opportunity. Firft, therefore, 
he fhut up with great dexterity the pafTes on every fide, and 
rendered his adverfary's retreat impracticable. Then he 


1760, The History of the War. g^j 

began an attack on the PrufHan entrenchments in y 
the dead of the night in three different places, J une 2 3» 
The fignal for the aflault was given by four hawbitzers 
fired in the air. The Auftrians rufhed to the attack with 
uncommon fury, and maintained it with fo fteady a refo- 
lution, that, in three .quarters of an hour, the two ilrongell 
entrenchments were - carried, and the line of communication 
forced. The Pruffians at day-break found themfelves pufhed 
back from hill to hill, and line to line, to their laft en- 
trenchments. Their refiftance was all along brave, and 
their retreat regular. The enemy purchafed every advan- 
tage at the deareft rate ; but at laft preffed upon every fide, 
worn down by a terrible daughter, their general difabled by 
two mortal wounds, at eight in the morning the remnant of 
the army threw down their arms, and furrendered on the 
field of battle. 

On the fide of the vanquifhed, the ilain were about four 
thoufand. The prifoners were, one general of foot, namely 
General Fouquet ; two major generals ; two hundred and 
thirteen officers of the inferior rank ; and upwards of feven 
thoufand private foldiers, fifty-eight pieces of artillery, with 
a number of colours. Never was a more entire and decifive 
victory. The whole army, general, officers, every thing 
was deftroyed. Scarce three hundred of the body intrench- 
ed by Landfhut efcaped. The corps alone which was to 
preferve the communication, together with fome bodies of 
cavalry who had not been engaged, with difficulty got into 
Schweidnitz, where they expected every moment to be be- 
fieged. This advantage coft the Auflrians above twelve 
thoufand men killed and wounded. 


The Aujlrians take Giatz, Situation of the Prujfan armies. 
King of Prujpa marches .towards Silefa and deceives Mar- 
Jhal Daun. King of Prujpa returns to Saxony, Siege of 
Drefden. Town burned. Return of Daun. Siege raifed. 
Brejlau befieged by the Auflrians, March of Prince Henry, 
Laudobn retreats* 

THIS victory was purfued with as much rapidity as it 
was obtained with courage and addrefs. Baron Lau- 
dohn immediately returned back from Landfhut, fell, like 

Z 3 a ftorm, 

$4-2 The History of the War. 1760. 

a ftorm, upon Glatz. Glatz confifts of two fortrefles, the 
©Id and the new. The old was taken by ftorm ; the new 
furrendered at difcretion. Two thoufand brave men and 
fome good works could not defend it againft the impetuofity 
of the Auftrians. One hundred and one pieces of brafs 
cannon were taken. Irnmenfe magazines of provifion and 
military (lores, piled up in this frontier place to favour in 
better times an irruption into Bohemia, fell into the hands 
of the conqueror. Every thing gave way. The poffeffion 
of Glatz laid all Silefia open, and the Auftrians might 
turn their arms upon any fide without the lead danger to 
the freedom of their retreat. Neither was there any fort 
of army to give the ieaft obftru&ion. The King of Pruf- 
fia held down by Marfhal Daun, was in Saxony, Prince 
Henry was alfo at a great diitance towards Cuftrin. If that 
Prince attempted to move to the relief of Silefia? he laid 
open Brandenburgh, and even Berlin itfelf to the irruptions 
of the Ruffians. If he remained in his poft, Silefia was in- 
evitably loft. Even his fpeedieft march feemed by no means 
a certain way to relieve it. The King was yet further dif- 
tant ; and any motion of his threatened to fhake and un^ 
hinge the whole fcheme of his defence ; expofing at once 
Saxony and Berlin. The lofs of his third army, fmall as 
that army was, laid him under difficulties that feemed in- 

Favoured by thefe circumftances, Laudohn had only to 
choofe what direction he mould give his arms. Silefia, as 
has been obferved, lay open before him. He had threat- 
ened Schweidnitz ; but he faw that Breflau was a place of 
greater confequence, much more eafily reduced, and that 
the poffeffion of it facilitated a junction with the Ruffians ; 
a point on which the ultimate improvement of his victory 
wholly depended. The place befides is of fo great extent, 
and the works of fo little comparative ftrength, that he 
had no fmall hopes of maftering it before Prince Henry 
could come, if he fhould at all attempt to come to its re- 

He therefore delayed no longer than the march of his 
heavy artillery and the neceffary preparatives required, to 
lay fiege to the capital of Silefia, of whofe fafety the moil 
fanguine friends of his Pruffian majefty began to delpair. 

But in the interval between the battle of Landfhut and 
%h.Q commencement of the fiege of Breflau, the King of 


1760. Vbe History of the War. 34* 

Pruflia was not idle. His thoughts were continually em- 
ployed to repair this difafler ; all ordinary refources were 
impracticable or ineffectual. His genius alone could enter 
the lifts with his ill fortune. Placing therefore his hopes in 
himfelf, he aimed by a daring and unexpected flroke, to 
draw even from fo fevere a misfortune fome new and more 
brilliant advantages. 

In purfuance of the plan he had laid, he difpo- j , 
fed all things for a march towards Silefia, and +■ 2f 
had paffed the Elbe, and penetrated through a woody coun- 
try without oppofltion ; had the enemy been apprifetl of his 
march as early as he began it, it had been attended with 
great and unfurmountable difficulties. Marfhal Daun no 
fooner had advice of his march, than he alfo immediately 
moved with the utmoft expedition at the head of his main 
army towards Silefia, leaving the army of the empire, and 
a body under General Lacy, to awe Saxony in his abfence. 

The two armies continued their route through Lufatia ; 
that of the King of PrufTia a little to the northward, that 
of Marfhal Daun to the fouthward ; both apparently pufh- 
ing towards the fame object, and with equal eagernefs. But 
as the army of the Marfhal had rather the fhorter cut to 
make, and as he moved with far greater and more unaf- 
fected diligence, he got very cpnfiderably the flart of the 

When his majefty was apprifed that Marfhal 
Daun had gained full two days march upon him ; July 8. 
that he had actually arrived at Gorlitz, and was 
pufhing by forced marches to Lauban ; his great purpofe 
was obtained. Immediately he (truck into Marfhal Daun's 
tract, but wheeled into the oppofite direction, repaffed the 
Spree near Bautzen, and whilft: every one imagined him on 
the frontiers of Silefia, he fuddenly fprung up like a mine be- 
fore Drefden. The army of the Empire retired. Lacy's 
corps was obliged to fhift its fituation. The PrufTian gene- 
rals Hulfen and Ziethen, who had probably been prepared 
to act in concert with the king, joined him before 
that place, and knowing there was no room for July 13. 
delay, began the fiege with the utraoft vigour. 

Then was this moft unfortunate citya third time expofed 
to the fury of war. The inhabitants fuffered in their 
habitations for the weaknefs of the works ; and there were 
armies both without and within of fuch mutual and deter- 

Z J. minei 

344 ^e History of the War. 1760- 

mined rage, and fo carelefs of all things but their enmity, 
that they little fcrupled to ftrike at each other through the 
bodies of the fuffering Saxons. All Europe had now its 
eyes turned to the event of this mafterly manoeuvre ; and 
certainly through the whole courfe of this eventful war, no- 
thing appeared more worthy of regard, nor at any time had 
there been exhibited a piece of generalmip more complear, 
than the conduct of the King of Pruflia's march. 

Since Drefden had fallen into the hands of the Auftrians, 
it had been flrengthened with the addition of feveral new 
works. The burning of the fuburbs by the Prufnans, in or-, 
der to keep them out, became an advantage to them when 
they came to pofTefs the town. In fhort, the place was 
rendered, in all refpecls, more defenfible than formerly. It 
had alfo a very large garrifon under General Macguire, an 
officer of courage and experience, who refolved to maintain 
it to the lafl: extremity : when he was fummoned to furren- 
der, he made anfwer, <e That it was impoflible the king 
could have been apprifed with his being entrufted with the 
command of that capital ; otherwife fo great a captain aa 
his majefly would not make fuch a propofal to an officer of 
his {landing : that he would defend himfelf to the laft man ; 
and wait whatever the king mould think proper to attempt.'* 

Both parties being therefore infpired with the utmofl re- 
folution, the one to attack, the other to defend, the (lege 
was pufhed on by every method of force and addrefs ; there 
was fcarce any intermiflion of affaults, furprifes, coups de 
mains, fallies, and all kind of actions ufed on fuch oc- 
cafions ; and all the mod vigorous in their way. In the 
mean time three batteries of cannon and mortars played 
continually, but with much greater damage to the buildings 
than effe& on the fortifications. 

Marfhal Daun was in Silefia when he heard all at once 
of the deceit put upon him by the King of PrufMa, of his 
return to Saxony, of the liege, and the extreme danger of 
Drefden. His return was as rapid as his march had been. 
On the 19th he appeared within a league of Drefden. His 
approach only caufed the Pruflians to redouble their efforts ; 
that day they had received reinforcements of heavy cannon 
and mortars, and battered the place with new fury. The 
cathedral church, the new fquare, feveral principal ftreets, 
ibme palaces, the noble manufactory of porcelain, were all 
entirely reduced to afhes. 


1760. The History of the War. 34^ 

The fiege continued till the 220*. The night of the iift, 
Marfhal Daun had thrown fixteen battalions into Drefden. 
It was in vain to continue any longer the pretence of be- 
fieging a whole army within the town, whilft, at the fame 
time, there was another army to reinforce it without. The 
king withdrew his forces without moleftation from the fub- 
urbs, though there were three confiderable armies of the 
enemy in the neighbourhood, befides that which was within 
the walls. 

Thus ended, without the fuccefs fo mafterly a proceed- 
ing deferved, the King of Pruflia's famous flratagem. But 
the want of fuccefs can detracl nothing from the merit of 
the meafure. By drawing Marfhal Daun from Saxony to 
Silefia be gained the ufe of eight days, free of obitruction 
from the enemy's grand army ; eight days at a time when 
hours and even moments were critical. In this time he had 
certainly a chance at leaft of reducing Drefden ; and by the 
poffeflion of that place he would have found himfelf infinite- 
ly better able to carry his arms to the defence of every part 
of his territories for the prefent, and for the future would 
have that great place of retreat in cafe of any misfortune. 
If he failed in this attempt, his affairs were precifely in their 
former condition 5 and he could not fuffer in reputation by 
having made it. 

As the King of Pruffia could not be blamed for the fpeedy 
return of Marfhal Daun, and the confequences of that re- 
turn ; fo neither in efFe£fc could the Marfhal fuffer any juft 
imputation in having been deceived by the king's march. 
He knew that there were very plaufible motives to call, and 
even to prefs him to move that way. He knew that if the 
king fhould get into Silefia without any oppofuion from him 5 
Laudohn might not only be deprived of all the advantages 
he could hope for from his late victory, but, by being at- 
tacked by the united armies of the king and his brother, 
would run the rifque of a defeat that might fully revenge 
that of Landfhut. 

Whatever the merit of either of the commanders might 
be on this occafion, it is certain that Laudohn met no con- 
fiderable obfcruclkn. 

But Laudohn who faw all things prepared for an obflinate 
defence, did not wholly truft to his military manoeuvres. 
He fent a letter to the governor, Count Tavenzien, to in- 
fimidate him by the difplay of his ftrength. He fent forth, 


346 The History of /^War. 1760. 

that his forces confifted of fifty battalions and eighty fqua- 
drons ; that the Ruffian army of feventy-five thoiifand men 
were within three days march ; that it was in vain for the 
governor to expect fuccour from the King of Pruflia, who 
was then at the other fide of the Elbe, that it was ftill more 
vain to look for relief from Prince Henry, who could fcarce 
hope to ftand his own ground againft the grand army of the 
Ruffians; that in cafe of obftinacy he couid expect no rea- 
sonable terms: and that thefe were the laft that mould be 
offered. Moreover he reminded him that the place was a 
mercantile town, not a fortrefs ; and that he could not de- 
fend it without contravening the laws of war. 

Thefe rules, by which honour is reduced to act, not by 
its own feelings, but according to intrinfical circumftances ; 
rules by which they have attempted to determine exactly 
and mechanically that niceft of all lines which discriminates 
courage from rafhnefs, form one of the ftrongeff. inltances 
of the great difference between the ancient and modern 
methods and ideas of war. In the ancient times, a brave 
commander would have anfwered this threatning meilage 
in general terms of defiance. But Count Tavenzien re- 
fpected thefe imaginary laws. He took care -to prove that, 
in defending the town, he did not infringe them ; and 
fpoke as Laudohn had done in the character of a military 
jurifconfult, as well as a foldier ; he gave for reply, That 
the town of Breflaw being furrounded with works and wet 
ditches, was to be confidered as a place of ftrength, and 
not {imply as a mercantile town. That the Auftrians 
themfelves defended it as fuch in 1757, after the battle 
of Liffa. That the king had commanded him to defend 
it to the laft extremity; that therefore General Laudohn 
might fee it was not from humour he had refilled to liften to 
his fummons. That he was not frighted with the General's 
threats to deftroy the town ; for he was not entrufted with 
the care of the houfes, but the fortifications. 

Laudohn had alfo fent in a memorial in the fame mena- 
cing ftile, where he thought it might have 1 a greater effect, 
to the civil magiflrates, hoping that the ruin, with which 
the town was threatened, might induce them to join with 
the inhabitants, to perfuade the governor to a fpeedy fur- 

All thefe menacing meafures feemed to argue a fear in 
Baron Laudohn, that the Ruffians were not fo near as he 


1760. The History of the War. 347 

pretended, and that the town might poflibly be relieved be- 
fore their arrival. However he (hewed them, at nine of the 
very evening of the meffage, that his threats were not vain, 
by a terrible discharge of mortars and red hot balls that fell 
in an uninterrupted fhower upon the city until midnight. 
During this fierce bombardment, that made a dreadful 
havock in the town, he attempted the out-works by aflault. 
His Croats attacked the covered way in many places at once, 
with the ufual impetuofity of thofe brave irregulars ; but 
they were received and repulfed with a refolution equal to 
their own, and with more fteadinefs. 

The operation of this dreadful night having made no im- 
preflion on the inflexible determination of the governor, 
Baron Laudohn had once more recourfe to negotiation. He 
npw changed his {tile, and held out the mod flattering pro- 
pofitions ; offering to grant him what capitulations he mould 
think proper to afk, and even to leave himfelf to draw up 
the articles. The governor replied, that the firing the town 
had made no change in his refolution ; and he would wait 
•with flrmnefs for the enemy upon the ramparts ; but that 
he could not help obferving it was contrary to the laws of 
arms to begin the fiege of a fortrefs, by ruining its inha- 
bitants. The meflenger made anfwer, that the trenches 
would be foon opened. The governor faid, it was what he 
had long expe&ed. 

The Auftrians, foiled in their hopes from treaty, conti- 
nued to batter the town, and made feveral attacks upon 
the out-works for three days fuccefTively. They found every 
port bravely defended ; the Ruffian army did not appear, 
but they now began to perceive the approach of another 
army lefs agreeable, that of Prince Henry; which having 
marched with the utmoft diligence from Great Glogau,now 
came faft upon him; and on the 5th of Auguft, reached 
within a few miles of the town. 

Laudohn did not think it expedient to put the advantage 
he had gained, and thofe which he had yet to expect from 
the management of time, to the iflue of a battle; he there- 
fore decamped and made his retreat in good order, but with 
fufficient quicknefs ; having procured from this enterprife 
only the wretched fatisfa&ion of reducing a great part of 
the city to a heap of rubbifh, and of having revenged upon 
Breflaw fome part of the fufjerings of Drefden. 


348 Tfo History of the War, 1760. 


Cavfe of the fowncfs of the Allies and French. Advantages 
on the fide of the French. Differences between Broglio and 
St. Germain. Marburg and Dillenburg taken by the 
French. Rattle" of Corbacb. Hereditary Prince wounded. 
Surprize and defeat of Monfteur Glaubitz at Ermfdorf. 
The Allies change their camp. Action at W arbour g. 

THE French and allied armies had been reinforced in 
the manner we have already mentioned. But the 
vigour of their operations did not altogether correfpond with 
what might have been expected from their ftrength and 
mutual animofity. The campaign, at leaf! in any effective 
manner, opened late. A country, which had been fo long 
the theatre of fo ruinous a war, had been too much wafted 
to make the fubfiflence, and confequently the free motion 
of the armies eafy. The winter had been fevere and long; 
and it was not until the green forage appeared plentifully 
above ground, that thofe great bodies of cavalry, which 
make fo large a part in our modern arm "res, were in a 
condition to acl: The fufferings of the Englifh horfe, 
from a want of dry forage, during a great part of the 
winter and-the fpring, had been extreme; this obliged them 
fo fall much farther back from the French cantonments ; 
andtoffioteft shem lefs than they others lie would have done. 
It was befides a lofs, that, at the opening of the campaign, 
they had fo extenfove a tra£t between them and Hanover; 
which, by an artful choke of pofts, might have been yielded 
IHep by Hep, and the campaign fo managed and fpun out* 
ffostt the feafon of action muft have expired, before the 
French cotvld have reaped any decifive advantage from their 

Although the French were, during the winter* fupplied far 
better than the allies with all neceflaries by the com- 
mand of the Maine, the Mofelle and the Rhine; and that 
sire countries at their back had been much lefs confumed 
Is* the war ; yet the fame difficulties embarraflfed them as 
ifi as they thought of taking the field, and quitting their 
•^nrageous cantonment. Therefore there was a flownefs 
,rT the principal armies upon both- parts, until the middle 
<pif lummer. 


1760. The History of the War. 349 

Not however, but that fomething was attempted in this 
interval, by lefTer parties. On the fide of the Rhine, fome 
a&ions happened between the army of St. Germain, and 
the corps of General Sporken, who was ported at Dulmen, 
to obferve the French in that quarter. Dulmen formed the 
right flank of the chain of cantonments made by the allied 
army, which extended its left to the fouth-eaft frontiers of 
the country of Hefle, above an hundred and fifty miles dif- 
tant. The Hereditary Prince, who was on that wing, ex- 
erted, as much as circumftances would permit, his ufual 
activity and enterprize. He threw himfelf into the cTiftricl; 
of Fulda; he laid it under an heavy contribution, and broke 
up feveral French corps that were ported there. 

Thefe actions decided nothing. The French army fu- 
perior in numbers, and in Situation, advanced ; and the 
allies, who feemed to have chofen the defenrtve, gradually 
retired. In efTecl:, if the French had purfued their original 
plan, it would have proved almoft importible for the allied 
army to maintain its ground. If St. Germain, poiTefTed of 
Cleves, Wefel, and Dufleldorp, had advanced on the fide of 
Munfter; and Marihal Broglio moving forward through the 
country of HefTe, had made a rtrong detachment to the 
eaftward of the Wefer, whilft, with his main body, he en- 
gaged the attention of Prince Ferdinand, the allies would 
fhortly have found themfelves enclofed upon three fides ; 
and nothing could have extricated them but a capital vic- 
tory obtained under every diiadvantage. 

The French army was fufficiently numerous for thefe 
operations. But it was !ufpe£led that the jealoufy which 
fubfirted between M. de St. Germain and the Duke of 
Broglio prevented their being carried into execution. This 
mifunderrtanding daily increafed. fnfom-uch, that Marihal 
Broglio thought fit to order the corps of St. Germain to 
unite itfelf with the grand army. The count, who could 
not brook obedience to a younger officer, and one befides 
with whom he was not on the beil terms, re- 
tired from the fervice. Pie had only ferved be- Jul) 9 
fore upon condition of commanding an army en- 
tirely dirtincl, and under his own particular orders, Thh 
difference deprived France of one of its mod able genera!-^ 
and difconcerted one of its moil promifed fc heroes 0! ope- 

Before this mifunderrtanding had produced thefe efJecH 


350 The History of the War. 1760. 

the affairs of the French went on with all imaginable prof- 
perity. The principal army, not retarding itfelf, by con- 
flagration of the places of ftrength which the allies pof- 
feffed in their front, the caftles of Marburg and Dillen- 
bourg, pufhed forward into the landgraviate of Heffe, 
leaving detachments to reduce thofe fortrefles. 'The firfl 
of which-furrendered on the 30th of June, the latter held 
out to the 1 6th of July ; but the garrifons of both furren- 
dered prifoners of war. 

In the mean time whilftMarfhalBroglio advanced 
July 10. on the fide of Hefle; the corps of St. Germain 
had penetrated through the dutchy of Weftphalia, 
and the two armies joined near a place called Corbach. 
The allied army bad fallen back from the pofl they occu- 
pied at Fritzlar, and were retreating towards the river Dy~ 
mel. As yet they had received no advice of the dreaded 
junction of the* French, armies ; but as it was imagined that 
the corps of St. Germain only moved that way, and the 
vanguard only of that corps could be arrived at Corbach, 
which could not be eftimated at more than ten thoufand foot, 
and feventeen fquadronsat the utmoft, the Hereditary Prince 
formed a fcheme of attacking and driving them from that 

When he had begun the attack, contrary to his expec- 
tation he found the enemy already formed ; but it was now 
impoffible to recede. The action grew every moment 
more furious and bloody. The French flood their ground 
with firmnefs, and the main army being extremely near, 
initead of being wafted in the action, they grew more nu- 
merous by the reinforcements that were continually fent. 

In this fituation it was neceffary that the Prince fliould 
make as fpeedy a retreat as poflible ; but the difficulty of 
drawing out of the field in the middle of the day, before an 
enemy quite frefh, and every inftant reinforced, may be 
eafily imagined. Tocompleat this difficulty, fome bodies 
of the German troops, both horfe and foot, fell into great 
confufion. The enemy faw it at the firft glance, and, to 
increafe it to the utmoft diforder, pufhed forward upon 
them with a numerous artillery and a large body of cavalry. 
The allied army feemed to be in the way of inevitable ruin. 

In this exigence the Hereditary Prince, as his laft re- 
fource, put himfelf at the head of a fquadron of Bland's 
and Howard's regiments of dragoons. By thefe the un- 

1760. The History of the War. 351 

common heroifm of their young leader was perfectly fe- 
conded. They charged the enemy with the utmoft fury, 
(topped the career of their victorious horfe ; and enabled 
the allied battalions to make an undifturbed retreat. 

The Hereditary Prince was wounded in this action ; 
about nine hundred men were killed, wounded, or prifoners, 
fifteen pieces of cannon, the whole of the artillery, was left 
to the enemy, but dill in their circumftances to have avoided 
a total defeat, was in fome fort victory. The well-timed 
impetuofity of the Hereditary Prince, and the fpirit of the 
Englifh horfe, could not be too highly praifed. The Prince 
retired to the main army of the allies, who had now poiTe^- 
fed themfelves of the ltrong pod of Saxenhaufen: whilfr. 
the French continued oppofite to them in the no lefs ftrong 
pod: of Corbach, which they had acquired by their victory; 
and here for fome time they watched each other. 

The Hereditary Prince fuffered more by this check than 
from the wounds he had received. His mind, forgetful of 
his pain and weaknefs, only brooding over his defeat, feek- 
ing out with anxiety an opportunity of revenging his lofs 
by fome bold, fignal, and unexpected llroke againft. the 
enemy. It was not long before an opportunity prefented 

Advice had been received, that among the detachments 
which the French employed to reduce thofe fortrefles 
which the allies had garrifoned on their retreat, there was 
one very confiderable, formed' of French and Saxon, under 
Monf. Glaubitz, moving towards Zigenhagen, a place of 
importance in the landgrave of Hefle. The Hereditary 
Prince undertook to relieve it, and for that pur- 
pofe fclecled fix battalions of the German troop?, July [4. 
two brigades of hunters, a regiment of huflars, 
and Flliot's light dragoons. Although thi^ laft corps was 
but juft arrived, had been newly railed, and had never feen 
any kind of fervice, the Prince was fo well pleafed with 
their countenance, that he chofe them preferably to all other 
for this difficult enterprise, and the event proved that he 
was not maftaken. 

Monf. Glaubitz remained in the mod perfect fecurity; 
he was under no fort of apprehenfion of being molefted 
by a detachment of an army flxty miles diftant, under 
the eye, and as it were, guard of a fuperior body which 


2$Z The History of the War. 1760. 

demanded all its attention; when, on a fudden, he 
July 16. found himfelf attacked with the utmoft violence. 

The Hereditary Prince having reconnoitred his 
pofition, made a detour of two leagues through woods and 
mountains, fell upon his left, whilft the reft of his troops 
climbed the mountains on the oppofite fide, and rufhed 
with the fame fpirit upon the right. 

Glaubitz had fcarce time to form his troops; and they 
were only formed to be immediately broken. They retired 
with precipation, leaving their camp and all it contained 
to the enemy. The Prince had fo difpofed his cavalry as 
to cut off the retreat of fome ; but the moft confiderable 
part gained ground upon him. On this occafion he relied 
entirely on Elliot's horfe, as it was altogether impoffible 
for the infantry, already haraffed by the action, and a mod 
fatiguing forced march of two days, to follow them. At 
the head of this horfe he overtook the fugitives as they came 
out of a wood, charged and broke them five different times, 
feparated a body of five hundred from the reft, furrounded 
them, and obliged them to throw down their arms. Hav- 
ing routed this, with the like rapidity, he flew to another 
body who had taken poft near a wood, furrounded them in 
the fame manner; fummoned and received them all priso- 
ners of war. A regiment of the enemy's hufTars was en- 
tirely cut to pieces. Nothing was wanting to compleat his 
victory. Elliot's light horfe, proud to be led on by the 
Prince himfelf, and worthy of that honour, had the greateft 
fhare of the glory and fufferings of that day. So young a 
corps had never fo eminently diftinguifhed itfelf. No more 
than feventy-nine of the allies were killed in this action, but 
of thefe feventy-one were of this fingle regiment. 

The numbers of the enemy killed is not known, but for a 
time the (laughter was terrible. General Glaubitz himfelf 
was made prifoner, together with the Prince of Anhalt. 
There were befides one hundred and feventy-feven officers, 
and twenty-four hundred and eighty-two private men. A 
greater number of prifoners could fcarcely be expected from 
a victory in a general engagement. The trophies were nine 
pair of colours and fix pieces of cannon. In all the Petite 
Guerre cf this campaign, (and the campaign between the 
French and the allies was almcft wholly made up of fuch,) 
this was by far the moft brilliant action; and alone might 
have eftablifhed the reputation of the Hereditarv Prince, 

' ' if 

1760. STie History of the War* 353 

if any thing had been wanting toeftablifh him the fiift man 
of his age, in that fpecies of war. He returned to the 
camp of Saxervhaufen, without moleftation, having fully 
revenged the affair of Corbach. 

Prince Ferdinand did not remain long after this action in 
his camp at Saxenhaufen. By fo advanced a pofition, the 
landgraviate, and even Hanover, lay too open to. the enemies 
incurfions. He therefore took his camp at a place called 
Kalle,ina fituation nearer to Ca-ffel. On this Marihal Broglio 
formed a plan, which the greatnefs of Jiis army in feme 
fort enabled him to execute. The Chevalier de Muy, who 
commanded in the room of the Count St. Germain, was 
ordered to crofs the Dymel at Statbergen, with his referve> 
confiding of thirty five thoufand men, in order to cut off 
the allies from their communication with Weftphalia, Whilft 
the reft of the French, dividing themfelves into two bodies, 
moved, the main army under Marfhal Broglio towards Duke 
Ferdinand's camp at Kalle, the referve under Prince Xavier 
of Saxony towards Caffel. 

Thefe important movements obliged Prince Ferdinand to 
fet himfelf alfo in motion ; and as he was not in a condition to 
make detachments of fufficientftrehgth, he croffed the Dymel 
with his grand army, in order to fight the Chevalier de Muy. 

Plis Serene Highnefs formed his main body on t. 
the heights of Corbach, and moved towards the ** j j • 
enemy, who were advantageoufly ported near Warbourg ; 
in the mean time the Hereditary Prince with two columns 
wheeled round the enemy's left, and began a vigorous at- 
tack at once upon that flank, and upon their rear. The 
French commander poured reinforcements into that quarter. 
An hot engagement was there maintained with equal obfti- 
nacy for near four hours. Whilft this combat continued 
with uncertain fortune on the left, Prince Ferdinand caufed 
fome bodies to file off towards the French bridges on the 
Dymel to their right, by which he propofed to attack alfo 
on that fide, and intercept them on their retreat ; at the 
fame time the main of his army advanced with the qtmoff 
expedition to charge the enemy in front. 

The French now faw themfelves in the moft imminent 
danger of being furrounded. Already their left, attacked 
in flank and rear by the Hereditary Prince, began to give 
way : his fire became every moment fuperior \ and the ear- 
lieft retreat was the fafeft. 

A a As 

354 The History of the War. 1760. 

As foon as Prince Ferdinand perceived the enemy to re- 
tire, he faw it abfolutely in vain to think of bringing his 
infantry upon their front. The Englifh cavalry alfo, upon 
which he chiefly confided, was too diftant to give almoft 
any hope that they could be made to aft. But the Englifli 
cavalry out-did his expectations, and indeed all former ex- 
amples. They confidered themfelves as defrauded of their 
fhare of the glory of Minden: and they panted for an oc- 
cafion of fignalizing their courage ; and their commanders, 
Lord Granby and Moftyn, forwarded their ardour, knowing 
that great a&ions are commonly tranfgreffions of ordinary rules. 

They came up five miles on a full trot, (the Germans 
called it a gallop) without being blown, without the leaft 
confufion or diforder, and attacked the enemies cavalry and 
infantry feveral times. The greateft part of the enemies 
horfe fell back and did not ftand the charge. The Englifh 
artillery were brought up with the fame furprifing quick- 
nefs, and employed with the fame powerful effect. Captain 
Philips had done more with artillery than had been thought 
poffible at Minden ; and he exceeded it at Warbourg. 
The Englifh foot vied with the cavalry and artillery, and 
made fuch earneft efforts to come to action, that in drain- 
ing their paffage through moraffy ground and in burning 
weather, feveral foldiers dropped down on their march. 
But they were too late to engage, and probably in their 
wafted condition it was well that it fo happened. 

The French made a precipitate retreat towards Stadbergen ; 
feveral were drowned in paffing the Dymel ; fifteen hundred 
were left on the field of battle ; as many were made priso- 
ners. Ten pieces of cannon were taken ; but they confoled 
themfelves in having loft no colours. The lofs of the allied 
army in general has not been, that I can find, publifhed. 
That of the Englifh in killed, wounded, and miffing, was 
five hundred and ninety, but then the battle lay chiefly on 
them, and the killed included in that number, were but 
about one hundred and thirty (a). 

(a) Prince Ferdinand of Brunfwick's Letter to his Majefly,par- 
ticularifing the Battle of Warbourg. 

SIR, PFarbourg, Aug. I. 

IHave the honour of acquainting your Majefty with the defeat 
of the referve under the Chevalier ide Muy -, who having pafted 


1760. The History of the War. $$5 

So brilliant a fuccefs following clofe on the heels of the 
former, raifed the reputation of the allied arms. As con- 
fiderable an advantage might have well been expe&ed from 


the Dymel at Stadbergen, extended his corps down the banks of 
that river, in order to cut me off from Wejlphalia, whilir M. de 
Broglio was advancing with his main army towards my camp at 
Kalle, and Prince Xa<vier with his referve, on our left tpwards 
CaJJel. Hereupon I determined to leave General Rieltnanfegge 
with a body of troops at Cajjel for the protection of that city, and 
to march niyfelf wich the army the night of the 30th, in order to 
pafs the Dymel between Liebenau and Dringelburg ; which was 
happily executed. The Hereditary Prince who had palfed the 
Dymel on the 29th, to go and reinforce General Sporcken (who was 
poited fince the 28th between Liebenau and Corbeke) reconnoitred 
the poiition of the Chevalier de Muy> who, from the 30th in the 
morning, was in pofTeffion of a very advantageous camp between 
Warbourg and Ochfendorff. It was agreed, that the Prince and 
M.Sporcke fhould turn the enemy's left, whilft I advanced with the 
army upon their front , which was done with all poflible fuccefs | 
the enemy being attacked almoft in the fame inftant by M. Sporcke 
and the Hereditary Prince in flank and in rear. As the infantry 
of the army could not march fait enough, to charge at the fame 
time, I ordered my Lord Granby to advance with the cavalry of 
the right. The Englijh artillery got up on a gallop, and feconded 
the attack in a furprifing manner. All the troops have done well, 
and particularly the Englijh. The French cavalry, though very 
numerous, retreated, as foon as ours advanced to charge them, 
excepting only three fquadrons *, that kept their ground, but 
were foon broke. A part of the Englijh cavalry then fell upon 
the enemy's infantry, which furfered extremely; and particularly 
the regiment of Lockman Sivifs. I ordered an attack to be made 
on the town of Warbourg by the Legion Britannique ; and the 
enemy finding themfelves thus attacked upon their two flanks, in 
front and rear, retired with the utmoft precipitation, and with 
the lofs of many men, as well from the fire of our artillery, as 

* [A fquadron of French horfe when complete, is one hundred 
and iixty men, of dragoons one hundred and eighty. — This ferves 
to confirm what Colonel Sloper faid on hovdGeorge Sack^ville's trial, 
That had the front of the cavalry moved fan: enough to have obliged 
the regiment he commanded to have galloped, it was his opinion 
it would have come up fit for bufinefs, and would have beat any 
three French fquadrons it could have met with.] 

A a 2 from 

356 *Tke History of the War. 1760. 

it ; but according to the ufual play of fortune in this war, 
the firfr account that followed the defeat of lo large a part 
of the French army, was, that with a rapid and unrefifted 


from the attacks of the cavalry. Many were drowned in the 
Dymel in attempting to ford it. The enemy's lofs in men is very 
confiderable: I cannot exactly afcertain it, but it is iuppofed that 
they have left fifteen hundred men upon the field of battle j and 
the amount of the prifoners we have made, probably exceeds that 
number. We have taken ten pieces of cannon, with fome colours. 
The lofs on our fide is very moderate, and falls chiefly upon the 
brave battalion of Max<welVs Englifb grenadiers, which did won- 
ders. Colonel Beck<witb, who commanded the brigade, formed 
of Englijh grenadiers and Scotch Highlanders, diftinguifhed him- 
felf greatly, and has been wounded in his head. 

My Lord Granby, with the Englijh cavalry, has contributed 
extremely to the fuccefs of the day. I charge Capt. Faucitt, his 
Lord/hip's Aid-de-Camp, with this letter, to be delivered to your 
Majefty, and to give your Majefty a more particular account of 
the action from his own mouth, till I can have the honour of lay- 
ing at your Majefty's feet a more extenlive and circumtiantial re- 

/ arriy "with the mojl profound refped, 

Sir, your Majefly's moji obedient coufin and fervant, 

Ferdinand Due de Brunfivic & de Lunebourg. 

T^he Marquis of Granbys Letter to the Earl of Holder neffe. 

IT is with the greatefr, fatisfaclion, that I have the honour of 
acquainting your Lordfhip of the fuccefs of the Hereditary 
Prince yefterdav morning. 

General Spore ken's corps marched from the camp at Kalle Lie- 
benau y about four in the afternoon of the 29th ; the Hereditary 
Prince followed, the fame evening, with a body of troops, among 
which were two Englijh battalions of grenadiers, the two of 
Highlanders, and four fquadrons of Dragoons, Cope's and Con- 

The army was under arms all the day on the 30th ; and about 
eleven at'night, marched off in fix columns to Liebenau. About 
five the next morning, the whole army afTembled, and formed 
on the heights of Corbeke. The Hereditary Prince was, at this 
time, marching in two columns, in order to turn the enemy's 
left flank ; which he did, by marching to Donhelburg, leaving 
Klein-Eder on his left, and forming in two lines, with his left 



1760. The HrsTORY of the War. 357 

tide of fuccefs, they had reduced Gaffe!, Eimbach, and 
Ziegenhayn ; by which they became matters of the whole 
laridgraviate of He fie ; that they had pufhed into the king's 


towards Dojfel, and his right near Grimbeck, oppoiite to the 
left flank of the enemy, whofe pofition was, with the left to the 
high hill near QJJendorff, and their right to Warbourg, into which 
place they had riung Fifchers corps. The Hereditary Prince im- 
mediately attacked the enemy's flank; and after a very fharp dif- 
pute, obliged them to give way ; and, by a continual fire, kept 
forcing them to fall back upon Warbourg. The army was, at 
this time, marching with the greater! diligence to attack the 
enemy in front; but the infantry could not get up in time; Ge- 
neral l¥aldegra<ve, at the head of the Britijh, preffed their march 
as much as poffible; no troops could fnew more eagernefs to get 
up, than they fhewed. Many of the men, from the heat of the 
weather, and over-flraining themfelves ro get on, through morally 
and very difficult ground, dropped down on their march. 

General Moftyn, who was at the head of the Britijh cavalry, 
that was formed on the right of our infantry, on the other fide of 
a large wood, upon receiving the Duke's orders to come up with 
the cavalry as faft as poffible, made fo much expedition, bringing 
them up at a full trot, though the diftance was near five miles, 
that the Britijh cavalry had the happinefs to arrive in time, to 
fhare the glory of the day, having fuccefstully charged feveral 
times both the enemy's cavalry and infantry. 

I fhould do injuftice to the general officers, to every officer and 
private man, of the cavalry, if I did not beg your lord/hip would 
affure his majefty, that nothing could exceed their gallant beha- 
viour on that occafion. 

Captain Philips made fo much expedition with his cannon, an 
to have an opportunity, by a fevere cannonade, to oblige thofe 
who had palled the Dymel, and were formed on the other fide, to 
retire with the utmoft precipitation. 

1 received his Serene Highnefs's orders yefterday in the evening, 
to pafs the river after them, with twelve Britip battalions, and 
ten fiquadrons ; and am now encamped upon the heights of Wilda y 
about four miles from Warbourg, on the heights of which their 
grand army is encamped. 

M. de Muy \$ now retiring from the heights of Volkmi]Jen,w\\tY& 
he lay under arms laft night, towards Wolfjhagen. I cannot give 
your lordfhip an account of the lofs on either fide. Capt. Faueitt y 
whom I fend off with this, iliall get all intelligence he can upon 
this head before he lets off. 

/ atp, fcf *. G R A N B Y, 

25% The History of the War. 1760. 

territories, feized upon Gottingen and Munden, and threat- 
ened Hanover itfelf. In fhort, almofr. the worft confe- 
quences which could have arifen from a defeat followed a 

victory ; 

P. S. Saturday morning fix o'clock. I have juft joined the 
grand army with my detachment. 

[Capt. Faucitt arrived at London in the afternoon Augujl 8, and 
according to a ihort account of this action publiihed in a gazette- 
extraordinary in the afternoon of the 9th, M. Muyh corps was fup- 
poied to be upwards of thirty-five thoufand men; the Hereditary 
Prince's corps, when joined to that of General Sporcken, confifted of 
twenty-four battalions and twenty-two fquadrons.] 

Total lofs fuftained in the cavalry, in killed, wounded and mif- 
fing, one hundred and fixty-four. Total lofs fuftained in the gre- 
nadiers and Highlanders in killed, wounded and milling, four hun- 
dred and fifteen. Bombardiers, gunners, and matrorfes, killed, 
wounded and miffing, eleven. Total five hundred and ninety. 

His Serene Highnefs Prince Ferdinand's Orders after the Battle. 

Warhourg Camp, Friday, Augujl 1, 1760. 
HIS Serene Highnefs again renews the compliments of thanks, 
that he gave in general terms yefterday to the generals, officers, 
regiments, and corps, who were then engaged, and who, by their 
valour and excellent conduct, gained fo complete a victory over 
the enemy ; and orders his thanks to be publlckly given to Lord 
Granby, under whofe orders the Britijb cavalry performed pro- 
digies of valour, which they could not fail of doing, having his 
Lordiliip at their head, and the other general officers of the Britijb 
cavalry, who, by their examples, mewed the troops they led to the 
charge, how much they aded with an afioniiliing courage, and a 
pretence of mind not to be equalled. His Serene Highnefs is 
much obliged to them, and gives infinite thanks as well to them, 
as to all the officers in general, and in particular to the whole 
Britijb cavalry, and principally to Lieutenant-, olonel John/on of 
Gmfwafs regiment- the family of Lord Granby, in particular 
Captain Vazghan, are hereby defi red to receive the fame compli- 
. ment oi thanks, as they constantly attended Lord Granby in the 
different attacks of the cavalry/ and executed his Lordihip's 
orders in the moll: punctual manner. 

The corps of brave grenadiers, who fo much contributed to 
the glorious fuccefs of the day, receive by this the juft praife 
due to them. His Serene Highnefs cannot enough acknowledge 
how much efteem and regard he has for them: He orders his bell 
thanks to Lieutenant-Colonel Beckivitb and Major Max-well, as 


BrurLSwickLunenburg . \jjfro. 

1760. The History of the War. 359 

vi&ory ; and whilft in England we gave loofe to our joy on 
the fuccefs of our arm«, the French were taking the moil 
important places of our allies. 

The fa£t was, that Prince Ferdinand mufl have been fen- 
fible, that in quitting his camp at Kalle, and taking port to 
the northward of the Dymel, he, in a great meafure, laid, 
open Caflel and the whole territory of HelTe to the French; 
nay, that by this movement nothing was left to hinder their 
entering the Hanoverian dominions on the right of the 
Wefer. But notwithstanding thefe rifques, the ftep he 


alfo to the three Captains of the Britijh artillery, Phillips, M'Baine 
and Stevens, who fo well managed their artillery. All the re^ 
giments under the command of his Serene Highnefs the Hereditary 
Prince, and Lieutenant General Sporcken, from the Generals down 
to the private men, are particularly thanked by his Serene High- 
nefs, for the good conduct and courage with which they fought 

Major-General Bredenheck, at the head of Cope's regiment, 
who fignalized himfelffo much, is efpecially thanked, as is Colo- 
nel Hund of the Hejfian artillery, by whofe care his artillery was 
fo well managed. 

Major Bulow, with the Britijh Legion, manoeuvred the whole 
day in the face of the enemy, and who did them infinite damage, 
his Serene Highnefs returns him many thanks, and allures him that 
he (hall, on all occafions, retain a proper fenfe thereof. In fine, 
his Serene Highnefs gives many thanks to thofe who accompanied 
his perfon, as well as thofe of his fuite, particularly to the brave 
Capt. Winfenrood, who is very much wounded ; Capt. Carpenter^ 
greatly contributed to the taking of feveral of the enemy's cannon 5 
Count Daunanu, who was inftru mental in making prifoners a great 
number of Fifcher's corps ; Capt. Sloper, Major of brigade Hor- 
dinburg ; and Capt. Mallortie ; who, at all times, executed with 
alacrity and exactnefs the orders they received from him. 

His Serene Highnefs defires that on the firft occafion the army 
will return thanks to the Almighty for the fuccefs of yefterday, 
and flatters himfelf that, by his aiTiftance and the bravery ihewed 
yefterday, we fliall in the end overcome every obftacle that offers. 

Warhourg Camp i Saturday, Auguf 2, 1760. 
His Serene Highnefs orders that a particular compliment he 
made to Lieutenant-Colone! Sloper, for his behaviour and bravery 
in the affair of the 3 1 £ t of July : he likewife defires his thanks to 
be given to Lieutenant-Colonel Clinton, a&ing as aid-de-camp to 
his Serene Highnefs the Hereditary Prince, 

A a 4 took 

360 T'be History of the War. 1760. 

took was prudent, and even neceffary. Had he differed the 
progrefs of the Chevalier de Muy, on the Dymel; bad he 
permitted him to drengthen his pods upon that river, his 
communication whh Wedphalia had been inevitably cut off, 
and of courfe his fphere of fubddence greatly dreighlened. 
It would 1 ave had a worfe effect. For he mud have en- 
tirely 1-jfl- the command of the Wefer, without which he 
could not have frood his ground a moment; and he \ould 
on t'hatlofs have found himfelf compelled to retire into the 
heart of fianover, where he mud neceffarily be dreightened 
in his winter cantonments, and where a blow of any confe- 
rence mud be decifive againd him. e 

He therefore fought the battle of Warbourg though he 
loft all Fleffe by his victory ; and he would not quit his pods 
on the Dymel, though he faw Gottingen and Munden in 
the hands of the French. He was not to be frighted from 
his deady and well chofen plan, by vain rumours or threat- 
ening appearances. He was by no means in a condition to 
rnake large detachments; it was therefore neceffary to fa- 
crifice fomething; and he made the fmalled facrifice that 
circumdances would admit. For he forefaw that the French 
army whild he kept his podtion on the Dymel, could not 
pcffibi.y take up their quarters in Hanover, or even a£t there 
in any condderable body, and for any condderable time, 
without fubje£ting themfelves to the fame or greater incon- 
veniencies than thofe to which he would have been himfelf 
liable, had he, in defending Hefle, fuffered them to occupy 
thofe critical pods on the Dvmel. He knew farther, that it 
would prove extremely dangerous for them to hazard them- 
felves beyond Gottingen; and that it would be more diffi- 
cult for the French army to fupport themfelves in that ad- 
vanced pod, than for him to annoy them there. 

It is poflible that reaions fcmewhat like the foregoing, to- 
gether with others probably far more cogent, might have 
determined that great commander to this conduct. But 
whild he fecured that middle communication, and a£ted up- 
on the defensive plan, the troops were not idle ; hisdetach- 
ments acled in many parts with fpjrit and effect. But we 
muft defer for a while the narrative of thefe actions, being 
called from this part of the theatre to the eadern parts of 
Germany, where, about this time, fceiies of greater eclat 
were opened, 

C H A I\ 

1760. ''The History of the War. g6i 


Laudohn blocks up Schweidnitz. Ruffians enter Silejta. March 
of the King of Pruffia from Saxony to Lignitz. function 
of the Aufrian armies in Silefa. The Ruffianr pafs the 
Oder. Flan of Mar foal Dfiun. Laudohn defeated near 
Lignitz. Daun forms the blockade of Schweidnitz. Com- 
pelled to raife it. Action between General Hulfen and the 
army of the Empire. Intercepted letter from the King of 
Pruffia to the Marquis of Argens, 

FROM the time that the King of Pruffia found himfelf 
compelled to raife the fiege of Drefden, it was evident 
that he could have no hopes of acting in Saxony to 3ny good 
purpofe. The bufy part of the campaign came on fail. 
Though Prince Henry had obliged Laudohn to retire from 
Breflau ; that general, able, and lately victorious, was rt ill 
formidable ; he kept Neiffe and Schweidnitz blocked up ; 
and wanted to effect a junction with the Ruffians, by which 
he propoied to give the final blow to the king's power in 
Silefia. The Ruffians had now actually arrived in the fron- 
tier parts of that province, and wanted but a very few days 
eafy march to compieat that fatal and long dreaded junction. 
At the fame time another body of Ruffians had penetrated 
into Pomerania ; laid all the defencelefs parts under contri- 
bution, and threatened the fiege of Colberg. The Swedifh 
army, faid to conilft of twenty-two thoufand men, com- 
menced alio, tho' with lefs vigour, their operations. In 
all that country the King of Pruffia had not five thoufand 
men to oppofe them. 

In thefecircumftances a plan of mere defence would have 
proved altogether without effect. The King of Pruffia had 
but two armies ; and it was neceffary that one of them, at 
leaff, mould make the moil rapid and fudden movements to 
oppofe fo many combinations. On the fide of Silefia the 
danger feemed more prefling, and accordingly he 
marched to its relief; advanced near two hundred July 30. 
miles, and left Marfhal Daun, who had confider- 
ably the ftart, far behind him. This march would have 
been thought an aitonifhing exploit in a partizan at the 
head of a fmall and difencumbered corps ; but that a nume- 
rous army, clogged with its artillery, with above two thou- 
fand waggons, mould, in that time, traverfe fuch a fpaee. 


362 tfhe History of the War. 1760. 

fliould pafs the Elbe, the Spree, the Neiffe, the Queifs, and 
the Bober, five confiderable rivers ; that they fhould effect 
all this, with one army of the enemy on one fide of its 
flanks, another behind, and with a third in its front (the 
actual pofition of the Auftrians in Lufatia) was an action re- 
served for, and only to be expected from the King of Pruf- 
fia. The attempt itfelf could have been juftified only by 
rteceffity ; and the necefllty was urgent. The Ruffians ap- 
proached. Marmal Daun followed towards Silefia ; and the 
king could hardly promife himfelf fuccefs, but from a march 
cf fuch rapidity, as might enable him to try his fortune 
with General Laudohn, before the triple junction he appre- 
hended had made his enemies irrefiftable. But notwith- 
ifanding the hopes conceived from this march, before the 
king could come to an action three bodies of Auftrians had 
joined, Laudohn's, Daun's, and Lacy's ; and extending 
ihemfelves along the Katfbach, a river which falls into the 
Oder, occupied all the ground from Parchwitz to Coflen- 
dau, a fpace of little lefs than thirty Englifh miles. But in 
this extent their ports were every where flrong, and their 
communications eafy. The king's camp was at Lignitz. 
It was in vain that for feveral days he attempted, by various 
devices, to detach one body of the enemy from the reft, or 
to turn their flanks and attack them at difadvantage. The 
nature of the ground or the (kill of the oppofite generals al- 
ways difappointed him. 

At length Marfhal Daun took himfelf the offenfive party. 
The advantage of his fituation, and the fuperiority of his 
numbers, prevailed over his cautious nature to rifque an at- 
tack. It was therefore refolved, after the fituation of Lig- 
nitz had been well reconnoitred, all circumftances maturely 
weighed, and the defign communicated to the other generals, 
to attempt the King of Pruffia in his camp, with the united 
ftrength of the three armies. To enfure fuccefs beyond a 
doubt, it was determined that this atempt fhould be made 
by furprize, and therefore in the night. Maifhal Daun re- 
membered the bad guard which had been kept by ihe Pruf- 
iians ; and the advantage, which, in the year 1 7 58, he. de- 
rived from a night attack at the battle of Hochkirchen. 

In confequence of this plan the whole army, as foon as 
}t mould begin to grow dark, was to march from their feve- 
ral pofts to fuch fituations as were marked out for each corps; 
they were to ftrike their tents 5 but yet to keep up the fires 


1760. The History of the War. 36$ 

in their camps, and to have the drums beat the tattoo as 

Some time after Marlhal Daun had begun to move, to 
his aftonifhment the patroles he had fent out returned with 
the account, that they had met no out-pofts. As foon as 
day broke, and the army had advanced, their apprehenfions 
were confirmed. They were difappointed in their defign, 
there was no enemy in the camp ; but when they call their 
eyes from thence, they could perceive at a diftance the rifing 
of a thick fmoke, which left them no room to doubt that 
their fortune was then on the poirit of decifion, by a part of 
their forces only, and that the king and Baron Laudohn 
were at that moment hotly engaged ; Daun could only look 
on and wait the event. 

On the 13th of July the king was in his camp at Lignitz, 
when he received advice that the Ruffian army of twenty- 
four thoufand men, under Count Czernichew, had thrown 
bridges over the Oder, at a place called Auras, and that they 
were to pafs the river on that very day. He fufpe&ed alfo, 
that the enemy had formed the defign of a general attack. 
Troops which have been a long time oppofed to each other 
can reciprocally guefs at each other's defigns ; the method 
ufed by the enemies generals grow familiar, and the leaft 
motion they make difclofes their defigns. 

This is the account the Prufiians gave of the means by 
which they came to a knowledge of Marihal Daun's pro- 
jects. The Auftrians attributed this difcovery, not to the 
Prufiian fagacity, but to the intelligence given by deferters. 
Whatever the means were by which the King of PrufTia 
became fufpicious of this defign, it is certain, that he took 
the moft early, the moft vigorous, and the mod erTe&ive 
meafures to defeat it. He was thoroughly fenfible of the 
danger he ran of being furrounded, if he continued in his 
poft at Lignitz ; out of that very defign, which was calcu- 
lated for his ruin, his genius drew a new means of fafety. 
He faw at a glance, that the plan which the enemy had 
formed to furround him, at the fame time neceffarily di- 
vided their own armies. And this divifion was the great ob- 
ject he had purfued fo long, and thro' fuch difcouraging dif~ 
appointments. His only builnefs was to prevent their reunit- 
ing in a general attack upon his quarters. Therefore in the 
very evening calculated for the attempt on his camp, he 
quitted it with as much privacy as the enemy had prop ofci 


364 The History of the War. 1760. 

to attack it, marched, and took an advantageous poft on the 
way through which Laudohn was to pafs. 

And now the decifive hour approached, in which he was 
to put to the rifque as great a flake as had been played for 
fince the beginning of the war. No vulgar advantage 
would luffice in his fituation, and that very fituation in fome 
fort difabled him from attaining a great one. After four 
bloody campaigns, and the vicifhtudes of a fuccefs in all its 
changes exhaufting> his old corps was nearly annihilated. 
TThofe who fucceeded to their places, had fcarcely feen the 
brilliant times of the king's fortune ; and they inherited 
neither the fevere discipline, nor the undaunted fpirit of the 
firft companions of his hopes ; they were new to fervice, yet - 
diipirited with defeats. The king himfelf gave life to the 
whole, he alone was to rectify a thoufand faults, and to fup- 
p!y a thoufand deficiencies. 

The poft which he chofe, was fuch, as whiift it (topped 
the progrefs of Laudohn in front, if Daun mould attempt 
his rear, would, from the nature of the ground, lay him un- 
der great difficulties. This rear he further ftrengthened 
with feveral batteries. As foon as his army was drawn up, 
he divided it, leaving his right on the ground, where it had 
been formed to obferve Marfhal Daun and to maintain that 
poft ; whilft, with his left, he turned in order to fall upon 
the corps under Laudohn. No difpofitions could have been 
made with a more perfect fkill. 

Mean time Laudohn was advancing faft to the fnare 
which had been laid for him. Already he had pafted the 
Ka.tfbach, and was moving towards Lignitz, full of the 
hopes of no fmall (hare in the glory of giving the final blow 
to the King of PrufTia, and had advanced as far as the vil- 
lage of Pfaffendcrf, when by three in the morning, the day- 
light began to dawn ; a thick fog that had covered all the 
adjacent grounds fuddenly cleared up, and, like the opening 
of a great fcene, difclofed at once the whole Pruffian army, 
regularly embattled, advantageoufly pofted, fumifhed with 
a dreadful and well-placed artillery. 

He was now come full upon his enemy. It 
Aug. 15. was impofiible to recede ; the furprize he intend- 
ed was turned upon himfelf. But this able gene- 
ral, thojugh furprifed, was not difordered. The beft difpo- 
fitions were made that the time would admit ; a (harp and 
obftinate combat began ; which continued without giving 


1760. The History of the War: ^r 

way on either fide, until fix. The King of Pruflla exerted 
himfelf with incredible diligence to preferve an uniform 
ftrength in every part of his line, and hazarded his own life 
with a boldnefs, which nothing but his fituation could 
excufe. His clothes were fhot through in feveral places, 
his horfe was killed under him. But all thefe trou- 
bles and dangers were fully compenfated by the efforts of 
his troops, who maintained fo fteady a fire, and pufhed the 
Auftrians with fo much ardour, that they at laftgave ground, 
and retreated with precipitation, though not withoijt fome 
order, towards the Katfbach. 

The king purfued them to this river, and no further. His 
advantage, as it was gained by the mod vigorous fteps, fo 
bounds were fet to the ardour of improving it with the moll 
guarded caution. He feared, if. he purfued his fuccefs too 
far, it might disjoin the part of the army engaged from t h r. t 
which he had left to obferve Marfhal Daun; and perhaps 
give that general an opportunity of taking a fevere revenge 
on the right, for the fucceffes of the left. Notwithstanding 
this referve of the king, (a referve, the want of which was 
formerly the only failing in his military character, but 
which his misfortunes had now perfectly taught him,) not- 
withflanding, I fay he did not pufh his good fortune again!!: 
Baron Laudohn to the utmoft, the victory was complete, 
glorious, and adorned with all the trophies. By their own 
confeflion, the Auftrians loft upwards of fix thoufand men, 
killed, wounded and priibners. The Pruffians made it a- 
mount, and not without probability, to ten thoufand. A- 
mong the prifoners, were two generals, and eighty-four of- 
ficers ; eighty-two pieces of cannon and twenty-three pair 
of colours were taken. On the fide of the conquerors, five 
hundred were killed, and twelve hundred wounded. 

With regard to Silefia, the victory Bear Lignitz produced 
fome moil immediate, and moil: ufeful effects. Although 
Marfhal Daun, not difpirited with his late mifad venture, 
and only folicitous to repair his lofs, had detached a iltong 
corps under Prince Lowenftein, and Gen. Beck to ftrength- 
en the Ruffans, and encourage them to advance, Count 
Czernichew was Jo intimidated with the late defeat of the 
Auftrians, that he repaired the Oder by the fame bridges on 
which he had lately croffed it. 

Thus one great end of the King of PrufuVs march was 
obtained. Fie prevented the dreaded junction of thofe two 


366 Tbe History of the War. 1760. 

powers. In the other part of his defign, he did not fo per- 
fectly fucceed. MarfhalDaun, fince the aCtion of Pfaften- 
dorf, could indeed make no progrefs in Silefia ; but on the 
other hand, the king was not able entirely to drive him out 
of that province. The Auftrians even after their defeat, far 
fuperior to the king, had been befides greatly reinforced. 
The Emprefs exerted all her power, to remove the ill effe£t 
this late check might have had on the reputation of her arms ; 
at the fame time that (he augmented her troops, (he com- 
forted and encouraged Baron Laudohn, and by a very gene- 
rous and gracious letter let him fee, that fhe was not a fove- 
reign, in whofe mind a late misfortune cancels the memory 
of paft fervices. In the praifes which this letter beftowed 
on Laudohn, feveral were of opinion, was couched an in- 
direct cenfure on the conduct of Count Daun, the flownefs 
of whofe temper fo ill agreed with the ardour of her am- 
bition, and with thefe great hopes, which the number of 
her forces, and the ftrength of her alliance had encouraged 
her to entertain. 

The king after this victory joined his brother Prince 
Henry at Newmarcke. One part of that prince's army un- 
der General Goltze had paffed the Oder to obferve the 
Ruffians, who, fince the repafling that river, feemed to di- 
rect their motions northward. The king being flrengthened 
by this junction, and having his communication with Breflau 
clear, marched againfi: Daun, who had begun to form the 
blockade of Schweidnitz, fell upon a corps under General 
Beck ; made two battalions of Croats prifoners, difperfed 
feveral fquadrons, and by this lively affair obliged the enemy's 
grand army to raife the blockade, and by a precipitate re- 
treat, to take refuge in the mountains of Landfhut. 

Whilft his majefty was thus exerting the moft heroic ef- 
forts in defence of Silefia ; Gen. Hulfen, who commanded 
for him in Saxony, feconded his endeavours in that quarter 
with uncommon bravery and fuccefs. The army of the 
Empire had formed a defign of cutting him off from Tor- 
gau. To fruftrate their intentions, that general quitted his 
camp at Meiffen, and marched to Strehla, The enemy 
divided into two bodies ; one attacked an advanced pod a- 
bout a cannon (hot from his camp upon every fide, with 

the greateft fury from day break to fix in the 
Aug. 20. morning, whilfl another corps was fo placed as 

to keep his camp in awe, and to prevent his at- 

1760. The History of the War. 367 

tempting any thing for the relief of the advanced poft. Gen. 
Hulfen faw,that unlefs he could fpeedily do fomething for its 
fuccour, that body muft inevitably perifh. He therefore 
in his exigency, gave orders to his cavalry to make a circuit 
round an height; and to charge, if poflible, the enemies flank. 
This order was executed with the utmoft promptitude and 
fpirit. The Imperialists were charged on their flanks ; their 
battalions and borfe were thrown upon one another in con- 
fufion ; and forty-one officers and twelve hundred men 
were made prifoners. The lofs of the Pruffians was in- 
confiderable. Gen. Hulfen, by this advantage, was enabled 
to encamp under Torgau, while he retreated through an 
apprehenfion, as the grand army of the Imperialifts was 
coming up, that he might be cut off from his communi- 
cation with the Elbe. This retreat made the Aufrxians 
magnify the affair into a victory on their fide ; but the cir- 
cumftances render thePruflian account much more probable. 

Fortune feemed once more to have fmiled, after a long 
interval of gloom on the King of Pruffia's affairs ; and the 
reputation of his arms began to revive. But the victories 
he obtained, though glorious, were decifive of little more 
than the field upon which they were fought. They were 
far from having lowered the power of the enemy to an 
equality with his. And the movements he made to gain 
thofe advantages, and to protect one part of his dominions 
necefiarily expofed the reft. The enemy was able to detach 
without end ; and whilfi: bodies of Ruffians traverfed the 
Lower Silefia, feveral corps of Auftrians fcoured Lufatia; 
and thus together they broke off all regular communication 
between the king's army and his hereditary dominions, and 
of courfe between him and his General Hulfen, who, with 
very unequal forces, was Struggling to feture Saxony; a coun- 
try in which there are towns indeed fortified ; but fortified 
for the greater part in fuch a manner, as to be little mere 
than fnares for increafing the number of prifoners, by be- 
traying defencelefs garrifons into the hands of an enemy 
fuperior in the field. 

In this iituation, the king is (aid to have wrote a letter to 
the celebrated Marquis d'Argens (r), very pathetick, and 
very defcriptive of his condition, and of his frame of mind 
under thofe preflures. This letter is faid to have been in- 

(1) Author of the Jewifli Spy, &c. and now refident at Berlin. 

368 T'be History of the War. 1760. 

tercepted by a Ruffian detachment, and ir.duftrioufly fpread 
about in order to dif-ipirit his friends. On that account fome 
have fuipecled its authenticity. But the letter is furely 
highly conionant to hiscircumilances, and fufficiently agree- 
able to his general manner of writing : fo that we do not 
think ourfelves difpenfed from inferring it in this place. 

<e Formerly, my dear marquis, the affair of the 15th of 
*' Auguft would have decided a campaign. At prefent that 
<c action is no more than a fcratch ; a great battle muft de- 
" termine our fate. We mall have one, according to all 
«* appearances, very foon, and. then, if the event is ravour- 
ie able to us, we may rejoice. It required many ftrata- 
<e gems and much addrefs to bring things to thispafs. Don't 
<c talk to me of danger ; the laft action coll: me only a fuit 
" of clothes and a horfe. This is buying victory very 
f* cheap. 

?f I have not had the letter which you mention. We 
t( are in a manner blocked up, in regard to correspondence, 
" by the Ruffians on one fide the Oder, and by the Au- 
< c ftrians on the other. A fmall fkirmifh was necelfiary to 
< e clear the way for Cocceii (2) ; I hope that he will deli- 
" ver you my letter ; I never was, in the courfe of my life, 
6i in a more embarraifing Situation than in this campaign. 
ic Believe me, nothing lefs than a miracle is ftill necefTary 
' ci to extricate me from the difficulties that I forefee. I 
«' {hall certainly do my duty when occafion offers, but, my 
• 6 dear marquis, always remember that I pretend not to 
:e command fortune, and that I am obliged, in my pro- 
jects, to leave too much to chance, for want of being 
<c able to form any thing more folid. I have the labours of 
** a Hercules to undergo, at a time of life when my {fxength 
ii fails me, my infirmities increafe, and, tofpeak the truth, 
<( when hope, the only confolaiion of the unhappy, begins 
66 to defert me. You are not fufficiently acquainted with 
<( thecircumifances of affairs to have a clear idea of all the 
<c dangers which threaten the flate ; I know, but conceal 
i( them; I keep all my fears to myfelf, and only commu- 
" nicate to the public my hopes, or the little good news 

" that 

(2) The aid-de-camp, who was charged with this letter, and 
who came to England with the news of the above mentioned 
action : In our papers, it is tranflated Stage Coach, from the fimi- 
litude, probably, of the word Cocher. 

i.760. The History of the War. 369 

« that I can acquaint them with. If the blow that I me- 
** ditate fucceeds, then, my dear marquis, it will be time 
" enough to exprefs our joy : but till then, let us not flat- 
" ter ourfelves, for fear fome unexpected bad news mould 
" furprize us. 

" I lead here the life of a military monk. I have much 
" to think of about my affairs, and the reft of my time I 
*' devote to literature, which is my confolation, as it was 
" of the conful, the father of his country and of eloquence. 
" I know not if I ihall furvive this war, but I am deter- 
<c mined, in cafe it mould happen, to pafs the reft of my 
u days in retirement, in the bofom of philofophy and 
" friendfhip. 

" When our correfpondence (hall be more open, you'll 
" oblige me by writing more frequently. I know not where 
** we (hall have our winter-quarters. My houfes at Breflau 
** were deftroyed by the bombardment. Our enemies envy 
u us every thing, even day-light and the air that we breathe. 
€c They muft however leave us fome place, and if it is fafe, 
€i it will be a treat to receive you there. 

" Well, my dear marquis, what is become of the peace 
<c with France ? Your nation, you fee, is more blind, than 
" you imagined. Thofe fools lofe Canada, and Pondicher- 
cC ry, to pleafe the queen and the Czarina. Heaven grant 
w that Prince Ferdinand may well reward them for their 
*< zeal. The officers, innocent of thefe evils, and the fol- 
" diers, will be made the victims, and the illuftrious offen- 
«' ders will fufFer nothing. 

" Thefe are the fubje&s which offer themfelves to me. 
cc I was in a writing vein, but I fee that I muft conclude, 
u left I fhould tire you and neglect my own bufinefs. Adieu, 
" my dearejl marquis. / embrace you, &V." * 

* To authenticate the above it may be proper to add, i. That 
this letter was fliown at Bath and London by M. Cocceii himfelf. 
And, 2. That the copy here printed was fent to the tranflator by 
a friend at Magdeburg belonging to the court. 

B b CHAP. 

370 The History of the War. 1760. 


Situation of the French and Englijb armies. Hereditary 
Prince furprizes a body of French in Zierenberg. General 
BuIovj takes Marburgh. Defeated by Monfieur Stainville. 
General Wangenheim pafjes and is obliged to repafs the 
Wefer. French retire from Mulhaufen to CaJJel. Here- 
ditary Prince marches to the Rhine, paffes that river. Cleves 
taken. Wefel befteged. Englijh Expedition. M. Cajlries 
forms an army on the Rhine. Battle of Campen. Allies 
defeated. Hereditary Prince repajfes the Rhine. Siege 
of Wefel raifed. Death and eulogium of George the II. 
Acceffton of George III. and his refolution of fupporting bis 

WE leave the King of Pruflia to thefe thoughts, in 
order to return to the armies of the Wefer. Prince 
Ferdinand was not miftaken, in imagining that Gottingen 
would prove the utmoft bound of the French progrefs into 
Hanover. After they had fecured that place with a flrong 
garrifon, the grand army of M. Broglio moved towards the 
referve which had been defeated, and pitched his camp at 
Dierenberg, a place within a fmail diflance of the allies, 
who ever fince the battle continued to occupy Warbourg, 
the Dymel running between the two armies. In this fitu- 
ation they continued for about a month. 

The Hereditary Prince who was ever in motion, and con- 
tinually hovering now on one fide, now on the other of the 
French camp, in one of his excurfions had perceived that 
the French, according to their ufual negligence, were not 
very exac~i in their out-pofts and patroles. He had alfo re- 
ceived intelligence, that they had thrown a corps of horfe 
and foot, confuting of fomething more than two thoufand 
men, into the town of Zierenberg, a place furrounded with 
fome damaged walls. 

From thefe lights, he refolved upon the furprize of this 
body, and accordingly made his difpofitions for this bold 
attempt, in the manner following; firfl, he ordered a body 
of his light troops to turn to the town of Zierenberg, and 
to take poll between it and Darienberg, in order to inter- 
cept any that mould attempt pafling to the camp of the 
enemv. Next he pofted at proper diftances eight fquadrons 


1760, The History of the War, gj l 

of dragoons, two battalions of grenadiers, and one regi- 
ment of foot, on the road between his own camp and the 
place which was to be attacked, with a view to cover his 
retreat, in cafe he fhould be repulfed and purfued. With 
the reft of his foot, confiding for the greater part of Englifh, 
he marched with the utmofl caution and diligence towards 
the town. 

When they had arrived within two miles, they q 
divided into three bodies, which took three diffe- *" ™ ' ^° 
rent routs, by which the place was compleatly furrounded. 
At eight in the evening, they fet out from Warbourg, and 
came before this place at two the following morning. Not- 
withstanding the precautions taken, the trampling of the 
troops over the gardens gave the alarm to a guard of the 
enemies dragoons, who immediately began to fire. StricT: 
orders had been given to proceed with as little alarm aspof- 
fible, and to referve their fire ; and fuch was the deliberate 
courage, fuch the perfect discipline of the Englifh grena- 
diers, that they fuftained this fire> pufhedon with bayonets, 
drove back the enemy's piquets, killed the guard at the 
gate, and entered the town along with the fugitives, with- 
out the leaft nOife, hurry, or confufion. Never was furprize 
more compleat. 

The column of the Englifh grenadiers having forced the 
gate, advanced regularly with their bayonets fixed, and 
without firing a mufquet, by the two flreets that led to the 
church-yard, (which being the only open part of the town, 
ferved the French as a place of arms,) killing or taking a 
great number of thofe who ran from, the houfes towards 
this rendezvous ;. and thus they advanced with the greater!: 
order and the moft profound filence, until they reached the 
church-yard. The night was fo dark that they formed by 
the fide of the French, who, for a while, took them to be 
their own piquets that had afTembled ; but they were foon 
undeceived ; a fierce encounter with bayonets enfued, in 
which the French were quickly obliged to give way. 

Two regiments of the enemy's dragoons endeavoured to 
fly to the gate that led to their camp ; but they found it oc- 
cupied by four hundred grenadiers, who drove them back 
with their bayonets; forced from hence, they fled toanother 
gate ; there they were repulfed with a fharp fire of fmall 
arms. They then were compelled to feparate ; and flying 
at random, as fortune and the night directed, made their 

B b 2 efcape 

372 The History of the War. 1760. 

efcape at the feveral breaches of the wall. The prince was 
matter of the place in about an hour ; but the nearnefs of 
the French camp and the approach of day prevented as long 
3 continuance in the place as he wifhed for reaping the full 
fruits of his victory ; therefore about three o'clock he be- 
gan his retreat, carrying off two pieces of cannon, thirty- 
fix officers, and between four and five hundred private men. 
The flaughter of the enemy was confiderable. The prince 
reached his camp without the leaft moleftation in his retreat. 

If we confider the difficulty of this attempt, very few 
have been bolder ; if we examine the difpofitions, none 
could be conducted with greater wifdom ; if we attend to 
the behaviour of the troops, we fhall no where find an ex- 
ample of more exaft obedience, difcipline and courage. To 
attack fo large a body of the enemy, fo ftrongly pofled, 
within a fmall league of their grand camp, to march fo far 
in that critical fituation, and in a very dark night, to divide 
into fo many parts, yet to act with fo much order and fo en- 
tire a concert, was certainly an exploit of the very firft rank ; 
and though not of any great importance in its confequences, 
is fo admirable in its conduct and execution, that it well de- 
ferves to be told at the length we have given it. This added 
greatly to the reputation of the Britifh foldiers as troops, 
and no lefs to their honour as men, by the humanity they 
fhewed to their prifoners, and the generous fentiments of 
the common fort with regard to money; as there were 
feveral noble inftances that night of their refufing to take 
any thing from their prifoners, who had offered them their 
purfes. They loft but ten men. 

From this time the operations of the two armies, which, 
for a time, feemed to languifh, were renewed with frefh vi- 
gour. Prince Ferdinand perceived, that whilft the French 
communication with the Rhine and with Frankfort on the 
Maine continued open, it muft prove to little purpofe to at- 
tempt any thing either for the relief of Gottingen or Caf- 
fel. Their progrefs indeed into Flanover had been checked ; 
but whilft ever they continued in fo advanced a pofition, 
it was evidently impoflible to prevent their making very 
ruinous inroads into that country. To force them to a bat- 
tle againll; their inclination, would be difficult, and the at- 
tempt itfelf dangerous. There remained but one method, 
which was, to make frequent and ftrong detachments into 
the fouthern parts of He fie and Wetteravia, and thus ren- 

1760. The History of the War. 373 

der precarious the French communication with the Rhine 
and Maine, from whence they drew the greateft part of 
their fupplies of all kinds. 

With this intention, he detached General Bulow at the 
head of a ftrong corps, who puihed forward towards Mar- 
purg, furprized the town, deftroyed the French ovens, 
with feveral hundred waggons of flour, and carried off a 
confiderable quantity of cloathing and military (lores. In 
the mean time, his light troops fcoured the country in fuch 
a manner as for a while anfwered the great end of the ex- 
pedition in breaking the French communication with Frank- 
fort. Proceeding on this plan he made a further move- 
ment towards Frankenau, which, at length, neceffitated 
the French general Stainville, who commanded in thofe 
parts, to emit his pofition* and endeavour to flop the pro- 
grefs of this detachment. He came up with their 
rear as they were palling the river Orche, and Sept. 13. 
falling upon them at this difadvantage with 
fuperior numbers and great fury, he entirely routed the 
rear ; and took fome men and a very great number of 

It was to be apprehended that he might have purfued this 
advantage, to the entire ruin of M. Bulow's detachment, 
if the Hereditary Prince, by a forced march of five German 
miles, had not arrived time enough to fupport him. On the 
prince's arrival Marfhal Stainville fell back, and took pof- 
feflion of a ftrong poft in which it was in vain to attack him. 

Whilft thefe meafures were taking with mixed fuccefs 
for difquieting the French, and interrupting their commu- 
nication to the fouthward of their quarters, like move- 
ments were made to the northward, to oblige them, if pof- 
fible, to relinquifh. their hold on Gottingen, But General 
Wangenheim,who, with that defign, had crofted the Wefer, 
and in the beginning had proceeded with no fmall expecta- 
tions ; but at length he received a fevere check, 
which forced him to repafs the river with fome Sept. 19. 
precipitation. However thefe frequent detach- 
ments anfwered fo well the end of haraffing the French, 
that, on the 20th, they retired from Immenhaufen, and fell 
back upon Caffel, where they began to entrench themfelves. 
Prince Ferdinand followed them clofe ; and the better to 
obferve their motions, fixed his quarters as near as he coulcl 
to thofe of the enemy. 

B b 3 But 

374 7be History of the War. 1760. 

But whilft the grand armies thus watched each other, the 
eyes of Europe were drawn to a different quarter, by a 
movement equally aftonifhing for its rapidity and myfterious 
for its defign. The Hereditary Prince of Brunfwick, whom 
we have feen but a few days before in the furtheft part of 
Hefle, fuddenly appeared on the frontiers of the United 
Provinces, with an army of twenty battalions and ten 
fquadrons. One detachment of his troops which had pro- 
ceeded on the fide of DufTeldorp, pafTes the Rhine above 
Roeroot ; another which had marched through Munfter, 
pafTes it nearly about the fame time, but a great diftance 
below, at Rhees ; thefe two detachments move to meet 
each other, and, as they proceed, feize all the French pofts 
along the Rhine ; the enemy's guards are every where taken 
or abandon their redoubts. This puts into their pofleilion 
a number of boats, by which they are enabled to tranfport 
all the reft of the troops, which are intended to act upon 
the left of the Rhine. Then they proceeded, without de- 
lay or oppofition, directly to Cleves; the garrifon 
Oct. 3. takes refuge in the caftle, which is vigoroufly at* 
tacked, and in three days furrenders five hundred 
men prifoners of war. Whilft this was performed by one 
body, another had laid fiege to Wefel, and battered the 
place with fo much fury, that the reduction of it appeared 
certain ; and with it the entire pofTeffion of the Lower 
Rhine almoft from DufTeldorp to Cleves. 

The fecrecy, and the rapidity of the march, together 
with the vigour of the fubfequent operations, were fuch as 
might be expected from the character of the Hereditary 
Prince ; but on what defign this rapid march was made, 
and thefe vigorous fteps taken at that particular time, gave 
room for a great deal of reafoning. During a good part of 
the fummer, very great preparations had been made in 
England for a conjunct expedition ; a powerful fleet was in 
readinefs ; and they had embarked a large train of field and 
battering artillery, a confiderable body of foot, and a regi- 
ment of light horfe. 

As this armament was fuppofed in readinefs to fail about 
the time of the Hereditary Prince's march to the Rhine, 
conjecture united thefe two defigns together, and fuppofed 
the fleet at Portfmouth, and the army in Weftphalia, were 
to act on the fame plan. On this fuppofition it was judged 
that the dorm would probably fall on the Auftfian Nether- 

ij6o. The History of the War. 37 > 

lands; and that Oftend, which the Emprefs fo unpolitically 
for herfelf, and fo ungratefully to her former friends, had 
given into the hands of France, would be the firft objeft 
of thofe forces which were to unite from fuch a diftance. 

This defign of the expedition from Portfmouth has, we 
underftand, been formerly difavowed. Whether in ftri£i> 
nefs, not being a principal in the war, with her Imperial 
Majefty, England ought to have made fuch an attempt, 
though Oftend was defended by a French garrifon, we 
(hall not take upon us to determine ; but without the aid 
of fuch confiderations, it is evident there were fufficient ob- 
jections to it from the fide of mere prudence. Almoft in- 
fuperable difficulties occurred in fuch a fcheme ; and it 
would fcarcely appear to moft men advifable to add a Fle- 
mifti to our German war. 

But we think it poflible to give fome reasonable account 
of the expedition of the Hereditary Prince, independent of 
any connection with the Britifh armament, For a confide- 
rable time the French had feemed refolved to refume their 
former plan of an army on the Lower Rhine; fuch motions 
were made, as ftrongly indicated that this defign would fhort- 
ly be put in execution; and the allied army had every 
thing to fear from it. For as the French were checked 
from proceeding to the complete conqueft of the electorate 
by the allied army on the Dymel, if this army fhould itfelf 
be fo checked, by one of the enemy advancing from the 
Lower Rhine, there would be then nothing to hinder M. 
Broglio from fending forward fo ftrong a referve as might 
finally reduce Hanover. In thefe circumftances nothing but 
a very decifive, viStory could poftibly fave the allied army, 
thus furrounded and deprived of its fubfiftence, from pe- 
rilling in the moft miferable, or furrendering in the moft 
fhameful manner. 

There was one ftep only which might with certainty pre- 
vent this defign, and even in fome meafure turn it upon 
the enemy ; the taking Cleves and Weiel into the hands of 
the allies. This would not only defeat the fcheme of the 
French for acting on the Lower Rhine, hut greatly em- 
barrafs their operations in every other quarter. Even the 
attempt, though it fhould not be attended with fuccefs, 
would necefTarily draw the attention of the French that 
way, and thus fave Hanover at leaft for one campaign. 
This alone had been a fufficient reafon for the march, But 

B b 4 had 

376 The History of the War. 1760. 

had the Britifh armament at the fame time been intended 
for fome part of the coaft of France, or had England poli- 
tically kept up fuch a rumour, when fhe had in reality a 
more remote object for her armament; in either of thefe 
cafes it would undoubtedly have co-operated with the Here- 
ditary Prince's defigns, by detaining a greater body of the 
French troops at home to defend their own coafh. 

We do not pretend to penetrate into all the motives. 
But it is evident, that, in the German enterprife, every thing 
depended on the celerity of the operations. The (lege of 
Wefel was carried on with great vigour, by that part of 
the prince's army which was on the right of the Rhine, 
whilfl: the prince covered it on the left. But before the 
enemy could diflurb him, nature declared againft his fuc- 
cefs by the fall of immenfe rains, which fwelled the Rhine 
and Lippe to fuch a degree as greatly interrupted the pro- 
grefs of the fiege, having rendered the roads of Weftphalia 
impaflable, and therefore prevented the arrival of thefe 
reinforcements which were intended to pufh the fiege with 
the greater effect. Thefe rains alfo made it very difficult 
for the prince to preferve his communication with the be- 
fiegers, which, however, he made a fhift to keep open by 
one bridge above and another below the town. 

In the mean time, the French, with all the expedition 
they could ufe, had collected an army under M, de Caftries 
of thirty battalions and thirty-eight fquadrons, partly from 
the great army in FlefTe, partly from the Low Countries. 
This body advanced as far as Rheinberg, and after a ftrenu- 
ous refiftance drove out a detachment ol" the allies which 
had been pofled there. From thence they marched by 
their left, ?„nd encamped behind the convent of Campen, 
The Hereditary Prince now faw at the fame time the fea- 
fon and a fuperior army acting againfr. him ; to fight this 
enemy, fully prepared to receive him, with the troops 
which he could fpare from the fiege, might be a defperate 
attempt. To break up the fiege would have of itfelf an- 
fwered the intention of the enemies march. There was no 
medium but a furprize; which was refolved, and all the 
difpcfitions for it made with the judgment by which the 
great prince who commanded is diftinguiihed upon fuch 
difficult occafions. This attempt became the more neceiTary, 
jnd the lefs time was to be loft in making it, as intelligence 
had been received that the French army was ihortiy to be 


1760. The History of the War. 37 y 

augmented by powerful reinforcements. The prince be- 
gan his march at ten in the evening. 

To reach the enemy's camp, it was neceflary to diflodge 
Fifcher's corps of irregulars, who had occupied the con- 
vent of Campen in their front. This produced 
fome (hot, and this fhot alarmed the whole 061. 16. 
French army, which immediately got under arms 
and pofted themfelves in a wood. The allied troops pufhed 
forward, twice repulfed the French, and with the moil 
noble perfeverance reiterated their attacks on the wood, 
and kept up a terrible and well fupplied fire for fixteen 
hours without intermiffion, that is from five in the morn- 
ing to the fame evening at nine. There have been few ex- 
amples of fo obftinate a combat. But at length finding 
night approach, the troops harafled, their ammunition 
fpent, and all hopes vain of diflodging a fuperior enemy 
from an advantageous poft, the Hereditary Prince having 
had an horfe killed under him, and being himfelf wounded, 
was, with regret, compelled to retire. Eleven hundred and 
feventy of the allies were killed and wounded in this bloody 
action ; about five hundred were made prifoners. The lofs 
of the French was far greater, but they had the field. 

On this occafion, the Englifh nation regretted the lofs 
of one of its mod mining ornaments in the death of Lord 
Downe, who, whilft his grateful fovereign was deftining him 
to higher honours, received a mortal wound in this battle. 
He was a perfon of free and pleafurable life : but of an ex- 
cellent understanding, amiable manners, and the moil: in- 
trepid courage. In the beginning of this war he had a con- 
fiderable fhare in roufing a martial fpirit amongft the young 
people of rank in England, and having long fhewed them 
by a gallant example how to fight, he, at laft, by a melan- 
choly one, fhewed them how to die for their country. 

As the Britifh troops had been the greateft fufTerers in 
this as well as in moft other aclions of the campaign, great 
murmurs were raifed againft- the commander of the allied 
army, as if upon all occallons, even the moft trivial, he 
had wantonly expofed the lives of the Britifh, in order to 
preferve thofe of the German foldiery. Some carried this 
complaint to a ridiculous length. But could it with reafon 
have been expecled, that where twenty five thoufand En- 
glifh had fcrved for a whole campaign, were engaged in five 
fharp encounters (fome of them a fort of pitched battles) in 


378 The History of the War. 1760. 

all which they acquired the whole glory, that they mould 
lofe a fmaller number than two hundred and fixty five kil- 
led and eight hundred and feventy wounded, which is the 
whole of their lofs in all the encounters or this campaign ? 
It is true, the life of a man is a facred thing, and of value 
to his country. But in fome circumstances it is ridiculous 
for a nation to think of fparing even a greater effufion of 
blood to acquire reputation to their arms, and experience to 
the troops and the officers. The Englifti defired the poft of 
honour with equal ipirit and wifdom, they were entitled to 
it, they had it, and they purchafed it more cheaply, than 
on the xvhole might have been expected. Neither was their 
blood lavifhed on every trivial occafion, as had been falfly 
fuggefted. The only affairs in which they fuffered any thing 
worth notice, were thofe of Warbourg and Campen; both 
actions of the higheffc confequence. 

After the difappointment and lofs the Hereditary Prince 
had fuffered in the late engagement, he was fenfible that a 
fiege could no longer be carried on with any profpect of 
fuccefs, in fight of an army fo much fuperior; the Rhine 
every day fwelled more and more, and his communication 
with the troops before Wefel became every hour more dif- 
ficult. Befides, as the whole country was, by this time, 
overflowed, his men muft have been expofed to the greatefr. 
hardfhips and the mod fatal diftempers. Thefe confidera- 
tions determined him to repafs the Rhine without delay. 
Notwithstanding the extreme nearnefs of the French army, 
the late repulfe the Prince had met, and the great fwell of 
the waters, fuch was the impreffion he had left on the 
enemy and the excellence of his difpofitions, that they did 
not even attempt to diftrefs his rear ; and he pafled the 
Rhine without the leaf! moleftation, not only under the eye, 
but, as it were, within the grafp of a fuperior French army. 

From this the operations of the armies became gradually 
more languid ; for as nothing decifive happened on either 
fide during the whole campaign, it was impoffible to think at 
this advanced feafon of undertaking any very ngnai enterprife; 
as if, by common confent, they began to move towards win- 
ter quarters ; So that whatever happened after this was not 
connected with the general plan of the campaign; and were 
the Hidden a&s of detached parties, who attempted fome ad- 
vantages of furpri<e. Of thefe we (hall take fome notice 
bejofe vjt conclude, but we pafs them by at prefent ; the 


1760. The History of the War. 379 

attention of all men being at this time more engaged by an 
event of the greateft importance, and which many were of 
opinion would make no fmall change in the nature of the 
war, and above all in the general fyflem of pacification. 
This was the death of George II. king of Great-Britain. 

He died fuddenly in his palace at Kenfington in the 77th 
year of his age, and 33d of his reign. The immediate caufe 
of his death was the rupture of the fubftance of t\\e. right 
ventricle of his heart, by which the circulation was flop- 
ped in an inftant. This was preceded by no fort of appa- 
rent illnefs. His Maj efty enjoyed an uncommon degree of 
health and ftrength for that age ; but it was believed that 
he had fuffered, by expofmg himfelf too much to the cold, 
in reviewing fome troops that were to be embarked for the 
expedition. He had been extremely felicitous about the 
fortune of this expedition. He had been no lefs anxious 
for the fate of the enterprise under the Hereditary Prince, 
an account of the ill fuccefs of which he had received? tho* 
it was not at that time made public. This was believed to 
have touched him deeply, and to have been one of the cau- 
fes of a death fo afflicting to all his people. 

When future hiftorians come to fpeak of his late Majefty, 
they will find, both in his fortune and his virtue, abundant 
matter for jufl; and unfufpe&ed panegyric. None of his 
predecefibrs in the throne of England lived to fo great an 
age ; few of them enjoyed fo long a reign. And this long 
courfe was diilinguimed by circumflances of peculiar feli- 
city, whether we confider him in the public or the private 
character. His fubjecls, allowing for one ihort and, as it 
were, momentary cloud, enjoyed perpetual peace at home, 
and abroad on many occafions acquired great glory. There 
was to the lafl a confiderable increafe in their agriculture, 
their commerce, and their manufactures, which were daily 
improving under the internal tranquillity they enjoyed, and 
the wife regulations that were made in every fefnon of his 
parliaments. By a wonderful happinefs, he left thefe im- 
provements no way checked, but rather forwarded, in one 
of the mod general and wafteful wars that has raged in the 
world for many centuries. 

He lived entirely to extinguifh party and the fpirit of 
party in his kingdoms; it was not till theclofeof his reign* 
that his family might have been confidercd as firmly and 
immovably feated on the throne ; but he, having baffled 


3$o Tbe History of the War. 1760. 

all the private machinations of his enemies policy, fub- 
dued at length the utmoft effort of their force : and though 
on that menacing occafion, he experienced, in the fulleft 
meafure, the affection of his people, yet the completion of 
this great fervice to his family, he owed folely to the capa- 
city and bravery of his own fon. 

He lived with his queen in that kind of harmony and 
confidence, that is feen between the beft fuited couples in 
private life. He had a numerous iflue, in which he had 
great caufe of fatisfaclion, and very little of difquiet, but 
what was the almoft neceflary confequence of a life pro- 
traded to a late period. He furvived leven of his children. 
He had the fat is faction to fee in his fucceffor, what is very 
rare, the moft affectionate obedience, the moft dutiful ac- 
quiescence in his will ; and what is no lefs rare, contrary 
to the fortune of moft old kings, he never pofleffed more 
perfectly the love of his fubje&s than in the laft years of 
his life. And he died at the very point of time when the 
terror of his arms, the power of his kingdoms and the wif- 
dom of his government, were all raifed to almoft as high 
a pitch as they could poflibly arrive at ; they were indeed 
at that height of profperity and glory, as never had been 
exceeded in the reign of the moft fortunate of his prede- 

His parts were not lively or brilliant ; but the whole of 
his conduct demonftrates that he had a judgment both fo- 
lid and comprehenfive. He underftood the interefts of the 
other fovereigns of Europe ; and was particularly fkilled in 
all the receffes of that political labyrinth, the fyftem of 
Germany ; of the liberties of which he was through his 
-whole life a moft zealous affertor. In the year 17 41, he 
took up arms, and even rifqued his own perfon, when, by 
the projected difmemberment of the houfe of Auftria, they 
were in danger of falling a facrifice to a French faction. 
He afterwards refifted with equal firmnefs that very houfe 
of Auftria, which he had expofed his life to defend, when 
the liberties of the empire were threatened from that quar- 

The acquifitior.s of his father, were, by him, confirmed., 
improved and enlarged. He was enabled by his ceconomy 
always to keep up a confiderable body of troops in Hano- 
ver; by which means, when the war broke out, there was 
z difciplined force ready to oppofe the common enemy ; 


1760. tfbt History of the War. 381 

and we do not hazard any thing in afferting, that if it had 
not been for the prudent forefight of that meafure, the ar- 
my which has fince been formed, and the great things 
which have fince been done, could never have had exig- 
ence. So that if we only examine what he has done in 
Germany, when we reflect: what enemies fecret and decla- 
red he had at different times to manage and to fight in 
that country, he muft, in every fair judgment, be allowed 
the greateft prince of his family. 

He was in his temper fudden and violent ; but this, tho* 
it influenced his behaviour, made no impreflion on his v con- 
duel, which was always fufficiently deliberate and attentive 
to his own interefts and thofe of his fubjects. 

He was plain and direct in his intentions; true to his 
word ; fteady in his favour and protection to his fervants, 
and never changed them willingly; this appeared clearly in 
thofe who ferved more immediately on his perfon, whom 
hefcarce ever removed; but they grew old along with him, 
or died in their places. But having been in a fort compel- 
led by a violent faction, to relinquifh a minifter for whom 
he had great affection, and in whom he repofed an unli- 
mited confidence, it afterwards became a matter of more 
indifference to him by whom he was ferved in the affairs of 
his government. 

He was merciful in his difpofition, but not to fuch a de- 
gree as in any fort to encourage offences againfl his govern- 
ment. On the fuppreffion of the rebellion in 1746, he be- 
haved without any remarkable difplay either of feverity or 
clemency. Many were pardoned, many punifhed ; and this, 
perhaps, is the mod proper conduct on fuch occafions, where 
offended majefty requires victims, juftice examples, and 
humanity pardons. But though the law in many inftances 
had its free courfe, the exceffes committed in the rage of 
war, were by him neither commanded nor approved. After 
that rebellion had been fupprefled, he retained no bitter re- 
membrance of it, either to the country in which it unfor- 
tunately began, or even to many of the perfons who were 
actually concerned in it. 

As he came into England in a riper age, and of confe- 
quence never had been able to attain a perfect knowledge 
of the force and beauties of our language, he never fhewed 
a fufficient regard to the Englifh literature, which, in his 
reign, did not flourifh : and this muft be confidered as the 


382 The History of the War. 1760. 

greateft, or rather the only blemifh that lay upon his go- 

He has been cer.fured, as a little too attentive to money; 
and perhaps in Tome minute things this cenfure was not 
wholly without foundation. But there are two conflagrati- 
ons which greatly enervate this objection to his character. 
Firft, that this difpofition never mewed itfelf in one rapa- 
cious aft; and, fecondly, that it never influenced his conduct 
on any important occafion. For it is now well known that he 
fhewed no improper parfimony, when this war broke out. 
In fact, he expended fo much on that occafion, that on his 
deceafe, his private wealth was found to be far inferior to 
what had commonly been imagined. 

Though it is true, that during his whole life, he had 
fhewn a remarkable affection to his Hanoverian fubjects, 
yet the lad act of it demonftrated that they were far 
from engroffing the whole of his regard ; and that in 
reality his German poffeffions held no other place in his 
confideration than what their relative importance to the 
reft of his dominions naturally claimed. For when that 
trulyfevere trial came, in which the interefls of England 
and Hanover were feparated, when a war began for an ob- 
ject wholly foreign to that country, a war in which Hano- 
ver rauft fuffer much, and could hope no advantage, even 
there his majefty did not hefitate a moment to expofe his 
German dominions to almofi: inevitable ruin, rather than 
make or even propofe the fmallefi: abatement from the im- 
menfity of the Englifh rights in America. A conduct that 
more than wipes off every fufpicion of an improper partiali- 
ty ; and which furely ought never to be mentioned without 
the higheil gratitude to the memory of that magnanimous 

If the authors of thefe meets were equal to fuch a de- 
fign, it would, perhaps, be impoffible to exhibit a more 
pleafing picture than that which might be formed from a 
juft view of his late majefty's conduct, to thefe two fo 
differently conftituted parts of his dominions. His virtue 
was proved by two of the greatelr. trials to which the na- 
ture of man is liable ; the truft of abfolute and unbounded 
power; and the mod: exalted ftation limited by the ftrict- 
eft laws. For thefe two fo very different fituations, very 
different and almofl: oppofite tempers and talents have been 
always thought neceffary. But that king had a mind per- 


1760. Tbe History of the War. 383 

fe&ly adapted to both ; for whilft in England he kept the 
liberties of his people inviolate, and like a wife magistrate, 
was fatisfred to make his authority co-operate with law, 
and his will freely fubfervient to the wifdona of ages, in 
Hanover like an indulgent father, acting only from the fen- 
timents of a paternal heart, his afTe&ion and his equity Sup- 
plied 'the want of law and conftitution. He has indeed left 
to his illuftrious fucceflbr, an admirable example; which 
he not only promifes to follow, but in many refpecls to ex- 
ceed; and his fubjeels take the greater intereft in his vir- 
tues, as they look upon them as more peculiarly their. own ; 
and they now boaft of a prince, who neither has, nor can 
have any partiality but the heft, and who is in birth as well 
as inclination Britifh. 

As foon as his prefent majefiy came to the 
throne, and had met his parliament, he, in the Nov. 18. 
mod public and folemn manner, confirmed the 
hopes of his allies, and gave the moft undoubted aflurances 
of his refolution to continue the war on the former plan, 
and with the former vigour ; and he found his parliament 
no ways changed in their refolution of Supporting it with 
the fame liberality and fpirit. Infomuch that as there was 
no apparent change either in the fyftem of the alliance, in 
the difpofition of the king, or in that of the nation, or in 
the general plan of the war, we have only to pafs again 
to the tranfa&ions of the continent, thinking it unnecef- 
fary to apologize to our readers for having been diverted 
from the courfe of the narrative for a fhort time, by an 
event of fuch melancholy importance to Great Britain and 
to all Europe. 


Ruffians and Aufrians enter Brandenburg. General HuU 
Jen retreats from Saxony to Berlin. Evacuates it. Ihe 
city capitulates. Berlin defcribed. King's palaces plun- 
dered. Enemy retires out of Brandenburg after having pil- 
laged it. 

THE King of PrufnVs letter, with which we clofed 
the 6th chapter, exhibited a true picture of that mo- 
narch's apprehenfions ; the events which immediately fol- 
lowed proved that thefe apprehenfions were but too well 


384 Vb* History of tie War. 1760. 

grounded. The vi&ory near Lignitz, indeed, gave fome 
relief to Silefia ; but whilft the enemy had fo many and fo 
numerous armies in the field, even fharne* independent of 
their intereft, exacted from them fome ftroke of confe- 

The late manoeuvres had neceflarily drawn the king of 
Pruffia into the fouthern parts of Silefia, and confequently 
to a great diftance from Brandenburg, with which country 
his communication was much interrupted, or rather wholly 
cut off. The Ruffian army, which after it had repaffed 
the Oder at Auras, began to move out of Silefia, pufhed 
forward a powerful detachment under Count Czernichew 
towards the Marche of Brandenburg. A body of fifteen 
thoufand Auftrians under the Generals Lacy and Brentano 
from the army of Count Daun, and the whole united corps 
of Auflrians and Imperialifts which a&ed in Saxony, began 
their march in concert with the Ruffians, and propofed to 
unite at the gates of Berlin. Thefe armies amounted to 
forty thoufand men. 

General Hulfen, who was altogether too weak to oppofe 
the Imperialifts in Mifnia, fell back upon Berlin. General 
Werner, who had lately been fent into Pomerania, returned 
with incredible fpeed and joined the troops under Hulfen ; 
but when they viewed their combined ftrength, they found 
it confifted of no more than fifteen or fixteen thoufand men, 
a force far too weak to oppofe to thofe powerful armies 
that were marching againft them. Wholly unable to pro- 
tect a place of fuch immenfe extent, and fuch imperfect 
fortifications, they faw that to attempt a defence, would 
be only to involve the troops in the inevitable fate that 
waited the city, without being able to add any thing effec- 
tual to its fecurity; therefore after having defended it a- 
gainfl: the advanced guard of the Ruffians under Tottle- 
ben, who attacked the gates and bombarded the town, 
when they found the grand armies advancing ; they made 
their retreat ; leaving only three weak battalions in the 
place, to enable it to make fome fort of capitulation with 
the enemy. 

Berlin is compofed of five towns, which have ffretched 
to each other, and grown into one vaft city upon the banks 
of the river Spree. It has been augmented to this gran- 
deur, by having long been the refidence of the electors of 
Brandenburg and kings of Pruffia, who as they have en- 

1760. The HrsTORY of the War. 385 

larged their dominions by inheritance, force, or policy, 
have all contributed fomething to the grandeur and mag- 
nificence of this their capital. The fituation of the town 
on fo noble and navigable a river as the Spree, communi- 
cating on one fide with the Oder, by a canal (the mod 
princely work of her fovereigns) and on the other falling 
into the Elbe, has added not a little to its extent and opu- 
lence; but that which has contributed mod of all, has been 
the reception of the French refugees, to which this city has 
always been a mod aflured and favourable afylum, as it has 
alfo been to thofe proteftants who have been persecuted in 
any part of Germany ; and the prefent king by enlarging 
his plan, and imparting an extent of toleration unknown to 
his predecefiors, has alfo introduced Roman Catholics, 
whom he has encouraged by fuffering them to build a moll 
magnificent church in the heart of Berlin. By this means 
he has brought the moll: oppofite factions to concur in pro- 
moting the grandeur of his royal refidence. From thefe 
caufes Berlin is become one of the mod confiderable cities 
in Europe ; vaft in its extent ; confiderable in its commerce, 
and magnificent beyond mod: others in its public and private 
buildings, and the regular diftribution of the ftreets in the 
new town. It had long been the feat of the greatefl mili- 
tary arrangements in the world ; and it was made, by the 
prefent king, the feat of arts and fciences, and the place of 
refort of ingenious men, in every fcience, in every art, and 
from every quarter. 

Such is Berlin, which, at this time, being deferted by the 
greatefl; part of its gamlpn, was abandoned to the mercy of 
a mighty army of Auftrians, Ruffians, Saxons and Imperi- 
alifts, animated by revenge; exafperated by injuries; and in- 
ftigated by avarice. Nothing could exceed the terror and 
confternation of the inhabitants on this occafion. Tbey 
were acquainted with the favage character of one part of 
the enemy, and with the violent animofity of the .reft; and 
they knew, that they did not want pretences for colouring 
their feverities, with the appearance of a juft retaliation. 

In thefe difpofitions of the inhabitants, the enemy ap- 
proached. The garrifon immediately propofed to capitu- 
late. With refpecl: to them, the terms were fhort ; they 
were made prifoners of war. But with regard to the inha- 
bitants, where the great danger lay, the conditions were 
more tolerable than they e^peded; they were promifed 

C c the, 

386 The History of the War. 176a. 

the free exercife of their religion; and an immunity from 
violence to their goods and perfons. It was alfo agreed that 
the Ruflian irregulars mould not enter the town ; and that 
the king's palace (hould be inviolable. Thefe, on the whole, 
were favourable terms ; and they were granted principally 
on the mediation of the foreign minifters refiding in Ber- 
lin, who interpofed their good offices with great zeal and 
humanity. The difficulty was, how to fecure the observ- 
ance of them. 

Thefe conditions being made, the army of the 
0£t. 9. allied powers entered the town; totally deftroyed 
the magazines, arfenals, and founderies, feized 
an immenfe quantity of military (lores, and a number of 
cannon and arms; called firn: for an immenfe payment of 
800,000 guilders, and then laid on a contribution of 
1,900*000 German crowns ; not fa tisfied with this, many 
irregularities were committed by the foldiery ; but, on the 
whole, though fome mocking actions were committed, a 
far more exact difcipline was obferved than from fuch troops 
could have been expected upon fuch an occafion, where 
there was every incentive which could work upon the licenfe 
of a conquering army. Their officers no doubt with great 
difficulty preferved even that degree of order. 

But though their behaviour was tolerable, with regard to 
the private inhabitants, there was fomething {hocking and 
ungenerous in their treatment of the king's palaces. The 
apartments of the royal caftle of Charlottenburgh, were 
entirely plundered, the precious furniture fpoiled, the pic- 
tures defaced, without even fparing the antique itatues 
collected by Cardinal Polignac, which had been purchafed 
by the houfe of Brandenburgh. Thecaflle of Schonhoufen, 
belonging to the queen, and thofe of Fredericksfeld, be- 
longing to the margrave Charles, were alfo plundered. 

The palace of Potfdam, the famous Sans-fouci, had a 
better fate; Prince Efterhafi commanded there ; it was pre- 
ferved from the fmalleft violation. The Prince on viewing 
the palace only afked which picture of the king refembled 
him moft, and being informed, defired that he might have 
leave to take it, together with two German flutes which the 
king ufed, to keep them, he faid, in memory of his majefty. 
This was a fort of taking very different from pillage. 

They ftaid in the city four days, but hearing that the 
kins;, apprehenfive of this flroke, was moving to the relief 


1760. The History of the War. 387 

of his capital, they quitted it on the 13th of October; and 
having wafted the whole country round for a vaft extent, 
and driven away all the cattle and horfes they could find, 
retreated by different routs out of Brandenburgh, leaving 
the people ftill trembling under the alarm, and hardly yet 
certain of their fafety. 

We do, by no means, undertake to authenticate the rava- 
ges which the Rruffian accounts charged upon the Auftrians 
and their allies, in this excurfion ; nor whether they may 
not have been in general much exaggerated, or in fome 
cafes abfolutely feigned. We have abundant reafon K to fuf- 
pe& the exaft veracity of many pieces of that nature which 
have been publifhed on all fides; and which are but too fre- 
quently a fort of ftate libels, where the powers at war, not 
content to deftroy each other in the field, purfue their ad- 
verfaries reputation, and endeavour mutually to paint each 
other as monfters, equally devoid of juftice and companion. 
Indeed if we were to give credit to all the writings of this 
kind that have appeared, it were hard to fay, which of the 
parties have, by their conduct, brought the greateft difgrace 
upon human nature. It is, however, certain, that the 
country of Brandenburgh fuffered more feverely, on this oc- 
cafion, than the city of Berlin. An ill difciplined army is 
always mod furious in its retreat, and the country had made 
no conditions. 


Imperialijls make themfehes mafers of Mifnia. M. Stahn- 
vrlle enlers Halber/ladt. Ruffians bejiege Colberg. Lau~ 
dobn befieges CofeL King of Prufjia and M. Dann march 
into Saxony. Battle of Torgau. M. Daun wounded. The 
towns in Mifnia retaken. Siege oj Colberg raifed. Swedes 
driven back. 

THE King of Pruflia at lad faw his capital t,?ken by 
his moft cruel enemies, and put to ranfom ; his native 
country w'as wafted ; they took up their quarters in his pa- 
laces: but this was far from the whole of his misfortunes. 
When Gen. Hulfen marched to cover Brandenburgh, there 
remained no PrufTian army in Saxony. So that the Irrrp-e- 
rial army on their return from Berlin, within a fhort time, 
and with little oppofuion, made themfelves m afters of Lerp- 

C c 2 nek, 

388 The History of the* War. 1760. 

Tick, Torgau, Meirten, and at laft of Wirtemberg ; in which 
city they took the grand magazine of -the Pruf- 
06t. 15. fians, immenfely ftored. The king was now to- 
tally driven out of Saxony, in which he had no 
longer a fingle place. 

M. Stainville with a detachment of Broglio's army, as 
foon as Wangenheim had been obliged to repals the Wefer 
(as we have related in the feventh chapter) pufhed into the 
King of Pruflia's dominions on that fide, and laid the city 
and dutchy of Halberftadt under contribution. In the eaft- 
ern Pomerania, the Ruffians had inverted Colberg, both by 
land and fea, and prefTed that city with a clofe and unremit- 
ted (lege. The king could fcarcely hope to relieve it. In 
the weftern Pomerania, the Swedes urged forward with un- 
common vigour, hoping to partake in the plunder of Ber- 
lin ; and they advanced with fuccefs. In Silefia, the king 
had no fooner began his march to the northward, than 
Baron Laudohn profited of his abfence, to rufh again into 
that country, and to invert: the ftrong and important fortrefs 
of Cofel. Whilft the king's dominions were thus attacked 
in fo many parts, he was himfelf attended every ftep of his 
march by the fuperior army of Count Daun, who moved 
along with him, and watched him with the moil: attentive 
vigilance. His condition feemed extremely to refemble that 
to which he had been reduced in the autumn immediately 
preceding the battle of Rofbach. In Silefia, his condition 
was at that time worfe ; but he was then in the poflellion 
of Saxony, of which in this campaign he was wholly de- 

Saxony was, however, {till his great object, and knowing 
that the enemy had evacuated Brandenburgh on his approach, 
he left that country on his right, and continued his march to 
the Elbe, which he parted on the 25th of O&ober. Marfhal 
Daun parted it the fame day. The two champions were to 
engage once more for the fo often contended prize: but 
now every difadvantage was on the fide of the King of 
PrufTia, who had no longer any place of ftrength in that 
country, and all the magazines he had amafled were in the 
hands of the enemy. But being joined by his generals Hul- 
fen and Prince Eugene of Wirtemberg, with the corps un- 
der their command, he advanced up the Elbe, whilft Marfhal 
Daun fell back to cover Leipfic and Torgau ; but finding 
the Pruffians directed their march towards the Elbe, he 


1763. The History of the W