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Full text of "A complete memoir of Richard Haines (1633-1685), a forgotten Sussex worthy, with a full account of his ancestry and posterity, containing also chapters on the origin of the names Hayne and Haynes, and the various coats of arms associated with them"

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1195126 



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(iENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 03109 1520 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/completememoirofOOhain 







^^■?^.y .c-r?^ 






A COMPLETE MEMOIR OF 



RICHARD HAINES 



(1633- 1 685), 



A FORGOTTEN SUSSEX WORTHY 



WITH A FULL ACCOUNT OF HIS ANCESTRY AND 
POSTERITY ; 



^CONTAINING ALSO CHAPTERS ON THE ORIGIN OF THE NAMES 

HAVNE AND HAYNKS, AND THE VARIOUS COATS OF ARMS 

ASSOCIATED WITH THEM]; 



BY HIS SEVENTH MALE DESCENDANT. 



CHARLES REGINALD HAINES, M.A. Camr. 

AUTHOK OF "versions IN VERSE," " INDIA AND THE OPIUM TKADK," 

"education and missions," " chkistianitv and islam 

in spain," " mohammedanism as a missionary 

religion," and of a school edition 

of 'i he "' prometheus' of 

.bschylus." 



]l 'ITH ILL US TRA TIONS. 



" Dos est nia^^na parcnliuin 1 'iiiiis." — Hor. 

I 

^fJ^ ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



'433^shcL. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANK, 

PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY. 



1195126 



TO THE MEMORY OF MY ANCESTORS, 
ESPECIALLY OF MY 

FATHER AND MOTHER, 

TO WHOM I OWE, WITH LIFE, 

ALL THAT HAS MADE LIFE WORTH THE LIVINO 

I DEDICATE THIS 

LABOUR OF LOVE. 



NAMES OF SITBSCRIP>ERS. 

*W. Barnes, Eri([., Camniuu Side West, Miteliain, .Surrey. 

A. Ridley Bax, Esq., F.S.A., Ivy Bank, Hampstead. 

J. P. Bickersteth, Esq., Grove Mill House, Watford, Herts. 
*Mi's. Bradstock, Bank House, Walthani Cross, Herts. 

W. Luni.sJen Byers, Esq., 29, Thornhill Terrace, Sunderland. 

E. Godwin Clayton, Esq., 10, Old Palace Lane, Richmond, Surrey. 
*Miss Clayton, 62, Elizabeth Stree^, Eaton Square, London, S.W. 

F. A. Crisp, Esq., F.S.A., Grove Park, Denmark Hill. 
E. H. W. Dunkin, Esq., Rosewyn, 70, Heme Hill, S.E. 

*Mrs. Fanny Grave, 26, Oakley Flats, Oakley Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

Everard Green, Esq., Rouge Dragon, College of Arms, London. 
*Major R. L. Haines, R. A , 2, Pentillie Avenue, Plymouth. 
*H. A. Haines, Esq., The India Office, London. 

*Captain Gregory S. Haines, Governor's House, Military Prison, Dulilin 
*The Rev. F. W. Haines, Bromley Common, Kent. 
"^Christopher Haines, Esq., Bacon's Farm, Bramfield, Heits. 
*Edwfin Haines, Esq., Brookers, Paddock Wood, Kent. 

W. Haines, Esq., 2, Marine Parade, Worthing, Sussex. 

W. T. Sanden Haines, Esq., Lavant, Chichester. 

The Rev. Francis A. Haines, Bosliam, Sussex. 

Charles Singleton Haines, Esq., Rock House, LTlverston. 

A. Montague Haines, Esq., Wellesley Lodge, Sutton, Surrey. 

The Rev. Willoughby Chaiies Haiires, Chaplain to the Forces. 

Hubert B. Haines, Esq., Victoiia, British Columl)ia. 

Miss Evelyn Haines, 110, Belgrave Road, S.W. 

Basil J. Haines, Esq., Manoi' House, Queen Charlton, near Bristol. 

Robert T. Haines, Esq., Hawthorne, Bickley, Kent. 

John Haines, Esq., 24, Hampton Place, Brighton. 
*Miss Mary J. Haines, Manor House, Clifton ville, Margate. 
*Mi's. Hare, St. Boniface, 32, Westwood Road, Southamj^ton. 
*Mrs. Ireland, Cowfold, Sussex. 

J. Leopard, Esq., Wycombe House, Hurstpierpoint, Sussex. 

J. Lister, Esq., Basil Grange, West Derby, Liverpool. 
*Mrs. Richard Moline, 13, Burlington Street, Bath. 

Mrs. Peachey, Seacroft, Sandown, Isle of Wight. 

* Descendants of Richard Hainef. 



NAMES OF SUlSSGlilBElt.S. 

liugh i'fufuld, E^(i., J. P., Kustiiigt.m, Worthing. 

The Eev. H. Palmer, Sulliiigtoii Rectory, Sussex. 

W. M. Rliodes, E.?q., Hill House, St. Leoiiard's-on-Sea. 

R. Garraway Rice, Esq., F.S.A., Carpenters Hill, Pulboro', Sussex. 
""'Mis. Rippon, Broadway, Hanwell. 

.Inlin Sinnnouds, Esq., Church House, Godahning, Surrey. 

Miss Sinnnonds, Chuich House, Godalming, Surrey. 

Sir Harry Stapley, Bart., Holyport, Bray on Thames, Berk 

The Rev. W. Tringham, Longcross, Chertsey. 
*Mrs. West, Clysraa, Granville Road, Scarboi'o'. 

Percy Woods, Esq., 50, Widmore Road, Bromley, Kent. 



* Descendants of Richard Haines 



ILLUSTKATIONS. 



■ior; -, 
iui)/ 



Cdlduiecl c-oat of arms .... 

Speed's map of West Sussex (1670) .... 

West Waiitley House (exterior) 

Seal of Martin Heyne.... 

Clayton Fai'ui 

■^ [ 

Sladeland (back view) J 

Facsimiles of signatures 

West Wantley House (fixmt door and inscription) 

Sullington Chui'ch (exteriorj 

„ „ (interior) 

West Wantley (interior) 

Kiidford Church and graves .... 

Jolin Haines's Bible (inside uppei' cover) 

Bramber Church 

John Haines's Bible (inside lower cover) 

Sir Frederick Haines .... 

Robert Haines, M.B 

Tlie arms from seals ^ 

Sii Fiederick Haines's ai'ms / 

Relic 



.... To face Titk" page 

To face Introduction, p. ix 

To face p. 1 

/nsei to Cliaptei' II, p. 4 

To face p. S 

n P- i: 

, V- -'-' 

p. 48 



p- 


88 


p- 


98 


p- 


109 


p- 


110 


p- 


113 


p- 


115 


p- 


128 


p- 


145 


p, 


148 



CONTENTS. 

Chapter T. — Name Haynes, Haines, Heine, etc. — derived from Aiiinlpli ? — 
Hainault ? — origin of form Haynes — Hayne — as a place name — as a 
common nonn — atte liayne — Hen — Heane — different spellings 
" '•■• pp. 1-3 

Chapter II. — Earliest occurrence of Hayne in Sus.sex — seal of Martin 
Heyne — Christian name Reginald — subsidies and charters — M.P.'s of the 
name — Hayne al's Cocks — descendants of — Haynr'8 in fiu.".s3.K pp. 4-7 

Chapter III. — Earliest ancestor of Richard — his will — the Wase family — 
early settlements of the Hayne clan — migration of some to Bioad water 
— the younger branch at Storiington — our buccaneer ancestor — migra- 
tion to Binsted — origin of name Gregory — the Broadwater Haineses — 
purchase of Sladeland — inventory of goods of Richard (the second) of 
Binsted — will — will of wife — the first Gregory — purchases West Wantley 
— inventory of goods — will of widow Elizabeth .... .... pp. 8-20 

('iiAPTER IV. — State of England in 1633 — marriage of Richard — builds 
West Wantley house — his children — brother Gregory's will — Gregory's 
widow — Richard's visit to the Netherlands — his private life — ^^'^i^i^-i*^'^ 
among the Baptists — influential friends — interview with Prince Rupert 
and the King — Caffyn — Richard's chaiactei' — humility — charity — 
accusation against — a peacemaker — a "dreamer" — his dreams — quarters 
in Londou — his b(^oks- remarks on prisons — the social evil — temper- 
ance — a religious man — was he a Cromwellian ? — knowledge of the 
Bible — power of speaking — attitude towaicls Romanism ]jp. 21 -3!) 

Chaptrr y. — First patent — opposition of Caffyn — quarterly meeting — 
Richaid excommunicated — grant of patent opposed — apologia of Richard 
— ]iatent gi'anted — attempts at settlement of quari'el — appeal to Geneial 
Assembly — Assend)ly meets — case adjourned — subsequent meetings — 
reversal of excommunication — statement by Richard — causes of his 
triumph — remains a Baj)tist — appendix on Caftyn — his errors 
pp. 40-50 

Chapter VI. — Richard apologises for want of education — his coadjutor — 
how far indebted to him — style of writing — homely — metaiDliorical — 
technical and colloquial words — obsolete terms — phrases of luodern 
cast — grammar — noticealjle words and expressions- -proverbs— fable 
— spelling — knowledge of history ami literature .... ])p. .jl-5G 



Chapter Vil. — Kiehaid as pinjeutor — upijositiou — the poor queatioii — 
niDtives for taking it up — trade — political econouiy — imports and 
t'xptirts — inDuev — uioiiopolies — coinage — economic fallacies — working 
Aliiis-liouses- -as in Holland — John Evelyn — success of the Houses 
ill Netherlands — trade competition — objects of scheme — employment of 
the poor — linen cloth — engine for sj^inning — patent — engine for beating 
hemp- -cost of Houses — English flax — Mr. Firmin — advantages of scheme 
— further explanation of it — government of Houses — woollen cloth — 
fresh tracts on the subject — attempt to get the scheme passed into law — 
reception by Parliament and the public — Thomas Firmin and other 
well-wishers — scheme nearly becomes law pp. 57-71 

Chapter VIII. — Current att'airs — the convict system — vagrancy laws — 
almso'iviijg — state of England — the navy — appendix on woollen trade — 
burial in woollen .... .... .... .... .... .... pp. 72-74 

( 'iiAPTKR IX.— -Richard as farmer — outlay on patents — rotation of ci'ops — 
forests — oak tiuiljer — ii'on- works — cider — cost of wines — of cider — book 
on cider-making — wine-growing in England — j^^tent for new cidei' — 
advertisement in Gazette — method of making — oi'chards — fiuitgrowing 
(jualities of cidei- — goosebeiry wine — best apples for cider — spirits — 
l)<)ttling — common cider — sugai' — storage — stale cider — orchards — stocks 
— nurseries — layering gooseberries and currants — proof spirit — the new 
cider pp. 75-84 

Chapter X. — Death of Kichai'd — administration oi goods — burial — amount 
of estate — complaint of Charles Weston — answer of Giegoiy Haines — 
in^•elltory of goods — ajspenclix on Wautley ])roperty .... p]). 85-92 

Chapter XI. — EicharcVs son Gregory — residence — purchase and sale of 
lands — his son Gi-egory — letter from S. Carolina — among the Indians — 
mariies an American — childien — death — son John .... pp. 93-98 

Chapter XII. — Eichard's brother Gregory — will — widow remarries — son 
Gregory — buys land— rebuilds Sladeland — will of sister, Mary Green- 
field — becjueaths much property — legatees in her will .... ])p. 99-103 

L'hapter XIII. — JoLn, son of Gregory of S. Carolina— serves in the Eoyal 
Navy- -lost his right arm — log of the Gloucester — 14 October, 1747 — 
despatch of Admiral Hawke — John as A.B. — discharged sick — familv 
Bible — entries — John appointed giiiniei- to Montague — Berwick — 
Jasoic — Preston — Kipling on wairant officers-- John pensioned — 
retirement from ser\ ice — as landowner — will — children — daughter Han- 
nah's will — son John's will — daughter Jane's will — end of Kirdford 
connection pp. 104-114 

< HArTER XI v.— Sir b'rcderick Haines— father Gregory Haines, C.B.— birth 
of Sir Frederick — .school — military service — Jiientioned in Kingiake's 
Crimea pjj. 115-117 



CONTENTS. XI 

Chapter XV. — Tlioina.s sou of Jului— surgeon— inuctire—ix'sid :■.;-•-.• - M\\i>v 
of (jodaliuiiig- — iiiiiiiatiire of liiui— uiariiage — second marriage— death — 
diildren — wills of Robert and John, his sons — son Samuel pp. 118-123 

( 'iiAi'TER XVI. — Robert son of Samuel — surgeon — marriage — l>Liys a practice 
— travels abroad — passport — studies — India — appointments held there — 
private practice — qualifications for post— becomes Principal of Grant 
Medical College — illness— death — cause of death — burial— notices in 
L)ond)ay papers — letter from medical student — reference to him at 
meeting of Senate — private testimonies — letter of Sir Alexander Grant — 
chai'acter — ability as actuary — annuity tables — pamphlets and addresses 
— bust — inscription on tomb .... .... .... ... p]J. li!4-135 

Chapter XVII. — Coats of arms— earliest Haynes coat (Salop) — the " bezant 
shields (Salop and Dorset) — Thynnes and Egertons — " crescent" coats — 
Iteron crest — Reading and Middlesex families — "annulet" coats — 
Yoikshire and Berkshire families — Herts and Essex — Hezekiah Haynes 
— arms and motto — Suffolk — London and Gloucesteishii'e family — Wor- 
cestershire — various coats — Simon Heynes — Buckinghamshire — Devon — 
the greyhound crest — arms and crest of our family — Richard Haines, 
gentleman — Gregory Haines, of S. Cai'olina, Esq. — seal — impi'ession 
on Mary Greenfield's will -what authority for our arms? — exact 
Ijlazon — like coat of Hezekiah Haynes —i' date of assunqttion — apjjendix 
- heirlooms pp. 13G-14!) 



INTRODUCTION. 

]n 1891 the late My. A. M. Haines, of Galena, Illinois, seeing 
my name in JYotes and Queries, wrote to me on the sul>ject of 
my ancestry. For forty years he had lieen investigating the 
origin of Haines (or Haynes) families in the New and Old World. 
I was oliliged to tell him then that I knew nothing of my 
ancestors beyond the third generation, nor was there any one else 
who did know. Since then I have spent a great deal of time and 
a considerable sum of money in searching for information, with 
the result to be found in this book. 

The work is intended, primarily, as a ]nemoir of Eicliard 
Haines, the real " founder" of our family, but it has been my wish 
to make the book as complete as possible by including in it any- 
thing connected with the subject which was likely to interest 
outside readers. Thus Baptists will find in it a full account of an 
episode of great importance in the history of their cliurch, and one 
which is nowhere else described in detail. Studen-ts of the social 
and economic life of England in the reign of Charles 11 may 
glean something of interest under that head. There is a chapter 
that maybe of use to the compilers of the N. E. Dictionary.^ 
Farmers and fruit growers — more especially the ])romoters of 
a revival of the cider industry — may learn some " wrinkles" from 
the experience of a practical Sussex farmer two hundred years 
ago. There are two chapters on the origin of the name Haine 
and the various coats of arms borne by different families of the 
name, which will not fail to interest any member of the many exist- 
ing Haines families who wishes to know something of his past 
history. May I add tliat I ha^'e a vast quantity of information 
of all sorts relating to the name Haines, especially in the West, 
South, and East of England, which I shall be happy to search in 
reason and without charge for any one who applies to me ? 

It will perhaps l)e useful to future searchers in the same field, 
if I state here, generally, what sources of information I have more 
or less exhausted. 

^ My conlributiou to this has been a search through 16 vols, of Ue Quincey's 
works. 



xiv IXTUOPUCTION. 

IJeo-isters searcliefP : Sullington,* Storringtoii,* Wasliingtoii,* 
lliakeham,* Wiston, Findon,* Burpham, Amndel* Binsted,* 
IN'lworth,* Wiggenholt,* Pavliarn, Asliijigton,* Kirdford * AVani- 
liiini,* Tul1)oroiig]i. WisLorougli Green* Tortington, Paidgwick, 
Bniingsliurst, Shijil'^v, Beeding, Lyminster and Waniiiigcamp, 
llovshani, Angmeiing, Greatliani, Xortli and South Stoke, 
J!uialiol(kswyke, Cuclcfield, Fittleworth, Bramber and St. Botolph's, 
Sto|)liaui, Ford. Egdean, Balcoml:)e, Cold Waltham, Walberton, 
Clnphani, Pateliing, East Dean, Madehurst, St. Peter Major 
Cliieliester, All Saints' Chichester, St. Olave's, St. Martin's, St. 
Andrew's, St. Pancras, Chichester. 

Bishops' Transcripts (only) searched: Duncton, Xorth Chapel, 
Faiidmrst, West Grinstead, Sutton, Bognor, Ferring, Lodsworth, 
witli Kingston, East Preston, Selhani, Graffham, Midhui'st.- All 
the al)0ve parishes are in Sussex. In Surrey have been searched : 
Godalming, Elstead, Puttenhani, AYitley, Ockley, Abinger, "Wotton, 
Alfold, and Shere. 

At the Pecord Office : All the lay subsidies for Sussex that 
seemed likely to be of use; Sussex fines from 1558 to 1760: a list 
of all occurrences of the name (a) in Chancery Suits from 1558- 
1750 (of which only a tithe have been examined), (h) in Close 
Rolls Catalogues, (r) in I. p. m. indices : the Board of Trade South 
Carolina papers ; original records at Somerset House relating to 
the sea fight of 14 Octoljcr, 17-4:7, off France in lat. 47°. 

Most of the wills catalogued under the name Haines in the 
P.C.C. have been examined down to 1800. They amount to 
nearly a thousand ; also many from the counties of Essex, Herts., 
Berks., Kent, and Surrey. 

At the British IMuseum : All early magazines and registers, 
and the whole of the Polls Series, County Histories, periodicals 
such as JYotes and Queries, New England Historical Register, 
Reports of Historical MSS. Commission, Harleian Society publica- 
tions, and all the genealogical magazines, the early numbers of 
newspapers such as the Oxford or London. Gazette : and, in the 
MSS. room, indices of all the Charters, Seals, etc., the MS. 
collections on Sussex, and the copies of Visitations. 

At the Bodleian : This library I have only partially ex- 
plored. 

' Tlioso inarkod v;i\\\ au asierisk liare had tlioir Bisbop';' Transcript.^ searclied 
as -ivcU as tlie Parish Registers. 

- I liaye since searched tlie registers of tliis parish also. 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

At Chichester : Tjesi(h\s the Transcripts most of tlie registered 
wills, many of the MS. ones, the Risliops' Diaries, Attestation 
])Ooks, inventories, lists of churchwardens, marriage licences, 
Prohate and Administration Bonds. 

At Lewes : ]\Iost of the East Sussex transcripts, marriage 
licences, old Poll P)Ooks : also some of the parish registers, at 
Sea ford. 

Almost everywhere in my searches T have haen shown tlie 
utmost courtesy. The clergymen of the parishes named al)ove, 
with scarcely a single exception, ha\'e afforded me every facility, 
and I nuist especially thank the Pev. H. Palmer, of Sullington, 
and the Pev. George Faitlifull, of Stonington, in this connection. 
]Many landowners in Sussex, and in ]iarticular P. j\P King, Es(|., 
of Fryern, near Storri'.igton, have allowed me, with extraordinary 
kindness, to inspect title deeds and other documents. ]\Iore 
especially I wish to thaidc Lord Lecondeld for permitting me to 
get information from his manor rolls and deeds at Petworth, aiul 
the Duke of Norfolk for letting me have his manor rolls at 
Arundel searched. 

I am indebted for much generous assistance in my task t(.» 
L*. (iarraway Pice, Es([., who, being engaged on similar work in 
Sussex, has given me the l»enefit of any notes he has come across 
relating to my search. I have also made considerable use of the 
unrivalled knowledge of the Chichester records possessed l)y 
E. W. Dunkin, Esq. ; Jmt the two persons witliout whom this 
book would never have been written — alas ! Itotli dead since tb.e 
work was begun — are the late Andrew Mack Haines, of Galena, 
Illinois, U.S.A., and the late (\ E. Gildei'some Dickinson, of 
Edenlu'idge. The former inspired the search and was always 
ready — till his eyesight failed him — to communicate to me any 
information he had gathered in liis forty years of investigation, and 
to write constant letters of lively interest and encouragement. As 
to the latter, I can scarcely overrate the assistance given me by 
liim, professionally and oth.erwise, in my researches. His keen 
sympathy, accurate judgment, and untiring enthusiasm were 
always at the service of a genealogical beginner like myself, while 
liis wonderful knowledge of record searching, his extraordinary 
diligence and acumen made him an invaluable coadjutor in ni}^ 
work. It is a matter of the deepest regret to me tliat neitlier of 
the two who would have best appreciated tliis book will be able 
to see the results of my labours, 



xvi INTliOPUCTlON. 

No one can liDpe to trace a yeoman family Ijeyond 1500, as no 
])avisli i-ef>isters, or v.'ills (as a rule), go beyond that date, and I 
consider it no mean feat to have carried our pedigree hack so far 
without a break in the chain of evidence. What has surprised me 
is, that no branch of the family seems to have preserved any 
documents, letters, pictures, books, or relics of its ancestors. 
Putting aside the Bible in Mrs. Hare's possession, and the very 
interesting marriage certificate and naval warrants in the pos- 
session of Air. Ed^vin Haines, of Paddock Wood, no single line of 
writing earlier than 1800 has lieen l)rought to my notice. AVhere 
are all the copies, not to say MSS., of Eichard Haines's books ? 
Where are the letters he received from many important persons ? 
Where is the " sih'er bowl " mentioned in the will of Gregory 
Heine ? I cannot help thinking that some strong box, or some 
plate chest, contains things which would be very interesting to all 
readers of this book. Ma}" I entreat any one who can light upon 
any fresh evidence of this sort to communicate with me ? The 
most insignificant fact or the vaguest tradition often proves a 
valuable clue. 

That there are many errors in this volume I do not doubt, but 
let those who discover them remember that the work has been 
done in the midst of much pressing business. I shall be grateful 
to any one who points out a mistake or suggests an improvement. 

I have to thank my brother Hermann A. Haines of the India 
Ottice, and the liev. Prancis A. Haines of Posham, Sussex, for 
kindly correcting the proof sheets of this book : and my l)rother, 
Major P. L. Haines, liA., for assistance in describing the sea fight 
of 14 ()ctol)er, 1747. 



UppinnlKiiii, Od. 1S09. 




West Wantley House (built 1656. 



(From a pJiotojraph by C. R. Haines.) 



CHAPTER I. 

Okigin of the Name. 

" What's in a name 1 " 

The proper surname of Eichard Haines, tlie subject of this memoir, 
was Hayne (or Haine). The spelling Haines does not occur, as 
far as I am aware, in Sussex Ijefore the seventeenth century, 
except in the registers of Beeding, though Hayncs is found at 
Petworth, Tortington, Billingshurst, and Wiggenholt before that 
date. There is no evidence that any earlier ancestor of Pichard 
than CTregory, his father, could write his name. He spelt it Heine 
in 163P),^ and Heines in 1638.^ The form Haines has been used 
by every known descendant of Pichard. 

It was a common name in the South and West of England 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Camden sug- 
gested Ainulph" as the derivation. Another supposed derivation 
is from Hainault. As Edward III married Philippa of Hainault, 
it is possible that some Hainaulters may have come into England 
in the fourteenth century, but there is no proof that they founded 
any families of the name of Hayne or Haynes. The ancient and 
honourable family of de Hayno, who held lands in Southam})ton 
and the Isle of Wight from the thirteenth century to the sixteentli 
century, may have taken their name from Hainault.^ 

The form Haynes probably arose in three distinct ways : — 
firstly, as in our own case, by the mere motion and will of some 
liearer of the older name Hayne' ; secondly, by a corruption of 

' Witnessing that year's transcrij)ts of SiilUngton parish registers as ehnrch- 
warden. 

- Witnessing his n:other's will. 

•* Based apparently on tlie change of Ainnlph's town into Hayuestown, and 
tlien into St. Neots. 

^ They became extinct with the marriage of Mary de Hayno to Will" Pound, of 
Drayton. See Herbert Haines : Manual of Brasses, Part II, p. 174. 

■' Gregory H. may have added the s because he believed himself descended fro)n 
some family whose representatives used that spelling ; or (most likely) because he 
wished to distinguish himself from another branch of his own family. 

B 



2 ORIGIN OF THE XAME. 

Hayne-son ; thirdly, from the Welsh word " Einws." About 
1100 A.D. Einion, prince of Powysland in Wales, had a son of the 
same name, who, according to Welsh custom, was called by the 
diminutive Einws, pronounced Eins. His son John, strictly John 
son of Einws, became John Einw^s, or Eines, or Eynes, and finally 
Heynes. Erom him descended a flourishing family that spread 
over Montgomeryshire and Shropshire.^ 

Mr. J. H. Mathews, of Cardiff, suggests" that in the West of 
England, Hayne may safely be derived from Welsh, or Cornish, 
hen, i.e., old, or the elder (Irish scan, Lat. senex) ; while Kelly's 
Directory for Sussex (1898) says Henfield is derived from liean, 
Anglo-Saxon for " poor." 

Many of the Haines families of the present day have doubt- 
less descended from ancestors named Haine. The word haync 
is found as a place name in compounds, such as Woodhayne, 
Willhayne, especially in the AVest of England, while Hayne and 
Higher Hayne are found in Devonshire and Kent during the 
sixteenth century. There was a castle of Hayn^ in France, 1516, 
and land in Pembrokeshire in 1530 called Le Hayn. Haynes Lees 
appears in Warwick as early as IS^Oj^Hayjies Green was in Essex, 
Haynes Park in Bedfordshire, Haynes Hall (now Haines Hill) in 
tlie parish of Hurst, Berks, Haines Hill near Taunton, Haynes- 
town in Leinster. Bedfordshire can also l)oast a parish called 
Haynes, and Kent a hundred of Hayne.'' 

The word hayne and the participle hayned are found in several 
provincial dialects, for instance those of Gloucester, Somerset, Nor- 
folk, and the North of England. The words appear to mean land 
reserved, or enclosed, for some particular purpose, and are doubt- 
less connected with hay, plural lietyne, meaning hedge. Allied 
words are haw (Yorkshire haigh), French haie, German hain. If 
hayne in the sense of " hedge " be the origin of the name, we 
should have expected to find such forms as WiUiani atte liayne, 
but amongst thousands of references no such instance has been 

' See Botfield's Sfemmata. 

^ Notes and Queries, 8 Ser. xi. January 9, 1897. 

^ Cal. Letters and Papers, Hen. YIII Kolls Series, 1580. 

■• Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 3 August 1575. 

'" Old maps of Africa gave a Haines river in Somaliland, but this name has been 
dropped in favour of the native name, Juba. It is said to liave been named 
after Captain Stafford Haines, of the Indian Navy, who died at Bombay in 
November, 1855. His crest was a demi-stag in front of a rising sun, with motto 
" l)eo nou sorte." ... . . / 



ORIGIiSr OF THE NAME, 3 

found, though de Hayn^ occurs once, and Hen- (perhaps Heyn) 
once at Shoreham. 

It is just possible that, as Heane in Anglo-Saxon was pronounced 
Hayne, the name is purely Saxon, the original meaning having 
been long forgotten. If so, it can boast a very respectable 
antiquity, as a certain prince named Cissa, lord of Wiltshire and 
Berkshire, had a nephew^ named Heane, a rich and influential 
man who founded the monastery of Al)ingdon in 675.'* One 
family at least uses this actual spelling, Heane (pronounced 
Hayne), viz., that of Dr. Heane, of Cinderford, Gloucestershire. 

Besides the possible forms de Aine,' Ayn," Hean, Henn, Hene, 
Hyne, the name occurs spelt in various ways as Heyne, Heynes, 
Heyns, Heygne,' Heynis, Heyneys,*^ Eyn,'* Eynes, Eyns, Eynns 
Eynnes, Heane, Hein,^** Hane, Hayens, Hayne, Haynes, Haine, 
Hain,^^ Hains, Haines. 

1 Eot. Claus. Tower of London, 1203. 

- Lay Subsidies, Sussex, 6 Ed. III. 

•* Nepos. 

"" See Dugdale's Monasiicon. 

'" Close Eolls, 1224, Eustace de Aine. 

'"' Patent. Eolls, Ed. IT 22 April, 1333, William Ayn, of Kent. 

'' Brit. Mus. Charters, 52 A. 5, 1413. Also Cal. Anc*. Deeds, I, c. 238. 

** Eegisters of Arundel, Susses. 

'■^ Cal. Anc*. Deeds, I, A. 835, Eobert Eyn, of Bromfield, Esjex. 

"> An Essex family. Arms, Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 5524. 

" A present Essex family. 



B 2 



(4) 




CHAPTEE II. 

Early occurrences of the name Hayne in Sussex. 

" Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn, and to the hole of the pit whence 
ye are digged." — Isaiah i. 51. 

It is at Horsham and Warnham that we find the earliest traces of 
the name in Sussex. In the reign of Henry III, a certain Martin 
Heyne^ granted to Eichard Neel of Horsham rent from a tenement 
in Horsham. The seal to this Latin document 
is quite perfect, and represents a man holding a 
cup in his right hand as if for a toast. Eound 
the device runs the legend '^{igillum) Martini 
Heyne. This same Martin also witnesses a 
lease by Eichard Heyne of Horsham of rent 
from land in H. held by Peter le Horl.^ Of the same, or suc- 
ceeding, reign is a sale by Eichard, son of Eeginald Haine, for 8 
marks, of half a mill and pond at Caldecote to Eichard le Erl 
of Warnham.^ 

Curiously enough this, perhaps the earliest of all, is the only 
instance I have discovered of Eegiuald as a Christian name to a 
Haines surname before my own, unless the Eeginald Hane* be a 
different person, who appears as fourteenth on a list of fourteen 
jurors, " honest and lawful men of the bailiwick of Hastings," that 
sat (about 1318-9) on an inquisition concerning the state of the 
King's free chapel of St. Mary in tlie castle of Hastings. 

A few years later the subsidy roll for Sussex, dated 1 Ed. Ill 
(1327) contains the name of William Hayne of Horton in Burl^eache 
(now Beeding parish) as paying 16.s. Five years later, he appears 
again with William le Hen of Shoreham and John Heyne of 
Iwdiurst in the hundred of Wyndeham."' In 1379 (2 Eic. II),'' we 
find William Hayne sen^ and William Hayne jun"". and John 

^ Brit. Mils. Charters, 18563 : the date is conjectured from the writing. 
2 Charters, 1S565. •'' Charters, 8795. 

4 P. E. Office Miscell. Chancery Eolls 4/23. The late Mr. C. E. Gildersome 
Dictingon kindly sent me the reference. 

'" Now Ewhxirst in the parisli of Shermanbury, Hnrstpierpoint. 
*" Lay Subsidy, Sussex, 189/42, villat de Horton. 



EARLY OCCURRENCES OF THE NAME HAYNE IN SUSSEX. 5 

Hayne taxed under the Poll tax. As the church registei'« of 
Beediiig from the middle of the sixteenth century are full of the 
name Haine, we may take it that these were descendants of the 
above progenitors. 

In 1401 we come again upon traces of tlie Warnham family, for 
in that year Eichard Haine sen"", of Warnham made a grant of lands 
to Hichard atte Strode of Slinfold.^ Eighteen years later, William 
Hayne of Warnham granted to John Bradbregge lands called 
Chykynnys, Brokelonde, and Palmerstonnys^ ; while in 1421, 
John Hayne was ap})ointed attorney to John Bradljregge for the 
transference of certain lands to the vicar of Warnham.^ In 1433, 
William Hayne of Warnliam granted to John Bradbregge and 
others all his lands and tenements in Horsham.* 

In 1451, Thomas Holborn and Eose his wife settled 54 acres 
of arable and 6 acres of meadow land on Eichard Hayne and 
his wife Matilda."' 

Twenty-five years later a Eichard Hayne was witness to a 
grant of lands from Margery Gorynge of Dorking to Stephen Cokke 
and others." In 1482, Eichard Hayne of Warnham granted lands 
and tenements in Warnham, called Haynys, Chekynnes, Broke- 
londe, and Palmerstonnys to Eichard Whitehead, clerk, and others, 
" yeldynge to tlie forsayde Eychard Hayne at the feste of Saynt 
John Baptyst next comyng a reede Eoose yef hyt be axed."'' The 
broken seal attached to this document, which is beautifully clear 
and legible, has for device a big I, with above it the semljlance 
of a crown. In the next year (22 Ed. IV) Eichard Hayne and 
Isabel his wife and William Drown and Isolda his wife sold for 
£40 to John Michell of Stamerham and Margaret his wife 80 
acres of land and 6 of pasture in AVarnham. (Fed. Fin. Sussex, 
13-22 Ed. IV, Xo. 34.) 

The only other occurrences of the name in Sussex prior to 1500, 
that I have found, are Thomas Hayne, M.B. for Chichester in 
1400, and Eichard H^iyne M.P. for the same city in 1437, the 



' Bodleian Charters, 205. 

- Briti. Mus. Charters, 18704, dated 6 January, 1419-20. 
•• Bodl. Chart. 219, dated 10 November, 1421 (8 Hen, V). 
-• Bodl. Cli. 288, dated 1 June, 1133. 

» Fed. Fin. 30 Hen. VII. See Cartwright's Sajje of Bramber, Dallaway II, 
369. The indenture was dated at Warnham. 
'■ Brit. Mus. Cluirters 8905, dated 15 March, 1475-6. 
' Brit. Mus. Charters 18771, dated 24 March, 1482-3 (22 Edw. IV). 



6 EARLY OCCUERENCES OF THE NAME HAYNE IN SUSSEX. 

latter being described in the original return as a citizen of 
Chichester. Thirdly, in 1404 there is record of a line levied, by 
which Sherman Greene and others settled on Eichard Hayne al's 
Grassyer of Chichester, and on Clementina his wife, 3 messuages, 
5 cottages, 2 shops, 12 acres of arable, and 4 of meadow land in 
Horsham and Eoughway/ 

In 1518 we find Elizabetli Hayn, widow, witli her son Thomas, 
leasing lands called " Cradils " in Warnham ;- wdiile in 1527 
appears a Thomas Hayne, al's Cocks, of Warnham, receiving from 
Thomas Beckett of Ockley and Warnham an acquittance of £14 
for land and tenements in Warnham, called Wylbeckets, to which 
deed a Eichard Hayne is witness,'' and in the next year the said 
Thomas receives in tail a grant of lands called Byrchetts from 
Thomas Maye in Eudgwick.* In 1537 Thomas Hayne, husband- 
man, of Warnham, bought from Eichard Pylfolde of Warnham, 
yeoman, land called Ferthingmede, al's Gendensmede, in Horsham.^ 
It seems probable that this Thomas Hayne, and the Thomas, son 
of Elizabeth Hayn, widow, were both identical with Thomas Hayne, 
al's Cocks, above mentioned/' 

The will of Thomas Hayne, al's Cocks, is registered at Chiches- 
ter,'' as made 1 September, 1548, and proved 4 June, 1549, in which 
appear lands named Byrchetts and Wylbeckets, but no Ferthing- 
mede. His brother, Eichard Hayne of Ockley, in Surrey, who died 
at Eudgwick in 1570-1, was head constable of one of the hundreds 
of Surrey and " reputed a very honest man."*^ From Thomas 
descended a flourishing family that gradually dropped the name 
Cocks, and finally became Haines. They lived at Ockley, Wotton, 
Abinger, Ewhurst, and Eudgwick, and their pedigree is directly 
traceable down to Evershed Haynes (or Haines) of Wotton and 

^ Cartwright's Hape q/" _Brawi5er, Dallaway II, pt. 2, p. 345; Sussex Arch. Coll., 
xviii, 112. 

- Brit. M\is. Charters 18801, dated 10 April, 9 Hen. VIII. Five days later 
John Caryll, serjeant-at-law, gives Eliz. H. and Thomas H. a receipt for 40 marks 
for lands at Warnham. 

3 Brit. Mus. Charters 18811, dated 9 April, 18 Hen. VIII. 

4 Brii. Mus. Charters 18812, dated 22 July, 19 Hen. VIII. 

5 Brit. Mus. Charters 18820, 3 October, 28 Hen. VIII. 

" Thomas Hayn of Warnham appears in the Lay Subsidies of 1524 and 20 
February, 1524-5, as taxed for goods worth 60", and in June, 1546, as taxed for 
lands worth 60^, and so on 15 April, 1547. 

' Consist. Court Chich., vii, fo. 62''. 

^ State Papers, Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII, date 1 March, 1538-9, a 
passage which gives us au interesting peep into ancient rural affairs. 



EA1!LY OCCURRENCES OF THE XAME HAYXE IN SUSSEX. 7 

Hor.sliain, gentleman, who, dying in 1776, left no sons but a 
brother Henry.^ 

Contemporary with Thomas and liichard were others of the 
name at Rudgwick, the earliest of whom, mentioned in the church 
registers, are Aljraham Hayne, born about 1550, and a Walter 
HaynC; buried in 1600. Descendants of the same name are still 
to be found in the neighbourhood, and there is some unclaimed 
property belonging to this family, the present representative of 
which lives at Guildford. Miss Frances Haines of Eureka, Illinois, 
U.S.A., whose ancestors migrated from xVlfold, co. Surrey, near 
Eudgwick, probably belongs to this family. 

All the above spelled their name Hayne or Hayn. The 
only traces of Haynes in Sussex, previous to 1600 (apart from 
occasional misspellings of the other form), are these : (1) Chris- 
topher Haynes,^ one of a number of brothers well known in Queen 
Elizabeth's reign as holding offices in her household, who lived at 
Arundel, and left his nephew Eichard of Hackney his heir. 
Eichard left only a daughter, who married Edward Hopkinson ; 
(2) Eobert Haynes, clerk, of Wiggenholt, who died in 1574, 
leaving a son Christopher, from whom descended the family of 
Haynes, living at Billingshurst ; (3) John Haynes,^ constable of 
the Castle of Arundel, whose will, 4 Ee1»ruary, 1551-2, was proved 
30 Octol)er, 1552, l)y William Haynes, proctor for the relict Jane; 
(4) Eichard Haynes, a Inicklayer, of Tortington, near Arundel, 
whose daughter Agnes was Ijorn 1598 at that place; (5) John 
Haynes* married at Petworth 24 June, 1578: (6) Ane Hayens 
married Thomas Sprincke at Midhurst 30 September, 1677, and 
Thomas Haynes married Alice Allen at same place 27 July, 1593. 

1 Sec will P.C.C. 126 Bellas. Whether Heury left desceudauts I do uot 
know. 

- He was brother of William and Nicholas Haynes, see below p. 138. 

"' He left no sous. 

^ This may be a mere mistake for Hayne. 



(8) 



CHAPTEE III. 

Ancestry of Eichard Haines. 

" The glory of children are their fathers." — Prov. xvii. 6. 

The ancestors of Eichard Haines are traceable with practical 
certainty five generations hack in tlie male line to Thomas Hayne^ 
or Hayn, who died between 14 November, 1557, and 12 January, 
1558-9, as we know from his will Ijeing written on the one date 
and proved on the other at Storrington.^ As tliis is the most 
venerable record touching the family, I transcribe it literatim 
from the original copy at Chichester : 

probatmii apud Storrington xii die mensis Januai'ii. 

In the name of God Amen/ the xiiij day of November yn ye yei'e of our 
Lord God 155a^ I Thomas Hayne of Clayton w^yn thepysche of Snllingtou 
yn good 7 pfett remembrance make my testament 7 last wyll under thys 
forme folowynge : fyrst y bequethe my sole unto almighty God 7 my body to 
buryed (sic) w^yn ye churche yarde of Sullington : also Y geve to ye mother 
church of Chychesf vj"^ : also I bequethe to thomas hayne hayn (sic) the 
son of Jhcm hayn when he ys xii yers of age a flocke bedd a payer of Shets/ 
a payer of blancketts a bolster 7 a coveryng' w'^ a gret caldren after the 
dyscesse of hys father 7 a calve of iiij yers olde. Item I bequethe to the 
foresayd thomas halfe the fai'me w^ hs mother/ yf hs father- dey befoi'e lis 
mother/ 7 ij oxon a good horse oi' a mare 7 halfe a houndreth of ewys 7 
wethers/ Item y geve to Rychard hayne the son of Jhon hayne v ewys 7 a 
heifer of iij yers olde : item y geve Wyllya alley helfe a quartei' of barly : 
item y geve to Jhon hayne ye son of Wyllya hayn a colve of iiij yers olde/ 
item if so be that thomas hayn or Rychard do dye won before the other y 
will that the lengyst lyve of them shall have both other bequeysts of goods 
7 halfe ye farme w^ ther mothei' aftei- the dethe of ther father : 7 if so be 
that the foresayd thomas 7 Rychard do dye before ther lawful age : then y 
wyll y' my son Wyllya sonnys Jhon 7 Rychard shal have halfe the faiiiie 
w^ ther aunte Item y bequethe to An hayn the dozgf of Jhon hayn vi 
shepe : the resydue of my goods not bequethyd y geve to Jhon hayne my 

^ Whether our Thomas was descended from one of the Hayne families 
estabhslied in Sussex, or migrated from some other county it is impossible to say. 
Tlie Wases with whom they seem to have had some connection came from 
Berkshire. A tradition recorded by Mr. Wilham Haines of Worthing says " the 
Sussex Haineses (presumably his own branch) came from Devonshire " ; another 
tradition (recorded by the same) ascribes their origin to the Isle of Wight. 

^ The entry in the Consistory Diaries at Chichester gives the date of Probate, 
whicli the original will does not give. There are no signatures to the will. 

■* The original copy of the will gives the date thus. ^ Qiiery, this word. 




Clayton Farm^ the earliest residence of our Family in Sussex. 

(From a i,hoto,jrupk hy C. R. IhtiiusJ 




Sladeland, built 1712, sold 1804, the last residence of our 
Family in Sussex, 

(F,om n photoiirajih hi/ C. K. Hauu^.) 



ANCESTRY OF EICHAED HAINES. 9 

sou whom y make my whole executor 7 Wyllya hayu my sou ov''1seai' y' my 
last wyll be pformyd aud foi' lis labor I geve uuto hym vi^ viij*i 7 hafe a 
quarter of barly these beyriug wytuess Rafer Massye curat of Sullyugtou 
James Wayse Wyllyaui hayu w^ othei'. 

On 6 Febiuaiy, 1539-40, Thomas Hane — no doubt our Thomas 
— witnessed the will of John Crossingham of Sullington. But we 
find still earlier mention of him in the " Lay tSul)3idies " for 
Sussex. A Thomas Hayn of Thakeham^ parish was taxed 5s. 
16 April, 16 Hen. VIII (1524) in goods worth £10, and again to 
the same amount the following 20 February. His v.orldly 
prosperity increased, as in 1540-1 (32 Hen. VIII) his name appears 
under the Eswrythe half hundred (in which Thakeham is situated) 
as assessed at 10' for goods worth £20. Five years later, John 
Hayne^ is taxed 16.s. for goods worth £16, while in the following 
year Thomas's name occurs again as taxed 2-s. Hd. on goods worth 
£16, while John's name does not appear. Similarly 1 April, 1547 
(1 Ed. VI) and 1549-50 (3 Ed. VI) Thomas Hayn is taxed 12s. 
for goods worth £12. In these subsidies for 1546, 1547, the name 
of Thomas Hayne, or Hayn, of Warnham also appears, as taxed on 
lands worth 20^^ and goods worth the same. 

The wife of Thomas'" is not mentioned in his will and therefore 
no doul)t predeceased him. We have no means of knowing who 
she was, but perhaps a Wase or a Crossingham. There was some 
connexion between the Hayne and AVase families, as on three 
occasions wills of the former family are witnessed by members of 
the latter. Once as above ; again on 26 March, 1561, the will of 
John Hayne, son of Thomas, is witnessed l»y James Wase ; and a 
third time on 24 May, 1610, the will of John Hayne the younger 
of Sullington was witnessed l)y Mary Wase, wife of John Wase. 
This John Hayne was the son of William, a grandson of Thomas. 

The two sons of Thomas, John and William, l)ecame the 
progenitors of two flouiishing families. The elder 1>ranch, descend- 
ing from John, kept the proper spelling of the name, and its 
memljers were always known as Hayne or Haine. They were 

' Whicli adjoins the parish of Sullington. 

- Probably son of Thomas imh-ss, as I am inclined to think, John is an error for 
Thomas. 

. ^ A Thomas Hayne, householder, was buried at Sullington 18 March, 1561-2, 
whom I cannot fit into the pedigree. The original will of Thomas Iliyne has no 
date of probate endorsed on it. Can the date given be wrong, aud this Thomas II., 
householder, be our Thomas ? If not, it is curious that the burial of Thomas 
Ilajne is n jt recoi-ded in the Sullington Register. 



10 ANCESTEY OF RICIIAED HAINES. 

settled for many generations in Washington parish, which adjoins 
Sullington and Thakehani, owning or tenanting the farm houses 
named Clayton, Chanckton, and perhaps Chantrey, all of which 
are still standing. One of the earliest members is even spoken 
of^ as "of Eowdell," which is now the most sul)stantial man- 
sion in the parish. From Washington about the middle of the 
seventeenth century some members of this family migrated to 
Broadwater near Worthing, where a branch (as is most likely) of 
the younger stock joined them or intermarried with them. The 
only living representative of this elder branch, who has so far 
come to light, is Alderman Charles Hugh Haine, Esq., of 
Eastbourne.^ 

The living descendants of William, the younger son of Tliomas, 
number at least 250. This William must have been born al)Out 
1520-1525. His first appearance in the "Lay Subsidies" is on 
5 January, 1544-5, between which date and 18 April, 1551, he is 
taxed under Storrington for goods worth £11 ; by 1568, or there- 
abouts, his goods had become £15, and on 30 September, 1572, 
he is returned at £18. Besides these facts we know that on 
12 Novenil)er, 1555, he witnessed the will of Joan Callow of 
Storrington.^ In 1557, 1558, 1561, 1564, he stood sponsor* in 
Storrington Church to children of parents named Belchamber, 
Cosyn, Cressingham, Duppa, Byne, Benet, and Emery. The Court 
Bolls, again, of Storrington,^ for 5 April, 1571, tell us the interesting 
fact that on that day a white cow (strayed) was in the custody of 
William Heyne, and on 13 October of the same year a stray pig, 
on which date, and on 4 April, 1572, he was a juror in a Court 
Leet for frankpledge. That is all we know of his life's history, 
'but from the incidents of the stray cattle we must at least write 
him down an honest man. He was buried at Storrington 19 Feb- 
ruary, 1575-6, being followed to the grave on March 2 of the same 
year by his wife Joan. Of her we only know that she stood 
sponsor from 1557 to 1568 (and perhaps in 1573 also) to children 
whose parents were named Benet (twice), Clement (twice), Wilkine, 
Donat, Duke, Browne, Bishop, Byne, Eeeve, Duppa, Pytter, 
Ptickman, and perhaps in 1573" Callow and Elphecke. 

' In tlie register of the parish. 

- See pedigrees. ^ He was churchwarden of Storrington, 1566. 

^ The Register of Storrington contains the names of Sponsors from 1556 to 
.1592. Tlie recording of the names was then discontinued as savouring of Popery ! 
•^ R. Office, Portfolio, 205, No. 55. 
'' The Joan Hayne of this year may have been wife of William's sou John. 



ANCESTRY OF RICIIAEP HAINES. 11 

William Hayne's will was proved 17 March, 1575-G, ])y his 
sou and executor, Eichard. This we know from the entry in the 
Consistory Diaries at Chichester. ^ But neither will, nor registered 
copy of will, is forthcoming, though indexed. William had three 
sons. The baptism of John his firstborn is the opening entry in 
Storrington register. He is probably identical with John Hayne 
of Barnes farm, who was buried at Sullington 19 August, IGll'. 
Eichard, the second son, was baptized at Storrington on 9 June, 
1551.^ On SO January, 1582-3, at a Court Baron held at Stiuring- 
ton, Eichard was, with his son William, admitted to seisin of 
lands in Storrington called " Brownes " and " Wiltons," which he 
bought of Thomas and Ann Brakepole. This property is descril »ed 
in the Manor EoUs^ as " one tenement and certain customary 
lands in Storrington with appurts, formerly Browne's, and one 
toft together with one cottage and five acres of land with appfirts 
called Wilton's." On this transaction the Lord of the Manor 
received the very substantial sum (for those times) of £16 los. -id. 
Eichard did fealty, and was admitted, " having seisin by the rod." 
He further appears at courts held 14:Deceml)er, 1584, 5 April, 1585, 
12 April, 1588, as juror, and on the first of these dates he obtained 
licence " to demise and farm let to an honest person one messuage, 
one barn, and 15 acres of land for five years." He is not mentioned 
as present at Courts held on 9 Novendjer, 1583, 1 October, 1584, 
9 Octol)er, 1587, 7 October, 1588, while on 7 April, 1587, he is 
fined for default, and on 22 September, 1589, 11 November, 1591, 
11 November, 1596, 3 May, 1597, he "essoins," i.e., sends an 
allowable excuse. 

If there is any truth in the family tradition, mentioned to me 
by Field-Marshal Sir Frederick Haines, that an ancest(jr made 
his money in an expedition under Drake, it seems probable that 
this Eichard was the man, and the above record of his attendance 
at Court Leets shows that he was unable to attend 1585-1588, and 
again from 1588-1597. On the other hand he had at least three 
children born after 1584, one being l)aptized 23 March, 1592-3, 
and he was present at Chichester in 1590,* and sequestrator of 
Binsted Vicarage 8 Noveml>er, 1592.^ His death occurred at 

^ Vol. A, 1575-6. The name is given as Haynes. 
- See also Attestation Books, Consistory of Chichester, V, 1590. 
^ Now in the possession of the Duke of Norfolk, who very kindly allowed me 
to liave them inspected. 

■• See Attest Eks. qi:ot .d al ove. 

•' Consistory Diaries, Vol. A, f. 113. 



12 ANCESTRY OF RICHAKD HAINES. 

Binsted near Arundel about 16 September, 1597, and his dictated 
will was made 14 September/ and proved 26 September in tliat 
year by his widow Elizabeth. He left to his sons Richard and 
Adam the lease of his farm at Binsted, which he held of William 
Shelley, late of Michelgrove in Sussex, for the rest of its term, 
adding that during that period his wife Elizabeth should be 
responsible for their tuition and government. To his daughters 
Joan and j\lary he gave a money legacy of £11 apiece, declaring 
that his other sons William and Thomas were already provided 
for. 

Pdchard migrated from Storrington to Binsted al)0ut 1585, and 
next year was churchwarden of Binsted. The last occasion when 
he acted sponsor at Storrington was 4 Decemljer, 1584. Previously 
to this he had performed that office eleven times (as recorded), 
beginning in 1565, when he was only 15 years old. His god- 
children were of parents named Sclater, Leedes, Bosworth (twice), 
Eilder, Duke, Wase (twice), Gravet, Emmett, and Penfold. 

His wife Elizabeth was born at Wiggenholt,^ but we do not 
know her maiden name. She appears to have been married before 
2 November, 1572, as on 2 November, 1572, Elizabeth Hayne 
stands sponsor to a Eilder child. She stood godmother on four 
subsequent occasions to a Penfold, a Holstock, and twice to a 
Benet. The marriage most likely took place at Wiggenholt, 
where she was afterwards buried. After her husband's death, she 
married Gregory Hurst of Kirdford, Sussex."' About the same 
time, Agnes, the daughter of Gregory Hurst, married Richard, the 
son of the above-mentioned Eichard Hayne. Hence came into 
the family the name Gregory, which stills runs on in it. Elizabeth 
Hurst survived her second husband, and died at Wiggenholt 
in 1628-9.* 

The pedigrees appended to this volume will show the ramifi- 
cations and emigrations of the descendants of William and Thomas, 
the sons of Eichard and Elizabetli, who founded families at 
Storrington and Wiggenholt respectively. Erom one of them, 

1 Cliicliester, XIV, 478. 

- See Attest. Bks. Consistory Court at Cliicliester, V, 1589 ; from wliieli -vve 
find that slie was born xxx years before and liad lived 4 years at Binsted and 12 
at Storrington. Slie must liave been married very young, unless xxx is a mistate 
for xxxx. 

■* Lie. to marry at Binsted dated 30 January, 1599-1600 (Cliicliester). 

^ See Consist. Diaries G-., f. 95. Adnidn. oP her goods granted to Thomas 
Haynes 30 January, 1G2S-9. 



ANCESTRY OF RICHARD HAINES, 13 

probably from William, I believe to lie descended a family whose 
eldest living representative at the present time is William Haines, 
Esq., late of Putney, but now of Worthing, well known in anti- 
quarian circles as a collector of tokens. The Thomas Haines of 
Burpham, in Sussex, and afterwards of Broadwater in the same 
county, who stands at the head of his pedigree, was l»orn al)0ut 
1660, and may have been son of William Hayne-of-Tliakeham's 
grandson William. This William may have removed to Thakeham, 
where the birth of Thomas, son of William Haiue(s), is recorded 
4 December, 1648. Or Thomas Haines of Broadwater may have 
lieen the grandson of another grandson of William of Storrington, 
namely, of Thomas Hayne, who was baptized 28 December, 1639. 
That the family of Tliomas Haines of Broadwater was in some 
way connected with the Sladeland family is prol)al)le because (1) 
the children of William Haines of Broadwater, grandson of the 
al)0ve-named Thomas, were legatees with their fattier under the 
will of Mary Greenfield (niece of the subject of this memoir) in 
1755 : (2) one of the aforesaid children was named Gregory, 
evidently from tlie Gregories of the other liranch ; (3) Mr. William 
Haines of Worthing has informed me tliat tlie actual connexion 
between the families was well known to his aunt Hester Trill, and 
there was a MS. pedigree, setting it all forth, which was liurnt by 
its possessor in a fit of temper. Moreover Connnissary-General 
Gregory Haines, C.B., was always considered by the Broadwater 
family as a real, though distant, cousin. Tradition has it that an 
estrangement took place relative to some land, either called 
Stroodland, or at a place called Strood, which may he the Strood in 
Wisborough Green, a parish adjoining Kirdford. 

Eichard Hayne, third son of Kichard and Elizalieth, succeeded 
to his father's farm at Binsted, where he lived and died, and was 
buried 18 Fel)ruary, 1638-9. It was he who liought the Sladeland 
property in conjunction with his wife and son Gregory on 
20 September, 1619,' from Edward King.- He acted as church- 
warden of Binsted Church in 1604, 1616, anl 1630, and set his 
mark to the Transcripts of the registers for that year, as he also did 
in appraising the goods of John Eacton of Binsted, yeoman, for an 

^ Kichai'd's fatlieriii-law Gregory Hiirst died 7 April, 1619. 

- There is a fire-back in Wephiirst house, which was built by John Haines, 
with a K upon it. This, Mr. H. F. Napper, of Laker's Lodge, thinks refers to 
the name King. It may hare come out of Sladeland house, when Gregory Haines 
rebuilt it in 1712. - . • 



14 



ANCESTRY OF PJCIIARP HAINES. 



inventory taken 16 June, 1634. The mark resembles a rough 
loop of string with the ends "in the air."^ His marriage with 
Agnes Hurst took place about 1600. Husband and wife died 
within a few days of each other, and they were buried together 
at Binsted. The wills of both remain, and also the account given 
by Gregory, the son and executor, of his administration of their 
goods. In it the total value of Eichard Hayne's estate is given at 
£671 6.^. 8cl The document which is dated 1 March, 1638-9, is 
as follows : — 

The Discharge. 
Inprimis for the fnnerall Charges of the sayd- 

Deceased and his wife whoe Dyed within fewe 

Dayes after him. 
Itiil for the letters of adfistracoS w*'* the will- 

annexed the bonds Inventoryes and other thinges 

therunto incident. 
Itm this accountant Desireth allowance of the rent-i 

of the lands of the sayd Deceased untill Michael- [ 

mas next in regard the Corne now growinge upon [ 

the sayd land is valued in the sayd Inventory. ■' 
ItiS for the taxacoS to poore Due for the sayd lands \ 

and for the tax to the Church. / 

Iti^ for the Charges of this accountant and hisi 

suerties and friends in Cominge to this Court to > 

take adnistracoS to passe this account. J 



nij' 



xliiji 



xxxii^ iiij*' 



XUJ' 111]" 



Sum 



Jij' 



V^ VUJ'^ 



Legacies given bt the sayd Deceased by his last will & to be 

PAYD BY this ACCOUyTANT. 

Inprimis to the high Church of Chichester ... ... v'* 

ItiS to Gregory Hayne sonne of the Sayd Deceased ... 
ItiS to Elizabeth Chambers daughter of the saydl 

Deceased. J 

Itul to Agnes Gruggen daughter of the sayd Deceased. .. 
Iti^ to Eachele Hayne another daughter of the sayd "1 

Deceased. J 

Itfi to Mary Hayne another daughter of the sayd "i 

Deceased. J 

ItiS to Jane Hayne another daughter of the sayd \ 

Deceased. J 

ItiS to the overseers of the sayd will five shillinges \ 

apeece. J 



vii 
r.n 



xs 



Sunl ... ... cccxv 

See facsimiles facing p. 17. 

The will says tJ'^ and t» to the poor of Binsted. 



vj" 





nj^ 


111] 
viij'i 
xii*! 




vis 


viij'i 




XVlj^ 






xxxiiij^ 




ccelxix'' 


xix^ 


ii" 



ANCESTRY OF RICHAKP IIAINES. 15 

Ordinary Charges. 
Inprimis for Drawing this account and the proctor's "1 c • • • -,1 

fee. J 

Itm for examining this account • 
Itm admission therof 
Itm for the apparitor's fee 
Itirl for double ingrossinge this account 
Ttm for the Quietus est under seale 

Sum 
Sum total shewn and to be shewn 
Thus remain in the hands of this accountant to 

be distributed and divided according to will ... ccci'' vij^ vj<i 

Eighteen days later Gregory Hayne sent in a similar acconnt of 
liis administration of the goods of his mother Agnes Hayne, 
charging himself with the sum mentioned in an inventory of 
her goods which amounted to £301 7.s\ 6d. 

The Discharge. 
"Whereof this Accomptant Desireth all( 
followeth, viz. : — 
Inprimis for two oxen seized by the lord 

herryotts. 
Item for two funerall sermons and for 

raortuaryes. 
Item for twelve Dozen of bread 
Item to the Gierke for making the graves 

ringing the knells. 
[Item] for two Coffins 

Item paid to Xpofer Horley for goeing on a message. 
Item paid for wyne and sugar ... 

Item for meate spent at the prising of the goods ... viij' vj'^ 

Item for tenn payre of gloves ... ... ... ... x* 

Item for writing the wills and Inventory ... ... x^ 

Item for servants wages Due ... ... ... ... >^iiij^ 

Item shee (sic) Craveth allowance for five sheepe-, 

whereof foure had lambes and the other was a l 

barren ewe w^'^ were prised in the Inventoiy [> 1' 

but were Disposed of before the Death of the I 

Testatrix. -^ 

Item paid to Mr. Johnson vicar of Binsted for the-^i 

allowance of ground in the Churchyard there to [ g 

place the monuments of the Deceased and of her f 

husband. -^ 

Item for the probat of the will w*'> the writing -i 

and ingrossing thereof & of the Inventoryes the V xv^ iiij'' 

bond & other charges thereunto incident. J 

Sum xxij'' xii' x*^ 



3wance 


and 


abatement 


fori 


xj' 


i 


two ] 




xl= 
xij^ 


and "1 




xvijs 


sage... 

.s 




xij^ 
viij' 



IG ANCESTRY OF PJCHARD HAINES. 

Legacies given by the said Deceased in her said last will and 
Testament and to bee paid by the Accomptant. 

Inprimis to the poore of Binsted ... x^ 

(^rotted away) . . . Chichester . . . [vj'^] 

Item to Richard & Gregory Hayne the sonnes of-i 

this Accomptant for their several legacies of V xl' 

xx^ a pece. " J 

Item to Alice Annis Elizabeth & Margaret Gruggen -i 

her Grandchildren their like legacies of xx^ a \ \nf^ 

peece. -* 
Item to the two overseers of her will x^ 



Sum vij" y']^ 

The " ordinary charges of passing the 

account" are practically the same as in 

the previous account and amount to ... xxxix^ 

And the total shewn and to be shewn is... xxxj" xii' iiij* 

Leaving in the Accomptant's hands . . . £269 14 9. 

Eichard Haines in his wilP is called yeoman, and describes 
himself as " sick in body, but of perfect mind and memory." He 
desires his body to be buried in the churchyard of Binsted at the 
Chancel end. With the exception of M. to the High Church of 
Chichester and 5.s. to the poor of Binsted,^ he left all the rest 
of his property, besides the legacies mentioned in Gregory's account, 
" moveable & unmoveable, chattels & cattels," to his wife, whom 
he made sole executrix, his son Gregory and brother Thomas being 
overseers. The will was marked, sealed, and delivered in the 
presence of Eobert Johnson, Timothy Johnson, and Gregory Heines, 
and proved about 1 March, 1638-9, by Gregory. 

Agnes Hayne made lierwill 24 February, 1638-9,^ describing her- 
self as " weak in body but whole in mind and memory." Besides 
the above-mentioned legacies she gives her husband's apprentice 
Eobert Cull one ewe and lamb, leaving all the rest of her goods to 
her son Gregory and her five daughters, with Gregory as sole 
executor, and Thomas Haines of Wiggenholt and William Chambers 
of Pulboro' overseers. She marked her Avili in the presence of 
Thomas James and Timothy Johnson. It was proved about 19 
March by Gregory. 

Of this Gregory we know but little. He apparently changed 
the spelling of his name (being perhaps the first of his race 

1 Chicliester C.C. XX 130, 9 February, 1638-9. 

- This does not tally with the above account. ^ Chichester C.0. XX 128. 













d-^^ 



sJ 







3 a (X>*« 



3c om^ iI>s^ ify2 -A- 










[JhM^ 






n^ 






> 



1/ 1^ ioM^'^r/:L 







(4- 






J/^\*^y lS^3 



1^ i^moj '7>& 



// Cn^C tfoo 



^a^^-cfi^ 



lSi7 









C,yf!je-q: //rU-^i-^^ 



N. B.— The dates u)ulei' the abo\'e aiitngraphs are added. 



ANCESTRY OF RICHARD HAINES. 17 

that could write) from Heine^ in 1633 to Heines- in 1638. If 
there is any truth in a tradition heard througli my father, that an 
ancestor of ours fought as a roundhead at Naseby (14 June, 1645). 
Gregory must have been the man. He must have been born aljout 
1601 at Binsted, and lie bought Sladeland, as al)ove mentioned, 
with his father and mother in 1619. He seems to have settled at 
SuUingtou, where he was churchwarden in 1633. Soon after he 
removed to Shere in Surrey, where his son Gregory was baptized 
24 May, 1636, and a second son William, 24 Fela-uary, 1638-9. A 
kinsman (through the Hursts), Gregory Wright, also had a child 
baptized at Shere, 19 January, 1631-2. 

In 1640-1 Gregory purchased for £670 tlie estate of West 
Wantley in SuUington parish of Itichard Abbot, nephew^ of a 
late Archbishop of Canterbury. The estate derived its name from 
John de Wantele, who died 29 January, 1424-5, and lies buried in 
Amberley Church. The manor was granted in 1560 by the Crown 
to Eobert Michell.^ The Abbots had bought the property from 
Thomas Wickham, gent., in 1634. It is described as the manor, 
messuage, tenement, and farm of Wantley, al's West Wantley,* 
containing 100 acres and also five acres of pasture and a little 
cottage, some time a mill-house adjoining the farm, situate in 
SuUington and Storrington. It was charged with a rent to the 
Chief Lord of the fee, and a yearly rent of £12 to Holy Trinity 
Hospital, Guildford, and subject to a lease for 21 years (dated 21 
June 15 Car. I) to Henry Stone at a yearly rent of £46. The entry 
in the " Feet of Fines " descril)es the property as "the manor of 
Wantley, al's West Wantley, with the appurts and (Jo acres of 
arable, 20 of meadow, and 20 of pasture land."' 

At the same Easter Term is entere<l a fine from which we learn 
that Gregory Hayne l)0ught from Edw^ard Lipscomlje and 
Thomasine his wife 1 messuage, 1 l)arn, and 1 garden with appurts 
in Shere. 

Later in the year his wife seems to have lieen at Binsted, as the 
baptism and burial of a son John is recorded there 18 Decemlier, 
1641. 

' So he signs the Bishop's Transcripts of SuUington Register, as clmrfOi- 
wardeu. 

- Signature to his mother's will. -^ Dallaway's Sussex II, 122, 

^ Close Eoll, 17 Cai'. I,pt. 16, No. 17, Hayne v. Abbot. Indenture 26 Januarr, 
1640-1. See also deed of mortgage 1st February, 1682-3. The farm of " Eound- 
abouts," also owned by Richard Haines, son of Grregoiy, contained 35 acres. 

^ Pedes Finium, Easter Term, 17 Car. I, 4 June, 1641. 

C 



18 . ANCESTRY OF RICHAED HAINES, 

In 1645, 20 April,^ he was taxed £1 15s. M. for Sladeland, as 
his share of a subsidy laid upon the Eotherbridge hundred of 
Sussex to maintain the army of Sir Thomas Fairfax and Lord 
Leven in Ireland. Gregory Hurst, son of Gregory's stepfather, was 
taxed £1 os. for Crafold in the same parish of Kirdford, and was 
an assessor for collecting the subsidy. 

Gregory^ was buried at Sullington 1 March, 1645-6, in the 
very crisis of the Civil War. The inventory of his goods has 
been preserved at Chichester, and I will make no apology for 
transcribing it. 

The list of possessions does not give evidence of striking 
luxury or wealth. The goods were appraised on 23 March, 
1645-6, by "William Chambers, Pdchard Greene, Eichard Wollf 
at Sullington, and 1)y John Founstaple and Eichard Nunum at 
Kirdford. 
InjDriiuis his waiing aparell & mony in his purse ... iij'' 

In the Kichen. 
Itm five brase pootes four brase Cittell 2 furnices-^ 

2 skillets and 3 old brase kittell 1 bruing tub I ^n 

4 kiffers 1 cupberd 1 kneeding troe 1 bucking [ 
tub with other lumber. 

In the halle. 
Itm 1 table and frame 1 forme 2 foulling peces ' 



. ,111' 

1 musket^ 5 speetes 2 driping pans. 

1)1 the harler. 
Itm 1 table and frame 1 forme 4 joyned stooles \ ,g 

1 cuperd 1 joyned cliere. / 

In the hitttry. 
Itm 4 barrells 1 firking 1 tune ... ... ... ... x^ 

In the Mill'e houxe. 
Itiil 1 dussen of Truges 2 charnes 1 rening tube "1 ,g 

1 powdering troe 4 hoges of baken. J 

In the Lofte over the Kichen. 
Itiil 1 flocke bed 4 playne Chestes with other lumber... 

In the lofte over the halle. 
Itm 2 feether beeds 2 joyned Chestes 4 teke- 
bollsteres 4 blankets 2 Coverlets 2 phillibers 
with pillers 1 set of curtayns 1 warming pan. 

1 The original taxing paper is in the possession of H. F. Napper, Esq., of 
Laker's Lodge, near Billingshurst. On 10 July, 18 Car. I, Gregory paid \os. 
towards a loan for Cliarles I. 

- He died intestate. 

'■^ Perhaps he used this at Nasehy. 



ANCESTRY OF UICHAED HAINES. 



19 



In the. Littdl Chamhn 

Itiil 1 Ciil>erd 1 fetlier bed [and] all belonging 
to liini 1 chest. 



=} 



In the Lnfte over the Littell Rome. 

Itin 2 fetherbeeds and 4 l)ollsterse 4 blankets \ 
2 Coverlets [rotted au-a?/] Chest. / 



In the Loft over the parler. 

Itin one fether bed 1 flocke beed and joyned bed- 
stedel 2 bollsteres 2 pille.s 2 blankets 1 Coverlet 
2 joyned Chests. 

Itirl 10 pare of Tier shetes 1 hollaiid sheet 20 pare 
of flaxen sheets 2 dossen of dieper najikins 2 
diejier towells 3 dieper table Clothes 1 flaxen 
dapell Cloth 2 diissen of flaxen napkins 6 pilli 
Cothes. 

Itni 3 dossen of puter Disshes 3 brase Candell 
stickes 1 piiter Candellsticke 1 flagon 2 dussen of 
spones. 

Itm one sillver boolle' ... 

Itii^ 4 oxen 

Itirl 3 steeres 

Itivl 7 kine and Caves ... 

Itm 5 younge Beastes 

Itfi 2 horses 2 Colltes 

Itiil 15 Copells of Sheep and Lames and 1 baren 
Sheep. 

Itiil 2 open hoges 5 biges 

Itnl all belonging to hnsbandrie as Weenes -i 
Wheeles plowes harroes Chaynes and other y 
imbellments. J 

Itiil one passell of heaye 

Itm wheate upon the ground 

Itm Teares so wen upon the ground .. 



11]' 



iij' 



xvmj 

X 



xnj 
vij> 



Vllj' 



xP 



xxxv^ 



xP 



Suma elxxxv'i v* 

On the same day was taken an inventory of his goods at 

Kirdford : — 

Inprimis 10 akers of wheat upon the ground 
Itm 5 Wenners 1 hefer and Calfe and 1 stere 

Iti^ 14 Coppells of Sheep 

Itiil 2 hoges and 7 piges 

Itiil 1 kill of stone 

Itn\ 7 hundred of brome fagets 



Ill]' 



XllJ^ 

xliiii^ 



iiij' 



xx" 
xx^ 



' This heirloom should still exist somewhere iu the family. 



c 2 



20 ANCESTEY OF PJCIIARD HAINES. 

It^ woats Recly thresed 

ItiS one lease of a Messuage or tenem* & 80 1 



acres of land in Kerdford for 10000 yeares. 



Suina ccxli'' xij' 

The sum total was £416 17s. 

Admon of his goods, since. his widow renounced her claim to 
administer, was granted to Gregory Wright and Gregory Hurst, 
kinsmen of the deceased, the children l)eing minors. 

We know little hesides about Gregory Heines. He married 
Elizabeth Pollard 10 July, 1632, at Sullington.^ After her husband's 
death she was lined l.s. at Court Leets of the manor of Storrington, 
4 March, 1649-50, 14 October, 1650, for non-appearance. On the 
30 August, 1654, when Eichard her son had attained his majority 
she, with him, assigned Sladeland to her other son Gregory. She 
made her wilP 15 March, 1655-6, and was buried 22 March 
following at Sullington. In her will she describes herself as sick 
of body, but of good and perfect remembrance, and desires to be 
buried in Sullington Churchyard, giving 20s. to the poor of that 
parish. To her second son Gregory she gives £100 and all the house- 
hold goods at her house of Sladeland, and also " my silver hoid, and 
the feather beds in the parlour chamber, and the cupboard 
standing in the parlour, and also a third part of all my pewter." 
To Jane her daughter £200 in lieu of her right of the lands in 
Kirdford, left by her (Jane's) father, " lieing lease lands and 
settled by me and my eldest son Eichard upon Gregory my second 
son by deeds of indenture," this sum to be left in hands of Jane's 
brother Eichard till she should be eighteen, the interest of it to 
go to pay for her dress, schooling, and board. The great chest of 
linen standing in the parlour loft she gave to Gregory and Jane 
equally, Jane to have the great pewter flagon, the cupboard in the 
- hall, and the bedsteads in the parlour loft, together with one-third 
of all the pewter. To Jane her kinswoman,* living in her house, 
she gave 20-s. at twenty-one and all her woollen wearing apparel, and 
after mentioning a legacy to her servant Jane Pennell, she made 
Eichard, her son, residuary legatee, and her loving friends and 
kinsmen, Gregory Wright and Gregory Hurst, overseers. She 
marked her will in the presence of Henry Hayne^ and Mary Parram. 

^ Styled 'Widow in the Bishop's Transcript of her marriage register, but not in 
the register itself. Her maiden name was Bennet. 

- P. C. C. 326 Beriiley. ^ See pedigree. ^ See pedigree. 

•'' Her late husband's 1st cousin. She was apparently able to write, as her 
signature is appended to the deed 30 August, 1654, mentioned above. 



(21) 



CHAPTER IV. 

Life of Pjchard Haines. 

" Let us praise famous men, and the fathers that begat us." — Eccl. xliv. 1. 

The eldest son of Gregory and Elizaljeth was the Eichard Haines 
whose memoir I have taken upon myself to write. He first, as 
farmer, Baptist, patentee, projector, social and economic reformer, 
and philanthropist, raised his family above the rank of yeoman. 

England was entering upon trouljlous times when he was horn. 
Charles, with Laud and his " High Churchmen," was just organ- 
izing his attack on the Puritans, and the first writ for Ship-money 
was issued the next year. Gregory Heine, as churchwarden for 
that year, endorses in the Bishop's Transcripts the l)aptism of his 
eldest child, Richard, on 4 May, 1633^ thus: "Richard Hayne ye 
Sonne of Griggory Hayne was baptized." Matters in England 
were going from bad to worse. On 3 Noveml»er, 1640, the Long 
Parliament assembled, and on 22 August, 1642, the Royal Standard 
was unfurled at Nottingham. 

It was when the royal cause was piuctically lost, and the 
King was on the point of surrendering to the Scots that Gregory 
died. In 1654, the year after the dissolution of the Long 
l*arliament, and the proclaiming of Cromwell as Lord Protector, 
Richard came of age. In assigning Sladeland to his brother in 
this year, as always subsequently, he signs his name Haines. 
On 24th November of the same year a deed was drawn up 
" between Richard Haines of the one part, Mary Greene, Thomas 
Du})pa- of Storrington, gent., and Richard Greene of Sullington, 
yeoman, of the other part, by which Ricliard Haines, in considera- 
tion of a marriage intended between him and Mary Greene, and 
of a marriage portion paid to him, agreed that Thomas Duppa and 
Richard Greene should stand seized of the following premises ;' 
that is of all the rooms called the parlour, the hall, the chamber 

' The Register itself gives 14 May. 

" Married Joan Greene, probably first cousin to Mary Greene, 20 October, 1G37, 
at Storrington. 

'■' These must be rooms iu his new house which was finished 1656. See the 
photograph. 



22 ' LIFE OF PJCHAllD HAINES. 

over the parlour, the little cellar, and the room over the said 
cellar, parcels of one messuage and tenement of Eichard Haine 
in Sullington, and also of one l)arn, known as ISTorth Barn, and 
also of the moiety of all the gardens, orchards, and backsides 
adjoining, and of all those 7 acres of land adjoining the Common, 
called Bine Common, and also of all the close of land known as 
Pittfield, and also of the piece of land, estimated to contain 
5 acres, adjoining the Pittfield, and of the parcell of land, 
containing about 11 acres, adjoining the old Field Lane, and of 
the close called Culverfielcl, and of the six acres adjoining, and of 
the parcell of land, known as West Broadfield, adjoining the land, 
called Eastwrith Hill, all said premises situate, lying, and being in 
the parishes, fields, villages and hamlets of Sullington, Storrington, 
and Washington, being of the yearly value of £30."^ These 
premises were thus secured under the above-named trustees for 
the use of .Richard Haines in his life and after his decease for 
the use of his wife Mary, and then to his and her heirs male, and 
failing them to the right heirs of Eichard. 

On 14 December of the same year the Sullington register 
records that " Richard Haines and Mary Gcene (sic) were married." 

West Wantley is at the present day transformed into a modern 
dwelling house. It has two sitting rooms on the ground Hoor, 
the large one to the right as you enter by the porch (which faces 
south) is oak-timbered, and has a splendid chimney corner and 
ingle nook, with deep recesses in the chimney for curing hams, 
and a cupboard let into the left hand recess (see photograph, p. 88). 
There are seven bedrooms, with uneven timber floors and slanting 
roofs. Behind the front door used to run a long beam of oak 
to bar the door, and the recess into whicli it fitted is still there. 
The door handle is formed by the knocker, which lifts the latch. 
In the room over the kitchen is a cupboard let into the wall 
over the mantelpiece for holding tobacco. Over the porch can 
still be seen the initials and date. 




1 See Record Office, Chancery Suits B. and A. before 1714; Eejnardson, No. 
19; answer of Gregory Haines to bill of complaint of Charles Weston, 15 
October, 1686. 




West Wantley House — Front door with inscription above it. 



,, LIFE OF lUCHARD HAINES. 23 

On 18 Septeml)ev of this year lie proved his inotlier's will in 
London. On 12 April previously had been horn to him, perhaps 
in the new house, his first child, Mary, who was baptized and buried 
12 June following. 

We may conclude from the baptism of the child that the 
father had not yet joined the Baptists. However, a son, Ijorn to 
him on 30 Septeml)er, 1657, was buried unbaptized on 29 October 
following. 

On 9 February, 1656-7\ "Itichard and Mary sold to Thomas 
Longe one messuage one l)arn one garden one orchard 20 acres of land 
6 acres of meadow 12 acres of pasture and common of pasture 
for 80 sheep eight bullocks two horses eight hoggs one gander 
and two geese with appurts in North Stoke for £41." The 
property was no doubt Mary Haines's, and is mentioned in her 
father's will as "my lands at North Stoke." Later in the same 
year at the Trinity Term is recorded a fine, showing that Eichard 
and Mary Haines sold to Eichard Feilder and his wife Mary 
" one messuage, one barn, one garden, .... {MS. injured) . 
. . . and common of pasture for all manner of cattle in Stor- 
rington." This pro])erty also probaljly came from the Greene side. 

On 1 March, 1658-9, was born^ the second son Gregory 
(second of that name in the direct line). He was not baptized 
till 28 March, 1702, at Storrington.' The next son Eichard was 
l)orn 17 June, 1661, and a son John on 19 August, 1663. Little is 
known concerning these two sons or their possil)le descendants. 
Eichard rnai/ possibly be identical with a Eichard Haynes who, 
like the Eichard Haines of this memoir, was " buried in the Upper 
Church," Christ Church, Newgate Street, 5 August, 1685, Ijut there 
is no evidence to prove this. As to John we may, with much 
probaldlity, identify him with the John Haines who married 
Sarah Scale of Nuthurst on 22 January, 1684-5, at SuUington.* No 
children can with certainty be ascribed to this couple, as there 
w^ere two other John Haineses living at the time in the immediate 
neighljourhood. But I am inclined to think that an entry in 
Washington parish register under the year 1700 (with no day) 

1 See Eecord Oflace : Feet of Fines, Sussex, Hil. Term, 1656-7. 

- SuUington Register. 

^ This we learn from tlie Bishop's Transcript. It does not appear in the 
Register. 

* Admon. of her goods -nas granted to her husband 4 October, 1701, and an 
Inventory of her goods mentions the single fact that she was entitled to a legacy of 
£5 under the will of her father Eichard Scale, late of Nuthurst. 



24 LIFE OF PJCHARD ; HAINES. ; 

may refer to children of John and Sarah. The entry runs in a 
fragmentary and unusual way : — 

Haine, Eichard and Sarah tilij [of]^ hapt''"^ 

From Eichard or John must have descended the mysterious 
" William Haines of Devonshire " (thus curiously described in the 
will of Mary Greenfield;'^ nee Haines), whose son Gregory received 
a legacy under her will, and dying in 1770, aged 48, lies buried 
at Kirdford. 

On 21 August, 1662, Eichard was overseer to the will of 
Eichard Browne of Sullington, yeoman, probably the same wlio 
witnessed the assignment of Sladeland 30 August, 1654. 

On 20 April, 1666, a second daughter Mary was born, who 
may have married John Penfold ;* and a son Stephen on December 
16, 1668, who was buried 17 January, 1669-70. 

The Hearth Tax returns for 1665^ show that Eichard paid 5s. 
for five hearths in Sullington parish, the largest householder being 
George Goble with seven hearths. On 8 June, 1668, Eichard was 
surety for a marriage between Eichard Langley, joiner, and Jane 
Eogers, widow, of Sullington." 

In the will of Gregory Haines of Blakehurst in the parish of 
Warningcamp, co. Sussex, yeoman, he is mentioned as " loving 
brother and executor." Gregory probably died at Sullington, as 
he was buried there 28 February, 1670-1, only four days after the 
dating of his will.'' His will was proved by the executor on the 
following 11 November at Chichester. In the will the testator 
speaks of Sladelands as then in his tenure or occupation for the term 
of 9000 years and upwards, and as containing 100 acres of land. 
This he leaves to his son Grregory, and failing him to his daughter 
Mary, but only when they come of age. Till then the executor 
was to enjoy the profits of the lands, wherewith to maintain the 
children. To Mary his daughter he left £100 " in lieu of " her 
share in the lands to be paid her at the age of 20 out of the said 

• lu aBother luind. 

^ The Washington Register under date 28 September, 1699, records the birth 
of Philippa, daughter of John and Sarah Haine. 

•' 9 August, 1755. The son Gregory is described as "kinsman." The only 
other possible ancestor for this William Haines of Devonshire is the William son 
of G-regory born at Shere in 1638-9. ■* See pedigree. 

5 See Record Office, Addit. Subsidies, 17 Car. IF. 

« On 24 March, 1682-3, he witnessed the will of Thomas Mellersh, Gent., of 
Thakeham (P. C. C. Drax, 128), and on 28 December, 1683, he witnessed with John 
Haine the will of Thomas Steele of Storrington, miller. 

' Chichester C. C, XXV, 326. 



LIFE OF MCHARD HAINES. 25 

lands. To his wife Margaret lie left £4 per annum, also to be 
paid out of said lands. To Elizabeth l*ratt 10s. at 21. His 
brothers (in law), Eichard Everenden of Horsham. gent., and Eichard 
Carpenter of Sompting, yeoman, were named overseers ; and the 
will was signed and sealed in the presence of Jane Beeding and 
William Wheeler. A memorandum was added, leaving to such 
child as his wife went withal, if a son, £100, if a daughter, £60, 
out of the profits of said lands, at the age of 21. 

His wife Margaret {jk^c Lidbetter), whom he married 13 Octolier, 
1660, at Sullington, married again after his death (some time 
before 1678) John Jelly of Kirdford, as we learn from the rolls 
of Pallingham Manor^ which Lord Leconfield kindly allowed me 
to inspect. In spite of this she is described in the marriage 
licence of her daughter Mary (9 June, 1692)^ as Mrs. Margaret 
Haines, widow. She was buried at Sullington 14 April, 1694, as 
Margaret Jelly. Her second husband perhaps survived her. 

Visit to the Netherlands. — Between the date of Gregory's 
death and 1677 Eichard Haines paid a visit to the Netherlands. 
The object of the visit we do not know. It may have Ijeeu for 
commercial purposes, or from reasons connected with the Baptist 
church. The earliest Anabaptist Churches were formed in the 
Netherlands, and Eichard may have desired to inspect their 
working. The exact date of the visit we do not know, but as he 
does not mention it in the two books puldished in 1674, we may 
conclude that it had not yet taken place. We know that tliere 
was war between England and Holland from 1664 till July, 1667, 
and again from 1672 till February, 1674. Most probably the visit 
w^as made about 1676, and may have been made with the ex])ress 
object of examining the Dutch administration of their Boor 
Laws, upon which Eichard bases his own scheme. 

The following are the passages in his books which prove that 
this visit took place. Writing in 1677 (the earliest allusion we 

find) he says, " I have been informed l»cyond the Seas "•'' 

and again in 1679 : — 

"At Leiden I saw a fellow most severely whipt upon a Scaffold, 
erected for that very purpose before llie Spin-house, in view of many 
thousands, and after Committed to the Easp-house for that he under 

' 22 May, 30 Car. II (1678) John Jelly in right of his wife, late the wife of 
Gregory Haines, held Sladcland— fined Is: for default. 
- Office of Yicar-General. 
^ Postscript to Proposals for BuilcUng Almshouses, p. iii. , . 



26 LIFE OF PJCHAKD HAINES. 

pietence of being zealous to serve the States, imiclit himself by abusing 
and oppressing the Poor."' 

and again in the same year : — 

" I cannot but maintain, that what is Proposed is undoubtedly 
practicable, for that it is no new Project, but with Great Success 
practised at this day by our Neighbours, being satisfied by what I have 
seen that this very thing viz. the Industry of the Poor accomplish't by 
these very Expedients, is that whereby the Wealth of the Netherlands 
is raised and maintained."^ 

One other passage there is, in an earlier book (1674), which 
seems to refer to this visit, viz. : " Sucli an one as I never heard 
of before, either here or beyond the Seas,"^ but this, I am almost 
sure, does not imply personal observation beyond the sea, for 
speaking again of the Koman Church, to which also he is here 
alluding, he says, in another passage, " his sentence of Excommuni- 
cation is no more, than as though his Triple-Crowned Brother 
beyond the Seas, with his Bell, Book, and Candle had done it." 

Fmends and Social Position. — Before entering upon a history 
of the controversy in which Eichard Haines became engaged with 
his w^hilome pastor and friend, Matthew Caftyn, it will not be amiss 
to gather together the few scattered hints, in his own and Caffyn's 
published works, that give us any insight into his private life 
during the dozen or so years that lay between his adhesion to the 
Baptist community and his quarrel with Cafiyn. 

It is quite clear that he was the most important member of 
the little Baptist congregation which met at Southwater, near 
Horsham, and of which Matthew Caff'yn, who lived at Broadbridge 
in an outlying corner of Sullington parish, was Minister, or 
" Messenger." In 1664, the " Conventicle Act," followed by a 
second Act of the same sort in 1670, made "any meetings for more 
than five persons for any religious worship but that of Common 
Prayer " liable to be punished by fine, imprisonment and trans- 
portation. The Baptist community of Southwater, under so 
notorious a Nonconformist as Caffyn, was peculiarly liable to be 
raided, and Eichard Haines boasts that his presence alone saved 
it from molestation more than once : — 

"Have I not been careful," he says,* "to make good my Place at the 
Meeting to which I usually went, insomuch that some in time of Persecution 
said, If they could but persuade me not to come, or were it not for me. they 

' Method of Government, pp. 7, 8. 

2 Breviat of Proposals, postscript, p. 6. 

* New Lords, p. 24. ■• Ibid., p. 56. 



LIFE OF EICHARD HAINES. ..■ 27 

would not spare you ? but by means of my constant beinij; there, your 
Meeting was never yet disturbed, whilst all those round were visited." 

This shows us that he was a man of some mark in his native 
county, and we liave further proof of this in the accusation, brouglit 
against him by Cafi'yn, of consorting with " great persons." C'atfyn, 
he remarks, " sharply rebukecP me, because sometimes, although 
but u])on occasion, 1 kept company with Great Persons, notwith- 
standing that he knew tliat tliose persons of quality are both 
sol)er, honest,- and of good report, and well deserving their places of 
Authority, and the love of all honest men, for that tliey are favourites 
to that which is good, and punishers of those that do evill." 

Who were these " Great Persons " ? Among them, no doubt, 
were several members of the Poyal Society, with whom we find 
him corresponding with some intimacy a few years later, such as 
John Beale, D.D.,^ one of His Majesty's chaplains, the Ptight Hon. 
Viscount Brouncker,'* ]*resident of the Eoyal Society, who " was 
pleased to peruse my proposals, and express his sentiments very 
favourably thereupon." Among his acquaintances, if not among 
his friends, was Thomas Pirniin,^ citizen of London, well known 
for his philantliropic labours in connexion with the employment 
of the poor. lUit the persons meant may have been those wliom 
he speaks of in his book on Cider as partners in the patent for 
making Cider royal — "such," he says, "as I have made choise of, 
as being Persons of Esteem for (Quality, Estate, Loyalty, and other 
Considerations, namely, Henry CJoreing,'' Esq. ; one of His ]\Iajesties 
Deputy Lieutenants and Justices of Peace for the (bounty of 
Sussex, eldest son of Henry Goreing, Baronet ; Herbert Stapley, 
Esq., eldest son of Sir John Stapley, liaronet ; Thomas Peckham, 
gent., and others." Perhaps his partner, in the Spinning Engine 
patent, llichard Dereham, Esq., was another " great })erson," but I 
know nothing of him.^ 

' New Lords, p. 8. Protest against Usurpation, p. 18, quoted by Caffyu 
{Raging Wave, p. 16). 

- Ibid., p. 42. On p, 28 we are told that Caffyu boasted how he had 
rebuked great persons and cast them out of the Chvirch. 

' Proposals for Building, etc. (1677), postscript, p. xvi, where from Dr. Eeale 
he says he has "received by letter some considerable and pressing incitements to 
proceed." "* Ibid. 

^ Ibid., p. ix. See also Thomas Firmin's Projwsals for the Employment of the 
Poor. 

* Aphorisms upon Cyder, Supplement, wliere also he mentions sending samples 
of his cider to " persons of quality." 

' Patent Office, Patent Ko. 202, 18 April, 1678. 



28 LIFE OF RICHAllD HAINES. 

liicliaid Haines seems to have had interviews on the subject 
of his proposals with some of the highest persons in the realm. 
His tract on EnglamVs Weal (1681) was dedicated to Sir Patience 
Ward/ Knt., Lord Mayor of London, and M.P., " humbly intreating, 
that . . . your Honour would be pleased to recommend these 
reasons and the matter proposed, to that Honourable House and 
to improve your interest to have the same read before them." It 
may be that Sir Patience played him false.^ 

Prince Eupert, whom our author eulogizes for his princely 
clemency, prudence, generosity, courage, and patriotism,^ and 
again as " that eminent promoter of the prosperity of our King- 
dome,"* himself read and approved the proposals for restoring the 
woollen manufacture,^ and " was pleas'd to honour " their author 
" with his approvement, advice, and encouragement therein."" 
Moreover (he adds) " judging it necessary that I should first offer 
the same to His Majesties consideration, in order thereunto did 
introduce me to His Eoyal presence." Charles the Second, as we 
know from John Evelyn, was always ready to encourage promoters 
of new projects, and he referred Eichard Haines to Mr. Secretary 
Coventry, who " gave his approbation (of the proposals) to His 
Majesty at the Council Table, where it passed without any 
obstruction."'' 

Elsewhere,* the author speaks of the king as having given him 
" a signal instance of his Eoyal approbation and encouragement," 
and again in 1681 he says^of the king — " who hath been graciously 
pleas'd to declare, that he would be ready in his Station, to encourage 
it all he could." 

In his attempt to get a patent for cleansing hop clover, Eichard 
was also brought into contact with the notorious Earl of Shaftesbury, 
Lord High Chancellor of England,^" and therefore Keeper of the 
Great Seal. Speaking of the second hearing of his case, he says : 
" I went to the Eight Honourable the Earl of Shaftesbury, then 
Loi'd High Chancellor of England, and without petition, bribe, or 

' His portrait is in the Hall of the Merchant Tailors' Company. 
- See below, p. 71, ApTiorisma on, Cyder, p. 3 (1684). 

^ Frevention of F overt y (J674), p. 1. This tract is addressed to him as "The 
Most Illustrions Prince, Dute of Cumberland, Earle of Holdernesse, Knight of the 
Garter," etc. ■* Model of Government (1678), p. 8. 

JBreviat of Froj}osals (1679), title page. 
Froposal.ifor Building, etc., postscript, p. 1. 
'' Ibid. s Model of Government, p. 8 (1678). 

■' E)iglatuVs Weal, p. 13. '» 1672. 



LIFE OF RICHARD HAINES. 29 

fee, was admitted to treat with his Honour, who after several times 
discussing the matter, was pleased to confirm what His Majesty 
had graciously granted unto me, under the Great Seal of England."^ 

The persons named by the House of Commons on 17 Decemljer, 
1680, to draw up a bill " for restraining vagrants and promoting 
the woollen manufacture," in pursuance of Eichard Haines's 
proposals, were Mr. I'ilkington, Sir Trevor Williams, Sir Kichard 
Oust, Sir Eobert Clayton, Mr. Duboys, Mr. Love, Sir Patience 
Ward, and Sir John Knight,^ some of whom may well have been 
the author's friends. Sir Eobert Clayton, like Thomas Firmin 
above-mentioned, was connected with Christ's Hospital. 

Among members of his own persuasion, Eichard was un- 
doubtedly acquainted with such leading Baptists as W. Kittin, 
T. Plant, T. Hicks, wdiom he mentions in his Appeal to the General 
Assemh/j/ of Baptists (1680) as Independent Anabaptists, not 
concerned in the action of the Cafifinites. There were also 
Mr. G., Mr. W., Mr. P., Mr. C, Mr. T., mentioned as " church 
officers" of known integrity, the most eminent in London," who 
sided with Eichard against Caffyn. They belonged to a branch of 
the P>aptist Church, not in full communion with the General 
Dependent Baptists.* A letter from Eichard Haines to Mr. G. is 
alluded to in Cafi'yn's first book. 

With Caffyn himself Eichard lived for many years on terms of 
great intimacy. " I have received," says the former, " mors profit 
and kindness of him tlian of any other person wdiatever, and 
therefore none may believe I can hate him, but Love him aljove all 
others."^ Again says E. H. : " His confidence in me was such, that 
he did believe I would submit to his own terms."'' And E. H., on 
his part, expresses the greatest confidence in Matthew Caftyn as a 
faithful friend,^ to whom in consequence he naturally disclosed his 
project of taking out a patent. Much no doubt to his surprise 
Caffyn " would not by any means allow of Letters Patents." 

' New Lords, p. 52. The Earl is again mentioned in the title page to the 
Brevint of Proposals, 1679, as having perused and approved his proposals. 

- Journals of tlie House of Commons, ix, 682. 

•' New Lords, f)- H- Protestation against Usurpation, p. 12 (qnoted in Caffjn's 
Raginq Wave, p. 23). 

^ Caffyn's Envys Bitterness, pp. 2, 4. New Lords, Pref. p. iv, and p 42. See 
also Caffyn's Raging Wave, p. 23, \\here a Mr. J. is added as ment'.oned by E. H. 
in his Protestation, etc., p. 12. 

'" New Lords, p. 33, quoted from Caffyn's words. 

« Hid., p. 35. 

' Ibid., pp. 2, 35. 



?,0 LIFE OF RICHARD HAINES. 

This was the rift within the lute of their friendship, which caused 
such subsequent discord.^ 

No doubt Caffyn was becoming jealous of Eichard Haines and 
his growing reputation. To consort with great persons was in 
Caffyn's jaundiced eyes subversive of Baptist principles.^ He 
objected to a member of his congregation occupying himself in 
matters of puljlic interest, and tells us himself that he did 
" cautionally " remind him that " while his understanding was 
deeply exercised about civil controversies he might forget his 
Christian obligations."" We have a sneering reference to E. H.'s 
first book, The Prevention of Poverty, in the words " a man that pre- 
tends to such ingenuity as to teach the whole nation how they 
should become rich."* 

His PiiiVATE Charactee. — Though accused of haughtiness and 
perverseness^ l)y Caffyn, our author's general tone, except when 
his ire is specially aroused, is modest and humble, and the 
peroration of his earliest work is couched in an unselfish and 
patriotic vein : " Oh how glad should I be," he says, " if I might in 
any wise be an Instrument to promote the future Honour, Safety, 
and Well-being of the and of my Nativity, Land its Inhabitants ! 
Yet if my desires therein should be answered, let God have the 
Glory ; and those who are under him in Authority, that shall 
approve of the Means, and prosecute the same, receive the ivliolc 
Praise and. Honoiir ; for to myself Nothing is to be ascribed, since I 
have done but what is my Duty, as I am a Subject enjoying Christian 
Liberty, and Civil Eights and Priviledges."*^ In another place he 
disclaims the idea that he has any " itch of fame,"' adding, " I can 
justly assure the world, I am so far from any such contemptiljle 
Vanity, that I am rather a l)eggar for the Poor and Distressed." 

In connection with the Baptist body he has nothing to reproach 
himself with. " Did I come amongst you," he asks,^ " for any 
sinister or selfish ends ? Did I ever gain so much as one penny 
thereby ? But suppose I had received profit liy you, have you 
not received of me for every penny some pounds" ? and that not 

^ But R. H.'s real crime was the refusal to " adore" Caffyn. Neii' Lords, p. 21. 

- Caffyn's Raging Wave, p. 16. 

■'• Ibid., p. 15. ^ Ibid., p. 24. 

•'' Ibid., p. 13. '^ Frevention of Povertg, p. 21. 

7 Proposals, postscript, xt. ^ Neiv Lords, p. 34. 

" New Lords, pp. 35, 53. " Whether he thought himself beholding to me for 
any contributions of mine I knoM' not, but this I know that he never gave me 
thanks for it, nor did I desire any. But possibly he might not know what my 



LIFE OF KTCIIAIJD HAINES, 'M 

by Constraint, but willingly ? Sure I am that of late years, I have 
l)een very Careful, not to come short of any of you all, in what I 
might serve you in ; so that against the Church, I know not that 
I have transgressed in any case, although to my grief in many things 
I have transgressed against my Lord and Saviour, of whom through 
Crace, I comfortably do hope to find Mercy."^ Again in anotlier 
place : " Have I been such a one as to have to your discredit, and 
the dislionour of the Truth, which I have professed, lived in 
any notorious Sins ? or have I through infirmities transgressed 
against my God, and refused to he reformed ? . . . Have I carried 
myself loftily to the meanest. ... Or can you tliink that I 
now neglect my Business, and spend my Time and Labour, hereliy 
to make a Party, or for any self-ends to engage you to myself ? "' 

In making his second appeal to the AssemlJy of Baptists lie 
challenges any one to sliow that he had wilfully or knowingly 
done wrong either to man, woman, or child, or in any case been 
" unfaithful to any that relyed on him or despised Admonition for 
sin committed aoainst the Most Hio-h God, or ever desio-ned or 
practised anything of revenge against any person. " ^ 

The only charge even the malice of enemies could rake up against 
him was, that he had taken money of a neighbour in compensation 
of damage done to his corn and pasture by tlie said neiglibour's 
cattle lying in it, and E. H., even so, liad only taken action when 
that neighbour dealt dishonourably with his own brothers in a case 
which was injurious to Richard also.* But in three passages Caftyn 
hints at " many transgressions committed somewhere in the family, 
and not voluntarily confessed, but through care and diligence 
discovered."' 

With regard to the family and home life of Richard Haines we 
unfortunately find in these books but few particulars. Caffyn, 
indeed, quoting from R. H.'s last work,'' speaks of " ]iis seeming 

contribvitions were, bccaiise I never gave him anything that I remember, but 
always delivered it to one of his Deacons to be disposed of according to tlieir 
discretion " CafPyn in Eni->i/s Bitterness^ y>- 31, says the Deacons S. L. and D. P. 
distribiited the alms partly to the poor and partly to Caffyn himself. 

' New Lords, pjs. 36, 37. " I was not conscio\is of any tnonn sin by me 
committed; bat what tlirough Grace was repented of, so tliat with a good 
conscience I tlirough mercy do, and then did to my great comfort believe, that I 
whom you have unmercifully condemned, my Lord and Saviour doth and will 
justifie." 

- Ibid., pp. 56, 57. •' Ibid., p. 7. 

■■ Ibid., p. 14. ■' Caffyn's Raging Wave, pp. 1, 11. 

^ Protestation against Usurpation, p. 18. See CafPyn's Raging Ware, p. 11. 



32 LIFE OF PJCHAED HAINES. 

willingness that the reader should make observation of the good 
disposition and frame of his spirit on his performance of family 
duties and the government of his family, so as in many years he 
hath not known anything committed by them worthy of public 
blame." 

It is clear — to me at least — that, in spite of this quarrel, 
Eichard was not of a contentious disposition. He claims to have 
often acted as peacemaker " between neighbour and neighbour 
when in the way to ruine one another."^ He was evidently affable in 
his manners and persuasive in his speech ; for one of his former 
friends, who finally sided with CafFyn, says that " he was made to 
doubt by reason of Eichard Haines's smooth words."- ISTo other 
allusions to personal traits of character appear, unless it be when 
Caffyn speaks of his opponent scoffingly as a " dreamer."" 

His Two Dreams. — In reference to these E. H. says : " Though 
I am far from Practising or Justifying any Superstitious Observation 
of Dreams, as knowing that they are oft times caused by I^atural 
means, and prove only Delusive motions of the ever-busie Fancy, 
retained by the waking memory, whilst the Judgment and dis- 
tinguishing Faculties, to-gether with the external Senses, lie fast 
lock'd up in the Charms of Sleep ; yet since we have both examples, 
and positive Texts, showing that in Dreams was one way whereby 
the Lord was pleased heretofore to communicate himself to his 
Servants, I dare not censure all Eepresentations of that kind as 
vain. . . . Nay, some Eeasons I have, considering the Time and 
several Circumstances, to apprehend, that a certain Dream of mine 
(the Eelation whereof might occasion such his Lordship's scoffs) may 
prove no less certain in the event, than the Dreams of him, who 
for his Dreams was envied by his Brethren, and for the satisfying 
your curiosity, who have not heard it, I shall here faithfully 
relate it, as it happened, thus. 

" On the day on which you were pleased to deal with me as an 
Offendor of the weak Brethren, I arose early in the morning, 
resolving, as at other times, not to omit the performance of any 
thing that might be my duty towards God ; in order whereunto I 
prepared by fasting and prayer,* to rely on him only for his 

> New Lords, pp. 8, 42. 

- Caffyn's Raging Wave, p. 26; 'Envys Bitterness, p. 26. ■* I^ew Lcrds, p. 49. 

"* See also New Lords, p. 52. " Wliereupon I did apply myself to tlie Lord by 
fasting and Prayer several Days, Desiring that lie woiild assist me in the -work 
{i.e., of j)iiblisliing his Defence), or otherwise witliliold me from it, by what means 
best pleased him ; yea I did desire the Lord to bring upon me those Evills wbicli 



LTFK OF 1!ICHA1!D HAINES. iV.) 

guidance and assistance witliout the least premeditation what to 
Answer. And with Sincerity I can say it, as I went out ; so did I 
come home, with a gracious confidence of his Mercy and Favour ; 
But it l)eing tlien somewhat late in the Evening, so soon as I had 
refreshed myself, and performed my Duty as at other times, I went 
to Bed ; and in my Sleep I had a Dream, That T was standing a little 
distant from that House wherein tliis unhappy and ill-managed 
meeting was ; and as I stood still, oljserving tlie House to be full of 
People, and myself at a distance, as a Person not regarded ; Behold 
a great Fire did on a sudden appear in the House ; at which I stood 
amazed, crying out, Your liouse is on Fire ; l)ut immediately it 
seemed to me to Blaze through the Windows on the South Side of 
it : whereupon with a loud voice T cried to them within lo depart 
the House, telling them what danger they were in, and often 
saying The House is on Fire : But all the Care and pains 1 could 
take to pei'suade them was in vain, and wholly contemned ; l^)Ut 
whilst 1 was liusie thus warning them to escape, behold all the 
House seemed to be in a Flame, the Fire ljreakingviolentlyforth,even 
through tlie Poof of it. Then did 1 observe every Person suddenly 
to be in motion, and every hand set to work, whereby the Fire 
1)egan to abate, and in short time after was quenched. This being 
done, I then came into the House, where I found all the People in 
a little d.isorder, some walking about and others sitting still (in that 
room where they had compassed their unhappy Act of unmerciful 
Tyrannyjl)ut at the upper end of theTaltle where the unjust Judg 
or false Apostle used to stand and })erform his Devotion,! beheld the 
perfect form of a Pulpit with the door open, and on the outside of the 
Pulpit door there was a little woodden-pin, on which there hung a 
very l)right key (of whicli I did often take notice) but this I'ulpit 
being empty I inquired for the person that should be in it, Init 
none made an answei', till at last it was oltserved l)y all that the 
I'arty belonging to the said place was lost, and could nowliere l)e 
found, also that my ('Onipany was Acceptalile." 

He says lie told this dream the next day to liis servant, who 
was one of their company, and knew more of his mind than any 
other. He then relates his other dream. 

" Another dream^ somewhat remarkable I had some days before 
there was a stop put t(j my obtaining the great Seal of England, 

that false Apostle did predict should befal me, rather than that I by this means 
slioiild dishonour his Glorious name." 
' New Lords, p. 51. 

D 



34 LIFE OF EICHARD HAINES. 

for the (Joiifirmation of his Majesties grant before the late Lord 
Keeper,"' by reason of the untrue Information of two Conspirators, 
wlio suggested, That I was not the first Inventer, and that I designed 
to prohibite all persons from Cleansing of Clover, All which was 
utterly false ; Some few days I say before this stop was made I 
being at London, in my sleep had this dream. That as I was going 
about my business, in Order to have his Majesties grant Confirmed 
under the great Seal, behold there stood in my way a Church as it 
were quite Cross the street, so that I could not pass by it, where- 
upon I stood still to Consider, whether there was no other way by 
which I might Go whither my l)usiness lay, but whilst T was thus 
Considering methoughts a strange thing came into my mind, viz. 
That I must go over the Church which seemed to be of a consider- 
able Height, and on the middle of it stood a very High and 
Stately Steeple, which seemed to overtop all the Churches in 
London, at the sight whereof I was somewhat afraid of Climbing 
so High as to get over the Church, but so it was, over it I must 
and up I got to the Top of the Church, and being tliere, tlie lofty 
Steeple standing in my way, over that T must go also, which I did, 
and went down again to the ground on the other side, where look- 
ing up to the top of the Steeple I returned thanks tliat I came 
over so dangerous a place without hurt, but passing towards my 
business, methoughts I was discouraged, and given to doubt, that 
at that time I should be frustrated of my intent." 

Quarters in London. — It is clear from several indications 
that Eichard was '"' much in London."^ During his many rides 
backwards and forwards along the Sussex roads, winch were 
proverbial for their mire,^ he must have had much occasion to 
rue their Ijadness. 

In one passage of his first book against Caffyn he mentions 
coming to his "' Quarters in London." " Being hungry," he says, 
" I asked the Maid for such Victuals as the house did afford . . . 
and. went upstairs into my Chamber, and there at one Table, and 
a very little one too, we three could eat and drink together."'* 

We do not know whereabouts in London these quarters were, 
but we may conjecture that they were near Christ Church, Newgate 

' Lord Shaftesbury was dismissed November, 1673. 

- Caffyr A Raging Wave, p. 25 (1675). 

' See De Qiiincey, Essaj' on Travelling, xiv, 295. " An Italian of rank, wlio 
has left a record of his perilous adventure, visited, or attempted to visit Petworth. 
. . . about the year 1685. I forget how many times he was overturned within 
one particidar stretch of five miles," etc. ^ New Lords, p. 11, 



LIFE OF T^ICHAltl) IIAINER. 85 

Street, as he is described, at his death, as heing of that parish.'^ 
He also had some connection with Southwark and his nephew 
Gregory was, in his marriage licence in 1692, described as of 
Southwark, draper. 

His Books. — His books were printed, published, and sold, as 

follows: 1195126 

1674. The Prevention of Poverfi/, printed for Nathaniel 
Brooke at the Sign of the Angel in Cornhill.^ 

1677. Proposals for BniMing in Every County et Working 
Almshouse or Hospital, printed l)y W. G. for R. Harford, 
at the same. Sold also by Mrs. Walton at the foot of 
Parliament Stairs. '^ 

1678. Provision for the Poor, a single sheet,"* with allowance. 
Printed for D. ]M. and sold liy Mrs. Walton at the foot of 
Parliament Stairs.'* 

1678 A Model of Government, with allowance, Poger 
L'Estrange. Printed for 1). M. and sold as aljove.-'' 

1679. A Method of Government for Puhlick Worhinfi Alms- 
houses. With allowance. Printed for Langiey Curtis on 
Ludgate Hill.« 

1679. A Breviat of Proposals for restoring the woollen 

manufacture. Printed, as preceding.' 
1681. EnglaneVs Weed and Prfjsperity proposed. Printed for 

Langiey Curtis in Goat Court on Ludgate Hill.'^ 
1684:. 2 April. Aphorisms upon mahing Cyeler Poyed. Printed 

by George Larkin, and to l)e had at the Marine and 

Carolina Coft'ee House, Birchin Lane, price 6f/.'' 

^ In his advertisement in London Gaze.tte, 22 December, l(i84, he mentions 
Dr. Morton's Buiklings in CTrey Friers in Newgate Street as the place where his 
cider was kept in vauUs; and also Three Crown Court in Southwark. 

- Copies are in Brit. Mns. (1C4, g. 29; 1027, 1. 16) ; Trinity College, Diibliu, 
E.E.N. 61, No. 9; Pat. Office, No. 4838 ; Library of Faculty of Advocates. 

•* See Provision for the Poor, p. viii. Copies of this are in Brit. lUis. (104, m. 
54; 1027, 1, 16, Harl. Misc., iv, p. 489), Trinity Coll. Libr., Dublin; and I have 
a copy which I purchased for 10.?. Qd. 

■* See Model of Government, p. 2. There is a copy in the Bodleian (Pamplilets, 
141). See also Bodl. Wood, D. 27. 

'-> Brit. Mus., 1027, 1. 16. 

6 Brit. Mus., 1027, 1. 16. Bodleian : Wood, D. 27. 9. See also Eecord Office, 
State Papers Dom. Ser. Car II, 281, a. 248. This i.s wrongly dated 1670. 

' Brit. Mus., 1027. 1. 16. 

s Bodleian : Wood, D. 27; Brit. Mus., 104, m. 55 ; 104, n. 15; 1027, 1. 16. 

■' Brit. Mils., 115, £. 57. Also in Bodleian Library, Guildhall Library, 
fjibrary of Patent Office, and of Faculty of Advocates. 

D 2 



86 LIFE OF RICHARP HAINES. 

1684, 1 May. SupioUimnt to same, at same, gratis. Printed 
by Thomas James for the author.^ 

Licences for right to make the cider were to be had at the 
Coffee house above mentioned, and at another in Three Crown 
Court, South wark, while the cider itself was sold at a Mr. Wood- 
ward's, Distiller, in the Old Bailey. 

We do not know where E. H.'s otlier books were published, 
viz., the two against Caff'yn,^ New Lords, New Laios, in 1674'^ ; A 
Protestation against Usurpation, in 1675 ; and the Appeal to the 
General AssemUy of Dejjendent Baptists, 3 June, 1680,'' witli post- 
script, 7 June of same year. 

Prisons, the Social Problem, and Temperance. — No doubt 
Eichard Haines was familiar enough with the London of his day. 
Unfortunately he has left no reference either to tlie plague or the 
tire which botli occurred in his time, though probably he had not 
established himself in town before then. In one passage he makes 
an eloquent protest against the management of prisons.^ " I have 
observ'd such dogged Cruelties in some of our Prisons, where many 
poor famishing persons have been crowded up in one little Eoom, 
without any thing to lie on, save Straw, and that so seldom clianged, 
that 'twas become muck, and onely lit to breed Vermine" ; and to 
aggravate their misery, the Jay lor fastned broad thin Plates of 
iron pent-house-wise'' across the Gates of the Prison to prevent 
those who were charitably disposed, that they should not give 
them Beer through the Grates but that they might be forced to 
drink his, and pay two pence for little more than a pint." In the 
same passage he speaks of the "Debtors in Prison having but three 
halfpence a day and what tliey can beg to live on." 

As a moral and religious man, he is vehement against " all 

^ The only cojjy is in the Guiklhall Library. 

- CafPyn's two books were Envy's Bitterness corrected wUTi. a Rod of Shame, 
167-I', and A Raging Wave Foaming out his own Shame, 1675. 

•■* This seems to be a proverb. Thomas Hardy, in his Far from the Madding 
Croivd, says, '■ New Lords, new Laws, as the saying is." The only cojiy of the 
pamphlet is in the Eodleian, 133; where also are the only copies of Caifyn's 
books. 

' The only copy is in the British Museum. 

" Model of Government, p. 6. 

'^ A correspondent to Notes and Queries (8th Ser., 1, May 14, 1892) mentions a 
petition to the House of Lords in 1673 which states " that many thousand miserable 
creatures (insolvent debtors) are languishing and perishing in prisons and holes, 
being almost starved and eaten up with vermin," 

' A Shaksperian compound. 



LIFE OF RICHARD HAINES. 37 

Impudent Night Walkers and Nurses of Debauchery . . which 
are a Destruction to the Estates, Bodies and Souls of many 
Hundreds,"^ and he recommends the " pious wisdom of the City of 
London to find out a means for checking this social evil." 

In the matter of liquor R. H. shows no teetotal leanings. The 
great invention of liis later years, which he fondly hoped would 
make his fortune, was a new method of making cider to equal 
foreign wines in strength and flavour. In perfecting this he spent 
many years.^ The normal consumption of cider per man he 
estimated at 1 quart a. day, which seems a large amount, Ijut it is 
clear from another passage that he considers drunkenness the vice 
and sin which it is.'' 

PtELiGious, Political, and Social Views. — There is abundant 
evidence throughout Richard Haines's writings to show that he 
was a tlioroughly religious men. Soon after his marriage he must 
have embraced the doctrines of the Anabaptists,'* professed by the 
.Arininian, or General Dependent, Baptists, over one of whose 
churclies Matthew Caffyn was head or Chief Apostle. For 15 years 
after this he lived at peace with all men, doing his duty towards 
his Baptist l3rethren, bringing up his family in the fear of God, 
winning the respect and esteem of many "persons of quality" in 
the county, and living a useful happy life as a yeoman farmer of 
considerable means, not without ambition to do good in his 
generation in a wider sphere than a little Sussex hamlet could 
aftbrd liim. All this time he ke^^t his eyes open, and interested 
liimself, if not in politics, yet in social economics. Which side he 
took in the Civil War is not known, but Sussex was Cromwellian, 
and probably Richard sympathized with the Protector. There? is 
bui a single reference in his works to " the past generation,"^ and 
tliis is couched in studiously vague terms. His active brain 
was teeming with projects and methods for ameliorating the 
condition of the people, and advancing the power and wealth of 
the nation. But he did not on that account neglect his own 
business of farming. Two of his three patents were connected 

' Proposals, etc., p. 8. 

- Ajyhorisms, etc., p. 3. ^ Ibid., p. 10. 

^ " Baptists existed because there were those who eoukl not conceive that 
anytliing sliort of the strong heart-felt conviction of tlie adult coidd make him 
a iit subject of an ordinance which was a sign of tlie Cliristian profession." 
Gardiner's Civil War, I, p. 813. It was from the Independent Church of 
Amsterdam that the English Baptists were an ofPshoot. 

'" Model of Government, p. 8. 



^8 



LIFE OF RICHARD HAINES. 



with agriculture, aud he was evidently a shrewd practical farmer, 
and has left us many useful hints (as will appear later on), on the 
conserv^atioii of forests, the cultivation of fruit trees, and the 
proper treatment of different soils. 

Knowledge of the Bible. — All this could not have left much 
time for reading, but Eichard knew at least one book well and 
that was the Bil^le. He is always ready to support an argument 
with a passage froin the Scriptures. He quotes, in one place or 
another, from nearly half the books of the Canon. It is his firm 
conviction that a nation's happiness depends solely on the 
goodwilP and pleasure of God, and he does not shrink from saying 
(in 1681) that "the . . . Eod in the hand of the Almighcy is 
now in an high manner lifted up against the whole land, the 
King, and the Cliurcli, yea, and against the Eeligion and Worsliip 
which God hath appointed ; so that j\Iisery, Desolation, Death, 
and unmerciful Cruelties, do (as it were) stare in our Faces."^ 
The saving of souls he reckons as worth a hundred thousand times 
more than the saving of lives.-^ In the spirit of the words, "I will 
have mercy and not sacrifice," he aflirms tliat " God hath a greater 
regard to the Poor than to the External Eeligion and Worship 
which he himself connnanded."'* 

If the Baptist discipline allowed of it, no doubt Eichard at 
times preached to the congregation. We know he was a fluent 
speaker, and his books show that he could reason a question out. 
An incidental specimen of his scriptural exposition may he given. 
It is on that disputed point " Sin against the Holy Ghost," on 
which he sensibly says : " In my opinion it is that sin only which 
is committed under the highest degree of saving means (to wit) 
God by his Holy Spirit and Word opposing, and the person 
persevering in his intended wickedness, so that wliether it be the 
Sin of Usurpation, Eebellion, Tyranny, Hypocrasie, Idolatry, etc., 
any of these may thus be committed against the Holy Ghost, and 
so become impardonable."^ He had an abiding sense of the 
omnipotence of God, " tlie Most High, before whom the greatest 
Monarchs on Earth are but animated Shadow^s,"^ and a deep I'aith 
in his Eedeemer, " my Blessed Lord and Saviour whose favour is 
better than Life."" The Bible he looked upon as the one Guide of 



^ Proposals, etc., postsci-ipt, p. A'i. 
- England's Weal, pp. 10, 11. 
"" England's Weal, p. 11. 
'' Ibid., p. 30. 



^ Proposals, etc., p. 11. 
" New Lords, p. 39. 
^ Ibid., p. 33. 



LIFE OF RICHAKD HAINES. 39 

Life, and he is never tired of speaking of it as "the alone infallil)le 
and unerring Eule/ tlie Pole Star of God's word/ the most 
infallible Directory to bring men to Heaven,^ the Eoyal Eoad and 
King's Highway to Life and Glory ,•* the Touchstone to which all 
practices must be brought, and the Sacred Dyal with whicli all 
motions must be compared/ and, finally, that Sacred Boundary 
which as a Eiver of Life divides the Church of Christ from that of 
Anti-Christ."*^ 

Attitude towards Eomanism. — The Eoman Church he 
naturally regards with a holy horror, and had evidently read a 
good deal about it. He holds Caffyn up to odium l)y calling him 
a little Pope, and comparing his doings to those of his " Triple- 
Crowned Brother beyond the Seas."'' He is acquainted with the 
ceremonies at the election of Popes, and their pretended un- 
willingness to take the office. He speaks of their title " Servants 
of the Servants of Clirist,"^ and of kissing the Pope's toe." He 
mentions Pope Clement {tlte First, he calls him) as selling 
pardons and indulgences, on the ground that " one drop of our 
Saviour's blood had been enough to have saved all mankind," and 
that, whereas all his blood had been spilt, the overflow had been 
given as a treasure to be disposed of by the Chief Officers of the 
Church."^*' Pope Innocent Ill's name naturally suggests the phiy 
upon it — " nothing seemingly more humble, nothing more 
Innocent."" He has a hit at an unnamed Cardinal, who declared 
" that an honest man ought not to l)e a slave to his word.^^ (_)n 
the other hand he speaks of Luther as " that holy man."^'^ In his 
argument against Caffyn he adduces the case of a certain religious 
fanatic or impostor named Hacket, who pretended to be sent from 
heaven as the destined Emperor of Europe. He was proclaimed 
in Cheapside by his followers as the Loid Jesus, and led astray 
many, among them persons named Arthington and Coppinger, the 
former a learned, sober, conscientious, and religious man.^* Else- 
where another crazy fanatic, John tlie Taylor, the so-called '' King 
of Leyden," is spoken of.^'' 

1 Kew Lords, pp. 7, 12, 39, 57. " Ibid., p. 24. 

•* Proposals, etc., postscript, p. rii. ^ New Lords, Preface, p. iii. 

•^ Ibid., p. 55. f' Lbid., p. 43. ' Ibid., p. 37. * Ibid., p. 25. 

'•» Ibid., pp. 25, &2. '" Ibid., p. 13. " Ibid., p. 25. 

i-^ Lbid., Preface, p. v. '■' Ibid., p. 33. 

'■* Ibid., pp. 22, 55, where K. H. meutions the book, " Arthiiigtou's Sediiction 
and Eepeutance," from -which he got the above particulars. The affair took place 
in the reign of Elizabeth. ''' Hid., pp. 22, 47. 



f 40 ) 



CHAPTER V. 

The Ql'Arrel with Matthew Caffyn. 

ExGOMMLTXiCATiON OF EiCHARD Haines. — Ricliard Haines, by 
ohservation and experiment, lasting over a number of years, and 
costing him " not less than tiiirty ponnd,"^ had discovered 
something Avhich he thought might be useful to all farmers. 
Wishing to turn an honest penny by it, he set about getting a 
patent for his invention, not dreaming that such an act, within 
the competence of any citizen of whatsoever religion, could he 
objected to on religious or other grounds. Making his application, 
therefore, in the proper quarter, he ol)tained the issue of a 
warrant^ on 19 August, 167:^, to the Attorney-General "for pre- 
paring Letters Patents to secure to Eichard Haynes of Wantley, 
in the parish of Sullington, co. Sussex, for 14 years, advantage of 
his invention for severing and cleansing the seed called Nonsuch 
Trefoyle or Hop Clover from the huske."" 

The terms of the patent, when Pdchard finally obtained it, 
were Ijriefly as follows : — * 

"Whereas by the humble petition of Richard Haines of Wantly in the 
psh of Sullington co. Sussex Gent as also by the certificate of diverse of our 
loving subjects living in the same county w^e are given to understand that 
the 8*1 R. H. uf his extraordinary care & study hath found out and discovered 
' A way to sever divide and make clean the seed called nonsuch trefoyle or 
hop clover from its husk and also from the mixture of course grass or weed 
that naturally cleaves unto it a thing yet never attained unto by any 
person whatsoever by which means the seed becomes so pure and cleane that 
it brings forth much more grass than ever the other did' Know ye that 
"we grant unto the s** E. H. especiall license that he during the terme of 
14 years may use this innovation in this our Kingdom of England & 
Principality of Wales yielding and paying therefore yearly during the said 
tenure to this receipt of our exchequer at Westminster the sum of 
20 shillings at the Feast of St. Michael." 

^ . Neio Lords, p. 3. 

- Hist. MSS. Commission, Report ix. p. 448S. 

•'* Sew Lords, pp. 1, 2. It miglit be called yellow clover, as it bears a tliree- 
leaved grass and yelluw flower. 

■* See Fateut Eoll, 24 Car. IT, pt. 8, No. 21. Printed iu Patent Offiue Library, 
No. 16(i, 3 February, 25 Car. II. 



THE QUARREL WITHT MATTHEW CAFPYN. 41 

A provision was added that no one should be prevented 
by these Letters Patent from cleansing the seed in any other 
way. 

But though, as was admitted by some of Kicliard's enemies/ 
the seed of yellow clover had been improved by the process, and 
though one of his chief opponents pul>licly declared^ that he 
considered the patentee the real inventor of the process, and 
though no one's riglits were thereby infringed, yet when the 
inventor disclosed his intention of applying for a patent to Caffyn, 
as to a dear friend, the latter most unexpectedly took umbrage'^ at 
the suggestion, and tried to dissuade him, and, when he persisted, 
asked him to discuss it in a meeting.^ This Kichard very properly 
declined to do, saying " they had nothing to do to meddle in such 
matters." Then Caffyn, thinking to coerce his dissentient fol- 
lower, first worked up his congregation, who (we are repeatedly 
told) almost adored him, against the patent,^ and then the public, 
falsely representing that the so-called invention was a thing 
previously known ; that the inventor wished to prevent others 
from cleansing ordinary clover in the usual way ; that the patent 
was not justified by great charge, long study, or more than common 
ingenuity." These falsehoods, scattered broadcast, produced an 
effect among many honest people, and gave the enemies of the 
Baptist l)ody a handle for reviling that sect in general and 
Eichard Haines in particular." 

Meanwhile Caffyn put bis religious machinery in motion and 
summoned Kichard Haines to a Quarterly Meeting to delmte the 
question, Ijut being at a distance (in London probaljly) he could 
not be piesent.'^ However, Caffyn introduced the subject in a 
general way, without mentioning names, abusing patents and 
rashly exclaiming " What are the statutes of the realm to us ? " 
Patentees he classed with idolaters and unclean persons, and 
finally threatened principal and abettors in this affair with ex- 
communication." The chief offender was moreover to be boy- 
cotted.^o 

' New Lords, p. 2. - Ibid. =* Ibid., p. 3. 

^ Caffyn's Envifs Bitterness, p. 12. •" New Lords, p. 3. 

" Caffyn's Envy's Bitterness, p. Id. 

' Caffyn's Raging Wave, p, 12; Envifs Bitterness, p. 17. See Neiv Lords, p. 3. 
^ Ibid., p. 3. Envi/'s Bitterness, jip. 9, 1l). 
^ New Lords, jip. 4, 15. 

'" Ibid., pp 19, 42. R. il. liad a report of the proceidiugs from uue wlio 
was present, but also " out of commuuiou " with the body. 



42- THE QUAEREL WITH MATTHEW CAFFYN. 

About the end of 1672, ov beginning of 1673, a second meeting 
was held for the consideration of the case.^ At this Caftyn 
condemned patents because they were of bad repute in the world 
and a cause of offence to the weak brethren.^ Eichard Haines 
then addressed the meeting, bound as arl^iters to judge by the 
Scriptures, and after pointing out that many things were un- 
popular without being wrong, requested leave to reason with the 
" weak brethren." But, says he, " this poor grace was denied me." 
Caffyn, claiming a privilege (as he said) of twenty years' standing,-'^ 
repeatedly interrupted him in an insulting and upbraiding manner. 
To the question, "Who is it that accuses me?" only Caffyn 
answered, " I do." Further del)ate was useless, and Eichard 
Haines claimed to appeal according to Baptist usage.* 

After further " prating against him with malicious words " 
and unfairly bringing in another accusation about a bargain of 
clover, Caffyn then proceeded to excommunicate Eichard Haines,^ 
threatening tlie same fate to one who " spoke but sparingly in 
favour of his case." Asked for a definition of the offence, Caffyn 
could only assert that " Patents were of the Devil." 

After the meeting a paper "considerable large," drawn up by 
Caffyn, and containing the grounds of the proceedings against him, 
was sent to Eichard Haines," but it contained nothing new.'^ Nor 
was the tension relieved by a private talk between the chief 
parties, held at the house of one of Caffyn's chief adherents.^ 

The offender l)eing excommunicated, one would have supposed 
that his enemies would have let him get his patent in peace. Far 
from it ; they laid an information against it'' Ijy the inoutli of two 
emissaries before the Lord Keeper on the grounds above given."' 

Some of those who were led astray by these misrepi'esenta- 
tions" afterwards acknowledged their error, but in the first 

^ New Lords, p. 5. The first opportunity E. H. liad of Ireafiug with the couare- 
gation on the subject. 

■2 Ibid., p. 4. 

^ Ihid., pp. 5, 27; Caffyn's Enrt/'s Bitterness, p. 13. 

^ This appeal was to (1) a neiglibonr Church; (2) Quarterly meeting of eldcis 
and brethren from sereral congregations ; (3) General Assembly in London. 

= New Lords, p. 5. Caffyn's Lnvy's Bitterness, p. 13. 

6 Ibid., p. 15, and Caffyn's Baging Wave, pp. 2, 12. 

' Caffyn's Evry's Bitterness, p. 21. For Richard's own doings on that day see 
above, p. 32. 

*^ New Lords, p. 13. '■' Ibid., p. 51. 

1" See p. 41. 

" Netv Lords, p. 18. 



THE QUAKKEL WITH MATTHEW CAFFYK 48 

instance many persons, from several towns and parishes/ in- 
cluding several persons of quality, sul)scribetl a petition against 
the patent. 

Counsel was engaged on l)oth sides, able counsel (unnamed) 
for tlie patentee, and i'or Cafiyn's party Sir Edward Thurlow of 
Eeigate,^ and Sir Henry Peckham of Chichester. The case was 
argued before "Lord" Bridgeman,^ Keeper of the Broad Seal. How- 
ever, as Caffyn exultingly remarks, "they soon made judgement 
against the patent," and " it was threw out,"- Eichard Haines's 
enemies boasting that any more interviews with high authorities 
on that subject would cost him £100 a time. So the patent, which 
had been granted, was not confirmed, and Eichard went quietly 
home again, where he found his enemies jubilantly boasting that 
they were ''justified on all hands, and glad they had done it." 

But tlieir victim was not the man to submit tamely to 
injustice. He drew up a statement of his case for publication, 
not forgetting with prayer and fasting to invoke a blessing on his 
wTjrk.^ His reasons for pul)lishing were, to purge the Baptist 
Church of errors, and to clear it in the eyes of tbe world, who 
were led by Cafiyn's proceedings to credit it with " dangerous 
opinions."" To pubhsli at all was against the grain, and woulJ not 
have been thought of, had not Caffyn published the exconnnuni- 
cation, and "that within three days, particularly to such as he had 
reason to l)elieve hated " Eichard Haines most.'' 

Pamphlet in hand Eichard then (early in 1673 we may 
suppose) betook himself to London, intending to puljlish the same, 
when, to his surprise and delight, he found everything " smile 
upon him."^ 

A satisfactory interview with, the new Lord Keeper, Lord 
Shaftesbury, resuUed in the patent being confirmed." So the 
book was laid aside, and negotiations for a settlement of the 
quarrel v/ere opened up with one who pretended to be a common 
friend to Eichard Haines and Matthew Caffyn. Lie wished tlie 

^ Caffyn's Raging Ware, p. 14; Etivt/'s Bitterness, p. 16. 
- Caffyn's Envif-s Bitterness, p. 16 ; A Eaging JVave, p. 14. 
^ Sir Orlando Bridgeman, Keeper from 1667-1672. 

^ Envy's Bitterness, pp. 7, 16; Raging Wave, p. 15; New Lords, p. 52. 
'" New Lords, p. 52. 

^ Ibid., Pref . pp. ii aud vii, and pp. 33, 35, 36, 47, 54. 
7 Ibid., Pref. p. iii. '^ Ibid., p. 52. 

■' The patent was advertised iu the London Gazette (No. 803), 28 Julj, 1673; 
(No. 872), Thursday, 26 March, 1674. 



;44 THE QUAPiEEL WITH MATTHEW CAFFYN. 

matter to be referred (as was usual) to a neighbouring congre- 
gation, but Richard refused this, knowing how great was Caffyn's 
influence in that part of England. Accordingly an informaP 
meeting of " London friends " was agreed to, and the friend 
engaged to bring Caffyn to it. Time and place were arranged 
by an " elder," only slightly known to "R. H., and several church 
officers, equally strangers to him, were asked to be present. It 
toolc place at a Coffee house, and there Mr. G. and others " of 
the same differing persuasion from us"^ (says Caffyn), spoke for 
R. H. The latter's account is that "in a full meeting of several 
church officers of known integrity, to wit, Mr. G., Mr. W., Mr. P., 
Mr. C. and Mr. T., . . . the most eminent in London,"^ advice and 
admonition were publicly given to Caffyn, but by him wholly 
disregarded. Declaring their dislike of his illegal practices, 
they asked him " liow he dared to do such a thing, having no 
Word of God for it,"^ and finally bade him go home and reform 
the matter. When Richard returned to Sussex he found the 
conoreuation had hardened their hearts, and said of the " London 
friends," " We do not own them." 

Loath as Richard was to publish his book, fearing to bring 
leproach on the congregation, yet, " after a long and weary 
waiting" without result, lie again took his book in hand, but 
put it by again till the hearing of his appeal to tlie General 
Assembly in London, which he had now decided to make 
formally.^ Caffyn was informed of this intention, and a letter 
sent to the congregation that they miglit be represented before 
the Assembly.*^ R. H. appeared in due course with his witnesses,'' 
but Caffyn craftily came alone. He had, moreover, another 
quarrel on hand, and proceeded to make an attack upon a member 
named Monk,* against whom he had prepared a charge in writing. 
The sympathies of the meeting were with Monk, but much time 

' Envy's Bitterness, p. 3. 

- S aging Wave, pp. 19, 20. Caffyn says tliey were few, from no particular 
cliiirch, and not chosen delegates. 

^ Neiv Lords, Pref. p. ii. '' Ibid., p. 56 ; Pref. p. iv. 

'' Ihid., p. 6 ; Pref. iv. 

^ Ibid., p. V. Probably in June, 1673. 

'' Among them a certain H. S., asked by E. H. by letter to attend : see Envy's 
Bitterness, pp. 19, 20. 

** He had written a book called Cvre for the Cankering Error of the New 
Entychians, published 16'/ 3, aimed at a heresy of Caffyn's that our Lord was 
not of the seed of DaTid, and did not take His flesh of the Virgin Mary. New 
Lords, p. 6. 



THE QUARREL WITH MATTHEW CAFFYN 45 

was taken up by this attack. But finally Caffyn did introduce 
the question of exconnnunication, and R. H. asked definitely 
whether the Court could and would decide the case. It does not 
appear what answer they made to this. Cafiyn then proposed 
tliat six or more persons, chosen by tlie Assembly, should with 
the Quarterly Meeting in the country, be the judges in ilie case, 
Caffyn and his coiigregation only appearmg as witnesses.^ This 
li. H. refused." Then Mr. M(ouk) suggested that a committee of 
six or more members, II. H. apparently to have tlie clioice of 
persons, should settle the matter then and there.^ The Caf- 
finites now tried to adjourn the meeting on the ground of want 
of time. That pretext set aside, Caffyn fell back upon the plea 
that his congregatioir were not there, and appealed to the rule 
of the General Assembly that an appeal could not be made to it 
until the question had been brought before a neighbour con- 
gregation.^ One of Cah'yn's party seconded his objection, and 
the matter stood adjourned.^ After this fiasco liichard lodged 
liis appeal for the next General Assembly to be held in London 
20 May (1674).« 

On this occasion he appeared " with urgency not common for 
a hearing of the matter,' before such persons as he had chosen 
or esteemed," consisting of numerous elders, messengers, and 
brethren i'rom city and country. Caffyn " exclaimed ojien- 
mouthed against him "'^ when K. H. likened him to the beast 
in the Revelation, giving humorous reasons for the similitude. 
The appeal was now accepted and a decision come to, though 
R. H.'s witnesses were refused a hearing." With this decision, 
says Caffyn, Richard Haines expressed at the time open tlis- 
satisfaction, but in his book stated that he did not clearly 
understand it, though, as fai' as he did understand it, it was for a 
reversal of the sentence of exconnnunication.^" 

' Bagirig Ware, p. 18 ; JEiivy^s Bitterness, p. 6. 

- New Lords, p. 7. ^ Ibid., Pref. t, and p. 7. 

■* Caffyn says {Raging irace, pp. 20, 2i) he told E.. II. in the presence of 
James Smith that an Assembly could not judge the case. But R. 11. objected, 
tliat when notice of appeal was given, Caffyn had not denied the possibility of its 
being heard, nor intimated that his adherents wovild be away. 

^ Envy's Hitterness, p. 5. 

" New Lords, p. 7. 

'' A Raging Wave, pp. 18, 19. 

** New Lord-f, p. 32. 

'■' Paging Wave, p. 22, quotes Protestation, p. 10. 

'" Protestation, pp. 10, 11, quoted by Caffyn, Raging Wave, p. 18, 



46 THE QfAT^REL WITH MATTHEW CAFFYN. 

Either now or again at a later meeting the matter was debated, 
and patents judged lawful on Caffyn's own showing, without a 
witness being heard on the other side, after which several 
members of the Court subscribed a paper requesting Caffyn to 
put away the evil of his doings.^ 

After this the question seems to have come up several times 
for discussion, and E. H. was repeatedly asked to refer it and not 
rqjj^eal, and on bis refusal to merely refer it, be was told that he 
must keep their rule of an appeal to a country congregation first. 
This " unjust and crooked course "^ he was obliged to take, and no 
good resulting therefrom, he again brought the matter before tbe 
High Court. The appeal was again opposed, but the opposers 
were outvoted. Then Caffyn's party slandered tlie witnesses and 
refused to allow them to use their papers, though years had passed 
since the events in dispute. Finally their evidence was dis- 
regarded. Tlie names of the prominent Caffinites were George 
Hammon, Capt. Morcock, Uridge of Kent, Marner of St. Martin's- 
le-Grand, Thos. Croucher, Miller, Francis Stanley, and Amory, 
one of whom was chairman on this occasion. So fierce was the 
contention that the meeting broke up in confusion, the members 
saying that " God had withdrawn Himself from them."^ 

Sentence of Excommunication Eevehsed. — The final settle- 
ment did not come till seven years from the time the quarrel 
began. The last, and successful, appeal was made to the 
" General Assembly of Baptists convened in London from most 
Parts of the Nation" on 3 June, 1680. E. H. began by giving 
his reasons for originally making his appeal against Caffyn, one 
of the members of the High Court, immediately after the fact 
complained of liad been committed — because theirs was the 
highest court, because the case was unique, and because Caffyn's 
action struck at the King's prerogative. From this Court, then, 
he expected justice — because, as sevei'al members of it had ad- 
mitted, it had the power to redress grievances, because Caffyn's 
party had had full notice of the appeal, and had allowed it, and 
because the ^\'hole case was a scandal to the Baptist profession. 
Then his appeal had been opposed, and he had been obliged to 
go before a Quarterly Assembly in the country, on the promise 
that if justice were not done there, the High Court would accept 
the appeal and decide the question. But all this turned out to 

' ApjJeal to Asuemhlt/ (1680). 
• ^ Ibid, » Ibid, 



THE QUAETJEL AVITH MATTHEW CAFFYN. 47 

lie a plan for wasting time, corrupting witnesses, and tiring out 
the appellant by expensive attendance with witnesses. 

Therefore does Pdchard Haines proclaim to all whom it may con- 
cern, that unless they will now reverse Catiyn's acts, and admonish 
his abettors, thus showing that all this seven years' waiting is not 
mere hypocrisy and deceit ; unless, that is, they will do him 
justice, he will himself indict Caft'yn and his abettors in the (Jrown 
Office, if they think ht to take cognizance of such an offence. 

A " Printed Paper,"^ })resented to the Court, summed up the 
charges against Caftyn as follows : — 

Istly. That JMatthew Caffyn, of Broadbridge near Horsham in 
Sussex, has contennied the Laws and l*rerogative of the 
Kino;, and threatens to excommunicate those who stand 
up for them. 
2ndly. That he has excommunicated a " Protestant and Liege 
Subject of the Piealm " for no transgression of any human 
law. 
ordly. That his Principles, Tenets, and Government are dan- 
gerous to the State, unjust and cruel to individuals. 
Further the appellant impeached the above-mentioned members 
of the High Court, and demanded their I'emoval from it as judges. 
Then he tore to shreds the pretext, urged by his enemies, that the 
Court could not redress grievances, concluding with this indignant 
outburst, "And now possibly with a pitiful Jugling Hypocrite 
{sic), you may exclaim against the thing, viz. : Superinicndenci/ and 
Dependency, which you owned when I entered my appeal, but now 
you really pretend the C!hurches of God are Independent : well, 
then, what are you a General Assembly for ? Are you nothing 
but Popes of Sand, and are you not gross Hypocrites and Juglers 
not to tell me so before ? " Such a doctrine of Independency will, 
he points out, dissolve tlieir General Council and set up a King- 
Pope in every parish.- If they declirred to do him the promised 
justice, let them compensate him for all his expenses incurred in 
consequence of that promise. All the English Anabaptists," he 
adds, are not to blame. Most of them are Independent, " they 
meddle not with State Aftairs ; they assirme not to excommunicate 
Persons, but upon the same terms as they baptize them, viz., plain 
text of Scripture f(jr their warrant therein." 

' This Paper lias not survived. 

^ A danger not far from oiir own doors now, in this present year of grace, 

•' He mentions Mr. Plant, Mr. Hicks, Mr. Kiffin, 



48 THE QUAEEEL AA^TH MATTHEW CAFFYN. 

Magna est Veritas ct prcvalebit ! At last Eichard Haines's 
perseverance in a good cause had its result, and tlie Court, 
blamiiK'- him oulv for his hard words used of C'affyn, reversed 
the excommunication, and ordered Caffyn to rescind it, which he 
promised to do. But E. H., partly in jest and partly in earnest, 
demands something further. As unjust imprisonment is punish- 
able l)y a fine of hs. an hour, so wrongful excommunication, a far 
worse crime, should be assessed much higher. But he will be 
merciful and accept Is., nay even Qd , an hour for the seven years. 

It was a great triumph, perhaps a unique one in the annals of 
Church Government, for a single individual, after so long a contest 
against so able and influential an opponent as the " Battle-axe 
of Sussex," supported Ijy a strong party, to have succeeded in 
asserting his rights. That he did succeed at all must have been 
due to the justice of his cause, his' own ability and determination, 
and to the fact that his character was one which attached to his 
side many influential friends and enabled their weight to poise the 
scale in his favour. 

It seems probable that Eichard remained a Baptist in spite of 
the quarrel. Early in the course of the dispute, he tells us his 
reasons for not deserting the Baptist Profession then, and these 
reasons were as strong in 1680 as in 1674. His reasons were' : 
" because I know not any other congregation of that persuasion 
corrupted with any of those errors . . . and forasmuch as I do 
upon safe and Scripture grounds believe that the way they profess 
is the way to Grace and Glory, I therefore dare not desert it, but 
desire to be found persevering therein with Heart and Affection. 
And that all good people may do the same, is the hearty prayer of 
him who is a lover of Truth, Eighteousness and Peace, and of 
those who imbrace the same." 

As Eichard filled the post of Churchwarden in Sullingtou 
parish in 1673 and in 1688, we may conclude that the sympathy 
of his fellow-parishioners was with him in bis LriaJ. The fact 
of his burial in Christ Church,- Xewgate Street, does not prove 
that he had ceased to be a Baptist at the time of his death. His 
great opponent Caffyn was buried in the cliurchyard of Itcliing- 
field, Sussex. 



^ New Lords, Pref. ad fin., pp. iii, vi. 

- The Secretary of Christ's^ Hospital tells me he belieyes it was a ruai-k of 
distinction to be buried in that cburoh. 




Sullington Church (exterior) with fine ye-w. 




Sullington Church (interior) 



THE QUAliREL AVJTII :\IATTIIEW CAFFYN. 40 



Appended Note un ]\[attheav Caffyn. 

Caffyn was e\'iclently a man of commanding personality, wield- 
ing extraordinary influence among the Baptist churches in the 
south of England/ We learn Trom other sources that he endured 
persecution in defence of his faith, and he hints at this when he 
says that he had always preached submission to authority, and 
had subscribed to a document in that sense.- In another passage 
he pretends to l)e afraid that Eichard Haines wishes to incite the 
magistrates and judges of assize against him. His temperament was 
perfectly imperturbalile, for TUchard Haines says of him " I think all 
the World cannot put him into the least show of Passion,'^ and that 
Machiavel might have been his Pupil in the Arts of Dissinndation. 
He salutes you as Joab did Al)ner ; with a kiss and all hail my 
Brother, but at the same time fails not to smite you under the 
fifth rib."-' 

Various are the misdemeanours attril)uted to Caffyn : that he 
acted as eavesdropper, to which Caffyn naively replies, that it 
was only against J. E., an abettor of E. H.^ ; that he told a 
deliberate lie'^ ; that he favoured his friends, even so far as to 
let off with a mild rebuke a kinswoman who had committed 
fornication with another meml^er of the congregation,'' while 
he showed spite against a friend of Eichard's for an old fault 
confessed and repented of, and received an accusation against 
Eichard Haines from a non -Baptist.** 

Eeference is constantly made to Caffyn's polemics against the 
Eoman Church, though he never attacks its Infallibility^ ; against 
Bishops, whom he calls usurpers'" ; and " with a high hand against 
Quakers, charging them with Pride and Self-conceitedness, that tlie}' 
despise Dominions and speak evil of Dignities, and tliat their look 
is more Stout than their Fellows."" Yet, in spite of all his pious 
hatred of the Pope and all his doings, Caffyn, by the illegalit}' of 

' New Lords, Pref. p. iv. 
- Ibid., p. 31 ; A Raging Wave, pp. 15, IG. 

•' Still his equanimitv seems to have been disturbed on one occasion at least • 
see above, p. 45. 

■* New Lords, p. 21. '^ Ibid., pp. 9, 46. 

'' Ibid., pp. 10, 12. ' Ibid., pp. 11, 12. 

» Ibid., pp. 9, 42. 

^ Ibid., pp. 45, 202. Pref. p. ii. '" Ibid , p. 5. 

" Ibid., p. 20, quoted from Caffyn's book against the Quaker?, p. 56. 



50 THE QUAEKEL WITH MATTHEW CAFFYX. 

his own acts, his usurpation and arbitrariness, was, with his con- 
gregation, within " less than a Sabbath day's journey of Eome."^ 
We are not surprised, therefore, to learn that Caffyn approved of 
auricular confession, and made it essential for absolution before 
death.- 

The theory upheld by Caffyn, that a congregation must submit 
to the pleasure of its " weak brethren " in all cases, lawful and 
unlawful, Eichard Haines pleasantly calls the '•' Caffinian Error."" 

Another doctriric of Caffyn's, in which Eichard Haines seems 
disposed to agree with him, was that believers should not marry 
unbelievers, but Caffyn went further and said that those who did 
so should be excommunicated, and the union, so far as the 
l)eliever was concerned, should be regarded as fornication.* 

But Caffyn also fell into positive heresy.^ For this and othei 
errors respecting the Trinity and other Scriptural doctrines 
Caffyn's most intimate friend, Joseph Wright of Maidstone, con 
vinced of the corrupt tendency of his principles, appealed to the 
Assembly against him.*^ It was a just nemesis on one who had 
turned against his own friend. " To Caffyn," says the author of the 
history just quoted, " is to be attril)uted the introduction of those 
errors respecting the doctrines of the Trinity and the Person oi 
Christ which have destroyed the glory of the Baptist denomina- 
tion."^ 

It must have been a bitter thing for Caffyn to reverse his 
sentence of excommunication. We have no knowledge of how 
this was done. But no real reconciliation was, we may in)agine 
possiljle between the two men. An early death cut oft' Eichard 
Haines in the midst of his work and powers, while Caffyn lived 
to be S6 years of age. Born in 1628 lie died in iTl-t. 

' I\'eiii Lords, p. 43. - Ibid,, p. 44. 

^ Ibid., p. 24. lu the present case the "weak brethren" were only offended 
because Caffrn tohl them to be so. See ibid., pp. 14, 20, 27. 

^ Ibid., p. 12. ^ See above, p. 44. 

'' Irimey's Hist, of Engl 'sh Baptists, II, 571. 

' Ibid., p. 569. The quarre. with E. H. is referred to on p. 572. Cf. also 
Crosby's Hist, of English Baptists, IV, pp. 338, 341. 



(51) 



CHAPTER VI. 

KiCHAED HaINE.s's LlTEKAKY Si'YLE. 
" Ze stiile r'est rhomme." — Bufo/t. 

The Liteeaey Aspect of IiIchakd Haines's ^^'oEKS. — Our 
author makes many apologies for himself as a writer, alleginu liis 
want of skill and education ; more es|)ecially does he do this in 
the " Epistle ])edicatory " to his first book against ( 'affyn. 
" Since neither Nature noi' Education have (sic) furnisht me with 
those Arts and Accomplishments which I must acknowledge 
necessary to all such as expose their writhigs to the Public eye : 
let me entreat . . . your favoural)le construction . 
as often as you find me unskilfull in Language or Methodical 
Order; for ... I have never been exercised in such pulJick 
endeavours."^ In another place, writing during the same year, he 
alludes to his " Unworthiness and 01)scure C'Ondition," and to his 
treatise as " these mean lines " and '• these unpolish'd Papers."^ 
" Though incapal )le, and not sufficiently qualified to do any con- 
siderable Service,"" and though he liad met with Httle encoura<>'e- 
ment,* yet he boasted that he liad " im[>roved liis small Oenious 
to the utmost.""' 

Caffyn docs not licsilate to accuse him of (UsingcnuouHuess 
and mock humility in thus dc^preciating his works, in that he 
cnj})loycd "a Irauscrilicr, a man learned in the law"'' wIki (liy 
li. H.'s own confession, sa}'s CafJyii) "sup])licd with amendments 
his matter when he had not made it fine English."'' Again in liis 
Introduction t(i Eiivys Bitterness, Caffyn asserts tliat " another 
person, whom both Nature and Education had furnish'd with 
accomplishments necessary for such puljlic concerns, did frame 
his matter into that form and manner of language in which it 
now appears." I cannot think there was much in this alleged 

^ Neio Lords, Pref. p. vii. 

- Prevention of Poverty, Prcf. i, ii, iii. •* Ibid., p. 2. 

^ Ibid., Pref. p. iii. ■* Proj^iosdls, p. 4. 

'^ A Raging Wave, p. 22. 

' I cannot trace this admission in R. H.'s existing boolit. 

e 2 



52 laCHAED HAINES'S LlTEIlAltY STYLE. 

assistance.^ Pdcliard Haines's later works, in which it is not likcjly 
that he received any help, show the same characteristics of style as 
his earlier ones. The language in all is racy and rather homely, 
pro\'erl)S and proverl^ial expressions are common, and Scriptural 
allusions incessant. 

Here is a specimen of his homelier style : — " Thus my beloved 
Brethren, But his weak Little Children, whilst he is as it were 
Singing to you a pleasant Song of Eome's ruin Ijeing at hand and 
Ivocking you into the peaceable sleep of vain Confidence in his 
Cradle of pretended Safety, Hath he not all on a Sudden Led you 
over this Bridge of Infallibility quite Across Scripture Authority, 
and Scpiat you down in the very Lap of the Great MHiore of 
Bal^ylon."^ 

He speaks of Caffyn's " groundless, lioundless quarrelsome 
humour,'"^ his " tyrannick love, or love by antipathy,"^ and again, 
" as fo]- his Wisdome is it not from beneath ? And his Love as 
deep as Hell ? Oh rare Love ! "^ " In brief, he kills you with pure 
kindness, and under pretence of the highest Love, makes you an 
example of sober lievenge."" " What an Innocent, a Turtle, to 
turn Devouring Eagle ; or a Laml ) couchant on a sudden to start 
up into a Lion Eampant ! "'' 

Metaphor is frequently used. Prosperity is compared to a 
refreshing stream,^ poverty to the camp of a warlike king" ; " his 
Proposals are as a Ship without Governour, running a diift among 
the raging waves between the highest Eocks, and the shallow 
Sands, attended with Storms, Calms, and Cross-winds ; yet laden 
with Treasure sufficient to enrich the whole Kingdom."^" The 
recent discovery of the circulation of the blood supplies a favourite 
simile.^^ 

The sentences occasionally have an e])igrannnatic form to point 
tlie argument, e.g., " The Industry of one is gratified with tlie 
Contempt of Others " ; " We talk of brave things if Words would 

' At the end of Neio Lords (p. 58) the author says some errors are due to his 
absenee from the press. 

- New Lords, p. 43. '■'■ Ibid., pp. 23, 28. 

■i Ibid., p. 33. '" Ibid., p. 34. 

'' Ibid., p. 21. 

^ Ibid., p. 24. This is the only reference to heraklry. 

s PreveniioH of Porer/i/, p. 17. 

'■' Ibid., p. 28. 

'" Model of Cfureriiuieiif,.\j. 7. 

" Freveutionof Pover/i/,-p.3; P)-(y505rt?^, postscript, p. ir ; England'.'! Weal, -p. 9. 



RICH A III) IIATNES'S LITERARY STYLE. 53 

do tlie Work " ; and again, qnoting the cynicism of his opponents — 
" Let the Poor beg, starve, steal, and l)e hang'd and danin'd."^ 

There is a fair sprinkling of unusual words and expressions, 
perhaps some that may serve to illustrate the Ncio Encjlish 
Dictionary or the Dialed Dictionary. Thus, directions are given 
to prevent the " huzzing and S2yutteriiig of cider," or " \i^ fretting, if 
it lie priclc't" viz., become eager- : to teach the poor how to mvingle 
or Iiifchcl hemp or Hax" ; to detect the size, i.e. tlie strength, or 
proof, of spirit.* A statute is mentioned enacting that " on every 
Fall of Underwoods so many Standch, Tellows, or young Trees 
should be left to grow up for Timber.""' Ground is spoken (»f as 
being " as warm and Lae from the wind as may lie."" 

We find many good, liut now obsolete, words and expressions 
as " Card " for " Chart," " Vapour " (sul)st.) for " Brag," " docilile " 
" outlandish,"'' " stand in " for " cost " ; also some quaint ones, as 
'■■ to levy an olijection," "■ midland " for " inland " coimties, 
" scandle," for " scandalize,""* " expenditors," " otherways," " uneasi- 
ness " {i.e. difficulty), " asipiint," " natives of ships," " neighbour " 
(adj.)," great belly,"'^ " deputation " (= "allowance") "less plenty," 
'• more plenty," " very plenty," "overture" ( = preface), "companies" 
( = committees), " arch " coupled with dexterous. A compound 
not without merit is " self-ended,"' used of men whose thought 
and wishes end in self. " Pent-house- wise," which also occurs, is 
Shaksperian. 

Some phrases of a more modern cast also appear, as " com- 
petent " distance, " substantial " yeoman, " at a pinch," " on that 
very score," " hair-brain'd,"^" " on a firmer basis."^' 

The grammar, though in the main correct, is not ahvays aliove 
suspicion, e.g. in the sentence " for the sake of she tliat he loveth 
best." A Quakerism appears in " What hast thee to say ? " 

Worth noting perhaps are " certainest," " put case," " land kind 
for corn,*'^- " wool kindest to be converted," " tollage," " consump- 

^ 'England's Weal, p. 9. 

■■^ Aphorisms on Cyder, p. 12. ^ Proposals, p. 7. 

■* Aphorisms, p. 13, and Supplement to same. 

'" Prevention of Poverty, p. 9. '' Aphorisms, p. 16. 

' See Nehemiah xiii, 26. 
^ Shaksjiere's Jidius Ccesar. 

'^ Shakspere's Measure for Mpasirre, IT, 1, 100. Neiv Lords, p. 12. 
'" Shalispere lias " hare-brained." 

" The strong term " Devilish " is used once, and in one place a blank is left for 
a " swear " wo.vl to be supplied. See Appeal to General Assembly, 
12 Pi-erention of Poverty, p. 7. 



54 PJCEJARD HAINES'.S LITER VRY STVLE. 

tive of," " higli country wines," " vast since of treasure," and the 
curious phrase " we may modestly, thougii at rovers, guess it."^ 
Tlie expression " cross the great design " is fonnd in Cowley. 
Among names of liquors we get Stum, a sort of "must," Mum, a 
decoction of wheat malt, Frontimaclc, ohi Hochamore, and also 
Purl Royal, or wormwood. Proverbs and maxims abound such 
as : 

One soweth, another reapeth" ; 

To make a mountain out of a molehill" ; 

Idleness in youth is the seed plot of the hangman's harvest^ ; 

Much talking, little doing' ; 

Crush the cockatrice in its egg "; 

Zeal without true knowledge is most dangerous' ; 

Kissing goes by favour*^ : 

The case is as broad as long-' ; 

Like rotten wood in the dark, of more show than sul)stance^" ; 

Let charity begin at home^' ; 

Interest governs all people in the world, both good and bad^- ; 

ISIo good man can possibly Ije uncharitable'^ ; 

A whetstone, though blunt itself, sliarpeneth other things^"* ; 

Most dangerous is it to play with thunderbolts ; and to jest 
witli things tliat are sharp and burning.^'' 

Two homely ones are — '• to cry for a fairing'" " and " if the cap 
l)e made of wool, he shall pay the debt,"'' wliich the writer calls 
" the vulgar proA'erb." In this connection we may perhaps quote 
the fable of the magpie and pigeon : "The Old Fable is significa- 
tive of the Mag-Pye teaching tlie Wood Pigeon to build a Nest : 
to every Direction the other contemptuonsly cry'd — Thk I can do 
and this I can do ; which at last so iucensed the Pye, that she left 
her in the midst of her work with the Eeprimand— Tiien do't, 
then do't ; and ever since the siuqjle Pigion for want of a little 



' Prevention of Porerti/, p. 2. Ts it an arclierj term ? 

- Aphorisms, Supplement. ■' New Lords, p. 5. 

■* Prevention of Povertti, p. t. '" Hid., vii. 

^ Neiv Lords, p. 25. ' Ibid., p. 22. 

8 Ibid., p. 12. 9 Ibid., pp. 13, 44. 

" Ihid., p. 55. " Proposals, postscript, p. si. 

'^ Model of Government, p. 5. 

'■* Ibid., p. 8 ; Proposals, postscrij^t, p. xv. 

'^ Prevention of Povirti;, p. 20. See Hor. Ars Poet., 11. 304, 305. 

'•^ New Lords, p. 53. '6 Ibid., p. 58. 

'' Ihid . 1.. :'2. 



RlCHAItl) HAJNES'S LlTEUAllY STYLE. 55 

patience and gratitude is forc'd to be content with a sorry im- 
perfect Lodging for her young ones."^ 

The spelling is throughout erratic. Consonants are frequently 
doubled, e.g. " leggs," " upp," " pattent," " pitty," though the 
reverse sometimes occurs, e.g. " jugler." The letter y is a common 
substitute for i, as in " joyn," " dayly." Incorrect plurals are 
found, as in " boyes," " girles," but " moneys " is spelt rightly. 
The letters i and e are constantly confused, e.g., in " diserve," " des- 
tinguish," " devel," and " divel " ; and we meet with the older t for c, 
in " })hysitian," " vitiousness," etc. We naturally find "thi-ed" 
(but also "thread"), welth, neer (^but meak) supream, enow, 
neighbor (l)ut neighbour too), "pallet" for "palate," "oar" for 
" ore." " Allege " appears as " alleadge " and " allegdg," and we 
have " priviledg." Both " queries " and " quaeries," " permote " 
and " promote," " phlegmatic " and " flegmatic " are found, and all 
three forms " murther," " muther," " murder." 

Perhaps the unknown transcriber is responsible for some of 
the variations. The spelling is on the whole respectable enough 
for the time, and seems to show that Ilichard had some grammar 
school education. He may liave gone to Steyning Orammar 
School, liut the records there do not g(^ back so far. The only 
allusions to schools in our author are where he expresses a prehn'- 
ence for Public Schools- and Universities over private schools and 
tutors, and where he alludes to the ill effects of long sitting on 
growing boys." 

Knowledge of Hlstorv. — He had, as we have seen, a con- 
siderable knowledge of Papal and Italian history, and he quotes 
one remark from Bacon, that " to make even wishes that are not 
absurd deserves commendation.""' One reference there is to early- 
English History, where he says that Edgar, King of England, took 
" greater delight in his shipping, than any Pecreation whatsoever 
. . . and therefore once every year he would sail round his 
kingdom with a navy of stout ships, consisting of 4000 sail, which 
(saith the Historian) we find upon Ptecord "^ ; while of Henry YIl 
he says " tho' justly numbered amongst the wisest Monarchs of 
that age, his Incredulity is reported Ijy some Authors to have cost 
him the Immense loss of the West Indian Treasures . . . And 
even Eerdinand of Castile was beholding to the Importunities of 

' Aphorisms, p. 2. - Vrox-hinn fov the Poor. ]i. v. 

•' Propoftid.'i, po,?t^ci'i]it, ]1. xii. 

■' Frerention of rovn-lii, ]). 2\ . '' Ihld., ]•. 11. 



5G EIClIAFdt IIAIXESS LITER APvY STYLE. 

the Lady Isabella, for accepting the Discovery of this New World 
from a despised Columbus."^ 

There is no evidence that liichard Haines had ever read 
Shakspere, or, what is more surprising, JMilton, or what is most 
surprising of all, Bunyan, who was a Baptist like himself. There 
is no reference to Cromwell, but the words, " I love the word 
Eeformation well, but the thing better,"^ seeuis to me an echo of 
some expression in one of Cromwell's speeches. 

^ Aj)hori.sii)x, Introdiietion. - ApjJeal to Assemhlij. 



( r,7 



CHAPTER VTI. 

PircriARu Haines as Social and Political Economist. 

There is no doubt that Richard Haines spent a great deal of 
time and money (in tact lie seriously impoverished himself l)y it) 
in })ublishing his hnidvs, and i)erha])s in taking out liis patents/ 
the most promising of whieli he did not live to exploit. As has 
been seen, he met with nnieli opposition and discouragement. This 
is how he speaks of it. " 1 know v/lioever will attempt anything 
for publiek P)enetit. may expect these Three things (the first is 
necessary, the second Customary, and the third Diabolical), 
vi/. To be the Oliject of wise mens L'ensin'e, other mens 
Laughter, and if advantagious to himself. Envies implacable 
displeasure ; of which last, 1 have had share to the highest degree 
that Revenge could ex])ress: and this too from a pretended 
loving Brother, a person of an honest Profession, and of as 
debauched a Conscience ; yet 1 say, notwithstanding such dis- 
couragements, I have spent some time for Publiek Advantage."- 

TiiE Prevention of Povertv. — In the same year in which he 
was engaged on his l)Ook Neio Lonh, New Lavs, Richard In'ought 
out his first book on mattei's of pulilic interest, entitled Thr 
rri'ixntion of Povcrtij. His object was partly economical and 
partly social. He wished to deal with the question f)f the pooi', 
and to ini])rove trade. That his j)olitical economy was at fault in 
several i)articulars is not surprising, but no one who reads his 
pamphlets can doubt that he was actuated by the sincerest 
patriotism and religious feeling."' The title of this, his first book 
of the kind, was as follows : 

The Prevention of Poveity : or, A Discourse of the Causes of the Dec-ay 
of Trade, Fall of Lands^ and Want of Money throiighout the Nation ; with 
certain Expedients for remedying the same, and Iji-inging this kingdom to an 
eminent degree of Riches and Prosperity : By Saving many Hundred 
Thousand Pounds yearly, Raising a full Tiade, and Constant Imi)l(iyment 

' Caffyn says that his first patent did not bring him in anytliing to speak of. 
- Proposals, etc , p. 4 ; Aphorisms, p. 2. 
■' See Prevetition of Poverti/, p. 21. 



58 RICHARD HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECOXOMIST. 

for all sorts of People, and increasing His Majesties Revenue, by a Method 
noway burthensome, but advantagious to the Subject. 

This shows that Eichard Haines's attention was first turned to 
the question of the balance of trade, the fall of lands in the 
country, and the want of money. He describes the general poverty 
(1674) thus : " A General Poverty seems to have invaded the 
whole Nation, Leases being continually/ thrown up in the Countrey, 
and Tradesmen daily Breaking in the City. In brief, all conditions 
of men seem to have chang'd their stations, and sunk below 
themselves; the Gentry, by reason of i\\c fall of their Lands and 
V iicertainty of Bents, being brought to live at the rate of a 
Yeoman ; the Yeoman can scarce maintain himself so well as an 
ordinary Farmer heretofore ; the Farmer is forced to live as hard 
as a poor Labourer anciently ; and Labourers generally, if they 
have families, are ready to run a begging."^ 

He first deals with the causes of this poverty and their 
suggested remedies. The causes he takes to be the increase of 
imports and decrease of exports. Among the former are French 
wines, brandy, linen cloth, iron, timber, mum, coffee, chocolate, 
suet, and saltpetre,- all of them except the first and third being 
imported within tlie last forty years. Tlie total value of these (at a 
guess) he puts at two or tliree millions. On the otlier hand English 
manufactures, especially woollen clotli and iron, had decreased. 
Much bullion was conse(|uently lost to the nation by going 
beyond the seas, and a general impoverishment was the result. 
Some attributed this to the great taxes and imports levied at this 
time.^ In combating this objection our author enunciates the 
economic fallacy, that the taxes paid to the King merely caused 
money to circulate, none being hoarded by the King, or sent 
Ijeyond seas.* The real cause he says is our bad husbandry and 
bad economy. The only remedies are, to make new manufactures 
for English goods, which may employ the idle lands in other ways 
than for corn and cattle; and to prohibit imports that are superfluous 
as linen cloth, or injurious, as brandy. English ground can grow 
enough flax and hemp for the whole nation, and not only so but 
the result of their cultivation will be to raise the value of land 
from 2O5. to 40s. or even 50s. an acre per annuni.^ All idle 

1 Prevention of Poreriij, p. 1, IfiT-i. 

- Hid., p. 2. Mum was made of wheat malt. ■^ Hid., p. 3. 

^ What aboiit Charles's subsidies to the Freucli King ? 

■> Prevent iun of Puverti/, p. 5. 



RICHARD HAINES AS SOfTAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 59 

liaiids,^ that now only find work in harvest time will be employed 
all the year round, while tlie tramps and vagrants that infest the 
country will disappear.' The many hundred thousand pounds 
now paid for imported linen Avould he saved to the Kingdom. 
Sails and cordage, too, which we buy from abroad, we could make 
for ourselves of home-grown hemp. Nor would this" restrict the 
area for corn on the whole, but rather secure an advantageous 
rotation of crops, beneficial alike to corn and cattle. 

Other imports are described as absolutely pernicious, such as 
i\\e " groiving trade of that oh f I anclish, robbing, and (by reason of 
its abuse) Man-MUing Liquor, called Bkandy."-^ If any such 
spirits are necessary (" for Seamen or the like "), they can be 
]nade at home.'* Under this head the nation would save £300,000. 
13aysalt again could Ije procured from our own waste lands Ijy the 
sea and this would result in a saving of £50,000 yearl}'.'' 

Again iron most certainly need not be imported, as it is to the 
amount of several hundred thousand pounds a year." Here 
Richard Haines forgets not to quote the objection of the political 
economist, that it is true husbandry to buy in the cheapest 
market. Yes, says our authcjr, lint though it would cost us more at 
lirst tu make our own (doth, it would soon Ito otherwise, and 
l)(\sides it is l)etter to give £20 for sometliing of one's own growth' 
than £15 for the same sort of article from beyond the sea, because, 
in the tirst place, our idle hands are employed in tlie manufacture, 
and in the second place there is more money in the country. 
The second argument is unsoun<l : and the political economist 

' Estimated at 580,000 in tlie wliole eountrj. Writing in 1678 lie puts the 
iimiiber of herfqars at 100,000 or 20n,00r>, and in another place mentions 30,000 or 
40,000 as vearlr bred np to beggary. Provision for the Poor, p. v ; Breriaf of 
Proposals, p. 1 ; EngJancTs Weal, p. 2. 

- He complains that the laws against them were not put into force, owing to 
remissness of officers, a fear of retaliation by arson, etc. ; and he mentions a scene 
at Ohicliester Assizes (at which he was present), where they filled the court while 
Lord Twisden was giving his charge and elicited some severe remarks from that 
judge (1673). Prevention of Poverty, p. 6. 

■* I hid., p. 8. ^ He is thinking of his cyder-royal. 

'" Ihid., p. 22. He includes saltpetre in this estimate. ''' Hid., £400,000. 

' This is not recognised sufficiently by the Freetrader. There is an amusing 
and instructive story of a Spanish Deputation to the Spanish Home Secretary, or 
Chancellor of Exchequer, praying him to lay a heavier tax on foreign cloth. The 
otllcialin question, enslaved to the fetish of Free Trade, pointed out that they could 
get the cloth so much cheaper and better made from abroad. The answer \va' 
complete and crushing. " So could we get a cheaper and better IMinistcr fi-nin 
abroad." 



GO KICHARD HAINE.S AS ^^OCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 

rightly objects that it is goods not money which pays for com- 
modities/ that consequently a large import trade implies a good 
export trade.- In answer to this Richard Haines can only say 
that forty or fifty years ago, when imports were much less, we had 
more to export and trade was better. Our chief imports then were 
silver and gold, commodities we cannot produce at home. I'Tow it 
is essential for us to produce more commodities for export, or we 
shall be drained more and more of our money. By prohibiting 
the al)ove -mentioned imports, therefore, we shall benefit ourselves 
every wa}^ 

But, on the other hand, certain things should be prohibited 
from being exported, e.g., fuller's earth and wool," the con- 
version of which latter into cloth would employ great numbers of 
people. Here we hold an impregnable position, for woollen 
cloth cannot be made witliout fuller's earth, and this is only 
found in England. 

Then French Avines should l:)e more heavily taxed. If 
necessary, wine can be produced in England,'* and even if 
not, our own home liquors can take their place,' and the 
nation will save £1,000,000 at least. The diminution in 
customs would soon be made up by the general improvement of 
trade, due to these measures. 

Then follows a complete fallacy. By debasing the coinage 
one-quarter of its value, the country, says Eichard Haines, might 
gain four millions. But, as we see from another passage, he holds 
that money is principally intended for the convenience of traffic 
between persons of the same nation only.*' He fails to see, 
tlierefore, that l)y his own showing money is not wealth at all, but 
a means of barter. One great adva)itage in debasing the coinage, 
he believes, will be that we shall keep our money at home, as 
foreigners will not take it at our valuation. Hitlierto, and some 
considered it an honour to the country, they had preferred English 

' Our aixthor in anotlier place recognizes that industry, not money, is the life 
of a trade. ISnglaiicVs Weal, p. 6. 

- Prerention of Povertif, p. 12. 

=' Ibid., p. 13. 

^ The Marquess of Bute makes a large siim by liis Welsh vineyards in favour- 
able years at this day : in spite of a Mr. Lynn, m'Iio, in Notes and Queries, makes 
the absurd statement that wine cannot be now made in England because the 
Summer is one or two days shorter than it was thousands of years ago. 

•' Prevention of Poverty, pp. 14, 18. 

'' Hid., p. 19. 



RICHAKD HAINES AS S(3CIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 61 

gold to their own, as being heavier in weight.' Our money being 
refused, our commodities woukl get a sale, as foreign nations 
would have to take them in exchange for their own. If France 
refuse to give her wines in return for our beer and our leathern 
shoes, then we nuist fall back on our home-brewed liquors. l>y 
making all the fiscal changes suggested England would save yearly 
two and a quarter millions sterling. 

The book was shortly, but favouraljly, noti(-'ed in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions of the Royal Societi/.'^ 

The Scheme foe Building; AL:\rsHousES. — There is no 
mention, so far, of any scheme for building almshouses. We 
may, therefore, presume that Eichard Haines had not yet gone 
abroad and seen the system of working these in Holland. Though 
he has perceived the necessity of encouraging home manufactures, 
he had not yet formulated any scheme for effecting this, nor 
immediately connected it with the relief of poverty and the 
abolition of vagrancy. 

His next tract, three years later, entitled, Proposals for Buikl- 
ing in every Comity a Working Alms-Housc or Hospital as the best 
E,rpedient to perfect the Trade and Manufactory of Lianen-Clnth, 
takes up the question in a more systematic way. This new 
scheme was no visionary one. It had been, and was being, suc- 
cessfully worked in Holland, and Eichard had evidently lieen 
impressed by what he had seen there. 

Example of the Netheelands. — More than thirty years liefore 
this John Evelyn" in his Diary had spoken in the highest terms of 
the Spin-houses, Easp-houses/ and Hospitals of Amsterdam. He 
says the Spin-house " was a kind of Ihidewell, where incorrigil)le 
and lewd women were kept in discipline and labour, Init all neat."^ 
The Easp-house was where the " lusty knaves were compelled to 
work, and the rasping of brasil and logwood for the dyers is Aery 
hard labour."" The hospital was for lame and decrepit soldiers, 
and, Evelyn adds, for State order and accommodation it was one of 
the worthiest things that the world could show of that nature. 

1 Prevention of Poverty, p. IS. So it is stilL Ibid., p. 16, we are told that 
" Guinny Gold " was light, and that an old groat hadn't 2d. worth of silver in it. 

- IX, 252, 22 February, 1674-5. 

3 Eichard Haines must, we would think, have had some acquainlanceship with 
the author of Sylca. 

■• Only in Amsterdam. The Spin-houses were in every city. See Pruciniun for 
Poor, p. viii. 

* Diary, I, p. 22 (1641). ^ Ibid., p. 23. 



6 "2 laCHAED HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 

" Indeed it is most remarkable what provision lias been made and 
maintained for pnl)lick and charitable pnrposes and to protect the 
poor from misery and the Country from beggars."^ 

Eichard Haines was therefore justified in saying that his pro- 
posal was " undoul:)tedly practicable, — for that it is no New Project, 
but witli great success practised at this day by our Neighbours."^ 
" To say that tlie English are less trusty is too gross an affront to 
put upon our Country."" Wliy should these houses fail P In 
Holland none of them fail. Not a beggar is suffered or bred up in 
those countries where such houses are erected and well governed.''^ 
" It is judged," he says in another place, " that to one Pickpocket, 
Cutpurse, etc., in Amsterdam, there are 100 in London; and to one 
sturdy Beggar in Holland (in time of peace) there are 400 in 
England."'' 

Trade Competition. — In the present importance to this 
country of the question of trade competition it will not be without 
interest to hear what our author had to say on the subject 200 
years ago : " But \vere it so, that we were upon equal terms with 
tlie Butch in respect of Industry, it is easie to be demonstrated 
that England would excell all Nations in the World in that Trade, 
which is the only Mother and Nurse to bring forth, and encrease 
Iliches, Seamen, and Navies of Ships, etc., as appears, if we con- 
sider that the United Netherlands, notwithstanding their Pro- 
visions for Bread, Beer, Elesh, Clothing, Timlier, Iron, materials 
for Manufactures, etc., together with their vast expence to main- 
tain their Land against the Water, etc. All which costs them (as 
'tis adjudged) at least ten times more than the Natural Product of 
their Land is wortli : yet we know that for Trade, Fulness of 
People, Moneys, Treasure, Seamen and Shipping, they aie more 
famous than any Nation in Euiope."'' 

Objects op his Sciie:\ie. — The objects which Picliaid Haines 
had in view were : to maintain the poor ; promote the linen 
manufacture® ; reform beggars, vagrants, etc. But he anticipated 
the subsidiary advantages of keeping our money at home, and an 
improvement in value of land and in trade. He claims, as his 

^ Evelyn, Diary, I, 401. Addenda. 
- Breviat of Proj)osals, pp. 5, 6. 

^ England's Weal, p. 9. ■* Method of Government, p. 8. 

'" England's Weal, jd, I. '' Provision for Poor, p. Tiii. 

'' England's Weal, pp. 5, 6. Holland -was tlie Common " Spicery " of the 
Northern nations. Prevention of Poverty, p. l-i. 

^ This matter was under debate in Parliament (1677). 



WCHARD HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECUNO^FIST. 63 

only motive in making his jn'oposals, a patriotic desire to serve tlie 
King and his country.^ 

The above-mentioned desirable results^ were to be obtained by 
building in every county public working almshouses for the housing, 
feeding and education of (a) Children from five or six years old, at 
present supported by the parish ; (h) partial cripples ; (c) all un- 
married chargeable persons and vagrants, who were to l)e educated 
" in all good manners towards God and man," and kept there till they 
could earn their own living. Among prospective inmates were 
afterwards included debtors and even such felons as were con- 
victed of perjury and forgery. 

Manufacture of Linen Cloth. — The work in these houses 
was to l)e the manufacture of linen cloth.^ It is estimated that 
sufficient linen cloth (except of the finest sort) could he made in 
them to supply the whole nation to the value of £1,350,000 
yearly.* There being 52 counties, if one working almshouse were 
establislied in each with 2,000 spinners apiece on an average, the 
cloth daily spun would be worth £5,200.^ 

With a view to facilitating the process of spinning, Eichard 
Haines invented an engine, whereby one person could turn 50 
wheels for 100 spinners, leaving the hands free to draw the tire 
from the distaff. 

The inventor describes his contrivance as " an Expedient lioth 
for ease and quick Dispatch, so as that the weak may do as much as 
the strong, and the stronij- much more than before."" The engine 
did not prevent one spinner stopping while the others went on.' 

Patent foe Spinning ENGiNE.~The patent for this invention 
was taken out 18 April, 1678, in the names of Eichard Dereham 
and Eichard Haines, Esqrs., as the inventors of "a new spinning 
engine never used in England, whereb}- from 6 to 100 Spinners 
and upwards may be employed liy one oi t^\■o persons to si»in linen 
and worsted thread with such ease and advantage that a child (jf 

' Prevention of Poverti/, p. 20. 

- Proposals, p. 1 ; Prevention of Poverty, p. iii, etc. 

^ Proposals, p. 1. This was the first suggestion. Wool was afterwards sub- 
stituted for linen. 

'' For f lb. of thread at \2d. per lb., makes 1 ell of cloth at 2s. per ell, and 
2 spinners can spin f lb. of thread in one day. Thus 2,000 spinners will spin in 
one day 1,000 ells of cloth = £100. 

' Proposals, p. 3. 

8 Ibid., p. 4, postscript, p. xi. See also Bread for the Poor, hy Philo-Anglicus, 
p. 5. Brit. Mus., 1027, 1. 16. 

^ Proposals, p. 6. 



64 KICIIAKD HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 

five or Ibure }'eares of age may doe as much as a child of seaven or 
eight yeares old, and others as much in two dayes as without 
this their invention they can in three dayes."^ 

The inventor, though naturally hoping that he may receive 
some henefit from his idea, yet wishes it in any case to be 
reserved for use in the public Almshouses onl}'. Besides the 
spinning engine he mentions a hemp-mill invented 1)y himself, 
"by which 50 men without striking a stroke may beat as 
much hemp in one day as 100 shall do in two days."^ He 
computes that his inventions will save the country £164,000 in 
spinning alone;^ 

Cost of Almshouses. — The cost of the Houses would have to 
Ite met by a county rate, which would he very soon covered by 
the improved value of land.^ Besides, the poor rate, which averaged 
12d. in the pound, would be much lessened. 

In the 52 counties there are reckoned to l;)e 9,725 parishes. 
Taking each parish to be worth £1,500, the poor rate brings in 
£14,000 or so in each county. This will amply provide for the 
building of the houses, which in size will l)e proportionate to the 
wealth and numljers of the parish. 

Big houses will succeed better than small ones liecause they 
can be governed better, and the education of the inmates can l)e 
better organised. The hard work of turning wheels, fitting tire 
to the distaff, reeling yarn, swingling and hitchling hemp, could be 
done by convicts — better so than transport them — but they would 
have to l)e separated l)y a grating from the others. 

It is easy to pick holes in this scheme, but we must remember 
that a very similar system was being most successfully worked in 
Holland. Had the idea been taken up enthusiastically, it might 
well liave proved a satisfactory settlement of the Poor Question, 
and been an incalculal,)le boon for England. 

In a supplement, or postscript, to the above proposals, Eichard 
Haines brings forward some additional aiguments for the scheme. 
Even if the engines fail to answer expectations, and money for the 

' Patent Office, No. 202. 

- Projjosals, pp. 4, 10, 11. ■* Hid., p. 5. 

"• Hid., postscript, p. ii. Hemp could be grown ou auy indifferent t;ood land, 
e.g. in Sussex, between the dowus and the sea, while many thousands of acres in 
the Weald (spelt Wild) woidd suit flax. The crop woidd be worth in either case 
£4 to £6 an acre. Ibid., p. 9. A crop of flax from one acre spun into good cloth 
is valued at £50. Land will rise from £100 to £122 10*. in value. Ibid., post- 
script, pp. vi, vii. 



IMCIIAKD HAINES AS .SOCIAL AXD POLITICAL ECONO.MIST. 65 

luaiiitciiaiice of tlie Houses has to be found, every £100 in each 
county could easily contribute 26.s. a year, which is httle to take 
out of the increased profit of lands. 

English flax is as good as East Country flax, though perhaps 
inferior to Dutch flax, l)ut the market for ordinary and coarse 
cloth is much greater than for the fine ; and English workmen are 
surely as good as foreigners. Mr. Thomas Firming citizen of 
London, has afforded a practical proof of this in his weaving and 
spinning establishments, where a child of f\\e or six years old, in good 
health and of a moderate intelligence, can l)e taught in six weeks to 
earn its living by spinning. " This judicious person," says Kicliard 
Haines, " shew'd me more than £500 worth of very good substantial 
cloth of his own working." 

Advantages of this Sche.aie. — The author thus sums u[) the 
advantages of his project : " What with the Decrease of Poor 
People, The happy Peformation, and total Piestriction of Beggars, 
Vagrants, Nurses of Debauchery, etc., The Yearly inci'ease of Ten 
or Twelve Hundred Thousand I'ounds, whicli now will 1)0 kept at 
home, that before went beyond the Seas for Limien : the great 
Improvement of Lands ; the Exportation of Linnen of our own 
growth, etc., The Worth and Advantage of the whole cannot 
amount to less than Two or Three Millions Sterling per annum to 
the Nation : and over and above many lives preserved and (with 
God's blessing on the means) many souls saved ; which if so, 
certainly it will be the Ijest Bargain and happiest that ever the 
Nation made, all circumstances considered." - 

Soon after'^ the" Frojwm Is," came out a single slicet on the same 
subject, entitled, Frovision for flic Poor, or Reasons for Tlic Ending 
of a WoriyiiKj Hospital fo)- erf ry Covnhj As the rnosf ncrrssari) and 
our/// Effrrfual E-i-prrUeiil to promolc ilir Liiinrn Mannfactorp vifji, 
Coiii/ortah/e Maintainanrr fur all I'oor and Eisircssed poplc in 
Citic and Coantry. By which all Ecyyars, Vagrants, rtr.^ tiirunglioal 
the Nation, may sprcddy he Erstrained, and for rccr Ercvcntcd In 

' Spelt Virmiii. Ptojjow/*, postscript, p. ix. He emijlojed 600 spinners abroad. 
A book by Thomas Firmin, called Some Proposals for the JEmployment of the Poor, 
mentions a Work-House set up in Little Britain for the employment of the poor in 
linen manufacture (1676-1682). His nephew, Mr. James, was his partner, and 
tlieir business was conducted at Garra way's Coffee House. At his native citj-, 
Ipswich, he established a linen manufactory for French refugees. He was a 
Unitarian. He died in 1697, aged 66. 

"■^ Proposals, postscript, p. xvi. 

•' I.e., in 1678. 

F 



66 lUCHARD HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 

Pursuance to Certain Projwsals to the King and Parliament— with 
allowance. 

He sums up the great design again, thus : " The ends aimed 
at are : — 1. The more speedy and profitable promoting the Linen 
Manufactory. 2. The easing all oppressed Parishes of the Charge 
of the Poor.i 3. The most effectual Expedient to Restrain, 
Reform, and employ all Beggars, A^agrauts, etc., and render them 
serviceable to the Publick. 4. The good Education of Poor 
Children and others in religious and virtuous Principles, plant- 
ing in them Habits of Industry, Labour, etc." 

The Houses, he adds, will take no longer than two years at 
most to erect.^ 

FuETHER Explanation of Scheme. — Later in the same year 
was brought out A Model of Government for the good of the Poor 
and The Wecdth of the Nation vnth such a Method and Inspection 
Thcd Frauds, Corruptions in Officers, Abuses to the Poor, III Ad- 
ministration of Materials, etc., therein may he prevented. The 
Stock raised and preserved. All poor People and their Children for 
ever comfortably Provided for, cdl Idle hands Employed, cdl Oppressed 
Parishes eased, all Beggars and Vagrants for the future restrain d, 
poor Prisoners for Debt relieved, and Mcdef actors Pcclaimed ; to 
their oum Comfort, God's Glory and the Kingdom's Wecdth and 
Honour. Humbly offered to the Consideration of the Great Wisdom 
of the Nation, viz.. His most excellent Majesty and both Houses of 
Parliament. This tract was written to reassure those who re- 
quired a guarantee that the money would be well spent, the poor 
properly looked after, suitable persons put in autlunity, and justice 
administered. The method of government suggested, which was 
in the self-interest of all concerned, was to Ije as follows : 

All contributing parishioners, meeting quarterly, were to elect'' 
representatives or delegates to inspect the Houses, who were to 
receive while on business 2s. Qd. an hour if on horseback. Is. an 
hour if on foot, for a week at a time. Tiie delegates to be of 
e(|ual autiiority and plenary power, sworn, and accountable to the 
parish, witli new chairmen chosen daily ; drunkards, gamesters, 
swearers, and persons guilty of briljery to be ineligible ; some of 

* Provision for Poor, p. iv, ^ylle^e he deplores the unthriftiaess of the poor. 

^ Ibid., p. Tiii, ad fin. During buildiug tlie contributions of each parish would 
be paid fortnightly or monthly. Overseers from each parish would watch the 
building. Model of Government, pp. 4, 5. 

^ A neglect of this to be fined £5. Method of Government, p. 3, 



UIGILVKP HAINES AS SOCLU, AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 67 

the inferior ofHces to be reserved for deserving inmates ; in case of 
disputes l)etween parishes and overseers,^ or Ijetween overseers 
and the trustees of each House, an appeal to lie to the Justices, 
and a regular account of moneys to be rendered to them at the 
Easter sitting, to whom also the poor generally should have 
right of appeal. 

Over each House was to be set a " Godly Minister of a good 
kind disposition and exemplary conversation,"- and all children 
in each House were to be taught English one hour a day. 

The workers in the Houses could earn ISd. a day for every 
man and del. for every woman, while cripples and children, instead 
of costing the parish Is. 6d. to 2.5. a week, will earn up to 9d. a day. 

In 1679 a fresh presentment of the same case was offered to 
tlie public under the slightly different title of "A Method of 
Government for such Pvhlick WorMmj Alms-Hovses as may he 
Ereeted in everij County for bringing edl idle hands to Industry 
as Thehest knoivn E.rpedie)d for restoring and advancing the Woollen 
Manufacture. Hnmhly Offered to the KingH Most E-ceellent Majesty 
and l)oth Houses of Parliament, with alloivanee." 

Here there is a suQ-gestive chano-e ; "Wool" is substituted for 

CO O ' 

"Linen," as the material to be worked up in the Houses. 

In the same year a further statement of the same arguments 
appeared under the title of A Breviat of Some Proposeds Preiwred 
to he Offered to the Greed Wisdom of the Ned ion, The KING'S Most 
Excellent IMa.testy and Both Houses of V kmuk}.\¥.^'y:, For the sjK'cdy 
Beforminy the Woollen Manu/aeture, By ec 3Iethod 2)i'eictised in other 
Ncdions. xil ready Perused and A2)})roced hy those hnoujn Promoters 
'f England's Weal and Safety, The Most Illustrious PitiNCE PtUi'EKT, 
and the Bight Honourable, the Eai;l of Siiaftesbuky, And since 
Heard and Encouraged hy divers Memhers if the House of Com- 
mons, who upon Perusal ivas (sic) ■pleased to Declare, Thed the 
same would he of great Advantage to the Nedion. Desiring the 
Author to give his Attendance to the House wlicn they are at 
leisure; and in the mean time to Puhlisli this Brirf Account 
thereof for General Informedion. 

Thus all the wool jiroduced in the United Kingdom would lie 
worked up by ourselves, and £4,000,000 worth of cloth njight 
be made by the 200,000 persons engaged in the manufacture." 

' Metliod of Goveniiiieiif, ]). 5. - Ibid., p. 6. 

•* Wool at 12d. per lb. = £12 per pack, and cloth = 1 limes imwroiiglit wool in 
value. 

F -2 



68 IIICHAED HAINES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 

England enjoys two great advantages in tins matter. First, 
English wool is necessary for mixing with other wools to make 
cloth, and secondly, no good cloth can he made without fuller's 
earth, of which England has a monopoly.^ Why not, as the 
Swedes with their iron, tii'st undersell competitors, and then, 
when they have given up their manufactories, raise the price 
of the commodity to a profitahle price ?- 

The clothiers should be forced to set themselves up near the 
Houses and put themselves into touch with them by threatening 
them, if they demur, with a repeal of the embargo on the wool 
export. 

Eighteen months or two years later, liichard Haines made a fresh 
effort to get his scheme carried in Parliament. He recapitulated 
his arguments in a last tract called England's Weal and Pros- 
perity Proposed as Eeasons for Erecting Publick Work-Houses 
in every County. . . . Huml;)ly offered to the Consideration of 
the Great Wisdom of the Nation, and presented to the Honourable 
House of Commons. ... To which is added A Model of Govern- 
iiirnt for such Wvrlc Houses ■preixii'ed hy the same Author and 
Printed in the year (79) intended to ham -presented to the last 
Parlictment. Pursuant to a Breviat of Proposals for the iiromoting 
of Industry, and speedy restoring the Woollen Metnufaetory , hy him 
formerly published. 

Eeception of the Scheme. — From the above analysis of his 
pamphlets it will be seen that Eichard Haines, not from " any itch 
of fame," 1 )ut " from philanthropy," was persistent in his efforts to 
procure fVir his proposals the acceptance of Parliament and the 
nation. His first tract was dedicated to Prince Eupert, who, after 
reading it, honoured the " authur with his Approvement Advice 
and Encouragement therein,"" and introduced him to the King, 
who desired him to hand over his })ropusals to one of his 
Secretaries. Mi-. Secretary Coventry spoke in its favour at the 
Council Table, and it passed there without obstruction.'* The 
author then printed his proposals, and they issued from the 

' Brevicd, p. 2. 

2 Ibid , p. 4. The Swedes uot only " forced us to quit our foreign nuvrkets, 
where before we vended very much, but also to desist from making enough for our 
own use ; and then when we had ... let f;ill our iron works, they raised 
their Iron to as high a rate as before." 

:i Proposals, postscript, p. i. 

■* Ihid., pp. i, ii; Model of Goreniineiil, p. S, ad fin.; EnyUouVs Weal, 
p. 13. 



niCIIARl) IIATXES AS SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST. 09 

press immediately after the adjournment of Parliament at Whit- 
suntide.' 

They met with the approval of Archbishops, Bishops, and 
Divines,^ of M.P.'s;' several noble peers, and public-spirited, 
honoural)le, and worthy persons.* Among these he specially 
mentions Viscount Brouncker, President of the Eoyal Society, 
and the Rev. Dr. Beale, one of His IMajesty's chaplains. 

Among contemporary writings, the only references to Pichard 
Haines and his pmposals, that I have found, are these. 

Thomas Firmin, at the end of his tract Sonir Projxmds for tlir 
Ein'ploymeni of the Poor {tihont 1 G78-1G<S0), says : " If any desire 
a further account of the l)enetit that will accrue by setting up 
the Linen Manufacture, there is lately printed by a very worthy 
gentleman, some proposals concerning this matter, which are 
worth the perusing, and may be had at the Angel in Cornhill." 

In another tract entitled Bread for the Poor (or Ohser vat ions 
on certain 2}roposaIs kitely offered to the King's Majesty and both 
Houses of Parliament) hy PJiilo-Anglicus Gent., London, 1678, 
we find (p. 4) : " We cannot 1 )ut observe and applaud a very 
profitable proposal lately made by one Mr. Richard Hains, a 
person though to us unknown further than by his worthy 
labours and that we are informed he is a Sussex gentleman, 
yet certainly his zeal for promoting things tending to the 
public good and his industrious genius in the happy dis- 
covery of them, no less than the pains he takes to divulge them, 
that being reduced by authority into prt^ctise they may accomplish 
the good ends desired, deserve both public notice and thanks, 
wherefore, though he has lately printed the same, yet the book not 
being so generally dispersed as might be wished, we shall recite 
some parts of it here, for Oinne honum quo communius eo melius." 

But there is another tract in the British Museum^ which bears 
generous testimony to the worth of Richard Haines's work. It is 
called " Proposeds for Promoting the Woollen Manufactory Promoted, 
Ftirther making it appear that the nation will thereby increase in 
Weeilth, at least £5,000 per day for every day in the year on lohich 
it is lawful to labour. And tlicd the strength and safety of tlir 
I'ing and Jdngdorn, togctlier witli a most liappy reforniafion /rill be 

' June, 167". - Model of Gorennnent, p. 8. 

■' I/jid. and Breriaf, title page. 

■* Ihid. and Meihod of Gorenimeiif, p. 2. 

■"• 712, K. 16. 



70 lUCHARD HAINES AS SOCIAL AXD POLITICAL ECONOMIST, 

accompHslied therein. All which is most plainly demonstrated, By 
several welhvishers thereunto, inhaUtants and eitizens of London. 
Liecnscd Aj?. 29, 1679." On p. 2 we find : " The last Parliament 
hath almost every session made it a great part of their business 
to hear and encourage those who had anything to offer for the 
recovery of this trade ; and yet till the late Breviat of Proposals 
published by one Mr. Richard Haines came out, it nuist be acknow- 
ledged That neither the Exporter of Wool, nor opposer of the same, 
or any others, liave offered any certain expedients for lu'ingiug tdl 
idle hands to industry, whereby the wool may be converted as 
it grows and arises, on such terms, that the Cloth we ha^'e to spare 
may be exported as fast as 'tis made. . . . Wherefore we cannot 
tliink it unreasonable to joyn our suffrages with him and stir up 
all active spirits to promote and encourage that which will best 
accomplish this good design." And again on p. 4 : " It is the 
greatest thing of such a kind and easiest to be accomplished 
tliat liatli l)een offered to the King and Parliament to promote 
the Wealth Strength and Safety of the Kingdom since in it the 
Woollen Manufacture hath been encouraged."^ 

My hopes ran high when I discovered in the additional catalogue 
of MSS. at the Bodleian Library a MS. labelled " Pdchard Haines," 
Ijut it turned out to be an essay On some Considerations to he 
'proposed to the wisdom of Pctrliament for an Act to abate the groioth 
of Popery and for the more cffectmd relief of tlce poorc of the Kingdom, 
hy a native of Stafford. On p. 3 the author says, mentioning the 
Pro'posals, etc., of Richard Haines (1677): "Let him have his spinning- 
engines and devices to breake hempe which are not contemptil)le 
for his good meaning and well-timed Contrivance." The only refer- 
ence to Ptichard Haines in any modern work that I am acquainted 
with is in Dr. Cunningham's English Industry and Commerce.'^ 

Needless to say Richard Haines's proposals met with opposition, 
some of it from factious, cantankerous people, such as will always 
oppose new suggestions by others, but some from serious and 
worthy objectors'' who urged that neither the quantity of wool to 
i)e worked, nor the number of poor to work it, had been ascertained, 
or denied that English flax was as good as foreign llax, or English 
artificers as skilful, but this "affront on the English nation " has been 

' Sir Mat. Hale, in a pnmphlet, "A discourse touching provision for the poor '' 
(1683), shows signs of haying read Richard Haines's tract. Ashm., 1142, 143. 
- Bk. vii, The Stuarts ; Ch. Vi, The Poor, p. 202. 
•' Breriat, p. 5. 



RICHARD IIATNES AS SOCIAL AND TOLITICAL ECONOMIST. 71 

dealt with before. Others said they innst be satisfied that tlie 
Houses M^ould be well governed ; others still, less easy to deal with, 
were content to reiterate that "the old way was the best,"^ that the 
work would he done better at home, that parents ought to bring 
up tlieir own cliildren, that the new scheme would part husband 
and wife, and make slaves of the inmates of the Houses. It was 
no idea of personal advancement that induced Richard Haines to 
press his proposals. "The desired End," he says,- was the "glory 
of God and the Prosperity of the Nation." His proposals were 
intended to be presented to the last Parliament^ (1679), but for 
some reason they were not so presented. Entrusted to Sir 
Patience Ward, Lord Mayor of London, to bring before the 
Commons, the (piestion was not brought forward till the very end 
of the year 1680. Our author himself says*: " The thing was so 
readily approved of that an Order was made for l)ringing in a Bill 
Pursuant to tlie effect of my proposals, Neminc Contra-diccnte; which 
Bill I at my further Charge, procured to be drawn and prepared ; 
And had not the Person whom I first intrusted, and who promised 
to read my Petition in the House of Commons, from time to time 
delayed so to do, till within a week before the Dissolution of the 
Parliament, there is no reason to doul)t but it had past into an 
Act, and at this day^ been practised to the Inestimalde benefit of 
the Nation." The journals of tlie House of Commons, 17 December, 
1680, have an entry that the petition was read, antl leave granted 
to bring in a Bill, the matter being referred to a Committee.'' The 
entry is endorsed, " Ordered not presented." This Parliament was 
prorogued 10 January, 1080-81, and dissolved the 18tli of the same 
month. 

So by bad luck more than anything else failed a scheme whicli 
was w^ell conceived, practicable, ably presented, and received with 
favour. Had it become law, as it so nearly did, it would have 
revolutionised our methods of treating the poor." 

^ Model of Government, p. 7. 

- Proposals, postscript, p. xvi, ad fin. 

•' See above, p. 28. ■• Aphoriwis, p. 3. 

'" Ap. ] 684. '' See above, p. 29. 

^ Richard Haines points out tliat these Houses would ensure that no descendant 
of those who built them could ever be reduced to absolute beggary. Projiosals, 
postscript, p. xvi ; Model of Governnienf, p. 8 ; England's Weal, p. 9. I am not 
aware that any of Richard Haines's niimeroiis descendants have ever begged their 
bread. 



(72) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Current Affairs in Charles II's Eeign. 

It may be of interest to students of this period if ^Ye collect 
here the few references there are in Eichard Haines's works to 
current affairs. Some have 1)een already incidentally dealt with, 
such as the condition of prisons, in connection with whicli we 
are further told of the convict system, that in 1G77 " Foreign 
Plantations had so little occasions for Convicts that Merchants 
refused to take them off the Sheriffes hands, without lieing paid 
for their Passage, so that aho\'e SO convicts in Newgate lately 
obtained a general Pardon, on that very score, because they knew 
not what to do with them."^ 

Commenting on the recent failure of Clerkenwell Workhouse, 
which remained a " gazing stock to discourage all pul)lick spirits,"- 
lie gives the true reasons for its miscarriage. P>ridewell, again, lie 
affirms must fail because " the Labour there is only a punishment."'^ 
Put Christ's Hospital he holds up as a model to imitate.'' 

Turning now to the Vagrancy Laws, we have an allusion to 
the custom of passing tramps on from parish to parish by passes,-'' 
such as are to be found in many parish chests." In this way 
vagrants pleasantly and profitably made the " grand tour " of the 
whole country. This system led to law suits between parishes," 
as to which parish was chargeable for any particular tramp. 
Ilichard Haines is quite abreast of our times in strongly depre- 
cating almsgiving to beggars, and suggests a fine of £5 for the offence. 
He has no Malthusian heresies, and looks with satisfaction on an 
increase of the population,^ if his scheme for housing and feeding 
the poor be adopted. 

Good servants being difficult to get then, as now, one of the 
advantages of his Houses would be the training up of good ones. 



' Proposals, p 8. 

•' Proposals, p. 8. 

■) Provision for Poor, "p. t. 

' Prorisiuii for Poor, p. v. 



- Method of Government, p. 7. 
"* Model of Goi^ernment, p 6. 
" E.(j. that of Storrington, Sussex. 
^ Proposals, p. 11, postscript, p. x. 



CUURENT AFFAIRS IN CHARLES IIS REIGN. t'> 

A dark pictuie is given of the poverty of the country in 1674 
and the distressful state of England in 1681 is described (in rather 
\ague terms)/ tlie allusion being possibly to the persecution of 
certain religious sects/ and partly to a conspiracy against the King. 
As to Charles II, his want of morality could not but have 1jeen 
distasteful to the strict (though for a time exconnnunicated) 
Baptist, still the latter is ready to acknowledge,'^ as also was John 
Evelyn, the King's readiness to welcome inventors and jjatroiiize 
improvements of all kinds. 

As an Englishman"' and patriot, Eichard Haines took a greal 
interest in the Navy. AVe have setui his allusion to King Kdgar, 
Ids plea for the planting of liemp to supply cordage for our slni)s, 
Ids emphatic assertion that the safety of the kingdom depends on 
ships and seamen, and that being dependent on others for tindier 
and iron was a " matter of very pernicious consequence.""' If the 
" Houses " prosper shipping will increase ; those who oppose the 
"Houses," oppose the increase of our navy, and so are enenues to 
the true wealth, safetv and interest of the Enulisli nation.'' 



Appendix on the JVool/m Trade. 

From tliese pamphlets we glean some interesting facts aljout 
this trade in the 7th decade of the 17th century. In his earliest 
eftbrt (1674) Kichard speaks of it as "that Ancient Staple Tiadc 
of this Nation, tlie ]\Iaking and Exporting of Woollen Cloth,"' and 
mentions in another place that the Englishman had the re[»utation 
of l)eing the only excellent artificer for woollen cloth.'"^ The 
woollen manufacture comprised ten-thirteenths of the total manu- 
factures of the kingdom. Though it had greatly decreased^ during 
tlie last forty yeais'" iyi.e., from 1633), yet in 1681 our autlior can 

1 England's Weal, pp. 10, 11. 

- From England's Weal, pp. 10 f., wo sec that the question of religion was a 
buniing questioa in 1681. 

•' Aphorisms, p. 3. 

■* One of those Southern Eiiglisli of whom Ghidstone spoke so scornfully. 

•' Prevention of Povertg, p. 11. 

'"• Method of Government, p. 8; Breriat, p. 4 ; England's Weat, p. 5. 

^ Prevention of Poverty, p. 15. ** Proposals, postscript, p. riii. 

'■' Prevention of Poverlif, p. 13; Proposals, postscript, p. xiii. He fears that it 
may be irrecoverable. 

lu Prevention of Povertg, p. 3. 



74 CURRENT AFFAIRS IN CHARLES Il's REIGN. 

still call it the " main support of that Trade which maintains and 
encreases the Wealth, Strength and Glory of the English Nation."^ 

Statutes were passed for encouraging the home consumption of 
wool, and the celebrated one for burial in woollen is glanced at 
by our author, quaintly enough, when he speaks of the " dismal low 
markets in Golgotha, from whence there are no returns."- Wool, 
wdiich had been 12d. a lb., had fallen in 1681 to 8d. or even Qd. f 
export of un wrought wool was illegal, and consequently as it could 
not be converted into cloth fast enough,''' there was a glut iu the 
market. Yet it seems, from one passage, that during nine months, 
1680-1681, so much wool had l)een exported that the foreign markets 
for English cloth had been destroyed.^ Some time previously wool 
had been made a monopoly in the hands of the clothiers, export 
bciiiig prohiljited under tlie severest penalties." 

England, therefore, ])r()ducing more wool than any other nation,' 
and half this Iwing unconverted by our own clothiers,^ the rest was 
either wasted or smuggled abroad, every £100 worth of wool so 
exported being a loss (in cloth) of £1,000 to us. Wherefore, says 
Eichard, since England alone has fuller's earth and since Erench and 
Spanish wool require a mixture of English wool, the French being 
so short and fine, the Spanish so short and coarse, that tliey will 
neither " work together nor yet apart,"^ let us prohibit altogether 
the export of fuller's earth and wool, and to get all our wool 
converted at home, set up these Alms-Houses, where all our 
English, Scotch^" and Irish^^ w^ool can be made into cloth. Thus 
we shall conquer the competition of France and Flanders'" and 
control the supply throughout the world. 

' England's 7F>rt?, pp. 1, 5. The authors of the tract Proposals for promotinq 
ilip Woollen Manufaciure Promoted call it "the golden mamifactory," and state 
tiint an Act oP Parhament ha-; made the exportation of wool a capital offence. 

- Ibid., pp. 7, 8. •' Ibid., pp. 2, 6. 

■* Liittle more than half was converted. See Previa f, p. 5 ; Enrjlainl's Weal, 
p. 7. Yet in 1631 ten millions worth of woollen draperies was exported. Ibid., 
]i. 3. 

■' England's Weal, p. 6. The export was by smuggling. 

" Ibid., pp. 3, 4. ' Previaf, p. 4. 

^ Amounting to 100,000 pacts worth £12 per pack, when wool was at \2d. 
per lb. Previaf, pp. 3, 5 ; England's Weal, p. 6. 

'■' Ibid., p. 3, as affirmed by the clothiers before Parliament. 

'" Method of Government, p. 2. 

^1 Ibid, and England's Weal, pp. 2, 7. 

'- England's Weal, p. 3. 



(7^) 



CHAPTEE IX. 
EicHARD Haines as Yeoman Farmer. 

To Tfxv'iw^ ^ (fiadfs, 0/Xft. M. Aurelius, iv, 31. 

Farming. — Thougli he busied himself in matters of public 
interest, and tried tu raise himself al)ove his position of yeoman, 
yet Ricliard Haines was by birtli and training- a ])]ain Sussex 
farmer. He evidently knew liis luisiness well, and pr()l)al)ly 
made much more by his farming than l)y his philanthr(.)pic, or 
inventive, efforts. Caft'yn indeed sneered at the small results of 
liis first patent, saying they would not amount to .■'>0r/.,' and no 
doubt through the factious opposition made to it the legal 
expenses he incurred were consideral»le. We know by Eichard 
Haines's own admission that he liad spent divers hundreds of 
pounds on his puldic enterprises/ no inconsiderable sacrifice from 
one who confesses that " Money, beneath Grace and (Uory and 
what is conducting thereunto, is most to be desired."^ 

" Painful Husbandry, that ancient Employment,"^ was what 
occupied most of Eichard Haines's time, aiul in this connection we 
mast put hrst his enthusiastic tril)uto to the fruitfulness of the 
soil of England, " which by the Industry of its . . . Iidiabitants, 
might so easily become tlie Garden of Europe."' From his practical 
experience as a farmer we learn many hints, such as, " Clover and 
Trefoil prepares (.su-) the Ground forWheat, as much as a good crop 
of Tares or French-Wheat, otherwise called Buck-Wheat, can do."'' 
His own familiar chalk lands, and the Weald of Sussex, are spoken 
of with commendation as suitable for hemp and Hax, and inter- 
estino; statistics are given of the value of such land so sown.^ 

Timber. — In these days, when the conservation of existing 
forests, and the planting of new ones, are matters that engage 
the attention of Governments, and, as in the case of ■' Arlior I)a,y " 
in America, excite the enthusiasm of multitudes, it is not 

^ A Raging Wave, p. 5. - Aphorisms, p. 3. 

^ PreveHtion of Poverty, p. 4. ^ Proposals, p. 10. 

■' Ibid., postscript, p. xvi. " Prevention of Poverty, p. 7. 

'• See above, p. 64. Proposals, p. 8, iiud postscript, p. ii. 



76 EICHAED HAIXES AS YEOMAN FAEMEPv. 

uniiistructive to hear what Richard Haines has to say about the 
cultivation of timber. His remarks are judicious, and again 
display his practical common sense and his patriotism. He 
laments the imminent destruction of our supplies of oak timber, 
" deservedly accounted the best in the world, and a great Strength 
and Ornament to the Kingdom," giving this as the reason,^ 
" because the only nurse that niaketh the Oak, and other Timber 
t(» flourish is Uncler-ivoods, and where Under-woods are not, tliere 
cannot [be] (or very rarely is) any good timber." He then 
recites the " wholsom Statute," still on the Statute Book h\\{ 
BN-aded,- " That on Every Fall of Underwoods they should leave 
S(» many Standels, Tellows, or young Trees to grow for Timber : 
which indeed they will do, l)ut then at the next Fall of the same 
Wood, viz. about nine or ten years after, they will cut those very 
Standels . . . left before, (so that they never become Timber) and 
then they leave new^ ones, and this successively whereliy the 
Intention of the Statute is unworthily defeated." 

He denies that ironworks destroy the forests, or on the other 
hand cause arable and pasture to be turned into forest land. The 
woodlands in the country, which are still considerable, would, if 
[iroperly husl)anded and managed, be sufficient for all purposes." 

Cider. — But it is in Pdchard Haines's treatise on the making of 
cider,^ etc., that we find the most useful hints on the cultivation 
of lands. The treatise was written to explain and set forth his 
invention for the making of cider-royal (as he called it) according 
to a patent he had taken out. As early as 1674 his attention^ 
had been turned to the making of home-grown spirits as good and 
as strong as foreign wines and brandy. He quite recognises that 
such spirits and wines are beneficial, and even necessary articles, 
of human consumption. They cause appetite and help digestion. 
Sack, the praises of which were sung by FalstafF, comes in for due 

' Prevention, of Foverty, p. 9. 

- Mr. J. B. Morris, writing to l^otes and Queries (8tli S., 11, 5 November, 1892). 
mentions a Statute of Henry VIII (1513) whicli says "there shall be left standing 
and unfelled, for every acre, twelve standels or storers of oak, or in default of so 
many, then of elm, ash, asp, or beech." He also quotes from John Nordeu, Surveyor x 
Dialogue, London, 1607, p. 213, a complaint so similar to tbat of Eichard Haines in 
tlie tcit that I think it possible the latter had Nordeu's book in his possession. 

•' Precention, of Poverty, p. 10. 

^ There is an attempt being made to restore the cider industry to its ancient 
prosperity, and Mr. C. W. Eadcliffe Cooke, M.P., recently delivered an address on 
tlie subject to the Farmers' Club. 

•• See above, p. 59. 



RICHAKD HAINES AS YEOMAN FARMER. 77 

Cdmineiiclatioii.^ Oidiiiaiy riencli wines sold at 12d. per quart, 
canary and champagne at 2s. Beer is little mentioned ; the 
prison price (an extravagant one) is given above as 2d. for a little 
more than a pint. It is stated that an acre of land will yield half 
as much again of cider as of beer.- 

Price of Cider. — The price of cider varied from 20s. per 
hogshead in some years to oOs., which latter sum represents lUI. a 
(piart^: but in 1682 good cider sold in the West of England at 
lOs. per hogshead, or ^d. per quart, and in 1683 it stood at 20s. 
a hogshead. A quart per diem is considered an average consump- 
tion for each person. If his new cider-royal cost 2d. a (piai't, this 
would mean £2 a year or a little more per man. 

Ivichard Haines's last book, though not on such public and 
important subjects as his others, was e^-identh' written coji 
amove, and is perhaps of the most permanent value to us no^v. 
This is how he introduces it to the public : A2)horis}/is viion Tin 
Xtir Way of Iiwproviwj Cyder, or Malciny Cyder-FioyaJ lately 
diseovereel For the Good of those Kinydoms and Nations That arc 
Belioklcn to Others, and Pay Dear for Wine ' ShevAny That Simple 
Cyder, f refill ently Sold for Tlivrty Sliilliiigs per Hogsheeal friz. Thrce- 
half-pcnce a Quart) may he made as Strony, Wholsom, and Pleasiny 
as Freneh toine usually sold for Twelve-pence a Quart ; Witliout 
Adding anything to it, hut whcd is of the Juice of Aj^ples ; and for 
One Penny or Three-half-pence a Quart more Charge, may he made 
as good as Canary commonly sold for two Shillings. As also, hoiv 
one Acre of Zand vjorth now Twenty Shillings, may be made loorth 
Eight or Ten Pound per Annum To which are Added, Certain Ei- 
pedicnts concerning Eaising and Planting of nipple-trees, Gooseherry- 
irccs, etc. With Eespeet to Clirapness, E-'pedition, certain f/roiriug 
and Fruitful ness, beyond u-Jtat halli Iriflierto been yet made l.iiown." 

It is dedicated to " All Kings I*rinces and States, who ]ia\c 
No wines of their own Production," including the " Kinsis of the 
two Northern Crowns " and the States General of the Ignited 
I'rovinces. The author's efforts to transmit his suggestions to 
Poland were frustrated by the " remote distance and small 
Entercourse from hence thither."^ 

Though wine, our author remarks, e(ra be successfully grown 
in England,^ yet practically our nearest substitute for wine is the 

' Prevention of Foverty, p. 18. - Aphorisms, p. 14. 

•'' Ihicl., Introduction. ^ Ihid. 

" See above, p. 60 n., and Frcn/iitioii of Porerft/, p. 14. 



78 lilCHAKL) HAINES AS YEOMAN FAR:\rER. 

juice of apples, wildings and pears/ and otlier fruits. But few 
persons have cultivated the art of making cider, and what is made 
is crude and unwholesome, compared with wnie. This treatise is 
written to explain a method of making a cider-spirit or cider- 
wine which shall supersede wine. 

Patent for Cidek-iioyal. — This was taken out 6 February, 
1684, in the following terms, that, whereas Eichard Haines, of 
Sullington, co. Sussex, Gent., and partners with considerable charge 
and pains have found out " an art or method of preparing, 
improving, and meliorating cyder, perry, and the juice or liquors 
of wildings, crabbs, cherrys, goosberrys, currants and mulberrys 
so as to put the strength or goodness of two or three hogsheads 
of any of the said liquors into one and render the same much 
more wholsome and delightful . . . lieing a new invention . . . 
we having a more especial and favouraljle regard unto the art and 
invention aforesaid . . . grante unto the said Eichard Haines 
and partners during the term of 14 years . . . license to 
practise this art exclusively." 

On 22 December, 1684, the London Gazette contained an adver- 
tisement informing the public that the above patent had been 
granted to ]\Ir. Eichard Haines and partners, and giving notice 
that the cider could be had at the vaults under Dr. Morton's 
buildings in Grey Friars in Newgate Street and in Three Crown 
Court in Southw^ark, and licences could be taken out at the 
oftice in the ]\Iarine Coffee House in Birchin Lane, and at the 
Coffee house in Three Crown Court. 

Method of Making the new Cidee. — This, which can 
liardly be called a " mystery," as the patent expresses it, was as 
follows : " Put the strength of two hogsheads into one : which for 
to do, put one Hogshead of cyder, and some part of tlie other, into 
a Copper-Still, and then put the same into your other Hogs-Head 
and fill it up, stirr it about well, and keep it close-stopt, except one 
day in Ten or Twenty let it lie open five or six hours."- AVithin 
three months this will be as strong as the best French wines and as 
pleasing though different in taste. Additional spirit and moie 
sugar according to pleasure will make this cider like canary, and 
one pint of good spirit added to a gallon of the cider will make it 
equal to Spanish wines. So the juice of pears, cherries, mul- 



' Aphorisms, p. 5. 
- Ibid. 



RICHARD HAINES AS YEOMAN FARMER. 79 

berries, currants, and especially gooseberries, l)y the addition of 
their own spirits^ can be made equal to canary 

What and How to Plant. — One acre of land planted with 
apple trees may bring in £<S worth of cider-royal, though its price 
be but 2d. a quart. Plant thus : Eight score Eed-strakes and 
Golden Pippins per acre 16 feet apart, which at only 1 bushel per 
tree will bear 160 bushels per acre. Each hogshead of cider 
requires 20 bushels of apples, and 8 hogsheads of ordinary cider 
will make 4 of cider-royal. This at '2d. per quart will make £2 
per hogshead.- 

By planting the trees 20 feet one way and 12 the other you 
can plough between and plant grass or corn. But gooseberries 
and currants so planted will be better, and will yield 4 hogsheads 
of wine-royal, which again at 2d. per ijuart will give £8 more per 
acre. 

I'ROFiT ON Fruit-growing. — But apple trees usually Itear from 
4: to 20 bushels a tree, and so, taking the lower number, we may 
get 16 hogsheads instead of 4, and this if sold at od. (instead of 
2d,.y a quart will produce £48. 

Again, gooseberries and currant trees, as experience teaches/ 
well husbanded one with another, may yield a gallon apiece. As 
16 trees will stand on one rod of land, 4 feet apart, one rod will thus 
produce 2 bushels of fruit. There being 160 rods in an acre, the 
total yield will be 320 bushels, i.e., 8 hogsheads of wine. This at 
od. per quart is £24, which with the £48 above makes £72 for 
each acre of land, at present not worth more than 20.s. per annum.^ 

Qualities of the New Cider. — Not only is it sti-onger and 
more palatable, but also more wholesome, no longer Ijcing cold, 
sickly, and apt to generate wind. Being the product of (jur own 
soil, it must needs suit our constitutions l)etter tlian outlandish 
li(|Uors. It can be recommended as an appetizer and tonic, and 
even excessive indulgence has no harmful eh'ects." A home- 
brewed article, consumed at home, it will save us half a million 
pounds yearly. 

WiNE-uOYAL. — A Inishcl of good ri[)e currants' makes 6 or 7 

' Brandy aud spirits of wine and grain will do, if drawn fine, but not ko well. 
The least suitable ai"e spirits of ale aud beer. 
' Aphorisms, p. 6. 

^ Being as good as wine at V2d. per quart, it must sell for 3c/. a quart at least. 
* Aphorisms, p. 7. '" Grain crops brought in £8 per acre. 

^ Aphorisms, pp. 7, 10. 
' Twenty bushels of currants will make 2 hogsheads of wine. Ibid., \>. 11. 



80 EICHAED HAINES AS YEOMAN EAEMEK. 

gallons of wine. To every hnshel of currants add 12 quarts of 
water. After 12 to 16 hours press and strain and put in a cask 
till the liquor begins to clear. Then rack off from the gross lee. 
To each gallon add 1 pint of good spirit, and sugar ad lib. Stir 
well for \ hour, and stop close for 3 months. So with other 
fruits, but gooseberries make the best wine. 

Cost of Labour. — This may be defrayed by saving the spirits 
drawn from the apples after they have been pressed for cider. 

Best Fruit for the Purpose.— Tlie Eed-Strake, a kind of 
wilding, is suitable, but the best apple for the talile and for cider 
too is the Golden Pippin, a quick grower and good bearer, yielding 
the most liquor and the best. The very liusks of the latter, even 
when cider has been made from the fruit, will yield more spirit 
than others. Nor is it any more difficult to raise good fruit than 
bad. 

It is certain that good wildings and good crabs are better for 
cider than the most delicious summer or winter talile fruit or 
sweet apples (the Golden Pippin alone excepted). The bitter 
sharp cral) is much better than a bitter sweet apple, because its 
juice will give twice as much spirit. The sweet and sour tastes 
are left l)ehind in the earthy phlegmatic part of the cider. The 
spirit of sour cider will not be sweetened by any amount of sugar. 
If you fill the still with metheglin (new sweet mead, made of 
honey, etc.)^ neither spirits nor sweets will result, but only water, 
unless you allow it to ferment. So with the juice of fruits, 
fermentation only will produce spirit, and the sourer the juice, 
tlio more spirit will result. jSTe's^ertheless, apples of 1:»itter taste 
make Ijitter cider. 

The Addixc; of Spirits to Cider. — The staler the cider, the 
longer is the time required for the spirits to V)e incorporated. If 
added before fermentation, tliey will evaporate- and be cast out. 
Tlie best time is about a month after the cider has been inade and 
racked two or three times off the lee. Then add the spirits, either 
with sweets or without, Ijut well beaten together with some cidei'. 
When put into the cask, stir well and bung up close. The cider- 
royal will be ready in 2 or 3 months,^ but the longer it lies, till 
quite meliorated, the l^etter. If the season be ^^■arm, open the 
cask occasionally. 

Strength of Spirit necessaisy. — This should be one-third 

' Ajjhorismn, p. 11. - Ibid., p, 12. 

■^ Other wines "vvill take 4 oi" 5 montlis. 



i;iciiAi;i» HAINES AS Yl<;()^[A^■ faiimki;. SI 

Htroii^^ei' tliiui ])i'()nf, (^ostin.u' 4.s\ ])er ^silloii, aud should hv well 
drawn.' 

BoTTLTN(;. — Let the cider l)e very tine, then choose a clear day, 
wind N. or E. Make sure that the bottles are dry, and don't 
({uite fill them hy a wineglassful. Lay the hottles on their sides.^ 

Faults of Co.^[.M<)X Cideh. — Mustiness and "fretting" till the 
spirits are spent are common faults. Cider will be musty it" 
apples are gathered into the house wet, or if a musty vessel is 
used. Mnsty cider will produce musty spirit. Cider will fret if 
tlie fruit is gathered before it is ripe, or the cider is made before 
the apples have lain long enough. The apples must lie in a heap, 
and sweat, and get dry again, before they are fit for the press. 
If in spite of care the cider frets, draw it off into another vessel 
once in a week or ten days, taking the lee from it when rackt. 
Don't have the vessel full by a gallon, nor stopt close, until it 
ceases to buzz and sputter. When the cider becomes quiet, fill up 
and stop close, but o])en again in 2 or 3 days, and, if the cider is 
not yet quiet, let the vessel lie open an hour or less at a time. 
Before putting the cider into the cask, burn a match of brimstone, 
dipt in coriander seed, in the empty cask.^ 

How TO ADD THE SuGAR. — Make it into a syrup by dissolving 
it in water, one cwt. being sufficient to make 16 gallons, and so 
[)roportionately. Boil the water down to a syrup,"* and when cold 
add it to the cider. A little coriander seed liruised (in a bag) and 
put into the mixture while boiling will give it a good scent. Of 
these sweets put in 2 or 3 gallons })er hogshead, l)nt not until the 
cider has been finally rackt and is past fermenting. Before 
adding the sweets mix them with the spirits you intend to add 
and with a like amount of cider. Then stir all with a strong staff 
in the bunghole for 7 or 8 minutes. Brown sugar raises the 
colour of the cider, Ijut it is as sweetening as the white and 
cheaper, being 5r/. a quart. 

No Waste. — vSteej) the husky ])art of the apples, wliich have 
been pressed I'or cider, in water for 2 or 3 days, draw the li({uor 
off and allow it to ferment. This with the lees of the cider will 
give enough spirit, when added to the cider, to make it as strong 
as French wine. 

^ Aphorisms, Appendix. '^ Ibid. caJ Jiii. 

3 Ibid., p. 12-. 

"* Ibid., p. 13. Directions are given for purifying the sugar by boiling with the 
whites of eggs, which carry off tlie scum. 



82 PJCHARD HAINES AS YEOMAN FAKMEU. 

Storage.— Put the cider and spirits into a wooden cask ; a 
vessel of 6 gallons requires :2 quarts of sweets, and 3 of spirits of 
cider. It will keep 2 or o years, and l)e the better for it, but 
keep the cask full. In '2 months' time the liquor will have wasted 
a quart or so, which loss must be made good with liquor as strong 
or stronger.' 

Stale Cidee eevivified. — Take a hogshead of tart new cider, 
before it is quite clear, and mix it with a hogshead of the old in 
two other vessels, adding sweets and spirits in proportion to your 
new cider. Do this in October or November, and before Christmas 
the cider will be as good as any other. 

This cider-royal will be cheaper than beer and as good as 
wine, but the nobility and gentry can still go on drinking their 
Champagne, Burgundy, and Frontimack, and their Greek and 
Florence wines. 

Planting of Nuiisepjes and Orchaeds.^ — Appended to the 
treatise on the making of cider is a series of practical rules for 
raising nurseries for orchards. These are as efficacious now as 
they were then, and as fruit trees vary much in their growth and 
productiveness, many growers may find these hints useful. 

Plant Shallow. — The upper root must not be more than 
1 or 2 inches under ground, the deepest not more than 8 or 10 
inches. Clear away all suckers and superfluous branches near the 
root. No downright root must he left. 

Stock or Kernel.^ — Select these from thriving crabs with clear 
Ijody and great spreading boughs. As the head is full of branches 
and twigs, so proportionally does the stem abound with roots and 
fibres ; and as the tree, so will be the product. Trees so raised 
are worth 1$. each, while others not so cliosen are not worth Id. 
From such kernels can be raised trees that, in 10 or 12 years 
after the kernel is put into the ground, will produce a bushel 
a tree. 

Planting of Kernels. — As soon as these are taken out of 
the crabs, put them (in autumn or, if frost prevents, as soon as 
possible) in the ground. If they have to be kept through the 
winter without planting tliem, put them in a mixture of dry 
sand within doors. As soon after January as the season permits, 
plant them about 1 inch deep in ordinary good ground with a 
warm aspect, and keep them weeded. 

^ Ajjhorisins, p. 14. ' Ibid., p. 15, 

2 Ibid., -p. IG. 



UlCilAKI) HAINES AS YEO^rAN FAKMER. 80 

TiJANSPLAXTiXG. — 111 U- iiioiitlis (liaw out the most tliriviii|L;-, 
iiiul transplant into a well-dug and dunged nursery, in rows 
2 i'eet apart and 9 inches from one another. Cut off all dvwiir'ujlii 
■roots, spread out the small roots, and close up the ground I'ound 
them. Next spriug re])eat the process with the next most 
thriving plants, and so on. 

The Nursery. — Next autunni (Hg round the plants (l)efore tl'e 
leaf is oft'), and let the roots spread; luit this digging lietween 
them must be done only this once a year. ]]}■ digging when the 
leaf is on, you ensure the shooting again of any root accidentally 
cut oft. 

Two Year Old Plants. — After two summers' growth, the 
next winter, near spring, cut oft' the tops of the plants a foot 
above ground, and, the next JMarcli or April after, the Itiiigest will 
1>e fit for graftiuu'. 

Planting Out. — Then transplant into orchards. Don't set 
too deep. Dig holes 4 feet square, 1 spit dee]), which is as deep 
as the roots should lie. Away with all trees that have a down- 
right root like a parsnip. They are only ht t() burn. These come 
from apple kernels, and such as have not l)een transplanted, of 
which scarce one in a hundred is otherwise, but from crali kernels 
treated as above, scarce one in 400 is bad. 

Labour. — One man's labour upon one acre of land, may, after 
;! or 4 years, raise 10,000 trees a year, which at 3(7. a tree comes 
to £125. Each acre will contain 120 trees, costing 30.s\ The 
planting w^ill take Iw. 6(/. per score, and so the whole cost per acre 
is less than 40-'>. 

Orchards. — Keep these weeded and the trees free from 
suckers. Protect from coueys, cattle, etc. At the corners of 
each four-foot hole for the tree, you may plant 4 currant or 
gooseberry bushes ; but these recpiire more duug than the a})})le 
trees. Mix the earth and dung l)efore plantiug the trees. 

Soil. — All ordinary good land suits aj)ple trees, but not hot 
and dry sand, nor wet and cold land, (looseberries like a, suunier 
situation than currants. 

Layekino Go(jsei'.ei!RY anJ) Oli;i;ant Uushes. — Al)out the end 
of February, ov beginning of ]\Lirch,lay down ever}^ liml) Hat with 
the ground and cover every twig with good earth, turning out tlie 
tops so as to lie al)ove ground. Ever}^ twig will root and shoot 
Old. Keep the uncovered stock free from liranches. 

Such are the main directions contained in the above treatise. 

G 2 



84 ItlCHARD HAINES AS YEOMAN FAltMEU. 

The book brought the author numerous letters of inquh^y " from 
many persons of this kingdom purporting several questions" 
relative to the making of cider. To these Eichard Haines gives 
answers in the Appendix to tlie work, pul)lished shortly after the 
1;)Ook itself. ' Somebody had asked aljout the strength of the spirit 
required, and Vv^e have the following test given. 

Pr.ooF Spirit. — " There is a certain degree of size or strength 
which is called Proof, being the Standard between the Distiller of 
Spirits and those they sell them unto, which Proof is this : Put 
8 or 10 spoonfuUs into a glass viol (not above lialf full) and give 
it a sudden jogg ; then observe, if upon that sudden jogg a cap of 
bubl:)les arise and stand upon it for a competent space, viz., whilst 
you can tell ten or twenty ; this is that size of Spirits which they 
call Proof. But in case such a Mantling or Cap does not stand 
upon the Surface of your Spirits . . . the same is either strong 
above Proof, or too weak, and will not come up to it ; now to 
know which of these is the cause is easie, for if it be above Proof 
it will look bright- and clear: if beneath, pale and wheyish."^ 

Testimonies to the New Cider. — All wdro had tasted this 
new liquor had drunk freely of it, and they too for the most part 
persons of quality, critical judgments, and nice palates, while one 
peer of the realm preferred it before any wine. Many eminent 
doctors of physic gave it as their opinion that cider-royal must 
needs be a very sound and wholesome drink. 

' Appendix to Aphorisms. An addition of a little water will soon show whether 
tlie spirit is above proof, or weak. 



( 85 ) 



OHAPTEK X. 

RiCHAP.i) Haines's JJfatii and BuitiAL. 

ErciiARD Haines's Death and Burial. — Deatli overtook Eichard 
Haines before lie could effectually utilize his invention. His 
wife Mary had died in N"ovenil)er, 1G84, and was buried on the 
21st of that month at Sullington. Six months later Eichard 
himself died. We do not know the cause of his death, but 
death lurked in many a corner of old picturesque insanitary 
London. We know that Iiicliard Haines's health was not always 
t^ood, for he speaks^ of a time when he was not well, but implies 
that he had recovered. As the burial was on the next day but 
one to the death, we may perhaps infer that the illness of which 
he died was of an infectious nature. 

The original warrant for the administration of Eichard's goods 
runs as follows- : " 30 May 1 685. On which day appeared in 
person Gregory^ Haines and affirmed that a certain Eichard 
Haines, lately of the parish of Christ Church London, widower, 
died intestate on the day last past, and that he was the natural 
and legitimate son of the said deceased, and as some of the goods 
of the said deceased were perishable, he prayed that Administration 
might be granted him before the 14 days which usually elapsed."' 
The register of Christ Church, Newgate Street, records the Inirial 
of " Eicharde Haynes in ye upper Church on 31 May, 1685." The 
old church had been burnt down in the great fire and was not yet 
rebuilt.^ Eichard Baxter of the " Sainfs Pyst'^ tells us that his 
wife was buried there (16<S1) "in the mines.'' Interments went 
on, and even divine service was held in a sort of tabernacle amid 
the ruins. The old Franciscan church, known as •' Crey Friars," 
was more than 300 feet long, and one of the largest and most 
conspicuous churches in London. The new edifice covered only 
the choir of the old one. Eichard Haines rests with royal dead, 

' New Loi'd.o, p. 53. ^ P.C.C. 1085 (No. 815), in Latin. 

•' George crossed out. 

^ It was rebuilt between KiSfi atifl 1701. from (lesions ol' Sir Cliiisto])her Wren. 



80 rjGiiArj) iiAiNE>;'s peatii and bupjal. 

;i^ four (|neens lie Luried in the saiue eliureh, Margaret, Isabella, 
-loan of Scotland, and Isabella, Queen of the Isle of ]\Ian.^ 

Inventory of Goods. — The inventory of the goods of Richard 
Haines, which his son Gregory had to put in at Somerset House, 
as his administrator, no longer exists there, but the late Mr. C. E. 
Gildersome-Dickinson, while engaged upon other genealogical 
work, came across a Chancery suit " Weston v. Haines,"^ in which 
one Charles AVeston, of St. Saviour's, Southwark, glass-seller, sued 
frregory Haines for £70, Ijeing the value of glass bottles and 
corks supplied to his father the late liichard Haines. This suit 
has annexed to it a copy of the inventory of Eichard Haines's 
goods, and supplies us with some interesting particulars which 
deserve to be given at some length. 

According to this document " Eichard Haynes late of Sullington 
in the County of Sussex Gentleman was ... at the time of his 
Death possessed of ... a very considerable personal Estate 
consisting of (amongst other things) in ready money Leases Plate 
Jewels Eings Debts oweing on Securitv and Debts oweing in his 
Shop Booke and otherwise Great Store of Glasse-bottles and other 
Earthen and Glasse w^are, and Syder wherein he traded And 
alsoe consisting of . . . great quantities of Linnen Brasse Pewther 
Bedding Furniture and Household Stufie of all sorts and divers 
horses cowes sheep and other Cattell aird great quantities of Corne 
Graine and Hay and Diverse other Goods and Chattels to a very 
considerable value And w^as alsoe ... or some in trust for him 
were seized in Fee of several messuages Lands Tenements ... in 
s"^ county of Sussex or elsewhere of the yearely value of sixty 
pounds and upwards which reall Estate as is given out by the 
Defend* . . . was mortgaged for seaven hundred pounds or there- 
abouts." The plaintiff then goes on to complain that Gregory 
Haines had applied the personal estate to pay off the mortgage, 
and now asserted that he had no assets left with which to pay 
tlie plaintiff's debt, or any others "due on Book or simple 
Contract." Whereas, says the complainant, the mortgaged estate 
was sufficient to satisfy the mortgage and all other debts owed by 
the deceased on real securities. Ihit the son refused to pay, and 
pleaded " plene administraAit," concealing, as the plaintiff asserts, 
great part of the personal estate, and exhiliiting no inventory, 

1 Cif^i/ Churches, by Daniell, p. 150. 

- B.audA. before 1714: 83 EeynarJson, No, 93, dated 26 June, 1686; with 
the " Aaiswer " of Gregory Haines to same : 15 October, 1686. 



i;ic[iAi;n ii.vtnes's death and f-urtal. S7 

or an imperfect one, "many of the goods Debts and other things 
part of the s'^ personall estate heing omitted . . . and such goods 
and things as are sett down therein are much undervalued and were 
or might have Ijeen sold for more then they are therein apprise<l 
at." In fact Gregory is accused of fraudulent manipulation uf 
the estate in the way of putting down in his account as bonds 
paid off what were only collateral securities for the mortgage, 
compounding for debts and entering them as paid to the full, 
and other such things. Finally the complainant prays that 
Gregory may be forced to give an account of his administration 
of tlie estate. 

In his answer the defendant admits that his fatlier died 
possessed of a considerable' personal estate, and also seised in fee 
of lands and messuages in Sussex called " West Wantley " and 
" Iioundabouts," of tlie yearly value of £60 or tlierealjouts. He 
also attirnH that an inventory was put in at the P-C.G., in wliicli 
the deceased's goods were appraised at full value or even more. 
For instance, tlie cider did not fetch within £30 of the a])praised 
value; while the lauds above-named were mortgaged to Thomas 
Fogden of Fittleworth in Sussex for £900. This with interest 
due amounted to £1,000, being charged beside with a yearly rent 
of £12 10s. payable to the hospital of the Holy Trinity at 
Guildford. All this money was still owing. 

Moreover a part of the mortgaged premises was by deed dated 
20 November, 1654,^ settled on Pdchard Haines for life, and in case 
of his decease on his wife Mary, and after her on the heirs male of 
said Piichard and Mary. This part of the premises, consequently 
(worth £30 yearly), being the son's under the deed, could 
not be charged witli the father's del its: while the rest was not 
worth the mortgage money and the yearly rent charge of £12 lO-s. 
Further Gregory denied that he had fraudulently concealed any- 
thing, or paid bogus del)ts. The wh(de estate was appraised at 
£r)G9 6-s'., ami £672 1.3.s. 9^/. had lieeii ])aid away by the executor, 
some £20 or £30()f bad debts being crossed oft'. Moreover the 
real value of the estate was less than tlie appraised value. 

The IxVENTOiJV. — -A true and jierfect Inventory of all and 
singuler the goods Chattels and Greditts of IJichard Hahies late 
of Wantley in the parish of Sullington co. Sussex, gentleman, 
but in the parish of Christ Church London deceased taken valued 
and appraised the liflh day of June in the yeave of our Lord one 

' See above, p. 21. 



88 EICHAP.rj HAINES S DEATH AXD BUKIAL. 

tliousand six Iniiidred eighty and five by William Cavell and 
Pilchard Havraden as foUoweth viz* heiug only to the goods in 
and aliout the Estate and honse in the said Connty of Sussex. 



In the Parlor. 



£, s. d. 



Imprimis one Tahle and Carpet foure joyned Stooles tliirteene 
Cliaires one side l)oard Taljle and Cloth a paire of brass 
Andirons a lire pann and tongues ... 2 18 

In the parlor Chamber. 

Item Two feather l)eds two bolsters one Blanlcet one Counter- 
paine one l^edstead Curtains Vallens and Eodds two pillowes 
f>ne Wicker Cliaire one presse one table one. side board table 
two Chests foure Cliaires and one stoole 5 00 

In the hall Chamber. 

Item One Bedstead one feather bed and Truckle bed and Ijed 

steddle two Counter jjaines one blocke and other Lumber ... 6 

In the Porch Chamber. 

Item One bedstead one feather bed and Bo\dster one Blanket 

and one Coverled ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 00 

In the Pantrij Chamber. 

Item One bedstead one feather bed and Boulster one Blanket 

and one Coverled ... ... ... 1 10 

In the tv:o (Jarretts. 

Item Two Bedsteads two feather beds two boulsters two 
blancketts ten bushell of none such in the huske one truncke 
and other Lumber ... 2 

In the hall. 

Item One table and one forme one Setle one Stoole five Chaires 
one Jack five Spitts one fowling peice one paire of Andirons 
tongues and Shovell two pothookes one fender one Cleaver one 
Cupboard one warming pann one Ii'on way beame twelve 
pewter dishes one flaggon and two Candlestickes two porrengers 
one Salt twelve wooden plates one box Iron one paire of 
Bellowes and other Lumber ... ... ... ... ... 4 

In the Pantry. 

Item five brass potts one Skillett two Iron potts five pewter 
dishes one Sawcer foure trayes two brasse Candlestickes one 
dripping pann and other Lumber ... ... ... ... 2 




Interior of Dining Room^ West Wantley. 

(Frij,,i a -photoihvpli h,; C. /?. llai,u>:.) 



RICHARD ITATXE.S ,S DEATH AND BURIAL. 



89 



In th: MUke house. 

£ .s'. '/. 
Item Five pewther dislios one In-asse ketle foiu^e trayes one 
(Jlnnne one fivini^ pann one Buekett three milke vessells one 
ponndeiing tn1)l> two dressers and other Lnnil)ei' ... ... 1 

In the Kitchen. 

Item One Furnace one Lind)eek five brewing tul)lis and niauU 
mill one Bushell two Cheese ])resses fonre heere vessclls diu' 
three leg tubl) and other Lumber ... ... ... ... 3 U 

/;;, tJte Kitclien Chamber. 
Item Two Bushells of wheate eight l)eere ves.sells three lyniien 

wheelds (me wo )len wheele fifteen old Sacks and otlier rjnnd)er 
Item household Lynnen in all value 
Item three grosse of glasse bottles value ... 
Item In Hay ... 

Item Two and a hogg-hutch ... 

Item Eight Flitches of Bacon valued at ... 
Item five hogsheads of Syder valued at 
Item several bookes in the house valued at 
Item foure Stalls of beere valued at 
Item An old leade pump valued at... 

Item A paire of pockett pistolls and a sword valued at 

Item Wood and faggott upon the Cxround... 

Item Tenn Oxen and a Bulstag valued at... 

Item Si.\ two yearling Steares one Heyfer and one two yearling 

Item Thirteene yearlings valued at 

Item Three horses and one Mare and Colt valued at 

Item foure Cowes and a Bull valued at 

Item nine hoggs and Seaven piggs valued at 

Item Tenn Acres of Oates valued at 

Item Twenty Acres of Wheat valued at ... 

Item Thirty six acres of Barley valued at... 

Item Nine Acres of Bucke wheate valued at 

Item Seaven Acres of tares ... 

Item thirty six Acres of Mowing Crasse ... 

Item Two waggons 

Item Two dung cartes 

Item Three plowes 

Item Three horse harrowes and an < ).\ harrow 

Item Six Yoakes 

Item Six Iron Chaines valued at 

I tem two paire of Iron harnesses ... 

Item two paire of Harrowing harnesses ... 

Item one Rowler 

Summe totall of the value of the deceased goods in and about 

his liome in Sussex ... ... ... ••• ■•• ■•- ••• ^'-^ '*' "' 



1 

5 










4 








■2 










10 





(•) 








10 








2 










12 







12 







10 





1 








■')5 








1.-) 








■li) 








i\ 





(J 


15 








6 


10 


() 


8 





(J 


00 








40 








1 








] 










IT) 





") 








1 


15 







Hi 





1 










12 







15 







8 
1 

1 








N.B.— The sum totiil oi' sums sis iiliove given only amounts to £30() 5,v. 



00 lilCIIAED HAINES'S DEATH AND BUrJAT.. 

A true and perfect Inventory of all and Singuler the CTOods 

ChattelLs and Creditts of the above menconed Mr. Eichard 

Haines which were in and aljoiit the Citty of London and County 

of Middlesex taken and valued and appraised the third day of 

June in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand six hundred and 

eighty five by Andrew Weston and Pdchard HargreaA^es as 

followeth vizt. : — 

£ s. d. 
Impris In tlie first Celler under Doctor Morton's liouse in Grey 

Fryers neere Newgate Streete London Eleaven hogsheads of 

Cyder 22 

Item In the Inner Cellar forty hogsheads of Cyder and for want 

of being full we allow two hogsheads to make them up ... 80 
Item In the other Cellar eleaven pipes and three flutts and an 

uUidge which is in all thirty and three hogsheads ... ... [6G 0]' 

Item In the three Cellars above menconed is five hogesheads of 

Bottoms and Lees and fatt of ordinary Cyder oonteyning two 

h( )gesheads and a half which we doe value at . . . ... ... 300 

Item There are alsoe twenty dozen of full hottles of C^^der and 

twenty dozen empty valued at ... ... ... ... ... 8 00 

Item at the Marine Coffee house in Burchin Lane two hoges- 

heades and a halfe and one hogeshead of Cyder and Bottles ... 7 
The Sume totall of both the aforesaid Inventories amounts to 

five hundred and Seaven pounds tenn Shillings ... ...507 10 

An Addiconall Inventory of all and Singuler the Goods 
Chattels and Creditts of the said Eichard Haines late of A¥antley 
in the parish of Sullington in the County of Sussex but in the 
parish of Christ Church London Gentrl deceased taken valued and 
appraised hy William Cavell and Eichard Harraden as followeth 
viz. :— - 

Impris One hundred Taggs ... 

Item Three Coltes and one old mare 
Item due to the deceased ujjon booke 



Besides the above, Gregory Haines in his answer to Charles 
Weston's Bill of Complaint admits having received £15 for glass 
liottles that were out in customer's hands when the Inventory was 
taken, and consents to being charged witli them. This being so, 
and oilier glass bottles figuring in the Inventory itself, one 
cannot quite miderstand why Gregory declined to pay at least 
some of Weston's delit for these l)ottles. 

' Sum not given in Mr. Dickinson's copy of original. 



£. 


s. 


d. 


25 








4 








32 


16 





61 


16 






£' 


s. 


<l 


244 








30 








1 0(! 








14 


IG 





•1?> 


10 





29 


5 





10 








22 


8 





10 









1!I('IIA!!T) IIATNES'S T)EATI[ AND r.URIAL. 01 

The total assets of the deceased amounted, tlierefore, t') 
£584 6.S. Of?., which at the present value of money would represcMit 
several thousands of pounds. 

Now follows A Schedule of money ])iiid for the ])ebts of tlie 
said Pachard Haines. 

Discharged : — 

Impiis paid Tliomas Duppa a bond... 

Item paid Mr. Stephen Evans and Mr. Peter Peicivall gnldsniitli 
on bond 

Item paid Mr. SamueU Short on 1)01 id 

Item paid Mr. Richard Haines of Pulborough on lioiul ... 

Item paid Mr. Edward Anderson on l)ond 

Item paid John Butcher on bond ... 

Item paid Robert Yeildall on bond... 

Item paid William Holl on bond 

Item paid .... L.'ec'" of Geo Eede on bond 

Item y)aid Mr. Tho Ellis for twoyeai^es rent of Baines fanne due 

at Michas one thousand six hundred eighty five ... ... 70 

Item paid S'Geo: Walker & Henrv Peckham Esqs for one yeares 

vent due for a farme called Mooches ... ... ... ... 10 

Item paid Mr. John Kettleby under-sheriff'e of Sussex for a del >t 

due to the late king- 
Item paid a bill under Mr. R. Haines hand to John Bard 

Item paid to the master and liiethereu of the Hospital at Guild- 
ford at Michas one thousand six hundied eighty foure 

Item paid Apsley Newton Esq for a Herryott 

Item paid Mr. Henry Shelley for foure Herryotts 

Item paid Mr Aljell for manageing of the Cyder in London 

Item paid funerall Charges ... 

Item paid for Lfes of Adm'^o" and the Inventory 

Item paid the duty of Excise 

Item paid servants theii' wages 

()72 18 !)' 

Appendix on the Wantley Property. 
This was mortgaged as follows. On 9 May, 1677 (20 Car. II), 
for f oOO to Ifoliert Leeves of Eowdell, Washington, Clerk, at a 
peppercorn rent. The mortgage covered " Eonndabouts Farm, " 
containing 35 acres, and included also GO acres of warren laud 
occuiiied by Pdchard Haines and Pobert Yeildoe. To release the 
property a payment of £ooG was necessary by 10 May, 1G71). 
Besides tliis £212 was borrowed from the same Pobert Leeves on 
otlier security given by Pichard Hayne. 

' Tills totiil is lO.v. too much. 



4 


o 
IS 


o 



12 


10 





4 


5 





1() 








10 


l(i 





8 





1 


3 


5 


8 


7 


10 





J4 









92 l!ICIIAi;i) IIAIXKi-;'s ])EATH and BUItlAL. 

Tliese (lel)ts liad reaelied the total of £688, when on 1 Febrnary, 
1G82-0, a fresh mortgage was made, 1»y which Thomas Fogden of 
Fittleworth agreed to pay oft' the £088 due, and also to lend 
Ifichard Haines £212 besides, Eichard Haines covenanting to pay 
Thomas Fogden. at the honse of Eichard Kelly the elder, gentleman, 
nf Petworth, the sum of £990 in instalments by 2 February, 
1084-5.^ The money was not paid, and on 25 October, 1686 
(2 Jac. II), a transference of the mortgage seems to have taken 
place, ]\Iary Shelley of Champneys in the parish of Thakeham, 
paying Thomas Fogden £-400,^ and receiving the lands in mortgage 
on condition that Gregory Haines paid to Mary Shelley £-440 at 
some time unspecified in the house of William Wheeler of 
Storrington. In tliis transaction Mary Shelley was trustee for 
Edward Shelley of Warnham. 

This money was not paid, and yet on 23 July, 1687 (3 Jac. II), 
upon John Mitchell of Feildplace, parish of Warnham, husbaird of 
said Mary (Shelley), paying Gregory Haines £100, the same lands 
seem again to have been mortgaged to dolm and ]\Iary JMitchell, on 
condition that, if Gregory Haines paid £105 at a certain specified 
time, he sliould recover the lands. 

Tliis money was not paid, but on 24 March, 1689-90 (2 William 
and j\Iary), the same lands were granted to John Cheale of Findon 
Esq., on payment to Gregory Haiires, yeoman, of £200, on condition 
that if the said Gregory Haines paid the said John Cheale £210 
by a specified date, the mortgage should be released.-' 

But this was not paid, and on 8 February, 1691-2 (3 William 
and Mary), the mortgage was transferred from John Cheale, 
trustee for Edward Shelley, to Eichard Bankes of Storrington, 
gentleman, as ti'ustee in his place, and on the same day Gregory 
Haines and Ann his wife sold all the above lands to Edward 
Shelley for £1,400, £528 18s. 4f/. being paid in cash and 
£871 Is. Sd. being due for principal and interest on mortgage. 

The West Wantley property is now in the hands of E. M. 
King, Esq. of Fryern, Storrington, who has most kindly allowed me 
to extract the above information from deeds in liis possession. 

^ Tliis deed was signed in presence of Rioliard Kellj and James and William 
Smith. 

- G-regory presumably satisfied Tliomas Fogden for the £590 furtlier due to him. 
3 Witnessed by Will. Wbeeler, Eliz. Wheeler, Joh. Wlieeler. 



(93) 



CHAITEK XI. 

The Descendants of riiciiAitD Haines. 

"Judge none blessed before Iii.s death : for a man shall be known in liis 
children." — Eccl. xi, 28. 

This is the obscurest part of the family history. Neither racliard 
nor his son Gregory, nor his grandson Gregory left a will, at least 
the first and third died intestate, and of the second neither u ill 
nor administration is to be i'()und. 

On 12 October, 1682, Gregory Haines witnessed the will of 
John Lee, mercer, of Tliakeham.^ Aljout the time of his fatliei's 
death, that is, most probabl}', lietween May, 1685, and March, 

1686,- he married Ann ; but neither marriage bond, nor 

licence, nor register of marriage has come to light.'' All we know 
of Ann Haines, besides the date of her burial, is that slie could 
write. 

Gregory lived at Sullington after his father's death, and was 
churchwarden of the church 1687-1688.'* In 1686 (Trinity Term) 
Gregory and Ann sold to George Barnard 1 messuage, 1 barn, 
1 stable, 1 garden, 1 orchard, 40 acres of arable, 4 acres of 
meadow, 10 acres of pasture, 60 of furze and gorse and common of 
pasture for all manner of cattle w^ith appurtenances in Sullington 
and Storrington. 

On 8 February, 1691-2, as above stated, they sold the West 
Wantley pioperty. In the Feet of Fines, relating to this, Gregory 
is called " gentleman," and the property sold is described as 
1 messuage, 2 barns, 1 stal)le, 2 gardens, 3 orchards, 110 acres 
arable, 20 meadow, 30 ])asture, 10 wood, 20 furze and gorse with 
a])})urtenances in Sullington and Storrington. 

On 8 Se})tember, 1691, (h'cgory witnessed the will of IJichard 
Harraden of Sullington, yeoman, the same })ers<>n no doul)t as liad 
been appraiser of his father's goods. 

1 Chichester C. C, Vol. XXA^I. 

- She appears as liis wife, Trinity Term, 1686 (Feet of Fines). 

" The marriage most likely took place in Sussex or in London. 

■• See Yisitation of Diocese, amdngst the original wills at Chichester. 



Oi- THE DESCENDANTS OF liK.'IIAKD HAINES. 

Ill KJOo (Trinity Term) Gregory Haines and Richard I'aldwin 
l)()nglit from John Scutt and Mary his wife, and from Thomas Cole 
and Jane his wife, 3 messuages, 3 barns, 3 gardens, 3 orchards, 
;!0 acres of arable land 5 of meadow, 10 of pasture, 10 of brush- 
wood, and common of pasture for one cow in Storrington and 
(Jootham. 

In 1700-1 (Hilary Term) Gregory and Ann, and William 
Wheeler, gentleman, and lElizaljeth his wife, sold to William Blaker 
60 acres of arable, 10 of meadoAV, 20 of pasture, and 80 of brush- 
wood in Storrington. 

On 11 June, 1702, Gregory Haines of Storrington, yeoman, and 
Ann his wife, in consideration of £111 paid to them, and of 
£168 15s. paid to William Pdaker of. Buckingham, in Old 
Shoreham parish, and Mabel his wife, and of 5s. paid to William 
Wheeler of Storrington, gentleman, and his wife Elizabeth, sold to 
John Edsaw of Bogner in parish of Fittleworth, yeoman, several 
panels of land viz., 20 acres, formerly held by copy court roll of 
tlie manor of Storrington, known as Boxalls copyhold and land 
called Clarke's and 9 acres in Cootham called Cootham Mershes, 
and land called Court Garden and the Coggine Crofts, that Warren 
or Coney ground with all and every of the rabbits and coneys now 
in or belonging to the same, commonly called the West Commons, 
etc. The Foot of Eines gives the amount sold as 60 acres of 
arable, 10 of meadow, 20 of pasture, 80 of briar and thorn with 
appurtenances in Storrington. 

On 9 October, 1702, Gregory was bondsman to the marriage 
licence of Charles Haynes of Petworth, gentleman, and Mary 
Tenfold of Storrington, widow, with William Castell of Chichester, 
innholder (perhaps Mary Penfold was Gregory's sister). He also 
appraised the goods of said Charles Haynes 22 July, 1709. 

In 1703 (Michaelmas Term) Gregory and Ann sold to John 
Edsaw, 2 messuages, 2 barns, 1 garden, 16 acres of arable, 5 of 
pasture, and common of pasture for a cow, with appurtenances in 
Coodham al's Cootham.' 

And lastly in 1705-6 (Easter), Gregory Haines bought of 
John Penfold and Mai'garet his wife, 1 messuage, 1 barn, 1 stable, 
1 garden, 1 orcliard, 12 acres of arable, 4 of meadow, and 8 of 
pasture in Ashington and Washington. 

By the al)ove it appears that Gregory and Ann sold at one 

^ Tlii8 property was called " Winters." See will of Eobert Edsaw (Chichester 
Cousistory Court, XXXT, p. 159). 



THK DKSCKNDAXI'S OF i;|i'llAl;i) IIAFNKS. '95 

tiim; or auothev between 1686 ami ITOo, over 500 ax'res of laud,' 
situated in Sullington, Storriugtou, and Coothaiu, liuyinu; on the 
other hand 55 acres in Storrington and Coothani in 1693 and in 
1705, 24 acres in Ashington and Washington. 

Gregory's children up to 1690-1 were hapti/ed at Sullington, 
and then at Storrington, where his last child was baptized in 1697. 
On 28 March, 1702, lie was hinrself baptized as an adult at 
Storrington Church,- when he is described as of Coothain. He was 
buried at Storrington on 8 Fel)ruary, 1727-8, as the register tells us. 

His elder son Richard has left no traces, nor could he have had 
any descendants alive in 1755, as he or they would have been the 
nearest heir to the Sladeland property. 

Gregory, the second son, was baptized on Sunday 4 duly, 1697, at 
Storrington, and from him are descended all the certainly known 
descendants of Richard Haines. Ann Haines was luiried at 
Storrington 9 March, 1735-6, but neither will nor administration 
of hers is extant. Meanwhile Gregory had gone to South Carolina 
as an Indian trader. He probal)ly returned to England l^efore 
his mother's death. Unfortunately none of the letters he must 
have written to his relations in England have been preserved. 
In the Record Office" in London, however, there is a copy of an 
official letter of his — the only document of the kind for the 
family previous to 1800. 

Lettek of Geegoey Haines from South Carolina. 

" May it please your Excellency, " Sept. 7, 1723. 

" Being' bound for tlie Pallachocolas in January last, and our Belliaig(j^ 
meeting with bad weather the tradeis got tlie start of me and seeing so many 
of them l)^)und that way [I] thouglit they would be oversupplied. I altei'ed 
my resolution and sat forward for the Charekees where I arrived in Febi'uary 
and fouml those People extraordinary kind [and] courteous and continued 
trading there until the latter end of April and then sat forward for tlie 
Savana town leaving some good skins to be disposed of by John Millljurne 
and arrived there about the 10 of May. In the beginning of July I sat out 
again for to see if my goods were disjjosed of and found that the best part of 
them was. I Packt my skins and made the liest of my way to Savanah 
Town and from thence to Charles City to renew my Lycence I heard no news 
among those people but believe they are very heaity to the English only of 
an Engagement they had with some French Indians. The upper Cherrikees 
was g<jing down a river in Canoes in older to make a Hunt and met with 

' The sales iu 1700-1 and 1702 refer fcu the same pruperty. 

- We learn this t'ruin the Bishop's transcript, not from the register. 

^ Board of Trade, .South Carolina papers. 

* A sort of vessel called Perriango iu another part of the Correspondence. 



96 TflE DKSCKNDANTS OF KlCIIAl!]) IIATNES. 

some of the Fieiich Indians coming up and engaged with them for the space 
iif 4 honi's [and routed them ?] killed foui' of them and took most of theii' 
haggage amongst which was a small paper Book covered with Parchment 

with black hnes ruled in it and every seventh line distinguished thus 5 

which in my opinion was given to some Indians they had made a Christian of 
(sic) to know the Sabbath Day and to keep an account how many days they 
was in their journey every line being marked to the number of sixty four oi- 
five which I suppose was the time they was a coming I have no more news 
to insert at present Ijut am your Excellency's most obedient Humble Servant 
to command. 

Gregory Haines. 
To His Excellency Francis Nicholson Esqre Cajit. Gen. and 
Gov. in chief of His Majesty's Province of S. Carolina."' 

In March, 1729-30, Gregory Haines was at a place called 
Keo(k)wee in the Cherokee country about 300 miles from 
Charleston. The Indians in that part were in a troubled and 
dangerous state, and threatening to join the French. Sir Alexander 
Cumming took the bold step of inviting the headmen of the 
Cherokees to meet him in the Town House of Necquassee, and 
there induced tliem to acknowdedge, or coerced them into acknow- 
ledging, the sovereignty of England. The interpreter declared 
that, if he had known beforehand what Sir Alexander would have 
ordered him to say, he would not have dared to interpret it, nor 
would the Indian traders have ventured to be spectators of the 
scene, " believing that none of them could have gone out of the 
Town House alive, considering how jealous that people had always 
been of their liberties." However Sir Alexander Camming, with 
his three cases of pistols and his gun and sw^ord, carried his way with 
the 300 Indians. Still, fearing that he might not live to tell the 
tale, he drew up a report of the proceedings and made the 
witnesses sign a declaration of what they had seen and heard, as 
a testimony of His Majesty's Sovereignty over the Cherokees.- 
The following signatures were appended : — 

Sir Alexander Cimiming. Daniel Jenkinson. 

Joseph Cooper (interpreter). Thomas Goodall. 

Ludovic Grant.^ William Cooper. 

Joseph Barker. (Guide) William Hatton. 

Gregory Haines. John Biles. 

23 March, 1729-30, Keowee.^ 

' Ib another letter from Jolm Barnwell of the same date, an Indian (racier, 
Gregory Sissoui, or Sissoii, is mentioned. 

'^ See Hist. Eeg. Boston and Massachusetts, U.S.A., pp. y, 9. The ] resent 
whereabouts of the MS. cannot be traced. 

^ See below, p. 133. _ ^ Keowee was on the Savana Eiver. 



THE DESCENDANTS OF ItlCIIAliD HAINES. 97 

8omc of these Indian chiefs went to England on the Fo-r. 
Leaving Charleston on 7 May they reached Dover 5 Jnne, and 
were presented to the King 22 June.^ It is possible that Crregor}- 
Haines went home with them. 

There had always been a tradition in my own branch of the 
family, handed down through Jane Haines, who died in 1870, that 
we were descended from an American ancestress. I had almost 
despaired of tracing her when I learnt from Mr. Edwin Haines of 
Beltriiig, Paddock Wood, Tnnbridge Wells, that he had in his 
possession a certificate of marriage between Gregory Haines and 
Alice Hooke. They were married, it appears, on 4 June, 1719, at 
St. Philip's Church, Charleston, South Carolina. The certificate 
is dated 2 July, 1730 (4 Geo. II), and was attested by John Croft 
of Charlestown, sole Notary Public for the province of South 
Carolina, on the sworn evidence of Mr. Stephen Bedon of Charles- 
town, and Mary his wife, who deposed that on the 4th day of 
June, 1719, the Eeverend Mr. William Wye, the then rector of the 
parish of St. Philip's, Charlestown, did (in their presence and in the 
presence of several other persons) join together in holy matrimony 
Mr. Gregory Haines and Mrs. Alice Hooke,^ spinster, according to 
the rights and ceremonies of the Church of England. The church 
registers of tliis parish do not record the marriage, but the baptism 
of one son, Gregory Moore Haines on 27 February, 1727-8, and 
the burial of him and three other sons in 1728 and 1720, are 
found there. A ]\Iark Haines, who married Elizaljeth Porter at the 
same church, 8 March, 1744, nuu/, as far as dates are concerned, 
have been a son of Gregory, but I do not think it likely. Gregory 
M'as living on 10 February, 1728, in a house near what is now 
the south-west corner of Church and Chalmers Streets.'' 

But the son, in whom we are most interested, and apparently 
the only one who survived, was John. We know the date of his 
birth, 4 December, 1723, but not the place, from the entry in his 
family Bible, written doubtless by himself 

Nothing more is known of Gregory except^ that he was church- 
warden of Kirdford in 1735, until 6 March, 1751, under which 

' See Rolls Scries, Calendar of Treasury Papers, 1729-30. 

- I can find no trace of the family in the Charleston records. There were Hookes 
at Ewhurst (1664), Surrey, and at Petworth, Sussex (George Hooke married Ann 
Gat ford, 20 November, 1692) ; and at Wisborough Green. The Hookes of Bram- 
sliott, Hants, were entitled to arms. 

■* From some record in Charleston (unnamed by informant). 

^ See, however, note on next page. 

II 



98 THE DESCENDANTS OF PJCHAKD HAINES. 

date there is a reference to him in the Manor Rolls of Pallingham, 
now at Petworth ; " Death of Gregory Haines " (son of Richard 
Haines's brother Gregory). " Mary Greenfield, widow, only sister 
and next of kin, and administrator ; who had assigned [Sladeland] 
to Gregory Haines her kinsman, who being present acknowledged 
ye same." Gregory died 29 November, 1752, and was bnried in 
Kirdford churchyard six days later. In the register he is called 
Esquire} while Mary Greenfield's brother Gregory is called 
gentleman. On Gregory's tomb is the inscription : — " The late 
Gregory Haines of Sladeland, Gent., aged 56." 

He no doubt lived at Sladeland, but we find from an entry in 
the above-cited Manor Rolls under elate 14 October, 1755, that 
Sladeland was not his. The entry runs : " Presented that the 
information given the homage last General Court was wrong, for 
that Mary Greenfield had not assigned as Gregory Haines had 
alleged, but said Mary Greenfield died possessed thereof {i.e. of 
Sladeland), who in and by her will had not particularly disposed 
of the same, but the same then belonged to Mr. John Haines as 
residuary and universal legatee, who being present in court acknow- 
ledged y^ same." Gregory Haines unfortimately died intestate, 
and on -4 January, 1753, administration of liis goods, which are 
described as " above value," was granted to his son John, the widow 
Alice having renounced on the day previously, with a day for an 
inventory. The bond entered into on that occasion is thus worded. 
" Bond of John Haines of Kirdford, Gent., son and administrator 
of the goods, &c., of Gregory Haines, late of Kirdford, Esq"' 
deceased. Will'" Ireland of Wimbleton, Surrey, and George 
Barrell of Chichester, innhokler, in the sum of £1,600."- 

' 1 believe he is given tliis title because named in aa Act of Parliament (1733) 
as Commissioner with otlier gentlemen of Sussex for the rej)air of the harbour of 
Littlehamjjtou callecl Port Arundel. (6 George II, cap. 12.) 

'-^ Chichester Administration Bonds. 



( on ) 



CHAPTElf XII. 

rA:\iiLY OF Richard Haines's Brother. 

The Family of Gregory, younger brother of Eichard 
Haines. — Gregory was baptized at Shere in Surrey 24 May, 1636, 
and ill 1654 his mother and brother assigned Sladeland to him. 
On 23 October, 1660, he married Margaret Lidbetter of Bramber, 
in Sussex. In his wilP dated 24 February, 1670-1, he is de- 
scribed as of Blackehurst, in the parish of Warningcamp, yeoman. 
He leaves his lease of " Sladelands " (for the term of 9000 years), 
containing about 100 acres, to his son Gregory, and failing him to 
his daughter Mary, the latter to have £100 out of the profits of 
said lands at 20 years ()f age, llichard the brother of testator to 
administer the estate during the children's minority. To his wife 
he leaves an annuity of £4 out of the profits of same lands. 
Overseers of the will were the testator's two brothers-in-law% 
Eichard Everenden of Horsham, gentleman, and Eichard Carpenter, 
of Sonipting. Witnesses were William AVheeler and Jane Beeding. 

A codicil to the will leaves £100 out of the profits of 
Sladelands to " such sonn as my wife is now with child of," to be 
reduced to £60 if the child proved to be a daughter. Four days 
later the testator was buried at Sullington. We have an inventory 
of his goods, " valewed and prised by John Duppa, Samuel Lover, 
and Eichard Parham, 10 March, 1670-1." The silver Ijowl, 
mentioned in the inventory of his father's goods, appears here, and 
is again priced at 30s. The household effects come out at about 
£40, money in purse and wearing apparel £15. Farming produce 
and cattle- and implements total nearly £375, and the lease of 
Sladeland is valued at £500. I)el)ts were due to him, £11 from 
William Gatlon of Arundel, and £3 from Eichard Eogers. 

Our ancestors seemed to have eschewed luxuries, not to say 
many things we consider essential to well! teing and household com- 
fort. No crockery of any sort appears in these inventories, no 

' Chichester Consistory Court, XXXV. 32b. 

^ Among these were Dorsetsiiire and Hampshire ewes. 

h 2 



100 FAMILY OF RICHARD IIAINEs'S BRUTHEK. 

knives or forks, carpets or mats, and only occasionally any l^ooks, 
no pictures or knick-knacks, and only once a mirror. The i;otal value 
of Gregory Haines's estate was given at £941 7s. Qd. His wife 
married again, as we learn from an entry in the Court Eolls of 
the manor of Pallinghani under date 22 May, 1678. " John Jelly 
in right of his wife, late wife of Gregory Haines, held as ahove 
(leasehold land called Sladeland), amerced in Is. for not doing 
service of court." In spite of this, in the marriage licence of her 
daughter dated 9 June, 1692, she is called Mrs. Margaret Haines, 
her husband John Jelly being at that time most probably still 
alive. She was apparently buried 4 April, 1694, at Sullington as 
Margaret Jelly. 

Gregory the son, born 16 June, 1663, was baptized at Sullington. 
His marriage licence^ dated 18 February, 1690-1, says, "which da)' 
appeared personally Gregory Haines of the parish of St. Saviour's, 
Southwark, draper, aged about 26 years, and a bachelor, and 
alleged that he intended to marry with Mrs. Elizabeth Champneys 
of y'' same parish, aged about 30 years and a widow." Either 
through his inheritance or his business, Gregory became a rich man.^ 
In 1712 (probably) he built the present house at Sladeland. In 
the walls of the cellar is the inscription, " Gregory Haines, 1712." 

In 1716 (Trinity Term) he bought from George Lowes and 
Hannah his wife, 1 messuage, 1 barn, 1 garden, 16 acres of arable, 
4 of meadow, 4 of pasture in Kirdford. In the same year lie pur- 
chased the copyhold of Laneland in Kirdford parish from Richard 
CJ-ratwick and others. He is described as gentleman in both cases. 

In 1718, under an Act of Parliament dealing with the estates 
of Charles Eversfield, Esquire, Gregory Haines, gentleman, bought 
from the trustees of the above Charles Eversfield for £2,650, 
" lands and premises known as Wephurst, Si)itweeks (Spitwick), 
Wild Strode, Giles Mead, and all that parcel of land thereunto 
adjoining called ' the Lane ' and ' the Hill ' in the pshes of Kird- 
ford and Wisborough Green, and also all those lands and tenements 
Ivuown as G-reat Ford and Little Ford in the s'' psh of Kirdford." 
Gregory Haines's signature was witnessed by Edward Shelley, 
John Jackson, and Thomas Parham.'' 

^ Office of the Vicar-Geneml. 

- 9 Nov., 1710, Greg. Haiuf.s, of Soutliwark, woollen draper, bought 
from Clin vies and Marj Newingfcon, of Merton, 91 acres of woodland, etc., in 
Wimbledon. 

•' The third of that name who witnessed documents of the family. 



FA^fTLY OF ETCHARD IIATXEs's P.TiOTITER. 101 

In 1722, (Troo-orv Haines, geiitleinaii, purchased of Joliii 
Soyliavd 1 niessiiage, 2 barns, 2 stables, 1 garden, 1 orchard, 
40 acres of araf)le, 20 of meadow, 50 of pasture, 10 of woodland, 
20 of furze and gorse in Kirdford. 

In l7o4 his name appears in the Poll Book for Sussex.^ 

No children seem to have l:)eeii born to him, and his wife died 
26 July, 1727, and was buried at Kirdford. Gregory himself 
died 28 November, 1749, aged 86, and was buried nine days later- 
lieside liis wife, leaving his sister Mary Greenfield his heir. 

She had married, at the age of 23, Thomas Greenfield of 
Pulborough, yeoman, at St. Mary's, Alderraary, on 10 -Tune, 1692. 
Her death took place 25 August, 1755, and she was buried, 
aged 87, five days later at Kirdford. Her will, made on 9 August, 
1755, is a long and interesting document, and shows that she was 
possessed of a large amount of property. 

Besides Sladeland, which is not mentioned, and went to John 
Haines, the residuary and universal legatee, she owned (1) Wephurst 
Farm and Wephurst Lands, wdiich she left to John Haines her 
principal heir; (2) the farm called Rowlands with Eowlands lands 
and Garlands, also in tlie parish of Kirdford, wliich she gave to 
her Hnsmaii Grcr/or// Jlaijics,^ farmcf, aon of William Haines of 
Dn-onsliirr ; (.")) Oroucham Farm, or Croucham lands, which she 
also left to tlie last-mentioned Gregory Haines ; (4) farndiouso 
and lands in Ashington parish which she gave to Mrs. Hannah 
r)atchellor,* widow of the llev. Paul Batchellor, to go on her death 
to Gregory, son of AVilliam Haines of Broadwater, yeoman : (5) a 
farndiouse and lands called Nolderhead (Naldretts) in the parish 
of Wisborough Green which she left to William Mardiner of 
Sompting, farmer ; (6) a farmhouse and lands in Wimbledon, at 
the time of her death in her own occupation, wdiich she left to 
Hannah Seward, wife of John Seward^ of Brewhouse Mill in 
parish of Wisboro' Green, charged with the sum of £100 to be 
paid to Coles Fortrie, linen-draper of Cheapside ; (7) a farm and 

1 It is not found in tlic Poll Book for Knights of tlie Shire, 1705, now 
:it Lewes. 

- This points to his dying awcay from Kirdford — perliaps at Wimbledon, where 
he had property, as we have just seen. 

•' I cannot fit him into the pedigree ; but be miist hare been a descendant of 
eitbcr William, brother of Kichard of Wan tie v, or of one of the sons of Eiclmrd, 
perhaps of John, who married Sarah Seale. 

^ Sec pedigree. 

'' He was bondsman nt the marriage lieence of John Haines, 2(1 Marcli, 1752. 



102 FAMILY OF PJCIIAF.D ITAINES's BEOTHEPu 

lands, called Bleach Farm or Bleachlands Farm in the parishes of 
Wiston and Ashington, which she left to Samuel Lidl)etter 
of Bramber, farmer ; (8) a double house with malthouse and 
garden in I'etworth, which she left to [blank] Walls, son of 
William Walls of New Shoreham by his wife Barbara, and in 
case of failure of heirs to him, she left it to Ann Ford, widow of 
James Ford of Ham in the parish of Angmering. 

Money legacies are given to the following persons (among 
others) : 

to the said Ann Ford, widow, £100 ; 
to Bridger Lidbetter, brother of Ann Ford, £50 ; 
to Ann Brown, widow of Francis Brow^n, late purser of a man- 
of-war, £100 ; 
to Thomas Mathews, servant to " my late cousin " Gregory 

Haines, deceased, 405. ; 
to Thomas Durrant, servant to " my late cousin " Gregory 

Haines, deceased, 40.s. ; 
to " my godson " Richard Boxall, £5 ; 

to John Fortrie, jun., son of the late Fi-ev. Mr. Fortrie, £21 ; 
to Coles Fortrie the elder of Guildford, £21 : 
to his sister Buth Fortrie, spinster, £21 ; 
to " my cousins " John and Samuel Lidbetter, £50 eaclr ; 
to " my tenant " William Boxall and Sarah liis wife and his 

two daughters Elizabeth and Mary, £5 each ; 
to Ann Fortrie, daughter of the late Eev. Mr. John Fortrie, 

£10; 
to Rev. Mr. Copley, minister of Chiltington, and Sarah his 

wife, £10 each ; 
to Thomas Denyer, servant to " my late cousin " Gregory 

Haines, deceased, £60 ; 
to Gregory, Love, Elizabeth, Thomas, and Mary, the 5 children 

of Mr. William Haines of Broadwater, gent., £5 each ; 
to Adam Martin of Steyning, £5 ; 
to his 3 children Thomas, Elizabeth and Mary, £10 each. 

The will was proved 25 Septendjer, 1755, in London by the 
executors William Mardiner, of Sompting, Wilhani Haines of 
Broadwater, and William Mitford, Esq., of Petworth. The will 
was sealed with the Haines seal and signed "Mary Grenfild " in 
the presence of John Roberts, clerk, John Rowland, and Charles 
Browne. 



FAMILY OF RICHARD HAINES'S BROTHER. 10:5 

The possessions of the Haines family in this neighbourliood, 
as is abundantly clear from this will, were very considerable, and 
bear out the tradition whicli I lieard at Kirdford that a man 
might walk eight miles without setting foot on any land not 
owned by this family. 



(104; 



CHAPTER XIII. 

John Haines. 

Outside the family of John Haines and their posterity, no 
descendants of Eichard^ Haines seem to have survived to the 
present time. To use an American expression, John is our " stock- 
fatJier." Unfortunately no picture of him remains, though there 
is a miniature of at least one of his sons, viz., Thomas Haines, my 
own great-grandfather. This represents a man of very florid 
complexion with round ruddy cheeks and a hooked nose, who 
liad evidently been nurtured upon good old English beef and ale. 
Some such outward appearance we may attribute to his father 
John. 

Where John was born we do not know, but we must suppose 
that it was in South Carolina. He entered the Royal Navy under 
the rating of able seaman. Whether he was pressed, or, if not, 
why he held no higher position, is matter for conjecture. He 
entered tlie service on board H.M.S. Gloucester, 50 guns, 
24 January, 1744, and was discharged sick 30 November, 1747, 
as unserviceable. This was due to his losing his right arm on 
the 14 October, 1747, in battle against the French oft' the 
coast of France in latitude 47°. 

Perliaps the log of H.M.S. Gloucester, under Capt. Durrell, for 
Wednesday, 14 October, 1747, will interest our readers. 

Lo({ OF THE Gluneester.— ' Winds S.S.K., S.W.B.W., W.S.W., 
S.W.,S.S.E. Course S c/47- W*. Distance in miles 42. Lat.47°28' N., 
Long. 10° 20' W. The Lizard N. 52° E. 88 Leagues. Moderate and 
clear W at 3 p.m. sent our boat on board the Admiral. Sig- 
nalled do. Brought too in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd R. T. s^^. At | past 
6 a.m. we made ye signal of seeing 12 sail in the S.W. Q^ 
The Admiral made a signal for all the fleet to chace in that Q"" if 
we discovered them to be a large Fleet. At ^ past 10 the Admiral 
made ye signal for the line ahead, 9 of the enemy's ships to wind- 
ward Laying too in line aBreast, the merchant ships above 200 

' This name does not appear again in the family, though I narrowly escaped 

being named Richard by a mistake of the officiating minister at my baptism, who 

misheard Reginald as Richard. Dr. Morehead, writing, 18 Aug. 1874, to my mother, 

says : " I nearly made him Ricliard, from which he was saved by jour promptitude." 

Quei'y 47°. 



JOHN HAIKES. 105 

sail croudiu^ tu tlic Wostw''. At ^ past 10 the xVdiiiiial made the 
signal for a general cliase, the ]Ia\ing made sail (sir) and signal 
to engage. ^Vt | past 11 our Headni*' Ship began to engage. At 
noon we began to engage. 

"Thursday/ 15 October, 1747, Wind S.B.E., S.S.E., S.W. E'. S.E. 
Course W.B.S., Distance in miles 21, 47° 24' K 10° 9' W. The 
Lizard KE.^E. 88 Le^. Moderate and Clear W^ Continued in 
action till night. T'^ and stood to another ship, the Admiral made 
the signal for a close engagement. We beii'an to euQ-ao-e. The 
Admiral coming up the Enemy's ship struck. Left of engaging. 
But several of our ships astern was engaging till 10 at night. 
Brought too, our masts and Kigging being much damaged, the 
People employed in repairing the Rigging, found G men killed and 
16 wounded. At 11 wore and Bro* too. At 8 a.m. bore down to 
one of the French men of war that was much damaged. At 9 
took her in tow and stood to y^ Admiral, she called Le Fougueu>: 
At noon 29 sail in sight 6 of which is French men of war that 
had struck. Bro' too. Y"" Admiral made the signal for all 
Captains. 

"17 October had the prize in tow. 
" 29 at noon anchored in P'niouth Sound. 

"4 (sic) November. At noon fired 19 guns, it being the 
Anniversary of Gun powder Treason. 

" The Gloacester took home the body of Capt. Saumarez (^f the 
Nottinghmn, who was killed in the battle." 

The despatch^ of "Edward Hawke Escj'"', Hear Admiral of tlie 
White Squadron" dated 17 October, 1747, was as follows: — 

"At seven in the nuDrning of the 14 October, being in latitude 
47° 49' X. longitude from ('ape Finisterre, V" '1' west, the 
Edinhurgli made the signal for seven sail in tlie S.E. (quarter. I 
immediately made the signal for all the fleet to chace. Alxjut 8 
saw a great number of ships, but so crowded together that we 
could not count them. At 10 made the signal for line of 
battle ahead. The Louise (60 guns'"') being the headmost and 
weathermost ship, made the signal for discovering eleven sail 
of the enemy's battleships. Half an liour after Capt. Fox in the 
Kent hailed us, and said they counted 12 very large sliips. . . . 
Finding we lost time, in forming our line, while the enemy was 

' Thui'sday in tlie log starts on Wedn. at noon. 

^ Written at sea on board the DevoHshire. 

^ I have inserted tlie luunber of guns in each ease. 



l06 JOHN HAINES. 

standing away from us, at eleven I made the signal for the whole line 
to chace. Half an hour after ... I made the signal to engage, 
which was immediately obeyed. The Lyon (60 guns) and Princess 
Louise (60) began the engagement, and were followed by the rest 
of the squadron as they could come up from rear to van. . . . 
In passing on to the first ship we could get near, we received many 
fires at a distance till we came close to the Scverne of 50 guns, 
whom we soon silenced and left to be taken up by the frigates 
astern. Then perceiving the Lafjle{60) and Ldinbiirgh (70), which 
had lost her fore topmast, engaged, we kept on wind as close as 
possible in order to assist them. This attempt of ours was 
frustrated by the Lagle falling twice on board us, having had her 
wheel shot to pieces, and all the men at it killed, and all her 
braces and bowlings gone. This drove us to leeward, and prevented 
me attacking the Monarquc of 74 and the Tonant of 80 guns, 
within any distance to do execution ; however we attempted both, 
especially the latter. . . . Capt. Harland in the Tilbury (60) 
observing that she fired single guns at us, in order to dismast us, 
stood on the other tack between her and the DcwnsMrc (60, the 
flagship) and gave her a very smart fire. ... I was got almost 
alongside the Trident (6-1), whom I engaged as soon as possible, 
and silenced by as brisk a fire as I could make. . . . Seeing 
some of our ships at that time not so closely engaged as I could 
have wished, and not lieing well able to distinguish who they were, 
I flung out the signal for coming to a closer engagement. Soon 
after I got alongside within musket shot of the Terrible of 74 guns 
and 700 men. Near 7 at night she called for quarter. 

" Thus far I have been particular with regard to the share the 
Devonshire bore in the action of that day. As to the other ships, 
as far as fell within my notice, their commanding ofiicers and 
companies behaved with the greatest spirit and resolution, in every 
respect like Englishmen. Only I . . . must except Capt. 
Fox. . . . 

" Having observed that 6 of the enemy's ships had struck, and 
it being very dark and our own ships dispersed, I thought it best 
to bring to for that night, and seeing a great firing a long way 
astern of me, I was in hopes to have seen more of the enemy's 
ships taken in the morning. But instead of that I received the 
melancholy accounts of Capt. Saumarez being killed,^ and that the 

' He was tateu liome iu tlie Gloucester and buried in West-miiister Abbey. 



JOHN HAINES. 107 

Tonanf had escaped in the night hy the assistance o^ the Tiitr^pide, 
who by liaving the wind of our ships had received no damage that 
I coukl perceive. Immediately I called a Council of War (copy 
enclosed). 

" As to the French convoys escaping, it was not possible for me 
to detach any ships after them at first or during the action, except 
the frigates ; and that I thought would have been imprudent, as I 
observed several large ships among them, and to confirm me in this 
opinion I have since learned that they had the Content of 64 guns 
and many frigates from 36 guns downwards. As the enemy's ships 
were large they took a great deal of drubing, and lost all their 
masts, except two who had their foremasts left. This has obliged 
me to lye by them two days past in order to put them into a con- 
dition to be brought into port, as well as our own which have 
suffered greatly." 

A few days later the following ships were sent to Plymouth to 
retit : The Monmouth, 64 (Capt. Henry Harrison) ; the Edinhurgh, 
70 (Capt. Thomas Cotes) ; the Princess Louise, 60 (Capt. Charles 
Watson) ; the Eaglr, 60 (Capt. George Brydges Eodney) ; the 
Windsor, 60 (Capt. Tliomas Han way) ; the Gloucester, 50 (Capt. 
Philip Durrell) ; the Portland, 50 (Capt. Charles Stevens) ; and 
the Shorehcvin ; while the rest went to Portsmouth taking the 
prizes in tow, viz. : the Devonshire, 66 (Capt. John Moore) ; the 
Yarmouth, 64 (Capt. Charles Saunders) ; the Kent, 74 (Capt. 
Thomas Fox) ; the Nottingham, 60 (late Capt. Philip de Saumarez) ; 
the 7V//>^rr//, 60 (Capt. Kobert Harland): the Bejiancr, 60 (Capt. 
John Bentley); and two fireships, Vulcan and another. 

From some packets that were thrown into the sea iVom the 
Foiigueux and Scvcrne important information relative to the Frencli 
fieet was gained and forwarded to the Admiralty. 
The French ships taken were : — 

Le Mo7iarque, 74, Capt. de la Bedoyere. 

Le Terrible, 74, Capt. du Guay. 

Neptune, 74, Capt. de Fromentieres. 

Le Trident, 64, Capt. d'Amblimont. 

Le Fougueiu:, 64, Capt. de Vignault. 
' Sever ne, 50, Ca])t. du Piouret. 

Pjut the Tonant (80), with the Admiral M. des Herbiers de 
I'Etenduere, and the Litr&pide (74), Capt. De Vaudreuil, escaped, 
badly damaged, having been followed and engaged, on their own 
responsibility, by the Yarmoutlt, Nottuigham, and Eagle, in the 



108 



JOHN HAIXES. 



course of whicli aotiou Capt. Sanniarez was killed.^ The Content 
(G4), and some frigates were with the convoy. 

The list of killed and wounded given on 4 November is : — 
Devonshire, 12 killed ; 52 wounded. 



Kent, 


1 „ 


10 


Ycirmouth, 


22 „ 


70 


Defiance, 


11 „ 


42 


Lyon, 


22 „ 


79 , 


Tilhm-y, 


6 „ 


13 


Hector, 


1 „ 


1 



I)Ut this list is evidently incomplete, and we know that the 
Gloucester lost 6 killed and 16 wounded, of whom John Haines 
was one, as he tells us that he lost his right arm in the battle. 

The total loss of the French is given at 800 killed and wounded, 
amongst them being Capt. de Fromentieres, of the Neptune. The 
British loss is put at 154 killed, including Capt. Saumarez, and 
558 wounded. The English had a decided but not overwhelming 
superiority — 14 ships to 9, and 858 guns to 630. 

The complement of the Gloucester was 300 to 315 men. From 
the pay book of that ship we learn the following particulars con- 
cerning John Haines : — 

147. 

24 January, 1744. 

Q.L. 538. 

Able. 

30 November, 1747. 
Unserviceable. 
6 January, 1747. 
Party. 

7s. 6^. and 2s. 
£1 16s. M.. 
£1 2s. 2cl. 
£1 17s. M.. 
18s. 8^. 
£44 12s. M. 

31 March, 1748. l>aid to party. 
From the above we gather that John was a smoker, and that 

he recovered quickly from the loss of his arm. From the same 
pay book we find that there was a namesake of his on board 



No. on ship's- l;)Ooks 

Entry ... 

No. and letter of ticket 

Quality ... 

When discharged 

For what reason 

When signed 

To whom delivered 

Neo'lect ... 

Slopseller's clothes 

Tobacco . . . 

Chest 

Hospital... 

Full wages 

When paid 



M. 



Net £38 7s. IM. 



' Sec Clowes's Hisfori/ of He Nart/, Clinpler xxrii, p. 126. 










Photograph of the inside face of the upper cover of John Haines's Bible. 



JOHN HAINES. 109 

the same ship : Ticket No. 170 — supernumeravy, John Haynes, able 
seaman, 5 April, 17-17, discharged 16 April, 1748, at Plymouth.' 

We should never have known that John Haines was a sailor 
had it not been for the entry in his Bible.^ This is in the posses- 
sion of Mrs. Hare, of Southampton, his great grand-daughter, and 
I have had the two pages of writing photographed. The date ot 
publication is 1683, so it )nay have belonged to Eichard Haines, 
thougli I do not think this likely. The Bible was such a familiar 
book to him that he almost must have written something in it. 
No doubt he had a family Bible with much priceless information 
in it, which has not come down to us. I have turned over ever}' 
page of the present book and find only one trace of writing except 
the above-mentioned entries on the insides of the cover. Above 
Chaps. II-III of Malachi are the words, written in a good hand, 
" Wo to the tlieife and cheator." There are imitations here and 
there through the book of capital letters on the margin, as if some 
one had been practising writing, and between the leaves three or 
four petals of a dried fiower, striated like a lily. 

On the inside of the upper cover is written : — 

" John Haines his Book. 

" Son to Grigry Ha . . . and Alice Haines. 

" John Haines son of Grigry Haines and Alice Haines was 
Born Dec'"' y 4 in the yere of oure Lord Goil 172."!.^ 

" John Haines Lost his Eight arme the 14 Oct^'' J 747 one bord 
of his magestys Shipe the Glosester in Gaging the frcnch fiect 
onder the Comand of Admirall Hawk. 

" J. Haines wos Born in the yere of our 
Lord . . . 

". . . Augst 1748." 

As the photograph uf the inside of the lower coA'er is quite 
clear, I need not transcribe it. Judging from the only other 
authentic signature which we possess of John Haines,* the 
writing in the Bible appears to be by himself. If so, he cannot 
l)e said to have Ijeen a man of any education. 

After being discharged as unserviceable, we may suppose thut 

' Curiously euoiigli, 43 years bet'ure there was a negro iiaiued John Ilaiucs on 
board the same ship. See P.C.C. Ailministration, 5 January, 1704-5. 

- And, I shoiikl add, the Navy "Warrants in the possession of Mr. Etlwin llaines 
of Paddoek Wood. 

■* Apparently altered from 1722. 

^ Witnessing the marriage, lo May, 1758, of Edmund Tupper and Mary 
Piittoek. 



110 JOHN HAINES. 

John Haines went home to Kh'dfoid to recover. But within five 
months he was again serving in the Navy. He was appointed 

25 April, 1748, gunner on His Majesty's ship Montague. He is 
thus described : — 

" John Haines of good testimony, who has passed an 
examination to be gunner of H.M.S. Montague, former {sic) 
removed to the Berwick, togetlier witli such an allowance of wages 
and victuals for himself and servant as is proper and usual for the 
gunner of the s'^ Ship." The warrant, which mentions the above 
date as the date of appointment, is itself dated 27 September, 1748. 

On the 7 February, 1748-9, he was appointed by warrant 
(dated 15 February) to be gunner of the Jason, and on the 
10 May, 1751, by warrant dated 19 June, appointed gunner of the 
Preston. On the back this is endorsed Mr. John Haines, gunner. 

The position of gunner at that time was rather above that of 
warrant officer at the present day. The latter's duties have been 
graphically described by Ptudyard Kipling in his A Fleet in Being, 
and I make no apology to my readers for transcribing the passage. 

" His word is very much law forward. He knows his 
men, if possible, better than the officers. He has seen, tried, 
approved, and discarded hundreds of dodges and tricks in all 
departments of the ship. At a pinch he can wring the last ounce 
out of his subordinates by appeals unbefitting for an officer to 
make, by thrusts at pride and vanity, which he has studied more 
intimately than any one else. Hear him expounding his gospel to 
a youth who does not yet realise that the IS'avy is his father and 
his mother, and his only Aunt Jemima; go out with him when 
he is in charge of a cutter ; listen to him in the workshop ; in the 
flats forward ; between the pauses of practice-firing, or up on the 
booms taking stock of the boats, and you will concede that he is a 
superior and an adequate person." 

A naval certificate dated 5 May, 1767, tells us that John was 
a pensioner to the chest at Chatham for a yearly pension of £8. 
It is scheduled at the side, " Hurt on board the Gloucester the 
14 day of October 1747. — To a})pear in 3 years." 

He probably retired from the service on the death of his father 
in 1752, if not before ; for he was married at Bramber on 9 April, 
1752, to Mary Lidbetter. The marriage licence was taken out on 

26 March at Chichester. John Seward, of the parish of Green 
(brother-in-law of Mary Lidbetter), was bondsman with John Haines. 
In 1754 and 1755 John Haines was churchwarden of Kirdford. 




(Q 



JOHN HAINES. Ill 

(^11 the death of Mavy GreeiitieM in 175.") Joliii Haines suc- 
ceedetl to a large part of the estate as heir-at-law and residuary 
legatee. Thus he inherited Lanelaiid, Spitwiek, and We})hurst. 
In the latter he lived from iiis marriage till 1750 at least; hut 
hefore his death he had taken up his ahode at Sladeland. On 
6 March, 17G6, acting as executor, he proved the will of his friend 
Henry Oshorne, of Kirdford. In 1702 he had })urchased the copy- 
hold estate of Bedlantl, and he either inherited or houglit a 
property called Fordlands, for there is an entry in the rallingham 
Manor Eolls, dated 12 October, 1769, stating that Ids ownership 
of the lands must be inquired into, before his lieir is admitted. 

In 1766 (17 April) a fine was levied for some lands in Kird- 
ford,^ consisting of " 1 mess. 1 barn 1 stable ... 1 garden, 
1 orchard 15 acres aral^le 10 of meadow 5 of wood 
with appurts.," which he bought from Francis Girosden and Eehecca 
his wife and William Cowper, alias Steyning, and Mary his wife. 

Some of the property left in 1755 by Mary Greenfield to 
Gregory Haines, son of William Haines of Devonshire, was sold- 
by said Gregory and his wife Jane in 1757 to John Nightingall the 
younger. It is described in the " Fine " as " 1 mess. 1 barn 1 
garden 1 orchard 6 acres of arable 4 of meadow 4 of pasture and 
conmion of pasture with appurts in Kirdford." In the Manor Eolls 
of Pallingham under date 2 September, 1762, we find respecting 
the Rowlands property, which was a part of that left to Gregory 
Haines, that on 28 October, 1758, Penelope Woody er, by William 
Whitaker, her attorney, surrendered it to John Haines, of Kirdford, 
gentleman. 

In 1766" again, John Haines bought of John and ]\Iary 
Lidbetter " 50 acres of wood with appurts. in Kirdfoid." 

John Haines made his will on 10 July, 1769, perhaps Ijccause 
he was failing in health, and dying on 29 September, 1769, was 
buried 4 October following, in the 46th year of his age.^ 

By his will' he devised (1) to Gregory his son his leasehold 
farm and lands called Sladeland, his freehold farms called Foord 
Land, Mill Land, and Mill House and AVephurst Co^'pice in Kird- 
ford and copyhold farm called Rowlands in Kirdford (manor of 
I'allinghani), at tlie age of 22, cliarged with testamentary and 

1 Fcc't of Fines, Triu. 6 Goo. III. - Ibid., 31 Geo. II, Trin., 26 May. 

3 Ibid., George 111, Easter Term, 26 March, 1766. 

■' His death may have been due to dropsy, consequent on the kisf? of liis arm. 
5 P.C.C. 299 Tenner. 



112 JOHN HAINES. 

funeral expenses and sul)ject to " user " of Sladeland house hj wife 
Mary Haines at her pleasure, and subject to annuity of £25 till 
youngest child is 21 for their support, and after for own use, and 
charged further with legacy of £100 apiece to six younger children 
of testator, viz., Thomas, Mary, Samuel, Elizabeth, Hannah, and 
Jane, payable at respective ages of 22. 

(2) To son John Haines farm and lands called Wephurst, 
Wildstrood, and Giles Mead in Kirdford and Wisborough Green, 
at age of 22 ; profits meanwhile to go to wife, and charged with 
testamentary and funeral expenses, and further subject to annuity 
of £25 to said wife, and charged with legacy of £100 apiece to 
testator's younger children, as above named, at 22. 

(o) To wife Mary divers tenements and lands in Kirdford, now 
occupied by James Denyer, [blank] Cooper, widow, John Martin, 
and Arthur Eandoll, for life, with reversion to eldest son Gregory 
Haines. 

(4) To wife Mary copyhold premises in manors of Buckfold 
and Slinfold, and also copyholds in Kirdford called Bedland and 
Laneland, with freehold farm called Speedweek^ in Kirdford 
subject to sale of same at majority of youngest child Jane. From 
the proceeds of sale £100 apiece to sons Thomas and Samuel, and 
residue equally between six younger children as above named. 

(5) To wife all plate, linen, furniture, etc., and at her deatli 
to be divided among all the children. He made his wife sole 
executrix, and his brothers-in-law, John Ludbetter, of Thakeham, 
and Samuel Ludbetter, of Bramber, overseers. Witnesses to the 
will were Kobert Holmes, John Allen, Elizalieth Johnson. 

The will was proved 25 August, 1770, by Mary Haines, widow 
and relict, 

Childeen of John Haines. — Hannah Haines, the daughter 
mentioned in the above will, made her own will 16 December, 
1789,2 and died 3 June, 1790, aged 24, leaving property valued 
at less than £600. This she left to her brother Gregory and her 
kinsman Thomas Lidbetter, of Bramber, in trust for her " honoured " 
mother during her life. After her death the whole was to be 
converted into money and £100 each given to her sisters Mary 
and Jane, and the rest divided l^etween her brothers and sisters, 
viz., Gregur}-, Thonjas, Mary, Join, Samuel, and 'lane. The will 
was proved by the executors, Gregory Haines aiid Thomas Lid- 
better, 8 May, 179 J. 

' SpiUvict. 2 CLich ester Cousistory Court, XLIY, 330. 



Fi v^t 



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"■" ,*>'-><, v; _. "■" ., - ^ - ,/ - -^5'- '^"j. 

*^««. ..» /. - ,1?. - , ,.v • .^ ^ ^ ^ 






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■/ 









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P' 



Photograph of inner face of the under cover of John Haines's Bible. 



John IIAINKS. 1 1;! 

John Haines, the Iji'uthcr iiientioiied in the above will, made liis 
will 13 September, 18U,' and died 8 October, 1813, aged 59. He 
left all his trinkets- to his nieces Elizabeth, Mary Ann, Hannah, 
and Jane, daughters of his brother Gregory ; to his brothers 
Gregory and John Eldridge, of Kirdford, he left all liis hinises and 
lands in Kirdford and AVisl»oi'ough Green in trust to sell the same, 
giving one-fifth of money realised to his brother Gregory, one-lifth 
to his la'other Thomas, the remaining three-hfths to lie invested, 
and the profits given one-fifth to sister Mary Clayton, the prin- 
cipal and interest to be divided at her death between all her 
children, another fifth to Samuel Haines his brother for life, with 
reversion to niece Susannah, wife of John Eldridge, and said 
Elizabeth, Mary Ann, Hannah, and Jane, daughters of Gregory 
Haines, equally; the remaining fifth to sister Jane for life, and 
at her death £100 to her daughter Jane, and remainder to al)Ove- 
mentioned nieces. 

The will was proved l)y the executors, John Eldridge and 
Gregory Haines, 15 November, 1813. 

Mary Haines, the mother, sold Laneland, ]]edland, and, in 
conju]\ction with Gregory Haines, gentleman, first part, John 
Haines, Thos. Haines, surgeon, John Clayton and Mary his wife, 
Samuel Haines, Jane Haines, and Thos. Lidbetter, second part, sold 
Spitwick, to Kichard Smyth in 1791, according to the teruiS of 
her husband's wilL Slie died 13 April, 1798, aged 74, intestate ; 
and on 10 October, 1798, administration of her goods (under 
£1,000) was granted to Gregory Haines her son. 

Jane Haines, her last surviving child (except Samuel) made 
her will" 29 July, 1821. Her child Jane had died previously. 
She left her property in Kirdford to John Eldridge, of riunipton, 
gentleman, and her nephew George Haines, of Kirdford, }'eoman, 
in trust for IMary Ann liarnes, her niece, and at lier deuLli the 
interest equally between her children at 21 ; all her household 
goods and liijuor to said niece Mary Ann Barnes and nepliew 
Charles Haines equally ; all her linen and plate to said Mary 
Ann Barnes and niece Jane Haines e(|ually, and to the lattei all 
her rings and trinkets ; to niece Ann Clayton, wearing apparel and 
some furrriture ; to nepliew George [Charman] Haines, of Godal- 



' Chicliester C. C, XLYIIT, 521. 

^ He had a great many rings and jewels, and wore rings in his oars. 

» Chicliester C. C, XL IX, U. 

I 



114 JOHN HAINES. 

ming, surgeon, a pair of candlesticks/ snuffers and stand^ ; to 
niece and god-daughter Mary Clayton, one dozen silver teaspoons 
and one pair of silver sugar tongs. To said John Eldridge and 
George Haines £30 each upon trust for Harriett Downer, 
daughter of John and Ehoda Downer, at 21 ; to siid John 
Eldridge and George Haines £10 apiece; the residue to said 
trustees for brother and sister, Samuel Haines and Mary Clayton, 
for their lives, and after their decease one-third to all the children 
of Gregory Haines, her nephews and nieces (except Mary Ann 
Barnes) equally, one-third to children of sister Mary Clayton 
equally, and one-third to children of l)rother Thomas Haines 
equally. 

This will was proved 20 March, 1822, by John Eldridge and 
George Haines, executors, with power reserved for Mary Ann 
])arnes, the executrix. Tlie effects were sworn under £1,500. 

All connection with Kirdford seems to have ceased before the 
thirties. Local tradition just remembers the Haineses and no 
more. One old inhabitant, named Sopp, recollected Gregory 
Haines, afterw^ards Commissary General, as a keen huntsman 
and judge of a horse. The only other person I have met who 
could speak fi-om personal recollection of the Kirdford Haineses is 
Mr. H. F. Napper of Laker's Lodge, Billingshurst. He remembers 
several of the children of John Haines. Samuel, the youngest son, 
he tells me, was lame with both legs, having broken both knee- 
caps. He lived at a farm called " Fountains." 

^ Now in possession of his graudson, the Rey. Percy Moline. 
- Now in my own possession. They have I. H. on thena. 




Field'Marshal Sir Frederick Paul Haines, 
G.C.B., G.C.SJ., CLE., etc. 



(115) 



CHAPTER XI V^. 

Sir FiiEDERiCK Haines. 

As I have now brought down this family history to a generation 
whose grandchikh'en are in some cases alixe, and as each branch 
of the descendants knows its own history so far back sufficiently 
well, I have not thought it necessary to attempt any detailed 
account of further generations.^ I have made an exception in 
favour of my own immediate family, for which I ask the in- 
dulgence of those readers who are not concerned with it. Still 
I have felt that this memoir would not be complete without a 
fuller mention of Sir Frederick Haines, rr.C.I>., U.C.S.I., CLE,, 
Field-Marshal of England, who may rightly Ije considered as the 
most distinguished of all the descendants of llichard Huines, our 
common ancestor. 

What I have put down here about that distinguished soldier 
(except the opening sentence and the few lines from a ])rivate 
letter), is taken from public sources and has no further authority 
than they can give. 

Frederick Paul Haines, great-grandson of John Haines, was 
born 10 Auoust, 1819, at the Parsonage Farm, near Sladeland, 
in Kirdford parish, and baptized in Kirdford church 23 ISToveniljcr, 
1820. His father, Gregory Haines, C.B., was the Duke of Wel- 
lington's fa^'ourite Commissary General in the Peninsular War, 
and was present at the following battles : — Toulouse, Orthes, Nive, 
JSIivelle, Pyrenees, Yittoria, Salamanca,, Fuentes d'Onor, Busaco, 
Talavera, Corunna. There is a good-natured caricature of him, 
made by Comnassary General Ibbetson (about 1826) in water- 
colours. He is supposed to be looking over the points of a horse, 
of which he was a good judge, being also a fine horseman. The 
son went to school at Midhurst till 1836, and three years later was 
gazetted Ensign 4th Foot, 21 June, 1839 ; Lieut. 4th Foot 
15 December, 1840; Capt. 10th Foot, 16 May, 1846; Brevet- 
Miij. 7 June, 1849 ; Maj. 21st Foot, 15 June, 1854; Brevet Lieut.- 

> The pedigrees are given separately. 

I 2 



16 



SIi; FKKDEinCK ILVTXES. 



Col. 2 August, 1850 ; Lieut.-Col. 8th Foot, 28 OetoLer, 1859 ; 
Maj.-Gen. 25 November, 1864; General, 1 October, 1877; Field- 
Marshal, 21 May, 1890 ; Eegiiueutal-Col. Eoyal Munster Fusiliers, 
16 May, 1874; ditto Eoyal Scots Fusiliers, 5 October, 1890. 



tStciff Service. 



A.]).C. to C. in C, East Indies... 
Military Secretary, Headquarter.^, East 

Indies 
Commandant, Balaclava 

A.A.G., Aldershot 

Military Secretary, Madras 
Acting Brigadiex'-General, Aldershot ..... 
D.A.G., Headquarters, Ireland 
Brigadier-General, Ireland 
Major-General, Bengal .... 
Q.M.G., Headquarters, Army .... 
Lieutenant-General, Madras . .. 
C. in C, East Indies 



20 Nov., 1844, to 22 May, 1846 



2.3 May, 
10 Dec., 
20 June, 
10 June, 
28 Dec, 

1 July, 

8 March, 1864, 
28 March, 1865, 

1 Nov., 1870, 
22 May, 1871, 
10 April, 1876, 



1846, 
1854, 
1855, 
] 856, 
186], 
1862, 



1849. 
1855. 
1856. 
1860. 
1S62. 



7 May, 
17 Jan., 
31 Jan., 
24 June, 

30 .June, 
22 March, 1863 

31 Dec, 1864 
27 March, 1870 
31 March, 1871 
24 Dec, 1875 

7 April, 1881 



War Scrriec. 

Ou the formation of the army of the Sutlej in 1845, he \A^as ap- 
])ointed to ofhciate as Military Secretary to the C. in C in India, Sir 
Hugh Gough, and was present in that capacity at the battles of 
Moodkee and Ferozeshab (medal and clasp) ; in the latter engage- 
ment he was severely wounded by a grapeshot in the thigh at the 
attack on the enemy's works, his horse being killed under him at 
the same moment. At the recommendation of Lord Gough he was 
promoted to a Company in the 10th Foot Avithout purchase. As 
]\Iilitary Secretary to Lord Gongh he served in the Punjaulj 
campaign of 1848-49 and was present at the disastrous affair 
of outposts at Eamnuggur 22 November, 1848, and subsequent 
operations resulting in the passage of the Chenab and the battles 
of Chillianwallah and Gujerat (medal with two clasps). He was 
mentioned in despatches in l)oth these campaigns. 

He served w^tli the 21st Fusiliers in the Crimean War 1854-5 
and was present at the battles of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman, 
wiiere he was second in command of the right wing of the 21st under 
Col. Ainslie, and of course at the siege of Sevastopol (medal with 
four clasps, fifth class of the Medjidie, Turkish medal). He was 
mentioned in despatches and promoted to Lieut.-Colon.el. In the 
Afglian War 1878-80 he directed the military operations between 



sill FlIEDEIiICK HAINES. 117 

Septeml)er, 1870, and Soptoiul)er, 1.S80, and received the thanks (tf 
both Houses of railiament 4- August, 1879, and o May, 1881. 

In liis Historij of the Crlincaii War (Vol. Y.) Kinglake devotes 
several paragraphs to the share taken by Col. Haines in the battle 
of Inkernian. He was in charge^ at a point (in the fore-central 
part of the field) called " Main Picket Barrier," and while main- 
taining his position there, was able on occasion even to advance 
beyond it. With forty men of his own regiment (the 21st Fusiliers) 
and a few of the G3rd he pushed his way at one time to the 
trench across the Port Eoad. 

" To 1)6 holding this singular post," says Kinglake, " under the 
fire of Shell Hill, and in very contact with the jaws of the 
Quarry lla^'ine, doubly garnished with infantry columns, was to 
stand grappling wdth Dannenberg's army, and that, too, on the 
central ground, where its main strength always stood gathered." ^ 
Here after the fall of Gen. Goldie, Col. Haines exercised an 
undivided command, and was successful in beating off successive 
attacks of the enemy, and was able to take the offensive so far 
as to drive off a Pvussian Ijattery in front, though his few men did 
not take the guns. 

Perhaps he will excuse me if I give a few of the particulars 
of his life furnished me by Sir Frederick Haines himself in 1893. 
" As a young man," he says, " nry father had the forethought to 
give me a year in Brussels and a year in Dresden. This last was 
the most valuable part of my education. But then as now much 
of my thought was turned to Art. As opportunity offered I 
always returned to Dresden. Leaving it in 1837, I revisited it 
in 1850, after an absence of thirteen years, with the rank of Lieut.- 
Colonel. This in German eyes was a miracle of promotion in 
those days. In 1882 I was sent to St. Petersburg to attend the 
manoeuvres." 

In 1893 Sir Frederick had to undergo a severe 0})eration, 
from which his wonderful vitality enuljled him t«) recover 
completely. 

His full title is : Field-Marshal Sir Frederick Paul Haines, 
G.C.B., G.C.S.I., C.I.E., Colonel Poyal Munster Fusiliers and 
Pioyal Scots Fusiliers. 

^ By the death of Col. Ainslie, Col. Haines siicceeded to the conm.aad of the 
right wing of the 21st, and after Gen. Goldic's death he was in c-nmniand of all the 
forces in the fore-central part of the field. 

- Kinglalce, v. 369. 



(118) 



CHAPTEE XV. 

The family of Thomas Haines, son of John Haines. 

" To the gods I am indebted for having good grandfathers, good parents, 
good kinsmen and friends, nearly everything good."— M. Aiirelius, 
Thoughts, I, 17. 

Being the third son, Thomas did not inherit sufficient property 
to enable him to live a life of leisure, and perhaps he disliked 
the idea of farming. At all events lie elected to earn his living 
as a surgeon. He left the paternal nest and migrated to 
Godalming in Surrey in 1781, where he made a fairly good living 
as physician and surgeon. His practice was not confined to 
Godalming, as I have found payments,^ made to him, entered in 
the parish accounts of Puttenham and Elstead. He is also 
found acting as accoucheur during the early years of the century 
near his native place, Kirdford. On 3 May, 1783, he leased from 
Jolm Upfold, of Godalming, blacksmith, a house and garden on 
the south side of the High Street in Godalming,^ of which he 
was at the time in occupation, for seven years for the rent of £18 a 
year, on condition that John Upfold built a stable. On the 
death of John UpfolcP in 1792 these premises, described in the 
Manor Polls of Godalming as " a tenement in two tenements," 
with an acre behind the house and about 2^- acres at Crumpets 
(Crownpits), then in the occupation of Tiiomas Haines, surgeon, 
and John White, were devised in trust for his great-nephew 
Edward Walter (of Pinner, gent.). In 1795 (30 April) the said 
Edward Walter sold to Thomas Haines the tenement in his 
occupation, and the other to Pichard Haydon, Thomas Haines 
paying a quit rent of l^d. On the death of Thomas Haines a 
cow was seized for a heriot in respect of his portion of the 
property, which consisted of a tenement with an acre behind 
and 2| acres at Crumpets. Jolm Haines, his son and heir, then 
held it, and on his death his brother and heir George C. Haines ; 

1 In 1789-90-91. - Opposite the King's Arms lun. 

■^ He made his will in 1784 (14 Februarj), in whicli he refers to a niece, Mary 
llaynes (wife of Robert Hayues, of Pinner, gent.). 



THE FAMILY OK THOMAS HAINES, SON OF JOHN HAINES. 119 

and in 1829 Samuel Haines held the tenement opposite the 
King's Arms with an aere hehin(l,and llohert Mnnroethe 2^ acres 
at Crnmpets. 

Thomas Haines also held other })iopeity in tlie manor, subject 
to a quit rent of 6d. per annum, namely a tenement called 
Peter Atler's (described in the rental as adjoining Hackman's), 
which was sold by William liussell, of Aldershot, to Thomas 
Haines and descended to his lieirs. This was opposite the Sun 
Inn.^ 

Thomas Haines was three times Warden {i.e., Mayor) of 
Godalming — in 17S6, 1794, and 1813. It was in the last of these 
years that the new Corn Market was built, and his name is 
inscribed thereon with the date 1814. I sincerely trust that he 
was no party to the act of vandalism by which the old picturesque 
building that stood on the same spot previously w^as pulled down 
and destroyed. He must have made his way among his fellow- 
townsmen very quickly for him to have been elected mayor 
before he was 30 and in hve years from his first settlement in the 
town. 

In appearance, judging from the miniature above mentioned, 
he was a v^ery florid, square-faced man with a prominent nose, 
a double chin, and rather high-arched eyelids — not an intellectual 
face, but with a certain homely cheerful vigour about it. The 
testimony of his youngest child, Ann Pattison, was that " he was 
everything that was nice." " He had a wonderful memory and 
could repeat word for word anything he had heard only once or 
twice. He was short-sighted and would pass his own children 
in the street without knowing them. He was musical and could 
play the 'cello very welh"^ 

On 18 July, 1784, he took out a licence (at Chichester) to 
marry Mary Charman, of Midhurst, maiden, aged 25 years, and 
married her there four days later. She is said to have been a very 
delightful person. Unfortunately, after bearing her husband 
five children, one of whom lived to be 86 and another 90, she died, 
apparently from the effects of her last confinement, and was 
buried 13 September, 1799. Very little more than a year later, 
rather to the scandal of his relations owing to the shortness of the 

' The above particulars are from a document drawn up 9 August, 1856, by- 
Messrs. Woods and Co., solicitors, of Godalming, in support of a claim for qnit 
rent on the aboTC-uamed premises, then in the occupation of A. T. Chandler. 

' From Mrs. Eichard Moliue, his granddaughter. 



120 THE FAMILY OF THOMAS HAINES, SOX OF JOHN HAINES. 

time, he maiTJecl a second wile, Catlieiine Isabella Thomegay/ 
widow of Eichard Thomegay, of Swiss extraction, who had been 
buried at Godalming 28 June, 1793. She M-as of a Quaker 
family named Wakefield from Worthing, and was christened just 
l^efore her second marriage. This v.'ife was from all accounts 
very inferior to his first one, and as she survived her husband, she 
was able to get rid of many family relics and heirlooms that 
would have been of priceless interest to us now. In this way 
she parted with some valuable old china, and I cannot but put 
it down to her that we know so little about her predecessor, of 
whom no likeness or description remains. There were no children 
liy this second marriage, and if a story that I have heard on 
good authority be true, she was not able to retain the affections of 
her husband. 

Thomas Haines died of heart disease, perhaps fatty degenera- 
tion of the heart, 27 May, 1820, and was buried in Godalming 
churcliyard on 2 June. He died intestate, and administration of 
his qoods, which were valued at under £4,000, was o-ranted 
14 July, 1820, to his son George Charman Haines, the widow 
renouncing. 

On 31 May, 1820, an agreement was made that the interest of 
£3,000 out of the personal estate of Thomas Haines should be 
paid to the widow for life, for support of Elizabeth and Ann, the 
daughters, and on her death each of the latter w^as to get two- 
fifths of the principal, and Samuel Haines, the tliird son, one-fiftli. 

On 1 June, 1821, George Charman Haines assigned the 
premises to his l^rother Samuel, and the next day Sanniel 
mortgaged them for £600 to Eichard Haydon, gent., and 
Benjamin Ividd, baniver. 

On 23 December, 1837, the mortgage was assigned to Henry 
Marshall, who reassigned it to Benjamin Kidd and George Charman 
Haines. The trust money under deed of 31 May, 1820, was now 
divided, and the property was on 12 January, 1841, fully vested in 
Samuel Haines. 

On September 29, 1842, Samuel Haines, surgeon, for the sum 
of £1,350 assigned to Alfred Thomas Chandler, of Godalming, 
surgeon, " all that messuage or tenement curtilage outbuildings 
stable garden and land thereto belonging, 2 acres, in or near High 
Street Godalming." Samuel Haines was joint-executor, with his 
brother George Charman, to the will of their eldest brother John 

' Sometimes spelt Tliauniiogny. 



THE FAMILY OF THOMAS HAINES, SON OF JOHN HAINES. l2l 

as far as his estate in England was concerned.' John made his 
will at Eajaniundry in the JNIadras Presidency, where lie was 
assistant surgeon in the East India Company's service. A codicil 
was added to his will 11 April, 1822, in consequence of the deaths 
meanwhile of his brother Eobert and sister Mary Charman 
l)aul)eny. His whole estate amounted to about £500, the only 
property of his in England being the £51 2s. '2d. due to him 
under the will of his brother Robert, who predeceased him. He 
died on 20 May, 1822, at Rajamundry. 

Administration of the goods of Ro1)ert Haines, his brother, was 
granted to Samuel Haines 12 January, 1825. Eoliert, wlio was 
mate on board the merchant ship Vittorki, made his will on board 
in the river Thames 20 Septeml)er, 1819. He died 9 August, 
1820, off Madras of yellow fever, and left £100 to his Ijrother 
George Charman Haines, £400 to Sainuel, and a share in the 
merchant ship Albion, worth £1G0 on sale, to Jane Matilda Beale, 
of Poplar, to whom no doul»t lie was engaged to l)e married. 
There were other small dividends owing to him, l)ut his estate was 
under £1,000 altogether. 

A painted silliouette of Eoliert in his naval jacket, now in my 
possession, shows him with prominent lips and a peculiar 
" feather," or bunch, of hair on the forehead.^ This picture bears 
some resemblance to the photograph of the miniature of William 
Haines, his first cousin, above mentioned. The only otlier fact 
about liol)ert Haines known to me is that he was an observer of 
birds. In the Letters of Eusticus, a delightful book about old 
Godalming by Edward Newman, it is said that Robert Haines 
observed that rare bird " the nutcracker" in Peperharow Park. 

Samuel Haines also administered the goods (under £1,500) 
of his sister Elizabeth (administration 7 8epteml)er, 1829), and 
was also trustee, under the will of Anna Baptista White (proved 
21 November, 1836), to Elizal)elli Handford, a Godalming girl, 
testatrix's serA'ant, who had an illegitimate daughter Maria 
Angela. 

A miniature of Samuel Haines as a young man (recenth" 
married) exists, which shows him as a fresh-looking, rather dapper 
man, with a pleasing countenance and full lips. Mr. H. F. Napper, 
of Laker's Lodge, describes him to me as "a tall slim wiry-looking 

^ William Haines, Inis first cousin, was the Indian executor. 
- Ihis, I am told by Mrs. Eicliard Moline, his niece, was inherited by my 
father. 



122 THE FAMILY OF THOMAS HAINES, SON OF JOHN HAINES. 

]nan of the Don Quixote type, I'atlier swarthy. Very outsjioken in 
his opinions, lie never hesitated to say what he thought." His 
niece, Mrs. Pdchard Moline, tells me he was a very kind man, hut 
much inclined to he a hypochondriac, and always talking of his 
complaints. His patients liked him very much when they got 
to know him, but they w^ould never send for him in the first 
place in preference to his brother George, but when once they 
had experienced his kindness and gentleness, they sometimes 
came to prefer him to his brother, who was generally regarded 
as the more able man. In his family he was the favourite brother, 
and his character must have been one that inspired trust, for he 
was on several occasions chosen trustee and executor, and 
certainly, from evidence in my possession, administered his 
trusts in a most conscientious and painstaking manner. Owing 
to some drug he took,^ his complexion became a rather ghastly 
colour, and Henry Daubeny used to call him " our blue uncle." 
He was not a reading man, like his son, and time hung rather 
heavy on his hands, so that he seemed in a constant state of unrest. 
Sometimes, as one who knew him has told me, he would come 
into a room for the purpose merely, as it seemed, of walking out 
again. He was fond of whist and a superstitious player, anxious 
to change his seat when unlucky. He also played backgammon 
a great deal, but his favourite pursuit was shooting, in great 
contrast to his son, who was always poring over his books when 
his father and uncle were impatient to get to the coverts at 
Stroud House, near Witley. His niece, Mrs. Turner, tells me 
that he was, though rather quick in temper, a very kind-hearted 
man, devoted to his beautiful wife, whose early death from cholera 
in 1832 must have been a great shock to him. 

He was very fond of his garden and grew a great many 
melons, and at the end of his garden were two paddocks where he 
kept some deer, pheasants, and hares, with clumps of furze and 
heather as a covert for them. But he sold this house near the 
Square,^ and went into lodgings in the third house across the 
bridge at Godalming, where he died 20 April, 1848, aged 57. 
Latterly his health was not good and he suffered from bad 
headaches. He finally succumbed to some internal complaint 
which need not have proved fatal, but he had so often fancied 
himself seriously ill that his fellow-practitioners did not take 

1 Perhaps nitrate of silver, but there is no evidence of this. 
'- In 18i2 to A. T. Cliandler, Esq. 



THE FAMILY OF THOMAS HAINES, SOX OF JOHN HAINES. 123 

sufticic'iit liotico of his C(jiu[)l;iiiits on lliis oceasion, and when his 
brother (Jeoige came to take np the case it was too late — to the 
latter's extreme grief — to save his life. 

The house in High Street near the King's Arms, now and for 
a long time past in the occupation of Artlnu' Jackson, saddkn', 
and now the property of my l)rother Major Haines, was bouglit l)y 
Samuel Haines from his brother George Charman Haines 24 March, 
1832, for £495. George Charman Haines had bought it in 1830, 
for £450. Curiously enough the property had been previously 
(14 February, 1784), left by John Upfold's will to his niece 
Mary Haynes, wife of Robert, Haynes, of Chingford and of Pinner, 
officer of Excise. At tlie death of Samuel Haines in 1848 the house 
passed to his only child liobert, who was sole legatee and executor 
in his father's will (dated 22 June, 1841, proved 22 May, 1848). 



(124) 



CHAPTER XVI. 
R(3RERT Haines 

" 111 my father I observed mildness of temper, and unchangeable resolution 
in the things which he had determined after due deliberation ; and no 
vainglory in those things which men call honours, and a love of labour 
and perseverance." — M. Aurelius, Thoughts, I, 16 (Long's translation). 

Robert Hausies was born 8 June, 1821. He had rather an 
unhappy school time, as I have heard my mother say. Latin he 
learnt at home. At the age of sixteen, in 1837, he entered his 
father's surgery as apprentice, and learnt practical pharmacy for 
five years. He then went , abroad,^ visiting Paris and Boulogne, 
and also took his degree of M.B., at the London University,^ 
obtaining an exhibition at the first examination for his degree, 
and also the gold medal for chemistry.^ 

In 1845 (March) he became engaged to Anna Moline, niece to 
the famous Dr. Prichard, descended on her mother's side from a 
Quaker family, well known in Herefordshire, and on her father's 
side of Dutch or Huguenot lineage, and of Kentish blood leading 
back to the Scotch Kings and St. Margaret of Scotland. 

Looking round for a practice for his son, Samuel Haines was 
induced to buy the moiety of the practice of a certain Abraham 
Wolff, of Shoreditch, London, which proved a complete disappoint- 
ment, to use a mild term, and resulted in a loss of at least £800 
to £1,000. At this time Robert Haines lived at 7, Finsbury 
Circus. All this time he was working hard, and in 1848 he again 
went abroad, visiting Paris* and Berlin, where he received valuable 
introductions to Karl Ritter and others from his relation by 
marriage. Dr. Prichard. 

From his passport, 6 July, 1848, we learn that his heiglit was 

1 Passport, 13 Mcay, 1844. 

^ The first descendant of Richard Haines to take a degree. 

^ Now in possession of liis third son, H. A. Haines. 

■* He was present at the Paris massacres and helped to tend tlie woimde:]. 



i;oi;fj;t iiaixes. 12") 

5 feet Hi inclies, hair brown, eyes chestnut, nose long, chin round, 
and face oval. 

Meanwhile he had learnt sufhcient French and German to 
ena1)le liini to read and translate both languages with facility. 
Nor did he neglect the classics, for he was a fair Latin scholar, and 
left a translation of the Upistles of Pliny the younger behind him 
at his death. This was unfortunately destroyed about the year 
1874. During his short and busy life he found time to amass an 
enormous amount of knowledge, and without any doubt he was 
the most learned and intellectually able of all the descendants of 
Eichard Haines up to the present time. In chemistry his know- 
ledge was especially profound, ajid had he lived there is no d(nil)t 
that he would have come quite to the front in that science. Like 
his grandfather he was musical and played a great deal on the flute. 

He was married on 1 August at Lee church in Kent, and sailed 
to India via the Cape in September, 1848, to take up a post in the 
Medical Establishment of the East India Company's forces, as 
superintending surgeon in Bombay, Sind, and the Punjaul) on 
25 January, 1849.^ He was soon transferred for a time to the 
naval department, a duty which he cordially disliked, being a bad 
sailor. During the next ten or twelve years he held the following 
appointments at different times and for various periods — Super- 
intendent of Vaccination, Concan Division ; surgeon of Jamsetjee 
Jejeebhoy Hospital, Bombay ; Acting Professor of Chemistry and 
Materia Medica in the Grant Medical College ; Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural History in the Elphinstone College ; 
Superintendent of Vaccination in the Northern Division of the 
Deccan ; Surgeon to the Jails^ ; Acting Garrison surgeon ; Professor 
of Chemistry and Botany at the Grant Medical College ; Professor 
of the same and of Geology at the Elphinstone Institution ; Acting 
Chemical Analyzer to Government ; Secretary to Government in 
the Educational Department ; Acting Educational Inspector ; and 
surgeon t<j the Coroner. 

He did not have an extensive piivate practice in Bombay, for 
which he did not lay himself out, but, says Mr. Bickersteth in a 
letter to me, " I can speak from personal experience as to his un- 
remitting care and attention ; and the time he was willing to spend 

' He was, I believe, uttaclied to the Fusiliers and attained, before hi« death, to 
the rank of Surgeon-Major. 

- It was then he was broiiglit into contact with the Captain Haines above 
mentioned. See p. 2, ii. 



126 ItOBEltT HAINES. 

on serious cases was far more than is usual, or probably possible 
for an ordinary practitioner."^ 

In applying for a post in 1855, Kobert Haines claims for him- 
self the following qualifications for it : — 

"During the greater part of 1851, and the whole of 1852, I 
undertook the whole of Dr. Giraud's classes, both at the Grant 
Medical College and the Elphinstone Institution, in chemistry, 
materia medica, botany, and geology, and I received the assur- 
ance of the perfect satisfaction of the Board of Education and of 
the principals of those institutions. 

" To mineralogy as a branch of chemistry, and to comparative 
anatomy and its systematic development, zoology, as intimately 
connected with and throwing light upon my professional studies, 
I have devoted a good deal of time and labour ; and tov/ard 
geology, as that portion of natural history which comprehends 
and lerpiives for its elucidation the application of all the rest, I 
have unavoidal^ly felt great attraction. I would not say that I 
have attained any absolutely high degree of proficiency in any of 
these studies by making either of them so much the special object 
of my attention as chemistry ; but I do not offer my services to 
teach them, without feeling the wish, and I hope the ability, to 
inspire those I would instruct with some portion of the interest 
with which I regard them, and to lead them through the nnilti- 
farious phenomena laid open in the study of nature on to the 
appreciation of the unity of all science, and of the fundamental 
truths wliich that conception involves — the ultimate ol)ject, as I 
conceive it of all teaching and study." 

From this time to his death Dr. Haines devoted himself to his 
work, scarcely leaving Bombay except on duty, or during his 
vaccination tours, and only for short visits to Mahableshwar or 
Poena. 

On 13 April, 1854, was born at Poorundhur, near Poena, 
Bombay, his first child, a daughter — deprived of life by the very 
act of birth. My mother, writing 17 April, 1854, to her mother, 
says : " One of our servants waited up and watched on my 
account day and night and thought no trouble too much for me — 
the same who went the night our poor little babe was born to 
make a grave for it. We sent him because he was a Christian." ^ 

1 J. P. Bickersteth, Esq., Grove Mill House, Watford, 29 IS^veniber, 189S. 
- I am glad to priut this testimouy. Some living Anglo-Iudiaus deny that there 
is such a thing as a trustworthy native Christian. 



ItOBEUT HAINES. 127 

Tlire? otlier ciiildren, all sons, were born in the three folluwinsi 
years. 

In 1S65 on Dr. Girand's retirement from the principalshi}) of 
the Grant ]M<Mlieal College, the vacant appointment, one of the 
very liigliest in the medical service at Bombay and the duties of 
which he had been practically discharging for some time past, was 
bestowed on Dr. ITaines. It seemed that the time had now- 
come for taking the much-needed holiday to England, where his 
ciiildren had already gone. But it was nr)t to be. On 3 January, 
1866, the new principal read the year's report at the college, 
suggesting certain reforms. On April 13 he seemed particularly 
well,^ and his heavy work for the year being now over, he migiit 
look forw^ard to a short time for putting things in order before 
embarking for England. But on Monday, April 16, he was 
attacked with fe^'er, and though everything was done that medical 
science could suggest, and tliough lie was never left for a minute 
without one of his colleagues in the profession in attendance in 
his room, he succnmljed on April 26, at 4.30 p.m. A MS. report 
of the case in my possession, evidently wiitten by one of tlie 
doctors in attendance,- describes the illness as " an excellent 
example of the fever usually styled 'remittent,' accompanied 
with jaundice (which appeared on tlie night of the 22nd) . 
but (he adds) in Dr. Haines's case a striking feature was the 
absence of all delirium and conui. . . . Dr. Haines was 
perfectly sensible until a few minutes before his death." 

One friend who was present describes the fever as malarial, 
and another says it was the first case recognised in India as 
exhibiting typhoid symptoms. ""^ A third tells me that though an 
extraordinarily thin man, his liver was found at death to be 
abnormally large, and that death was due to enlargement of the 
liver. Erom the very first the patient lost all strength, and 
considered the attack to be very serious, and on the 20th April 
he made his will, leaving everything to his wife, with her and John 
Pares Bickersteth as executrix and executor and Thomas Benyan 
Eerguson as executor of the personal effects.^ The will was 
signed in the presence of J. B. Lyon, assistant surgeon, and 

^ See letter from my mother to me, dated that day. 
- Perhaps Sir W. Guyer Hunter. 

^ Tlie death certificate described it, ou what grounds I do not Inow, as typhoid. 
■* The estate was worth less than £2,500, and tlie widow thus became entitled to 
£60 pension under Lord Clive's fund. 



12S PvOBEUT IIATNES. 

J. P. Bickerstetli, senior magistrate. The Eev. W. K. lletcher 
says : " I saw him during his illness, and can testify to his patience 
under great suffering and the peace with which he met death, in 
the hlessed hope of the resurrection to eternal life." 

He was buried on April 27th at the Colaba cemetery, after a 
service held in the cathedral at 5 o'clock, 200 men of the 4th 
N.I. (Rifles) under Major Warden forming the funeral escort. The 
coliin was taken out of the hearse and carried on a litter by men of 
the 4th King's Own Royal Infantry, and the pall was borne by 
Drs. Leith, Stovell, Rogers, Joynt, Hunter, and jMr. Bickersteth. 
The Rev. W. K. Fletcher read the burial service. 

The death of Robert Haines was regarded as a great loss not 
only l)y his friends, but by the whole European and native com- 
munity of Bombay — as may be seen from the following tributes 
in the Bombay papers : — 

" The late De. Haines. 

" Bombay has suffered in the death of Dr. Robert Haines a 
great, and indeed irreparable, loss. He w^as one of the most 
distinguished officers of the Bombay Medical Service, and as a 
scientific officer no one in the Medical Service of India can take 
his place. He was one of the most valued and ablest Fellows of 
the University of Bombay, and he was a philosophical chemist of 
the very first capacity, who had already acquired solid reputation 
in England, and who would have gained, had he lived, tlie highest 
eminence in this science. He was master of every branch of 
natural science ; lie was an accurate and accomplished scholar ; 
he was full of all manner of out-of-the-way learning, and 
withal was a most admirable man of business. His was a 
mind of the highest order, obscured only by obscure service. 
His moral superiority could not be hid. By temperament 
he ^^'as indeed reserved almost to excess. ' No one word 
spake he more than was need'; and none but those who 
knew him in the intimacy of domestic life can possibly 
estimate the endearing virtue of his soul, and certainly it 
is not the pen of private friendship which attempts this 
tribute to the dead. But the most casual acquaintance with 
Dr. Haines revealed the impartiality, the perfect transparency, 
the wonderful unworldliness of his character. No one could 
ever liave mixed with him in business without having carried 
away this impression of the man, and probably preserved it in 




Robert Haines, M.B., 
late Principal of the Grant Medical College, Bombay. 



ROBERT HAINES. 129 

some pointed anecdote. And it was these moral characteristics, 
joined to his wide and various knowledge, liis shrewd sense and 
sound judgment, wliich made him so trusted, as well as admired, 
by others. In ordinary affairs of life he seemed still the man 
of science, who sought not victory but truth. In all public 
business, in which he was concerned, a wise and truthful solution 
of the question which might be in contention, was his single 
aim ; and this always became so clear to the conscience of his 
colleagues or associates, that any debate in which Dr. Haines 
took part became at once an investigation. Victory so won 
could leave no sting. In a young University, and as Principal 
of a College, the value of such a man is past compviting. Dr. 
Haines's favourite science was chemistry. He was singularly 
qualified to excel in this science, which requires for its successful 
cultivation some of the greatest powers of the mind. He added 
to it innumerable important analyses, and but for the exigencies 
of his official position he would have already gained that general 
recognition of his scientific merits, which in the end, had he 
lived, was certain. For many years he had been known in 
England as a philosophical and perfectly trustworthy chemist. 
Government and the High Court can replace his services as 
chemical analyzer only from England or Germany. The un- 
initiated can perhaps hardly understand the public loss, in this 
respect, in the death of Dr. Haines ; Ijut they may form some 
slight appreciation of it, wlien they know how a controversy 
between George Wilson and Professor Gregory concerning some 
infinitesimal decimal quantity in an analysis raged in Edinburgh 
for nearly 10 years. As an official Dr. Haines was singularly 
able. When some years ago he was for a time appointed Acting 
Eegistrar of the University, those who had known him l)efore 
only as a man of great science and learning and unworldliness, — 
as a rapt student of atoms and forces — were taken 1»}' surprise by 
the thorough and absolutely brilliant manner in which he 
discharged the trying duties of the office. He was punctual antl 
exact to the merest clerical detail, weighty in council, full of the 
right spirit of his office, and when the question for a seal and 
arms for the University turned up accidentally, he ^^■rote a 
profound heraldic essay on the subject which excited tlie WT)nder 
of the Fellows and the admiration of the Garter King of Arms.' 
When again he succeeded to the Principalship of the Grant 

' I have tried luisuccessfully to recovei' this from the Heralds' College. 

K 



130 KOBERT HAINES. 

Medical College, a doubt was felt as to how he might rule a 
collego. He seemed to be rather a Grand Syndic of tlie 
medi&eval type in very person, as if he had just walked out of a 
Vandyke canvas, tlian fitted to be Principal of a modern 
college. But the doubt was only for a moment. He at once 
succeeded in his new duties, and, as his colleagues know, with 
distinction. In fact Pr. Haines's proved extraordinary scientific 
capacity was but the sign, and not the full measure of his mind ; 
and such power joined to great goodness of soul, could not but be 
successful in everything, and so he proved equally master in the 
world and in the laboratory." 

The Bombay Gazette for Saturday 28 April, 1866, says^ : " In 
the death of Surgeon Robert Haines, M.B., Principal of the Grant 
Medical CoUeue, the Indian Medical Service has lost one of its 
]3rightest ornaments, and Bombay one of its best friends. . . . 
Apparently cut off in the prime of life and in the vigour of intelli- 
gence, when an extensive field of usefulness lay before him, his 
loss is mourned as the loss of one taken away ere his course was 
run and the aim of his existence accomplished. For many years 
Dr. Haines devoted himself closely to study, and his recreation 
seemed to have been sought in the laboratory and library, while 
the remainder of his tune was taken up in hospital duties and in 
educational work. 

" Too long in India without a change, too anxious to perform 
his duties with faithfuhiess. Dr. Haines thought not of leave to 
Europe, nor of leave in India, and lie worked on to the end, 
yielding himself a victim to his own integrity. In the educa- 
tional department of this presidency, Dr. Haines attained the 
highest rank both as a scholar and a teacher. His efficiency as 
a lecturer is known to the general public. As a practical clieniist 
he was counted a man worthy of a European reputation. Native 
education stands largely indebted to ]iim for \'aluable disinterested 

^ A later issue of a Bombay paper, speaking of the various Principals of the 
Grant Medical College, says : " The living enthusiasm, deep researcli, and high 
attainments of Dr. Giraud's successors aro not likely soon to be equalled within the 
College walls." See Life of Br. Morcliead, by H. A. Haines, p. 42. The Times of 
India, February, 1871, says : " By the great eai-nestness and zeal with which they 
performed their task, by their sense of honour and their just and impartial 
decisions, by their sound practical instructions aiid their superior attainments, by 
the entire absence in them of pride or presumption, I say by the possession of 
these noble qualities, the names of Morehead, Peet, Ballingall and Haines will ever 
remain so dearly cherished in the liearts of all their pupils.'" Hid., p. 59. 



liOBEtlT HAINES. lol 

services. In the University Senate he was a leading member. His 
eminence as a scholar was known to all Irat himself, for humility 
and nnol)trusiveness were marked features in his character. . . . 

"The general public have known Dr. Haines l)est as an eminent 
chemist, as Surgeon-in-Chief of the Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Hospital, 
as Principal of the Grant ^ledical College, and as tlie liegistrar of 
tlie Mortuary Returns oi' the city. Well may it be saiil that his 
life was spent in relieving the body as a physician, and opening 
up the mind as an educationist. Successful in both, if he laboured 
hard and rested little, if his toil and diligence were not relieved 
l)y ease and relaxation, if he bestowed upon others more than he 
himself received of praise and profit, he has earned for himself 
not only the respect and commendation of his fellow men, but that 
greater reward which the world can neither give nor take away." 

The snme copy of the Gazette contains a letter from one of 
his native pupils, the sincerity of which is only enhanced by its 
somewhat quaint phraseology. After stating that he was qualified 
to speak from a three-year acquaintance with the deceased as his 
pu]iil, and after speaking of his vigorous mind and upright 
character, he says : 

" He was truly made to ' scorn delight and live laborious days.' 
His reading was never desultory or superficial, for he had been 
full and clear in his exposition of subjects ; he seemed to pursue it 
{^ic) till he had mastered it. Withal he was upright, modest, and 
of an unassuming disposition." He ends his letter ^\■ith the 
apostrophe — " ' But now that good heart bursts and he is at rest.' 
With that breath expired a soul who never indulged a passion 
unfit for the place he has gone to. Where now are thy plans of 
justice, of truth, of honour ? I*oor were the expectations of the 
studious, the modest, and the good, if the rewards of their laljours 
were only to be exjjected from man . . . wliile others vv'itli 
their talents were tormented with amlntion, with vain glory, v/itli 
enyj, with emulation — how well didst tli(ju turn thy mind to its 
own improvement in things out of the power of fortune.^ . . . 
How silent thy passage, how private thy journey ! 

" COWASJEE NOWROJEE, 

" Graduate, Grant Meeliral CoJlefiey 
On the next Prize-giving day of tlie (4rant Medical College," 

' This reads somewliat like a passage out of the Thoughts of Marcus Aureliiis. 
'12 Januarj, 1867. 

K 2 



132 ROBERT HAINES. 

Dr. Hunter^ spoke of his predecessor's attainments, and stated tliat 
" had his life been spared he would [as a chemist] in all probability 
Jiave taken rank among some of the foremost men in Europe," and 
i]i the course of his speech on the same occasion, the Hon. C. J. 
Erskine said, " There was something in the habit of his mind — I 
may say in the habit of his life — -which most fitly associates 
itself with the retirement of a place of learning and study." 
A resolution was passed at the meeting of the senate that — 
" The University of Bombay, in token of its regret for the 
untimely decease of Dr. Haines, and to show its appreciation of 
his many valuable services, as Fellow, Acting Eegistrar, Syndic, 
and Examiner, resolves to vote the sum of Es. 1000 towards 
the proposed testimonial in honour of Dr. Haines's memory." 
Many were the testimonies to his worth from friends in Bombay 
and elsewhere. One who knew him well during the last eight 
years of his life says he was " a kind and considerate friend, and a 
liberal host, a very keen but kindly critic of the men and women 
he met in society, incapable of the least intrigue or underhand 
dealing to get advantage for himself." 

A colleague in the medical service calls him " one of the best 
' of men," and another speaks of his loss as irreparable. His 
brother-in-law described him to me as one of the most gentlemanly 
men he ever met. The late Sir Bartle Frere bears testimony to 
his admirable service in the Educational Department in Bombay, 
adding that " from the first years of our acquaintance I had reason 
to admire both his ability and unselfish public-spirited devotion 
in promoting the cause of education in all its branches in Bombay." 
But the most striking tribute of all is the following letter from 
Sir Alexander Grant dated Mahableshewar 29 April, 1866. 

" My dear Du Port, 

" We are here filled with sorrow at the loss of our friend whom 
we admired and loved so much, and with whom we had lived in 
such intimate relations. Few human souls have ever impressed 
me more with a sort of sense of perfection. So wise he was, and 
calmly self-dependent, so pure and unselfish, so helpful to all, so 
above everything petty. 

" ' So many worlds, so much to do, 
So little done, such things to be, 
How know I what had need of thee, 
For tliou wert strong, as thou wert true.' 

' Now Sii' Wm. G-uyer Hunter. 



I 



EGBERT HAINEiS. 133 

The loss to us here both privately and publicly is irreparable, and 
the loss to his wife and boys is irreparable lieyond expression. 
And it is a bitter thought that a little pause and relaxation — a 
journey to England some two or three years ago — might have saved 
this valuable existence for us. Well, God's will be done, and on 
Haines's tomb be it inscribed, 

" ' His life was noble and the elements so mixed in him, that Nature 
might stand np and say before the world, This was a man ! ' 

I feel broken-hearted to-day and cannot write more. 

" Yours sincerely, 

"A. Gkant."' 

Another great friend, J. P. Bickersteth, Esq., describes him as 
of a very quiet and retiring disposition, and far more fond of read- 
ing and study than social life and amusements ; and says that when 
called upon, as surgeon to the coroner, to give evidence in cases 
of murder and manslaughter. Dr. Haines, in giving his evidence, 
was " calm and deliberate to a degree, but always ready to giv(! a 
reason for any statement that he had made or opinion he had 
expressed, and never put out or shaken by cross-examination, 
however severe it might be." 

The same observer notes the great ability he showed in 
connection with the Bombay Army Medical Eetiring Fund. This 
fund had been established on a basis financially unsound, and 
the junior contributors were in a fair way to lose their contribu- 
tions to it. Dr. Haines was one of the few men in the service 
competent to deal with such a question, and he worked the matter 
out with infinite pains, and set the annuities on a sound basis. 

He also left at his death statistical tables relating to the 
duration of life among the natives on which he ]iad l)estowed 
innnense labour, and which he had nearly finished. During his 
last illness he advised that the work should be completed by 
an actuary and the annuity tables be calculated from them. 

In their memorandum on these tables the Government of 
Bombay speak of him as "distinguished in an eminent degree 
both for high scientific attainments and for habits of the most 
careful and accurate observation." ^ 

1 Curiouslj euougb. Sir A. Grant's son is named Ludovic, and among the sigua- 
turies given above, p. 96 (of whom Gregory Haines is one) stands a Luclovio Grant. 

2 So says General Lester, another old Indian friend, who adds, " in his disjjosi- 
tion and manner he was fidl of gentleness and kindness, and all who knew him 
must have liked him greatly." Ihe son of Captain Stafford B. Haines (see p. 2 n.) 
says of my father that he " was a kind and good Mend— sans ^Jettret sansreproche." 



134 ROBERT HAINES. 

In a letter addressed to Dr. Haines's widow 25 February, 1867, 
the Government of Bombay inform her that 5,000 rupees had been 
paid in to her account in respect of the above mortuary tables, 
and conchides with assuring her how warmly the eminent services 
of Dr. Haines in this, as in so many other w^ays, were appreciated 
by G-overnnient, and how sincerely they lamented the loss of so 
valuable an oflicer. 

Besides these tables of mortality printed by Samuel Brown, 
F.I.A.,^ I only know of the following papers by my father : — 

1. " Two Addresses delivered at the opening of a session of 

the Grant Medical College, 1856," and another, year 
unknown. 

2. Paper on the "Volatile oil of Ptychotis Ajwan " in the 

Chemical Soc. Journal, VIII, 1856, pp. 289-291. Also 
PraL Chcm., LXVIII, 1856, pp. 430-432. 

3. " Report and analysis of various kinds of coal," Bombay 

Medical Physical Soc. Trans., VI, 1860, pp. lix-lxii. 

4. "jSTotes on the extraction and estimation of some of the 

crystalline principles of opium," Bombay Med. Phys. Soc. 
Trans., VII, 1861, pp. 222-234. 
. 5. " On the analysis of mineral waters and tlie arrangement 
of the results." Chemical Ncics, 1861, pp. 29-31. 

6. " On the presence of nitrate in mineral waters and in the 

production of saltpetre." Chcmiccd Ncios, IV, 1861, pp. 
154, 155, 165-166, 194, 195. 

7. "Notes on Nitrification." Chcm. News, IV, 1861, pp. 245, 

246, 259, 260. 

8. " On the conversion of calomel into corrosive suljlimate by 

ammoniacal salts." Bombay Med. Phys. Soc. Trans.,N\W, 
1862, pp. 224-230. 

9. " On the natural formation of carbonates of soda." Phar- 

maecuticcd Jowrncd, V, 1864, pp. 26, 27. 

10. E. Haines and Herbert Giraud.^ "Analysis of the mineral 

springs and various well and river waters in the Bombay 
Presidency." Bomhay Med. Phys. Soc. Trans., V, 1859, 
pp. 242-263. 

11. "Three articles on Heraldry," from the Times of Indict, 

September, 1863. 

' Journal of the Institute of Actuaries and Assurance Magazine, Vol, XVI 
p. J 87. 

- A copy of this is in tlie British Museum. 



\ 



ROBERT HAINES. 135 

These are all the products of that busy and well-stored brain 
that remain to us. 

In recognition of Dr. Haines's works, a sum of money was 
collected in Bombay for a marble bust to he placed in the Grant 
Medical College, and to provide a sum to be vested in the hands 
of trustees for the scientific and literary education of his eldest 
son. 

The bust by Woolner now stands in the Grant Medical College, 
and a sum of £1,000 was collected for the second ol)ject. The 
inscription on the pedestal of the bust speaks of his "noble and 
devoted life."' 

The tomb in Colaba Cemetery has the following inscription : — 

In affectionate Eemembrance 

of 

ROBEET HAINES, M.B., 

Surgeon in His ]\lajesty's Indian Army, 

Principal of the Grant Medical College, 

Bombay. 

He was born at Godalming in Surrey 

on the 8th of June, 1821. 

He died after 17 years of faithful service 

on the 26th April, 1866, 

at Mazagon, Bomljay. 

^ The following testimony has come into ruy hands too late for iusertion iu its 
proper place : — 

Edward L. Howard, barrister, of Bombay, writing to ])r. Haines's widow on 
10 May, 1866, uses these remarkable expressions of her husband : "He seemed to 
me in the first place to be absolutely blameless- this was the more wonderful from 
liis extraordinary acquirements and unceasing mental activity. He reminded me 
of the great men of a different age from this — of schoolmen without arrogance 
and saints without bigotry. If the next world is like the dream of Isaac Taylor, 
your dear husband was of all men I ercr saw the fittest to enter it from this." 



(136) 



CHAPTER XYII. 

The a ems of Haines. 

The earliest coat of arms, assigned to any one of the Haynes 
name, is that which was owned by Sir . . . Eynns, a knight 
of Shropshire in the reign of Edward I (1272-1307), viz. : 
Arg. ■; on a fesse gules three roundles} 

A pretty legend ascribes the origin of the fesse in heraldry to 
a " king at the close of a battle visiting one of his wounded 
warriors, dubbing him knight, and with his hand, dipt in the 
wounded hero's own blood, tracing a red stripe across his shield, 
and saying, that should be his device." 

The roundles above inentioned probably represented bezants, 
or Ijyzantine gold pieces, and in coat armour are generally taken 
to denote, as crescents also do, a crusader. 

The old and genuine types of Haynes coats, such as are found 
" tricked " in the Heralds' Visitations, or for which the grants are 
recorded in the College of Arms, are chiefly three in number, viz., 
the coats with bezants (crest, an eagle),^ the coats with crescents 
(heron, as crest), the coats with annulets. 

1. Arms SnowiNCr Bezants, and often a Geeyhound 
CouEANT. — Recorded in the Visitation of Shropshire (1 569) we 
find, under Heynes, or Eynns, of Stretton, a typical coat of this 
sort, as follows : 

Or ; on a fesse gules 3 bezants, in chief a greyhound courant 
sahle, collared of the second. 

In the next visitation appears, as crest, an eagle displayed azure, 
scm4c d'Moiles argent; and in 1663, as a second crest, an eagle 
displayed or, standing on a tortoise argent. 

Robson gives a coat Haynes,^ co. Salop: Arg.; on a fesse gides 
3 tezants hetwcen as many derni greyhounds azure. These were the 
arms borne by a flourishing family of Haynes who resided at 

1 Brit. Mus. Harl. MS. 1068, f. 65. See a pamphlet by the late A. M. Haiues 
of Graleua, Illinois, U.S.A., ou the Haines Arms. 

- Mr. John Haiues of 24, Hampton Place, Brighton, uses as arms the grey- 
hound and bezant coat, md the heron as crest. 

•* Burke (? E,obson too) gives demi-hinds, a probable error for hounds. See 
Notes ou the Family of Haynes of Westbiiry-on-Trym, etc., by tlie Rev. F. J. 
Poyuton. The Haiues family of Paiuswick, Gloucestershire, use for arms : Arg. : 
on a chevron gu. 3 bezants between as uianj demi-hinds (? hounds) ramp. az. 



THE AKMS OF HAINES. 137 

Westbury-on-Tiym, Wick and Aljson in Gloucestershire from very 
early times. They do not appear iu any Visitations nor is any 
grant discoverable. Atkyns in liis Gloucestershire gives them with 
" hinds " not " hounds " ; so also Bigland in his " Monumental 
Inscriptions," and Naylor in his " Plates of Arms." 

With but slight difference the same arms as those of Heynes 
of Stretton are found ascribed to Hayne of Iberton and Dorchester/ 
and Hayne of Honiton, in co. Devon ; and they were used by the 
famous General James Heane (pronounced Hayne) of a Gloucester- 
shire family, who conquered Jersey for Cromwell and became its 
governor in 1652. He used the second eagle crest."^ They were 
also granted or confirmed 4 Septemljer, 1607, to Thomas Hayne of 
Friar Waddon, co. Dorset,'^ who was of the family of Hayne of 
Iberton and Dorchester. Gideon Hayne, a descendant of the same 
family, stamped these arms on a token issued in the 17th century 
in CO. Meath, Ireland. On 18 June, 1702, they were granted or 
confirmed to John Hayne, son of John Hayne, deceased, of Dart- 
mouth, CO. Devon^ ; and on 17 October, 1784, to John Haynes of 
Chelsea, principal registrar of the Province of Canterbury.^ This 
coat is quartered by the Marquess of Bath, as descended from 
Thomas Tliynne and Margaret Haynes of Stretton ; and, impaled 
with that of Egerton, it is sculptured over the entrance of the 
Egerton family mansion at Ashridge, co. Bucks. It appears 
there through the marriage of the 7th Earl of Bridgewater with 
Charlotte Catherine Ann Haynes, a descendant of Hopton Haynes 
(from 1696-1749 officer of the Mint), who was probably from 
Gloucestershire or Wiltshire. The present family of Seale-Hayne 
of Devonshire use this coat," and it was assumed before his death 
by the late lamented Mr. A. M. Haines of Galena, Illinois, his 
ancestor Sanmel Haines having emigrated from Wiltshire to 
America in 1635.'^ 

1 Harl. MS. 1169. f. 19b. 

- Greneal. Notes relating to tlie family of Heaue by W. C. Heauc, Esq. 

3 Harl. MSS. 1539. f. lU7b. 

■* Used by the Eev. S. C. Haines, of lustow, Devon, and by Richard 
Haines, Esq., of West Brom\Yich, Staffordshire, and also by a family now settled 
in CO. Cork, which emigrated to Ireland in the tinie of Cromwell. 

' He died 1 February, 1750. 

•^ Burke's Landed Gentry. Some Sussex family used it about 1775. See 
Burrell MSS. 5695, p. 62S. 

'! See pamphlet by A. M. Haines of Illinois. An old altar tomb at Biddeston, 
"Wilts, shows for Haynes : Erm ; on a Jesse sa. between 3 torteaux a (jreyhound 
courant ary. collared or. 



138 THE ARMS OF HAINES. 

2. The Coats with Crescents. — These are numerous, but 
their orighi is not known, unless the crescents are but a variation 
for bezants or plates, as signifying the same thing. 

On 10 June, 1578, William Heynes (or Haynes) and Nicholas 
Heynes, first and fourth sons of Eichard Heynes of Eeading, received 
from Kobert Cooke, Clarencieux Iving of Arms, a confirmation of 
their arms, the grant to Nicholas being couched in the following 
terms : 

" being required by Nicholas Haynes of Hackney in Middlesex, 
fourthe son of Eichard Haynes of Eedinge in the county of 
Berkshire gentleman .... to make serche in ye Eegisters 
and Eecordes of my office for the auntient arms and creast 
belonging to his name and family, I have made searche 
accordingly and doe fynde yt he may lawfully beare as his 
auncestors hertofore have borne these arms and creast 
heareafter followeinge That is to say ye first for Haynes ; 
Argent, three crescents \^pcdyY uncUe azure and gules, the second 
for Foxley ; gules two bares humite silver and so quarterly, 
and to his Creast uppon the healme on a loreathc silver and 
gides a Heron volant the hodye in ]jroper coidler wynges silver 
legged and leaked goulde hoiddingc up one of his feet mantelled 
gules doubled silver." 
The coat confirmed^ to William, brother of Nicholas, was in 
every respect similar, and it differed from their father's coat 
merely in having the heron's dexter foot lifted.^ 

Nicholas Haynes's family came to an end in the male line with 
the death of his son Eichard, of Hackney, co. Middlesex, and 
Arundel, co. Sussex, 21 April, 1634. 

The other brothers of Nicholas and William died childless, and 
judging from their wills, which only mention the children of 
Nicholas, probably William too died childless ; unless he was the 
same person as William Haynes, citizen and merchant tailor of 
All Hallows, Barking, who, by will dated 5 September, 1590, left 
charities to the poor of St. Dunstan's in the East. The identifica- 
tion is unlikely, as William, brother of Nicholas, was, like him, a 

^ Not in my copy of the grant, but tlie tricking shows that the crescents \Tere 
paly of six \_not harry']. The heron has a martlet sable on the body, as a mark of 
cadence for the fourth sou. 

- Harl. 1438. f. 10. Add. MS. ] 4,295. f. 10b. Camden's Grants (College of 
Arms, I, 15). 

•^ Papworth, Robson and Berry give the arms of Haynes of Reading as gn. 
3 cresc. paly loavy, arg. and az. 



THE ARMS OF HAIXES. 180 

yeoman of the guard to Queen Elizabeth, yeoman of the toils, and 
purveyor of sahnou and sea fish to Her Majesty. Tliere is, 
however, at St. Dunstan's a side window, dated 1590, having these 
arms upon it, viz., 7th, Will"' Haynes : 

Avff.; 3 cir scents pall/ of sir rju. and az} 

But even if the two Williams were identical, it is proltalile 
that the family of William the merchant tailor, though at lii'st 
flourishing, died out in the male line." At all events Sir John 
Evelyn, husband of Thomazine Haynes, a grand-daughter of said 
William tlu'ough another son than the grandchildren mentioned iu 
the note, impales the Heynes arms thus : ■ 

Arg. ; a /esse vxivy azure hetiveen 3 annulets iju. 
Crest: a sfork or heron} 

This is certainly puzzling, as it combines the crest of the 
crescent aruis with the annulets. Again there is the fact that a 
William Haynes of Tower ward was taxed £150 for leaving 
London^ to live at Croydon in 1590, and a window was 
found some years ago in Croydon Church behind Whitgift's 
monument, which could not have been opened since 1598, showing 
these arms : 

Arg. ; a f esse nebulee azure between 3 annnlets gules. 

This coat, therefore, may have been the coat of William 
Haynes the citizen and merchant tailor.-'^ 

Arms identical with those of Nicholas are used l)y the Haynes 
family of Thimblel)y Lodge, co. Yorks," with the difference that 
the stork (=: heron) holds in its beak a serpent. They are also used 
by a family of Haines, that migrated in 164:7 from Hurst, near 
Maidenhead, Berks, to liarliadoes (being lioyalists), and whose 
present representatives claim to be descended from the Beading 
family. If so, they must l)e descended from another branch tlian 
that of Bichard of Beading, if, as is shown to be ])robal)ly the 
case, William the eldest son had no children. 

' Burke gives uuder Heynes of Loudon arg. ; 3 cresc. paUi wan/ of sLr gu. and 
az. Similar arms ajipear without pedigree under Haynes of Surrey. Brit. Mus. 
Harl 1147. f. 170. 

- Tliis depends on wliether Benedick and Henry, grandsons of said William, 
had any sons. 

^ Misc. Gren. et Her. 2 Ser. viii, 319. The tomb is at Godstone in Surrey, dated 
1643. 

I have mislaid tlie reference to this. 

'" Eobson gives this coat for Haynes or Hayne and adds '• another of the 
second." 

^ See Burke's Landed Gentvij. 



140 THE ARMS OF HAINES. 

A similar, if not identical, coat was borne by a very ancient 
fanaily of Haynes (now probably extinct in the male line) 
in Herts and Essex. The name is spelt with the " s " almost 
always from the very earliest times.' From this family 
descended a celebrated John Haynes, afterwards Governor of 
Massachusetts and of Connecticut. The constitution which he 
drew up for this latter state, was the first ever written in 
the New World. John Haynes was probably the richest settler 
that went out to America, and an estimate of his character 
describes him as " of a very large estate and larger affections, of a 
heavenly mind and spotless life, of rare sagacity and accurate but 
unassuming judgment, by nature tolerant and ever a friend to 
freedom."^ His son Hezekiah (born 1619, died 1693) was one of 
Cromwell's right-hand men, and made by him Military Governor 
of the Eastern Counties. A letter from a Eoyalist-'^ says, " Among 
the Major-Generals, only Hayijes is firmly Cromw^ell's." He was 
imprisoned at the Restoration, but afterwards released. His 
portrait, painted by Kneller, now in the possession of J. C. Brown, 
Esq., Providence, E.I., shews him in armour.* 

John Barlee, the husband of Mary, sister of Governor John 
Haynes, impaled the Haynes arms with his own arms, as seen 
upon his tomb (1633). 

These appear, from Hezekiah's seal, affixed to a letter in the 
Bodleian Library,^ to have been 

Arg. ; 3 cresc. harry of six az. and gu., 
with a small crescent in the centre of the shield as a mark 
of cadence for the second son. In the copy of the seal which 
I have the bars are not wavy. These arms differ from those 
granted to Nicholas Haynes of Hackney only in having the 
crescents barry instead of paly. The heron too on Hezekiah's seal 
has its beak open and dexter foot held out. But in the Visitation 
of Essex, 1664,'' the heron has its beak closed and both feet down. 

In the Visitation of London 1687,'' Thomas Haynes, citizen 
and mercer, son of Hezekiah, enters his pedigree, and produces, in 
proof of his arms and crest, a seal on a silver inkhorn, said to 

^ I liave a great deal of information connected witli tliis family. 
" Dictionarij of National THograpliy . 
3 20 Jauuarv, 1657. Bodl. Libr. State Papers, 711. 

■* The face miglit liare stood for a portrait of Susannah, daughter of Gregory 
Elaines and Susannah Peachey, so great was the resemblance. 
5 Rawlinson, A 24,-388. 
" College of Arms, D. 21, 14. ' Ihid., K. G. 148. 



THE ARMS OF IIATNES. 141 

belong to his father. These correspond to tlie arms and crest on 
Hezekiah's own seal. Hezekiah's motto was Vclis et remis. A 
correspondent m ^fotes and Queries, writing in 1860 over the 
pseudonym " Spalatro," mentions a seal in his possession engraved 
as follows : 

Aty. (no tincture engraved); 3 crese. harry toavij of six az. 

and a7\,a mullet for difercnce, surmountiiifj an esquire's Jichnet. 

Crest : on a wreath a stork, heron, or crane rising. 

Motto : Velis et remis. 

This would seem to be another seal of tlie said Hezekiah. He 

really was the third son, but his elder brother John died young-^ 

How was it that Hezekiah's family used, and proved to the 
visiting lieralds their rigiit to, the same arms as had been 
continued to a Eeading famil}' ? It seems probal)le that the 
Eeading branch, which we cannot trace further l)ack than liichard 
Heynes of Reading, was an otf-shoot from the Essex and Herts 
family, of whom we have evidence that they resided in those 
parts from very early times. These arms only appear elsewhere, 
as borne by Haynes of Stutton,- Suffolk : 

Arg. ; 3 crese. harry wavy or and gu. 
Besides the Thomas Haynes above mentioned, there was 
another Middlesex family of Haynes, or Heynes, that recorded 
their pedigree and arms in the Visitation of London 1034. They 
lived at Hoxton, and their arms were'' : 

Arg.; on a f esse az. hetwcen 3 crese. az. and gu. paly of six 
3 fleurs-de-lys or. 
These are said to have Ijeen found in Alderman Smith's house 
at London Stone, and are recorded in the funeral certificates at the 
College of Arms. They appear upon the shields of Cage and Hart, 
through the marriage of Anne Haynes, daughter of Pdchard 
Haynes of Hoxton, to Anthony Cage and subsequently to Sir John 
Hart, and through the former marriage they find a place in the 
100 quarterings of the coat of Hastings, of Burham, co. Bucks. 
Eobso)i under Haines gives : 

Arg. ; on a f esse azure hetivceno crescents of the last as many 
fleurs-de-lys of the first, 
and adds for crest 3 moors' heads conjoined on. one neck. 

A Gloucestershire family, anciently settled at Daglingwortli 

^ The crescents, however, are differently coloured. 

2 rrom the Sperling MSS., Ai-moiiry of Suffolk. Probably the coat of Hez. 
Haynes, grandson of the above Hezekiali. •' Hari. MS. 1476. f. 280h. 



142 THE ARMS OF HAINES. 

and Duntsborne, are known from tombs in those places, dating 
about 1700, to have used for arms : 

Arg. : 3 crescents 'per pale gu. and az. 
The Eev. Percy N. Haines, son of the late John Poole Haines, 
uses these arms except that the crescents are az. and gu. The 
coat impales az. a lion rampant arg. between 3 fleurs-de-lys or. 

In the Burrell MSS. on Sussex there is ascribed (in blazon) to 
Haynes of that county a similar coat •} 

Gu. ; 3 crescents per pale arg. and azure. 
Another Haines coat is given by Robson and Burke, but 
without locality, as follows : 

Gu. ; 3 crescents paly wavy arg. and az. 
Crest : on a crescent an arrow in pcde ppr. 
And lastly^ a monumental inscription in St. Martin's Church, 
Worcester, to Francis Haines, Mayor of Worcester in 1683, who 
died 1717, aged 71, gives as his arms : 

Arg. ; 3 crescents gu. 
3. The Coats with Annulets (generally combined with 
bezants). — Besides the arms in Croydon Church, and at Godstone, 
both mentioned above, an early instance of the annulet arms is 
afforded by a tomb in St. Dunstan's Church, London, where the 
coat of Crooke al's Heyne^ appears thus : 

Or; a /esse wavy az. heznntde hctioeen 3 annulets of the second. 
Eobson and Burke assign tins coat, with the field argent, to 
Haynes, or Haines, of Berks. The Burrell MSS. for Sussex give 
the blazon for arms of Hayne of Sussex as, 

Arg. ; a fesse ncbuUe hezant6e between 3 annulets gules. 
Another Berkshire coat is given by Eobson for Haynes : 

Arg. ; a fesse wavy az. charged unth 3 annulets or between 
7 bezants. 
And another Hayne, or Haynes, coat (no place mentioned). 
Arg. ; on a fesse neljuUe betivcen 3 anmdets gu. 6 bezants. 
A- monument in St. Martin's Church, Worcester (1687) to 
Thomas Haines, serjeant of His Majesty's Chapel Eoyal, who 
died in London and was buried at Worcester, has engraved upon 
it*: 

1 Brit. Mus. 5695, p. 626. Date about 1775. 

' Guillim apparently giyes as a Haynes coat — Gk. ; 3 cre-icenfs or. 

^ See Visitation of London, 1633; and Clnircli Notes on St. Btmstan'.9, London, 

■> For his will see P.C.C. 94, Foot. 



THE ARMS OF HAINES. 143 

A7'(/. ; on a fessc hctinecn 3 annulets f/ules as many ducal 

coronets or. 

A tomb ill Crofton (Jhurch, Hants, dated 7 May, 1849, to the 

Eev"'\ David Haynes of St. John's College, (Jaiiil)ri(lg-e, shows 

the same arms exactly, with this crest: 2 l)atons iu saltire 

enfiladed by a ducal coronet or. 

An Irish coat, given Ijy Ifobson, shows a coml)ination of 
crescents and annulets, apparently tlie only one of the sort : 

Arg. ; on a fcssc Ijctween 3 crescents az. as many annulets of 
the first. 

Crest : a lion sejant or, collared az. 
Lastly^ a coat assigned to Haynes by Eobson gives a combina- 
tion of the crescents and the eagle crest : 

Arg. ; 2 ixdets vert between 3 crescents in cliief giC- 
Crest : an eagle preying on a tortoise. 
4. Coats without Crescents, Annulets, or Bezants. — Simon 
Heynes {oh. 1552), one of the most distinguished men of the 
Haynes name, who took a prominent part in the great crisis of 
the Church in the 16th century, was one of the revisers of our 
Liturgy, eighth president of Queen's College, Cambridge, and Vice- 
Chancellor of that University in 1531, bore as arms, 

Gides, a, ci'nquefoil wit/iin an ode of erosslcts or. 
But Simon Heynes, probably his nephew, son and heir of John 
Heynes of Mildenhall, Suffolk, gentleman, received on 20 Septem- 
ber, 1575, the following grant of arms ^ : 

Or; a chevron between 3 brode arrows sa. On a chief 
emhaitlcd az. 3 mullets of the field. Crest: on a wreatli gold 
and az. an eagle's head erased arg., a erouni cdxivt the nccl,' az. 
A similar coat is assigned by Burke to Heynes of Turweston, 
Bucks ; the crest however being 

An eagle's hcral erased erm., dueally gorged or. 
Three generations of Simon Heyneses, son, grandson, and 
great grandson of Simon, the president of Queen's College, lived 
at Turweston, and why they should liave dropped their ancestral 
arms for the grant to Simon, son of John, I don't know. 

This coat and crest are used l)y the family whose pedigree is 

' Brit. Mas. Add. MS. 5524, for Heins of Essex, gives (apparently) 3 annulets, 
and for crest an arm holding a drawn swovd. One Hannes of Oxford, father of 
Edward Hannes, physician to the Queen, hns, in 1705, tliese arms: per pale az. 
and gu., a f esse between 3 annulets or. 

" These .arms are borne bj Basil J. Il-iines, Esq. of Queen Cliarlton near Bristol. 

=* Misc. Geneal. et Herald., I, p. 251. Harl. MS. 1102. f 53, etc. 



144 THE ARMS OF HAINES. 

given below, but tliougb the ancestry of Thomas Haines {ob. 
1705), whose nejiie stands at the head of that pedigree, lias not 
been certainly traced, it is most likely that he came from 
Washington, co. Sussex, or the immediate neighbourhood, and 
that consequently he had no connection with the Suffolk family. 
There is another ancient Haines coat in the west of England. 
It is assigned in 1510 toThomazine Haine of Devonshire ^ : 
Arg. ; a chevron gu. between 3 martlets sa. 
A family of Hayne at Awborne and Kintbury (Wilts and 
Berks) recorded their arms at the Visitation of Berks, 1664, 
thus : 

Az. ; a chevron hetiocen 3 martlets sa. 
The sister of the poet Lovelace married into this family and 
the name Lovelace Hayne occurs subsequently.^ 

Robson gives these same arms, and as crest an eagle, with 
wings expanded and distended, preying on a tortoise, all ppr., to 
Hayne of Had don, Jamaica, and Burderup Hall near Marlborough, 
Wilts ; and a Mr. Hayne,^ buried at Staines 16 August, 1678, has 
the same escutcheon on his tomb. 

Camden's Grants {circa 1644) give the coat of Sir Thomas 
Hayns, knt., London, as 

Quarterly 1 and 4 Or ; a lions head erased sa., semec of 
ermine spots. 

2 ctnd 3 Arg. ; 07i a chief embattled . . . 3 martlets sa. 
Crest : ct tcdbot jpassant. 
The crest of a greyhound is used by tlie Eev. Francis A. 
Haines of Bosham, Sussex. I also find a talbot or greyhound 
sejant on the seal to a. deed of George Haynes of Oldbury-on- 
Severn, Gloucestershire, in 1666. And it appears as the crest of 
Hayne of Salop,* whose arms were — 

Quarterly Arg. ; bugle and baldric sa. 
John Haynes, Receiver of Her Majesty's revenues in Wales 
(ob. 27 May, 1591), had for arms: 

Vert ; a lion rcimpant or; 
and this appears as one of the 40 quarterings in the coat of 
C. D. Cook of Wales.^ 

1 Westcott's Views of Devon, 1630; Robson's British Herald; Harl. MS. 1578. 
f. 9b, under Hayne of Hayne, Devon. 

" Very possibly descendants of this family, about wliicli I have much informa- 
tion, still exist. 

■^ Harl. MS. 1082 (? 1052), f. 97. ■» Visitation of 1584. 

'" Burke's Heraldic Illusiratiom-, Plate XVII F, p. 54. 





Enlarged from impression of seal to 

will (P.C.C.) of Mary (Haines) Impression of seal of General 

Greenfield, Aug. 1755. The seal, Hezekiah Haynes from a letter to 

however, does not shew any tine- Thurloe, 1655. 

tures of the crescents. Bodi. Raniinmi, A24.3S8. 




Crest, coat and supporters of Sir Frederick Haines, G.GB., etc., etc., etc. 



THE Aims OF HAINES. 145 

rioltson gives a coat for a Surrey Haynes or Heynes, which I 
cauiiot trace elsewhere : 

Cliapiy or and (ju., n canton ermine, over all on a lend uz. a 
griffin's head erased hiv:een '2 falcons or. 



The arms and crest of the Sladelaxd Haineses and their 

descendants. 

Tliere is no evidence that the Hayne or Haines family of 
Sullington, Storrington, and Kirdford, co. Sussex, was originally 
arniigerous. No trace is to be found of any family of the name 
entering its pedigree, or arms, at any visitation of Sussex. The 
status of the family was that of substantial yeomen, and 
Piichard Haines, the subject of this memoir, was the first to 
raise himself to a higher level. His sister married .Richard 
Everenden, gentleman, of Horsham, and his wife was connected 
l>y marriage with Thomas JJuppa, gentleman, of Storriiigton. He 
himself receives the title of gentleman in Patent lioUs in 1672 
and 1684,^ but this was very possibly a courtesy title. His l)urial 
in the Church of Christ Church, Newgate Street, sliows that he was 
a person of some distinction. His nephew Gregory Haines, who 
built, or rebuilt, the present house at Sladeland in 1712, is called 
gentleman in deeds (dated 1718 and 1722) recording the purchase of 
lands at Kirdford. IJichard's grandson Gregory is called Esquire 
in his Inirial register, while his uncle, the al )Ove-named (Gregory, is 
at the same time styled gentleman. The title of Esipiire may 
be due to his having Ijeen appointed, in 17oo with cei'tain other 
gentlemen of the county, under an Act of Parliament to carry out 
improvements in the harbour of Littlehampton, co. Sussex, called 
Arundel Port. At least the Gregory Haines, Esquire, who appears 
in that Act, was probably the S. Carolina Gregory and not his 
uncle. 

The earliest certain evidence we have of the use of arms by 
the family is in the will of Mary Greentield, sister of the 
Gregory Haines, gentleman, above mentioned, which was signed 
and sealed on August, 1755. The very seal wliich made that 
impression has recently come into the possession of my brother 
Major Pt. L. Haines, P. A. It was given him by William Pattisoii, 

' And is called Gent, in llic parish registers of Sullington, 1683, -(vheu acting as 

cluircliwardeu. 

L 



146 THE ARMS OF HAINES. 

Esq., of Plymouth, who found it among the effects of his 
mother Ann, nSe Haines, great grand-daughter of Gregory Haines, 
Esquire (of South Carolina). Since being used on that occasion 
the seal has become worn at the edges probably by being carried 
on a chain. The seal is of antique workmanship and has been 
variously dated by those authorities to whom it has been sub- 
mitted. The dates given differ very considerably, but the most 
probable date is about 1680,^ though it has been referred to as 
late a date as 1730. If the earlier date be correct, the seal was 
either discovered by, or manufactured for, Eichard Haines himself. 
It is most probable that he would wish to assume arms. If the 
later date be correct, the first owner of the seal would be Gregory 
his nephew, or possibly Gregory of South Carolina, on his return 
to England, might feel a desire to appear armigerous. Which- 
ever it was, we cannot tell whether he merely, in the way so 
common nowadays, appropriated the arms and crest of any other 
Haynes family which took his fancy, or whether he imagined him- 
self, on good or bad grounds, to be really connected with such 
family, or whether finally he obtained a grant of arms in the 
proper way. I have not been able to discover any such grant, 
and, as the last visitation of Sussex was in 1662, there is no 
pedigree or arms entered in the visitations. Clan feeling naturally 
makes one wish and hope that the first assumer of a coat of 
arms assumed it in a legal and honourable fashion. Eichard 
himself was a scrupulous man and I cannot believe withou 
proof that he at all events used bogus arms. 
The seal shows these arms and crest : 

Arg. ; 3 crescents 2 and 1 harry wavy of six} 
Crest : a heron (or storh) rising with wings displayed, hcah 
open and right foot uplifted. 

In fact it is identical in every respect with the seal of Heze- 
kiah Haynes, excepting the mark of cadency, and differs from the 
coat granted to Nicholas Haynes in 1578 by having the crescents 
1)arry not paly, and gules and azure, uot azure and gides. It 
seems certain, therefore, that if the arms were simply assumed by 
Eichard Haines or his descendants, he or they took them from the 
famous General Hezekiah's arms and not from the long-forgotten 

^ This is the opiuion of Mr. J. J. Howard, Maltravers Herald Extraordinary. 
" The tincture of the crescents is not risible. JMost probably it was gules and 
azure. The colours in the coat granted to Gregory Haines, C.B., are az. and or. 



THE ARMS OF HAINES. 147 

^rant to Nicholas Haynes. Othei- evidence as to user of this 
coat by the Sladeland family is found in the fact, that the 
crest and arms appear on a silver salver/ of which the hall 
mark is 173o-4. A second silver salver, now in the possession of 
Mrs. Eichard Moline, with similar crest and arms, is dated by its 
hall mark as made in 1757-8. Of course the arms and crest may 
be later than the salver in both cases, but the appearance of each 
leads one to the contrary conclusion. 

Tradition informs us that before the opening of this century 
the above crest and arms, painted on wood, were displayed al)Ove 
the front door of Sladeland in Kirdford, and it was perhaps from 
this escutcheon that Sir William Burrell took his copy of the 
crest and arms which he blazons in his MS. Collections on Sussex, 
now in the British Museum.^ The date of his voluntary " visita- 
tion " would be about 1775-1780. 

^'^■■- 5-10-5 ( [s] 

- He gires the heron with beak elosed and the crescents az. and gules. 
Mr. Fox Davics informs me that the church of Leighton, Salop, contains a tomb 
with arms similar to ours. 



(148) 



APPENDIX. 

HeIELOOMS and liELICS. 

1. Old silver seal, with crest and arms, profcalDJe date about 1680, 

much worn, see p. 146 : Major E. L. Haiues, E.A. 

2. Silver salver, date of hall mark 1733, heron crest without 

crescent in its claw, see p. 147 : ihid. 

3. Old silver fruit knife, mentioued in a letter of Ann (Haines) 

Pattison to A. M. Haines, 1867, as having been given by 
G-regory of South Carolina to his son John : dating lietween 
1723 and 1752. See illustration, p. 148: ihid. 

4. Old silver salver dated by hall mark 1757-58, with the 3 

crescents and the heron crest, but liaving the crescent in its 
claw. This crescent was perhaps added liy mistake, since 
the old silver seal above mentioned seems to show a 
crescent under the outstretched claw of the heron, but in 
reality there is no crescent there. Perhaps the crescent 
was added as a mark of cadence. In tlie latter case 
most likely Thomas Haines, 3rd son of John, had the 
salver stamped. The crescents are apparently harry, but 
do not show any tinctures : JMrs. Ptichard Moline, Bath. 

5. Old gold mourning ring with inscription now scarcely de- 

cipherable, " Mary Greenfield 1755": in possession of 
Mrs. Eutland of Bengeo, Herts. 

6. Family Bible with entries (see above) which lielonged to John 

Haines the sailor ; in possession of ]\Irs. Hare, St. Boniface, 
Westwood Park, Southampton. 

7. Marriage certificate of Gregory Haines and Alice Hooke, 

attested in Charleston, Soutli Carolina: see above. In 
possession of Edwin Haines, Esq., Beltring, Paddock 
Wood, Tuubridge Wells. 




Two Seals (the right hand one the real old one); 
A Silver Salver with Crest (Hall Mark 1733/4); 
Knife given by Gregory, of S. Carolina, to John, his son (? 1740). 



{.Ill (■,( 2ms,..i6ion of Mojor R. I. Ha, 



ITKIltLOoMS AN J) HELICS. 1 4f> 

8. Tliree luixy waiiants ai)[)oiiiliii,ii; -lolin Haines gunner on lioard 

the Jkscil, I'rrsfo/i, and ]\I(U)f(n/i'C ; ;ilso i)ension ]'a]<ei- 
relating to same : ihij/. 

9. jMiniatuic of Tlioinas Haines son of -lohn Haines: now in 

possession of H. A. Haines, Ks(j., India Ofliee, London. 

10. A pair of sngar tongs of (degant make witli initials IH. L., 
prolialdy ^I. Lidhettei' mr Edwards (see pedigrees): now 
in tlie ])oss(^ssion of Mrs. Hare of Soutliam])ton. 



r. -2 



INDEX. 



The ludex includes, I believe, all the names in the book except (1) those 
Haineses about whom the whole book is written ; (2) tlie names of tlie Englisli 
and French Captains in the sea fight (pp. 104-108) ; (3) the names of certain 
children baptized at Storrington (pp. 10 and 12). 



Abbot, Kicliiird, 17. 

Abell, Mr., 91. 

Adnion accounts, llff. 

Admon of Ric-hard Haine's goods, 11. 

Ainslie, Col., in the Crimea, 116, 117w. 

Allen, John, 112. 

Almsgiving, 72. 

Almj^houses, scheme for, 61, 66ff. 

America, 75, 95, 97. 

Amory, a Baptist, 4(J. 

Anabaptists, 25, 37. 

Anderson, Edward, 91. 

Apples and apple-trees, 79f. 

Arms, grant of, etc., 136ff. 

Arthington, a fanatic, 39. 

Atlcr, Peter, 119. 



B. 



Baldwin, Richard, 94. 

Ballingall, Dr., 130«. 

Bankes, Richard, of Storrington, 92. 

Baptists, ix,21ff, especially 29, 36, 37«., 

46. 
Bard, John, 91. 

Barker, Josepli, of South Carolina, 96. 
Barnard, (Icorge, 93. 
Barnes Farm, 91. 
Barnes, Mary Ann, 113, 114. 
Barnwell, John, of South Cai'olina, 96. 
Barrell, George, of Chichester, 98. 
Batchellor, Hannah, 111. 
Bath, Marquess of, 137. 
Baxter, Richard, 85. 
Beale, Jane Matilda, of Poplar, 121. 
Beale, John, D.D., 27, 69. 
Beckett, Thomas, of Ockley, 6. 
Bedland in Kirdford, 112, 113. 
Bedon, Stephen, of South Carolina, 97. 
Becding, Jane, 25. 
Beer, 36, 77. 
Beggars, 65, 72. 
Bennett, 10, 12, 20«. 
Berwiclc, H.M.S., 110. 
Bible, 38, 109, 148. 
Bickersteth, J. P., 125, 126»., 127, 128, 

133. 



Biles, John, of S. Carolina, ^(j. 

Bine Common, Sullington, 22. 

Blaker, William and Mabel, of Old 
Shoreham, 94. 

Bleach Farm in Kirdford, 102. 

Books by Richard Haines, 35, 89, xii. 

Boxall, Richard, William and Sarali, 
102. 

Bradbregge, Jolni, of Warnliam, 5. 

Brakepole, Thomas and Ann, of Stor- 
rington, 1 i. 

Brandy, 59. 

Bridewell, 61, 12. 

Bridgeman, Sir Orlando, 43. 

Brooke, Nathaniel, a publisher, 35. 

Brounckcr, Viscount, 27, 69. 

Brown. Francis and Ann, 102. 

Brown, J. C, of Providence, R.I., 140. 

Brown, Samuel, 134. 

Brown, William and Isolda, of Warn- 
liam, 5. 

Browne, Charles, 102. 

Browne, Richard, 24. 

Burrell, Sir William, MSS. on Sussex, 
142, 147. 

Butcher, John, 91. 

Bute, Marquess of, 60^'. 



C. 



CaflTyn, Matthew, 26f, 29, 37, 40ff, 49ff ; 

heresies of, 44, 50. 
Cage, Anthony, 141. 
Callow, Joan, 10. 
Carolina, South, 95, 145. 
Carpenter, Richard, of Sompting, 29, 99. 
Caryle, John, 6«. 

Castell, William, of Chichester, 94. 
Cavell, William, 90. 
Chambers, William and Elizabeth, 14, 

16, 18. 
Champneys, Elizabeth, 100. 
Chancery suits searclied, x, 86. 
Chandler, A. T., 119//., 122/;. 
Charles 11, ix, 28, 68, 73. 
Charlestown, 95, 97, 148. 
Charman, Mary, 119. 
Cheale, John, of Findou, 92. 



152 



IXDKX. 



Cliich ester, M.P.'s for, 5. 

Chichester records searched, x. 

Christ Church, Newgate Street, 23, 34, 

48, 85, 145. 
Christ's Hospital, 29, 48«., 72. 
Christian natives in India, 126. 
Cider, 76ff ; cider-royal, 78f. 
Cla3ton Fai'm, SuUington, 8. 
Clayton, Sir Eobert, M.P., 29; Mary, 

John, and Ann, 113, 114. 
Clement, Pope, 39. 
Close Rolls seai'ched, x. 
Coffee houses, 35, 44, 76, 78, 90; Garra- 

way's, 65;?. 
Cole, Thomas and Jane, 94. 
Convict system, 72. 
Court Rolls, xi, 10. 
Coventry, Mr. Secretary, 28, 68. 
Cook, C. D., of Wales, 144. 
Cooper, 112, Joseph and William, 96. 
Cootham, 94. 
Copley, Rev. Mr. and Sarah, of ChU- 

tington, 102. 
Coppinger, 29. 

Cowper, al's Steyning, William, 111. 
Crimean War, 116. 
Croft, John, of Ciiarlestown, 97. 
Cromwell, 37, 56. 
Crooke, al's Heyne, 142. 
Crossingham, John, of SuUington, etc., 

9, 10. 
Croucliam Farm, 101. 
Croucher, Thomas, a Baptist, 46. 
Cull, Robert, 16. 
Cumming, Sir Alexander, 96. 
Cunningham, Dr., 67Gn. 
Curra.nt wine, 79f. 
Curtis, Langley, a publisher, 35. 
Cust, Sir Eiciiard, M.P., 29. 



D. 



Danbeny, ]\Iary Chavman, 121. 

Denver, James, 112 ; Thomas, 112. 

Dereham, Richard, 27, 63. 

Dialect words, 53. 

Dickinson, C. E. Gildersome, xi, -in., 

86. 
Dictionary, New English, ix. 
Downer, Rhoda and Harriet, 114. 
Drake, Sir Francis, 11. 
Dreams, 32ff. 
Drunkenness, 37. 
Duboys, Mr., M.P., 29. 
Dunkin, E. W., xi. 
Duppa, Thomas, 10, 21, 145 ; John, 

99. 
Durrant, Thomas, 102. 
Durrell, Capt., 104, 107. 



E. 



Eastwrith Hill, 22 ; Eswrythe, 9. 

Ede, George, 91. 

Edgar, King of England, 55, 73. 

Edsaw, John, of Fittleworth, 94; Eo- 
bert, 91». 

Edwards, Mary, 149. 

Egerton family, 137. 

Einion, Prince of Powysland, 2. 

Eldridge, John, 113, 114. 

Ellis, Mr. Thomas, 91. 

England, 75. 

Erl, Richai'd le, of Warnliam, 4. 

Erskine, C. J., 132. 

Evans, Stephen, 91. 

Evelyn, John, 28, 61,73 ; Sir John, 139. 

Everenden, Richard, of Horsham, 25, 
99, 145. 

Eversfield, Charles, 100. 

Excommunication of Richard Haines, 
42ff. 



F. 



Fable of pigeon and maspie, 54. 

Fairfax, Sir Thomas, 187 

Faithf ull. Rev. George, of Storrington, xi. 

Farming, 75ff. 

Fasting and prayer, 32«. 

Feilder, Richai'd and Mary, 12, 23. 

Ferdinand of Castile, 55. 

Ferguson, Thomas Benyan, 127. 

Fines, Feet of (Sussex), x. 

Fireback, Sussex, 13«. 

Firmin, Thomas, 27, 29, 65«., 69. 

Flanders, 74. 

Flax and hemp, 58, 65. 

Fletcher, Rev. W. K., 128. 

Fogden, Thomas, of Fittleworth, 87, 92. 

Ford, James and Ann, of Angmering, 

102. 
Fordlands, Great and Little, 100, 111. 
Fortrie, Coles of Cheapside. and others 

of the name, 101, 102. ' 
Founstaple, John, 18. 
Fountains Farm, 114. 
Free trade, 59m. 
French in America, 95 ; ships and 

captains, 107. 
French ships and captains, 14 Oct., 

1747, 104ff. 
Frere, Sir Bartle, 132. 
Frontimack, a wine, 54. 
Fuller's earth, 60, 74. 



G. 

Garlands Farm, 101. 

Gratlon, William, of Arundel, 99 



INDEX. 



15 



G-host, Holy, sin ugiiiiist, ;58. 
Giles Mead, 100, 112. 
Giraud, Dr., 12G, 127, i;U. 
Gloucester, H.M.8., UHIF, IKV 
Goble, George, of Sullino;ton, 24. 
Q-odalmiug, old town liall of, 119. 
Goldie, General, in the Crimea, 117. 
Goodall, Tliomas, 96. 
Gooseberry bushe.s, layering of, 83. 
Gooseberry wine, 80. 
Goreing, Henry, Baronet, 27. 
Gorynge, Margery, of Dorking, 5. 
Gosden, Francis and Rebecca, 111. 
Gougb, Sir Hugh, 116. 
Grant Medical College, Bombay, 127. 
Grant, Sir Alexander, 132, Vihn. ; Ln- 

dovic, 96, 133«. 
Grassyer, al's Hayne, Eichard, of 

Chichester, 5. 
Gratwick, Richard, 100. 
Greene, Richard, IS, 21 ; Mary, 21 ; 

Joan, 21m. 
Greene, Sherman and Clementina, 6. 
Greenfield, Mary, 23, 98, and Tliomas, 

lOlff. 
Gregory, as Christian name in family, 12. 
Griiggen, Agnes, l-±. 
Gunner, or warrant olhcor. 110. 

H. 

Hacket, a fanatic, 39. 

Hainault, 1. 

Hame, C. H., of Eastbourne, 10. 

Haines, sjielling of, 1-3, 20. 

Haines, derivation of, 1. 

Haines, A. M., of Illinois, U.S.A., ix, xi, 

137. 
Haines, Frances, of Illinois, 7. 
Haines, Sir Frederick P., 11, 115ff. 
Haines, William, of Worthing, 13. 
Haines, Thomas, of Broadwater, 10, 1 2f . 
Haines, Gregory, C.B., 12, 13, 114, 115. 
Haines, William, of Devonshire, 24, 101, 

111. 
Haines, Eichard, of Pulboro', 91. 
Haines, Edwin, of Paddock Wood, 97, 

109, 148. 
Haines, Mark, of Soutli Carolina, 97. 
Haines, Gregory Moore, 97. 
Haines, John, a negro, 109>/. 
Haines, George (Charman), 113, 120, 

121, 123." 
Haines, Thomas, of Godalming, 118-120. 
Haines, Samuel, of Godalming, 122f. 
Haines, Robert, M.B., 124ff. 
Haines, R. L., Major R.A., 145, 148. 
Haines, Hermann A., xii, 130«., 149. 
Haines, John, of Brighton, 13G». 
Haines, of Painswiek, Gloucestershire, 

136». 



Haines, Rev. S. C, of Devon, 137«. 
Haines, Francis A., of Bosham, xii, 144. 
Haines of Herts and Essex, 14'1. 
Haiuo--, Richard, of West Bromwicli, 

137 /<. 
Haines of Reading, 138, 139. 
Haines of Barbadoes, 139. 
Haines, Rev. Percy N., 142. 
Haines, John Po )ie, 142. 
Haines, Francis, of Worcester, and 

Thomas, of same, 142. 
Haines, Basil J., of Queen Charlton, 

143 m. 
Haines, Capt. Stafford B., 2«., 133«. 
Hammon, George, a Baptist, 10. 
Handford, Elizabeth, of Godalming, 

121. 
Hannes of Oxford, 143«. 
Hare, Mrs., of Southampton, xii, 100, 

148, 149. 
Harford, E., publisher, 35. 
Hargreaves, Richai-d, 90. 
Harraden, Richard, of Sullington, 88, 93. 
Hart, Sir John, 141. 
Hawke, Admiral, 109, llof. 
Haydoii, Richard, of Godalming, 118, 

120. 
Hayne a.s place name, 2. 
Hayne al's Cocks, 6 
Hayne of Devon, 137, 1 14. 
Hayne of Dorset, 137. 
Hayne, Lovelace, 144; Gideon, 144. 
Hayne of Jamaica, 144. 
Hayne of Marlborough, 144. 
Hayne of Wilts and Berks, 137, 144. 
Haynes, Charles, of Petwortli, 94. 
Haynes, John, able seaman H.M.S. 

Gloucester, 109. 
Haynes, Robert and Mary, of Pinner, 

118«., 123. 
Haynes of Westbury-on-Trym, 136;;., 

137. 
Haynes, Evershed, of Wotton, 6. 
Haynes, John, of Chelsea, 137. 
Havnes, William, of All Hallows, 

' Barking, 138. 
Haynes, William, of St. Dunstan's, 139, 

142. 
Havnes of Thimbleby Lodge, Yorks, 

' 139. 
Haynes, Hezckiali, 14U, 146. 
Haynes, Thomas, of London, 141. 
Haynes of Stutton, Suffolk, 141. 
Haynes of Hoxton, 141. 
Haynes, Rev. David, 143. 
Haynes, John, of Massachusetts, 140. 
Haynes, George, of Oldburv-on-Severn, 

144. 
Haynes, Hopton, of tiie Mint, 137. 
Haynes, INicholas, 138, 14r>, 146 -, 

Eichard, 7. 



154 



INDEX. 



de Hayno, 1. 

Hajns, Sir Thomas, of London, 144. 

Ilcaue, 3, 137; of Cinderford, 3, 137». 

Hearth tax, 24. 

Heine, 1, 17. 

Heins of Essex, 143«. 

Hemp and flax, 58, 64». ; engine for 

beating, 64, 70. 
Henry VII, 55. 
Heraldry, 52»., 129. 
Hejnes of Stretton, 136, 137. 
Hejnes, Simon, of Mildenhall, 143; 

of Tnrweston, 143. 
Iliuks, Thomas, a Baptist, 29. 
Hockamore wine, 54. 
Holborn, Thomas and Rose, 5. 
HoU, William, 91. 
Holmes, Robert, 112. 
Hooke, Alice, 97, 14S. 
Ilopkinson, Edward, 7. 
Horl, Peter le, 4 (= Erl). 
Horley, Christopher, 15. 
Howard, E. L., 135». 
Howard, J. J., 146«. 
Huguenot, 65;;., 124. 
Hvmter, Sir W. Guyer, 127, 128, 132. 
Husbandry, 74. 
Hurst, Agues, 14; Gi-egory of Kirdford, 

12, 18, 20. 

I. 

Ibbetson, Commissary General, 115. 

Illegitimacy, 113. 

Illiteracy, 1, 17, 20m. 

India, 125ff. 

Indians, American, 95. 

Innocent III, 39. 

Inyentories, ISff, 23;;.", 88ff. 

Ireland, William, of Wimbledon, 98. 

Iron, 59 ; Swedish, 68 ; ironworks, 76. 



Jackson, Arthur, of Godalming, 123. 

Jackson, John, 100. 

James, Thomas, 16 ; printer, 36. 

James, Mr., 65;*. 

Jason, H.M.S., 110. 

Jelly, John, of Kirdford, and Margaret, 

, 25, 100. 
Jolin the Taylor, a crazy fanatic, 39. 
Johnson, Robert, vicar of Binsted, 15, 16. 
Johnson, Timothv, 16 ; Elizabeth, 112. 
Joynt, Dr., 128. " 



K. 



Kelly, Richard, of Petworth, 92. 
Keo(k)wce, on the Savannali river, 96. 



Kettleby, Mr. John, vmder-sheriff of 

Sussex, 91. 
Kidd, Benjamin, 120. 
KiiEn, W., 29. 
King, interview of Richard Haines with, 

28. 
King, Edward, 13. 
King, R. M., of Fryern, Storrington, xi, 

92. 
Kipling, Rudyard, 110. 



L. 



Laneland, 100, 111-113. 

Langley, Ricliard, of Sullington, 24. 

Larkin, George, publisher, 36. 

Leconfield, Lord, si, 25. 

Lee, John, of Thakeham, 93. 

Leeves, Robert, of Rowdell, Washington, 

clerk, 91. 
Leith, Dr., 128. 
L'Estrange, Roger, 35. 
Lester, General, 133m. 
Leven, Lord, in Ireland, 18. 
Lewes, records at, searched, xi. 
Leyden, visit to, 25 ; King of, 39. 
Lidbetter, Margaret, 25, 99; Mary, 110, 

111, 149; Thomas, 111, 112, 113; 

John, 102, 111, 112; Samuel, 112; 

Bridger, 102. 
Linen cloth, 63. 
Lipscombe, Edward and Thoniasine, of 

Shere, 17. 
London, 34. 
Longe, Thomas, 23. 
Love, Mr., M.P., 29. 
Lover, vSamuel, 99. 
Lowes, George and Hannah, 100. 
Ljun, Mr., 60;«. 
Lyon, J. B., 127. 



M. 



Magpie, fable of, 54. 

Mardiner, William, of Sompting, 101, 

102. 
Maruer, a Baptist, of St. Martin's-le- 

Grand, 46. 
Marshall, Henry, 120. 
Martin, John, 112; Adam, of Steyning, 

102. 
Massye, Rafer, 9. 
Mathews, Thomas, 102. 
Mathews, J. H., of CardifP, 2. 
Maye, Thomas, of Rudgwick, 6. 
Mellersh, Thomas, of Thakeham, 24;;. 
Metaphors, 52. 
Metheglin, SO. 
Michell, Robert, 17. 



INDEX. 



155 



Micliell, John and ^^al•garl•^, of Slainor- 

ham, 5. 
Milbiirue, John, 95. 
Mill Land in Kirdford, 111. 
Miller, a Baptist, 46. 
Mitchell, John and Mary, of FicUl 

place, 92. 
Mitt'ord, William, of PetworMi, 102. 
Moline, Amia, 12-i; Eev. R. 1'., lll^.; 

Mrs. Richard, 119, 12b/., 122, 117, 

148. 
Money, fil, 75. 
Monk", Mr., a Baptist, 44, 45. 
3Iontague, H.M.S., 110. 
Mooches Farm, 91. 
Morcock, Captain, a Baptist, 46. 
Morchead, Dr., 104, 130». 
Morton, Dr., of Grey Friers, 33«., 78, 90. 
Mum, a liqnor from wheat, 54. 
Munroe, Robert, of Godalming, 119. 



N. 



Napper, H. F., of Billingslmrst, 13>/., 

18;/., 114, 121. 
Naseby, 17, 18h. 
NaTy, 55, 62, 73, 104ff. 
Necquassee in America, 96. 
Neel, Richard, of Horsham, 4. 
Netherlands, 25, 61, 62. 
Newiugton, Charles and Mary, 100;?. 
Newman, Edward, 121. 
Newton, Apsley, 91. 
Nicholson, Francis, of S. Carolina, 96. 
Nightingall, John, 111. 
Nolderhead, or Naldrets, in Kirdford, 

101. 
Norden, John, 76;j. 
Norfolk, Duke of, xi, 11«. 
Notes and Queries, is, 2»., 36»., 60h., 

76». 
Nowrojee, Cowasjee, of ]]ombay, 13. 
Nunum, Richard, of Kirdford, 18. 



O. 

Ob.soh'te wurds and expressions, 53. 
Orchards, 79f, 82. 
Osborne, Henry, 111. 



P. 



Palmer, Rev. H., of Sullington, xi. 
Parham, Mary, 20 ; Richard, 99 ; 

Thomas, 100. 
Patent for cider, partners in, 27 ; for spin- 

uing engine, 27, 63; for cleansing 

clover, 29, 34, 40. 



Pattisou, Ann, 119, 145, IIS. 

P.C.C. wills searched, x. 

Peachey, Susannah, 140. 

Peckhain, Thomas, 27 ; 8ir Henry, of 

Chichester, 13; Henrv, 91. 
Peet, Dr., 130. 

Penfold, 12 ; Mary, of Storriugtoii, 91. 
Penfohl, John and .Margaret, 24, 94. 
Pennell (or Pannell), Jane, 20. 
Percivall, Peter, goldsmith, 91. 
Philo-Anglicus, 69. 

Pigeon, fable of, 54. 
Pilkington, Mr., M.P., 29. 

Plant, W., a Baptist, 29. 

Poland, 77. 

Political economy, 60f. 

Pope, 39. 

Port du, letter to, 132. 

Porter, Elizabeth, 97. 

Poverty in England, oSf. 

Povnton, Rev. F". J., 13G«. 

Pratr, Elizabeth, 25. 

Preston, H. M. S., 110. 

Prichard, Dr., 124. 

Prisons, 36. 

Protestant, 47. 

Proverbs, 54. 

Puttock, Mary, 109. 

Pvlfolde, Thomas of Warnham, (>. 



Q. 



Quakers, 49, 53, 120, 124. 
Queens buried in Christ Church, New- 
gate Street, 86. 
Quincey, de, 34». 



R. 



Racton, John, of Binsted, 13;/. 
Randoll, Arthur, 112. 
Reginald, as a Christian name, 4. 
Registers searched, x. 
Rice, R. Garraway, F.8.A., xi. 
Ritter, Karl of Berlin, 114. 
Roads in Sussex, 34«. 
Roberts, John, 102. 

Rogers, Richard, 99 ; Jane, of Sulling- 
ton, 24. 
Rogers, Dr., 128. 
Roman Chiirch, 26, 39, 49. 
Rotation of crops, 75. 
Roimdabouts Farm, 17//., 87, 91. 
Rowdell in Washington, 91, 
Rowlands, John, 102. 
Rowlands Farm, 101, 111. 
Rupert, Prince, 28. 
Russell, AVilliam, of Aldershot, 119. 
Rutland, Mrs., of Bengeo, Herl.s, 148. 



156 



INDEX. 



Saumarez, Captain, 106. 

Savana town, 95. 

Snutt, John and Mary, 94. 

Sea fight of 14 Oct., 1747, 104ff. 

Seal of Martin Hayue, 4 ; of Eichard 

Hayne of Warnham, 5 ; of Mary 

Greenfield, 102, 145 ; also 140, 

141, 146. 
Seale, Sarah and Eichai'd, of Nutliiivst, 

23. 
Seale-HaTne, 137. 
Seward, John, 101, 110. 
Seyliard, John, 101. 
Shafteshnry, Earl of, 28, 43. 
Shakspere, 53. 56. 
Shelley, Edward, of Warnham, 92, 100 ; 

Mary, of Thakeham, 92. 
Shelley, Mr. Henry, p. 91. 
Shelley, William, of Michelgrove, 12. 
Ships and Captains in sea fight of 14 

Oct., 17-J7, 107. 
Short, Samuel, 91. 
Sissom, Gregory, 96. 
Sladeland, 13, 17, 20, 21, 24, 25»., 98, 

100, 111, 115, 145-147. 
Smith, James, 45h., 92n. ; William, 92«. 
Smyth, Eichard, 113. 
Sopp, 114. 

South Carolina Papers, Eecord OfBce, x. 
Southwark, 35. 
Spelling, 55. 
Spirit, proof, 84. 
Spitwick, 100-113. 
Sponsors in Storrington Church, 10. 
Stanley, Francis, a Baptist, 46. 
Stapley, Sir Jolm and Herbert, 27. 
Statute for preserving forests, 53, 76. 
Steele, Tliomas, of Storrington, 24». 
Stovell, Dr., 128. 

Strode, Eichard atte, of Sliufold, 5. 
Strood, or Stroodland, 13. 
Stum, a sort of must, 54. 
Subsidies (Lay) searched, s, 9, 10. 
Surrey parish registers, x. 
Sussex dialect, 53. 
Sussex ironworks, 76. 
Sussex parish registers, x. 
Sweden, p. 68. 



T. 

Thomegay, or Thaumingay, 120. 
Tliurlow, Edward, of Eeigate, 43. 
Thynne, Thomas, 137. 



Timber, 53, 75. 

Trade in England, 58ff, 62. 

Transcripts of registers searched, x. 

Trill, Hester, 13. 

Tupper, Edward, 109w. 

Turner, Mrs., 122. 

Twisden, Lord, 59 m. 



U. 



Upfold, John, of Godalming, 118, 123. 
Uridge, of Kent, a Baptist, 46. 



W. 

Walker, Sir Geo., 91. 

Walls, William, of New Shoreham, 102. 

Walter, Edward, of Pinner, 118. 

Walton, Mrs., bookseller, 35. 

Wantele, John de, 17. 

Wantley, or West Wantley, 17, 22, 93. 

Ward, Sir Patience, Lord Mayor of 
Loudon, 28, 29. 

Warden, Major, 128. 

Warden ( = Mayor) of Godalming, 119. 

Warrant oflicer, 110 ; Warrant, nayy, 
110. 

Wase family, 8, 9, 12. 

Weald of Sussex, 64m.. 

Wephurst, 100, 101, 111, 112. 

Weston, Charles, 22ii., 86 ; Andrew, 90. 

Wheeler, William, of Storrington, 25, 
92, 94, 99; John and Elizabeth, 
92;;. 

Wliilaker, William, 111. 

White, John, of Godalming, 118; Anna 
Baptista, 121. 

Whitehead, Eichard, clerk, 5. 

Wickhnin, Thomas, 17. 

AVildstroc d in Kirdford, 100, 112. 

Williams. Sir Trevor, M.P., 29. 

Wines, 54 ; French, 60»., 76f ; Greek, 82. 

Wolff, Abraham, 124. 

WoUf, Eichard, 18. 

Woods, Messrs., of Godalming, 119. 

Woodward, Mr., distiller, 3, 36. 

Woodyer, Penelope, 111. 

Wool, 70, 73ff ; burial in woollen, 14. 

Wright, Gregory, of Shere, 17, 20. 

Wright, Joseph, of Maidstone, a Bap- 
list, 50. 

Y. 

Ycildall, or Yeikloc, Eobert, 91. 



HAEKISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN OBDINAET TO HER MA.1ESTY, ST. MARTIN'S LANE. LONDON. 



3