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Full text of "A complete practical grammar of the Hungarian language; with exercises, selections from the best authors, and vocabularies, to which is added a Historical sketch of Hungarian literature"

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in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/completepracticaOOcsinuoft 



A COMPLETE 

PRACTICAL GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE, 



EXERCISES, SELECTIONS FROM THE BEST AUTHORS, 
AND VOCABULARIES. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED A 

?^is;torwal ^feetd; of Imtsariaii ^Literature* 



BT 



J. CSINK, 



FORMERLY ELECTED AS ORDINAnV PROFESSOR OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES 
AT THE PROTESTANT SCHOOL OF KESMARK. 



LONDON: 

WILLIAMS AND NOEG^ATE, 

HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1853. 






Tutus et intra 
Spem veniae cautus, vitavi denique culpam, 
Non laudem merui. — 

Horat. Epist. ad Pis. 

Mhen I resolved to start from the shores of quotidian life to 
cross a small bay of the vast literary ocean, a fair wind of 
public opinion promised a prosperous journey; the novelty of 
the objects which my bark carried guaranteed a cordial welcome 
from those whose spy -glasses were directed after some not yet 
observed flag. — I have reached the port, and discharged my 
bark! Viewing my route from this side of the bay, I now first 
perceive, that in my passage over its dangerous shallows, I have 
ventured on perilous voyage, being unassisted by the experience 
of any previous navigator. 

I have endeavoured to meet the desires of those who are inter- 
ested In linguistic studies, either in increasing their knowledge 
extensensively, or in seeking intensive augmentation of the 
cognition of that medium through which minds commimicate with 
minds , and hearts learn to feel from hearts ; and I have tried to 
meet the wishes of those who felt interested in the political life 
of the Hungarian nation, by tracing in a short sketch the past 
of the intellectual and mental development of the nation. 

As the book is also intended for learners, I may be 
allowed to make a few explanatory remarks. 

The Division entitled „C o m p o s i ti o n s" is purely a practical 
one, in order to give the student some previous knowledge, before 
he attempts the study of a Granmiar; therefore, repeating the 
more difficult objects , and regarding them from different points 
of view, will not be thought prolix. The words relating to this 
part are all collected in a Vocabulary at the end of the first part. 
The Theoretical Division contains a short but complete Gram- 



IV 



mar of the language. The arrangement of the materials , per- 
haps, may appear a new one, but it is, therefore, not to 
be rejected. I chose and rejected terms and reassumed them again, 
when, I found no better ones; yet, I always had the alternative 
before me — either to force the language into the scholastical 
forms, or to venture a partly new arrangement of Grammatical 
materials ; being fully convinced, that, in either a short or a long 
time, Philosophy will give something better than what we now in- 
herit from DonatUS and others. In regard to Orthography, 
I preferred following the principles established by the Hungarian 
Academy , rather than to fluctuate driven by the whims of some 
authors. I have not given any orthographical rules, for the words 
being written as they are sounded and articulated, a little atten- 
tion paid to the spelling of the words when practical exercises 
are done, and a knowledge of the Grammatical forms, will com- 
pensate for the absence of a Section on Orthography. 

The second part contains Selections in prose and poetry 
from authors whom the Academy and the nation have crowned 
with reputation. As I was obliged to consider the student, I could 
not choose any longer or more difficult literary productions. The 
first Section of this part will not be deemed insufficient by those 
who desire detailed arrangements of the causes which influence 
the intellectual and mental development of a nation , and of the 
events produced by these causes, if it be considered that, in 
this work, the sketch had to be forced into a very small 
frame ; nor will this Section be thought superfluous by those 
who seek after Grammatical studies, for the learning of the lan- 
guage of a nation itself excites the desire after some knowledge 
of its intellectual life. — 

London 1852. 

«jr. Csinh, 



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST PART. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Page. 

§. 1. Orthophony, Orthoepy 1. 

- 2. Division of the sounds and words ... 9. 

- 3. Assimilation of sounds and articulations . 10. 

- 4. Prolongation of the vowels 12. 

- 5. Contractions 13. 

COMPOSITIONS. 

I. Verbs. — Active and Neuter .... 15. 

II. Possessive forms of the Substantive . . 27. 

III. Affixes relative to place and directions . 37. 

IV. Expression of the Verb „to have" . . 43. 
V. Attributes of Substantives 48. 

VI. Transformation of the Verbal root. . . 34. 

VII. Irregularities in Verbal formations . . . 64. 

VIII. Participles 82. 

IX. The Verb kell, to want, to be obliged, must 84. 

X. Future 89. 

IX. Pronouns 91. 

XII. Conjunctions 100. 

XIII. Adverbs 101. 



VI 

THEORY OF THE LANGUAGE. 

I' age. 

A. Grammatical Forms 107 — 225. 

I. Verbs. 

1. Verbal roots 107. 

2. Conjugation 118. 

3. Derivation and Composition of Verbs . 162. 

II. Nominal Forms 171. 

1. Characteristic of the Objective Case . 172. 

2. Characteristic of the Plural 180. 

3. Possessives Affixes 182. 

4. Paradigma of the different forms of a 
Substantive . . . . • 188. 

5. Derivation and Composition of Sub- 
stantives 199. 

III. Attributes 204. 

1. Adjectives 205. 

2. Adverbs 213. 

IV. Pronouns 216. 

1. Personal Pronouns 216. 

2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns . 218. 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns 219. 

4. Definite Pronouns 220. 

5. Indefinite Pronouns 220. 

V. Prepositions 220. 

VI. Conjunctions 223. 

VII. Interjections 224. 

B. Syntax 225—279. 

I. Of the combination of the different Parts 

of Speech without the intermediation of 

Grammatical forms 226. 

A. Of the Article r/z, a' and its Congruent 226. 

B. Of Adjectives and Numerals with Sub- 
stantives 229. 

C. Of the Subject and Predicate .... 230. 

D. Of other Congruences 235. 



VII 



Page. 

II. Of the combination of Parts of Speech by 
means of Grammatical forms 234. 

A. Of the Objective Case 234. 

B. Of the Possessive Affixes 23o. 

C. Of the Prepositional Affixes .... 237. 

D. Of the Adjective terminations: i, nyi, 

s. u and ?'/ 263. 

III. Of the use of the different forms of the 

Verb, and the different Parts of Speech 

for connecting sentences 265. 

A. Of the Forms of the Verb. 

1. The Definite and Indefinite Forms 

of the Active Voice 265. 

2. Moods and Tenses of the Verb . . 267. 

3. Participles 269. 

4. The Infinitve with Affixes . . . . 271. 

B. Of terms of periodical construction . . 272. 

1. Of the relative Pronouns .... 283. 

2. Of the Conjunctions 275. 

IV. Of the Consequence of Parts of Speech, or 

the arrangement of words in a sentence . 277. 

READING EXERCISES. 

287—320. 

VOCABULARY TO THE COMPOSITIONS. 

287—320. 



^^- 



FIRST PART. 



DIVISION I. 

PRAIUS OF THS: IjAJXGVAGK. 



INTRODUCTION. 

1. §. Orthophony and Orthoepy. 
Articniations, Sonnds and Characters. 

Ihe Hungarian language has 7 different sounds, 
which, being either long or short ones*), produce 
14 different forms of characters, called vowels; 
and 24 different articulations, marked by as many 
consonants. 

The vowels are a, e, i, o, o, u, u. If these 
be the marks of protracted sounds in speaking, 
they are distinguished by an acute accent, as: a, e, 
i, d, 0, ii, li; instead of the forms o, li, the 
shorter forms 6, u, have been introduced recently. 



*) As regards the use of the words long and short: by 
long is meant the protraction or prolongation, by short the con- 
traction , or quick pronunciation of the same sound ; thus o and o, 
the former short, the latter long, differ merely, the first being 
sounded in half the time of the latter. When an Englishman, 
mentions a long i and a short i, we understand two distinct 
sonnds; hence, in mile, the i will be long, the syllable mi 
may be protracted or not. On the contrary, in the Hungarian 
language, the duration or the abbreviation of the sound will 
make the sound long or short. 

Csink hung. Gram. 4 



2 

The 24 consonants, b, cs, cjs, d, f, y, gy, h, 
y, k, I, ly, m, ?i, ny, p, r, s, sz, t, ty, v, z, zs, 
or B, Cs, Cz, D, F, G, Gy, H, I, K, L (Ly), 
M, iV, Ny, P, R, S, Sz, T, Ty, V, Z, Zs, are 
divided into 16 simple ones : b^ d, f\ g, h, j\ k, 
I, m, n, /?, r, s, t, v, z, which have the same arti- 
culation as the English ones , except j equal to the 
English y as a consonant (in young), s equal to sh, 
g always hard like g in guide , and r having always 
a strong trill; and into 8 compound ones: cs, cz, 
gy , ly , ny, sz, ty , zs. For these there are only 
three articulations in the English language exactly 
indentical with the Hungarian ones, such as ch (in 
chapter) identical with cs^ the sharp s (in seven, 
six) identical with sz , and the articulation of z be- 
fore a long u (in seizure) identical with zs. 
For the other consonants there are no articulations in 
the English language, and therefore the correct 
pronunciation must be acquired by hearing speakers 
who are well acquainted with the language. 

The consonant cz is articulated like ts in the 
English language, equal to the German z. 

Approximate articulations for the consonant gy 
are produced in the English language by the con- 
sonant d followed by a long u, as in due , duce etc. ; 
thus, in the Hungarian gyuhii ., to catch fire, gyul, is 
so much like the English dule, that foreigners may 
easily take them to be identical. — The concurrence 
of the consonant d and j have the articulation of 
the English consonants d and y intimately combined. 



The consonant ly is identical with the French 
il, ille etc. preceded by another vowel, as in tra- 
vail, feuille etc. This identification goes even 
so far, that, as in the French language the 1 mou- 
ille, which has the same articulation as the English 
consonant y, has gained ground recently, the Hun- 
garian ly by many excellent speakers has been 
assimilated to the French 1 mouille ; even by some 
writers //*, which is nearly related to ly , has been 
replaced by jpj (= yy) ; as, vajjon, instead oi valljon. 

The Articulation of ny is like the French gne 
in campagne, champagne etc., and the English 
n with a long u^, or the n in new. 

Ty is the .*harp articulation of gy, and very 
nearly the articulation of the consonants t and «/, 
as in the word tube; only the Hungarian is an 
internal combination of the two consonants, while 
the English remains a mere concurrence. 

Thus the most difficult articulations are those of 
gy and ty ; the latter being a sharp articulation of 
the former, they are in the same relation to each 
other as the English syllables du and tu, in the 
words due and tube. 

To these may be added the combination of dzs 
in dzsida^ which is equal to the English g in 
general. 

The fourteen different marks for the sounds 
may be arranged in the following scheme, 
a, identical with the EngUsh a in Father. 

1* 



a, identical with the French a in fatalite*). 

e is like the English a in fate , if the assonance of 
e be avoided. 

e is identical with the English a in fat. In mono- 
syllables, as te, meg, etc., if e is not followed 
by m or a sharp consonant, the sound of e is 
softened, and the pronunciation of e like the 
English short e, is preferable; the same in the 
words tenniy enni, menni, venni, and similar ones. 

I is equal to the English long e in dear, deed etc. 

i is the short sound of the preceding one, as is 
often the case with the syllable re in compound 
English words; its sound takes the medium between 
the English long e and short i, and is identical 
with the French i in fine. 

6 , identical with the English long o in coal , loan etc. 

o, the short sound of the preceding (like the French 
short o). 

o is like the French eu in jeudi. A verVdeep and 
unclear sound of a short e. 

6 or o is the protracted sound of the preceding, 
equal to the German o in ode, hohe etc. 

Uy identical with the English u in bull. 

u, identical with the long double o in the word food. 

M, identical with the French u in une, (je) fus etc. 



*) Although some teachers of the Hungarian language have 
recommended the short a to be sounded like the English a in 
watch, was etc., nevertheless good speakers make no other 
distinction than that which is the natural consequence of the ab- 
breviation of the same sound. 



fi, i?, the protracted sound of the preceding, equal 
to the German ii in iibel. 

The Hungarian language requires each articu- 
lation and sound to be given distinctly and plainly; 
there is no mute vowel or unarticulated consonant in 
any word whatever; even the concurrence of two 
consonants is noticed by a distinct articulation of each 
of them.*) 



FOR PRACTICE. 

Ahna apple , asztal (ahstahl) table , ai^cz face , ablak 
window, bercz (barets) mountain, bajnok'^*) champion, 
csamok hall, csuda (choodah) wonder, csillag 
(chillagh) star, ddrda (dardah) spear, daru (dahroo) 
crane, do tog (dohlohg) thing, dess-ka board, elet 
(ale -at) hfe, eber (a-berr) sober, edes (a -dash) 
sweet, ember (amm-berr) man, fej head, fd head, 
capital principal, fujni (fooyny) to blow, fdtyol (the 
first syllable exactly the same as in English father) 



*) As an Orthographical remark may be added , that instead 
of the double consonants: gygy , lyly , nyny, iyty , cscs, czcz, 
etc. the forms ggy, lly , nny , tty , ccs, ccz ... are used. — 

") If the consonant ,/, after vowels , be followed by other 
consonants , it is nearly assimilated to the Latin i, used by poets 
instead of j. It seems to be like the Latin assimilation of j to i 
in iambus, instead of jambus ; the only distinction is, that in the 
Hungarian language j is precedet, in Latin followed by a vowel. 



the veil, faggyu (fah-due) tallow, fal wall, gasdarj 
(gahz-dahg) rich, gazda (gahz-dah) husbandman, 
gor-be crooked, r/yw/e.9 meeting, (assembly), gyertya 
candle, gyongy pearl, gydva coward, gyo-gyi-ta-ni 
to cure, gya-log on foot, hd-bo-ru war, had 
battle, ha-da-koz-ni to combat, hd-la thanks, 
ho -dol-ni to do homage, koz-ni, to bring, Ao;* hair, 
hdj lard, hu-gom my younger sister, i-ga yoke, 
i-gaz true, i-ga-zi re.Q\, i-gen yes, jdr-ni to walk, 
jo (jo) good, jdm-bor pious*, jeg (yaig) ice, jel 
mark, jel-szo apophthegm, parole, j6-ni to come, 
ka-to-na soldier, kel-me wares, kell (to) need, 
Idny girl, lil-lak, lilac, 16 horse, md-mor intoxication, 
menni to go, me-resz bold, me-reg poison, ne-nye 
the elder sister, nagy -ne-nye aunt, 6-ra hour, 
watch, o-reg old, ^ he, okos prudent, po-rosz 
Prussian, pdr-7ia cushion, penz money, pel -da 
example, pal -las sword, rosz bad, rozs corn, ra- 
vasz cunning, jnt-ka rare, rit-kdn rarely, ro-zsa 
rose, rend order, ran^, ren-de-zes arrangement, 
ren-del-ke-zes disposition, direction, sas eagle, 
se-ta a walk, se-tal-niio walk, se-lyem silk, sa-ru 
a pair of slippers, sdiicz sconce, entrenchment, suly 
weight, su-lyoz-ni to weigh, ^m - /yo* weighty, szesz 
spirits (of wine etc.) szel-lem mind, szdz hundred, 
szek chair, sza-bad free, sze-lid tame, gentle, .9i?or- 
w?* to strew, ta-ldn perhaps, tud-ni to know 
(something), tar-ta-lom coxviQuis^ id- gas wide, roomy, 
ten-ni to do, tiir-ni to suffer, tYi-i^e-de-lem 
patience, tun-dd-kol-ni to gleam, tisz-ta clear, 



pure, tf'l winter, to lake (lacus), ud-var court, •&%- 
ni to pursue, ul-ni to sit, ii-ral-kod-ni to 
domineer, xi-na-lom tediousness, mir-ni to wait, 
var-ni to sew, ver-ni (verr-ny) to beat, ver (vare) 
blood, vl'-rez-ni (vare- as- ny) and ver-se-ni to 
bleed, vv-gez-ni (vage - gaz - nj) to finish, ve-ge 
end, ze-ne (zana) music, ze-nesz (zan-ase) musician, 
zd-log forfeit, zon-go-ra (zohn - gob - rah) piano. 

In order to facilitate the learning of the pro- 
nunciation of consonants and vowels which have 
the same articulation and sounds as the Enghsh, the 
following short arrangement of English words spelt 
in the Hungarian Alphabet, is subjoined. 



English words, 
spelt in English : *) spelt in Hungarian 



Bull 

Chamber 

Deed 

Did 

Danger 

Eagle 

Fat 



Bui 

Csember 

Did 

Did 

Dmdzser 

Igle 

Fet 



*) The only difference between the English long a and the 
Hungarian e, is, that the English a, has a terminative sound 
which somewhat approaches the English short i , whilst the 
Hungarian e is a clear sound. 



Fate 


FH 


German 


Dzsermen 


Loan 


Lon 


Lasting (according to 


Walker) Ldsztin 


Moon 


Mun 


Meek 


Mik 


Newly 


Nyuli (among all other 


similar pronunciations, 


that of Ne wly is the most approaching 


the Hungarian Nyiili, 


which shows the articulation of the 


consonant Ny or ny. 




Oats 


Ocz 


Palm-tree 


Pdmiri 


Pulpit 


Pulpit 


Raze 


Rez 


Rule 


mi 


Sheep 


Sip 


Shall 


Sell 


Sea 


Szi 


Tore 


Tor 


Tulip 


Tjulip 


Tube 


Tjub 


Vetch 


f^ecs and f^ets 


Yare 


Jer 


Yellow 


Jello 


Your 


Jur 


You 


ju 


Zeal 


Zil 


Zero 


Ziro. 



2. §. Division of the sounds and 
words. 

In order to facilitate Etymological formations, 
Grammarians have assumed the division of vowels 
into hard and soft ones, under the former being 
understood the full and deep sounds of a, o, u, 
either long or short; under the latter, the closed 
ones of e, i, o, u, either long or short. The long 
i may be considered as a medium sound between 
the two. According to this division of the vowels, the 
words of the Hungarian language are divided into 
two different classes: hard sounding ones and soft 
sounding ones. *) The former containing such vowels 
as a, a, o, o, u, u, the latter either of the vowels: 
e, e, i, d\ d, ii, u. 

Thus the words hdboru war, hold moon, horn- 
lok forehead, dr price, are hard or deep ones; the 
words edes sweet, ol fathom, levegd air, inteni to 
admonish, esni to fall, are soft ones. 

When the same word contains vowels of the 
two different classes, the hard vowels are considered 
as the principal ones, and the words belong to the 
class of hard words. 

As the vowel i is considered to be a mediate 
one, between the hard and soft vowels, many words 
in which the sound i predominates or is the only 



•) For the sake of abbreviation the Terms hard, and soft 
words, will be used. 



10 

vowel occurring, belong to the class of soft words; 
especially the words csipni to pinch , csiriz paste, 
csiz green finch, czim firma, title, disz ornament, 
friqy alliance , friz frisian , gim fallow deer , hi- 
mezni to embroider, Mr reputation, report, hiv 
faithful , iny gum , iv a sheet (of paper) an arc, iz 
taste , mi\f mii work, nyir birch - tree, rim rime, szin 
colour , sziv heart , tiz ten , viz water. 

All others in which i is the vowel of the radi- 
cal syllable belong to the class of hard words; as 
szij , strap; hid^ bridge; irni, to write. — 

3. §. Assimilation of sonnds and 
articulations. 

It is a general rule, that all affixes joining 
words because of Grammatical forms assimilate 
their vowels to those of the root of the word itself; 
thus, words which belong to the class of hard ones 
have in their affixes, whatever they may be, the 
hard vowel a, o , or w, on the contrary , words be- 
longing to the second class have in their affixes 
a soft vowel, e, o, or I/. 

The corresponding vowels are a and e, o and 
o, u and u\ thus, if the affix for one class of 
words be known, the affix for the other class will 
be known by itself. 

For instance: 

In the word vdrimk we wait, the Verbal root 
is vflfr, the affix with its cementing vowel is nnk, 



11 

if any Verbal root with a soCpvowel, as ill, to sit, 
be given, in order to form the first Person Plural, 
the affix unk must be added, and iilunk (we sit) is 
the form required; hdzam my house, has 7?i affixed 
with the vowel a, the soft word szek chair , will thus 
have szekem (my chair) for the same Grammatical 
form as hdzam. 

As the vowels of Grammatical affixes are assimi- 
lated to those of the root, so some consonants 
of affixes and roots are assimilated to each other. 
Especially : 

The consonant j in the Conjugation of the Verb 
is assimilated: 

a) to the consonant sz, if the verbal root termi- 
nates with such a consonant; as, mdsz-szon he may 
creep, instead of mdaz-jon; vesz-szen he may be 
lost, instead of vesz-jen. 

b) to the consonant z, if the verbal root termi- 
nates with this consonant; as, hoz-zon he may 
bring, instead of hoz-jon. 

c) to the consonant s. 

1) if the verbal root terminates with the 
same consonant; as ds-son he may dig; 
instead of ds-jon. 

2) if the verbal root terminates with the con- 
sonant t, preceded by a long vowel or by 
another consonant; as, tamt-son he may 
teach, instead of tanit-jon. 

3) if the verbal root terminates with the con- 
sonant t, preceded by a short vowel; in this 



12 

case the radical t itself is changed into s; 

as , fus - son he may run , instead of fut - son, 

and this instead of futjon; vessen be may 

sow, instead of vet-jen, etc. 
When the Demonstrative Pronoun az that, ez this, 
joins the affixes, which are used instead of Prepo- 
sitions, its consonant z is assimilated to the initial 
consonant of the affix: as, ar-rol of that, instead 
of az-rol; eb-b'ol out of this, instead of ez-bol, 
ek-kepen instead of ez-kepen. 

The affixes val, vel, which express the Prepo- 
sition with, and vd, ve, which means into, assimi- 
late their initial consonant, v, to the final consonant 
of the word to which they are joined; thus, kez- 
zel with the hand, instead of kez-vel; az-zd 
into that, instead of az-vd; fegyver-rel with arms, 
instead of fegyver-vel. 

O b s. avval and azzal, with that, evvel and ezzel, 
with this, are both in use, but the latter forms are 
preferable. 

4. §. Prolongation of the vowels. 

The short final vowels a and e are prolonged 
as often as the word assumes any affix. This pro- 
longation of the short final a and e is common to 
all words in all Grammatical forms. 

ruha a dress, ruhd-m my dress, ruhd-t a 
dress (objective case), ?'uhd'Zni to dress, ruhd-val 
with a dress; eke plough, eke -nek to a plough, 



13 

eke-vel with a plough, etc. This prolongation ex- 
tends even so far, that, if affixes, which termi- 
nate with a short e or a, receive any other affixes 
whatsoever, the short e or a of the former is ac- 
centuated, as: ruha dress, ruhd-j'a his dress, 7'nkd- 
jd-val with his dress. 

No prolongation takes place before the affixes i, 
sag, kor , kep , kent; as, atj/ai fatherly, gydva-sdg 
cowardice. Before the affixes e, ig , ert, ul; the 
short a and e may be prolonged, or their primitive 
sound retained; thus, hazd-ert and haza-ert, for 
the fatherland; atyd-ul and atya-ul, like a father. 

The protraction of the primitive roots of many 
words, as ^^owz to weave , from szdvni\ Mwz to shoot, 
from lovni, belongs to Etymology strictly taken. 

5. §. Contraction. 

Contractions are often the consequence of Gram- 
matical forms. A word taking any affixes whatever, 
is contracted by means of abbreviating the final- 
syllable; such contractions are performed: 

a) by shortening the long vowel of the final- syl- 
lable, 

b) by neglecting the short consonant of the final- 
syllable. 

Detailed remarks on this subject will be found 
in the Theoretical part; here it may be remarked 
only, that such contractions do not take place if the 
final syllable terminates with a double consonant, if 



14 

the last syllable and the penultima have the same 
final consonant or consonants the articulations of 
which are not related in some way. The conso- 
nants which easily combine are the liquid /, m, 
n, 1% and the Hngual cs, cz^ sz, z, either among 
themselves or with other consonants, especially 
palatals and dentals. For instance: dolog-ot the 
thing, contracted dolgot; jdrom-at the yoke, jdrmat\ 
tiikdr-ot the mirror, tukrot; hajoUom, I stoop, 
hajlom. 



COMPOSITIONS. 
I. 

Verbs. — Active and Meiiter. — 

The Hungarian language, as mentioned above, 
expresses the different Grammatical forms (Declen- 
sion , Conjugation , Comparison) by means of affixes, 
which are joined to the roots of the words. The 
root of a Verb is called that part of it which re- 
mains after the termination of the Infinitive, ni, 
is taken away; thus, from vdimi the root is vdr. 

The Active Voice of Hungarian Transitive Verbs 
has two different forms, which have been styled by 
Grammarians the Indefinite and the Definite forms. 
The former relates to objects not strictly determined 
by the speaker, and may be called the Universal 
form; the latter relates to objects determined by the 
speaker either expressively or understood, to objec- 
tive cases representing any determined object, and 
has been called the Definite form. 

A. Indefinite form of the Active Voiee aiift 
the IVeiit^r. 

Indicative Mood. 

1. PRESENT TENSE. 

Vdr -ok I wait, I am waiting, I do wait, vdi'-sz 

thou waitest, thou art waiting, thou dost wait, 

vdr he waits, he is waiting, he does wait; vdr-unk 



16 

we wait, we are waiting, we do wait, vdr-tok 
you wait, you are waiting, you do wait, vdr- 
nak they wait, they are waiting, they do wait. — 
El-ek I live, I am alive, el-sz thou livest, thou 
art alive, el he lives, he is alive; el-unk we live, 
we are alive, el-tekjou live, you are alive, el- nek 
they live, they are alive. 

A"^ flu vdr; emberek vdmak. A' fviik imak. 
Irok. Irunk. Az atya ir; ftiik jdrnak. Jdrunk. Az 
emberek setdlnak. Az dllat el, dllatok elnek. 
A^ katona viv. Katondk vivnak. Vivunk. Vivtok. — 

The father writes. The mother is waiting. The 
boys are waiting. I live. We live. They live. I 
am walking. Boys are walking. The mother takes 
a walk. We gather. Men gather. The boy gathers. 
I am sitting. Animals are alive. The animal is alive. 
The father is sitting. We are sitting. (A) soldier is 
figlhing. Soldiers do fight. The boys are fighting. *) 

2. FIRST PERFECT TENSE (Imperfect). 
V^dr-ek I waited, vdr-dl thou waitedst, vdr- 
a he waited; vdr-dnk we waited, vdr-dtok you 
waited, vdr-dnak they waited. Ul-ek I sat, ill -el 
thou satest, ill-e he sat; lil-enk we sat, ul-etek you 
sat, ul-enek they sat. On the use of this Tense, 
see the Theoretical part. 

3. SECOND PERFECT TENSE (preteritum). 
Vdr -tarn I have waited, I was wait- 
ing, did wait, vdr-tdl thou hast waited, 

*) See the Vocabulary. 



17 

wast waiting, didst wait, vdr-t he was waiting, did 
wait; vdr-tunk we were waiting, did wait, vdr- 
tatok you were waiting, did wait, vdr-tanak and 
vdr-tak they were waiting., did wait. — Ul-tem 
I was sitting, did sit, iil-tel thou wast sitting, didst 
sit, iil-t he was sitting, did sit; til-tiink we were 
sitting, did sit, iil-tetek you were sitting, did sit, 
iil-tek and iil-tenek they were sitting, did sit. — 

A' fiuk szedtek. Fiu Hit. Ldny vart, Lednyok 
vartak. As anya vdrt. Emberek szedtek. Setdl- 
tunk. Az dllatok eltek. A' flu jdrt. Fiuk jdrtak, 
Tanultunk; a fiuk tanultak. Az atya irt. Az Em- 
berek tanultak. Tanuliatok. A' Katona viv-ott 
(instead of viv-t). Katondk vivtak. — 

The English compound Perfect: I have waited, 
we have sat, etc. is expressed by the same form of 
the second Perfect; thus, I have waited means vdr- 
tam,' they have lived, eltek. 

Men were fighting. People did fight. The man 
did fight. I have fought. I have sat. You have 
walked. The boy has written. The father did write. 
Mother was writing. The daughter did sew. The 
son did write. We were walking. You were wai- 
ting*). (A) soldier was fighting and (a) boy was 



*) The Personal Prononns, I, thou, he, we, you, they, are 
by no means forms of Conjugation in the Hungarian language. 
The whole of the Conjugation consists in different affixes. These 
Pronouns are used before the Personal forms of the Verb as 
often as Emphasis requires them, or as often as they supply 
the Subject of the Verb. In this respect the Hungarian language 
agrees with the Latin entirely, as, amamus and nos amamus etc. 

Csink. hung. gram. ^ 



18 

walking. We were sitting. Thou wast writing. I 
learn; father writes. The mother was sitting; the 
girl did sew. Animals were ahve. Men did live. 
The bojs have gathered. I gather. We did gather. 
You were gathering. — 

4. COMPOUND FUTURE. 
vdmi-fogok I shall wait, vdmi fogsz thou wilt wait, 
vdrmi fog he will wait ; vdrni fogunk we shall wait, 
vdm fogtok you will wait, vdmi fognak they will 
wait. — 

A^ fiuk tanulni fognak. A' katondk vivni fog- 
nak. Szedni fogunk. Jdrni fogtok. A^ ledny varni 
fog. Az atya irt. Az ember tilt. Az dllat elt. 
Mi elni fogunk. Te iimi fogsz es 6 tanulni fog. 
A^ 16 fut. Az elefdnt jdr. 

Soldiers were fighting. We also did fight. I 
shall fight. The soldier will fight. People will run. 
The boys will play, we also shall play. I shall 
take a walk. The mother will sit, and the daughter 
will walk. We did take a walk. We shall write. 
You will write. They will sit. The boy is sitting 
and writing. The girls do walk and knit. Girls 
will walk, boys will run. We shall look. You will 
see. Thou seest. We did see. You have seen. 
They were looking. 

B. Definite Form of tlie Aeti^e Toiee. 

The Definite Form always relates to objects 
spoken of which are, in any way whatever, deter- 
mined, thus if the Objective Case governed by the 



19 

Active Voice be left out, it is understood to be 
represented by the Pronoun him, her or it, which 
in foreign languages are always added to the Verb. 
Thus, in vdgom is understood, I cut it, — irom, 
I write it (the letter, or sentence mentioned). 

Indicative Mood. 
1. PRESENT TENSE. 

Vdg-om I cut, I am cutting, vdg-od thou 
cutest, vdg-ja he cuts; vdg-juk we cut, we are 
cutting, vdg-jdtok you cut, vdg-Jdk they cut. — 
Kot-om I bind, I am binding, kot-od thou bindest, 
kot-i he binds; kot-juk we bind, kot-itek you 
bind, kot'ik they bind. — Keres-em I look for, 
keres-ed thou lookest for, keres-i he looks for; 
keres-suk*) we look for, keres-itek you look for, 
keres-ik they look for. — 

Fiut keresek, a' fiut keresem. Embei^-t Idtok, 
as embert Id torn. Katond-t*'^) veimek , a katondt 
verik. A' ledny inihdt var, lednyok vai^jdk a' ruhdt. 
A' ledny varja a' ruhdt, Buzdt kotnek (they sheaf 
com), a' busdt kotik (they sheaf the corn). A' 
lednyok bokretdt kotnek, lednyok kotik a bokretdt, 
A' fiuk tanuljdk a leczket. En leczket tanulok. 

The characteristic of the Objective Case is t, 
preceded by a vowel if the final consonant of the 
Substantive were not easily combinable with it. 

The Plural of Substantives is marked by the 
Character k, preceded by the same vowel that 

*) See on assimilation above § 3. 
**) See on Prolongation § 4. 



20 

precedes the t of the Objective Case. — In regard 
to the vowels to be used, see § 2, 3, and the 
Theoretical part. The Objective Case of the Plural 
Number has the same characteristic as the Objective 
Case of the Singular Number. This t is joined to 
the plural form by means of the vowels a for hard 
words, and e for soft ones. Thus, ember, Plural 
ember -ek, Objective Plural ember- ek-et. The 
same, ledny , PI. lednyok, Obj. PI. lednyokat. 

The labourer will work, the soldier will fight. 
The boys will learn, the girl will sew. We shall 
take a walk; the child will walk. Children play, 
the father writes. The mother did read and we 
also did read. I have spoken. We have read (a) 
book. You have written the book. We did look 
(at) the horses. You have seen the soldiers. I did 
see the soldiers. We have written the letter. Thou 
wast writing (a) letter. I have read the letters. Do 
you see the soldiers? Do you gather fruit? We 
bind (make a) nosegay, and you bind (sheaf the) 
corn. 

2. PERFECT TENSE AND FUTURE. 
Olvas-tam I have read, did read, was reading (it), 
ohas-tad thou hast read etc. (it), olvas-ta he has 
read; olvas-tuk we have read etc., okas-tdtok you 
have read, olvas-tdk they have read. — Olvasni 
fogom I shall read (it), olvasni fogod thou wilt 
read, olvasjii fogja he vill read, olvasni fogjuk we 
shall read, olvasni fogjdiok you will read, olvasni 
fogjdk they will read. 



21 

A' fiu tanulta a' leczket. A* katondk meg- 
rertek az elleiiseget. A' Tanito dicseri a' fiut. 
Tanitok dicshik a' tanulokat. Tanulok tanuljdk (C 
leczket. En tanulok angolul. Ti tanultdtok az 
angol nyehet. Mi azt tanulni fogjuk. azt ta- 
nulta. A' ledny azt tudja. Tudom azt. A' fiu 
tudja azt. 

I know the gentleman. You know the soldier. 
The enemy gained the battle. The soldiers have 
left the field of battle. The enemy was flying, he 
did leave the camp. The father has written the 
letter. I have read (a) letter. I shall praise the 
soldiers. You will blame the boys. 1 have learned 
English. I know German, I am learning the Hun- 
garian language. The Hungarians (a* Magyai^ok) 
learn the English language. The Hungarians have 
beaten the Austrian (oszt?'dk) army (hadsereget). I 
praise the champions. We honour the heroes. Sol- 
diers love their leader (vezeriiket). 

C Subjunctive and Imperative Jflood. 

Indef. form, vdr-iak ) , , . i i i, r a 

^ p « , . \ thatlmay wait, and, shall 1 wait: 

Del. lorm. var-jam ) '' 

,*'.,[ that thou mayst wait 
var-jaa ) *' 

vdr-ion ) ,, , , 

, . \ that he may wait; 
var-ja ) '' 

vdr-iunk ) . .in 

,''.,{ that we may wait, shall we wait 
var~juk ) -^ 

vdi'-iatok ) ., , 

, .r^ J \ that you may wail 
var-jatok ) '^ "^ 



22 

,.,. [ that they may wait. *) 
var-jak ) 

The forms of the Imperative Mood are entirely 
expressed by those of the Subjunctive mood. The 
second Person of the Singular Number admits vdrjdl 
and vdj'j (wait) , the others suffer no alteration what- 
ever. Thus, he shall wait, let him wait, are ex- 
pressed by: vdrjon; so, let us wait I and shall 
we wait? are both vdrjunk,- etc. In regard to assi- 
milations of the characteristic j see § 3. 

Olvassunk. Nezsiink. Irjunk. Kossel (instead 
of Kotjel). Hozzdl. Vivjdl. Elj'en. A' ledny varjon. 
Jdrj! Vdrjunk? A' fiu vdrjon. 

The boy shall write, the soldier shall fight and 
overcome the enemy. Let us read. Learn the les- 
son. Read the letter. Shall we learn? Write! 
Wait! The boy shall play. Let us look for the 
book. Let us bind (make a) nosegay. He shall 
bind (make) it. Let us speak Hungarian. Let him 
speak English. Speak German. — 

II. Conditional. 

1. PRESENT. 
Indef. form, olvas-nek \ I would, should read, and 



Def. form, olvas-ndm * that I might read 
olvas-ndd ) 



*) Words that belong to the class of soft ones receive e, 
instead of a, in their termination; thus: vet' -Jem I may beat 
iil-Jek I may sit. 



23 

olvds - na 



, . he would read; 
olvas-na ) 

olvas-nank \ we would, should read, and 

ohas-nok S that we might read 

ohas-ndtok \ u j * 

, , \ you would read etc. 
olvas-natok ) *' 

olvas-ndnak) ,. ,, , ^ 

,, ( they would read etc. 
olvas-nak ) '' 

PERFECT. 

Expressing an action done or neglected because 
of a condition preceding. This Tense is a com- 
pound one and in Grammars it is given as the Plu- 
perfect of the Subjunctive Mood, as the former 
Tense is given as the Imperfect Tense of the same 
Mood. 

The formation of this Tense is easy, it being 
merely a repetion of the Perfect Tense of the In- 
dicative Mood with the addition of volna (which 
means, it would be) to each Personal form. 
Indef. vdr-tam ) , ( I should have waited, 
Def. vdr-tam S i (if) I had waited 

' ^ i} vohia, thou wouldst have waited etc. 
var-tad) 

, ^ \ vobia, he would have waited etc. 
var-ta ( 

vdr-tunk , , , , , . , 

, , , > volna, we would have waited 
var-tuk 



vdr-tatok ) 
vdr 



, V ^ volna, you would have waited 
-tdiok\ -^ 



ar- na J ^^^^^^ ^^y ^qqU jj^^ye waited. 
var *'^' ' -^ 



tdk j 



24 

Words that belong to the class of soft ones, have 
e instead of a and o', ii instead of u^ and 6 instead 
of 0, in their terminative syllable. Thus el- tern 
volna, I should have lived; el-tel volna; el-t volna; 
el-tunk volna, el-tetek volna, eltek or el-tenek volna. 

Az any dm (anyd-m, my mother^ ima; az 
atydm (my father) irt volna. En irnek. Ti irnd" 
tok. A' fiuk tanulndnak. A' lednyok (plural) vdr- 
tak volna. A' gyermek j'drna. Mi setdltunk volna. 
A' katondk gyoztek volna. Mi tisztelndk a' host. 
A' Katondk tisztelnek a* vezereket (objective case 
plural see B. !.)• Szeretnek setdlni. Szeretnenk 
iilni. Szeretnel jdmi. Szerettem volna Idtni. A' 
fiuk szeretnenek jdtszani. A' tanulok szeretnenek 
imi. Az any dm szeretne tanitani, en szeretnek 
tanulni. A' fiu szeretne olvasni. A' katona szeret 
vivni. A' hadvezer szeret gydzni. Szeretnel Idtni? 
Szeretnetek iilnil Mi szeretnenk setdlni. 

I should read, you would write. My father 
would have written. If the soldiers gain the 
battle. The enemy will take to flight. We should 
overcome the enemy. You would see. The enemy 
would have left the field of battle. If the army 
had fought (a) battle. I should Hke to learn. I 
should like to learn English (put: English to learn). 
I should like to speak Hungarian. Would you like 
to read? I should like, if I knew (I should if I 
could). My mother likes the flowers. My father 
would write. We should have written. I should 
like to write. I should have liked to read. 



25 
E. The Verb ^^to he"* Vagfyok^ I am. 

1. PRESENT. 

Vagyok I am, vagy thou art, van and vagyon 
he is, she is, it is; vagyunk we are, vagytok you 
are, vannak or vagynak thej are. 

The third Person of this Tense is missed in the 
sentence as often as it is a mere copula between 
the Substantive and its Adjective or any other Sub- 
stantive used as Predicate. Thus, the sentence 
„the flower is beautiful" will be translated in „the 
flower beautiful," and there will be; „«' virdg 
ssep^^, instead of „a' vwdg van szep,''' The roses 
are beautiful flowers, will be: A' rozsdk szep vird- 
gok, instead of saying: a' rozsdk vannak szep 
virdgok. 

The Verb „to be", in all its forms, follows 
the Adjective or Substantive used as Predicate of 
the sentence; thus, instead of saying: „I am a 
man, thou art diligent, we say: „I (a) man am, 
thou diligent art. Subject, Predicate and Copula 
agree in Number. 

2. PAST TENSE. 

Voliam I was, I have been, Voltdl thou wast, 
and hast been, volt he was etc.; voltunk we were, 
voltatok you were, voltak or voltanak they were etc. 

A' fiu szorgalmatos. A' fiuk szorgalmatosak 
(nominative plural) voltak. Mi szorgalmatosak vol- 
tunk. A' katondk hdsok (heroes). A' csata vei^es 
volt. A' csatamezd terjedelmes. A' tdbor nagy. 



26 

A' harcz hosszu. A' gyozedelent bizonytalan. A' 
munka veghetlen. A' fdradsdg mertekentuli. 

(The) Flowers are plants. The elephant is (an) 
animal. The tiger is cruel. The fox is cunning, 
Tyrants and tigers are equal. Foxes and politicians 
are artful. (The) Lyons are generous. Men are 
selfish. Nelson is renowned. England is free. 
Hungarians are slaves. Hungary was (a) kingdom. 
The Hungarians were brave. We were rich. You 
are poor, they were idle. — 

T^alek I was, valdl thou wast, vala he was; 

valdnk we were, valdtok you were, valdnak they 

were *). 

3. CONDITIONAL. 

Volnek I should be. If I were; volndl thou 
wouldst be , If thou were , volna he would be ; vol- 
ndnk we should be, volndtok you would be, vol- 
ndnak they would be. 

There are no more Tenses of the Verb vagyok; 
all the others, as those of the Subjunctive and In- 
finitive Moods, the Participles, are supplied by the 
Verb lenni^ to become. The Present Tense of the 
Verb lenni, is used as a Future of vagyok, 

Leszek I shall be and I become, leszesz and 
leszel thou wilt be, lesz^ leszen he will be; lessunk 
we shall be, lesztek you will be, lesznek they 
will be. — 

Ha gazdagok volndnk. Ha szabad volnek, Az 
ido szep lesz. A' nydr meleg volna. Az 6sz hives 

*) On the use of this tense see the Theoretical part. 



27 



less,^ Al tel hideg. A' tavasz szep volt. As any dm 
G ^m»v g m tesz. Az atydm beteg volna. En jo 
leszek. Te szorgalmatos volndl. Mi tanulok lesziink. 
We should be rich. You will be diligent. They 
would be naughty. Thou art naughty. The boy 
would be good. The girls are good. We shall be 
ready. The soldier is brave. The soldiers will be 
brave. Nelson was (a) soldier. England is small. 
Britania is great. America is (a) republic. Repu- 
blics are rare. (A) friend is faithful. 

II. 

PossesisiTe forms of tlte l^ubstaiitiTe* 

A. Tlie object possessed is but one. 

Ruhd-m my dress, ruhd-d thy dress, ruhd-ja 
his and her dress. — Ruhd-nk our dress, riihd-tok 
your dress, ruhd-Jok their dress. In regard to the 
prolongation of the a, see Introd. , § 4. 

MezS-m my field, mez6-d thy field, meze-je*) 
his and her field; mezd-nk our field, mezo-tok jouv 
field, meze-jok their field. 

Bardt'Ommj Mend, bardt-od thy fneud, bardt- 
ja his and her friend; bai^dt-nnk our friend, bardt- 
otok your friend, bardt-jok their friend. — 



*) The same alteration of 6 is to be observed in all the 
monosyllables and dissyllables, thus no wife, nom my wife, 
ne-je his wife; erde-je his wood. Words of more than two 
syllables do not admit this alteration; thus, levegoje from 



28 

Felelet-em my answer, felelet-ed thy answer, 
felelet-e his and her answer; felelet-iink our ans- 
wer; felelet-etok your answer, felelet-ok their 
answer. 

Considering the affix ja, /e, which mean his, 
her and its, and the affix /o A:, jok^ which mean 
their, the j is missed if the Substantive termi- 
nates with one of the consonants cs , cz , s, sz , z, 
v,'ny , ly , ty , gy , or if the final syllable meets 
with an abbreviation. In consideration of the vowel, 
which is to be used with these affixes of posses- 
sion, it may be remarked, that the same vowel 
which forms the Plural of the Substantives is used 
in these affixes as well; thus, asztal, PI. asztal-ok 
tables, asztal-om my table; maddr, PI. madar-ak 
birds, madar-am my bird. 

A' Konyvem jo (my book is good. See above 
sub E). Az atydd vdr. Az Anydnk ir. Anydnk 
ir. Bardtotok hutelen. A' Bdtydm katona (is a 
soldier). A' hadseregunk vitez. Vezeriink ug)fes. 
Tdborunk nagy. Ellensegiink kiengesztelhetlen. A' 
Tdbomagyotok hires. A' kirdlyunk szereti az or- 
szdgot. A' kirdlyotok gyuloli a ncpet. 

The Objective Case „my friend," my book" etc, 
is given in the Hungarian language by bardtom-aty 
konyvem- et etc., and the Objective of any Substan- 
tive, that may have the possessive affixes, will be 
given by an affixed t^ preceded by the vowel a or e. 
The affix of the third Person, terminating in a 
or e, does not admit the vowel a or e before the i. 



29 

The terminations of the third Person, Jok and 
jok often are changed into juk and jiik'; thus, 
eletiik (eletjiik) their Hefe, instead of eletok. 

This alteration especially takes place when the 
j of these affixes is missed, in which case it may 
be done for the sake of perspicuity, when otherwise 
the Nominative Plural would be alike with these 
Affixes : as, Asstaluk, instead of dsztalok, their table, 

Jlz any dm -at Idiom. Az atydmat ke?'esem. 
A' bardtodat Idttam. Az atydmat vdrwm, a 
bdtydmat szereti. As emberek gyuWlik egymdst, 
A' tanulok szeretik a! tanitojiikat. Az orszdgunk 
nagy. Az orszdgunkat meghoditd az elleiiseg. 
Sxeretitek kirdlyotokat (your king). — 

I have seen your friend. My mother has read 
your letter (leveleteket). Our field is large. Your 
forest is small. Thy lesson is difficult. His book 
is fine (a fine one). Our daughter is modest. Your 
child is naughty. My father likes thy brother. I 
do love my mother. Do you love your father? Do 
you wait (for) your elder sister? I am waiting for 
my friend. Thou didst look for thy friend (thy 
friend thou wast looking for). Our mother has ex- 
pected your elder sister. Our army has vanquished 
our enemy. Our general is leading your army. 
Our Queen assists your king. Our realm (kingdom) 
is large and rich. Your realm was great and cele- 
brated. 

Observ. In order to find out the root, to 
which the affix m, d, nk, tok etc. is to be affixed. 



30 

beginners may always form the Nominative of the 
Plural Number of that Noun, to which they wish to 
join the required possessive affix; if the Plural be 
formed, then take away the Plural k, and join the 
required affix to it. For instance, I wish to say 
„my neighbour;" — szomszed has in the Plural 
szomszedok , taking off k and joining m, I have 
,^ssomssedom^' , which is the word required. The 
a(fix of the third person ja and je joins the Nomi- 
native of the Singular number immediately, thus 
„his neighbour" is, ssomszedja. 

B. Xlie objects possessed are more 
tlian one. 

Ruhd-im my dresses, ruhd-id thy dresses, 
ruhd'i his dresses, ruhd-ink our dresses, i^uhd- 
itok your dresses, ruhd-ik their dresses. 

The characteristic of the Plural is i, which 
precedes the affixal consonants m, c?, nk, k and 
the syllable tok. 

When the Substantive to which the affixes are 
to be joined terminates with a consonant, as: hardly 
asztal, the third Person of the Singular Number of 
a, is taken as the radical, and the Plural affixes are 
added to this radical, thus bardtja his friend being 
the third Person of the Singular, hardtja-im will be 
my friends, bardtja- id thy friends, bardtja- i his 
friends etc. Levele-im my letters, levele-id thy 
letters, levele-i his letters, levele-ink our letters, 
levele-itek your letters, levele-ik their letters. 



31 

As the affixes: m, zV/, i may easily be joined 
to the Substantives themselves, without the acces- 
sion of any other vowel, we shall get a second 
Plural form, which will be: hardt-im mj friends, 
harat-id thy friends, bardt-i his friends, bardt-ink 
our friends etc. — The first form is preferable in 
familiar conversation. 

Substantives terminating with 6 abbreviate this 
vowel in the third person of the Singular number 
(see under A) , such Substantives, as above mentioned, 
therefore have a double plural form, the first of 
them is given in considering as their radical the 
long 6, the second, in considering as their radical 
the short e of the tird Person; thus the Substantive 
mez6 forms mez6-im and meze-im my fields etc., 
both forms are correct, but the latter has received 
the sanction of the people. — 

Sseressed a felebai'dtodat. Szei^essetek ellen- 
segeiteket is. Az atydm es a bdtydm is elutazott 
(instead of elutazt, Perf. Tense). Bardtim voltak. 
Nem minden bardtink hivek (missed vannak^ are). 
Ellenscgeink gyiiWlnek. A' Katondink megvertek az 
ellenseget. Az Angolok (are) bardtjaink. Orszdgok 
(instead orszdgjok) nagy , kereskedesok terjedelmes., 
hatalmuk (instead hatalom~jok) erds. A' Tdbornok 
szereti a' katondit. A' sziilo szereti gyermekeit. 
Konyveim elvesztek. Konyveidet Idttam, leveleidet 
olvastam. A' bdtydm olvasta a leveledet. A' fiu 
tanuija a' leszkejet; a lednyom a* imhdjdt varta. 
En a nenyedet vdrtam. 



32 

Our soldiers honour their leader. Your king 
pays his soldiers. Thej do pay their debts. Our 
soul is immortal, but our body is mortal. Your 
children (are) idle, but his daughter (is) diligent. 
My friends (are) industrious. Your enemies (are) 
powerful. My dress is dear. His time is valuable 
(dear). We found your book. Charles found his 
pen. Albert read .(the) his lesson. The teacher 
has seen our translation. (The) Our father has prai- 
sed your brother, he has learned his lesson. 



C TUe Possessive Case. Genitive* 



The Hungarian language expresses the Posses- 
sive Case by means of the possessive affixes. 
The Possessive Case always supposes two diffe- 
rent notions, the one that of the Subject possessing, 
the other that of the object possessed; this latter 
receives the possessive affixes of the third Person 
either Singular or Plural. 

With the Substantive relating to the posses- 
sor there is used the affix nak or 71 ek^ which is 
not expressed , but indicated by an apostrophe, unless 
the perspicuity or Euphony would require its 
plain expression. Thus, the father's house, we say: 
as atya' hdza; the scholar's books, a tamilo kony- 
vei; the courage of the soldiers, a^ katondk' bdtor- 
sdguk; the pens of the scholars, a' tanuloK tollaik; 



33 



or fl* tanulok'tiak tollaik, a katondk-iuik bdior- 
sdguk etc. 

This possessive form, resulting from the represen- 
tation of the Possessive Case, is to be considered 
as a new Nominal root the Objective and Possessive 
cases of which will be formed regularly. Thus , the 
roof of our neighbour's house, will be:- a szoinszc- 
dunk (szo7?iszcdimk'?iak) hdzujiak <i fedele; I have 
seen thy brother's book ft' bdti/dd' konyvet Idttam. 

Az cmhereknek tlatUk (is) rovid. Az emberek' 
szerencsejuk (is) vdltozo. A* szomszedunknak hdza 
szep. A' szuleink^ (szuldink) vcghetetlen szerel- 
milk (szerel-em). BardtjahiU hiisege vigasztalo. 
A* leleknek tehetsegei felUlmuljdk a' testnek erejet 
(instead of erojet), Az ember' cselekedetcmek forrdsa 
a' sziv. A' vildgnak ot i^eszei. Columbus felfedezte 
a vildgnak egy (one) reszH. A7?ierikdnak terme- 
kenysegc. Azsidnak iermenyei. A' nepeknek te?'- 
viesztmenyei. 

England exports (kiviszi) its products. (The) 
Englishmen sell their productions. (The) My father 
received my mother's letter. You have written 
(the) your letter. I shall write my letters. The 
instinct of the animals. The reason of men. The 
destiny of humankind. The fate of people (ne- 
peknek Plur.). The wisdom and goodness of (the) 
God. The power of (the) kings. The desires of 
(the) nations. The commerce (kozlekedes) of na- 
tions enriches the mind of the people and increases 
their wealth. The commerce (kereskedes) of Ame- 

Csink Lung. Gram. 3 



3A 

rica if extensive. The invention (feltaldlds) of (the) 
Typography. The inventions (taldlmdny) of Watt. 
The History of France. The wars of the middle 
ages. 

2. 
Whose is..? It is that of. Is that — of? etc. 

The interrogative sentence relating to possession, 
which in other languages is expressed by the Pos- 
sessive Case, is given by the afflx e in the Hun- 
garian language; thus „whose is...?" means Kie? — It 
is that of the merchant, means a kalmdre, and 
„is this house that of our neighbour?" means a 
szomszedunke ez a' hdz. 

In consideration of this latter expression, the 
interrogative e is often annexed to it^ and instead of 
„a szomszedunke ez a hdz ,'' we may say d szom- 
szedunke -e ez a hdz. — The expressions atydm 
my father, nenyed thy elder sister, etc. being con- 
sidered as so many new Nominative Gases, the affix 
e will be added to them as it is added to radicals 
of Substantives; thus, az atydme that of my father. 
The Definite Article az or a is never missed before 
Substantives of this form; the Demonstrative ez this, 
az that, precedes the Substantives representing the 
Objects possessed. 

Az atydm' hdza. Ez a* hdz as atydme. Kie 
ez a' konyv? A* hardtome. Ez a^ toll a' tanitoe. 
Kie ez a' kert? A' nagybdtydme. Ez a* jdszdg 
a' nagynenyeme, Ez a' nagynenyhn jdszdg a, Kie 
9M ax irds? Az ocseme (that of my younger 



35 

brother) Ldttuk az atydd' hdzdt de item a nagy- 
bdtyddet. Kie ez a kocsi? az anydme. Kie ez rf 
ruha? Az enyem. Ldttad az ordmat? En Idttam 
a* bdtyddet. Ezek a keztyuk (pair of gloves) az 
anydmh, Ezek a tollak a' hdtydmei. Kiei azok 
(those) a' lovak. A' Herczegei, a' grofeit nem 
dsme?'em. 

If we consider the preceding sentenses, we shall 
Gnd, that the expression „Kie^' is reallj a Nomi- 
native Case of the Singular, the Objective Case of 
which is Kiet^ the Plural Kiei, the Objective Case 
for the Plural Number is Kieit. The same of az 
atydme, the Objective Case will be az atydmet. 
The Plural Nominative az atydmei, the Plur. Obj. 
az atydmeit. — 

The copulative Verbs „is" and ..are" are missed. 

Whose is that garden, and whose are, those 
houses. This garden is my fathers (that of my 
father) and those houses are my uncle's. Whose 
hat is this. It is that of my brother. My fathers 
is (a new one) new. Do you like your father's 
horses? I like those of my aunt. (I that of my 
aunt like.) Whose gloves are these (whose are 
these gloves). They are those of my teacher. Do 
you know (tndja-e) our teacher's residence? I do 
(I know it). Whose is that book? My friend's. 
Is this book thy friend's or not (Thy friend's this 
the book, or not)? — Similar sentences as: Is this 
house our father's? are to be resolved in: Is this 
the house of our father? etc. 

3* 



36 

3. 

Mine, Thine etc. , of mine, of ours etc. , i t 

belongs to me etc. 

As often as the possession is indicated by forms 
similar to the premised ones, which is the case 
when the Personal Pronouns are used instead of the 
Substantive representing the possession (as in the 
sentence whose is that book? mine — instead of 
it is raj book) , the Hungarian language makes use 
of affixes, which are identical with those given under 
II. A. B. (p.26, 29) These affixes are joined to the 
Personal Pronouns : En I , te thou , o he , mi we, 
ti you, 6k they. 

Their complete forms are: 

1. The object possessed is but one — enyem 
mine, tied thine, ove his, her, its; mienk ours, 
tietek yours, ovek theirs. 

2. The objects possessed are more than one — 
enyeim and enyim mine, tieid thine, ovei his, hers, 
its; mieink ours, tieitek yours, oveik theirs. 

Ez a' konyv az enyem, az a toll a tied, de 
kie ez az irds? A mienk. Kie ez a! 16? A* tied 
Kie ez a tollkes (to whom belongs this penknife)? 
az ove (it belongs to him). Kie ez a' papiiws? a' 
mienk. A' tietek ez a' hdz^ a' tietek -e ez a' 
hdz (does this house belong to you)? nem, (no) a^ 
szomszedunke (it belongs to our neighbour). Ez a' 
konyv az enyem^ az «' keztyii a tied. Ez a' 
seta- hot a tied volt. Kiei azok a' retek? A' 
mieink, de az erdd a' tietek. — 



37 

The copulatives is and are, are missed. 

The Objective Cases of both Numbers are for- 
med like those of Substantives of similar forms, 
thus: I have sold mine — az enyem-et eladtam. 

Is that book yours (yours that the book)? It 
is my brother's (a bdtydme). This pen is ours, 
but those writings are yours. Whose garden is that 
(that garden whose is it)? It is ours. These houses 
are yours and those (azok) are your uncle's. Have 
you seen our gardens. We have seen theirs, but 
not yours. Your book is not ours, and our pens 
are not theirs. Whose inkstand is this (whose is 
this inkstand)? Mine. Whose copy-book is that? 
Yours. Whose is this walking -cane? His. Whose 
gloves are those? Hers. To whom belongs this 
meadow? It belongs to us (ours). To whom belong 
these houses and those gardens? They belong to 
them. That belongs to me and this to you. That 
is thine and this is his. The house is ours, the 
garden is yours and the meadow is his. The Gelds 
are thine and the horse is mine. 

III. 

Afflxe^ relative to place^ directions^ 
and expreissioiiis of tlie Dative Caise* 

1. 

The affixes mentioned here are in foreign lan- 
guages expressed by means of Prepositions, this is 
the reason, why most of the Hungarian Grammari- 
ans mention them as Conjunctive Preposition$ whilst 



38 

a few classified them as Postpositions (utdljai^dk). 
In examining them closer we find, that they are 
merely affixes used hke all other affixes to express 
the different relations of place, directions and com- 
binations of objects. Such are: 

ba into, relating to movement, motion, 

ban in, relating to quietude, 

rol from, relative to directions downwards. 

tol from of, relative to removal, 

bol out of, 

hox to, expressing: by the side of, or next to, 
towards, 

nak to, which in the German and Latin is ex- 
pressed by the Dative Case, 

ndl by, at, 

val with, 

ert for, 

w, with or without a vowel o, o or e. — on, 
upon, at; at the question where? 

ra on, upon (at); at the question where to? 

ert for, 

ig till, untill, 

kep in the form of ... , in the shape of ... , 

kent like, as, 

ul as, 

vd to, into, expressing a transformation. 

The words of the Hungarian language being 
either hard or soft, all the affixes assimilate their 
vowels to those of the word to which they are 
added ; thus , we shall have as many affixes of the 



90 



iame kind, having the vowels 6 instead of d, and. 
e instead of «; thus, be instead of ba^ rol instead 
of rol etc. The affix kox gives hoz and he» for 
soil words. 

A* templombol. A* szobdbol. A' falhoz^ ax 
asztalon. A* konyvben. En as asztalra tettem (I 
have put it on the table). A' templomban voltunk, 
Az oskoldba megyiink (we go). A' konyvbe irtam. 
Az atydmndl voltam. En es a' bdtydm mi a* nagy* 
bdtydnk* ke?'tjeben voltunk (we have been in our 
uncles garden). A' bardtomhoz megyek (I go). 
En az atydmnak adtam. A* nenyemnek adorn, 
Az anydmtol kaptam. A' hugom (my younger 
sister) a' bardtnejdnak komjvet adott (has given) 
aj'dndekba (for a present). En ezt a' konyvet ajdn- 
dekba kaptam az anydmtol. A' kertbSl jovilnk. A 
szobdba megyiink. A' hdzban vagyunk. Az asztal- 
ra tettem. A' konyv az asztalon van. 

The Verb follows its Substantive. 

We come (j'dvunk) from (out of) church. You 
go (mentek) to (ba) school. We go into the garden. 
I have been at my friend's. I learn with pleasure. 
You write with (a) pen. He learns out of (a) book. 
I have received (a) book for a present from my father. 
My mother gave (adott) (a) book to her elder 
sister. I have carried a letter to my uncle. We 
have received flowers from our gardener. Our gar- 
dener's son has given flowers to my younger «i§tor. 



40 



He has put it (tette) on the table. The book is*) 
on the table. The letter is at mj fathers. Mj bro- 
ther went (ment) for (some) flowers. I bought 
(vetteni) (a) horse (lovat) for two hundred (kH 
sziis) guineas. 

2. 
All the other terms, representing the Preposi- 
tions of foreign languages, are placed immediately 
after the Substantive to which thej belong, but they 
are not joined with the Substantives; thus^ „over 
the table" means as asztal felett. As (under II C, 3) 
the Possessive Pronouns mine, thine, his etc. were 
expressed by means of possessive afGxes m, d, ja, 
etc., the Prepositional affixes likewise are joined 
with the possessive personal affixes. Instead 
of joining ben to the Pronoun en, as enben^ in me, 
the possessive affix m with the proper vowel is ad- 
ded to the Prepositional affix ben; thus, enben 
becomes bennem, teben (in thee) becomes benned., 
and so on. There being some irregularities in form- 
ing these expressions, therefore they are subjoined 
in the following scheme: 

bennem in me, benned in thee, benne 
, j gives, in him, in her, in it, benniink in us, 
bennetek in you, bennok in them. 

(to the question where to?) belem in me, 
, j in beled in thee, bele or beU^'e in him, her, it, 

beUnk in us, beletek in you, belejok in them. 



") In similrT constructions the „is" ran, must be expressed. 



41 



ra) , , a. ream (ram) on me, read (rad) 

[on (where to?) / • ^ r, , . 

reS on thee , rea (ra) , — 7^eank 

(rank) on us, rdtok , rdjok. 

n on (where?) rajtam on me, rajtad on thee, i^ajta^ 
rajtunk on us, rajtatok, rajiok. 

hoz to (towards?) hozsdm, to me, hozsdd to thee, 
hozzd, hozzdja to him, her, it, hoz- 
zdnk to us, hozzdtok, hozzdjok. 

nek to (to whom?) nekem to me, neked to thee, 
7ieA7 to him, her, it, nekunk to us, 
nektek, nekik. 

b6l out of, helolem out of me, from me, beloled, 
belole, beloliink out of us, from us, 
beldletek , belolok. 

tdl from, tolem from me, toled from thee, t6le 
from him, her, it, toliink from us, 
toletek from you, fo/wAr from them. 

rol of, from, (motion downwards) 7'6lam of me , from 
me, I'olad of and from thee, rola of 
and from him (her, it), rolunk^ rola- 
tok, roluk. 

ndl by , at (relative to place) , ndlam at my home, 
by me, with me, ndlad, ndla; ndlunk, 
ndlatok, ndlok. 

ert for, irtem for me (for my sake) erted, erte; 
ertiink, htetek^ ertok, 

vel with (in company with), velem with me, veled, 
vele, velunk with us, veletek, velok. 



43 

Az Isten igazsdgos bizzunk (instead of bizjunk, 
see § 3) benne (let us trust in him). Az ocsem 
ndlam volt. Tegnap ndlunk vendegek voltak. Az 
atydm nekem adta az ordjdt, en pedig (and I) 
neked adorn. Nekiink ajdndekoztdk ezt a' konyvet 
(this book). En nektek adtam a' ruhdmat. Mond- 
meg (tell) neki. Az anydm neki azt mondta. En 
tSled kaptam. A' kerteszunk tdliink kapja ke- 
nyerct. Ez new, all rajtam (this does not depend 
on me). Rolam. azt mondjdk (people say that of 
me). Hazdnk tdliink hdladatossdgot kivdn, rajtunk 
all kotelessegiinket telyesiteni. Sziileink mindent 
tesznek (do) ertiink. A* gyermekek nem iesznek 
mindent ertok. 

He told me (to me) that. My parents gave me 
(to me) a very fine book. 1 shall give you (to you) 
apples, pears and plums*). Did you give him (to 
him) grapes and figs. I make you a present of these 
pictures (I present to you these pictures). We have 
received from you (a) book, (a) pen and (a) copy- 
book. I have been to your home. Our brother has 
been with you. Will you go to him (to him will you 
go) ? No, we have received (a) letter from him (from 
him we have received letter). Did you say that of 
him? We have not spoken of him (of him not we 
have spoken). If you speak of me, I shall speak of 
you (If of me you speak , I of you shall speak). 



*) The collective nouns arc to be used in the Singular Number. 



43 

IV. 

Expression of tlie Verb ,,To liave^S 
^^to be III possession of..>^ 

1. 

Nekem van dram I have a watch, neked van 
ordd thou hast a watch, ?ieki van drdj'a he has a 
watch, nekiink van drank we have a watch, nektek 
van ordtok jou have a watch, nekik van ordjok 
they have a watch. 

The past Tense is formed by using volt and 
voltak; thus: 

I have had a watch nekem volt ordm, ihou 
hast had a watch neked volt ordd^ etc. 

The Future: I shall have a watch, nekem 

less ordm, thou wilt have a watch neked 

less oi^dd etc. 

Thus the Verb „to have" is expressed by means 

of nekem, neked, neki, nekiink, nektek, nekik, the 

third Persons of the Verb to be, throughout all its 

Moods and Tenses, and the object possessed with 

its relative affixes of possession. 

The litteral translation of jiekem van ordm is 
„to me is my watch," which is derived from: „my 
watch is belonging to me". This expression really is 
a pleonasm and this pleonasm is the reason why the 
expression nekem van ordm is shortened into van 
ordm, in which the nekem is neglected entirely. 

Thus, the shorter expressions are: I h^ vvatch, 
van ordm , thou hast a watch , van he 



44 

and she has a watch, van oi'dja etc. The same 
way all the other Tenses are shortened. 

If instead of the Personal Pronoun: En, te, 6, 
I, thou, he, she etc. any other Substantive be used, 
the affix nak or nek — to must be joined with the 
Substantive used: A' tanitonak van ordja, the 
teacher has a watch. 

Az atydmnak van hdza^ a' nagybdtydmnak 
van kertj'e ; nekiink van konyvUnk. Van -e*) mun- 
kdd? Nekiink van kertiink. Van-e hdzatok? Ne- 
kem van kedvem dolgozni. Mi dolgod van (what 
have you to do)? Nekem volt konyvem a' bdtydm- 
nak lesz papirosa es tolla. Nekiink lesz pen- 
ziink nektek pedig lesz gyiimolcsotok. Lesz-e idodl 
Lesz-e nektek iddtok? Ha volna iddm. Ha iddm 
volna. Volna iddm. Legyen neki is almdja (let 
him have apples as well). Legyen neked ordd (thou 
mayst have a watch). 

I had (a) book, you had money, they had (a) 
dress. My father had (a) house, my aunt had a 
garden. We may have fruit. You had grapes, but 
they had pears. My brother will have (a) watch, 
let him have (a) penknife. If I had a book. I 
should le^rn. If my sister had a master (tanito), 
she would learn Hungarian (Hungarian she would 



*) The letter e is very often added to the Verb in inter- 
rogative sentences; if the Verb be missed it is added to the 
Substantive, to which the question relates. Thus van-e mun- 
kdd? ha«< thou got work; kiinyv-e vagy irds , a book or 
writings. 



4S 

learn). 1 had a teacher of languages. My teacher 
of languages had a book, and he gave it to me 
(and that to me he gave). My mother had a ring 
and she gave it to me. My brother has sold his 
horses (lovait). I have said that to you. We have 
received a letter. — 

2. 

If the objects possessed are mor^ the affixes 
of plurality are used and the copulative Verb to be 
is used in the Plural Number as well. I have a 
watch, means nekem van dram; I have watches, will 
mean nekem vannak ordim, thou hast watches neked 
vannak diHiid. The same way all the other Tenses 
are formed. 

If the Personal Pronoun I, is used with any 
Emphasis, in: „I have, and not, Thou hast," then 
the Personal Pronouns en, te, 6, I, thou, he etc. 
are put before the words nekem, neked, neki etc. 
Thus , I had a watch , and not my friend , means 
en nekem volt dram nem pedig a' bardtomnak. 

Obs. The Personal Pronouns are used expres- 
sively as often as there is put any Emphasis on 
personal distinctions; thus, „I have done it" (and 
no other one else), we say, en tettem azt, — 
my book (in opposition of some one else's) , we say 
az en koni/vem, etc. The same is to be observed 
of other personal distinctions. 

Nekiink van kertunk. Ti nektek vammk kert- 
jeitek. Az atijdmnak vannak lovai. A' vdrosnak. 



46 

vannak lakosai. A^ katondnak van bdtoi'sdga. A' 
hadvezemek van tehetsege (The leader of the armj 
is an able man). A' ntrpnek van szabadsdga. A' 
kirdlyoknak van hatalmuk. Anglidnak van gazdag- 
sdga. Britanidjiak van hajoserege. A' Magyamak 
van hire. Ameincdnak van szabadsdga. A' Brittek- 
nek van kirdlynSjok. Europdnak vannak zsarnokai. — 

Men have (a) soul. Animals have (an) instinct. 
The lion is strong (translate: has strenght). (The) 
Birds have wings. (The) Plants have roots. Our 
gardener has flowers. My aunt has (a) garden. We 
have trees in our garden. The trees have fruit. We 
had apples , you had grapes. My younger sister will 
have fine (szep) dresses. You will have (a) fine 
piano. My father has fine horses. Our uncle has 
large (nagy) houses. (The) kings have (the) power 
over the people. The generals have soldiers. Eng- 
land has brave admirals. Nelson had brave soldiers. 
(The) People shall have their liberty. The righteous 
will have their reward. 

3. I have not. 

Negations are expressed by nem. I have not, 
will be nekem nem van and nekem nem vannak. The 
expressions nem van and nem vannak, are contracted 
in nines, nincsen and nincsenek. The Past Tense is: 
nem volt, the Future : nem less. Tn the Subjunctive 
Mode the nem is changed into ne,- thus, ne legyen, 
means may not have. 



47 



Nekem nines dram (I have no watch). Neked 
nincsen ruhdd, neki nines konyve. A* tanitonak 
nines ideje. Az atydmnak nincsen lova. Nekiink 
nines kertiink. Nektek nincsenek tollaitok. nekik 
nincsenek kojiyveik. A' tanulonak nem volt tentdja. 
A* fiiinak nem less kedve. Nekem ninesen kedvem 
(I am not in the humor for). Nektek nincsen kedvetek 
tanulni (you are not in the humor for learning). A' 
hugomnak nines kedve jdtzani. Ne legyen neki 
oi^dja. Ne legyenek a' fiunak konyvei. Nem less- 
nek lovai as atyddnak. Nincsenek- e neked tollaid? 
Nem volt-e a' fiunak lecskeje? As anyddnak nem 
volt-e kocsija? As anydmnak van kocsija de a' 
nagynenyemnek nincsen. 

I do like (nekem van kedvem) to play. My 
brother likes to learn. I am in the humor for read- 
ing. We have got (a) house, you have no garden. 
Your parents have (a) fine (ssep) house and large 
fields. Our soldiers have muskets and bayonets. 
Your soldiers have swords. My brother has books, 
but my sister has none. Our father has money, but 
we have none. I had no pocket-handkerchief. You 
have no cravat. I shall have a new dress, but you 
"will have none.*) My brother has a fine bird , and 
my sister has a little (kis) dog. Our aunt has fine 
jewels. I have a diamond, my sister a ruby, and 
my brother an emerald. The king has many (sok) 
diamonds in his crown. 



•) nektek nem les» = you will have none. 



48 



V. Attributes of Substantives 

(Adjectives and Numerals). 

1. 

Any attributive term of a Substantive whatever 
precedes its Substantive immediately and is invariable 
before it; if the Substantive is missed, the Adjective 
receives the afflxes of the Substantive. 

Jo ember. Jo ember' tette (his action). A' 
jo fiut szereti a tanito. A' tanito a ssorgalmatos 
fiunak konyvet adott. As en*) nagy konyvemet 
az edes**) (dear) anydmtol kaptam ajdndekba. A* 
jo Istenben bizzunk 6 mindenhaio es kdnyoriiletes. 
Az edes atydm nekem sztp kepet adott (gave). As 
en konyvemben vannak szep kepek, de a te konyved- 
ben nincsenek (are none: see above). A' mi nagy 
kertilnkben vannak magas fdh, a kis kertiinkbert 
nincsenek fak, de szep virago k. Van nekiink nagy 
retXink, sok szdntofdldunk es szep hdzunk. 

I have a fine watch, and you have (a) beautiful 
gold -chain. My brother has received (a) fine picture 
from his good uncle. Our dear aunt gave us two {ket) 
books for a present. Our Queen has a large army, 
many cannons, and a great fleet. The commerce of 
England is extensive, its fleet protects the far-sailing 
ships of the merchants. The great ocean separates 
the savages of Australia from the civilized nations 
of Europe. 

*) en precedes the substantive konijvem my book, because of 
emphasis, see IV. 2. 
•*) edes, sweet, is a common attribute of persons belored to us. 



49 

2. 

Comparison of Adjectives. 
Magas high, magasabb higher, leg-magasabb 
highest; ritka rare, ritkdbb rarer, more scarce, 
leg-ritkdbb rarest; veres red, veresebb redder, 
leg-veresebb reddest. 

The Comparative is formed by means of bb, which 
is preceded by the vowel « or e, if the Adjective 
terminates with a consonant. 

Obs. Words ending in u, i, and s receive the 
termination of the Comparative either with a preceding 
vowel, or without it; if the vowel « or e is missed 
after s, then only a single b is used as the termination 
of the Comparative. Regi ancient, regibb and regiebb 
more ancient; siiril dense, siirubb and suruebb more 
dense; vildgos light, vildgosabb and vildgosb lighter. — 
In compounds the latter part of which has a final 
u ov Uy only the first part of the composition receives 
the termination of the Comparative: nagylelku^ na- 
gyobblelku. 

Az oroszldny nagy dllat a' vizilo nagyobb, 
az elefdnt legnagyobb, Scotidnak vannak magas 
berczei. Olaszorszdgnak «' hegyei magasabbak, a' 
svajczi hegyek legmagasabbak. A^ tigris (van) 
kegyetle?i,a' hyena (van) kegyetlenebb, de a' zsamokok 
(vannak) legkegyetlenebbek. A' kegyetlen zsamok 
kiuzi a^ jo hazafit a' hazdjdbol. Az eziist drdga, 
az arany drdgdbb , a' gyemdnt legdrdgdbb. Minden 
embemek van esze, de nem minden ember haszndlja 
az eszet. A^ jo munkds tudja haszndlni a' rosz 

Csink. hung. Gram. 4L 



50 / 

szerszdmot is. Ravasz ember kdrosabb mint az dllat. 
Az elet drag abb mint az oltozet. En Idttam mag as 
hegyet, de a' bdtydm magasabbat Idtott (he saw). A' 
mi hdzunk drdga^ de a^ ti hdzaitok meg drdgdpbak. 
Our room (is) light, but jours (is) lighter. His 
coat (is) dearer than yours. Our lesson (is) difficult, 
yours (is) more difficult (nehezebb) , theirs (is) the 
most difficult. The patriot loves his country (hazdjdt). 
The general loves the brave soldiers, he praises the 
gallant struggler. Nelson was a valiant admiral and 
Napoleon an excellent mihtary commander. Luther 
was the great reformer of the declining church of 
Christ. Melanchthon was the sincerest friend of 
Luther and the meekest of all (the) reformers. 
Great men are immortal, their names are as many 
monuments in History. The wars of the middle ages 
were more sanguinary than the wars of recent times. 

3. 

Jo good , jobb better , legjobb best. 

szep beautiful, szebb more beautiful, legszebb most 

beautiful. 
sok much, many, tobb more, legtobb most. 
konnyii fight, easy, konnyebb fighter, easier, leg- 

konnyebb fightest, easiest. 
kicsiny ^ kis little, kisebb less, legkisebb least. 

Jobb egy vereb a' kezben, mint egy tuzok 
a' hdzon. Tobbet adni nem vetek. Az emberek 
mindf'g tobbet J^vdnnak. Kinek sok van (he who 
has much) az meg tobbet kivdn. Konnyebb mondani 



SI 

mint sem tmni. Szebb (more pleasant) az Slet a' 
meseben mint a valoban. A^ mi kertilnkben vannak 
szep viiHigok, de a^ tietekben szebb virdg van. 
Nekem van kis kutydm , de a' nenyeme meg kisebb. 
A' mi kertunk kicsiny; «' ti hdzatok is kUcsiny. 
A' kis kertben szebb virdg van mint «' nagyban. 

The daughter of our neighbour is more beautiful 
than this girl. We have much money, but our uncle 
has (still) more. We have seen a fine horse, 
but we have (a) finer (one). The little dog of my 
sister has a black colour. Your dog is (a) little (one), 
but that of my sister is (a smaller one) less. Have 
you much money? I had more than I have now. 
You had many houses. We shall have more gardens. 
You will receive more letters. Our lesson is easier 
(The) Wood is lighter than (the) metal, and the 
air is still fighter. 







Numerfi 


lis. 






^m 


1 


tizenegy 


11 


harmincz 


30 


ketto 


2 


tizenkettd 


12 


haiminczegy 


31 


hdrom 


3 


tizenhdrom 


13 


negyven 


40 


negy 


4 


tizennegy 


14 


negyvenegy 


41 


ot 


5 


etc. 




otven 


50 


hat 


6 


husz 


20 


hatvan 


60 


het 


7 


huszonegy 


21 


hetven 


70 


nyolcz 


8 


huszonkettd 


22 


nyolczvan 


80 


kilencz 


9 


huszonhdrom 


23 


kilenczven 


90 


tiz 


10 


etc. 




ssdz 


100 






eze)* 1000, milliom million. 












4* 





52 

Els6 first, tizenegyedik eleventh, 
mdsodik second, etc. 

harmadik third, huszadik twentieth, 

negyedik fourth, huszonegyedik twenty -first, 

otodik fifth, harminczadik thirtieth, 
hatodik sixth, etc. 

hetedik seventh szdzadik hundredth, 
nyolczadik eighth, etc. 

kilenczedik ninth, ezredik thousandth, 
tizedik tenth, etc. 

Hdny az or a (what o' clock is it)? Hdrom 
negyed negyre (a quarter to four). Hdny ember 
van a szohdhani Tizennegy. Mennyit adtdl az 
orddert? Hdrom font sterlinget. Hdny shilling 
van egy font sterlingben? Husz. Mennyit kivdn 
a kalmdr? Hat fontot meg (and) ket shillinget. 
Hanyadik van ma (what is the date)? A' huszon- 
harmadik. ElsS , vagy szent Istvdn volt az elsd 
magyar kirdly ^ harmadik Andrds pedig az utolso. 
Magyar orszdgnak volt ot magyar fejedelme, es 
husz magyar kirdlya. Elsd Ldszlo volt a' leg- 
Mr esebb magyar kirdly. ElsS Lajos kirdly alatt 
Magyarorszdg legterjedelmesebb volt, — 

What o' clock is it? It is half past five (two 
quarters on six). How much money have you? We 
have six shillings and a few pence. How many 
pence are (is) in a shilling? In a shilling there 
are twelve pence. A week has seven days, and a 
year has 365 days. Sunday is the first day of the 



S3 

week, Monday the second, Tuesday the third, 
Wednesday the fourth, Thursday the fifth, Friday 
the sixth, Saturday the last. What is the day of 
the month? It is the fourth of January. George 
the First died on the eleventh of June in the year 
1727 (ezer hetszdz huszonhetedik evben). In the 
year 1848 Europe struggled for its Hberty. Christ- 
mas is on the 25th of December, Easter is in March 
or April, and Whitsuntide in May or June. — 

5. 
Verbal Adjective (Participle). 

From any Verbal root may be derived two 
Adjectives, one by means of an additional 6 or J, 
and the second by the addition of ^, ott, ott, or ett, 
according to the demand of the Verbal root. 

These two Adjectives cannot be translated in 
other languages but by means of the Participles, 
although the Hungarian language has other expressions 
for the Participles of the modern languages (see 
below). 

From the Verb vdmi to wait, is formed, vdrd, 
expecting and waiting (a man waiting for), and vdrty 
expected or waited for. — 

Constructions by means of these Adjectives very 
often can be translated only by using the Relative 
Pronouns who, what, which ^ and, on the contrary, 
constructions of foreign languages with these Pro- 
nouns, are better given by means of the Verbal Ad- 
jective in the Hungarian language. 



84 

A' dolgozonak gyakran nines jutalma — he 
who works has often no reward. A sokat vdro 
gyakran keveset nyer — those who expect much, 
get often very Httle. 

A' megvert Ellenseggel nagylelkuen bdnni di- 
csdseges , it is glorious to treat the vanquished enemy 
generously. megnyerte az elveszettnek gondolt 
csatdt , he won the battle, which he thought was lost. 

These Adjectives, especially that of 6, are very 
often used as Substantives : 

Szabo tailor, from szabni to cut; beszeld, 
szolo speaker, from beszelni, szolni to speak; vetd 
sower, from vetni to sow (seminate); meselo the 
story teller, from meselni to narrate; iro the writer, 
author, from imi to write; a megtebolyodott the 
madman ; etc. 

VI. 

Traiisformatloii of tlie Verbal root. 

X» Passiire Voice. 

1. 

By the addition of the syllable at^ et, to the 
radical of the Active Voice, there is formed a new 
Verbal root, the root of the Passive Voice, f^dr, 
the root of vdmi, has a Passive root in vd?'at, 
Infin. vdratni to be waited for, to be expected, 
vemi to beat, veretni to be beaten. 

Verbs which have a final t in their root, 
preceded by a long vowel or a consonant, and 



55 

Verbs having two or more syllables in their Active 
root , receive the syllable tat or tet as the termination 
of the Radical of the Passive voice. 

Pres. Varatom I am expected, vdratol thou 
art expected, vaimtik he is expected; vdratu?ik we 
are expected, vdrattok you are expected, vdratnak 
they are expected. — Veretem I am beaten , veret-el 
thou art beaten, veretik be is beaten; veretiink 
we are beaten, verettek you are beaten, veretnek they 
are beaten. 

A' fiu veretik^ mi is veretunk. A' tanulo ta- 
nittatik. A' vird(jok gyvjttetnek. Az en konyveim 
bekotetnek. A^ hdzatok ma eladatik. A' bdtydm ass 
oj'djdt eladj'a. Az atydm hdzat eldd (he sells). Az 
ellenseg megveretik. Sok orszdgokbol kiuzetnek a' 
szabadsdg bardtjai. A' szerencsetlenek mindeg taldl- 
nak menedekhelyet ^ hoi szivesen felvetetnek. Ki 
szlvesen f'elvesz, az szivesen felvetetik. 

Hungarian characters are written like the Eng- 
lish , but many Hungarian characters are not pronoun- 
ced like the English. My brother is liked by all his 
friends. Children are loved by their parents. Men 
are educated by the circumstances in which they live. 
Savages are guided by nature. Sailors are taught to 
hazard. Huntsmen are led to (ra) perseverance. In 
times of war much blood is shed, towns are set 
on fire, castles are demolished, countries are depo- 
pulated, and the inhabitants of them are ruined. 
When peace is restored, trade is carried on. 



56 
2. 

IMPERFECT. 

Vdrat'dm I was expected, vdrat-dly thou wast 
expected, vdrat-ek he was expected; vdrat-dnk 
we were expected, vdrat-dtok you were expected, 
vdrat-dnak they were expected. 
PERFECT. 

Vdrat'tam I have been expected, I was ex- 
pected, vdrat'tdl, vdrat-ott; vdrat-tunk we have 
been and we were expected , vdrat-tatok, vdrat-tak. 
FUTURE. 

f^df^atm fogok I shall be expected, vdratni 
fogsz thou wilt be expected , vdratni fog he will be 
expected; vdratni fogunk we shall be expected, 
vdratni fogtok , vdratni fognak. 

A' fiu veretni fog , merltiem vigydzott (Perfect). 
A"* mi hdzunk el fog adatm*) mert mi idegen foldre 
utazunk. Mi vdrattunk ebedre a' iiagybdtydnktol. 
Az edes any dm' kertjeben ma szedetik «' gyiimolcs. 
A"* virdgok bokretdba kotettek a' hugomtol. Ezek 
(these) a' kepek a' leghiresebb festdtdl festettek. 
A' ti hdzatok a' legugyesebb epitesztdl epittetett. 

You will be expected at supper by your aunt. 
Charles has been taught to read and write, yet he 
does**) not write well. The boy was beaten, be- 

*) el fog adatni instead of eladatni fog; such diremptions 
of compound Verbs are made because of the Emphasis ; in such 
cases the accent is always on the first part of the composition. 

**) The Verb „to do" as an Auxiliary , is never used in the 
Hungarian language, but the principal Verb receives the Con- 
jugation of the Auxiliary ; thus , „writes" ... — 



57 

cause he oifended his teacher. (The) Boys who 
(kik) are inattentive are punished. We have never 
been punished, because we always did our duty. 
All men (mindeii emher) were born with equal rights, 
and privileges have been introduced through the 
injustice of tyrants. Men are punished by their own 
vices. A large empire has been founded by Alexan- 
der the Great (the great Alexander), but it was 
dismembered soon after the Hfe of its founder was 
extinguished. 

3. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Vdrassam (instead of vdratjam^ see Intr. § 3) 
I may be expected, I shall be expected, vdrassdl 
thou mayst and shalt be expected, vd/'ossek; vdras- 
sunk , vdrassatok, vdrassanak. 

CONDITIONAL. 

Vdratndm I might and I should be expected 
vdratndlj vd?'atnek; vdratndnk, varatndtok; vdrat- 
ndnak. 

Fdrattam volna I should and might have been 
expected , and if I had been expected , vdrattdl volna, 
vdratott volna; vdrattunk volna; vdrattatok volna, 
vdrattak volna. 

Az okos ember ugy intezi el dolgait (makes 
such arrangement) hogy ne vdrassek. Iparkodom 
nehogy vdrassam. A' ftii megveretnek ha nem enge- 
delmeskednek. Ha mi nem tanittatndnk, nem is 
tudndnk semmitsem. Ne keressel (be not asked, do 
not let you ask) arra, hogy mdssal jot tegyel. 



58 

En mondtam hogy a kdny\)em kerestessek. Az 
alydnk megparancsolta , hogy a tollak megszdmit- 
tassanak. tlgy beszelj hogy megertessel. Idegenek 
meg nem ertetnek ha sajdt nyelviikon beszelnek. 

If the letters had been written, you would 
not have been blamed by the teacher. The tyrant 
commanded, that the citizen should be flogged. 
The enemies were beaten by our army, but the fact 
has been denied by them. An extensive trade is 
carried on between England and its colonies. The 
trade would be more extended, if such intentions 
were not prevented by envy. My father has disposed, 
that our house at Paris might be sold. Our rich 
neighbour has ordered, that his tenants be driven 
out of his house. The French were driven from 
(out of) East India. 

B. Factitive Verbal roots. 

The meaning of all Active Verbs may be repre- 
sented in such a condition as to express by them the 
subject made active by a cause which Hes without 
the sphere of the subject. Such representations in 
the modern languages are expressed by means of the 
Verbs to let, to make, to cause, to have, etc. 

The Hungarian language forms a new Verbal 
root for these representations , by the addition of the 
syllable tat or tet to the root of the Active voice. 
Vdmi to wait, forms vdr-tat-ni to let wait for, and 
to cause any one to wait. 



59 

Obs. 1. The Passive root is very often used 
in the meaning of Factitive Verbs, and the root of 
Factitives must often be translated by the Passive 
voice of our modern languages; thus, kormunyosni 
to govern, forms konndnyoztatni to be governed, 
korondzni to crown, koj'ondztatni to be crowned, etc. 

Obs. 2. The Factitives have both, the deBnite 
and indefinite, forms of Conjugation; Factitive roots, 
used as Passive ones, have only the forms of the 
Passive voice. 

A' Bdtydm sokdig vdrtat (My brother lets me 
wait a long time). Az atydm szep konyvet fog 
kottetni. Mi csindltatunk (we have — made) uj 
kabdiot. Koszorultesd*) a' tollkesedet ha azt akarod 
hogy vdgjon, Az Atydm szdmoltatja a' konyveit a" 
bdtydmmal (My father makes my brother count his 
books). A' tanito velem iratja a leveleket (the 
teacher, lets me write the letters). Az edes any dm 
a' hugommal olvastatja ezt a' konyvet. Ha nekem 
penzem volna ruhdt csindltatnek. Minden bardtim 
velem. fizettetik adossdgaikat. Szdmittasd fel a' 
penzt hogy tudjuk mennyi van. Mi hdzat epitteiiink, 
ti pedig kdstelyt. 

We have our dresses made at our tailor's, but 
our friend has his made at your tailor's. Let your 
brother read his lesson. We had a fine house built. 



*) The tennination of the second Person of the Subjunctive 
jad and jed , is often contracted into d; thus, „sad" and „sed'* 
becomes d as well ; and instead of vdrjad wait , we have vdrd^ 
instead of kosz&rultessed , we have koszoriiltesd. 



60 

Our father causes us to read every night (minden 
estve). I shall let you write a letter for my friend. 
We shall have our saloon lighted up by forty -five 
lamps. Do make your brother finish his writings 
(do make finish: vegeztesd). If you have a new 
coat made, give it to our tailor. We have our 
boots made at Mr. B'.s. I do not like to go out 
with Charles, because he keeps me waiting for him 
a very long time. Our teacher lets us count every 
day. After we have finished our school -work, our 
mother lets us play on the piano. Our music master 
lets us sing as well. 

ۥ Potential roots. 

The possibility of any action represented in the 
Verb, as well as the notion of „being able" to 
perform the action, is expressed by the syllables 
hat, het, which are added to the root of the Verb, 
Active, Passive, or Factitive; thus is originated a 
new root, to which the Conjugational terminations 
are joined as to a Primitive Verbal root. Vdmi to 
wait for, vdratni to be waited for, vdrtatni to let 
(make any one) wait, have as many roots of 
possibility in vdrhat, vdrathat and vdrtathat, and 

vdrhatok, means : I may, I can, I am able to wait ; 

vdrathatOMy I can be waited for, it is possible 
that I am waited for ; 

vdrtathatok I am able to make one wait, or 
I can let anv one wait. 



61 

The Conjugational forms are the same as given 
for the Active and Passive voice. 

Obs. The final n of the primitive root of 
Verbs is missed before the potential termination het. 
Thus: men-ni forms me -het, ven-ni forms ve-het, 
vin-ni forms vi-het, etc. 

En vdrhatok, ti nem vdrhattok. Az anydnk 
nem vdrhat. En olvashatok. Ok olvashattak volna. 
A tanulo nem irhatja a' levelet, Ki nem tanul 
mikor tanulhat, az nem fogja tudni azt a mit 
tudhatna. Az ellenseg megverethetett volna, de a* 
vezh^ ugyetlen volt. Szerencses az , ki (he who) 
mds kdrdn*) tanulhat. Nem mindenki mehet (can 
go) mennyorszdgba. Ha mi tudhatnok, hogy mi fog 
tortenni, sok bajnak elejet vehetnenk. Mindnydjan 
hibdzhaiunkf mert tokeletlen teremtesek vagyunk. 
Ki jot iehet (can do) es nem teszi (does), az (he 
is) blinds. 

I am able to read. My friend is not able to 
write. I can say my lesson. You cannot pronounce 
this word. My brother can speak French, and his 
friend can speak Hungarian. We are not able to 
learn our lesson. (The) Soldiers may fight against 
the enemy whilst the tradesmen attend to (utdn) 
their business. The power of tyrants cannot last, 
for it is self - consuming. If governments were able 
to carry out all the wishes of their sovereigns, they 
would become superfluous themselves. As soon as 



*) Kdr , loss, kdra, his loss, kdrdn, on his loss. 



the people is able to govern itself, it will throw off 
the guardianship of monarchs. 

A' konyveim be nem kotethetnek (cannot be 
bound) e^ heten (this week). Ezek a' levelek nem 
irathatnak ma. Rest tanulok nem dicsertethetnek. 
Idegen foldon nehezen taldltathatik azon szivesseg 
melly (which) minket (us) tulajdon tuzhelyeinknel 
dpolgat. Messze foldon kerestethetik «' hii bardt, 
ha bennunk huseg nincsen. Nem mindnydjan tanit- 
tathatunk egy mest&i^segre. Ambdr vdrtathatndm 
(I was able to let wait) «' fiut, meg is inkdbb siette- 
tem. En elbeszeltethetnem vele az egesz ugyet, de 
unalmas azt hallgatni. — 

I cannot be expected at my uncle's. You could 
be received better (you possibly might be received 
better) if you made him a present. It is uncertain 
whether (ha) the battle could have been won. The 
enemies might have been vanquished, if the soldiers 
had had capable leaders. Gutta-percha can be used 
for (ra) fancy works; of it can be made baskets, 
plates, spoons, inkstands, picture and looking-glass 
frames. I could not let you wait any longer. If I 
were able to have my coat made at your tailor's, 
I should gain in (n) its price and in the beauty of 
its shape. 

!>• medium. 

Many Verbs which really have an active or 
reflexive meaning are used as Neuter, and as such 
they receive Personal terminations of Conjugation 



63 

like those of the Passive Voice. Lakni to inhabitj 
means in its medial form to live, to dwell. 

INDICATIVE. 
Pres. lakom I live, I dwell, lakol thou livest, 

lakik he lives; lakunk^ laktok, laknuk. 
Past, laktam I have lived, I have dwelt, lakidl 
thou hast lived, lakott he has lived ; laktiink, 
laktatok, laktak, 
Fut. lakni fogok I shall live, lakni fogss thou 
wilt live, lakni fog he will live; lakni 
fogunk we shall Hve, lakni fogtok vou will 
live, lakni fognak, thej will live. 
SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Lakjam that I may live, lakjdl, lakjek; lak- 
junk , lakjatok , lakjanak. 

CONDITIONAL. 
Lakndm I would live, lakndl, laknek; lakndnk, 
lakndtok, lakndnak. 

Londonban tobb mint ket milliom embej' lakik*). 
En igen szep tdjon lakom, hanem te nem lakol oily 
szep videken. Sok bajj'al kiizdik az ember mig e^ 
vildgot lakja (inhabits). Mi tetszik neked jobban, 
a' veres vagy a ' zold szin. Nekem ugy Idtszik 
hogy nines igazad. Mindeg igazat szoljunk bdr 
ne is tessUnk**) mdsoknak. A nap forogni 
Idtszik a' fold koriil. Ha jot teszUnk (we do) 
ne Idtszassek***) hogy onzesbSl tettuk (we did). 

*) Singular after the Numerals. 

**) Tessunk instead of tetszjiink we may please. 

***) IdUzassek , instead of Idtszatfek , it shall appear. 



64 

Angolorszdg a' vildgnak minden reszeivel keres- 
kedik. A' nagykereskedd nem kereskedik kicsinyben 
(in retail). Kereskedjel hogy nyerjel valamit, mert 
nyereshdl elsz. 

We live in Oxford street, and you live in Hol- 
born, but he lives in Kentish Town. If he would 
live at my uncle's, he daily could take a walk in 
the park. If England traded to Russia, it would 
gain a great deal. He trades (with) in drapery. 
My brother works at (in) the carpenter's trade, and 
I work at the printing trade. Men who do not work 
are a burden (terhere) to society. Men sin against 
the law of the nature , when they oppress their fellow 
creatures. Tyrants sin against society by ruling 
(when they rule) others against their will. The 
King domineers over his people instead of governing 
it (instead that he might govern it). 

vn. 

Irregularitieis In Terlial for- 
mations. 

A. Verbal roots in ^A^'.^^ 

Verbs the root of which is not a monosyllabical 
one , and terminating with d, preceded by a vowel , are 
liable to contraction in the Present Tense of the 



*) Verbs of this kind are Mediums , but in regard to altidni, 
the people and Grammarians do not yet agree; the former, 
though erroneously, using it as a Neuter and Medium. The 
orms in which it commonly occurs are subjoined, its Medial 
form has the same terminations as lakni. See p. 155. 



65 



Indicative Mood; the whole syllahle od, ud, od, 
lid, ed is missed, and the consonant sz is put in- 
stead. Thus, fekUdni, to lie, has fekszetn I he; aludni, 
to sleep, has alsxom I sleep. 

Observ. If the penultima of the Verbal root 
has more than one consonant, such contractions are 
not made, but d is changed into sz: as, alkudni to 
bid, alJimzom I bid. 

1. 

INDICATIVE. 

Pres. alszom I sleep, alszol thou sleepest, alszik 
he sleeps, alszwik we sleep, alszotok you 
sleep , alszanak they sleep. — Fekszem I lie , 
fekszel thou liest, fekszik he lies; feksziink 
we lie, fekszetek you lie, fekszenek they lie. 
Past tense, aludtam I did sleep, I was sleeping, 
I have slept, aludtdl, aludott and aliidt ^ alud- 
tunk, aludtatok, aludtak and aludtanak. 
r u t. aludni fogok I shall sleep , etc. , regular. 

Hazudni, to tell a lie, and Verbs in which the 
syllable of contraction is preceded by z or sz, are 
not abbreviated , but the primitive root is used ; thus, 
hazudom instead of hazszom. 

Az ocsem mindhj haragszik ha valaki a' to Hat 
elveszi (tak esaway). A^ tanito megharagudott azon, 
hogy a' flu nevi tudta a' leczkejet. En ncm harag- 
szom rdd (redd: with you^, mert te nem tehetsz 
rola (you cannot help it). A' bdtydm sokdig alszik. 
Ti meg 10 drakor az dgyban fekszetek, te is addig 

Csink hung. Gram. 5 



66 

(till then r=^ as long) fekszel. Mi lefeksziink tiz dra- 
kor, es alszunk het oraig reggel. En mindeg alku- 
szom ha valamit veszek (buy). A' bdtydm soha sem 
alkuszik, es azert drdgdn fizet. En alkudtam. Ti 
nem alkudtatok. A^ ki hazudik hitelt nem erdemel. 
We do not go to bed before 11 o' clock. My 
brother is always in bed at 10 o' clock. Do you 
sleep long (long you sleep)? We sleep for seven 
hours (till seven hours), but our friend sleeps only 
for five hours. I do not go to bed early. My bro- 
ther is offended, because I did not lend him my 
book. You are always angry when you go to school. 
(The) Men that have once told a lie have no credit. 
He often tells a lie to defend his wickedness. Our 
teacher was offended yesterday, because one of his 
pupils (his one pupil) told a lie. I am never angrj 
with you. 

2. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Pres. aludj'am (commonly aludjak) shall I sleep, 
that I may sleep, aludjdl, aludjek; aludjunk 
that we may sleep, shall we sleep, alud- 
jatok, aludjanak. 

CONDITIONAL. 

Pres. aludndm (commonly aludnek) I would sleep, 

if I slept, aludndl, aludnek (commonly alud- 

?ia) ; aludndnk, aludndtok, aludndnak. 

Past, aludtam volna I would have slept, if I had 

slept, aludtdl volna, aludt volna; aludtunk 

volna, aludtatok volna, aludtak volna. 



67 

The Imperative is the same as the Subjunctive 
Mood; in the second person of the Imperative Mood ^ 
the termination dl, el, is often missed. 

Ne aludjdl sokdig, mei^t hosszu dlom art as 
egesssegnek. AludJ. Aludjunk (let us sleep). Ne 
haragudjatok azokra, kik (who) akaratlanul megbdn- 
tanak. Ha megharagudndtok mi nem meiinenk i\- 
hez. A"* bdtydm tovdbbig aludnek ha nem kellene 
(were not obliged) oskoldba meiini. Rest emberek 
mindeg alhatnak. En nappal nem alhatom de 
Kdroly mindeg alhatik. Lefekiidhetunk (can we go 
to sleep)? Ne fekiidjetek meg le, mert meg ?iincs 9 
ora. Ha mi rajta (about it, instead of azon) meg- 
haragudtunk volna, nem jottunk volna ide. Kerem 
meg ne haragudjanak hogy vissza nem hoztam a* 
kojiyvuket. Bdi^ haragiidjek is en neki nem adorn. 

Go to bed. Let us go to bed (fekiidjunk le). 
Do not tell lies, for you sin against yourself and 
against others. If he should tell a lie, he would be 
punished by his teacher. I should have told you 
a lie, if I had said it was not true. Never be angry 
with your neighbours. Be not offended at trifles. 
You would have been offended, if I had gone away 
without taking leave. Would you be offended, if I 
told you the truth? We are reposing; you have 
been reposing. Nature is in repose, and the airs of 
the birds do not sound (the birds their airs not sound). 
The sun has set. The sun sets. As soon as the 
sun sets the nocturnal birds leave their lurking places. 

5* 



68 



B* Verbal roots In ^yii.^^ 

3. 
Venni to buj, to take. 

Indicat. Pres. vessek I buj, vessel, *) veszen 
and vesz; veszunk we buy, vesz- 
tek, vesznek. 
Imp. vevek I bought, vevel, veve; ve- 
venk we bought, vevetek, vevenek. 
Perf. vettem I have bought, I bought, 
I was buying, vettely vett; vettunk, 
vettetek, vettenek. 
F u t. venni fogok I shall buj, venni fogsz, 
venni fog, etc. 
Subjunct. vegyek that 1 may buy, shall I buy, 
vegyel, vegyen; vegyiink, vegyetek 
vegyenek. 
Gondit. 1. vennek I would buy, if I bought, 
vennel^ veniie; vennenk, ve?inetek, 
vennenek. 
2. vettem volna I would or should have 
bought, vetlel volna, vett volna; veitunk 
volna, vettetek volna, vettek volna, 

Enni to eat**), inni io drink, lenni to become, 
hinni to believe , vinni to carry , to take , tenni to do, 



*) although veszesz is the proper form, yet veszel is 
commonly used. 

**) Enni and inni (which takes the personal affixes with 
hard vowels) are used in the Medial form; thus, eszem I eat, 
wze/ thou eatest, eszik he eats, etc., and iszom, iszol, iszi/i, etc. 



69 

and their compounds have the same conjugatlonal 
forms. 

A* nagybdtydnk hdsat vett, mi pedig kertet 
veszunk. f^eszel-e (Vilt thou buy) konyvet? Nem, 
en konyvet venni nem fogok hanem foldabroszokat, 
Ne vegyel ott ruhdt mert nem drulnak ottjo kelmet. 
Ha almdt vesztek ne egyetek (enni) meg, mert meg 
nem erett. J^egyetek meg ezt a' papirost mert olcso. 
Soha se higyetek azoknak kik egyszer hazudtak, 
konnyen megcsalhatnak. Az atydm elvette tdlem a' 
konyvet. Ne vegyetek el (do not take away) bardti- 
toktol azt mit (what) egyszer ajdndekba adtatok. 
Konnyen balvelemenyu lesz az , ki mindent hiszik. 

iigyan azt dllitja de en el nem hiszem. 

Do not take away the book from the learner. 

1 believe that many men are mistaken in their 
judgement through want of knowledge. He who 
(a ki) does good to {val) others, does services to 
himself. You must do with others as you wish 
that people should do with you. Did you eat the pears 
and apples? Eat these grapes and prunes. If I 
would have (had) eaten some bread and butter, I never 
had (could have) eaten any chesnuts. Do you believe 
that your brother will depart to-morrow ? I believe he 
will {fog). You did not believe me (to me) , when I 
told you. I shall believe you another time. My 
brother went for a soldier, and I shall go for a 
sailor. Did he go for a soldier in the horse -guards? 



70 

No; he went for a foot - soldier. The more we 
recede from the state of nature, the more difficult it 
becomes to be happy. 

4. 

Menni to go. 

Indie. Pres. megyek I go, megysz thou goest, 
megy , men he goes; megyUnk we 
go, mentek, mennek. 
Imp. menek I went, menel, mene; menenk 

we went, menetek, menenek. 
Perf. meiitem I was going, I went, I 
have gone, mentely ment; 
mentunk we have gone, we were 
going, we went, mentetek, mentek 
or mentenek. 
F u t. menni fogok I shall go , menni fogsz, 
thou wilt go, menni fog he will go; 
menni fogunk, etc. 
Subj. menjek, shall I go, that I may go, 

menjel, menjen; 
menjiink, menjetek, menjenek. 
€ond. 1. mennek I would go, mennel, menne, etc. 
2. mentem volna I would have gone, if 
I would have gone , mentel volna , ment 
volna; 
mentitnk volna, etc. 

Ha az ids szep lesz, setdlni megyiink. As 
anyam azt mondta, hogy ki ne menjek. Ha ki- 



71 

mennek az atydm karagudnek ram. Ki mondta 
hogy N. urhoz menjetek. Menjunk (let us go) 
haza mej't kes6. Ha elmennel, zdrd (instead of 
zdrjad) be a' szoba ajtot. En Parish a megyek az 
ocsem pedig Briisselbe megy, Kerem ne vegye 
rosz neven (do not take it ill) ha nem mennek 
onnel (with you). Mi elmegyunk, nem mentek ti 
is? Mi nem mehetiink mert az anydnk nem engedi. 

I should go to Paris, if my mother took (would 
lake) me with her. Will you go for a walk (to walk) 
this afternoon (ma delutdii) ? No ; we shall not go for 
a walk. Can you carry this book? I shall take 
(carry) this book to the bookbinder. Do not take 
that boot to the shoemaker. The boy took his 
books and his writings to the school. Have you 
done your work? We did our work yesterday, and 
you will do yours to-morrow. He never does his 
work. Beheve what I told you. I believe it, 
because your friend told me of it before he 
went to Paris. I should believe it, if he never 
had told a lie. 

Kinek kinek (to every body) ott kazdj'a, ahol 
jol megy dolga (he does well). Nem megy az 
mindeg ugy ahogy az ember magdban felieszi, 
Teszem fel (suppose) hogy elmennek^ mit fog 6 
azutdn csindlni. Ki vitte el az en konyvemet? A' 
bdtydd azt magdval vitte. Azt soha sem hittem 
volna hogy 6 elmenjeii, Ne hidd (hidjed) neki mert 



72 

pdpista. *) En hiszem, mert magam szemevel 
(my own eye) Idttam. Hiszed-e azt hogy telen 
mennydorog? Hiszem, mert magam is hallottam. 
Boldogok kik nem Idtnak es meg is hisznek. 

Take this newspaper up stairs. My brother 
took his coat to your tailor, for he had bought it 
of him. Never buy things without seeing them. I 
should like {szeretneU) to buy a horse, if I had 
money. The brother of your uncle suddenly became 
ill. I become ill if I eat fruit. Did you eat all 
the fruit which my mother has bought for you? We 
took some of it to your friend Charles, and some 
(jiemit) we ate in company with our friend Francis. 
Take these pears to your father; my brother has 
bought them for him; I believe they are good 
(ones). Do you (think) believe (that) we shall have 
some rain? Take this book back to the bookseller, 
and tell him (that) I shall not buy it. 

C Verbal roots in 99^^^. 

5. 

Indie. P r e s. lovok I come , jdsz thou comest , j6 
(jon) he comes, joviink we come, 
jotok, jSnek (jonnek). 
Imp. jovek I came, jovel, jove; 
jovenky jovetek, jovenek. 



I 



*) Proverb, meaning to be cautious. 



73 

Perf. jdtem I came, I did come, I was 
coming, I have come, j6tH, j6t, 
jotunk, jStetek, jotek. 
F u t. jdni (^and jonni) fogok I shall 
come, will come, joni (jonni) 
fogsz, joni fog; 

joni fogunk, joni fogtok , jdni 
fognak. 
Subj. jojek (land jojjek) shall I come, that I 
may come, jdjel (jojjel and jer) jdjjou; 
jdjiink that we may come, shall we come, 
jojetek (j'ojjetek) jojenek (jojjenek), 
Cond. 1. jdnek fand jonnek) I would come, if I 
came, jonel, j6ne; 
jdnenk, jonetek, jonenek. 
2. jdtem volna I would have come, 
jotel volna y jott volna; 
jdtilnk volna, jdtetek volna, jotek 
volna. 

Alike to the Ver^ joni to come, are formed: 
Idni to shoot, szdni to weave, hini to call, szini 
to draw, to smoke (tobacco), and similar ones, 
and their compounds. 

Obs. 1. Verbs of this kind are contracted from 
their primitive roots jov , lov , szov , hiv , sziv ; this 
root is restored in all formations in which the affix 
begins with a vowel; on the contrary, if the affix 
begins with a consonant, the radical v is thrown off 



74 

and the radical vowel protracted: thus Id-tem instead 
of lov-iem^ hi- tarn instead of hiv-tam, etc. 

2. The Verb joni, forms its Tenses regularly as 
well as by means of assimilation of the consonant v, 
with the initial consonant of the personal afGxes ; thus, 
we form j'Sni and j'onni, j'oj'ek and jojjek. 
This has mislead some Grammarians to adopt this 
assimilation in the Conjugation of all other Verbs, 
but they forgot that jorini retains its short vowel 
when the v is assimilated, and prolongs it when the 
V is thrown off. This is not the case with the other 
Verbs, for their vowel always remains a long one, when 
the affix begins with a consonant. This is the reason 
why some authors write hittam, Idttem, hini, hinek, etc. 

Ha ti holnap eljottok hozzdnk (to us) mulatozni 
fogunk. En eljottem v'olna hanem sok munkdm miatt 
ki nem mehettem, Jdjetek el ma, mert holnap nem 
leszunk (shall be) otthon. Mi el fogunk jdni. 
Bardtom ne jojj (Imperative) hozzdm, mert nem 
adhatom azt a' mit kertel. Jojjetek veliink setdlni. 
Mi nem jovunk setdlni minthogy dolgunk van, Haza 
jott-e mdr «' nagybdtydd? Meg nem jott hazct^ 
(jss) nem is vdrjuk csak hdrom nap mulva. Hozzdtok 
jonnek de felek hogy dolgotok lesz. Ne jojj ma 
hanem holnap, akkor jdtszhatunk. Ha tegnap jdtetek 
volna meg Idthattdtok volna a' kepet mit az atydm 
Brusselbe kUldott. A\ ki nem jon annak menni 
nem kell. 



75 

My brother came from the play (theatre) last 
night (yesterday evening) at 11 o' clock. We came 
from the country (falu) into (ba) the town. Did 
you come from London? No; we came from Bath. 
Did you not go to "London when you came from 
Paris ? Yes. My friend came from France to see all 
the curiosities of London. We shall come to you 
to-night, when we have done (elvegeztuk) our work. 
Do not come to day, for we shall be out (we not 
shall be at home). If you would come to-morrow 
morning we should go in the country. Shall I come 
this afternoon (ma delutdn)t No, you had better 
(inkdbb) come after to-morrow (Jiolnap utdn). Shall 
we come to see {Idtogatni) you next (Jovd) week? 

En tegnap vaddszni voltam de nem lotem semmit, 
A' vaddssok gyakran nem lonek. Szeretnek Idni. 
Ki hivott (hit). gondolom hogy az ocsed hit 
teged (thee). Hijdtok el azt az embert. Kdroly 
kihi mert valamit akar mondani. Nem akarsz egy 
pipa dohdnyt szini (to smoke) .^ En nem szoktam 
szini (I am not used to smoking). Az atydnk mindeg 
szivart szi. A' takdcs szovi (definite form of szdni) 
fl' vdsznaty az abroszokat es az asztal-kendoket, 
A' Posztos szb'veti (lets weave) a' poszto - kelmet. 
Angolorszdgban geppel szovetik a' posztot es a* 
vdsznat, Magyarorszdgban tobbnyire kezzel. 

When we were hunting we shot many hares 
and partridges. Can you shoot (do you know to 



76 

shoot)? No, I cannot shoot; but my brother shoots 
very well (very well shoots). I shot two deers 
yesterday. We have shot some wild ducks. Do not 
shoot when people are passing before you {elottetek). 
If you should shoot you would kill them. Did you 
call your brother? Call your younger brother as well. 
Your friend has called you, he wants to speak to 
you. Shall I call this gentleman. Call him. You 
never should call me when I am at work. What 
do you smoke, cigars or a pipe (tobacco)? I prefer 
smoking a pipe (tobacco). Did you ever smoke 
Havana segars? I did smoke them formerly, but now 
I prefer smoking Virginian tobacco. 

II. Verbal roots of ^^as^ sz<^. 

6. 

Verbal roots terminating in sz, z, preceded by a 
vowel, commonly receive o/, el, Wl in the second Person 
Singular Number instead of sz; the consonant j\ is 
assimilated to the radical sz , z. In the third Person 
Sing, of the Perfect Tense the t is redoubled and pre- 
ceded by a short vowel , which according to the Verbal 
root is either o or o and e : thus , hozott he brought, 
instead of hozt, fozott he cooked, etc. 

Obs. 1) If the verbal root ending in z be of 
two or more syllables the ultima is contracted 
according to § 5. Introd. Thus, from szerezni to pur- 
chase, we form: szerzek, szerzel, szerez, szerziink, 
szerezteky szereznek. Verbs the roots of which are 



77 

contracted that way , retain the vowel before the tt, 
of the Perfect tense in all personal terminations, thus: 
szerzettem, verzettem, etc. 

Te konyvet hozol en pedig papirost kertem. 
Hozzdl (hozjdl) kenyeret meg vajat. Ne hozzdtok 
ide azl az asztalL Mit hozol? Hozol- e almdtvagy 
kortvet? The so ha sem ekezel a hoi kell. Mit 
csindlsz haldszol-e vagy madardszol? Te ma vaddszol, 
mi pedig tegnap vaddsztunk. Te verzel *) bardtom 
hoi sebesiiltel. A' mit te magadnak szen^zel abban 
mdssal osztozol. A' bdtydm almdt hozott. A' 
konyvem elveszett. A^ ledny erzette a' pirongatdst. 
En verzettem. 

Thou bringest bread instead of meat. Dost 
thou bring pens or ink? Thou dost always bring 
things which are not wanted (what is not wanted — 
mi nem kell). Thou dost not fish. Art thou a 
hunting (huntest thou) or catching birds? Thou 
dividest into two parts, when thou ought to divide 
(a' mikor osztani kellene) into four (parts). Dost 
thou feel? Thou bleedest. Thou dost pull. Dost 
thou plague poor animals? Thou dost not torment 
poor children. When thou analyzest plants, thou 
makest use of a microscope. He has analyzed mine- 
rals. We have felt the misfortune. He has tormented 
a poor worm. He distributed money amongst the poor. 



*) instead of verezel and szerezel. 



78 

7. 



Verbs having a vowel before the termina- 
tion of the Infinitive ni, and such as have a 
final t in their root preceded bj a short vowel (as 
vet, fut, etc.), receive a short vowel (o , o, e^) 
before the Characteristic of the Perfect Tense, 
which in this case is reduplicated. For instance: 
hallani to hear, forms hall-o-ttam I have heard; 
kiejteni to pronounce, kiejt-e-ttem I have pronounced; 
kuzdeni to struggle, kiizd-d'ttem I have struggled, etc. 

Nagyon sokat hallottunk beszelni a regiek 
vitezsegiikrol; hallottad hogy mit mondott. A* 
Tolvaj nem vallott meg semmit. O elrejtette azt a' 
mit mdsok loptak. Hovd futottdl a' mikor hitalak 
(called thee). Te engemet imi tanitottdl «' bdtydm 
pedig tcged rajzolni tanitott. Ti addig halasztottdtok 
mig kesd volt. En nem halasztottam volna hanem 
az ocsem kert hogy ne siessek. Mit vetettetek abba 
(in that) a' kei'tbe. Mi virdgot meg zoldseget 
vetettunk. Ki iitott meg? A' flu megiitotte a' 
lapddval. O megszoritotta a' kezemet es eltiint 
Nagyon szoAtottak minket a' nagyszombati csata 
utdn. A Magyarok meghoditottdk Pannonidt 894 
evben. En megszolitottam az utczdn hanem 6 nem 
hallgatott ram. Kdroly kiejtette jol ezeket a* 
szavakat. Hallottad- e hogy an mondta ki 6? Ha 
jol kiejtetted volna azt a szot, «' ta?iitd nem 
igazitott volna. Miert (why) netn igazitottad ha 



19 

Idttad hogy hibdzott. Mikor yenst hosott hi oda 
nyujtottam a kczemet hogy tole dtvegyem. 

He has hidden himself, for he feared the 
punishment. He stretched out his hand, when he 
heard (persons) speaking of fruit. Did you h'sten to 
(that) what he has said? I have not listened. My 
teacher has corrected me always, when I have made 
a mistake (Jiibdt ejteni, to make a mistake). I have 
forgotten to learn my lesson. Charles has forgotten 
to take his hooks with him. William the Conqueror 
has conquered this island. The English nation 
delayed its assistance to foreign nations till it was 
too late. The clock struck one. We have sown 
seeds of flowers in our garden; our uncle has sown 
seeds of vegetahles in his garden. The thief has 
run away. My brother has spoiled my blue ink. 
I have painted a fine picture. 

8. 

Dissyllabical Verbs with a final t in their root, 
and Verbs the roots of which terminate with d, g, 
k, receive the short vowel (o , o, e,) before the t 
of the Perfect in the third person Sing. Szeret-ni 
to love, szeretett be loved, adni to give, adott he 
has given. 

Obs. 1. Dissyllables in d have, in the third 
person Perfect, either a single t or tt preceded by a 
short vowel; thus, szakad-ni to tear, will be szak" 
adt and szakadott it tore, reped-ni to crack, repedt 
and repedett it cracked. 



2. Lutni, to see, forms Idttam I have seen, 
Idttdl thou hast seen, lutott he has seen. 

Az ocsem hasa sietett; 6 nem szeretett volna 
tovdbb vdrni. Sokat fisetett az atydm a hdzaht. 
Istvdn 7ninap farkast kergetett. Ha 6 megakadott 
volna m segitettem volna rajta (on him; him). Ki 
segitett mldon ezt csindltad. A' bdtydm segitett, 
mert en diet segitettem mikor 6 dolgozott. A' fiu 
szaladott, en is elszaladtam. Megszakadt a' szive 
a' hazafinak hazdjdnak leigdzdsdn. Az oraldncz 
elszakodott 's azht az ora nem megy. Az atydm 
Londonban lakott, de en mindeg falun laktam. As 
any dm nekem almdt adott, es en ezt «' bardtomnak 
adtam. 

I have paid you all that I owed to you, but 
my debtor did not pay me. My brother paid 50 /. for 
his piano. I should have paid him, if he would 
have given me a receipt for it. My friend hastened 
away. Did he run? He cut his finger when he was 
cutting meat. The teacher expelled that boy from 
his school, because he was disobedient. Did you 
ever see a lion ? No, but our friend has seen a lion. 
He ran away because he was afraid of punishment. 
I loved you when you were obedient and behaved 
yourself well. I did not like (szeretni) the boy 
because of his insolence. 

9. 

The Hungarian language has the peculiar^- of 
expressing the Objective case of the Personal Proi^oun 



81 

of the second person, governed by any Active 
Verb, by means of an afGx added to the Verbal 
root. This peculiar form is used only when the 
speaker himself is represented as Active. The afflx 
used is lak and lek. Thus, I wait for thee or I 
expect thee, will be expressed by vdr-lak, instead 
oivdrom tegedet; I beat you, will be ver-lek instead 
of verem titeket; Idt-lak (Idtni to see) I see you 
and I see thee. 

Whether the form Idtlak means „I see you" or 
„I see thee" will be understood by the sentence in 
which such a form is used. The same affix may 
be added to the root of the Perfect and Future, 
in all the Tenses of the Conditional, and the 
Tenses of the Potential and Factitive Verbal forms, 
and thus be formed: vdrtalak I waited for thee, 
vdmi foglak I shall wait for thee, vdrjalak that 
I may wait for thee, vdmdlak I should wait for 
thee, vdrhatlak I can wait for thee, vdrtathatlak 
I can let thee wait. 

Ha mindjdrt eljoss meg megvdrlak. En meg- 
Idtogattalak volna tegnap de nagyon esett az es6, 
azert csak a' jovd heten foglak Idtogatni. Taldn 
nagyon sokdig vdriatlak (1 let you wait). Mult 
hetfdn hozzdm hivattalak. En vedielek (1 have 
defended thee) a tolvajok ellen, kik tegnap meg- 
tdmadtak. En nem szeretlek, mert nem akarsz 
engedelmeskedni; szerettelek mig szorgalmatos voltdl. 
En majd haza vezetlek (take you home) mert 
nem esmeritek az utatokat (your way). Vigydzz 

Csink. hung. gram. A 



82 

hogy meg ne iisselek. Vdrjalak? En tdbbe nem 
vdrhatlak, mert fel ora mulva oskoldba kell 
menni. Megverlek ha nem hagysz beket (keep the 
peace). Add (adjad) ide a kezedet hogy a visbdl 
ki huzzalak. Hogy van az hogy «' szinhdzban nem 
Idthatlak. Te kuWnben mindeg oda szoktdl jdmi. 
En nem hallhatlak ha oily halkkal beszeltek. 

I cannot reach you, for you stand very far 
from me. I shall beat you- if you spoil my hook. 
I should love you if you were diligent. If I should 
have seen you, I would have waited for you. I 
cannot beat you, although you deserved it. I could 
offend thee , but I shall show to thee , that I esteem 
thee higher (tobbre) than my private interest. 
Could I not see you? I would visit you, if you were 
at home to-morrow. Did I hurt thee? I did not see 
you. If I could have recognised you , I should have 
spoken to you (addressed you). I have sent for you 
last night. Did I call you? No, I called you not. 
If he would have left you in the field, you would 
have lost your way. I do not know you, for I 
never have seen you before. Did I not draw you 
out of the pond. I appeased you when you were in 
great emotion about (miatt) the loss of your fortune. 

Tni. Participles. 

The Verb of the Hungarian language forms its 
Participles by means of terminations added to the 
Verbal root. Active, Passive, Factitive, Potential, 
Medium etc.. 



83 

Such terminations are: vn, van; thus, vdrvd 
waited (waiting, having expected, being expected), vdr- 
vd?i waiting; vdratva having been waited for, vdratvdn 
being waited for; vdi'hatva, vdrkaivdn being able to 
wait for ; vdrtatva, vdrtatvdn leaving one waiting ; vdr- 
tathatva^ vdrtathatvdn being able to let one wait. 

The Participle of va is often used instead of an 
Adverb with any other personal form of the same 
Verb; for instance: vdi^a vdrtunk we waited 
waitinglj. Such forms of construction are only used 
to give the personal Verb a stronger expression. 

Egynehdny szot az ajtora ij'vdn kiszaladt, 
Kdroly nem ment iskoldba azt mondvdn hogy a^ 
leczkejet nem tudja. En eladtam a hdzamat nem 
tudvdn honnan penzt szerezni. Nem szerezhetven 
(not being able to procure) penzt ^ en kentelen 
voltam a' hdzamat eladni. kenszeritve jdr osko- 
Idba. Szeretve szeretett szuleinket el kellett hagy- 
nunk (we were obliged to leave). Hanibal elen- 
segeitol iildozve, Azsidba szokott. Gusztdv Adolph 
viteziesen harczolva elesett. A' ki kenszeritoe 
tanul nem nagy elomentelt tesz. Jdtszva tanul a* 
gyermek. Allva imi, iilve enni, Sietve jdrt 
mikor 6t Idttam. Nem mehetven keresztul^ vissza- 
iertunk. Hirtelen meghalt, nem csindlhatvdn vegren- 
deletet. 

You were expected at your aunt's. We were 
forced to seek refuge in foreign countries, expelled 
from our own. Not being able to pay what he 

6* 



84 

owed , his property was sold. Louis Philippe, lulled in 
security, was surprised by the French people. He 
left the room, not saying whether he would return 
soon. As we are not able (not being able) to speak 
correctly, we do not like to speak a word. Hannibal, 
leaving Italy, deserted the path of fortune. Being left 
to myself (magamra) , I was not able to finish the 
work. He wrote the letter standing. By keeping 
silence he acknowledged his fault. Having returned, 
he left this message for you. Having arrived at my 
home, I wrote to you a letter directly. 

WJL. 

The Terb heii^ to want, to be 
obliged 9 must. 

1. 

The (impersonal) Verb kell is used in connection 
with Personal Pronouns in their forms: nekem to 
me , neked to thee , neki to him , to her , to it , nekunk 
to us , nektek to you , nekik to them , throughout all 
the Tenses, of which the Verb kell has only the 
third person. Thus: 

Ind. Pres. nekem kell I want, I must, neked 
kell thou wantest, neki kell he 
wants, etc. 
Past, nekem kellett I wanted, I was obliged, 

and I must, neked kellet, etc. 
Fut. nekem kelleni fog I shall want etc. 
Subj. Pres. nekem kelljen that I may want, 
that I may be obliged, etc. 



I 



85 

Cond. 1. nekem kellene I should want, I should 
be obliged, that I might want, etc. 
2. nekem kellett volna I should have wanted, 
I should have been obliged, 

Observ. If more persons than one are expres- 
sed in the same sentence, the Verb kell is not 
repeated ; as, nekem ruha kell neked pedig kenyer, I 
want clothes and thou wantest bread. 

If instead of the third person of the Pronoun any 
Substantive be used, it will be constructed by the 
affix „nak^', to; as: my friend wants a book a* 
bardtomnak konyv kell. 

If the objects wanted are more than one, the 
third person plural of the Verb kell is used : kellenek 
are wanted, kellettek were wanted , kelleni fognak 
shall be wanted, etc. 

^z anydmnak kell szolgdlo as atydmnak pe- 
dig inas. Kell-e neked alma? Nem, nekem kortve 
kell. Nekem nem kell kenyer hanem Ms, Beldnak 
pedig vajas kenyer. Hdt*) Kdrolynak nem kell 
kenyer ? Be (used as a particle in affirmative senten- 
ces) kell. Kinek kell szdllo? nekem es Gyuldnak. 
Nekem kellett volna ruha ha a' bdlba akartam 
volna menni, neked pedig pens kellett volna. Ssin- 
hdsba nem jdrvdn nekem se pens se ssep ruha nem 
kell. As ellensegnek puskapor es dgyu kellett. 

•) The particle hdt is somewhat like the English why and 
well, when used without any meaning. Hdt mit csindltok, 
well, what are you a doing? hdt olvasunk, why we are reading. 



86 

Ha nektek fegyver kell, majd dd a' kormdny. A' 
nepnek hu vezer kell, hogy a ssarnokok' cselszove- 
nyein gyozedelmeskedjen. 

No objective case is used with the Verb kell. 

I do want pens and ink, for I have bought 
paper only. Do you want fine pointed or common 
pens? I do not want the fine pointed (ones). Did 
you want (any) money? Yes, I did want (some), 
but now I do not want (any). Shall you want this 
book? Not to-day, but I shall want it to-morrow. If 
you should want it , I would send it home to you. We 
wanted a friend, who (ki) could (would be able) 
lend us (some) money. Such friends are often wanted. 
I wanted a book, thou dost want ink, and he 
wants paper. You always want something. I do 
want him. Do you want your mother? No, we 
want our aunt. Well, do you want no tea (dont 
you want...)? Yes, we do want (some). Does 
Charles want (any) bread and butter? No, but he 
wants some prunes and grapes. You do not want 
(any) apples, do you (want you)? Yes, and (some) 
pears as well. 

2.' 

The Passive voice of kell is formed regularly; 
thus, I am wanted kelletem^ that 1 may be wanted 
kfllessem, I should be wanted kelletnem, etc. 

If the Objective, in Hungarian Nominative, 
case, governed by the Verb „to want", should be 
replaced by any Infinitive whatever , in the Hungarian 



87 

language the Infinitive is used with the Possessive 
aiBxes. Thus, I want to read is: olvasnom (instead 
oi olvasni-om) kell, and nekem kell olvasn-om; thou 
wantest to write, neked imod (imi-od) kell; he wants 
to go nekimennie kell; we want to wait, nekiink vdr- 
nunk kell (vdrmi-unk) ; they want to speak, nekik be- 
sschiiok kell. In the same way all other Tenses of 
the Verb „want, with any Infinitive whatever, may 
be formed. 

As the Verb „to want," when meaning neces- 
sity, is replaced by „to be obliged" and „must," 
all such forms, as: I am obhged or I must go, are 
expressed by nekem mennem kell, etc. 

The personal distinction represented in nekem, 
neked, neki etc. being expressed plainly enough by 
the affixes added to the Infinitive, the Pronouns 
nekem, 7ieked etc. become superfluous and are merely 
used emphatically. 

The Verb „must" (but not the Verb to be obli- 
ged) is often expressed simply by the Infinitive added 
to the Verb kell. Thus, nekem kell olvasni, I must 
read, but olvasnom kell, I am obliged to read. 

^ bdtydmnak francziaul kell olvasni, nekem 
pedig nemetul. Ma el fog kelleni mennetek (} ou will 
be obliged to go to-day). Ha visszatemunk kell csak 
karddal a' kezben teriink vissza. Nektek nem kellett 
volna elmennetok. Ssomoru kinek (who) hazdjdt el 
kell hagynia. Az ujsdgot olvasnom kell mert ku- 



88 

Wnben nem tudndm mi van benne. Hat kellett-e 
elmenni, vagy akartdl elmenni. A' hdtydmra kell 
vdmom, akdr akarok akdr nem. Kinek fog kelleni 
mennie? Nekem nem kell, nekem sem (neither I). 
Ha nem kell most elutaznotok (utazni) ne menjetek 
utnak (go on a journey) most, meri rosz az idd. 
Imom kell az atydmnak. Imi kell az atydmnak. 
Nektek kellet olvasnotok az oskoldban, nekik pedig 
ott kellett maradniok mert nem tudtdk «' lecz- 
kejoket. Tanulnunk kell, kiilonben megbiintet a' 
tanitonk. 

You are obliged to work, while your brother 
takes a walk. We are obliged to walk, while you 
are playing. I must read, you must write. I am 
obliged to read, thou art obhged to work. If I 
were obliged to go home, I should go by (on) the 
steam -boat. You would be very sorry (Igen saj- 
ndlndtok) if you were obliged to return this pre- 
sent. They are obliged to leave England, because 
they can get no employment. My brother was obli- 
ged to go to France, because his friend wanted 
him. Were you obliged to leave your country? 
Were your friends obliged to leave you? I was 
not obliged to do that, but I did it from my own 
will. People (men) are obliged to give way, when 
they experience constant urgency. My father was 
obhged to sell his horse, for it was very wild. He 
must sell his estates if he wishes to pay his debts. 
Soldiers are obhged to learn the different movements 



89 

of the army. The enemies must give way, if they 
are pressed hard. You never ought (must) to deny 
those that {azoktol, kik) beg of you. Parents often 
are obliged to deny (megtagadni) the petitions of their 
children. Children ought (should be obUged) to 
honour their parents. 

Future. 

1. 

Besides the Future Tense mentioned above, 
there is a Verbal affix, in the Hungarian language, 
which expresses the future action of the Verb. This 
affix is „andj ejid," which joined to any verbal 
root (Active, Passive, Neuter, Factitive, Potential, 
Medial etc.) will give a new Verbal root expressing fu- 
ture time. Thus, vdr, vdrat, vdrtaty vdrhat, vdrathat, 
vdrtathat, etc. will give as many roots for the future 
in: vdrand will wait, vdratand will be waited for, 
vdrtatand will let wait, vdrhatand will be able to 
wait, vdrathatand can be waited for, vdrtathatand 
will be able to make (one) wait, etc. 

These Radicals of the Future form a new Verb, 
which may receive all the different terminations of 
the Moods and Tenses of the primitive Verb (Active, 
Passive, Medium, Potential, Factitive etc.); even. 
Active Verbs have a Definite and Indefinite form of 
this Future. 



90 

The Tenses of vdrand, from vdmi, are: 
Ind. Pres. vdrandok I shall or will wait, 
vdrandsz, vdrand; vdrandunk we 
will wait, vdrandtok, vdrandnak. 
Past, vdrandottam I shall or will have 
waited, vdrandottdl, vdrandott; 
vdrandottunk we will have waited, 
vdrandottatok , vdrandattak. 
Fut. vdrandni (vdrandani) fogok I shall 
be waitmg (for the future), etc. 
Subj. Pres. vdrandjak shall I be wailing (for 
the future), and that I may be 
waiting (for the future), vdrandjdl, 
vdrandjon,- vdrandjunk^ vdrandjatok, 
vdrandjanak. 
C n d. 1. vdrandnek I should be waiting (for the 
future), vdrandndl, vdimndna; vdrand- 
ndnk, vdrandiidtok , vdrandndnak. 
2. vdrandottam volna I should have 
been waiting (for the future), vdran- 
dottdl volna, vdrandott volna; 
vdrandottunk volna, vdrandottatok 
volna, vdrandottak volna, etc. 

The preceding scheme shews, how difQcult it 
is to express these Verbal forms of the Hungarian 
language; even, the modern languages have no ex- 
pressions whatever to represent the true meaning of 
many of these forms; and as the Hungarian language 
has been cultivated by men, who received their edu- 



91 

cation in foreign countries and foreign languages, 
such forms are less in use in writing, and entirely 
lost in familiar conversation. 

Verbal Adjectives formed by o and ott, in 
vdrando and vdrandott, correspond with the Latin 
future Participle of the Passive voice in dus, and 
vdrando expresses a future necessity; thus, ez a 
somma holnap kifizetendd means: this sum must be 
paid to-morrow. 

A' nagybdtydnk holnaputdn elj'ovend, hogy 
minket Idtogasson. Ast mondta , hogy nekem ajdnde- 
kozandja azt a kepet. Nem hiszem^ hogy penzt 
adand. Remenylendd hogy johhra fordul sorsimk. 
Az ember ma nem tudja mit lesz teendd holnap. 
Minden ember halando. A^ bardtod elmenend 
mielott teged Idtogasson. Ki mit kblcsbnoz azt 
visszateritendje. A' fold mivelendo , hogy hasznot 
hajtson. Addig hdmozando a' hdi^sfa mig hdmlik 
(prov. hammer the iron while it is hot). Bdr sok a' te- 
lyesitendd kotelessegunk , mcgis mindenik kielegitendo. 

XI. Pronouns. 
A. Personal* 

1. 

En I, te thou, 6 he, she, it; mi and mink 
we, ti and tik you, 6k they. Engem and engemet 
me, teged and tegedet thee, 6tet him, her, it; 
minket us, titeket you, oket them; instead of 
minket, titeket are often used: bennunket and 
benneteket. 



92 

The Personal Pronouns are never used before 
the Verb , except when emphasis or the construction 
of the sentence requires it (when they are Subjects 
of the sentence). 

The Personal Pronouns often precede a Noun 
with its possessive afQxes emphatically: as, az en 
bdtydm my brother, in opposition to a te bdtydd 
thy brother, etc. 

The you of addressing Persons is in the Hun- 
garian language either te thou, among familiars and 
intimate friends, or on (his person, he), commonly 
maga (he himself), among strangers; thus, either 
the Second or Third Person of the Singular Number ; 
kend is used by the peasantry. 

Besides these forms there has been introduced 
kegyed, the shortened form of kegyelmed, which 
latter is used by the peasantry in addressing 
their superiors. — 

Te nem Idttdl minket hanem mi Idttunk tegedet. 
A7(who) hozta ezt a konyvet? Te, vagy ft' bdtydd. 
Bardtom en holnap elutazom, V azert jdtem hozzdd 
hogy idled elbiicsuzzam. Elmegyunk oskoldba , Jot- 
tok ti is? A" tanito szidott beneteket mert nem 
tudtdtok a" leczketeket. Valljon (used in question- 
ing if we eagerly wish to know something, like 
the English: I should like to know) ki volt tegnap 
en ndlam? Te ndlad is volt valaki. Titeket meg- 
biintetett a' mesteretek mert nem csindltdtok jot a* 
munkdtokat is elj'ott es a* bdtya is, hanem 6k 



93 

nem sokdra el fognak menni. Kerlek bardtom ne 
menj el oily hirtelen. Benteket nezem^ hogy mit csi- 
ndltok. Minketnezel? jf szinhdzban volt- e tegnap 
edes atydd? En diet nem Idttam. rendesen 
minden csotortokon megy oda. 

I have seen jou at the play-house, but you 
could not see me. My uncle has paid us a visit 
(visited us) before he left London. Will you see 
him to-night {ma estve)! No I shall not see him, 
for I am not going to him but to my aunt. Not 
my mother, but thy sister has bought this bird. 
Thou hast not been at Paris. Hast thou been at 
Pest? No, I have not been, but a friend of mine 
(egyik bardtom) has been there. Our teacher teaches 
us French and Hungarian. Did you hear him speakr 
ing (to speak)? Hast thou seen those fine pictures? 
Yes, and bought them as well. Canst (knowest) 
thou speak Hungarian? They never will learn it 
(definite form). Wilt thou go to the play (the play- 
house)? Let me go to-night and thou stay at home. 



On (kegyed, maga) you , instead of which now 
and then: az ur, mister, gentleman, is used. 

Nem akama on hozzdnk jonni ? Inkdbb jojjon 
on hozzdnk. En irtam onnek egy levelet, hanem 
on nekem nem felelt. Ki ismeri ont? En az urat 
meg nem Idttam. Kerem B. ur lesz oily szives ezt 
nekem elkiildeni? Ugyan hogy gondolhatta azt on? 



94 

En azt ontdl nem vdrtam volna soha. Hova akar 
on utazni Nemetorszdgba-e vagy Magyarorszdgba. 
En az on tervet nem helyeselem^ mds tandcsot 
adnek onnek. Mit gondol (you, is missed) lesz-e 
esdnky vagy sem. Kihez (to whom) fordultl 

Your, is expressed bj means of the Possessive 
affix of the third person. Your book «' konyve^ 
Yours means onne. 

You never tell me when it is time to go to 
school. Did you see your brother to-night? Whose 
is that book ? Yours. Is it yours or mine ? I think 
it is yours. I know it is not his. You have not 
been in Germany, nor in Switzerland. With 
whom shall I send this to you? I have sent for 
you, but you did not come. Have you ever read 
the beautiful poems of Vorosmarty? Yes, but do 
you not prefer Berzseny? Did you ever see the 
capital of France? Do you think it is as large as 
London? You cannot imagine what an impression 
London makes on the minds of foreigners. How can 
you expect him doing that (that he will do that)? 



B. Relative pronouns. 

Their Declension is Hke that of the Substantives. 
1. 

Ki who, melly which, mi what. These are 
preceded by the DeCnite article a% when they begin 



95 

the period, or when they refer to a certain deter- 
mined Substantive. 

A' ki mdsnak vermet (verem) as, mag a esik 
bele. A' ki nem akar dolgozni, az ne is egyen. 
Az az ember, a^ ki tegnap itt volt, ma elutazott. 
Emberek, kik mindenuket etveszitettek , nem oily (so) 
szereticsetlenek mind azok, kiknek semmi sem sikerul. 
Azt a' kepet, «' mellyet ma mutattam, egy hires 
festotdl kaptam. Azon novenyek, mellyek drnyek- 
ban nSnek, mindeg halavdnyak. A'' melly orszdg' 
nepe nem mivelt, annak nines szabadsdga. Csak 
azon emberek kik, erkolcsiley miveltek, valoban 
szabad emberek. Kinek lelke testi tunyasdg alatt 
vesz, az elevenen holt. 

Men who are virtuous are satisfied with their 
own lot. Those who always find fault with others 
are generally faulty themselves. The horses which 
you have seen belong to my uncle. The garden 
which we have bought is 148 feet long, and 34 feet 
wide. That house, in which you live, is larger 
than that in which we do live. Did you know 
that before what I have told you now? This is 
the man whom you did look for. People, who lose 
their moral power, lost their external liberty. You 
do not know what I think of. What you think 
of I do not know, but I know that, what you have 
told me. 



96 

2. 

Milly, millyen what, what sort, how, illy en, illy 
such, so; oily such — , a' mino sls,' mind what sort, 
what — , oily an, oily such; mi what, az that. 

Milly , millyen, mind are used in the antecedent, 
illy, illy en, oily, oily an in the consequent. 

The article az and a' precedes them if they 
refer to any determined Subject. A^ millyen — 
oily an ^ and millyen — oily an often may be' trans- 
lated by like — hke; as, a* millyen «' mester oily an 
a^ szerszdm like masters like tools. 

Illyenek az emberek (such are men). Az illyen 
emberek valodi terhek (such men are real burdens). 
Milly nagy hegyeket Idt az ember ha o' Svajczban 
utazik. A' mind a" munka, oily an a"" fizetes. 
Illyen ritkasdgot csak Londonban Idtkatni. A* 
millyen a' gazda *), oily an «^ szolga. Oily szep 
zenet, minot meg soha sem hallottam. Oily an az 
embemek a' sikere a"* mind az iigyessege, Nem 
szeretnek oily munkdt vegezni a^ mindt sok kezi- 
munkdsnak vegeznie kell. 

He promised to pay such a large sum, as will 
be difficult to get up (as to make up difficult will 
be). Such men , as live in Borneo , could not subsist 



*) gazda husbandman (master) used instead of mester 
master, because the principal occupation of the Hungarians is 
agriculture. 



97 

for a long time in Iceland. He has shown me 
such products as belong only to America. I saw 
such a number of books, as would be difficult to 
count (as to count would be difficult). Such plants 
as grow in tropical regions are cultivated in Europe 
artificially. 



C* InterrosatiYe Pronouns. 

Ki? Kicsoda? Who? mi? micsoda? what*).'' mel- 
lyikl which? millyen? what sort? mm6? what a? 
(micsoda and kicsoda are only used in the Nomi- 
nat. Sing.) 

Ki volt tegnap ndlatok? Nem tudod kinel van 
a' konyvem? Mind szine van a' ruhddnak? Millyen 
dllat a' kigyo mind szine van? Millyenek «' szemei? 
A' buzdnak dra Magyar orszdgon nem oily magas mint 
Angolorszdgban. Micsoda? Nem oily magas? Ki 
mondja ast? Egy Magyarorszdgban utazo Angol. 
Kicsoda? Egy Angol. Millyen a^ Magyar alkotmdny? 
Mellyik esztendoben jottek a' Magyar ok «' mostani 
Magyarorszdgba ? Ki volt a' vezetSj'ok ? Micsoda fegy- 
vero'k es mind hadakozdsi modjuk volt? Kitol hallodtad 
hogy hdboru lesz? Mit gondolsz a' j'dvo harcz feldl 
(about)? Kinek van igaza (who is in the right)? 



•) If what is followed by a Substantive, it is always 
expressed by micsoda, as micsoda ruhdt? What dresses? 
Csink. hung. gram. 17 



98 

Minek (for what purpose, why, what for) adtad 
neki ezt a' konyvet? Kiket Idttdl a' szinhdzban? 

Whom do you expect? What do you say? What 
sort of birds have you shot? What colour are 
their feathers? What book have you lost? What 
dress have you bought? To whom did you give your 
money? From whom did you receive the picture? 
What do you call (minek hij'dk) in Hungarian: 
window, table, door, room, house, street, town and 
capital? Which is the capital of England? Which 
town is the larger, London or Paris? In which room 
shall I find him? What sort of furniture have you 
in your rooms? Which is the best hotel in London? 
Who gave you the book? My brother. Who? My 
brother. With whom have you been in England? 
What did you do it with (with what)? 

II. DemoiiistratiTe and definitive Pronouns. 

(variable like nouns.) 

Az that, ez this, amaz that, emez this 
here; magam myself, magad thyself, maga himself, 
herself, itself; magunk ourselves, magatok yourselves. 
magok themselves; kiki every body, each (used of 
persons) , azon (invariable) that , often in the meaning 
of: a; as, azon dolog melly — a thing which. 

Az fl' konyv az enyem, ez a^ tied. Azok a' 
konyvek a^ mieink^ ezek pedig a' nagybdtydnk-ei. 
Amazokat eladni fogjuk , emezeket pedig ma vettUk. 



99 

Annak*) az dllatnak nincsen Idba, ennek pedig 
szdmyai vannak? Millyen tulajdonsdga van annak 
a' fdnak. Azt az embert tegnap Idttam. Magam 
nem mehetek, mdst pedig nem kuldhetek. En 
magam sem (neither) tennem. Te magad mondtad^ 
hogy levelet kaptdl. Hisz 6 inaga sem tudja 
hogyan kelljen ezt csindlni. T^alljon maga el fog-e 
menni vagy csak a' szolgdjdt kuldcndi (will send). 
Mi magunk megtudjuk ezt csindlni, nem kell 
fl' ti segitsegtek. Mindeg jobb lesz ha maga- 
tok ssoltok vele. Kinek kinek ott van hazdja 
ahol jol van dolga (where he is doing well). 
Kiki tudja millyen nehez ermyt gyakarolni. Azon 
esetben^ ha el nem jonne, neki irni fogok. Azon 
ember ^ ki soha eleteben jot nem tett, soha oromet 
nem erzett. 

That house, which you have seen yesterday, 
belongs to our uncle. Did you buy this book, or 
have you received it for a present? This is the man 
that inquired after you yesterday. Have you seen 
him yourselves? We will go to buy the book our- 
selves, for if you went they might deceive you. 
Have you spoken to himself? Thou shalt love 
(szeressed) thy neighbour as thyself. Men generally 
love themselves more than their neighbours (fellow 
men). We ourselves admonished him always 
to be cautious. If I had been there myself, that 



*) see Introduction — instead of az-nak. 



100 

never would have happened. Every body (kiki) 
knows best his own wants. Each (of them) has 
received his share himself. 



XII. Coiij iiiictloiis. 

Correlative ones are: miej^t why, — mert because^ 
for; dmbdr, bar although, — megis nevertheless, 
yet; mikor when, — akkor then; mint as, — 
ugy as , so ; valamint like , as , — szintugy (szinten- 
ugy) so, the same; mennyire, amennyire so far, 

— annyira, as; sem, before consonants se neither, 

— sem, se nor; is as well, — is as, (and — and); — the 
Adverb reszint partly, when used as a Conjunction 
in the antecedent, is repeated in the consequent. 

Miert hagyta el a' bdtydd Londont? Mert 
levelet kapot hogy szulei szukseglik (want him). 
Ambdr neki nagyon nehezen esett a' szep vdrost 
elhagyni, megis a szulei erdnti szeretett rdbirta St. 
Mikor a sziileink benniinket elhagytak, akkor az 
ocsem sirva fakadt. Ki (any one) mint dgydt veti 
(makes his bed), ugy aludni fog („do well and 
have it well")- Sem en, sem az atydm nem 
fog a' vdrosba menni. Se lovat, se penzt nem 
hozott. Az dllatok se nem beszelnek, se nem 
gondolkoznak ugy mint az emberek. Mikor 
Hannibal Azsidba erkezett akkor Carthago nyakat 
hajtott (submitted) a' romai iga aid. Carthago is, 
Roma is elesett. 



101 

Neither you nor your friend can go over (dltal) 
to Paris. Why are they exiled from their own 
country? Because they struggled against injustice arid 
perjury. Although the sacred rights of the people be 
suppressed for a time (egy iddre) ^ yet the day of 
their victory will arrive. As the flowers have the 
most splendid colours in the spring (tavaszszal) , 
so (the) people are the most celebrated for their heroic 
deeds, in the time (idejen) of their youth (on 
their youth's time). Has your brother done his lesson? 
Neither I have done mine (I neither etc.)- You 
neither read nor write, I shall buy books as well 
as paper. He has lost his money as well as his 
purse. 



XOI. Adverbs. 

Numerals: egyszer once, ketszer , twice, 
hdromszor three times, otszor five times, hatszor, 
tizszer, etc. eloszor, firstly, mdsodszor secondly, 
negyedszer fourthly, otodszor, tizedszet^^ etc. 

Of time: naponRent daily, hetenkent weekly, 
ordnkent hourly, etc. 

Of quality: roszul badly, jol well, roszab- 
ban worse, jobban better, iJzYe^/i/ gallantly, viteziesen 
like a hero, vildgosan plainly, vildgossabban more 
plainly, etc. 

Itt van-e az edes atydd is? Nines itt, 6 otthon 
van. Ki van itthon ? Honnan jon az arany ? Azt 



102 

tudom , hogy mas honnan jon mint Angolorszdgbol. 
Ha holnap jdtdk en nektek oda adhatom a' konyvet. 
Most menj mindjdrt. En ma nem mehetek az oskoldba. 
Csak egy pillanatig vdrjdl, 6 azonnal itt lesz. Taldn 
inkdbb szeretne haza menni. Igen gyakran esik az esd 
Angolorszdgban. Olaszorszdgban mindeg szep idd 
van. Igazdn mondva (in truth) 6 se nem kolto, se 
nem szonok. Hiszen (enclitical, has no meaning in Eng- 
lish) en neki vildgosan mondtam, hogy ma jojjon el. 
A' bardtom bizonyosan meg ma el fog joni. Mennel 
nagyobb a' hegy ^ anndl nehezebb arra fel menni. 
Mennel tobbet olvas az ember, anndl tobbei tanul. 
Mennyivel tovdbb alszunk^ annyival rovidebb ideig 
elunk, mert eletilnk minden ordja vesztesseg ^ a* 
mellyikben alszunk. 

(The) Kings act unjustly, when they make war 
against their own people. If you tell it once to me 
(If once etc.), I shall know it another time. The 
more you speak, the less they will understand. He 
knows it perhaps himself (what) how he ought to 
act (how he must act). My brother left London 
yesterday and arrived at Paris to-day. (The boys 
went to school already (The boys already to 
school went). Thy friend has left France long 
ago. Formerly people were under the government 
of Patriarchs. The steam-engine has been invented 
recently. America has been discovered more than 350 
years ago (^350 esztendovel ezeldtt). Formerly men 
knew only three parts of the earth. The more men 



103 

know, the more wants they have. The sooner you 
finish your lessons, the sooner you shall play. How 
do you know, whether my brother has arrived, or not. 
We often have been in the king's gardens, but as 
often as we go we find new pleasure. Whence do 
you come? I come from Brussels at this moment 
(e* pillanatban). 



n. DIVISION. 

THEORY OF THM liAJVCVACiE. 



A. 6RAHHATIGAL FORMS. - 
ETTH0L06T. 

Ihe Etymological formations, as well as the 
Syntax, of the Hungarian language are conformable 
to the character of Oriental languages. 

The language has scarcely any Declension for 
objective terms (Substantives and Adjectives), no pri- 
mitive possessive Pronouns, is poor in Prepositions 
strictly taken, but seems to be inexhaustible in Ver- 
bal formations. These latter may be extended 
to such an immense number of various Verbal 
roots, that all other European languages are but 
poor and incomplete representatives of Verbal forms 
in comparison with it. 

As these are the principal ones in the language, 
they may be premised, although many Grammarians 
prefer to begin with the Nouns. 

I* Terbs* 

t. Verbal roots* 

A. Primitive roots. 

In other European languages we are in the habit 
of expressing the Verbs in the Infinitive, as their 
simple form, in the Hungarian language we must 
inquire after the root of the Verb. The Infinitive 



108 

of any Verb 'ends with the syllable ni, preced- 
ed by a vowel or a consonant. The root of 
Verbs always has a final consonant; thus, if the ter- 
mination of the Infinitive be taken off, and the 
remainder of the verb has a final vowel, this vowel 
must be omitted as well, and then the remainder 
will be the root of the Verb. 

The Verb iilni, to sit, has its root in ul; 
valiant, to confess, has it in vail. — Such Verbal 
roots are called primitive Verbal roots, and are for 
the greatest part monosyllabical ones, at least in all 
primitively Hungarian Verbs. They are either 
regular ones , when the Verbal roots remain entirely 
unchanged whatever termination may be joined to 
them, or irregular ones, when they are liable to 
different transformations as often as some terminations 
are added to them,' in order to form the different 
Tenses of the Verb. Irregularities are produced: by 
a contraction of the Verbal root; by inserting a 
consonant between the vowel of the root and that 
of the personal termination of the Verb, which is 
then assimilated to that of the personal termination 
as often as this begins with a consonant; or by 
exchange of consonants, especially of the con- 
sonants d, sz, V* — 

a) Contractions. 

Contractions are produced by the omission 
of a vowel or of a consonant in the last syllable 
of the verbal root. 



109 

Vowels can be omitted only in Verbs the root 
of which is of more than one syllable. 

Consonants are omitted in a few, — only 
monosyllabical Verbal roots. 

Omission of vowels. 

The vowel of the last syllable of a poly- 
syllabic Verbal root is omitted if the concur- 
rence of consonants does not harden the pronunciation 
of the Verb , or if the last vowel is not a long one, 
because long vowels never do admit elision. — As 
Euphony is always to be taken into consideration, 
such abbreviations cannot be admitted if the penul- 
tima has a Gnal consonant. For instance: bon-csol, 
does not admit: bon-czL 

1. If the last syllable of the Verbal root is 
formed by a combination of the liquids I, n, r with 
the consonant r/; as: csiko-?'og, (csikorogni) to creak 
contracted into csikorg (csikorgom) ; — do'gol, the root 
of dogolni to die (said of animals) , doglik it dies ; — 
zorog-ni to make a noise, sorgok I make a noise. 

Farag, to carve, retains its root without any 
change; faragok I carve (wood.) 

2. If the consonants g , z combine in the last 
syllable, or instead of ^, the labial b or dental d 
precedes the consonant z. Mozogni to move ; mozog, 
contracted mozg , mozgok I move; habozni to 
fluctuate, to foam; habz, habzik, it fluctuates. 
This is the reason of formations like that of 
alapszik it is founded, instead of alaposzik. 



110 

3. If the last syllable is formed by the con- 
sonants /, m, 72, r, or if the consonants sz , z, zs, 
cs , should meet with them; as, kinoz-ni to plague, to 
trouble; contracted, kinz, kinzom I plague; — 
poroz-ni to dust, porzom I dust; — erdemel-m 
to deserve, erdeml, erdemlek I deserve. — 

4. The dentals d, t, followed by r, admit the 
same abbreviation. Sodor-ni to fling, to twist; sodr, 
sodrom I fling; gyortor-ni to trouble, gyotrom 
I do trouble. 

Observ. These abbreviations very often recur 
in the Infinitive Mood, but in such instances 
the vowel is replaced when the root is used by 
itself: as, in the third person of the Present Tense 
in the Singular Number in the Active; or the root 
is not used by itself and the third person receives 
the termination ik, as, in the Medium. Sodrani instead 
of sodomi, gyotreni instead of gyotojmi; habzam 
instead of habozni, of which is, habzik it foams. 
Omission of Consonants. 

There are only a few Verbs which admit such 
a contraction, and these are the Verbs: szdni to sew 
(with a needle), Idni to shoot, rini to cry, ndni 
to grow, jdni to come, simi to cry, to yefl, 
roni to tally (to mark), hini to call, szini to 
suck , villi to contest , to fight a duel , buni to hide, 
to conceal one's self, fiini to blow; which are 
formed by contraction of the radicals: szov (szovni), 
lovy riv, nov, j'ov, etc. — the consonant v being 
left out and the radical vowel prolonged. 



Ill 

Observ. 1. If the Personal terminations begin 
with a vowel, the primitive roots (ending with the 
consonant v) are used; thus we have: novok I 
grow, ndtem I have grown. 

Observ. 2. The Verbal roots hi, szi, vi, bu, 
fu have , besides their preceding roots , the respective 
roots, hiv , sziv , viv, buj, fuj\ equally used in fa- 
miliar conversation as well as in writing. 

/?. Insertions and assimilations of 
Consonants. 
A few monosjUabical Verbal roots deviate 
in their radical formations so far as to shew a new 
root for nearly each Tense. The only analogy 
noticed in their transformation is, that they re- 
double the consonant of the personal termination 
of those Tenses which have an initial consonant. Such 
are : the Perfect Tense (t) , the Conditional and In- 
finitive Moods (n). The following Verbs are of this 
kind: hinni to believe, the root of which is hi; 
vinni to carry, vi-y venni to buy, ve; enni to eat, 
c; inni to drink, i; to which may be added menm 
the root of which is men, — its Present in the 
Indicative Mood is formed by the root rnegy. 
In regard to these, I refer to the first part 
Numb. VII: Irregular Verbs. 

y. Changing of Consonants and omission 
of Vowels. 
Verbal roots terminating with the syllables ed, 
od, od, ud, iidy especially when preceded by the 



112 

palatels g, k, or the liquids r, I, suffer a double 
alteration of their primitive root. Firstly the vowel 
e, o, o, u, OT u is omitted; secondly the dental 
d is changed into sz for the Present, into v for the 
Imperfect Tense, of the Indicative Mood. In the 
other Tenses the primitive root is restored. — Alud-ni 
to sleep, changes its root „alud" into ^alsz;'-'- and 
I sleep means alszom (instead of aludom); 
dicseked-ni to glory, to have a pride (in), forms 
dicsekszem, I glory; meneked-ni to take refuge, to 
save one^s self, forms menekszem; gazdagod- ni to 
grow rich, forms gazdagszom. In the Imperfect 
Tense they form: alvdm, I slept (instead of aluddm); 
dicsekvem, instead of dicsekedem^ etc. — 

b s e rv. 1. Verbs in which g precedes the flnal 
syllable of the root are preferably used as regulars 
in the Imperfect Tense; thus, megeleged-em is 
preferable to fnegelegv-em^ I was satisfied; meg- 
betegedem I became ill, is better than megbetegvem. 

Observ. 2. If the penultima of the root be 
preceded by a double consonant no contraction will 
take place, but the change of d into sz and v^ is 
effected. — Alkud - ni to bid (in the price) , alkuszom 
I bid, and alkuvdm I bade, etc. 

All the primitive Verbal roots are divided into 
three classes: Active, Neuter and Medial Verbal 
roots. Active Verbal roots are of a Transitive, the 
Neuter ones of an Intransitive meaning; Medial 
roots are of an Intransitive and Reflexive meaning, 
which in most of the European languages are con- 



113 



gtructed with the objective case of the Personal 
Pronouns; in the Hungarian language, the Passire 
Verbal affixes are used instead. 

B. Derivative roots. 

Under this Section I comprehend such Verbal 
roots as are derived from primitive Verbs, in order 
to form a Verb of a different Gender from that 
of the primitive Verb; ihus, the Verbs derived from 
Nouns, Adjectives, etc., or from other Verbs, as 
long as their Generic meaning does not change, are 
hereby excluded. 

Such derivate Verbal roots are the roots: 

a) Of the Passive Voice. 

The Passive Voice is formed by means of the 
syllables at, et, added to the root of the Active 
Voice. Vemi , to beat, forms veret , veretem I am 
beaten, etc., iimi, to write, irat-ni to be written. 

Obs. 1. Verbs the Active root of which termi- 
nates with a t, preceded by a long vowel or the 
consonant j\ and polysyllabical Verbs commonly form 
their Passive root by addition of the syllable tat, 
tet. Tanit-ani to teach, taniitat-ni, to be taught; 
enged-ni to allow, engedtet-ni , to be allowed 
bonczol - ni io dissect, to anatomize, honczoltat-ni, 
to be dissected ; koj^mdnyozni to govern , koimdnyos- 
tat-ni to be governed. 

Obs. 2. Fuj-ni to blow, Id-ni to shoot, ro-nt 
to mark on a tally, te?mi to put, form: fnvat-ni, 
lovet-ni, rovat-ni, tetet-ni. 

Csink hunj. Gram. 8 



lU 

P) Of Factitive and Permiisive 
Expressions. 

Such Expressions, in the English language, are 
formed by means of the Verbs: to make, to cause, 
to have, to let, as, I cause him to write, I let 
him read, I have my coat made, etc. The Hunga- 
rian language admits the formation of Factitive and 
Permissive roots from any Active Verb or such Neu- 
ters as are used with the Objective case, by the addition 
of the syllable tat , tet to the primitive Verbal root. 
Vdimi to wait, vdrtat-ni to let any one wait; kes~ni 
to tarry, kestet-ni to cause delay. 

Obs» 1. Emii, hinni, inni, vmni form: etet- 
ni to feed, hitet-ni to cause to believe, vetet-ni 
to cause to buy. 

Obs. 2. In some instances the Factitive root is 
used instead of the Passive one, as in polysyllabical 
Verbs, and the Passive root instead of a Factitive 
and Permissive one , as in monosyllabical Verbs. Irat- 
ni, to be written, to let write, and to cause to be 
written; olvastat-m to be read, and to make one 
read. 

y) Of Frequentativums. 

These are used when a repeatedly performed 
action is to be represented. Verbs of this kind are 
formed by means of the syllables gat, gety and kdl, 
kel; as, tanit-ani to leach, tanitgat-ni to be often 
teaching; irkdl-in to write repeatedly. 

Observ. 1. In most Verbs this Frequentative 
syllable is preceded by the vowel o ot e, especially 



115 

when Euphony requires it. Fer-ni to beat, vereget- 
ni to be beating repeatedly; nez-ni to look, neze- 
get-7ii to be often looking. 

Observ. 2. If the primitive Verbal root ter- 
minates with the liquid I ov r , a Verbal root may 
be formed for diminutive - frequentative actions by 
means of the additional syllable dogdl, degel; for 
instance, irdogdl, he is writing a little at a time. 

8) Of the Potential Mood. 

If the possibility of the action, expressed by any 
Verb whatever, is represented, or the capability of 
the Active subjects is to be expressed, a new root 
is formed by the additional syllable hat, het. This 
syllable may be added to primitive Verbal roots as 
well as to derivative ones. Ir-ni to write, irat-ni 
to be written; ver-ni to beat, vere^-W2 to be beaten, 
vertet-ni to have any one beaten, vereget-ni to 
beat repeatedly, verdegel-ni to beat repeatedly but 
a little at a time, have their Potential roots in: 
ir-hat he is able to write, irat-hat may be written, 
can be written; verhet he can beat, verethet 
may be beaten or being possible to beat him, ver- 
tethet he is able to beat or able to empower others 
to beat any one, vereget-het, he may beat re- 
peatedly, verdegel-het, etc. 

e) Of the Future. 

This is formed by the addition of and, end, 
to any of the preceding or other Verbal roots. 

8* 



116 

The root of the Future, formed that way, involves 
the notion of conditionalitj when used in any of the 
Tenses, and that of necessity and duty in the form 
of the Verbal Adjective (the Present Participle accord- 
ing to some Grammars). The preceding roots zV, 
irat, irhat, irathat, ver, veret, vereget, verdegel, 
verhet, verethet, veregethet, verdegelhet , will 
give as many new roots for the Future: irand, 
(he) will write; iratand^ will be written or 
)he) will let write; irhatand, (he) will be 
able to write; irathatand, (he) will be able to 
have written; verend, (he) will beat; veretend, 
will be beaten ; veregetend, (he) will beat frequently ; 
verdegelend, (he) will beat frequently softly; ver- 
hetend, (he) will be able to beat; verethetend, 
will be able to let him beat, and might be 
beaten; verSiethetend, (he) will be able to beat re- 
peatedly etc. 

As it is not the intention of this work to give 
an extensive Etymology of the language, the pre- 
ceding formations of derivative Verbal roots may 
suflice to indicate the fertility of the Hungarian Verbs. 

To give a short view of the formations of the 
different roots, the following are subjoined: 
Active Ver-ni, to beat. 

Passive Veret-nif to be beaten. 

Frequentative Vereget-niy to beat frequently. 
Diminulive-Freq. f^erdegel-ni^ to beat frequently (but 

not so hard). 
Frequentative Verdes-ni, to beat frequently. 



117 

Diminutive Verint-eni, to be^ a little. 

Reciprocal Vereked-ni, to beat each other, to fight. 

Verdd-ni, to knock one's self against; 
When the active subject at the same 
time is the passive object as well. 
Vergod-ni, to get through (to fight 
with unfavourable circumstances). 
From each of these may be formed 
Potential roots: 

Verhet-ni, being able to beat. 
Verethet-nii being exposed to being 

beaten. 
Veregethet-ni, being able to beat 

frequently. 
F^erdegelhet-ni. 
Verdeshet-ni. 
Verinthet-ni. 
Verekedhet-ni, being able or having 

opportunity to fight, 
Verddhet - ni. 
FergSdhet-ni. 



Neuter Mozog-ni, to be in motion. 

Active Mozgat-ni, to move. 

Mozdul-ni, to move (one's self), to 

move on. 
Mozdit-ani, to put in motion. 
Mozgadoz-ni, to be in a repeated 

motion. 
Mozzan-ni, to stir. Etc. 



118 

As we often use Metaphorical expressions, 
when the language affords no proper term for the 
representations of our thoughts, many of these 
Verbal roots are used metaphorically; this Rhe- 
torical licence is one of the sources of Verbal 
abundance. 

From the root vesz, to perish, may be formed: 
veszt-eni, to lose (Factitive: to cause to perish). 
veszit-eni, to lose (to permit perishing). 
veszteget-ni, to squander (to let become lost 

frequently). 
vesztegel-ni, to be idle (to lose time continually 

or frequently). 
veszeked-ni, to quarrel (to lose words and 

friendship for one another). 

Those who wish to see the whole extent 
of the derivation of roots may consult „Comarinus 
Gsipkes Hungaria illustrata 1655" or the 
„ System of the Hungarian language by the Hungarian 
Academy." 

9. Conjugation. 

A. Tenses, Persons, Moods. 

The different representations of action , expressed 
by any Verb, relative to Time, when it took place; 
to Persons , who are active , and to Modality of action 
or activity itself, gave origin to what is called the 
^Conjugation of the Verb." 



119 

This Conjugation of a Hungarian Verb is 
performed by means of different afQxes joined to the 
Verbal roots. 

In consideration of the Verbal roots themselves 
there are two different classes of Conjugational affixes ; 
one for the Active and Neuter, the other for the 
Passive and Medium (Neutro- Passive). 

Time is represented as: past, present, and 
future, comprehending an inGnite series of successive 
changes. The Grammatical forms for these represen- 
tations (Tenses) will be as many as there may be 
made distinctions of time. 

The European languages distinguish Present, 
Past, and Future. The more Nations become culti- 
vated in Rhetoric, the more combinations of the diffe- 
rent stations of time will occur and the more Tenses 
will be required in the Grammar of their language. 

The Hungarian language, having been attached 
to the familiar home of the agriculturists, is not so 
rich in Grammatical forms of Tenses , and in familiar 
conversation we may do with two; the one for the 
present and future , Present Tense *) , and the other 
for the past, Perfect Tense. The intermediate Tense, 
Imperfect, and the compound one, the Pluperfect, 
are Tenses more of the solemn style and not 
familiar in the home of the true Hungarians. The 
compound Future is a foreign element 



*) For the future the Hungarian Verb may form a new root 
see above. 



120 

Persons. The notion (idea) of this expression 
heing a logical consequence of the distinction made 
between : speaker, spoken to, and spoken of, 
— the Hungarian Verb has as many distinctions re- 
lative to Persons as all other European languages; 
but, with regard to the distinction of Gender, the 
Hungarians have retained the Oriental charac- 
ter, making no distinction of Gender whatever. 
The distinction of Gender made in Grammar 
is incomprehensible to Hungarians; just as the want 
of that distinction would puzzle foreigners. Grammar 
indeed and language may dispense with the distinc- 
tion of he, she, it, if they be replaced by any 
other word that would comprehend them all. 

Modality is the Logic of the Verb. The 
Verb is either: in apodictical relation to the subject, 
in the Indicative and Imperative Moods; in 
an assertorial one, in the Subjunctive Mood; in a 
hypothetical or problematical one, in the Con- 
ditional; or, lastly, in an Infinitive or Indefinite 
relation, in the Infinitive Mood. The Hungarian 
language has proper Verbal forms for each of the 
different Moods. 

B. Characteristics of tbe different Tenses and Moods. 

Affixes used to express the different personal rela- 
tions, are added to the Characteristic of the Verb. 

Characteristic is the final consonant of the 
Verbal root, remaining after the personal affixes are 
taken off. 



121 

In the Hungarian language there are distinguished 
Characteristics : 

1. That of the Present, Imperfect and Future, 
which is the root of the Verb itself. There are 
as many such Characteristics as there are radi- 
cal terminations. Vdr , (to) wait; kinoz ^ (to) 
plague; ad, to give; szab ^ (to) cut out; szdll, (to) 
fly; etc. 

2. That of the Perfect, which is onlj one, 
and always t. The Characteristic of the Perfect 
is added to the Verbal root (primitive or derivative), 
either immediately, or by means of a vowel; in the 
latter case the t is doubled. 

a) The Characteristic t is added by means of 
one of the vowels o, o, e, (o for hard, b, e for 
soft Verbs): 

To polysyllabic Verbal roots when they end 
with the consonants d ov t , preceded by a long 
vowel or another consonant. Tank — (to) teach, 
tanitott — taught; mond — (to) say, mondott — 
said; hajt — (to) drive, hajtott — driven. 

To Verbal roots terminating with a double con- 
sonant; all contracted roots are such. Erdemel — 
(to) deserve, contracted erdeml — , erdemlett — 
deserved; gyakorl — (from gyakorol) (to) practise, 
gyakorlott — practised. 

To Monosyllabical roots terminating with t. 
Flit- (to) run, futott — run; kot — (to) bind, 
kotbtt' bound, etc. 



122 

Observ. Idt — (to) see, has Idtt — seen, 
for the first and second, Idtott, for the third per- 
son. Some of the monosyllabical roots terminating 
with t, have a regular and augmented form as 
well, hatt and hatott, from the primitive hat — (to) 
have impression; jutt and jutott, from jut — (to) 
reach, (to) get to, (to) become. 

P) The Verbal root receives the Characteristic 
without the accession of a vowel, whenever it 
does not belong to the preceding rule. Olvas — (to) 
read, olvast — read; vdr — , vdrt — ; var — (to) 
sew, vart — sewed; taldl — (to) find, taldlt — 
found; vdrtat — (to) leave waiting, vdrtatt — left 
waiting; tol — (to) push, tolt — pushed. 

Obs. Verbs the roots of which terminate 
with the consonants b, d, f, g, gy ^ k, m, p, s, 
sz , V, z, and polysyllables with a final t, receive 
the cementing vowel e, o, o only in the third 
Person of the Singular Number, ad, adott; 
fagy — (to) freeze , fagyott he froze ; dof — (to) butt, 
ddfdtt\ lak — (to) dwell, (to) inhabit, /aA:o^ he dwelt. 

3. The Characteristic of the Subjunctive and 
Imperative Mood is j , which is added immediately 
to the Verbal root. Vdr — _, vdrj — ; lep (to) step, 
lepj — ; lak — , lakj — ,• etc. 

Obs. 1. Verbal roots with a final t, z, sz, z 
change this Characteristic j into s, sz, z. — See 
Introduction § 3. 

Obs. 2. The 3^ Person and the whole Plural 
of the Pres. Tense Ind. Mood of the Definite Form 



123 

receive j as their characteristic as well, which is 
assimilated to the final consonants *, sz , z, but re- 
mains unchanged after t final. — 

4) The Characteristic of the Conditional is n 
added to the Verbal root either immediately as in 
ad — , adn — ; vdr — , vdm — ; Idt — , Idtn — 
ker — (to) petition , kern — ; e* — (to) fall , esn — 
or by means of the vowels a, e, to such roots as 
receive the Characteristic of the Perfect with a 
cementing vowel (see 2. a)) Tanit — , tanitan — ,• 
mond — , mondan — ; segit — (to) assist, ^e- 
giten — ; etc. 

C. Forms and Personal terminations. 

The Active Voice has two distinct Forms of 
Conjugation: a Definite and an Indefinite one. 
The Neuter is only used in the Indefinite form of the 
Active Voice. 

The Passive Voice has personal terminations 
different from those of the Active, though related to 
them. These terminations are used with Verbs the 
meaning of which is a neutral one, and which are 
known (in Hungarian Grammars) as Verbs of ik^ 
because their third Person of the Sing. Number ends 
with ik, or as Neutro - Passives , because they have 
the external form of the Passive voice and the 
internal meaning of a Neuter Verb. I preferred to 
call them „Mediums" similar to the Greek, and in 
fact most of them are of the same meaning as the 
Greek Medium, their Passive form not being regarded. 



124 

1. THE PERSONAL TERMINATIONS 

OF THE INDEFINITE FORM OF THE ACTIVE VOICE 

AND NEUTER. 

Indicative Mood. 

Hard ones. Soft ones. 

Present Tense. 



Sing. 


ok, sz^ root ; 


ek(dk), 


sz, 


root; 


Plur. 


unk, tok, nak.*) 


unk. 


tek(tdk) 


, nek. 




Imperfect. 






Sing. 


ek, dl, a,' ek. 


el. 


e; 


Plur. 


dnk, dtok, dnak. \ enk, 
Perfect. 


etek, 


mek. 


Sing. 


am, dl, Charact; 


em. 


el. 


Charact.; 


Plur. 


unk, atok, anak. 


unk, 


etek, 


enek. 



Pluperfect 
has the same terminations as the Perfect, but to 
each Person is added the word „va/a". 

Future 
is a compound Tense of the Present of fog-ni to 
seize, to catch, and the Infinitive of that Verb the 
Future of which is required. The whole is a fo- 
reign product. 

On the Tenses of the Future radical and or 
end, see below. 



•) All the Verbs, that receive a cementing vowel before 
the Characteristic of the Perfect, receive such a vowel before 
all the Personal terminations which begin with a consonant, 
except the j of the Subjunctive. Thus instead of tok, they 
have otokj and anak instead of nak etc.. The soft ones receive 
the corresponding soft vowel, as otbk, enek, etc. 



125 

Subjunctive. 

Hard. Soft. 

Present. 



Sing, ak, dl*), on; 
Plur. MwAr, atok, anak. 



ek J el, en ; 
unk, etek enek. 



Past. 
As the Perfect of the Indicative Mood with the ad- 
dition of legyen, to each Person. 



Conditional. 

Hard. Soft. 

Present. 



Sing, ek, dl, a; 
Plur. awAr, dtok, dnak. 



efc , el , ' e ; 
enk, etek, enek. 
Past. 
The Past Tense of the Conditional is the same 
as the Perfect in its Personal forms, each receives 
the additional word volna. 

Imperative. 
The Imperative Mood has no proper forms, 
the Present Tense of the Subjunctive Mood being 
used instead. Thus: 

Sing. Charact. , — | Charact. , 
Plur. atok^ — I etek. 

Infinitive. 

ni, for hard and soft Verbs. 



*) Instead of the terminations dl, el, the form of the Im- 
perative which has no termination, j being the Characteristic of 
the Subj. and Imper. Moods, may be used. 



126 

2. PERSONAL TERMINATIONS OF THE DEFINITE FORM 
OF THE ACTIVE VOICE. 

Indicative, 

Hard. Soft. 

Present Tense. 
Sing, om, od, a,'*J | em (dm) ^ ed (dd),, i; 
Plur. uk, dtok, dk. \ iik, itek, ik. 

Imperfect. 



Sing. 


dmy 


dd, «; 


em 


ed. 


e? 


Plur. 


ok, 


dtok, dk. 


6k, 


etek, 


ek. 






Perfect. 






Sing. 


am. 


ad^ a; 


em. 


ed. 


c; 


Plur. 


uk, 


dtok, dk. 


uk. 


etek. 


ek. 



Pluperfect. 
The personal terminations of the Perfect, each 
Person receiving the additional „vala". 
Future. 
The Infinitive and the Present Tense of fogni, 
in its Definite form. 

Subjunctive. 

Hard. Soft. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. am, ad, «; I em, ed, e; 

Plur. uk, dtok, dk. \ uk, etek, ek. 
Perfect. 
Like the Perfect of the Indicative Mood, to 
which is added legyen. 



*) Preceded by j, the same as the Plural. See B., Cha- 
racteristics. 3. 



127 

Conditional. 

Hard. Soft. 

Present. 
Sing, dm, dd, a; I em, ed, e; 
Plur. ok, dtok, dk. \ 6k ^ etek, ek. 
Past. 
In the Past is used the Perfect of the Indi- 
cative Mood, to each Person of which is added 
volna. 

The Imperative Mood is supphed by the Sub- 
junctive. Instead of the longer form of the second 
Person ad, commonly the shorter one with a simple 
d, is used; in such cases the Characteristic j is 
suppressed as well. 

3. PERSONAL TERMINATIONS OF THE PASSIVE VOICE 
AND MEDIUM. 

Indicative, 

Hard. Soft. 
Present. 
Sing, owi, ol, ik; \em(dm),el(dl),**) ik; 

V\\iv. tink, tok, nak.*) \u7ik, tek(tdk), nek. 

Imperfect. 

Sing. flW2, dl, ek; \em, el, ek; 

Plur. dnk, dtok, dnak. \ enk, etek, enek. 



*) Medial Verbs that receive a vowel before the t of the 
Perfect Tense have the vowel o before tok, and a before 
nak. (See Characteristic of the Perfect.) 

•*) bm, 61, tok are only used with Medial Verbs the root of 
which has 6 for its vowel. 



128 

Hard. Soft. 

Perfect. 



em, el, Charact. ; 
unk, eteky enek (ek). 



Sing.^flTW, dl, Charact.; 
Plur. unk, atok, anak (ak) 

Pluperfect 
is formed like that of the Active voice. 

Future , 
like that of the Active voice. 

Subjunctive.*) 
Present. 
Sing, am, dl, ek; I em, el, ek; 
Plur. unk, atok^ anak, \ unk., etek, enek. 

Perfect 
is formed like the Perfect of the Active Voice. 

Conditional. 
Present. 
Sing, dm, dl, ek; I em, el, ek; 
Plur. dnk, dtok, dnak. \ enk, etek, enek. 

Perfect 
is formed Hke the Perfect of the Active Voice. 

In forming the Imperative Mood the rules given 
for the Active Voice are to be observed here as well. 

Infinitiv e. 

ni. 

No vowel precedes this termination in the Passive 
Voice; as regards the Medium see the Active Voice. 



*) On assimilation of the characteristic see Introduction § 3. 



129 
D. Paradigma of the Conjugation of tbe Verb. 

1. ACTIVE. 

a) Verbs with hard vowels. 

a. INDEFINITE FORM. 
Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldlok, 1 find 

Taldlss, thou findest 

Taldl^ he finds; 
Plur. Taldlunk, we find 

Taldltok , you find 

Taldlnak, they find. 

Imperfect Tense. 
Sing. Taldlek, I found 

Taldldl, thou foundst 

Taldla, he found; 
Plur. Taldldnk, we found 

Taldldtok, you found 

Taldldnaky they found. 
Perfect Tense. 
Sing. Taldltam, I have found 

Taldltdl, thou hast found 

Taldlty he has found; 
Plur. Taldltunk, we have found 

Taldltatok, you have found 

Taldltanak \ 

and > , they have found. 

Taldltak 1 

Csink hung. Gram. Q 



130 

Pluperfect Tense. 
Sing. Taldltam vala or volt, I had 

Taldltdl vala, thou hadst 

Taldlt vala, he had 
Plur. Taldltunk vala, we had ) ^ownA. 

Taldltatok vala, you had 

Taldltak vala \ . 

Taldltanak vala V ^ 

Compound Future. 
Sing. Taldlni fogok, I shall or will 

Taldlni fogsz^ thou wilt 

Taldlni fog, he will \ c A 

Plur. Taldlni fogunk, we shall or will 

Taldlni fogtok^ you will 

Taldlni fognak, they will 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldljak, that I may 

Taldljdl, that thou mayst 

Taldljon, that he may 
Plur. Taldljunk, that we may ^ " ' 

Taldljatok, that you may 

Taldljanak, that they may / . 

Past Tense. f" 

Sing. Taldltam legyen, that I might 

Taldltdl legyen, that thou mightest I §* 

Taldlt legyen, that he might \ ® 

Plur. Taldltunk legyen, that we might 

Taldltatok legyen, that you might 

Taldltak legyen, that they might 







I 



131 

C n d i t i ti a I. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldlnek, I should or would 

Taldlndl, thou wouldst 

Taldlna, he would ^ 

Plur. Taldlndnk, we should or would 

Taldlndtok , you would 

Taldlndnak, they would 

Past Tense. 
Sing. Taldltam volna, I should or would 

Taldltdl volna, thou wouldst 

Taldlt volna, he would I have 

Plur. Taldltunk volna, we should or would/ found. 

Taldltatok volna, you would 

Taldltak volna, they would 

Imperative. 

Sing. Taldlj , find (thou); 
Plur. Taldljatok, find (you). 

/n / i n I t i v e. 
Taldlni, to find. 

Obs. 1. The Pres. Tense of the Subjunctive Mood 
is used to express forms hke those: „Let us go, let 
them go, let him go," menjiink., menjenek^ menjen. 

Obs. 2. All the Neuter Verbs are conjugated 
according to the Indefinite Form of the Active Voice. 

9* 



132 

b. DEFINITE FORM. 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldlom, I find (it) 

Taldlod, thou findest (it) 
Taldlja, he finds (it); 
Plur. Taldljuk, we find (it) 

Taidljdtok , you find (it) 
Taldljdk, they find (it). 
Imperfect. 
Sing. Taldldm, I found (it) 
Taldlddf thou foundst 
Taldld, he- found; 
Plur. Taldlok, we found 

Taldldtok, you found 
Taldldk, they found. 
Perfect. 
Sing. Taldltam, I have found (it), I did find (it) 
Taldltad, thou hast found 
Taldlta, he has found; 
Plur. Taldltuk, we have found 

Taldltdtok, you have found 
Taldltdkf they have found. 
Pluperfect. 
Sing. Taldltdm vala or volt, I had 
Taldltad vala , thou hadst 

Taldlta vala, he had . ^ , ,. ^ 

> found (it) 
Plur. Taldltuk vala, we had 

Taldltdtok vala, you had 

Taldltdk vala, they had 



133 

Compound Future. 
Sing. Taldlni fogom, I shall 
Taldlni fogod, thou wilt 
Taldlni fogja, he will 
Taldlni fogjuk, we shall 
Taldlni fogjdtok, you will 
Taldlni fogjdk, they will 



find (it). 



Subjunctive. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldljam, that I may 

Taldljad, that thou mayst 
Taldlja, that he may 
Plur. Taldljuk, that we may / ^"^^ ^'^^• 

Taldljdtok, that you may 
Taldljdk, that they may 

Past Tense. 
Sing. Taldltam legyen, that I might 

Taldltad legyen, that thou mightest 

Taldlta Ugyen, that he might 
Plur. Taldltuk legyen, that we might [ | 

Taldltdtok legyen, that you might 

Taldltdk legyen, that they might 

Conditional. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldlndm, If 1 found, if I would 

Taldlndd, If thou foundst, if thou wouldst 
Taldlnd, If he found, if he would 



a^ 



m 



134 
Plur. Taldlnok, If we found, if we would 





Taldlndtok , If you found , if you would I 






Taldlndk, If they found, if they would | 


/^, 
^s.^ 




Past Tense. 




Sing. 


Taldltam volna, I would \ if I have \ 






Taldltadvolna, thou wouldst g^if thou have 


5* 




Taldlta volna, he would f ^ if he have 1 


c 


Plur. 


Taldltuk volna, we would [ fif we have 






Taldltdtok volna, you would \ o-if you have 


o 




Taldltdk volna, they would/ if they have/ 






Imperative. 




Sing. 


Taldld, find (thou) (it). 




Plur. 


Taldljdtok, find (you) (it). 






P) Verbs with soft vowels. 






a. INDEFINITE FORM. 






Indicative Mood. 






Present Tense. 




Sing. 


Tor ok*) I break 
Torsz, thou breakest 
Tor, he breaks; 




Plur. 


Toriink, we break 
Tortok, *) you break 
Tomek, they break. 

Imperfect Tense. 




Sing. 


Torek, I broke 
Tor el ^ thou brokest 
Tore, he broke; 





*) Verbs with e, as their radical vowel, have a short e instead of o. 



138 

Plur. Torenk^ we broke 
Toretekf you broke 
Torenek, they broke. 



Perfect Tense. 
Sing. Tortem^ I have broken, I did break 
Tortel, thou hast broken 
Torty he has broken; 
Plur. Tortunkf we have broken 
Tortetek, you have broken 
Tdrtenek\ 

and / , they have broken. 
Tortek > 



Pluperfect Tense. 

Sing. Tortem vala or volt, I had 
Tortel vala, thou hadst 
Tort vala, he had 

Plur. Tortunk vala, we had 
Tortetek vala, you had 
Tortek vala, they had 



broken. 



Compound Future. 

Sing. Tomi fogok, I shall or will 

Tomi fogsz, thou wilt 

Tomi foq, he will , , , 

' ^' ) break. 

Plur. Tomi fogunk, we ^all or will 
Torni fogtok, you will 
Tdmi fognak, they will 



break. 



136 

Subjunctive Mood 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Torjek, that I may ^ 

Torjel, that thou mayst 

Torjon, that he may 
Plur. Tor junk, that we may 

Torjetek, that you may 

Torjenek, that they may 

Past Tense. 

Sing. Tortem legyen, hat I might 

Tortel legyen, that thou mightest 

Tort legyen, that he might ( have 

Plur. Tortunk legyen, that we might /broken. 
Tortetek legyen, that you might 
Tortek legyen, that they might 



Conditional. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Tomek, I should 

Tomel, thou wouldst 

Tome, he would 
Plur. Tomenk, we should ^ ^'*®^^- 

Tometek, you would 

Tomenek, they would 

Past Tense. 
Sing. Tortem volna, I should have broken. 

Tortel volna, thou wouldst have broken 
• Tort volna, he would have broken 



137 

Plur. Tortunk volna, we should have broken 
Tortetek volna, you would have broken 
Tortek volna, they would have broken. 

Imperative. 
Sing. Torj, break (thou); 
Plur. Torjetek, break (you). 

Infinitiv e. 

Tomi, to break. 

b. DEFIJSITE FORM. 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Tordm, I break (it), I do break (it), I am 
breaking (it) 
Torod^ thou breakest etc. 
Tori, he breaks etc. 
Plur. Torjiik, we break etc. 
Toritek, you break etc. 
Torik, they break etc. 

Imperfect Tense. 
Ping. Tor em, I broke (it) 
Tored, thou brokest 
Toj'e, he broke; 
Plur. Tor 6k, we broke 
Toretek, you broke 
Torek, they broke 

Perfect Tense. 
Sing. Tortem, I have broken (it), I did break, 
Toried, thou hast broken etc. 
Torte, he has broken etc. 



138 

Plur. Tortuk, we have broken etc. 

Tortetek, you have broken etc. 
Tortek, they have broken etc. 

Pluperfect. 
Sing. Tortem vala, I had 

Torted vala, thou hast 

Torte vala, he had 
Plur. Tortuk vala, we had / 

Tortetek vala, you had 

Tortek vala*), they had 



Sing. Tomi 
Tomi 
Tomi 

Plur. Tomi 
Tomi 
Tomi 



Compound Future. 
fogom, I shall or will 
fogod, thou wilt 
fogja, he will 
fogjuk, we shall 
fogjdtok, you will 
fogjdk, they will 



break (it). 



Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Torjem^ that I may 

Torjed, that thou mayst 

Torje, that he may !, ^^^^^ ^.^^ 

Plur. Torjuk, that we may 

Torjetek, that you may 

Torjek, that they may 



*) Instead of vala, may be used volt 



139 

Past Tense. 

Sing. Tor tern legyen, that I might ^ 
Torted legyen, that thou mightest 
Torte legyen, that he might I have 

Plur. Tortuk legyen, that we might / broken. 
Tortetek legyen, that you might 
Tortek legyen, that they might 

Conditional. 

Present Tense. 

Sing. Tornem, 1 should, or would 

Tomed, thou wouldst 

Tome, he would , . , . 

> break (ii\ 
Plur. Toimdk, we should, or would ' 

Toimetek, you would 

Tomek, they would 

Past Tense. 
Sing. T'ortem volna, I should, or would \ g* 

Torted volna, thou wouldst i » 

Torte volna, he would \ S* 

Plur. Tortuk volna, we should, or would / g 

Tortetek volna, you would 

Tortek volna, they would 

Imperative. 

Sing. Jorrf, break (it). 
Plur^ Torjetek, break (it). 

Obs. Neuter Verbs have no Definite form. 



140 



found. 



found. 



2. PASSIVE VOICE, 
a) Verbs with hard vowels 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldltatomj I am 

Taldltatol, thou art 

Taldltatik, he is 
Plur. Taldltatunk, we are 

Taldltattok , you are 

Taldltatnak, they are 

Imperfect Tense. 
Sing. Taldltatdm, I was 

Taldltatdly thou wast 

Taldltatek, he was 
Plur. Taldltatdnk, we were 

Taldltatdtok, you were 

Taldltatdnak, they were 
Perfect. 
Sing. Taldltattam, I have 

Taldltattdl, thou hast 

Taldltatott, he has 
Plur. Taldltattunk, we have 

Taldltattatok f you have 

Taldltattak \ 

and [, they have / 

Talaldltatanak / 

Pluperfect. 
Sing. Taldltattam vala, or vo/^ I had 

Taldltattdl vala, thou hadst 

Taldltatott vala, he had 



\ 



been found. 



been found. 



141 

Plur. Taldltattunk vala, we had \ 

Taldltattatok vala, you had I been found. 
Taldltattak vala, they had \ 
Coumpound Future. 

Sing. Taldltatni fogok, I shall or will 

Taldltatni fogsz, thou wilt 

Taldltatni foq , he will I , - , 

«i rr. ,., . n 1 i 11 .„ > be fouud. 

Plur. 1 alaltatm fogunk, we shall or will 

Taldltatni fogtok, you will 

Taldltatni fognak, they will 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldltassam, that I may 

Taldltassdl, that thou mayst 

Taldltassck , that he may I K f A 

Plur. Taldltassunk , that we may 

Taldltassatok , that you may 

Taldtassanak , that they may 
Past Tense. 
Sing. Taldltattam legyen, that I might \ §" ^y. 

Tdldltattdl legyen^ that thou mightest I ^ ^ 

Taldltatott legyen, that he might 1 »* c 
Plur. Taldltattunk legyen , that we might I ^ S^ 

Taldltattatok legyen, that you might I g 

Taldltattak legyen, that they might I q 

Conditional. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Taldltatndm, I should be found 
Taldltatndl, thou wouldst be found 



s 



142 

Taldltatnek, he would 
Plur. Taldltatndnk , we should 
Taldltatndtok , you would 
Taldltatndnak ^ they would 



be found. 



Past Tense. 

Sing. Taldltattam volna, I should \ ^ 

Taldltattdl volna, thou wouldst i ^ 

Taldltatott volna^ he would I » 

Plur. Taldltatunk volna, we should / ^ 

Taldltattatok volna^ you would 1 c 

Taldltattak volna^ they would ' P- 



/ TW p e ;• a if I V e. 

The Present Tense of the Subjunctive Mood. 

Infinitiv e. 

Taldltatni, to be found. 



p) Verbs with soft vowels. 
Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Sing. Kotetem, I am bound 
Kotetel, thou art bound 
Kotetik^ he is bound; 

Plur. Kotetunk^ we are bound. 
Kotettek^ you are bound 
Kotetnek^ they are bound. 



143 



bound. 



been bound. 



Imperfect. 
Sing. Kotetem^ I was 

Koteiel^ thou wast 
Kotetek^ he was 
Plur. Koteienk^ we were 
Kotetetek, you were 
/ Kotetenek^ they were 

Perfect. 

Sing. Kotettem^ I have 

Kbtettel^ thou hast 
Kotetett^ he has 

Plur. Kotettunk^ we have 
Kotettetek , you have 
Kotettek^ they have 



Pluperfect. 

Sing. Kotettem vala (volt) I had 
Kotettel vala, thou hadst 
Kotetett vala, he had 

Plur. Kotettunk vala, we had 
Kotettetek vala, you had 
Kbtettek vala, they had 



Compound Future. 
Sing. Kotetni fogok , I shall or will 

Kotetni fogsz, thou wilt 

Kotetni fog, he will x^bg bound. 

Plur. Kotetni fogunk , we shall or will | 

Kotetni fogtok, you will 

Kotetni fognak , they will 



been bound. 



144 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 

Sing. Kotessem^ that I may 

Kotessel^ that thou mayst 
Kotessek^ that he may I i i 

Plur. Kotessiink^ that we may 
Kotessetek^ that you may 
Kotessenek^ that they may 
Past Tense. 

Sing. Kotettem legyen^ that I might have 
Kotettel legyen^ that thou mightest 
Kotetett legyen^ that he might 1 been 

Plur. KoteWink legyen^ that we might have / bound. 
Kotettetek legyen., that you might 
Kotettek legyen^ that they might 

Conditional. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Kotetnem^ I should or would 

Kotetnel^ thou wouldst 

Kotetnek^ he would vu u 

Plur. Kotetnenk^ we should or would 

Kotetnetek^ you would 

Kotetnenek^ they would 
Past Tense. 
Sing. Kotettem volna, I should or would 

Kotettel volna, thou wouldst I ® 



Kotetett volna, he would \ » 



Plur. Kotettunk volna^ we should or would 
Kotettetek vohia^ you would 
Kotettek volna, they would 



o 
c 
s 



us 

Imperative Mood. 
The Present Tense of the Subjunctive is used 
as the Imperative Mood. 

Infinitiv e. 

Kotetni, to be bound. 



3. MEDIUM. — VERBS OF IK.*) 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Csalodom, I delude myself 

Csaloddl, thou deludest thyself 
Csalodt'k, he deludes himself; 
Plur. Csalodunk., we delude ourselves 
Csalodtok, you delude yourselves 
Csalodnak., they delude themselves. 
Imperfect. 
Csaloddm, I deluded myself, I was deluding myself, 
etc.; exactly like the Imperfect of the 
Passive Voice. 

Perfect. 
Csalodtam, I have deluded myself, I was deluding my- 
self; like the Perfect of the Passive V. 
Pluperfect. 
Csalddtam vala or volt, I had deluded myself, I have 
been deluding myself; like the Plup. of 
the Pass. V. 



*) ikes Ige, Verbs of ik, called so because the third Person 
of the Present Tense Sing, receives ik. 

Csink. hung. gram. j[Q 



146 

Compound Future. 
Csalodni fogok, I shall or will delude myself; like 
the Future of the Passive. 

^ Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Csalodjam, that I may delude myself; like the Sub- 
junctive of the Passive. 
Past Tense. 
Csalodtam legyen, I might have deluded myself; etc. 

Conditional. 
Present Tense. 
Csalodndm , I should or would delude myself, etc. 

Past Tense. 
Csalodtam volna, I might have deluded myself, etc. 

Imperative. 
Sing. Csalodj, delude thyself; 
Plur. Csalodjatok , delude yourselves. 

Obs. The Present Tense of the Subjunctive 
Mood is used as the Imperative Mood as well, the 
compound forms of the Imperative: let him de- 
lude himself, let us delude ourselves, etc. 
are also expressed by the Present Tense of the Sub- 
junctive Mood. 

Infinitiv e. 

Csalodni., to delude one's self. 



ii 



Derivative Verbal roots have the same forms of 
conjugation; but it is to be remarked, that all deri- 



147 

vative Verbal roots which have a transitive mean- 
ing receive the forms of the Active Voice; such 
as have a reflexive meaning receive the forms of 
the Medium. Csal-ni to deceive, csalhat-ni to 
be able to deceive (can deceive), forms: csalhatok, 
csalhatsz etc.; — csalatkos-ni (to deceive one's self) 
to be mistaken, forms: csalatkozom , csalatkozol, 
csalatkozik 3 etc. — 



4. FUTURE ROOT OF — ^AND*". 

All Verbal roots, Derivative as well as Primi- 
tive ones, can be conjugated with the Future radical 
„awfi?". The Active root vdi^ (vdmi, to wait or to 
expect) and the Medium lakik Qakni to dwell, to 
live) may serve as a pattern of this kind. — 

a. Active. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Vdrandok, I shall or will 

Vdrandsz , thou wilt 

f^drand, he will 
Plur. Vdrandunk, we shall or will / ^' 

Vdrandatok, you will 

Vdrandanak, they will 

Imperfect Tense. 
Sing. Vdrandek, I would 

Vdranddl, thou wouldst \ be waiting 
Vdranda, he would 



10 



* 



148 

Plur. Vdranddnkf we would 

Vdranddtok^ you would I jj^ waiting. 

f^dranddnak *), they would 
Perfect Tense. 
Sing. Vdrandottam, I will 

Fdrandottdl, thou wilt 

Vdrandott ^ he will , . 

Plur. Vdrandottunk , we will 

Vdrandottatok , you will 

Vdrandottak, they will 
Pluperfect 
is formed from the Perfect by the addition of vala 
or volt, to each Personal form. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Vdrandjak y I shall wait**) 
Vdrandjdl^ thou shalt wait 
Vdrandjon, he shall wait 
Plur. Vdrandjunk , we shall wait 
Vdrandjatok, you shall wait 
Vdrandjanak , they shall wait. 

Past Tense. 
Vardndottam legyen , etc. , hke the Past Tense of 
the Active V. 



*) The Medial form is: Vdranddm, Vdranddly Vdran- 
dek etc. 

**) The Subjunctive may often be translated by „will be ob- 
liged to wait". 



149 

Conditional. 

Present. 
Sing. Vdrandnek, I should 

Vdrandndl, thou wouldst 
Vdrandnay he would 
Plur. Vdrandndnky we should / °' 

Vdrandndtok, you would 
Vdrandndnak, they would 
Past. 
F^drandottam volna, I would have been waiting, 
etc., like the Active. 

Infinitiv e. 

Vdrandni, will be waiting, to be waiting. 



b. Medium. 

I 71 dicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Lakandom, I will be 

Lakandol, thou wilt be 

Lakandik, he will be \ living or dwel- 

Plur. Lakaiidunk , we will be / ling. 

Lakandatok , you will be 

Lakandanak, they will be 
Imperfect. 
Sing. Lakanddm, 1 would be \ 

Lakanddl, thou wouldst be > living or dwelling. 

Lakandek, he would be / 



150 

Plur. Lakanddnk , we would be \ 

Lakanddtok, you would be Wiving or dwelling. 

Lakanddnak, they would be ) 
Perfect. 
Sing. Lakandottam, I will 

Lakandottdl , thou wilt 

Lakandott, he will \^ ^^^^ ,;^gj ^^. j^^j, 

Plur. Lakandottunk , we will 

Lakandottatok, you will 

Lakandottak , they will 

Pluperfect. 
Lakandottam vala or i^o//, etc., like the Passive. 

5 w 6 y w n c < 2 w e. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Lakandjam, I shall be 
Lakandjdl, thou shalt be 

Lakandjik, he shall be \^ii^ing or dwelling. 
Plur. Lakandjunk , we shall be 
Lakandjatok, you shall be 
Lakandjanaky they shall be 

Past Tense. 
Lakandottam legyen, etc. 

C o n rf i f I o n rt /. 
Present. 
Sing. Lakandndm, I should be \ 

Lakandndly thou wouldst be [ living or dwelling. 
Lakandnek^ he would be / 



ISl 

Plur. Lakandndnk , we should be \ 

Lakandndtok, you would be > living or dwelling. 

Lakandndnak, Ihej would be; 
Past. 
Lakandottam volna, etc., like that of the Passive. 

Infinitiv e. 

Lakandni, (to) will be living. 



5. CONTRACTED VERBAL ROOTS. 

a. Active Voice. 

INDEFINITE FORM. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Sodrok, I twist, and I spin 

Sodrdsz and sodorsz, thou twistest 

Sodor, he twistelh; 
Plur. Sodrunk, we twist 

Sodortok, you twist 

Sodomak ] . 

Sodramk !' **y *^^*- 

Imperfect Tense. 
Sing. Sodrek, I twisted, I spun. 

Sodrdl, thou twistedst 

Sodra, he twisted; 
Plur. Sodrdnk, we twisted 

Sodrdtoky you twisted 

Sodrdnak, they twisted. 



152 

Perfect. 

Sing. Sodrottam) , ,a t * -r 

^ , \, I nave twisted, I was twisting 

Sodortam ) 

Sodrottdl ) , , . , 

^ , ,, >, thou hast twisted 
Sodortal ) 

Sodrott, he has twisted; 

Plur. Sodrottunk) . , . 

c^ 1 . I 1^ we have twisted 
Sodortunk ) 

Sodrottatok) . . . 

Sodrottak, they have twisted. 

Pluperfect. 

Sing. Sodrottam vala) , , , . , 
o , ^ , }, I had twisted 

Sodortam vala 



thou hadst twisted 



Sodrottdl vala 

Sodortal vala 

Sodrott vala, he had twisted; 

Plur. Sodrottunk vala) , , . , 

o , ^ , I [^ we had twisted 
Sodortunk vala ) 

Sodrottatok vala ) i i . • . i 

_ , , , [, you had twisted 

Sodortatok vala > 

Sodrottak vala, they had twisted. 

Compound Future. 
Sing. Sodomi fogok, I shall or will twist 

Sodomi fogsz, thou wilt twist 

Sodomi fog, he will twist; 
Plur. Sodomi fogunk, we shall or will twist 

Sodomi fogiok, you will twist 

Sodorni fognak, they will twist. 



153 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Sing. Sodorjak, that I may twist 

Sodorjdl, that thou majst twist 

Sodorjon, that he may twist; 
Plur. Sodorjunk^ that we may twist 

Sodo?]/atok , that you may twist 

Sodorjanak y that they may twist. 
Past Tense. 
Sine. Sodrottam leqyen ) , ^ , , 

Sodortam legyen ) ° 

Sodrottdl leqyen) ,i. ^ ,, • i ^ ^ 

c , r, ,, \y that thou mightst 

Sodortal legyeii ) 

Sodrott legyen, that he might 

Plur. Sodrottunk leqyen ) ,, , . , , 

c , ,r !;» tQSit we might . _ 

Sodortunk legyen ) \ » 

Sodrottatok leqyen ) ,i , . , ^ 

Sodortatok legyen ) 

Sodf'ottak legyen^ that they might 

C w rf t ^ z w a ^. 

Present. 

Sing. Sodranek and Sodomek., I should twist or spin 

So dr anal and Sodorndl, thou wouldst twist 

Sodrana and Sodorna, he would twist 

Plur. Sodrandiik and Sodorndnk, we should twist; 

Sodrandtok and Sodomdtok ., you would twist 

Sodrandnak and Sodorndnak^ they would twist. 

Past Tense. 

Sine. Sodrottam volna ) ^ , , , , . , 

o » . , ^ I should nave twisted 

Sodortam volna 



154 

Sodrottdl vohia ) , , , . , 

c, 1 ^rj J I, thou wouldst have twisted 
Sodortal volna ) 

Sodrott volna ^ he would have twisted; 

Plur. Sodrottunk volna \ , , , , . , 

o , ^ , , >» we should have twisted 
Sodortunk volna j 

Sodrottatok volna ) . 

c, , ^ ^ , , [, you would have twisted 
Sodortatok volna ) '' 

Sodrottak volna, they would have twisted. 

Imperative. 
Sing. Sodorj\ twist (thou) 
Plur. Sodorjatok., twist (you). 

Infinitiv e. 

Sodorni, to twist, to spin. 

The Definite form, the Personal terminations of 
which see above, is liable to the same contractions 
as the Indefinite form given in this paradigm. 

According to this Paradigm are formed: Bufdo- 
kol*) , to wander about; csatol., to fasten with a 
buckle, metaphorically to enclose; csepel., to thrash; 
ebedel., to dine; enekel^ to sing; esdekel., to implore; 
gdtol, to hinder; gydszol., to mourn; gyotor ^ to 
plague; hajol^ to stoop; hegyes, to point; jegyez^ 
to mark; kohoz^ to confiscate; kovdcsol^ to forge; 
nddol, to steel, to harden (iron); padol, to co- 
ver with boards, to wainscot; pecsetel, to seal; 
perel, to plead (and to quarrel); potol, to make 



*) The termination of the Infinitive „ni" being a secondai'y 
form, is missed and the Verbs are given in their roots. 



155 

amends; rabol, to rob; sqfog , to smart; tandcsol, 
to give advice, tip or , to tread; tolmdcsol, to inter- 
pret; tudakol^ to inquire; iinepel^ to celebrate; vd- 
dol^ to accuse, to charge (with). 

Obs. 1. Bujdokol., esdekel, kaj'ol, are used 
as Mediums as well. 

Obs. 2. Verbal roots with soft vowels receive 
the same vowels in their Personal terminations. 



b. Medium. 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Alszom., I sleep and I am sleeping 
u4lssol^ thou sleepest etc. 
Alszik^ he sleeps; 
Plur. Alszunk^ we sleep 

Alszatok ., you sleep 
Alszanak and alusznak^ they sleep. 
Imperfect. 
Sing. Aluvdm and Alvdm, I slept 

Aluvdl and Alvdl, thou sleptest 
Aluvek and Alvek^ he slept; 
Plur. Aluvdnk and Alvdnk, we slept 
Aluvdtok and Alvdtok, you slept 
Aluvdnak and Alvdnak, they slept 
Perfect. 
Sing. Aludtam, I have slept, I was sleeping, I did 
Aludtdl, thou hast slept, etc. [sleep 

Aludt and Aludott, he has slept; 



156 

Plur. Aludtunk^ we have slept 
Aludtatok^ you have slept 
Aludtak and Aludtanak^ they have slept. 
Pluperfect 
has the same Personal formations, with the addition 
of vala or volt to each Person. 

Compound Future. 
Sing. Aludni fogok^ I shall sleep 
Aludni fogsz , thou wilt sleep 
Aludni fog ^ he will sleep; 
Plur. Aludni fogunk^ we shall sleep 
Aludni fogtok^ you will sleep 
Aludni fognak^ they will sleep. 
Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Aludjam^ that I may sleep and if I sleep 
Aludjdl^ that thou mayst sleep 
Aludjek^ that he may sleep; 
Plur. Aludjunk^ that we may sleep 
Aludjatok^ that you may sleep 
Aludjanak^ that they may sleep. 

Past Tense. 
Aludtam legyen^ that I may have slept, etc. 
Conditional. 
Present Tense. 
Sing. Aludndm*)^ I should sleep 
Alud?idl, thou wouldst sleep 
Aludnek, he would sleep; 

*) Commonly the forms of the Neuter aludneky aludndl, 
aludna are used. 



157 

Plur. Aludndnh^ we should sleep 
Aludndtok^ you would sleep 
Aludndnak^ they would sleep. 

Past Tense. 
Aludtam volna, I would have slept, etc. 

Imperative. 

Sing. Aludj\ sleep (thou); 
Plur. Aludjatok^ sleep (you). 

Infinitiv e. 

Aludni, to sleep. 

The Verb Fekild, to lie; and all those mentio- 
ned pag. Ill sub y. have the same Conjugation. 

The Verbal roots; Alapod, to be founded; bete- 
ged, to become ill ; csillapod, to cease, to abate ; ele- 
ged, to be satisGed; feneked, to grudge, to menace; 
gazdagod, to become rich; gyanakod, to suspect; 
gyarapod; to increase; haragud, to be angry; hide- 
ged, to become cold; kovered, to fatten; meleged, 
to get warm; noveked, to increase, to grow larger; 
oreged, to grow old ; reszeged, to be intoxicated , to 
get drunk; tanakod, to consult; teleped, to settle 
in a place ; uleped, to precipitate (in Chemistry), have 
both forms of Conjugation , the regular and the 
contracted; thus, alapodom and alapszom, ala- 
podik and alapszik, etc. 

Observ. The Verbal roots bunhdd, to be 
punished; diihbd, to rage; sovdnyod^ to grow lean; 
change their characteristic „fi?" without a contraction 



158 

of the root; thus, biinhoszom, not bunhszem; dii- 
hoszik^ not duhszik; sovdnyoszik , not sovdnyszik. 

b s. 2. Such Verbal roots as have not a </ as 
their radical, are liable merely to contraction, not 
to the alteration of their radical consonant into sz, 
as; haboz to wave, to foam, fuldokol to be chok- 
ing, form habzom, etc, and fuldoklom etc. 

In regard to the other irregular Verbs the 
roots of which terminate with n, as ven-ni, len- 
ni, hin-ni, vin-ni, in-ni, en-ni, men -id, the stu- 
dent is referred to „Compositions VII. Verbal roots 
in 7i"; only it may be added, that the Verbs 
enni and inni are used as Mediums, and have the 
Medial form. 

The irregular Verbs the roots of which end 
with a vowel, as 70, hi, Id, ri, szi, sz6 , etc. have 
been mentioned as well in „Compositions VII. Ver- 
bal roots of ?^", their characteristic being v. 



E. Objective Conjugation. 

Before concluding the Section of Conjugation, 
the propriety of the Hungarian language of having 
a peculiar termination for the first Person of Tran- 
sitive Verbs, when a Person is spoken to, must be 
mentioned. This form is always used when the active 
Verb governs the Objective Case of the Personal 
Pronoun of the second Person, this Objective Case 
being then expressed by an objective termination. 

These objective Terminations are: 



159 

Verbs with hard vowels I Verbs with soft vowels 





Indicative. 




Present 


lak 


lek 


Perfect 


alak 

Subjunctive. 


elek. 


Pres. and I 


*erf. alak 

Conditional. 


elek. 


Present 


alak 


elek 


Past 


alak 


elek 



These Terminations are added to the Charac- 
teristic of the Verbs. 

Obs. Such Tenses as have any auxiliary word 
to complete their form, retain the auxiliary in the 
Objective Conjugation as well. 

(Verbs with soft vowels receive the corresponding terminations.) 

1. ACTIVE. 
Ind. Pres. Vdrlak, I wait for thee, and I wait 
for ye. 
Perf. Vdrtalak, 1 have waited for thee or ye. 
Subj. Pres. Far j alak .^ that I may wait for thee 
or ye. 
Perf. Vdrtalak legyen, that I might have 
waited for thee or ye. 
Cond. Pres. Vdmdlak, I should wait for thee or ye. 
Past. Vdrtalak volna, I should have waited 
for thee or ye. 



160 

2. FACTITIVE. 

Ind. Pres. Vdrtatlak, I leave thee or ye waiting; 
Perf. Fdrtattalak, I have left thee or ye 
waiting; 
Sub. Pres. f^drtassalak, that I may let thee or ye 
wait; 
Past. Vdrtattalak legyen, that I might have 
left thee or ye waiting. 
Cond. Pres. T^drtatndlak , I should leave thee or ye 
waiting ; 
Past. Vdrtattalak volna, I should have left 
thee or ye waiting. 

3. POTENTIAL. 

ind. Pres. Vdrhatlak, I may (or I am able to) 
wait for thee or ye; 
Perf. Vdrhattalak, I might have waited or 
I was able to wait for thee or ye. 
Subj. Pres. Vdrhassalak, that I may (may be able 
to) wait for thee or ye. 
Past. Vdrhattalak legyen, I might have waited 
for thee or ye. 
Cond. Pres. Vdrhatndlak, I should be able to wait 
for thee or ye. 
Past. Vdrhattalak volna, I should have been 
able to wait for thee or ye. 

F. Participles. 
There are two different kinds of Verbal forms 
generally mentioned as Participles of the Verb ; their 
Terminations are: 



161 

for Verbs with hard vowels ; for Verbs with soft vowels 

Present o S 

Imperfect va, van ve, ven 

Perfect t, ott t, ett, ott*) 

Future ando endS. 

In reality only the forms of van- and va are Par- 
ticiples, the former of which supplies the Present, the 
latter the Past, Participle of other European 
languages. The other forms are derivative forms 
used as Substantives and Adjectives, especially the 
form of o, to which belongs the form of „a??</d," it 
being the Verbal Adjective of the Future radical and. 
Thus, taldlo means a finder, vdro a waiting subject; 
so also is the form of t, ott, t, ett, ott used 
Adjectively. In order to avoid mistakes, these forms 
commonly called Participles, will be considered as 
Adjectives derived from Verbs (Adjectiva 
Verbalia). 

The Participles, the Terminations of which are 
the same for all the Verbal roots, then are: 

1. OF REGULAR ROOTS. ♦ 

Active. 
Talcilvdn, finding; Torven, breaking; 

7Vi/fl7i;fl, found, having Torve, broken, having 

found. broken. 



*) The third Person of the Perfect Tense of the Indicative 
Mood is the same as this Perfect Participle. 

Csink hung. Gram. 1 1 



162 

Passive. 
Taldltatvdn, being found; Toretven, being broken; 
Taldltatvtty having been Toretve, having been 
found. broken. 

Medium. 
Csalodvdn, deluding one's self; 
Csalodva, deluded. 

Neuter. 
Elven, living; 
Elve, having lived, lived. 

2. CONTRACTFD ROOTS. 
Active. 
Sodorvdn, twisting, spinning; 
Sodorva, twisted, spun. 

Medium. 
Alvdn and Aluvdn, sleeping; 
Aha, slept, having slept, (being asleep). 

3. FUTURE ROOT (and, end). 
Active. 
Vdrandvdn , 
Vdrandva. 

P a s s i V ^^ 

Vdratandvdn, j^ 

Vdratandva. — 

3» HeriTatioii and Composition of neur 
Verbs. 

The derivative Verbal roots mentioned above 
are such as may be formed from any Active, or 
Active, Passive, Medium and Neuter Verb, and are 



163 

expressed by a periphrastical Conjugation in other 
European languages; the Verbal roots to be con- 
sidered in this Section are such as may be considered 
as Primitive roots in regard to those mentioned above, 
of which may be formed Factitive, Potential, Passive 
etc. radicals. 

A concise and brief enumeration of Etymological 
forms strictly taken is subjoined. 

New Verbs may be formed by means of 
Derivation and Composition. 

A. Derivative Verbs. 

Verbs are derived from Substantives, Adjectives, 
Adverbs, Prepositional terms (Postpositions) and 
other Verbs. 

From Substantives (derivative and primitive ones) 
are derived Verbal roots 
1) by means of the consonant /. 

a) / added without any auxiliary vowel to such Sub- 
stantives as terminate with a vowel, forming 
Active Verbs: Kapa the hoe, kapdl-ni to dig; 
mese tale, viesel-ni to tell; borona the harrow, 
borondl-ni to harrow. 

b) /, with the vowels e, o, o, as often as the Sub- 
stantive has a final consonant; por powder, porol- 
ni to powder; per process, law- suit, perel-ni 
(to make process) to quarrel, to carry on a 
law -suit; ^er^load, ier hel - ni Xohm&en^ to load. 

Obs. Some of these Verbs belong to the class 
of the Mediums, and are mostly Neuter in foreign 

11* 



164 

languages. Sikam (from sik plan), sikamoliJr^ 

contracted sikamlilf^ (to) slide; villdm lightning, 

villdmolik, contracted villdmlik, it lightens. 

c) I, with the vowel u, li, forms Neuter Verbs : teriil- 

ni to extend, from tei^ space; lapul-ni to become 

flat, from lap plate; alapul-ni to be founded, 

from alap foundation; keriil-ni to avoid (to go 

round), from kdr circle. 

2. By means of the consonant g. 
a)(/, preceded by the vowels <?, o, e, forms In- 
transitive Verbal roots: csepeg-ni to drip, from 
csep drop; ragyog-ni to be bright; sajog-ni to 
make a noise; emelyeg-ni to be loathsome, to 
disgust; mosolyogni to smile. 

b)^, preceded by the syllable in, on, en, on: 
zajong-ni to brawl, kering-eni, or kei^eng-eni 
to move in a circle; from kdr circle, zaj noise. 

3) By means of the consonants szt, with an auxi- 
liary vowel, are formed Factitive Verbs from other 
Verbal roots and Substantives: Epeszt-eni to 
(make) gall, to make angry, from epe gall; veszt- 
eni to loose, from vesz danger. 

4) By means of the consonant z, with or without 
auxiliary vowels, according as the Substantives 
terminate with a vowel or a consonant, are formed 

^jVeuter Verbs. Hangoz-ni to sound, from hang 
sound; okoz-ni to cause, from ok cause; felez- 
ni to divide in two parts, from fel half; etc. 



16S 

5) By means of additional syllables. Especially 

a) it, forming Active Verbs. Tanit-ani to teach, 
from tan science; tmt-eni to spread out, from 
ter space; sipit-ani to scream, from sip whistle, 
fife (organ - pipe) ; lapit-ani to make flat, from 
lap plate. 

b) doz, dez^ forming Neuter and Medial Verbs. 
Epedez-ni to grieve, from epe gall; sarjadoz-ni, 
to spring off, from sarj sprout; fiadoz-ni^ contrac- 
ted fiadzani, to bring forth young (said of animals). 

Obs. If the Verb be a Medium, the last 
Syllable is generally contracted when the Personal 
terminations of the Conjugation are added; thus, 
sarjadz-om^ sarj adz -ol^ sarj adz -ik^ instead of 
sarj ado z - om ^ etc. 

c) haszt, heszt, forming Active Verbs of a diminu- 
tive meaning: porhaszt-ani to moulder (the 
ground), to break into minute parts. 

d) kod^ ked, forming Mediums from Substantives, 
expressing any occupation, if the Substantives end 
with OS,' as, asztaloskod-ni to do a carpenters 
work, asztalos carpenter. 

e) lei, lalj Idl, forming Neuter Verbs ; the syllables e/, 
ol, form Actives of the same Substantive. Szam- 
Idl-ni to count, from szam number, (szdmol-ni 
to reckon); kemlel-ni to spy, from kem the spy, 
cseplel-m to thrash, from csep flail. 

f) tal, tel form Active Verbs. Vigasztal-ni to con- 
sole, from vigasz comfort, consolation. 



166 

6. Derivative Substantives of dsz are also used as 

Verbal roots. Haldsz-ni to fish, vaddsz-ni to 

hunt , etc. , from haldsz fisher, vaddsz huntsman. 

From Adjectives are derived Active, Neuter, 

and Medial Verbs. 

1. Active Verbs of a frequentative meaning are 
formed: by the syllables gat^ get: as, edesget-ni to 
sweeten; by it: vildgosit-ni to make light, kekit- 
eni to make blue, zoldit-eni to make green; by the 
syllable tal, tel: magasztal-ni to extol, from mag as 
high, hiresztel-niio announce, to make known, from 
hires renowned, known. 

2. Neuter Verbs: by means of the syllables zi/, 
^/, ad, od; as, nag^obbul-ni to grow larger, derul-ni 
to clear up, jozanul-ni to become sober; kekul-ni 
to grow blue, zoldul-m to grow green; higgad-ni to 
become liquid, from hig liquid; vigad-ni to be 
merry, from vig merry. 

. 3. Medial Verbs : by the syllables od, ed, od; as, 
nagyobbod-ni to become larger, venhed-ni to grow 
old, sovdnyod-ni to fall away, from ^oz^awy meagre, 
vildgosod-ni to become light; — kod, ked; as, 
okoskod-ni to argue, from okos prudent; p)sveny- 
ked-ni to covet, from fosveny avaricious. 

The impersonals zoldellik it is greenish, kekel- 
lik it is blueish, feherlik it is whitish, etc. are 
derivative diminutive Verbs. — 

From Adverbs are derived: 

1. Active and Neuter Verbs, by the syllables it, 
get, el, and the consonant z, preceded by an auxiliary 



167 

vowel. Kozelit-ni to bring near; rogt'dnds-ni to ex- 
temporize; felebbes-ni to appeal; felel-ni^ to answer; 
from kozel near , rogton suddenly , felebb higher up, 
fel up, on. 

2. Medial Verbs, by means of the syllables ked, 
kod: hirtelefi suddenly, hastily, hirtelenked-ni to over- 
hurry, esztelen unreasonable, esstelenked-ni to 
commit follies, etc. 

From Prepositions are formed Active Verbs; as, 
tulzit-ani and tuloz-ni to exaggerate, mellekel-ni 
to enclose, mell6z-ni to avoid, aldz-ni to humble, 
to lower ; from tul beyond , melle beside , next, 
aid under. 

From other Verbs are derived Active, Neuter, 

Frequentative, Medial Verbs, etc. The most frequently 

occurring syllables of Derivation are the following: 

ac?, fl/, aw, am^ amod^ amol contracted aml^ amoss 

contracted amsz, aszt, at; as: fogad-ni to 

receive, gyulad-ni to inflame, fuval-ni to blow, 

fogan-ni to become pregnant, mozzan-ni to stir, 

fogam-ni to become pregnant, futamol-ni to take 

to flight, iramol-ni to run, folyamod-ni to 

petition, futamod-ni to fly, fogarnsz- am to become 

pregnant, fogyaszt-ani to lessen, szalaszt- am to 

rout, forgat-ni to turn, dongat-ni to beat, etc.; 

from their respective roots fog, gyul, fu, moz, 

fut, ir, foly, fogy, szalad (szal Siud szdll), forog 

contracted forg, do?ig. 

Verbs with the derivative syllables am, amod, 

ami, amsz, are Mediums. 



168 

bol^ bol,' as, zdrdmbol-ni to make a rattling noise, 
ddrdmbol-ni to make a thunder -like noise; from 
zoren-ni to rattle, doren-ni to thunder. 

csdl^ csel, csol; as, faragcsdl-ni to cut figures, ron- 
csol-ni to spoil; from farag ^ ront. 

dal, degel, del, des, dez \ do gal, dos, doz, dogel, 
dokolj dM, duly- as, vagdal-ni to cut in pieces, 
verdegel-ni to beat a little repeatedly, tordel-ni 
to break in small pieces, csipdes-ni to pinch re- 
peatedly, irdogdl-ni to write frequently, mar dos- 
ni to bite, kapdos-ni to snatch, iildogel-ni to sit 
down repeatedly, odlokol-ni to slaughter, fordul- 
ni to turn about (Neuter); from their respective 
roots vdg, ver, tor, csip, ir, mar, kap, ul, 
ol, for, 

eget, emed, em, et; as, vereget-ni to beat frequently, 
vetemed-ni to think of, to give one's self to, 
kerenget-ni and keringet-ni to give a circular 
motion; from ver, vet, kereng. 

gal, gel: hajgdl-ni to throw, rongdl-ni to destroy, 
dorgdl-ni to censure; keresgel-ni to look for 
(steadily). 

int: verint-eni to touch, csavarint-ani to turn 
round once; from ver, csavar. 

Ked, kod give Medial Verbs: emelked-ni to rise, 
elmelked-ni to muse, to meditate, dlmelkod-ni 
to be astonished; from emel, elmel, dlmel. 

lat, let; as, oszlat-ni to disperse, foszlat-ni to undo, 
to pick (draw out the threads of silk or 
woollen stuff). 



169 

odoz^ ddos contracted odjs, ddz^ oz^ es, form Medial 
Verbs: Lopodz-aiii to steal (as, to steal away), 
kerddz-eni to ruminate, fdradoz-ni to take pains. 
szt^ sztel; in these syllables of Derivation the 
primitive dental d is changed into sz', by means 
of them Active Verbs are derived from Neuter 
ones. Repeszt-eniio si^Wi^ engesztel-niio Qx^miQ, 
from reped^ enged. 

B. Gomponnd Verbs. 

In the Hungarian language Compound Verbs 
are formed, by Adverbs, Prepositions (Postpositions) 
and Prepositional affixes, a few Substantives and 
Verbal particles, prefixed to Verbs. 

1. Adverbs relative to direction (where from 
and where to) and place form compound Active, 
Neuter and Medial Verbs, according to with what 
Verbal root they combine. For instance: ki out, 
kimen-ni to go out, kiver-ni to expel, kizdr-ni 
to exclude, kinyilatkoz-ni to declare; fel up, up- 
wards, felkel-ni to get up, felul-ni to sit up, fel- 
fuval-kod-ni to be haughty; le down, leten-ni 
to put down, leul-ni to sit down; hdtra behind, 
backwards, hdtramarad-ni to remain, hdtrakagy-ni 
to leave behind. 

2. Prepositions may be compounded with Verbs, 
like Adverbs; aid under, alul from under, under- 
neath: alulir-ni to sign, aldir-ni to sign, aldvet-ni 
to subjugate; ellen against (contra, re), ellendll-ani 



170 

and ellentdll-ani to resist, ellenmond-ani io contra- 
dict; dltal^ contracted at through, across, over 
(trans), dltaUdt-ni, contracted dtldt-ni, to see 
through, to penetrate. 

3. Prepositional affixes are not used in their 
primitive form, but with the Possessive affixes of the 
third Person Singular, as, bele, hozzd, rd instead of 
red', as, belevdg-ni to hew in, metaphorically to 
interrupt a speaker, hozzdjdrul-ni to accede, rddll- 
ani to consent. 

4. Substantives. It is against the genius of 
the Hungarian language to form new Verbs by 
means of Composition of Verbs with Substantives, 
the language being so rich in syllables of derivation. 
The only more frequently occurring Verb of that 
kind is hdtirni to indorse, in other instances the 
Periphrastical expression is preferable. 

5. Verbal Particles. These are only used in 
composition with Verbs. Such are el and meg ; el 
means away, — meg has no proper meaning in English, 
although it often may be translated by off; it is 
used when the speaker wishes to express an action 
really finished or to be finished. Ir-ni to write, 
megirni (to make it written) to achieve writing; 
ful-ni to choke; megful-ui to become choked; ven- 
ni to take, elven-ni to take away, megven-ni to buy. 
Meg often gives the Verb a metaphorical meaning: 
vet-ni to throw, elvet-fii to throw away, megvet-ni 
to despise. — The Present Tense of Verbs com- 
pounded with meg often expresses the Future of the 



171 

simple Verb. Elek I live, megelek I shall live, 
I shall get my living. 

Compound Verbs retain the same forms of con- 
jugation, as the simple ones. 



II. IVoiuinal Formis* 

Substantives and words used instead of 
Substantives. 

The forms under which the Substantive appears 
in the Hungarian language, are quite different from 
those of other European languages. 

There is no distinction of Gender nor any De- 
clension as we find in other European languages. 

Before the different forms of the Substantives 
are detailed , that part of speech which the Hungarian 
Academy, in its „ System of the Hungarian language," 
ingeniously styled the Prenoun, and which com- 
monly is called the Article, may be mentioned. 

It is indeed somewhat different from the article 
of other European languages, for it is used neither 
to distinguish the Gender, as in German and French, 
nor for the sake of determining nearer the Substan- 
tive, yet it is an indispensable precursor of the 
Substantive: this Prenoun is az, it remains invari- 
able, and is incombinable with any affixes of the 
Substantive. The Euphonistical and Orthographical 
remark only may be noted, that, instead of az, 
a* is used as often as the Substantive begins with 



172 

a consonant; thus, we say: az any a the mother, 
az olio the scissors, a^ has the house, a' szoba 
the room, etc. 

!• Cltaracteristic of tlie Objeetive Caste. 

The Characteristic of the Objective Case, 
both for the Singular and Plural, is t, which is al- 
ways added by means of a vowel when the concur- 
rence of consonants would harden the pronunciation. 
Euphony and the alteration of the primitive 
roots of Substantives have produced some Irregulari- 
ties. In order to facilitate the learning of such de- 
viations from the general rule: „the vowels, by 
means of which affixes are joined to the 
roots, must correspond with those of the 
root, hard or soft ones", leading rules are 
given in the following Subdivisions. 

A. The root of the Substantives remains unchanged, 
a) The characteristic t is added without 
any vowel: 
1) To all Substantives that have a final vowel: 
az Erdd the wood, az erdot the wood; a' rozsa 
the rose, a' rozsdt*),- a' kefe the brush, «' kefet; 
az olio the scissors, az ollot; az dru wares, 
az drut. 

2. To Substantives with a final /, /, if they 
are not monosyllables, ny , r and *, the dissyllables 
of a final sz^ z^ and the monosyllables of r. 
A* zorej the noise, zorejt^ as asztal the table, az 

*) On prolongation of a, see Introd. § 4. 



173 



asstaltj' a' lednj/ the girl, lednyt; a' buzogdny a 
club, for fighting, a busogdnyt^ a kdr the damage, 
a kdj't; a hus the meat, a hust; az asztalos the 
joiner, az asztalost; a' szakasz the section, a sza- 
kaszt; a vaddsz the huntsman, a' vaddszt; a' ka- 
lauz the guide, a kalauzt. 

To this rule belong the Substantives: kin pain, 
kint^ sir grave, sirt; zsir fat, zsirt. 

Excepted from this rule are the monosyllables 
with a final s, if preceded by a short vowel, and 
the Adjectives of os, vdr the castle, and those that 
shorten the last syllable (see below); all of them 
have at instead of a simple t; as, vas iron, vasat; 
az okos the prudent (man), az akosat; a' maddi' 
the bird, a' madarat; a' kut the well, kutat; 
a' bogdr the insect, bogarat, etc. 

b) t is preceded by a vowel. 

1. By a (for hard words). 
In monosyllabical Substantives with a long or 
short a, such as do not belong to the preceding 
rules. A' vdz the skeleton, vdzat; a' szdj the 
mouth, szdj'at; vaj butter, vaj'dt. 

In monosyllabical Substantives that have i in their 
root, except those mentioned in Introduction, § 5, 
Such are dij the salary, dy'at^ hid the bridge, hidat; 
in the muscle, inat; a' szij the strap, szij'at^ and 
the Adjectives kig fluid, higat; vig merry, vigat, 
when used by themselves or as Substantives. 



174 

In the Comparative and Superlative degrees of 
Adjectives, when thej are used without a Substan- 
tive, or when they follow their Substantive: gasda- 
gabb richer, gazdagabbat a richer one; jobb better, 
jobbat a better one; a' legjobbat the best one; etc. 

When the Substantive is used with the Posses- 
sive affixes ending with a Consonant: as, asztalomat 
my table. 

2. By o (for hard words). 

In all Substantives that are not compre- 
hended under the preceding rules. A' fuldnk the 
sting, fuldnkot; a parancs the commandment, pa- 
rancsot; a kaland the adventure, kalandot; and in 
the Substantives csik the stripe; ir butter-milk. 

3. By e (for soft words). 

In all Substantives the roots of which have i, e 
or e, for their radical vowels. Reteg stratum, rete- 
get; a' vitezseg the bravery, the valour, vitezseget; 
a veritek the sweat, veriteket. 

In all those that shorten the primitively long 
vowel of their last syllable. A' szeker the coach, 
a szeker et; a' gyoker, the root, «• gyokeret, etc. 

In monosyllables with a final / or with another 
final consonant preceded by / or r. A^ fill the ear, 
fulet; a' fold the earth, foldet; a' volgy the valley, 
volgyet. 

4. By o (for soft words). 

In Substantives having for their vowels S^o, H, 
or u, and not belonging to the preceding rules. Az 



175 

eziist the silver, ezustot; fust the smoke, fiistot; 
kod the fog, kodot; az elnok the president, el- 
nb'kotj' etc. 

B. The root of the Substantive changes when the t of the 
objective case is added. 

Alterations in the form of the Nominative are 
produced by a Contraction of the last syllable, 
by changing the root of the Substantive into a 
different one from that used as the Nominative. 

a) Contraction. 
The Contraction may be effected 
1) By abbreviating the long vowel of the last syl- 
lable. Such abbreviations take place in the following 
Substantives and words used as Substantives : agd?', 
grey -hound, bogdr insect, cserep shard, earthen 
ware, del noon, der frost, derek ihQ trunk, (as Ad- 
jective, excellent and brave), eg the sky, eger mouse, 
egyeb other , eleg (used as a Substantive) enough , er 
the vein, esz reason, fazek pot, fedel cover, fel 
half, fenek bottom, fondl file, thread, foveny sand, 
fuz willow , gei'eb rail , obstacle , gundr gander , gyo- 
ker root, het the week, hev heat, jeg ice, kandl 
and kaldn spoon, kenyer bread, kerek wheel, keves 
little, kez hand, kosdr basket, kotel rope, kozep 
the middle, kut the well, legy the fly, lev the juice, 
level a letter , lud goose , maddr the bird , mesz lime, 
mocsdr morass, marsh, nydr summer, nehez heavy, 
negy four, 7iev the name, pohdr the glass, cup, 
rcz copper , rud a pole , sdr mud , suddr summit. 



176 

top of trees, sugar the ray, ssamdr the ass, szel 
the wind, szeker the coach, car, szen coal, tehen 
cow, tel winter, tenyer and tereny the palm (of the 
hand), tiz ten, tuz fire, ur Mister, a gentleman, 
ut the way, vereb a sparrow, viz the water. Ob- 
jective Case: Agarat, bogarat, cserepet, etc. 

2) By neglecting the short vowel of the last 
syllable. 

In Substantives, or words used as Substantives, 
ending with the syllable alom or elem , as : fdj- 
dalom pain, fejedelem duke, dlom the sleep ; having : 
fdjdalmat, fejedelmet, dlmat. 

Except elem the element, which forms elemet. 

As often as the Consonants /, ly , r meet with the 

consonant m in the last syllable. Selyem silk, 

olom lead, kdrom finger-nail and the claws, — 

selymet, olmot^ kormot. 

Except drom the joy; Objective Case oromet. 
When /, ly , r combine with k to form the final 
syllable. Arok the ditch, the trench, okor the 
ox, gyilok the stabber, akol the sheep-cot, 
having drkot, d'krot^ etc.. 

Except alak the shape, gyei^ek the child, 
kerek the wheel, orok eternal. 
When the final g in its syllable is preceded by 
/, ly, r. Dolog the thing, the work, kereg the 
bark, the crust; — dolgot, kerget. — 

Except balog left-handed, belyeg a stamp, 
gombolyag a clew (of thread), ball, gyalog on foot, 
gorog Gteek, hdlyog cataract, holyag bladder, meleg 



177 

warm, or eg old, tcilyog an ulcer, vdlyog an un- 
burnt brick, zdlog the pawn, the forfeit. 

When the final consonant k is preceded by 
t, iij, sz, cz in the last syllable. AloJc the im- 
precation, vetek the sin, triicsok the cricket (an 
insect); Obj. Case dtkot vetket. triicskot 

When the consonant b or p forms the last 
syllable with a final I, ly, or r. Kobol a coop, 
in Hungai-y a measure for corn, containing 4 bush- 
els, obol the bay, the sine in Trigonometry, cse- 
her a large tub, csupor a small pot. 

In the following words: bdtor bold, bodor 
frill, feszek the nest, fodor the curl, frill, godor 
the pit, gyomor the stomach, kaszon the profit, 
irem moisture, irom the couch, kapocs the iron- 
cramp, hook, koboz lyre, /ato?' the highway-man, 
majom the ape, meder the bed of the river, 5za- 
iyor market- basket, szeder the bramble, black- 
berry, tegez the quiver, torony the tower, steeple, 
if^zoA' the fire-brand, vdszon linen, veder the pail. 

The following words form the Objective case 
promiscuously, contracted and regularly: Ajak 
the lips, dszok the pole, kazcd the stock, rick of 
hay, and a shock of corn, ezer thousand, fdtyol 
gauze, a veil, sdtor the tent, vekony thin. 

b. Transformation of the root. 
There are a few Substantives which, when 
used in the Objective case, have a different root 

Csink, hUDg. Gram. \ ^ 



178 

from what they have when used m the Nomi- 
native case. Such are: 

1) The monosyllables of a long e, 6, 6 and w. 

The following are the different roots of the 
Nominative and Objective case* 
Nominative Case. Root of the Objective case. 



F6 the head 


Fej 


Fii the grass 


Fdv 


Ho the snow 


Hav 


Ko the stone 


Kov 


L6 the horse 


Lov 


Le the soup and the juice 


Lev 


Mil the work, composi- 


Muv 


tion, performance 




No the wife 


Nej 


Nijil the maggot 


Nyiiv 


So the salt 


Sav 


Szo the word 


Szav 


To the lake 


Tav 


To the trunk 


Tov 


Vo the son-in-law 


Vej, 



O b s e r V. 1 . The words no woman, so com- 
mon salt, to needle, are used regularly; szo may 
be used regularly in the Objective case of the 



Singular Numb en 



Observ. 2. To hard words the t is added 
with the vowel ay to soft words with the vowel e. 

2) Dissyllables with a final u, it or u are liable 
to abbreviation, their final u and il being neglect- 



179 

ed when the t of the Objective case is added, 
which therefore is preceded by the vowel a. 

These are: 
Nominative Root of the Objective Case. 

Borju the calf Borj 

Daru the crane Darv 

Enyii the glue Enyv 

Faggyu tallow Faggy 

Falu the village Falv 

Fattyu the bastard Fatty 

Fenyii the pine (tree) Fenyv 

Fill, the son Fi 

Gyapju the fleece, the wool Gyapj 
Hamu ashes Hamv 

Hosszu long Hossz 

Iffil the youth Jfj 

Konnyii easy Komiy 

Sarju aftermath, young grass Sarj 
Varju the crow Varj 

Obs. 1. horju, daru, faluy faggyu, fenyii 
hamu, sarju, varju are also used regularly, but 
it is a transgression against the precepts of purity 
of the language. 

Observ* 2. Fiu, the boy, has regular forms, 
fiut, fiuk. 

3) The following Substantives : tei'h the load, 
burden, pelyh the down, kelyh the calice, vemk 
the foal (young horse) are obsolete as Nomina- 
tives, but are used as roots for all Grammatical 



180 

forms. In the Nominative Case teher^ pehely, ke- 
hely, vekem are used for the sake of Euphony. 

Lelek the soul, is contracted into lelket; mag 
the seed, forms magot and magvat 

The formation of the Objective Case being 
the foundation of all the following Etymological 
formations, it was necessary to dwell on this 
subject a little longer, in order to exhaust it, and 
to prepare the way for the subsequent forms 
under which Substantives make their appear- 
ance in the Hungarian language. All other Af- 
fixes that may be joined to Substantives retain 
the same Radical which has been used for the 
Objective case; the student being acquainted with 
the different forms of the Objective case, it needs 
of only the knowledge of the different affixes that 
can be added to Substantives, to enable the stu- 
dent to give all the different Etymological forms, 

4. The characteristik of the Plural. 

The word plural means the comprehension 
of many Objects of the same sort in one term. 

Some of the Substantives represent in their 
Nominative case such a plurality; and are there- 
fore called Collective Substantives; collective 
Substantives do not assume the external charac- 
ter of the Plural. When Collective Substantives 
are used as a generic expression of many Ob- 
jects taken collectively, they can have no Plural, 



184 

for. as they really do not represent many single 
species, tlieir plural must be defective. 

In the Hungarian language all Collective Sub- 
stantives must be considered as generic repre- 
sentations, that is to say, they express the 
kind of objects to which they have reference; 
and therefore the Collective Nouns of the Hunga- 
rian language admit no form of Plurality. Such 
Nouns are the names of all kinds of fruit, as: 
alma apple and apples, kortve pear and pears; 
the names of all sorts of corn, buza wheat, 
borso peas and a pea, paszidy beans and a bean ; 
the names of vegetables, as: 7'epa turnips and 
a turnip; Nouns when used as indicating the 
whole kind, not collecting any objects indivi- 
dually, as: fa meaning wood, not fa the tree, 
penz money, not penz the coin ; or in the expres- 
sions: halat fogtunk we have caught fishes, etc; 
Nouns used in English with the partitive „some" 
as: some bread kenyer, some wine bor^ etc. 

All other Nouns are comprehended under 
the Section of Distributive Nouns, and have a 
different form when they represent Plurality. 

The form of the Plural, in the Hungarian 
language, is expressed by an additional k. Eu- 
phony and an easy articulation require that this k 
be preceded by a vowel, in regard to which the 
vowels used for the Objective case of the Singular 
Number are to be used with the Plural k as well. 



182 

Thus, in order to form the Plural ;, we have 
merely to exchange if with k, the former express- 
ing the Objective of the Singular, the latter the 
Nominative of the Plural. A rozsa the rose. Ob- 
ject, case cCrozsdt the rose, Nom. Plur. a^rozsdk 
the roses; fal the wall, Obj. Sing, falat the wall, 
Nom. Plur. faJak the walls, etc. 

Substantives with a final /, ny, r, s, sz, z, which 
have no vowel before the t, have o before the 
Plural k when their radical vowels are hard 
ones, and e when their radical vowels are soft 
ones. Asztal, asztalt, Plur Nom. asztalok; kin, 
kbit, Nom. Plur. kinok; kes the knife, kest, ke- 
sek, etc. 

The Objective Case of the Plural Number 
has the same characteristic as the Singular, viz, 
t, which is added to the Plural form, with the 
vowel a for hard words and with the vowel e 
for soft words. Asztalok, Objective Plural asz- 
talokat; kesek, keseket; Toj^okok the Turks, toro- 
koket, etc. 

3. Possessive Affixes. 

A. Possessors are represented by the Personal Pronouns. 

Whilst other European languages have Pro- 
nominal Adjectives, to indicate the possession of 
objects and to distinguish the persons possess- 
ing, the Hungarian language, according to Eastern 
custom, has certain Cliaracteristics, which, added 



483 

to Substantives representing the Objects pos- 
sessed, will express the different Personal rela- 
tions of the possessors themselves. 

These characteristics are called the Pos- 
sessive Affixes, and they are derived from 
the Personal Pronouns en, te, 6, mink, tik, ok. 
They are the following. 

1. Object possessed is but one. 

The Possessor is one, 
1st Person — m my; 

2d „ — rf thy; 

3d „ — ja ; for soft words — je, his, her, its. 

The Possessors are more than one. 
For hard words: For soft words: 

1st Pers. — nk, our; — nk, our; 

2d ,5 — tok, your; — tek, tok, your; 

3d „ — jok, their; — jok, their. 

The Possessive Affixes, all of them having 
an initial consonant, are added by means of a 
vowel, in regard to which I refer to the rules 
given for the Characteristic of the Plural; for 
the same form of the Substantive and the same 
vowel that precede the k, precede these affixes 
as well; but the affixes of the third person and 
that of the first hi the Plural have some excep- 
tions. The latter assume the vowel u for hard 
and ii for soft words, when the Substantive ter- 
minates with a consonant; thus, instead of ke- 



184 

senk our knife, there is kesunk our knife. The 
consonant j easily combines with other conso- 
nants; therefore, the affixes of the third Person 
are added without any auxiliary vowel. 
This j is missed entirely; 

a) when the Substantive is contracted and when 
it changes the root of its Nominative ac- 
cording to the rules given for the objective 
case; 

b) when the Substantive has a final 6. g, h, p^ v ; 

c) when it terminates with the syllables sag, 
seg, ok, ek, ok, ok, ek, et. 

In all the preceding cases only the vowel a 
or e, and ok or ok, are added to the root of 
the Plural of the Substantive. 

From these general rules deviate: 

a) Dissyllabical Substantives with a final 6, 
changing this vowel into e before the Affixes je 
and Jo A'. Ei'cU the wood, erdeje his wood; sz6- 
leje his vineyard, etc. 

b) The Substantives: miya mother, atya fa- 
ther, bdtija brother (elder brother), ncnye elder 
sister, lose their final vowel before the Affix of 
the third Person Singular and Plural; thus, anijja 
his mother, anyjok their mother, etc. Huga the 
younger sister, ocse the younger brother, remain 
unchanged in the third Pers. Sing., and have 
ocsok, hugok in the third Pers. Plur. 

c) The following Substantives : ajto the door, 



185 

diszno the swine, hiro the judge, and sas the eagle, 
form ajtaja his (her and its) door, ojtajok their 
door; disziia; birclja and hirnjok; sassa and sassok, 
Szdj the mouth , forms : szdm my mouth, szdd thy 
mouth, szdja his mouth, szdnk our mouth, szdtok 
your mouth, szdjok their mouth. 

Obs. The termination of the third person 
Plural jok and jok is now and then changed into 
juk and jiik^ especially when the Nominative Plu- 
ral and the third Person with the Plural posses- 
sive affixes would be alike; thus, instead of tii- 
krok, there is tiikriik their mirror. 

2. The Objects possessed are more 
than one. 

The plurality of Objects possessed is ex- 
pressed by the vowel i; the affixes have in that 
case the following form: 

One possessor: Two or ore possessors: 

\, Person — im, my; 1. Pers. — ink, our; 
2. „ — id, thy; 2. „ — itok^itek^yoMv, 
3. „ — i, his, 3. „ — ik, their, 
hers, its; 

These affixes are used indiscriminately for 
soft and hard words, and were formerly added 
to the Radical of the Substantives without any 
auxiliary vowel ; at present they are only used after 
a final vowel, and the third Person Sing, of a, e is 
considered as the Radical for these Plural 
Affixes when Substantives terminate in a con- 



186 

sonant. Bardt the friend, hardtja his friend, ba- 
rdtjaim my friends. — 

Substantives which form the third Person 
Singular irregularly preserve such irregularities 
in the addition of the Plural affixes. Especially: 

a) The Dissyllabical Substantives of 6 change 
that into e before the Plural Affixes, as mezo the 
field, mezeim my fields. 

b) Ajto, biro form ajtaim my doors, birdim 
my judges, etc. 

In compound Substantives of the form: hazafi 
patriot, countryman, atyafi relative, nev-nap 
name-day, the first part of the compound word is 
used with the Possessive affixes, like a simple 
Substantive, and the second part with the affix of 
the third Person Singular. Atydm-fia my rela- 
tive, atydm-fiai my relatives; hazdm-fiai my coun- 
trymen; nevem-napja my name-day. 

B) Possessors are expressed by a Substantive. 

When the Possessor is represented by any 
Substantive whatever, this is used in the Possessive 
Case, which in most of the European languages 
is a peculiar form of Declension. 

The Hungarian language has, again, different 
affixes to express this Possessive Case. There is 
to be distinguished the use of the possessive case 
independently from the Substantive indicating the 



487 

object or objects possessed, from the possessive 
case constructed with this Substantive. 

As often as the Possessive Case is used by 
itself, the Substantive receives the affix e. The 
Plural of this affix is — ee, formed according to 
the principle of the Possessive Affixes. — A 
szomszed the neighbour, a^szomszede the neigh- 
bour's, a^szomszedei the neighbour's; a'szomszedoke 
the neighbours'. 

When the Possessive Case is constructed 
with another Substantive, the Prepositional Af- 
fix — 7iak is used: In that case the Hungarian 
language has a propriety of construction, which 
see below, under „Syntax — Constructions 
with Prepositional Affixes." — 

All these different Forms of Possessive ex- 
pressions are to be considered as new roots of the 
Substantive, to which may be added the charac- 
teristic of the Objective Case and the Prepositional 
Affixes (ba in, bol out, nak to, etc.). For instance 
konyv book, konyvem-et my book, kbnyveim-et 
my books, konyve-t that of the book, konyveit 
those of the book, konyvemben in my book, etc. 



1S8 

4. Paradig^m of ttie different forms of a j§ub- 
staiitive. 

A) Regular forms — The root of the Substantive remains 
unchanged. 

Words with hard vowels. Words with soft vowels. 

1. 

Sing. Nom. 

Az ora the watch A^ kefe the brush 

Object. Case. 

Az ordt the watch ; A^ kefet the brush ; 

Plur. Nom. 

Az ordk the watches A^ kefek the brushes 

Object. Case. 

Az ordkat the watches; A kefeket the brushes. 

Poss. Affixes Sing. 

Az or dm my watch A^ ke/em my brush 

Az ordd thy watch A^ kefed thy brush 

Az ordja his (her, its) A" kefeje his (her, its) 

watch ; brush ; 

Az ordnk our watch A kefenk our brush 

Az ordtok your watch A^ kefetek your brush 

Az ordjok their watch» Al kefejok their brush 

Objects possessed are several. 
Az or dim my watches A^ kefeim my brushes 
Az or did thy watches A^ kefeid thy brushes 
Az ordi his (her, its) A^ kefei his (her, its) 

watches ; brushes ; 

Az ordink our watches A^ kefeink our brushes 
Az orditok your watches A^ kefeitek your brushes 
Az ordik their watches. A' kefeik their brushes. 



189 

Poss. Case Sing. 

Az orde that of the watch A' kefee that of the brush 

Az ordei those of the A' kefeei those of the 

watch ; brush ; 

Az drake that of the A' kefeke that of the 

watches brushes 

Az ordkei those of the A^ kefekei those of the 
watches. brushes. 



Sing. Nom. 

A Idh the foot A^ konyv the book 

Object. Case. 

A' Idhat the foot; A' konyvet the book; 

Plur. Nom. 

A' Idbak the feet A' konyvek the books 

A' Idbakat the feet. A^ konyveket the books. 

Poss. Affixes Sing. 

A' Idham my foot A' konyvern my book 

A' Idbad thy foot A^ konyved thy book 

^' /«6a his (her, its) foot; A' konyve his (her, its) 

book; 
A' Idbunk our foot A^ konyvunk our book 

A Idbatok your foot A^ konyvetek your book 
A' Idh ok their foot. A' konyvok their book. 

Objects possesspd are several. 

A' Idbaim my feet A^ konyveim my books 

A^ Idbaid thy feet Al konyveid thy books 

A' Idbai his (her, its) A' konyvei his (her, its) 
feet; books; 



190 

J^ Idhaink our feet A' konyveink our books 
A Idbaitok your feet A konyveitek your books 
A' Idhaik their feet. A konyveik their books 

Poss. Case Sing. 
A' Idhe that of the foot A^ konyve that of the book 
A' Idhei those of the A kdnyvei those of the 
foot; book; 

Plur. 

A Idbake that of the feet A konyveke that of the 

books 
A Idhakei those of the A konyvekei those of the 
feet. books. 

B) Irregaldr forms. -- The root of the Substantive 
is altered. 

\. 

Sing. Nom. 

A maddr the bird A kez the hand 

Obj. Case. 
A madarat the bird; A' kezet the hand; 

Plur. Nom. 

A' madarak the birds A' kezek the hands 

Obj. Case. 
A madarakat the birds. A kezeket the hands. 

Poss. Aff. Sing. 

A' madaram my bird A kezem my hand 
A madarad thy bird A kezed thy hand 
A madara his (her, its) A keze his (her, its) hand; 
bird; 



491 

A' madarunk our bird A* kezunk our hand 
A^ madaratok your bird A kezeWk your hand 
A' madarok their bird. A' kezok their hand. 

Objects possessed are more. 
A* madaraim my birds A' kezeim my hands 
A' madaraid thy birds A^ kezeid thy hands 
A^ madarai his (her, its) A^ kezei his (her, its) 

birds; hands; 

A madaraink our birds Al kezeink our hands 
A' madaraitok your A^ kezeitek your hands 

birds 
A' madaraik their birds. A kezeik their hands. 

Poss. Case. Sing. 
A viadure that of the A keze that of the hand 

bird 
A' maddrei those of the A^ kezei those of the hand ; 

bird; 

Plur. 

A^ madarake that of the A' kezeke that of the 
birds hands 

A madarakei those of A kezekei those of the 
the birds. hands. 



Sing. Nom. 

-4' majom the ape A' vetek the vice 

Obj. Case. 

A^ majmot the ape; A vetkek the vice; 



\92 

Plur. Norn. 

A^ majmok the apes A^ vetkek the vices 

Obj. Case. 

A' majmokat the apes. A^ vetkeket the vices. 

Poss. Aff. Sing. 

A' majmom my ape A^ vetkem my vice 

A^ majmod thy ape A vetked thy vice 

A' majma his (her, its) A' vetke his (her, its) vice; 

ape; 
A' majmunk our ape A^ vetkiink our vice 
A' majmotok your ape A^ vetketek your vice 
A' majmuk*) their ape. A' vetkok their vice. 

Objects possessed are more. 

A^ majmaim my apes A^ vetkeim my vices 
A' majmaid thy apes A^ vetkeid thy vices 
A* majmai his (her, its) A' vetkei his (her, its) 

apes; vices; 

A' majmaink our apes A' vetkeink our vices 
A* majmaitok your ^' vetkeitek your vices. 

apes 
^' majmaik their apes. ^' vetkeik their vices 

Poss. Case. Sing. 

A' majome that of the ape 
A majomei those of the ape 

Plur. 

A' majmoke that of the apes 
A^ majmokei those of the apes. 



*) In order to distinguish it from the Plural Norn, majmok. 



193 

3. 

Sing. Nom. 

A' szo the word A' fo the head 

Obj. Case. 

A* szavat the word; A' fejet the head; 

Plur. Nom. 

A' szavak the words A' fejek the heads 

Obj. Case. 

A^ szavakat the words. A' fejeket the heads. 

Poss. Aff. Sing. 

A* szavam my word A' fejem my head 

A' szavad thy word A' fejed thy head 

A* szava his (her, its) A' feje his (her, its) head; 

word; etc. 

Objects possessed are more. 

A* szavaim my words etc. 

4. 

Sing. Nom. 

A' fill the son Az enyii the glue 

Obj. Case. 

A* fiat the son; Az enyvet the glue; 

Plur. Nom. 

A' flak the sons Az enyvek the glues 

Obj. Case. 

A' fiakat the sons. Az enyveket the glues. 

Poss. Aff. Sing. 

A* flam my son Az enyvem my glue 

A* flad thy son Az enyved thy glue 

A* fia his (her, its) son ; Az enyve his (her, its) glue ; 
etc. 

CslDk, huDg. Gram. 13 



494 



5. Berivation and Composition of Substan- 
tives. 

a) Derivation of Substantives. 
The Hungarian language is as productive in 
the Derivation of Substantives as of Verbs. Sub- 
stantives may be derived from Verbs, Adverbs, 
Substantives and Prepupsitions. 

The Affixes of Derivation being used pro- 
miscuously for Verbs and Substantives, it will 
be of some use to mention the most frequently 
used affixes of Derivation, in order to form Sub- 
stantives, in their alphabetical order: 

a, exchanged with o, is used to form Sub- 
stantives from Verbal roots. Biigyoga a. bubbling 
spring, a jar with a very narrow neck, from 
hugyog-ni to bubble; huza-vona toil, from huz-ni, 
von-ni to draw* 

d6, — Hasdb a log (of wood), cleft wood, 
from hasit-ni to cleave. 

acs, added to Substantives and Verbal roots. 
Vracs a person pretending to belong to the gen- 
try, szivacs the sponge, from szi-iii (sziv-ni) to 
suck; dugacs the bung, from dug-ni to stuff, to 
cork a bottle. The syllable acs is contracted 
if the Verbal root has a final r, preceded by a 
vowel. Vakarcs, instead of vakaracs, the scraper, 
and the loaf made of the scrapings of the doughy 



i95 

from vakar-ni to scrape; haharcs, instead of ha- 
hm^acs, anything spouted out, from hahar-ni to 
spout out. 

adalom, with Verbal roots and Substantives; 
as, for-ni to boil, foradalom revolution; ur gent- 
leman, lord, uradalom dominion. 

ag^ added to Verbal roots. Forgatag a whirl, 
whirlwind, water -spout; from forgat-ni to turn 
round. 

al, dl and aly, used to form Substantives from 
Verbal roots. Fonal the file (filum), yarn, from 
fon-ni to spin; viadal the fight, from viv-ni (vi- 
adj to combat; hivatal the office, from hivat-ni 
to be called for; haldl death, from hal-ni to die; 
dagdly swelling, tumour; akaddly the impediment, 
from akad-ni to stick, to be fixed. 

alek, added to Verbal roots; osztalek the pro- 
rata, mdrtalek the sauce, tartalek a reserve. 

alom, gives Derivative Substantives, firstly 
from Verbal roots ; hatalom might, from hat-ni to 
influence; fdradalom the fatigue, from fdrad-ni to 
be tired, to take trouble ; — secondly, from Ad- 
jectives, vigalom merriment, from vig merry. 

am and dm, used with Verbal roots. Folyam 

the stream, foly-ni to flow; nyilam calibre, nyil- 

ni to be opened ; villdm the lightning, whose root 

is vill, of which only the participle villd, a body 

43* 



496 

that gives light, phosphor, is used; csilldm the 
glimmer, from the obsolete csill to shine. 

any, a derivative syllable which recovered 
its right recently, and is especially used for the 
formation of scientific terms* Villany electricity, 
higany mercury, from kiff fluid; folany fluor. 

ar, by means of which Substantives are 
formed from others, meaning a person employed in 
any office, or a tradesman. Kidcsdr housekeeper, 
caterer, from kiilcs key; tandi' professor, from 
tan science; timdr tanner, titkdr (contr. of titok- 
dr) secretary, from titok secret; kdddr cooper. 

ds, when added to Verbal roots, forms con- 
crete Substantives, which in English are express- 
ed by the Participle. Aluvds contracted alvds 
sleeping, vards sewing, szaladds running; from 
alud-ni, var-ni, szalad-ni. 

dsz is used to form Substantives from other 
Substantives; it is in principle identical with the 
syllable dr, Haldsz fisher, vddasz huntsman. Al- 
terations or contractions of the primitive form 
of the Substantive^ made in the Plural, must be 
observed when this syllable of Derivation is used. 
Madardsz fowler, lovdsz a groom, horsebreaker. 

aty atyuj, antyii, used with verbal roots, and 
the Derivative Substantives of dsz, Haldszat fish- 
ing, szohrdszat statuary; vdltozat change, vitorld- 
zat sails; szivatyu the pump, from szi-ni to suck^ 
szavatyu organ of speech; sarkantyu the spur. 



197 

cs, added to Substantives, in order to form 
diminutives. This consonant of Derivation is 
added to the Plural form of the Substantive, k 
being exchanged with cs. Ko stone, Kovecs 
gravel. 

csoy cso, by means of which Substantives are 
formed from Verbal roots. Lepcso, hugcso, steps, 
bolcso the cradle. 

cskOf cske, used for diminutive Substantives, 
is always added to the Plural form instead of the 
Plural k, Szemek the eyes, szemecske the little 
eye ; tiikor the mirror, PI. tukrok the mirrors, tii- 
kr'dcske the small mirror; asztal, table, PL aszta- 
lok, asztalocska a small table; fiit the son, PI. 
fiak, fiacska little son. 

C2, cza, cze, used as a derivative affix with 
Substantives, Adjectives and Verbal roots. Kii- 
loncz a strange fellow, ifjoncz a lad, from killon 
separate, i/ju young; iitcza street, from ut way. 

d. used with Adverbs and Verbal roots. Elod 
predecessor, from elo before; seged assistant. 

da (oda, ede), added to Verbal roots, forms 
derivative Substantives, meaning the place in 
which the action represented by the Verb is per- 
formed: as, iijiomda printing office, nyomni to press; 
lovagda riding school, lovagohii to ride on horse- 
back; — to Substantives, in order to form con- 
crete Substantives relative to place — tanoda 



198 

school, from tan science; c^oTiaArd^a rowing- school, 
from csonak the boat. 

dek, and its identical dok, form Substantives 
when added to Verbal roots. Szdndek and szdn- 
dok resolution, ajdndek and qjdndok the present; 
from szdn-ni to resolve, ajdnl-ani to present. 

e, a derivative affix for Verbal roots used 
instead of 6, Sziile parent, zsenge, the first fruit 
(firstling), surge hurry, instead of szuld, zsengd, 
siirgo, 

edelem, added to Substantives and Verbal 
roots. Fej head, fejedelem prince, sovereign; 
vesz-ni to perish, veszedelem danger; torni to 
break, toredelem penance. 

eg, the radical of egesz, whole, is used with 
Substantives and Verbal roots. Ret a meadow, 
lay, reteg stratum; rengeteg an extensive forest* 

ej, with Verbal roots. Zorej, a rattling noise. 

ek and eA*; used to form Derivative Substan- 
tives of Verbs and Substantives. Boritek the co- 
ver, fenyitek discipline, vetek sin, etek food; from 
borit-ani to cover, fenyit-eni to punish, vet-eni to 
sin, enni to eat; tdjek country, region, k^rnyek 
environs, from tdj environs, korny surrounding. 

el, ely ely. Hitel credit, jovetel arrival, kotel 
the rope^ veszely danger; from hin-ni to believe, 
j6ni to come, kot-ni to bind, vesz-ni to become lost. 

elek, with roots of Verbs. Kotelek the bonds, 



199 

f6zelek vegetables, from kbt-ni to bind, foz-ni to 
cook. 

eleni. Szerelem the love, engedelem obedience, 
turelem patience, from szeret-ni to love, enged-ni 
to yield, tiirni to endure. 

em. Jelem character, terewi saloon, from jel 
a sign, ter space. 

emeiiy. Vetemeny crop, nyeremeny profit, from 
vet-ni to sow, nyer-ni to gain. 

eny and eny, the latter used especially for 
technical expressions* Lepeny a cake, ter^eny the 
palm (of the hand), melleny waistcoat, koteny 
the apron, vizeny hydrogen, szeneny carbonic gas, 
eleny oxygen; from lap a plate, ter space, mell 
the chest, kot-ni to bind, viz water, szen the char- 
coal, el-ni to live. 

ep. t)lep sediment, szerep the part of a 
play-actor. 

e?*, er, identical with d7\ Pinczer the butler, 
czimer the firm; from pincze cellar, czim title; 
tolcser the funnel, from Iblteni to fill, is somewhat 
irregular. 

eSf for soft words instead of as. Verges beat- 
ing, fekves position (lying), vetes (the) sowing, 
series offence. 

eszj identical with the derivative syllable dsz. 
Kertesz gardener, festesz (portrait) painter. 

ety etyiij entyu, for soft words instead of at, 



200 

atyu. Nevezet nomination, vezerlet guidance, di- 
rection, csengetyii a small bell, roppentyii the 
rocket, from nevez-ni to name, vezerl-eni to guide, 
csenget-ni to ring (the bell), rop the flight. 

i, forming Substantives derived from Nouns 
proper, v^hich in the English language in most 
instances are expressed by means of the Gene- 
tive case and the Noun common "inhabitant". 
Budai an inhabitant of the city of Buda, gyori an 
inhabitant of the city of Gyor, szabolcsi an in- 
habitant of the county of Szabolcs. This syllable 
of Derivation is often replaced by heli) if that 
be the case, the respective common Noun must 
be used with the Proper Noun; szabolcs-megyeheli 
inhabitant of the county of Scabolcs. 

ju. Gyapju wool, from gyap wadding; this 
is more a Composition than a Derivation. 

ka, key for diminutive Substantives, used when 
the Substantive is of more than one syllable with 
a final consonant easily combining with k; such 
consonants are cs, cz, l, n, ny, r , preceded by 
a vowel. Scivacska a small sponge, lapoczka 
a shovel, asztalka a small table, lednyka a little 
girl, kenyerke little bread, a small loaf. 

many, Szakmdny socage, zsdkmdny prey. 

Thy preceded by a corresponding vowel, used 
with Numerals in order to express a comprehen- 
sion of individuals collectively. Hatan six of 
them, kilenczen nine of them. 



201 

ne, nO, meaning female. Kerteszne female 
gardener and the gardener's wife; szomszedne 
female neighbour. 

nok, noky may be added to Adverbial and 
Verbal roots, and Substantives. Elnok president, 
ulnok assessor, hajiiok champion; tcirnok in Com- 
pounds, as, penz-tdrnok treasurer, from eld be- 
fore (the Latin pre) nl-ni to sit, baj trouble, far 
store. 

6y 6, mentioned in Grammars as the present 
Participle of the Verb. Add giver and contributions, 
figuratively taxes, imro sewer, kerebnezo petitioner. 

odalonu Irodalom literature, bonyodalom per- 
plexity. 

omdny, forming concrete Substantives* Tar- 
tomdny country, hagyomdny the legacy. 

ovids; forming abstract Substantives derivative 
of Verbs. Vallomds confession, tudomds notice. 

ot. Gyapot cotton, from gyap wadding. 

s. Substantives, which are derived by means 
of the consonant s^ have the same meaning as 
those derived by means of the consonants dr, er, 
fdsz, esz; the primitive Substantive is liable to 
alterations like those when the plural k is added, 
and the vowel that precedes the plural k is 
used also before the consonant of Derivation, s. 
Asztalos cabinet-maker, kei^ekes coach -maker, 
fazekas. the potter, nyerges, the saddler, iisios 
the brazier; from usztal the table, kerek the wheels 



202 

fazek the pot, nyereg, the saddle, ilst the copper 
(copper-kettle). 

sdg^ seg, Derivative affixes, used with Ad- 
jectiveS;, Adverbs and Prepositions ;, in order to 
form abstract Substantives; sag for Adjectives 
with hard, seg for those with soft vowels. Josdg 
the goodness, magassdg the height, vastagsdg the 
thickness, felseg majesty, ellenseg the enemy, 
tulsdg excess, exaggeration; from jo good, magas 
high, vastag thick, fel above, up, ellen against, 
tul beyond. 

szdg (szeg)^ formerly very likely a Substan- 
tive which at the present time is used as a syl- 
lable of derivation. The English and German 
languages have a somewhat similar form in the 
syllables "dom" — "thum'^. Orszdg the realm 
(kingdom), from orszdg country to be defended, 
joszdg possessions, funded property. 

lyii, Kez the hand, keztyii gloves. 

u, li; Boru clouds, gyanu suspicion, gyiiru 
ring, betii letter (character in the alphabet), type. 
In many of the derivative Substantives of this kind, 
u is used instead of o: as, vesii chisel, instead of 
vesdy from ves-ni to chisel, to engrave. 

b) Gompoand Substantives. 
Compound Substantives may be formed: 
1) By means of the simple connexion 
of two Substantives* 



203 

a) Nouns common with each other. Orszdg- 
gyiiles diet, parliament (Land- congregation), nep- 
iskola community - school (people - school) , tor- 
venyhatosdg jurisdiction, gozhajo steamer, imsut 
railway (iron-road); herkocsl hackney-coach. 

b) Nouns proper with their respective Nouns 
common* Pestniegye^ county of Pest; Magyaroszdg, 
Hungary (realm of Hungary) ; ^Ti^o/onszar^. England, 
Biharmegye, county of Bihar; Jdszkeriilet, district 
the Jazygians. 

2. Substantives and Adjectives being 
connected together. 

a) The Adjective precedes. Kozakarat gene- 
ral consent, ujvdros new-town, hidegleges fever, 
forroldz inflammatory fever. 

b) The Substantive precedes. There are but 
few compound Substantives of this kind. Vdi*- 
nagy castellan, hadnagy lieutenant, tdbornagy 
general, kbromfekete the top of the finger-nail, 
erdekfel partaker. 

3. By a combination of Prepositions 
and Substantives or Adjectives. Ellen6r 
controller (ellen against, or guard), ellenfel the 
adverse part, {ellen contre, fcl half), tulsuly pre- 
ponderance, tulkoltseg supererogate, utdnontet 
counterfeit, dtmei'd {dltalmeri)) diameter. 

4. By Adverbs and Sub stantives, Fel- 
fold upper-country, high-land klllfoM foreign coun- 
try, elojel prognostic sign, utosereg rear-guard. 



204 

H. By means of Verbal Adjectives 
joined to Substantives. KdrvaUott a man 
having suffered damage; haza-drulo a traitor of 
the country, agyafurtsdg shrewdness. 

b. By means of the Verbal Adjective 
ToU) (belonging to), governing the Prepo- 
sitional affix ra^ re, ha, be, ISyakravalo (be- 
longing to the neck) neck-tie, zsebbevalo (belong- 
ing into the pocket) handkerchief^ nknsztofdra- 
valo (being fit for the gallows) gallows -clapper, 
semmh'evalo (fit for nothing) good-for-nothing. 

Obs. An Orthographical remark may be 
made; that, when three Substantives are connected 
together in order to form a compound one, the 
last is joined by means of a hyphen. Gijapjuszo- 
vet-gydr manufactory of woollen cloth; also, 
when two Substantives do not form a Com- 
pound Substantive, strictly taken: as, vas-drot 
iron-wire, csont-faggyu bone-fat, etc.; or if the 
former part of the Composition is expressed in the 
form of an Adjective: gdzhajozdsi-tdrsulat, steam 
boat- company; vasnt'i-reszveny, railway-share. 

III. Attribates;. 

The Verb and the Substantive must be con- 
sidered as the principal Parts of Speech. The 
notions expressed by each of them may be ac- 
companied by some secondary notion, explaining 
the quality, quantity, any relation to time and 



205 

place, or intensity and strength^ represented in 
the principal term. 

Words expressing such secondary notions 
(ideas) are called Attributive Terms, and are ge- 
nerally comprehended under the Grammatical sec- 
tion of Adjectives and Adverbs, the former 
as Attributes of Substantives, the latter as Attri- 
butes of Verbs. 

Attributive Terms may be represented so as 
to express a higher degree of intensity than they 
primitively did; such representations give origin 
to forms called Comparison. There are two de- 
grees of Comparison, that of the Comparative, 
when the qualities of two objects are compared; 
that of the Superlative, when, among three Ob- 
jects, the quality of the third exceeds that of the 
comparnd one. 

The Hungarian language has the property 
of using the Adjective, and in many instances the 
Adverb, as a Substantive, for which expressions 
the English language has recourse to circum- 
scriptions, or the Numeral, one; as^, give me the 
book, which? the large one. Add nekent a' kony- 
vet, mellyiket'l a' nagyot. 

1. Adjectives. 

When the Adjective is used as a Substan- 
tive, all affixes, except the Possessive ones, even 
the article az or a% may be used with it. In that 



206 

case, the rules on the use of affixes, given for 
Substantives, are applied to the Adjective as well. 
When the Adjective is an attribute of Sub- 
stantives;, it precedes them immediately and in- 
variably, the affixes being added to the Substan- 
tive itself. 

a) Form of Comparison. 

Comparison is the only modification pro- 
per to Adjectives; for the Hungarian language 
does not admit the use of the Adverbs more 
and most, like other European languages^ in order 
to express the degree of strength and intensity. 

The affix of the Comparative and Super- 
lative is bh , which is preceded by a for Adjec- 
tives with hard vowels, and by e for Adjectives 
with soft vowels, when they have a final conso- 
nant. In order to distinguish the Superlative de- 
gree from the Comparative ;, the syllable leg is 
prefixed to the Superlative degree. 

Drdga dear, drdgdbb dearer, legdrdgdb dear- 
est. 

Meresz bold, mereszebb bolder, legniereszebb 
boldest* 

Vastag thick, vastagabb thicker, legvastagabb 
thickest. 

b) Irregularities of Comparison. 
Some Deviations from this general rule take 
place regarding: 



207 

a. The Comparative and Superlative. 

The following Adjectives are irregular. 
Hosszu long, hosszabb longer, legkosszabb longest; 
If pi young, iff abb younger, legifjabb youngest; 
Jo good, jobb better, legjobb best; 
Konnyu easy, light, konnyebb easier, legkonnyebb 
easiest; 

ISagy large, nagyobb larger, legnagyobb largest. 
Szep beautiful, szebb more beautiful, legszebb most 
beautiful. 

Besides the regular forms of the Comparative 
and Superlative Degrees^ there are others used 
when the Adjective is used without any Substan- 
tive, the affix ik, ika or ike being added to the 
forms of the Comparative and Superlative. Erosb 
stronger, erosbik and erosbike the stronger (one); 
legerosb strongest , legerdsbik , legerosbike the 
strongest; nagyobb larger, nagyobbik and 7ta- 
gyobbika the larger (one) ; legnagyobb largest, leg- 
nagyobbik and legnagyob-bika the largest. 

Obs. If the Adjectives be of more than two 
syllables, the affixes ik or ika, and ike are not 
used. 

p. The termination bb. 
O Adjectives with a final u, ii, or i, have 
a double form of the Comparative and Superla- 
tive, viz, the bb^ being added either regularly or 
preceded by the vowel a or e; as, regi ancient, 



208 

regihb and regiehh more ancient, legregihb and 
legregiebh most ancient; lassu slow, lassitbb and 
lassuabb slower,, leglassiibb or leglassuabb slowest; 
siirii thick, dense, siiruebb and suriibb thicker, 
legsiirubb and legsilruebb thickest; except the 
compound Adjectives of szeril, which have re- 
gular forms. 

2. Adjectives with a final s are often used 
in an abbreviated form, a single b being added, 
without any vowel. Magas high, magasb and 
magasabb higher, legmagasb and legmagasabb high- 
est. Eros strong, erosb and erdsebb stronger, 
legerdsb and legerosebb strongest. 

y. The Superlative degree. 

The Superlative degree is often found in- 
sufficient to express excellence; for this reason, 
the Adverbs very or by far, etc., are used in the 
English language before the Superlative; as, "the 
very best"; in Hungarian the prefix 'Heg"^ is 
repeated and connected by the particle is or es: 
as, legislegfinomabb the very finest, legeslegero- 
sebb by far the strongest. 

8) Pleonasm of Comparison. 

It is a propriety of the Hungarian language 
to give a complete Comparison to such Adjec- 
tives as logically admit but one or the other de- 
gree of Comparison, and to use hi the Superla- 
tive degree Adjectives, which do not admit of it 
in other languages. 



209 

Such are: 
Elsd the first; legelsd (the very first). 

Utolso, the last; legutolso (the very last). 

Szelsd, extreme; legszelsohh the outermost 

Vegso, final; legvegsdbb. 

Also, lower, inferior, alsobb, legalsobb. 
Fe/*6'^ upper, superior; /e/5066^ legfelsobb upper- 
most. 

Here may be subjoined another peculiarity 
of the language, the Comparison of Substantives. 
Instead of using the derivative Adjective, Hun- 
garians sometimes prefer the shorter form of 
using the Substantive as an Adjective, and give 
it a Comparison. Ember man, emberebb more 
human; ordog Satan, ordogebb more Satan-like. 
c) Comparison of Gompound Adjectives. 

Compound Adjectives are separated, when 
used in the Comparative or Superlative Degree, 
and the first part receives the affixes of Com- 
parison, while the second remains unchanged. 
Such compound Adjectives are those of an Ad- 
jective and a Substantive with the termination u 
or w. Nagylelku generous, nagyobblelku more ge- 
nerous; joszivii good-hearted, kind, jobb-szivu more 
kind, legjobb-szivu kindest. Adjectives compound- 
ed with szerii may be used regularly and irre- 
gularly ; thus, nagyszeruj grand, nagyobbszeru and 
nagyszerubb more grand. Wlien the first part of 
the compound is a Substantive, the regular form 

Csink, bang. Gram. 1 4 



• 210 

must be used: as, torvenyszeru legale, torenysze- 
ruhh more legal. 

Observ, If any Adjective be liable to an al- 
teration in its root when forming the Objective 
Case and Plural, such alterations must be attend- 
ed to in Comparison as well. For instance: 
hig fluid, object. Case, higat Comparat. Begr., 
higahh more fluid; vekony thin, obj. Case, veknyaL 
Comp. Degr. vehiyabh thiner, etc. 

d) Derivation of Adjectives. 
\, From Verbs, by means of the affixes: 

6 or 6, added to the Verbal root. These de- 
rivative Adjectives were generally known as the 
Present Participles of Verbs, but they are really 
Adjectives and as such their construction is that of 
Adjectives, Vera beating, szereto loving, iro writing. 

The third Person of the Perfect Tense Ind. 
Mood is also used as an Adjective. Szeretett 
beloved, megvert beaten, meglrt written. 

aszy esz; as, rneresz bold, from mer to ven- 
ture; kopasz bald. 

csL Kivdncsi eager, from kivdii to wish for. 

dnk, enk, Nyuldnk thin, lank; f'elenk timid. 

ekony, ekeny. Erzekeny sensitive; porlekony 
brittle. 

2. From Substantives, by means of the 
affixes: 

beliy belly which is derived from the Prepo- 
sitional affix be^ in. Vdimegyebeli belonging to 



211 

a county; nemetorszdgheli of Germany, German; 
elmeheli intellectual (of the mind). 

dady ded, which has the meaning of '^being 
like", "having the shape" of. Tojdsdad oval, from 
tojds the egg. 

nyi forms derivatives only from Substantives 
of measure. Ldbnyi, one foot long, olnyi length 
of a fathom, arasznyi, a span long, etc. 

M, u. used only in combination with other Ad- 
jectives; eles-ldtdsu quick- sighted, jo-szivu good- 
hearted, etc. 

3. From Adjectives themselves are 
derived 

Diminutive Adjectives, by means of the affix 

ktty ke, acska, ecske. Szegeny poor, szegenyke little 

poor, vastng thick, vastagocska a little thick, etc, 

4. From Substantives and Adjectives, 

by means: 

a) of the letter s, preceded by a vowel, 
when the Substantive has a final consonant. In 
regard to the auxiliary vowel it may be remarked, 
that it is the same as that which is used before 
the plural k. If the Substantive be liable to abbre- 
viations, in the Plural, they must be made be- 
fore this letter of derivation as well. Rozsa 
the rose, rozsds rosy; vildg the light, vild- 
gos, light; katalom might, hatalmas mighty; fust 
smoke, fustos smoky; etc. Derivatives from Ad- 
jectives have the same meaning as the English 

14* 



^12 

derivative Adjectives of ish, Feher white, feke- 
res whitish; kek blue, kekes bluish; etc. 

b) of szerii. Nepszei'u, popular, from nep 
people; nagyszerii grand, from nagy great. 
5. From Adverbs, Prepositions, and 
Substantives. 

a) By means of the termination so, so, Felsd 
upper, from fel up ; tulso yonder opposite, from tul 
beyond; szelso extreme, from szel the border. 

b) By means of the additional vowel i. Vdr- 
megyei of the county; belonging to the county, 
from ^drmegye county, vildgi worldly, from vildg 
world; alatti underneath, from alatt under; mos- 
tani (the) present, akkori then being; from mostan 
now, akkor then. 

6. From Substantives, Adjectives, and 
Verbs. 
By means of the terminations talan, atlan, te- 
len, etlen, meaning a negation, equal to the English 
un, the Latin in. Szdmtalan innumerable, from 
szdm number; kegyetlen cruel, from kegy favour; 
boldogtalau unhappy, from boldog happy; ii'atlan 
unwritten, elmondhatlaii inexpressible. 
e) Gomponnd Adjectives. 
Compound Adjectives may be formed by Sub- 
stantives and Adjectives, and Adjectives amongst 
themselves. Ej^demdus full of merits, koromkefete 
as black as soot, aranyszinii of a gold colour, 
vildgoskek light-blue, setetbarna dark-brown. 



213 

S. Adverbs. — Attributes of Verbs. — 

a) Division of Adverbs. 

Attributes of Verbs are Terms used to define 
the circumstances under which the notion of the 
Verb is represented; hence, they may be arranged 
under as many Classes as the different circum- 
stances themselves. 

Circumstances by which the meaning of Verbs 
may be defined are those of Time, Place, Quan- 
tity, Quality, and Modality, the last compre- 
hending the subdivisions of probability, as- 
sertion, and apodixis. For this reason there 
are as many different Adverbs, partly primitive, 
partly derivative ones. 

\, Adverbs of Time. 

a) Primitive Adverbs : ma^, to-day; most, now; 
reffy long ago; majd, soon; kamar, quickly. 

P) Derivative and Compound Adverbs of Time : 
mikor, when; eleinte, at first; hajdan, formerly; 
regen, long ago; az iden^ this year; koi^dn early; 
kesdn, late; gijakran, often; folyvdst, continually; 
mindjdrt. presently; ttistent, immediately; azutdn, 
afterwards' delkor, at noon; ollykor ^ at such a 
time, sometimes; ollykor ollykor, now and then; 
soha, never; neha, sometimes; valuha, ever (at 
any time); ralamlkor, some days; tegnap, yester- 
day; kolnap, to-morrow; minap, lately, recently; 
tavcU^ last year; egyszer^ once; ketszer, twice; 



214 

otszor, five times; harmadszor, for the third time; 
neffi/edsze?', for the fourth time. 

2. Adverbs of Place. 

a) Primitive ones: holy where; itt^ here; ott, 
there; ki outside; be^ inside; fel, upwards; le, 
downwards; messze, far. 

P) Derivative and compound ones: ho^m,, 
where to, whither; oda> thither; ide, hither (de- 
rived from hoi, itt, ott); tova, far; tdvol, far away; 
kozel, near; mdshova, elsewhere (to); sehol, no- 
where; valahol, somewhere; mdshol, somewhere 
else; ndndenhol, everywhere; kunn, outside, ki- 
viily outside; belol, inside; lent, down; feiit, up; 
hdtul behind; oldalt, aside; honnan, whence; 
innen, hence; onan, thence; mdsimnan, from some- 
where else; sehonnan, from nowhere; messzunnen, 
from a far. 

Y) Adverbs of place, formed by means of 
Prepositional affixes. Eldre, forwards; hdtra, 
backwards; felre, aside* 

3. Adverbs of Quantity are all deriva- 
tive ones, formed by means of Prepositional af- 
fixes. Nagyobbdra, for the greatest part; egyen- 
kent, singly (by single ones); hdrmankent, by 
three; otenkent, by five; darabonkeiit, by pieces; 
seregenkenU in crowds; shillingenkent, in shillings. 

4. Adverbs of Quality are all derived 
from Adjectives, by means of I, uly til, n, en, an, 
J 61, well; 7'oszul, badly; vitezul, heroically; vild- 



• 215 

gosan, plainly; magasan, highly; magasabbim^ more 
highly; szepen beautifully; szlveseiiy cordially, 
willingly. 

5. Adverbs of Modality. 

a) Probability: taldn, perhaps; csnknem, near- 
ly; aliffy hardly; hihetolegy probably; valoszinuleg, 
very likely. 

b) Assertion: Hogy. how? iigy. igy. thus, so; 
amugy, that way (to do); emigy, this way (to do); 
ollyateii, oUykepen, in such a manner; dltdldn 
and dltaldhan, generally; re?trfAirw7^ extraordinarily; 
klidlt^ especially; ingyeUy gratis; mint, as; vala- 
mikepen, somehow ; 

c) Apodixis: 

a) Affirmative: igen, yes; hizony, verily; iga- 
zdn, truly; valobcm, really; bizonyosau, surely. 

P) Negative: nem, no, not; sem, also not; 
sekogyseniy in no way; semmikepen by no means. 

b) Comparison of Adverbs. 

Adverbs, which are not derived from Ad- 
jectives, may be used in the Comparative and 
Superlative Degrees, which are formed like those 
of Adjectives. 

Tdvol far, distant; Idvolabb more distant; 
iegtdvolabb most distant; tova far, tovdbb farther, 
fegtovdbb farthest. Irregularly, or only in the 
Comparative, are used: 

oda there, ocldbb and odebb farther; 



216 

ide here, idehh nearer, closer; 
messze far, messzebb farther, legmesszebb far- 
thest; 

fel up, feljebb higher; 

le down, lejebb lower; 

be inside, inwards, beljebb more inwards; 

ki outside, outwards, kijebb farther out; 

lent down, lentebb lower down; 

fent up, fentebb higher up. 

IV. PrononniS. 

Pronouns, called so because ancient Gram- 
marians supposed them to be used instead of 
Nouns, may be divided in five groups. 

l. Personal Pronouns. 

Personal Pronouns are those which repre- 
sent the notions (ideas): of a speaker, the first 
Person; an individual spoken to^ the second 
Person; and anl object spoken of, the third 
Person. 

Nature has divided organized bodies hito two 
sexes; for this reason , in some of the European 
languages a precise generic distinction of the 
names of Objects, according to their natural dis- 
tinction, is made; in others this rule, instituted by 
nature^ is deviated from, and a generic distinction 
in a figurative meaning is also made. The Hun- 



217 

garians consider the names of Objects as pure 
abstract terms, which really have no distinction 
of sex when merely considered as terms; there- 
fore, the generic distinction of the third Personal 
Pronoun , which represents Objects spoken of, is 



wanting m their Is 


inguage. 




' 


The Personal Pronouns are: 






Nominative. 






Sing. En I 


Plur. 


Mi 


we 


Te thou 




Ti 


you 


O he, she 


, it 


Ok 


they. 



The formation of the Objective case is some- 
what irregular, its Characteristic, being used 
with the Possessive affixes in the first and second 
Persons Singular. 

Objective Case. 
Sing. Engemet me Plur. Minket us 
Tegedet thee Titeket you 

Ot and Otet him, Oket them, 

her, it; 

Instead of engemet, tegedet, the abridged 
forms engem, teged, instead of minket and titeket 
the forms hjhiinket and heneteket, may be used. 

The Personal Pronoun is never used with 
the affix expressing the Possessive case, but 
when such a form is required in any sentence, 
the Personal Pronouns receive the Possessive 
affixes as follows: 



218 

Object possessed is one. 
Sing. Enyem, mine; Plur. Mienk, ours; 
Ti^y thine; Tietek, yours; 

Ove, his^ hers, its; Omk, theirs. 

Objects possessed are more than one. 
Sing* Enifeiniy mine ; Plur. Mieink, ours; 
Tieid, thine; Tieitek^ yours; 

(Jvei, his, hers, its; Oveiky theirs. 

The Prepositional Aftixes are not added to 
the Personal Pronouns, as to Substantives and 
Adjectives, but they are used with the Possessive 
Affixes. The different forms, arising from the 
combination of the Possessive and Prepositional 
affixes, have been mentioned in the first part. So 
are the Prepositions strictly taken (or rather Post- 
positions, for in the Hungarian language the so- 
called Prepositions are not placed before the Sub- 
stantive) used with the Possessive affixes; thus, 
instead of saying en elott, before me, we say elot- 
tem; instead of 6 a/a^^ under him, we say alatta, 

3. Relative and interrog^ative Pronouniii. 

The Pronouns ki who, melly which, mi what, 
are used in compound sentences in order to pre- 
vent the repetition of a Substantive. 

As the sentences may be either interrogative 
or assertorial, these Pronouns are either Interro- 
gative or Relative Pronouns, accorduig to the 
nature of the sentence with which they are used. 



219 

The Pronoun ki is only used when Persons, 
melly and mi when animals and inanimated things, 
are spoken of. 

The Pronouns milhj, millyen^ what, what sort, 
mind, what; illy, illy en, such; oily, oily an, oily as, 
such, are Correlative ones. 

All these Pronouns are used with the diffe- 
rent Affixes, except the Possessive affixes m, d, 
ja, like Substantives, etc., but ki and mi retain 
their short vowel, whatever the Affix added may 
be. Thus^ kit whom, mil what (their Objective 
Cases); kik who, mik what (their Plural). 

The Correlative Pronouns ollyan, illyen are 
often compounded with the Demonstrative Pro- 
nouns, in: amollyan, such (as that) emillyen or 
imillyen such (as this). 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Demonstrative Pronouns are such as the 
speaker uses^ in order to point out the objects 
situated nearer, or farther off. They are : ez this, 
and its compounds ezen, emez, imez, this here, 
ngyanez the same; az that, azon, amaz, amazon 
that there; vgyanaz the same. 

In regard to their Grammatical forms they 
are subjected to the same rules as the Relative 
Pronouns. 

1 need not repeat the remark on the assi- 
milation of the consonant z (in az, ez), when 



220 

the Grammatical Affix begins with a consonant; 
see Introd. §. 3. 

4. Definite Pronouns. 

Definite Pronouns are used to avoid the 
repetition of a Substantive, determined by an' 
Adjective. Such are: mindenki, kiki everybody; 
senki, nobody; semmi, nothing; egyik, one (of 
more); mdsik^ the other; mindenik, every one; 
mind, all; mindnydjan, all (persons); minden, all. 

5. Indefinite Pronouns. 

The indefinite Pronouns are: Valaki, some- 
body; valamellyj some, any one; valamly something; 
akdrkiy whosoever; hdrki, whoever; bdrmelly, 
whichever; akdy^melly, whichsoever; akdi^mi, what- 
soever; nemelly^ some; nemellyik^ some one. 

The definite and indefinite Pronouns are used 
as Adjectives as well, with the exception of min- 
denki, kiki, senki, egyik, mdsik, mindenik, mind, 
mindnydjan, valaki, akdrki, bdrki, nemellyih 

V. Prepo<§iitioiiN. 

Considering the nominal meaning of the word, 
there are no terms in the Hungarian language 
to which the name can be applied. 

The different relations of space, time, cause 
and effect, the whole and its parts, represented 
by Prepositions, are expressed by two kinds of 
terms. 



221 

1) By affixes, which can only be used with 
Substantives or their substitutes ; for this reason, 
they may be called Prepositional affixes. 
Such are: 

for words with hard for words with soft 
vowels. vowels. 

ba, in, into he, in, into 

ban, in, at ben, in, at 

bol, out of 667, out of 

hoz, to hez and hoz, to 

ig, till, until 

kep, in the form, in the shape of 
kent, like 

n, on, on, upon n, en on, on, upon 

nak, to, towards nek, to, towards 

ndl, at nel, at 

ra, on, upon re, on, upon 

rol, from, of ?*67, from, of 

still, together with*) stul, together with 
tol, from tol, from 

ul, as ill, as 

ija, in, into vcy in, into 

i;a/, with vel, with 

2. By words placed after the Substantives 
or their substitutes. In the Hungarian language 
the Prepositions are placed after the Substantive to 



*) This affix is added to the same radical form as the 
plural k\ felesegestul together with his wife. 



922 

which they refer; thus, Grammarians have pre- 
fered: to call them Postpositions. Such are 

aldy underneath 

alatty under 

alol, and alul, from underneath 

dltal. through, by 

at, over 

beldl and beliil, inside of 

ele, before 

ellen, against 

elol, from before 

eldtty before 

felsy towards 

felett and fiJlbtU over, above 

feliiU and fblulf above 

fogva, from, for, by 

gyandnU like, as 

hegyett, over, above 

kelyett, instead 

irdnt, towards, on account of 

innen^ this side 

keresztiil, across 

kiviily without, outside of 

koze, amongst, between 

kozotty amongst, between 

koziil, from amongst 

mege, behind 

megett, behind 

megul, from behind 



223 

melle, beside, next to 

mellett, at. at the side of 

mellol^ from beside 

miatt, for, because of 

nelkiil, without 

szei'bit, according 

till, beyond (on the other side) 

utdn, after 

vegetU for. 

T. ConjnnctioiiJS. 

Conjunctions 5 used to join together simple 
sentences, may be divided into as many groups 
as there are kinds of sentences to be connected 
together, or periods, that may be constructed. 
Therefore, we distinguish: causal, compa- 
rative, explanative, concessive, conditio- 
nal, consecutive, distributive, copula- 
tive. Conjunctions, etc. 

Besides this division of Conjunctions, they 
are arranged under two orders. 

i. Correlative Conjunctions, in order 
to form compound sentences; they are not used 
separately, but as often as the antecedent begins 
with a Conjunction the consequent must naturally 
begin with its corresponding one. Such are: mi- 
velhogy because, azei't therefore ; niiei't why, viei't 
because; ralamint as, like, ugy or szintugy like- 
wise; miutdn or minekutdna after, akkor or an- 



nakutdna then; dmhdr although, and bar though, 
megis yet, nevertheless; ha if, akkor then; nem- 
csak not only;, hanem but; mihelyest as soon as, 
azonnal; mikor when,, akkor then; mig while, 
addig or azalatt, in the mean time; mennyire, an- 
nyira in as much; mennel the, anndl the; a%- 
liogy no sooner^ mar w than; egyreszt partly, 
mdsrezt partly. 

The Conjunctions, vagy, mind, reszent, sem, 
se, majd, akdr, is^ have no Correlative ones, for 
the consequent, and therefore they are repeated 
in the consequent. Thus: vagy either, vagy or; 
mind as well, mind as; reszent partly, reszint 
partly; sem and se neither, sem, se, nor; majd 
now, majd now; akdr either, akdr or; is and, as 
well, is and, as. 

2. Conjunctions used without correla- 
tive ones: es, and; meg, and; is also; mint^ 
as, than; we/«o^?/, lest, that not; dfe, but; azonban, 
however; hogy, that; c^aAv, only; csupdn, merely 
that; tekdt, consequently; es igy thus; kovetkezo- 
leg, consequently. 

VI. Interjections. 

Besides the Interjections which are common 
to all languages, being merely syllables uttered 
involuntarily in consequence of any excitement, 
there are words or rather expressions of joy, 
pain, or displeasure, proper to the Hungarians: 



225 

Az Istenert, for God's sake. 

Dehogy, what you say! (but how). 

Eljen, Hurrah (vive). 

Hdla Istennek, thank God. 

Igazdn, indeed, really I 

Istenem, my Lord (my God). 

Isten meiitsen, God forbid (God save us from)! 

hien orizzen, God forbid (God preserve). 

Mfijd bizfjnij, what next (soon surely.) 

Mi az Istennyila and mi ci mennyki), what the 

d — 1 (what the thunderbolt). 
Mi a' patvai', the deuce. 
Mi a^ tatdr, (what the tatars). 
Ne inond, you do'nt say so (do not say). 
Patvcir vigye^ let him go (the deuce may take him). 
Tei'emtette, (a mark of indignation). 
etc. 

B. SYNTAX. — 
CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES. 

Syntax is that part of Grammar which con- 
tains rules for correctly using the different Gram- 
matical forms of words, and words themselves, 
in order to form sentences. There would be as 
many Sections of Syntax as there are distin- 
guished different parts of Speech, each of them 
separately comprehending as many Subdivisions 
as there are different Grammatical forms for 

CsiQlL, bung. Gram. 45 



2216 

each part, if they were used separately; but its 
object being to teach the method of forming sen- 
tences by connecting some or all of the different 
Parts of Speech, Syntax may be divided into 
the following divisions. 

i. Of the combination of the different parts 
of Speech, without the intermediation of Gram- 
matical forms. 

2. Of the combination of parts of Speech 
by means of Grammatical forms. 

3. Of the use of the different Forms, Moods, 
and Tenses of the Verb, and parts of Speech, in 
order thereby to connect two or more sentences. 

4. Of the order in which the different parts 
of speech follow each other. 

I. 

Of the combination of the different 
partis of lipeech n'ithont the inter- 
mediation of Grrammatieal f ormis. 

(Congruency of Parts of Speech). 

A. Of the article ax^ a' and its Congruent. 

The Article, in many of the European lan- 
guages, gives the Substantive a determined mean- 
ing, in the Hungarian language the Article is 
used when the Substantive is limited to a cer- 
tain sphere, by another Part of Speech, by some 



227 

Grammatical form, or by the sentence itself, in 
which it is the Subject or Object. 

The article precedes its Substantive imme- 
diately, and ^ can only be stnarated from it by the 
Adjective ; it is u^ed especially : 

\. When the demonstrative Pronouns az, ez 
precede the Substantive: as, az a' hdz^ that house; 
ez az asztal, this table; ez a' pohdr, this glass. 

2. When the Substantive is used with the Pos- 
sessive affixes: as, az atydm, my father; az ocsem, 
my brother; a' kesein, my knife. 

3. When the speaker points to a certain Ob- 
ject, in order to distinguish it from another, when 
he refers to an object mentioned before, or other- 
wise supposed to be already known, or when 
the Substantive is meant to represent the whole 
gender or class of objects named: as, az orszdg- 
gyules hozhat toi'venyt, the Parliament (and no 
other Political body) can give laws; Kulombfele 
rendekre osztatnak fel az dllatok, animals (compre- 
hending all animals) are divided into different 
orders. 

4. When the predicate of the sentence is a ge- 
neral one, proper to the whole class represented 
by the subject: as, a' virdg virit, the flower is 
blowing; az ember ketldbu dllat, man is a two- 
legged animal. 

If any other word be used to replace the 

Substantive, it is subject to the above rules; the 

15* 



228 

Relative Pronouns hi, rtielly, 7ni, miUyeny illy, oily, 
etc. are used therefore with and without the 
Article, Thus, we say: a' ki nem tud irni, and 
ki irni nem tud, he who cannot write. 

The Article is not used : 

\, Before the names of Persons (taken in- 
dividually), lands, towns, months, and days. Jd- 
noSy John; Angolorszdg, England; Pe^f, Pest; Ja- 
nuar' kava, the month of .January; het/ d,Moni]ay, 

2. When sentences are constructed with the 
affixes of Possession instead of a possessive Case, 
and the Prepositional aft'ix nak is missed: as, az 
aiymn Itdza, instead of az atyumnak a' hdza, my 
father's house; az orszdg' kirdlya, instead of az 
ovszdgnak a kirdlya, the king of the land. 

3. When the attribute expressed by the Pre- 
dicate is not a general one: as, hoi oroszldn 
nines, where there are no lions (there might be 
some other animals); emberek is oktalanok, some 
men are unreasonable; kenyeret eszem, I eat some 
bread. 

4. In exclamations: as, szUkseg torvenyt 
ront, necessity knows no law (breaks laws) ; and 
in expressions like the following: hdzamhan va- 
gyok^ I am in my own house; sajdt penzemet el- 
veszieniy 1 lose my own money. 

Obs. Men, God, is used with and without 
the article ; when used with the article, it may be 



229 

translated by „Lord." Az Isten kegyelmes, God 
is gracious (the Lord is gracious). 

There being no Indefinite Article in the Hun- 
garian language. Substantives are necessarily 
used without; instead of saying, as in English, a 
man, we say ember; a house, hdz; a town, vnros. 

When Substantives represent any indefinite 
individual, the Numeral egy replaces the English 
indefinite Article and indefinite Pronouns: some, 
any, etc. : as , volt egyszer egy ember, there was 
once a man; egy iir mondta, some gentleman 
said it. 

B. Adjectives with Numerals and Sabstantives. 

1. Adjectives qualifying Substantives are 
placed before the latter in the Nominative case 
Singular; the Substantives at once may be used 
with or without any affixes, in the Singular or 
Plural. Jo alma, a good apple; szep hdzak, fine 
houses; drdga sziileim, my dear parents. 

Observ. All words used instead of Adjec- 
tives are liable to the same rule. Such words 
are : Numerals, and Relative, Indefinite, and Defi- 
nite Pronouns. Egy hdzat, one house; valamelly 
konyvem, any of my books; semmi munka, no 
work. 

2. Substantives are used in the Singular after 



230 

Numerals, Adjectives, and Pronouns of quantity: 
as, hdrom konyv, three books; hdrom hdzat ret- 
teniy I have bought three houses; sok ernbert Idt- 
tam, I have seen many men; itehdny tollat vettem, 
I have bought some pens. 

Obs, 1. Ketloy before Substantives, changes 
into ket: as, ket fiu, two boys; huszonket shiUing, 
twenty- two shillings. 

Obs. 2. If the Numeral does not represent 
a part of a large number, but means a collec- 
tion of the whole, the Substantive must be used 
in the Plural Number: as, a' tizenket apostolok, 
the twelve apostles ; a' hdrom kirdlyok, the three 
kings; on the contrary, we say tiz apostol, ten 
apostles. 

3. If the Adjective be placed after its Sub- 
stantive, for the sake of Emphasis, the Affixes 
used with the Substantive must be added to the 
Adjective as well. Konyvet keveset olvasott, he 
has read but a few books. — 

C. Subject and Predicate. 
The Subject is the principal member of the 
sentence , to which all other words belong as 
accessory ones. Commonly, the terms Subject 
and Predicate are defined: the former as the 
word representing the Object spoken of, the latter 
as the word expressing what is said of the Sub- 
ject. 



231 

The Subject of a simple sentence is a Sub- 
stantive or any word or words used as Substan- 
tives; the Predicate may be a Substantive, Ad- 
jective, or Verb. When the Predicate is a Sub- 
stantive or Adjective, the Verb jjto be" is used as 
a Copula between Subject and Predicate; this Co- 
pula, when used in the present Tense, is en- 
tirely neglected in the Hungarian language. 

\, A Substantive used as a Predicate agrees 
with its Subject in number: but when it is a Pre- 
dicate of two or more Substantives it is used 
in the Plural number; as, Jdiios dedky John is 
a student; Pluto es Apollo isienek voltak a' R6- 
maiakvdly Pluto and Apollo were Gods of the 
Romans. 

There is another mode of constructing Sub- 
stantives, when they are connected without any 
Copula; in this case the predicated Substantive 
is always used in the Singular Number, and the 
whole sentence becomes transposed, the Proper 
Noun being placed before its Common Noun : as, 
Istvdn kirdly , King Stephen; Jdnos es Pal dedk, 
the students Paul and John. 

The same inversion is made with the chris- 
tian and surnames of Persons: for instance, ^agy 
Sdndor, Alexander Nagy; Kossuth Lajos, Lewis 
Kossuth. 

2. An Adjective, used as a Predicate, agrees 
with its Subject in Number. A' rozsa szep; the 



232 

rose is beautiful; a' rozsdk szepek the roses are 
beautiful. 

When two or more separate Substantives are 
used as a Subject, the Adjective must be in the 
Plural: as^ Istvdn es Bela szorgalmatosak; Ste- 
phen and Albert are diligent; A' Romaiak es a' 
Gorbgbk szabadak voltak, the Romans and Greeks 
were free. 

3. When the Predicate is a Verb, it agrees 
with the Subject in Number and Person; but^ when 
there are different Substantives connected together 
into one Subject, the Verb is used in the Singu- 
lar. Az Oroszldiiy es cl Tigris Azsidhan lakik, the 
lion and the tiger (lives) live in Asia; az ember 
gondolkozkatik ^ (the) man is able to think; az 
ifjusdg es a szepseg elmulik, youth and beauty dis- 
appear (disappears). 

Obs. i. When a collective Noun is used 
as a Subject, the Predicate is always put in the 
Singular IVumber. Az alma edes, apples are sweet; 
a' boi'so Cl mezon termesztetik, peas are grown in 
the fields; a' nep szereti a' kirdlyt, people love 
their king. 

Obs. 2. After the Numeral Substantives: 
ketien two of them, haian six of them, etc., the 
Predicate is used in the Plural. lieten irlak, tliere 
were seven who wrote (seven of them wrote); 
tizen lihteky ten of them are sitting. 



533 



D. Of other congruences. 

4 . Two or more Substantives being connected 
by means of ''minf as, like, agree in the affix 
but not necessarily in IVumber: as, szeressed fele- 
hardtodat mint oiimagadat, love thy neighbour as 
thyself. 

2. Substantives of measures agree with 
their collective Substantives in Number; as the 
Collectives have no Plural the Substantives of 
measure are used in the Singular only. Hdrom 
itzehoi\ three (quart) quarts of wine; negy kosdr 
alma, four baskets of apples. 

3. When the Personal Pronouns are used be- 
fore Substantives or Verbs with Personal Affixes, 
for the sake of Emphasis, they agree in Number 
and Person with their Substantive or Verb. Az 
en hdzam, my house; en voltam ott, I have been 
there. 

4. The Demonstrative Pronouns agree with 
their respective Substantives in Number, Case, and 
Prepositional affix. Azok az emberek., those men; 
azokat a' fiiikaty those boys; ahhol a^ szobdbol, out 
of that room; etc. 

Obs. Azon, that, and Ezen this^ are invari- 
able in regard to Number and Affixes. Azon em- 
berek, those men; ezen fiiikat, these boys. 



234 



II. 



Of the combination of PartN of 

j§peech hy ineanis of Grrainmatieal 

fornix. 

Syntax of Government. 

The Hungarian language possessing no other 
Grammatical forms of Substantives^ besides the 
objective Case and the Plural, than those pro- 
duced by the Possessive and Prepositional affixes, 
the whole Syntax of Government will be 
reduced to rules on the use of the different 
affixes. 

A. Of the Objective Case. 

All Verbs of a transitive meaning govern the 
objective Case either of a person or of a thing, 
as the Object of the action expressed by the 
Verb. A' tanito tanitja cl fiut, the teacher teaches 
the boy. 

Many Neuter and Medial Verbs are con- 
structed with the Objective case of Substantives 
which are either derived from them or from 
which the Verbs themselves are derived. Jo eletet 
el, he lives a good life; szep dlmot dfmodtam, 1 
dreamt a beautiful dream. 



235 



B. Of the Possessive Affixes. 

4. The Possessive affixes m, d.ja orje; nk, tok 
or tekyjok or jijk. and their Plurals^ are to compen- 
sate for the Adjective Pronouns: my^thyjiis, her, 
om\ your, their; the Substantive, therefore, is in 
Hungarian to be used with those affixes as often 
as these Pronouns are used in English : as, atydrti 
my father; az atydmat Idttam, 1 have seen my 
father; ci koiiyveinket eladtuk , we have sold 
our books, a bdtydmtol jorJjk, I come from my 
brother's. 

Observ. The characteristic of the Objective 
case is often missed and marked by an apostrophe, 
especially in poetry, if the metre or rhyme re- 
quire it. Minden kodarabon mellyre szemem' ve- 
tem ("instead of szememef) . on whichever stone 
I cast my eyes. 

2. Instead of using the Verb „to have":, the 
Hungarians have a construction peculiar to them- 
selves. The Subject as Possessor, is used with 
the Prepositional affix nak or nek, to, and the 
Object possessed with the Possessive Affixes; 
they are connected by means of the Verb leiini, 
to be, as a copula, of which there are used the 
third Person Singular, when the object posses- 
sed is but one, the third Person Plural, when 
the objects possessed are several: as, az dllatnak 
negy Idba ran, the animal has four feet; Kdrolynak 



236 

lesz konyve^ Charles will have a book; az atydm- 
nak voltak lovai, my father had horses ; nekem van- 
nak madaraim, I have birds. 

Observ. In negative sentences the Adverb 
Item, not, senis also not, and the Present Tense ^^a^l 
and ^:annak, are contracted into: nines and nin- 
cseneky sines and sincsenek. Az dllatnak nines (nem 
van) esze, the animal has no reason; az atydmnak 
sinesenek (sem vannak) lovai, neither has my 
father any horses (my father has also no horses.) 

3. When Sentences are constructed so that 
the Object possessed is not expressed in the same 
sentence, but is either understood, or expressed 
in the preceding one, the Hungarians have an- 
other affix to express Possession, the e, which 
in such cases is added to the Substantive re- 
presenting a Possessor. If the Objects posses- 
sed be more than one the characteristic i of the 
plural affixes, is also added. 

Such constructions always take place when 
the question: kie and kiei whose? or whose are — ? 
is asked: as, kie ez a' kej% whose is that garden? 
a' kirdlye, a' herezege nagyohh, it is that of the 
king, the duke's (garden) is larger; Kdroly, te sok 
konyvet rontasz. a' hdtyddet bemoeskoltod, Jdno- 
set szetteptedy Erzsiet pedig szetvdgtad. Charles, 
you destroy many books, you have soiled that of 
your brother, torn that of John, and cut in two 
that of Elizabeth. 



237 

C Of the Prepositional Affixes. 

It may be remarked, as a general rule , that 
of two or more Substantives, or words used in- 
stead of Substantives, all belonging to the Sub- 
ject of the Sentence^, only the latter one receives 
the Affix: as, llnnyadi Mdtyds^ magyar kirdlynnk 
haU'ila utdn, after the death of Matthew Hunyadi, 
king of Hungary. 

a. Of the use of Prepositional affixes 
in general. 

ha, he,m (with, by), to the question where to? 

\. The Verbs: avatkozik*)to interfere, keveredik 
to become entangled, kezd to begin, vdg to iiew 
into, at csap, to strike any one, kap to lay hold 
of, oltiJz to dress, oUozkOdik to dress one's self, 
tesz to put, telik to come to, to elapse, — and simi- 
lar ones, are constructed by means of this affix. 
Okas ember nem avatkozik mas' dolgdha. a prudent 
man does not interfere with the business of others; 
nagy fdba vdgta a fejszet, he hewed with his ax 
a large log (he undertook a business too difficult 
for him) a fejebe'iette, he took (put) it in his head. 

2. To these may be added the idiomatic ex- 
pressions: bele szeretni to fall in love ; nyavalydba 



*) The Verbs mentioned are all given in their 'radicals 
(third person Singular Number), in order to distinguish Medial 
ones from the Active and Neuter. 



238 

esni^ to fall sick; buba merulni, to grieve one's 
self. 

ba7iy ben, in, of^, at, with; used to the 
question where? when relating to place. 

1. The Verbs: teziA- to believe, bizik to trust, 
gydnyorkodik to be delighted, serenykedik to be 
steady (industrious), kevelykedlk to be proud, to 
glory, and their synonymes, or Verbs of a con- 
trary meaning, are constructed with their Objec- 
tive Substantive by means of ban, ben. A' Keresz- 
tyen egy Istenben hiszik, Christians believe in one 
God; Hunyadi Jdnos h6s tetteiben kevelykedett, de 
neni sziiletese' rangjdban, John Hunyadi gloried in 
heroical deeds, but not in the rank of his birth; 
nines ketseg benne, there is no doubt of it. 

2. The affix ban, ben is used in the expres- 
sions: tiszteben all, it belongs to his office; kote- 
lessegeben all or vaii, it is his duty. 

3. The Adjectives: ^arfa^ experienced, biztos 
sure, iigyes clever, tudos learned, biinos guilty, 
drtatlan innocent, gyanns suspicious, tiidatlan, 
ignorant, jdratlan, tapasztalatlan inexperienced, 
telketetlen insatiable, tehetetlen unable, dllhatatos 
constant, dllliatatlan inconstant, rendetlen disor- 
derly, lassii slow, govern Substantives with the 
affix Z>a%, ben: as, Hannibal jdrtas volt a' hadjdrds- 
ban, Hannibal was experienced in the art of war. 

4. To the question whenV the affix ban, ben 
is used in phrases similar to: menoben, going, 



239 

meiMen voltam, I was going; jm^oben, coming, 
induldbaii; to be about to depart, hujdosdhan when 
wandering, puszliiloban perishing, dilapidating, 
hajdandban formerly, kozeUben near, and eUeneben 
opposite. 

Sometimes the Verbal Adjectives of t, ott, 
ett, ott, are used with the possessive affixes and 
the affix bail, ben : as, messze jdrtamban kifdrad- 
tam, walking a long way I became tired ; a' Duna' 
menteben. along the Danube. 

bol, boly of, from, out of, with; the con- 
trary of ba, be; is used to the question whence? 
out of what? A' templombol jbv'ok, I come from 
church; a' zsebebOl vette, he took it out of his 
pocket. It is used especially: 

1. With the Verbs: ered to be derived, to 
spring, to descend, szeret to love, iitdl to detest, 
gyi'dol to hate, sajndl to pity. 

Szent lesz mmden hozzdd irt dalorn, 
^ert hisz azok a mennybol erednek 
kek szemedbdl angyalom, — Petof'L 
Sacred all the songs of mine will be, which 

are addressed to thee. 
For they are derived from heaven. 
From thy blue eyes, my love (my angel). 

2. When an outward movement, or a tran- 
sition from one condition into another, is meant: as, 
a* vdrosbol elmenly he departed from town; a' 



240 

kereskedohol hajos lett, the merchant became a 
sailor. 

3. When the cause of any thing is to be 
expressed: as, fosvenysegbol nemis eszik, he does 
not eat because of his covetousness. 

4. Instead of szerint according to, with the 
Substantives rendeUs order, jyarancs command, 
meghagyas commission, tandcs advice : as, az atydm' 
nteghagydsdbol, according to the commission of 
my father. 

5. When a part is taken away from its 
whole. A' kenyerbol szelt egy karajt, he cut a 
slice of bread; a' magyar csak jo borbol iszik, 
Hungarians drink (of) good wines only. 

ei't, for, for the sake; a causal Preposi- 
tional affix is used: 

1. To the question merr? what for? why? A* 
hazdert meghalni szep, it is fair (noble) to die for 
one's country; bardtmk sokat tesznek ertllnk, our 
friends do much for our sake. 

2. Instead o{ kelyett, instead. Erted eszik, he 
eats instead of thee; «' fiu a' sikra szdllott az 
atyderty the son went to battle instead of his 
father. 

3. Miatt, because of, is sometimes exchanged 
with ert. Ertem (instead of miatUwi) ne busuljy do 
not grieve for me. 

hoz, hezoY li'dz, to, by the side of, to the 
question /«om.^ whither? Therefore, it often may be 



241 

exchanged with vielle, by the side of: as, az asz- 
talhoz dllitja a' szeket or az asztal melle allitja a' 
szekety he places the chair by the side of the 
table. 

It is especially used: 

1. With the Verbs: kozelit to approach, ra- 
gaszkodik to persist (in)^ kapcsol to fasten, kot 
to bind, figuratively to depend upon, szit to be at- 
tached, simul to cling, and the synonymes. Ki jot 
tenni akar, nem koti magdt kurulmenyekhez , he 
who wishes to do good does not depend upon 
circumstances; az ember gyakran ahhoz ragaszko- 
diky a' mi neki drtalmas, men often persist in 
things injurious to themselves. 

2. With the Verbs: tiid to know, ei^t to un- 
derstand, fog to begin, ?wer to apportion, szab to 
adapt, alkalmaz to accommodate, to suit, /«i to 
see, to do, to attend, to urge, iiyul to toufch, to 
stretch out the hand. Annyit ert a' dologhoz mint 
«' liid a' muzsikahoz, he knows as much about 
it as a goose about music; a' munkdhoz mere- 
tik a^ jntalom, reward is apportioned to labour. 

3. When likelihood,, becomingness, or rela- 
tionship is to be expressed: as, az elefdntot a' 
szunyoghoz nem kell hasonlitani, the elephant is 
not to be compared to a gnat; ferfiuhoz nemillik 
a' tunyasdg, indolence does not become a man. 

4. With the Adjectives: kegyes gracious^ 
kind, nydjas polite, kemeny severe, szigoru severe, 

('sink, hung. Gram. 1 G 



242 

iffaz true, Iiamis deceitful, hiv faithful, Mvtelen 
faithless, szives cordial, kind, szivtelen hard-hear- 
tedj, unkind^ kegyetlen cruel, rosz bad, jo kind, 
illo becoming, illendo proper, hasonlo like, rokon, 
atyafi related, kindred, kbzel near, and the Post- 
position: kepest in comparison with, in conside- 
ration of. Hunyadi Jdnos mindeg Mv maradt ki- 
rdlydhoz, John Hunyadi remained faithful for ever 
to his king. — 

ig, till, until, to (relating to place), to the 
questions: what distance? how far? — to time to 
the question: how long? meddig'l as, Pestriil Becsig 
38 merfold, from Pest to Vienna there are 38 
miles; ket napig tartott a' csata, the battle lasted 
two days; a' harminczeves hdboru harmincz esz- 
tendeig tartott, the thirty-years' war lasted for 
thirty years. — 

kep, kepeii, kent, as, like; both affixes 
express likelihood; the former is also used as 
a Substantive meaning figure, face, or form: as, 
atyakep viselte magdt, he behaved as a father; 
saskent lebegett ol leghen^ it hovered in the air 
like an eagle. 

It is often used instead of gyandnt, for, sze- 
rinty according, modra, in the manner, like, niint, 
as. Sok etii'opai orszdgokban vadakkepeti iildozik 
egymdst az ember ek^ in many European countries 
men persecute each other like savages. — 

Jif on. upon, at, to the* question wliereV — This 



243 

Prepositional affix is used with the Plural form 
of Substantives, the k being exchanged with it; 
thus from, oz asztalok, the tables, is formed az 
asztalon, on the table; a' tukor the mirror, a' 
tiikrok the mirroi-s, a' tiikron on the mirror. 

1. The Verbs: ^07/r/o/Aoz?Z- to consider (to think), 
okoskodik to philosophize; tandcskozik to consult 
(have a consultation), filgg to depend, log to dangle, 
to bob, csi'igg to hang, tart to keep (on) are con- 
structed with this Prepositional affix. Azon gon- 
dolkozik hogy mikepen szerezhessen penzt, he 
considers how to earn money; a' kormdnyok nem 
tandcskoznak mindeg az orszdg' jardn^ govern- 
ments do not always consult about the best in- 
terest of the country. 

2. The Verbs : husul to be afflicted, toprenkedik 
to be alarmed, to fret, hoszankodik to be angry, 
sir to cry, to weep, kesereg to be grieved, dlmel- 
kodik to muse, hdmiil to be astonished, nei^et to 
laugh, mosohjog to smile, veszekedik to quarrel, 
vitdz to dispute, and similar oiS govern the Objec- 
tive Substantive with this Prepositional affix. A' 
nep sirt Mdtyds klrdhf, haldlduy people wept on 
the death of King Matthew ; az orukosok rendesen 
oszszevesznek az orokseg elosztdsdn, the heirs com- 
monly are disunited about the division of the in- 
heritance. 

3. The Postpositions dltal and at over, ke- 

resztiil across, kiviil whhoutj helul within, alid un- 

16* 



244 

derneath, feliil above, over, ivnen this side^ tul 
beyond are constructed with their Substantives 
by means of the affix n. Honunak ol hatdrdn tul 
holyong a' hazafi. beyond the boundaries of his 
country the patriot is wandering about; Pest «' 
Dundn iiinen fekszik, Pest stands on this side 
of the Danube. 

4. The affix n is used in the expressions: 
azon van to endeavour, rajta kap to take in the 
Yiiry act, rosz neven ven-ni to be displeased with, 
jo neveTmen-ni to be pleased with, feken tart to 
bridle. — 

nak, nek, to, (of), towards, agauist; to the 
questions to whom? or for whom? This affix is 
also used to replace the Genitive and the Da- 
tive cases of other European languages. 

a. In order to express the construction of the 
Genitive or Possessive case, the Substantive, when 
required to be used in the Possessive case, re- 
ceives the affix nak or nek. and the Substantive 
expressing the Object possessed is used with the 
Possessive affix of the third Person ; as, «' fmnak 
a' konyve, the boy's book; a fiunak a' konyvei 
the boy's books. 

When the Substantive is required to be used 
in the Possessive case of the Plural^ the nak or nek 
is added to the Plural of the Substantive, and the 
Possessive affix of the third Person of the Plural 



245 

is then used instead of that of the Singular. A^ 
fiubiak a' konyveik, the books of the boys; az dlla- 
toknak az eletiik the life of animals; n' vdrosok- 
nak iC lakosaik. the inhabitants of the towns; a' 
birdknak az igazsdguk, the justice of the judges. 

Observ. \, The affix nak or nek is gene- 
rally neglected and marked by an apostrophe; in 
this case the article az or a' is missed before 
the Substantive used with the Possessive affix : as, 
Szent Istvdn' korondja, the crown of St. Stephen. 

Observ. 2. When the Genitive case is pla- 
ced after the Substantive representing the Object 
possessed, or when several Possessive cases fol- 
low each other, the affix nak, nek must be expressed 
in the last one : as, az atydm^ testvere-nek a' hdzdban 
voltam, I have been in the house of my father's 
brother (my father's brother's house); habjai cl 
Dundnak cl Tiszdnak (Berzsenyi) the waves of the 
Danube and Tisza; the same takes place when the 
Possessive Case is separated from its Substantive: 
as^ a' lednynak, a' kit Idttam, szep szemeben, (Petofi) 
in the beautiful eyes of the girl that I have seen. 

Observ. 3. When names of towns, rivers^ 
mountains, and places are constructed by the Pos- 
sessive Case with their respective Nouns com- 
mon , the Prepositional affix nak, nek is neglec- 
ted. Biida vdrosa, the town of Buda, Szent Gel- 
lerf hegye, the mountain of St. Gerard, Tisza' 
folyoja, the river Tisza. 



246 

Observ. 5. The Prepositions: alftti under, 
f'el^tt above, melletthy the side of, juegett behind, 
kozepett between, aid under, amongst may be con- 
structed by means of the affix naky iiek, like Sub- 
stantives, A' riznek alatta vagyon, it is under- 
neath the water. 

b. The affix nak, nek is used instead of the 
Dative case to the questions to whom? for whose 
benefit or loss? Especially: 

1. With the Verbs: ad to give, tidajdonit to 
attribute, evged to yield, iger to promise, odaszdn 
to destine (to design for), ajdid to offer, flzetto pay, 
jelent to announce, and those of similar meaning. 

Sokat tnlajdonituiik emheri I'lgyessegnek) mi valoban 
a' szerencse riiilve^ we attribute many things to hu- 
man skill, which realJy are the work of For- 
tune. 

2. With the Verbs : vel to think, taldl to find, 
to be of opinion, to believe, sejt (to divinate) to 
forebode, gyanit to suspect, to presume, and their 
synonymes. Tolvajnak gyanitom, I suspect him 
of being a thief; jonak veltem Pdrisba tUaznl, 
I believed it to be well to go to Paris ; a' katona 
romloitnak taldlvdn a' puskdjdt azt eldohta, the 
soldier finding his musket was spoiled threw it 
away. 

3. With the Verbs: Tandcsol^ jaimsol to ad- 
vise, ellenez to dissuade, to oppose, parancsol to 



247 

command. Az atyn eUenzette a' fidnak a' hdzassdgot, 
-(he father opposed his son's getthig married. 

4. With the Verbs: drt to hurt, heszdmit to im- 
pute 5 bead to present (to hand in), hasziidl to be 
useful, h'lsz to believe (to give credit), hizelkedik to 
flatter, izen to send word, kindlkozik to offer, koszfm 
to thank, Idtszik, to seem, megvall to confess, 
6rw7 to be pleased, remlik to appear, to seem, 
tartozik to owe, rildgit to give light, ?r//A- to taste, 
keszul to prepare, kell must, ?7//A- to become, tetszik 
to please, to seem, fdj to smart, to ache, j6l esik 
to enjoy (a meal,) to be of advantage, and the 
Verbs meaning denomination or election: as, 
magdnak haszndl, «' ki mdssaljot tesz, he who does 
good to others is useful to himself; a' hadvezer orul 
a' gyozedelemnek. the general is pleased with the 
victory; iitnak keszilL he is preparing for a jour- 
ney; Hmujadi Mdtyds magyar kirdhjnak vdJasz- 
tatofty Matthew Hunyadi has been elected king of 
Hungary; ezt a' flkt Kdvolynak hijak, this boy is 
called Charles. 

5. With the Adjectives: arfo* indebted, afkal- 
mas and alkahmitos convenient, suitable, drtabnas 
injurious, hasznns useful, lllo fit, jo good, rosz bad, 
kdros prejudicial, kedres dear, aff'ectionate, 
kellemes agreeable, kenyelmes commodious, com- 
fortable, leheto possible, lehetetlen impossible, 
sziikseges necessary, szabad allowed, allowable, 
unalmas tedious, iidvos salutary, valo fit for, 



248 

good foF;, szuletett born (for), termett grown (for): 
as, S katontmak sziilet^tt^ he is born for a soldier; 
az embernek lehetetlen mindent tiidiii, it is impos- 
sible for men to know every thing. 

c. When a direction, aim or movement towards 
an object is indicated, the affix nak or nek is 
used with the Substantive representing the object: 
as, a' vdrnak irdnyozta az dgyut, he directed the gun 
towards the fortress; neki szegzi a^ piiskdthe aims 
at him (with a gun); utnak indult, he went on jour- 
ney; Hunyadi (i seregevel Torbkorzdgnak merit, 
Hunyadi went against Turkey with his army. 

b. Lenniy to be, and venni, to take, are con- 
structed with the affix nak, nek, when, in English, 
the Predicate or the Object of the sentence might 
be constructed with as or like* Jonak lenni 
nehez, to be good is difficult (to be as a good 
man is...); a' szegenynek bardtja lenni discd, 
it is glorious, to be a friend to the poor; rosznak 
vette, he took it evil (as evil meant). — 

e. Sometimes this affix is used instead of: 
ul for, gyandnt, as: as, katondnak szdnta magdt, 
he resolved to be a soldier; lonak neztem, I 
mistook it for a horse (I considered it as a horse); 
instead of 16 gyandnt neztem, and katondul szdnta 
magdt, 

fele towards: as, falnnak ment, he went to- 
wards the village, instead of a* fahi fele ment. 



249 

ra, (on. atj: as, ivdsnak adta magtit^ he de- 
livered himself to drunkenness, instead of ivdsra 
adta magdt, 

f. The Adverbs: elihe before, felihe above 
govern the objective Substantive with nak, nek, 
Az osztalnak elihe dllitja magdty he places himself 
before the table. 

g. In the expressions: neki hiisul, to despair, 
neki keseredik, to be exasperated, and neki esik, 
to fall to. — 

* nd I y ne I, atfhy; used to the question where? 
A' nagy bdtydmndl van az en ordm, my watch is 
at my uncle's. It is used especially: 

\. In constructions with the Verbs: lakik to 
dwell, to live (lodge), mulatto stay, fog, kap to seize, 
ragad to lay hold of: as, hajdndl fogta^ he seized 
him by his hair; kezenel ragadta, he laid hold of 
his hand; en a' nagynenemnel lakom, Hive at my 
aunt's. 

2. After the comparative degree, instead of 
mint, than: as, nines szebb virdg d rozsdndl, there is 
no more beautiful flower than the rose, — in- 
stead of mint a' rozsa; — London nagyobb vdros 
Becsnel, London is a larger town than Vienna. 

3. Instead of mellett near, by the side of, and 
kozott amongst; as, a' Dundndl van egy vdros, 
instead of a' Duna mellett van egy vdros, near 
the Danube is a town. 

4. In the expressions: minel fogva, in con- 



250 

sequence of what, annul fogva, in consequence 
of that, ennel fogi:a., in consequence of this. 

Observ. When the object compared is ex- 
pressed by a Personal Pronoun, instead of a 
Substantive, the affix ndl is used pleonastically: 
as, a' hdtydm ndlam-nul nagyohh^ instead of a' 
hdtydm nagyohh ndlaniy my elder brother is taller 
than I. — 

ra and re^, on, at; to the question whither? 
as, az asztalra fettem cC konyvety I have put the 
book on the table. 

Especially: 

4. The Verbs: irigykedik to envy, karagszik 
to be angry, agyarkodik to be in wrath, hat to 
influence, parancsol to command govern the Sub- 
stantive expressing the Person with the affix ra 
or re-, as, a^ tanito hat a' tanitvdnyaira^ the tea- 
cher influences his pupils; a' katonatiszt gyakran 
a' kozemherre -parancsolja a' mtezseget, the officer 
of the army often commands the private to be 
brave. 

2. Becsiil to value, to esteem, and its syjio- 
nymes are constructed with the Substantive of 
price^ by means of ra, re. Hdrom forinira 
becsiili a' fel vekdt, he values the bushel at three 
florins. 

3. Itel to sentence, and kdrkoztat to condemn 
govern the Substantive expressing punishment, 



251 

with the affix ra or re. Hahilra iteltetett, he was 
sentenced to death. 

4. The Verbs: ker to ask, to beg, eskuszik to 
take%n oath, fogad to bet, siirget to urge, felszoUt 
to call up, to summons, kenyszerit to force^, tcmit 
to teach, oktat to inform, to instruct, to admonish, 
biztat to animate, I'ezet to lead, cstiblt to entice, 
figyelmeztet to remind, vigydzik to be attentive, nez 
to look (at), tekint to glance, torekedik to exert 
one's self, iparkodik to endeavour, igyekezik to 
contend, szdn (magdt) to resolve, to make up one's 
mind, ajdnl to recommend, when transitive, are 
constructed with the objective Case of the Per- 
son, the Substantive representing the Object re- 
ceives the affix ra or re: as, a kor'dlmenyek mun- 
kdra kenszeritik az embert, circumstances compel 
men to work; a' Spdrtaiak liazafisdgra intettek a 
fiaiaisdgoL the Spartans admonished their youths 
to patriotism. 

5. When the change of any condition, the 
division of a Avhole into its parts is to be ex- 
pressed, the Substantive or Adjective denoting the 
changed condition or the parts divided is used 
with the affix ra or re: as, az Idd melegre rdlto- 
zott, the weather (is changed into warm) became 
warm; jobbra for dull a' dolog, things changed 
into (for the) better; Magyarorszdg negy keriiletre 
oszlik, Hungary is divided into four districts. 

6. Emlekezik to recollect, to remember, bdmul 



252 

to stare at, gondol to think of, govern the objec- 
tive Substantive with the affixes ra. re: as, igen 
jol emUkezem azon tettre, 1 remember the deed 
very well; Arra nem gondoltam volna^ I should 
not have thought of it. 

7. The Adjectives alkalmas fit (for), kepes 
capable, hajlando inclined, kello proper, agreeable, 
valo to be for, keptelen unable, alkatmatlan unfit 
govern the Substantive with ra, re: as, az ember 
inkdbh hajlando a' vetekre mintsem az erenyre, 
people are more inclined towards vice than to- 
wards virtue; tanult ember nem mlndenre alkal- 
matos, a learned man is not fit for every thing. 

8. The Participles nezve and teklntve. in con- 
sideration of, regarding, are constructed with ra 
and re: as, testi alkotdsukra nezve az dllatok negy 
fo 7*endre feloszlanaky in consideration of the struc- 
ture of the body, animals are divided jnto four 
principal orders. 

Obs. Nezve always follows the Substantive 
with the Prepositional affix tekintve may precede 
the Substantive when emphasis requires it. 

9. The affix 7'a or re is used in order to 
limit time and extension of space. — Ester e ha- 
rangoznak y the bells are rung for the evening; 
negyszdz merfoldre terjed az orszdg' hatdra, the 
boundaries of the realm extend 400 miles. 

10. Ra, re is also used instead of the Postposi- 
tions: /e/e towards^ Jo66ra to the right (instead of 



253 

jobbfele), ellen against, 5re777«/ according: as, a^Ne- 
melre ment^ he went against the Germans, nyulakra 
vaddsz, he hunts hares; paraszt modra ban 
vele. he behaved to him in the manner of a 
peasant, instead of paraszt mod szerlnt... 

H . If Verbs be compounded with ?'«_, re or 
fel, they are constructed by means of the Pre- 
positional affix ?'a or re ; as. felment a' hegyre ^ 
he went on the mountain; rdlott a* nyulra hare. 

rolf vol, from, downwards, has a contrary 
meaning to ra or re, and is used to the question 
where from? as, a' fdrol lehul a' /ei;e/^ the leaves 
fall from the tree. 

It is used especially in constructions: 

4 . With the \ erhs : felejtkezik to forget, aggodik 
to be anxious, gondoskodik to care for, gondol- 
kozik to meditate, emlekezik to remember, meg- 
gyozodik to be convinced, tiidosU to inform, tu~ 
dakozddik to enquire: as, jotetemmyekrol sokanem 
kell feleJikezuL benefits must never be forgotten; 
«' tortenetiro a' regl nemzetek' hostetteirol tudosit 
beiillnket, the historian informs us of the heroical 
deeds of ancient nations. 

2. With all Verbs compounded with /e, down, 
and such as express a motion downwards: as, 
leszdllt a' szekerrol he descended from the coach; 
leszaladt a' dombrol, he ran down the hill. 

3. With the Adjectives: A «>e5 renowned, we»e- 
zetes famous, ismeretes known, and similar ones: as. 



254 

deli Amerika dragakovelrol nevezetes, South Ame- 
rica is famous for its precious stones, 

4. Instead of the Postpositions: feUl, from 
above, and bol, out of: as, 6 falurol joii, he 
comes from the village, instead of faliiboL — 

still, still, together with, means accom- 
paniment, it is adnexed to the Substantive by 
means of the vowel which precedes the Plural 
k. Felesegesti'd, gyei'mekestiil elutazott, he departed, 
together with his wife and children. 

Instead of slid, stai, the affix tol, tol is now 
and then used and added to the derivative Ad- 
jective instead of the Substantive: as, mdsodik 
Lajos kirdly lovastol elveszett, king Lewis II 
perished, together with his horse. 

tol, tol, of, from, is used: 

1. When a distance between two objects is 
to be expressed, or a removal of one object from 
another. Az alma nem esik messze a' fatal, the 
apple does not fall far from the tree. 

2. With Verbs meaning commencement, 
(relating to place or time), cause, dependency 
and derivation, and with veil' to expect, remenyl to 
hope, k'wdn, akar to desire^ ker to petition, kove- 
tel to demand, fel to fear, meffljed to be frighten- 
ed: as, a' ki sokat iger attol sokat vdrunk, we 
expect much from those who promise a great deal; 
az dllat fel az embertol, animals are afraid of man. 

3. With the Medial Verbs : ovakodik to be care- 



255 

ful, to beware of. idegenkedik to be averse, undo- 
rodik to. have an aversion, tartozkodik to abstain, 
irtodzik to shudder: as. rosz tdrsassdgtol inkdhb 
ovakodjdl mint a ragadozo dlldttol, avoid (beware 
of) bad company more than a rapacious beast. 

4. With Verbs meaning prohibition, distinc- 
tion, difference, parting, degeneration, liberation^ 
purification and privation: as, a' lerego tisztul a' 
kbdtoL air becomes purified from the fog; Maggyar- 
orszdg osi jogaitol megfosztatott, Hungary has been 
deprived of its ancient rights. , 

5. Tud to know, ert to understand, hall to 
hear, are constructed with Substantives by means 
of tol, tol. Magdtol ertetodik, it is understood 
by itself. 

6. Verbs of the Passive voice are construc- 
ted by means of the same Prepositional affix: as, 
a' gifermekek szuleiktol szeretetnek , children are 
loved by their parents ; a' vildg az Isteniol terem- 
tetetl. the world was created by God. 

Observ. To avoid a repetition of the same 
affix, the Postposition dltal, through, is used in- 
stead of tol, when the Verb is constructed with 
the same affix in the Active voice: as, «' Torokok 
elijesztetettek Magyai'orszdgtdl Ibinyadi dltal, in- 
stead of Hunyaditol, the Turks were frightened 
away from Hungary by Hunyadi. 

7. The Adjectives Yires empty, tiszta pure, 
clear, ment free, /iiggetlen independent^ govern 



256 

the Substantive with the affix tol, toL Bar mind- 
nydjan mentek volndnk eldltelete/ctdl, would to God 
we were all free from prejudices. 

8. Tol, tol is' used instead of miatt because 
of, on account of: as, a' kodtolnem ldthat,\i^ cannot 
see on account of the fog. — 

ill, for (as)^ is used: 

4. When reception into an office, rank or so- 
ciety is indicated. Allodahnl titkdrul felvetetett, he 
has been installed as (for) secretary of state. 

2. Instead of 7nint, like, as: as, parasztul vi- 
selte magdt, he behaved like a peasant. 

Obs» This affix is used especially to the 
question hogyim beszeH (in) w^hat languages does 
he speak: as, angolid heszel^ he speaks English; 
francziaul tud, he knows French; etc. 

vd, ve, into, an affix indicating a changed 
condition (transformation). A' viz horrd*^ vdl- 
tozott, water has been changed into wine; Niobe 
kove vdltozott, Niobe was turned into a stone. — 

val, vel, with:*) 

1. Verbs meaning association^ conversa- 
tion or the contrary of them, govern the objec- 
tive Substantive with this affix: as, velem egyezik, 
he agrees with me; Magyarorszdg sokat kiizdott 



^") Instead of borvd. 
**) See Introduction, on assimilation. 



257 

az osztrdk djikenynyel, Hungary has struggled a 
long time against Austrian despotism. To the above 
belong the Verbs: kecer to mingle, to mix 
(mechanically), vegyit to mix (chemically), egyesiil 
to unite: as, ti'iz vizzel soha sem egyesul^ water 
and fire never unite together. 

2. Segit to assist, bovelkedik to be in abun- 
dance, bir to possess, megajdndekoz to make a 
present, megjuialmaz to reward are constructed 
by means of val^ vel. A' kirdly megajdndekozta 
nepet torpe alkotmdiiynyal the king made his 
people a present with a crippled constitution. 

3. Dicsekedik to boast, kevelykedik to be 
proud, pompdzik to glory, el to live upon, to use, 
tdpldl to nourish, hizlal to fatten, kindl to offer, 
gyogyit to cure, szolgdl to serve, kei'eskedik to 
trade, gazddlkodlk to economize, fukarkodik to be 
a miser, szaporit to increase, fogyaszt to consume, 
to lessen govern the objective Substantive with 
the affix val. vel: as, az ember nem el viindeg 
az eszevel dmbdr 6 az egyetlen eszes dllat, man does 
not always use his intellect, although he is the 
only rational animal; f'dval kereskedik , he trades in 
wood; szdz forinttal szaporUotta a' jovedelmet^ 
he increased his income by a hundred florins. 

The Verb itevel, to bring up, to maintain, to 
keep, is constructed either with the affix 7i or with 
val, vel: as, keiiyeren or kenyerrel neveli a' ku- 
tydjdt, he keeps his dog on bread. 

Csinfc, hung. Gram. i 7 



258 

4. Cserel to exchange, fenjfeget to threaten, 
retftent to terrify, remit to frighten, veszodik to 
trouble one's self, and its synonymes; gondol, to 
care for, lelkesit to animate, bdtorit to encourage, 
kecsegtet to illude, to deceive , ban to treat (to use 
any body), foglalkozik to be occupied, tartozik to 
owe, adozik to pay govern the objective Sub- 
stantive with this affix : as, keveset gondol a' kimy- 
vekkel, he cares little for books; mindeg ohasds- 
sal foglalkozik, he is always occupied with read- 
ing; ki sokkal tartozik, annak sokat kell fizetni, he 
who owes much, has much to pay. 

5. Verbs compounded by ossze^ ^ffybe and 
egyiltt (together)^ govern the Substantive with the 
affix val, vel. Az ocsem osszeveszett a' bardtjdval, 
my brother fell out with his friend; egi/be gyilj- 
totte a' kezevel, he collected it with his hand 
(fingers). 

6. The factitive Verbs govern the Substan- 
tive expressing the Person made active with this 
affix : as, a' fiuval iratoyn a' konyvet, I let the boy 
write the book (I have the book written by the 
boy) ; a' szaboval ruhdt csindltatunk, we have our 
dresses made by the tailor. 

7. The Adjectives dus, gazdag rich, tele full, 
rakott laden, tbmbtt stuifed, hatdros bordering, 
szomszedos neighbouring, 7*oAo7i kindred, osztdlyos 
participating in inheritance, ados indebted^ owing, 
koteles being bound, obliged, kentelen forced, kesz 



259 

ready are constructed by means of val, vel. as, 
hdrom szdz fonttal ados iieki^ he owes him ^300; 
Magyarorszdg Torokorszdggal hatdros, Hmigary 
is bordering on Turkey. 

8. In comparisons, the Substantive or Ad- 
jective expressing the quantity or quality of com- 
parison is used with the same affix: as, «' mi 
kertunk hat Qllel hoszzahb a' tieteknel, our garden 
is 6 fathoms longer than yours; a' Duna sokkal 
nagyobh mint a' Themze, the Danube is much 
larger than the Thames. 

9. When the means, the instrument by which 
any action is performed, or the price at which, 
and the quantity (measure) by which things are 
sold, is to be expressed, the affix val, vel is used. 
A' regi Magyar ok huzogdnynyal harczoltak ^ the 
ancient Hungarians fought with whirlbats (clubs) ; 
szdzdval druljdk a' diot, they sell nuts by the 
hundred ; ket garasdral adja az itzet, he sells them 
at two pence (two pence half penny) a quart. 

10. To the question when? the Substantives 
of time are used with the affix val, vel, Nappal 
nem Idtnak a' baglyok, at day-time owls do not 
see ; ejjel hold vildg van, at night there is moon- 
shine; negy hettel ezelott Pdrisban voltam, four 
weeks ago (before four weeks) I was at Paris. 

Except: telben, in the winter; nydron, in 

the summer; delben, at noon-time; hajnalban^ at 

day-break. 

17* 



260 

Obs. The Substantive ko7', age, is used 
also as an affix with Substantives of time, to 
the question when'^ as, hdrom orakor erkezett ide, 
he arrived at three o'clock. 

\ \ . The Adverb egy'dtt, together^ governs the 
Prepositional affix vol, vpL A' nagy iienyemmel 
egyiitt elutaztunk, my aunt and I departed together. 

p. Of the affixes relating to place. 
There being difterent affixes relating to place, 
answering to the questions where? whither? and 
whence? it will be useful to arrange them cor- 
relatively, and to mention the rules according to 
which they are to be used in regard to names 
of towns and countries. 

Correlative affixes to the questions: 
where whither whence 

n, at, in I'a, to 7'6l, from 

bauy at, in ba, to bol, from 

otty otty at, in ra, to rol, from. 

i. n, and consequently ra and rol, are used 
with names of towns having a final vowel, or 
when b, cz, cs, d, f, g, gy, j, k, I, ly, p, r, s, 
sz, t, ty, Zy zs, are final: as, Buddn, at Buda; 
Pesten, at Pesth; Aradon, at Arad. 

The Exceptions are : Zdgrub, Gyor, Eger, Mo- 
dor,t\\e names of Szombat(lximaszombat, Nagyszom- 
bat etc.Jy and those with i final, which receive 
ban, ba and boL 



961 

2. The affix ban and its correlatives ha and 
hoi are used: 

a) Avitli tlie names of parts of the world, 
of countries, districts, isles, environs, forests, and 
parks : as, Europdhan negtj csdszdrsdg van, there 
are four empires in Europe; Anglidhan sok ipar- 
iizo vdros van. in England there are many manu- 
facturing towns. 

b) with the names of towns of foreign 
countries: as, Londonhan, in London; Pdrishan, 
at Paris. 

c) with the names of towns of Hungary termi- 
nating with m, n or ny. Pozsonyhan, at Po- 
zsony (Presburgh). 

3. The affix ott, ott is used with names of 
towns which have a final r: as, Fejervdrott, at 

Fejervdr; Gyorott, at Gyor (Raab). 

Y. Of the Adjectives (Participles) valo 
and leva with affixes. 

The Verbal Adjectives valo and levo, the 
former a derivative from van, to be, the latter 
from lesz (lenni). to become, are used with affixes 
instead of ''van, is, is for." Especially: 

1. Valo is used to the questions whither? and 
whence? it is used: with the affix nak or nek, 
added to the Subject of the sentence when this 
is represented as a future possessor: as, ez a* 
penz az atydmnak valo, this money is for my 



262 

father; with ra, re and rol, rol, or ba, be, and 
bol, bol, added to the objective Substantive 
of the sentence; as, ez a' gomb a' sipkdmra valo 
this button is for my cap; ez az alma arrol a' 
fdrol valo, this apple is from that tree. 

As ra and rol relate to surface and outside, 
and ba, bol, to inwardness, the use of either of 
them will be decided by the meaning of the speaker, 
whether he mean to express a motion on or from a 
surface, or in or out of an Object. Thus^ we 
say: a* kereszt a' templomra valo, the cross is 
for (is to be put on) the roof of the church; and 
ez", a' kereszt templomba valo, this cross is for (is to 
be put inside of) the church; ez a' faaziskoldrol 
valo, this wood is from (the top of) the school- 
building; and ez a' fa az iskoldbol valo, this wood 
is from (out of) the school- building. 

Instead of using derivative Adjectives (of 
proper Nouns) of i, we often use the Adjective 
valo with the affix ra, rol or ba, bol, according 
as the name of the Place is constructed with ra 
or ba: as, Pestrol valo ember ez, instead of ez 
az ember Pesti, this is an inhabitant of Pesth; 
Pozsonbol valo vagyok, instead of Pozsonyi vagyok, 
I am from Pozsony (Presburgh). 

2. Leva is used to the question where? with 
the affixes ban. n, and ndl, the former two with 
names of Places, the latter in constructions 
similar to "at my father's, and with my 



263 
f at h e r ,": as, a' Pesten levo/aiskola legeUszor Nagy- 

/a' 



U szombatbmi dlUttatoit fel, the University at Pesth 



^ ^if-wsiS^ first establislied at Nagyszombat>ra' hcitydm- 
^'^ ndl voltam, I have been at my brother's; Ktiroly 
^ ia' bardtjdndl ebedelt. Charles has dined with 

D. Of the Adjective terminatnniSTTwy*, «r« aiid^^^^^^^ 

The preceding terminations of derivative Ad- 
jectives are used with Substantives of quantity 
and quality, where in English the Substantive is 
used in the Objective case. 

Quantity may relate to time and space. 
Distance may be expressed in measures of space 
as well as in measures of time. 

1. To questions relating to extension and 
distance, the Substantive of measure is used with 
the affix 7fyi: as, «' Diuia sok mertfiildnyi hosszu 
folyo, the Danube is a river many miles long; a' 
Calais' szornlatja 26 angol mertfoldnyi szeles^ the 
straits of Calais are 26 English miles wide; Buda 
Pestrol egy negyed ordnyi tdvol, Buda is distant 
from Pesth a quarter of an hour. 

Obs. When the Substantive of measure is 
used with the Adverb tdvol, far, or by itself 
without any other Adjective expressing quantity, 
it receives the affix ra or I'e, besides the Ad- 
jective termination nyt: as, Esztergom fekszik a* 
Dmid! jobb partjdn, Buddiol hat merifbldnyire. 



264 



Esztergom is situated on the right bank of the 
Dunube 6 miles from Buda. 

Obs. The Substantives 7iap, heL honap^ ev, 
esztendo, when indicating distance, are used in 
the Nominative case without the termination nyi. 

2. To the question how long? the derivative 
affix I is added to the Substantive expressing 
the quantity of time. Udrom napi jar as, a three 
days' walk; negy heti muiika, a four weeks' work. 

3. To the question how much? the Substan- 
tives following the Numerals are transformed 
into derivative Adjectives of a final s. Hat holdas 
szdntdfoldet vett, he has bought three acres of 
ground; ez a' zsdk ket koblos, this is a bag of 
two kobol (4 bushels). 

Quality is expressed by means of the de- 
rivative terminations s, u and w. Especially: 

1. In order to express the age of things or 
persons, the Substantives of time are transformed 
inco Adjectives by means of the terminative con- 
sonant 5*)^ the Adjective "old" being neglected. 
Ez a' gyermek hat honapoS; this child is six months 
old: London tobb mint ezer eves. London is more 
than a thousand years old. 

2. In all other expressions of quality to the 
questions what? what sort of? the Substantives 



*) On the formation of them see the Derivation of Ad- 
jectives. 

4 



565 

indicating the quality are transformed into Ad- 
jectives of u or w, when preceded by another Ad- 
jective: as, ritka fevyii ferfi. a man of rare qua- 
lities; «' nagy hirii Uunyadi, the well-renowned 
Hunyadi. 

When a certain period of past time is com- 
prehended, the Substantives indicating such a 
period are used with the possessive affix of the 
third person Singular: as, hat bete hogy Lomtont 
elhagytam, three weeks have elapsed since I left 
London. 

The Expression: ideje hogy men junk, it is 
time to go, belongs to the same rule. 



III. 

Of the nse of the Oiifereiit Formis 

of the Verb, and the different Parts 

of speecli for connecting^ 

sentences. 

A Of the Forms of the Verb. 

1. THE DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE FORMS OF THE 
ACTIVE VOICE. 

The Definite form of the Active voice is 
used as often as the object governed by the 
transitive Verb is determined by the speaker. 
The object is a certain determined one: 



266 

1 . When the demonstrative Pronouns precede 
the Substantive. Azt a' hdzat veszem, I buy that 
house; azon fiiit Idtom^ de nem azt keresem, I see 
that boy, but I do not look for that one. 

2. When the Substantive is used with the 
Possessive Affixes. A' hdtydm eladta «' kony- 
veil, my brother has sold his books; fejet cso- 
vdlja, he shakes his head. 

3. When the Personal Pronoun of the third 
person is used as an Object: as, nem hallom ot, 
nem Ldtjuk oket. The Definite Pronouns: magam 
myself, magad thyself, maga himself, herself, it- 
self, etc. require the same construction, when 
the Subject of the sentence is at the same time 
the Object: as, az emher nem hallja maga magdt, 
it is impossible to hear one's self; nem Idthatom 
magamat, I cannot see myself. 

Obs. The Objective cases of the other Per- 
sonal Pronouns are not constructed with the De- 
finite form of the Transitive Verb. Ha ma josz 
hozzdm csak engemet fogsz taldlni, if thou comest 
to me to-day, thou wilt only find me. 

4. When the Object of the sentence is a 
Proper name: as, Cicerot ohxisom, I read Cicero; 
Jdnost hallom, I hear John. 

Obs. When Proper nouns are used instead of 
common Nouns as generic expressions, the In- 
definite form of the transitive Verb is to be used 



267 

with them. Mi iddnkben keves Horatiust taldlunk, 
in our time we find few Horaces; Anglia Cicer'oit 
nem enielj'dk anmjira mint a' hajdani Romdet, we 
do not extol the Ciceros of England so much as 
that of ancient Rome. 

5. It is plain from what has been said on 
the Article, that the Definite form must be used 
as often as the Article precedes the Objective 
case : as, a' hdzat Idtom, cl szot hallom, a' levelet 
megirom. 

2. MOODS AND TENSES OF THE VEEB. 

a. Moods of the Verb. 

In regard to the Moods of the Verb, their use 
will depend upon the manner of speaking, the 
degree of certainty which the speaker manifests 
in his assertions, and the object or intention of 
the speaker. 

When the Object of the sentence is a sim- 
ple assertion or statement, not liable to any doubt 
or condition, the Indicative Mood must be used. 
Kdroly tegnap ehitazott^ Charles departed yester- 
day; holnap kozzdd fogok jbnni, I shall come 
to you to morrow. 

When the sentence expresses a desire, wish, 
or command, and when a question is put the 
answer to which is doubtful, the Subjunctive 
Mood must be used. Aldjon meg az Isten, God 



268 

bless you; en mondtam neki hogy tpenjen el, I 
told him to go; induljalok azonnal, you (shall) 
start immediately; nevi tudom elmerijen-e vagy nem? 
I know not whether he (better) go or not. 

When the truth of a sentence depends upon 
uncertain conditions, or when the speaker is not 
convinced of its truth, the Conditional is used in 
Hungarian. Ha ma jonnel akkor vdrndlak, if you 
come to-day I will wait for you; azt mondja 
hogy ehnejinej he says that he would go; kalottam 
hogy ott lett volna, I heard that he was there. 

p. Tenses of the Verb. 

Regarding the Tenses in general, they are 
liable to the same rules as the English. Devia- 
tions from these rules are: 

1. The Present Tense of the Indicative may be 
used instead of the Future; even the compound 
Future is very rarely used by the people, which 
seems to prove that the compound Future formed 
by means of ''fogok" is of a European invention, 
and the Hungarian nation^ according to the oriental 
character of its language, used only two Tenses, 
one for the present and future, and the other for 
the past time. Ha ma este el neiJi jon , if he will 
not come to night; joro evj^e elmegyek Pdrisha, I 
shall go to Paris next year; elmegyek and jou 
are of the Present Tense. 

2. The First Perfect, also called the Imperfect 



"209 

Tense, is the Historical Past tense, and the 
Tense used in solemn speech, so also is the 
compound Perfect (Pluperfect) of the Indica- 
tive Mood; they are not used in familiar con- 
versation, the Perfect Tense having gained 
the prerogative of both the preceding ones. 

y. Future Tense of and^ end. 

The different forms of the Future radical of 
and, end {vdrand, verend) are not used very fre- 
quently either by the people, or by authors. The 
Present tense of it plays a great part in solemn 
speech, when any certainty or necessity of future 
action is supposed; this necessity then lies beyond 
the sphere of the active Subject itself; hence the 
Participle of this root implies the same meaning 
as the Latin of "dus", viz, duty. In recent times 
this Tense has been introduced simply instead 
of the compound future. 

3. PARTICIPLES. 

Participles are forms of the Verb having no 
determined Personal relation. 

The Participles formed by means o^vdn, ven, 
are those of the Present, and express simply the 
condition of the active Subject; they are not liable 
to any alteration whatever in regard to affixes. 
Luther, Romdban Idtvdii a' pdpa buiws eletef, d 
Romai Egyhdztol elszakada, Luther, seeing the 



270 

vicious life of the Pope at Rome, separated him- 
self from the Roman church. 

The Participle terminating in va, ve is that 
of the Past; it was formerly used with the pos- 
sessive affixes m, d, nk, tok, k, and very likely 
gave origin to the Imperfect Tense, the v of the 
participle being neglected. In ancient Documents 
of Hungarian writing we find the constructions: 
y^Es vii aluvdnk elorozzdk diet (aluvdnk instead of 
alvajy (we) having fallen asleep^ they stole him 
secretly; tevelgetek nem tudvdtok irdst (instead 
ofnem tudva), not having known writing, you were 
ij^able to mistakes (erred). — At present it is 
used as a Participle of the Perfect; as, 

Elremillve tekint, temetd, redd 

A^ tunder hatalom, (Berzsenyi) 

Glittering power looks alarmed at thee, O 
grave (trembles at thee . . .) 

Observ. 1. The Participle of the Present is 
often used intsead of that of the Passive: as, 
Buzdito katonds ruhdt 

Oltven, lelke^ nemes Idngja kigerjedefi {Berzsenyi,) 
Being dressed in encouraging soldier's dress, 

the noble flames of his soul burst forth. 

Obs. 2. Instead of the Past Participle, or 
the Present Tense of the Ind. Mood of the Pass. 
Voice, the Past Participle of the Active may be used 
as a predicate of the sentence ; in that case it has a 
plural form as well when the Subject of the sen- 



27i 

teDce requires it: as, a' gyei'viekek szeretvek a' 
szuleikt6l, instead of a' gyeimekek szuleiktol szere- 
tetnek, children are beloved by their parents. 

Obs. 3. The same Participle is often used 
Adverbially with other Personal Verbs. Vdlaink 
meg vannak rakva terhekkel, our shoulders are 
laden with burdens ; meg van irva, roszat ne cse- 
lekedj, it is written (as a command), thou shalt 
do no evil. 

Obs. 4. The Participles and the Verbal Ad- 
jectives govern the objective Substantive with 
the same Affix as the primitive Verb: as, a' 
gyozedelemhez szokott sereg nagyon is erezven e* 
nap* csapdsdt vissza vonuldsra keszult, the army, 
used to victory, sensible of the great loss of the 
day, prepared for retreat. 

4. THE INFINITIVE WITH AFFIXES. 

The Infinitive of the Verb is used with the 
Possessive Affixes as often as some personal re- 
presentation is connected therewith (when it is 
the appositum of the predicate of the sentence). 
Such representations take place: 

Wlien the Infinitive is connected with the 
Subject of the sentence by means of: szabad 
allowed, nehez difficult, konnyii easy, lehetetlen 
impossible, leliet possible, and the impersonal Verb 
kell, to be obliged, the Subject then receives the 
affix nak or nek: as, Kdrolynak szabad haza men- 



272 

nie, Charles is allowed to go home; nekem lehe- 
tetien iiiiom, it is impossible for me to write; 
nekiink mennunk kell, we are obliged to go. 

The Affix het or hat, and the Impersonal 
"Verb lehet are of the same meaning, the latter 
being a derivative Verbal root of leimiy to become, 
it might be questioned which expression be pre- 
ferable, '^mehete¥' or ^'mennem leketl" 

The Construction with lehet is to be used 
when there is no external obstacle, and that with 
hat or het. when there is no deficiency in the 
active Subject itself; thus, ki iiem lehet mennemy 
I cannot go out (when the door is locked); ki 
nem mehetek, I cannot go out (being ill). 

B. Of terms of Periodical Constrnctions. 

When simple sentences are constructed into 
periods^ it may arise either that the same Sub- 
ject relates to more than one Predicate (two 
simple sentences have the same Subject), then, 
in order to avoid badly sounding repetitions of the 
same Subject, we use relative Pronouns, — or 
that two different Subjects or Objects relate to 
the same Predicate and two different Predicates 
relate to the same subject, — or lastly that two 
sentences with different Subjects and Predicates 
are to be connected together, then the connections 
are effected by means of Conjunctions. 



273 



1. Of the Relative Pronouns. 

The Hungarians distinguish three kinds of 
relative Pronouns; ki who. relative to persons, 
rnetiy which, to irrational beings, vu what, to 
things inanimates. Melly and mi are often used 
promiscuously; the only leading principle maybe 
remarked: as often as the objects related to are 
represented as individuals, or as definite ones, 
the use of melly is preferable, on the contrary^ 
vii is used: aS;, Huuyadi, ki akkorihau Torok- 
orszdghan volt, nem vedlietie magut azon ald-valo 
ragalmazdsok elleii, «' mellyekkel a' roszlelku Cilley 
otet megtdmadtn; iimbdr tadta, mit micel a goiiosz 
tandcsnok, — Hunyadi, who at that time stayed 
in Turkey, could not defend himself against the 
calumnies with which the ill-natured Cilley at- 
tacked him; although he knew of the machi- 
nations of the malicious counsellor. 

On the use of the Article with these Pro- 
nouns, see above. 

When the relative Pronoun is followed im- 
mediately by its Substantive, a' melly or 77ielly is 
used; it may then relate to persons or inanimate 
things. A' melly ferfiuk dldozaiul item estek a' zsai'- 
nok'' pallosdnak, azokat messze foldon illdoze 
cselszovenyivel, those men who fell not as a sa- 
crifice to the tyrant's sword, he persecuted by 
his intrigues in distant countries. 

CsiQk, huQg. Gram. \ § 



274 

The relative Pronoun agrees with its Sub- 
stantive in Number, receiving the affix which is 
governed by the Verb of which it is the object. 
Soha ne igerj^ mit nem tarthatsz, never promise 
what you cannot perform; az ember eky d kikkel 
rosznl bdntdly the men whom you have ill- 
treated. 

Obs. Although the Substantive is only used 
in the Singular Number after Numerals, yet the 
Pronoun relating to it is used in the Plural: as, 
husz katontty kiket megfogtak, ten soldiers whom 
they caught. 

Correlative Pronouns are those which are 
not used separately, but, the one being used in the 
antecedent, the other cannot be omitted in the 
consequent. Such are: relative to quantity: an- 
nyi, so many, so much, — a' mennyL as many, as 
much ; relative to q u a 1 i ty : vii7idf millyen, milly, what, 
what sort of, — oily ollyaii such (like- like). 
These Pronouns form the link between the Con- 
junctions and the relative Pronouns, and are 
often expressed by means of Conjunctions, in 
foreign languages. Annyi huzai hoztak a' vdrha, 
a' mennyit evf' lefolyta alatt nem emeszthetett volna 
a* vdrorseg, they brought s o (as) much corn into 
the fortress, as the garrison could not have con- 
sumed in the course of a year. 



275 



S. Of the Conjunctions. 

Conjunctions are terms used to connect two 
different Subjects or two different Predicates of 
simple sentences^ and also to join together two 
different simple sentences : as, my brother and 
Charles departed; Charles left Paris and 
Lyons; the garden is large but uncultivated; 
Charles went in the garden when William had 
his dinner. 

The correlative Conjunctions are mentioned 
in the formal part. In consideration of the con- 
junctive and disjunctive ones is to be remarked: 

regarding es, meg. and; — 7neg is used in 
order to comprehend two Objects under one col- 
lective notion, es is a mere copula of two words or 
sentences. Hdrom meg ketto ot, three and two 
make five; London es Paris nagy vdrosok, 

is, also, has very often an ironical meaning, 
and that of boasting; in that case it is mostly 
translated by as well. Francziaorszdghan is utaz- 
tarn, I have been travelling in France as well. 

When the copulatives "and, aswell — , as" 
are to be expressed, the Conjunction is, must be 
repeated in the consequent: as, kepedet is Idtoniy 
szavadat is hallom, I see thy face, and hear thy 
voice; magyarul is angolul is heszel, he speaks 
Hungarian as well as English. 

pedig is of a disjunctive meaning, but is often 

18* 



276 

used as a copulative; hence it may be translated 
by and, but, though, yet, according to what the 
meaning of the sentence is. Kdroly haza megy en 
pedig a* hdlba megyek, Charles is going home and 
I am going to the ball; az ocsem el nemjott, pedig 
irt hogy el fog jonni, my younger brother has not 
arrived p yet he has written to (inform) me he 
would come. 

ka, if, when followed or preceded by a ne- 
gation, is constructed with the Conjunction iSy 
which is placed after the predicate of the sen- 
tence ; constructions of that kind are always of a 
concessive meaning. Ml setdlni nem megy link, ha 
(iz ido szep is , we shall not take a walk, though 
the weather be fine. 

seni and se are used instead of is nem, is 
nCf and are accompanied by nem or ne, when 
neither and nor are to be expressed, in that case 
the negation is enforced by the use oi nem or ne; 
when sem and se are used separately, the nega- 
tive nem or ne cannot be used with them. A' flu 
sem oi leczkejet nem tanulta, sem az irdsdt nem 
vegezte el, the boy has neither learned his lesson 
nor finished his writing; Kdroly se fog elmenni, 
neither will Charles go away. 

ne is only used with the Subjunctive and Im- 
perative Moods. Ne menj, do not go; aztmond- 
lam hogy ne tegyed, I told you not to do it. 



277 

IV. 

Of the consequence of Parts of 

Speecli. or the «rrang;enient of 

the ^ ords in a sentence. 

In arranp;ing the parts of speech in a sen- 
tence. Emphasis is the leading principle to be 
considered; for this reason: 

1. The Verb precedes all other parts of 
speech, if any particular Emphasis is placed on 
it: as. megholt JMdtyds kirdly^ oda ixiu az igazsdg. 
Dead is king Matthew (king Matthew is dead)_, 
(and) justice is lost. 

Otherwise the Verb follows immediately that 
word of the sentence, on which the Emphasis is 
placed. Kdrohj tudja a leczkejet jol, Charles 
knows his lesson well; jol Uidja Kdroly d lecz- 
kejet and Kdroly jol tudja a' leczkejet, Charles 
knows his lesson well. 

2. When any special Emphasis is placed on 
the Adjective, it generally follows its Substantive 
in the same Number and Case: as, peiizt sokat 
nyert, he won much money. In order to render 
the Emphasis conspicuous, the Adjective is joined 
with its Substantive by means of the Conjunction 
pedig: as, az apdm lovat vett, pedig szejjet, my 
father has bought a horse, and that a beautiful one. 

If two or more Adjectives precede the Sub- 
stantive, the one specifying the Substantive pre- 



278 

cedes it immediately: as, egy szep magyar levelet 
irtam, I have written a fine Hungarian letter; a' 
hatalmas hr'iU birodalom, the mighty realm of 
Britannia. 

4. If any Adjective, preceding a Substantive, 
be determined by any other word or words what- 
soever, they precede the Adjective immediately. 
A^ veliink ehre nezve rokon emhereMel szivesen tar- 
salkodunk, we converse with pleasure with those 
who are of the same principle as we ourselves 
(with those related to us in regard to principle 
we willingly converse). 

5. In regard to titles, the following arrange- 
ment is conformable to the genius of the Hun- 
garian language: the Adjectives of distinction, 
tekinteles honoured, meltosdgos right-honourable, 
kegyehnes gracious, etc. precede the whole title 
and are followed immediately by the predicative 
name of the family; after these is placed the 
surname^ then the Christian name; the naming 
of the office or rank held by the person followed 
by the words ur Sir, Mister, asszony Mistress, 
or asszonysdg ladyship, is placed last. Melto- 
sdgos Onfalvi Olmosy Pdl grof ur, the right - 
honourable the Earl of Onfalva Paul Olmosy; 
Nagysdgos Cseveghdti Csei:egg Erzsebet bdrone 
asszonysdg, the right-honourable the lady Elisa- 
beth Csevegg, baroness of Gseveghat. 

6. In regard to Verbs compounded by the Ad- 



279 

yerhs fely le. meg. el, cissza, ossze, etc., they are se- 
parable from their Verbs, and follow them as often 
as the Emphasis is placed on the preceding Sub- 
stantive or the Verb itself; but if they are used 
in opposition to other Adverbs, or the Emphasis 
is put on them, they precede the Verb, from 
which they may be separated by the Conjunction 
of the sentence, or by the Verb fog, used as 
the Auxiliary of the Future Tense : as, kl adta el 
ii lovaVl who sold the horse? but: eladtad-e a' 
lovat? hast thou sold the horse? Mi el fogjuk 
adni a' lominkat, we shall sell our horse. 

7. The negative Adverbs nem and ne, pre- 
cede the Object or word denied. Nem az atydm 
volt itty not my father has been here , and az 
atydm nem volt Itt, my father has not been here. 
Se77i and se may be placed after the Substan- 
tive, but they must precede the Verb; if sem or se 
be followed by nem or ne, sem is placed before 
the Substantive and nem before the Verb. Sem 
en nem megyek fabira, sem a' bdtydm, neither I 
nor my brother will go into the country; se penzt 
se ruhdt nem dd. he gives neither clothes nor 
money. 

8. The Conjunctions: noha^ bdr^ dmhdr, 
although, though, mivel, mintkogy, because, de, 
but, mintha, as if, nuutdn^ after, mielott, before, 
ha, if, hogy, that, mint, as, mikelyt, as soon as, are 
used at the beginning of the sentence. 



280 



Reading EacercUes. 

Hungarian Anecdotes, relating to the last war. 

..Comrade, (brother) teach me how to keep 
ofi the blows," said a recently levied hussar to a 
hero, who was well proved in battle. ,,0f what 
use would that be?" asked the veteran; ,,my son 
do you but strike, and let the Austrians keep oif 
the strokes." 

,5 Why don't you learn the military exercises 
in Hungarian?" asked an ultra Magyar from a 
hussar-hero? it is detestable to hear the German 
command. — .,Sir (my Sir)," said the hussar, .jif 
we were commanded in Hungarian I should un- 
derstand, but my horse would not.'^ 

„Surely I must confess, that I am apprehen- 
sive for my nation, I lose my heart when I 
think of it,"' — said Baron S., — who was well 
known secretly to belong to the antinational 
party, — after he had enumerated all his patrio- 
tic deeds before an officer of the hussars. — ,^\t 
would be better, I think,," said the hussar^ j^if you 
losC your head, you would be then freed from all 
anxiety (your poor soul then would be in re- 
pose)." 



281 

Olviisdsi gyakorlatok. 

Magyar meselyek az utols6 haborubol. 

,,Bncsl, tanitson eiigem hogijanelcsapni (i kard- 
YitesU'' szolt egy huszdr-njoncz egy hadedzett hu- 
szdr-i:itezhez. — ,,Minek az neked/' felele a' ha- 
dasfydny ..fiiim te csak iissed, liadd csapja el az 
litest a' ISemet"^) 

^jHdt miert nem taniiljdtok magyar nyelven a' 
katonai gyakorlatokat? kerdi egy tidbuzgo Magyar 
az or eg huszdr-vitezt6L j^iitdlatos hallani a' nemet 
parancsszot! '^ — ^^Urani,'' moiid a huszdr, „lia 
magyarul conunandiroznak*) , en ertem^ de «' lovam 
neni ertL^'"^) 

,,Megvallom hizony, hogy nagy aggodalmam van 
kazdmrol es nemzetemrol, lelkem csugged ha rd 
gondolok,^' szol S — bdrO:, kirol tudva rolt hogy 
alattomban a' nemzetelleni pdrttal tart, — miutdn 
egy huszdr-tiszt eiott elosorolta rolna hazafud tet- 
teit. .,Bizony johb rolna ha, teste csilggne, nyugalma 
lenne akkor szegeny lelkenek/' mond tC huszdr,^) 



*) Cummandiroz-ni is commonly used by the soldiers 
instead of parancsnokol-ni. 



282 

In the sanguinary battle at Petervasara, a 
hussar had been taken prisoner, caught in the 
fact of splitting the helmet and head of an Aus- 
trian curassier. The hussar, as prisoner, was 
brought before an Austrian officer, to whom the 
captors narrated the hussar's deed in such a 
manner as to make the officer's hair stand on 
end. — jjAre there any more of you, provided 
with such infernal arms?" asked the officer. 
„Why^ Sir," said the hussar, 5,it depends upon what 
humor the hussar is in^ accordingly he cleaves 
with his sword to the chin or to the stomach of 
his enemy." 

After the occupation of Pest, the Austrian 
commander had quartered his soldiers in the sur- 
rounding villages; the village magistrate there was 
bound to confess on his conscience the disposition 
of the hihabitants. At one of these confessional pro- 
ceedings with a village -magistrate, as the officer 
asked him, encouragingly, to tell whether the inha- 
bitants of the village were well disposed? — the 
magistrate innocently declared : „Sir, they are all 
honest Hungarians, except the priest who is a 
German (Austrian) and who cannot tolerate the 
Hungarians^ because, — the steward of our village 
says — , he is a black- yellow. ^) 

After the battle of Kapolna the Austrian 



283 



A' peterrasdrai iltkozetben egy kitszdr epen 
tetten fogatott el, midon egy osztrdk vertesnek cC 
sisakjdt a' fejevel egyiitt kette hasitd. A' huszdr^ 
mint fogoly, egy osztrdk tiszt elihe vezetetik^ kiiiek 
az elfogok hajborzaddsig festik a' huszdr tettet, 
,, Van-e meg tohh illyen ordogkaru kbztetek,'' ker- 
di a tiszt: ,,Az az, Ui'am, a' mind kedvben van a' 
huszdr y ugy aztdn az ellensegenek vagy az dldig, 
vagy a' gyomrdig ereszti he a' kardjdt/' mond a' 
hiiszdr. 



Pesf megszdlldsa titdn az osztrdk vezer iC ko- 
I'iilette fekvo falvakba beszdlldsold katondit, hot 
rendesen a' biro' lelkiismeretere kotetett kivallani 
d lakosok'' lelkiiletet, Egy falusi bironak illyfele 
vallatdsa' alkalmdval, amint az osztrdk tiszt biz- 
tatolag megszolitjay hogy mondandy ha valljon jo 
lelkiUetUek-e a' falu^ lakosai, amaz drtatlansdgdban 
kifakad: ,,Uram mindnydjan becsuletes magyar em- 
berek, kiveve «' papot, a' ki nemet, es ki azert nem 
szivellieti a' Magyart, mondja iC tiszttarto lir, mert 
feketesdrga,'' 



A' kdpolnai csata titdn az osztrdk sereg vissza- 



284 

army, being driven back towards Pest, threatened 
to punish with stick and bullet all those who dared 
to divulge, that the gloriously victorious army of 
the Emperor was retreating, A journeyman, tra- 
velling from Drebeczen towards Pest, crossed the 
Austrian camp; (on his way) being asked by 
some Austrian officers, whether he knew any thing 
of the Hungarians? — „0f course I do," said he, 
and that is, they are retreating; „ where to? 
where to?" asked the former with delight; „all 
towards Pest," answered the journeyman. 

^,The two weeks last very long," said Lord D., 
— in April 1849 — , to an Austrian colonel, who 
was quartered at his house : — „hpw should they 
not last long with such a people^ who do not 
mind the strategetic flank-movements, but run 
with fixed bayonets even against the cannons. 

„Whence shall we get so many arms?" 
asked the officers of general Bem, when in Tran- 
silvania he levied soldiers with great urgency. 
„The Russians have just now brought 30,000 
proved muskets into the country, of which we will 
take possession," answered Bern, — The brave 
leader has redeemed his promise. 



I 



285 



szorongatatimn Pest fele, bottales golyoval fenye- 
getett mind azoknak, kik hiresztelni mernek, hogy a' 
dicsosegesen gyozedehnes csdszdri sereg rissznvo- 
nuL Egy Debreczeiihol Pestre utazo vmulorlegeny 
az osztrdk tdhoron keresz^tul ntazott; uljdban osz- 
trdk ilsztektdl kerdeztetce, lui tnd-e valamit a' Ma- 
gyarok felol? ,, Tiidok bizony/' mond 6, ^,meg pedig, 
hogy visszavonuhiak,^'^ s^Merre? Men^e?'^ kerdezik 
orommel az elobbiek; ,.mind Pest fele/' mond a' 
vdndor. 



,,Sokdig tart a' ket liet/' szolt D, nagysdga, — 
az 1S49 evi Aprilisbev ,y — a' ndla beszdlldsolt 
osztrdk ezredes urhoz: *,hogy is ne tartson, felelt 
az ezredes ur, ollyaii neppel ki nem ugyel a' had 
tudomdny szerint tett oldalmozgdsokra , de szuronyt 
szegezve neki rohan meg az dgyunak is." ^) 

yyHpnnan veszilnk annyi fegyvert?'^ kerdezik 
Bern tdbornagy katona-tisztjei , midon erelyesen 
ujonczoztatott Erdelyben, Epen most hozott az Orosz 
harmincz ezer mdr probdlt puskdt az orszdgba, cl 
mit niajd tole dtvesziink, felelt Bern-, \s a' derek 
vezer be is vdltotta szavdt. 



286 



Remarks. 

1) Bdcsi,\\tt\e, and dear brother, is commonly used in ad- 
dressing elder persons who are on friendly terms with us ; espe- 
cially, children address the friends of the family with Bdcsi. 

2) The Hungarian army having being considered as a sup- 
plementary part of the imperial army, the German language 
therein was introduced as the language of command, and was 
retained in the old regiments in 1848 — 9. 

3) The quibble is in: lelkem csiigged, and teste csiiggne 
(to drop the soul, and to suspend (hang) the body) to lose 
the heart, and lose the head. 

4) Black-yellow; the colours of the Austrian banners are 
black and yellow, and people who were of the Austrian party 
were therefore called black-yellows. 

5) "When, in the autumn of iStS, prince Windischgratz re- 
ceived the command over the Austian army in order to stifle 
the Hungarian revolution in its birth, he promised, to the court 
of Vienna, to extirpate the Hungarian revolutionary party in the 
course of a fortnight. 



287 



VOCABULARY 

TO THE COMPOSITIONS. 



(Abbreciations '■ S., Substantive; coll., collective; A., Adjective; n., nu- 
meral; v., verbal; Adv., Adyerb; C, Conjunction; V., Verb; V. n., 
Verb neuter; V. a., Verb active; Po., Postposition; Po. a., Postposi- 
tioival affix; Prep. Preposition; Pr., Prononn; a., adjective; Part., 
Participle. 



L Hungarian-English. 



A. 



/I' and az, Art. («' before Sub- 
stantives beginning with a 
vowel), the. 

Ablak, Cv^ur. ablakok), S., win- 
dow. 

Abrosz, S.j table-cloth, 

Acsmesferseg, S., carpenter's 
trade. 

Ad-ni*^ v., to give. 

Adds, S., debtor. 

Adossdg, S., debt. 

Ayyonlo-ni^ V., to kill by 
shooting. 

Aqyv^ S., cannon. 



Ahogy, C, as. 

Ahol, Ad., where, there. 

Ajdndeko'2-ni, V., to make 

a present. 
Ajto, S., door. 
Akdr — , akdr, C, either — , 

or. 
Akar-ni, V., to wish, to be 

wilhng, to will. 
A karat, S., will. 
Akaratlaniit, Adv., unwillingly. 
Aid, Po. , (to the question 

whither), under. 
Alak, S., shape, form. 
Alapit-ani, V., to found. 
Alapito, S., founder. 



*) Tlie Active and ISeuter Verbs have the termination of their Infini- 
tive annexed; of the Mediums the Infinitive is included in a parenthesis. 



288 



Alatt, Po.j (to the question 

where) ; under. 
Algyu, S., cannon. 
Alhatik, (alhat-ni), V., to be 

sleepy. 
Alkofmdny, S., constitution. 
Alkvszik, alkud-ni), V., to bid 

in the price. 
All-anU v., to stand. 
AUando, A., constant. 
Allat, (phir. d//a/oA:),S., animal. 
Allihani, V., to state, to assert. 
Alma, S. coll., apple. 
Alom, S., sleep, a dream. 
Altai, Po., through, by. 
Ambdr, C, although. 
Amerika, S., America. 
ATigol, Angol, S. & A., Eng- 
lishman, English. 
Angulorszag, S., England. 
Angolul, Adv., English, inEng- 

Hsh. 
Anya, S., mother; az anyj, 

the mother, 
Annyival, C. & Adv., as much. 
Apolgat-ni, V., to cherish. 
Aprilis, S., April. 
Arany, S., Gold. 
Aranyldncz, S., Gold-chain. 
i4r, S., price. 
Arnyek, S., shadow. 
Arhani, V., to injure, to be 

injurious. 
Arul-uh v., to sell. 
^«-w?, v., to dig. 
Asztal, (pi. aszfalok), S., table. 
Asztalkendo, S., table-napkin. 



i'^m, S., Asia. 

Atvesz, C^tven-ni), V., to take, 

to receive, 
^^ya, Cpl. afydk), S., father; az, 

a/ya, the father. 
Avgvsztus, S., August, (name 

of the month.) 
Az, Pr., that. 

Azonnal, Adv., immediately. 
Azutdn, Adv., afterwards. 
Azsia, S., Asia. 

B. 

^a;, S., evil, trouble. 

Balvelemenyu, A., of a wrong 
opinion. 

Bdn-ni, V., to treat, to pro- 
ceed. 

Bdr, C, though. 

Bardt, S., friend; a' ;6ara^, the 
friend. 

Bardtne, S., female friend. 

Bator, A., bold, gallant. 

Bator sag, S., courage. 

Bdtya, S., elder brother. 

Becsiil-ni, V., to esteem, to 
value. 

5eAre, S., peace; 5eAe' idejen^ 
in times of peace. 

Bekot-ni, V., to bind, to tie up. 

Bela, S., Albert. 

Benyomds, S., impression. 

Berlo, S., tenant. 

Beszel-ni, V., to speak. 

56;/ey, A., iU. 

fie/M, S., letter (character in 
the Alphabet). 



289 



Betdr-ni, V., to close, to 
shut. 

Birodalom, S., empire. 

Birtok, S., estates, the manor. 

Biz-ni, v., to trust. 

Bizonyosan, Adv., surely. 

Bizonytatan, A., uncertain. 

Biztossdg, S., security. 

Bokreta, S., nose-gay, a bunch 
of flowers. 

Borneo, S., Borneo. 

Bot^ S., sticky cane. 

Britania, S., Britain. 

Britt, S. Briton,, British sub- 
ject. 

Brilszel, S., Brussels. 

Bucsu, S., taking leave, leave. 

Butor, S., furniture. 

Buza, S., coll., wheat, com, 
crop. 

Bunhodik Qunhod-nO V., to 

sin. 
Bunds, S. & A., sinner, cul- 
pable. 
Bunteles, S. punishment. 



CsaA:, C, but, only. 
Csato, S., battle. 
Csatamezo, S., field of battle. 
Csekelyseg, S., trifle. 
Cselekszik (cseleked-ni), V., to 

act. 
Cselekedet, S., action. 
CsotorWk, S., Thursday. 
Csing, hung. Gram. 



Z)e, C, but. 

December, S., December. 
Ddutdn, S. & Adv., afternoon. 
Dicser-ni, V., to praise. 
Dolgozik (dolgoz ni), V., to 

work. 
Do/o^f, S., work. 
Drdga, A., dear, valuable. 

£6ed, S., dinner. 
Edes, A., sweet, dear. 
JS^fe'sz, A., whole. 
Egeszseges, A., healthy, well. 
Egy, A. n., one. 
Egyenlo. A., equal. 
Egyensuly, S., equilibrium. 
Egyhdz, S., church. 
Egyhdz-javito, S., reformer of 
the church. 

Egymds, Pr., one another. 

Egynehdny, Pr. a., some. 

£;«, A., nocturnal. 

Ekez-ni, V., to accentuate. 

£A5Z.er, S., jewels. 

£/-nt, v., to live. 

Elad-ni, V., to sell. 

Elbeszel-ni, V., to narrate, to 

tell. 
ElbucsuzikCelbucsuz-nO, V., to 

take leave. 
Elebb, Adv., sooner. 
Elebefesz (elebeten-ni), V., to 

prefer. 

49 



290 



Elefdnt, S., elephant. 

Elejet vehet, V., can pre- 
vent. 

Elejet vesz (elejet ven-ni), 
v., to prevent. 
' Elemez-ni, V., to analyze. 

Elenyez-ni, V., to hide, to 
mask. 

Eler-ni, V., to reach. 

Eles, A., sharp, efeshegyu fine- 
pointed. 

Eles-ni, V., to fall. 

Elet, S., life. 

Elevenen, Adv., alive. 

Elfelejt-eni, V., to forget. 

Elhagy-ni, V., to leave. 

Elhi-ni, V., to call for. 

Ehist (ethin-ni), V., to be- 
lieve. 

Elkul6ndz-ni, V., to separate. 

Ellen, Po., against. 

Elmegy C^lmen-ni), V.,vto go 
away. 

E'nyom-ni, V., to oppress, to 
suppres. 

Elolt, Po., before. 

Elrejt-eni, V., to conceal. 

Elront-ani, V., to spoil. 

Elsiet-ni, V., to hasten away. 

Elszakad-ni, V. n., to break 
(a string). 

Elteved-ni, V., to lose one's 
Way. 

Elutazik (elutaz-ni), V., to 
depart. 

Elvesz Celven-ni), V., to take 
away. 



Elvesz-ni, V. n., to perish, to 
become lost. 

Elvesietl, A. v., lost. 

Ember, S., man; az ember, 
the man; az emhereh, the 
men, men. 

Emberi-nem, S., man-kind. 

Embertdrs, S., fellow-man. 

Emlekoszlop, S., monument. 

En, Pr., I. 

Enekel-nij V., to sing. 

Enged-niy V., to yield, to al- 
low, to give way, to suffer. 

Engedelmes, A., obedient. 

Engedetlen, A., disobedient. 

Epit-eni, V., to build. 

Epilesz, S., builder. 

Erdnti and irdnti. A., towards. 

£rcz,, S., ore, metal; fig. iron. 

Erdek, S., the interest. 

Erdemel-Jii, V., to deserve. 

Erdo, S., forest, wood. 

Er6ny, S., virtue. 

Erenyes, A., virtuous. 

£re/<, A. v., ripe. 

Erez-ni, V., to feel. 

Erkezik C^kez-ni), V., to ar- 
rive. 

Erkolcsileg, Adv., morally. 

£ro, S., strength, force. 

fro*, A., strong. 

Ert-eniy V., to understand. 

Ertekes, A., valuable. 

^^5,' C, and. 

Eset, S., case. 

Esik C^s-ni), V., to fall; eso 
esik, it rains. 



294 



Estve, S. & Adv., evening, in 

the evening. 
Esz, S., reason, intellect; e^z-wA:, 

their reason, their intellect. 
Ev, S., year. 
Ez, Pr., this. 
Ezelolt, Adv., formerly. 



Fa, S., wood. 

Fa/, S., wall. 

Fa/?/, S., village. 

Fdradsdg, S., trouble, exer- 
tions. 

Fehrudr, S., February. 

Pejedelem, S., prince, sovereign. 

Fekete, A., black. 

Fekszik (fekud-ni), V., to lie. 

Fel, Adv., up. 

Fel-ni, V., to fear. 

Felebardt, S., fellow-creature, 
(neighbour). 

Felett, Po., over. 

Felesleges, A., superfluous. 

Felez-ni, V., to halve, to di- 
vide into two parts. 

Felfedez-ni, V., to discover. 

Felgyujt-ani, V., to set on fire. 

Felhdborodds, S., emotion. 

Felmegy (felmen-ni), V., to 
ascend, to amount. 

Felmond-ani, V., to say (a 
lesson), to give notice. 

Felszdmit-ani , V., to cast up 
numbers, to make an ac- 
oiDunt. 



Feltesz (felten-ni), V., to sup- 
pose. 

Felvesz Cfelven^ni), V., to take 
up, to receive. 

Ferencz, S., Francis. 

Fest-eni, V., to paint. 

Feltaldl-ni, V., to invent. 

Feltaldlds, S., invention. 

Festo, S., painter. 

Fige, S. coll., fig, figs. 

Fill, S., boy, son; a' fiu, the 
boy; a' fiiik, the boys. 

Fizet-ni, V., to pay. 

Fodroz-ni, V., to curl, to 
crisp. 

Foglalatossdg, S., employ- 
ment. 

Forditds, S., translation. 

Fordul-nU V. n., to turn. 

Fordul-ni valakihez, V. a., to 
address to any one. 

Forog-ni, V. n., to move 
round. 

Forrds, S., a source. 

Forroovi-tartomdny, S., tropi- 
cal region. 

Fo/c/, S., earth, land. 

Folosleg s, A., superfluous. 

FovdroSj S., capital (town). 

Francziaorszdg, S., France. 

Fut~nU v., to run, to take to 
flight. 

Fiige, S. coll., a fig, figs. 

e. 

Gdncsol-ni, V., to blame. 
Gazdag, A., rich. 

19* 



292 



Gazdagsdg, S., riches. 
Gondol-ni, V., to think. 
Gonoszsdg, S., wickedness. 
Goromhasdg, S., insolence. 
Grof, S., Count. 

«y. 

Gyakorol-ni V. a., to practise. 
Gyakran, Adv., often. 
Gyalogkatona, S., soldier on 

foot. 
Gydinsdg, S. , guardianship. 
Gyarmat, S., colony. 
Gyemdnt, S., diamond. 
Gyermek, S., child; gyermekek, 

children. 
Gyoker, S. , root; gyokerek, 

roots. 
GydnyoTy S., pleasure. 
Gyoz-ni, V. n., to overcome, 

to vanqmsh. 
Gyozedelem, S., victory. 
Gyozedelmeskedik (gyozedel- 

mesked-ni), V., to get the 

victory (to be victorious). 
Gyw/a, S., Julius. 
Gyujt-eni, V., to gather. 
Gyumolcs, S. coll., fruit. 
Gyuru, S., a ring. 



Ha, C, if. 

Hdboru, S., war. 
Hdhoruskodik Chdhoruskod- 

ni)y v., to be at war, to 

make war. 



Hadakozds, S., the combat. 
Hadsereg, S., army. 
Hadvezer, S., leader of the 

army. 
Hagy-ni, V., to leave. 
Hajdan, Adv., formerly. 
Hajosereg, S., fleet. 
flajt-ani, V., to drive, to bend. 
Hal-ni, V., to die. 
Halando, S. & A., mortal. 
Haldsz-ni, V., to fish. 
Halaszt-ani, V., to delay. 
Halavdnyj A., pale. 
Halhafat/an, A., immortal. 
Halkal, Adv., softly. 
Hall-ani, V., to hear, to 

hearken. * 
Hallgat-ni, V., to keep silence, 

to listen. 
Hdmlik C^dmol-ni), V., to 

peel. 
Hdmoz-ni, V. a., to peel. 
Hanem, C, but. 
Hangzik {hangoz-ni), V., to 

sound. 
Hdwy, A. n., how many. 
Haragszik (haragud-ni), V., 

to be angry. 
Harciol-niy V., to fight. 
Hdrsfa, S., lime-tree, lind. 
Haszndl-ni, V., to be useful, 

to use. 
Hasznot kajt-ani, V., to be pro- 
fitable. 
Haszon, S., profit. 
Hatalmas, A., mighty. 
Hatalom, S., might, power. 



I 



293 



Hdz, S., house. 

Haza, Adv. & S., home, native 
country. 

Hazafi, S., Patriot. 

Hehjesel-ni, V., to approve. 

Hebjett, Po., instead of. 

HehjredM-ni, V., to restore. 

Herczeg, S., duke. 

Het, S., week. 

Heffo, S., Monday. 

Hidnij, S., deficiency, want. 

Hiba, S., a mistake, error. 

Hibds, A., faulty, erroneous. 

Hibdt keres-ni, V., to find 
fault with. 

Hibdzik (hibdz-ni), V., to fail, 
to mistake, to commit an 
error. 

Hir, S., renown, news, intel- 
ligence. 

Hires, A., renowned , cele- 
brated. 

Hirtelen, Adv., suddenly. 

Hisz, Int., why! 

Hitet, S., credit. 

Hitelezo, S., creditor. 

Hifszeges, S., perjury. 

Hivat-ni, V., to send for (a 
person). 

Hives, A., cool. 

Hodito, S., conqueror. 

Hogy,hogyan, Adv., how, liogy, 
C, that. 

Holnap, Adv., to-morrow. 

//^o//, A., dead. 

Ilonnan, Adv., whence, where 
from. 



Hosszif, A., long. 
Hoz-ni, v., to bring. 
/To*, S., hero. 
Ho si, A., heroic. 
/fM,s, S., meat, flesh. 
Huz-ni, v., to pull. 
Huseges, A., faithful. 
Hutlen, A., faithless. 

I. 

/rfegfen, S. & A., foreigner, 

stranger; foreign, strange. 
Ido, S., time; idejen^ in time. 
Ifjusdgy S., youth. 
Iga, S., yoke. 
Igaz, A. & S., truth. 
[gazdn, Adv., truly, indeed, 

really. 
Igazgat-ni, V., to rule, 
Igazit-ani, V., to correct. 
Igazsdgos, A., righteous. 
Igazsdgtalanul, Adv., unjustly. 
igazsdgtalansdg, S., injustice, 

unrighteousness, 
/^pn, Adv., very, 
/^^en is, Adv., yes. 
/na5, S., footman. 
India, S., India. 
Inkdbb, Adv., rather. 
Int-eni. V., to admonish. 
Intezkedik {intezked-ni), V.,to 

dispose. 
//Jar, S., trade, industry. 
Iparkodik (iparkod-ni), V., to 

endeavour. 
Iparos, S., tradesman. 



294 



Ir-ni, v., to write. 
Irds, S., writing. 
Irigyseg, S., the envy.' 
Jrland, S., Ireland. 
Irohomjv, S., copy-book. 
Is, C, also, as well. 
Iskola, S., school. 
Island, S., Iceland. 
Ismer-Tii, V., to know (any 

body.) 
Istvdn, S., Stephen. 
Itelef, S., judgment. 
Itf; Adv., here. 
Ifthon, Adv., at home (here 

at home. 

J. 

Janudr, S., January. 
Jdr-ni, V., to walk. 
Jdtsz-ani V., to play. 
Jo, A., good. 
Job ban, Adv., better. 
Jo^-, S., the right. 
Jogtalansdg. S., injustice. 
Jol, Adv., well; ^d/ visel-ni 

magdt, to behave well. 
Jolel^ S., wealth. 
Joszdg. S., estates, manor. 
Julius, S., July. 
Junius, S., June. 
Jutalom, S., reward. 



Kabdt, S., coat. 

/^a/dn or Aanti/, S., spoon. 



Kalap, S., hat. 

Kap-ni, V., to get, to receive. 

/jfarrf, S., sword. 

Kdrohj, S., Charles. 

Kdros, A., injurious. 

Kastely, S., castle. 

Katona. S., soldier. 

ifedrf, S., Tuesday. 

ifedi', S., pleasure, humor. 

Kegyellen, A., cruel. 

ifeA, A., blue. 

jffe/e^ S., East; keletindia, 

East India. 
Kell-enii V., to be wanted, to 

be necessary. 
Kelme, S., ware (article). 
Kemeny, A., hard, kemenyen. 

Adv., hard. 
Kenyer, S., bread. 
Kenyszerit-eni, V^ to force, 
ife/?, S., image, picture. 
Keprdma, S., picture -frame. 
Kepzel-ni, V., to imagine. 
Ker-ni, V., to ask, to pe- 
tition. 
Kerdezoskodik Cf(^rdez6skdd- 

ni), v., to inquire. 
Kerekdedes, A., oval. 
Keres~ni, V., to look for, to 

seek. 
Kereskedik Cf^eresked-ni). V., 

to trade. 
Kereskedes , S. , commerce, 

(trade) ; kereskedes I uz~ni 

to carry on trade. 
Kereaifyen, S., christian. 
Kerget-ni, V., to pursue. 



295 



Kertesz, S., gardener. 

Kes, S., knife. 

Keso, A. & Adv., late. 

KesZy A., ready. 

Kez, S., hand. 

Kezimunkds, S., labourer. 

Kezfyu , S., glove, a pair of 

gloves. 
Ki, Pr., who/ 
Kicsiny, A., small. 
Kiejt-eni, V., to pronounce. 
Kielegit-eni, V., to satisfy, to 

fulfil. 
Kiengesztelhetetlen , A., irre- 

conciliable. 
Kigyo, S., snake, serpent. 
Ki/itiz-ni, V., to draw out. 
Kikerget-ni, S., to expel. 
Kimegy C^imen-ni), V., to go 

out. , 

Kinoz-ni, V. a., to plague. 
Kinyvjf-ani, V., to stretch out. 
Kiolf-ani, V., to extinguish. 
Kicszt-ani, V., to distribute. 
Kipvszlit-ani^ V., to depopu- 
late. 
Kirdly, S., king. 
Kird/yno, S., queen. 
Kirdlysdg, S., kingdom. 
Kitartds, S., perseverance. 
Kiterjeszt-eni, V., to extend. 
Kiuz-ni, V., to expel. 
Kivdn-ni, V., to desire, to 

wish; kivdnat^ a desire, a 

wish. 
Kivitdglt-ani, V., to illuminate, 

to light up. 



Kivisz {kivin-ni}, V., to export. 

/Toc^^ S., coach. 

Koczkdzlat-ni, V., to hazard. 

Kordn, Adv., early. 

Korhdcsol-ni^ V., to flog. 

Kormdny, S., government. 

Kormdnyoz-nU V., to govern. 

Kdlcsdndz~ni, V., to lend, to 
borrow. 

Kolto, S., poet. 

Konnyen, Adv., easily. 

KonyoruleteSj A., pitiful.. 

Konyv, S., book. 

Konyvdrus, S., book-seller. 

Konvykoto, S., book-binder. 

Konyvnyomtatds , S. , typo- 
graphy, printing-trade. 

Kortve, S. coll., a pear, pears. 

Korul, Po., round, around. 

Korulbelolj Adv., about. 

Koszorul-ni, V., to grind. 

Koszorultet-tih V., to let grind, 
(to have ground). 

Kot-ni, v., to bind, to knit. 

Kqtelesseg, S., duty. 

Koz^pkor, S., middle-age. 

Kozlekedes^ S., commerce 
(communication). 

Kozonseges, A., common. 

Kozott and Aoz,^, Po., between, 
amongst. 

Koztdrsassdg, S., republic. 

Kuld-eni^ V., to send. 

Kulomhen, kiildnben, Adv., 
else, otherwise. 

Kuldmhfele, A., different. 

Kuzd-eni, V., to struggle. 



296 



Lakik (lak-nQ, V., to live, to 

dwel. 
Lakds, S., residence, lodging. 
Ldmpa, and Idmpds, S., lamp. 
Ldncz, S., a chain. 
Ldny, S., girl; I dny ok, girls. 
Lapda, S., ball. 
Ldt-ni, v., to see. 
Ldtszik (/dtsz-ani), V., to seem. 
Ledny, S., girl ; lednyok, girls. 
Leczke, S., lesson. 
Lefekszik Oefekiid-ni), V., to 

lie down, to go to bed. 
Leigdz-ni, V., to subjugate. 
Lelek, S., soul, mind; lelkunk, 

our soul. 
Lenyiigszik Oenyvgod-ni), V., 
to go to rest, to set (said of 
the sun.) 
Leroni-ani, V., to demolish. 
Levego, S., air, atmosphere. 
Level, S., letter; Obj. case, 
levelet; Plur. levelek, letters. 
Levet~ni, V., to throw off or 

down. 
Liget, S., the park. 
Lop-ni v., to steal. 
Lovasorsereg S., horse-guard. 
iM^Aer, S., Luther. 



.Wa, Adv., to-day; ma eslve, 
to-night. 



Maddr, S., bird. 
Madardsz-ni, V., to catch 

birds. 
Maga, Pr. himself, herself, it. 

self; mag am, myself. 
Magdny, A., private. 
Magas, A., high. 
Magdf emeszto, A., self-con- 
suming. 
Magyar, S. & A., Hungarian. 
Magyar or szdg, S., Hungary. 
MagyartU, Adv., in Hungarian, 

Hungarian. 
iVoyrf, Adv., soon, then. 
Mdr, Adv., already. 
Marad-ni, V., to remain, to 

stay. 
Mds, Pr. a., other; mdsok, 

others. 
Mdshol, Adv., somewhere else. 
Mdshonnan, Adv., from some- 
where else. 
Mdskor, Adv., at another time. 
Meg, Adv., still, yet. 
Megakad-ni, V., to stop. 
Megbdnt-ani, V., to offend. 
Megbuntet-ni, V., to punish. 
Megcsal-ni, V., to deceive. 
Megel-ni, S., to live, to sub- 
sist, to get one's living. 
MegeldgszikCmege/eged-ni), V., 

to be satisfied. 
Megeloz-ni, V., to prevent. 
Megerdemel-ni, V., to deserve. 
Megerl-eni V., to understand, 

to comprehend. 
Meggyoz-ni, V., to vanquish. 



297 



Meghdborgat-ni, V., to disturb. 
Meghal-ni, V., to die. 
Megharagszik (megharagud-ni) , 

v., to be offended. 
Meglwdit-ani, V., to conquer. 
Megiger-ni, V., to promise. 
Megis, C, yet. 
Megismer-ni, V., to know, to 

recognize. 
Megkap-nU V., to receive, to 

get. 
Megfdfogat-niy V., to visit. 
Meglep-ni, V., to surprise. 
Megnyer-ni, V., to win, to 

gain. 
Megmjvgtat-ni, V., to appease. 
Megparancsol-ni, V., to com- 
mand. 
Megsem, C, yet-not. 
Megsert-eni, V., to offend. 
Megszakad-ni, V. n., to break 

(said of the heart.) 
Megszdmit-ani, V., to count. 
Megszofit-ani, V., to address. 
Megtagad-ni, V., to deny. 
Megtdmad-ni, V., to aggress. 
Megut-ni, V., to strike, to hit. 
Megvall-ani, V., to confess. 
Megver-ni, V., to beat, to 

rout. 
Megverf, A. v., beaten, routed. 
Megy, (men-fiQ^ V. n., to go. 
Mel eg, A., warm. 
Melly, Plur., mellyek^Vt.^ which. 
Menedek, S., refuge. 
Menhely^ menedekfiely, S., 

asylum. 



Mennel—^ anndf, Adv., the—, 
the. 

Mennyi, A., how much, how 
many. 

Mennyivel, Adv., how much ; 
mennyivel — , anuyival^ as 
much as. 

Mert C, for. 

Mertekentiiti, A., exorbitant. 

Mese^ v., a tale. 

Mester, V., master. 

Mesterseg, S., business, trade. 

Mestersegesen, Adv. , artifi- 
cially. 

Messze, A. & Adv., distant, far. 

Ml., Pr., we. 

Miattj Po., about, for, because 
of. 

Mfg, Adv., while. 

Midon, C, as, when. 

Mihelyt^ Adv., as soon as. 

Minap, Adv., lately, recently. 

M/irf, Pr., all. 

Mindannyi, Pr., as many, as 
much. 

Mindeg, Adv., always. 

Minden, Pr. a., every, all. 

Mindenik, Pr., each. 

Mindenhato, A., almighty. 

Mindjdrl, Adv., directly, in- 
stantly. 

yi/m/, C, as, like, than. 

Minthogy^ C, because. 

Minfsem, C, than. 

Miufdn, A. & C, soon after. 

Mivet-ni V., to cultivate. 

Mond-ani, V., to say. 



298 



Most, Adv., now; mostani, A., 
present. 

Mozgds, S., movement. 

Miilatsdg, S., amusement, plea- 
sure. 

Mult, A. v., past, last (in the 
expressions; last year, last 
w^eek, etc.). 

Mtilva, Part., after (passed). 

Mvnka, S., labour, work. 

Munkds, A., industrious. 

Mutat-ni, V., to show. 

BT. 

Nagy, A., large, great. 
Nagybdtya^ S., uncle. 
Nagyito^ S., microscope. 
Nagykereskedo, S. , wholesale 

merchant. 
Nagytelku, A., generous. 
Nagytelkuen, Adv., generously. 
Nagynenye, S., aunt. 
Nagyszombat, S., name of a 

town in Hungary. 
Nap, S., sun, day. 
Naponkent, Adv., daily. 
Nefidny, Pr. n., some. 
JVeA^z,, A., difficult. 
Nehezen, Adv., hardly. 
Nelkul, Po., without. 
A'em, Adv., not. 
'kernes lefkil, A., noble-minded. 
ISemetorszdg, S., Germany. 
Nemetul, Adv., German, in 

German. 
Nemzef, S., nation. 



Nenye, S., elder sister. 
A'ejt), S., people. 
^e'v, S., name. 
Nevet-ni, V., to educate. 
Nevendek, S., pupil. 
Nez-ni, V., to look. 
November, S., November. 
N6-ni, v., to grow; novok, I 

grow. 
Noveny, S., plant. 

iN'i/fl^. S., neck. 
Nyakravalo, S., cravat. 
iVt/dr, S., summer. 
Nydrelo. S., June. 
Nydrho, S., July. 
Nydrulo, S , August. 
A'j/e/t^, S., language. 
Nyelvmester, S., teacher of 

languages. 
Nyer-ni, S., to gain, to win. 
Nyeres, S., profit. 
Nyotn-ni, V., to press. 
Nugszik, (nyugod^ni), V., to 

repose, 
Nyvji-ani, T., to reach. 



Orfa, Adv., there, to the ques 

tion where to? 
Olaszorszdg, S., Italy. 
0/C50, A., cheap. 
0%, Pr., so, such. 
Olvas-ni, V., to read. 



299 



Onnan, Adv., thither, thence. 
Orszdg, S., realm. 
Orszdgldr, S., politician. 
Oskola, S., school. 
Oskolai-mvnka^S. ^sc\ioo\-y>-ork. 
Osifalek, S., share. 
Osztozik ioszloz-ni)t V., to 

share. 
Ott, Adv., there. 
Ofthon, Adv., (there) at home. 



Or Pr., he, she, it; ok they. 
Ocse, S., younger brother. 
Oitozet^ S., raiment. 
On, Pr., you (a person spoken 

to). 
Ont-eni. V., to shed, to pour. 
6ntdz-ni, V., to water. 
Onzes, S., egotism. 
Onzo, A., selfish. 
Oreghit-eni, V., to increase, 
d^j, S., autumn. 
Oszelo, S., September. 
d*zAd, S., October. 
6szinte, A., sincere. 
Osszehoz-ni, V., to get up (a 

quantity). 
Oszfon, S., instinct. 
Oszuto, S., November. 



Pajko.s, A., naughty, 
/"fl^ojr, S., paper. 
Pdpisfa, S., a Catholic. 



Frfm, S., Paris. 
Patridrka, S., Patriarch. 
Pentek, S., Friday. 
Pews, S., money. 
Pihen-nij V., to rest. 
Pillanafig, Adv., for a moment. 
Pirongatds, S., reproach. 
Polgdr, S., citizen. 
Polgdrosodotf, A. v., civilized. 
Pompds, A., splendid. 
Poszto, S., cloth. 
Poszfokelme^ S., drapery. 
Posztds,S.j cloth-manufacturer. 
Puska, S., musket, gun. 
Puskapofy S., gunpowder. 



/?a6, S., slave. 

Rdbir-ni, V., to prevail upon. 

Rajzol-ni^ S., to draw (fi- 
gures) 

Ravasz, A., cunning, artful. 

ReczBy S., duck. 

Regen, Adv., long ago. 

Reggel, S. & Adv., morning, 
in the morning. 

Rejthely, S., lurking-place. 

Remenyl-eni, S., to hope. 

Rendeltefes, S., destination. 

Rendesen, Adv., ordinarily. 

i?e«^. A., idle. 

7?e^, S., meadow. 

Ringat-ni, V., to lull. 

/JiYAra, A., rare. 

Ritkasdgy S., rarity, curiosity. 

iJoAo, S., fox. 



300 



Romai, A., Roman. 
Rosz, A., bad. 
Rubin, S., ruby. 
Rvha, S., dress. 

Sajdf, A., own. 

Sdndor, S., Alexander. 

Scotia, S., Scotland. 

Se — , se; sem—, sem, C, 

neither — , nor. 
SeqU-eni, V., to assist. 
Semmi, S., nothing. 
Setaho\ S., walking-stick. 
Seldl-ni, S., to take a walk. 
Siet-ni, V., to hasten. 
Sikerul-ni, V., to succeed. 
Smaragd, V., emerald. 
5o/m, Adv., never. 
SoA, A., much, many. 
Sokdig, Adv., for a long time. 
Sorhajo, S., a ship of the line. 
SorSy S., fate. 
Siifyedo, A., declining. 
Siirgetes, S., urgency. 
Svajcz, S., Switzerland. 
Svajczi, A., Swiss. 

Szabad, A., free. 

Szahadsdg, S., freedom, liberty. 

5'z.«6(i.5,S.,the shape of a dress, 

fashion. 
Szabo, S., tailor. 
Szalad-ni, V., to run. 



Szc^m, S., number. 

Szdmol-nif S., to reckon, to 
count. 

Szdndek, S., intention. 

Szdnlofold, S., arable land. 

Sz^rmj, S., a wing. 

Szegemjy A., poor. 

Szed-ni, S., to gather. 

Szeles, A., wide. 

Szelid, A., meek, gentle. 

Szelvesz, S., storm. 

Szemermes^ A., modest. 

Szent, A., sacred, holy, saint. 

iSzejo, A., fine, beautiful, plea- 
sant. 

Szepseg, S., beauty. 

Szerda, S., Wednesday. 

Szerencse, S., fortune. 

Szerencseflen, A., unfortunate. 

Szerencsetlenseg , S., misfor- 
tune. 

Szeret-ni, V., to love, to like. 

Szerez-ni, S., to purchase, 

Szerszdm, S., coll., tool. 

Sz^tdarabol-ni, V., to dismem- 
ber. 

Szid-ni, V., to blame, to scold. 

Sziget, S., isle. 

Szilaj, A., wild. 

Szilva; S., coll., prune. 

Sj^w, S., colour. 

Szinhdz, S., theatre. 

Szinlen, C, as well. 

5z,«t;, S., heart. 

Szivar. S., cigar. 

Szives, A., kind. 

Szivesen, Adv., willingly. 



301 



Szivesseg, S., cordiality, kind- 
ness. 

Szo, S., word. 

Szoba, S., room. 

Szok-ni^ v., to be accustomed, 

Szdl~ni, v., to speak. 

Szolgdlat, S., service. 

Szolgdlo, S., servant. 

Szombat, S., Saturday. 

Szomoru, A., sad. 

Szonok, S., orator. 

Szorgalmas, szorgalmatos, A., 
industrious, diligent. 

Szoril-ani, V., to press. 

SzolOj S., coll., grape, grapes. 

Szvrony, V., bayonet. 

Szukseg, S., necessity, need. 

Sziiletik {szulet-nQ, V., to be 
born. 

Sz-m/o", S., parent. 



Tdbor, S., camp. 
Tdbornagy, S., fieldmarshal. 
Tdbornok, S., general. 
Tagad-ni, V., to deny, 
y^i;., S., environs, country. 
7d;eA, S., region. 
Takdcs, S., weaver. 
Taldl-ni, V., to find. 
Taldlmdny, S., invention. 
Ta/dw, Adv., perhaps. 
Tdmad-ni, S., to rise, to be 

produced. 
Tandcs, S., advice. 
Tdnyer,S.y plate (soup-plate,etc). 



Tanit-ani, V., to teach. 

TanilOy S., teacher. 

Tanul-ni, V., to learn. 

Tanulo, S., learner, student. 

Tapaszfal-ni, V., to experience. 

Tdrsassdg, S., society, com- 
pany. 

Tartomdny, S., province, coun- 
try. 

Tartozik Clortoz-nO, V., to 
owe. 

Tavasz, S., spring. 

Tavaszelu, S., ]\rarch. 

Tavaszho, S., April. 

Tavaszuto, S., May. 

re, Pr., thou. 

Tegnap, Adv., yesterday. 

7e/ier, S., burden. 

Tehetseg, S., faculty of mind, 
ability. 

TcV, S., winter. 

Telelo, S., December. 

T^/Ad, S., January. 

Teljesit-enh S., fulfil. 

Te/wW, S., February. 

Tengeresz, S., sailor. 

Tengernagy, S., admiral. 

r^n^a, S., ink. 

Tentatarto, S., inkstand. 

Teny, S., fact. 

Terem, S., saloon, 

Teremtes, S., creature. 

Teretntoy S., creator. 

Terjedelmes, A., extensive. 

Termekenys^g, S., fertility. 

Termeny, S., product. 

T&rmeszet, S., nature. 



302 



Termeszlmeny ^ S., production. 

Test, S., body. 

Testi, A., corporal, of the 
body. 

Tesz (ten-ni), V., to do; tet- 
tuk, we did. 

TetszikCtetsz-enQ,y., to i^]esise. 

Tett, S., deed. 

Ti, Pr., you (ye). 

Tigris, S., tiger. 

Tisztel-ni, V., to venerate, to 
honour. 

To, S., pond, lake. 

Toll, S., pen. 

Tollkes, S., pen-knife. 

Tovdbb, Adv., longer, farther. 

Tobbnyire, Adv. mostly, 

Tokeleflen, A., imperfect. 

7o7, Pre. a., by, from, of. 

Tonkre tenni, S., to ruin. 

Torlenik (torlen-ni), V., to 
happen. 

Tor tenet. S., history. 

Torveny, S., law. 

Torsatya, S., Patriarch. 

Tud-ni, v., to know any- 
thing. 

Tudds, S., knowing. 

Tvdomds, S., knowledge, no- 
tice. 

Tula] don, A., proper. 

Tulajdonsdg, S., propriety. 

Tunyasdg, S., laziness. 

7Vz.o/r, S., bustard (a bird). 

Tukorrdma, S., looking glass- 
frame (frame of a mirror.) 

Tuzhely, S. , hearth, the home. 



U. 

Ugy, C. & Adv., so, thus. 

Uj, A., recent; vjabb idoben, 
recently. 

Ujsdg, S., news, newspaper. 

Unalmas, A., tedious. 

Vr, S., gentleman, Sir, Mis- 
ter. 

Uralkodik, (vralkod-ni), V., to 
domineer. 

Uralkodo, S., monarch, ru- 
ler. 

^7, S., way. 

Utaz-ni, V., to travel. 

Utazo, S., traveller. 

Vlcza, S., stre^ 

Utolso, A., last. 

*. 

Ugy, S., cause, affair. 

Ugyes, A., clever. 

ijgyetlen, A., clumsy, inca- 



17/-n2, v., to sit. 
Uldoz-ni, v., to persecute, 
lil^-wi, v., to knock, to strike. 
iizenet, S., message. 
tizertet, S., business (a trade). 

T. 

Vacsora, S., supper. 
Fad, A., wild 
Vaddsz, S., huntsman. 
Vaddsz-ni, V., to hunt. 



303 



Vdq-ni, V., to cut. 

Vagy, C, or. 

Vagyon, S., property; vagyona, 

his property. 
Vaj^ S., butter; vajas kenyer, 

bread and butter; Obj. e., 

vajas kenyeret. 
Valahdnyszor , Adv., as often 

as. 
Vafaki, Pr., somebody. 
Valami, Pr., something. 
Valo, S. & A., reality, real, 

true. 
Valodi, A., real. 
Vdr-ni, V., to wait for, to ex- 
pect. 
Var-ni, V., to sew. 
Vdros, S., town. 
Vasdrnap, S., Sunday. 
Vastag, A., thick. 
Kd^jon, S., linen. 
Ved-eni, V., to protect. 
V^gez-ni, V., to perform, to 

finish, to conclude. 
Veghetlen^ A., infinite. 
Vegrendelel, S., last will. 
Vendeg, S., guest. 
Ver-ni, V., to beat. 
V'ere6, S., sparrow. 
Veretn, S., a pit. 
Fere«, A., red. 
Veres, A., sanguinary. 
V&zik Cverez-ni), V., to 

bleed. 
Vesz-ni, V., to decline, to 

linger. 



Vesztesseg, S., loss, 

Vet-ni, v., to sow. 

FeYeA, S., sin, vice; vetkek, 
sins. 

Vetkezik (vetkez-ni), V., to 
sin. 

Fezer, S., leader, guidance. 

Vezerel-ni, V., to guide. 

Vezet-ni, V., to lead. 

Videk, S., country. 

Vigasztal-ni, V., to console, to 
comfort. 

Vigasztalo, A., consolatory. 

Vigydzatos, A., cautious. 

F27d9, S., world. 

Yildglenger, S., ocean. 

Vilmos, S., WiUiam. 

Virdg, S., flower. 

Virdgmag, S., flower-seeds. 

Fi55z.a, Adv., back. 

Visszater-ni, V. n., to re- 
turn. 

Fi/ez., A., brave. 

Viteziesen, Adv., hero-like, he- 
roically. 

Vitezseg , S., bravery, va- 
lour. 

F/vni, v., to fight. 



Zdr-ni, V., to shut. 

Zene, S. music 

Zene-mester , S. , teacher of 



304 



Zongora, S., piano. %m» 

Zold, A., green. 

Zoldseg, S., coll., vegetables. Zsarnok, S., tyrant. 
Zoldsegmag, S., seeds oiyege- Zsebkendo, S., pocket hand- 
tables, kerchief. 



305 



II. English-Hnngarian. 



A. 

Ability, tehetseg, 

A-bout, korulbel6l,\ Adv.; — 

mialt, Po. 
Accentuate, V., dkez-ni. 
Account, to make an — , felszd- 

mit-ani, 
Accustomed, to be — , szok-ni. 
Act, v., cselekszik C^sele- 

ked-nij 
Action, cselekedef. 
Admiral, tengernagy. 
Admonish, V., int-eni. 
Address, V., megszolit-ani; to 

address to anyone, valakihez 

fordul-ni. 
Advice, S., tandcs. 
After, Prep., mulva. 
Afternoon, delutdn, S. &Adv. 
Afterwards, azutdn. 
Against, ellen, 
Aggress, V., megtdmad-ni. 
Ago, Adv., ezelott, constructed 

with val or vel. 
Air, S., lev eg 6, 
Albert, Bela. 
Alexander, Sdndor. 
Alive, Adv., elevenen. 
All, mind. Pr. ; — , minderiy A. 
Allow, v., enged-ni. 

CsiDg, hung. Gram. 



Almighty, mindenhalo. 

Ab-eady, mdr. 

Also, is. 

Although, dmbdr. 

Always, mindeg. 

America, Amerika, 

Amongst,Prep.,A:oz^, kdz6tt,Fo. 

Amusement, mulatsdg. 

Analyze, V., elemez-ni. 

And, 65, meg. 

Angry, to be — , haragszik, 
Charagud-ni). 

Animal, dllat, plur. dllatok. 

Another time, mdskor, Adv. 

Appease, V., megnyugtat-ni. 

Apple, alma^ S. coll. 

Approve, V., helyesel-ni. 

April, Aprilis, tavaszho. 

Arable land, szdntofold. 

Army, hadsereg. 

Around, Prep., korul, Po. 

Arrive, V., erkezik (erkez-ni). 

Artificially, mestersegesen. 

Artful, ravasz. 

As, mint, C; as many, as 
much, mindannyi; as much 
as^annyival — a' mennyivel; 
as soon as, mihelyt; as of- 
ten as, valahdnyszor; as 
well, szinten, is. 
20 



306 



Ascend, V., felmegy Cfel- 

men-ni). 
Asia, Azsia. 
Assist, v., segU-eni. 
Asylum, menhely. 
Atmosphere, lev ego ^ legkor. 
August, Augusztus, nydrutd. 
Aunt, nagynenye. 
Autumn, 6sz. 

B. 

Back, Adv., vissza. 

Bad, rosz. 

Bayonet, szvrony. 

Ball (for playing), lap da. 

Battle, S., csata. 

Beat, v., ver-ni, megver-ni. 

Beaten, megvert, A. v. 

Beautiful, szep. 

Beauty, S., szepseg. 

Because, C, minthogy; — of 

miatt, Po. 
Before, Prep., elotl, Po. 
Behave well, V., jol visel-ni 

magdL 
Believe, V., elhisz C^lhin-ni). 
Bend, V., hajt-ani. 
Better, Adv., jobhan. 
Between, kozt. Po. 
Bid (in the price), V., alkuszik, 

Calkud-ni). 
Bind, v., kot-ni, hekot-ni. 
Bird, maddr, Plur., madarak. 
Black, fekete. 

Blame, V., szid-ni, gdncsol-ni. 
Bleed, V., v^zik (verez-ni). 



Blue, kek. 

Body, test. 

Bold, bdtor. 

Book, kongv. 

Book-binder, konyvkoto. 

Bookseller, konyvdrus. 

Born, being — , V., szuletik, 

Cszulel-ni). 
Borneo, Borneo. 
Borrow, V,, kdlcsdnoz-ni. 
Boy, fiu] boys, fiuk; the boy, 

a' fiu. 
Brave, A., vitez, A. 
Bravery, vildzseg. 
Bread, S., kenyer; Obj. Case, 

kenyeref] bread and butter, 

vajas kenyer. 
Break (said of a string), V., 

elszakad-ni, V. n. ; to break 

(the heart), meg szakad-ni, 

V. n. 
Bring, V., hoz-ni. 
Britain, A. & S., britt, A. & S. 
Britania, Britania. 
Broad, szeles. 

Brother, the elder — , bdtya. 
Brussels, Briiszel. 
Build, v., epit-eni. 
Builder, epitesz. 
Bunch of flowers, bokreta, 
Burden, S., terh, teher. 
Business, iizerlet, mesterseg. 
Bustard (name of a bird), tuzok. 
But, C, de, hanem, csak. 
By, tol, Po. a. 



307 



Call for, v., elhi-ni. 
Camp, S., tabor. 
Cannon, dgyu, dlgyii. 
Capital (town), fovdros. 
Carpenter'stTade^dcsmesterseg. 
Carry, to carry out, kivin-ni; 

to carry on, ih-ni. 
Case, eset. 
Cause, S., iigy ; the cause 

(source, reason), az ok. 
Cautious, vigydzatos. 
Celebrated, hires, A. 
Chain, S., Idncz. 
Character (of the alphabet),6e/w. 
Charles, Kdroly. 
Cheap, olcso. 
Cherish, V., dpolgat-ni. 
Child, gyermek, children, gi/er- 

mekek. 
Christian, kereszfydn, and ke- 

^eszteny, S. & A. 
Cigar, szivar. 

Citizen, polgdr. 

CiviUzed, polgdrosodott, A. v., 

Clever, iigyes. 

Close, v., bezdr-ni. 

Cloth, posztd; cloth-manufac- 
turer, posztos. 

Clumsy, ugyetlen. 

Coach, kocsi. 

Coat, kabdt. 

Colony, gyarmat. 

Colour, S., siin. 

Combat, S., hadakozds. 

Comfort, v., vigasztal-ni. 



Command, V., parancsol-ni. 
Commerce, kozlekedes ; — (tra- 
de), kereskedes. 
Common, A., kozonseges. 
Company, tdrsassdg ; (visitors), 

Idtogatok. 
Conceal, V., elrejt-eni. 
Conclude, V., vegez-ni. 
Confess, V., megvall-ani. 
Conquer, V., meghodll-ani. 
Conqueror, hodito. 
Console, V., vigasztal-ni. 
Consolatory, vigasztalo. A. v. 
Constant, dl/ando, A. v. 
Constitution (of a realm), al- 

kotmdny. 
Cool, A., hives. 
Copy-book, irokonyv. 
Cordially, szivesen. 
Cordiality, szivesseg. 
Com (wheat or rye), bliza. 
Corporeal, A., tesfi. 
Correct, V., igazil-ani. 
Count, S., Grof. 

Count, v., szdmol-ni, megszd- 
mlt-ani; to count up, fel- 
szdmit-ni. 

Country, tarlomdny (province) ; 
— , falu (country-place). 

Courage, bdlorsdg. 

Cravat, nyakravalo. 

Creator, teremto. 

Creature, teremtes. 

Credit, S., hitel. 

Creditor, hitelezo. 

Criminal, A., bunds. 

Crisp, V. a., fodroz-ni. 
20* 



308 



Cruel, kegyetleUj 
Cultivate, V., mivelni. 
Cunning, A., ravasz. 
Curiosity (rarity), ritkasdg. 
Curl, V. a., fodroz-nl 
Cut, V. a., vdgni. 



Day, nap; daily, Adv., na- 

ponkent 
Dead, holt. 
Dear, drdga. 
Debt, adossdg. 
Debtor, ados. 
Deceive, V., megcsal-ni. 
December, December, telelo. 
Decline, V., vesz-ni. 
Declining, sulyedo. 
Deed, tett. 
Deficiency, hidny. 
Delay, V., halaszt-ani. 
Demolish, V., ^ront-ani. 
Deny, V., tagad-ni, megta- 

gad-ni. 
Depart, V., elutaz-ni. 
Depopulate, V., kipusztit-ani. 
Deserve, V., ^rdemel-ni, meg- 

&demel-ni. 
Desire, S., kivdnat. 
Destination, rendeltetes. 
Diamond, gyemdnt. 
Die, v., hal-ni, meghal-ni. 
Different, kuldmhfele. 
Difficult, nehez. 
Dig, v., ds-ni. 
Diligent, szorgalmatos. 



Dinner, ebed. 

Directly (immediately), mind-' 

jdrt, azonnal. 
Discover, V., felfedez-ni. 
Dismember, V., szetdarabol-ni. 
Disobedient, engedetlen. 
Dispose, v., intezkedik On- 

tezked-ni). 
Distant, messze, Adv. & A. 
Distribute, V., kioszt-ani. 
Disturb, V., meghdborgat-ni. 
Divide in two, V., felez-ni. 
Do, v., tesz [lenni), tetiiik, 

we did. 
Domineer, V., nralkodik (tiral- 

kod-ni). 
Door, ajto. 

Drapery, poszto-kelme. 
Draw out, V., kihuz-ni. 
Dress, S., ruha. 
Drive, V., hajt-ani. 
Duck, retze. 
Duke, herczeg. 
Duty, kdteless6g. 
Dwell, v., lakik Oak-ni). 

Each, mindenik. 

Early, Adv., kordn. 

Earth, fold. 

Easily, konnyen. 

East, kelet; East India, kelet 

india. 
Educate, V., nevel-ni. 
Egotism, onzes. 
Either—, or, akdr—, akdr. 



309 



Elder brother, bdtya. 
Elder sister, nenye. 
Elephant, elefdnt. 
Elipsoidical, kerekdedes. 
Else, kulombeji, kul6nben,A(iv. 
Elsewhere, mdslioL 
Emerald, Smaragd. 
Emotion, felhdborodds. 
Empire, birodalom. 
Employment, foglalafossdg. 
Endeavour, V., iparkodikCipar- 

kod-nij- 
England, Angolorszdg. 
English, angol; in EngUsh, an- 

goluL 
Environs, tdj, tdjek. 
Envy, S., irigyseg. 
Equal, egijenlo. 
Equilibrium, egyensuly. 
Error, hiba; erroneous, hibds. 
Estate, S.^joszdg. 
Esteem, V., becsul-ni. 
Evening, estve, S. & Adv. 
Every, minden. 
Evil, S., baj. 
Expect, v., vdr-ni. 
Exorbitant, merlekentuli. 
Expel, v., kikerget-ni, kiuz-ni. 
Experience, V., tapasztal-ni. 
Export, v., kivisz {kivin-ni). 
Extend, V. a., kiterjeszt-eni. 
Extensive, lerjedelmes. 
Extinguish, V. a., kiolt-ani. 



Fact, teny. 

Faculty (of mind), teheiseg. 



Fail, v., hibdzik Chibdz^ni.) 

Faithful, huseges. 

Faithless, hutlen. 

Fall, v., es-nu 

Far, messze, A. & Adv. 

Fate, sors. 

Father, afya; the father, az alya. 

Faulty, hibds. 

Fear, V., fel-ni. 

February, Februar, telul6» 

Feel, v., erez-ni. 

Fellow creature, felebardt; fel- 
low-man, embertdrs. 

Fertility, termekenyseg. 

Few, egynehdny. 

Field of battle, csatamezu. 

Fieldmarshal, tdbornagy^ 

Fig, fige, fiige. 

Fight, v., viv-ni, harczol-ni. 

Find, v., taldl-ni; to find 
fault, hibdt keres-ni. 

Fine, beautiful, szep; fine poin- 
ted, eles hegyes. 

Finish, V., vegez-nu 

Fish, v., haldsz-nu 

Fleet, hajosereg. 

FUght, to take to — , ful-ni, V. n. 

Flog, v., korbdcsol-ni. 

Flower, virdg. 

Flower-seeds, virdgmag. 

Footman, inas. 

For, mert, C; miatt, Po; for 
moment, pillanalig; for a 
long time, sokdig. 

Force, S., ero; to force, ken- 
szerit-eni. 

Foreign, idegen, S. & A. 



310 



Forest, erdo. 

Forget, v., elfelejt-eni. 

Formerly, ezelott. 

Fortune, szerencse. 

Found, v., alapit-ani. 

Founder, alapifo. 

France, Francziaorszdg. 

Francis, Ferencz. 

Free, szabad, A. 

Freedom, szabadsdg. 

Friday, pentek. 

Friend, bardt; female friend, 

b arable. 
From, tol. Po. a. 
Fulfil, v., tdijesit-eni. 
Furniture, bntor. 
Further, fovdbb. 



Gain, V., nyer-nl 

Gallant, A., bdtor, derek. 

Garden, kert; gardener, ker- 
tdsz. 

Gather, V., gyujheni. 

General, tdbornok. 

Generous, nagylelkii; generous- 
ly, nagylelkuen. 

Gentle, szelld. 

Gentleman, ur. 

German, nemet, A.; nemetill, 
Adv. 

Germany, ISemetorszdg. 

Get, v., kap-ni, meg kapni; 
to get up (a sum), oszehoz- 
ni; to get a living, megelni, 
to get lost, elvesz-ni. 



Girl, ledny, Idny; the girl, a' 

ledny, the girls, a lednyok. 
Give, v., ad-ni'j to give way, 

enged-ni. 
Glove, a pair of gloves, keztyu. 
Go, v., megy (men-ni)'^ go 

out, kimegy; go away, el- 

megy. 
Gold, arany, S. 
Gold-chain, aranyldncz. 
Good, jo. 

Govern, V., kormdnyoz-ni. 
Government, kormdny. 
Grape, szolo, S., coll. 
Great, nagy. 
Green, zold. 
Grind, V., koszorul-ni; to let 

grind, koszorultet-ni. 
Grow, V. n., no-ni. 
Guardianship, gydmsdg. 
Guest, vendeg. 
Guide, v., vezerel-ni. 
Gunpowder, puskapor, lopor. 



Hand, kez; hands, kezek. 
Hsi^ipen^Y ., tor tenik {tor ten-ni.) 
Hard, kemeny, A.; kemenyen, 

Adv.; hardly, nehezen. 
K&sten, siet-ni; to hasten away, 

elsiet-ni. 
Hat, kalap. 
Hate, v., gyiUol-ni. 
Hazard, koczkdztat-ni 
He, 0. 
Healthy, egeszseges. 



311 



Hear, V., hall-ani. 
Hearken, V., hallgat-ni. 
Heart, sziv. 
Hearth, tuzhely. 
Here, itt 
Hero, hos. 

Heroic, Ao*i 'hero-like, heroi- 
cally, viteziesen. 
Herself, maga. 
High, mag as. 
Himself, maga. 
History, tortenel. 
Hit, v., megut-ni. 
Home, haza; at home, itthon^ 

Honour, V., tisztel-ni. 

Hope, v., remenyl-eni. 

Horse-guard, lovas-drsereg. 

House, hdz\ the house, a' hdz. 

llow,hogy, hoggan; how many. 
hdny; how much, mennyivel, 
(used with the Comparative). 

Hungarian, magyar, A. & S.; 
magyariil, Adv. 

Hungary, Magyarorszdg. 

Hunt, v., vaddsz-ni. 

Huntsman, vaddsz. 

I. 

I, en. 

Iceland, Izland. 

Idle, rest. 

If, ha. 

Ill, heteg. 

Imagine, V,, kepzel-ni. 

^mmortal, halhatallan. 



Imperfect, tokeletlen. 

Impression, benyomds. 

Incapable, iigyetlen. 

Increase, V., oregbit-eni. 

Indeed, igazdn. 

India, India. 

Industrious, szorgalmas^ mvn- 
kds. 

Infinite, veghetetlen. 

Injure, V., drt-anu 

Injurious, kdros; to be inju- 
rious, drl-ani. 

Ininstice, joglalansdg, igazsdg- 
talansdg. 

Ink, tenia ; inkstand, tentatarto. 

Inquire, V., kerdezoskod-ni. 

Insolence, gorombasdg. 

Instantly, mindjdrt, azonnal. 

Instead, helyett, Po. 

Instinct, S., oszton. 

Intention, szdnd^k. 

Interest, S., erdek. 

Invent, V., feltaldl-ni', inven- 
tion, feltaldlds, taldlmdny 
(things invented). 

Ireland, Irland. 

Irreconcilable, kiengesztelhe- 
tetlen. 

Isle, sziget. 

It, Pr., 6. 

Italy, Olaszorszdg. 

Itself, maga. 

J, 

January, Janudr, Who. 
Jewels, ekszer. 
Jndgment, itelet. 



312 



Julius (man's name), Gyula. 
July, Julius, nydrho. 
June, Junius^ nydrelo. 

K. 

Keep silence, hallgat-ni. 

Kill (by shooting), V., agyon 

Id-ni. 
Kind, A., szives ; kindness, szi- 

vesseg. 
King, kirdly ; kingdom, kirdly- 

sdg. 
Knife, kes* 
Knit, v., kot-ni. 
Knock (any one), V., ut-nu 
Know (any one) ismer-ni', to 

know (any-thing), tud-ni. 
Knowledge, knowing, S., tudo- 

mds, tudds. 

Ma. 
Labor, S., munka\ laborer, 

kezimunkds. 
Lamp, tdmpa. 

Land,S.,/o/d; native-land, haza. 
Language, nyelv. 
Large, nagy. 
Last (in: last week). A., »im/^; 

the \sist,utolsd', last will, veg- 

rendelet. 
Lasting, hosszii. 
Late, A., keso. 
Law, torveny. 
Laziness, tunyasdg. 
Lead, V., vezei-ni. 
Leader, vezer; leader of the 

army, hadvezer. 
Learn, V., tanul-ni; learner, 

tanulo. 



Leave, S., bucsu', to take leave, 

elhucsuzik Celbucsuz-ni). 
Leave, V., hagy-ni, elhagy-ni. 
Lend, kdlcsonoz-ni. 
Lest, nehogy. 
Lesson, leczke. 
Letter, level', Obj., Case le- 

velel; — of the alphabet, betu. 
Liberty, szabadsdg. 
Lie (laid down) fekszik Cfe- 

kiid-ni); to go to bed, le- 

fekszik. 
Life, elet. 
Light, A. & S., vildg , to light 

up, kivildgit-ani. 
Like, v., szerel-ni', — Adv., 

mint. 
Lime tree, lind, hdrsfa. 
Linen, vdszon. 
Linger, V., vesz-ni. 
Listen, V., hallgat-ni. 
Live (dwell), v., lakik {lak-ni). 
Lodging, S., lakds. 
Long, hosszii', long ago,regen; 

longer, tovdbb. 
Look, v., nez-ni; to look for, 

keres-ni. 
Looking-glasss frame, tukor- 

rdma. 
Lose one's way, V,, elteved-ni. 
Loss, veszteseg; lost, elveszetf. 
Love, v., szeret-ni. 
Lull, v., ringat-ni. 
Lurking-place, rejfhely. 

M. 

Man, ember, pi., emberek ; man- 
kind, emberi-nem. 



313 



Many, sok. 

March, Mdrczius, tavaszelo. 

Map, S., foldabrosz. 

Master, S., mester. 

May, Majus, tavaszuto. 

Meadow, ret. 

Meat, hlis. 

Meek, szelid. 

Message, uzenet. 

Metal, ercz. 

Middle ages, kdzepkot\ 

Microscope, nagyitd. 

Misfortune, szerencsellenseg* 

Mistake, S., hiba; — V., hi- 

bdz-ni. 
Modest, siemermes. 
Monarch, vralkodo. 
Monday, helfo. 
Money, penz. 
Monument, emlek-oszlop* 
Morally, erkolcsileg. 
Morning, reggel, S. & Adv. 
Morrow, to — , holnapy Adv. 
Mortal, halando. 
Mostly, tobbnyire. 
Mother, anya ; the mother, az 

anya. 
Move round, v., forog-nijY.n.^ 
Movement, mozgds; movement 

of the army, hadtnozgds. 
Much, sok. 
Music, zene. 
Musket, pvska. 
Myself, magam. 

Name, S., nev. 
Narrate, V., elbeszel-ni. 



Nation, nemzet. 

Nature, termeszet. 

Naughty, pajkos. 

Necessary, to be — , kell-eni. 

Necessity, need, szukseg. 

Neck, nyak. 

Neighbour (fellow-man), fele- 
bardt. 

Neither—, nor, sem—, sem, 
and se — , se. 

Never, soha. 

New, m;; news, and newspa- 
per, vjsdg. 

Night, ej', to-night, ma estve. 

Noble-minded, nemeslelku. 

Nocturnal, eji. 

Nosegay, bokrela. 

Not, nem. 

November, November, oszuto. 

Now, most. 

Number, szdm. 



Obedient, engedelmes. 
Ocean, vildgtenger. 
October, October, oszho. 
Of, tol, tot, Po. a. 
Offend, v., megbdnt-ani, meg- 

sert-eni; to be offended, 

megharagszik (megharagud- 

nQ 
Often, gyakran. 
One, egy\ one another, egymds. 
Only, Adv. & C, csak. 
Opinion, t;e7gmeny; of a wrong 

opinion, balvelemenyu. 
Oppress, v., elnyom-ni. 
Or, C, vagy. 



3U 



Orator, szonok. 

Ordinarily, rendesen. 

Ore, ercz 

Other, mds; otherwise, kii- 

lomhen. 
Over, dltal, feleff, Po. 
Overcome, V., meqgyoz-ni. 
Owe, v., tartozik (fartoz-nij 
Own, sajdt. 

P. 

Paint, v., feste-ni. 

Painter, festo. 

Palace, hdstely. 

Pale, A., halavdny. 

Paper, S., papiros. 

Parent, szillo. 

Paris, Paris, Paris. 

Park, liget. 

Part, S., resz. 

Patriarch, lorzsalya. 

Patriot, hazafi. 

Pay, v., fizel-ni. 

Peace, S., beke', in times of 

peace, beke' idejen. 
Pear, kortve, S., coll. 
Peel, v., hdmoz-ni V. a.]hdm- 

lik (hdml-ani), V. m. 
Pen, S., toll; penknife, tollkes. 
People, S., nep. 
Perform, V., vegez-ni. 
Perhaps, taldn. 
Perish, V., elcesz-ni. 
Perjury, hitszeges. 
Perseverance, kitarfds. 
Piano, zongora. 
Picture, S., kep. 



Picture frame, keprdma. 

Pit, S., verem. 

Pitiful, konydrMetes. 

Plague, v., kinoz-ni. 

Plant, S., noveny. 

Plate (soup-plate), tdmjer. 

Play, v., jdtsz-ani. 

Play-house, szinhdz. 

Pleasant, szep, tetszus; it plea 
ses, tetszik (fetsz-eni) ; plea- 
sure, kedv. 

Pocket-handkerchief, zsebhe- 
valo. 

Poet, kolto. 

Pond, S., to. 

Politician, orszdgldr. 

Poor, szegeny. 

Power, hatalom ; powerful, ha- 
talmas. 

Practise, V., gyakorl-ani. 

Praise, V., dicserni. 

Prefer, V., elebe tesz Oenni.) 

Present, A., mostani. 

Present, S., ajdndek; to pre- 
sent, to make a present, 
ajdndekoz-ni 

Press, v., szorlt-ani, nyotn~ni. 

Prevail upon, rdblr-'Tii. 

Prevent, V., elej6t veszi (ven- 
nij; can prevent, elejet ve- 
hel-ni. 

Price, dr. 

Prince, fejedelem. 

Printing-trade, konyvnyomta- 
tds. 

Private, A., mag any. 

Proceed, V., bdn-ni. 

Procure, V., szerezni. 



315 



(Produce) to be produced, id- 
tnad-nij V. n. 

Product, termeny. 

Production, termesztmeny. 

Profit, S., nyeres, haszon-, to 
be profitable, hasznot hajt- 
ani. 

Promise, V., megiger-ni. 

Pronounce, V., kiejt-eni. 

Proper, A., tulajdon. 

Property, vagyon. 

Propriety, talajdonsdg. 

Prosecute, V., iildoz-ni. 

Protect, v., ved-enu 

Province, tartomdny. 

Prune, szilva, S., coll. 

Pull, v., huz-m. 

Punish, v., megbuntet-ni', pu- 
nishment, buntetes. 

Pupil, nevendek. 

Pursue, v., kergel-ni, uz-ni. 

Queen, kirdlyno. 



Raiment, oltdzel. 

Rain, es6\ it rains, eso esik. 

Rare, ritka; rarity, ritkasdg. 

Rather, inkdbb. 

Reach, V., eler-ni, nyujt~ani. 

Read, V., otvas-ni. 

Ready, kesz. 

Real, valodi; really, igazdn, 

caluban. 
Realm, orszdg. 



Reason, S., esz; their reason, 

esziik. 
Receive, V., felvesz (fefven- 

ni), megkap-ni. 
Recent, tij. 

Reckon, V., szdmit-ani. 
Recognize, V., megismer-nu 
Red, veres. 

Reformer, egyhdijavito. 
Refuge, S., menedek. 
Region, Idjek. 
Remain, V., marad-ni. 
Renown, S., Mr; renowned, 

hires, A. 
Repose, V. n., nyiigsiik (nyu- 

god-ni), 
Reproach, V., pirongat-nl 
Republic, kdztdrsassdg. 
Residence, lakdSy lakhely. 
Rest, v., pihen-ni. 
Restore, V., helyredVit-ani. 
Return, V. a., visszaterU-enu 
Reward, S., julalom. 
Rich, gazdag ; riches, gazdag- 

sdg. 
Right, S., jog, S. 
Righteous, igazsdgos. 
Ring, S., gyuril. 
Ripe, eretf. 
Rise, v., tdmad-ni. 
Root, S., gyoker. 
Room, szoha. 
Round, Pr., koriil^ Po. 
Rout, v., szalaszt-ani, ^ g- 

ver-ni. 
Ruby, nibin. 



316 



Kule, v., igazgat-ni. 
Run, v., szalad-ni) to run 
away, elszalad-ni. 

Sacred, saint, szent. 

Sad, szomoru. 

Sailing, A. v., vitorldzo. 

Sailor, tengeresz* 

Saloon, S., terem. 

Sanguinary, vdres. 

Satisfy, V. a., kielegit-eni; to 

be satis&ed, meg elegszikCme- 

geleged-ni). 
Saturday, szombat. 
Say, v., mond-ani', to say a 

lesson, felmondani a leczkeL 
Scholar, tanulo. 
School, S., oskola. 
School-work, oskolai munka. 
Scotland, Scotorszdg, Scotia. 
Security, bisztossdg, 
See, v., tdt-ni. 
Seeds of vegetables, zoldseg- 

mag. 
Seek, v., keres-ni. 
Seems, Idtszik. 
Self-consuming, to be — , ma- 

gdl emeszt-eni. 
Selfish, onzo. 
Sell, v., drul-ni. 
Send, v., kuld-eni; to send 

for (anybody) hivat-ni. 
Separate, V., ekulonoz-ni- 
September, September, oszelo. 
Serpent, kiggo. 
Servant, szolgdlo. 



Service, szolgdlat. 

Set, V. (said of the sun), le- 

nngszik Oemjvgod-nQ. 
Sew, v., varni. 
Shadow, S., drnyek. 
Shape or fashion of a dress, 

szabds. r.^,^e:^-4^i 

Share, V., o^itasami; share, S., 
osztalek. 

She, 0. 

Shed, v., ont-eni. 

Ship of the line, sorhajd. 

Show, v., miitatni. 

Shut, v., zdrni. 

Sin, v., bunhodik Cbunhod-ni), 
vetkezik Cvetkez-ni); sin, S., 
vefek] sins, vetkek; sinner, 
bunas \ sinful, bunos^ 

Sincere, oszinte. 

Sing, v., enekel-ni. 

Sit, V„ ul-ni. 

Slave, S., rab. 

Sleep, S., dlom; to be sleepy, 
alliatik (alhat-ni). 

Small, kicsing, 

So, ligy ,olly. 

Society, tdrsassdg. 

Softly, halkkal. 

Soldier, katona; foot-soldier 
gyalog-katona. 

Some, nehdny; somebody, va- 
laki; something, valami, 
somewhere else, mdshol, 
from somewhere else, mds- 
honnan. 

Soon, majd'i soon after, miu- 
tdn; sooner, elebb. 



317 



Soul, S., lelek; ouTsouXJelkmk. 
Sound, V. n., hangzik (fiangz- 

ani). 
Source, S., forrds. 
Sow, v., vet-ni. 
Sparrow, vereb. 
Speak, v., heszel-ni, sz6l-ni. 
Splendid, pomp as. 
SpoU, v., elront-ani. 
Spoon, S., kandl. 
Stand, v., dll-ani. 
State, v., dllit-ani. 
Stay, v., marad-ni. 
Steal, v., lop-ni. 
Stephen, Istvdn. 
Stick, S., hot. 
Still, Adv., meg. 
Stop, v., megakad-ni, V. n. 
Storm, S.. szelvdsz. 
Strange, stranger, idegen, A.SiS. 
Stretch out, V,, kinyvjt-ani. 
Street, utcza. 

Strength, ero; strong, eros. 
Strike, V., iit-ni. 
Struggle, v., kuzd-eni. 
Student, tdnulo. 
Subjugate. V., leigdz-ni. 
Succeed, V,, sikerul-ni. 
Such, oily. 
Suddenly, hirlelen. 
Summer, S., ngdr. 
Sun, S., nap. 
Sunday, vasdrnap. 
Superfluous, (elesleges. 
Supper, vacsora. 
Suppose, v., felteszCfellen-ni). 
Surely, bizonyosan. 
Surprise, V., meg/ep-ni. 



Sweet, edes. 

Swiss , svajczi; Switzerland, 

Svajcz. 
Sword, kard. 

T. 

Table, asztal; table-napkin, 
asztadcendo ; table-cloth ; a- 
brosz. 

Tailor, szabo. 

Take, V., vesz C^enni), dt- 
vesz; to take away, elvesz 
{elven-ni). 

Tale, mese. 

Teach, V., tanii-ani', teacher, 
tanito ; teacher of music ze- 
ne-mester. 

Tedious, unalmas. 

Tenant, berlo. 

Than, mint, Adv., wd/, Po. a. 
than not, mints em. 

That, az, Pr.; hogy, C. 

The, az, a'; the—, the, men- 
net — , anndl. 

Theatre, szinhdz. 

Then, majd. 

Thence, onnan. 

There, oda. 

They, ok. 

Thick, vastag. 

Think, V., gondotkozik (gon- 
dolkoz-ni. 

This, ez. 

Thither, oda. 

Thou, te. 

Though, bar. 

Throw off, v., levet-ni. 

Through, dltaly Po. 



318 



Thursday, csotortoh 

Tiger, tigris. 

Time, S., ido^ in time, idejen. 

Tongue, nyelv. 

Tool, S., szerszdm, coll. 

Towards, erdnti, A. 

Town, vdros. 

Trade, S., ipar, kereskedes; 

to trade, kereskedik (keres- 

ked-ni). 
Tradesman, iparos^ kereskedo. 
Translation, forditds. 
Travel, V., utazik (utaz-ni); 

traveller, vtazo. 
Trifle, S., csekdyseg. 
Tropical region, forroovi tar- 

tomdny. 
Trouble, S., fdradsdg. 
True, truth, igaz. 
Trust, v., bizik (biz-ni). 
Tuesday, kedd. 
Turn, v., fordut-ni, V. n. 
Tyrant, zsarnok. 

IJ. 

Uncertain, hizonytalan. 
Uncle, nagyhdtya. 
Under, underneath, ald^alattVo. 
Understand, V., drl-eni, meg- 

ert-eni. 
Unfortunate, szerencsetlen. 
Unjustly, iqazsdgtalanul. 
Unrighteousness, igazsdgtalan- 

sdg. 
Unwillingly, akarattanul 
Up, Adv., fel. 



Urgency, surgetes. 
Useful, hasznos; to be useful, 
haszndl-ni. 



Valour, vitezseg. 

Valuable, erfekes, drdga. 

Value, v., becsuf-ni. 

Vanquish, V., meggyoz-nu 

Vegetables, zoldseg, S. coll. 

Venerate, V., tisztel-ni. 

Very, igen. 

Vice, velek, plur. velkek. 

Victory, gyozedelem ; to be vic- 
torious , gyozedelmeskedik 
Cgyozedelmesked-ni). 

Village, falu. 

Virtue, ereny, virtuous, ere- 
nyes. 

Visit, v., megldtogat-ni. 



Wages, jvtalom, ber. 

Wait, v., vdr-ni. 

Walk, v., jdr-nU to take a 

walk, setdl-ni. 
Walking-stick, sdtabot. 
Wall, S., fal. 
Want (deficiency), S. , hidny, 

to be wanted, kell-eni. 
War, hdboru', to be at war, 

to make war hdboruskodik 

Chdboruskod-ni). 
Ware, S., kelme. 
Water, S., viz; to water, on- 

toz-nu 



319 



Wealth, jolet. 

Weather, ido. 

Weaver, takdcs. 

Wednesday, szerda. 

Week, het 

Well, jol, egeszseges (being 

well). 
Wheat, biiza. 
When, mikor. 
Whence, honnan. 
Where, hoi 

Which, melly; plur. mellyek. 
While, mig. 
Who, kU Pr. rel. 
Whole, egesz] wholesome, 

egeszseges. 
Wholesale merchant, nagyke- 

reskedo. 
Wickedness, gonoszsdg. 
Wide, A., szeles. 
Wild, szilaj (said of the mind), 

vad. 
Will, v., akar-ni\ —S.^akarat. 



William, Vilmos. 
Wing, S., szdrny. 
Winter, tel ^^l^^l 
Without, neffcul, Po. 
Wood, erdo, fa, S. coll. 
Word, szo. 

Work, S., miinka, dolog ; to 
work, dolgozik (dolgoz-ni). 
Write, v., ir-ni. 



Year, ev. 

Yes, igen is. 

Yesterday, tegnap. 

Yet, meg; yet — not, 

Yield, v., enged-ni. 

Yoke, S., iga. 

You, ti (ye), on (when a per- 
son is spoken to). 

Younger brother, ocse. 

Youth, ifjusdg, ifju (young 
man). 



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND PART. 



SKETCHES OF THE HISTORY OF HUNGARIAN 
LITERATURE. 

Paytv 

/. Literary development and the fate of the 

language 3 — 28. 

\. §. General remarks. — Period of the 
first settlement of the nation in 

Pannonia 3. 

2. §. The XI"^ and XU>^ Centuries ... 5. 

3. §. The XllPh Century 8. 

4. §. The XIV^'' Century 9. 

5. §. The XV^'' Century 4 0. 

6. §. The XVI. and XVII. Centuries . . 14. 

7. §. The XVIIPh Century, until 1790 . . 17. 

8. §. Preparatory steps towards the rise of 

the nation. 1790—1830 .... 19. 

9. §. The rapid progress in literature owing 

to the Academy. 1831 — 1848 . . 23. 
//. Literary productions and authors . 28 — 44. 

1. Qualifications of literary productions . . 28. 

2. Athors and their works. 30 — 44. 

SELECTIONS FROM HUNGARIAN CLASSICS. 

/. Prose writing 45 — 85. 

a. Fables and an Allegory, from An- 
drew Fay 45. 



Hag". 

b. An Allegory, from Charles Kisfaludy 53. 

c. Fables, from Joseph Karman ... 54. 

d. Fables, from Francis Kazinczy . . 55. 

e. Oratorial, from Francis Kolcsey . . 56. 

f. Historical, from Joseph Peczely . . 68. 
//. Poetry 85—116. 

1 . Remeny , Emlekezet (Hope, Remem- 

brance), from Fr. Kolcsey . . . . 85. 

2. Szep Ilonka (Fair Helen), from M. 

Vorosmarty 86. 

3. Julius Caesar, from M. Vorosmarty . 91. 

4. Az elhagyott anya (The forsaken 

mother), from M. Vorosmarty ... 95. 

5. A' hontalan (The homeless), by Voros- 

marty 98. 

6. Szozat (Appeal), by Vorosmarty . . iOO. 

7. A' felkelt nemesseghez (To the in- 

surgent nobility), from Berzsenyi . 103. 

8. A' Magyarokhoz (To the Hungarians), 

from Berzsenyi 

9. Jamborsag es kozepszer (Moderation 

and Medium [mediocritas]) , from 
Berzsenyi 107. 

10. A' temetd (The church-yard), from 

Berzsenyi 1 08. 

11. Fohaszkodas (Sigh [prayer]), from 

Berszenyi 110. 

1 2. Vanitatum Vanitas, from Kolcsey . . ill. 

1 3. Sziildfoldem szep hatara (My beautiful 

country), a song by Charles Kisfaludy 1 I i. 
Epigramms, from Vorosmarty, Berzsenyi 

and Wattay M 5. 

y^ocabuldvif if) the selections 117. 



TYPOGRAPHICAL EBROBS AND CORRECTIONS. 



Page 4 line 19, read: very instead of: veri 

„ 10 „ 7, „ miv, „ „ mi, 

„ 11 „ ^, „ soft „ „ sof 

„ 13 „ 6, „ jd-val „ „ jd-vaJ 

„ 27 „ 2, „ egeszseqes „ „ egeszeges 

„ 28 „ 20, „ iigyes „ „ Ugges 

„ 37 „ 30, ,, Prepositions „ „ Preposition 

„ 45 ,, 8, „ are more than one „ „ are more 

„ 50 „ 4, „ drdgdhhak. „ „ drdgdkbab. 

,, 50 „ 29, „ kivdnnak. „ „ hivdnnak. 

„ 51 „ 5, „ kicsiny. „ „ kinrsiny. 

„ 56 „ 15, „ merl nem „ ,, mertnem 

„ 64 „ 28, „ forms „ „ orms 

„ 74 „ 22, „ haza 's „ „ hazas' 

„ 76 ,, 17, „ 61 „ „ 61. 

„ 86 „ 26, „ keltessem, „ „ kelessem 

„ 93 „ 22, „ On „ „ On 

„ 114 „ 14, after to feed, put: itat-ni to give to drink, 

„ 116 „ M, reaid: veregethetend,mstesidof: vergefhetend. 

„ 117 „ 6, „ Vergod-ni, „ „ Vergod-ni, 

„ 139 „ 25, „ Plnr. TOrjetek, „ „ Tbrjetek, 

„ 164 „ 1, „ sikamolik, „ „ sikamolik' 

„ „ „ 2, „ sikamlik, „ „ sikamlik' 

„ „ „ 26, ,, Neuter, Medial and Active Verbs, in- 
stead of: Neuter Verbs. 

„ 177 „ 4, read: sz, cs, cz instead of: sz, cz 

„ t^- „ ^ „ kmtgtk „ „ -*5f*yi^ 

„^t04 ,, 23, „ dszy „ „ fdsz, 

„ i17 „ 23, „ bennilnket and benneteket instead of: 
benUnket and benetekef. 



Page 218 line 3 read: Tied, instead of: Tieid, 

„ » ,, 7, „ Tieid, „ „ Tieid, 

„ 227 „ 5, „ Adjective and its dependencies; instead 

of: Adjectives; 
„ 239 „ 20 „ Mert instead of: JSert 

„ 243 „ 2< ,, ones „ „ ons 

„ ,, » 23 „ kirdly haldldn, „ „ kirdly,haldldn, 
„ 244 „ 41 „ neven ven-ni „ ,, neven-ven ni 
„ 246 „ 4 „ alatt „ „ allat, 

„ „ „ 2 ,, felett above, mellett instead of: felletl 

above, mellet 
„ 247 „ 2 „ the father instead of: he father 
„ 248 „ 2 „ szUletetf, „ „ szillelett, 

„ 250 „ 40 „ tetfem „ „ leltem 

„ 251 „ 4 „ an oath, „ „ on oath, 

,, 2#3 „ 9 „ nyulra, he shot the hare, instead of: 

» nyulra hare. 

„ 258 „ 1 ,, fenyeget instead of: fengeget 
„ „ „ 2 „ retent „ ,, rentent 

„ 263 ,. 3 after ISagyszombat; put: az afydmndl levo 
vrak, the gentlemen (that are) with my father. — Other- 
wise only the affix ndl n^l is used: as, 
„ 270 line 13, read: liable instead of: ilable 

„ „ „ 22, „ kiqerjedez. „ „ kigeijedes. 

„ 280 „ 22, „ los^ „ „ ost 

,, 284 ,, 17, „ the cannons'', answered the colonel. 

instead of: cannons. 
„ 289 column first line 19, read: ^wja, instead of : Buza, 
„ 302 „ sec. ,, 17. „ street. „ streel. 

., 307 „ first „ 22. „ reszt^ny, „ eszteny, 
„ 308 „ „ „ 21. „ leronl-ani, „ leronl-ani. 
„ 310 „ „ „ 15. „ telyesii-eni „ tetyesit-eni. 
„ ,, „- .^ ^-*^- ,ynemehU ^(bi. „ nemetni. 

„ 311 „ „ „ 7. „ Aosr,hero-like ., Ao^ihero- 

like. 
,. „ „ „ „ 15. „ otthon „ hon. 

„ 314 „ sec. „ 34. „ Printing-trade, „ Printing-tra 
„ 316 „ „ „ 8. „ osztoz-ni; „ oszloznni: 
„ 317 „ „ „ 7. „ aszlalkendo; „asztatkend6i 
„ 318 „ first „ 28. t^meg- „ meg- 

„ 319 „ Qif^y ^^ 4. „ neikulj „ netkul. 



SECOND PART. 



Csink, hung. Gram. 



SKETCHES 

OF THE 

HISTORY OF HIM4BIA^ LITEMTURE. 



I. LITERARY DEVELOPMENT AND THE FATE 
OF THE LANGUAGE. 

1. §. GENERAL REMARKS. — PERIOD OF THE FIRST 
SETTLEMENT OF THE NATION IN PANNONIA. 

Language and customs are the features of 
nations and the expressions of a national mind. 
As the latter grows older, the former change 
proportionally. 

In the Hungarian language we imediately no- 
tice the oriental character of the nation, which 
has been kept up through viearly 9 centuries: 
although hard struggles, partly national, partly 
political, and lasting external wars, ultimately 
diminished the primitive people. 

This peculiar phenomenon of an oriental 
language in the middle of Europe, surrounded as 
it was, every where by nations of an occidental 



character, unobserved by the people of the western 
shores, had attracted the attention of some Ger- 
man philologists as far as they found it necessary 
to mention the Hungarian languasje, in order to 
satisfy the Opinion which the German public con- 
ceived of its philosophers. It was considered as 
having exhausted Philological materials, when 
the work had a section or an appendix, in which 
even the Hungarian language was mentioned; 
hence, the confused notions of the Hungarian 
nation and of its lan2:uage*). 

We do not inherit any literary productions 



*) Adelung, the great German philologist, in his Mithrida- 
tes, speaking of the Hungarian language, mentions some very- 
strange things. — Comparing the Works written by German 
and Sclavonian authors on the Hungarian nation and on its 
language, we are led to conclude, that the Hungarians hardly had 
a language before they came into Pannonia, and that after their 
settlement in modern Hungary they made excursions to diffe- 
rent parts of Europe in order to rob other people of a few words. 
— Adelung, in his Mithridates, gives a quantity of words as 
derived: — from German; amongst others: Lyuh^ (hole) from 
2od>; lusta (disorderly idle), from Ia§ (faut) ; eszem (I eat), from 
t^ effc; Vitorla (the sail), from SBcttcr^a&n (weather cock); 
bucsu (the leave) from 53uffc (the penance): fold (the earth) 
from ^etb (fields); — from French: Aczel (steel), from ad^r; 
erseki from archeveque; — from Latin: Szarvas (the stag, 
deer) from, cervus ; falu (village), from villa. The Sclavonian 
writers still are worse. But the fact, that all the foreign 
authors disagree with one another in their theories of deri- 
vation, deprives them of credit, and renders refutation and 
vindication of the Hungarians superfluous. 



of the first period of the settlement of the Hun- 
garians in Europe, — before their conversion to 
Christianity. Foreign authors are the sources 
of the national History (History of the country); 
from what is mentioned by them, we may con- 
clude, that the period, at which the Hungarians 
lived under their heathen monarchs, was the time 
of songsters. It is mentioned*): ,5they gave feasts, 
danced at the sound of their military music, and 
sung their national songs.'^* 

2. §. THE Xr*^ AND XIP CENTURIES. 

(Flourishing period of the nation.) 

The introduction of Christianity amongst the 
Hungarians has not had the same effect upon 
their language, which it has exercised on nearly all 
other European languages. — The tribes inhabi- 
ting the land beyond the Eastern empire**), re- 
cived the doctrine of the Christian church from 
people bearing the worn- out coat of a Grecian 
nation, and with these doctrines their language 
received a tint of Grecism. The immigrated 
hordes of the West of Europa were instructed 
in the religious doctrines of the Western empire, 



*) Anonymi Belae regis notarii res gestae Hungaronim, 
Endlicher edition. 

**) Roman oriental empire. 



6 

and inclined, more or less, towards Romanism, in 
language and social character. 

Between these two large sects of the Christian 
church the Magyars have settled , considered by 
the Ecclesiastical Locumtenant of Rome as the 
bastion of papal domination against oriental in- 
vasions, and Grecian encroachments, — caj oiled by 
the eastern potentates, who sought to gain in them 
an ally against the overgrowing Roman giant. — 
Besides these, there were three strange elements 
combined in the conversion of the heathen Ma- 
gyars, who received baptism about 1000 years after 
Christ*). The conversion was begun by Greeks, 
but was achieved by their own prince and his 
consort, and received the sanction of the Pope. 
Besides, the Magyars, in fact, received baptism, 
not because they were convinced of the beneficial 
effects of the Christian doctrines on human so- 
ciety, but out of deep reverence and partly from 
fear of their chief, who already had been brought 
up in the Christian religion. — 

All these circumstances combined had great 
influence on the whole series of events by which 
we trace the life of the Magyar nation, and con- 
tributed much to preserve the Hungarian language. 



*) The conversion had begun in 950; but it was only 
Prince Stephen, afterwards King Stephen I., who took a decisive 
step in regard to this important object, after 997 after Christ. 



The Kings of the Arpadiaii Kue remained 
victors in ail the struggles against the Roman 
Python, up to the \'d^^ century. The national cus- 
toms and language were kept up with the poli- 
tical rights of the nation. The aversion to Latin 
learning was ever so great, that it was enforced 
by laws and statutes upon persons who wished 
to be ordained*j. — King Albert (Bela) III., a 
pupil of the Byzantine court, introduced a chan- 
cery similar to that of the Byzantine court, and 
by royal decrees literal proceedings in the 
transactions, both of private and public affairs, 
were, from that time, enforced. 

Although the indomitable desire of the nation 
for primeval customs soon overpowered the weak 
monarchs reigning in the 13*^ century, and foreign 
social reforms were abolished by law, the lan- 
guage restored to its primeval rights: neverthe- 
less the fatal custom of dividing the realm be- 
tween father and son, thus establishing two courts 
which undermined each other, nearly annihilated 
the royal authority, and with it the moral exis- 
tence of the Magyars. 



^) Under King Coloman, 1092—1115. 



3. §. THE Xm^*^ CENTURY. 

(Period of the decline of ^the national power.) 

The 13'^ century is the fatal century of the 
nation. The ancient glory vanishes^, internal dis- 
sentions, mostly the consequence of weak and 
morally powerless Kings^, begin to gnaw the roots 
of the national strength. The incessant shocks, 
which the political institutions of the Magyars 
received from papal ambition, the devastating 
ravages of Tartarian ferocity*)? the enemy of 
the institutions of civilized nations, and effeminate 
Kings, who happened to ascend the throne when 
the misfortunes of the nation required indefa- 
tigable and persevering exertions, were blows 
from which the nation has never recovered. 

With ancient grandeur avitical customs de- 
clined, and instead of patriotism, the national 
pride often became overgrown with extuberances 
of anarchy. The bright points, in the History of 
the Hungarian nations, are only so many passing 
comets wanting consolidation. 

The counties depopulated by Tartarians were 
to be repopulated by foreign immigrants; with 



*) In the year 1241, under King Albert (Bela) IV., the 
Khan Batu invaded Hungary with about 500,000 Mogolians 
and other Tartarian hords, depopulating it for nearly two 
years. 



9 

foreign immigrants a foreign language and foreign 
customs were brought into the land. The Magyars, 
though diminished in number, yet not broken in 
spirit, concentrated themselves in the plains of the 
south-east, and in that part of Hungary which is 
called the land beyond the forest, Transilvania^ 
forming thus two focuses of a national Elipse. — 
The remoter parts of the country, from these fo- 
cuses, were entirely occupied by foreign people, 
who spoke languages of nearly as many diffe- 
rent characters as there were counties of the 
realm ocupied by them. — 

When a nation, afflicted with such calamities 
remote from its avitical seats, surrounded and 
pressed by foreign elements, is able to keep up 
the language, the manners and social institutions 
inherited by their great ancestors^ historians must 
be induced to believe in its destination for im- 
mortality. 

4. §. THE XIV^*^ CENTURY. 

(Foreign dynasties occupy the throne.) 

After the expiration of the Arpadian line, 
foreign dynasties decided on the fate of the na- 
tion, and on the fate of its language. — 

Charles the First, of the Anjou dynasty, 
brought over with him an Italian court, from Naples, 
that disliked Hungarian customs, and Hungarian 



10 

manners, and despised the Hungarian language. 
He himself reorganized the chancery, introduced 
by Bela \W^ , and gave it a more stable founda- 
tion; being supported by the clergy, he introduced 
the Latin language as the language of public 
business. Dreading the power of the Hungarian 
nobility, he established something like a Hunga- 
rian court at Visegrad, the ultimate design of which 
was to bury the rough nationalism under the 
splendour of an effeminating Italian court, but 
not to satisfy the real desires of some grandees of 
the nation. — 

His son Lewis the First, engaged throughout 
his life with the external increase of an Em- 
pire, had little time to sacrifice to the interest of 
the Hungarian nation. — The money raised in 
the realm, instead of employing it to develop 
the moral and intellectual strength of the nation, 
which might have been a durable foundation of 
his Eastern empire, and would have raised the 
Hungarians to the first rank of European nations, 
he squandered to support foreign courts, and to 
satisfy the vanity of medieval conceptions of 
grandeur. 

The Latin style received its definite diplo- 
matical forms under the reign of this King, and 
the gates of the royal court and those of the 
Jurisdictions were thus shut against the natio- 
nal language, which henceforth retired to the 



41 

peaceable home of the agriculturist, and to the 
camps of the army. The avidity of the nobility 
having been satisfied by a new burden, imposed 
upon the peasantry, they could not perceive any 
danger for the nationality, as they did a century 
ago. 

Things remained in that state until the re- 
formation in the church brought on a new era 
for literature. — 

5. §. THE XV^*' CENTURY. 

(Reformation of the Romish Church, — The nation rises under 
brave leaders ; John Hunyadi, and his son Matthew.) 

In the Laws of Hungary, inacted under the 
Kings of the Arpadian dynasty, there is mentioned 
the name of ., Hungarian rites"*). This singular 
fact evidently proves, that the nation never sub- 
mitted entirely to papal despotism; and conse- 
quently the reformation of the church, urged by 
the follies of the Roman clergy itself, no sooner 
was begun, than it struck root in Hungary. The 
imminent danger of an invasion from Turkish 
hordes, already ravaging the yonder coasts of the 
Mediterranean, occupied the attention of theEuro- 



*) Under Ladislaus I, and Andreas III. The former in 
his Decree regarding the rites of the church says: „Latini, 

qui Ungarorum consve tudine, scilicet , sisenostro 

consuetudini meliori non consentire dixerint, quocunque 
volunt eo vadant. 



12 

pean courts, and especially that of the pope, so 
much, that the lands beyond the Tisza*) were 
lost sight off; the neglect and contempt of the 
Hungarian language , by those priests who were 
the fanatical subjects of the papal throne, were 
very favourable circumstances to promote the 
progress of the Reformation, and were thus the 
causes of the re -establishment of the language. — 

Already at the beginning of the XV^*^ cen- 
tury, we meet with a translation of a part of the 
bible (see below) into Hungarian, thus, at a time 
when not many other people of Europe could enjoy 
the benefits of reading the holy writ. The language 
was successively cultivated by the Reformers, and 
scarcely had Luther and Calvin (in the next cen- 
tury) awakened the sleeping mind of their people, 
when the people of Hungary embraced the new 
doctrine with ardent zeal. — 

The revival of the doctrine, established to 
alleviate the burdens of human society, was every 
where followed by the revival of science and 
that of nationality. Hungary was not at this time 
backward, but had its share in all of them, and 
might have risen to the height which was attained 
by other nations, if external wars and tyrannical 
intrigues at home had not fettered the people; 
the former threatening annihilation of physical 

*) Tisza, Theis, is a river in Hungary, along the shores 
of which the Hungarians are concentrated. 



13 

existence, the latter suppressing intellectual de- 
velopment. — 

There is one strange phenomenon in the His- 
tory of Hungarian literature of this perid, and that 
is the reign of Mathias Corvinus*), the son of 
John Hunyadi, the terror of the Turks. — 

This King was a true Hungarian^ having at 
his heart the greatness of his nation; he pro- 
tected the sciences and highly esteemed learned 
men; he founded a library, in his residence at 
Buda, comprehending 50,000 volumes; a printing 
office was established under his protection in the 
same town : yet, this period is void in Hungarian 
literature. Unfortunately this great King lived in 
a period when scholasticism was flourishing, when 
a Romano -mania infected the lower and higher 
classes of human society, and when the whole of 
western Europe was entangled in the papal net, 
woven in monastical institutions. It is impossible 
to decide on the period of his reign in regard to 
the subject of Hungarian literature, for, the splen- 
did Library of King Matthew has been entirely 
destroyed by the pillaging Turks, and when Buda 
was devastated by the besiegers.**) 

*) From 1458 until 1490. 

**) After the unfortunate battle at Mohacs the Turks oc- 
cupied Buda and with it the lower part of the kingdom ; in 
1686 Buda was reconquered by the united army of the Ger- 
man empire and Hungary. 



14 



6. §. THE m'' & XVir' CENTURIES. 

(Hungary under the dominion of the Austrian dynasty; — 
Struggles for national and religious freedom.) 

The XVI**^ and XVIV^ centuries ar those of 
hard struggles for national existence. The Turks, 
threatening to extinguish the nation physically, de- 
populated the country which formed the nation's 
focus ; foreign potentates, — whose governments 
have stigmatized themselves as enemies even to 
the name of nation itself, and as Great-Inquisi- 
tors wheresoever the existence of the least moral 
power of a nation was conjectured, — have en- 
deavoured to prevent intellectual development; in 
this work they have been assisted by the ec- 
clesiastics of the only beatifying church. — 

The battle at Mohacs*) delivered up the 
country to the Turks, for them to ravage through 
a century and a half. The death of Lewis the 
Second delivered also the nation to the Habsburgian 
dynasty, who. while endeavouring to suppress 
the national spirit, stifled the national language. 

The misfortune which had befallen the na- 
tion of having lost its King, exposed to the 
danger of being conquered by the Turks, in- 
duced one part of it to elect Ferdinand, duke of 
Austria, as King of Hungary, whilst the other full 



*) Fought in 1526, in which king Lewis II perished, with 
him 2 Archbishops 5 Bishops and a considerable part of the 
nobility. 



15 

of distrust, preferred conferring the royal dignity 
on a native grandee. But Hungary had no man 
intellectually or morally capable of bearing a 
crown on his head, and fell a sacrifice to its 
follies of former times. 

The distrusting party was in time justified 
before the world, for, scarcelly had the Aus- 
trian duke the crown he longed for, when he 
unhesitatingly submitted to pay tribute to the Sultan, 
instead of revenging the battle of Mohacs, by 
driving the invaders from a country whose mo- 
narch he pretended to be. 

His successors submitted to pay the same 
tribute. Rudolph I, besides paying the tribute, be- 
gan publicly to pursue the principle of Austrian 
policy, which has been so truly observed by all 
his successors. The nobility was alarmed at the 
arbitrariness of Rudolph, and having plainly un- 
derstood, that Austria pursued an anti-magyar 
policy, they demanded, though fruitlessly, the 
banishment of the foreign officers from the country. 

In the mean time the new doctrine of the 
Christian church had gained ground all over 
Hungary, and the Protestants consequently were 
persecuted by the protectors of the kingdom 
and its liberties with indefatigable zeal. The 
Apostles of the new doctrine worked through 
the lumber of a neglected language, with patriotic 
zeal and Christian perseverance, for the sake of 



16 

their believers the catholic priests^, in order to 
dam up the rapid stream of ecclesiastical imio- 
vations, were obliged to assist in the work of 
cultivating the national language. Thus, in the 
shortest time, the Hungarian language became 
the language of divines and of those w^ho promul- 
gated the doctrine of Christ. — On the other 
side, the Hungarian nobility, though too late, seeing 
themselves deceived and betrayed, were reani- 
mated to recover their nationality and with it 
the rights of the language. It was now evident 
to them, that they had a mortal enemy in the 
Habsburgian dynasty, and that there would be 
no end of enemities until either the nation or the 
dynasty be extinguished. — 

That part of the nation which had not been 
subjugated by the Turks rose with just indignation, 
to combat for its existence with the Christian 
enemy, or, if fate had already marked the limits 
of the national existence, to struggle heroically till 
the last breath, and to find an honorable death, 
under the device „for God and the father- 
land *)". — In the History of these struggles only 
leaders suceeded each other, the principle re- 
mained the same, and will be the same in every 



*) ,Jstenert es hazderl^' (for God and the fatherland) were 
the inscriptions on the banners of Bocskay, 1605 — 6, Bethlen, 
16i9, Rakotzy, 1632. 



^ 17 

same in every ensuing struggle. The heroical 
deeds were celebrated by poets, patriotic poems 
stimulated the warriors to perseverance, and in- 
flamed the youthful heart to despise the dangers 
of war. — 

Prosaic writers hastened to make known to 
the people its ancient rights, by translating the 
diplomatical volumes, which a century ago had 
been collected and consigned in the Latin lan- 
guage; Chronicles were consigned to the Hungarian 
language, both in prose and poetry, reminding the 
nation of its glorious ancestors and handing down 
the deeds of their age to posterity. As Hungarian 
writing progressed, there arose men who endea- 
voured to bring the language under the rules of 
Grammar, and, to their praise be it said, although 
the works were defective, yet, taken relatively, 
they were carefully compiled. 

7. §. THE XVIU'** CENTURY UNTIL 1790. 

(Relaxation of the nation; closer alliances with the house of 

Austria; reaction of the nation in consequence of the arbitrary 

measures of the Viennese court.) 

Every excitement is counterbalanced by an 
equivalent relaxation. The nation was physically 
and morally fatigued by the wearisome wars; 
the dynasty itself seemed inclined to satisfy the 
desires of the patriots : thus a way was tried of 

Csiak. hung. Gram. 21 



amicably arranging the differences between the 
nation and the reigning house. Induced by such 
motives the nation entered into a closer alliance 
with the dynasty, desiring to make its interests 
those of the reigning house; but the dynasty thought 
and acted in a contrary direction, and made the 
nation subservient to its private interests. 

As a language unknown to the people, when 
it is used to administer to them the blessing of 
religious faith, is the surest foundation of the 
hierarchical power, and as monarchs subduing 
nations rely upon those who govern the inexpli- 
cable feelings of the people, in order to secure 
a durable reign : ecclesiastical and political powers 
render each other ready assistance, in order to 
suffocate nations in their own language. 

The Hungarian language, therefore, was ba- 
nished to the home of the shepherd and agricul- 
turist, and the Latin was introduced in schools 
and all public transactions; in the public meetings 
of the county- court- halls Latin was the language 
of transactions and conversation. 

The space of time from 1700 till 1780 may 
justly be called the Latin Period of the nation, in 
opposition to that of the Arpadian dynasty; for. 
as in the latter laws enforcing Latin learning 
were enacted continually, so in this decrees 
were sanctioned, that no person unacquainted 



49 

with the Hungarian language should be employed 
iu ecclesiastical offices. 

The voice raised by some patriots to form 
an association of learned men, for cultivating and 
propagating the Hungarian language, still sound- 
ed in the wilderness unre- echoed. 

Joseph U., considering Hungary as an inte- 
grant part of the German empire (the behaviour 
of his predecessors caused him to believe as 
much), wished to lay the foundation of an inter- 
nal coalition of all the different nations who 
were kept together by the iron arm of des- 
potism into one empire. He introduced the 
German language, as that of public instructions 
and transactions, into all the provinces, which 
his ancestors had brought under his sceptre. His 
innovating orders, therefore, threw a new ferment 
into the scarcely settled mind of the nation. It 
once more rose indignantly, and the yoke of a 
foreign government would have been thrown off, 
had not the Emperor's death and the revocation 
of his innovatory edicts changed the features of 
the affairs of the realm. — 

8. §. PREPARATORY STEPS TOWARDS THE RISE 
OF THE NATION. 1790—1830. 

The menacing aspect of France supported 

the nation in its claims, and it was only through the 

mildness and ready compliance of Leopold, with 

2* 



20 

which he met the grievances of the nation in the 
diet 1790 — 1, that the dynasty was saved from 
its fall. 

The lower house*) was saluted by the vice- 
gerent (Locumtenens) tirmenyi in Hungarian; he 
admonished the representatives to unite their 
moral strength, for the good of the nation. His 
speech was answered by the deputy of the Chap- 
ter-house (capitulum) of Esztergom, who cen- 
sured the innovations made by the late monarch. — 

The lower house then proceeded to settle 
upon the language to be used in the transactions 
of the diet. It was resolved: that henceforth the 
Hungarian language shall be received in parlia- 
mentary transactions, and the diary (minutes of 
the diet) be kept in the national language, and 
the publication of the minutes as well as the re- 
ception of the Hungarian language in all public 
transactions were urged. — 

The upper-house (felsd tdbla) objected to the 
last two resolutions as running from one extreme 
to another, — always accompanied by internal con- 
vulsions, — which might prove dangerous under 
the then being state of political affairs. — 

The patriots, in both houses, urged the esta- 
blishment of a Hungarian Academy, and a com- 

*) The lower-house {also tdbla) was constituted by the 
county-deputies of the nobility and the deputies of the muni- 
cipal towns (libera regia civitas). 



21 

niittec, formed by deputies of both houses, was 
charged with the drawing up of its plan. — The 
16**^ Article of the law of 1791, sanctioned by 
Leopold the First, commanded the introduction of 
the Hungarian language into all the upper-schools 
(Gymnasium, Colleges and the University) ; but in 
public transactions (dicasterialia negotia) the La- 
tin style was still to be retained. — 

Under the direction of Kelemen (an attorney 
at the royal court in Pest) a dramatic society was 
formed, which for want of public support was 
soon dissolved. — it did not exist in 1792. — 
The erection of a national theatre was delayed 
for nearly another half century. The Dramatic 
society at Kolosvar, in Transilvania, formed in 
1799, was more fortunate, being supported by the 
provincial diet, 1804, when a voluntary contribution 
of 30^000 floruis (3000 ^) for the erection of a 
proper theatre was resolved; the number of per- 
formers soon increased so much, that one part 
of them was translocated to Debreczin*); — the 
new theatre was finished in 1820, and inaugu- 
rated by private performers of the nobility on the 
IS^i'of March, 1821. — 

Count Francis Szechenyi, father of the late 
minister, after his return from the Neapolitan em- 
bassy, adopted as his favourite pursuit the intel- 



*) The principal town in the east of Hungary. 



22 

lectual development of his country; he, therefore, 
opened his large private library to Hungarian 
learned men. In 4802, his library was transferred 
to Pest, and opened for public use, under the pa- 
tronage of the Count Palatine, the Archduke 
Joseph. Thus, the noble count immortalized his 
name by laying the foundation of the Hungarian 
National Museum, which was finally established 
in 1811. — 

The indefatigable zeal of Nicolas Revay, Pro- 
fessor of Hungarian literature, at the University of 
Pest, deserves due regard; his work, "Antquita- 
tes literaturae Hungaricae, Pestini, 1803", though 
written in Latin, had a twofold effect: it, first, 
brought to public knowledge some monuments of 
Hungarian literature of former centuries, which, 
up to his time^ were concealed in private and 
public archives, or at least not duly regarded; se- 
condly, it attracted the attention of the patriots 
and enemies of Hungarian nationality, and pro- 
duced a literary controversy between them which 
had a beneficial influence on Hungarian lite- 
rature. — 

Foreign wars retarded the development of 
institutions for promoting national literature, and 
therefore, the progress of literature itself, though 
they gave origin to many patriotic and heroic 
songs. 

After the restoration of peace, the liberal 



23 

party of Hungary concentrated its whole strength, 
to act vigorously in favour of national develop- 
ment. The establishment of the Hungarian Aca- 
demy was the chief object that occupied their 
attention; and, when the disputes and fruitless de- 
liberations about raising funds for the Academy 
arose, the noble count Stephen Szechenyi raised 
a new monument to his family, by generously 
offering his whole yearly income, estimated at 
60,000 florins, as a contribution (or, rather as the 
first deposit) to the fiinds of a Hungarian Aca- 
demy; animated by such generosity count Karo- 
lyi made an offer of 45,000, count Andrassy one of 
20,000. florins. The long wished-for object was 
thus obtained. The Article XI. of the law of 1827, 
finally established the erection of the Academy, 
under the name of ''A^ Magyar Tudos Tdrsas- 
sdg'\ and a commission consisting of members 
from both houses was charged with its organi- 
sation. The commission discharged its duty at 
the end of 1830, and the new Academy held its 
first grand meeting on the 4 5^*^ of February, 4831. 



9. §. THE RAPID PROGRESS LN LITERATURE OWmG 
TO THE ACADEMY. 1831—1848. 

With the year 1831, the Hungarian language 
commenced anew era. The Academy proclaimed 
to be their object: 
\ 



24 

"To direct all their efforts towards the cul- 
tivation of sciences and belles- letters, in the na- 
tional language ; by uch means, to give it elegance, 
to enrich and provide it with a sublime style, 
that it might eternally subsist in its own splendour; 
national and intellectual power being successively 
developed by useful knowledge, 

"With indefatigable zeal to bring to light 
the traces and literary monuments of the Hun- 
garian language, wherever they might be con- 
cealed, 

*^To promulgate all the inventions of former 
and recent times, and the progress made in 
science. 

"Lastly, to encourage fertile minds, which 
otherwise, left to themselves, might languish, to 
accomplish works that should bring renown and 
glory upon the nation." 

The more grand the object of the Academy 
was, in regard to the nation, the more obstacles 
were to be removed, in order to pursue the path 
pointed out: the greater were its merits, and the 
higher claims had its members to the gratitude 
of the nation, which, however, being prevented 
by fatal events, could not discharge its duty. 

In less than ten years the Hungarian nation 
was close on the heels of those nations who had 
left her behind, in the former century. Under the 
protection of the Academy, and by means of its 



25 

material assistance, there were published bel- 
letristic works, not yielding to foreign contempora- 
neous literature in point of elegance. The Academy, 
by publishing a dictionary of scientific technical 
terms, paved the way for those who pursued 
scientific studies. 

In the upper- schools, the language disentan- 
gled itself from the net of Latinism, in the ele- 
mentary schools it overpowered the giant of Scla- 
vonism and the German language. 

Under the direction of Gabriel Dobrentei and 
Andrew Fay a stable Dramatic society was form- 
ed at Buda, in 1833, — at that time there were 
1 4 associations of that kind in the Kingdom. — 
The academy, in regard to the funds it could 
dispose of, liberally rewarded the best original 
dramatic productions; thus, the newly formed 
dramatic society has never been in want of clas- 
sical dramas. The indefatigable zeal of the patriots, 
at last, succeeded in establishing a proper natio- 
nal theatre at Pest. The funds^ for the erection 
and maintenance of this theatre, were raised by 
a contribution of the nobility; as enacted in the 
law of 1840. By such means the nation, at this 
time represented only by the nobility, discharged 
the duty it held towards the national drama- 
tists. 

Another important step, taken by the same 
diet, was the restoration of the Hungarian Ian- 



26 

guage to its rights, by establishing it as the diplo- 
matical one, throughout the whole kingdom; even 
the Viennese court was to transact business with 
Hungary in the national language. 

The death of Charles Kisfaludy (1829), a 
very sad event, considering the early and irrepa- 
rable loss of the dramatic poet, was followed 
by consequences very beneficial to Hungarian lite- 
rature. The patriots, in order to honour the me- 
mory of the great poet, wished to adorn his grave 
with a proper tomb-stone; to defray these ex- 
penses^ a subscription of voluntary contributions 
was opened. The contributions received were so 
abundant, that, after the expenses for the erec- 
tion of the tomb-stone were defrayed, the trea- 
surers of the executive commission returned a 
surplus. 

No more noble object could be pursued, no 
higher honour could be conferred upon the me- 
mory of the deceased, than by jthe institution of 
the '^ Kisfaludy tdrsassdg'" (Kisfaludy- association) 
for promoting Hungarian polite literature, to 
which purpose the above surplus was contri- 
buted. 

This association was a strong and powerful 
lever in raising polite literature; besides its mo- 
ral influence, it provided material assistance for 
the poorer literati, and, what was of still greater 
importance, it became the primary canal through 



27 

which productions in polite literature were con- 
veyed to the public. 

Louis Kossuth as editor of the „pesti hirlap, 
(Pest journal, from 1841—43), gave the nation a 
new impulse with his leading articles. The poli- 
tical movement, — which was a national one, — 
influenced the literary progress in a very high 
degree ; both (the political and literary movements) 
seemed to unite in order to realise the idea of a 
great Hungarian nation. All the inhabitants of the 
country, belonging to very different nations*) were 
entangled in the great national movement; in va- 
rious parts of the realm new focuses of Hunga- 
rian nationality were formed, whence the bene- 
ficial rays of mental and moral liberty, with the 
desire for the formation of one great nation, ex- 
tended over the surrounding countries. 

The association**) for protecting home in- 
dustry, besides its beneficial influence upon the 
manufacturing and working classes, produced a 
national polytechnic institution, a new field for 
scientific and literary labour. 

In the last five years (from 1843) scientific 
works on all kinds of subjects were published; 



*) Hungary, besides the Hungarians, is inhabited by: Scla- 
vonians (slavi), Serbians, Croatians, Russians, Yens, Bulga- 
rians, Germans, Wallachians, Jews, and a few French, Greeks, 
and of the Monte Negro tribe. 

**) Formed under the presidency of Count Batthanyi. 



28 

every capable mind was engaged in conveying 
materials, or arranging the ready ones, for a great 
national monument. The year 1848 seemed to 
throve down the abyss all foreign elements, and 
the nation to have the same footing on which the 
principal nations of Europe stood. — Fate had de- 
cided differently from what human conceptions of 
righteousness could have expected, and lingering 
humanity would have desired. The moral power of 
the nation was maimed by the physical force of the 
colossus of European despotism; the nation was 
crushed; its language and literature were buried 
under the ruins of nationality, and wherever a glim- 
mering spot yet strikes a despotical eye, it is 
carefully interred by the enemies of even the 
name of Hungary. 

II. LITERARY PRODUCTIONS AND AUTHORS. 

1. Q^ualification of literary productions. 

The history of Hungary is a series of unin- 
terrupted moral and physical struggles for pri- 
mitive personal independence from the unjust in- 
stitutions of Franconian (German) feudalism, and 
a succesive breaking of Asiatic*) fluctuation, ex- 
cited by national emotions, against the narrow 



*) Such as the free and not subdued nations of Asia 
produced. 



29 

shores of European constitutionalism. These ele- 
ments, already powerful enough to keep up commo- 
tions like those witnessed in the preceding cen- 
turies, were reinforced by the ecclesiastical 
movements. 

As literary productions are the geological 
strata , by which we trace the age of intellec- 
tual and moral life, in which we may notice the 
diflferent vicissitudes that have afflicted the latter, 
and the successive changes of the external appear- 
ance of nationalism: we must expect, that the 
literary^ productions of the Hungarian nation will 
be qualified by circumstances^ which either could 
not influence the western nations, or would have 
a very unimportant effect on their social life. — 

Theological and religious works were the 
principal features of Hungarian literature of the 
centuries before 1790, — a natural consequence 
of the hard struggles of the protestant principle 
against papal darkness. 

In the works of polite literature of Hungary 
a patriotic animation is observed, which often 
becomes the leading idea. When reading these 
works^ we feel with the authors themselves, the 
heart beats faster, and, mysteriously overpowered, 
an enthusiasm for national glory becomes the 
only moving power of the mind; we represent 
to ourselves, we feel, we see, the exertions made 
by the nation to divest itself of the foreign gar- 



30 

ment, in which it was wrapped up by European 
civilisation*). 

The literary productions of the Hungarian 
nation bear, therefore, a national character, and 
in that respect they are somewhat different from 
those of other European nations. 

2. Authors and tbeir works. 

a. 894-1526. 

(Arpadian, and the first period of the subjection of the nation 
under foreign dynasties.) ^ 

There are no traces of literary productions 
yet discovered, belonging to the 10^*^ or 11*^ cen- 
tury; the first state of the language is, therefore, 
concealed from the philologist. All that foreign 
and domistic writers remember is, that the Hun- 
garians had their own martial songs, that their 
princes and grandees kept songsters**) to amuse 
them at their feats and in their campaigns. As 
the first century, remembered as the European 
existence of the nation, really was a continual 
campaign, those songs must have been common 
amongst the Hungarians. — Public business was 
transacted in the national language***) 



*) I do not mean culture (cultura), with which the 
word civilisation is often, but erroneously, exchanged. 

**) We are reminded of the German wandering songsters. 

***) Under King Coleman (1095 — 4<44), who for his learn- 



31 

The first literary monument of this period is 
a liturgical book, containing the fimeral ceremo- 
nies in Hungarian. Pazman. and, after him, Revay, 
analyzed its text, in regard to style and genius; 
Dobrentei did the same in his ., Magyar nyelvemle- 
kek'* (Monuments of the Hungarian language). The 
latter placed its origin between 1170 and 1200. 

Of more value and importance is a transla- 
tion of a great part of the Bible. Authors differ 
in regard to the year of its origin; recent exa- 
minations show, that it belongs to the time between 
1437 and 1440. This translation, containing the 
Books of Ruth, Esther, Baruch, Maccabeus, the 
Prophets (of the four principal prophets there 
are only fragments) and the four Gospels*)^ was 
achieved by two friars, Tamds and Bdlint. and 
was intended for the use of Hungarian Hussites 
who took refuge in Moldavia. 

Another translation of the whole Bible by 
Bertalan was printed in 1508. The prayer-book 
of madame Paul de Kinizsi, containing forms of 
devotion in prose and poetry, is of 1513. 

Less important productions, belonging to the 



ing was called the ,,librifer" (book-bearer), a certain Albricus 
was charged with the translation of the King's decrees into 
Latin. 

*) The manuscripts are preserved in the royal libraries at 
Vienna and Munich. 



32 

close of the XV^'' century, are : EmUk-dal Maty as 
haldlura, Memorial song of the death of King 
Matthew; Siralom enek Bot Jdnosrol, Elegy upon 
John Bot; etc. 

b. 1526-1848. 

(Hungary under the rule of Kings of the Austrian dynasty. — 
Reformation of the church.) 

a. 1527—1790. 

(Religious struggles, and pacific means of reconciling 
the nation with its fate.) 

The reformation from Germany soon spread 
over Hungary. Endowed men received instruction? 
in the new doctrine, in the German universities, 
and became apostles of it in their native coun- 
try. The contest between the reformed churches 
and the catholics produced a great number of 
religious and theological works, mostly dogmati- 
cal ones. 

In the latter part of the XVP century five 
translations of the Scriptures are upon record. 

Komjdth y Benedek: Zent Paal leveley ma- 
gyar vyeliten 1533. — Letters of St. Paul in 
Hungarian, by Benet Komjathy, 1533. 

Gabriel: Wj Testamentommagjarnyehien\b'S6. 
New Testament in Hungarian, by Gabriel, 1536. 

Sylvester Jdnos. — The same, 

Heltai Gdspdr, Magyar jB/6/ia^ Hungarian 
Bible. 1551. 



33 

Kdrolyi Gasp a 7', Magyar Biblia, 1589. 
This translation is considered as the best; its 
second edition, revised by Albert Molnar; ap- 
peared in 1608. Many editions of the translation 
of Karolyi were printed up to 1846. 

Helta i Gaspdr (Jasper Heltai) holds un- 
doubtedly the most prominent point in regard to 
literature. Besides his theological works, he pub- 
lished a translation of the laws of the realm 
from the Latin collection; a Chronicle, ^Magyar 
Ki'onika^' , the first historical work of any im- 
portance. 

Bornemissza Peter (Peter Bornemissa), the 
most celebrated ecclesiastical orator, left a col- 
lection of five thick volumes of his sermons, 1579. 

Juhdsz Jdnos (John Juhasz) exerted himself 
in the Exegisis (exposition) of the Letters of 
John, 1569. 

The secular writers deserving our esteem are : 

Tinody Sebestyen (Sebastian Tinody), a 
poet, who celebrated the heroic deeds of gal- 
lant leaders and soldiers, 1552 — 58. 

Vdlkay, Torday, Szekely, who wrote: 
,,^' vildg, chronikdja^' (Chronicle of the World) 
and Gossdrvdry, were the Historians. 

Csdktornya and Juhdsz gave some proofs 
of imitation of the Roman classics. 

In the XVir^ and the first half of the XVIII^h 
century, were, Pdzmdn, about 1640^ Bel Mdtyds, 

Csink, hung. Gram. il. 3 



34 

about 1710, and Bod Peter ^ about 1743, the most 
celebrated ecclesiastical writers; the first on the 
part of the Catholic^ the latter two on the part of 
the Protestant Church. Bod, besides his theolo- 
gical works, wrote a History of Hungarian litera- 
ture: j^Magyar Athends^' (Hungarian Athens), 1766. 
Davidis, Nemetiy Alvlnczy^ Telkibdnyi 
(the latter wrote on Puritanism 1654), and Katona, 
exerted themselves in theological writings in the 
XVH'** century; Bertalanfl, and the authoress 
Daniel Polyxena^ in the XVIIP'^ century; Ri- 
maVs celebrated Hymns are of the beginning of 
the XVIIP^ century. 

Translations of the Scripture have been ac- 
complished by: 

Kdldi, SL Jesuit, who translated the Vulga- 
ta, 1626. 

Komdromi Csipkes, a protestant, who trans- 
lated the whole Bible, 1635. 

Baranyi Gybrgy (George Baranyi), who trans- 
lated the New Testament, 1754. 

In polite literature the heroic poem ^,Zn- 
nids/' or the Fall of Szigeth*), by Nicholas Zrinyi 
(called the poet, in order to disthiguish him from 



*) Szigeth, a fortress in the south of Hungary, was taken 
by the Turks in 1566. Nicholas Zrinyi defended the fortress 
with a handful of trops, against the whole army of the Turks 
for five weeks, and died like a hero. 



35 

the hero), and the lyric poems of Gyongyosi, bear 
the character of progress though not of the purity 
of the language* Anyos and Bai'dtky, lyric poets, and 
Bessenyei, a dramatist, lived in the latter half of 
the XVIIP'^ century 5 preparing the way for the 
coming aera. 

As linguistic works may be mentioned: the 
Grammar of JfiLttfo/i a, 1645, and the „Dictionari- 
um trilingue" (Dictionary in three — Latin, Hunga- 
rian and German — Languages), by Pdriz-pdpai, 

In regard to science in general, Apdtzi was 
the compiler of an Encyclopedia. 

/3. i 790— 4848 

(The nation throws oif the yoke of the dead Latin language, 

and saves itself from being swallowed by the overgrowing 

giant of German culture. — Rise of the literature.) 

The space of time from 1791 until 1848, 
thus, 7 years above half a century^ may be se- 
parated into two periods: the preparatory one, 
comprehending the first 40 years, and the period 
of the rise of literature^ comprehending not two 
decenniums ; the latter of which is that of gigantic 
exertions in regard to the intellectual and social 
life of the nation. 

Decsy Samuel and Aranka (both of 1791) 
are the first who rouse the slumbering nation with 
their cries for a Hungarian Academy; they were 
followed by Endrddy, with his History of Hungarian 
Dramaturgy (History of Hungarian Theatres), 1 791 , 

3* 



36 

by K arm an (an attorney), with his Urania, a 
periodical publication of polite literature, 1794; the 
f, Magyar Mwz^aA'^'^, another periodical of polite lite- 
rature, established at Kassa in the north of Hungary, 
1797. — The lyiic poet Csokonai began to write 
in the same decennium. — 

In the beginning of the XIX**^ century two poli- 
tical Journals of some importance were established; 
the ,,Nemzeti Ujsdg" (National Journal), and the 
,,Hazai es Kulfoldi Tudositdso¥' (Domestic and 
Foreign Intelligence). In regard to belles-letters, 
there shone four guiding stars on the horizon of 
Hungarian literature: 

Kazinczy Ferencz (Francis Kazinczy), in 
regard to national philology and the regenera- 
tion of the language. Gothe, Burger, Ossian, of 
whose writings he made translations, Gessner, 
whose works he translated entirely, seem to have 
been his touch-stones. 

Berzsenyi Daniel (Daniel Berzsenyi), the 
greatest lyric poet in regard to Odes; he combined 
Horatian elevation with the lyric flow of Mathis- 
son; his language is pure and precise. 

Kisfaludy Sdndor (Alexander Kisfaludy), 
highly merited in regard to Lyrics in general. His 
Ballads, Romances and the Love songs (a 
long poem divided into two parts, the first ,,Gyo- 
trott szerelem/' Unhappy Love, the latter „l5oWo^ 
szereleni,^^ Happy love), discover the opulence of 
his genius. 



37 

Kisfaludy Knroly (Charles Kisfaliidy), the 
regenerator of the drama. The subjects of most 
of his plays refer to the golden era of the nation, 
and are really national ones. 

After 1831 rapid progress was made in Lite- 
rature in every respect. The members of the Aca- 
demy seemed to rival each other in sacrificing all 
their talents to the intellectual and mental develop- 
ment of the nation. Between 1831-36, the language, 
nursed by the Academy, grevi^ exuberantly; the 
political journal ..Jeleiikor'' and its gratis sup- 
plement, conducted by Helmetzy, contributed much 
to introducing purity and conciseness in style. 
The Annals (Annual Reports) of the Academy, the 
Magazine of Science (T'udomdnytdr) , published by 
the Academy, the Muzarion, edited by Bartholo- 
mew Szemere, and the Critical Reports {Kritikai 
lapok), conducted by Joseph Bajza, may be con- 
sidered as the depositories of the fruit of the 
annual labor in cultivating the language. The 
speed with which these were gathered, and the 
anxiety to fill the empty stores in time, got in some 
green crop as well, but, the green fruit having been 
carefully sorted from the ripe, the sound stock 
was saved. The mass of scientific subjects pres- 
sed hard on the Academy and threatened to over- 
whelm it. 

Hence, the writings of Kdllay, Nyiry, 
Kijlcsey, Szemere, Bajza, Guzmics, on philo- 



38 

sophical subjects, the works of Warga, treating of 
politics, of Gy dry and Nagy^ treating of mathema- 
tics, may be found insufficient to satisfy the ex- 
pectations of the History of European literature 
of the period; nor might the exertions of Frid- 
walszky and Poly a, in regard to descriptive 
Natural History, and the writings of Bugat, 
Ebstein and Poly a, on medical subjects, form 
an epoch in contemporary English or French lite- 
rature : but, in respect to Hungary, which scarcely 
three decenniums previously had shaken off the 
heavy burden of a dead language that grasped the 
native one with cold, deadly hands, all these works 
deserve due regard, and the perseverance of the 
authors themselves deserves to have their merits 
acknowledged by foreign nations. 

Polite literature, having received a great 
impulse in the preceding decenniums, advanced 
with accelerated speed, in order to reach the 
point attained by other nations "''O* The Academy 
(up to 1836) had published 36 new dramas; 
amongst others^ the ,,Fdtyol tltka" CSecret of the 
Veil), a comedy by Vorosmarty^ stands next to the 
Plays of Kisfahuly; Ndrdy exerted himself in 

*) There is a certain point of rise in polite literature, 
which every nation, sooner or later, attains; beyond this, 
there is a decline , scientific culture may progress or not. The 
Hungarian nation had not yet reached that point in its lite- 
rature. 



39 

translating Shakespeare and had translated nearly 
all his classic dramas into Hungarian. Hoi'vdth 
Endre*) (Andrew Horvath) and V oi^osmartif'*) 
who had already won the prize in the epopee, 
were followed by Garray. The lyric poems of 
Vorosmartij, Kolcsey, Bajza, and Czuczor 
occupy the first rank, and may be ranked with those 
of any other nation; in the same department exer- 
ted themselves with nearly equal succes: Erde- 
lyi J duos (John Erdelyi), Szaho Josef (Joseph 
Szabo), Eotvos Josef (Joseph Eotvos) and Sza- 
lay Ldszlo (Ladislaus Szalay). Fictions^ Novels 
and Romantic writings were cultivated by Fay 
and Ndray, the former already celebrated as 
the Hungarian Aesop, the latter as a sentimental 
tomancist. 

From 1836 the literary movements came to a 
more settled state, and more uniform speed 
seemed to insure the wished-for progress, at the 
same time, to prevent the national strength from 
being overstrained, and the literary vehicles from 
being overturned. 

The Academy now opened its literary stores 
to public use. The Dictionaries of mathema- 
tical, philosophical, and juridical terms, and 
its Hungarian - German Dictionary", comprehended 

*) He wrote the heroic poem entitled: Arpdd,hi XII Songs. 
**) He wrote the heroic poems: Zaldn futdsa, Cserhatom, 
Eger. — 



40 

nearly all that philologists had gathered in the 
course of 6 years ; the ^Kiilfdldijdtekszin^' (Foreign 
Theatres), published by the same Academy, ex- 
hausted nearly all that foreign literature had 
contributed to enrich the national one. The new 
course of the Tudomdnytdr (Magazine of Science), 
augmented by a supplementary part, the ,^Litera- 
tura'^' (containing an annual report of foreign and 
home literature), had increased in its literary va- 
lue. Materials for an elaborate etymological work 
on the national language were deposited in the 
^^Magyar nyelv' rendszereJ' System of the Hunga- 
rian language, by the Hungarian Academy, 1846. 
The Kisfalady Tar5a55a^(Kisfaludy-Association 
for promoting polite literature), with little money^ 
has effected a great deaL Its ,yNemzeti Konyvtdr'' 
(National Library) is a repository of works of ce- 
lebrated authors; the ,,Kulfoldi Regenytdi^'' (Maga- 
zine of Foreign Romances), published by the same 
association, comprehends translations of celebra- 
ted foreign authors of Novels and Romances; the 
Collection of national songs and traditions, made 
by John Erdelyi (on commission of the Kisfaludy 
Tdrsassdg), is a recently raised monument in the 
History of national poetry. Amongst other periodi- 
cals of polite literature , the Athenaeum may be 
mentioned particularyi, — 

In Philosophy, labor better rewarded Szon- 
tagJi than any of his predecessors or contempo- 



41 

rary writers; Vnndrdk endeavoured to pave the 
road for the psychological and metaphysical doc- 
trines of the German philosophers. Fries and Kant. 

Peczely Josef*) (Joseph Peczely) and Hor- 
vdtk Mihaly**^ (Michael Horvath) gave the 
History of Hungary, which until their time was 
merely a memorial of Kings, a new feature by 
deserthig the path of their antecessors and pur- 
suing, from period to period, the development of 
national life. An illustrative History of Hungary 
was attempted by Geiger, — Bajza, in his Uni- 
versal History, has followed the steps of Schlos- 
ser^ the German Historian, the Statistics of Fenyes; 
and his description of Hungary, are elaborate po- 
litico-geographical works. 

The mathematical works of Tdrczy, Tat at. 
Lie hard, were intended for Protestant schools; 
those of Tauhner^ though richer in matter, were 
not favoured so much. Molndr, considering the 
period, was successful enough in his ,yEr6mutan^'^ 
(Mechanics.) 

In Experimental Philosophy Tdrczy and 
War g ha tried their strength; in Chemistry Nendt- 
wieli is valued, for his preparing the path by 
settling the scientific terms. 



•) Professor at the Protestant College in Drebeczin. 
'*) Professor at the Protestant Gymnasium at Papa. 



\2 

In regard to Natural History, the Association 
of physicians and natural philosophers of Hun- 
gary might have given origin to an Academy of 
Natural History and Physical sciences, if fate had 
been more favourable to its existence. An attempt 
at an illustrated Natural History (exhausting all 
its branches) was maile by Han dk; Polija pub- 
lished a detailed and long treatise on technica- 
lities regarding Natural History and Physiology, 
entitled: Termeszetiniiszoidr es Letszerlraf, 

The indefatigable study of ancient national 
literature by Dijbrentei Gdhor (Gabriel Dobrentei) 
may be estimated by his i^llegi Magyar Nfjelv- 
emlekek'% Ancient Literary Monuments of the Hun- 
garian Language; in this work he collected ancient 
Hungarian writings of the XHt^ , XIV^^^ , XV^^ ^ 
XVr*^ centuries, which either weredispersedly pub- 
lished by former writers, or, until his time, were 
concealed in the worm-eaten shrines of the monas- 
teries, or in archives to which private men are 
not easily admitted. Toldy cultivated the litera- 
ry History of national poetry. 

The last decennium was not less productive 
in polite literature. — Szigligeti, Nagy (fg- 
ifdtz), T6tli,Csaj)6, Oheriiyik, Gaal, provided 
for original drames for the recently erected natio- 
nal Theatre. Many of their dramas are, in regard 
to style and elaboration^ co-ordinate with the classi- 
cal works of foreign nations. Vorbsmarty contri- 



43 

buted a new series of lyric poetry, and immor- 
talized himself by his ^ySzozat'' — Appeal — , 
which the Academy adorned with the first prize 
as the best patriotic poem. The songs of Petofi 
are popular, as his lyric elevation rarely ascended 
above the atmosphere of common life. In the 
department of Novelistic and Romantic many 
steady hands were engaged. Jd^siha Miklos 
(Nicholas Josika) continued to increase the series 
of his very popular Romances. The Buda-pesti 
nrrizkijiuji: is a depository of many instructive 
and amusing narratives and heart improving 
poems, many renowned authors have contributed 
to this collection. Baron Eotros Jo's ef is one 
of the fertile and classical geniuses that appeared 
in the course of the development of national litera- 
ture, his historical and fictitious Romances bear 
a political character, and, besides attracting the 
mind of the reader, they instil a desire and ex- 
cite an enthusiasm for social reform. Kuthy La- 
jos (Lewis Kuthy) is highly esteemed as a novel- 
ist. The ,, Fi'anczia regenycsarnok'' (Hall of French 
Romances) conducted by Recsi, had opened a 
new field for those who desired to acclimate 
exotics of polite literature. 

The struggles for national existence, in 1848^ 
stopped the literary stream, claim having been 
laid to the physical power of the nation in order 
to insure the field opened to literary labor by 



4i 

removing the bars of censorship. — Many new 
periodicals were established in order to receive all 
the literary trash, which poured forth when the 
flood-gates were opened; nearly the whole lot was 
of a political character, having been accumulated 
behind the dams of censorship; martial songs and 
exciting poems occupy the lyric department. The 
Muses, shunning martial arts, hastily retired^ to 
meet the nation again after a pleasant and peace- 
ful home shall have been insured, or to mourn 
eternally if the envious Mars should spitefully 
wound the fatal tendon of their Achilles. 



SELECTIONS 

FROM 

HUNGARIAIV CLASSICS. 



I 



I. PROSE WRITING. 

a. Fables, and an Allegory from Andrew Fay. 

M, A! JeoJteny, 

A' kokeny nehezen vette, hogy gyumolcset nem 
szedik. — Vdrjatok csak, igy szol, hadd csipje meg 
teiTnesemet a' de7'! — Akkor keveshbe leszesz fa- 
nyar, mond a' kertesz, de jo sohal 

Balesetek megdijbhentik ugyan a' 7'osz szivet, 
es aggkor megzsihasztja aniiak di'talmdt, de mind- 
kettonek vajmi ritkdn sikerul megjavitni azt 

0. a: r6ka es a* nyul. 

Futdrnak ajdnltalak, az oroszldnndl szomszed! 
mond a' roka , megdllva a' nyuV alma felett. — 
6 csaktene ajdnlottdl! sokajt ez; az oroszldn azt 



» 



46 

hiendi, rokon ravasz indulatu vagyok veled; te 
pedigy minthogy lekoteleztel^jogositottnak erzended 
magadaty fiamat falni fell 

3, A.', gdlya, 

A golya Pest es Buda felett vette repiileset, 
's egy tornyon viegiilepedett — Pampas ket vdros! 
igy kidlt f'ely szettekingetve mindenfele; be sok 
golyafeszek ^Iterne kemenyein! 

Kiki a' maga modja szerint! Nemely utazo 
megterven hazdjdba, peregve tudja eloadni: mely- 
lyik fogadoban evettjol es otcson? mdsik: hoi szeb- 
bek es nydjasabbak ol ndk, vagy rakotabbak a' 
pkdrao-asztalok ? 

4. A* macsTea es a' tdrmd^ny, 

A raacska, egy blakban, legy utdn ugorimn 
cH mdsodik emeletbol az utcza kovezetere esett le, 
A sdrmdny szdnakozva kozelit feleje : szegeny czibal 
bizony zuzdmbol sajndllak, igy szol a' jo maddr, 
nem tOrt-e valami tagod? — Emezy az dlnok, fel- 
ocsudvdn esese szedulteboly egyet szokik, 's a' szi- 
ves szdnakozot elkapja. — Egy legyert ugyan kisse 
nagyolndm tett ugrdsomat, mond a' hitetlen, de 
egy sdrmdny-pecsenye csak megerdemll, — 

Meg akkor se Mgyj a* roszlelkiinek mikor a' 
sots' keze megzuzta dt! 



47 

5. A.X ido prof eta, 

A^ szamdr elorditotta ma gat — Esd lesz-e 
szolga, vagy szel? kerdi a' juhdsz tale. Fiiles mit 
seiii tudvdn profetasdgdrol, buta keppel rd mered 
gazddjdra. — Mdr hogy ido lesz gazddcskdm, any- 
nyit mondhatok, felel vegre holes komolysdggal 
neki. 

Ki iiem ert valamihez, megis ertni akar, vagy 
bolcsen kallgat, vagy ketertelmuseggel vdgja ki 
mdsok elott, ertetlensege gyaimjdhol magdt. 

G, A.' Pergamen, 

Egy, Hemes szdrmazdsdban bilszke. de iires 
szivii, fejiiy gogosen setdlgatott folyosojdn fel es 
aid, 's hetyke kenybol nyugvo ebet megi'ugta. — 
Ne bdntsd gazddm a' kutyabort, morog felkolte- 
ben «' hdz-6rz6', e' takarja minden becsed, er- 
demed I 

7. a: saamdr es a' csiJcd, 

A' szamdr, helyben leptetve, rovott padozaton 
hajtott egy vizhuzo gepet. A tiizes csiko fulelve 
tekintett be a' iiyilt ajton. — Te szeles, tiizes, illy 
miinkdra nehezen volndl szer! igy szolltja meg dt 
gmiyolva a' fiiles. — 

Igaz, hogy szamdrnak valo munka! mond a* 
csiko. De kerlek: mellyitek is a' gep, te e bdtya 
vagy e' kerekes alkotmdny. 



48 

Ldngesznek koporso a' szoros korldt, es a' 
bureauF gepszeriisegei. — 

H, lUTagyolt leeresasJeedSse. 

A* macska mindenjele dicsekvek, hogy 6t az 
oroszldn, kit betegsegeben megldtogata, elfogadta 
legyen rokondnak. — 'S nem volt valavd kerese 
hozzdd'i kerde a' ravasz roka. — De igen, felel 
a' kandiir, egy patkdny melly barlangjdba vette 
magdt gyakran hdborgatja «' beteg nyugahndt; arra 
kert: obiem el az alkalmatlankodot. Mindjdrt gon- 
doltam, felel ravaszdi; ritkdn gyanutlan a' nagy 
urak' leereszkedese, 's tobbnyire arra mutat, hogy 
rank szorultak. 

9, a: medvse'tam.cx. 

Egy utczajdro olasznak majma es medveje va- 
la, miket sip utdn tdnczoltata a' pornep elott, 
Epen vegzi maczko keser^ves tdnczdt, 's aleltan tes- 
teben es komor kedelyeben, pihene, midon d kbnyel 
mu majom jolibe szokve: bdtya! igy szolitja meg 
6t kaczagva; sajndlndlak, de bizony nem erek r^ed; 
mert ha tisztes komoly arczodat, meltosagos tekin- 
tetedet, iigyetlen nehezkes tdnczoddal egybevetve 
Idtom^ csak nem kaldh^a kell haczagnom magamatl — 
Eleg bolondid es konyelmilleg! morog a^ medve; en 
tdnczolok, mert tdnczoltatnak , mordul es kelletlenuly 
mintkinek testevel egyiltt szellemeis toretik; de te rab- 
letedre konyelmil kedvvel tdnczolsz, mint kinek lelke 



49 

gydva felfogni sorsdt, vagy nem erdemes jobbra, 
Ez koztiink a' kidbnbseg. Am illjek d rabtdncz 
nekedy nem irigylem; de nekem nem kelll 

Magyaroml mellyikkel kivdnsz tartani'i a' med- 
vevel-e, vagy a' majommal? 

HO. Solcsesseg utja ax elethen. 

Egy vardzs Imdn, kaldoklo dgydkoz inti negy 
fiait, — Induljatok holtom utdn. igy szola gyonge 
kergessel hozzdjok, kelet fele, mindaddig vdndo- 
rolva, mignem Zita kies volgyeben, egy dombocska' 
lejtos oldaldban, a' Bolcsesseg templomdhoz er- 
tek; itt van szdmotokra leteve a' holcseF kove. 
Kielegito boldogsdg fekszik annak birdsdban; te- 
gyetek azt tulajdonotokkd. Bardtim es rokonim kozt 
fog elvinni utatok, kiky ha betertek, szivesen foga- 
dandnak; '5 ket fenyes csillag leend kalauztok, az 
egymdst metszo osvenyeken, Atyai dlddsom melle 
fogadjdtok tandcsomat: haladni mohon ne siesse- 
teky de nap se muljon ugy el toletek, hogy ne ha~ 
ladjatok. Ezt mondd 's kiherge lelket 

Mdsnap utnak ered a' negy fiu. Az elsd hosz- 
szas kesziileteket teszy kosszu ^s bizonytalan hatdr- 
idejii az ut, ugymond^ bo eleseg, kontds es szei^ek 
iddjdrds riszontagsdgai ellen, kellenek hozzd; feles- 
leg legyek elldtva inkdbb , mint szoruljak. Mint 
nevetem majd sziikbld testvereimet, kik most boseg 
bleben gknyolnakl Ezt mondvdn, meg tobbet nyoma 
be, mdr is sulyos iszdkjdba, — A mdsodik kaczagd 

Csink, hung. Gram. 4 



50 

az igen gondost — Feleded-e, igy szolt, hogy szi- 
ves bardtoky 7*okonok kozt utazandunk'^. illy utra 
eleg a* vidor elme, vig kedely! '5 konyelmuleg ra- 
gadja lantjdt, egyeduli uti szeriil kezebe. — ^' 
harmadik alljas gondoskoddsnak von minden ke- 
sziiletet par konyvet tett utitdrsul zsehehe; egyebet 
vinni vagy felejtetty vagy feledni igyekezetty mint 
hitvdny felesleges lomot, 's akaddlyait tiszta elmel- 
kedeseinek, — A' negyedik fegyvert ovedze otalom- 
ul derekdra, nem terhelo 's csak szuksegessel toll 
iszdkot vete hdtdra^ 's vidor remenyel fogd vdn- 
dor-botjdt jobbjdba. 

Indulnak, mennek; de csak hamar maradozni 
kezd lenyomo terhe alatt az elso, 's elveszti szeme 
eUl halado tesvereit De tdn elfogja terhebdl 
kdnyni a' feleslegest? Koran sent, a' rokonokndl, 
kiknek fogyhatlan vala szivessegbk utasinkhoz, meg 
tobbel nevele lomjdt, melly megszukiiles remegese 
miatt kulonben is keveset fogya. Ennek terhe, gond- 
ja, es a' sovdrgds, mdr fel uton elbetegitek vdn- 
dorunkat; napok, hetek, honapok teltek el, mig 
haladhata, — A mdsodiknak brbk menyekzd vala 
utazdsa, Tdncz, muzsika,vig robaj, zajgott min- 
denutt a'*) merre fordult; szilaj dozsolesek, kicsa- 
pongo mulatozdsok es lakomdk kozt, fajtalan szire- 
nek, 's mdmoros bardtok feledtetek vele utja 
czeljdt Majd szdmdra rendelt vendegsegek, majd 

*) The article is placed with propriety before the interro- 
gative Adverbs: hoi? hogy? mikor? merre? etc. when they 
are used de&iitely. 



54 

tikkadtsdg ezektol, kesleltetek induldsait; szivesen 
marasztatott , szivesen maradt a' konyelmu. — Jl 
hai*madik mar az elsd keresztutndl keikedni kezde 
a' kalaiiz csillagocskdkhan, — Illy ketes feny utdn 
folytassam-e en, ugymond, utamat? 's szerencse- 
met hizonytalansdgnak dldozam-e fel? hdt ha e' 
csillagok csalfa liderczekj 's ingovdnyba vezetnek? 
Igy tiinodik elobb magdban, majd megosztva bard- 
tival ketsegeit, ezekkel egyiitt elbolcselkedi a' kalauz 
iker-csillagtol a' jdmbor szdndekot es a' jo akara- 
tot — Az irdnytlit fogadja tehdt biztosabb vezeriil 
's az eg tiindoklSbb csillagait^ 's ezeknek kepzemenyes 
vezerlesok utdn^ bujdoklik ide 's tova a' pusztdk 
sivatagjain a' rengeteg erdiik vadonjain! Pos- 
vdnyok, tavak, ingovdnyok, szedito melysegii nyild- 
sok, mdszkatlan szirtek, zdrjdk el elotte az os- 
venyeket 's visszafordulni kesztetik, Ekseg szom- 
jusdg insegei, szaggato tovisek preda-lesd vadak, 
sulyositjdk , remitik bolyongdsait Messze, messze 
marad utjdnak ohajtott czeljdtoll 

A^ negyedik vdndor vidoran halad eldre. Be- 
ter szivesen koszontve rokonihoz es atya bardtihoz, 
kedvtelve mulat ndlok, de nem feledi utjdt, *s na- 
ponkent halad ebben. Menteben^ jobbra balra kaj- 
long kindlkozo rozsdkat szaggatni, 's illatjok bal- 
zsamaindl konnyen feledi a' tovisek* kitvdny kar- 
czoldsait: a' ketes utakon hiven 's ketkedes nelkiil 
koveti vezer ket csillagdt, 's im Zita kies v'olgye^ 

illatos virdnyival mosolyg eleibe^ 's dombjdn a* 

4* 



52 

Bolcsesseg* temploma, nyilt kuszohbkkel all eUtte. 
Bizton Up he azokon vdndorunk '5 oltdrdn ta- 
Idlja leteve szdmdra a' holcsek kovet Kezehez 
veszi azty 's vele jdmbor megelegedest *s szelid 
holdogsdgot ejt hirtokdha. 

Sok bolyongdSf tevelyges utdn^ nagy sokdra 
fdradt unalommal er el a' hblcselkedo. A renienylt 
kincs helyett illy irdstolvas az oltdr felett: halan- 
dol ket kalauzod van az eletben: jozan esz 
es lelkiismeret; ha ezek vezerleset meg- 
vetedy tdvol ejted magadat hblcsessegtol 
es boldogsdgtoL 

Meg kesobben erkezek a' megrakott utazo. 
Lihegve vete le sulyos iszdkjdt, 's az okajtott czel 
fele siete. De szdmdra ez vala az oltdr felibe irva: 
kincs es vagyon sulyosan nyomnak, nottbk 
uj kincs-szomjat nbveszt; de gyujtsd ha- 
lando bdr niilly halmokra azokai, rajtok 
meg nem vdsdrolhatod azon bblcsesseget es 
holdogsdgot miktol tdvol ejtenek sulyaik! 

A' feslettseg tikkaddsdval sdppadtan mint ki- 
sertet, beesett szemekkel mint csontvdz, kinosan 
vdnczoroga utoljdra eld a' dSzsbardt Lankadt resz- 
ketd Idbakkal lep he d szent kuszbbbn^ de megut- 
kozten riad vissza olvasvdn az oltdr felett: ha- 
lando ki elni siet, ritkdn el holdogul, ki 
elzajogja eleiet, ritkdn er brbmetl Csak az 
holes es holdog, ki oily brbmeket eldel mi~ 
ket elSbb-kesdhb megbdnds nem kbvetl — 



63 

b. An Allegory, form Charles Kisfaln y. 
As met. 

Az elet kasonlo egy szekerhez, mellynek minden 
kereke mas kdtyiiha szalad. Haldl huzza ^ Remeny 
tartoztatja. Indtdat a' kocsis es pattogva surgeti 
futcisdt Szerelem es Bardtsdg benn olelkezve iilneky 
's hdjszinii szappanbidtorekokat fuvnak d levegohe^ 
A' Kivdnat nagy helyet foglal el 's onmagdt ter- 
helve mindent felvesz a' mit utkozben taldl, Egy 
brokke vdltozo alak lebbeg fdldtidk, a' benn ulok 
sznnetlen kapkodnak iitdna, de csak drnyeka esik 
redjok, ez a' Szerencse. Bolcsesseg kalauz gyandnt 
megy eld Idmpdt akar gyujtani de a' Velemeny min- 
deg melette jdr 's eloltja vildgdt Teren^ teton igy 
fat a' szeker ; ha elteved sok a' tandcslo, keves a' 
segito; ha megsulyed ezer az utmutato de hasztor- 
lan : nem kepes haladni mar, es a' kocsis ketsegbe 
esve tbrtet elore, de mindeg mSlyebb posvdnyba jut, 
Erre a' Szerelem, es Bardtsdg egymdsutdn leszdl- 
nak 's hitetlen elszbknek, a' sok felleg kiserok sem- 
misegbe oszlanak, Vedoleg jbnnek most a' Tudo- 
mdnyok is, de magokkal egyenetlen, tbbbszor oda 
utik GL szeget d hovd nem kell, 's a' szeker szerte- 
ddl. Felkaczag a' haldl 's oridssd ndve szetiizi az 
egesz tdrsassdgot 

Csak egy szelid fenyes ifju kuzd meg vele, 
diadalmasan kiragadvdn kezebdl az enyeszet szovet- 



54 

neket: ez a' Hit Vegre eljon egy tisztes 6sz 's osz- 
veszedven az elszort toredekeket azokkal mas ko- 
csikat igazgaty 's a' mint lehet a' kora sulyed^stdl 
tnegovja: ez oH Tapasztalds, 

c. Fables, fk'om Joseph Kirmin. 
J. A! forras e* a' c9atorna* 

Ellankadva a' nap hevetol taldlt egy utazo o' 
kSszikldk alatt egy hiives forrdsra, Frisesseg 6m- 
lott idle minden ereihen es hdlddoan vdlt el attoL 
Beerkezik a' vdrosba; a' piaczon a' felhok fele 
szokellett kevely mdrvdnyhol a' vizboltozat. Ldba 
alatt megszolal a' csatorna. — "^' viz, mellyet is- 
szol, amaz forrdsnak a' koszikla alatt hives vize, es 
en koztam ide,^' y,A' forrds, melly a' kSszikldbol 
foly, frisitd, hives es tiszta volt Ezen a' te fenyoized 
e7*zik/^ felele az utazo. 

A* teremtd eredeti lelkek ritkdkl idegen erdem 
tobbnyire a' mi erdemunk. — 

8. A!' fuletnile €» a' ggentjdnot'hogdr* 

Ide '5 tova szdllongott egy csendes nydri ej- 
jelen a' jdnosbogdr. ISevetseges magdval valo meg- 
elegedessel nezegette fenyld reszeit, es kevely en 
azt mondja; ,,bizony, en vagyok a' legszebb 
teremtes az eg alatt, a' nap es hold az en vetel- 
kedd tdrsaim, es a' fbldnek kirdlyi csak azert 



55 

hecsulik a' drdgakoveket, mei't az en fulemhez Jiason- 
litanak. Kozelvalo agon csevegett egy fulemile, Idtta 
OL fenylo preddt, 's annak vildgdtol vezetetven fele 
szdllotty es a' kevely bogarat elnyelte, 

Az a' lydnka, a' kinek orczdjdn liliomok es 
rozsdk nyilnaky ha okos, elrejti szepseget a' vildg 
zurzavarjdtoL 

d. Fables, from Francis Kazinczy. 

M, JL' majovn es a' rdJea, 

Mondj nekem akdrmelly nemesehh dllatot a' kit 
en mimelni ne tudjak! ugymond a' rokdnak d ker- 
kedekeny majom, De a' roka azt felele : de te mondj 
inkdhh nekem bdrmelly nemtelent a' ki meltonak 
tartdna tegedet mimelni, 

Z, A.* J'arlcas es a' fuhdsa, 

Egy juhdsznak nydjdt elolte a' kegyetlen dbg. 
Megtudta azt a' farkas 's imhol j6 condoledhii*) 
a' juhdsznak. 

Juhdsz! ugymond, tehdtvalo csakugyan hogy illy 
nagy csapds dllatid' ere ? azt hallom, egesz nydjad 
elhullott) szegeny, distant nem tudo, szep, kover 
juhok ; d lelkem is sir bennem mikor elkepzelem hogy 



*) Instead of fdjlalni, to condole. 



56 

elvesztek. Kbszonom szives reszvetet jo uram, 
Fogasi uram! Be szdnakozo szive van az urnak. 

De az hizony^ Malta a' Komondor^ ha szom- 
szedja^ vesztessegeben 6 maga vail kdrt, • — 

e. Oratorial, from Eolcsey, 
XmleJe besasedf 

K^amzincay Verenca felett, 

(Speech in commeration of Francis Kazinczy, held by 
Francis Kolcsey.) 

Mi 5zep az emberi elet, middn a' mindennapi- 
sdg' pardnyi korebol kiemelkedik , 's magdt valami 
nagy es szenty es milliomokat erdeklo czel utdn 
intezil Mi szep, vildgosito csillagkent tunni fel 
ezrek elott, es szabadoris de dltalmelegiilt lelekkel 
vdlasztani magdnak pdlydt, ^s azt jo es balsze- 
rencse kozt orokre tiszta 's soha nem hidegiild 
szenvedelemben futni meg I Azonban ez, a' mi illy 
szep^ nem egyszersmind oily boldogito is, Hdnyszor 
nem taldl a' kevvel blelo kar borzalmas hideg ille- 
tesrel, hdnyszor siilyed el a' kiizdo fenynyel es ve- 
szelylyel teljes pdlydja kozepen^ dldds es szdnako- 
dds dltal nem kiservel sot hdnyszor kell magdnak 
a' fenragyogo czelnak nyom es remeny nelkiil leszdl- 
lani, middn az erette vivo lelke' elkeseredeseben all 
ott, 's hondnak es kordnak erzeketlenseget dtkozza! 
A sorsnak kedvenczei nincsenek, csak eszkozei. 
Kemeny reszvetlenseggel az egyesek irdnt, intezi ez 
az egesz menetelet 'S igy a' mar elveszettnek Idt- 



57 

szo maghol gyahran hoszu evek utdn mrdgoztatja 
fel a' telyes szepsegii pldntdt; nem tm^tvdn figyel- 
mere meltonak, hogy azy ki a' magot a' jelenlef 
piisztasdgaiban, egyedul a' meg akkor ketes remeny- 
ert, hintette el, tohhe nines; 's emlektelen sirja 
felett diszlik a' virdghokor, midon vidr sem illat 
sent drnyek nem enyhitheti az ego fdjdalmat, minek 
gyotrelmei kozt elhamvadott. 

E' gondolatok tdmaddnak lelkemben, a' kirve- 
telkor, hogy Kazinczy Ferencz elni megsziint vala. 
Kepzeletim elombe dllitottdk a' nagy ferfiiit, ugy 
a' mint diet legutolszor e'tdrsassdgi korben Idthatdm, 
Itt Hit 6 kozottiink, d hetven evet meghaladott osz, 
a' tobb mint felszdzados iro^ egy keszulettel es kiiz- 
dessel telyes iddszak' legregibb bajnoka; 's kebleben 
hordozta borzasztolag szep pdlydja' emlekezetet, 's 
veszek utdn egy, a' nemzet elott valahdra felcsil" 
Idmlo remenytol biztatva tetteinek onerzeseben ke- 
resett az elef nyomaszto terhe ellen enykuletet, — 
enykiiletet a' gondok ellen, mik vegnapjdig kinoz- 
tdk, Eszkoz volt 6 is a' sors' kezeben; izzadott 6 
is azert, a' minek gyiilmolcseit aratni mds fogja; 
felszdzadig kuzdott a' pusztdban '5 egy messze pil- 
lantds az igeref foldebe I6n minden jutalma, — 

J 61 erzem en T, Tdrsassdg, midon e' tiszte- 
letre melto kor' elkunyt tagjdnak emlekezetet megu- 
jitom, nem kellene illy elbusito kepeket mutatnom 
fel. Azok kozt dllok, kiknek szent kotelessegok, 
minden egyebet felreteven, a' kaza* dicsoseget esz- 



58 

Jcdzleni; 's felednem kellett volna taldn Kazinczyt, 
az embert, a' szenvedettet, es egyedul a' literatort 
dllitnom eld, tiszta nyugalomhan mint milvesz a' 
mdrvdnyszobroty hogy red koszorukat aggassunk. 
De az en lelkenC minden idedi osszeolvaddshan 
vagynak egymdssal, ^s d sziv^ hurjain rezegnek ke- 
resztiil. Rokonom es hardtom, tanitom es tdrsam 
valtty 's most midon szavam az elnyugodott felett 
foghangzarti: kehlemhe zdrjam-e fajdalmamat? fel- 
jek-e, ha kinos erzelmeket rezzentek fel, 's a' visz- 
szaemlekezes' szelid ohajtdsai helyett konycseppeket 
fakasztok'^ Es bar fakaszthatnek szivbol forro ver- 
konyeketl bdr szozatom mlldm erovel katnd ke- 
resztill a' kazdt, 's e' nemzetet! melly sajdtjeleseit 
szdzadok ota konyezetlen Idtd sirba szdllani 's nem 
tudd, hogy kebleik sebbel rakva valdnak 6 erette; 
nem tudd, hogy neki dldozdnak fel minden szeren- 
csety maradekaikra nem hagyhatvdn egyebet, aH meg 
nem ismert, meg nem jutalmazott, sokszor epen el- 
taposott, erdem' keseru dicsosegenel. 

A' vegzet akard ezt igy! es valoban ritka szep 
es jo kezdddott es tenyeszett valaha eldrement dl- 
dozatok nelkuL Kenyer titan indul a' sokasdg; 
magdnyos hasznokat vaddsz 's azt d mi az egeszet 
erdekli, a' mi lelket tdpldl, nemzeti erot fejt ^s 
gyumolcsei csak jovenddben ernek meg, gyuloli. 
Atydinkat hoszu zsibbadds lankasztd; vdlt idd, 
mikor bunbsen feledenek mindent a' mi oket a' 
porboly hovd hulldnak^ felemelhete vala. Nekdny 



59 

kevesnek melleben tdmadt a* gondolat: a' kaza' ve- 
szelyben forgo nyelvet ragadni meg, ezt felvird- 
goztatniy ezt erdre hozni, 's erejevel rdzni fel az 
dlomha sulyedt nepet hogy Idsson es erezzen. De 
a' nep oket nem hallgatd; de cH nepnek erejenem 
volt redjok fel 's jovdbe kipillantani; '« igy el- 
kagyatva futdk meg a' pdlydt, kiilonkoddknek tar- 
tattak es kinevettetenek ; mert nem akardk kovetni 
a' bolcsesseget, melly egyedul a' jelenleV kasznai- 
rol gondoskodik. Illy korulmenyek kozt kuzdott a' 
mi Kazinczynk is; nem haszon nelkiil a' nemzetre, 
nem nyom nelkiil cC jovd korra nezve , de fajdal- 
miil onmagdnak, Mert koszorui nem enykitek, ha- 
nem egettek komlokdt; 's neve' hires voltdt elte' 
nyugalmdval fizete. Pedig 6 vala» ki fiatalsdgd kii- 
szoben, meg csak tizenhat eves gyermek, iroink^ pa- 
rdnyi koreben megjelenven^ nemes, de tiszteletben, 
kevesektol tartott czeljdt el nem csiiggedd eroben, 
pdratlan dllandosdggal szunetlen kaladdsban kb- 
vette. vala ki nemzetenek negyven ev elott hirte- 
len fellobbano 's hirtelen elalvo tiizei oltkatatlan 
hordd kebleben, meg akkor is, mikor lelekfagy- 
lalo veszek kornyekezek, vala ki a' szerencset sem 
nem igerd, sem nem nyujto literatori pdlydra szd- 
mosokat tiizelt fel; 's mozgdst es eletet ontott a' 
tbvises utra, mit sok mdsok elunatkozva, ketsegtol 
leverve pusztdn hagytanak, Ki nem emlekezik visz- 
sza az 6 Gessnerere*) '5 BdcsmegyeijereV^ 
*) Works of Kazinczy. 



60 

Mi maradando bekatdst ton a' szep izlesu fiatal iro, 
ki alantmdszds ^s iskolai feszesseg helyett, kbnyii le- 
hegesii fenseggel es csinnal jelene meg; 's a' vala- 
hdra tokeletre jutando magyar Muzeum, 's az 6 Or- 
pheusa sebesen eltiind jelenetek valdnak irgyan; de 
az dltalok hintett mag, evtizedek utdn sokat igero vi- 
rdgokat vala termendo, 

Azonhan miert emlitem ezt? meg akkor if- 
jusdga^ erejehen elt; 's polgdri fekvese dltal, a 
litei'atorkoddst kisero kedvetlensegektdl fodoztetek, 
Csuda-e ha a' Idnglelkil emher fdradatlan mun- 
kdlf^ ha a' kozonseg' reszvetlenseget csuggedetlen 
ture? ha magdt feledven, hazdjdnak szentele min- 
denety es o' sivatag jelenhen csak a' vi7'dgz6 j6- 
vendot szemlelte^ De jott az iddpont, egyike 
azoknak, miket a' soi^s lesvjto villdmkent rejteget 
felhdiben, hogy vdratlan r^ohandssal bldokoljenek 
es ime 6 tetteV 's katdsa^ munkds korebSlldnczok koze 
mty es szabadsdgdt 's elte^ minden 7'emenyeit keted- 
fel hoszu evig siratja, Hdny nem veszte el bdtorsd- 
gdt, hdny nem mondott le keble^ legforrob vdgyairol, 
kit a' szerencse nem epen illy kemenyen probdla meg I 
A mi bardtunk buban mint oromben, ketseg mint 
remeny kbzt, sajdt idedjdhoz hii maradt; es a' briinni 
erdssegben, mint a' kufsteini kegyormon, *s a' mun- 
kdcsi vdr' falai kozt szerelme ol nyehhez nem ki- 
sebbedek. Ott a' vigasztaldstol iires magdnyban 
erlelte meg 6 a' nagy gondolatot: ujito vdltozdst 
hozni a' nyelvbe; ^s ez dltal izlesunknek, gondol- 



61 

kozdsunk modjdnak, 's tudomdnyi mivelddesunk- 
nek mas es nagy befolydsu utat mutatni. 

A' mi magyar nyelvunkkel vegkezvitt ujitdsokat 
sokan nevettek 's nevetik maiglan; pedig azok a' 
nemzeti ebredezo szellem^ termeszetes ki'dtesei vald- 
nak. Ezen szellem, mint mindig '5 mindenutt: ugy 
most is es kozottunk egyes jelenetekben tiintette 
fel magdt, hogy lassankent kozonseges legyen. 
Nyelvunket ragadd meg elebb, az leven a' legter- 
meszetesb mod egymdst erteni, egymdsra figyel- 
mezni, idedkat venni es adni, 's azt a mi «' ke- 
belben titkon es kulon for?*, nyilvdnnd es egyete- 
mive csindlni. Illy szempontbol tekintem en a' 
nyelvvel kezdett 's gyors rohaiidssal eldre tbrekedo 
vdltozdst Mert semmi sem esik a' vlldgon ok es 
egybefugges nelkul: a' mi tor^tenik ma, annuk mag- 
vai szdzad elott, '5 taldn senkitol sem sejtve, hin- 
tettek el, '5 a' mi tortenni fog szdzad utdv. az a' 
mostani tettekbol, gondolatokbol, vagy taldn csak 
sejditesekbdl ver magdnak gyokeret Homdlyban 
el es munkdl az iro, 's egykorui dltal kicsinysegek- 
kel bajlodovak tartatik; mert idejet idegen sza- 
vak magyarrd tetelevel, regiek keresgeleserel, 's 
tobb illy pardnyisdggal vesztegeti, De a vezeto 
okot legtobbnyire csak a' kovetkezes vildgositja fel, 
's tisztdn csak a' maradek fogja Idthatni; mikent 
nyert az egesz nemzet szo dltal idedt, idea dltal 
tetiet, 's tett dltal jotevo egyetemi vdltozdsokat; 
mikent enyesztek el egymds utdn szdz meg szdz /e- 



62 ^ 

lekszorongato formdk, 's mind ezek iitdn mikent Un 
lehetsegesse sok szep es jo, minek forrdsai, hoszu 
idokig zdrva leven, folydst nem lelkettek. 

Kazinczy nem vala legelso, nem is egyetlen egy, 
ki a' nyelvvel tortent nevezetes forduldst kezde es 
eszkozle, De ove a' dicsoseg^ hoyy izlest pdrositott 
igyekezeteivel, hogy dolgozdsait erzelmi hevevel el- 
tudta onteni, 's hogy a' regiseg, tudomdnydt, mit 
Baroti Szabo keresett, 's a' mi Revait nagygyd 
tette, telyesen meltdnyld. Csak igy, 's csak nekile- 
hetett hatalmdhan oily szeles terjedtsegu befolydst 
szerezni, 's oily kozonseges erovel hatni a' nyehre 
es irokra; mint nem meg az ideig senki mds. A' 
kozelebb mult btven 's nehdny e?; alatt, ki volt 
iroink kozul, kivel e' fer^fiu kisebb vagy nagyobb 
erintesbe nem dllott volna'l Ki nem kereste isme- 
retseget a' jelesnek, kit Orczy es Raday szerettek, 
kit Baroczi kedvele, kinek Virdg es Revai bardti 
valdnak, ki Dayka' es CsokonaV kifejlesokre nagy 
befolydst gyakorolt? Keresztul nezek iroinknak 
itt e' tiszteletre melto gyiilekezetben jelen dllo 
koszorujdn es sokat Idtoky ki a' legelsd szikrdt Ka- 
zinczy^ Idnglelketol kapd, 's kit futdsdban ennek 
pelddja vezerlett 's dllhatatossdga orizett meg 
visszakanyatldstol. Neki nem volt eleg minden lelki 
erejet es szive' minden erzelmeit a' nagy czelra 
szentelniy dolgozdsoktol elboritva sem forditd el 
a' haza^ serdiilo ifjairol tekintetet; 's minden he- 
viild pillantds, minden kilobbano gerjelem, melly 



63 

bennkiizdd er6t, munkdssdgot, bdt'mi tdvolrol sejdit- 
tetett, reszvetelet nagy reszben nyere meg. E resz- 
vetel dltal adott 6 sok mulolag kipattanni Idtszo 
szikrdnak maradandosdgot ; e' reszvetel dltal p6- 
told ki sok kezdonek azt, a' mit boldcgabb fekvesii 
nepeknel az olvaso kozonseg elso tapsai visznek 
veghez. Mert volt idd, keseruen emlekezem vissza, 
midon a' literatori pdlydra kesziilo ifjut sziildi, mint 
veszni indultat sirattdk, midon a' magyar konyvet 
magyar iron kiviil mdsnem ismerte, 's midon fiatal 
miivesz egykoi'ui kbzt sent taldlt keblet, holkiomol- 
hessen. Hdny nem nemult el akkor, mint cH fog- 
sdgba zdrt fiilmile, vegkepen? hdny nem fogott 
volna meg elnemulni, kanemha 6, d sirlglan buzgo, 
nyujtott volna vigasztalo szot? Mert o mondhatd, 
meg nagyobb igazzal, mint az Anckises' fia: ifjul 
renyt es valo munkdt tolem tanulj, szereiicset md- 
soktoll 

,,'Snem csak azokra hatott d, kik nevet es miiveit 
tiszteletben tartottdk, kanem azokra is, kik erdnta el- 
lenseges indulattalviseltetenek, Valdnak ugyan is nem 
kevesen, kik vagy erdenieitirigylettek; ^^.gy miivite- 
lete dltal erdekelteitek, vagy okfejeit, miken dolgozd- 
sait alapitdyVeszelyeseknek lenni hittek. Ezek' korebol 
ute ki magdt a' sokdig titokban forrott nyelvujitdsi 
por, melly Kazinczy ellen intezet szemelyes csapdst; 
sok a' literatori viadalmakkal koz, illetlen scendkdt*) 



*) Instead of jelendSf scence. 



64 

tuntetett fel: de tdrgya dltal d nemzetben eddig 
szokatlan figyelmet gerjesztett; 's a' red kovetkezd 
ellenkatdsndl fogva iroinkha elevenseget ontott, ser- 
diilo ifjusdgunk^ elehe szebb es terjedetteb pdlydt 
jelelt, 's azt a' mitez ideignem birdnk,egy olvaso 
kozonsegety alkotoit^ szdmra, es reszvetre nezve 
kicsinyt ugyan, de remenyt adot^ hogy valaha neve- 
kedni '* iroink erdnt melegedni nagyobb merUkben 
fog. 'S ez okra nezve az en Ssz bardtomat soha 
Sean tai'iottam szdndsra meltonak a' nyilcik miatt, 
miket ellensegi kezek redja, mint irora lottek, Nem 
zavarkattdk volna ezek or eg kora* nyugalmdt, ha 
azt a' sors mds oldalrol kemenyebb csapdsokkal nem 
rabolja el. Mei't peldakent ragyogni 's minden fo- 
gyatkozdsok mellett is, miket az emberi termeszet 
szuksegesen hoz magdval, 's mindm ellenigyekeze- 
tek mellett is, mik ezen fogyatkozdsokat vagy nagyon 
kitiintetniy vagy koltottekkel is szdmositani tore- 
kedneky tiszteloket es kovetoket taldlni, vigasztalo 
erzelem, 'S mint kell e' vigasztalo erzelemnek 
erosodniey midon az ellenfel dltal kintett mag sajdt 
oromunkre 's hasznunkra virul fel! 'S ha Kazin- 
czy, mint hiszem es tudom, a' nemzeti nyelvet es ha- 
zdt tiszta szerelemmel olelte dltal: milly konnyen 
kellett neki gunyt es megtdmaddst tiimie, middn 
az ellene szdnt csapdsok dltal a' nyelv' foleledese' 
nagy munkdjdt elosegitni szemlelte! Az onerzes, mit 
6 oily meltdn hordhatott kebleben, irigylest erde- 
melne;\ ha valamit irigylenimk lehetne a' ferfiunak, 



65 

kinek a' sors ez erzelmen kivul oily igen keveset 
nyujt vala, 

Sok mindennapi enihert kallek mar eleteben es 
haldldban magasztalo heszeddel hirdetni; de gyulo- 
letes elottem minden hizelkedes 's kivdlt a* kopor- 
son till, hoi o' tortenef komoly Muzsdjdnak or- 
szdga kezdodik. A valo evdeni^ alakja nagyito cso- 
vek nelkul is tisztdn Idthato, 's ugy hiszem azok- 
nak, miket eddig elmondottam, sent hizonyitdsdra, 
sent mentsegere szuksegem nem leend. Mert nem 
dllitdm, hogy Kazinczy brokemleku miiveket hagyott 
maga utdn: mint az Ilids, nemmonddm; kogynyel- 
vunket a' lehetseg* legfelsobb pontjdra hdgtatta, 
hogy torekedesein till mdr nines kaladds, kivul 
mdr nincsen ut Csak azt monddm: Kazinczy, iz- 
lest erohoz csatolva, kezdett cC nyelvvel kuzdeni 
oily korban, midon az egy nagy es kovetkezessel 
telyes mozdulatra vala kajlando, 's izetlenseg *s 
gyongeseg dltal orokre hibds utat vett volna ma- 
gdnak. Kazinczy, a' maga Gesneretol fogvdst a* 
Pannonhalmi utig minden irdsait csinnal, hevvel es 
ifjui elettel ontbtte be 's ez dltal az irosereg^ fi- 
gyelmet magdra r^agadvdn, literaturdnkban uj idd- 
szak' alapitoja Ion; Kazinczy felldza^ztott maga 
ellen sok irot, 's ezzel sok kilobbandst okozott, 
melly iroinkra es nemzetUnkre elektromi szikra gya- 
ndnt munkdlt 's a' literatura' pardnyi kbret kiszele- 
sitette. Ezek az 6 nagy es tagadhatatlan erdemei. 
Mert prosdja minden fogyatkozdsi mellett is brbkre 

Csink, hung. Gram. 5 



66 

szep lesz; versein milveszi kez fog ismerszeni. 
'5 kivdlt epigrammdjh «' koltes' koszorujuban her- 
vadatlan rArdgok maradnak'. de a' nemzetet nem 
azok dltal teve hdlaadosdvd. Szellem vala 6, melly 
«' tespedo egeszet oily sokdig nemcsak egyedul ele- 
venite, 's lepcso, mellyen egykorui magashra hdg- 
hassanaky 's szerencsesehb maradek tetore juthas- 
son. A' sors taldn nem fog benniinket ismet elsii- 
lyeszte^iiy 's igy eljo az id6, el kell ciz idonek jbn- 
niey midon az 6 ^s egyiittelok' dolgozdsai ragyogo 
muvek dltal fognak homdlyba tetetni, csak a' le- 
lek, mellyet 6 az egesznek kolcsbnozott , meg nem 
szmiik folyvdst ragyogni^ munkdlni, mig a' nem- 
zetiseg' utolso szikrdja el nem hamvad. Ez oldal- 
rol kell otet meltatnunk, ez oldalrol mit nem erdemlett 
6 mi tdliink? JSyelvilnk'' bajnokdva szentele magdt, 
'5 e* nyelv d mi oseink* egyetlen egy hagyomdnya, 
mit a' szdzadok^ pusztito veszei kbziil keves ku ke- 
zek ragadhatdnak kl, Es ti hivek hoi vagytok? hoi 
a' hdlay mit a' hazdtol erdemletek'^ hoi a' kbny 
melly szentte tenne a' sir^dombot, mit hamvaitok fe- 
lett a' mindmnapi szokds sziiken hdnyatott! 

Epesek lesznek taldn^ szavaim ; de keserii ki- 
nos emlekezetek tdmadnak lelkemben. Mert gondol- 
kodom a' neprol^ melly Zrinyit*) az trot, el tudta 
feledni; melly Faludyt*Jy mig elt, nem ismere; melly 



*) Poets of the XVIIIth Century. 



67 

Revairot*') kallani nem akart; melly Baroti Szabof*) 
es Virdgot**) meg nem siratta; 's mellynek kebeleben 
az otvenhat evet szakadatlan munka kozt eltoltott 
Kazinczy nyomoriLsdggal elt es holt. O szep re- 
menyekre sziiletve, sokat igero ifjusdgot elve, hir- 
telen ol sors dltal leveretett; 's midon elotte min- 
den pdlya, a' Uteratorin kivul, bezdrddek, ez egyet- 
lenegy pdlydn kbzonsegunk elvond kezet a' ma- 
gat neki dldozo eUl, hogy tevelyegjen elkagyatva, 
kuzdjon nem segitve, 's arcza^ izzaddsdt 's szeme^ 
verkonyeit hagyja jeliil kezirataiiiy 's drva gyer- 
mekein inseget, Ket rendbeli folyoiratai reszvet- 
lenseg miattmindjdrt kezdetben elakadtanak; nyom- 
tatott szdmos milvei tizenegy millio nepesseg kozt 
vevot nem leltenek;' legnagyobb becsii keziratainak 
nyomtatot nem talalt, haldlig tartott fdradozdsai' 
jutalmdt nem arathatta az orszdgban, hoi annyi 
idegen gazdag tdpldldst nyert magdnak, Voltak 
ugyan, tagadni nem fogom^ kik 6 fele is reszvevd 
keblet nyitottak, 's kik eletenek gondjait egyes j6- 
tetekkel enyhitgeteky de a' nemzef nagy ir'ojdnak 
jotetekre szorulni nem kellene; 's pillantatonkent 
nyujtott vigasztalds hoszu kinokat nem orvosoU 
Ah Idttam en e' kinokat! mert tanuja valek dlmat- 
lanul toltott ejjeleinek, tanuja valek a' fdjdalmas 
eljajduldsnaky midon bardtja^ viddm asztala mellett 



•) Professor of Hungarian Literatnr at Pest. 
*•) Poets of the XVinth and XlXth centuries. 

5* 



68 

gyermekeire visszaemlekezetU Megrezzent akkor 
minden ideg kehlemhen^ 's verdldozatnak kepzeleni 
a* szent oreget, melly a' nep^ huneiert utolso hor- 
gesei kozt vonaglik, — 

Tdrsaiml nem szenved 6 tobbetl Lenyugvek dsz 
furtjeiben a' szepkalmi *J lak' romjai kozt, ugy kuny- 
vdn ely mint szdzadok eUtt, ol nyugoti tenger^ part- 
jain egymds hazdnak fia — Camoens. Es gyerme- 
keit idegen kez fogja dpolni; es sirjdt szivszorulva 
keriili ki a' magyar nyelvmuveszy sorsdtol rettegven. 
'S bar emlekezete^ keseru voltdt szereiicsesebb evek 
hamar feledtetnek ell hogy a' maradek eldtt csak 
dicsosege ragyogjon, kinai pedig megfoghatatlanok 
legyenek, — 

d. Historical, from Peczely. 
Muda* vitsaavetele. 

Junius 15^^ indult meg komdromi tdbordbol 
Lothringiai Kdroly, Seregei osszes szdma 63,000 
volt, koztok: 14,000 Magyar^ 30,000 birodalombeli 
segito hadak, cH tbbbiek onkentesek, 's d csdszdr 
orokos tartomdnyaibol valok. A' Magyarok a' Nd- 
dor, EszterhdzH, Pdlfi\ Battkydni% Fetnehdzfy a' 
tbbbek is mind a* legbdtrabb, legeszesb, harczban 
tapasztalt ferfiak' vezerlesfi alatt, kik kozul nev 
szerint emlitenddk: a 8000 Brandenburgiakat ve- 



*) Szephalom was the place where Kazinczy lived. 



69 

zetett Schdning, a' csdszdr^ veje, 's bajor vdlaszto^ 
fejedelem^ Maximilian Emanuel, 's a' hadeni Mark- 
grof Lajos, i/jak mind ketten, amaz ah'g 24 — 30 
eves, de mind ketten tapasztalt vitezek mar, 's os- 
meretesek a' Bees' kozelebbi megszdlldsdhan kitiin- 
tetett bdtorsdgukroL Junius 18^^ erkezett meg d 
herczeg Buda aid, mindennel, mi sikert igerhet gaz- 
dagon elldtva, Rakva volt a' Duna liajokkal; ezeken 
'5 a' Duna' kbzel eso szigetein annyi elelem, kogy 
100,000 ember 9 honapig konnyen megerhette vele. 
A' becsi fegyvertdrbol kozattak, egyeb vivo szer- 
szerszdmokon kiviil, 60 legnagyobb 30 kisebb ren- 
du, es kO mosdr dgyuk. — 

A' seregek' kormdnyzdsd megosztva annyiban, 
hogy a' fiatal tiiz-es erdtelyes csdszdri vdnek a' maga 
8000 Bajorjain kiviil, m^g ugyan annyi csdszdriak, 
's 5000 Szdszok adattak parancsnoksdga aid: de 
a' fdvezerseg valosdggal, a' sokat tapasztalt, melyen 
Idto, kidegen fontolo Kdrolyndl, ki mozgato lelke 
az egesznek. Orom de egyszersmind nemi titkos 
borzalom futotta el mindenek\ kivdlt a' Magyarok* 
kebleit, midSn megerkeztokkel Buddnak dltalok 2 
evvel elebb erdsen megrongdlt falait, omladekaik- 
bol kivetkeztetve , a' legjobb dllapotban, uj feny- 
ben magasan egnek emelkedni megpillantdk ; mert 
egyszerre eUttok dllott a' vdrnak a' gydszos mo- 
hdcsi vernap ota kidllott sok visszontagsdga, tbbb 
rendbeli ostroma, a' roppant ember vesztesseg, 
mellybe azok keriiltek, '5 mellybe ez utolsonak hitt 



70 

is hogy keriilni fog, eldre hizonyosnak tartottak; 
hallva kivdlt a' vitez AbdV nagy kesziileteit; maga- 
nak, katondinak a' most ujra 6000 reZ szapointott, 
igy osszesen mar 16,000 emberbdl alio Orseregnek 
veg magok eltokeleset: eletoktol elebby mint a' 
vdrtol vdlni meg, Igy is Istenbe vetett erds bizoda- 
lommal 's azzal az ostromlottakehoz hasonlo el- 
szdntsdggal; hogy vagy gydznek, vagy dicsden vesz- 
nek, bdtran szembe szdllnak a' mieink az akaddlyok- 
kaly mellyeket termeszet, mesterseg, 's mindenek felett 
a* vdrat oltalmazok* renditetlen lelke^ egyetertese 
Idtszanak veszelytelyes merenyokben elejokbe vetni, 
Hogy az ellenseg' erejet annyival inkdbb meg- 
osszdkf kdrom oldalrol hatdrzdk a' vdrat egy- 
szersmind megtdmadni, fovezereink, A^ szereny 
kerczeg az ifju tiizes vdlasztofejedelemnek enged- 
ven a' kelyvdlasztdst: ez a' vdr megett a' szent 
Gellert hegyen fogott dlldst, mivel azon reszrdl 
volt a' vdr, a' legerosebb , legtobb nehezseggeh 
vesszedelemmel jdro a' megtdmadds, Epen az ellen- 
kezo 6ldalon» a' becsi kapu irdnydban, dllott meg 
hadaV legnagyobb reszevel a' kerczeg; a' vizivd- 
ros felol Sckdning a' Brandenburgiakkal ^s nehdny 
csdszdri csapatokkaL MdrgiV szigetere tetetett a! 
korhdz', a' lovassdg' egy resze CsepeV szigeten; a' 
mdsik nagyobb fele, az Eszek fel6l vdratott Nagy- 
vezer' feltartoztatdsdra, Pdlfy' vezerlese alatt, Sze- 
kes Fehervdr fele, d Sdrviz mentiben, allitta- 
tott fel. 



71 

Az elsdbh napokhan mindjdrt ket oily torte- 
net adta magiit eld, mibol csak jot jovenddltek 
magoknak a mieink. Pdlfy egy, Ercsihol Buddra 
szdndekozo torijk csapatot kbrul fogott, es ugy le- 
vdgott; hogy az egeszbol nem menekedhetett tobb 
hdromndL Ugyan akkor ol CsepeV szigeten 6rt dllo 
Batthydni elfogott 14 ellenseges hajot, mellyekben 
szdmos f6 tbrok asszonysdgok , koztok aH bascC 92 
vdlogatott nobol alio hdremje, sajdt felesege, kin- 
cselkkel egyiitt menekedni probdldnak, cC fenyegeto 
veszely eloL Veltnel nagyobb volt cH nyeresseg, ki- 
mondhatatlan az orom. A' fogolynok, mind ritka 
szepsegek, szdzndl felesb szdmmal, mint rabszolgd- 
16k eladattak, a' nyert preddn megosztozott a* 
diadalmas huszdrsdg, siiveggel merve aranyat, eziis- 
tot, mit egyiitt tobbre becsiiltek '^^OOyOOO aranyndl, 

Miutdn a' futo-sdnczokon, az ellenseg' kaszta- 
Ian kiiitesi kozt. karmad napig szakadatlanul dol- 
goztatott, Junius 21^" kozzd kezdett a' vizivd7'os 
dgyltztatdsdhoz Kdroly herczeg; 24^° a' nyitott 
resen mdr rohandst parancsolt^ 's bdr mint vitez- 
kedett is az orsereg, eszakdra kelve engedni ken- 
szerite azty 's a' felsd vdrosba vonulni, Julius \'° 
napjdn ezt is elkezdte^ meg pedig tUzes golyokkal 
lovetni, 's i2 napi folytonos tuzeles dltal annyira 
megrongdlta falait, hogy nagy remenysegben volt 
ostrommal megvetelekez, Julius 13*° tekdt estveli 
6 orakor rohanot fuvat Az adott jelre ritka lel- 
kesedessel tbrnek eld hdrom feldl futo-sdnczaikbol 



72 

vitezeink. Kerns oranegyed alatt viegkdgva dlta- 
lok OL meredek hegy^ dlt-torve az ellenseges sdncz, 
a' vdrheliek irtoztato kd'- puska'- es dgyiigolyo'- zd- 
pora kozott Mdr az omladekon foly a' harcz oily 
dtalkodottsdggal egyik, mint mdsik resz7'6L A csata' 
es oldokles^ duhehen Ahdi basa elgyvjtatja Idpor- 
ral toltotty foldalatti furdsait; egy pillanat alatt 
szetszaggatva, levegdbe vetetnek az eldvivok, a' 
megrepesztett folddel az drokba zuhannak d ha- 
tulsok; puskaporos zsdkok hajigdltatnak utdnok, 's 
mieldtt a' felig zuzattak^ felig perzseltek magok 
menteserdl gondoskodkatdnak , ol kofalakrol seb- 
ten leugrdlo meresz vdrbeliektol osszekonczoltat- 
nak, Elebb, mintsem a' foldalatti furdsok elpat- 
tantaky kihdgtak mdr aH falakra nekdnyan a* mie- 
ink kbziil; Idtvdn ezeknek veszedelmet pihent csa- 
patok sietnek segitsegokre , legelol az idegen nem- 
zetbeli onkent vdllalkozott iirak es Catalaunusok, 
Ezek, a' fast es Idng kbzbtt, a' falakra vergddven, 
d Jancsdrokat visszaverik; azutdn tdrsaikkal egye- 
sulve, a' sdnczon keresztiil a' mdsodik falig el6- 
nyomulnak; de mielott felhdghatndnak , az.omladek 
mellyen kapaszkoddnak terhoket nem birva, leszakadt, 
sokakat agyonfity tobbeket megsebesit; a' hatrdlds- 
rol megsem gondolkozik senki az osiromlok koziily 
mignem a' fdvezer, Idtva a' leketetlenseget, 1400 
bdtor vitezei' elhullta utdn, visszaterot fuvat — 

Mihelyt nepet rendbe szedte, ujra elkezdte 's 
U napig egyere folytatta az dgyuztatdst Kdroly 



73 

herczeg, sz, Ferenczi szerzetes Gdbor Peter* es a' 
JSiederlandi Gonzalez AntaV igazgatdsa alatt Leg- 
irtoztatohb pusztitdst tettek az ezen utolso dltal 
feldllitott mosarak,mellyekh6l mdsdnyi, — es tohh — 
nekezseguy tiizet okddo golyok hdnyattak a' vdrba. 
Egy ezek kozUl Julius 22^^^^ a' fofegyvertdrra re- 
piily keresztiiltori a' holthajtdst; meggyul a' tohh 
mint ezer md'sa port magdhan rejto puskapoi'os 
torony: egy percz alatt az egesz epiilet a' szom- 
szed kdzakkaly '5 mintegy 1500 emherrel a' leve- 
gohe vetetik; az eg elsotetul; a' fdld koroskbrul 
egy mertfoldnyire megrendul; a' sdncz 60 lepes- 
nyire szelyel nyilik ; a' Duna drkdhol kivetodik, ugy 
kogy az orok futdssal kentelenek a' 7'okandkahok eldl 
menekedni, Sokan lettek a' mi tdhorunkhan isy kivdlt 
a' kozelehb dllott Bajorok koziil, d lehullott omladek- 
kok' dldozatjai. Innen merve az ellenseg' leketo kdrdty 
ilyedtsegety Kdroly kerczegy rogton mielott zavaro- 
ddsdhol magdhoz johetne, folkereti a' vdrat Grof 
Konigsegg dltal, minden 'cagijonaik — '5 hozzd tarto- 
zoikkal egyutt szahad elmenetelt qjdnlva a' vdrheliek- 
nekn ha onkent kaput nyitnak; 's kogy ha nem: korra, 
nemre, rangra tekintet nelkiil, vegkiirtdssal fenye- 
getve mindnydjokat Ahdi hasa minden felelet he- 
lyett szdsz kapitdny Lehel, 's szdz mds tdrsaf el- 
metszett fejeiket pozndkra f'uzve, magosan, kogy 
az ostromlok Idtkassdk, a' Stambuli kapu elibe 
folfuggeszteti. Erre iijonnan megdordiilnek menny- 
dorgesoket Becsig hallattato retenetes dgyuink, '5 



74 

oily szornyii romholdst teszneJc kogy mas nap, ha 
Mdonbs eset dltal meg nem gdtoltatnak ostromot 
valdnak a' mieink ismet probdlandok. Egy szeren- 
csetlenill elgyult foldalatti furdsunk sajdt embereink 
koziil igen sokakat eltemet, megol vagy megsehesit; 
az drtdsra soha nem rest ellenseg e' kozhen kiro- 
kaTiy 's mieldtt a' nagyohh erotol \nsszanyomatnek, 
a' Brand enburgiaknak elehb, ezutdn a' Szdszoknak 
esven, belolok tobb szdzat levdg. 

Julius ^T^^^ csakugyan meglett a' szdndekba 
vett mdsodik dltaldnos rohands, az elsonel is j6- 
val hevesb es verengzobb. Tizenket ezer vdlogatott 
vitez rohanta meg egyszerre a' vdrat, 6000 a' becsi, 
4000_, mind Bajorok, ol vdrmegeiti oldalt, amazok 
a' Pfalz-lSeuburgi herczeg' es Souches tdborno¥, 
ezek vdlaszto fejedelmok' Badeni, Lajos^ es Sabaudiai 
Eugenius* vezerlese alatt, Ket ezer Magyar a' 
ISddorral, a' feljebbi napokban fellobant puska- 
porral ejtett akna feloli resre kuldetett Hdrom 
ordig tartott a' viadal. Elebb , minthogy az ellen- 
seg nem csak igen duhosen harczolt, hanem nehdny 
foldalatti furdsait is igen szerencsesen gyuj- 
totta fel, visszatolattak a* ket fd oldalon a' mieink, 
Kivont karddal dllja utjdt hdtrdlni kezdo oveinek 
Kdroly herczeg; Badeni Lajos es Eugenius sze- 
melyesenvezetik ujabb tiizbe a' megremult Bajo7'okat; 
magok eUl karczobiak mindeniitt, sebet is kapnak, 
de szei'encsere egyik sem veszedelmest. A Magya- 
rokviteziil felvergodtek a' toresig, 's bdrdlttornibka^ 



75 

sokkal nanyohh szdmu ellensegen lehetetlen, kicsapd- 
sdt legaldbb, mi killdetesok' foczelja volt, feltartoztat- 
jak, 's akaddlyoztatni azon oldalrol tdrsaik' harczdt 
nem engedik, Megvetettek halhatlan erolkodes — , 
's a' sebeseket nem szdmldlva, 2600^ mdsok szerint 
2900, csdszdriak, 400 Brandenburgiak, 800 Bajo- 
7'oky 200 tisztek eleste utdn, a' kiilso erossegeky 
csdszdri zdszlok lobogtak a' bdstydkon, a' legelso 
eyy koz magyar vitez dltal feltuzve, kinek nevet 
nem, csak szdrmazdsdt tudjiik, hogy gydri fi*) volt; 
az ellenseg, mellynek meg nagyobb volt a' mienknel 
vesztessege, aH belsd vdrba szorult, ^s most eloszor^ 
felel a' b(isa: hogy cC vdrat feladnia lehetetlen 's bi- 
zalmdt veti a' Profetdban hogy ez azt, mint eddig, 
ezutdn is megoltalmazza csudatevo hatalmdval. — 
Kdroly miutdn a' bels6 erdsseg vivdsdhoz d 
sziikseges elokesziileteket megtette, fair onto dgyiiit 
az dltalellenben levd hegyre nem kis bajjal felvo- 
nattdy sdt a' falak' egy reszet is fold alatti furd- 
saival fohetette: hasonlo feltetelek alatt, mint 
eloszor, ujra felkereti a' vdrat Abdi jol iudta, 
hogy Constanczindpolyban kozonsegesen konydrgesek 
es predikdcziok tartattattak minden templomokban 
Buda' megmaraddsdert; hogy tobbmint 10^000 ember 
imddkozotta' Sultdnnal a* fovdros' egyik legnepesebb 
piaczdn, az ostromnak Buddtol, a^ pestisnek es hd- 
borunak a' birodalomtol elforditdsdert; de ugyand 
jol Idtta helyzete^ szoridtsdgdt is; azei^t szelideb- 

*) Instead of ferfi, man. 



76 

ben mint elebb, de egesz elkatdrozottsdggal vdla- 
szold: hogy Buddt, az osman europai birodalom- 
nak, sot magdt Jerusalemnek is kulcsdt, magdt ugyan 
nem, de helyette akdrmelly mas magyar vdrat, tob- 
bet is egynel, kesz dltalengedni ol herczegnek, csak 
kagyon fel az ostrommaL A herczeg egyenesen 
csak Buddt kivdnvdn, vegre ezt is megajdnld, azon 
foltetellely hogy a' hdborunak azzal vege szakad, 
Minthogy Kdroly ezt nem igere meg, kozelgetni mon- 
datvdn kulomben is a' reg vdrt nagyvezer , Abdi 
az alkudozdst abban hagyja. — 

Augustus els6 napjdn valosdggal Buddkoz 4 
mertfbldnyire Ercsinel dllott 60^000 emberevel a' 
nagyvezer, Mit megertven a' vdrat ostrommal meg- 
venni mieUtt a' segitseg elerkeznek, volt a' vdlasz- 
tofejedelem' akaratja, ^s ezt oily hevvel siirgete, 
hogy vegre Kdroly is hosszas ellenzes utdn enge- 
dett Megrohandk tehdt ujra a' ket fooldalon se- 
regeink a' vdrat, de csak kamar nagy vesztesseg- 
gel visszaverettek ; 's Idtva, hogy hasztalan min- 
den erolkodeSy szdndekjokkal felhagylak. — 

Az alatt kozelebb mozdult, *s Hamsabeg es Bu- 
da6rs kozt utott tdbort Sulejman; Kdroly pedig 
lovassdgdt 's minden erejet osszevonvdn, besdnczolta 
magdt Bicda koriil oily moddal, hogy neki Buddt 
ostromolni a' mikor akarja, mindig hatalmdban 
lehessen; a' nagyvezernek 6 hozzdy vagy a' vdrhoz 
ferni epen ne. A' fiatal heves verii Maximilidn 's 
vele a' f&haditisztek' nagy tdbbsege, kikben tobb 



77 

harczvdgy mint eldreldtds volt, mind igen ellenzek 
a' sdnczok kozze zdrkozdst, 's helyette azt javas- 
Idk, hogy az ostromot rovid ideig ahhan kagyvdn 
menjenek elibe — a' kovetkezes inkdbb biztositd- 
sdra — egesz idborukkal a' nagyvezernek ; de Kd- 
roly donthetlen okokkal megmutatd, hogy ezt cse- 
lekedni annyit tenne, mint az idei tdborozds' nagy 
czeljdt — Buda' visszavetelet szdntszdndekkal el- 
vetni szembk el 61, Mert, hogy a' nagyvezer fog e' 
egy hamar nyilt csatdba ereszkedni, az meg bizony- 
talan; semmi bizonyosabb ellenben, mint hogy a' 
bdtoi'y eszes vdrbasa haszndlni fogja a' vdrtol td- 
vozdsukat minden ostrom kesziileteik, osszerombo- 
Idsdra; 's ki tudja nem taldl-e^ meg abban is, a' 
nagyvezerrel egyetertve, modot, hogy uj csapato- 
kat szdllit a' vdrba"^ Kdroly dllhatatossdga, helyesb 
nezete csakugyan gyozott; Buda bekeritve, Kdroly 
seregeivel sdnczaiban maradott, csupdn Hensler 
Generdlt rendelven nehdny huszdr osztdlyokkal a' 
kozel eso Pdl-volgyehez, merrolvdrta az elso meg- 
tdmadtatdst 

Sulejman, mintdn tdbordlldsunkatmaga nehdny 
konnyii lovasok^ kisereteben, megvisgdlta, hadi ta- 
ndcsot tartott 's meghatdrzd, keridjijn bdr mibe^ 
segito seregeket klUdeni oH vdrba. 

Illy szdndekkal kivdlaszt jobb szdrnydrol 8000 
jancsdrt es spahit, mind a' legbdtrabbakat, kiknek 
azon feliil jutalommal sem mulasztd el eleszteni tii- 
zoket^ mindennek kozulok, ki tdborunkon keresztul 



78 

o' vdrha jutand 20 aranyat ige7*ven, 's elore hdr- 
mat mindjdrt fejenkent nekik e' summubol ki is 
fizetven, Kettds, termeszet- es penzvdgy ebresztette 
duhosseggel rohantak ezek Augustus 14^° Heus- 
lerrej ^s mar zavarba hoztdk csapatjait, midon a' 
segitsegire sieto Pdlfy ^s tobb generalok dltalma- 
gok sokkal nagyobb zavarban 30 zdszlo W dgyu, 
10 tdrszeker es 3000 halotf hdtrahagydsdval vissza- 
veretnek. Mds nap bal szdrnydt ereszte ellenunk 
Sulejman, 's ekkor ismet elvesztven 2000 embe7% 
nagy sietseggel Ercsi mege hdrom mertfoldnyire 
visszavoniilt; de Augustus 17^° ejjel iijra, nagy 
vigydzattal visszaterty ket ezer vdlogatott spahiy 
's ugyanannyiy lor a ultetett jancsdr kiseretiben; 
mielott viradni kezdett volna, sdnczainkat megtd- 
madta 's a' vdrbeliek^ kicsapdsdtol is segittetve, 
mintegy 500-a< vitezeik kozul, tobbnyire sebekkel 
rakva beszdllitott d vdrba, Mintha a' veszely mdr 
elhdritva, mintha a' diadal mdr kezeben lett volna 
minden dgyuit kisuttete drome' jeleiil Abdi; mig 
ket, az ellenseg kezibe kerult, levele nyilcdn hirdete 
igen szorult dllapotjdt. 

A' kbvetkezett napokon negyszer dllitotta csa- 
tarendbCf negyszer vonta vissza, hogy csatdznia 
ne kelljeU; seregeit Sulejman; vegre Aug. 30^" uj 
probdt tett; de kadai' nagy reszevel maga akkor 
is csak messzerdl nezte^ mint probdltak nehdny 
bdtor gyalog es lovas ezredei (3000 jancsdr 1500 
tatdr) tobb izben sdnczainkon keresztdl torni, mint 



79 

verettek mindannyiszor vissza, mig neni Pdlfdol es 
Schoningiol korulkeriive , minthogy magnkat meg- 
adni nem akardky jnindnydjan osszevagdaltattak, 
de resz'mkrol is igen veres harcz utdn, mellyben 
Kdroly herczegnek is veszelyhen forgoit elete, me- 
goletett, oldala mellett egy dgyiigolyo dital lovdsz- 
mestere; elestek tobb jeles tiszteink, kbztilk Mercy, 
egyike legkitunobb alcezereinknek. Egy ket sebbol 
verzo torok eltokelve nem boszulatlan ceszni, ^gy^- 
enesen az oltozete, fegyverei, egesz killseje dltal 
kitetszo Generdlnak (Mercyiiek) tart, minak egy 
csapdssal kette hasitja fejet, miutdn tobb tiszteket 
fljldre terit korulte, 's akkor a' minden felul red 
fordult csata' 's veit szdmtalan sebei kovetkezese- 
ben, elert czelja, kitoltott boszuja' orom erzeti kbzt 
osszeroskad maga. A' kisded orsereg ez nap is, 
mint annyiszor dicsoseggel nem csak visszavere a' 
Bajoroknak egy igen heves rohandsdt, lianem fa- 
lai kbzill kijbnni, a' bajor tdborra iltni bdtorko- 
dott, 's abbaii nem keves kdrt, zavart okozott Any- 
nyival kbnnyebb lett volna a' nagyvezernek, ha bd- 
torsdgdn nem mulik, Abdival kezet fogva, a' szo- 
rongatott vdr' szabaditdsdra valamit tenni) annyi- 
val megfoghatlanabb veszteglese nagy tdbordval, 
De 6 ugy Idtszik, egeszen megvdltozott tdborankkal 
szemkozt; elso szerencseilen probatetele olta felejtve 
Ion elotte kbtelesseg, becs'idet, fogadds, minden csak 
urdnak 6t bilntetlensegerdl elore bizonyossd tevo 
kegyelme nem. 



80 

Ezeii kozben megerkeztek , ^s a' nagyvezertdl 
akaddlyozatlan, tdborunkkal egyesultek Scherffen- 
herg es Carafa, amaz Erdelybol tizenket tzer^ 
ez felsd Magyarorszdghol 8000 emberreL Maxi- 
milian 's a' vele egyiittertok ujra nyilt csatdt 
surgetenek , hatdrozattan mint elebb is, ostrom 's 
sdnczaikban mar adds mellett nyilatkozek Kdroly; 
Innen keserii bsszeszolalkozdsok. Epen jokor meg- 
jon Becsbol udvari focancelldr Grof Strattman; 
kibekitoje lesz a' csak az eszk'6zb¥ megvdlasztdsdban 
kulombozo pdrtnak; Kdroly' ertelme ismet gyoz 's 
meghatdroztatik Buddnak, a' nagyvezer szemldt- 
tdra ostrommal megvetele. De mielott ezt tennek, 
Kdroly, vert kimeloleg, folkereti meg egyszer a' 
vdrat. Abdit ha sajdt gondolkozdsa, a' becsuletre, 
eddig szerzett Mr ere sokat tartdsa, a' kotelesseg 
erzete engedtek volna, nem engede egy pillanatig 
is ketkedni a' sultan parancsa, melly csdk a' vdr 
falain dicso — vagy a' vesztokelyen gyaldzatos kaldl 
kozt engedett neki 's oveinek vdlasztdst, Elhatdr- 
zottart felele azert habozds melkiil, kogy maga 's 
vitezei elszdnvdk vagy megvedni «' vdrat vayy om- 
ladeki kozt keresni hos haldlt. 

E' vdlasz' vetele utdn mindjdrt mdsnap September 
4^° meg akarta Kdroly rohantatni a' vdrat, melly, 
miota a' nagyvezer kozeleben volt is, szuntelen 16- 
vddoztetven, mindenfelol tetemesen meg volt ron- 
gdlva: de Maximilidn, kogy vitezeinek a' vdrhoz 
jutdstkbnnyitse, egy napot kerven az omladekoknak 



81 

a' maga oldalan vthol eltakaritdsdra , kovetkezd 
najpra haladt a' vegviadaL — 

Hetfon Sept 'i^'^^'' estveli 6 orakor add hat 
dgyu a' jelt az dltaldnos megtdmaddsi'a, El6re, 
kogy a' vdrha d viz felol se juthasson semmi se- 
gitsegy a' Duna, Buddn feliil egy szigetnel, erds 
Idnczokkal dtkottetett; 's hogy az ostromlok hd- 
horitatlaii dolgozhassanak ^ Kdroly seregef egy 
reszevel hdtra maradt a' nagyvezerrel ha kivdn- 
tatni fog, maga szemelyesen kuzdendo; az adott 
jelre mindenfelol egyszerre a' vdrnak esven a' 
mieink elkezdddik d viadal, egyike a' legmegdtal- 
kodottabbaknak . mellyek valaha vdr felett f'oly- 
tak. Kettoztetik erejbket ostromlok, ostromlot- 
tak, azok, mivel mindent, a' legjobbat, ezek, mivel 
semmit sem remenylenek, Abdi — hoi legjobban 
osszerombolva a' vdr, legheresebb a' megtdma- 
dds, legszembetiinobb a' veszedelem — a' becsi 
dldalon toresre all legbdtrabbjaival; haldlt meg- 
vetve rohannak redja a' mieink, legelol az a' 
bdi'o d^Asti, ki elso volt kozelebb az ei'sekujvdri, 
— els6 aka?' lenni most «' Biidai vdrfaV meghd- 
gdsdban, — '5 lesz az elso dldozat; rettenthetet- 
leniil lepnek helyere tarsal, nagy reszint onkent 
vdlalkozottak , '* kik osztozni akardnak dicsdsege- 
ben, osztoznak tiJbbnyire haldlban, De mig itt 
egyetleu ferfamak lelke, karja, hatalma, ketesse 
teszi gyozedelmiinket; kiviva mdr az, 's a' vdr 
kezilnkben a* vizivdros felol, Oroszldiii erd- '5 bd- 

rsink, huiis;. (iram. 6 



82 

torsdggal kilzd ott Magifarjaival , '5 maga legelso 
kihdg a' kofalra Petnekuzt, Tbkblivck egykor, most 
a csuszdrnak szolgdlatjuban ezredes; ntdva ret- 
lenetes vczerbkvek, gifozedelem bhodalmdval , a' 
lelkes katondk: f'egifrerbk alatt eUiul minden mi 
ellentulL Ide siet most a' becsi oldalrol Abdi: de 
itt mdr nines emberi ero, vielly segithessen; amott 
tdvoztdval sitlyed batorsdga vitezeinek, haiiijatUk 
szerencsejok] hdtrdl mlndeniitt a' tbrbkseg , har- 
czolva «' bdtrak. f'litva, meiiekxesrul gondoskodva 
a' felevkek; nyomokban az mgeriilt diadalmas el- 
leiiseg; fegyvertelenty raiigra. nemre. korra tekln- 
tes nelkiil sokd feltartoztatott bosszujduak dldozo; 
a' harczolok^ vad Idrmdja 's gyoztesek' oromriaddsl 
kbzt ^Ihangzanak az esdekldk' jajai, a' haldoklok* 
hergesel; kasztalan a' terdre hullva irgalomert 
kbnyijrges, kasztalan a feher zdszlok' lobogtatdsa; 
semmit sem hall, sem kit a' bosszu- 's gydzedelem 
ittas katona, csak egy forog mindig mindeniW 
szeme lelke elott, a' hosszu ostromban kldlloii sok 
szejwedesel^ 's elhulloit rokoiiai^ kepe^ n' mdsfel 
szdzados nemzeti csiifos rablga , a' sok ver, melly 
annak szettbreseert kereszteny erekbol most 's va- 
laha folyt, Leirkatatlan az bldbkles^ d'dke az ijedt- 
seg' es tolongds' zavara. Teritrek holtakkal a' 
tiiz es vei'tbl pdrolgo ntczdk; ketsegbe esve fut- 
kosnak «' bu\:6helyet, menedeket keresok: zngak, 
fbldalatti boltozatok , pinczek fogadnak be soka- 
kat, sokan kik illyeket kbzel nem ertek ilyedtbk- 



83 

hen a* haldl el6l, a' haluV karjai kozze, a* Duna' 

veres hahjaiha vetek magokat. Csak egy maroknyi 

sereg tartja meg magut, a' zsido ntczdban, a' ket- 

segbeeses' megatalkotisdgdval karczolva, nem a' 

gyozedelemert , hanem hogy mine! drdgdbban adja 

el eletet Egy osz bajnok k'dzd legelol kozottok, 

ket kard \nllog ket kezeben; test halom kbrulte; 

oszt es kap sebeket; de laiikadatlan ereje, mig 

nem egy loves taldlja messzlrol: mire kihull gyilkos 

aczelja kezibol, 's elet nelki'd rogyik a' halott ra- 

kdsra. A vitez vdrbasa Abdi az. Tdrsai dicsden 

mint o vegzek pdlydjokat; legtobben mellette hul- 

lottnk el; kevesen karddal kezbkben a* kirdlyi 

kastelyba conultak, ott tbbbekkel egyesiilve ujabb 

csatdt kezdtek, ^s rbvid de diMs bnvedelem utdn, 

mind levdgattak. — 

u^ nagyvezeVf megfoghatatlan, egy magas domh* 

tetejerdl nezte dsszedugott karokkal a' harcz^ for- 

diilatait, ovei szorongattatdsdt , mindnydjoknak, a' 

vdrnak, velek az Ozmdn urasdgnak Magyarorszd- 

gon, egesz nyugoton^ sir almas enyesztet. Midon 

Idtta hogy resztve minden. felelem, szegyen, bdnat 

miatt magdn kiuiil siet tdbordba . rbgtbn indulot 

fnvat, '5 nyakra fore — hogy ne iizettethessek, 

maga utdn «' hidakat mindeniitt felegetve — 

Belgrddba szalad. Innen k'dldi tudositdsdt iidva- 

rdkoz. hogy Bnddt 160^,000 vakmerd keresztyen- 

nel szemkozt megtartania lehetetlen volt: de ment- 

ve tdbora; fenn a' jobb jovendo remenye. A' 

6* 



S4 

nagyur es a* divan, mint istenUl hiineikert rdjok 
mert csapdst tekintek cC nagy vesztesseget , hdld- 
kat adnak cC sereg* megniaraddsaert, '5 megtartoja 
d nagyvezer, hiintetes kelyett, jutalmakkal es dicse- 
retekkel kalmoztatiL 



S6 



II. POETRY. 



M, Mtetneny, etnleTeexft, 

(Hope and remembrance). 

Eltiink' rogos hatdrain 
Ket genius vezety 
*S felleg borulvdn iitain. 
Nyujt mindegyik kezet; 
De bar tekint biztatva rdd, 
Vigasztaldst egyik sem dd: 
Remeny 's emlekezet. 

Emlekezet lebegteti 
Szdrnydt a' mult felett, 
'S bus kepzetekben rengeti 
Borongo kebeled'; 
Mult kedv utdn titkon epeszt 
Mult kin kbzbtt ismet senyveszi 
'S lelkedre hoz telet. 

Kekld lepelben messze jdr 
EWted a* remeny; 
Magdhoz inU de meg nem vdr, 
Tovdbby tovdbb lengven. 



86 

'*S^ mig lepke szdrnydt kergeted^ 
Lezug kijdban eleted^ 
'S dllasz pdlydd' szelen. 

Roszat ne felj , 's ne kivdnj jot 
Mult es jovo koziil; 
Oleld meg a' jelenvalot 
Melly jdtszik es orul. 
'S bdi' kodbe iieha biirkozll, 
De szine gyorsan vdltozik, 
Ajkdn mosolygds ul. 

Kolcsey Ferenc 



2, Saep Mlonka (a ballad). 
I. 

A^ vaddsz ul kosszu mela lesben 
Vdr felajzott nyilra gyors vadat; 
'iS mind fblebb es mindig fenyesebben 
A' sereiiy nap delfele mutat. 
Hasztalan vdr, Vertes' belsejeben 
Nyugszik a' imd hiis forrds' toveben, 

A^ vaddsz meg lesben ul sokdig, 
Alkonyattol vdr szerencsejelt; 
Vdr fesziilten a' nap^ dldoztdig 
^S im a' vdrt szere^icse megjelent: 



87 

Ah de nem rod, kormt/'d kis plllango 
'iS szep sugar Idny. ropiekent csapongo, 

.^Tnrka lepke. szep arany piUango 
LepJ meg eiigem, szdllj rdm kls maddr; 
Vagy cezess eL merre ragy szdllaado. 
A hoi a' nap nyugodoba jdr.^' 
Szol *s irdmiik wliit ar ot' fuidsa 
Konnyll 's jdtszi «' Idvy Ulandsa, 

., Istenemre ! ' * szo la felszoko Ice^ 
A^ raddsz: ,^ez nidr kirdlyi vadJ' 
Es legottan. minden must (el ad re 
Hevvel a' Iduy nyomdokdn halad. 
O a' Idnyert, a' l/iny r/' plllangoert 
Verseneznek tiinder kedr.eteleserl. 

,jMegvagy! igg szol a' ledny orommel. 
Elfogvdn a' szdllongo lepket; 
,,Megvagyl igy szol «' vaddsz gyimydrrel 
A^ lednyra nynjtna johh kezet; 
'S rezzent kezbol kis pillango elszdll; 
A' ledny rah szep szem' sugardndl! 

II. 

All-e meg az osz Peter di' hdza'l 
> 
El-e meg a' I'egi harcz^ fia? 

All a' hdz meg, bar fogy gazdasdga 

'S telt pohdrndl ill az 6sz maga. 

A' sugar Idny k or ben es «' rendeg: 

Ldngszemeben csdbito rardzs eg. 



88 

'S Hunyadierty a" kiddlt dicsdert, 
A^ kiiydk mar felillantanak, 
Osz vezere^ '5 a' hon' iiagy neveert 
A ven bajnok* kbnyei hultanak; 
Most konyui, vere hajdandhan 
B6ven omlott Ndndor' ostromdban, 

,jHnnyt vezerM ifju szep sugdra/' 
Szol az 6sz most, ^eljen a' kirdly!'' 
A vaddsznak ver tolul arczdra 
'aS meg kupdja illetetlen dll. 
fjlletetlen mert hagydd knpddat 
Fogd fel gyermek es kovesd apddaf 

,,Mert, apdd en ketszer is lehetnek. 
Es ha ittam az nines czenkekert; 
Talpig emher^ a' kit en emlitek, 
JSem gyaldz meg, 6 oily h&sivertl'' 
'S illetddve 's meltosdg szemeben, 
Kel az ifju. tblt pohdr kezeben. 

fyEljen hdt a Ms vezer^ magzatja, 
Addig efjen mig a' honnak ell 
De szakadjon elte' pillanatja, 
Mellyben attol elpdrtolni kel; 
Egy kirdly se inkdbb, mint kitetlen: 
Nyiig a' nepen a' 7'osz 's tehetetlen." 

'S mind zajosban, mindeg hevesebben 
Vig beszed kbzt a' gyors ora ment. 
A' lednyka hiven es hivebben 



89 

Bdmuld a' lelkes idegent, 

,,V(ijh hi d, es merre van hazdja? 

Gondola, de nein mondotta szdja. 

.,Teged is te erdok' szep virdga 
(Jdvozolve tisztel e* pohdr; 
Hozzon isten egykor fel Bnddba, 
Osz apdddal a' vaddsz elvdr; 
Fenn lakozva a' magas Bnddban 
Leltek engem Matyds" udcardban,^' 

Szol 's bucsuzik o' vaddsz. rivalva 
hiti 6t a' kurthang; menni keif. 
Semmi szora, semmi biztatdsra 
Nem maradhat vendegloiveL 
.,Emtekezzel visszaterni hozzdnk 
Jo vaddsz^ ha meg nem IdtogatndnkJ' 

Mond szerenyen szep Ilonka, dllvdn 
A* kis csarnok' vegso lepcsejen. 
'S homlokdt az ifju megcsokolvdn, 
Utnak indul a' hold^ ejjelen. 
'S csertdes a' hdz, ah de nines nyugalma, 
Folvere azt szerelem' hatalma, 

III. 

Fol Peterdi 's bdjos unokdja 
Ldtogatni mentenek Buddt; 
Minden lepten nd az agg' csoddja; 
Merl sok ujat meglepetve Idt. 



90 

A' lednyka titkon edes ora^ 
Joveten vdr szep taldlkozora, 

\S van tolongds ^s uj orom Buddhan 
Gydzelembot vdrjdk a' kirdlyt, 
A^ ki Becset vivo haragdhan 
Verhoszut a' rosz szomszedon dllt 
Vdgyva nez sok hii szeni ellenebe: 
Nem vidul meg szep llonka' kepe. 

Hoi van 6 a' nydjas osmeretlen? 
Milly szerencse foi'dnlt eteten? 
Honn-e vagy tdn messze kbltbzotten 
Jdr az dzek' hiivos rejteken/' 
Kerdi titkon aggo gondolattal 
'iS* arcza majd eg, majd szinehen elhal. 

\S felrohognak hadvesz illte keppel 
Ujlaki 's a' meghekiilt Garrdk. 
'S a' kirdly j6 f'elseg erzetevel 
Kornyekezven 6t d Ms apdk. 
OsZi Peter di bsmer vendegere. 
A kirdly az: ,,Aldds eletere!^' 

f^Feny never e dldds eletere.*' 
Fenn kidllja minden hii ajak; 
Szdzszorozva visszazeng nevere 
A hegy es vblgy es a' zdrt falak. 
Halovdnyan hofeher szohorndl 
Szep llonka nemdn es nierdn dlL 



91 

./' vaddszhoz Mdtyds* udvardban 
Szep lednykdm menjilnk-e hdt? 
Jobh nekiink ol Vertes' vadondban, 
Kis tnnydnk ott nyngodahnat dd. 
Szol az 6sz jo sejto fdjdalonimai, 
W a bus fdr megy gondsujtoita nyommal. 

Es ha Idttdl szepen nott virdgot 
Elhajolni belso baj miatt. 
Ugy ha jo It el, felven a' vildgoU 
Szep llonka titkos bu alatL 
Tdrsasdga Idngzo erzemenyek, 
Kin OS emlek, es kihalt remenyek. 

A rovid de gybtro elet elfolyU 
Szep llonka kervadt sir fele; 
Hervaddsa lilioin-hvllds volt: 
Artatlansdg' kepe 's bdnate. 
A kirdly jbn ^s dll a' puszta hdzban : 
Ok nyvgosznak brbkos hazdban 

Vorosmarty, 



3. Julias Caesar, by Shakespeare, 

translated by Vorosmarty. 
Act III. Scene 2. 

Brutus. — 
Legyetek mind vegig tiirelemmel. Romaiak, ha- 
zdmfiaif bardtim, hallgassatok meg iigyem miatt es 



92 

legyetek csendesen, hogy meghallhassatok, Higyetek 
nekem hecsuletem ert 's legyetek tekintettel becsille- 
tem irdnt, hogy kikessetek. Birdljatok meg bol- 
csessegtek szerint. 's ebreszszetek fel erzekeite- 
ket, hogy johban itelkessetek. Ha valaki van 
ezen gyillekezetben , szives bardtja Caesarnak, an- 
nak mondorrif kogy Brutus' szeretete Caesar irdnt 
nem csekelyebb mint az ove. Ha most ezen jo ba- 
rdt kerdezi, miert tdmadott fel Brutus Caesar ellen? 
vdlaszom ez: nem mivel Caesart kevSsbbe szeretem, 
kanem mert Romdt jobban szeretem, Azt okajtand- 
tok-e inkdbby hogy Caesar elne. 's mindnydjan ra- 
bokul halndtok, mint, hogy Caesar haljon meg 's ti 
mindnydjan eljetek szabad emberekul? Mivel Caesar 
engem szeretett. megsiratom; mivel szerencses volt^ 
orvendek; mivel vitez volt, becsiilom ot, de mivel 
nagyra vdgyo volt, ledoftem 6t. Tehdt konyii sze- 
reteteert, orom szei'encsejen, becsiilet vitezsegeert; 's 
haldl nagyravdgydsdert. Hoi van itt ollynyomoru, 
ki rabszolga kivdnna lenni'^. Ha van, szoljon: mert 
ot bdntottam meg; hoi van itt oily durva, ki romai 
nem kivdnna lenni? Ha van, szoljon mert 6t bdn- 
tottam meg. Megszi'mbm hogy vdlaszt adjatok. — 
Ugy tehdt senkit sem bdntek meg. Nem tettem 
Caesdrral egyebet, mint mit ti fogndtak tenni 
Brutussal. A' vizsgdlat haldla felett a' capitolium- 
ban fol van jegyezve ; dicsdsege nem kisebbitve, a' 
miben jeles volt, sem vetkei nagyitva, mellyekert a* 
haldlt szenvedte. — — Itt hozatik teste Antonius' 
gydszkiseretebeUf ki dmbdr megbleseben reszese nem 



93 

volt, osztozandik haUila, jotetenienyeiben, helyet 
foghatvdn a* kozigazgatdshan mint ki nem koziile- 
tek? Evvel en tdvozom, kineL valamint legjobh ba- 
rdtomat megbltem. Boma' javdert. ugyan azon tor 
van szdmomra. ha honomnak haldlomat tetszendik 
kivdnni. 

From the same: 

Antonius. — 

Bardtim, Romaiak, foldieim, 
Figyeljetek ram, 

Temetni jottem Caesart, nem dicserni. 
A* rosz^ mit ember tesZy tuleli 6t; 
A^ jo gyakorta sirba szdll vele: 
Ez legyen Caesar'' sorsa is. A^nemes 
Br%itus mondd hogy Caesar nagyravdgyott 
Ha ez valo, ugy sulyos biine volt, 
Es Caesar ertte sulyosan lakolt meg. 
Most Brutus engedven 's a' tobbiek, 
Cs Brutus derek becsuletes ferfiu) 
Jovbk beszelni holt Caesar folott, 
Bardtom volt 6, hozzdm hu '5 igaz. 
De Brutus mondja, hogy nagyokra torty 
('S Brutus derek, becsuletes ferfiu, 
'S a' tobbi mind derek jo ferfiak) 
Romdba 6 sok foglyokat hozott; 
Vdltsdgok a' kozkincstdrt gazdagitd 
Ez n agyra vdgydsd t jelen ii -e? 



94 



Szegeny ho jajdult, Caesar sirt vele; 

A nagyravdgycisnak nem illy szelid 

Anyaghol kene*) szerkeztetve lenni, 

De Brutus mondja hogy nagyokra iori, 

S Brutus becses. derek egy ferfiu! 

Ldtidtok a' Lnpercal ilnepen, 

Hdromszor nyujtdm «' korondt neki. 

'S 6 n^sszatolta. Es ez nagyravdgyds'l 

De Brutus mondja. hogy nagyokra tort, 

'S bizonynyal 6 derek egy ferfiu. 

Nem szolok en, hogy Brutusnak beszedet 

Czdfoljam: azt mondom csak mit tudok. 

Mind kedveletek ot. es volt miert'. 

Mi tilthat el most ertte sirnotok? 

Vad dllatokba szoktel, oh itelet, 

'S az ember esz nelkiil maradt! T'drelmet! 

Caesdrral szivem ott a' gydszpadon van: 

Pihennem kell, mig hozzdm visszater. 

Meg tegnap hasztalan daczolt vala 
Caesai'ral a' vildg. Ma itt hever 
'iS* nines oily szegeny, ki bokoljon neki. 
Oh honfiak, ha duhi'e, Idzaddsra 
higerlenem «' lelket bennetek, 
Megbdntandm Brutust, meg Cassiust. 
Kik tudva van, derek jo ferfiak. 



^) Instead of ke'ene, ought. 



98 



Nem bdntom oket lidU inkdbb leszek 
Igaztnlan holUmkhoz es magamkoz, 
Hozzdtak, mint oily tisztelt ferfiakhoz, 
De itt egy irat. rajf Caesar^ pecsetje! 
Vegrendelmenye; hdzdhan lelem. 
Csak ballja ezt ol kbzseg (mellyet en, 
Bocsdssatok meg, f'el nem olvasok) 
Csokolnl jdrand holt Caesar sebeii; 
Kendoket dztat szent Kerebe; sot 
Emlekul egy hajszdlert esdekel 
^S majd haldokolva feljegyzendi veg*) 
Intezeteben ^s dus or ok gyandnt 
Utoira szdllitandja. — 



4k. A.X elhagyott any a, **) 

Ismerek egy edes; ah! di'ra anydt, 
Melly bunak eredten emeszti magdt, 
Elhagyva, keriilve lednyaitol, 
Bar erttok epedr.e a* hiv any a szol 
Ok jertek***) olembe, 
Szep gyemiekeim ; 



•) Veginfi'zet, last will, the word is divided because of 
the metre. 

**) The forsaken mother, a beautiful allegory, in which the 
poet compares his country to a mother deserted by her 
children. 

***) Instead of jojietek^ come. 



96 



Alddsj^a emelten 

Vdimak kezeim 

Ok jevtekl oh jertekl az edes anydhoz 

Itt ill lekbtotten a szoi^nyu magdnyhoz; 

Oh jertek olembe 

Gyei'mekeim ! 

Mig el nem apadnak 

Hev konyeim. 

tjih sziiltelekf dlltam 
Bolcsdtbk eldtt; 
Emloim addnak 
Uj eleterot 
Mint Ms csecsemoket 
Mdr en emelelek 
M'lg hennetek alvek 
A' gyermeki lelek. 
En Idtnotok*) adtam 
Oily nap' siigardt, 
A' mellyet irigyel 
Sok fbldi csaldd. 
Szep arczaitoknak 
En adta me' bdjt, 
Melly annyi szivekben 
Viszhangra taldlt. 
En termetet adtam. 
Oily ozi sugdrt; 



*) Ldfnotok, to see, is the Infinitive with affixes. 



97 



*S szuz kebleitekre 

A' liliom-drt *) 

En adtam a* szdjnak 

Az edeni mezet^ 

Melly akkor is edes 

Ha toreid erzed; 

En adtam e' tunder 

Ldngu szemet, 

Melly a' szerelemnek 

Csillaga lett; 

Melly egy sugardval 

Sziil enyhe tavaszt, 

Egy mas sugardval 

Elegeii azt. 

Szepsegemet ime redtok addm 

Hogy halljam e* szokat: ^,6h edes anydm!^' 

Hogy zengjen e' nev is 

Ajkitokon, 

'S elkagyva ne legyek 

Bus napomon. 

Ok jertekl oh jertek 

Az edes anydhoz: 

Itt III lekototten 

A* szoi*nyu magdnyhoz. 

Oh jertek olemhe 

Gyermekeim 

Mig el nem apadnak 



♦) Liliom-'dri lily-stream, lily-growth. 

Clink, hung. Gram. 



9S 

Hei) kOnyeim/' 

Igy szolal esengne 

Hidba, hidbal 

Nines a' ki omoljon 

Sziildi kardba 

Sors uzi fiait, remeg elteikert; 

Ah! Idnyui egnek az idegen-ert 

\S 6 ott ill oroyntelen \s egyedul, 
A' k6ny klupadva szelid szemeihol, 
'S mint lelke torotten az egre tekivt 
Ldtliatni koviilve az anyai k'mi. 
Csak szivdobogdsa jelentl hogy el 
'S minden dobogdssal egy elet alel. 

V ordsmarty. 

S, Mtontalan, 

Jdratlan utakon ki jdrsz 
'S keblet vAharra, veszre tdrszy 
Oromtol idegen, 
Ki vagy te bdnaf etnbere^ 
Mi sorsnak iildoz fegyvercr 
Hogy bolygsz*) imd berczeken? 

„Hagyj**) bolyganom vad berczeken, 
Hagyd dulni «' ^^^eszt keblemen: 



*■) Instead of bolyogsz. 
**) Instead of hagyjdl, let, let me. 



» o 



99 

En hujdoso ragyok\ 
Kietlenb*) Itt e* piiszta sziv 
Zajosbb a' vesz melly benne viv: 
Fdjdalmim oily naggok/' 

Tan dus valdl es kincsedet 
Evette dddz vegzeted, 
*S most inseg szomorit? 
Dus voltani 's dusnak lenni jo 
S insegem most oily szivhato; 
De ez nem tdntorit,^' 

Ket nev clotted szent taldn; 
A' hii bardt, a' kii ledny 
Es ok elhagytanak? 
„Pdrtos bardtsdg szerelem 
Foldbn legkinzobb gyotrelem: 
Ok hiven kaltanak.^' 

Kihaltak 6'A*? tdn gyemieked, 
Szep holgyed, minden orbmed 
Emeszto sirba szdllt? 
,,Mind sirban a* mit szeretek 
De a' sziv mely 's nagy menedek, 
Elnyogte a' haldlt,'' 

Te tiirsz bdr kinod sulya nagy; 
Tdn a* becsuleV rabja vagy, 
'S neved gyaldzva volt? 



*) Instead of kiellenebh. 

7* 



100 

,,Gyaldzva minden czimerem 
De azt hazdmei^t szenvedem 
*S ez rajtam drdga folf 

Ha! szdmklvetve vagy tehdt 
*S mellyert verzettel ten*) liazdd 
Sujt kerlel/ietleniin 
„A szdmiizbttnek hovja van 
\S bar szenved 6 's boldogtalan 
A neinzet el 's derill, 

,,A' nemzet, mellyhez tartozdniy 
Kitrlva 's verhe fait kazdm 
Tdbbe fel nem virul: 
Engem mllUoknak veszte nyom. 
Egy nep* kaldldt hordozom 
Keblemben ostorul/' 

Vdrosmarty, 

Hazddnak renduletlenul 
Legy hive oh Magyar! 
Bolcsod az '5 majdan sirod is, 
Melly dpol '* eltakar, 

A nagy vildgon e' kiviil 
Nincsen szdmodra kely. 



*) Instead of te^ thy own. 



101 

Aldjon ragy rerjen soi's^ keze 
Itt elned. halnod kelL 

Ez n' fold, mellyen annyiszor 
Apuid' rere folyt, 
Ezy mellyhez minden szent nevet 
Egy ezred-ev csatotd 

hi kiizdtenek honert a hos 
Arpudnuk Itada i ; 
Itt tortek ossze rabigdt 
Hunyadnak karjai 

Szabadsdgl itten hordo/zdk 
Veres zdszloidat. 
'S elhnlltanak legjohhjaink 
A* hosszn harcz alatt, 

Es annyi balszerencse kozt, 
Oily sok riszuly utuii, 
Megfogyva bar. de torve nem, 
El nemzet e* hazdn, 

'S nepek' hazdja, nagy vildg, 
Hozzdd bdtran kidlt: 
„ Egy ezredevi szenvedes 
Ker eltet nagy haldlt/* 

Az nem lehet hogy annyi sziv 
Uidbun onta rert. 



102 

'S keservben annyi hu kebel 
Szakadt meg a" konert 

Az nerti lehei hogy esz, erd, 
'tS oily szent akarat, 
Hidba sorvadozzanak 
Egy dtok sidy alatt 

MSg joni kelL meg joni fog 
Egy jobb kor, melly utdn 
Buzgo imudsdg epedez 
Szdz ezrek^ njakdn. 

Vagy joni fog. ha joni kelL 
A^ nagyszerii kaldl, 
Hoi «' temetkezes fblott 
Egy orszdg verben dll. 

\S a' sirtj hoi nemzet snlyed el 
Nepek reszik kbrul. 
\S az ember millldinak 
Szemeben gydz-kbny iil. 

Legy hice renduletleiiul 
Ilazddnak oh Magyar! 
Ez eltetdd, '.v ha elbnkdl 
Hantjdral ez takar. 

A'' nagy rildgon e' kirtil 
Nincseu szdmodra hely: 



103 

Alison, vagy rerjen sors* keze, 
Itt elned, halnod hell. 



Vorosmarty. 



7, A.* J^elTeeli nemesseghrx* 

(Szombathelyi tdrhorban 1797 J 

El meg nenizetenC Isiene! 
Bi/zgo konyeimeii szent orom omledez, 

AUsz meg^ allsz meg. szeretetl hazam! 
ISem dolt meg alacson porha nemes fejed! 

Meltdn hiislakoddm elSbby 
Hogy herosz eleid^ nyomdokibol kitersz, 

'iV regeu felt reszedelmidet 
Had huzzdk vefaldn rnajd bifta koi'csaid. 

Hdldl mdst mutat e' sereg^ 
Melly most regi magyar modra nyeregben uL 

IS'pm szdllt Troja aid so ha 
Illy szep szpdrtai had, sem Ilunyadink' kevely 

Zdszloit nem emelte volt 
Bettevfdbb hadinep Bees' letbrotl faldn, 

Csak sast nemzenek a' sasok, 
^S nem sz'dl gydim nyiilat Nubia pdrducza 

Thetisz^ nagy fija nem maradi, 
Ckironndl mikoron kardra vete szemet: 

Arpdd' rt^re sem hillhei el 



104 



Amhdr reg keveresz a' puka pamlagon, 

Nezd: most felkoti fegyrei'et,*) 
Csdkdjdn lobogo knlcsag emelhedik 

Bnzdito katonus rukdt 
OltKen, leke' nemes Idngja kigerjedez, 

Majd kardjdra f'eleskihzik^ 
Mhident ront 's megemeszin mint heves AfrikaH 

Busuli Ttgrise, «' midon 
Ordit kolykeiert, '* korme viaskodik, 

Majd felkelnek alattad is 
Oh Josef! nagyanydd^ Therezia^ hajnoki, 

'S hdlran megy szeretett vezer, 
A' jeg-Alpeszeken *s Adria^ bblem. — 

E' nep nem gyiilevesz-csoportf 
Nem rabherbe emelt bus buzogdnyt keze, 

(hikent dldoz az eletet, 
^S korgas kardja kover hantjaiert kasit, 

Miglen hosi bibor suceg 
l^iindoklik fejeden Hnnnia' csillagu, 

Esterhdzy**), dicso Magyar. 
Mig gyozo elekV palosa czombodon 

Csatfog: gyozni fog a' Magyar 
\S Andrdsnak ragyogo napja le nem menend! 

Berzsenyi. 



^) /V/zyrer arms instead of kard, sword. 
*•) Prince Nicolas Esterhazy was the comander of the in 
j:urgcnt Nobility, against the French. 



105 

tl. JL* vnagyamlehog, 

Romldsnok indult hajdan eriis Magyar 
Nem Idtod Arpdd' vere mikent fajul? 
Nem Idtod a' bossziis egeknek, 
Ostoraid nyomoruH kazddon? 

Nyolcz szdzadoknak rerziratarja kozott 
Rongdlt Buddnak tornyai dllanak. 
Ambdr ezerszer vak fiizedben 
Vereidety magadal tiportad. 

Elszoija, hidd el, mostani veszni tert 
Erkijlcsod, undok vipera-fajzatok 

Duljdk I'el d rdrt. meliy sok dddz 
Ostromokat mosolyogim nezett 

Neni rontkatott el teged egykoron 

A vud tatdr khan'' xerxesi tdbora 

*S mldgot ostromlo tbroknek, 

Napkelelet leverd kaiahna, 

Nem I'ojthatott meg Zdpolya' oldoklo 
Szdzadja \s titkos gyilkosaid' keze : 
A' szeiit rokon nerbe /"dreszfo 

VlsszaKOiids* tiize kfjzt megdlltdL 

Mert regi erkolcs, szpdrtai /erflkar 
Kiizdott 's vezei'lett fergetegid kozott; 
Birkozca gyOztel '5 Hercnleskevt 

Ercz bnzogdny rezegett kezedben. 



106 ^^L 

Most lassii iiiereg, lassu haldl emeszL 
Nezd a' kevely tolgy, mellyet az ejszaki 
Szelvesz le nem dont, benne termd 
Fergek eros gyokerit megdrlik, 

'S gyenge szeltdl jbldre teritetik! 
Igy minden orsztig^ tdmasza. talpkove. 
A^ tiszta erkblcs, melly ha megvesz 
Roma ledol 's rabigdba gbrbed. 

Mi a' Magyar most? — rut szybarita vnzl 
Letepte fenyes nemzeti betyeget, 
'S hazdja' feldult vedfaldbol 
Rak palotdt hever6 helyenek; 

Eldddeinknek bajnoki kontoset 
*S nyelvet megunvdny rut idegent cserelt^ 
A^ nemzef orlelket tapodja; 

Gyermeki bdb puha szive^ tdrgya. 

Ok mds magyar kar^ menykbve mllogot 
Atilla^ veres liarczai kbzt, middn 
A^ felmldggal szembe szdllott 
Nemzeteket fapodo haragja. 

Mds neppel ontott bajnoki vei't kazdnk' 
Szerz6je Arpdd, a' duna^ partjain, 
0, mds Magyarral rerte vissza 

JSagy Hunyadink Mahomed* hatalmdt 



1#7 

De jaj csak igy jar mindeii az eg nlattl 
Forgo viszontagsdg jdrma alatt nyogilnk^ 
Ti'mder szerencsenk' kenye hdny, vet, 
Jdtsztm emeL '* mosolyogva ver le, 

Feljorgat a' nagy szdzadok' ercz keze 
Mindent: ledolt itidr a' nemes Ilion, 
A' hiiszke Kartkagf/ hatalnia 

Roma 's eros Babylon leomlott 

BerzsenyL 



9. •Fdmborsdg es koaepsger. 

Mds az Atriddk' ragyogo dagdlydt. 
Tarka pordzon molyogva nyogje, 
'»S Tantalus szdjjal ma gas asztaloknal 

Uljon epedve. 

Oh ti elrejtetl kalybdk* lakoji, 

Hegi jamborsdg \s te araiiy kozepszer, 

i'Jljelek mellem kiiszobomre : tugan 

Ldtlak^ olellek, 

Utjefek mellem osl tuz/telyemre! 

^S majd Szahmdm'*) kiv keze fozte melleL 

Mdrfsatok riddm ajakat mosolygo 

Bi'ikfa kiipdmba. 



*) The poet aludes to Horatian names. 



10S 

A ki kebleben helyet dd ti nektek; 
A* szerencsenek letapodja kenyet; 
'S szive^ epseget soha semmi hdjszin 

Tdrhe nem ejtL 

Nem i^on az feiiyes rabigdt nyakdra; 
Sem majomnevert kenyerel nem adja: 
Kincseket sem gyiijl;, hogy azokra drinW 
Konnye kidltsou, 

Tiszta lelekkel '.v megelegedessel 
Ldtja csilrehen keze^ mire' beret; 
'S izzaddsdnak gyonyorii gyilmdlcsel. 

Eli orommeL 

Nydjas arczdval szegi meg fdlatjdty 
A bardtsdgnak 's joveveny szegenyiiek ; 
^S asztaldnalf mint az or eg Pkilemony 

Egieket Idt 

Lakja szentegyhdz. muga dldozo-pap, 
Es az dlddsnak poliardt kezeben 
Istenek t6ltik, kimerUhetleji 

Egi itallal. 

Berzsen 

JO. A.' temeto. 

Elremiilve tekint, temeto, redd 
A T Under hatalom 's a' ragyogo dagdly, 
Ldtdsodra szemek' vdzai '5 a' vildg' 
Alarczai lekullanak. 



409 

Te a' dunm tyrarC biborit elveted 
Mint fl' koidus' ntdlt elete terheit. 

*S a' szent emberiseg* jussa szerint nekik 
Egy rangot \s nyugodalmat ddsz. 

A kit szwe emeszt '* elkagya a' remeiiy^ 
Annak meg te remenyt adsz ^s ma gas enyhillelet. 
Jer*)f adj nekem is, adj! im leereszkedem 
Senteit hantadov ^s dlmodok. 

Mit? \s /tat kell-e nekem dbnodozds, remeny? 
Agyrdz altat-e ragy polyadal engemet? 
Oh, ismerem ezen phantomi lef koret 
*S nem szedul kiiszoben fejem, 

Minden szdt/u, mrdg. mellyre tekintek ilt, 
Erzo sziv vala, melly omlede mint eiiyem, 
Minden porszem ugy szeretett driilt. 
Mint e' gerjedezo kebel. 

Minden kd darabon, mellyre szeniem' vetem^ 
A nagy PerszepoV es Palmyra^ kepe hit; 
Ldtom Thebd kevely tomyait omlani 
'S cC mdrvdny Babylon' faldt 

Ldtom hungyabolyi miveidet, vildg! 

Mint szorja. 's temeti a' tt^ngy Orok* keze; 

Ldtom kangyasereg! mint tusakodsz 's tolongsz 
Sirod' partjain ^s pordn. 



*) Insteae of jojj' 



110 

Jertek*) bdmulatos bajnokok es nagyok 
*S ti kik nem meritek nezni az ebnuldst. 

Es ti porba nyogdk, jertek ide, 's velem 
Elni *s halni tanuljatok. 

Berzsenyi, 



MM, VohasxIeodaM, 

Isten! kit a* boles* Idngesze felnem er, 
Csak titkon erz6 lelke ohajtva sejt: 
Leted vildgit mint az eg6 

Nap, de szemunk bele nem tekinthet, 

A legmagasb menny *s aether* urdnai, 
Mellyek kbriilted rendre keringenek, 
A^ Idthatlan fergek, a' te 

Boles kezeid' remekelt csuddi, 

Te hoztad e* nagy minden'**) ezer nemet 
A semmisegbai, a* te szembldoked 
Ronthat 's teremthet szdz vildgot, 
*S a' nagy idok* folyamit kimeri. 

Teged dicsdit a' Zenith es Nadir 
A' szelveszek' bus harcza, az egi idng* 
Villdma, harmatcsepp, virdgszdl, 
Hirdeti nagy kezed' alkotdsdt. 



*) jojjeiek. 

*) Minden, universe. 



1^1 

Buzgon leomlok szined eUtt, dicsd! 
Majdan ha lelkem zdraibol kikel 

\S kozzdd kozelb jdrvlhaU akkor 
A* miutdn eped oil eleri. 

Addig letorliym konyeimet ^s megyek 
Rendeltetesem^ pdlya^ f'utdsain, ' 

A^ jobb \s neniesb lelkeknek utjdn. 
Merre erom 's inaim vUtetnek. 

Biztnn teklnlem mely siroin ejjelef! 
Zordon, de, oh nein, neni lehet az govosz 
Mert (£ te munkdd; oti is elszort 
Csontaimat kezeid takarjdk. 

Berzsen yi. 



MS. Vanitatuvn Vanitas, 

Itt az irdsy forgassdtok 
Erett eszszel jozanon, 
*S benne feltaldlhatjdtok 
Mit tanit botes Salomon; 
Mikep szeles e* vildgon 
Mind en epiil kitvdnysdgon : 
Nydr es harmat, teL es ho. 
Mind csak hijdba valol 

Foldunk egy kishangyafeszek 
Egy perez hozta t'dnemeny 



142 

A villdm es dorgS veszek 
Csak mehdongds 's holy go feny; 
A* tortenef ropiilese 
Csak egy sohajtas* lengese; 
Saru minden pompa 's ek 
Egy ezred egy buborek. 

Sdndor* csillogo pdlynja 
Nyulvaddszat dzfutds ; 
Etele* dulo csorddja 
Patkdnycsoport, foltdardzs; 
Mdtyds* dicsd csatdzdsi, 
Napoleon' hoditdsi, 
*S Waterlooi diadal, 
Mind csak kakas-viadal. 

A' virtus''*) nagy tunemenyi 
Goz, mil kagymdz lehele; 
A keheV Idngerzemenyi 
Vertolulds' kin jele; 
A veg, mellyet Sokrdt ere, 
Catonak kihullo vere, 
*S Zrinyi Miklos' szent porra, 
Egy bohosdg^ Idnczsorra. 

Es ti bolcseky mit hozzdtok 
A mi volna szep 's jeles'i 



♦) Instead of er^ny. 



f43 

Mdmorhirta kopomju tok. 
Plato 's Arisioieles, 
Bolcselkedo oktalansdg, 
Hendbe fuzott tndatlansdg, 
Kdrtym:dr 's legdllitvdvy 
Mindenfele tudomdny. 

Demosthen doi'gd nyelvevel 
Szitkozado halkvfdr ; 
Xeiiophoii mez beszedevel 
liokka kozt mesere rdr; 
Pinddr' egi szdrnyaldsa 
Vorro, hideg dadogdsa; 
*S Phidias, a' mit farag 
Berovdtkolt kodarab. 

Mi az elef tuzfolydsa? 
Hullo szikra^ melege, 
A szeiivedelmek^ zugdsa'i 
Lepke szdrny fergetege, 
Kezdet es veg egymdst eri 
Es az elet hii rezeri 
Hit *s remeny a sziik pdlydn 
Tarka pdrdk '5 szivarvdny. 

Holdvildg csak boldogsdgunk ; 
Fust CL balsors melly elszdll; 
Gyertyuldng egcsz vildgunk; 
Egy juralal a' haldL 
Vdrsz Idrt 's halhatatlansdgot'l 
lllat az melly tolt inrdgot. 

(\sink, liuiii:. Gram. 



Es^a' rozsdt ha elhuf, 
Meg egy perczel (Hi till. 

Hat ne gondolj e' vildggal, 
Boles az, vdndent ki megvet 
Sorssaly Virtnssal. nagysdggal 
Tudomdnyt. hirt 's eletet, 
Legy mint szikla rendiileilen 
Tompa, nyngodt, erezetlen 
'S kedv emel, vagy bu temet, 
Szejmek 's rntnak hunyj szemet 

Mert mozogjoii, avagy dlljon, 
by pardnyi /did veled, 
Lengjeu fenyben vagy homdlyban 
Hold es nap fejiink /olett. 
liar viino sziuben jelentse 
Jottet a' vdndor szereiiese^ 
Sem rosz az, sent nem jo. 
Mind esak hijdba raid!! 



Kolcsey. 



13. Sxii ofoldent. Mxep hatdra. 

(Song of Charles Kisfaludy) 

Szilld/oldem szep liatdra 
Megldtlak-e valahdra ? 
A* hoi dllok, a' hoi viegyek 
Mludeukor csak feled nezek. 



115 

Ha maddr jon tole hvrdeni, 
Virulsz-e meg sziilofdldemy 
Azt kerdezem a felhoktul, 
Azt a' sutfogo szelektdl. 

De azok nem vlgasztalnak, 
Bus szivemmel drvdn hagynak; 
Arvdn elek bus szivemmel 
Mint a fii, melly a' szikldn kel. 

Kisded hajlek, hoi szulettem, 
Hej toled be tdvol estem; 
Tdvol ^stem mint «' level, 
Mellyet elkap a' forgo szeL 



Epigramms. 



J 4. A^nglia. 

Esz, penz dd mindent, de csak egyiitt osztanak 

dlddst. 

Nep* esze a' torveny, melly nelkul penze veszelyt 

hoz; 

Mig tGrvenyidnek hodolni fog, Angoll a' penzed, 

Addig hodol ol penz neked, *s penzednek a* 

tenger. 

Berzseniji, 
8* 



110 
MS. Magyarorjsadg' crimere. 

Step vagi/ o hon, hevcz rolgy miltoznak gazdag 

oledhen, 

Teridet orszagos negy folymii' drja szegi; 
Am iermeszetfol mind ez lelketlen ajdndek 

Nagygyu csak fiaid' szent akarata tehet. 

V or asm arty. 

IG. Kisfatuily. 

Kisfalndyt lie keresd e' keskeny sirhini^ o honfil 

W a' rovid elet viun hoitnak oriJkre ne veld; 
Itt csak elomlando tetemeit jelele ki haruti: 
Veim van (dot miiU'j szeUeme miiveiben. 

V orosmarty, 

17, VarU. 

Elete szhit *s fenyt hard; testrere az egi szlvdr- 

vdny ; 
Mert mint ez napfemf ' s vesz' kozelebe ragyog. 

MS. Mjondon. 

Mint Zeuse, feje Albionnak fellwkbe meriil el, 
Neki adozik a' fdld: dldozatdbol e' fust 

Watt ay. 



YOCABULARY 



THE selec:tio]vs. 



Aczel, S., steel. 

Addz, A., furious, vindictive. 

Aether, S., ether, 

Ag, S., branch, twig. 

Agg, S., an old man. 

Aggat-ni, V. a., to suspend, fig. 
to adorn (with flowers). 

Aggo, A, v., anxious. 

Aggkor, S., old age, 

Agy, S., bed. 

Agyon iif-ni. V. a., to kill. 

AgyiigohjOy S., cannon-ball. 

Agtjiizfatds, S., bombarding. 

Agf/vdz, S., phantom. 

Ajak, S., lip, and lips. 

Ajdnt-ani, V. a., to recom- 
mend. 

Akaddh/y S., hinderance, impe- 
diment. 



Akaddlyoz-ni , V. a., to hin- 
der, to prevent. 

AkaddlyozafJan, A., unpre- 
vented. 

Akkor, Adv., then, 

Akna, S., a mine. 

Afacsotfj A., low, base. 

Alak, S., figure, shape. 

A/anfmdszds,S., base creeping. 

Alapit-ani, V. a., to found, 
lalpkovef afapifani, to lay 
the stone of foundation. 

Alarcz; S., mask. 

Ald-ani. V. a., to bless. 

A Idas, S., blessing. 

A/dnz-ni, V. a., to sacrifice: 
a' na/) dldozla, the setting 
of the sun, sunset. 

Aldozatj S., sacrifice. 

Atdoz6-pap, S., high priest, 
pontiff. 



4 18 



Alelni, V. a., to benum. 

Alejfan^ Adv., fainting, weak. 

Alkalmatlankodo , A., trouble- 
some. 

Alkonyal, S., twilight. 

Alkot-ni, V. a., to constitute, 
to form. 

Alkofd.s , S., formation, consti- 
tution, fig. creation. 

Alkvdozds, S., negotiation. 

AUanU V. n., to stand: vtjdt 
dllanj, to obstruct the way. 

Allandosdg, S., constancy. 

Atlas, S., position; dlldst fog- 
ni. to take a position. 

Allapot, S., condition, state. 

Allhato.ssdg, S., perseverance. 

Alfjas, Adv., mean, vile. 

Ahnatlanul, Adv., sleepless. 

Almod-ni, V. a., to dream. 

AlmodozdSj S., dreaming. 

Alnok, S. & A., cunning, a cun- 
ning fellow. 

Alom, S., litter, nest. 

Altalellenhen, Adv., opposite, 
(vis a vis). 

Atta/enged-ni, V. a., to deliver, 
to surrender. 

Altalmelegull , A. v., warm, 
warmed through. 

Altal-ni, V. factit., to deceive, 
to delude. 

A-lttdr-ni, V. a., to breakthrough. 

Alvezer, S., subordinate com- 
mander, lieutnant general. 

Am' Int., well! 

Avydg, S., stuff. 



Apa, S., father: plur. apdk\ 

apdinky our ancestors. 
Apol-ni, V. a., to cherish, to 

foster, to take care of. 
Arat-ni, V. a., to gather, to 

reap. 
Arcz, S., face, figure; arci iz- 

zadds, hard labour, sweat of 

the face. 
Ar, S., flood. 
Arnyek, S., shaddow. 
Aroky S., ditch, trench; bed 

of a river. 
Artalom, S., noxiousness. 
Artds, S., doing harm. 
Artatlansdg, S., innocence. 
Arva, A., orphan, fig. forsaken : 

drvdn, Adv. , orphanUke, de- 
stitute. 
Asztal, S., table, fig. meal. 
Asszonysdg, S., lady. 
Atalkodollsdg, S., obstinacy. 
Afkozni, V. a., to curse. 
Atok, S., a curse, imprecation. 
Alkot-ni, V. a., to bind, over: 

fig. to block up. 
Aztat-ni, V. a., to wet, to 

soak. 



Bab, S., a doll. 
Badeni, A., of Baden. 
Bdj, S., charm, S. 
Bajlodo, S. , a person taking 
pains orhaving much trouble. 
Bajnok. S., champion. 



H9 



Bajnoki, A., heroic. 

Bajor, A., Bavarian, of Ba- 
varia. 

lidjos, A., charming. 

Bdjsztn, S. , charming figure, 
charming appearance. 

fifl/ — left: balra. to the left, on 
the left. 

Bafeset, S., misfortune. 

Balsors, S., adverse fate, dis- 
aster. 

Balszerencse, S., misfortune. 

Balzsam, S., balsam, fragrancy. 

Bdmtil-ni, V. a., to admire. 

Bdtnulafos, A., admirable. 

Bdnat, S., sorrow, affliction. 

Bdnl-ani, V. a., to disturb. 

Bardlsdg, S., friendship. 

Barlang, S., cavern. 

Bdrmelty, Pr. ind.*), which- 
ever, whatever. 

Basa, S., Bashaw. 

Bdsfya, S.. bastion, tower. 

Bdtorsdg, S., valour, courage. 

Be / Int., oh ! 

J5ec5, S., worth, esteem, value. 

Becsiil-ni, V. a., to honour. 

Becsulef, S. , honour, reputa- 
tion. 

Beerkez-ni, V, m., to arrive 
(in). 

Bees-ni, V. m., to sink, to de- 
cay, beesetl, A., hollow, 
fallen in. 

Befolyds, S., influence. 

') Indefinite I ronouii. 



Behatds, S.. impression. 

Bekerit-eni, V. a., to sur- 
round, to invest (a town). 

Befyeg, S., a sign, mark. 

Benkiizdo, A. \., inward strug- 
gling. 

Benyom-ni, V.a., to press (in). 

Ber, 8., pay, fig, reward. 

Bercz, S , mountain, chain of 
mountains. 

Berovdtkolt, a., jagged, notched. 

Besdnczol-ni, V.a., to entrench. 

Beszdllit-ani, V. a., to con- 
vey, to throw (in). 

Beszed, S., speech. 

Befegseg, S., illness. 

Befer-rih V. n. , to enter, to 
visit, to call upon. 

Bezdrod-ni, V. m., to close, 
to shut. 

Bihor, S., purple. 

Bir-ni, V, a., to possess. 

Birdl-ni, megbirdl-ni, V. a., 
to judge, to decide. 

Birds, S., possession. 

Birkoz-ni, V. m., to wring, to 
struggle. 

Bimdalrmbeli, A., belonging 
to the empire. 

Birtok, iS., possession. 

Bizodalom, S., confidence trust ; 
bizodafmal vefni, to trust. 

Bizony, Adv., surely. 

Bizont/itds, S., arguing, demon 
stration. 

Bizonytalansdg , S. , uncer- 
tainty. 



120 



Biztat-ni, V., fact., to encou- 
rage, to comfort. 

Bizfatds, S., persuasion. 

Bizton, A., sure. 

Biztositds, S., assurance. 

Bizfon, Adv., confidently. 

Bohosdg, S., farce. 

Bokol-ni, V. n., to bow. 

Botdogito, Adv., blissful. 

Boldogtalan, S., unhappy. 

BoldogiU, Adv., happy. 

Boldogsdg, S,, happiness. 

BoUmdnl., Adv., foohshly. 

Bolthajids, S., arch, vault. 

Boltozat, S., vault. 

Bolfjog-niy V. n. , to wander 
about. 

BoUjgofeny, S. , ignis fatuus, 
jack with a lantern. 

5o/j/OW9dA',S., wandering about. 

Borongo, A. v., gloomy. 

Boriil-ni V. n., to draw over, 
to be spread over; feleg bo- 
riit, it grows cloudy. 

Borzalmas, A., shivering, shud- 
dering 

Borzalom, S., shudder, horror. 
Borzasiluiag, Adv., shudder- 
ing, dreadfully. 
Boszu, bosszu, S., revenge. 

'Boazulallan, A., unrevenged. 
Bosztis, A., vindictive. 

5d, A., sufficient. 

Boles, S., sage, philosopher; — , 

A., wise. 
Bolcselkedo, S. , philosopher, 
— , A., philosophizing. 



Bolcsen. Adv., wisely. 

Bolcsesseg^ S., wisdom. 

Bolcso, S., cradle. 

Boseg, S., abundance, plenty. 

Boven, Adv., copiously, abun 
dantly. 

i?M, S., grief, affliction; bunak 
eredten, Adv., pining with 
grief. 

Buborek, S., bubble. 

Bticsuz-ni,\.m., to take leave, 

Bvjdoso, S., fugitive. 

Bvrkoz-ni, V. m., to wrap up, 
to conceal one's self. 

Bus, A., gloomy, sad, afflicted. 

Biislakod-ni, V. m., to be 
sorrowful. 

Bufa, A., stupid. 

Buvohely, S., place of conceal- 
ment. 

Buzdifo. A., encouraging. 

Buzgo, A. v., zealous; bvzgdn, 
Adv , devoutly. 

Buzogdny, S., a club for fight- 
ing. 

Biikfa, S., beech; -A., beechen, 
of beech-wood, 

BuHy S., sin, crime. 

Bdntellenseg, S., impunity. 

Biiszke, A., proud. 



€9. 



Csdbilo, A. v., tempting, allu- 



Csa/dd, S., family. 



121 



Csalfa, A., fallacious, deceitful. 

Csdkd S., a soldier's cap. 

Csafinem, Adv., almost, nearly. 

Csakvgyan^ C.,y et, nevertheless. 

Csapd,s, S., blow, misfortune. 

Csapaf^ S. , division, part of 
a regiment. 

Csaponyo, A. v., rambling 
about. 

Cfarnok, S., hall. 

Csdszdr^ S., emperor. 

Csdszdri, A., imperial. 

Csata, S., battle. 

Csatarend, S., order of battle. 

Csafdz-ni, V. n., to have » con- 
flict, to combat. 

Csatdzds, S., battle, combat. 

Csafot-ni, V. a., to join, to 
combine, to unite. 

Csaturna, S., drainage, water- 
pipe. 

Csaltog-ni, V. n., to clatter. 

Csecsemv, S., infant. 

Caehely, A., little, small 

C'Se/ides, A., quiet, still; r.«e«- 
desen, quietly. 

Csere'-ni, V. a., to exchange. 

« seceg-ni, V. a., to chatter. 

Csiko, S., a foal. 

C-^iiay, S., star. 

CsiUagocska,S. dim.,*jlittle star. 

C-sillogUy A. v., splendent. 

C'.sm, S., beauty 

Csindl-ni, V. a., to make. 

Lsoda S., wonder; fig. admi- 
ration. 



*) Diminutive S.iliktanlixr. 



Csokol-nij V. a., to kiss. 
C^on/, S., bone 
Csontvdz, S., skeleton. 
Csoport, S., multitude, band; 

gyulevesz-csoporty a band 

flocked together. 
Csorda, S., horde. 
Csvda, S., wonder. 
Csvdatevo^ A. v., performing 

miracles (doing wonders). 
CsiifoSf A., scornful. 
Csuggedetlen, A., undaunted. 
C5Mr, S., barn, corn-loft. 

€b. 

Czdiol-ni, V. a., to refute, to 

disprove. 
Czet, S., aim, object. 
Czelzat, S., aim, design. 
C:>e«A, S., boy. 
Cziba, S., pus (cat). 
Czimer, S., title. 
Ciomft, S., thigh. 

D. 

I)aczol-nh V. a., to resist, to 
bid defiance. 

Dadogds, S., chattering. 

Dagdly, 8., tumour, fig. haugh- 
tiness. 

Delfele, Adv., towards noon, 
southward. 

Der, S., frost. 

Derek, S., body, trunk, rump. 

Derul-uL V. n., to brighten, 
fig. to revive. 

Diadaly S., victory. 



122 



Diadalmas, A., victorious. 

DiadaJmasan, Adv., trium- 
phantly. 

Dicseked-ni, V. m., to boast. 

Dfcso, A., glorious. 

Dicsoen, Adv., gloriously. 

Dics6l(-eni, V. a., to glorify. 

Dicso.seg, S., glory, renown. 

Diszl-eni, V. m. , to shine, to 
be decorous. 

Dobogds, S., pulsation. 

Dolgozds, S., the work. 

Domb, S., hill. 

Dombocska, S., hillock. 

Dog, S., murrain. 

D6l-ni, V. n., to fall down, to 
sink. 

Ddnlhellen, A., incontestable. 

Dorgo, A. v., thundering. 

Dozsbardf, S., debauchee, re- 
veller. 

Dozsoles^ S., debauchery, ban- 
quetting. 

Drdgako, S., precious stone. 

Dul-ni, V. n., to ravage. 

Dulo, A. v., depopulating. 

Dvrva, A., rough, rude. 

Diis, A., rich. 

Diih, S., rage, fury. 

Duhosen, Adv., furiously. 

£6, S., dog. 

Ebredeio, A. v., awaking, rising. 

Ebreszt-eni, V. a., to awaken, 

fig. to excite. 
Edeni, A., paradisiacal. 



jB^, S., heaven, sky; egi. A., 
heavenly; egiek, gods. 

Eg-ni^ V. n., to burn. 

Eget-ni, V. a., to burn. 

£90, A. v., burning. 

Egi/befugge.s, S., connection. 

Egybevel-ni, V. a., to com- 
pare together. 

Egyeb, Pr., anything else. 

Egyeduli, A, only; eggedul, 
Adv., lonely, only. 

Egyenesen, Adv. , straight-a- 
long. 

EgyenefleUj A., disunited. 

Egyes, S., a single one, indivi- 
dual. 

Egyesu/-ni, V. n., to unite. 

Egyeflen, A., only. 

Egyetemi, A., universal. 

Egyeterteni, V., to agree. 

Eggeferfes, S., unanimity, har- 
mony. 

Egyeflenegy. A., only one. 

Egyirdnt. Adv., equally. 

Egykarojit Adv. , once , for- 
merly. 

Egykorii, A., contemporary. 

Egymds ufdn^ Adv., one af- 
ter another. 

Egyszersmindy Adv., at the 
same time, at once. 

Egyiitty Adv., together. 

Egyultelo, S., contemporary, 
coeval. 

EgyUtterlo, S. & A., (persons) 
of the same opinion. 

Ehseq, S., hunger, famine. 



123 



Pj, S., night. 

Ejjel, Adv., by night. 

Ejl-eni, V. a., to drop, to pre- 
cipitate: fig. to make, to 
prepare: birtokdha ejt, he 
brings in his possession. 

Kkj S., ornament, decoration. 

El-ni, V. a., to enjoy; elni, 
V. n., to live: liileinu to 
outlive. 

Etakad-ni, V. n., to stop. 

Elalud-nl V. m., to fall a- 
sleep ; a (ih elalszik, the fire 
goes ont or is extinguished. 

Elapad-ni, V. n., to dry up, 
to be exhausted. 

Elbefegit-eni, V. a., to make ill. 

Elboril-ani, V. a., to over- 
charge, to overv^^helm. 

Elbolcselked-ni, V. a., to dis- 
concert. 

Elbuk-ni, V. m., to be over- 
thrown, to fall. 

Elbmil'^ani., V. a., to sadden; 
e^bifsUd, A. V. , saddening, 
sad. 

Elcsuggedo, A. v., loosing cou- 
rage, desponding, despairing. 

E'de(-nU V. a., enjoy. 

Eldud, S., ancestor. 

Eleg, Adv., enough. 

Efeget-ni, V. a., to burn, to 
blast. 

Eleklromi, A., electrical. 

E/elem, S., food. 

Ettr-ni, V. n., to arrive. 

Elerkez-ni, V. m., to arrive. 



Eleset, — with affixes : eleslem 
elesfed, eleste, S., fall; eleste 
ufdn, after his, her or its fall. 

Elesseg, S., food. 

Eleszf-eni, V. a., to enliven, 
to enkindle (the flame). 

Eleleru, S., vital power. 

Efefnelkul, Adv., lifelessly. 

Eleve/Ut-eni, V. a. , to vivify, 
to animate. 

Elfivenseg, S., vivacity. 

Elfeledhef-ni, V. factit.,to cause 
to forget- 

Elfog-ni, V. a., to catch. 

Elfogad-ni, V. a,, to accept, 
to adopt. 

Eljorditds , S., turning away, 
averting. 

Elgyvjt-ani, V. a., to fire off, 
to blow up. 

Ethagy-ni, V. a., to leave be- 
hind, to abandon, to forsake. 

Elltagyotf. Adv., forsaken. 

Elhajol-nU V. a., (to decline) 
to decay. 

Elhamvad-ni, V. n., to be ex- 
tinguished, fig. to expire, 
to die. 

Elhangoz-ni, V. m., to die 
away (said of the sound). 

Elhdny-ni, V. a., to throw away. 

Ellidril-ani, V. a., to turn away, 
to remove, to prevent. 

Elhatdlnzott.sd(}^ S., resolution, 
firmness. 

Efhull-ani, V. n. , to fall , to 
die away. 



124 



Elhuny-ni, and efhvnni, V. n., 
to expire, to die. 

Eljajdufds, S., lamentation, 
wailing. 

Efj6n-nf\ V. n., to arrive. 

Elkap-ni,' V. a., to snap, to 
catch, to seize. 

Elkeseredes, S., exasperation. 

Ellankad-nU V. n., to faint. 

Elldt~ni, V. a., to provide for ; 
elldfva, provided. 

EUenfel, S., counterparty, op- 
ponent, adversary. 

Ellenhafds, S., reaction, coun- 
ter-effect. 

Ellenigyekezet, S., a contrary 
endeavour, opposition. 

Etlenkezo, A., opposite, con- 
trary. 

EUensegi, A., inimical. 

EUenseges , A. , hostile, ad- 
verse. 

EUenfdll-anij V. n., to resist. 

EUenzes^ S , opposition, dis- 
suasion. 

Elme, S., mind, disposition. 

Elmelkede-'i, S., contemplation, 
reflection. 

Ehnenetel, S., departure, re- 
treat. 

Elmefszelf, A. v., cut off (being 
cut off). 

Elmiil-ni, V. m., to pass (said 
of the time). 

Elmulds, S., decay. 

Elnemul-ni. V. n., to grow 
mute, to grow silent. 



Elmjog-ni, V. a., (to groan 
away) to get through a sor- 
rowful period of life. 

E/om/ando, A. v., mortal, futile 
(things which must perish). 

Elolt-aniy V. a., to extinguish. 

Elordlt-ani magdf, V., to bray. 

Efo, S., ancestor. 

El6ad-ni, V. a., to report. 

E/obb, Adv., first. 

EloiMlet^ S., prejudice. 

Eolkeszulett preparatory work. 

Efol-ni, V. a., to extirpate. 

E/6nyomul-ni, V. n., to press 
for wad, to advance. 

Elore, Adv., forward. 

Elurement, A. v., preceding. 

Elovivo, S., those who fight 
in the front. 

Elpdrtol-ni, V. m., to desert 
(a cause). 

E!paUan-ni, V. n., to be blown 
up, to burst asunder. 

Efrabol-ni, V. a., to rob, to 
deprive. 

EIrdmul-ni, V. n., to tremble. 

EIronf-ani, V. a., to destroy. 

ElsOtetul-ni^ V. n. , to grow 
dark. 

Efsuhjeszt-eni, V. a., to sink, 
to submerge. 

Elszun-ni, V. n., to resolve 
(upon). 

Etszdnlsdg, S., resolution. 

Elszor-nU V. a., to scatter; 
elszort., A. v., scattered. 

Elfakarilds, S., removal. 



nn 



Elfapos-ni, V. a., to trample 

(under one's feet). 
Eltemet-ni, V. a., to bury. 
Elter-ni, V. n., to have room. 
Eftelo, A. v., giving and pre- 
serving life. 
Etieved-nt, V. n., to lose on'es 

way. 
Etf6/»el-m, V. a. & n., to resolve. 
EUdlt-eni, V. a., to consume 

or to spend (time). 
Elluno, A. v., passing, disap- 
pearing. 
Etunatkoz-ni , V. m. , to be 

tired, to be wearied. 
Elvd'-ni V. n., to part (to 

take leave). 
Elvdr-ni, V. a., to expect. 
Elveszt-eni, V. a., to lose. 
Elvel-nij V. a , to throw away, 

to reject. 
Elviti-ni, V. a., to take; az 

lit elcisz, the way leads. 
Elvon-ni, V. a., to withdraw, 

to take away. 
Elzajog-nU V. a., to pass one's 

time with noise. 
Elzdr-ni, V. a., to shut up. 
Ember L A., human; emberiseg, 

S., humanity. 
Etnel-ni, V. a., to raise, to 

lift up. 
Emelet^ S., story, floor. 
Emelked-ni, V. m., to rise. 
iime//en,Adv.,raised (as raised). 
Emeszf-eni, V. a., to con 

sume; mafjdf emeszteni, to 



be consumed; emeszfo, A.r., 
consuming, devouring. 

Emiek. S., memory. 

Emfekezef, S., recollection, me- 
mory, remembrance. 

Em/ekle/en, A., without a mo- 
nument, not commemorated, 

Em/it-eni, V. a., to mention. 

Emio. S., the breast. 

Enyesi-ni, V. m. , to vanish, 
to disappear. 

Enyeszet, S., annihilation, de- 
struction. 

Emjhe, A., mild. 

EnyliU-eni, V. a., to ease, to 
alleviate, to mitigate. 

Enyhu/et, S., alleviation, relief. 

Eped-ni, V. n., to long for. 

Eperii Adv., just. 

Epes, A., bilious, full of gall, 
fig. bitter, ireful. 

Epeszt-eni, V. a., to vex, to 
leave one languishing orlong- 
ing for. 

Epseg, S., integrity (integritas). 

Eput-ni; V. n., to be built. 

Epulet, S., building. 

Er, S., the vein. 

Er-ni, V. a., to reach; — V. 
n., to avail, to be worth. 

Ertii, meger-ni, V. m., to ri- 
pen, to grow ripe. 

Er-ni, rder nU V. n., to have 
time, to be at leisure. 

Ercz^ A., of ore. 

Erdeket-ni, V. a., to interest, 
to concern. 



126 



Krdekid, A. v., interesting. 

Erdehj, S., Transilvania. 

Erdern, S., merit. 

Erdemes, a., Avorthy, deserving. 

Ered-nUV. n., with na/,- neJi, to 
begin ; utnal, eredni, to depart. 

Eredeti, A., original. 

Ereszt-eni, V. a., to let loose; 
ellenunk eresz/e, he lead a- 
gainst US. 

Erezet/en, A., unfeeling, apa- 
thetic. 

Erinfi s, 8., contact. 

Erkofrs, S., morals, manner. 

Erolkodes, S., effort, constraint. 

ErS.sen, Adv., strongly, much. 

Erosod-tii, V. n). , to grow 
strong. 

Erusseg, S., fort, fortress. 

Er.sekvjvdr, S., the name of a 
place (fortress)in Hungary. 

Erfelem, S., intellect, reason. 

ErfrHenseg, S., ignorance. 

Erz-eni, V. m., to be felt, to 
be tasted. 

Erzek, S., sense (organ of sen- 
sation). 

Erzeket/en.seq, S., insensibility. 

Erzefem, S., feelings (in a sub- 
jective meaning). 

Erzelmi, A., sensible. 

Erzemeny,S., feeling (m an ob- 
jective meaning, that which 
is felt.) 

Arzet, S., feeling (felt). 

jtrzOy A. v., feeling, sensible. 

Esdeklo, S., a person imploring. 



Esdekel-ni, V. a., to suppli- 
cate, to implore.' 

Eseng-ni, V. n., to implore, 
to crave. 

Eses, S., fall. 

Eset, S., case, accident. 

Esz, S., reason, intellect, mind. 

Eszaka, S., night: pszakdra 
kelve, growing towards night. 

Eszaki, A., northern. 

Eszes, A., intelligent. 

Eszkoz, S., instrument. 

Eszkozl-em, V. a., to mediate, 
to promote. 

Elele, S., Attilla. 

Evfized, S., decennium. 

Ezredes, S., colonel. 

Ezredev^ S., millennium. 

Ezredevi, A., milleninial, of a 
thousand years. 

EziisL S., silver. 



Fayi/tal-ni, V. fact.,*) to cause 

congelation; fagylald, A. v., 

freezing. 
Fdjdalom, S., pain, affliction. 
Fajfalan, A., lascivious. 
Fajul-ni, elfajul-ni, V. n., to 

degenerate. 
Fakaszt-ani^io cause to spring; 

konyef faka.szf-ani, to start 

tears. 
Falaf, S., a slice of bread. 
Falronlo, A v., battering. 
Fani/ar, A., astringent. 

•) Factitive Verb, 



27 



Fdradf, A. v., tired. 
Fdradatlan. A., indefatigable. 
Fdrodozds, S., exertion. 
Faragni. V. a., to carve. 
Farkas^ S., wolf. 
Fegyver, S., arms, weapon. 
Fegyverfdr, S., arsenal. 
Fegyi'erlelen, A., unarmed, 
Feher, A., white. 
Fejenkent, Adv., one by one. 
Fejt-eniy V. a., to develop. 
Fekves, S., situation condition. 
Fekvesu, A., situated, being in 

a good or bad condition. 
Fel, A., half. 
Felad-ni, V. a., to give up, fig 

to surrender. 
Felajzotty A. v., bridled i fefaj- 

zott nyil, bridled arrow, an 

arrow ready to be shot off. 
Feldldoz-ni, V. a., to sacrifice. 
Feldllil-ani, V. a., to erect, 

to place. 
Felcsilfdmlo, A. v. , glimmering. 
Feldul-ni, V.a., to desolate, to 

demolish. 
Feled-ni, V. a., to forget. 
Feledlet-ni, V., fact, to cause 

to forget. 
Feleg, S., cloud. 
Fefeget-ni, V. a., to burn 

down. 
Felejt-eni, V. a., to forget. 
Fefel-ni, V. a., to answer. 
Felelet, S., answer. 
Feleme/-n>\ V, a., to elevate, 

to raise. 



Feler-ni, V. a., to reach, to 
attain. 

Fe/eseg, S., wife. 

Feleskud-ni, V. m., to take an 
oath, to swear. 

Felfal-nif V. a., to devour. 

Feffog-ni, V. a., to compre- 
hend. 

Fe/forgaf-ni, V. a., to over- 
throw, to overturn. 

Fe/hagy-ni, V, n. , to discon- 
tinue, to desist., to leave off. 

Felho, S., cloud. 

Fe/ig, Adv., half. 

Felillan-ni, V. n. , to fly up; 
tf' kvpdk felillantanak, the 
cups were flying, the cups 
were passed round. 

Felkaczag-ni, V. n., to burst 
out into a laugh. 

Felkelt nemes.seg, S., the rai- 
sed army of the nobility 
(insurectionj. 

Felkidlt-ani, V. n., to ex- 
claim. 

FelkoUe, S., getting up , rising. 

Fe/kot-nif V. a., to tie up, to 
gird. 

Felleg^ S., cloud, small cloud. 

Fellobban-ni, V. n., to blaze 
up; fellobhano, blazing up. 

FeKobbanf, A. v., blazed up. 
fig. blown up. 

Felocsiid-ni, V. m., to reco- 
ver from stupefaction. 

Felrefen-Jii, V. a., to put aside, 
to lay aside. 



1^28 



Fefrohog-ni, V. n., to approach 
galloping. 

Fe/seg^ S., majesty. 

Felso, A., upper. 

Felsovdros, S., upper-town, 
(upper part of the town). 

Felszdzad, S., half a century. 

Felszokell-ni, V., m., to rise 
hastily 'to jump up). 

Felfaldl-ni, V. a., to find, to 
find out. 

Fettdmad-ni, V. n., to rise. 

Fellarfozlat-nij V. fact., to re- 
tard, to stop. 

Feltartozfafott, A. v., preven- 
ted, hindered. 

Feltefel, S., condition. 

Feltuntet-ni, V. a., to make 
one's appearence. 

Fettuz-ni (said of a flag), V., 
a., to set up, to plant. 

Feltiizel-ni, V. a., to inflame, 
to encourage, to animate, to 
spur. 

Felven-ni, V. a., to pick up, 
to take. 

Felvergud-ni, V. m.*) to get 
up) to approach with labor 
and trouble. 

Felvildgusit-ani, V. a., to ex- 
plain, to bring to light. 

Felvirdgozlal-ni, V. fact., to 
cause to flourish. 

Felvon-ni, V. a., to pull up, to 
bring up. 



*) Verl»nin ined'uni. 



Fenn, Adv., up. 

Fenkidlt-ani, V. n., to shout. 

Femagyogo, A. v., highly 
bright. 

Fenseg, S., sublime, subHmity. 

Feny, S., gUmmer, splendor, 
shine. 

Fenyeget-ni. V. a., to threaten, 
to menace. 

Fenyegeto, A. v., menacing. 

Fenyes, A„ bright, 

Feny 16^ A. v., bright, splendent. 

Fenyot S., pine-tree; fenyoiz, 
resinous taste. 

Fer-ni, (with hoz hez), V. n., 
to get at, to come to. 

Fereg, S., worm. 

Ferfikar, S., manly arm. 

Ferfiu. S., man. 

Fergeteg, S., shower, tempest, 
wind-storm. 

Feszesseg, S., stifTness, pe- 
dantry. 

FesziiUen, Adv., attentivly. 

Fiatal, Adv., young. 

Fiatalsdg, S., youth. 

Figyelem, S., attention. 

Figyel-ni, V. a., to attend, to 
listen. 

Figyelmez-tii , V. m., to pay 
attention. 

Fogad-ni, V. a., to receive. 

Fogadds, S., vow. 

Fogado, S., hotel. 

Fogasiy S., (dentax) said of the 
wolf, because of his vora- 
ciousness. 



120 



Pogoly, S., captive. 

Fogsdg^ S., captivity, prison; 

fogsdgba zdrni, to imprison. 
Fogy-ni, V. n., decrease, to be 

diminished. 
Fogyatkozds, S., defect. 
Fogyhatlan, A., not decreasing, 

inexhaustible. 
Fohdszkodds, S. , the sigh 

(sigh of devoutedness). 
Foil, S., stain, blemish. 
Foltdardzs, S., nest of wasps, 

a quantity of wasps. 
Foly-nU V. n., to flow, to run; 

a' viadal foly , the combat 

(fight) is fought. 
Folyam, S., a stream. 
Folyds, S., flow, kennel. 
Folyoiral, S., periodical. 
Folyoso, S., corridor. 
Folytat-niy V, a., to continue. 
Folytonos, A., continuous. 
Fontol-ni, V. a., to ponde- 
rate. 
Fordulds, fordulat^ S., turn, 

change. 
Forgat~ni, V. a., to turn about, 

fig. to read in a book, 
Forgo, A. v., whiriing. 
Forgoszel, S., whirl-wind. 
Forma, S., form. 
Forog-ni, V. n,, to turn ; szeme, 

lelke elotl forogni, (to be 

before the eyes) to bear in 

mind; veszelyben forogni, 

to be in danger. 
Porr-ni, V. n., to ferment, to 
Csinkj bung. Gram. 



bubble, to spring from, fig, 
to rise. 

ForrdSj S., spring, source. 

Forro, A. v., hot, ardent. 

F6, S., head; — , A., principal. 

Focancelldr, S., High Chan- 
cellor, 

Fodoz-ni, V. a., to cover, fig. 
to protect. 

Fofegyvertdr, S., head-arsenal. 

Fo-haditizst, S., superior of- 
ficer. 

Foldalatti, A., subterranean. 

Foldi, A., earthly, fig. human; 
— , S., countryman. 

Foleledes, S., revival. 

Folfuggeszt-eni, V. a., to sus- 
pend, to hang up. 

Folibe if 61 or /e/, up), over 
him. 

Foljegyez-ni, V. a., to write 
down, to specify. 

Fdlker-ni Cd vdraQ, V. a. 
to demand. 

Folver-ni, V. a., to rouse. 

Folvet-ni, V. a., to throw up, 
fig. to blow up. 

Folvirul-ni, V. n., to blossom, 
to flourish. 

F6-vezerseg, S., supreme com- 
mand. 

Frisesseg, S., freshness. 

Ful-ni, V- n., to be suffocated. 

Furds, S., boring; foldalatli 
furds, a mine. 

Fuldr, S., courier. 

Futds, S.. run, course, flight. 



<30 



Futkos-ni, V. n., to run about. 
Fnto-sdncz, S., trench. 
Fiiv-ni, V. a., to blow. 
Fuvalat, S., breeze, breath. 
Fiil, S., ear. 
Fulel-ni, V. n., to prick up 

the ears. 
Fulemile, S., nightingale. 
Fiiles, S., (long-ear) ass. 
FiiresztS, A. v., bathing, 
FUrt, S., curl, lock (of hair). 
Fiist, S., smoke. 
Fuz-ni, V. a., to file, to put 

on a string, fig. to range. 



Gdtol-nU V. a., to hinder, to 
prevent. 

Gazda, S., master, husband- 
man ; gazddcska, little 
master, dear master. 

Gazdagit-ani^ V. a., to enrich. 

Gazdasdg, S., household. 

Genius, S., genius. 

Gep, S., engine. 

Gepszeruseg, S., mechanical 
method, like a machine. 

GerjedezoyA.. v., excited, moved, 
ardent. 

Gerjelem, S., agitation of mind, 
excitement, passion (in the 
generic meaning of the word). 

Gerjeszt-eniy V. a., to excite. 

Golya, S., the stork. 

Golyafeszek, S., nest of a 
stork. 



Gond, S., care. 

Gondolat, S., thought, idea. 

Gondolkod-ni, V. m., to think, 

to reflect. 
Gondolkozds. S. , thinking, 

thought, fig. mind. 
Gondos, S. & A., careful, an- 
xious. 
Gondoskod-ni, V. m., to care, 

to provide for. 
Gondoskodds, S., care, prori 

dence. 
Gondsvjtott, A. v., sorrowful. 
Gonosz, A., evil, bad, wicked. 
Gogosen, Adv., haughtily. 
Gorbed-ni, V. n., to bend, fig 

to submit. 
Got, S., vapour, steam. 
Guny, S., scorn, derision, 

mockery. 
Gunyol-ni, V. a., to deride, to 

mock. 

«y. 

Gyaldz-ni, V. a., to dishonour, 
to defame; meggyaldzni, to 
disgrace. 

Ggaldzatos, A., shameful, dis- 
graceful. 

Gyakorol-ni, V. a., to practise; 
hefolydst gyakorolni. to have 
influence, to influence. 

Gyalog ezred, S., regiment of 
infantry; lovas ezred, re- 
giment of cavalry. 

Gyanu, S., suspicion. 



131 



Gyanutlan,A., unsuspected, un- 
suspicious. 

Gydszkiseret, S., funeral pro- 
cession. 

Gydszkony, S., mourning tear, 
(tears shed because of mour- 
ning.) 

Gydszos, A., mournful. 

Gydszpad, S., bier. 

Gydva, A,, coward, timid. 

Gyertyaldng, S., flame of a 
candle. 

Gyilkos, S., murderer; — A., 
murderous. 

GyorSj A., swift, fig. fugitive. 

Gyorsan, Adv., quickly, spee- 
dily. 

Gyoker, S., root; qyokerei ver- 
ni, to strike root. 

Gyonge, A., weak. 

Gyongeseg, S., weakness, in- 
firmity. 

Gyonyor, S., delight. 

Gyonyoruj A., delightful; fig. 
sweet. 

Gyori^ A., of Gyor^ belonging, 
to Gy or (a county in Hungary.) 

Gyotrelem, S. , anguish, tor- 
ment. 

Gyotro, A. v., sorrowful, grie- 
vous. 

Gyoztes, S., victor. 

Gt/iilekezel, S., meeting, as- 
sembly. 

Gyulevesz, S., crowd of people, 
rabble. 

Gyuloletes, A., hated, odious. 



Gyumolcs, S., fruit. 
Gyujf-ani, V. a., to light (a 
candle etc.). 



Hab, S., a wave. 
Hdborgat-ni, V. a., to disturb, 

to trouble. 
Hdborifaflan, A., undisturbed. 
Habozds, S., fluctuation, fig. 

hesitation. 
Had, S., troop, troops. 
Hadd, instead of hagyjad, Im- 

perat. of hagyni, let 
Hadvesz, S., danger of war; 

hadvesziilte kep, the dangers 

of war setting on their brows. 
Hdg-nU V. n., to leap, to 

ascend; hdgtafni, V. fact., to 

raise. 
Hagy-ni, to leave ; abban hagy- 

niy to leave any thing as it 

is, to desist. 
HagymdZy S., typhus, hight of 

a fever. 
Hagyomdny, S., legacy. 
Hajigdl-ni, V. a. , to throw, 

to cast. 
Hajlek, S., dwelling, cottage, 

hut. 
Hajtong-ni, V. n., to stoop. 
HajOj S., ship. 
Hajszdl, S., a hair. 
Hdla^ S., thanks. 
Hdlaados. A., being beholden. 
Halad-ni, V. n., to advance, to 

progress ; Aa/a(fo, progressing. 

9* 



132 



Haladds, S., progress. 

Hdlddoan, Adv., thankfully. 

Haldl, S., death; haldlra ka- 
czagni magdt, to burst with 
laughing. 

Haldokol-ni, V. n., to die, to 
be in agony. 

Haldoklo, A., dying. 

Halhatallansdg, S. , immorta- 
lity. 

Halkufdr, S., fishmonger. 

Hallhafatlan, A., unheard. 

Halmoz-ni, V. a., to heap. 

Halom, S., heap, amassment. 

Halott, A. v., dead. 

HatovdnyaUj Adv. pale. 

Hamar, Adv., soon. 

Hamu, hamv, S., ashes. 

/Taw^ S., turf, grassplott, fig. 
ground, land. 

Hdny-ni. A., to throw. 

Hanyatl-ani, V. m., to decline. 

Hangyabolyi, A., ant-hill-like 
(like an ant-hill^. 

Haiigyaf^szek, S., ant-hill. 

Hangyasereg, S., multitude of 
ants. 

Harag. S., anger. 

Harcz, S., fight, war, battle, 
struggle, combat; a' harcz 
foly , the combat is car- 
ried on. 

Harczolo, S., combatant, strug- 
gler. 

Hdrem, S., harem. 

Harmat, S.,dew; harmatcsepp, 
dew-drop. 



Hasif-ani, V. a., to split, to 
cleave. 

Hasonlit-ani, V. n,, to resemble . 

Hasonlitds , S. , comparison, 
allegory. 

Hasonlo, A., similar, like. 

Hasztalan, Adv., in vain, fruit- 
lessly. 

Hat, Interj., especially used in 
interrogations. 

Hat, S., the back. 

Hat-ni. V., intr. to act upon- 
to affect. 

Hatds, S., effect. 

Hatdr, S.. boundary, fig. coun- 
try, field. 

Hatdrido, S., term (of time), 
hatdrideju, A., of a term. 

Hatdroz-ni, V, a., to deter- 
mine, to resolve. 

Hdtrahagyds. S., leaving be- 
hind. 

Hdtrdl-ni, V. n., to retreat. 

Hdtrdlds, S., retreat. 

Hdtulso, A., hindmost. 

Hdz-6rz6, S., house-guard. 

Hegy, S., mountain. 

Hely, S., place, room. 

Helyezet, S., posture, situation. 

Helijvdlasztds, S., the choice 
of a place, choice of a po- 
sition. 

Herges, S., a rattling noise in 
the throat. 

Hervadds, S., withering. 

Hervadattan, A., imperishable, 
not withering. 



4 33 



Herosz, A., heroic, hero-like. 

Hetedfel, A., six and a half. 

Hetyke^ A., haughty. 

Hev , S., the heat, ardour, 
zeal. 

Hei\ ho. A., hot. 

Hever-ni, V. n., to lie. 

Heverohely. S., place of in- 
dulgence. 

Heveresz-ni, V. n., to live an 
idle life. 

Heves, A., hot, heves venu, 
ardent. 

flevulo, A. v., ardent, fervent. 

Hidban, hidb a and hij aba, Adv., 
in vain, fruitlessly. 

Hidba valo. A., fruitless, vain. 

Hidefjen, Adv., coldly, cooly 
calmly. 

Hidegulo, A. v., cooling, abated. 

Hiendi, Future of hin-ni, to 
believe. 

Hint-eni, V. a., to strew, to 
sow. 

Hir, S., reputation, renown. 

Hirdet-ni, V. a., to anounce, 
to celebrate. 

Hirvetel, S., intelligence, ac- 
count. 

Hif, S., belief, faith. 

Hitetlen, A., perfidious, faith- 
less. 

Hitvdny, A., insipid, fig. trif- 
ling. 

Hitvdnysdg, S., trifle. 

Hioen, Adv., faithfully, confi- 
dently. 



Hizelkedes, S., flattery. 
Hodol-ni, V. n., to do homage. 
Hoditds, S., conquest. 
HofeMr, A., as white as snow, 
Hold, hold, S., moon; hold- 

vildg, moon-shin«; hoW ej- 

jele, S., moon-night. 
Homdly, S., darkness, obscu- 
rity, gloom ; homdlyba tenni, 

to obscure. / 

Homlok, S., forehead. 
Honfi, S., patriot. 
Honn, Adv., at home. 
Hord-ani, V. a., to carry. 
Hordoz-ni, V. a., to bear, to 

carry. 
Horgas, A., crooked, having a 

hook: horgas kard, falchion. 
Hosszas, A., long. 
Holgy, S., lady, fig. wife. 
Horges, S., rattling noise. 
Hos, A., heroic. 
Hull-ani v., to fall, to fall off. 
Hvllds, S., fall, decay. 
Huny-nU szemet huny-ni. V. 

a., tho shut the eyes. 
Hur, S., string (for a musical 

instrument). 
Huszdrsdg, S., hussars. 
Huz-ni, V. a., to draw, to pull; 

veszedelmet huzni^ to bring 

danger. 
Hu, A., faithful. 
Hul-ni, elhulni, V. n., to grow 

cool. 
HUves, A., cool. 



134 



Ide, Adv., here to; ide '.s fova, 
here and there, to and fro. 

Ideg^ S., nerv. 

Jdojdrds, S., weather. 

fdoponl, S., epoch. 

fdoprofe a, S., the weather spy. 

fdoszak, S. , period. 

Igaz, A., true. 

/gazqaf-ni, V., to direct. 

Jga:gafd.s, S., direction. 

Igazlalan, A., untrue, unjust. 

Iger-ni, V. a., to promise. 

Igeret, S., promise, S. ; igerefy 
fdldCy the land of promise. 

Igero, A. v., promising. 

Igy, C, so, thus. 

Igi/ekez-ni, V. m., to endea- 
vour, to attempt. 

Igyekezet, S., endeavour, exer- 
tion. 

fjedtseg, S., fright. 

Illands, S, disappearing and 
reappearing. 

Illa^, S., odour, fragrancy. 

Illatos, A., fragrant, 

Ill-eni, V. m., to become, to fit. 

Ille/es, S. , contact; illeiesre 
laldlni, to come in contact. 

Illelten, A., untouched ; — un- 
fit, indecent. 

I/,iel6d-ni, V. m., to be moved, 
to be touched. 

Ilyedl, (^used with the posse- 
sive affixes) S., being frigh- 
tened, fright. 

/m. imhol, Int., behold. 



Imddsdg, S., prayer. 

In, S., muscle, fig. hmb. 

Indtil-ni, V. n., to set out, to 
march, to decamp. 

Indu/ds, S. , decamping, de- 
parting. 

Indu/af, S., disposition of mind, 

. passion (passio). 

Indnlatu, A., having a certain 
disposition of mind. 

Indnfo^ S., march; indnlol fv- 
nalni, to sound the march. 

Indult, veszni indtilt, to com to 
ruin, to get lost, to be left 
to ruin. 

Ingerl-eni, V. a., to excite. 

Ingovany, S., marsh, morass. 

Inseg, S., need, misery, distress, 

Int-eni, V. n., to beckon. 

Intez-ni, V. n., to direct. 

Irdmol-nif V. a., to run. 

Irdny, S., direction. 

Irdnylii, S., compass-needle. 

JrdSy S., writing, scriptures. 

Jral, S., writ, writing. 

Irgalotn, S., mercy. 

frigyel-ni, V. a., to envy. 

Irigyles, S., envy. 

/ry, S., writer, author. 

Irtoztato, A., horrible, dreadful. 

lATner-rii, V, a., to know (any- 
body). 

hmeretseg, S,, aquaintance. 

hmersz-eni, V. m., to be known, 
to be distinguishable. 

Ismet, Adv., again. 

Iszdky S., haver-sack, knapsack. 



135 



Ital, S., drink; egiilal, 'nectar. 

Jlet-ni, V. a., to judge. 

It^lef, S., judgement. 

IlfaSy A., intoxicated. 

Iz, S., times, with numerals or 
Adjectives — fobb izhen, 
many times, more times. 

Izellenseg, S., tastelessness. 

hies, S., taste. 

Izlesu, of taste; szep izlesu, of 
a fine taste. 

Izzad-nif to sweat, to perspire 
fig. to work hard. 

Izzadds, S., sweating, fig. la- 
bour. 



Jaj, S., lamentation ; jajdul-ni, 
V. n., to cry, to lament. 

Jdmbor, A., pious. 

Jdmborsdg, S., piety, conten- 
dedness. 

Jancsdry S., janizary. 

Jdratlan, A., impassable. 

Jdrom, S., yoke. 

Jdrul-ni, V. n., to approach, 
to accede, to have access. 

Jdtszi, A., playful, merry. 

Javasl-ant, to advise. 

Jel, S., sign, signal. 

Jelel-ni, V. a., to point out, to 
indicate. 

Jelenet, S., phenomenon, appa- 
rition. 

Jetenlet, S., present, present 
time. 



Jelenf-eni, V. a., to announce, 
to signify. 

JelenvalOj S., present. 

Jeles, A. , eminent , distin- 
guished; — S., an eminent 
man. 

Jobb, instead oijobb kez, right 
hand. 

Jobbra, Adv., to and on the 
right. 

Jogositott, A. v., entitled. 

Jokor, Adv., in time, in good 
time. 

Jotetemeny S., benefit. 

Jotefj S., benefit. 

Jotevo, A. v., beneficial. 

Jozan, A., sober. 

Jozanon^ Adv., with sobriety. 

Jotte, S., arrival. 

J oven do, S. & A., future. 

Jdvendol-ni, V. a., to pro- 
gnosticate. 

Jdveveny, A. & S., arriving, 
stranger. 

Jovo, A. v., future. 

Juh, S., sheep, ewe. 

Juhdsz, S., sheperd. 

Jut-ni, V. n., to get (in, to). 

Jutalmaz-ni , megjvtalmaz-ni, 
V. a., to remunerate, to re- 
ward. 

Jus, S., right. 



Kaciag-ni, V. a., to laugh, to 
mock any one. 



136 



Kakas-viadal, S., cockfight. 
Kalavsz, S., guide. 
Kalyba, S., hut. 
Kandvr, S., torn (he cat). 
Kapaszkod-ni, V. m., to clasp, 

to cling. 
Kapkod-ni, V. a., to snatch, to 

grasp. 
Kapv, S., gate. 
KdTy S., damage. 
Kar^ S., arm. 
Karczolds, S., scretch. 
Kdrlyavdr, S., castle built of 

cards. 
Kastely, S., castle. 
Kdfyu, S., mire, pool. 
Kebel, S,, bosom. 
Redely, S., mind, humor. 
Kedvel-ni, V. a., to like, to 

favour. 
Kedvencz, S., favourite. 
Kedvetlenseg, S., vexation. 
Kedvtetes, S., delight, pleasure. 
Kedvlelve, Adv., with dehght, 

with pleasure. 
Kegyelem, S., grace, 
if^^/o", (kekellp), A. v., bluish. 
Kel-ni, and kel-ni, V. n., to 

rise, fig. to grow. 
Kelletlenul, Adv., forced. 
Kemeny, S., chimney-pot. 
Kendo, S., handkerchief. 
Kenlelen, kenyfelen, A., ob- 
liged, compelled. 
Keny, S,, humor, arbitrariness. 
iCe/), S., countenance, picture, 

image. 
fiepes, A., able. 



Kepzel-ni, V. a., to think. 

Kepzelet, S., imagination, 
thought. 

KepzemSnyes, A., imaginary. 

KSpzef, S., image, fig. represen- 
tation. 

Kerd-eni, V. a., to ask. 

Kerekes, A., having wheels; 
kerekes alkotmdny, wheel- 
work. 

Keres, S., petition. 

ITere^^fe/eSjS., frequent search- 
ing. 

Keresztut, S., cross-way. 

Kerinq-eni, V, n., to move in 
a circular motion, to course. 

K&rkedekeny, A. v., boasting. 

Kerlelhetlenul, Adv., inexorable. 

Kerul-ni, (with 6fl or 6e), V. 
n., to cost, to require. 

Kerul-nij V. a., to avoid; 
kezbe keriilni, to fall into 
any one's hands. 

Keseru, A., bitter. 

Keseruen, Adv., bitterly, grieved 
(with grief). 

Keserv, S., sorrow, grief. 

Reserves, A., bitter, tiresome. 

Keskeny, A., narrow. 

Kesleltet-ni, V. a., to delay. 

Kesztet-ni, V. fact., to compel. 

Kesziilet, S., preparation. 

Keszulo, A. v., preparing. 

Kelertelmiiseg, S., duplicity. 

Ketes, A., doubtful, uncertain. 

Ketked-ni, V. m , to doubt. 

Ketkedes, S. , doubt, hesita- 
tion. 



^37 



K^tseg, S., despair; ketsegbe 
esni, to despair. 

Ketsegbeeses, S., despair. 

Kettoztel-ni, V. a., to double. 

Ketlos, A., double. 

Kevefy, A., proud. 

Kevelyen, Adv., proudly. 

Keveshb4^ Adv., least. 

Kezd-eni, V. a., to begin, to 
commence. 

Kezdet, S., beginning. 

Kezdo, A. v., beginning, — S., 
beginner. 

Kezdo d-fii, V. m. , to be be- 
ginning. 

Kezeliez venni, to take posses- 
sion. 

Kezirat, S., manuscript. 

Kidll-ani, V. n., to suffer, to 
undergo, to endure. 

Kidlt-anifY. n., to cry, to hollow. 

Kibekito, S., reconciler. 

Kicsapds, S., sally. 

Kicsapongo, A. v., licentious, 
dissolute. 

Kicsinyseg, S., trifle. 

KidoU, A. v., fallen, dead. 

KielegilOy A. v., satisfactory. 

Kiemetked-ni, V. m , to rise. 

Kie^, A., pleasant, beautifu!. 

Kiellen, A., desolate. 

KifejleSyS., development, culture 
of the mind. 

Kigerjedez-ni, V. n., to burst 
forth. 

Kihdg-niy V. n., to ascend, to 
scale. 



Kihalt, A. v., (died away) ex- 
tinguished. 

Kiherg-eni a' lelket, to expire. 

Kihull-ani, V. n., to drop (out 
of or from). 

Kiirt-ani^ V. a., to extirpate. 

Kikel-ni, V. n., to arise (out of) 
fig. to be delivered. 

Kikerul-ni, V. a., to avoid. 

Kilobbano, A. v., blazing. 

Kimer-ni, V. a., to measure. 

Kimerithetetlen, A., inexhaus- 
tible. 

Kin, S., pain. 

Kindlkozo, A. v., offering. 

Kincs, S., treasure. 

Kinevel-ni, V. a., to laugh at, 
to deride. 

Kinjd, S., sign of pain. 

KinoSy A., painful; kinosan, 
Adv., painfully. 

Kinoz-ni, to afflict, to plague. 

Kinzo, A. v., painful, giving pain. 

Kiomol-ni, V. m., to pour out 
to ease, to find sympathy. 

Kipattan-ni, V. n., to break 
forth, break out. 

Kipilanla- ni, Y.n., to look out. 

Kirdlyi, A,, kingly, royal. 

Kiragad-ni, V. a., to extort, to 
wrest from, to take away. 

Kiruhan~ni, V. n., to sally out. 

Kisded, A., small, fig. dimi- 
nished. 

Kisebbit-eni, V. a., to lessen. 

Kiser-ni, V. a., to attend, ac- 
company. 



138 



Kiseret^ S., attendance. 

Kisero, S., companion, atten- 
dance. 

Kiserlefy S., spectre, ghost. 

Kisuttet-nU V. act., to fire off. 

Kiszelesit-eni, V. a., to enlarge 
to widen. 

Kifer-ni, V. n., to desert (a path). 

Kitetszen-ni, V. m., to be con- 
spicuous, to excel. 

Kifiino, A. v., distinguished. 

Kilunfet-ni, V., fact to distin- 
guish (to make being distin- 
guished. 

Kiutes, S., sally, eruption, brea- 
king out. 

Kiut-ni, V. n., to break out, to 
sally. 

Kivdg-ni magdl, to disembar- 
ras one's self. 

Kivdlt, Adv., especially. 

Kivetkeilet-ni, V. fact., to un- 
dress, to divest, fig. to free. 

Kivel6d-ni,y. m., to be thrown 
out. 

Kiviv-ni^ V. a., (to fight out) 
to gain (the victory). 

Kivont, A. v., drawn. 

KucsiSt S., coach-man. 

Kolcsag, kocsag, S., a plume 
of heron's feathers. 

Komdrcmi, A., of Komom at 
Komom. 

Komoly, A., serious. 

Komolysdg, S., seriousness. 

Komondur, S., .(name of a dog) 
bull dog (mordax). 



KomOTy A., gloomy, sad. 

Koponya, S., skull. 

Kopor.so, S., coffin, flg. grave. 

Kor, S., age. 

Kora, A., early : kordn, Adv., 
early; kordnsem, Adv., not 
at all. 

Korcs, S., deformity, monstro- 
sity. 

Korhdz. S., hospital. 

Korldt, S., barriers. 

Kormdnyzds, S., governing, 
leading. 

Koszoru, S., wreath, garland 
fig. circle (of eniment men). 

Kodarab, S., piece of a stone. 

Kod, S., fog. 

Kof'al, S., wall. 

Kokeny. S., sloe-tree. 

Koftott, A. v., fictitious, forged, 
invented. 

Kollozetfen, Adv., wandered. 

Kolyok, S., young one (young 
animal). 

Kontos, S., raiment, coat, fur- 
coat. 

Kony, konyu'^ S., tear. 

Konycsepp, S., tear. 

Koityefmu, A., fickle. 

Konyelmuleg, Adv. wantonly. 

Konyeltnuseg, S., levity. 

Konyezetlen, A., tearless. 

Konnyit-eni, V. a., to facili- 
tate. 

Konydrges, S., praying, prayer, 
fig. craving (for mercy). 

Kor, S., circle, sphere. 



439 

Kornyekez-ni, V. a., to sur- Kozonsdgesen, Adv., common- 
round, ly, publicly. 
Kornyez-ni, V. a., to surround. Kozseg, S., commons. 
Kdrom, S., claw. Kulcs, S., key. 
Kdrdskorut, Adv., roundabout. Kupa, S., a can, winecup. 
Koru/kerif-eni, V. a., to sur- Kutya, S., dog. 

round,- to encompass. Kutyabor, S., dogskin. 

Koriilmeny^ S., circumstance. Kuldelesy S., mission. 

Koszikla, S., rock. Kulombseg, S., difference. 

Koszonl-eni, V. a., to greet. Kiilonkodo, A. & S., a strange 

Kover, A., fat. fellow. 

Kovel-ni, V. a., to follow. Kulonos, A., extraordinary. 

K6vefkez-ni. V. m., "to follow. Ktirfiiang, S. , sound of the 

Kovefkezes, S. , consequence, bugle-horn. 

result. Kiilso, A., exterior. 

Kdvel6,S., follower. Kiiszob, S., threshold, fig. door. 

Kovezef, S., pavement. Kiizdes, S., struggle. 
Koviil-nij V., to turn into 

stone, to be petrified. I,^ 
IToz, A., common. 

Jfoi, S., space; eien kozben, Lab, S., foot, fig. leg. 

mean-while, in the mean Lak, S., home, dwelling. 

time. Lakol-ni, V. n., to atone for, 

Koielebbi, A., recent, (^lately to expiate. 

happened). Lako, S., inhabitant. 

K6ze/get-ni, kozefil-eni, V. n., Lakuma^ S., feast. 

to approach. Lakoz-ni, V. m., to dwell. 

Koiep, S., middle. Ldnrzsor, S., a linked (con- 

Koiep.szer, S., middleway (me- nected) series. 

diocritas. Lang, S., fiame. 

Kozigazgads, S., public admi- Ldngerzemeny, S., ardent fee- 

nistration. ling. 

Kozhincslar, S., common trea- Ldngesz, S., genius. 

sury. Ldnglelek, S., (inflamed) ardent 

Kozonseg, S., public. mind. 

Kozonseges, A., common pu- Ldngeku, A., ardent (of an 

blic. ardent mind). 



140 



Ldngszem, S., sparkling eye. 

Ldngu, A., sparkling, flaming, 
fig. glancing. 

Ldngzo, A. v., ardent, 

Lankadatlan., A., unwearied. 

Lankadt, A. v., feeble, fainting. 

Lanka szt-ani,y. a., toweeken. 

Lant, S., Lyre. 

Ldrma, S., noise, alarm. 

Las. satikint, Adv., in time, slow- 
ly, by degrees. 

Lassii, A., slow. 

Ldtds, S., sight. 

Ldthalo, A. v., visible. 

Ldtogat-niymegldtogatni, V. n., 
to pay a visit. 

Ldzadds, S., sedition. 

Lebeg-ni, V. n., to hover. 

Lebegesu, A., wawing, hove- 
ring, rising. 

Lebeglet-ni, V., fact, to wave, 
to clap (the wings). 

Ledof-ni, V. a., to stab, to kill. 

Led6nt~eni, V. a., to prostrate. 

Leereszked-ni, V. m. , to 
humble, to condescend. 

Leereszkedes, S., condescen- 
sion. 

LegdUitvdny, S., void propo- 
sitions. 

Legelol, Adv., foremost. 

Legottan. Adv., instantly. 

Legy, S., fly. 

Lehel-ni, V. n., to breathe, to 
exhale. 

Lehetj V. n., can be, to be pos- 
sible. 



Lehetetlen, A., impossible. 

Lehetetlenseg^ S. , impossibi- 
lity. 

Lehetseges, A., possible. 

Leirhalatlan, A., indescribable. 

Lejtos, A., declivous. 

Lekofelez-niy V. a., to oblige. 

Lekololten , Adv. , fettered, 
bound. 

Lel-ni, V. a., to find. 

Lelek, S., soul, mind, courage. 

Lelekszorongato, A. v., res- 
training, oppressing the mind. 

Lelkiesmeret, S., consciencious- 
ness, conscience. 

Letkes, A., animate, coura- 
geous. 

Lelkesedes, S., animation, cou- 
rage. 

Lelketlen, A., inanimate, 

Leng-eni, V. n., to move on 
hovering. 

Lenges, S., wawing, hovering. 

Lenyom-ni, to oppress ; lenyo- 
mo, A. v., oppressing. 

Lenyugod ni, V. m., to go to 
repose, to die. 

Leomol-ni, V. n., to sink down. 

Lep-ni, meglepni, V. a., to sur- 
prise. 

Lep-niy V. n., to step. 

Lepcso, S., step, degree. 

Lepke, S., butterfly. 

Lept, lepes, S., pace, step. 

Leptel-ni, V., fact, to cause 
one to go in pace. 

Les, S., ambush. 



Hi 



Lesujto, A. v., dejecting, cast- 
ing down. 

Leszdll-anij to sink, to set; to 
descend, to get out (of a car- 
riage.) 

Leszakad-ni, V. n., to sink. 

L^t, S., being. 

Leten-ni, V. a., to deposite. 

Letep-ni, V. a., to tear off. 

Letorol-ni (letorlom)^ V. a., to 
wipe off. — 

Letorott^ A. v., broken. 

Levgrdlo, A. ▼., jumping down, 
(rushing after). 

Levdg-ni, V, a., to cut down, 
to put to sword. 

Lever-nij V. a., to strike down, 
to beat down, fig. to discou- 
rage, to deject. 

Levero, A. v., crushing. 

Lezvg-ni, v. n. , to pass with 
a noise, fig. to disappear. 

Lidercz, S,, ignis fatuus, jack 
with a lantern. 

Liheg-nij V. n., to pant. 

Liliom, S., lily 

Literator, S., literary man. 

Lobog-niy V, n. , (said of the 
flag) to be displayed. 

Lobogo, A. v., waving, flourish- 
ing (flag). 

Lorn, S., lugage, lumber. 

Lovas^ S., soldier on horse-back. 

Lovassdg, S., cavalry. 

Lovdszmester, S., rifling master. 

L6-ni, V. a., to shoot, to dis- 
charge. 



LopoTy S , gunpowder. 

Loves, S., shot; loves taldlja, 
he receives a shot l6vet-ni, 
pass,, to be shot at; — 
fa c tit., to let shoot or 
fire at. 

L6volddz-ni, V. a., to shoot, 
to bombard. 

an. 

Macska, S., cat. 

Maczko, S., name used for a bear 

(bruin). 
Mag, S., seed. 
Magdhoz jSni, to recover. 
Magdny, S., solitude, loneliness. 
Magasztal-ni, V. a., to extol. 
Magzaf, S., descendant, son. 
Maiglan, Adv., until this day. 
Majdan, Adv., once. 
Majom, S., ape, monkey. 
Mdmorblrta, A. v., possessed 

with intoxication, intoxiated. 
Mdmoros, A., intoxicated. 
Maradandosdg^ S. , duration, 

continuance. 
Maradek, S., descendant. 
Maradoz-ni, V. n. , to remain 

behind. 
Marasztat-ni, V. fact., to be 

retained. 
Markgrof, S., Margrave. 
Maroknyi, A., handful. 
Mdrt-ani, V., a to dip. 
Mdrvdny, S., marble. 
Mdsa , mdzsa S. , a hundered 

weight. 



us 



Mdsik, Pr. ind., another. 

Mdsnapy Adv., next day. 

Mdsthaflan, A , impassable, 

Mdtyds, S., Matthew. 

Medve, S., bear. 

Medvetdncz , S., dancing of a 
bear. 

Megad-ni Cmagdt) , V. a. , to 
surrender. 

Megdll-m , V. n. , to stop, to 
stand, to go through (danger). 

Megdtalkodott, A. v., obdurate, 
fig. obstinate. 

Megdtalkottsdg-, S., obstinacy. 

Megbdnt-ani, V., a to offend. 

Megbdnds, S., repentance. 

Megbekul-ni, V. n., to be re- 
conciled. 

Megbocsdt-ani, V. a., to for- 
give, to pardon. 

Megcsip-ni, V. a., to pinch; a 
der megcsip, the frost bites. 

Megcsokol-ni, V. a., to kiss. 

Megdobbent-eni, V. n., to be 
embarrassed. 

Megdordul-ni, V. n., to begin 
roaring, thundering. 

Megelegedes , S. , satisfaction, 
contentedness ; magdvalvalo 
megelegedes , self-contented- 



Meger-ni C^alamiveQ, V. n., 

to have enough. 
Megerkeztokkel , megerkezelt, 

having arrived. ^ 

Megdrlet-niy V. a., to mature, 

to bring to maturity. 



Megfoghatatlan, A., incompre- 
hensible. 

Megfoqy-ni, V. a., to be dimi- 
nished. 

Megfojt-ani, V. a., to suffocate. 

Meggyul-ni, V. n., to catch fire. 

Meghdg-ni, V. a., to ascend, to 
mount. 

Meghdgds, S., ascending, scaling. 

Meghalad-ni, V. a., to amount ; 
helven evet meghaladotl osz, 
the old man who had Hved 
70 years. 

Meghatdroz-ni, V. a., to deter- 
mine, to resolve. 

Megiger-ni, V. a., to promise. 

Megjavit-ani, V. a., to correct. 

Megjelen-ni, V. a., to appear. 

Megkiizd-eni, V. n., to struggle, 
to combat. 

Megmaradds , S., preservation. 

Megoltafmaz-ni, V. a., to pro- 
tect. 

Megoszt-aniy V. a., to divide, 
to share, fig. to communicate 

Megov-ni^ V. a., to protect, to 
preserve 

Megot-ni, V. a., to kill. 

Megolel-ni, V. a., to embrace, 
fig. to seize. 

Megoies, S., murder, death. 

Megorolni, megorl-eni, V, a., 
to grind to pieces, fig. to 
gnaw through, to eat (said 
of the worms). 

Megpillant-ani , V. a., to per- 
ceive, to see. 



143 



Megragad-ni, V. a., to seize. 
Megrak-ni, V. a., to load; ff»e^- 

rakott, burdened, 
Megremult, A. v., alarmed, struck 

with terror. 
Megrendul-nU V. n., to tremble, 

to shake, to quake. 
Megrepesztett, A. v., burst 

(bursted). 
Megrongdl-ni, V. a., to damage. 
Megsebesit-eni, V. a., to 

wound, 
Megsutyed-ni , V. n. , to 

sink. 
Megsirat-ni, V. a., to deplore, 

to weep. 
Megsulyed-ni, V. n., to sink. 
Megszdllds, S., siege. 
Megszeg-nif V. a., to cut, fig. 

to violate (a law) 
Megsz6lal-ni^ V. n. , to begin 

to speak. 
Megszukules, S., want, scarcity. 
Megszun-ni, V. n., to cease, to 

desist. 
Megtdmad-ni, V. a., to assault. 
Megtdmadds^ S., assault, attack, 

aggression. 
Megtarto, S , preserver, saviour. 
Megter ni, V. n., to return. 
Megujit-ani, V. a., to renew, to 

refresh. 
Megiin-ni, V. a., to be tired of 

any thing, to be wearied. 
Meguleped-ni, V. m., to settle, 

to rest. 
Megutkoz-ni, V. m., to be sur- 



prised; tnegiitkozten i Adv., 
surprised. 
Megvagy, thou art; — eliptically 

instead of thou art caught. 
Megvdlasztds , S. , selection, 

choise. 
Megvdltoz-ni, V m., to change, 
Megvdsdrl-ani, V. a., to pur- 
chase. 
Megved-ni, V. a., to defend, fig. 

to save. 
Megvet-ni, V. a., to despise. 
Megvetel, S., taking, conquest. 
yieqvetet-ni, passive voice of 

megvenni, to be taken. 
Meqvizsgdl-ni, V. a., to exa- 
mine. 
Megziiz-ni, V. a., to crush. 
Megzsibbaszl-anU V. a., to be- 
numb. 
Mehdongds, S., burning of the 

bees. 
Mela, A., melancholy, gloomy. 
Meleged-ni, V. m., to grow 

warm, fig. to favour. 
Mell, S., chest, fig. bosom, 

heart. 
Mellyitek, Pr.withpossesive 
affixes of the 2<i Pers. 
plur. , which of you. 
Melldnyol-nU V. a., to estimate, 

to value. 
Meltat-niy V. a., to estimate, to 

deign to vouchsafe. 
MellOt A., worthy, deserving. 
Meltosdg, S., dignity. 
MeltosdgoSy A., grave, solemiu 



U4 



Mely, A., deep; melysey S., 
depth, melysegu, A., of (a) 
depth. 

Menedek, S., asylum. 

Meneked-ni, V. m., to save 
one's life, to escape. 

Menekves, S., safety, escape. 

Menetel, S., course. 

Ment-eni, V. a., to save. 

Menteben, on his w^ay, along. 

Mentes, S., deliverance, rescue. 

Mentseg, S., excuse, apology. 

Menny, S., heaven ; mennydor- 
ges, thunder; menny ko, thun- 
derbolt. 

Menyegzo, S., wedding. 

Mer-ni, V. a., to measure. 

Mer-ni, V. a., to venture, to have 
courage. 

Meredek, A., steep. 

Mereg, S., poison. 

Mereny^ S., hazardous enter- 
prise. 

MerSsz, A., bold. 

il/erre, Adv., where to, to what 
place, to which side. 

Merden, Adv., benumbed. 

Merrol, Adv., from which side, 

Mertek, S., measure, degree. 

Merul, elmeriil-ni, V. n., to be 
submersed. 

Metst-eni, V.a., to cut; metszo 
■ cutting; metszoosveny , — 
cross way. 

MeZj S., honey. 

Midon, C, when. 

Mignem, Adv., until. 



Mikentf Adv., how. 

Mikoron, Adv., when. 

Mimel-ni, V. a., to imitate. 

Mindaddigy Adv., as far, as long. 

MindenfeU, Adv., everywhere. 

Mindennapiy A., daily, fig. 
common. 

Mindennapisdg, S., daily, ordi- 
nary life. 

Mindenuti, Adv., everywhere. 

Miota, Adv., since. 

Mi;, mw, S., work. 

MivelodeSy S. , (culture) educa- 
tion. 

Mddj S., manner. 

Mohdcs, S. , Mohacs, a place 
in Hungary. 

Mohdcsi, A., of Mohacs, at Mo- 
hacs. 

Mohon, Adv., hastily. 

Mordiil, Adv., spitefully. 

Morog-ni, V. n., to grumble. 

Mosdrdgyu, S., mortar piece. 

Mosolygds, S., smile. 

Mosolyog-ni, V. n., to smile. 

Mozdul-ni, V. n., to move, kd- 
zelebh mozdulni, to approach. 

Mozdulat. S., movement, im- 
pulse. 

Mozgds, S., motion. 

Mozgato, A. v., moving. 

Mozog-ni, V. n., to move. 

Mul-ni^ V. m., to pass, to pass 
away ; bdtorsdgdn mulik, his 
courage fails him. 

Mulaszt-anU V. a., to neglect. 

Mulat-ni^ V.n., to stay, to sport. 



145 



Mnlatozds, S. amusement. 
Mulolag, Adv. c, ceasingly. 
Mult, S., past. 

Mvnkdskor, S. , sphere of ac- 
tivity. 
Mu, S., work. 
Muvesz, S., artist. 

]¥. 

Nddor, and Nddor-Ispdny, S., 
Count Palatine (Stadholder, 
vice gerent of Hungary.) 

Nagijbecsu, A., of high value, 
valuable, worthy. 

Nagyit-ni, V. a , to augment. 

Nagyifocsoj S., microscope. 

Nagyok, S., men of a highrank, 

Nagyol-ni, V. a., to consider 
anything being to much 

Nagyravdgyds , S., ambition; 
nagyravdgyo, ambitious. 

Nagyra-vdgy-ni, V. n. , to be 
ambitious. 

Nagyszeru, A., grand. 

Sagyitr^ S., Sultan. 

Nagyvezer , S., grand-vizier. 

Ndndor, S., Belgrade. 

Napkelel, S., eastern country. 

Neh^zkes, A., heavy. 

iSeh^zs^g, S., weight, fig. diffi- 
culty. 

iVew, S., gender, sex. 

N^mdn, Adv , mute. 

?i6mellyy Pr. a.. Some. 

P^emeSy S., noble-man; — A., 
noble. 
Csiuk, hung. Gram. 



JSetntelen, A., ignoble, base. 

fiemz-eni, V. a., to beget, to 
breed. 

Nemzetseg, S., generation, na- 
tionality. 

ISepesseg, S., impopulation. 

Netaldn, Adv , that not, lest. 

Neveked-ni, V. m., to hicrease, 

Nevel-ni, V. a., to increase, to 
educate. 

Nevet-ni, V. a., to laugh. 

Nevetseges, A., ridiculous. 

Nevezetes, A., remarkable, im- 
portant. 

Nezeget-ni, V. freq.*) to inspect, 
to view. 

N^zet, S , view. 

1^6, S., female, woman, wife. 

]S6-ni, V. n , tp^crease. 

Noff, S., increase, augmentation, 

I< oveszt-eni, V. a., to produce. 



]iry. 

Nydj, S., the flock. 
Nydjas^ A., polite, pleasant. 
Piydri, A , summer, of the 

summer. 
Nyelv muvesz , S. , reformer of 

the language. 
Nyetviijitds, S., reformation of 

the language. 
JSyereg, S., saddle. 
Nyit, S., arrow. 



•) frequentative Verb. 

10 



146 



Nyilds^ S., cleft. 
Nyilatkoz-ni, V. m., to express 

one's self, to declare. 
Nyittj A. v., open. 
^yilvdn, A., public, manifest. 
JSyif-ni, V. a., to open. 
Nyitolt, A. v., open, nyitottr^s, 

the breach battered. 
Nyom, S., trace, vestige; nyo- 

mdban valakinek, at any 

one's heels. 
Nyomaszto , A. v., oppressing, 

afflicting. 
ISyomdok, S., trace, fig. path. 
Nyomoru, A., miserable. 
Nyomorusdy, S., misery, po- 
verty. 
Nyomorult, A. v., distressed. 
Nyomtato, S , printer. 
Nyomiatott^ A. v., printed. 
P^yog ni, V. n., to sigh. 
Nyugatom, S, , repose, rest, 

quietude. 
Nyugodo, S., repose, place of 

repose. 
Nyngoty S. west. 
JSyvgofi, A., western. 
NyiigvOy A, v., reposing. 
Nyut, S., hare. 

Nyiilvaddszat, S., hure-hunting. 
Nyiig-niy V. n., to weigh. 



Okdd-ni, V. a., to vomit; /uze^ 
okddo, ignivomous* 

Okfo, S., principle. 

Oklalansdg^ S., non-sense, stu- 
pidity. 

O/a^z., S., Italian. 

Olcson, Adv., cheap. 

O/dfl/, oldaly S., side. 

CT/to, Post, since. 

Oltalmazd, S., defendant. 

O'Uhattan, A., unextinguishable. 

O/^dr, S., altar. 

Omlad^k, S., ruin. 

Omol-ni, V. n., to flo w,to stream. 

Omol-ni, V. m., to sink. 

Ont-ani, V., to shed, to spill. 

Cfranegyed^ S , quarter of an 
hour. 

Ordil-ani, V. n., to roor. 

Orids, S., giant. 

Oroszldni, A., of a lion. 

Orvosol-ni, V. a , to cure. 

Ostor, S., scourge. 

Ostrom, S., siege, assault. 

Ostromlo, S., besieger. 

Ostromol-ni, V. a., to besiege. 

Osz-lani, V. m., to be dis- 
persed, to vanish. 

Osztdly, S., division. 

Oszlani, V. a., to divide, to 
distribute. 

Cftalom, oltalom, S., defence, 
protection. 

O and d. 



(fhajtani, V., to wish. 

dhajtds, S., desire, wish. 

OA, S., argument, cause, reason, (jbot, S., the bay. 



U7 



01, S., lap, fig. middle. 
67-ni, V. a., to kill. 
Oldoklds, S., slaughter. 
Oldokld, A. v., murderous. 
OldoM-ni, V. a, to kill. 
Olel-ni, V. a., to embrace. 
Olelkez-ni, V. a., to embrace 

one another. 
Olt-eni, V. a., to dress. 
Oml-eni, V. m., to flow. 
6mled-ni, V. n. , to pour out 

(itself). 
Omledez-nij v. n., to stream, 

to pour forth. 
Onerz^s, S., consciousness. 
Onkenf, Adv., volontarily. 
Onkenfes , S , volontier. 
Ont^eni, V. a., to pour, to shed. 
Onvedelem, S., self-defence. 
Or, S., guard, (jrtdffo , A. v., 

guarding. 
Ore^r, A., old; — S., oldman. 
Oriz-ni, megoriz-ni, V a., to 

keep, to preserve. 
drl^lek, S., tutelar genius. 
OrOky S., eternity; inheritance, 

patrimony. 
OrOk , orokos , A., eternal; 

drdkre, for ever. 
(JrQkbs, A., hereditary. 
OrOkemleku, A., eternally (ever) 

memorable. 
Oram, S., joy. 
Oriimriadds, S., shouting. 
Ort)mlelen, A., joyless. 
Orsereg, S., garisson. 
Orul-ni, V. n., to rejoice. 



Orvend-eni, V. n., to rejoice. 
05, S,, ancestor; o5?, A., a- 

vitious. 
Osmeretes, A., known. 
6sm4reUen, S., stranger, — 

unknown. 
Osv^ny, S., path, way. 
05Z., A., grey, — S., old man. 
Oszedugott , A. v. , crossed 

(arms). 
Oszekonczol-nij V. a., to cut 

to pieces. 
Oszeolvadds , S., melting to- 
gether, closely united, connec- 
ted. 
Osszeromhol-nU V. a., to ruin, 

to demolish. 
Osszerombolds, S., destruction. 
Osszve-roskad-ni, V. n., to 
fall to the ground, to sink 
down, fig. to expire. 
(jsszes y A., complete, whole. 
6sszeszed,-m, V. a., to gather, 

to collect. 
Osszeszolalkozds , S., alterca 

tion. 
O.sszevagdal-ni, V. a., to cut 

to pieces. 
Csszevon-niy V. a., to ^.con- 
tract, to gather troops. 
Ovedz-eni, V. a., to gird. 
Oz, S., roe, fawn ; Ozfutds, S. 
roe-hunting. 



Padozat^ S., floor of a room. 
Pdlya, S., path, career. 



U8 



Pamlag, S., sofa. 

Pdr, S., pair, couple, A., some, 
a few. 

Pdra^ S. vapour. 

Parancs. S., command. 

Parancsnoksdg , S., the com- 
mand, 

Pardnyi, A., unimportant, little; 
pardnyi kor, narrow sphere. 

Pardmjisdg , S., trifle. 

Pdrdncz, S,, leopard. 

Pdrolijo , A. v., evaporating, 
smoking. 

Pdrosit-ani, V» a., to couple, 
to join. 

Part^ S., the shore ; ,s/r' part- 
ja, the brinii of the grave. 

Pdrf, S , party. 

Pdr to s. A., faithless. 

Patkdny, S., rat. 

Patkdnij csoporl, S., quantity 
(herd) of rats. 

Paltogfat-ni, V. a , to crack, to 
smack. 

Pecset, S,, seal. 

Pedig, C, yet, again. 

Pelda, S., example. 

P4nzvdgy , S., immoderate de- 
sire of money. 

Perez, S., minute (moment.) 

Pere(5fye,Part.,awithgreatnoise. 

Pergamen , S , parchment. 

Perzsel-ni, V. a., to scorch, 

Peslis, S., pest, pestilence. 

Pharao-asztal, S., rich table. 

PiacZy S., place, market-place. 

Pillango, S,, butterfly. 



Pilldnfds , S,, glance, look. 

Pincze, S., cellar. 

Pldnta, S,, plant. 

Preda. S., prey. 

Preda-leso. A, v. , lurking for 
prey. 

ProbdI. ni, megprohdl-nU V. a., 
to try, to test. 

Probata let, S., trial. 

Profetasdg, S., talant of prophe- 
cying. 

Prosa , S., prose writing. 

Pohdl, S., cup, drink-glass. 

Polgdri, A., social, civic, 

Pd/yadal-ni, V, a., to sing to 
sleep, to lull. 

Pompa, S,, pomp. 

/'or, S,, dust, powder: por- 
szem, grains of dust, 

Pordz, S., leash, rein. 

Pornep, S,, common people. 

Posvdny , S,, marsh, morass. 

P6tof-ni, V. a,, to supply. 

Pozna, S., pole. 

for, S., process. 

Pi/Aff, A,, soft, 

Puszla, ptisztasdg, S., desert, 
wilderness. 

Pvsztdn hagy-ni, V. a., to de- 
sert, to quit, 

Pvszfitds, S., devastation, de- 
struction. 

PusztUo, A. V,, destructive. 



Rabb(^r, S., pay, wages paid 
to slaves. 



U9 



Rabiga, S., the yoke of sla- 
very, being a slave. 

Babszolga, S. , slave, bond 
man. 

Rabszolgdlo, S,, female slave. 

Rabtdncz, S., slavish dance. 

Ragad-ni, V. a., to seize. 

Ragyog-ni^ V. n., to shine. 

Ragyogo, A. v., splendent. 

Rak-ni; sebbel rakva, covered 
with wounds. 

Rakds, S., heap, pile. 

Rakotl, A. v., filled. 

Rdmered-ni, V. n., to stare at. 

Rang, S., rank. 

Ravaszdi, S., cunning fellow. 

Rdz-ni, V. a., to shake. 

R^g , Adv., long, for a long 
time. 

R^gis(^g, S., antiquity. 

Rejfeget-ni, V. a , to hide, to 
conceal. 

Rejtek, S., lurking place. 

Rejfij, magdban rejlo, con- 
cealing, containing. 

Remeg-niy V. n., to tremble. 

Remeg(^.s, S., fear, 

Remekelt, A. v., masterly or 
perfectly finished. 

Remenys^g, S., hope; remeny, 
S., hope. 

Remit -eni, V. a. , to frighten. 

Rend, S., order, rendbefuzOU, 
arranged, systematical. 

Rendbeli, — lobb rendbdliy se- 
veral, reiterated. 



Rendel-ni, V. a., to arrange; 

to order, 
Renditetlen, A., unshaken, firm. 
RenduleUenul, Adv., unshaken, 

constantly. 
Rengel and rengcteg, S., a large 

forest; — A., extensive, 
R6ng, ereny, S., virtue. 
Reptlt-niy V. n., to fly. 
Repul^s, S., flight, volation. 
Res, S., breach. 
Rest, A., idle. 
Resz, S., part. 
Reszkel-ni, V. n., to tremble, 

reszketo , a. v., trembling. 
R^szvet, S., participation. 
Reszvetlenseg, S., indifference. 
Reszvevo, A., participating, fig. 

sympathising. 
Retteg-ni, V. n., to be frightened. 
Retleneles , A., terrible dread- 
ful, formidable. 
Retenthellenul, Adv., undaun- 
tedly, intrepidly. 
Rezeg-ni, V. n., to be vibrated, 

to vibrate. 
Rezget-ni, V. fact., to shake, 

to make tremble. 
Rezzen~ni, V. a., to frighten. 
Rezzent-eni, [elrezenteni, to 

excite, to rouse. 
Riad-ni, V. n., to be frightened ; 

visza riadni, to start back, 
Ritkdn, Adv,, seldom. 
Rival-ni, V. a., to alarm, to 

sound (said of the hunting 

horn.) 



150 



Robaj, S., noise. 

Rogy-ni, V. m., to sink. 

Rohands, S., run, rushing upon 
any one, assault. 

Rohandt fuvatni, to sound 
allarm (to blow allarm.) 

Rokon, A., kindered S. — kins- 
man. 

Rokka, S. , distaff, fig. company 
of spinning women 

Rom, S., ruin. 

RombotdSj S., destruction. 

Romlds , S. , depravity, cor- 
ruption. 

Ront-ani, V. a., to destroy. 

Roszlelku, A. & S., malevolent. 

Roppant, A. , enormous, nu- 
merous. 

RogoSy A., cloddy, rough. 

Rogton, Adv., suddenly. 

Rbpt (with the possesive af- 
fixes] S., the flight, flying. 

Rbpules, S., flight. 

Rut, A., ugly, deformed. 



Sajndl-ni, V. a., to pity. 
Sdpadtan-, Adv., pale. 
Sdrmdny, S. , yellow-hammer. 

(a bird). 
Sdrmdny pecsenye, S a., meal 

of a goldhammer. 
Saru, S., after-math, fig. tender 

grass. 
Sdntz, S., intrenchment. 



Seb , S., wound. 
Sebesen, Adv., quickly, ra- 
pidly. 
.Sebten, Adv., hastily. 
SegitOj S., helper, assistant. 
Segitohad, S., auxiliary troops. 
Segitseg, S., assistance. 
Sejdit-eni, V. a., to forebode, 

to foresee. 
Sejdites, S, presentiment. 
Sejt~eni,y. a., to prognosticate, 

to forebode. 
Sejto, A. v., foreboding. 
Semmis4g, S. , nothingness, 

nought. 
Senyveszt-eni, V. a., to languish. 
Serdulo, A. v., thriving growing. 
Sereg, S., multitude, army. 
Sereny, A., active, zealous. 
Setdlgdt-ni, V. n., to walk, to 

and fro. 
Siker , S., success. 
Sip, S., fife, whistle. 
Sir, S., grave, sirdomb, tomb. 

sirba szdllni, to be interred. 
Sir-ni, V. n., to weep, to cry. 
Siralmas, A., deplorable. 
Sirat-ni, V. a , to deplore, to 

lament. 
Siriglan, Adv., to the grave. 
Sivatag^ S., the desert, sandy 

desert. 
Sohajt-ani, V. n., to sigh. 
Sohajtds, S., sigh. 
Sjvdrgds, S , languishing. 
Sorvadoz-ni, V. n. , to lan- 
guish. 



151 



Spahi, S., Spahy, a kind of 
Turkish cavalry. 

Svgdr, S. , beam, fig. glance 
(of the eye). 

Svgdr, A., slender. 

Svjt'ani, V. a., to strike. 

Suhj, S., weight, load. 

Siilyos, A., heavy, weighty; 
siifyosan. Adv., heavily. 

Suiyosif-ajii, V. a., to render, 
difficult. 

Svftogo, A. v., whispering. 

Sulyed-ni, etsiUt/ed-ni, V. n., 
to sink, to fall; a' bdtorsdg 
siilyed, the courage fails. 

Sulyed^s, S., sinking perishing. 

Surgel-ni, V. a., to urge. 

Sfweg, S., head-cover, fig. hel- 
met. 



Szabadnn, Adv., free. 

Szahaditds, S, deliverance, 
reUef. 

SzaggafOj A. v., lacerating, 
tearing; szaggat-ni, V, a., 
to pluck, to tear. 

Szdj^ S., mouth. 

Szakad-ni, V. n. , to break, 
said of string; v^ge szakad, 
to be broken off (its end 
breaks.) 

Szakadatlan, A., uninterrupted; 
szakadatlanul , Adv , un- 
interruptedly. 



Szdffu, S., spire of grass. 
Szdll-ani, v. n., to fly; sirba 

szdU-ni, to be interred. 
Szdllif-ani, V. a, to dispatch, 

to convey, to throw (garrison 

in a fortress.) 
Szdilong-ani, V. n , to flutter 

(about.) 
Szdllongo, A., fluttering. 
Szdm, S., number; szdmomra, 

for me; szdmodra for thee; 

.vi,«mrfra,forhim; szdimtnkra, 

for us ; szdmotokra, for you ; 

szdmokra, for them. . 
Szamdr^ S., ass, donkey. 
Szdmkivef-ni, V. a., to banish, 

to exile. 
Szdmos, A., numerous, many. 
Szdmosii-ani, V. a., to aug- 
ment in number, 
SzdmuzOtt, S., exile. 
Szdnds^ S., pity, compassion. 
Szdiiakodds, S., commiseration. 
Szdnakoz-ni, V. m., to pity. 

to have pity. 
Sz'dnakozd, S. v., comiserating, 

(the commiserating bird). 
Szdndekozo , A. v., intended. 
Szdnfszdndek, S., (intended 

intention) ; szdnt-szdndckkal 

intentionally. 
Szappanbuborek, S. , soap- 
bubble. 
53rfrma3(l.?,S.origin.,extraction. 
Szdrngalds , S., fluttering. 
Szdsz, S., saxonian. 
Szdzad^ S., century. 



152 



Szdzados , A., of a century, 
lasting for a century. 

Szed-ni, V. a., to gather; i^end- 
be szed-ni, to set in order, 
to dispose. 

Sz^dif-eniy V. a., to benumb. 

SzedUo, A. v., giddy. 

Szedul-ni, V. n., to be giddy. 

Sz^diifte, S , dizziness, giddiness. 

Szeg, S., the nail. 

Szeg-ni^ V, a., to cut, fig. to 
divide. 

Szegyen, S.. shame. 

Szeker , S., cart, wagon. 

Sz^l, CszeleJ ^ S. , the utmost 
end, brink. 

Szel, S., wind S. 

Szellem, S. , mind, intellect, 
spirit, genius. 

SzeleSj A., wanton, fickle. 

Szelid, A., meek. 

Szelidebben, Adv., more mo- 
derately. 

Szelyel nyil-ni, V. m., to open, 
to chink. 

Szelvesz, S., hurricane, wind- 
storm. 

SzeiUj S., eye; szembe szdtl- 
ni , V. n. , to make head 
against; szembe tiino, A. v., 
apparent, imminent. 

Szernelyesen, Adv., personally. 

Szemeli/es^ A., personal. 

Szemhozt, Adv, opposite. 

Szemldtt , (used with the pos- 
sessive aflixes) S., eye-sight. 



Szemfel-ni , V. a., to contem 
plate. 

SzemO/dok, S., eye-brow. 

Szempont, S., point of view. 

Szentegi/hdz,S.^ church, temple. 

Szenfe/-?ii, V. a., to consecrate, 
to devote (to dedicate). 

Szenljdnos-bogdr, S., glow- 
worm. 

Szenved-ni, V. n,, to suffer, to 
endure. 

Szenvedelem , S. , passion, 
(passio), affection. 

Szenvedes, S., suffering. 

Szenvedetf,S., sufferer (he who 
has suffered.) 

Szepseg, S. , beauty. 

Szeft S., stuff, material, instru- 
ment. 

Szerelem, S., love. 

Szerencsejel^ S., signal of good 
fortune. 

Szereny, A., modest. 

Szerenyen, Adv., modestly. 

Szerez-ni, V. a., to acquire. 

Szerint, Po., according. 

Szerkez-ni, V. a , to organize. 

Szerszdm, S., instrument. 

Szerledol-ni, V. n., to fall to 
pieces. 

Szerzo, S., acquirer , fig. con- 
queror. 

Szerzetes , S. ., friar; lerenczi 
szerzetes^ Franciscan. 

Szelszaqgat-ni, V. a., to tear 
to pieces, to separate with 
violence. 



153 



Sz^ttekinget, V. n., freq., to cast 

looks; szeftekingelve, look- 
ing round. 
Szettdres , S. , breaking (to 

break.) 
Sz^tuz-ni, V. a., to disperse, 

to scatter. 
Szin, S., colour fig. appearance, 

face. 
Szikia, S., rock. 
Szikra, S., spark. 
Szir^n, S., siren, metaphorically 

instead of song. 
Szirt, S., rock, cliff. 
Szitkozodo, A. v., blaspheming. 
Szivdrvdny , S., rain-bow. 
Szivdohogds, S., beating of the 

heart, pulsation. 
Szivhafo, A. v., heart affecting, 

affecting. 
Szobnr, S., statue. 
Szokds , S., custom, habit. 
Szokatlan. , A. , unacustomed, 

unusual, extraordinary. 
Szomsz^d, S., neighbour. 
Szotnj , S., thirst. 
Szomjiisdg, S., thirst. 
Szomorit-ani, V. a., to sadden. 
Szonmgatatds, S., distress. 
Szorongaltotl, A. v., oppressed, 

in distress. 
Szoros, A., narrow. 
Szoriil^ni V , n., to be pressed, 

to be in want of. 
Szoriillsdg, S.. narrowness, fig. 

difficulty. 
Szozaf, S., appeal. 



Sz'6k-ni, S. m., to flee, to run, 
to jump. 

SzHkell-eni, V. m., to fly up, 
to shoot, V. n. 

SzOrnyu, A., enormous, horrible, 

Szfivc^fnek, S. torch. 

Szuk, A , narrow. 

Szuken, Adv., scanty, poorly. 

Sziikseges, A., necessary. 

Sziiksegesen, Adv., necessarily. 

SzukOlo, A., wanting, needful. 

Szul-ni, V. a., to bear a child, 
to give birth to. 

Szitlef-ni, V. m., to be born. 

SziitofOld, S., native land. 

Szuloi, A., parental. 

Sziln-ni^ megszun-ni , V. m., 
to cease. 

Szunetlen, A. v. Adv., unceas- 
ingly , uninterrupted. 
Szilz^ S. & A., virgin. 

Szi/barita, A., Sybaritical. 



Tab or Olds, S., campaign. 

Ta'j, S , limb, member. 

TagadJatatlan, A, undeniable. 

Takar-ni, eltakarni, V. a., to 
cover. 

Taldlkozo, S., a Person whom 
we have to meet, appoint- 
ment, rendez-vous. 

Talp, S.. sole of the foot; falpig 
eniber^ he is a man from top 
to toe. 



454 



Talpko, S., ground-stone, foun- 
dation-stone. 

Tdmasz, S., support. 

Tan, Taldn, adv., perhaps. 

Tandcs, S., counsel. 

Tandrs/6, S., adviser. 

Tdncz , S., dance. 

Tdnczo'-ni, V. m., to dance. 

Tdnf(irit-afii,y.2i ,to discourage, 
to shake the mind. 

Tanu, S., witness. 

Tanya, S. , hamlet. 

Tapasztalds, S., experience. 

Tapaszla't, A. v., experienced. 

Tdpldi-ni, V. a., to nourish. 

Tdp/dlds, S., nourishment. 

Tapod-ni, V. a., to trample. 

Taps, S., applause. 

Tdr-ni, V. a., to expose. 

Tdrgy, S., object. 

Tarka, A., spotted, variegated. 

7dr.5, S., companion, friend. 

Tdrsasdg, tdrsas.sdg, S., com- 
pany, fig. companions. 

Tdrsieker, S. , ammunition 
wagon. 

Tarl-ani, V. a. & n., to hold, 
to keep ; tartani Cvalaminek), 
to think, to consider. 

Tarlo-Jat-ni, V. a., to stop, to 
retain. 

Taldr, S., Tartar. 

Tdvol, Adv., far; ^d7;o/ ejleni, 
to remove far off; magdl'dvol 
ej'eni, to deviate. 

Tdvoz-ni, V. m., to quit, to 
retire. 



Tdvozds, S., removal. 

Tdvozott, contracted tdvozt, 
(used with the possessive 
affixes). S., having quitted the 
place, absence. 

Tehdt, C, then. 

Tekinl-eni, V. m., to look. 

Tekinfet, S., look, S. figure; fig. 
regard. 

Te!-ni, ettel-ni, V. n , to elapse. 

Teljes, felyes, S. full. 

Tehjesen. Adv., fully. 

Tell, A. v., filled. 

Temet-ni, V. a., to bury. 

Temetkezes , S. , inhumation, 
Obsequies, burial. 

Temel6,S., church yard, burying 
ground. 

Templom, S , church, temple. 

Tenger, S., sea. 

Tenyesz-ni, V. m. & n., to grow, 
to strive. 

Ter, S. , space, room; tdren, 
teton, oxer stumps and shrubs. 

Terd, S , knee. 

Terem-ni, V, n , to grow. 

Teremto, V. v., creating. 
erhet-ni , V. a. , to load, to 
burden; ter held, A. v., bur- 
densome. 

Terit-eni, V. a., to cover, to 
spread over, fig. to prostrate. 

Terjedett, A., extensive, spa- 
cious. 

Jerjed^su, A., extensive, of ex- 
tent. 

Term^s, S., fruit. 



155 



Termdszetes, A., natural. 

Termet, S., growth, shape. 

Tespedo, A., stagnating. 

Testver, S., brother or sister; 
lestver^ A., german. 

T^tel^ S. , act, proposition; 
magyarrd tefef , translation 
into Hungarian. 

Telem, S., limbs, remains. 

Teteme:>en. Adv , considerably. 

Tefo^ S., summit top. 

Tevehjetj-ni, V. n., to wander 
about, to lose one's way. 

Tevehjqes, S., aberration, error. 

Tikkadds, see tikkadtsdg. 

Tikkad/sdg, S., lassitude, weari- 
ness. 

Tilt-aiiij eltilf-ani, V. a., to pro 
chibit, to detain. 

Tipor-ni, V. a., to trample. 

Tiszla, A., pure, clear. 

Tiszlelel^ S., honour, veneration ; 
tisztelelben tarf-ani, to 
venerate, to honour. 

Tiszlelo, S., admirer, reverer. 

Tisztes , A., venerable, ho- 
nourable. 

Titkos, S., secret. 

To(ong-ani, V. n., to press 
forward, to crowd. 

Tolongds, S., throng, crowd. 

Toliil-ni, V. n., to be urged. 

Tompa, A., blunt. 

Torung, S., steeple, tower. 

Toll-eni, V. a., to fill, to pass 
or to spent time. 

T'J, S., trunk, fig. foot, base 



(of a mountain), forrds t6v6- 
ben, near the spring (well). 

Tok^let, S., perfection, accom- 
plishment; Idkeletrejittni; to 
be accomplished. 

Tolgy, S., oak. 

Tor, S., stabber, fig. sting. 

Tor, S., snare; lorbe ejleni, to 
catch with a snare. 

T6r-ni, V., to break; nagyra, 
lor-ni , to aspire to great 
things. 

Toredek, S., fragment. 

Torekedes, S,, endeavour. 

Torekedo, A. v., opening the 
path. 

Toreked-m,y.m., to exert one's 
self. 

Tores , S., rupture, breach. 

TOrol/en, Adv., broken. 

Tortenet, S., event. 

Tortef-tii, V. fact., to drive on. 

Tbvis, S., thorn. 

TiJVises, A., thorny, prickly. 

Tudallansdg , S., ignorance. 

Tiidomdny, S., science, know- 
ledge. 

Tudomdnyi, A., scientific. 

TiidosiUis, S., information, in- 
telligence. 

Tv'ojd')n, S, property. 

Tv-sakod-ni, V, m., to struggle, 
contest. 

Tiindtr, A , fairy. 

TUndbk/6 , A., bright. 

Tilnd'Okdl-ni, V m., to shine fig. 
to be adorned. 



158 



Tun-ni , feltuwui , V, m. , to 

appear. 
TUnem^ny, S., phenomenon. 
TUnod-ni, V. m., to trouble one's 

self, to muse. 
Turni, A. a. & n., to suffer. 
Tiirde/em , S , patience. 
TUze/e.s, S., firing (bombarding.) 
TUzes, A., fiery, red-hot. 
Tuz/olyds, S., stream of fire, 

fig. active life. 

V. 

Unalom, S., tediousness, disgust. 

Udvar, S., court. 

Udvari, A., of the court, be- 
longing to the court. 

Ugor-ni, V. m., to jump. 

Ugrds , S., leap, jump. 

Ugyano, Pr., the same. 

Ugymond (contracted of ugy 
mond), so he says, says he. 

Ujitds, S., innovation, reform. 

Ujild, A. v., reforming. 

Undok, A., abominable. 

Unoka, S., grand child. 

Urasdg , S., dominion.; 

Utdlt^ A. T , disgustful. 

Ulczajdro , A., walking in the 
streets, wandering. 

Utitdrs , S , travelling - com- 
panion. 

tflk'6iben, Adv., on ones 
journey. 

(flmiUalo , S. , guide, leader. 

f//d, S. , issue. 

Utoljdra , Adv., at last. 



U, IJ. 

t)dv6z6l-ni, V. a., to greet, to 
Wellcome. 

tJnep, 8., festival. 

Ures, — empty, void, fig. de- 
prived ; uresfeju (empty head- 
ed) ignorant. 

Ut-ni va'akire-. V. a. , to fall 
upon; tdbnrl utni, to pitch a 
camp. 

Uz-ni, V. a., to pursue. 

V. 

Vadf S., wild beast, game. 

Vadon, S., wilderness. 

Vdgy, S., desire. 

Vajmi, Int., Alas. 

Vakmero, A., audacious, te- 
merary. 

Vdl-ni, megvdl-ni, V. n., to 
part with. 

Valaha, Adv., ever. 

Valami, Pr. ind., any. 

Vdlasz, S., answer, reply. 

Vdlaszt-ani, V. a. , to choose. 

VdlasztdSt S., election, alter- 
native. 

Vdlaszto fejedelem, S., Elector 
(Prince of germany). 

Vall-ani, V. a., to confess; 
kdrtcallani, to suffer damage. 

Vdlalkozott^ A. v., enterprising. 

Valo-, A. v., true, real. 

Vdlogat-ni, V. a., to select, to 
to pick out. 



i57 



Valdsdg, S. , reality. 
Vdlfoz-ni, V. m., to follow al- 
ternately. 
Vdliozds, S., change, ujito 
vdltozdst hozni, to reform. 
VdltnzOj A. v., changeable. 
Vdltsdg, S., ransom. 
Vdnczorog-ni, V. n., to stagger. 
Vdndor, S., wanderer; — A., 

wandering. 
Vdndorbot, S., travelling staff. 
Vdndorol-ni, V. n., to wander. 
Va'r, S., castle. 
Vardzs, S., charm, magician, 

enchanter. 
Vdrbasa, S., bashaw of the 

castle. 
Vdrbeli, — A., belonging to a 

fortress, fig. garrison. 
Vdrmegefti (ofdal). A., (the 

part) behind the fort. 
Vdz, S., skeleton. 
Vedfal, S.., bulwark. 
Yedoleg , Adv. , defensively 

protectively. 
V^g,- S., end. 

Veghezvin-ni, V. a., to per- 
form, to accomplish. 
Vegk4pen^ Adv., entirely. 
VegkiirtdSj S , entire exter- 
mination. 
Vegnap , S., last day. 
V^gre^ Adv., at last. 
Vegrendelmeny ^ S., last will. 
V^givadalj S., the last combat, 

fig. decisive combat. 
V^gzet^ S. fate (fatum, as 



the Romans represented it), 
destiny. 
Vdl-ni, V. a. , to believe, to 

think. 
Velemeny, S., opinion. 
Velf, A. v., anticipated, fore- 
thought. 
Vc% A., old. 

Ven-nij V. a., to take; szdn- 
dekbavenniy to intend; ne- 
hezen venni^ to be displeased. 
Vende'glo, S., host, 
Vend6gseg ^ S., feast, enter- 
tainment. 
Ver-ni, V. a., strike. 
V^r, S., blood, fig. bloodshed; 
— with the possessive affixes 
— , kinsmsin (vereim my kins- 
men). 
Verdldozat, S., victim. 
VSrboszUj S., sanguinary ven- 
gance; vt^rboszut dllani, to 
revenge with bloodshed, 
Verengzo^ — A., sanguinary. 
V4res..> A., sanguinary. 
Vergod-ni, V. m., to break 
through, to get through with 
great efforts. 
V^rkdny-, S., bitter tears. 
VSrnap, S., slaughter, the day 

of slaughter or defeat. 
Versenez-ni, V. m., to race, 

fig. to emulate , to rival. 
Ve'rtolulds^ S., accumulation of 

blood. 
V^rzivatar, S., sanguinary tu- 
mult. 



i58 



V^szj S., danger, tempest. 
Vesz-niy V. n., to perish. 
veszniMrt, becoming (getting) 
corrupted, being on the way 
of depravation. 

Veszedelem ) S., danger. 

VeszedelmeSy A., dangerous. 

Vesz^ly, S., danger. 

Vesz^lyeSy A., dangerous. 

Vesz6lytelyes f A., dangerous, 
full of dangers. 

Veszte., S. , (used with the 
possessive affixes), loss, ruin, 
fall. 

Veszteget-ni, V. a., to lose, 
to waste. 

Vesztegl^s, S., keeping one's 
self quiet, fig. inactivity. 

Vesztuhely^ S., place of exe- 
cution, scaffold. 

Vet-ni, V. a , to throw; ma- 
gdt a' harlangjdba vette, 
got in his cavern. 

Vetel, S., receiving. 

Yetelkedo tdrs<, S., rival, com- 
petitor. 

Vevo, S., buyer. 

Vezerl^Sj S. , guidance, di- 
rection. 

Vezetu, A. v., leading. 

Viadal^ S., combat. 

Viadalom, S., dispute, debate. 

Viaskod-ni, V. m., to fight, to 
combat. 

Viddm, A., merry, cheerfid. 

Vidor, A., lively, awoke, brisk. 

Vidorariy Adv., lively, merrily. 



Vidul-ni, megvidul-ni, V. n., 

to brighten, to grow cheerful. 

Vig, A., merry, cheerful; vigan. 

Ad v., cheerfully, with pleasure. 

Vigasztalds, S., comfort, con- 

solation» 
Vigydzal, S., care , precau- 
tion. 
Vihar, S., hurricane, storm. 
Vildgit-ani, V. n., to shine. 
VildgositOj A. v., shining, lu- 
minous. 
Villdm, S., lightening 
Villog-ni, V. n., to gleam. 
Vipera-fajzaf,S., generation op 

vipers. 
Virad-ni, V. n., to dawn. 
Virdgbokor , S. , flowerbush, 

flower. 
Virdgszdl, S. , stalk, stem of 

a flower. 
Virdgzo, A. v., flourishing. 
Virdny, S., field, meadow. 
Virul-niy felvirul-ni , V. n., to 

blossom, fig. to flourish. 
Visel-ni, .V. a., to wear; visel- 

tet-ni, to behave. 
Viszdly^ S, , adversity, ca- 
lamity. 
Viszhangy S. , echo. 
Viszontagsdg, S., yicisitude. 
Viszaeml^kezesj S.,recollection. 
Vissza fordul-ni, V. n. , to 

return. 
Visszahanyatlds, S., relapse. 
Visszanyom-ni, V. a., to drive 
back. 



159 



Kwzaf^rd, returning ; viszat^rol 
fitvafni, to sound the retreat. 

Viszatol-nU V. a., to push back, 
to drive back, fig. to refuse. 

Viszavetel^ S., conquest (re- 
conquest.) 

Viszaver-ni, V. a., to repulse. 

Viszavonds, S. , discord, dis- 
sension. 

VitdZy S., hero. 

Vit^zked-ni, V. m., to behave 
bravely. 

Vitezul^ Adv., bravely. 

Vivds, S., (assailing) assault, 
attack. 

Vivo, S., v., struggler, 

Vizbollozat^ S. , jet or shoot 
of water. 

Viz/iiizo g^p, S., water pump. 

Vizivdros, S., (water town) 
the lower quarter of Buda. 

Vizsgdlat, S., inquest. 

Volta, S., having been. 

Vonagol-ni, V. m., to be moved 
by convulsions fig., to be in 
agony. 

Vonul-ni, V. n., to move, to retire. 

Fo, S., son''in law. 

Vdlgy, S., valley. 

VHrii instead of vei:e, Imperf. 
of ven-ni, to take. 



Z. 

ZajoSf A., noisy. 

Zajog-ni, V. n., to bawl, to 
rustle. 

Zdpor, S., shower. 

Zdr, S., lock, fig. fetters. 

ZdrkozdSj S., shutingup, con- 
finement. 

ZuszlOy S., standard, banner. 

Zavaff S., confusion. 

Zavar-ni, V. a., to confound, 
to distract. 

Zavarodds, S., confusion. 

Zeng-eni, V. n., to sound; 
visszazengeni, to re-echo. 

Zordon, A., rough. 

Zvg, S , corner. 

Zugds, S., roaring, fig. fury. 

Zuhan-nh V. n , to rush down. 

Zuz-nU V. a., to bruise. 

Zuza, S., craw, stomach of 
birds. 

Zz. 

Zsdk, S., bag. 
Zsebt S., pocket. 
Zsidbadds, S., slumber, stiff- 
ness, torpity. 
Zsido , S., jew. 



Leipzig, printed by Alexaader. Wiede. 



Typographical errors in Ihe selections. 



5 48 line 3, put: leereszked^se instead of leerestkedose. 


53 


„ 4, „ Kisfaludy 


»5 


„ Kisfalu y. 


58 


„ 27, „ volt 


J' 


„ volt. 


60 


„ 2, „ konnyu 


„ 


„ konyu. 


,, 


„ 42, „ reszv^tlensegH 


»' 


„ reszv^tlens^get. 


63 


„ 43, ,, fulemile 


V 


„ /iz/mj/e. 


66 


„ 45, „ rol 


,, 


., ro/. 


69 


„ 44, „ kormdnyzdsa 


,, 


„ kormdnyzdsd. 


70 


„ 24, „ kapv' 


>» 


„ Aflpw. 


77 


„ 24, „ meghatdrzd 


M 


„ meghatdrzd. 


80 


„ 18, „ rsak 


,, 


„ C5d^. 


88 


1. 3, p. 89, 1.7, p. 90, 1. 49 


put: 


05i instead of Osz. 


96 


line 22, put: adlam e instead of adfa me\ 


99 


„ 6, „ Elvette 


,, 


, Evelte. 


404 


„ 6, „ csatolt „ 


,, 


csato. 


444 


„ 20, „ Sziilofoldem „ 


n 


SzU ofoldem. 


446 


„ 45, „ Elete 


., 


Elete. 



JUN 20 185S 





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