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Copyriji^t by 





George R. Lockwood. 

VINGUT-OLLENDORFF. The Spanish Teacher. 12mo. . .$1 50 

Key TO THE Exercises 75 

Spanish Reader and Translator. 12mo 1 00 

DEL MAR. Guide to Spanish Conversation. 12mo . . 75 

ROBERTSON. Complete Spanish Course. 12mo 1 50 

SALES' JOSSE'S Spanish Grammar. 12mo 1 35 

MANTILLA. Hand-Book of Spanish Conversation. 18mo. 60 

For Spaniards Learningr Engrlish and Frenoh, or 
French Learningr SpaniBh. 

Vll^GUT-OLLENDORFF. El Maestro de Ingles. 12mo. 1 5C 

Clave db los Ejercicios 75 

El Preceptor Elemental de Ingles. 12mo... 1 00 

Clave de los Ejercicios 50 

£l Maestro de Frangi^s. 12mo 150 

Clave de los Ejercicios v5 

Lb Maitre dTspagnol, 12mo 150 

CoRRiG^ DES Exercises 75 

MANTILLA. Nociones de Lengua Francesa. 16mo 40 

Cartera db la Conversvcion en Ingli<:s 60 

LiBRO Primario PARA traducir EL Frances... 40 


Cartilla DE FisiCA. 16mo 40 

DEL MAR. La Guia para la Conversacion en Ixgl^s — 75 

JOYAS DE LA POESIA Castellaxa. 12mo 50 

VINGUT. Lector y Teaductor Ingles. 12mo 1 00 

LECTURA8 IKGLESAS E^coaiDAi^^ Qou YooibuUrio 1 25 


In presenting to the public a "Complete Spanish 
Course,'' based upon Professor T. Robertson's admir- 
able Method of Teaching Modem Languages, the author 
hopes that the title selected will not be found improperly 
applied, in view of the comprehensiveness of the plan 
pursued, as exhibited in the Table of Contents. 

Without presuming upon any vital deviation from the 
Robertsonian system in general, a change has, however, 
been thought advisable in the choice of the text, which, 
instead of being an uninterrup|;;d story, is made up of a 
series of short pieces, preser^*;^ in turn aU the words 
likely to occur in ordinary rJiiversation, followed by a 
selection from the best Spr • tsii authors, and ending with 
a complete course of busi ' ss letters and book-keeping; 
but the latter, having been added more especially for the 
use of those who study the language for commercial 
purposes, may be readily omitted, as all the grammati- 
cal rules and observations have been engrafted upon the 
earlier familiar lessons. 

A portion of this text is taken up at each lesson, as 
appointed, and read over caref uUy until the pronuncia- 
tion and meaning of the expressions contained in it have 
been fully mastered, when sundry questions, exclusively 
made up of the words already seen and readily answered, 
with smaU fragments of the text of the day, will establish 
from the first a short, but animated dialogue between the 
master and student, and remove in a very ingenious 
manner, the difficulties usually met with in beginning 
Spanish conversation 


Not content with tliis, however, and feeling the im* 
portance of an early habit of composition, a number of 
sentences for oral translation, also devoid of expressions 
not explained before, have been introduced j and these, 
prepared with an especial view to display the many 
ways in which the words learned may be transposed so 
as to express new ideas, cannot fail to prove an excellent 
exercise to accustom the pupil to speak Spanish, and to 
understand the language when spoken. They conclude 
the first part of each lesson, which is invariably kept so 
for exclusively practical in its nature, being intended 
for those who feel impatient to speak as speedily as 

The second part, on the contrary, is dedicated to the 
theory, and explains, in a series of clear and easy rules, 
all the difficulties of Spanish grammar and syntax. It 
contains, also, numerous progressive exercises for home 
practice, and a key by which several thousand new 
words may be acquired with ease, — a feature which, 
while it encourages considerably the early efforts of a 
beginner, tends, at the same time, materially to smooth 
his first steps, by doing away entirely with the necessity 
of referring to the dictionary, and freeing him from the 
many perplexing doubts usually attending such consul^ 

As to the best plan to be pursued in studying this 
book, it has been fully explained in the notes added for 
that pui*pose to the first two lessons. 

The author would also improve this opportunity to 

thank Professor T. Rodriguez de Caballos, and Professor 

J. C. H. Gitterman, for tiisir valuable assistance in the 

preparation of this work. 

id. £• 



Preface iii 

Pbonunciation .' vii 

Lesson — — -— — ^ 

I. OfMan 1 

II. Food or Dinner 8 

III. The House 14 

IV. Clothes 20 

V. School , 80 

VI. Commerce 39 

VII. Time and Numbers 47 

VIII. Animals 57 

IX. The City 66 

X. The Country 75 

XL Arithmetic 84 

XII. Geography 92 

i XIII. Anecdote 101 

XIV. Presence of Mind 110 

XV. Extract from Saavedra 119 

XVI. Extract from P. B. Gracian 128 

XVII. Extract from the History of the Conquest of Mexico, by Solis 188 
\ XVIII. Extract from the History of Spain, by El Padre Isla.... 147 
XIX. Extract from a Sketch of the Character of Queen Elizabeth 

of England, by Hume; translated into Spanish by Salv4 157 
. XX. Diversity of Character of the Spanish Provinces, by Ca- 

dalso : First Part : Cantabria 166 

XXI. Second Part : Asturia 175 

XXII. Third Part : Galicia and Castile 184 

XXIII. Fourth Part : Estremadura and Andalusia 193 

XXIV. Fifth Part : Murcia and Catalonia 203 

XXV. Conclusion : Arragonia 214 

XXVI. Extract from the Troubadour, by Don Juan Garcia Guti- 
errez : First Part 224 

XXVII. Conclusion 235 

XXVIII. Description of Seville, by Mariana : 

First Part 247 

XXIX. Second Paxt 256 

XXX. Conclusion 265 


LlBflQir PAOB 

XXXL Models of Notes : Invitation, Acceptance, and 

Eefusal 274 

XXXII, Receipt, Promissory Note, and Advertisements.. 281 


Circular on establishing a new honse *. 288 

XXXIV, An Order 295 

XXXV, Answer 302 

XXXVI. Market Report 308 

XXXVII. Invoice, Bill of Lading, and Drafts 315 

XXXVIII. Complaint of the inferior quality and de- 
ficiency in weight of the goods sent 323 

XXXIX. Answer to Complaint 329 

XL. Extract from the Books of Jos6 Ruiz & Co... 336 

XLI. Mercantile Vocabulary 344 

XLII. Mercantile Phrases 351 

XLIII. Parallel of Queen Isabella of Spain with Queen 
Elizabeth of England, by G. H. Prescott; 
translated by A, C. Iturburu: First Part.... 358 

XLIV. Second Part 360 

XLV. Conclusion 362 

XLVI. A Letter of Lord Chesterfield to his Son ; trans- 
lated into Spanish by Luis Maneiro : First Part 365 

XLVII. Conclusion 367 

XLVIII. Extract from the 37th Chapter of the First Part 

of Don Quixote 371 

Familiar Phrases 372 

Gbnbral Index, comprising all the Rules and Observations 
contained in this work, arranged in alphabetical order 
for the co&Yenienoe of reference. ••• ••• 888 


Of the AlphalMt. 

The Spanish letters are the same as the English, with the exception of 
K and W, which are used only in foreign words. They are called and 
pronounced as follows : 

— Sa 

Names of the Lettenu 

ah hay thay day ay effay hay atchay ee hotah ellay emmay ennay 

oh pay koo erray essay tay oo vay akiss e griega thaydah. 

A is sounded as a in far. 

C,t before a, o, u, I, r, or a second c, ** 

*• eori, ** 

Ch " 

D " 

E ** 

p «« 

Q, before a, o, m, I, r, or a second g, ** 

** e or if is sounded as a strongly aspirated h. 
Qu. — Uis silent in gue,a,nd gui^ unless a diaeresis {il) is put over it 
H is always silent. 

I is sounded as i in six, 

J has a guttural sound, like a strongly aspirated A, or the German cK 
L is sounded as Z in lion. 





















Q is never used without u ; the u is, however 
the Q sounded like K, 


U " bullion. 

* m ** me. 

* n ** no. 

* gn ** mignonette, 

* ** no, 

* p ** paper. 
always silent, and 

* B and V are often used for each other in Spanish. 

t C, before e or i, is also sounded as in English, in the words centref citron^ espe< 
cially in the West India islands. - . . 


R is sounded as r in rose, 

S " «* " 8 " six. 

T «« «• *' t '• table. 

U* «* " «« 00 ** ^ood 

V " «• «« i; ** wic<5. 

Xf «• ". «* aj ** esqpremai* 

Y...., " " •« y " you, 

Z " " ** th ** thin. 

Of Accentuation in Reading and Writing. 

The acute accent (') is the only one used in Spanish. It serres to dis* 
tinguish words of similar orthography, as : 

d^t give; de, ot 

^, he ; eli the. 

estdf is ; esta, this. 

wf, me ; mi, my. 

si, himself; si, if. 

t^, tea ; te, thee. 

t'&f thou ; tu, thy, etc 

It also shows in some words what syllable has to be uttered with a partic- 
ular stress; as in ^j'rfirfa, loss; di/icil, difficult; cantard^ he will sing, etc. 

As words of one syllable cannot present any difficulty in this respect, 
they are never surmounted with an accent, except in cases where they 
are used in more than one meaning ; as, 61^ he ; eX the, etc. 

In words of two or three syllables, the stress is generally on the last 
but one, for those ending with a vowel, and on the last, for those ending 
with a consonant ; as, padres father ; mujer, woman. 

An 8, or any other inflexion introduced as the mark of the plural or of 
certain persons, in veibs, does not change the accent of a word ; and 
padres, fathers ; mujeres, women ; pices, fishes ; venderds, thou shalt sell ; 
venderdn, they shall sell, are accented] ike ^ac?7'e, father ; mujer, woman ; 
pez, fish ; and vender^, I shall selL 

The diphthongs ia, ie, io, ua, ue, no, etc. , at the end of a word, as in 
aqiui, water ; serie, series, form generally but one syllable. 

Words of more than three syllables have to be decomposed into two or 
more small ones, and read regularly as such. 

Ex. Eicamente, richly; read rica-mente. 
Doctamente, wisely; read docta-mente. 

Only such words as deviate from the above rules are irregular, and have 
to be surmounted with an accent, to indicate which syllable has to be 
pronounced with a particular stress ; as, 

Pirdida, loss ; di/icU, difficult ; carUard, he will sing, etc. 

♦ IT is silent after g and g.— See those letters. 

t Some words formerly spelled with an X, are now written with a /; as rtlax^ re- 
lo}t watch. The x is also sometimes replaced by cs, as in existence, which m^y be 
written existencia, or ecsUtejicia, though existencia is the more modem form.— Seo 
Lesson Sixth, p. 39. 



Literal Tranalation. 

Leccion printera.* 

Lesson first. 

El Hontbre, 

The Man. 

Sste eaballero y esta seiiora tienen das 

This gentleman and this lady have two 

ninos, un hljo y una hJija. i ^uerrla T. 

children, a son and a daughter . Would like your honor 

saber eonto se Uantan ? El nlfio se llama 

to know how themselves they call 1 The boy himself calls 

Pablo, y la nlfia Tirg^^nla. Pablo tiene la 

Paul, and the girl Virginia. P^ul has the 

eabesEa grande^ el pelo negro y los ojos 

head large, the hair black, and the eyes 

tItos. Virginia tiene la cara ag^radable, 

lively. Virginia has the face agreeable, 

los dientes herntosos y los pi^s pequenos. 

the teeth handsome, and the feet small. 

i Tiene Y. alg^una herntana ? Si, senor? 

Has your honor any sister ? Yes, sir, 

tengo una. i Que edad tiene ella? Es 

I have one. What age has she 1 She is 

ntuy j6Ten. i ^ulen es aquella senora ? 

very young. Who is that lady? 

* Before attempting to read the text, the student should, if possible, 
hear it five or six times from the mouth of a native, or some person well 
versed in Spanish pronunciation ; and then familiarize himself thor- 
oughly with the spelling and meaning of each expression. To promote 
the latter in particular it will be well to transcribe once or twice, from 
dictation and from memory, the whole of the literal translation, in small 
fragments of a few words at a time ; such exercises being highly cal- 
culated lo form the eye and ear. 

mtlSD LfiSSOK. 

Es la hermana de ml madre. Aquel 

She is the sister of my mother. That 

caballero es el herntano de ml padre. 

gentleman is the brother of my father. 

The same in good Bngliah. 

El Hombre. 

Este caballero y esta sefiora 
tienen dos miilos, un hijo y una 
hija. I Querria V. saber como se 
llaman 1 El nino se llama Pablo, 
y la nina Virginia. Pablo tiene 
la cabeza grande, el pelo negro 
y los ojos vivos. Virginia tiene 
la cara agradable, los dientes 
hermosos y los pi^s pequeilos. 
I Tiena V. alguna hermana ? Si, 
sefior, tengo una. [Que edad 
tiene ella? Es muy joven. i Quien 
es aquella se&ora? Es la her- 
mana de mi madre. Aquel cabal- 
lero es el hermano de mi padre. 


This gentleman and this lady 
have two children, a son and a 
daughter. Would you like to 
know their names ? The boy is 
called Paul, and the girl Virginia. 
Paul has a large head, black hair, 
and bright eyes. Virginia has a 
pleasant face, handsome teeth, 
and small feet. Have you a sis- 
ter ? Yes, sir, I have one. How 
old is she 1 She is very young. 
Who is that lady ? She is the 
sister of my mother. That gen- 
tleman is the brother of my 

Questions and Answers for Conversation.* 

I Que leccion es esta ? + 
I Como se llama el nino? 
I Como se llama la nina? 
I Que cabeza tiene el nifLo? 
I Que pi 4s tiene la niiia ? 
I Que ojos tiene Pablo] 
I Que cara tiene Virginia? 

Es la primera. 

El niiio se llama Pablo. 

La nifia se llama Virginia. 

Tiena la cabeza grande. 

Tiene los pi6s pequefios. 

Pablo tiene los ojos vivos. 

Virginia tiene la cara agradable. 

* These are intended to accustom the scholar to speak, and to under* 
stand the language when spoken. The questions have been so imagine<) 
as to be readily understood and answered in Spanish, either verbally or 
in writing, by any one who has studied diligently the preceding text 

t Inverted signs of interrogation are generally placed before and after 
questions in Spanish, to assist in intonating them properly j but the 
rule is not obligatory. , y^. 


I Que pelo tiene el nifio ? 
I Que dientes tiene la nifia ? 
I Quien es aquel caballero ? 
I Es la sefiora la madre de Vir- 

Pelo negro. 
Dientes hermosos. 
Es el hermano de mi padre. 
Si, seHor, la seiiora es la madre 
de Virginia. 

Sentences for Oral Translation.* 


El caballero. 

La sefLora. 

Los caballeros. 

Un padre. 

Una madre. 

Mi hermano. 

Mi hermana. 

El nifio j6ven. 

La niiia j6ven. 
El nifio es el hermano de la nifia. 
La nifia es la hija de la sefLora. 
I Tiene V. ninos ? 
Tengo dos. 
J Tiene V. unhijo? 
Tengo un nifio y una nifia. 
[. Como se llama el nifio 1 
Se llama Pablo. 
I Como se llama la nifia ? 
El caballero es el padre de los 

La sefiora es la madre. 


The gentleman. 

The lady. 

The gentlemen. 

A father. 

A mother. 

My brother. 

My sister. 

The young boy. 

The young girL 
The boy is the brother of the girl. 
The girl is the lady*s daughter. 
Have you any children? 
I have two. 
Have you a son ? 
I have a son and a daughter. 
What is the name of the boy ? 
His name is Paul. 
What is the name of the girl ? 
The gentleman is the father of 

the children. 
The lady is the mother. 

We here conclude that part of our lesson which is merely 
practical. Those persons who are impatient to understand and 

speak as speedily as possible, will find it sufficient; and we 

- ------- 

* No new word being introduced in any of these sentences, they should 
be translated without referring to the opposite column. 

4 tlRST LfiSSON. 

would advise them to postpone the study of the second division 
of each lesson until they have gone through all the practical 
exercises contained in this volume. Our second division is 
especially dedicated to those who are desirous of obtaining an 
accurate knowledge of the principles of the language. 


Leccion pidmera^ first lesson. 

!•* The adjective is generally placed after the noun in 

Este caballero, Esta smora^ 

this gentleman. that lady. 

2. This or that is translated by este before a word mascu- 
line, and by esta before a word feminine, t 

3. In Spanish, as in English, names of males are masculine, 
and names of females are feminine. 

But there is no neuter gender in nouns in Spanish, and the 
names of the inanimate objects are therefore, like those of the 
animate, either masculine or feminine. To determine which, 
recourse is generally had So their termination, the principal 
rule being the following : 

4. Nouns ending with a, d, ion, and umbre, are feminine ; 
those ending otherwise, are masculine. 

The exceptions to this rule comprise a number of very 
necessary words, all of which have been carefully introduced 
in the course of these lessons, and will be explained as they 
occur in the text. 

* Every observation of importance and eveiy rule bears a number, by 
means of which we refer to it. 

f Bsto, lo, and aquello are used, instead of este^ el, and aquelt before 
an adjective, when the noun to which that adjective refers is not ex- 
pressed ; as in i^ sublimetthe sublime. This is what is commonly called 
the neuter in Spanish. 


Tienm doe mno«, have two children. 

Niflos is the plural form of nifiOf boy. Its feminine is niiiOf 
girl; but nifios is used for children, when speaking of boys 
and girls together. 

6. In Spanish, as in English, nouns and adjectives generally 
take an 8 in the plural ; but those ending with an 8 in the 

singular do not change in the pluraL 

Un hijo, Una Ayo, 

a son. a daughter. 

6. A or AN is translated by tin before a word masculine, 
and by una, before a word feminine. 

Querria V, saber ? 

"Would you like to know t 


Would your honor like to know t 

▼., pronounced listed^ is an abbreviation of the now obsolete 
expreission, Vtiestra merced, your honor. Its plural is Vs., pro- 
nounced iistedeSy which corresponds to " your honors." 

7. In Spanish, the third person, joined to V., is used instead 
of the second, for the sake of politeness, just as you is introduced 
in English ; but care must be had to use the third person sin- 
gular together with V. when addressing a single person, and 
the third person plural together with Vs., when speaking to 
more than one. 

Ex. Que iiene V,, aeHor ? Que tiemn Vs., sefiores ? 

What have you, sir ? What have you, gentlemen 1 
literally, literally. 

What has your honor, air ? What have your honoi-s, gentlemen ? 

8. Some writers prefer Fm. to Fl, and V7ns. to Vs. ; both 
«re correct 

Como se llaman, 

how they are called — 


how they call themselves. 

9« The pronominal form is much more frequently used in 
Spanish than in English; and verbs which should be passive 


according' to the sense, often take the pronominal form in 

El niflo, La. nifla, 

the boy. the girL 

10. The is translated by el, before a word masculine singular • 
by la, before a word feminine singular ; by lo8| before a word 
masculine plural ; and by las, before a word feminine plural.* 

Pablo tiene la cabeza grande, 
Paul has a large head — 

Paul has the head large. 

11. The definite article thb is more used in Spanish than in 
English ; the rules which govern its introduction will be ex- 
plained later. 

Alguna hermana, any sister. 

15. Some or ant is translated by alguno, for the masculine 
singular; by algunai for the feminine singular; by algunoSi 
for the masculine plural ; and by algunSLM^ for the feminine 
plural Alc^" is used instead of alguno before a noun 

Tertgo, I have. 

13. The verb having a particular ending for each person in 
b^panish, the subject pronouns, /, thou. Tie, etc., are generally 

Aquel caballero, Aquella senora, 

that gentleman. that lady. 

14. We have already seen that esfCf esta, mean this and 
THAT. Wlien it is desirable, however, to indicate more par- 
ticularly the proximity or remoteness of the persons or things 

spoken of, este, esta, are used for this, and aquel, aqnellai 

for that. Aqnel is used before a word masculine, and 
aquella before a word feminine.* 

M herniano de mi padre, 

16. There are two ways of expressing the possessive in 
English — Tlie brother of my father , and My father's brother. 


* See note t« on page 4. 


In Spanish there is but one — The brother of my father; and 
has always to be replaced by of according to this model 

211 padre, J/SX madre, 

my father. my mother. 

16. Mt is translated by mi before a word singular, and by 
mis before a word plural. 



1. This boy, 2.t 11. The sons, 10. 

2. This girl, 2. 12. The daughter, 10. 

3. This hair, 2, 4. 13. The brother, 10. 

4. This head, 2, 4. 14. The sister, 10. 

5. A gentleman, 6. 16. Any boys, 12. 

6. A lady, 6. 16. Any girls, 12. 

7. A hair, 6, 4. 17. My eyes, 16. 

8. Ahead, 6, 4. 18. My face, 16. 

9. The father, 10. 19. My teeth, 16. 
10. The mother, 10. 20. My feet, 16. 

21. This lady's daughter, 15. — 22. That gentleman has two 
sons, 14. — 23. My mother's sister has small feet, 11, 15. — 
24. This lady has a daughter. — Who is that lady? 14. — 
26. She is my mother. — 27. And this young boy, who is he ? — 
28. He is my brother. — 29. What is the name of that gentle- 
man? 9. J — 30. His name is Paul. — 31. Have you a brother? — 
32. I have two. — 33. Who is that girl? — 34. She is my sister. 

* These exercises ought to be prepared at home, and written down 
carefully in a book. No dictionary will be required for them, as all the 
words introduced have been explained in the lesson. 

+ The figures after each sentence refer to the rules in the Second DivU 
9wn. See note *, on page 4. 

X In order to guaixl as much as possible against the habit of literal 
translation, which is generally so serious a drawback to free conversation, 
the sentences are given in ordinary English, and the student will have to 
change them into such forms as he \m b^ome acquftiut^ with in the 
text ^. 


Uteral TranBlRtlon. 

Lecclon segunda.t 

Lesson second. 

La Comida. 

The Food, or Diimer. 

tHne claae de comida tlenen Vs. en sn 

What kind of food have your honors in their 

posada ? Bastaute biiena. Para el al- 

boardii\g-house f Pretty good. For ttie break- 

ninerze tencnios cat£, pan y manteca ; para 

fast we liave coffee, bread, and butter ; for 

la comida, sopa, came y legrumbres ; para 

the dinner, soup, meat, and vegutablta; for 

la cena nos sirven t€ cou frntas y tortas, 

the supper un they sen'c tea with fruits and takes, 

pero yo prefiero generalmeute un vaso de 

but I prefer generally a glass of 

agua con galletitas o bizcochos. ^Donde 

water with crackera or biscuits. Where 

est& 8u cuchillo de T. i EstA fiobre la 

is his knife of your honor ? It is on Iht 

mesa. ilC an cachara? Con el cuchillo 

table. And his fipoun ) With the knife 

y el tenedor. ITIiicliati gracias. 

Rnd the fork. Maiiy IbankM. 

* At the beginning of eaeh new lesson, tlie stuilent shoifld rph«arso the 
text and Uteral ti'auslation of all previous ones, so ns to be snre of having 
fully mastered every word that has preceded. The best mode of effecting 
this would seem to be, fur the teacher to read aloud, in small fragmentn, 
the English and the Spanish, making the pupil translate them, 

+ The directions given in note *, ao page 1, are so ioiiiortant, that they 
would be here again earnestly recommended as never to be omitted. 



Th* laniB In good BngUsh. 

La Comida. 

I Que clase de comida tienen Vs. 
en su posada? Bastante buena. 
Para el almuerzo tenemos caf6, 
pan y manteca ; para la comida, 
fiopa, came y legumbres; para 
lacena nos sirven t^ con frustas y 
tortas, peio yo prefiero general- 
mente un vaso de agua con galle- 
titas 6 bizcochos. i Donde estd su 
cuchillodeV.? Estdsobrelameaa. 
(Y su cuchara? Con el cucbillo 
y el tenedor. Mucbas gracias. 

Thb Food, or Dinner. 

How is tbe fare at your board- 
ing-bouse? Pretty good. For 
breakfast we have coflfee and 
bread and butter; for dinner, 
soup, meat, and vegetables ; and 
for supper, tea, fruit, and cakes ; 
but I prefer generally a glass of 
water with crackers or biscuits. 
Where is your knife? It is on 
the table. And your spoon? 
With the knife and fork. Thank 

Questioiui and Answers lor Oonvwsation.* 

J Que leccion es esta? 

jQue clase de comida tienen Vs. 

en su posada ? 
[ Que tienen Vs. para el almuerzo ? 
2 Que tienen Vs. para la comida? 
gQue nos sirven para la cena?t 
j,Que prefiero yo generalmente?t 

2 Donde estd su cuchara de V.? 

I Y su cuchillo? 

2 Que estd sobre la mesa? 

£s la segunda. 

Una comida bastante buena. 

Caf(^, pan y manteca. 

Sopa, came y legumbres. 

T^, con frutas y tortas. 

Un vaso de agua con galletitas 6 

Sobre la mesa. 
Con el tenedor y la cuchara. 
Elcuchillo,el tenedor y lacuchar^i 

Sentences for Oral Translation, t 


Mi comida. 
Mi posada. 
Su sopa de V. 


My dinner. 

My boarding-house. 

Your soup. 

* See note *, on page 2. 

t For the sake of making the questions in Spanish without using any 
other words than those already explained, the preceptor is identified with 
the author, and the sentiments of the latter are regarded as received axioms. 

i See note at the bottom of page 3. 



Su pan de V. 

Su almuerzo de V. 

La manteca de Pablo. 

El vaso de Virginia. 
La came de su hermano de V. 
El cucliillo de mi padre. 
La cucliara de su madre de V. 
[Es grande su posada de V.? 

Si, sefior, es bastante grande. 
Tengo frutas y tortas. 

iQue tienen Vs.? 

Pan y manteca. 
iQuerria V. t^ 6 caf4? 

Prefiero un vaso de agua. 
I Donde estd su padre de V.? 
Estd con mi madre. 
iQuien es su hermano de V.? 
Ea(^ caballero. 

Your bread. 

Your breakfast 

Paul's butter. 

Virginia's glass. 

Your brother's meat 

My father's knife. 

Your mother's spoon. 
Is your boarding-house a largf 

Yes, sir, it is tolerably large. 
I have fruit and cakes. 
What have you ? 
Some bread and butter. 
Would you like to have some tea 

or some coffee? 
I prefer a glass of water. 
Where is your father? 
He is with my mother. 
Who is your brother ? 
That gentleman. 


La comida, the food, or the dinner. 
La comida corresponds to the English vroTda foodj fare, oi 
eating, in general, and to dinner, in particular. 

Que close ? what kind t 
CkuCf kind, and came, meat, are feminine by exception (i).* 

ITos sirven, 
they serve us — 

us they serve. 

17. The objective pronouns, me, him, her, us, you, them, 
etc., are generally placed before the verb in Spanish, except in 
imperative affirmative sentences, or if the verb is in the in- 
finitive or in the participle present. — Ex. Sirvanos V,, serve ua, 

* See note*, on page 4. _^ 

8E00ND LESSON. 11 

Do not serve us, is translated regularly by no nos sirva Fl; 
serving us, by serviendonos/ and to serve us, by servimos. It 
"will be observed that the pronoun, when placed after the verb, 
is generally merged into one word with it 

YopreflerOy I prefer. 

18. Contrary to Rule 13, the subject pronouns, If^ihou^ ?ie, 
etc., are expressed in Spanish for the sake of emphasis, when 
in English they would be underlined or printed in italic. 

Chiwralmente, generally. 

19. This word comes from general, general Many words 
ending with al are alike, or nearly so, in both languages ; as, 
Brutal, brutal ; fataJ,, fatal ; verbal, verbal ; metal, metal ; 
mineral, mineral ; joriial, journal, etc. 

80. Adverbs of quality are generally formed from adjectives 
by the addition of mente, which corresponds to the English 
ending, ly. The termination mente is always added to the 
feminine form of the adjective. 

21. The adjective does not change in English, but in Spanish 
it takes the gender and number of the noun to which it relates. 
22* Most adjectives are alike in the masculine and feminine 
in Spanish, but those ending with o change o into a. 
Ex. El nino grande, La nina grands, 

the big boy. ^ the big girl. 

El nino pequeno, La nina pequma, 

the small boy. the small girl. 

23. Nouns and adjectives ending with a consonant take 68 
instead of 8, in the plural. — Ex. Los metales, the metals. 

Donde esta su cuchillo ? where is your knife? 

24L Both esta and es, already seen in i Quien es aqtiella 
senora ? who is that lady ? mean is in English. 

26. There are tw9 words in Spanish corresponding to th? 
verb TO bb, — ser and estar ; but they cannot be employed 
indiscriminately, and it is often very puzzling to tell which tq 
choose. The following rule will serve to remove this difficulty, 
which is generally a source of much trouble. 


86. Ser is used when the person or thing spoken of is likely 
to remain wkaty wTiere^ or as it is said to be ; whereas estar 
has invariably to be introduced when a change may reasonably 
be expected, or that the verb to be can be replaced by to stand 
or to lay in English, without materially affecting the meaning 
of the sentence. Where is your knife ? is therefore translated 
by I Donde estd su cuchillo ? because the place of the knife 
may reasonably be expected to change ; and Who is that lady f 
by I Quien es aquella senora ? because, whoever that lady may 
be, she will always be the same one. Ser is, moreover, gen- 
erally added to the participle past, and estax to the participle 
present. We will recur to this distinction whenever the text 
offers an opportunity, in order to illustrate it further by numer- 
ous other examples. 

Est&y iSf has an accent over the i^ to distinguish it from 
esta, thiSf already seen (2). 

Su cuchillo de ▼., 

your knife — 


his 07" her knife of your honor. 

27. Su is used here instead of your, in accordance with 
Rule 7. Corresponding literally to his, her, its, and their, it 
becomes often necessary to add after it one of the following 
pronouns : de el, of him ; de ella, of her ; de V., of your honor, 
etc., to show more clearly who the possessor is. 

28. In Spanish, the possessive adjectives agree in gender and 
number with the object possessed, and not with the possessor. 

Ex. Su padre, his, her, or their father. 

29. nU and su do not change in the feminine. See Bule 22. 
Their plural is mis and BUS. See Eule 5. 

Muchas gracias, 

thank you — 


many thanks. 

80. There is no literal equivalent to / thank you, nor to 

If you please, in Spanish, and both have to be expressed by a 

circumlocution — Thank you, by muchas gracias, as above, and 


If tou PLBasb, by one of the following expressions of politeness : 

Hagame V. el favor ^ Do me the favor. 

Tenga V. la bondad, Have the goodness. 

31. Many is translated by muohos before a word mascu* 
line, and by XUUChas before a word feminine. 

Ex. Mtichos ninos, many boys ; rmtchas nifiaSf many girls. 

3S. But no difference is made in Spanish between quantity 
and number, and much is translated by the same word as 
ICANY — by mucho before a word masculine and by xnucha 
before a word feminine. 

Ex. Mucho j^n, much bread; muclia agua, much waten 



1. My coffee, 29. 11. Your supper, 27. 

2. My boarding-house, 29. 12. Your knife, 27. 

3. My vegetables, 28, 29. 13. Your forks, 27, 29. 

4. My glasses, 28, 29. U. Your tables, 27, 29. 

5. The agreeable man, 22. 15. The small biscuit, 21. 

6. The agreeable lady, 22. 16. The small spoon, 22. 

7. The agreeable men, 6, 21. 17. The small crackers, 6, Sl^ 

8. The agreeable ladies, 6, 21. 18. The small eyes, 5, 21. 

9. My handsome glasses, 6, 21. 19. My good brothers, 6, 21. 
10. Your handsome daughters. 20. My good sisters, 5, 21, 22, 

21. The mmerals. 19.— 22. The brutal men, 19.— 23. The 
brutal generals, 19.— 24. Fatally, 20.-25. Verbally, 20.— 
26. My spoon is good, 26. — 27. My dinner is pretty good, 26. 
— 28. Where is the father of this boy? 26. — 29. He is at your 
boarding-house, 26. — 30. Is the son of this lady with your 
brother? 26. — 31. He is with my sister. — 32. Your breakfast is 
on the table. — 33. We have good soup for dinner. — 34. What 
has this lady? — 35. She has good butter. — 36. Much soup, 32. — 
37. Many spoons, 31. — 38. Many forks, 31. — 39. Much coffee, 32. 
-—40. Much tea, 32. — 41. Many knives, 31. — 42. Much meat, 32. 

* See notes on pago 7» 


literal Translation. 

licccioii tercera. 

Lessoa third. 

I<a Casa, 

The House. 

{Donde Tire V.t Tiro en la calle 

[Where lives your lioiiorJ I live in the street 

octaT»,cercadeIparq(ie. V. debe venir 

eighth, near of the park. Your honor must come 

& verme. Xen^o una sala j un caarto 

to see me. I have a parlor and a room 

para dorniir. La sala e§ta anineblada 

to sleep. Tha parlor its funiiBheil 

ele^anteniente con ana alfombra de 

elegantly with a carpet of 

terciopelo, nets sillas, nn canap^, una mesa 

velvet, fix chairs, a wtn, u, table, 

y nn espejo hermoso. En el ciiarto para 

and a looking-glass beautifuL In the ruoui to 

dormlr hay nna eanin csplendida, una 

eleep there is a bed splendid, a 

c6nioda y un laraniaiios. Cuando hace 

hureuii, and a wuahstaiid. "Wlitii it niakea 

para dar librc paso a la brisia. En el 

to give free passage to the breeze. In the 

Invierno las espesas vortinas y nn buen 

winter, the thick curtaijia and a 



Muego conserran el cuarto agradablei 

file keep the room agreeable. 

i Vsa Y. Telas 6 una Ukmpara t Vso sbm. 

Uses your honor candles or a lamp! I use gas. 

i ^oe tfene T. alli t La llaTe de ml eoflrc. 

What hasyourhonor there! The key of my trunkT 

Th* same in good BngUah. 

La Casa. 

I Donde vive V. ? Vivo en la 
calle octaya, cerca del parque. 
V. debe venir d verme. Tengo 
una sala y un cuarto para dormir. 
La sala estd amueblada elegante- 
mente con una alfombra de ter- 
ciopelo, seis sillas^un canapd, una 
mesa y un hermoso espejo. En el 
cuarto para dormir hay una cama 
esplendida, una c6moda y unlava- 
manos. Cuando hace calor, abro 
las puertas y las yentanas, para 
dar libre paso d la brisa. £n el 
inyiemo las espesas cortinas y un 
buen fuego conservan el cuarto 
agradable. i Usa V. velas 6 una 
Idmpara ? Uso gas. i Que tiene 
y. cdli ? La llaye de mi cofre. 

The House. 

Where do you live? In Eighth 
street, near the park. You must 
call and see me. I have a parlor 
and a bedroom. The parlor is 
elegantly furnished with a hand- 
some velvet carpet, six chairs, a 
sofa, a table, and a beautiful look* 
ing-glass. In my bedroom there 
is a splendid bed, a bureau, and 
a washstand. When the weather 
is warm, I throw open the doors 
and windows to let in the breease, 
and in winter the thick curtains 
and a good fire keep the room 
quite comfortable. Do you use 
candles or a lamp? I use the 
gas. What have you there f The 
key of my trunk. 

Questions and Answers for Conversation** 

I Que leccion es esta ? 
I En que calle vive V. ? 

I Tiene V. una sala ? 

I Como estd amueblada la sala ? 
I Que alfombra tiene V. ? 

Es la tercera. 

En la calle octava, cerca del 

Tengo ima sala y un cuarto para 

Muy elegantemente. 
Una alfombra de terciopela 

* Sm note *• on page 2. 



iTiene V. un canap^f 

I Como estd amueblada el cuarto 
para dormir ? 

I Que hace V. cuando hace calor ? 

I Para que ? 

I Que conserva agradable el cuar- 
to en el inviemo ? 

iUsa V. gas? 

j Que Uave tiene V. alH ? 

Si, sefior, un canap^, seis 8illa% 
una mesa y un espejo hermoso. 

Tiene una cama esplendida, una 
c6moda y un lavamanos. 

Abro las puertas y las ventanas. 

Para dar libre paso d la brisa. 

Las espesas cortinas y un buen 

Si, sefior. 

La llave de mi cofre. 

Sentences for Oral Translation.* 


La calle y el parque. 

Mi sala y mi cuarto para dormir. 

Su alfombra de terciopelo. 

Las sillas y el canap4. 

Una mesa y un espejo. 

Mi cama y mi lavamanos. 

La Hmpara sobre la c6moda. 

El calor y el fuego. 

La puerta y la ventana. 

El inviemo y el fuego. 

£ Es bermosa su alfombra de ter- 
ciopelo ? 

Mi alfombra de terciopelo es muy 

lEs grande su cuarto para 
dormir ? 

Mi cuarto para dormir es bas- 
tante grande. 

Abro las puertas y las ventanas 
cuando hace calor. 

jDonde estd la llave de su cofre? 

La llave de mi cofre estd en mi 
cuarto para dormir. 

|Doiie estd la Idmpara? 

La Idmpara estd en mi sala. 


The street and the park. 

My parlor and bedroom. 

Your velvet carpet. 

The chairs and the sofa. 

A table and a looking-glass. 

My bed and my washstand. 

The lamp upon the bureau. 

The heat and fire. 

The door and the window. 

The winter and the fire. 

Is your velvet carpet hand- 

My velvet carpet is very hand- 

Is your bedroom a large one ? 

My bedroom is pretty large. 

I open the doors and windowa 

when it is warm. 
Where is the key of your trunk! 
The key of my trunk is in my 

Where is the lamp? 
The lamp is in my parlor. 

* See note at the bottom of page 8. 

tmfeb Ltssok. 1) 


La eattef the street 
(Ub, ttroet, and llave^ key, are feminine by exception (4). 

Oerea del parque^ 
near the park — 


near of the park. 

33 The preposition cercc^ near, is always foLowed by <^ if 

34. When the article el, the^ is joined to the preposition de 
of or from^ both small words are invariably merged into d^el 
but de la, de los, de las, are never so contracted. 


EkgantemmUy elegantly 

Elegantemenie. elegantly, comes from elegante, elegant (20). 

36. Many adjectives ending with ante in Spanish end with 
mnt in English ; and from these, corresponding nouns may gen 
ATally be formed by changing ante into ancia, a termination 
equivalent to ance or ancy in English. This observation applies 
also to words ending with ent and ence, most of which end witk 
ente and oncia in Spsnish, with litie or no other difference 

fix. Importante, important Impwtancia^ importance. 

Ignoranie^ ignorant Ignarancia^ igporance. 

CfmstanUy constant Constanda^ constancy 

Negligente^ ^tegligent Negligeneia^ n^^igenoe. 

Prudente^ prudent Prudencia, prtdence. 

Eminente, eminent Eminencia, eminence. 

Inteligente^ intelligent Int^ligencia^ intelligence. 

ImpaciefUe^ impatient Impacienda^ impatience. 

Di/erente^ different Difereneia. difference. 

Una alfokibra de terciopelo. 
S6. There are two ways of saying this in English, — a carp^ 
of velvety and a velvet carpet ; in Spanish there is but one«-^ 
a carpti of velvet ; and all sentences of this kind have to Do 
translated according to this model, placing the name of the 
iking of which another is made last. 

II THiBb tia^t. 

Cuando haoe eahr^ 
when it is warm — 


when it makes heat. 
ST. ffoce is a fonn of the verb hacer, to make, which ii 
generally used instead of to be^ in speaking of the weather i^ 

Ex. / Que Uempo hacef how is the weather I 
Mdee kermaso tiempoj it is fine weather. 

/ Que tiempo tenemos ? what weather have we f and TenejiM 
hermoto tiempo^ we have fine weather would, however, be quite 
as correct 

Para dar^ to give, or in order to give. 

38. The prepositions to and for, when nsed in the sense ol 

III order to are translated into Spanish by para. 

Un buen fuego^ a good fire. 

39. Buen is a form of bueno^ buena^ good. Bueno^ good, ana 
tncUOj bad, drop their final letter ; and grande becomes gran^ 
when placed before a noun beginning with a coosonant. 

Ex. Un mal hombre^ a bad man. 

Un gran seflor^ a great gentleman. 

40. Although adjectives are generally placed after the noun 
to which they relate, according to Rule 1, they may be placed 
before when they have fewer syllables than the noun. 

Orande is an exception, corresponding more particularly to 
greatj when placed before the noun, and to larger when put after 
it. It has to be replaced by altOy high, whenever a doubt might 
vise as to which of these two meanings is intended. 

Ex. Un hombre alto, a tall man. 

/ Urn V, velas f 
Do you use candles!-* 

Uses your honor candles f 

41. There is no such word as do or did, to give greatei 
Krengih to an aflbmation, in Spanish; so that these two ex 

tfitttD tJsaaon. li 

preuiionsy lua^ ani I do use^ hare but one traofllatfeii,— ZTm 
But the me of the verb to be^ joined to the piesent ptrtioipJe, te 
indicate that the action is going on, is quite frequent. 
Ex. Ustd llamando^ he is calling. 

Batd sahiendo^ he is knowing. 

EstA durmiendo^ he is sleeping 

(Tto gaSf I use gas. 
42. The plural of gas is gtues. Contraiy to Rule 5, words 
of on« syllable ending with 8 in the singular, take M in ths 


1. Of the park, 34. 11. Of the heat, 84. 

2. From the room, 34. 12. From the door, 34. / 
8. Of thQ houses, 34. 13. Of the gas, 34. 

4. From the parlors, 34. 14. From the window, 34. 

6. Of the first lesson, 34. 15. Of the black trunks, 34. 

6. Of the thick looking-glass. 16. Of the pleasant breeze, 34 

7. Of the splendid chairs. 17. Of the good sofas, 34, 40. 

8. From the lively fire. 18. From the young boys, 34, 
0. From the bedroom. 19. From the small keys, 34. 

10. From the large bureau. 20. From the handsome lampa 

21. Where is your room? — 22. In that house. — 23. Would 
you like to have a beautiful sofa and a large looking-glass ? — 
24. I prefer a good bureau,' 30, 40. — 25. Thick curtains make 
» room comfortable. — 20. I open my trunk with this key. — 
27. Patient, patience, 36. — 28. Patiently, 36. — 29. Imprudent^ 
imprudence, imprudently. — 30. Inconstant, inconstancy, incon- 
ftantlj — 31. Near the trunk, 33. — 32. Near the bureau, 83. — 
38. Near the table, 33.-34. The velvet carpet, 36.— 35. H« 
does call tlie boy, 41. — 36. I do open, 41. — 37. I do prefer, 41 
— 88. I do have, 41. — 39. We d> have, 41. 

* See n tet >n page 7 



Literal TransIaUon-T 

Leccion eiiarta. 

Lesson fourth. 

Iios VeiKliiloa. 

ITie Clothca. 

Ve*tden uii poco de lodo en todas Im 

ThBjr sell a little of every thing in all ihe 

liendas de esta ciiidad. H6 coniprado al 

Etfjrcs of this citj. I liave honght at the 

tnismo mercader, al vual compr^ mis 

snme mcrchnnl, at the which 1 hought my 

panlaloncs el ano pasado, una easaca 

pantalouns tlie jenr past, a. coat 

niieva. im ehaleco, iin sombrero y nn par 

new, a. vtst, ii Ijat, and a piiir 

de liotas ; lambieu iiu paraguas, giianteit, 

of boots; iil.w tin uiiilirellii, gloves, 

Eapatos y algupos paniielos. i Hahe V. 

ahoe^, and ennie handkerchiefs. Knows jour honor 

ruaiilo b£ pa^ado por esta rorbalaf 

bow muuh I have paid for tliis cravat) 

No ha coslado mas de Ires pesos, y pienso, 

Sot it lias cost more than three dollars, and, I think, 

qne es inny barala. jQiie hermoso veslido 

that it is very clieap. Wliat beantifnl dress 

de scda e» esle! Es mas elegante qii< 

elegant than 


Tmfats ^MD- Imur iSktt 

curual 3ri 0* jbr sob cisvicl Ii 

<fB» «£ ma J €£ Inixu&oaur Aaa. bum 
I* jeiiA«»«mrai. stiGer'ai. Silk m Aht. 



T. lift je^ 4 Im 

I predir a2k a» 



QOOft flft vOSOc 


toaibrera J tb par 



iQne ha comprado V. mast 
I^Es todot 

I Es cara 6 barata la oorbata que 

v. ba ooinpradot 
I Cnanto ha pagado V. ? 
I A que mercader ha comprado 

Y. sa oasaca nneva t 
^Donde vive este mercader t 
I Que vestido es mas elegante 

que el mio? 
iGnsta mas a Y. la lana 6 la 

I Es cara la seda ? 

Ud paraguas, gnantes, xapatos ) 

alganos pafiaeJos. 
No, seftor; h6 comprado nci 

Es may barata t 

No mas de tres pesos. 

Al mismo, al coal oompr6 ml 

En la cindad. 
Este hermoso yestido de aeda. 

La seda me g^ta maa. 

La seda es mas cara que la lana 

Sentences for Oral Translation.* 


La tienda y el mercader. 

La ciadad y la calle. 

La oasaca y el chaleco. 

Las botas y los zapatos. 

Mi sombrero y mi paraguas. 

Sua gnantes de lana. 

Uu vestido de seda. 

EI paf&uelo del nifto. 

I Que casaca barata I 

El sombrero de mi hija. 

Un paraguas y una corbata. 

Kis guantes y mi paAuelo. 

I Hay hermosas tiendas en esta 
cindad t 

61, sef&or, hay tiendas may her- 

I Que venden en aquellas tiendas? 

Yenden un poco de todo. 

Y. liene una corbata hermosa. 

H6 |>agado tres pesos. 


The store and the merchant 

The city and the street. 

The coat and the vest. 

The boots and the shoes. 

My hat and my umbrella. 

His woollen gloves. 

A silk dress. 

The boy*s handkerchief. 

What a cheap coat I 

The hat or bonnet of my daughter 

Ail umbrella and a cravat. 

My gloves and my handkerchief 

Are there any fine stores in thii 

Yes, sir, there are some verj 

fine stores. 
What do they sell m tho6e stores 
They sell a little of every thing. 
You have a fine cravat. 
1 have paid three dollars. 

* 8^ note on psge I, 


Ea bastante barato. 

I No prefiere Y. los vestidos de 

terciopelo a los de seda! 
Cuando iiace oalor prefiero los 

de seda. 
I Qae chaleoo es el mas elegante 

el mio 6 el de mi hermano ? 
El de 811 hermano es mas caro. 
I Es el vestido de su lierraana de 

lana 6 de sedat 
Es deseda.* 
Pero el raio es de ^ana. 

It is tolerab j cheap. 

Do you not prefer %elye1 oioUmm 

to silk ones t 
When the weather is warm,* 1 

prefer those of silk. 
Which vest is the more eleganl 

one, mine or that of my brotherl 
That of your brother is dearer. 
Is your sister's dress a silk or a 

woollen one? 
It is a silk one. 
Bat mine is a woollen ona. 


Los vestidos^ the clothes. 
Vestidos is used indifferently for dresses and clothes in general ; 
but its singular, vestido^ means more particularly a lady'a dress, 

-En todas las tiendas^ in all the stores. 

43. All is translated by todo, before a word masculine sin- 
gular ; by toda, before a word feminine singular ; by todos, 
before a word masculine plural ; and by todas, before a word 
leminino plural. It is almost alvrays followed by the article the^ 

Ex. Todu e» cafi, all the coffee. 

Toda la sqpa^ all the soup. 

Todos los hombreSf all men. 

Todiu leu mujei ts^ all women. 

H6 eompr^do^ I have bought 

44. Tengo would not b^ correct here. There are two woroa 
lu Spanish corresponding to the English verb to havb, — 
haber and tener; ^ut haber is used exclusively as an 
auxiliary, while tener ^ an active verb, and can be introduced 
Dnly when to have -r not followed by a participle, in which 
ease it may generall} oe replaced by to hold or to possess^ with- 
out materially affecting the meaning of the sentence. 

* See note ^, on page 7. 


CovjreATioN of tbk Auxiliary Ysrb HabeTi to bits 

Haher^ to have. 

PfetmMT Pabtioiple. Past Pabtmipia. 

Hahiendo^ haying. Habidc had. 

Pjubint Tknsi. 
To hSf I have, or do have. 

TiSt has* thou hast, or dost have. 

£1 Aoft he has, or does ha?ti 

Nosotros hemos^ we have, or do have. 
Vo9otra8 habeis* you have, or do have. 
BUo9 han^ they have, or do have. 


To habioj I had. 

Till habias^ thou hadiL 

HI habia, he had. 

Nosotras kabiamoSy we had. 

Vosoiras habiais^ yon had* 

Mlos habianf they had* 

Past TiNn Dbfiniti. 

To hube, 1 had, or did have. 

Tuhubiste^ thon hadst, or didst have^ 

Hi hubOf he had, or did have. 

Nosotras hubimos^ we had, or did have* 

Vosotros huhisteis^ you had, or did have. 

Ellos hubiiron^ they had, or did have. 

* The third person being generally used instead of the second in Spaniikk 
Jte forma of tho verb which accompany tu and vaairoi are not ao esaentiak 
SB tho rest : and it might, perhaps, even be best to leave them out entirsiy 
St the beginning. 

t The pronoun U, ke^ has ordinarily an accent over the «, to dtstingutsh H 
ftim the article el, <A#; but all accents are omitted over ospitals. 


fOUBTH LE880N. 2 A 

To Kabre^ I sLall Lave, or vill hav«b 

TH habrdSy thou slialt have, or wilt hare. 

El lutbid^ he shall have, or will have. 

Nosotros hahremos, v^e shall have, or will have. 
Vosotros habreiSj you phall have, or will have. 
Ellos habrdrij they shall have, or will have* 


To hahriuy I should have, or would have. 

Tu habriasy thou shouldst have, or wouldst have. 

El kabria, he should have, or would have. 

Nosotros habriamos^ we should have, or would have. 

Vosotros habriaviy you should have, or would have 

Ellos habrian^ they should have, or would have. 


This verb has no imperative mood, being used only as ai 

Pbessnt Temsb. 

Que yo kaya^ that I may have. 

Que tu hayas, that thou mayst have. 

Que el Iiaya, that he may have. 

Que nosotros hdyamos^ that we may have. 

Que vosotros kdyais^ that you may have. 

Que ellos hayan^ that they mi^ have. 


Que yo hubiera^ or hubiese, that I might have. 

Que tu hubieras, or hubieses, that thou mightst ha? e> 

Que el hubiera^ or kubiese^ that he might have. 

Que nosotros kubieratnos, or hubiesemos^ that we might have. 
Que vosotros hubieraiSy or hubieseis, that you might have. 
Que ellos hubieran^ cr hubiesen^ that they might have. 

* There i8 a Boa>nd I'uture : it occurs, however, bo seldom in ^rdiiuury 
90» v«rM»tion, that it has been added here chiefly for refereooe when timn» 


45. Haber enters into the composition of the eompoiUl« 
tenses of all verbs, regular and irregular. 

Ex. Hi eompradoy I have bought. 

Habia eompradoy I had bought. 

Hahri compradoj etc., I shall have bought, etc 

46. It is also joined to verbs in the infinitive, and forms witi 
them a particular idiomatic locution, expressive of duty or neee$- 
nty. It is then invariably followed by the preposition d6* 

Ex. I have to call, he de llamar, 

I have to know, he de saber. 
I have to sleep, U de dormir. 

Al mismo mercader^ 
at the same merchant 

47. When the article el, the^ is joined to the preposition a^ 
to or a/, both small words are invariably merged into al ; but 
a la, k los, k las, are never so contracted. 

48. This completes the study of the article : 

Before a word Before a word Before a word Belbre a word 
Masc. sing. Fein. ling. Maao. pini. Fern, pliir. 

Tub is translated by el la lo8 las 

Of thk or from thb, ^ del de la de los de las 
To THs, *' al & la a los a las 

Mismo^ same. 

49. Same is translated by mismo, before a word mascuhne 
•ingular; by misma, before a word feminine singular; by 
mismos, before a word masculine plural ; and by mlsmas^ 
before a word feminine plural. 

Ex. £!l mismo niflOy the same boy. 

La misma nifla^ the same girl. 

Los mismos nifloSj the same boys. 

Las mismas niMs, the same girls 

jiUog the more difficult Spanish authore. Its correct use could, moreoTat, 
M acquired only from observation and careful reading of well-written works 
yd huhiere, lu hubieres^ el huhUrt, 

iio9otf08 hubi^cmoa^ *08Ctros hftUirntf elkt kubitrm. 


No ha eo8taia^ it has not cost 
60* Hie negative no^ not^ is always placed before tlie veil 
ho which it refers. 

Mai do tm pefoa^ more than three dollars. 

61. Tbav is translated sometunes by que and sometimes 
by dOy and it is often troublesome to make a proper selection 
Cie following role will, however, remove this difficulty. Ther 
Is always a verb expressed or understood in all sentences in 
which this word is found. Que must be used whenever this 
verb can be repeated after than without materially affecting 
the meaning of the sentence ; and de, when the verb cannot 
be so repeated. 

Ex. It cost not more than three dollars, 
1^0 ha costado mas de tres pesos ; 

because we cannot say, It cost. not more than three dollars cosl» 

My dress is more elegant than yours, 
Mi vestido es mas elegante que el de V* ; 
because wo can say, My dress is more elegant than yours is. 

Mas eUgante^ more elegant. 

62. The degrees of comparison are generally formed by 
placing before the adjective one of the following words:— 
Tan, as; mas, morey most; mtoos, lessy least; muy, very; 
bastante, enough^ tolerably^ etc 

Ex. M mas jdven de los dos^ the younger of the two. 
El mas jdven de los ires^ the youngest of the three. 
Muff jdven^ very young. 
Bastants j&ven^ young enough. 

The exceptions to this rule, together with anothei form ot 
the 8uperlati\e, by addmg isimo, isixna, to the adjective, 
whicl is less freq.uently used than that indicated in Rule 52, 
will be explaiaed later. Those already seen are the following : 

Buen^ gocd. Mefor^ heller* M mejor^ or el dptimx}^ the best 
Ufaloj baa. Peor worse. M peor^ or pS. imo^ the worst. 

B3. When the adjective is one which requires to be placed 


aftei the noun, according to Rules 1, 40, the adverbs tan, ma& 
m6no8, or muy, otc^ goes over with it. 

Ex. The most intelligent man, El hombre maa inteligente. 

54. If the conjunction than follows, it has to be translated 
by que. See Rule 51. 

Ex. Less young than he, menosjdven que il, 

66. In the comparative of equality, as is translated by tan 
•lefore the adjective, and by oomo after it 

Ex. As young as he, tanjdven como 41. 

Que el mio, than mine. 

66. El mio, mine^ is the possessive pronoun corresponding 
to the possessive ac^eetive mi, my, already seen (16, 20). Its 
feminine singular is la mia ; its masculine plural, los mios ; 
and its feminine plural, las mias. 

57. In Spanish, the possessive pronouns agree, like the pos- 
sessive adjectives, in gender and number with the object pos- 
sessed, and not with the possessor. 

Ex. Eete sombrero ea el mioy this hat is mine. 

Esta Idmpara es la mia, this lamp is mine. 

Estoe sombreros son los mios, these hats are mine.. 

Estas Idmparas son las mias, these lamps are mine. 

68. The article el, which enters into the composition of 
these words, continues subject to contraction when joined to 
the preposition de or &, according to Rule 34. 

Ex. Del mio, of mine. Al mio^ to mine. 

El de mi hermana. 
59. There are two ways of expressing this in English, — thai 
ef my sister^ and my sistet^s. In Spanish there is but one,— 
that of my sister ; and all sentences of the kind have to be 
translated according to this model — using el, la, l08, laSi 
instead of aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas. 

Ex. Mi sombrero 6 el del hombre. Mis sillas 6 las de V., 
my hat, or the man's ; my chairs, or yours ; 

Utonllj, literally. 

mj hat, or thM^ of the ra^n. mj Qb^irS) or those of your honor 

fOtfiTB Lfisaoff. 


1. The city. 

2. Of the d y 47. 

8. To the c' ty, 47. 

4. To the 1 mbrellas, 47. 

6. To the ihoes, 47. 

6. Very iiapatient, 62. 

7. A verj lively boy, 62. 

8. The m>>8t handsome girl, 62. 

9. The loast handsome coat. 

10. As handsome as mine, 66. 

11. Have you your hat? 

12. I have mine, 67. 

13. The vest 

14. Of the vest) 47. 
16. To the vest, 47. 

16. To the coats, 47. 

17. To the silk, 47. 

18. Very elegant, 62. 

19. A very thick carpet, 52. 

20. The smallest merchant, 62 

21. The least agreeable store. 

22. As agreeable as mine, 66. 

23. Have you yonr gloves? 

24. I have mine, 57^ 

26. Paul is more prudent than Virginia, 61, 64. — 26. Virgima 
is less negligent than Paul, 64. — 27. All the gentlemen, 43.— 
28. All the ladies, 43.-29. All the bread, 48.— 30. All the 
cake, 43. — 31. In which store have you bought tins hat? 46. — 
82. I bought this hat in Fourth-street. — 33. I bought a pair ol 
gloves and an umbrella at the same store, 49. — 34. What do 
they sell there? — 36. They sell handkerchief. — 36. This boy 
is more imprudent than mine, 64, 66. — 37. That girl is less 
negligent than you, 64. — 38. Meat pleases me more than 
bread, 64. — 39. Crackers are as good as biscuits, 66. — 40. The 
same year, 49. — 41. The same house, 49. — 42. The same 
hats, 49.-43. The same tables, 49.-44. My table or Panics, 69. 
— 46. My gloves and my brother's, 69. — 46. My curtains oi 
the merchant's 69.--47. My coffee or yours, 69. 

* 8m notat OB pi^ 7. 


Iilteral TranElation-t 

Leccion quinla. 


La Rsciiela. 

Tlia Siihool. 
i Que tiene V. nlli 2 Teni^o al^o dc 

What has ymir honor there! 1 lia^o siimetliing — 

filll, HO len^o iiada Ko. ^Que tiene V. 

nsefnl — I iiave notliiiig ugly. What has jotir hnnor 

de <iUI ? Tengo una reg;la de niadera. 

t nsefnl I 1 liave a ruler uf woml. 

2 Adonde va V, ? A la esciiela en la ealle 

Whitiier goes your hoaort To the sdiuol i[i the street 

del Rey. ^ Tiene T. todas sua cosasf 

of the King. Has your lionor all his things t 

Si, seHorita ; leng:o mis libros y mis 

Yes, uiisa ; I have itiy books ami tiiy 

ciiadernoi^. «Huc libi>o»t son eslos ? Sou 

oopy.bxilo. What hooks are these J They am 

mis libros inj^lescs, mi graniatica y ml 

my hooka English, my grainmBr, and njy 

diccionario. i Que ejercieio es aquel 1 m 

dictionary. What exercise is lliatl My 

■ Everj new lessan should BtlU bo proccdod, ai indicated in nots * oa 
fgt 8, bj 1 full rubeirsnl of the t«xt, and tnuislation of all previoni oau, 
la oomoquDDOs af ths Hcouiuulation of ninlter, however, Biid to provenl thit 
•icrcise from engroiiBiii): too muoh tiine, tlio followijig modiBondon In th« 
moda oT re<.ieiving would be here auKj^CHted :— Tmanlste the Bret only IVon 
the BpanUh iiAo EofcUHh, the seoond only from the English into SpsDlih, 
tiid 10 CO. t Baa note i, on pii|{a a. { See Bnle CS. 



ejereicio espaftol. i Escribe V. con una 

ezeroise Spanish. Writes yonr honor with a 

plama y tint a ? Xo^ seilorif a j escribo con 

pen and ink t No, miss ; I write with 

an l&piz. iEn papel 6 en una pizarrat 

a pencil. On paper, or on a slate? 

En papel. i^ue lee Y. ahora? IjCO el 

I read the 

Your honor 




is it 

On paper. What reads jour honor now ? 

Don ^uijote de Cervantes. 

Don Quixote of Cervantes. 

encuentra dificil el Cervantes, 

finds difficult the Cervantes, 

verdad ? No le encuentro ni demasiado 

truth? * It I find neither too 

flfccil ni demasiado dificil. Tengo miedo 

easy nor too difficult. I have fear 

que Y. haga muchas fkltas. 

that your honor makes many mistakes. 

The same in good English. 

La Ebcukla. 

I Que tiene Y. alli ? Tengo algo 
de 6til, no tengo nada f(§o. | Que 
tiene Y. de util ? Tengo una regla 
de madera. | Adonde va Y. ? A 
la escnela en la calle del Key. 
I Tiene Y. todas sus cosas ? Si, 
seftorita ; tengo mis lihros y mis 
enademos. | Que lihros son estos ? 
Ck>n mi» lihros ingleses, mi gra- 
jB&tica J mi diccionario. | Que 
•jeroioio es aquel ? Mi ejereicio 
■spaiio]. lEscrihe Y. con una 
pluma y tinta? No, seHorita; 


What have you there ? I have 
something useful, I have nothing 
ugly. What have yon useful? 
I have a wooden ruler. Where 
are yon going to? I am going 
to school in King-street. Have 
you all yon want? Yes, miss; 
I have my hooks and copy- 
hooks. Which hooks are these t 
They are my English hooks, ray 
grammar and my dictionary. 
What exercise is that? My 
Spanish exercise. Do you write 

• Sm Bole 71. 



csoribo COD UQ lapis, |En papel, 
6 eh HDa pizarra? En papel. 
I Que lee Y. ahora ? Jieo el Don 
Qnijoto de Cervantes. jV. en- 
cnentra dificil el Cervantes, no 
esverdad? No le encu.entro ni 
demasiado facil ni demasiado 
dificil. Tengo miedo que V. 
haga muchas faltas. 

with pen aLd ink ? iTo, mlsa; J 
write with a pencil. On paper, 
or on a slate? On paper. What 
are you reading now? Don 
Quixote, by Cervantes, You 
find it difficult, do yon noti, 
I find it neither too easy not 
too difficult. I am afraid yoq 
make many mistakes. 

QuestionB and Answers for Conversation.* 

Que leccion es esta ? 
Tiene V. algo de f^o ? 
Tiene V. algo de iitil ? 
Que tiene V. de 4til ? 
Y que tiene V. mas ? 
Va V. a la escnela? 
En que calle es la escuela de V. ? 
Tiene V. libros ingleses ? 
Qv^e ejercicio tiene V. alii ? 
Con que escribe V. ? 
Escribe V. en una pizarra? 
Que libro lee V. 1 
Cervantes es dificil, no es ver- 

Es la quinta. 
No tengo nada feo. 
Tengo algo de util. 
Tengo una regla de madera. 
Mis libros y mis cnadernos. 
Si, seftor. 

En la calle del Bey. [nario. 

Tengo una gramdtica y nn diccio* 
Este es mi ejercicio espaflol. 
Con un lapiz. 
Escribo en papel. 
Leo el Don Quijote de Cervantes^ 
No es ni demasiado facil ni de 
masiado dificil. 

Sentences for Oral Translation.t 


£1 lapiz. 

Una escuela. 

Un ouaderno. 

El libro util. 

La regla de madera. 

todas mis oosas. 

Todas sus libros de V. 
Este ejercicio y aquel. 
La tinta y las plumas. 
I Que papel y que pizarra 


The pencil. 

A school. 

A copy-book. 

The useful book. 

The wooden mler. 

All my things. 

All your books. 
This exercise and that one. 
The ink and the pens. 
What paper and what s.ate ! 

* Bee note *, on pa^v S 

t See uc>te at the bottom of page (• 

rartB Lfis&oH. 


8a gnmatiea de V. y mi ^ocIck 

nario in^es. 
i Tiene V. on libra espailo] t 
Tecgo el I>od Qogote. 
I Es on libra dificil f 
No es ni denuisiado dificil ni 

demasUdo fidL 
Lee V> eo la escaela t 
Leoy escribo. 
4 Hay mnchos ninos en la escuela 

1^ sefiorita, hay machos nilkos y 

^ Son mas joTenes que Y. t 
8on menos jovenes que yo. 

Yonr grammar and my Eivf lial« 

Have yon a Spanish book t 
I have Don Quixote, 
Is it a difficalt book ! 
It is neither too difficult nor toe 

Do yon read at school f 
I r^ and write. 
Are there many children In yow 

school t 
Yes, misB, there are many boyi 

and girls. 
Are they yonnger than yon t 
They are older than L* 


I Que tiene VJ what have youf 
60. ^ve ha Fl would not be correct here. See Rule 44. 


or TO HOLD. 

TVitfr, to have. 
PaniMT Pabticipli. Past Pabtioiplb. 

Teniendoj haying. Tenido^ had* 


Yo tenpa^ 
Tu denes 
El tiene^ 

Nosotroi tenemos, 
Vosotroa tende^ 
JSllos tienen, 

PaatuiT TiNsa. 
I have, 
thorn hast 
he has, 
we have, 
you have, 
they have, 

or do have, 
or dost have 
or does have, 
or do have, 
or do have, 
or do have. 

* 8m £c4e t, OD page 7. 


ttFtU tfiSdOH. 

To temOf 
Tik ienias, 
El tenia^ 

Noaotros teniamas^ 
Vo8otro8 teniaU^ 
Elloi tenian^ 

I had. 
thou hadit 
he had. 
we had. 
you had* 
they had. 

To tuve^ 
Tfs tuvisU^ 
El tuvo^ 

No9otro8 tuvtmoSf 
Vo8otro8 tuvisteis, 
Ellos tuvieron^ 

Past Tbksk Definite. 

I had, or did have. 

thou hadst, or didst hafl^ 
he ha<l or did have, 
we had, or did have, 
you had, or did have, 
they had, or did have. 

To tendrS, 
Til tendrds, 
El tendrd, 
yosotros tendrimos, 
Vosotrcs tendrSiSy 
Ellos tendrdn^ 


I shall have, 
thou shalt have, 
he shall have, 
we shall have, 
you shall have, 
they shall have. 

or will have 
or wilt havew 
or will have, 
or will have, 
or will have, 
or will have. 


To ttndria^ 
Tii tendriaSj 
El tendrioj 
N'osotroa tendriamo: 
Vosotros tendriatSj 
Ellos kndrian^ 

I Ehould havo, 
thou shouldst have, 
he should have, 
we should have, 
you should have, 
they should have. 

or would have, 
or wouldst have, 
or would have 
or would have, 
or would have, 
or would have. 

^ The Moond fhtare is (see note on page 85) : 

firm ussoK. S& 


TVity have (tboo). 
Tenedf have (you). 


PbE8K<T TfiNSB. 

Que yo tmga^ that I may have. 

Que tu tengas^ that thou mayst have 

Que il tenga, that he may have. 

Que nosotros tengamos^ that we may have. 

Que vosotros iengais, that you may have. 

Que ellos tengan, that they may have. 

Que yo tuviera^ or tuviese, that I might have. 

Que til tuvieraSy or tuvieses^ that thou mightst have 

Que il tuviera^ or tuviese, that he might have. 

Que nosotros tuvieramoSy or iuviSsemoSy that we might have. 
Que vosotros tuvHrais, or tuviSseiSy that you might have. 
Que ellos tuvierauy or tuvieseriy that they might have. 

61. The compound tenses of tener, as of all other verba, 
re formed with haber. See Rule 45. 

Ex. He tenidoy I have had. 

Hahia tenidOy I had had. 

Hahri tenidOy etc., I shall have had, etc. 

Algo de atily something useful. 

62. The preposition de may be prefixed to any adjective 

* The imperative has properly but one person in the sin^Iai and plural ; 
md the ezpresBiona, Let Mm havey Let vs have^ Let them have, are supptied 
by the subjunctive present, or the verb d^ar^ to let or leave. 
Ax. Let him have, D^elt Untty oi tengay that he may have. 
Let OB have, D^ennoe Unety or tingam/oty that we may have. 
Let them have, D^mdtt Untty or tengauy that they may have 
II is, moreover, to be obeorved that the subjunctive form is idways 
of (he impeimUve in all negative sentences : 
Ex. Have (thon) not, no tengat. 

Let him not hava^ no U d^ Untry or no im^go. 
Let na not have, no not i^fon Untr ot no t$n§ om oe » 
Have (> on) not, no tongaU, 
Inl HiMinol nave, no Im dffm lonor^ or no iengtm 

t6 flFTti L£:dSOK. 

which follows algo, Bomeihing; nada, nothing; or que, vrhat 
but tliis addition is not absolutely necessary. Alffo Util woai<3 
^ as correct. 

IJn la calle del Rey^ in King-street. 

63. The plural of rey is reyes. Words ending with y ia 
he singular, form their plural by the addition of es. 

£8tos, these or those. 

64. Esios is the plural of este, esta, this or tkat^ alread ' 

seen (2). Its feminine is estas. Used in turn as a demoi 

strative adjective and as a pronoun, it invariably agrees i 

gender and number with the object pointed out 


Mis lihros ingl^ses^ my English books. 

65. The singular of inyleses is ingles. Names of natiot: 
ending with es take es in the plural. 

^ Que ejercicio es aquelf what exercise is that! 

66. Like este, this; aquel, that^ already seen in No. 14 
is used in turn as an adjective and as a pronoun. Its feminine 
singular is aquella; its masculine plural, aquellos, thoiie, 
and its plural feminine, aquellas, those. See also Rule 64. 

£x. Este lihro 6 aquel, this or that book. 

JSstos libros 6 aquellos^ these or those books. 

Un Idpiz, a pencil. 

67. The plural of Idpiz is Idpices, Words ending with z in 
the singular, change z into ces in the plural. 

68. This completes the rules for the formation of the plurai 
of nouns and adjectives. Most nouns take an 8 in the plural. 

Those ending with an s in the singular do not change in the 
plural, except monosyllables, and the names of nations, which, 
like those ending with y,^take 68 Words end:ng with a 
change z into ces. 

En papel 6 en una pizarra^ 
on paper, or on a slate. 

69. Sobre papel 6 sobre una pizarra would not be correct 
The preposition en is often used, instead of sobre, for ok or 
vroN, ai in the above examples; but this substitution is re 


quired only when the sense of the sentence e!eariy shcwe inc 
particalar meaning intended. 

^No es verdad? 

do you not! 


is it not the tinith t 

70. The interrogative form annexed to a proposition in order 
to know whether it is assented to, varies in English according 
to the tense and person of the verb, and may be expressed in as 
many ways as there are different signs or auxiliary verbs. In 
Spanish, this form is invariably ^ No es verdad ? or ^no es asif 
18 it not so f thus : 

g V. vendra^ no es verdad^ you will come, will you not! 
/ V. no vendra^ no es verdad f you will not come, will you f 
jEl hahlo bier^ no es verdad ? he spoke well, did ne not t 

No U eneuentro ni demasiado fdcil ni demasiado diftcil^ 
I find it neither too easy nor too difficult. 

71. Ni corresponds to neither or nor. When placed after 
the verb, that verb must be preceded by the negative no ; but 
ni may be used by itself when put before, or if there is no verb 
in the phrase. This sentence would therefore be equally weU 
expressed thus : 

Ni demasiado fdcil ni demasiado difUil le eneuentro. 
This observation applies also to nada^ nothing; ninguno oi 
madiSi nobody ; and nunca^ never. 

Ex. Nada veo, or no veo nada, I see nothing. 
Ninguno veo^ or no veo ninguno I see nobody, 
ivtfnca wo, or no veo nunca^ I never see. 

Tengo miedo, 
I am afraid ; 


I have fear. 

72. The verb to have is used instead of to be, in the follow 
ing idiomatic expressions : 

Tener calor, to be warm. Tener sueflOj to be sleepy. 
Tmtr/rio^ to be cold, Tener miedo^ to be a&axL 


Temr hamhe^ to be hungry. Tener vergueiizo to l>e ashamedi 
Tener aed^ to be thirsty. Tener razon, to be right. 

73. There is no exact equivalent to the exprebsion, to bi 
WRONG, in Spanish, and the negative form of to bb right, hat 
lo be used instead, thus : iiteniiT 

am wrong, No tengo razon^ I am not right 

Am I right or wrong ? Tengo yo razon 6 no^ Am I right or not f 


1. The rulers, 68. 15. The dollars, 68. 

2. The gases, 67. 16. The English kings, 68. 
8. The kings, 63. 17. The pencils, 67. 

4. These books, 64. 18. These copy-books, 64. 

5. Those mistakes, 64. 19. These things, 64. 

6. These or those grammars. 20. These or those dictionaries. 

7. Neither too small nor too 21. Neither too handsome nor 

large, 71. too ugly, 71. 

8. Something easy, 62. 22. Nothing difficult, 62. 

9. I am afraid, 72. 23. I am not afraid, 72. 

10. He is afraid, 72. 24. He is not afraid, 72. 

11. We are afraid, 72. 26. We are not afraid, 72. 

12. You are afraid, 72. 26. You are not afraid, 72. 
18. -They are afraid, 72. 27. They are not afraid, 72 
14. You are afraid, are you not! 28. You are not afraid, are y af 

29. The useful book. — 30. The ugly copy-book. — 31. A wooc ^n 
luler. — 32. This school and that one, 66. — 33. The king has 
bought many houses in this city, 61. — 34. How much have you 
(aid for this dictionary? 61. — 35. I have paid three dollars, 61. 
•^86. How many books have you given to your brother? 61. — 
87. What books are these? 64. — 38. My Don Quixote and my 
dictionary. — 39. Don Quixote pleases me very much. — 40. 11« 
is afraid, is he not? 70. — 41. Are you hungry or thirsty I - 
42. I am neither hungry nor thirsty, but I am sleepy, 72. 

* See notoB on page 7. 



Iiercion sexta. 


LessoD aixth. 


El Comercio. 


The Commerce. 

IV. einpeztf de 


N. began from 


ti qiitnqiiillerias, 

ft saber: 

El Seftor 

The Mr. 

IraOcnnilo c 

dealing in Binall wares, to wit; 

hilo, al^odon, alfilercs, a^iijas, dedales y 

threa<1, cotton, pins, needle?, tliiuibles, nnJ 

lijera§. Pocoft pot-oaiimeiild sn existencia 

Bcissont. Little by little lie augmented liia stock 

con nn siirlido de pernimerias, articulos 

with an aaaiirtment of perfumeries, articles 

de escribania y olras co«as mas venlajosas ; 

of writing, and other things more protitftble; 
y eomo sicmpre fii£ niiiy ciimplido en 

tnd aa alwaya he was very prompt in 

pa^ar sus pa^ar^s vencidoB, los comercian* 

to pay his notea dne, the ir.erchants 

IcB por mayor le daban mcrcancias k 

wholesale him gave good:) ol 

cr^dilo. Ahora £1 cs uiio de los ciudadanos 

credit. Now ho is on a of tlie citizens 

i respetables de niiextra plaza. Tiene 

respecti ble of our pUce. Ha bu 


itXTH LBwoa. 

niucho dinero y uisa carrqagc. i Tieiit 

much money, and uses carriage. Has 

V« mi euenta con«isof {A cuanfo 

jour honor my account with him? 

monta ? No puedo pasai 

does it amount? Not lean pay 

pcro dar£ & T. also 

To how much 

el todo hoy 

the whole to-day 

& ciienta. 

but I will give to your honor something on account. 

The same in good isngaalL 

El Comkroio. 

£1 Selior N. empez6 de buho- 
Bero traficando en quinquillerias, 
i saber : hilo, algodon, alfileres, 
agnjas, dedales y tijeras. Poco 
a podo aumento su existencia 
con un surtido de perfumerias, 
articulos de escribania y otras 
cosas mas ventajosas; y como 
siempre fu6 mny cumplido en 
pagar sus pagar^ vencidoa, los 
comerciantes por mayor le daban 
mercancias a credito. Ahora 61 
es uno de los ciudadanos mas res- 
petables de nuestra plaza. Tiene 
mucho dinero y usa carruage. 
I Tiene V. mi cueuta consigo? 
I A cuanto monta? No puedo 
pagar el todo hoy, pero dare a 
y. algo & euenta. 


Mr. N. began as a pedler, deal 
ing in small wares; such as 
thread, cotton, pins, needles, 
thimbles, and scissors. He added 
by degrees to his stock, an as- 
sortment of perfumery, station- 
ery, and other more profitable 
things; and as he was always 
very prompt in meeting his pay- 
ments when due, wholesale deal- 
ers readily trusted him with 
goods on credit. He is now 
possessed of a large fortune, and 
keeps his carriage. Have you 
my bill with you ? How much 
does it amount to? I cannot 
pay it all to-day, but I will give 
you something on account. 

QaestionB and Answers for Conversation.* 

iQnelecciones estaf 

4 Como ompez6 el Senor N. f 

4 Traficando en que f 

£s la sexta. 

Empezo de buhonero. 

En quinquiileriaa. 

* 8m noU *• on pi^ 8. 



I Qae clasM de qninqaillerias ? 

t Oon que aameDt6 sn ecsistenoia? 
I Con que mas ? 

I Fu6 mny camplido en pagar sns 

pagar^ ? 
Qae le daban los conieroiantos 

por mayor ? 
I Que es el ahora ? 

I Que tiene 611 

I Que usa 61 f 

I Que tiene V . oonsigo ? 

I Puede y . pagarla hoy ? 

i P*iede Y. darme algo f 

ffilo, algodon, alfileret, agi\jaa 

dedales y tijeras. 
Oon nn surtido de perftimeriaa. 
Oon artioalos de escribania y 

otras co8a8 mas ventijosas. 
Siempre fak may cumplido eo 

pagar sua pagar6s yencidos. 
Le daban mercancias & or^dito. 

£s uno de los ciadadanos mai 

respetables de nuestra plasa. 
El tiene macho dinera 
Un oarruage. 
La cuenta de Y. 
No puedo pagar el todo hoji 
Dar6 a Y. algo & onenta. 

Sentences ft>r Oral Tranalation.^ 


£1 buhonero. 

Nuestro hilo. 

Sn algodon. 

Tin alfiler. 

Una aguja. 

I Que mercancias t 

La plaza. 

El dinero. 

Mi carmage. 

Su cuenta. 
Los articulos de escribania. 
£1 pagare Tencido. 
El comerciante por mayor. 
El ciudadano respetable. 
Este dedal y aquellas tijeras. 
Mi ecsistencia y su surtido de Y. 
Las otras cosas ventajosas. 
I Que son quinquiilerias ? 


The pedler. 

Our thread. 

His cotton. 

A pin. 

A needle. 

Which goods f 

The place. 

The money. 

My carriage. 

His bill. 

The stationery. 

The note due. 
The wholesale merchant 
The respectable citizen. 
This thimble and those scissom 
My stock and your assortment. 
The other profitable things. 
What are small wares f 

* 8^ not« Bt the bottom of pBg« S. 



Hilo, aigodoD, alfileres, agi^as y 

otras cosas de esta clase. 
I S#n estas cosas ventijosas ? 
Bon may ventajosas. 
'Es 61 cumplido en pagar sua 

pagares ? 
£1 68 may oumplido. 
I Que daba el comeroiante al 

Seftor N. t 
El le daba mcrcancias a cr^dito. 
|IJsa V. lapices ingleses 6 es- 

panoies ? 
Uso siempre lapices ingleses. 

Thread, cotton, pins, needloAi and 

other things of that sort. 
Are these things pre fitablet 
They are very profitable. 
Is he prompt in paying hii 

He is very prompt. 
What did the merchant giw 

Mr. N. f 
He gave him goods />n crecUt. 
Do yon use English pencils ci 

Spanish ones? 
I always use English pencils. 


El Seflor N., Mr. N. 

74. We have already observed that the, a or an, and somS| 
are sometimes introduced and sometimes left out in Spanish, 
contrary to English usage. The rules which govern these words 
in this respect will be explained as they occur in the text 

75. Titles are preceded by the article the in emphatic or 
ecremonious language. 

N. is an abbreviation, which stands for fulanOj meaning 

meh a ofie. 

De buhonero, as a pedler. 

76. Before names of nations, and those of trades and pro- 
feiaions, the article a or an is omitted, unless followed bf f 
*elative pronoun, or if the noun is qualified by an adjective. 

Ex. lie is a pedler, es huhonero. 
He is a pedler who sells cheap, 
Es uij huhonero que vende barato, 

Fuiy he was. 

77. F^^ is the past tense definite of ser, to be, Thr co^ 
lesponding form of estftr would not b^ correct 1^X9 9^ 


GnvfueATioN or thb Auxiliary Vbrb Ser, to n. 


Ser, to be. ^ 


SiendOf being. Sido, been. 



Prebknt Tbnsb. 

To soy. 


Tu erea, 

thoa art 

El es. 

he 18. 



we are. 

Vosotros . 


you are. 

Mlos son 


they are. 


To erOf 

I was, 

or used 

to be. 

Tu eraSf 

thou wast, or usedst to b^ 

El era. 

he was, 

or used 

to DO. 

Nosotros Sram4)H, 

we were 

1, or used to be. 

Vosotros irais, 

you were, or used to be. 

Eliot eran, 

they were, or used to be. 

Past Tbnbk Dxfinitk. 

To fui, 

I was. 

Tu fuiste, 

thou wast. 

El fuS, 

he was. 

Nosotros faimoSy 

we were. 


Vosotros fuisteis, 

you were. 

Ellos fuiron, 

they wpre. 


To serS, 

I shall be, or 

will be. 

Tu serds. 

thou shalt be, or 

wilt be. 

El terd, 

he shall be, or 

will be. 

Nosotros serSmos, we shall be, or 

will be. 

Vosotros seriis, 

you shall be, or 

will be. 

Elloa serdn. 


shall be, or 

will be. 

* Tlie seoond i if uyo is (see note on page 25) : 



To seriOf I should be, or would be. 

Tu serias^ thou sbouldst be, or would?! ba 

El ieria^ he should be, or would be* 

Nosotros tenamoSj we should be, or would be. 

Vo8otro8 seriais you should be, or would be. 

lUha terianf they should be, or would be. 

Se^ be (thou). 
Sed^ be (you). 

Pbukmt Tbnob. 
Qu$ yo sea^ that I may be. 

Que tUt seoB^ that thou mayst be. 

Que il seoj that he may be. 

Que nasotroe seamos^ that we may be. 
Que vosotroe eeaie^ that you may be. 
Que ellos eean^ that they may be. 

Subjunoute Past. 
Que yo fuera^ or futee^ that I might be. 

Qut iii fueras^ or fuesee^ that thou mightst be. 

Que il fuera^ or fuesey that he might be. 

Que nosotros fuiramosj or fuisemoe, that we might be. 
Que vosotros fuirais^ or fukme^ that you might be. 
Qu€ ellos /ueran^ or fueeeuj that they might be. 

En payavj in paying. 
78. All prepositions must be followed by the infinitive is 

Ex. Sin examinavj without examining. 

Antes de beber, befoie drinldng. 

Despues de haber comidoj after having eaten. 

Sus pagaris, his notes. 
Pagari is derived from the future tense of pagar^ to pay, 
and means literally, / shall pay. It never corresponds to tlie 
English word pay menu 

Stts pajKiris vencidos^ his notes dae, 
T9. The past participle, when used by itself^ or with the 
auxiliary to be, agrees, like the adjective, in gender and numbet 
witk the noun to which it relates ; but when joined to the verb 
TO HATB, it is generally invariable. 

Ex. Laa mercancias son eompradas, the goods are bought. 
i?# comprado las mercancias^ I have bought the gooda^ 

For mayor^ wholesale. 
Ihe contrary of this idiomatic expression i^pw menar^ letaiL 

A cridito^ on credit 
The contrary of & cridiio is al contado^ for caah. 

ITno, one. 

80. One is translated by uno for the masculine, and by 
una for the feminine. The numeral uno^ una^ one, should not 
be confounded with the indefinite article un, una^ ▲ or ak« 
nlready seen. 

Bespetables, respectable. 

81. Most words ending with able are alike, or nearly so, in 
both languages; as, Admirable^ admirable; capable^ capable; 
tstimahle^ estimable ; pasable^ passable ; razonahle^ reasonable, etc. 


82. Nuestra is the feminine of nuestro, which means 
our an. jurs^ being used in turn as an adjective and as a pro- 
noun. Its plural masculine is nuestros, and its feminine 
plural nuestras. See Rule 57. Vuestro, vuestra, 
vuestros, yuestras, tour, tours, is subject to the samt 

nles as nuestro. 

CimsiffOf with him. 

83. Migo, tigo, sigo, are used instead of me, te, 86, ii 
fhe compound expressions, oonmigo, with me; oontigo^ 
WITH THEE ; and oonsigo, with him, or with her. But no 
contraction takes place with con nosotros, con vosotro% 

oon Y^ oon Vs., oon ellosi and oon eUas. 


A cuenta^ on account. 
Oueniaj like its equiyalent in English, corresponds in tan 
to bill and account. 






Mr. Paul, 15. 


MiflA Virginia, 76. 


Our money, 82. 


Our needles, 82. 


Our scissors, 82. 


Our cotton, 82. 


Our pins, 82. 


Our goods, 82. 


Our thimbles, 82. 


Our assortment, 82. 


He is a citizen, 76. 


He is a merchant, 76. 


In knowing, 78. 


In selling, 78. 


In order to pay, 38. 


In order to have, 38. 


This room is furnished, 79. 


These things are bought, 79. 


These bills are paid. 



This thread is cut, 79. 


The money has been 



The articles are here. 


He is estimable, 81. 


She was reasonable, 81. 


She will be free. 


He would be the first 


It is Miss A — , 75. 

• 28. 

She is Mrs. B—, 75. 

29. Much money. — 30. The whole amount. — 81. Is he a 
pedler, or a wholesale dealer ? 76. — 32. He is a pedler, 76. — 
33. He is neither a pedler nor a wholesale dealer, 76. — 34. He 
is a merchant, 76. — 35. What have you bought in the store of 
•Mr. C. f 7.6, 79. — 36. 1 have bought there needles and thread, 79. 
— 3*7. Are you hungry or thirsty? — 38. I am neither warm 
nor cold, 72. — 39. I am afraid, 72. — 40. Are you cold or 
warm? 72. — 41. I am cold; I am not warm. — 42. Are vou 
aahamed? — 43. I am neither ashamed nor afraid, but I am 
warm.— 44. With mc, 83.-45. With you, 83. 

* Sm notes on dim 7. 



Literal TraHBlatloiLt 

Leccioii s^ptiina. 

T^Mson Beventli, 

El Ticinpo y los IViliiieros. 

The time and the nninbers. 

^A^uekora se Icvanta V., y coiiio 

At what hour himself does get up yonr honor, and how 

pasa V. el dia ? Ifle leranto teiiiprano 

passes your honor the day? Myself I get up early 

por la inaftana A lam siete y media. 

in the morning nt the seven and half. 

Aliniicrzo A las ocho 6 & ■»»< oclio y diez 

I breakfast at tlie oiglit nv at tlie eight and ten 

■ninutos, y me voy a mi escritorio, adonde 

iiilnutea, and my?elf I go to my office, wliither 

lle^o seneralmenle A las Dueve, y las boras 

I arrive generally at tlie nine; and the hours 

intnediatamente si^iiienles las ocupo en 

immediately following tlieni I occupy iu 

lo8 ne^ocios. Toino mi comida A las doce. 

I take my 


Deapiies monto a caballo por una hora 

Afterwards I mount ou horse for one hour 

6 dos y paso la noche en ciialquicr lii^ai 

or two, and 1 pass the night in 

de diversion hasta las once m^nos cuarto; 

till the eleven leas qoarter ; 


SlCVENTfi tliSSoN. 

enttfnces ine aciiesto, pues muy rara» 

then myself I lay down, for very rare 

Teees estoy despierto hasta media uoehe. 

times I am awake till middle night. 

I^ue dia del lues tenemos? El cinco 

What day of the month have we? The five. 

I^ue dia fli£ ayerf Ayer t\a6 el 

What day was yesterday? Yesterday was the 

cuatro. Iflaiiana nerk el seis. i ^ue hora 

four. To-morrow will be the six. What hour 

est No lo 8^, mi reloj estii roto. 

b Ht Not it r know, my watch is broken^ 

Treee. Catoree. ^uinee.. 

Thirteen. Foarteen. Fifteen. 

The same in good EngUsh. 

El Tumpo t LOS NtriiBROs. 

I A que hora se levanta V., y 
eomo pasa Y. el dia? Me levanto 
temprano per la manana a las 
^te y media. Almuerzo 4 las 
ooho 6 4 las ooho y diez minutos 
J me Toy & mi escritorio, adonde 
Ilego generalmente a las nueve, y 
las boras inmediatamente siguien- 
tes las ocupo en los negocios. 
Tomo mi comida a las doce. 
Despues monto i caballo por una 
hora 6 dos y paso la noche en 
onalquierlngar de diversion hasta 
las once m6no8 cuarto ; ent6nces 
me acnesto, pues muy raras veces 
estoy despierto hasta media 
Doohe. I Que dia del mes tene- 
miw/ El cinco, i Que dia fu6 

Tims and Numbsus. 

At what time do you get up, 
and how do you spend the day ? 
I rise early in the morning, at 
half-past seven o^clock, break- 
fast at eight or ten minutes past 
eight, and walk down to my office, 
where I arrive generally at nine. 
My morning hours are devoted to 
business, and I take my dinner at 
twelve; after which I ride on 
horseback for an hour or two, and 
spend my evenings at some place 
of amusement until a quarter 
to eleven o'clock, when I go to 
bed. I seldom stay up until mid- 
night. What day of the month 
is it? It is the f\fth. What day 
was it yesterday ? Yesterday waf 

iliVJUHU XJBBsoir. 


ayer f Ayer f u^ el ouatro. Ma- 
fiana 8er4 el seis. ^ Que hora es t 
No lo 8^, mi reloje e8t& roto. 
Treoe. Catoroe. Qnince. 

the fonrth, and to>nidrrow wiB 
bethesixih. WUto^dooklsit* 
I don*t know; my watoh is broken 
Thirteeni fbnrteen, fifteen. - 

Qaeattons and Anawon ftv CcmvcnMitloik^ 

Qae leooion ea esta f 
Se leranta Y. tempranof 

I A que hora f 
A que hora sinren & Y. el al- 

muerzd I 
I Donde ya Y. despQeef 
I Que lao9 Y. en las horaa inme* 

diatamente signientes f 
I A que hora sirven 4 Y. la co- 

I Que haoe Y. despnes f 
I For cnanto tiempo! 
I Donde pasa Y. la noohe f 
; Hiffta que hora ? 
I Que hace Y. entonoes ? 
i Tonemos hoy el cuatro ? 
I Que dia fu6 ayer ? 
I Que dia seri niatlana ? 
I Que hora es ? 
I Ssti roto su re^oj de Y. ? 

Es la B^ptima. 

Me leranto temprano por la 

A laa (riete y media. 

A laa odho 6 & las ooho y dies 

Me Toy i mi eeoriUurio. 
Las oonpo en los negodoa. 


Monto & oaballa 

Por una hora 6 dos. 

En cnalqnier Ingar de dlTersioOi 

Hasta las once m^nos ouarto. 

Entonces me acuesto. 

No, seflor, tenemos el cmoo. 

El cuatro. 

Sera el seis. 

No lo s6. 

Si, seiior. 

Etontenoea for Oral TranalatioiLt 


lia hora. 

I Es la una ? 

Es la una y cinoo minutos. 

Es la una menos diez mmutos. 

Es la nna y ouarto. 

Es la ana y media. 


The hour. 

Is it one o'clock ? 

It is five minutes past one 

It is ten minutes to one. 

It is a quarter-past one. 

It is half-past one. 

* iee aeu *, fs ptge %, 

t See noU osL^gif^^^ 


duvtiNTH ttssdon. 

Son Iab do8 mftnos cuai to. 

Son las treSk 

Son las «natro. 

Son Ibb dnoo. 

Son las seis. 

Son las siete. 

Son las oohc. 

Son las nnere. 

Son las diez. 

Son las once. 

Son las doce. 

£1 din del mes. 

Es el primero. 

Tenemos el doe. 

Es el treoe. 

Tenemos el catoroe. 

Es el qnince. 

La maikana temprana. 

Raras yeces. 

Algunas Teoe^. 

Un lugar de diversion. 

Hoy y maiiana. 
I Habia muchas sei&oras y ti.uchos 

sefiores en su tienda ayer? 
fiabia catoroe seftoras y nueve 

I Estari Y. conmigo ? 
Estar6 con V. por algunas lioras. 
1 Donde ha estado V . ayer ? 
He estado en la oasa de ml ber- 


It is a quarter to 

It is three o'cKick. 

It is four o^clock. 

It is five o'clock. 

'It is six oVlock. 

It is seven o'clock. 

It i^ eight o'clock 

It is nine o'clock. 

It is ten o'clock. 

It rk eleven o'dcck. 

It is twelve o'clock. 

The day of the mjni.. 

It is the first. 

We have the second. 

It is the thirteenth. 

We have the fourte6i;«L 

It is the fifteenth. 

The iearly morning. 



A place of amusement 

To-day and to-morrow. 
Were there many ladies and gjB 

tlemen in your store yesterday 1 
There were fourteen ladies and 

nine gentlemen. 
Will yon stay with me ? 
I will stay a few hours with yoo. 
Where were you yesterday f 
I was at my brother's. 


A que hora f A las siete y cuartOy 

at what o'clock f ^t a quarter past 1 o'clock ; 

Utonlly, litendly, 

at what hour f at the seven and a quarter. 

84. The distinction made in English between hour and o'c'ndl 
ba.: no equivalent in Spanish : the word hora being used in 
dififerently to express an interval of sixty minutes, and to aak 

what o'clock it is. Id the answers to this question, /lowevei, 
the o'clock disappears entirely, and the numbers indicating the 
exact hour of the day or night have to be preceded by the 
article ths, translated by la before una, and by las before all 
the others. In stating the time between any two hours, the 
one nearest to the small hand should always be named first, and 
Ae words and or less be placed after it, thus : It is 3 o'clock 
and 5 minutes. It is 3 o'clock and 10 minutes. It is 8 o'clock 
ADC a quarter. It is 3 o'clock and 20 minutes. It is 3 o'clock 
and A halt It b 4 o'clock, less 25 minutes. It is 4 o'clock, less 
20 minutes. It is 4 o'clock, less a quarter. It is 4 o'clock, less 
10 minutes, etc. Cuarto^ quarter, is a noun, and media^ half^ is 
an adjectiye ; but media never changes in speaking of the time, 
because it invariably agrees with hora, hour, understood. 

m dia, the day. 
Dioj day, is masculine, and noche and vez are feminine, by 
exception. Noche, properly nighty i& used indifferently for 
night and evening in Spanish. Vez, time^ should not be con- 
founded with tiempo, timcy which invariably implies duration. 
Vez refers rather to repetition. 

Bx. / Cuanto tiempo ha estado V. aqui? 
how long time have you been here f 
/ Ouantas veces ha estado V, aqui ? 
how many times have you been here I 

Por la maflanay in the morning. 
£n la mafiana would not be incorrect, but 2X>r la niaftana n 
the more customary expression. The same observation will 
apply to por la tarde^ in the afternoon, and to por la noche, in the 
•TemQg. Maflana, used without an article, means to-morrow. 

Ijas ocupo^ 1 occupy them. 

95s Xias is here in the feminine, because it stands for the 
word horas, hours, which is of that gender. 

Thbv is always translated by los for the masculine, and by 
las for the feminine. But to thbm, or thbm used for to tiibii, 
is trans} \ted by les for either gendei Thbm is used for to tjibii 

0S SfiVEJNfH Ll£SdOir. 

b ca»A8 like the ibllowing : Give them some money ; whicl 
means literallv, Gire some money to them, Da les algun diners 

86. The literal meaning of this word is, whobvbr, whatevbb, 
or ANY OKB. A compound of cual and quier, it agrees in 
gender and number with the noun to which it refers. Its femi- 
nine singular is oualquiera ; its masculine plural, ouales- 
quier ; and its feminine plural, cualesquiera. 

Diversion^ amusement, diversion. 
87* Over two thousand words ending with ion are alike, or 
nearly so, in both languages ; as, opinion^ opinion ; union^ union : 
aversion^ aversion ; leccion^ lesson ; nacionj natiop ; aooion^ action. 
The t in the termination tion is always changed into a o. 

Pues^ for. 
88. For, when it can be replaced by because^ is a conjunction, 
and has to be translated by pues. 

^stoy despierto, I am awake. 
Soy despierto would not be correct, because a person couid 
not be expected to remain always awake. See Rule 20. 

CovjueATioH OF Estar, thb sbcomd vBae To B& 

Estar^ to be. 

?aiBnT Partioiplb. Past pABnoma 

JSttando^ being. JSstado^ been* 




To istoy^ 


Til esta8, 

thou art 

El esti, 

he is. 

Nosotros estamos, 

we are. 

Vosotros estaiSy 

you are. 

Ellos estdn^ 

they ara 


Tc eitabaf I was, or iisei to js. 

Tu eatabaSy thou wast, or usedit to b* 

Bi estaba^ he was or used to be. 

I^o9oiros estdbamoSj we were, or used tp be. 

Va9otro8 estdbais^ you wen^ or used to be. 

EUos estaban^ they were, or used to be. 

Past Tinu Dvuiin. 

Yo eatuve^ 

I was. 

Til eatuviste^ 

thou wast 

El estuvOf 

he was. 

Nosotras eatuvimos^ 

we were. 

Vosotros eatuvUteis^ 

you were 

EUos utuviinm^ 

they were. 


To eaiarij I shall be, or will be» 

Tit eatards^ thou shaH be, or wilt be. 

El estard, he shall be, or will be. 

Nasotros estarimosy we shall be, or will be. 

Voaotros eatarSis, you shall be, or ¥rill be. 

Ellos estardn^ they shall be, or will be. 


To estariaj I should be, or would be. 

Til estarias thou shouldst be, or wouldst bob 

El estaria, he should be, or would be. 

No90tro8 estariamos^ we should be, or would be. 

Vosotros estariais, you should be, or would be. 

Ellos estarian^ they should be, or would be. 


Estdy be (thou). 
Estady be (you). 

* The teoond ftiture is (see uoid on page 25) : 

To M^ttTMTf, tu utwierHj H tttuvitrt^ 



Presknt Tknsb. 
Que yo uU^ that I may be. 

Que tH €9t€8^ that thon maytt ba 

Que 41 esU^ that he may be. 

Que no8otro8 estemos^ that we may be. 
Que vosotros esteie^ that you may be. 
Que elloe esten^ that they may be. 

SuBJUNonvB Past. 

Que yo eetuviera^ or estuviese, that I might be. 

Que tu estuvieraSf or estuvieses, that thou mightst be 

Que 41 estuvterOj or estuviese^ that he might be. 

Que nosotros estuviSramos^ or estuviSeemos, that we might be. 
Que voeotros esiuvUrais, or estuviSseiSj that you might be. 
Que ellos eetuvieran^ or eetuviesen^ that they might be. 

El cinco^ the fifth ; literally, the five. 

89. In speaking of the days of the month, the cardina 
numbers must be used instead of the ordinal, except for tht 
first, which is invariably el primero. 

No lo s4^* 
I don't know; 


I don*t know it 

90. It is introduced here, because all transitive rorbs require 
a direct regimen in Spanish. 

91. Few words demand more attention than this small one. 
Translated in turn by 61, ella, ello, le, la, lo, it has some* 
limes to be added and sometimes to be suppressed, contrary to 
English usage. 

92. In impersonal verbs, and before the verb to be, it is 
■lost often left out. — Ex. Llueve^ it rains ; es il, it is he. 

93. But owing to the absence of the neuter gender in Spanish, 
inanimate objects are always spoken of either in the masculine 

• S4, bnaWj has an accent over the «, to distingnish it from at, kimtel/ 
^tr»e^fy i^*^i tk€m$tl»0j wliioU will be seen later. 


01 in the feminine, and it has therefore to bo rendeted in tarn 
by 6L, he ; ella, she ; le, Attn ; and la, her. 

94. The best plan to be pursued in this respect is to replace 
at once the word it by he, she, him, or her, according to the 
gender of the Spanish noun referred to, and to translate U 
regularly as a personal pronoun. 

Ex. iDonde estd mi lihro? EJistA a//(, Le reo, 

where is my book t it is there ; I see it ; 

where is my book 9 he is there. I see him 

/ Donde estd mi gramdtica f Mia estd alli^ La veo^ 
where is my grammar f it is there ; I see it ; 

where is my grammar f she is there. I see her. 

96. It would be, perhaps, better to say simply estd alli^ in 
stead of il esta alii and ella estd nlli^ according to Rule 13, 
which recommends the suppression of the subject pronouns 
/, thouj hey she^ it, we^ you, they, but the reverse is not incorrect 
As a further and natural consequence of this rule, the equiva- 
lents of IT in the nominative case — ^that is to say, when used 
as KB or SHE — are comparatively seldom required ; but too 
much care could not be bestowed upon rr ih the direct objective 
case, which must be rendered by le when it has to be replaced 
by HIM, and by la when it has to be replaced by hkr, according 
to Rules 03, 94. 

96. When rr refers to an adjective, a verb, or a whole sen- 
tence, rather than to any noun in particular, it has to be trans* 
Uted by ello (seldom expressed, see Rule 13) for the nomi* 
native case, and by lo for the objective. 

Ex. No lo si, I don't know it 

Lo creo, 1 think it, or I think so. 

97. The lattet example shows, in addition, that so is often 
replaced by it ; and that creer, to believe, may be used instead 
of pensar, tc think, in sentences like the following : 

g Cree V, que lloverd f Do you think it will rain f 
Ifo lo creOf I think not 





1. It is fire minntes past four 

o'clock, 84. 

2. It is ten minutes past five 

o'clock, 84. 
9. It is a quarter past six 

o'clock, 84. 
4. It is a quarter to seven 

o'clock, 84. 
6. It is ten minutes to eight 

o'clock, 84. 

6. It is five minutes to nine 

o'clock, 84. 

7. It is a few minutes past ten 

o'clock, 84. 

8. Is it not half-paikt elevei 

o'clock! 84. 

9. Is it five minutes, past 

twelve o'clock! 84. 

10. Is it ten minutes past one 

o'clock? 84. 

11. Is it a quarter-past two 

o'clock! 84. 

12. Is it a quarter-past three 

o'clock! 84. 
18. Is it ten minutes to font 

o'clock! 84« 
14. Is it five minutes to five 

o'clock! 84. 

15. What day of the month is it ! — 16. Have we not the 
11th ? 89.— 17. It is the 7th, 89.— 18. Is it not the 9th ! 89.— 
19. It is the 8tb, 89.— 20. We have the 12th, have we not? 89. 
—21. It is the first, is it? 89.-22. What day of the month will 
it be to-morrow ?— 23. It will be the 2d, 89.-24. Have you 
my watch ? I have it, 94. — 25. Have you your horse ? I have 
it, 94. — 26. Have you your pen ? I have it, 94. — 27. Have you 
my things ? I have them, 85.-28. Have you your gloves ? I 
have them, 85. — 29. Have you your scissors ? I have them, 85. 
— 30. Have you my ink? I have it, 94. — 31. Have you my 
exercises? I have them, 85. — 32. Do you rise early in the 
morning ! I rise at six o'clock, 84. — 33. How many times have 
yon been in the park ! I have been there several times. — 34, Do 
you know what time it is ! I don't know, 90. — 35. How do yoo 
wpend your evening! I spend it in reading. — 36. And youi 
mornings ! I spend them in the house, 85. — 37. Do you think 
this lesson difficult ! 97.-38. I think it is useful, 97, 

^ B«e notes on page 7. 



Iiltoral naiialatioii.t 

Leccion octava. 

Iiesson eighth, 

Los Aniniales, 

The Aniiuala, 

V. que ha cstiidinilo la lii§toria 

Toar honor wlio bus etudied tha hi^tury 

natural, di^anic V., {ciiales son los 

natural, ttll me your honor, wliioh are tha 

prlncipalrs aiiimnles doni£gticos f 8on 

priDui|)al Qairnals doniefitic. They ar* 

el caballo, la miila, el buey, In vaca, el 

the horse, the mule, the oz, the cow, tha 

carncro, el cerdo, el perro y el gato. i Sabe 

sheep, the pig, tiie dog, an<! the cat. Knows 

V. los iioiiibres de al^uiios pharos { 

year honor the names of eoine birds I 

Conozco algiinos : El polio, el paro, el 

I know a few ; The chicken, tbo turkey, tha 

pato, el ansar, el canario, el papag'ayo y 

(lack, tlio goose, the canary, tiie parrot, and 

el Agiiila. i Porqii^ hay iiiuchos insectos 

the eagle. Why are there many insects 

en esle pais: teneiiios nioscas, iiio<iqiil(os, 

in this coantr} ' we have flies, iiiosqtiitceg, 

gnsanos y maripusas ? Porqiie hace mucho 

and hntterliies ) Because it makes mnch 

t «•» nota 1 on p*;e B. 


calor. 1 4("c sabc V. acerca de law 

beat. Whit knows ynnr lionor about * th« 

HerpienleBl IVada, piies no hemos estudia- 

eerperits 1 Nothing, for t we liave studieil 

do lodavia ni los reptiles, ni los peces 

yet lu'itiier the re|itile?, nor tlie fiaho3. 

iQiiirre V. beber? Qiiiero corner y bebcr 

WiU jonr honor drink I I will eat and drink. 

TliB Bame In 
Los Ahuialeb. 

V. qne ha eatudiado la hiatoria 
natural, digame V., jcoalea eon 
loB princi pales nni males dotn£»- 
ticost Soa el oaballo, la tnuk, 
el baey, la vhcb, el carnero, cl 
eerdo, el perro y el gato. (Ssho 
V. loa Dombrea de algunos p^a< 
tobI Conozco alganoa: El polio, 
el pavo, el pato, el insar, el ca- 
oario, el papagayo y el aguila. 
^ Porqud hay mDohoB insectos en 
iBte pais; tenemos iiioscas, mos- 
IBitos, gniianfja j inariposas 1 
Porqne huee miiolio oalor. jQno 
labe V, acerca de las serpientes ? 
Nada, pues no hemes estndiado 
ludavia ni \ui reptiles, ni Idb 
peoea. iQniereV.beber) Qaiero 
Doiner y beber. 

good Tingiinh I 

Thk Akimal8. 

Ton who have stctdied natarai 
history, tell me the principal do- 
mestio animals. Tliey are the 
horse, the mule, the ox, the cow, 
the sheep, the pig, the dog, and 
the eat. Do yon know soma 
names of birds! I know a few: 
The chicken, the torkey, the 
duck, the goose, the canary, the 
parrot, and the eagle. Why are 
lliera bo many insecta In thin 
country ; w« have flies, mos- 
quitoes, worms, and butlfirflieal 
Because it ia very warm. What 
do yon know about snakes I 
Nothing, for wo have not yet 
studied the reptiles, nor tha 
fishes. WiU you drink I I will 
eat and drink. 

H ■Bee) 

Qnwttoiis and Aaavren loi CoiiTenatloii { 
jQae leooioc os estat £s la ootava. 

I Que ha eatndlado Y. I Ia liistoria natnraL 

IOdoIm son los principales ani- El caballu, la mula, el boey, I 
mtles ('.om^BtioosI vaco, el oarnero, el cerdo, 4 

perro y el gato. 

Bee Bala 107, p. U f Bee Kul« 71, f. 37. t Bee iiDU *, oo p. 1 



Digame V. lbs nombres de al- 
gnno# piyaroa. 

I Hfty inseotos en este pais? 
i Que clase de insectos? 

i Porqne hay tantos insectos ? 
1 8nbe Y. tambien algo aoerca de 

ias serpientes f 

1 Han estudiado Vs. los peces ? 

I Quiere V . corner ? 

I Es el oaballo nn animal domes- 

\ ticof 

iY el polio! 

i Y la Biosca f 

I Y la serpiente f 

£1 polio, d payo, el pato, el in 
sar, el canario, el papagayo y 
el agnila. 

Hay mnchos insectos en este pais 

Hay moscas, mosqnitos, gnsanoi 
y mariposas. 

Porqne hace oalor. 

No, seflor, nada. 

Porqne no hemos estudiado toda 

via las serpientes. 
No hemos estudiado todaria ^ 

los reptiles, ni los peoes. 
Quiero comer y beber. 
Si, seflor. 

El polio es un p^aro. 
Un insecto. 
Un reptiL 

Etontenoea for Oral Trcmalation.* 


El buey y la vaca.^ 

El ansar y los msectos. 

Mi canario y 3u papagayo de Y. 

Mis p^jaros y su gato de Y. 

8u mesa y sus sillas. 

Sn sombrero y sn yestido. 

Nnestros animates dom^sticos. 

Yuestros payos y yuestroe an- 

Si(S libros y sus cuadernoa. 
4 Cuales numbres sabe Y. ? 
Estas mariposas son hermosas. 
Algunas moscas para el psgaro. 
Algnnos gusanos para los peces. 
Algunas faltas en hu ejercicio deY. 


The ox and the cow. 
The goose and the insects. 
My canary and your parrot. 
My birds and your cat. 
His table and his chairs. 
Her bonnet and her dress. 
Our domestic animals. 
Your turkeys and your geese. 

Their books and their copy-booki 
Which names do you know ? 
These butterflies are handsome. 
Some flies for the bird. 
Any worms for the fishes ? 
A few mistakes in your exenusa 

* Bee note at the bottom of page t. 



Muohos reptiles y moclios mod- 

Mncho pan y poca came. 

Mas oaf(6 qne t^ 

Menos ^alletitas qne bizooohos. 

M^nos manteca qne pan. 

El principal animal dotndstico. 

SI perro es nn animal mnj util. 
Que gato hermoso I 

I Hay mnchos caballos en este 

Hay mnchos caballos y mnchas 

I Yenden en esta tienda canarios 
y papagayos ? 

No venden ni canarios ni papa- 

1 Qne yenden ? 

Yenden polios, patos y pavos. 

I Qaiere Y. coraprar algnnos ? 
Quiero coraprar nn aguila. 
|Prefiere Y. los canarios & los 

papagayos ? 
Prefiero estos & aqnellos. 

Many reptiles and maiT mum 

Much bread and Utile meat. 
More coffee than tea. 
Fewer crackers than biscx. U. 
Less butter than bread. 
The principal domestic animal. 
The dog is a rery nseftal aximaL 
What a beautiful cat! 
Are there many horses in this 

country f 
There are many horses and many 

Do tUey sell canaries and parrots 

in this store ? 
They sell neither canaries nor 

What do tiiey sell f 
They sell chickens, dnoksi and 

Will you buy some f 
I will buy an eagle. 
Do yon prefer canaries to par- 
I prefer these to thosa 


ffa estudiadoy has studied. 

Ea ntudiado is the third person singular of the perfect tense 
of estudiavy to study, — a regular verb of the first conjugation. 

98. All Spanish verbs end in the infinitive with ar, er or ir. 
Those ending with ar are said to be of the first conjugation ] 
those ending with er arc of the second ; and these ending with 
ir, of the third. 


Model of the First Conjugation. 


Hahlar^ to speak. 

Vvmmt Pabtioipub. Past Pabtioipu. 

SablandOf speaking, Hahlado^ spoken* 

Presknt Tknsr. 

To kabiOf I speak, or do speak 

T^ hablaSy thou spcakest, or dost speak. 

El* habla^ he speaks, or does speak. 

Nosotros* haUamos^ we speak, or do s^ak. 

Voiotros* hahlais^ you speak, or do speak. 

EUos* hablan^ they speak, or do speak. 


To hablaha^ I spoke, or used to speak. 

Till hablabas^ thou spokest, or usedst to speak. 

El hablaba^ he spoke, or used to speak. 

No9otro8 habldbamoSf we spoke, or used to speak. 

Vasotros habidbaisj you spoke, or used to speak. 

Klo9 hablahan^ they spoke, or used to speaL 

Past Tbnsb Dbfinitb. 

To habli^ I spoke, or did speak. 

Ta kablaste^ thou spokest, or didst speak. 

El habUj he spoke, or did speak. 

Xosotros habldmos, we spoke, or did speak. 

Vosotros hahldsteia^ you spoke, or did speak. 

Ellas habldron^ they spoke, or did speak. 

* The feminine of 61 is ella, and the feminine of ellos is ellas. But wi 
Knd TOt have also a feminine form in Spanish ; their regular equlvalenti 
BM and TOt having become obsolete, the word othar^ which enters into the 
eompoaition of the compounds nosotros and vosotros, used instead, agreea 
in gender and number with the noun to which it refers, thus : aosotras and 
All these pronouns are, however, seldom required. See Bule 18k 



To kahktrif . I shall speak, or wi J speak. 

Till hahlards^ thou shalt speak, or wilt speak. 

M hahlaray he shall speak, or will speak. 

Nasotroi hablarhnos^ we shall speak, or w^ill speak. 

Vo9otro8 hablaritSf you shall speak, or will speak. 

JSllos hablctrdn^ they shall speak, or will speak. 


Vo hablaria^ I should speak, or would speak. 

Tu hablariaSj thou shouldst speak, or wouldst speak 

.El kablaria, he should speak, or would speak, 

Kowtros hablariamoSy we should speak, or would speak. 

Vosotras hablanais^ you should speak, or would speak. 

EUos hablarianj they should speak, or would speak. 


Habla^ speak (thou). 
Hablady speak (you). 

Present Tense. . 
Que yo habUy that I may speak. 

Que tu hableSf that thou roayst speak. 

Que St hable, that he may speak. 

Que nosotros hablemos, that we may speak. 
Que vosotros hableisj that you may speak. 
Que ellos hablen^ that they may speak. 

Subjunctive Past. 
Que yo hablara^ or hablase^ that I might speak. 

Que til hablaraSj or hablases^ that thou mightst speak 

Que il hablarcLy or hahlase^ that he might speak. 

Qtie nosotros habldrames^ or habldsemos, that we might speak. 
Que vosotros habldrais, or kabldseis, that you xuight speak. 
Qu£ ellos hablaran^ or k(fblasen, that they might speak. 

For the corapoiind tenses, see Rule 45. 

* Th* aecond luture is (see note on page 25) : 

Fo hahlare, tu hahlarm^ el liablare^ 

Noiotrot AabldremoSj vosotros liablareis, eUos hablaren. 

ElOltTfl LtesSON. 


M. TLo verbs ending with ar in the infinitive are the inosl 
lamerous, and arc almost all conjugated like hablar, to speak 
The regular verbs oi' this conjugation already feen, are ! 


to furnish. 


' to rise. 


to augment 


to call. 


to buy. 


to mount 


to preserve. 


to occupy. 


to cut. 


to pass. 


to study. 


to take. 


to please. 


to use. 

rhe irregular ones are : 


to go to bed 


to meet 




to be. 


to give. 


to pay. 


to awake. 


to think. 


to begin. 


tc <?eal 

They will be explained later. 

Uistoriay history. 

100. Many words ending with ia in Spanish, end with y ia 
Snglish; as, Comedia^ comedy; mclodia^ melody; eoonomia 
economy, etc. 

Digame^ tell me. 

We have already seen that the pronouns, when placed after 
the verb, are merged into one word with it (17). 

101. The objective pronouns, me, thee, him, her, it, us, tou, 
TuxMf are generally put before the verb; but they must in* 
variably be placed after it in imperative affirmative sentences, 
and when joined to an infinitive or a present participle. — Ex. * 

El me da, he gives me. Dame, give me. 

El me ha dado, he has given me Dandome, giving me. 
A7> me doj he does not give me. Pucde darm£, he can give me 

102. JSS.e corresponds usually to ms and to me ; but whea 
TO Ml is used by itself, that is to say, without a verb and aftei 


HfitiB, quCf thaD, and como^ as, it has to be tnuudated by 4 mi 
See alio eanmiffo (88). 

Ex. Bt d mi que kabla^ it is to mo (that) he speaks. 

Ouales s<m^ which are. 

103. Who, whom, which, what, are sometimes interrogative 
md sometimes relative. When interrogative, they are generally 
placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence ; but when 
felativci they are never so placed. 

104. . Which is translated by cual, as an interrogative, and 
by q.ue, as a relative ; but of which, and to which, are gen- 
erally rendered by del Cual and al oual. Que does not 
change, but cual agrees in gender and number with the word 
to which it refers. Its feminine singular is like the masculine 
See Rule 22. Its plural for both genders is cuales (23). 

DomesticoSf domestic. 

105. Many words ending with ico in Spanish end with te 
or iccU in English ; as, Atldntico^ Atlantic ; poStico^ poetical ; 
irdgico^ tragic, etc. 

Muohos insectoij Muoho calory 

many insects. much heat 

106. When joined to a verb, mucho is an adverb, and con- 
sequently an invariable word corresponding to much in English ; 
but joined to a noun, it is an adjective, meaning much or many, 
no difference being made in Spanish between quantity and 
number. The adjective mucho agrees in gender and number 
with the word to which it refers. Its feminine singular is 
mucha; its plural masculine, muchos; and its feminine 
plural, mudias. The whole of this observation will apply to 
the following words : 

PocOf poca^ pocoSf pocas^ little or few. 
Tanto, tanta, iantos^ tantas^ so much, or so many. 
CtiantOy cuanta, cuantos^ cuantas^ how much ? cr how many f 
Denumcuic, demasiada^ demasiados^ deniasiadas^ too much, or too 

Porque, why? Porque^ because. 

Porquiy why, is distinguished from porque^ because, by ai 
iccent over the e. 

Acerea de las serpienteSf about the serpents. 
107. Like eerca^ near, acerea, concerning or abont^ is alwan 
followed by de in Spanish. 

Las serpienteSy the serpents. 
Ssrpiente^ serpent, is feminine by exception. 



1 I take, 99. 16. I should take. 

2. He takes. 17. He should take. 

8. We take. 18. We should take. 

4. Tou take. 19. You should take. * 

5. They take. 20. They should take. 

6. I took 21. I have taken. 

7. He took. 22. He has taken. 

8. We took. 23. We have taken. 

9. You took. 24. You have taken. 

10. They took. 25. They have taken. 

11. I shall take. 26. Let him take. 

12. He shall take. 21. Let us take 

13. We shall take. 28. Let them take. 

14. You shall take. 29. Take. 

15. They shall take. 30. Taking. 

31. I have passed, 45, 99. — 32. We have augmented, 45, $9 
—33. They have used, 45, 99. — 34. I had mounted, 45, 99.— 
85. You had called, 45, 99. — 36. They had preserved, 45, 99.-* 
87. Passing, 99.-38. Buying, 99.-39. Paying, 49.— 40. We 
have spent the whole day in the city. — 41. Let us take our dinner, 
and spend the evening at some place of amusementf — 42. We 
shall pay our bills as soon as we (shall) have money. — 43. How 
many canary birds have you f — 44. I have two. — 45, The fly is 
an insect — 46. He calls me, 101. — 47. He- passed me, 101.— 
48. Galling me, 101.— 49. Which hat is this? 104.-50. Which 
books are these! 104. — 51. Much bread, 106. — 52. Much 
eoffee, 106.-53. Many boys, 106.— 54. Many girls, 106. 

* 8ss nolss on pugs 7. f See note on pi^ SA. 




Translation t 

I Dondc cslamos 1 En la llabana. 

^here are we! In Havana. 


lierinosa cindnd! iSi el TJTir no ei 

beaiitifiil city 1 If tlie living n«t is 

deniasiado caro, tengo la intencion dc 




qiicdariiie nqiif por alg^iin tieinpo, para 

Bt«p myself liera for some time, for 

niiiiiilarizarnie con los habilantes y las 

to familiarize ma with the inhabitaiita and the 

costnmbres. ^Cual es la mejor posada? 

oustuma. WIticli U the best hut«l? 

Day Tarias biienas, las una§ en la parte 

There are various good, the onea in tlie part 

de arriba, las otras en la parte de abajo 



the othe; 


dc la ciudad : pero la mas patroi'inada 

of the city; but the most ]iati\niizeil 

es la posada americana, iin gran cdlficio 

is the hotel American, a large cditice 

de piedra en el mismo centro de la ciudad. 

of atone in the very centre of ^he city. 



Querria proporcionarme un coche, que 

I would procure me a coach, which 

mc Ueyara alli, porqiie no »€ cl camino. 

me might bring there, for not I know the way. 

I!¥o Taldril la pena, pues es miiy cerca 

Not it will be worth the trouble, for it is very near 

del paradcro del ferrocarril; sigra 

of the depot of the railroad ; let him follow 

T. la priniera eaile k su lado dereeho 

your honor the first street to his side right, 

y dcspues la segrunda & su lado izquicrdo. 

and afterwards the second to his side left, 

Hay un Ikrol delante de la pucrta. JUuehas 

There is a lamp before of the door. Many 

irracias. Buenos dias, Don Jos£. Adios. 

thanks. Good days, Mr. Jos6. Good-by. 

The same in good Bngliah, 

La Ciudad. 

I Donde estamos ! En la Ha- 
bana. iQne hermosa cindad! 
8i el yivir no es demasiado caro, 
tengo la intencion de qnedarme 
aqni por algun tiempo, para fa- 
miliarizarme con los habitantes 
y las cofitumbres. ^Cnal es la 
m^or posada? Hay varias bue- 
Das, las anas en la parte de arri- 
ba. las otras en la parte de abajo 
de la cindad; pero la mas patro- 
einada es la posada americana, 
nn gran edificio de piedra en el 
mismo oentro de la cindad. Quer- 
ria proporcionarme un coche, 
qne me llevara alii, porque no 
ii el oamino. No valdra la pena, 
pots es mny oerca del paradero 

The Citt. 

Where are we? In Havana; 
What a beautiful city I If living 
be not too dear, I will spend some 
time here to become acquainted 
with the people and customs of 
the place. Which is the best 
hotel? There are several good 
ones, some up town and some 
do\vn town ; but the moEt fash- 
ionable is the American, a large 
stone building in the very centra 
of the city, 

I should like to get a carriage 
to carry me there, for 1 do not 
know the way. 

It will not be worth while, for 
it is very near to the railroad 
depot. Take the first street tr 


KtNTfi Lfisdoir. 

del ferrocanil ; aigA ^.. to primera 
calle 4 Bu lado dennho y despues 
la segnnda i su laoo izquierdo. 
Hay an farol delante de la pnerta. 
Machas gracias. Baenos dias, 
Don Jos6. Adios. 

yoar rights and the second U 
yonr left There is a lamp be 
fore the door. 

Thank yon. Gk>od day, Mr. 
Joseph. Gkx)d-by. 

Qaesttona and Anawera for ConvenuitioiL^ 

I Que lecoion es esta f 
I En qne cindad estamos f 
I Que intenclon tiene Y. f 

I Qne qoiere Y, haoer aqni f 

I Hay bnenas posadas aqni f 


I Onal es la mejor posada t 

I Qne dase de edificio es I 

I En qne parte de la cindad est4 ? 

(Yaldria la pena de proporoio- 

narme nn coche, qne me lle- 

Tara allif 

I Sab6 Y. el caodno f 

I Qne camino debo tomart 

( T despnes f 

I Hay algo delante de la pnerta t 

Es la nona. 

En la Habana. 

De qnedarme aqni por algni 

tiempo si el viWr no es de- 

masiado oaro. 
Qniero familiarizarme con loa 

habitantes y las oostnmbres. 
Hay varias bnenas. 
Las nnas estan en la parte de 

arriba de la cindad. 
En la parte de abi^o. 
La posada amerioana es la mas 

Es nn gran edificio de piedra. 
En el mismo centro de la cindad 
No, seiior, no valdra la pena. 

Porqne es mny cerca del para- 

dero del ferrocarril. 
No s6 el camino. 
Siga Y. la primera calle i sn lade 

Despnes siga Y. la segnnda calle 

a sn lado izqnierdo. 
Hay nn faroL 

Sentenoes for Oial Tranalatioat 

flO mi TBAmLATSD INTO ureuBH. 

La intencion. 
Una oostnmbre. 

* 8m noU *, oo ptge 8. 


The intention. 
A custom. 

t See note on page a. 


Vn habiUuite. 
Vn paradero del ferroearril. 
ID lado dereeho. 
Sa lado iaqiiierdo de Y. 
OoantOA faroles f 
OnaniU) tiempo se qnedari Y 

lie qnedar^ aqui alganos dias. 
4£n que posada esta Y. ff 
Eo la posada americana, 
I Eb un gran edifioio f 
Es un gran edificio de piedra. 
I Hay posadas en la parte de ar- 

riba de la ciadad f 
En la parte de arriba y en la 

parte de ab^Jo. 
|Donde esta la posada ameri- 

Oeroadel paradero del ferroearril. 
I Qae calle debo tomarf 
|£8 la posada amerioana mejor 

Es la in^or, y la mas patroci- 

|Ss flfte edifido de piedra 6 de 

Es de piedra. 
I Son bnenos los cnartos f 
Bon mny agradables, 
Las oamas son las mejoree de la 

I Oomo es la oomida f 
La oomida es may bnena. 
lOnanto se paga al diaf 
Tres pesos y medio. 
4 Hay mnohos mosqnitos t 
Ko hay maehoa, 
linehas graoias. 
Baenot diaa, Don Pabla 

An Inhabitant 

My way. 

This coach. 

A rtdlroad depoti 

My right side. 

Tour left side. 

How many lamps ff 
How long dme wiU yon ila| 

I shall stay here a few daya. 
In which hotel are yon f 
In the American hoteL 
Is it a laige edifice! 
It is a large stone edifice. 
Are there any hotels np town? 

Up town and down town. 

Where Is the American hotel f 

Near the railroad depot. 

Which street mnst I take ? 

Is the American hotel better than 

the others! 
It is the best, and the most 

Is that edifice of stone or ci 

It is of stone. 
Are the rooms good ones f 
They are very pleasant. 
And the beds ? 
The beds are the best In iht 

How is the &reff 
The fare is very good. 
How much do yon pay a day! 
Three dollars and a half. 
Are there many mosquitoes f 
There are not many. 
Thank you. 
Good morning, Mr. PanL 

^fd NINTH LS8S0N. 


Que hermosa dudad / what a beautiful city I 

108. What is translated by que as an interrogative, anci 
by lo que when it can be replaced by that which^ or the thirty 
9ffhichj without materially affecting the meaning of the sen 
lence. (108.) 

Ex. What you say is correct, lo que V, dice es correcto. 

109. A or AK is suppressed in Spanish before the wordf 
hundred^ thousand, and after what, in exclamative sentences. 

Ex. A hundred children, den niflos. 
What a man I que hombre I 

M vivir^ the living. 

110. Words which, without being nouns, are accidentally 
used as such, are masculine. 

111. This completes the study of the gender of nouns : 
Names of males are masculine, and names of females arc 


Words ending with a, d, iou, and umbre, are feminine ; 
those ending otherwise are masculine. 

Words which, without being nouns, are accidentally used aa 
ftucli, are masculine. 

The exceptions already seen slt^ : dguila, eagle ; dia^ day 
which are masculine ; and calle, street ; carne^ meat ; clase^ kind 
llave^ key ; nochcj night ; parte, part ; and vez^ time, which are 
feminine. The rest will be explained as they occur in the text 

Americana, American. 

112. Many words ending with an in English, end with ano 
in Spanish, and have their feminine in ana; as. Humane, 
Humana, Human ; Repuhlicano, Repuhlicana, Republican ; Ro» 
wuino, Romano, Roman, etc. 

En el mismo centro, in the very centre. 

113. The word very, usually translated by muy, already 
•een, is rendered by mismo when it precedes a noun. (49.) 


No sS^ I do not know. 
Si u A form of saber^ to know, an irregular verl it tht 
laoGnl conjugation. 


Vendet^ toselL 

PlonniT Partioipli. Past PABnoma 

Vendiendo^ selling. Vendido^ sold. 


PRniRT Tmisi. 

To vendOf I sell, or do sell 

T^ vendes^ thou sellest, or dost selL 

M vendey he sells, or does selL 

Nosotros vendemoSf we sell, or do selL 

Vosotros vendeisy you sell, or do selL 

Ellas venden^ they sell, or do selL 


To vendia^ I sold, or used to seU. 

Tu vendias^ thou soldest, or usedst to seR 

£1 vendia^ he sold, or used to sell. 

Nosotros vendiamos^ we sold, or used to selL 

Vosotros vendiais^ you sold, or used to selL 

Mllos vendian^ they sold, or used to selL 

I An Tknbb Dbfiniib. 

To vendif I sold, or did sell. 

Til, tendisUf thou soldest, or didst sell. 

M vefididy ho sold, or did sell. 

Nosotros vendimosj we sold, or did sell. 

Vosotros vendisteis, you sold, or did selL 

£lllos vendiirofiy they soldi or did telL 


To venders^ I shall sell, or wft miL 

Tu venderds^ thou shalt sell, or wili mJ. 

m vender&f he shall sell, or will mlj.« 

NoiotroB vemhrimos, we shall sell, or will sek. 

Vasotros venderHs^ jou shall sell, or will sel) 

J^/^ venderdn, they shall sell, or will seD 


Vc venderiOf I should sell, or would 

Tu venderiaSj thou shouldst sell, or wouldst i#» 

M venderia^ he should sell, or would sell 

Nosotro9 venderiamos^ we should sell, or would sell 

Vatotros venderiaiSf you should sell, or would sell 

Sihh venderianj they should sell, or would sell 


Vende^ sell (thou). 
Vended^ sell (you). 



Que yo venda^ that I may sell 

Que t^ vendas^ that thou mayst so* , 

Que il venda^ that he may sell. 

Que nosotros vendamoe^ that we may sell. 

Que vosotros vendaiSf that you may sell. 

Que ellos vendan^ that they may sell 

SxTB^VRcnvi Past. 
Que yo vendiera^ or vendieae^ that I might sell. 

Que tu vendierasj or vendieses^ that thou mightst aeli 

Que 41 vendierOj or vendkse^ . that he might selL 

Que nosotros vendiSramos^ or vendiesemos^ that we might sell. 
Que vosotros ffendiirais or vendiiseis^ that you luight sell 
Qut illos vendieran^ or vendiesen^ that they might selL 

For the compound tenses, see Rule 45. 

* Th« second fbtnre is (see note on page 25) : 

To 9endUr$j Ik vmdiersif 41 venditre^ 

SoeaCroe fmdHremoi^ vaotrot vendUreie, lUot emditnn. 


114. Muiit Y^rbs ending in the infinitive witL er, are conju- 
gated like 'yrcder, to sell. The regular ones which have oc* 
curred in our text, are : Beber^ to drink ; deber, to owe, ought 
must ; comer J to eat ; vender, to eell ; and veneer^ to £ei11 due. 

The irregular ones are : Conocer^ to know, to be acquainted 
#ith (a person) ; kaber, to Lave ; kacer^ to make ; leer^ to read , 
foder, to be able; querer^ to be willing; romper^ to break; 
9aber, to know (a thing) ; ser^ to be ; and valer^ to be worth. 

Haher and ser have already been seen : the rest will be ex* 
plained later. 

Delante de la puerta^ before the door. 

115. Delante must not be confounded with dntes^ anothei 
equivalent of before, in Spanish. Delante simply denotes place 
or situation ; dntes marks priority of time. Delante and dntti 
require to be followed by the preposition de, 

Buenos diae^ 
Good day; 

good days. 

116. The salutations. Good morning, Good day, and Good 
evening, are always used in the plural in Spanish. 

Don Jose, or SefKrr Don Jose, Mr. Joseph. 

117. Christian names are generally preceded by Don, in* 
stead of SeiLor, and by Doiia, instead of SeiLora or 
SeiLorita, though both may be introduced at the same time 
with equal. propriety. 

118. Nouns denoting titles, qualities, professions, or degrees 
of relationship, which may belong to either sex, often produce 
feminine derivatives by means of the same termination which 
the adjective takes in the feminine. 

Ex. Un nine, a boy. Un hermano, a brother. 

Una nifla, a girl. Una hermana, a sister. 

Un hijo, a son. Un ciudadano, a male citizen. 

Una hija, a daughter* Una civdadana, a female citixen 

Llevar, to carry ; patrocinar, to patronize ; propordonar, to 

procure ; and quedar, to remain, are regular verbs of the finA 



conjugation. FamiliarvMr^ ti> fiuniliame, is irregular, and w3 
be explained later. 



1. I drink, 114. 16. I should drink. 

2. He drinks. 17. He should drink. 
8. We drink. 18. Wo should drink. 

4. You drink. * 19. You should drink. 

5. They drink. 20. lliey should drink 

6. I drank. 21. I have drunk. 
?• He drank. 22. He has drunk. 

8. We drank. 23. We have drunk. 

9. You drank. 24. You have drunk. 

10. They drank. 25. They have drunk. 

11. I shall drink. 26. Let him drink.f 

12. He shall drink. 27. Let us drink. 

13. We shall drink. 28 Let them drink. 

14. You shall drink. 29. Drink. 
16. They shall drink. 30. Drinking. 

81. I have eaten, 45. — 32. We have feared, 45. — 33. They 
owe, 114. — 84. Have you feared? 45. — 35. Do you eat? 114.— 
86. Do they fearl 114.— 37 I owe, 114.— 38. Owing, 114.— 
89. Eating, 114. — 40. Would you like to live in Havana?— 
41. Yes, sir; it is a beautiful city. — 42. Have you been there ? — 
43. 1 have been there several times. — 44. What do you do when 
it is warm ? — 45. I open my doors and my windows. — 46. Do 
you wish to eat something ? — 47. I wish to eat and drink,— 
48. What do you wish to eat ? — 49. Some bread and seme meat. 
—50. What do you wish to drink ? — 51. I wish to drink a glasi 
of water. — 52. The watch which I have bought is broken. — 
63. What a beautiful horse! 108. — 54. Where is your sister? — 
66. Have you met her? — 56. And your brothers; have yon 
met them? — 57. Miss Virginia is my daughter, 117, 118. 

* See notes on page 7. t See aote *, pn pege 96. 


Literal Traii8latioi].t 

Leccion d^cima. 

Lesson tenth. 

El Campo. 

The Country. 

lios prodactos mas importantes de Cuba 

The products most important of Gaha 

«on: Az6car, caf% y tabaco. He Tisitado 

are : sugar, coifee, and tobacco. I have visited 

algriinas haciendas de asRiicar, para coufi 

several estates of sugar, in order to con- 

templar la maquinaria, y me parecl6 tan 

template the machinery, and to me it appeared as 

perfeeta como el hombre puede Ihbricarla. 

perfect as the man can fabricate it. 

IVada puede riyalizar con la limpieza de 

Nothing can rival with the cleanliness of 

estos establecimientos. Sin embargro no 

these establishments. However, not 

recomendaria k T. ir alii y hacerse 

I should recommend to your honor to go there and to make himself 

* As it is desirable to limit the time to be spent in the review indicated io 
DOtd *, on page 8, to a quarter of an hour at the utmost, it would be perhapt 
well now, in addition to the modification already suggested in note * on 
|>bge 80, to cease by degrees to rehearse the first lessons, the text of which 
by this time, may be supposed to have been thoroughly mastered. Thii 
observation, however, is not intended to recommend a total neglect of tbem, 
but rather a systematical omisBion of a portion, in the following order, leav* 
ing out, to begin with, the first three, then the 2d, 8d, 4th, and so ?n. 

t The directions given in note *, oi page 1, continue as importALt a» evM 
^4 sbou)(t be faithfully attended to. 



agricultor ; piir§ auuqne la isia produce lai 

farmer ; for althoajjh the island produces the 

mas sabrosas Trulas tropicales, flores de 

moat savory fruits tropical, flowers of 

lo8 mas ricos colorcs, palnias magnificat 

the uioBt rich colors, pal ma inagiiiGcent 

y olro§ &rboles, los cereales y los fegelale* 

tnd other trees, the cerealisi and the vegeUtblea 

de nueiittra zona no creceu alii. El jardin 

of our zooe oot grow there. The garden 

mas hermoso es el del Obi§po, j la 

iDost beautiful u that of the Bishop, and tht 

finca mas bonUa cs la del Capitav > 

couDtry-seat moat pretty la tliat of the Oaptain- 

g^eneral, que e§ el virey de la isla. 

general, trlio is the viceroy of the ialand. 

The same In good EngHiiTi. 

^B J atroB 

■ lot) veg 

^^L BO oreo 

Bl Cahpo. 
hot productos maa importan- 
IBB de Oaba eon : azucar, cafe y 
(abaoo. He risitado algunoa 
baoiendaa de aziicar, pnra con- 
templar la maquinaria, y me pa- 
feoio tan perfects oomo el hom- 
bre pue<le fabricarla. Nada pnode 
rivaliiar con la liiiipieza de eatos 
tetablecimieotos. Sin embargo 
oo recomcndaria a V. ir alii y 
hoMree agricnltor; pnes aunqtie 
la i«la produce laa maa sabroaaa 
frntas tropicales, Sorea de loa maa 
ricoB colores, palmaB magnificas 
J QtroB Srbolea, loa cereales y 

oreoeo alii. El jardin uos 

Tax ConifT&T. 
The uoBt important procllio 
tiona of Cuba are sugar, coffee, 
and tobacco, I have heoo to 
several sugar plaotationa to view 
the machinery used, and it baa 
appeared to me to be the moat 
perfect that could be imagined 
Nothing can compare with th« 
cleaaliuesa of theae establish 
inents, I would, however, no( 
recommend yon to remove ther* 
na a farmer; for although th« 
island produces the richest tropi 
cfll frcitR, flowers of every color 
and magnificent palms and othei 
ti'ee«, the cerealia and vegetable! 
of oitr zone do not grow tliert 



iMnncco es el del Obis^, y la 
finca mas bonita es la del Gapi- 
tan-general, qne ee el virej de 

The most beautiful garden is the 
Bishop's, and the Landsomest 
oonntry-seat that of the Oaptain- 
general, who is the yiceroj ot 
the island. 

OoestJoiui and ADBwera for Con^rerBatioiL 

Que leoiion es esta f 
Onales son los productos mas 
importantes de la isla de Ouba? 
Ha Tisitado Y. las haciendas? 


Oomo le parecio & Y. f 

Que sabe Y. de la limpieza de 
estos establecimientos ? 
Me reoomendaria Y. ir alii t 

Produce frutas la islaf 

Y tambien Acres f 
Que &rboles hay f 

Orecen alii loe cereales de nues- 
tra zona! 

Oual es el mas hermoso jardin ? 
T oual es la mas bonita finca f 
Qnien es el virey de la isla? 

Es la d6cima. 
Azucar, caf(& y tabaco. 

He visitado algunas haciendas 

de azucar. 
Para contemplar la maquinaria. 
Me parecio tan perfecta como el 

hombre pnede fabricarla. 
Nada pnede rivalizar con la lim- 
pieza de estos establecimientos. 
No reoomendaria 6. Y. ir alii y 

hacerse agricultor. 
La isla produce las mas sabrosas 

frutas tropicales. 
Flores de los mas rioos colores. 
Palmas magnlficas y otros it* 

No, selior, ni los cereales ni lot 

El jardin del Obispo. 
La finca del Oapitan-general. 
El Capitan-general. 

Sentences for Oral Translation. 


El azucar. 
£1 tabaco. 

Mi hacienda de azucar. 
La maqninaria. 
Bin embargo. 
Las frutas y las flores 


The sugar. 
The tobacco. 
My sugar estate. 
The machinery. 
The fruits and the fiowem 



Un agricnltor. 
Los vegetales de nuestra zona. 
Oerca de bi II:ibana. 
El Obispo. 
La finca. 

El Gap! tan -general. 
Una isla. 
I Que hermoso establecimiento 
Ha estado Y. en Ouba ? 
He estado alii. 
iQae produce aqnella islaf 
Aziicar, caf6, tabaco y frutas 

i Qne vestidos se usan alii f 
Se nsan vestidos de bilo. 
I No tienen vestidos de algodon ? 
Tienen tambien vestidos de al- 
4 Ha visitado Y. el Jardin del 

Obispo ? 
Le be visitado. 
fPuede rivalizar con nuestros 

jardines f 
Paede rivalizar con nuestros mas 

bermosos jardines. 
I Ha comido Y. algo bueno? 
He comido algunas frutas. 
I Que clase de frutas f 
Algunas frutas tropicales. 
I A que bora quiere Y. venir a 

verme ? 
A las once. 
Pero no estare en casa a aqnella 

Ectpnces yendr^ a las doce. 

Estoj siempre en casa, a las 

Es la bora de comer. 
May bien, sellor. 

A fariiier. 
The vegetables of our mat. 

Near Havana. 

The Bisbop. 

The country-seat. 

The Captain-g«>neral. 

An island. 
What a beautiful establishment 
Have you been in Cuba ? 
I have been there. 
What does that island produce f 
Sugar, coffee, tobacco, and trop* 

ical fruits. 
What clothes do they use there 
They use linen coats. 
Have they not cotton coats f 
They have also cotton coats. 

Have you visited the Bishop^s 

garden f 
I have visited it 
Does it compare with our ga^ 

It compares with our finest gar- 
Have you eaten something goodf 
I have eaten some fruit. 
What kind of fruit? 
Some tropical fruits. 
At what o^clock will you come 

to see me ? 
At eleven o'clock. 
But I shall not be at home at that 

Then I will come at twelve 

At vwelve o'clock I am alwayi 

at home. 
It is dinner-time. 
Yery well, sir. 



El eampo^ the oonntry. 
119. Campo and pais^ already seen^ are not synonyinoiia^ 
Oampo means country, as opposed to city^ while pais hus a 
signification akin to that of region or state, 

TahacOy tobacco, 

120 In the singular, tabaco means tobacco; but the plural, 
tabacos, is applied chiefly to cigars : the Spanish word cigarro^ 
or cigarrilloy being confined to paper cigars^ at least in Ouba. 

Visitado visited, from visiiacion^ visitation. 

121 Verbs may be formed from almost all the substantivei 
ending with acion, by changing this termination into ar ; as, 
consolaciony consolation, consolar^ to console ; continttacionj con- 
tinuation, continuar, to continue ; preparacioriy preparation, pre' 
parar^ to prepare. See Rule 87. 

Rivalizar con la limpieza, 
rival with the cleanliness. 
122. Few things are more troublesome in English than the 
proper use of the prepositions ; and it is often very puzzling, 
even for natives, to select the right one, whether to say, angry 
with or angry against^ received from or received of ; and yet 
many verbs assume an almost endless variety of significations, 
according to the small word joined to them ; as. To bring up, 
to nourish^ to educate; to bring over, to gain^ to convert; 
TO BRING ABOUT, to ^ect^ ctc. The same difficulty obtains in 
Spanish. Observation and diligent reference to the dictionary 
are the only guides that can be offered. The following exam- 
ples will, however, show the more prominent features in this 
respect of the verbs already seen, and the rest will be explraned 
they occur in our text : 

Creeer de cuerpo^ to grow in body. 

Crecer en virtudes^ to grow in virtues. 

Detpertar d alguno^ to awake some one. 
Despertar del sveflOj to awake from sleepi. 


Montar d eabaUo^ to' mount on horsebacL 

Pensar en alguno or en to think of some one or of somt 

alguna cosa^ thing. 

Quedar de asiento^ to live in a place, to reside there. 

Quedar de pies^ to remain on foot 

Quedar en casoj to remain in the house. 

Sin embargo. 
123. Sin embargo, literally without embargo^ without em- 
mrrassmentf without something to inter/ere^ is the exact eqiii?a- 

lent of HOWEVER. 

Produce^ produces. 
Produce is the third person singular of the indicative mood, 
present tense, of producir^ to produce, — an irregular verb cf the 
Ihird and last conjugation. 

Model of the Third Conjuoatiov. 


IThtr, to unite. 

Fbibknt Pabucipli. Past Pabtioifiji. 

UhiendOf uniting. UnidOf united. 



To unOj I unite, or do unite. 

Til unes^ thou unitest, or dost unite. 

M une, he unites, or does unite. 

Noeotroi unimos^ we unite, or do unite. 

Vosotros uniSf you unite, or do unite. 

£Uo8 unen^ they unite, or do unite. 


Yo tmui, I united, or used to unite. 

Till unias^ thou unitedst, or usedst to unit* 

M tinui, he united, or used to unite. 

Nosotros uniamoSy we united, or used to unite. 

Voeotros uniait^ you united, or used to unite. 

E0o9 timan, they united; or used to unite. 



T^mai^ lunitady ordidiUDLte. 

TA mmUiif tkoo qnitedrt^ or didsi naite. 

JR mmi4^ he iiiiitad» or did iuiiIqw 

Ifombrm mmbmo^ we imitady oi did onitew 

Fbiolrot imifflfUy joa iiiiitad» or did anilew 

SUbt tniftlroiiy they iiiiitad» or did onitew 

Yo mmri^ I shall unhai or will onitew 

311 imtrdj^ thou shmlt unite, or wih nnilew 

il( tmtrdy he shaU unite, or will imitew 

NimUrot umirhnyi^ we shall unite, or will imitew 
Vo9cUro$ utdrHSf yon shall onite, or will unitew 
JSU09 mmirdn^ they shall onite, or will nnitew 


To wMOf I should unite, or would unite» 

T^ Mmriattf thou shouldst unite, or wouldst unite 

El ttntrto, he should unite, or would unite» 

No90tro9 umtriamoSy we should unite, or would unite. 

Vatotroi utUriaiSf you should unite, or would unite. 

BlUm uminan^ they should unite, or would unitSb 


Uni^ unite (thou). 
Uhid^ unite (you). » 

Que yo tina, that I may unite. 

Que la unas^ that thou mayst unite. 

Que el una^ that he may unite. 

Que nosotros unamos^ that we may unite. 
Que vosotros unais^ that you may unite. 

Q*ie ellos uTian^ that they may unite. 

The seooul fiitare is (see note on page 25) : 

To uni^rt, iu vnUretj d nn iurt, 

Natbtrat tff.i^mnaf, wetoirot unUrd* dUn umiir<m 



BuiuujiOTiVB Past. 

Que yo unkra^ or uniese^ that I might unite. 

Qtu tu unieraSj or uniesesy that thou mightst unite. 

Que el uniereif or uniese^ that he might unite. 

Qui nosotroi uniiramos^ or uniisemos^ that we might unite. 
Que vosotros unUraie, or uniiseia^ that you might unite. 
Que ellos ujUeranj or uniesen^ that they might unite. 

124. Although most verbs ending with ir in the infinitive 
are conjugated like umV, to unite, we have met only one regular 
one in our text, so far, — vivir^ to live. 

Ahrir^ to opei^; decir, to tell; darmir^ to sleep ; e«crt&tr, to 
write; tV, to go; pre/erir^ to prefer; producir^ to produce; 
Hguivy to follow ; and eervivy to serve, are irregular, and wiU 
be explaiiiied later/ 

El del Ohispo^ 

125. There are two ways of saying thj[s in English — that oj 
the biahopf and the bishop^ s. In Spanish there is but one-^that 
bf the bishop ; and all sentences of the kind have to be trans- 
lated according to this model. 

126. When that is not opposed to this, it literally means 
the one, and has to be replaced in Spanish by the article ths— 

el, la, las, los. 

Que €8 el viretfy who is the viceroy. 

127. Who and whom are translated by quien, as an inter- 
rogative, and by que, as a relative (see Rule 103) ; but when 
preceded by a preposition, whom is generally tianslated by 
quien or cual, for the singular, and by quienes or ouales^ 
for the plural. 

Ex. Del cualy or de quien^ of whom. 

FloTy flower, is feminine by exception. 

Visitar^ to ^isit, und contemplavy to contemplate, are regula. 
verbs of the first conjugation. Bivalizar^ to rival ; recomendar^ 
to recommend; parecer^ to appear; poder^ to be able; hacer 
to make; Budcrecer^ to grow, are irregular, and will be it 
plained later. 


mrra tEssoir. St 


1 I live, 124. 16. I should live. 

2, He Uvea 17. He should liye. 

8. We live. 18. We should HvO: 

4. You live. 19. You should IiTe. 

5. They live. 20. They should liTe. 

6. I lived. 21. I have lived. 
1. He lived. 22. He has lived. 

8, We lived. 23. We have lived. 

9. You lived. 24. You have lived, 

10. They lived. 26. They have lived. 

11. I shall live. 26. Let him live. 

12. He shall live. 27. Let us live. 
18. We shall live. 26. Let them live. 

14. You shall live. . 29. Live (you). 

15. Tbey shall live. 30. Living. . 

81. My hat or that of my brother, 125. — 32. My dress or that 
of my sister, 125.— 33. Who is there? 127.— 34. What have 
you there? 108.— 35. Which books are these? 104.— 36. Who 
has the finest garden near Havana? 1^7.-^37.^ I!he Bishop has 
the largest. — 38. Has the Captain-general of Cuba a son ? — 
39. No, sir, he has no son, but he has four beautiful daughters^ 
— 40. Are they rich ? — 41. They are very rich. — 42. He lives 
in the country, 119. — 43. Cuba is a fine country, 119.^-44. It 
produces much tobacco, and the best cigars are made there, 1 20. 
— 45. My book or my father's, 125. — 46. Youi coat ard your 
son^s, 125.— 47. Who is this? 127.— 48. The orother of lit 
gvsoU^man of whom I spoke to you, 127. 

* 8« nclM on p9§% 7. 



Literal TraiuUtlou.* 

Eieccion iindfcima, 

LeasoD eleventh, 

La Arilni£ticu. 

The Arithmetic, 

La Arilin^lica nos ensena la adieion, la 

The Arithmetic us teaches the addition, the 

sustraccion, la miiltiplicacion y la division. 

eublractiun, the multiplicatluD, and the division. 

DiezyseisyunoBondiezysicte. Dednciendo 

Tun and six and one tire ten and seven. Subtracting 

diez y ocho de diez y nneve qneda iino. Doi 

ten and eight from ten and nine leaves one. Two 

recei diez son reinte. Tres cabe sieta 

times ten are twent;. Three is contained seven 

reces enire velnliiino. Los dias de la 

times in twenty- one. The dsjH of th« 

■emana se Hainan: LiinesjITIarles, mid- 
week tliem^lves call : Monday, Tuesday, Wed- 

coles, Jii^Tes, Tl£rnes, S&bado y Domingo 

nesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. 

Hay docc mcscs en el ano ; Enero 

There are twelve months in tlie year : January, 
Febrero, Iflarzo, Abril, iflayo, Junio, Julio, 

February, March. April, May, June, Julyt 

AsoBto, Selieinbre, Octubre, IVoTiembre y 

AngTut, Seplembei', October, Novetnbqr, an J 



Dieictnbre. Los ii6tiiero9 que no hemof 

December. The Dnmbera which not we have 

visto todavfa son: treinta, 

seen yet are: thirty, 

cincuenta, sesenta, setenta, 

fifty, sixty, seventy, 

norenfa, ciento, mil. IJn medio j un 

ninety, hundred, thousand. A half and a 

tresaTO son cinco seisaTos. 

third are five sixths. 





The same in good BngHsh. 


La Aritm^tica nos enseiia la 
adicion, la sustraccion, la mnlti- 
plicacion y la division. Diez y seis 
yunosondiezysiete. Deduciendo 
diez y ocho de diez y nueve queda 
nno. Dos veces diez son veinte. 
Tres oabe siete veces entre vein- 
tiuno. Los dias de la semana 
se llaman : Lunes, Martes, Mi^r- 
ooles, Ju6ves, Yi^rnes, Sabado 
y Domingo. Hay doce meses en 
el aiio: Enero, Febrero, Marzo, 
Abril, Mayo, Jnnio, Julio, Agos- 
to, Setiembre, Octubre, Noviem- 
bre y Diciembre. Los numeros 
que Lo hemos visto todavia son : 
iieinta, cnarenta, cincuenta, se- 
senta, setenta, oehenta, noventa, 
dento, mil. Un medio y nn tres- 
avo son oinco seisavos. 

Arithmetic teaches ns to add| 
to subtract, to multiply, and to 
divide. Sixteen and one are 
seventeen. Take eighteen from 
nineteen, leaves one. Twice ten 
are twenty. Seven goes three 
times into twenty-one. The 
days of the week are : Mo/idayi 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thnruday, 
Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. 
There are twelve months in the 
year: January, February, March, 
April, May, June, July, August, 
September, October, November, 
and December. The numbers 
which we have not yet seen, are 
thirty, ferty, fifty, sixty, seventy 
eighty, ninety, hundred, tlkOa 
sand. A half and a third art 

QuestionB and Answers for Conversatioi^ 

4 Que leccion es esta ? 

iQue nos enseda la aritLi^tica? 

La und^cima. 

La adicion, la sustraooioii| h 
multiplicacion y la division. 


ELETEin'a LES80V. 

I^oantro son dies y seis j nno? 


1 Dedaoiendo diez j ooho de dies 


y nueve onanto qnedaf 

1 Gnantos son dos veces diez? 


\ Onantas veces cabe siete entre 

Tres veces. 


1 Gnantos dias hay en la semana? 


iComo se llaman? 

Lunes, Martes, Mi^rcc led, Ja^vet^ 

Viernes, Sabado y Domingo. 

Gnantos meses hay en el aiio f 


1 Gomo se llaman ? 

Enero, Febrero, Marzo, Abri]^ 

Mayo, Jnnio, Julio, Agosto 

Setiembre, Octnbre, Novieni' 

bre y Diciembre. 

1 Gnantos son qninoe y qnincef 


fY veintey veinte? 


1 Gnantos son oinco veoes diez? 


1 Y seis veoes diez ? 


I Y siete veoes diez ! 


\ Y ooho veces diez ! 


I Y nueve veces diez ! 


1 Y diez veoes diez ? 

Giento. . 

I Y diez veoes oiento ? 


lOnaotos son an medio y on 

Ginco seisayoa. 


Sentences for C 

hral Translation. 



Mi aritmetica. 

My arithmetio. 

Una adioion. 

An addition. 

Una snstracoion. 

A subtraction. 

Un afto. 

A year. 

Un mes. 

A month. 

Una semana. 

A week. 

Uu dia. 

A day. 

El primero. 

The first. 

Lunes, el dos de Enero. 

Monday, the pecond of January. 

Martes, el tres de Febrero. 

Tuesday, the third of February. 

Mi^rcoles, el cnarto de Marzo. 

Wednesday, the fourth of Mar:i 

Ja^ves, el oinco de AbriJ, . 

Thursday, tlie fifth of April. 



Vi^raes, j1 seis de Mayo. 
Sabado, el siete de Jnnio. 
DomiDgo, el ocho de Julio. 
Tenemoe el nneve de Agosto. 
Hay siete dias en la semana. 
jOoantos dias tiene Setiembret 
Betiembre tiene trelnta dias. 
I Y Octubre ? 

Ootabre tiene trelnta y uno. 
iQoe debemos estadiar para saber 

la aritm^cica! 
La adicion, la snstraccion, la 

maltiplicacion y la division. 
I Ouantos son cuatro y cinco f 
Oaatro y cinoo son nneve. 
Ocho m^nos siete es uno. 
Dos veces tres son seis. 
Tres entre doce cabe cnatro veces. 
Yeinte y diez son treinta. 
Treinta y diez son cuarenta. 
Gnarenta y diez son cincnenta. 
Dos veces cincnenta son ciento. 

Friday, the sixth of May. 
Saturday, the seventh of Jtuit. 
Sunday, the eighth of July. 
We have the ninth of Augnst. 
There are seven days in a week. 
How many days has September 
September has thirty days. 
And October! 
October has thirty-one. 
What must we study, to know 

arithmetic ! 
Addition, subtraction, mnltipli 

cation, and division. 
How many are four and five ? 
Four and five are nine. 
Seven from eight, leaves one. 
Twice three are six. 
Three goes four times into twehe 
Twenty and ten are thirty. 
Thirty and ten are forty. 
Forty and ten are fifty. 
Twice fifty are a hucired. 


No8 ensefla, teaches us. 
128. No8 corresponds usually to us and to us; but hfUx 
it, it is, que^ than, and comOy as, to us has generally tP ^ 
tranalated by k nosotros. 

Ex. JSs d nosotros que habla^ it is to na he speaks. 

Se llaman, are called ; 

call themselves. 
129* The passive form is less frequently used in Spanisk 
than in English ; and verl« which should be passive according 
to tbe sense, often take the. pronominal form in Spanish, as ii 


the ftbove eiainplo. See Rule S. Ttiis idionatic coustractioi 
will not Bnrprise an English Btndcnt, if he considen that in fai: 
own language there is an equivalent impropriety when we say, 
The door opens, for the door is opened ; — The books never mid, for 
the hooks were never sold. These phrases would be rendered in 
fipanish by. La puerla se abre ;-~Los libroa nunca se han vendido. 
130. A pronominal verb is conjugated with two pronouns ol 
the same person, both placed before it, except in the imperative, 
infinitive, and participle present. See Rules 17, 101. The corre- 
aponding pronounB for each person are : Yo me (I myself), 
Tli te (thou thyself), EI se (Le himself), £lla se (she her- 
■elf), Nosotros nos (wc ourselves), Vosotros os (job 
TourielveB), Ellos or ellas se (they themselves). 

lloDiL OF TBK Frokouinai. Forh OF CovivQunoa. 

Lavarie, to wash one's ul£ 


Lavindose, washing one's «el£ 


Pek^ent Tekse. 

TTo me tavo, I wash myself or do wash myselC 

Ti le lavat, thou washest thyself or dost wash thyielf. 

SI M lava, he washes himself, or does wash himselC 

Ifoiotros nos lavamos, we wash ourBclves, or do wash ourselves. 

Voiolroa og lavais, you wash yourselves, or do wash yourselvei 
Kilo* »e lavan, they wash themselves, or do wash tl emselvei 


Yo me lavaba, I washed myself. 

Ti te lavabas, thou washedest thyself 

SI le lavaba, be washed himself. 

^osolros nos lavdbamos, we washed ourselves. 
Vosotros OS laedbttis, you washed yourselves. 
JSlai u lavabaiif they washed themBelrw 



Past Tmn DminTi 
Fo me lai4^ I washed or did wash myself 

TV U lavaste^ thou washedest or didst wash thyaelC 

El 96 lav6y he washed or did wash himself. 

Nosotros noi lavdmos^ we washed or did wash ourselves. 
Vosotros OS lavdsteiSy you washed or did wash yourselves. 
Ellas se lavaron^ they washed or did wash themselves. 


To me lavari, I shall or will wash myself. 

Ta te lavardsy thou shalt or wilt wash thyself 

El se lavardy he shall or will wash himsel£ 

Xoiotros nos lavarSmos^ we shall or will wash ourselves. 
Fosoti\}b OS lavariisj you shall or will wash yourselves. 
Silos se Savardn^ they shall or will wash themselvea 


Tc me lavaria^ I should or would wash myself. 

Tit ie lavariasy . thou shouldst or wouldst wash thyself 

El \i lavarioy he should or would wash himself. 

No^Hros nos lavariamoSy we should or would wash ourselves. 
Vosotros OS lavariaisj you should or would wash yourselves^ 
EUoe se lavariarij they should or would wash tiiemselvea 


ZdvaUf wash thyself 
LavadoSf wash yourselves. 

Present Tense. 
fQue yo me lave^ that I may wash myseU. 

Que t4 te laves^ that thou mayst wash thysel£ 

Qzie el se lave^ that he may wash himself 

Que nosotros nos lavemos, that we may wa»h ourselves. 
Que vosotros os laveisy that you may wash yourselves. 
Que ellos se laven^ that they may wash themselveti 

* The Beoond futare is (see note on page 25) : 

Fo mi latar€, tu te iavarei, U a lavare^ 

Ifomiret not ttndremoi^ vo9otrct m lav&nie^ #0m m toitnw. 



BuBJUMomm Past. 

Que yo me lavara^ or lavase^ that I miglit 

Que tii te Iav0,ra8y or lavaseSy that thou mightsi 

Que 41 se lavara^ or lavase^ tlitt he might 

Que nosotros nos lavdrumos^ or lavdsemos^ih&t we might 
Que tosotroe as lavdraie^ or lavdseisy that you might 
Que ellcs ee lavaran^ or lavasen^ that they might 

131. Almost all transitive verbs may be coDJugatad pro 
nommally. Some are, then, pronominal in both languages ; aii| 
Ocuparse to occupy one's self; conservaree^ to preserve one's 
self; unir8€0U> unite one's self, etc. Others are pronominal in 
one and passive in the other ; as, Llamarse^ to be called, or to 
call one's self : and some are pronominal in Spanish and neutei 
m English, as, llevaise^ to get up — literally, to get one's self up. 

CientOy hundred. 

132. When placed before a noun or adjective, ciento becomes 
eien for both genders ; but cientos becomes cientas in the follow- 
ing numbers, when joined to a feminine word. 

DoscientoSy two hundred. Seiscientos^ six hundred. 

TreecientoSy three hundred. Setecientos^ seven hundred. 

Cuatrocientos, four hundred. OckocientoSy eight hundred. 

QuinientoSy five hundred. NovecientoSy nine hundred. 

It will be well to observe that quinientoSy five hundred ; 
setecientosy seven hundred; and novecientoSy nine hundred, are 
formed irregularly. 

Un tresavoy a third. 

133. TreeavOy third, should not be confounded with tercero^ 
bird, already seen. In English, the fractional numbers are hk6 
he ordinal , but in Spanish they have a particular ending, thf 
lermination avo being added to the cardinal form, thus : 

CuatrCy four. Un cuatroavoy a fourth. 

CineOy five. Un cincoavo, a fifth. 

Dos cincoavoSy two-fifths, etc. 

Take notice that avo is changed to aV08 in the ploraL 



KiuHlar^ to teach, is a regular vcrli of tLe first conjugation 
Oaber, to contain, or to be contained, and dedueir^ to dedne^ 
are irregnlar, and will be explained later. 


1. I occupy myself^ ISO. 

2. He occupies himself. 

3. She occupies herself. 

4. We occupy ourselves. 
6. You occupy yourselves. 

6. They occupy themselves. 

7. I have occupied myself. 

8. He has occupied himself. 

9. She has occupied herself. 

10. We have occupied ourselves. 

11. You have occupied yourselves. 

12. They have occupied themselves. 

13. I shall occupy myself. 

14. He shall occupy himself. 

15. She shall occupy hcrsclL 

16. We shall occupy ourselves. 

17. You shall occupy yourselves. 

18. They shall occupy themselves. 

19. I am called, 129, ISO. 

20. He is called. 

21. She is called. 

22. We are called* 

23. You are called. 

24. They are called. 

25. I get up. 

26. He gets up. 

27. She ggts up. 

28. We get up. 

29. You get up. 

30. They get up. 

31. I unite myself. 

32. He unites himself. 

33. She unites hersell 

34. We unite ourselves. 
36. You unite yourselves. 
36. They unite themselves. 

87. He teaches us, 128. — 38. You teach me. — 39. Thej 
teach them. — 40. Twenty-one and twenty-two are forty-three.^ 
41. Thirty and fifty are eighty.— 42. Here are twenty-five pen- 
eils and a hundred and forty-four pens, 132, — 43. Many flowers 
—44. Several trees. — 46. Two hundred oxen and eight hundre( 
eoW6, 132. — 46. Five hundred boys and six hundred girls, 132. 
—47. Thursday, the fourth of July. — 48. One-quarter and 
one-fifth are nine-twentieths, 133. — 49. One-sixth from ore-fiftb 
leaTea one-thirtieth, 138. — 50. One-seventh, 188. 

* 8m Dotos on page 7. 


Uteial TranaUtloa* 

licccion duod£ciina> 

LesaoQ twelfth. 

La. Geografia. 

The Geography. 

El slobo consiette dc tierra y de apua^ 

The globe cunaiEts of earth and of water. 

Uno de loB mas agradables paises del 

One of the moat agreeable countries of the 

mundo es la EspaAa, con su dependcncia 

world is the Spain, with its de pen dene? 

■niiy Importanfe de Cuba en las Antillas. 

very important of Cuba in the Antilles. 

I^a EspaAa est& sidiada al siir de Eiiropa ; 

Tlie Bpaia i» eitoated at the Bonth of Europe: 

stis limltes son, al norte los Pirineos y la 
ita liraitB are, at the north the Pyrecees and the 

Erancia, al oriente el mar ]TIediterrAiieo, 

Franco, at the eaat the sea MediterraDean, 

al occidente el oc^ano Atl&nfica y 

at the weat the ocean A U an tie and 

Portugal, y al siir el esfrecho 1c 

Portugal, and i 

it the Gouth the strait of 

Gibraltar. El 

Gibraltar. The 

agua es salada 6 Tresca 

water is salt or 'resli. 

Vn lago es uo 

A lake U a 

mar chico de agriia fresca 

aea small of water freah. 

* SM DOt«t QQ p>f« TH 



Los mat irnuide^ laipos y ri09 esUui 

The most large lakes and rirers are 

en los Estados IJnidos de Jun^rieai 

in the States United of America. 

RelampaiTiiea. Traena. I<laeTe. OraniBa, 

It lightens. It thunders. It rains. It hidla. 

JViera. Hiela. DesMeJa. 

^t snows. It freezes. It thaws. 

The same in good BngHah. 

La OsooRAviA. 

£1 globe oonsiste de tierra y de 
agua. Uno de los mas agradables 
paises del ranndo es la ^pafta, 
oon an dependencia mny impor- 
tante de Caba en las Antillas. 
La Espafia est4 sitnada al snr de 
Europa : sns limites son, al uorte 
los Pirineos j la Francia, al 
oriente el mar Mediterraneo, al 
occidente el oc^ano Atlantico y 
Portngal, y al snr el estrecho de 
Gibraltar. £1 agaa es salada 
6 fresca. Un lago es un mar 
chico de agua fresca. Los mas 
grandes lagos y rios estan en 
los Estados Unidos de America. 
Relampagaea. Truena. Llueve. 
Graniza. Nieva. Hiela. Des- 


The earth is divided into land 
and water. One of the most 
agreeable conntrles in the world 
is Spain, with its valnable de* 
pendency, the island of Ouba, in 
the West Indies. Spidn is situ- 
ated at the south of Europe. It 
is bounded on the north by the 
Pyrenean mountains and France, 
on the east by the Mediterranean 
sea, on the west by the Atlantic 
ocean and Portugal, and at the 
south by the stridts of Gibraltar. 
A lake is a small sea of fresh 
water. The largest lakes and 
rivers are in the United States of 
America. It lightens. It thun* 
ders. It rains. It hails. It snowi^ 
It freezes. It thaws. 

QueationB and Answers for Convcrsatioa 

I Que leccion es esta ? 

I De que consiste el globo ? 

I Que consiste do tierra y de agua! 
(Que dase de pais es la Espa&a? 

La duod^cima. 

El globo consiste de tiena y da 

El globo. 
Uno de los mas agradatles dal 




iQoe dependenoia importante 

I DoDde esti la isla de Ouba ! 
I Donde estd situada la Espafia? 
I Onales son sus limites al norte? 
(Yal oriente? 
I Y al oocidente ? 
i Y al sort 
(Oomo es el aguaS 
• I Qne es an lago ? 
I Donde ostan los mas grandes 
lagos y rios ? 

La isla de Oaba. 

En las Antillas. 
Al sur de Eoropa. 
Los Pirineos y la >*ACcia. 
El mar Mediterran«u. 
El oo6ano Atlantico y Portigik 
£1 estreoho de Gioraltar. 
El agua es salada u %esca. 
Un mar ohico de agna fresca. 
En los Estados l/nidos de Amo 

Sentencea for Oral Tranalatioa 


El globo. 

La tierra. 

£1 pais. 

£1 mundo. 

El norte. 


£1 oriente. 

£1 ocoidente. 

Un lago. 

Un estreoho. 

Un rio. 
Los £stados Unidos. 
La Francia, la Espaiia y la Ame- 
El mar 6 el oceano. 
I Ha estndiado Y. la geografia 
No la be estndiado todavia. 
|Sabe y. algo de la Espafta ! 

Be donde esta situada. 

Digame V. sns limites. 

I Donde esta el estreoho de 6i- 

oraltar ? 
Cntre el oc6ano Atlantico y el 

war Mediterrineo. 


The globe. 

The earth. 

The country. 

The world. 

The north. 

The south. 

The east. 

The west. 

A lake. 

A strait. 

A river 
The United States. 
France, S^yain, and Americai 

The sea or the ocean. 

Have you studied geogra[^y? 

I have not yet «tudied it. 

Do you, know any thing aboQ 

I know where it is situated. 

Tell me its limits. 

Where are the straits of Gibral- 

Between the Atlantic ocean aod 
the Mediterranean sea. 



I dual tb la primera oindad de 

La mas importante es la Habana. 
El Yirey tiene una finca bonita 

oerea de esta oiadad. 
T el Obispo tiene nn jardin may 

I Quiere V. ir oonmigo al jardin t 

Haoe demasiado oalor. 

I Tiene Y. miedo de ir? 

8i, sefior, tengo miedo del perro. 

I Hay algunos pl^aros en el jardin? 

Hay papagayos y canarios, 

4 Sabe Y. sn leocion ? 

La 86 bastante bien. 

La he estndiado mnoho. 

Which is the principal city of 

The most important is Havana. 
The Yiceroy has a nice country- 

seat near this city. 
And the Bishop has a very fine 

Will you go with me to the 

garden ? 
It is too warm. 
Are yon afraid to go ? 
Tes, sir, I am afraid of the dcg. 
Are there any birds in the garden 
There are parrots and canaries. 
Do you know your lesson ? 
I know it pretty well. 
I have studied it a great deal ' 


HI estreehoj the straits. 

134. In English, certain words are used only in the sing . ..t, 
as knowledge f progress ; and others only in the plural, as a] les^ 
teissorsy etc. In Spanish, estrecho has a singular and a plur J. 

El agua^ the water. 

135. The determinatives the, a, an, etc., are often U8)d in 
Uie masculine instead of the feminine before nouns beginning 
with an accented a, fbr the sake of euphony, and to avoid th^ 
too frequent recurrence of two a*s following each other. 

Ex. El ama^ the mistress of the house. 
El alnuzy the soul. 
El dguila, the eagle, etc. 

Relampaguea^ it lightens. 

136. Impersonal verbs are generally used only in the foin 
of the third person lingular, and without any pronoun. 



ICoDiL oy CovjuoATioK ro» TBI Impibsohal ViBl* 

Bdampaguear^ to lighten. 


BitampoffueandOf lightening. Bdampagueado^ lightened 



Bdampaguea^ it lightens. 


tMampaguidoa^ it lightened, or used to lighten. 

Past Tknu Dxrniira. 
Belampaguedf it lightened, or did lighten. 

Selampagueardf it shall lighten, or will lighten. 

Relampaguiaria^ it should lighten, or wonld lighten 

Pbbsknt Tbnss. 

Belampaguee^ that it may lighten. 

SuBJUMcnvB Past. 
Retampaguearoj or relampaguease^ that it might lighten. 

Truenoy it thunders, from tronar^ to thunder. 
137* Many verbs ending with ar, and some ending with er 
m the infinitive, whose termination is preceded by a syllabic 
containing an o, change this o into ue in the first, second, and 
third person singular, and third person plural, of the present 
tense of the indicative, subjunctive, and imperative, ha in th^ 
following examples : 

* Ths iMO&d ftrture is (lee i ote on page 25) : JMamfagumt$, 


Mostrar^ to show. 

PsmNT Tknss. 
To mxt^trOf I show, or do ahow. 

TA mueitraa^ thou showest, or dott show. 
JSl mtiestrOf he shows, or does show* 
EUaa muestran^ they show, or do show* 

Mueatra^ show (thou). 



Que yo mueatre^ that I may show. 

Que t4 muestres^ that thou mayst show* 

Que H muestrej that he may show. 

Que ellae muestren^ that they may show. 

Mover f to move. 


F6 muevo^ I move, or do move. 

TA mueveSy thou movest, or dost move. 

M mueve^ he moves, or does move. 

Mloe mueven^ they move, or do move. 

Mueve^ move (thou). 

PRBmiT Tenbk. 
Que yo muewt^ that I may move. 

Que tu muevas^ that thou mayst move. 
Que el muevcLj that he may move. 

Que ellos muevan^ that they may move. 

In all other parts they are regular. Those of this elasi 
already seen are : Llover^ to rain ; encontrar^ to meet ; alnwnar^ 


98 tW£Lii*Td L£»tK)ir. 

to Ireakfiist; acoatar^ to go to bed; and costar^ to cost. Tlu 
rest will be explained as they occur in the text 

NievQy it snows, from nevar, to snow. 
1R8. Many verbs ending with ar, and some ending with er 
in the infinitive, whose termination is preceded by a syllable 
containing an e* take an i before that e in the first, second, and 
third person singular, and third person plural, of the present 
tense of the indicative, subjunctive, and imperative, as in the 
feiUowing examples : 

Qudtraff to break. 

Present Tense. 
Fo quubro^ I break, or do break. 

Tfk quUhraSf thou breakest, or dost break. 
El quiehrOj he breaks, or does break. 
SUoi quiebran^ they break, or do brcaL 

QuiebrOy break (thon). 

Preseht Tense. 
Que yo quiebre^ that I may break. 
Que ti quiebres^ that thou inayst break 
Que 41 quubre^ that he may break. 

Que ellos quiebren^ that they may break. 

Perder^ to lose. 

Present Tense. 
TopierdOf Hose, ordo.ose. 

IM pierdeSf thou losest, or dost lose 
JSU pierde^ he loses, or does lose 

Slloe pierden, they lose, or do lose. 

Pierdey lose (thon). 

TW&tirtii tJWDUr M 

pRnsMT Tense. 
Que yopierday that I may lose. 

Qui til pierdasy that thou mayst lose. 
Que il pierda^ that he may lose. 

Que ellos jnerdan^ that they may lose. 

In all other parts they are regular. Those of this clas 
already seen are : ffehr^ to freeze ; deehelar^ to thaw ; despertar^ 
to awake; pensar, to think; and recomendar^ to reiM>mniend. 
The rest will be explained as they occur in the text 

139. One of the most important impersonal verbs is kaber 
in the sense of there to 6e, which is conjugated as follows : 

HdbeTj there to be. 


Present Tense. 

ffay^ there is, or there are. 

HMOf there was, or there were. 

Past Tense Definite. 
Hubo^ there was, or there were. 


Habrdy there shall be, or will be. 

Vubriaf there should be, or wonJd be. 


Present Tense. 
ffaya^ that there may be. 

Subjunctive Past. 
JBubierOy or hubiesej that there might be. 

* The second future is (see note on psge 25) : SMm^ 



CcfuUtir^ to oooBisti is a regular verb of tDe Ihiid coajn 


1. It hailf, 186. 

2. It haUed. 
8. It will hail. 

4. It would hail. 

5. HaiHng. 

8. It has hailed. 
7. It had hailed. 

6. I breakfast, 137. 

9. He breakfasts. 

10. We breakfast 

11. Tou break&st. 

12. They breakfast. 

13. I breakfasted. 

14. I shall breakfast. 

15. I should breakfast. 

16. Let him breakfast. 

17. Breakfast 

18. I have break&sted. 

18. It rainsi 187. 

20. It rained. 

21. It will rain. 

22. It wonid rain. 

23. Raining. 

24. It has rained. 

25. It had rained. 

26. I think, 138. 

27. He thinks. 

28. We think. 
20. Ton think. 

30. They think. 

31. I thought 

32. I shall think. 

33. I should think. 

34. Let him think. 

35. Think. 

36. I have thought 

87. It will snow, 138. — 38. It has thundered, 136. — 39. It 
eosts, 137.— 40. It has cost, 137. — 41. I go to bed, 137. — 
42. 1 awake, 138.— 43. That he m^y awake, 138.— 44. Go to 
bed, 138. — 45. There are several islands near the city, 139.- 
46. Does it lighten much at the south? 136.— 47. It lighteni 
very frequently in all tropical countries, 136. — 48. Does it hail 
fiiere also? 136. — 49. Sometimes. — 50. Are there many children 
in the park? 139. — 51. There are many boys and girls, 139. 

* Bte DOfeM c n pi^ 7. 

t See note on page S6. 



Idtsral TrenalaUon. 

Leccion d^cimatcrcia.* 

LeasoQ thirteenth. 

EBContrando iin dia un adulador, que 

Mee^Dg one daj a flatterer, who 

riria de la adnlacion, & iin anlisuo ' 

lived of the oduktioD, t ao old 

condiscfpulo suyo el cual habia lenido 

cuiiirade his the which had liad 

que dejar sutt estudios y aplicarse & un 

to quit hia etudiea and to ojiply liimself to a. 

(rab^jo meeAnico para sranar su iubeisten- 

labor mecliatiio in order to gaio hia liveliliood 

cia, y coiupadccido dc su suerte, le dijo : 

and touched with hia destiny, liim eaid : 

I Forqu£ no apreudes A a^radar, y enttincea 

Why not Ihou leamest to pleHse, sod then 

no te rcras precisado a ganar el pan 

DDl thee thou almlt ece ohiiged to gain tlie hread 

con el trabajo de (us manos I i Porqu£, le 

with the worli of lliy hands? Why, hiin 

replied el otro, no aprendcH t6 & trabajar, 

replied the other, not leaineet thou to wurk, 

y no tendrfts neccsidad de ser esclavol 

■nd not thou shalt hare need to be elnve! 



The same in good EngUsb. 


Enooutrando nn dia an ada- 
4idcr, que yivia de la adnlacion, 
& nn antigno condiscipulo snjo 
el coal habia tenido que dejar 
•08 eetudios y aplicarse 4 an 
lrab%jo meoanico para ganar sn 
•Qlsistenoia, y compadecido de 
•a saerte, le dijo: (Porqu^ no 
aprendes a agradar, y entonoes 
no te veras precisado a ganar 
el pan con el trabajo de tus 
manos? |Porque, le replico el 
otro, no aprendes tu 4 trab^jar, 
y no tendris necesidad de ser 


A flatterer who lived by flat- 
tery, meeting one day one of hii 
old schoolmates "vvho had been 
compelled to abandon his stadiet 
and to devote himself to me* 
chanical pnrsaits in order to gain 
his livelihood — pitying his fate, 
asked him : *' Why dost then not 
learn to flitter? thon wonldst 
then no longer be compelled to 
earn thy bread by the labor of 
thy hands." The other replied, 
^^Why dost thon not learn to 
work? thon wonldst then have 
no need to be a slave." 

Queatioiui and Answers for Conversation. 

I Qne leccion es esta ? 

|De qaien habla esta anecdotal 

|De que vivia este adulador? 

I A quien encontro nn dia ? 

I Que habia tenido que dejar este 
condiscipnlo ? 

4 Y a que habia tenido que apli- 

I Para qne ? 

|De qne se compadeoio el adu- 

|T queledyo? 
Porqn6 ? 

I Que le replied el otro ? 

I Quien enoontr6 nn dia & an 

antlgao condisoipnlo snyo ? 
I T gne le replioo ^l.otnjff 

La d^cimatercia. 

De nn adulader. 

De la adulacion. 

A an antiguo condbcipnlo sayow 

Sus estudios. 

A nn trabajo meo&nioo. 

Para ganar sn subsistenoia. 
De la suerto de sn antiguo con 

I Porqu6 no aprendes a agradar ? 
No te varas entunces precisado 

a ganar el pan con el trabi^o 

de tus manos. 
|Porqu6 no aprendes tu a tra- 

bcgar, y no tundras necesidad 

de ser esclavof 
Un adnkdor. 

Aprende a agradar. 
Aprende a trabijar. 



Sentenoas lor Oral Thinalatton. 

10 n tmAmuLnD orro nreum. 

La an^cdota. 

El adulador. 

El condisclpTilo. 

El esclayo. 

Bus estadios de V. 

Nnestra subsistenda. 

Vueetra saerte. 

To8 manos. 

Tu adnlacion. 

La necesidad. 

£1 trabi^o. 
|lJa leido V. la an6cdota del 

adalador ? 
La he leido. 

I Qae ptensa Y. de ella I 
Pienso qae es una an6cdota may 

i Que piensa V. del adalador f 

Es on hombre malo. 

I Prefiere Y. el trabigo 4 los es- 

Preflero el comercio. 
(Oomo gana sa sabsistencia an 

bahonero ? 
Oomprando y vendiendo, 
|Y coino la ganan otros oia- 

dadanos ? 
Oon el trabajo de sus manos. 
|Es el Yivir caro aqni? 
Es may barato, 

iQuiere Y. darme algun trabi^o? 
Qaiero dar a Y. bastante tra* 

I Oaanto qniere Y. pagarme ! 
Tres pesos todos los dias, 
Machas gracias. 
|8abe Y. leer? 
8^ leer y eaeril^r. 

. TO •■ TRAiraLATID OriC 

The anecdote. 

The flatterer. 

The sohoolfellow. 

The slave. 

Yonr studies. 

Oar livelihood. 

Yoar fate. 

Thy hands. 

Thy flattery. 

The necessity. 

The labor. 
Have yoa read the anecdote Oi 

the flatterer! 
I have read it. 
What do yon think of it ? 
I find it qaite a pleasant story. 

What do yon think of the flat 

He is a bad man. 
Do yon prefer labor to study? 

I prefer commerce. 

ilow does a pedler gain his live* 

lihood ? 
By baying and selling. 
And how do other citizens gaia 

By the labor of their hands. 
Is living dear here? 
It is very cheap. 
Will you give me seme work? 
I will give yci work ?&ongb. 

How much wul yon pay mo ? 
Tb^ee dollars every day. 

Thank yon. 

Oan yon read ? 

I oan rend and wfitiL 



Snetmtrando & un condUeipuhy 

meeting a schoolfellow. 

14C Most active transitive lerbs require the preposition a 

before their direct regimen when that regimen is a person ; bal 

Bo preposition is added when the direct regimen is not a person. 

Ex. Encontrar d alguno, to meet ^me one. 
Encontrar alguna cosoj to meet something. 

The verbs of this class already seen are : 


to love. 


to wash. 


to look for. 


to call. 


to know. 


to bring. 


to believe. 


to put 


to quit, to leave. 


to occupy. 


to meet 


to put 


to teach. 


to force. 


to hear. 


f to recommend. 


to send. 


to receive. 


to examine. 


to serve. 


to find. 


to see. 

The rest will be explained as they occur in the text They 
will also be found each in its alphabetical place in the Index. 

Un antiguo condisdpulo^ 
an old schoolfellow. 

141. Antiguo could not be replaced here by vi^o, old, already 
icen. Antiguo means, of long standing, or ancient, while viej^ 
answers more particularly to old in years, worn out, or decay<^d 

Un antiguo :ondiscipulo suyo, 
or Uno de SUS antiguos condiscipulos, 
one of his old schoolfellows. 

142. The possessive adjective may be placed 
ide noon wluch it determines ; but when it is 


miOy tnyo, and suyo, have to be used instead of mi, fu, 9u^ 
already seen. The changes of mio, tuyo, suyo, are : miai 
tuya, suya, for the feminine singular ; mios, tuyog, suyoii 
for the mascaline plural ; and mias, tuyas, suyait for tht 
feminine plural. 

Bz. Mi nifio, or niiio mto, my boy. 

Mi nifla^ or nifia mia^ my girl. 

Mit hermaiwSj or kei'manos mioSf my brothen^ 

Mis kermanasy or hermanas mias, my sisters. 

143. This completes the study of the possessive adjectivea. 

Beftnra • word Before • word Before • word Before • word 
Mmo. ting, Fem. ting, Msm. plar. Fern. plnr. 

Mt, mi, mi, mis, . mis. 

Tht, tu, til, tus, tus. 

His, BiR, ITS, 811, su, bus, sub. 

Our, nuestro, nuestra, nuestros, nnestrat. 
Your, vuestro, vuestra, vuestros, ▼aestras. 

ThbIR, 811, su, SUS, SOS. 

See, also, Rule 142. 

ffabia tenido qne d^ar^ had had to quit 

144. To, before an infinitive, is generally translated by qne 
after tener. 

Ex. Tengo que salir^ I have to go out. 

El tiene que trahajavj he has to work. 
Tenemos que estudiar^ we have to study. 

But this verb enters into the composition of a numbei ^ 
idiomatic expressions which require de or &• They wil) be 
explained as they occur in the text. 

AplicarsCj to apply himsclC 

145. Verbs ending with car in the infinitive, change o tnto 
qu before e, in oider that the root may preserve the sound ot 
k throughout tl)cir conjugation. 

Ex. Aplicary to apply. Fahricar^ to manufacture. 

Apliquiy I did apply. Fahriqui^ I did manu&cturiL 



Compadecido de su suerU^ 
pitying his fate. 
146. Compadectendo su suerte would be as well. The past 
participle, used as an adjective, is generally followed by the 
preposition de. 

147 Verbff ending with oer and oir take a z before o^ 
when followed by a or o, to preserve to their root the soft sonno 
•f e throughout their conjugation. 

Bx. CompadeceVy to pity. 

Yo compadesscOf I pity. 
Que yo campadezca^ that he may pity. 

Conocevj to know. 

Yo conozco, I know. 

Que yo conozca^ that he may know. 

The exceptions to this rule are : hacer^ to make ; eocer^ to 
eook ; and tlie verbs ending with uoix, which will be explained 

Le dijo, said to him. 

148. Him is translated by le, and her by la; but to him 
or TO HiR, or HIM or her, used for to him or to hbr, are ren< 
dered indifferently by le. 

Ex. Le veo^ I see him. 
La veoy I see her. 
Le doyy I give him or her. 

149. It would be, perhaps, well to remark here, that lo n 
used almost as often as le for him, and that la is frequently 
introduced instead of le for to hek ; the Spanish Academicidns 
being themselvoo divided on the proper use of these small words. 
Without entering upon an inquiry into the merits of this dis- 
pute, we would recommend the strict observance of our rules on 
the subject, rather than endanger the progress of the scholar by 
an injudicious attempt to follow the distracting inconsistencies 
met with in this respect, even in the purest and most classical 
writers of Spain We will therefore reserve lo for the casei' 
indicated in Rule 96, ^ncl l^ for ukh* 


No te ver&$^ thoa shalt not see ikjuSL 

150. We have already seen in the verbs, that thou is 
translated by t6, and tube, to this, or thtsilf, by te. 
Tu, thx>Uj has an accent over the u, to distinguish it from 
tu, thy. (143.) 

15L The second person singular is more used in Spanish 
than in English ; but as it is applicable only in familiar con- 
versation between very intimate persons, it would seem better 
to abstain from it until a sufficient £icility in general speaking 
shall have been acquired. 

1C2. This completes the study of the personal pronouns, 
which are for the nominative case : Yo, /; tfi^ thou ; 61, he^ it ; 
ella, she^ it ; uosotros, nosotras, we ; vosotros. voso- 
tras, you ; apd ellos, ellas, they. 

The perse 9«1 pronouns for the objective case are : 

Me, me, ox to me; te, thee^ or to thee; le, Atm, to him^ on 
io her; la, her; n08, us, or to us; VOS, yow, or to you; 
los. las, them ; and les, to them ■: unless Joined to a preposi- 
tion which has to be expressed in Spanish, when these pronouns 
are translated as follows : 

Mb, by mi, except in conmigo, with me. 

Theb, " ti, " contiyo, with thee. 

Him, " el, " consiyo, with him. 

Her, " ella, " comigo, with her. 

Us, '^ nosotros, nosotras. 
You, " vosotros, vosotras. 
Thim, ^' ellos, ellas, except in consigo, with them. 

In the pronominal form, se is used for himsel/f herHfff 
Hives, to himself, to \erself, and to themselves. 

Ex. M se lava, he washes himself. 

mia se lava, she washes herself. 

Mlos se lavan, they wash themselves. 

El se dice, he says to himself. 

Ella se dice, she says to herself 

EUos se die en, they say to themseVe% 

163. When two or more prononns follow each other ii 
KDtcDce, me, te. se. nos, os, arc always placed before le, 
la. loH, las. 

Ex. Bnvit me U, Rend him to lac. 

iVb me It mvia, do not send bim to me. 

Slmth mvia, he sends bim to mo. 

^l no me It etivia, he docs not send bim to me. 

164. To avoid the coming together of le le, le la, le lo, 
le l08, le laB, or le les, on account of euphony only, to qiu, 
TO KKR, TO IT, or TO THEM, when joined to him, her, il, or Ihem, 
u translated indisodminately by 86, which is of both genden 
xnd numbers; adding d il, & ella, d ello, d ellos, or d ellai, 
whenever clearness requires it See Rules from 90 to 90. 

Ex. Envia se la d il, send her to him. 

Envia se le & il, send it to, him. 

Envia se lo& d U, send them to him. 

Ew»a se'loa d etla, send them to her. 

Jfo se le envie & ellos, do not send it to them, 

i8* la mvia d il, he sends her to him. 

Ttis manof, thy hands, 
156. Tbt is translated by tu before a word singdar, and 
by tus before a plural one. See Rules 143, 150, IC], in tbii 

Heceaidad, necessity, 

156. Words ending with dad in Spanish, generally end wiUi 
ty in English, with little or no other difference of orthography; 
■a : Liber lad, liberty ; fidelidad, fidelity; eiudad, city, etc 

Stierte is feminine by exception. 

Dejar, to quit, to leave; ganar, to gain; agradar, to pleaso; 
vreeisar, to oblige; and Irahnjtir, to work, are regular verbi 
of the first conjugation : aprender, to learn, is of the second. 

Deeir, to say, tn 'ell, and vtr, to ice, anj irregular, «nd wiJ 
be eipbined later. 

TfllStfifillTH UBSSOV. 


10 Bl TRAXaULTED 010 tPAlllHI. 

1. My BclioolfelloW; 143> 

5. Thy livelihood* 
8. His mother. 

4. Our boy. 

6. Tour brother. 

6. Their gloves. 

7. My hat 

8. Thy chairs. 

9. His carpets. 

10. Our cakes. 

11. Tour store. 

12. Their needles. 

13. To reply. 

14. I did reply, 145. 

15. That I may reply. 

16. That he may reply. 

17. That we may reply. 

18. That you may reply. 

19. That they may reply. 

20. My work, 148. 

21. Thy &te. 

22. HerfiOher. 

23. Our girl 

24. Tour sister. 

25. Their doihes. 
20. My handkerohiet 

27. Thy sofas. 

28. His tables. 

29. Our biscdte. 

80. Tour merchandise 

81. Their thread. 

32. To appear. * 

33. I did appear, 147. 

34. That I may appear. 

35. That he may appear. 

30. That we may appear. 

37. That you may appear. 

38. That they may appear. 

39. Hast thou any thing? 150, 151.— 40: I have nothing.--* 
41. Where art thou I 150, 151.— 42. I am here.— 48. Where 
are thy books? 155. — 44. They are upon the table. — 45. Have 
I paid thee? 150, 151.— 46. Thou hast paid me, 150, 151.— 
47. Where is he ? — 48. He is with us. — 49. An old coat, 141.—- 
50. Where have you met my brother? — 51. I met him in 
the street — 52. What have you to do? 144. — 53. I have to 
work, 144. — 54. I have to read, 144. — 55. I have to write, 144 
— *56. He washes the boys 140. — 57. He washes his hands, 140 
•—58. To see a man, 140.— 59. To see a book, 140. — 60. He 
left his brother, 140. — 61. We leave school, 140. — 62. To send 
e boy, 140. — 63. To send something, 140. — 64. Thy activity, 
156^ 156.— 65. Thy capacity, 155, 155.— 66. Thy captivi^. 

* 8m notes on pago 7. 


Literal Translatioii.* 

Lecciou dfciniaciiarla. 

Lesson foEirteentL. 

Preseucia ile Aninio. 

Presence of Mind. 
Al pi'incipio dc una batalla dada pur el 

A'-, 'he tcginiiijig of a b.itrle given by llm 

Ainioso Clonzalo de Cordoba & los Franceses 

famous Gonzulo vC Cordova to iliu Frencli 

cn mil qiiinientos y tres, se voltf el 

in tliousand live huiiilreil and tliree, esplodeil tho 

ainiacen de polrora de los Espa&oles. 

roagiuiiie of powder of ibe S|iaiiiard3. 

Knta. casnalidad podia tener Tiinestas 

Tbis casualty could have iinfavorablu 

resultas, pcro la prcseneia de auinio de 

ra^ulta, but the pretecK^e of miud of 

(nonzalo sskc6 de alia las ntayores ventajas. 

Gonzalo drew fnun it tliu greatest advantages, 

Animo, dice a sus soidados, la vtcloria 

Courage, savs lie to bis soldiere, the victory 

'.fs nuestra : el Cielo anuncia por et«(a 

ia ourfl: the Heaven aiinoimces through this 








no nccesilainos 

iiot we need 













fbrfalecitf de tal manera & la tropa, que 

Btreugthened in snch way the troops, that 

coiisig^uieron una conipleta Tictoria. 

they obtained a complete viotory* 

The same in good Engliah. 

Prbbincia db Akimo. 

Al principio de una batalla 
dada por el faiuoso Gonzalo de 
Cordoba a los Franceses en mil 
qniuientos y tres, se volo el al- 
macen de polvora de los Espaflo- 
les^ £8ta casualidad podia tener 
fhnestas resultas, pero la presen- 
oia de iLnimo de Gonzalo saco de 
ella las mayores ventajas. Ani- 
mo, dice a sns soldados, la vic- 
toria es nnestra : el Cielo anuncia 
por esta estrepitosa sefial, qne 
DO necesitamos ya de artilleria. 
Este breve discurso fortalecio de 
tal manera a la tropa, que con- 
sigaieron una completa victoria. 

Prisimcs of Mum. 

The powder-magazine of tht 
Spaniards having exploded ai 
the beginning of a battle fonght 
against tlie French in 1508, the 
famous Gonzalo de Oordova^ 
their leader, knew how to turn 
this threatening misfortune to 
great advantage, by saying to 
his soldiers, "Courage — victory 
is ours : Heaven declares by thia 
noisy signal that we have no 
need of artillery." This short 
speech encouraged his troops so 
much, that they completely rout- 
ed the enemy. 

Questloiui and Answers for Conversation. 

I Que leccion es esta t 

I De que se habla en esta an^c- 

iCuando mostro presencia de 

animo t 
I Por quien fu6 dada esta batalla ? 
|De que ciudad era Gonzalo ? 
I A quien fu6 dada la batalla ? 
I £n qne afto 1 
4 Qne se volo rn esta batalla ? 

4 Que podia tener esta casualidad ? 
[ y ine saco Gonzalo de ella ? 

La d6cimacuarta. 

De la presencia de animo de 

Al principio de una batalla. 

Por el famoso Gonzalo. 

De Cordoba. 

A los Franceses. 

En el aiio mil quinientos y trea. 

£1 almacen de polvora de loi 

Funestas resultas. 
Las mayores venti^aa 



I Que (l\}o 4 sua soldadoe t 
I Que DOS ananoia el oielo f 

I For que sefial f 

I A qaien fortaleoi6 este dis- 



|Digmme V. qae fortaleoi6 i la 
tropa de tal nuinera t 

Animo, la victoria ee niMstnL 
Que no neoesitamos ya de artIV 

For esta estrepitosa sefiaL 
A la tropa. 

De tal manera que oomrigoieron 
una completa victoria. 

El breve disoorso de Gomalo dt 

Sentences for Oral TranalatioiL 


£1 prinoipio. 

La batalla. 

Una casnalidad. 

Una yenti\ja. 

Un Boldado. 

La sefiaL 

La artillerla. 

La resalta. 

Un discarso. 

Una victoria. 
La presencia de animo. 
fil almacen de polvora. 
I Ha leido V . la an^cdota ? 
Bi, senor, la be leido. 
I Qaien M Gonzalo t 
Un famoso general espafiol. 
I De qne cindad era 61 ? 

De Oordoba. 
I Donde esta oituada Oordoba ? 

Al sur de Espafia. 
|l|niene8 ganaron la batalla! 

Los Espafioles. 
Loa Am^ricaDos tambien ban 

dado mncbas batallas. 
Lo8 Franceses tienen la mejor 
artillerla del mnndo. 



The beginning. 

The battle. 

A casnalty. 

An advantage. 

A soldier. 

The signaL 

The artillery. 

The result. 

A speech. 

A victory. 
The presence of mind. 
The powder-magazine. 
Have you read the anecdote? 
Yes, sir, I have read it. 
Who was Gonzalo ! 
A famous Spanish general. 
Of what city was he t 
Of Cordova. 

Where is*Oordova situated } 
In the south of Spain. 
Who won the battle t 
The Spaniards. 
The Americans have also foni^hl 

many battles ? 
Tlie French have the best artil' 
lery in the world. 



Lm Iii|^6668 trafioan maoho oon 

loB Estados Unidos. 
|Oree V* que UoveHL esta 

No lo Bh, 

SSL oielo estd may opaoo. 
Oreo qne tendr6mos an dia her- 

mo6o mafiana. 
iQae venti^jas saoara Y. de 

Oreo qae ganar6 mocho dinero. 
El dinero es may util. 

The £nc^ trade a greal deal 
mith the United Stetea. 

Do you think that it will rafai 
this evening! 

I don't know. 

The heavens are very black* 

I think we will have a fine day 

' to-morrow. 

What advantages will yon derive 
from this? *^ 

I think I shall gdn mneh money. 

Money is very naeftiL 


Par Qomalo^ by Gonaala 

157. The preposition por is much used in Spaniah. Corre- 
sponding to pro and per in Latin, it answers in tarn toper^ by^ 
through^ and /or. 

El famoso Oonzalo^ 

the famous Gonzalo. 

158. The adjective is generally placed before the noon, when* 
ever it is desirable to dwell upon it with emphasia. 

FamoBo^ fiunooa. 

159. Words ending with inu in English, generally end with 
080 in Spanish, with little or no other difference of orthog- 
raphy; as, OenerosOf generous; numerosoj numerous; juidoto^ 
judicious, etc. 

Mil quinientos y treSj 

One thousand five hundred and three, 
or, fifteen hundred and three. 

160. Quince dentos y tres vroM nothe comcL The Spaniards 
never say, ten hundred^ eleven hundred, twelve hundred^ etc, but 
always thousand^ thousand one hundred^ thousand two hundred^e^ 

Las mayoreSf the greatest 

161. Mayor is the irregular comparative form oigrande^ ^vgeii 


fbvKtKKtura LfidsoK. 

alicadj teen. Its oorresponding saperlative is mdxima^ n H 
mayor, largest 

Fortalecid d la tropd, 

encouraged the troops. 
FortaUceTj to fortify, to encourage, is conjugated IJce eompa 
iecer. See Rule 147. ItTcquires to be followed by the preposi 
lion &. See Rule 140. 

Consiguierojij they obtained. 
162. Consiguieran is a form of conseguivj which is conjugated 
like 9eguir^ to follow. Some verbs ending with ir in the infini- 
tire, whose termination is preceded by a syllable coptaiuing an 
e, change that e into i, according to the following model : 

Seguir^ to follow.* 

Paism Pabtioipli. Past Partigiflp 

Siguiendo^ following. Seguido^ followed 



Yo siga^ I follow, or do follow. 

TA sigtieSf thou foUowest, or dost follow. 

M sigue^ he follows, or does follow. 

Nosoiros aeguimos^ we follow, or do follow. 

Vosotros seguiSj you follow, 

Mht siguen^ they follow, 


Yo $eguiaj I followed, or used to follow. 

T6 seguiaSj thou followedst, or usedst to follow. 

lU aeguia^ he followed, or used to follow. 

No90tro9 seguiamos^ we followed, or used to follow. 

Vosotros seguiais, you followed, or used to follow. 

Mlos seguian^ they followed, or used to follow. 

* It would be well to observe, that teguir has another peculiarity besident 
loatmnch as it loses its «, like all verbs ending with goir, before a and *- 
This suppresaion is, however, common only to the verbs whose terminatiTi 
m go^, thosa ending iHth giiir beirg conjugated like or^tr. See Index. 

or do follow, 
or do follow. 

fotmsEK'iti Licssoir. 


Vo9otro9 sepi^uU 
EUo9 tiguiirar^ 

Fact Tboi DtriMiTi. 

i followed^ or did fioDow, 

thou followedsty or didst folloi 

lie followed, 
we followed^ 
f oa followed, 
.*hv>y followed^ 

To ieguirif 
Td HffuirASf 
El Hguir&j 

or did follow, 
or did follow, 
or did follow, 
or did follow. 

or will follow. 

I ah&ll follow, 

thra «liait follow, or wilt follow. 

he sbal^ follow, or will follow. 
Nosotras 8eguirSmo.% we shaM 'oUow, or will follow. 
Vatotros seguiriiSf you shal^ fellow, or will follow. 
Elha uguir&n^ they shall M^c^\ Ok* will follow. 


Fo seguiria^ I should follow, or would follow. 

Tik seguiriasj thou shouldst follow, cr wouldst follov' 

El seguirui^ he should follow, o« would follow. 

Nosotros seguiriamoSj we should follow, o^ would follow 

Vosotras seguiriaisj you should follow, or vouIcl folVw 

Eliot seguirian^ they should follow, or wr^V |'^^ ^ 


Sigue^ follow (thou). 
Seguidf follow you. 



that I may follow, 
that thou mayst follow, 
tliat he may follow, 
that we may follow, 
that you may follow, 
that they may follow. 

Que yo siga^ 

Que Uk sigas, 

Que U sigoj 

Qtie nosotros sigamoSj 

Que vosotros sigais, 

Que ellos sigan, 

* The seoond future b (see note on page 25) : 

Fo tiguiere^ tu riguierti^ U tigvi§M^ 


SuBJuNorivi pAn', 
or siffuifse, that I migbt follow, 
or tiffvieses, that thou mightat foLon 

or dguiese, that he might follow. 

'S,ot iiguiisemos,^BX, we might follow, 

or siffuieseis, that you might follow. 

or aigvitsen, that diey might follow. 

Que yo tiguiera, 
Que (ti liffuUraa, 
Que il siguiera. 
Que noiotros nguiha 
Que wysotrM liguiera 
Qui elloi siguieran, 

163, Are excepted, a few verba eodiDg with entir, erix 
bad ertir which are conj'igated aa followa (see Index) : 


Senlir, to feel or to amelL 

famnT PABnoiFU. Par Pabtioifu. 

Sinliendo, feeling, Sentido, felt. 

Pbekxijt Teiui. 


I feel, 

or do feel. 

Ti sientes. 

thou feelest 

, or dost feeU 


he feels, 

or does feel 

Jfoaolrot tmtimoi 

-, we feel, 

or do feel 

Voxotroa tentit, 

you feel, 

or do feel 

£lloi tienten, 

they feel, 


or do feel. 

To lenlia. 


or used to feel. 


thou feltAHt, 

or uaedst to feel 


he felt. 

or used to feel 

Nosotros sejitiamoi, 

we felt. 

or used to feel 

Vomtrot lentlais, 

yoQ felt, 

or used to feeL 


Slloi seatian they felt, or uaed to feel 

Pabi Tsnu DwiNrra. 
To Mtnti, I felt, or did feel 

Ti tentiste, tliou felteat, or didat feeL 

£1 iMtfd, he felt, or did feel 

Jfotolrot sentimot, we felt, or did feel, 

Voeotrot eenlUteis, you felt, or did feeL 
Stioi ainlieron, they felt, or did feeL 



To mh/M, I ahall feel, or will fed. 

m tentirdtf thoa shalt feel, or wilt feeL 

M 9enUrdf he ahall feel, or will feeL 

No9oiros imtirimos, we diall feel, or will feeL 

Vasotros wntirHs^ you aha^l feel, or will feeL 

Ellos senUrdtij they ahall feel, or will feel. 


Fo senttriOf I ahoald feel, or would feei. 

T6 sentiriaSf thou shoaldat feel, or wooldst feel 

SI sentiria^ he ahould feel, or would feel. 

No9otro9 sentifiamaSf we ahoald feel, or would feel. 
Vasotros sentiriaiSj you should feel, or would feeL 
JEUcw teniirian^ they ahould feel, or would feeL 


Siente^ feel (thou). 
Sentidf feel (you). 


PaiSSIlT TiMBl. 

Que yo sientOj that I may feeL 

Que m sientaSj that thou mayst feeL 

Que il sienta^ that he may feel. 

Que nosotros sintamos^ that we may feeL 

Que vosotros sintaisy that you may feeL 

Qtie ellos sientany that they may feeL 

Que yo sintieraj or sintiese^ that I might feeL 

Que tit sintierasj or sintieses^ that thou mightat feeL 

Que SI sintierOf or sintiese^ that he might feel. 

Que nosotros sintiiramoSj or sintiisemos, that we might feel. 
Que vosotros sintiirais^ or sintiiseisy that you might feel. 
Que ellos sintieran, or sintiesen, that they might feel. 

* The second future it (see note on page 25) : 

Fo iinUtre, tu nntieresj 41 iin<Mf«, 

No90tro$ 9intUr$mc$, vo$atro$ ewtUnie^ ellot tiniuirmu 



164. Seruir, to serve, is conjugated like .'«?«;-, 'o follow, ' 


md preferir, to prefer, like sent 

'iV, to fee! or to smell. Ihe othei 

iii the first conjugation. Volar, to fly, goes like n.oslrar (137) 

Dar, to give; j>odfr, to be able 

J and deeir, to say, are irregnUf 

UK wii; be explained later. 


ExerotaOB, J 

1. To obtain, 162. 

20. To prefer, 1«4. 


8, 1 obtain. 

21. I prefer. 


8. He obtains. 

22. He prefers. 


4. She obtaiuB. 

23. She prefers. 


B. We obtain. 

24. We prefer. 


1 6. You obtain. 

25. You prefer. 


• 7. Tbey obtain. 

26. They prefer. 


8. I did obtain. 

27. I did prefer. 

9. He did obtain. 

28. He did prefei. 


10. We did obtain. 

29. We did prefer. 


1 11. You did obtain. 

30. You did prefer. 

1 12. They did obtain, 

81. They did prefer. 


18. I shall obtain. 

32. I shall prefer. 

14. I should obtain. 

33. I should prefer. 

16. Let him obtain. 

34. Let him prefer. 

16. That I may obtain. 

35. That I may prefer. 

17. That I might obtain. 

36. That I might prefer. 

18, I have obtained. 

37. 1 have preferred. 

19. Obtaining. 

38. Preferring. 

39. My exorcise was good, but Paul's was better ; and Joseph' 

was the beat of all.— 40. Who i 

s the first of this class t— 41. Vip 

ginia always knows her loBwns. 

—42. These goods are the worst 

—43. Do you feel the heat in this room (—44. I feel it— 46. Did 

tlie Boldiera follow their general f — 46. They followed him. — 

47. They obtained a complete ' 

fictory.— 48. Where is ciy copy- 

book 1—49. Have the kindness 

to give me my dictionary, 99.— 

60. Sliow me your book, if you please, 98.-6 1 I serve, 1 b4. 



Uteral Tranalatloa.* 

Leccion il^cimaquinta. 

Lesson Gftcontb. 

Extraclo dc Saavedra. 

Extract from Saavedra. 

Eb el hombre cl mas inconstante dc loa 

Ih the tnan the roost inconstant of tLa 

BainialeH. Con In edad, la fortuna, el 

animals, Witli the age, the fortane, the 

inferes y la pasion^ se va tniidando. 

interest, and llio p.iasion, liim.'^elf lie goes clianging. 

fSabe disimiilar y tener ociiltos lar^o 

He knows to dissimulnto atid to keep occult targe 

tiempo BUS arectos; con laa palabras, la 

time Ilia iiffections : with the words, the 

risa y Ian laf^rimas, enciibre lo que (iene 

laughter, and the tears, he conceals wliat he holds 

en el corazon; con la religion disfVaza 8u* 

in the heart ; with the religion he disgoisea hii 

desig'nios, con cl jiiramento los acredila, 

designs, with the oath them he aooredils, 

* Tha mode of reTlevicg mentioned la fimt cot« on pB|^ TS oc i.d to« 
bt made iitill Bbonei, bf luaving out Bvo of tho earlier lesBonB, trftUBlUing 
the flth, 7th, nnd 8th from Spaoish into English, tbe eth, 10th, sod lltli 
from thD Engllah Into S-^anisb, and oiil; the ISIh, IStb, lud I«tb in tha 
•ompleM manner required -n the firat note on page 8. In all thaee atUmpU 
to gidn time, however, due regard sliould be pnid to the parSicnlar degree d( 
pndclencf attained, for a neglect of any pcrtion of tbe test «oald of neo»- 
^9 canie muoh inoon van iene*, and ieui ) ratard oonaidorabl; all kioifa 



lece al ^^H 
>ej'9 to th( ^^^1 

y con la nienlira l08 oculta. Obedece 

and with the falsebood tl:em be liides. He obey 
temor y & la esperaiiza; lo§ Tavores Ic 

iiope ; the favori hi™ 

hacen ingrato, el niando soberbio. En la 

make ungrateful, tlje power haughty. In thf 

ni^cesidad e« hiimilde y obedlente; y fUera 

humble BDd obedieut ; and out 

de ella, arrogante y despreciador. Se 

arrogant and prond. Himself ba 

jiizffa fino en la amistad, y no la sabe 

judges pure m the frieudahip, and not it he linowa 

guardar. Desprecia lo propio y ainbiciona 

keep. He dappis«s 

Ilo ageno. Cuanto mas alcanza, tanio ^^| 
the neig1ibor*s. As much more he gets, as much ^^^| 

mas desea. Ama en los dcnias el rigor ^^ 

a de^res. He lurea in tlia others the rigor 

de la Jastlcia, y en si la aborrece. 

of the Jnstioe, and in himself it he abhors. 

Tbe same lo good EngUab. 


Es el F ombre el mas iooou- Man ia a most flchle being, 
rtanto dn los animales. Con )a . alike affected by every change. 
«<la(t, la fortaoa, el interes y la ' He knows how to dissimnlata 
pasioD, M va mudando. Babe his nffecticns, and to hide th« 
disimolar y tener ocnllos argo secrets of his bearl, by word, 
tiempo BUS afectoa : conlaspala- laughter, and tears. Using re- 
bras, la risa y las tigrimas, en- | ligion as a cloak, he gives 'ToigU 
onbre lo que tiune en el corazuti ; lu lils designs, utid conceals theii 
eon la religion lii^fraza f\n dc- i nature by false asseveratioua. 
■ignios, COD el Jurameiito lo3 { Swayed by hope and fear, klnil- 
aoredita, y con la iiientiia los | ness makes him ungratefcl, and 
Mtidbb Obedece al temor y i \ power hnuglit;. Hnmble and 



k esperanza ; los favores le haoen 
Ingrato, el mando soberbio. Eq 
!a neoesidad es hiimilde y obe- 
diente ; y fuera de ella, arrogante 
y despreciador. Se Jnzga fino en 
la amistad, y no la sabe gnardar. 
Desprecia lo propio y ambiciona 
lo ageno. Oaanto mas alcanza, 
tanto mas desea. Ama en IO0 
demas el rigor de la Jostioia, y 
•o d la aborreoe. 

submissive in poverty^ he ii 
proud and arrogant when rieh. 
He seeks friendship, though ha 
does not know what it if to 
be a friend. He despises his 
own, and oovets eagerly what 
is his neighbor's. The more h% 
has, the more he wants. H« 
loves justice in othersi and ii 
himself ai\{ust. 

Qnestions and Answem to ConT«raatkML 

Que leccion es esta T 
De qae se habla en esta leooion! 
Oon que se va mndando el 
hombre f 
Qae sabe 61! 

Que encubre 61 oon las palabras, 

la risa y las lagrimas f 
Que hace con la religion? 
T con el Joramento! 
T con la mentira! 
A que obedece t 
Qae hacen los favores y el 

mando ? 
Qae hacen al hombre ingrato 

y soberbio ? 

Como ^s 3n Ji necesidad ! 
T faera deella! 
Ouando es el hombre hnmilde 

y obediente f 
Cn que se juzga finr> 1 
T que no sabe t 
Que desprecia t 
Que ambiciona t 
Qne ama en los demas t 
T en quien la aborrecef 
Quien ba escrito este cxtracto f 

La d^oimaquinUL 

De la inconstacda del hombrt. 

Oon la edad, la fortona, ^ Interes 

y la pasion. 
El sabe dirimnlar y tener oonltos 

largo tiempo sns afectoSi 
Lo que tiene en el eoraion, 

Disfrasa sns designios. 


Los ooulta. 

Al temor y 4 la espenum. 

Le haoen ingrato y soberbio. 

Los favores y el mando. 

Humilde y obedientei. 
Arrogante y desprcdadi 
En la neoesidad. 

En la amistad. 


Lo propio. 

Lo ageno. 

El rigor dc la Justioia. 

En si. 




BantenoeB ftnr Oral Tranalatiaa 

fo MM iiSAiraLATiD mo nrGUOL 


Una menttra. 

El designio. 

El mando. 

La religion* 

Till fieivor. 


Una lagrima. 



El oorazoD. 

Las pasiones. 

Las palabras. 

Cnando es hnmilde y obediente 
el hombre f 
Onando estd en la necesidad. 
I Onando es arrogante ! 
Onando es rico. 
I Disimnla 61 1 
Disimnla frecnentcroente. 
Los gatos tambien disimnlan. 
I Quiere V. mudar sns vestidos? 
Quiero mudarlos. 
I Qnien es nn mal soldado t 
El qne tiene temor. 
I Que bace ingrato al horabre? 
Los favores le hacen ingrato. 
I Qne le hace soberbio t 
£1 mando le haoe soberbio. 
I Desprecia algo el hombre f 
D«sprecia lo propio. 
lOon que disfraza sns designiosf 

Oon la religion. 

Ko oiea Y. sns palabras. 



A fortune. 

A falsehood. 

The design. 

The power. 

The religion, 

A fitYor. 

An oath. 

A tear. 

The interest. 

The a^ection 

The heart 

The pas£$[ons. 

The words. 

The laughter. 
When is man humble and su^ 

missive f 
When he is poor. 
When is he arrogant ? 
When he is rich. 
Does he dissimnlate ? 
He often dissimulates. 
Oats dissimulate also. 
Will you change your clothes f 
I will change them. 
Who is a bad soldier I 
He who is afraid. 
What makes man ungrateful f 
Kindness makes him ungrateful 
What makes him proud ? 
Power makes bin- proud. 
Does man despise any thing? 
He despises his own. 
With what does he disguise hit 

designs ? 
With religion. 
Do not believe Lis words, 
Ho abhors justice. 

nrncBNTH lesson. 12S 


Se va mudandoj goes on changing. 
1«A. The verb to g« is often used in the pronominal fona. 
And jomed to another verb to indicate that an action is actnallj 
going on. Ir is one of the most necessary irregular verbs ui 
Bpftouh. Its conjugation is as follows : 

/r, to go. 
Pkbbbnt Particiflb. Past PABnomBi 

Yendoj going. IdOf gone. 

Present Tense. 

To voi^ 

I go, 

or do go. 


thou goest, 

or dost go. 


he goes, 

or does go. 

Nosotros vamos 

, we go, 

or do go. 

Vosotros vaiSy 

you go, 

or do go. 

EU08 van^ 

they go. 

or do go. 


I went, 

or used to go. 


thou wentest 

, or usedst to go. 


he went, 

or used to go. 

No8otro8 ihamoSy 

we went. 

or used to ga 

Vosotros tbaisy 

you went, 

or used to go. 

Elhs ihaUy 

they went. 

or used toga 

Yhsi Tense Definiti 



I went, 

or did ga 

TA fuiste. 

thou wentcbt, or didst go. 

El fui. 

he went. 

or did go. 

Nosotros fuimoSy 

we went, 

or did ga 

Vosofros fuisteiSj 

you went, 

or did go. 

Ellos fuirony 

they went. 

or did go. 

* The verb Ir, to go, is properly a defective verb, and the form of tl a 
liiiM definite \m borrowed from Sor, to bo, which see, pan^e 48 

1S4 vhtbenth lkssov. 


To irif I diall go, or will fg^ 

TA irdSf thou shalt go, or wilt ga 

J7 irdf he shall go^ or will go. 

Nosotras irSmos^ we shall go, or will ga 
Vosotros irSiSf you shall go, or will go. 
£Uo8 tVdn, they shall go, oi will go. 


F6 iria^ I should go, or wou^d go* 

T6 iriat^ thou shouldst go, or wouldit ga 

M tno, he should go, or would go. 

No9otra8 iriamos^ we should go, or would go. 

Vo9otro$ iriais^ you should go, or would go. 

EUoi iriaUf they should go, or would ga 


Ve, go (thou). 
Id, go (you). 

Pbksbnt Tbnsk. 
Que yo vaya, that I may ga 

Que Ui vayae, that thou mayst ga 

Que U vaya, that he may go. 

Que noeotroB v&yamos, that we may ga 
Que vosotros vdyais, that you may ga 

Que ellos vayan, that they may ga 

SuBJimonyB Past. 

Que yo fuera, or fuese, that I might ga 

Que ^ fuerasj or fueees, that thou mightst ga 

Que il fuera, or fuese, that he might go. 

Que nosotros fuiramosy or fuisemos, that we might go. 
Que vosotros fuSrcis^ or fuiseis^ that you might go. 
Que ellos fueran, or fuesen^ that they might go. 

* The Moond fntnre (also borrowed from Ser) is (see note on page Sff): 
Yofusre^ tufu^m^ d^fitere, 

2hm^ro9fukemM^ wtatros fuirm, elkefiiimk 

PIBTBBNTfi LE880V. 125 

Sahe disimutar^ 

he knows (how) to dissimiilate. 

166 The preposition to, before an infinitive, ia sometimet 

loft oat| and sometimefl expressed by k or de ; but it is often 

difficult. )ven for Spaniards, to decide upon a proper selection 

in this respect; use, and the dictionary, being the only guides 

tfiAt can be offered. The following lists will, however, be d 

ervice as ac appropriate introduction to this study. 

To, before an infinitive, 
b translated by &, is translated by de, is left out 

after Aprender^ aft^r Cesar^ a.^r Ddier^ 

«* Empezar, «* D^ar, «* Poder^ 

** Ensenar^ ** Quedar^ «* Quenr^ 

«* Emayar. ** Temer. " Saher. 

The rest will be explained as they occur in the text They 
#ill also be found each in its alphabetical place in the Index. 

167. The word how, often added redundantly to the verb 
lo Jbunir, in English, is invariably left out in Spanish, 

Eneuhre^ he conceals. 

168. Some verbs are irregular in the past participle only^ 
and others have a regular and an irregular form for that tense 
Tliose of that class already seen are : 

Ahrir^ to open. Ahierto^ opened. 

CubriTy to cover. Cubierto, covered. 

Eneubrir, to conceal. EncubiertOy concealed. 

Escrtbir^ to write. Escrito, written. 

Despertar, to awake. DespiertOy or despertado^ awakened. 

Romper^ to break. RoiOy or rompido^ broken. 

The others will be explained as they occur in the text, and 
m the Index. 

169 While on this subject, it will be well to notice that the 
legular form of the past participle of these verbs is generally 
used with the auxiliary haber, and the irregular one with 
Ber or estar. 

Ex. ffd rompido su relqj, he has broken his watch. 
S%» uUf ettd rotOf his watch is broken. 

126 FIFT££KTH LBSSCflff. 

Lo pnopio y lo ageno^ 


the own and {he other*s. 

170, We have already seen that lo is a third form >f tha 
urticle el^ and that some grammarians consider it as of the 
nentei gender. This view has, however, another inconvenience 
besides the apparent uselessness of an article of the neutei 
gender in a language in which there is no neuter noun to be 
determined. For if we attempt to parse the adjective accom 
panying it, we are led into the absurdity of saying that an 
article of the neuter gender can accompany an adjective of the 
masculine, inasmuch as the neuter gender is not ascribed to 
adjectives by any Spanish grammarian. It would seem better, 
therefore, to remember that lo is the old masculine form of el, 
used only when the noun to which the article refers is not ex- 
pressed, and is liable to be supplied by words of different gen- 
ders, as in the elliptical expression, lo sublime, the sublime^ 
which may be completed with estilo, style^ which is masculine, 
or diccion, diction^ which is feminine. The article and adjec- 
tive are then in the masculine, according to a rule which obtains 
throughout all modem languages, that whenever it is doubtful 
whether males or females are spoken of, and even when both 
are alluded to at the same time, the masculine is preferred to 
the feminine. 

Ouanto mas alcama^ tanto mas desea^ 
the more he gets, the more he wants. 

171. When two expressions in the comparative are compared 
together, the first must be preceded by cuanto, and the second 
by tanto, according to the above model sentence. 

Amar^ to love ; ambicionar^ to covet ; acreditar^ to accredit ; 
Uesear^ to wish; despreciar^ to despise; disimular^ to dissimu 
late ; guardar, to guard ; mudar^ to change ; and ocultar^ to 
hide, are regular verbs of the first conjugation. 

Ahorrecer^ to abhor, and obedecer, to obey, go like eompadicer 
See Rule 147. 

Alcanzar^ to obtain ; disfrazar^ to disguise ; and juzgar^ U 
Jad^e, are irregalsr, and will be explained later. 

fiirrfi:£KtH tttsdOK. 




1. I learn to speak, 166. 

2. He learns to read. 
8. We loam to write. 
4 You begin to work. 

5. They begin to study, 

6. I began to see. 

7. He ceases to do. 

8. We cease to hear. 

9. You ought to learn. 

10. They ought to try. 

11. I am afraid to lose. 

12. She is afraid to come. 

13. We are afraid to drink. 

14. You are able to find. 

15. They are able to go. 

16. 1 wish to speak, IM 

17. He wishes to read. 

18. We wish to write, 

19. You wish to work. 

20. They wish to study. 

21. 1 take care to see. 

22. He takes care to do» 
28. We take care to hear. 

24. You take care to learn. 

25. They take care to try. 

26. I try to lose. 

27. He tries to come. 

28. Wo try to drink. 

29. You try to find. 

30. They try to go. 

31. ( shall teach him to read, 166. — 32. 1 should teach him it 
wnte, 166. — 33. Teach her to speak, 166.— 34. Where are you 
going to? 165. — 35, I am going to the store, 165. — 86. Where 
is he going to? 165. — 37. He is going to the garden, 165. — 
38. Did you go to your country-seat yesterday? 165. — 39. I 
went there this morning, 165. — 40. When will your son go to 
school? 165. — 41. He will go to school in a few months, 165. — 
42. Have you opened the window? 168. — 43. 1 have written an 
exercise, 168. — 44. His watch is broken, 168, 169. — 45. The 
less we work, the less we gain, 171. — 46. The more we study, 
the more we learn, 171. — 47. The more you lose, the less you 
bave, 171. — 48, I change, he changes, we change, you change, 
they change, — 49. 1 obey, he obeys, we obey, yo!i obey, they 

* 8«e notes on ptgr T. 


Uteral Tranalatioo. 

Leccion d^cimnsesta.* 

LeasoQ sixteenth. 

Extracto de P. B. CJraciau. 

Extract from P. B, Gracwn. 

La dirina Proridcncia se deelanf 

The Divina Providence itself did declare 

admirable en disponer ei drden de loi 

admirable in dispusing the order of the 

tiempos. En el inrierno arrai^an iaa 

seasons. In tlie winter take root the 

plantas, en la primavera floreceu, en el 

plants, in the spring they blossom, in thg 

estfo Arnetifican, en el otoAo se sazonan 

nunmer they fractify, in the fall themselves they ripen 

y se logrran. Las a^uas linipian y 

and tbemselrea they gather. The waters refresh and 

ftcnndan, ioi vientos purilican y rivifican 

fwtiliie, the winds purify and vivify 

la tierra eatable, donde se suatenlan 

the earth firm, wlience themselves they nourish 

los cuerpoB. Hacen el aire flexible para 

the bodies. They nialce the air floiible in order 

^ne se mueran, y di&rano para que 

that tnemselres ihey may move, and transparent in order that 

puedan Terse; de suerte que solo una 

they may see themselves ; kc that only an 

Omnipotencia dirina, una eterna Prori- 

Omni)ot«Di:e divine, aa eternal Provi* 

* Km doU on ftft til. 

^H dencia 

^^p dencn. 


una ininensa Boudad, piidicran j 

ail iiiinionse Goodness, fOiiUl 

liaber prodiicido una tan gran ni&quina} 

liBTe prod u coil a s<i j^roiit iiiftchino, 

Huuca baslanlenicnte admirada, alabada 

neve I enuugii ndiuirei], praised, 

y aplaudida. jTanla multitud de crialu* 

W)d applauded. Sucli Jiuhituile of creatures, 

ras, con tania direrencia! ;Oportento«f 

witli Biicli difference 1 wonders, 

para siempre dignos de aclamacionl 

for ever worthy at acclamation I 

Tba aams in 
EZTRACTO DX P. B. Gbaoiait. 

I.a divina Providencia ee de- 
claro admirable en disposer el 
orden de loa tieiupoa. Ea ei in- 
rieroo arraigan las plantas, en la 
primavera florecen, eo el estio 
frootilicsD, en el otufin tie sazonan 
7 8e logran. Las aguois limpian 
y feonndan, loa vientoti pnriiioan 
J TiTiBcan la tierra estable, donde 
w sastentan Iu9 cuerpos. Eaoen 
el aire flexible para qae ee mue- 
TAD, J diafani) para qne puedan 
Terse; de Buerte qae aolo nna 
Omnipotencia divina, tina eterna 
Providenoia, una iiiinensa Bon- 
dad, padieran liaber produoido 
nna tan gran miiqiiina, nunoa 
baatantemeDte admirada, alabada 
7 aplandida. jTanta multitnd 
de oriatnras, con tacta diferen- 
eial (0 poitentoB, paraaiempre 
dlgsw de aolamaoioD I 

good Xtnsliab. 
Extract fbou P. B. Graciak 

God's providence \a eapeoiallj 
llla^it'e^>t in tbe arraogemeut ot 
tbe seaaoas. 

Tbe plants taice root in win* 
ter, they blossom in spring, 
bring forth fruit in anmmer, and 
ripen and are gathered in tLa 

Tbe waters refresli and ferti- 
lize, while tbe winds purify and 
aiiiiTiate tbe eartb, whence all 
things draw their nutriment. 

They iiialie the air fleiibU 
for motion, and transparent for 


Divine Goodness alone could 
kHve created a work so great, 
so admirable, and so varied is 
its many productions. 

O wonders, forever worthy of 
soolamation 1 


SlXt&ldltti L&SSOK. 

QuestionB and AnswerB for Conversation 

Que leccioD es estat 
I Do que se habia en esta leccion ? 
I £d quo se declare admirable la 
. divina Providenciii ? 
I Cuando arraigan Ian plantas f 
iCuando florecen? 
I Guando fructifican ? 
I Onando se sazonan y se logran t 
I Qca bacon las aguas! 

I T los vientos ? 

I Quo mas bacon las agnas y los 

vientos ? 
I Para que le bacon flexible ? 
I Y para que diafano ? 
i Que puede baber producido una 

tan gran maquina t 

I Que pionsa Y . de esta maquina t 
I Que son estos portentos ? 

La d^oimasesta. 

De la divina Provider cia. 

£n disponer el 6rden de 

En el invierno. 
En la primavera. 
En el estio. 
En el otofio. 
Las aguas limpian y fecnndan la 

La purifican y la vivifican. 
Hacen el aire flexible y diafano 

Para que los cuerpos se muevan. 

Para que pueden verse. 

Solo una Omnipotencia divina, 

nna eterna Providencia, or ana 

inmensa Bondad. 
Que nunca es bastantemente ad- 

mirada, alabada y aplaudida. 
Son para siempre dignos de aola 


Sentenoes for Oral Translation. 


La primavera. 
£1 estio. 
£1 otofto. 
£1 invierno. 
£1 orden. 
Ija providencia 
Una planta. 
Una oriatnra. 
Un portento. 
Cna multit'^d. 
£1 cnerpo. 
£1 aire. 


Tbe spring. 
Tbe summer. 
The fall. 
The winter. 
Tbe order. 
Tbe providencsi 
A plant. 
A creature. 
A wonder. 
A multitude. 
The body. 
Tbe air. 
The wind. 



I Onal de los tiempos del afio le 

^sta 4 y. mast 
Pretioro la primaTera. 
4Porqu6 prefiereV. aqael tiempof 
Porqae las mas hermosas plantas 

florecen en aqnel tiempo. 
I Qne hacQ V. en el estio ? 
He voy al campo. 
I Tiene Y. ana finca ? 
Tengo ana cerca de la cindad. 
|£s grandet 
Es may agradable. 
I Que produce el otoi&o ? 
£1 otofio prodace las mas sabro- 

sas fratas. 
I Qae hace V. en el invierno t 
Me qnedo en casa y 1^.« 
V. estndia el espaSiol, |no es 

verdad ? 
Bi, sefior, el espafiol y el ingles. 
I Gomo se dice, Oomo estd V . t 

en espaftol ? 
I Gomo le va a V.t 6 4 Oomo 

estd V. ? 
I Onal es la mejor ezpresion ? 
I Oomo esta V. ? es la mas facil. 
4 Qaiere V. limpiarse las manos t 
Qniero limpiarme las manos y la 


Which of the seasons do y oo likt 

I prefer the spring. 
Why do you prefer that season 
Beranse the most beautiful plants 

bloom at that time. 
What do you do in summer t 
I go into the conn try. 
Have you a country-seat f 
I have one near the city. 
Is it large ? 

It is very comfortable. 
What does the fall produce t 
The fall produces Uie most deli* 

cious fruit. 
What do yon do in winter? 
I remain at home and re§d. f 
You study Spanish, do you not f 

Yes, sir, Spanish and English. 
How do you say, How do you 

do ? in Spanish ? 
How goes it with you t or, How 

are you ? 
Which is the better expression t 
How are you ? is the easier. 
Will you wash your hands? 
I will wash my handi^ and fAce. 


Bl 6rdenj the order, 
172. There are a few words which vary in meaning according 
10 the gender in which they are used in Spanish. The mo«| 
important are : 

M canal, the canal. La canal^ the gutter. 

El capital the capital, stock in La capital^ the capital city 01 
in trade. town. 

SI ewt$i the edge (of a tool). La corte, the court (royalX. 

JU/rentif the front La/rmte^ the foreheai 

SI mdrgeriy the mai^ (of a La mdrgen^ the blink (oi % rivei 

b^ok). or lake). 

SI &rden^ the order, place, La 6rden^ the rank, toM^ oi 

or command. fraternity . 

Haeen^ they make. 
r/3. Hacm 18 a form of the irregular verb kacer^ U> do cv li 
mke, which ia conjugated as follows : 

Hacer^ to make or to do. 

Pbkbit Particifu. Past Particifui 

HariendOf making. Heeho^ niade. 

PanKNT Tbnsi. 

To haffOf I make, or do make. 

TA haces^ thou makest, or dost make 

SI haciy he makes, or does make. 

Noaotros haeemos^ we make, or do make. 

Vosotros haceiSf you make, or do make. 

Silos haceiiy they make, or do make. 


Yo haeioj I made, or used to make. 

TV hacioB^ thou madest, or usedst to make. 

SI kaeia^ he made, or used to make. 

Nosotros hadamos, we made, or used to make. 

Vosotros haciais, you made, or used to make. 

Silos hacian^ they made, or used to make. 

Past Tbnsb Definite. 

To hice^ I made, or did make. 

Tu hicistSf thou madest, or didst maka 

SI hizoy he made, or did make. 

Nosolros hicimosj we made, or did make. 

Vosotros hicisteiSf you made, or did make. 

Silos kkiironf they made, or did maktt» 


Fc kari^ I shall make, or will maka. 

TV hards^ thoa shalt make, or wilt make. 

£1 hardf he shall make, or will make. 

Nosotros karifnos, we shall make, or will make. 
Vo9otro8 hariis^ you shall make or will make. 
Elloa hardUf they shall make, or will make. 


Fo hariOf I should make, or would make. 

TA haruu^ thou shouldst make^ or wouldst make 

El haria^ he should make, or would make. 

Nosotros hatiamos, we should make, or would make. 
Vosotros hatiaiSf you should make, or would make. 
EUo9 harianf they should make, or would makei. 


J7ai, make (thou). 
Hated^ make (yon). 


Que yo haga^ that I may make. 

Qut t^ hagas^ that thou mayst make. 

Que il kagoj that he may make. 

Que nosotros hagamoe^ that we may make. 

Que voiotroe hagaie^ that you may make. 

Que ellos hagan^ that they may make. 

SuBJUNOiiVB Past. 
Que yo hieiera^ or hicieee^ that I might make. 

Que ta hieierae. or kideeeSj that thou mightst mtta 

Que 41 hieieroy or hidese^ that he might make. 

Que nosotros hidiramos^ or kkUsemos^ that we might make. 
Que vosotros hiciiraie, or kicieseis^ that you might make. 
Que ellos hieieran^ or hieiesen^ that they might make. 

* The Moond fhtare is (see no^e on page 25) : 

To lUeUre^ tk hkisrts, A hiciere, 


174L Contrahtuer^ to counterfeit; deshacer^ to undo; and 
rehacer^ to do over again, are conjugated like kacer. 

Producido^ produced, from producir^ to produce. 

175. Verbs ending with ucir, in the infinitive, are coi^i 
ated like the following model : 

Traducir^ to translate. 

P1UE8KNT Partioipub. Past Partioiplk. 

TradudendOf translating. Traducido^ translated. 


Present Tknsi. 

Yo traduzcOf I translate, or do translate, 

T^ traduces^ thou translatest, or dost translate. 

M traduce^ he translates, or does translate. 

Nosotros traducimoSf we translate, or do translate. 
Vosotros tmdticisj you translate, or do translate. 
Ellos tradueeuy they translate, or do translate. 


Yo traducioj I translated, or used to translate. 

Tu traduciaSf thou translatedst, or used^t to translatti 

El traduda^ he translated, or used to translate. 

Nosotros traduciamos^ we translated, or used to translate. 

Vosotros traduciais^ you translated, or used to translate. 

Ellos traducian^ they translated, or used to translate. 

Vast Tense Definite 

Yc traduje^ I translated, or did translate. 

Tilt tradujiste^ thou translatedst, or didst translate 

El tradujo, he translated, or did translate. 

Nosotros tradujimos^ we translated, or did translate. 

Vosotros tradujisteis, you translated, or did translate. 

SUos tradujeron^ they translated, or did translate. 

•tXTSENm LEssoa. Hi 

Yb tradudri^ I shall translate, dr will translate. 

n traducirda^ thou shalt translate, or wilt translate. 

El traducird, he shall translate, or will translate. 

Xosotros tradudrimoSy we shall translate, or will translate. 

Vosotros traducirSiSf you shall translate, or will translate. 

Ellos traducirdn, they shall translate, or will translate. 

Yo traduciria^ I should or would translate. 

T4t traduciriaSy thou shouldst or wouldst translata 

M trcuiucirioy he should or would translate. 

Nosotros traduciriamoSy we should or would translate. 
Vosotros tradiidriaisy you should or would translate. 
£!Ua8 tradtteirian^ they should or would translate. 

Traduce^ translate (thou). 
Traducidj translate (you). 

Prkbimt Tbnsi. 

Que yo traduzca^ that I may transUte. 

Que tu traduzcas^ that thou mayst translate. 

Que il traduzcOy that he may translate. 

Que nosotros traduzcamaSf that Ve may transUte. 

Que vosotros tradusfcatSy that you may translate. 

Que ellos traduzcan, that they may translate. 

SuBJUNcnvB Past 
Que yo tradujera^ or tradujese^ that I might 

Que til tradujeras, or tradujesesy that thou mightst 

Que il tradujeroj or tradujese, that he might 

Que nosotros tradujiramos^ or tradvjisemos, that we might 
Que vosotros tradujerais^ or tradvjiseisy that you miglit ! ^ 
Que ellos tradujeran^ or tradvjesen^ that they might j 

The only exception is ludr^ to shine, which is conjugated 
Tike conocer, to know, to be acquainted with. See Rule 147. 

* Tbe secoud future is (see nolo on paj^e 25) : 

To tradtyerty tu tradufereSj el tradt^er^^ 

Jfceokvt frad^Snmaty ttmtroe trad^ereUy 4ll<u H^M/erm, 

IS9 ilXTRfcNTH LES80H. ^^^H 

Bastantemetite, enough, ^^H 

176. Baatiinle and bastantkmkkts mean enough ; bnt 6m ^^| 

taatemeitU is never joined to a 


Bastanlemenle admirada, enough admired. ^^^H 

1T7. Tbe adverb is generally placed after the rerb, and b» ^^^| 

bre every other kind of word. 


Ei. Habla bien. 

he speaks well, ^^H 

Bien habiado, 

spoken. ^^H 

m hahlado bien, 

he has spoken well ^^H 

178. The principal adverbs i 


Ahajo, below. 

J)espuei, since, afterwards ^^| 

Ac&, aqui, here. 

Donde, where. 

Aeaaa, perhaps. 

Sn/rente, opposite, in front 

Adtlaitte, forward. 

AdeiRM, moreover. 

EiiUneet, then. ^^ 

Adentro, inside. 

Jama», ^H 

Adoadt, whither, or nherelo. 

Boy, to-day. ^^H 

AfutTfi, outMde. 

I^os, fiir. l^H 

Ahora, DOW. 

Lmttmente, slowly. ^H 

AUA, alii, there. 

.¥al, badly. ^1 

Amenvdo, often. 

Manam, to-morrow. ^^| 

AnUSf formerly. 

jr«;or, better. ^H 

Apenat, hardly. 

if"?. veiy. ^H 

Arriba, above. 

JVo, no, not ^^H 

Ati, thuB. 

Nunca, ^M 

Ainu, behind, yonder. 

Otramente, otherwiae. ^H 

Auii, still, yet. 

Pronto, quickly. ^H 

Aytr, yesterday. 

Si, yes. ^ 

Bastantf, enough. 

Siempre, alway*. 

Bittt, well 

Svbitamenle, suddenly, 

Ctmo, as, like. 

Tarrfe, late. 

Dt donde, whence, or from 

Temprano, early. 


r«, already. 

Bee, also, Rule for the formation of adverbs of quality, No. 20, 

Admirar, to admire; alabar 

, to praise; deeUrar, to declare; 

fieundar, to fecundate; limpiar, to clean; tograr, to gather { 




toMtmar^ to ripen ; and suslentar^ to suBtaini are regular Teibi of 
the first conjugation. Aplaudir^ to applaud, ia of the third. 

Floreeer, to blossom, goes like oompadecer (147). Ifawr^ to 
move, has already been seen. Disponer^ to dispose ; poder^ to be 
able ; and ver^ to see, are irregukr, and will be explained laior. 


1. To produce, 1*15. 

2. I produce. 

8. He produces. 

4. We produce. 

5. Ton produce. 

6. They produce. 

7. I did produce. 

8. He did produce. 

9. We did produce. 

10. Ton did produce. 

11. They did produce 

12. I shall produce. 
18. I should produce. 

14. Let him produce. 

15. That I may produce 

16. That I might produca< 

17. I have produced. 

18. Producing. 

19. To undo^ 119. 

20. I undo. 

21. He nndoea. 

22. We undo. 
2B, Tou undOi 

24. They undo. 

25. I did undo. 

26. He did undo. 

27. We did undo. 

28. Tou did undo. 

29. They did undo. 

80. I shall undo. 

81. He shall undo. 

82. We shall unda 
SB. Tou shall undo. 
B4. They shall unda 

85. I have undone. 

86. Undoing. 

87. What are you doing? 178. — 88. 1 am working. — 89. Are 
you going on tiding lessons f 165. — 40. I take a lesson twice 
a week. — 41. How many tiroes do you go to the country during 
tiie season f — 42. Once a week. — 43. Is there any river near your 
bouse f 33. — 44. There is a river and a lake.-— 45. Which bird i 
the strongest? 52. — 46. The eagle.— 47. Will you tak^ a littl 
c!ike f — 48. No, sir, I thank you, 30. — 49. Where do the fishes 
live f — 50. They live in the water.— 5 1 . And the birds f— 52. They 
fly iu the air — 53. Will you do me the &vor to tell me whi^ 
o^dock it is? — 54. It is one o^cl^ck. — 55. It is early yet 


Literal Translation.* 

Leccion d^cimas^plima. 

Lesson seven teen Cit. 

Extracio de la Historia de la CoDqiiisla 

SitracC from the Hit<torj of the Cocqucst 

de Ifl<iico de Soils 

of Mexico, lij Soiis, 
Era el Emperador diatlmozin un inozn 

Was the Emperor Gimtiinoiin a. yonth 

oien valeroso dc Teliitllres afiox, de bicn 

very brave of tweiity-tliree years, of wg)1- 

ordeiiada proporclon, alto sin descaeci- 

regolated proportion, tall without debility, 

miento, y robusto sin delbriiiidad. El 

and robust without deformity, Tha 

color tan Inciinado ft la blancnra, 6 tan 

color BO [nchoed to the whiteness, or so 

lejos de la obscuridad, que parecia 

far from the darknesii, that he appeared 

cstranjero entre los de su nocion. El 

strange among those of his URtioii. The 

rostro, sin thccion qne hiciese disonancia 

face, without feature whiuh might make a discord 

entre las demas, daba se&as de la tiierxa 

among the reat, gave signs of the strengtli 

Interior tan ensenado ft la cstimacion 

interior eo tauglit to the 




agfeiia, qne aun estando afligido, no 

of othera, that however leing afflicted, nol 

acababa de pcrder la inajestad. La 

ended by to lose the majesty. Tha 

«inpern(riz, 8ii e^iposa, que seria de la 

Binpreas, his wife, who might bo of tho 

misnia edad, se hacia reparar por el 

same tigu, hersulf made distinguish hj the 

garbo J el cspiritii con que ninndaba el 

grace aai tlie epirit witli which slie managed thtj 

luoviniiento y ia»« acetones ; pero an 

movement and tljo actions ; hat her 

hermosura, mas varonil que dellcada, 

heanty, more maaiy than delicate, 

parccieiido foieii & la prlraera vista, 

appearing well at tlie first sight, 

influia in^nos eit el ag:rado que en el 

influenced \ees on the liking than on the 

respelo de los ojos. Era sobrlna del gran 

reajioot of tJie eyes. Slie waa oiece of the great 

Idontexuma, <S, scgnn ofros, su h^a. 

Motite;tijina, or, acourdiog So others, his daughter. 


Hie same In good BngUsb. 

ErrKACTO db la Histobia dr 


Era el Ejnperador GuBtimozio 
o bien valeroao de veinti- 
tres silop, de bien ordenada pro- 
ponuon, alto siu descuecimieotfi, 
J robnsto ain deformidad. El 
color tao iaclinado a In hlancura, 
6 L«D l^oB de la obBcoridiid, qoe 


o¥ THE CoKouxsT or Mkxi- 

The Emperor Goatimozin wm 
a brave jonth, twenty-thret 
years of age, well formed, tall, 
robust, and strong. His com- 
plesion was so fair, that among 
his own people he looked Iik4 
a stranger; and his facsi whoM 



140 ■it^j'!'-'''''*' ■ SKVENTE^a 



TH LKBBOS. ^^^^ 


ptrecia ebtrtrijero entre Ion da bd 

every feature liamionited wJtl 


Dftoion. Elro9tro,siafaocionqne 

the rest, was highly indiuatiT* 

of that m^eaty whinh rever 


mas, dabs aeftoE de !a fuei-2a iale- 

foraook him, even noder tlia 


rior Un enseitado k la estimacion 

most trj-ing oircnmstanotfl. 


igona, que ann esUndo afligido, 

The empress, who was nearly 


no Boababa de perder la majestad. 

aB old as her husband, dis 



tingnished herself by her grace' 


ds la misma edad, se liacia reparar 

por el garbo y el esjiirilu con que 

bat her beauty, which w« 

mandaba el raovimientu y las ac- 

perhaps too mascnline, com 

oionea; pero sn lierrnosnra, mas 

irsatided, at first sight, reepeol 

Taroaii que delioada, pareciendo 

rather than love. 

bieu d la prirnera vieta, iiifiuia mg- 

She was the niece, or, ao- 

DDa ea el agrado que eu el respeto 

cording to some, the daughter, 

de loe ojo8. Era sobrina del gran 



Qnestloiu nod Answers for Conversatton. ^^^| 

I Qae leocioD es esia 1 

(De qae se babla en esta leccion ? 

De Giiatirnozin y de m esposa. ^^H 

iQuieD era Gnatimozici T 

£1 Ernperador do Mejlco, or Ui ^H 
mozo bioD valoroso. ^^H 


Veintitres ajlos. ^^| 

(Que talle tenia 1 

Un Ulle de bien ordenada pro- ^^| 
porcion. ^^1 


Era alto sin deacaecimiento. ' 


Eobasto sin deformidad. 

jCual era Bn color t 

Inolinado £ la blancura. 


) Que parecia ? 

Eatranjero entre los de so nadoa, 



Sefias de la fuerza interior. 


A qna era eoseHado el rostro 1 

A la eatimacioD ageua. 


[De que maneraf 

Que aun estaudu afligido, no aca> 
baba de perder la mnjestad. 

- Que edad tenia la emperatris I 

La miaraa del Eiupetador Guati 
raozin sn espoao. 

For qne ae haria reparar! 

Por el garbo y sBpiritn con .pn 

O/HBc en an hermoBMrn 1 

Mas varonil que delloadk. 





I Oaando paredA bien f 

I En qae infloui so hennosnra f 


A la primera vista. 

M6no8 en el agrado qiK tii % 

respeto de los ojos. 
La sobrina del gran MonidnuBai 

d| segnn otros, sa b^a. 

Bentencea for Oral TranalatloiL 


La bistoria. 

La oonqoista. 

£1 mozo. 

£1 color. 

La deformidad. 

La blancnra. 

La obscoridad. 

La oara^ or el rostra 

La faooion* 


£1 emperador. 

La emperatriz. 

La sobrina. 
I Ha leido Y. la bistoria de M6- 

He leido algonos extractos de 

I De que parte f 
De la oonqoista por los Espafto- 

iQoien era el Emperador de M6- 

jico en aqoel tiempo f 
£1 gran Montezoma. 
Guatimozin fa6 sn socesor. 
La esposa de Guatimozin era so 

sobrina 6 so b^a. 
|Sahe y. algo de Montezuma ? 


B que era on bombre valeroso. 
I Goal es el mas importante pro 

docto de M^jico ? 
El oro es el mas locrativo. 

Tbe bistory. 
Tbe oonqoest. 
Tbe yootb. 
Tbe color. 
Tbe deformity. 
Tbe wbitenesSi 
Tbe darknesSi 
Tbe featore. 
Tbe strengtb. 
Tbe emperor. 
Tbe empress. 
Tbe niece. 
Have yon read tbe History of 

Mexico f 
I haye read some extracts (torn 

From wbicb part f 
From tbe conqoest by tbe Span* 

Wbo was tbe Emperor of Mezioa 

at tbat time f 
Tbe great Montezoma. 
Guatimozin was bis successcr. 
The wife of Guf^timozin was bis 

niece or bis daughter. 
Do you know any thing about 

Montezuma ? 
I know that he was a brave man. 
Which is the most important 

product of Mexico ? 
Gold is tbe most profitabW. 



I Hay mnohos 6strai\]eros en aqnel 

Hay algonos Ingleses y alganos 

I Donde esUL sitnada la capital f 
En una isla. 
iGnstaria Y. de saber mas de 

Me gastaria estndiar su historia 

fiolis es un famoso antor espafkol. 
Ha escriU» muchos libros. 

Sn mejor historia es la Oonquista 

de M^jioo. 
He gastaria leerla. 

Are there many foreigners iL that 

country ? 
There are some Englishmen and 

some Frenchmen. 
Where is the capital ritnated f 
On an island. 
Would you like to kcow nior 

about Mexico ! 
I would like to study its ancien 

Soils is a famoue Spanish author. 
He has written many books. 

His best is the History of the 

Conquest of Mexico. 
I should like to read it. 


Color^ color. 

179. Words ending with or are generally alike, or nearly so, 
in both languages; as, Favor^ favor; valor^ valor; autor^ author, 


Afligido^ afficted ; from afligir, to affict 

180. As it is desirable to preserve the root of a verb alike 
in sound throughout its conjugation, verbs ending with gar 
take a silent u after g before e, and those erding with ger and 
gir change g into j before a and o. 

Ex. Pagar^ to pay. PaguS^ I did pay. 
Ajtigir, to afflict. AJlijo^ I afflict. 

The verbs of this class already seen are : Pagar^ to pay 
Uegar^ to arrive ; arraigar^ to take root ; and ajligir^ to afflict 

No acababa de perder^ 
did not end in losing. 

181. The verb acabar is used here in its literal meaning, to 
/in$sA or end; but acabar de^ joined to an infinitive, forms mort 


often with it a {larticular past tense, generally eznreaaed in 
English by to have just^ and a past participle. 

Ex. Acabo de hahlar^ I have just spoken. 

Aoaba de venir, he has just come. 

Acabamos de ealir^ we have just gone oat. 

Infiuia^ influenced. Infiuir^ to influence. 

182 The letter i, when placed between two vowels, la fre 
qaently changed into y in Spanish. This occurs most oftei 
in the verbs ending with aer, as raery to erase ; eer, as leer 
to read ; oer, as roer^ to gnaw ; uir, as influir, to influence ; 
or guir, as arguir^ to argue, before those terminations of in* 
flexion which begin with ia (except in the imperfect), ie, of 
io. See the following model. 

This observation does not apply, however, to the verbs liki 
seguify to follow, in which the u is silent, and which have been 
aiplained in Rule 162. 

Instruir^ to instruct 

P&BSBNT Participle. Past Pabtioipijl 

InstruyendOy instructing. ' Instruido^ instructed. 



Y6 insiruyo^ I instruct, or do instruct 

Tit instruyeSy thou instructest, or dost instruct 

El instruye^ he instructs, or does instruct 

Nosotros instruimos, we instruct, or do instruct 

Vosotros instruis^ you instruct, or do instruct 

Elhs instruyeuj they instruct, or do instruct 


To tnstrutOf I instructed, or used to instruct 

Tit instruiaSf thou instructedst, or usedst t3 instruet 

El instruiay he instructed, or used to instruct 

Nosotros instruiamoSy we instructed, or used to instruct 

Vosotros instruiaisy you instructed, or used to instruct 

Ellos instruiant they instructed* or used to instruct 



To itulruiri, 
n inilrvirdg, 
SI iuitrvir&f 

Fabi Tinse DinniTX, 

Yo inttrui, I inBtmcted, or did iLttracL 

7% ifMfrHMfe, thou ingtmctedet, or didst iTiitrnet 

SI instruyi, he iDstructed, or did iratrncL 

Jfoiolroa imtruimoaf we instTucted, or did ingtrooti 

Votolrot inslralsteis, you iuBtructcd, or did iitstracL 

SBot inMtruyiron, they instructed, or did inatraofc 


I shall instruct, or nill iiiitmcL 

thoo shftlt instruct, or wilt instruct 

At HHirutru, he shall instruct, or will instruct, 

Nosotros itutruiremos, we shall instruct, or will instruct. 

Voiolrot inslrviTiis, yon shall instrtict, or will instruct. 

Stlo* inttruir&n, they shall instruct, or will it>«truct 

To jtutrutrio, I should or would instract, 

TA itulruiriai, thou ahouldst or wouldst instruct 

SI inilruiria, he should or would instnii'.t. 

Notolros intlruirtamos, we should or would iiiBtru(.t 
Vosotrot initrviriau, you should or would instnict 

Slloi inilruirtan, they should or would instnicl 

ImWvyt, instruct (thou). 
Inttruid, instruct (yon), 

PamsMT Tense. 
Qve yo iiulruya, that I may instruct. 

Que ti ingtruyat, that thou niByst instracL 

Qiit il imtruya, that he may instruct. 

Qut nosolros inslruyamoa, that we may instruct. 
Qw vMotros intlruyait, that you may instruct. 
Que tlhe mslruyan, that they may inst'icL 

* Tba MMioDd ftatara is (sm note on page 25) : 

Tt i iu t nitirt, ti imtrta/erft, il iiulHtftr*. 



fiBVfiNTBKKtfi LKdSOlff. 145 

SvBJUNOTiTi Pact. 

^Mt ^ iniiru^era^ cf insirufeM^ thai I might 1 

Qw 0$ instruffercts or instruyeses thatthoamightst' 

Que il inatruyera^ or instruyese^ that he might 

Que nosotros instruyiramos^OT insiruySaemoa^ that we might 
Que voeotroe instruyirais^ or instmyeseisj that yon might i 
Que ellos instruyeran^ or instruyesen^ that they might j 

Thus are conjugated infiuir^ to inflaence ; atr^uir^ to attrib* 
ate, etc. See Index. 

Segun^ according to.' 
18t. The following list comprises the principal pvepoiiti 

A^ to, at 

Ante^ before. 

Cerca {de\ near. 
Con^' with. 

Cbfiira, against 


o( from* 












in order Uk 




according ta 







See Rule 78. 

Aeabar, to finish; enseflar, to teach; inelinar, to indiae^ 
mnndar, to manage ; ordenar, to order, to put in order, to o^ 
dain ; and repirar, to repair, are regular verbs of the first con 

Parecevj to appear, to seem, belongs to the class explained 
in Rule 147 ; and perder^ to lose, to that of No. 138. 





To afflict, 180. 19. To iufluenoe, IBS, ^^| 


I afflict 20. I inSuence. ^^H 


He afflictc. 21. Ho inllucnceB. ^^H 


We afflict. 22. We inSuence. ^^H 


You afflict. 23. You influence. ^^M 


They afflict. 24. They influence. ^^H 


I afflicted. 25. I did influunce. ^^1 


He afflicted. 26. He did inflnence. ^^M 


We afflicted. 27. We did Influence. ^^1 


You afflicted. 28. You did influence. ^H 


They afflicted. 29. They did influence. ^H 



He shall afflict. 31. He ehall influence. ^^M 


We shall afflict. 32. We shall influence. ^H 


You shall afflict. 33. You eliall influence. ^H 


Ther shall afflict 34. They shall influence. ^^M 


1 anould afflict 35. I should Influence. ^H 


Let him afflict 30. Let him influence. ^H 


I did pay, 180.-38. He did arrive, 180.— 39. Let him ' 

pay, 180.— 40. Let him arrive, 180.— 41. Before paying, 78, 183. 


In selling, 78.-43. In order to buy. 78.-44. Without 

•eeing, 78.-45. Without money, 183.-46. Between us, 183.— 


According to them, 183.— 48. Until this morning, 183.— 

49. Have you learned your lesson !—50. Not yet.— 61. When 

will you know il f — 52. Very soon. — 53. What are you going 

ho do 

this afternoon ?— 54. I will take a ride.— 55. Where [ol— 

f». To the park.- 57. If I have time, I will go with you, 1 83.— 

68. I have just written a lettfir, 181.— 59. He has just tiiken a 


181.-60. We have just dined, 181.— 61. What have you 

jasldonel 181.-62. They have just breakfasted, 181.— 63. Bo- 

fore : 

me, 183.- -64. Against you, 183.— 65. Near us, 1&3.- 

«fl. Since that, 183,-67. Until to-morrow, 183. 



literal Tranalatloa.* 

I/eccion d^cimnoctaTa. 

Lesson eigbleenth. 

La Valienle Espaftola. 



Extraclo de la Historia de EspaAa 

Extract {rom the Hislorj of Spun, 

del Padre Isla. 

by ihe Father Isl». 

La derrola 

que la 

which ihe 


Boberbia armada, 

eaperb BriimdH, 

ilamada la Invenrible, experiment^} en el 

called the Invincible, experienced nl Uia 

cabn de Finislerre en consecuencia de los 

cape of Finisterre ia cunseqneuce of the 

reclo» t«niporales, puso Ian orsnllosa A 

strong storms, put so proiid to 

Isabel de In^laterra, que expedid eontra 

Eltzahel.h of England, tliat she sent against 

la« costas de Galicia y Portugal una 

the coasts of Galicia and Portn^al ft 

Ciciiadra de setenta naves, ai luando del 

squadron of seventy i^liips, at the cuiiitnnnd of tl>« 


feared Drake, who indeed disembarked 

cn el puerto de la Cornika; pero fti£ 

in the port of Curunua; but ha WM 






148 EmUTKlfM'l'U LES30II 

recliazado por el paisanage, los muchachoa 

driven back by the peasantry, the boys 

y las miijercs lanibien peleando con el 

tnd the wumeo as well figbtmg with the 

mayor denuedo. Una de estasi, dcspiies de 

greatest caurage, Ooe uf these, after 

haber hecho prodigios de valor at lada 

Laving made prodigiea of vulor at the side 

de an marido, lejos de acobardarse al 

of fier husband, far from bccoJiiing terrified at tbt 

verle caer miierlo de iin bote de laiiza, 

teeing him fall dead from a thrust of lance, 

arreineti<S con la siiya & un alferez ingles, 

attacked with hers an ensign English 

que §ubia por la miiralla, y arrancandole 

Tho ascended by the nail, and taking away from him 

la bandera, le tendltf ft sns pi^s. 

the Btandard, him she stretched at her feet. 

The same In 
La Vaukntb EsfaRola. 
Eztraoto de la Eistoria de £9- 
paika del Padre Islo. 
La derrota qae la eoberbia ar- 
mada, Itamada la TnTeiicible, ex- 
perimeDt6eD el cabo de FioiBterre 
en conaeotiencia de los recios 
lemporales, puso tan orgullosa & 
Isabel de Inglaterra, que expediii 
eontra las ooslas de Galicia y 
Portugal una eacuadra de se- 
tenta naves, al loaodo del te- 
mlble Drake, qaieii con efeotc 
d(«e!iibaro6 en el pDerto de la 
Oornfia; pero &6 recbaxadu por 
■1 palitnage, lot mnobaohos y 

good English. 
Ths Bravb Spanish wo hAK. 

Extract from the History o( 
Spain, by Father Isla. 
The defeat of the famous Span- 
ish Armada, called "the Invinci- 
ble," through the result of severe 
storms off Cape FitiMterre, ac 
elated Queen Elizabeth of Eng- 
land, that she immediately seat 
a Bqnadron of seventy sail, un- 
der the command of tbe mnch- 
dreadeil Drake, to tbe coasts ol 
Galicia and Portugal, where ha 
iudeed effected a landing at (Ji>- 
runna; bat be was soon repulsed 
by the peasantry of tbe place, th« 





fell mi\}ere8 tamblen peleando 
eon el mayor dennedo. 

Una de estas, despnes de 
haber hecho jirodigios de valor 
al lado de an marido, l^os de 
•oobardarse al verle caer mnerto 
de nn bote de laoca, arremetio 
eon la suya a an alferez ingles, 
^e snbia por la mnralla, y ar- 
lauoandole la bandera, le tendi6 
6 sna pi^s. 

boys and wonen fighting witk 
eqnal valor. One of the latter, in 
particalar, after having displayed 
great courage alongside of her 
husband, seeing him run through 
with a lance and fall dead at her 
feet, instead of being terrified at 
the sight, resolutely attacked an 
English ensign who was in the aol 
of scaling the wall, took his onion, 
and killed him on the spot. 

QuesttoDB and Anawen for Convenatioiii 

I Que leccion es esta f 
I De que se habla en esta leccion f 
|0omo se llamo la soberbia ar- 
I Donde experi mento una derrota? 
I En consecuencia de que? 

I A quien puso orgnllosa eeta 

derrota t 
( Que ezpodio f 
I Al mando de quien ! 
I Oontra ouales costas f 
I En que puerto desembarc6 oon 

efecto ? 
I Fu6 rechazado f 
iQuienes pelearon tambien con 

el mayor dennedo ? 
I Que habia hecho una de estas 

mi^jeres ? 
|De que estuvo l^os al verle 

caer muerto t 
|De que cayo muerto f 
I Que hizo ella con la suya ? 
I Por donde subia? 
I De que manera le tendio a sus 

|I)e que historia es este ez- 


La ddcimaoctava. 

De una valiente EspaHoIa. 

La Invendble. 

En el cabo de Fmisterre. 

En consecuencia de loa recioa 

A Isabel de Inglaterra. 

Una escuadra de setenta naveii. 
Al mando del temible Drake. 
Oontra las de Gkdicia y Portugal. 
En el puerto de la Oorufta. 

Fu6 rechazado por el paisanage. 
Los muchachos y las mi\)ereB. 

Prodigies de valor al lado de ii 

De acobardarse. 

De un bote de lanza. 
Arremetio 4 un alferes in^^ea. 
Por la muralla. 
Arrancandole la bandera le ten* 

dio a sus pi6s. 
De la Historia de Espafta d% 

P^dre Isla. 


BantonoM toz Oral Translation 


La e»cnft<lra. 

El mando. 

Gl paerto. 

£1 paisaDage. 

El denaedo. 

El iiiucliaoho. 

La mujer. 

El prodigio. 

La tnnralla. 
La ooata de America. 
Loa hombres j las major^B. 
Ia Hi»toriade log Esta^oa TJtiidoa. 
I Oaantas naves expedio Isabel t 

Expedio Betenta. 
I Donde osta sitoada Portugal t 
Al Dooidente de Espafla. 
Uagaine el favor V, de doclrme 

k>9 timites de aqael p»s. 
Portugal est£ liinitado al norte y 

crlente por la EBj)afta, y al 

accidence y eor por el oc^aoo 

(Donde esta Galicia? 
Ed la pane del norte de EspaBa. 
|Donde esta la Oonifiat 
Eq Oalicia, c«rCB del cabo de 

I Oual annads experlmentlJ alU 

nn recio tem|iorall 
La famosa armada espaiola, U 

The rout. 
The naTj. 
The cape. 
The storma. 
The ooast. 
The sqnadron. 
The ship. 
The command. 
The port, 
Tlie poasaotry. . 
The CO □ rage. 
The boy. 
The womai), or the wife.' , 
The prodigy. 
The wall. 
The ooast of America. 


Tlie History of the United Statea. ' 
liow many ships did Etizubetii . 

She sent seventy. 

Where is Portugal situated i 

West of Spain. 

Tell me the limits of that conntry. 
if J-.. plm.e. 

Portugal is bounded on the nort' 
and east by Spain, and on the 
neat and south by the Atlanti* 

Where is Galif^ia i 

In the nortbero part of Spain. 


In Galiola, near Oape FiniBtarra 

Which navy experienced a seven - 

Sturm tberp} 
The famous Spanish amiada, tbt 




I Hay mnoboB boenos paertos en 

Inglaterra t 
Hay mnohisimos. 
I Ha yisitadoY. algnnosf 
He Tkitado alganos. 
I Qaien ha escrito la Historia de 

El Padre Ida. 

Are there many good aeaporte M 

England t 
There are a great many. 
Have yon yisited some of tlMml 
I have visited severaL 
Who has written the Histoiy oi 

Father Isla. 


La valiente Espafiola^ the brave Spaniflhwoman. 
184. The names denoting the natives of a conntryi and worda 
ending with an, on, or or, form their feminine by the addi- 
tion of an a. 

Ex. El Ingles^ the Englishman. El giganion^ the giant. 
La Inglesa, the Englishwoman. La gigantona^ the giantess^ 

186. This completes the study of the formation of the femi* 
nine in Spanish : 

Adjectives ending with o in the masculine, change o into a 
in the feminine ; but those ending otherwise are alike in both 

Nouns denoting titles, qualities, professions, or degrees of re* 
lationship which may belong to either sex, often produce feminine 
derivatives by means of the same terminations as the adjectives. 

The names denoting the natives of a country, and words 

ending with an, on, or or, form their feminine by the addition 

of an a. 

Invendble^ invincible. 

180. Many words ending with ible are alike, or nearly so^ 
ic both languages, with little or no other difference of orthog- 
raphy ; as, Flexible^ flexible ; sensible, sensible ; posible^ possible, 

PfMO tan orgullosa d Isabel^ made Elizabeth so proud. 

The preposition a i? intro4uce4 here in accordaQce witb 


Bule 140. This observation applies also to arremetiS Sn%\ 
alfercz, attacked an ensign. 

Eechazada, chased back; 

from Rechazar, to chase back. 

187. Verbs ending with zar, change z into c before a 

Ex. Reckazar, to chase back. Rechaci, I did chase book 

The verbs of this class already seen are : 

Alcanzar, to desire. Familiarizar, to familiarize, 

Abnorzar, to breokfost JRechazar, to chase bock 
Disfrazar, to disguise* Rioalizar, to rival 

Depites de haber, after having. . 

16S. Deques, as aprepodtion, is always followed by de(78). | 
At verle, at seeing him. 

189. Only the infinitive of verbs can be used as substan- 
tive in Spanish. It is then invariably accompanied by an 
article, or some determinative word, like any other noun. 


1 90. Uuerto answers in turn to dead and dwd, in English; 
it is the participle past of the irregular verb morir, to dw^ , 
whose conjugation is as follows : 


Morir, to die. 

Fkcust PiwmaiM. ftat FmamK 

Muriendo, dying. Muerto, died. 


To muero, I die, or do die. 

T& muerea, thou dieet, or dost di«k 

El muere, he diea, or does dia> 

Nbsotros morimos, we die, or do die. 

VoKotros maris, you die, or do die. 

Ellos mueren, they die, or do di& 



To morioj I died. 

TA morias^ thoa diedst 

SI moria^ he died* 

No8oiro9 moriamoSf we died. 

Va80tro8 morUtiSy you died. 

Mlo8 morian^ they died. 

Past Tbnsb DnriNm. 

To marij I lied, or did die. 

TA matiste^ thou diedst, or didst dki 

SI muridj he died, or did die. 

Nosotros morimos, we died, or did die. 

Vosotros moristeis^ you died, or did die. 

SUos muriironj they died* or did die. 


To moriri, I shall die, or will die. 

Tit morirds^ thou shalt die, or wilt die. 

SI morir&y he shall die, or will die. 

Nosotros moririmos, we shall die, or will die. 

Vosotros morirSis^ you shall die, or will die. 

Silos morirdnf they shall dia or will die. 


To moririof I should die, or would die. 

TA moririas^ thou shouldst die, or wouldst die^ 

SI morirtOf he should die, or would die. 

Nosotros mmiriamos, we should die, or would die. 
Vosotros moririaiSf you should die, or would die. 
Silos moririan^ they should die, or would die. 


Muere, die (thou). 
Morid^ die (you). 

The Moond future is (see note on page 25) : 

To murier^y tu muriira^ U miir{tt$^ 

ybtotros muriiremoiy tonfros tn/urUrM^ dlo$ m w iit m , 




Frbbknt TiNn. 

Que yo muera^ that I may die. 

Que tii muerae^ that thou majflt die. 

Que 41 mueroj that he may die. 

Que nosotros muramos^ that we may die. 

Que voeotroB murais^ that you may die. 

Que ellos mueran, that they may die. 

SuBJUNcmvK Past. 

Que yo muriera, or muriese^ that I might die. 

Que t& murieras^ or murieseSj that thou mightst di& 

Que SI muriera, or muriese^ that he might die. 

Que nosotros muriiramos^ or muriisemos, that we might die. 
Que vosotros murierais, or muriiseis^ that you might die. 
Que ellos murieranj or muriesen^ that they might die. 

This verb is, however, more used in the reflective form, 
morirse. See Rule 9. 

191. Dormir^ to sleep, is conjugated like morir^ to die, except 
in the participle past, which is dormido, slept. 

La suya, hers. 

192. Iia suya is the feminine form of el suyo ; the posses- 
sive pronoun corresponding to the possessive adjective su, SUB, 
already seen. Its plural masculine is los suyos, and its plural 
feminine las suyas, all of which answer in turn to his, hbrs, 
ITS, and THEIRS, according to the gender and number of the 
object possessed See Rule 57. 

Ex. Mi Kermano y el suyo^ my brother and his or hers. 

Mi hermana y la suya^ my sister and his or hers. 

Mis ke^'»ianos y las suyos^ my brothers and his or hers. 

Mis hermarxis y las suyas^ my sisters and his or hoi's. 

193. In English, nis i& alike as an adjective and as a propoun^ 
but it is not so in Spanish. When joined tc the name ^f t 


person or thing, it is translated by su for the singular, and by 
8U8 for the plural; but when not so placed, el suyo, la suya, 
los suyos, or las suyas, is the proper equivalent, according 
to Rale 192 of this lesson. See also Rule 28. 

194. The possessive pronouns complete are : 

Maaa ling. Fem. sing. Mase. plnr. Fem. plnr. 

El mio, la mia, los mios, las mias. 
El tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas. 
El suyo, la suya, los sijyos, las suyas. 
El nuestro, la nuestra, los nuestros, las nuestras. 
El vuestro, la vuestra, los vuestros, las vuestras. 
El suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas. 

These pronouns, like their corresponding adjectives, agree in 
gender and number with the object possessed, and not with the 

Ex. jEste sombrero es el suyo, this hat is his, hers, or theirs. 

195. El suyo, and its several forms, corresponding in turn 
to HIS, HBRS, ITS, THEIRS, and evcu to TOURS (see Rule 7), it is 
often necessary to add after it, de el, de ella, de ellos, 
de ellas, de V., or de Vs., to indicate more clearly in what 
particular sense it is used. 

Ex. JSste sombrero es el suyo de el^ this hat is his. 
Este sombrero es el suyo de ella, this hat is hers. 
Este sombrero es el suyo de F., this hat is yours. 

Lance, lance, and nave, ship, arc feminine by exception. 

Acobardar, to become frightened ; experimintar, to experi- 
ment ; and pelear, to fight, are regular verbs of the first conju- 
gation. Arremeier, to assail, and tender, to stretch, are of the 
lecond ; and subir, to ascend, of the third. 

Arrar<,ar, to pull down, and desembarcar, to disembark, go 
like Rule 145 ; expedir, like Rule 162 ; and caer, like Rule 182, 

Haher, to have ; hacer, to make ; and mxyrir, to die, are irregu 
bur verbs, which have already been seen. 

Poner^ to pat| and ver, to see, will be explained later* 

1. To breakfast, 187 

2. I bri 

8. He bteaMaat*. 
4. We breakfast 
6, You breakfast 

6. The; breakfast 

7. Ibreak&Eted. 
6. I did breaHast 

9. He did breakfast. 

10. We did breakfast 

11. You did breakfast 

12. The; did breakfEiBt 

13. I shall breakfaat 

14. I should breakfast 
16. Breakfast 

16. That I may breakfast. 

17. That he may breakfast 

18. That we may 

19. That you may breakfast 

20. That they may breakfast 

24. We sleep. 

25. You sleep. 

26. The; sleep. 

27. I slept 

28. He slept 

29. We slept 
You slept 

31. The; slept 

32. I did Bleep. 

33. I shall sleep. 
34 I should Bleep. 

36. That I may sleep. 

87. That I might sleep 

88. I have slept 

89. I had elcpt 

40. I shall have slept 

41. Tbo Frenchman — the Frenchwoman, 184, — 42. Aftei 
having spoken, 188.— 43. After having slept, 188,-44. After 
having breakfasted, 188. — 4S. A dead man, 190.— 46. A dead 
woman, 190, — 47. Ho died last year. — 48. Have you my sister's 
bootsi — 49. I have hers, 193, 193, 195.— 50. Rave you my 
brother's pens! — 51. I have bis, 192, 193, 19,1. — 52. My granv 
mar or his, 192, 193, 195.— 53. My dictionary or hers, 192, 193, 
195.-54. Your gloves and here, 192, 193, 195,— fiS. Your keys 
and hia, 192, 193, 195.— 56. This horse is yours, 195.-57. ITiat 
mule is his, 195.— ,58. ThoEC animals arc theirs, 195,— S9. ThU 
•xnciie is his, l»fl. — 60, Those things are yours, 196. 


Uteral ^analatloii. 

I^eccion d^cimanona.* 

LessoD nineteenih. 

Bttracto de im Bo»iqiiejo del Car&cter de la 

Extract from a efcetcli of the Character of lb* 

Reina Isabel, de niime. 

Queen ElliAbetb, b; Hum a. 

Traducido del Ingles por Salrii. 

TraDslaled from the English by Salvi. 
Ocurren pocos personajes en la hlstorla, 

Occur few perdooai^es id the history 

qne hayan estado nias eHpuestos & la 

who may have been mora exposed to the 

calamnia de lus enemigos y & la aduiacion 

oalomn; of the enemies and to tlie flattery 
de los parCidarlos que la reina Isabel ; y 
of the partisnas than the Quoen Eliziiheth ; aai! 

eon todo apenas habrd ninguuo, ciiya 
with all li^mlly there will be any whus« 

reimlacion haya fljado de nn modo mas 

Tepatatioa may have fixed in a mauaar mora 

posilivo el unanime cousentimiento de 

posftive the nnanimooa consent of 

la posteridad. For la extraordinaria 

the poaterity. By tlie extraotdlnaij 

duracion de su reinado, y por ser tan 

dtmtion of her taign, and bj to 1m w> 




liueuas y ^^M 

guild and ^^^1 

pai'lioiljirinenlc senaladas, sus bueuas 

piirtifiularly [i.arked, 

BUS uialas calidades, lleararoii & arallarse 

her bail qiuilUies diil nri-ive txi silence iLtinaelTef 

loda^i la^ pasioues ; y rebajando loi 

all tlie possiuns ; and abHting the 

caliiiuniadoi*r8 iniicho de sua invectivai, 

nincb of Iboir invecthes, 

nigo de siis panegiri- 

ndinirera sinnelliing of tliPtr panefryrics, 

obtuTo liDaliiieiile, a despeclio de 

itself it did obtain fiDally, in spite of 

las racciones puliticas, y lo que mas es, 

the factiiius pulitical, and ntinC mure is, 

de las dcsaveneiicia!^ rpli^io8a!!>, un juicia 

of tlie uiiiniosities Lvlijiioii^, a judgment 

uniTorme respccto de su coiidncfa. 

uniform respecting of her conduct. 

y los adniiradoiTK 

and the ndiiiirera i>< 


The same in 

good EngliBh. 


Extract from a Sketch o» 


Queen Elizabeth's Chak- 

IsABE^ DE Hume. 


TndiKMa M tnglM r»r 9ii.ti. 

TiuilUed ttum Uie Knglish bf StxrL 

Ociiiren pocos peisiumjes en 

There are few personages in 

la historia qne hayan eEtHdo mas 

hi-tnrj who have been inoM 

eapneatos a la calnmnia de los 

exposed to the cslnmny of ene- 

•netnigos y a la adiilncion de los 

mies aiKl the adnlation of friendi 

partidarioi' qne la reioa Isabel , y 

than Queen Eliwbtth: tnd yet 

there la Boarcely any whosi 

cuya reputaoitin haya fljado de 

re|)iitatinn has been incrH cet- 

un raodo mas ptisltWo el nnanimn 

tainl} ilelermined by the UL'sni- 

oonsentiru lento de la postendaii. 

iDous consent of posterity. 

Por U eit.raordinaria duracion 

The nnastal length of hot 

de 30 miiado, j por ser tan parli- 

udcomistratioo, ani^ the utroni 




anlarmente sefialadas, sns bnenas 
y sns malas oalidades, llegAron 4 
acallarse todas las pasiones ; y re- 
bajando los calnmniadores mncho 
de SOS inveotivas, y los admira- 
dores algo de sus panegiricos, se 
obtuvo finalmente, a despeclio de 
las ^cciones politicos, y lo que 
mas es, de las desavenencins re- 
ligiosas, un juicio uniforme res- 
peoto de su couducta. 

features of her character, were 
able to oTeroome all prejudices; 
and obligiug her detractors to 
abate much of their invectiyea, 
and her admirers somewhat of 
their panegyrics, have at last, 
in spite of political factions, and, 
what is more, of religious ani> 
mosities, produced uniform judg" 
ment with regard to her coo- 

Questioiis and Anawera for Convenatloii. 

Que leccion es esta ? 
De que se habla en esta leccion ? 
A que ha estado espuesta Isabel 
en la historia? 
Y a que mas ? 
Que ha fijado su reputacion ? 

De que modo f 

Oomo Uegaron & acallarse todas 
las pasiones f 
T poi que mas f 

Quienes rebijaron mnoho de sus 

Que rebajaron los calnmnia- 
dores ? 

Quienes rebajaron algo de sus 
panegiricos f 

Que rebajaron los admiradores ! 

Que se obtuvo finalmente ? 

Respeoto de que ? 

A despecho de que 1 

T de que mas f 

Quien ha escrito este bosquejo ? 

Y quien le ha tradnciij? 

La d^cimanona. 

Del caracter de la reina Isabel 

A la calumnia de sus enemigos. 

A la adulacion de sus partidarios. 
El uninime consentimiento de la 

De un modo mas positivo. 
For la extraordinaria duracioi 

de su reinado. 
^or ser tan particularmente sella- 

ladas sus buenas y sus mala# 

Los calnmniadores. 

Mucho de sus invectiTaa. 

Los admiradores. 

Algo de sus panegiricos. 
Un juicio uniforme. 
Respecto de su conducta. 
A despecho de las facciones inb 

De las desavenencias religiosas. 
El famoso aulor ingles Hume. 
M ilustre escritor espanol Salv4 

■,. ^^. 

Bantenow tea Oral TtanaUtlon, 1 


El bosqn^c. 

Ihe Bketoh. 

El Mricter. 

The character 

L» reina. 

Tlie queen. 

U calamniB. 

The oalnuiDy. 

H eneraigo. 

TLe enemy. 

TTd partidario. 

A partisan. 

La poBteridad. 


Ud oalnmniador. 

A slanderer. 

Uc admirador. 

An admirer. 

El panegirioo. 

The panegyric 

Lb desBTeDenoia. 

The animo9ity. 

Im InreotiTEk 

The inTectWe. 

El Ktnado. 

The reign. 


The uniform judgment. 

Una coDdnota eitraordinaria. 

An extraordinary cnndocL 

babel era una de Im inaa famosaa 

Elizabeth was one of the rad-t 

^^ retnaa de Inglaterra. 

famous qoeena of England. 

^1 tQ<i^<>1^B^BP<^i^^I'>glBterrat 

What kind of e. oonntry is Eng- 

^1 Es nno de los pdsea maa aomer- 

■ cUlea del mutido. 

ounntries in the world. 

H ■ Qno paao tan orgnltoea i la rei na 

What made Qneen Elisabeth 

f babel 1 

proud 1 

La derrota de la armada espsBola. 

The defeat of Ihe Spanish armada 

4 Ed qae Ingar se eiperinient6 

Wliere did this defeat take place , 

eata derrota I 

En el oabo de Finiaterre. 


1 Doode esta sitnado eet« oabo t 

Where is this cape aituatedt 

En el parte mas del Dorta de 

In the moat nurthern part d 


{Tenia maolias navea en eate 

Had Spain many vesBels St chat 

tiempo laEapaDat 


Tenia mas que jamas ba tenido 

It had more than it has ever had 



jDonde se difi en eate tiempo 

Where did a famous battle taki 


place tiien t 

Bn •! pnertti de la Cornt^a. 

In the port of Oornnna. 




I Porqni es tan famosa esta ba- 

Porqne los mnchachos y las ma- 

jeres pelearon con mncbo de- 

Qnien hizo prodigios en este 

tiempo f 
Cna Taliente Espafiola. 
I Quien oay6 mnerto en esta ba- 

6a marido caj6 maerto a sa 

I Que bizo ella entonoes ? 
Arremeti6 a an alferez ingles oon 

sa lanza, y le tendio a sus pi6s. 
I Oual es el Juioio de la posteridad 

respecto de la reina Isabel? 
Qae era una mi\jer soberbia y 


Wby b this battle so famoos f 

Becaase boys and women fo^ighl 
with great ooarage 

Who did wonders tbent 

A valiant Spanishwoman. 
Who was killed in this dattle* 

Her hnsband was killed at her 

What did she do then f 
She assailed an English ensign 

with her lance, and killed him. 
What is the jadgment of posterity 

aboat Qaeon Elizabeth ? 
That she was a proud and arro* 

gant woman. 


Personajes, personages. 

196. Words ending with age^ in English, generally end with 
V« in Spanish, with little or no other difference of ortiiography; 
as, Paje, page ; equipaje, equipage ; carruaje, carriage, etc 

JSspuestoSj exposed ; from esponevj to ezpoae. 

197. The irregular verbs, though numerous, are for the rnont 
part only derivatives or compounds of about forty radical one% 
the knowledge of which will suffice to coujugate any exceptional 
one. In the present work, therefore, the radical irregular verba 
will alone be given with any degree of completeness; and 
absolver, to absolve ; disolver^ to dissolve, will be conjugated like 
tolver^ to solve: and esponer^ to expose; oponer^ to oppose/ 
tuponer^ to suppose; depomr^ to depose; disponer^ to dispose, 
etc, like poner^ to put 


KtNfin^^tfi Li«:0BON. 

Poner^ to put. 
PftmMT Partioiplb. Past Pab'^oitul 

Ponundoy putting. Puesto, put. 

Presbnt Trnsb. 

I put, or do put. 

thou pattest, or dost put 
he puts, or does put. 
we put, or do put 

you put, or do put 
they put, or do put 


I put, 

To pongo^ 
Tit pones^ 
El pone^ 

No90tro8 ponemos, 
Vo8otro8 poneis, 
Ellos ponen^ 

To poniOf 
T& poniaSf 
El ponia, 

Nosotros poniamos, 
Vo8otro8 poniaiSj 
EUos ponian, 

To puHy 
Tit pusiste^ 
El pusOf 

No9otro8 puHmos, 
Vosotros pusisteis^ 
Ellas pusiSron, 

To pondri^ 
Tu pofndr&By 

. ^.^ or used to put 

thou puttest, or usedst to put 
he put, or used to put 

we put, or used to put 
you put, or used to put 
they put, or used to put 

Past Tbnsb Definite. 

I put, or did put 

thou puttest, or didst put 

he put, or did put 

we put, or did put 

you put, or did put 

they put, or did put 


I shall put, or will put 

thou shalt put, or wilt put 

he shall put, or will put 

El pondrdy ne snaii pui;, or win pui. 

Nosotros pondrimoSf we shall put, or wil. put 

Vo8otro8 pondriis, ^ you shall put, or will put. 

EUcs pondrdrij they shall put, or will put 

As teoond future i^ (see note on page 25) : 

To pusiersy tu putitrea^ el punere^ 

No§(4ro8 pusUremot^ vototrot pufiereity dlos pusim'm. 

NtNfirrfiKNTfi LtC880K. 16S 


Fo jMmdria^ I should put, or would put 

Tu pondriaSf th >u shouldst put, or wouldst put 

El pondrioy he should put, or would put 

Nosotros pondriamoSy we should put, or would put. 
VosotTOS pondiiaisy you should put, or would put. 
ElloB pondriauj they should put, or would put 


Ponj put (thou). 
Ponedj put (you). 

Pbbsbnt Tbnsb. 
Que yo ponga^ that I may put 

Que tit pongas^ that thou mayst put 

Qtie il ponga^ ' that he may put. . 

Que noaotros pongamos^ that we may put 
Que vosotros pongaie^ that you may put 
Que ellos pongan, that they may put 

SuBJUNCTivs Fast. 

Que yo pusiera^ or pusiese^ that I might put 

Que tit pusierasy or pusiesesy that thou mightst p^ 

Que SI puMerOy or pusiescy that he might put. 

Que nosatros pueieramoSy or pusiesemos, that we might put 
Que vosotros puaierahy or pusieseisy that you might put 
Que ellos pusierauy or pusiesen, that they might put 

NingunOy none. 
198. Ninguno answers to nobody, nons. not ant, and 
90. Its feminine singular is ninguna; its masculine plural, 
ningnnos ; and its feminine plural, ningunas. Ningun 
k used instead of ninguno before a noun masculine. 

Ex. Ningun drboly no tree. 

Ninguna planta, no plant 

Vingunos insectoSy no insects. 

Ningunas mariposasy no butterflies. 


HJi KlNliTtENTU l-tSSOll. 

Lt it diffen ^^^ 



otten traneiatea oy ae quien. i 

I Ex. Whose hat is this? i De quien ei tste sombrero } ^^H 

FhemaD whose brother I saw, ^7 Aomirecuyo^rmanoyoA^mtfo ^^H 

Poaitivo, positive. ^^^ 

Cut/a reputaeion, whoBo reputation. 
199. Cuyo ii another equivalent of whose 
ftom de quien and del cual, already seen, inasmuch 
cannot be ueed without a noun, and that it agrees in gendi 
and number with tlie word before which it is placed. I 
feminine lingular is cuya ; ita plural masculine, ouyOB ; ad6 
ha feminine plural, cuyas. 

Ex. Whose hat ( g cuyo vombrero / 
Whose hats ! ^ euyos sombrerot f 
Whoflo pen t j cvya pluma ? 
Whose pens? fcuyat plumasf 
Onyo is, however, less used aa an interrogati 
relative, and whosb, at the beginning of a sentence, u mo«t 
often translated by de quien. 

200. Words ending with Ito, in Spanish, generally end nitli 
ive in English, with little or no other difference of orthography 
M, Aetivo, active; almtivo, attentive; adjelivo, adjective, etc 

Llegaran & aeallarse, 
they succeed in silencing. 

201. LUgar is generally followed by the preposition 4> 
Ex. Hegar d la eata, to reach the house. 

LUgar & la ealle, to reach the street 
LUgar & saber, to succeed in knowing. 

Retpecto de su eoaducla, 

reBpoeting her conduct 

J02. Hespeclo a generally followed by the preposition de. 

Acaliar, to silence ; fijir, to fix ; rtbajar, to diminish ; seHa- 
Vr, to signalize, are regular verbs of the first conjugation, 
IninV, to occur, is of the third. 

Obtnter goeu lilie lentr. See page 33. 



Hegar^ to arrive, goes like pagar (see Bole 180) ; and 1*^ 
iM€ir^ to tianslate, bas already been explained on page 184. 

to n xmAML^TiD nno bpahihi. 

1. I suppose, lOiT. 16. I should suppose, 197. 

2. He supposes. 17. He should suppose. 
8. We suppose. 18. We should suppose. 

4. Tou suppose. 10. You should suppose. 

5. They suppose. 20. They should suppose. 

6. I supposed. 21. I have supposed. 

7. He supposed. 22. He has supposed. 

8. We supposed. 28. We have supposed. 

9. Tou supposed. 24. You have supposed. 

10. They supposed. 25. They have supposed. 

11. I shall suppose. 26. Let him suppose. 

12. He shall suppose. 27. Let us suppose. 
18. We shall suppose. 28. Let them suppose. 

14. You 3hall suppose. 29. Suppose. 

15. They shall suppose. 30. Supposing. 

81. No money, 198.-82. No flower, 198. — 88. No horses, 198 
—84. No mules, 198.— 85. Whose book is this f 199.-36. Whose 
pencils are these! 199. — 87. Whose cloak is this! 199. — 
38. Whose gloves are those ? 199. — 89. Whose pen is that! 199. 
— 40. Whose flowers are those? 199. — 41. Whoso waistcoat is 
this! 199.— 42. Whose boots are these! 199.— 43. The boy 
whose mother I met yesterday, 199.-^44. The house whose 
windows are broken, 199. — 45. When did you reach the 
house! 201. — 46. I arrived at six o'clock, 201. — 47. Have you 
succeeded in learning Spanish ! 201. — 48. 1 begin to speak it, 201. 
—49. At what o'clock did you reach town! 201. — 60. At a 
quarter-past nine. — 51. Did you succeed in obtaining your 
money ! 201. — 52. Not all, but a part of it. — 08. Respecting 
ds, 202.— 54. Respecting that, 202. 



Literal Tranolatloii.* 

Lcccion Tig^siina. 

Lesson tiveiitietli. 

Direr§idad de Caractcr de las Prorinriat 


Ei#pafiola§, de Cadalso. 

Spr.nisli, by Cnrtftlao. 

Lob Cftnlabros, enfendiendo por egl« 

The Ciintabnaiia, [neaoiiig bj tbia 

noiiibre todos los que hablan el idionia 

imine nil tlmse wlia isptiik the idium 

Vizcaino, son iinos pueblos seiicillos y de 

Biscnyaii, are a people simple nml of 

notoria probidad. Fii^ron los priiiicroa 

noturioQs probity. Tlifj wtru the first 

niai'iiieros dc Europa, y liau luanienldo 

uiariDerij of Eurnjie, and tboy have mniutained 

8iciiipre la IHina de excelenles iiombres de 

always the reputation uf excellent inen of 

mar. Nu pais, aunqiie Bumameiite Aspero, 

sea. Their country, thi.iigb very ri.ugh, 

(iene una poblacion nuuicrosSsima, que 

boa a popiilatiuii very niiiiierons, which 

no parcce disminuirsc con las continnas 

Dot appears to diminish itself with the continuuoa 

colonias que envia & la America. Aunqii« 

oolonies wh'.ch it sends '? the America. AlthoDgb 

* Bm DOM on p*g« 11*. 


H nil Vi 

TWUjyilLrU Lh^SBUH, 


nn Vizcaino se auscntc de au palria, 

Biscnyau himself abscuta from liis t'utherland, 

sienipre sc halla en clla conio §e 

alwavB IiiiiiK-lf he finil^ i.i it whenever hims*',! 

enciienlrc iin paisano snj'o. Tienen cntre 

he meeU a, c<niTitr3*iiiHn lils. Tiiey have atucing 

si lal iiiiionjquclamayor recomenda- 

tttemselveB such uuinn, that tlie greatest recoiiiruendatluii 

cion que piirdc nno tener para con olro, 

wliich can one have fur with other, 

68 el inero heelio dc scr Vizcaino, §in mas 

is the mere SukI of to be ISiscajan, witliout more 

dircrencia cnlrc varios de ellos, para 

difference amuiig tlie vai-hiua of them, for 

aleanzai* el Tavor del podcroso, que la 

to oblaiu tlie ftivnr of tlie powerful, thiin tlie 

ninyor 6 nienor inmediacion de los lugares 

greater or less [jruxitiiity of the places 

respecliros. El SeAorio de Vizcaya, fiiii- 

respective. Tlie Seignory of Biacay, Gai- 

piizcoa, Alaba y el reino d-^Warai-ra, tienen 

pii^coa, Alaba, and thokingdiim ii*" Navarre, have 

lal paclo entre si, ine ^l^unos Hainan 

such pact amoTig tliPiQoeh ea, tb't some call 

cMtos paise^E las Prtviuitu^ Vnidas de Espa ika, 

these ROuntriea the i'roviuuts United of Spain, 

The •ame In good BngUalL 


DiVERslDAD IiB CarIctkh 1>B 
LAS Phovinciab EspaSolas, 
DB Cahalso, 

Lug C&atabroij, sntendiendu 
por esta uumbre todua las i^iiu 
hahka el iilioma Vizcaino, saa 

DivERSiTr OF Charaotbr ok 
TBB Spanish Provihois, bt 
Cad ALSO, 

Tlie Cantahrian?, mmpHsing 
inder that came all suoh a* 
speak the Biscayan Ungiu^p^ 




DDOS pnebloa EencilloB j 6e noto- 
ria probidad. Fueroo Ioh prime- 
roB mftrineroB de Eui'opn, ; ban 
manCenido Biempre la fama de 
«zoeleDt«a hombres de mar, Su 
pais, annqne BQmamente aspero, 
tiene ons poblacioo uumeroaisi- 
ma, que QD parece disiiiiuairBe 
von las aontinaoB ooluiiias que 
•avia B la America. Aunque nn 
ViBoaiao ee aaaeote de su patiio, 
uempre se tiHllti en ella como ee 
enooeotre no paianno bujo. Tie- 
uen eittre si tal uniuD, que la 
major recoiueudaciuii que puede 
DDOtenerparaouQ utro, es elmero 
hecho de eer Vizoaiuo, eia maa 
difereucia eutre varies de elloa, 
para alcansar el favoi- del pode- 
roso, quek major omeDoriume- 
diaoioD de lus lugares respeotiTOS, 
£1 Senorio de Vizcayo, Ouipnz- 
Doa, Alaba ; el reioo de Navarra, 
tienen tal paoto entre ei, que al- 
gODOS tlaraau e -t<is paises las 
Profinoias Unidaa de EapaJta. 


are a simple and hone«l iKopl« 

First among the Bailors of So- 
rope, tbey have always 
tained a liigb reputatioD as sea 
men; and their country, thongb 
very rougli, oontinoea well popu- 
lated, in spite of the many colo- 
nies it furnishes to Americft, 
Be be never so far from liii 
nHtive land, the Biacayan always 
feels at home whenever he meeti. 
one of his own cobntrymen; 
and they are so warmly attached 
tn each other, that ihey kuow 
of no better reconsmendaticn 
among them thao the mere foot 
of being a Biscayan,' the degree 
of their favor being regulated 
ouly by the greaUr or less 
proximity of their respective 
birthplaces. This is so specially 
the case with the territories of 
Biscay, Onipuzcoo, Alabt, and 
the kingdom of Navarre, thai 
they are often called the Unit«4 
Provinces uf Spain. 

Questions snd Ansiveis for Conversation. 

^Qne leccion es eatat 

I De qne se habla en esta leccion ? 

iQuienes se entienden por el 
nombre de los Oiutabros t 
Que clase de pueblos sont 

J Qne ftairon loa Ointabroat 

I Que ban maDtecido siempre } 

/ Cbmo e0 to p^* 

La vigesinia. 

De la diversidad de car&oter da 

las proviocias eapafiolts, 
Todos los que hablan al idioma 

Son jiueblos sencillos y de notoria 

Los primeroB marlnero* de En- 

Ln faina de exceleotaa bombrei 

Sumaitiente iaparo. 



i T qae tieoe este pais f 

I Ocm qne no pareoe disminnirse 

eiita poblaoionf 
I Annqne un Vizcaino se ansente 

de sn pais onando se halla 

siempre en 6.? 
Qae tienen entre sit 
I Goal es la mayor reoomendaoion 

que pnede nno tener oon otro? 
Sin mas que cnal diferenda 

entre varios de ellos f 
I Qne tienen el Sefiorio de Yiz- 

oaya, Gnipnzcoa, Alaba y el 

reino de Navarra! 

Una poblacion muDerosfsima. 
Oon las oontinnas oolonias qne 

enyia 6 la America. 
Oomo se encnentre on paisaro 


Una grande union. 

El mero hecho de ser Vhsoidno* 

La mayor 6 menor inmediaoioa 
de los Ingares respeotivos. 

Un tal pacto entre si qne algnnof 
llaman k estos paises las Pro- 
yinciat Unidas de Espaha. 

Sentenoas lor Oral Tranalatlon. 


El nombre. 

El idioma. 

El pueblo. 

El marinero. 

La probidad. 

La poblacion. 

La patria. 

El paisano. 

El reino. 

£1 mero heclio. 

£1 Ingar respActivo. 

Sencillo y aspero. 
I Paede Y. decirme qnienes son 
los mejores marineros de Es- 
pafta ? 
61, seAor ; los Oantabros. 
|Donde viven los Oantabros? 
En las provinoias deVizcaya, Gni- 
pnzcoa, Alaba y NaVarra. 
I Oomo se llaman los babitantes 

de Vizcaya? 
) Que oarycter tienen ellos ? 

TO VE nuirnjLTBD mo nAKum 

The name. 
The people. 
Thtf sailor. 
The population. 
The native ooontry. 
The countryman. 
The kingdom. 
The mere fact 
The respective place. 
Simple and rough. 
Oan you tell me who are the beat 
sailors of Spain ? 

Tes, sir ; the Oantabrians. 
Where do the Oantabrians live! 
In the provinces of Biscay, Gui 

puzcoa, Alaba, and Navarre. 
How are the inhabitants of Bie 

cay called f 
What is their character I 




Bon pueblos 8enp*^1o8 y de noto- 

r!a probidad. 
I Hay otros estados eu Enropa 

que tienen buenos marineros f 
[nglaterra y Francia tienen tam- 

bien ezceleLlses. 
Qnienee ban enviado las prime- 

ras oolonias a la America f 
Los EspafioUs. 

I Puede v. deoirme en que alio I 
En el alio mil cuatro cientos no- 

Yenta y dos, 
I Ouyo cuaderno es este f 
Es el de mi herraano. 
|T cuya pizarra es esta! 
Es la de mi hermana. 

De quien son estas cosas f 
Son las mias. 
I Ha visto y. al se&or cuya hija 

murio ayer f 

La sefiora cuyo bermano se fu6 

& Inglaterra. 
I Que piensa V. respecto de estas 

mercancias f 
Oreo que son mny fenti\)osas 

para vender. 

They are a simple ard honed^ 

Are there other stages in Europe 

which have good sailors f 
England and France have also 

excellent ones. 
By whom were the first colonists 

sent to America! 
By the Spaniards. 
Gould you tell me in what year I 
In the year 1492. 

Whose copy-book is this? 

It is my brother's. 

And whose slate is that f 

It is my sister's. 

Whose things are these} 

They are mine. 

Have you seen the gentleman 
whose daughter died yester- 

The lady whose brother has gone 
to England. 

What do you think of these 
goods ? 

I think them quite salable. 


Entendiendo^ meaning. 
203. All verbs ending .with ar in the infinitive, end witl) 
ando in the present participle ; and those ending with er and 
ir, end with iendo. 

Bx. Hablar to speak Hablando^ speaking. 

Vender to sell Vendiendo, selling. 

TTnir^ tP ^pit« Tniendc^ Uniting. 


Uno9 puMo8f 

some tnbes. 
to A. Unos, anas, ia often used instead of algnnoi, 
aJj^unas, for some or ant, in Spanish, 

Numerosisima, very nnmerons. 

205, The superlative absolute is also formed by adding th 
foidowing endings to the positive : isixno for adjectives, and 
Isimaxnente for adverbs. The termination isixno changes 
k> isixna, for the feminine singulat ; to isimos, for the plural 
masculine ; and to isimas, for the feminine plural ; but 
isimaxnente is, of course, invariable. In forming these 
superlatives, care should be had that words ending with a 
vowel drop their final letter before these inflections, and that 
those ending with ble, CO, and go, change these syllables into 
bil, qu, and gu. 

Ex. Fdcil, 




very easy. 

very easily. 





very beautiful. 

very beautifully. 





very noble. 

very nobly. 





very rich. 

very richly. 





very large. 

very largely. 

Puede^ can ; from poder^ to be able. 
206. Poder^ to be able, is one of the most necessaij irreguiai 
puiis io Soanisk Its conjugation is as follows : 

Poder^ to be able. 

PanniT Participlb. Past Partioiplb. 

Pudiendo^ being able, Podido^ been able^ 


171 TWBNTISTil LEWlK. J^^^H 



Pbeskrt Tntn. ^^H 

To puedo, lean, or am abb. ^^| 
7U putdes, thoa canet, or art abla. ^^M 
Mpatde, he can, or is able. ^^| 
Noto^ot podemos, wo can, or iiro able. ^^H 
FosofrtM podeis, you can, or are able. ^^| 
Silo*pueden, they can, or are able. ^^M 

iMPEBmrr. ^| 

To ^M, I could, or uaed to be able. 
Tipodiat, thoucouldst, or naedst to be ablfc 
El podia, he could, or need to be able. 
!Foaotroi podiamos, we could, or used to be able. 
Vosotrot podiain, you could, or used to be able. 
Siloi podian, they could, or uaed to be able. 

Part Tessi DeriNiTB. ^^M 

Topude, I could, or was able. ^| 
T& pudUle, thou couldst, or wast abtu. ^H 
SI pudo, he could, or waa able. ' 
S'aiotro» pudimo», we could, or were able. 
Voaotrm pttdtsleis, you could, or were abla 
Silot pudih-on, they could, or were able 


Yo podri, I shall be able, or will be abla 
Ta podrdi, thou shalt be able, or wilt bo able. 
SI podrd, he fihall ho able, or will be able. 
Notatrtu podrimoa, we shall bo able, or will be able 
VoKlrot podriU, yon ahall be able, or will be ablu 
SOoipodr&n, tliey shall be able, or will be able. 

• Tl» ieooDd futnro u (>«« nota od ptge 25) : 

repMditrt, tiin.di»r^, Hf'"'*-^ 




Fopodna^ I should be able, or would be able. 

TA podrioff thou shouldst be able, or wouldst be able^ 

M podria^ he should be able, or would be able. 

I^osotros podHamos^ we should be able, or would be able. 

Vo9otro$ podriaiSf you should be able, or would be able. 

i^los podrian^ they should be able, or would be ablt. 

No Imperative Mood. 

Priskmt Tbnsi. 

Que yo pueda^ that I may be able. 

Que tit puedaSf that thou mayst be aMa 

Que il puedOf that he may be able. 

Que noaotros podamoe^ that we may be able. 

Que voaotroe podais^ that you may be able. 

Que elloe puedan^ that they may be able. 

SuBJUNonvB Past. 
Que yo pudtera^ or pudiese^ that I might be able. 

Que (6 pudteraSf or pudieses^ that thou mightst be ablft 

Que SI pudierOf or pudtese^ that he might be able. 

Que nosotro8 pudiiramoSfOTpudiisemoSfih&t we might be able. 
Que voaotroe pudiirais, or pudiiseis^ that you might be able. 
Que elloe pudieran^ or pudiesen, that they might be able. 

Mitre sif among themselves. 

207. After a preposition, mi, ti, si, 61, ella, ello, noso 
tros, voBotros, ellos, and ellas, are used instead of me^ 
te, 86, le, la, lo, nos, 08, les, and las. See Table of per 
tonal pronouns, page 107, line 15. 

Fara con^ with. 

208. The preposition para is often added to con, in 
Spanish, without any apparent necessity. 

MenoTy less. 

209. Menor is the irregular comparative form ol pegteetu^ 
Etde. Its superlative is minimo^ least. 

Idioma^ languagey is masculine tyy exception. 



Ause.itar, to absent, and enviar, to send, are of the first conj 
Alcamar, to obtain, goes like rechazar (187); disminuir^tc 
diminish, like instruir (page 143) ; entendevy to hear, like jE>er<^ 
(page 98) ; and mantener^ to maintain, like tener (page 33). 



A. 1 cannot, 50, 206. 
2. He cannot 
8. We cannot 
4. You cannot. 
6. They cannot 

6. I could not 

7. He could not 

8. We could not 
d You could not 

10. They could not 

11. I shall not be able. 

12. He shall not be able. 

13. We shall not be abio. 

14. You shall not be able. 

15. They shall not be able. 

16. Very simple, 52, 205. 

17. Very numerous. 

18. Very magnificently. 

19. Very agreeable. 

20. Without me, 207. 

21. With us. 

22. I shoukl not be able, 50, 2M 

23. He should not be able. 

24. We should not be able. 

25. You should not be able. 

26. They should not be able. 

27. I have not been able. 

28. He has not been able. 

29. We have not been able. 

30. You have not been able. 

31. They have not been able. 

32. I had not been able. 

33. I shall not have been able. 

34. I should not have been abloi 

35. That I may not be able. 

36. That I might not be able 

37. Very simply, 52, 205. 

38. Very useful, 

39. Very fresh. 

40. Very agr<»eably. 

41. For him, 207. 

m9, Aga^n«t them. 

43. Can you coma to-morrow? f.OO -44. What are you co- 
dig ? 203. — 45. 1 am studying. — 46 Which esson are you learn- 
mg LOW ? 203. — 47. The twentieth — 48. Do you know all the 
lessons from the first to the twe-otioth ? — 49. I know them pretty 
well. — 50. Who teaches you* — 51. A Spanish gentleman. — 
62. What i» nis name? — 53 M. Cadalso. — 54. When do you take 
yopr les^n ? — 6'j, F'*o»o eifrh* to nine o'clock in the morning.— 
W. THa* IF vpfT o^Hy - ^V. I prefer to study in the morning. 




Literal Translatloii.* 

Lercion vig:£!iiiiia priinera. 

Lesson twenty fir^t. 

Eitracio dc Cudalso, coiiliuiiadOt 

Extract frotu OudaUu, cuntinueil. 

Scffiiiida parte. 

Second part. 

■lOS de AslurJas y las inonlaflas haccn 

Tliofie of Astcriaa and the moontains make 

■amo aprvcio de ^enealo^ia y de la niemo- 

hi)!h appreoialinn of genenlogy and of tlie memory 

ria de hafier sido aquel pais el 4|ue prodajo 

of to have been that country the wiiich produced 

la reconquisla de Espana, con la expulsion 

tho reconqnest of Spain, with the cxpiilisioD 

dc los noros, nucstros abiielos. !$ii pobla- 

of the Moors, our ancestors. Its population, 

cion, demasiada para la niiseria y estrechex 

too great for tlie poverty and steiility 

de la tierra, hace que un nuniero conside- 

of the earth, makes tliat a number co 1 1 si i liable 

rable de rllos tte eniplee contiiiuamciile 

of them thenaseives tmjiioy contitiiully 

CD Madrid en la librea, que es la elaxc 

in Madrid in tlie liveiy, wtiich ia the class 

InArlor de criados, dc modo que si yo 

inferior ol 


« note on care lit. 




fkieiic natural de este pais, examlnaria 

were natural of this ponntrj, I mould emniina 

con iniicha niadiirex los papeles de mis 

with much care i.lie papers of mj 

cocheros y lacayos, por uo tener algun 

ooacbineD and lackeys, for cot to have BOiiie 

11a la mortificaclon de rer & uii prima 

day the mnriiflcaiiun vt' to sue a consin 

mio echar ccbnda A mis miilas, 6 & iino 

mine to throw imrlcy l<> my mules, or oue 

de mis tins limpiarine los zapatos. H^in 

of . my urcleB to cleari tne tlie tlioes. Never* 

embargo dc todo eslo, miichas IhiulUai 

thelesa of all this, many families 

respetables de esta proTincIa §e 

respectable of this province themaelvea 

mandeneii con el deliido lustre, son 

maintain with the due Iniarj, are 

acreedoras & la mayor consideracion, y 

entitled to the greatest consideration, and 

producen continuanieiilc oficiales del inaa 

produce continouily officers of the most 

alto m^rlto en el ej£rcito y la marina. 

high merit in the army aud the marine. 

The same iu good EngUah. 

&XTKAOTO Di Cadalso, oonti- Extract from Cadalbo, OOV 


Bmckda Paste. Beoohd Fast. 

Los de Astariaa y las montailas The natives of Asturiaa, and 

bacen sumo apreciodegenealogia of tlie mountains, have mnob 

J de la niemoria de haber sido family pride and glory in having 

aqoel p^s el que produjo la re- been instrumental in restoring 

■onqniBta de fispofa, con la ez- Spain to Ireedom by the expnl 



pulsion de lo8 Moros, nnestroi 
ftbvelos. 8a poblaoion, deroaaiai 
da para la miseria y estiechez de 
la tierra, haoe qoe nn numero 
oonsiderable de ellos se emplee 
eoDtinuamente en Madrid en la 
Hbrea, que es la olase inferior de 
eriados, de mode qne si yo fuese 
Batnral de este pais, examinaria 
eon mncha madorez los papeles 
de mis cocheros y lacayos, per no 
tener algnn dia la mortifioacion 
de ver & an primo mio eohar ce- 
bada a mis mnlas, 6 i ano de mis 
Uos limpiarme los zapatos. Sin 
embargo de todo esto, machas fa- 
milias respetables de esta provin- 
eia se mantienen con el debido 
ostre, son acreedoras & la mayor 
Gonsideraoiou, y prodacen conti- 
naamente oficiales del mas alto 
m6rito en el cg^roito y la marina. 

sion of the Moors, oar fore- 
fathers ; but the poverty of the 
country compel many to repait 
to Madrid, where they geuer* 
ally engage as liveried servants ^ 
so that were I from that dis- 
trict, and aboat to select a 
coachman or lackey, I woald 
indeed examine with care the 
papers of those offering, not to 
have one day the mortification 
of seeing a coasin of mine feed- 
ing my moles, or one of my 
uncles blacking my boots. 

There are, however, some 
highly respectable families in 
this province who live with 
sufficient luxury, and who fur- 
nish regularly a number of very 
distinguished officers to the army 
and navy. 

Qoeatioiis and Anawen ftxr ConTeraatloii. 

I Que leccion es esta f 

I De que pueblos se habla en esta 

|De que hacen somo apredo 

estos pueblos I 
|T deque mas? 

I Con que se hijBo la reconqnista 

'Quienes eran los Moros ? 
Para que es demasiada su pobla- 

I Que haoe esto f 

I Qoe eslalibrea? 

La vig^sima primera. 

De los de Astorias y las moi] 

De la genealogia. 

De la meraoria de haber side 
aquel pais el que prodqjo la 
reconquista de Espafta. 

Oon Ui expulsion de los Moros. 

Eran nuestros abuelos. 

Para la miseria y estrechez da 
la tierra. 

Que un numero considerable de 
ellos se emplee cootinuamente 
ea Madrid en la librea. 

La clase inferior de los oriiidosi 



I Que haria V. si faese natural de 
este pais f 


I Que hacen sin embargo de toJo 
esto maohas familias respeta- 
bles de esta provinoiaf 

I Que prodaoen continnamente f 

Examinaria con maoha madurei 
los papeles de mis oocheros 7 

Por no tener an dia la nortifioa- 
oion de ver 6 nn primo mio 
eohar oebada 6 mis mnlas, 6 a 
nno de mis tios limpiarme lof 

Se mantienen con el debido 

Oficiales del mas alto m^rito en 
el ej^rcito y la marina. 

Sentences for Oral Translation. 


£1 apreoio. 
Los abnelos. 
La librea. 
£1 natural. 
La madnrez. 
£1 oochero. 
£1 laoayo. 
Hi primo. 
Vnestro tio. 
La cebada. 
EI Instre. 
La marina. 
El ej6rcito. 
£1 alto ofioiaU 
£1 criado inferior. 
* Que sabe Y . de las Astnrias f 

Han dado mnchas famosas ba- 

I A quienes? 
A los Moros« nuestros abnelos. 

|Porqn4 ban peleado contra el- 


The appreciation. 

The forefathers. 

The livery. 

The native. 

The care. 

The coachman. 

The lackey. 

My consin. 

Tonr ancle. 

The barley. 

The splendor. 

The navy. 

The army. 

The high officer. 

The inferior servant. 
What do yoa know about th« 

Asturians ? 
They have foight many oele 

brated battles. 
Against whom? 

Against the Mo)rs, oar ances- 
Why did the^ fight against 

tWiHrrir-riBst Lb^soIi. 


Pan rechasarlcM faera de la Es- 

I Que hacen los habitantes dees- 

tas provinoias hoy! 
rrabi^an en todas las {mrtes del 

Mnohos se ran i Madrid. 
I ()ae olase de trabi^jo haoen alH f 
Be emplean oomo oriados de 

(Qnienes son los oriados de 

librea t 
Los cooheros j lacayos. 
N'o pneden ganar bastante dinero 

en sn proprio pais. 
I No hay hombres rioos alia? 
Bay algnnas &milias rioas y res- 

I Oomo viyen f 
Viven con el debido lustre. 
I Prodncen hombres de m^rito f 
Produoen nnos soldados ezce- 

Unos oficiales de distinoion. 
En el €J6rcito y la marina. 

In order to oh&se them from 

What are the inhabitants of thest 

p'rovinoes doing now ! 
They work in all parts of tka 

Many go to Madrid. 
What do they do there? 
They engage as liyeried serrant^ 

Who are the liveried servants f 

The coachmen and lackeys. 
They cannot gain money enough 

in their own country. 
Are there no rich men there? 
There are some rich and respeot- 

able families there. 
How do these live? 
They live with due splendor. 
Do they produce men of merit? 
They produce some excellent 

Some officers of distinction. 
In the army and navy. 


Continuado, continued. 

210. Most verbs ending with ar in the infinithre, end with ado 
b the past participle ; and those in er and ir, end with ido. 

Ex. HaJblar^ to speak. Hahlado^ spoken. 
Vender^ to selL Vendido^ sold. 

Unir^ to unite. Unido, united. 

Sumo, very high. 

211. Sumo is an irregular superlative form of alto, ^^g\ 
whoso comparative is superior higher or superior, and wh'VA 


•aperlaUve it either supremo or sttmo, \ery high, highett, in, 

Inferior, inferior. 

212. Inferior is the irregular comparative form cf bajo, low 

Ita correBponding superlative is itifimo, loveeL 

Ver, to see. 

213. Ver, to Bee, is one of the moat DecesBsry irregular verbi 
in Bpaniah. Its conjugation is as follows : 

Fer, to see. 
PkMaRT Fabtioifle. 
Viendo, seeing, 

Phekint TxNas. 
To vw, I see, or do see. 

7U vet, thou seeet, or dost see. 

SI ve, he sees, or does see. 

d^ototros vemos, we see, or do see. 
Vosotros veis, you set 
£Slo» vm, they see, or do si 

To fffia, I saw, or used to tee. 

TA veiatf thou sawest, or uscdst to seft 

SI tmo, he saw, or used to see 

or used to see. 
you saw, or used to seo. 
tliey saw, or used to sea. 
Past Tknae DEriNCTE, 
Tovi, I saw, or did see. 

Ti viite, thou sawest, or cfidst see. 

M vi6, he saw, or did see. 

Noeotrot vimoi, we saw, or did see. 
Voiotroi vialeit, you saw, or did see. 
Mlot vUrctif they saw, or did Me. 

Ifototrot veiamoi, we saw, 
Vosotroi velaU, 
Sllot Mian, 


To Mf^ I shall see, or wid 

n verdf, thou shalt see, or wilt 

M tutrd, he shall see, or will 

No9otro9 verhnos^ we shall see, or wO^ 

Vo9otro8 verHSf you shall see, or wiU 

Ellos verdny they shall see, or will 


To veriay I should see, or would 

Tu veriaSf thou shouldst see, or wouldst 

El veria^ he should see, or would 

yo90tro$ tmiamos^ we should see, or would see. 

Voaoiras veHais^ you should see, or would see. 

Sttos v$rian^ they should see, or would see. 


Ve^ see (thou). 
Vedf see (yon). 

PBurniT Tmsi. 

Que yo two, that I may see. 

Q^9 Uk veas^ that thou mayst see. 

Que il veo, that he may see. 

Que nosotroe veamos^ that we may see. 

Que voeotros veais^ that you may see. 

Que elloe vean^ that they may see. 

SuBJUNonvB Past. 
Que yo viera^ or viese^ that I might see. 

Que tH vieraSy or vieseSf that thou mightst 

Que il vieroy or vieeey that he might see. 

Que nasctros viiramoSy or viSsemoSy that we might see. 
Que vosotros viiraisy or vieeeisy that you might see. 
Que elloe vieran, or viesetiy that they might 

* TIm Moond fiitiire is (see note on page 25) : 

Fo 9itr$y H tri#vf, U 


Un primo^ a coosiiu 

214. Prima means a male cousin ; and prinia^ a female ^hm 
SeeRnle 118. 

Uho de mis ttos^ one of my ancles. 
Tio means an uncle; and tia, an aun^ See, as aboT«, 
Bule 118. 

Sin embargc de todo esto^ in spite of all this. • 

21 5, Sin* embargo^ when not a conjunctum, is alw«fs Mf 
lowed by de. 

The principal conjunctions are : 

A minoa que^ unless. 

Aunque^ although. 

Durante que, while. 

i\^ neither, nor. 

0, or. 

Para que^ in order that 







Par tanto^ 



since, because. 





Sin embargo^ 



if not 


as well as. 



£n el ejSrcito y la marina^ 
in the army and navy. 
218. The article, and all determinative words, arc gonerallj 
repeated before each noun in Spanish, especially when these 
are of different genders. 

* Sino is often oBod in the sense of hui ; this can, however, be done onLi 
Vhen there is a negative sentence immediately before. 

J£j|. He U qot young, but old, No €$j6v4n nmo 9i^, 


Parte^ part; estreehez^ Btraitnees; and madunMf care, arc 
feminine by exception. 

Continuar^ to continue ; eekar^ to throw ; empUarf to employ 
and examinar^ to examine, are regular verba of the first eoBJnga' 
Im : €M)er is of the second. 


1. Do I see t 218. 16. Should I see t 219. 

2. Does he see t 17. Should he see t 
S. Do we see t 18. Should we see t 

4. Do you see t 19. Should you see t 

5. Do they see t 20. Should they see t 

6. Did I see t 21. Have I seent 

7. Did he see t 22. Has he seen t 

8. Did we see t 23. Have we seen t 

9. Did you see t 24. Have you seent 

10. Did they see t 25. Have they seent 

11. ShaU I see t 26. Had I scent 

12. Shall he see t 27. Shall I have seent 

13. Shall we see t 28. Should I have seent 

14. Shall yon see t ' 29. I do not see. 

15. Shall they see t 80. I have not seen. 

81. In spite of these things, 216. — 82. In spite of oui 
work, 215. — BB. My cousin Virginia, 214. — 34. My uncle Joseph. 
— 35. My aunt — 86. Unless he studies. — 87. Although we write, 
—38. While they read.— 39. To call.— 40. Calling, 203.— 
41. Called, 210.-42. To drink.— 43. Drinking, 203.— 44. Drunk, 
210. — 45. To live.— 46. Living, 203.-47: Lived, 210.-48. Do 
you find these exercises difiScult f — 49. I do not find them easy. 
— 60. They are very instructive. — 51. liCt us go on. — 62. I like 
to study. — 5^. I do not like to lose my time. — 54. My pen and 
ink, 216. — 55. His boots and shoes, 216. — 56. Our boys and 
girls, 216. — 57. The men and women, 216.— 58. The officers 
and soidiers, 216.- -59. My father s^nd mother 4re bere, 219f 



Literal Translation.* 
Iicccion Ti^^simB scgundii. 

LessoD twenty second. 

Extracto de Cadalso, continuado. * 

Extract from OadalaD, ooutiDaed, - 

Tercera parte. 

Tliird part. 

Loi Ctalle^os, en medio de la pobreza 

The Qftlidana, in middle of the poorneM 

de su tierra, son robiistos. Se esparcen 

of their oonatrj, are robnst. TliemseWes thej scatter 

por loda Espafia, & emprender Io« 

111 rough ati Spain, to n cider take the 

IrabQjos mas duros, para llerar it sus casaa 

laUors roost hard, io order tobriog to their homes 

alffun dinero, & costa de tan penosa 

some money, at coBt of so mnoli paidfiil 

indastria. Sas soldadoa, aunqiie careeen 

indoBtry. Their aoldiera, though they want 

de aqiiel liicido exterior de otrai 

of that brilliant exterior of other 

naciones, son excelentes para la 

nations, are excellent for tha 

Inrantcria, por «ii siibordinacion, diiresa 

Infantry, for their suhordination, bardnew 

* 8«« now OD p«g« 111. 

■ de cu 



I ■ 


de cucrpo y h&bilo de suA*ir fncomodi- 

body, anij habit of to suffer iEoocveaienoM 
dades de hambre, sed y cansancio. 

of hunger, thirat, and fatigna 

Los Castellanos son, de todos los pueblos 

The Oostilians are, of all the people 

del mundo, los que nierecen la primacia 

«f the world, thuee who merit the first place 

en linea de lealtad. Cuando el ej£rcl(o 

in line of loyalty. When the army 

del primer rey de Espaiia, de la casa de 

of the first king of Sj)nin, of the house of 

Francia, quedtf arruinado en la balalla 

France, remaiaed ruined ia the battle 

de Zaragoza, la sola provincia de Soria 

of SaragosHti, the single province of Sorie 

did & su Boberaiio uii nuero y numeroso 

gave to her sovereign a ne^ and numerone 

ej£rcilo con que salir & campana, y l\t€ 

Kriny with which to Btart the campaigu, and it wai 

el que gati6 las victorias de que result6 la 

it which gained the vioturiea from which resulted the 
destriiccion del ej^rcito y bando austriaco. 

deatrnotioa of the army aud party Austrian. 

Esla proTincia aun conserra cierto orgullo 

This province Htill preserves certain pride 

nacldo de su antigua g:randeza, que hoy 

bora in her ancient grandeur, which now 

no se conserTa, sino en las ruinas de las 

Dot Itself preserves, except iu the ruias of the 

ciodades y eu la honradez de sus liabitantcs 

eltiea and in the honesty of her inhabitanti. 


The MUM ta good GnsUah. 



TmOEKA Pabti. 

Lo* Oallegos, en medio de la 


8e esparoeti per t<i<lH E^pnfiA, ■ 

•mprenderloa truL^os mas doros, 

pira llerar ■ sas oasas algun di- 


triA. Sqb Eoldados, nunqne care- 
oen de aqnel lacido exterior de 
otras nacioQee, sod exceleDtes 
pant la infanteria, por aa sobor- 
dinaoioQ, doreza do onerpo j ha- 
bito de snfrir incomodidades de 
hambre, sed ; cansanoio, 

Los Oastellanoa son, de todus 
lOB poebloa del mundo, los que 
mereoen la priinacia en linea de 
■esttad. Oaando el ejgrcito del 
primer rey de Eppafta, de la casa 
de Francia, qnodo arrninndo ea 
la batalla de Zaragoza, la sola 
proTinoia de 8or1a dio i sn sobe- 
rano un nnavo 7 DQiaeroso ^er- 
oito oon que salir i campnfia, ; 
foe el qoe ganu las viatorias de 
que reaDlt6 la deatmcolon del 
ejirdto J bando aastnaco. Esta 
provincia aan oonserva cierto or- 
gnllo naoido de sn antigna gran- 
deca,qnebo;noae oonserva, smo 
D las rmnaa de laa oindadea y en 
a honndei de bus Labitantes. 

Extract from Cadalso, oo» 

Tbibd PlKT. 

The Galicians live in a barm 
country, but are quite robnat. 
Tliej are found tli rough out 
Spain, engaged in the hardeat 
mannal labors, endesToring to 
gain money to bring lioirie In 
retorn. Tlieir Holdiers, thongh 
not as showy as those of other 
nations, make excellent infan- 
try, remarkable for subordina- 
tion and their power of enduring 
hnnger, thirst, and all kinds of 

The CaslJlians are the roost 
loyal people In the world. When 
the forces of the first 6[>anish 
king of the house of Franco 
were destroy oil ai BarngoBsa, 
the province of Sori 
Dished him an ei 
and adequate army 


alone fur- 
th which 

B tlie c 

was they who won the victo- 
ries which did away with tho 
Austrian rule, 

Castile still looks bock with 
pride to her former grandeur, 
which, though past, may still ba 
discovered in the ruins of her 
cities and the noble tralla :>f ho> 

Qoutloiu and Ansirer 
iQae leooion es estat 
I Da qne pnebloi de EspnBa 
lisblaen estfl lecciool 

foe ConveTBatloi). 

[ Ln vigfisima segunda. 
De los Qallegos j de 1m Ub> 




|Por donde te esparoen los Gkd- 

I Para que? 

Con que objetof 

,De qae oarecen los soldados 

Gallegos ! 
I Para que son estos soldados 

ezcelentes ? 

I Que merecen los Oastellanos f 
iQue ej^rcito qaedo arraiDado 

en la batalla de Zaragoza t 
4 Que dio 4 sn soberano la sola 

proTincia de Soria t 
I Que liizo este ej^rcito ? 
I Que resnlto de estas victorias? 

I Que conserva aan esta pro- 

vincia t 
I En donde se conserva este or- 

icallo hoy? 

Por toda Espalia. 

Para emprender IO0 tr&bigM nuM 

Para llevar & sns casas algon 

dinero 4 costa de tan penocM 

De aqnel Incido exterior de otrat 

Para la infanteria. 

Por sn sabordinacion, dnreza d« 

cnerpo y h&bito de snfrir in- 

comodidades de hambre, sed 

y cansancio. 
La primacia en linea de lealtad. 
£1 ej^roito del primer rey de Es- 

pafia de la casa de Francia. 
Un nuevo y numeroso ejercito 

con que salir k campaila. 
Gan& victorias. 
La destruccion del ejercito 7 

bando austriaco. 
Un cierto orgnllo nacido de w 

antigua grandeza. 
En las rninas de las ciudades y «■ 

la honradee de sns habitantea. 

Sentenoes for Oral Tranalatlon. 


La pobreza. 
E[ orgnllo. 
El trabiyo. 
La sed. 
El cansancio. 
La lealtad. 
La honradez. 
La grandeza. 


The labor. 
The loyalty. 
The honesty. 
The greatneaa. 



El Inoido exterior. 

El hiblto exoelente. 

PeooHo J dnro. 

Los GallegoB aoa hombres to- 

I Glial ea en ooDpaoion prinoi- 

Be faacen soldsdos en loe ejercitos 
del ref . 

I Que paede Y, deoirme de los 
OsstollaiioB I 

Bou tambieo niQj btienos sol- 

Bod pueblos de mncba lealCad, 

iHaestadoV, jamas eD lacindad 
de Madrid t 

Estaba all4 en el aDo pasado. 

( Donde esta Madrid t 

Al lado del Maozanarea. 

i Cuaetos habitantea tieoe f 

Tiene una pobkoiun de dos cien- 
tos oinouenCa mil bomb res. 

( Que olaae de oindad es ! 

Uoa de las looB bermosaa de Eu- 

Bay mncliaa casas eapliodidas 

Y nnoa Jardines magDifioos, 
Las platas bod graodes y las oallea 

|Ea que pruvinoia csta Madrid! 
Eh Ib capital de Caatilla la Nueva. 
lOonto Be llama la mas hermosa 

La Plaza Mayor. 

I Que grandd estabteoimieoto de 
oiendas se eDoaentra all! t 

I^ Aoademia. 

I Onalee bud las iDercaooias pria- 
dpales qne ae Tenden eo Ma- 

Bada, cueros, tabaoo y tabaooi. 


The glittering exteriM. 
The excellent ansloni, 
Painfol and hard. 
The Galiciaas are robast iim. 

What is their principal oooapfr 

The; enlist as soldiers in tbl 

armies of the king. 
What can jon tell me aboDt th« 

Oaatilians t 
The; are also very good loldlerh 

They are a very loyal people. 
Hui'e yun ever been in the lity 

of Madrid t 
I was there last year. 
Where Is Madrid I 
On the banks of the Manzanarea. 
How many inhabitants has iti 
It has a population of SSO.OOO 

What kind of a city isitt 
Ooe of the finest in Sarope. 

There are maoy splendid hoaaea 

Anil some magnilicent gardeoB. 
The squares are large, and tll« 

streets wide. 
In wiiioh province ia Madrid F 
It is the capital of New Oastila, 
How is the most beautifal sqtui 

oalled t 
The PioM Maj/or. 
What great institution of learn 

iog is there f 
The Academy. 
What is the principal roerohan 

dise sold in Madrid I 

6ilfc, leather, tabaooo, and a»t*'^ 



•1C019D division.-theobstica:. part. 

Carecen de aquel lucido exterior^ 
lack that brilliant exterior. 

217. The verb earecer^ to lack, to want, requires to be follow . 
hj the preposition de. 

Ex. Careeer de alguna cosa^ to be in want of something 

HdUto de mfnr^ the habit of suffering. 

218. Sufrir is here in the infinitive, according to Role A 

Del mundo, 
in the world ; 


of the world. 

219. The preposition in, required in English after ^ super- 
latiye and before the name of a place, is rendered by de^ and 
not by en, in Spanish. 

Ex. La mas kermosa ciudad de Espafia^ 
the most beautiful city in Spain. 

Del primer rey^ of the first king. 

220. Primer is used instead of primero^ when immediately 
followed by a noun. 

Did^ gave ; from dar^ to give. 

221. Dar is one of the most necessary irregular rerbt ii 
Spanish. Ita conjugation is as follows : 


Dar^ to give. 

Pbibimt PABnoiPui, Past PABTiCiAi. 

DandOf giving. Dada^ given. 

Prbbknt Tbnsb. 
Todoy^ I^give, or do ^ve. 

Ttt daa.; thou givest, or dost give. 

El da^ he gives, or does give. 

Nosotroa damos we give, or do give. 
Voaotros dais^ you give, or do giveu 
Ellos dan, they cdve, or do d^ve^ 



Y6 dabOf I gave, or used to g^7e. 

TA dabaSf thou gavcst, or usedst to gi?iL 

M dahoy he gave, or used to give. 

Nosotros ddbamoSf we gave, or used to give. 

Vototros ddbaisy you gave, or used to give. 

JSIllos daban^ they gave, or used to give. 

Past Tbnbb Defimitb. 

To di, I gave, or did ^ve. 

n diste^ thou gavest, or didst give. 

El didj he gave, or did give. 

N'asotros dimos, we gave, or did give. 

Vosotros disteiSy you gave, or did give. 

IBlos diSrouj they gave, or did give. 


Vo darSf I shall give, or will give. 

7% dardSf thou shalt give, or wilt give. 

£1 dardj he shall give, or will give. 

No8oiro8 darimos^ we shall give, or will give. 

Vo9otro8 darSiSy you shall give, or will give. 

Mlos dardn^ they shall give, or will give. 


Fo daria, I should give, or would give. 

T& dariaSy thou shouldst give, or wouldst givt. 

HI daria, he should give, or would give. 

Nosotros dariamoSy we should give, or would give. 
Vosotros dariaisj you should give, or would give. 
Hllos dariauj they should give, or would give. 


Di, give (thou). 
Body give (you). 

TIm Moond future is (see note on page 25) : 

TWfiKtt-Sfi:0OKt> LfidfiOK. 191 



Que yo dS^ that I may g ve. 

Que tik des^ that thou mayst giye. 

Que SI dS^ that he may give. 

Que nosotroe demos^ that we may give. 

Que vosotros deis^ that you may give. 

Que ellos den^ that they may give. 


Que yo dierOj or diesCj that I might give. 

Que i4i dieraSf or dieses^ that thou mightst give. 

Que 41 diera^ or diese^ that he might give. 

Que nosotros dUramos^ or dUeemos^ that we might give. 
Que vosotros diiraiSj - or dieseisy that you might give. 
Que elhs dieran, or diesen, that they might giveu 

Scdir d campafla^ to start the campaign. 
tii. Verbs of motion require the preposition a, and verb* 
of rest are generally followed by en. 

Ex. £star en casa^ to be in the house. 
Ir d casa^ to go c6 the house. 

Conservay preserves. 
223. The regular terminations of the indicative present are 

For the verbs in ar, . • . . o, as, a, amos, ais, an. 
^ ^ in er, . . . . o, es, e, emos, eis, en. 
^ ^ in ir, . . . • o, es, e, imos, is, en. 

Ex. ffdbloy I speak. Vendo^ I sell. Uno^ I anite. 

Hahlas^ thou speakest. Vendee^ thou sellest. Unei^ thou unitest. 

Hahla^ be speaks. Yende^ he sells. Une, he unites. 

ffdblamoi^ we speak. Vendemoa^ we sell. Uhimoe^ we unite. 

Hahlau^ you speak. Vevideie^ yon sell. Unie^ you unite. 

Hablan, they speak. Venden^ they sell. Uhen^ they unite. 

The exceptions to this rule will be found explained in the 
irregular verbs. 

Hambre^ hunger; and honradety honesty, are feminine bj 


Arruittar, to ruin ; eonservar, to preserve ; aud lUvai; lo carry ^^H 
lo briog, are regular verbs of the first conjugation : emprender, ^^1 

lo briog, are regular verbs of the first conjugation : emprender, 
to undertake, ia of the second. Carecer, U> want ; esjiardr, t« 
Matter; mereeer, to deserve; and nacer, to be born, go lik« 
T (147). Salir is irregular, and will be explained lateii. 


1. Do I not give! 221. 16. Should X not give! SSI. 

2, Does he not give I IT. Should he not give I 

8. Do we not give I 18. Should we not give t 
4. Do you not give I 19. Should you not give I 

6. Do they not give 1 20. Should they not give I 

9. Did I not give I 21. Have I not given I 

7. Did he not give t 22. Has he not given t 
B. Did we not give I 23. Have we not given I 
9. Did you not give I 24. Have you not given I 

10. Did they not give I 2S. Have they not given! 

11. Shall I not give) 26. Had I not given! 

12. Shall he not give! 27. Shall I not have given! 

13. Shall we not give! 28. Should I not have given! 

14. Shall you not give t 29. Had he not ! 
16. Shall they not give ! 30. Had I not ! 

81. 1 call, 223.-32. He calla.— 33. We call.— 34. Tou call.— 
iB. Thoy call.— 36, I drink.— 37, He drinks.— 38. We drink.— 
89, You drink,— 40. They drink.— 41, I live.- 42. He lives.— 
43. We live. — 44. You live. — 46. They live. — 46. Are you 
w»Tit of :iny thing? 217. — 47, I want several things, 2 1 7, 
46. What are you in want of! 217.^49. I want a grammai 
■nd a dictionary, 217. — 50. Which is the largest city in the 
world! 219.— 51. The smallest country in Europe, 219.— 52, Th» 
finest farm in Cuba, 219.— 53, Are yoa the first of the class! 220. 
- 64. Who was the first I'reaident of the United States ! 220.— 
66. The first book of this work, 220,— 66. I preserve, 
preserves. — 58, We preserve. — 59. I want. — 60. We wanL— 
fj. you want — 62. lacattor.- G3. He scatters,— 64 Tiiey scatter 



>D tinned 


Literal ^aiiBlatloii. 

Lcccion Tig^sima lercera. 

Le^aon twenty third. 

Eitracto de Cadalso, contiuiiado. 

Extract from Codalso, continued, 

Ciiarla parte. 

Fiiurth |>art, 

Estremadura prodtijo los conquisladorei 

Estreraadura proiluced the conqiieroi's 

del rs'uero niindo, y lia continuado 

vt the New World, and hiis 

«iendo madre dc iiisigfaes giierreros. 

being mother of remarlsable warriors. Its 

pueblos son poco alectos & las letras : 

people are little aSected to the letters ; 

pero Ids que eiitre ellos las ban 

bat thoBt who among them them b&ve 

cultlrado, no han tenido m^nos sucesot 

OnltJTsted, not have had leaa sdccsbs 

qne sus patrlofas en las ariuas. 

than their patriots in the arms. 

IjOs Andaiuces, nacidos y criados en 

The AndalasiaoB, born and brought up in 

an pais abundantc, delicioso y ardiente, 

a ODUotry ftbundauC, delicious, and ardent, 

lienen Ihnia de ser algo arrogantesj pero 

have fame of to be aomewhat nrrugant ; but 

■I este delicto es verdadero, debe atribuirsa 

defect ia tr:ie, it must attribate itself 





A 811 clima, slendo (an notorio r\ iikHiijo 

lu its climate, being bo TintiiriiiUH tlit t llueDoa 

dc lo fisico sobre lo inornl. I^as vcntajas 

(if the pliysioni ovcl- liio mo ml, Tlie iiilvantnges 

con qae la iialuraleza dot6 aquellas prorip- 

with whicii the nnti're endnwod tliose proTiiices, 

cias, liaccii que iiiiren con desprecio la 

inaka tiiftt tliey may see with depreciation the 

pobreza de Calicia, la aspcreza dc Tiscaya, 

poverty of Galicia, I he »-perity of Bisony, 

y la sencillez de Castiila ; pero como 

and the tnomttony nf Castile ; but as 

quiera que lodo e»to sea, euti'e ellos ha 

it may like tliat all this may he, among them there 

habldo lioinbre§ insigucs qne ban dado 

have been men remarkable who liave given 

luucho honor a tuda Espaua, y en tleiupoa 

muoh honor to all Spain, and in times 

anti^Tiios los Trajauos, S^necas, y otros 

ancient the Triijiina, Sen ecus, aii'J others 

Heniejantes, que pueden cnvanecer cl pais 

similar, wLn can make vain the country 

en que naci^ron. I^a yiveza y el alraclivo 

in which they were born. The vivndty aLid ilio attract! ven ess 
delas Andahizas iHshaccnincomparables. 

of the Andalusian women them make inoompamble. 

The Bame in good Engliah. 
BzTRAoTO DK Cadalso, conti- Bxtraot froh Cadalsu, onn 



Efilremadura proiiujo loa con- The ooiiquerora of tlie New 
qu'atiidores ilel Niievo Mundo, y World wire born in Edtrema- 
iia oontinuado aieado inndre de da'a, a province which has beei 

TWENtv-^rniut) Ltessoir, 


Inngned ^erreros. Sob paeblos 
•on poco afectos & las letras; 
I>ero los qne entre elloe las han 
coltivado, no han tenido menos 
SQoesos qne sos patriotas en las 

Los Andaluces, nacidos j cria- 
dos en an pais abundante, deli- 
•ioso y ardiente, tienen fama de 
tar elgo arrogantes; pero si este 
defeoto es verdadera, debe atri- 
bnirse a su clima, siendo tan no- 
torio el influjo de lo fisico sobre 
lo moral. Las ventajas con qne 
la natnraleza doto aqnellas pro- 
vincias, hacen qne miren con des- 
precio la pobreza de Galicia, la 
fispereza de Yiscaya, y la sen- 
oillez de Costilla; pero como 
quiera qne todo esto sea, entre 
ellos ha habido hombres insignes 
qne han dado mncho honor a 
toda Espafia', y en tiempos an- 
tignos los Tri^anos, S^necas y 
otros semejantes, qne pneden 
enyanecer el pais en qne na- 
ci6ron. La viveza y el atrao- 
tivo de las Andaluzas las hacen 

ever since piolific of great war- 
riors. Thongh little given to tha 
stndy of letters, those of the Es 
tremadorians who have tnmed 
their attention to them have bo- 
oome no less distinguished thai 
their^ compatriots in arms. 

The natives of* Andalnsia, 
land of plenty, most de.ightfh 
and warm, are said to be some 
what arrogant ; bnt if this be so, 
it conld only originate in Idie cli- 
mate they live in, physical and 
moral development being so de- 
pendent on each other. The ad- 
vantages with which nature has 
gifted their country lead them to 
look down upon the poverty ol 
Galicia, the sterility of Biscay, 
and the monotony of Castile. 
They have, however, p'r)duced 
men who have reflected mnch 
honor upon Spain, in ancient 
times : the Trajans, Senecas, and 
others of like fame, of whom any 
nation might well be proud. The 
vivacity and captivating mari- 
ners of their women make then 
the most attractive in the world. 

Queatioiia and Anawera for Converaatioiii 

Q^e leccion es esta t 
I>o qne provincias so habla en 
esta leccion t 
Qae prodnjo Estremadnra t 

Que ha continnado siendo este 

8on SOS pnebloa afectos a las 


La vigesima tercera. 

De Estremadnra y de CastiUa. 

Los conqnistadores del Knev 

Madre de insignes gnerreroa. 

Son pooo afeotos a las letraa. 

194 twehtt-tuikI) lgssok. ^^^^| 

(Que bftu tenido loa qne eotre 

No menoB sucesos qou am p4tn^- ^^H 

61108 laehaa.jDltivadot 

tjLs en ka armas. ^^1 

i DoDde ioa nacidos y crisdoB los 

En on paia abnndaDte, doiicioM ^^1 


y ardiente. ^^H 

1 Quo f«in» Uenen 1 

De aer ajgo arrogantes. ^^H 

i A qne debe atribnirse este de- 



iQne H Ua notorint 

El influjo de lo fisico sobre I ^H 


|Qo« baoen las reotsjas oonqne 

Qne miren con despreolo la pc»- ^^H 


brezH de Oalioia, la asperen ^^H 


de Viscaya, y la aenoillez di ^H 

Oastilla. ^H 

iQoe ha habiii entre elloa t 

1 Qaa ban dado estos hombres I 

Uucho houor a toda EspaDa. ^^M 

(Oomo Be llara an estoa hombres 

Los Trajanos, Sgneoaa J otrM ^^H 

de loa tiempoa anUgnos 1 

aemej antes. ^^H 

iQue pnedsQ baoer estoa hom- 

Envanecer el pais eo que ii» ^^H 



iQue hace moomparables & las 

La viresia y el atraoHvo. ^H 



n Bt 'TRAMSl^nD t»TO WAniB ^H 

The conqneror. ^^H 

■ Bl gnelTOro. 

The warrior. ^^H 

■ El inflajo. 

The Inflnenoe. ^^^| 

■ U reot^ja. 

The advantage. ^^^| 

■ Lofiaioo. 

Tbe phjsioal. ^^1 


The moral 1 

La natnraleia. 



The ruggedneaa. , 


Ike monotonjr. ^^ 


Tlie viracity. ^H 

El gumni indgcfc 

The eminent geoeraL ^^H 

TId pais delioioao. 

A deliooQs conntry ^^H 

Una oosa eemejaate. 

A aimilar thing. ^^H 

Un liomlire arrogante. 

Vbm hiBtoria Terdadera. 

A true atory. ^^M 




tOiul oiadad de Espaiia ea la mas 

hermosa dospnea de Madrid? 
La oindad de Cadiz. 
iDonde eata sitaado Cid'isl 
Ceroa del mar Mediterraneo. 

iQue paede T. deoirme de esta 

clndad 1 
Es Doa de laa mas rioas. 
Es may liuipia. 
Ilay luuohos jardiues alia. 
Los habitOQtBB viven con gran 

( Onalea eon am prinoipales edi* 

flQtoa I 
La catedrat, el oolegio del oomer- 

do J el teatro. 
lOnal es la mas hermo»a plaza 

de Cadiz t 
La bella plaza de Saa Antonio, 

{OnaDtoa habitaates tiene Cadiz? 
Seseota 4 seaenta j oinco mlL 
I So qne provinoia esta situadol 
En Aadaluoia, 
I Que pnede V. decirme de laa 

Aodalnzae ? 
Qae son in com parables por an 

viveia y 9n atractivo. 
I Ha estado V. mncbo tiempo en 

EatnTe all{ pooo mas 6 m^nua dus 

iDonde vlre V. aUoral 
Vivo abora en Galioia. 

Which is the next flneal til? U 

Madrid, in Spain! 
The city of Cadiz. 
Where ia Cadiz situated I 
Near the borders of the Heditor' 

What can ;on tell me aboat that 

It ia one of the wealthlut. 
It ia very clean. 
There are many gardens there. 
T?ie Inbabitants live in great 

Which are its principal edi' 

The cathedral, the oommeroia] 

college, and the theatre. 
Which ia the flnest aqoare in 

Cadiz I 
The beautiful square called San 

ITow many inbabitantahaaOadizI 
From 60 to 6S tlioosand. 
In which province is it aitnatedt 
Id Andalusia. 
What cau you tell me about tha 

AndoluBian women? 
Til at they are incomparably 

lively and attractive. 
Have yoa l>een a long tjme is 

Andaloaia ? 
I was tliere about two years. 

Where are yon ataying now t 
I am DOW living in Galicio, 



Frodujo, produced, oi did produce. 

224. The imperfect, produeia, could not be introduced tien 

lattesd of prodvjo, wbich is the past tenae definite of producir, 




c being changed into j, iii accordanci 

rdancL witk ^^H 
B of the pad I 

to prccnce, I 
Aole 17G. 

225, It ia often difficult t>: decide between the use of tlie pad 
lenee definite and the imperfect, whether to eaj tenia or tuve 
The better plan to be pursued, is to chRngo the English inU) 
WAS HAViHa, nBBD TC HAVB, or DID HAVE; Tendering wai 
H-AviKO and ubed to havb by tenia, and did have by tuve. 
la OBBC of do\ibt, however, it will be best to use the perfect, Ya 
he tenido, I have had. 

226. Tiie regiiiar terminations of the past tense definite arc ' 

For the verbs in ar, 6, aste, «S, Amos, asteis, arou. 

For those in er and ir, .. i, iste, 16, imos, iBtela, ieron 

El. HabU, 
The exceptioni 

irregular verbs. 



Vendieron, . 







will be found explained in tlu 

Debe atribuirse, 
must be attributed ; 

must attribute iteelt ' 

227. The reflective form is used hero instead of the pasBive, 
in accordance nitb Eulc 9. 

Debe comes from deber, one of the most important rcgulai 
verb; in Spanish, meaning in turn, lo moe, ought, mvl, to bt 
Miffed, and even lo be, but the latter only when joined to an 
'nfinitive, in which case it forms with it a particular future teiiM 
eipressive of duty, necessity, or purpose, as in the following 
■lunples. To, before an infinitive, is left out after debrr. 
£i, / Que debo hacer ? what am I to do I 
V. dtbe trabajar, you must work. 
V. deberia tstudiur, you ought to study 
/i>e6e V. diiitTQ? do jou owe any money t 


TWENlT-THmD LE8S0K. 199 

Como quiera que todo esto sea, 

228* Thi8 is an idiomatic locution which answers to. Let oL 
ihie be as it may. The imperative has properly hut one person 
in the singular and plural ; and the expressions, Let him 6e, Lei 
¥S he^ Let them be^ etc^ are supplied hj means of the subjunotivci 
present or of the verb dejax, to let or leave. 


TiCl aim oe, difale ser^ or aea^ that he may be. 

Let us be, dijanos ser, or seamos^ that we may be. 

Let them be, dijales ser, or sean^ that they may be. 

Let him have, difale tener^ or iengaj that he may have, 

let us have, dejanos tener, or iengam^s^ that we may have. 

Let them have, dijales tener, or tengan^ that they may have. 

Let him speak, dijale hablar^ or hable, that he may speak 

Let us speak, dSjanos hablar^ or hablemos^ that we may speak. 
Let them speak, dijales hahlar^ or hablen^ that they may speak 

Let him sell, dSjale vender^ or venda^ that he may sell. 

Let us sell, dejanos vender, or vendamos, that we may sell. 

Let them sell^ dejales vender, or vendan, that they may sell. 

Let him unite, dijale unir, or una, that he may unite. 

Let us unite, dejanos unir, or unamos, that we may unite. 

Let them unite, dijales unir^ or unan, that they may unitCi 

229. It is, moreover, to be observed that the subjunctive form 
is always used instead of the imperative in all negative sen- 
tences, and that the pronoun is tiien invariably placed befors 
the verb. See note on page 35. 

Ex. Be (thou) not, no seas. 

Let him not be, no le deje ser^ or no sea. 
Let us not be, no nos deje ser, or no searnoi. 
Be (you) not, no seais. 
Let them not be, no les deje ser^ or no sean» 

230l Quiera comes from querer, one of the most important 
irregular verbs in Spanish, being used in turn ibr to will^ to uoish^ 
to like^ and to cherish. Its conjugation is as follows « 





Qutrer, to wuh or to will ^^^| 


^utri^o wbhiDg. Querido, wubed ^| 



Phesbnt Tksbk. 




or do wish. ■ 

Tla JMiM-M, 

thou wish&st, 

or dost wish. ^H 

^i guUre, 

ha wishes, 

or does wiiih ■ 

Ifotolroi qmremoi, ve wish, 

or do wish. H 

VOSQlTOi ^UfffCi 

I, yon wish, 

or do wish. ^M 

Ellos gweren. 

they wiBh, 

or do wish. ^H 


I wished, 

r used to wish. ^| 

n gutrias. 

tboa wishedst, or usedst to wieb ^H 


he wished, or used to wish. ^| 

we wished, o 

r used to wish. ^M 

Vowtros qiieriais, 

you wislieil, o 

T used to wish, ^^M 

Silos guerian. 

they wished, o 

r used to wish. ^^M 

Past Tknsb DBr[NiTK. 



I wished. 

or did wish. ^M 

TH quisute. 

thou wiahedet. 

or didst wish. 

El yuwo, 

he wished. 

or did wish. 

I^oiotros guidmos, vie wished. 

or did wish. 

or did wish. 

Silos quUiiroit, 

they wished, 

or did wiBh. 


I shall wish, 

or oitl niih ^ 

Ti q^err&». 

thou shalt wish 

or wilt Willi. H 


ho shall wish, 

or will Willi. H 

■ SoiotTos querrimm, we shall wish, 

or will wish. ^M 

Vototroi gtterriii. 

yon shall wish, 

or will wish. H 

Silos querr&n, 

they shall wish 

or will widi. ^B 

• Tli« •eoond fature li (see 

note on page 25) ! 

' ■ 


OfOi.^ ■ 

Jfotolro, y^itiirtmo, 

vofo(r;« jvitUrtii, 

<u« <i<titi«*n. ^H 


nrKHn-TaiBD uaooa. 90 

To qutrria, I should wiili, or would wiah. 

Ti querrittt, thou ehou1(J8t wish, or wouldat wiih. 

£1 gtierria, he should wish, or would wish. 

Ifoioirot querriumos, we should wish, or would wish. 
Voaotroi juerriits, you should wUh, or would wUh. 
£llot querric.^ they should wish, or would wiah. 

No Imperative Mood. 

Qtu yo quiera, 

Que 16 quitras, 

Que il quiera, 

Que noiolros quer&jnas, 

Que vosotrot quer&is, 

Qut elloe qvieran, 

to tike. Qi 
fuilar to 6 lings. 
Ex. ^Mquitre V 

Me ffuslan lot perat, 
Mb gitttan mat lot du 

that I may wish. 
that thou mayst wiah. 
that he may wish. 
that we may wish, 
that you may wish, 
that thoy may wish. 
BiiBJU»OTiVE Past. 

or quisiese, that I might with, 
or qaiaieses, that thou mightat wish, 
or quisiese, that he might wish. 
M, or quiaiesemos, that we might wish. 
or quisiheis, that you might wiah. 
or qvisteaen, that they might wish. 
Tterer should not he confounded with ffuslar, to please, 
the pronominal form is often used in the sense ol 

^ae yo quieiera, 
Que lU quitierai. 
Que el quiaiera, 
Que nosolroe quisiiram: 
Que vmotrot quiaiiraii, 
Qut eltoi quieicran, 


i particularly applied to persons, and 

Do you like met 
I like him more, or I prefer him. 
I like pears ; HteTully, pears please me, 
I prefer peaches ; lileraliy, pcachci 
please mo more. 
232. To, before an infinitive, is left out after querer. 

Eii. Qaitro hahlar, I wish to speak. 
Clima, climate, Is masculine, and snieilla, simplicity, is femi 
tine, hy exception. 





Criar, to bring up, to nourish ; eullivar, to cultivate ; 
to see, to loot at, are regular Yerba of the first conjugation ; and 
vivir, to live, is of tlie third. Alribuir, to altribute, goes \\k« 
instruir. Rule 182; envaneeer, to make vain, like compadeci 
Bole 147; and producir, to produce, like traduHr, Bole ITC. 

1. 1 wish to see, 232. 

2. He wishes to cnltivato. 

3. We niah to produce. 

4. You wish to carry, 

6. They wish to throw. 
6. 1 wished to examine. 

7. He wished to employ. 

8. We wished to continue. 

9. You wished to begin. 
10. They wished to eend. 

11. 1 should like to understand. 

16. 1 roust write, 227. 

17. He must leam. * 

18. Wo must lose. 

19. You must finish. 

20. They must instruct. 

21. I was obliged to drink, 

22. He was obliged to meet. 

23. We were obliged to think 

24. You were obliged to pay. 

25. They were obliged to buy. 
I should be obliged to u 

12. He should like to diminish. 27, IIo should be obliged to give. 

13. We should like to arrive. 28. Weshouldbeobligedtosleep. 

1 4. You should like to translate. 29. You should be obliged to eat, 

15. They should like to read. 30. TheyshouldbcobligcdtoselL 
31. I did call, 225.-32. He did call.— 33. We did call.— 

84. You did call.— 85. They did :;all.— 36. I did drink, 225.— 
87. He did drink.— 3B We did drink.— 39. You did drink.— 
40. They did drink.— 41. I did live, 22S.— 42. He did live,— 
43. We did live.— 44. You did live.— 45, They did live.— 46. Let 
him live, 228.-47. Let us live,— 48. Let them live— 40. Let 
him drink, 228. — 50. Let us drink.— 61. Let them drink.- 
—52. Have you seen my brother !^53, I saw him, and spoka 
to him, 226. — 64. Where have yon seen him f — 55. He called 
on me last evening, 225, — 56, What were you doing ? — 57. I 
wu writing a letter, 225.-58. How much does this gentleman 
owe you t — 59, He oweanie about fifty dollars, 227. — 60. Whick 
wioea do you like boat I 231. — 61. The Spanish wiuea. 




Literal Traiulatlon. 

Leccion vi^^sima ciiarlai 

Lesson twenty fonrth. 

Extracto de Cadalso, continuado. 

Extract from Oadalao, oontiDaed, 

Ituinta parte. 

Fifth part 

ioB nurciaiios parlicipan del car&ctcr 

The Marcians participate of the character 

de lo8 Andaliice« y Valencianos. Esloa 

of the Andalosiana 

(iKiinos estan 

tatter are 




Yalencians. Theae 

por hombres de 

li^ereza ; 


defeclo al clinia 

defeat tu tlie climate t 

attribuyendose este 

attributing itself this 

' siielo, prefendfendo 

d soil, pretending 

alifunos, que hnsta en los mismos alimentoi 

some, that even in the very victuals 

Ihlfa aqiiel ju^o que sc halla en los de 

la wanting that jalce which itself finda in those of 

olrOM paises. Mi imparcialidad no inr 

other coaatries. My impartiality not me 

permite someterme a esta preocupacion, 

penoita to sabmit myself to this pr^udiie, 




por general que sea. Antes debo obserTSf 

bowever general tliat it may be. Before I muat observe 

que loa Valencianos de este siglo son los 

that the Valenoians of thia oeattirf are the 

Espafioles que mas progresos hacen en la 

Spaniards who most progress make in (ha 

iencias posUivas y lengnas inuertas. 

scieuoes positive and luDguages dead. 

Sjoa Calalaues son los pueblos maa 

The OataloDiaDs are tbe people most 

industriosos dc Espafia. Manuracturas, 

indoBtriooa of Spain, ManQfactoriea, 

son cosas 
apenas conocidas en otras provincias de 

aoaroelj kiiuwn iu utber provinces of 

la Peninsula respecto de los Catalanes. 


I the Peninsula respecting the Oatalonians, ^^J 

No solo son Utiles en la paz, sino del -^^M 
Not only they are uaefui in the peace, but of tht ^^H 

mayor servicio en la guerra. Fundiclon ' 

greateat service in tbe war. Foundry 

de canones, labrlcas dc ariuas, vestuario 

of cannons, factories of arms, clotliing 

y nionluras para ej^rcitos, niuniciones y 

knd accoutrementa for armies, 

viveres, rormaclou de tropas ligeratt de ex* 

victuals, formation of troops light of ei- 

celente calidad, lodoesto sale deC<ilaldAa 

^Jept (juolit^, all iliis goes out from Oataloaia 



^H EzTEioTO Di Cadalso, oohti* 


^P Qiiiin& Fabtb. 

^B Loa Uarcianos participan del 

uraotor de loa Andalnces y Va- 
iBDoianoa. E^itoa ultiiuos estaa 
tanidoB por huinbrea de sobrada 
ligereza; attribujendose eaU de- 
(eoto al oliuiB j BUelo, preCen- 
diendo algouoa, qu« basta eo toa 
mismoB alimentuB falta aquel jugo 
4}ne ae balla eo loa de otroa paisea. 
Ml imparoiatidad no me permite 
someterine & eeta preocupacion, 
por general qne sea. Antes debo 
obaervar que loa Valencianos de 
eato aiglo aon loa Eapatlolea que 
was prsgreaua haoen en laa cieu- 
oias poBJtiyaB y lenguas mueriaa. 
Loa Oatalanes buu los pnebioa 
DIM industrioBos da EspaBa. 
MaoafaotnraB, pesoas, navega- 
oion, comercio, sod cosas apenaa 
oonnoidoB eo otras provinoias de 
la VeninanlH respecto de loB Oata- 
lanes, Nu eolu soo utilea eo la 
paE, aino del major eervicio en la 
pierra. Fandioiun de caiionea, 
fabrioaa de armas, veatuario y 
monlaraa para ^rcitoa, muni- 
elon«B y vtvereD, formacion de 
tlopas ligeras de ezoelente call- 
lad, tudo eato Bale de Oatalnaa. 

TVcsn-roDBTH umoB. 

Extract fboh Cju>4lbo, ooi 

Fl»TH PiRT. 

The Murcians are to a degrea 
like the Andalnsiana and Valen- 
ciana. Tlio^e of Valencia are 
oonsidered rather too frivolooa; 
a defect ascribed bj aome to th^ 
prodnotloDB of tlia earth there, 
wbieb are aaid to be wanting in 
the invigorating properties found 
elsewhere. But my impartiality 
will not permit me to prononnoe 
on this opinion, however general 
it may be. I must also state that 
the Valenciane are, among the 
SpaniBrds, those who bave made 
during this century the greatest 
jirogreaa in the positive Boiencea 
and in the Btudy of tbe dead 

The Oataloniana are tbe most 
ioduatrioua people of Spain ; 
inauufacturiea, fisheries, ebip- 
ping, and oommerce, being oom- 
paratively onknown oot of Cata- 

Quite useful in peace, tliey ara 
Btill more so in war; furniabing 
tlie army will) cannons and other 
weapons, ammunition, oto thing, 
and accoutrements of every kind, 
and abo exoelleat Irgbt troopa. 


QneaUona aaS Aan^trera for ConveTsatlaiL 

iQoo leocion es eatat 
|De oaalea pnebloa se 

La vigesima cuarta. 
De los Muroianoa, ValendaBOi 
y Oatalonea. 



I De cnal oaricter participan los 

Mnroianos t 
i Que 86 dice de los Valendanos ? 

I A que 86 atribnye este defecto ? 
Qae pretenden algunos ? 

Qq6 no me permite mi impar- 
I Que debo yo observar antes ? 

I Qne son los Oatalanes t 

lOoales oosas son apenas cone- 
oidas en otras provincias de la 
Peninsula respecto de los Oa- 

I Son utiles en la paz ? 

I Que sale de 0«talnfta t 

I T que mas t 

I De que calidad t 

I De quien es este oxtracto t 

I Oual parte es esta f 

Del caraster de los Aadaluoes j 

Qne son hombres de sobrada 

Al clima y snelo. 
Que hasta en los mismo& alimen 

tos falta el jugo que se lialla en 

los de otros paises. 
Someterme a esta preocupacioa 

per general que sea. 
Qne los Yalencianos de este siglo 

son los Espaftoles que iacen 

mas progresos en las cienciai 

positivas y lenguas muertas. 
Lcs pueblos mas industriosos dn 

Manufacturas, pescas, navega 

cion y comercio* 

Son utiles en la paz y del mayoi 

servicio en la guerra. 
Caiiones, armas, vestuario y mon- 

turas para ej^rcitos. 
Municiones, viveres y tropai 

De excelente calidad. 
De Cadalso. 
La quinta parte. 

Santenoes for Oral Translation. 


La tierra. 
£1 suelo. 
El dima. 
La pesca. 
Una fabrioa. 
JJn serricio. 


The earth* 
The soil. 
The climate. 
The fisliery. 
A manu£aotoiy 
A service. 

TWENtt-FOtJRtH LttSfiOll. 


Una preooapad>n. 
La navegadon. 


La fandicion de caiiones. 

Los Tiwres y mnnioiones. 

Las tropas ligeras. 

IjM denoias positivaa. 

Las lengaas mnertas. 

U&a cosa utiL 

i Coal es el mas indnstrioso pue- 
blo de Espafia ? 

Los Catalanes. 

|Onal ea la capital de Oata« 

iia dadad de Barcelona. 

lOuantos habitantes tiene? 

Ciento y treinta mil habitantes. 

|Cual es la ocnpacion principal 
de los Barceloneses ? 

El comerdo; trafican con todo 
el mnndo. 

I Onales islas estan al oriente de 
Espafta t 

Majorca, Minorca 6 Iviza. 

I Que prodncen estas islas ? 

Prodncen an vino excelente. 

iCaales son los rios principales 
de Espafta? 

El EbrOy el Gnadalqoivir j el 

I Onales son las montallas princi- 
pales de Espafta? 

Los Pyrenees, la Sierra Nevada 
y Morena. 

I Qoien es ahora la reina de Es- 

Isabel Segnnda. 

I Oomo se llama sa b\Jot 

fil Prindpe de Astarias. 

lOoando nacio el Principe de 
Astarias t 


The gnn-foandry. 

The provisions aLd miLnlttonk 

The light troops. 

The positive sciences. 

The dead languages. 

A useful thing. 

Which is the most indostrii i 
people of Spain ? 

The Catalonians. 

Which is the capital of Cata- 
lonia ? 

The city of Barcelona. 

What is its population! 

180,000 inhabitants. 

What is the chief occupation of 
the Barcelonians? 

Commerce ; they trade with the 
whole world. 

Which islands are east of Spain! 

Majorca, Minorca, and Ivica. 

What do these islands produce! 

They produce an excellent wine. 

Which are the principal rivers of 
Spain ? 

The Ebro, the Guadalquivir, and 
the Tagus. 

Which are the principal moon- 
tains in Spain ? 

The Pyrenees, the Sierra Kevadai 
and the Morena. 

Who is the queen of Spain now! 

Isabel the Second. 
What is her son^s name! 
The Prince of Astarias. 
When was the Prince of Astoriai 
born t 


Id the jear 18S7. 

Ed el alio mil oohd olentos cln- 

ODenta j siete. 
(Oual pais eata al oooldeDle de 

Eapaila I 
Lw UnroiaDOB y ValeDoiaDos vi- 

fHi a] orlente. 

What twDntry is w«st of S\ 


The MaroiBQs and Va1«nalBDi 


Atribuyendos« este dtfeeto, 
this defect beiog attributed. 
The proDomiDal form ia used here instead of the paaaire, h 
Moordance nith Rule 0. 

En lo» mismos aiimentoa, 

in the very victuals. 

233. Mismos meana vert, in accordance with Rule 118. 

It. is to be observed that mismo agrees in gender and numbei 

with the word before which it stands. 

Ifo me permits mmttertne, 
does Dot penuit me to submit myselC 
S34. To, before an infioilive, is loft out after permilir, U 
permit. See Rule 166. 

Par general que gea, 
however general it may bo. 
236. For is here an adverb, corresponding to bowxtib. 
Pew words are used with greater latitude than por in Spanish. 
Aiuwering in turn to fob, in OHnsR to, throuoh, ab, per, bv, 
FBOU, etc., it enters, moreover, in the formation of a number fA 
idiomatic oxpreasions in which its original meaning seems lo 
disappear entirely. The following model sentences will beil 
OfaiBtrate its several uses : 


^M Mt autenl 
^f Tomar un 

twamt-vovsta lss»oS. 



tit amentopar dot lemaHas, 
Tomar una com por otra, 
jSttviar par alguna eoaa, 
Porfalla de dinero, 
Par uojallar & la dla, 
Intereeder por un amigo, 
Votar por el aire, 
Pawar por un etiarto, 
Lo obtuvo por el leerelario, 
Iba por almirantt, 
Todoi le teniaa por docto, 
SmUmoslo por eoia 
Al dot por eitttto, 

I Absent myself for two week> 
To take one thing for another. 
To send fer something. 
For want of money. 
Not to miss the appointmedL 
To interceJe for a friend. 
To fly through the ur. 
To pass through h room. 
I got it through the aecretuj 
By force. 

He went as adioiraL 
All thought him learned. 
iguuda, Tvet ua put it down as a, EuL 
At two per cent 

VtM libra de pan por loldado. One pound of bread pel n 

A buito por vara, 

Una por una, 

Por la mafiana, 

Por eotitigaiente, 

Por mayor y por menor. 

At BO much a yard. 
One by one. 
In the morning. 

Wholesale and retSiL 

Que sea, that it may t>e. 

236. The conjunction que, that, is seldom sappreseed in 
Spanish, and it may safely be introduced whenever it can be 
added in English without materially affecting the meaning ol 
(he HnteniM. 

Ex. Digalt que vtnga. 

Tell him to come; 


Tell him that he may come. 

Suplique V, & la eeitoriia que cantt. 

Ask the young lady to sing; 


Aik the young lady tiiat she may ung. 

Sea, it may be. 

237. The regular terminations of the subjunctire present are T 

For the verbs in ar, e, es, e, etnoi, eis, en. 

For those in er and tr, . . a, as, a, amoi, aia, an. 


Kz. Sable, 



U»a, 1 













Unati, J 


Tlie eiceptions to this rule will be found explained in t^ 
■mgular veiba. 

Comer eio, commerce. 

238. Many worda ending with do in Spanish, end with et 
in English, with little or no other difference of orthography ; aa, 
7*re/a«o, preface ; f icio, vice; serwio, Bcrvice ; H>nCT'o, silence; 
ojScJOi office. 

239. Double consonants often become ungle in Spanish, 
especially ff, is, and tt ; but 11, when liquid, is never m 
Ex. A^ 

Aplaudir, to applaud. 
Atracltvo, attractive, 
Efecto, effect 
JH/ertneut, difference. 
Di^l, difficult 



to announce. Dmmutar, to dissimulatfl. 

GramiCka, grammar, 
Nee^aidud, necesu^. 
Pawm, passion. 
RMomendacion, reommendatioa. 

Reepeeto de los Catalanes, 

240. Respeoto de is used here in the sense of compared tn, 
in eampariton with. See Rule 202. 

Todo esto, all this. 

241. Csto, commonly called the neuter form of este, ia 
sed only when the noun to which it refers is not expressadi 

jK note on p^e 4, and Rule 170. It ia to be observed that 
the adjective joined to eRto, lo, aciuello, and esOi is uset^ 
in the masculine form. 

Sale, goes out ; from salir, to go out 

242. Salir, to go out, ia one of the most neceasary irrefrilai 
nrba m Spanish. Ita coLJugation is as follows : 


Salir^ to go oat 

Vmmmn Pabticipli. Past Paxtujivu. 

Saliendo^ going oat Salida^ gone out 

PassBNT Tense. 

To 9algoy I go oat, or do go oat 

Tu tales f thou goest out, or do9t go oat 

Ml 8ale^ he goes out, or does go oat 

Nosotros scUimoSj we go out, or do go out 

Vasotros ialis^ you go out, or do go out 

EUos saleuj they go out, or do go out 


F6 sediOf I went out, or ased to go out 

TA taliaSf thou wentest out, or usedet to go out 

El salia^ he went out, or osed to go out 

Nasotros salianiosj we went out, or used to go out 

Vo9otro8 saliais^ you went out, or used to go out 

Elhs mliauy they went out, or used to go out 

Past Tense DEFiNm. 

To saliy I went out, or did go out 

Tiit aaliate^ thou wentest out, or didst go oat 

M salid^ he went out, or did go out- 

Nosotros salimos^ we went out, or did go out 

Vo9otro8 salisteiSy you went out, or did go out 

JSlhs salHron^ they went out, or did go out 


To saldrS, I shall go out, or will go out 

TA saldrdsj thou shalt go out, or wilt go out 

El 8aldrdy he shall go out, or will go out 

Nototros salaritnos, we shall go out, or wIU go out 

Vo9otros saldriiSy you shall go out, or will go out 

Ello9 saldrdn^ they shall go out, or will go oat 

* The Moond fiitare is (see note on page 25) : 

AoK^nM taliiremo§f womnirot iaUirn$, dlat $aUirm 



Yo ialdria, I should go out, o 
TA ialdria*, thou Hboiildst go out, o 
£1 ialdria, he etiould go ou^ o 

Votoirot saldriais, you shoulJ go out, o 
SUtm foHrtan, they should go out, o 

would go out 
wouldst go out 
would go out. 
would go out. 
would go out. 
would go odL 



Sal, go (thou) out 
SiUid, go (jon) out. 




Qii§ yo nUyOy that I may go 



Que tti tatffoi, that thou mayat go oaL 

Qut it lalga, that he tuay go out 

Qua nototTos lalgamos, that wc may go out 

Que votoiTos tatffait, that you may go out 

Qm tUo* talgtm, that they may go out 


Que yo talitra, or lalieK, that I might go out 

Qtit li lalitras, or talieses, that thou migbtet go odI 

Que 41 taliera, or mliese, that he might go out. 

Qiu tiiOMtroi laliiramos, or taliiaemo», that we might go out 
Que wMolros laliirais, or talieaeia, that you might go oat 
Qtw ellot lalieran, or salieien, that they might go out 

Pom, pease, is feminina by esceptioD. 

Fallar, t« fail, to want ; obgervar, to observe ; partietpar, t> 
participate, are regular verbs of the first conjugation : prelendtr 
to pretend ; someler, to submit, are of the second : and 
bi permit, of the third. 

Oonoeer, to know, goes like eompadtctr (147) 

arelendtr ^^H 
permitm ^^H 



li I do not go out, 242. 16. I should not go oat, 242. 

2. He does not go out 17. He should not go out 

8. We do not go out 18. We should not go cut 

4. Ton do not go out 19. You should not go oat 

5. They do not go out 20. They should not go out 

6. I did not go out 21. I have not gone out 
?• He did not go out 22. He has not gone oat 
8. We did not go out 23. We have not gone out 
0. You did not go out 24. You have not gone out 

10. They did not go out 25. They have not gone out 

11. I shall not go out 26. I had not gone out 

12. He shall not go out 27. I shall not have gone oat 
18. We shall not go out 28. I should not have gone out 

14. You shall not go out 29. That I may not go out 

15. They shall not go out. 80. That I might not go out 

81. That I may call, 287.-32. That he may call.— 83. That 
we may call. — 34. That you may call. — 36. That they may cali^ — 
86. That I may drink, 237.-37. That he may drink.— 88. That 
we may drink. — 39. That you may drink. — 40. That they may 
drink.— 41. That I may live, 237.-42. That he may live.— 
43. That we may live. — 44. That you may live. — 46. That they 
may live. — 46. He has exchanged a pair of horses against a fine 
carriage, 236. — 47. He wishes to travel for two months, 286^-^ 

48. For want of paper, I could not write my letters, 235. — 

49. Please send for some, 236. — 60. I met your friend passing 
tiiiough the street, 236. — 61. He was considered a good and 
honest man, 236. — 62. I have bought this silk, at two dollars a 
yard, 236. — 63. Do you like to take a walk in the evening f 285. 
—54. Those boots are cheaper wholesale than retail, 236.— « 
i5. This is easy, 241.— 66. That is difficult, 241.— 67. All this 
h pleasant, 241. — 68. Observing. — 69. Observed. — 60. Preteid 
iBg.--61. Pretended —63, Alowing.— 63. Allowed. 


LlterEJ TranaUtioa. 

Lcccion Ti^^sima quinta. 

Leisson tireDty fifth. 

Exlraclo dc Cadalso, concliiido. 

Extract from Cad also, concladed. 

Sexta parte. 

Sixth part, 

l^oa Ara^oneses son hombres de ralor y 

The Aragiiiiese are men of valor and 

esplrita, honrados, tenazes en su dict&nien, 

intelligence, huneat, tenacious in their opinion, 

aiuantcs de su provincia, y notable iiiciile 

fond of their province, and notably 

preocupados & favor de sus paisanos. En 

prejudiced in facor of tlieir couniryinen. In 

otros ticnipos cultiraron con suceso las 

other tiiuea they cdltivated witli encceds the 

ciencias, y nianejaron con mucha gloria 

soiences, and handled with niucli glory 

las armas contra los Franceses en niApolei, 

the arms against the Fren'ih at Naples; 

y contra lo§ ITIoros, niiestros abuclos, eu 

and against the Moors, our ancestors, In 

EspaAa. Sn pals, como todo lo rcstante 

Spain. Their cuuu'ry, like all ihe rest 

de la Pcninsnia, t'n6 siinianicntr poblado 

of the PeQiDaula, waa highly peupi^J 

en la nntlg'nedad, y tanto que e!4 eoiniin 

in th« BDtiqniiy, and so much tijut it is 



^V trad it 



trailicion cntre ellos, que en laa bodaa 

tradition among them, that at the wedding 

vinidron 6 

de uno de 


BUS rcyes 

their kings 

Zarasoxa dlez mil inf^nzones, con iin 

Sarngot^BS ten thousand noblemen, with a 

criado cada uno, nionlados los veinte mil 

servsQl ench one, nioiinti'd the twenty tbougand 

en otros Cantos caballos de la tierra. 

on otLer as iminy lioj-ees of the land. 

Por causa de los muchos sig^los que (odos 

On account of tlie many centuries that all 

estos pueblos esluvierondividido8,gucrrea- 

these people were divided, warred 

ron unos cou olro», hablaron diversot 

one against other, epoke diiTerent 

fdlomas, se gobernaron por diferenCes 

langoagea, themselves governed by different 

leyes, llevaron distintos trajes, y en fin Ai^- 

taws, wore distinct dress, and, in fine, were 

ron naciones separadas, ge inantnro cntre 

nations separate, itself it uininlained among 

ello» clerto odio, que, sin duda, ba mino- 

them cerlain hatred, wliich, no ^oubt, has moderated, 

rado, pero ann no ba llegado A aniquilarse. 

bat yet not has come to annihilate itself. 

Tbe aame In 


Lob Aragoneaea son hoinbrea 
d« valor y espiritu, honrado^, te- 
■u diot&men, amar'^a 

Extract ritou Cadauo, oov* 


SlITH ?.RT. 

The Arogniieae are men ol 
valor and intelligence, hones^ 
tviiBciona ot tb«ir own opinion^ 


816 TWENTT-Firra lesbow, ^^H 

and especially attaobed to tlieU 

oonotry and fellow-con try men 

HDOS. En otros tiemiiosi onlti- 

Once much given to tne study 

T«ron con snceso las oienniaB, y 

of tlie sciences, tbey bave also 

manejaron con miic!;B gloria Isa 

won great military glory against 

annas contni loa Franoeaes en 

the French at Naples, and against 

Kfipolea, f contra los Moros, Dites- 

the Moore, onr anoestora, in Spain 

troa abnelos, en EspaflB. Sc pais, 

Aragon, like the rest of the Pe- 

Domo tudo lo restante de la Pe- 

ninsnla, was formerly well popu- 

lated ; and it ia even said that at 

eomun tradicioo enire elloB, qua 

on horseback, followed by ai 

en las bodas de uno io sub rejes 

many moanted servants of that 

_ vinifaon a Zaragoza die* mil in- 

land, entered Baragossa as a 

K faoEonea, con on criado cada nno. 

pageant to the wedding of one 

H . moDtados I09 veinte roil en otros 

of their kings. 

OF tantoa cabalioa de la tierra. 

But the many years of dia- 

Poroaasade los muohos sigloa 

sension which hava kept these 

qne todoa estos pueblos estuvie- 

several people apart, warring 

ron divididoB, gnerrearon nnos 

against each other, speaking 

different languages, being gov- 

Idioinan, se gotiernaron por dife- 

erned by distinct laws, and wear- 

rentes leyes, Ilevaron distintoa 

ing particnlar costumes, subdi- 

tr^ep, y en Sn fnfiron naciones 

viding the whole into as many 

aeparadas, m mantnvo entre 

rilOB oierto odio, qoe, gin duda, 

a certain hatred among them, 

ha minorado, pero ann no ha 

which, thongh abating, has not 

Uegado i. aniqailane. 

yet entirely disappeared. 

Qnostloiia and Anawera for Conveisatlon, 


Ia vigBHimaqninta. 

iQae son los Aragoneaesl 

Son iiombres de valor y espirito. 


Bon bonrados y tenazes en ■■ 


0« qoe son araantes ! 

De su provinciay de bus paisano^ 

Qne hioturon en otros tiemposl 

Oultiraron con anceso laBcienoJaA 

1 Uan^aron ,aa armas t 

Si, settor, con mnoha gloria. 


Contra loa Franceses y contra lot 


iFofc poblado «1 pais de los Ara- 

toDMMl en la antigfledad. 



iQae es entre elloa .coDmn tra* 

|Tenian criados e6to& iofan- 

I C(>mo estttvieroo todos IO0 pae- 
blos de Espafla por mncbos 
Biglos t 

Qae hideron f 
'^ablaron el mismo idioinat 
I Oomo se gobernaron f 

4 Que trajes llevaron T 

4 Y que fu^ron en fin T 

I Que se mantavo entre ellos T 

I Se ba minorado este odlo f 

Que en las bodas de nno de iiit 
reyes entraron enZaragosbdiM 
mil infaDZones de esta tiem. 

Un criado montado cada nno. 

EstQYieron diyidoAi 

Gnerrearon nnoa eon otroe. 
Hablaron diversoa idiomaa. 
Se gobernaron por diferentei 

Llevaron distintos tnjea. 
Fn^ron naciones separadas. 
Un derto odio. 
8e ba minorado, pero ami bo he 

llegado 4 aniqnilarae. 

Sentenoee foi Oral Tranalation. 


£1 paisano. 

£1 snceso. 

La gloria. 

La antigfledad. 

La tradidon. 

El infanzon honrado. 

Amante de sa patria. 

£1 soldado tenaz. 

Cn caballo com an. 

Los diversos idiomas. 

La^ diferentes leyes. 

Un trajc distinto. 

Un derto odio. 

Las nadones separadas. 

Las bodas espl^ndidas. 
4 Donde esta Zaragoza ? 
En la provinda de Aragon. 
I Oerca de cual rio ? 
Al lado izquierdo del Ebro. 


.The countryman. 

Tbe sncoefls. 

The glory. 

The antiquity. 

Tbe tradition. 

The honest noblemaa. 

Fond of his country. 
. The tenacious soldier. 

A common horse. 

The different ]angua(;eflL 

The various laws. 

A distinct dress. 

A certain hatred. 

The separate national 

The splendid wedding. 
Where is Saragossa ? 
In the province of Aragon. 
Near what river ? 
On the left bank of the Kbnr 



116 TWKNTY-ilFTH LliSSOS, ^^| 

1 Qne Bsbe V. de bds babitantes ! 

Wbat do jou know uf ita iu- 


Bon TincM pnebloa mny ralientes. 

They are a valiant people. 

Mny amsntes de bb patria. 

Much attached to their fcthor- 


lOoando han moetnido maoho 

When did the; exhibit n.uob 


conrage t 

En la gaerra contra Napoleoo 

In the war agaiiLat Napolix-'n L, 

primero, emperndor de los 

emperor of the Frendi. 

lOamo fie llomu Zaraguza en loB 

How was Saragoew called la 


ancient timeel 

Be ttumo SogunU. 

It waa called Sagont 

t OubIbs do8 pnebloa se disputaron 

Which two people fought for Ou 

la poaesion de esta dudadt 

poBBeafiicHi of this city ? 

|Onal general Oartagines la dea- 

Wliich Oartliagioian general de 

trujo 1 

«'™?ed it) , 

El famoao Anibal. 

Tlje famous Hannibal. ^^m 

En e! afio dos oientos veintiuno 

In lue year 321 before Ohrist ^H 

gntes de Jesa-Ori^to. 


lAdoDde M! fQ6 Anibal despaee 

Where did Hannibal go to after 

de la destrnccion de ZaragozaT 

the destruction of Saragossat 

Be inarch& aobre los Pirineoe a 

He crossed the Pyrenees, and 


went into Gaul. 

(Como se llama Galia hoj! 

How is Gaul called nowu^jyat 

Be llama Fraocia. 

It is called France. 

1 Caal proviacin fn£ la ultima en 

Whioh province was iaat In pos- 

la posestun de ke Mur^d! 

session of the Moors T 

Ta proTlDOia de Granaila. 

Tiie province of Granada 

(Gaales Boberanos roobazaton.Ioa 

Which Hovereigna chased ttu 


Moor:] from Spaiu! 

King Ferdinand and Queen lea^ 



iQuien fue el mas famoso guer- 

Who was the moat famous »ai% 

ruMen aqnei tieinpol 

rior of thofe times! 

C Old Campeador. 

The Cid Campeador. 

|Oaal ADtur americano ha ea- 

Wliat American author has writ- 

orit'i una biatoria excelente de 

ten an eioelleut histor)- of '.'le 

la conqnista de Granada? 

conquest of Granada) 

H oilebre Wasbingion Irring. 

The celebrated Wftahington fr 



AmafUe$ de 9u promneta^ 


lovers of their province. 

243. Some verbs have a second present paiticiple in Spanish 
ending with ante for the first conjugation, and with ente fo 
the second and third. But this form can be used only as an 
adjective, or as an adjective taken substantively^ 

Ex. Hahlante^ one who talks ; a talker. 
Vendiente, one who sells ; a seller. 

As these verbal adjectives cannot be formed from every verb 
indiscriminately, care should be had to consult the dictionary 
before using them. They have often to be translated by quite 
mother word ; as, 

An aflfecUng scene, Una escena tiema. 

A favor de» 

244. A favor J« is an adverbial locution, answering exactly 
to in favor of 

Lo restante^ the rest, the remainder. 

245. Restante is here a verbal adjective, from restar, tb remain, 
formed in accordance with Rule 243. Lo has been placed before 
it, because the nonn to which it refers is not expressed. See 
note at the bottom of page 4, and Observation 170. 

Comun tradicion^ a common tradition* 

246. The article un, una, a or an, being to a degree 
iynonymous with the numeral adjective nno, una, ons, it is 
generally left out in Spanish, unless it is required to express 
more clearly the idea of unity. 

Ex. Us soldado^ he is a soldier. 
Us Espiiflolj he is a Spaniard. 
JSi Acniricano, he is an American. 

See also Rules U, 76, 1$, 



Viniiron^ came ; from venir^ to come. 

247* Vmir is one of the most necessaiy irregiLar ?erbi 
Spiakk Iti conjugation is as follows : 

Venir^ to come. 


TimendOf coming. 

Past VAxncva> 
VenidOf come. 


Fb Mii^ I come, or do co*na. 

n vieneif thou comest^ or dost coma, 

M vieMy he comes, or does coma 

No9otro8 venimoSj we come, or do come. 

VoBotroi venisj you come, or do come. 

Mlot tienen^ they come, or do come. 


Fb petUOf I came, 

TA veniaSf thou earnest, 

SI venioy he came, 

Nosoiros veniamoSy we came, 

Vo9otro9 veniaiSj you came, 

Bttos venian^ they came, 

or used to come, 
or nsedst to conm 
or used to come, 
or used to come, 
or used to come, 
or used to come. 

Par Tbnm DxriNiTi. 

To vine J 
El vtnoy 

No9otro8 vminws 
Voiotroe vmiitei.n 
SUo$ vinifran^ 

I came, 
thou earnest, 
he came, 
we came, 
you came, 
they came, 

or did come, 
or didst coma 
or did come, 
or did come, 
or did come, 
or did coma 


To vendrif I shall come, oi will oooM. 

TA vendrds thou shalt come, oi wilt come. 

£1 vindrdf he shall come, or wiU come. 

Nosotro9 vendremoSf we shall come, or will come. 

Vofotros vendrSiSj you shall come, or wiU come. 

Mhi vendrdn^ they shall come, or will come. 


To vendria^ I should come, or would come. 

TA vendriasj thou shouldst come, or wouldst coma 

El vendrioy he should come, or would come. 

No8otro8 vendriamoSf we should come, or would come. 
Vosotros vmdriaiSf you should come» or would come. 
SUo8 vendrian^ they should come, or would oome. 


Ven^ come (thou). 
VerUdf come (you). 

Prisbmt Tknsi. 

Que yo venga^ that I may come. 

Que tA vengaSy that thou mayst comet. 

Que 41 venga^ that he may come. 

Que nosotros vengamos^ that we may come. 

Que vcsoiros vengais^ that you may come. 

Que elloi vengan^ that they may come. 

Subjunctive Past. 
Qu9 yo vinierOf or viniese^ that I might come. 

Que tA vinieras^ or vinieses^ that thou mightst coma 

Que il viniera^ or viniese^ that he might come. 

Quf nosotros vinieramoe^ or viniesemos^ that we might come. 
Que vosotros vtmiraiSf or vinieseisj that you might come. 
Que ellos vinieran, or vinieseUj that they might come. 

* The second future is (see note on page 25) : 

To 9inier$f fu vinieret, U vinien, 

$omi4ro9 tinUr^mM^ tototrot viwUreits €llo$ vimiermk 


248. TliiiB are conjugated the derivatives convenir^ to agree 
iobrevenir^ to happen, etc 

Coda uno^ each one. 
219. Oada is an invariable word in Spanish, answering to 

■AOH and SVBRT. 

Ex. Cada hombre^ each or every man. 
Coda mttjer, each or every woman. 
Cada do9 itasj every two days, or every second day. 

Tantos cahallosj as many horses. 
260. Tantos is the plural masculine of tanto, which in 
die singular means as, or so much ; and in the plural, as, or 
60 MANY. Before an adjective or adverb, tan, as or so, ii used 
instead of tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas. 

Ex. Tanto pan como carne^ as much bread as meat. 
Tanta came como pauy as much meat as bread. 
Tantos niflos como nifias, as many boys as girls. 
Tantojt nifias como niflos^ ' as many girls as boys. 
Tan bueno eomx) 41^ as good as he. 

Tan buenos como ellos, as good as they. 

Unos con otros. 

251. Unos con otros, literally one with the other ^ means 
here more particularly, against each o*her. 

Ha minoradoy has diminished. 

252. The compound tenses of all verbs, regular and irregular, 
are formed with haber, to have ; and tener is never used 

Ex. He hablado. He vendido. He unido, 

Idiomaj language, is masculine; and lej/, law, is feminme^ 
by exception. 

Aniquilar^ to annihilate ; guerrear, to war ; manejar, to handle; 
minorar, to diminish ; moniar^ to mount ; preocupar^ to preju* 
dice ; separar^ to separate, are regular verbs of the first conjuga 
tion : and dividir, to divide, is of the third. 

Conelniry to conclude, goes like instruir^ see page 143 


fotemoTt to govenif like quebrar^ page 08 ; pMaVy to people, 
like moiUrar^ page 97; and mantener^ to maintain, like tener 
page 88. 


1. I agree, 248. 16. I should agree, 248. 

2. He agrees. 17. He should agree. 
8. We agree. 18. We should agree. 
4. Yon agree. 19. Tou should agree. 
6. They agree. 20. They should agree. 

6. I agreed. 21. I have agreed. 

7. He agreed. 22. He has agreed. 

8. We agreed. 28. We have agreed. 

9. Tou agreed. 24. You have agreed. 

10. They agreed. 25. They have agreed* 

11. I shall agree. 26. I had agreed. 

12. He shall agree. 27. I should have agreed. 
18. We shall agree. 28. Agree. 

14. You shall agree. 29. That I may agree. 

15. They shall agree. 80. That I might agree. 

31. The Americans /.r/ the Spaniards are lovers of theu 
oouptry, 243. — 32. Thoy r^ merchants, 246. — 33. Joseph is a 
podler, 246. — 34. Paul if an officer, 246. — 35. I work every 
iay, 249. — 36. He guvi a dollar to each one of us, 249. — • 
87. Have you as man/ books as I? 250. — 38. Have you aa 
good books as If 250.— 39. He has admired and praised these 
Qiings. — 40. I ha/o reen and bought these things. — 41. They 
went out together.- -42. I have called, 252. — 43. 1 had called.— 
14. I shall have CAlled. — 45. I should have called. — 46. That 
I may have called. — 47. That I might have called. — 48. I 
Wive drunk, 2<'^2. — 49. I had drunk. — 50. I shall have drunk. 
— 51. I should hare drunk. — 62. That I may have drunk.- - 
58. That I might have drunk. — 54. I have lived, 252. — 55. I 
had lived. — 56. I shall have lived. — 57. I should have lived.-- 
58. That I may have lived. — 59. That I might have lived* 



Literal TranBlation. 

Leccion Ti^^sima lexta. 

LesBOQ twenty sixth. 

Extracto del Trorador de Don Jnan 

Extract from the Truubadour, hy Mr, John 

Garcia Gutierrez. 

Garcia Gutierrez, 

IVadie iiicjor que yo iiiiedc saber esta ] 

Nobody better than I can know 

historia, conio que liacc ciiarcnta aAos que 

history, inasmuch as It makes forty years that 

estoy al serTicio dc loa condcs de Luna. 

I am in the eerrice of tlio Counts of Lana. 

Lo han contado de diverso modo, y como I 

It they have related of diverse manner; and 

se abnltan lanto las cosas, yo os lo | 

themselvea they eiaggerate so much the thiuga, I yo 

contarf (al como ello pas6. El conde ' 

will relate no as it passed. Tlie ct 

riTia regiilarniente en Zara^oza. Tenia 

lived reguinrly in Bsragiisja. He had 

dos nlikoH: el uno que en Uon IVufio, nucs- 

two boys : tiie one who is Mr. Nnfti>, i 

Iro muy querido anio, y contaba entdnces < 

very dear master, and ciianted then 

•els meses, poco mas 6 ni^nos ; y el mayor, I 

six moDtliB, little more ui less ; and the elder, 

que tendria dos anog, llaniado Don J uau> 

wlio oonld have two years, cullt;d Ur. Jobn. 

■ Una 

^g One 


Una noche eutrd en la casa oel conde 

One night etiterod in the honse of the count 

una de esas va^aninndas, una gitana con 

one of these vagahonJ.a, a, fc'ypsy wiili 

ribetes de briija, y, sin decir palabra, se 

trimmiDgs of witch, ami, without to eay word, sh* 

deslizd havia la rAmara donde dormla el 

slipped into the room where nlepl the 

niayorcito. Sc sentd & su Indo, y le 

elder little one. Herself she Beutud at his side, and hiii 

estiiTO inlrando largo rato sin apartar de 

(the was looking long tiiue without turning from 

tl Io8 ojos un instanie; pero lo§ criados 

him the eye« one inatant; but t' - 

la rieron, y la arrojaron & palos. 

and her drove off with blowa. 


DoK Jdak Garcia Gutibr- 


Nadle iD^or que yo puede sa- 
ber ©Bta historla, oomo que hac« 
onarenlB afios que estoy al servi- 
do de lo9 condes de Luna. Lo 
ban ooDtado de dlyerso modo, y 
Domo ee ahultan tanto las r.osas, 
yo OS lo contar6 ta! como e lo 
]wb6. El conde rivia regular- 
mente en Zaragoza. Tenia dos 
nilioa: el nno, qne es Don Nuflo, 
oneBtro mny qnerido amo, y con- 
tabaentopceH seia mesea, imoo mas 
6 miaoe ; y el mayor, que teudria 
Am Kitoe, lUmado Don Jaan. 

Tha Mina In good nngHnh. 

Extract frc 


DOUR OF Don J cab Garcia 


Ko one can know this history 
better than I, who bave been 
for the last forty years in the 
scrrice of the Oounta de T.niia. 
There are several veralons zt It; 
but things are often eo mnoh 
exaggerated, that I will relate ft 
tu you as it took place. 

The count lived generally a 
Saragossa. He had two lioys; 
Mr. Nnno, our beloved mooter, 
who was then about six ihouthi 
old, and Ur. Juan, the Mlea^ 
who iniglit be two yean 

Una DOolie entro en la casa del 
ecinde una de was vogamiindn!', 
nna gitsoa eon rlbe1«a de brajn, 
y, EJn decir patabra, se desliz6 
hacia la ciinara lionde diirmia el 
niajorciUi. Se scoto a aU lado, 
y 1e eatDvo mirando largo rato 
■in aparlar de 61 los ojob nn ins- 
tante; perolosoriadoa la vieroa, 
J la arrojaron a paloa. 


acderiDg gjp ^^H 
Borcereas, en- ^^^| 

One evening t 
By, dreBsed as a sorcereas, e 
tered the house, approached 
Btealtliilj the bed in whiob tli« 
older of tlie two ohildren nu 
sleeping, and sealing herself ^J 
his side, remained for some ti 
with her eyes fixed intent!; upon i 
hiin; but the eervanCB aaw her 
and drove her off with blows. 

QaeaUomi and Aiunrers for GoUTeiaaUoiL 

I Qua kccion es esta I 

I De cnat obra es este extracto ! 

iQuien pnede saber e.sla hietoriat 
)Ouanto9 alkoB hace qne estoy al 

servioiu deloacondes deLnnal 
(Oomo lo han conladof 
I Como 09 lo oontare yo I 
( Donde vivia regnlarmente el 

conde t 
I Ouaotoa nifios tenia I 
(Como se llainaba el iinol 

Qae edad oontaba entoncest 

Como se llamaba el mayor, y 
que edad tenia! 
1 Qnien entru nna noehe en la 

caaa del condet 
I Que tenia eata gitijir. t 
Adonde se dealizo la g'itaiia sii. 
deeir palabra t 
(Donde ee Mntot 

I Qae biiieron tos oriados caaodo 

La vigedma seita. 

Del Trovfldor de Don Juan Gar 

eia Gutierrez. 
Nadie mejor qne yo. 
Onarenta aflos. 

ha ban contado de direrso modot \ 

Tal cumo ello paso. 
Ed Zaragoza. 

luy q 

M'ido ai 

Con tabu se 

Be llamaba Don Jnan, 

dos afios. 
Una de esas vagamnndaa, sDk 

Ribeteii de brujii. 
Eaoia la oamnra doude domiia 

el mayoroito. 

Le jatnvo mirando largo raU 

eln apnrtar de i\ 

La arroja^an a p*Ioa. 


tWKttrt'SttM. Lfistiolf* 


SentenoeB for Oral Tranriatlon 

to IB nuvauLTio nro ^NeLUH. 

Un serrioio. 
El modo. 
Una gitana. 
La palabra. 

Un amigo qaerido. 
Qae esta V. leyendo abora ? 
Un extracto del Trovador. 
I Hay una opera de este nombre, 

no es verdad ? 
Si, sef&or ; la he visto en la Aca- 

demia de Musica. 
|Puede v. decirine cnal es el 

si^eto de esta opera f 
dna gitana pi 11a a ano de los 

hijos del conde de Luna. 
Este niao se llama Nuflo. 
Tiene nn bermano que se llama 

Nnfto es eduoado entre los gi- 

Onando tiene veinte alios se haoe 

Encttentra a una sefiorita qne se 

llama Leonora. 
La qniere j la bace sik espoaa. 
Bn bermano Juan aina & la 

misma seftora. 
Hace pillar y qnemar 4 sn propio 

En este moment 9 a vieja gitana 


A servioe. 
Tbe manner. 
A gypsy. 
Tbe sorceress. 
Tbe word. 
To relate. 
To exaggerate. 
To pass. 
To live. 
To enter. 
To sit down. 
To drive away. 
A beloved friend. 
Wbat are yon reading now f 
An extract from tbe Troubadour. 
Tbere is an opera of that name, 

is tbere not f 
Tes, sir; I bave seen it at tbe 

Academy of Music. 
Oan you tell me tbe subject o( 

tbat opera f 
A gypsy steals one of tbe soni 

of Oonnt Luna. 
This child's name is Nufto. 
He has a brother whose name is 

Nuilo is brought up among the 

At the age of twenty be becomea 

a troubadour. 
He meets a young lady whoM 

name is Leonora. 
He loves and marries her. 
His brother John loves tbe sama 

He causes bis own brother to be 

caught and burned. 
At that very moment the old 
gypsy appears, 




Y le lioe que eata matacdo 4 en 

pr:ipio hermano. 
i QnieD lis compneBto In musics t 
El oilebre compositur Verdi. 
Oomo 68 que la verdadera Mb- 

toria iliflere tanto del texto <1e 

U 6pera ! 
BstH es ana licenoia poStioa. 
Le gasta i T. tnuoho la Apera 

italiana t 
Muohieimo, especialmente la mu- 

sica de Meyerbeer, 
Pero Meyerbeer no es Italiano, 

fo 8^ que es AleniaD, pero lia 
redbido ea edaooeion en Italia. 
Bu estllo ea italiaao. 

« he la kllUoi ^H 

And tell* him Unit he li 
his own brother. 

Who has composed thu 

The celebrated coinpoBer, Terdi. 

Buw does it happen that tLe text 

of the opera differs bo m;ioh 

from history ! 
This is a poetioal license. 
Are yon very fond of the Itallu 

opera I 
I am very fond of it, especiallj 

of the mn(,io of Meyerbeer. 
But Meyerbeer 1b Dot an Italian 

t knowheisaGennan, batbeliai 
received his eduoadou ir Italy 
His style is Italian. 

JVorfie, nobodj. 
253. Jfadie differs from ninguno, already seen (1 98), inumncb 
M it CKOOOt be joined to a noun. 

Saber, to know. 

261. Saber, to know, is one of the moat naceBsary irregiilu 

reibi in Spanish. Its conjugation is as follows : 


Sober, to know, 


Sabiendo, knowing. Sabido, known. 

FanENT TiNai. 

Yo ti, I know, or do know. 

TA tabet, thon knowesl, ir dost know. 

SI labe, he knows, or does know. 

Jfo»olro» joAenvw, we know, or do know. 

Vototros labels, you know, or do know. 

Slloi mben, they know, or do know. 



Fc mUOf 1 knew, or luod to know. 

TA mMm^ ihon knewest, or asedst to know« 

Bl aaina, he knew, or need to loioWi 

JfoaotroB MUamo8^ we knew, or used to know. 

VoBOiroa taJUais^ yon knew, or used to know. 

SUm taXnan^ they knew, or used to know. 

Past Tmin DsFiNm. 

To tupe, I knew, or did know. 

TA iupUUf ihon knewest, or didst loiow. 

M tupOf he knew, or did know. 

Nosotros 8upimo8^ we knew, or did know. 

Vo80tro8 supiateUj yon knew, or did know. 

Mlot 9upUnm^ they knew, or did know. 


To mM, I riiall know, or will know. 

TA idbrdSf thoa shalt know, or wilt know. 

El saJbrd^ he shall know,^ or will know. 

yosotros sahrimos^ we shall know, or will know. 
Vo80tro8 tahriis^ yon shall know, or will know 
Mlo8 sabrdn^ they shall know, or will know. 


To sahria^ I should know, or would know. 

TA 9ahria8j thou shouldst know, or wouldst know. 

SI whria, he should know, or would know. 

IfototroB sabria t o«, we should know, or would know. 

Vosotros toMai^f you should know, or would know. 

FOoi aoftrtaft, they should know, or would know. 


Sabej know (thou). 
Sahed^ know (yon). 

Hm Moond ftttnre U (mo rote on page 95) : 

To 9Wpiir$^ $& wpieret^ 41 w^Um^ 


Pbisent Tinhl 

Qw a Kpal 
Qut il srpa, 

Qut vosotros sepals, 
Q%u ellas $epan. 

thai I may know. 
that tLou mRyat know, 
that he may know. 

sepamos, that tvc may know. 

that you may know. 
that they may know. 

Qitt ye tupiera, or stipieae, that I might know, 

Que lit aupierai, or aupieses, that thou mightst know 

Que il supiera, or supie/e, that he might know. 

Que noinlros supleramos, or nupieiemos, that we might know. 
Que vosotrot aupieraii, or tupiimn, that you miglit know. 
Que ellot tupieran, or gupieien, that they might knoi 

Como que. 
255. Como que is an idiomatic locution, 
inaimueh ae, in finglisb. 

Sslot/ al iervicio, I am in the service. 
356. Contrary to English usage, the prepoution a ia intra>'l 

duced in Spanish in the following idiomatic oxpresaiona 
Este veslido estd biea d V^ this dress fits you well. 
Etiar al servicio dt aljui 

rresponding U I 

Esiar A euentas eon il, 

Eatar & dereeka, 

Eatar 6. linea, 

Eitnr a punlo dt aalir, 

Eitar A e^rar, 

Un $ombrero & la tnoda. 

I to be in the service of st 
to have an account with bin 
to be in the right, 
to be in a line. 

to be on the point of starting, 
to be hoping or to hope, 
a hat in the fashion. 

De diverad modo, in a differoiit iniinncr. 

257. The preposition de is, like a, one of the most ilifScnlt 1 

■mall words to use properly. Corresponding generally to oi I 

or moM, it has often to be rendered by to. with, in, or the 

Qf tie possewve case ('«), as in the following examples ■ 



La hy de Dias^ The law of Gbd, or God's law, 

Venffo de Matamas^ I come from Matanzaa. 

He de eserihirj I have to write. 

JSl tnae grande del mundOy The greatest in the world 
De intento lo hizo^ He did it with intention, or mten 


Contarij will relate. 
258. AU verbs regalar and irregular end in the future with 

&i kBf kj 6mos, 6i8, in. 

fo. ffablarS, 

^ Venderi^ 
'% Venderds, 





8 'i Vender d. 




'^ a, Vender emos^ 

^ ^ 




^ VenderSiSf 





^ Venderdnj , 




259. These terminations are generally added to the infinitive 
€[>rm of each verb. 

Ex. Hablar^ to speak. Hahlari^ I shall or will speak. 
Vender^ to sell. VenderS, I shall or will sell. 

{Thir, to unite. UnirS^ I shall or will unite. 

The exceptions to this rule will be found explained in the 
irregular verbs. 

Poco mas 6 mSnoe^ little more or less. 

260. Poco fnas 6 minos is an idiomatic locution, which eor> 
vesponds to about in English. 

Tendria, could have. 

261. All verbs, regular and irregular, end in the conditional 
witb la, ias, ia, iamos, iais, ian. 

Xz. Hablaria^ 




Sii Venderias, 
2 &• Venderia, 
jg2 VenderiamoSj 
* § Venderiais. 




Uniria^ \ 
^d Uniriae^ S.| 
2 * Unirifiy 
03 Uniriamos^ 
" ^ Uniriais, 




262. These tcrminallonB are generallj added to 
Ibrm of each verb. 

Uie infinidn ^H 

Ei, ffablar, to speak. 
Vender, to sell, 
f/i i>, to unite. 

Sahlaria, I abonld or would spe^k. 
VtTideria, I should or would Bell. 
Vniria, I should or would unite. 

tc thia rule will be found :splained in Iht 

th% exceptioDi 
tnegnlar verbs. 

263. The conditional form is never preceded by a conjunc- 
tion in Spanish, the subjunctive past beiog then invariably uie-r 

Ex. Lo escTihiria st V. me lo dietara, 
I would write it if yea would dictate it to me. 

El mat/oreilo, the eldest little one, 

264. Diminutives are much more freijiiently used in Spanish 
than in English. Those expressive of imallncss or prettinesi 
are formed by the addition of ioo or ito for the mascuhne, and 
tea or ita for the feminine ; and those expressive of con'.t'mpl 
or pity with illo or uelo for the mascnlino, and ilia or uela 
lor the feminine. 

These terminations aro generally added to the singular form 
of the noun or adjective, taking care that those ending with a 
>r o drop their last vowel, and that those eixling with CO, oa, 
go, ga, and Z change these final letters into qu, gu, and 0. 

iiurkacho, Mucliackito, Mttchackillo, 

a boy. a pretty littl e boy. 

Mwhuha, Miichachila, 

a girl a pretty little girl. 

Bareo, Bar gut lo, 

a boat a pretty little boat 

Aitutfo, Amiffuito, 

a friend. a dear little friend. 

i'«, Ficecilo, 

■ fish, li nice little fish. 


a poor little boy. 

a poor little girl. 

a miserable little boat 

a poor little friend. 

a poor little fiih. 


265. Worda ending with e, n, or r, take oloo, dto, oUlo^ 
tnd zuelo, instead of ico, ito, iUo, and uelo. 

Hinnhrt^ ffombreeitOj HombricUU^ 

a man. a nice little man. a poor little maa. 

f Hon. a nice little lion. a poor little lion. 

MuJeTj MujercttOj Jdujereilla^ 

a woman. a nice little woman. a poor little womai 

The only exception to this rule is seflor^ Mr. or gendeman, 
which is changed to seflorito, master or young gendeman, and 
not sefiarcito. 

266. These endings are especially added to Christian namer 
fai Spanish. 

Bx. PedrUlo, little Peter. 

Juaneito^ little John. 

AnitOf little Anna. 

Carlotita^ little Charlotte. 

Bosita^ little Bose, etc 

267. Angmentatives are formed by the addition of aso, OH 
tff ote, for the masculine, and aza, ona, or ota, for the fern* 
ininei with the only exception that the nouns or adjecdyef 
ending with a, e, or o, drop their final vowel. 

Bx. Muehaeho^ a boy. Muchaehon^ a big (corpulent) boy. 
MucJuxha^ a girl. Muchaehona, a big (corpulent) girL 

The augmentatifes are, however, but little used, inasmuch 
as they invariablj carry with them an idea of reproach oi 

Abfdtary to exaggerate; apartar^ to turn away; arrqjar^ to 
drive away ; contar, to relate ; entrar, to enter ; and pcLsar^ tt 
pass, are regular verbs of the first conjugation : vivir^ to live, 
is of the third. 

Deslizar^ to steal in, goes like reckazar (187) ; and senUiTj ta 
lit dowQ, like quebrar (133). 



fO n TBAMSLAnD uto gPAMisa 

1. I riiaU call, 258, 269 16. I skonld call, 361, 26t 

2. He shall call. 17. He should caJ. 
8. We shall call. 18. We shoald caiu 
4. You shall call. 19. Tou should call. 
6. They shall call. 20. They should call 

6. I shall drink. 21. I should drink. 

7. He shall drink. 22. He should drink. 

8. We shall drink. 23. We should drink. 

9. Tou shall drink. 24. You should drink. 

10. They shall drink. 25. They should drink. 

11. I shall live. 26. I should live. 

12. He shall live. 27. He should live. 
18. We shall live. 28. We should live. 

14. You shall live. 29. You should live. 

15. They shall live. 30. They should live. 

81. My little son, 264.-32. His little daughter, 264.— 
83. Our little dog, 264.-34. Your little brother, 264.— 
85. Their little horses, 264.-36. My little sister, 264.-37. A 
poor little chicken, 264.-38. A poor little cat, 264.-39. A 
poor little bird, 264. — 40. IIow does this hat become me ? 266. 
—41, It becomes you very well, 256. — 42. How long have 
^ ou been in his service ? 256. — 43. Two years and a half. — 44. I 
have an account with this commercial house, 256. — 45. Every 
man has a right to defend his liberty, 256. — 46. The soldiers 
were in a line, 256. — 47, When do you intend going ? 256. — 
48. I am on the point of starting, 256. — 49. A fashionable 
oat, 256. — 50. How many boys are there in your school ? — 
61. About twenty-five, 260. — 52. Are there no girls? — 53, There 
are boye and girls, — 54. Which lesson are you studying now ? — 
65. The twenty-sixth. — 66. Do you know the twenty-fifth f— 
67. I knew it yesterday.— 68. Little Paul, 266.-69. littl* 
Virginii^ ?6fl. 



Utetal Trauslatioii. 

Lcrrion Tifffsima s^pliiua. 

Lesson twenty seven tb. 

Eitracio drl Trovador dc Don Juan 

Extract from the Troubadour, by Mr. JoliB 

Garcia Cfulicrrez, concluido. 

Garoia Gutierrez, concluded. 

Desde aquci dia empezd & enllaquecer 

Since tliat day began to wenkon 

el niAo, & llorar conliniianientc, y por 

the chil'i, to cry ciintmually, atirl at 

ultimo, a los pocos dias, cay6 ^ravcniente 

iaat, at the few days, it fell giavely 

enrermo: la briija le habia hechizado. 

sink r tlie witcli liim bad enchanted. 

Todo csto alarnKi al conde, y tomtf suh 

All this alarmed the count, and he took llin 

niedidas para pillar a la ^itana : cay^i 

meaaores to catch the gypsy : ebe fell 

rfectiTanieiite en el garlito, y al otro dia 

effeaCiTely in the liuare, and on the other day 

fu£ qiivinada piiblicainente para cscar- 

she WM hnnit publicly as warning 

mleiito de Tiejas. El chico eiuprui & 

uf old women. The liUle one began to 

engordar iniuediatamente. Ego era natu- 

groH fat iinnieiliatfely. This waa natural 

ral ; pero & graiarse 

but to guide theni5clvi 





hubiera §ldo foitada lambien la liya de la 

•hould have been rousted also tlie ckiighter of tlie 

bechiccra. IVoquisicron cntcndorme, y bicn 

enchantress. Not thoy would lieiir mo, and vety 

pronto tuvierou lu^ar de arreprnfirse. 

promptly the; had occasion to repent ttiemselveB. 

Desaparecio cl nino, que estaba ju tan 

Disappeared the child, who waa already so 

rollizo que daba ^iisto Tcrle ; se le busctf 

plump that it gave plenaiiro to see him; they it looked fm 

por todaa partes, y ^sabeis lo que se- 

IhroQgh all parts, and do you know wliat itself 

encontrtft una hoguera recien apaffada 

mett a pile of wood recently extinguished, 

en el *iUo donde niiiritf la hechicera, 

on the Kite where died tlie enchantress, 

y el csqaeleto achicharrado del nino. 

Knd tha skeleton charred of the child. 

The same la good EugUslL 
EzTHAOTO DiL Trovador dk | Extsact frou thb Trodu- 
DOUR OF Don Juan Oarou 



Con JuAM Garcia Gdtirr- 


Deado Rqnel dia empezu i en- 
Baqaeoer el niQo, S llorar contj- 
nnamente, y por ultimo, i loa 
poooB dia.1, oayo gravemente en- 
fermo: U bri^a le Labia heohi- 
ndo. Todoeato Blarm6al conde, 
J tom6 sas medidaa para pillar a 
lagitaoa: cayu efectivamente en 
el gurlito, y al otro dia fu6 que- 
niadB publicamente para e«car- 
nleDto de viejas. El ohico em- 
pei6 a. engordar inraediataniente. 
Eio era naCnrat; pero i gniarue 

From tljat day the boy be{ 
} grow thin : he cried in( 
santly, and became finally qnita i 
I Bick. The connt, alarmed, took ' 
measures to seen re this sorcereM, 
who readily fell into the sn 
laid for her, and »he was burnt | 
puhhcly on the next day, as 
warning to old women. 

The child immediately gained 
flesh again, which was quit* , 
natural, But had they followed 
my advice, they would h«T« | 

TWicni-Y-eBrfiMra lbbsov. 


por mis consejos, hubiera sido 
tentada tambien la hija de la 
hechicera. No quisicron enten- 
derme, y bien pronto tuvieron 
lagar de arrepentirse. 

Desapareci6 elnino^ que estaba 
ya tan rollizo que daba gusto v er- 
lo ; se le bu8c6 por todas partes, 
y isabeis lo que se encontr6 1 una 
bognera recien apagada, eu el si- 
tio donde miiri6 la hechicera, y el 
esqneleto achicbarrado del nifto. 

roasted also the daughter of tba 
gypsy: they would, howeveri 
not listen to me, and they sooo 
bffd occasion to repent of it. 

The boy, who was already so 
plump as to be the very picture 
of health, disappeared : they 
looked for him everywhere, an4 
what do yon think they found I 
a pile of wood recently burnt 
out, and the charred remiuns of 
the child. 

Queetioiis and Answers fbr Ctonversatloa. 

I Que leccion es esta? 

I Qae sucedio al niilo desde aqnel 

|T por Ultimo? 


I Que inflc^o tenia todo esto sobre 

el oondef 
|T qne hico el oondef 

I Oonsiguio 61 pillarla ? 

I Qne se hizo con ella ? 

I Para qne f 

i Que era esc ? 

4 Onal habia side mi oons^o ? 

iQue tuvieron como no qnisieiron 

entenderme f 
I Qne se hizo con el nifto? 
I Estaba ya rollizo? 

I Donde se le biisc6 ? 

I Donde se encontr6 el esqueicto 

achicbarrado del nifto f 
I En qne sitio estaba eeta ho- 


La vig6sima s6ptima. 

Empez6 a enflaquecer y a llorar 

Por ultimo & los pocos dias cay6 

gravemente <enfermo. 
Porqne la bjn^a le habia hechi* 

Todo esto le alarmd. 

Tomo sns medidas para pillar a 

la gitana. 
Oayo efectivamente en el garlitow 
Fu6 quemada publicamente. 
Para esoarmiento de viejas. 
Eso era natnraL 
Tostar tambien la hQa de la he* 

Tuvieron bien pronto lagar de 

El nifto desaparecid. 
Estaba ya tan rollizo que daba 

gustc verle. 
Por todas partes. 
En una bognera reden apagada.; 

El el sitio donde mnnolaheohl 



XXn LE8B0V. ^^H 

Bentenaea for Oral TraaslatioiL ^^H 


lO n TBANBLiHD INTB irUiim ^^M 

El eecarmiento. 

The waroiag. ^^M 

Ud oonaejo. 

An advice. ^^^H 

Un gwlito. 

trap. ^^^1 

Um brnja. 

A ^^H 

Dn niao enfermo 

A aioi child. ^^M 

Cm oosa natnral. 

A natara' thinf ^^M 


To alarm. ^^^H 


To ^^^H 


To toast, ^^^H 


To ^H 


To grow thin. ^^H 


To repent. ^^H 

Oontinnally. ^^H 


Effectivelj. ^^M 


Pnbliclj:. ^H 


( OnaleB bod las operas prinoipalea 

Wliich are the prfnoipal ypnu ^H 


of Mejerbeert ^^| 

Roberto, y e! Profeta. 

Robert, and the Prophet. ^H 

1 Qnien es el mas grande compu- 

Who is the greatest Italian com- ^^M 

sitortlelos hilianu^? 

poser ^^H 

El fainoso iiiaestio Kii<isini, 

Ttie fnmoQs maestro, Roasini. ^^| 

Which is his most celebrate ^H 

El Barbero da Serilla. 

The Barber of Seville. ^H 

(Oomo Be llama este LarberoT 

What is t1 h barber's name ? ^H 

Be llama Figaro. 

His name is Figaro. ^H 

1,19 Bodas de Fignro son la con- 

Tlie Marriage of Figaro Is a eon ^^M 


timiacion de esta opera. 


1 Qaieii ha compuesio la indsica 

Who composed the music to tlM ^^H 


do IflsBodisde Figaro? 

Marriage of Figaro t ^^H 

D immortal Mozart, uno de los 

The immortal Mnznrt, one of thi ^^M 

maa graodes mueicos de Al«- 

greatest miuitclana of Ger- ^^| 


manj. ^H 

iHaoebuenoB negocios la opera 

Duea tlie opera succeed well in ^^H 


New York 1 ^H 

Bi, Benor; los artistas reoiben 

Tee, sir; the artixts rec«ive verj ^^H 

Hlarioa mtxj altos. 

high ^alanes. ^^H 





La 6p^ia it&liatia gasta ranohxsi- 
mo 4 iod Americanos. 

I Tenian ana ooinpaftia eu el jar- 
din de invernio, no es verdac*. t 

Bi« sefior ; i le gnstaba & Y f 

Mnchisimo, especial men te la re- 
presentaoion de la Jndia. 

iQnien ha fonpnesto la Jndia. 

El compositor frances Halevy. 

|Se dan mnchos conciertos aquif 

Han dado reoientetnente dos ora- 

La Oreacion de Haydn, y ICoises 
ea Egypto de Bossini. 

The Americans are very fond of 
the Italian opera. 

Tliey had a troupe at the Wintef 
Garden, did they not ? 

Yes, sir; did yon like it? 

Very mnch, especially the pe» 
formanoe of The Jewess. 

Who has composed The Jewess f 

The French composer, Halevy. 

Do they give man'y concerts here! 

They have given lately two ora- 

The Creation, by Haydn; and 
Moses in Egypt, by RossinL 


Bmpezd d enflaqueeer^ 
be^an to grow thin. 

168. To before an infinitive is translated by 4 after empnair 
to begin. See Rnle 166. 

A las pocos dim, 

269. A lo8 pocos dias is an idiomatic expression, which cor 
responds to a few days after, 

Cay6^ fell ; from caer, to &1L 

270. Caer^ to fall, is one of the most necessary irregnlar r crbt 
Ji SpaniaL Its conjugation is as follows : 

Oaer to M. 

Oayendoj filling. 

Fast FAaTiGin& 
Caidoj Men. 






Noiotros caemos, 
Vaaotros caeis^ 

Nasotros eaiamos^ 
Vo90tro8 eaiain^ 

I fall, or do &IL 
thon fallesty or dost fidi. 

he fisdls, or does ML 

we &11, or do fidL 

you fall, or do fidL 

they &11, or do hSL 


I fell, or used to fitL 

thoa fellest, or usedst to Ml 

he fell, or used to fiill. 

we fell, or used to fiilL 

yon fell, or used to fiilL 

they felly or used to &1L 

Past Turn DsFnnnL 


El eaydj 
No9otro8 caimoa, 
Voiotros caisteis^ 
Mlo8 cayinm^ 


No9otros eaerimos^ 
Vosotro8 caeriis^ 

I fell, or did &1L 

thou fellest, or didst ML 
he fell, or did fiilL 

we fell, or did ML 
you fell, or did ML 
they fell, or did fall 


I shall &11, 
thou shalt fall, 
he shall fall, 
we shall fall 
you shall fall, 
they shall Ml^ 

or willfidL 
01 wilt fall, 
or will falL 
or will fall 
or will falL 
or will fall. 

Tht Moond fbtore U (see note on page 25) : 

To caiy$fy tu eaytret^ H eaytr*^ 

MMOtroi My^rtmof, vatotrot cayheit^ $llos eaywm. 



To eaerioj I shonld fall, or would UL 

TA eamaSf thou shooldst fall, or wonldst fidl. 

El eaeriOf he should fall, or would fiilL 

No9otro9 caetiamoSf we should fall, or would &1L 
Vo$otra8 eaeriaiSf you should finll, or would ML 
BUaa eaerianf they should £^1, or would ML 


Cae, Ml (thou). 
Oaed^ M (yon). 



Qu$ yo eaiga^ that I may ML 

Que tit eaigcuiy that thou mayst ML 

Que 41 eaigoj that he may fiilL 

Que no8otros eatgamos^ that we may ML 

Que vosotros caigais^ that you may ML 

Que ellos eaigan^ that they may ML 

Que yo eayera^ or eayeee^ that I might ML 

Que tA eayerasj or cayeses^ that thou mightst ML 

Que 41 cayerOj or eayese^ that he might ML 

Que noeotros eaySramos^ or eayesemos^ that we might fiilL 
Que vosotros eay4rai8^ or cayiseis^ that you might ML 
Que elloa eayeran^ or cayesen^ that they might ML 

271. Thus aiz conjugated deeaer, to decay; reeaer^ to it* 

lapse, etc 

HaUa^ had 

272. The regifiar endings of the imperfect of the inHcatiTi 

For the verbs in ax, 

aba, abas, aba, ibamos, ibals, aban. 

And for those in er and ir, 

la, las, ia, iamps, iais, ian. 

rS4S TWENTT-ShV I'.K'riJ Ll'liSSON. ^^^H 

ExAkPLn: ^^^H 

Bablaba, ^ en Vetuiia, -t ^ Unia, •. ^ ^^^ 

RahlatMUL -a VetiAinn a Uttint I . .B " 



Babfahaa, ^'a Vetidiat, .S Uniat, 

Bahtahoy -^ £_ Vendia, "S £ Unia, I 

Babidbamoi, £* 2 Ffurffamw. * 3 {/tiiamca^ [ 

ffabldbait, -' g reWfaiM, "" * t^ftfau, 

Hablahan, J g Venetian, J ' Cnian, J 

273. These termmations are added to ^0 root of the vetl^ 
ftud talce the place of the infinitive endings, ar, er, ir. 

Bi. Sablar, to speak. Bablaba, I spoke, or was speakiDg. 
Veadtr, to sell. F^tuJia, I sold, or was selling. 

Unir, to unite. ETnio, I united, or was unitiog. 

The exceptious to this role will be found explained in th« 
irregalar verbs. 

The imperfect should not be confounded irith the put tenia 
definite. See Rule 226. 

Todo esto, all this. 

874. Esto is what is commonly c&llod the neuter form of 
este, eitat already Been.* 

Elto is used instead of este when the noun to which it 
refers is not expressed nor clearly indicated by the context <A 
the sentence in which this occurs in English. 

AlaTm6 al conde, alarmed the count, 
JIarmar, t? alarm, is followed by a, in Accordance wi^ , 
Bale 140. 

Pillar d la gitatia, to seize the gypey. 
PiUar is k1*o followed by k, in accordance wilji Role 140, 

Al otro dia. 

K7B. Al olro ifia is an idiomutic expreasioo, which cnrespoDdi J 
to on M« naet day. 

^ 9nit T 



Para etcarmienlo, u k wftroing. 
276 The following model HenUnces will best illnstnile th« 
Boat iuporUnt uses of para. 

f lyajitU tin vettido para Have 7011 brought a dreaa fb 

mif me I 

Salidpara Nveva York, He startel for New York. 

Lt day dxMro para eomprar I give him money to bn; 

libroi, books. 

E» buenopara comer, It ie good to eat 

£stoy para escrilnr, I am on the point of writing. 

Lo reserao para la temana I reserve it for the coming 

entrante, week. 

Para decir verdad no h« almor- To tell the truth, I have not 

lado, breakfasted, 

Leyd la carta para n, He read the letter to himselt 

Para un escrilor mtdiano te To one pretty good writer there 

kalian eten detestable*, are a hundred bad ones. 

Nc es hermoia para lo que la She is not aa beautiful as she ii 

alaban, aaid to be. 

Xo dehe kaber rtterva para eon We must not be reseired with 

lot amigot, friends. 

Bbo, this or that. 
277. Eso is the neuter form of ese, another eqniraleat ol 
iHia and that. In Spanish, ese is properly to be applied only 
to objecto near the person spoken to, or which happen to be the 
immediate subject of conversation, but in familiar intercourse it 
a often used inditlcrcntly for este and aquel. Its femii.iFB 
is esa; its plural masculine esos, and ilfl plural feminin 

Pero & ffuiarsepor mi* eonsgot, 
but to be guided by my adrice. 
The pronominal form is used here instead of tho puuve, ii 
■coordance with Ruls 9. 



Subiera, might have. 

t78> Tlie regular eodings of the sabjuactive aast an : 

For the verbe in ar, 

ura, aras, ara, aramos, araia, aran> 

And for those in er and ir, 

iera, iei^s, iera, i^ramoa, idrais, ieraa. 












- ^ 




H ^ 










279. These terminationa are gencr&Ily added to the loot tA 
the verb, and take the place of tbe endings of the iD^nitira 
ar, er, and Ir. 

Ex. Hablar, to epeak. Hahlara, that I might speak. 

Vender, to sell. Vendiera, that I might eell. 

Unir, to nnite. Uniera, that I might unite. 

The exceptions to this rule will be found explained in tUa 
irregular verbs. 

280. As the use of the sabjnnctive past, instead of the con- 
ditional, is sometimes obligatory aud always allowable, it is one 
of the moat important tenaes. See Rale 263. 

281. The regular endinga of the 2d form of the subjunctiva 

For the verbs in ar, 

uw, ases, ase, ieemos, iaeis, asen. 

Ami for those in er and ir, 

leae, leses, lese, Idaemos, l^sela, leaen. 

HabUuntt . 


g ^ Vendiiaemoa, 
•g VeadiiseU, 

Uniesttf 9 

Uniue, ^ 3 

UnUstmos, j e 3 
Uniiaeii, " -g 
Unittn, J 


282. Iliese tenninations are genendly added to the root ol 
the yerhi and take the place of tbe endings of the jifinitive ar 
er orir. 

Ei. Hablar^ to speak HabUue^ that I might speak. 
Vender^ to sell. Vendiese^ that I might selL 
ITntr, to unite. UtUese^ that I might unite. 

283. This form in ase and iese is especially used for the 
sake of euphony, when that of the conditional in ia, or of the 
Ist subjunctive past in ara or iera, has already been intro- 
duced in the sentence. If ase or iese is put in the first part 
of a proposition, ara or ier a should follow in the second. 


Si v. me io dictate to eecri* If you would dictate it to me^ 

biera^ I would write it 

Qjald/ueee, orfaera eiertOf I wish it were true. 

Bueno eeria^ or fuera que lo It would be well if they would 

mandcuen^ order it. 

Si V, trabajara, or trabajaee If you would work yon wouli* 

ganaria dinero^ get money. 

Daba gusto verle^ gave pleasure to see him. 

284. Though to before an infinitive is generally translated 
by de after a noun, it is often left out after gusto. 

Becien^ recently. 
286. Becien is used instead of reeientemente before a par- 

Achicharrar^ to char ; alarmar, to alarm ; engordar^ to grow 
hi; guiar, to guide; llorar^ to cry; pillar^ to catch; qtumar 
Id buiTi; and tostar^ to toast, are regular verbs of the 1st con* 
}ugation : and arrepentirse^ to repent, is of the third. 

Heehizar^ to enchant, goes like rechazar (187); entender^ ta 
hear, like perder (138). Desaparecer^ to disappear; and en* 
/kquecer^ to grow thin, like eompadecer (187). Apagar^ te 
extinguish, like pagar (180); and huecar^ to look for, likf 


1. I railed, 272, 273. 16. That Tmigbtull,2TB,S7l 

2. He called. 17. That be might ckU. 

8. We called. 18. That we might call 

4, Yon called. 19. That you might call. 

5, They called. 20. That thoy might call. 

6, I drant 21. That I might drink. 

7, He drank. 22. That ho might drink. 
B. We dranlc. 23. That we might drink. 

9. Tou drank 24. That you might drink. 

10. They drank. 25. That they might drink. 

11. I tired. 26. That I might lire. 

12. He lived. 27. That he might lire. 

13. We tived. 28. That we might live. 

14. Ton lived. 29. That you migLt live. 
IG. They lived. 30. That they might live. 

31. It decays, 271.— 32. We decay, 271.— 33. It will de- 
eay, 271.-84. It would decay, 271.-33. They decay, 271.— 
86. Decaying, 271.-37. We will begin to work, 268.-38. Have 
you bought a pair of shoes for your brother) 276. — 39. When 
do you intend to go sonth! — 40. To-morrow. — 41. Why do 
you give him money J — 42. To buy a copy-book, 276. — 
43. Have you any thing good to eat I 276. — 44. We have 
fiah, chicken, and vegetables. — 4S. What are you doing I — 

46. I am on the point of going to my uncle's house, 276.— 

47. To tell you the truth, I was not at school yesterday, 270. 
—48. I shall be very glad lo ace you any time, — 49. If yon 

would tell it tc mo I would know it, 283.— 50. If I bad a new 
beck, 1 would study better, 283.— Dl. If he woutU study well, 
h« would soon know Spanish, 283,-52, He has come re 
oentiy, 286. — 53. This has been seen recently, 285. — 54, Hi 
relented. — 55. I heard. — 56. It disappeared. — 57. We grew 
thin. — B8. Vou eittinguished. — 59, They looked for. — 60. Alarm- 
Ing.— 61, Alanoed.— 63. 1 repent— 63. I shall repent. 



rmaT division.— fbactical fait. 

Uteral nranslatlon. 

Lcccion Tig^sima octara. 

LessoD twenty eighth. 

De la Ciudad de Sevilla, dc Iflariana. 

Of the Oitj of Seville, bj Mariaoa. 

lo postrero de Espafia, hacia 

the extreme of S|)(iin, towards 




ponicnte, «stjt asentada f^evllla, cabeza de 

setting, 19 Bituated Seville, capital of 

Andalncla, noble y rica ciudad, enire lai 

AnJalusia, iinbie and rich city, among the 

primeras de Eiiropa, fiierte por las mura- 

firut of Europe, strong by llie walla, 

lla§, por las arnias y genie que tiene. I^os 

by the arnia and people which it haa. The 

edificios, pdblicos y particu lares, & manera 

edifices, public and private, after the fashion 

de casas reales, son en gran numero; log 

of houses royal, are in great number; the 

riiidadanos son herniosos, y se traen 

citizens are handsome, and theinseive* dres» 

uny bien. 

Entre la ciudad, que esta & 

Between the sily, which ia on tlit 

niano Izqulerda, 

Ijand left, 

arrabal llamado 

suburb called 

Triana, pasa clrio Gnadalquivir, acanalado 

Triaoa, passes the river Guadaiijaivir, channelled 





con grander reparos, y de hondo bastant*' 

wiih great repairs, and of depth enoDgb 

para nares ^riiesaa, y por la misina razon 

for Teasals bulky, nnd for the Bsme reason 

muy 6 proposito para la contratacion y 

very fit fur the trade *nd 

comerclo de los dos mares— Oc£ano f 

con la cliidad, 

with the oily, f 

illediterraoeo. Con un puenle de madera 

Mediteri'aiiean. With a bridge of wood 

fkindada sobre barcas, se junta el arrabal 

rsstiDg npoQ barges, itself Joins the saburb 

paaa de una parte 

paaaeB from one part 

& otra. En la ciudad est& la casa real 

to other. In the city is tl)e house royal 

en que los anti^uos reyes moraban, en el 

in which the anoient kings dwelled, in th« 

arrabal un alc&zar de obra muy fi 

saburb a castle of work very 

que mira al nacimiento del sol. 

irhioh looks to the rising of the ean. 

The name In gooi Ttng""** 

Dm la Ciodad dk Skvilla, di 

£.. lo po&trero do EBpailB, lia- 
eta el poniente, ests a^wntada Se- 
TiUa, oabeza de Aodulucia, noble 
J rioa ciudad, entre lad primeras 
de Enropa, fuerte por las mnra- 
Ika, por las arriias j geoCe qne 
Qm. Los ediSoio^ ^^bllooa y 

Tbx City of Skvilib, it 

Seville, the capital of AnAif 
lusia, is in the sonthweetem 
part of S))ain. It is a nobl« 
and wealthy city, one of the 
Sneat in Enrope, folly fortified, 
and filled with splendid poblli 
and private bnildinga, Ita \o- 




partioiLarM, i manera de oasas 
reales, son en gran namero; los 
oindadanoB son b<^rmoso8, y se 
traen mny bies. Entr^laoindai, 
qne est4 4 mano izqnierda, 7 nn 
arrabal Uamado Triana, pasa el 
rio Goadalqaivir, aoaniQado con 
grandes reparos, y de hondo bas- 
tante para naves gmesas, y por 
la misma razon may a proposito 
para la contratacion y comercio 
de los dos mares— Oc^no y Me- 
diterraneo. Oon nn pnente de 
madera fnndada sobre barcas, se 
%nta el arrabal con la cindad, y se 
pasa de nna parte a otra. En la 
cindad esta la casa real en qne los 
antignos reyes moraban,en el arra- 
bal an alcazar de obra may firme, 
qae mira al nacimiento del soL 

habitants are a fine-looking and 
well-dressed people. 

Between the city, on the left 
bank, and a snbarb called Trianay 
flows the Gnadalqaivir, which if 
kept in good order, and saffi** 
ciendy deep to admit the largest 
ships, making it an excellent 
channe. for the trade between 
the Meciterranean sea and the 
Atlantic ocean. 

A wooden bridge, resting npon 
barges, joins this snbnrb to the 
main city, where may still be 
seen the royal palace in which 
dwelled the ancient Moorish 
kings; and in the snbarb there 
is a strongly boilt castle, looking 
to the east. 

Qaeattons and Answera for Convenatton. 

I Qne leccion es esta ff 

I De qne se habla en esta leccion ff 

|Donde est4 asentada Sevilla? 

|Es ana cindad ricaff 

I Es ana cindad foerte f 

• Oaales edificios son en gran 

n^mero ff 
I Qne son los ciadadanae y oomo 

se traenff 
|Dcnde pasa el rio Gnadalqai- 

I A caal lado del rio est& la 

La vigesima octava. 

De la ciadad de Sevilla. 

En lo postrero de Espafia hadt 

el poniente. 
La cabezA de Andalncia. 
Es noble y rica, entre las pri- 

meras de Enropa. 
Es fnerte por las mnrallas, por las 

armas y gente qne tiene. 
Los edificios, publicos y p&rtion* 

lares, a manera de casas realea. 
Los ciudadanos son hermoeos, j 

se traen may bien. 
Entre la ciadad y an arrabal 11» 

mado Triana. 
A mano ia|aierda. 

ciadad ! 
I Oon qae esti acanalado este rio ? | Con grandes reparoa. 


^M |Fara qne w mo; & propositi 

Para !» coatratBAion j MioMtM ^^H 


de k. doB mares. ^H 

i Oomo se Uamaii estos dos mares) 

(Oomo Be junta el arrabal con la 

Con nn pnente da madera ftin> 


(lada Bobre barcaa. 

Coal oasa esti ea la oindad 1 

Lb onsB real en que loa anMgaot ^^1 

rejes morabao. ^^H 

(Oiial ddiBoio bay en el arrabal t 

Un alcazar de obra muj Gnne. ^^| 

Al nadmiento del aol. ^^M 

ro n funLATCD nrao tHsuM. 

TOMTBrnunnnnoaruiin. ^H 

Un no. 

A ^1 

Un arrabai. 

A Bubnrb. ^H 

Du alofiur. 

Aoaatle. ^H 

TTna mnrslla. 

A wall. ^H 

Un poente firme. 

A firm bridge. ^H 

Va ediScio publico. 

A pnblio edifice. ^H 

Uiia oasa partiooUr. 

A private hoosa. ^H 

Una baroa foerte. 

A strong boat ^H 

Sanrise. ^H 

El ponient« del aoL 

Sanael. ^H 

Basta ahora. 

Until now. ^H 

Oontra V. 

Agtunst ;oa. ^^H 

Entre cosotros. 

Between na. ^^^| 

What was the anoieat name u| ^^H 

Gibraltar and Ibe promon- ^^H 

opneata, en loi UempoB anti- 

torj on the African ooaat op- ^^M 


positet ^H 

Lu Oolnmnas da Heronlee. 

The OolnmnB of Heroulea. ^H 

Qnlenea lea habiaa dado eate 

Who gave them thia name t ^H 



Loa Ferioios. 

The Pb<8nicfana. ^H 

Oaalee pueblos vinferoD deapuea 

What people oama after the Pha< ^^M 



Lo» Griagos, qne esbil leoieron 

algnDaa colonia*. 

few colonies. ^H 

|En qne alio riniemi los Bo- 

Id what year did the Soinuii ^H 


.. J 



So el a&o donto treinta y cnatro 

6nte8 de Jera-Oristo. 
I Hasta onando ocaparon la Es- 

pafia los Romanos ff 
Dasta el alio onatro ciectos y seisi 

djMpnes de Jesa-Oristo. 
^Ouales pueblos yinieron en- 

Dnos paeblos barbaros del norte 

de Alemania, Uamados los 

lOnantos alios estnyieron ellos 

en Espafia ? 
Pooo mas 6 m^nos de doscientos 

i Qaien se hizo entonces rey de 

Uq oierto Rodrigo, el primero y 

ultimo rey de su Dombre. 
Hizo mucbas injusticias a an 

conde Jnliano, uno de los mas 

poderosos caballeros de su 

£1 oonde Juliano se fu6 a Africa. 
Gonvido los Moros a venir a £s- 

Elloa se hicieron los dnel&os del 


In the year 184 before Jeaof 

Until what year did the Bomaoi 

occupy Spain ? 
Until the year 406 after Jeavf 

What people came after f 

Some barbarian tribes finom Ger 
many, called the Gtotha. 

How long did they remain ic 

About two hundred years. 

Who was then king in Spain f 

One Rodrigo, the first and last 
king of that name. 

He was very uigust to a Count 
Julian, one of the most power- 
ful noblemen of his kingdom. 

Count Julian went over to Africa. 
He invited the Moors to come 

over to Spain. 
They became the masters of the 



MpanienUj the setting. 

tB6. Del 9oly of the sun, is here understood. PcnimU is tk 
|4irticipial adjective from paner. See Rule 248. 

287. Traerse^ used here in the sense of to dress cnfs self^ b 
the pronominal form of traer^ meaning, literallyi to carry, to 
fetchy ic brinfff one of the most necessary irregular verbs ii 
Spanitik. Its GOif'ugation is as follows : 



Traer^ to fetch. 

Bammn PAtraomi. Past PAmomia 

Ihifendo^ fetching. TraidOf fetched 


To traigOf I fetch, or do fetch. 

TA iraeSf ihoa fetcheit, or dost fetch. 

M true J he fetches, or does fetch. 

NoaotroB traemos^ we fetch, or do fetch. 

VomAroB trueis, you fetch, or do fetch. 

JSUoi traent they fetch, or do fetch. 

• Imfkrhct. 

Yo (raMK, I fetched, or used to fetch. 

m iraias^ thou fetchedst, or usedst to fetch 

M traiOf he fetched, or used to fetch. 

Nosotro8 iraiamoSy we fetched, or used to fetch. 

Vosotros traiaiSf you fetched, or used to fetch. 

Ellos traian^ they fetched, or used to fetck 

Past Tbnsb Definitb. 

Jo trajif I fetched, or did fetch. 

Tfi trajiste^ ihou fetchedst, or didst fetch. 

M trajOf he fetched, or did fetch. 

Nosotros trajimoSf we fetched, or did fetch. 

Vowtros trajisteiSf you fetehed, or didietch. 

Hlha irajiron, they fetched, or did fete J. 

Yo traeriy I shall fetch, or will fetch. 

TA traerds^ thou shalt fetch, or wilt fetch. 

M traerdj he 6hall fetch, or will fetch. 

No90tros traertmos, we shall fetch, or will fetch. 
Voiotros tnuriis^ you shall fetch, or will fetch. 
Ellos traerdn^ they shall fetch, or will fetch 

* The laoond ibture ia (bob note on page 25) : 

rotrql^re, tutrtym'ti^ Ufm^mr^^ 



To traeria^ I should fetch, or would fetch. 

Tti traeriaa, thou shonldst fetch, or wouldst fetch. : 

El traeria, he should fetch, or would fetch. 

No8otro9 traeHamosy we should fetch, or would fetch. 

Yo8otro8 traeriais^ you should fetch, or would fetch. 

Ellos traerian, they should fetch, oi would fetch. 


TVoe, fetch (thou). 
Traedf fetch (you). 

PaiBKMT Tknsb. 

Que yo nr ai^ that I may fetch. 

Que Hi traxgoB^ that thou mayst fetch. 

Que 41 traigoj that he may fetch. 

Que nosotros traipamos^ that we may fetch. 

Que voeotros traigaie^ that you may fetch. 

Que ellas traigan^ that they may fetch. 

SuBJUKcnTs Past. 
Que yo trajera^ or trajese^ that I might fetch. 

Que tk trajeraSy or trajeses^ that thou mightst fetch 

Que el trajera^ or trajese^ that he might fetch. 

Que nosotros trajiramos^ or trajisemos, that we might fetch. 
Que vosotros trajirais, or trajiseis^ that you might fetch. 
Que ellas trajeran, or trajesen, that they might fetch. 

288. Thus are conjugated atraer^ to attract; detraer^ to d» 
tact eoniraer^ to contract ; subtToer, to subtract, etc. 

Oeiam y Mediterraneo. 
the ocean and the Mediterranean. 
Although the proper use of the article thb can be acquired 
onl} by diligent observation and careful reading of well-writteii 
works, the following additional rules and model sentences wi]^ 
howerer, serve to prevent any gross errors. 



8S9. 'Hie definite article thk is prefixed to nil uoiDmon nount 
in Spanuh, when they sre used to exprcu the whole extent ol 
their BigDificatioD, provided boub or aw cannot be added befora 
them, without matemlJj aifccting the meaning of the Bent«iic«, 
kad that Ihey are not preceded by another determinative word,* 
■r adjective indicative of quantity,! <'' ^'^ particles, de, of o* 
'nim ; oon, tnith ; Bin, viilliout ; ui, neiiher, nor ; or por, 1>9>> 

Kx. La mbiduria es ulil, Wisdom is usefuL 

Todos loi komhres, Alt men. 

Lo tugro y lo blaixo. Black and white. 

Sa la ealle de la Pet la. In Pearl-street. 

Sa hermosura. His beaaty. 

I!»la ciadad, This city. 

Un monton de ptedras, A heap of etonea. 

Cm ffuilo, 

Tanio por mea, 
Tanto por vara, 
Tanlo por libra, 

With taste. 
Without luck. 
Neither bread nor w 
So much a month. 
So much a yard. 
So much a pound. 

290. The definite article is also used before titles, and then 
politeueM requires often the addition of sef.or, aeStrra, or teitorila. 
El. King Charles, El Rey Carlo/. 
Captain A., £1 Copilan A. 
Doctor B., M SeHor Doctor b. 

891. Bnt the definite article is dropped before the ordinal 
flumben in sentences like tbe following. 

Libra primero, Book the first 
Capiltilo segundo. Chapter the second. 
Carlot qainto, Charles the FifUi. 

■nd tba numerala ona, loo, lArei, a 

f Ths w^acl.ivi>a Indicative of qu&nlltj si 
/iw, fiittr, J*aM, mort, moil loo mueh, lot 



(ftnlt, race, la feminiiic by exception. 

Aeanalar to channel; /undar, to found; junlar, to joint 
mirar, to look at; and morar, to dwell, are regular verbs of ihl 
tlmt canjogatioD. AseiUur, to place, goes like ju«6rar (L3S). 




IC. I should subtract, 288 

17. He should subtract 

18. Wc Rliould subtract, 

19. You should subtract. 

20. They should subtract 

21. I have subtracted. 

22. Ue has subtracted. 

23. We have subtracted. 

24. You have suhtractoc 

25. They have lubtracti .). 

26. I had subtracted. 

27. I shall have subtrai.tod, 

28. I should have subti acted. 
20. That I may subtract. 
30. 'I'hat I might subtract. 

r of all sciences, 289.-32. Horsv 
. A horse is a useful atiimul, 2B9. — 
84. Which are the four seasons? — 35. Winter, spring, summer, 
ftnd fall, 289.-36. Where do you live (—37. I live in White- 
itreet, 289. — 38. How much money do you receive a month? — 
—3D. Two hundred dollais, 289,-40, IIow much is this silk a 
yard ( 289.— 41. One dollar and a half; 289.-42. What do yon 
pay for sugar a pound ' 389.-43. Ten cenU a pound, 289. — 
14, Q-ieen Elizabeth, of England, 290. — 15. Admiral Drake, 
290.-46. Book the sixth, 291. — 47. Chupter seventh, 291.— 
48. Alonsio the Eighth, 291,-49. January the ninth, 1861, 89. 
— fiO, February the tenth. — 51. March the eleventh.- 52. Api3 
the tvfelfth,— 53. May the thirteenth, — 54. June the fourteentlb 
■^£6. July the fifteenth. — 56. August the sixteenth. 

1. I subtract, 288, 

2. He subtracts. 
B. We subtract. 

4. You subtract. 

5. They subtract. 
S. I subtracted. 

7. Qc subtracted. 

8. We subtracted. 

9. You subtracted. 

10. They subtracted. 

11. I shall subtract 

12. He shall subtract 

13. We shall subtract, 

14. You shall subtract 

15. Thny shall subtract, 
31. History is the mother 

are useful animals, 2 



Uteral TraUBlatioiL 

Eieccion vig^^sinia noiia. 

LesBOD tvrentj ninth. 

De la Ciiidad dc Sevilla, de niariana, 

0( tlie Oitj of Seville, by MarisDo, 



Segunda parte. 

Second parte. 

Una torre cstft levantada cerca del rio, 

A tower ia raised near of the river, 

que por su prinior llaiunn de Oro vulgar- 

wliioh for its beanty the;- call of Gold vulgarly. 

mente. Olra torre edificada de ladriUo, 

Other tower built of brick, 

que eala cerca de la iglesla mayor, aobre- 

whish is Dear of the churuli greater, ear passes 

puja la grandeza de laa deiuas obroii, por 

the grandonr of tlie retnaining wcrks, for 

Her de seaenla raras en ancho y cuatro 

eeiag of sixty yards in width and fonr 

lanto mas alia, sobrc la ciial se leranta 

M miicli mora kigli, npoQ the which itself risea 

otra torre inenor, pero de ba§lante 

Dtlier tower si nailer, bat of eauugh 

grandeza, que al prestente de ntiero 

grand e'ir, wliioh at present anew 

etth toda blanqiieada, y al rededor 

te quite nrliitencd, and at tiie around 

H adoru; 

^f adurne 

TWaNTlf-HlNTt LB8SON. 261 

adoruada do varicdad de piuluras hor- 

adurned of variety of pictures beautiful 

inosas & luaravilla & los que la iniraii. 

to iiiarFol to tliose wlio it lool; al. 

^ 4lue uccesidad hay de rclalar por meuu- 

Wliat nticess'ty ia tliere to- reluto iiiinutdy 

do lodas las cosas y g:i'aiidexai de cata 

all the tbingH aud griindeurs of tlih- 

riudad, tau rasla y llena de priiuores y 

eitj, «i vn9l and fall of oeaaties ana 

grandezas ? Hay en la ciudad en estr 

grandeura ! Tliero are in the city in tliis 

liempo mas de veinte y cuatro mil veclnos, ;■ 

I time iiioro timn twenty and Ton.' tiioQijaud oeigiibora, ^^^| 

divididos en veinte y ocho parroquiaa tf ^^M 

divided in twenty and eight pitrialies ot ^^^| 

colacionee. La priniera y principal ea dt ^^M 

preoinctfl. Tl]e first aud pnncipal ia of ^^^| 


Sanla-IUaria, que c§ la igleiia jmayor, con 

St. Mary, which is tiie cliuroU greoMat, with 

el cnal templo, en anchura de edificio y 

the which temple, in width of edifice aa>} 

en grandeza, ningnno de toda Espaika se 

tn grandeur, none of all Spain itseL 

isruala. Viilgarnienle se dice de lai 

©quala. Vulgarly itaelf it, says of tlie 

IffleBias de Castilla : La de Toledo la rica ; 

oliQTobea of Oustlle : The one of Toledo, the rich : 

la de Salamanca la fuerte ; la de lieon 

the one of Salaiuanco, tlie Btroug; tbe one of Leon, 

labella; la de Sevilla la grande. 

iLe beaotifol ; tbe one of Seville, tbe great. 



The same in 
Dm hi CiUDAD DB Skvilla, de 


Una torre eutk levantsda cercn 
del no, que pur an prirnnrllaDDin 
d« Oro vulganiieute. Otra lorra 
edifioada d« ladrillo, que esta cer- 
oa de la igleeia mayor, subrepuja 
la grondeES de lae demas ubrus, 
Qor ger de Msenta varns en *Dcho 
y onatro tanto mas alta, sohre la 
coal se levaDta otra torrs Dieoor, 
pero de bastante grandeza, q:ie al 
preaeote de naevo eeti toda blan- 
qneado, ; al rededor adornada de 
Tuiedad de pinturaa liuriiiosas a 
maravilla i ]o9 que la iniran. 

I Que necesidad haj de relatar 
por menudo todas l»s coaas j- 
graodezaa de esta ciadad, Ian 
Tasta ; Uena de primorea y gran- 
dexas t Ha; en la oiudad en este 
lietDpo ma:< de veinte y cuatro 
mil vecinoB, divididos en velnCe j 
oclio parroqiiiaa 6 colauiiines. La 
pritnera y prindpal es de Santa- 
Maria, que ea la iglesia mayor, 
con el caal templo, en aucbura de 
ediSdo 7 en grandezo, ningano 
de :oda Espana se ignala. Vulgar- 
mente se dice de Ibb iglesias de 
OatjLilla: La de Toledo la rica ; la 
ie BalamAQca la faerte; la de Leon 
k bella ; la de Seville ta grande. 

good Gngliab. 

Tub CiTv or Skvills, bi 

SiooMii Fast. 

Near the river riaee a town 
commonly called of Gold, oi 
accoQDt of the glittering slunt 
of which it ia coaHtruotod ; but 
another tower, built of brick, 
wliicb ia near the cathedral, 
Biir[>asaeB all other edificea in 
size, being one hundred and 
eighty feel wide, one hundred 
and iiiuety-tno feet high, and 
surmounted by another column 
of smaller dimensiona, though 
sufficiently imposing, wliich has 
recently been refreshed and 
adorned all round with admir- 
able paintings. 

It IB nselesa, however, to re- 
hearse here minntelj alt the re- 
markable things of this beautiful 
city, which has now over twenty- 
four thousand inhabitants, di- 
vided into twenty -eight parishes. 
Ite principal chnroh la St, l£ary, 
which is also the largest lali- 
^ous temple in Spain. 

Speaking of the Oastilian 
churches, that of Toledo has 
been sarnamed the rich; that 
of Salamanca, the strong ; that 
of Leon, the beautiful ; and tliat 
of Seville, the great. 

Qnealioiui and Aiuwbts foi ConTsiutloii. 

I Que leodoD ea esta I 
I Qa« ecti oeroa del rio I 

I La vigeaima nona. 
Una torre esta levaotada oeroa 





I Oomo lUman Tiilganneiite esta 


I Onal otra torre hay alii f 
I Donde osta f 
iQne sobrep^Jaf 

I Que sc levanta sobre ella f 

I Que ban heoho oon esta torre 

al presente ! 
I De que f 

I Que no neoedtamoe relatar por 

menudo f 
I Cnantos habitautefi tiene en este 

I Oomo estan divididoa f 

I Oual es la primera y principal f 

I Se iguala oon este templo algun 
otro de Espaiia f 

I Que se dice vulgarmente de las 
iglesias de Oastillaf 

La llanum de Oro. 

Por 8U primor. 

Otra torre edificada de adHllo. 

Cerca de la iglesia mayor. 

La grandeza de las demas obraa 

Por ser de sesenta varas en anob« 
y cuatro tanto mas alta. 

Otra torre meuor, pero de baa* 
tante grandeza. 

La ban blanqueado toda ,de noe- 
To, y adornado al rededor. 

De variedad de pinturas hermosaa 
a maravilla k los que la miran. 

Todas las cosaa y grandezas de 
esta ciudad. 

Mas de veinte y cuatro mil ve- 

En veinte y ocbo parroqaias h 

La de Santa-Maria que es la igle- 
sia mayor. 

Ninguno de toda Espafta se le 
iguala en.anchura de edificio y 
en grandeza. 

La de Toledo la rica, la de Sala- 
manca la fherte, la de Leon la 
bella, y la de Seyilla la grandft 

Sentenoea for Oral Tranalation. 

wo mm 


Una torre. 
Un ladrillo. 
Un templo. 
Una iglesia. 
Una variedad. 
Nnestra parroquia. 
Algunas varas. 
La ancbura. 
La altura. 


A tower. 
A brick. 
A temple. 
A cburoh. 
A variety. 
Our parish* 
A few yards. 
The width. 
The height 
To ripe. 




iQae olue de paebloa km los 

Onoi pnebloi moy mdnstrtiM » y 

jOnltivaroD los artes! 
Bi, seBor, egpeoialraente la arqui- 

tactnra, muaica y jioeaia. 
I Han constnudu mnchas cln- 

Han conatrnido Ourdovo, Gra- 

naila, Sevillo y otraa. 
) Que gran palacio ban edificado 

en Granada t 
La AlhaiDbra, el palacio de lo9 

BoberaoDS moros. 
iQaien fii^ el mm faraoso rey 

EI rey AlmaDaor. 

lOuanta^ batallaa ha ganado i 

Mas de oinouetitB. 
(Qnien fii6 el inaa grande giier- 

rero de los EspaHoleB t 
Don Rodrigo de Vivar, llnmodo 

el Gid Ownpeadur. 
iQae elgnificna estoa ultiTt.oa 

palabraa t 
EI incdtii parable BeBor 6 inaesira 
I Ooaodo entraron loa Moroa e>. 

Espalla . 
En el a&c seteeientoa y doce des- 

pnes de Jesn-Oriato. 
I De coal parte de Aihoa ritii» 

De UAnritania. 
(Oomo ae llama ahora Manri- 

B Imnerio de Itumeoon. 

To I 

To adorn. 
To divide. 
To sqnal. 
What kind ot peof te were tLi ' 

A Te'y industriona and dvUiMd 

Did tliey onltivate the arte I 
Yea, sir, eapecially arcliitectore^ 

maaio, and poetry. 
Bare they bnilt many cities I 

They built Cordova, Granada, ' 

Seville, and others. 
What great palace did they build 

in Granada I 
The Alhambra, the palace of tl 

Uoorish aovereigna. 
Who wna the mtfflt Tamona Uoor* 

iah king? 
now uinny battlea did ha gain 

over the Spaniards t 
More tlmn fifty. 
Who was the greatest warrioi 

among the Spaniards ! 
Don Roilrtgo de Vivnr, called tha 

Old Caiiipeador. 
What do tlieae last word* meant 

Id ttie year 712 after Jeaua Ohrisb 

Frcm what part of AfHoa dl 

they ooiiie I 
From Mauritania. 
Qow is Hanritania now ealled I 

The Empire of Horoooo, 



De sesenta varas en ancho^ sixty yards wjde. 

292. The following model sentences may senre as a guide tt 
khe most usual ways of expressing dimensions in Spanish. 

Una torre de iesenta varas de A tower of siity yards a 

anchurOf height. 

Una tone ancha de eesenta A tower high of sixty yards. 


Una torre que tenia eesenta A tower which had sixty yards 

varas de anehura^ of height 

Una torre que tenia una an- A tower which had a height oi 

chura de eesenta varas^ sixty yards. 

Mae alto que V. de toda la Taller than you by the whole 

cabeza^ head. 

Mas^ more. 

293. There are a few adverbs which form their comparative 
and superlative irregularly. They are : 

Bien^ well. Mejor^ better. Lo mejor^ the best 

Malf badly. Peor^ worse. Lo peor^ the worst 

PocOf little. MenoSf less. Lo minos^ the least 

Mucho^ much. Mas^ more. Lo mas^ the most 

Se dice^ it is said, from decir^ to say. 

294. Decir^ to say, to tell, is one of the most necessarj 
irregnlar verbs in Spanish. Its conjugation is as follows : 


Dechf to say. 
PavuiT Participlb. Past PARncnpus. 

DieiendOf saying. * Dieho^ said. 



To diffOf I say, or do say. 

n dkeSf thou sayest, or dost say. 

M dice^ he says, or does say 

Jfoaotros decimos^ we say, or do say. 

Vosotros decis^ you say, or do say. 

Slloe dicen^ they say, or do say. 


To deoia, I nid, or used to m j. 

TA dedas^ thou aaidst, or oaedsl to mf* 

SI deekif he nid, or used to My. 

Nototro$ dnelamoSj we said^ or oaed to my. 
Vomfiroi dedaiif you said, or oaed to eay, 
tUoi deeian^ they said^ or used to eay. 

Past Ton Dnrivm. 

Fo d^€^ I aaidf oi did aay. 

TA dijisiif thou saidst, or didst amy. 

M dijOf he said^ or did eay. 

Nototra dijimos^ we said, or did eay. 

Voiotros d^isteis^ yon said, or did eay. 

Elloi difirany they said, or did eay. 


Vo dir4, I shall eay, or will eaj. 

Tit dirdSf thoa shall say, or wilt say. 

El dirdy he shall say, or will say. 

Nosotros dirimos, we shall say, or wiU say. 
Vaaotro8 diriis, you shall say, or ¥dll say 
ElloB dirdn^ they shall say, or will eay 


Fo dirioy I ehould say, or would say. 

Tit diriaSy thou shpuldst say, or wouldst aaj. 

El dirioy he should eay, or would eay. 

Noiotros iiriamosy we should say, or would eay. 
Voiotros diriaisy you sh'ould say, or would eay. 
Slla8 dirian^ they should eay, or would eay. 


/>t, eay (thou). 
Decide say (you). 

* Hie Moond ftxtnre U (see note on page 25) : 

To 4it€M, ta dij^m, M dif€^ 

ih$ok99 djfinmoi vo9(4ro$ iijirm^ Mot d^mrm. 




Qu$ yo diga^ that I may aaj. 

Qhm t(i diffoSf that thou mayst mj. 

Que il digOf that he may say. 

Que nosotroe digamos^ that we may say. 

Que voeotroe digaie^ that you may amy. 

Que eUoe digan^ that they may lay. 

SuBJraoTiTB Past. 

Que yo d^era^ or dijese, that I might eay. 

Que tik dijeraSj or dijeses, that thou mightst say. 

Que SI dijerOf or dijeee^ that he might say. 

Que nasotros dijiramosj or dijesemas^ that we might say. 
Que vosotros dijirais^ or d^iseisy that you might say. 
Que ellos dijeran^ or dijesen^ that they might say. 

296. Contradedry to contradict; desdecirse^ to retract; and 
ntedecivy to foretell, are conjugated like decir^ except in tht 
se^^nd person singular of the imperative, which is contradict. 
desdicetCy and predice, 

Lafatrtey the strong. 
296. There are a few adjectives wh'*^ second superlative ' 
formed irregularly. They are : 

NuevOy new. Novieimo^ very new. 

FuertCj strong. FortisimOy very strongs 

Sabio^ wise. SapientisimOy very wise. 

SagradOf sacred. Saeratieimo, very sacred. 

Fiely faithful FedelisimOj very faithful 

IntegfOy honest. Integhrimoy very honest. 

Salubrcy healthy. SalubSrrimOj very healthy. 

But the regular form with muy would be quite as correct 

Ex. Muy nuevOf very new. Muy fuerte^ very strong, etc 

TofrrCy tower, is feminine by exception. 
Adomavy to adorn ; blanquear, to whiten ; igualar^ to equal ; 
kvantaree^ to rise ; relatar^ to relate ; and eobrepvjar^ to surpass 



•leregiiUrTeilitoftlielint'soigiigition: and diw i ii r^ to dif iN< 
JOUjkm lo Mid, to edify, goes like €^iiair. See Bole 145 

1. I eoDtradiet, 205. 

2. He contradicts. 
9. We contradict 
4« Ton contradict 

5. They contradict 

6. I contradicted 

7. He contradicted. 

8. We contradicted. 

9. Ton contradicted. 

10. They contradicted. 

11. I shall contradict 

12. He shall contradict 

13. We shall contradict 

14. You shall contradict 

15. They shall contradict 

16. I should contiadicti 2M. 

17. He should contnulict 
. 8. We should contradict 
10. You should contradict 

20. They should contradict 

21. I have contradicted. 

22. He has contraHicted. 

23. We have contradicted. 

24. You have contradicted. 

25. They have contradicted. 

26. I had contradicted. 

27. I should have contradicteili 

28. That I may contradict 

29. That I might contradict 

30. Contradict 

31. I divide.— 32. He divides.— 33. We divide.— 34. You 
divide.— 36. They divide. — 36. I divided. — 37. He divided. — 
88. We divided.— 39. You divided.— 40. They divided.— 41. I 
shall divide. — 42. 1 should divide. — 43. 1 have divided. — 44. Let 
us divide. — 46. Dividing. — 46. A wall six feet high, 292. — 
47. He writes well, but he reads better, 293. — 48. This is s 
better txorcise than the last, 293. — 49. He works more, 298. — 
10. He plays less, 293.— 61. He walks little, 293.-62. He eati 
fewei pears than apples, 293. — 63. He drinks least, 293. — 
54. My brother is the strongest in the school, 296. — 55. A very 
fcithful friend, 296.-66. A very healthy boy, 296.-57. At 
what o^clock do you rise in the morning? — 58. I rise at seven 
o'clock.- -69. Let us divide this among ourselves. — 60. He sup 
passes all his frienJB»^-61. What are you lelating to them! 


Idtstal TiaaaMiou. 

Leccion frigr^ilnia. 

Lesson thirtieth. 

De la Ciudad de Serilla, de Rlarianai 

Of the City of Seville, by Mariana, 


COD eluded. 

Tiene su f&brica de moneda, que rale 

It baa ItB fabric of nionej, nhich is word) 

treinta mil ducados en cada ano. Iia rents 

thirty thonusml ducats in each year. Tlie income 

del arzobispo lle^a A ciento y veiute mil ; 

of the Brclibislioji cuines to luitulred and tweut; tboii»iDd; 

las calon^ias y disuidades, a§i eu niimero 

the oauonicatea and prebends, as nell in Dmnber 

como lo deinns, respoudcn & esta ^randeza. 

as tlie rest, correspond to this grandeur. 

Los canipos son muy f^rtiles, llanos f 

The fields are very fertile, level and 

alegrres, i^eneralinente plantados de oUras, 

pleasant, generally planted with olives, 

que en Serilla se dan muy bien, y el 

vhich in Seville themselves pve very well, and thB 

esquilmo es muy prorechoso : de allf se 

harveet is very profitable : from there tbeiiiselvM 

lleran aceidinas adobadas, muy gruesaa 

carry olives preserved, very large, 

de muy buen sabor, & todos los dema* 

of very good Bavor, to all the other 




palaes. HI irato es tan g^rande y la ^raii^e- 

eonntries. The trade is so greiit, "-'"^ the profit 

ria (nl, que en los olivnres llamados Ajaraft, 

such, that in the olive- garde 03 culled Ajarafe, 

cn 1 tempo de lo8 Kloros, se confaban 

in time of the Moura, themselves counted 

cien mil parte cortijos, parte trapichet 

hondred tlioiiBnuil part farina, pnvl [Mtsscs 

6 molinos de aceitc, y dado que parece 

or milla of oil, and given that it sccma 

gran nfiniero, la autoridad y testimonio 

great nnmber, the aotliority and testimonj 

de la historia del rey Don Alonxo el Nabio 

of the history of the king Don Alonzo the Wise 
lo atestigaa. E§ increible el uuniero de 

il certifies. It ie incredible the number uf 

eHtrang:eros y mucliedumbre dc mercaderea 

strangers and quantity of mercliants 


who gather, especially in this time, 

de todas partes & la l^nia de las grandeM 

from ali parts to the fame of the great 

riquezas que por el trato dc las Indias y 

wealth which hy the trade of tlie Indies and 

flotas de cada afio se juntan allf. 

fleets of eaoh year themaelvea Join there. 


Mariana, ooncluido. 

Tit'De Ba fabrics de mgneda, 

qne vale Ireiota mil ducados oq 

In good Enelisb. 

Thk OiTV or Sbvilli, it 

It has alst a mint, wbidb 
coini thirty thonBttnd dnMtw ■ 



aada aho. La reota del arzobispo 
nega a ciento y veinte mil ; las 
oalongias y dignidades, asi en nu- 
mero oomo lo demas, responden 
4 eata grandeaa. Los campos son 
mny f^rtiles, llanos y alegres, 
generalinente plantados de olivas, 
qne en Sevilla se dan muy bien, y 
el esqnilmo es mny provechoso : 
4e alii se Uevau aceitunas adoba- 
das, mny grnesas de mny bnen 
saber, a todos los demas paises. 
£1 trato es tan grande y la gran- 
geria tal, que en los olivares 11a- 
mados ^arafe, en tiempo de los 
Moros, se contaban cien mil parte 
cortijos, parte trapiches 6 molinos 
de aceite, y dado que parece gran 
namero, la antoridad y testimonio 
de la historia del rey Don Alonzo 
el Sabio lo atestigua. £s increi- 
ble el namero de estrangeros y 
oincliedumbre de mercaderes qne 
concurren, mayormente en este 
tiempo, de todas partes a la fama 
de las grandes riqnezas qne per 
el trato de las Indias y flotas de 
cada alio se Jnntan allL 

year; while the lisht/s income 
amonnts to one hnndred and 
twenty thousand, witli oanoni* 
oates and prebends to corre* 

The fields are remarkably fei^ 
tile and pleasant, being for th« 
most part planted with olives 
which grow abnndantly, and 
are very profitable, being pot ap 
there and shipped to all parta 
of the world. 

This commerce is indeed so 
considerable, that in th» days ol 
the Moors there were some hun- 
dred thousand olive-gardens and 
oil-presses here; and though this 
may appear an exaggerated ac- 
count, the historical statistics ot 
King Alonzo the Wise will suf- 
ficiently attest it. 

The number of strangers who 
congregate in this place, in con- 
sequence of the Indian trade, ia 
very great. 

Questloiui and Answers for Convttraatloii. 

I Que leccioc es esta f 
Que fabrica tiene Sevilla f 
fOmantoa ducados vale I 

i A cnanto llegf la renta del Ar- 
zobispo t 

I EespondeL a esta grandeza las 
oalongias y dignidades f 

La trig^sima. 

Tiene una fabrica de moneda. 

Treinta mil dacados en cada 

A ciento y veinte miL 

Las oalongias y dignidades aai 
en namero como lo demas rea* 
ponden i esta grandeza. 



I Oomo Bon los campos f 

|De que estan plantados general- 

I Oomo 68 el esqnilmo f 
I Qne 86 Uevan d6 alii ! 

I Adond6 86 llevan ! 

I Oomo 68 6l trato d6 olivas t 

|Oaanto8 cortyos j trapiches 6 
molinos de ac6it6 86 oontaban 
en tj "^mpo de los Moros. 


I Onal antoridad lo atestigaaf 

I Qne 68 increible t 

I A. la fama de qne ooncnrren 

Mny f6rtiles, llanos y alegrea pot 

todas partes. 
De oliTas, qne en Sevilla se daa 

mny bien. 
Mny provechoso. 
Aoeitnnas adobadas mny grnesaa 

y de mny bnen saber. 
A todos los demas paises. 
£1 trato 68 mny grande. 
Oien mil. 

£n los olivares Uamados Ajarafe. 

La antoridad y testimonio del 
rey Alonzo el Sabio. 

£1 numero de estrangeros y mo. 
ohedumbre de mercaderes qne 
concnrren mayormente en esta 
tiempo de todas partes. 

A la fama de las grandes riqnezaa 
qne por el trato de las Indiat 
y flotas de cada afto se jnn« 
tan alii. 

Sentences for Oral Tranalatloa 

fo mm nuMtuLTED raro BNeusH. 

Una oliva. 

La riqneza. 

£1 esqnilmo. 

Un molino. 

Un estrangero. 

Un cortijo. 

La flota de las Indias. 

Una cosa inoreibk. 

Un campo alegre. 






An olive. 

The wealth. 

The harvest 


A stranger. 

A farm. 

The Indian fleet 

An incredible thing. 

A pleasant field. 

To answer. 

To plant 

To testify. 

To b^ worth 

^^^^^ MlHTlErrH Ltasfai. 269 ^^M 

^1 |No HtDTleroD los Horos en 

Did not tbe M lors go to France ^H 

■ FranoUt 

■ K, sebor, en el ailo eet« oientos 

Tea, sir, in 7S2. ^H 

^M treiDta y dos. 


■ Digs me V. qne aucedio aila. 

Tel! me what happened th«r«. ^^H 

^P Lob Franoeses le« dieron uni 

The French gave them battU ^H 

^1 batalla cerca de Tours. 

near Tonrs. ^H 

H iQaieu tui el general de las 

Who was the general of tha ^^M 

^1 faerzas cristianoa I 

Christian forces ) ^^H 

■ Oarlu Martel, el padre de FtipiDU 

Cbaries Martel, the father o ^^M 

■ el Ohico. 

Pi>[nn the Short. ^^M 

^1 (Que fa6 el reaultado de esta 

Wliat was the result of thii ^^M 

V baulk t 

battle! ^^M 

La derroti de los Uoros fu« 

The Moors were con.pletelf d». ^M 



Perdieron mas de tres cientos mil 

They lost over 800,000 men. ^H 



iPnede V. declme algo mas de 

Can you tell me something eUa ^^| 


abuut the Moursf ^H 

Tenian una hermosa biblioteca en 

They had a fine library at Oof ^^M 

Oordova de mas do seis deatos 

dova; more than 600,000 vol ^H 

mil libros. 


(Donde eatan los mas de ©atos 

Where are most of these books ^^M 

libros ahoral 

nowt ^H 

En el palaoio del &carial ceroa 

In the Esoarial palace near ^^H 

de Madrid. 

Madrid. ^H 

1 Que obra famosa ae cree que hay 

What famous work is thought to ^H 

entre ellost 

be among them ) ^^H 

Pn complelo Tito Livio esorito 

A complete Titus Ufiua in Ara- ^H 

en arabigo. 


iQuieafaeel ultimo rey de lua 

Who was the last king of U^ ^H 

Mores en Gspajla ! 

Moors in Spain t ^H 


Boabdil tbe Small ^H 

AdoDde se {a& Buabdil despnes 

Where did Boabdil go to aha, ^H 

liis expabiun from Spain 1 ^^| 

CI ae TOiTio a Africa. 

Ue returned to Africa. ^^H 


In what year 1 ^^H 

En e. sio mil cuatre cieutos 

In uea. ^^M 

no7eLU ; dos. 

Amfirioa fai ^Monbierta en e! 

America was diaoo «r«d in UM 1 


game year. 



Vale^ is worth ; from valer^ to be wcffth. 
HIT. Valer^ to be worth, is one of the most neceflBuy irregiilfli 
bf iA Spanish. Its conjugation is as follows : 

Valer^ to be worth. 

PaESBiT Partioiflk. Par Pabtioipu. 

Valiendo^ being worth. Valido^ been worth. 

PaESBIT Tknss. 

To valpOf I am worth. 

TVi vaUff thou art worth. 

M vaU^ he is worth, 

Nosotros valemos^ we are worth. 

Vo90tro8 valeisj you are worth 

Mhs valen^ they are worth. 


To vaOa^ I was worth, or used to be worth. * 

T4^ valias^ thou wert worth, or usedst to be worth 

El valia^ he was worth, or used to be worth. 

NosotroB valiamaSf we were worth, or used to be worth. 

Vo9otrc8 raliais^ you were worth, or used to be worth. 

MUoi valiin^ they were worth, or used to be worth. 

Par Temsk Dsfinitk. 

To vcdiy I was worth. 

Td valiste^ thou wert worth. 

El valid^ he was worth. 

Noiotros valimos, we were worth. 
Voi^?tro8 valisteisy you were worth. 
SUoi valieron, they were worth. 



Vo valdri^ I shall be worth, or will be worth. 

Tit valdrdSf thou shalt be worth, or wilt be worth. 

JSl vaidrdj he shall be worth, or will be worth. 

No9otros valdrimos^ we shall be worth, or will be worth. 

Vosotros valdriis, you shall be worth, or will be worth. 

Mlas valdrdr.j they shall be worth, or will be worth. 

Vc vaUritty I should be worth, or would be worth. 

Tit v€tUria9j thou shouldst be worth, or wouldst be wortk 

M valdria^ he should be worth, or would be worth. 

N'osotros vcUdriamos^yre should be worth, or would be worth. 
VosotroB valdriais, you should be worth, or would be worth. 
Vllos valdrian^ they should be worth, or would be worth. 

VaU^ be (thou). 
Valedf be (you). 

Pbisknt Tensk. 

Que yo valga^ that I may be worth. 

Que /6 valgae^ that thou mayst be worth. 

Que el valga^ that he may be worth. 

Que nowtros valgamos^ that we may be worth. 

Que vo8oiro8 valgais^ that you may be worth. 

Que ellos valgauy that they may be worth. 

Qvu yo valiera^ or valiese^ that I might be worth. 

Que td valierasj or valieses^ that thou migbtst be wortik 

Que JZ valierOy or valiese^ that he might be worth. 

Quenosotros valieramos J or valiSsemos^itiat we might be worth. 
Que vosotros valiSrais^ or valieseis, that you might be worth. 
Que ellos valieran, or valiesen, that they might be worth. 

298. Thus is conjugated prevaler^ to prevail. 

* The seoond future is (see note on page 25) *. 

FotaUtMy ikwUUru, HfMtf, 


Lo demaa^ the re&t. 
!299. Demos is an invariable word, which entors into the 
composition of several idiomatic expressions, the most important 
of which are : 

JEitar demoif or estat por demaSj To be one too many lo ot 

Jkmas de €$U^ Besides this. 

Que parece, that it appears. 

300. The subjunctive mood can only be used in cases of 
doubt or uncertainty; and although it is always preceded by 
que or some other conjunction, que may be followed by the 
indicative when there is no doubt or uncertainty connected with 
the idea expressed by the verb. — Ex. : 

Diga me V, una eosa que Tell me a thing I can do. 

puedo kaeeTf 
Diga me V, una cosa que Tell me a thing I may do. 

pueda hacer^ 
Este muchacho por perezoao However idle this boy is. 

que eSf 
Eete muchacho por perezoso However idle this boy may bei 

que eeUf 

301. The subjunctive is especially murh used in sentences 
like the following : 

Pidale V, que le muestre sum libros^ 
Ask him to show you his books ; 


Ask him that he may show you his books. 
t02. The principal interjections are : 

Ah! ahl HoUl! holla 1 

Ay! alasl Silencio! silence 1 

Hake ! eigh 1 Viva ! hurrah I 

803. When not used by itself, ay is generally foLowed 

Bz. Ay de mi ! woe to me ' 


Adobar, to prenerve j atealiyaar, to tcBtify ; And plantar, U 
plant, are regular verbs of the first conJQgatioD, and reipondei 
to answer, u of tha second. 

Oonevrrir, to concur, to gathei together, ia of the third 

1. I prevail, 298. 

2. Thon prevaileet 
8, He prevails. 

4. She prevails. 
A, We prevail. 
6. Yon prevail. 
?. They prevail. 

8. I prevailed. 

9, ThoQ prevailedst 

10. He prevailed. 

11. She prevailed. 

12. We prevailed. 

13. You prevailed. 

14. They prevailed. 
29. Good morning, sir.— 

15. I shall prevail, 29B. 

16. Thou shalt prevail 

17. He shall prevail. 

18. She shall prevail 

19. We shall prevail. 

20. You shall prevail. 

21. They shall prevaiL 

22. I should prevail. 

23. Prevail. 

24. Prevailing, 
26. That I may prevail 

26. That I might prevaiL 

27. I have prevailed. 

28. 1 had prevailed. 
■ How do you dot 31. Very 

well, I thank you. — 32. You know yonr lesson, do you not f— 
88. I have studied it a great deal.— 34. Take a chiur and sit 
down, — 35. Where does it begin ?— 36. Let us go on. — 37. Yon 
know it vety well. — 38. Let us take a walk. — 39. Where could 
we go tol — 40. To the Central Park. — ^41. Would you not 
prefer to go on horseback 1 — ^42. I seldom ride, — 43. But you 
have several horses. — 44. Tliey are cariiage -horses. — 45, Would 
yon like to see them ) — 46. Where are they I — 47, I am very 
Cind of horses — 48. I will tell the servant to bring them to the 
door. — 49. Tiiey look very well. — 50. Tell him to write often, 
300, 301,-51, I hope he will do this, 300, 301,-52, I am 
ifraid he will not come, 300, 301. — 63. He wants me to rida 
every day, 300, 301,-54. Woe to him! 303.— 66. Woe U 
ul 303. — 56. Woe to the enemies of our country I 


Literal Tranalatlon. 

Leccion tri^^sima priraera. 

Lessoo thirty firet. 

Esquelas 6 BillcteB. 

Oards or Nol«a. 

Tn amigro convidando A utro para 

A friend iDTiting another to 

Federico IViiikez B. L. Itl. al SeAorDoii 

Frederio Nanez ki^es the hands to the Mr. 

Luis CtfrdoTa, y ag:radecerii miicho que cl 

Lewla Cordova, and will be pleased rnnch tiiat the 

Heftor Don I^uis le Tavorezca con nn 

Mr. Lewie him would favur with his 

compaAia el liunes 8 del corrieute, k las 

company the Monday 8 of the instant, at th« 

6 de la tarde, para la coniida. Hoy 3. 

I of the eveDing, for the dinner. To-da; G. 



Ainiffo mio: Acabo de rcclbir la de 

Friend iiiy: I have jnst received tLe one of 

T., por la que veo la ^racia que V. 

jaat honor, by tlie which 1 see the favor wliich your honot 

«e sirre k hacernie. Ir€ & las seis, 

Ss pleased to do lue. I »<hnll go at the six, 



para decfr & T. verbalmeute que nadie 

m order to tell to four honor verbally that nobody 

cs tanto como yo 

■■ M ninoh aa I 

Hoy JE. 

To-d»y S. 

Yonr &ithfti] eerrant, 

«. s. n. a.. 

Who joDr hande kisses, 

liuia Ctfrdova. 

Lewis OordoTO, 

Para reliusar. 

In order to rofose. 

Luis Ctfrdova '. 

Lewis Cordova ki 

Federico NuAex, y 

Frederic Nunez, an< 

poder gozar de bu 

to be able to enjoy hts 

It the hand; 

al Selkor Don 

siente miichiBimo no 

regrets very much not 

amable rompaikia la 


ami able 

uoche senalada, por hallarse coiupronie- 

evening indicated, for to Snd himself engaged 

tido de antemano. Hoy 3. 

Worehond. To-day B. 


Cii amigo ecnvidando d otr« 

para £i Oomida. 

Federico Nuilez B. L. U. al 

Bailor IMn Liie Cordova, y sgra- 

deoera nmalio que el SeSor Dun 

Lnis le favorezca con au com- 

pidtft el Lunes 8 del oorrienle, 4 

la« de la tarde, pan 1a oomida, 



iTmtatitm to Dinmr. 

Frederic Nnnez presenta Ui 
compliments to Lewis Cordovfe, 
Esq., and requests the pleastira 
uf bia company to dinner on 
Monday evening, Bth instant, al 
sis o'clock, 
■ To-day, 6lh, 





I hare JnH ^^| 

Aetptatioii. I AecepUit 

Amtgomio: Aoabo de reoibir My dear Friend; 

U de V^ por la que vea la received your note, in wbicb jon 

graeU que V. ae sirre a b&oenne. do me tiie ''«tior to invite ir,« to 

Irt i lu s«s, para deoir fi Y, dinner; acd I Bhall take pleasun 

verbalmeote qae nadie ea taDto In coming at eii o'clnck, as dl 

Wino JO 6.8.8^ reeled, in order to present to foi 

Q. 8. H, B., personally my oomplimenta. 

Hoy 5. Luia GoBiKtTA. To-day, 0th. Lewis Odbpot*. 

Para rehtuar. S^/^ual, 

Lois Oordova B. L. J£. al SeBor Lewis Oordova presents bb 

Don Federloo Nnfiez, y aiente oompliments to Frederio Nune^ 

mDcbiHimo no poder gozar de en Esq., and regrets sinoerm} thai 

emable tioinpaQia la noolie seBa- a previoos engagement preventa 

lada, por h^larse comprometido bis acceptjng the kind invitatioii 

de anteiiiaDO. Hoy D. | extended to bim. To-day, Bth, 

QaMttons and Aoa'wtm for Conversatloii. 

1 (Joe I«coion es eata ) 
I Qae contiene esta leccion ? 
I Onantas esqnelas bay en ella ( 
iDeqnese habla en la primerat 

I Qnien escribe ceta esqneU I 
4 A qoien la escribe I 

) Onando t 

I A qne bora qoiere que venga) 

)De qne ae habla en la sequela 

segnnda ? 
I Y qQ«le eaoribel 
t Le da l&i gradas I 

(Pan que f 

La trlgeaima primera. 

Esqnelaa 6 billetes. 


De na ainigo qne oonvlda & otra 
para la com id a. 

El Sejlor Don Federico NnHez. 

A1 Seilor Don Luis Oordova. 

Qne agradecerfi macho que el Sa- 
ilor Don Luis le faTorezoa eon 
an compaQia para la oomida. 

El Lanes 8 del oorriente. 

A ks aeis de la tarde. 

El SeiSor Don Lnia aoepta & 

Qne lia reoibido sn blllete. 

81, aeiior, y le dioe qae \ri i 
laa seia. 

Para deolrle verbalmente qne na- 
die es tan au aegnro aeCTidM 




|De que le habla en la esqnela 

No dioe qne lo sientef 

One feoha tienen estas es ^inelas f 

£1 Sellor Don Lds rehiiaa ii 

Por hallarse oomprcmetido df 

Lo siente maohMnio. 
£1 dnoo. 

Ctontenoes for Oral Tranalatfon. 


I Qne papel se usa generahnente 

para la oorrespondencia? 
El papel doblado en caarto mas 

6 m6D0s redacido. 
I Ouales cartas pneden escribirse 

en hojas senoillas ^de oaalqaier 

Las cartas de negocios y de 

I Ouales otras cartas admiten el 

octavo 6 la carta peqneila? 
Las cartas familiares y esqaelas. 
iQae se coloca en cabeza de las 

cartas de negocios f 
La feoha. 
I Donde se pone en otras cartas \ 

Al pie de la carta y al costado 

izqaierdo de la firma. 
I Para qne ? 

Para dar nna maroa de respeto. 
De que debe ir acompaftada la 

fecka 9 
De la indicacion del Ingar, del 

mes y del a&o. 

Ck>n qne se encabezan ordina- 
riamente las cartas ff 
Con el nombre de la persona a 
^nien se dirigeo. 


What paper is generally used fbi 

letter- writing 9 
Double sheets of greater or 

smaller size. 
What kind of letters can be 

written on small sheets of any 

Business and commercial letters. 

What other letters may be writ* 

ten on small paper? 
Familiar letters and notes. 
What is placed at the head of aO 

business letters? 
The date. 
Where is this placed in other 

letters ? 
At the foot and to the left of the 


As a mark of respect. 
What must be added to the date 

The name of the place in which 

the letter is written, the month. 

and the year. 
With what do etters generally 

With the name of the person U 

whom they are addvmed. 



iQae debe preoeder al nombre? 
£1 tratamiento que le corres^ 

I Coales fraues preceden general- 

mente al entrar en materia? 
Seftor mio, mny seikor mio, 6 mi 

eetimado amigo. 
£1 mayor 6 menor bianco qne se 

dcya entre el nombre j la 

primera linea es tambien nn 

signo de mas 6 m6nos con- 

I Que se pone al pi6 de la carta? 

r^a formula ^ que besa bus ma* 

nos*' indicadia con las iniciales 

Q.B.a K. 
I Donde va la firma ? 
Invariablemente en on renglon 

I Oomo deben doblarse las cartas f 
De manera que formen an cua- 

|£n que se induyen las cartas? 
En un sobre. 

|Oon que se cierran finalmente? 
Oon una oblea, lacre, 6 goma. 

La direocion debe escribirse en el 
sobre, a fin que sea facil leerla 
al primer golpe de vista. 

What must precede tlie i amel 
The title. 

How are persons generally ad' 

My dear sir, my very dear sir, off 
my esteemed friend. 

The greater or less amount oi 
blank left between the nam€ 
and the first line of the letter 
is also a sign of more or less 

What is placed at the bottom of 
the letter? 

The forinula-^who kisses your 
hands, generally represented 
by the letters Q. B. S. M. 

Where is the signature placed ? 

Invariably on a line by itself. 

How should letters be folded ? 
So "'^ to form an oblong square. 

In what are letters inclosed ? 
In an envelope^ 
With what are they sealed ? 
With a wafer, sealing-wax, or 

The direction must be put on 

the envelope, so that it may ok 

readily seen. 


Convidando d otrOy 
inviting another. 
304. Oonvidar^ to invite, is followed by the preposition A, ii 
iC4H)rdaiice with Rule 140 

THIBTT-nRST LE880K, 279 

B. Ii. M. 

305. B. la. M., an abbreviation of besa las mancs^ literally 
kisses the hands^ is an expression of politeness which corresponds 
to presents his compliments in Engli^. 

SefUjr Dim Luis GMova. 

306. We have already seen that sefior and d(m mky be nsed 
ogether. This reduplication of titles coold, honeyer, not take 

place unless the Christian name of the person addressed is 

Ex. Sefior Don Luis C&rdovct^ 
Sefior C&rdova^ 
Don Luis. 

Amigo mio^ 
my friend. 

807. The most usual modes of address in Spanish letters are : 

Muy sefior mio^ Dear sir. 

Muy seflora mue, Dear madam. 

Querido or caro amigo^ Dear friend. 

Mi estimado amigo^ My esteemed friend. 

It is to be observed that these expressions vary, contrary to 
English usage, accordbg to the number of persons writing or 

Ex. Muy sefior mio^ My dear sir. 

Muy seflores mios^ My dear gentlemen. 

Muy sefior nuestro^ Our dear sir 

Muy seflores nuestros^ Our dear gentlemen. 

S* S* 0* 

808. S. S. S., an abbreviation of su seguro servidor^ fiterallyi 
ywir true servant^ is an expression of politeness which corre- 
sponds in English to your obedient servant^ yours truly^ or youn 

Q. S. M. B. 
309. Q. S. M. B. stands for que sus manos hesa^ who kisses 
your hands. This abbreviation is found at the end of almost all 
Spanish letters. 


SienU no podv, 
regrets not to be Mble, 
To before an infinitive is left oat after wnfir, to r 
Rnle 166. ' 

Otaar de gu amable eompaflia, \ 

enjoy his amiable company. 
310. Gozar, to enjoy, nhcn followed by a uonn, whioh u ib 
regimen, requires the preposition de. 

Aeabar, to finish ; beaar, to kiss ; convidar, to invite ; kallar, 
to find ; and seflalar, to signalize, are regular verbs of the finf 
conjugation : tompromeCer, to compromiso, is of the second, and 
recibir, to receive, of the third. 

Agradecer, to please ; favoreeer, to favor, go like compadecet 
(14j) ; ^oaar, to enjoy, like reehamr (18V) ; and servir, to mtt^ 
foUowB Role 162. 

1. Mr. Paul presents his compliments to Mies Virginia, 
SOS, 306. — 2, He requests the pleasure of her company to b 
— 3. Miss Virginia is previoudy engaged, ZOb. — 4, She will 
not be able to come.^5. We all regret it very much. — 6. Mr. and 
Mrs. Joseph Bolls, 806. — 7. Dear frionds, 307. — 8. Ladies, 307. 
— fl. Yours respectfully, 308.-10. Yours truly, 308.— M. I , 
regret having* made a mistake.— 12. He regrets having* gom 
ont.— IS. We regret having* spoken. — 14. You enjoy this veij 
much, do you not t 310.— IS. They enjoy it also, 310.— 16. W« 
all enjoy it, 310. — 17. Why shonld we not enjoy itt 310. 

■ Tht puticipte presont i> le 
li^ ; uid tbe InBalcive is iiivar 
B llawing; 

To titnio hattr ieeia vna/alla, 
1 regrel having madd a miataks; 

I Nffrat la have nude b miauti. 


Literal Trsnslatioii. 

Leceion tris£siiu<i oe^niida. 

Lesson thirty second. 



18—. Rccibido 
18—. Received 

dvl Sr Don Fiilauo la ciinlidad de mil 

from the Mr. Fulunu tlie sam of tlioiisand 

cuatro cicntos veiiitidos peso§ tres y medio 

four liiindreil twiiify-lwo dollars tliree iiiid half 

realcs, por saldo de todns iiiicstras ciientaa 

aliillitig?, us balnDce of all our 

Niieva York, 9 de ITlavo, 

New Yni'k, 9 of May, 

iiasta hoy. 

till to-day. 

Pedro Esteban. 

Pet^r Esteban, 


Son pesos 1499.3.6, <} $l4a%.43|. 

Are dollars 1423 . S,'6, or $1422 . 48J. 

Un Pa^ar£. 

A Promiaaory Note. 

IVueva Yorif, 10 de IHarza, I&— . 

Few York, 10 of March, iS— . 

Pag:ar£ a sesenta dias contados dcsde la 

1 Bhril pay, at sixty days, counted from th< 

fbcha, al Seflor Don Joa£ Biieno, 6 su 

date, to the Mr. Joseph Bueoo, or hU 

tfrden, la cantidad de qiiinieiiCos pesoi, 

order, the snm of five hundred dollars, 

^ order, t 


Talor reciliido dc dit^lio senor eii diucm 

TBlne receivor] fvnn kbIiI ^t:iitlciiiu.n in muiiec 

eltctivo A toda mi «ati«l^ccion. 

cmh til entire ray tati'ifnclinn. 

Sou $500. Antonio Flores. 

Are $500. Ant}ioDj*. 



Se vende, una caaa ina^uifica de dot 

For gale, a lum.-e niflgniiicent 

pisos, que tiene §ei§ rcntana§ enfrentej 

stories, which liaa sis wiuJuvvs in IVont, 

situada en el Cerro & la eiqiiiua de la valle 

Bituated iu Ibe CeiTO at tlio cdriiti- of tlie street 

de Perla. 8obre ella InrorinarA el corredor 

of Peiirl. About it «ill infonii llie broker, 

AliVedo Quevedo, calle d« la Uiiralla, nro.O. 

AifroU QueveJo, slreut of Uie Wall, No. 0. 

Sc ueeesila, iin biien caiesero dc velnic 

Wanted, a goo<l coachman cif twenty 

aaosi poco mas 6 ni£nos, para vonduclr 

years, little more or less, in order to condact 

una volanta de dos innlas. 

a v'llante with two inuleg. 

IFn cocinero Trances, que lia servldo i 

A o..ok Fren(!li, wliu li«» eervw! 

unOB de los priincro!^ Iiotcles dc Paris, desea J 

Bome of tbe Hr-t iiotcld i,f Pari-, wishes 

■na colocacion en una liiniilla particular. 
A. B., raja I\«. 93.16 

A. U.. h-i. Nil. 2368 

del Correo de la Habana 

of the Post-office of Havanft. 




The same in 


Naeva York, 9 de Mayo, 18—. 
lUoibido del Sefior Don Falano 
1b cantidad de mil cnatro cientos 
t^incidos peso? tres y msdio 
realee, por ealdo de todas nues- 
taras cuentas Lasta hoy. 

Pedro Esteban. 
Sod pesos 1422 . 8 . 6, 6 $1422.48^ 

Uh Pagare. 

!N"uevaYork,10deMarzo, 18 — . 
Fagard a sesenta dias contados 
desde la fecha, al Seiior Don Jo86 
Bueno, 6 su orden, la cantidad 
de qainientos pesos, valor reel- 
bido de dicho senor en diuero 
efeotivo 4 toda mi satisfaccion. 

Son $500. Antonio Flobes. 

Se vende, nna casa magnifioa 
de dos pisos, que tiene seis van- 
tanas enfrente, sitnada en el Gerro 
4 la esqnina de la calle de Perla. 
Sobre ella informari el corredor 
Alfredo Qnevedo, calle de la 
Mnralla, No. 6. 

Se nece&ita, an buen calesero 
de veinte anos, poco mas 6 m^uos, 
para condiicir una volanta de 
doB mulas. 

Un cocinero francos, que ha 
fcrvido en unos de los primeros 
hoteles de Paris, desea nna oolo- 
cacion en nna familia particular. 

A. B., c^ja No. 2856 del Crrao 
de la Habana 

good Engllah. 


Received, New York, Alay 9thj 
18—. from Mr. N., th6 finm oJ 
One thousand four h:indred 
twwity-two dollars, three shil 
lings and sixpence, in fall of all 
demands up to date. 

Peteb F^tbban. 


Prommory Note, 
NiTV York, March 10th, 18—, 
Sixty days after date, I promisi 
to pay to Joseph Bueno, Esq., of 
order, the sum of Five hundred 
dollars, for value received. 
$500. Anthony Flores. 


For sale, a handsome two* 
story house, six windows wide, 
situated in the Cerro, cornei 
of Pearl - street. For further 
particulars, call on, or address, 
Alfred Qnevedo, agent. No. 6 

Wanted, a young man, about 
twenty years old, to drive a vo- 
lante with two mules. 

A French cook, who has serTdd 
in some of the first hotels in 
Paris, wishes a situation in t 
private family. 

Address A. B., box 2856, Ha 
vana Post-office. 



Qaostloiui and Aiiswers for Conversation. 

Qae leccion es esta ? 
Qae contieue esta leooion t 

Que feoha tiene «l reoibo ff 
Qoien es el reoibidor ? 
Ouanto dinero ha reoibido ff 

Porqa^ ff 

De qaien ba recibido el dinero ff 
Que fecha tiene el pagar^ff 
A oaantos dias vista vonoera ff 

Onanto dinero pagara ff 
A quien pagara este f 

Qaien lepagariff 

Oaantos avisos bay en esta 

leocion ff 
Que se vende ff 
Ouantas ventanas tiene en- 

Donde esta sitaada la oasa ff 

Qaien informard sobre ella ? 
Donde vive ff 
Qae se necesita ff 
Oaantos alios dobe tener ff 
Para qne ff 

Qaien ofreoe sns servicios ff 
Donde ba servido antes ff 


Oaal es in direodon 

La trigesima seganda. 

Un recibo, an pagar^, j ^inof 

Kaeva York, 9 de Mayo, 18 — . 
El Sefior Don Pedro Esteban. 
Mil caatro cientos veintidos peso 

tres y medio reales. 
Por saldo de todas sos ouentai 

hasta hoy. 
Del Sefior Don Fnlano. 
Naeva York, 10 de Marzo, 18 — . 
A sesenta dias contados desde la 

Qainientos pesos. 
Al Sefior Don Jos6 Bneno, 6 so 

£1 Sefior Don Antonio Floree. 
Hay tres. 

Una casa magnifica de dos pisos. 

En el Oerro 4 la esqnina de la 

oalle de Perla. 
El corredor Alfredo Qaevedo. 
En la calle de la Maralla, No. ft. 
Un buen calesero. 
Yeinte afios, poco mas 6 m6nos. 
Para conducir nna volanta da 

dos mulas. 
Un cocinero f ranees. 
En uuos de los primeros hctele 

de Paris. 
Una colocaoion en ana famili 

A. B., c£ya No. 2856 del oorrea 

de la Habana. 

tttlBtt-SfidOlfD LKSSOK. 


Sentences for Oral Translation. 

vo mi nuvsLATiD DUO uiolish. t 

|De qae metales se hacen las 
monedas espaiiolas ? 

ye oro, de plata y de cobre. 
Ooales son las monedas de oro ? 

»A onza de diez j seis pesos, la 
media onza de ocho pesos, 
el doblon de a dos de oaatro 
pesos, el dobloncito 6 esoudo 
de dos pesos y el escudito 6 
darillo de un peso. 

I Oual es la moneda de plata? 

El duro, peso fuerte, peso, 6 es- 
cudo de plata ; el medio peso, la 
peseta, el real y el medio r^al. 

I Goal es la moneda de cobre ? 

El onartillo y el maravedi. 

I Ooales son las prinoipales me- 

didas espa&olas ? 
El quintal, la arroba^ la libra, y 

la onza. 
I Oaantas libras tw*^ uoa arroba ff 

Una arroba tien^ v^ntioinoo li- 

I Oaantas arrol«8 tiAne el quin- 


I Oaantas onzas tiene la libra | 

La libra tiene diez y seib onzas. 
De que medida se sirven en 

Espafia para medir el pafto ? 
De la vara. 
I En cuales otros estados se usan 

las mismas medidas y el mismo 



Of what metals is Spanish mone) 

Of gold, silver, and copper. 

Which ocins are made of gold? 

The ounce, worth 16 dollars 
the half ounce, worth 8 dol> 
lars; tlie doubloon, worth 4 
dollars; the small doubloon, 
worth 2 dollars; and the 1 
dollar gold piece. 

Which aro made of silver? 

The dollar, the half dollar, the 
quarter of a dollar, the shil- 
ling, and the sixpenny piece. 

Which are made of copper? 

The three cent piece and the 
single cent. 

Which are the principal measures 
in Spain ? 

The hundredweight, the quarter, 
tlie pound, and the ounce. 

How many pounds are there iii a 
quarter ? 


How many quarters are there in 

a hundredweight? 
How many oances are there in a 

pound ? 
The pound has sixteen ounces. 
Which is th^' cloth measure la 

Spain ? 
The yard. 
In what other countries do they 

use these same measures and 




En tiMlas las repvUicas hispano- 
anierioanas, en las Antillas, a 
saber, en Onba y Puerto Rico. 

iTIenen tambien inoned& de 

Bi, sefior, pero la minima es el 

billete de oien pesos. 
|Ona] es el banco mas impor- 

tante de la Habana ? 
El Gran Banco Espa&ol 

In all the S^^iiLisL Americai 
repnblics, in the ^'e^t Indies, 
to wit: in Cuba and Porto 

Have they also paper money ? 

Tes, sir; but nothing smaller 
than a hundred dDllar bilL 

Which is the principal bank ij 

The Great Spanish Bank. 


9 de Mayo, May 9th. 

311. The cardinal numbers arc generally used instead of the 
ordinal, in speaking of the days of the month, and of sovereigns 
and princes ; but Jii^st is never so changed, and forms, therefore, 
an important exception to this rule. 

May Istj primero de Mayo, ilcnry the 1st, Enrique primero^ 
May 2d, dos de Mayo, Henry the 2d, Enrique dos. 

May 3d, tres de Mayo. Uenry the 3d, Enrique tres, 


312. Fulano answers to such a one in English. It is used 
whenever the name of the person spoken of is not known oi 
purposely kept back. Its feminine is fulana. 

1422 pesos^ 3 reales, 6 centavos, 
1422 dollars, 3 shillings, G cents. 

313. The peso, dollar ; real, sMlliny ; and centava, 

€€iU, are the deuomin^atious used in computing sums of money 

in Spanish. There are 8 reals in a pesc and 12^ centavot 

in a real. 

En e/ectivo, 

314. En e/ectivo means in cash. Should the value received 
be merchandise, en yeneroSy en efectos, or vn meriuncias, would 
bAve to be used instead. 


A ioda mi aatisfcuxion^ 
to my entire satisfaction. 
8 16. fhis expression is indispensable to give validitj lo % 
Bote in Spain. 

Calle de la Muralla No. 6| 
No. 6 Wall-street 
316. In Spanish, the number of the house is generally placr J 
after the name of the street. 

Demir^ to desire ; informar^ to inform ; and necesitar^ to want^ 
are regular verbs oi the first conjugation. 

Condudr^ to conduct, goes like traducir^ see page 184 ; '^nd 
HTvir^ to serve, follows Oba. 162. 



1. Received, May 4th, the sum of three hundred dollars, 311. 
— 2. In full of hU demands. — 3. Thirty days after date, I promise 
to pay to Lewis Concha, Esq., the sum of four hundred dollars 
and fifty cents, 313. — 4. For sale, a carnage and two horses. — 
5. Wanted, a good Spanish teacher, to instruct a class of 
boys. — 6. A good servant wants a situation, — 7. Address C. D., 
New York Post-oflSce. — 8. He always pays cash, 314. — 9. He 
never buys on credit. — 10, 1 have received an account — 11. We 
will collect the remainder in a few days. — 12. Good cooks are 
much in demand now. — 13. No. 53 14th-street, 316. — 14. No, 
21 23d-street, 316. — 15. No. 9 Grand-street, 316.— 16. A dol- 
lar has 8 reals, and a real 12^ cents. — 17. Would you lend* 
some money to this gentleman ? — 18. 1 ne> er borrow* any thing 
from any one. — 19. Lend me your ruler, if you please. — 20. ] 
don't know where it is. — 21.. Some one has borrowed it— 
22. No one ever lends me any thing.- -23. You are light 

* To LEND 18 translated into Spanish by prsstar a^ d algwM; and 
to soBROw, by f^vr prestado 4 lUguno; literally, to ask a loan ff^ 
■ome one. 


Uteral Translatdon. 

Leccion Irig^siiiia terr.era< 

Leason tliiity tliinl. 

Arte de la Correspoudeucia Comercial. 

Art of the OorreHimnJence OommemaL 



para el estafoleciniiento de una Casa dfl] 

for the eatabliflbnient of b Hoase ( 

Cardenas, 90 de A^osto, 18 — . 

Cardenas, 20 of August, IS—, 

A loB Senores Don Job£ Ruiz y Ca., 

To the Messrs. Joseph Ruis and Ou^ 

IViiera York. 

New York. 

nuy Se&ores nuestros: J 

Terj Gentlemen onr : I 

Teueniofi el honor de participar ^ 

We have the honor to infurio 

A Vs. que acabanios de Torniar una 

four hiQors that we have jnst formed 

flociedad uiereantil bajo la razon de J. ia> 

sooietj' mercuutile under tlie firm ui J. If, 

Morales y Ca., para el desempefio del 

Uoralee and Co., for the uarrying on of Om 


H niiiio 4 

^F brancli 

y toda otra clane 

and ovorj other kind 


de transaccioiics coiucrciales. 

trf trnnsnctiniis commercial. 

nro§ lisoiijcaiiios de (iiie iiiiestros Atndot, 

Ourselves we liiilter tljnt our fands, 

nue§tra cxperieucia y couocimieuto de 

our cxiierienee ftiid knowledge uf 

negocios, nos prupurcioiiarau Ioh niedioa de 

bnsines3, ua will nflUrd tlie meanB to 

iatisl'acer coinplelaineute A todo§ los que 

satisfy corniiltttlj nil those who 

se sirvau liournruos cou sii conflanza. 

mny avaii tliems«lvcs to honor ns with their coDtiJcnce. 

rara inlbriues acerca de miestro car&c- 

For informations respecting onr character ^^J 

■ ler, nos reCteriiuos A uue§tro8 ainigros, log ^^M 

^H we refer to our friends, tlje ^^^| 

Seibore§ IMora IVorvales y licriiianos de csa ; ^^\ 


Messrs. Mora Nor vales and hrothe 

y ^uedamos, con la mayor coiisidcracion, 

ud we remain, with the greatest consideration, 

s. s, s., 

Tour faithful servanta, 

Q. s. n. B., 

Who your hands kiss, 

J. m. Morale! y Cm, 

J. M. Morales and Ock 

0*1 Jtsi niarfa Morales firmari 

Mr, JoBejili Maria Moralcis will liiga 

D«n Guillermo Rahe firmar^ 

Itr. WiUiaiu Rah6 will sign ■ 




tBIBllr-TUtED LSS80H. 

Tlia Mune in good Hnglfah. 


ifitreular fora el estableeimiento 
is una Cam de CofMircio. 

CvdesiM, 20 de Agoato. 18-. 

A lo6 Sebores 

Don Jo9c Ruiz y Oa., 
Noeva York. 
May Se&ores nuestros : 

Tenemos el honor de participar 
4 Vs. que acabamos de formar 
ixa sooiedad mercantil bajo la 
razon de J. M. Morales y Ca., 
para el desempefto del ramo de 
oomisiones, y toda otra clase de 
transacciones comerciales. 

Nos lisoDJeamos de que nues- 
tros fondos, nnestra ezperrencia 
y conocimiento de negocios, nos 
proporcionarau los medics de sa- 
tisfacer completamente a todos 
los que se sirvan honrarnos con 
Bu coufianza. 

Para informes acerca de nues- 
tro caracter, nos referiinos a 
naoBtroe amigos, los Sefiores yora 
Konrales y hermanos de esa ; y 
qnedamoSi con la mayor conside- 
HMsioiif S. S. 8., 

Q. S. M« B.| 
J. M. MoBALis T Oa. 

Don Joee Maria Morales 
firmari -^— • 

IX A GniUermo Bah6 

fimuura — 


OirmilaT on e»tMbli$hing a 
new House. 

Cardenas, Aaguat 90« Id—. 

Messrs. Joseph Boiz & Oo., 
New York : 

Gentlemen : 

Wc would respectfully inform 
you that we have established a 
copartnership, under the firm q| 
J. M. Morales and Go., for the 
carrying on of a wholesale and 
general commission business. 

We think our capital and ex* 
perience will enable us to give 
entire satisfaction to all who 
may honor us with their con* 

For further particulars w« 
would refer to our friends, Messra. 
Mora Nor vales and Bros., of your 
city, and remain 

Tours respectftilly, 

J. M. MoBALis A Oa 

Joseph Maria Moraleu, Esq., 
will sign 

William Rah6, Esq , 

will sign — *> 

tHtfinr-T&utt) Ltadoir. 


Qnestioiis and Answen for Ckm^enation. 

i Que loocion es esta ? 

I De onal arte se hablara en las 

leodones signfentes? 
I Oomo Be llama una carta como 

eeta primera ? 
iCnal es su objeto? 

I De dondo viene esta oircular? 
iQae fecha tiene? 
I Oomo se llama la nneva firma? 
iQae clase de negocios quieren 

I Qae dicen respecto de sns fon- 


I A quienes nos refieren para m- 
formes acerca de su caracter? 
I Ck)mo se llaman los dos socios ? 

La trig6sima tercera. 

Del arte de la corresDondeBofi 

Una circular. 

£1 aviso del establecimlento d 
una casa de oomercio. 

De Oardenas. 

20 de Agosto, 18—. 

Los Seiiores J. M. Morales y Oa. 

Comisiones y toda otra olase do 
transacciones comerciales. 

Se lisonjean de qne sas fondos, 
su experiencia y oonocimiento 
de negocios, les proporciona- 
ran los medios de satisfacer 
completatnente 4 todos los que 
se sirvan honrarles con sn 

A sus amigos los Sefiores Mora 
Norvales y hermniios do esa. 

El Seilor Don Jose Maria Morales 
y el Seftor Don Guillermo Bah^. 

Gtentenoes for Oral Tranalatioii. 


I Oomo se llama el arte de tener 

las cueutas de an comerciante 

en bnen 5rden? 
La teneduria de libros. 
g A qne dos m^todos se reduce la 

teneduria de libros ? 
A la partida simple y & la pardda 

|De que partida hablar^mos en 

estas lecciones ? 
De la partida doble. 


How dc you call the art of keep- 
ing in good order the aooounti 
of a merchant ? 

The art of book-keeping. 

Which are the two best methodi 
of keeping books ? 

Single and double entry 

Of what kind are we going to 

speak in these leesonBt 
Of doable entry. 

I indiflpeDsablea 


(One libro* 
{tani elta t 

tJit libro de factttras, de caja, de 
rentas, de ventas m comiaion, 
de p«gar6i, v\ diario, el Jornal 
y el libro mayor. Lod tres 
titimoB Bon l08 llbroa prin- 

Para qne sirve el libro de 

faoturas I 
fttta dar una deacripciou com> 

pleta de todaa las mercanciaa 

que se oorapnn. 
|Oomo Be haoen las entr&dae 

en 611 
be oopian de tos factaraa de loa 

efeotos que coinprainoa. 
iQae debeinoa Laoer con laa fao- 

turaa originalea I 
Debeinoa conservarlaa como do- 

CDmentoa JnstiSostivcis. 
I Para que airve el libro de oajat 

Para Dianifestar las oanUdadea 

de dioero que se reoibea j las 

qne ae pagan. 
1 Oon que debe oargarae la onenUi 

Con todo el dinero que se recibe. 
I Oon qae debe abonarM la oaen- 

ta de c^aT 
OoD U)do el dinero qae se paga. 
(Caando debe bataDOearae este 

Detw balanoearse al &d de cada 


I Para qne sirve el libra de 

Para apnotar todas las mer- 

eaderias que ee Tenden p>r 

nneatra oaenta. 

i indispecsabli ^^^| 

Which books 
for itt 

An invoice-book, a cash-book, ■ 
sales-book, a commiastOD salew- 
book, and a bill-book; a day 
book, ajonmal, and pledger' 
the last three are the prinoipa! 

What ia the nee of the iiiToio* 
book? ' 

To keep a complete list of all thr 
goods bought. 

How are the entries made id it! i 

They are copied from the bills cA 
gooda received. 

B do with the origl- 

What n 


We must preserve them m 

What ia the nae of the oaah 

To show the amount of monej 
recdved and paid out; 

With what most the cash acconnt 

be cliarged) 
With all the raoney received. 
Witii what must the cash aoconni 

he credited I 
With all the money paid onL 
When must this book be bal- 

It mnst he bakuoed at the end 

t f every week. 
What is the use of the Bale» 

To keej) an eiaot list of all tlw 

gooda sold for oDrwIvea. 

TillRi^V-rUIBD L£ggON. 


Pan qae sir re el libro de yentas 

4 -x>ini8ion? 
Para espeoifioar todas las mer- 

oancias que yendemoa por oaen* 

ta de otroa. 
I Qae apontaiooB en el libro de 

Todos \oh pagar^ que damos y 

que reoibimos. 
|0omo se Uaman los primerost 
Obligaoiones a pagar. 
I T como se llaman los segnndos ? 
Obligaciones a oobrar 6 i. reoibir. 
I Que se apunta en el diario t 
£q el diario 6 borrador se apun- 

tan sin exoepcion todas las 

transacciones que se hacen 

diariamente en una oasa de co- 

mercio sean al contado 6 a 

iPara que sirve el jornal ? 
Para distinguir claramente quie- 

aes son los deudores y quienes 

son los aoreedores en cada 

Szpliqneme V. que es el libro 

El libro mayor el es mas impor- 

tante de ]a oasa. 
Cada dendor y cada acreedor de 

la casa tiene cuenta abierta 

en 61. 
(Sstas cuentos se cargan o se 

abonan seguz las entradas 

heohas en el jornal. 
Ki libro mayor debe balancearse 

al fin de cada mes. 
Birve para mostrarnos el resulta- 

do final de nuestros negocios. 
Este resultado debe ser oiw ga- 

nanda 6 vna perdida. 

What is the use of the commit 

sion sales-book f 
To keep a list of the goodc wi 

sell for others. 

What do we pat in tiie bill* 

All the notes we give and /•- 

How are the first called? 
Bills payable. 

And how are the others called? 
Bills receivable. 
What is put in the day-book t 
In the day-book or blotter we 

put every transaction that 

takes place, be it for cash or 

on credit. 

What is the use of the joamal t 
To show clearly who are the 
debtors and who are the cred- 
itors in each transaction. 

Tell me what the ledger ia. 

The ledger is the most important 

book of all. 
Each debtor and each creditor of 

the house has his account 

in it. 
These accounts are debited and 

credited with all the entries 

made in the journaL 
The ledger must be balanced at 

the end of every month. 
It serves to show the final result 

of the business. 
This resolt miiet b« a piofit or a 





817. Circular^ wben used as a noaD, is of the femiLiat 
gender, carto, letter, being understood. 

A lo8 Seflores Don Josi Ruiz y Co. 

818. The title of the person or persons addressed is generally 
preceded by the article thb at the beginning of a letter. 

Ex. Al Seflor Don JosS Buiz^ To Joseph Ruiz, Esq. 

Partidpar d Vts^ to inform you. 
319. Partidpar is here followed by the preposition d, in 
accordance with Rule 140. 

Satisfacer^ to satisfy* 
820. Satis/acer is conjugated like kacer (see page IS2\ 
except in the 2d person singular of the imperatlTe, which ts 
KLiirfcbce^ and not satisfaz, 

Se sirvan. 

321. Servirse is an idiomatic expression, which corresponds 
to PLBASB in English. It should, however, not be confounded 
with hagame F. el favor, explained in Rule 30. Servirse can 
only be used when the thing desired is a politeness to the 
person addressed. 

Sirvase F. sentarse, please to sit down. 

Haga me F. el favor de serrar la puerta, please to shut the door. 

De esa, 

322. Esa stands here for New York, the place of residence 
•f the gcntlciiicn addressed, in acoordHncc with Rule 277. 

Firmard , will sign . 

$23. Ti^e lines stand for the autograph signatures o» 

the partners of the house, all of which arc generally appended to 
eircnlars of this kind. 

Formar, to form ; honrar, to honor ; lisonjear, to flatter ; par* 
ticipar^ tc participate ; and proporcionar ^o procure, are regulaf 
terbs of the first conjugation. Referir^ to refer, follows Rule 1614 

Nucra York, 19 de Seliembre, 1 8 — . 

■New York, 19 of September, 18—. 

A los Seikores Don J. ITI. Morales y Ca., 

To the Messrs. J. M. Uorslea uid Oo^ 



Ifliiy Senores nnestros : IIenio§ tenldo 

Very Geotlemon uur; We have Iiad 

el honor de recibir sii carta, fecha 30 del 

the honor to receive jour letter, date 20 of the 

mes pasado. Deseainos toda clase de pros- 

Dionth past. We wiah everj kind of pros- 

pcridad A la nueva easa; y aniinados por 

perity to the new bouse ; acid eooouraged b; 

los buenos infbrnies de.niieslros aminos, 

tbft good informations of our trie ads, 

los Seiiorcs iflora Norrnles y heruianos de 

tbe Messn. Morn Horvalus and IirDthera of 

Vsta, quienes uos han asegarado que na 

here, who us have assured that not 

podiamos eonfiar nuestros intereses A 

we could coiilicio our int«real8 to 

ana casa mas respetable que la de Vs., 

a hoaae moTv respectable tbaa that of jour lionor^ 


BM thiett-fdurth lessow. 

desearfainos ejeciita§en la 6rden adjiinia, 

ve could wish Chat they would execate tlie order mljoined, 

en la que hemos fijado los precios v la 

in irbich we have fixed the prices ami the 

cnlidad, mas bien para que les lirraQ 

qaallt/, more well in order tbat they may perra 

A Vs. de gobierno que para que se 

[0 your liunurs as a governmeut than m order tliut tliemselvM 

aten^an rig'orosaincnte & elloi ; pues 

they may biad rigorously to tbom; for 

conaani«j(eu(eraineiile& \a. este nego- 

wo Iruat entirely to your lionora this business 

cio, aprobando todo lo que hagan. 

apjirovirig all what they may do. 

Expedieiou, por buqu^ americano, y A 

Expedition, by vessel Amerioan, and to 

nue§tra 6rdeu. 

Segruro en la Habnna, por los Senores 

Insurance in Havana, throngh the Messrs. 

Balbiani y Ca., A quienes se scrrir&n 

Balbiaai and Oo., to whom will please 

Vh, avisar del importc de la IHctura, 

your honors to advise of the ainouot of the invoice 

luego que liayan ercetuado. el embarqufl 

a'ter . that they may have effected the sbipmeut 

de las mercancias. 

of the goods. 

Reenibolso, & sesenia dtas vista, sobra 

Keimbursemeut, at sixty day a' sight, 

nosotros niismos. 

our selTM 


THmxr-FOnETH lessoh. 

rConfianios que es(e primer ensaf o lendrA 
We trust that this first trial will haT« 

iin £xito & niieHtra satisfbccion, y espera- 

s result to oar BatisfactioD, and we hope 

Imos activar nueatras relaciones tanto ^^ 

lo enlivoQ our relatioDs aa oiaeli ^^^| 

cnanto sea posible. ^^M 

U it may he possihie. ^^^^ 

Agradecer£ino§ & Ts. mc sirvaD con- ^^M 

We wiil he thaukful to your honora the; maj please to ^^^| 

teiitarnos por el correo proximo, dAndonoa 

answer ub by tlie mail nest, giving ns 

noticias exaclas del estado de esa plaza. 

Dotloea exaet of the atata of that place, 

Tenenio§ la satisflicciou de ser de Vs., 

We have tlie satisfuctian to be of foarhonon^ 

con la mayor considcracion, 

Willi the greatest consideration, 

s. s. s., 

Your faithfiil Bervanto, 

Q. S. m. B., 

Who yoar hanils kiss, 

Joi£ Ruiz y iia. 

Joseph Bniz and Oo. 



MO Trcscicntos qnintales de cafe, & 8 ctra. 

SOO Three liondrel, owts. of cnffee, at 8 centa. 

800 Ochoctentos tiocoyes de aziicar, Ko. tO »' 12, i 87^. 

800 Elglit liondred hhds, of eogar, No. 10 to 12, at 971. 

5000 CiBCO mil labacos, Lttndres 1% a $36.00. 

OOOt Five Uiuuaaud cigars, Loadou 1', at (35.00. 

with tb 



Ttao aame In good EniJlBh. 

Naeva York, 
19 da Setieinbre, 18—. 
A loo SelioreH Don J. M. Uorales 
J Oa., OardeDas. 

MnjSennresniiestroB: Hemoi 
iHldo el lionor de reoibir ei 
earta, feclia 80 del mes paBsdo 
DeseamoB tixla cluie de prosperi- 
diul 4 la naeva csaa ; y aairaados 
pc r los bneniis iDfoniieii de nnea- 
trus araigoB loa Seiiiireii Mora 
Norvales y liermanosi de esta, 
tjaienes oos ban osegiirado que 
no podiamoB confiar oaesti'os in 
Ureses a unacasa mas rcspetable 
qae la de Vs., deBeariamns ejeua- 
taBea la orden adjunta, en la qua 
bemos fijado los precios j la cali- 
dad, moa Hen para que lea Hirvaa 
i Va. de gobierno que para que 
Be atengan rigoroaatDente aellus; 
pues ouofiatnos enteraraente ■ 
Vs. eate negocio, aprobando todu 
lo que bagan. 

EzpedioioD, por bnqne ameri- 
tano, y i nuestru 6rdeQ. 

fieguro en la Uabaaa, por loa 
BeHores Balbiani j Oa., a. qaienes 
le aervir&n Vs. aviHar del importe 
de la factura, luego que hajan 
•faatuado el embarque de las 

Beembolso, a aeaenta diaa vista, 

Oocflaraoe que este primer en- 
eayo teodra uu &j''.<i a naeBCra 
■atiBlk^cion, y esperamoa activar 
DQeatras relacionea taoto cnnoto 
Hs po.^ible. 

NewY.-rk, 6e?t.l«, 18— . 
Messrs. J, M. Morales ft Oo , 


GentlemeD: We have bad thi 
honor of receiving your eBteoni»l 
favor of the 20th <ilt., and wt 
wish yon every possible sncsew 
in your new undertaking. En 
cooraged by tbe warm reoom- 
mendation of our friends Measn. 
Mora Nurvalea and brothers, 
who li^ve assured us that we 
cnuld not trust onr interests to 
a mure respectable honse than 
yours, we baud yon the order 
here below. 

The prices specified are offered 
as approximations ratber than 
strict limits, inasmnch as we 
have the utmost confidence In 
your judgment, and approve be- 
forehand every thing you may do. 

Shipment: on board an Amer- 
ican vessel, and to oii~ order. 

Insurance: in Havana, thrangh 
Messrs. Balbiani & Oo., to whom 
yoD will please send the invoica 
as soon as the goods are shipped 

Ton may draw on lu for the 
amonnt, at 60 days' sight. 

We trust we shall be satisfied 
with tbe ezecntion of this fl 
order, and hope to give yon uu 
considerable ones in ftitars. 



Agradeoer^mos ftVa. se sirvan 
•ontestarnos por el oorreo proxi- 
mo, dandonos noticias ezaotas 
del estado de esa plaza. 

Tenemos la satisfaocion de ser 
de Vs., con la mayor considera- 
eion« 8. 8. 8., 

Q. 8. M. B., 
Josi Ruiz t Oa, 


800 Trescientos qui n tales de 

cafe, 4 8 ctvs. 
800 Ochocientos bocoyes de 

azucar. No. 10 a 12, a 87f 
6000 Oinco mil tabacos, Londres 

1% 4 $85.00. 

Ton will oblige ns bj acknowl- 
edging the receipt of this by re- 
turn steamer, and by keeping m 
advised regularly of the state of 
your market. 

Tours respectfully, 

JosiFH Buu k Co 

800 Three hundred owts. oofEbe 

at 8 cents. 
800 Eight hundred hhds. sugar 
No. 10 to 12, at 87^ cts. 
5000 Five thousand cigars, Lon 
d^u 1% at $85.00. 

Questioiui and Answen for Ck>nT«r8atioiL 

I Que leccion es esta ? 

I Ha llegado el correo de los 

Estados Unidos ? 
|Hemos recibido cartas de im- 

portancia ? 
I Que fecha tiene la carta? 
i De cual casa de Nueva Torkt 

I Han recibido ellos ya nnestra 


I Han tornado informes relatives 

a nuestros medios? 
lOuales informes les ban dado 

estos s€fior3s? 

T que efect) ha tenido esta 

La trig^sima cuarta. 
Si, se&or. 

Una carta muy importante da 

Nueva York. 
El 19 de Setiembre. 
De la de los Selkores Jos^ Buii 

La ban recibido. 

Nos desean todos .oa adbjmta- 

mientos posibles en nuestro 

Han tornado informes de los 

8eiiores Mora Norvales y Oa. 
Los mejores asegurandoles que 

no podian confiar sus interesea 

& una casa mas respetable que 

la nuestra. 
Que nos ban cometido una ordes 

de compra. 


[Qoe qniereo que 

EatUDoes noe conflnn ellos eat« 

negooio enterameDte ? 
iQne pre«io ban ^jado pot el 

oaf 6 1 
I Onal limite nog daa por Iob 

I Qne eBoriben respecto Ae la ex- 

I Qaieren que asegaremoB el oar- 

|T oomo DOS rembolaarimoel 

Tres oientos qniDti.Ies de 
ocbociiotos boco;e!i ilo BEUoal 
y oinoo rail tabacos. 

Si, seitur, pero mas bien para qai 
008 eirvaD de gobierno qna 
para qne noa alengamoe rlgi>- 
rosamente i elloa. 

Enteramente aprobando todc lo 
que hsgamoH. 

Ocbo centavos la libra. 

Siete reales fiiertea la airoba. 
Treiota y cinco pesos fnertea «i 

mil de Luiidres primero. 
Que se baga por baqne ame^ 

oaDO a. Bii orden. 
Qaieren qtie 1e asegaremoi pot 

loB Senorea Balbiani y Oa., d< 

la BabaoB. 
A seseuta dias visla »obre elloa. 

Sentenoes lor Oral Ttanalatloa 

iQae faaoomprado T. hoyt 
Trea oieotoH sacoe de cafe. 
{Onaoto ba pagado Y. por el 

Ocbo oentavoB la libra, en todo 

onarenta y aeia rail ochocientos 

diez 7 naeve llbras importando 

tres mil Beleoientos oaarenta y 

(unco pesos y dnonenta y dos 


A qnien ba oomprado V. esle 

AI Sefior Don Toraas TJrieta. 

En que Ubro debe V. hacer la 

primers entrada? 
Oopiara lafaotnraeD mi libiv de 


Wbat bave yon bonght hi-day I 

Tbreo hundred bags of cofiee. 

Bow muob did yon pay for iha 
coffee t 

Eight oeDle a ponod, amonnting 
hi three thonsand Beven bnn- 
dred and forty-five do) Ian and 
fifty-two cenlfl, for forty-six 
thousand eight hundred and 
nineteen ponnde. 

From whom have yon bongbl 
this coffee I 

From Mr. Tboinaa Urieta. 

In which book must yaa vatki 
your first entry ! 

I will copy the Invoice into my 



La«go tomu^ nota de esta tran- 

:iatenc1a de meroaDciaa. 
es el aoreedort 
El Sejior Dob Tomas Urieta. 
) Oomo hara V. pnes la entrada 

MeFoanclaa dBben a Tomas Urieta 

800 60009 da caf^ seguD libro 

de factur&s No. 1, $3746.62. 
iPorqnS dice V. segun libro de 

fsotDroa No. 1 1 
Forqoe todas las factaraa tieaen 

UQ Qumero, j esta factara es 

la primera. 
(Oomo pasara V. eata entrada 

del Jornal al libro mayott 

Oargar6 la onenta de mercanoiog 
ooa (S74&.D9, 7 abonar^ la 
misma cantidad a Tomaa TJria- 

lOnaado le pagarS Yl 


I Qae entrada baraV. cDtunoea! 

AbuQar6 tni libro de o^a con 
dioha Boina. 

Lnego toinar6 aotlcia de esle 
pago en mi diario y har6 la 
Bigni en te entrada eu mi jornal: 
Tomaa Urieta debe 4 cajn. 

Becibido eu efectivo para ealdar 
am Queota t3T46J>2. 

tl €d tra^pasarS esta entrada 
al libro mayor abonaado la 
oaenta de o^a y cargaado la 
onenta de Urieta oon dicba 

Then I Bball en ler this tiaoasotioa 

into my day-book. 
Who is Che debtor in this tnn» 

I or my stock of goods. 

And who is tlie oreditorl 

Mr. Thomaa Urieta. 

How will yon then Jonrnalisa 

tliis entry I 
Merchandise to Thomas Urieta 

voice-book No. 1, $e7M.6a. 

Why do jou Esy as per invoice- 
book No. 1 1 

Because all invoices are number- 
ed, and this is the first one. 

How will yon transfer this entry 
from the jonrnal into the 

I shall debit general merchan- 
dise with 9ST46.68, and credit 
the same siiiount to Thomai 

When will yon pay him t 


What entry will you then maket 

I will credit my c»»h aoooDnt 
with this amount, 

1 shall also enter tbis payment In 
my day-book, and make tba 
following entry in my journal : 
Thomas Urieta to ca^. 

Received cosli to balance no 
count. $8T45.B3. 

I will Bnally transfer this entry 
to the ledger, crediting cash 
account, and debidng Uriett 
with the said amonit. 

You are right. 



lateral Translatloii. 

Lecvioii Iri^^siina qiiinta. 

Lesson thirty til'th. 

Cardenas, 4 de Oct ii lire, 18 — • 

Cardenas, i of Oclober, 18—^ 

A. lo8 Sefiores Don Jos€ Ruiz y Ca., 

Messrs. Jusepti Kuie aud Co., 

IVueva York. 

New York. 

Muy Senorcs niiestros : En contestacion 

Very Gentleiiieu uur: In reply 

& la de T§. de 19 del pasado, les dainos 

to rtiftl iif youra of 19 of the post, to tlieiii we give 

las debidas gravias por la 6rden que V§. I 

tlie due? tlinoks fur tlie order which your lionori ] 

ban lenido a Men confiai-nos. Yanios & 

Lave held for well to confide ti) us. We are going to 

ocuparnos de ella sin la ni£nos dilaclon} 

occupy ollr^elves with it without Mie least delay, 

afin de podcr darles aviso del lesullado de 

in order to be able tn give iheiii Tintice of the result 

nucMtras operaciones dentro de pocos dias 

our ope rati in 13 in=ide of few days, 

Eslen Vs. se^uroB de que pondr^inos (oda | 

May be your honors sure that we will ft[>plr i 

nuestro esnicro en §u cumplimienlo, en la f 

oui care io their accomplish me ot, in 

persuasion de que nos contiuiiarAn honraH' j 

pentaftaion that as they m\\ eontinae honoring 

H llO CO] 

TBII!TY-¥TrTn 1 

ilo con la iiiisnin confianxa, y no dudaiidoi 

th tlie eame coulidence, and not [loubtiog 

que qiiedar&u salisCet-lios como lo ban 

thjit tliey *ill remtiin Bstislied, as ic liav« 

slado sicnipre niiestros corresponsales. 

been always tmr cunespon'lents, 

A«Uuuta reniitiiiioi« it \a. nuestra- 

Adjoined wu remit tci j-oiir lionors our 

iiltiina revigla del niereado; y tendr^mos 

last review of tlie iiiaiket; and wu shall have 

la satisi^cciou de contiuiiar reniitiendo A 

the Batisfaotion to coDtinue remitting to 

Vs. cada quinrena nuestroi aTisoB 

yoar hooors each fortnight onr advices 

acerca del eslado de eNia plaxa, eftperando 

respecting the state of this place, hoping 

que sea de sii aproliaciou, 

that it may be with your approbation. 

Entretanto, qne Vs. ae sirvan conies- 

Qur lioDors ma; please tt 

s. s. s., 

mr fnithful aervaDtB, 

4. S. n. B., 

Whu your Lan<ls kiss, 

J. in. morales y Ca. 

J. M. Morales & Oo. 


(arnos, somos 

O&nlenaa, 4 da Ootnbre, ig— . 
A lo« SeBorea 
Don Josfi Rnii y Ca., 

Nneva York. 

Ha; Sefiores nuestros; £q 

•oiteetacioD a la de Vs. de 19 

del possdo, les damoB las debidas 

In good EngUah. 

Oardenas, Ootober 4, 18 — ^ 
MesBra. Joseph Knic A Co., 
New York. 
Oeotlemen: In reply 


favor of the 19th nit,, ire would 
thank yon for the order jo» 





pwriu por la 6rden que Vs. han 
tenido & bien confiarDos. Vamos 
& ucaparDOS de ella sin la meooa 
dilscion, afla de poder darlca 
aviso del resoltado da Daestran 
operaoioDes dentro tie poena dios. 
blen Vb. Bogurns de qna puo- 
drjinoe tod a nneHtro esinero eo 
•uoaiupliiiiieuto, en la psr^uasioc 
de que nos cuntinuaria hunraiido 
oon la miama coofianza, y do 
dadandos qae quedaraa Batisfe- 
ebo9 como lo lian estnilo Biempre 
naeatros oorrespoD sales. 

A^onla remitimos a Vs. Dnes- i 
tra ultima revista del inercado; 
y Uindr^mos la Badsfaocion de 
oontdnnar remitieado & Vs. cada i 
qniDcena nuestros avisos acerca 
del eBtado de esta plaza, eaperaa- 
do qoe sea de an apmbacioD. I 

^itretanto, que Vs. se eirvnn 
BODt«BtArDos, somos 

8. S. S., 

Q. 8. M. B., 
J, M. T Oa. I 

have honored qb with, and a» 

sare yon that we vrill attend 
to it withoDt delay, so as to ba 
able to send foil particolara Id a 
few days. 

YoD may reat a-ssnred KiM 
that we will spare no pains in 
yonr service, in the Lope of se- 
curing tliereby a oootinnance ol 
that confidence whiah yoa have 
been pleased to accord ns, and 
wliioli we have so far succeeded 
in retaining with all our oorre- 

Attached to this yon will find 
our last market report, which 
we will forward yoa regularly 
ever; fortnight as desired. In 
the mean time awaiting an 

Yonrs respeotftally, 

J. H. HoRALU A Oix 

QneatlonB and Anawera for ConveiaatloiL 

La trigdaima qninta. 
Si, seflor, ba Uegado. 

I Ha llegada el correo de la lala 

de Ooba t 
( Han llegado algnnas cartas t 

iQce feoha tietie la carta? 
(Hao reeibido nnestra ultima! 

iQne dioen de nnestra ordeni 

lOnando nos daran notieia del 
reenltado de ans oreraoionest 


ay Ca. 

y entre ol 

HeAorea J. M. Morales 
El 4 de Ootubre, IS—, 
Oontestan naestra ultima del 19 

del paaado. 
Nos dan las debidas gradaa pM 

Dentro de poooa diaa. 

THlBTT-Fttl'B LfiSdOtf* 


fOree Y. qne podemos esta: 

Begaros de sti esmero t 
I Qae dioen respeoto de esto t 


I Nob remiten sn redsta del mer- 

jOree Y. necesario oontestar & 

esta carta t 
iQaien de los sooioa ha esorito 

la carta! 

ElloB lo asegnran. 

Que aplicar^n todo an eemerG eo 

el oamplimiento de mieatri 

Que no dndan qne qnedar^moa 

satisfechos asi como lo ban 

estado siempre sua correapon- 

Si, sailor, y continaarin remi* 
* tiendonos cada quince diaa ana 

Si, sefior, porqn6 ellos noa piden 

que les contestemos. 
£1 Sefior Don Jos^ Maria Moralet 


Sentenoes for Oral Tranalatloni 


I Ha comprado Y. una partida 

de tabaoos t 
6i, sefior, diea mil Oonchaa y 

I De qne fabrica ? 
De la de los Seftorea Oabaftaa 

Carbiyal y Oa. 
fOomo ha pagado Y. estoa ta- 

No los he pagado todavia, dar6 

un pa^ar^. 
I Ouanto onestan los Conchas ? 
Treinta pesos el miliar. 
1 7 los Londres? 
Veinte pesos el miliar. 
I En qne libro hara Y. la primera 

Oopiar6 la fpctnra de los tabacos 

b%}o No. 8 en mi libro de 



Have yon bonght a lot of cigars I 

Tes, nr, 10,000 Oonchaa and 

Whose make! 
From Messrs. Oabalias Carbi^al 

How have yon paid for these 

cigars ? 
I have not yet paid for them. I 

am to give my note. 
How mnch do the Oonchas coett 
Thirty dollars the thousand- 
And the Londres ? 
Twenty dollars a thousand. 
In which book will yon makt 

yonr first entry ? 
I will copy the invoice of the 

cigars as No. 2 in my inyolce> 


TUIKTY-Firm 1 

|T qne eata:ad& w bari e 

Oo[dar6 eo el libro de pagarfe d 
pagar6 que dar£ ■ lew Seiiores 
Oabaau Ctrbajal y Oa., bajo 
No. 1. 

En que libro deba V. entonoes 
tomar nota de estas dm tran- 

nJlfol'owt ^H 

Xn mi diario, del coal las pasar^ 

at jorual. 
jOomo ta9 pasari V. a 

libro I 
Meroanoias debea i Oabailas 

OarbE^al j Oa., 1600.00. 
CabaBaa Carbajal y Cs., deben a 

obligaciones & pagar, (600.00. 
I A cnaatoB dias Tieta dars V. el 

A noTODta diaa viata. 
(Qne entrada hari V. cnaodo 

V, pagft el pagartl 
Abonar6 mi libro de caja con 

tSOO.OO, apaotard el pago en 

uii diario j enCrard en el jornal 

oomo Bigu6; Obligaciooes a 

pagar deben a caJa, (GOO.OO. 

(Que oneatas ae aaldan de esta 

inanem en el libro major) 
L> de Oabafias Oarbqjal y Oa., y 

la de obligacioues ii pagar. 
I Y cDales qnedaran abierta^ t 
M de ineroaDCiaa qne qneda oar- 

gada y la de o^a que qneda 

abonada oon $1100.00. 

PeapcM veoderd mis tabacos, y 
ai redbiese maa de $S00.0O, 
wr& DDS gaoaaota, bi reoibtere 
mtooa, eera una perdida. 

And what entry 

I will copy into my bill-book ttt 
note wbiob I give to Hessrs, 
OabailaB Oarbajal & Oo., cnm- 
bering it So. 1. 

Id what book moat yoa tbenno- 
ter these two transaotiona I 

In my day-book, from which I 
will pass them into the jonrDftL 

How will you pass them into tbat 

General merchandise to Oabalua 
Oarbaja] & Oo., |GO0.OO. 

Cabailas Oarbiyal & Oo., to biila 
payable, $600.00. 

At how many days' eight will 
yon give yoar Dote I 

At 90 days' sight. 

What entry will you make on the 
payment of the note t 

I will credit my cash aooonnt 
with $500.00, enter the pay- 
ment in my day-book, and 
pass it over into my journal, 
as follows: Bills payable, to 
cash, $600.00. 

Which acconnts are tbna bal- 
anood in the ledger I 

That of OabaBaa Oarbqjal k 
Co., and that of bills payable. 

And whioh will remain open T 

That of general merohandiae, 
which is debited; and that di 
cosh, wliich is credited with 

1 shall then sell my uigars; and 
if I receive more than $600.00, 
the snrplu^t will be proGt, bat 
if sold for less, the defidt will 
be a low. 

tmurt'tn^m LfiadoK. 


* Que significa descontar nn 

Pagar el pagar^ hoy en vei de 

yagarle en noyenta dias. 

gOna^ seria la oonsoonendasi Y. 

Oanaria el desoaento del dia. 
I Cnanto es el des^ento del dia? 
Seis por ciento auoal. 
i Oaanto seri seis por oiento de 

$500.00 por noventa dias ? 
Biete pesos y dncaenta oentavos. 
|0omo encaentra V. esta can- 

Mnltiplioando los $500.00 por 

seis y partiendo el prodncto 

por caatro. 
I Porqa6 por cnatro ? 
Porqae noventa dias es la caarta 

parte de an alio. 
I Onantos dias tiene el afto oomer- 

Tres cientos sesenta. 
I En todos los pdses ? « 

No, sefior, solamente en los Es- 

tados Unidos. 
I Onantos dias tiene el afio comer- 

cial en otros paisest 
Tres cientos sesenta y cinoo. 
I Qne significa deacon tar nn pa- 
gar^ 4 premio ? 
Venflerle eon nna gananoia. 
|8e bacen mnclios negocios en 

la Bolsa aqni ? 
Om la Inglaterra, la Francia, y 

los Indias Occidentales. 

Hay mnclios bancos aqni ? 
lias qne en cnalqnier Dtro pais 

del mnndo. 

What do yon mean \y disoonnt- 

ing a note ? 
To pay the note to-day, instead 

of widting nntil the 90 days 

shall have oome ronnd. 
What would be the conseqnenM 

if yon shonld pay it to-day 9 
I would gain the disoonrt. 
How much does it amonnt tot 
Six per cent, a year. 
How mnch will that be oi 

$500.00, at 90 days? 
Seven dollars and fifty cents. 
How do yon find this ont? 

By multiplying the $500.00 by 6^ 
and dividing the product by 4k 

Why by 4? 

Becanse 90 days are the qnartei 

of a year. 
How many days are reckoned to 

the year in business? . 
Three hundred and sixty. 
In all countries ? 
No, sir; only in the United 

How many days has it in othei 

countries t 
Three hundred and sixty-five. 
What do you mean by disconnt- 

ing a note at a premium ? 
Selling it with profit. 
Do they do much business at tbi 

Exchange here? 
A great deal. 
With England, France, and thi 

West Indies. 
Are there many banks here ? 
More than in any other ooiutrj 

in the worid. 


Uteral Tranalatioo. 

Leccion trig^sima sexta. 

Lesson thirtj sixth. 

Re vista del Iflercado. 

Keview of llie Market. 

C&rdcnas, 4 de Octubte, 

GardenaB, 4 of OoLober, 

E«lado de la plaza: 

State of ilia place: 

De algunos dios tt 

Siuee a few days al 

tuta parte, 

this place, 

ha habido en ella maa movi- 

miento que de ordiuario en el 

meat lliaii uf orilinary iti the 



de Irutos colouiales, y 

of products euluuiul, und 

especialuiente en 

especiull; ID 

el luelado, de que hay innchos pedidos, 

tbe iiioloaH, of whio!t there are many demandB, 

k pesar de la sublda cousiderable que ha 

ID Bpite of the advance considerable nbioli it hai 


Este articulo eata luuy escaso, y 

Tbis arLlcle ia very 

las arribog 

the arrivals 

SOU bastautc nunicrosoi 

Bra enough iin 

para oeosionar una baja. El purgado 

In order to occosioa a decline. The purged 

apenas se encuentra, y obtiene un alS« 

hardly la met, and obtaiiu a high 



precio. El ordinario mascabado se venditi 

price. Tlia ordinary musoovado itself sold 

ayer dcsdc 3!^ ft 4 reales nicrtes ftbordo, 

yestorday from 8J to 4 reals full on board. 

Dentro de pocos dias tcndrA lugar otra 

Within of fow days will take placa otter 

rcnta de cerca de 3000 bocoyes, que, 

sale of about 2000 hogsheads, which, 

segnn las apariencias, no se colocarAn A 

Bccording to the appearances, not will be disposed al 

in£uo§, porqiie esta calidad est& muy 

less, because tliia quality is very 

solicitada para los E§tado§ del IVorfe y 

for the States of the north and 


para Inglaterra. 

for England. 

El azAcar cii briito esIA muy abundante ; 

The augar in rough is TCi'y abnndnnt; 

y aiin(|iic ha salido niiicho para Europa, 

Rod altbougti there has gone off much for Europe, 

como continiian los pcdidos, es de eaperar 

aa continue the deiuauds, it is to eipect 

que suba en lugar de bQJar. El azdcar 

that it may advaDce instead of to declioe. The sugar 

uia«cabado (iene poca demanda, y son 





and are 





prccios ; 

prices ; 

el de 

that of 



calidad y el ordinario abundan mucko 

quality and the ordinary »boiiiitl muoli; 

el florcle escasea. 

the florete la scaroo. 


El tabaco 8ube de dia en dia; escasea, j 

The tobacco advances fron. day to day ; is scarce, 

f poi* consign iente hay poca probabilidad 

knd ia eooseqnence there is little probability 

dc que baje, a ni£nos dc que no Ucgue 

lliat it may decline, unless thai not may arriv 

mucho de las viieltas ; lo que no e» de espe- 

much fi'om the districts ; what not ia to expeoi, 

rar, aegrun las uoticias que (enemos dc allit 

according to the notices wliioli we have fioui Here. 

Los fletes eslau bajos, pues hay bastantei 

Tlie freights are tow, liecanae there are enough 

buques en la bahia. 

ressels in the bay. 

Cambios, Ltindi*eii, de II a 19%; Paris, 

Exchange, London, from 11 to 12 ■/•; Paris, 

de 3 ft 4% de premio; IVuera ¥ork, de 

from 8 to 4*/. of premium; New Tork, from 

94 & 3a \ de descuenlo. 

n to Si'l, of discount 

J. in. Moraleo y Ca. 

J. M. Morales and Oo. 

Tbe same In good ThigiUTi. 

Rkvista b>. Mkboado. Mabebt Ripobt. 

47fcrdeuH, 4 do Octubre, U— . Carduniis, October 1, 1&- 

EaTADO DR LA Flaza : De al- Statb «f tbk Mabket : Then 

gunosdlasaestaparle, hahabido is of late greater activity in oo- ' 

«D ellft mas mi>viinicuto qoe de lonial products here tliaii is tuoal ■ 

ordioario en el uiercado de fi'utos at lliia period of the year, i 

eoloniales, y espfoialinenlo en el esiieciaUy 'a Molawu, -mbUk 1 



Umlado, At que hay cinahoe pe- 
didfM, i pesu- de U sibida ood- 
riderable qne h& teuido. Est« 
libos DO Mn bastanto numerosos 
panooaaionaraiiabqja. £1 pur- 
gado apenas m encnentra, y ob- 
li«oe on alto preoio. Elordinario 
UBHOabado se TeDdi6 ayer desde 
H & i roalas fu«rt«a abordo. 
Dentro de pooos diaa tendri I agar 
otra TSDta de oeroa de 9000 bo- 
cof es, qne, Began laa aparienoias, 
■o ae oolocaran a m6Dos, porqne 
eeta ealidad esta mny solicltada 
para Io8 GstadoB del Norte y para 

El AzCoAB eo brato esta mnj 
abnndante; ; aanque ha ealido 
maobo para Europa, oomo oon- 
tionaD loa p«didoB, ea de esperar 
que sabs en lugar de b^ar. El 
azucar intwcabado tiene pooa de- 
manda, y aoa moderados hub pre- 
eiosj el de tercera ealidad j el 
ordinario abandan maobo. £1 

El Tabaoo sabe de dia en dia ; 
eecasea, j por ooneigDleute bay 
poca probabUidad de qne bqje, 
i m^Doa de qne no Ueg[« muoho 
ds laa voeltae; to qne no ea de 
esperar, s^^n lai notJoiaa que 
tenemoa de allf. 

Loa Purrte estan bqjos, pnea 
bay bastantea baqoei en la bahfa. 

OaMBioe, Londrea, de 11 i 
li% Pane, de 844V> de pre- 
•do ; Nneva Torlc, de 8| i 8^ % 
Ae deacnenio. 


la mnob In demand, Jt ^Ite ol 
of its Qpnard tendency. 

Tbis article is, In faot, very 
Boaroe, and arrivals few. Aa to 
the refloed, it ia not to be had; 
while oommon maaooTado fetch* 
ed yesterday 8| to 4 reala tha 
cask of B{ gallons, deUvered OB 

There is another sole of aboo 
2000 hogsheads announced for 
to-morrow, but Ibat is not likely 
to change hands at lower ratet 
either, for this quality is much 
Bongbt after for the United StstM 
and England. 

Unrefined SceAB la qnite 
plenty ; and althongh mnoh bai 
been shipped to Europe, it will 
advance rather than decline in 
price, inasmuch as new ordera 
oontinne to oome in. Udboo* 
vado is very little in demand; 
prices are moderate. No. S and 
oommon are abundant, bat Jl»- 
rtlt is getting scarce. 

ToBAOOO rises every day ; and 
as there is not mudi on hand, 
it offera but little chance of a 
decline in price, anloaa new ar 
rivals should inorease — a tiiiaf 
probable, however, if our 
advioos be correct. 

Fbeishtb are low, lliere b<d]>| 
many vesaels In the harbor. 

EzoHAHei— on Iiondoo, from 
11 to 12 It, on Paris, frou. 8 U 
4% premium; Nrw York, from 
S{ to aj % difcount. 



QoeatloBs and Ansirers for ConTorMUoiL 

I Qtle leccion es eata t 

I Noe lian remitido los Beflorea 

J, M. Uurules y Oa. la nltima 

(Qne dicen del estado da la 
I Odu respech) a qne olsse de 

iHay babido mnohos arribos 

del interior t 
I Qoe dioen del azucar purgado ! 

I T el maaoabado t 

|Y no bay ninganaa aparienaia 
qoe Be deepaobara a m^nos t 

(Ea abnndanto el aziicar e 

I T el azuoar mascabado t 

1 T las oalidadee inferiorea I 

I Ha bq}ado el tabaco t 

La trig£t 

Si, eefior, tiene feoba 

Qne desde algnnoB dios b& babida 
en ella mae movimiento qof ^^i 
de ordinario. ^^^| 

Oon respechi & loa geueru ^^^| 
ooloDitJes. ^^^1 

Que hay muchos pedidoa a pesar ^^^| 
de la sabida considerable qn< 
ba ten! do. 

No son bastBDtoB para ocaaionar 
nna b^a. 

Apenaa se encnentm y es mnj 

i 4 realei 

Que notioiM tienen 

Oomo eetan los Betes I 

Oomo cotizan lus oantbios ts- 
tra[\Jero9 J Co mo los sobre 
Vieva York t 

Se Teadio desde 8| i 

Efo, sefior, eata calidad eali d»- I 

masiado apeteoida aqai j en. 1 

Si, eehoT, aDnqae macho bi 

ealido para Europa, 
I E»ti poco boscodo y bus pieolu 
a moderadoB. 
Abuudao, pero el florete e«* ■ 

I Snbe de dia ei 
Porqne esca^ea y por conalgmanliC I 
hay pooa probabiUdad de qui J 
las Que no llegarji mucho de ellaa. 

Eatan bajoa, pnes bay maohMj 
buques en la baltia. 

Londreade 11 a 13% y Paris del 
a 4 *!' do premio, Noeva Torlf' ) 
de V/i & i'/t 'It de deBcuento, 

^^^^^^r TUI&TT-StXTB LEBSOH. 811 ^^H 

V^ aeiitenOM foi Oral Tranalatlbn. ^^ 

^M TOBRtaunuTBDmoRi«-jaa. 


H Ha Tflodido V. boy atgaca par- 

Have yon Bold any goods to-dajl ], 

■ tidademeroanDiasI 

H Qd Tsndido los inisino^ SOO bbcos 

I liBve Buld tbe 800 bags ol . ^H 

H da aafi, que coinpr6 al SuBor 

coffee which I bought from ^^H 

V Don Tomaa Urieta Iince pocos 

Mr. I'bomaa Urieta a few dayi ^^H 



lAqnienloa vendio V? 

To w1>om did you sell them ? ^H 

Al Seflor Don Jaymo Phillips. 

To Jlr. Jamea Phillips. ^H 

1 Aqne preoio? 

At what price 1 ^H 

A nneve centavos la libra. 

At nine cents a pound. ^H 

Ckin nn beneflcio de on centavo. 

At one cent profit. ^H 


Bov mnch does the whol« ^H 

amonnt tot ^^H 

A $1,318.71. 

To $4,218.71. ^H 

J En qne libro hftra Y. la pHmera 

In wliat book wilt yon mftke ^H 

entrada t 

your first entry 1 ^H 

Ed mi libra de rentaa, en el coal 

In my salea-t«ok, as sale Ho. 1. ^H 




Then I shall make the following ^^M 

diario como eigne: Vendldo 

entry in my day-book: Bold ' 

en eeta feelia 800 saooB de cafg 

thia day 800 bags of coffee, aa 

Bognn libro de ventas No. 1, al 

per BBlea-book No. 1, to Mr. 

Beflur Dun Jajme Phillips, 

James PbiUipa, $4,218.71. 


Del diario paHir6 la transaccion 

From the day-book I shall put 

al joraal, Javme Phillips debe 

& ueroaaoiu $4,313.71. 

James Phillips lo general mer- 

chandise, $4,313.71- 

ALonare mi ouenla de meroan- 

I aball credit general merchandise 

ciax en el iibro mayor con 

in ledger wltb aaid amount, ^^\ 

lioha sumay abriri DtraaaDota 

and open aoolber aoeonnt to ^^H 

al SeSor D»n Jayme Pbii- 

Mr. JamoB Phillips, which ! ^H 

'Ipa, la 3Qa] cargare oon loa 

will debit with $4,218.71. ^H 



1 U pagara ol oootado el Sefior 

WiU Mr. PbUlipB pay yim uahl ^H 








TillKlV-SIXTU 1 


He pagara h1 conljido, con cujo 
psgo cargnr6 mi libro de caja, 
tomaodo al mistno tieinpo 
noticia <le &. en mi iliario, del 
oua) lo paBar6 iil Jorna] oomo 
■igne : C^a debe k Jajme 
rhiUips, |4,218-f I 

iQne caenU se salda aliora en 
el libro mayor! 

Ia onentA del SeRor Don Jaytne 

I OuaaUt ha gaoado T. en esta 


( Qne entrada debe V, hacer en 
razon de esta gananoial 

Una sola entmda en el jornal, 
oomo signe : Mercancias 4 ga- 
Danciaa y perdidas, $488.91. 

Oargari la cnenU de mercanoioit 
eD el libro major cud dicha 
SDma y abrirfi otra ouenta de 
gananoias j perdidas, la onal 
abonarg con la misma can- 

7 anponiendo que el 8e3or Phil- 
lips le hobiege dado an pagar^f 

Cnt6ccea le habrin copiado en el 
libra de pagaria oomo una 
obligaoioD i reoibir No. 1, y 
babiendo tornado nota de la 
tranaaocioQ en el diariu la 
habria pasado al jornal oomo 
aigne: ObligaoioneB 6. reoibir a 
Jayme Phillips, 14,218.71, y 
deapaes de 8 u 4 rjieses, cuando 
U-me pagarS, entraria el pago 
eargaodo e libro de caja y el 
Jornal oomo aigue : C^a i obli- 
gsolones 4 recibir, |4,S1S.T1. 

Itny bleu, yo veo qne V. oom- 
prende to^o esto, 

He will pay me cash, whioli ] 
will enter into my oaifa-book 
and day-book, from which I 
will paaa it into the Jonroal a* 
follows: Cash to Jamea Phil. 
lip^ $4,318,71. 

Wbich acconnt is balanced by il 

in the ledger) 
The Bccouot of Mr. James Hiil- 

How mnoli have you made by 

this rale ? 
What entry mnrt yon mftke in 

coaaeqaeoce of tbia gain! 

A aingle entry in the jonrnal, as 
follows: General merchandise 
to profit and loss, $468.19. 

I aliall debit general mercliandisq 
in the ledger with the said 
amount, and will open another 
account for profit and lose, 
which I will credit with th» 

Supposing Mr. Phillips had given 
you his note! 

Then I would have copied it into 
the bill-book as bill reoeivabla 
No. 1, Bod baring entered th« 
traiiaaclion into the ilay-bixik, 
i would have passed it into 
the Jonrnal as follows: Billa 
receivable to James Phillipa, 
$4,318.71 ; and after S or A 
months, when he would bava 
paid me, I wonid have entered 
the payment in the cash-book 
and journal aa follnwa; ObbIi 
to bills reeeivuble $4,818.71. 

Very well, I see yen undenUitj 
I ftll thU. 



Literal TransIatloiL 

Iivccion trig^Ninia s^ptinia. 

LedsoD tliirtj seven tli. 

C&rdenns, 14 de Octnbrc, IH— . 

Cardeaas, 14 of October, 18 — . 

A loi Seiiores Dou Jo§€ Ruiz y Ca., 

To the MesHra. Joseph Ruiz and Co., 

Nueva Tork. 

New York. 

Jluy Sefiores niicKtros : Confirmamos A 

Very Gentlemen otir: We confirm tu 

Vs. la niiestra del 4 del corriente. 

7»Qr hoDorg oora of the 4 of t!ie instant. 

Desde aqiiella Teclia licnios ejecntado su 

Sinoe that date we have eiecnted yom 

tfrden, £ incluinios & Vs. el conoci* 

order, and we inclose to your houura the bill of 

miento y la Ibcliira, ciiyo iiuporte es de 

lading and the invoice, wlioEe Hnuiunt ia of 

$13,130.33, que dejamos eargados en sii 

^15,130.52, wliich we leave charged in yoni 

cuenta. llemos einbarcado los erectoH en 

account. We have embarked the goods . in 

el Telero bcr^antin americano " Latona,*' 

the fust brig American " Liitona," 

«u capitau iflarlin. El buqnc ctt uiieva, 

ber cu^tuiu Martin. TI:o veuel It new, 





y el cnpitan de mueha cxpericncia; «e 

■cd the captaio of muc^h cipcrieiice; henell 

hard A la vela nianana. 

die will aet Ui the sail 

Hciuos remitido el couociniicnto y una 

We have remitted the bill of liiding and une 

copia de la Ihctiira a los Seiiores Balbiani 

copy of tlie iavoice to the Messrs. Balbiani 

y Ca. de la Habana, y dado 6rden de 

and Co. of Havana, and given order to 

eflectiiar el eeguro en aquella plazat 

effect the iosiiraiice in that place. 

Para reembolsarnos, acabainos de ffirar 

'n order to reimburse us, we have just drawn 

sobre Vs., & sesenta dias vista, 

on your honors, at sixty days' sight, 

$5000.00 a la erden de los S''f' Echarte j Ca. de estx; 

$5000.00 to the order of Mt-sers. Echarte and Co., of thia place; 

$5000.00 a la o'rden de los $^V Rnrnham y Ca. de esta ; 

$5000.00 to the order of Messrs. Burnham and Co., of this placv 

$5)30.52 a la orden de los S':* Sama y Ca. de esU) 

$0120.52 to the or<ler of Messrs. 8ama and Oo., of this place ; 

que beni08 asentado k su cr^dito en cuenta. 

whlcli we have put to yuiir credit in account 

Esperanio§ que niieslros eri>*OB tendrfin la 

We hope that our drafts will have tba 

lincna proleccion que inerecen. 

good protection whiuli they deserve. 

SI Yi. se 8irvie§en confiar otra e«pe- 

If your honors should please to confide another speon- 

culacion A nuesiro cnidado, la desempefla* 

btiuD u onr OAre, it we would di*- 

■ r<ino*p 

^f chargs 


TaiKLT-Sl:\KN]lI LKSSOM. 317 

dp, uu inodo capaz dc asegiirariioi 

la contiuiiacion de sii coufinnza. 

tilt cunCinuatiori of yuur ooiilJJenoe. 

Sin oiro luotivo, soiiios, con la mayor 

Without otlier motive, we are, with lite greatMt 

coiuideraclon, S. S. S., 

oonsidoradon, Yuur faitlifu! servants, 

%. S. M. B., 
Who your handa kiss, 

J. m. morales y Ca. 

J. M. Morales uid Oo. 

Factura de mercancias einbarcadas por 

Invoice of Merchaadise embarked for 

tfrden, cuenta y d la coiisignaclon de los 

order, uocouiit, and to tlie cotisignjiient of 

Senores Don Joi^c Ruiz y Ca., por el 

Messrs. Joseph Ruiz aiid Co., hy tlia 

bersantin americano " Latona," »h capi- 

brig Americao " Latona," Ler cuptnio 

tan iHartin, con destino a Niiera > ork : 

Martin, with destiimtiou to New A ork; 

SOO Sacos de Cafe, coBteoiendo 46,819 lbs,, 

800 Sacka of Coffee, contnining 46,810 lbs., 

i 8 clTS,, 9 3,715.51 

at 8 cents, 8,74S . 03 

800 Bocoyes de Aztftar, No. 10 & 12, o 12,800 

800 Fjgsheads of Siig.'ir, No. 10 (o 12, or 12,80& 

arrobas, a' 7 reales, 1 1400.00 

arrobas, nt 7 reals, 1],200.00 

9000 Tabacos, Londres 1", a $35.00, 175.00 

BOOC Cigars, London 1» at $85.00, 176.00 

8. E. T 0. Total $15,120.52 

Ksoept Erron and OaiisaiuOB. Altuget'ier. . lb,lSO.M 




Omrdtnu, 14 de Octabre. 18—. 
A los Seborei 

Don Jobi Ruiz y Oa., 
Nueva Tork. 

Udj Seflores nueatros : Confir- 
Dftmos & Yb. la nnestra do] 4 del 
eorriente, Desdti aquella feclia 
hemos ^ecntado sn urden, 6 iii- 
olQimoa a 7a. el coDocimiento j 
]a factura, odjo iniporte ea de 
$16,120.52, que dejamos carga- 

Elemoa embarcado loa efectos 
en «1 Tijlero bergantia aniericano 
" Latooa," sD ca))itaD Uurtio. 
£1 baqne «b nvevo, j el capitan 
de mncba eiperieocia; ae liara 
k la Tela mailana. 

Hemos remitido el coDocimieti- 
to y una oopia de la factnra a los 
Beiiores Balbiani y Ca. de la Ha- 
bana, y dado orilen de efectaar 
el segaro en aqnella plaza. 

Para reembolsarnoa, acabamoa 
de girar sobre Va., a aeaenta diaa 

tSOOO.OO i la orden de los Sefio- 
refl Eoliarte y Oa. de eata ; 

15000.00 a la iJrden de lo9 Seito- 
"■ta ISuriiliam y Ca. de esta ; 

16110.52 a U 6rden de los SeQo- 
raa Sama y Ca. de eata ; 

qae bemos asentado k sa crediUi 
•n onenta. Esperaniaa que DDeB< 
tros giros tendran la buena pro< 
teooioc qae merecen. 
Bi Yi, w lirriewn eonfiar otn 

Cardenas, Oct. 14, 1^^ 

Mesara. Joseph SmiZ Sc Co., 
New York ; 

Gentlemen : ContlrmiDg up'. 
reapects of tbe 4tli inst., wa 
would inform yon tbat v 
executed your order, a 
close lierein the bill of lading i 

^t ol 
$15,120.52 we have charged to i 
your account. 

The goods hare been ahipped 
on board the American brig 
" Lutona," a new and fast sailing 
vessel, commanded b; Captain 



officer. She will sail t«-niorr<iw. 

Acopy of the bill of lading and 
invoiee have alao been forwarded 
to Mesara. Balbiani & Co., of 
Havana, witli Ibe requeat that 
they will etfect the inenranoa 

We have drawn upon yon at 
sixty days' sight, as follows : 

$5,000.00 to the order of MesarK 
Echarte & Co. of this place; 

$6,000.00 to the order of Mesara 
Burnham & Co. of this place • 

$6,120.62 to Ibe order of Ueasrs. 
Sanm & Co, of tliia place 

all placed to your credit, 
which yon will please dnlj 

Should you favor na wit]> 
another oider, ;oa maj n0 


an. I 

rltl> ^H 



31 » 

e^peonlaoion 4 nuestro onidado, 
jBk desempeftaremos de an modo 
oapaz de asegurarnos !a conti- 
Duaoion de so oonfianza. 

Sin otro motivo, somos, ooq la 
mayor oor^ideracioQ, 

a, S. S., 
Q. a, M* B*9 


Faotura de Mercancias embarca- 
das per orden, cuenta y & la 
consignaoioD de los Seflores 
DoD Jos^ Buiz y Oa., por el 
bergartin americaDo ^^ Lato- 
na,*' pn oapitan Martin, con 
destine a Nneva York : 

800 Sao^ J de Cafi^ con- 

teniendo 46,819 lbs., 

k 8 ot;vs., $8,745.62 

800 Bocoyes de Azucar, 

No. 10 a 12, 6 12,800 

arrobas, a 7 reales, 11,200.00 
BOOO Tabaoos, Londres 

1% A $86.00, 176.00 

6. £. y O. Total . . $16, 120.62 

assured that we will attend to 
it in such a manner as to deserve 
a continuance of your oobA 

Tours respectfully, 


Invoice of goods shipped oi 
board the American brig ^^ La- 
tona,^* Captain Martin, con- 
signed to Messrs. Joseph Buii 
& C«»., of New York, pursuant 
to their order and for their 

800 Bags of OofTee, con- 
taining 46,819 lbs., at 
8 cents $8,746.2S 

800 hhds. of Sugar, No. 
10 to 12, or 12,800 
arrobas, at 7 reals . ..11,200.00 

6000 Cigars, Londres 1*, 
at $86.00 175.00 

E. & O. E. 


QuestlODS and Answers for ConversatiOD 

Que leccion es esta ? 
I Hemos reoibido cartas de Car- 
denas t 

Que fecha tiene la carta? 
Que escriben ? 
|Nos ban mandado los docu- 

mentos del embarqu6 1 
I A cuanto monta la faoti ra t 

I En que baqne han embaroado 
lot efectos t 

La trig6sima s^ptima. 

Hemos recibido una de los 6» 

fiores Don J. M. Morales y C* 
Fecha 14 del corriente. 
Que han ejecutado nueslra orlen* 
Nos han raarda(^o el oonofi> 

miento y la factnra. 
A $15,120.52 que han cargado 

a nuestra cuenta. 
En el velero bergantin amervoaai 

" Latona.'* 


H iQnieneseloapttsnl 

£1 capitan Marttn. ^^^| 

^ 1 Que dloen dol baqne i 

Queesnti.m ^H 

1 T que dicen del oapitan ! 

(Caando se liara £ la vela el 

Sohahecbo a la ye!a el 16 di 

baqae t 


iHan eacrito a loa Senorea Bal- 

Ltis ban remilido el cococlmlenU 


y una copia de k factura. 

1 Qne dioeD del segiiro del carga- 

Han dado ordeo de efeotuar ti 


s^nro en la Habana. .. 

|Ootno Be han reembolaado t 

Han girado eobre nosotroa par ^^J 

lAonantosdiaa vlstat 

A sesenCa diaa viata. ^^H 


A la ordon de loa SeBorea Eoharta ^^1 

J Oa., Burnbam v Oa., y Sanu ^^H 


Sont«aoea tot Oral TraoalatloiL ^^H 



What would yon do if yon re '' 

mercsQcias 4 oonsignacion ! 

Prooararia cenderlas i tiote. 

adoat. ^^ 

T si V. no padiera venderlas 

And if yoQ could not do tbia t ^H 



Las deBCargaria para ponerlas en 

I woald have them bronglit ta ^^M 


the ^^H 

iQae debe bacerse si laa mer- 

What baa to be dene when tba ^^^| 

oanciaa k ban veadidot 

gooda are aold 1 ^^H 

Una cuenta de venta para saber 

An account-sale h&B to be mada ^^^| 

el ceto prodncido. 

out, in order to aaoertaln ilia ^^H 

net proceeds. ^^^| 

lata ouenU da ventA oon rf 

Thia account-sale, together witb ^^M 

moutacte del neW prodnrflo, 

the net proceeda, be Iba; ^^^| 

Ha eo dinero 6 sea en bnenaa 

Dinner »' S°°^ paper, ha« ta '^^^| 

letras se remite a1 com erci ante, 

que ha heoiio la CDDsigoacion. 

has made the consignuent ^^^| 

lOaaotaB entradaa ae baoen en 

How many entries bava to b* ^^^| 


made in the booki 1 . ^H 

8« baoen dos eatradaa. 


ft ^^H 

^H I Oiutlet SOD 1 
^f La pHmera ( 



I Oiutlet SOD 1 

La pHmera Mi Oq|a 4 ventu & 

I^ac^adaee: Ventat £ comUIon 

KAos entradas se hacee, si e! 
pigo 8« hsoe en dinero, pero si 
el pago Be hace en letraa, el 
inoDtant« Jebe oargarae j 
abonarae i la caenta de pa- 

.Qae ea bacer el balaoce general 
de las onentas en el libro 
mayor t 

Ceirar todas lu cnentu. 

I Para qnA I 

Para conocer el resnltado de 
cada nna ea partioalar j de 
todas en general, 

I Que entSende T. por cerrar nna 
cnenU t 

Oargar nna oaenta coo la can- 
tidad qne falu i su cargo para 
igaalarsn d6bilo, jr alooDtrario 
abooar noa ouenta cod Io que 
falta & sn baber para igaalar 

Todas las coentas one presentan 
ganaaoia o p£rdida ee saldan 
por ganaooias ; perdidaa. 

I Que BO renne por este medio en 
eata cnenta I 

Todas las gananoiaa j pirdidas 
de las otras cnentu. 

(For que cnenta se sal la a1 fie 
1a caeoU de gai:aD(.iBs j pir- 

Por la del capital, 

lOomo pnede veiK ai bay ga- 


Wbicb are tliejr I 

The lat is, Oaah to oomminBioi 

The 2d is, CommiiiBion sales la 

These entries are made if tli* 
payment is in cash; bnt 11 
notes are given, the amoant ii 
charged and credited to thi 
account of bills payable and 

What do yon call a general bal- 
ance of the ledger t 

Olosing all the accounts of this 

For what purpose? 

In order to know the result ot 

each account in particnlar, and 

of all in general. 
Wbat do yon call closing an ao- 

Adding SB much to the debit 

Ride AS will equalize it with 

the credit side, or to the credit 

aide as mnob aa will equaliK 

it with the debit side. 

All accounts vhtch show a profit 
or a loss are balanced bj profit 

What is collected together thai 

in tbia accounti 
All the profits and Imses of th« 

Bj what is the profit and loM 
account finally balanced t 

Bj the capital. 

B>w can we see If tt.en it t 
profit or not I 


t93 THiUTV Si:vi.:\"in I.ESSOK. ^^^ 

8i e (t^bito <le e>,li. cueata es 

If tha debit of thii aoouont Ii 

tnu qne el haber, es ganauclB ; 

greater than the credit, tber* 

y ei el bsber es msa que el 

is a profit ; ami if the credit ii 

dibito, w p6rdi<l8. 

greater than the debit, tber* 


1 No hay otroB llbros en nna cass 

Are there no other books in 

de oomeroio qne loa dJohoa I 

commercial honse than thoa 

Hay HlgDDOB otroa libroB sDxi- 

There are a few auxiliary booka. 



lOoraoae llamant 

How are they called ? ^H 

A store-book, an acGonnt-cnrr«Bt ^^H 

CDeDtH9 conientM y no copia- 

book, and a letter-book. ^^H 

dor de cartas. 


iQne contisDe a. libro de al- 

What does the store-book oon- " 

Un InventHi-io de todas las iner- 

canrias qae ee hallan an el 
I Qne son cneotas corrienUa ( 

dise in the store. ^^j 

What are acconnts CQirentT ^^H 

Laa euentaa abiertus de todaa las 

The acconnts opened with aO^^H 

those who do business witk^^H 

the ^H 

tQue es el copiador de cartas 1 

What 19 tlie letter-book 1 ^^M 

Vn libro en el cuat se oopian 

A book in which is kept a copj ^^^| 

todaa las cartas que se escriben 
en la CBsa. 
Que eignifioan las cnatro letras 

of every letter sent. ^^H 

What do the letters S. E. y O. at ^^| 

alpi6delaf80turae.E. yOt 

the foot of the bill mean? ^^ 

Balvo errorea y oraiaiones. 

Erroi-s and omissions excepted. 

i Cuantoa vapores corren entre 

How many steamers ply between 

la lela de Cuba y loa Estodoe 

Cuba and the United Stateal g 




Seven. ^H 


Which are they t ^H 

Dob enire Kneva Turk j la Ha- 

Two between New York an .^^^| 

bana, Job eDtre Nueva Orleaoa 

Havana, two between Nei* ^^H 

y laliabana, nno eutre Charles- 

Orleans and Rr vana, one be- ^^M 

ton y la llabana, otro entre 

tween Oharlestoa and Havana, ^^H 

Hobiie y la Habana, y nno 

one between Mobile and Hm^ ^^M 

tntre Nueva York y Matan- 

vann, and one between Nen ^^H 


York and Uatanzas. ^^H 


Utnral Translation. 

liCccion Iri^^sinia oclarn 

LeHSOD thirty eighth. 

IViiera Vork, S de IVoviembre, 1 8 — . 

New York, 5 of NoveiBber, 1ft-. 

A lo8 Seflores J. ITI. Morales y Ca., 

I'o the Mtis.'sr.'^. J. M. Mi>ralea anil Co., 

Muf Se&ores nnestro!^ : Hemos recibido 

Verj Gentlemen our: We have received 

las cartas de Vs. del 4 y 14 del pasado, 

Ihe , letters of yirar of the i ami 14 of t!ie ultimn, 
y la Tactura de caf% y de azucar que 

»nd the invoice of cuffte and of eti(;ar wliich 

acompanaba la tiltima : esta exacta, a 

aocomjiauied the latter; it is exact, 

excepcion de un d^flcit de 3 A 6 libras en 

excepting a deSoit of G to 6 ;>ounda in 

el peso de cada bocoy de azficar. 

the weiglit of each hogaheud of sugar. 

ros ei^clos ban lleKado: la calidad del 

Tlie goods have arrived : the qu:ditj of ths 

azticar es bastanle biienaf pero no podemos 

sugar is enough good, but not we ciin 

decir lo nilsmo del caf% ; es nuiy ordinario 

say llie siiiie of the coffee; it is very ordinary. 

Otra casa de esa nos ha enviado por el 

Other house of tlint place us has sent by tht 

ft^l TIlUiTV-EKjIlm LBSSOH. 

misuio buquc uua partida de la iui«ni<i cl 

SBtiie vesse! a. lot of the SBiue qcdlltf 

A I cenfavo ni^nos la libra. Espuk"aniofl 

at 1 cent lees the iiouiui. Wo ii 

que Vs. no rehusaran liacernos alffiina 

that your honors cot will refii.'^e to maki: i 

reb^ja en aleneion a c»ta gran diferencli 

reduction in cooiiiileration to ihU great did'erencc. 

IncluimoB A Vs. niiiestras de 8U cafS y 

We inclose to your honors samplus of their coffee and 

del de nuestros aminos, para que Vs. 

of tliat of our frieDils, in ujder lliaC jour honora 

puedan hacer coinparacion entre iino 

may be able to make comparison between one 

f Otro. 

and other. I 

E§tanio8 luuy contcntos del einbase del 

We are very content with the packing ' 'jf th« 

azucar, y lea recoinciidanios el uiistuo 

sugar, and to them we rccumiiienJ the same 

cuidado para nuestras <ii-deue8 fntiiras. 

care for our oiviers future. 

Han sido bicn acujidas su§ letras de 

Have been well accepted vour drafts of 

$13,130.33; 6 incliiyendo nueslra ultima 

115,120.52 ; and iricloxing our la^t 

rcvista del luercado, qiicdainoa, sin oiro 

review of the market, wo remain, witlinnt otiier 

particular, S. S. S., 

puticlLar, Tour faithful servants, 

Q. S. ni. B., 

Wbo your hands kiss, 

Jos^ Ruiz y Cm. 

Aisej>h Ruiz uid Oo. 

nofl I 

ma ^^J 







The Mmo In good Bngltoli. 

Knera York, 
5 de Noyiembre, 

A jM Setores J. M. Morales y Ca., 

May Seilores nnestros : Hemos 
feoibido las cartas de Vs. del 4 
J 14 del pasado, y la facto ra de 
eaf^ y de az6car que acorn paftaba 
la ultima: esta exacta, a excep- 
oion de an deficit de 6 4 6 libras 
en el peso de oada boooy de 

Los efeotos ban llegado : la ca- 
lidad del azucar es bastantebaena, 
pero no podeinos decir lo mismo 
delcafl^; es may ordinario. Otra 
casa de esa nos ha enviado por el 
mismo baqae ana partida de la 
la misma olase 4 1 centavo menos 
libra. Esperamos qae Vs. no re- 
hasaran hacernos algana rebaja 
en atencion & esta gran diferen- 
cia. Inclaimos a Vs. maestras 
de sa caf6 y del de nnestros ami- 
gos, para qae Vs. paedan hacer 
oomparacion entre ano y otro. 

Estamos may contentos del 
embase del azucar, y les reco- 
mendamos el mismo caidado para 
ttTiestras ordenes fataras. 

Han sido bien acojidas sas le- 
trasde $15,120.62; 6inolayendo 
naestra ultima revista del mer- 
oado, qaedamos, sin otro parti- 

•'i^i 8. 8. 8^ 

Q. 8. M B., 

Jofsi Run T Oa« 

New York, Nor. S, 18—. 

Messrs. J. M. Morales & Go^ 

Gentlemen : We hare receired 
your favors of the 4th and 14th 
ult., together with the invoice o* 
coffee and sugar sent. Every 
thing came to hand in good or- 
der, with the exception of a de- 
ficit in weight of 6 to 6 pounds 
in each hogshead. The quality of 
the sugar is satisfactory, but not 
that of the coffee, which is very 
common compared ^ith s parcei 
forwarded to us by another house 
in the same vessel, and at one 
cent less a pound. We hope 
that you will not refuse to make 
us some reduction in consider- 
ation of this great difference; 
and in order that you may be 
the better able to Judge for 
yourselves, we inclose a sample 
of both coffees. 

The packing of the lugar 
pleased us very much, and we 
should like you to be as careful 
in future. 

Your drafts for $16,120.62 
have been accepted, aud wiL 
be daly honored. Inclosing out 
latest report, we remain, 
Yours respectftdly, 

JosBPB Run & 0» 



Qvestloiis and Answan iiar ConvenatliML 

Qne lecolon es esta? 

De donde ha Uegado esta carta? 

Que feoha tieoe f 

De coal oasa viene ? 

Han reoibido naestras Ultimas 

Que dioen de la factura de 

azucar j de cafe t 

Han Uegado ya los efeotost 
Que dioen del asaoar f 
Que dioen del caf§t 


Oomo paeden deoir estof 

Quieren por eso qne les haga- 
mos nna rebiyat 

Nob ban mandado muestras ? 


Qne dioen del embase del azu« 

Han aoeptado nnestros gircs ? 

Que escriben del mercado ? 
Ha leido V. esta revista f 
Dc nde esta ? 
Kd que piginaf 
Col no esti escrita ? 
Quieo la ba firmado f 

La trig6sima ootara. 

De Nneva York. 

£1 6 de Noviembre, 18-. 

De la de los Seilores Don /oil 

Ruiz y Oa. 
Han reoibido las cartas del 4 j 

14 del mes pasado. 
Que esta exacta a exoepcioc de 

an deficit de 6 a 6 libras en el 

peso de oada boooy. 
Si, se&or. 

Que la calidad es bastante bnena 
Qne no pueden deoir lo misroo 

del caf^« 
Porque es may ordinario. 
Porque otra oasa les ha enviado 

por el mismo buque una par- 

tida de la misma calidad a 1 

centavo m^nos en libra. 
Esperan que no rebusar^mos 

hacerles alguna rebaja en aten 

cion a esta gran diferencia. 
Nos ban incluido una rouestra 

del nuestro y otra del cafe d# 

sus amigos. 
Para que podhtnos baoer oompa 

racion entre uno y otro. 
Que estau muy contentos y nos 

recomiendan el raismo cnidado 

para sus ordeues futuras. 
Han aoojido bien nuestras .etras 

de $15,120.62. 
Ni,3 incluyen su ultima revista. 
Si, seftor. 

En la leccion trig^sima sexta. 
En la pagina trioent^sim ootava 
Esta muy bien escrita. 
Jo84 Kuiz y Oa. 



BontenoM te Oral Ttanriatloa 

H« estado V. en la Boka esta 

Si, seilor, j he visto i algcnoe 

lOcal 68 el estado de la plant 
Ha habido ana alteracion en 

frntos ooloniales. 
I Oomo esta el eaf^ f 
£1 caf6 esta may solioitado. 
I Han llegado mnchaa remesas 

del campo f 
Las remesas no ban ddo de oon- 

I A qne precio se rendid el or- 

A.yer se vendi6 4 8 centaros la 

I Para qne pais hay mas pedidos? 

Para la Holanda. 

I Hay macho az6car en el mer- 

Hay azdcar masoabado en abnn- 

I Para donde se embarcan mnohas 

Para Amsterdam y L6ndres. 
I Que se dice del tabaoo f 
Bube y escaoea diariamente. 
I Han llegado mochas mercancias 

de lo3 Estados Unidos t 
8i, seflor, y especialmente irroi 

de la Oarolina del Snr. 
1 Y se vende facilmentef 
V arias partidas se ban o mprado 

por especnlaoion. 
|ik iQepredof 


Have yon been to the Ezohargi 

this morning t 
Yes, sir, and I hare seen some 

What is the state of the market I 
There has been a change Im 

colonial prodncts. 
How is coffee? 
Coffee is nmch in demand. 
Have there been many arrirali 

from the oonntry t 
The arrivals have been few. 

How mnoh did joommon sell fort 

Yesterday it sold for 8 centi 

per lb. 
For which oonntries are the 

greatest orders t 
For Holland. 
Is there mnch sugar in the mar* 

There is much muscovado. 

Whither is most of it shipped t 

To Amsterdam and Londco. 
What do they say o/ cobaooot 
It rises daily and is scarce. 
Have many goods come flrom the 

United States t 
Yes, sir, and especially much riot 

from South Carolina. 
And does it sell readily t 
Several lots have been bofigbt oi 

At what prioe t 



A 7 realea fliertea I& arrobs. 
I Oomo se vende la m&Dt«cal 
De tl7 a (IS el oaboo. 
I Oomo cBt&D los oambioal 
Bnhre Londrea i premlo y Bobre 

Naeva Tork a desoneoto. 
I Coal M el osmbio aobre Lon- 


once por oieoto de premio. 
1 T Bobre Nueva York I 

El oJDOo por ciento do descaento. 

1 Bay iimchoB buqiics abora en 

el paerCo I 
No, seaor, y los fletes eataa baa- 

I Caanto ee paga para luglaterra t 
Una y media libra esterlina por 

I No podria Setar nna goleta f 
Teogo una boniU goleta liolan- 

deaa de doccientas toaeladas, 

la onal le dar6 i T. por la 

Bnma redooda de cuatro oientss 

libras eeterlinaa. 
I Para qne puerto qniere V. des- 

paohar el buqae ? 
Para Oowes y no niercado. 
Uny bien, !a enviara & V. el 

contra to de fletarneoto. 
I Oonooa V. a! capitan I 
Es nn liombre de roaoha eipe- 

iQne meroanoiaa qniere V, em- 

barcar t 
Fooo maa 6 menoa ochocientse 

cfyaa de aziicar. 
I No quiere V. embarcar otraa 

ja de tabacog. 

Pneden may bien embarcarae en 

la oamara del capitAO. 

At ? reals the arroba. 

How doea lard sell I 

From 17 to 18 dollars tbe firUs. ' 

How la tbe eicbangel 

On London at a premiam and on 

New York at a disoonnt. 
Wliat ia tlie exchange on Lofr 

At 11 */• premfum. 
And on New York! 
At 5 */• discount. 
Are there many vea«els tn t 

barbor now I 
No, air, and frelglit ia tolerably 

Wbat ia tbe freigbt for Englaodl 
One poDod aterliog and a hall 

Oould I not cbarter a schooner* 
I have a nioe Dntch aohooner O 

two hundred tona, which I wfl. 

give yon for the ronnd anm ol 

400 ponnds eterling. 

For which port will yon t 

the vessel I 
For Oowes and a market. 
Very well, I will send you t 

Do you know tiie captain I 
He ia a man of much experieoo^l 

Wliat kind of goods do yon w 

About eight hundred boiea ^fl 

Do you not wiah to send i 

thing else I 
A tew thousand cigar*. 
They can be put in the captan%fl 

Tea, ur. 



Uteral Tianslatlo^ 

Leccion triff^aiina nona 

Leason thirty ninth. 

C&rdenas, IS de NoTiembre, I 

OardenflB, 15 of November, 

A lo» ^enores Don Jos^ Ruiz y Ca., 

To the Messrs. Joseph Rait twd Co., 

IVueva ¥ork. 

New Torfc. 

niiy Senores nuestroi : Vemoi con send* 

Very Gentlemen our: We see with regret, 

miento, por la suya de S del corrienfe, 

by yours of G of the instant, 

que atendido el precio Vs. encuentran 

thnC respecting the price, your buaors find 

nue8trocai% inferior al que les ha enviado 

our coffee iuferior to the which Lliem has sent 

otra casa de e«ta ciudad por el mismo 

other huuBe of this city by the same 

buque. Una plaza como la nuealra, que 

Teasel, A place lite onrs, whio^ 

hace uu comerclo considerable. esl& por 

inakea a commerce considerable, is for 

la mlsina razon sujeta nccesariamenle 6 

the same reason sabject necessarily to 

continnas fluctuaciones, y presenta cada 

flDptinosl flnctaations, and prwenla oadi 


•eiuana variaciones eii el precio de loi 

week variation a in the i)rice of tl.a 

tViitoB. Aunque nnestrog Tccinos liayan 

frnita. Aliliough our neiglibnrs mny hav* 

cargrado su calt en el minmo bnquo que 

shipped their cutke \a the same vessel aa 

nosolros, es probable que hayan recibido 

we, it is probable that they mnj linve received 

Antes la§ tirdcncs de Vs., porque nosotroa 

before tlie orders of jour liooors, for 

compranios inmediataniente dettpuei de] 

did baj iiumedintely 

recibo de la suya; y estando se^urog de 

receipt of jonra; and being sore of 

que desde aquel dia hasta el de la salida 

that Biace that day till Ihiit of the eailitig 

delbuqur no se ha hecho uiuguna conipra 

of the vessel not itself lias made an}' purchase 

& ni£no8 que la niiestra, no podemoa 

at lesa than ours, not we can 

convenir con Ts. que la desproporclon 

agree with yonr honors timt the diaproportioo 

en el precio debc estimularnos & hacer , 

in the price must induce a 

acrificioa. No podeinos oxplicar la cauui| 

sacriSoeB. Not we can explain 

del deficit en el peso del azucar ; poneniM | 

i)f the deficit in the weight of the sugar ; we put 

sienipre la mayor alencion para precavetj 

alwayi the gruateat diligence io to prevent 



H lemeja] 


lemejanles ocurrcnciaB, pero repelldai 

oocurrences, but repealed 

experiencias nos lian conreiicido de que 

experiences ua have coDTioced that 

es imposiblc evitarlas. Este deficit no ae 

t is impo^ible to BToi<] Uiem. This deficit not itJtell 

ba caiisado en el almacen, no podemo* 

probar que lo haya sEdo abordo. ntas al 

prove that it ina; liave been on board, but to the 

fln, flupueslo que el hecho es poijtiro, pues 

end, supposed that the fact ia positive, for 

tenemos la mayor confianza en la palabra 

we have the greatest confidence in the wonl 

d« Vs., no8 gometemos & esta p^rdida, 

of your hoDors, us we submit to this loss, 

y hemes abonado la diftrencia ft Vs. 

and we have credited tlie diffej'eDce to }'our honori 

en euenta, por cuyo medio viene ft qnedar 

ia aocouDt, hj which mean comes to remain 

terminado esle desa^radable nsunlo. 

terminated tliis disagreeable affair. 

Tenemo§ el honor de ser 

We have the honor to be 

S. S. S., 
Tour faitbfal servants, 

Q. s. in. B., 

Who your bands kin, 

J. n. Moraleft y Ca 

/. v. Horalei ft Oo. 



Tlia sama in good EngUali, 


IB de Noviembre, 18 — . 
& loa Seftores 

Don Jasi RiiiE y Ca., 
Nuem York. 

Muy Seiloreg nuestrua ; Veiuos 
ion sentimieDto, por la euya de 
B del oorriente, que atendido el 
preoto Vs. enaaeDtran nueeCro 
OAfi inferior al que'ea liaeDviado 
otra casa de esta ciudad por el 
misniD bnqne. tJna jilaza cnmo 
[ft naeBtrft, qae booe un coinercio 
ooDsiderable, eeta. por In misina 
rszoD anjets neceaariamcnte a 
oontiDuu Snctnaciones, j pre- 
MDta oada Bemana variooioneti 
en el preoio de Ids fratos. Aua- 
qne nnestros vecinos hayan car- 
gftdo su caX^ on el mismo bnqne 
que noBotrus, es probablt que 
hajftn recibido iates las ordenea 
de Vs., porque nosotros oorapra- 
mos inmediatamente deapues del 
recibo de k auya; ; eetanda 
•eguros de qae deade aquel dia 
hasta el de la salida del bnque 
no ee ha heoho Bingnns compra 
a mf nos qae la nnestra, no pudt 

piMporoion en el precio debe es- 
ttma'amoa & l.acar eacrificioa. 

Ho podemOH eiplicar la causa 
del difiojt en el peso del azucar; 
ponemoB alempre la mayor aten- 
oloD para precnver Bemejantea 
oonrrericiaa, pero repetldas eipe- 
rivnelM DOB ban oopvencido de 

Oardenas, November IB, 18—. I 
Ueasrs. Joseph Buiz dc On., 
New York. 

Gentlemen r We are very sonf fl 
to aee, by your letter of tlie 60i} 
instant, that yon Snd 
inferior in quality to that sent 
to yon at a lower price by 
auotlier bouse, on board of tha 
same vesseL A place doing m> 
large a bu.siness as onra is in 
consequence aubject to oontiDa*! ] 
fluctuations, and presents everj ■ 
week changes of price in tha I 
different staples on hand. 1 

Although our neighbors maj 
have shipped by the same ressel 
as we did, it is mora than prob- 
able that they have rooeivod J 
their order some days before illj4 
for we bought immediately on " 
receipt of yoor favor; and being 
sure that from that day to Ihi 
^ailiug of the vessel no pnrchsM 
has been made at a lower Sgnn 
than ours, we do not feel oalM | 
upon to make the desired d*- I 

The deficit in weight of snga, I 
snrprises us also; doing o 
mo^t to avoid these leakags^ I 
experience has taught Oi 
is impossible to escape tbwil 

flfllfcTy-NINTH L&SSOlf • 


I ne e« imposible evitarlas. Este 

deficit no Be ha cansado en el al- 

macen, no podemos probar que 

lo haya sido abordo, mas al fin, 

•npnesto que el heoho u positivo, 

poes tenemoe la mayor oonfianza 

en la palabra de Vs., nos some- 

emos a esta p^rdida, y heraos 

bonado Ji diferencia a Vs. en 

eoenta, per onyo medio viene a 

qnedar tonninado este desagrada- 

ble asnnto. 

Tenemos el honor de ser, 

Q. S. M* Df 


wholly. We are sure that It hat 
not taken plaoe in oar store, but 
we oonld not trace it on board* 
Feeling, however, the greatest 
confidence in your word, we 
have assumed the lose upon 
ourselves, by crediting yonr ao- 
count with the difference, hoping 
therebv to set this matter to 

We hare the honor to remain 
Yours respectfully, 

J. M. M0BALB8 4 Oo« 

QuestiODS cmd Anawers for Conversation. 

I Que leooion es esta t 

I De quienes hemos recibido esta 

I Que fecha tiene la carta f 
lOontestan elloe 4 nuestra ol- 

I Que dioen t 

I Quieren haoer alguna rebi\)af 

I Que diccn del otro caf6 que 
hemos /ecibido 4 1 oentavo 
m^nos per el mismo buque t 

Que dioen mas t 

I Ck>mo ezplican e. deficit en el 
peso del aa6oar t 

La trigesiraa nona. 

De los Seftores J. M. Morales y 

Oa., de Oirdenfts. 
El 16 de Noviembre, 18—. 
Si, se&or. 

Que ven con sentimiento quo 
hemos encontrado su caf6 in- 

No, seftor, dicen que era eLmcjor 
que podia obtenerse i este 
precio en el meroado. 

Que aquella orden debc haber 
sido dada con anterioridad, 
porque ellos han compra:lo in- 
mediataraente despues del re- 
cibo de la que 4 ellos d'rijimos. 

Dicen que estan segnros que niu« 
guna compra a m6nos se ha 
hecho desde aquel dia liasta ei 
de la salida del buque. 

No *>ueden ezplioarle. 

3S4 THIBTT-HraTH UBBOK. ^^^^^1 

1 Oomo K) exoouD t 

Dioiendo que poneD siempN li 

mayor diligciicia eo prewM 

1 No pij»le haberet caUMido esta 

Esoriben que no ae ha oanud* 

dtfioit en a almac«D t 


|T &bordo del bnqoe? 

Dicen que no pneden probar qni 

liaya sido causado abordo. 

iQnieren biioernos por «bo una 

No9 hm abonado la dUbreno!* 


CD niiestra cnenta. 


Que por esto medio vendii t ^^J 

qnedar terminado eate daw ^^^| 

gradable asunto. '.^^^| 

BontenooB for Oral Tranalatioo. 1 



|Ha tornado el bergaatin "La- 

lias the brig "LaCona" taken ia 1 

tona" todo su oargainento t 

all ber freight) ^M 

Da aoabado de cargar desde est* 

She h loaded since this momiDgt ^H 


And when will yoD clear herl ^^H 

L Le deapaobarfi esta tarde. 

I will clear her this afternoon. 

H iQue debe baoerse para dea- 

What has to be done to dear ■ 

H paobar on baqaet 

veseelt , 

■ Primero el oapitau debe des- 

The captain most first report ^^J 

■ pacbarse del oodbuI de aa 

him^lf to bis consni. , ^^H 

W (Yqnedebe V. hacert 

And what have yon to do 1 ^^M 

Pedirt al oapitan del pnerto an 

I mast ask a permit of the O^ ^^^| 

permiso do solida. 

tain of tlie porL ^^H 

Are there no other papers to bt ^^^| 


made ^^H 

Bi, MJior, Ami al uapitan ana 

Tes, air ; I innat give to the ("P'^^H 

cnenta de venta del cargainento 

tair. an account wle of bis ii^'^^^| 

qae ha traido j qae huinoa ven- 

ward cargo, which we haT«'^^^| 

dido por cnenta del baqaa. 

sold for accoant of tiie vesset. ^^^| 

Laego le dar6 nna faclara del cnr- 

Then I shall give him an invoiot^^l 

garaonto qoo llevara de aqiii. 

of the ontward cargo. ^^^| 

T flnalmente le enlregapfi ona 

And finiklly 1 shall give him l^^l 

cnenta de todos loa gastos que 

bill of all the eipenaes ^ra^^^f 

bemos pagado pt>r el biKiue uii 

have incurred in behalf of (M'^^| 


vesse .D this port, ^^^| 



IH todas estas cnentas se hace 
nna onenta corriente entre el 
baqne 7 nosotros. 

I Que doonmentos debe firmar el 
oapitaQ ? 

Onatro oonooimientos. 

I Que contiene nn conocimiento? 

CTna lista exaota del oargamento 
y el nombre de los oonsig- 

I Porqn^ se firman onatro oonooi- 

Uno se da al oapitan, otro se man- 
da al oonsignatario, el teroero 
se qneda en la easa qne des- 
paoba el bnque y el onarto se 
haoe para si uno de los otros 
se perdiese. 
No hay otras formalidades ? 

Bs oonveniente haoer legalizar 
poi el consul del pais para 
donde sale el bnque la faotura 
del oargamento qne lleya. 

I Porqn^ ? 

Afin de qne el buqne no tenga 
ningnnas difionltades oon la 
aduana del puerto de su des- 

|No se entrega nna oarta al 
capitan ? 

81, seftor, nna oarta de reoomen- 
daoion al oonsignatoriOc 
Para qu6 ? 

Para que le pagae el flete. 

I Que debe Y. haoer si hay pass 

Jeroa abordo t 
Pebo haoerles pagar sn pasije. 
|Y que doonmentos debe Y. 

Bas pasaportea. 

Of all these an aoof.uLt on/rent 
has to be made between tht 
vessel and onrselres. 

What papers has the oaptain to 

Four bills of lading. 

What does a bill of lading oontaini 

An ezaot statement of the oarge 
and the names of the oon 

Why are four bills of lading 
signed t 

One is given to the oaptain, one 
is sent to the consignee, the 
third remains with the honse 
which dears the vessel, and 
the fourth is made out in case 
any of the others should be lost. 

Are there no other formalities 
to be complied with? 

It is usual to have the invoice of 
the outward cargo certified by 
the consul for the place to 
which the vessel is going. 


So that the vessel may not have 
any difiSoulty with tiie onstom- 
honse ofiSoers of the place to 
which it is destined. 

Must not a letter be given to th« 
oaptain ? 

Yes, sir, a letter of reooDuaeni. 
dation to tlie consignee. 

For what purpose ? 

That he may pay him for th 

What must yon do if there art 
passengers on board t 

I must collect their fare. 

And what paper have yoo to fH 
for them ? 

Their passports, 

iKlractt i 

I LIbrvs de Jes(( Ralz j Ct. 

L ftielura dt 800 laeoi de tafi vendidot d lo» SeAortt Don Jmk ' 

BOO eaoM de oaf% ooD peso neto de 40,810 libraa k 8 otvg. |8J4B£i 

B. B. 7 O. 
If ncT* York, ■ dt 0<itDbra, li:! 

Thomas Cbibta. 

■ Aelura d» 30,000 taba«ot vnutidM d loi Senort* Don JmI 

Rtti*v Co. ' 

S. B. 7 O. 
■un Tcnk, IB i» Oatnbra, i: 

OasaSu Oabbajal t Oa. 

Jfv«tia Yorh, 11 de Octabre, 18— 

Extract trom the B*oks of J«se^ RnU A €•• 

L Invoice ^800 do;* ofeoffea told ta Meun, Jouph Suit A Oa, 
MOO bags of coffee, weigbiDg net 40,818 lbs., at 8 ote. t8, 
B. A O. K. 

Thoku Umfu. 
Mnr York, Ootoba •, 1»-. 

a, Invoiee ttfVifiOO eifan lold to Meun. Jouph Suit d Go. 

10,000 cigars, Londres 1*, at (SO (900.00 

10,000 cigars, Ounchaa, at $30. 800.00 

B. * 0. B. ^^— 

OabaAu Ouuujal h Oo, 
K«w Totk, Ootobor IS, IB-w 


Ifae For*, OetoSw 11, 18—. 
L Sold to James Phillips, Ssq., 800 baga of coffee, weigh- 
ing net 46,819 Ibe., at eta. .... . HSlt-Tl 

17 _ 

I Bold to Hesars. W. Smith h Co. 10,000 cigars, Lon- 
dres 1>, at $35.00 9SSO.0O 


9, Sold to Joseph Aldaina, Esq., 10,000 dgara, Oonchaa, 

»t $40.00 $400.00 


ibet. ^^ 

W. VA Jart ttili depo-l l 11 U<^ 9|Por Mcreandujni , " 

iiUdoeDefectivo^«10,00000D ndw t T. UriW lU IHBI 

Debe Ifaetia Fwi, 18— . 

0«l. VAJaai Kill depc 


ObUgaeimet i reeibir. 

infant. I OufodA I Afnnrit IPtamot. ITwiclm 

Ui f Oo. LoiDliKn. J. Rol>TCt.Mdl~. UHc 
Jduu I Dil iKimg. I I " I II R< 

Obligaeionet a pagar. 


1. [>. T U (M.I4.4 Bid. > c] L» ...«.», I «' ^X |m 

Nvma York, 1' da Oetubre, 18 — . 

B&bleDdo Job6 RqIs f au hermano, Pedro Hnlz, formado 
nna sooiedad mercRDti) biju la razon de Jose lialt j Oa., 
Began los articnioa d« couvenW, Josg Ruiz ooiitribaye : 

Ef«Otivo depoaitodo en baooo segnu llbro de c^a. $10,000.0' 


Oompndo &I contedo a Toross ITrieta 800 bbdos He oatt, 

aegaa llbro de faoturaa No. I $8,74S.B8 

Tendido al cootado ■ Javme Phillips 800 saoos de oaf%, 
Began libro de Tentas No. 1 |4,S18.71 

Ooniprado 30,000 tabacos i Onbafiaa Oarb^al y Oa., por 
Doeatro pagar6 No. 1, ■ 80 diss viatfi, segnn libro de 
futaraa No. 9, iisporte $600.00 

Vendido 10,000 tabafoa i Q. Smith j Oa., por bq pagart 
No. 1, i 80 dias vista, Began libro de veatas No. 2, im- 

porte $M0.00 

, 18 

Vendido 10,000 tabacos ■ J. Atdama, por sa pagari No. 

a, a 80 diaa riata, aegnn libro de venUu No. 8, importe tiOOfX 

ifitw r*ri. 18—. 

Ml ITo Jonph Buli,| 
depoaitedCuah. .Ml 
•> lUTo lC«rehsadi»l 

n iold to J. PWl- ^ , 

Up* Minr-ll 

BilU Seeeitaile, 

f.lOrmmm ^\Bi^^ \ Drawntf. |0»«»M., | rfaw.tonr. I ftw [ Ow. IJtww 
1. K. TkK lIOcL W. BiiilUilCi>.imlbemKl>e>J. Riil>Aa>.bt<l*7LH ■». KU.M 
a. I " Ilk ■' I J. AliKuh UobllilHir. i " T" llT '- I «a>.H 

£»7ii PoyoSfa. 

»«|J>n»i«|AM. I i>»«t|i I o..*™. |W*«jS«..| n» I Dm. |4>«M 
1. [x. Tnk. I IKM. Ijc R<d. «Co.|.a tb<..D»L.u| *'- ^1^ JU AulIu HOT.] IMLH 

Nno York, October l»i, 18—. 

JoMph RdIc and lile brother, Pet«r Ruiz, havlDg, u per 
■rtictea of sgreemBnt dated lat Inst,, entered Into part- 
nerHliip, advance the following as capital; 

Joseph Eniz, bf Caah deposited aa per Oaab-book $10,000.00 

BoDght 800 bags of coffee of Thomas Urieta, for cash, as 
per liivoioe-book No. 1 |3,7«&.6: 

o James Phillips, for oaah, as per 

Bought 30,000 cigars of Oabuilaa O&rbi^al & Co., on onr 

note No. 1, at 80 days' sight, aa per InTuice-book No. 3 $fiOO.tO 

tMA 10,000 cigars to W. Smith A Co., on his ljU No. 1, 
ftt 80 days' sight, as per Salea-book No. S $350.00 

Hold 10,000 dgars to J. Aldama, on bis note No. S, at 80 

days' sight, aa per flales-booli No. 8 |400.0t 



■ Josi Rait 
Depoettado «d efectivo. 

If ercanoUa 

Ooroprodo i Tomas TTrieta, aegna libro 
' fftotoraa No. If librode najafc" ' 

i Meroanolas, 
Vendido i Jajme Pbiltips, Began libro de 
Tentu No. 1 ; libro rte c^a folio 1 


a Obligaoi 
Oomprado a Oabai)Bi 

iobudtq lessoh. 

JTiWM York, V it OUvbre, IS—. 


Oarbajal y Oa., se- 

Obligaoioaes fi reoibir 

■ Heroanofas, 
Tendido i G. Smith j Oa., aegan libro de 
Dtaa No, S j libro da pagarta No. 1. 

ObligatnoDM a recibir 

a Mercanciaa, 
Vendido a 3. Aldama, Begun libro do \t 
taa No. 8 j libro de pagarAs No. 2 . . 

4 Qananciag y Pirdidaa, 
lemoe ganado e ' 
«li 7 da lot Ubacoa. . 

110,727 l4S4ie,79Ti4l 




to Joseph Bids, 
Deposited in cash 




Sim T»rh^ Oetober Ui^ 18—. 







to Gash, 

Bought of Tiiomas Urieta, as per Inroloe- 
hook No. 1, and Oash-hooK, foL 1 . • . . 



to ICerohandi^ 

Sold to James Phillips, as per 8aIee-hook 

No. 1, and Gash-hook, fol. 1 



to Bills-payahle, 
Bought of Gahafias Garhijal A Go., as 
r Invoioe-hook No. 2 and Bill-oook 







Bills receirable 

to Merchandise, 

Sold to W. Smith dp Go., as per Sales-book 

No. S and Bill-book No. 1 


Bills receivable 

to Merchandise, 
Sold to J. Aldama, as per Sales-book No. 
8 and Bill-book No. 1 


to Profit and Loss, 
What we have gained in onr sales of 
coffee and cigars 



$10,000 00 















1.— Jbaj BuiM. Habar. 
I I I ||Oot. l|PorC«J« |t.|10,IM|ai 

3. — Meretmetai. 


Uot.lSA UbllgHcloD 

Oot.18 For ObUijaok 


4. — Ohligacicntt dpagar. 

I III |p«-lG|PoT Mercandu |4.| EW|« 

S. — ObUgaeioum d reeibir. 

ITIA M«vuuiU«...lft.| SMIMII I III 

ISJA llOT«>nBl»,..|S.| 10o|oo|| I Ml 

6. — Oanajteiat y PMida*. 
I I t I ll'^ot'lBIPorMercuiDiM |T.| <1S|I 


L Jcwa Bate 

a O^ft 

3 UeroanolM , 

4 ObligacioDes 4 pagar. . 
a ObligBolones k reoibir . , 
9 QanuioiM j P^rdidai . 



rl4i ^1 





1. JtttpkSuit. 
Ill ||Oot.l|B]rCMi. 

2.— Onk. 


• •• •• 

.|1.| ]O/)00|tl 

Oot 1 

Uet 9 

To Joseph 8ais 
To Morahandiae 



Bills Payable 
Proat A Loss 








By Morafaaadiae h.| 8,Ttf|it 


a-^ JTmvAa ndi$$. 





By Cash 

By Bills Becdv- 


By BiUa Beoeiv- 
^ able 


I I I ||Ool;.16|By Merohaodiaa |4.| 

S^BOb Secekable. 




Merahandise Ift.l 9501001 
Merchandise |6.| 400|00 

6.— iV^ and Lorn. 
I I I ||Ool;.18|By Merahandiaa |7.| 








Joseph Rniz.**. 


Bills payable . • . 
Bills reoeivable. . 



'• ••••.••• 


660 00 







$19,797 49 $19,797 








arancel, tariC ^^1 


credit, paymant. 

agendo, agency. 



adioion, addition. 



aloanee de onan- balance of an h- 



ta, oount. 


store hoQBO. 


aluBoeo d« 

gS- diy-gooda store. 

Banden, flag. ^H 

almacen de fan- ftnoy store. 


barril. barrsL ^M 


ne- famitoie store. 

balance, balanoa. ^H 


banco, a bank, ^^H 

•Imacon de 

vl- grocery etora. 

bergantin, brig. ^^1 


beneficio, benefit ^^M 

Klmaoen de 

ro- clothing Btorfc 

borrador, blotter. ^H 


buque de Tapor, steamship. ^^M 

hardware store. 

bnquB, ship. ^^^ 


bnqnedegnerra, man-of-war. 

slmaoen d« loza, crocberf atore. 

buqnemercante, merchant m* 


entry io a book. 



balan«», balance, ualot. 



balijaa, letter bags. 



bote de passje, ferry boat. 


a provision. 

bolsa, exohange. 1 



bnqne, TesaeL ^^m 


caatom honse. 






Camblo, exehuca. ^H 



oamino d« hler-iallnad. ^^H 






capita!. upital. ^H 

averfa y oapi 

, primaee, and 

cargo, a eaifo. ^H 

average acciie- 

earretaje, oartag*. ^H 



26 lbs. weight. 

cobio, ooUeoUOQ. ^H 









por cientO| 




al contadO| 







per cent, 


to consign. 


for cash. 



costos y cargos, costs <& charges, 
contestaoion, answer. 











boX; case. 







file (of papers). 

correspondencia correspondence, 
condicion^ condition. 



consignador, consigner, 

consignacion, consignment, 

consignatario, consignee, 

eontribucion, assessment. 





quarter of 


Dano, damage, injury, 

darse ^ la vela, to set saiL 

derechos, duties, 

descuento, discount, 

desembarque 6 landing. 


desembolsoy disbursement, 

despaobo de «• clearance. 

















en lastrcy 



embarque, 6 em- 
























to ship. 


in ballast. 


a vessel of any 

- embarking, 

packing, case, 

stock on hand* * 






















falta do pago, 














signatnrei firm. 









Hacerse & la ve- to set sail, 










importe llquido, net amount, 
incremento, increase. 







ida y vuelta, 







out and home. 

izar la bandera, to hoist the flag, 

or colors, 
industrial industry. 


Jomal, Journal. 

Juramento, oath. 

Junta, meeting. 

Junta de comer- board of com- 

oio, merce. 

Junta deeanidad board of health. 




legajo de cartas, 


libro de ouentas, 

libro de caja, 

libro mayor, 

libro de mues- 

letra de cambio, 






















a bundle, 
bundle of letters 

account book* 
cash book, 
pattern card. 

bill of exchange. 




a pound. 

linen goods. 




















obligacioni . 








un pagar^, 

pi^ ctibicoy 


a promissory 

packet, parcel, 
cubic foot. 

paquete de o«r- packet of let- 


peso brutOy 
peso neto, 






gross weight. 

net weight. 




power of attor- 


premio de segu- premium of in- 
on credit, on 

i plazo. 

pliege de papel, sheet of paper. 

















p61iza de segu- policy of insur- 



pttrty, part, 
writing desk, 











rentas reales, 










saco de Jene- 

subida de pre- 




hundred weight 




residue, remain* 


line of writing, 
articles, goods. 



a shilling. 


royal revenue. 







1 tonelada, 

gunny bag. 

public sale, 
rise, advance, 
rise in prices, 

departure, sail* 













oanton crftpe. 




linsey wooIboj. 










money bag. 








cotton cambric. 




coarse combric. 

















voyage, trip. 


coarse linen. 




homespun lineo 












printed calico. 




a sort of calico. 






at Bight. 













& dos usbs, 

doable nse. 


drugget, a light 



sort of woolen 















Persian, Arabias 


silk lace. 


coarse camblet. 





a bale. 






sail cloth. 












linen cambric. 




coarse baize. 




pack thread, 


filigree work, ^ 

POKPi-Pt&St LSSSdOlf. 







sun umbrella. 





striped taffeta. 

Ropa blanoa, 

linen made up. 





ferret silk. 


French linen. 




hilo aoamte, 

pack thread. 









silk goods. 









swan skin. 



sail cloth. 


cloth, linen. 






lawn, flax. 












book muslin. 

tela de oro, 

cloth of gold. 



twisti cord. 








a bale. 


table liuen. 







thibet cloth. 




fine gauze. 




cloth undyed. 


sail cloth. 


(German linen, 
facings, ruffles. 





listing of cloth. 



silesia hollands. 


printed calico. 



^^m ^H^^^ ^r ^™ ^"^ ^^w ^^ w 

9 A ^ MA 



printed cotton. 









twenty-five lbs. 










cords and gimps 








lacing point 










quarter poand. 




quarter cask. 


executor, or ad 



























, smuggler. 








-exchange bro- 



















consign atario, 





claimant, plain* 



























clerk, ingrosser. 







encargado de, 

agent for. 


hundred weight 










security, bail. 







guardas vijea- 

tide waiters. 







, tidesman. 




parties con- 




a judge. 



juez Arbitro, 

an arbitrator. 




drawer of a bill. 











mercader per 

wholesale deal* 















Acasar el recibo de, 

Del 19 del pasado, 

Del 10 del corrientei 


Refiri^ndoDOs & naestra tiltima.. 

For conducto particular, 

£1 objeto principal de la pre* 

sente es. . • 
Tenemos el honor, 6 la satisfac- 

cion, de participar & Yd. . . 
Sentimos noticiar & Yd. . . 
Participo 6 participamos & Yd... 
La apreciable de Yds. del — fn6 

recibida & su debido tiompo. 
La carta inclusa, 
Precios corrientes, 
A precioB sostenidoSi 
£1 estado de la plaza 6 del mer- 

£1 mercado de algodon, 
Mny velero, 
Una libranza, 
Letra de cambio, 
£1 conocimientO| 
La faotura, 
S. £. ti O. (SalTO error ti omi- 

Sub mny apreciables de Yd., 
Lob tenedores, 
LoB compradoreB, 
Yd. puede girar contra mf^ 6 

noBotroBi IS pocos diaB, 

To acknowledge receipt of. 

Of the 19th ultimo. 

Of the 10th instant. 


Referring to oar last of. . • 

By private hand. 

The immediate object of this 
is. . . 

We have the honor or the satis- 
faction to inform yon. . . 

We are sorry to inform you. . . 

I or we beg to inform yon. . . 

Your favor of — was duly re- 

The enclosed letter. 


We quote. 

Prices current. 

At firm prices. 


The state of the market. 

The cotton market. 

Yery fast sailer. 

A draft. 

Bill of exchange. 

The bill of lading. 

The invoice. 

£. & O. £. (Errors and omis- 
sions excepted^. 

Tour valued favors. 

The holders. 

The parohasers, buyers. 

You may draw on me, or us, at 
short date. 



£1 ano 6 mes pasado^ 
Haoer nna remesa, 
LlenarloB conocimientos, 
Mny ordinario, 
Buen ordinariO; 


la (original) por Oscar, 
la por la via de Liverpool, 
Ldndres, l.o de Julio, 18 — 
New York, Junio 15/8 — 
Paris, 15 de Abril, 18— 
Madrid, 21 de Febrero de 18 — 
Bilbao, y 23 de Mayo, de 18— 
Buenos Ayres, & 22 de Enero de 

Sr. Don Samuel Davis, 

Sr. Don Bait. Bargo y Carranza, 

Srs. Acn&a y Gomez, 

Mny Sr. mio (nuestro), 
Muy Sr. mio (Muy Sr. mio y 

Muy Sres. mios (naestros), 
Muy Sres. mios (Muy Sres. mios 

y amigos), 
Muy Sr. mio, de todo mi aprecio 

(Muy Sr. mio y amigo 6 esti- 

mado amigo), 
A ruego del comun amigo, Dn. 

***, nos tomamos la liber tad 

de. . . 
Conforme nos encarga Dn. ***, 

tenemos el gusto (el honor) 

de prevenir & V. que. . . 
Consign! en te ^ las 6rdenes que 

he recibido hoy de los Sres. 


• • . • 

Conforme nos ordena Dn. *•*, 

de Filadelfia. . . . 
Por disposicion de Dn. *•* . . . . 

Last year or month. 

To make a remittance. 

To mi out the bills of lading. 

Ordinary or inferior. 

Good ordinary. 

Fair, Middling. 


'Original per Oscar. 
Orig. via Liverpool. 
London, Ist July, 18 — 
New York, June 15, 18 — 
Paris, 15th April, 18— 
Madrid, 21st February, 18 — 
Bilboa, 23rd May, 18— 
Buenos Ayres, January 22d, 

Samuel Davis, Esq. (Esquire), 

Bait. Burgo y Carranza, Esq., ^ 

Messrs. Acuna y Gomez, 

Dear Sir. 

Dear Sirs. 

My dear Sir. 

At the request (by request) of 
our mutual friend, Mr. ***, we 
take the liberty of ... . 

By desire of Mr. ***, we have 
the pleasure to acquaint you 
that .... 

In consequence of directions I 
have this day received from 
Messrs. ***.... 

By directions received from Mr. 
, of Philadelphia .... 

s in- 


Agreeably with Mr. 
f Btructions . • • . 


Con atreglo & Ia8 6rdene8 de 

Yms. . . . 
Por 6rden de los Sres. ***.... 
Condeeuente & lo que nos encar- 

gan loB Sres. *** .... 
ConsecneDte con lo qae insinn^- 

mos en algunas de nnestras 

anteriores .... 
Conforme al deseo que me mani- 

fiestan Yms. en su apble. 

del . . . , les prevengo que. . . • 

Consigniente al convenio que he 
hecho con los Sres. *** . . . . 

Elm^rito de la presente se re- 
duce & prevenirles que . . . 

Solo sirve la presente para noti- 
oiarles que ... (La presente 
no tiene tnas objeto que el 
ayisarles que . . . ), 

Hoy, mi principal objeto es . . . 

Tiene la presente por principal 

motiro el . . • • 
Sirve la presente IK . . . . 
Nuestro principal objeto boy es 

ayisarles que .... 

Ahora, volvemos & molestarles 
tinicamente para .... 

Tengo el honor de noticiar & Yd. 
que .... 

Participamos & Yms. como .... 

Nos apresuramos & prevenirles 
que .... 

Siento tener que participarles 
que . . • • 

Mucho ^ntes de reoibir la pre- 
sente habrin .... 

En ausencia de Dn. ***, quien 
se halla en Falmouth, al lado 
de su familia, es un deber mio 
el poner en noticia de Y. que.... 

B^jo los saspicioB do nueotros 

l*6fttT.s£:coi?i> LSdsolr. S53 

Agreeably to your orders . . • 

By order of Messrs. *** . ... 
As directed by Messrs. **^ . • • . 

Agreeably to what we intimated 
to you in several of our former 
letters .... 

In compliance with the desire 
you expressed in your favor of 
the . . . . , which is by me, I 
inform you that .... 

In pursuance of (Pursuant to) an 
arrangement entered into be- 
tween Messrs. **** and me. . . . 

The object of the present is to 
advise you that .... 

The purport of the present is 
merely to inform you thdbt. . • . 

My principal motive in address- 
ing you to-day is ... . 
The immediate object of this 

18 • • • • 

The present will serve to ... . 

We trouble you to-day princi- 
pally for the purpose of in- 
forming you that .... 

We now again trouble you 
merely for the purpose of . . . • 

I have the honor to inform yoa 
that .... 

We beg to inform you that . . « . 

We hasten to inform you that 


I regret that I have to advise 
that .... 

Long before this reaches yon, 
you will have .... 

Under the authority of M. ••*, 
who is absent on a visit to his 
friends at Falmouth, I feel it 
my duty to inform you that... 

Through tho rooommondation 


aprecUbles amigos, Iob Srei. of our ( 

Bajo loB anspioioB de Iob comn- 
uea amigos los Sies. ***, de 
Paris, me tomo la confianca &e 
rtirigirles la preaenta para . . . 

Sin tener el gusto de Ber conoci- 
Ao de Yd. pcnioiialmente, uie 
tomolaUbBrtaddedirljjirle ta 
presente, coiiQadoeii laa rela- 
cioDBB de aruigtad que me uueti 
Dn. S. 

SomoH deudorsB de la dirsccion 

ileVmB, il!os8reB, '*" 
SornoB 6. 20 de Setiembre 1842, 
Precede el ituplicado de Duestra 

carta 30 del ppdo, que oontir- 

mamo h. 
La adjunta ea oopia de naeatra 

illtiuia del .... 
M'oB referimos & nuestia dltima 

por el Alexaader, cuya copia 

anteeede, j . . , . 
Aoompafia copiadanueatraiilti' 

ma 25 del ppdo, 
DesdeuueatTailltimadel .... 
CouBniianioB nueatra anterior 

del 24 ppdo, que Be lia oruzado 

(Be eruz6) con bii apltle del S3 

del miamo, 
ConQnaando uuestra t'lltima 


Nob referiiuoa i. uueatra .... 

Eatiilcando naeatva carta del..., 
i la que soa referimoa .... 

To do lo oual les reiteramoa, 

HacB poeoB diss, tuvimos el 
guHto de eacribirlea, 

TuTimoa el gusto de eactibirlea 
el 15 del corriente, 

Hemoa tenido ya el gnato de 
eacribirlea con eata fecba por 
uuft ooHion puticular, 

frienda Meaars. 

Under the anspiees of our mnt nal 
friends, Meaan. '", of Paiii, 
I take the liberty of addresa- 
ing yoii fnr tlie putpoae of. . . . 

Withont tbe pleaanre of being 
peraonallj acquainted -nitli 
yoii, I take tbe liberty of ad- 
dreaaingyou, trusting tb at my 
intimacy with your brother 8. 
will plead iny apology with ■ 

Weareindebtedforyouraddresa | 
to Messrs. """ 

September 20, 1842. 

Above is tbe duplicate of ont I 
reapecta of the 30th ultimo, f 
which wo beg to couflrm. 

Enclosed is a copy of onr I 
reapects of the .... 

We beg your reference to tha 
aboTe copyof onrlaat reapeota 
per ahip Alexander, and .... 

We hand you enoloaed a copy of 
our last of tbe S5th u1 1. 

Sitice addressiug you on tbe. . . . 

Our lastofthe 24th nit., vhioh 
1T6 beg to contirtn, waa croasod 
by your esteemed favor of the 
23rd of same month. 

Couliruiiug laat respects of the 



referenea t 

Referring (o and oonQrmiDg oi 

respects of tlie .... 
A!l wbicli wo beg to confirm. 
We liad this pleasure a few j 

Wedid ourselvea the pleaanreof ] 
addressing you on tbe 15th iaati i 

We already had thia pleai 
under thia date, by piirata.l 

Escribimos & Yd. el 15 del cor- 

Escribfmos & Vms. detenida- 

mente el 5 del corriente, cnya 

carta confirmamos, 
Nnestra Ultima fvL6 con fha del 

21 corriente, 
Les dlrigfmos nra. Ultima el l.o 



Becomieudo l( Yd. la buena aco- 

gida de mis giros, 
Se siryir^n Yds. bonrar como de 

Hem 08 consegaido llbrar & este 

bnen cambio, 
Me be abstenido de librar todo 

el tiempo qae me ba sido po- 

He girado & cargo de Yd. & GO 

dias yista. 
Que le abonamos en cuenta, 
Dentro de poco dispondr^ de mi 

Libren al mas largo plazo posi- 

La bemos pagado & presenta- 

Hemos aceptado inmediatamen- 

te el giro de Yd., 
He retardado mi aceptacion, 
Rebusamos nnestra aceptacion, 
Su libranza de Yd. tiene que ser 

Qaeda & mi oaidado el onbrir las 

Que yenoen el 21 del corriente, 
Estando dicbas letras & panto 

de yencer, 
La letra no fa6 pagada al yenci- 


PORTV-^ECOiTD Lfissoir. d5S 

We wrote you on tbe 15tb inst. 

We wrote you yery fully tbe 6tb 

inst., to wbicb we beg your 

We last wrote you tbe 2lBt 

We last bad tbis pleasure tbo 

1st inst. 


I beg to recommend my drafts 

to your protection. 
Ton will please to giye tbe usual 

We were enabled to draw at this 

fayorable exchange. 
I baye held off drawing as long 

as possible. 

I baye drawn on you at 60 days' 

Which we place to your credit. 

I shall draw shortly for the bal- 
ance due to me. 

Draw at as long a date as you 

It was paid on presentation. 

We baye promptly honored your 

I baye withheld my acceptance. 

We decline to accept it. 

Tour draft must remain in suf- 

I will make timely proyision 
for the drafts. 

Which fall due the 2l8t inst. 

These bills now becoming due. 

The bill was not paid at matur- 


Ha llegailo i. lui soticia I« dee- 
graciada suspeosioii de pagan 
nnestroa ami go 8, 
Yd. La Buftido poco meooBcabo, 
8e lia sabido hoy en la Bolea, 

No ae ballan Vde. euvaeltos on 

eu deigracia, 
Cada dia se anuliciaiinametosus 

Se ha convocado & loa acreedo- 

Sua deadaa pasivaa asolendea & 

poco m^ooB de . . . . 
Nadie presentia esta qniebra, 

Le aiUtuitamos la cueata vt 

do loa efectos, 
CargamoB & Vd. en uaeatra ci 

Si esU sin er 

tarU <te couformidud, 
Caigamoa loa gaatos en 

Blrvaae rectificar el i 

he aeaalailo. 
So Teo dioha cantidad fignrar S, 

mi crSdito, 
Ko dudo que rebajar&n esta co- 

Td. no tiene derecho i, una comi- 

Advertirfa Vda. qns .... 

A.b6neimoB en cnenta dioha caa- 

Al ddbito de BU cnent^ 

he nnfortmunl^^l 

r friends. ^^ 

I have leamed the 
stoppage of our f rieada, 

YoQ have aafiered but slightly. 

It buB been declared to-day on 

You are not injured by their 

Ntunorous failnrea are daily tak- 
ing place. 

A meeting of creditors has beeo 

Their outotandingdcbti fall lit- 
tle short 

Thefailare was quite onlool 


We hand you accountof sales of 

the goods. 
We debit you. 

T account. 

If foDnd correct, please to 

The expenaes are placed to your 

There is a balance in our favor. 
We have not yet had leianre to 

examiue the accounts. 
Please correct the error pointed 

out to you, 
I find I am not credited for this 

I hope you will nithdiavr t 

You are not entitled to a c 

You 'Will please obserre tbat-iu 

Cany the amount to our oredit^'J 

To the debit of youi acoonnta { 


^^^^^ POBTY-BECOm) LEBBON. 357 ^| 

^M AdjQuto aula <le varioa renglo- 

Encloaed yoo will And metaoran. ^^H 


dam for sundry artiolea. ^^^| 

^H For complacer & nn amigo & 

To oblige a ftiand to whom I ^^M 

^1 qaiea deseo servir, 

oould not deny thii favor. ^^^| 

^H For ocasion seguia. 

By a eafe opportunity. ^^^| 

^T £n loB t^rminoB que cftlenlen 

As you may deem moat to my ^^^| 

mae en mi benofioio, 

advantage. ^^H 

Bn el mode qae les parezoa me- 

In the manner you judge best. ^^H 

The ntmOBt attention will be ^^M 

«Bmeio HQ 6iAf>a, 

paid to your order. ^^H 

CumpUr^iiios & la let» in* ia- 

We will pnnotually follow your ^^H 



86 eit& llenando su nota de 

Yont Older la in execution. ^^H 


Loi efectoB Ber4n remitidus ain 

The goodB shall be forwarded ^^H 

p^rdida de tiempo, 

without lose of time. ^H 

EBtdn liBloB loB urtlonloa. 

The artiolea are in readiuesB. ^^H 

Hi 6rdeii qaeda vigente, 

Consider my order in full force. ^^H 


.w.,„. ■ 

Faotnra da TaiiaB inersancta«, 

Invoice of sundries, marked ^^^ 

con la maica y loa niimeroB 

and numbered as per margin, 

del miTgtn, embareadaB en 

shipped by A. on board the 

el buque St. JoLd, bu capltan 

8t. John, H. M., master, for ■ 

H. M., con dostino A Panami, 

Panama, on joint account of ^^J 

do ouenta mitad entre loB Srea. 

Messrs. L. M. and sbipper. ^H 

L. M. y el ramitente, 

Consigned to Mesars by ^^H 

. . . . de 6rden y oueata y ries- 

order and for account and ^^H 

go de los Sres .del comer. 

Tiak of Messrs mer- ^^1 

oio de Muera York, 

obautfl, of New York. ^H 



Nueva York, y Enoro 20, 

Now York, January 20tb. ^H 

A tieinta diae viata, mandar&n 

At thirty days' sight, pay this ^^1 

Vdfl. pagar por esta primera 

our first of eichauge (aecond ^^M 

de cnmbia (uo babi^adolo he- 

and tliird unpaid) to the order | 

oho por la xegnnda y tercara) 

cuatro mil peioB, & la ijrden 

dollara, value received, and 

de loa Sres valor leci- 

place to ftif cQant as per advioa. 1 

liido, que oargarin Vds. en 


cuontftoegnn ariso. 






For Q. H. Pauoon.* 

Ambas se edncaron en sa» pri- 
meroa alios en to dors escaela de 
la adversidail ; ambos aiifrieroD 
laa mayores Itainillaciones por 
parte de aqaellos inismos sob nias 
proiiiDoa parientes, qne mas de- 
bieran haberlaa amadu y prote- 
jido: ainbas consignieroD aeotar- 
se Bobre el tron6, despues de las 
viciaitades mas oontrarias: am- 
bas condaJeroD i ea paebl'.>, du- 
rante ua largo j gloriDso rei^ado, 
a un grada de prosperidad a qne 
nuQca hal)ia Uegado anUa : am- 
baB vivioron para ver la vanidad 
d« las grandezaa terrenalea, y 
parB murir victiinaa de una tris- 
tecB iTiO(mft:iIab1e : una y otra, 
por fiUirao, dejaroQ on nonibre 
llugtre ; qne no ba tecido ignal 
•n ta bistoria |N)et«rior de bqb 
reapeclivaa Daoiones. 

Deaaparece sin embargo, la 
■emejBDKB entre ambaa, fuera de 
Mtas pocBB circDDStandBB de an 


OF QoEBN Isabella or SpaoI 

WITH QuBBN Elizabeth 


B; Q. H. Psncon. 

Both were disciplined in early 
life by the teacbings of tbat atern 
nnt8eofwi(idom,adversity. Both 
were maile to experience the 
deepest huiniliatioD at the handa 
of their nearest relative, who 
should have olieri sited and pro' 
tect«d tbem. Both snccecdod io 
establishiag tliemselves on the 
throne after the most precorlooa 
viciaaitndes. Eacb oondncted her 
kingdom, through a long and tri- 
umphant reign, to a height of 
glory which it had never befort ■ 
reached. Both lived U 
vanity of all earthly graodon 
and to fall the victims 
cotisolable uielanoholy ; and b 
left behind an illQatrions D 
Dnrivalled in the sDbseqnent ai 
nale of their country. 

Bet with these few oirciim>J| 
BtancuB of their history the 
semblanoe ceases. Their cEu 
actera afford scarcely a poinL ij 
contact. Elizabeth Inheritiii|i 



historia ; y sns caracteres apcnas 
presentan punto alguno de con- 
taoto. Isabel de Inglaterra, here- 
Jando una gran parte del genio 
orgalloso y brnsoo de sn padre 
Snriqne V^IL, era altiva, arro- 
gante, adasta 6 irascible, y 4 
aatas fieras onalidades reania el 
^lasmnlo mas profundo y nna ex- 
arafta irresolacion : y DoAa Isa- 
bella de Oastilla, por el contrario, 
(emplaba la dignidad de su ele- 
eada categoria con sns maneras 
mas afables y corteses: nna vez 
reraelta era constante en sns 
propositos, y an condncta publica 
y priyada Uevaba el sello del 
candor y la honradez. Una y 
otra pnede decirse que dieron 
mnestras de aquella magnanimi- 
dad, que es necesaria para la 
realizacion de grandes oosas a 
despeoho de los mayores obsta- 
cnlos: pero la reina de Ingla- 
terra era en eztremo egoista, in- 
capaz de olvidar, no ya nna inju- 
ria yerdadera, si no aun la mas 
ligera ofensa 4 su yanidad, y 
despiadada en el oastigo : al paso 
que la soberana de Oastilla vivia 
solo para ids demas, siempre es- 
taba pronta a sacrificarse por el 
bien publico, y lejos de alimentar 
resentimientos personales, mos- 
triba la 'nayor bondad baoia 
•qnellos raismos que la babian 
ofendido en lo mas yiyo de su 
eoracon, buscando en su benevo- 
lencia medios de mitigar la seye- 
lidad autorizada por las leyes, 
auo tratandose de loa ouli)ablea. 

large sbare of the bold and b!nf 
King Harry ^s tempei-ament, was 
haughty, arrogant, coarse, and 
irascible ; while with these fiercer 
qualities she mingled deep dis- 
simulation and strange irresolu 
tion. Isabella, on the rtber 
band, tempered the dignity of 
royal station with the most bland 
and o»urteous manners. Once 
resolved, she was constant in 
her purposes, and her conduct iu 
public and private life was cbar* 
acterized by candor and integ- 
rity. Both may be said to have 
shown that magnanimity which 
is implied by the accomplishment 
of great objects in the face of 
great obstacles. But Eliisabeth 
was desperately selfish ; she was 
incapable of forgiving, not merely 
a real injury, but the slightest 
affront to her vanity; and she 
was merciless in exacting retri 
bntion. Isabella, on the other 
hand, lived only for others^waa 
ready at all times to sacrifice self 
to considerations of public duty; 
and, far from personal resent- 
ments, showed the greatest con- 
descension and kindness to those 
who had most sensibly injured 
her ; while her benevolent heifft 
sought every means to mitigate 
the authorized severities of the 
law, even t-ovards the guilty. 



PI D<it& Ibibkl dk Oabtilla 

OOH Isabel db Inolatbrba, 

SiacHDA Pabtb. 

Aiubas poseiaD extraordiiiftri& 
fortakza de esjiiritu ; porque si 
bien Dofla Isabel de Oastilla se 
ballo ea situaoiones qne eiiginD 
ooa mas freoiieiicia y en mas alto 
grodo el ejercioio de eata virCud, 
qae sa rical la de Inglaterra; 
Dadie nogara que se hullo tam- 
bien dotada de ignal oaalidad, 
\ Bv BU mayor altnra, la b\ja de 
Enrique VUI. Logro eata m^or 
edacacioD, y noa instnccion bajo 
todos aspectos mas e!evada qne 
Kqnella, pero la reina de Gsstilla 
tenia la suficieDte para desem- 
peaar con dignidad sn pucsto, y 
fomeiito las letrns con generosa 
munificencia. Lm fucnUlades y 
vai'onilea de Isabel de 
ra 1b divorciaroD, al pa- 
ti gran maoera de los 
Wributus peculiarea de bu bcxo, 
ftl menor de los que constituyen 
■n eceanto; porque poseyo en 
kbnadaocia eai flaquezas, una 
preauncion y nn deseo de aer 
kdmirada, qae ni buq Iob a^os 
padieron cuiregir, una ligereza 
may libre, aluo ya Drimlual, y 
■no pasioD por las gaiu j la 


E Qdebn Isabella of SpaiiI 

Bkoomd Past. 

Both posseaaed rare fortitudi 

Isabella, indeed, was placed iai| 
aitnatione which demanded mora 
freqnent and higher displays ot 
it than her rival; but no one 
will donbt a full measure of tliia 
qnality in the daughter of Henry 
VIII. Elizabeth waB better edu- 
cated, and every way more biglily 
Bccoinpiished than Isabella. But 
the latter knew euough to main- 
tain her station with dignity; 
and she encournged learning by 
a lonniflcent patronage. The 
masculine powers and passions ol 
Elizabeth seemed to divorce her, 
in a great meosnre, from the pe- 
cnlinr atwibutes of her set — at 
least from those which constitute 
ita pecaliar charm, for she bad 
abundance of Its foibles 
quetry and lo.e of admEraUoil 
which age conid not cblll; < 
levity most careleBs, if not crim-j 
inal ; and a fondness for dre 
and tawdry magiiiScenca of ai 
meal, which was riil.oulona, g 
disgusting, according to 
fereut periods of life in which H 
was indulged. iBabellt, on t 



magnifioenoia exoesiya en los 
adornos que era ridionla 6 re- 
pugnaute segan las diferentes 
6pooas de sa yida, en qne se dejo 
arrastrar por ella: ai paso que 
Doila Isabel de Oastilla, distiof* 
gai6ndose siempre por sus mane- 
ras decorosas y por una pureza 
que ni aun la calumnia pudo 
empa&ar, se contentaba con el 
legitimo afecto que podia inspi- 
rar dentro del oirculo de sa fa- 
milia ; y muy distante de la fri- 
yola afeotacion en sus adornos y 
tiajes, era en eztromo sencillo 
Bu ordinario yestir, y parecia no 
prestar atencion a sus joyaa, 
sino en cuanto podian seryir para 
las neoesidades del estado, des* 
prendiendose de ellas, luego qne 
osta utilidad cesaba, para ofre- 
oerlas 4 sus amigas. 

Ambas fueron extraordinaria- 
mente acertadas en la eleccion 
de sus ministros; aunqu% la de 
Inglaterra incurrio en algunos 
errores por causa de su ligereza, 
asi corao la de Oastilla por sus 
sentimientos religiosos; los cuales 
juntamente con su eztremada 
humildad, fueron los que oondu- 
jeroD a esta ultima a los unicos 
desaciertos graves de su gobier- 
no. No incurri& su rival en er- 
rores semejantes y eran eztra&as 
a su caracter las apreciables cua^ 
lidades que a ellos conducen: 
para nada entraba, ciertamente, 
en su conducta el pr'ncipio re- 
ligiose, y aunque fu6 el baluarte 
de la religion protestante, dificil 
oeria, on verdad, decir, si era en 

other hand, distrngnlslied through 
L'fc for deoomm of nkanners, and 
purity beyond the breath of cal- 
umny, was content with the le^t 
imate afEeotion whicl; she could 
inspire within the range of her 
domestic circle. Far from a friy- 
olous affectation of ornament or 
dress, she was most simple in her 
own attire, and seemed to set no 
value on her jewels but as they 
could serve the necessities of the 
state; when they could be no 
longer useful in this way, she . 
gave them away to her friends. 

Both were uncommonly saga- 
cious in the selection of their 
ministers ; though Elizabeth was 
drawn into some errors in this 
particular by her levity, as was 
Isabella by religious feeling. It 
was this, combined with her ez 
cessive humility, which led tc 
the only grave errors in tlie ad 
ministration of the latter. Hei 
rival fell into no such errors 
and she was a stranger to th« 
amiable qualities which led u 
them. Her conduct was cer 
tainly not controlled by reli^ooi 
principle; and though the bul 
wark of tlie Protestant faith, it 
might be difficult to say whether 
j she were at heart most a Proti 
1 estant or a Catholic. She yiew- 



ID CDruun mfts |irote3tante que 
calolica: niiraba la religion en 
IDB relttcioDGS oon el eetado, d, 
an otna pAlabras, oonaigo mis- 
ma; y adoptu medidas, para ob- 
lifar i la cunfurmidad con sua 
planes, casi tan desp6tiofl8 j aan- 
( 'iinarins oonio las qce por inoti- 
'iM de ooDoiencia diotera bd mas 
■npantidoBs rival. 

ed religinn in \ts cocneotf at »1d 
the etAte — in other words, vttta 
herself; and she took meaitirei 
for enforcing conformity to Lei 
own Tiewa, not a wbit less des- 
potic, and scarcely lees eangnina 
ry. than thoee countenanced tut 
couBciflnoe' aske by her mon 
bigat«d rival. 


»i Dona Is&bbl dk Uibtux* 



Bute rasgo de aupersticiun que 
ha arrojado cierta sombra aobre 
el oaracter por lo denias bellisinio 
de Doba Isabel de Oastilla, podria 
indnoirnos a oreer que ersn sua 
i lai de la reina Inglesa ; pero 
para jnzgar de eeto con acierto, 
M menester cooeiderar log reanU 
Iiabel do Inglaterra encoutro a 
munntodo cuanto necesitaba para 
haoer la felicidad de an pueblo ; 
y no tavo, por lo i«nto, que lia- 
oer mas qne aprovecbarse babil- 
raente de ello jiara construir con 
■olidei el edificio de la grandeza 
DBoional. Dofia Isabella de Oaa- 
tU]a tnvo que crear estos medios : 
bttlA las facnltades de sa [lueblo 

or Qdikn Ibabbixa or BruM 



Thikd Past. 

Tbis feature of bigotry, whiob 
has tbrown a sliade over Isk* 
beltii'a otherwise beautiful char- 
acter, might lead to a disparage- 
ment of her intellectual powet 
compared with that of the Eng- 
lish queen. To estimate thii 
aright, we must contemplate the 
results of their respective reignsL 
Elizabeth found all the materlala 
Dl' prosperity at hand, anduTaiied 
herself of tliern most ably to build 
v) ^ aolid fabric of national grand- 
eur, Isabella created thi 
teri&k. She saw the faculdee 
her [eople locked up in a death* 
like hthargy, and she breathed 
into tjem the breath of li& 
those great and heroic enterpriaw 
which terminated in auoh gl» 


^ 111 




■cB^das en mortal letargo, y snpo 
infandir on ellas el sopio de la 
▼ida, para ezoitailas a aqaellas 
g^ai:dfc)S y lieroicas empresas que 
tan gloriosas consecnencias pro- 
diyeron para la monarqnia; y 
ifitas coDsoouencias, cuando se 
eonsideran desde el punto de 
▼ista de la posicion qae su crea- 
dora ocapaba al principio de su 
reiaado, son casi railagrosas, tal 
es su magnitud. £1 genio varonil 
de la reina inglesa aparece mas 
relevante de lo qne naturalmente 
era, por lo mismo que carecia de 
las dulces cualidades de su sexo ; 
el de sn rival, por el contrario, 
a manera de ana fabrica grande, 
pero sim^trica, pierde en apa- 
riencia algo de sn verdadera 
grandeza, por la misma perfeo- 
eion de armonia de sus propor- 

Las circunstancias de la muerte 
de una y otra, que fueron algun 
Canto pareoidas, pusieron de ma- 
aifiesto la desemejanza de sus 
oaracteres. Ambas sucurabieron 
«n medio de la pom pa de su regio 
eetado: ambas fueron victimas 
de un abatimiento incurable, mas 
6ien que de enfermedad alguna 
Asica conocida. Nacio aquel en 
la reina de loglaterra de la herida 
que en en vanidad causara el tiis- 
jra abandonado la admiracion con 
que durante ^an largo tiempo se 
alimentaba, y liasta el afecto de 
la amistad y la adhesion de sus 
tubditos; y no busco consuelos 
donde unicamente podia hallar- 

rfons oonseqnenoea to the Qoii* 
archy. It is when viewed from 
the depressed position of her early 
days, that the achievements ol 
her reign seem scarcely less than 
miraculous. The masculine go* 
nius of the English qneen standa 
out relieved beyond its natural 
dimensions by its separation from 
the sof^r qualities of her sex; 
while her rival's, like some vast, 
but symmetrical edifice, loses in 
appearance somewhat of its ac- 
tual grandeur, from the perfect 
harmony of its proportiona 

The cironmstances of theif 
deaths, which were somewhat 
similar, dis2)layed the great dis- 
similarity of their characters. 
Both pined amidst their royal 
state, a prey to incurable despond- 
ency, rather than any marked 
bodily distempor. In Elizabeth, 
it sprung from wounded vanity, 
a sullen conviction that she had 
outlived the admiration on which 
she had so long fed, — ^and even 
the solace of friendship and the 
attachment of her subjects. Nor 
did she seek consolation where 
alor« it was to be found, in that 
sad hour. Isabella, on the othef 
hand, sunk under a too acute 
sensibiliCy to the sufferings ol 



loa en aqnellos tristos momen- 
lofl. La reina de CaBtilla, por el 
oontrario, ee doblego b^o el peso 
t^ei BD exqaisita Bensibilidad pnr 
los padeciraientos agenoa; pero 
«n medio de la tristeza que le 
•qnejaba, con tern plaba con la 
eonfianza de la 1'^ la brillante 
peKpectira qae nna vida fntnra 
laofreoLa.ylanzosa ultimo alien- 
to, en mediu del Iknto y del oni- 
Tersal laraento de saa pueblca. 

En esta adbesion cnnatante j 
aanna dismhiDida de la nacion 
lepallola es doode debe enoon- 
trarae el teetimotiio mns evideote 
de las virtndes de DoiJa Isabel de 
Oastilla. Sna subditus la easal- 
■sn conio el ^emplo mat hri- 
Uante de todaa lot virtudes, j 
Uoran el dia de sa tnuerte oomo 
>l iltimo de la proaperidad yfe- 
IMdad de tu patria.* El Juioio 
de la posteridad ba veoido icoo- 
flrmar el de los eontemporaneos ; 
jXos Eapafloles tnas iluatrados de 
tineatroB diss, auaque no deaco- 
Docon loa errores de sa aditiinis- 
tracioD, dan bonruao testimonio 
da BOB virtadea; ; mientros que 
danal olvidolaelogiadagrandeza 
de otros reyes posteriorea, quo 
traen la atenoion del vulgo, se 
ztiendea en hablar, Iknos de 
MitilaiaBmo, del car&oter de Doiia 
babella la Gatotica, reina de Oas- 
tilla, oonsider^odola como el maa 
grande qae eo la liiatoria de todoa 
Idr prJDcipcs de cBte reinu He 

ottiera. Bnt amidol Uie g)oOi< 
which gathered aroiind her, she 
looked with the eye of faith to 
the higher prospects which an- 
folded of the futare: and whec 
she resigned her last breath, it 
was amidat the leara and aula 
Teraal lamentatioitB of her 


] abated ^PH 
Indeed, • I 

that we see the moat nneqniTooa. 
testimony of the virtues of lea- 
bella. Her own anbjects extol her 
as " the most brilliant exemplar 
of every virtue," and moarn over 
the day of her death as " the last 
of the prosperity and happineaa 
of their conntry."* The jadg- 
Tnent of posterity has ratified the 
Eent«nce of her own age. The 
mo^ eolighteDed Spaniards oi 
the present day, by no means 
insensible to the errors of hei 
government, bear honorable tes- 
timony to her deserta ; and while 
they pasa over the bloated mag- 
nifioence of anoceeding monaroha 
who arrest the popular eye, dwell 
with enthnaiaBm on TsabelU'i 
character, aa the most trnly great J 
in their line of princes. 

•L lbrtBM,Oii*M m 

>rMm, lib. n. 




Jl bu huo. 

Tyftdaddft dd InglM por LnSt llandia 


L6ndres, 21 de Dioiembre, 1749. 


Si te esta reservada la dicha de 
poseer grandes talentos y grandes 
virtades, recaeri sobre ti el respe- 
to y la admiracion de los hombres, 
pero para ganar sn amor y afeoto 
necesitaras los talentos inferiores, 
leniorea virtutei. Los primeros, 
privados del socorro y de las 
graoias de los segandos, arran- 
earan las alabanzas, pero exci- 
taran al mismo tiempo el temor 
y la envidia, dos sentimientos in- 
oompatibles con amor y afecto. 

Oesar tavo los mayores vioios, 
y Oaton las mayores virtades, 
qne paeden caber en la human!- 
dad ; pero Cesar poseia las lenio- 
res virtutes^ que faltaban a Gaton, 
las caales le procnraron el amor 
de sas mismos enemigos, y le ga- 
naron el oorazon de todos los 
hombres a despcoho de la razon ; 
i, la yez qne Gaton no fa6 qnerido 
ni aan de sns amigos, apesar de 
jk estimaoion / respeto qne no 

OaieivAL TszT. 

London, December 81, 1749. 
DsAB BoT : 

Great talents, and great vir* 
tnes (if you shonld have them), . 
will procure yon the respect 
and the admiration of mankind : 
bat it is the lesser talents, the 
leniares virtutes^ which mast 
procure yoa their love and affeo* 
tion. The former, unassisted and 
unadorned by the latter, will ex« 
tort praise, but will, at the sama 
time, excite both fear and envy ; 
two sentiments absolutely in* 
compatible with love and affec- 

Gfldsar had all the great vices, 
and Gato all the great virtues, 
that men could have. But Gsosar 
had the leniorea virtutee^ which 
Gato wanted; and which made 
him beloved, even by his en^ 
mies, and gained him the hearts 
of mankind in spite of their rea- 
son: while Oato was not eveo 
beloved by hu friends, notwith- 
standing ^e esteem and res^ieol 



podian relmsar a sns virtndes; 
y yo me inclino a creer que si 
Cesar se hubiese visto privado de 
estas ierAore$ virtutei^ y Oaton 
posoido de ellas, no habria el 
primero atentado, 4 lo m^nos con 
iuceso, contra las libertades de 
Boma, J el segundo las habria 
protejido eficazmente. Addison, 
9n su tragedia de Caton, dice lo 
qne me parece muy cierto, 

"Onrae on his virtues, they've un- 
done his country ;"♦ 

se refiere en estas palabras 4 
aqnellas virtades pequeiias pero 
mas persuasivas, como la blan- 
dnra, la afabilidad, la complaoen- 
cia y el buen humcr. Los cono- 
•cimientos de ua literato, el valor 
de un h^roe, las virtndes de un 
estoico, excitaran la admiracion ; 
pero si los conocimientos van 
nnidos con la arrogancia, el valor 
con la ferocidad, y la virtud con 
una severidad inflexible, nunca 
Uegara el liombre a ser amado. 
El heroismo de Carlos XII, rey 
do Suecia, si su valor brutal me- 
rece tal nombre, atrajo la admi- 
racion universal, pero su persona 
fu6 mal quista de todo el mundo ; 
4 la vez que Enrique IV, rey de 
Francia, que poseyo un valor 
Igual, y sostuvo guerras mucho 
mas largas fu6 general men te 
amado en consideracion a sus 
Firtudes sociales aunqne meuos 

which they conld not refbaa U 
his virtues; and I am apt to 
think, that if Cflosar had wanted, 
and Cato possessed, those lenuh 
res virtuteSj the former would 
not have attempted (at least with 
success), and the latter could 
have protected, the liberties o 
Rome. Addison, in his Oato, 
says of Csdsar (and, I believe, 
with truth), 

" Curse on his virtues, they've un- 
done his country ;" 

by which he means, those lesser, 
but engaging virtues, of gentle- 
ness, affability, complaisance, and 
good humor. The knowledge of 
a scholar, the courage of a hero, 
and the virtue of a stoic, will be 
admired; but if the know edge 
be accompanied with arrogance, 
the courage with ferocity, and 
the virtue with inflexible severi- 
ty, the rc4B will never be Icved. 
The heroism of Charles XII. oi 
Sweden (if his brutal courage 
deserves that name) was uni- 
versally admired, but the nan 
nowhere beloved ; whereas Hen- 
ry IV. of France, who had full 
as much courage, and was mnoh 
longer engaged in wars, ^aa 
generally beloved, op aocouctOb 
bis lesser and social virtuttL 

* " Mslditas MAn bum virtadM, porqie ellu causarou la niliia de fo 



Sboukda Pabtb. 

TodtJB los hombres dos halla- 
JIOB forniados de tal manera, que 
nuestra rtaon es por lo onmna el 
jaguete de nnestro corasui, 6 lo 
que viene k oer lo mismo de naes- 
tras pasioDes ; y el modo mas se- 
garo de chasqnear la priraera, es 
gaDar al segnndo, lo caal solo se 
DoDsigue por medio de las leniores 
tirtutes^ y del h4bil nso de ellas. 
Por ejemplo : la insolente corte- 
sia de nn bombre orgnlloso nos 
disgasta qniza mas de lo que lo 
babria beoho su groseria, porque 
con sn modo nos dice que solo por 
bondad y mera oondescendencia 
nos maestra ana cortesia qae no 
tendriamos derecbo de reclamar. 
Nos anancia sn proteocion con 
nn gracioBo movimiento de ca- 
beza en Ingar de atestignarnos sn 
amistad por medio de ana reve- 
renoia comnn, y se lee en sn as- 
pecto qne nos da permiso para 
qne nos sentemos, comamos 6 
paseemos con 61, en vez de invi- 
tarnos a que nos sirvamosbacerlo. 

La estndiada liberalidad de an 
bombre orgnlloso insnlta^mnobas 
veces al desgraciado qne socorre, 
porque tiene cnidado de bacerte 
sentir la miseria en que te ballas, 


TO HIS Son, conolijdbd. 

Second Pabt. 

We are all so formed, that 
onr understandings are generally 
tbe dupes of our bearts, — tbat is, 
of our passions; and tbe surest 
way to tbe former is tbrough 
tbe latter, wbioh must be en- 
gaged by tbe leniorei virtutei 
alone, and the manner of exert- 
ing tbem. Tbe insolent civility 
of a proud man is (for example), 
if possible, more shocking tban 
bis rudeness could be; because 
be shows you, by bis manner, 
that be thinks it mere oondo* 
scension in bim; and tbat bis 
goodness alone bestows upon 
you what you have no pretence 
to claim. He intimates bis pro- 
tection, instead of bis friend- 
ship, by a gracious nod, instead 
of an usual bow ; and rather sig- 
nifies his consent that you may, 
than his invitation that you 
should sit, walk, eat, or drink 
with bim. 

The studied liberality of a 
purse-proud man insults tbe dis- 
tresses it sometimes relieves; 1;« 
takes care to make you feel your 
own misfortunes, and tbe diflRN^ 





J la dtferencU qae hay entre an 
sttoBcioa J in taya i iosiDua qne 
smbas tion JastameDte merecida-s 
la sDja por su Buber, la tuja por 
to igDoi'SQcia. El pedaaK inao- 
leote no comonica bu aaber, sino 
que lo pronialsa; en tcz da dar- 
Ido t« Iq impone, y se lialla tnas 
d«MOK>, ei es pasiblo, ie m&a'i- 
fesUrte tn propia ignorancia que 
aa aaber, Maneras coino estas, 
BO solo en los ejemplos particii- 
iSrea que llevo eefiakdos, bIiio en 
Doalqniera otros, oh oca d 6 irritan 
aquel gradu de vanidad j de amor 
propio que todo liumbre tiene en 
■Q corazoD, borraa el reconoci- 
miento por el favor raoibido tra- 
yendo 4 la inmnoria el mot'To 
qne lo prodi^o y el roodo con 
que ee conoedio. 

Eetoa defectos indioao las per- 
feccionea opuestas, y tu propio 
buen aentido t« laa eugerira na- 

Pero ademaa de estaa virtudoe 
menores, liay ciertoB talentOB mas 
pequeilos, 6 llam^mosles prendas, 
que adoroan j relevan el m£riCo 
de las grandea, tanto mas, cuanto 
qua todo el inando es apto para 
jDzgar de las nnas, y muy pocos 
"ara decidir de laa otraa. Oada 
Bjo aioLte ii tItlpresioD qae aobre 
tl hace nna bAudara itiainuante, 
Dn modo de bablar agradabie y 
Doa nrbanidad complacientejcua- 
lidades qne allanan el camino y 
preparaii nn reolbimiento favora- 
ble i otras qne les son Bnperio- 
rw. A Dioa. 

enee between yonr aliiatlon uid 
his ; both which bo inainnatei 
la be justly merited : yonrs, by 
your fully ; his, by Iiis visdom. 
The arrogant pedant doea Dot 
commnoioate, but promnlgatca 
hid knowledge. He does not 
give it yon, bat he [n6icls it 
U[jon yon ; and is, if possible, 
more desiroos to sliow jou jont 
own ignorance than hi? own 
learning. Such manners bm these, 
not only in the particular in- 
stanoes which 1 liave mentioned, 
but likewise In all others, shook 
and revolt that little pride an^ 
vanity which every roan has in. 
Iiis heart ; and obliterate in na 
the obligation for the favor con- 
ferred, by reminding ua of t^ia 
motive which produced, and ttaa 
manner whioli aooompanied it. 

These faults point ont th^ 
opposite perfections, and yonr 
own good sense will natnrallj. 
suggest them to yon. 

But besides these lesser vir- 
taes, there are what may ba 
called the leaser talents, or M>- 
ooinplishments, which are at 
great nae to adorn and recom* 
mend all the greater; and the 
all people are judges 
and but few itre ol 
Everybody feels the 
which an engaging 
agreeable manner Ol 
id an easy polit«nen, 
makes n])iin them ; and they pro 
pare the way for the favonbU •! 
rece[itiou uf their betlen. ^C 



spi'sking, a 


OATOnLO 87 ox LA. Pabtb 

Da Uianu ■>■ Cs&VAsra Sa&thiba. 

aoDBidera, seilorea inios, grandes 
C in&nditag coeas Ten Ina que pro- 
feaan la urdeo de la andante ca- 
balleria. Si no (onal de loa vi- 
vientes babri ea el mnndo que 
ahora por la puertadoste Castillo 
eotrara, y da la euerte que eeta- 
tnoB nos viero, que juzgue y orea 


iQaien podrideclrqueestaseilo- 
ra que est& a mi lado es la grao 
reina, qne todos sabemoB, y qoe 
yoBoyaqnel caballerodelaTriate 
Figura qne anda por abi on boca 
de la famal Ahora no baj que 
dadar, etno que eata arte 5 ejer- 
cicio excede a todas aqnellaa y 
■quelloa qae loa bombres inyen- 
taron, y tanto mas ee ha de t«ner 
BE cstima, coanto a mas poligros 

I Tb«nme,m(idanifndt7TKiinsBUTL 
Vebdadhbamkntb si bien m 
considera, sefiorea mioa, griuide* 
6 inauditas ooaaa Tea los qna 
eiguen la orden de la andanta 
caballena. Porqn6|quienhabria 
en el muDdoj qae bI abora por la 
puerta de eat« costillo entrara, 
J de la snerte que estamoB noa 
Ttera, juzgas6 y creyese qne noso- 
tros EomoB loqae BomoBt Qnien 
podria decir qne esta seHora que 
esti i mi lado, ea la groo reina 
que todoa eabemos, y que yo sol 
aqnel caballero de la Triste Fi- 
gnra que anda por nbt en booa de 
la fnma! No hai puea qne dndar 
que esta arte y qjercioio esceden 
a todo9 loB qae inventaron lai 
boiiibrea, y tanto mas ae ban de 

eel&a sujetos, QuEtenseme da 

■ In order to Hhbw prscticall; th« difierenro betvesn Iha Spanich lingtum* 
of Um present day and that of the iu:iteentli cectary , Mr, Stivk hu tran- 
Hribdd h«re an eiljsct from Cervantes, the most celebra'^sd and lawt Bn< 
tiqnated writtr of that period introduiuj; aucb ataoDjea it lie tbinki It. 
Uluatriaai antborof Don Quii jte would adopt himaair vara be to nritenow 



eaU Bujeto. QiiiI«tiBeiDe deknte 
lo» qoe dijerea qne las letras 
Imcen venl-aja a laa arma.^, que 
lea dirfi, y sean qnien se fueren, 
que no iabeo lo que ilic«n por- 
que la raKon que lus tnle^ Buelen 
decir, y b lo qoe elloa mai se 
Blioien, Bf- qne los trabnjoa del 
wpiritii eiKden a los del ouerpo, 
J que las ermiis solo ooa el ouer- 
po M ejercitan, como b1 fuese 
■n ejercicio oflcio de ganapanes, 
para et cnal no ea menester mas 
de bnenas fnerzas : 6 como si en 
eslo qne llumatDof armas los quo 
las profesamua no se encerrasen 
los HOtoa lie la furtaleza, lua cua- 
les piden para ejecutalloa tnnolio 
entendimiento ; 6 cumo ai uu 
trabajase el inimo del guerrcro 
qD« tieoe a bu cargo nn ej^rcito 6 
la defenna de aoa ciudad sitiada, 
■bI cod el espiritu como con el 
cnarpo. SI no, veose si se al- 
canxa con las fuerzas corporales 
i Baber j copjeturar el intento 
del eneinigo, loa designioa, las 
tatrntagemas, laa difioultadea, el 

que todaa esCas cosati 
del entendimiento, en quien no 
tiene parte algaua el cnerpo. 
Bieudo puea aiiai que las annoa 
requioren cspiritn como las letras, 
reanioe abora oual de loa doa 
•i]>{ritas, el del lelrado 6 el del 
gnerrero, trabaja mas: j esto ae 
vendra a. conocer por el tin y 
pandero a qne oada uuo se euca- 
miua, porque aquelia intend on 
M ba de estimar en maa que tieD« 
por ottJeto mai crble Bn. 

delanle los ^ne dijeren qbe Im 
leiras llevan veotaja a las amaa, 
qna lea dir^ sean qQienes faeren, 
que no aaben lo que dicen; por- 
que la razoD que los tales aaelei 
alegar, y a la qae elloa mas m 
atieuen, ea, qae loa trabt^os de' 
espintn esceden ti los del cnerpo 
y que las armas se ejeroitan solo 
con el cnerpo; como bI el ejerct 
tarlas fuese oficlo de ganapane* 
para el caiJ ni 

en esto que llamamoe armas 1i« 
que las aeguimoa, no se encerra- 
sen todoa los actOB de la forta- 
leza, los cualea piden muctio en- 
tendimiento en el que ha de oje- 
cutarlua ; o como ii no trabajase 
el animo del gnerrero qoe tiene 
A Hu cargo un qercito o la de- 
fensa de una cindad sitiada, asi 
con el eapirita cutnc con cl 
cnerpo. Si no, v^oee si se al- 
canza con las fuerzas corporales 
a coDJetnrar y saber la iutencicn 
del eneniiga, los deaignios, [as 
estratagemas, las dificnltades, el 
prevenirlosdanosque se tetnen; 
qne todas estaa oosas son actoi 
del entendimiento, en que no 
tiene parte alguna el cnerpo. 
Sieudo puea asi que las artnai 
requieren entendimiento como 
lus letras, veamos ahora cual 
trabaja mas, si el del letrado • 
el del guerrero; y esto ae vendra 
ii conocer por el fin y paraden 
a que cadu uno se eooamiiu, 
porque aquelia 

mas, que 

Qieneion m) i>I^_ 
9, que tiene pO^^^H 
noble, i^^^l 



The same in good Bngllih 

f 1011 THB 87th Ohaptbb of thb Fnm Past it 


Br MiovBL DB Cbbtamtkb Saatidba. 

la tttiih^ gentlemen, if it be 
weH oonsidered, great and nn- 
beard-of things do they see who 
profess the order of knight-er- 
rantry. If any one thi nks other- 
wise, let me ask him, what man 
liying, that should now enter at 
this castle- gate, end see ns sitting 
in this manner, could jadge or 
believe ns to be (;he persons we 
really are? Who conld say, that 
this lady, sitting heid by my side, 
is that great queen that we all 
know her to be, and that I am 
that Enight of the Sorrowful 
Figure, so blazoned abroad by 
the mouth of fame f There is no 
doubt, but that this art and pro- 
fession exceeds all that Lave been 
ever invented by men; and so 
much th^ more honorable is it, 
by how much it is expoMd tc) 
more dangers. Away with those 
who say, that letters have the 
advantage over arms : 1 will tell 
thom, be they who they will, that 
they do not know what they say. 
For the reason they usually give, 
and which they lay the greatest 
stress upon, is, that the labors 
of the brain exceed those of the 
body, and that arms are exer- 
oliec? by the bod^ alone; as if 

the use of them were the busi- 
ness of porters, for which noth- 
ing is necessary but downrigh^ 
strength ; or as if in thij, whick 
we, who profess it, call chivalry, 
were not included the acts of 
fortitude, which require a very 
good understanding to execute 
them ; or as if the mind of the 
warrior, who has an army or the 
defence of a besieged city com- 
mitted to his charge, does not 
labor with his understanding as 
well as his body. If not, let us 
see how, by mere bodily strength, 
he will be able to penetrate into 
the designs of the enemy, to 
form stratagems, overcome diffi- 
culties, and prevent dangers 
which threaten : for all these 
things are acts of the under- 
standing, in which the body has 
no share ac all. It being so, 
then, that arms employ the mind 
as well as lettei*8, let us next see 
whose mind labors most, the 
scholar^s or the warrior's. And 
this may be determined by the 
scope and ultimate end of each : 
for that intention is to be th« 
most esteemed which kas thf 
noblest end for its object, 



BnsoB dlu, atAor; |oomo la 


Hay bien, pan eervir iV. 
Boenu tardes, Be&ura; (oomo 

B&Btante bieo, nillchas gracias. 
Baenaa noohes, oaballeroa ; | co- 

lluy bien ; i y V. t 

La oabeia ms dude. 

I Oomo «stfi BQ BelSor padre de Y.I 

&U nn poco iodiepnedto, 

|T oomo va ea seBora madre 

de V.I 
Va dh pooo m^or. 

I Tiene V. aotiolaa de an seSor 

tin I 
Bi, aeAor, reoibi syer noa carta 

I Donde eeta ahora t 
£ata. vi^aodo en Italia. 
Eatuvo en e)la cnatro 
1 7 adonde lia ido ahora t 
A Nipolea. 
1 Cuaado pienas toItmI 

£a trea 6 oaatro o 
Adioe, aeikor. 

Good day, air ; how an jon f 

Very well, at yoor aerrioe. 
Good afterDoon, madam ; bov 

are yon I 
Pretty well, I tliank yon. 
Good eTeniag, gectlemen ; 

do yon do I 
Very well; and yon t 
I have a headache. 
How is yonr father I 
He is a little indiBposed. 
And how is yoor mother! 

Bhe fa bettw. 

HaTe yon any oewB 

DDcle t 
Te?, sir, I received a 

him yesterday. 

a tie n. 


He is travelling in Italy. 

Una lie been iu the city of Rcmi 

He stopped there four weeks. 

And where lias he gone to now| J 

To Naples. 

When does be intend to con 

Id three or font weeka. 
Good-by, sir 



I Paede "V . dedrme, qnien es eBte 

Es el sefior m6dioo, Don Lois de 

I Es bacn mMico f 
8i, sefkor ; ha heoho las mas ma- 

ravillosas onraa, 
4 Docde Tive i 
Vive en la calle Tig^sima prima, 

No. 12. 
iTiene maoho qie hacerf 
£b el m^ico de mas nombre de 

la ciadad. 
I Hay ahora mnoha fiebre ama- 

rilla aqai f 
No, sefior; no es la temporada 

de la fiebre. 


I De donde viene Y. f 

De la casa del amigo Panoho. 

I T oomo esti f 

El pobre esta may enfermo. 

I Qae tiene ? 

Una tos may violenta. 

Entonces ir6 inmediaiamec ''e & 

y. le complacera machisimo. 
|£st& solo, 6 hay gente en sn 

No habia nadie oaando le d'f6. 

I Qae hay de naevot 
No maoho. 

I Ha leido Y. los diarios de hoy 
I Qae dicen de Garibaldi ? 
Qae ha entrado en Napoles. 
|Y del rey de Cerdefia, Victor 


Oan yon tell me, who it this 

gentleman f 
He is the physician, Mr. Lonii 

de Ortega. 
Is he a good doctor? 
Tes, sir; he has made moat n 

racaloas cares. 
Where does he livef 
He lives at No. 19, Twenty fiiui*- 

Has he mach to do f 
He is the most popnkr physi'jiao 

of this city. 
Is there ma<^ yellow fever hem 

No, sir; this Is not the hrm 



Where do yon come firomf 
From oar friend Pancho*« house. 
And how is he f 
The poor fellow is very sick. 
What is the matter witlc him! 
He has a very violent oongh. 
Then I will pay him a visit im\ 

Ton will do him a grcAt favor. 
Is he alone, or has he company 

with him f 
There was nobody with bin 

when I left him. 

What are the news f 
Nothing in particalar. 
I HavjB yoa read to-day's paper I 
What do they say of Garibfddi f 
That he has entered Naples. 
And of the king of Sardinia, VW 
tor Emannel t 



Qae esti Aoeroaodoee a Napoles 

I Qae hace el rey Bombino f 
Esta preparandose para marchar. 
I Para donde f 
Qnien sabef tal vez Be mar- 

ohari ^ Espafta. 


I Que qaiere Y . f 

Papel de cartas, una plama y 

Bientese Y. & mi escritorio, Y. 

encontrara en el todo lo que 

V. quiere. 
iQne fecha tenemos hoy! 
El 20 de Noviembre. 
Tenga Y. la bondad de darme 

tambien una oblea. 
No tengo obleas, sine lacre. 

Hagame Y. el favor de darme sa 

I No prefiere Y. escribir con ana 

pluma de acero ? 
Las plamas de ave me gustan mas. 


I Que hora es f 

No lo s6, mi reloj esta parado. 

Qaiere Y. darle caerda ? 
i, se&or, pero no tengo Have. 
Frestar6 a V. la mia. 
Mi reloj casi siempre esta ade- 

T el mio siempre esta atrasado. 
I Tiene V. an reloj de oro t 
I A qcien le compro Y. f 
Al relojero, Don Enriqne Fis- 


That he is also approftchiog 

What is Emg Bombino doing? 
He is preparing to go. 
Where to f 
Who Icnowsf — he may go fee 



What dD yon want? 

Pen and ink, and letter-paper. 

Sit down at my desk ; yoa will 

find there every thing yuit 

What day of the month is it f 
November 20th. 
Give me also a wafer, if yoa 

I have no wafers, bat here is 

Lend me yonr penknife, if yon 

Would yoa not rather write witli 

a steel-pen ? 
I prefer goose-qnills. 


What o'clock is it f 

I do not know ; my watch baa 

Would yon wind it up ? 
Yes, sir ; but I have no key. 
I will lend you mine. 
My watch is almost always toe 

And mine is always too slow. 
Have you a gold watcL ? 
Of whom did you buy it ? 
Of the watchmaker Henry Flak 





I Que tiempo hace 
Haoe may bnen tiempo. 
TeDdr6mo8 lana esta Doche f 

fii, seiior, y babri musica en la 

I Ed que plaza f 
En la plaza de armas, 
I Donde esta sitaada esa plaza! 
Delante de la casa del gober- 

I Oomo se llama el actual capitan- 

general de Cuba ? 
El Sefior Don Francisco Serrano, 

conde de San Antonio. 

I Han dado ya las doce f 

Todavia no; faltan cinco mi- 

He de estar en la escnela 4 las 

I Qae lecciones toma V. f 
Lecciones de Latin y de Griego. 
I Ha leido V. el Homero f 
Si, seflor; es bastante difioiL 

I Onantos cantos tiene la Iliada? 


I De cnal guerra se habla en este 

De la guerra de los Griegos con- 
tra los Troyanos. 

I Le gusta a Y. esta seftorita f 
ICe gusta mncho, porque tiene 

grucia para todo. 
I Oomo ha dormido Y . f 
He dormido muy bien. 

How is the weather I 

It is very fine. 

Shall we have moonlight li^ 

Yes, sir; and there will be muiie 

on the square. 
On which square f 
On the ^^ Plata de Arma$,^ 
Where is that square f 
It faces the house of the gOT- 

What is the name of the presenl 

captain-general of Oubaf 
Mr. Francis Serrano, oount ol 

San Antonio. 

Has it already struck twel?« 

o'clock f 
Not yet; it lacks five miitatef 

of it. 
I have to be at sohooi at tT-dve 

What lessons do you take f 
Latin and Greek. 
Have you read Homer? 
Yes, sir; he is a very difficult 

How many cantos has the Iliad ff 
Of what war doea this poem 

Of the war between the Greeka 

and the Trojans. 

How do you like this young lady I 
I like her very well, for she does 

every thing so gracefully. 
How have you slept ? 
I hti^ slept very welL 





' Onando m acneBta V. t 

Whendo7oagotob«dt ^^M 

He a(ta«sto Utrde. 

I BO to bed late. ^^M 

1 Y onando ee levanU T. 1 

And when do yon rise? ^^ 

Uuy tempraao; ■ las cioco da la 

Very early; at Btb o'olook d 


the morQicg. 

f OnsDtos ahoa hace qae V. esta 

How many yeare have jon ben 


in Havana t '^H 

Baoe pooo maa 6 mfinos tiD ailo. 

AbcQt one year. ^^H 



(Tieiie V. harabret 

Are yon hnngryl ^^M 

No, seHor, teogo Bed. 

No, sir, t am tbirety. ^M 

1 Quiere V. cliocukte t 

Would yoD have some chD«» ^^t 

tatet ^M 

El chocolate no me agrada; pr&- 

I do not like chocolate ; I prate ^H 

fiero el cuf6. 

coffee. ^M 

Hozo, trae la cafetera. 

Waiter, bring tbe coffee. ^H 

Ponga V. la bandeja Bobre U 

Put the tray on the Ubie, 

El ti eata mny claro. 

The tea ia very weak. 

A la verdad, eB imposible beberle 

It could not be better. ^h 



V. ha de tomar una taia de I*. 

Ton ranst take a cnp of tM. ^^M 

flagama el favor do esoniarmo. 

Please eiouEie me, ^^| 



lOomo toma V. aaoafil 

How do yon take your coffee t 

May fuerte. 

Very strong. 

1 1.0 echa ¥. azucar y crema t 

Do yon take sngar and oream T 

Le tomo Biempre sin azucar. 

I always drink it withoot ragir. 

Oada nno IJene bu gusto. 

Every one to his tasle. 

iNotomarft V. otra taral 

Will yon not lake another cnpt 

No more, tliank yon ; I hsTI 


illene V. Buefiot 

Are you sleepy ! 

Si, BeBor, ine acostare. 

Ye.SBir; 1 wilt go to bed. 

jA que hora quiere V. qne le 

A laa cluco j media. 

At what o'clock shall I waka 

At liall-past five o'olook- 

Qniero salir tompranoporla na- 

I wish to go out early Jn Um 





lift oomiia esta lista. 
Oaballero, se servira V. venir 4 

oomer con nosotros hoy. 
Oon macho gasto, biempre qae 

y. no gaste complimientos. 
f ntremos al comedor. 
Bbftoras y seflores, sirvanse Ys. 


Mozo, aqni falta an cabierto; 

pongale V. 
Me parece qne tenemos baena 

sopa, ^qnien qnieret 
Por mi parte, no qniero sopa. 

Deme V. an pooo de esta gallina 

I Qne parte i refiere V. f 

Llevate la sopa y el cooido, y trae 
el asado. 

iQnien sabe trincbart 

Sirvase V. trinchar este pato, y 

dar a esta seiiora an pedacito 

de la peohnga. 
iGosta y. d« eate frioase r 

Gracias, qniero reser^arme para 

el asado.. 
iQuiere y. came gorda 6 ma- 

Permitarae y. que le sirva on 

alon de esta perdiz. 
fusta may tierna y tiene may 

bnen gusto. 
Aline y. la ensalada, y sirvase 

y. de ella. 
Seiioras, a la salnd de Ys. 
Bebo a la salad de toda la com- 


Dinner is ready. 

I beg you will dine w!tL us to> 

day, sir. 
With much pleasure, provided 

yoa will use no ceremony. 
Let ns go into the dining-room. 
Ladies and gentlemen, please bs 

Waiter, there is a plate wanting 

here ; bring one. 
This soup seems good ; who wii: 

have some? 
For my part, I am not fond on 

Help me to some of this boiied 

What part do yon prefer f 

Take away the soap and boued 
meat, and bring in the roast- 

Who understands carving f 

Be so kind as to carve that daek^ 
and help this lady to some o.* 
' the breast. 

Will yoa let me help yoa to some 
of this fricassee? 

Thank you ; I reserve my appe- 
tite for the roast-meat. 

Will you have some fat or somt 

Let me help yon to a wing of tnie 

It is very tender and good. 

Dress the salad, and heip your- 

Ladies, your healtn I 
I drink the health of the wnols 





SeDora, i loB pl£s de V. 
Vamos, !o8 vasoa llenos a la re- 

Qidii esfla aenoi'os preferlraa el 

vino de ciiHnipaBa, 
jOomohallaV. eaU vioof 
(Es ezoeleDte, pero qo boj gran 

tfoEO, da de beber a1 aellnr. 

Traiga V. los poatrea. 

|Le gastan & V. las tceaaa con 

vino 6 oon leche t 
Eetas freeas tjenen ua olor qne 

Un Tuo de viuo eaoima no har& 

V, dice bten. 
Yamoa i dar on paaeo en el 



Abora Ilaeve mn; reolo. 

PoDgamonos al abrigo, 

No es mas qae an chabaeco. 

Lnego paaarfi. 

Estoy todo nujado. 

I'emo reafriarme. 

K1 ticmpo Be aolara, j too el aroo 

Ea aeilal de bnea tieapo. 
La llDTia ha heoho owar la pol- 

•as oBlloa eitin ma; enlodadaa. 

No B*> pnede ajkllr & la oalle ( 
El erapedrado reebala mndio, 
■ Haoe Tlento t 
El Tiento ea frio. 
T. barfi bien de pocerap ^d snbre- 

\naat y. Umbien ta parfij^at. 

icU to jtm, ^^^^ 

Madam, tnj respecU U 

Gome, fill yonr glossee all aroond 

Perliaps tha ladies would prefti 

Wliat do yon think of this winel 
It '19 ezceilent, but I am not ■ 

great drinker. 
Waiter, give tlie gentleman ti i 

Bring tbe dessert. 

Do joa like Btranberries wltkl 

Tlieae strawberriea have 

A glass of wine after tbie will ] 

not be amiss. 
It is a very good ihongbt. 
Let ns go and take a inrn in thf J 



It rains now verj faBt, 

Let ns go ander shelter. 

It is only 8 shower. 

It will soon be orer. 

I am qnite wet. 

I am afraid of catching cold. 

It dears up, and I see tbe rala- 

It is a eign of fair weather. 
The rain baa laid tbe dost. 

The Btreeta are very dirty. 

Is it bad walking 1 

The streets are very alippery. 

Does the wind blow! 

The wind blows cold. 

Ton will do welt to put on joii' 

Take alf o f onr umbrella. 



£1 rio 86 ha helado. 

6e pnede patioAr sin riesgo. 

Hace nn Bol bermoso. 

Hace un calor que sofoca. 

Pocgamonos 4 la sombra. 

Habra tempestad. 

fil tiemix) e8ta cerrado por todos 

Los triienos se oyen. 
I Que tru4oo t 

TeDgo mucko miedo 4 los traenos. 
Hay muy pocos que no le teman. 


Aqui esta su fraque de V. ; va- 

mos a probarle. 
Eacen arrngas los bombros. 
Hagarae V, una levita, y cuide 

V. que est^n bien hecbos los 

ojales, y bien cosidos los bo- 

Ese pantalon es demasiado es- 

Venga Y. mafiana, si puede, y sea 

V. mas puntual que boy, 
Oiga V, : tome V. la capa que 

lleTo puesta para componerla, 

pero antes llevela V. al quita 


fistas botas son tan estrecbas, que 

no me las podr6 poner sin tira- 

Ko le babia dicbo k Y., que me 

gusta llevar un calzado muy 

ancbo ? 
Estan justas i fin de que sienten 

Luego se ensancbaran, el becerro 

dar4 de si. 

The river is fh>zen over. 

One may skate safely npoo 1% 

The sun shines. 

It is excessively hot. 

Let us go into the shade. 

We shall have a storm. 

The whole sky is oloudy. 

It thunders. 

What a clap of thunder! 
I am very much afraid of thunder 
There are few people who are not 
afraid of it. 


Here is your dresa*coat; please 
try it on. 

It wrinkles on the shoulders. 

Make me a frock-coat. Let the 
button-holes be well made, and 
the buttons well sewed on. 

These pantaloons are too tight. 

Gome to-morrow if you can, but 
be more punctual than to-day 

Look bere : take this cloak to be 
mended, but bring it first to 
the scourer to be cleaned. 

These boots are so tight, that I 
cannot put them on without 

Did I not tell you, that I like to 
wear a very wide shoe f 

They are tight, in order to fli 

your foot exactly. 
They will become wider after* 

wards : the leather gives wa/* 

Tay*, no me rienen, eat4 vlato. 

It is evident that they do not B ^^M 

Ufivewlas V^ y hSgame otraa 

Take them back, and make mi ^^^ 

coc Bneks mas grneaas ; y que 

anotherpair with thicker Bolea; 

Ids lapatos eean de mcido que 

the sLoes raost also be made an 

paeda ponermeloB Bio cftlza- 

that I can put them on witlioot i 


the born, ^^^H 



iQiie trsgedia haoen hoy? 

What tragedy do they perfoni..^^^| 


No 1o si ; no be Tisto log cur- 

I do Dot know ; I have not seen ^^H 


the play-bill. ^H 

Habra poca entrads boy, pero 

There will be bat few people to- ^^H 

maBaDa habrfimnobiBimageD- 

day, bat tomorrow it will 1m ^^^| 


crowded. ^^^| 


Why I ^M 

Porqae el famoso Rotor ameri- 

Because the renowned American 11 

oano, Forrest, desempenari sn 

actor, Forrest, will |«rforin his 

grsD papel del ray Lear. 

great part of Eiog Lear. 

EBte actor merece bieu loa aplau- 

This actor really deservM ap- | 



I Oomo Bon los otros arliataa 1 

How are the other players! ^^^| 

El gaiaa es nmy bueno, la primera 

The first lover is very good, bat ^^^| 

dama deaeiupeM sa papel con 

the tiret young lady la som^ ^^V| 

poou natnralidad; el barba es 

what nnnatiiral ; the old man " 

may malo, y el coidioo db el 

ia very bad; and the comic is 


the best performer of them alL .. 


XXI. ^H 

I EatDvo T. ea el baile anoclie t 

Were yon at the ball last Dightl ^^M 

6i, seiior; jamaa ha visto baile 

Yea, air; I never saw a mora ^^M 

maa concurrido. 

crowded ball. ^^^| 

El invierao ea la estacion mejor 

The winter 1b the best season tar -^^H 

para fiestas. 


Sftbis una infiuUIad de aefloritas 

There were many pretty yoong ^^H 


ladies there. ^^1 

1 Que tr^e llevo la novia de Don 

^low u Ur. Joseph'. biidC^^H 


dressed 1 ^^1 

Va Teatido blaoco, con encsgea 

She wore a white robe, brimniai'^^l 

with rich lace. ^^^| 


Did yoQ dance maoh t ^^^| 



Algubos ligodones. 
I Oon qoien f 

Con U Seftorita Dofia Julia de 


jQaien es la seftora qae esta al 

piaDO ? 
Es mi sobrina. 
Toca (livinamente. 
I Gomo 86 llama la pieza que ba 

tooado f 
I41 abertura de Bigoletto. 
iQuiere V. presentarme 4 ella? 
Oon mucho ^stx>, 
Anita, permitame Y. que le pre- 

sente mi araigo el Sefior Don 

Pedro Alvarez. 
Tengo la honra de presentar a 

Y. el Seftor Alvarez. 
Me place infinito hacer su oono- 


lUertamente, Y. tiene nn Jardin 

Tenemos, como Y. ve, flores de 

todad especies. 
To lo veo ; aqui bay claveles may 

Permitame Y. ooger algunos para 

bacer ud ramo. 
Oon mucbo gusto ; airvase Y. re- 

cibir esta rosa para la seftorita 

su hermana. 
No faltar^ 4 darsela. 
iQuiere Y. pasar al buertof 

iT. tiene mncha hortaiza en su 

£9tos albariooques me bacen la 


Soiie country-danoea. 

Witb wbom ? 

Witb Miss Julia de darai^ 

Who is tbat lady sitting at tlM 

piano ? 
My niece. 

She plays admirably welL 
What is the name of the pieca 

she has Just played ? 
The overture of Rigoletto. 
Will you introduce me to berf 
Witb the greatest pleasure. 
Anna, allow me to introduce to 

your acquaintance my friend, 

Mr. Pedro Alvarez. 
I have the honor to present to 

you Mr. Alvarez. 

I am very glad to make bis ac- 

Ton have, indeed, a very fina 

We have, as yon see, all sorts oi 

I see it : here are very fina 

Let me gather some for a nose- 

Witb all my heart ; please accept 

this rose for your sister. 

I shall not fail to give it to her. 

Will you go to the kitchen- 
garden ? 

Tour kitchen-garden is well 
stocked with vegetables. 

T^ese apricots make my moutk 
f ater* 



I Qiiiere Y. que vayamos d cazar 

nno deestOB dias? 
6i, seftor ; es Y. cazador f 
Por snpaesto, y voj a cazar muy 

|Tiene Y, buenos perros ? 
Xengo doB galgos, cuatro poden- 

oos, tres perros de mnestra, y 

nno de espera. 
I Hay maoba caza en el parage 

donde Y. vi ve ? 
Ifnchisima : se pu.eden cazar per- 

dices, faisanes, cbocas perdices, 

gaHinetas, codornices, zorzales, 

inerlas, liebres, conejos, eto. 
I Se divierte Y. en la pezca ? 

I Oomo pesca Y. ? 

Unas veces con red y otras con 

I Abunda en pezes el rio t 

Oiertamente ; bay mucbas car- 
pas y trucbas, algnnos sollos, y 
abnndancia de anguilas. 

|Tiene Y. una buena caila de 
pesoar f 

Tengo dos. 

Tdngo tambien una pita exce- 
lonte, y algunos anznelos. 

I Que clase de carnada usa Y. ? 

Hc32as y gnsanos. 

I Ocmo pasa Y. el tiempo cuando 
no va a cazar 6 i, pescar ? 

Jogamos a las boobas, al villar, 
d los bolos, al cbaquete, al aje- 
dreiy a las 4aiq&^ ^ & los naipes. 

Will yon go sbooting \ft,h lOi 
some day? 

Yes, sir ; are yon a sportsman ? 

Of course, and I often go bnnt< 

Have yon a good set of dogs? 

I have two greybcands, four ter- 
riers, tbree setting-dogs, and a 

Is there much game in your neigh 
borhood ? 

A great deal : we have partridges, 
pheasants, woodcocks, snipes, 
quails, thrushes, blackbirds, 
hares, rabbits, etc. 

Are you fond of fishing ? 

I like it very much. 

How do you fish ? 

We fish soraetimss with a net, 

and sometimes with a line. 
Is the river well stocked with 

Yes, indeed; there is plenty ol 

carp and trout in it, a few 

pikes, and a great many eels. 
Have yon a good fishing-rod? 

I have two. 

I have also an excellent line and 
some fish-hooks. 

What bait do you use ? 

Flies and worms. 

How do you spend your time 
when you neither bunt nor 

We bowl, play at billiards, ten- 
pins, backgamnr yn^ ohesS) 
drafts, or cards. 







Explanation of the Allretiatiani tued. 

1^ stondft §9t A4MIT& 

maaa standi for Mssflnltn^ 

•dy. •• 

** Adverb. 

pnrtpart ** 

•• PastpMMolplai 

irt •• 

** Artlole. 

plur. •• 

•• PlnraL 

ooiO ** 

** Goi^iwctioii. 

prep. «• 

** Preposition. 

ex. • 

** Example. 

preapart *• 

«* Present partifltplai 

•xc. •• 

** ExceptloD. 

pron. «• 

* Pronona. 

torn. •♦ 

** Feminine. 

sing. • 

«* SlngQlar. 

Irr. T. •• 

•• Irregalar verb. 

satot. •• 

• 8nbetantlt«k 

lU. - 

** Literally, in a strict aenae. 

V. «• 

•• Verk 

Th« flgoret or niunben refer to the Bolea, 

unless preeedad b| 

' pi whlok maaBi pi^ 

or L. whiob ata 

inds for Lesson. 

A is invariably pronounced as a in 
far. See Introductory Lesson, page 

A corresponds generally to the Eng- 
lish preposition to or at^ 183.— When 
the article el, ^, is joined to the 
preposition 4, both suiull words are 
contrncted into al ; but a la, 4 los, 
Ii las, are never so changed, 47. — 
Most active transitive verbs require 
the preposition 4 before their direct 
regimen, when that regimen is a per- 
son, 140. — The preposition to, bcTore 
aa infinitive, is sometimes expressed 
by 4, 1G6. See, also. To. 

A, AN, is translated by on for tL3 
masc, and by una for tne fem., 6. — 
Before the names of nations, and 
those of trades and professions, the 
article a or an is omitted, unless fol- 
lowed by a relative pronoun, or if the 
noun is qualified by an adjective, 76. 
— A or AN is supnressed m Spanish 
before the words nuruired^ thousand^ 
and after whcU^ in exclamative sen- 
let .os, 109. 

B. L. P. 


ABBBiyiATioNs.— The most neow 
sary abbreviations are : 

B. L. M. Beta ku manoif 

kisses the hands, 90ft. 
Besa lotjnet, 

kisses the feet. 
eomjHiiuay oompanj. 
corriente, oarrent. 
D. or D» Don^ 
D* Dona, 

Doz. doeena, 

Fha., fh. /echo, 

FL fulano^ 

Q.S.M.B. Qu€ $%u manos h4ua, 

who kisses your hands, 809 
rtfo^, real (shilling) 

rtfoim, received. 
Sehar^ Mr., Sir, 117. 
Senora^ Mrs, 117. 
Su 90puro s&rvidor, 
your faithful servant, 109. 
S.KY.O. Salvo error y (m^ition^ 

errors and omissions excepted 
Ult? ultirro, last. 

V.,Vd.,Vm., { Fuestra nurctdf 
or Vmd, J your honor| 7, 

Sir, Mr., 117. 

Mrs., 117. 



such a one, 819i 



S. 8. S. 

two liundred sdjcctivaa ending with 
Mble are alike in both lanjcusijreB, Bl. 

About, poBO tnoi i ntkix, SflO. 

Aeovk, {trriia, 178. 

Absent, to, aaMotar, p. 171. 

Act. hm. 17H. 

ilah; acahardt.lam- 

e, form! 


Boul BT past U QB8, ee [ 

in Eo^Qsh by To havtjuit, 
pirtioiplo, 191. 

AOO.NT.— The aciilB accent (') Ie 
tbe only one uned In 8|>aniab. Il 
Mrvai to diBtiuguUb words or uml 
lar )rtliogrBphy, oa in 

de, of. 

*. give. 

mi, me. 

tL himiolf. 
U, tea. 

ala, til is. 
™, my. 
H, hlmaeif. 

ta, thes. 

ta, thy, BtB. 
U ilao ahowB in eome words what 
■ylUhle tuu to bo iittereil ivith a 
particular stresB : ua in cnns, oiiaia ; 

See Introductory Lcaaou, p. vii. 
AoooBDiKa TO, lefuB, 183, 
AoooDNT, ON, a curnta, p. ii, 
AooBKDiT, TO, acrtditar, p. 126. 
Acompanado de «u padri, ac- 

oompaniea by hia fathtr. 

AoriTB VKRBg. Seo VliRIt^ 

ADDRE3!!.— The most iisiml' inodoB 
•f uidra»a Inijpanisli are: UugSnar 
mio, <iuirid« amigo, etc., 307. 

AnraoTiTi. — The adj. is ganerslly 

rUced afler tlie noun In Spanieb, 1. — 
t mav Bometimaa ba placed befora \t 
wbeu it bus I'twcr aylUblea, 10.— It 
la alwava planed bafore wbun oinphs- 
■iieiJ, las.— Tba ii»ectlve does not 
ohaiige in English, but in Spanlali it 
lakes tbo guuJer and number or the 
QotiQ to whicli it refers, 21.— Unat 
*4j^ctires are allka In the tuaaculina 
and in the feminine; but tLioae end- 
ing with O i^lisiige o into a, 33. IBS. 

In Sputiisb, OB in English, bc(jl 

fenwall} lake on ■ in the plunl ; bnl 


tboic eiidin? with ■□ ■ in 
Isr du not cliniijte in the ] 
AdUecCivea ending with a 
in the singular take (w in the pi., S3. — 
Adjectives ending with m cluin|<e ■ 
Into COS. S7. — Review of the forma- 
tion of the plural of adjoetivea, flS. 
When on adjective refum to Iwe 

r pjurui, uiiu ui aifferent 

laksa the maaculine pla- 

form. — Ex. Su padri y «j tnadn 

-Ex. Su _pl_. _ , 
4, hia.faChQr and m 

good, 170, 

Soma B4i^'i''fls, KB well as verbs, 
require to bs followed by certain 
prepoailjunB, (beune of whlah cannot 
alwavs he determined by mles. Tbey 
will "bo found exjilain^ each in it* 
alphabetioal place in the Indei. 

The degrees of comp&naon ara 
generally formed by plaoine before 
Uie adjective one of the following 
words : Tan, ai ; maa, man, raetl 
»i<naa, Im, Itaii; Toay, very, 
ta/iitgh, toUiiAlf, etc, S2, 

gether \ 

til anotliBr form of the au- 
by Biiding iauno, isima, 

less frequently need, »ea 

When the adjective is one whieb 
requiroa to ba placed after tbe noun, 
according to Jiula 1, the adverbs 
taa, maa, menoa, mny, etc., go 

TnestToa, vnestrao, 

Spuniah, the possea- 
Hgreea in gender and 
the object poasesaed,. 

. wiLU LUB puaHeJ4Bor, E3. — lue 
ive adjective may M placed 
)r after the tioau wbioh it denK 
■A : but wlien it is plaoed tSlMm 
Dio, tnyo, aiid mya have -- ■" ™ 



For trie proper use of 
», esoB, esas, another equivalent 
ofthiij ihat^ these, those^ see 277. 

The iudelinite adjectives, algVA* 
It me, or any ; cada, each, or every ; 
Biaguil, no, not any; together with 
aue, caal, whick, or what^ etc. will 
SIp found explained each in its alpha- 
betical place in the index. 

The numeral adjectives are either 
tftrdinal or ordinal. 

The cardinal are : 

1. Uno, una. 

S. Dos. 

8. Tree. 

4. Cuatro. 

5. Cinoo. 
t, Seis. 

7. Siete. 

8. Ooho. 

9. Nueve. 

10. Diez. 

11. Onoe. 

12. Dooe. 
18. Treoe. 
14. Catorce. 
16. Quince. 

16. Diez y seis. 

17. Diez 7 siete. 

18. Diez 7 echo. 

19. Diez 7 nueve. 

20. Veinte. 

21. Veintiuno. 
80. Treinta. 
40. Cuarenta. 
50. Cincuenta. 
60. Sesenta. 
70. Setenta. 
80. Ochenta. 
90. Noventa. 

100. Ciento (182). 

200. Doscientos. 

800. Tresoientos. 

400. Cuatrocientos 

500. Qninientos. 

600. Seiscientos. 

700, Setecientos. 

800 OchooientoB. 

900. Noveoientos. 

1000. Mil, etc 

f^ ordinal are : 

1st. Primero. 

2d Segundo. 

8d Tercero. 

4th Cuarto. 

6th. Quinto. 

6th. Sexto. 

7tb. S^timo. 


8th. Octavo. 

9th. Nono. 

10th. D^iino. 

11th. Undecmo. 

12th. Duodecimo. 

18th. D^cimoteroio. 

14th. D^cimoouartOb 

15th. D^cinioquinto. 

ICth. Decimosexto. 

17th. D^ciaos^timo. 

18th. D^cimootavo. 

I9th. D6cimonono. 

20th. Vig^simo. 

2l8t. Yigdsimo primero* 

80th. Trig^simo. 

40th. Cuadrag6simo. 

50th. Quinquag6aimo. 

60th. Sexagesimo. 

70th. Septnag|§simo. 

80th. Octogesimo. 

90th. Nonog^simo. 

100th. Centesimo. 

1000th. Mil^simo, etc 

The cardinal numbers are usod 
instead of the ordinal in speaking of 
the days of the month, ana of sover> 
eiguH and pvlnces, but primsvo is 
never so changed, 811. 

Ic English, the fractional numbera 
are like the ordinal, but in Spanish 
they have a particular ending, the 
termination aTO being added to the 
cardinal form. 

Vt Un tresavo. 

1,^1 Un ouatroavo. 

V» Un cincoavo. 

V« Un seisavo, etc, 188. 

Admirar, to admire, p. 186. 

Adomar, to adoruj p. 268. 

Adquirir, to acquire. — Irr. ▼.— 
Pres. part. Adqtiiriendo, — Past part 
AdqutHdo,— indicative mood, pres 
tense : Yo adquiero, tu adquieres, ii 
adguiere, nmotros adquirimos, voeotroe 
aaquiria, elloe adquieren. — I mperfect : 
Yo adqviria, tu adquiriae, el adquirvt, 
naeotroe adquiriamaa, vosotros adqui-- 
fiats, ellos adguirian. — Past teus4 
definite: Yo adquiri, tu adguiriste, 
el adquirio, nosotros adquirimos^ vo- 
sotros adquiristeis, ellos ad^uirieron, 
— Future : Yo adquirire, tu adquiri- 
ras, il adquirira, nosotros adquirire^ 
mos, vosotros adquirireis, ellos ad^uir 
rtran.— Conditional mood : Yo c^ui- 
riria, tu adqv.iririas, el adquinria, 
n^iotros alquirinamos^ vosotros ad^ 



qviHfiaU^ tUlos adquttirian, — Imper- 
RtiTe mood: Adauierey adquirid. — 
Subjunctive mooa, pros, tense : Que 
jfo ad^iuiera, que tu adquierasy que el 
adquiera, que nosotroa adquiramoe^ 
que vosoiroe adqviraist que ellos ad- 
guieran. — Subjunctive past: Que po 
mdquit'iera^ or adquirleise / que tu adr 
futrierasy or adquirUsea; que el ad- 
fiiirieray or adquiriese^ que nosotroa 
mdquUrieramoa^ or adqutnesemoi ; que 
^^tUroa adiniirUrala^ or adouiridaeia ; 
que ellos adquineran^ or adguirieaen, 
•—•Tha second future is: jo adqyii- 
fiere^ tu adquirierea^ el adquirtere^ 
moaotroa adquirUrenu>a, vonotroa adgui- 
rUreiSf elloi adquirieren, 

InqviHr^ to inqu'.re, is conjugated 
like adquirir. 

Adverbs. — A great many adverbs 
of quality arc formod from adjectives 
by the addition of mente, which 
corresponds to the £nglish ending ^. 
The termination mente is alwavs 
added to thu feuiiuiuc form of the 
adjective, 20. — The adverb is gener- 
ally placed after the verb, and before 
every other kind of words, 177. 

The rules for the formation of the 
comparative and superlative of ad- 
jectives apply also to tlio adverbs, 
52, 205. — ^For a list of those which 
are irregular, see 293. 

When two expressions in the com- 
parative are compared logctlier, the 
nrst must be preceded by ciianto, 
and tlie second by tanto, 171. 

List of the principal adverbs, 178. 
Those which require particular notice 
will be found ixplaiued each in its 
Alphabetical place in the Index. 

Albcto 4 su armgo^ attached to 
nis friend. 

A FEW. — See Alqun, 

Affirmation. — There is no such 
word as do or did to give greater 
•trength to an affirmation in Spanish ; 
M that these two expressions, luse^ 
ind / do use, have but one transla- 
Uon, UBO But the use of the verb 
10 BE, joined to the present partioi- 
ric to indicate that the action is going 
.m, is quite frequent, 41. 

Afii§1r, to affiict, aJUgido de^ af- 
fticted with, 180. 

Afraid, t< be, tener miedo, 72, or 
kmer, 166. 

Aftkr, as an adverb, deapuea / as a 
prep., deapuea de^ 178. 

AoAiN. — ^There is no exact eqni#» 
lent to tniB word in Spanish, an« 
this deficiency has to be supplied b) 
means of the verb volver, to return^ 
or the expression otra vez. anotl^ 
er tifne, according to the followirf 
model sentences : 

To do a thing again, 
Volver a haeer una eoaa ; 

To return to do a thing. 

or, Haoer una eoaa otra vew, 
To do a thing another time. 

AOAIN0T, eontray 188. 



Age.— Words endiner with aas i% 
English generally end with mje ir 
Spanish, 196. 


Agradable de, or para helir^ 

agreeable to drink. 

Agbeb, to, cotivmivy goes liki 
venir^ 247. 

Ahora.~Scc Now. 

Air, aire^ is masc. by exception. 

ikje. — Words ending with aje in 
Spanish end with age in English, 196. 

AX.- Many word^ ending with aj 
are aliKC, or nearly so, in Doth lan- 
guages, 19. 

Alarm, to, alarmar^ p. 245. 

AlegTO de, or con las noticiaa 
glad of the news. 

Algllien, anybody^ somebody^ an$ 
one^ some one^ can be used only with 
out a substantive. 

Algmn. — Some or any is translated 
by alg^ino for the masculine singu- 
lar : by alg:una, for the fem. sing. ; 
by alg^inos, tor the plur. masculine, 
and by alg^mas, for the fem. olural. 
Algmn is used instead of aigW&O 
before a noun masculine, 12. 

All is translated by todo, before 
a word niasculiiie singular ; by tods 
before a word feminine singular; by 
todos, before a word masc. plural ; 
and bv todas, before a word femi* 
iiir.e plural. It is almost always fol* 
cwea by the article the, 48. 

Alia, there, 178. 

Alii, there, 178. 

Almost, casi. 

Already, ya, 178. 

Also, tamoien. 



ALftioDoa, aunque^ 215. 

Alwa78, iiempre, 178. 

Amenazado de, or por un pd%- 
frOy threatened with danger. 

Amono^ entrs^ 188. 

A2f.--MHKy words ending with an 
in English on\I with ano in Spanisli, 
and have their feminine in ana, 112. 

Annihilate., lo, aniquilar, p. 222. 

Anub. — Mtcny words ending with 
§%e« in Engliob dud witii ancia in 
ipanish, 85. 

Ancia. — Mat.v words ending with 
ABcia in SpauliL end with aiics in 
English, 85. 

And, y, 215. — £ \n used instead of 
y, before words Vvsginning with i 
or 7d. 

Andar, to walk. — Irr. v. — Present 
part. Anditndo. — Ymt part. Andado. 
— ^ludio. mood, pres. lense: Yo andoy 
tu andaSy U anaa^ rnViotros andamos^ 
vowtros andaia^ ellos cn</an.— Imper- 
fect: Yo attdia^ iu andias, el andia^ 
nototf'ot andiamos^ vosotros andiaia, 
4lloi andian.— Flint tense definite : Yo 
anduve, tu anduviste, H anduvo^ nosO' 
froa anduvimos, vosotros anduvisteU^ 
$lio8 anduvieron. — Future : Yo andari, 
Hi andards^ el andara^ nosotros andari- 
mo€y vosotros andarhs, ellos andardn. 
— Conditional mood : Yo andaria^ tu 
andarias^ el andaria^ nototros andaria- 
mo8, vosotros andanaiSj ellos andarian. 
— Imperative mood: Anda, andad. — 
Subjunctive mood, pres. tense : Que 
ffo attde, que tu andes, que it ands^ que 
nototros andemos, que vosotros andeis^ 
que ellos awt/<'/?..— Subjunctive past: 
Qite yo anduviera, or anduviese; que 
tu anduvieras^ or anduvieses ; que el 
etnduviera, or anduviese; que nosotros 
andvvieramosj or andwvusemos ; que 
90Sotro8 anduvierais^ or anduvieseis ; 
jue ellos anduvieran^ or andUviesen. — 
Tlie second future is : Yo anduvierSf 
4m anduvieres^ el anduvierSy nosotros 
^fiduvieremos, vosotros anduviSreis, 
tUo8 artduvier(7i, 

Annodncb, ^o, anunciaTy 164. 

Ano. — Many words ending with 
ano in Spanish end with an in Eng- 
lish, 112. 

Ansioso de, or por la gloria^ 
ambitious of glory. 

Ant. — Many words ending with ant 
In English end with ante in Spanish, 
and from these corresponding nouns 
Biay generally be formed by changing 

ante into cuicia, a termination equiT- 
alent to anoe or ancy in Engliifth, 85. 

Ante. — Many words ending with 
ante in Spanish end with atU in 
English, 35. 

Ant or somb is translatea by al- 
gWio for the masculine singular ; bj 
alguna, for the feminine singular 
by algwios, for tlie masc. plural 
and by algunas, for the feminin 
plural. — JkXgvoL is used Instead o 
algimo before a noun masc, 12. 

bouK or ANY is sometimes trana- 
lated by nnos, unas, 204. 

Any thing, alouna cosa. 

Anywukre, alguna parte. 

Appear, to, parecer^ goes like oon^ 
padecer, 147. 

Applaud, to, aplaudir^ p. 137. 

Aqui, here, 178. 

Argnir, to argue. — Irr. v. — ^Pres. 
part. ArgwUr^do. — Past part. Arguidn. 
— Indicative mood, pres. tense: Yc 
arguyOy tu argityes^ etarguye^ nosotros 
arguimos, vosotros argiitSy eUos ar^u- 
yen. — Imperf. : Yo a/giiiay tu argiiiaty 
el arguia^ nosotros arguiamoSy vosotros 
arguiaisy eUos argiiian. — Past tense 
def. : Yo argute tu argvistSy U argutOy 
nosotros argvimosy vosotros arguisteisy 
ellos arguiertm. — Future : Yo arguire^ 
tu argiiirds, el arguiray nosotros argiii- 
remoSy vos(4ros argilirHs, ellos argiii- 
rdn. — Conditional mood : Yo argui- 
ritty tu argiiirias, el argiiiriaj nomtros 
arguinamoSy vosotros argiiiriaiSy e'los 
arguirian.—lmper&t. mood: Arguyey 
arguid. — Subjunctive mood, present 
tense : Que yo arguya^ que tu arguyaSy 
que el argvyay que nosotros arguyamosy 
que vosotros arguyaisy que ellos argu- 
yan. — Subjun. past: Que yo arguiera^ 
or arguuse / que tit arguteraSy or ar- 
guieses ; que el arguiera, or arguiese ; 
que nosotros arguUramoSy or arguiese" 
tnos: que vosotros arguieraUy or ar- 
guiesets; oue ellos arguierariy or ai^ 
guiesen. — The 2d future is: Yo a#* 
guiere^ tu arguiereSy el arguierSy nosa^ 
tros arguieremosy vosotros arguiereiiy 
eUos arguieren. — See note on p. 114, 

Arrive, to, llegary 180. — It is gen* 
erally followed by the prep. 4, 201. 

Article. — There are two article* 
in Spanish, the definite and the in- 
definite. They agree in gender and 
number with the word before which 
they stand. SI is masc. sing. ; la. 
fi)m. sing.: ios, masc. plural; aca 



Ua, rem, pliiml. All tlicne an*we 
to THE in EogliAb, lO.—A or an i 
truDiiUtod by nn before a wcrd mas 
cuUnCj ajid by nna berore a vot' 
bar Dine, 8. 

\thon the urliirle el ia joined t 
tho prepcBition de, botli amall worJ 
•ra luvariubly merged into del ; bii 
4* la, da Im, de 1«B, are never a 
•ontraoted, 34. 

When the artiula si is .joined t 
"'leprepo;' - ■ 

Tli.1 article el, irhidi oiiturs int> 
tie Dompositiun of tlia poBHOaslvi 
pronouDB. oontlnncs mibject to con 
traction when ioineil to thu ;ir«puBi 

Utnea introduced nnd n 


Before names of nations, and tho!<e 
of trades and profesaiona, the article 
V or AN ia omitted, niileaa fullawed 
ny a rektive pronoun, or tfthe noun 
IB qualifted by au adjective, 76. 

The definite article the is prefixed 
to all oominon noniia in Spanieh when 
tiiey ore uaed to expret^a the whole 
eitenlof llieireignillQalioii. proirided 

them without niateriailj- affecting llie 
■ r ., ttncu, niid thaf 

J by a 

ar de- 

ny, tim, Ail, /ur, ow.vaur, Iheir; t&ii, 
Ulal, iMH, than, tcAuA, what, «o<Ty, 
4adi, tereral, a fiut, etc, ; an adjec- 
tive indioatiVB of quantity, anch aa 
mack, tnanir, liUU, /eat, rnort, Uf, 
Ue. ', or the partides dt, ton, tin, ni, 
or Bor, eas. 

The definite article is alio iiaed be- 
fct titles, and then politonBBa often 
requires tho addition otSrior, SeSora, 
or S^uT^ta, 290. 

The definite vticle la auppresseJ 
bafore the ordinal numl>era in aen- 
wncea like the toll iwing : Libra pri- 
Mn>, Book the fi:st; Ourlot auinto, 
Charles the Fitlli. 291. 

Tho article and all 
•ordi, US generally repeated bel:>re 

u a degree aynimymona with t"— ' 
i geneislly left ont in Spanish, u 


!d in the inoaonline, la- 
th an aa^'nted"*^ for Ihl 
liony, an<l to avoid tha 

Hu list I tut ion IS particulariv proper 
before the name uf u pan of tha body 
or of a mental facnlty ; but in order 
to avoid ambiguity, cars must bt 
taken to make iiaa of apronoun show- 
ing who the poaaeaaor i9 : ■ 
£x. $» ia eartado it dedo, V 
He has cut hie flager. ■ 

La ia nicd instead of d before W] 
adjentive, when the noun to whlsli 
that adjective rel^rs is not eiprei»- 
ed, aa in Zd labMnu, This ia vlut 
is commonly called the neater m 
tjpanish. See note on page t, aod 
Obs. 170. 

As. — In the onniparative of eqnall- 
ty, ia la tranalated by ttUl befora 
the adjective, and by eona afiar 

Ai^, to aeize. — Irr. v.— Prea. put. 
Atiemio. — Past part. ^tti/a.^Indiea- 
tive mood, present teiiaa; l^ot^, M 

11.— [mpen 

ilhi . 

t. — PasI 

'Yo atl, tu aiUlt, A aiii, n^ 
mo>. venotrat aiiateii, tilai 
amm)n,_-Futuns : To anri, li aiirit, 
II arira, tu}ii<4rot aiirfmo*, vosnfrM 
^riit, tllai atiran, — Condit. mood] 



I, vo'Otroi lai'iaU, dk 
-Iniperat'Ve mood: At.a 
tiutlre ti'bud, prea, tansa 


tt^Hfi/ jn4 S taiatt, o 

rail, or atiiirit y yu4 MBI 

bafbra > word muc, and liy ta 

As Kuan, is Irauglkled hy ti 
Mbra 1 void mono., and by tl 
Mbre ■ word fern., S&U. 

Atthibute, tu, ainkvir, p. 115. 

Ae«iikm»atitk> are formed by tha 
•dlicion of BIO, on, ar ots, far the 
nun., and mam, vb», or ota, for 

the fem. : with the only excopiion 
that the noiini or adjectives CDdine 
with •, e, or o, drop theirfinalvower 
The Buginentatives are, however, but 
little used, inasniaah an they invaria- 
bly carry with lliem ».a idea of re- 
proach or defect, 287. 

Auht, tia, 211. 

Str,Tl\i.nd.Eilar,ii. Forthapmper 
Die oiSv aud EOar, eee 2fl.^Diinir- 
enee between lour and k^itr, 44. 

AWACI, TO, dfptrtar, 8S, 39, 132. 

indpd 1 

Bpanish oa in 
, are often used 
le Introductory 

Bad, malo. £9, 62. 

8«jO, low, 212. 

Bane of a river, In maratn, ITS. 

Bk, to.-Tliere are two words cor- 
reaponding W this verb in Spanisb, 
■•T sad ««ter, but tliey cannot be 
•niployediniiiBcriniinat«ly,26. — Con- 
Jnga'.ion of ter, 77.— Conjugation of 

Luomatic eipreuiona: 

IWwr aalor, to b« warm. 

Tmtr tueio, to be sleepy. 

TtMrfrio, to be cold. 

}ViHr mitdo, to be afMd. 

Tiur hamiri, to bo bnngry. 

TtfMT id, CO he thirst)-. 
Tiair virginaa, to be oobuEad. 

The Torb hacei .s Died ii 

of TO •■, in speabiDg of the we 

£i. Stei htrtmua titn^. 

It Is ooid weather, 17. 

CoQJugatioD of the impenoiul Titll 
TUBKB TO Bt, bsber, 188. 

The verb TO ■■ is sometimM trans- 
lated by debar, but only wheo jained 
to an inBntlive, in which case it forms 
with it a particular future tense, ei 

Be BOBir, TO, naetr, p. 19S. 

Bs oAiLKD, 10, lianiar*!, 131. 

Bioinoa, pcrmu. — ibrfiij, why, ta 
dinCinguifhed from porqu4, uccanse, 
by an «cx»nt over the J, p. 84. 

BBOoax, TO,— There is do exact 
equivalent to tbie verb in Bpaniah, 
and it has Eenerally to b« nplaosd 

It begins to be tiresoo»f 

Beoovi iBianTEHUt, m, omMp- 
darn, p. 155. 

Betobi, AbU*, ddanU, 

Diiaitl* mast not be oonfouDded 
with antu. DtlanU ainiply denotes 
place or aitua^on ; dutai marks prioi^ 
ity oftirae, 115,183. 

BiaiH, TO, impaar, W, 1SS, 

BiHiKD is trsusloMd by Im, as • 
preposition, 18S, and by attat, as &L 

Bbliiti, to, mtr. is c«qJDg«Ud 1b 

Bblono, t 
eomaadtetr, 1 
Bnow, 0%'a, 17S. 

i*eir, 294. 
But, tl m^ ottltf 

Bettsb, myor, 52. 

BrrwsKH, «*tn, 18*. 



Blossov, to, fiorietr^ gses like 


Borrow, to, is translated iuto 
Bpanish hjpeair prestado a aljuno; 
literally, to ask a loan from some 
•ne. oee note on p. 287. 

Both, dmbot^ uno y otro. 

Break, to, fwnper^ irr. v., 114. 

Bksakfast, to, aimarzar^ is coigu- 
giited like rechazar^ 187. 

Bbidox, puerUe^ p. 255. — This word 
Bay be used either in the masc. or in 
he fern., but the inasc. is preferable. 

Brino, to, UevaVf 140 ; traer, 287. 

Brino up, to, criarj p. 202, 

Boeno, good, 39. 

Build, to, ed\fioar^ goes like apU- 
tar^ 145. 

Burn, to, qvemar^ p. 245. 

But, pero^ 215; aino, see note on 
p. 182. — In the sense of only^ it is 
translated by solamente^ no mat que^ 
or no mas de, 51. 

But a tew, solo wvospocos. 

But A little, solo unpoeo. 

But, to, comprar a atguno, dlguna 
eo§a^ 99. 

By, por^ 157. 

O is always pronounced like k^ 
before a, o, t/, I, r, and like th when 
followed by € or *. — Ch is sounded 
like ch in tlie Englisli word church. 
See Introductory Lesson, p. vii. 

Caber, to be contained. — Irr. v. — 
Pres. part. Cub Undo. — Past part. Ca- 
bido. — Indicative mood, })rcs. tense: 
Yo quepo^ til cabes^ el cabe^ nosotrot 
eabeinos^ vosotros cabeis, ellos caben. — 
Imperf. : Yo oabia, tu cabias. el cahia^ 
nosotros cabiamos^ vosotros cabiais, 
tUo8 coMan.—V&st tense definite: Yo 
cupe, tu cupiste^ el cupo^ nosottos cupi- 
mos^ vosotros cupisteis^ ellos cupieron. 
— Future : Yo cabre^ tu cabrds^ el cabra^ 
nosotroi cahremos^ voaotros cabreis, 
Mob cabran. — Conditional mood : Yo 
tobria, tu cabfias, el cabria^ nosotros 
mb^tcu^ios, vosotros cabriaisj ellos ca- 
lr»a». — Imper. mood : Cabe, cabed. — 
Bubjunct. mood, pres. tense : Que yo 
fvpa, que tu quepaSy que U quepa^ 
fue nosotros quepamos^ que vosotros 
gfi4pais, que ellos quepan. — Subjunct. 
past : Que yo cupiera, or cup lest ; que 
tu Ct/j. i^^as^ or cupieses ; que el cupiera, 
Qr cupies,' ; que nosotros cupieramos., 
or cwpiesemot; que vosotros cupierais^ 
n cupuseU qm «Uo4 cupicran or 

eupieun. — The second futurs lu : Vi 
evpierey tu cupierss^ U eupiertf notci vi 
cupiertmosy vosotros eupiireiiy tilot 

Call, to, llamar, 99, 140. 

Calle, street, p. 17. 

Can, to be able, poder^ 206. 

Canal, el canal, 172. 

Capital, capital.— Hhis word if 
masculine when it refers to stock ic 
trade, but feminine when used to de» 
ignate the chief city of a state, 172. 

Care, maduregy p. 188. 

Care, to take, euidar. 

CaritatiTO con lot pobres^ char- 
itable to the poor. 

Came, meat, p. 10. 

Carrl\oe, earruajsy 196. 

Carry, to, llevary p. 192; irasr, 287 

Cash, al contadOy p. 45 ; «n {/«)• 
Uvoy 814. 

Catch, to, pillar^ p. 245. 

Co.— Many words ending with m 
in English end with cio in Spanish, 

Cease, to, eesar dsy 166. 

Cent, centavoy 813. 

Cerca de, near, 38. 

Cercado de peligrosy surrounded 
with dangers. 

Change, to, mudary p. 126. 

Char, to, achihcarrary p. 245. 

Chase back, to, rechazary 187- 

Cherish, to, quersTy 230. 

Child, niiioy niha. * 

Children, niilos, p. 5. 

Cien, see Hundred. 

Cio. — Many words ending with 
cio in Spanish end with ee in Eng- 
lish, 288. 

Circular, circular, 317. 

City, ciudady p. 66. \ 

Class, cUise. p. 10. 

Clean, to, limpiary p. 186. 

Climate, clima^ p. 201. 

Clock.— The distinction mado »n 
English between hour and o*e!oek 
has no equivalent in Spanish; the 
word hora being used mdifferentlf 
to express an interval of 60 minute*, 
and to ask what o'clock it is. In ths 
answer to this question, however, ths 
o'clock disappears entirely, and tlis 
numbers indicating the exact hour oi 
the day or night have to be preceded 
by the article the, translated by la 
before una, and by las before all the 
others. In stating the time between 
;ny two hs irs, the one nearest to ihf 



•nubl hand should always bo named 
flnt, and the wonla and or Lxaa bo 
placed after it, 84. 

Cloth, pafio^ masc. 

CLOTHBSf vskidot^ is used indiffer- 
ently for dresses and clothes in gen- 
eral ; but in the singular, vssUdo 
means more particularly a lady's 
dress, p. 23. 

Oocer, to boil, to cook.— Irr. v, — 
Pres. part. G/a«i(fo.— Past part. Oo- 
jMo.— Indicative mood, pres. tense : 
Yo euftOy tu cusces, il cuece, nototroa 
9oetmtn^ vo8otro$ ooceis, eUos cuecen. — 
Imperfect : Yo cocia^ tu cociat, el cocia, 
nMOtrot eociamoa^ voeofrof ooaaity eUot 
coeian, — Past tense definite , Yo oody 
tu cocisUy el cocio, nosotrot codfnoty 
90»oiro9 cocisteitif ellos cocieron. — Fu- 
ture : Yo coceri, tu cocerdsy SI oocerd^ 
no90tro8 coceremos, vosotros cocerHs^ 
eUot cocerdn, — Conditional mood : Yo 
cooeriay tu coeerias^ el cocena^ nosotros 
eoceriamoty vosotros coceriais, ellos eo- 
eenan. — Imper. mood : Guece^ coced. — 
Subjuuct. mood, pres. tense : Que yo 
cusea, qu4 tu euexas^ que el eueza^ que 
nosotros cozamos^ que vosotros cozais^ 
que ellos euezan. — Subjunctive plost : 
Que yo coclera^ or cociese: que tu co- 
derasy or cocieses; que U cocUra^ or 
eoeisse ; que nosotros cocUranwe, or eo- 
eiesemos ; que vosotros cocieraiSy or co- 
cieseis ; que ellos oocieratiy or cociesen. — 
The second future is : Yo cocierey tu 
toeiereSy el eocierSy nosotros ooci^emoSy 
WMOtros cociereiSy ellos oodersn. 

Becocer, to boil a^ain, and moocw, 
lO cause n sharp pain, to smart, are 
ooniugated alik^. 

Ooior, color, 179. 

CoME^ TO, venity 247. 

Comida, dinner, food, p. 10. 

Como.-^See As. 

Compadecer, to pity.— Its oon- 
iuffatiou, 147. 

Comparative. — The degrees of 
eompariaon are generally formed by 

£ lacing before the adjective cne of 
le following ^'ordp: Tan, as; mas, 
morey most ; menos, less^ least ; muy, 
very; bastante, enou(fhy tolerub^\ 
etc., 52. — When the adjective is one 
whicli requires to be placed ufler the 
noun, these adverbs go over with it, 
r>5^. — If the conjunction than follows, 
it has to be tran.sijited by que, 54. — 
In ^0 oou'puiativi of equality, as is 
tnnBlated oy tan before the a^jec- 

tiTe, and ty como afYet it, S.'S.-- 
When two expressions in the oom> 

Sarative are compared together, th« 
ret must be preceded by cuanto, 
and the second by tanto, 171. 

The superlative absolute i^ also 
formed bv adding the following ead- 
ing» to tne positive : ifldmo tor ad- 
jectives, and isimamente for ad^ 
verbs, 205. — Some adjectives and ad- 
verbs form their comparative and vol- 
peilative irregularly, 161, 205, 296. 

Compound TENSES. — Baber enters 
into the composition of the compound 
tenses of all verbs, regular and irreg- 
ular. — Tener is never so used, 46. 

CoNOLUOE, TO, conduir, p. 222. 

Conditional mood. — All verbs end 
in the conditional with ia. iaa, ia, 
ianuMi, iais, ian, 261.— These ter- 
minations are generallv added to the 
infinitive form of each verb, 262.— 
The conditional form is never pre- 
ceded b^ a conjunction in Spanish, 
the subjunctive past being then ia- 
variably used instead. 268. 

Conjugations. — ^All Spanish verbs 
end in the infinitive witn ar, er, oi 
ir. Those ending with ar arc saia 
to be of the firat conjugation; those 
ending with er are orthe second; 
and those ending with ir, of tie 
third, 98. — Model of the firet conju- 
gation, bablar, p. 61 ; mode! of the 
second, vender, p. 71 ; model of the 
third, unir, p. 80. 

Conjunctions. — List of the princi 
pal conjunctions, 215. 

ConmigfO, with me, 188. 

Consigt>, with him, with her, 88. 

Consist, to, oonsistir, p. 100. 

Consonants. — Double consonants 
often become single in Spanish, es- 
pecially ff, 88, and tt ; but 11, whcs 
liquid, is never so changed, 289. 

Contain, to, cabsTf irr. verb- Mt 

Contemplate, to, eontempla>j [uSi. 

Contento con or de a^^wM^ 
pleased with some one. 

OontigfO, ^vith thee, 88. 

Continue, to, conlinvar, p. 188. 

Contract, to, coni/raer^ 288. 

CoxNTKADicT, Tc, co/Uradech\ 29.$. 

("ooK, to, coc<r,'irr. v.; see Cocef 

Cost, to, costar^ p. 97. 

Counterfeit, to, canirakactf , 174 

CoDNTBT, camfopotU^ 119 

CouBT, la oorUy 172. 

GomiN, primo,prima, ^H 
CovBii, ro, tfuirir, p. 1S5. 
CoTET, TO, ii7iiiiaionar, p. ]2<S, 
Credit, on, a aidila. p. 4n. 
Cmel con or para lot ttneidot, 
•mei Xo the vuiquished. 

Cnalquier, whoevpr,wl]pitovcr, fi6, 
Ouanto, cnanta, how much, lOS. 
Cuantos, cuaiitaa, liuw man;. 

:, 19ii. 

Onyo, n 

B -B alwafs lonnded in Spunish 
!• ill Eiigluih. Suo liitroductur^ 
Leseon, p. vii. 

Bkd.— Many words eiidiug villi 
dad in SpunlBii, end wllli Iv \a Eae- 
UhIi, 15E. 

Bar.— $ee To uite. 

Datk of a Ictlier. — The csrdinBl 
niiuibera kk Kcnerall; nued infUad 
of the ordiaDi, id eposliliig of Iha 
dajB of Ihe month, and of sovereigiiB 
■ud princes, but pi'inn'e is novur so 
olintigcd, and forma, thorofora, an 

— Ugonerally ct.._ ,_, _.. 

frent; but, beajdea, is often rcuderei 
■y to, u>M, in, or tlio Hien of tli 

JOHjQssivo caaa (»'), 957.— The prep. 

M uiid the nrtiale •! are coutmcCed 

into a - ■ ~ 

what;' hut this adilltion is not alMO- 
lately iiecesniry, 63. — To, before an 
inflnitiva, Is traiialated aoiautimes by 

Dkal, to, trqficar, ia Mnjugatod 

Dabw inuDs to oat, vHut- oughi, 
b be oilttfid, and even lo it, but the 
latter only wlion jjinod to an inflnl- 
Ure, in T't'li:h case it fomia uiLh it ■ 

anty, neoeuity, or pnrpoae, aa it the 

bllowing ex BUI pie : 

.- Que Mo kactr t 

*"■ ■ ■ iol 227. 

«r, 271. 

r, p. ite. 

i. aste, 6, &inoe, tet«is, 4rMk. 

f , Iste, ii, imos, iateis, i«Toa, 2H. 

Thcau lerniinmions are added to th< 
root of tho rerb, and take the plaot 
of the inhnitiTe ending?, ar, er, ir. 
It Is nften difRcnlt to decide b»- 
twecu the use of the paat tense deH- 
nite and tlio impcrfBot, whether to 


i to change tt 

wat haclng, mcd ta 

g uw Katiof and in 
lia, and dii bast, 
J of doubt, ht 


Debfibe, to, desprteiar, p. 12S. ,^^^^| 

DespneB, ailv., qfUrmrdi, l^^^^^l 

a preposition, qj^Cer, 18S. ^^^^1 

Detract, to, detriar, 288. ^^^H 

UijiKLsia (-'). — The di«r*d^^^H 
iced over any vowel, denotea 'Ih^^^^H 
has to be proDonuced diatiao^f^^^^l 
d by itself. ^^^H 

Dii, to, tnorir, 190. ^^H 

difereneia, p. 210. 
i/idl, p. nO.—D^lal 
-, didcult to do. 

addition of ico or ito for t 

for the fern. ; 
, , , inptorpity^. 



These tenmnstionB are gcuerally 
ftdded to the singular form of the 
noun or adjoctive, taking care that 
those ending with a or o drop their 
last vowol, and that tiiose ending 
with CO, ca, g:o, g;a, and z, change 
thene final letters into qu, gVLy and 

Words endinsj with «, », or r, take 
Sieo, cito, cillo, and suelo. instead 
of ico, ito, illo, and uelo, 265; 

The only exception to this rule is 
Stmor^ Mr. or gentlcmnn, which is 
ehanged to sehorito^ master or young 
gentienian, and not sewfrcUo^ 265. 

The diminutive endings are espe- 
eially added to Christian names in 
Spanish, 266. 

DnofBR, food, comida^ p. 10. 

Disappear, to, de»parecer^ is conju- 
gated like compadecer, 147. 

DiSBMBABK, TO, desembatcar^ goes 
like aplicar^ 145. 

DisouisB, TO, dif/razar, is conju- 
gated like reehazar^ 187. 

Dispose, to, dUponer^ is conjugated 
likejPOfMr, 197. 

Dissimulate, to, disimular, p. 126. 

Dissolve, tu, disolver^ 197. 

Divide, to, dividir^ p. 222. 

Do, TO, Aactfr, 178.— There is no such 
word as do or did, to give greater 
strength to an affirmation in Spanish ; 
BO that these two expressions, /«««, 
and I do use^ have but one transla- 
tion, Oflo, 41. 

The interrogative form, Do too 
NOT? annexed to a proposition in 
order to kn?w whether it is assented 
to, varies in English accordinjr to the 
tense and person of tlie verb, and 
may be expressed in as many ways 
as there are different signs or auxil- 
iary verbs. In Spanish this form is 
invariably 4X^0 es verdad? A U 
not true f or i If o es asi i Is U not 
thusT 70. 

Do OVER aoain, to, rehacer, 174, is 
•rniugated like hacer, 178. 

HiUiDir. — See To sleep. 

Dress, vestido^ p. 23. 

Dress one's self, to, traerse, is the 
tronominal form of traer^ 287. 

Drink, to, heber^ 114. 

Dbivl away, to, arrojar^ p. 238. 

Dwell, to, morar^ p. 265. 

S is sonnded as « in the English 
word nt^ See i atrod. Lesson, p. vii. 

Eaod, cada, is an ^iTtriable worr 
in Spanish, answering to Ma^ and 
every^ 249. 

Eaolb, the, tl Affuila, 185. 

Early, iemprano^ 178. 

Eat, to, oofner^ 114. 

Edify, to, edifieoTy is oox^ngitad 
like aplicar^ 145. 

Effect, e/eetOy 289. 

Employ, to, emplear^ p. 188. 

Bn.— See In. 

Enchant, to, hechuar^ is oo^ja- 
gated like rechakoTy 187. 

Enouoii, hcuitante and bagtanUmefiU^ 
but the latter is never joined to a 
noun, 176. 

Entirely, enterament€y 178. 

Bntre, between. 

Bse. — In Spanish, eae is proper- 
ly to be applied only to objects near 
the person spoken to, or which hap- 
pen to be the immediate subject of 
conversation ; but in familiar inter- 
course it is often indifferently used 
for este and aqpel. Its feminine 
is esa ; its plural masc. esos ; and 
its plural fern, esas, 277. 

Sstar, to b«y is used when a change 
may reasonably be expected, or that 
the verb to be can be replaced by 
to stand or to lay in English, without 
materially affecting the meaning o( 
the sentence ; otherwise fler is to be 
preferred, 26.— See, also. To bb. 

Contrary to English usage, the 
prep. 4 is introduced in Spanish ic 
the following idiomatic expressions: 

Este vestido estd Men d F., 
this dress fits you well. 

Efttar al servicio de alguno^ 
to be in the service of some One* 

£$iar a euentas con 4L 
to have an account with nim. 

£star d derecho^ 
to be in the right. 

Eetar d Unea^ 
to be in a line. 

Atar a punto de sa'^^ry 
t«» be on the point of starting. 

£8tar d eeperar^ 
to hope. 

Sste, esta, esto, thUy 2, 274. 

Bstrecho, straittj 184 

f!vER, Jamas, 178. 

Every, todo, toda, todos, todM 

See, also, Eaoh, 24'). 



£xA«aBRATB, TO, obulUtr. p. 2(3. 

ExAKuni, TO, Momin^f i4iD. 

SzoBLLKNT, exceUnUy p. 210. 

EzrEROfSNT, TO, exf^efimeniarj p. 

SzFOSE, TO, aqfoner^ 197. 

ExTursuieii, to, apagatf is oo^jii- 
fited like/Kz^or, 180. 

V ki sounded in Spanish as in 
Cnglish. See Introd. Lesson, p. vii. 
Fail, to, faliar, p. 212. 
Fall, to, cmt, 270.— To fall due, 

, 114. 

Familiarize, to, /amiUarutarf is 
4 «njugated like reehazar, 187. 

Fab, ^'09, 178. 

Fate, mmt^, fern, by exo., p. 108. 

FaTOr, favor, 179; in favor of, d 
fKjDor (/«, 244. 

Feel, to, arUir^ 168. 

Feminine. — See Genders. 

Fetch, to, traer. p. 252. 

F4W, pocot ; a lew, unos poeoi, al- 
fumt; rewer than, minos gus: a few 
days after, d loavooo* diasj 269. 

FmsLiTT, JUUlidady 156. 

Fit HT, ro^peUar^ p. 155. 

Find, to, haUar^ 140. 

FiNiSH, TO, aeabar. — Acabar de^ 
joined to an infinitive, forms more 
ofben ^rith it a particular past tense, 
rencrall^ expressod in English by 
\o havejvsty and a past participle : 

Kx. Acixbo de hiabUir, 

I have just spoken, 181. 

First is translated by primer^ and 
ftot by vrivMro^ when immediately 
bllowed^by a noun, 22^. 

Fix, to, fijar^ p. 1 04. 

Flatter, to, hsortjear, p. 294. 

Flourish, to, florscer, is conjugated 
tike comp€Ki€cer^ 147. 

Flower, flor^ p. 82. 

Fly, to, volar y 164. 

Follow^ to, stguivy 162. 

Food, dmnor, cofmda^ p. 10. 

For, when it can be replaced by 
jMotMtf, is a conjunction, and has to 
be translated by pu4S^ 88 ; otlier\i ise 
It i? a v^ep., and lias to be rendered 
by ffor, 88, 157, or j»ara, 276. — See, 
ftfso, For and Para. 

Force, to, forzar^ 140. 

Forehead, /r«n^, 172. 

Foretell, to, pridedr^ 295. 

Form, to, foi-rrWy p. 294. 

Formation of the Plural of |^oi ns 
Mid Adjectives, 68, 

PoRMATioii of th« feminine of Ad 
Jeotivea, 185. 

Formation of Adverbs in mento 

Formation of Dlisinutives, 264 
265. 266. 

Formation of Augmentatives, 267 

Formation of the Present Partis) 
pie, 203. 

Fc.BMATioN of tl 6 Past Part., 210. 

FcKMATioN of the Indicative mooc 
Present tense, 228. 

Formation of the Imperfect, 272, 

Formation of the Past tense defl 
nite, 226. 

Formation of the Futore, 258, 259. 

Formation of the Conditional, 261, 

Formation of the Imperative, 228, 

Formation of the Subjunot. mood, 
Present tense, 287. 

Formation of the SubjancL Past, 
278, 279, 281, 282. 288. 

Formation of tne Compound Ten- 
ses, 41. 

Formation of Verbal Ac^ectives in 
ante and ente, 248. 

Formerly, dnUt^ 178; anUgvor 
ffunUy en ctro tiempo. 

Fortify, to, /ortalecer d aiguno^ 
p. 114, goes like compadMer^ 147. 

Forward, adelarUe, 178. 

Found, to, fundar^ d. 255. 

Fractions. — In English, the frac- 
tional numbers are like the ordinal; 
but in Spanish tliey have a particular 
ending, the termination avo being 
added to the cardinal form, thus : 
tftikX), five ; un dtvooavOy a fifth. Take 
notice, that avo is changed to avot in 
the plural. 

Freeze, to, kdar^ is conjugated 
like quebrarj 138. 

From, cU, 183. — Ds and d are con* 
tracted into del, 84. 

Front, frenUy 172. 

Shilano corresponds tc the ab 
breviatiou N. in English, and means 
tuck a onSy 75. 

Furnish, to, amuAlary 99. 

Future tensk. — All verbs, reguia 
and irregular, end in the future with 

e, 4s, a, emos, eis, 4n, 253. 

These termiiitttions are generallf 
added to the infinitive form of eacB 
Y«rb. The exceptions to this n^t 



iHl b« (bund ezpUun^d Li the irreg- 
liar verbs, 2£9. 

O is soundod like k before a, o. ii, 
^ r, and like a <itrongly aspirated A, 
01 the German eh, wlien followed by 
# or f . n is generally silent between 
f and € or i, unless a diaeresis is pnt 
o?er it. See Introd. Lesson, p. vii. 

Gain, to, ganar^ p. 108. 

Gatheb, to, lograf, p. 186 ; to gath- 
er together, to assemble, conourrivy 
p. S78. 

Genders. — There are properly but 
two genders in Spanish, tlie mascu- 
line and the femmine. As to what 
is commonly called the neuter in 
Spanish, see note f on page 4, and 
Ods. 170. — The gender of nouns is 
determined either bv the sex or by 
the termination. All the names of 
males are masculine, whatever may 
be their termination, and *all the 
names of females are feminine, 8. — 
Words ending; with a, d, ion, and 
mnbre are feminine, those ending 
otherwise are masculine, 4. — Words 
which, without being nouns, are ao- 
cidentally used as such, are mascu- 
line, 110. — Review of the gender of 
nouns. 111. — Nouns denoting titbs, 
qualities, professions, or degrees of 
relationship, which may belong to 
either sex, often produce feminine 
derivatives by means of the same 
terminations as the adjectives, 185. — 
The names denoting tne natives of a 
country, and words ending with an, 
on. or or, form their feminine by the 
addition of an a, 185. — See, also. 
Nouns and Adjectives. 

Get, to, atoarusar^ is conjugated 
like rtchazavy 187. 

Get n>, to, levantarat or lUvane^ 

Give, to, dar^ 221. 

Give baok, to, volver^ rettUuir, 

Go, to, ir, v. irr.— The verb to go 
\b oflcn used in the pronominal form, 
■ad joined to auutiier verb, to indi- 
oato that an action is actually goin^ 
on, 165.— To go for, ir por, or ir a 
kiiscar; literally, to go and fetch. — To 

So on foot, ir a pU ; to ride, ir a ca- 
illo; to go away, irte. — To go out, 
•oZtr, 242.— To go to bed, acostane^ is 
M>njuguted [\kQ mostrai y 1^7. 

Good, busno^ bueni. — Bueno drops 
>!• fiJXfX letter, au<J l^Qomes ^n^ 

when placed rof re a ixnn. 89. — ^Th« 
comparative of htjmo is m^for^ better, 
and Its superlative ib d m^for^ or «l 
SpHmOy 52. 

Good bt, adioi. 

Good dat, buinoi diat. — The sal* 
utations, Good morm'nOj Good dopr, 
and Good evening^ are always used is 
the plurak in Spanish, 116. 

Govern, to, gobemar^ is oocjrgated 
like guebrar^ 138. 

Grammar, gramaUca^ p. 210. 

Orande corresponds more partify- 
ularly to great, when placed before 
the noun to which it refers, and to 
large, when placed after it, 40.— The 
comparative of ^>*am/i is mayor ^ and 
its^ superlative is ei mayor, or el 
mditimOy 161. 

Great, grande, becomes gran when 
placed before a noun beginning witi 
a consontfut, 89. 

Great, grands, 40. 

Grow, to, creeerA'& conjugated like 
eompadeeer, 147.— To grow in body, 
creccr de cuerpo, 122 ; to grow in vir- 
tues, creeer en virtuaet ; to ^row fat, 
engordar, p. 245 : to grow thm, ^f|^- 
qttecer, conjug. like oompadee&r, 147. 

Guard, to, guardar, p. 126. 

Guide, to, guiar, p. 245. 

Gutter, la canal, 172. 

B is always silent in S{>anish. See 
Introductory Lesson, p. vii. 

Haber.—See To have. — Its con- 
jugation, p. 24. 

Habit of suffering, habiio de t^rir^ 

Hacer.— Its conjugation, 178.— 
See, also. To do. 

Handle, to, manejar^ p. 222. 

Hardly, apenae, 178. 

Hasta, till. 

Have, to. — There are two worda 
corresponding to this verb in Span- 
ish,— naber and toner, but they 
cannot be employed indiscriminately. 
Baber is used exclusively as an 
auxiliary, while toner is an active 
verb, and can be introduced only 
when to have is not followed by a 
participle, in which case it may gen- 
erally oe replaced by to hold, or t§ 
poeeese, without materially anocting 
the meaning of the sentence, 44. — 
Conjugation of holer, p. 24.— Conju- 
gation of tener, 60. 

The ^miH>m>d t^DSf e of /ffi#r, m 



X tf aJ^&yi M ind)<\ HkM i in the 
CngliRh word /»m. See Introduo- 
lory Lesson, p. vii. 

L yo. — See rRONouNs. 

Xa. — Many words endinj: in Span- 
■b with ia. end in finfirlish with y^lOO 

Xble. — Many words ending with 
Me are alike, or niarly so, in both 
(Vigaages, 186. 

Jo.— -Many words ending: with ie 
•r iaU in fngilsh, end with ico in 
ipUiish, 105. 

loAL.— See lo or Zco. 

Xeo. — Many words ending with 
Im in Spanish, end with ie or ical 
ia Englisn, 105. 

If, #», 215. 

If not, «»n<», 21 5. 

Imperative. — The imperative has 
properly but one person in the Ringn- 
uur and plural ; and the expressions, 
ki him 6«, Ut U8 bt^let them be, etc., 
ire supplied by means of the sub- 
jnnct. present, or of the verb dejar, 
to Ist or leave, 228. — It is, moreover, 
to be observed, that the subiunctive 
fbrm is always used insteaa of the 
iincierative in all negative sentences, 
ana that the pronoun is then invaria- 
bly placed before the verb, 229. — See, 
also, note f, on p. 85. 

Imperfect tense. — The regular 
•ndings of the imperfect of the in- 
dicative are: For the verbs in ar: 
aba, abas, aba, 

abamos, abais, aban ; 
md for those in er and ir : 

la, ias, ia, iamos, iais, ian. 

These terminations are added to the 
root of the verbs, and take the place 
of the infinitive endings, ar, er, ir, 
872, 278. 

It is often difficult to decide be- 
tween the use of the past tense defi- 
nite and the imperfect, whether to 
•ay tenia or tuve. The better plan to 
be pursuad) is to change the English 
bito was h-cmng, steed to havf, or did 
hmi ; r9nd?ring^ was having and used 
$0 hiim by tenia, and did have, bj 
lave. Ill case of doubt, however, it 
wiU be best to use the perfect, so 
lie tenido, /have had, 225. 

Impersonal Verbs.— See Verbs. 

In, required in Englif^ after a su- 
perlative, and before the name of a 
place, ia rendered b? de, an' I not bv 
ML 819. 

In, #f», 188.— T ^rderto, para, 18IL 
— ^The pro}), en i* often used, instead 
of sobre, for on or upon; but thia sub* 
stitution is requ'.rcd only when tba 
sense of the sentence clearly ehowa 
the particular meaning intended, 68. 
— In order that, para gv£, 215. 

In a different manneb, ds diaorta 
modo, 2r'7. — In this manner, d€ stH 

Inasmuoa as, eumo que, 255. 

Incline, to, indinar, p. 145. 

Indicative mood. Present tBHai. 
— The regular endings of this tenia 
are : For the verbs in ar : 

o, as, a, amoe, aia, an. 
For the verbs in er : 

o, es, e, ernes, eis, en. 
And for the verbs In ir : 

o, es, e, imos, is, en, 288 

See, also. Imperfect, Past txmm 
DEFINITE, Future, and Gompouhb 


Xnfecto de Jiebre, infected with 
the fever. 

Xnlbrior. inferior, irregular oom- 
parative of oajo, low, 212. 

Xnfimo, lowest, irregular superla- 
tive of bc^o, low, 212. 

Infinitive. — All Spanish yerba 
end in the infinitive with ar, er, of 
ir. Those ending with ar are said 
to be of the first conjugation ; thoiM 
ending with er are of^the second; 
and those ending with ir, of the 
third, 98. — All prepositions govern 
the infinitive mood, 78. — The prep. 
TO, before an infinitive, is sometlmea 
translated by 4, sometimes by ds, 
and sometimes it is left out, 166. — 
The infinitive mood of verbs is some- 
times used substantively. In thia 
case it is preceded by an article, oi 
some other determinative word ani 
is of the masculine gender, 110. 

Influence, to, injluir, b oouia 
gated like inetmir, 182. 

Inside, adentro, 178. 

Instead of, t.^ Vugcar ds. 

Instruct, tc. instruir, 182. 

lNTERJEorioi«d. — List of tlic piinoi* 
pal inteirjecions, 802, 808. 

lNTE»ROOArioN. — We have alreai^ 
seen that / use, and J do use, tire botli 
translated by nso, 41.— The only dif«i 
ference of construction between ai 
aAnnative and an intenogativa tear 



ieace in Spanisb is thtt when there 
is a pronoun in it, that pronoun is 
placed after the ve:b, if a question 
18 asked. 

Ex. i Um r. veUuT 
Do you use candles f 

V, usa velasy 
You use candles. 

The interrogative form annexed to 

propoi^if.loii, in order to know 
whether it in assented to, varies in 
Knglish according to tlie tense and 
peison of the verb, and may be ex- 
pressed in as many ways as there 
are different sigrns or auxiliary verbs. 
In Spanish, this form is invariably 
I Ko es verdad ? Is it not the truth t 
or, I Noes asi ? Is it not so f 70. 

Zndtil para, useless to. 

iNvrrE, TO, oonvidcu'^ 804. 

Zon. — Many words ending with 
Um are alike m both languages, 87. 

It.— See To go. 

Ibrkgulab Verbs. — See Vebbs. 

It. — Few words doinand move at- 
tention than this small one. Trans- 
lated in turn by ^I, ella, ello, le. 
la, lo, it has sometimes to be added 
and sometimes to be suppressed, 
contrary to English usage, 91. — In 
impersonal verbs, and before tlie verb 
TO be, it is most often left out, 92. 

But owing to the absence of the 
neuter gender in Spanisli, inanimate 
objects are always spoken of either 
in the masculine or in the feminine, 
and it has therefore to be rendered 
in turn bv el, he; ella. she; le, him; 
and la, her^ 93. — The oest plan to be 
pursued in this respect is to replace 
at once the word it by A*, she. him. 
or A*r, according to the gender of 
the Spanish noun referred to, and to 
translate it regularly as a personal 

Ex. ^ Donde estd mi libra f 
Where is my book ? 

El estd alli^ Le f #o, 

It is there. 1 see it. 

/ Donde estd m i gramdtica f 
Where is my grammar ? 

Mia estd cUliy La veo, 

It is there. I see it, 94. 

It would be, perhaps, bettt r to say 
simplv, (Hid alUy instead of el tstd all 
Moorofng to Kule 18, which reooa 

men « he snppresson cf tlie kn^b^ 
pronouns, /. fhm, hi, she, U^ «m, |iw«ft, 
tkey^ but the reverse is not incor- 
rect, 95. — As a further and natural 
consequence of this rule, the equiva- 
lent of IT in the nominative case- 
that is to say, when used as ^ or «A4 
— are comparatively seldom required; 
but too much care could not be be- 
stowed upon it in the direct objective 
case, which must bo rendered by I# 
when it has to be replaced b^ Aim. 
and by la when it has to be replaced 
by her, according to Rules 93, 94, 95. 

When IT refers to an adjective, t 
verb, or a whole sentence, rather than 
to any noun in particular, it has to be 
translated by elio (seldom expressed, 
see Rule 18) for the nominative case, 
and by lo for the objective, 96. 

The English word ao is often re- 
placed by IT : 

£x. Lo creOy I think so, 97. 

It would be best, to rcmembei 
that to is the old masculine form 
of el, used only when the noun to 
which the article refers is not ex- 

Eressed. and is liable to be supplied 
y words of different genders, as in 
the elliptical expression, Lo sublime. 
the sublime, which mav be completed 
with estilOy style, which is masculine, 
or dicdon^ diction, which is feminine. 
The article and adjective are in the 
masculine, according to a rule which 
obtains throughout all modern lan- 
guages, that wlienever it is doubtful, 
whether males or females are spoken 
of, and even when both are alluded 
to at the same time, the masculine ii 
preferred to the feminine, 170. 
Itself, se. — See Pronouns. 
IvE. — Words ending with ive in 
English, generally end with ivo in 
Spaiiii>}i, with little or no other dif- 
ference of orthography, 200. 

Zvo. — Words ending with iwo in 
Spanish, generally end with ive u: 
English, with little or no -other dif- 
ference of orthography, 200. 

J has always a guttural sound, like 
a strongly aspirated A, or the Ger- 
man ch. — See Introductory Lessci^ 
p. vii. 

Jamas, ever, 178. 

Join, to, juntar, p. 255. 

Judge, to, Jusgar^ is oo.ijugated 
like pagar ISO. 

ftgW, to pUj.— [rr. Y.— Prsaent 
put. Tufwidi). — Pant part. Jw/tda. — 
Indie, mood, pres. UiD»e: Ya jvtgo. 

WMotrot jvgai*, ^itst JvetaH.—lmpfir- 
fect: Foivj/aia, iijtigaiim,iljaQaba, 
HBtotrui jugabamot, toiotroi ju^aiait, 

Ma* jvga&tn fast tenite deflniM : 

Jd ptgai, tijzigaMU, Hjufo, tuHetroi 
jftfiinot, vimtnnjvgaiteii, elioajvgi- 
VM. — Fntiira: yiijugari, Cvjujarai, 
JtJtiffarA, noiUrot Jiigarfinoi, lamini* 
figareti, rfim ji^am o,— CnrditioniJ 
(nooii; Tojuga<ni.iu^ttgariai,elja- 
foria, notjlroi jaganamot, TMotm 
jvgariait. t^ijvqarian, — Imperuliva 
mood: Jytiga, j-ugad. — SubjunoUve 
m(Kid, preBent tense: Qui yo jtitgvt, 
ffU6 tujwguea, que eljveffii4, qjtt noto- 
irot taguemot, qm voaotrot juguais, 
qiuillatjaiguin. — Siibjiiactive ^aat: 
Qu£ yo jugara^ or jugase i *fii6 tu ju- 
garat. or jugata; gui rl juporo, or 
jugati ; que noaotron jvgiramot, or 
jvgaiemot ; qui vmolroa jvgarait, or 
iugoMit; qw illot jvgar^riy or ivga- 
•™,— The 2d future is: Yo^ugare, ti 
loio^v jugireu, dioi jugaren. 

being used only in foreign wordi and 
proper aamee. It is sounded alike in 
BpaJiiBh B8 in English. See Intro- 
duotery Lesson, p. vii. 

Ksr, Uate, Is feminine by excep- 
tion, p. IT, 

Kind, dJom, is feminine hj exeep- 
ti m, p. 10, 

Kissis tBB Bauds, B. li. X., >d 
■bbrevIaUoD of baa lot maun, ia an 
ozpiessioa <}f pollteaees which cor- 
leeponds Co pntnU Ail smisHrrMRti, 
in EntfliBh, SOS. 

Kmow, tij, toutr, 251.— To, before 
an infinidve, is not to be traaslstcd 
after *ai<r.— E:i. lie knows to read, 
sob Ur, ISe.— The verb «^ Bhoiild 
not be oanrouLided with amooir. 
Sat*!" is appliedtothiii^, while enw- 

Bx"to rDow^some one, 

Cbnacer d alguno, 140. 
To know a thing, 

It ia sounded alike io Spanish as 
in Enn'.iFth, nnd U aa in h^«t.— 
Se« lncrodu«oi]f Leaaon, pa *il. 

IA, a«, tea Abtioui I^, «,M 


Laoi, to, caMurtl4altv*M«', BIT- 
1% i* conjugated like eomtiaJtoir, 141. 

Lahck, lanaa,^. 15S 

Lah«d*si, iatoina, is nutMialii]* t^ 
exception, p. ITS. 

Labqsb, nuif/or, 181. 

Laroest, tlmaver, Itl. 

Irfu, fern, of lM.-«ee Amou 
Thb, Thkk, or PHOBonna. 

Late, taidt, ITS. 

Law, Itf, fern, bj exo., p. BM. 

X.O, Mm, her, it.— See PBaRoaiii. 

Lbahb, to, oprmrf»r, p. 108.— To^ 
before an inflniuva, ia trp"-'-*-^ "^ 
4 after apr^ndtr. 

Ex. I learn lo read. 

if ixftKRi), little, 
Leate, to, iffw-, p, 
XiO*, tA«in.— See Pi 

brm ol wffudw 

■, 1«. 

Irreg. iopeilatlM 


lor, irregular 

(«no, little, S( 

- '—pBTBtive haa properly 

in the singnlar aod 

K'ural ; and the expreaaions, Lit him 
, Itl ut i«, Ut them bi, etc., are aup 
plied by means of the snbjunotive 

, note on p. SG. 

IB.— For the letters of the 

, see Introd. Leai 

I, USertaJ, IH. 

Like, to, jutrer, £80. 

Little, juqmio, !09 ; p«e», IM ; • 

LiTi, to, ewir, 134.- To Uva In • 
place, gaedar de atitnle, I2S. 
U IB soui.ded as U in the KngUak 

word InSion, Bee InCroduatorjXM- 

p. 17. 

1, goes liku 


Im, the, is a third form of th* 
article il, to be used only before an 
adjective when the Donn Io whieii 
that adjective refers is not eipresnd. 
■J .. . in pajte *. Some fram- 

LoOE, to, miror, p 
like a^icar', lU. 



XiiM, Ima." See The, 10, and renf, 

liOSE, TO, perdeTj 138. 

LovK, TO, amar a alguno^ p. 104. 

Low, Ixyo^ 212. 

Lower, inferior^ 212. 

Lowest, infimo^ 212. 

ZdDcir, to shine, goes like eompor- 
dtetr, 147. 

Ly. — Adverbs of quality are gen- 
erally formed from adjectives by the 
addition of mente, which oorre- 
aponds to the English ending, ly. 
The termination mente is always 
added to the feminbie form oi the 
a4jective, 20. 

is sounded in Spanish as in 
English. See Introd. Lesson, p. vii. 

Maintain, to, mantener, is conju- 
gated like UneTy 60. 

Mark, TO. hacsr^ 173. 

XBaldecir, to curse, goes like 
dfcir^ 294. 

Kalo, bad, drops its firidl letter 
before a nonn, and oecomes mal^ 89. 

Ka&ana, morning, to-morrow,61. 

Many. — See Much. 

SSaravedi is tlie smallest Spanish 
eoin, being worth only three mills. 
Its plural is maravAliceSj maravedieSy 
or maravedis. 

Margin (of a book), el margen^ 172. 

SSas, more. 

SSe corresponds usually to me and 
TO me; but when to me is used by 
Itself, t1iat is to say, without a vera 
and after ea, it is ; que^ than ; and 
eomo^ as, it has to bo translated by 
a mi. — See, also, conmi^o^ 83, 102. 

Meat, carns^ is feminine by excep- 
tion, p. 10. 

Meet, to, encontrar^ is conjugated 
like mostrar^ 137. 

SSente. — Termination of adverbs 
of quality corresponding to the end- 
la? ^.y in "English, 20. 

Mine, el mio. — See Pronouns, 


nXismo, same, is translated by 
■Usmo, before a word masculine 
singular; by misma, before a word 
fern. sing. ; by mismos, before a 
nord niasc. pi. ; and by mismas, 
before a word fem. j)lnnil, 4i«. 

The word very, usuallv translated 
by muy, is rendeied Ly mismo 
when it precedes a noun^ 113. 

answers k) the wcrd j 

BELT, when jolLed to fke pronoam 

Jo, ^ eL, etc 

£x. To mitmOf I myself. 

El mismOy ho himself, eto. 

Mistress (of the house), ama" 
For the sake of euphony, ama taket 
the masculine art. «^ instead of th« 
feminine to, 185. 

Monet. — The imm>, dollar; rmi^ 
shilling; and eeniavo, cent, are the 
denominations u.sed in ccmpnting 
sums of inonejr in Spanish. There 
are 8 recU* in Kpeso^ and 12*/, cenUtvok 
in a real, 818. 

^ More, mas. — When two expres* 
sions in the comparative are com- 
pared together, the first must be pre- 
ceded by cnanto, and the seoond 
by tanto, 171. 

Moreover, adematy 178. 

XBorir, to die, 190. 

Mount, to, montar^ 99 ; (on hone 
back,) a caballo^ 122. 

Move, to, mover^ 137. 

Muou, mncho, 81. — When ioineo 
to a verb, mncho is an adverD, an^ 
consequently an invariable word oor- 
responding to much^ in English ; but 
joined to a noun, it is an adjective, 
meaning much or manj/j no differ- 
ence bemg made in Spanish between 
(quantity and number. The adjec- 
tive mucho agrees in gender and 
number with the word to which it 
refers. Its feminine sing, is "?^iffh^ ; 
its plural, mucnos; and its 
fem. pliir., muchas, 32.— The whole 
of this observation will apply to the 
followiner words: jFbco, poca^ pooat^ 
pocas^ little, or few; tantOy tantUy tan- 
toSy tantaSy so much, or so many, 
cuantOj cuanta^ cuantos^ cuantas. how 
much? or how many? demasiaaOy d& 
matiada^ demasiadoe^ demasiadat^ toe 
much, or too many, 106. 

M usT, TO, haber de^ 46 ; tener qtm 
see To have. — Deber, without • 
preposition, 166. 

My is translated by mi before a 
word singular, and by mis before a 
word plural, 16. — BXi and mis dt 
not change in the fe:r.;riine, 29. 

Myself. — See jgismo. 

N is soimded in Spanish aL ie 
English. A ia aoiinded as gn ii 
mignor.ette. Sea Introductory Loa 
son. p. vii. 

Nadie, nobody, 258. 



Kames.— Christian names are gen- 
erally preceded by Don, instead of 
Selior, and by Dofia, instead of 
Sefiora or Sefiorita, 117. 

Neab, ewok or aoerea. These prep- 
ositions are always followed by dt in 
Spanish, 88, 107. 
Neobssitt, neeeridadf ise. 
Nbed, to, neoetitar, 164. 
Nbitheb, nob, nL—Ni corresponds to 
neiUter and tior. When placed after the 
verb, that verb must be preceded by the 
n^^ative no; but ni may be used by 
itself when put before, or if there is no 
verb in the phrase.— Ex. : 
Ifo le eneuentro ni demasiado fdeU, 

ni demasiado difieU; or, 
Ni denuuiado fdeU ni demasiado difi- 

eU le encuentro. 
I find it neither too easy nor too difficult. 
This observation applies also to 
nada, nothing; ninemno or nadie, 
nobody; and nunoa, never,— "Ex. : 
Nada veo, or no veo nada, 
I see nothing. 
Ninguno veo, or no veo ninguno, 
I see nobody. 
Nunea veo, or no veo nunea, 
I never seei, 71. 
Nbuteb gendbb.— Although we 
have seen in the note t, at the bot- 
tom of page 4, that lo is a third form 
of the article el, and that some gram- 
marians consider it as of the neuter 
gender, this view has, however, an- 
other inconvenience besides the ap- 
parent uselessness of an article of the 
neuter gender in a language in which 
there is no neuter noun to be deter- 
mined. For if we attempt to parse 
the adjective accompanying it, we are 
led into the absurdity of saying that 
the article of the neuter gender can 
accompany an adjective of the mas- 
culine, inasmuch as the neuter gender 
Is not ascribed to adjectives by any 
Spanish grammarian. It would seem 
better, therefor^ to remember that 
lo is the old masculine form of el, 
used only when the noun to which 
the article refers is not expressed, and 
is liable to be supplied by words of 
different genders, as in the elliptical 
egression, Lo sublime, the sublime, 
which may be completed with eOHo, 
ityle^ which ia masonline, or diedon, 

diction, which is feminine. The ad- 
jective and article are then in the 
masculine, according to a rule which 
obtains throughout all modem lan- 
guages, that whenever it is doubtful 
whether males or females are spoken 
ol^ and even when both are alluded 
to at the same time, the masculine is 
preferred to the feminine, 170. 

Esto, commonly called ttie noun- 
form of este, is used only when the 
noun to which it refers is not ex- 
pressed, Just as eso and aqaello. 
It is to be observed that the adjective 
joined to these words is used in the 
masculine form, 241, 274, 277. 

Nbybr, nunea. See, also, Nbithbb, 
NOR, 71. 

Nbybrthbless, sin embargo, 215. 

Nbxt day (on the), al otro dia, 276. 

Ni.— See Nbithbb, nob. 

Night, noeihe, tern, by exc., p. 61. 

Nlngmno.— See Nobody. 

No, no, not.— The negative no is 
always placed before the verb to 
which it refers, 6a 

Nobody, ninguno, nodie.— Nln- 
gmno answers to nobody, none, not 
any, and no. Its feminhie singular 
is ninffuna; its masc. plural, nin- 
srunos; and its fem. pL, ninffunas. 
Ningnn is used instead of ningruno 
before a noun masc., 198.— Nadie 
differs from ningxmo, inasmuch as 
it cannot be joined to a noun, 268.. 
See also Nbithbb, nob, 71. 

Nob.— See Neitheb. 

Not.— See No. 

Note, pagar4, p. 44. 

Nothing, nada, 71.— See^ also^ 
Neither, nob. 

Noun.— In Spanish, as in English, 
names of males are masculine^ and 
names of females are feminine. But 
there is no neuter gender in nouns 
in Spanish, and the names of the 
inanimate objects are, therefore, like 
those of the animate^ either mascu- 
line or feminine, 8;— to determine 
which, recourse is generally had to 
their termination, tiie principal rule 
being the following: Nouns ending 
with a, d, ion, and tunbret are 
feminine ; those ending otherwise are 
masculine, 4.— The exceptions to this 
rule comprise a number of very ne- 
cessary words, all of which have been 
carefully introduced and explained in 
the lessons. 



Keyiew of the Gender of Nounsy 

In Spanish, as in English, noons 
generally take an b in the plural ; but 
those ending with an s in the singular 
do not change in the plural, 6. 

NounSy ending with a consonant take 
es, instead of b, in the plural, 28. 

Nouns of one syllable, ending with 
an s in the singtdar, take es in the 
pluraL— Ex. : Ghu; plur., pcMM, 42. 

Nouns ending with y in the singu- 
lar, form their plural by the addition of 

Names of nations ending with es 
take es in the pluraL 

EXi : Ingles; plur., IngUtet, 

Nouns ending with z in the singu- 
lar, change z into oes in the pL, 67. 

Keview of the Formation of the 
Plural of Nouns, 68. 

There are two w^s of expressing 
the possessive in English : The brother 
cf my father, and My father's brother. 
In Sx>ani8h there is but one : The 
brother of my ftUher; and '« has al- 
ways to be replaced by of, according 
to this model, 15. 

Urut (^fombra de terciopdo.-r- There 
are two ways of saying this in Eng> 
lish : A carpet of velvety and a velvet 
carpet. In Spanish there is but one : 
A carpet of velvet; and all sentences 
of this kind have to be translated 
according to this model, placing the 
name of the thing of which another 
is made last, 36. 

Nouns denoting titles, qualities, 
professions, or degrees of relation- 
ship, which may belong to either sex, 
often produce feminine derivatives 
by means of the same termination 
which the adjective takes in the femi- 
nine, 118.— See, also. Adjective. 

The determinatives the, a, an, etc., 
are often used in the masculine in- 
stead of the feminine, before nouns 
beginning with an accented a, for 
the sake of euphony, and to avoid 
the too frequent recurrence of two 
a's following each other, 185. 

There are a few nouns which vary in 
meaning according to the gender in 
which they are used in Spanish. For 
a list of the most imi)ortant, see 172. 

The names denoting the natives 
of a country, and nouns ending with 
an, on, or or, form their feminine 
by the addition of an a, 184. 

NousiSH, TO^ eriar, p. 202. 

Now, ahora, 178. 

NUMBEBS.— In speaking of the days 
of the month, the cardhial numbers 
must be used instead of the ordinid, 
except for the first, which is invari- 
ably d prim,ero, 89.— For a table •f 
the cardinal and ordinal numbers^ 
see p. 885, in Index. 

O is sounded in Si)anish as In 
English. See Introd. Lesson, p. viL 

O, or, 215.— ti is used instead of 6, 
before words beginning with an o. 

Obet, to, obedecer, p. 126, is conju 
gated like compadeeer, 147. 

Oblige, to, preeisar, p. 108. 

Obseeve^ to^ observar, p. 212. 

Obtain, to, aleamar, conjugated 
like recJMzar, 187; eonsegvir, conju- 
gated like segtdr, 162; obtener, con- 
jugated like tener, p. 83. 

OOOUPY, TO, ocupar, ocuparse, 131, 

OoouB, TO, ocurrir, p. 164. 

Of, de, 183.— When the article 
le, the, is joined to the preposition 
de, of or from, both small words are 
invariably merged into del ; but 
de la, de los, de las, are never so 
contracted, 34. 

The prep, de may be prefixed to 
any adjective which follows alffO, 
something; nada, nothing; or que, 
what; but this addition is not abso- 
lutely necessary, 62. 

The prep, in, required in English 
after a superlative, and before the 
name of a place, is rendered by de, 
and not by en, in Spanish, 219.— 
See, also, De. 

Often, amenudo, 178. 

Oir, to hear.— Irr. v.— Pres. part. 
Oyendo.— Past part Oido.— Indica- 
tive mood, present tense: Yo oigo, 
til, ayes, &, oye, nosotros oimos, vosotros 
ois, ellos oyen. — Imperfect : Yo oia^ 
tu oias, dl oia, nosotros oiamos, vosotro^ 
oiais, dlos oian. — Past tense definite : 
Yo oi, ta, oiste^ 41 oyd, nosotros dimos, 
vosotros oisteis, ellos oy&ron. — Future : 
Yo oirS, tA oirds, il oira, nosotros ovri" 
mos, vosotros oir^Ss, ellos oirdn.— Con- 
ditional mood : Yo oiria, tu oirias, d 
oiria, nosotros oiriamos, vosotros oi- 
riais, ellos oirian. — Imperative mood: 
Oye, Old. — Subjunctive mood, pres. 
tense: Que yo oiga, que txi oigas, que 
41 oigo, que nosotros oigamos, que vow- 



tstot oigait, que tUot o^on.— Subjono- 
tive past : Qob yo oy^ra^ or oyete ; que 
ta oyeras, or oyeses; qw U oyera, or 
oyese; que noeotros oyiramoe^ or oyiw- 
mot; que weotros oy&rais, or oyiaeie; 
que eUos oyeran, or oyesen.— The sec- 
ond future Is : Yo oyercy ti&. oyeres, H 
oyere, noeotroe oyiremos, voeotros eye- 
rate, eUoe oyeren. 

Old, antiguo, viejo. — Antigruo 
means, of long standing, ancient; 
while viedo answers more particu* 
larly to old in years, worn out, or 
tUeayed, 14L 

Oler, to smelL— Irr. v.— Present 
part Oliendo.— Vaat part. (Hido.— 
Indie, mood^ pres. tense: Yo huelo, 
ta hueles, il huele nosotros oUmos, vo- 
eotros oleie, eUos Atceton.— Imperfect : 
Yo olio, tu olios, il olia, nosotros olio- 
mos, vosotros oliais, eUos o^ian.— Fast 
tense definite : lo oli, tA oliste, U olid, 
nosotros olimos, vosotros olisteis, ellos 
cU6r<m. — Future: Yo cierd, tH olerds, 
& olerd, nosotros oler&mos, vosotros dU' 
riis, eUos <derdn.— Conditional mood : 
Yo oUria, tit. olerias, H oleria, nosotros 
oleriamos, vos(^ros oleriais, ellos ole- 
rian. — Imperative mood : Huele, oled. 
— Subjunct. mood, pres. tense: Que 
yo huela, que t& Kudos, que 41 huelo, 
que fiMotros olainos, que vosotros 
olais, que eUos Aue^an.— Subjunctive 
past: Que yo oliera, or oliese; que t& 
olieras, or dieses: que ^ oliera, or 
oliese; que nosotros oliiramos, or oHise- 
mos ; que vosotros olUrais, or oliiseis; 
que ellos olieran, or olieseiu—The sec- 
ond future is : Yo oliere, td olieres, & 
oliere, nosotros oli6remos, vosotros diii- 
reis, eUos olieren. 

Onb is translated by uno before a 
word masculine, and by una before 
a word fem. The numeral uno, una, 
should not be confounded with the 
indef. art. un, xma, which see, 6, 80. 

Omlt, solo, solamente. 

Open, to, abrir, has an irregular 
past participle, abierto, 168. 

Oppose, to, oponer, is conjugated 
like poner, 197. 

Opposite op, or in front op, en 
/rente de, 178. 

Oe, 6, 215. — Before words begin- 
ning with an Of it is translated by -d. 

Or.— Words ending with or are 
generally alike, or nearly so, in both 
languages, 179. 

Ordain, to, ordenar, p. 145. 

Order, to, ordenar, p. 146. 

Order, drden.— This word is mai^ 
culine when it meaniT place or eon^ 
mand, but feminine when it meant 
rank, class, or fraternity, 172. 

Oso.— Words ending with 080 i9 
Spanish, generally end with ous i^ 
English, with little or no other diflep 
ence of orthography, 159. 

Other, otro. 

Otherwise, otraniente, 178. 

Ought, to, deber,— To, before a* 
infinitive, is left out after deber, 106^ 

Our, nuestro.— Its feminine li 
nuestra; its pi. nlasc., nuestros) 
and its plur. fem., nuestras, 82. 

Ours, ol nuestro, 194. See, also^ 
Pronouns, possessive. 

Ous.— Words ending with ous iq 
English generally end with oso in 
Spanish, with little or no other dit 
ference of orthography, 159. 

Outside, afuera, 178. 

Over, solve, 183. 

Owe, to, defter, 114. 

P is pronounced in Spanish as in 
English. See Introd. Lesson, p. vii 

Paerar6, note, p. 44. 

Page, paje, 196. 

Para.— For model sentences il- 
lustrating the most important uses 
of this preposition, see 276. 

Part, jporte, is fem. by exception, 
p. 183. 

Participate, to, portidpar, 319. 

Participle.— The past participle, 
when used by itself, or with the 
auxiliary TO re, agrees, like the adj., 
in number and gender with the noun 
to which it relates; but when joined 
to the verb TO have, it is generally 
invariable, 79. 

The past participle, used as an ad- 
jective, is generally followed by the 
preposition de, 146. 

All verbs ending with ar in the 
infinitive end with ando in the 
present participle; and those ending 
with er and ir, end with iendo, 208. 

All verbs ending with ar in the 
infinitive, end with ado in the past 
participle ; and those ending with er 
and ir, end with ido, 210. 

Some verbs have a second present 
participle in Spanish, ending with 
ante for the first conjugation, and 
with ente for the second and third. 
But this form can be used only as 

UrttmoB, l^rais, ieran, 27S. 

kddsd to (be root of tbe veTb, aiid 
Uke the place of Uib sndlnm of the 
inflnltlre, aTi er, dud ir, 270, 

Ai the use at tlie aulifUDctlve past, 
butead of the condltlooal, is auDie- 
whit ubllgatAry. anil BiwayB allnw- 
it Impurtaiil 

e *8B. 

Foder, t , . 

Fodrlr, to rot— Irr. v.— FreaBDl 
put. Fvdriendo.— Patt part. PodrMt, 
^IndloatlTe mood, prea. tense: ytf 
p«dro, t-& pudres, H pudre, i 
podrimae, vaotnn padrit. tllai puann. 
— Imperlect: Yo podria. tA pndtiat, 
S podria, Tuuolriw podrlanuw, mwotni 
' iaU, eflix podWan.— Fait tanaa 
lite ; Yo podH, M. podriMe, S pH- 
drtd, tumitroi padTimai, tnaritrol pc- 
drlsleie, tUui pudriiTOTt.— Futura : Ya 
r/i, la liodrirdi, S podrird, natit- 
podririmoi, ■natBtrot podrirUt, 
elloa podrirdn. — Caodltioiul mnod : 
" podtiria, ti. padririai, a pedrkin, 
nogotrvr podrirlamot, 
Tlaii, eHoi podrtrian.— Imper. 
PudTi, podrid.— BubfunodTB 
present tensB : Qne yo p 
ptiiras, qui ft padra, qui B 



foff, or pudrietes: qtte A pudriera, or 
pudriete; que nowtns pudrUramos^ 
or pudriiiemoa; que vototros pudriS- 
rttSe, or pudriieeie; que eUos pudrie- 
ran, or pudrieeen,— The 2d future is: 
Yo pudriere, t& pudrieres, & pudriere, 
vowtroe pudriSremos, vosotroa pudrU- 
mi», «Xlo8 pudrieren. 

Poner» to pat^ p. 162. 

Populate, to, pobkbr^ p. 223. 

Por.— This preposition, corre- 
sponding to pro and per in Latin, 
answers in turn to per, by, through, 
and /or, 157.— Sometimes it is an 
adverb, meaning however. 

Few words are used with greater 
latitude tiian por in Spanish. It has 
to be translated sometimes by in order 
to, as, from, etc. ; it enters, moreover, 
into the formation of a number of 
idiomatic expressions, in which its 
original meaning seems to disappear 
entirely. The model sentences which 
will best illustrate its several uses 
will be found in Obs. 286, p. 209. 

Possessive.— There are two ways 
of expressing the possessive in Eng- 
lish— TA6 brother of my f<Uher, and 
My fathefa brother. In Spanish there 
is but one — The brother of my father; 
and '« has always to be replaced by 
OF, according to this model, 15.— See, 
also, 34, and Of. 

Praise, to, aJMnir, p. 186. 

Pbefeb, to, prtferir, is conjugated 
like aentt'r, p. 116. 

Pbbjudiob, to, preocupar, p. 222. 

Pbepositions.— For the principal 
prepositions, see list, 183. 

All prepositions must be followed 
by the infinitive in Spanish, 78. 

Few things are more troublesome 
in Spanish than the proper use of the 
prepositions. Observation and dili- 
gent reference to the dictionary are 
the only guides that can be offered. 
For examples illustrative of their 
more prominent features in this re- 
si>ectk see Rules 122, 157, 166, 208. 

Present tense, Indioative mood. 
—Its regular terminations are, for the 
verbs in ax: 

o, as, a, amos, ais, an; 
for the verbs in er ; 

o, es, e, exnos, eis» en ; 
and for the verbs in ir; 

o, es, e« izaos, is, en. 
These terminations are added to the 

root of the verb, and take the idace of 
the endings of the infinitive, ar, ert 
and ir, 223. 

Present tense, Subjunotivb moodu 
— Its regular terminations are, for the 
verbs in ar: 

e, es, e, emos, eis, en; 
and for the verbs in er and ir : 
a, as, a, amos, ais, an. 
These terminations are added to the 
root of the verb, and take the place 
of the endings of the infinitive^ aTf 
er, and ir, 287. 

Presents his compliments, B.L.M., 
an abbreviation of Besa ku manog; 
literally, Kieaee the hands, is an ex- 
pression of politeness which corre- 
sponds to presents his compliments, 
in English, 805. 

Preserve, to, eonservar, eonservarse, 
181 ; adobar, p. 273. 

Pretend, to, pretender, p. 212. 

Prevail, to, prevaier, goes like 
vdler, p. 270. 

Procure, to, propordoner, p. 78. 

Produce, to, produdr, is conja* 
gated like tradueir, p. 184. 

Pronominal form of verbs.- This 
form is much more frequently used 
in Spanish than in English; and 
verbs which should be passive ac- 
cording to the senses often take the 
pronom. form in Spanish, 9, 129, 180. 
— Model of the pronom. form of conj. 
lavarse, to wash one's self, p. 88. 

Pronouns, personal.— The per- 
sonal pronouns are, for the nomina- 
tive case: Yo, /; tii, thou; 61, he, U; 
ella, she, it; nosotros* nosotras, 
we; vosotros, vosotras, you; and 
ellos, ellaSf diey, 152. 

For the objective case: Me» me, 
or to me; te, thee, or to thee; le, him, 
or to him; la, her, or to her; nos, us, 
or to us; vos, you, or to you; los, 
las, t?iem; and les* to them:— vmless 
Joined to a preposition which has to 
be expressed in Spanish, when these 
pronouns are translated as follows : 

Me by nii, except in conmigro, 
with me; thee by ti, except in oon- 
tis^>, with thee; him by ^1, except in 
consiflTOf with him; her by ella, 
except in consiffo, with her; us by 
nosotros, nosotoeuB; tou by vo- 
sotros, vosotras; and them by 
ellost ellas, except in consiyoi 
with them, p. 107* 



In the pronominal form, se is used 
for himself, hene{f, themselves; to himr 
self, to herself, to themselves, 180, 152. 

The objective pronouns, me, him,, 
her, us, you, them, etc., are placed 
before the verb in Spanish, except 
in imperative affirmative sentences, 
or if the verb is in the infinitive or 
in the participle present. — The pro- 
noun, when placed after the verb, is 
merged into one word with it, 17. — 
Fot the position of the objective pro- 
nouns, see 101. 

To avoid the coming together of 
le le, le la, le lo, le los, le las, or le les, 
on account of euphony only, to him, 
to Tier, to it, or to them, when Joined 
to Atm, her, it, or them, is translated 
indiscriminately by se, which is of 
both genders and numbers, adding 
d 61, 6. ella, 6. ello, & ellos, or 
6. ellas, whenever clearness requires 
It, 164. — When two or more pro- 
nouns follow each other in a sentence, 
me, te, se, nos, os, are always 
ttlaced before le, la, los, las, 153. 

The verb having a particular end- 
ing for each person in Spanish, the 
subject pronouns /, thou, he, etc., are 
generally suppressed, 13. — Contrary 
to this rule, they are expressed for 
the sake of emphasis, when in Eng- 
lish they would be underlined or 
printed in italics, 18.— V., pro- 
nounced v,8t€d, is an abbreviation of 
the now obsolete expression, Vues- 
tra xnerced, your honor. Its plural 
is Vs., pronounced ustedes, which 
corresponds to your honors, — In 
Spanish, the third person of the verb 
Joined to V. is used instead of the 
second, for the sake of politeness, 
Just as YOU is introduced in English ; 
but care must be had to use the third 
person sing, together with V. when 
addressing a single person, and the 
third person plural together with Vs. 
when speaking to more than one, 7.— 
Some writers prefer Vm. to V., and 
Vms. to Vs. ; both are correct, 8. 

The Possessive Pronouns are : 

el xnio, la xnia> 
los xnios, las mias, 

eltuyo, latuya, ^^^^.^^ 
los tuyos, las tuyas, 5 

el suyo, la suya, •% his, hers, 
I019 BuyoBf las suyasj 5 iis^ theirs. 


el nuestro, la nuestra, >^^» 
losnuestrosy lasnuestras, > 

el vuestro, la vuestra, ) 
los vuestros, las!^. }<'<^ 

These pronouns, like their corre- 
sponding adjectives, agree in gender 
and number with the object possess- 
ed, and not with the possessor, 192, 
193, 194 ; see, also, 57, 68.— El suyo, 
and its several forms, corresponding 
in turn to his, hers, its, theirs, and 
even to yours (see Rule 7) ; it is often 
necessary to add after itdeSl,de ella, 
de eUos, de eUas, de V., or de Vs., to 
indicate more clearly in what particu- 
lar sense it is used, 196. 

Pronouns, demonstrativb.— This 
or THAT is translated by este before 
a word masculine, and by esta be- 
fore a word fem., 2 ;— these or those 
by estos for the masculine, and by 
estas for the feminine, 64.— Used in 
turn as demonstrative adjectives and 
as pronouns, they invariably agree in 
gender and number with the object 
pointed out.— When it is desirable to 
indicate more particularly the prox- 
imity or remoteness of the persons or 
things spoken of, este, esta, are 
used for this; estos, estas, for 
these; aquel, aquella, for that; 
and aqueUos, aquellas, for those. 
—Aquel is used before a word mas- 
culine sing., and aquella before a 
word fem. sing. ; aquellos before a 
word masc. plural, and aquellas, be- 
fore a word feminine plural, 14, 66. — 
Esto and aquello are used instead 
of este and aquel before an adjec- 
tive, when the noun to which that 
adjective refers is not expressed ; as 
in Lo sublime, the sublime. This is 
what is commonly called the neuter 
gender in Spanish.— See note t, at 
the bottom of page 4, and Obs. 170. 
— Ese, esa, eso, is sometimes used 
instead of este, esta, esto; but 
ese is properly to be applied only to 
objects near the person spoken to, or 
which happen to be the immediate 
subject of conversation. In familiar 
intercourse, however, it is often used 
indifferently for este and aqueL 
Its feminine is esa; its plur. masc., 
esos ; and its plur. fem., esa4S, 277. 

Pronouns, interrogative and rel- 
ative.- Who, whom, which, what, 
are sometimes interro^tive and 



lometimea reUtive. When iDterroga- 
tive, they are generally placed at the 
beginning or at the end of the sen- 
tence; bat when relative, they are 
never so placed, 103.— Whioh is 
translated by oual, as an interroga* 
tive, and by que, as a relative; but 
OF WHICH and to whioh are generally 
rendered by del cual and al oual. 
—Que does not change, bat cual 
agrees in gender and number with 
the word to which it refers. Its fern, 
singular is like the mascaline (see 
Bole 22X Its plaral for both genders 
is cuales (see Rale 23X 104.— What 
is tran^ated by que as an interroga- 
tive, and by lo que when it can be 
replaced by that which, or the thing 
which, withoat materially affecting 
the meaning of the sentence (see 
Bale 10), 108.— Who and whom are 
translated by quien as an interroga- 
tive, and by que as a relative (see 
Bale 103); bat when preceded by a 
prei>osition, whom is generally trans- 
lated by quien or oual^ for the 
■ingalar, and by quienes or cuales, 
for the plural, 127.— Cuyo is another 
equivalent of whose; bat it differs 
from de quien and del cual, al- 
ready seen, inasmuch as it cannot be 
used without a noun, and that it 
agrees in gender and numb^ with 
the word before which it is placed. 
Its feminine singular is cuya; its 
plaral masc., cuyos; and its plaral 
fem., cuyas.— Cuyo is, however, 
less used as an interrogative than as 
a relative; and whose, at the b^in- 
ning of a sentence, is most often 
translated by de quien, 199. 

Pronouns, indefinite.— Some or 
ANT is translated by algruno, for the 
masc. sing.; by alfiruna, for the fem. 
sing.; by al^unos, for the masc. 
plur.; and by algrunas* for the fem. 
plaral. Alfirun is used instead of 
alffuno before a noun, 12.— Nobody, 
NONE, or NO, is translated by nin- 
Sruno, for the masculine singular; 
by niniruna, for the fem. singular; 
by ninflrunos, for the masc. plural; 
and by ningunas, for the feminine 
pluraL NinfiTun is used instead of 
ninguno before a noun, 198.— Cual- 
quler means literally, whoever, what' 
ever, or any one. A compound of 
(Bufiil and quier, it agrees in gender 
imd number with the noun to which 

it refers. Its fem. singular is cual 
qidera; its masc. plural, cuales 
quier; and its fem. plural, cuales 
quiera, 86. 

Pues, for, because, 216. 

Pull down, to^ arranear, p. 16S. 

PUNCTUATION.— All the punctua- 
tion marks are the same in Spanidi 
as in English, with the exception that 
inverted signs of exclamation and 
interrelation are placed before each 
sentence. — See note t, on p. 2. 

PUT, TO, meter, poner, p. 162. 

Q is never used without u* The 
u is, however, always silent, and the 
q sounded like k. — See Introductory 
Lesson, p. viL 

Que, which, what, whom. — See 
Pronouns, relative and interroga- 

Querer, to wish, p. 200. 

Quickly, pronto, ITB. 

Quien, who, whom.— See Pro- 
nouns, relative and interrogatiyb. 

Quit, to, d^r, p. 108. 

Quite, enteramente, 178. 

B is sounded in Spanish as in 
English. See Introd. Lesson, p. viL 

Bace, ffente, fem. by exc, p. 256. 

Bain, to, Uover, is conjugated like 
mover, 137. 

Bead, to, leer, 114. 

Beceiye, to, reeibir, 140. 

Becently, reeien, is used instead of 
redentemente before a participle, 286. 

Beoommend, to, recomendar, p. 82. 

Becommendation, recomendacion, 

Befer, to, referir, p. 294, is conju- 
gated like senfir,- 168. 

Beflegtiye.— The reflective form 
of conjugation is much more fre- 
quently used in Spanish than in 
English; and verbs which should be 
passive according to the senses often 
take the reflective form in Spanish, 9. 

Beoion, paie, 119. 

Reir, to laugh.— Irr. v.— Present 
part Riendo, or riyendo.—T&st part. 
i2ei(2o.— Indicative mood, pres. tense: 
Yo Ho, tu ries, 61 rie, nosotroa reimoe, 
vosotros reis, ellos rien. — Imperfect: 
Yo reia, tu reias, d reia, noeotros reia» 
mo8, vosotros relais, ellos r«t'an.— Past 
tense definite : Yo rei, ta reiste, 41 rid, 
or riyd, nosotros reiims, vosotros rett' 
teis, eUos ri^on, or riytfron.— Fqturo: 

Tn TcM, U minit S nird, nami 
reirimoa^ voaotroa tvir^ ellos retr 
— CondltloDil mood: Fo Ttiria, 

penUvB mood: Bii, re 
mood, pre*. Unia: Que 
riiU, que A ria, qae n 

I tmuBlsted b; lo a6, becHi 

Relatb, to, o 

Uke mratrar. 1ST : 

Relatiyh Set 

Kehain, to, qui 
oil foot^ qjudar d 

In Spsnbh, SO. 

SaliT, to go out, p. 211. 

SALUtATioiis.— The Balutatli 
morninj, Good itay, uid Good 

used In the plural In ipmUti, 

lated by mlmio, he- 
iscnllne singular: hy 

scofr, la coujizgeted 

•ntar, It coDjagBted 
relalar, p. 203. 

Repbnt, TOi arrtpenlirae, p. 2*5. 

BJIBUm, TO, retidir, vivir, 131 ; mo- 
rar, p. «66. 

BisrSoiiNiii, Tetpecio de, 202, 

Bespeoto, resiKcrjnii, Is gouenlly 
followed bj tha prepoBltlon de, 202 ; 

compared lo, in ctrnparUsn wiih, 240. 

Saflor, Befiora.— ChrlBtinn nimet 
ore geuerHll]' preceded by DoD in- 
stead o( SeOor. and by DoOa, In. 
etesd Dt Sefiora or BeCoiita, 
though both m»y be introduced at 
the same tEme with eqiud propriety, 



Separate, to. Hpatar. 

Ser, to be, le nsed ■ 

son or thing spoken o 


idiomatic elpresElona ; the most im- 
portant of which arc ; Egtar demos, 
or fular por demat, to be one Uio 
many, to be Bttperfluoas ; iJcnHU dt 
ate, beeidee this, 299. 

Retail, por nwnor, p, 4b. 

SETRAirr, TO, desdeeirae, 205. 

BTOB, TO, (on horjeback). o.adar d 
catalla ; (in a ooach), ff '" hkA*. 

RiQBT, TO BE, leTier rofon, T2. 

Ripen, to, sazonar, p 137. 

RISI^ TO, levantarie. OB. 

BiyAL, to, HBolizar, l> conjugated 
like Tvehaxar. 1ST, 


be introduced when a change may 
itiably be expeeUd, or that (he 
TO BK enn be replaced by to Mawl 
I lay. In KnglUh, without mate- 
rially aSecling the meaning of the 
seTitence. Ber la, moreover, gener- 
ally added to the participle paal, and 
«star to the participle present, 28, 
Sea PENT, terpiente, p, 66. 
Serve, To, lervir, 124, ia conju- 
gated like atgulr, 164. 

Berrlraa ia »n idiomatic eiprefc 
eiou which carreBponds to please In 
EngllBh, It ehould, however, not be 
■ junded with Aaiwine V. el /aror, 
lined In Rule SO. SmirK can 
be iiBCd when tbe thing deaired 
. polltcneaa to the peraou ad- 
dressed, SO, 



SiTTlNa or THi STTV, d p&nUnte, 

Sbybral Is translated by vario* 
or alflroBOS before a word masculine, 
and by varias or alflrona* before a 
word fembiine. 

Shall.— There is no exact equiva- 
lent to this word in Spanish, the idea 
of futurity being expressed invari- 
ably by the terminations peculiar to 
the FUTURB TENSE ; which see. 

Sharp.— The sharp edge of a knife, 
$1 corte de un cuehittOj 172. 

She, ella.~See Pronouns, per- 

Shine, to, hieir, p. 135. 

Ship, nave, fern, by exc, p. 166. 

Should. — There is no exact equiv- 
alent to this word in Spanish; and 
the idea expressed by it is generally 
rendered by the terminations of the 
Conditional mood or Subjunotiyb 
PAST ; which see. 

Show, to, mostrar^ 137. 

SlONALiZB, TO, sefUOar, p. 164. 

SiQNAfURES of letters.— S.S.S., an 
abbreviation of 8u seguro servidor— 
literally, your true tervant — iB an ex- 
pression of politeness, which corre- 
sponds in English to your obedient 
tervant, yours truly, or yours respect- 
fully, 308.— ^S. U. B. stands tor 
que SU8 manos besa, who kisses your 
hands. This abbreviation is found 
at the end of almost all Spanish let- 
ters, 309. 

SiLBNOE, TO, aeaUar, p. 164. 

SiMPLloiTT, seneUlez, fern, by ex- 
ception, p. 201. 

Since, despues, 178 ; desde, 183 ; pues, 

Sit down, to, tentarse, is conjugated 
like quebrar, 138. 

Sleep, to, dormir, 101. 

Sleepy, to be, tener sueflo, 72. 

Slowlt, lentemente, 178. 

Shall, ehico, pequeflo; its compara- 
tive is menor, and its superlative el 
or la menor, 209. 

So, ton, sometimes lo, 97. 

Soberbio oon su fortuna, proud 
of his wealth. 

Solve, to, solver, is conjugated like 
mover, 137. 

Some, alruno, alflruna, alruno*, 
alrunas* 12; uno* una, unos, 
Unas* 204. 

SoMEBODT, alfiriiien.— See, also^ 

SoMBTHIKO, alguna eota, 

sometimes, o^runflw VMM. 

Soon, pronto, 178. 

Soul, idma, 186. 

Speak, to, haUar, p. 61. 

Spite of, in, nn embargo de, 216. 

State, pais, 119. 

S|TEAL, TO, dsdizar, is conjugated 
like reclMzar, 187. 

Still, aun, 17& 

Straiohtness, estreehez, p. 183. 

Straits, estreeho, 134. 

Street, eatte, feminine by exception, 
p. 17. 

Stbetoi^ to^ tender, is conjugated 
like perder, 138. 

Study, to, estudiar, 99. 

Subjunctive mood.— Formation of 
the present tense, 237; of the past 
tense, 278, 279, 280; second form of 
the past tense,' 281, 282, 283. The 
subjunctive form is always used in- 
stead of the imperative in all nega- 
tive sentences, 229. 

Submit, to, someter, p. 212. 

Substantive.— See Noun. 

Subtract, to, suUraer, 288. 

SUOOEED, to (in knowing), Uegar d 
saber, 201. _^ 

Such a one, Fulano, 75, 312. 

Suddenly, subUamente, 178. 

Superlative.— The degrees of com- 
parison are generally formed by 
placing before the adjective one of 
the following words : Tan, as; mas, 
more, inost ; mtooa, less, least; muy, 
very; bastante, enough, tolerably, 
etc., 52.— The superlative absolute is 
also formed by adding the following 
endings to the positive: isimo for 
adjectives, and isimamente for 
adverbs. The termination Isixoo 
changes to iBix^a, for the feminine 
singular; to isimos, for the plnral 
masculine; and to iaimas, for the 
feminine plural : but isimamente 
is, of course, invariable. In forming 
these superlatives, care should be 
had that words ending with a vowel 
drop their final letter before these 
inflections, and that those ending 
with ble, oo, and go, change these 
syllables into bil, q.u, and gru.— 
Ex. : FdcU, fadHsim^o, faeilisimamente. 
Hermoso, hermosisimo, hermosisima- 
mente. Noble, nobilisima, nobUisima* 
m£nte. Rieo, riquisimo, riquisima* 
msnte. Largo, larguisimo, larguiti- 
mamentCf 206. See, also^ 161 and 209, 

Sdffos^ fo, lupaner, 1B7. 
ScRPiSB, TO, (oorepniar, p 

Tbaph, to, oimBar, p. 81 
Tell, to, decir, p, SUl. 

tanies of bU >ei 
lir, are formed 

to have; 


TaAS is truiBlaUd i 
que and aoraetlmei by da, s 
often CroubleBOtne (o mnke a 

in which this word 1b Io 
mnat ha OBed whenovor thi 
be repeated after than w 
teriaJlf affecting the mean 

ytm pUaKf Id Spanlah, 
to ha e^THflad by 

of tH 

andir Yi 

Is no literal 

md both have 

miehiu granof, 

ilona of polfte- 
neu: Hafame V- el fiiivor. Do 

me the favor; or, Ten^a V, la bon- 
dad, Bax the goodnets, 30. 

That.— The conjuuclton (j,uH, (Ant,' 
In aeldom anppreeaed In Spanlsli, and 
It ma; nfely be introdaced whaneTec 
It can be added in Engliah without 
niatarlally aflecttog the mpiiilng of 
the ■entence.—Ex, \ 

Diffale que vftiga^ Telt him to come ; 


Tell him tbit he mny eome. !3e. 

That. pion. demonetrallve 

THAW, to, di»helar. It a 

like qurbrar, 1S8, 

Tbe, <^, fa, let. Cat. Iv ; ice Article, 

THB MOM. . . TFR MORt-When two 

■iQirasdoDi in tbe comparatlie are 

ha Biat mait U^^^H 
, and Ihc aecoi^^^H 

Tubs, enttmcee, 17H, 
Tbers, oltil, aiti, 178. 
THBRHFtiHE, jur lanta, 21 
TUKua TO BE, kab*T. 1S0. 
Thes^ BBtoa, 

Tbet, elloB, 

TKla, pron. demonstrative, ert^ 
eata, 2: or, ess. eaa.— Baa U ap-' 
plied only to objecta near the penon 
Apoten lo, or wbich happen (o bs 
the immediate subject ol eoiiversa. 
tion; hut In familiar luitircooTBe It li 
oftau used indifferently fur ssta aud 
aquel, 27T. 

Tbose, aQuelloa, aquallac, 00. 

Tbou [■ translated by tA, and 

TBIE, TO THEE, ur TQIBELF, by ta.— 

TtS, (A™, has an accent over tha «, 
to aisMngalah it from tn, thj/, ISO.— 
The second peraou singular la more 
used lu Spanish than In Bnf^ldi ; 
but as it is applicable only In tamtllu' 
very luUmaU 


IS, it V 

intll a 

lUlflelent faoQity In 

general speaking Hhall hare b 
quired. IM. 

TURKS, mil quiRitatoi y tra.— Tlw 
Spaniards never say, /fteen htmdnd. 

Tby Is translateil by tu betore • 
word singular, and by tna, before a 
word plural, M3, IM. Ul, 106. 



Till, hatta, 19B, 

Time, vez, should not be confonnd- 
ed with tianpo, time, which inyaria- 
bly implies duration ; vez refers rather 
to repetition, p. 61. 

Titles are preceded by the article 
THE, in emphatic or ceremonious lan- 
guage, 76. — Christian names are gen- 
erally preceded by Don, instead of 
Sefior; and by Dofia, instead of 
Sefiora or Se&orita: though both 
may be introduced at the same time 
with equal propriety, 117, 906.— In 
letters, the title of the person or per- 
sons addressed is generally preceded 
by the article THE at the beginning 
of a letter, 318. 

To, when used in the sense of in 
order to, has to be translated by para, 
38.— To, before an infinitive, is trans- 
lated sometimes by &, sometimes by 
det and sometimes it is left out, 166.— 
See, also, A. 

Toast, to, togtar, p. 245. 

TOBACOO means tabaco; but the 
plural, tabaeos, is applied chiefly to 
cigars, the Spanish word dgarro or 
dgarriUo being confined to paper 
cigara, at least in Cuba, 120. 

To-day, Aoy, 178. 

To-MORROW, mafUma, 178. 

Too, dematiado, 106. 

Towards, haeia, 183. 

Tower, tome, fenu by exc, p. 268. 

Traer, to fetch, p. 252. 

Trasslate, to, tradudr, 175. 

Try, to, eruayar, 166. 

Turn away, to, apartar, p. 233. 

Ty.— A great many words' ending 
in English with ty, end in Spanish with 
dad, 156. 

XT is sounded as oo in the English 
word good. It is silent after g and q. 
See Introductory Lesson, p. vii. 

lit or. — TJ is used instead of 6, 
before words beginning with an o. 

Un, uno, una, one, a, or an. — See 
Irtiglb, and Adjectives, numeral. 

Uncle, tio, 214. 

Undertake, to, emprender, p. 192. 

Undo, to, deshacer, 174. 

Unite, to, unir, p. 80 ; unirae, 13L 

Unless, d m^nos que, 215. 

Uno8, nnas, is often used instead 
of alffunos, al^unas, for some or 
mny, 204. 

Until, Juuta, 183. 

VFOVf 9obre, en, fSQt , _^ 

Ui^ and to us, Is translated by nos: 
but after eSt it is; que, than; ana 
oomo, as, to us has generally to be 
translated by 6, nosotros, 128. 

Use, to, usar, 99. 

XTsted.— See V. 

V is sounded in Spanish as In 
English. See Introductory |Le«8on, p. 

v., pronounced tisted, is an abbre- 
viation of the now obsolete expres- 
sion, Vuestra meroed, your honor 
or your grace. Its plural is Vs., pro- 
nounced Hgtedes, which corresponds 
to your honors. In Spanish, the third 
person Joined to V. is used instead of 
the second, for the sake of politeness, 
just as YOU is introduced in English : 
but care must be had to use the third 
person sing, together with V. when 
addressing a single person, and the 
third person plural together with Vs. 
when speaking to more than one, 7. — 
Some writers prefer Vm. o r Vd . to 
v., and Vms., Vds., or W., to 
Vs. ; all are correct* 8. 

Vain, to make, envaneeer, p. 202. 

Valer, to be worth, irr. verb.— 
Pres. part FoZtencIo.— Fast part Va- 
2»cIo.— Indicative mood, pres. tense: 
Yo valgo, t& vales, il vale, nosotros 
vaiemos, vosotros voids, eUos valen.— 
Imperfect : Yo valia, tH valias, il vdlia, 
nosotros vdiiamos, vosotros valiais, 
eUos vo/ian.— Past tense definite: Yo 
vali, t& valiste, H valio, nosotros vali- 
mos, vosotros valieteis, dlos valieron. — 
Future: Yo valdri, td vaidrds, il vol- 
drd, nowtros valdr&mos, vosotros vol- 
drHs, eUos valdrdn.— Condit. mood: 
Yo vdldria, tA valdrias, H valdria, 
nosotros valdriamos, vosotros vaidriais, 
eUos voJdrMm.— Imper. mood: VaU, 
valed.— Subjunct mood, i^es. tense: 
Que yo valga, que tA valgas, que il 
Volga, que nosotros valgamos, que voso- 
tros valgais, que eUos voZ^an.— Subj. 
past: Q^e yo valiera, or valiese; que 
tu valiereu, or valieses; que 41 valiera, 
or valiese; que nosotros vali^ramos, or 
valUsemos; que vosotros valUrais, or 
valiSseis; que eUos volieran, or valiesen. 
—The second future Is: To valiere, 
ta, valieres, il valiere, nosotros valiire' 
mos, vosotros valUreis, Mos vatieren. 

Valor, valor, 179. 

Variado de eohres, varied in 



Venir, to come ; its conjugation, p. 

Ver, to see, p. 180. 

Vbbbs.— Haben to have; its con- 
jugation, p. 24.— Haber enters into 
the composition of the compound 
tenses of all verbs, regular and irr^- 
ular, 46 ; it is also joined to verbs in 
the inflnitiye, and forms with them 
a particular idiomatic locution, ex- 
pressive of du^ or neeesgity. It is 
then invariably followed by Uie prep. 
de, 46.— Tener, to have; its conju- 
gation, 00. The compound tenses of 
tener. as of all other verbs, are 
formea with haber, 61.— Ser, to be ; 
its conjugation, p. 43.— Estar, to be ; 
its conjugation, p. 52.— Use of ser 
and e«tar, 26.— The verbs having a 
particular ending for each person in 
Spanish, the subject pronouns, J, 
thou, he, etc., are generally suppress- 
ed, 13. — Contrary to this rule, the 
subject pronouns are expressed in 
Spanish for the sake of emphasis, 
when in English they would be under- 
lined or printed in Ualie, 18. 

All Spanish verbs end in the infini- 
tive with ar, er, or ix. Those end- 
ing with ar are said to be of the first 
conjugation; those ending with er 
are of the second ; and ^ose ending 
with ir, of the third, 98.— Model of 
the first ccnj. hablar, to speak, p. 61. 

— Model of the second conjugation, 
vender, to sell, p. 71.— Model of the 
third conjugation, iinir, to unite, p. 80. 

— List of the regular verbs of the first 
conjugation which have occurred in 
the text up to the eighth lesson, 99.— 
Verbs of the first conjugation may be 
formed from almost all the substan- 
tives ending with acion, by changing 
this termination into ar, 121. — List 
of the regular verbs of the second 
conjugation which have occurred in 
the text up to the ninth lesson, 114.— 
List of the regular verbs of the third 
conjugation which have occurred in 
the text up to the tenth lesson, 124.— 
The Pronominal form is much more 
frequently used in Spanish than in 
English; and verbs which should be 
passive according to the sense, often 
take the pronominal form in Spanish, 
9, 129. — Model of the pronominal form 
of conjug., lavarse, to wash one's 
self, p. 88.— Almost all transitive 
v&rbs m&y be conjugated pronomi- 

nally, 131.— lMPEBS<»rAL terbs are 
generally used only in the third per- 
son singular, and without any pro- 
noun, 136.— Model of conjug. for the 
impersonal verbs, relampaffueary to 
lighten, p. 96. 

Verbs, ibbbgulas.— Many verba 
ending with ar, and some ending 
with er, in the infinitive, whose ter- 
mination is preceded by a syllable 
containing an o, change this o into lui 
in the first, second, and third person 
singular, and third person plural of 
the present tense of the indicative^ 
subjunctive, and imperative, 187. See 
model verbs, moetrar, to show, and 
mover, to move, p. 97.— The prin- 
cipal verbs conjugated thus are the 
following : 


to absolve. 


to agree. 


to lay down. 


to breakfast. 


to bet. 




to strain. 

Colgar 2,* 

to hang. 


to console. 


to count. 


to cost 


to demonstrate, 


to dissolve. 


to ache. 


to meet 


to string. 


to engross. 


to force. 

Hcigar 2,* 

to rest. 


to crash. 


to rain. 


to grind. 


to bite. 


to show. 


to move. 


to people. 


to prove. 


to remind. 


to lie down. 


to renew. 


to compensate. 


to breathe. 



Rogar 2,* 

to entreat 


to solder. 

* Some verbs have other irregularities 
besides these ; they are marked through- 
out the lists with a 2 attached to them, as 
h()lgar,to rest, which follows also Rule 180. 






Torcer 2,* 


Trocar 2,* 



Vohar 2* 


to dream, 
to twist, 
to toast, 
to barter, 
to thunder, 

to overtom. 
to return. 

Many verbs ending with ar^ and 
some ending with er, in the infini- 
tive, whose termination is preceded 
by a syllable containing an e, take 
an i before that e in the firsts second, 
and third person singular, and third 
person plural, of the present tense 
of the indicative, subjunctive, and 
imperative, 138.— See model verbs, 
quebrar, to break, and perder, 
to lose, p. 98.— The principal verbs 
conjugated thus are the following : 


















Comemar 2* 

















to ascertain. 

to increase. 

to render skilful. 

to animate. 

to feed. 

to squeeze. 

to hire. 

to ascend. 

to attend. 

to throw down. 

to stuff. 

to cross. 

to winnow. 

to warm. 

to blind. 

to sift 

to shut 

to commence. 

to agree. 

to condescend. 

to confess. 

to contend. 

to defend. 

to neglect 

to descend. 

to awake. 

to banish. 

to pave. 


to kindle. 

to lock up. 

to recommend. 

to understand. 

to bury. 



Fregar 2,* 







Negar 2,* 






Regar 2,* 












to warn, 
to extend, 
to rub. 
to govern, 
to freeze, 
to split 
to shoe, 
to winter, 
to mention, 
to deny, 
to snow, 
to think, 
to lose, 
to break, 
to recommend, 
to watw. 
to burst 
to cut down, 
to sow. 
to set, to fit 
to quiet 
to tremble, 
to stretch out 
to tempt 
to transcend, 
to stumble, 
to pour out 

Verbs ending with oar in the in* 
flnitive, change o into qu before e, 
in order that the root may preserve 
the sound of k throughout their ounju- 
gation, 145. 

Verbs ending with oer and dr 
take a z before o, when followed by 
a or o, to preserve to their root the 
soft sound of o throughout their conju- 
gation, 147. 

Verbs ending with ir in the in- 
finitive, whose termination is pre- 
ceded by a tillable containing an e, 
change that e into i, according to the 
model, sefiniir, to follow, on p. Hi. 
It would be well to observe, that 
seffuir has another peculiarity be- 
sides, inasmuch as it loses its u, like 
all verbs ending with aruir, before a 
and o. This suppression is, however, 
common only to the verbs whose ter^ 
mination is gruir, those ending with 
giiir being conjugated like argrtUr* 
which see in Index. 

The following verbs are conjugated 
like ■effoir: 


to gird, 
to collect 

* See note on page 412. 


JMWr, ' tawnosMk 

Tuar', tody* 

YaUr, todnu 

TiM Idlowtng TfltiM sndlBff ^ 
•ntir. ailr, ^ wIlTt an cot 
like BBiiUr, to tML— Sm El in : 





Stqaerir, to require. 

SuffiHr, to «ntee«t 

TVotfertr, to tnuufer. 

Zalierir, to ceniure. 

The (oUowliig Yurba are irregula 
In the put participle onlf, 1«S : 

Atirir, to open ; oKerto. 

Ctiiirir, to coter ; cubierto. 

DacrOiiT, to describe ; detcritn. 

EtcrOir, to write ; aaito. 

Jtnprimir, to print; imgnio. 

Iiiteribir, to inicrlbe ; fc»»<h._ 
l^itoriblr, to preiuribe ; j»»tg lfc 

The foUowliig verb! ba*B a Kad« 
nd in inee- put putloWle. TkM* 

Eeg. pint part. _te«»- 

.^Sgiiffir, adqtiiridn, 

to wqnlre. 
AJIcbman; afieimado, 

to become fond oL 
AJUgir, aJUgido, 

Alerlar, altrtado, 

to reuder ilgiUDt. 

AtxgaHiir, aagatado, 

Aprihender, apretimdido, 

to apprehend. 
ATrepnittm, arrfpealido, 

AaeffWtrr, aft^rado, 

Attrinpir.' aaringido,* 

Atumir,' ataniido,' 

to utter. 


Conipaffim'r, compoffiiwda, t 
Comjwiw, campelidii, 

CoirtpUtar. eamfUlado, tompUl, 

Itj conipleto. 
Comprendw, camprfndidOf etmpnru^ 

to aaderstand. 



Infin. Reg. past part. Irreg. 

C&mprimir, comprimido, eompreto. 

to compress. 
Coneeder^ eoneedida^ etmeeto,* 

to concede. 
Cot^duiTt eonduido, coneltuo, 

to conclude. 
Coneretar, eoneretado, eonereto, 

to concrete or combine. 
Cor^femr, eor\feMdo, eor^feso, 

to confess. 
ConfundiTf cor^fundido, cov^fuso. 

to confound. 
Conttitmr, congtUuido, eoruUUUo.* 

to constitute. 
Contumirse, eontumido, eonnmto, 

to be consumed. 
Cimtener, eontenido, eontento.* 

to contain. 
ConteTUarw, eontentado, eonierUo, 

to content one's self. 
CorUraeTf eontraido, eontracto, 

to contract. 
Controvertir, eontrovertido, controverw.* 

to controvert. 
ContundiTj eonturtdido, eontuso, 

to contuse. 
ConvenceVf convencido, convieto, 

to convince. 
Convertirf convertido, conveno, 

to convert. 
ConwUarae, convtdMdo, conmd8o, 

to be convulsed. 
Corregir^ eofregidOf correcto, 

to correct. 
Corrompeff eorrompido, corrupto, 

to corrupt. 
CorvaVf corvado, corvo. 

to bend. 
Cuadrar, cuadrculo, cuadro, 

to square. 
Cidtivar, cuUivado, eulto, 

to cultivate. 
Dtifender, dt/endido, defedo.* 

to defend. 
Densar, densado, denso, 

to thicken. 
DesecUzar, deacalzado, desealzo. 

to piUl off the shoes and stockings. 
Degertar, desertado, detierto. 

to desert. 
Desnudarf demudcuU}, detnudo. 

to undress. 
Despertart despertado, deapierto. 

to awake. 
DesquUarae, deaquUado^ degquUo.* 

to retaliate. 
Degtruir, dettruido, dettructo* 

to destroy. 

Infin. Reg. past part Irreg. 

DegyuneiTf desyunoido, dMyunto.* 

to unyoke. 
Difundir, difundido, difttto, 

to diffuse. 
Digerir, digerido, diguto.* _ 

to digest. 
Dirigir, dirigido, direeto, 

to direct 
Ditpersar, dispenado, dispeno, 

to disperse. 
DigUngvir, digUnguido, digtinto, 

to distinguish. 
Dividir, dividido, dtvtso. J 

to divide. 4 

JEfundir^ ^ndido, efugo, 

to pour out. J 

Elegir, degido, deeto, 

to elect. 
EmJbriagaTWt embriagado, embriago,* 

to get intoxicated. 
Enhegtar, enJiegtado, enhiegto, 

to raise. 
Enjugar^ enjugada, ei^uta, 

to dry. 
Entregar, erUregado, fmltrego,* 

to deliver. • 

Erigir, erigido, eredo, 

to erect. 
EgduiVt egduido, egdugo. 

to exclude. 
Eicvlpir, egculpido, egcvUo,* 

to sculpture. 
EgperimenJtart egperifnerUado^ egperto, 

to experiment. 
Egpegar, egpegado, egpego, 

to thicken. 
Egpregar^ egpregado, egprego. 

to express. 
Egtender, egtendidOy edengo, 

to extend. 
Edxngvir^ egHnguido, egtinto, 

to extinguish. 
EdraeTf egtraido^ egtrado, 

to extract 
Egtrechar, egtrgehadOf edreeho, 

to tighten. 
EgtrefUVf edrefiidOf egtrido, 

to bind. 
Eximirf eximidOf exento. 

to exempt. v 

FoZtor, fdUadOf fdUo. 

to be wanting. 
Favorecer, favorecidOf favoriUk 

to favor. 
Feehar, fechado, /echo, 

to date. 
Fijar, JijadOf J^o, 

to fix. 

Reg. put put. Img. 

one'i Hit (with wtlDg), 

Jncitrrir, iitntrridii, inatrto. 

InfteUtr, it\ftctado, Ittfido. 

Jnfffiimar, inj^imado, iafeetik 

b) Titlate. 
Inflmdir, ir\funiidii, iitfun. 

Tngerir, ingrrido, ingtrto, 

to Intinduce. 
Jngirtar, mgerlailii, 


Leudar, teudadn, 
Limpiar, Umplada, 

, mnnifea(adOj tiumifletto. 

XarMtoT, marcl 

Onttttr, omitida, omite. 

Oprimtr, oprtnUdo, oprtKL 

PtrftcciimaT, perftccionado, ptrfttlo. 
Ptrmitir, pmnifiilD, pemiia.' 

Prender, pniulido, prtm. 


pTfumir, praumida, prtttmlo. 

PHltnder, prrtindido, prttaat, 

Produeir. produeidn, produeto. 

Pm/aar, profaado, proftK. 

Provter, provtido, - provitto. 

to provide. 

Provtntr, proetnida^ provento." 

Rartfaeer, rarefaeido, rartf^^, 

Tp/r^^'da, TtfrarXo, 

BntringiT, rtttrinsida. 

Salprttar, nHpraait, talprae. 
to Kuon wlUi ult 

SLilor, •Jlado, 

to looUD. 

SitpTiftdr, lupTimiio, 

to luppreM. 
airjif, t^irgido. 

letior t, when placed b 
, . . . owsli, l» Irequmtty o 
Into y In Spanish. Tbla uccni 

le, or io, tlkg In U 

d *hlcli h»e b««E 
lined la Rule 16L 
iibi ending with Ear, chmngB i 

Tba ending vrlth qnir, tliiJigi 

I Dellno*, uid not lieiliiriuat. 

It Important verbs whloh an 
entirely lirBB. wo (he lollDwlng ; 



4nddr, lo vaU 

I Coot, to cook ; aee Oocer. 

.SUqKiuftr, rapendido, mipenta. 



Dormir, to lleep, ISL 
SKor, to be, p. ts. 

Hoi*r| there to be. IW. 

Hacer, to do, to mike, 179. 

Ir, to go, 16S. 

Jiyor, to pUj ; »«• JoffUb 

Jfctir. to die. lOO. 

Otr, lohsu; aee OlT. 

Obr, to nneU ; ■« Oler. 

Poder, ta be ibl^ MIL 

padHr, to cot ; we Fodilr. 

Pana; to pnt, p. Ma. 

HuwiT, ta wtab, to wOI, p. WO. 

Heir, to iHgh ; (H B«ir. 
The Hf ular lorio ol the put par- sater, d 

HulpU o( Iheifl YOtbi li generillr luM siOiT, to „ ,. 

- ~ lUlirr hmlMT, *Dd f" 5,, to be^ p. U- 

Irrt^n'" ™e "'"1 BST or eBtax, 1«. 

~!tb» enaing with utrii. In the In- 

flaltlre, ue SMijagsted Bka tnuln- Fain, (< 
oir, b> trandnte, p. IM. tMtdx, '' 
•bins, wtiDh 1» con'. Uko cmowr, 1 
Ii tbe only esceptioB to tbli nle. 

Vorbi ending with g-ai Uke n n iflsr 8' before e; ud llioe* qoln U 
an^nc with K«r and ctr cbaogs g dlreat regimen, 
tatoJbiioieKMid 0,189. """ ''"* 

« ; bat no prepotftUa ll >d«*4 



when the direct r^imen ii not a per- 
son, 140. 

Only the infinitive of verbs can be 
used as a substantive in Spanish. It 
is then invariably accompanied by an 
article, or some determinative word, 
like any other noun,* 189. 

Verbs of motion require the prep- 
osition &, and verbs of rest are gen- 
erally followed by en. 222. 

Vbby, muyy 178; it is rendered by 
miuno when it precedes a noun, 
118, 288. 

Vert much, muehisimo. 

Vestido, dress, clothes, p. 28. 

Viejo, old in years, worn out^ de- 
cayed, UL 

Visit, to, visitor, p. 82. 

Vm.— For Vm., Vd., Vms., Vda., 
W., and Vs., see V. 

W.— This letter does not exist in 
Spanish. See Introd. Lesson, p. vii. 

Want, to, carecer, is conjugated like 
eompadecer, 147 ; /cUtar, neeegitar, 

WAB, to, guerrear, p. 222. 

Warm, to be, tener color, 72. 

Wash one's self, to, lavarse, p. 88. 

Water, agua, 185. 

We, nosotros, nosotras.— See 
note on p. 61. 

Well, Men, 178. 

What, que, lo que.— See Pro- 
nouns, interrooatiyu and relative, 
or Rules 103, 108. 

Whatever, cualquier.— See Pro- 
nouns, indefinite, or Rule 86. 

When, cuando. 

Whence, or from where, de donde, 

Where, donde, 178. 

Whereto, adonde, 178. 

Which, qu6, oual, quien.— See 
Pronouns, interrooatiye and rela- 
tive, or Rules 103, 108. 

While, durante que, 215. 

Whiten, to, Uanquear, p. 263. 

Whither, adonde, 178. 

Who, whom, quien, que.— See 
Pronouns, relative and interroga- 
tive, or Rules 103, 127. 

Who your hands kisses, CI.S.U.B., 


Whoever, cualquier.— See Pro- 
nouns, indefinite, or Rule 86. 

Wholesale, por mayor, p. 46. 
Whom, quien, que, 108, 127. 
Whose, cuyo, ouya, ouyo«, 
ooyas.— See Pronouns, nrrBBBOOA- 

TTVB AND relative, OT Eule 199. 

Why, porqui, p. 64. 

Will, to, querer; its conjugation, 
230; not to be confounded with 
guitar, to please, 281.— To, before 
an infinitive, is left out after querer, 

Wish, to, querer; its conjugation, 
280 ; detear, p. 126. 

With, eon, 188; is added to the 
personal pronouns as follows: With 
MB, eonmigo; WITH thee, eontigo; 
with him, with hbr, eontigo: para 
eon, 206. 

Without, Hn, 188; Hn embargo, 

Words which without being nouns 
are used as such, are masculine, 110. 

Work, to, tnUnnfar, p. 106. 

Worse, p4or, 52. 

Worth, to be, vo^er.— See Valer. 

Write, to, eteritrir. 

Wrong, to be, no tener razon, 78. 

X is sounded as a; in eaqsresaion. 
See Introductory Lesson, p. viL— 
Some words, formerly spelled with 
an X, are now written with j; as, 
relox, reloj, a watch. 

y is sounded as y in the English 
word easy. — See Introductory Lesson, 
p. vii. 

y.— Many words ending in English 
with y, end in Spanish with ia, 100. 

Ya, already, presently, now, 178. 

Yes, si, 178. 

Yesterday, oyer, 178. 

Yet, aun, todavia, ya, 178. 

Yonder, astras, 178. 

You, vosotros, vosotras.— See 
note on p. 61.— See, also, V. 

Your, su, 27-29; vuestro, vues- 
tra, vuestros, vuestras, 82. 

Your honor, V., Vs., etc., 7, 8. 

Your obedient servant, S. S. S., 

Yours.— See Pronouns, possessivk. 

Z is sounded as th in thin. See 
Introductory Lesson, p. vii. 

the end. 

•.. .« 


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