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1795-187 0. 







Bar of Lancaster 16 

Baptists, New School 120» 

Band of Horse-thieves 148 

Births and Deaths 157 

Binninger, Philip 160 

Banks of Lancaster 282 

Commerce of Fairfield County 18 

Choruses 27 

Carpenter's Addition 34 

County Jail , 36 

Court of Common Pleas 52 

Canal Celebration 59 

Court of Quarter-Sessions 78 

County Fair 96 

Catholic Church 138 

County Officers 144 

Colored Citizens of Lancaster 281 

Cold Spring Rescue 289 

Conclusion 298 

Dunker Church 142 

Enterprise 20 

Episcopal Church 135 

Emanuel's Church, St 137 

Evangelical Association (Albright) 140 

First Settlement 4 

First Born 7 

First Mails and Post-route 12 

Fourth of July 31 

Finances of Lancaster in 1827 32 

Finances of Fairfield in 1875 36 

Fairfield County in 1806 36 

Fairfield County in the War of 1812 79 

Growth of Lancaster 11 

Ghost Story 61 

Grape Culture 68 

General Sanderson's Notes 98 

Germau Reform Church 136 



Gas-Light and Coke Company 281 

Governors of Ohio 287 

Horticultural Society 119 

Hocking Valley Canal 150 

Introduction 1 

Inscriptions in Kuntz's Graveyard 61 

Incorporation 21 

Judges of Court 278 

Knights of Pythias 73 

Knights of Honor 73 

Knights of St. George 75 

Lancaster 6 

Lancaster Gazette 5S 

Lutheran Church, first English 136 

Land Tax 160 

Mount Pleasant 10 

Medical Profession 16 

Miscellaneous 21 

Miscellaneous 65 

Masonic 69 

Methodist Church 122 

New Court-house 35 

Nationality 156 

01 1 Religious Stanzas 23 

Old Plays 28 

Ohio Eagle 57 

Other Papers 59 

Odd Fellowship 71 

Ornish Mennonite Church 139 

Primitive State of the Country 2 

Public Square 34 

Physicians 59 

Patrons of Husbandry , 74 

Political 120 

Protestant Methodist 128 

Pleasant Run Church 129 

Presbyterian Church 131 

Public Men t 152 

Phrophesy 297 

Presidents of United States 288 

Ruhamah Green (Builderback) 8 

Relics 56 

Rush Creek Township in 1806 157 

Refugee Lands 80 

Reform Farm 80 


Representatives in Congress 82 

Kepresentatives and Senators, State Legislature 109 

Rebellion of 1861 112 

Regular Baptist Church ] 28 

Railroads 285 

St. Joseph's Benevolent Association 75 

Statistics 79 

St. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran Church 135 

Towuships 82 

Typhoid Epidemic 152 

Personal Recollections and Personal 161 

Ashbaugh, John 177 

Beery, George W 173 — 

Bope, Jacob 199 

Barr, Thomas 292 

Chaney, John 161 

Carlisle, B. W 165 

Cherry, Thomas 204 

Crook, John 209 

Crumley, Daniel 216 

Courtright, John 219 

Cole, Thomas 222 

Ewing, Hon. Thomas 171 

Ewing, Thomas E 232 

Fishbaugh, Mordecai 211 

Foster, David 238 

Foster, F. A 243 

Griffith, Samuel 276 

Hunter, Hocking H 172 

Harmon, George 214 

Hathaway, A 248 

Heyl, Christian 252 

Hunter, Andrew 264 

Jackson, Thomas 196 

Iric, John 220 

King, Mrs. Flora 176 

Kester, Samuel 296 

Leonard, Henry 182 

Leist, Michael 192 

Leith, John 158 

Lyle, David 228 

Lamlis, Martin 237 

McClung, William ; 176 

Murphy, William 203 



Murphy, Theodore 218 

McClung, Mrs. Jane 268 

Peters, Wesley 230 

Eadibaugh, Mrs. Mary 206 

Eudolph, Christian 241 

Eutter, Mrs. Catharine 262 

Eeam, Jonas A 178 

Eeece, Thomas 277 

Sheaffer, Jacob 207 

Sites, Frederick 234 

See, John 255 

Shawk, Charles 261 

Sherrick, Elizabeth 266 

Stemen, Nicholas 167 

Sherman, Judge Charles 172 

Stewart, Levi 179 

Van Pearce, Mrs 242 

Vandemark, Elias 245 

Vanzant, John 271 

Williams, John 173 

Wiseman, Joseph 194 

Young, Mrs. Eachel 258 


Page 282, last paragraph, forjudge Schofield read Philomen 

In the notice of Lancaster Drug Stores in 1876, page 19, for 
Wetzler read Wetzel. 

On the 19th page, and seventh line from the bottom, read 
James McManamy. 

On page 20, in list of practicing lawyers, five names were 
omitted, viz.: Tallman Slough, J. S. Sites, David Clover, New- 
ton Schleich and John McCormick. These are all practicing 
Attorneys in 1877. 

Page 119, in second and third paragraphs from top, for John 
C. Boviny read John C. ■■■■ Rainey. 

In State Legislature, years 1866 and 1868, page 110, read U. 
C. Rutter. 

On page 128, second paragraph from bottom, for Rev. George 
Debott read Debolt. 

Page 56, in " Wanted," read Daniel Arnold for 
Daniel Arnott. 



In the enumeration of the physicians of Fairfield County, 
the following names were unintentionally omitted: 

Dr. G. Miesse, Sen., will be remembered as a highly eminent 
practitioner of medicine in the neighborhood of Dumontsville 
for many years. About 1840, or a little later, he removed to 
Greenville, Dark County, Ohio, where he still resides, at the 
age of 70 years. 

Dr. G. Miesse, now of Lancaster, is his son. Dr. Miesse, Jr., 
is known for his distinguished ability as a pianist and composer 
of music. He makes a speciality of treating chronic diseases. 
Dr. M. H. vliesse is a physician of Royalton. 
Dr. Jonas Wiest, now of Circleville, was formerly a practi- 
tioner at Dumontsville, this County. 

Dr. Chas. Babcock and Dr. Barlow were former homeopathic 
physicians of Lancaster. 

Dr. Lurch of Amanda is a physician of many years practice, 
and is extensively known. 

Dr. Thomen, resident physician at Baltimore. 
Dr. Rutter, medical practitioner of Clear Creek. 
Dr. Thomas, resident physician of Rushville. 
Dr. Hummel is a practitioner of Baltimore. 
The difficulty the author has experienced in receiving re- 
sponses to inquiries, is the apology for these names not ap- 
pearing in the proper place. 

Jacob Wiest emigrated from Pennsylvania and settled in 
Greenfield Township, this County, in May, 1822, where he con- 
tinued to reside untill the time of his death, on the 24th of 
Nov., 1872, at the great age of S8 years, 11 months and 9 days. 
He was the father of twelve children, of whom four have de- 
ceased and eight are living. There were also living at the 
time of his death, 96 grand-children and 129 great grand-chil- 
dren. Mr. Wiest was a soldier in the war of 1812. His tomb 
is near Dumontsville. 

John Zeigler is almost the hist surviver of the original 
settlers of Fairfield County. He settled on the place where he 
now resides with his son Noah, five miles north of Lancaster. 
among the very earliest of the settlers of the County. His age 
is 92 years. 

Benjamin Wiest, still living at the age of 7<> years, was an 
early settler of Greenfield Township. 

Joseph Miesse, Sen., was among the early settlers of Green- 
field Township. The Miesse's of the County are his descend- 
ants. He died many years ago. He was the founder of 
Miesse's church near Dumontsville. This church is known as 
the "coal mine" church, from some tradition. 

The following names are miss-spelled in the text, but are 
here rendered correctly : 

In "grape culture," J. F. Bovring should be read F. J. Boving. 

In "Knights of Pythias," page 73, read John A. Heim for 
John A. Hern. 

Page 76, in "Constituent Members," the first name should 
be L. C. Butch instead of D. C. Butch. Also, on page 75, 2nd 
line from the bottom, read L. C. Butch for L. C. Butler. 

Wherever the name Newton Sclich occurs, it must be read 
Newton Schleich. 

The name of the pastor of the presbyterian church at Lith- 
opolis was given to the author as Brown, and so written on 
page 135, top line. The correct name is Downe. 

Abraham Seifert has served a^ County Recorder, Probate 
Judge and Member of the house of Representatives of the State 
Legislature. By some strange inadvertance his name appears 
variously spelled in the text, under the proper heads "Adam 
Seifert" ; "Abram Seifert" ; "Adam Syfert." 

On page 144, in "Probate Judges," third line from the bot- 
tom, Wm. T. Rigley must be read Wm. L. Rigby. Also, on 
page 153, the name is spelled Bigby intead of Rigby. 

The spelling of names, especially those derived from foreign 
languages, is sometimes various. It will be found however, 
that with the foregoing corrections, this volume will be com- 
plete, and it is hoped satisfactory. 


A history of Fairfield county in 1876, just seventy-six 
years subsequent to its first organization, has been no easy 
task; first, because the pioneers have nearly all passed away; 
and secondly, because there are no records of much that 
would be requisite to make up a complete history. This is 
much to be regretted. So far as they could serve me, how- 
ever, 1 have collected from state histories, and from state and 
county records, statistical and other matter. Beyond this I 
have collected from living witnesses who have been life-long 
citizens of the county, so much of personal history, and inci- 
dent, and anecdote, ' together with pioneer reminiscences, as 
it has been possible to do. Much of this, however, as above 
remarked, is lost, because those who first broke the forest and 
planted civilization and religion in the Hocking Valley, were 
dead before the conception of this work by the humble writer 
had been formed. , This occasion is taken, however, to say, 
that the book is presented to the public as a pretty full and, 
as is believed, an entirely correct and authentic history. 
Nevertheless, brevity and condensation have been observed, 
because the author has desired to bring the work within the 
financial ability of every citizen, by producing a cheap book. 
But readers must excuse the limits of personal history, since, 
to write out even brief notices of all pioneers who deserve 
mention, would require several volumes. 

Our history begins with the beginning of the white settle- 
ments in the Hocking Valley. Beyond that, through the 
ages of the unknown past, there is no vista for our eyes; 
noth'ng to count the centuries by; and imagination is content 
to picture an indefinite routine of years during which the 
awful solitude was only broken by the discordant utterances 
of wild beasts, and the scarcely less savage war whoop of the 
red man. Fancy runs wild in trying to conjecture what was 


here before the tread of the Anglo Saxon race came, and the 
sound of the woodman's ax and the tinkling cow bell were 
heard. All is lost in oblivion. 

In conclusion of these opening remarks, the compiler begs 
leave to say, that he was born in western Ohio in the begin- 
ning of the present century, and has therefore been identified 
with the country from the time when the first log cabins were 
built, and the first paths were blazed through the wilderness, 
and has been familiar with all the transformations. He has 
known the country in a state of nature ; and has seen the 
wilderness become a garden. 


Marietta and Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Musking- 
um, were the first settlements made by the white race on Ohio 
soil. Settlements were begun there about the year 1777, or 
1778. Washington county, so named in honor of General 
Washington of revolutionary fame, was one of the four coun- 
ties into which the territory of Ohio was devided first, by 
proclamation of Governor Arthur St. Clair. Its boundaries 
extended north with the Pennsylvania line to Lake Erie, em- 
bracing all that part of the state known as the Western Re- 
serve, and extending down the lake to the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga river, where Cleveland now is ; thence south on a 
line to the Ohio river. 

Not long after the settlements at Marietta began, scouts 
from there penetrated the wilderness to the Hockhocking, and 
up that stream as far as where Lancaster now stands. At 
that time the Wyandot Indians occupied the valley of the 
Hocking, and held it as did all the aboriginal tribes of North 
America by the right of undisturbed possession for unknown 
ages. There were two Indian towns at that time within what 
is the present limits of 1'airfield county. The principle one 
was Tarhe town, situated on the north bank of Hocking, and 
occupying the same grounds now owned and used by the Rail 
Road companies, on the south east borders of Lancaster. 
This town was governed by Chief Tarhe, who was said to be 
rather a noble Indian. The town was believed at that time 
to contain about five hundred inhabitants. There was an- 
other small village of the Wyandots' nine miles west of Tarhe 


Town, near the present site of Royalton. This was Toby 
Town, and was governed by an inferior chief whose name was 

At the close of the Indian wars of the north west, a general 
treaty was held at Fort Greenville, the present county seat of 
Darke county, Ohio. In this treaty the Wyandots surrend- 
ered their possessions on the Hockhocking, and soon after- 
ward removed to the Sandusky. There were however a few 
of their number who for several years afterwards lingered 
about the country, as if unwilling to leave their old hunting 
grounds and the graves of their relatives. They were for the 
most part peaceable, and gave little trouble to the white 
settlements, unless where they were misused. But at last, 
finding the game becoming scarce, they went away and joined 
their friends at the north. The treaty of Greenville was 
signed on the 3. of August 1795. 

Fairfield county was first organized in 1800 by proclama- 
tion of Governor St. Clair. At that time it embraced nearly 
all of the present counties of Licking and Knox, with also 
portions of Perry, Hocking and Pickaway. Subsequently, as 
emigration flowed into the country, and new counties began 
to be formed, Fairfield was contracted to near its present 
outlines, and still later other portions were struck off to ad- 
joining counties, which will be noticed in the proper place. 

In 1840 Fairfield county consisted of fourteen townships, 
viz : Amanda, Berne, Bloom, Clear Creek, Greenfield, Hock- 
ing, Liberty, Madison, Perry, Pleasant, Richland, Rush 
Creek, Violet, and Walnut. In that year the- aggregate 
population of the county was 31,859, or 59 inhabitants to the 
square mile. Previous to 1820 no authorized enumerations 
were taken, consequently no populations can be given. In 
1820 the first enumeration of the people was taken by author- 
ity of Congress, as a basis of representation, and thereafter at 
the end of each succeeding ten years. In 1820 the population 
of Fairfield county was 16,508; in 1830, 24,753; in 1840, 
31.859; and in 1870 it was 35,456. Arthur St. Clair was 
appointed Governor of the territory of Ohio by General Wash- 
ington, then President of the United States, in 1788, and 
continued to fill that office until 1802, when the state was 
admitted into the union. 

Fairfield county was so named from the circumstance of so 


many beautiful champaign fields of land lying within its 
original boundaries. According to the best information deriv- 
able from existing maps of the old surveys, made previous 
to the beginning of the white settlements oif from the Ohio 
river, the county seems to ly within that tract of country once 
known as the purchase of the Ohio Land company ; but these 
maps are believed to be inaccurate, and therefore unreliable. 
This is a matter now however of little importance to history. 


In the year 1797, one Ebenezer Zane entered into a con- 
tract with the government to open a road from Wheeling^ 
Virginia, to Limestone, Kentucky, (now Maysville) over the 
most eligible route, including also the establishment of three 
ferries, viz. one over the Muskingum, one over the Scioto, 
and one over the Ohio. There are different statements as to 
what kind of a road it was to be. By some it is said it was to 
be a wagon road; others, that his contract embraced nothing 
more than the blazing of the trees, as a guide for travellers. 
The former is the reasonable conclusion, and is best sustained, 
as the mere blazes on ranges of trees would not ..constitute a 
passable road for travel, and therefore of no use for emigra- 
tion. The country was at that time an unbroken wilderness 
tne entire distance of 226 miles, and the undertaking was at 
once arduous and perilous, as hostile bands of Indians were 
still more or less roving over the country. He however suc- 
cessfully accomplished the work, and the route was denomin- 
ated Zanes 11 Trace, and continued to be so called for many 
years after the state was settled. The route of Zanes' Trace 
lay through where Zanesville now is, and also through Lan- 
caster, crossing the Hocking two or three hundred yards 
south of the present Chillicothe pike, and about one half mile 
west of the crossing of Main and Broad streets. 

The compensation which Mr. Zane received for this service 
consisted of three several parcels, or tracts of land, patented 
to him by Congress, and of the dimensions of one mile square 
each. One of these tracts he located on the Muskingum, 
where Zanesville stands, and one on the Hocking, embracing 
the present site of Lancaster. 

Following .is an extract from an address delivered by Gen- 
eral George Sanderson before the Lancaster Literary Society, 


in the month of March, 1844. General Sanderson was iden- 
tified with the very earliest times of Fairfield county and 
Lancaster, having come to the settlement at the beginning of 
the present century, in company with his fathers' family, and 
continuing to be a resident of Lancaster till the close of his 
life, in the year 1870. His contribution to the early history 
of Fairfield county is therefore most valuable, as there are 
few, if any of the earliest pioneers left to tell of the events 
and times now three quarters of a century past. 

"In 1797, Zanes' Trace having opened a communication be- 
tween the Eastern States and Kentucky, many individuals in 
both directions wishing to tetter their conditions in life by 
emigrating and settling in the "back woods", so called, visited 
the Hocking Valley for that purpose and finding the country 
surpassingly fertile, — abounding in fine springs of pure water, 
they determined to make it their new home. 

"In April 1798, Capt. Joseph Hunter, a bold and enterpris- 
ing man, with his family, emigrated from Kentucky and 
settled on Zanes' Trace, upon the bank of the prairie west of 
the crossings, and about two hundred yards north of the 
present turnpike road, and which place was called "Hunter's 
settlement." — Here he cleared off the under-brush, felled the 
forest trees, and erected a cabin, at a time when he had not a 
neighbor nearer than the Muskingum and Scioto rivers. 
This was the commencement of the settlement in the upper 
Hocking Valley, and Capt. Hunter is regarded as the founder 
of the flourishing and populous county of Fairfield. He lived 
to see the countiy densely settled and in a high state of im- 
provement, and died about the year 1829. His vife was the 
first white woman that settled in the valley, and shared with 
her husband the toils, sufferings, hardships and privations 
incident to the formation of new settlements in the wilder- 
ness. During the spring of the same year, (1798) Nathaniel 
Wilson, the elder, John and Allen Green, and Joseph Mc- 
Mullen, Robert Cooper, Isaac Shaeffer, and a few others, 
reached the valley, erected cabins and put in crops. 

"In 1799 the tide of emigration set in with great force. In 
the spring of this year, two settlements were begun in the 
present township of Greenfield; each settlement contained 
twenty or thirty families. One was the falls of Hocking, and 
the other was Yankeytown. Settlements were also made 


along the river below Hunters, on Rush Creek, Fetters Run, 
Raccoon, Pleasant Run, Toby Town, Mudy Prairie, and on 
Clear Creek. In the fall of 1799, Joseph Loveland and Heze- 
kiah Smith erected a log grist mill at the upper falls of Hock- 
ing, now called the Rock Mill. This was the first mill built 
on the Hockhocking. 

"In April 1799, Samuel Coates, Sen., and Samuel Coates, 
Jun., from England, built a cabin in the prairie, at the 
"Crossing of Hocking" ; kept bachelors hall, and raised a 
crop of corn. In the latter part of the year a mail route was 
established along Zanes' Trace from Wheeling to Limestone. 
The mail was carried through on horseback, and at first only 
once a week. Samuel Coates, Sen., was the postmaster, and 
kept his office at the Crossing. This was the first established 
mail route through the interior of the territory, and Samuel 
Coates was the first postmaster at the new settlement. 

"The settlers subsisted principally on corn bread, potatoes, 
milk and butter, and wild meats, flour, tea, and coffee were 
scarcely to be had, and when brought to the country, such 
prices were asked as to put it out of the power of many to 
purchase. Salt was an indispensable article, and cost, at the 
Scioto salt works, $5.00 for fifty pounds; flour cost $16.00 
per barrel; tea $2.50 per pound; coffee $1.50; spice and 
pepper $1.00 per pound." 

Such was the beginning of the settlements in the Hocking 
Valley, where Fairfield county is situated, coeval with the 
commencement of the nineteenth century. It is proper to 
pause here and speak of the beginning of Lancaster, before 
further developing our history, because Lancaster was laid 
out before the county of Fairfield was declared, and two years 
previous to the adoption of the constitution of the state of 


Ebenezer Zane was the original proprietor of the town. It 
will be remembered that he was already the owner of one 
section of land at the crossing of Hocking. Upon that tract 
Lancaster now stands. In the fall of 1800, Mr. Zane laid out 
and sold the first lots. The rates ranged from $5.00 to $50.00 
a lot, according to location. A large proportion of the first 
settlers of Lancaster were mechanics, who erected cabins 


with little delay, finding the materials mainly on their lots. 
To encourage emigration, Mr. Zane gave a few lots to such 
mechanics as would agree to build cabins on them and go to 
work at their respective trades ; and it is said, that the work 
of organization went on so rapidly, that by the spring of 1801 
the streets and alleys in the central part of the town assumed 
the shape they still retain. "New Lancaster'' was the name 
first given to the place, in compliment to emigrants from 
Lancaster, Pa., who made up a considerable proportion of the 
first settlers. The name however was changed by the Legis- 
lature in 1805, to Lancaster, Ohio, to avoid confusion in the 
postal service. The title, New Lancaster, nevertheless con- 
tinued to be used for more than twenty years afterwards. 
We continue quotations from General Sanderson's address. 

"About this time merchants and professional men made 
their appearance* The Reverend John Wright, of the Pres* 
byterian church, settled in Lancaster in 1801 ; and the Rev. 
Asa Shin, and the Rev. James Quinn, of the Methodist 
church, traveled the Fairfield circuit very early. 

"Shortly after the settlement, and while the stumps re- 
mained in the streets, a small portion of the settlers indulged 
in drinking frolicks, ending frequently in fights. In the 
absence of law, the better disposed part of the population 
determined to stop the growing evil. They accordingly met, 
and resolved, that any person of the town found intoxicated, 
should, for every such offence, dig a stump out of the streets, 
or suffer personal chastisement. The result was, that after 
several offenders had expiated their crimes, dram drinking 
ceased, and for a time all became a sober, temperate and 
happy people. 

"On the 9. of December, 1800, the Governor and council of 
the North Western territory organized the county of Fair- 
field, and designated New Lancaster as the seat of justice. 
The county then embraced within its limits all, or nearly all, 
of present counties of Licking and Knox, a large portion of 
Perry, and small parts of Pickaway and Hocking counties." 


It has been a subject of some discussion of late years, as to 
who was the first born white male child within the borders of 
Fairfield county. In Howe's history of Ohio, published in 


1848, he says, that Buhama Green (Builderback) gave birth 
to the first boy. This is beyond question an error. It has 
commonly been understood about Lancaster, that the late 
Hocking H. Hunter of Lancaster, son of Capt. Joseph Hun- 
ter, first emigrant, was the first born. This however is con- 
tested. Mr. Levi Stuart, now a citizen of Lancaster, whose 
father was among the first settlers at Yankeytown, in conver- 
sation with the writer, recently, said it was understood 
between him and Mr. Hunter, that he, Mr. Stuart, was thir- 
teen months the oldest. And I have been told there is a 
fourth contestant on Clear Creek. We will not try to settle 
the question, since it is of small importance in history. 

Mrs. Buhama Green, as Mrs. Builderback, has a tragic 
history that deserves full mention, as she was not only a 
pioneer, but long and well known, she having lived in the 
same neighborhood where she first settled, three miles west of 
Lancaster, about fourty-four years, or until the close of her 
life, which took place in 1842, at a very advanced age. Fol- 
lowing is a transcription of the tragic part of her life from the 
pen of Colonel John McDonald, of Ross county. It is prob- 
ably the fullest and most authentic account of any written. 

"Mrs. Buhama Green was born and raised in Jefferson 
county, Virginia. In 1785 she was married to Charles Buil- 
derback, and with him crossed the mountains and settled at 
the mouth of Short Creek, on the east bank of the Ohio river, 
a few miles above Wheeling. Her husband, a brave man, 
had on many occasions distinguished himself in repelling the 
Indians, who had often felt the sure aim of his unerring rifle. 
They therefore determined at all hazards to kill him. 

"On a beautiful summer morning in June, 1789, at a time 
when it was thought the enemy had abandoned the western 
shores of the Ohio, Captain Charles Builderback and his wife, 
and brother Jacob Builderback, crossed the Ohio to look 
after some cattle. On reaching the shore, a party of fifteen 
or twenty Indians rushed out from an ambush and fired upon 
them, wounding Jacob in the shoulder. Charles was taken 
while running to escape. In the meantime Mrs. Builderback 
secreted herself in some drift wood near the bank of the river. 
As soon as the Indians had secured and tied her husband, 
and not being able to discover her hiding place, they com- 
pelled him, with threats of immediate death, to call her to 


him. With a hope of appeasing their fury, he did so. She 
heard him, but made no answer. "Here," to use her own 
words, "a struggle took place in my own breast which I can- 
not describe. Shall I go to him and become a prisoner; or 
shall I remain ; return to our cabin, and provide for and take 
care of our two children ?" He shouted to her a second time 
to come to him, saying, that if she did it might be the means 
of saving his life. She no longer hesitated, left her place of 
safety, and surrendered herself to his savage captors. All 
this took place in full view of their cabin on the opposite 
shore of the river, and where they had left their two children, 
one a son about three years of age, and an infant daughter. 
The Indians knowing that they would be pursued as soon as 
the news of their visit reached the stockade at Wheeling, 
commenced their retreat. Mrs. Builderback and her hus- 
band traveled together that day and the following night. 
The next morning the Indians separated into two bands, one 
taking Builderback, and the other his wife, and continued a 
western course by different routes. 

"In a few days the band having Mrs. Builderback in 
charge reached the Tuscarawas river, where they encamped, 
and were soon rejoined by the band that had taken her hus- 
band. Here the murderers exhibited his scalp on the top of 
a pole, and to convince her that they had killed him, pulled 
it down and threw it in her lap. She recognized it at once 
by the redness of his hair. She said nothing, and uttered no 
complaint. It was evening, and her ears were pained with the 
terrific yells of the savages, and wearied by constant travel- 
ing, she reclined against a tree and fell into a profound sleep, 
and forgot all her sufferings until morning. When she 
awoke, the scalp of her murdered husband was gone, and she 
never learned what became of it. 

"As soon as the capture of Builderback was known at 
Wheeling, a party of scouts set off in pursuit, and taking the 
trail of one of the bands, followed it until they found the 
body. He had been tomahawked and scalped, and appar- 
ently suffered a lingering death. 

"The Indians, on reaching their towns on the Little Miami, 
adopted Mrs. Builderback into a family, with whom she lived 
until released from c iptivity. She remained a prisoner about 
nine months, performing the labor and drudgery of squaws, 


such as carrying in meat from the hunting grounds, prepar- 
ing and drying it, making moccasins, legings, and other 
cloathing for the family in which she lived. After her adop- 
tion she suffered much from the rough and filthy manner 
of Indian living, but had no cause of complaint of ill treat- 
ment otherwise. 

"In a few months after her capture some friendly Indians 
informed the commandant of Fort Washington that there was 
a white , Avoman in captivity at Miamitown. She was ran- 
somed and brought into the fort, and was sent up the river to 
her lonely cabin, and the embrace of her two orphan children. 

"In 1793 Mrs. Builderback married John Green, and in 
1798 they emigrated to the Hocking Valley, and settled about 
three miles west of Lancaster, where she continued to reside 
until the time of her death in 1842. She survived her last 
husband about ten years." 

Note: — Charles Builderback, the first husband of Mrs. Green, had 
commanded a company at Crawford's defeat in the Sandusky country. 
He was a large, noble looking man, and a bold and intrepid warrior. 
He was in the bloody Moravian campaign, and took his share in the 
tragedy by shedding the first blood on that occasion, when he shot, toma- 
hawked and scalped Shebosh, a Moravian chief. But retributive justice 
was meeted to him. After being taken prisoner, the Indians asked his 
name ; "Charles Builderback", he replied, after some little pause. At 
this revelation the Indians stared at each other with malignant triumph. 
"Ha", said they; "you kill many big Indian; you big captain ; you kill 
Moravians". From that moment, perhaps, his fate was sealed. — Howes, 


Mount Pleasant, situated one mile due north of the cross- 
ing of Main and Broad streets, in Lancaster, is a historic 
point of some interest. Its summit is two hundred and fifty 
feet above the table lands below. The area of its top is about 
two acres. The main approach to the summit is from the 
east, by gradual ascent, though there are oiher points of 
ascent. Its face presenting south is a perpendicular ledge 
of sandstone, of the white variety. From its summit the 
Hocking Valley can be seen for many miles in both direc- 
tions; and the state refoim farm is partly visible, six miles 
to the southwest. By the Indians it was called the "Stand- 
ing Stone". Since the settlement of the country by the white 


race, it has undergone considerable transformation. Much of 
the dense and thick forest has been cut away, and the wild 
romance of the spot greatly despoiled. Mount Pleasant has 
always been a favorite resort for citizens as well as strangers. 
There are few strangers who visit Lancaster who do not 
ascend to the top of the standing stone. The Duke of Sax- 
ony, who visited this country many years since, climbed up 
and chiseled his name in the sandstone, which has been read 
by thousands, and still remains legible. I believe his visit 
was in 1828. 

In the first few years after the settlements began, Mount 
Pleasant was notorious for the large numbers of mountain 
rattlesnake which burrow T ed in its fissures. The settlers 
determined to destroy them, as far as possible, and for this 
purpose they made several raids on their snakeships at the 
early spring seasons when they were known to first emerge 
from their winter quarters, destroying many hundreds of 
them. They are probably now entirely extinct, as not one of 
their tribe has been seen there for more than a third of a 


My history of Fairfield county must necessarily be frag- 
mentary and miscellaneous. There is no written history; at 
least no complete history; which is very much to be regretted. 
Beyond what is to be found in the histories of Ohio, and the 
decennial government census, all else is to be sought for in the 
state and county records, and the statements of the recollec- 
tions of such living persons as have survived the pioneer age, 
and have resided in the county from fifty to seventy years. 
The labor of searching the records running through so many 
years, and so many ponderous volumes, it will be seen at once 
is both tedious and arduous. Nevertheless, all that it is 
essential to know and preserve will at last be found in these 
pages, and is here placed under appropriate headings, which 
renders the items of quick and easy access. 

In tracing the progress of Lancaster therefore from its first 
rudimental log cabin beginning in the woods, through the 
seventy-six years of its existence, every department of inform- 
ation has been thoroughly canvassed and placed under specific 
head lines, at least so far as the sour«es of knowledge exist at 


this late day. The same care has likewise been observed 
"with reference to the townships, respectively, and villages 
and settlements, thus rendering the book a safe and satis- 
factory reference to the future historian. The work is all 
put down in the miscellaneous order I have been able to 
exhume it from the debris of the fast receding past. And 
while in the following pages I have mentioned first settlers, 
and prominent citizens, I have carefully and scrupulously 
escued fulsome flattery. The pioneers of Fairfield county 
deserve enduring remembrance, and in the course of this 
work their names are nearly all written. They have all 
passed away. Let us venerate their noble" self-sacrifice that 
has given us our land of plenty and enjoyment. 


In the latter part of the year 1799, and about two years 
after the opening of Zanes' Trace, a mail route was esta- 
blished from Wheeling, Va., to Limestone (Maysville), Ky.> 
which was the first ever carried through the interior of the 
territory of Ohio. A postoffice was established at Lancaster, 
or rather where Lancaster now is, for the town had not yet 
been laid out, and there were but a few families of emigrants 
in the Valley. The mail was carried through on horseback 
once a week, each way, over Zanes' Trace, the whole distance 
being 226 miles through an almost entirely unbroken wilder- 
ness. The line was devicled into three routes. The first was 
from Wheeling to Zanesville, or rather to the Muskingum ; 
the second from the Muskingum to the Scioto ; and the third 
from the Scioto to the Ohio, or to Limestone. The late Gen- 
eral George Sanderson, then a small lad. Avas for a time mail 
carrier between the Muskingum and Scioto, — a distance of 
about seventy-six miles. The condition of the roads, and the 
facilities for travel were such, that to make the connections 
in some instances a large portion of the way had to be passed 
over in the night, which, through the dark and unbroken 
forests, was no enviable task, especially for a young boy. 

The first postmaster was Samuel Coates, Sen., an English- 
man before referred to, and he kept his office at first at his 
cabin at the crossing of Hocking, but subsequently, after 
Lancaster began to grow, he removed it to a cabin on the 
south side of the present Wheeling Street, on the same spot 


where James V. Kenney now resides. Mr. Coates held the 
office for a time, and was succeeded by his son, Samuel Coates, 
Jun. The succession of postmasters from Mr. Coates, Sen., up 
to the year 187(:>, here follows, for which I am indebted to 
James Miers, who has resided in Lancaster all his life. 

Samuel Coates (1799), Samuel Coates, Jun., Jacob D. Det- 
rich, Elenathan Scofield, Henry Drum, Thomas U. White, 
Daniel Sifford, Henry Miers, James Cranmer, John C. 
Castle, Benjamin Connell, John L. Tuthill, C. M. L. Wise- 
man, Melanchthon Sutphen (1876). 

The present will be the proper place to say what is neces- 
sary to be said of the postal service, and postal rates, at that 
early day. The mails were at first entirely carried on horse- 
back, and continued to be until the country became sufficiently 
developed to introduce post coaches. The "mail boys" 
carried with them small tin horns, and sometimes long tin 
trumpets, a blast on which heralded their approach to the 
post offices. In some instances the carriers acquired the art 
of blowing respectable tunes on the long tin trumpets. They 
were denominated tie "post boys horn", and the sound 
awakened a lively feeling of cheer as far as they could be 
heard. They were to the inhabitants then what the rail road 
whistle is to-day, only far more joyful. They were likewise 
carried by coach drivers for some time after the introduction 
of that service. 

The rates of postage were very different formerly from 
what they are now. The price for carrying letters was fixed 
in accordance witti the distance they had to go. Weight was 
not regarded. Thus, a single letter was, for fifty miles and 
under, 6\ cents. Over fifty miles and under one hundred 
and fifty, Vlh cents. Between one hundred and fifty and 
three hundred miles, 18f; and over three hundred miles, to 
any point within the United States, 25 cents. Two sheets 
folded into the same was treated as a double letter, and 
double rates charged ; at least this was the law for a time. 
Subsequently, and before the introduction of the three cent 
rate, as at present, there was for some time a ten cent and a 
five cent rate. I do not remember the dates. — Postage was 
not, under the old rates, required to be paid in advance, and 
seldom was so paid; but if prepaid, the word "paid" was 
written on the outside of the letter by the postmaster, usually 


at one corner. In like manner the price of the letter was 
written in figures; thus, (>} ; 12|; 18|; or 25; and these 
rates, if the word "paid" did not appear on the outside, were 
to be paid by the parties to whom the letters were addressed. 
The change then in use was silver coin, of the denominations 
of 6^ cents (fippsnny bit); 12^ cents (ninepence); 23 cents, 
and half dollars. Thus, if the price of a letter were 18| 
cents, you gave the postmaster a quarter, and he gave you 
back a fippenny bit, and so on. Letters were written on 
three pages of the sheet, the fourth being left blank, and then 
so iolded as to allow the blank page to form the whole outside 
of the letter, upon which the address was written. There are 
few persons now living of forty years and under, who could 
fold up a letter in the old style. Letters were sealed with 
sealing wax in the form of wafers, mostly red wax, though 
black and blue were sometimes used. Wafers put up in 
small boxes formed a considerable article of commerce, and 
were for sale at every store and grocery. They are now 
nowhere to be found. It was customary then for persons to 
carry seals with which to stamp the wafers which were first 
softened by moistening them with the tongue. And these 
seals might be the initials of the name, or any figure fancied. 
The introduction of letter envelopes took place previous to 
1840, and cheap postal stamps about 1848, as my recollection 
has it. 

The growth of Lancaster, from the time the first trees were 
cut down and the first log cabin built, in the year 1800, up to 
1876, cannot be minutely and specifically traced, year by year, 
nor would it be of importance to do so, so far as the present 
actors on the stage of life are concerned. The former inhab- 
itants did their work, and passed away. The present will soon 
be gone, and scarcely remembered. The first settlers are all 
dead, and there is little of the work of their hands visible — 
nothing, beyond a few writings, and possibly a few log struc- 
tures, mostly closed in and hidden from view. The original 
log structures have every one disappeared, and everything 
else constructed of wood by the original settlers. One can 
scarcely find so much as a stone laid, or bearing the impress 
of first hands. A few moss covered gravestones in the old 
cemeteries tell where some of the pioneers were laid — tell when 
born and when died, and that is all. Nobody can tell how 


they looked, or how they spoke. It is as if they had never 
lived. What is it .to the present surging throng how they 
lived, and joyed, and sorrowed, and loved, and hated, and suf- 
fered, and died ? Who feels one stirring emotion for the hon- 
ored dead ? There is not one to weep for them ; and not one 
will weep for us "a hundred years to come." "But other 
men our streets will fill; and other men our lands will till; a 
hundred years < o come." Thus does man and all his works 
perish. Could we interview these veteran dead, volumes that 
is forever lost, that we might have saved, could be placed on 
paper. But there are none, not one to tell the story. 

Some of their descendants are alive, but they cannot tell 
the tales of their sires. They could tell us whence they came, 
where they settled, and when they died, and there the curtain 
would drop. It cannot be determined now, with few excep- 
tions'; where the original settlers built their first cabins, at 
least not the exact spot; so much has the onward march of 
time transformed the face of things. All has drifted into the 
dim and dimming past twilight. It is said, in a general way, 
that a great many of the first inhabitants were mechanics, but 
who were they? what branches did they follow? what was 
their personal appearance? how did they succeed? were they 
good men and women? and did they live exemplary lives? 
We can occasionally hear it said, that seventy years ago such 
a man was a blacksmith in Lancaster, or in Fairfield county, 
and some one was a shoemaker, and one was a lawyer, and 
some ethers kept tavern. Well, they are all gone, and their 
houses are gone, and everything that belonged to them. Of 
all these mechanics, and all that did the drudgery and bore the 
heavy burdens, not one w T ord is written. There are no means 
of knowing anything about them. Only the few individuals 
we can say much about; but so far as data can be found, every 
Original settler of Fairfield county will be mentioned. 

In a general way it will suffice to say, that Lancaster is one 
of those inltnd towns of Ohio whose growth has been slow, 
persistant and uniform. It has been a matter of some sur- 
prise that Lancaster has not become a leading town of the 
State in manufacturing, possessing as it does local advantages 
and facilities nowhere surpassed, and seldom equaled by any 
county seat of Ohio. Why capital has not sought this as a 
place of investment in preference to other places with fewer 


facilities, cannot be told, and we make no attempt at explana- 
tion. To say it has been a lack of enterprise on tbe part of 
the citizens, would scarcely be true. Capital, to a large ex- 
tent, has not found its way here, and there we leave the 


In 1839, when the writer settled in Lancaster, he was told 
that it had the strongest bar in the State, so far as legal abil- 
ity was concerned. Of this there was probably no doubt. 
At that time Hon. Thomas Ewing was at the zenith of his 
legal career. There were also residing in the place, John T. 
Brazee, Hocking H. Hunter, William Irvin, Henry Stanbery, 
Wm. J. Reece, William Medill and P. Van Trump, with a few 
of less distinction. 


In like manner it was claimed, that at that time Lancaster 
had the right to boast of a highly eminent board of practicing 
physicians. Following are the names of the principal men who 
w r ere practicing in the place at that time : Paul Carpenter, J. M. 
Bigelow, James White, M. Z. Kreider, Dr. Wait, George Boerst- 
ler, Dr. Saxe, and Thomas 0. Edwards. Of these only two 
are living, viz.: Paul Carpenter, still remaining in Lancaster, 
and Dr. Bigelow, at Detroit. I am unable now to give the 
names of all other physicians then practicing in the county. 
I can however recall the names of Divide of Rushville, Dr. 
Daugherty of Amanda, Dr. Evans of Bremen, Dr. Paul of 
Royalton, Dr. Minor of Lithopolis, Drs. Helmich and Gohe- 
gan of Baltimore, Dr. Brock of New Salem, Dr. T albeit of 
Jefferson, Dr. Turner of Rushville, and a few others. 

The dry goods merchants then doing business in Lancaster, 
were, Ainsworth and Willock, Reber and Kntz, Myers Fall 
and Collins, Levi Anderson, Lobenthal and Reindmond, 
Rochol, Neigh and Culbertson, Samuel F. McCracken and 
Alfred Fahnastock. There were then two^hardware stores; 
Bope and Weaver, and the proprietors of the other I do not 
now recall. The tailors were, Isaac Comer, and Smith and 
Tong. Robert Reed and Joseph Work, Sen., and Joseph 
Work, Jun., carried on the shoemaking business. There were 


two tin and stove establishments, viz : Connell & Work, Mr. 
Bliss. Smith & Arney, and Gilbert Devol were in the 
iron foundry business ; and George Ring was the proprietor of 
the Woolen Factory at the south end of Broadway. The 
principal hotels were the Phoenix, now the Talmadge 
House, the Shaeffer House, and the Swan Hotel. The Phoenix 
was kept by G. Steinman; the Shaeffer House by F. A. 
Shaeffer ; and the Swan by Mr. Overhalser. The Shaeffer 
House has been changed into a business house, the first floor 
of which is G. Beck's Drug Store. William E. Williams at 
that time kept a small hotel, known as the Broadway House ; 
and there were two small inns on Columbus street, kept by 
two men by the name of Myers. In 1839 there were two 
Drug Stores in Lancaster — one kept by George Kauffman, and 
the other by Bury & Beck. The former is now continued by 
Dr. Davidson, and the latter by Beecher White. William 
Bodenheimer and George W. Claspill were gunsmiths, the for- 
mer also a manufacturer of spinning-wheels. Mr. Bodenheimer 
has deceased, and Mr. Claspill has discontinued the business. 
The canal mill was then in operation, and was owned, I 
believe, by John T. Brazee and George Kauffman. There were 
two tan-yards — James M. Pratt owned one of them, and Gideon 
Peters the other. David Foster was the chair-maker of the 
place, and is still, in connection with his son, carrying on the 
business at his old stand at the corner of Wheeling and Co- 
lumbus streets. Luman Baker and Henry Shultz were cabinet- 
makers ; and Henry Orman and Mr. Vorys were the principal 
builders. These were the principal industries of Lancaster in 
1839, though there were others on a small scale, such as 
weavers, coopers, and the like, which I cannot take space to 
particularize. I must not, however, omit to mention Hunter 
and Edingfield, and Adam and Jacob Guseman, blacksmiths. 
Groceries and saloons, as such, were almost unknown; groceries 
were principally sold at the dry goods stores, and drinking 
was principally done at the taverns. There was not then a 
shoe and boot-store, or a merchant-tailor in the place ; cloth 
was purchased at the stores, and made to order by the tailors. 
This was a little less than forty years ago; and when Lancaster 
is written as it is now, in 1876, the difference will appear. 




In 1839, when the writer's acquaintance with the county 
began, the Hocking Valley canal was the commercial 
thoroughfare. There were fronting on its eastern bank as it 
passes along the western border of Lancaster, some nine or ten 
warehouses, thronged with goods and produce the year round. 
Through them passed the entire surplus wheat crop of the 
county, as well as the merchandise for all the stores of Lancas- 
ter and the villages of the county. To handle this large 
amount of freight required a great many clerks and hands. In 
addition, a great number of teams were in constant demand to 
bring in the produce from all parts of the county, and to 
wheel away the merchandise to its destinations. The days of 
wagoning goods across the mountains in four and six-horse 
wagons were past, the canal being the Eureka of transporta- 
tion. The wheat trade alone of Lancaster, at that time, was 
immense. On a single day, in the month of September, the 
writer counted one hundred and twenty-five wagons pass down 
the hill on Main street, freighted with wheat for the mills and 
warehouses on the canal. This was about the year 1846. The 
canal was at that time, during most of the navigable months, 
lined from end to end with boats passing both ways, and 
freighted with goods and produce, as well as coal from the 
Hocking mines, which were chiefly developed after the open- 
ing of the canal, three or four years before. 

Following the same line of history very briefly, we will see 
what Lancaster is in 1876, thirty-seven years later. The leap 
is wonderful— so wonderful that if one, after having become 
familiar with the place and its business in 1839 and 1845, 
could have closed his eyes and remained oblivious to passing 
events until the present year, he could find no recognition of 
either persons or things. In the first place, he would scarcely 
recognize a building in the place, if the old market-house and 
the residence of Samuel Rudolph on Wheeling street be 
excepted. The few remaining citizens he would at last 
recognize would be so changed as to appear somebody else. 
More than a full generation have been born and died within 
the time. He would not hear a song sung he heard then, 
scarcely a tune. If he should enter a Methodist class-meeting, 
he would not hear a familiar voice or see a familiar face, and 


all the congregations of the place would be new congregations 
to him; new scenes would meet his eyes on every hand, and 
new strains fall upon his ears ; he would not find a single mer- 
chant on the streets he left there, except Joseph Reindmond 
and John Reeber. Of mechanics left, Robert Reed and John 
Pierce, shoemakers ; David Foster, chair-maker; Jacob Guse- 
man and Stephen Smith, blacksmiths; and Henry Orman, car- 
penter, only remain, so far as the writer remembers. Of phy- 
sicians, only Dr. Carpenter remains ; and of the bar, not one, 
and only two of them are living — John T. Brazee, near Lancas- 
ter, and Henry Stanberry, now residing in Kentucky. Judge 
Whitman and Wm. Slade are living away from here, but 
neither of them were in Lancaster in 1839. The Arney and 
Devol foundries have been turned into machine-shops ; and 
if the returned citizen, after nearly forty years' absence, should 
take a stroll along the canal, instead of beholding eight or ten 
warehouses teeming with life and business, he would not see 
one that deserved the name, and only now and then a solitary 
boat laden with coal. The warehouses have been converted to 
other uses. This change in the commercial affairs of Lancas- 
ter has been brought about by the two railroads passing 

In August, 1876, five dry goods stores could be found, and all 
situated on the north side of Main street, and on the same 
square, viz. : between Broad and Columbus streets, as follows : 
Reeber and Ulrich, Charles Kutz, Beck Brothers, Wren 
Brothers, and Philip Rising. Four clothing stores, viz. : Peters 
& Trout, Rising, Siple & Miller, Jacob Hite, and Moses Levi. 
Seven drug stores, owned by George Beck & Son, A. David- 
son, Beecher White, Daniel Sifford, Richey & Giesy, Mr. 
Wetzler, and Crider Brothers. Five shoe and boot-stores, 
namely: Robert Reed, James Work & Brother, Myers & 
Getz, Richards & Webb, and Showers Brothers. Two hard- 
ware stores: Wm. McCracken,and Hanson & Company. Three 
tin and stove establishments: James McMacmanama, Stur- 
geon Brothers, and . Three banks, viz. : First National 

Bank, Hocking Valley National Bank, and FairLeld County 
Bank. One wholesale grocer}' and some dozen or more retail 
family groceries and provision stores. Five bakeries, as fol- 
lows: A. Bauman, Sleekman & Huffman, Klinge, Blank and 
Sliker. Five dentists, viz. : H. Scott, H. L. Creider, Doctor 


Von Bonhorst, Dr. Palmeter, and J. C. Scott. Four livery-sta- 
bles, as follows: Christian Rudolph, Thomas Henderson, 
Johnson & Straley, and Alex. Cunningham. Two furniture 
dealers : Stroble & Bledsicker, and Williams & Wiley. Three 
jewelers : L. Butch, Sieber & Co., and Frank Blaire. Three 
book stores : John L. Tuhill & Son, A. Branemen, and Wyn- 
koop. One queensware store, by Wm. Stuart. 

The following are the practicing physicians of Lancaster in 
1876: M. Efhnger, Dr. Turner, Dr. Jackson, Dr. Lewis, Dr. 
Flowers, Dr. Harmon, Dr. Chas. Shawk, Dr. Geo. Boerstler, 
Dr. Goss, Dr. Meisey, Dr. P. Carpenter, and Dr. Long & Son. 
The practicing attorneys in the same year are : J. M. Corinell, 
C. D. Martin, John S. Brazee, John Reves, Samuel Kistler, 
Clay Drinkle, Charles Drinkle, C. F. Shseffer, Wm. Davidson, 
Reese Eversole, Kinnis Fritter, Mr. Dolson, Mr. Hite, John 
McNeal, and Wm. Shultz. Builders and lumber dealers: Or- 
man Brothers, Vorys Brothers, Denton. & Sons, and others. 
Coal dealers : J. V. Kinney, H. Carter, and others. Agricultural 
works : Hocking Valley Works, Theodore Mithoff & Co., Eagle 
Works, Whyly Brothers & Eckert. Woolen factory : McAnasby 
& Co. Hotels at present are : Talmadge House, Mithoff House, 
Bauman House, Wetzel House, Columbus Street House and 
the Broadway Hotel. There are three marble-monument 
shops, as follows : Mr. Blum, Mr. Findley, Pool & Co. Here 
are also the machine-shops of the Cincinnati & Muskingum 
Valley Railroad. There are likewise three carriage and buggy 
establishments, run by Sears & Mahoney, Shutt Brothers, and 
Geiser Brothers. All minor mechanical arts are respectably 
represented in the place. 


Lancaster has not been characterized for bold enterprise 
and adventure. For the most part,' its citizens have been of 
the conservative style— content to pursue a legitimate busi- 
ness with gradual growth. An unusual proportion of its citi- 
zens are freeholders, and reside under their own roofs, the pro- 
portion of renters being less than in most similar towns. The 
financial and judicial management of its affairs has, for the 
most part, been judiciously managed. The Municipal Officers 
are : One Mayor, one Marshal, a Clerk, Solicitor, City Sur- 


veyor and ten Councilmen. I find but little recorded of the 
municipal affairs of the town previous to 1831, at which 
time a special act of incorporation was passed, 


In the year 1831, Lancaster became an incorporated village, 
by enactment of the Legislature of the State. During the 
twenty years that elapsed between that and 1851. when Lan- 
caster became a city of the third class, I have only been able 
to learn the name of one of its Mayors. John Garaghty, Esq., 
now a resident of the State of Iowa, was Mayor two years, 
about 1848 and 1849. 

Here follow the succession of Mayors from 1851, in the order 
of their election, in all eight : Wm. P. Cried, 1851-1853 ; 
John D. Martin, 1853 to 1855 ; Silas Hedges, 1855 to 1857 ; Al- 
fred McVeigh, 1857 to 1859; Kinis Fritter, 1859 to 1863; Sam- 
uel Ewing, 1863 to 1867 ; Tallman Slough, 1867 to 1875 ; and 
in April, 1875, Philip Benadum, the present incumbent, was 

Note. — I find some difficulty I at first scarcely anticipated. 
The oldest persons now living in Fairfield County, and who 
have spent their lives here, differ more or less in their recol- 
lections of dates and incidents. Therefore, in matters not of 
record, discrepancies arise. I have been obliged to leave out 
much that I would have been glad to insert, through fear of in- 
accuracy. But this will not materially interfere with the gen- 
eral tenor of the work. 


The thread of narration is here interrupted for a time, by the 
introduction of reference to relics of the olden-time. A legit- 
imate part of the history of country and age is literature, 
manners and customs, religion and social habits. In writing 
up Fairfield County, therefore, the work would be incomplete 
so far as a transcript of the times of sixty and seventy years 
ago is concerned, if the relics of that pioneer age be not 
brought forward. The people are gone, and their works are 
gone; and it is the same to the present age as if they had 
not lived at all. All that surging throng have faded from the 


canvas, but their progeny live, and their virtues, examples, 
patriotism and good deeds never die, though the actors pass 
away forever and are entirely forgotten. The present inhab- 
itants of Fairfield County, descendants of the pioneers, can 
never have any conception of that frontier age. Written 
words cannot convey the conception. It was a heroism to 
sever from friends and neighbors and cherished association in 
the older States beyond the mountains, and travel hundreds of 
miles into the wilderness to take the chances of a precarious 
living — to encounter wild beasts and savage man, and the pes- 
tilential malaria, and to petition the forests and the virgin 
soil for bread and raiment— to be content with a square log- 
pen, covered with clapboards, amidst wild forest scenes. But 
all this was only a part of the sacrifice. To find a subsistence? 
the forests had to be cleared away, and the timber burned, and 
a few acres inclosed with rail-fences, and then the soil broken 
and the seeds deposited, and left to the chances of the inclem- 
ent seasons and the depredations of animals. If the season 
failed, or beasts destroyed, there was little left for man; and 
this was a common occurrence. But few who read these pages 
will, have an experimental knowledge of frontier life, and even 
they will have lost much of its recollection. Pioneer life here 
was pioneer life in all the West at the same age. But the 
settlements, coming as they did from different circumstances 
of life, and bringing with them their religions and social hab- 
its at home, came soon, by the force and necessities of new and 
strange circumstances, to form new social relations. Mutual 
dependencies and mutual aid became the web and woof of the 
new settlements. But how they did, how they appeared, 
their sports and pastimes, the songs they sung, their melodies, 
all that belonged to the log-cabin age died with the actors, 
and now live only in tradition or written history. Their 
narration stirs no heart, except that heart which has before had 
its chords struck with the living realities. Still, there are 
those yet on the stage who will be thrilled with some reminis- 
cences that follow. The songs, and stanzas, and choruses, and 
plays of fresh young life sixty years ago are yet dear to those 
who once participated in them. Those were days of inno- 
cence and sincere friendship and rational enjoyment. Imag- 
ination will group around the aged, dear friends and loved as- 
sociations long since' fled, capable, by their recollection, of 


making in the bereaved heart yet beating, a little heaven on 
earth. I love to believe it is a foregleam of the blessed im- 
mortality that awaits us all beyond the confines of time and 
sense here below. Faith pictures the family-circle re-forming 
on the thither bank of the poetic stream of death, and await- 
ing our coining. These are hallowed and thrilling remem- 
brances, that, cherished, make us better and happier men and 
women. I am happy while I call them up. I lived through 
back-woods life, and here reproduce from memory a few of the 
old stanzas and choruses that were sung by religious people 
everywhere in the West sixty years ago ; 

" Jesus, the vision of thy face 

Hath overpowering charms ; 
Scarce shall I feel death's cold embrace, 

If Christ be in rny arms. 
Then while you hear my heart-string break, 

How sweet my moments roll ! 
A mortal paleness on my cheek, 

And glory in my soul." 

** Farewell, dear friends, I must be gone, 
I have no home or stay with you ; 
I'll take my staff and travel on, 
Till I a better world do view. 
Farewell, farewell, farewell, 
My loving friends, farewell." 

" Sweet rivers of redeeming love 

Lie just before mine eyes* 
Had I the pinions of a dove, 

I'd to those rivers fly. 
I'd rise superior to my pains, 

With joy outstrip the wind ; 
I'd cross bold Jordan's stormy main, 

And leave this world behind." 

" Hear the royal proclamation, 
The glad tidings of salvation ; 
Published to every creature, 
To the ruined sons of nature. 

Jesus reigns, he reigns victorious ; 
Over heaven and earth most glorious." 


" There is a land of pleasure, 

Where streams of joy forever roll; 
'Tis there I have my treasure, 

And there I long to rest my soul. 
Long darkness dwelt around me, 

With scarcely once a cheering ray ; 
But since my Savior found me, 

A lamp has shown along my way." 

" I'm glad that I was born to die ; 
From grief and woe my soul shall fly ; 
Bright angels shall convey me home, 
Away to the New Jerusalem." 

" There is a heaven o'er yonder skies, 
A heaven where pleasure never dies ; 
A heaven I sometimes long to see, 
But fear again 'tis not for me. 

But Jesus, Jesus is my friend, O, hallelujah ; 

Hallelujah ; Jesus, Jesus is my friend." 

" Brethren, hear the martial sound, 

The gospel trumpet now is blowing ; 
Men in order listing round, 

And soldiers to the standard flowing. 
Bounties offered : joy and peace — 

To every soldier this is given, 
When from toil and war they cease, 

A mansion bright prepared in heaven." 

" What happy children who follow Jesus, 
Into the house of prayer and praise ; 
And join in union, while love increases, 

Resolved this way to spend our days. 
Although we're hated by the world and Satan, 

By the flesh, and such as know not God, 
Yet happy moments and joyful seasons - 
•We ofttimes find on Canaan's road." 

" The people called Christians have many things to tell, 
About the land of Canaan, where saints and angels dwell ; 
But Sin, that dreadful ocean, compasses them around, 
While its tide still divides them from Canaan's happy ground,' 


1 Saw ye my Savior ! saw ye my Savior ! 

Saw ye my Savior and God ? 
O he died on Calvary, to atone for you and me, 
And to purchase our pardon he bled." 

' From the regions of love, lo an angel descended, 
And told the strange news, how the babe was attended ; 
Go, shepherds, and worship this wonderful stranger; 
See yonder bright star, there's your God in a manger. 
Hallelujah to the lamb, who has purchased our pardon, 
We'll praise him again when we pass over Jordan." 

"O thou in whose presence 
My soul takes delight, 

On whom in affliction I call ; 
My comfort by day, 
And my song in the night, 

My hope, my salvation, my all." 

" Farewell, my friends, I must be gone, 
I have no home or stay with you ; 
I'll take my staff and travel on. 
Till I a better world do view." 

" The wondrous love of Jesus, 
From doubts and fears it frees us, 
With pitying eyes he sees us, 

A toiling here below ; 
Through tribulation driven, 
We'll force our way to heaven ; . 
Through consolation given, 

Rejoicing on we'll go." 

Jesus, my Savior, I know thou art mine ; 
For thee all the pleasures of earth I resign ; 
Thou art my rich treasure, my joy and my love, 
Nothing richer possessed by the angels above." 

" Ye weary, heavy-laden souls, 

Who are oppressed sore, 
Ye trav'lers through the wilderness, 

To Canaan's peaceful shore : 
Through chilling winds and beating rain, 

The waters deep and cold, 
And enemies surrounding you, 

Take courage and be bold." 


" Come, my soul, and let us try, 

For a little season, 
Every burden to lay by, 

Come, and let us reason. 
What is this that easts you down ? 

Who are those that grieve you? 
Speak, and let the worst be known, 

Speaking may relieve you." 

" The gospel's joyful sound 
Is music in my ears ; 
In Jesus I have found 

Relief from all my fears ; 
Darkness to light does now give place, 
And all things wear another face." 

" Begone, unbelief, my Savior is near, 
And for my relief will surely appear; 
By prayer let me wrestle, and he will perform ; 
With Christ in the vessel, I smile at the storm." 

" Drooping soul no longer grieve ; 
Heaven is propitious ; 
If on Christ you do believe, 
You will find him precious." 

"Don't you see my Jesus coming, 

Don't you see him in yonder cloud, 
With ten thousand angels around him, 

See how they do my Jesus crowd ; 
I'll arise and go and meet him ; 

He'll embrace me in his arms; 
In the arms of my dear Jesus, 

O there is ten thousand charms." 

"Savior, visit thy plantation ; 

Grant us, Lord, a gracious reign ; 
All will come to desolation, 
Unless thou return again. 
Lord revive us, 
All our help must come from thee." 

" Hail the blest morn when the Great Mediator, 
Down from the regions of glory descend ; 
Shepherds, go worship the babe in the manger, 


Lo ! for your guide the bright angels attend. 
Brightest and best of the S07is of the morning, 

Dawn on our darkness and lend us thine aid ; 
Star in the East the horizon adorning, 

Guide where the infant Redeemer was laid" 


Ho every one that thirsts, 

Come ye to the waters ; 
Freely drink and quench your thirst, 

As Zion's sons and daughters." 

"We'll walk about Jerusalem; 
We'll walk about Jerusalem ; 
We'll walk about Jerusalem, 
When we arrive at home." 

" And I'll sing hallelujah, 

And glory be to God on high, 
And we'll all sing hallelujah, 

There's glory beaming through the sky. 

" For the good old way is the righteous way. 
And we'll march along in the good old way." 

"Hallelujah, hallelujah, 
We are on our journey home." 

" Well-beloved blessed Savior, 
Well-beloved priest and king, 
Glory be to the lamb that was slain, 
For us he did salvation bring." 

" Glory, honor, praise and power, 
Be unto the Lamb forever ; 
Jehus Christ is our Redeemer, 
Hallelujah, praise the Lord." 

" Palms of victory, crowns of glory, 
Palms of victory you shall wear ; 

Shout! O glory, O glory, 
Palms of victory you shall wear." 


" O sweet heaven, sweet heaven, 
How I long to be with thee." 

" My dying day is rolling around, 
My dying day is rolling around, 
Prepare me, Lord, to go." 

" O hinder me not, for I will serve the Lord, 
And I'll praise him when I die." 

" Lord revive us, Lord revive us, 
All our help must come from thee." 

" the place, the happy, happy place, 
The place where Jesus is ; 
The place where the Christians all shall meet, 
And never part again." 

"O glory, glory! 
Glory, hallelujah ! 
We're going where pleasures never die." 

The foregoing stanzas and choruses were in use principally 
among the Evangelical orders of Christians, such as the Meth- 
odists, Newlights, and other Armenian sects. Many of them 
are expressive of deep religious feeling and strong faith. But 
they are out of use, having been superseded by another class 
expressive of the religious sentiments of the present age; 
whether more devotional, let others determine. 

The following plays of the early times will recall to the 
aged thrills of priceless pleasure in days gone by — departed 
joys never again to be realized on earth; but these joys are 
limited to the individual. These social plays were practiced 
all over the West sixty years ago, and there are few aged per- 
sons now living who will not recognize them— thus: 

' O, sister Phoebe, how merry were we, 
That night we sat under the juniper tree, 
Yon juniper tree, high O. 

Take this hat on your head, keep your head warm, 
And take a sweet kiss, it will do you no harm, it will do you no harm 
I know ; 


It will do you no harm, but a great deal of good, 
So take five or six while you're now in the mood, 
For you're now in the mood 1 know." 

" It's thus the farmer sows his seed ; 
And thus he stands to take his ease ; 
He stamps his fcot and claps his hands ; 
And turns all round to view his lands. 

O come, my love, and go with me ; 

come, my love, and go with me ; 

come, my love, and go with me ; 

And I will take good care of thee." 

" As oats, peas, beans and barley grows ; 
As oats, peas, beans and barley grows ; 
There's none so well as the tanner knows, 
How oats, peas, beans and barley grows." 

" Come, Philander, let's be marching ; 
Every one his true-love sarching ; 
Over and over, ten times over, 
Drink up your liquor, boys, and turn your glasses over." 

" It's raining, it's hailing, it's cold frosty weather ; 
In comes the farmer drinking all the cider ; 
I'll reap the oats, if you'll be the binder; 
He that wants a true-love let him go and find her." 

" We're boldly marching to Quebec, 

Where the drums are loudly beating; 
The Americans have gained the day, 
And the British are retreating. 

We're now returning home again, 

Never to be parted ; 
Open the ring and take one in, 
To relieve the broken-hearted." 

" We're sailing in the boat while the tide runs high ; 
We're sailing in the boat while the tide runs high ; 
We're sailing in the boat with the colors flying high ; 
Waiting for the pretty girls to come by and by." 


" The fox loves the low land, the hare loves the hill ; 
The lawyer loves his lady, and Jack loves Jill ; 
Jill, boys, Jill; Jill, boys, Jill; 
The lawyer loves his lady with a free good will." 

" The eagle's eye as you pass by, 
Was made for running through ; 
Mary's the last that have gone past, 
But now we have got you." 

" Will you talk to the man, my bonny? 
Will you talk to the man, my honey ? 
She answered me right modestly, 
If it were not for my mamma." 

"Here I stand, long, slim and slender; 
Come and kiss me while I'm young and tender; 
For if you wait till I grow old and tough, 
I'll ne'er get kisses half enough." 
[There were always enough volunteers on hand to do what they could 
to prevent the impending dire calamity]. 

" Where do you stand ? In the well. How many feet? Six. Who 
will you have to help you out? Mary ; or Charles." 

[Six kisses lifted the unfortunate out of the well, but always left the 
kisser in the same predicament, to be in their turn helped out in like 

" Sonny he loves cakes and wine, 

And sonny he loves brandy ; 
Sonny he can kiss the girls, 

And he can do it handy. 
If I had as many lives as stars in the skies, 

I'd be as old as Adam ; 
Eise to your feet and kiss complete, 

Your humble servant, madam " 

I write these plays as I knew them, and entirely from 
memory, as I never saw them in print, and it is more than 
fifty years since I have witnessed their performance. I as- 
sume that they were the same everywhere. They belong en- 
tirely to a former age— the pioneer age; they are probably 
nowhere practiced now, but to the survivors of the early 
times of the West they will be valued relics. 



The following story of the celebration of the Fourth of July- 
is so characteristic of the frontier times sixty years ago, that 
it deserves a place here. The story was related to me by the 
late General George Sanderson, some years ago, and I give it in 
substance precisely as related by him, he having been an eye- 
witness of the affair : 

It was about the year 1802. Lancaster was no more than a 
few rude cabins in the woods; and there were the merest nu- 
clei of settlements along the creeks. The country was an 
almost unbroken wilderness. The fires of the revolution were, 
nevertheless, still burning, and the settlers took it into their 
heads to celebrate the Fourth of July in an appropriate man- 
ner. The spot selected for the occasion was the knoll between 
Hocking and the present residence of Augustus Mithoff, and 
on the left side of the Chillicothe Pike. A dinner, such as the 
inhabitants were able to provide at that early day, was pre- 
pared, and a barrel of whisky brought on to the grounds, 
which was up-ended, the head knocked out, and several tin- 
cups hung on nails driven into the staves, when everybody 
was welcome to come up and drink ad libitum. 

And thus it chanced, that while patriotism and corn-whisky 
and general hilarity prevailed, a solitary traveler made 
his appearance, slowly plodding along Zane's trace, and head- 
ing to the west. Percieving the little crowd of patriots a couple 
of hundred yards off on his right, he turned his horse's head in 
that direction, and rode up to learn what was going on; per- 
haps as much to be in company with human beings, for he 
had been two days and one night entirely alone in the wilder- 
ness, since passing Zanesville, which was then settled by a 
few families. He was cordially greeted, and invited to "light 
off"' and take a dram, which being done, the usual frontier 
questions were put: Where was he going? — and what for? 
He was from Virginia, and was going to Chillicothe. He had 
heard of the fame of the Scioto Bottoms, and if he liked the 
country he was going back for his family, - and would settle 

In the common parlance of back-woods life "the best man" 
meant just one thing — it meant the man that could make an- 
other man "holler" enough ; and the phrase "good man" sig- 


nified one of strong muscles and quick motion. The mean- 
ing attached to these words then has not yet died out, though 
"good" and "best" are, by the transformation, assuming a 
moral instead of physical interpretation. Thus, in the former 
age, if one said, " I am a better man than you.;" or, " he is a 
good man," it was to be understood that "/can whip you," 
and " he is a man not to be fooled with." 

The traveler was solicited to settle on the Hocking ; its su- 
periority and advantages were dilated upon and proposed as 
reasons why he should not go further west. But he had his 
mind fixed on the settlement at Chillicothe, and thought he 
would go there. Stronger arguments were then used. He was 
told that there were better men on the Hocking than on the 

Whisky was by this time doing its work, and the traveler 
felt inclined to doubt the proposition, for some of his friends 
had gone to the Scioto. He believed there were better men 
on the latter, or would be if he himself should decide to locate 
there. This suited the celebrators exactly — the thing was 
coming to a point. The traveler's last remark was construed 
into a banter, and the proposition was at once submitted to 
settle the question then and there. The stranger made no 
objections, and several stout men volunteered to see that he 
had fair play. The man to fight him was brought out, the 
ring formed, and they stripped and went at it. 

Rough and tumble was the style of those back-woods fights. 
The combatants were allowed to strike, kick, choke, bite or 
gouge — anything to whip. The "code" would not permit any 
one to interfere until one of the fighters called " enough." 
Upon that word being pronounced, if the victor did not at 
once desist, the bystanders were bound to close in and part 
them. It was a long, powerful, and bloody contest, but the 
traveler was compelled at last to call "enough" 

After the combatants were washed and dressed, whisky was 
handed around, and the parties drank as friends, when the 
new-comer remarked, that there were as good men on the 
Hocking as he wanted anything £o do with, and he believed 
he would settle there. 


In an old copy of the Ohio Eagle, published in Lancaster, 
and bearing date of June 9, 1827, I find the following state- 


raent of the receipts and disbursements of the corporation for 
two years, viz. : from April 20, 1825, to April 23, 1827, inclusive. 
The statement was in tabular form, showing the sources from 
which the income was derived, and for what disbursed. The 
income consisted of taxes collected, and for licenses for shows 
and exhibitions, thus : 

Total amount of income $888 14] 

Total disbursements 932 88| 

Balance against Treasury $44.74]- 

Attest : Gotleib Steinman, Eecorder. 

In contrast with the above, is the annexed statement, taken 
from the County Treasurer's books, showing the receipts and 
disbursements of the corporation for two years, just fifty years 
later. The difference in the gross amount of the receipts and 
disbursements measures the growth of the place. Thus : 

Total income from all sources other than 
School Fund ...$61,437 86 

Total disbursements for all purposes other than 
schools 53,220 08 

Balance in Treasury $8,217 78 

During the two former years the corporation paid Thomas 
Ewing, then a young lawyer practicing in the place, $5.00 for 
legal services. During the latter two years the legal services 
of attorneys cost the aggregate sum of about $1,000. 

The population of Lancaster in 1876 was about 7,000; and in 
addition to the assessment of taxes above shown, it supports 
ten churches, at an annual cost, including building and repair- 
ing church edifices, Missionary and Sunday-school collections, 
and all other incidental church expenses, of not less than 
$15,000. These two general items of cost to the people living 
within the incorporate limits of the town are not all of the 
public assessment. Within the last few years the town has 
erected two school buildings, at an aggregate cost of about 
$80,000. Within these buildings free schools are kept up ten 
months in the year. For sustaining these schools and rjaying 
interest on bonds sold to build the school-houses, the levy for 
1876 was $25,566.29. The number of teachers employed in 
1876 was twenty-two, and one Superintendant, besides one col- 


ored school supported from the same fund. The boundaries of 
the incorporation are two miles square. There is likewise a 
Catholic school, including a majority of the children of that de- 
nomination, amounting to two or three hundred. This school 
is sustained entirely by private funds. 


What is denominated the Public Square in Lancaster, is loca- 
ted at the crossing of Main and Broad streets, the streets cut- 
ting it into four equal parts. The ground was deeded to the 
city forever by the original proprietor, Ebenezer Zane, for pub- 
lic purposes alone. The deed is said to be so drawn, that, 
should the square, or any part of it, be diverted to any other use 
than that of county and city purposes, such diversion would 
work a forfeiture of the title to the heirs at law of the donor. 
The first Court-house was built on this square, in the center 
of the present Broad street, in about the year 1806, and was re- 
moved by order of the County Commissioners in 1863. At 
present the square is occupied by the old market-house, which 
was built in the year 1824, as near as can be ascertained, the 
City Hall building, containing the Mayor's office, Council- 
chamber, Post-office, Odd Fellows' Hall and Engine-house and 
two small parks. 

carpenter's addition. 

That part of Lancaster known as Carpenter's Addition, begins 
with the south side of an alley, sometimes spoken of as Car- 
penter's alley, which, beginning at the canal on the western 
border of the city, runs a due east direction to High 
street in front of the Methodist Church. This alley is situated 
half way between Jail and Walnut streets. All that part of 
the city lying south of Carpenter's alley is properly Carpen- 
ter's Addition. Mr. Carpenter was known in his day as Eman- 
uel Carpenter, Junior. (In the original plat, this alley was 
called Jackson alley). He gave three lots on the east side of 
High street, to be used for church and burial purposes. The 
north division of thisgift isthat on which the Methodist Church 
edifice now stands ; the middle division belongs to the African 
Methodists, upon which they have erected a commodious frame 
church ; and the south division has been used by the city for 


opening Walnut street. All the ground in Carpenter's Ad- 
dition, extending now as far as Maple street in front of Hun- 
ter's residence, belonged originally to Zane's tract, though 
Carpenter's Addition at first lay west of High street, that part 
lying between High and Maple streets having been sold to par- 
ties as out-lots, and since subdivided and sold as town-lots. 

The Zane tract, one mile square, begun on the north side of 
what is known as Lundy's Lane, on the south front of the Fair- 
grounds at the foot of Mount Pleasant ; its eastern boundary 
was Maple street ; its southern line passed from a point a few 
rods west of the present residence of Thomas White, Esq., on 
Koontz's hill, thence west past Giesy's mill to the west line, to 
intersect the north line, and embraced what is now the resi- 
dence of G. Mithoff. Other 


To Lancaster might be mentioned, but they all come within 
the Zane tract, except that part formerly known as East Lan- 
caster, and which has recently been annexed to the city proper, 
and constitutes the Fifth Ward. A portion of East Lancaster 
was formerly known as the Bank addition, the old Lancaster 
Ohio Bank having laid off and sold the first lots. The 


Was erected, or rather completed in 1866, it having been in 
progress of erection about three years. The total cost of the 
building was about $150,000, though the act of the Legislature 
authorizing the lev}' for that purpose was but $100,000. The 
work, however, was completed, and the balance cheerfully paid 
by the tax-payers. The building stands on the north side of 
the Catholic Church ; it is built entirely of sand-stone taken 
from the quarries in sight of the city, and is probably one of 
the best constructed and arranged Court-houses in the State. 
It contains all the county offices on the first floor, except the 
Clerk's office ; on the second floor is the court-room, jury-rooms 
and the Clerk's olEce. The basement is used for the heating 
apparatus, the Janitor's residence, and storage rooms. From 
the roof, or balustrade, which, by the courtesy of the Janitor, 
is accessible to visitors at all times, the Hocking Valley and 
surrounding county is seen for many miles, presenting one of 


the most picturesque and beautiful views in Ohio. From it 
trains can be seen coming and departing on the railroads for 
many miles. The 


Stands on the north side of Chestnut street, between Broad 
and High. It is one of the best jails in Ohio. Its front is a 
two-story brick residence, and is used by the Sheriffs success- 
ively. The prison is of sand-stone, also two stories, and joins 
the brick in the rear. It was built between the year 1840 
and 1850. 


Total taxes for the year, including school fund, $228,306.44. 

Total expenditures same year, $252,855.50; leaving a balance 
against the treasury of $14,569.06. 

The above gross sum of receipts, as shown by the Auditor's 
books for 1875, was levied on the respective townships as fol- 
lows. In regarding the amounts, however, it is to be borne in 
mind that they are not to be taken as correctly representing 
the relative wealth of the townships, because the rates of tax- 
ation were more or less various : 

Clear Creek Township $12,441 31 

Amanda Township 13,241 34 

Bloom Township 13,714 13 

Violet Township 13,222 40 

Liberty Township 18,053 58 

Greenfield Township 12,244 16 

Hocking Township ! 11,962 25 

Madison Township 6,269 03 

Berne Township 15,130 30 

Pleasant Township 11,398 29 

AValnut Township 15.263 53 

Richland Township 6,945 35 

Bush Creek Township 11,112 85 

Lancaster 67,268 02 

Grand Total $228,306 44 


There are no records found in the Auditor's office to show 
that anything like a regular system of taxation was estab- 
lished in the county earlier than 1806. At that time the 


boundaries extended far beyond their present limits, and it is 
difficult now to define the outlines. The reader is therefor 
referred to the laws of Ohio establishing new counties, by 
which Fairfield has been contracted to its present area. 
These laws can all be found in the State Library at Columbus, 
but they are altogether too voluminous for the plan of this 
work. I am not aware that any changes took place between 
1800, when Fairfield was established by proclamation by Gov- 
ernor St. Clair, and 1806, to which year we are now referring. 
I find, however, that in that year there were three townships 
not now in existance, viz. : Clinton, Licking and Thorn, and 
that there are now three townships not then in existance; 
these are Violet, Liberty and Walnut. There have also been 
two townships principally stricken from the southern borders 
of Fairfield within the last thirty years, and attached to Hock- 
ing county ; these were Auburn and Perry, for particulars of 
which, please see laws. Thorn township lay at the north-east 
corner of the county, and has since been attached to Peny 
County ; Clinton and Licking lay on the north. 

From the assessment of 1806, as recorded in an old book 
before me, I here transcribe a complete list of the names of 
the tax-payers then living in the county, alphabetically, and 
by townships, by which they are rendered of easy reference. 
By an early law of Ohio, houses were at that time assessed for 
taxation separate from real estate, the lowest limit of which, I 
think, was one hundred dollars. 

The sums paid in that year for every species of property by 
each person varies on the list from eight cents to $17.72-^, 
which latter amount was paid by Rudolph Pitcher, of Lancas- 
ter, whose house, standing on Main street, a few doors east of 
Shawk's alley, and on the south side, was appraised at $2,500, 
and seven lots at $1,407. The next highest tax-payer was 
David Rese, whose assessment was $13.00. A few in Lancas- 
ter paid ten dollars; but by far the largest number in the 
county paid less than a dollar. But in no township, outside 
of Lancaster, was more than four dollars paid by any indi- 
vidual. The gross sum of the assessments for that year was 

Further in the same old book is found a tabulated state- 
ment of the collections and disbursements for the county un- 
der the following heading: 


"Statement of the receipts and expenditures of Fairfield 
County for six years and four months, commencing June 11th, 
1804, and ending October 6th, 1810." 

Gross collections for six years and four months, from all 
sources $12,862 57 

Gross amount of disbursements for all purposes, 
for the same time $12,349 15 


Aller, John. 
Baker, Daniel. 
Bond, Thomas. 
Babb, William. 
Boiler, Elias. 
Burton, Jacob. 
Bucher, Philloman. 
Boyle, Hugh. 
Bryan, Peter. 
Cox, Mary. 
Clayton, John. 
Converse, James. 
Compton, Ezekiel. 
Compton, John. 
Coffenberry, George. 
Carpenter, Emanuel. 
Cisna, Thomas. 
Coates, Samuel. 
Collen, Timothy. 
Duffield, William. 
Dillen, Henry. 
Daily, Charles. 
Eckhart, Conrad. 
Feather, Peter. 
Ferry, Thomas. 
Foglesong, John. 
Fricher, Thomas. 
Graham, Id ward. 
Green, Samuel. 
Green, Allen. 
Green, George. 


Harper, Samuel. 
Huffman, John. 
Hanson, George. 
Hunter, John. 
Hunter, Joseph. 
Harmon, Jacob. 
Holler, Samuel. 
Hardy, James. 
Hunter, James. 
Hutchins, Benidict. 
Irwin, William. 
Irwin, William D. 
Ingman, Edward, jr. 
Ingman, Edward. 
Invel, Samuel. 
Kemp, Henry. 
King, Christian. 
Koons, John. 
Keller, James. 
Lymk, Johnathan. 
Lofland, John. 
Mellon, Bandle. 
Meek, Jacob. 
McCabe, William. 
McCabe, David. 
Marshal, John. 
Marres, Ralph. 
Marr, John. 
Myi'er, Henry. 
Myrer, Joseph. 
McPherson, John. 

Pitcher, Abram. 
Pew, Marshall. 
Rees, John. 
Rees, Solomon. 
Roberts, Ezekiel. 
Rees, David. 
Rees, Thomas. 
Rees, Morris. 
Rees, Jesse. 
Rever, Peter. 
Reynolds, Larken. 
Slaughter, Robert. 
Spurgeon, Jesse. 
Searls, John. 
Swearengen, Thos. 
Shope, Daniel. 
Sturgeon, Timothy. 
Shun-, John. 
Sacket, Elizabeth. 
Swizerk, John. 
Selby, Ralph. 
Stoops, Samuel. 
Stoops, William. 
Stigart, Luke. 
Stull, John. 
Scofield, Elenathan. 
Thompson, Samuel. 
Tumlinson, William. 
Vanmeter, Daniel. 
Woolford, Jacob. 
Wilson, Nathaniel, sr. 



Green, Charles. 
Green, William. 
Green, Timothy. 
Gaster, Jacob. 
Gisinger, David. 
Gates, Samuel. 

North, Mary. 
Neel, John. 
Neibling, Christian. 
Price, John. 
Pitcher, Budolph. 
Painter, Jacob. 
Peek, Wm B. 

Watson, John. 
Willetson, Elisha. 
Weaver, Adam. 
Work, Joseph. 
Williamson, John. 
AVilson, Nathaniel 
Young, William. 


Huston, Andrew. 

Pitcher, Frederick, sr. Zerba, Peter. 


Adison, Jacob. 
Applegate, Walter. 
Acart, George. 
Bowman, Henry. 
Bibler, John. 
Baldwin, John. 
Bowman, Elisha. 
Babbs, Beal. 
Brook, John. 
Blane, William. 
B cker, Benjamin. 

•ryan, William. 
Beery, John. 
Biddle, Benjamin. 
Colley, William. 
Ciiuger, Frederick. 
Creason, William. 
Crook, E. 
Crook, William. 
Collins, William. 
Carpenter, David. 
Cofman, John. 
Carpenter, William. 
Carpenter, Samuel. 
Carpenter, John. 
Critzer, George. 
Drake, Henry. 
Dodd, Jacob. 
Earry, Jacob. 
Freshouse, John. 
Fowler, Job. 
Fry, Elizabeth. 
Francisco, John. 
Gardner, HArchobold. 

Harmsberger, Conrad. 
Harmsberger, Henry, 
Hammet, Joseph. 
Hines, Peter. 
Harper, Richard. 
Hansel, Henry. 
Hansel, Michael, 
Harsh, John. 
Hamcrsphere, Abraham 
Hollenbach, Jacob. 
Inesel, Henry. 
Jackson, William. 
Keller, John. 
Kusic, John. 
Kenner, Frederick. 
Laughlin, Denman. 
Lewely, Hugh. 
Leek, William. 
Moyer, Daniel. 
Moyer, Abraham. 
Main, John. 
Miller, Catharine. 
McCabe, William. 
Needles, Philomen. 
Ozenbaugh, Henry. 
Perrel, John. 
Perrel, Thomas. 
Perrel, Hezekiah. 
Pialer, George. 
Pontens, John. 
Pence, Frederick. 
Phillips, David. 
Pence, John. 
Pitcher, Abraham. 

Ream, William. 
Ream, Abraham. 
Reese, David. 
Ream, Sampson. 
Rhodes, John. 
Rudolph, Peter. 
Runnels, Burton. 
Smith, William. 
Seits, Lewis. 
Sanders, Peter. 
Shellenbarger, John . 
Swartz, George. 
Sheeny, Michael. 
Shellenbarger, David. 
Sturgeon, Peter. 
Stollner, John. 
Shellenbarger, Samuel. 
Shellenbarger, Henry. 
Stukey, John. 
Smith, Henry. 
Sisco, Mary. 
Sellers, Jacob. 
Sellers, John. 
Taylor, Grove. 
Van meter, Jacob. 
Yanmeter, John. 
Van meter, Joseph. 
Welch, William. 
Wolf, Jacob. 
Walker, Abraham. 
Winters, John. 
Wilson, William. 
Wiley, William. 
Watts, Robert. 



Gardner, Peter. Pearce, William. 

Highstand, Abraham. Pennebaker, John. 
Hull, Abraham. Perrel, James. 

Harmsb^erger, Michael. Roberts, Amos. 


Westenhaver, Christian. 
Westenhaver, Joseph. 

Altman, Adam. 
Albright, David. 
Alspaugh, Jacob. 
Alspaugh, George. 
Berringer, Andrew. 
Bolebaugh, Jacob. 
Barr, John. 
Boyne, John. 
Baldwin, James. 
Bright, Major. 
Courtright, Abraham. 
Clymer, Charles. 
Cromley, Christian. 
Cheney, Drusilla. 
Crowl, George. 
Campbell, Jane. 
Courtright, Jesse, D. 
Campbell, John. 
Crawford, James. 
Clymer, John. 
Courtright, John. 
Crowl, John. . 
Curty, Low. 
Cronmer, Mitchel. 
Campbell, Mathew. 
Clymer, Masse. 
Cheney, Samuel. 
Clark, Horatio. 
Courtright, Bichard. 
Clark, William. 
Critz, John. 
Due, Charity. 
Dove, Henry. 
Davidson, James. 
Death, Isaac, sr. 
Davis, Nathan. 
Drake, Zepama. 
Fate, Martin. 

Felner, Martin. 
Fate, Thomas. 
Fate, George. 
Flict, Andrew. 
Grubb, Jacob. 
Hews, Walter. 
Harris, Abraham. 
Harlanger, Christian. 
Hushor, George. 
Hyenbaugh, Henry. 
Harrison , Henry. 
Harroof, John. 
Helt, John. 
Harrison, John. 
Harroof, Peter. 
Kitsmiller, Benjamin. 
Kitsmiller, Elizabeth. 
Kitsmiller, William. 
Kirk, George. 
Lee, Samuel. 
Lee, Daniel. 
Leephart, Mary. 
Lambert, James. 
Lovland, Joseph. 
Lee, Johnathan. 
Long, William. 
Lane, Wilkinson. 
Lee, Zebulon. 
Martin, John. 
Meason, Dorsey. 
Moore, John. 
Meson, Isaac. 
Moor, Levi. 
Manville, Nicholas. 
McCollum, Samuel. 
Needles, George. 
Needles, John. 
Newkirk, Ruben. 

Newkirk, Lewis. 
Perrin, William. 
Rickets, Charles. 
Ruvele, Daniel. 
Ritter, John. 
Rickets, Jerry. 
Rickets, Rearson. 
Richart, Peter. 
Spurgeon, Samuel. 
Swisher, Abraham^ 
Snider, Adam, s 
Serpers, Christian. 
Spurgeon, Elijah. 
Spurgeon, Elias. 
Smith, Francis. 
Smith, Hezakiah. 
Slough, John. 
Small, John. 
Stallens, Launcelot. 
Swisher, Jacob. 
Swisher, John. 
Sehouser, John. 
Saither, Nicholas. 
Tumbleston, Henry. 
Trout, Christian. 
Tefore, John. 
Wiseley, William. 
Wright, David. 
Wiseley, Edward. 
Wells, George. 
Wiseley, James. 
Williams, Jeremiah. 
AVintersteen, John. 
Wheeler, Samuel. 
Young, Abraham. 
Young, Jacob. 




Anderson, James. 
Anderson, Edward. 
Augustus, John. 
Brown, Moses. 
Brough, George. ' 
Brough, Peter. 
Berry, Alexander, jr. 
Berry, Alexander. 
Berry, Abraham. 
Bashford, Francis. 
Buzzard, George. ^ 
Buzzard, Andrew."' 
Buzzard, Henryy 
Buzzard, David. y 
Buzzard, Jacob. *- 
Bogart, George. 
Black, Richard. 
Bruner, Jacob. 
Beard, John. 
Coledren, Jacob. 
Coledren, Nehemiah. 
Coledren, Jacob. 
Clayton, Thomas. 
Clayton, William. 
Clure, Conrad. 
Camie, David. 
Conrad, John. 
Conrad, Daniel. 
Clark, Henry. 
Culp, Peter. 
Clapper, Henry. 
Conrad, Nicholas. 
Conrad, jr., Daniel. 
Drury, William. 
Drury, Edward. 
Drury, Isaiah. 
Drury, Samuel. 
Dush, Mrs. 

Delshauer, jr., George. 
Delshauer, John. 
Delshauer, Michael. 
Delshauer, George. 
Devebaugh, George. 
Devebaugh, Daniel. 

Friend, Reason. 
Friend, Samuel. 
Fosnought, Adam. 
Fos, John. 
Foust, John. 
Fogler, John. 
Grimes, Jacob. 
Hedger, Michael. 
Hoffman, Jacob. 
Hunter, Robert. 
Helen, Frederick. 
Helen, Jacob. 
Howe, James. 
Hammel, George. 
Hoffman, Frederick. 
Helen, John. 
Hedger, Levi. 
Hedger, Absolem. 
Hoffman, Jacob. 
Jules, Henry. 
Julian, William. 
Julian, jr., John. 
Julian, John, f 
Julian, Isaac. 
Julian, Stephen. 
Jackson, John. 
Julian, John, sr. 
Kenson, George. 
Kepnue, Benjamin. 
Landis, Martin. 
Lamb, James. 
Lutz, John. 
Lethers, Jacob. 
Miller, Felis. 
Marks, Jacob. 
Myres, Christian. 
Millhouse, Philip. 
Mc Arthur, Alexander. 
Moor, Harmon. 
Mills, Amos. 
Moss, Edward. 
Mathias, Henry. 
Moor, Henry, jr. 
Millisson, Barnet. 

O'Hara, James. 
Owens, Nathan. 
O'Hara, Hugh. 
O'Hara, Charles. 
Palmer, Jesse. 
Parcels, John. 
Peters, Daniel. 
Peters, Abraham. 
Pickle, Jacob. 
Parks, John. 
Reynolds, John. 
Reynolds, Stewart. 
Reynolds, William G. 
Reynolds, William. 
Russel, Peter. 
Smart, John. 
Stolder, John. 
Stukey, Christian. 
Shoop, Barnet. 
Shafer, Isaac. 
Shafer, Samuel. 
Shafer, Abram. 
Sharrack, John. 
Sidder, Nicholas. 
Shad, John. 
Shoemaker, Jacob/ x 
Sneeyer, Lewis. 
Sailor, Widow. 
Shaw, Alexander. 
Shanie, Philip. 
Smith, Stuart. 
Stotts, John. 
Spangler, Samuel. 
Sering, John. 
Smith, Jacob. 
Shoemaker, John. 
Willets, Isaac 
Wishard Archibald. 
Wiley, William. 
Willets, James. 
Whetsel, Henry. 
Weaver, Samuel. 
Willets, Samuel. 
Willets, William. 



Devebaugh, Jobn. 
Devebaugh, Widow. 
Daniel, Thomas. 
Daniel, John. 
Evans, Joshua. 
Friend, Elijah. 
Friend, Charles. 

Myres, Widow. 
Miller, John. 
North, Zachariah. 
North, William. 
Nigh, Jacob. 
Nogle, George. 
North, Thomas. 

Wheeler, Isaac. 
White, John. 
Young, Robert. 
Young, John. 
Young, Mathew. 


Abrams, Henry. 
Athey, Thomas. 
Ayers, Wm. 
Alden, Daniel. 
Alspaugh, Jacob. 
Alspaugh, Nicholas. 
Baylor, Jacob. 
Bright, David. 
Brakebill, Jacob. 
Bennett, Oliver. 
Beard, John. 
Basler, Jacob. 
Bennett, Harry. 
Bradley, John. 
Bush, John. 
Balenback, John 
Brown, Jas. 
Brettenham, Solomon. 
Brandt, Ludwick. 
Ballenback, Nicholas. 
Bowman, Henry. 
Bowyer, Jacob. 
Borer, Jacob. 
Bomback, David. 
Bowder, Nicholas. 
Bennett, Jacob. 
Bennet, Elisha. 
Cline, Geo. 
Cook, Sarah. 
Cherry, Ralph. 
Cammerly, David. 
Davis, Jacob. 
Doddleston, Ralph. 
Everland, Frederick. 
Evans, Jas. 
Eckhart, John. 

Feniehauser, Daniel. 
Firestone, Daniel. 
Gary, Gilien. 
Geirhart, Daniel. 
Green, Lemuel. 
Gundy, Christian. 
Gezy, John. 
Heistam, Jos. 
Hanna, Jas. 
Hess, Geo. 
Heistand, Samuel. 
Harris, Wm. 
Johnson, Wm. 
Johnson, Chas. 
Johnson, Isaac. 
Johns, Henry. 
Johns, John. 
Kennan, John. 
Laehey, James. 
Lush, Patrick. 
Latshaw, Jos. 
McNeal, Jos. 
Morris, Daniel. 
Mangale, Henry. 
Moorhead, John. 
McCall, Thos. 
McFarland, Robert. 
McFadand, Wm. 
McCollum, Frank. 
McArthur, John. 
McCawly, Edward. 
Miller, Samuel. 
Moires, John. 
Manville, Eli. 
Noggle, Henry, 
dinger, Benjamin. 

Rearden, Michael. 
Robertson, John. 
Read, Wm. 
Rough, Peter. 
Randal, Samuel. 
Roberts, Ebenezer. 
Rigby, Wm. 
Rise, Michael. 
Smethers, Geo. 
Sells, Wm., sr. 
Sells, Wm. 
Sells, Jacob. 
Stewart, Jos. 
Shimp, Geo. 
Sanderson, AlexandeJ 
Shartle, Philip. 
Small, Valentine. 
Showbery, Jacob. 
Saim, Peter. 
Sim, Henry. 
Swisher, Jacob. 
Tallman, Samuel. 
Tannehill, Mr. 
Thompson, Richard. 
Tong, Wm. H. 
Taylor, Drake. 
Tootwiler, Jacob. 
Tippy, Conrad 
Wohing, Peter. 
Wintermood, John 
Wilson, Wm. 
Wagoner, Jacob. 
Wintermood, Wm. 
Williams, Jos. 
Wells, Jas 
Wiseley, John. 



Edgar, John. 
Eversole, Peter. 
Elder, John. 
Erb, John. 
Fairchild. Peter. 

Owen, David. 
Olspach, Jacob. 
Pier, John. 
Pever, Isaac. 
Pever. John. 

Fitzgerald, Henry. Porter, David. 
Fairchild, Abraham. Pence, Jacob. 

Wagoner, Adam. 
Wagoner, Daniel. 
Weaver, Jacob. 
Wilson, John. 
Wilson, Jas. 
Williamson, Peter. 

Archer, Geo. 
Armstrong, Geo. 
Allen, Nathen. 
Avery, Geo. 
Ardoes, Holcombe. 
Allen, Alexander. 
Beard, John. 
Branson, J-oshua. 
Bean, Richard. 
Bean, John. 
Baker, Aaron. 
Benjamin, Mr. 
Beauer, David. 
Benjamin, I. 
Belt, C. 
Borcher, Jos. 
Barrick, Phillip. 
Barrick, Peter. 
Barlow, Abram. 
Barrow, Daniel. 
Belt, Acquilla. 
Baleer, Daniel. 
Buttler, Lewis. 
Bancroft, Samuel. 
Belt, Catura. 
Belt, John. 
Black, Jas. 
Belt, Davies. 
Belt, John. 
Belt, John, sr. 
Buskirk, John. 
Buttler, Enoch. 
Buttler, David. 
Church, Robert. 
Caruthers, Win. 
Croca, John. 


Gulfin, Job. 
Gane, Wm. 
Galasby, John. 
Hughs, Thos. 
Hughes, John. 
Halden, Alexander. 
Hook, John. 
Henthorn, John. 
Harris, Nehmiah. 
Hughs, Thomas. 
Hughs, Wm. 
Holms, Alexander. 
Heavens, Jesse. 
Herron, John. 
Hughs, Ellis. 
Hains, Jesse, 
Hickman, Samuel. 
Harris, Jos. 
Harris, Nehemiah. 
Hays, Levi. 
Hays, Seth. 
Haskins, Titus. 
Hilliar, Justin. 
Harris, Jesse. 
Haines, Wm. 
Herron, Crook. 
Harris, Geo. 
Harris, A. 
Harris, Ephraim. 
Holcomb, Ezra. 
Holcomb, Alvin. 
Holcomb, Asa. 
Hount, John. 
Johnsou, Robert. 
Johnson, Jchn. 
James, Jesse. 

Pitzer, R. 
Pew, Evan. 
Pew, Wm. 
Phelps, John. 
Parish, Joseph. 
Parker, Mary. 
Pratt, Worthy. 
Phelps, Wm. 
Pomroy, E. 
Pew, A. 
Peek, Catura. 
Parr, Samuel. 
Rathbone, Job. 
Robinson, Stephen. 
Radcliff, John. 
Rose, Geo. 
Root, Martin. 
Rose, Levi. 
Roseley, Bosswcll. 
Rose, Samuel. 
Rose, G. 
Rose, Hiram. 
Stith, S. 
Sampson, John. 
Shultz, Adam. 
Sutton, Moses, jr. 
Sutton, Philip. 
Stadden, John. 
Swisher, Jacob. 
Seigler, Philip. 
Sutton, Jos. 
Stuart, Jas. 
Spencer, John. 
Shoemaker, John. 
Stome, Tho.s. 
Smith, Philip. 



Chamsel, John. 
Clener, Frederick. 
Canaday, Jas. 
Conner, Isaac. 
Claybangh, Henry. 
Carr, Henry. 
Creamer, Thos. 
Case, Job. 
Clark, A. 

Cromwell, Gideon. 
Cooley, Zaedock. 
Cow, Jas. 
Carry, Ebenezer. 
Cuningham, Patrick. 
Carlisle, Zachariah. 
Dewees, Thos. 
Dotson, Win. 
Debolt, Wm. 
Davis, I. 
Dongan, Thos. 
Duke, John 
Denman, Mathias. 
Dayton, Giles. 
Evins, John. 
Edwards, John. 
Elliot, Samuel, jr. 
Elliot, Samuel, sr. 
Evins, Bod. 
Elliot, Neal. 
Evins, John. 
Ford, Robert. 
Ford, Phineas. 
Farmer, John. 
Groner, Martin. 
Green, Daniel. 
Green, Benjamin. 
Groner, John. 
Green, Thos. 
Green, T. 
Groner, R. 
Gavit, Wm. 
Gavit, Josiah. 
Godard, N. 
Godard,. Moses. 
Gillman, Elias. 

Jones, Samuel. 
Johnson, Jas. 
Johnson, Abraham. 
Johnson, Jos. 
Kite, Michael. 
Kirk, Thos. ' 
Kiger, Anthony. 
Kelso, Jos. 
Kelley, Hugh. 
Kendal, Joshua. 
Leach, Vincent. 
Livingston, Geo. 
Livingston, D. 
Lathley, John. 
Lewis, David. 
Lemuel, Jos. 
Lewis, Zed. 
Linkhorn, Martin. 
McCawley Andrew. 
Merridale, Samuel. 
Manfield, Jas. 
Miller, Isaac. 
Miller, Abraham, 
McCawley, Jas. 
McCawley, Wm. 
McCawley, Jas. jr. 
Myres, John. 
McKitrick, Jas. 
Murphy, Samuel. 
Mufford, Job. 
Monson, Jesse. 
Munson, Guston. 
Miller, O. 
Mitchel, Sylvanus. 
Moor, Frederick. 
Monson, Jeremiah. 
Nelson, Joel. 
Nash, Edward. 
Newman, Samuel. 
Newman, Morris. 
Obaker, Jesse. 
Orr, Geo. 
Obour, Wm. 
Parr, Samuel. 
Parr, Richard. 

Smith, Henry. 
Shadier, Michael. 
Shadier, John. 
Shadier, Daniel. 
Simpson, Isaac. 
Shadier, John, jr. 
Simpson, I. 
Simpson, Jas. 
Seym ore, Thos. 
Shadier, Jacob. 
Slocum, Cornelius. 
Slocum, Wm. 
Spelman, Timothy. 
Sherwood, Robert. 
Smith, Samuel. 
Turnbean, Andrew. 
Taylor, Wm. 
Taylor, Jas. 
Taylor, Wm, jr. 
Tharp, Jos. 
Thompson, Daniel. 
Thomas, David. 
Thrall, Samuel. 
Taylor, Theodore, jr. 
Taylor, Theodore. 
Wilson, Abraham. 
Wates, Daniel. 
Wilson, Jacob. 
Wilson, John. 
Ward, Catharine. 
Way man, John. 
Wardeu, John. 
Ward, John. 
Walson, Cornelius. 
Ward, Daniel. 
Ward, A. 
Wilcox, John. 
Wells, I. 

Wright, Jonathan. 
Waters, Benjamin. 
Winshall, Silas. 
Wright, Spencer. 
Williamson, John. 
Wilson, Archabald. 
Waters, Samuel. 



Anderson, Thomas. 
Allen, Lemuel. 
Allen, Frederick. 
Allen, S. 
Allen, Whiting. 
Barr, John. 
Barr, Andrew. 
Barr, William. 
Barr, Thomas. 
Barr, Samuel. 
Brothers, Francis. 
Barnhart, Jacob. 
Brown, William. 
Jones, Binjamin. 
Beal, James. 
Burnap, Abner. 
Bull, B. 
Booker, James. 
Brown, T. 
Brown, William. 
Brian, Mary. 
Brian, John. 
Brian, William. 
Burhart, William. 
Crist, John. 
Caton, Benjamin. 
Collins, Timothy. 
Cole, Broad. 
Clayton, John. 
Cain, Daniel. 
Cole, Shadrick. 


Chilcold, Mordecai. 
Chilcold, John. 
Clark, Neal. 
Cole, Joshnay. 
Cole, D. 
Eagle, Thomas. 
Eagle, William. 
Erington, Ebenezer. 
Earnman, Frederick. 
Frettle, Lewis. 
Gardner, Jacob. 
Good, Peter. 
Gossage, John. 
Galagher, Thomas. 
Huffer, Isaac. 
Howe, James. 
Hardister, Joseph. 
Herron, Philip. 
Howe, David. 
Hooker, Richard. 
Hayes, Mary. 
Herrocl, John. 
Hoover, John. 
Highlands, Joseph. 
Ingonan, Luke, 
lies, Isaac. 
Kester, David, 
Kester, Jacob. 
Kester, George. 
Linebaugh, George. 
Long, James. 

Lane, Jesse. 
Lane, William. 
Lane, John. 
Leathers, Frederick. 
Long, William. 
Morris, James. 
Metcalf, Vachael. 
McLane, Robert. 
Murry, William. 
Mackerel, Benjamin. 
Nigh, George. 
Owens, John. 
Oram, Thomas. -— 
Pavey, Samuel. 
Pilcher, Frederick. 
Rica, Abraham. 
Russel, Thomas. 
Bauer, Valentine. 
Shadden, Jacob. 
Swope, David. 
Selby, George. 
Stevens, William. 
Sdarles, John. 
Selby, jr., Thomas. 
Torance, John. 
Whiteman, Christian. 
Williams, John. 
Williams, Thomas. 
Willets, Jesse. 
Wollet, Philip. 

Albright, Adam. 
Arnold, Frederick. 
Armstrong, Thomas. 
Burton, Jacob. 
Bredenstone, Frederick, 
Bright, Nimrod. 
Bell, Isaiah. 
Bailey, James. 
Barr, David. 
Barr, Joseph, jr. 
Buchanan, Andrew. 


Giger, Martin. 
Good, John. 
Hill, George. 
Hopman, Henry. 
Hall, Daniel. 
Harmon, Frederick. 
Hammond, Samuel. 
Hammell, Samuel. 
Hite, Andrew. 
Hite, Andrew, jr. 
Hite, Jacob. 

Neeley, William. 
Pulleu, Thomas. 
Pope, Abraham. 
Perrin, John. 
Pope, Frederick. 
Powel, Aaron. 
Pew, Jesse. 
Powlis, Jacob. 
Powel, Muses. 
Quinn, James. 
Radibaugh, Nicholas. 


" Berry, Jacob. 
,/Berry, Christian. 

Bibler, Jacob. 

Brown, Ludwick. 

Brown, William. 

Bibler, Barbary. 

Barkhammer, John. 

Black, Luke. 

Black, John. 

Beaver, William. 

Beard, William. 

Beard, John. 
• Baker, David. 
. Caldwell, William. 

Cornell, Benjamin. 

Comer, Samuel. 

Cagy, Christian. 

Crawford, William. 

Catures, Nicholas. 

Cofman, Martin. 

Gulp, Henry. 

Chaffan, Robert. 

Clove Bobert. 

Dild, Jacob. 

Duncan, James. 

Dumna, John. 

Dumna, Martin. 

Durbin, Thomas. 

Durbin, Samuel. 

Erwin, William. 

Ernest, George. 

Fink, John. 

Fetters, Peter. 

Feemen, Benjamin. 

Feemen, John. 

Fetters, Conrad. 

Farmer, William. 

Flake, John. 

Frazer, Alexander. 

Fox, Jacob. 

Graham, A. 

Giger, Adam. 

Giger, David. 

Gardner, William. 

Hoover, Christian. 
Houser, George, jr. 
Houser, John. 
Hite, John. 
Hampson, John. 
Hill, George. 
Hendrix, James. 
Hite, John, jr. 
Ewing, John. 
Ewing, Mathew. 
Inks, John. 
Jones, William. 
Kemerer, Philip. 
Kortman, Jacob. 
Kratzer, Samuel. 
Kortman, jr., Jacob. 

Laffady, . 

Lamb, Jacob. 
Laffady, Samuel. 
Laffady, Thomas. 
Lee, Soloman. 
Lindsey, William. 
Lantz, Martin. 
Lamb, George. 
Liuch, Henry. 
Martin, William. 
McCune, Adam. 
Miller, Christian. 
McDaniel, William. 
My res, Abraham. 
Maclin, Tenalt. 
Musselman, Jacob. 
Maclin, Peter. 
Matear, Robert. 
Manley, John. 
Mills, Samuel. 
Miller, Abraham. 
Murphy, Asa. 
Murphy, Benjamin. 
Miller, John. 
Miller, Jacob. 
Murphy, William. 
McNoughton, John. 
Nowlin, Barnaby. 

Ross, Thomas. 
Roof, Peter. 
Redman, Martin. 
Rowley, Jacob. 
Rogers, James. 
Seigler, John. 
Staltzer, Jacob, jr. 
Springer, William. 
Sturgeon, Robert. 
Solter, Christian. 
Siple, Frederick. 
Smith, Jesse. 
Soliday, Adam. 
Stevenson, Thomas. 
Smith, Christian. 
Smith, Daniel. 
Shepler, John. 
Sheats, Mathias. 
Shisler, John. 
Sterm, Michael. 
Tool, M. 
Twig, Francis. 
Trimble, John. 
Trimble, William. 
Teal, Edward. 
Teal, Arthur. 
Teal, Edward, jr. 
Teal, Samuel. 
Teal, Nathaniel. 
Teal, Walter. 
Thompson, William. 
Torence, Robert. 
Walters, Gasper. 
Walters, Jacob. 
Weger, John. 
Wagner, Andrew. 
Wagner, Benjamin. 
Wiekle, Jacob. 
Warner, Thomas. 
Wiseman, Samuel. 
Watson, Thomas. 
York, William. 
Ulster, Widow. 



Archer, George. 
Bowers, A. 
Bowers, Abner, jr. 
Blakeny, Frances. 
Beers, Jacob. 
Bryon, James. 
Boyd, T. 
Banks, Peter. 
Brown, Silas. 
Brown, Aron. 
Buttler, Benjamin. 
Babbit, Calvin. 
Br ice, Jobn. 
Buttler, Isaac. 
Brown, Benjamin. 
Brown, David. 
Brown, Ebenezer. 
Brown, Luther. 
Craig, Andrew. 
Cook, John. 
Cook. Jacob. 
Craig, James. 
Converse, James. 
Calvin, James. 
Conrad, Joseph. 
Conrad, Nathan. 
Dunlap, James. 
Dooty, Peter. 
Dunlap, Samuel. 
Darling, Win. 
Duglass, Wm. 
Dirt, George. 
Ertmell, Thomas. 


Evins, Wm. 
Finley, Alexander. 
Fognier, Wm. 
Gass, Wm. 
Hardisty, Francis. 
Haines, Henry. 
Herrod, James. 
Henderson, James. 
Harrod, John. 
Harrod, Levi. 
Hall, Eichard. 
Harris, Enoch. 
Henthorn, John. 
Johnson, David. 
Johnson, Abraham. 
Johnson, John. 
Kratzer, Samuel. 
Kerr, John. 
Kite, Peter. 
Knight, Wm. 
Kite, Nicolas. 
Lyon, Abraham. 
Leonard, Benjamin. 
Lash, John. 
Lewis, John. 
Lash ley, Jacob. 
Lashley, Peter. 
Leonard, Wm. 
Leonard, Zeba. 
Marens, John. 
Morrison, John. 
McGowen, Chas. 
McBride, Chas. 

Murphy, Jacob. 
Panebaker, Jacob. 
Pitney, James. 
Priker, Peter. 
Patterson, Thomas. 
Eoberts, Henry. 
Eebe, Nicholas. 
Eichardson, Edward. 
Severe, Jesse. 
Shimplin, John. 
Simpkins, John. 
Stotts, Joseph. 
Stockwell, Michael. 
Spurgeon, Nathaniel. 
Shrimplim Samuel. 
Simpkins, S. 
Schruchfield, Wm. 
St. Clair, John. 
Spurgeon, George. 
Talmage, Joseph. 
Thomas, Samuel. 
Thompson, Edward. 
Walker, Alexander. 
Watson, A. 
Walker, Abraham. 
Walker, James. 
Walker, Joseph. 
Woods, John. 
Walker, Philip. 
Wilson, Samuel. 
Williamson, John. 
Walker, James. 
Walker, Joseph. 

Acherson, Edward. 
Bartholomew, John. 
Barnes, Joseph. 
Brooks, David. 
Baker, David. 
Black, James. 
Bean, Paul. 
Bearshore, John. 
Binkley, John. 


Harris, John. 
Hall, Uriah. 
Humberger, Henry. 
Heller, David. 
Humberger, John. 
Humberger, Peter. 
Henderson, James. 
Hooper, Jacob. 
Huber, Daniel. 

NefT, Henry. 
Neel, James. 
Orr, Kobe t. 
Ogg, George. 
Parr, John. 
Eeam, Wm. 
Eamsey, John. 
Kedingur, Mathias. 
Kipple, Mathias. 



Bowman, Henry. 
Berry, John. 
Chalfant, Mordecai. 
Cooper, Joseph. 
Cooper, Jacob. 
Claypole, Wm. 
Dickeson, John. 
Dean, M. 
Emrick, Leonard. 
Fisher, John, jr. 
Fisher, John. 
Furguson, Joseph. 
Fickle, Joseph. 
Good, John. 
Graham, Widow. 
Howard, Chas. 
Harris, Wm. 
Harris, Edward. 

Huffman, George. 
Hoover, Christ. 
Johnson, John. 
Johnson, Wm. 
James, John. 
King, John. 
Livingston, Peter. 
Meek, Clelland. 
McMullen, Mr. 
Myres, Frederick. 
Mclnturft, Frederick. 
Myres, Andrew. 
Mager, George. 
Myres, Adam. 
Myres, John. 
McMullen, John. 
Mervin, James. 
McOwen, Thomas. 

Eeam, Jacob. 
Reddinger, Ludwig. 
Reason, John. 
Stockberger, S. 
Strawn, Joel. 
Stotts, Jacob. 
Starret, Wm. 
Starkee, Peter. 
Skiner, Wm. 
Smith, Andrew. 
Sane, Peter. 
Taylor, Wm. 
Thorn, Michael. 
Thompson, John. 
Valentine, George. 
Weadmau, George. 
Wiseman, Jacob. 
Weadman, John. 


Anspach, B. 
Anderson, Simon. 
Anspach, John. 
Anderson, Ephraim. 
Ashbaugh, Andrew. 
Alexander, Wm. 
Bolen, Wm. 
Black, Peter. 
Blosser, George. 
Bond, John. 
Brinkley, Adam. 
Brinkley, Jacob. 
Basehore, Frederick. 
Brinkley, Henry. 
Bowman, George. 
Beakle, John. 
Bearge, Isaac. 
Bearley, Nicholas. 
Brinkley, Henry. 
Bright, George. 
Beery, Abraham. 
Beery, Henry. 
Custard, Joseph. 
Cooper, Robert. 
Carpenter, Samuel. 

Hamerly, Andrew. 
Harper, Wm. 

Howell, Jacob. 
Head, John. 
Hedleback, George. 
Heek, Frederick. 
Howseker, Jacob. 
Henry, George. 
Holt, Wm. 
Harding, Ignatius. 
Hiles, John. 
Harford, Caspar. 
Ijams, Wm. 
Ijams, Isaac. 
Ijams, Thomas P. 
Ijams, Wm, jr. 
Jervis, James. 
Johnson, Benjamin. 
Johnson, Asa. 
Kerr, John. 
Kiger, John. 
Kemper, Daniel. 
Kemper, Isaac. 
Kindle, John. 
Kino;, Christian. 

Miller, George. 
Maricol, John. 
McGinn is, Wm. 
Neely, David. 
Nelson, George. 
Owens, Archibald. 
Overmire, Peter. 
Owing, P. 
Orendors, Henry. 
Pew, David. 
Patten, John. 
Polen, Richard. 
Polen, Martin. 
Ruffner, Emanuel. 
Rowland, James. 
Rolle, Jesse. 
Robertson, Wm. 
Rees, Jacob. 
Ray, Samuel. 
Shaver, T. 
Spohn, Philip. 
Stiffie, Stephen. 
Swagg, David. 
Senfit, Jacob. 
Sentit, Philip. 



Conaway, Jeremiah. 
Clayton, Wm. 
Chilcote, James. 
Cool, Joseph. 
Cook, John. 
Comer, Philip. 
Davis, Thomas. 
Duvall, M. H. 
Drum, John. 
Drum, Peter. 
Deubler, Peter. 
Deubler, Leonard. 
Driver, Josiah. 
Downey, James. 
Fay, Jacob. 
Freisner, Frederick. 
Glosser, George. 
Godfrey, John. 
Goofis, John. 
Hattle, George. 
Hardy. David. 
Householder, Adam. 
Huddle, Henry. 

Kenshaw, Wm. 
Lakesley, Wm. 
Leonard, Jacob. 
Lintch, Philip. 
Laremore, Ebenezer. 
La re mo re, Isaac. 
Laremore, Robert. 
Leath, John. 
Love, John. 
Laremore, James. 
Murphy, Edward. 
Murphy, John. 
McCormick, Thomas. 
McCormick, Hugh. 
"McCormick, John. 
McCormick, James. 
McCormick, Wm. 
Miller, John. 
McClung, Chas. 
Miller, Peter. 
Musser, Theobald. 
Miller, Joseph. 
Moins, John. 

Sain, Philip. 
Sunderland, John. 
Sain, David. 
Stephenson, Jesse. 
Sellers, Henry. 
Sherrick, Andrew. 
Sterner, Henry. 
Shield, Edward. 
Stembrink, Henry. 
Turner, Benjamin. 
Turner, Joseph. 
Turner, Wm, sr. 
Turner, Wm, jr. 
Turner, James. 
Thompson, Wm 
Wiseman, Wm. 
Whitmer, Peter. 
Wilson, Wm. 
Wilds, Sarah. 
Winegardner, Adam. 
Wills, John. 
Wills, Wm. 
Young, Edward. 

There were, therefore, within the bounds of Fairfield county, 
in the year 1806, one thousand five hundred and fifty-one tax- 
payers. To make the reasonable assumption that there were 
five additional persons to every tax-payer at that time within 
the county, it would have given a population of a little over 
nine thousands When it is remembered that the first white 
family built their cabin on the Hocking in the spring of 1798, 
this rapid increase of population within about seven years is 
wonderful, regarding the wilderness state of the country, and 
its remoteness from sources of supply. It is, however, to be 
borne in mind, that the area of the county was at that time 
more than three times what it is at present. 

It is a melancholy reflection forced upon the mind, that of 
that 1,551 tax-payers of 1806, not one is alive to-day. They 
were the pioneers of the county. It was them that broke the 
wilderness and drove away the wild beasts and savage men, 
and opened the way for the prosperity, and plenty, and 
luxury, and ease of to-day. It was them that endured hard- 


ships, and toils, and privations, and the sickness of a new and 
uncultivated country. Their descendants know nothing of 
how they lived, and how they did, nor can a written work con- 
vey any just conception of it all. These men and women have 
passed away and are forgotten — nearly forgotten — the largest 
mumber of them are totally forgotten ; a few only are remem- 
bered—those of them who did prominent deeds. And when 
another generation comes up to displace the present, the 
pioneer fathers, and all they did, will have been lost to the 
world forever. History tells us the numbers that went into 
the field in the revolution one hundred years ago, but that is 
all ; we do not know who they were, or how they appeared. 
The most prominent officers are all we have any conception 
of — all have turned to dust. 

But the immediate descendants of the pioneer fathers of 
Fairfield County, many of them, are with us, and many who 
came at an early day, but after the settlements had made con 
siderable progress. From them we glean much that pertains 
to the early history of the county. The times of the log-cabin 
era of the Hocking Valley have not faded from their memories, 
but the realization is lost. 

But recurring again to the tax-payers of 1806. They have 
gone from the scenes of earth forever — all they did, what they 
endured, how they loved, and joyed, and sorrowed, is all noth- 
ing now. Their voices have all been hushed into eternal 
silence, so far as earth is concerned ; their faces have faded 
from memory ; the waves have closed over them forever more. 
They were a noble, enduring race of men and women ; their 
names and deeds ought to be carried down to posterity, far 
into the coming ages. Their names have mostly faded out; 
only a few of them are to be seen chiseled in the cold marble 
or sand-stone that marks their last resting-places. Would- 
that their virtues and patriotism were written in imperish- 
able script on every threshold and on every wall, the pioneers 
of Fairfield County. 

To one familiar with the present population of the county, 
traces of many of the pioneer families are recognized in all the 
townships and original settlements, by the names and families 
of their descendants, but the largest number of the families of 
the tax-payers are extinct in the county. Most of the names 
are entirely lost ; moving away, intermarriage, and death, 


accounts for this. Many of the oldest inhabitants at present 
residing in the county came early, but subsequent to 1806. 
In personal notes, elsewhere, will be found notices of such 
prominent early settlers, both before and after 1806, as facilities 
have enabled me to secure. These older citizens still cherish 
the memory of the log-cabin age of the county. The house- 
raising, the log-rolling, the corn-husking, the quilting, the 
country wedding, country dance; " Sister Phebe;" " Marching 
to Quebec;" "Thus the farmer sows his seed;" "As oats, 
peas, beans and barley grows ;" " Kilimacranky ;" and other 
pla}^s then so universal. The hominy block, lie hominy, the 
Johnny cake, hoe cake, corn dodger, the tinkling cow bell, 
sound of the woodman's ax, the dinner horn, drumming 
pheasant, and the thousand things peculiar to frontier life 
sixty years ago and more ; all have passed away forever, but the 
recollection of them is precious to the aged yet living — hal- 
lowed, priceless. The writer has passed through all the 
phases of frontier life in another part of the State. There is 
nothing so dear to the aged as the remembrances of the past, 
the long ago, of life's first young dreams, its loves, and joys, 
and dear associations. It is a thrilling comfort to the aged 
Christian man or woman, when recollection falls back to the 
humble cabin with its slab benches, rude corner cupboard, and 
wide fire-place, and dwells upon the sincere, simple and true 
worship of other days, days that were before the carking cares 
of the world, and the follies and absurdities of fashionable life 
were brought in to ornament the simplicity of the religion of 
the great founder of the church. Reader, did you ever let your 
thoughts go back to your young days, where, unbidden, the 
scenes of the past, with all that was precious to memory, came 
grouping around you ? Is there anything this world can afford 
that you would be willing to exchange for that hour of elysium, 
that bliss that is all your own, and that cannot be taken from 
you, nor marred by enemies? These good old days are all gone, 
never to return, and the old mourn unavailingly their depart- 
ure. There is really nothing now that was sixty years ago, 
or nothing as it was then; grey heads and bent forms remain, 
and tender emotions come up, but the loves and endearments 
of other years have drifted back into the dim vista of the past. 
Regarding the pioneers of Fairfield County during the first 
fifteen or twenty years of the present century, with all they 


were and what they did, they appear to the contemplative 
mind as a wave of humanity that laved the shores of time for 
a brief season, only to ebb away into the vast ocean of what, 
to mortals in this mundane sphere of existence, seems oblivion. 
They were here and did the work of their day, but they are 
gone, and that is all we can say. No visible work of their 
hands stands out in relief. And what has their lives and 
deeds availed? Much ; but the present age fails in due appre- 
ciation. To the busy throng of to-day, in their irrational race 
for riches and fame and enjoyment, the former age is obliv- 
ious. We rush almost frantically, at best heedlessly, over 
their sleeping dust to grasp the baubles that even our own ex- 
periences tell us will dissolve in our grasp. And for what? 
A few more brief decades of years, and Ave will be as the 
pioneers are now — gone — forgotten. We do not even pause an 
hour to remember, and possibly appreciate how much we owe 
to that noble and sturdy race. By their hands the forests and 
jungle have been cleared away, by which the pestilential fogs 
and fens have been disarmed of mischief, mostly. They did 
the hard work and gave us a clear soil to till. Can we say we 
are carrying forward their virtues, their practical common 
sense, their good manners, humanity and worship ? Have 
we inherited their patriotism ? We have grown wiser, possi- 
bly, and gained wealth, material wealth. Have we grown in 
goodness ? 


The first judicial records for Fairfield County were entered 
in a small blank book of 231 pages. The paper is very coarse, 
of a dull white color, and unruled. From it I am able to make 
some highly interesting extracts. The first dates are in 1803. 
The manner of keeping the records would appear strange 
enough at this day. Though one year after the State was ad- 
mitted into the Union, the word Ohio occurs but seldom in 
the volume. The records are strangely deficient in another 
respect, which is, that with the exception of the names of 
judges, jurors, and parties to suits, no others appear, save that 
of Hugh Boyl, who was appointed Clerk of the first Court. One 
fails, in passing quite through the book, to learn the name of 
a Sheriff, or any other officer of the Court. Another pecu- 
liarity is, that in giving the verdicts of juries— it is simply 


written that the jury returned a verdict in favor of the plain- 
tiff, or defendant, as the case might be, but with few excep- 
tions the amount of damages is not stated. The record in this 
quaint old book runs over a period of six years, viz. : from 1803 
to 1809 ; but there are no dates given to any of the entries, 
other than that they were a part of the proceedings of the 
May term, the March term, or the June term, etc. And again, 
at the opening of each term it is a part of the record, that 
"The following jury was elected and sworn in." Sometimes it 
is said the jury was impanneled ; at others, that the jury ap- 
peared ; and at the July term of 1806 it reads : "Came a Grand 
Jury." Indictments are given, with name of accused, and 
crime, a few interesting examples of which will appear. 

The style of the book of records before me is : 

"Minutes of the proceedings of the Court of Common Pleas 
for Fairfield County, beginning at May term, 1803." 

At this first term of the Court of Common Pleas for Fair- 
field County, which commenced on the second Tuesday of May, 
1803, the record stands : "Before Wyllys Sillman, Esquire, 
President, and his associates." The following are the names 
of the Grand Jurors who were sworn in at that term : David 
Resse, foreman ; Joseph Hunter, Henry Mesner, Jacob Lamb, 
John McMean, Thomas Cisna, Frederick Leather, Thomas 
McCall, Joseph Work, James Black, John Shepler, John Mills 
and David Shellenberger. "And after being duly sworn, re- 
tired to their room, and after some time returned into Court, 
and having made no presentments, nor found any bills of in- 
dictment, were discharged." 

Immediately succeeding is the following, which seems to 
have been the first action of the Court in a business way : 

" A petition, or recommendation for a tavern-license for Peter 
Biver was read to the Court. Ordered, that license be granted 
to the said Peter Biver for one year from this term. " Follow- 
ing this were orders to grant license for one year from " this 
term" to James Black, of Newark (Newark was then within 
Fairfield County), and Samuel Hammil, to keep tavern, "and 
then the Court adjourned till to-morrow morning. " 

" Wednesday morning, May 11th, the Court met pursuant 
to adjournment. " 

" The Court proceeded to the appointment of a clerk pro tem., 
when Hugh Boyl was duly appointed. " 


A license was then granted to William Trimble to keep a 
public house on the road leading from Lancaster " towards the 
Muskingum river" (on Zane's trace). And then 

" A petition for a road from Hunter's saw-mill was read, 
April term, and ordered to lay over to May term." The quo- 
tation is literal. 

The Court then proceeded to the trial of a number of civil 
cases, the first of which was styled, William Austin vs. James 
Philips ; 2nd, William Peek vs. Nathan Kennedy ; 3d, Moses 
Reese vs. Thomas Laplana; 4th, Amassa Delano vs. Jeremiah 

The first term of the Common Pleas for 1804 commenced on 
the fourth day of January, and seems to have been held by the 
three Associate Judges, as no mention of a presiding Judge ap- 
pears in the record. The Associate Judges. were: Samuel Cai- 
penter, Daniel Vanmeter and William Irwin. At this term a 
Grand Jury was sworn, but it does not appear that they did 
any work. The associates proceeded to try and determine 
several civil cases, of which Charles Friend vs. Elijah Ander- 
son was the first, and James Crane vs. John Elder was the 
second. At this term John Cullerton, Methodist Minister, 
was authorized to solomnize marriages. Some cases of a civil 
nature seem to have been tried before a jury of nine ; at least 
only nine names are recorded. In others, twelve are entered. 
Several cases were, by consent of the parties, referred to three 
arbitrators. The first was George Thompson vs. George W. 
Shelby, referred to Elanathan Schofield, Joseph Hunter and 
John Irwin. 

The number of civil cases tried in a single term of the Com- 
mon Pleas at this early day, is surprising. At the January 
term of 1804 alone, there were on the docket no less than forty- 
three cases. 

At the opening of the April term of 1805, Robert F. Slaugh- 
ter appears first on the bench. He is styled the "President." 
His associates at that term were William Irvin and Robert 
Cloud. Here a Grand Jury of twelve were discharged from 
further attendance on the ground of not having been legally 
summoned. The first case tried was Levi Merrit vs. Jacob 
Resler ; the fifth was Thomas Hart vs. Alex. Sanderson. Dur- 
ing this judicial year there were docketed 136 civil suits on 
forty pages of the small book of records. No names of counsel 


appear, and the awards of juries or amount of damages are 
named but in a few instances. 

The March term of 1806, Robert F. Slaughter, President, and 
Henry Abrams and Jacob Burton associates, opens its proceed- 
ings with the hearing of several criminal cases. c We quote 
from the docket literally, thus : " State of Ohio vs. William 
Long ;" "same vs. Samuel Chaney ;" "same vs. Reason Reckets ;" 
"same vs. same;" "same vs. same;" "State of Ohio vs. James Lam- 
bert. " In no instance is the nature of the offense or crime 
specified. Wm. Long was fined one dollar and costs ; Samuel 
Choney-was acquitted; Reason Rickets was fined in one case 
three dollars and costs; in the two others he was acquitted. 

At the March term of 1807, Hon. Leven Belt was presiding 
Judge, and the Grand Jurors were Elenathan Schofield, Abra- 
ham Miller, John Johnson, John Carpenter, James Love, John 
Shepler, Thomas Ijams, Abraham Heistand, Elijah Spurgeon, 
Abraham Courtright, John Brinkley, Peter Fetter and Jacob 
Shellenbarger. At this term the .Grand Jury indicted Susan 
Pealt for larceny, and were discharged. George Renie sued 
Emanuel Carpenter in attachment. The record says: "the 
defendant being called three times and defaulted. " Further 
on is a case, " State of Ohio vs. Daniel Reese, John Elder, 
John Edgar, James Taylor, Joseph Barr, George Reese, Ben- 
jamin Feemen and John Baker." The offense was for non- 
attendance as Petit Jurors, and the entry has it; "David Reese 
and John Elder, under attachment, thereby appeared and is 

At the June term the Grand Jury were, Timothy Sturgeon, 
Joseph Work, Andrew Barr, Edward Murphy, I. Maclin, Samp- 
son Ream, Christian King, Thomas Ijams, John Beery, Elijah 
Spurgeon, Johnathan Simpson, Jno. Stalter and Daniel Thomp- 
son. This jury presented several indictments, viz. : " One 
against George Livingston and Jacob Leather for assault 
against each other; one against John Tent and John Fogle- 
song for assault on each other ; one against Abraham Johnson 
for keeping a public house and retailing spirituous liquors; 
one against Samuel Taylor and Samuel Pot for assault on each 
other ; one against John Spencer for assault on Oliver Stoker; 
one against Joseph Cunningham for assault on Oliver Stoker; 
one against Morris A. Newman for disorderly conduct in his 
own house." 


In February, 1808, Judge Belt was still on the bench. Asso- 
ciates at this term : Leonard Carpenter, Henry Abrams and 
Jacob Burton. Two indictments were found: one against 
John Inks and Peter Pence for assault and battery on one an- 
other ; one against John Fisher, for what offense is not stated. 
During this year, as in the Courts of the four preceeding ones, 
a great number of civil suits were entered on the docket. 

Through the proceedings of the sessions of the Common 
Pleas for the six years, viz. : 1803 and 1808, inclusive ; are 
found a great many indictments for retailing spirituous liquors 
without license. Other offenses against the State, so far as 
specified, are mostly for assault and battery. In addition to 
the usual business of the Courts, orphans, guardianships and 
the like, received due attention. 

The foregoing is but a very brief synopsis of the constitution 
and operation of the early courts of Fairfield county. The 
reader will comprehend that a fuller account would be 
incompatible with the bounds this volume must assume. 

(From the Ohio Eagle, sixty-one years ago.) 

ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS REWARD! — Ran away from the 
subscriber, living near Moorfield, Hardin County, Virginia, on the 29th 
of April last, a negro man, named Berry. He is about twenty years of 
age, five feet eight or nine inches in hight, round-shouldered, rather 
slender made ; he is active and undaunted, but not viciously inclined; 
reddish lips; stutters when closely examined. Whoever will secure 
said slave, in any jail in the United States, so that I can get hjm again, 
shall receive the above reward, and all reasonable charges paid, if 
brought home. WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM, Sr. 

July 31, 1815. 

GINSANG WANTED. — I am now buying ginsang on every Satur- 
day, at my tan-yard in New Lancaster, and giving seven cents per 

The ginsang must be sound, clean washed, and the curls taken out. 

x for M. HEYLIN. 

Mr. Heylin is also buying it at this time, at the above price, on every 
day of the week, at J. Bush's store in Toby Town. 
August 17, 1815. 

BOOT AND SHOE-MAKING.— Jacob Embich (late of Hagers- 
town), respectfully informs the inhabitants of Lancaster and its vicinity, 
that he has commenced the Boot and Shoe-making business in all its va- 
rious branches, in the house lately occupied by Christian Neibling as a 

September 7, 1815. 


Mr. Printer : Please insert the following ticket until the next elec- 
tion. A VOTER. 
Assembly — Richard Hooker ; Jacob Claypool. 


Assembly — Jacob Claypool ; Benjamin Smith ; Peter Reeber. 
Commissioners — Michael Garaghty; John Huber. 
, 1815. 

MARRIED— On Sunday last, by Thomas Fricker, Esq., Mr. John W. 
Giesy, of this town, to the amiable Miss Magdalen Hensil, daughter of 
Mr. Michael Hensil, of Berne township. 

December 14, 1815. 


There are some slight discrepancies among old citizens now 
resident in Lancaster, as to the exact year in which the Ohio 
Eagle was established. Its present issue fixes its origin in 
1809, as will be seen by reference to number of volume at the 
top of first page. It is possible, however, that its first begin- 
ning as a German paper was a little earlier. I am told by a 
citizen, that General Sanderson told him, that it was first 
issued in 1807. The history then may be given briefly thus : 

A little previous to 1810, Jacob D. Detrich began the publi- 
cation in Lancaster of "Das Ohio Adler" and continued it for 
some time as a purely German paper ; subsequently the estab- 
lishment fell into the hands of Edward Shaeffer, who 
continued the publication during the war of 1812, in the Eng- 
lish language. It was at that time a very small sheet, of 
coarse, dull, white paper. Some of its literature at that time 
will appear a little odd to the present age. Here are a few 
specimens copied from a number before me, of the date of 1815 : 

"A QUANTITY OF upper and sole leather will be exchanged by re- 
tail for good merchantable wheat, rye and corn, at Carpenter's Mills, by 

January 25th, 1815." 

"TAKE NOTICE.— I take this method of informing the public that 
I do not offer for sale any tickets in my lottery of personal property, nor 
do not know that I shall dispose of any in the State of Ohio, but that I 
am about to draw a lottery in the State of Pennsylvania, of property in 

Lancaster, May 20th, 1815." 

Beyond current news, advertising and other printed matter 
belonging to county newspapers, the Eagle has been a strictly 


political partisan sheet. In 1832, under the editorial control 
of T. U. White, it supported the claims of Andrew Jackson for 
the Presidency, and in 1836, those of Martin Van Buren. It 
will be remembered, that during the campaign of 1832, the 
Jackson party assumed the name " Democratic Party," and from 
that time to the present the Eagle has been the county organ 
of that party. During most of the time it has been ably con- 
ducted, and has stood high among the Democratic papers of 
the State. 

With some trouble and research I have been able to procure 
a list of the editors of the Eagle, from 1809 to 1876, which I be- 
lieve are here put down in the order of their succession. 
There may be a single exception or two. but the list may be 
accepted as about correct. I am indebted for the information 
to Mr. John Wright, who has been identified with the press 
of Lancaster for more than half a century, and to the courtesy 
of Thomas Wetzler, the present editor, in referring to his files. 
Thus: Jacob D. Detrich, Edward Srueffer, John Hermon, T. 
U. White, John and Charles Brough, Dr. Casper Thiel, Sam- 
uel Pike, Robertson, Robinson, F. M. Ellis, John Tuthill, 
Charles Roland, Baker, Zahm, Thomas Wetzler. 


The Gazette was established in 1826 by General George San- 
derson. Like the Eagle, it has been a partisan political 
weekly. In the Presidential campaign of 1828, the Gazette 
supported John Quincy Adams. And as the Jackson party 
took the designation "Democratic party" in 1832, so the Adams 
and Clay party took the title "Whig party" in the same year, 
and the Gazette was the Whig county organ until 1854, when 
that party disbanded to give place to the American, or Know 
Nothing party. During that year the Gazette advocated the 
Know Nothing ticket. In 1856 it adopted the Philadelphia, 
or Republican platform, which party it has been the persist- 
ent and able defender of to the present. The Gazette has 
doubtless earned the reputation of a leading county Repub- 
lican weekly of the State. Its succession of editors compare 
favorably with any similar weekly publication in Ohio. I 
have before me some of its earliest issues, from which a few ex- 
tracts are taken, that will recall to the mind the earlier days 
of Fairfield County. The following samples will suffice : 




You are ordered to parade in front of Mr. Eeed's tavern, at Monti- 
cello, on the Fourth ot July, at nine o'clock, for the purpose of saluting 
the canal hoat "Hebron," which will be the first to run on the Ohio Ca- 
nal. Bv order of the Captain. 


AN ORDINANCE, entitled an ordinance for levying a tax for the year 
1827. — Be it enacted and ordained by the President, Recorder and 
Trustees of the town of Lancaster, that a tax of three-eighths of one 
per centum, or thirty-seven and a half cents on every one hundred dol- 
lars, be levied on the assessment for the current year, for the use of said 
town. Done in Council, this 25th day of Mav, 1827. 

JACOB D. DETRICK, President. 

G. Sieinman, Recorder.- 

MILLINERY. — Mrs. Elizabeth Deiteich respectfully returns 
thanks to her friends, and the public generally, for the very liberal 
encouragement she has heretofore received, and informs them that she 
continues at her dwelling-house the making of plain dresses and Calash 
Bonnets. Also, Leghorn and Straw Bonnets bleached in the very best 
manner, and altered to any fashion desired. 

Lancaster, May 22, 1827. 

The editors of the Gazette have been: George Sanderson, 
Wm. J. Reece, D. L. Moler, James Percivill, George Weaver, 
Thomas Slaughter, George McElroy, Joshua Clarke & Son, 
Dr. H. Scott, Robert Clarke, A. P. Miller, and S. A. Griswold, 
present incumbent. 


There have been a number of other weeklies and campaign 
papers started in Lancaster at various times, and one daily ; 
but none of them were of long continuance. We mention the 
"Independent Press," of 1812; the " Enquirer," by P. Van- 
trump; " Telegraph," King & Gruber; "Fireside," by A. P. 
Miller; "American Democrat," by W. S. Beaty; " Union," by 
Miller & Fritter. i 


The following are the names of the physicians who have 
practiced in Lancaster from its organization up to the year 
1876. To Dr. Charles Shawk and Dr. Paul Carpenter, old 
physicians of the place, and both still living, I am indebted 
mainly for the information. The list may be relied on as en- 


tirely correct. It has not been possible, for the lack of data, 
to fix the exact time of settlement of the early practitioners. 
The list, however, begins with those who are known to have 
settled first in the place, Dr. John Shawk being the first who 
came to Lancaster and erected his cabin in the woods. Thus : 
John M. Shawk, Dr. Erwin, Dr. Carr, Dr. Wilcox, Dr. Flor- 
ence, Dr. Robert McNeal, Dr. James White, M. Z. Kreider, 
Dr. Clark, Dr. H. H. Wait, Dr. Deepe, Dr. Wolfley, John M. 
Bigelow, Dr. Paul Carpenter, Dr. Wilson, Dr. Saxe, Dr. Gou- 
cher, Dr. Brecker, M. Effinger, Dr.Xynch, A. Davidson, G. W. 
Boerstler, T. 0. Edwards, P. M. Wagenhals, J. M. Lewis, 
Geo. K. Miller, Geo. Boerstler, Dr. Turner, Dr. Jackson, Dr 
Frampton, 0. E. Davis, Dr. Dawson, Dr. Kinsman, Dr. Goss, 
Dr. Flowers, Dr. Harmon, Dr. Myers, Chas. Shawk and Dr. 

Of these, the following are still resident practitioners in 
Lancaster, viz.: Paul Carpenter, Dr. Lynch, Charles Shawk, 
M. Effinger, Geo. Boerstler, J. M. Lewis, Dr. Turner, Dr. Jack- 
son, Dr. Goss, Dr. Flowers, and Dr. Harmon. 

Of those who have removed to other parts, and are known 
to be still living, are : J. M. Bigelow, 0. E. Davis, P. M, Wag- 
enhals, Dr. Shrader and Dr. Kinsman. Dr. Andrew Davidson 
purchased the drug establishment of George Kauffman, on 
Main street, wher.e he still continues. 

Those who are known to have deceased previous to 1876, are: 
John M. Shawk, James White, Robert McNeal, M. Z. Kreider, 
Dr. Clark, H. H. Wait, D. Deppe, Dr. Wolfley, Dr. Saxe, Dr. 
Goucher, Dr. Brecker, Geo. W. Boerstler, Dr. Dawson, George 
Miller, Dr. Ervin, Dr. Carr, Dr. Wilcox, Dr. Florence, Dr. 
Myers and T. Edwards. 

'* I have not at my command the facilities for learning the 
names of all the physicians who have practiced in the villages 
and other parts of the county since its organization, but men- 
tion the following from memory : Baltimore : Dr. Gohegen, Dr. 
Helmic, Dr. Horr and Dr. Sprague. Lithopilis : Dr. Minor and 
Dr. Eels. Jefferson : Dr. Tolbert. Royalton : Dr Paul, Dr. Daw- 
son and Dr. Reed. Amanda: Dr. Daugherty, Dr. Peters, and the 
brothers Hewitson. Oakland: Dr. Shaeffer. Clear Creek: 
Dr. Porter. Sugar Grove : Dr. Brown, Dr. Foster, Dr. Sharp 
and Dr. Brooks. Bremen: Dr. Evans, Dr. Holcom, and Dr. 
Frampton. Rushville : Dr. lde and Dr. Turner. West Rush. 


ville: Dr. Dolison and Dr. Lewis. New Salem: Dr. Brock and 
Dr. Yontz. Pleasantville: Dr. Goss. Millersport: Dr. Brison 
& Son. Basil: Dr. Maines. Carroll: Dr. Aldred. Dumont- 
ville : Dr. Mills and Dr. Bright. 

I am aware that this list is not quite complete, but it is as 
nearly so as my possibilities will permit. 


" Emanuel Carpenter, died in 1832." [Mr. Carpenter came into the 
county in 1802, and built his first cabin where Salem Wolf recently re- 
sided, near Lancaster]. 

"Isaac Kuntz, died in February, 1861, aged 75 years." 

" John Carpenter [father of Mrs. John Van Pearce], died in 1807, aged 
64 years." 

" David Carpenter, died in 1847, aged 79 years." 

"Mrs. Susana Carpenter, wife of David Carpenter, died in 1840, aged 
66 years." 

" Robert F. Slaughter, died in October, 1846, aged 77 years." 
"Sarah Slaughter, wife of Judge Robert Slaughter, died in March, 
1858, aged 63 years." 


The mental and intellectual status, as well as the social 
constitution of society, was about the same throughout the 
whole of the north-western territories, at, or during the log- 
cabin era. The emigrants at first brought with them from 
the old States their religion, their social habits, their manners 
and customs; but residence for a few years in the wilderness, 
far away from the more densely populated and better con- 
ditioned ultra montane lands of their birth, created by a kind 
of necessity, a state of society peculiarly western, which, pass- 
ing into history, constitutes an era. The times are referred to as 
pioneer life, frontier life, backwoods life, the log-cabin era, and 
the like. The prejudices and superstitions were about the 
same everywhere; they belonged to the age; they were not 
peculiar to backwoods life ; old and aristocratic, and what it is 
common to call refined and more enlightened countries, have 
had their ghosts and witches ; Fairfield County has* had its 
ghosts, and apparitions, and witches. The story I am about 
• to tell did not belong to this county, but to a western county 
of Ohio, and it reflects the times of its occurrence. 


It is more than half a century since — three-fourths of all the 
people concerned are dead ; three-fourths of all the people of 
our settlement believed in apparitions, witches and supernat- 
ural omens. Salem Witchcraft, so-called, had infused itself over 
the entire country, and there were few neighborhoods that had 
not had, at one time or another, their ghosts, and witches, 
and occasional visitants from the land of " Deepest Shade. " 
Sounds and appearances now well understood, and that disturb 
nobody, were then supernatural. Several volumes would 
scarcely suffice to narrate all the signs and wonders and inci- 
dents that, during that more diffused dominion of superstition, 
held the people in awe. The celestial realms, as well as the 
land of demons were represented on earth occasionally. But as 
the fogs and miasmas of the wilderness have lifted, so has the 
mind been cleared of much of its superstition by the brighten- 
ing rays of science. But neither have the fogs nor the mental 
sombre quite all gone, though the luminaries seem well up 
from the horizon. But no matter for all that, our neighbor- 
hood had its ghost, which the writer never saw but once, and 
we shall presently see how. 

A majority of all the people within a radius of five or six 
miles around had seen the apparition at some time ; it usually 
assumed the size and form of a human being, and always 
clothed in pure white. It was seen by persons returning from 
night meetings and other gatherings, and sometimes by 
solitary parsons who chanced to be abroad after night. There 
were two small graveyards in the settlement, and two or three 
waste cabins by the road sides that had been once occupied, 
and afterwards vacated. These were the points where his 
ghostship usually chose for his materialization as mortals 
passed by in the dark. The neighborhood had been in the 
utmost terror at times during more than two years, and it 
came at last to be, that only a few could be found brave enough 
to undertake to pass either of the graveyards or waste cabins 
alone in the dark. Even those who assumed to ridicule the 
stories that were told about the ghost, would always prefer to 
have company when their business required them to pass 
those places in the night time. 

Two theories were canvassed, the first of which was, that a 
peddler had previously disappeared from the settlement, and 
under the dark apprehension that he had met with foul play, 


it was believed that his troubled spirit was hovering about t 
The other theory was, that a company of North Carolina explor- 
ers who had penetrated the county before the settlement 
began, had foully murdered one of their number, and buried 
his body in the forest not far, as was believed, from there, and 
that his perturbed spirit could not go to rest unavenged. 

My father's farm was separated from that of neighbor H. by 
a partition fence, ours being situated on the north side. The 
distance between the two houses was about one-third of a mile. 
On their side was a stubble-field and peach-orchard; on ours 
was a cornfield. At the crossing of the partition fence was one 
of the little graveyards before referred to. It was grown up 
with scrubby bushes, which partially concealed a few mossy 
palings and log-pens that were placed over some of the graves. 
Altogether, the graveyard was a neglected spot. 

There was a corn-husking and quilting at the house of our 
neighbor. It was the latter part of October, and the weather 
Avas mild, and of that kind commonly spoken of as Indian 
Summer. At about two o'clock in the night the work had all 
been finished, and the supper over, and the folks were begin- 
ing to depart for home. Two brothers, two sisters and my- 
self, with half a dozen other young folks were going to cross 
the field, which would take us directly past the graveyard. 
We were strongly fortified, and believed we should not be 
much afraid of ghosts ; still, all of us, I think, would have pre- 
ferred daylight for the walk. We had got as far as the door 
of the new house, where part of the young people were going 
to finish the night with a dance, and were halting a little to 
listen to the fiddle, when, by accident, I chanced to turn my 
face in the direction of the old house, some three or four rods 
distant, when I caught a glimpse of three chaps as they came 
out of the kitchen door, and whipped around the corner to the 
right. But their movement was not so quick as to prevent 
me from seeing a roll of something white under one of their 
arms by the aid of the burning candles in their rear. It oc- 
cured to me at once that the scamps, knowing that we were 
starting, were intending to anticipate us at the graveyard 
and give us a fright. I plucked the boys to one side and 
whispered my discovery and my suspicions. We called the 
girls, and hurried across the peach-orchard to where the stub- 
bles set in. Here we left them under cover of a peach tree, 


while six boys of us hastened across to the fence. The woulcl- 
bj-ghosts we knew would have about three times our distance 
to go, and we knew we were ahead of them time enough to 
complete our plans. 

One of our number stood six feet in his stockings. He was, 
moreover, not much afraid of spirits, either in or out of the 
body, and he at once volunteered to take the role of ghost. He 
wore at the time white pants, and when divested of coat and 
vest, was white all over. He then went in among the bushes 
and laid flat down by the side of one of the little log-pens, 
where he was entirely hid from view, while the balance of us 
prostrated ourselves snugly in the fence corners to await what 
might follow. It was not more than a couple of minutes be- 
fore the rustling leaves and cracking sticks hearalded the ap- 
proach of the ghosts. They were coming from the east, and on 
our side of the fence. They advanced exactly opposite to where 
the figure lay, and having halted, began to unroll the sheet. I 
could easily have put out my hand and grabbed one of them by 
the calf, but I waited. Presently an awful groan issued from 
the bushes. The scamps were instantly transfixed and petri- 
fied. Another groan, and with it a white form began to rise 
up apparently from the little log-pen; slowly it ascended, un- 
til it had probably attained the altitude of twenty feet or more, 
in the enlarged imaginations of the boys who were standing 
in breathless awe. 

Then a voice, solemn and sepulchral, was heard. It said : 
" Why, vain mortals, do you come at this silent hour to disturb the 
peaceful sleepers of the grave ? Retire and pray, for where we are, 
you too soon will be;" and then the apparition sank back ap- 
parently into the ground. 

The fence was eight rails high, and without stakes or riders. 
I believed my time had come, and so I reached out from my 
dark corner and laid hold of a leg, and in the twinkling of an 
eye the fence rails began to tumble about us with such fearful 
profusion as to require the greatest activity on our parts to es- 
cape with sound skulls and bones, while three pair of long legs 
were seen making the quickest time on record across the stub- 
ble-field, to where the forms disappeared under the peach trees. 

It is about fifty-three years ago, but from that day to the 
present, so far as I have ever heard, no ghost has been reported 
in that settlement. 


There was but one wonder in the matter, and that was, how 
Aiese boys had so long escaped detection. 


While we are chronicling what the world denominates the 
dead past and the living present, it will be well if we take 
plenty of time to think the time all over and see if we can 
consent that all the claimed advancement of the age is in 
fact;, in every respect, advancement to a higher and better con- 
dition of mankind. The world is surely growing wiser (the 
world of man), but is it growing better? We ought to try to 
satisfy ourselves whether, in getting wisdom, we are getting 
good hearts. I am impelled to introduce this suggestion be- 
cause I fear that morals and religion and secular governments 
are not as good as they were when the world was not as wise 
as it is to-day. The art of war, and the art of getting rich are 
controlling forces now. Are these forces civilizing ? I know 
it is a common belief that civilization and religious faith are 
growing rapidly in this second half of the nineteenth century. 
I do not contradict the claim, but let us pause and consider 
whether we are not leaving behind the essential maxims, and 
let me say good manners, good sense, and the golden rule. 
Where is the golden rule in war and the race for riches, and 
other popular movements of the age. These are all subjects 
for grave thought and more earnest and candid consideration 
than men, in their hurry, are in the habit of thinking. We 
ought never to lose sight of the fact that there is such a thing 
as educating the intellect far in advance of £he heart and the 
moral and religious sentiments. And I think none who are 
careful observers can say, that such is not the present course 
of training the rising generations. 

We demand of our orators and writers now elegance of ex- 
pression and diction, and hence more attention is given to 
brilliancy and finely-uttered sentences than to truth and 
humanizing thought and practice, and the really useful les- 
sons of life. If more pains were taken in the matter of speech 
than the manner, higher wisdom would be displayed. Teach- 
ers should labor more to instruct than to please or amuse. Am- 
biguity, it seems to me, has usurped the place of simplicity 
and unostentatious words that convey understanding and use- 


ful thoughts. The world will condemn a man more for a 
blunder in grammar, or orthography, or elegance of express- 
ion than it will for gross immorality, often, or for the violation 
of the rule of good manners. To be scholarly is to be correct 
in grammar, and to be able to quote fine sentiments from 
popular authors. But he is not fit to be an educator who 
cares more to please his auditors by brilliancy that he may 
gain popular applause. And I shall insist that, with all our 
learning, we can profit much every way by reverting often to 
the old maxims and usages that we have run away from. 

There are some beautiful maxims in the old school books of 
sixty years ago that the world has discarded, mainly. At 
least they are no more printed. But they are not forgotten 
by the old people, who, in their school days, were familiar 
with Webster's Spelling Book, "the easy standard of pronun- 
ciation." They will be easily recalled, and will bring the 
mind back to the little log school-house with its slab benches 
and oiled paper windows, and to pleasant scenes and joys de- 
parted, never again to return. The book has long been out of 
print ; scarcely a copy of it can be found in existence ; but its 
precepts live in the memories and hearts of those who were in 
school sixty years ago, and are still living. I quote from 
memory the following, which were the first reading lessons, 
my older readers, you and I learned. How delightful to pass 
over the lines which bring back fond recollections, and group 
around us delights we once felt, but which we shall feel no 
more. The mind at once takes in the twenty or thirty boys 
and girls and thdteacher, every one of whom we knew so well, 
and we instinctively ask : where are they all now ? Here is 
the very first reading lesson : 

No man may put off the law of God ; 
My joy is in His law all the day. 
O, may I not go in the way of sin ! 
Let me not go in the way of ill men. 

Do as well as you can, and do no harm. 
Mark the man that doth well and do so too. 
Help such as want help, and be kind. 
Let your sins past put you in mind to mend. 

Sin will lead us to pain and woe. 
Love that which is good and shun vice. 


Hate no man, but love both friends and foes. 
A bad man can take no rest day nor night. 

Slight no man, for you know not how soon you may stand in -need of 
his help. 

Tell no tales ; call no ill names. 

You must not lie, nor swear, nor cheat, nor steal. 

Here is a beautiful poem which will be remembered as 
standing just before "the pictures" of this old spelling book. 
The moral it teaches was not taught us by our teachers, and I 
can remember that we saw nothing in the lesson but the girl, 
the lamb and the cold blast. 


A young, feeble lamb as Emily passed, 

In pity she turned to behold, 
How it shivered and shrank from the merciless blast, 

Then fell all benumbed with the cold. 

She raised it, and touched with the innocent's fate, 

Its soft form to her bosom she pressed ; 
But the tender relief was afforded too late — 

It bleated, and died on her breast. 

The moralist then, as the corse she resigned, 

And weeping, spring flowers o'er it laid, 
Thus mused, "so it fares with the delicate mind, 

To the tempest of fortune betrayed." 

Too tender, like thee, the rude shock to sustain, 

And denied the relief that would save, 
She's lost, and when pity and kindness are vain. 

Thus we dress the poor sufferer's grave. 

The goldfinch that was "starved in his cage" will likewise 
be remembered : 

Time was when I was free as air, 
The thistle's downy seed my fare, 

My drink the morning dew ; 
I perched at will on every spray, 
My form genteel, my plumage gay, 

My strains forever new. 


But gaudy plumage, sprightly strain, 
And form genteel, were all in vain, 

And of a transient date ; 
For caught and caged, and starved to death, 
In dying sighs, my little breath 

Soon passed the wiry grate. 

Thanks, little Miss, for all my woes, 
And thanks for this effectual close, 

And cure of every ill ; 
More cruelly could none express, 
And I, if you had shown me less, 

Had been your prisoner still. 

Those who have been once familiar with the quotations, 
will be all the better men and women by the reproduction and 
review, because they place the thoughts back before the 
beginning of the turmoil of life, to where innocence, truth and 
purity reigned. One more quotation, and we leave the old 
spelling book. I feel sure my reproductions are literal, though 
I quote from memory across a chasm of more than fifty years. 

"of the boy that stole apples." 

" An old man found a rude boy upon one of his trees steal- 
ing apples, and desired him to come down, but the young 
sauce-box told him plainly he would not. Won't you ? said 
the old man, then I will try to fetch you down, so he pulled 
up some tufts of grass and threw at him, but this only made 
the youngster laugh to think that the old man should pretend 
to beat him down from the tree with grass only. Well, well, 
said the old man, if neither words nor grass will do, I will try 
what virtue there is in stones, so the old man pelted him 
heartily with stones, which soon made the young chap hasten 
down from the tree and beg the old man's pardon." 


I am indebted to Mr. J. F. Bovring, of Lancaster, for the 
following approximative synopsis of the grape culture of Fair- 
field County. It is in place here to say, that a large propor- 
tion of the surface of the county is adapted to the grape, but 
most especially the south part. 


Mr. Bovring estimates, from facilities at his control, the 
number of acres now planted in vineyards within the county, 
more or less productive, at three hundred ; others place the 
number higher. He thinks grape growing, as a business, 
began in the county about the year 1864. Average product to 
the acre, in a fair season, 2,000 pounds, equal to 200 gallons of 
wine. The leading varieties grown in the county are, Catawba, 
Isabel, Concord, and Ives' Seedling. 


Below is a tabulated statement of the valuation of real and 
personal property within the county, as returned for taxation 
for four consecutive years. This,- however, does not represent 
the true valuation, as property is never, or seldom, placed on 
the tax duplicate at its selling value. 

Valuation. Taxes. 

1873 $17,840,970 00 $260,499 59 

1874 18,167,540 00 245,432 25 

1875 18,442,370 00 223,016 13 

1876 18,422,840 00 215,741 99 


1874 $1,173 02 

1875 2,333 60 

1876 5,693 17 


The following letter from W. J. Reece, Past Worthy Grand 
Master, is the history of Free Masonry in Lancaster, from its 
inception : 

Dr. H. Scott — Dear Sir : The Masonic Fraternity obtained a formal 
and recognized status in Lancaster at an early period. 

On December 15th, 1820, Lancaster Lodge of Free and Accepted 
Masons was constituted under charter from the most worshipful Grand 
Lodge of Ohio, with James Wilson for its Worthy Master, Charles R. 
Sherman First Seignior Warden, and Jacob D. Detrick First Junior 

Lancaster Chapter of Royal Arch Masons was organized under 
authority from the M. E. Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Ohio, on the 
12th day of January, 1826, Charles R. Sherman being first High Priest. 

Lancaster Counsel of Royal Select Masons was instituted on the 11th 
day of January, 1828. by John Barker, Esq., as Sovereign Grand Inspec- 
tor of the Supreme Council of the 33d Degree, Charles R. Sherman its 
T. I. Grand Master. 

Lancaster Encampment, or Commandary of Knight Templars and the 
appendant orders, was organized December 16th, 1837, under warrant 
from the General Grand Encampment of the United States. William 


J. Keece was its First Grand Master, George Sanderson First General- 
ising, and Joseph Greet First Captain General. 

Within these respectable and' associated bodies, some of the most 
prominent and influential and best citizens of Lancaster and Fairfield 
County, found elevated and congenial fellowship. 

The' fundamental life-sustaining principles of Masonry have been 
sometimes misapprehended, and therefore misunderstood. Its mission 
upon earth has been superbly consequential through all the rough, rude, 
barbaric, the ignorant, clashing and conflicting ages of the past. It has 
preserved inviolate and intact the knowledge of one Supreme Creator 
and universal God ; and it has grandly helped to nurse into activity 
the beneficent idea of human brotherhood. It will culminate and end 
whenever the prohphetical lion everywhere lies down with the typical 
lamb, actuated with the spotless innocence of the lamb. 

Lancaster, Ohio. WM. J. REECE. 


Salem Lodge of F. & A. M., No. 87, at New Salem, was insti- 
tuted in 1842. The charter-members were : M. D. Brock, S. 
Baker, W C. Galleher, Caleb Coplen, J. Linville, J. Baker, J. 
H. Baker (7). Number of members in March, 1877, 84. 

Baltimore Lodge of F. & A. M, at Baltimore, was instituted 
October 22d, 1873. Charter-members: Harrison Applegate, 
William Myres, W. W. Luckey, J. H. Schaertzer, D. H. Sands, 
J. R. Brandt, William Cook, John Sauns, Samuel Fenster- 
maker, E. K. Grube, G. W. Watson, Thomas Smurr, J. W. 
Buchanan, Daniel Albright, Lewis Shearer. Number of mem- 
bers in March, 1877, 42. 

Napthalia Lodge of F. & A. M., at Carroll, No. 262. Date of 
charter, October 15th, 1855. Names of charter-members : Jos. 
Grubb, A. T. Aldred, James Holmes, Andrew Saylor, E. H. 
Davis, Thos. W. A. Wilson, William Jacobs and John P. Gute- 
lins. Number of members in March, 1877, 40. 

[There has occasionally occurred a name in the lists sent 
me, that it has been impossible for me to be absolutely certain 
of the correct orthography. The last one in the Carroll list 
was one of that kind. — Ed.] 

Rushville Lodge, No. 2il, F. & A. M., at Rushville, was insti- 
tuted in 1852. Charter-members: Wm. Coulson, David Wil- 
son, D. M. Rea, Wm. Harper, John P. Hodge, N. B. Coulson, 
N. B. Teel, Daniel Baker, W. Vansant. Number of members 
in March, 1877, 40. 

Lithopolis Lodge, No. 169, F. & A. M., was instituted January 
21st, 1848. Charter-members: Joshua Glanville, William 
Teegardin, Daniel Teegardin, Peter Teegardin, John B. Moore, 


Zebulon Perril, Jacob Teegardin, Daniel Miller, Joseph Miller, 
John Smith, W. W. Hite, William Riley, Jacob Shrock and 
William Jacobs. Number of members in March, 1877, 75. 

The regular meetings of this Lodge are held on Friday even- 
ing preceding each full moon, but if the moon fulls on Fri- 
day evening, then the meeting takes place on that evening. 

Amanda Lodge of F. & A. M., No. 509, was instituted October 
28th, 1876. Names of charter-members: H. G. Trout, Edward 
Griner, Levi Lawrence, J. D. Landis, B. F. Rambo, # Jacob Bal- 
thaser, D. M. Miesee, J. A. Julien, D. J. V. Wolf. Number of 
members in March, 1877, 20. 



Charity Lodge, No. 7, of Odd Fellows, was organied in Lan- 
caster, Feb. 8th, 1838. Its charter-members were : Jacob W. 
Holt, B. R. Banes, R. Timber, Jacob Grubb, George H. Ar- 
nold, R. P. Hazlett. Number of members at the beginning of 
the year 1877, two hundred and twenty. 


Alpine Lodge of Odd Fellows, No. 566, was " instituted in 
Lancaster, June 2d, 1874, by Jos. Dowdall, P.G. Representative 
and Special Deputy." Following are the names of the 
charter-members : 

R. G. Shugert, P. G. ; B. F. Reindmond, P. G. ; A. Breneman, 
P. G. ; H. J. Reinmond, P. G. ; J. C. Hite, P. G. ; Thomas H. 
Hall, Geo. M. Bell, Geo. W. Bcerstler, Thomas H. Dolson, 
Leonard Kissner, Thomas Reap, Lewis Boyer, Abe. Myres, 
Charles Elliott, C. F. Ochs, Leo. Billhorn, John A. Heim, Allen 
Titler, Jacob Heinbarger, Simpson Sturgeon, J. E. Hall, Geo. 
A. Bryant, John McKown, Henry Borneman, E. W. Daniels, 
P. G. ; J. W. Faringer, P. G. ; Wilber Downs, P. G. ; H. C Out- 
calt, P. G. ; H. F. Smith, P. G. ; W. W. Davis, M. S. Harps, , 
Wm. Kooken, J, M. Sutphen, Wm. Strayer, Wm. Ditto, D. W. 
Boyer, B. H. Saunders, R. J. Harris, Wm. Dennis, John Bill- 
horn, W. H. Walker, Christian Gaiser, 0. S. Stoneburner, Jas. 
H. Smith, A. A. Beery, J. K. Davis, A. W. Swartz, Wm. F. 
Getz, James Wilson. Present number of members, 108. 



The Hocking Encampment of Odd Fellows, No. 28, was in- 
stituted Dec. 4th, 1847. Charter-members : Jacob W. Holt, 
Thomas Hyde, Joseph C. Kinkhead, Wm. Baker, Josiah Wil- 
son, B. F. Brannon, James W. Pratt. Present number of mem- 
bers, 220. 


Crescer>t Lodge, No. 561, at Bremen, was instituted Oct. 2d, 
1873. The charter-members were : C. B. Holcomb, H. Shull, 
N. Westenberger, S. F. Abell, W. H. Hartsough, Wm. Wehr, 
S. H. Alexander, J. M. Work, S. A. McCullough, J. S. John- 
son, W. S. John: on. Membership in Feb., 1877, forty-four (44). 
Sugar Grove Lodge, at Sugar Grove, No. 654, I. 0. 0. F., 
was instituted Aug. 4th, 1876. The charter-members were : 
J. V. Sharp, G. F. Hummel, W. H. Elder, W. F. Noggle, L. C. 
Mathena, R. F. Brown, Joseph Sharp, James H. Foster, Jacob 
Walter, G. W. Pannabaker, Abraham Ream. Membership in 
Feb., 1877, eighteen (18). 

Central Valley Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., No. 548, at Amanda, was 
instituted July 10th, 1873. The charter-members Avere : W. 
H. Dickson, B. Balthaser, T. J. Barr, C. H. Sunderman, T. L. 
Hewetson, Wm. Acton, W. B. Sunderman, P. Hewetson, H. 
D. Aldenderfer, George Aldenderfer, David Crites, Joseph 
Bechtel, Andrew Laps, Samuel Griffith, Sr. Whole number 
of members in Feb., 1877, forty-five (45). 

Weaver Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., No. 486, at Greencastle, was or- 
ganized July 20th, 1871. The charter-members were : M. B. 
Custer, A. S. Beaty, Wm. Kiger, Samuel Crist, Samuel Wiser, 
Elijah Alspach, Y. Courtright, Paul Alspach, H. R. Roller, R. 
H. Mason, S. P. Crist, J. T. Williamson. Membership in 
Feb., 1877, fifty-nine (59). 

Baltimore Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., No. 202, at Baltimore, was in- 
stituted June 11th, 1852. The charter-members were : ■ Cas- 
per Fiddler, A. L. Simmons, H. L. Nicely, Wm. Potter, J. 
Bartholomew, Wm. J. Smart, J. Schlosser, James Pugh, Job 
McNamee, Thomas M. Watson, Jacob Ketner, John H. 
Weekly, Frederick Graff, Wm. Paul, Elijah Warner. Whole 
number of members in Feb., 1877, eigh.ty-three (83). 

Liberty Encampment of Baltimore, No. 169, was organized 
July 14th, 1873. The names of the charter-members were: 


Jonas Messerly, J. J. Hansberger, A. L. Gearhart, Daniel 
Langle, V. H. Grinder, J. W. Whitely, Samuel Rader, Daniel 
dinger, W. P. Littlejohn, J. Norris, F. G. Littlejohn, W. H. 
Oliver, John Javoi, T. I. Arnold, Peter Roshon, J. W. Chap- 
man, R. S. Broch, S. S. Weist, Frederick Born, Wm. Cook. 
Membership in Feb., 1877, thirty-five (35). 

Fairfield Lodge, I. O. 0. F., No. 163, at Pleasantville, was 
instituted Oct. 7th, 1850. The charter-members were : Thos. 
O. Wilson, Wm. Buchanan, Wm. Cupp, Jacob Bope, Thos. 
Andrews, Benjamin Walters, John F. Irick, Solomon Weaver, 
Job McNamee, Adam Shaw. Thomas A. Bratton, Martin Ka- 
gay, N. C. Miller, Samuel Cupp, James Brown, Thos. Kidwell. 
Number of members in Feb. 1877, seventy-one (71). 

Philo Lodge, 1. 0. 0. F., No. 392, at West Rushville, was in- 
stituted July 12, 1867. Following are the names of the 
charter-members : W. B. Strickley, Joseph McFee, H. L. 
Whitehead, J. M.-Strickler, Chas. McClung, James Henderson, 
Michael Keelm, C. C. B. Duncan, Jacob Lamb. Membership 
in Feb., 1877, fifty, (50).- 


Mount Pleasant Lodge, No. 48, of the order of Knights of 
Pythias, was instituted in Lancaster on the 20th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1873. The charter-members, twenty-seven in number, 
were : H. B. Gray, J. H. Heed, Leo Bilhorn, R. R. Pierce, John 
A. Hern, J. A. Richards, C. A. Scoville, William Ditto, J. D. 
Hcilbron, R. M. Wiley, J. A. Bartholomew, N. C. Rudolph, H. 
Getz, C. H. Towson, W.' W. O'Bough, 0. S. Stoneburner, N. N. 
Gates, T. C. Ochs, J. Bilhorn, H. Boneman, F. Etzel, J. D. 
Widner, W. F. Getz, M. H. Harps, S. H. Beck, A. Deitz, C. 
Bartholomew. Number of members in March, 1877, 110. 


Columbia Lodge, No. 27, of the order of the Knights of 
Honor, was instituted in Lancaster September 9th, 1874. The 
charter-members were fourteen, as follows : Jno. W. Faringer, 
John C. Tuthill, John C. Hite, J. M. Sutphen, A. M. Beery, ^ 
Wm. B. McCracken, Wallace W. Hite, Wm. Bush, Dr. George J 


Boerstler, J. D. Allen, Robert Durane, Henry B. Peters, Solo- 
mon Weaver, M. A. Philips. Number of members in March, 
1877, 54. 



Dr. H. Scott — Dear Sir: I herewith hand you the information you 
requested. The " Grange "' was first organized in Washington City, in 
July, 1867, with Wm. Saunders, Master, and O. H. Kelly, Secretary. 
The first Grange organized in Ohio was in February, 1871, wdiich was 
the only one organized in that year. 

In 1872 there were organized 7 Granges. 

In 1873 " " 315 

In 1874 " " 779 

In 1875 " " 128 

In 1876 " " 63 

Total number in Ohio 1292 Granges. 

Total membership in Ohio to the close of 1876 55,000. 


S. H. Ellis, Master, Springboro, Ohio ; W. S. Miller, Secretary, Cas- 
talia, Ohio. 


J. H. Brigham. Chairman, Wauseon, Ohio ; J. P. Schenck, Frank" 
lin, Ohio ; C. C. Cummings, Painesville, Ohio ; A. E. Keller, Lancaster, 
Ohio; N. H. Albaugh, Tadmer, Ohio; H. McDowell, Canton, Ohio; 
H. S. Ellis and W. W. Miller, Ex-officio. General Business Agent, Box 
50, Cincinnati. 


The first Grange organized in Fairfield County was Rush Creek 
Grange, No. 67, located at Bremen, in July, 1873; and the following 
were instituted in the order named : 

Bloom Grange, No. 395; Pleasant Grange, No. 675; Violet Grange, 
No. 683 ; Greenfield Grange, No. 725 ; Hocking Grange, No. 706 ; Union 
Grange, No. 762 ; Cedar Hill Grange, No. 763 ; Amanda Grange, Nofn 
815; Stoutsville Grange, No 917; Harvey Grange, No. 930; Walnut 
Grange, No. 931 ; Berne Grange, No. 959 ; New Salem Grange, No. 971 ; 
Richland Grange, No. 838; Clear Creek Grange, No. 1011; Summit 
Grange, No. 1038 ; Fairfield Grange, No. 1148 ; Liberty Grange, No. 
929. Total Granges in Fairfield County, 19. 

The last organized was Fairfield Grange, April, 1874. A majority of 
the above were organized by William Funk, of Rush Creek, who was 
Deputy during 1874, during which year most of the Granges were or- 

Nos. 706 and 725 (Greenfield and Hocking), have consolidated, as 
have also 838 and 1,148 (Richland and Fairfield). Halls have either 
been built or purchased by Pleasant. 675 ; Greenfield, 725 ; Cedar Hill, 
763 ; New Salem, 971 ; and Fairfield, 1148. 

Greenfield Grange has the greatest number of members, aggregating 
135. The total membership of the county is about 1,200. The excite- 


merit of organization carried many into the order who were influenced 
by purely selfish motives, and who expected to grow suddenly rich with- 
out effort, and some of this class have expressed dissatisfaction and 
dropped from the rolls of their respective Granges. But the order is in 
a much better condition now than ever before, a majority of the most 
enterprising farmers of each community having become identified with 
it. Respectfully, A. R. KELLER. 

st. Joseph's benevolent association, catholic brotherhood. 

This association was organized in Lancaster, on the 2d day 
of July, 1861. The following quotations will show the objects 
and aims of the society : 

" This society shall be known as the St. Joseph's Benevo- 
lent Association of Lancaster." 

" Any member of St. Mary's congregation who has attained 
to the age of eighteen years, and has not passed his fifty-fifth 
year, may become a member of this association." 

" No active member of the old St. Mary's Society shall be 
excluded from the privilege of becoming a member of St. 
Joseph's Benevolent Association on account of his age." 

"No person who is not of good Catholic life and standing 
can become a member of this association. This last condition, 
viz. : honorable Christian character, shall always remain essen- 
tial to membership." 

" The hour of commencing the stated meetings shall be 
about 4 o'clock p. m., or immediately after vespers on the first 
Sunday of each month." 

The initiation fees for membership of this society are 
graduated as follows : From the age of eighteen to twenty- 
five years, $2.00 ; from twenty-five to forty years, $3.00 ; from 
forty to fifty-five years, $5.00. Monthly dues of twenty-five 
cents are paid by each member at the stated meetings. Sick 
members of six months standing, receive two dollars a week ; 
and those who have been members one year and upwards, 
receive three dollars a week; provided in all cases, that the sick- 
ness has not been induced by voluntary self-abuse. The 
society tenders twenty-five dollars for funeral expenses upon 
the death of members ; but this is contingent upon one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars being in the treasury at the time of such 

Officers of the Assoc ia tin n — L.C.Butler, President; George E. 
Blaire, Vice-President ; Gerhardt Miller, Treasurer ; John 


Weigle, Recording Secretary; Charles F. Fuchs, Corresponding 
Secretary; Leo. Noles, Messenger; Thomas 0. Connor, Banner 
Bearer ; Joseph Kurtzman, John Bletzacker and Charles Bau- 
meister, Committee for the Sick. 

Trustees — Maurice Barrett, Hugh Cannon, Joseph Kurtz- 
man, Rudolph Seiple and John Weigle. 


D. C. Butch, Hugh Cannon, M. A. Daugherty, James Mc- 
Sweney, George E. Blaire, Rudolph Seiple, Joseph Kurtzman, 
Wolfgang Bininger, Leo. Noles, Barth. W. Vagnier, Sr., John 
Bletzaker, Charles Baumeister, Lewis Kern, Gerhardt Miller, 
Jos. Steck, Thos. Malone, John Weigle, Michael Reigamer, 
Garret Rhyan, Jacob Messenberger, Henry O'Neal, Gotlieb 
Ebart, Michael O'Garra, Joseph Pfadt, Bernard Vagnier, 
Benjamin Streigle, Martin Kethinger, John Kuntz, Michael 
King, John Hines, Thomas O'Conner, Patrick Maher, Peter 
Miller, Henry Grady, F. A. Steck, John Welker, Maurice 
Barrett, Barth. W. Vagnier, Sr., Thomas O'Regan Tarpy, 
Michael Steck, John Ritter, John Welch, Patrick J. Franey, 
Charles F. Fuchs, Joseph, Bletzaker, Philip Casseley, James 
Butler, John Bausy, Frank Oger, George W. Smith, Joseph 
Jounk, Frank Winter, Jacob, Steck, Tall Slough, George H. 
Brown, Joseph C. Miller, Victor Vagnier, Thomas J. Hanson, 
Augustus Winchkier, Mathias Thimmis, Alexander Buechler, 
Adam Bausy, Jacob Loni, Charles Raforth, Gregory Bender, 
Jerry Shea, Joseph Spezer, Charles Warum, Jr., Jos. Vagnier, 
Jacob Fuchs, Jacob Host, Thomas Uhl, John Martz, John Caw- 
ley, Pins J. Clarke, Edward Binninger, P. W. Binninger, 
George Binder, John Morris, Thomas Cullen, John Sullivan, 
Henry Abener, Albinus Trinkle, Mathias Danner, Michael 
Danner, Henry P. Bausy, Frank Reinman, Lewis A. Blaire, 
John Sears, Martin Konkle, Dennis Piper, Tobias Banner, 
William Smeltzer, Joseph Hock, Geo. Messenberger, Anthonjr 
Graff, James Tanner, Samuel Sommers, John Kennedy, Patrick 
Gordon, George Pfadt, Peter Voht, Joseph Sharting, Joseph 
Flemm, Daniel Sweeney, Charles Warum, Sr., Charles Joss, 
Henry A. Smith, Robert Shannon, Charles Thomas McGrew, 
Fredrick Shanting, John Cahill, Henry Landerfelt, John Bau- 
meister, Rob't. Rody, Rob't. Devine, Lewis Brooker, Chas. Bau- 
meister, Jr., Jos. Miller, Michael Oger, Henry Ricker — 121. 



The order of the Knights of St. George was instituted in 
Lancaster on the 2d day of November, 1875. The objects of 
this association are : Beneficial, charitable, benevolent and 
the cultivation of good Christian character. Eligibility for 
membership in this order consists, firstly : The applicant must 
be between the ages of eighteen and forty years ; and secondly : 
He must be of "good Catholic life and standing." The initia- 
tion fee is three dollars, and the monthly dues fifty cents. 
Worthy sick members receive five dollars a week upon the 
certificate of a physician. The maintenance of "Honorable 
Christian character shall always remain essential to member- 
ship." A funeral benefit of $25.00 is allowed in the case of the 
death of a member; but all the benefits to which members are 
entitled, may, at their option or that of their friends in the 
event of death, be donated back to the association. But bene- 
fits are only allowed to members in good standing. In the 
case of sickness, brought on by drunkenness, no benefits are 

Karnes of Knights— The constituent members were thirty- 
two, as follows : 

Frank Oger, Gustave A. Hamberger, Anthony Evarst, Jos- 
eph Hamberger, Amos Shreller, John D. Binninger, Daniel 
McShane, John Bonner, Michael Oger, John Baumeister, Paul 
Evarst, Charles Ruforth, John Bletzaker, John McShane, An. 
drew Keiser, John Kooney, Cornelius Cormedy, Jerry Ang- 
lim, Maximillian Guiana, Hugh Owens, F. A. Buechler, Ber- 
nard Bartles, Bernard Cranmer, Edward Binninger, Michael 
Steck, Jr., Frank Steck, Anthony Ritter, William Donnelly 
John Hamberger, George Brown, Edward Seiple. 

Names of Civil Officers — Honorary President, Rev. Father 
Schmidt ; President, Frank Oger ; Vice-President, Anthony 
Evarts; Corresponding Secretary, Charles Baumeister; Re- 
cording-Secretary, J. H. Hamberger; Treasurer, John D. Bin- 
ninger; Messenger, Jerry Anglim. 

Names of Military Officers— Captain, Joseph Hamberger; 1st 

Lieutenant, ; 2d Lieutenant, Michael Oger ; Orderly 

Sargent, John Baumeister. 

The Society holds monthly meetings on the first Sunday of 
each month, at half-past one o'clock. 



The first Court of quarter sessions for Fairfield County, and 
previous to the establishment of the Court of Common Pleas, 
in May, 1803, was held on the 12th of January, 1801. Emanuel 
Carpenter, Sr., was the presiding Justice, and Nathaniel Wil- 
son, sr., David Vanmeter and Samuel Carpenter were his 
associates. The session was held in a log school-house. A 
Sheriff by the name of Samuel Kratzer, was appointed by the 

A Jury was also appointed, which was called a Jury of 
Inquest. The following are the names of the Jurymen : Jas. 
Converse, Foreman ; Abramam Wather, Jeremiah Conaway, 
Arthur Teal, Conrad Fetters, Robert McMurtry, Gam'l. Coats, 
Abraham Funk, Thomas Cisfina, Amassa Delanoe, John Mc- 
Mullen, Joseph McMullen, Edward Teal, David Reese and 
Barnabas Golden. There were no indictments found, and the 
Jury was discharged. 

Two Attorneys were sworn in— William Creighton and 
Alexander White. 

Three County Commissioners were also appointed, viz. : 
Nathaniel Wilson, Jr., Jacob Vanmeter and James Denny. 

Though appearing little in history, the town of Lancaster 
seems sometimes to have been called the town of Fairfield, for 
at the quarter sessions just referred to, there was an order 
issued for the survey of a road " from the town of Fairfield to 
the head of the muddy prairie;'' and the survey was made by 
Hugh Boyle. 

The first mortgage of which any record appears, was made 
by John Cleves Symmes to Benjamin Murphy, for the pur- 
chase of one hundred acres of land, for which payment was to 
be made in six years with six per cent, interest. The instru- 
ment bears date of August 19th, 1801, and the sum contracted 
to be paid was two thousand dollars. These figures are prob- 
ably an error, as twenty dollars per acre for wild lands at that 
early day was hardly likely. 

In October, 1802, and on the 12th day, two members of the 
Constitutional Convention for Ohio were chosen by popular 
election. This was the first election for the county. Emanuel 
Carpenter, Sr., and Henry Abrams were elected, the former 


receiving two hundred and twenty-eight, and the latter one 
hundred and eighty-one votes. 

The members of the convention convened at Chillicothe on 
the first day of November following, and organized by the 
appointment of Edward Tiffin as President, and Thomas Scott 
as Secretary. This convention held an adjourned session on 
the 29th of the same month, when they completed their work ; 
and the constitution was submitted directly to Congress, and 
accepted, without being placed before the people of the State 
for their approval. 


Statistics show that there were in Fairfield County, in the 
year 1870, 2,318 farms, aggregating 232,016 acres of cultivated 
land; and that there were within its limits the total of 
316,420 acres, including all outlying and timbered lands. 


In the month of April, 1812, a company of infantry volun- 
teers, under the command of Capt. George Sanderson, was 
raised, to operate on the northern border against the British, 
in what is known as the war of 1812. This company formed 
a part of Colonel Lewis Cass's Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, 
which was betrayed into the hands of the British General 
Brock, as was believed, by the cowardice of General Hull, on 
the 12th of August following, in front of Detroit. They were 
paroled not to fight against the British until exchanged, 
which exchange took place in May, 1814. It is said, however, 
that some of the men went and joined Harrison's campaign 
to the Maumee and Thames in 1813, and continued until peace 
was concluded. 

There was a second company, partly from Fairfield, which 

was commanded by . This company was attached to 

Colonel Paul's Regiment of Twenty-seventh United States 
Infantry. They were honorably discharged at Detroit in 1814. 

In an old blank book purchased at the sale of the venerable 
John Leist, west of Amanda, and furnished me by one of the 
sons of the late William Graham, of this county, I find the 
records in part of a third company that left Lancaster for the 
North in 1812. This company was commanded by Jesse D. 



Courtright; John Leist, First Lieutenant. The record, or 
journal, was kept by one Samuel W. Taylor, probably an 
Orderly. The journal opens thus : 

"Rendezvoused at Lancaster on the 26th of August, 1812, for 
a six months' tour on an expedition towards Canada." 

The record then proceeds in the form of a diary, until the 
Maumee country is reached, when it terminates abruptly 
thus : 

"General Harrison arrived at the Rapids, and started next 
day with a thousand men, commanded by General Perkins, to 
reinforce General Winchester. They did not get far when 
they met some of Winchester's men, who told them that Win- 
chester's army was all taken prisoners or killed." 


We notice very briefly the Refugee Tract, so-called. It 
passes through the northern part of this county, from east to 
west. Its width is two miles, and length eighteen miles. The 
origin of this reservation was as follows : There were citizens 
of Canada who, during the revolutionary war, gave their sym- 
pathies and aid to the American colonies. Congress appropri- 
ated this strip of land, of eighteen miles east and west, and 
two miles north and south, for their use, hence " Refugee 
Lands. " After it had been taken up to the extent of the 
claimants who presented themselves, the unclaimed portion 
was sectioned and sold as other Congress Lands. 


The first efforts to obtain appropriations and encouragement 
for the establishment in Ohio of a Reform School for boys 
through the Legislature in 1857 and 1858, did not issue in any 
definite or effective result. 

Charles Reemelin, of Cincinnati, having returned from a visit 
to Europe, reported his investigations of several institutions 
of the kind in that country. His suggestions gave impe'tus 
to the idea, and in 1857 the first log-structures were built on 
the site selected. To Mr. Remelin belongs much of the credit 
of the inception and subsequent development of the Ohio Re- 
form Farm. 

There were ten boys brought there from the House of Re- 
fuge in Cincinnati, on the 30th of January, 1858. This was 


the beginning of the " State Farm," as it is familiarly called. 

In 1876 the estimate of all the buildings and the farm was 
$200,000. Up to that time the total number of boys, who had 
passed through the institution, as shown by the official report 
of the Superintendent, was 2,019. The cost of each boy to the 
State, not including buildings and improvements, for the year 
of 1875 is put down at $118.53. Geo. E. Howe has been the 
Acting Commissioner from the first, and still holds the position. 
In his report in general he says, that "'eighty per cent, of the boys 
leaving have turned out well.'''' 

The farm is said to contain eleven hundred acres. The 
buildings are mostl} r of brick, and of a fine syle of architecture, 
and occupy about twenty acres of ground. The land lies some 
five or six hundred feet above the level of the Hocking Valley, 
three or four miles to the east. The surrounding hills are de- 
lightfully romantic with pine and chestnut groves. Besides 
farming on a small scale, and fruit growing, the boys are em. 
ployed in the manufacture of cane-seats, brushes of a great 
variety, shoes, brooms and other wares. There is a chapel 
where religious instructions are given every Sunday. There 
are also a number of schools in operation the year round, where 
all . the boys receive competent education in the English 

There are no lock-ups. Generally the boys are under the 
care of a select class of young men, denominated "Elder 
Brothers," and held to close and rigid discipline. Their time 
is diversified with school, labor and recreation. Many of them 
show themselves to be entirely trustworthy, and are allowed 
to go and come* and even to transact responsible business. Mrs. 
Howe, wife of the Acting Commissioner, is Matron, and it is 
said by those best acquainted with the institution, that her 
influence and motherly supervision has had a marked effect 
for good on the boys. 

The farm is situated six miles from Lancaster, in a south- 
west direction. A good turnpike road leads from the foot of 
Broadway directly to the .farm, most of the distance through 
delightful pine ^groves, which, in summer, make the air redo 
lent with resinous exhalations. The farm is at all times ac- 
cessible to visitors, who are politely shown round. On Sun- 



days, however, visitors, except for the purpose of attending 
church, are not desired. 

The term of detention of those sent there is not fixed, and 
their discharge, when thought prepared to leave, is left to the 
Acting Commissioner. 


At an early day (1819-1821), and (1821-1829), Philemon 
Beecher was in the Lower House of Congress. Later, citizens 
of the county who have been elected in the various districts to 
which it has belonged, have been : William W. Irvin, John 
Chaney, William Medill, Charles D. Martin, Thos. 0. Edwards, 
Edson B. Olds and Philadelphus Van Trump. Senate and 
member of the Cabinet : Thomas Ewing. 


Following will be found a brief history of the townships and 
villages, which is as full and specific as the plan of this work 
will permit, and it is hoped will be found satisfactory. It is 
perhaps possible that, in collating such a work, non-important 
errors may creep in. Such, if any shall be found, will be ex- 
cused, if the general tenor of the history shall be approved, 
for, as before said, much has to be taken from tradition, and 
the recollections of living witnesses vary more or less. 


Clear Creek Township is situated in the south-west corner 
of the county. Its name was suggested from " Clear Creek," a 
small stream running through it. Its school district system 
m well arranged. There are nine school-houses, located re- 
spectively at the cornerings of the sections. 

It contains the villages of Oakland and Stoutsville, the 
former laid out by Charles Sager, and is twelve miles from 
Lancaster, on the Chillicothe pike ; the latter by Benjamin 
Stout, in 1854, and is about sixteen miles west, or south-west 
of Lancaster. Clear Creek formerly extended over parts of 
the Townships of Madison and Amanda. 


We note among the early settlers of Clear Creek, John Leist, 
who came there in 1807. He was born in 1784, and was a 
member of the Legislature from 1813 to 1820. Mr. Leist 
served in the war of 1812, and was under Harrison at Fort 
Meigs and Detroit. He died several years since, at a very 
advanced age. Mr. Dillsaver is said, to have built the first 
horse-mill in the township. Michael Nye was also an early 
settler. Charles Friend came in 1800, and built the first 
water-mill on Clear Creek. Among the first teachers were 
Apple Young and John Young. Jacob Leist was an early 
Lutheran preacher there. It is believed the Lutherans built 
the first meeting-house, which was a log-cabin. It was situa- 
ted near the somewhat historic place, known as " Dutch Hol- 
low. " The last census gave Clear Creek a population of 1,743. 


Amanda lies immediately north of Clear Creek. It is com- 
monly understood that the name was given by William Ham- 
ilton, who was the first County Surveyor of Fairfield. It con- 
tains the villages of Amanda and Royal ton. Amanda is eight 
miles west of Lancaster, on the Cincinnati Railroad. Its first 
proprietor was Samuel Kester, and its beginning was about 
1830. Royalton is six or seven miles north of Amanda. It is 
a small village, and was known as Toby Town at the begin- 
ning of the settlements. 

Frederick Leathers is spoken of as the first settler. He 
kept a tavern on the old Chillicothe road. Isaac Griffith suc- 
ceeded him as landlord, and remained there until 1834, soon 
after which the house was burned. Other early settlers were : 
Disinger, William Ward, Mr. Norris, Mr. Denison, William 
Hamilton, Thomas Barr, John Christy and Mr. Morris, who 
acquired notoriety as a ring-fighter at public gatherings. A 
school-teacher, by the name of Solomon Grover, is spoken of a s 
having school in the upper story of his house, in 1817. A 
Presbyterian Church was organized in the village, in 1838, by 
Rev. Dr. Hogue, of Columbus. The first minister was Wil- 
liam Jones. The first Sabbath-School in Amanda was in- 
augurated in 1860, by the Rev. Thorn. 

It is due to Amanda Township to say, that no draft was 


made within its borders during the Southern Rebellion. There 
were more volunteers than the township quota. 


Bloom was established in 1805. The following names have 
been furnished as first 'settlers : Abraham Courtright, Jesse 
D. Courtright, Zephemiah Drake, Christian Merchant, Peter 
Powel, Conrad Platner, Michael Thrash, John Smaltz, Michael 
Allspaugh, Jacob Allspaugh, Levi Moore and Daniel Hoy. 
Bloom Township contains Lithopolis and Greencastle. Green- 
castle was first laid out, and Jesse D. Courtright was its first 
proprietor. This was in 1810. In 1814, one Bougher laid out 
the town of Lithopolis. It is the largest village in the 
county, possibly. It has three churches and an academy. 
Lithopolis is fourteen, and Greencastle ten miles from Lan- 
caster, both on the old Columbus road. 

A quaint rule is spoken of as having been established in 
this township in its early history, viz. : No man was allowed 
to vote at their elections who could not produce a certificate 
that he had performed two days' work on the road, removing 
the stumps. 

The first school-teacher in Bloom Township was Abraham 
Courtright. He taught there in 1805. The first church in 
the township was built by the German Presbyterians, in the 
year 1807. It was near the old State road, and is said to be 
still standing. 

The Trustees seem to have occupied much of the time of 
their meetings in attention to the reports and duties of Road 
Supervisors and Fence Viewers. The latter office, in Ohio, 
has long since been abolished. There was there, as in all 
townships at that early day, provided by law a special Board 
of Overseers of the Poor. Under the action of this Board, the 
Overseers sometimes sold the paupers to the lowest bidder for 
their maintenance. 

Saw-mills were very numerous. Of those who run saw-mills 
at that early day, are mentioned Jacob Allspaugh, Sam'l Ivist- 
ler, Judge Chaney, and a Mr. Barnett. The last two, Kistler 
and Chaney, are old citizens of Bloom Township, and refer to the 
times in the past when goods were brought on horseback from 
Wheeling, Marietta and Zanesville, and of going to Zanes- 


ville for their grinding, a distance of over fifty miles. As late 
as 1822, it is said, there were no grinding facilities in Bloom 
besides one small raccoon-burr mill. Wheat was exchanged 
for salt, bushel for bushel, which was considered a great point 
gained by the farmers. 

In 1822, there were two hewed log churches in the township, 
that were used jointly by the LutherMis and German Reforms. 
Rev. Steck was the pastor of the former, and Rev. Geo. Wise 
of the latter. Methodists, Presbyterians and others, at that 
time, held their meetings in private residences. 

Jefferson and Lock ville are in the northern part of the 
township. The population of the township of Bloom Avas, in 
1840, 2,288. 


This township makes up the north-west corner of the 
county. It formerly contained the village of Winchester, 
but an act of the Legislature a few years since, struck off a 
tier of sections from its western border, which was attached to 
Franklin County, including Winchester. 

The name " Violet" is understood to have been derived from 
the luxuriance with which the flower bearing that name grew 
on some portions of its soil. Pickerington is situated in 
Violet. A man by the name of George Kirk first purchased 
the eighty-acre tract in which the village stands. Subse- 
quently the land fell into the hands of Mr. Pickering, who 
laid out the town and christened it with his own name. 

Of those who settled in Violet previous to the year 1806, are 
mentioned : H. Donaldson, A. Donaldson, Edward Rickets, 
Westenburger Hustand, Dr. Tolbert, A. Pickering and Mor- 
decai Fishbaugh. Waterloo, on the canal, is within this town- 

Violet, in churches, schools, and the general spirit and 
enterprise of the times, is not behind any township of the 
county. Settlements were first .begun in the vicinity of 
where Pickerington now stands. Residences were located 
through the township with reference to springs and water 
.streams, as well as the quality of the lands. Some of the first 
settlers came out in advance of their families and first built 
their cabins; in other instances the families came together, 
and took their chances in the forests. Dr. Tolbert was prob- 


ably the first physician in the township — at least among the 
first. He is still living at a very advanced age, and has been 
for many years a citizen of Jefferson. 

Wolves are said to have been very abundant in Violet when 
it was first settled ; but subsequently the premium paid for 
their scalps had much to do in thinning their ranks, 


A large portion of the first settlers of this township were Swiss. 
The writer has been told that it was at their suggestion that 
the name " Liberty " was adopted. They came from a country 
where the liberties of citizens were very much restricted by 
Monarchical Government, and they seemed to desire that their 
freedom in the new country of their adoption should be per- 
petuated in history, hence "Liberty Township." 

Baltimore and Basil, on the canal, are in Liberty, and are 
both places of considerable business. Baltimore is a consider- 
able village, and is quite noted for the strength and respecta- 
bility of its secret orders. It has the usual amount of church 
and school facilities. Before the trade of the county was dis- 
tributed by its two railroads, Baltimore had a heavy grain 
trade, on account of the facilities of transportation afforded by 
the Ohio Canal, upon whose banks it stands. 

Liberty lies between Violet and Walnut, in the northern 
tier. I have not the facilities for giving the exact dates of its 
organization, or that of either of its villages, or the names of 
their proprietors, but they are both old villages. 

The roads through Liberty follow the cardinal points. The 
first tavern of the place was kept by Michael Allen. The first 
Methodist class-leader was a Mr. Kniseley Schumaker, who 
also established the first Sabbath-School. The surface was 
originally covered with dense forests of beach, sugar, and other 
forest trees, to clear away which, and make the soil available 
for farming, was a heavy and tedious work. 


Greenfield was first settled in 1799, and was incorporated as 
a township in 1805. Isaac Meason, father of the late Vener- 
able John Meason, was among the first to settle in the bounds 
of Greenfield. At the time of his coming there is said to have 
been not above half a dozen of families within the boundaries 


of the then very Large township. Their names are : 'Captain 
Joseph Stewart, father of Levi Stewart, now of Lancaster, Wm. 
McFarland, Ralph Cherry, Jeremiah Cherry, Joshua Meeks, 
Dorsey Meason and Samuel Randall. They expected to hold 
their lands under the "Tomahawk" Pre-Emption Claim, but 
they were subsequently sectioned and sold as Congress Lands 
at two dollars an acre, without an^ reference to " Squatter 
Sovereignty. " 

Following these first settlers were the Willetts, the Ben- 
nets, the Fitzeralds, the Drurys, the Rices, the Smotherers, 
and others. 

Yankeytown and forks of Hocking were first settlements in 
Greenfield. The site of the former is now known as the Clay- 
pool neighborhood, and the latter as the Rock Mills. 

The name of Henry Abrams, father-in-law of the late General 
George Sanderson,Ms also prominent among the first settlers of 
Greenfield, he having arrived in 1800, settling first, I believe, 
on what is at present known as the Sanderson farm. 

The first election for the township was held at Yankeetown 
in the fall of 1805. The first tax-collector in Greenfield was 
Colonel Crooks, who was subsequently Sheriff of the county. 
Emanuel Carpenter is also spoken of as being at that time a 
citizen of Greenfield. His surviving friends, however, do not 
remember that he ever lived anywhere but down Hocking. 

[A general remark is here proper. At the early times, of 
which we write, the taxes of Ohio were collected by special 
collectors. The manner was as follows : A house in the town- 
ship was designated, and a day named; at that house, on the 
specified day, the collector remained all day to receive the 
taxes, it being the duty of the tax-payers to come there and 
take up their receipts], 

Walter McFarland, John Meason and Gideon Martin, old 
and prominent citizens of Greenfield, deceased during the last, aged respectively above eighty years. 

Joseph Loveland and Hezekiah Smith, New Englanders, 
built a grist and saw-mill combined at the forks of Hocking in 
1800. The place is familiarly known at present as the Rock 
Mill. It is on the old Columbus road, seven miles from Lan- 
caster. These men are said to have sold goods at their mill 
which were brought on pack-horses from Detroit. They also 
sold whisky, charging one dollar a quart for it. The Indians 


often bought it and took a big drunk, always leaving one or 
two of their number sober to restrain the drinkers, a custom 
not observed by their more civilized brethern of the " pale- 
faced" race. 

A wrestling tournament between Isaac Meason and a stout 
Indian is spoken of, in which Mr. Meason was successful in 
three straight falls, when the Indian, in a very surprised man- 
ner, gave up the contest. 

It is related that some of the first emigrants erected tents, 
which they roofed with bark, inhabiting them until they 
could find the time to put up cabins. Two or three families 
are said, in some instances, to have jointly occupied one cabin 
of small dimensions. 

The second or third years, after the settlements began, were 
characterized by a great deal of sickness. A form of disease 
prevailed that was thought to be yellow fever. Of those who 
.died with it are mentioned: Jeremiah Cherry, Joshua Meeks 
and Benjamin Edgar. For their interment no better coffins 
could be provided than rude structures of puncheons. 

The first Methodist preacher who came into the township, 
it is believed, was one John Williams. A Scotch Covenanter, 
by the name of Wallace, made an effort in 1816 to establish a 
church, but failed. In 1813 the Lutherans built the first 
church of the township. A Union Church was built in 1840, 
which afterwards fell into the hands of the Methodists. It is 
said to be still in use. It was called Pleasant Summit. The 
first circuit-riders who preached in it were Hand and Milligan. 

There are three villages in Greenfield. Carroll was laid out 
by William Tong, at the junction of the Ohio and Hocking 
Valley canals. Havensport, a small village on the canal, was 
laid off by Isaac Havens; and Dumontsville, four miles north- 
west of Lancaster, by Mr. Dumont, from France. 

Greenfield ranks among the wealthiest townships of the 
county. It is situated north-west from Lancaster. The first 
man who taught school in Greenfield is believed to have been a 
Mr. May. The township at this time contains'seven churches. 

An object in this township that merits commemoration, is 
Greenfield Academy on the Carroll Pike. It was erected in 
1830 by Jacob Claypool, and was at first used for school and 
church purposes, and afterwards converted into an academv. 


John Williams was Principal, and under him many of Fair- 
field's best young men received fine educations. 

"Greenfield " was derived from the many beautiful meadows 
of land within its borders. 


In this township Lancaster is situated, near its northern 
and eastern borders. Its name derives from the Hockhocking 
river, which flows past its western and southern limits. The 
history of Lancaster is a large part of the history of Hocking 
Township. And the history of the first settlements of the 
county would, in a general way, be the history of all frontier 
life seventy years ago. 

Within this township, and in near proximity to Lancaster, 
are inexhaustible ledges of the fines sand-stone in the world — 
sufficient in quantity to build a hundred cities. It will be 
remembered this township was the theatre of the Wyandot 
and Delaware Indians when the valley was first penetrated by 
the white race. But now not the slightest trace of that 
swarthy race which once made these hills echo with their 
wild and discordant shouts, remains ; not a mark to show they 
were ever here. And the_pale faces are gone too, and their 
foot-prints are nearly faded out ; that is, the first comers. 
Their forms have dissolved away, and their voices are all 
hushed forevermore. 

The first settlers of Hocking township have been mentioned 
elsewhere, when speaking of the first settlers of Fairfield 
county, and it is needless to recapitulate. 

Outside of Lancaster, there is but one village in the town- 
ship—the village of Hamburg; five miles to the south-west. 
It is a place of a few families, and has a little trade. 

Hocking, perhaps more than any township in the county, 
presents more mementoes of the frontier age in the form of 
remnants of old log-cabins and the like. At present it is the 
chief grape-growing township of the county. The hills for a 
few miles south are, to a large extent, covered with the vine 
in healthy conditions of culture. The State Farm is in Hock- 
ing township. 

We have said there are no traces of the Indians left. There 
are no visible traces; but one will learn, by conversation with 


oldest inhabitants, that some of the arts of the red man in ex- 
tracting healing virtues from wild plants have been diffused 
and are not lost. 


Madison Township was honored with the name of one of the 
illustrious Presidents of the United States, James Madison. It 
lies immediatel\*east of Clear Creek, on the southern border of 
the county. It was established with pretty near its present 
boundaries, in the year 1812. Previous to that time it 
formed, I believe, a part of Clear Creek Township. The first 
election for the township after its independent organization 
was held at the house of Mr. Valentine Wolf. 

Still-houses wei'e numerous there at an early day, and their 
influences were manifested at public gatherings, such as log- 
rollings, corn-huskings, house-raisings and sales. There is no 
village of any consequence in Madison. 

We mention a few of the first men, who, with their families, 
settled on her soil : Ewel Shseffer, Mathew Young, Robert 
Young, Adam Deffenbaugh. Names of other first settlers have 
not transpired to me. 

The first saw-mill in the township Avas built by Isaac 
Shreffer. A man by the name of Aker is referred to as having 
been the first to carry on the blacksmith business, and the 
first and only tavern for the time was kept by John Sweyer. 
In the year 1835, there were five mills in the township, 
owned respectively by Shaeffer, Deffenbaugh, Welsheimer, 
Griffith and Guy. The Methodists and Lutherans have 
churches in Madison. There are two hamlets in the town- 
ship, known as Clearport and Mechanicriburg. Rev. Mr. Steck, 
Lutheran, preached there as early as 1816. John Wiley, an 
extensive stock dealer, settled in Madison in 1828. In 1854, 
a post-office was established at Clearport, commonly called 
Abbot's store. The Abbot family have kept the office from its 
beginning till now. • 


It is said that Berne Township was named in honor of the 
Canton of Berne, in Switzerland, by Samuel Carpenter, at the 
time of its organization, a citizen. There are two post-offices 
in the township — Sugar Grove, eight miles below Lancaster, 


and Berne Station, on the Zanesville Railroad, six miles 
east of Lancaster. 

Some of the first settlers were four brothers, Reams, Henry 
Hansel, James Harrod, William Brandon, George Beery, 
David Carpenter, and others. 

George Reams built the first grist-mill. Daniel Reams 
built the first saw-mill. The township is at present credited 
with ten churches and prosperous Sunday-schools. 

John A. Collins is remembered as an early 'Squire. Mr. 
Collins was favorably known, and lived to a ripe old age. He 
was Justice of the Peace fully thirty } 7 ears. 

The first wedding in Berne has been brought to my notice ; 
that of Joseph Loveland to Miss Shellenbarger, as having 
taken place in 1802. 

Judge Joseph Stukey built a grist-mill on Rush Creek, 
just at the foot of what is now Sugar Grove, at a very early 
period. Mr. Stukey will be remembered as having been one 
of the Associate Common Pleas Judges for Fairfield County. 
He served a number of years, embracing the year 1840. He 
died several years ago. 

A large portion of the surface of Berne is rough and hilly, 
but it also contains a great deal of rich, fertile land. That 
part of the township lying nearest Lancaster was first settled. 


Pleasant is situated north of Berne. The origin of the 
game has not, so far as I know, been handed down. There is 
a creek running through the township, known as Pleasant 
Run ; but which was named first, or whether one took its 
name from the other, is not now known. But the township 
might very properly have been called Pleasant Township, 
from the extent and quantity of its pleasant and fertile land. 

Pleasant Township was early settled. One of the first set- 
tlements of the county was «in Pleasant; and the first grave 
of a white man was made on the bank of Fetter's Run, as 
early, I believe, as 1798. Two or three men pitched their tent 
near the present crossing of Fetter's Run, on the old Zanes- 
ville road, a little more than one mile north-east of the present 
site of Lancaster. Within less than a month after their ar- 
rival, one of their number, Wm. Green, sickened and died. 


There was no possibility of procuring a coffin, and one was 
improvised by peeling the bark from a kickory tree (it being 
in the month of May, when the sap was up), and in it he was 
buried near where the bridge over the run now stands, though 
I believe no one pretends to point out the spot. 

In 1820, a German Reform Church was built in Pleasant, 
which was in use fifty years, and in 1870 was replaced by a 
better structure. 

Pleasantville is the village of the township, and is nearly 
on the north line. It has a popular and flourishing seminary. 
Pleasant was early platted and inhabited. Nearly its en- 
tire area is arable, and its farmers are mostly thrifty and in 
good circumstances. The following may be mentioned as of 
the first settlers : The Hoovers, Ashbrooks, Trimbles, Beerys, 
Harmons, Hites, Hampsons, Cupps, Ruffners, Kellers, Ewings, 
Duncans, Feemens, Foglesongs, Raclabaughs. Maclins, Ar- 
nolds, Kemerers, John Baldwin, and others. 


Walnut is immediately north of Pleasant. New Salem and 
Millersport are the villages of Walnut Township ; the former is 
a place of some trade, and two churches; it was first settled, 
and is situated on the eastern border of the township. Mil- 
lersport is situated at the southern point of the "Big^Reser- 
voir," and just where the Ohio Canal enters it. Its thrift and 
importance is owing, in a large degree, to the fisheries of that 
artificial lake, which is of several miles in extent in i^js 
greatest diameter. The reservoir was formed to supply water 
to the canal in dry seasons ; it is in the northern part of the 
township. Millersport has the usual churches and schools. 
Its commerce has been considerable, on account of the ship- 
ment of grain and other produce. 

Walnut Township dates its municipal existence from the 
year 1807, since which time, I ♦believe, it has undergone no 
changes of outline. 

In 1806, there were not exceeding a dozen families within 
its borders, and they were distributed in different parts of its 
territory. Some of these have reached me. Of them I record, 
William Murphy, Asa Murphy, the Crawfords, Hendrixes, 
Watsons, and David Lyly. 


A man named Debold is mentioned as having preached the 
first sermon (of the township, I suppose), at the cabin of Wil- 
liam Hauer. He was a Baptist, I believe. 

At that early day, Walnut, in common with all the town- 
ships and other parts of. the frontier country, was without 
roads. Old citizens speak of a trace having been blazed from 
the Scioto, at a point probabl} T where Columbus now is, 
through to Zanesville, pushing through Walnut, which sub- 
sequently was opened into a wagon road. 

[A brief explanation of what is meant by a blazed road is 
necessary, because not one in fifty of the present inhabitants 
of Fairfield County have any knowledge of them. They were 
a necessit} 7 of the pioneer age. They were called at first, 
"bridle-paths" and "foot-paths." The manner of opening 
them was in this wise: One or more men set out with axes 
from one point to another, say, from one cabin to another, and 
taking trees in range, and from twenty to forty feet apart, 
chopped or hewed the bark from the two sides facing in the 
two directions, thus making a "blaze" that caught the eye 
readily by the contrast between the bark and the bare wood. 
Then these blazed trees were followed in both directions, on 
foot and on horseback, until by use a beaten track rendered 
the blazes unnecessary. I have known guns to be fired and 
horns blown, at the outcome, or at points along the way, to 
guide the blazers]. 

It is related that William Hauer built the first hewed log- 
house in Walnut, in 1807, and made in it a puncheon floor, 
leveling them off with a foot-adz. 

The first hand-mill used in the township is credited to Mr. 
Crawford. The first crop of wheat that promised well was 
greatly damaged by squirrels. A Mr. Holmes has the credit 
of building the first brick house within the township — prob- 
ably about the year 1812. 


It is believed that this township was so named because of 
the richness and fertility of its soil. Richland was cut down 
in 1817 by striking off two tiers of sections from its eastern 
side to be attached to Perry County, thus reducing its dimen- 
sions to four sections wide by six in length, which is its pres- 
ent area. 


East and West Rushville, one mile apart, and on opposite 
sides of Rush Creek, are situated in the southern third of the 
township. Both these villages have churches and Sabbath- 
Schools, and their citizens are characterized for temperance 
and good morals. It is understood that a man by the name of 
Teal first owned the land upon which West town is built, and 
a Mr. Turner that where the East town is. 

Among the first settlers, the names below are presented : 
William Wiseman, Theo. Turner, Stephenson and Ijams' 
families. Judge William McClung was also an early-comer. 
Judge McClung was a prominent public man, and died in 
West Rushville in 1876, at a very advanced age, Abram Geil, 
James Rowland, and Jesse Rowles, are likewise mentioned 
as among the pioneers in the township. Mordecai Stevens 
was an early settler and leading farmer ; he lived and died on 
the land first entered by his father. William Coulson is 
remembered as a leading man of Rushville, both in trade and 
as an active and devoted Methodist. Patrick Owens is said to 
have sold the first goods in Richland; and Moses Plummerthe 
proprietor of the first mills on Rush Creek, between the two 
villages, in the year 1802, or about that time. 

These villages, as well as Richland Township, shared with 
all other parts of the county in the early organization of relig- 
ious societies and churches ; but their first meetings were held 
in the log-cabins of the settlers. Rev. Clymer and James 
Quinnwere pioneer Methodist preachers in Richland. 

The first marriage in the township was between Edward 
Murphy and Sarah Murphy, in 1802. The ceremony was per- 
formed by William Trimble. 

Dr. Nathaniel Waite was a physician in West Bushville at 
an early day ; and Dr. Ide of East Rushville. The first Post- 
master's name is given as Marquette. One Harper, is named 
as the first blacksmith. 

In former years vast quantities of tobacco were packed and 
shipped from both the Rushvilles. It was a staple product of 
that end of the county. The leading men in the tobacco trade 
were the Ijams', Coulson and Vansant. 


Rush Creek lies south of Richland, and borders on the ea^t 
of Berne and Pleasant Townships. Settlements began in this 


township in 1799. It is a six-section township ; Bremen is its 
village, and is situated about the middle of the township. 
Rush Creek and Raccoon are the principal streams that pass- 
through it. The Cincinnati and Zanesville Railroad cuts it 
in the center. Nearly all the surface of Rush Creek is arable 
and fertile. The name derives from Rush Creek, its principal 

The survey of this township, and of that part of the county, 
was made by Elenathan Schofield, an early citizen of Lancas 
ter, soon after the first settlement of the county. 

The names of the men who first entered land within the 
bounds of Rush Creek Township, mostly along Rush Creek ? 
here follow : John Laremore, William Thompson, John Carr, 
David Martin, William Martin, John Cone, James Young, 
Charles McClung, Henry Sellers, John Patton, William Mc- 
Ginnis, John Willis, Abraham Geil, and others. 

The township was organized in 1804 ; and its first election 
was at the house of a Mr. Hammels, soon after. 

In 1810, Samuel Hammel built the first mill, I believe, on 
Rush Creek ; and a little later Mr. Leib built a saw and grist 
mill, also on Rush Creek ; the same, I believe, is at present 
owned by the Shaw family. Casper Hufford also built a grist 
mill on Raccoon very early in the settlements ; this mill, I am 
told, has entirely disappeared. 

The settlmements began along the creeks in 1800, but the 
eastern portion of the township was settled latter. Many of 
the first-comers settled down on the squatter plan, and after- 
wards, when the land came into market, bought their places 
at two dollars an acre. It is said that no competition was 
gone into in the purchases, which was the result of a mutual 
understanding among the squatters. 

One of the Larimores was the first Justice of the Peace, and 
Charles McClung was elected to the same office in 1804. Wm. 
McClung, a brother, I believe, of Charles, was a prominent 
citizen of the township. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, 
serving under General Sanderson, who was then Captain of a 
company from Fairfield County. Subsequently he represented 
the county in the State Legislature, and was Associate Judge 
of the Common Pleas in 1840 and 1841, or about that time. 

The Presbyterians built a hewed log meeting-house in 1807, 
and were the first religious pioneers in the township. Their 


preacher for many years was the Rev. John Wright, of Lancas- 
ter, where he settled in 1801. 

Bremen was laid out by George Beery in very early times, 
and was so named, I have been told, in honor of the city of 
Bremen, Germany. There is likewise a small village a little 
south of Bremen, called Geneva. The first woman to settle in 
the township is said to have been Phebe Larimore, who in 
1801 married William Martin. Robert Larimore is reported 
as the first man to die in the township. ' 

I could not descend into more particularity in separate town- 
ship histories, without swelling my work far beyond the plan 
contemplated. Perhaps enough has already been recorded to 
meet the demands of a county history. I would have been 
glad to have said more about the original settlers of the 
first ten years of Fairfield County, did the possibilities exist 
for acquiring correct information; but the possibilities do not 
exist. As before said, the pioneers have all passed away, and 
with them much of their history. We are, therefore, obliged 
to be content to gather up what little the records give, which, 
together with tradition, as far as it will serve, it is hoped, will 
make a satisfactory reflection of the times from 1798 to 1876, 
of Fairfield County, Ohio. 

In closing up the separate history of the townships, I must 
again beg readers to excuse little errors, should any be de- 
tected, since no pains have been spared to arrive at accuracy 
from all the sources of information available. It is believed 
the main points of history are all correct; and should small 
errors be found, they will be referable to differences of recol- 


The Fairfield County Agricultural Society was first organized 
in 1851, and held its first Fair in October of that year. John 
Reeber was President, and John S. Brazee, Secretary. The first 
Fair-ground was on the west side of Columbus street, on lands 
belonging to John Reeber, lying a little south of the Reservoir. 
The Fair was a flattering success; but, owing to the disordered 
and lost state of the papers, it has been impossible to obtain 
statistics of that, or several of the subsequent years. Never- 


theless, the society has held its -annual Fairs, viz. : in the month 
of October, for twenty-five consecutive years, and has grown 
into one of the best County Fairs in the State. 

In 1852, Mr. Reeber, as President, was vested by the Board 
with power to purchase permanent Fair-grounds, which he 
accomplished by buying a part of the farm of Thos. Wright, 
deceased., at the foot of Mount Pleasant, on its western side. 
The purchase was made from John A. Fetters, Administrator 
of Thos. Wright, and on very advantageous terms to the so- 
ciety. The first purchase was twelve or fifteen acres, perhaps 
less. Subsequently the Widner place was purchased and added 
to the west of the grounds, and two or three acres from Mrs. 
Van Pearce on the north, thus making the aggregate of twenty- 
two acres, which is the pi esent Fair-ground. 

The trotting park, amphitheaters, exibition halls, music 
stand and all other appointments of the grounds are of the 
best, and have been engineered and executed by skillful and 
competent men. From the first the citizens of Fairfield 
County have taken the matter of their Fair in hand with a 
pride and zeal, nowhere surpassed; nor has the interest at 
any time seemed to flag in the least. 

During the last six or seven years a systematic course of 
book-keeping has been kept up, from the pages of which some 
extracts are here introduced. I deem it right, however, first 
to say, that Mr. Reeber, first President, served in that capacity 
for several years, then was out, and subsequently again elected. 
I would be glad to introduce the names of the various men 
who, for the first sixteen or eighteen years, filled the principal 
offices of the society, but for the want of records at hand I am 
unable to do so. 

In 1868, which begins the regular records, John S. Brazee 
was President, and John G. Reeves, Secretary. 

In 1869, John Reeber was elected President, and John G. 
Reeves continued Secretary; John C. Weaver, Treasurer. 

In 1870, John Reeber was President; John G. Reeves, Secre- 
tary; and John C. Weaver, Treasurer. 

In 1871, B. W. Carlisle was President; John G. Reeves, Sec- 
retary; and John C. Weaver, Treasurer. 

In 1872, Andrew J. Musser was President ; John G. Reeves, 
Secretary; and William Noble, Treasurer. 


In 1873, Andrew J. Musser was President; John G.Reeves, 
Secretary ; and William Noble, Treasurer. 

In 1874, Joseph C. Kinkead was President; John G. Reeves, 
Secretary ; and William Noble, Treasurer. 

In 1875, Joseph C. Kinkead was President; William David- 
son, Secretary; and William Noble, Treasurer. 

In 1876, f. H. Busby was President ; William Davidson, 
Secretary; and S. J. Wolf, Treasurer. 

The first financial showing on the available records is the 
total cost of the erection of the two amphitheaters, in the year 
1873, which was $2,115.57. 

In 1874, the Art and Horticultural Hall was erected at a 
total cost, as shown by the report of the Building Committee, 
of $3,111.59. 

Other improvements and expenditures for the same year, 
not including premiums awarded, amounted to $927.39. 

For the year 1874, the total receipts of the Society from all 

sources was $10,369 15 

Total expenditures for the same year 10,631 15 

Showing a deficit of. $262 00 

Then due the Society from various sources $262 69 

Deduct the deficit 262 00 

Balance in Treasury 69 

This was the settlement on the 1st of December, 1874, 
which shows the financial condition at the beginning of the 
year 1875. 

The total amount paid by the Society in the items of pre- 
miums, as shown by the Treasurer's report, was $2,800.50. 

The receipts of the Society for the year 1876, from all 
sources, as furnished by the Treasurer, J. S. Wolf, was 
$6,001.31, and the expenditures for all purposes, /or the same 
year, $5,888.42, leaving a balance in favor of treasury of 

The Society is reported in a flourishing condition, and out 
of debt. 


After nearly a full year's research, I have at last, and just 
when my manuscript was nearl}' completed, succeeded in un- 
earthing a copy of General George Sanderson's pamphlet, pub. 


lished in 1851, by Thomas Wetzler, and entitled "A Brief 
History of the Early Settlement of Fairfield County." 

The pamphlet embodies the substance of a lecture delivered 
by the General in 1844, before the Lancaster Literary Society, 
but with extended additions. Extracts of his lecture have al- 
ready appeared in this work ; but, so indispensable to a com- 
plete historjr of Fairfield County are the notes of 'George San- 
derson, that I proceed here to give copious quotations from the 
pages of the book just come to hand. I give them literally 
and full, although much of their matter is a repetition, in 
part, of the same points already incorporated in this work. 

General Sanderson, as has previously been said, was identi- 
fied with Fairfield County from its very beginning until his 
death in 1871. He was, moreover, a man of careful observa- 
tion and wonderful memory, and during a large portion of 
his life a public man in offices of trust and responsibility. 
I proceed with the extracts: 

" The present generation can form no just conception of the 
wild and wilderness appearance of the country in which we 
now dwell, previous to its settlement by the white people; it 
was, in short, a country 

' Where nothing dwelt but beasts of prey, 
Or men as fierce and wild as they. ' 
" The lands watered by the sources of the Hockhocking 
river, and now comprehended within the present limits of 
the County of Fairfield, were, when discovered by some of the 
early settlers of Marietta, owned and occupied by the Wyan- 
dot tribe of Indians, and were highly prized by the occupants 
as a valuable hunting-ground, being filled by almost all kinds 
of game and animals of fur. The principal town of the nation 
stood along the margin of the prairie, between the mouth of 
Broad street and Thomas Ewing's canal-basin, and extending 
back as far as the base of the hill south of the Methodist 
Church. It is said that the town contained in 1790 about one 
hundred wigwams, and five hundred souls. It was called 
Tarhe, or in English, Cranetown, and derived its name from that 
of the principal chief of the tribe. The Chief's wigwam in 
Tarhe stood upon the bank of the prairie, near where the 
fourth lock is built on the Hocking Canal, and near where a 
beautiful spring of water flows into the Hocking river. The 
wigwams were built of the bark of trees set on poles, in the 



form of a sugar-camp, with one square open, fronting a 
fire, and about the hight of a man. The Wyandot tribe at 
that day numbered about five hundred warriors, and were a 
ferocious and savage people. They made frequent attacks on 
the white settlements along the Ohio river, killing, scalping 
and capturing tbe settlers without regard to age, sex or con- 
dition. War parties on various occasions attacked flat-boats 
descending the river, containing emigrants from the Middle 
States seeking new homes in Kentucky, by which, in many 
instances, whole families became victims to the tomahawk 
and scalping-knife. * * * * The Crane Chief 
had a white wife in his old age. She was Indian in every 
sense of the word, except her fair skin and red hair. Her 
history, as far as I have been able to learn it. is this: Tarhe, 
in one of his predatory excursions along the Ohio river, on the 
east side, near Wheeling, had taken her prisoner and brought 
her to his town on the Hocking river. She was then about 
eight years old ; and, never having been reclaimed by her 
relatives or friends, remained with the nation, and afterwards 
became the wife of her captor. * * * * * 

" On the 17th of May, 1796, Congress, with a view no doubt 
to the early settlement of their acquired possessions by the 
treaty of Greenville in 1795, passed an act granting to Ebene- 
zer Zane three tracts of land, not exceeding one mile square 
each, in consideration that he would open a road on the most 
eligible route, between Wheeling, Virginia, and Limestone 
(now Maj'sville), Kentucky. Zane performed his part of the 
contract the same year, and selected one of his tracts on the 
Hocking, where Lancaster now stands. The road was opened 
by only blazing the trees and cutting out the underbrush, 
which gave it more the appearance of an Indian path, or 
trace, than a road, and from that circumstance it took the 
name of ( Zane's Trace ' — a name it bore for many }^ears after 
the settlement of the county. * * It crossed the 

Hocking at a ripple, or ford, about three hundred yards below 
the turnpike-road, west of the present town of Lancaster, and 
was called the ' Crossing of Hocking. ' This was the first at- 
tempt to open a public highway through the interior of the 
North-western Territory. 

" In 1797, Zane's trace having opened .a communication 
between the Eastern States and Kentucky, many individuals 


from both directions wishing to better their conditions in life 
by emigrating and settling in the ' back woods,' then so-called, 
visited the Hockhocking for that purpose, and finding the 
country surpassingly fertile — abounding in springs of purest 
water, determined to make it their new home. 

" In April, 1798, Captain Joseph Hunter, a bold and enter- 
prising man, with his family, emigrated from Kentucky and 
settled on Zane's trace, upon the bank of the prairie west of 
the crossings, and about one hundred and fifty yards north- 
west of the present turnpike-road, and was called ' Hunter's 
Settlement.' Capt. Hunter cleared off the underbrush, felled 
the forest trees, and erected a cabin, at a time when he had 
not a neighbor nearer than the Muskingum and Scioto rivers. 
This was the commencement of the first settlement in the 
upper Hockhocking Valley ; and Captain Hunter is regarded 
as the founder of the flourishing and populous County of Fair- 
field. He lived to see the county densely settled and in a high 
state of improvement, and paid the debt of nature about 
20 years agd. His aged companion, Mrs. Dorotha Hunter, yet 
lives, (in 1851) enjoying the kind and affectionate attentions of 
her family, and the respect and esteem of her acquaintances. 
She was the first white woman that settled in the valley, and 
shared with her late husband all the toils, sufferings, hard- 
ships and privations incident to the formation of the new set- 
tlement, without a murmur or word of complaint. During the 
spring of the same year, Nathaniel Wilson, the elder; John 
Green, Allen Green, John and Joseph McMullen, Robert 
Cooper, Isaac Shaeffer, and a few others, reached the valley, 
erected cabins, and put in crops. 

"In 1799, Levi Moore, Abraham Bright, Major Bright, 
Ishmael Due and Jesse Spurgeon, emigrated with their families 
from Allegheny County, Maryland, and settled near where 
Lancaster now stands. Part of the company came through by 
land from Pittsburg, with their horses, and part of their horses 
and goods descended the Ohio in boats to the mouth of the 
Hockhocking. and thence ascended the latter in canoes to the 
mouth of Rush Creek. The trace from Wheeling to the Hock- 
hocking at that time was, in almost its entire length, a wil- 
derness, and did not admit the passage of wagons. The land 
party of men, on reaching the valley, went down to the mouth 
of the Hockhocking and assisted the water part}' up. They 


were ten days in ascending the river, having upset their eanoes 
several times, and damaged their goods. 

" Levi Moore settled with Jesse Spurgeon three miles below 
Lancaster. The Brights and Due also settled in the neighbor- 
hood. These pioneers are all dead except Mr. Moore. He 
resides near Winchester, in Fairfield County, blessed with all 
this world can give to make him happy. * * * 

" James Converse, in 1799, brought from Marietta, by way of 
the Ohio and Hocking rivers, nearly a canoe load of merchan- 
dise, and opened a very large and general assortment of dry goods 
and groceries, in a cabin at Hunter's Settlement. He dis- 
played his specimen goods on the corners of the cabin, and 
upon the stumps and limbs of trees before his door, dispensing 
with the use of flags altogether. He of course was a modest 

" The General Government directed the public domain to 
be surveyed. The lands were laid off in sections of one hun- 
dred and forty acres, and then subdivided into half and quar- 
ter sections. Elenathan Schofield, our late fellow-citizen, was 
engaged in the service. 

" In 1800, 1801 and 1802, emigrants continued to arrive, and 
set lements were formed in the most distant parts of the 
county. Cabin-raisings, clearings and log-rollings, were in pro- 
gress in almost every direction. The settlers lent each other 
aid in their raisings and other heavy operations requiring 
many hands. By thus mutually assisting one another, they 
were all enabled in due season to provide themselves cabins to 
live in. The log-cabin was of paramount consideration. 
After the spot was selected, logs cut and hauled, and clap- 
boards made, the erection was but the work of a day. They 
were of rude construction, but not always uncomfortable." 

Here the General introduced an extract from KendalPs Life 
of Jackson, descriptive of log-cabins, that pleases me so well, 
because so perfect a picture of those primative buildings 
throughout the entire pioneer age of the West and North-west, 
that I most gladly give it place. All who lived in the West 
fifty years ago will recognize every feature of the picture : 

from Kendall's life of jackson. 

"The log-cabin is the primitive abode of the agricultural pop- 
ulation throughout Western America. Almost the only tools 


possessed by the first settlers were axes, hatchets, knives, and 
a few augurs. They had neither saw-mills nor carpenters, 
bricks nor masons, nails nor glass. Logs notched and laid 
across each other at the ends, making a pen in the form of a 
square or parallelogram, answered the purpose of timber and 
weather-boarding, and constituted the body of the structure. 
The gable-ends were constructed of the same materials, kept 
in place by large poles, extending lengthwise the entire 
length of the building. Up and down upon these poles, lamping 
over like shingles, were laid clap boards, split out of oak logs, 
and resembling staves, which were kept in their place by other 
poles laid upon them, and confined at the gable-ends. Roofs 
of this sort, well constructed, were a sufficient protection from 
ordinary storms. The crevices between the logs, if large, wer? 
filled with small stones, chips, or bits of wood, called chink- 
ing, and plastered over with mud inside and out ; if small, the 
plastering alone was sufficient. The earth was often the only 
floor; but in general, floors were made of puncheons, or slabs 
split from logs hewed smooth, and resting on poles. The lofts, 
or attics, sometimes had puncheon floors, and rough ladders 
were the stairways. Chimneys were built of logs rudely dove- 
tailed from the outside into those constituting one end of the 
structure, which were cut to make room for a fire-place, ter- 
minating at the top with split sticks, notched into each other, 
the whole thickly plastered with mud on the inside. Stones 
laid in mud formed the jambs and back walls of the fire-places. 
The doors, made of clap boards, or thin puncheons pinned to 
cross-pieces, were hung on wooden hinges, and had wooden 
latches. Generally they had no windows; the open door and 
broad chimney admitted the light by day, and a rousing fire 
or grease-lamp was the resource by night. In the whole build- 
ing there was neither metal nor glass. Sometimes a part of 
a log was cut out for a window, with a piece of sliding pun- 
cheon to close it. As soon as the mechanic and merchant ap- 
peard, sashes of two or four lights might be seen set into gaps 
cut through the logs. Contemporaneously old barrels began to 
constitute the tops of chimneys, and joice and plank sawed by 
hand took the place of puncheons. 

"The furniture of the primitive log-cabin was but little su- 
perior to the structure. They contained little beyond pun- 
cheon benches, and stools or blocks of wood for tables and chairs ; 


a small kettle or two answering the manifold purposes of 
buckets, boilers and ovens, and a scanty supply of plates, 
knives, forks and spoons, all of which had been packed on 
horse back through the wilderness. Bedsteads they had none; 
and their bedding was a blanket or two r with bear and deer- 
skins in abundance. " 

General Sanderson resumed: 

"The early settlers were a hardy and industrious people, 
and for frankness and hospitality have not been surpassed by 
any community. The men labored on their farms, and the 
women in their cabins. Their clothing was of a simple and 
comfortable kind. The women clothed their families with 
their own hands, spinning and weaving for all their inmates 
the necessary linen and woolen clothing. At that day no 
cabins were found without their spinning-wheels, and it is the 
proud boast of the women that they could use them. As an 
evidence of their industry and saving of time, it Avas not an 
unfrequent occurrence to see a good wife sitting spinning in 
her cabin upon an earthen floor, turning her wheel with one 
foot and rocking her babe in a sugar-trough with the other. 

" The people of that day, when opportunity offered (and 
that was not often), attended to public worship; and it was 
nothing new nor strange to see a man at church with his rifle 
— his object was to kill a buck either going or coming. " 


" William Green, an emigrant, soon after his arrival sick- 
ened and died, in May 1798, and was buried in a hickory-bark 
coffin on the west bank of Fetters' Run, a few rods north of the 
old Zanesville road, east of Lancaster. This was the first death 
and burial of a settler on the Hockhocking. Col. Robert Wilson, 
of Hocking Township, was present and assisted at the funeral. 
The deceased had left his family near Wheeling, and came on 
to build a cabin and raise a crop. " 


" In 1800, for the first time in the Hockhocking settlement, 
the settlers — men, women and children — assembled on the 
knoll in the prairie in front of the present toll-house [the toll- 
house has since been removed farther west. — Ed.] on the pike 


west of Lancaster, and celebrated the Anniversary of Ameri- 
can Independence. They appointed no President, or other 
officers of the day — no orations delivered or toasts drank. 
They manifested their joy by shouting, and " hurrah for 
America," firing off their rifles, shooting at targets, and dis- 
cussing a public dinner. It may not be improper to say, 
that their repast was served up in magnificent style. Although 
they had neither tables, benches, dishes, plates or forks, every 
substantia] in the way of a feast was amply provided, such as 
baked pone, johnny-cake, roasted bear's meat, jerked turkey, 
etc. The assemblage dispersed at a timely hour in the after- 
noon, and returned to their cabins, full of patriotism and 
love of country. It was my fortune to be present on that in- 
teresting occasion." 

Here General Sanderson spoke of several townships that 
were originally in Fairfield County at its first organization, and 
when it embraced considerable portions of present adjoining 
counties. These townships have not before been mentioned 
in this volume, and I here allude to them in the General's 
own language : 

"Reading Township was named by Peter Buermyre, a pio- 
neer settler from Reading, Pennsylvania. He also laid out 
the town of New Reading, in that township. Somerset, the 
present seat of justice of Perry County, is situated in this 

" Pike. — This township was named in honor of General Pike, 
who gallantly fell in defense of his country, at Toronto, Canada, 
in the war of 1812. 

" Jackson — Named in honor of General Andrew Jackson. 

" Saltcreek Township formerly belonged to Fairfield, but now 
forms part of Pickaway County. It was named Saltcreek from 
a stream watering its territory. Tarlton, a flourishing vil- 
lage, is in this township. 

" Falls Township, now in Hocking County, was named from 
the great falls of the Hockhocking river. 

" Perry Township, now in Hocking County, was so called in 
honor of Oliver H. Perry, the hero of Lake Erie in 1813. 
This township was originally a part of Hocking Township." 

An Incident. — " At the June term of 1802 (Court of General 
Quarter Sessions) — Emanuel Carpenter, Sr., Nathaniel Wilson 
and Amasa Delano, Justices, on the Bench — the Court ordered 


the Sheriff to take Alexander White. Attorney-at-Law, into 
custody, and commit him to prison for one hour, for striking 
Robert F. Slaughter, also an Attorney-at-Law, in presence of 
their Honors, when in session. I note this circumstance to 
show that the Court, at that early period, did not suffer an in- 
dignity to pass unpunished. 


"The first popular election held in the county of Fairfield, 
was for two members of the Convention to form the Constitu- 
tion of the State of Ohio. It took j lace on the 12th of Octo- 
ber, 1802, and the following was the result of the poll : 

Emanuel Carpenter 228 votes 

Henry Abrams 18i " 

Robert F. Slaughter 168 " 

Philemon Beecher 144 " 

William Trimble 124 " 

Samuel Carpenter 15 " 

Samuel Kralzer 4 " 

Ebenezer Larimer 1 " 

Brice Sterrit 1 " 

Hugh Boyle 1 " 

" The two first were elected. 

"The members of the Convention assembled at Chillicothe 
on the first day of November, 1802, and organized by electing 
Dr. Edward Tiffin, President, and Thomas Scott, Secretary ; 
and after framing the first Constitution of the State of Ohio, 
adjourned on the 29th of the same month. The Constitution 
was not submitted to the people, but to Congress for approval; 
and on the 1st day of March, 1803, the State of Ohio was ad- 
mitted into the Union as a Sovereign State." 

Greneral Sanderson made brief reference to the ancient 
mounds and fortifications found in Fairfield County, in com- 
mon with all parts of the West and North-west sections of the 
North American Continent. Nothing can be known concern- 
ing these relics of an extinct people, except the fact that they 
are. Mere mention of the principal monuments of this kind 
within the limits of the county will be all, as I think, that 
modern history requires. 

The most important of these is that above the rock-mill, 
seven miles from Lancaster, on the Lithopolis road. Another 
embankment, inclosing some ten or twelve acres, near Bauher 
Church. There are others in Berne Township, near Ream's 


Mill. But as verbal descriptions without diagrams would fall 
short of satisfaction, and as the mounds constitute no part of 
the history of the county, the notice of them closes here. 

war of 1812. 

I am able here to transcribe, from Sanderson's pamphlet, 
the organizations of two companies commanded by him in the 
war with England, in 1812 and 1813. 

His first company enlisted in Fairfield County in 1812, to 
serve one year. The following shows the organization : 

Captain, George Sanderson ; Lieutenant, David McCabe ; 
Ensign, Isaac Larimar ; Sergeants, John Vanmeter, John 
Smith, James Larimar and Isaac Winter; Corporals, James 
White, Daniel Hudson, Robert Cunningham and William 
Wallace; Privates, George Baker, William Brubeck, Daniel 
Baker, Robert Cunningham, John Dugan, John Davis, Wil- 
liam Edmonds, Reese Fitzpatrick, John Hiles, Christopher 
Hiles, Thomas Hardy, Philip Hines, Archibald Darnell, Wil- 
liam Jenkenson, William Jenkens, Samuel Johnson, Isaac 
Finkbone, John Kerley, Joseph Loffland, John Collins, Chas. 
Martin, John Mclntire, Jacob Monteith, Jonas Monteith, 
Jacob Mellon, Daniel Miller, William McDonald, William 
McClung, Henry Martin, William Nelson, Joseph Oburn, Cor- 
nelius Post, William Ray, John Swiler, Daniel Smith, Jacob 
Sharp, Thomas Short, Samuel Work, Joseph Whetson, Henry 
Shoupe, John Huffman and Samuel Nolan — 42. 

This company, with all its officers, on the 16th day of Au- 
gust, 1812, was captured by the British in command of Gen- 
eral Brock, or rather surrendered by General Hull, and were 
paroled not to enter the service until regularly exchanged. 
The exchange did not take place until May, 1814. In the 
meanwhile, many of the privates and officers re-enlisted on 
account of the perfidy of General Hull in surrendering them 
when there seemed, according to the best judgment of the 
Americans, no occasion for it. Under this belief the men dis- 
regarded the parole. General Sanderson was one of the mem- 
bers who re-enlisted before the exchange, and in April, 1813, 
he mustered another company from the counties of Franklin, 
Delaware, Fairfield, and from portions of the Western Reserve. 
The following is its constitution: 


Captain, Geo. Sanderson; 1st Lieutenant ; Quartermaster, 

Abner P. Risney ; 2d Lieutenants, Arora Butler, Andrew 
Bushnell, John H. Mifford, Abraham Fisk; 3d Lieutenant, 
Ira Morse ; Ensign, William Hall. Sergeants: 1st, John Van- 
meter; 2d, Chaney Case; 3d, Robert Sanderson; 4th, John 
Neibling ; 5th, Luther Edson. Corporals: 1st, John Duganj 
2d, John Collings ; 3d, Peter Carey ; 4th, Smith Headly ; 5th, 
Daniel T. Bartholomew. 

Musicians : John C. Sharp, drummer; Adam Leeds, fifer. 

Privates: William Anderson, Joseph Anderson, John At- 
kins, Joseph Alloways, Thomas Boyl, John Bartholomew, 
John Berryman, Henry Bixler, Abraham Bartholomew, Sam- 
uel Bartholomew, James Braden, Sheldon Beebee, James 
Brown, John Beaty, Eli Brady, Charles Burdinoo, John Bat- 
tiese, Daniel Baker, John Busley, Thos. Billings, Daniel 
Benjamin, Henry Case, Archibald Cassy, Joseph Clay, Holden 
R. Collins, Blades Cremens, Chester P. Cabe, Nathan Case, 
Chaney Clark, Almon Carlton, Stephen Cook, David Crosby, 
Jesse Davis, Asa Draper, Walter Dunham, George Daugherty, 
Enos Devore, Benjamin Daily, John Evans, Joseph Ellinger, 
Peter Fulk, John Forsythe, Daniel Filkall, John Faid, 
Ephraim Grimes, Wm. L. Gates, Elenathan Gregory, Joseph 
Gibson, Samuel Gause, John Hunt, James Hagerty, Josiah 
Hinkley, John Hall, Frederick Hartman, David Hughs, Per- 
lin Holcomb, John Harter, Jacob Headly, John Harberson, 
John leas, Ambrose Joice, James Jones, John Johnson, 
James Jackson, John L. Johnson, John Kisler, James 
Kincaid, George Kyssinger, Jonathan Kittsmiller, Samuel 
Kinisman, Joseph Larimon, Frederick Leathers, Henry 
Lief, Amos Leonard, Merinas W. Leonard, William Lanth%r, 
John McClung, Peter Miller, Morris McGarvy, Joseph Mc- 
Cluhg, John McElwayne, Francis McCloud, Hosea Merrill, 
John McCarkey, Joshna Mullen, James Moore, Thomas Mapes, 
John McBride, Wm. M. Clair, Henry Mains, Andrew Miller, 
JohnMcConnell, Alexander McCord, William Harper, Isacher 
Nickerson, George Osborn-, Geo. Parks, Samuel Pratt, Powel 
Pain, Benjamin Burkhart, Luther Palmer, Arzell Pierce, 
John Ray, David Ridenour, William Reed, Geo. Raphy, Elijah 
Rogers, Asa Rose, Joseph Straller, Henry Shadley, Christian 
B. Smith, Perry Spry, John Sunderland, Christian Shypower, 
David Severs, John Severs, Henry Skolls, Ephraim Sum- 


mers, Henry C. Strait, Jonathan Sordan, Jacob Shoup, Chas. 
Smith, Mynder Shears, Adam Senor, John Smith, T. Sharp, 
S. Sheanar, G. Shadwick, S. Taylor, J. Trovinger, F. Tesler, 
B. Thorp, F. Tucker, I. Thorp, J. Twadle, P. Vancleaf, I. Yan- 
ney, A. Walker, A. White, I. Weaver, I. Wheeler, T. Wheatly, 
D. Walters, J. Wright, J. Welshaus, C. Wolffly, F. Williams, 
W. Wallace, A. Wilson, W. Watson, J. Young. H. Zimerman, 
D. Zeigler, D. Woodworth, S. Tyler, G. Tennis, L. Vanney, J. 
Wilson — 157. 


Here follows a list of all the members of the General Assem- 
bly of Ohio, from 1808 to 1876, inclusive, who were citizens of 
Fairfield County. The date shows the year of their election : 


1808— Patrick Owings and Elijah B. Merwin. 
1809 — Thomas Swearingen and Thomas Ijams. 
1810 — Thomas Swearingen and Thomas Ijams. 
1811 — Thomas Ijams and Richard Hooker. 
1812— Richard Hooker, Nathaniel Wilson, Sr., and George 
Nye, Sr. 
1813 — Emanuel Carpenter, John Leist and Benj. Smith. 
1814 — Benj. Smith, Richard Hooker and John Leist. 
1815 — Benj. Smith, Richard Hooker and John Leist. 
1816 — John Leist, Jacob Claypool and Jacob Catherlin. 
1817— Daniel Smith, Robert F. Slaughter and John Leist. 
1818 — Daniel Smith, John Leist and Jacob Claypool. 
1819— Robert F. Slaughter and John Leist. 
1820— Wm. Trimble and Valentine Reber. 
1821— Robert F. Slaughter and George Sanderson. 
1822— Geo. Sanderson and Jacob Claypool. 
1823 — Geo. Sanderson and Robert F. Slaughter. 
1824— John Leist and Robert F. Slaughter. 
1S25 — Geo. Sanderson and Wm. W. Irvin. 
1826— Wm. W. Irvin and Samuel Spangler. 
1827— Wm. W. Irvin and Samuel Spangler. 
1828— Samuel Spangler and John Chaney. 
1829— John Chaney and David Ewing. 
1830 — David Ewing and John Chaney. 
1831 — David Ewing and Samuel Spangler. 


1832— David Ewing and M. Z. Kreider. 

1833— Jos. Stukey and John M. Creed. 

1834— Joseph Stukey and J. M. Creed. 

1835— Wm. Medill and John M. Creed. 

1836— Wm. Medill and John Grabill. 

1837— Wm. Medill and John Grabill. 

1838— John Brough. 

1839— Lewis Hite. 

1840-Charles Brough. 

1841— William McClung. 

1842— John Chaney and Wm. McClung. 

1843— Jacob Green and Jos. Sharp. 

1844— David H. Swart? and Andrew Foust. 

1845 — Andrew Foust and David H. Swartz. 

1846 — Salmon Shaw and David Lyle. 

1847 — David Lyle and Salmon Shaw. 

1848— Daniel Keller. 

1849— Daniel Keller. 

1850 — Christian Baker. 

Here the rule changes by the new Constitution, under 
which the Legislature is elected every two years, the first 
General Assembly under it being chosen in 1852, and there- 
after every other year. The following dates refer to the meet- 
ing of the Legislature, instead of, as previously, the year of 
choosing its members. 

1852 — Christian Baker. 

1854 — Samuel H. Porter. 

1856— John Chaney and David Lyle. 

1858— B. W. Carlisle and T. W. Bigony. 

1860— B. W. Carlisle. 

1862— J. C. Jefries. 

1864— Edson B. Olds. 

1866— U. C. Butler. 

1868— U. C. Butler. 

1870— Geo. S. Baker and Jesse Leohner. 

1872— Jtsse Leohner. 

1874— George S. Baker. 

1876— Adam Seifert. 

It will be observed that in the early Legislatures of the State, 
there were two or more members of the House of Represent- 
atives from Fairfield each year, notwithstanding the popula- 


tion was comparatively sparse; but it is to be remembered, 
that at first the county was more than four times its present 
area. The first contraction of its borders was by the formation 
of Licking County, in 1808, which fixed our northern border 
on its present line ; then by the creation of Perry County, in 
1817, fixing mainly our eastern boundary. Both Newark and 
Somerset were originally in Fairfield County. Considerable 
territory was also taken from the original Fairfield County, as 
established by proclamation of Governor St. Clair, on the 9th 
of December, 1800, by the formation of Pickaway and Hocking 
counties. In the Senate of Ohio, the names of actual residents 
of Fairfield County are here inserted, beginning also in 1808, 
and coming up to 1876. The county has much of the time 
been represented in the Senate by men from other counties 
forming the Senatorial District ; and as the districting has fre- 
quently been changed, Fairfield has only had her proportion 


1808— Elenathan Schofield. 

1809 — Jacob Burton and Elenathan Schofield. 

1810— Wm. Trimble and Robert F. Slaughter. 

1811— Robert F. Slaughter and Wm. Trimble. 

1812— William Trimble. 

1813— William Trimble. 

1814— William Trimble. 

1815— William Trimble. 

1816— William Trimble. 

1817— William Trimble. 

1818— Richard Hooker. 

1819— Richard Hooker. 

1820— Elenathan Schofield. 

1821— Elenathan Schofield. 

1822— Elenathan Schofield. 

1823— John Creed. 

1824— Jacob Claypool. 

1825— Jacob Claypool. 

1826— Robert F. Slaughter. 

1827— Robert F. Slaughter. 

1828— Robert F. Slaughter. 

1829— Robert F. Slaughter. 

1830— Robert F. Slaughter. 


1831— Robert F. Slaughter. 

1832— Samuel Spangler. 

1833— Samuel Spangler. 

1831— Samuel Spangler. 

1835 — Samuel Spangler. 

1836— Samuel Spangler. 

1837 — Samuel Spangler. 

1838— Samuel Spangler. 

1839— Samuel Spangler. 

1840— Samuel Spangler. 

1841— Samuel Spangler. 

1844— John Chaney. - 
• 1845— John Chaney. 

1848— Henry C. Whitman. 

1849— Henry C. Whitman. 

1850— Andrew Foust. 

1856— John T. Brazee. 

1858— Newton Scleich. 

I860— Newton Scleich. 

1862— Alfred McVeigh. 

1864— John M. Connel. 

1870— Michael A. Daugherty. 

1872— Michael A. Daugherty. 

In 1842 and 1843, Nelson Franklin, of Pickaway, repre- 
sented the District of Fairfield and Pickaway in the Senate. 

In 1846 and 1847, the Senator from Fairfield and Pickaway 
was Edson B. Olds, of Pickaway. 

After the adoption of the new Constitution, in 1851, Fair- 
field was associated with Hocking and Athens, and Lot. L. 
Smith, of Athens, was chosen Senator in the two terms of 1852 
and 1854. 

In 1866 and 1868, Wm. R. Golden, of Athens, was Senator 
from the same district. 

In the General Assembly of 1874 and 1876, Robert E. Reece, 
of Hocking, was Senator for the District of Fairfield, Hocking 
and Athens. 


Sixteen years have been registered on Time's scroll since the 
patriotism of this great nation was aroused by the lightning's 
flash, anouncing that Fort Sumpter had been fired upon by 


the Confederate guns. It is difficult, at this somewhat distant 
period, to chronicle with specific minuteness the full extent 
of the part Fairfield County took in the four years' war that 
followed. Her soldiers were so widely distributed, and so 
variously; her officers passed through so many promotions; so 
many were consigned to southern graves from the fields of 
carnage; the hospitals and southern prisons; that nothing 
short of a thorough canvass of the rolls could show it all. It 
is a work of altogether too great a magnitude for our plan. 
While I record the names and ranks of the officers, to the ex- 
tent that existing facilities allow, I would be glad to register 
the names of every volunteer from the county, because every 
one that went out deserves equal mention. This will not be 
compatible with a three-hundred page county history. It may 
be that some omissions may occur of names even of officers. 
Should this be found to be so, the only apology the author 
can offer is, that he has accomplished all that his possibilities 
have permitted. To Colonel J. M. Connel, Capt. Geo. Blaire, 
Capt. J. M. Sutphen, Gen. N. Schleich and others; and to 
" Ohio in the War," by Reid, I am indebted for valuable aid 
in the war record of Fairfield County. 

During the progress of the war, according to the best estimates 
attainable from available data, there were in the field from 
this county, including drafted men and hundred-day men, 
about the aggregate of three thousand soldiers. Two drafts 
were made for small numbers, but the drafted men, with few 
exceptions, it is believed, subsequently volunteered into the 
regular volunteer service. And moreover, the townships acted 
with a surprising promptness in filling their respective quotas 
by a liberal system of hiring recruits by voluntary contri- 
butions of money. Large sums were contributed for this pur- 
pose. At one time, viz. : in August, 1862, the county had sent 
out two hundred men in excess of her quota. 

Within twenty-four hours after the President's call for 
75,000 volunteers, on the 15th of April, 1861, one company from 
Lancaster was on its way to the seat of war, commanded by 
Captain J. A. Stafford. Seventeen days afterwards, viz.: on 
the 2nd day of May, two other companies were organized under 
Captains J. W. Stinchomb and Henry H. Giesy. On the 23d 
two other companies were accepted — Captains C. D. Clark and 


Michaels. As early as the 20th of September of the same 
season, there were eight full companies in the field from the 
county, all for three years' service. In all, Fairfield had in 
the war, including two full companies of cavalry, seventeen 
companies, not including volunteers who were sent to regi- 
ments beyond the county, and drafted men. 

It is proper here to remark, that the citizens of this county, 
from the inception to the close of the war, contributed freely 
and liberally, clothing, provisions, medicines and other re- 
quirements for the sanitary supplies. At once, it may be 
said, that it is probably not presuming too much to say, that 
perhaps no county in Ohio presents a fairer war record than 

Following are the assignments of Fairfield companies, as far 
as ascertainable : 


Company A — Captain, J. A. Stafford ; 1st Lieutenant, Thos. 
M. Hunter; 2nd Lieutenant, Ezra Rickets; 101 strong. This 
company was assigned to the 1st O. V. I., Colonel Alex. M. 
McCook. After the mustering out in August the company 
was reorganized for the three years' service; Stafford, Captain ; 
E. T. Hooker, 1st Lieutenant; J. M. Wiley, 2nd Lieutenant. 
In February, 1862, Stafford was promoted to the rank of Major, 
and First Lieutenant Hooker to the captaincy ; H. Fullerton, 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Lancaster, Chaplain. 
Benj. F. Smith went out as Colonel of the regiment. . 

The 17th 0. V. I. was organized at Camp Anderson, on the 
Fairfield Fair-grounds. The county furnished two companies 
to this regiment. Captains, H. H. Giesy and J. W. Stin- 
chomb; 1st Lieutenants, A. Ogden, John Wiseman ; 2nd Lieu- 
tenants, Leo Noles, J. C. Watson. This regiment reorganized 
for the three years' service in August, 1861, with J. M. Connell 
for its Colonel. To this three years' regiment Fairfield fur- 
nished five companies; Captains, B. F. Butterfield, J. W. 
Stinchomb, Ezra Rickets, A. Ogden, Daniel M. Rea; 1st Lieu- 
tenants, Benjamin Showers, A. P. Ashbrook, Irwin Linn, Wm. 
Cook, 0. W. Brown; 2nd Lieutenants, Henry Arney, Daniel 
Sullivan, Seth Collins, 0. B. Brandt, Theodore Michaels ; Chap- 
lain, A. F. Fullerton. 


Thirtieth 0. V. I.— Three years' service; Hugh Boyl Ewing, 
of Lancaster, was appointed Colonel of this regiment. No 
Fairfield company. 

Forty-Sixth 0. V. I. — One company from Fairfield. Cap- 
tain, H. H. Giesy ; 1st Lieutenant, Emanuel Giesy ; 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Charles H. Rice. 

Sixty-First 0. V. I. — This regiment first formed at Lancas- 
ter, and used the starch factory building for a barracks. It 
contained one Fairfield company. Captain, Daniel Schleich ; 
1st Lieutenant, George J. Wygnm ; 2d Lieutenant, Edward 
Hay. Newton Schleich, of Lancaster, was its first Colonel. 
The regiment was subsequently, in April, 1862, re-organized 
at Camp Chase, when Colonel Schleich was, I believe, as- 
signed to another regiment, and was subsequently promoted 
to the rank of Brigadier General. 

Sixty-Second 0. V. I. — In this regiment, Clemens F. Steel, 
of Lancaster, served as Major and Lieutenant-Colonel. No 
Fairfield company. 

Ninetieth 0. V. I. — Two Fairfield companies entered the 
Ninetieth. Captains, Alvah Perry, R. Carpenter; 1st Lieu- 
tenants, J. M. Suphen, A. Keller; 2d Lieutenants, George W. 
Welch, Samuel Widner. 

(As a general thing, the officering of the companies at first 
going out is only given. Subsequent promotions are difficult 
to follow). 

One Hundred and Twenty-Third 0. V. L— To this regiment 
Henry B. Hunter, of Lancaster, was assigned as Lieutenant- 
Colonel. No company from the county. 

Fifty-Eighth 0. V. I.— One company. Captain, Ezra Jack- 
son ; 1st Lieutenant, Wilford Stires ; 2d Lieutenant, Win. H. 

One Hundred and Fourteenth 0. V. I. — Colonel, John Cra- 
dlebaugh. One company. Captain, Isaac Butterfield ; 1st 
Lieutenant, Joseph Bury. 

One Hundred and Seventy-Eighth 0. V. L— Colonel, J. A. 
Stafford. One company from Fairfield. Captain, Charles 
Cravinor; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick McGrew ; 2d Lieutenant, 
John Sears, of Lancaster. 


There were two companies of cavalry from Fairfield in the 
service. The first went into the first regiment of Ohio Cav- 
alry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Valentine Cupp, of 
Walnut Township. Of this company, Lafayette Pickering was 
Captain; Peter B. Cool, 1st Lieutenant; Joseph Pierce, 2nd 

The second company served in the 11th Regiment of Ohio 
Cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel W. 0. Collins. 
Its Captain was John Van Pearce, of Lancaster; 1st Lieuten- 
ant, Thomas P. Clark ; 2d Lieutenant, John Reeves. 

The foregoing is a condensed history of Fairfield County in 
the Southern Rebellion, which began in April, 1861, 'and 
terminated with the surrender of General Lee in the spring 
of 1865, and is as complete, perhaps, as a mere county history 
demands. As remarked in the outset, omissions may have 
occurred that should have found mention. Such omissions, if 
any, have not been intentional, but rather from the inability 
of the compiler to trace the diffusion of all of Fairfield's men. 
Errors may also have crept in, but for which the author is not 
responsible, since he has followed carefully the records and 
personal statements of parties interviewed. In the main, 
however, the record of Fairfield in the rebellion will be found' 
correct. It is to be borne in mind that a history of the war 
has not been intended, but only Fairfield County in it. There 
were many deaths, and promotions, and resignations, continu- 
ally occurring, which would be quite too voluminous for the 
author to collect. All this belongs rather to the history of the 
rebellion, and can be found in the rosters of "Ohio in the 
War, " by Reid, to which please refer— the war of 1861-1865. 


Among those promoted and serving as Captains and Lieu- 
tenants at different times, I notice the following names, ad- 
ditional to those already mentioned, which were personally 
known to me. 

Captains, Gilruth Webb, Willis G. Clark, Emanuel Rich- 
ards, Daniel Sheets, Thomas R. Thatcher, James F. Weakley, 
Geo. E Blaire, John B. Eversole. 


First Lieutenants, A. J. Davis, Caleb B. Sharp, Levi Corn- 
wall, Jacob M. Ruffner, George Rainey, James Outcault, Allen 
Tittler. • 

Second Lieutenants, Theodore Michaels, Wra. H. Pugh, Levi 
Cornwall, Lyman W. Barnes, James Strode, John Matlock, 0. 
E. Davis. 


I can find room but for a single incident among thousands 
in which Fairfield men distinguished themselves: 

Colonel Connell, in command of the Seventeenth Regiment, 
was ordered to defend a ford on the Cumberland river, at a 
place known as Mill Springs. When some two or three miles 
from the rebel position, he took with him ten men, in addi- 
tion to Captain Ezra Rickets and Lieutenant Sifer, and ad- 
vanced on a reconnoitering expedition. He stationed his men 
as pickets, who, becoming alarmed, fled back to camp. The 
Colonel advanced alone to an eminence in front of the enemy's 
camp, where, at a bend in the road, he suddenly encountered 
a band of mounted rebels, not exceeding thirty yards off. 
They suddenly dashed toward him, unslung their carbines, 
and shouted the challenge. The Colonel put spurs to his horse, 
and fled under the harmless fire of his pursuers ; but unfortu- 
nately, the animal stumbled and fell, leaving his rider stunned 
upon the road. In this perilous dilemma, Captain Rickets, 
being attracted by the firing and the challenge, dashed up, 
and dismounting, assisted the Colonel on his horse, and in- 
stantly turning, discharged his revolvers at the advancing 
enemy, dashed on foot into the thick woods, and both reached 
the camp in safety. 


During the progress of the war of 1861-1865, there were two 
full bands from Fairfield County in the field. The members 
of the 17th Regiment Band — the second one here mentioned — 
were, I believe, entirely citizens of this county. In the 
Brigade Band — the first in order — there are a few names from 
other counties. The following letter from Capt. Wolfe, has 
been kindly furnished me by him, and is complete : 

Dr. H. Scott — Dear Sir: At your request I herewith transmit to 
you the history of our regimental band, which was in the service 


of the 61st O. V. L, Colonel Schleich, at their quarters in Lancaster, 
during the summer and fall of 1861. 

Names of Members.— E. W. Wolfe.. lea<fcr ; E. E. Pierson, O. B. Shoe- 
maker, R. B. Alexander, T. M. Summers, C. C. Norton, J. S. Norton, J. 
J. Anderson, Geo. Marsh, John Gardner, John Bussart, Isaac Newhor- 
ter, Samuel Ney, John A. Mayes, T. Shaw, T. E. Williams, Otis Criger, 
S. Hockey, John White, H. Huff, L. Huff, I. N. Wolfe, E. Himrod, E. 
Hulbert, George Cromley, George Lutz, John Clinger. 

The band was mustered out in May, 1862, by order of the War De- 
partment, immediately after which it was mustered into Gen. Hugh 
Ewing's Brigade, as Brigade Band. During the operations about Vicks- 
burg, Miss., the band became disabled by death and sickness, and was 
again discharged by special order from the War Department, in May, 
1863. After this the band was reorganized as Post Band at Camp Chase, 
where it remained till the close of the war, and was finally mustered out 
on the 4th of February, 1865. 

Very truly, E. W. WOLFE. 


The members of this band were entirely, or nearly so, from 
about Lancaster. They were attached to the 17th 0. V. I., and 
served in the Army of the Tennessee. For information con- 
cerning this band, I am indebted to Robert Gates, of Lancas- 
ter. The following are the names of the members: 

George Blaire, leader ; David Stalter, second leader; James 
Home, Robert Gates, Anthony Steck, Michael Steck, Jacob 
Lehman, William Lehman, Louis Geiss, William Getz, Wm. 
Stalter, Mr. Taylor, George Gage, Thomas Pugh, Mr. Beall, 
Noble Gates, Newton Pierce (fifer), Mr. Card (drummer). 

The band was mustered out at Nashville, on the 9th of Sep- 
tember, 1862, after a service of nearly one year. 

Robert Gates re-enlisted in the Second Heavy Artillery, on 
the 8th of August, 1862, and served till August 7th, 1865, and 
was mustered out at Columbus, Ohio, August 27th, 1865. 

George Blaire was, subsequent to the mustering out of the 
band, commissioned as Lieutenant, and was taken prisoner and 
held in Libby prison at Richmond, Va., during most of a year. 

There were three deaths of members of this band during 
their term of service, viz. : Jacob Lehman died on the 19th* of 
December, 1861 ; Thomas Pugh died on the 8th of January, 
1862, and Mr. Beall died on the 3d of February, 1862. 

There were likewise two deaths in Mr. Wolfe's band, during 
their term of service, viz. : H. Huff and J. Huff, both dying 
in the month of April, 1863. 



This society was organized in Lancaster on the 18th of Feb- 
ruary, 1865. Its object, as set forth in its preamble, was the 
general promotion of the floral and horticultural interests, or 
an improved system of gardening. The call for the initial 
meeting, which took place on the 26th day of January, 1865, 
was signed by the following names : 

John A. Fetters, F. J. Boving, Charles Dunbar, John C. 
Boving, J. C. Kinkead, Ambrose Bender, John D. Martin, John 
Gravit, H. V. Weakley, John S. Snyder, S. A. Griswold and 
John Clark. 

Of these, three have since deceased, viz. : Charles Dunbar, 
John C. Boving and H. V. Weakley. 

Officers of the Society. — The officers of the first permanent 
organization of the society were, Joseph C. Kinkead, Presi- 
dent; R. J. Black and F. J. Boving, Vice-Presidents; J. D. 
Martin, Treasurer ; J. C. Weaver, Librarian ; J. C. McCracken, 
Recording Secretary; J. A. Fetters, Corresponding Secretary. 

The above officers were all living in March, 1877, except J. 
C. Weaver, Librarian, who died in February, ultimo; and John 
C. McCracken, Recording Secretary, who died a few months 
since in the West. 

On the first day of November, 1865, the membership of the 
society was fifty-four in number, and the following are the 
names : 

M. A. Daugherty, H. V. Weakley, John C. McCracken, Jas. 
Scott, John Gravit, Thos. H. White, P. B. Ewing, John A. 
Fetters, Robert J. Black, S. A. Griswold, J. D. Martin, Robert 
Work, R. J. Peters, C. Pairan, C. Spielman, Thos M. Young, 
Emanuel Fetters, B. F. Reindmond, Martin Landis, D. Tal- 
madge, J. W. Lewis, T. 0. Edwards, Robert Black, C. M. L. 
Wiseman, Daniel Ward, T. Brumfield, M. Effinger, J. C. 
Kinkead, Henry Borchers, C. F. Garaghtz, F. J. Boving, John 
C. Rainey, John S. Snyder, J. D. Clark, David Stalter, John 
Rhodes, J. C. Weaver, A. Dennis, E. E. Meason, J. R. Mu- 
maugh, Kinnis Fritter, Samuel Barr, Salem Wolfe, John Artz, 
L. H. Olds, J. T. Busby, R. H. Hooker, George Hoffman, C. F. 
Shaeffer, Daniel Ream, JacobMayer, G. A. Mithoff, John B. 
McNeal and William Van Hide. 


Ten of this number have deceased previous to the first of 
March, 1877, as follows : H. V. Weakley, John C. McCracken, 
Emanuel Fetters, T. 0. Edwards* Henry Borchers, John C. 
Rainey, J. C. Weaver, E. E. Meason, Salem Wolfe and Daniel 

The society holds bi-monthly meetings in Lancaster, viz. : 
on the second and fourth Saturday's of each month. It pays 
premiums on best samples of products, which premiums are 
awarded by special committees. Fruit-growing is a special 
feature of attention by the society. The meetings of the 
society are characterized, after business, by a free interchange 
of opinions, theories and experiences, and thus individual dis- 
coveries and improvements become the common property of 
the society, and of the community by publication, March, 1877. 


Previous to the year 1832, the elective franchise was exer- 
cised in Fairfield County, as in all other parts of the country, 
by the prerogative of each elector in casting his ballot for the 
best men to carry out the best measures for the common weal, 
according to the voter's best judgment. In other words, poli- 
tical party lines had not yet been established. There were, 
however, differences of opinion as to the safest and best forms 
of government, and these differences of opinion were mainly 
between the National Republicans, strictly, on the one hand, 
and on the other, those who favored the doctrines promulgated 
by Alexander Hamilton and others, which contemplated a 
stronger central power in the Constitution and Laws. This 
was denominated the Federal Party. It is not necessary here 
to enter into a history of the Hartford Convention, or the 
principles proposed there. They met with little favor, and 
amounted to nothing as against American Republicanism. 
The Federal Party nevertheless had sufficient potency to create 
more or less agitation in the political affairs of the country 
for a great many years. 

As early as 1828, grave national questions began to agitate 
the country, among which were the policy, or otherwise, of an 
American National Bank; a high tariff for the protection of 
American industries; the improvement, at the National ex- 
pense, of the rivers and harbors within the United States, etc., 
etc. The great question of State Sovereignty had ceased to be 


an absorbing theme since the adoption by the States of the 
Federal Constitution. The abolition of African slavery in 
the States was at that time no more than beginning to incu- 
bate, and had scarcely made even a riffle on the surface of 
the affairs of the country. The agitation of the question was 
about equally contemned by all, but especially the churches, 
if the Quakers and Scotch Presbyterians be excepted; Among 
the other churches only individual exceptions existed. But' 
in 1832 these questions of policy took form, and rove the mas- 
ses in two distinct political parties of very nearly equal bal- 
ance. One division of the people supported Andrew Jackson 
for the Presidency in that year, and assumed the name of 
the Democratic Party. The other division adhered to Adams 
and Clay, and denominated themselves the Whig Party. The 
Jackson, or Democratic Party, was dominant in Fairfield 
County, and has ever since, with two exceptions, maintained 
a majority of the popular vote, ranging from eight or ten to 
sixteen or eighteen hundred. The two exceptions referred to, 
were in the years 1843 and 1854. In 1843 the question of 
"hards" and "softs" came up on the currency question, the 
latter carrying the county by a decisive majority, and electing 
to the Legislature one Democrat and one Whig, irrespective 
of old party lines. This was for some reason denominated the 
" Cork-Leg Party. " In 1854, what was equally oddly named 
the " Knovv-Nothing Party, " for the time submerged all other 
parties and elected their entire ticket in the county by respect- 
able majorities. But in the following year the Democratic 
Party re-established its lines, which are still maintained. 

The Whig Party, respectable in. members, and in the ability 
and intelligence of its leaders, nevertheless remained in the 
minority during its existence, unless the two years spoken of 
might be -claimed as Whig victories. The Whigs, in 1843, 
were the acknowledged Soft Money Party, and probably unani- 
mously voted the Cork-Leg ticket. And so in 1854, they nearly 
all went into the Know-Nothing organization, which, with a 
portion of the Democratic party, secured the triumph of that 
ticket, and electing men from both the old parties. In 1856, 
the Philadelphia Convention to form a Presidential ticket for 
that year — a Convention composed of old line Whigs and 
Know-Nothings— organized the Republican Party, and upon 
its platform a majority of the Whigs of the county took posi- 


tion, together with more or less Democrats, constituting the 
Republican Party of Fairfield County. This party maintains 
about the same numerical comparison with the Democratic 
Party that the Whigs previous to 1854 did — the number of 
Democrats coming into it being about equal to the number 
of Whigs going over to the Democrats. The Whig Party, 
therefore, is to be regarded as having been disbanded in the 
early part of 1854. 


The histories of all the religious societies and church or- 
ganizations within Fairfield County, will be found in the fol- 
lowing pages, as complete as it has been possible to make 
them. Some of the church records I found very defective ; in 
other instances none could be found. It has been my aim to 
go back to the very first nuclei of the societies, at the begin- 
ning of the settlements at the ending of the last and com- 
mencement of the present century. If I have failed, in some 
cases, it has been because no information at all could be ob- 
tained. Much of what I have collected has been from the per- 
sonal statements of oldest citizens, and slight errors may, there- 
fore, have crept in, since I find all do not remember things 
alike. As a whole, however, the history may be accepted as 
entirely correct in the main. To ministers and laymen of the 
various churches, I acknowledge my obligations for the cour- 
tesy they have shown in affording me important aid. 


The first Methodist Society in Fairfield County was formed 
in the year 1799. The little band seems to have been formed 
into a class under the management and advice of one Edward 
Teel, who had previously been a class-leader in Baltimore 
County, Maryland. Its place of meeting was at the cabin of 
Mr. Teel, three miles east of Lancaster, and, I believe, on 
Zane's trace. The names of the members when the society 
was first formed, and at the time when first visited by Rev. 
James Quinn, then a young Methodist preacher, were Ed- 


ward Teel and wife, Jesse Spurgeon and wife, Ishmael Dew and 
wife, Nimrod Bright and wife, and Elijah Spurgeon and wife 
— in all, ten. The first quarterly-meeting ever held in the 
county was at the house of John Murphy, at which were pres- 
ent Bishop Asbury and Daniel Hitt, the latter a Presiding 
Elder in Baltimore Conference. 

It is believed that the first class formed in Lancaster was 
in 1812. Its membership at first was : Jacob D. Betrick and 
wife, Peter Reeber, Sarah Reeber, Christian Weaver, Eliza- 
beth Weaver, George Canode, Mary Canode, and Thomas Orr 
and wife— ten in all. The first place provided for public wor- 
ship in Lancaster was erected in 1816. It was a small frame edi- 
fice, and stood on the site where the present brick church build- 
ing now stands, on the hill. Rev. Jas. Quinn preached the first 
sermon in it from a carpenter's bench. Lancaster then belonged 
, to the Hockhocking circuit. In 1801, Joseph Chenowith was 
the preacher in charge on the circuit, and returned at the 
close of the year 366 members. This seems wonderlul, when 
it is remembered that emigration to the Hocking Valley first 
began in 1798, only three years previous. In 1802, Nathaniel 
B. Mills supplied the circuit, and in 1803 and 1804 James 
Quinn, assisted the latter year by Joseph Williams. 

From this time up to 1811, both Lancaster and Fairfield 
County were included in Hockhocking circuit. 

Between 1811 and 1830, the church had so extended that 
several circuits had been formed, Fairfield circuit being one of 
them. At the close of this period of nineteen years, the mem- 
bership of Fairfield circuit was 1,276. During the nine suc- 
ceeding years, Lancaster was made a half station, with a few 
appointments in the country, and the following preachers 
filled the station : Zachariah Connell, William Young, John 
Ferree, Edward D. Roe, William H. Lowder, Levi White, W. 
T. Snow, John G. Bruce, Charles Swain, William T. Hand, 
Charles R. Baldwin, John Reed and Charles R. Lowell. The 
present brick church was built in 1838 and 1839. 

In 1840, Lancaster made was a station, since which time the 
following preachers have filled it : In 1840, Henry Baker, one 
year; in 1841, Wm. R. Anderson, one year ; in 1842, Wm. P. 
Strickland, two years ; in 1844, R. S. Foster, two years; in 1846, 
M. Dustin, one year; in 1847, Granville Moody, two years; in 
1849, William Sutherland, one year ; in 1850, Moses Smith, 



one year; in 1851, Ancel Brooks, two years ; in 1853, N. Wes- 
terman, one year ; in 1854, James M. Jamison, two years ; in 
1856, E. M. Boring, one year*; in 1857, Joseph H. Creighton, 
two years ; in 1859, Wm. Porter, one year; in 1860, C. E. Fel- 
ton, two years ; in 1862, C. A. Vananda, two years ; in 1864, T. 
H. Phillips, two years ; in 1866, L. Taft, two years ; in 1868, B. 
N. Spahr, two years ; in 1870, T. R. Taylor, three years ; in 
1873, Joseph H. Creighton, one year ; in 1874, T. W. Stanley. 
Mr. Stanley is, in 1877, in his third year. The dates refer to 
the year of appointment. 

The total membership of Lancaster station in 1876, as fur- 
nished by the pastor, is about 600. 

The following paper, prepared and kindly furnished me by 
the Rev. Mr. Stanley, pastor of Lancaster Church in 1876, 
shows the operations of the Methodist itinerancy within 
Fairfield County and adjacent territory, for seventy-six years, 
beginning with 1800: 

"1800— The first Methodist society 
was formed in Fairfield 
County in 1800. The circuit 
was called Muskingum and 
Hocking. Preachers : Jesse 
Stoneman and James Quinn. 
It was in Baltimore Confer- 

1801— Jos. Chinowith. 

1802 — Little Kanawha and Muskin- 
gum, N. B. Bird. 

1803— Hockhocking, Asa Shin. 

1804 — (six months) James Quinn, 
John Meek. 
The work was now in the Western 


1S04 — (six months) James Quinn, 
J. P. Williams. 

1805— John Meek Jas. Oxley. 

1806 — Jos. Hays, Jas. King. 

1807— Fairfield Circuit, W. Patter- 

1808 — Ralph Lotspeich, John Bow- 

1809— Ralph Lotspeich. 

1810 — Francis Travis. 

1811 — Isaac Quinn, James B. Fin- 

1812— (This year the Ohio Confer- 
ence was formed). Fairfield, 
Wm. Lambden. 

1813— Archibald McElroy. 

1814— Chas. Waddle. 

1815— Chas. Waddle, M. Ellis. 

1816— Jas. Quinn, John McMahon. 

1817— Michael Ellis. 

1818— Sadosa Bacon, Peter Stephens. 

1819 — Abner Cough, Henry Ma- 

1820— Abner Gough, Chas. Thorn. 

1821 — Wm. Stephens, Zarah Coston. 

1822— Wm. Stephens. 

1823— Jas Gilruth, J C. Hunter. 

1824— Chas. Waddle, Homer Clark. 

1825 — Leroy Swormstedt, James 

1826 — Jas. Quinn, Jas. Laws. 

1827— Jas. Laws, Gilbert Blue. 

1828 — Jacob Young, C. Springer. 

1829— Z. Connell, H. S. Fernandez. 

1830— Samuel Hamilton, H. S. Fer- 

1831 — (Fairfield Circuit was divided 
this year into two parts, Lan- 
caster and Rushville). Lan- 
caster District was formed in 
1819. The following have 
been the Presiding Elders: 

1819— Chas. Waddle. 

1820— Jacob Young. 

1821— Chas. Waddle. 

1822-25— Jacob Young. 

1826-29— David Young. 

1830-31— Leroy Swormstedt. The 



District was now included in 
Zanesville and Columbus Dis- 
trict, till 1851. 

1851-54 — Zachariah Connell. 

1856— J. L. Grover. 

1856-59— D. D. Mather. 

1860-63— J. W White. 

1864-67— B. N. Spahr. 

1868— Jos. M. Trimb e. 

1869-72— W. T. Hai vey. 

1873-76— T. H. Hall. 

Rmhvillc Circuit was formed in 

1831, and from it have been divided 

off several other Circuits ; but it ex- 
ists as a flourishing charge this day. 

1831— Sam'l Hamilton, J. Hooper. 

1832 — J. Carper, J. Young. 

1833 — J. Carper, J. Armstrong and 
S. H. Holland. 

1834 — J. Armstrong, R. S. Kemper 
and B. Cooper. 

1835— Jas. T. Donahoo, E. D. Roe. 

1836 — James T. Donahoo, Moses A. 

1837— C. W. Swain, W. T. Hand. 

1838— James B. Gurley, F. H. Jen- 

1839— M. P. Kellog, W. M. D. Rvan. 

1840-M. P. Kellog, A S. Murphy. 

1841 — Jacob Young, A. Carroll. 

1842— John W. Young, B. A. Cas- 

1813— John Fitch. 

1844-W. R. Davis. 

1845— W. R. Davis. 

1846— J. W. Stone. 

1847— J. W. Stone. 

1848— John Fitch. 

1849— W. Webster. John Fitch. 

1850 — Levi Cuninngham, G. G. 

1851 — Levi Cunningham, J. T. 

1852— J. T. Langman, W. S. Ben- 

1853 — -Samuel Harvey, Samuel Tip- 

1854 — Samuel Harvey, R. Doughty. 

1855-^R. Doughty, R. Pitzer. 

1856— S. C. Kicker, T. G. Ross. 

1857— S. C. Kicker, T. G. Ross. 

1858 — A. Fleming, X. Speck. 

1859— A. Fleming, N. Speck. 

I860— D. Mann, J. C. Gregg. 

1861— I). Mann, J. C. Gregg. 

1862— W. C. Hollida, H. Gortner. 

1863— W. C. Hollida, H. Gortner. 

1864— U. L. Jones, B. Ellis. 

1865— U. L. Jones, B. Ellis. 

1866— R. B. Ben net, J Y. Rusk. 

1867— R. B. Bennet, J. Y. Rusk. 

1868— R. B. Bennet, J. Barringer. 

1869— J. Barringer, G. L. Seits. 

1870— G. L. Seits, J. T. Finch. 

1371— J. H. Baker, J. H. Beery. 

1872— F. F. Lewis, J. H. Beery. 

1873— F. F. Lewis, R. H. Griffith. 

1874— F. F. Lewis. 

1875— F. S. Thurston. 

1876— F. S. Thurston. 
Royalton Circuit was formed in 


1840 — Thomas Laikins, Alexander 

1841— Moses A. Milligen, G. S. Crea- 

1842— James Gilruth, Thos. Hurd. 

1843 — A. Morrow, John C. Havens. 

1844: — Joseph Morris, Jas. Hooper. 

1845 — Joseph Morris, J. T. Lang- 

1846— Jas. Laws, J. T. Langman. 

1847 — James Hood, J. B. Morrison. 

1848— J. B. Morrison, A. B. See. 

1849— B. Ellis, S. C. Riker. 

1850— B. Ellis. Henrv Lewis. 

1851— A. M. Alexander, B. Mark. 

1852— A. M Alexauder, D. Sharp. 

1853— S. M. Bright, J. W. Steele. 

1854— S. M. Bright, J. W. Steele. 

1855— G. G. West, John Kemper 
and I. D. Day. 

1856— G. G. West, H. Gortner. 

1857— H. H. Ferris, J. T. Miller. 

1858— H. H. Ferris, J. T. Miller. 

1859— T. H. Hall, W. C. Holliday. 

1860— D. Smith, J. W. Young. 

1861— D. Smith, E. Siblev. 

1862— E. Sibley, A. Fleming. 

1863— S. M. Merril, A. Fleming. 

1864— J. W. White, F. A. Spencer. 

1865— J. W. White, J. Stewart. 

1866— C. M. Bethauser, H. Gulp. 

1867— C. M. Bethauser, L. T. Han- 

1868— C. M. Bethauser. 

1869— J. C. Gregg. 

1870— J. C. Gregg. 

1871— J. C. Gregg. 

1872— S. C. Riker. 

1873— S. C. Riker. 

1874— T. H. Bradua. 

1875— F. F. Lewis. 

1876— H. B. Westervelt. 



Tarlton Circuit was formed in 

1841. It embraced quite a portion 

of the west part of Fairfield County. 

1841— Daniel Eoe. 

1842 — James Laws. 

1843 — James Laws. 

1844— A. Morrow, P. P. Ingals. 

1845— A. Morrow, P. P. Ingals. 

1846— Joseph Morris, D.H.Sargeant. 

1847— Joseph Morris. 

1848— A. Carrol. 

1849— A. Carrol. 

1850— A. Nelson. 

1851— J. W. Steele. 

1852— J. W. Steele. 

1853— J. H. McCutcheon, H. Gart- 

1854— J. H. McCutcheon, E. D. 

1855— D. C. Howard, R. B. Bennet. 

1856— R. D. Anderson, E. W. Kirk- 

1857— G. G. West, H. L. White- 

1858— G. G. West, H. L. White- 

1859— J. T. Miller, I. F. King. 

1860— J. T. Miller, B. Ellis. 

1861— A. Carrol, B. Ellis. 

1862— W. C. Filler, T. R. Taylor. 

1863— W. C. Filler, J. P. Lacroix. 

1864— W. Z. Ross. 

1865— E. Sibley, J. M. Weir. 

1866— E. Siblev. 

1867— T. H. Hall. 

1868— T. H. Hall. 

1869— T. H. Hall, J. Rickets. 

1870— W. H. McClintock, W. T. 

1871— W. H. McClintock. 

1872— F. S. Thurston. 

1873— F. S. Thurston. 

1874— F. S. Thurston. 

1875-T. Mackey. 

1876—1. Mackey. 

Baltimore Circuit was formed in 


1842 — Moses A. Milligan, Joseph 

1843— James B. Gurley, P. P. In- 

1844— James B. Gurley, E. O. 

1845-C. C. Lybrand, Jas. Hooper. 

1846 — James Hooper. 

1847— James Gil ruth, B. Mark. 

1848— S. Harvey, R, Pilzer. 

1849— S. Harvey, A. B. See. 

1850— A. B. See, David Lewis. 

1851— B. Ellis, J. S. Adams. 

1852— R. Doughty. 

1853— R. Doughty, A. M. Alexan- 

1854 — A. M. Alexander, Isaac D. 

1855— S. M. Bright, H. Gartner and 
J. T. Donahoo. 

1856— S. M. Bright. 

1857— N. Speck, E. W. Kirkham. 

1858— W. Z. Ross, B. Ellis. 

1859— W. Z. Ross, B. Ellis. 

1860— A. Fleming, C. C. Lybrand. 

1861— A. Fleming, C. C. Lybrand. 

1862— J. M>-rti D , N. Speck. 

1863— J. W. Young, N. Speck. 

1864— H. G. G. Fink, C. A. Phil- 

1865— H. G. G. Fink. 

1866— H. H. Ferris. 

1867 — Wm. Beacham. 

1868— H. L. Whitehead. 

1869— S. C. Riker. 

1870— F. T. Lewis, T. C. Reade. 

1871— F. T. Lewis. 

1872— J. W. Baker. 

1873— J. W. Baker, L. C. Brooks. 

1874— J. W. Baker, W. Z. Filler. 

1875— J. H. Beery. 

1876— J. H. Beery. 

West Rushville Circuit was form- 
ed in 1854. 

1854— C. C. Lybrand, H. Gortner. 

1855— C. C. Lybrand. 

1856— W. C. Filler. 

1857— W. C. Filler. 

1858— R. Pitzer. 

1859— R. Pitzer. 

I860— T. H. Hall. 

1861— T. H. Hall. 

1862— W. Z. Ross. 

1863— W. M. Mullenix. 

1864— J. Stewart. 

1865— T. R. Taylor. 

1866— H. L. Whitehead. 

1867— H. L. Whitehead. 

1868— J. H. Acton. 

1869— J. H. Acton. 

1870— H. H. Ferris. 

1871— T. H. Brodrick. 

1872— T. H. Brodrick. 

1873— T. H. Brodrick. 

1874— W. T. Jones. 

1875— W. T. Jones. 

1876— W. T. Jones. 



Maxville Circuit was formed in 

1855— Levi Hall, J. W. Stump. 
1856— N. Speck, H. L. Whitehead 
1857— B. Ellis. 

1 858— E. D. Anderson, S. M. Bright. 
1859— R. D. Anderson, J. M. Adair. 
1860— W. C. Holliday, J. Robinson. 
1861— W. C. Holliday, W. M. Mul- 

1862— H. G. G. Turk, J. M. Adair. 
1863— H. G. G. Turk, Jno. Brown. 
1864— N. Speck. 
1865— S. Rankin, G. L. Seits. 
1866— S. Rankin. 
1867— J. W. Lewis. 
1868— J. W. Lewis, J. Rickets. 
1869— J. W. Lewis. 
1870— E. O. King, J. H. Beery. 
1871— H. B. Westervelt, J. F. 

1872— H. B. Westervelt, R. H. 

1873— J. T. Finch, W. F. Filler. 
1874— J. T. Finch. 
1875 — This year called Junction 
City. This Circuit embraced 
a part of Fairfield County. 
1876— W. Mor is, J. P. Langley. 

Junction City Circuit was formed 
in 1874. 

1874— J. F. Kemper. 
1875— J. W. Baker, J. M. Langley. 

Carroll Ci.cuit was formed by a 
division of Baltimore Circuit in 

1874— W. F. Filler. 
1875— C. H. Warren. 
1876— J. H Postle. 

New Salem Circuit was formed by 
a division of Rushville Circuit in 

1874— J. H. Beery. 
1875— B. F. Thomas. 
1876— B. F. Thomas. 

Lithopolis Circuit was formed in 

1839 — Jacob Young, David Lewis. 
1S40— Jacob Young, T. A. G. Phil- 
1841— Jas. Gilruth, T. A. G. Phil- 
1842-J. T. Donahoo, W. Litzinger. 
1843— J. T Donahoo.C. C.Lybrand. 
1844 — Jas. Laws, Sheldon Parker. 
1845— Jas. Laws, Sheldon Parker. 
1846 — S. Bateman, A. Carroll. 

1847— A. Carroll, J. S. Brown. 
After this the circuit was called 

Groveport, embracing the same ter- 
ritory in Fairfield County. 
Groveport Circuit was formed in 


1848— J. S. Brown. 

1849— J. Hooper, R. Doughty. 

1850— E. B. Chase, A. Fleming and 
J. S. Vail. 

1851— J. W. Clarke. 

1852— Jacob Young, L. Taft. 

1853— S. M. Merril, D. Young. 

1854— F. A. Timmons, J. Martin. 

1855 — F. A. Timmons, J. Martin. 

1856 — Levi Cunningham, C. C. Ly- 

1857— C. C. Lvbrand, H. Gortner. 

1858— S. Fleming, S. Bateman. 

1859— S Fleming, S. Bateman. 

1860— H. H. Ferris, F. F. Lewis. 

1861— H. H. Ferris, F. F. Lewis. 

1862— S. C. Riker, A. Carroll. 

1863— S. C. Riker, A. Carroll. 

1864— J. Mitchel, S. M. Donahoo. 

1865— S. Tippett, J. E. Moore. 

1866— S. Tippett, J. E. Moore. 

1867— S. Tippett, A. Brooks. 

1868— D. Horlocker. 

1869— D. Horlocker. 

1870— D. Horlocker. 

1871— S. M. Bright. 
Canal Winchester Circuit was 

formed in 1872, embracing the 

Fairfield County part of the ap- 

1872— W. H. McClintock. 

1873— W. H. McClintock. 

1874— W. H. McClintock. 

1875— W. C. Holliday. 

1876— W. C. Holliday. 
Pickerington Circuit was formed 

in 1851. 

1851 — A. Fleming, D. Lewis. 

1852— R. Pitzer, D. Lewis. 

1853— R. Pitzer, J. Young. 

1854— J. Stewart S. M. Merril. 

1855 — J. Stewart, C. M. Bethauser. 

1856— F. A. Timmons, W. Z. Ross. 

1857— W. Z. Ross, W. P. Grant- 

1858— T. D. Martindale, C. C. Ly- 

1859— T. D. Martindale, W. S. Ben- 

I860— W. C. Filler, W. S. Benner. 

1861— W. C. Filler, H. G. G. Fink. 



1862— J. F. Given, B. Ellis. 
1863— E. Sibley, J. F. Langman. 
1864— E. Sibley, C. C. Lybrand 

Then in 1865, the name was 
changed to Reynoldsburg Circuit. 
1865— S. C. Riker, J. M. Adair. 
1866— S. C. Riker, J. C. Gregg. 
1867— S. C. Riker, J. C. Gregg. 
1868— J. C. Gregg, T. H. Brodrick. 

1869— C. M. Bethauser, T. H. Brod- 

1870— C. M. Bethauser, T. H. Brod- 

1871— R. B. Bennett. 

1872— R B. Bennett. 

1873— M. V. B. Evans. 

1874— M. V. B. Evans. 

1875— M. V. B. Evans. 


A Protestant Methodist Church was organized in Lancaster 
a little previous to the year 1840, and continued its existence 
a number of years. During its existence it had a respectable 
membership and a regular succession of pastors. It also owned 
a commodious church edifice on Chestnut street. The society 
has now been disbanded a numuer of years, and the building 
has passed into the hands of the Regular Baptists, and is their 
present place of worship. The constituent members have de- 
ceased and moved away, and there are no records to be found 
from which to obtain a history of the organization. 


The Regular Baptist Church was organized in Lancaster in 
1817, by Rev. George Debott, who was its first pastor. The 
constituent members were six, viz.: Isaac Church and wife, 
James Lowrey and wife, Stephen Whittlesey and Anna Bruen. 
The last-named died recently at the great age of 106 years. 
The other five are deceased. Mr. Debott also lived to a very ad- 
vanced age. Rev. William White, father of thelate Dr. James 
White, of Lancaster, succeeded Mr. Debott as pastor, and con- 
tinued in that relation for many years. Rev. Samuel Carpen- 
ter was the next pastor ; he began his labors in that relation 
in 1829, which was only broken off by his death, which took 
place in the summer of 1870. The maximum number of the 
membership at any given time was about fifty, though much 
of the time it was below that. The present membership, in 
1876, is stated at twenty, and the present pastor is the Rev. 
William Fisher. 

Very soon after the organization, the members built a frame 
church edifice on Chestnut street, south of the Talmadge 
House, which they occupied until it was consumed by fire, in 
about the year 1864. The ground was subsequent!}' sold for 


fifteen hundred dollars, which sum was used in the purchase 
of the present church building. 

There are at this time four other churches of this denomi- 
nation within the county, some of which are said to have 
been organized previous to that of Lancaster, especially the 
one at Thornville. 

The Turkey Run Church, north of Amanda, has a member- 
ship of forty or fifty. 

Walnut Creek Regular Baptist Church was constituted on 
Saturday before the second Sunday in January, 1816, with 
eleven members. Beyond tbis there are no accessible records 
from which further particulars can be obtained. 


[I understand this church disclaims the appellation "New 
School," but claims to be Regular Baptists. — Author]. 

This church was organized in 1842, with a constituent mem- 
bership of twelve persons. Very soon after the organization, 
they erected a fine brick church building on the west side of 
North Columbus street, on the corner of Columbus and "Mul- 
berry streets. Within the thirty-four years of its existence it 
has, with the exception of a very brief period, been regularly 
supplied with stated pastors. The following are the names of 
the pastors, in the order of their succession : 

Rev. J. M. Courtney, Rev. S. T. Griswold, Rev. J. B. Sachet, 
Rev. E. F. Strickland, Rev. S. G. Dawson, Rev. T. R. Powell, 
Rev. Wm. Sharp, Rev. H. A. Lyon, Rev. E. Dannels, present 

The present membership is stated at ninety. The church 
sustains a flourishing Sabbath-School. 


Alfred Mesnard has kindly furnished me the original and 
continuous books of record of the Pleasant' Run Regular Bap- 
tist Church, of which he is the present Secretary. It will be 
seen by the following extract from the first page, that the 
church was first constituted in the year 1806 : 

April the 19th, 1806, then met according to appointment and'opened 
our meeting with prayer and praise. Second — proceeded to business, 



with choosing our Moderator, Martin Coffman. Third — we also chose 
Samuel Coiner for our Clerk ; so ending our meeting with praise and 


Samuel Comer, Clerk. 

Then follows the minutes of succeeding business meetings, 
occurring in May, June, July, August, September, October, 
and so on, at which Lewis Sites acted mostly as Moderator, and 
Samuel Comer as Clerk, with occasionally Martin Coffman as 
Moderator, on up to August, 1809, at which time the church 
had a membership of ninety, whose names here follow pre- 
cisely in the order of the record. Rev. Lewis Sites, sr., was 
the first pastor of the Pleasant Run Church. The names of 
the members are copied literally as they stand on the twenty- 
first page of the first church book of records, which leaves it 
difficult to understand why the interruption occurs at the 
number 50: 



Wm. Hopwood. 


Ann Hite. 


Emanuel Ruffner. 


Abraham Hite. 


Christian Hover. 


Ann Spitler. 


Magdalen Ruffner, 

, 24 

Susan Musselraan. 


Jacob Spitler. 


Elizabeth Warner 

. 25 

Barbary Hite. 


Timothy Collins. 


Adam Giger. 


Samuel Comer. 


Phoebe Collins. 


Mary Giger. 


Elizabeth Comer. 


Barbary Beaver. 


Magdalen Giger. 


Sister Hannah. 


Magdalen Taylor. 


Conrod Hite. 


Sister Bibler. 

Joseph Stider. 


Aaron Powel. 


Christian Cagy. 

John Moorhead. 


Sister Powel. 


Mary Cagy. 

Christian Coffman, 


Martin Coffman. 


John Hite. 

James Owens. 


Ann Coffman. 


Sister Cussman. 


Mary Coffman . 


Magdalen Wise. 


Jacob Bibler. 


Smith Goodens. 


Ann Miller. 


Jacob Bibler, jr. 

Aaron Ashbrook. 


Elizabeth Histand 

. 37 

Caty Bibler. 

Eli Ashbrook. 


Frank Bibler. 


David Bibler. 

Caty Ashbrook. 


Mary Bibler. 


John Bibler. 


Neely Bibler. 


Andrew Hite. 


Barbary Bibler. 


Magdalane Spitler. 


Ann Hite. 


Lewis Sites. 


Magdalane Hite. 


Samuel Hite. 


Ann Sites, v 


John Hite. ' 


Christiana Woolf. 



Baptised since our last : 


George White. 


Abraham Bibler. 


Sister Brumlang. 


Jacob Spitler. 


Sister Keller. 



Susan Spitler. 


Cissa Miller. 


Mary Bibler. 


Jacob Musselrnan. 

, 64 

Joseph Hite. 


Jacob Bibler. 


Peter Spitler. 


James Davis. 


Barbary Bibler. 


John Hite. 


Thomas Warner. 



Betsy Bibler. 


Susanna Spitler. 



Mady Hoopwood. 


Martin Histand. 



Abraham Hite. 


Cissa Studer. 


John Bibler. 


Jacob Studer. 

The omission of number 33 in the list, reduces the number 
to 89, by supplying the numbers 72, 76, 77 and 78 with names, 
which we are allowed to think were not remembered. The 
record literally quoted, is a relic as well as history, and on that 
account valuable. 

So far as is known, not one of the above persons is living to- 
day. Pleasant Run Church is a living church at this time, 
with a few less than one hundred members. The congrega- 
tion has continued its place of worship from the first, viz. : in 
April, 1806, up to the present spring of 1877, on the same spot 
where it began, which is a short distance north of Strickler's 
Cross-roads, in the north-east corner of Pleasant Township. 
They have a commodious church edifice, sometimes spoken of 
as Strickler's Church, and sometimes as the Baptist Church, 
though the title they assume is that of the Pleasant Run 

It is a melancholy thought, that the ninety persons once 
composing that body, so full of life, and love, and Christian 
zeal, and filling their places in all of life's affairs, are no more. 
Their voices are all silent, and their forms have disappeared. 
They have passed to their reward in the better land. 

The present pastors of the church are : Revs. Schofield and 


A Presbyterian Church was organized in Lancaster at a very 
early day. The Rev. John Wright settled here in the year 
1801, and continued pastor of the church up to 1835, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. William Cox. 


They held their meetings in the old Court-house during a 
number of years, when they built a small brick church, or 
chapel, on the lot where the present church stands. I have 
not been able to ascertain the date of the building of this little 
chapel, but the best recollections fix it a little prior to the year 
1820. In 1835, Mr. Wright left Lancaster and settled in In- 
diana, at which time William Cox became the settled pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church, and remained until 1854, when he 
accepted a call to the Church of Piqua, in Miami County, at 
which place he closed his life a few years subsequently, and 
was interred in the cemetery east of Lancaster. The present 
church edifice was erected in 1835. Below is given the suc- 
cession of pastors from 1801 to 1876 : 

Rev. John Wright from 1801 to 1835; Rev. William Cox 
from 1836 to 1854 • succeeding him were Rev. J. M. Lowry, 
Rev. Robert Galbraith, Rev. Webster, Rev. George Fullerton, 
Rev. Worden, Rev.. Muse, Rev. Snodgrass, and the Rev. J. R. 
Boyd, who is the present pastor. Besides these there were 
several supplies who remained short periods, whose names I 
have not the means of finding out. The present communion 
is about two hundred persons. There is likewise a full Sab- 
bath-School that meets every week. 

The following incident is deemed worthy of mention here, 
because it took place on the lot now owned by the Presbyter- 
ians, and also because it belongs to the history of Lancaster. 
The occurrence took place some time previous to the building 
of the little brick chapel. It has been related to me by Dr. 
Charles Shawk, who as a boy was an eye-witness, and by 
others. There are probably many persons living who can re- 
call the affair. I give it in substance as narrated by the 

Peter Reeber owned the grounds, and had in operation on 
them a horse-power mill, in which corn, wheat, and other 
grain was ground. He also had a log barn, that stood nearly 
on the site of the present church, but a little more up the 
hill. On one Sunday the barn was struck by lightning and 
set on fire. The citizens rushed from all directions and began 
the work of trying to put out the fire. The wells in the 
vicinity were, soon exhausted, when a bucket-line was formed 
to a pond of water near by, and the muddy water passed up, 
by which the flames were at last extinguished, and the build- 


ing partially saved. Two oxen in the barn at the time were 
killed by the lightning. In the management of the bucket- 
line, Thomas Ewing and Adam Weaver fell out, and came to 
blows, so tradition says. 

It is to be borne in mind that personal notes and references 
in this work are limited to pioneers. The following items are 
relics of the early days, and will be of interest to Presbyterians 
and others, as mementos, but especially the descendants of 
first settlers about Lancaster. Mr. Joseph Work, of Ireland, 
was an early settler, and a first member of the Presbyterian 
Church of Lancaster. Robert, John and Henry Work, of this 
vicinity, are his sons. Mr. Work came to the United States 
about the year 1792: 

Certificate. — That Joseph Work, from the Kingdom of Ireland, 
has lived from his infancy within the bounds of this congregation, 
always maintaining a fair moral character ; has been admitted to Church 
privileges in said congregation, and may safely be admitted to Christian 
Society where in providence his lot may be cast. 


St. Johns Town, 25th June, 1792. 

Eeceipt. — Received of Joseph Work, one of the collectors for Hock- 
ing Congregation, one dollar, on my first vear's salary. 

January \Ath, 1807. 

Receipt. — Received of Joseph Work, one of the collectors for Hock- 
ing Congregation, fourteen dollars and fifty cents, in part of mv first 
year's salary. JOHN WRIGHT. 

December 17th, 1806. 

Receipt. — Received of John Smith, two dollars on my salary for 
Hocking Congregation. JOHN WRIGHT. 

December ISth, 1814. 


To Rev. L. D. Smith, pastor of the Presbyterian Church at 
West Rushville, I am indebted for the following information : 

Rush Creek Presbyterian Church was organized A.D. 1806, by Rev. 
John Wright. The ruling Elders were Wm. Larrimer and Wm. Trim- 
hie. Mr. Wright continued to be pastor of the church at Rush Creek 
for about twenty-seven years. Rev. James Anderson succeeded him, 
and remained about twenty years. This hrirgs the history of the 
church down to about the year 1853, when Rev. J. Milligen became pas- 
tor. At this time Fielding Alford, David Abright, D. Y. Davis and 
Wm. Thompson were Elders. Rev. Milligen was succeeded by Rev. J. 


M. Drake, and he by Eev. H. E. Peairs. This was in 1863. In 1866, 
Eev. C. C. B. Duncan came, and was succeeded in 1871 by Eev. J. L. 
Gourley; and in 1874, the present minister. L. D. Smith, took charge, 
with Elders David Abright, D. Y. Davis, Edward Johnson, John W. 
Dilger, E. Kagey and Wm. Clenaghan. 

The present membership of the church is 120. Our church building 
is a frame, and was erected about twenty-two years ago, and is the third 
erected since the organization of the society. 

L. D. SMITH, Pastor. 


Four miles south-east of Bremen, was organized in 1832, by 
Rev. Francis Bartlett. In 1852, Rev. J. Milligen was pastor 
of Bethel Church, and Isaac Larimer, John Sherwood, Aaron 
Work, Geo. McCandlish and James Black were its ruling 
Elders. Rev. J. M. Drake took charge of the church in 1858, 
and was followed by Rev. H. R. Peairs; and again, in 1866, 
Rev. C. C. B. Duncan assumed the pastorate. In 1872, Rev. 
J. L. Gourley took charge, and in 1874, Rev. L. D. Smith, who 
is its present pastor, in 1877. Its present membership is 60. 


The Bremen Church was organized on the 21st of October, 
1844, by a committee of Licking Presbytery, consisting of Rev. 
Jacob Little, Rev. H. Boutelle and Rev. A. Duncan. The first 
pastor mentioned was Rev. J. Schlosser. The first elders were 
Daniel Rodahafer, John Ashbaugh and Wm. Rowles. Their 
reported number of members in 1856, was fifty-seven commu- 
nicants. In this year, Mr. Schlosser's connection with the 
church ceased, when he was succeeded by Rev. Thomas Grif- 
fith. In 1859, the Rev. S. J. Humphrey took charge. In 1865, 
Rev. C. C. Hart, of Logan, supplied the congregation. The 
Elders then were John Ashbaugh and J. Leib. In 1870, Rev. 
W. A. Galbraith was preaching there. In 1871, Rev. J. L. 
Gourley was the supply; and his connection ceased as pastor 
in April, 1873. In November, 1874, the church employed the 
Rev. L. D. Smith, of West Rushville, to give them one-fourth 
of his time, and he was still supplying the congregation in 
July, 1877. The number of communicants in January, 1876, 
was forty-two. 

The Presbyterians also have societies at Amanda, Lithopo- 
lis and Greencastle, with regular pastors, but up to the time 
of going to press they have failed to return specific statements. 


The present pastor of Lithopolis Church is the Rev. Mr. Brown, 
who also supplies the Church at Greencastle. 

The Greenfield Presbyterian Church, four miles from Lan- 
caster, on the Carroll road, has been supplied since its first or- 
ganization by the Rev. J. R. Boyd, of Lancaster Church. 


Dr. H. Scott : The Protestant Episcopal Parish of St. John was 
organized in Lancaster during the Year of Grace 1835, and the Rev. 
Sherlock A. Bronson was its first rector. The present church building 
was erected during the influential rectorship of the Rev. Alvah Guion. 

The prominent active laymen who co-operated with him. were Messrs 
Henry Stanberry, John T. Brazee, Daniel Sifford, John Reeber, Daniel 
Kutz and Win. P. Creed, Esqs. When the church was completed, these 
gentlemen assumed and paid off the-then existing debts, and it was then 
consecrated by the late Rev. Bishop McElvain. 

After Mr. Guion, the following clergymen were rectors, in the order 
in which their names are here written, viz.: Rev. Messrs. Daniel Risser, 
J. M. C. Bonte, Frederick Grey, Henry D. Lathrop, E. Owen Simpson, 
Wm. Brittain, John Scott, A. S. Gorrell and Edward B. Cartmell, who 
resigned his clerical position in the church October, 1875, to accept that 
of Principal in the Lancaster High School. 

Very truly yours, WM. J. REECE. 

st. peter's evangelical Lutheran church. 

This church was organized in Lancaster at a very early 
period in this century. Rev. Mr. Steck was its first pastor, 
and continued in that relation for a great many years, and 
was succeeded by Rev. J. Wagenhals; at least his succession 
is the information given to the writer. No records are known 
to be in existence, and I can neither fix the exact year of the 
first formation of the Society, nor the number and names of 
the constituent members. The ground was deeded to the 
church by Jacob Beck, the elder, first member. 

The Society subsequently built a two-story log church edi- 
fice on the site of their present brick building, sometimes 
spoken of as the Canal Church. Subsequently this log struc- 
ture was removed, and a two-story brick substituted. This 
was destroyed by fire in 1846. This church was incorporated 
by act of the Legislature in 1840. The names of the incor- 
porators were : Henry Arnold, Geo. W. Bantler, Christian 
Baesster, Christian Baughman, Henry Orman, Philip Bope 
and Coonrod Crumley. 


After the burning of the brick church in 1846, the German 
members purchased the ground and built the present church 
building. The ministers who have filled the pulpit since the 
retirement of Rev. John Wagenhals were : Rev. H. Burcher, 
Rev. Leon Hart, Rev. Speilman and Rev. Mechling, present 
pastor. Present membership, 600. 


The first English Lutheran Church of Lancaster was organ- 
ized as a distinctive congregation, in the year 1843, with a 
constituent membership of about twenty persons. The or- 
ganization was effected by the withdrawal of the English 
members from the parent church of St. Peter's, in part. For 
about three years after the separation, the two societies con- 
tinued to worship in the same house. After the building was 
burned, in 1846, the English, 'having sold out their interest 
to the Germans, purchased ground on Columbus street, and 
erected upon it the same church edifice in which they now 
meet. The house was built in 1846. The succession of 
pastors, from 1843 to 1876, has been as follows : 

Rev. John McCron, one year ; Rev. Charles F. Shaeffer, 
three years ; Rev. A. J. Weddle, three years ; Rev. L. Kizer, one 
year ; Rev. J. Hamilton, two years; Rev. J. F. Reindmond, 
seven years; Rev. Samuel Sprecher, two years; Rev. N. J. 
Knisely, two years; Rev. Charles Steck, one year; Rev. John 
B. Helwig, four years ; Rev. John 0. Hough, one year ; Rev. G. 
W. Halderman, six years. 

The membership in 1876 is computed at about two hundred 
persons, there remaining in the body about half a dozen of the 
original members. The foregoing statements have been furn- 
ished me by the present pastor, Rev. G. W. Halderman. 


I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Emanuel Giesy, for the 
following synopsis of the history of the German Reform Church 
in Lancaster, which he obtained from the church records. I 
insert his letter entire : 

Dr. H. Scott: The following notes may be of use to you, as in reply 
to your request. The German Reform Church of Lancaster was organ- 
ized by the Rev. George Wise, about the first of October, 1816, with 
twenty members, and he continued to be its pastor up to the year 1838. 
During that time he also preached to other congregations in Ross, Pick- 
away, Hocking, Perry, Licking and Franklin counties. 


In March, 1818, the congregation purchased a lot in Carpenter's Addi- 
tion, on Columbus street, and built a house of worship, which was first 
used as a school-house, but was, in 1832, dedicated to the service of God 
as a house of worship. In this house the congregation continued to 
worship until 1845, in which year their new church on Chestnut street 
being completed, they moved into it. Mr. Wise was succeeded by the 
Rev. Henry Willard, who filled the pulpit six years, and was succeeded 
by Rev. Jesse Steiner. He was succeeded by Rev. Jeremiah Good, 
who served the congregation three years ; and was succeeded by Rev. 
Henry BrinkerhofT, serving the congregation two years; and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. John Rike, who died in the midst with his armor fully 
polished. Mr. Rike was succeeded by Rev. P. D. Schory ; and he by 
Rev. G. W. Meckling, who was succeeded by Rev. H. Hock man. After 
him came Rev. John Swander, who was followed by Rev. L. Strassman; 
and on the first of April, 1872, the Rev. Win, Hale, the present pastor, 
settled in the congregation. The name of the church edifice was, short- 
ly after the coming of Mr. Hale, changed to Grace Reform Church. The 
present membership is 225. 

Respectfully, E. GIESY. 


The first German Evangelical Lutharan congregation of 
unaltered Ogsburg confession was organized in Lancaster, 0., 
on January 31st, 1849, the constituent members being twelve 
in number Rev. F. W. Richman was thcfirst pastor. Suc- 
ceeding him have been the following ministers, in the order in 
which their names occur. The dates refer to the year when 
each pastor took charge : 

Rev. J. P. Kalb took charge in 1852 ; Rev. F. W. Faclinger 
in 1857 ; Rev. J. L. Daib in 1868; Rev. M. Merz in 1859 ; Rev. 
J. F. Niethamer in 1885 ; Rev. E. J. Fredrick in 1866 ; Rev. G 
Sclum in 1869; Rev. C. A. Frank in 1870; Rev. E. Kaeler in 
1873; Rev. C. A. Frank again in 1876. 

This church was constituted by withdrawing members from 
St. Peters' Lutheran Church, in the year 1849. The primary 
object of the withdrawal, as set forth, was, to institute purely 
German services. Immediately after the separation, the 
members of Immanuel's Church purchased a lot on Chestnut 
street, between Broad and High streets, and proceeded forth- 
with to erect a church building, which being completed, was 
dedicated as a house of worship in 1852. 

This organization recognizes a voting qualification, viz. : 
only male members of the age of twenty-one years and upwards 
exercise that franchise. Of these, there are in the congrega- 
tion seventy. The communing members of the congregation, 
in 1876, upon the return of Rev. Mr. Frank, numbered two 


hundred and fifty-five. The children of the congregation at 
the same time numbered about fifty. Rev. C. A. Frank, 
p istor. 


"St. Mary's Church of Lancaster, Ohio. — There were Catholic families 
among the very earliest settlers of the town and county. 

" From 1820 to 1822, the first Catholic Church, a small frame build- 
ing, was completed at the foot of Chestnut street. 

" In 1841 the brick church on the north-east corner of High and Chest- 
nut streets was completed for occupancy. 

" In 1864 the new church, the large and elegant edifice now occupied 
by the congregation, was completed. In the same year the old brick 
church was remodeled for use as a parochial school. 

" A small frame building for a pastoral residence was built in 1844, 
adjoining the old brick church. This building was removed to the east- 
ern side of the church property, and a substantial brick addition made 
thereto in 186S, making the present pastoral residence. 

"Until 1839 the congregation was under the care of the Dominican 
Fathers of St Joseph's, Perry County. In that year the Rev. J. M. 
Young was sent by the Bishop of Cincinnati, and remained in charge for 
fifteen years, until 1854. when he was promoted to. the new See of Erie. 
He was succeeded here by the Rev. Henry Lange, who remained for ten 
years, and until his death early in 18(31. Rev. J. W. Brummer was 
temporarily in charge for a few months, and was succeeded in August by 
Rev. Bernard Evers, who, on account of failing health, returned to Cin- 
cinnati in the early part of the next year, where he died soon after. 

" Rev. Dr. Daniel O'Regan came in May, 1865, and was here some- 
thing more than two years, when ill-health compelled him to relinquish 
labor. He joined his family in Dubuque, Iowa, and died there. 

" The next in order was Rev. F. J. Rudolph, who remained from July, 
1867, until May, 1868, when, on the division of the Diocese of Cincin- 
nati, he preferred to retire to that part of it remaining under the Arch- 
bishop of Cincinnati. 

"Rev. Louis Decailly came in 1868, and remained until the early 
part of 1874, when he was transferred to Newark, and was succeeded 
here by Rev. N. E. Pilger. Father Pilger remained only a few months, 
when he was transferred to Delaware, and Rev. J. B. Schmidt took 
charge of the congregation, where he still remains. 

" In June, 1875, Rev. Gabriel Volkert was assigned as assistant pastor, 
and served until his death here in September of the same year, when 
Rev. F. J. Campbell was appointed to the place. 

" The Parochial School has an average attendance of two hundred and 
twenty, who are instructed by a corps of four Dominican Sisters, and 
one male teacher for the large boys. 

"The St. Mary's congregation, aggregating about sixteen hundred 
souls, numbers 260 families, with an annual average of fifteen marriages, 
and seventy-five baptisms. 

"Missions. — As the Lancaster congregation increased in numbers, it 
was found desirable to establish three mission churches in the southern 
part of the county. Afterwards a resident priest was assigned to their 
exclusive care. 


" At the 'Sacred Heart' Chapel, near Bremen, there are twenty-eight 
families; at 'St. Joseph's,' near Sugar Grove, there are thirty-two fami- 
lies; and forty families at the chapel of 'Our Lady of Good Hope,' in 
the south-eastern corner of the county." 


To Joseph Kurtz, of Pleasant Township, I am indebted for 
valuable aid in collecting notes of history of this religious de- 
nomination in Fairfield County, sometimes improperly called 
the "Ormish Church." 

Simon Menno was a Catholic priest of Switzerland, where 
he was born in the town of Friesland, in Mitmarsum, in the 
year 1495. At the breaking out of the reformation of the six- 
teenth century, he dissented from the Catholic church, and be- 
came the compeer of Luther, Malangthon, Zwinglius, and 
others, in carrying on that great work. He soon secured a 
numerous constituency, among whom, of his immediate dis- 
ciples, w T ere also many learned and influential men. Hence 
the denomination known as Mennonites. 


Jacob Amen w r as also a native of Switzerland, and a zealous 
preacher of the Mennonite doctrine. He flourished during the 
seventeenth century. He was not the founder of a sect, 
strictly, though he taught some views differing with Simon 
Meno, thereby securing personal followers. This was the 
origin of the Ornish, or Amish Church, the name deriving from 
Jacob Amen ; and in the United States the title they assume 
is that of Ornish Mennonite. They maintain a distinct church 
organization, nevertheless. In 1848, there were estimated to 
be in the United States one hundred and twenty-five thousand 
Mennonites, including the adherents of Jacob Amen. 

The Ornish Mennonite Order have some distinctive views 
and practices that merit special mention. They administer 
baptism by pouring. They hold war to be forbidden by the au- 
thority of Christ. They pay no fixed salaries to their preach- 
ers. They will not take an oath, nor resist force by force. 
They do not allow one of their members to become a public 
charge, but provide for the poor within the church. Any 
member in regular standing has the right to speak in the 
public congregation, and expound the Scriptures. In gen- 


eral doctrine, such as the incarnation, the atonement, the 
trinity, and regeneration b} r the new, or spiritual birth, they 
are accredited as being orthodox. Their public worship is 
conducted similar to all other orthodox denominations of the 
Evangelical branches of the Christian Church. 

The Ornish Mennonite Church took its origin in Fairfield 
County in 1834. The principal settlement of them has been 
in Pleasant and Berne townships. In former years they 
were more numerous than at present, their numbers having 
diminished chiefly by moving away. They have at present 
no church building, but hold their meetings in private houses. 

Within the history of the church in Fairfield County, the 
following preachers have resided among them : David Zook, 
Bishop ; Jonathan Zook, Jacob Hartzler, Rev. Gingrich, David 
Hartzler, Joseph Yoder and Solomon Stutzman. At present. 
May, 1877, Jonathan Zook is their preacher. 

They assume the plain, or Quaker garb, and are everywhere 
recognized by their dress. Their intercourse is at all times 
friendly and assuring; and in their dealings they are faithful, 
and, as a rule, strictly reliable. This is a cardinal part of 
their religion. Sober and temperate in their lives, they com- 
mand the confidence and respect of the community. As a 
rule, they are industrious and frugal, and it would be very 
rare to find an idler among that people, commonly spoken of 
as the " Ormish. " By common reputation, the Ornish women 
have acquired the reputation of being very superior butter- 
makers. And such is their known faithfulness, that the word 
of an Ormish man is always current in all his contracts. 


The denomination commonly spoken of as "Albrights," but 
properly the Evangelical Association, had its beginning as a 
distinctive church organization first in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, about the year 1800. The first members were called 
"Albrecht's Leute" (Albright people), after Jacob Albright, the 
founder of the church. Mr. Albright was converted in 1790, 
and during the succeeding ten years preached and exhorted 
more or less until, about 1800, he had a great many followers, 
when he founded a society with the above title. At first the 
membership was confined to the Germans, because all their 
services were held in that language. 


In doctrine and creed the "Association" is Armgfnian and 
Evangelical. Their itenerancy and forms of government, as 
likewise their modes of worship, are very much like the 
Methodists. From their organization, and during their weak- 
ness in numerical force, the} 7 suffered the usual persecutions 
of new sects, until now, in 1877, they Have acquired a strength 
and popularity that places them among the leading Protestant 
denominations of the world. 

The following letter, kindly prepared for me by Rev. Andrew 
Swartz, furnishes the history of the Evangelical Association 
in Fairfield County : 

Dr. H. Scott : The following is a condensed history of the Evangel- 
ical Association in Fairfield County : 

In the year A. D. 1816, the first missionary visited this county, viz. : 
Frederick Shower, father of the Shower brothers who are now doing a 
successful business in the shoe and boot trade in Lancaster. 

He commenced operations on Big Rush Creek, among the Swartz and 
Einsel families. An organization was soon formed in that neighbor- 
hood, followed by others in Greenfield and Liberty townships. After a 
few years the first circuit was formed, bearing the name of Lancaster 
Circuit, but embracing portions of Fairfield, Hocking, Ross, Pickaway 
and Franklin counties. 

For a number of years the meetings of the society were held prin- 
cipally in private houses. The first church edifice of the denomination 
in this county was erected on the land of Mr. John Bright, on Poplar 
Creek, Liberty Township, about the year 1830. For the first forty 
years of her labors among our population, her exercises were conducted 
almost exclusively in the German language, and as a consequence her 
increase in membership was not as rapid as might have been expected, 
had the religious exercises been conducted in the language of our 

About twenty years ago the Pennsylvania element of our church, 
which formed the basis of the several societies in the county, waked up 
to the importance of saving the youth for the church of their choice, 
and yielded their own preference in language for the benefit of their 
children. The growth and development of the denomination has been 
more rapid since said change was effected. Old societies have been 
strengthened, and a number of new ones formed. The denomination 
now numbers fifteen societies in Fairfield County, each one having their 
own house of worship ; and there are now five resident pastors in the 

The denomination has its strongest hold in Liberty Township, where, 
in the last two years, over eight thousand dollars have been raised for 
new church edifices. ' 

There is a Sabbath-School in connection with almost every society, 
into which schools nearly one thousand children and youth are gathered 
every Sabbath. By this it will be seen, that the Evangelical Associa- 
tion has a bright future in Old Fairfield. That she may live and pros- 
per, and be made a great blessing to our population for all time, is the 
earnest wish, sincere desire, and iervent prayer of the writer. 

Respectfully, ANDREW SWARTZ. 

May 2Qth, 1877. 



I obtain the following history of the Dunker denomination 
of Christians in Fairfield County from John Hunsacker, of 
Rush Creek Township, he having been a preacher and bishop 
in the order for many years. Tffe society at one time numbered 
about one hundred members, but at present, viz. : in May, 
1877, their number is reduced to about seventy, chiefly by 
emigration. They have three church buildings — one, a mile 
and a quarter south of Bremen; one, eight miles south-west of 
Bremen; and one on Durbin Run, five miles south-west from 
Bremen. The title they assume is, the " Brethren Church" the 
name Dunker, or Tunker, having been applied to them de- 
risively, as will presently be seen. There is no other society 
of the Brethren in Fairfield County besides that on Rush Creek 
and the Raccoon. 

They have been styled l Die Tceufer" or Baptists, the German 
words, Die Tceufer, meaning to dip, because they baptize by 
dipping, or plunging under the water. The ordinance is ad- 
ministered by the candidate kneeling in the water, while the 
administrator plunges the body forward, head foremost, three 
times, in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost ; hence 
Tceufer, or dipper. For the same reason they have sometimes 
been called tumblers. 

The origin of the order was in Germany, soon after the be- 
ginning of the great reformation; and from their mode of bap- 
tism they were sometimes called German Baptists. Their first 
emigration to America was in the fall of 1819, when about 
twenty families came over and landed first in Philadelphia. 

The denomination has peculiarities that deserve special 
mention. First, their general doctrines are Armenian. They 
have no written or published creed, but take their title from 
Matt, xxiii, 8 — " One is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are 
brethren." Their dress is the plain Quaker garb. They like- 
wise use a plain and unostentatious form of speech. They 
will neither take an oath nor go to war. They do not go to 
law, nor take interest for money loaned. [This rule has been 
modified so that sometimes now they take lawful interest, but 
never from their poorer brethren. — Ed.] The men commonly 
wear their beards long. They celebrate the Lord's Supper with 
love-feast, washing of feet, kiss of charity and the right-hand 


of fellowship. They also anoint the sick that they may re- 

In referring to this denomination, the Rev. E. Winchester, 
English Missionary, says : " They are industrious, sober, temp- 
erate, kind, charitable people, envying not the great, nor des- 
pising the mean. They read much ; they sing and pray much ; 
they are constant attendants upon the worship of God. Their 
dwelling-houses are all houses of prayer. They walk in the 
commandments and ordinances of the Lord blamelessly, both in 
public and private. They bring up their children in the nur- 
ture and admonition of the Lord. The law of kindness is in 
their mouths ; no sourness nor moroseness disgraces their re- 
ligion; and whatsoever they believe their Savior commands, 
they practice, without inquiring or regarding what others do." 
It is their custom, and they hold it a religious duty, at their 
big meetings, to spread a large table and feed the " multitude." 

The first establishment of the Dunker, or Brethren denom- 
ination, in Fairfield County, was about the year 1809, on Rush 
Creek and the Raccoon in the eastern part ; and the number 
of the constituent members was about twenty-five. The fol- 
lowing are the names of the principal members at that time : 
Casper Hufford and w if 3; Isaac Beery^-and wife ; John Beery-^ 
and wife; Henry Beery and wife; Solomon Hufford and wife; 
Daniel Hartsough and wife; George Bright and wife; Freder- 
ick Friezner and wife; Jacob Hunsaker and wife; Abraham 
Beery and wife; Jacob Stoner and wife; John Miricle and 
wife; Abraham Hufford and wife; Sally Hartsough; and per- 
haps a few others not remembered. 

Their first religious meetings were, held in the cabins of the 
members, respectively. 

Their first preachers were (they do not use the prefix Rev.) : 
Elijah Schofield and Jacob Staley. Sometime after the organi- 
zation, George Bright and Isaac Beery were chosen as their 
paeachers ; and, subsequently, Daniel Snider often came from 
Perry County and preached for them. 

In L03S, Philip Stoneburner was established in the church, 
and continued to preach about ten years, and was succeeded 
by John Hunsacker, who continued until 1857, when he was 
ordained Bishop, and continued until 1871. Joseph Hendricks 
was chosen preacher in 1851, and ordained in 1857. Between 
1871 and 1877, Daniel Hartsough, Michael Moore, Abraham 


Stemen and John Hufford supplied the congregation as their 

"The German Baptists, or Brethren (Dunkers), have dis- 
persed themselves almost through every State in the Union, 
more or less, but they are most numerous in Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, Ohio and Indiana. It would be difficult 
to give a regular statistical account of these people, as they 
make it no part of their duty to keep an exact account of the 
number of their communicants. * * None of their 

ministers receive any pecuniary compensation for any ser- 
vices they perform pertaining to the ministry. * * 
Their ministers will not perform the rites of marriage if 
there are lawful impediments against it in the parties. " 


The office of Probate Judge, in Ohio, was created in 1852 by 
the provisions of the new State Constitution adopted in that 
year. The functions of this Court were previously performed 
by the Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, and by the Asso- 
ciate Judges. Marriage licenses, previous to the Constitution 
of 1852, were issued by the Clerk of the Court. 

The first Probate Judge elected was Joel Rodibaugh, in 1852. 
Before his term expired he resigned, and Jesse Leohner was ap- 
pointed to serve out the time. In 1854, Virgil E. Shaw was 
elected, and held the office three years. In 1857, Jesse Loehner 
was elected, and re-elected the two succeeding terms, serving, 
in all, nine years, or up to 1866. In 1866, Abram Seifert was 
elected, and re-elected in 1868, bringing the time up to 1872, 
when Wm. T. Rigley was elected — and again in 1875^and is 
the present incumbent. The term of the office, as fixed by 
the Constitution, is three years. 


Hugh Boyl was appointed Clerk of the Court of Common 
Pleas for Fairfield County at its first session in 1803, and 
served uninterruptedly until about 1833, when Dr. M. Z. 
Kreider was appointed in his place, who served up to 1842. 
Joel Rodibaugh was then appointed, and held the office until 
the adoption of the new Constitution, in 1852. By the pro- 
visions of the new Constitution, the Clerkship became an 


elective office, and Martin Cagy was first elected, and served 
the first Constitutional term of three years. John Radibaugh 
succeeded him, serving also three years. John C. Rainey was 
next elected for the two succeeding terms, aggregating six 
years. After him Jesse Vandemark held the office six years, 
followed by Chas. F. Rainey six years, his second term expir- 
ing in February, 1876. In October, 1875, George Grabill was 
elected, assuming his office upon the expiration of Mr. C. F. 
Rainey's second term, in February, 1876. 

Hugh Boyl continued Clerk of the Supreme Court until the 
time of his death. 

Edward B. Thompson, 1824 to 1828. 
George D. Sites, 1828 to 1832. * 
Nathan Wetherby, 1832 to 1834. 
Silas Tain, 1834 to 1838. 
Thomas Edingfield, 1838. 
Samuel Ewing, 1840. 
Elias Perry, 1844. 
Oliver H. Perry, 1848. 
James Weaver, 1852. 

Wm. Potter, 1854. 
Aaron W. Ebright, 1856. 
James Miller, 1860. 
Emanuel Shisler, 1864. 
John D. Jackson, 1868. 
" " 1870. 

William Bush, 1872. 
" 1874. 
George See, 1876. 

Among those known to have served as Sheriffs of Fairfield 
County previous to 1820, is George Sanderson and William 
Crook, but whose term of office, or the exact date, I have been 
unable to fix. 


The office of County Treasurer, properly, was created by law 
in 1828. Previous to that time, tax collectors were appointed 
by the County Commissioners, viz. : from 1802 to 1827. Dur- 
ing that time of twenty-five years, the taxes were so collected 
and paid over to the treasurers, who, I believe, were also ap- 
pointed, but I have been able to learn only two or three of 
their names from tradition, the only source of information in 
the absence of records. Since 1828, the list of County Treas- 
urers for Fairfield County stands as follows : 




Adam Weaver, 1826. 
Jacob Beck, 1830. 
Ewel Jeffries, 1837. 
Asa Spurgeon, 1841. 
Jephthah Newkirk, 1845. 
Francis Lilley, 1849. 
Edward Grabill, 1853. 

Peter C. Bennadum, 1857, 
O. E. Davis, 1861. 
Bateman Beaty, 1863. i/ 
Jacob Baker, 1867. 
Gilbert Shaeffer, 1871. 
Henry A. Martens, 1875. 

The dates show the year of election. 

The following incident has been related to me by a friend 
of one of the old-time Treasurers. The lesson it contains 
might be utilized. 

When Jacob Beck went out of office, in 1837, and when his 
settlements with the Commissioners and the State had been 
completed, he found he had on hand a surplus sum of be- 
tween four and five hundred dollars. His accounts were all 
closed, and the question was, where did the money belong ? 
He insisted it belonged to the State. His political adversaries 
wanted to charge him with irregularity. It subsequently 
turned out that the State Auditor had erroneously transferred 
that amount from Muskingum to Fairfield County school fund. 


Previous to the year 1823, there does not seem to have been 
any legally constituted Surveyors for the County of Fairfield. 
Since that time the following men have served as County Sur- 
veyors, in the order and time below : 

Samuel Carpenter, 1823 to 1826. 
Jonathan Flattery, 1826 to 1836. 
Salmon Shaw, 1836 to 1842. 
Win. J. Card, 1842 to 1849. 
Gabriel Strunk, 1849 to 1854. 
Wm. Hamilton, 1854 to 1856. 

EzraS. Hannum, 1856 to 1867. 
Frank H. Carpenter. 1867 to 1869. 
Levi Hartzler, 1869 to 1874. 
Ezra S. Hannum, 1874 to 1876. 
Charles Boreland, Jr., 1876. 

The foregoing record of Probate Judges, Clerks of the Court, 
and County Surveyors, is completed up to the year 1876. In 
compiling the succession of other county officers I have expe- 
rienced difficulties, some of which, after much labor and pa- 
tient research, I am compelled to regard as insurmountable. 
The files of the Ohio Eagle between 1810 and 1838 are want- 
ing. From them we could have shown the annual and bien- 
nial election of officers. In the Gazette office the files are still 
more incomplete. The Court-house records are so voluminous 
and miscellaneously disposed, as to render the research too 
onerous to be undertaken clear through the seventy-six years 



of the civil history of Fairfield County. I am, nevertheless, 
under great obligations to the county officers for their kind- 
ness in affording me help in the prosecution of my researches 
during the last year, by which I have obtained valuable in- 
formation. The files of the Eagle from 1838 down, are com- 
plete, with the exception of one volume and a few mutilations. 
Following are the dates of the election of the respective of- 
ficers, which I have no doubt are entirely correct: 


After the most thorough search through the Court-house 
records, I have been unable to go behind 1820 in the list of 
Fairfield County Auditors, as follows : 

Samuel Carpenter, 1820 to 1828. 
Thomas U. White, 1829 to 1832. 
Henry C. Widler, 1833 to 1837. 
John C. Castle, 1838. 


Alfred McVeigh, 1844. 

Wm. L. Jeffries, 1848. 



James W. Towson, 1854. 
A. J. Dildine, 1856. 
Wm. Robinson, 1860. 
Wm. Shopp, 1864. 
" 1866. 
Louis Blaire, 1868. 
John C. Hite, 1873. 


Wm. W. Irvin, 1838. 
• " 1840. 
" 1842. 
Washington Van Ham, 1844. 
Emnnuel Giesy, 1846. 
Wm. R. Rankin, 1848. 
Virgil E. Shaw, 1852. 
Alfred Williams, 1854. 
James W. Stinchomb, 1856. 

James W. Stinchomb, 1858. 
Wm. T. Wise, 1860. 
Tollman Slough, 1862. 

Wm. A. Shultz, 1866. 

John G. Reeves, 1870. 


Thus. H. Dolson, 1876. 


Hugh Boyl, Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, did the re- 
cording of the County, in connection with the County Clerk- 
ship, up to about 1830, as is supposed, when Wm. Gruber was 
appointed, and after him Henry Miers. These latter two men 
filled up the interregnum between Hugh Boyl and Mr. King, 



who took charge of the office in 1837. There may be one or 
two inaccuracies in the following dates, but not important : 

Wm, L. King, 1837 to 1848. 
John K. Baker, 1849. 
Adam Syfert, 1859 to 1852. 

E. C. Hannum, 1854 to 1856. 
Adam Syfert, 1857 to 1864. 
Timothy Fishbaugh, 1866 to 1876. 


Alexander H. Keith was Judge of Common Pleas for Fair- 
field County from about 1837 to 1850. Henry C. Whitman 
succeeded him, and remained on the bench until about 1860 
or 1861, when he resigned, and P. B. Ewing was appointed to 
fill out his time. In 1862, Philadelphus Van Trump was 
elected, serving until his election to Congress in 1867, when 
Silas H. Wright was chosen, and has continued up to this 

Judges Swan and Grimpky preceded Judge Keith, but their 
time I have not the means of fixing definitely. In a former 
chapter we have given several of the early Judges of the Com- 
mon Pleas, beginning with Judge Wyley Siiliman, who opened 
the first Common Pleas in Fairfield in the year 1803. Follow- 
ing him was Judge Belt, and then Robert F. Slaughter, who 
was on the bench a number of years. 


The following statement, in substance, has been given me 
by more than one of the older citizens, and is therefore probably 
correct in its main features, as I find only slight discrepancies 
by the different narrators : 

The time of the occurrence was not far from 1820 — perhaps 
a little later. There was a band of horse-thieves and counter- 
fiters infesting the southern portion of Fairfield County, and 
the country below. Possibty some of them lived in surround- 
ing counties ; but, be that as it may have been, their place of 
rendezvous was ascertained to be three or four miles south, or 
south-west of Lancaster, in what is commonly known as 
" Sleepy Hollow." The number of the thieves was not exactly 
known, but it came to be understood that six or eight of them 
were in the habit of meeting at a house in Sleepy Hollow. 
They were rough and desperate characters, and their leader, 


who waa well known, was a man of powerful strength and 
activity, and as desperate and daring as he was strong. 

Several attempts to make arrests and break up the lodge had 
been unsuccessful, the villains defying all law and all the posse 
that had undertaken their capture. Thomas Ewing was the 
Prosecuting Attorney for the county at the time of the final 
descent upon their den, and upon report being made that they 
could not be taken, he said the conclave must be broken up, 
and asked that he might be deputized as special constable for 
the occasion. His request was granted, and having, by some 
method, best known to himself, learned the night and place of 
their meeting, he proceeded to select and organize his posse 
romitatus, composed in part of the following names : Nathaniel 
Red, Christian Neibling, Adam Weaver, Christian King, David 
Reece and Elenathan Schofield. At a suitable hour, when the 
darkness of night had " in her sombre mantle all things clad," 
the company, equipped with ropes and other implements that 
might be needed in the execution of their mission, mounted 
their horses and proceeded down through the hills in the di- 
rection of the cabin where they expected to find their birds. 

Having arrived in the vicinity of the lodge, they halted 
under the cover of a thicket, and began the reconnoiter. They 
soon found that they were on the right track, and having 
matured their plans, they surrounded the house silently, and 
bursting the door, rushed in without giving a moment's time 
to extinguish lights or attempt escape. The thieves were 
holding their conclave in the second story, and instantly each 
deputy attacked his man, Mr. Ewing selecting the leader as 
the most powerful man of them all. Within a very brief space 
of time every man of the robbers was securely bound, with a 
single exception — Mr. Schofield's adversary was about proving 
too much for him, which fact coming to Mr. Ewing's notice, 
he at once went to his assistance. While the tying of this 
last man was in progress, the leader, who had regained his 
feet, threw himself backwards through the window, bound as 
he was, and, strange to say, actually succeeded in making good 
his escape. It was a fearful risk, but he did it, and was never 
subsequently heard tell of. It was supposed that he was as- 
sisted by the women below. The balance of the robbers were 
taken to town and lodged in jail, and subsequently, I believe, 
every one sent to the Penitentiary. 


I have given this story as it has been given to me. It may 
be relied on as true; at least in outline and in the principal 
facts. The men selected by Mr. Ewing as his posse were all 
men of herculean strength and undaunted courage; but to 
himself, undoubtedly, belonged the credit of the success of the 
enterprise, and of the clearing of the country of the bandits. 


The response of Major B. W. Carlisle to the toast, "The 
Hocking Canal, " given at the Hocking Sentinel anniversary, 
held at the Remple House, in Logan, on the 26th of April? 
1877, is of such value as a part of the history of Fairfield 
County, that I here insert it entire. Also the letter of Gen. 
Thomas Ewing,- addressed, on the same occasion : 


"In response to the sentiment assigned us, we beg to indulge while 
we review in abstract, and briefly, the history and reminiscences of the 
Hocking Canal. Its history, though brief, and to some probably mo- 
notonous and uninteresting, is fraught with facts important to, and 
well remembered by the pioneers of the Hockhocking. We call upon 
you friends who have lived for two and a half or threescore years in 
this beautiful valley of ' milk and honey, ' to return with us upon the 
wings of memory and hear again the shouts of joy echoing through the 
length and breadth of this valley, as we heard them in the earliest days 
of our settlement. 

" The first part of the Hocking Canal was built by the Lancaster Lat- 
eral Canal Company, from Lancaster to Carroll, there forming a junc- 
tion with the Ohio Canal. The Lancaster Lateral Canal was put under 
contract in 1832, by Samuel F. McCracken, Jacob Greene, E. Schofield, 
Benjamin Connell, and others, with F. A. Foster as Secretary. This 
piece of canal, known as the 'Side Cut,' was completed, and the first 
boats towed into Lancaster on the 4th day of July, in 1835, or 1836, 
amidst the booming of cannons, beating of drums, and the wafting to 
the breeze of flags and banners, and being witnessed by some ten thou- 
sand of Fairfield's yeomanry, who were assembled at the Cold Spring 
Hill, near Lancaster, where there was a roasted ox and a free dinner 
served ; and after which the Greenes, Bill Furgusou, and others, in- 
dulged in the popular exercise of fisticuffs. 

" Up to this period (1836), our farmers usually got from 25 to 40 
cents for wheat, but many of them became rich from prices received for 
their surplus products afterward. Lancaster was then one of the large 
commercial cities of the country, getting all the grain from most parts 
of the county, as well as from parts of Perry, Hocking and Pickaway 
counties. There were nine dry goods stores, all doing a large business. 

" In March, 1838, an act was passed by the Legislature of the State, 
authorizing the then Commissioners to purchase the Side Cut from its 
owners. On April 6th, 1838, a committee was appointed to confer with 


the Lancaster Company and negotiate terms; and on the 22d of Decem- 
ber, 1838, a contract was matured for the same, at a cost of $61,241.04. 

" The Hocking Canal was projected and put under contract by the 
Board of Public Works, in 1836, that Board having just been made to 
substitute the Canal Commissioner of the State. Sixteen and one-half 
miles, being from Lancaster to Bowner's Lock, was put under contract 
in 1837, and to be completed in 1839. And that portion from Bowner's 
Lock to Nelsonville, being sixteen and one-half miles, was put under 
contract in October, 1837, and to be completed in 1839, but was not 
completed until 1840. In September of this year the first boats loaded 
•with coal came out of the Hocking, and served as a curiosity to most of 
the upper valley citizens, who had never seen stone-coal. In 1841, the 
canal was completed to Monday Creek, being forty-four miles from 
Carroll; and from Monday Creek to Athens completed and boats run- 
ning through in 1841. 

" The Hocking Canal has 31 locks, 8 dams, 34 culverts, and 1 acqueduct 
of 80 feet span. 

" The total cost of construction of this canal was $947,670.25. 

"To the opening of this canal, Lancaster, Logan, Nelsonville and 
Athens owe their principal prosperity, in affording an opening for the 
importation of their goods, and the exportation of their grain, pork, 
lumber, salt and various minerals of the Hocking Valley. Hemmed in 
as you were by towering hills, your agricultural wealth was unobserved, 
your mineral wealth unknown. To the Hocking Canal you owe your 
introduction to the world without. Through the medium of the canal, 
a market was brought near, and the latent wealth of your hills was then 
developed, and the beautiful hills of the Hockhocking became the '"hub" 
of the mineral wealth of Ohio. 

" By the introduction of this old water-horse (the canal), the long- 
hidden treasures of mineral wealth of this valley w r ere brought into 
notice and general use; manufactories built up in all the contiguous 
towns and territories, thus affording employment to a large and needy 
class of mechanics, and the employment of an equal number of laborers 
in penetrating the bowels of the earth for fuel, and the employment of 
horses, boats and men, to ship the fuel all along the line of our canals, 
and enriching many of the citizens of the Hocking Valley. 

" Allow me to say, in conclusion, that although the iron-horse moves 
majestically along the valley, bearing the greater share of your trade, 
yet the old water-horse still lives aud possesses a large amount of vitality, 
and is therefore not yet ready to be turned out to die. as some would 
have him. And if any inanimate object were capable of awakening in 
the human breast sentiments of gratitude and esteem, these, the citi- 
zens of the Hocking Valley owe to the canal." 


Lancaster, Ohio, April 26th, 1877. 

Eds. SENTINEL — Gentlemen: But for unexpected business calling me 
elsewhere, I would have attended the anniversary banquet to-night, to 
join your other friends in bragging of the success and promise of the 
Sentinel, and of the wonderful region, in the development of which it 
has had, and will yet have, an important part. We who were bom in the 
Hocking Valley always knew, and "the rest of mankind" are fast 
finding out, that it is one of the choicest regions ever fashioned by the 
Almighty for the abode of man. Rich, healthful and beautiful, she 


hoids her sons and daughters to her breast by every tie of interest and 

Yet she attracts us more by what she is than what she is soon to be — 
for all men love to be associated with the birth of great events and indus- 
tries. The most western out line of the Apalachian basin, this coal and 
iron region, began six years ago to furnish light, heat and power, to the 
cities and towns of the great agricultural plain of the North-west ; and 
now it is about to become, not only their coal-yard, but their work-shop. 
The hard times, by means of which the usurers are crushing and robbing 
the industrial classes, have only demonstrated its unequaled capabili- 
ties for making cheap iron; and great industries perishing elsewhere, are 
being transplanted here, where even the blight of forced resumption 
can't kill them. 

It needs no seer to predict, that before the editors of the Sentinel 
shall have grown grey in the cause of Democracy and the country, 
every hill-top of this region will be teeming with husbandmen, every 
depth with diggers of coals and ores ; while the clang and roar of mills 
and furnaces will make each valley resonant — a busy hive, which, in 
time, as my father long ago predicted, will surpass in numbers and pros- 
perous industry any equal space on earth. 

Very truly vour friend, 



The oldest citizens of Lancaster describe a typhoid epi- 
demic that prevailed in the village in the fall of the year 
1823. Its ravages are believed not to have been exceeded on 
the continent at any age, or by any visitation of epidemic 
disease, not even excepting the cholera. No direct or remote 
cause could be assigned. It prevailed largely among the promi- 
nent and better conditioned citizens. It is spoken of as having 
decimated the town, which means one death out of every ten 
citizens. One gentleman thinks the mortality exceeded even 
that proportion. If one should inspect the grave-stones 
of the old grave-yards in the vicinity of Lancaster, he would 
be surprised at the number of stones bearing date of 1823, most 
of the occupants having fell by the epidemic of that year. No 
similar disease and mortality has subsequently visited the 
place. It is said that some portion of the time there were not 
well persons enough to nurse the sick and bury the dead. 

fairfield's public men. 

Governors of Ohio from Fairfield County, from the organization of 
the State up to 1876. — William Medill was elected Lieutenant 
Governor of Ohio in the fall of 1851. His term began in 
January, 1852. He was Acting-Governor the latter part of 


the term. He was subsequently elected to the Gubernatorial 
chair in the fall of 1852, and served until 1856. 

Judges of the Supreme Court under the Constitution of 1802. — 
William W. Irvin, of Lancaster, was appointed to the Su- 
preme Bench in the early years of the State, but the exact 
year does not appear upon the records. 

Charles R. Sherman, of Lancaster, was also on the bench. 
He was appointed to fill the place of John McLain, of Warren 
County, who resigned on the llth of January, 1823. Mr. 
Sherman was Judge at the time of his death, at Lebanon, in 

Hocking H. Hunter was elected to the Supreme Judgeship 
for the District of Ohio, under the Constitution of 1851, but 
resigned before taking his seat. 

U. S. Senators. — Thomas Ewing Avas first elected to the Sen- 
ate of the United States to fill the place made vacant by the 
resignation of Thomas Corwin, in 1831, and served till 1837. 
He was again Senator from 1850 to 1851. 

Members of Congress. — The following are the men who have 
been elected to the Lower House of Congress from Fairfield 
since the admission of the State into the Union, in 1802: 

Philomon Beecher, 1817 to 1821, and 1823 to 1829. 

William W. Irvin, 1829 to 1833. 

John Chaney, 1833 to 1839. 

William Medill, 1839 to 1843. 

Thomas 0. Edwards, 1847 to 1849. 

Charles D. Martin, 1859 to 1861. 

Philadelphia Van Trump, 1867 to 1873. 

Of the foregoing mentioned men, only two are living in 
1877, viz : John Chaney and Charles D. Martin. 

Officers of the year 1876. — State Senate, Robert E. Reece (Dis- 
trict) ; Representative, Adam Seifert; Judge of Common Pleas, 
Silas H. Wright; Probate Judge, Wm. L. Bigby; Clerk of 
Court, Geo. W. Grabill ; Auditor, John C. Hite ; Treasurer, 
Gilbert Shaeffer ; Recorder, Timothy Fishbaugh ; Sheriff, Wm. 
Bush; Prosecuting Attorney, John Reeves; Commissioners, 
Thomas Barr, Caleb Moore and William Fink. 

Here follow some important historical and statistical mat- 
ters, culled from the various official reports of the Secretaries 
of State : 


The first General Assembly of the State of Ohio met in Chil- 
licothe on the first Tuesday of March, 1803. The names of the 
Senators were : 

John Beasley (this seat was contested and given to Joseph 
Darlington early in the session), Joseph Buell, William Buch- 
anan, Nathaniel Massie, Abraham Claypool, Francis Dunlavy, 
Jeremiah Morrow, John Paul, Daniel Symmes, Samuel Hunt- 
ing, Zenan Kimberly, Razaliel Wells, William Vance. 

Representatives. — Michael Baldwin, Robert Culbertson, Thos. 
Worthington, Win. Patton, Rudolph Bear, Z. A. Beaty, Thos. 
Elliott, Isaac Meeks, Thos. Brown, John Bigger, James Dunn, 
Wm. James, Robert McClure, Wm. Maxwell, Thomas McFar- 
land, Wm. Jackson, Robert Safford, Wylly Silliman, Thomas 
Kerker, Ephraim Kibby, Joseph Lucas, Wm. Reuffie, Ephraim 
Quinby, Aaron Wheeler, David Reece (of Fairfield), R. Walker 
Waring, Amos Ellis, Joseph Sharp, Elijah Woods. Speaker, 
Michael Baldwin ; Clerk, R. Dickerman. 

In the month of December, 1803, Fairfield County contained, 
by official report, 1,051 free white male inhabitants over the 
age of 21 years. (The word "free ".was used because at that 
time there were in the county redemptionists— persons who 
had been sold to service to pay their passage from the old 
country). In 1807 it contained 2,166 free white males above 
the age of 21 years. 

Here follows a statement of the vote cast by Fairfield County 
for Governor, from and including 1806, up to and including 

1806— For Edward Tiffin, without opposition, 327 votes. 

1808 — Three candidates — Samuel Huntington, 973; Thos. 
Worthington, 192; Thos. Kirker, 3. 

1810— Return J. Meigs, 335; Thos. Worthington, 738. 

1812— Return J. Meigs, 241 ; Thos. Scott, 1,213. 

1814— Thomas Worthington, 945; Othniel Looker, 176. 

1816— Thomas Worthington, 1,059; James Dunlap, 878. 

1818— Ethan A. Brown, 1,535 ; James Dunlap, 239. 

1820— Ethan A. Brown, 1,794; Jeremiah Morrow, 33; Wm. 
H. Harrison, 35. 

1822— Jeremiah Morrow, 87; Allen Trimble, 32; William 
W. Irvin, 1,819. 

1824— Jeremiah Morrow, 1,369; Allen Trimble, 1,157. 


1S26 — This year there were four candidates who were voted 
for, as follows, in Fairfield— Allen Trimble, 2,609; John Big- 
ger, 5; Alexander Campbell, 14; and Benjamin Tappin, 2. 

1828— Allen Trimble, 1,234 ; John W. Campbell, 2,076. 

1830 — Duncan Mc Arthur received 1,035 ; Robt. Lucas, 1,819. 

1832 — This year we give the votes cast in Fairfield for Presi- 
dent of the United States, thus : Andrew Jackson received 2,648 
votes; Henry Clay received 1,274 ; Mr. Wirt, Anti-Mason can- 
didate, received 2 votes. 

1834— For Governor : Robert Lucas (Dem.), 2,024 ; James 
Finlay (Whig), 1,349. 

1836— For President of the United States: Martin Van Buren 
(Dem.) had 2,906 votes in Fairfield ; and William H. Harrison 
(Whig), 1,846. 

1838— For Governor : Wilson Shannon, 2,717 ; Joseph Vance, 

1840— Thomas Corwin for Governor (Whig), 2,421 ; Wilson 
Shannon (Dem.), 3,411. 

1842— Wilson Shannon, 3 212 ; Thomas Corwin, 2,037. 

1844— Mordecai Bar tley (Whig), 2,402 ; David Tod (Dem.), 

1846— William Bebb (Whig), 2,116; David Tod (Dem.), 2,931. 

1848— John B. Weller (Dem.), 3,573 ; Seabury Ford (Whig), 

1850— Reuben Wood (Dem.), 3,232; Wm. Johnson (Whig), 

1852— Reuben Wood (Dem.), 3,042; Sam'l. F. Vinton (Whig), 
1,736; Samuel Lewis (Abolition), 2 votes. 

1853— For Governor : William Medill (Dem.), 2,803 ; Nelson 
Barrere (Whig), 1,157. 

1855— William Medill (Dem.), 2,614; Allen Trimble (Know- 
Nothing), 52; Salmon P. Chase (Rep.), 2,474. 

1856 — This year the vote for Attorney General is given: 
Christopher P. Wolcott (Rep.), 1,631; Samuel M. Hart (Dem.), 
3,095 ; John M. Bush (Know-Nothing), 581. 

1857— For Governor : Salmon P. Chase (Rep.), 1,281 ; Henry 
Payne (Dem.), 2,917 ; P. Van Trump (Know-Nothing), 357. 

1859— William Dennison (Rep.), 1,394; Rufus P. Ranney 
(Dem.), 2,821. 

1861— David Tod (Rep.), 2,137; Hugh J. Jewett (Dem.), 


1863— John Brough (Rep.), 2,790 ; Clement L. Valandingham 
(Dem.), 3,478. 

1865— For Governor : Jacob D. Cox (Rep.) ; home vote, 2,328 ; 
army vote, 23; total, 2,351. Geo. W. Morgan (Dem.); home 
vote, 3,393 ; army vote, 1 ; total, 3,394. 

1867— Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep.), 2,056; Allen G. Thur- 
man (Dem.), 3,940. 

1868— For President : U. S. Grant, 2,439 ; Horatio Seymour, 
4,076 votes in Fairfield County. 

1870— In 1870, the candidates for Governor in Ohio, were 
Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep), and George H. Pendleton (Dem.) 
Hayes received in Fairfield County 2,144 votes; and Pendleton 
3,831 votes. 

1871— For Governor : Edward F. Noyes (Rep.), 2,185 ; Geo. 
W. McCook (Dem.), 3,622 ; Gideon T. Stewart (Prohibitionist), 
25 votes. 

1872— For President: U. S. Grant (Rep.), 2,540; Greely 
(Dem.), 3,888. 

1873— For Governor : Edward F. Noyes (Rep.), 2,034 ; Wm. 
Allen (Dem.), 3,551. 


The German element of nationality predominates in Fair- 
field County. The first emigrants were largely from Pennsyl- 
vania, especially in and near Lancaster. These almost en- 
tirely spoke the German language ; and some of the first 
schools were purely in that language. Subsequently, the 
county became the center of immigration from the Fatherland, 
including Swiss and Hollanders, so that probably to-day 
every provincialism of the Teutonic language is spoken 
within the limits of Fairfield County. 

Next to Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky contributed 
to the early settlement of the county. A few came from the 
more southern States, and afterward Maryland supplied many 
good citizens. There is, perhaps, not one of the original 
States that is not represented — New England, probably, furn- 
ishing the fewest number. And there is, perhaps, no civil- 
ized trans-Atlantic country that is not represented here, and 
whose language is not spoken. 



ING APRIL 1st, 1877. 

From the following tables a very just estimate may be 
formed of the average births and deaths in a given population 
within a given time. The figures are obtained from the As- 
sessors' returns for the spring of 1877, and including one year: 



1st Ward 30 

2d Ward 14 

3d Ward 22 

4th Ward 14 

5th Ward 17 

Total in city 97 



Hocking Township 28 

Amanda Township -. , 48 

Richland Township 28 

Rush Creek Township 40 

Clear Creek Township 58 

Greenfield Township 33 

Madison Township 25 

Bloom Township 46 

Walnut Township 40 

Violet Township 66 

Berne Township 31 

Pleasant Township 24 

Liberty Township 58 

Total 525 


Total in city and county 622 















To Judge G. W. Leith, of Nevada, Wyandot County, Ohio, I 
am indebted for the following passage from the life and highly 
romantic career of his grandfather, John Leith. The narra- 
tion concerns so intimatety the history of Fairfield County, 
that it deserves a place. It will be seen that it will not do to 
say that the Marietta and Hocking scouts, previous to the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century, were the first white men 
that ever trod the Valley of the Hockhocking. 

" John Leith was born in the city of Leith, Scotland. His 
parents being of the Huguenots who emigrated to South Caro- 
lina near the middle of the eighteenth century, where they died 
soon after, he was left without relatives. He was put to learn 
the tailoring business, but soon became dissatisfied and ran 
away. At Little York, Pennsylvania, he hired with an In- 
dian trader, and went with him to Fort Pitt (Pittsburg). Soon 
after, together, they took a stock of suitable goods and started 
west, and in due time arrived at the Valley of the Hocking 
and opened a trade with the Delawares and Wyandots, on 
the very spot where Lancaster now stands, and it is thought 
near the foot of Mount Pleasant. 

"He had not been there long when he felt a strong desire to 
return to South Carolina, and resolved to do so; and when he 
had made his determination •known to his employer, the lat- 
ter proposed to him that he wished to go to Fort Pitt to dis- 
pose of the large stock of furs and skins he had on hand, and 
that if he (Leith) would remain and take care of the stores 
until he returned, he would send him under the guidance of 
an Indian back to Carolina by a near route. This was agreed 
to, and the trader took his departure. 

"He had not been long gone when the Indians informed Leith 
that the whites were marching on them in force to destroy 
them, and that he must be adopted and go with them, or die. 
He was adopted, and the remnant of the goods was parceled 
out among the tribe, and they left for the north. 


"He was a captive among the Indians twenty-nine years. 
He married a white captive girl, by the name of Sallie Lowry ; 
and in 1791, with his wife and two children, made his escape, 
and succeeded in reaching Pittsburg, closely pursued by his 
captors. There was a sister of his wife, also a captive, who 
was subsequently married to the father of the late Thomas 
McNaughten, of Walnut Township. 

"About the year 1810, John Leith moved into Walnut Town- 
ship, of this county, where he died about the year 1837, and 
was buried in the Methodist grave-yard at New Salem. His 
son, who was the father of Judge Leith, of Wyandot, as well 
as the Judge, were, I believe, citizens for a time of Walnut 

u The occurrence of the traffic with the Indians at Mount 
Pleasant, was in 1763, just one hundred and fourteen years ago, 
and thirty-five years before Joseph Hunter built the first cabin 
on the Hockhocking." 


The townships assessed for taxation in 1806, and which 
have already been incorporated into this volume, were Hock- 
ing, Berne, Bloom, Clear Creek, Greenfield, Licking, Amanda, 
Pleasant, Clinton, Thorn and Richland. There were several 
other townships belonging to the county at that time that 
do not seem to have been taxed ; at least the County records 
show no evidence that they were. Among these were Salt 
Creek, Jackson, Falls and Redding, none of which were 
stricken off previous to 1806. Licking Count}' was the first 
border county to be organized, which took place in 1808. 
Pickaway and Hocking were incorporated a little later, and 
Perry in 1817. This took off several townships, which con- 
tracted Fairfield County to pretty near its present bounds. 

It seems a little strange, however, that Rush Creek Town- 
ship does not appear among the assessed townships for that 
year, for it was organized in 1804. There were two purposes 
contemplated in transcribing the names of the tax-payers 
into this history by townships : first, to exhibit the financial 
condition of the county in its incipient state; but especially 
to show who were the early settlers, and in what townships 
and neighborhoods they settled. Rush Creek was one of the 
earliest settled townships in the county, and has always been, 


and is now, within the present Fairfield County. It is, more- 
over, among the wealthiest and most populous townships in 
the county. The second end, however, viz. : to give reference 
to the names and location of early settlers, will be found to 
be accomplished if the reader will search the alphabetical 
lists in Berne, Pleasant and Richland, where he will find all, 
or most of the names of the early settlers of the territory con- 
stituting the present Rush Creek Township, which goes to 
show that that township was made up from these three town- 
ships. Here we are obliged to leave the matter without 
further explanation. 


In addition to the chattel tax of 1806, mentioned in the as- 
sessments already given, a land tax was assessed and collected 
in the same year, amounting to about nine hundred and fifty dol- 
lars ($950), which, added to the chattel-tax, as before, aggre- 
gates the sum of about two thousand dollars ($2,000). A 
further evidence that Rush Creek had not yet been separated 
from the other townships as a distinct municipality, is found 
in the fact that the land assessments were made on the same 
townships, numbering eleven. 


In noticing the business men and industries of Lancaster in 
the year 1876, by a strange inadvertence the establishment of 
Mr. Binninger was omitted among the list of jewelers and 
watch dealers. His business place is on the north side of 
Main street, opposite the Hocking Valley National Bank. 



At my strong solicitation, Judge Chaney consented to give 
me the following statement of his private and public life. He 
remarked that he had often been asked for similar statements, 
and that he had concluded now, in view of the near approach 
of the close of his very long and somewhat eventful life, and 
because he was pleased with the plan and design of the his- 
tory of Fairfield County, to give me the statement, especially 
as I assured him that his numerous and life-long friends asked 
for it. 


" I was born in Washington County, Maryland, on the 12th 
day of January, 1790. At the age of four years, and at the be- 
ginning of my recollections, my father removed to and settled 
in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. When I was fourteen years 
old, my father died. The family then consisted of my mother, 
three sisters, one brother and myself. Three or four months 
subsequent to my father's death, my brother died. The death 
of my father left the family very poor. He was a generous 
man, and underwrote his friends, who were unfortunate, until 
he lost his farm, which was a good one, and nearly all his loose 
property. From my fourteenth to my twentieth year the care 
of the family devolved almost entirely on myself. 

" In the fall of the year 1810, I came west to Fairfield 
County, Ohio, stopping first on the spot where the village of 
Waterloo now stands, on the Ohio canal. I did not remain 
there long, but went over into Pickaway County, where I 
stayed until the fall of 1812, when my health having become 
poor, I returned to Bedford County, Pennsylvania. 



" In the fall of 1815, my health having been restored, I 
again came west and settled in Bloom Township, near its 
northern border, in the same community where I have resided 
up to this time; my present home being in the village of 
Canal Winchester, which was a few years since struck off into 
Franklin County with a tier of sections, the Fairfield line 
skirting the east border of the village. 

" In the fall of 1816, J married Mary Ann Lafere, of Bloom 
Township, and went to housekeeping in a log-cabin fourteen 
feet square. Its floor was made of rough puncheons split out 
of forest trees. It had a clapboard roof and clapboard loft, 
was one low story high, had a stick and mud chimney, wide 
open fireplace with the primitive back wall, jams and hearth. 
It was a very rude and humble home, but we were as happy 
as kings. Our living was that of the frontier settlers. We 
worked hard and were poor ; but did not doubt the future, for 
our aims were set. We intended to live correct and honorable 
lives, and take the chances of the coming years. There were 
wolves and wild turkeys in great abundance, and now and 
then a bear. There were hawks of a great many varieties, 
which have nearly entirely disappeared ; and the owls were 
hooting about the woods all the time. The whole country 
was new and wild. The little farms were small, and fenced in 
with rails; and the dwelling-houses were log-cabins; and the 
stables and barns were built of logs. 

"At the time of my settlement in Bloom Township, the price 
of a day's work was a bushel of wheat, or two bushels of corn. 
Cash was seldom paid for work, and when it was, twenty-five 
cents a day was the wages. Almost everything was paid for 
with trade. A few things had to be paid in cash. The taxes 
were cash; and coffee and a few other commodities commanded 
cash when anybody could get it to pay with. Our markets, 
whatever they amounted to, were at Lancaster and Franklin- 
ton. The little mills of the settlements sometimes went dry, 
and we had to go all the way to Chillicothe or Zanesville to 
get our grain ground. The streams were not bridged, and in 
the muddy seasons of the year the roads were sometimes des- 
perate. I made rails for fifty cents a hundred, and cut cord- 
wood for twenty-five cents a cord. 

" My sisters having married, I went and brought my mother 
out to this county. She subsequently went back on a visit, 


but was taken sick there and died, and was buried beside my 
father. I went, and was with her during her last illness. 

" Our schools were the primitive schools of the early West. 
After the passage of the first Ohio School Law, we built a little 
log school-house at the cornerings of sections 1,2, 11 and 12. 
We obtained a lease of the land for that purpose for thirty 
years. The log school- house stood a great many years, when 
it was removed, and a brick built on the same ground, which 
is still standing. 

[I am not positive whether he said the brick house was 
built on the same site, or in the same district. — Ed.] 

'• We accepted the situation, and struggled on to better 
times and better life. There were no inducements to change 
our habitation. Ohio was rapidly filling up, and with every 
revolving year conditions were improving. Markets were im- 
proving, and by slow degrees we began to have better roads. 
Rough bridges began to be constructed over the smaller 
streams. The first bridges were made of logs cut from the 
forests for sills and butments, and the top, or platform, was 
made of slabs split from sections of trees, and generally hewed 
to a level, on the upper side, with the broad-ax, or leveled 
down with the foot-adz. These were the first or primitive 
bridges ; but after saw-mills became plenty, oak planks of the 
thickness of one and a half or two inches were used for the 

'• There was another method of bridging the low, marshy, or 
swamplands. These were called 'pole bridges,' or 'corduroy 
bridges.' They were common all over the West. The follow- 
ing was the manner of constructing them : Poles or logs were 
cut from the woods, of the length of ten or twelve feet, and 
laid down side by side across the road for the distance to be 
corduroyed. Then on top of this ground-structure was placed 
a foot or more ot earth dug up along the sides, if it were not 
under water, or hauled in on wagons. This bed of earth filled 
the space between the logs or poles, and when sufficiently 
packed made a passably good road. And it was a part of the 
work of the Supervisor to repair these roads by adding ad- 
ditional earth when the logs became too much exposed by 
wearing or the washing rains. 

" On the north were the Indians ; and west, in Indiana, the 
county was still newer and less promising, much of it still in 


a condition of nature. We therefore concluded to remain in 
Bloom Township; for, however much we might have desired 
to re-cross the mountains back to my native and older State, 
we were too poor to do so. 

" At the time of my settlement here, I mention the follow- 
ing names, who, with their families, were my predecessors in 
Bloom, and my neighbors : Abram Plummer, Henry Tumlin- 
son, Henry Dove, Chaney Rickets, Charles Rickets, Rev. Geo. 
Bennadum, Rev. Elijah Spurgeon, Isaac Meason, Martin Felt- 
ner, the Courtrights, Zebulon Lee, Dorsey Meason, Henry 
Himebaugh, Major Bright, the Glicks, and 'the Alspaughs. 

"In Violet Township I mention: Abram Pickering, Jacob 
Pickering, Samuel McCollum, George Wells, George Long, 
Jonathan Looker, Mordecai Fishbaugh, the Cramers and the 
Kraners, the Donaldsons, Frederick Bauer. All the fore- 
going, and others, were residing here in 1812. Not over two 
or three of them are living now. 

" In the early years of my residence in Bloom Township, I 
bought a mill on Spring Run, near me (Spring Run is fed by 
three or four springs), where for several years I run a grist- 
mill, a saw-mill, and a distillery, which enabled me to form 
the acquaintance of a pretty wide circle of citizens. 

" At the time of my settlement, the Lutherans and German 
Reforms were the principal religious denominations of the 
neighborhood. The Betzer Church was their place of meeting 
in common. The church is situated four miles north-east of 
Lithopolis. There was also a church south of Lithopolis, known 
as the Glick Church. Both are still meeting places. 

" I was elected Justice of the Peace in 1821, 1824, and in 
1827, serving in all three terms, or nine years. I served as 
Township Trustee twenty-three years. In the Ohio Militia, 
old system, I served at various times as Major, Colonel, and 

"In the years 1828, 1829, and 1830, 1 was elected to the Legis- 
lature as Representative of Fairfield County. In the spring of 
1831, the Legislature elected nre as one of the Associate Judges 
of Fairfield County. 

"In the fall of 1832 I was elected to the Lower House of 
Congress, from the district composed of Fairfield, Perry, Mor- 
gan and Hocking counties. Was re-elected from the same 


district in 1834, and in 1836. In 1842 I was again returned to 
the Ohio Legislature, Lower House, and was at that session 
elected Speaker. In 1844 I was elected to the Ohio Senate, 
the term being two years; and again in 1855 returned to the 
Lower House. 

" In 1832 my friends placed my name on the Presidential 
electoral ticket, and I had the honor of helping to make An- 
drew Jackson President of the United States. In 1851 I was 
a member of the Constitutional Convention that framed the 
present Constitution of the State of Ohio. I am now within 
a few days of the close of my eighty-eighth year, and in the 
enjoyment of good health." 

From the friends and long acquaintances of Judge Chaney, 
I have received the information, that never once during his 
public life did he solicit office. But, when placed in nomina- 
tion by his political friends, he entered into the spirit of the 
canvass, and helped the ticket through. 

In parting with the venerable Judge, as he grasped my hand 
cordially, he remarked, while his voice swelled up in volume 
and animation, that, whatever his life may have been, there 
was one thing that he was proud of, and that was the good 
opinions of his neighbors and constituents. That good opinion 
has been merited. And how blessed it would be, if every one 
could say at the close of life, that he, or she, was proud of the 
good opinions or their acquaintances. 


The following is, in substance, the statement of B. W. Car- 
lisle, in regard to his mother and others of the first emigrants 
into the Hocking Valley : 

" Mrs. Sarah Carlisle was a resident of Greenfield Township 
for the full period of sixty-four years, ending with her death 
on the 14th of January, 1866, at the residence of her son. She 
was one of the pioneer mothers of this county. She, with her 
father's family, in true rioneer fashion, came with wagons, 
rifle-guns and trusty dogs, passing through where the city of 
Lancaster now stands, when nothing was there but an un- 


broken wilderness. Where Lancaster is, no white man had 
settled. " 

This was in 1799. Across the prairie, near the present resi- 
dence of Mr. Mithoff, was a small encampment of Indians. 
"Her father, John Edwards, located on Buckskin, west of Chil- 
licothe, in that year, where she underwent the hardships and 
enjoyed the novelties of pioneer life, until the fall of 1802, 
when she was married to James Wilson, brother of old Colo- 
nel Robert and Nathaniel Wilson, formerly residents of Hock- 
ing Township. " She moved with her husband on the farm 
now owned by her son, B. W. Carlisle, in Greenfield Town- 
ship, the same year of her marriage. In 1807, she was left a 
widow by the death of Mr. Wilson. 

"Subsequently, she was united in marriage to Thomas Car- 
lisle, on the 2Bd day of January, 1813, with whom she lived 
until the fall of 1844, when she was again left a widow by the 
death of her second husband. " 

Mrs. Sarah Carlisle descended from Scotch parentage, who 
were Presbyterians, she herself uniting with that church in 
Lancaster soon after her first marriage, Rev. John Wright be- 
ing pastor. 

Mrs. Margaret Ewing, late of Pleasant Township, and 
mother of Thomas E., William and James Ewing, was Mrs. 
Carlisle's sister. She, also, with her husband, were among the 
earliest settlers of Fairfield County. 

Mrs. Carlisle was fond of dwelling on the scenes and incidents 
of the pioneer age, and had a fund of highly interesting anec- 
dotes and amusing incidents to narrate. Among her early ac- 
quaintances of the new settlement, she often spoke of the fol- 
lowing persons : the Whites, the Coateses, the Bradshaws, the 
Wilsons, the Stewarts, the Lackeys, the Greens, the Bigger- 
staffs, the Builderbacks, the Burtons, George Sanderson, and 
numerous others. 

Mrs. Carlisle saw Lancaster spring from the wild woods, 
where the white man never trod before. She spoke of the first 
two cabins she remembered — one near the present steam-mill 
at the foot of Chestnut (Jail) street, the other near a spring at 
the foot of what is now Wheeling street, on the canal. She 
lived to see Lancaster a flourishing city of over five thousand 
inhabitants. Like most of the women of frontier life, she was 
an expert horseback rider. She often rode from her home in 


Greenfield to her father's, fort}' miles distant, in a day, carry- 
ing her babe on her lap. 

An incident of her romance is well worth telling, because 
such occurrences were common to the pioneers. Returning 
from Lancaster, she came upon a young fawn in the woods, at 
a point somewhere near the cabin of Joseph Hunter. She 
knew it had strayed from its mother, and springing dex- 
trously from her horse, she threw the bridle over a limb, made 
chase, and captured the little spotted fugitive, carried it home, 
and raised it as a pet. 

Her second husband, and father of the present B. W. Car- 
lisle, who is remembered as Thomas Carlisle, late of Green: 
field Township, entered what is known as the war of 1812 the 
same year of his marriage, viz. : 1813. He served in Captain 
Richard Hooker's mounted men, who went to the relief of 
Colonel Croggan, who was besieged by the Indians at San- 

Thomas Carlisle came from Virginia, and setted in Fairfield 
County in 1811 ; was married in 1813, and lived on what is 
known as the Carlisle farm until the time of his death, in 
1844. Mr. Carlisle was an active business man and a highly 
useful citizen. He served many years as a Justice of the 
Peace. At the time of his death he was one of the acting 
Commissioners of the county. 


Henry Stemen came from Virginia/and settled on Raccoon, 
in 1803. His wife was Mary Beery, sister of the late George 
Beery. Nicholas Stemen was one year old at the time his 
father came to Fairfield County. He continued to reside in 
Fairfield until he was about thirty years old, and then moved 
across the line into Perry County, where he still resides. Mr. 
Stemen stated that his father helped to clear off some of the 
first ground where Lancaster now stands. Below is his state- 
ment of the 



Who came into the Raccoon neighborhood a little before the 
Stemens. Nicholas Beery was the father of eight sons and 
seven daughters, viz.: John, Jacob, Abraham, Isaac, Henry, 
George, Joseph and Christian; Barbara, Magdalene, Elizabeth, 
Mary, Susanna, Fanny and Rebecca. Most of his large family 
settled in the east part of Fairfield County, and became thrifty 
and useful farmers and citizens. Most of them are buried in 
the county. 


Caspar Hufford settled on the Raccoon at a very early day. 
He built the first mill, on the site where Lobenthall's, and 
since, Mike Moyer's mill stands. It was a small Raccoon Burr 
Mill, of the capacity of eight or ten bushels of corn a day. Mr. 
Hufford's sons were : Solomon, Abraham, Daniel, Jacob and 
John. These all settled on the Raccoon. Catharine Hufford, 
daughter of Caspar, married John Friezner ;/and Susan married 
David Beery, son of John Beery, and grandson of Nicholas 
Beery. David Beery built the brick house in which Solomon 
Beery, son of George, now lives, on the Bremen road. J 

Mr. Nelson built a mill on Raccoon in 1805, on the land now 
owned by James Driver. Mr. Stemen remembers that, when 
a mill-boy, about 1812, he saw the miller carrying the ground 
wheat in a half-bushel up the steps, and turning it into the 
hopper of the bolting-chest, while the owner of the grist stood 
turning the bolting-cloth by means of a crank. (The writer 
has witnessed the same operation many times about the same 
era.) William Johnson built a mill on Rush Creek, a little 
below Rushville, during the year 1812, or about that time. 
Johnson's mill is well remembered. Jacob Rhodes built a still- 
house on Rush Creek at a very early day. Mr. Harmon, father 
of Fred. Harmon, erected a distillery in Pleasant Township. 


The first religious societies formed in the Raccoon settle- 
ments were : Dunkers, Mennonites, Presbyterians, Seceders, 
German Reforms and Methodists. 


Were kept in small log school-houses about three months in 
the year. Reading, writing, and "cyphering," as far as the 
Rule of Three, was the course of instruction. Webster's and 
Dillworth's spelling-books, and Pike's Arithmetic were used. 
For readers: The Testament, English Readers, Columbian 
Orator, and the American Preceptor. This was the English 
course. Some of the first schools were exclusively German* 
and others were German and English. 


Corn-bread, vegetables, milk and butter, and wild meats, 
constituted the principal subsistence, but even these were 
sometimes scanty. When the mills were stopped for lack of 
water, breadstuffs became very scarce, and the neighbors would 
borrow from one another as long as there was any in the 
community. Venison was quite plenty, and also wild-turkey. 
Coffee and tea were dear, and hard to come at. As substitutes 
the people used spice-wood and sassafras teas; and for coffee, 
burned rye and wheat. Pounded and lye hominy were univer- 
sal. The forms of corn-bread were johnny-cake, hoe-cake, 
dodger, ash-cake and pone. 


The wearing apparel of the settlers was nearly entirely 
home-made, consisting of flax and tow linens, linsey and 
flannels. Every farmer raised a patch of flax, from which the 
linens were made. The flax and tow were spun on hand- 
wheels. Wool was carded at first on hand-cards, and after- 
wards by carding-machines run by water or horse-power. The 
weaving was done on hand-looms. Every neighborhood had 
its weavers, and sometimes nearly every house. The girls 
often spun, wove .and made up their own wedding-dresses in 
the most primitive times of frontier life. Puckskin pants, 
and sometimes vests, were very common as men's wear. Shoes 
were almost wholely home-made, and boots were nearly un- 


In common with all the frontier settlers, the inhabitants of 
Raccoon and Rush Creek Valleys practiced the plays common 
to the times. Mr. Stemen's parents did not approve them. 
In those times the family discipline was very rigid. The same 
ruling would be tyranny now. Nevertheless, that kind of dis- 
cipline gave the world a more noble class of men and women 
than we shall ever see again. 


Wolves were very numerous, making it difficult to keep 
sheep. The State paid premiums for their scalps. Panthers, 
bears and wild-cats were plenty, deer abundant. Bear's meat 
was common. Catamounts were also often seen in the woods. 
(The catamount is of the feline species, and in size is inter- 
mediate between the domestic cat and the American panther. 
They were greyish, and sometimes spotted). When wounded, 
or enraged, they were dangerous enemies. 

There were bands of various tribes of Indians wandering 
about the country during several years after the white settle- 
ments commenced. They were peaceable for the most part, 
but had to be kept in a good humor. Mr. Stemen spoke of an 
instance where several Indians came to his father's house and 
asked for something to eat. His mother had a corn pone 
baked for her family, and little besides to give them. She 
gave them half of the pone, and they went away, but soon re- 
turned and demanded more, and to pacify them she gave them 
all she had. 

The writer remembers many similar instances in another 
part of the State, but there, the Indians, for the most part, 
had something to give in exchange for what they wanted, 
such as furs, peltry and venison hams, and sometimes cut 
money. On one occasion a company of Miamis came to our 
house when my mother was a hundred yards away at the 
spring rinsing her clothes. I was the baby, and had been left 
alone in the cradle in the cabin. As was their custom, they 
stopped out in the grove and sent their commission of two 
squaws into the house, who finding no one in besides the baby, 


took me from the cradle and carried me out to their comrades 
for a show. In a few minutes my mother returned, and find- 
ing the cradle empty, ran screaming out into the yard, when 
the squaws seeing her distress, hastened to meet her and» re- 
store the object of her alarm. She at once gave them every- 
thing she had about the house that could be eaten, and they 
left in good humor. 

They were Miamis, and their town was seven miles from 
our house. I never heard of them plundering or stealing in 
time of peace. They always asked for what they wanted. 


Of this truly distinguished citizen and Jurist, I need not 
write much. His fame is as wide as American history. It is 
written in books, and in the hearts of the people. I speak 
only of his citizenship in Fairfield County. 

Mr. Ewing settled in Lancaster in 1815, and commenced the 
study of law with Hon. Philemon Beecher, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1816. He continued to reside in Lancaster until 
the time of his death. Of the high positions of trust and 
honor he was called to fill in the nation, I do not speak ; 
they are recorded in the archives of the nation. It will not 
be too much for my humble pen to say, that Mr. Ewing was 
in some respects a remarkable man. No man living, perhaps, 
possessed the powers of speech and logic in a superior degree. 
He used no needless or superfluous words. He was not ver- 
bose. This was his strong forte in argument. He said much 
in few words. All understood him at once. 

Of Mr. Ewing's family still surviving, arevMrs. General 
Sherman, Mrs. Colonel Steele, Hon. Hugh Boyl Ewing, Gen. 
Thomas Ewing and Gen. Charles Ewing. On the lid of his 
burial-casket was engraved — 


Born December 28th, 1789; 

Died October 26th, 1871." 

Mrs. Maria Ewing, consort of Hon. Thomas Ewing, was 
born in Lancaster. She was daughter of the late Hugh Boyl. 
She was married to Mr. Ewing in January, 1820, and died in 
February, 1864. They are buried in the Catholic Cemetery, 


east of Lancaster, and their graves are designated by fine 
marble monuments. 


Charles Sherman was born in Norwalk, Connecticut, May 
26, 1788. In 1810 he was admitted to the bar, and in the same 
year married Mary Hoyt, also of Norwalk. In the following 
year, with his wife and infant child, he came to Lancaster, 0., 
and began the practice of law. In speaking of his emigration, 
Gen. Wm. J. Reece, one of his sons-in-law, says : " The way 
to it (Lancaster) from their New England home was far and 
weary, beset with hardships, and exposed to dangers. They 
were obliged to journey the greater part of the distance on 
horseback, carrying their infant child on a pillow before them. 
* * * * The little boy they carried on the pillow 
before them is now the Hon. Charles Taylor Sherman, United 
States District Judge of the Northern District of Ohio." 

Judge Charles Sherman was elected by the Legislature of 
Ohio to the bench of the Supreme Court in 1823, which place 
he filled a few months over six years with distinguished 
ability, when his labors were ended by death. He died at 
Lebanon, Ohio, while attending Court, on the 24th day of 
June, 1829, in his 41st year. His companion, Mary Hoyt 
Sherman, survived him many years. Their tombs are in 
Lancaster Cemetery. 

Judge Sherman was the father of Gen. W. T. Sherman, and 
Hon. John Sherman, U. S. Senator ; also of Mrs. W. J. Reece, 
now of Lancaster, besides several other sons and daughters, 
with whom the writer was not acquainted. 


Hocking H. Hunter was one of Ohio's leading lawyers. He 
was once elected to the Senate of Ohio, and subsequently de- 
clined the poll for Governor. As a law} T er he was eminently 
successful. He began life in a very humble way, as most of 
the sons of pioneers did, and worked his way up to fortune 
and fame by his own personal application and diligence. Mr. 
Hunter was a man of stern integrity of character, and unsur- 
passed administrative ability— pre-eminently just and up- 
right in all the affairs of life. He was the son of Joseph Hun- 


ter, who was the first white man that erected a cabin in Fair- 
field County. 

Mr. Hunter was born in the month of August, 1801, and died 
February 4, 1872, in the 71st year of his age. Of his children 
there are six yet living, viz. : three sons and three daughters. 
It has commonly been believed that Mr. Hunter was the first 
white male child born in Fairfield County. There are, how- 
ever, two or three other aspirants to that distinction, but the 
matter is too far back in history to be settled at this late day. 


Dr. Williams is not mentioned as a pioneer of Fairfield 
County, though he deserves a place in its history. He is one 
of the living men who has made his mark, and who will leave 
a record. He has a brain seldom equaled or surpassed. Few 
men have lived of his mental capacities in his specialties. 
As a mathematician, grammarian and general scholarship, he 
stood, at his meridian, unrivaled. He has been a teacher, and 
author of school text-books. He was not brilliant ; but as a 
teacher and general educator he was forcible, clear and con- 
cise. There are probably more men to-day who owe their suc- 
cess in the professions and other vocations in life to having 
been pupils of Dr. Williams, than to any one man living. He 
was proprietor for several years of an Academy in Greenfield 
Township, known as "Greenfield Academy ;" and subsequently 
teacher and Superintendent of Lancaster schools. From age 
and infirmity, he, five or six years since, retired to his small 
farm, four miles north of Lancaster, where at present he re- 


Upper Sandusky, 0., July 20th, 1876. 

Dr. H. Scott — Dear Sir: I learn that you propose to pub- 
lish a history of Fairfield County, and desire information in 
aid thereof. I herewith inclose a letter prepared by me for 
Dr. Tom. 0. Edwards, in 1871. If of any use to you in your work, 


you are at liberty to use the same as you may think proper. 
When your book is ready, please send me ten copies, and I 
will remit the price at once. 

Very truly Yours, 

George W. Beery. 

Hon. Tom. 0. Edwards : Your favor of the 8th inst., contain- 
ing request to furnish dates and names of early settlers of 
Fairfield County, is received. In answer, I am only able to 
state, from memory, conversations had with my father on the 
subject of his first settlement in your county. He was the 
youngest of six brothers of his father's family, in the order 
here given : John, Isaac, Abraham, Jacob, Henry and George. 
There were two half-brothers, Christian and Joseph, all of 
whom were among the first settlers of Fairfield County. 

George, my father, was born in Rockingham County, Vir- 
ginia, in the year 1783, and emigrated to the almost unbroken 
wilderness of your county in the year 1800. He came down 
the Monongahela and Ohio rivers in a fiat-boat, and up the 
Hocking to the falls, thence through the woods on foot to Lan- 
caster, and remained over winter, clearing land for others by 
the acre. He returned to Virginia the next spring, and finally 
returned to Fairfield County in the fall of 1801, and settled on 
the Raccoon Creek, near Bremen, clearing land and working 
for others, thus enabling him to enter eighty acres, which he 
did in the fall of 1807. 

In 1809 he married and settled on this small tract of land, 
continuing to live thereon, and in the neighborhood of Bre- 
men, until the spring of 1832, when he moved to the little 
Raccoon, five miles east of Lancaster, where he died in 1856. 

John Beery, his eldest brother, came to the county in 1805, 
and the other brothers soon after, all settling on and near the 
streams mentioned, in Rush Creek and Berne townships. 
They were a hardy, stout and industrious set of men, and did 
their full share of clearing and improving that part of the 
county. They are all dead, leaving families scattered all over 
the country. 

Their education being very limited, and their habits sober 
and industrious, were content with the occupation of farming, 
except my father, who was always far in advance of his 
neighbors in schools and public improvements. He took an 
active part in the construction of the canal from Carroll to 


Lancaster ; also in building the Zanesville and Maysville 
Turnpike-road; was one of the Commissioners of the county, I 
think, in 1828; and assisted in locating and building the 
County Infirmary. 

In 1834 he laid out the town of Bremen; and in the next 
year, in partnership with Mr. Hedges, commenced the busi- 
ness of selling goods, an occupation yet followed by several of 
his children, who received their first lessons under his super- 

In the war of 1812, he was pressed into the service with his 
team, and while Major Crogan was defending Fort Stevenson, 
at Lower Sandusky, with team and provisions he was 
encamped at Fort Ball, now Tiffin, and within hearing of the 
guns of the fort. 

He was a personal friend and admirer of Hon. Thos. Ewing, 
claiming that he had no superior as a lawyer and statesman 
in the Union. Such was his admiration of this truly great 
man, that he called his tenth and youngest son Thos. Ewing. 

As a citizen, he was public-spirited ; as a neighbor, kind and 
benevolent ; as a father, strict in his requirements, yet tenderly 
devoted to his? children. . 

My mother was a Cradlebaugh, a daughter of a revolutionary 
soldier, a German Reform minister, and a man of considerable 
influence in his day. He emigrated to Western Pennsylvania 
soon after the war closed, and in 1810 or 1811, to Fairfield 
County, where he soon afterwards died. My mother was born 
in Washington County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1789, emi- 
grated to Fairfield County in 1806 or 1807, and died in 1870. 
She was a woman of more than ordinary force of character; 
positive in her opinions, and free to express them ; industrious 
and economical; loving right and hating wrong; prompt 
and active in every duty ; exercising a marked and controlling 
influence over her husband and family — a mother of the old 
type, in every sense of the word. They had twelve children, 
nine of whom still survive. Four are living here, one near 
Urbana, Ohio, and the balance in and near the family village 
of Bremen. 

George W. Beery. 



William McClung died at the residence of his daughter, in 
West Rushville, on Friday, September 8th, 1876, aged 83 years, 
7 months and 19 days. 

Judge McClung came into Fairfield County in 1803, where 
he resided continuously until his death, and was among the 
last of the surviving pioneers. Few men have lived and 
passed away within the limits of the county, who more emi- 
nently deserved the reputation of a good man. He was up- 
right, just and reliable in all the affairs of life, and, so far as 
the writer knows and believes, he had few, if any, enemies. 
Of him it may be very justly said, that he was one of that 
noble class of first men who helped to break the wilderness, 
and who lived to give character and prosperity to the country — 
a class that, very much to the world's detriment, is rapidly 
passing away. 

Judge McClung, during his protracted and useful life, filled 
successively, and with the popular approval, the offices of Jus- 
tice of the Peace, State Legislator, and Associate Judge under 
the old Constitution, as also many minor positions of trust in 
the civil and military service. He was one of the volunteers 
who enlisted under Captain George Sanderson in the war of 
1812, and was included in the surrender of Gen. Hull in front 
of Fort Detroit. 

He was likewise an officer in the church of his choice ; and 
it is said of him, by those who best knew him, that Christi- 
anity was illustrated by all his intercourse with the world, 
both in his public and private walks. 


One of Fairfield's pioneer mothers is still living in Lancas- 
ter, at the venerable age of 87 years. Mrs. Flora Buttler King 
has been in most respects a very remarkable woman. Follow- 
ing is a condensed synopsis of her statement recently made 
to me : 

Her father, Ebenezer Buttler, and the father of Gerrit Smith, 
were first pioneers in Onondagua County, N. Y. She was 


born in Onondagua County in January, 1790, and during her 
early childhood and youth was the school companion of Gerrit 
Smith. She was the first female child born in that county. 
In 1812 she came to Ohio, and soon after to Lancaster. She 
was the first female teacher in Lancaster. Her school-house 
was a rough cabin built hy Christian King, and stood where 
Doctor Turner's office now is, on Main street. In February, 
1813, she was married to Christian King. She was mother of 
two children — William, who died many years ago in Califor- 
nia, and Flora, wife of Charles Deshler, of Columbus, 0. 

After the death of her husband, Mrs. King devoted herself 
to painting and drawing, by which she accumulated a con- 
siderable amount of cash. Receiving intelligence of the death 
of her son in California, she made the trip there alone, by the 
Isthmus, and brought back his three children, their mother 
also being dead. She raised two of the boys, who are now in 
honorable positions. The other one died young. She wit- 
nessed the riot at Panama, when one hundred Americans were 
killed, and barely escaped with her own life by paying the 
natives a gold bonus. 

William and Christian King came t) Lancaster in 1799, and 
sold goods under the firm name of W. & C. King. Christian 
King built a toll-bridge across the prairie, west of town, on 
the track of the present turnpike-road. 

Mrs. King remembers, that in 1812 the Kings and John 
Creed were merchants; Philemon Beecher, Robert F. Slaughter 
and William Irvin were practicing law ; Drs. Wilson, Tor- 
rence and Shawk were practicing medicine ; Thos. Sturgeon 
ke^t tavern where Mrs. Creed now lives, and Mr. Swoyer on 
the Shaeffer corner. 

William King died in 1831, and Christian, her husband, in 


John Ashbaugh was my grandfather, and Andrew Ashbaugh 
was my father. They came into Fairfield County in 1801, and 
settled near where Bremen now is, and died there. My father's 


brothers were: Jacob, John, Frederick and Joseph ; his sisters, 
Elizabeth, Mary, Patsy and Polly. 

The Indians stole our horses, and were followed, and -the 
horses recovered at Bowling Green, north of Zanesville, by 
paying the Indians one dollar a head for them. 

Andrew Ashbaugh, my father, and a big Indian had a hop- 
ping-match, in which the Indian got beaten, and became ang- 
ry, but others interfered, and all ended well. 

On one occasion the Indians removed the bells from some 
horses and slipped them away, but fearing the consequence, 
as was believed, they restored the bells and the horses. 

John Davis and Edward Young came and settled in Rush 
Creek Township in 1802. 




Abraham Ream was born in Reamstown, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1746, and removed to Fairfield County, Ohio, 
in 1798, at the age of fifty-two years. He came to Pittsburg in 
wagons, then down the Ohio river in a flat-boat as far as the 
mouth of the Hocking river, thence up that river to its falls 
(now' one mile above Logan), in dug-outs, or canoes, thence by 
land up the stream to the point yet known as Ream's 'mill, 
where he settled down. He there entered four and a half sec- 
tions of land in a body. His family consisted at the time of 
twelve children, viz.: five sons and seven daughters. In 1804 
he built the mill which still retains his name. 

His daughters were married to the following persons, viz : 
John Panebaker, Abraham Sheafer, Isaac Sheafer, Joseph 
Stukey, Lewis Hershberger, Henry Aneshensel. The young- 
est of the daughters died single, from the effects of a stroke of 

His sons' names were : Sampson, William, Absalom, Abra- 
ham and George. Abraham died at the age of twenty years 
(single). The others married and raised families. Not one 
of the children of Abraham Ream are now living. 


In early days, the Ream men were all great hunters 
— strong, fearless ai.d daring. 

When they arrived in Fairfield County they were the sixth 
family of white settlers. The Indian villages were not entire- 
ly broken up where Lancaster is. 

Jacob Ream, half-brother to Abraham, came a little later — 
four years, I think. He located south of Ream's mill, about 
one mile. Jacob L. Ream, who died recently, was his son. 
The Ream family was very numerous, and are widely inter- 
married, so that in that jegion, now, almost every third per- 
son one meets can claim relationship to them. 

Of Sampson Ream's family, there are but three out of thir- 
teen living. Two died 'in the Mexican war, and one in Cali- 
fornia. Of the sons-in-law of Abraham Ream, two yet survive 
— Aneshensel and Hershberger. The first winter the family 
were here they killed eighteen bears and twenty-seven deer. 
They also killed numerous wolves, wild-cats and panthers. A 
bear-skin then was worth seventy-five cents, and a deer-skin 
fifty cents. Deer-skins were dressed and made into panta- 
loons and moccasins, and bear-skins were used for bed-covers. 


Levi Stewart (now a citizen of Lancaster) was born in 
Greenfield Township, in 1800, and is therefore now in his 77th 
year. His father was one of the first settlers of Fairfield 
County. He came in 1799, and settled near the Hocking, 
immediately south of the residence of the late Judge John Gra- 
bill, two miles north-west of Lancaster, on the Columbus pike. 
Mr. Stewart has spent his long life in the vicinity of the 
place of his birth, and has made it his care to preserve a recol- 
lection, not only of the first settlers, but of the places where 
they located, as well as of the general condition of the coun- 
try, and domestic life of the pioneers. The following is a con- 
densed note of his statement : 

At his first recollections, the country was almost a literal 
wilderness, interspersed with rude cabins of unhewed logs, 


one story high. The country abounded with wolves, deer, 
bears, wild-cats and panthers. Indians were more or less 
numerous, who lingered about until about the year 1810, be- 
fore they entirely disappeared. 


Samuel Bush came in 1802, and settled on the spot which 
is the present farm of Daniel Bush, his grandson, one and a 
half miles north-west of Lancaster, on the Columbus road. 
David Fink settled near the same time one and a half miles 
north of Lancaster, to the right of the Baltimore road. Ralph 
Donelson settled first where Samuel Bush (son of the pioneer) 
now lives. Henry Cline, about the same time, settled on the 
farm, as he thinks, now owned by Judge Shaw, near Shimp's 
Hill. Alexander Sanderson (father of the late Gen. Sander- 
son), settled in 1798, and located in the same neighborhood. 
Jacob Sells, in 1800, entered a large tract of land embracing 
the site of the present village of Dumontsville, four miles 
north of Lancaster. John Sells came in the same year. 
David Bright (father of the present David and John Bright), 
came in 1800, and located where John Bright now resides. 
Henry Abrams came in 1800, and settled on the place now 
owned by David Bright. John Bailar settled where James 
McCleary now lives, in 1800. Adam and John Westenberger, 
brothers, settled in the McCleary neighborhood in 1800. Mr. 
Nail, about the same time, located on the William McCleary 
place. John McArthur settled where Newton Peters at pres- 
ent resides, probably in 1800. John Morgan located about 
the same time on the John Grabill farm. Joseph Stewart, 
father of Levi, first settled a short distance south-west of the 
Grabill place, in 1799, and on the north side of Hocking. In 
the year 1805, Samuel Grabill, father of John, Jacob, Gabriel, 
Christopher and Samuel, succeeded Mr. Morgan on what has 
ever since been known as the Grabill farm, where Judge Gra- 
bill was born and died. In the year 1800, Gideon Geary set- 
tled on the place now known as the G. H. Smith farm, on the 
pike, west of Grabill's. About the same time, Samuel Tall- 
man located immediately joining the Smith farm on the west. 
At Yankeytown (Claypool's), James Brooks, Mr. Cook and 
Drake Taylor squatted in the year 1799. Jacob Claypool, 
father of Isaac, bought them out in 1805, and opened a farm 


Isaac Meason came into Greenfield, in 1798, first locating on 
the Carroll road, where the late Elijah Meason resided. Isaac 
Meason was the father of the late John Meason. Patrick 
Lnsk, in 1800, settled on the place afterward known as the 
Isaac Wilson farm, south of Carroll. John McFarland, father 
of the late Walter McFarland, in 1798, located on the spot 
where Walter lived and died. Isaac Rice located near the 
present woolen factory, below the rock-mill, in 1799. Wil- 
liam and James Reed, brothers, in 1798, settled a little east 
of the subsequent Rice place, in 1798. Their places were near 
the Hocking. Thos. McCall, about the same time, settled near 
the Reeds. James Wells settled on the present Hooker land, 
in 1799. William Wilson, in 1798, located a little south of 
Hooker's. His son James now resides on the same place. 
Samuel Wilson settled the same year, adjoining William. 
James Wilson, Sr., settled on the Carlisle farm. He was the 
first husband of the late Mrs. Thos. Carlisle. 

David Pence, Henry Gearhart, Daniel Gearhart, David 
Wintermuth, Daniel Wintermuth, Adam Wagner, David 
Baugher, John Hanna, James Hanna, Abraham Fairchild* 
William Wiseley, Edmund Wiseley and John Miller settled 
in the north-east part of Greenfield Township, in the years 
1800 to 1805. 

Henry Abrams built the first hewed log-house in Green- 
field. David Bright built a still-house near where John Bright 
lives, at a very early day. William and James Reed built a 
saw mill on the Hocking, below rock-mill, very early. John 
Goolthrite taught the first school that is remembered in 
Greenfield. Another school is said to have been taught in the 
" Spook's Hollow, " east of the Grabill farm, at a very early 
day. School-houses were log-shanties with oiled-paper win- 

The Indians procured lead not far from the present rock- 
mill, but the mine, if any, has not been discovered to this day. 
No inducements could prevail on them to tell where they got 
the lead. They had rifles, and knew how to handle them. 

The intercourse between the log-cabins of the pioneers of 
Greenfield was over paths worn by following the blazed trees, 
at first. Mr. Stewart remembers a tornado which passed over 
the country in 1809, that he has not seen equaled in his nearly 


fourscore years. The timber was so blown down as to block- 
ade the roads seriously. 

The subsistence of the pioneers was corn-bread, wild meats, 
wild-honey, milk and butter, and vegetables. Roasted rye 
and wheat were used for coffee, which could not be had, or sel- 
dom, and then at enormous prices. They carried their corn on 
horseback to the falls of Hocking (Logan), to get it ground, 
and sometimes had to wait several days for their turn. Salt 
was packed from the Scioto below Chillicothe, and from the 
Muskingum, and cost about $5.00 a bushel. He had known 
seasons of three to five weeks when the whole community was 
out of breadstuff, because the mills were stopped for want of 
water. They pounded hominy, grated corn, and cooked 
vegetables, and made other shifts. 

The sports and pastimes of the settlers were pitching quoits, 
jumping, running foot-races, wrestling, dancing, plays of a 
great variety, and in rough and tumble fights. Fighting was 
very common at public gatherings, such as sales, log-rollings, 
corn-huskings, house-raisings, and the like. Horse-swapping 
was almost universally practiced. The most of it was done at 
gatherings. Sometimes the family fire went out over night, 
when some member of the family had to go to neighbors to 
procure it before the breakfast could be started. The first and 
only chairs known were called split-bottoms. Many families at 
first sat on slab-stools of their own make. 

One pair of shoes a year was all that could be had ; the re- 
mainder of the time they went barefoot. The boys had two 
suits of home-made flax and tow-linen in summer, and in win- 
ter one suit of linsey — no underclothes. The young ladies 
thought they were fine if they had one calico dress in a year. 
Wheat was worth twenty-five cents, and corn from five to 
twelve and a half cents a bushel, in trade. A day's work was 
from sunup tounsdown, and the wages was 25 cents. 



Dr. H. Scott — Dear Sir: Having learned that you are en- 
gaged in preparing a history of Fairfield County, I hereby 
send you a few pioneer items and incidents of the early settle- 
ment of Liberty Township, for your disposal. 


I was bom on the 14th day of February, 1812, just 65 years ago 
this day. My object is not so much to speak of what I know 
personally of the early history of our township, as it is to refer 
to facts that transpired prior to my coming on the stage of 
action, and for such information I am indebted mainly to sev- 
eral of the descendants of the very first settlers. Among these 
I mention the names of Jacob Bibler, Joseph Alt and Noah 
Gundy, still living, and whose united ages are over two hun^ 
dred and forty-four years. 


Christian Gundy and wife came in 1800. They came from 
Lancaster County, Pa., as far as Wheeling, Va., on horseback. 
Mr. Gundy left his wife at Wheeling, and came out here on 
Walnut Creek, and planted three or four acres of corn, and 
then went back and brought his companion, and lived all 
winter in a sugar-camp with a blanket for a door. Robert 
Wilson came about the same time, and they both, with their 
families, squatted on unsurveyed lands. After the surveyor 
established the lines, these two neighbors found that the} 7 had 
settled on the same section ; so Mr. Gundy moved his tent east- 
ward. Noah Gundy, his son (my informant), was born in 
1806, and still lives on the old homestead. 


Came in 1803 or 1804, and settled half a mile south of the 
present town of Baltimore, near Walnut Creek bridge, on the 
west side of the present pike. The farm is now owned by 
Emanuel Rinch. Mr. Brumback afterwards settled on Poplar 
Creek, where his son now lives. Martin Brumback, the son, 
has the most extensive vinyard in the county. 


In 1804, Nicholas Bader and Jacob Showley came and entered 
a half section of land south of the Brumback place, where 
they lived and died. They came from Switzerland. At Pitts- 
burg they embarked on a flat-boat and paddled down the Ohio 
river to the mouth of the Hockhocking. Here they put their 
chests and bedding in skiffs, or canoes, and poled and paddled 
them up to the falls of Hocking (Logan). From there they 


made their way through the wilderness to this township, and 
settled down in a strange land, with few neighbors. 


Came from the same country, one year afterward, passing over 
the same route. While floating down the Ohio river their 
boat struck a snag, and sprung a leak and sunk. They got 
ashore safely, but with soaked clothes and baggage. While 
they were waiting on the bank for another boat to come 
along, they built a fire and dried their clothes. At the mouth of 
Hocking the wife and three young children were left alone, 
while the father and son Joseph started on foot up stream, over 
hills and gullies, in search of their countrymen, Showley and 
Bader, in this township, and make arrangements with one of 
them to go to Chillicothe and enter land. The second night, 
while they camped in the wilderness, about midnight they 
heard a noise such as the} 7 never heard before. Old Joseph 
got up and began to stir up the fire until the sparks and 
flames made it light all around, and took up his gun, but the 
animal had fled. The next day they were told it was a 


Old Father Bader, son of Nicholas Bader, has told me, that 
when a small boy, his father sent him to Ream's mill with a 
bushel and a half of corn, and that it required three days to 
make the trip. Noah Gundy says that the first grist of corn 
his father took to mill he carried to Newark, in Licking County. 
I asked how his father found the way. He said, over an Indian 
trail. The first horse-power mill in Liberty was built by Jacob 
Showley. Almost every pioneer family had a hominy-block. 


Of Shenandoah County, Virginia, landed here in the woods in 
1805, with four sons and four daughters. Their log-cabin was 
built on the spot of ground where John W. Chapman, Post- 
master of Basil, now resides. This family moved into their 
•cabin late in the fall, and before the chinking or daubing of the 
cracks was done. 



This family had not had a mouthful of any kind of bread in 
their house for over five weeks. Old Father Bibler went to 
Chillicothe to buy some corn. Owing to the short supply there, 
he only got one bushel, for which he had to pay two dollars. 
This he brought home, and sent his son Jacob (my informant) 
to Woodring's mill, about five miles west on Walnut Creek, 
where he had to wait for his turn. He said that when the 
warm meal was running from the spout out of the burrs, he 
caught some in his hand, and that he never tasted anything 
so good in all his life. 


The first season they planted about three acres of corn, but 
they did not even get a peck of ripe corn. The squirrels visited 
the cornfield in day-time, and the raccoons in the night. 
Jacob told me that his father, Abraham, went out with his 
rifle one morning and killed thirty-eight squirrels off of one 
tree, and then he was not able to count the remainder on the 
same tree. On another occasion he brought down eighteen 
raccoons from a single tree. 


It was a common thing for the boys of both races to meet 
and engage in testing their skill and activity by running foot- 
races, jumping and tusseling. My informant spoke of Thos. 
Warner's, in Walnut Township, and of Tutwiler's, and at his 
father's, where Basil is, as frequent meeting-places of these 
boys of both races. He referred by memory to the spot 
where A. T. Mason's residence is, and the foundry, as these 
old play-grounds. 


" I remember," said the narrator, " of hearing my father and 
other old men tell, that onetime when a township election was 
to be held, they had to send around word and hunt up seven men 
in order to be able to hold an election for township officers." 
We have none of that kind of trouble now, and there are six 
to seven hundred voters in the township. 



The first resident minister was Rev. Martin Kauffman, a 
Baptist. Rev. John Hite, of Walnut Township, also preached 
in the neighborhood for many years. Rev. Benedum, of the 
Unite:! Brethren, preached for a long time at the house of Mr. 
Showley. He was a resident of Bloom Township. Rev. Geo. 
Weis, of Lancaster, was the first German Reform minister who 
came about. He preached first at Amspach's, two and a half 
miles north of Basil, where St. Michael's Church now is. This 
was about 1817. 


In conversation with Gen. Geo. Sanderson, of Lancaster, some 
fifteen years ago, he told me that when he was a small boy he » 
came with a couple of hunters into this (Liberty) township, 
and served them as camp-boy about a week, at a time when 
there was not a cabin or white man within its limits. He 
spoke of the site of their camp as being just above the spring, 
or on the hill immediately north of where Pugh's warehouse 
stands, at Basil, on a lot now owned by my sister, Mrs. Musser. 
Where now, are the hunters, and the camp-boy, and the camp? 


Henry Yanna built the house now owned by Jacob H. 
Campbell, our hardware merchant. This was our first tavern. 
Mr. Y. was a Swiss, and a professional butcher. Many thou- 
sands of pounds of beef did he haul on the " Deep Cut " to 
Monticello (a town then near the present Millersport). But 
now Monticello is a cornfield. Beef then was sold at three 
cents per pound. There were more than a hundred hands 
constantly at work. Mr. Yanr a had for his tavern-sign an ox 
painted on the board. 


Also a Swiss, had the second tavern. There was business then 
for two taverns in Basil, not so much for entertainment as for 
the sale of whisky and " stone-fence cider," which meant four 
gallons of whisky in a barrel of water, to make it to keep. 
For his sign he had the Swiss hero, Wilhelm Tell. 



Henry D. Bolle, a Frenchman, on the clay of the first sale 
of town-lots, purchased the old homestead, which consisted of 
a hewed log house, and the old vacated log-cabin , built in 1809. 
The purchase price was about sixty dollars. This was inlot 
No. 9. He put one shelf up-stairs, twelve feet long and one 
foot wide. On this shelf he was able to put his entire stock 
of goods. 

One year after, he put up shelving and a rough counter in 
the old log-cabin. In this cabin he did business for two years. 
In 1828 he called at our house and wanted to sell his store to 
my father. My father replied, " Wat do I want wid your 
store ?" Bolle replied, " You put little Henry in dere ; he 
make sthore-keeper some day." He left the goods in the cabin 
for us to sell in a year, promising to take back what was not 
sold. We took them at retail price, but could not make one 
cent on them. But father had one hundred dollars in silver, 
which he kept in a wooden box on top of the clothes-press. 
He sold a horse for fifty dollars. This made a capital of one 
hundred and fifty dollars, which was carried to Lancaster on 
the 15th day of April, 1828, and with that amount our first 
purchase of merchandise was made. 

Our sales did not average two dollars a day during the first 
year, the aggregate amount sold being no imore than $500. 
But by perseverance, diligence and attention, the Leonard 
brothers were enabled to navigate the turbulent waters of 
trade for nearly forty } r ears, without meeting any serious 
disaster from the frequent and fierce storms and hurricanes 
caused by the risky and unreliable trade-winds, on account of 
which so many mercantile ships were swamped or sunk. 


There was a time in the early history of this country 
when wild-pigeons were so very plenty, that they literally 
" darkened the heavens " in their flight to and from their roost 
in Licking County. 

On one occasion five young men set out from this neighbor- 
hood for the pigeon-roost, to bring back, as they doubted not, 
large numbers of these birds. The company consisted of 
Samuel Bader, John Hively, Jacob Showley, Jacob Bibler and 


Jacob Goss. The two latter are still living. They provided 
themselves with punk, flint and steel, for the purpose of rais- 
ing a fire at night. But alas ; a cold, driving rain set in, and 
they were soaked to the skin, with no possibility of starting 
a fire, as everything was dripping wet. Their expedition was 
a failure, of which they never heard the last. Old Father 
Shriner, who was auctioneer in the settlement, or " sale-crier," 
as the term was then, loved to twit the boys when they were 
present. " Here, Jacob," he would say, "is a tub; it will do to 
salt down your pigeons. How much will you give?" Or, if he 
offered a small vessel, he would say, " Sell ist gut fuer Saltz," 
by which he meant, this will answer to carry salt for salting 
down your pigeons. Old Father Shriner was a jolly old pioneer. 
His grandchildren are now grandparents. Such is the flight 
of time. 


Our old pioneer, David Brumback, was the undertaker in 
our township. He buried, or rather made all the coffins Avhen 
I was a small boy. I remember once I went with my grand- 
father to a funeral at Showley's, and as screws were scarce in 
those primitive times, nails were used to fasten down the lid 
of the coffin ; and I heard my grandfather tell my mother this : 
" Barbi, \venn ich sterbe, will ich nicht mit dem Hammer zu- 
genagelt sein." Barbara, when I die, I will not have my coffin 
nailed with a hammer. 


I remember, too, when it was customary to carry, or hand 
round a bottle filled with whisky before the funeral would 
leave the house. I had the honor myself, when called on, to 
hand the long-necked green bottle around, and a young lady 
would follow with cakes and pies. 


Mr. Noah Gundy, who has been living in the vicinity more 
than seventy years, told me, that the Indians almost every 
spring would come on Walnut Creek, near their farm, for the 
purpose of boiling sugar. One time a man came to hunt, and 
seeing some object moving among the pawpaw bushes, and be- 


lieving it to be a bear, fired at it, and was startled by the 
scream of a squaw, and alarmed, he lost no time in giving 
"leg-bail." The Indians were soon on his trail, but he eluded 
them by his fieetness, and by taking to the bed of the creek, 
thus causing them to lose his track; and he kept safely out 
of their way until the matter was settled and the Indians 
pacicified. Dr. Shawk, of Lancaster, was sent out to dress the 
wounded arm, and he partially succeeded in persuading them, 
that it was unintentional, though they for a long time enter- 
tained lingering doubts. The squaw, however, got well, and 
all was over. 

[This I believe to be the story that is told of the late Judge 
David Ewing, of Pleasant Township. The circumstances are 
nearly the same in both statements. The friends of Mr. 
Ewing, however, do not locate the scene on Walnut Creek, but 
in the Arnold settlement, in Pleasant. They also say that 
the Indians refused the services of a doctor, and that the affair 
was settled by Daniel Arnold and others, by the payment of 
money and other things. — Ed.] 


At one time old Father Gundy drove forty head of fat hogs 
all the way to Zanesville, Ohio, for which he expected to re- 
ceive $1.50 per hundred, but it seems that when he arrived 
with the porkers, Mr. Buckingham backed out, and said that 
he could not pay more than $1.25 a hundred, that they had 
come too late. Mr. Gundy was displeased, an 1 said, "You 
shan't have them." So the old man left the forty fat hogs to 
take care of themselves, and returned home in a bad humor. 
Strangely enough, in about three weeks every one of the hogs 
straggled back to the Gundy farm, over a distance of more 
than forty miles, and were afterwards sold to a Chillicothe 
man for $1.50 per hundred pounds. Hogs were then sold by 
net weight. 


In the early settlement of our township, especially before we 
had a canal, our farmers would go to Zanesville with their 
wagons and exchange their wheat for salt. At one time six 
or eight teams from Walnut Creek went in company, and after 


' « 

they had sold and unloaded their wheat, they drove to the 
salt-house. Mr. Fairchild (long since dead) said to the clerk, 
or salt man, " We will bet you a gallon of brandy that we have a 
man in our crowd that can pick up a barrel of salt by the chimes 
and lift it into the wagon. " After the salt man had eyed 
the crowd closely, and could see no giant among them, he said, 
"Agreed." Mr. Fairchild then called out, "John Huntwork, 
pull off your coat and go to work." And John did not only 
load one barrel, but, as one wagon after another drove up, he 
picked up the barrels of salt as though they were firkins of 
butter, and loaded the wagons. And it is to be remembered, 
that at that time a barrel of salt weight d more than 280 
pounds ; many of them weighed over 300. Mr. Noah Gundy 
(my informant) further told me, that John Huntwork at one 
time carried eleven bushels of wheat up a pair of steps at one 
load. The wheat was put in one large sack especially for 
the occasion. 


It was rumored that the Indians were coming in to plunder 
the pioneers. Bibler's cabin was the place of rendezvous. 
It was not long before several guns were heard at a neighbor- 
ing cabin, when the women began to scream. One old lady 
said : " ! I wish the Indians had killed me long ago." My 
mother wanted father to go, but he said no, he would not 
run away from his own house. They all stayed at home, 
but no savages appeared. The rumor had been started and 
the guns fired by ro.wdies, for fun, but the neighbors did not 
recognize the fun. 


Old Father Jacob Goss landed here in 1807 or 1808, and put 
up a cabin. He had two sons and one daughter. When the 
canal was being located, Henry Hildebrand laid out a new 
town, which was named New Market, but is now the "Balti- 
more, Ohio." Jonathan Flattery surveyed the lots of Basil, 
and when he was through he asked Father Goss what he was 
going to call his town, and he (Goss) decided to leave the 
naming of it to his neighbors. My father proposed Basil, 
and 'Squire Joseph Hustand proposed Geneva, both Swiss 


names. It was decided to determine by ballot. At this stage 
of the case, I, a boy, came along on my return from the old 
Hively log school-house, with my copy-book under my arm. 
Father told me to write some tickets, which I did, upon a 
blank sheet torn from my copy-book. The votes were cast, 
and upon counting out from the hat it was found that there 
were six for Basil and six for Geneva — a tie. At this point 
my uncle, John Goss, came up the hill, when my father said : 
"John, vote Basil." He gave the casting vote, and hence 
Basil. I was, therefore, the first to write the name of our vil- 
lage, Basil. This was in 1825, and therefore these two villages 
are a little over fifty years old. Henry Hildebrand was first 
proprietor of Baltimore, and Jacob Goss first proprietor of 


A number of our Swiss families, instead of going to the 
mouth of Hocking, and up that stream in skiffs, turned up the 
Muskingum and came to Zanesville, a nearer and more eligi- 
ble route. Among them were the Weber and Erb families. 
They laid up a little below Zanesville. In the morning, old 
Mother Erb went to a cabin near by to get t^ome milk for their 
coffee. She took with her a silver quarter. The woman of 
the house had no change. The old lady made motion for her 
to let her have a piece of what she took to be an egg-pudding, 
which she saw in the skillet. The woman gave her the whole 
of it, and she hurried back to the camp with the pudding (?) 
in her apron, saying: "Now we will have a nice breakfast." 
The pudding was cut, but no one could eat a bite of it. Even 
their dog would not touch it. It was a corn pone. But they 
got well over that before they were five years older. 


Joseph Bibler told me only last w r eek, when speaking of the 
price of grain, after the little farmers had raised more than 
they needed, that they would have been glad to have got ten 
cents a bushel for their corn, but could not get five cents cash. 

At one time he (Bibler) went to Lancaster to see if he 
could sell some wheat. A prominent citizen and business 
man there, said to him : " I have no use for any wheat now, 
but if you will bring it in and empty it into one of these mud- 


holes, so our gentlemen can have a clean and dry walk, I will 
give you twelve and a half cents a bushel." I had heard the 
story before, but this from my old and reliable friend settled 
the question. 


Following are the names of the principal pioneers who set- 
tled in Liberty Township prior to the year 1812 : 

Robert Wilson, Christian Gundy, David Broomback, Francis 
Bibler, Jacob Showley, Nicholas Bader, the Erb and Weber 
families, Philip Shepler, McCalla, Fairchild, Switzer, Gaster, 
Amspach, Giesy, Hiser, Hanna, Minehart, Howser, Hensel, 
Apt, Heistand, Alt, Morehead, Bartmess, Cook, Leisteneker, 
Finkbone, Heyle, Bader, Black, Hiveley, Eversoles, Farmer, 
Shisler, Campbell, Zirkle, Kumler, Leonard, Brown, Sann, 
Bolenbaugh, Rouch, Paff, Newel, Blauser, Shriner, Knepper, 
Wright, Olinger, Growiler, Kemerer, Sager, Tusing and Soltz. 

Henry Leonard. 



Michael Laist was born in Clear Creek Township sixty-six 
years ago, and has resided within its bounds all his life. The 
following are the names of the first settlers of the township, to 
the extent that he remembers them. 

John Leist (father of Michael) came in 1805. He is well 
remembered. He served many years as Justice of the Peace, 
and was thirteen times elected to the State Legislature. The 
very first settlers of Clear Creek, as Mr. Leist remembers them, 
he named as follows — the time of their arrival varying from 
1800 to 1810. They settled in different parts of the township: 

Martin Smith, Mr. Binhimer, the Fosnaughts (the des- 
cendants of the Fosnaughts constitute a large voting force 
of the township to this day). John, Nicholas and Daniel Con- 
rad came early. Henry and Daniel Conrad, two descend- 


ants, are still living, at an advanced age. George Conrad 
is still living at the age of 82 years. He was a son of 
John Conrad. Daniel has two sons living, and Nicholas 
one. George Nigh was a very early settler. His descendants 
are all dead. Peter Swineford settled east of John Leist. John 
Welsheimer, Mr. Stott, John Starr, Peter Good, Peter Baker, 
George Baker. George Stout and Benjamin Chrisman were 
among the early settlers of Clear Creek. Mr. Dilsaver built 
the first horse-mill in the township. This was a little east of 
Stouts ville. George and John Hammel settled a little east of 
Dilsaver's. George Augustus was a very early settler. There 
were either three or four of the Hedges amongst the first- 
comers. They had a numerous progeny, and the family is 
still conspicuous in Clear Creek. John Reynolds came very 
early. His three sons, Stuart, Thompson and Franklin, are 
all dead. Mr. Stukey was among the first pioneers in Clear 
Creek Township. Two or three brothers by the name of 
Friend came about the same time. Their descendants still 
reside in the township. Mr. Spangler was among the first 
settlers. Two of his sons are still living, viz. : Jeremiah and 
Samuel. Jacob Schumaker, a pioneer, lived and died in Clear 
Creek Township. Jonathan Dressback was a very early 


Mr. Leist described the two-story log church, built seventy 
years ago. in Dutch Hollow. Among, the preachers who 
attended there more or less regularly, were Rev. George Wise, 
German Reform ; Rev. Stake, Lutheran ; Rev. Leist and Rev. 

Mr. Leist also gave an interesting description of the first 
school-house and school in Dutch Hollow, near the church. 
School was kept there from two to three months in the year. 
The back-logs for the fire were drawn in with the log-chain 
and horse power, through an opening in the wall opposite the 
fireplace, and in very cold days the opening was closed by 
banking up the ashes to keep the cold wind out. He learned 
to spell by rote from hearing his brothers spell before he knew 
a letter of the alphabet. On one occasion he cried because the 



master refused to allow him to stand up with the spelling 
class ; but to please him, finally he was permitted, and when 
the hard words passed along down the class, missed by several, 
he spelled them correctly and went up, very much to the 
amusement of the school. 

The first election for the township was held in a log school 
house near its center. The same spot has been the voting 
place ever since, and continues to be at this day. George 
Valentine was remembered as among the early 'Squires. The 
pioneer house-raisings, log-rollings, corn-huskings, rail-maul- 
ings, grubbings, quiltings, and the like, were referred to as 
things that had been, but that are never to be again. Also, the 
old hominy-block, the corn-grater; mills dried up and scarcity 
of breadstuffs — the dear old days of peace, and happiness, and 



New Salem, March 8th, 1877. 

Dr. H. Scott — Dear Sir : The note you intended for Charles 
Wiseman was placed in my box, there being no man by 
that name residing in the neighborhood. Not having come 
to this neighborhood until 1818, I have most of my informa- 
tion from first settlers. 

The first settlement in this neighborhood commenced about 
1804, by Samuel Wiseman, Edward Berry, James Miller, John 
Miller, John Manly, George Hill, Jacob Cagy, Robert Chal- 
fant, Thomas McNaughton, Thomas Watson and John 
Goldthwait ; also, the Teals and Stevensons, about the same 
time. Thorn Township, then in Fairfield County, now in 
Perry, was settled about the same time, by Daniel Snyder, 
George Stinchomb, Jacob Hooper, Sr., Jacob Hooper, Jr., 
James Hooper, John Groves, and the Fosters. 


James Hooper, coming up one day to look at their land, 
heard the sound of an ax to the west, and following the sound, 


came to a man cutting logs for a cabin, his family living in 
his wagon in the woods. In answer to the inquiry as to his 
name, he answerd, " Samuel Wiseman. " On returning to his 
father's cabin, in the Teal settlement, James told his mother 
the joyful news, that he had found a neighbor. " What is his 
name?" said she. "Samuel Wiseman," James replied. 
" Well, " said she, "he has a wise name ; would to God he is a 
wise and good man. " 

The citizens of Fairfield and Perry counties are indebted to 
John Goldthwait for the excellent variety of grafted fruit he 
introduced into those counties at an early day. I have vis- 
ited fruit-stands in Baltimore, Harrisburg, Philadelphia and 
New York, and could find no better fruit than he introduced 
sixty-five years ago, in his nursery, two miles west of the 
present village of New Salem. Soon after Goldthwait's 
orchard began to bear, two lawyers from Lancaster came out 
to examine his choice varieties of fruit. Goldthwait was a 
peculiar little Yankee, and a strong Federalist. The lawyers 
were strong Jefferson Democrats. He showed them his Royal 
Russet, Seek-No-Farther, Golden Pippins, Rhode Island 
Greenings, and his Federal apples. The lawyers said to him, 
" You have shown us your Federal apples, now show us your 
Democratic ones. " He said, " Come down this way ; " and 
he pointed out a little scrubby tree with a few knotty apples 
on. " That, " said he, " is the Democratic apple. " 


John Manly and George Hill served five years in what was 
then called Lee's Legion of Horse, in the Revolutionary war. 
Rev. John Wiseman settled in this neighborhood in 1819. He 
served two terms in the Revolution, and was with Washing- 
ton and Lafayette through the memorable winter at Valley 
Forge, while the British were occupying Philadelphia. 

Joseph G. Wiseman. 



My father, William Jackson, came from Frederick County, 
Maryland, in 1805, and settled in Berne Township, Fairfield 
County. He came over Zane's trace from Wheeling to Lan- 
caster. I was four years old. He left his goods at Wheeling, 
and came through on horseback, he and my mother, carrying 
two or three small children before and behind, as was the cus- 
tom then. At Lancaster he met an acquaintance who had 
preceded him. His name was Sliger. He took us all to his 
cabin, which was two miles south of Lancaster, on the place 
which has for many years been known as Clarksburg, from the 
name of Joshua Clark, who lived there since, and carried on 
the milling business, in connection with which he run a dis- 
tillery. My father and Mr. Sliger then rode about the country, 
and found an empty cabin on the bank of Pleasant Run, on 
the spot now known as the Reuben Shellenbarger place. There 
was belonging to the cabin twelve acres of cleared land, on 
which the timber was deadened. This was in December. We 
moved into the cabin and spent the winter, I do not know 
how. In the spring my father planted the twelve acres in 
corn, and then returned to Wheeling and brought out his 
wagon and little stock of household goods. We remained in 
that cabin two years. I cannot remember how we managed 
to live. At that time I had one brother and two sisters— I 
was the fourth child. My sister Polly married Joseph Sheets. 
She is at this time 85 years old, a widow, and living with her 
daughter, who is the widow of the late John Grabill, Jr. My 
brother John lives near the Colonel Sharp place, below Sugar 
Grove, and William lives two miles below Lancaster. My age 
is 76 years. 

My father then took a lease on the lands of Samuel Shellen- 
barger, embracing the place where Reuben Shellenbarger now 
lives, and opened a farm. We little fellows had to pick and 
burn brush, and worked ver} r hard. Afterwards my father 
bought eighty acres of John A. Collins, and moved on it. It 
was the same place now owned by the widow of David Huffman. 


After the death of my mother, in 1836, father came and lived 
on my place, on the east side of Hocking, where he died ahout 
fourteen years afterwards. 

At my earliest recollection our neighbors were : Mr. Brooks, 
father of George, Jacob and John S. Brooks; David Carpenter. 
Peter Gundy then lived on the Prindle place, in a hewed log- 
house ; William Carpenter lived near the Kuntz mill; Sam'l 
Carpenter lived on the Kuntz place, the same that is now the 
residence of Thomas H. White, Esq. Mr. Reynolds lived be- 
tween the Kuntz mill and Lancaster. 

The first school I attended was in a little log-hut near us on 
the south, and the teacher was John May; and after him a 
Mr. Adison. The next school-house I went to was on the six- 
teenth section. It was taught by a man by the name of Sken- 
nel. He was a funny Irishman, but was called an excellent 
teacher. This was in 1813. 

The first religious meetings I remember were held in the 
cabins of Gundy and Reynolds, who were Methodists. Among 
the preachers that I remember, were Revs. Bright and Jesse 
Spurgeon. The Baptists preached at our school-house; and 
Lewis Seits, Eli Ashbrook, Mr. Baker and Benjamin Caves 
preached there. 

We took our grists to Shellenbarger's and Carpenter's 
(Kuntz's) mills. 

Our nearest neighbor was Mr. Crossen, when we first settled 
on the bank of Pleasant Run. It was some years before we be- 
gan to have comfortable roads. At first we blazed the trees so 
as to go from one house to another. The woods were full of 
wild-turkeys, which, when the corn got ripe, came into the 
fields and preyed upon it, and it was a part of the duty of the 
children to go and scare them away. In the spring and fall 
the crows and black-birds were often very destructive to the 
cornfields. In the spring they pulled up the little stalks to 
get the grain from the root, and in the fall they eat the corn 
from the cob when the grains were soft. Raccoons were also 
troublesome. We put up scare-crows, and went round the 
fields continually to frighten them away. But the greatest 
enemies the cornfields had in the fall of the year were the 
squirrels, which some years came in such numbers as to abso- 
lutely defy our vigilance. 


Wolves were numerous. At the sugar-camp they often came 
howling around in the night — so near that we could hear the 
bushes cracking under their feet, and we threw fire-chunks at 
them, which they paid little attention to. 

John Carpenter killed a panther one Sunday, when we were 
stopping at Sliger's. It was brought to the house, where they 
measured it eleven feet from the point of the nose to the tip 
of the tail. 

Deer were very abundant, and bears more or less. Venison 
and wild-turkey meat could be had any time, and they con- 
stituted a large part of the living of the early settlers. Turkeys 
were caught in pens, and taken with the rifle. A bear was 
occasionally killed. 

Mrs. Crossen was at one time coming through the woods to 
our house, when she discovered a bear in the act of killing a 
hog. Mr. Garner and my father, with us little fellows, went 
out with the gun and clogs, and soon found the bear. Upon 
seeing us approach, he left his prey and climbed up a tree. If 
he had had a competent understanding of the range and power 
of the rifle in the hands of a back-woods hunter, he would 
probably have sought another means of safety. As it was, the 
leaden messenger soon brought him lifeless to the ground. 
His weight was over three hundred. Wild-cats sometimes 
carried off our pigs. 

At the time of our settling there, the whole country was in 
a wild condition ; a condition of almost unbroken woods. In 
the early years breadstuffs sometimes became scarce, and we 
grated meal from the first corn that ripened. Mr. Pitcher had 
a small raccoon burr-mill, where Green's mill now is, down 
Hocking ; and Mr. Crossen had a still-house near where Reuben 
Shellenbarger lives. 

The good old days of log-rollings, corn-huskings and house- 
raisings, and of the social plays of " Sister Phebe," and the 
country dance, and nearly everybody that had anything to do 
with them, revive gladness in the heart, but are never to be 
seen again. 



Abraham Bope, father of Gen. Jacob Bope, of this county, 
and of Philip Bope, of Lancaster, emigrated from Rocking- 
ham, Virginia, in the year 1803, and located six miles north 
of Lancaster, in Pleasant Township. His brother, Frederick 
Bope, and Henry Ketner accompanied him, and located in the 
same neighborhood. It was late in the fall, or beginning of 
winter when they arrived, and a camp was erected b)^ the 
side of a big log, where they spent the winter. In the spring 
a cabin was erected, into which they moved. It is not said 
whether the Ketner family shared the winter camp by the big 
log, but that is the inference. 

In the following fall there came and settled in the same re- 
gion John and Benjamin Feemen, Casper Walters and Jacob 
Weaver. The second fall after the arrival of the Bopes and 
Ketner, a considerable colony came out and settled round in 
the same neighborhood. 

Mr. Bope, now in his seventy-ninth year, preserves distinct 
recollections of the times and incidents of the infant colonies 
which were begun there over seventy years ago, and detailed 
them with great readiness. ■>. 

The Indians, chiefly Wyandots and Delawares, were all 
over the country in small hunting squads, often camping near 
the cabins of the white settlers. They were harmless, and the 
young folks often went out and looked at them while they sung 
and danced. The first roads through the settlements were 
over blazed paths. The Bopes and Ketner were two days get- 
ting from Lancaster out to their destination, having to cut 
their way through the thickets. The men of the early settlers 
were mostly hunters. 

On one occasion Abraham Bope was returning from a hunt, 
or possibly from a trip to some neighboring cabin, when night 
overtook him before he reached home. He suddenly found 
himself surrounded with wolves. He fired upon them, but 
failed to scare them away. They seemed to press him, and 


becoming alarmed he clambered up into the top of a sapling 
or small tree. He loaded and fired again, but finding that his 
unpleasant and most unwelcome com] anions were inclined to 
stay by him, he set up a volley of stentorian shouts, which at 
last reaching the ears of some of his nearest neighbors, brought 
several men to his aid. But the men, on arriving near enough 
to communicate with the man up the tree, finding that the 
wolves were not inclined to give up their expected prey, they 
thought caution the better part of valor, and advised Mr. 
Bope to remain in the tree till daylight, when the wolves 
would go away. Which advice he took, and found, to his great 
joy, that with the disappearance of the darkness the wolves 
disappeared also. 

A bear was discovered near his house. He took his favorite 
old Virginia dog, and his gun, and went to the attack. His 
first shot wounded the beast and made him savage. His dog 
went in, and was gathered to the embrace of Bruin, who was 
about to press the last breath of life out of him, when Mr. 
Bope went to his dog's rescue, when the bear instantly drop- 
ped the dog and made chase after the man, and was not long 
in fastening his teeth in the garments of the frightened hun- 
ter. At this moment Mrs. Bope arrived, and perceiving the 
state of affairs, advanced on the beast in a menacing attitude, 
which seeing, the quadruped released his hold and made for 
the gentler sex. There was a hickory-tree close b} ? , that had 
been broken by a storm, the upper end of the trunk still 
resting on the stump twenty feet from the ground, and the 
top lying on terra jirma, thus forming an inclined plane of 
about forty-five degrees with the perpendicular. Mr. Bope 
called to his wife to run for her life; but she being in the 
vigor of young womanhood, at once began the ascent of the 
angle of forty-five. 

The dog by this time recovered his breath, and came again 
to the attack ; and in the meantime Mr. Bope had re-loaded, 
and now poured in another broadside, without, however, bring- 
ing down his game. Bruin placed his back against a tree, in 
an upright posture, the better to use his powerful paws; and 
while he was thus compelled to turn his head in all direc- 
tions from which a deadly foe might be approaching, his 
eye caught sight of Ays. Bope snugly perched on the stump 
twenty feet above. In an instant he made for the stump, and 


began the ascent. And now the finale approached, for Abra- 
ham Bope, Esquire, comprehending that from the positions of 
all the actors in the drama he was absolute master of the sit- 
uation, at once placed a ball in a vital part, and the bear fell 
dead at his feet. Seven charges were said to have been 
lodged in bis body before he capitulated. 

Mr. Jacob Bope said the first school be attended in the new 
settlement was German, and taught by Henry Camp. After- 
ward an English school was taught in the neighborhood by 
Abraham Winters, over on the Newark road. This was pre- 
vious to 1810, and when he was eight or ten years of age. 

The first preacher he remembered to have heard was the 
Rev. Mr. Stake of the Lutheian denomination, and afterward 
Rev. Wise, of the German Reform Church. Soon after this 
the Methodists and Albrights began their work, and estab- 
lished camp-meetings in some parts of the county, holding 
them annually. 

In their settlement the meetings were held in the cabins 
of the settlers. 

Everybody bad to work hard, but were contented with what 
they had, and far happier, he believed, than the majority of 
the people are to-day. Money was seldom seen by anybody, 
and it was extremely difficult to pay what little tax was lev- 
ied. A majority of the men of the settlement went out in the 
war of 1812. Of all those who were of men's age, and entitled 
to be called pioneers, and who came into the settlement pre- 
vious to 1810, John Zeigler alone is living, at the great age of 
ninety-two years. 

There was little that could be sold for call. The price of a 
day's work, from sunup to sundown, was twenty-five cents, 
which was always spoken of then as a " quarter of a dollar. " 
Jacob Rope was a carpenter, and often worked at his trade for 
fifty cents a day. He referred to the corn-huskings, house- 
raisings and log-rollings, and other gatherings and usages of 
the pioneer age, and which were the same everywhere, and 
need not to be particularized here. 

He remembered Lancaster when there were not more than 
half a dozen cabins in it. He was a pupil in music of a Mr. 
Imhoff, and himself taugbt music when be was sixteen years 
old. Mr. Bope served as Captain, Colonel and General in the 
Ohio Militia. He spoke at some lengtb of the pioneer man- 


ners and customs, and of the social pastimes and the kindly 
relations that existed between all ranks and conditions, when 
every one was ready to help his neighbor. And when I re- 
peated : " We're boldly marching to Quebec, where the 
drums are loudly beating;" and, "As oats, peas, beans and 
barley grows," his face dropped at least twenty-five years of its 

Thus the past drifts back into the soon-to-be-forgotten, and 
to be buried beneath the debris of the dead ages. The merest 
inklings, or perhaps it were better to say scintillations, of the 
life and times of sixty and seventy years ago, lives to-day in 
the recesses of the minds and hearts of the aged. They come 
to the eye and the visage when referred to in speech, or song, 
or tune ; but with the exception of here and there a breast, no 
responsive chord is struck. But to the man or woman who 
lived on the frontier threescore, or threescore and ten years 
ago, there is no joy on earth so sweet as these reminiscences 
that come floating through the inward thoughts like angel- 
whispers, of childhood and youth's first young loves. and inno- 
cence. There we can go for consolation, and live with our 
own dear associations, when the present has nothing clear for 
us. It is the priceless boon which thieves cannot steal, and 
which none but ourselves can participate in. 

The first death, Mr. Bope said, that occurred in their settle- 
ment, that he could recall, was that of his grandfather Bope, 
which took place soon after they came. He said he was a very 
good man, and always prayed with the children every night 
before they went to bed. There are four of Abraham Bope's 
children living — Jacob and Philip, and two daughters. 

Daniel Arnold built the first mill. It was on Fetter's Run. 
Jacob Weaver built the first still-house ; it stood on the land 
now owned by Philip Watson, adjoining the Bope farm. The 
first wool they had carded into rolls was done where Baltimore 
now is. Name of the owner of the carding machine not re- 



My father, William Murphy, came from Virginia in about 
'1800, and settled in the north part of what is now Walnut 
Township, one mile south-east of the present village of Mil- 
lersport. Two brothers came with him and settled in the same 
neighborhood — Edward and Benjamin. My grandfather, Wil- 
liam Murphy, was also of the same company. My uncle Ed- 
ward afterwards went further east and settled one mile west 
of the present village of Rushville. 

At the time of the arrival of our family there, the whole 
country wis unbroken and uninhabited, savj by wild beasts 
and roving bands of Indians. James Homer bought the 
lands lying between our settlement and where Millersport is. 
Soon after our settlement my father's cabin became a preach- 
ing place, and the Rev. James Quinn, of the Methodist 
denomination, was one of the preachers who held meetings 
there. At this time, June 1877, not one of the original pio- 
neers is living. 

The first school I remember was in 1824. It was kept in a 
little log-pen, with the usual log-cabin fixtures of that time. 
John Griffith was the first teacher I went to. He was fol- 
lowed by John Granthum in the same house. There were no 
female teachers employed at that time ; at least not in that 

The first mill I went to was on Licking Creek, and stood on 
the borders of the present town of Newark. It was owned by 
John Buskirk. Newark was then a log-cabin village. My 
father took his grain to the mill in a wagon with wooden wheels 
called " truck-wheels." They were made by sawing off, with a 
cross-cut saw, sections of a very large oak tree, of the thickness 
of about four inches, with holes made in the center for the 
axle-tree. If they were not kept well greased, the creaking 
they caused when in motion could sometimes be heard a mile 
or more. He generally drove a four-horse team to his truck- 


I was not familiar with the wildest condition of the country, 
only through the representation of m}^ parents and others. 

My father killed a panther on the Muddy Prairie, where 
Amanda now is. He killed sixty-three wolves and received 
bounties for their scalps from the State. Of raccoons, foxes 
and wild-cats, he killed six hundred, with also about six hun- 
dred muskrats. He took the skins to Winchester, Virginia, 
on pack-horses, realizing for them money enough to enter 
three quarter-sections of land, embracing the farm on which I 
now live. He likewise traded extensively with the Indians 
for their peltries. The Indians got the impression that he 
had cheated them, and on one occasion when they returned to 
the neighborhood he kept himself hid until they went away, 
though they made no attempt to disturb him. 


My age is seventy-nine years. I came to this neighborhood 
about 1810, and have lived here ever since. At the time I 
came the settlers in this region were : 

William Hane, Samuel Crawford, Andrew Crager, James 
Homes, William Bowman, William Murphy, Mathias Miller, 
William Pugh, Henry Eversole. This was in 1810. Soon af- 
ter came Abel Williams, Peter Hauer and David Keller. 

When the war of 1812 came on, a great many from the set- 
tlement went into the service. 

The first death that occurred in the neighborhood after I 
came was that of Samuel Crawford, and the next that I can 
remember was Andrew Crager. The first marriages after I 
came were Lydia and Jane Cherry ; Lydia married Robert 
White, and Jane married Robert Mc Arthur. 

Nearly every man in the country owned a good gun, and a 
great many of them were hunters. All kinds of wild game 
abounded in the forests. William Murphy and William Bow- 
man were distinguished hunters. 

At one time William Murphy heard that Indians were 
about, and he kept himself out of the waj', for he had heard 


that they charged him with cheating them, and he was afraid 
of them. But nothing ever came of it. 

Squirrels, crows and black-birds destroyed the corn so fear- 
fully that it was difficult some years to save enough for bread. 
Raccgons, likewise, often caused a scarcity by preying upon the 
corn when it was in roasting-ears. 

I killed a bear where Millersport stands. I had to shoot 
him five times before he gave in. At my last shot, he was com- 
ing at me with extended mouth, hut my ball took effect, and, 
I believe, saved my life. I killed fifty odd deer in one winter, 
four of them in a single day. I caught a great many foxes by 
the chase. I could walk several miles and roll logs all day, 
and then walk home at night and not feel much tired. 

At one time I took my breakfast at home, and then walked 
thirty miles to Columbus, or rather to Franklinton, and took 
dinner at two o'clock. When I first visited the site of the 
present Columbus, it was all in woods. At one time when 
there was a general squirrel-hunt, my brother Nathaniel killed 
eighty-four in one day. 

I have owned a great deal of property, and lost it all. I 
never sued a man in my life, and was never sued. 

My father died in 1863, and my mother two years before 
that. I had four brothers, all residing in Walnut Township, 
and all died in the township. Their names were : John, Na- 
thaniel, William and James; and five sisters: Lydia, Jane, 
Betsy, Rosanna and Mary. Four of my sisters were buried 
here, and one near Chillicothe. I was the third in age, and 
am the only one living. 

When I came here the site of Millersport was a thick woods. 
The village was laid off by Mathias Miller. 

The "Big Reservoir" was a marsh. The upper end of it 
was a lake and a cranberr} ? -marsh. It was called " the lake. ** 
It became the reservoir when the Ohio Canal was made. 

During the early days and years of the settlement, the peo- 
ple lived very much on wild meat, particularly venison and 
wild-turkey, and on corn-bread, vegetables and rye-coffee. 
They also made use of spice-wood and sassafras teas. Milk 
and butter were always plenty. When cows and horses were 
turned out to graze in the woods, bells were put on them to 
make it easy to find them. They seldom strayed far away. 


The women spun and made all the family clothing, and the 
shoes were made by the men of the settlement, a few of whom 
were shoemakers. There were small tan-yards that furnished 
the leather. We dressed deer-skins and made pantaloons of 
them. We had hatters who made wool and fur-hats. In sum- 
mer we went barefoot, and got our shoes about Christmas. 


I came from Berks County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1805, 
and settled in Fairfield County, at first fourteen miles down 
Hocking, then in Pleasant Township, and afterwards in Green- 
field, where I have been residing thirty-six years. My father 
was Jacob Zeller Radibaugh. He died in Greenfield Town- 
ship in 1841. Of those who came out with our family from 
Pennsylvania, were: Benjamin Boucher, Frederick Klinger, 
and their families. They both settled down Hocking, within 
Fairfield County, and are both dead. There were but few cabins 
in Lancaster when we came. It was all a wild wilderness 
country. Our neighbors down Hocking were Mr. Watts and 
John Zeller. In Pleasant we lived in the Ewing settlement. 
My husband's father was George Radibaugh. He owned the 
farm now belonging to William Rigby, joining Frederick Seitz 
on the south. 

The elder Radibaughs who lived in Pleasant were Nicholas 
and George. They settled there previous to 1810. They have 
both deceased, and their descendants are largely represented 
in the county. 

Down Hocking we lived in a small log-cabin that had oiled 
paper for window-lights. Newspapers were often used for 
that purpose, and hog's-lard and bear-grease for oiling them. 
We had no mills very near us, and the small ones, that were 
some distance away, often failed for want of water, so that 
breadstuff's were sometimes very scarce. Sometimes several 
weeks passed when scarcely anybody in the whole neighbor- 
hood had a pound of meal or flour. ,In these times of scarcity 
we used pounded hominy and vegetables. Nearly every cabin 


had its hominy-block. Venison and wild-turkey meat were 
always plenty. 

The Indians often came about, but we were not afraid of 
them, and they never disturbed anybody. Wild animals of 
all kinds were plenty. 

The first wedding I attended was Mary Cisco to Jas. Philips. 
The next was my own, in 1811. The first death which occurred 
in the neighborhood was that of Adam Sellers, a small boy. 

The first religious meetings that were held in our neighbor- 
hood down Hocking, were held at my father's cabin by the 
United Brethren. My father was a Brethren preacher. I am 
82 years old. The early settlers of Fairfield County that I 
knew have all passed away. 


His father, Samuel Sheaffer, came from York County, Penn- 
sylvania, in company with Christly Stalter and George Dush, 
and settled in Madison Township in the year 1802, and when 
Jacob was seven years old. He has lived on the same place 
ever since, and is now eighty-three years of age. They came 
in wagons all the way— came by Wheeling, and from there 
over Zane's trace to Lancaster. Lancaster at that time was 
all forest trees, with the exception of a few rude log-cabins. 
They stopped over night threp miles west, at the place since 
known as Sheaffer s tavern. 1 ' There was a cabin there, occu- 
pied by a man named Swygart. From there they followed 
the trace to near where Amanda is, then turned south a few 
miles, and stoped on the same section of land where Jacob 
now lives. Stalter and Dush built their tents within a couple 
of miles. On the route between Zanesville and Lancaster 
there Avere at that time not over three or four cabins. The 
Swygart cabin and the Leathers House were the only struc- 
tures between Lancaster and where they stopped, on Clear 


At the time of the arrival of this colony of three families 
in Madison Township, or what is now Madison Township, 
there had already preceded them Martin Landis, Sr., Mike 
Shellenbarger, Nathan Owens, Peter Prough, the father of 
Mathew, John, William, Robert and Joseph Young, who lived 
one mile east of where Mr. Sheaffer stopped, and a Mr. Hun- 
ter, who lived a little east. 

They first went to Isaac Sheaffer's, and the men went over 
and built a cabin, cutting out a single log for an entrance, 
through which the family crawled, on their arrival. The 
first winter was spent in it without so much as a chink in 
one of the cracks. There was no other floor than Mother 
Earth. The fire was built in one corner of the cabin. They 
at once began the work of clearing off some land for a corn- 
field, and during that winter, Mr. Sheaffer testified, he be- 
lieved they were the happiest people in the world. 

Subsequent to the arrival of these families, there came and 
settled in the adjacent region, George Buzzard, old Mr. Stal- 
ter, John, Nicholas and Daniel Conrad, Abram Sheaffer, 
father of the late Joel Sheaffer, and a Mr. Wolf. During the 
following ten or fifteen years the township filled up rapidly. 

Mr. Sheaffer's father hired him to Martin Landis, Sr., for 
three dollars a month. He said he could not keep himself in 
clothes at such wages, and before he would be compelled to do 
so he would run away. Landis told his father, and he said, 
" Send him home." To satisfy him and keep him at home, 
his father gave him a horse, saddle and bridle, and he was 

The first mill in the township was built very early, by 
Charles Friend. Samuel Sheaffer, father of the narrator, put 
up a small distillery early after his arrival. Drinking men 
came there, and it caused a good deal of disturbance. 

The first school of the settlement was taught by one Richard 
Clark. The first remembered death, after the arrival of the 
Sheaffers, was that of George Lusk and child. The first mar- 
riage remembered was George Prough to Barbara Shoemaker. 
The Indians, he said, were their best friends and neighbors. 
Mr. Sheaffer said the first vote he cast was for James Monroe, 
for President. 

The Menose were the first religious society spoken of. They 


met at the Leathers House, and held their meetings in the 

For a great many years there was very little the farmers 
could raise that would bring cash. But the taxes had to be 
paid, and it was often very difficult to scrape up what little 
money was required for that purpose. 

At first it was necessary to blaze the trees in order to go from 
one point to another with safetj', for the country was literally 
a wilderness — a trackless desert. In one instance the trees 
were blazed between the cabin and the litte cornfield; and 
also to a branch of water where they went to water the stock, 
though the distance was in one case but a quarter of a mile, 
and in the other half a mile. 

The settlers made all their own clothing, on domestic 
wheels and looms. Every house had its hominy-block. There 
was in the neighborhood a hand-mill, where people went and 
ground their own corn. The black-birds and crows were very 
destructive to the corn, both in spring and fall; but the 
squirrels and raccoons were far more so. The first salt was 
brought from the Scioto works, and cost four and five dollars a 
bushel, which was fifty pounds. Pack-saddles were used. 
Almost everything was transported on horseback, for the want 
of wagon-roads. 


I am a son of William Crook, for a long time a citizen of 
Berne Township. My father came from Henry County, Vir- 
ginia, in 1805, and settled in Berne Township, on the farm 
now owned by George Huffman, two miles south-east of Lan- 
caster. My grandfather, Ephriam Crook, came out first and 
lived on the same place. My father had six brothers, who 
also preceded him to this county, all residing in the same 
neighborhood. They are all deceased. 

My father served as Sheriff of Fairfield County, and also as 
Justice of the Peace for many years, besides other positions of 


trust. He was in the war of 1812. He went out as a Major, 
and was promoted to the rank of Colonel. He died at his 
home in Berne Township, in about 1855. 

At my earliest recollection our neighbors were Thomas 
Stone, Emanuel Carpenter, Sr., David Carpenter, William 
Carpenter, Israel Carpenter, Emanuel Carpenter, Jr., John 
Carpenter (John Carpenter was the father of Mrs. John Van 
Pearce), Jacob Vanmeter, John Vanmeter, James Pearce, 
Abraham Ream, Jacob Ream. Sampson, William, Absalom, ' 
Abram and George Ream were sons of Abraham Ream. Jacob 
Ream had two sons— Philip and Jacob. Peter Sturgeon was 
one of the earliest settlers. Abram Walker, Nicholas Crawfish 
and James Mumford were also early settlers of Berne Town- 
ship. Mr. Jackson, father of Thomas Jackson, Esq., and 
grandfather of John D. Jackson, of Lancaster, came at a very 
early day. The father of the late Judge Joseph Stukey and 
Samuel Stukey was likewise an early comer. 

The first mill that I can remember was the Eckert mill. It 
was built by the father of Jacob Eckert, who was the father of 
George and Henry Eckert. The mill was built on Hocking, 
one mile above the Ream mill. The Ream mill was built a 
little later. The Kuntz mill was perhaps built first. The 
Shellenbargar mill was built by Samuel and Henry Shellen- 
barger. Samuel Shellenbarger was the father of the present 
Reuben Shellenbarger. 

The first school I went to was on the land now owned by Mr. 
Prindle, two miles below Lancaster. John Adison was the 
teacher. This was in about 1809. He was a humorous man. 
On one occasion I lost my book, and did not find it until the 
next day. He asked me where I found it. I told him I found 
it in the bush. After that, when I went up to say my lesson, he 
would lay his hand on my head and say good-naturedly : "This 
is the boy that found his book in the bush." Hocking H. 
Hunter afterwards taught in that house, and also a Mr. Bur- 

The first funeral Lean remember was that of my mother, 
who died in 1813. 

The Presidential election of 1828 was held where the fulling- 
mill of James R. Pierce is, on the sixteenth section, and after- 
wards at the house of Henry Ozenbaugh, who was also one of 
the early settlers of Berne Township. 


We lived at first in a little log-cabin in the woods. It had 
but one room, which was parlor, sitting-room, bed-room and 
kitchen for the whole family. The trees were deadened, and 
the underbrush cleared off, and the logs rolled and burned, and 
the corn was raised in among the trees. The rails to fence in 
the fields were for the most part made from trees cut down on 
the clearing. (The clearing was the ground in process of 
being prepared for the plow). 

I knew one man who hauled his back-logs into the house 
with a horse and log-chain. His fireplace was nearly the full 
width of his cabin. 

M} r mother used to spread a bed before the fire in cold 
weather, and five or six of us little folks would lie down 
in a row, with our feet towards the fire. This was made 
necessary by the scarcity of beds and bed-clothes. 

Dances and country plays were practiced by the young peo- 
ple. There were little or no distinctions among the people ; 
every well-behaved person was as good as anybody else. 
Money made no difference then, for we did not have enough of 
it to get up an aristocracy upon. Of one thing I am sure — 
everybody then had better manners than they have now ; and 
there was real friendship and sociability amongst all classes. 
Everybody was ready to help each other whenever help was 
needed. And I think everybody was honester than now— a 
man's woid was worth something. I love to think of those 
good days, departed never again to return. Our associations, 
and loves, and friends, are.nearly all lost in the now fast-grow- 
ing dim vista of the past, and we can only strain our eyes to- 
wards the better land, where, by faith, we expect to meet 
them all again. 

There is scarcely anything left of the wilderness state of 
this country seventy years ago. 


I came from Baltimore County, Maryland, in the year 1812, 
and settled in violet township, three miles east of Picker- 
ington, and on the same spot where I now reside. My age is 


ninety years. When I arrived here I found living in the 
vicinity, or at least within the township, Michael Kraner, 
Alexander Donald, Philip Ebright, Andrew Peck, James 
Bight, Edward Rickets, George Fenstermaker, Henry Hunt- 
work, John Bowser, Frederick Showers, Jacob Growlej^, John 
Chaney and Thomas Homes. Of all these, and several others 
who lived in the township at that time, John Chaney and 
myself are the only ones now living. My brother, Acquilla, 
came out with me, and we purchased jointly half a section of 

When we settled down here we were in the midst of wild 
woods in every direction. We cleared off the ground and put 
up little cabins, and then began the work of clearing some 
land for cornfields. To be able to find our way through the 
settlement from one point to another, we made blazes on the 
trees by peeling or hewing some bark from both sides ; and 
these blazes were followed until beaten tracks were formed. 
As occasion required we cut out wagon-roads. There was a 
wagon-road that passed half a mile east of us, over which the 
army of the war of 1812 passed. This was in 1813. It was a 
cold winter, and we could hear the army wagons passing day 
and night, and could hear the shouts of the drivers. 

Upon our first settlement the wolves howled around us day 
and night. There were also panthers, bears, and wild-cats in 
the woods ; wild-turkeys were in vast flocks in every section 
of the country, and flocks of them would come up to the rear 
of our cabin and look in through the little window. I have 
shot them through the window. We could have wild-turkey 
and deer-meat whenever we wanted. 

My brother Henry died two years subsequent to my arrival. 
His was the first funeral I remember in the settlement. 

Jacob Nepper had a mill at that time, two miles from my 
cabin, on Little Walnut, and Solomon Barts had one on Poplar 
Creek, a little farther up the country. A man named Don- 
alson had a still-house three miles south of me, at the place 
now known as Waterloo. 

Almost every little place had a peach-orchard, more or less. 
The natural seedling peach was all that was known at that 
early day. The crop seldom failed, and there were peaches in 
great abundance almost every year ; large quantities of them 


were hauled to the still-houses and converted into peach- 

The Methodists had a society in the settlement, but there 
was no meeting-house; the meetings were held in the cabins 
of the settlers. In 1816 I married Isabella McDonald. She 
was the mother of my children, and died in 1870, in the 
month of June. 

The first taxes I paid in Fairfield County was two or three 
dollars a year. My land was not taxed for five years. after I 
entered it. This was provided for in the patent. Money was 
hard to come at, and there was very little the farmers pro- 
duced that would bring it, for we had no market and no way 
to get our little surplus out of the country. What little 
money we had was almost entirely silver, and much of it was 
cut money. The men soon learned to make five "quarters" 
out of a Spanish dollar, and five "ninepences" out of a half- 
dollar, or five " fipenybits " from a twenty-five-cent piece. 

In harvest times the price of a daj^'s work was fifty cents, or 
a bushel of wheat. Log-rollings, corn-huskings, and house- 
raisings were universal all over the county. One spring I 
rolled logs thirty days in succession, and I can't remember now 
how I got my own work done, but we all got along somehow. 

The elections were then, and have been ever since, held at 
Pickerington. In the war of 1812 a great many went as 
soldiers. A good many of them did not live to get home. 

When we came out from Maryland, we traveled in wagons 
by the way of Wheeling, and over Zane's trace to Lancaster. 
There was a tavern then on the Schseffer corner, in Lancaster, 
but I cannot remember who kept it. We came from Lancaster 
to Michael Kraner's in one day, which was considered extra- 
ordinary for the kind of roads we had to pass over. 

Lancaster was then a village of log-cabins, with perhaps the 
exception of two or three small brick buildings. 

I have three sons and five daughters living. Timothy Fish- 
baugh, of Lancaster, and at present County Recorder, is my 
second son. I have lived to see Violet Township become 
wealthy, populous and well cultured. I was thirteen years old 
when I landed in Violet Township, and have lived on the 
same place sixty-five years. Have never returned to Mary- 
land since I first came away. 



My father, Frederick Harmon, came from Westmoreland 
County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1800, and settled five miles 
east of the present city of Lancaster. There were seven fami- 
lies emigrated in the same company, viz.: My father, Lewis 
and Christ Bonsey, George Henry, John Miller, Jacob Fox, 
Debolt Macklin ; and all settled in the same neighborhood. 

We came in a fiat-boat from a point on the Manongahela to 
the mouth of the Scioto. There the boat was abandoned, and 
the little stock of household goods and farming implements 
placed on two or three wagons, and the journey up the Scioto, 
through the wilderness, began. A road had to be cut most of 
the route. Myself, with most of the others, walked the greatest 
part of the way. A number of days were required in coming 
as far as the Pickaway Plains, above Chillicothe. From the 
plains to Lancaster the journey was made in two days. 

When we arrived on the Hocking, and crossed over, we found 
on the site where Lancaster now stands, not over one or two 
cabins; all besides was a forest, with ponds of water and 
swales passing over it. We encamped that night on the spot^ 
as I subsequently found, where the old Court-house was after- 
wards built. On the following day we continued our journey 
to the point of our destination, which was the place since 
known as the Harmon settlement, in Pleasant Township. 

My father and two or three others had been out the previous 
year and selected the spot, and built two or three small cabins. 
During their sojourn there, in 1799, the Indians stole my 
father's horse, and he was compelled to walk all the distance 
back to Westmoreland County. The horse, by some means, got 
away from the Indians, and was recovered the following fall in 
the vicinity of Marietta, having been recognized by a brand 
on his shoulder. 

Subsequently the Indians stole two horses from a settler. 
The owner found them at an Indian camp near Rushville, and 
demanded them. The Indians shook their heads. The man 
insisted, when an Indian came out and circled a butcher-knife 
around his head, and he was obliged to leave. The next morn- 


ing he returned with a posse of his neighbors, armed with rifles. 
The Indians still refused to let the horses go, whereupon the 
men pointed their guns at them and told the man to go and 
untie his horses, which he did, and there the matter ended. 

All around us was a wilderness. There were a few families 
over on Ewing's Run, and on Fetter's Run, and down on Rush 
Creek. A man by the name of Lynch had opened a small tan- 
yard where Baldwin's brick house stands, two miles north-east 
of Lancaster. Jacob Harmon had a cabin where East Lancas- 
ter is. He was not of our fafnily. I was eight years old when 
we came to Fairfield County. I am eighty-five years and six 
months now. 

In 1815 I married Sarah Cramer, whose parents lived in Vi- 
olet Township, north of the present town of Winchester. 
Her father owned a considerable body of land there, and I set- 
tled on that portion of it which fell to my wife, and have 
lived on it ever since, or sixty-two years. 

There were no roads through the settlement — that is, no es- 
tablished roads; but we got up petitions and had them located 
and opened. At the time of my marriage there had not been 
a stick cut on my wife's land. I at once built a cabin and 
moved into it, and went to work to clear out fields. 

At the time of my settlement here, my neighbors might be 
mentioned as, George Long, Peter Robnold, Jacob Algire, 
John Algire, William Stevenson, Greenberry Ashley, Jona- 
than Looker, Michael Cramer, Mr. McArthur and old Father 

The Methodists and United Brethren had societies in the 
neighborhood, and held their meetings in the cabins of the 
settlers. Newcomer and Troxel were Brethren preachers. 

At an early day I went to a mill north of Columbus for my 
grinding, and to Zanesville for salt. Our place of election was 
where Pickerington is. The woods everywhere abounded with 
wolves, wild-cats, wild-turkeys, with occasional bears and pan- 
thers, though the settlements had been forming for several 
years. There was a woman who went into the woods to look 
for her cows ; she was absent too long, and the men went in 
search of her. They found the body partly devoured. She 
had been killed by a panther, as was believed, for the men 
saw it in the act of running away from her. One of her arms 


was eaten off, and other parts of her body were more or less 

There was a usage in our settlement, which, 1 believe, was 
common in the new country during the pioneer age — it was 
that of blowing horns in the night, in case of accidents or dis- 
tress of any kind where help was needed. The blast of the 
horn in the night never failed to bring the nearest neighbors. 

During the war of 1812 I drove a wagon on the frontier. I 
was out several times, and received for my services a land- 
warrant. Our lands were entered at the land-office in Chilli- 
coth'e. It was Congress land, and the price was two dollars an 

Wild bees were plenty. Bee-trees could be found every- 
where, and any one who found a tree had the right to cut it 
down, for timber was not regarded as of much value. It was 
rather an incumbrance. 

My taxes then was two dollars and fifty cents. I have 
since paid one hundred dollars, which I could raise more 
easily than I could sometimes raise the little sum of the early 

I have six sons and two daughters living. The descend- 
ants of the»early settlers of Violet Township, with few excep- 
tion, are still living in the township. Lithopolis was a vil- 
lage when I settled here, in 1815, but there was no other vil- 
lage at the time in Bloom Township. 

I am the oldest son of my father, Frederick Harmon, and the 
only one living. My brother Frederick died about two years 
ago, at the old place in Pleasant Township. 


My father, Christian Crumly, came from Pennsylvania in 
1802 or 1803, and settled in Bloom Township, one mile south 
of Greencastle, on the head of the Hocking river. He had 
previously entered 'land, and in settling down in the first 
place, he supposed he was on his own land, but after living a 
year or two in his first cabin, he made the discovery that he 


was on the wrong land, when he abandoned his cabin and 
moved over on the other side of the stream, which was on the 
west side. On this place he lived until the time of his death, 
which was in the year 1856, if my memory is correct. 

At my earliest recollection, our neighbors were the follow- 
ing families, as near as my memory serves me. There may 
have been a few that I cannot recall, probably not many : 
Father Courtright, who was the father of Jesse, Abram and 
John Courtright; Daniel Glick, John Ritter, Mr. Bright, 
Horatio Clark, Mr. Alspaugh, who was the father of George, 
John, Henry and Jacob Alspaugh ; John Solt, Mr. Roler, the 
grandfather of Henry and Elijah Roler, now living ; Peter 
Lamb, father of the present Peter Lamb, of Bloom Township; 
John Swartz, Father Elias Swartz, still of Bloom ;.Mr. Thrash, 
father of Eli Thrash ; Rev. Mr. Bennadum, father of Philip 
and Peter Bennadum ; Mr. Morehart, father of John and Chris- 
tian Morehart; Martin Bogart, Mr. Crites, father of John 
Crites, late of Bloom Township; Simon Crites, father of Sam- 
uel Crites, still of Bloom Township ; Mr. Homrighouse, father 
of John, William and PhilipHomrighouse ; Hugh Scott, father 
of James Scott, and father-in-law of F. A. Boving, of Lancaster ; 
Mr. Mesmore, George Crowley, James Donaldson, Mr. Gordon, 
Henry Leaphart, John Fellows, father of Joshua Fellows, still 
of Bloom Township, and father-in-law of Coonrod Crumley, of 
Hocking Township; Frederick Fellows, father of Coonrod Fel- 
lows, at present of Bloom. 

Frederick Baugher was proprietor of Lithopolis, which he 
laid off in about 1815. An addition to the town was after- 
ward made by Solomon Baugher. The place was at first 
named Centerville. 

A Presbyterian Church was established there at a very early 
day, and later by the Methodists and Lutherans. The first 
church built in Bloom Township was the Glick Church — 
Lutheran and German Reform. 

Abram Haines was a very early settler of the township, and 
is still living. Mr. Needels, father of B. J. Needels, still of 
the township, was also among the first settlers. Daniel Hay 
was the father of Isaac Hay, who still resides on the home- 
place. Adam Snyder was an early settler. 

Our first mill was the rock-mill. The first structure there 


was built by Loveland .& Smith, and was set low down 
among the rocks. The grists were taken in at the gable-end 
and let down to the hopper with ropes, and then raised to the 
level by the same means. 

The first still-house in Bloom Township, that I can remem- 
ber, was built by J. D. Courtright. It was at the Stump 
Spring, between Lancaster and Greencastle. The first school 
I attended was in a little log-cabin on the bank of the Hock- 
ing. It had oiled paper for window-lights. 

The wolves came in a large flock around our smoke-house, 
in the night, and the conch shell was blown to frighten them 


I am the third son of Edward Murphy, who settled one 
mile west of West Rushville, in the year 1802. I was born on 
the farm where I now live, the same where my father first 
settled. My father came from Virginia, in 1798, returned in 
1799, and with his father and brothers moved to Fairfield 
County in 1800, settling in the north part of Walnut Town- 
ship, near the present village of Millersport. 

My father intended to enter the land since known as the 
Buchanan farm, and started to Chillicothe for that purpose, 
with his saddle-bags full of silver. On the way he met Mr. 
Buchanan, who had preceded him, and had already made the 

My mother's father first entered the section where I now 
live ; his name was John Murphy. There were Indians on 
the tract before he made the entry. One of them showed him 
five springs on the section, and he marked the spots by toma- 
hawking the trees. The springs are all still running. 

My father kept a little tavern. It sometimes happened that 
so many men stopped for a night's lodging, that it was impos- 
sible to give them all beds, and straw was spread down for 
them to sleep on. Sometimes every room was full. 

The Indians often came to our house for something to eat ; 
they were fond of salt, and always wanted the half of what 


was produced. If it was a bushel, they would not be satisfied 
without a half-bushel. My mother coming to understand this, 
adopted the plan of producing a tinful, and then they would 
always go away with half a tinful. She was always afraid of 
the Indians, and on one occasion when my father had gone to 
Chillicothe to mill, to be gone over night, she took her chil- 
dren and dog and went into the fodder-house and remained 
till morning. To keep the dog from barking, she kept him 
by her with her hand on him ; and for fear the baby would 
cry, she kept it constantly at the breast. She, however, had 
never been molested by them. 

My mother raised five children of her own, and, in addition, 
thirty-two orphans. She never failed, when a mother died 
and left small children that were not provided for, to take one 
or more of them. A woman named Batson -died, and mj' 
mother took four of the children, and I, having a family of 
my own, took two of them off her hands. She raised Joe 
Blanchard, colored barber of Lancaster. 

I have seen fifty or more men and boys at a corn-husking at 
night. It was the custom for a lot of girls to be stationed in 
the rear of the huskers to take back the husks — some with 
rakes, and others using their arms. It was the privilege of 
the boys, when they found a red ear, to take a kiss, a custom 
also understood by the girls, and no sooner was the red ear 
brought to light than the lucky finder would break for his 
girl. This, together with carrying the husks, was the occa- 
sion of a good deal of sport. [The writer remembers the cus- 
tom, and has often participated in itj. 


My mother was a sister of the late Walter McFarland, of 
Greenfield Township. She came with her father, William 
McFarland, to this county in 1799, and settled first on Hooker's 
Prairie, four miles north- west of Lancaster. Her father in- 
tended to enter the land where the Hookers live, but there 
were two men who claimed it by tomahawk-right, and he 


went and entered the land where Walter McFarland after- 
ward lived and died. 

William McFarland had two sons — John and Walter. John 
was the father of William, Robert and Walter McFarland, late 
of Greenfield Township, and Walter was the father of John 
McFarland, now of Greenfield. 

About two years after the arrival of the McFarlands, Abra- 
ham Van. Courtright, my grandfather, came into the county, 
and settled near what is now known as the Betser Church, 
two miles south of Lockville. He did not remain there long 
before he bought land and moved over in the vicinity of the 
present village of Greencastle, where he died fifty-one or two 
years ago, or about the year 1S25. His three sons — John, 
Jesse and Abraham Courtright, settled in the same neighbor- 
hood, where they are all buried. John settled two and a half 
miles south of Greencastle ; Jesse lived in Greencastle, where 
he deceased many years since. My father, Abraham Court- 
right, bought a place from a Mr. V andemark, one mile east of 
Greencastle, on the old Columbus road, upon which he lived 
many years, and died at a ripe old age. 


My father, Jacob Iric, came from Maryland in 1805, and 
stopped first in Lancaster, when it was a cluster of log- 
cabins among the trees and stumps, interspersed with ponds 
and swales. He did not remain but a short time before he, 
in connection with his father, a man then in middle life, 
bought land two miles south of Lancaster, erected a little 
cabin on it, and moved in. There he lived until the time of 
his death in 1859, at a ripe old age. 

They were unable to meet the deferred payments, and 
the land was forfeited at the land-office at Chillicothe. My 
father then went to work with energy, and, by hard labor and 
careful saving, accumulated money enough to redeem the land, 
when my grandfather deeded him the half of one hundred and 


fifty-three acres. My grandfather died before my recollection. 
My mother died in about 1861. 

At my first recollection our neighbors, in part, were General 
David Reece, Martin Baker, Mr. Pannebaker, near the Kuntz 
mill ; the Carpenters and the Shellenbargers. All these were 
very early settlers. 

My mother was a daughter of Michael Hensel, who lived on 
Rush Creek. He came out one year before my father,, or in 
1804. Mr. Hensel and his wife died a little more than thirty 
years ago. Mrs. John U. Giesy was a sister of my mother. 
William and George Crook, brothers, married two of the 
Hensel girls. There was but one brother. He moved up to 
Big Walnut, and I believe is not living. 

The first school I went to was near the present Prindle 
farm — a little log structure with paper windows. It was in 
the woods. A Mr. Myres, William McAboy, and Paul Carpen- 
ter taught in it; and previously, and before I went there, 
Hocking H. Hunter was the teacher. 

Religious meetings by the Lutherans and German Reformeis 
were held in the cabins of settlers, and in school-houses. 
Revs. Stake and Wise were the preachers. 

There were Indians about when I was a small boy. I do 
not know whether the people were afraid of them, but I can 
remember that the men used to carry their guns and shot- 
pouches with them when they went to meeting, though the 
precaution was probably more on account of wild animals. 
Almost every man was a hunter. A great many bears were 
killed; and deer and wild-turkeys could be taken at any time 
with very little trouble, for the woods were full of them. 

The first mill my father and his neighbors went to was 
Crouse's, near Chillicothe. Afterwards little raccoon burr- 
mills and horse-mills were built near us, and in different parts 
of the county. 

The men of our settlement sometimes went as far as twelve 
miles, and more, to help put up cabins, and to roll logs, and to 
give other assistance to the settlers. The country was wild and 
new, and everybody had to work hard and live hard for many 
years until the lands became improved and the facilities 
for getting a living increased. I have heard my father say 
that he and his family experienced six weeks at one time 
when they had very little else to live on than boiled turnips. 


They built a turkey pen 7 in which more than two hundred 
turkeys were caught. I heard my father say that he bated the 
pen, and sat hid near by and saw them flock round it by the 
dozen ; some of them would go in through the trench. One 
time he ran from his hiding-place to the pen, and found seven 
turkeys inside, which he secured. At another time he was 
loading corn in the wagon, and while he was at work on one 
side the turkeys were on the other pecking the ears. He tried 
to kill them by throwing ears- of corn at them, but failed. 

Nelsy Robinson and Lawrence Beck were married by Rev. 
Stake, about the year 1820. I was told that old Father Ream, 
father of Sampson and George Ream, and Henry Shellen- 
barger, died about 1812. Henry Rudolph, who I think was 
the father of Peter Rudolph, of Sugar Grove, died about the 
same time. 

I heard my father say his tax was two or three dollars, at 
an early day, and that he had hard work to raise that amount. 

I am sixty years old, and live on my father's old place, 
where I was born. I have three brothers" and one sister 


Royalton, March loth, 1877. 

Dr. H. Scott— Dear Sir: At your request I send you the 
following items pertaining to Toby Town, and the early set- 
tlers of Amanda Township : Toby Town was the name of an 
Indian village situated in what is now Bloom Township, sec- 
tion 33, about 80 rods eastward from the west line of said sec- 
tion, and about 20 rods north of its southern line. A small 
stream, known in early times as Toby Creek, and so marked 
on the old maps, ran through the village, but its eastern bank 
was its principal site. Said creek has long been known and 
called by those living along its entire length, by the name 
Little Walnut, and so marked on late maps. Tradition says 
nothing of the origin of the village, but in about 1806, or 1807, 
the Indians left it, and went to Sandusky, among the Wyan- 


dot tribes, and no doubt became a part of that people. A few 
straggling ones were occasionally seen for a year or two after- 
wards, when they all finally disappeared. A few incidents re- 
lating to frhem I will state : 

Shortly after they left, William Clark built, on the old village 
site, and in digging for clay to daub his cabin, he came upon 
Indian remains, supposed to be those of a chief, as a large 
double-handful of silver rings, brooches, and other ornaments 
were discovered with the bones. Elijah Clark, a little son of 
Horatio Clark, being about thirty rods off, brought some of 
them to his mother, who fancied she could perceive an un- 
pleasant odor, and thereupon ordered the little boy to return 
them to their sacred resting-place. The next Sunday, how- 
ever, they were again taken up by two young men named 
Wintersteen, whose parents lived in section 32, one half mile 
westward, at or near the site of an old family grave-yard, where 
now repose the ashes of several of the Clark family, some of 
whom settled near Toby Town in 1799. 

The Indians would take a short journey eastward, and come 
back with plenty of lead, which they traded to the whites. 
No one ever knew, nor was it ever found out where they ob- 
tained it; but from the length of time they were absent, the 
place could not have been very distant. An opinion long 
after prevailed that it was obtained near the present site of 
the rock-mills. But all search for the place has thus far 
proved futile. 

The Clark family, who settled within thirty rods of them in 
1799, were never seriously molested by the red-skins, though 
they frequently found prudence the better part of valor, when 
their red neighbors paid devotion to Bacchus. About twenty 
years ago Mrs. Clark related to me, that on one occasion that 
she remembered, Indians came to her house hunting whisky, 
and that she took her little children and hid in the brush 
until after they went away. Mrs. Clark's grandchildren are 
the present occupants of the farm, and they tell me that for 
many years human bones, arrow-heads, and other Indian relics 
were frequently turned up by the plow. Tradition alone now 
marks the spot. The village and tribe took their names from 
their chief, whose name was Toby. i 



In the spring of 1800, three men, names not remembered, 
came from near Chillicothe and broke ground on the prairie 
in section number 4, planted corn, and then returned home. 
They came back in due time and tended their corn twice. 
The next fall one of these men sold his share to Horatio Clark, 
receiving a horse in payment. The other two likewise dis- 
posed of their shares to parties not now remembered. In No- 
vember of the same year, Wilkinson Lane, of Huntingdon 
County, Tennessee, settled on section 8, and was succeeded in 
the month of June following by Thomas Cole, my grandfather, 
who had entered the sertion. His grandchildren still own 
one half of the section. The family were never troubled by the 
Indians. In a few years my grandfather built a school-house 
on his land, hired a teacher, Abraham Cole, for eight dollars a 
month, and then invited all who wished to send their child- 
ren and pay a, pro rata share, or not, as they could or would. 
In those days school hours were from "sun, to sun," or as 
soon as scholars arrived. On one occasion, my father, Broad 
Cole, (born in 1802), thought of " beating the master to school," 
some day, and, after a few failures to do so, left home one 
morning about day-break ; but, on arriving at the school-house, 
he was greeted with a good fire, and found the master, a Mr. 
Smith, banking up dirt against the school-house to protect 
against cold. That house was built on the north part of sec- 
tion 18. David Swope and William Long were settlers on sec- 
tion 8, in June, 1807. In 1800, Dr. Silas Allen bought and set- 
tled on section number 3, building a house on the crest of a 
hill, near the western line of said section, and fronting a 
prairie on the west, in section number 4. His purchase con- 
sisted of about five hundred acres. At that time there was 
not the mark of an ax from Lancaster to his house. Said 
section was soon given to his four sons— Whiting, Lemuel, 
Jedediah and Benjamin Allen. Lemuel and Jedediah gave 
ground for a village, and about 1810 William Hamilton, then 
living on section 22, surveyed and laid out the village of Roy- 
alton, about one mile south-east of Toby Town. For some 
years it went by the name of Toby Town, generally, but by 
the Allen family it was called Royalton, after a village in Ver- 
mont, from whence they came. Elvira Allen, now Mrs. 


Meeker, was born in 1803, the first female child born, it is 
supposed, in that part of the township. Mrs. Meeker still dis- 
tinctly remembers the Toby Town Indians coming over the 
prairie in single file, the squaws carrying their papooses on 
their backs, lashed to a board, and on arriving at her father's 
house, would stand up the boards upon which their little re- 
sponsibilities were tied, against the outside, while they went in. 

The first schools in Royalton were taught by Warren Case 
and his sister Sabre, in 1810; and by Henry Calhoon, in 1812. 
The Rev. Dr. Hoag, (late of Columbus) a Presbyterian, 
preached in Lemuel Allen's house, in Royalton, as early as 
1810. About the same time the first tavern was opened there 
by Lemuel Allen, as also the first store by Jacob Rush. In 
about 1814, the Methodists organized a society there, and their 
first preacher is supposed to have been Isaac Quinn. 

In this year Stephen Cole built a grist-mill and a carding 
machine combined, on what is called Cole's Run, heading at 
a spring in section 8, the mill being situated on section 7. 
Richard Hooker helped to build the mill ; and in 1817, Piper 
and Reynolds built what is known as the Hooker mill, on 
Turkey Run. Mr. Hooker lived on section 19. The mill has 
long since disappeared, only bare traces of it being now visi- 
ble. Mr. Richard Hooker, now of Hocking Township, and in 
his 79th year, assisted in digging the mill-race. 

The first horse grist-mill and still-house were situated in 
the south part of the township, and were owned by a Mr. 
Huffer, the exact date of their erection not being known. 
Richard Hooker was a Justice of the Peace for the township 
at a very early day. I have recently seen a deed, dated No- 
vember 15, 1805, the acknowledgment of which was taken by 
Jesse Willets, J. P. Hamilton and Rush were also Justices 
for Amanda Township. 

On the 6th day of September, 1817, Elders Eli Ashbrook and 
Jacob Tharp organized the Turkey Run Regular Baptist 
Church. This church is still in existence. They held their 
meetings in Hooker's school-house as late as 1838, about which 
time a house of worship was erected. None of the original 
members are now living, and but one now lives who became 
a member by letter a year or two afterward, viz. : Permelia 
Ashbrook, now 83 years old. Elder ati Ashbrook, one of the 



original founders of the Turkey Run Church, died in Jan- 
uary, 1877, aged 96 years. 

In 1803 Valentine Reber came out from Pennsylvania, and 
entered section 10 of our township, and in 1805 he brought 
out his young wife from Berks County and settled on the sec- 
tion. Frederick Leathers settled in the southern part of the 
township, about the year 1800. 

The township steadily and rapidly increased in population, 
and the red-men, deer, bears and wolves disappeared in pro- 
portion. The nearest neighbors were out of sight, because of 
trees and brush. The diet was plain, but the people had 
much better sauce for their tables than the present owners 
of the soil, and it was not a compound article, but simply 
hunger. Try it, ye dyspeptics ; and then eat corn-pone, or 
johnny-cake, or venison-jerk, with ash-cake, buckwheat-cakes, 
wild-honey, butter, and coffee once a week for a rarity, and 
you will adopt the language of an old settler, and say, "It 
don't go bad." The difference in diet within the last seventy- 
five years was once referred to by an old uncle, a pioneer, 
thus: "Nowadays, when folks go a visiting, the inquiry at 
table is, ' will you take coffee or tea ?' but when I was young, 
the word was, ' will you take sweet milk or sour?' " 

Boys and girls then went to meeting barefooted, the girls, 
and their mothers too, sometimes putting on shoes and stock- 
ings just before going into the meeting-house. After meeting, 
a chicken-pie was sometimes indulged in, if the hawks and 
owls had not flown off with them. One great fear in those 
days was that the timber would give out. For fear it would, 
some would even buy rail timber of their less fearful neigh- 
bors. The settlers were usually that class known as " roor 
men," who were glad to sell their timber to raise a little 
money. Coon-trees and bee-trees had, on this account, to be 
cut on the sly. 

Now, Doctor, permit me to introduce a few anecdotes, and I 
am clone. A quite early settler, who had entered a section 
and settled upon it, went to work and met his payments 
yearly, until but one remained. The time drew near, and he 
lacked but three dollars. None of his neighbors could help 
him to the amount. Only one day remained, and he had to 
pay the money at the %nd-office at Chillicothe, nearly forty 
miles distant. If he failed, his all would be gone. In this 


extremity his only cow died. This opened the way for relief. 
He skinned her and sold the hide for enough to let him out, 
and setting off for the land-office, arrived there a little before 
midnight of the last day, barely in time to save his land. 

My grandfather, Thomas Cole, once made the round trip to 
Chillicothe and back, carrying on his shoulder a flax spin- 
niug-wheel to get it repaired, the whole distance both wa3^s 
being sixty miles. When moving to this county from Hunt- 
ingdon County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1801, he always 
first waded the creeks with a long stick in his hand, to test 
the depth of the water and firmness of the bottom. 

George Disinger was one of the early settlers. He once 
went to Mr. Valentine Reber's to get straw for a bed-tick, 
but failing to procure any, he and his wife filled the tick with 
dry forest leaves. After sleeping on it for two or three nights, 
they thought something was wrong, and upon emptying out 
the leaves they found that they had had a black-snake for a 

William Long, before-mentioned, was a small man, hut 
remarkably well-proportioned. He once had a pair of pants 
made from a single yard of tow-linen, but the pattern was 
rather scant, and the pants too tight. He said he would never 
'spile" another yard of linen in that way. This same Wm. 
Long found that his cows would not eat straw, so he adopted 
a strategy. He stuffed straw in the fence cracks, and several 
times drove the cows away when they had tasted it, and after 
that he had no trouble in getting them to eat it, and even to 
eat up his entire crop of straw. 

Pages might be written of anecdotes, jokes, etc., that would 
be enjoyable, because they would so richly smack of those 
good old times when men were free and equal in the sub- 
stantial sense of the term ; and of sociability, such as no longer 
attains. These were the characteristics of the pioneer age; at 
least as the rule. One more anecdote must suffice for the 
present, lest I trespass too much on your space, which I do not 
wish to do. 

Mr. Henry Kiger and his wife, aunt Polly Kiger, are resi- 
dents of Amanda Township, though they were not among its 
first settlers. Mr. Kiger is now nearly ninety-seven years of 
age, and his wife is about six months younger. She is quite 
brisk, and able to walk several miles to visit her children. 


The old gentleman is rather feeble. From a personal inter- 
view had with them last Monday, March 5th, 1877, I took the 
following from their lij>s : When nearly nineteen years of 
age, she was living in Hancock Town, with an Irishman 
whose name was James Foley, and who was a tailor. She was 
there for the purpose of learning the trade. On one occasion 
General Washington came there on some business connected 
with the " Whisky Boys." The General put up at Johnston's 
Tavern, and presently came to Foley's to have his suspenders 
mended. Foley passed them to Polly Walduck (now Mrs. 
Kiger) to be repaired. They were profusely ornamented with 
silver. When she returned them, the General inquired of Mr. 
Foley if the young lady was his daughter. He replied that 
she was not, but that she was a mighty fine girl, "tvhen the 
General put his hand on my head, and called me a pretty girl, 
ivhich made me mad, though I made no reply." 

Mr. Kiger was in the war of 1812, serving seven months. 
His company was encamped three weeks at Washington City, 
after the burning of the Capitol by the British, in 1814. He 
says he walked up the stone steps of the burned Capitol fre- 
quently and viewed the ruins. 

The first settlers of our township are all gone, and not more 
than five or six of the children first born to them remain. 
The rest are all hidden by the sods of the valley. Very shortly 
nothing of the past scenes will be known, except through 
uncertain tradition, and written history made up at so late a 
day as to be deficient in much that ought to have been 
recorded, and which would have added greatly to the interest 
of the future. Nevertheless, sweet thoughts will roll over 
life's troubled sea, while perusing the pages of the history of 
first settlers and early times of our county. 

Yours, truly, Thomas Cole. 

March 9th, 1877. 


Dr. H. Scott— Dear Sir: Your note of the 12th ult. was 
duly received. It would" require an older person than myself 
io give a full and correct account of the very earliest settlers 


of this township. But such older persons are scarce, and my 
health not being good, I cannot go to see many that might as- 
sist me most, but I will do the best I can. I was less than four 
years old when, with my parents, I came into the township, 
and I have lived here ever since— 63 years. I will merely 
-mention the names of some of the earliest settlers who have 
been known to me, as follows : 

James Holmes, Wm. Murphy, Thomas Cherry, Eli Whit- 
aker, Wm. Harvey, James Crawford, Andrew Krager. These 
settled in the northern part of the township. Then Samuel 
Wiseman, Edward Berry, Abraham Harshbarger, Jas. Miller, 
Wm. Milligan, David Runk, Asa Murphy, Wm. Irvin, Thos. 
Ross, George Heis, David Dillinger, John Miller, A. Miller, 
Nicholas Ketner, Samuel Mills, David Lyle. These lived in 
the central part. Then in the more southern section of the 
township were Mr. Thoman, Jesse Pugh, Solomon Barks, Ed- 
ward Teal, Jno. Decker, Job, Thomas and Adam McName, Wm. 
Beard, Samuel Trovinger, Tillman Baker, Adam Geiger, John 
Shipler, Daniel Hall, Jonas Rienhart. 

The religious societies first organized were the Methodists 
and Baptists. Both societies built log meeting-houses on lots 
donated by Job McName. The first Methodist preachers were : 
Charles Waddle, James Quinn, Father Goff and James Gil- 
ruth. First Baptist preachers : Eli Ashbrook, John Hite, 
Rev. Caves, Rev. Snelson and George Debolt. School Districts 
were not known. The settlers built log-cabins to suit neigh- 
borhoods, and teachers were hired by "articles of agreement.'' 
The article of agreement was drawn up by the teacher, either 
male or female, in which the terms were stated. Then the 
paper was by them carried around and presented to the heads 
of families, who put down their names for so man)' scholars, 
according to the size of the family, at a price named per scholar. 
The most noted teachers were James Allen and Jesse Smith, 
who taught in different neighborhoods for many successive 
years. The other teachers were transient persons. 

The first grist-mill built .was by George H. Houser, on Wal- 
nut Creek, where the Foglesong road crosses. The second was 
built by John Good, one mile above. The third was built by 
Solomon Barks, on Little Walnut, in the same neighborhood. 
These little mills have all disappeared long since, principally 


because the water failed, and also because larger establish- 
ments have been erected on larger streams. 

Two still-houses were early erected on section 15 — one by- 
William Irvin, and the other by Thomas Ross. Another, and 
third one, was established on section 4 by Eli Holmes. All 
have disappeared about fifty years ago. 

The people lived in log-cabins. Their dress was chiefly 
home-made cloth, linsey and flax and tow-linen. The men 
found pastime enough at log-rollings and house-raisings; and 
for more social gatherings they had singing-schools, and the 

The morals of the people were good for a new country. 
Gambling of any kind was almost entirely unknown. The 
first log-cabin in the township was built by Thomas Warner, 
on the south-east quarter of section 20. 

The names I have given you of the early settlers were all 
here previous to the year 1813. I have stated matters as they 
occurred to my mind, and without system. You will arrange 
my items to suit yourself, any of them, or all of them, if you 
deem them worthy of a place in your history of Fairfield 
County, a volume I hope we shall soon see. 

Very truly yours, David Lylb. 

April 12th, 1877. 


My father came from Baltimore County, Maryland, in the 
year 1812, and settled first in Rush Creek Township, in this 
county. In 1817 he removed to Amanda Township, locating 
on Clear Creek, one and three-quarters of a mile south of the 
village of Royalton. He was the father of nine sons, viz. : 
Henry, Robinson I., Nathan, Wesley, Stephenson, Andrew, 
Gideon, Lewis and Ebenezer. His four daughters were : 
Rachel, Leah, Mary and Elizabeth. Of the sons, eight are 
living, in April, 1877, Gideon having deceased in 1844. The 
four daughters married as follows: Rachel married William 
Broomfield ; Leah married Broad Cole ; Mary married Daniel 


Walters, and Elizabeth married Newton Williamson. Wil- 
liam Broom field deceased about the year 1874. His sons at 
present residing in Fairfield County, are : Robinson I., Wes- 
ley and Andrew ; Lewis and Stephenson reside in Pickaway 
County ; Henry in Upper Sandusky, and Nathan and Ebene- 
zer in Marion, Marion County, Ohio. 

I mention as my father's neighbors, at the time of his set- 
tlement in Amanda Township, in 1817, Valentine Reber, Jos. 
Huffman, Jacob Restler, Abram Myres, George Disinger, 
'Squire Stevens, 'Squire William Hamilton, Jacob Prestler, 
Mr. Hanaway, Jesse Hutchins, Jacob Schleich, Thomas 
Galaher and Mr. Huber. These were all citizens of Amanda 
Township. They have all passed away. 

I settled in Hocking Township in 1838, three miles west of 
Lancaster, and have resided in the township ever since. Of 
my neighbors in Hocking Township, there have died since 
the time of my settlement, Abram Hedges, Jacob Burton, Jas. 
Reed, George Strode, Henry Ingman, Father Kemp, James 
Grantham, Mr. Smith, Allen Green, Father Broomfield, Wil- 
liam Broomfield, Joseph Work, Jesse Spurgeon, Nathaniel 
Wilson, Robert Wilson, William Graham, iBuhama (Builder- 
back) Green, Alice Hedges, Mrs. Burton, Mrs. ^roomfield, the 
elder ; Mother Kemp, Mrs. James Grantham, Mrs. Henrietta 
Ingman, Mrs. Joseph Work, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Work, near 
Royal ton ; Mr. and Mrs. Huffman. 

Our place of worship at that time was the Methodist 
Church, known as Mount Zion. There was likewise a Breth- 
ren congregation in the neighborhood, and a Lutheran 
Church. Our school-house stood on William Broomfield's 
land, and the school district was number two. The building 
was a hewed log structure with a shingled roof. My father died 
about forty-nine years ago, and my mother some years after- 
ward, at the age of eighty-seven years. 

I have known the county in its pioneer age, and have 
marked its progress to its present population of about thirty- 
five thousand, and its more than two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollar tax-duplicate. I have seen two full generations 
pass away, and two new ones come upon the stage. I have 
lived to witness the disappearance of every thing common to 
the log-cabin age, and live in a new condition of society. 



The first settlements in Pleasant Township were begun in 
1799. The following persor s, with their families, came in 
1800 and the few succeeding years: Thomas, Mathew and 
David Ewing came in 1800, and settled on Ewing's Pvun, four 
miles north of Lancaster. Thomas was my father, and David 
was the father of the present David Ewing, who resides on 
and owns the paternal farm. James Ewing was a son of 
Thomas, and now is the resident owner of the old place. John 
and Benjamin Feemen came in 1801, and settled immediately 
north of the Ewings. James Duncan, father of the present 
Thomas Duncan, Esq., came in 1800, and settled on lands ad- 
joining Thomas Ewing. Peter Lamb first settled where Fred- 
erick Sites lives, purchasing the lands at the Government 
sales. This was in 1801. In the fall of the same year, his 
father came with his family and settled on the same land. 
George and Nicholas Radibaugh settled in the township in 
1801. George was the father of George, Jacob and William 
Radibaugh, who have all been well and favorably known resi- 
dents of Pleasant Township, but now deceased. George had 
three daughters ; Mary was the wife of Jacob Culp; the second 
daughter married Adam Conklin — her name is not remem- 
bered ; Betsy married John Nelson. Both of these latter 
moved out of the township early. John, George and Daniel 
Smethers came into the township in about 1801, all settling 
on Ewing's Run. John Burton came into the same neighbor- 
hood also in the same year, and located on what is known as 
the old Christ Huber place, on the east of Ewing's Run. The 
father of the three Smethers brothers was also a first settler, 
his sons being } T oung men at the time ; but his Christian name 
is not recollected. 

During the war of 1812, a rifle company was raised on Ew- 
ing's Run and adjacent settlements, which marched to San- 
dusky. David Ewing was its Captain ; Thomas Ewing, 1st 
Lieutenant ; John Burton, 2d Lieutenant. The company 
numbered from 80 to 100 men. 


While encamped at Sandusky, this company was chal- 
lenged to a wrestling match by a man of another company 
near by, who denominated himself " Cock of the Walk. " The 
challenge was accepted, and the Ewing company came out 
best in every fall. Jacob Culp, of the latter company, threw 
his man three straight falls, thus securing the title " Cock of 
the Walk. " 

Mr. Ewing gave the correct version of an incident of David 
Ewing shooting an Indian squaw, elsewhere alluded to ; at 
least his statement of the affair is likely reliable. ' A party of 
six men went out on a hunting expedition. In the course of 
the day they divided into squads of two. David Ewing and 
his companion, when somewhere in the vicinity of Daniel 
Arnold's cabin, discovered what they supposed to be a bear, 
by its motion among the bushes, and the black hair. Mr. 
Ewing fired at the object, and was terribly frightened at the 
scream that responded to his shot — he had wounded a squaw. 
The two men fled with all possible speed, for well they knew 
that the Indians, whom they could not doubt were in the near 
vicinity, would soon be upon their trail. In fleeing, they 
passed the Arnold cabin. The Indians were soon on the 
trail, and having followed it to that point, supposed they had 
gone in there, and at once rushed in. Mrs. Arnold was 
seated with her baby on her lap, when one of the Indians 
raised his rifle to fire upon her. She raised her hands, ex- 
claiming, " Herr Yesu " (Lord Jesus) just as a stalwart Indian 
rushed forward and threw the gun aside, thus saving her life. 
She protested that her husband was not out that day with his 
gun, and thus dallied them until she sent her little eight- 
year-old daughter to a neighboring cabin to tell her father to 
come home. He came with one or two of his neighbors, who 
succeeded in satisfying the excited savages that Mr. Arnold 
was innocent, when they went away. Mr. Ewing kept con- 
cealed until the affair was compromised, after which he re- 
turned to his family, ani nothing more came of it, the In- 
dians having become satisfied that the accident was the result 
of a mistake. The little girl sent by Mrs. Arnold to bring her 
father was the present Mrs. Sheric, of Lancaster, now an old 

Old Mr. Arnold, whose Christian name Mr. Ewing could not 
recall, was a very early settler of Pleasant Township. He was 


the father of Frederick, Daniel, Henry, Jacob and Geo. Arnold, 
all of whom are well remembered as citizens of Pleasant Town- 
ship, but now all deceased. Father Arnold had three daugh- 
ters, who were respectively married to John Fogiesong, Thos. 
Orr, and Jacob Fetters. Conrad, Jacob and Philip Fetters 
settled on Fetters' Run, Pleasant Township, in 1801. Old 
Father Harmon, father of Peter, Frederick and George Harmon, 
also came into the township in 1801, settling on Pleasant Run. 
John Baldwin, the same year, settled on what is still known 
as the Baldwin farm, two miles north-east of Lancaster. 

The first school-house Mr. Ewing remembers was a small 
round log-cabin standing on the Radibaugh land. He remem- 
bers a Mr. Newman who taught school in it, about the year 
1820. The first meeting-house in the settlement was built by 
the Lutherans, and has since been known as the Ziegler 
Church. He thinks it was built between 1801 and 1810. The 
first preacher there, which he remembers, was Rev. Stake. 
The first building was constructed of hewn logs, but that was 
subsequently removed to give place to a good frame church 
edifice. The first still-house in the settlement was erected by 
Thomas Ewing, father of the narrator, previous to 1810. The 
first mill recollected was erected on Arnold's Run, by old 
Father Arnold, father of Frederick, Daniel, Henry and Jacob. 
The site of it was a little north of where the County Infirmary 
now is. It was a raccoon burr-mill, and its capacity was about 
ten bushels in twenty-four hours. When it dried up the 
people had to go to Zanesville to get their grists ground. 
There is not a vestige of the mill now to be seen. 


My father, Peter Sites, came from Rockingham County, 
Virginia, and settled on the farm where I now reside, in 1809. 
He purchased the land from Jacob and Philip Lamb, they hav- 
ing bought it at the Government land sales about the year 
1801. My father continued to reside on the same place until 
the time of his death, at the age of 85 years. My mother sur- 


vived him ten years, she being about ninety at the time of 
her demise. 

Our neighbors sixty years ago were : Judge Burton, Thomas 
Ewing, David Ewing, Mathew Ewing, James Duncan, John 
Feemen and Benjamin Feemen. The first school-house that I 
can remember stoxl on my father's land. It was a small cabin 
built of round logs, with stick and mud chimneys and paper 
windows. I also remember another school a little further east, 
on Mr. Harmon's place. It was kept in the second story of 
his spring-house. This was in 1815. The teacher's name at 
that time was G. Langfore. 

The Methodists held meetings at my father's cabin. The 
first Methodist preachers who held meetings there were: Rev. 
McElroy, James Quinn, Jacob Young, Cornelius Springer and 
Charles Waddle. The meetings were afterwards moved to 
Nimrod Bright's ; and again they met at the cabins of Thomas 
Anderson, Daniel Arnold and Peter Sites. The United Breth- 
ren had also a society in the neighborhood, and held their 
meetings at my father's, and at Daniel Arnold's. Their preach- 
ers at that time were : Rev. Stewart, Rev. Anderson, Rev. 
Havens, and Bishop Christian Newcomer. In the east part of 
the township were Jacob McLin, Dewal Maclin, Peter McLin. 
Not one of the early settlers I have named are living, and 
there were likewise a great many of their compeers, previous 
to 1820, who have passed away. 

During the war of 1812 an incident occurred which caused 
great excitement throughout our new country for a few days. 
An alarm spread over the country that hostile Indians were 
coming. The settlers mostly went into fort. The people of 
our neighborhood forted at the house of Judge Burton ; and 
those of North Berne Township forted where James Driver 
now resides, near Bremen. The people in some instances car- 
ried their extra clothing and valuables and hid them in the 
clover fields and other outdoor places. We took our pitchforks 
and axes into the house as weapons of defense against the ex- 
pected foes. The fighting men of the settlement rendezvoused 
at Lancaster for organization and offensive operations. I re- 
member that some persons came to the fort in the night for 
protection, and called to be recognized, and to assure the people 
that they were friends. The rumor proved false, and within 
a few days all was as before. 


We wagoned our wheat to Zanesville and sold it at first for 
twenty-five cents per bushel, sometimes taking salt in ex- 
change. A little later we got forty cents. We likewise went 
there to mill, when our home mills failed for want of water. 

Our wearing apparel was almost entirely home-made, con- 
sisting of flax and tow-linens in summer; and for winter wear, 
linsey, flannel and home-made fulled cloth. Our women spun 
their flax and wool on spinning-wheels; and the weaving was 
done by the women on hand looms. Every neighborhood had 
several looms. The wool was at first carded with hand-cards; 
and afterwards we had carding-machines. 

Boys and girls had for the most part one pair of shoes in the 
year, and these were often not obtained until towards Christ- 
mas. To economize these, and make them hold out as long 
as possible, they were carried in hand in going to meeting on 
Sunday, until near the meeting-house, when the shoes and 
stockings were put on, to be taken off after coming out. The 
girls thought they did well if they got one calico dress in the 
year. Young ladies not unfrequently spun, wove, and made 
up their wedding-dresses. 

In those days people confided in each other — promises were 
seldom made that were not kept. Almost every man's word 
was as good as his bond. What little money we had was 
almost entirely silver, and the change, by fractions of the dol- 
lar, was made with cut money; thus, a quarter of a dollar cut 
in two made two ninepences ; and cut in four pieces, made 
four fipenybits, of the value of six and one-fourth cents each. 
It was said that people sometimes made five fipenybits of 
one quarter. And in the same way a half-dollar cut made two 
quarters, or four ninepences. These latter were sometimes 
called elevenpences. Men had hard work to pay their little 

From my twenty-second year, for twenty-five years, I drove 
a six-horse team backwards and forwards across the moun- 
tains, taking produce and bringing back goods. Afterwards I 
took over droves of hogs and cattle. 



My father, Martin Landis, Sr., visited this valley in 1798, 
when all that is now Fairfield County was an unbroken wil- 
derness, if Zane's trace, and perhaps the cabin of Joseph Hunter 
on the Hocking be excepted. In 1799 he moved to the county, 
settling first two miles below where Lancaster stands, and as 
near as I can state on the land now known as the Prindle 
farm. After remaining there about one year, he removed and 
settled within what is now Madison Township, where he died 
in the year 1814, or about the close of the war of 1812. 

He served as Justice of the Peace during the administration 
of James Madison as President of the United States. He 
entered land in the land-office at Chillicothe for Henry and 
Samuel Shellenbarger, the same that was afterwards known 
as the John Wiley farm, on Clear Creek. He also entered for 
Miss Katy Shellenbarger, sister of Henry and Samuel, the 
place now owned and occupied by Isaac Julien. Miss Shellen- 
barger was afterwards and long known as Mrs. Eckert. For 
another sister of the Shellenbarger's he entered the land now 
known as the Ezra Wolfe farm. This was Sarah Shellen- 
barger, who became the wife of Emanuel Carpenter, Jr. 

My father had six children — two sons and four daughters. 
My only brother died in childhood, at the Prindle farm. 
My sister Mary married William Guy; Katy married Isaac 
Wolfe; and Sarah married Emanuel Dunic ; Nancy did not 
marry. The sisters are all living. 

My father sustained such pecuniary losses during the war 
of 1812, as to seriously embarrass him. He engaged in stock 
driving, and was within twenty-five miles of Washington 
City with a drove of fat cattle, when it was burned by the 
British. This disaster compelled him to sell his cattle at 
a sacrifice. He did not live to retrieve his losses. 

My father was a Mennonite, and was very charitable and 
liberal in his religious views. He built a church in his neigh- 
borhood, which was called in its time "The Mennonite Meet- 
ing-house." It was, however, free for all denominations. Rev. 


Stake, Lutheran, of Lancaster, often preached in it. The 
building was likewise used for a school-house. It was a log 
structure, of the size of about twenty by thirty feet. It con- 
tinued to stand until recently. 

There was a powder-mill that I remember well. It stood 
near where Abbott's store now is. I do not remember by 
whom it was built, or the year, but it remained a long time. 


David Foster was born in Lancaster in 1811, and has been 
a life-long citizen of the place. In 1827 he went to learn the 
chair-making business with Jacob Grubb. In 1831 he suc- 
ceeded John B. Reed in that business, at his stand on the 
north-west corner of Columbus and Wheeling streets, where 
he still continues, under the firm of Foster & Son. He uses 
the same lathe and work-bench with which be began ; also, all 
his other implements, and has never changed his plans of work. 
Mr. Foster has witnessed the transformation of Lancaster 
from a condition almost of woods to its present population and 
business. He has preserved a wonderful memory of its early 
mechanics, their location and business, with also many other 
things belonging to the early history of the place. The fol- 
lowing is his statement, given to me, which is probably en- 
tirely correct : 

He has a distinct recollection of the sickle-mill, which was 
on Baldwin's Run, a few hundred yards below the fourth lock, 
and a little above the crossing over the canal on the old 
Logan'road. Christian Rudolph informs me that the estab- 
lishment was built by a man named Roland [David Foster 
said the name was Funk] previous to the year 1810. It was 
run by the water-power of Baldwin's Run, and was used for 
cutting teeth in sickles, and grinding them, and, I suppose, 
their entire manufacture. The sickle was an implement used 
for cutting wheat and other small grain at an early day. Mr. 
Foster remembers that the establishment was not entirely 
removed in 1828. During the past winter (1876-7), in sink- 
ing a culvert under the canal where the sickle-mill stood, part 


of the fore-bay and other remnants of the old mill were found 
several feet below the surface, including a fragment of a grind- 

Mr. Foster likewise describes another establishment which 
I have not previously heard spoken of — it was a water-power 
mill for the purpose of breaking and scutching flax. It stood 
about on the site of a dwelling-house now opposite what is 
known as the Giesy mill, on the Logan road, three-fourths of 
a mile below town. He remembers seeing it at work when 
he was a small boy. The establishment has long since en- 
tirely disappeared. He fixes his recollections of it at about 
1816. He thinks it was erected by John Rolan !, or Funk, who 
was also the proprietor of the sickle-mill. 

About the same time, there was in operation a powder-mill, 
on the lands now known as the Fricker farm, three miles 
south-west of Lancaster. The concern was owned and run by 
one George Bickler. He thinks it was discontinued about the 
year 1823. 

He spoke of the mechanics of Lancaster in 1815 and the few 
succeeding years. A Mr. Matlock and William Eodenheimer 
were wheelwrights — that is, makers of spinning-wheels. Mr. 
Matlock's shop was at the foot of the present Main street. A 
Mr. Spogle likewise made spinning-wheels. His shop was in 
with Henry Miers, who was a cabinet-maker. Mr. Miers was 
the father of the late Henry Miers, and of the present James 
Miers. Their shop was on Main street, next west of what is 
now Bauman's tavern. It was a two-story log-building. 
William Tony made chairs and spinning-wheels about where 
Mr. Stroble's furniture-store now is. This was from 1817 to 
1820. Jacob Grubb bought out Mr. Tony, and carried on the 
business at the same stand. 

William Duffield was a carpenter. He built the first frame 
house in Lancaster— at least such is Mr. Foster's recollection. 
It stood on the ground now occupied by the new Court-house. 
Christian Weaver was a carpenter, and occupied the lot where 
Mrs. M. Z. Kreider lives. John Foglesong carried on black- 
smithing where John D. Martin resides, and which was the 
residence of the late Samuel F. McCracken. John Leonard, 
James A. Weakley and Wilson Latimore were early carpen- 
ters, also John K. Myers. Samuel Blazell carried on black- 
smithing at a very early clay, on the same corner occupied by 


D. Foster & Son as their chair and furniture-shops. Henry 
Johns, carpenter, had his shop where Dr. P. Carpenter now 

John Leonard, Luman Baker and Thomas Dawlin carried on 
cabinet-making where Bauman's tavern is, on Main street. 
Samuel Effinger had a tin-shop about where the First Na- 
tional Bank is, on Main street. This was previous to 1820. 
Scipio Smith (colored) carried on tinning about the same 
time. Thomas Sturgeon was a silversmith, and carried on 
where Sturgeon's row is, east of the Public Square. John 
Townsend was a silversmith previous to 1820. James Gates 
came to Lancaster early, and succeeded Thos. Sturgeon in sil- 
versmithing. This was Thomas Sturgeon, Jr., who is at pres- 
ent a citizen of Lancaster. 

Mr. Foster remembered a tailor, who, previous to 1820, car- 
ried on where John Work lives on Chestnut street, opposite 
the Jail ; also, shoemakers of the same times. He thought 
John Stallsmith, Jacob Embick and John Napkin were here 
as early as 1815. Joseph Work, Sr., was carrying on shoe and 
boot-making in 1827. He spoke also of Hiram Hanson, who 
was in the same business very early. 

John Beeman and Col. Geo. Seits were gunsmiths, and had 
their shop near Dr. Shawk's office, on Main street. Samuel 
B. Thompson, George W. Claspill, John Gibbs and William 
Bodenheimer commenced the gun-making business probably 
about the year 1826. 

Robert R. Claspill, blacksmith and plow-maker, came to 
Lancaster in 1825. Robert 0. Claspill carried on the same 
business on the grounds now occupied by the English Lutheran 
Church, in 1831. 

Colonel Samuel Blazer first introduced into Lancaster patent 
scales, about 1825. 

John Shur, father-in-law to Mr. Foster, was a baker in Lan- 
caster as early as 1812. He also kept a small tavern. Other 
bakers were remembered, who were in the business at a very 
early day. Among them were Daniel Keltner, Hiram Hanson, 
Gotleib Steinman and John U. Giesy. 



Christian Rudolph came to Lancaster in 1815, when it was 
little more than a log-cabin town. The same fall he hired 
himself to Richard M. Johnson, who then had the contract for 
carrying the mail from Pittsburg to Limestone (Maysville), 
Kentucky. He was then fifteen years of age. He commenced 
carrying the mail in October of that year on horseback. His 
route was from Lancaster to Zanesville, and back, over Zane's 
trace. The route required him often to be out all night, 
which, over the narrow road, and through the forests, especially 
in very dark nights, was a lonesome and dreary business. It 
was often so dark that he could see no part of the road, and 
was obliged to depend on the better eyes of his horse to follow 
the path. On one occasion he arrived at Zanesville late in 
the night, and being behind time, he received his mail and 
turned back, and came as far as Somerset without feeding or 
taking a bite to eat. In these mail routes he forded the streams 
that were fordable, sometimes when they were dangerously 
high. The rivers were crossed in canoes, and horses changed 
on each side. 

Two or three years after he began to carry the mail, open 
box-wagons were put upon the road. I think he said the new 
contract required the mail to be carried six months in wagons, 
and six months on horseback. This latter contract was by J. 
S. Dugan. Stage-coaches were introduced on the route by Mr. 
Dugan, about the year 1820. 

Mr. Rudolph carried the mail in all about five years, when 
he purchased a four-horse coach and team, which he drove four 
years as a common carrier, and then opened a livery-stable, in 
which business he is still engaged, at the age of about seventy- 
seven years. 

He spoke of the taverns in Lancaster at the time of his ar- 
rival. John Swoyer kept a house of entertainment on what, 
for many years, has been known as the Shaeffer corner, now 


occupied by George Beck's drug store. Frederick Shaeffer suc- 
ceeded him as hotel-keeper. Mr. Beck, father of the present 
George and Jacob Beck, kept a tavern on Columbus street, on 
the grounds now occupied by the dwelling of George Beck. It 
was known as the Black Horse Tavern. Mr. Beck also had a 
blacksmith-shop on the same lot. A third tavern was then 
kept on what is sometimes spoken of as the Latta corner, on 
Main street, east of the Public Square, by Thomas Sturgeon. 
Mr. Sturgeon was uncle to Thomas Sturgeon, now of Lancaster. 
The store-keepers at that time were: John Creed, between 
McCrackin's alley and Columbus street. Wm. and Christian 
King, on the corner now occupied by Beecher White as a 
drug store. Frederick A. Foster kept a store also on the same 
square; all on the north side. Mr. Rudolph thinks the build- 
ings were either frames, or log-houses weather-boarded. At 
that time the town was all below the hill. He stated that 
Sosthenes McCabe had the contract for furnishing the brick 
for the old Court-house, and that he made them for two dollars 
and fifty cents a thousand. 


Mrs. Van Pearce was of the Carpenter family, and was born 
on what is now the Giesy farm, one mile south of Lancaster, 
in the year 1800. John Van Pearce, her late husband, was 
brought across the mountains when a child — part of the way 
strapped fast to a pack-saddle. He came in 1810. 

Mrs. Van Pearce remembers Lancaster when it was a village 
of log-cabins in the woods. She claims to have been the first 
white female child born in the county. She was the daughter 
of John Carpenter, Jr., and her mother was a sister of Emanuel 
Carpenter, Jr., who was the proprietor of the south part of 

She referred to a few incidents of her childhood days. On 
one occasion, when her mother had gone to visit the family of 
Rudolph Pitcher, she being as she thinks about four or five 
years old, she wandered away from home, and can just recall 
the circumstance of lying in the door of some cabin in the vil- 


lage and crying for a piece of bread, and that she was eating 
it when she was found by her scared family. 

At another time she went with other children to gather 
hickory-nuts, over in the vicinity of Kuntz's mill. When 
she came out of the bushes that were close up to her father's 
yard-fence, she was greatly surprised at seeing the yard filled 
with people, all seated on the ground. They were Indians. 
Her mother came out with all the cold victuals she could find, 
and divided it among them, giving each one a pittance, which 
they ate, and then went peacefully away. The had papooses, 
which Mrs. Pearce says she took and nursed, which pleased 
the squaws very much. 

She said that during the Indian scare in 1812, her father 
refused to leave his own house, and that he rolled bars of lead 
round, and then cut them in small pieces, and rolled them in 
the bottom of a large iron kettle, to be used as shot if the 
Indians came on him, designing to make his house his fort, 
and the windows port-holes. She spoke of the Dr. Shawk 
family, the Pitcher family, and many others then here. Be- 
tween their house and town all was thick woods and marshy 
prairie, and the only road was a path. 

She remembered going to school in town to two teachers, 
named Rober and Smith. The first meeting she remembers 
going to was in a log-cabin below where Mr. Prindle now 
lives. She spoke of Carpenter's mill, the first built— where 
Kuntz's mill subsequently stood. Her story of how the people 
lived, and what they did, and how they did it, was the same 
given in several places throughout this volume. It was the 
pioneer age ; and pioneer life differed in no essential points 
throughout all of the great North-west at the same era. 


Mr. Foster came to Lancaster in 1810. He was born in 
Providence, Rhode Island, on the 7th of May, 1791, and is 
therefore at this writing 86 years of age. He was first 
employed as a clerk, and at about 1816 began business on his 
own account, and was for many years one of Lancaster's dry 


goods merchants. He named the following dry goods men 
who were in business when he came : 

Christian and William King, Nathaniel Cushing, on what 
is still spoken of as Connell's corner. Samuel F. McCraken 
sold goods on the old Green corner. Archibald Carnahan 
had a store about where the First National Bank stands. 
John Creed sold goods near the spot where Bininger's jewelry- 
store stands. Rudolph Pitcher also sold goods, and Andrew 
Crocket had a store where Giesy's block is, on the south side 
of Main street. 

There were others who came in afterwards and sold dry 
goods. Jacob Green came from Tarleton at an early day. 
Then followed John Black, Samuel Rogers, Jesse Beecher, 
Elenathan Schofield, Thomas Cushing, Latta & Connell, Robt. 
Smith, and Ainsworth and Willock. All the above were more 
or less engaged in selling dry goods previous to 1825. There 
were no groceries, as such. Everything in the grocery line 
was kept in the dry goods stores, as also iron, hardware, cut- 
lery and all kinds of farmers' goods, such as sythes, sickles, 
hoes, grubbing-hoes, chopping-axes, pitchforks; all kinds of 
castings ; nails, saddle-stirrups, bridle-bits, log-chains and 
trace-chains ; spades, andirons, smooth-irons, drawing-knives, 
augurs, gimlets, chisels; a great many things not now in use ; 
and whisky. 

He stated that the Lancaster Ohio Bank went into opera- 
tion in 1816, and closed in about 1842. After it resolved to 
wind up, the officers contracted with Jacob Green to redeem 
all outstanding notes, for the sum of $4,001. The amounts 
came out about even. The bank was solvent, and nobody lost 
anything by it, with the exception of some slight shaves on 
some of its notes in changing hands after it suspended opera- 

The first President of the bank was Philemon Beecher, who, 
Mr. Foster thinks, remained about one year, when he was suc- 
ceeded by John Creed, who continued to be its President until 
it ceased. Michael Garaghty was Cashier throughout the en- 
tire course of the bank. 

The immediate cause of the close of the bank was the re- 
fusal of the Legislature to renew its charter. At that time 
there was found to be on hand about three-quarters of a mil- 
lion of dollars of unissued bills of all denominations. These 


were, by the order of the Directors, delivered over to Fred, 
erick A. Foster and Jacob Green, to be burned, which they pro- 
ceeded to do. 

Mr. Foster referred to the typhoid epidemic that prevailed 
in Lancaster in 1823. He remarked, that to the best of his 
recollection, only two persons in the town escaped its in- 
fluence entirely, whom he named as Christian Weaver and 
himself. A great number of leading citizens died. 

At the time of Mr. Foster's coming to Lancaster there was 
but one brick building in the place, and that was the office 
since known as that of John T. Brazee, on the Schofield corner, 
Main street. In the fall of the same year, viz. : 1810, Phile- 
mon Bjecher built his brick office adjoining his residence, on 
what is at present known as Rising's corner— once Beecher's 
corner, on Main and Columbus streets. The third brick build- 
ing was a residence, which is still standing, and at this time 
occupied by Henry Reindmond, on the north side of Main 
street going east, up the hill. It was built by Rev. John 
Wright, first pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Lancaster. 

The very first tavern in Lancaster was on Wheeling street, 
south side, a little below Center, or McCracken's alley. It 
was a log building, and was removed at an early day. 


Mr. Vandemark, when a boy of five years, came with his 
father, Gared Vandemark, from Luzerne County, Pennsylva- 
nia, and settled three miles north-west of Lancaster, in the 
year 1810, and in the autumn of that year. Their first loca- 
tion was on the same spot which was the residence of the late 
John Levering. Their nearest neighbor was Adam Bear, 
father of Adam Bear, who at this time resides on the same 
place of his father. He spoke of the following persons at that 
time residing within neighboring distance of his father's 
cabin : Peter Woodring, Joseph Hunter, Mr. McKey, Samuel 
Grabill, Joseph Work, Jesse Spurgeon and Mr. Stewart, father 
of the present Levi Stewart, of Lancaster. 


He remembered Lancaster as being at that time a village of 
log-cabins, whose streets were filled to some extent with 
stumps and mud-holes. He spoke of the swale that crossed 
Main street at Center alley, and thought the fill there now, 
east of Shawk's alley, is from six to ten feet. There were only 
one or two small brick houses in the place, and a few frames. 
South of Chestnut street there were no houses, and the ground 
was used for a muster-field and race-course. East of High 
street, and occupying all the present church grounds, as well 
as the Court-house lot, was at that time a small cornfield, 
fenced with split rails and surrounded with woods. All the 
railroad grounds, and including the starch factory, was a com- 
mon, grown over more or less with wild-plum, black-haw and 
hazel-bushes, interspersed with a few large elm-trees. 

The first school-house he remembered stood near the house 
known as the Jesse Beecher place, perhaps a little west of it. 
It was a round log-hut. They got their water from a spring 
near a big elm-tree that he thought is still standing. The 
first teacher in it was a Mr. Cole"; and after him W. H. Coley. 
That was in about 1813. He had not forgotten the droll way 
Mr. Coley required them to spell and pronounce their words, 
and for failing to do which they often got their ears soundly 
boxed. He tried to imitate the teacher's way, thus : S-a-1 sal, 
v-a vay, salva, t-i-o-n shun, salvashun ; the final pronunciation 
being broad, and accented on the third syllable. After that, 
and in the year 1818, he went to school to a Mr. Jas. Hunter, 
at the same place. 

Mr. Vandemark said : ' : My sister Jane married David West- 
enbarger in 1812. It was the first wedding I had ever seen. 
The license was issued by Hugh Boyl, and the ceremony was 
performed by Adam Weaver, Esq., father of the late John C. 
Weaver. Mr. Boyl was at that time Clerk of the County Court. 

" During our three months' term of school, which was all we 
had in the year, we had spelling-schools, and a polemic, which 
was sometimes denominated a 'debating society,' or 'debating 
school.' It was at one of these debating schools that I was re- 
ligiously convicted under the following circumstances: We 
held these meetings at night, and in a log-cabin that had pre- 
viously been a dwelling, and which stood somewhere between 
the present residences of Robert Work and Newton Peters. 
The question debated on this particular evening was, ' Which 


is the most useful to mankind, the Doctor of Divinity, or the 
Doctor of Physic ?' Myself and Levi Stewart were appointed 
chief combatants. I took the affirmative, and Mr. Stewart the 
negative. I tried to show the value of an immortal soul, and 
in the effort I became so affected that I shed tears, and the 
whole house was so wrought upon that the meeting broke up 
without any decision being given on the question, or arrange- 
ments for another meeting. Jacob and Daniel Strayer, brothers, 
were the judges. From that evening I identified myself with 
the Christian people, and have ever since been trying, in my 
humble way, to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ." 

Mr. Vandemark remembered that they went to Carpenter's 
mill (later Kuntz's mill), for their grinding, and when the 
water got low, and the little mills could not grind, they were 
compelled to go all the way to Chillicothe, or Zanesville, to 
mill. He spoke of the old hominy-block, and of the corn- 
grater, and of the way the people dried pumpkins, and 
beans, for winter sauce. He had also a distinct recollection 
of the old-time log-rollings, corn-huskings, house-raisings, 
quiltings, grubbings, rail-maulings, and the like. Also, the 
fodder-house, ash-hopper, and potato and turnip holes. He 
said his father was a teetotaler all his life, and on that account 
sometimes had difficulty in getting his harvesting and other 
work done, because he refused, from conscientious scruples, to 
furnish whisky. But he never yielded, and at last got his 
work done. 

He described another custom of the pioneer age, which the 
circumstances of the times compelled the people to adopt, and 
of which the writer has also a distinct remembrance. The 
wheat was thrashed out with flails, or tramped out with horses, 
often on dirt-floors ; and then, after raking the straw clean 
from the wheat and chaff, the latter was shoved into a heap, 
and the following method of cleaning it resorted to: The 
wheat was let down from an elevation as high as a man could 
raise his arms, either through a riddle (which was a kind of 
course sieve) or from a shovel, falling in a stream, from which 
the chaff was blown away with a common bed-sheet held at 
each end by two persons. From eight to ten bushels in a day 
was good work for three hands, as it had to be gone over gen- 
erally two or three times before the wheat was ready for the 



Mr. Hathaway's father was one of the early settlers of the 
vicinity of Winchester. He is at this writing seventy-one 
years of age, and has spent his life in the neighborhood. He 
remembers the times and incidents of the log-cabin state of 
the section of country, since known as Violet Township. He 
named the following persons as having been his father's 
neighbors, at the time his recollection reaches to, or, about 
sixty-five years age. He fixed the time at 1812 to 1815: 

William Perin, George Tong, Michael Creamer, John Shoe- 
maker, Lewis Phillips, John Daniel ; Adam, Jacob and George 
Creamer; George Harmon, John and Jacob Algire, John Huff, 
Clem Green, David Painter, Thomas Roberts and John Tall- 
man. Old Mother Creamer, wife I believe of Michael, was 
familiarly known all through the country as "Granny 
Creamer." This was an appellation given to certain old ladies 
in the early days of the country, who performed duties now 
belonging to the doctors. The title has become obsolete. The 
above-named persons have all deceased, with the single excep- 
tion of George Harmon, who is living near Pickerington, at 
the great age of more than eighty years. 

Mr. Hathaway related an incident which reflects back-woods 
life, and has many similar counterparts which still live in the 
memory of the writer. At the age of four years, he was 
accompanying his mother to the cabin of Mr. Tallman. They 
discovered a large black-snake near the path, and his mother 
having an instinctive dread of Eve's betrayer, told him to 
stay and watch it while she went to fetch Granny Creamer to 
kill it. Mrs. Creamer was in sight of them, in the act of 
grubbing up bushes in the clearing. She came and killed the 
snake, greatly to the relief of Mrs. Hathaway, and then 
returned to her grubbing-hoe. 

Their cabin was two miles north of the present village of 
Winchester. There was a sorrel mare belonging to the 
family, which was nightly stabled in a log-pen. The wolves 
came every night and howled in the near vicinity, which 


caused the family to believe they were after the old sorrel. 
The country abounded with wolves, bears, wild-cats, panthers, 
deer and wild-turkeys. He spoke of the sociability and kindly 
feeling that united the people together, and thought every- 
body was happier then than they are now. 

He spoke of the first mill of the settlement. It was built 
on Little Walnut, one mile below where Winchester now is. 
In the latter part of summer, and in the fall, it " went dry," 
and then the people had to go to Zanesville for their grinding. 
In a good stage of water the mill could grind ten bushels of 
corn in twenty-four hours. It was a raccoon burr-mill, the 
only kind known in the pioneer country. 

He gave a full account of the pioneer hominy-block, corn- 
grater, lye-hominy, johnny-cake^ hoe-cake, ash-cake ; flax and 
tow-linen, linsey ; the one pair of shoes a year; and how the 
people went to meeting barefooted in summer. A man by the 
name of Hughes built a hand-mill, and the neighbors went 
there and ground their corn on it. 

The first school he remembered was three miles from his 
father's. It was a pioneer school-house, with a paper window. 
He remembered that William Hackney, Thomas Mc Arthur, 
William King, and a Mr. Allen taught school in it, and that 
John Swasey taught in the same neighborhood about the year 

William Stevenson settled in the neighborhood in about the 
year 1815. He was a Methodist, and opened his house for 
preaching and other religious meetings. The ministers who 
preached at his house the few succeeding years were, Vananda, 
Charles Waddle, Russel Bigelow, Jacob Cooper and Jacob 
Young. The United Brethren organized a society in the 
neighborhood soon after, and Lewis Creamer was their 
preacher. Presbyterians likewise made their appearance at 
an early day in the settlement of the township. 

Mr. Hathaway thought that George Tony was the first 
'Squire in the township. He was at least among the first. 
Abraham Pickering and John Rickets were also early Justices 
in Violet. 

Reuben Dove was the first propietor of Winchester. He 
laid off and sold lots in about 1825. The plan of forming a 
village there was settled upon immediately after the location 
of the Ohio Canal was made. Subsequent additions to the 


town were made by Mr. Dove, David Dixon, John Coleman, 
William Miller, John Creamer and Reuben Tine. Some re- 
marked that perhaps their grandchildren might live to see 
the canal completed ; but notwithstanding the prediction, 
boats passed there in 1831. 

The first church built in Winchester was by the United 
Brethren, which was for a time, by arrangement, used by the 
Methodists. The second was by the Lutherans and German 
Reforms, jointly. 

Winchester has now, in April, 1877, one Odd Fellows' Lodge, 
four physicians, two dry goods stores, one clothing store, two 
hotels, two hardware stores, one drug store, five groceries, one 
flour mill, three warehouses, one livery-stable, one brickyard, 
one carriage factory, two blacksmith-shops and one saw-mill. 

"There was a mute by the name of Shoemaker, who was 
among the early settlers. He was a successful hunter, and 
shot a great many deer. My father made a business of dress- 
ing deer-skins for clothing. Many wore buckskin breeches. 
Skin vests were likewise often worn, generally with the hair 
on. My pants often got wet by running through the snow 
and water, and when dry, became brittle and broke off at the 
knees, leaving the lower half of my leg naked for some time 
before I got another pair. These buckskin pants were made 
to fit close to the skin, and as at that early day we wore no 
underclothes, it was very much like putting one's limbs into 
bags of snow on very cold winter mornings. 

" Flocks of wild-turkeys used to come around a corn-rick 
that stood near the house, to peck off the grains. I devised a 
plan for catching them, which was as follows : I secreted my- 
self in one end of the rick, with my handful of shelled corn, 
and held it out, expecting they would come along, when, 
in the attempt to take the grains from my palm, I intended 
to seize them by the neck with my other hand. But the 
birds were my superiors in sagacity, and always kept at a 
safe distance from me. We, however, caught a great many of 
them in turkey-pens. 

" My father was a bee-hunter, and found a great many bee- 
trees. There were two methods of coursing them. One was 
from the wild flowers where they came to gather their stores ; 
the other was the dish of honey-comb, which was set out to 
attract them. The latter was generally used in the early 


spring. It was more successful if the comb was burned a 

" Our social evenings were often spent in the old plays of 
1 Sister Phcebe, ' ' Marching to Quebec, ' ' Kilimakranky, ' 
1 Oats, peas, beans and barley grows, ' ' Thus the farmer sows 
his seed, ' 'It's raining, it's hailing, it's cold frosty weather, ' 
and the like. Dancing was little practiced. Our school-books 
were Webster's Spelling Book (' Easy Standard of Pronuncia- 
tion '), Pike's Arithmetic, Columbian Orator, American Pre- 
ceptor, Primers, and the Bible and Testament. Our games of 
ball were bull-pen, or corner-ball, cat-ball and town-ball. We 
also had another game which was pretty generally practiced 
all over the country, which was called the game of " Baste. " 

[The game of "Baste" was played all through the West 
during the pioneer age. The bastes were two trees, or stumps, 
usually, and situated fifty to seventy-five yards apart. Two 
captains were appointed, who chose the boys off alternately, 
and the right to the first choice was determined thus: One 
of the captains, taking a ball-paddle, would spit on one side of 
it, after which he gave it a whirling toss in the air, when the 
other party called out " wet," or "dry." If the side having 
his call on it came up twice out of three times, he won ; if but 
once, his adversary won. The same method was used in choos- 
ing off for a game of ball, and afterward for the first inning, 
or paddle. The game of baste consisted in " daring," thus : 
Any one of the players would start out and advance as near 
the other baste as he chose, and when he got sufficiently near, 
one or more of the party thus dared would dart out and try to 
catch him before he got back to his baste. If caught, or tagged, 
he was taken, and afterward played with the other party. In 
turn, when the pursuers came too near the home-baste, the 
other party had the right to pursue them home and catch or 
tag them if they could. The game often became highly ex- 
citing. Girls often took part in the game of baste. The game 
was ended when either party took all the others prisoners. 
The tag was a simple touch, even with the finger. But in 
either case, if the pursuer caught his man, both were at lib- 
erty to walk leisurely back to baste unmolested. The adven- 
turer was not home, after having made the sally, until he 
touched the baste; but the pursuers generally stopped within 
what they judged to be a safe distance. The game has long 


since been abandoned. But in this, as in games at ball, at 
the word "books," the paddle dropped instantly, and all 
started for the school-house door. — Ed.] 

" The first wedding I ever attended was that of Mary Starr 
to John Courtright ; and the first funeral I can remember of 
being at was that of John Huff. This, I think, was in 1823. 
During the years 1823 and 1824 there was much sickness — a 
great many died of bilious fever. Dr. W. W. Tolbert was the 
physician of the settlement at that time. 

"Of all the neighbors of my father, in 1812 and 1815, or 
about that time, or heads of families within the township, 
there are but two persons living now, in April, 1877 — George 
Harmon, and George K. Stevenson, both of great age. 

" I have lived to see the wilderness transformed into a popu- 
lous and wealthy community, and to see the tax list multi- 
plied many hundred times. Two full generations of people 
have passed away, and two new ones have taken their places. 
All the institutions, manners and customs of the early times 
have drifted back, and are nearly forgotten. All birds and 
beasts have turned to dust. A. Hathaway." 


Christian Heyl emigrated from Germany in 1800, and settled 
first in Baltimore, Maryland. While there he was the com- 
panion and associate of the late Gotleib Steinman, of Lancas- 
ter. There they both learned the baking business. In 1807 
Mr. Heyl came to Lancaster, Ohio. During his residence in 
Fairfield County he purchased, in connection with his brother 
Coonrod, a piece of land containing one-hundred and sixty acres, 
in the vicinity of the present Basil, in Liberty Township, 
where he opened a little farm and lived on it five years, after 
which he removed to Columbus in 1813. He named the fol- 
lowing persons who were citizens of Lancaster at the time of 
his coming — other names he could not recall : 

Christian and William King, Elenathan Schofield, Jonathan 
Lynch and brother, Sam'l Coates, Philemon and Jesse Beecher, 


John Creed, Wm. Irvin, Geo. Sanderson, Robert F. Slaughter, 
Thomas and Timothy Sturgeon, Peter Reeber, Rev. John 
Wright, William Duffield, Charles Sherman, David Crocket, 
John Shur, Mr. Lewis, Mr. Mullenour, Rudolph Pitcher, David 
Reece and Mr. Cisney. Of all those just mentioned, Mr. Heyl 
is the only one living. He is a citizen of Columbus, and is 
ninety years old. 

During his residence in Fairfield the Indians were about. 
He spoke of their coming into Lancaster with their handy- 
work to trade for goods and trinkets. 

He mentioned his neighbors in the neighborhood of Basil, 
during his residence there, previous to 1813 : Joseph and Sam'l 
Heistand, the Walterses, Mr. Saliday, John Zeigler, Nicholas 
Radibaugh, John Houser, Jacob Weaver. 

When he landed at his place near Basil, it was all wild 
woods. He cleared off the ground and built a small hut of 
round logs, to live in. He next cleared and fenced a small 
field, and planted it with corn and " truck " (truck, in the 
vernacular of the pioneer age, meant all kinds of garden veg- 
etables, including potatoes, turnips, and the like). He had 
two small glass windows of four 8-by-10 lights each, put into 
his cabin, which circumstance brought upon his family the 
reputation of being aristocrats. He remembered that the 
women sometimes placed their spinning-wheels up in the wide 
fireplaces, to secure the better light that came down the spa- 
cious chimney. 

From his little farm, near Basil, he returned to Lancaster 
and remained awhile. When in 1813 he moved to Columbus, 
he loaded two six-horse wagons, partly with his household 
goods, and partly with flour. He went on foot himself, with 
his ax, and cut out a road some part of the way. There were 
few cabins between the two places. It took them three days 
to get through. The first house he occupied in Columbus was 
a rough log-cabin. In it he followed baking and tavern-keep- 
ing. The first evening of his arrival there the supper was set 
on the lid of his dough-trough, rested on the heads of two up- 
turned flour-barrels, and the participants sat upon flour-barrels. 

He occupied the log-house as a tavern and bake-house two 
years, and then, in 1815, built the Franklin House on an ad- 
joining lot, and moved into it, where he kept hotel for twenty- 
eight consecutive years. The location of the old Franklin 


House, on High street, east side, a little south, of the present 
Cotton Block, will be remembered by all who have been famil- 
iar with Columbus. In 1841 he traded the hotel for a farm on 
Alum Creek, and removed to it, where he continued to live 
twenty-one years, or until 1862, when he again returned to 

Mr. Heyl was a generous and kind man, and in trying to 
help others lost much of his property by going their security. 

Mr. Heyl related an occurrence that took place when he was 
moving from Lancaster to Columbus, in 1813. They had ar- 
rived with the two six-horse wagons on the south vicinity of 
Columbus, where it became necessary to pass over lands owned 
by one John McGowen. Mr. McGowen refused to allow the 
wagons to pass over his grounds. There seemed no other way 
to get the teams into the village, and a negotiation was en- 
tered into, which ended in Mr. Heyl agreeing to give McGowen 
a bottle of whisky for the privilege, and the teams passed over. 
On the following day the lord of the soil presented himself at 
the cabin of Mr. Heyl, with his half-gallon bottle, and got it 

In Mr. Heyl's parlor hung a photograph representing four 
generations in a group — himself; his oldest son, Lewis; his 
grandson, Henry ; and great grandson, Reney. 

He detailed the great squirrel-hunt of 1816, an account of 
which is given elsewhere in this volume, and in which he 
was a participant. He stated the number of scalps returned at 
15,000, and thought the wager, to be paid for by the party 
having the fewest number, was a barrel of whisky. He gave 
the number of men engaged at two hundred. The Scioto was 
the dividing line ; one hundred of the men taking the east, 
and the other hundred the west side. Columbus was the 
rendezvous. The hunt lasted but a single day. He stated 
the squirrels were so numerous that, in some places, a racket 
made by knocking on the fence, or otherwise, started them so 
that dozens were seen running up the same tree. 

Mr. Heyl related an incident. Both himself and his brother 
Coonrad married into the Alspaugh family, who were early 
settlers near the rock-mill, Fairfield County, and where the 
descendants of the Alspaugh's still reside. He had gone with 
his wife to visit her people in that neighborhood, and while 
there word was brought to him that his brother had fallen 


from the Court-house in Columbus, and received dangerous 
injury. They at once started on horseback. His oldest son, 
Lewis, was a baby. He held the baby in his arms, allow- 
ing his horse to follow at his pleasure that of his wife, who 
rode in the path before him. 

When Mr. Heyl came to Columbus there were but fifteen 
families there, the heads of which he named as follows : John 
Carr, John Collet, Michael Patton, William McElvane, Benj. 
Thompson, John McGowen, Daniel Kutzer, Samuel Keys, 
George McCormic, George B. Harvey, Benjamin Johnson, 
Peter Putnam, John Putnam, Alexander Patton, and himself. 

Wheat at that early day there sold for from fifty to seventy- 
five cents a bushel ; corn twelve and a half cents; whisky six 
dollars a barrel ; oats ten cents a bushel. He bought a cow 
for twenty dollars, and delivered two hundred bushels of oats 
in payment. This was in 1841, while he was living on his 
Alum Creek farm. 

Mr. Heyl named his family still living. He had five sons, 
but no daughters. Lewis was the oldest. Lewis, John K. and 
George, were residing in Philadelphia. William and Charles 
were in Columbus. 

Christian Hyel is lingering on the verge of time. He has 
outlived his generation. He has lived through nearly three 
full generations of men. All he knew and associated with in 
Fairfield County and in Franklin County; sixty-five years ago, 
has faded out of sight. What he did is as nothing to the bust- 
ling throng that tread the earth ; all has been covered over by 
the debris of time. He resides with his son Charles, his 
companion having passed away some years ago. He is feeble, 
but his mind is clear. 


Mr. See is a son of George See, who came to Fairfield 
County in 1805, and settled on the place now owned by George 
Huffman, adjoining the present See farm, in Berne Township. 
This farm he purchased of William Carpenter. It consisted 
of 160 acres. Mr. See has lived the past threescore years on the 
same spot. He was born in 1816. He remembers the siekk- 


mill and the flax-mill; and also of seeing the remnants of the 
Indian wigwams on the plat of Tarhe Town, where the rail- 
road shops now stand. He spoke of the first school he 
attended. It was taught in a little log-building a short dis- 
tance below the Prindle farm. The teacher at that time was 
Bartholomew Foley. Thomas Paden and Hocking H. Hunter 
subsequently taught in the same house, in about 1828. He 
named the following persons who were patrons of the school 
when he attended it : James Pierce, father of the late John 
Vm Pierce; 0. Lewis, David Reece, Isaac Kuntz, John Pane- 
baker, Jacob Iric, Simeon Bixler, Mr. Shellenbarger, father of 
Reuben Shellenbarger; Peter Tool, Henry Crawfus, William 
Jackson, father of 'Squire Thomas Jackson ; Thomas Mason 
and David Carpentjr. William Jackson lived where Reuben 
Shellenbarger now lives. The first preacher he remembered 
hearing was the Rev. Samuel Carpenter, in the school-house 
below Prindle's. 

The boys of the settlement wore tow and flax-linen in sum- 
mer, and linsey in winter. The women wore linen dresses in 
summer, and in winter linsey and striped flannel. Their 
cloths were all home-made, and were colored with bark and 
copperas, and sometimes with indigo. The boys got but one 
pair of shoes in the year; and sometimes went barefooted half 
the winter. He sometimes went to his partridge-traps through 
the snow with his feet tied up in flax-tow to keep them from 
freezing, for the reason that he had no shoes. 

He said deer were so plenty that they could be seen every 
day. He had seen fourteen of them at one time within one 
hundred yards of his father's house. Any man who had a 
gun could go into the woods almost any day and shoot a deer. 
He had known instances where the dogs chased deer into 
the ponds, among the bushes, and kept them at bay until the 
men went in and killed them with clubs. 

He related the killing of two bears, the manner in which it 
was done being quite primitive, and new to the present gen- 
eration. The first one was driven under cover of the top of a 
large fallen oak, by dogs, which were holding it bay, when Mr. 
See's father and William Garvin came up. They climbed on 
the limbs above, where the bear was plainly in view below, 
and succeeded in knocking it in the head with a chopping-ax. 
It weighed three hundred pounds. The spot where this took 


place was within one mile of the See house. The other one 
was killed by Mr. Duhma, with a handspike. The occur- 
rence took place on the farm now owned by Daniel Akers. 
The bear had got into the hog-pen, with the intention, doubt- 
less, of carrying off a shoat. Mr. Duhma, hearing the disturb- 
ance, came armed with a handspike, and, entering the pen, 
with one stroke broke the animal's back, after which he easily 
dispatched it. This one weighed four hundred pounds. 

Barring the master out was practiced; and on one or two 
occasions they had rough times with their old Scotch teacher, 
who would not submit to their terms. Mr. See spoke of the 
manner of living of the early times. Sometimes breadstuff's 
could not be had in sufficient quantities, and they were 
obliged to pound corn in the hominy-block, sifting the finest 
of it out for meal, and boiling the coarser part for hominy. 
Boiled wheat was also a very common article of food. Wild- 
honey was abundant, and bee-trees were to be found in all 
parts of the country. 

He related the following characteristic incident: David 
Reece lived then on what is now known as the Pardee farm. 
He had a young bearing orchard. On one occasion he sur- 
prised three half-grown chaps stealing apples. He asked 
them what they wanted them for. They replied that they 
wanted them for dumplings. He said, "Come along with me." 
He shut them into his loft over night, and until the afternoon 
of the following day, when he ordered the girls to make for 
each of them twelve large apple-dumplings, which he re- 
quired them to eat, and then start for home. 

[This story has been told me slightly different, by another, 
but the main points were true.— Ed.] 

At that time corn was a drug at 12^ cents per bushel, and 
wheat the same at 25 cents. Oats would bring from 8 to 10 
cents. Mr. See said he had often sold partridge for ten cents 
a dozen. On one occasion he traded a mud-turtle to William 
Peck for a small glass salt-cellar. A man's wages was twen- 
ty-live cents a day in trade, except in the harvest-field, when 
fifty cents was paid in cash. Rye was a good article in trade. 
It was made into whisky at the little still-houses all over the 



It was a common thing to work in the clearings at burn in g 
logs and brush until midnight, or later. They drank rye-cof- 
fee, sassafras, spice-wood and birch teas. A large proportion 
of the meat eaten was from the woods, such as deer-meat, bear- 
meat and wild-turkey ; and, in winter, partridge. 


Rachel Young was born in Huntingdon County, Pa., May 
1st. 1784. In 1799, in company with her parents and three 
or four other families, she came to Fairfield County, Ohio, ar- 
riving there on New-Year's Day. They floated down the Ohio 
river on a flat-boat to the mouth of the Hocking. From there 
they ascended that stream in canoes to the falls, where Logan 
stands. There the canoes were unloaded and dragged over the 
falls, where they were re-loaded, and paddled up to the mouth 
of Rush Creek, the present site of Sugar Grove, where they 
were abandoned, and the goods and stores packed on horse- 
back, the most of the company traveling on foot through the 
forest up Hocking to where Mr. Prindle now lives, two miles 
below Lancaster. From there they proceeded in the same 
manner to the neighborhood of Bremen, or rather the pres- 
ent site of Bremen, where they all settled, in the beginning of 
1800. In their passage up the Hocking, obstructing logs were 
severed with a cross-cut saw, and removed from the stream to 
allow the canoes to pass. Some of the men had been out the 
previous spring and cleared off some ground, and planted corn 
and potatoes, and also put up some rude cabins. 

The company numbered fifteen souls, including one child, 
whose name was Joseph Ashbaugh. The following are the 
names of the fifteen : Elizabeth Miller and her mother, An- 
drew Ashbaugh, Joseph Ashbaugh, Frederick Ashbaugh, Jos. 
Miller, John Ashbaugh, Sr., and wife, John Ashbaugh, Jr., 
and wife, three daughters of John Ashbaugh, Sr., Joseph Ash- 
baugh, the baby, and Rachel Miller, now Rachel Young. 

Mrs. Young was married to Edward Young on the 2d of 
April, 1802, and remained in married life fifty-eight years ; 
and, on her ninety-third birth day, had been a widow seven. 


teen years. At that time she had six children living, viz. : 
three sons and three daughters. She became a member of the 
Presbyterian Church in 1820, and has lived a Christian woman 
and worthy pioneer mother. She was ninety-three years 
old on the 1st of May, 1877. 

The men who came out the previous spring and made the 
preparations for emigrating were: Joseph Miller, and John 
and Joseph Ashbaugh. The spot where they made the first 
opening has since been known as the James Neely farm, now 
belonging to the estate of the late John C. Weaver. 

The first school Mrs. Young remembered in the Bremen 
neighborhood was near William Black's present residence. 
This she thought was in 1803. The first preachers who held 
meetings in the settlement were Rev. Cradlebaugh, of the 
German Reform Church, and Rev. John Wright, Presbyterian. 
This was also about 1803. 

On one occasion, when Mr. Young came to see her as a 
suitor, he shot a bear on his way. He sent some parties back 
to skin and dress Bruin, while he remained with the object 
that was the cause of his visit. On another occasion she 
went out on the hill to cut a rock, [a rock was a five-pronged 
switch formed into a kind of reel, upon which the hatcheled 
flax was wound preparatory to spinning — the best of the 
kind were found in the tops of dogwood saplings. — Ed.] and 
while she was looking round for a good one, a very large bear 
came walking leisurely along in unpleasant proximity, but 
as he did not show any disposition to molest her, she con- 
cluded the best plan for her to adopt would be to not molest 
him, and so each party took the course that suited them best. 

The first hog killed in the settlement was a small shoat, 
which made a part of her wedding-dinner. After the cere- 
mony of the dinner, dancing was introduced, John Ashbaugh 
being the fiddler. 

Mrs. Young spoke of a method of salting down pork at that 
early day, which the writer remembers as having been prac- 
ticed. She said coopers were at first not to be found, and the 
settlers dug troughs from the trunks of large trees, and used 
them as meat-tubs. She remembered that at one time she 
had five wild-turkeys salted down in one of these troughs. 
She spoke of a turkey-pen they built near her house, in which 
she caught twenty-one turkeys within less than two weeks. 


She and Catharine Ashbaugh were the ones that went in the 
pens to catch them. 

She also spoke of another matter which perhaps few, even 
of the oldest inhabitants, have any recollection of, as it was 
not everywhere known. I allude to the art of manufacturing 
fine linen from the fiber of wild-nettles. The wild-nettle 
grew in some sections in great abundance, and always on the 
low and richest soil. It was a weed that grew up from three 
to four feet high, and bore a remote resemblance to the bone- 
set, or ague-weed. Its fiber was as fine as the finest flax, and 
the nettle-weed was treated in the same way that flax was, by 
roting, breaking, scutching and spinning, with the exception 
that it was mowed down instead of being pulled up by the 
root, as flax was. 

The nettle has nearly entirely disappeared from the country, 
and is seldom seen, and never, except in remote and wild spots. 
Few of the present living generation have ever seen it at all. 
A peculiarity of the nettle was that it had on its stem a 
prickly beard, that, upon touching with the hands or other 
parts of the body, inserted itself into the skin, producing a 
most intolerable itching and burning sensation scarcely to be 
endured; hence, everybody soon learned to go round the "net- 
tle patch. 1 ' 

Every family manufactured their own clothes. Hand-cards 
were used in preparing wool for spinning. The young people 
went to meeting barefooted ; sometimes carried their shoes 
and stockings in their hands to near the meeting-house, and 
then sat down and put them on. 

Mrs. Young was present at the first Fourth of July celebra- 
tion held in Fairfield County, half a mile west of Lancaster, 
but did not remember the whisky-barrel and the fight, but she 
remembered that the wild meat was roasted before a big fire. 

The first wedding in her neighborhood was that of James 
Wilson and Patsey Hammel. The first death was that of a 
Mr. Hamerly. The first birth in the new settlement was 
David Ashbaugh. 

The writer was present at the celebration of Mrs. Young's 
ninety-third birthday, on the first day of May, 1877, at the 
residence of Jacob Moyer. She was in fine spirits, cheerful, 
and her memory very little impaired. There were present on 


that occasion two sons and two daughters, fifteen grandchild- 
ren, and thirteen great-grandchildren of the venerable mother. 


" My father, Dr. John M. Shawk, came from Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, to Lancaster, in 1801, and purchased from Ebenezer 
Zane the lot upon which I now live, on Main street. Lancas- 
ter was then principally a forest of trees and underbrush. He 
hired the father of Jacob Gaster, well known here, to clear off 
the ground and inclose it, and then returned to Lexington. 
In 1806 he removed to the place, living first where the canal 
now is, and on the south side of the mouth of Main street. 
The same building was afterwards moved on rollers up to his 
lot on Main street, and is at present a part of the same build- 
ings occupying the grounds. To move it to this spot, the 
trees and stumps had to be cut out of the way. I was six 
years old when my father came here, and have resided on the 
same spot ever since. The house my father first lived in — the 
one removed on rollers — was built by Dr. Irvin." 

Dr. John M. Shawk was a practicing physician up to the 
time of his death, in 1846. His wife was Susanna Stoy. Dr. 
Stoy was distinguished for his art in curing rabies canina 
(hydrophobia), which art also descended to the Shawk family, 
through Susanna, and has been successfully practiced by the 
present Dr. Charles. Mrs. John Shawk was a highly educated 
lady, and possessing also a strong mind. She was a mother of 
the old type, of whom there are few left, and whose places 
will not be filled until another revolution in the human race 
takes place, and another era sets in. She died in 1863, at a 
very advanced age. 

The following are some of Dr. Shawk's recollections of the 
early days of Lancaster. The first elections he remembers 
were held in the Court-house. He remembers when Governor 
Worth ington made a speech in the Court-house yard when he 
was a candidate, and how the people cheered him because he 
was a favorite. This was about 1810. He remembered that 
Governor Worthington, assisted by Judge Abrams, surveyed 


the lands lying south of Lancaster, and extending down into 
Hocking County, or Avhat is now Hocking County. Judge 
Abraras was a successful hunter. He (the Doctor) said he saw 
him bring a huge bear into Lancaster about the year 1810. 

The Doctor spoke of the streets being full of stumps, and 
that Main street sometimes became so deep with mud that 
wagons stalled in it, and had to be pried out. On that account 
Wheeling street was the principal thoroughfare. Main street 
was at one time bridged with poles, which, in early times, were 
called corduroy bridges. There was a swale crossing Main 
street about where Shawk's alley is, extending up towards the 
Talmadge House. He had seen people watering their horses 
there; and there was a pond that sometimes became so deep 
that it would nearly, or quite swim horses. At that time, 
about 1806, there were not more than six or eight cabins on 
Wheeling street, and on Main not exceeding thirty. 

The fights on muster and other public days were vivid in 
his recollection. He said that bears and deer often came into 
town. In 1817 he shot and killed a bear on Kuntz's hill. 
Wild-turkeys were seen in immense flocks, especially in the 
beach woods ; and they likewise often came into the village, 
which at that time was full of forest trees. A man by the 
name of John Rhoads killed a huge panther near Mr. Stukey's, 
below town. It measured seven feet from the tip of the tail 
to the point of the snout. The Indians came every fall from 
Sandusky, to hunt. He sometimes went to their camps and 
saw them beat their breasts and grunt their songs. 


Catharine Rutter came with her late husband, Balser Rutter, 
from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1815, and 
settled in Pleasant Township, on the same place where, with 
her son, she still resides, at the age of 85 years. She is a re- 
markably active, social and intelligent old lady, and in the 
possession of all her faculties, scarcely perceptibly impaired. 
She has a good recollection of the state of the country at that 


time, and of the way people lived, and of the incidents of the 
surrounding settlement. 

She named the following as her principal neighbors at th-e 
time of her settlement there, in 1815 : Thomas Anderson, 
Henry Hockman, John Burton, Tewalt Maclin, Jacob Maclin, 
Mr. Harmon, Daniel May, Henry Culp, Thomas and David 
Ewing, James Duncan, Christian Neibling, John Feemen, 
Benjamin Feemen. 

She spoke of the new and wild state of the country, and of 
the manners and customs of the people, and how almost im- 
perceptibly everything had changed, until not even a vistige 
of the good old times was to be seen. She lamented the de- 
parture of the better days, because she believed people were 
far happier, better contented, and more social and kind to one 
another then than they are now. They had fewer wants than 
at present, but enjoyed life far better. They worked hard, 
and sometimes lived hard, but were never seiiously pinched, 
because at that time the new farms yielded plenty. When 
they first arrived, in the fall of the year, they had nothing pre- 
pared for the winter, and their neighbors brought them sup- 
plies. One man brought a full sled-load of cabbage-heads. 

They spun and wove their own clothing, at first carding the 
wool on hand-cards. Her oldest daughter, Susanna, spun in 
one summer fifty pounds of wool, besides helping with other 
work. Susanna is now Mrs. Henry Bell, of Lancaster. 

They attended church at the Court-house, in Lancaster, to 
hear Revs. John Wright and Stake preach. The first wed- 
ding she was at in the settlement was that of Nellie May to 
William Creighton. This was in 1816 or 1817. The first 
funeral she remembered was that of a Mr. Bope — first name not 
remembered — probably in 1817. He was uncle to Philip 
Bope, now of Lancaster. 

Mrs. Rutter was a weaver, and, besides weaving for her own 
family, wove also for some of her neighbors. She had her 
spinning-wheels and reel set away as relics of a departed age, 
and to be viewed by coming generations as curious imple- 
ments belonging to a forgotten era, and, perhaps, at a time 
when not a living soul should know anything of their use. 

She recurred to the house-raisings, log-rollings, quiltings, 
sewings and pumpkin-butter boilings, and other gatherings 
peculiar to the times, and thought they were the most enjoya- 


ble occasions of her whole life, but occasions never again to be 
enjoyed. And as we talked on of the log- cabin and pioneer 
age, we fell into a sympathetic relation that recalled happy 
memories, and joys, and loves, and loved ones departed, that 
filled the heart with thrilling comforts worth more than all 
the gold of earth, for the writer came up from the begin- 
ning of the century through all the experiences of frontier life. 


Andrew Hunter was the son of John Hunter, who emigrated 
from Virginia in company with Maurice Reece, Jesse Reece, 
Solomon Reece and James Hunter, in the year 1800, and settled 
one mile and a haif west of Lancaster, on the same spot of 
ground where Andrew now lives. Mr. Hunter was born there 
in 1806, and has spent his life on the same farm. 

The company came down the Ohio to the mouth of Hocking 
on a flat-boat, then up Hocking in canoes to the falls. There 
their little stock of goods was unloaded, and a portion of them 
placed on "drags" (two poles framed together, the slim ends 
forming the shafts), and by horses pulled up to the destination 
west of Lancaster; the men, women and children walking 
through the wilderness. Some of their goods were left at a 
cabin near the falls, and were not brought away for several 

James Hunter was a brother of John Hunter, and uncle of 
Andrew. He once taught school in a cabin that stood on the 
site of Steven Smith's blacksmith-shop, on Columbus street, 
Lancaster. He also taught west of Lancaster. Mr. Hunter 
said he went to school to his uncle one day, when he thinks 
he was about eight years old. It was the first time he had 
ever been in a school-house, and he kept his hat on. The 
scholars "giggled," and at last the teacher laughed, and then 
he got mad and gathered up the wooden poker from the chim- 
ney-corner, to make battle, and the master had to quiet him 
by telling him they were laughing because he had his hat on 
in school. But he would not go back again to that school. 


At Mr. Hunter's first recollection, the following were his 
father's principal neighbors : Nathaniel Wilson, Sr., Jesse 
Spurgeon, Joseph Work, John Searl, Maurice Reece, Joseph 
Hunter, John Green, Mr. Vandemark, and old grandfather 

Mr. Hunter referred to the great Indian scare, elsewhere re- 
ferred to in this volume. Nathaniel Wilson's house, as being 
the best one in the neighborhood, was used for the fort, where 
the women and children were taken for protection. A neigh- 
bor (I think he said Jesse Spurgeon) took him and some other 
little fellows in charge to convey them to the fort, and was 
himself so frightened that he half dragged them along by the 
hands, telling them all the time that the Indians were coming. 
Mr. Wilson and another man rode to Lancaster to get the news 
about the Indians, soon returning to tell the people that it was 
a false alarm, and they might all go home. 

Mr. Hunter remembered of riding on bags of corn to Hun- 
ter's mill when he was a very small boy. He also said the 
boys used to go in companies down to the mills on Kinnikin- 
nick, and all wait till they got their grists, and then return in 
a crowd, because they were afraid of the Indians. It did not 
occur to them that a couple of warriors could easily capture a 
regiment of them. 

He related that a man by the name of Converse lived where 
Robinson Peters now lives, three-quarters of a mile west of 
Lancaster, and that the settlers at a previous day met there to 
the number of eighteen men, for the purpose of making de- 
fensive preparations against the Indians, of whom they were 
afraid. They had whisky, got drunk, and had bloody fights 
among themselves. This had been told to him, and he thought 
the occurrence took place about 1801. 

Some of the early purchasers of land in the settlement were 
about to forfeit their purchases, and their lands were to be re- 
sold at Chillicothe. Ebenezer Zane came into the neighbor- 
hood and told the men to raise all the money they possibly 
could, which they did, and he took it and went to the land- 
office and succeeded in saving most of the purchases. 

Mr. Hunter also related an amusing story of a fox-hunt, 
which he said he had heard a man tell. It occurred less than 
forty years ago, as he thought. The fox was so closely pressed 
by the hounds, that it took refuge in a meeting-house where 


the congregation was worshiping at the time, the door being 
open. The people were thrown into the wildest confusion, for 
no sooner had poor Reynard entered, and sought concealment 
under the benches, than in poured the hounds, followed by old 
Father Grabill, the great fox-chaser, who was the leader of the 
band, and so intent on securing his prey that not even the 
sanctity of the worshiping assembly stood in his way. The 
fox was taken, and the gravity of the congregation left to find 
its equilibrium. 


Mrs. Sherrick is a daughter of the late Daniel Arnold, of 
Lancaster, and granddaughter of George Arnold, who emi- 
grated from Pennsylvania and settled on Fetter's Run, in 
Pleasant Township, in this county, in the year 1801. Mrs. 
Sherrick was born in 1798, and has resided all her life in Fair- 
field County. Her grandfather, George Arnold, was the father 
of Daniel, Henry, Jacob and George Arnold, late of Pleasant 
Township. She preserves a good recollection of the state of 
tire country in its pioneer age. The first school she remem- 
bers was taught by a Mr. Curtis, an emphatic and stern old 
Scotchman, who sometimes got drunk. 

The place where they lived was what is still known as the 
Arnold farm, north of the Infirmary, and four miles north of 
Lancaster. She said the Indians came often to their cabin for 
something to eat. Her mother always set the table and gave 
them what she had, to keep them in a good humor. One of 
their peculiarities was, they would not allow her to cut the 
bread, but would themselves take the loaf and pass it round, 
each one cutting off his own slice. If they had anything left 
that was not eaten, they would tuck it under their blankets 
and take it away for their squaws and pappooses. She said 
they were always afraid of offending the Indians, and there- 
fore made it a point to do all they could to keep them in a 
good humor. 

During the first years, grain and other feed was often scarce 
in the spring and summer, and they spanceled their horses 


by tying the fore-feet with ropes or hickory bark, and turned 
them out to eat grass, or to orowse on the twigs of bushes when 
grass was scarce, usually putting a bell on one of their necks 
so they could be easily found. She stated, if any one took 
very sick in the night, or any accident occurred of a serious 
nature, a horn was blown, and the nearest neighbors went to 
see what was the matter. 

At her first recollection there were but few cabins, and they 
were scattered through the forest, and blazes were made on 
the trees from house to house, which were followed until 
plain paths were worn. Her father, Daniel Arnold, was the 
first tanner ; and she thought that when he opened his tan- 
yard there was no other nearer than Zanesville, on the Mus- 

The first death she remembered that took place after they 
came there, was that of Katy Ditto, in 180(>, she thought, for 
she was eight years old at the time. The Dittos lived on the 
site of the present Infirmary. The next death in the settle- 
ment was grandfather Fetters, who was the father of Jacob, 
Coonrod and Philip Fetters, early settlers on Fetter's Run, and 
fathers of the present Fetters men of the same neighborhood. 
They had to cut a road through bushes to get the wagon to 
the grave. This was in 1808, or about that time. 

Grandfather Arnold built a mill on Fetter's Run, a few rods 
below the present crossing of the poor-house road. That was 
a great jubilee for the settlement, for previously they had to 
carry their grists all the way to Zanesville. (A grist is a sack 
of grain.) There was also a saw-mill built in connection with 
it, which was the first in the settlement. They have both 
long since disappeared. 

The first preachers were Revs. Bennedum and Heistand, 
United Brethren; and Revs. Bright, Charles Waddle, Cloud, 
Asa Shin, James Quinn and Jacob Young, Methodists. Meet- 
ings were held in the cabins of the settlers, and in the log 

The young people had their plays and usual sports of the 
pioneer age, but dancing was not allowed, on account of the 
religious conscientious scruples of parents. Every one had 
enough to do to occupy all the time; and when the youngsters 
had a little time for play, it was by special permission. Mrs. 
Sherrick, when a girl, could spin her two dozen (cuts) of flax 


in a day, and sometimes thirty cuts of wool. At first the 
rolls were carded with hand-cards, and afterwards on carding- 
machines. She said her mother, in trying to show the girls 
how to use the hand-cards, did it so quick they could not 

They made all their clothing. Coffee was'fifty cents a pound, 
and they put a couple of dozen grains with the burnt rye to 
give it a coffee flavor. Tea was $1.50 and $2.00 a pound. The 
substitute for it was spice-wood and sasafrass tea. 

Ginsang was very plenty, and they dug the roots and dried 
them, and sold them by the pound, mostly for cash. The 
price was not remembered. 


I am the widow and second wife of the late Judge William 
McClung, and daughter of William Trimble, who was one of 
the first settlers of Fairfield County. I am above eighty years 
of age, and have lived here to see the wilderness become a 

My father, William Trimble, came from Cumberland 
County, Maryland, in the beginning of the present century, 
and settled five miles north-east of the present city of Lan- 
caster, where he continued to live until the time of his death, 
which, as I think now, was in 1829. 

Among his neighbors at the time of my earliest recollection 
were: William Jones, Mr. Hammel, Frederick Harmon, the 
Roughs, the Macklins, the Hites, the Browns, and Thomas 

The first school I attended was half a mile from my father's 
cabin. I was then five years old. The teacher then was a 
Mr. Watsbaugh, and after him Mr. Irvin. The school-house 
was built of round logs, covered with clapboards, and had 
oiled-paper windows, and a stick and mud chimney. The 
benches were rough slabs, with wooden legs. The fireplace 
was just the width of the house. 

The first place I attended meeting was a little south of the 


present turnpike-road, leading from Lancaster to Rushville. 
It was called " The Tent, " because the first meetings there 
were held in a tent. The place is still spoken of as 
"The Tent." The denomination that worshiped there 
was the Associate Reform Presbyterian. The society was 
organized about the year 1803, by Missionaries from Ken- 
tucky. The church has maintained its organization up to 
the present time, and is now known as the United Presby- 
terian Church. The first established pastor was the Rev. Mr. 
Craig. He was succeeded by Rev. Benjamin Waddle, and af- 
ter him Rev. Ebenezer Calderhead, who remained twent} T -one 
years. The next pastor was Rev. Buchanan. This was in 
1859 and 1860. The present pastor is Rev. Mr. Boyd. 

There was a Presbyterian Church about the same time two 
miles south of West Rushville. We also attended church 
there. At this place the Rev. John Wright, of Lancaster, 
preached at a very early day. It was a hewed-log house, two 
stories high. The logs of this old church were many years 
ago taken down and removed to West Rushville, where they 
were re-erected on Main street, and the building is at this 
time being used as a mechanic's-shop. 

The first death I remember as happening in my father's 
settlement was that of Maria Hite, who, I think, was about 
nine years old. 

The first wedding I ever attended was that of Poll} r Rugh to 
Charles Baker. This was about the year 1814. 

Upon mj" father's first settlement there, the whole country 
was in a complete state of nature. The little cabins of the set- 
tlers were scattered through the woods, and the paths between 
them were made by following the blazes on trees. We could 
hear the wolves howling almost every day and night in the 
year, and often in very close proximity to our cabin. It was 
difficult for a long time to keep sheep, for the wolves would 
take them sometimes very near the house. Wild-turkeys 
swarmed all through the woods. They were shot, and caught 
in pens. I saw my father shoot one while he stood in his 

The family wear of the early settlers was entirely home- 
made. The women spun and wove flax and tow-linen, and 
linsey and flannels, and made up the garments. The color- 
ing was done with the bark from trees, such as oak, maple, 


hickory and walnut. Copperas (sulphate of iron) put into 
the "ooze" of these barks made a variety of colors, ranging from 
yellow to red and black, or brown. 

The first mills were at Zanesville and Chillicothe, and the 
men had to pack their grain all the way to these places on 
horseback, and along the paths through the woods, to get it 
ground into meal or flour ; pack-saddles were us( d. The sup- 
ply of salt was brought from the works, on the Muskingum, 
and sometimes from the Scioto. 

There was a camp-meeting established north of Rushville, 
at a very early day, and continued annually for many years. 
It was known as Stevenson's camp-ground. It was said to 
have been the first camp-meeting in Ohio. It was a Metho- 
dist camp-meeting, and was attended by the Finleys, Jacob 
Young, James Quinn, Charles Waddle, Asa Shin, and other 
pioneer Methodist preachers. It is still spoken of through the 
settlements as the " Camp-Ground. " There is a grave-yard 
there now. It is believed these camp-meetings were estab- 
lished about 1806, or 1808. 

My father was a 'Squire, and the first couple he was called 
on to marry was Edward Murphy and Sally Murphy, who 
were cousins ; but as my father had been newly-elected, they 
were compelled to wait a few days until his commission 

There was a man by the name of Mike Rough living in the 
settlement. A few men who had been on an unsuccessful 
hunt, disguished themselves as 'Indians and went to his house 
in a menacing manner. In terrible alarm, he took his 
family and fled, spreading the word that the Indians were 
upon them, and for a couple of days the greatest consternation 
prevailed all over the country. The people in all the settle- 
ments forted themselves, and the fighting men prepared for 
the defense, but when the Indians failed to come, they went 
to Rough's cabin and found that the pseudo Indians had 
stripped it of all its little store of eatables, and disappeared, 
without doing any other mischief. 

I love to think of those good old log-cabin times, when we 
were all friendly and contented, and all willing to do all we 
could to help each other. I love to think of the social " sis- 
ter Phoebe," and " We're boldly marching to Quebec," and of 
the many ways we had to enjoy ourselves. But alas! my 


youthful companions are all gone, and all the bright, joyful 
scenes of youth have vanished, and now my eyes are turned 
toward my eternal home in heaven, where I expect to rejoin 
all I have loved below. 


I-aac, William and Thomas Ijams, brothers, came from 
Frederick County, Maryland, and settled immediately on the 
west of the present village of West Rushville, among the 
earliest settlers of Fairfield County, where they all three died 
at somewhat advanced ages. Isaac was the father of Isaac, 
John and William Ijams ; William was father of Richard and 
Howard; and Thomas was the father of John, Joseph and 
Frederick. All of these eight sons have been known as citi- 
zens and business men in and about Rushville ; but they are 
all gone — most of them have deceased. 

William Wiseman was also a Frederick County man, and 
came out with the Ijams brothers. He settled south and ad- 
joining West Rushville, where he died at an advanced age. 
Mr. Wiseman acquired considerable wealth, and dying child- 
less, willed it principally to the Catholic Church at Somerset, 
Perry County, of which church he was a member. 

John J. Jackson, also a Marylander, came with the same 
company, and lived in the same neighborhood. His wife was 
an Ijams. 

Father Wilson was a very early settler in the neighbor- 
hood of West Rushville. He entered a large tract of land 
lying north-west of the present site of the village. This con- 
stituted the Wilson settlement. His sons were William, 
Thomas, Joseph, Isaac and David, all of whom weie formerly 
well known. The Wilsons were a stalwart class of men, of 
the true pioneer type. David is the only survivor of them all, 
and is residing in Illinois. 

Jesse, Mordecai, Daniel and Edward Stevenson, brothers, 
were among the first settlers. They entered lands and settled 


north of Rushville, in Richland Township. Thsy were from 
Maryland, and are all dead. 

Arthur and Walter Teal came from Maryland, in about 1799, 
and settled in the same community. Edward Teal, a brother, 
went a little further west, and located two and a half miles 
east of the present Lancaster, on what is known as the old 
Rushville road. These brothers have passed away. 

Edward Murphy came about the same time, and settled one 
mile west of Rushville, on the place now owned by his son, 
Theodore Murphy. The Murphys were Virginians. 

Mrs. Vanzant said that when her mother first came to West 
Rushville, in 1823, there were but three houses in the place, 
and that there were a few houses on the east side. Nathaniel 
Wait, step-father of Mrs. Vanzant, was the first physician in 
West Rushville. 

Emanuel Ruffner was a very early settler. He located north 
of the Wilson settlement, and immediately joining. Joseph 
Ruffner was his son, and died a few years since at a consid- 
erable age. Daniel Keller and Christian Baker married two 
of the daughters of Emanuel Ruffner. 

The descendants of all these early settlers above-mentioned, 
more or less, are still citizens of the county. 

William Coulson, of Rushville, was an early citizen, and 
died there recently at the great age of about ninety.- His ca- 
reer there as a merchant and dealer in tobacco, as also that of 
John, Joseph and William Ijams, in West Rushville, will 
long be remembered. They are all dead, and the immense 
production of tobacco on Rush Creek, of former years, has 
almost entirely ceased, and not even a vestige of the trade is 
to be seen. 


My father, Thomas Barr, with four of his brothers, came 
from Chester County, Pennsylvania, in about the year 1800, 
and settled in Amanda Township. The brothers of my father 
were— Samuel, James, William and John. They all located 
in the same neighborhood, about two miles west of the present 


village of Amanda. They have all five deceased. At the time 
of their arrival there were a few cabins on the Mudy Prairie, 
and perhaps two or three in the vicinity of Royalton, or Toby 
Town, as the locality was then called, it being a small village 
of the Wyandot and Delaware Indians, governed by a chief 
whose name was Toby. There were small mills erected soon 
after the settlements began, at the forks of Hocking (rock-mill), 
and at Kinnikinnick, to which the settlers carried their corn 
to be ground. There was also a horse-mill near where Tarle- 
ton now stands, owned by one Dilsaver, where grists were 
ground. I can remember when there were blazed roads 
.through the woods. In emigrating west, the company came 
in wagons over Zane's trace, from Wheeling to the Hocking, at 
a time when there was no cabin between Zanesville and Lan- 
caster, and on the site of Lancaster not more than two cabins 

The first school of the neighborhood was on my father's land. 
It was a little log-house, with oiled-paper windows. The first 
man who taught in it was Thomas Magee. The next that 
taught after him was James Hunter. Thomas Moore and John 
Young also kept school in the same house. 

The first meeting-house was built by the Lutherans in our 
neighborhood, and the first preachers were Revs. Leist and 
King. The Methodists and Presbyterians came in some time 
afterwards, the latter forming their first society where Amanda 
now is. The Rev. Mr. Jones was the first Presbyterian preacher 
there that I remember. 

My grandfather, Andrew Barr, as also my grandmother, died 
about the year 1812 or 1818. 

The first death that occurred in the settlement, that I can 
recall, was a neighbor of my father's, by the name of Christy. 
He was familiarly called " Father Christy." 

When we came to have wheat for market, we hauled it to 
Circleville and traded it off for twenty-five cents a bushel. At 
a very early day I hauled corn to Circleville and traded it at 
sixteen cents a bushel. My father, with others of the neigh- 
bors, went to Zanesville for their salt, packing in out on 

We had the usual log-rollings, corn-huskings, etc., of the 
frontier settlements at that time. Also the old-fashioned plays 
and dances of the young people. 



My father, George Kester, was one of the first settlers at 
Yankee Town, now Claypool's neighborhood, in Greenfield 
Township. He first settled on the Richard Hooker place. 
This was in 1799. Subsequently he bought land in Amanda 
Township, the same on which I now reside, three miles east 
of the village of Royal ton, where he died in April, 1852, at 
the age of 72 years. I am his only surviving son. I was born 
in Fairfield County, and have lived on the same place all my 

There was a little log school-house on Kemp's land, near our 
place. It was the first place I went to school. The first 
teacher I remember there was James Granthum. It was in 
1852. The logs of that little school-house were removed and 
rebuilt on the Jesse Spurgeon place, two miles west of Lan- 
caster, near the Cedar Hill pike, where they still stand. The 
next school I attended was on the Hutchison farm. A 
teacher there that I remember, was John Cunningham. The 
logs of that house are now used as a stable near the pike, three 
miles east of Royalton. 

The first religious meetings I remember were held in a log 
school-house in Royalton, by the Lutherans. The Methodists 
had a society there. They sometimes held their meetings in 
barns. The United Brethren preached at the houses of George 
Grow and Jacob Bullenbaus. This was from 1828 to 1832. 

The first funeral that took place in the Yankee Tow T n settle- 
ment, was in 1801 or 1802 ; I have forgotten the man's name. 
He died on Black Lick, in what is now Licking County. He 
came out with the company that settled at the Claypool place, 
or was a relative, and they brought his remains down there 
for interment. There were no roads, and the body was brought 
by two horses, in the folloAving manner: Two long poles 
were cut. A wagon-cover was made fast to them, after the 
manner of a hammock ; upon this the body was laid, and the 
poles suspended on the backs of the horses, which were pre- 
pared with pack-saddles, one horse before, and the other in the 


rear. The distance was several miles. There was neither 
planks nor cabinet-makers in the settlement, and a coffin was 
improvised with slabs split from large trees. The slabs were 
set in the dug grave, the body lowered, and a wide slab laid 
for the lid, upon which the clay was filled in. This statement 
I received from my parents. 

The first wedding I remember was that of my uncle, Jacob 
Harrison, to Julia Ann Hanaway. She died six weeks after- 

Wolves swarmed all over the county at the beginning of 
the settlements, and for a number of years subsequently. 

For some time after my father built his cabin, there was no 
door-shutter, and to close the opening, called the door, a wagon- 
cover was suspended in it. Wolves howled around daily. 
When sheep were first introduced, they were herded and 
watched through the day, and shut up in a strong log-pen at 
night, to preserve them from the jaws of the wolves. The 
first years in the Yankee Town settlement the ague attacked 
almost everybody, and that was the principal reason why my 
father moved further west. 

The following were the principal first settlers of that section 
of what is now Greenfield Township: Father McFarland, 
who was the father of the late Walter McFarland;; Mr. Cherry, 
and others I cannot now name. Our neighbors in Amanda 
Township, at my first recollection, were Tunis Newkirk, 
father of Jephthah Newkirk; Grandfather Kemp, Henry Kemp, 
Theodore Williamson, Henry Ingman, Henry Kiger, William 
Kiger, Richard Herrod, Widow Osborn, who was familiarly 
known as Granny Osborn. (She was one of the very first 

Deer and wild-turkeys were abundant; and occasionally a 
bear. Wild-cats were quite plenty; hawks were very trouble- 
some in the destruction of chickens. 

Our first grinding was done at the rock-mills. But in the 
very early times the men went all the way to Chillicothe to 
mill, packing their grists on horseback. Salt was first 
brought from Zanesville, on horseback. It cost from $3 to $5 
for fifty pounds, which was called a bushel. 

First roads were made through the woods by following the 
blazed trees from cabin to cabin. Dancing was practiced to 


some extent by the 3-011 ng people ; and we played the old plays 
of "Sister Phoebe," and kindred plays. 

It was no uncommon thing for the young people to go to 
church, or "meeting," as it was called then, barefooted; and 
older people too, in some instances. The reason for this was 
the scarcity of shoes, as well as the inability on the part of the 
people to always command the means of paying for them. 

Our manner of living was in accordance with the general 
pioneer life of the times. The old time hominy-block was 
found in every cabin, and spinning-wheels, and reels, and the 
corn-grater. Our clothing was mostly home-made. We had 
to work hard, and had very little time for play. The wants of 
the people were fewer than at present, and more easily met, 
for our real requirements were natural, and we were satisfied. 


My father, Isaac Griffith, emigrated from Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1818, and settled in Amanda Township, on 
the place known as the Leathers Tavern, adjoining the present 
village of Amanda on the south-east corner. At that time the 
site of Amanda, and all the surrounding country, was in a wild 
condition. There were a few small settlements in different 
parts of the township, mostly living in rude log-cabins, and 
small farms were opened ; but there were neither good roads 
nor markets. 

The best house in the community was the Leathers house. 
It was of hewed logs, and two stories high. Mr. Leathers 
settled there at a very early day, and had kept a tavern many 
years. At the time of our coming there was neither a frame 
nor a brick building in the township. My father kept tavern 
in the Leathers House about twenty-five years, or until his 
death, which occurred in 1855. The house burnt down in 1858 
or 1859. 

Our neighbors at the time of coming there, in 1818, were 
Abram Kestler, Abram Myres, John Welsheimer, Frederick 


Welsheimer, David Leathers, Samuel Leathers, Mr. Gardner, 
William Hamilton, Michael Shellenharger, Martin Landis, 
Judge Vanmeter, John Leist, Samuel Kirkwood, John Svvoyer, 
Daniel Conrad, John Conrad, Michael Nigh, Samuel Nigh and 
Daniel Peter3. 

The first school I went to was in the Landis neighborhood. 
The first teacher was Moses Stutson, and afterwards Solomon 
Grover. I was a very small boy, but I walked over the road 
twice every day. The house was made of round logs, and one 
log was cut out for a window. * 

The first church was built on Swoyer's land, in about 1828. 
It was a brick house. 

I have known oats to be sold for six and one-fourth centsper 
bushel, after we came here, though the price was usually about 
twelve and a half cents, but seldom in cash. There was very 
little cash in the country. Everything was done by trading. 
Wheat was sold at twenty-five cents per bushel. A day's labor 
was twenty-five cents in trade, except in harvest-time, when 
a half-Iollar was paid, for the most part in money. The 
farmers usually contrived some means of getting money to 
pay the harvest-hands. I know it was much harder to pay 
the taxes then than now, although I believe it would not be 
out of the way to say that eight dollars of taxes then is repre- 
sented by two hundred dollars now. Butter could sometimes 
be sold then for six and one-fourth cents. Our post-office was 
at Lancaster. There was one mail each way in a week. We 
brought our salt from Zanesville, and paid as high as five dol- 
lars a bushel for it. 

The town of Amanda was first laid off by Samuel Kest- 
ler ; the year I do not remember. 


I am a son of Maurice Reece, who emigrated from Pennsyl- 
vania, with others, in the year 1799. My father tented first, 
after his arrival, on the site where the mill now stands, 
known as Latta's mill, one mile and a half west of Lancaster. 


He only remained there a short time. He purchased the 
land known for many years as the Robinson Peters place, and 
put up a cabin. That was the Reece neighborhood. Thomas 
Whyley now lives on the farm, and is the owner. After the 
death of my mother, my father came and lived with me until 
his death, in about 1844. I have two brothers— Maurice and 
Isaac Reece — still residents of the same settlement. 

My father's first neighbors were : Nathaniel Wilson, Sr., 
Joseph Hunter, John and Allen Green, William and Thomas 
Green, Jesse *Spurgeon, Peter Woodring, Adam Bear, Baker 
Dutton, and a Mr. Reed. 

There were three early mills I remember — the rock-mill, 
and Ream's and Shellenbarger's mills. Mr. Ingman built a 
horse-mill west of Lancaster that was very useful to the 
■neighborhood. There was also a horse-mill built by Samuel 
Harper, two miles east of Amanda. 

There were two brothers, Robert and Joseph Young, who 
settled four miles east of Amanda, at a very early day. 

James Hunter taught school in our settlement as early as 
1801, and continued to* teach more or less for several years 
afterward. Our first school-house stood on what was called 
Spurgeon's Knob, a short distance north of Latta's mill. 

In the course of a few years, but previous to 1810, little still- 
houses sprang up all over the country, where whisky and 
peach-brandy were made. Peach crops soon became very 
abundant, because the peach-tree was the growth of but two or 
three years ; and in those early years of the country the peach 
crop seldom failed. They, were hauled in wagon-loads to the 
still-houses, for distillation. They were, from their very 
abundance, of little use in any other way, beyond what fami- 
lies could consume. 

Wolves were incessantly howling around us. Deer and 
Avild-turkeys were plenty everywhere, and in the few first 
years of the settlements, bears were quite numerous. My 
father was a bold hunter. He killed, within a given time, ten 
bears, and over one hundred deer, besides a great many wolves. 
He shot one elk, but it got away. There was a premium paid 
by the State on wolf-scalps. 

A common day's work was twenty-five cents ; but afterward 
fifty cents was paid for harvest-hands. It was considered a 


big day's work to reap and bind forty dozen sheaves of wheat. 
It required good reapers and strong men to do it. 

We had to make blazes on the trees so that we could find 
the way from one cabin to another, though the distance some- 
times was but short. The woods were very dense. But this 
was only necessary in the beginning of the settlements, be- 
cause the roads soon became worn. 

The first wedding I saw in the new settlement was Sally 

Reece, a sister of my father, to Larken , and the first 

funeral I can remember to have witnessed was that of Nancy 

It happened sometimes that breadstuffs became very scarce ; 
sometimes they could not be had at all for several weeks, 
which was caused by the streams failing. In these cases the 
people grated meal from the half-ripe corn, and lived on 
vegetables and wild-meat. 

I can remember when going to and from rock-mill that I 
saw flocks of deer skipping about in every direction, with 
their white tails turned over their backs. They would feed 
near the road, seemingly little afraid of man ; but afterward, 
when they had been often shot at, they became more shy. 

I can remember that my mother did sewing for a neighbor 
to pay for a fat side of bacon ; ard I can remember when my 
brother Maurice and myself went into the woods and gathered 
armfuls of wild-onions and carried them home. Cooked up 
with bacon, they were much used. Their season was in May 
and early June. My mother was a weaver, and besides do- 
ing the weaving for her own family, wove more or less for the 

Throughout the settlements there was little difference ob- 
served between Sundays and other days ; at least by many. 
It was no unusual thing to see men come to meeting with 
their guns on their shoulders; and the crack of rifles through 
the woods was as familiar on Sundays as any other day in the 

Within a few years after the settlements began, the hogs, 
from straying off into the woods, became wild, so that large 
flocks of them existed. In this state of things many were in 
the habit of procuring their pork from the woods. When a 
fat hog was wanted, men took their dogs and rifles and went 


in search of a drove of wild hogs ; and, having shot one, or half a 
dozen, they were brought in on sleds and dressed. 

My father made as many as six barrels of peach-brandy in 
a season, and that did not exhaust the crop. Many rotted on 
the ground, and quantities were given away to families who 
had no peach orchards. 

During the very earliest times it was a very common prac- 
tice for the } T oung people to go to meeting barefooted. Shoes 
sometimes could not be had ; and many of the people were un- 
able to procure them for the want of means. 

Our living was in accordance with frontier life generally. 
Wild-meats, such as venison, turkey and bear-meat, were 
plenty, and cost nothing but a little powder and lead and time, 
which was not as valuable as it has since come to be. Corn- 
bread in the form of pone, johnny-cake, dodger, hoe-cake and 
ash-cake were the common bread. It was more difficult then to 
pay little sums of taxes than it is now to pay twenty times as 



A number of colored persons came to Lancaster at an early 
day. I have been able, through Elijah Lewis (colored) and old 
resident white citizens, to secure the following names, though 
generally not the dates of their coming. Many of the follow- 
ing, who have lived in Lancaster and died, will be well re- 

Elijah Lewis, who is still living, came from Virginia and 
settled in Lansaster in 1823. He had one brother by the name 
of Stephen, and one sister, familiarly known as " Aunt Disa," 
who died a few years since at a very advanced age. Stephen 
was the husband of Aunt Judy Lewis, still living. Elijah 
does not know his age, but those who knew him in 1823 say 
he looked as old then as he does now. Scipio Smith was a 
Virginian, and came at a very early day. He was a tinner' 
and will long be remembered on account of his wooden-leg and 
his jet-black face. Reuben Banks, now the oldest colored man 
in Lancaster, has been in the place since 1814. He is quite 
feeble. Daniel Lewis, father of Elijah, came about the same 
time. Nelson Smith, the popular barber for nearly fifty years, 
is still living. His two sons, Egbert and brother, succeed him 
in business. 

Then follow others who have deceased: Father Jenkins, 
Aunty Jenkins. "Black Ike" and Basil Green lived in the 
Philamon Beecher family. "Yellow Jim" lived with Parson 
Wright. Charley Graves, Frank Anderson, Bill Davis, Rich- 
ard Marcus, old Father Watson (still living at a venerable age), 
John Mathews and Mack Turner, the blacksmith. John Ampy 
Jones, the popular well-digger, who lost his life by the damps 
in a well a few years ago on the Dunbar farm, will always be 
favorably remembered. Of other early settlers of the county, 
of the African race, I have not the means of knowing. 



The Lancaster Gas-Light and Coke Company was incorpo- 
rated in the early part of the year 1856, and its works were 
speedily completed by the energetic contractor, Coverdale. 
The site of the works is on the west bank of the canal, and 
opposite the mouth of Jail street. The capital stock of the 
company is $25,000. The works were completed, and the city 
was first lit up with gas on the Fourth of July, 1856. 

The shares of the stock have always been at and over par 
in the market, but holders generally unwilling to sell. Its 
dividends have usually been from eight to ten per cent. The 
company have in progress of construction a new gasometer of 
fifty feet in diameter. Until within the last year the price of 
gas was $3.75 per thousand feet. The present price, first of 
September, 1877, is $3.00 per thousand feet. 


The old " Lancaster Ohio Bank " was chartered by the Legis- 
lature of Ohio, and went into operation about the year 1814, 
1815 or 1816, with a capital stock of $250,000. Its charter and 
early books have not been easily come at. The exact date, 
however, of its first opening, is not specially important to his- 
tory, since its affairs have all been closed thirty-five years ago, 
but especially as we have been able to give a correct history of 
the working of the institution to its final settling up in 1842 
and 1843. 

Judge Schofield was its first President, during two or three 
years, and then John Creed until its close. Michael Ga- 
raghty was elected Cashier, and held the position through 
its entire course of active operations, which was about thirty 
years. This bank was well and successfully conducted to the 
last, and acquired a popularity not exceeded by any other 
bank in the State. It was made the disbursing agent of the 
State in the payment of the Public Works, especially in the 


building of the Ohio Canal. Millions of dollars of the public 
money passed through its hands. 

But at last, during the disastrous financial crisis which 
began in 1837 and continued up to 1842, the bank suspended 
specie payment and went into assignment, appointing* Hock- 
ing H. Hunter, Joseph Stukey and Frederick A. Foster 
as its assignees. This course was taken for the purpose of a 
final closing up of the affairs of the bank, which was completed 
by the redemption of all its outstanding circulation and the 
payment of all its liabilities at par. Jacob Green was made 
the redeeming agent of the still remnant of the outstanding 
circulation. The Lancaster Ohio Bank was the agent in the 
payment of the soldiers of the war of 1812, which fixes the 
time of its organization about, or a little before the close of 
that war. 

Following the close of this bank there was an interregnum 
of about three years, during which Lancaster had no bank. 
During that time, Messrs. Boving and Graua sold exchanges 
and received deposits, very much to the accommodation of the 
business men of the place. 

The Hocking Valley Branch of the State Bank of Ohio (suc- 
cessor of the Lancastor Ohio Bank), was organized in February, 
1847, with a capital stock of 8100,000; Darius Talmadge, Presi- 
dent ; Charles F. Garaghty, Cashier; and commenced a general 
banking business, which was continued up to the early part 
of the year 1865. At this time it was decided to change to a 
bank under the provisions of the act of Congress providing for 
National Banks. For this purpose, D. Talmadge, J. R. 
Mumaugh and M. Effinger assumed all the stock of the State 
branch for the purpose of closing up its affairs, which was suc- 
cessfully accomplished. This was during the general suspen- 
sion of specie payment that began with the breaking out of 
the Southern rebellion in 1861. 

During the existence of the Hocking Valley Branch of the 
State Bank of Ohio, the following were its officers : Darius 
Talmadge, President from 1847 to 1865, or until its close ; 
Charles F. Garaghty, Cashier from 1847 to 1848, one year; 
William Slade, Cashier from 1848 to 1850, two years; M. A. 
Daugherty, Cashier from 1850 to 1855, five years; C. F. 
Garaghty, from 1855 to 1859, four years; H. V. Weakley from 
1859 to 1865, six years. 


The Hocking Valley National Bank went into operation in 
May, 1865, with Darius Talmadge for President, and Henry 
V. Weakley Cashier. In 1866, J. W. Feringer was elected 
Cashier, and still holds the place in August, 1877. In 1869, G. 
A. Mithoff was chosen President, at which time a reorganiza- 
tion took place, and the capital stock was reduced from 
$100,000 to $80,000. G. A. Mithoff is acting President in 
August, 1877. 


The Fairfield County Savings Bank, with a capital of $25,000, 
was organized as early as 1850 or 1851, by some of the soundest 
and best business men of the city of Lancaster, and a number 
of the most substantial farmers of the county. Jacob Green 
was its first President, and held the position down to the time 
of his death. Charles F. Garaghty was its first Cashier, and 
was succeeded after a few years by M. Worthington. After the 
death of Mr. Green, John C. Weaver was chosen President, 
who continued to act up to its close. This house was popular 
and useful. Upon the expiration of its charter, after having 
had the largest patronage of any bank of the city, it wound 
up, meeting all its liabilities promptly. 


This institution was first instituted on the first of January, 
1854, by John D. Martin, P. B. Ewing and Samuel Stambaugh, 
as the Exchange Bank. Six months afterwards Mr. Stam- 
baugh died, and the bank was continued by the surviving 
partners, up to January, 1864, when it was changed into the 
First National Bank of Lancaster, Ohio, with John D. Martin 
as President, and Charles F. Garaghty as Cashier. Two years 
afterwards Mr. Garaghty was succeeded by Geo. W. Beck, who 
is still holding the place. Both as a private bank, and as a 
National Bank, this institution has withstood all the financial 
troubles of the country, successfully sustaining soundness, 
though several times assailed during the panics between 1854 
and 1877. Its capital stock is $60,000. It maintains also a 
perpetual surplus fund of $12,000. 



f The Commercial Bank of Lancaster was established in De- 
cember, 1872, by A. Cochran, as a private bank. In June, 
1873, S. J. Wright became a partner by the purchase of one- 
half of the stock. In February, 1874, Mr. Wright bought the 
interest of Mr. Cochran, and banked alone until the 14th of 
September of the same year, when his bank was merged into 
the Fairfield County Bank, with a paid up capital of $50,000. 
Wesley Peters was chosen President, and S. J. Wright, Cashier. 
This banking-house is owned by a- number of Fairfield's most 
solid capitalists, and has the confidence and patronage of its 
full share of the community. 


This was a private bank, and was organized in the fall of 
1867, with a capital of about $50,000. Its President was Chas. 
F. Garaghty, and Cashier, William Noble. It did a general 
banking business until the beginning of November, 1873, 
when, under the cramping state of the money affairs of that 
year, it made an assignment of its affairs to John R. Mumaugh 
and William Noble, and paid, during the first eighteen months, 
a dividend of 40 per cent., with possibly a small fraction yet 
to divide. 

The living banks of Lancaster are owned by safe men, and 
are entitled to the public confidence. 


Two railroads, completed, pass through Fairfield County— 
the Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley Road, from west to 
east, and the Columbus and Hocking Valley Road, from north 
to south. There is also a third road in an unfinished state, 
passing through the extern portion of the county, making 
Bremen, Rushville and Pleasantville points. 

The Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley Road was first in- 
corporated as the " Cincinnati, Wilmington and Zanesville 
Railroad, " on the 4th of February, 1851, and was open to Lan- 


caster, and cars running, in August, 1853. In July, 1856, the 
road was completed through to Zanesville. 

In this road, Fairfield County took $250,000 worth of stock, 
under a special act of the Legislature authorizing the Com- 
missioners to subscribe stock. For the payment of the stock, 
county bonds were issued at seven per cent, interest, which 
were negotiated in the market by the company. The bonds 
were subsequently redeemed by the county, but the road was 
sold for its mortgage bonds, and the entire amount of Fair- 
field's bonds was sunk. After the sale of the road, the title 
was changed to the " Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley 
Railroad. " 


This road was first chartered as the " Mineral Railroad 
Company, " in 1864. In June, 1867, the title was changed to 
the " Columbus and Hocking Valley Railroad, " by the Court 
of Common Pleas of Franklin County. This road was built 
without county subscriptions. The city of Lancaster, how- 
ever, issued $20,000 of seven per cent, bonds to the company, 
to enable them to purchase the right-of-way through the south 
border of the city. This was an act on the part of the Council 
unauthorized by law, and was warmly opposed by a majority 
of the tax-payers. But at last acquiescence was made, and the 
bonds were redeemed. 

The road was speedily finished and cars run into Lancaster 
from Columbus. In 1868, the road was completed through to 
Athens — the whole distance being seventy-four miles, and 
trains running. 



Following is a list of all the Governors of Ohio, from 1789 
to 1876, with the times of their service : 

Arthur St. Clair, Territorial, from 1789 to 1803. 

Edward Tiffin, 1803 to 1807. 

Thomas Kirker, 1807 to 1808. 

Samuel Huntington, 1808 to 1810. 

Return J. Meigs, 1810 to 1814. 

Thomas Worthington, 1814 to 1818. 

Ethan Allen Brown, 1818 to 1822. 

Jeremiah Morrow, 1822 to 1826. 

Allen Trimble, 1826 to 1830. 

Duncan Mc Arthur, 1830 to 1832. 

Robert Lucas, 1832 to 1836. 

Joseph Vance, 1836 to 1838. 

Wilson Shannon, 1838 to 1840. 

Thomas Corwin, 1840 to 1842. 

Wilson Shannon, 1842 to 1844. 

Mordecai Bartley, 1844 to 1846. 

William Bebb, 1846 to 1848. 

Seabury Ford, 1848 to 1850. 

Reuben Wood, 1850 to 1853. 

William Medill, 1854 to 1856. 

Salmon Portland Chase, 1856 to 1860. 

William Dennison, 1860 to 1862. 

David Tod, 1862 to 1864. 

John Brough (died), 1864 to 1865. 

Charles Anderson, 1865 to 1866. 

Jacob D. Cox, 1866 to 1868. 

Rutherford B. Hayes, 1868 to 1872. 

Edward F. Noyes, 1872 to 1874. 

William Allen, 1874 to 1876. 

Rutherford B. Hayes, from January, 1876, until chosen 
President, when Lieutenant-Governor Thomas L. Young as- 
sumed the executive office, and is now acting Governor, in 
August, 1877. 

In addition to these names, there were four others that filled 
up intervals, thus : During the absence of Governor St. Clair, 


William H. Harrison served as acting Governor from 1798 to 
1799, part of a year. Othniel Looker was acting Governor 
from April to December, 1814. Allen Trimble was acting 
Governor from January, 1822, to December of the same year ; 
and Thomas Bartley from April to December, 1844. 

Ohio has, therefore, had thirty Governors, including Arthur 
St. Clair, who was appointed Territorial Governor by President 
Washington, in 1789; and including the four who filled up 
intervals, thirty-four in all. 

Of these thirty-four Governors, only eight are living in" 
August, 1877, viz. : William Denison, Edward F. Noyes, Jacob 
D. Cox, Thomas Bartley, Wilson Shannon, William Allen, 
Charles Anderson and Rutherford B. Hayes. 


The following shows the time of the inauguration of the 
respective Presidents, and the terms of office, from Wash- 
ington down to 1877. The whole number of Presidents who 
have been primarily elected is sixteen. The number of Vice- 
Presidents who have served as Presidents in filling out terms, 
is three, thus making nineteen Presidents from 1789 up to 

George Washington was inaugurated in April, 1789, and 
March 4th, 1793, two terms. 

John Adams, March 4th, 1797, one term. 

Thomas Jefferson, March 4th, 1801, and 1805, two terms. 

James Madison, March 4th, 1809, and 1813, two terms. 

James Monroe, March 4th, 1817, and 1821, two terms. 

John Quincy Adams, March 4th, 1825, one term. 

Andrew Jackson, March 4th, 1829, and 1833, two terms. 

Martin Van Buren, March 4th, 1837, one term. 

William Henry Harrison, March 4th, 1841. Died of pneu- 
monia, April 4th, 1841, thirty-one days after his inauguration. 
John Tyler, Vice-President, filled out the term. 

James K. Polk, March 4th, 1845, one term. 

Zachariah Taylor, March 4th, 1849. Died of cholera, July 
9th, 1850; serving one year and four months. The term was 
filled out by his Vice-President, Millard Fillmore. 


Franklin Pierce, March 4th, 1853, one term. 

James Buchanan, March 4th, 1857, one term. 

Abraham Lincoln. March 4th 1*61 ^a icak *~ •••—'■ & 

^.no o^cue nt;» sumewnere oetween 1780 and 1799, and at a 
time when the Wyandot Indians held undisputed possession 
of the Hocking Valley. Two white scouts, whose names are 


Franklin Pierce, March 4th, 1853, one terra. 

James Buchanan, March 4th, 1857, one term. 

Abraham Lincoln, March 4th, 1861, and 1865. Assassinated 
by J. Wilks Booth, at Ford's Theater, Washington, D. C, be- 
tween nine and ten o'clock on the night of April 14th, 1865. 
The term was filled out by his Vice-President, Andrew Johnson. 

Ulysses S. Grant, March 4th, 1869, and 1873, two terms. 

Rutherford B. Hayes, March 4th, 1877. On account of diffi- 
culties in the returns of the Boards of Louisiana, Florida and 
South Carolina, the election as between, Mr. Hayes and Sam'l 
J. Tilden could not be easily determined. A special act 
was thereupon passed by Congress, creating a Commission of 
fifteen members, who "counted" Mr. Hayes in. 

Of the nineteen Presidents here named, the following are 
living, in August, 1877 : Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. 
Hayes. All the others have passed away. 



The following tragic story is here rendered current with its 
narration in General Sanderson's address, delivered before the 
Lancaster Literary Association in March, 1844, and mainly 
from recollection, as I have not been able to put my hands on 
the document at this late day, nearly thirty-three years after- 
ward. And here I promise that the story is not introduced as re- 
liable history. Of the accuracy of some of the main points, I 
have no doubt; at least so far as the scouts and the rescue are 
concerned. All, however, is traditional rather than historical. 
The story of the scouts and the rescue were handed down from 
the first settlers, and were well founded in belief, The 
absence of written history has been construed as casting some 
doubt on the reliability of the tradition, yet there is enough 
to justify the belief, and we render the story. The coloring 
and poetry are the allowable privileges of romancers : 

The scene lies somewhere between 1780 and 1799, and at a 
time when the Wyandot Indians held undisputed possession 
of the Hocking Valley. Two white scouts, whose names are 


given as Wetzel and Maywood, were watching from the sum- 
mit of Mount Pleasant the movements of the Indians; for 
what purpose is not known. By some, it is surmised, that they 
were seeking redress for some depredation on the white settle- 
ments along the Ohio river ; by others, that their mission was to 
learn the strength and designs of the savages. The rocky 
recesses and dense growth of pine and other trees on the top 
and slopes of the mount afforded the scouts perfect conceal- 
ment, and at the same time, in the event of discovery and at- 
tack, a fortress of defense, as the tew accessible points to the 
summit were easily guarded from ambush. Their principal 
danger, therefore, in the event of an attack, was in being 
starved into capitulation by a protracted siege. They easily 
saw the coming and going of the inhabitants of Tarhe Town, 
which was situated one mile to the south, and on the table- 
lands where the railroad works and agricultural works now 
are. They had succeeded for several days in maintaining per- 
fect concealment, and at the same time in keeping a sharp 

Three-quarters of a mile west of Mount Pleasant is a hill 
that at the time was covered with a dense forest. The inter- 
mediate ground between the hill and the mount was also cov- 
ered with trees and underbrush. A few feet from the south- 
west base of the hill flowed the Hocking, and beyond it, and 
stretching off to the west, was a prairie, more or less grown 
over with high grass and clusters of willow-bushes. Imme- 
diately from the south base of the hill flowed a strong current 
of pure limpid water, which is familiarly known to this day 
as the " Cold Spring. " The approach to it was over a tolera- 
bly well worn foot-path round its eastern and south-eastern 
margin, for the Indians were in the habit of frequenting the 
spring for supplies of water. The path was entirely con- 
cealed by the forest and thick growth of pawpaw-bushes. 
With the exception of the trodden path, everything there 
was in the same condition of nature it had been for unknown 
ages. The stream itself was overhung with the growths along 
its banks. Any one going to and from the spring was, there- 
fore, exposed only to the chance of meeting stray Indians, who, 
for the time, might be detached from the main body that was 
closely watched by Wetzel and Maywood. 

To the Cold Spring the scouts went to get water, one keep- 


ing watch on the mount while the other performed the haz- 
ardous task. It was growing toward the close of the day. 
" Every leaf was at rest, " and that awful stillness which will 
forever remain unknown to all those unfamiliar with forest 
life, reigned all around. Not a sound, save the humming of 
insects in the tree-tops, broke the silence profound. To those 
who have penetrated the depths of the forest, this buzzing of 
flies will be remembered as only serving to make the silence, 
the "dumb silence, still more dumb. " 

It was a little more than one mile to Tarhe Town, but if a 
thousand miles had intervened, it could not have been more 
quiet in the vicinity of the Cold Spring. True, roving Indians 
might have lurked almost at the next step, unheard, for so 
solitary and silent was their tread when off the war-path, or 
when not engaged in some of their many ways of making 
sport, that one might pass almost in contact with them, 
wholly unaware of their near presence. To those unfamilar 
with Indian life in the forest, no idea can be formed of their 
cat-like movements. Naturally of few words, their feet shod 
with the soft moccasin, and traveling, as is their habit, in 
single file, they move as noiselessly as if miles away, so far as 
human ears are concerned. This is doubtless owing to their 
trained habits of stealing stealthily on their prey. On the 
other hand, their appalling war-whoop, familiar only to 
frontiersmen, when excited, makes the forest ring with wild 
echoes far and near, and creates the instinct of seeking to 
widen the space between them and the white man whose ear 
catches the sound. Even the beasts of the forest scamper 
away to their wild recesses to seek safety from their deadly 
foe, as soon as the shriek reaches them. 

Wetzel had been to the spring, and with his canteens filled 
with water, was stealing as stealthily away as he came. In his 
right hand he grasped his unerring line, while his eyes and 
ears were wide open to catch the faintest sound or movement, 
or intimations of unwelcome presence. He was just making 
the bend round the south corner of the hill, not exceeding 
fifty yards from the spring, when suddenly, and without the 
least premonitory sound, he found himself visa-vis with a 
couple of squaws. There was not a moment to be lost in delib- 
eration, and his plan was formed with lightning speed, for he 
knew that a yell from one of the savages before him would 


speedily bring to the spot a score or more of warriors, • when 
his fleetness of foot would be his only chance of safety ; and be- 
sides, he knew such a catastrophe could not fail of discovering 
his retreat, greatly imperiling the chances of escape. With 
the quickness and agility of a tiger he dropped his gun, and 
springing forward, grasped the throat of each in his powerful 
hands, rushed into the stream but a few feet to the right, and 
plunged their heads beneath the water, which was considerably 
swollen by recent rains, where he intended to keep them until 
all danger of making a noise was forever at an end with both 
of them. One of them was old, the other young and athletic. 
The latter resisted heroically, and finally, getting her head 
above water, and her mouth cleared, she addressed Wetzel in 
English. This caused him to desist, and to question her, 
when, to his great astonishment, she informed him that she 
was a white girl, and a captive. Time was precious, and 
ascertaining that the old squaw was quite dead, the scout and 
the rescued girl started for Mount Pleasant. They had no 
more than reached the base of the mount, when, from back in 
the direction they had come, came the most deafening yells, 
as if from five hundred throats, which told them that the body 
of the drowned squaw had been found, as well as the trail of 
the white man's foot. There was nothing now left for them 
but to gain the summit as soon as possible, and prepare for the 
defense, for they knew the savages in great numbers would 
soon be upon them. They were not long in gaining the top, 
Avhere they rejoined May wood, and a brief council was held, as 
to the course of defense to be pursued. 

There were not more than twoor three points of access, and 
to these the attention of the besieged was entirely directed. 
Night was fast coming on, and the scouts were told by the girl, 
who was able to converse freely with them, that there was little 
probability that the Indians would hazard the attempt to gain 
the top of the mount in the dark. Their means of defense 
consisted of two rifles, and a supply of ammunition sufficient to 
hold out for several days. Their greatest source of anxiety 
arose from the fact of their scanty supply of provisions, and the 
utter impossibility of procuring water, unless the passage to 
the spring and back could be accomplished in the night. But 
that feat seemed too full of peril to be thought of, for they knew 


that every possible point of escape from the mount would be 
carefully guarded by dark assassins. 

It was not long after Wetzel and the girl gained the sum- 
mit of Mount Pleasant, when they were surrounded on all 
sides by the howling savages, who sent up at them the most 
demoniac yells of defiance, which continued until darkness 
came on, when all was profoundly silent. In the meantime 
the points of access were closely sentineled; but throughout 
the tedious and sleepless night, no signs of attempt to scale 
the rocky fortress were indicated. 

The night passed away as the earth rolled round to meet 
the God of Day, who was again to light up the world with his 
burning face in the East. Wetzel, May wood and the girl, felt 
no want of slumber throughout the terrible vigil. Their 
nerves were wrought up to too great a degree of tension to per- 
mit nature to assert her demands, for well they knew that 
death, perhaps by terrible torture, would be their certain doom 
if they should fall into the hands of their merciless foes. They 
knew also that with the return of day the attack would be vig- 
orously renewed. Their supply of water was nearly out, and 
their little stock of provisions was diminishing, and starvation 
and famishing seemed imminent, unless they should go down 
and surrender themselves to a fate far more to be feared than 
starvation and the agonies of consuming thirst. They resolved, 
therefore, to withstand the siege to the last, rather than to sub* 
mit themselves to the fiendish revenge of the relentless sav- 
ages. To still further add to the terror of the scouts, the dis- 
covery was made towards morning that the girl had disap- 
peared in the darkness — perhaps gone back to the camp to re- 
port their helplessness, and to aid in their ultimate capture. 

The} r were greatly surprised however, as the morning ad- 
vanced, that there were no indications of Indians below. Not 
even the sound of a voice could be heard far or near. In the 
meantime the watch was kept up, lest some secret and silent 
approach was being made. Still the silence that reigned all 
around remained unbroken, a circumstance that further con- 
tributed to increase their apprehensions. 

Near the eastern part of the "Standing Stone" (the name 
given to Mount Pleasant by the Indians) was a steep and 
rugged ascent, over points of jagged rocks, down which the 
eye peered more than a hundred feet through the thick over- 


hanging foliage, while the sentinel above could keep himself 
concealed from even the sharpest Indian eye. It was per- 
haps ten o'clock, or about that hour, when Wetzel, from his 
concealment, caught sight of a stalwart Wyandot silently and 
cautiously creeping upon a footing far down below. He at last 
gained his point, and paused, with rifle in hand, as he seemed 
to listen, and perhaps calculated his plans for a further ascent. 
It was but a moment. There was a curl of smoke, a sharp 
crack of a rifle, and the brawny savage sprang into the air but 
to be precipitated headlong on the rocks far beneath, a life- 
less corpse. Almost instantly another took his place, seeming 
to come from a crevice on the left. Another curl of smoke ; 
another sharp crack, and another tumble into the abyss as 
suddenly followed. A third phantom curl, and three bronzed 
bodies lay a crushed mass of flesh and bones at the foot of 
Mount Pleasant. This third tragedy was instantly followed 
by the wildest tumult from every point of the surrounding 
thickets below. Seemingly, a thousand guttural throats were 
opened to give vent to the most hellish rage. The clamor 
lasted several minutes, when all again became quiet, and the 
remainder of the day passed with the usual stillness of the 
forest solitudes. 

With the accession of the darkness of the second night, 
Wetzel and May wood seated themselves together on a pile of 
rocks, for the purpose of holding a counsel as to what was to 
be clone. Their position was at a point just above where 
the three Indians had a few hours previously met so unex- 
pectedly their doom. They were contemplating the chances 
of possible escape in the face of such imminent peril. It was 
to be a daring and perilous descent; but they were beginning 
to feel the pinchings of hunger and thirst ; nevertheless, they 
were both powerful men, and very fleet on foot, and they 
hoped that if once the} 7 got safely to the table-land below, un- 
perceived by their foes, to be able to effect their escape. Pro- 
found darkness and silence surrounded. Suddenly, and with- 
out the least premonitory sound whatever, a gentle hand was 
placed on Wetzel's shoulder, at the same time that a canteen 
filled with fresh water was placed on his knee, accompanied 
by a few small pieces of jerked venispn ; and then, in a whis- 
per, a female voice said, " Be on this spot to-morrow night, 
and await my coming." They began to interrogate the mys 


terious visitant, or would have done so, but their words were 
unanswered, and they began to grope around, but soon found 
they were alone — the presence had glided away as noiselessly 
as it came. The effect on their spirits was nevertheless as- 
suring, though from whence the phantom came, or what its 
portent, was all mystery. Their sinking courage was raised a 
little; but what could it all mean? 

That night they slept by turns, and with rising hopes, and 
nothing occurred to cause the least alarm. The next day 
passed very much as the preceding one had done, with the 
exception that all was silent around the mountain. Various 
questions were considered and dismissed in turn. Had the 
Indians abandoned the siege, under the belief that mysterious 
spirits were aiding the spies by shooting from the recesses of 
the rocks; for the occurrences of the previous day were as 
mysterious to the scouts as to the Indians themselves. On 
the other hand, had the besiegers settled clown on the plan of 
simply guarding the passes until their prisoners, impelled by 
starvation, should come down, or ended their lives by slow 
death. And thus passed the second day. 

The third night covered the mountain with the usual 
sombre shades and quiet, and the scouts took their seats on 
the rocks where the strange visitor found them the night 
before, resolved to await patiently what might be in store for 
them, for that some mysterious agency was at work in their 
behalf they could no longer doubt. Less than one hour 
elapsed, when a dark shadow noiselessly glided up to the place 
where they were seated, depositing at their feet a package, 
accompanied with the whispered words, " Put on these clothes 
instantly, and be prepared to follow me." Within less than 
five minutes, apparently two full-robed Wyandot warriors 
were following their strange guide across the top of the mount 
towards its northern margin, with cat-like steps. Hand-in- 
hand the three figures entered a secret passage beneath the 
dense laurel bushes with which the rocks were overgrown. So 
narrow and steep in its descent was this fissure, that they 
were compelled to creep, rather than walk, the guide in ad- 
vance, and all shrouded in Egyptian darkness. Not a sound 
was uttered ; scarcely a breath could be heard as they slowly 
descended the narrow defile. At length, and after the lapse 
of fifteen or twenty minutes, the three forms emerged into 


the open space at the northern base of the mount, and as 
noiselessly glided down the slope of some forty or fifty feet. 
They were now under the cover of the dense thicket of under- 
growth, and at least a hundred yards away from the point of 
immediate danger. A brief whispered council was now held, 
when the trio started on a circuitous route of more than two 
miles, and at about eleven o'clock entered Tarhe Town, easily 
passing the pickets with the pass-word. 

The Indians were all slumbering, and, after a little peram- 
bulating through the dark camp, the south line was passed in 
safety, and the fugitives were making swift flight down the 
Hocking, and before daylight were far beyond immediate 
danger. In the meanwhile, the body of the Wyandot war- 
riors were closely environing Mount Pleasant. 

The girl's story was briefly as follows: She had been cap- 
tured by the Indians near Marietta, about three years before, 
when she was about thirteen years of age. During the two 
days and nights of the siege of Mount Pleasant, she had 
mingled as freely with the savages as before, representing to 
them that she had escaped from the scout at the Cold Spring, 
while he was in the act of drowning the old squaw. The rifle 
with which she picked off the three Indians who were in the 
act of attempting to gain the summit, she had abstracted from 
the camp while disguised as a warrior. The two suits of In- 
dian garb she procured by stealth. The secret passage down 
the north side of the mount she had discovered while pretend- 
ing to assist in the siege. 

History, or rather traditional history, has it, that this girl 
subsequently married and became the mother of a family, and 
lived to a good old age. 

Many will remember the thrilling little story of " Forest 
Rose," which made its appearance in this county something 
over twenty years ago, in pamphlet form, and which was so 
generally read. Perhaps no novel, or romance, of its class, 
ever attracted more attention, or was more widely circulated. 
It is still in the market, and new editions are being called 
for. The Mount Pleasant scouts and the rescue at the Cold 
Spring was the text of Forest Rose. It was written by Emer- 
son Bennet, then of Cincinnati, but now of Philadelphia. 
The author of this volume having made the acquaintance of 
Mr. Bennet, while a resident of Cincinnati, called his atten- 


tion to the address of General Sanderson in 1844, and at his 
request sent him a copy, which was unearthed after several 
weeks' search, and hence " Forest Rose." This was about the 
year 1849 or 1850. 


The following prophetic venture, and its literal fulfillment, 
will exhibit pretty correctly the onward course of things in 
the Western country within the last fifty years. But not of 
the Western country alone— of the world. 

In the winter of 1827, the compiler of this volume was the 
Secretary of a debating school in one of the Western counties 
of Ohio. We held our meetings in the little brick school- 
house of the village. The building stood a little out to one 
side, and near the Methodist Meeting-house. 

The railroad idea was just beginning to incubate in the 
East, and the heresy had got on the wings of the winds- 
merest inklings of it, and had been wafted to the brains of 
even some chimerists of the "Far-West." A Yankee had been 
through the country exhibiting a miniature locomotive on 
wires stretched across the room, and charging a quarter for the 
sight. The thing was pronounced a Yankee trick by the con- 
servative element of the community. Three-fourths of the 
people were conservative then; in fact, radicalism scarcely 
dared show its face. 

We had a Captain Brown among us. He was voted a vis- 
ionist — a castle-builder. It has since appeared that he was 
one who let his mind run off in all directions ; a man who did 
not believe that things were finished, or that the acme of 
knowledge and the ultimatum of invention were reached. 

At one of the meetings he made a speech — a railroad speech. 
He said the time was coming, and not far off, when railroads 
would be laid all over the West, and that people would yet 
travel fifteen miles an hour by steam. He said there would 
some day be a railroad from Cleveland to Cincinnati, and it 
would not pass far from that spot. 


The meeting was largely attended that night, including 
ladies and many of the older and staid citizens. 

A couple of days subsequently I received the following note, 
signed by a dozen of the solid men of the neighborhood, with 
a request that it should be read at the next debating school : 

" You are welcome to the use of the school-house to debate 
all proper questions, but such things as railroads are impossi- 
bilities, and are impious, and will not be allowed. " 

I read the note, and the railroad idea was squelched. Cap- 
tain Brown did not live to see his prophesy fulfilled, but the 
railroad station now is within three hundred yards of where 
the school-house was then. 


As before stated, a few gaps in the succession of county offi- 
cers have occurred, which, from the irregularity and imperfec- 
tion of records, I have found it impossible to supply. This is 
special^ true with reference to Judges of the Court between 
1812 and 1820. Should any one ever find it necessary to 
know what years Judges Grimkey or Swan were on the bench 
(which is scarcely probable), the matter can be determined by 
reference to early legislation, or election returns at the State 
Auditor's office. 


To the aged citizens of Fairfield County; to the middle- 
aged; and to the young, I address some closing thoughts and 
reflections. We are approaching the point now where, as 
authors sometimes say, we must part. But you and I, dear 
reader, will not part. You have kept my company in my 
pilgrimage back through the decades of years, to where this 
now fertile and rich valley and its adjacent country was, to 
"use an expression more familar to the ear than comprehended 
by the mind, a howling wilderness where "nothing dwelt but 
beasts of prey, or men as fierce and wild as they." Together 
we have stood mentally in the wilds of the unbroken forests of 


the Hocking Valley, and on Mount Pleasant's loft}' summit, 
and listened to the discordant yells of the untutored savage, the 
screaming panther, the howling wolf, the barking fox, and 
the doleful hooting of the big owl, before the first dawnings of 
civilization shed their cheering rays over scenes that "long in 
darkness lay." But we stood on the boundaries of a barren 
waste of desert; a desert into which no Anglo-Saxon eye ever 
peered— the desert of the past unknown and unnumbered 
years, for there was nothing to mark the drifting cen- 
turies. The untaught children of the forest put up no monu- 
ments—left no chronicles— nothing to tell whence they came 
or how long they inhabited the land. The few vague tradi- 
tions they were found to possess pointed to nothing— nothing 
the trained mind could take hold of to link with the far-back. 
All, to the coming white race, was only darkness— oblivion. 
Who lived here a thousand years ago? What could the eye 
have seen ? The question can never be answered. 

Dimly we have contemplated the youth, John Kieth, trad- 
ing with the Wyandots at the foot of Mount Pleasant, one 
hundred and fourteen years ago. We imagine him in the act 
of exchanging trinkets with the swarthy denizens of the 
forest for their peltries and furs. And then we have seen him 
parting with his employer, as the latter left to return to Fort 
Pitt to exchange his skins for a fresh stock of goods, and then 
return and send the youth, Kieth, back to South Carolina 
under Indian escort. And we have seen the young man's 
hopes all blasted by being compelled to accept adoption into 
the Indian life, or die; the remnant of goods confiscated by 
the savages, and then the breaking up of the camp, and the 
departure, when Mount Pleasant and all the valley became 
for the time a solitude. Whether the trader ever returned, or 
whether he subsequently learned the future career of John 
Kieth, we can never be permitted to know. The curtain 

Further on we have found the Hocking Valley teeming 
with savages, for the Wyandots were a cruel and bloodthirsty 
tribe. We mentally stand upon Mount Pleasant (then the^ 
Standing Stone) and in imagination watch the maneuvering 
about Camp Tarhe Town in the distance, while the smoke 
from the bark-covered wigwams curls up through the plumb- 
bushes and rests quiescently among the tree-tops. Here and 


there the mind takes in the conception of strolling squads of 
warriors skulking through the forests, followed hy their 
shaggy spaniels or insignificant fistes, and anon a line of riders 
coursing along in single file, now and then coming into view 
as they pass the o^pen space, occasionally screaming out their 
thrilling war-whoop. Meanwhile, the squaws lounge about 
the tents, or busy themselves with the drudgery. But as yet 
the voice of the white man has not come to these solitudes. 
We are obliged to keep ourselves concealed and our voices 
silent, for our discovery would be our doom, because there are 
no strong arms nor humane beings within hundreds of miles 
who could save us from a terrible fate. 

But at last the scouts appear. They are sent up from the 
settlements at Marietta and the mouth of Hocking to recon- 
noiter the Indian camps. May wood and Wetzel are on Mount 
Pleasant, peering out towards Tarhe Town, cautiously. We 
feel a little more secure. And then we think of the little 
town nine miles west, controlled and governed by Toby, who, 
because he is an inferior chief, we feel less afraid of him or 
his band. We see Maywood cautiously creeping round the 
point of Cold Spring hill with his canteens filled with fresh 
water; the sudden meeting of the two squaws; the struggle 
in the water; the ilight to Mount Pleasant; the floating 
corpse of the drowned squaw ; the savage yell of the war- 
riors; the siege; the escape in the night; the rescued girl is 
safe, and we again drop the curtain. 

The treaty of Greenville in 1795 has opened the way for the 
white man to show himself in the Hocking Valley, for with 
all the rude uncultured nature of the Wyandots and Dela- 
wares, they respected their contracts, and kept them, gen- 
erally, in good faith, especially the better or controlling por- 
tion of them. I think it due to the Indian tribes to say, that 
in their intercourse with the settlers of the North American 
Continent, they have seldom, or never, been the first to break 
treaties once entered into. 

We have seen Zane's trace successfully opened from Wheel- 
ing to Limestone, in the fall of 1797 ; but as yet the solitude 
of the forest reigns, for silence closed in as Zane and his com- 
pany of choppers \ assed on to the west. But at last the sound 
of the woodman's ax is heard, locally, just over Hocking on 
the margin of the prairie. Joseph Hunter has wended his 


way from Kentucky over Zane's trace, and is felling the trees 
and chopping away the brush preparatory to building his 
little cabin. But with the exception of his wife, and two or 
three small children, not another human being of his race 
breathes in the forests between the Muskingum and Scioto, a 
space of fifty-six miles. Mr. Hunter's family are alone in 
the wilderness, their only companions a dog or two, and a few 
other domestic animals. This was in the month of April, 1798. 

In the following month we have witnessed the arrival of sev- 
eral emigrant wagons over the eastern end of the trace. Among 
these families were the Wilsons, the Greens, the McMullens, 
the Coopers, the Shaffers, and a few others. In the fall of the 
same year, a number of other families have arrived and 
pitched their tents in various localities. Then in the spring 
of 1799 we have seen the tide of emigration coming in from 
both directions in considerable force, beginning settlements at 
Yankee Town, forks of Hocking, Toby Town, Muddy Prairie, 
Clear Creek, along down the Hocking, on Rush Creek, Pleas- 
ant Run, Fetters' Run, Ewing's Run, Baldwin's Run and in 
Liberty. And now the forests were resonant with the sound 
of the woodman's ax, the tinkling of the cow-bells, the sharp 
crack of the hunter's rifle, and the emigrant's song — life and 
activity springing up all over the beautiful valley and its ad- 
jacent hills and vales, where for countless ages wild nature 
reigned supreme and undefaced, save by the tomahawk of the 
untamed savage. 

In the fall of the year 1800 we have seen the survey and 
first sale of lots and location of some of the principal streets of 
what is the present city of Lancaster. We have seen the first 
settlers chopping down the superincumbent trees, and con- 
structing out of their trunks the first rude log-huts, and the 
mechanics going to work at their respective trades; and we 
have carefully observed the growth of the little log-cabin 
" New Lancaster, " up to the handsome and populous city of 
Lancaster of 1876. We have been present in imagination at 
the first elections ; opening and conduct of the first Courts. In 
the same way we have attended the early class-meetings at the 
cabin of Edward Teal, at Beal's Hill, three miles out on Zane's 
trace ; the coming of Rev. John Wright, in 1801, and the be- 
ginning of Presbyterianism. Later, Revs. Wise and Stake, 
and the organization of German Reform and Lutheran Socie- 


ties, followed by other Protestant Societies. The Catholics 
also started nearly with our first acquaintance. We have 
marked the beginning of elementary schools, and mechanic 
arts, and trades, and the professions, and contemplated the 
active workers. 

But, alas! where ar,e these early acquaintances of ours 
to-day ? The very last man and woman who did the active 
work of Lancaster seventy-six years ago have passed out of 
sight ! A few of our early acquaintances remain, standing 
with bending forms and silvered heads just in front of the exit 
gates of mortal life. Among these we enumerate Flora King, 
Frederick A. Foster, Dr. Charles Shawk, John T. Brazee, 
Frederick Scha?ffer, Father Rhoads, and a few others a little 
farther back on the highway. 

In retrospecting, we contemplate John Creed and Michael 
Garaghty, President and Cashier of the first bank of Lancaster, 
the " Lancaster Ohio Bank," both of whom have long since 
passed away ; and Darius Talmadge, one of Lancaster's most 
enterprising citizens during more than thirty years. We re- 
call his memory as a successful and extensive stage proprietor, 
also a public-spirited citizen, whose place will not soon be 
filled. It would be difficult, nor would space permit us to 
record the names of all the men and women who have filled 
useful positions in Lancaster, in the various departments of 
its industries and prosperities, and then stepped off the stage. 
The cold chiseled marble and sand-stone tell us where their 
forms, no longer seen, were laid. In passing through the 
cemeteries we read the names, Dr. McNeal, Dr. John Shawk, 
Samuel Efhnger, Samuel F. McCracken, John Latta, James 
Rice, Gotlieb Steinman, Geo. Boerstler, John B. Reed, Amos 
Hunter, William Bodenheimer, H<?nry Arnold, Daniel Arnold, 
George Ring, Samuel Carpenter, Robert 0. Claspill, Robert R. 
Claspill, with nearly all their wives. And so we might ex- 
tend the list of the honored dead of Lancaster to many hun- 
dreds. But they have all fallen asleep, and others are filling 
their places. The young of forty years ago are growing grey, 
who in their turn will pass off the boards as the stream of 
time flows on. 

In every locality of the county we have noted the formation 
of first settlements, from 1799, and watched their progress on 
up. We have known most of the first settlers, and where 


they built their cabins. There is not one of them ali ve to-day, 
and there is very little they did that can be seen. About all 
we know of them is that they were here, and are gone. If we 
should visit the cemeteries of the county we could read many 
of their epitaphs; but we could not recall their persons. 

We remember the first formation of Fairfield County on the 
9th of December, 1800, when it took in four or five times its 
present area — when Newark and Somerset were both in Fair- 
field County. And as the years passed by in the ceaseless 
movement of the panorama of time, we have seen the town- 
ships of the present Fairfield take form, and the outlines of 
the county established by the formation of Licking, Perry, 
Hocking and Pickaway counties, at periods between 1807 and 
1817. We have seen the villages of the county spring up one 
after another, and have watched their growth and prosperity, 
and have formed the acquaintance of many of their business 
men. We have contemplated the humble beginnings of 
religious societies worshiping in little dimly-lighted log- 
cabins; and the embryo schools; the little mills that ground 
the first corn and wheat ; and we have seen not only the cabins 
and all their fixtures pass out of existence forever, but the 
people that made them are mostly gone too from sight. In 
imagination we have been in company with the early pioneers 
and marked their struggles in the wilderness, their humble, 
patient and enduring lives, and how they inculcated religion, 
and morals, and honesty, and good manners. But that was a 
long time age. The skip of time has fixed the two epochs, 
then and now, entirely out of sight of each other. We can see 
nothing at all of the pioneer age except in fancy. More than 
two full generations of our race intervene. 

We have seen the financial status of the large county of 
Fairfield in 1806, and that its public taxation amounted to a 
little less than $2,000. Seventy years afterwards, on one- 
fourth of the territory, the list is swelled to $250,000 annually. 
Then labor was twenty-five cents a day; now a dollar is not 
enough for the exigencies of the times. Then the wants of 
the people were few, in conformity to the condition of the 
new country ; now they are boundless. Our real wants are 
still few, but our pampered and imaginary ones know no 
limits. The efforts to gratify them keep three-fourths of the 
population in debt. The income of three-fourths of the popu- 



lations of all the States of the Union is less to-day than the 
absolute requirements of the times, made so by the artificial 
and irrational life of the age. And the future, which it is 
not our province to comment on, does not promise an improve- 

In the log-cabin era the people had time to talk to each 
other ; time to help each other; time to visit and nurse the 
sick, and to bury the dead without a dollar's cost; time to 
walk a mile to help lift up the cow that was down with the 
hollow-horn ; and time to help pull the grey mare out of the 
well, or to hunt a neighbor's cow that was lost. Now, you 
could scarcely find a friend in all your circle of acquaintance 
that would stop one minute to help you in any exigency. 
Everything has to be paid for. If your wife or child dies, you 
can't make a respectable funeral lor less than from fifty to a 
hundred dollars, whether you have five dollars in the world 
or not. The way things are now, no one has the courage to 
beard public opinion, and therefore fall they victims before it. 
Only last evening I met, separately, two old acquaintances on 
the streets of Columbus. They seemed glad to meet me; but 
the most brief compliments and inquiries passed, when their 
impatience appeared — something ahead demanded them. But 
there is no remedy, and complaints are follies. 

As time has sped, together you and I, in fancy, have watched 
the gradual transformation of the wilderness we entered sev- 
enty-eight years ago, on the Hockhocking, into the garden. 
The Indians, and the wild animals, and the log-huts, and the 
pole-bridges, and the marshes, and the people we knew have 
all drifted away. The people have grown grey and died, and 
the domestic animals have turned to dust, with many of their 
generations. What can we say ? Have the lessons of life 
made us better men and women ? Has the world of men 
grown better ? The world is wiser. Is it better ? 

No, dear reader, you and I will not part. Death will separate 
us; but if we have lived pure and good lives here, we shall 
meet in a purer and better and deathless world. And when 
the humble compiler of these pages has passed out of sight, its 
paragraphs will recall to your mind our journey together over 
a transit of three-fourths of a century of the most important 
era of earth's history.