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In the present edition of Smart's Horace, tlie tiang> 
lation has been revifled -wherever it seemed capable of 
being rendered closer and more accurate. Orelli's 
test has been generally followed, and a considerable 
nnmber of useful annotations, selected from the best 
commentaries, ancient and modem, have been added. 
Several quotations from Hnrd on the " Ars Poetica," 
though Bomewhat lengthy, have been introduced, aa 
their admirable taste can not but render them accept- 
able to readers of every class. 

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Qdintus Hobatids Flaccos was bom on the 8th 
of December, in tbe year 65, B. c, at Vennsium, a 
town aitoated between Apulia and Lucania. Although 
a fi-eedman, hie father posBesaed competent meane, and 
left him a comfortable patrimony on the banks of the 

To the education of onr poet the greatest attention 
Tras paid, and no means were spared to endow him 
with the highest gifts of mental cnlture. The severe 
OrbihuB was hie guide through the realms of Roman 
literature, for the poets of which he seems to have con- 
ceiTed an early distaste, preferring the more finished 
and leas rugged beauties of the Greek originals, from 
whose sources he was himself destined hereafter to draw 
so lai^ly, and with such distinguiehed euccesB. 

The life of Horace, although spent in the society of 
those who were most actively mixed up with public 
aSaHis, is rather a detail of every-day transactione with 
the ordinary world, a table-talk of private acte and 
feelings, than a succession of stirring pohtical relations, 
exploits, and embarraBsments, 

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While engaged in the Btady of philosophy at Atbena^ j 
a study which vas heieafiet to foi-m the ground-work 
of his UteiBiy feme, ths assassination of Julius Cnsar I 
brought on the crisis between the contending interests | 
of Borne. Horace joined the republican party, and < 
attained the rank of a military tribune under Brutus. ' 
In whatever light we regard his flight at the snbse- | 
quent battle of Fhilippi, it is certain that the disgrace i 
was shared but by too many upon that day, in which ' 
the Bomaos lost their last hopes of freedom, and ex- | 
changed public virtue for private luxury and refine- i 
ment. ' 

With the probability that his small possessions, like I 
those of Virgil, were confiscated to remunerate a sol- 
diery who had fought against their own countrymen, 
we may fairly soppose that this misfortune first tended I 
to develop the poetical genius of Horace, and that I 
his necessities became a powerful motive for the exer- 
tion of talents which had been chastened and ripened 1 
by every advantage afforded by the times. Gradnall; i 
his powers of wit and repartee, aided perhaps by the 
propitiatory oblation of little poems " upon occasion," i 
increased his friendships with the great, and introduced 
him to the intimacy of Mtecenas. A friendship of the 
firmest kind sprang up from what was at first but s 
distant and patronizing courtesy, and Horace, like Vir- 
gil, henceforth became the constant friend and asso- 
ciate of Msecenas, whom he accompanied upon the 
most confidential missions. About the year 37, b. c. 
(for the date is very uncertain,)' Horace followed his 

■ See Dunlop, lit. Horn. voL iiL p. 301, note. I 


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patron to Bnindusiam, where, in company with Coc- 
ceins Nerva and Capito, he was engaged in Q^i;otiatmg 
a reconciliation between Antony and Augustus. A 
raoBt amusing description of " travelers' miserieB," in 
the fifth Satire of the first Book, commemorates this 
event, and gives an entertaining picture of the domes- 
tic habits of the wealthier c'taases at Home during the 
Angustan age. In accompanying Msecenaa in the war 
against Sextus Pompey, a storm aitise, and our poet 
narrowly escaped being drowned in the Golf of Velia. 
Nevertheless, he volunteered himself as his companion 
in the expedition that ended in that decisive battle 
of Actium, an offer which Msecenas, probably out of 
tendemesB to the health of his friend, declined to ac- 

Maecenas was not a mere complimentary friend, but 
one of tried liberality. To his kindness our poet was 
indebted for his villa at Tib'ir, and to his intercession 
with Augustus, for a grant of land in the Sabine dis- 
trict. The emperor even offered him the appoiatment 
of private secretary to himself, but he declined this 
honor, as it would have separated him from the fre- 
quent society of Mfficenas. Augustus bore this refusal 
in good part, and even personally encouraged our poet 
to farther literary exertions. 

Alternating between his dwelling on the then healthy 
Esquiline hill at Home, and the quieter and more con- 
gemt^ retirement of his villa at Prseneste, Horace lived 
a life of Epicurean enjoyment, nor wholly untainted 
with the vices of the times, but yielding to them rather 
with the carelessness of a wit, than with the wanton- 
ness of a voluptnary. His mode of hving at home 

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was simple and unostentatioiiB, l}nt ha was by no 
means insensible to the pleasures of the table, especially 
in society. He was a kind and indulgent master, and 
a faithful friend. In fact, an unruffled amiability, re- 
lieTed by a keen and well-expressed perception of 
other men's follies, seems to have been the leading fea- i 
ttire in our author's conduct, and the guiding principle ; 
of his writings. The beautiful compliment paid to the 
memory of his father,* is unsurpassed either as a de- 
scription of what education ought to be, or as a grate> | 
ful tribute of filial affection. 

At the age of fifty-seven, in the year 8, b. c, Horace I 
died suddenly at Rome, having nominated Augustus 
as his heir. Mfecenas died about the same time, al- 
most fulfilling the melancholy prediction of his poet 
friend, though itia uncertain which first departed from 
life. In death they were scarcely separated, the re- ■ 
mains of Horace being deposited near thcee of Mace- j 
nas on the Esqniliue bill ' 

The popularity of Horace, as a writer, is, perhaps, 
unexampled. Bead, recited, and quoted in his own 
time by all classeB, throughout the cheerless period of ■ 
supeTBtition and analytical dullness which oppressed 
the middle ages, he was one of the few bright spirits, 
in whose jokes and geniality the Schoolman might for- 
get even his Latin Aristotle. His works became a con- 
stant source of delight and imitation to almost all 
subsequent poets, especially those of Italy, while com- 
mentary upon commentary began to point out beau- 
ties, and clear away difficulties. His manifold imita- 

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tions of the Greeks, especially in the lyrical portion of 
his works, his pungent and well-defined sketches of 
society and manners, hia nice perception of the refine- 
ments of arcbteelogy and criticism, all in torn began 
to call forth illustration. Yet much still remains un- 
explained. As with Aristophanes, so with Horace, we 
continually lack knowledge of the running current of 
fashionable foibles and conventionalities, the happy 
delineation of which constitute the essence of comedy 
and satire. Nevertheless, imitations in every language, 
in none more abundantly than our own, attest the 
masterly power of Horace to interest all mankind, and 
show the connection that, despite accidental variations, 
one ^;e has with the development, one race with the 
sympathies, of another. 

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iLsomAs,* descended from royal ancestors, O both my pri> 
tection and my darling honor ! There are those whom it de- 
lights to hare collected Olympic dust m the chsnot race ; and 
[whom] the goal nicely avoided by the glowing wheels, and the 
noble palm, exalts, lords of the earth, to the gods. 

This man, if a crowd of the capricious Qmrites strive to raise 
him to the highest dignities ; [another, if he has stored np m 
his own granary wbi^oever is swept from the Libyan thrash- 
ii^floors : him who delights* to cut with the hoe' his patri- 
monid fields, you could never tempt, for all the wealth of At- 
tains, [to become] a timorous sailor and cross the Myrloan sea 
in B Cyprian bark. The merchant, dreading the south-west 

> Cains CQniQs Ufeoenaa, who sIiarDd irith .A^iippa the &TCir and 
coTtfldeiioe or Angustus, snd disCicgaiBhoi) himseu by hia patrcmaga of 
literaiy man, is said to have been descended lh>m Slbiua YolCerenns, one 
of the Lncumones of Etruria, who fell in the battle at the lake YadimODs. 
The Cilniac Gimil^ were finm a very earlv period attached 
, ,. ..., „.. -of va' 

to the interests of Rome, wbea devoted alliance was of value. Ahtbon. 

' QmtderUem. This word is used to denote a aepaiate character, him 
afio Mighta : thus, PuBmnBtSTm qaocl aatia esL 3 Canu. I 26: him 
mho bmmde Au desire by a competency, ^ilgeniem imperio, 3 C zvL 
81, etc. ASTHOII. 

■ Because moat of the commentators take larcalam for the plow, I 
have Rdlowed tiiem. But Torrentius says, that the Bomuia used two 
kinds at weeding-hooks ; one, wben the com was young Uke grassy with 
which they clell the earth, and took up the jonog weeds bjthe root; tbo 
other, wben the corn was grown up, with which they cut out the stjong 
weeds as they tbought proper ; fbr the weeds do not grow up sU at tbe 
aame time, and the mrcuiitm being no part ot the plow, it can not be 
taken (br it by syneodoohe. Waiboh. 

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3 ODES OF HORA.CE. Booki. 

vind contondiDg with the Icarian waves, commeuds tranqailli^ 
uid the niral retirement of his village r/but soon after, inca- 
pable of being taught to bear poverty; he refita hia ahattered 
vessel. There ia another, who despises not cups of old Mafisc, 
taking a part from the entire day,' one while stretched under 
the green arbute, another at the placid head of some sacred 

The camp, and the sound of the trumpet mingled with that 
of the chtrion, and wars detested by mothers, rejoice many. 

Ihe huntsman, unmindful of his tender spouse, remains in the 
cold air, whether a hart is held in view by his ^thfiil hounds, 
or a Marsian boar has broken the fine-wrought toils. 

Ivy, the reward of learned brows, equals mo with the goda 
above: the cool grove, and the light dances of nymphs and 
satyrs, distinguish me from the crowd ; if neither Euteipe with- 
holds her pipe, nor Polyhymnia disdains to tune the Lesbian 
lyre. But, if you rank me among the lyric poeta, I idiall tows 
to the stars with my exalted head. 

TO xDouarua c^sar. 
EKOtroB of snow' and dreadful' hul has the Site now sent 

* Demsre partem de soUdo di% " wie nlla dabitatione eat mfridian, 
i. 8. Ipso mendie horam umim ant alteram dormire ; qood qui faciunt, 
diem quodammodo fran^unt et diriduDt, neque earn BolidDm et dkoxX^por 
ene patiuntor. Tarro alicubi (dell.ll. 1, i, 6) vocat diera dtfinder* 
inttiiicio somrto." Hubetus. 

' Octaviaziui assumed his new tills of AnpostDa, conferred np on h im 
at the BUggeation of Uuoatius Plancus, on tbe 17tb of Janoaij, (iVIII. 
Qd. Ft^^ A, D. 0, 127 ; the following night Rome was visited by a 
severe tempest, and an inuadatiOn of the Tiber. The present ode was 
wiilteu in allusion to that event. Ahthok. 

* Of BQOw Bad dreadful iiaii. Tutnebos, hi). vL cap. 8, Appianui, 
lib. iv., and Dion, lib. xJviL, give an account of the dreadful thanderand 
lightning, snow aad rain, tliM fbllowed the murder of Julius Cssar ; that 
many temtdes were so struck down or very much damaged, wbich wai 
looked upon as a presage of the horrible civil war that soon after foliow- 
ed. Watoo». 

T Dirtt, «Q epithet applied to any thing fearful and portealons, ai 
"diri «aaet»," Vlrg. Georg. i 488. OftBtu. 

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upon the earth,* and having hurled [his thunderbolts] with his 
T8d right hand* against the sacred towers, he has terrified the 
aty ; he has terrifaed the nations, lest the grievous age of Pyr- 
rha,'* compldning of prodigies till then unheard of; should re- 
turn, when Proteus drove aU his [marine] herd to visit the lofty | 
mountains; and the fishy rcae were entangled in the elm top, 
which before was the frequented seat of doves ; and the timorous 
deer swam in the overwhelming flood. We have seen the ye^ 
I low Tiber," with his waves forced back with violence from the 
Tuscan shore, proceed to demolish the monuments of king 
[Numa], and the temples of Vesta ; while be vaunta himself 
the avenger of the too disconsolate Hia, and the uxorious river, 
leaving his channel, overflows his left bank, notwithstanding 
the di^ppTobation of Jupiter. 

Our youth, less numerous bv the vices of their fathers, shall 
hear of'^the citizens baring wnetted that sword [ngwnst tbem> 
selves], with which it had been better that the formidable Per- 
sians nad fallen ; they shaU hear of [actual] engagement*^ 
Whom of the gods shall the people invoke to the a&irs of the 

[' iking empire ) With what prayer shall the sacred virgins 
mportune Vesta, who is now inattentive to their hymns J To 
whom shall Jupiter assign the task of expiating our wickedness i 
Do thou at length, prophetic Apollo, (we pray thee I) come, 

■ "Terns" is a Orecism for "in terras." See on VirgjEcL viii 

* Horace aUudes to a superstitions opinion of ttie ancients, who iMlinv- 
ed that thunders which portended any revolution in a stata were more 
iDflsmed ttian anj other ; as they Tancied that the lightnings of Jupiter 
were red and fieiy ; those of the other gods, pale and dark. CauQ. 

» Wife of Deucalion, king of Theesolj ; in his time came the deli^ or 
univeisal flood, which drowned all the world ; only he and bia wife got 
into a Uitle shallop, which was carried to Mount Pamassns, and there 
Btaid, the dry land flrst appearing there. When the flood was dried up, 
he connilted with the oracle of Themis, bow mankind night be repair- 
ed ; and was answered. If he cast bis great mother's bones behind his 
back ; whereupon he and Fyrrha his wife took atones, and cast them 
over their shoutdwa, and they became men and women. Watoos. 

" nie'nber dis^argesitselfmtotheTuscan Sea. which beii^BwoUen 
by tempests, and a prodigious fall of snow and hail(tbewind at tliesame 
time blowing up the channel), made the river flow backward (rt^>rquere) 
against its natural course. The LitlTa EtniKam means the shoree of the 
Tuscan Sea, into which the Tllwr should naturally How, nnd {torn wtieao* 
it tamed upward to its Ibnntain-head. OBUt). 


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4 ODES OF HOBA.CB. book i, 

railing thj radiant Bbouldera with a cloud : or Hum, if it be 
more agreeable to thee, smiling Venus, about whom hover the 
goda of mirth and love : or thou, if thou regard" thy neglected 
race and descendants, our founder Mars, whom clamor and 
polished helmets, and the (eTribio aspect of the Moorish intantiy 
Bgainst their bloody enemy, delight, satiated at length with thy 
jport, alas 1 of too long continuance : or if thou, the winged 
eon of gentle Maia, by changing thy figure, personate a youQi'* 
upon earth, submitting to be called the avenger of C»sar ; late 
ffiayest thou Teturo to the skies, and long mayest thou joy- 
ously be present to the Roman people ; nor may an untimely 
blast transport thee from us, offended at our crimes. Here 
mayest thou rather delight in magnificent triumphs," and to 
be called father and pnnce : nor suffer the Parthians with 
impunity to moke incursions, you, Cnsar, being our gen- 

So may the goddess who rules over Cypnw ;" «o may the 
bright stars, the brothers of Helen ;" and so may the Either 

" lUspicia, " Thou again beholdost with a favoriog eye." When the 
goda were supposed to lum their eyes toward their worsbipers, it was a 
ngn of bvor ; when they averted them, of diapleaaure. The Greeks oag 
lml3Xeiniv with the Bftme meaning. Anthok. 

" SaJiuBt calls Julius Cmsai AdoUaeetibdtis, wbeo he wsh thirty-aix 
yean eld ; the same age in which Horace here calls Augustus Juiteium. 
Tarro tells na this last word is derived from Juvore, as u this age vrere 
c^wble oT renderiog the moat cooaiderable services to the republic Sui. 

" Au^Btos. in the month of August, 126, had triumphed three daya 
The first, fbr the defeat of the Fannoaiaus and Didmatii ; the aectsid, fbr 
UjeJHittte of Actium ; the last, for the reduction of -Egypt Dac. 
'' '• Venus was invoked by mariuers, not only because she sprung from 
tbe ocean, but because her star was useful to navigation, Cruq. 

" Brothers of Helen, Oaator and Pollux. Leda, wife of TyudaruB, king 
of LacoQia, aa iame goes, brought forth two e^; out of one of tbem 
came Pollux and Heteoa, born immortal, begotten by Jupiter ; of the other, 
Castor and Clyteraneatra, begotten by Tyndarua; because those brothers, 

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of the winds, confining all except lapyi," direct thee, ehip, 
who art intnisted wiffi Virgil ; my prayer is, that thou mayest 
laitd'* him safe on the Athenian shore, and preserve the half 
of my BOuL Surely oak" and threefold brass surronnded his 
heart who first trusted a frail vessel to the merciless ocean, nor 
was a&dd of the impetuous AfricQs contending with the north- 
cm storms, nor of me mournful Hyadea," nor of the rage of 
Kotns, than whoip there is not a more abeolnte controller of 
the Adriatic, either to raise or assuage its wares at pteasnre. 
What path of death" did he fear, mio beheld unmoved the 
rolling monsters of the deep ; who beheld unmoved the tem- 
pestuous swelling of the sea, and the Acroceraunians" — ill- 

In vain has God in his wisdom divided the countries of the 
earth by the separating" ocean, if nevertheless profane ships 
bound over waters not to be violated. The race of man pre- 
samptnous enough to endnrc every thin^, rushes on through 
forbidden wiekedness. 

The presumptuous son of lapetus, by an impious fraud, 

as long as they lived, freed tho seas from pirates and robbers, they are 
sMd to have received power from Neptune, the god or the sea, of help- 
ing those who were in danger of being shipwrecked, by being tanied 
into Btsra, whidi makes our poet invoke them under this epithet, " Lacida 
sidera, fratres Helena." Watson. 

u The W. N. W. 

'* With reddaa and strva undentand nt, vrhidi stands in opposition 
to 8K. " Uaua bic particulte sic in votis, preciboa, obtestation iboaque ita 
proprie explicandua : ' Uti nos a te boc vet illud optamus, sic, ubi nostras 
preces exaudieris, hoe vel illud, quod tu optas, tibi contingat' " Obeu.. 

M In rohir there is first the idea of sturdy oak, of which the Romtui 
dy^eae wna made, and then, metapboricaUy, of strength of mind ; so also 
in (M (rtpfccc there is allusion to the Loriea, hence the use at circa peeba. 


" The Hyades are a coosteltation in the head of the bull, whose 
rising and setting eu« frequently attended by rain, from whence the poet 
calls them Triita. FaiKCiS. 

33 What kind of death could aSright him. The ancients dreaded 
shipwreck as the worst sort of death, as being thewby liable to be 
devoured by fish, dsshed against rocks, or cast upon an uninhabited 
island. Watsoh. 

^ The poet, with a very delicate flattery, calla tbesa rooks in&mous, 
because Augustus very narrowly escaped shipwreck on them, when ha 
returned tram the battle of Actium. Frahcis. 

9< Active, as " Genitaljilis aura Favon!," Lucret. i. 11 ; "penetrabQe 
fahnen," Ovid, Met xiii. 861. 

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bioiiglit down firo into the world. AAer fire was etolen from 
the c«leBtial mauBJons, consumptioii and a new train of fevers 
settled upon the earth, and the slow approaching necessity of 
death, which, till now, was remote, accelerated its pace. 
Dtedalns eeaaved the empty sit with wings not permitted to 
man. The labor of Hercules brote through Acheron. There 
is nothing too arduous for mortals to attempt We aim at 
heaven** itself in our folly ; nether do we suffer, by our wicked- 
ness, Jupiter to Uy aade bis revengeful thonderboW 

TO 8BXT1U8. 

change of Bprins" and tbe western breeze ; and engines" haul 
down the dry ships. And neither does the cattle any longer 
delight in the stalls, nor the plowman in the fireside ; nor 
are the meadows whitened by hoary frosts. Now Cytherean 
Venus leads oflF the dance by moonlight; and the comely 
Graces, in conjunction with the Nymphs, shake the ground 
with alternate feet ; while glowing Vulcan kindles the labo- 
rious forffes of the Cyclops. Now it is fitting^ to encircle the 
shining head either with verdant mjrtle, or with such fioweis 
oa the relaxed earth produces. Now likewise it is fitting to 
sacrifice to Faumis"/in the shady groves, whether he demand 
a lamb, or be more pleased with a kid." Pale death knocks 
at the cottages of the poor, and the palaces of kings, with an 

Si Ctium ipmm petimus. In aUuslon to the &Lle of the giants. 

" According to Yegetius, the seas were unfit for navigation " ex die 
lii. Id. Norembr. usque in diem vt. Id. Uart" Orelli. 

■7 The aDcients nsed to drawtheir shipson shore during winter. San. 

"^ Faunns, be was son to Picus, fnther to Latinus, and the third king 
of the aborigiaea in Latium ; who, because he taught the pe<¥le some- 
what of religion and tillage, was accounted a country god. And that 
rude people might be kept in awe of him, thej pictured him with feet 
of horn, and two home on his head. Afterward all the gods of tbe 
woods went by this name. Watsok. 

w This use of the ablative is common with ritual words ; so, "ftcere," 
"iramolarfc" are used. Orblli. 

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impartial foot h^py Sexdus I" the ebdrt sum total of 
life forbid» ua to form remote expectAtions. Presentlj^ ahall 
darkness, and the unreal ghosts," and the shadowj manuon of 
Plulo oppress you ; where, nbea you aliall have once itrrived, 
you shall neither decide the dominion of the bottle by dice," 
nor shall you admire the tender Lycidas, with whom now all tho 
youth is inflamedj-aod for whom ere long the maidens will grow 



What dunty youth, bedewed with liquid perfumes, caressea 
you, Pyrrha, beneath the pleasant grot, amid a profusion of 
roses f For whom do you bind your golden hair, plain in your 
neatness!" Alas! how often shall he deplore your petfidy, 
and the altered gods ; and through inexperience be amazed at 
the seas, rough with blackemng storms, who now credulous 
enjoys you m precious, and, ignorant of the foithless gale, 
hopes you will be always disengaged, always amiable ! Wretub- 
ed are those, to whom thou untried seemest fiur ! The sacred 

*> Ludus Sextins, or Sestius, kept up a coDstant friendship with 
Brutus, after he was routed, jet was commended by Augustus, aud made 
consul with Cueios Calpomius Pis», in the jear after the building oT tha 
city 730. Watbon. 

" By "the unreal manes" are meant, the ahadea of the departed, often 
made the thema of tha wildest fictions oT poetry. Some commentatoi^ 
however, and among tbem Orelliua, understand the expression in iu 
literal sense, "the manes of whom all is &ble," and suppose it to imp^ 
tha disbelief of a future state. Comp. ri ie HiovTuv, WiBoi; CalL 
Epig. XiV. 3. jFtibuit is the num. plural, i. e. Matiea faiiu2oai, inatia. 

3^ A Idng of wine : it was a custom among the ancients, at feasts, to 
cbose a king, or master, to order how much each guest should drink, 
whom all tha company were obliged to obey; ha was chosen by throw- 
ing of the dice, upon whose sides were engraven or painted the images 
of Saturn, Jupiter, Uars, Apollo, Tonus, and Diana. He who threw up 
Venna was made king; as Horace, Book H. Ode vi' ~~ — '" '^ — 
Tonus dicet arbitrum bibendi." Watsoh. 

" I hare borrowed Milton's happy version. 

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wall [of Kdptane's temple] demonstrates," by a Totive tablet 
that I have consecrated my dropping garments to the powerful 
god of the Bea. 


Yoir ehall be described by Yanus, a bird" of Mnonian versej 
as brave, and a subdnerc^ your enemies, whatever achierements 
your fierce soldiery ehall have accomplisbed, under your com- 
mand ; either on ship-board" or on horseback. We, humble 
writers, Agrippa, neither undertake these high subjects, nor 
the destmctive wr^ of inexorable Achilles, nor the voyages of 
tiie crafty" Ulysses, nor the cruel house of Pelops : while difS- 
dcDce, and the Muse who preMdea over the peaceful lyre, forbid 
me to diminish the praise of illustrious Ctesar, and yours, 
through defect of genius. "Who with sufficient dignity will de- 
scribe Mars covered with adamantine coat of nml, or Meriones 
swartiby with Trojan dust, or tiie son of Tydeus by the favor of 
Pallas a match for the gods i We, wbeUier &ee, or ourselven 
enamored of aught, light as our wont, sing of banqueta ; we, t^ 
the battles <rf maids desperate against young fellows — withpu«d 

>* He alludes to a custom among the SomanB, c^ offbring some votive 
tablet or picture to tba god bj whose power thej thougbt themselvea 
[reserved &om shipwredc. InlheBepictareslbestonuaad drcumst&Qces 
of Uieir esoope were repreaeoWd. Dao. 

^ The term dlile refers to a custom, ic which the ancient poets often 
indulged, of likening themselvca to the eagle and the swan; MowHiii 
Sfniixt- Theocr. Id. viL Asthon, 

3" Agrippa gained the victory in two sea-fights. The first against 
Pompej's lieutenants ; the secood. against Pom pej himself besides the 
share which be had in the battle of Actiuui. Cani). 

^ Perhaps the poet intended to express Ulysses' appearing; through 
the whole Odyaaaj in two characters, or, if the eiprcasion may be allow 
ed, in a doable character, such as a prince and a beggar, etc. FBANOUlt 

" So» Orelli; who regards this couclusiou as mer^y jocular. 

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Othbk poets ehall celebrate the famous Rhodes, or Mitylene, 
or Ik^esuB, or the "walls of Corinth, situated betneen two Beas, 
or itebes, illustrious by Bacchus, or Delphi by Apollo, or the 
Theasalian Tempe." There are some, whose one task it ia to 
chant in endless verse the city of spotless Pallas, and to prefer 
the olive culled irom ereiy mde, to every other leaf. Many ] 
a one, in honor of Juno, celebrates Argos, productive of 
steeds, and rich Myceos. Neither patient I^cedaemon so 
much struck me, nor so much did the plain of fertile Lari^sa, 
as the house of resounding Albunea, and the predpitnfely 
rapid Anio, and the Tibumian groves, and the orchards 
watered by ductile rivulets. As the clear south-wind otlen 
clears away the clouds from a lowering sky, nor teems with 
perpetual showers; so do you, O Flancus,*^ wisely remember 
to put an end to grief and the toils of life by mellow wine ; 
whether the camp, refulgent with bauners, possess you, or the 
dense shade t^ your own Hbur shall detain you. When 
Teucer fled from Salamis and his father, ho is reported, 
Qotwithstanding, to have bound his temples, bathed in wine, 
with a poplar crown, thus accosting his anxious friends: "O 
associates and companions, we will go wherever fortune, more 
propitious than a mther, shall carry us. Nothing is to be 
despaired of under Teucer's conduct, and the ati^ices of 
Teucer :" for the infallible Apollo has promised, that a Salamis 
in a new land shall render tne name equivgcol." gallant 

» Tempe, a pleasant vala in Theasaly, lying between the biQs Osaa, 
Olympus, and Pelion; the river Peneua running through the midat cT it. 

" LucnuB Wunatius Flancus, wbose country-seat was Tibur, or at least 
near to it, and therefore not fcr [torn Horace's countiy-house. Watson. 

*' Teucer, the son of Scamandor Gretensia, a king ot Troy, wbo reign- 
ed witb his 6ther-in-law Dardanns, from wIbdoi the Trojans are called 
Teucrl But the Teucer meant here was the bod of Telamt», an excel* ! 
lent archer; at bis return tVom Troy, being banished by his Sither, be' 
went to Cypms, and bnilt there a ci^, which he called Salamis, by the 1 
name of his own country. WAreoH. 

" Whiob shall be so like that Salamis which we have left, in glory 
and grandeur, that it shall be difficult to distrnguish them. San, 

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10 ODES OF HOBi.CE. bookl 

heroes, and often my fellon-sufieKTs in greater hardshipB than 
these, now drive away your cares with wine : to-morrow we 
vill re-visit the vast ocean." 

Ltdia, I conjure thee" by all the powers ahore, ta tell me 
why you are so intent to ruin Sybans bv inspiring him with 
love f" Why hates he the suuny plaia, tLouga inured to bear 
the dust and heat t Why does he neither, in military accouter- 
meats, appear mounted among his equals; nor manage the 
Gallic steed with bitted reins t Why fears he to touch the 
yellow 'fiber ( Why shuns he the oil of the ring more cau- 
tiously than viper's blood! Why neither docs he. who has 
oflen acquired reputation by the quoit," often by the javelin 
having cleared the mark, any longer appear with arms all 
black-aad-blue by martial exercises) Why is he concealed, as 
they say the son of the sea-goddess TheUs was, just before the 
mouruful funerals of Troy ; Test a manly habit should hurry 
him to slaughter, and the Lycian troops ! 

a Tbjg is the usual collocaticpn in a^juratioiiB; flret the preposition, 
then the individoal entreated, and then the oiqect m deity bj whom the 
adjurstion la msde, aud last the verb. Thus Nal irpdf oe r^f off ieftut 
eioXivov, Eurtp. Hipp. 605, where Elmsley remarks, "observa syntaxin. 
Qirocia salenne est Id juramento aliquid inter Pnepositionem et Casnm 
ejus inCerponere," *Virgil, also, has a umilar coUocotion, .£d. iv. 3U, 
" Per ego has lacrymas, dextranique tuam, te," etc. Antuoh. 

" Amando baa a passive BigniScation, "By being beloved." As in 
Tirgil i Uritqae videndo fitmina. Instances of this land are frequent in 
the best authorg. Dac. 

*> The discus was a kind of quoit, very large and heavy, made of wood 
or stone, but more commonly of iron or brass. It was almost round, and 
somewhat thicker in the middle tban at the edges. It was thrown by 
the sole Ibroe of the arm. Sak. 

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Yo0 BM how Soracle" stands white with deep snow, nor can. 
the laboring woods any longer support the weight, and the 
rirera stAgnste with the sharpness of the frost. Dissolve tho 
cold, liberally piling up billets on the hearth; and bring out, 
O Thaliarchus, the more generous wine, four years old, from 
the Sabine jar. Leave the rest to the gods, who having once 
laid the winds warring with the fervid ocean, neither tho 
cypresses nor the aged ashes are moved. Avoid inquiring 
what may happen to-morrow; and whatever day fortnne 
shall bestow on you, score it up" for gain; nor disdain, being 
a young fellow, pleasant loves, nor dances, as long as ill- 
natured hoarineea keeps off from your blooming age. Now 
let both the Campus Martins and the public walks, and soft \ 
whispers" at the approach of evening be repeated at tho 
appointed hour: now, too, the delightful laugh, the betrayer 
of the lurking damsel from some secret comer, and the token 
ravished from her arms or fingers, pretendingly tenadona 
of it 


iSxBCvsT, eloquent grandson of Atlas," thon who tatM 

*• SoractB, a hil! in Italy, in the country of tho Sabines, consecmted 
to Apollo; which now is wiled St. Sylvester's Mount, beoauaa a pope of 
that niune hid himBelT in a cave (here, when UoxenUua raised a sore 
persecution gainst the Christians. Watsok. 

" Appone. Panere and appomre were temia used in aritlunetio by 
the Rooiang. Dao. 

*^ Swtarri. This ward ia formed by the flgnre onomaiopasia, from an 
imitation of the sound in whisperiDK, aa in Greek, iptffupi^iv, in Italian, 
bubiglio, and in Frencb. ehuchtler. Dao. 

" Atlas, king or Mauritania, and brother to Pronietbens ; he was 
turned by Perseus into a mountain, whoee top was so bJgh, that 1( 
ifiKtied heaven, and ia said to bear heaven up. Watson. 

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12 ODES OF HOB.&0B. Bo» t 

didst from the savage mannera of the earlv race of men br 
oratory, and the institutioii of the graceM Pal»stra : I will 
celebrate thee, messenger -of Jupiter and the other gods, and 
parent of the curved lyre ; ingenious to conceal whatever thoa 
hast a mind to, in jocose theft. While Apollo, with angry 
Toioe, threatened you, then but a boy, unless yon would restore 
the oxen, previoiuly driven sway by your fraud, he laughed, 

S'hen he found himself] deprived of his quiver [also]. 
(H«oTer, the wealthy Priam too, on his departure from Ilium, 
under yoor guidance deceived the proud sons of Alreus," and 
the Thessalian watch-tights, and the camp inveterate against 
Troy. You settle the souls of good men in blissful regions, 
and drive together the aiiy crowd with your golden rod," 
acceptable both to the supernal and infernal gods. 


IsoniBE not, Leuconoe (it is not fitting you should know), 
how long a term of life the gods have granted to yon or to 
me : neither consult the ChSdean" calculations. How much 
better is it" to bear with patience whatever shall happen! 

»• Menelaus, the son of Atreus and Aerope, brother of Agamemnon, 
and king oT LacedKmonia, who (when Paris had stolen awa/ hia wife 
Helen) odled together all the pnnces oT Greece to take revenge an the 
Trojans for this fact, and to fetch her home again. Accordingly they met, 
and made up a fleet of a thousand ships, tilting themselves, under the 
conduct of AgamomnoD, as commander-in-chief; end vowing never to 
return home til they had sacked Troy, which cost them ten yeata' pains, 
and that to little purpose, till at length, more bj deceit than valor, they 
won and ruined the dty. Watsoh. 

s' Golden rod or tipstaC With this he conducted the gnod to happi- 
ness; but it was;%rrea virya, an iron rod, with whidi he cocnpelled the 
wicked nien to Pluto's dominions ; he calls it the terrible rod, Ode mv. 
*' Non sangms redeat vanie imagini, qnam semel Uercurius horrida virga 
compnlerit nigro gregi" Waisoh. 

" The Babylonians were infetuated with judicial astrology, and made 
use of astronomical tables to calculate the fiirtuDate or unfbrtunate da^rs 
of life. These tables the poet calls Numeros. FaiHClB. 

.. JI.1. ._...r_^ ]g [emarkahle, " ut melius est, quanto meljua *rt 

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Whedier Japiter have granted us more winters, or [this as] 
the last, which now breaks the Etrurian waves against tlie 
opposing rocks. Be wise ; rack off" your wines, and abridge 
your hopes [in proportion] to the shortness of your life. 
While we are conversing, envious age has been flying ; seize 
the present day, not ^ving the least credit to the succeeding 


What man, what herp, O Clio, do you undertake to celebrate 
on the harp, or the shrill pipe} What god! Whose name 
shall the ^rtive echo resound, either in the shady borders of 
Helicon," or on the top of Pindus," or on cold Hsemus!" 
Whence the woods followed promiscuously the tuneful Oiv 
pheos, who by bis maternal art" retarded the rapid courses 
of rivers, and the fleet winds; and was bo sweetly pergnasive, 
that he drew along the listening oaks with bis harmonioua 
strings. But what can I sing prior to the usual praises of the 
Sire, who governs the afi^rs of men and gods ; who [governs] 
the sea, the earth, and the whole world with the vicissitudes 
of seasons! Whence nothing is produced greater than him; 
nothing springs either like him, or even in a second degree to 
him : uevertbeless, Pallas has acquired these honors, which are 
next after bim. 

Eti quicquid erit 1" How much hotter is it to bear whatsoever ehaU 
ppeo, than to depend upon the idle predictions of astrologers I San. 

>• Vinaiiques. The ancients used tofillertbeir wines, to render them 
more soft and smooth. C&nq. 

" Helicon, a bill of Boeotia near Tbebee, now called Z^aja, conse- 
crated to Apollo and the Muses. Watson. 

M Findos, a mountain of Arcadia, ninning with a lon^ ridge into 
Tbeasaly and MBCedonin, sacred also to the nine muses. Watson. 

" Hiemns, the greatest mountain of Tbraco, dividing it from the lower ' 
Mjna : it hath divers names bj the inhabitants through which it panes ; 
bj tbe Turks it is caUed Balkan, by the Sctavonians Cumo. Watson. 

*< Hatemal art, that is, the art of music, of singing with hJs voice.and 
plajing upon the harp, as instructed by Calliope his motbor, one of tLr 
nine Uosea. Watsos. 

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14 ODES OF HORACE. bookl 

Neither will I paw thee by in silence, Bacchus, bold in 
comb&t ; nor Ibee, Virgin, who art an eaemy to the savage 
beasts ; nor thee, PLoebua, formidable for tby unerring dart. 

I will sing also of HerciUea, and the Bona of Leda, the one 
illustrioufl for his achievements on horseback, the other on 
foot; whose clear^hining" constellation as soon as it has 
shone forth to the sailors, the troubled surge falls down tcom 
the rocka, the winds cease, the clouds vaniSi, and the threat- 
ening waves subside in the sea — because it was their wilL 
After these, I am in doubt whom I shall first commemorate, 
whether Romulus, or the peaceful reiga of Numa, or the 
splendid ensigns of Tarquinius," or the ^orious death of Cato. 
I will celebrate, out of gratitude, with the choicest verses, 
Reguloa," and the Scauri, and Faulua, prodigal of his mighty 
Boiu, when Carthage conquered, and Pabricius." 

Severe poverty, and an hereditary &rm, with a dwelling 
suited to i^ formed this hero useM in war; as it did also Cu' 
rius" with his rough locks, and CamiUus." The fame of 
Marcellus" increases, as a tree does in the insensibio progress 

" "Luinda atqua sjmul Oslo BBrenllatem reduceriB," at Od. L 1, 13; 
allraa nottis. ObeLU. 

•" TarquiDLUS PriBcuB, tho fifth liic}; of Rome, the son of Demaratns, a 
Corinthian, but t>om at Tarquinium in Etruria, and called Lucumo, till 
hy the perauasioD of bis wire Tanaquil, an mabitious woroaa, aod skillful 
in aaguiy and otber kinds of divination, (o which the EtruriauB were 
very much addicted, he came to Rome, where by his mosej' and good 
address be grew popular, aud so insinuated himself into the fkvor of 
Ancus MartiUB, that when ha died he left bim guardiau to his children, 
whom he defrauded, usurping tbe kingdom. Watson. 

<■ Uarcua Attilius Regulus, a consul of Bome ia the first Punic war, 
in the jeai of tbe dty 420, a great example of stiict honor ia obaerving 
tiia engagements, even with enemies. Watsoh. 

•^ Fabricius, the name of a Roman femiiy. ofwliich this Caius Fahri- 
cius Loiicinus was a consul, who conquered PjrrhuB, king of Epima, the 
beat soldier of his time, WatSOS. 

<3 Curius, a nobleman of Rome, surnamed Deatatus ; he was thrioo 
consul, and was noted for his courage, singular honesty, and frugality. 

6t Camillus, a noblo Roman ; he, though banished from Rome, out ol 
love to the welfare of his distressed country, saved Rome tmra its final 
ruin by the Gauls. WATBoy. 

'5 MsrcelluB ia a diminutive from Marcus, Marculus, Marcellus : there 
wore several lioman knights of this name. Claudius Uarcellos is meant 
here, a valiant commander, called Ensis Romanonim, the Roman sword, 
who first proved ic vras not impossible tn conquer Hannibal, as Tictot 
ozpresaeth it. After a long siege be took Syracuse. Watsom. 



of time. But the Julian constellation shines amid them all, 
as Uie moon among the smaller stars. thou son of Saturn, 
author and preserver of the human race, the protection of 
Cesar is committed to thy chai^ by the Fates : thou ebalt 
reign Huprenio, with Ctesar for thy second. Whether he shall 
subdue with a just victory the Parthians makiog inroads 
upon Italy, or shall render subject the Seres and udians on 
the Eastern coasts ; he shall nde the wide world with equity, 
in subordination to ihee. Thou shalt shake Olympus with 
ihy tremendous car ; thou shall hurl thy hostile thimderbolts 
against the polluted" groves. 

Ltsu, when you commend Telephus' rosy neck, and the 
waxen arms of Telephus, alas I my inflamed hver swells with 
bile difficult to be repressed. Then neither is my mind firm," 
nor does my color maintain a certain situation : and the in- 
voluntary tears glide down my cheek, proving with what linger- 
ing flames I am inwardly consumed. I am on fire, whether 
Suarrels rendered immoderate by wine have stained your fair 
lonlders ; or whether the youth, in his fury, has impressed 
-with his teeth a memorial on your Ups. If you will give due 
attention to my advice, never expect that he will be constant, 
who inhiunanlr wounds those sweet kisses, which Venus has 
imbued with the fifth part of all" her nectar. thrice and 

** " (^stiu is a religious cpitliet TlitiB Festus has easlum Cererii Ibr 
•oerum. These woods, thercrore, were polluted b/ incest or homicide, 
Ibr Bocii only, according to Aero, were stricken by lightning." Orelu. 

" "The i^ural is here employed as equivalent to ttte double raaatl." 

*• "Each god," otjaervea Poraon, "was supposed to have a given 
qaaatitf of nectar at disposal ; and to bestow the fltth, or the tenth part 
of this OD any individual was a special favor." Tlie common, but in- 
correct, interpretation of guinia parte ia, "with ttie quintessence." 
Airmov. Tet tlie common opinion appears to be the cmrect one. The 
allusion LB to the fifth essence of the Pythagoreans, l & the mtber. The 
•cboolmen of the fifteenth century revived the term " qninla eeunUa 

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10 ODES OF EOBA.GB. book l 

more than thrice hoppy those, whom an indissoluble con- 
nection binds tc^ther ; and whose love, undivided by impions 
complainings, does not separate them sooner than the last day ! 


SHIP, new waves will bear you back again to. sea. what 
are yon doine; t Bravely seize the pert. Do you not perceive, 
that your sides are deslitDte of oars, and your mast wounded 
by the violent south wind, and your main-yards groan, and 
your keel" can scarcely support the impetuosity of the wave& 
without tlio help of conlage f You have not entire saila ; not 
gods," whom you may again invoke, pressed with distress ; 
notwithstanding you are made of the pines of Pontus," and. 
aa the daughter of an illustrious wood, boast your race, and s 
farae now of no service to jou. The tjmorous sailor has do 
dependence on a piunted stem." Look to yourself unlesa 

(qttintessera),'" using the word to denote the mast subtle flavors and 
refined eBsencea. For qainla, gvania was proposed by Eamirea de Prado, 
and received by Scaliger and Pine. M'Caul. 

" la the year 726 n. o. Augustus coosulted hia &vorite% Utecenas 
and Agrippa, whether he should resign the Bovereign authority. We have 
in Dion a speech of Mncenas upon that occasion, in which the allegory 
of a ship and (be republic is so strongly maintaioed, and bath BomethiDg 
90 extremely like this ode, that probably the poet look bis design from 
thence, as a corapliment to his illustrious -patron. 

In the year 12^ Augustus began his seventh consulahip, with a request 
to the senate that Shoy would discharge him from an office which his in- 
flmities could no linger support. In the interval jif these two events 
(the couBulCation of Dctavius with hia fovorites; and his declaration to 
the senate,) Horace wrote this ode, in which he endeavors to persuade 
the Romans not to auCTcr that prince to abandon the government of the 
empire. Sak. 

" "Of one ship, as Mmtno, fecta, ai 
DuUMaa raiea is used by Tti:g. E>!L vi 

" These were the gods whose statues were placed on the stem of the 
ship, whicb, being broken by tempests, had lost its tutelary divinities 

" A Pontic pine-tree. "Exiamiliain Pon:o,"ofatkiml7inPontus,a 
country in Asia Minor, where Horace'^ fcther was bom. Watsoh. 

" Be»des the statues of the gods, tbe stem» of their ships were adorned 
with paintinga and other orDaments, which (ha G.'eeks called in general 
Aorostolia, and the Latins Aplustna. Djc. 

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joa are destined to be the sport of the winds. O thoa, so 
ktely my trouble and &tigue," but now an object of tenderness 
and Boliratude, mayest thou escape those dangerous seaa which 
flow among the sluning Cyclades." 

WsKN the perfidious shepherd" (Paris) earned off by sea in 
'Itejan ships his hoetess Helen, KoreuB" suppressed the swill 

'" The poet expresses bj solicitum ladimn tbat Eonxiw and aoziety 
which he felt, when ha vaa en|;aged in the partj of Brutos. ToRR. 

'" CTclades, iBles inthe^goaaSea: they are in number fifty-three, and 
are now called, Isole del Ardupelago. Watson. 

" In the year 122 u. c. Antouj set sail, with a numerous fleet, Irom 
Egypt lo Peloponnesua, intending to paaa over into Italy with Cleopatra, 
and make hla countiy the scene of a second civi! war. InQamed with a 
violent passion for that princess, aspiring to nothing less than making ber 
mislresa oT the univereo, and support by the Ibrces of tbe East, ha 
declared war against Octaviua Horace, therefore, in a noble and poetical 
allegory, representa to Antony the &tal eflfecta of such conduct, by pro- 
posing to him the oxample of Paris, and the ruinous consequenceB which 
attended his passion tiir Helen. 

We are aasared by Torrentins, that the best and moat andent mann- 
•cript which he had seen gave this titlo to the Ode, "Ad Alaxandmm 
Paridem, sub cujns persona eiponit imminentia beila ;" from whence it 
^ipean that the allegorical manner of ezphuiiiiig it, is at least of ao 
ancient date. Sas. 

" The treacherous shepherd, Paris, otherwise called Alexander, tho 
son of Priam and Hecuba, king and queeo of Troy. Once upon a 
time there fell out a controversy betwixt Juno, Palla^ and Venus, about 
a golden i^e that the goddess Discord had given them at Peleos' 
weddii^, on which it was written, "Let it be given to the fairest:" 
Tliey could not agre^ among themselves, but every one thought herself 
tbe forest. At last they made Paris judge ; and when he had seen them 
naked (bnt tliey offered him bribes besides ; Venus, that if ha would 
Judge it Co her, he should have tbe most beautiful woman in the world ; 
Juno promised him a kingdom ; Pallas, the excellency of wisdom), bo 
adjudged it to Venus. Afterthishecametobeownedat court, and aflct 
sometime, pretending business, ha took ship for Greoco, where he became 
acquainted with H3en, the femed beauty of tbat country, and, in the 
abaence of ber hnsband, carried her homo with him ; which proved the 
occasion of making good the Ibrmer dream of Hecuba, and setting all 
Troy in flamee. Watsom. 

'* Nerens. a god of tbe sea, tbe son of Oceanus and Tethys, and lather 
of tbe Nereides. Orpheus calls him the most ancient of the goda, whenca 

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18 0DB3 OF HORAOS. bmkl 

winds in an trnpleaaant calm, that he might sing" the dire 
fates. "With unlucky omen art thou conveying home hei, 
whom Greece with a numerous army shall demand back sgajn, 
having entered into a confederacy to dissolve yonr nuptials, 
and me ancient kingdom of Pnam. Alas! what sweat to 
horses, what to men, is just at hand I What a destrnctioD 
art thou preparing for the Troiaa nation! Even now Pallas 
is fitting her helmet, and her aoieid, and her chariot, and hei 
fury. In vain, looking fierce through the patronage of Veons, 
will yon comb your hair, and mu divisions" upon the efiemin- 
ate lyre with songs plcaang to women. In vain will yov 
oscme the spears Uiat disturb the nuptial bed, and the point 
of the Cretan dart," and Uie din [of battle], and Ajax swift 
in the pursuit Nevertheless, alas 1 the time will come, though 
late, wnen thou shalt defile dune adulterous hairs in the dnsL 
Dost thou not soe the son of Laertes, fatal to thy nation, and 
j Pylian Nestor, Salaminian Teucer, and Sthenelus" skilled in 
'fight (or if there be occasion to manage horaes, no tardy 

hy Virgil he is called Graodievus. Herons is also Bometimes taken Ibr 
the sea. Watsoh. 

" " Canere" ia commonly used of uttering predictions. 
" The expression carmina dividere feminia, Bccordio); to Antbon, 
means nothing more than to execute different airs for different females, 
In saocesaioti ; but Paria would hardly do thia in the presence of Helen. 
Orelli's view is, " that tbe whole piece cousists of two parts, the vocal 
and the iostrumental. The symphony of tbe lyre breaks {dividii^ the 
coutinaity of the soDg. The song divides tbe sympbony," t. e. you bId^ 
and alternately play upon your amorous lyre, strains, etc " We should, 
I think, conatroe iivula with earminii, and gnUa with faninit, as ex- 
presaive of their eCfemins^. The phrase means simply to execute varioos 
soft airs upon the lyre. The word "division" in our own lanf^uage, 
derived, of course, ttom the I^tin dividere, was used io the aixteentb 
century, technical^ fbr mu^cal compositioDS. Thus Shakespeare, Romeo 
and Juliet; 

Sotoe say tbe lark maiea moeei divition. 

This is not 80. 

And all tbe while sweet music did divide 

Her looser strains with Lydian harmonies." 

Spbnc, F. Q., fuofed bg Hoa^ — U'Caul. 
" Calami ipicula Ortoasii. It is probable, from this expression, that 
the Cretans, who were excellent archers, instead of arrows, made nse of 
a kind of bard, slender, pointed reed, which grew in the sands of their 
island. Thus Ovid; "ilec Gortiniaco calamus levis exit ah arcu." 8as. 
" Sthenelus, tbe son of Capansus and Evadne, one of the Greek cap- 
t^DS that was at Troy, and wns also shat up in the wooden horse, Watbox 

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Oinzn. ODES OF HOBAOB. 19 

charioteer), pursue thee with intrepidity! Heriones" also 
shalt thou «iperience. Behold ! the gaUant eon of IVdeuB," 
a better man than his father, glows to find yon out : him, as 
ft staj; flies a wolf, which he has seen on the opposite side of 
the v^e, unmindful of his pasture, shall you, effeminate, fly, 
grievously panting : — not such the promises you made your 
mistress. The fleet of the enraged Achilles shall defer for a 
time that day, which is to be fatal to Troy and the Trojan 
matrons : but, after a certun number of years, Grecian fire 
■hall consume the Trojan palaces." ^ 


O DAroHTBR, more charming than your charming mother, 
put what end you please to my insulting iambics ; either in 
the flames, or, if you choose it, in the Adriatic. Nor (>bele, 
nor Apollo, the dweller in the shrines," so shakes the breast 
of his priests ; Bacchus does not do it equally, nor do the 
Corybantes so redouble their strokes on the sharp-sounding 
cymbals, as direful anger ; which neither the None sword can 
deter, nor the shipwrecking sea, nor dreadful fire, nor Jupiter 
himself rushiug down with awful cra^. It is reported that 
Prometheus was obliged to add to that ori^nal clay [with 
which he formed mamdndl some ingredient taken from every 
animal, and that he applied the vehemence of the raging lion 
to the human breast. It waa rage that destroyed Thyestes 
with horrible perdition ; and has been the final cause that 
lofty dties have been entirely demolished, and that an insolent 
army has driven the hostile plowshare over their walls.^ 

■» Herionea, a brare captain, who went out of Crete to the uege 
of Troy, Watsom. 

M Diomedes, king of .«tolia, tha son of Tydeus and Deipjle, one of 
the Oredan wortbies in the Trojan ware. Watbon. 

" See OrellL Anthon and others take "iDcola" as meaniog "hab- 
Itans quasi in pectore." 

_•• /mprimerdqae mum. It was a custom among the Bomang, to 
drvB 'a plow over the walls of a city which they destroyed, to sig- 
itifV that the ground npon whkik it stood aboutd be fbrcver eatpkijei 
in agricnltUTe. ToBE. 

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so 0DE3 OF EOBAOK boocl 

Compose your mind. An ardor of Ronl attacked me also in 
blooming youth, and Aiove me in a ra^ to the writiiig of 
swift-foot«d iambics." Now I amdesirooB of excha^og 
Bcrerity for good nature, provided that tou will become mj 
friend, aAer mj having recanted my abnse, and restore me 
your affections. 

ODE xvn. 


Thb nimble Faunus often exchanges the Lycsean" mountain 
for the pleasant Lucretilis," and always defends mj she-goats 
from the scorching summer,** and the rainy winds. Ihe wan- 
dering wives of the ansavory hosband* seek the hidden 
Btrawbeny-trees and thyme with security through the safe 
grove : nor do the kids dread the green Uzards, or the wolves 
sacred to Mar^ ; whenever, my Tyndaris, the vales and the 
smooth rocks of the sloping Ustica have resounded with his 
melodious pipe. The gods are my protectors. My piety and 
my muse are agreeable to the gods. Here plenty, rich with 
rural honors, shall flow to you, with her generous horn filled 
to the brim. Hero, in a sequestered vale, you shall avoid the 
heat of the dw-star ; and, on your Anacreontic haq), sing of 
Penelope" and the frail Circe" striving for one lover; here 

<T CUtrM iambt». The poet calls thia kind of verse Bwift, or rapid, 
beoauae the first syllable of each Ibot was short, by which the cadeuca 
wss quicker. S&H. 

"* Lycffius, a mountain in Arcadia, sacred to Faunus, who is the 
same with Pan. So Yirgil. Eclog. ii. " Paa Primus Calamos cera con- 
juDgere plares JDatituit: Pan curat eves oviumque magpstroa." Fan, 
who fiist taught us Co conjoin our reeds . Fan, who protects tiie sheep 
and tbeir masters. Watson, 

'• Lucretilis, a mouotaio in the country of the Sabines, not far from 
Rome, where Horace had a, country-house. Maiai Lucretilem Lycceo, 
by the figure hyperbatoD, which puta that first which should be last, for 
MoUU Lyatam Lacrtlili, he inler(^anges Lyraiis for LacrcHlit. Watsoh. 

» laterally, " wards off the summer from the goats." 8» Virg. BcL 
viL i1, " solatitium pecori defendite." 

M See note ou Virg. Eel. viL 1. 

*> Penelope, the daughter of Icarus ; the wife of Ulysses, a womao 
of rare chastity. Watson. 

" Circe, the daughter of Sol, and nymph of Perso ; a sorceress, and 
ekilUi:! in the nature of herbs. Watson. 

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OS! xvuL ODES OF aOBACB. 21 

you shall qtiafi) under the shade, cups of unmtoxicatiiig Leabian. 
Nor shall the ra^ng son of Semele eater the combat witli 
Mars ; and unsuspected you shall not fear the insolent Cjnia, 
lest he should savagely lay his intemperate hands on yon, who 
are by no means a match for him ; and should rend the chaplet 
that 13 platted in your hair, and your inoffensive garment. 

O Varus, you can plant no tree preferable to the sacred 
vine, about the mellow soil of Tibur, and the walla of Gatilus. 
For God bath rendered every thing cross to the sober ; nor do 
biting cares disperse any otberwise [than by the use of vine]. 
Who, after wine, complains of the hardships of war or of 
poverty) Who does not rather [celebrate] Ihee, Father 
Bacchus, and thee, comely Venus > Xevertheless, the battle 
of the Centaurs" with the Lapithic," which was fought in 
their cups, admonishes us not to exceed a moderate use of the 
gifts of Bacchus. And Bacchus himself admonishes us in his 
severity to the Thracians ; when ^edy to satisfy their lusts, 
they make Utile distJnctioa between right and wrong. 
beauteous Bacchos," I will not rouse thee against thy will, 
nor will I hurry abroad thy [mysteries, which are] covered 

*< A peopts oT Tbeeaslj, near Mount Felion, who fltst broke horses 
Ibr WW ; wbenoe it came to pass that tbey, b«iig seen bj other people 
on horseback at a distance, were supposed lo be but one creature, who 
bad the upper part like a mau, and the other part of his bodj like a 
horse. WiTSOH. 

" Lapjtbie, a people of Tbcasalj, near Mount Oljmpus. Pirithous 
was tbair king, who having drank to excess at his wMlding, the Cen- 
taurs endeavored to ravish Hippodamia, the king's new-married queen; 
or, as some aay, attempted to ravish the wives of the Lnpithffi at the 
wedding, and were therefore all put to death. Watsoh. 

f The epithet eandide is here verj expressive^ and refera to the un- 
fading jouth and beauty which the mytliology of the Greeks and Ro- 
mans assigued to the deity of wine. Oompare Broukhoa, ad. TibulL iiL 
vL 1, and Dryden (Ode for St. Cecilia's day), "Bacchus, ever &ir and 
joong,' and Ovid, Fast iil 772 : 

" Candida fbnnosi venerabimor ora LyaL" Aitthoh. 

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with Tuions leares. Cease ^onr dire cymbals, bother with 
your Pbijrgian horn, whoee followen are blind Self-love aod 
Arrogaoce, holding up too high her empty head, and the Futb 
eommunicative of sei^ets, and more transparent than glass. 


The croel mother of the Cupids, and the son of the Theban 
Semele, and lascivious ease, command me to ^ve back my 
mind to its deserted loves. The splendor of Glycera, shining 
brighter than the Parian marble, inflaoics me : her agree- 
able petulance, and her countenance, too unsteady to be 
beheld, inflame me. Venus, rushing on me with her whole 
force, has quitted Cyprus ; and suffers me not to sing of the 
Scythians," and the Parthian," furious when his horse is 
turned for flight, or any subject which is not to the present 
purpose. Here, slaves, place me a live turf; here, place me 
vervains and franUncense, with a flagon of two-yearK)ld wine. 
She will approach more propitious, after a victim has been sac- 

Mt dear knight Mtecenas, you shall drink [at my house] 
ignoble Sabine nine in sober cups, which I myself sealed up 
in the Grecian cask," stored at the time, when so loud an ap- 

" ScTthia was a large conatiy, now called Tartarr, divided into the 
Asiatic and European. Watsoh. 

^ Faitbian. Partbla, a country in Asia, iyiag between Media and 
CarmsQia, and tlie Hjrcanian Sea. The FarthianB fbugbt with bows 
and arrows, and that Ajiag; so that b; turning about their horses, thej 
shot and wounded the enemy who was pursuing them. Watson'. 

" When the ancients filled tbeir caaka, they cloaad them with wsi, 
pitch, gam, or phiater, and although the Sabine wine was by no meana 
worthy of so much care, yet as Mtecenaa at tbat time had rec^ved some 
remarkable applause in the theater, the poet preserved on his vessels tha 
remombrance of a day so glorioua to hia patron. SaK. 

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plause was ^ven to you in the anipliilheiit«r,"" that the builn 
of your ancestral river,' together with the cheerful echo of the 
YatJcan mountain, returned your praises. Yon [when vou 
are at home] will drink the Ctecuhaii,' and the jT^pe whicn is 
squeezed in the Oaleuian press ; hut neither the German vinfls^ 
nor the Fomuan' hilla, season my cups. 

Ye tender vir^ns,* rang Diana ; ye boys, sing ApoUo with 
his unshorn hair, and Latona passionately beloved by the so- 
prame Jupiter. Ye (vit^ns), praise her that rejoices in th? 
rivers, and the thick groves, which project either from the cold 
AlgiduB. or the ^oomy woods of Eiymanthus, or the green 
Cragus.! Ye boys, extol with e^ual prases Apollo's Deloa, and 
his shonider adorned with a quiver, and with his brother Mer' 
cnry's lyre. He, moved by your intercession, shall drive away 
calamitous war, and miserable famine, and the pl^fue fiom the 
Roman people and their sovereign Cassar, to the Persians and 
the Britons. 

1M It ia probable, from tho ITth Ode of tho second Book, that this Kp- 
plaoBe was to coi^ratulate Miccaiiaa Ibr his escaping soma sccideabJ 
danger ; and as the ancients were usad to mark the age of their wines 
by Uie names of tho consala, or by the most extraordinaTj event of the 
jeor, the poet bad chosen this instanco of the glorj and good fortune of 
bia patron, Ibr the date of hie wine. Sav. 

> Falemijbtminia. It seems as if Horace could not find a more glo- 
riona epithet for the Tiber than tbis, which calls it the river of Miece' 
nas's ancestors, who came origioally from Etruiia, where the 'Hber baa 
ila Bonice. Sah. 

> Ctecabum, a town la Oampania, not far from Cajeta. The wine pro- 
duced there was much esteemed. Watson. 

9 Mount Formiatium, near tbe city Formise, the seat of the Ijeetry- 
gones, now swallowed up bj the sea, and called Qolib di Oaietta. The 
wine of the place was much valued. Watsoh. 

* la tbe celebration of the festival of Bacdius, a select number of 
virgins, of honorable iamihes, called KaxiiipApoi, Kiaamtopoi, KiartK^opoi, car- 
ried small baskets of gold, in which were concealed, beneath vine, ivy, 
aud otber leaves, certain sacred mysterious things, which were not to bs 
exposed to tho eyes of the profkae. Ahthok. 

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Tbx man of npright life and pure from wickedness, Fuo- 
cus, has no need of the Mooriah jarelins or bow, or qoiver 
loaded with poisoned darts. Whether he is abont to mue his 
journey through the Eultry Sjrtes,' or the inhosjmtable CaucBsua,' 
or those places which Hy daspes,' celebrated in story, washes. 
For lately, as I was singing my Lalage, and wandered beyond 
my usual bounds, devoid of care, a wolf in the Sabine wood 
fled from me, though I was unarmed :' such a monster, as 
neither the warlike Apulia nourishes in its extensive woods, 
nor the land of Juba," the dry nurse of lions, produces. Place 
me in those barren plains, where no tree is refreshed by the 
genial air ; at that part of the world, which clouds and an in- 
clement atmosphere infest. Place me imder the chariot of the 

■ Aristius FuBcos, a good man, of tirtuoua morals. Horace, fbr tlie 
most part, dedicates hia poems (and writes them on a subject) suitable to 
tbe virtues and vices of tbose he addresaea them to. So Sat. ix. Book L 
"EcceFujjcua Aristius occunit mibi chana." "Behold Aristius Fuscua, 
dearly beloved by me, meets me." Watsok. 

< Syrtea, two quidcsands on the A&icaa shore, tbe . greater beyond 
TripoU, about four hundred milea in compass ; the lesser on this side, 
near one hnndred and ainety miies in circumference. Watsoh. 

' Through Xjaucoaua, a, higb mountain in Asia, betwixt the EuxinQ 
and Caspian Seas, called also Garmaa, and of later gcograj^ets, Cocas, 
or Cochiaa : it is situated aboat Iberia and Albania, on the north part It 
is of great height, covered with snow, reeky, and full of trees. Watbon. 

' Hydaapes, tbe name of two rivers in Aaia; tho one in Uedia, near 
the city Susa; the other in India, near the city Nysa, which he here 
calls labulous, because there are several strange things storied of it, snch 
as that it abounds with golden sands, pearls, and precious slonea, etc 

• " DoDatus acribit Tii^um eolitum dicere nuUam virtutem commo- 
diorem homini esse patientiS., ac nullam Ibrtnnam adeo esse asp^am, 
quam pmdenter patiendo vir fortia non vincat Propric igitur sentsntia 
ipsum nunc consolatnr Horatias." Fabeio. 

1° The land of Juba. He was king of Manritania, who in the time 
of the civil war was on Pompey'a side ; he overthrew Curio, and, after 
Pompey was overctaie, he joined with ScipiO) but they being conquered 
by CEsaar, rather than he would be the matter of Cnsar's scorn and 
triumph, Petreiua and he running at each other, were purposely alais. 


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ODX zxm. zxiT. ODES OF HORA.CK 2S 

too nfflghboriog eud, in tl land de|>rived of habitations; 

[there] will I lore my sweetly-amiling, sweetly-epeakiii^ 

Tod shun me, Chloe, like a &wn that is seeking ita timorom 
mother i& the pathless mountains, not withoat a vma dread of 
the breezes and the thickets : for she trembles both in her 
heart and knees, whether the anisal of the spring has terrified 
by ita rustling leaves, or the green lizards haTo stirred the 
bush. But I do not follow you, Vika a savago tigress, or a 
Gsetulian lion, to tear you to pieces. Therefore, quit your 
mother, now that you ore mature for a husband. 

TO vntaiL. 

What shame or bound can there be to our affectionate regrc* 
for eo dear a person I O Melpomene," on whom your &tliet 
has bestowed a clear voice and the harp, teach me the mourn- 
ful strums. Does then perpetual sleep oppress Quinctiliust" 
To whom when will modesty, and uncormpt &ith the dster of 
Justice, and undisguised truth, find any equal! £fe died 
lamented by many good men, but more lamented by none 
than by you, m^ Vir^l. Tou, though pious, alas I in vain 
demand Quinctilius b^ from the gods, wno did not lend him 

" Uelpomene, one "S the muses, who fiist composed tragedies; and 
therdiKe Horace properly addreases hiroself to ber lor asaistauce in writ- 
ing a fiineral elegj OD Quinctilius Varoa. See Ode xriiL Watson. 

■' Quinctilius. This is not Quiactiliua Varus, who commanded the 
army in Qonnaoy iiader AnguBtua as his general, who, after his arm; 
was routed, killed himselE For that was twenty-seren years after Tir- 
gil's death, and eighteen after Horace died. But Quioctitius Yarns, the 
poet and critic of Cremona, an intimate friend of Virgil's, who died 
about tlie tenth consulship of Augustas. 'Watsoh. 

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26 0DB8 OF HORACE. bookl 

to us on Bnch lenas. What, though ;on could strike the lyre, 
listened to by the trees, with more Bweetneas than the Thradan 
Orpheus ; yet the blood can never return to the empty shade, 
which Mercury, inexorable to reverse the fates, has with his 
dreadful Caduoeus once driven to the gloomy throng. This 
is hard : but what it ia out of onr power to amend, becomes 
more supportable by patience. 

Tbx wanton youths less violently shake thy fastened windows 
with their redoubled knocks, nor do they rob you of your 
i«st ; and your door, whit^ formerly moved its yielding 
hinges freely, now sticks lovingly to its threshold. iJesa and 
less often do you now hear : " My Lydia, dost thou sleep the 
Hve-IoDg night while I your lover am dying V Now you are 
an old woman, it will be your turn to bewail the insolence of 
rakes, when yoa are neglected in a lonely alley, while the 
Ihracian wind" rasas at the Int«rlanium :'* when that hot 
desire and lust, which is wont to render furious the dams of 
' hones, shall raire about your ulcerous liver : not without com- 
plaint, that spnghlly youth rejoice rather in the verdant ivy 
and growing myrtle, and dedicate sapless leaves to Eurus, the 
companion of winter," 

u Between an old and new moon, the wind is usaall/ most tempeetQ* 

ouB. " InleriuniOTum dies tempestatibns plenof^ et nsvigantibos qn&m 
mazimS metuandoa, DOn solCim peritue ratio, sed etiam vulgi usos Intel' 
ligit" Die. 

'* ''Sub mterlouia iieeoeekirvv, "it tho time which interveaea be- 
tween the old and new moon." Or, in freer and more poetic lango^e, 
" during the dark and slormj seaaon when the moon has disappeared 
from the skies." Interlunium, " biduum illud, quo in coitu eolia luna non 
conapicitnr." Obell. 

" Aridas flondes bjemis «odali dedicet. The aenae and inteTpretation 
<X these words depend on the two former lines. Toong men, sars the 
poet, are more pleased, magii gaitdenl, with trees which are always 
green, sucli sa are myrtle and irj ; bnt despise dry and withered leavea. 

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A 7BiEin> to the Muses, I will deliver up grief and fears to 
the wanton winds, to waft into the Cretan Sea; singular); 
careless, what Mag of a frozen region is dieaded nn^ tbe 
pole, or what terrifies Tiridates." sweet muse, who art 
delighted with pare fountdna, weave together the Ennn; 
fiowere, weave a chaplet for my Lamia." Without thee, my 
prases profit nothing. To render him immortal by new 
Btrains," to render him immortal by the Lesbian lyre," be- 
comes both thee and thy Hiaters. 

>■ Tn the jear 719, u. o,, the Porthiiins expelled Pbraates fi>r bis 
cruelty, and set Tiridates upon the throne. In 724, Phmates was re- 
stored by the Scythians ; and Tiridates, obliged to fly, carried with him 
the SOD of Fhraates to Octaviua, who was then in 8jria. That prince, 
delighted with having the son of tbe greatest enemy of tbe republic in 
his power, carried him to Rome, and permitted Tiridates to remain in 
Syria; who being impatient to recover his throne, soUcited Augustas 
fiv BUccoTB. In 731, Phraates sent an embassy to Rome, with nn oS'er 
of restorii^ to Augustus the Roman e^les, which were taben in the 
defest of Ctdssus, if he would send hie eon and Tiridates to him. Au- 
gustus made tbe report to the senate, who remitted to him tbe decision 
of the afliiir. He granted the embassadora the first pan of their de- 
mand, but kept Tiridates at Borne, and promised te entcrtaia him in a 
manner suitable to his dignity. 

This ode was written when the aC&ir was depending, and we tray 
judge bow Tiridates must have been alarmed, while he wns aOaid of 
being sent te Phraates, irom whom ha could e^wct nothing but tortures 
and death. Sax. 

IT .aains Lamia was a Roman knight, whose character is thus drawn 
by Cicero : " Vir summo splendore, summS gratift ; nullo prorsiis plils 
Bomine delector," Dao. 

" Whan tbe poets intended to Bing any thing eitraordinary, they 
need to change the strings of their lyres. Dac. 

However, this changing the airiitgs of ike lyre seems rather a poetical, 
metapboncaJ expression for the change of the subject. Fran. 

" Sappho, a famous poetess, inventrees ofUie Sapphic verse, being re- 
jected by her lover Phaon, she destroyed herself. There was a promon- 
toTT in Arcadia called Leucate, on the top of which was a little tempi» 
dedicated to Apollo. WATfiOH. 

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To quarrel over your cupa, which were made for joy, is 
downright Tbracmn. Away with the barbarous custom, 
* and protect modest Bacchus from bloody frays. How im- 

mensely disagreeable to wino aud caudles" is the saber of tl 
Medesl my companions, repress your wicked voeife " 
and rest quietly on bended elbow. Would you have i 

fake my share of stout Falernian ! Let the brother of Opun- 
tian Mepllathen declare, with what wound" he is blessed, with 
what d^ he is dying. — What, do you refuse! I will not 
drink upon any other condition. Whatever kind of passion 
rules you, it scorches you with the flames you need not bo 
ashnmed ofi and you always indulge in an honorable, an in- 
genuous love. Come, whoever is your case, trust it to faith- 
ful cars. Ah, unhappy ! in what a Charybdis art thou 
struggling, O youth, worthy of a better flame ! What witch, 
what magician, with his Thessalian incantations, what deity 
can free you I Pegasus himself will scarcely deliver you, so 
entangled, from this three-fold chimera. 

ODE xxvra. 

The [want of the] scanty present of a httlo sand" near the 
Mantinian shore, conflnes thee, Archytas," the surveyor of 

w A sort of hendiadjH,^" revBlries by night." 

1 t e. by what love, 

« PtUvffris eiigtti munera. The ancients hcliBved that the souls of 
those whose bodies were letl unburied, were not permitted to pass over 
the river S^z, but nsndered a buadred years on its banka, la allnuon 
to this opinion, Horace says, " Parvo munera pnlvoria eiigui cobibeut 
te, ratinent tuam oiabram ah Elysiis campis." A little present of dnat 
detains you ; that ia. yon are detained &om the Elysian fields for want 
of a little present of dust> Dac 

^ Archytas, a philosopher of Tarentum, a noble city in tbe furthest 
part of the ancdent Magoa Gneda, now Taieato ; it was inhabited by 
Spartans, under Pbalantus their captain. Archytas was a great mathe- 
matician, astrolr^er, and geometrician, and £imous fur his martial 

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ODizzvni. ODES OF HORACE. 29 

sea and eartli, and of the innumerable sand : neither is it of 
any advantage to you, to have explored the celestial regions, 
and to have traversed the round world in your imagination, 
since thou wast to die." Thus also did the father of Pelops, 
the guest of the gods, die ; and Hthonus" likewise was 
translated to the sMes, and Minos," though admitted to the 
secrete of Jupiter; and the Tartarean regions are possessed 
of the son of Panthous," once more sent down to the receptacle 
of the dead; notwithstanding, having retaken his shield" 
from the temple, he gave evidence of the Trojan times, and 
that he bad resigned to gloomy death nothing but his sinews 
and bIod ; in yonr opiuton, no inconsiderable judge of truth 
and nature. But the same night awaits all, and the road of 
death must once be traveled. The Furies give up some to the 
sport of horrible Mars : the greedy ocean is destructive to 
sailors : the mingled funerals of young and old are crowded 
together : not a angle person does the cruel Proserpine" pass 
exploits, bavEng made his escape when PTth^oras aiui some of bis dis- 
ciples were killed; lie was greatly beloved by Plato and Tiroieus, upon 
whose account he came to Italy. Watson. 

'* Tbis is the proper force of " moriturus." So also " moribundus" is 
used in Tii^ 

" TithoDus, the son of Laomedon, who, desiring long life, was so 
wasted with old age, that the poets fenced bim to be tum^ into a grass- 
hopper: he was said to be beloved by Aurora (on whom he begat Prince 
Ucmnoo), for that he used carly.riaiDg, whereby he preserved his lifa 
long. WiTSOS. 

" MinoB, a king of Crcto, tbo son of Jupiter by Europa. He first gave 
laws to the Cretans, and for hja justice was afler death made chief judge 
ia hell ; be married Pasipbaf, tlio daughter of Sol, and had many clul- 
dren by her. Watbon. 

" Bnphorbus is here meant in name, but Pythagoras in reality. This 
phiioBopher taught the doctrinoof the transmigration of souls, and is said 
to have asserted that be himself had aoimated various bodies, and had 

'• Clypeo refixo. Figere and refigere are terms borrowed from the 
Itomau law. When a law was publicly set up, and proposed to the 
people, they made use of tbo word^sre; when they took them dowo, 
they osed the terms refigere leges. Dac. 

" Proxrpina fuffit. lo allusion lo a superstition of the ancients, who 
beUeved that no person could die, until Proserpine or Atropoa bad cut 
ola lock of their hair. This ceremony was considered as a kindof fiiat- 
fruits, consocratcd to Pluto. Torr. 

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30 ODES OF HO&LOK bookl 

bv. The MMth wind, the tempestaons aU«ndaiit on the set- 
bng" Orion, has sunk me also in the IHjnian waveB. But 
do not thou, O sailor, malignaatly grudve to ^re a portion of 
loose sand to mj bones and unburied bead. So, whatever 
the east wind sb&Il threaten to the Italian sea, let the Tenns- 
inian woods soffer, while yow are in safety ; and manifold 

frofit, from whatever port it may, come to yon by favcmng 
ovo, and Neptune, the defender of consecrated Tarentnm. 
But if yon, by chance, make light of" committing a crime, 
which will be hurtfid to your innocent posterity, may just 
taws and haughty retribution awiut you. I wUI not be 
deserted with fruitless prayers; and no expiadons" shall 
alone for yon. Though you are in haste, yon need not tarry 
long: after having thrice sprinkled the dnst over me, you 
may proceed. 

TO locrns. 

O locics," you now covet the opulent treasures of the Ara- 
bians, and are preparing vigorous for a war against the Idnga 
of Sabs," hitherto unconquered," and are forming chains for 
the formidable Mede. What barbarian virgin shall be your 
slave, after you have killed her betrothed nusband ? What 
boy from the court shall be made your cup-bearer, with his 

" Which dechnea to its Eetting, The rising and setting of this constel- 
lation ore usually attended with Btorms. Tirgil calls it ag^iosumauA 
nwniiWBTj». Tosa. 

" "Paruni curna, pro nihilo habes culpam hujuamodi in te admittere." 
Orglli; who, however, reads the seate nee intcrrogatJTelj, which is more 
ani mated. 

" Fiacubim sigoifles both the crime and the sacrifice bj which it was 
expiated. San, 

" Iccius, a philosopher ; he was Agrippa's procurator in Sicilj, and by 
him presented with much land. WAtSoV. 

" Sabsa, the chief city of Arabia Felii, called now Zibit, where is 
great store of cinnamon, cassia, frankincense, and mjrrh. Watsoh. 

" Hon anii devietis. Wo can understand these words oalj of that 
part of Arabia called Sabsa, fbr the Romans bad carried their anna iuto 
olheni parts of Arabia under sovoral different generals. Lac. 

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ODB zzz. -mrr ODES 0? HOBA.CK 31 

perfumed locks, ekiUed to direct the Seric arrowB with his 
uther's bow ? Who will now deny that it is probable for pre- 
dpitata risers to flow back agtun to the high mountuuB, and 
for liber to change his course, wnce you are about to ex- 
change the noble works of FanstiuB, collected liom all parts, 
toge^er with the whole SocratJc {amily," for Iberian armor,. 
amt you had promised better things ! 

O Vbnus, queen of Gnidus" and Paphos, n^lect your fc- 
vorite Cyprus, and transport yourself into the beautiful 
temple of Glycera, who is invokiDg you with abundance of 
frankinGenBe. Let your glowing son hasten along with you, 
and the Graces with their zones loosed, and the Nymphs, and 
Youth possessed of little charm without you and Mercury. 


What does the poet beg from Phoebus on the dedication of 
bis temple t" What does he pray for, while he pours from the 
Ssgou the first hbation ? Not the rich crops of fertile Sar- 

" Sacraticum domum. Horace calls the sect of Socrates Swroiicum 
Jomum, as Ihe sdiools of the philoaoptieTs were caHed/amilia. Dak 

" Gnidua, a toWn in Cans, a country in A^ Mioor, between Lyda 
Bud Ionia, on the side of the mountftin Taurus, where Venus was wor- 
Bhiped. Watson. 

" In tbe ;ear T26, u. O. Octavius dedicated to Apollo a teniple sod 
library ia his palace on Mount Palstino ; which havicg been struck with 
l^htmng. the ai^;urs said the god demauded that it should be consecrated 
to him. Horace was then thirty-eight years old. Dag. 

" " A god is said himself lo tie dedicaled, to whom a, new temple is 
consecrated. Cic de N. D. 2, 23; id fides, ut mens, quca in Cajitiolus de- 
iieatcu viiiemut." Orblu. 

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32 ODES OF HORA.CB. bookl 

diiila:'* not the goodij flocks of scorched Calabria:" not 
gold, or Indian ivory: not thoae countries, which the still 
rirer Una eata away with its silent streams. Let those to 
whom fortune has given the Galenian vineyards, prone them 
with a hooked knife ; and let the wealthy merchant drink out 
of golden cupa the wines procured by his Syrian merchandize, 
favored by the gods themselves, inaamudi as without losa 
he visits uiree or four times a year the Atlantic Sea. He 
olives support, me anccoriea and soft mallows. O thou son 
of Lotona," grant me to enjoy my acqnisitionB, and to possess 
my health, tc^ther with an unimpured understuiding, I be- 
seech thee ; ^d that I may not lead a dishonorable old age, 
nor one bereft of the lyre. 



Wk are called upon. If ever, O lyre, in idle amusement in 
the shade with thee, we have played any thing that may live 
for this year and many, come on, bo responsive to a Latin 
ode, my dear lyre — first tuned br a Lesbian citizen, who, 
fierce in war, yet amid arms, or if ne had made fast" to the 
wate^ shore uis tossed vessel, sung Bacchus, and jJio Muses, 
and Venus, and the boy her ever-close attendant, and Lycus, 
lovely for his black eyes and jetty locks. O thou omam< 
of Apollo, charming shell, agreeeAtle even at the banquets 

** Sardinia, an island or Italy, which fbrmerly beloaged to the Span- 
lards, but is DOW subject to its own king, who is of the Eunilj of Savoj. 

*' Calabria, a country in the uttennost part of Italy, which is almost 
BD isle ; it brings (brth fruit twice a year, and aboands with bees and 
cattle. Watson, 

" Latona, the dauf^hter of Ci?us, the bod of Titan, who made war 
against Jupiter for raTiahitig hia daughter ; she, to fly jtino'a wrath, fled 
to the island Ortygia, that is, Delos. Watson'. 

" RdigariU. This verb haa two Bignifloationa entirely opposite, and 
might be construed oither lo set sail, or to cast anchor. The sonsa must 
here determine us to the latter meaning of the word, as the poet opposes 
the noise and tamult of battle to the calm aad repose alter a storm.. &k.s. 

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eapreme Jove I thou street alleviator of aiudoua toils, be 
propidous to me, whenever duly invoking thee I 


Qrikvk not too much, my Albius," thoughtful of cruel Gly> 
cera; nor chant your mournful elegies, because, as her failfa 
being broken, a younger man is more agreeable than you in 
her eyes. A love for Cyrus inflames Lycoris, distingutBhed 
for her little forehead :" Cyrus follows the rough fholoe ; 
but she-goats shall sooner be united to the Apulian wolves, 
than Pholoe shall commit a crime with a base adulterer. 
Such is the will of Venus, who delights in cruel sport, to 
subject to her brazen yokes ^rsons and tempera ill suited to 
cacD other. As for myself, the slave-born Myrtale, more ud' 
tractable than the Adriatic Sea that forms the Calabrian gulfs, 
cntuigled me in a pleasing chain, at the very time that a more 
eligible love courted my embraces. 


A remiss" and irregular worshiper of the gods, while I 
professed the errors of a senseless philosophy," I am now 

" AJbius Tibullus, an eminent poet, who wrote several fins elegies, 
of wiiicli four books are still eEtont. He and Virgil died much about the 
same tjme. Watsok. 

" Termi frorUe. The Greeks and Latins thought a low forehead a 
^reat beauty, " Frous brevis atque modus breviter ait oaribus imcis." 
Mart And Petrouins in the description of Circe: "Frons minima." 

*' Parcum Deorum cvUor, The Epicureans coofbrmed only to the 
outward ceremooiea of religious worship, which they thought the cre- 
dulity of the people had established. This superScial kind of devotion, 
the poet halli oxprosscd by the wordjiornu. Sak. 

" Id Lucret v. 10, the doctrine of Epicurus is called wisdom «a/ 

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obliged to set sail back again, and to renew the coarse that 
I had deserted. For Jupiter," who usually cleaTes the cloads 
with his gleaaiiDg lightniDg, lately drove his thundering' horses 
and rapid chariot through the clear serene; at which the 
sluggish earth, and wandering rivers; at which Stji, and the 
horrid seat of detested Tsnarus," and the utmost boimdary 
of Atlas'* were shaken. The Deity is able to make exchange 
between the highest and the lowest, and diminiahes the ex- 
alted, bringing to light the obscure ; rapatuous fortune, with 
a shrill whizziDg, has borne off the plume from one head, and 
delist» in having placed it on another. 


O QODDBse, who preddest ov«r beautiful Antium ;" thon, 
that art ready to exalt moTt&l man from the most abject 
state, or to convert su|>erb triumphs into funerals ! Thee the 
poor countryman solicits with hu anxious vows; whosoever 

liaxhv, the perreisty of whom Horace now called ttuamty. Dreg. Nbe. 
Invact Pr. in Juliao, p. 79: uao^, Iv' oJJruf dva/meu, oo^i'o. Obblll 

*■ UiMpiter sLguifles Did paier, as Japiler is put fbr Javis paler, and 
Marspiter for Hars pater. San. 

*■ Tieoams, a promontory and seaport town of Peloponneans, full of 
thick woods, wbere the poets feiga was a deaceot to hell, caJled bf 
Ovid Ttenaria Porta, the Ttenarian Gate; byViigil, TtenariiB Fauces, 
the Tffinarian jaws. Watsos. 

" Atlas, a mountaiD in Mauritania, so high, that the top of it is said 
to reach to heaven, and item it up. WllTBOV. 

" The subject of this ode is perfectly lu^le, well designed, sud well 
executed. Tbe versiflcatioa is flowbg and harmooious, the expres^on 
bold and sublime. 

In the 7eBr 119, Augustus was on bis march to Britain, but was re- 
called by a revolt of the Dalmatians In 727, having ended the civil 
wars by the defeat of Antony, he again resolved to turn his arms gainst 
that island, but was satisfied with an embassy from thence, and a promise 
of obedience to any conditions which he pleased to impose npon them. 
These conditions not being well observed, he was determined to make the 
Britons feel the effectsof his displeasure, yet was again obliged to employ 
the forces of the republic in Buppresaing an iosurrectioD of the Salaasi, 
Cantabri, aad AflturiL Sam. 

" Antium, an ancient ciiy of Italy, the capital of the Tolscians, the 
W)unti7 of Nero, and a good harbor for shipping. Watson. 

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ODBZzrr. 0DE3 OF HOBACB. 85 

plows the Carpathian Sea" with the Bithynian" vesael, 
importunes thee, as mistreaa of the ocean. TTiee the rough Da- 
cian,'* thee the nandering Scythiai.s, and cities, and nations, 
and narUke Latium also, and the mothers of barbarian kines, 
and tyranla clad in purple, fear. Spurn not with destructive \ 
foot uiat column which now stands firm, nor let popular ti»- 
mult rouse thoM, who now rest quiet, to anns-^o arms — and 
break the empire. ISeceteitj, tLy minister, always maichea 
before thee, holding in her brazen liand huge spikes and 
wedges ; nor is the unyielding clamp absent, nor the melted 
lead. Thee Hope reverences, and rare Fidelity, robed ia a 
white gannent ; nor doee she . refuse to bear thee company/* 
howsoever in wrath thou change thy robe, and abandon the 
houses of the powerful. But the iaithlesB crowd [of com- 
puiions], and the peijured harlot draw back. Friends, too 
faithless to bear equally the yoke of adversity, when casks are 
exhausted, very dregs and all, fly oS. Preserve thou Gssar, 
who is meditating an expedition against the Britons, the 
furthest people Jn the world, and also the new levy of youths 
to be dreaded by the Eastern regions," and the Red Sea. 
Alas I I am ashamed of our scais, and our wickedness, and 
of brethren. What have we, a hardened age, avoided! 
What have we in our impiety left unviolated ! From what 
have our youth restrained their hands, out of reverence to the 
gods 1 What altars have they spared t O mayest thou foi^ 
anew our blnnted swords on a di^rent anvil against (he Mas- 
eaget» and Arabians. 

" The Carpathian Sea, bo called from CarpBthn^ an Ue between 

Shodee and <>ete, which usitalljkretaineth its anjieiit name. Watsoh. 

" Bithjnia, a countrj of Asia the Lees, next to Ttoas, over against 
Thrace, and, as is supposed, planted bj Thraciansj whence Xenophon 
calls it Thracia Asiatica. WiTSO.v. 

" Dacia was a countiy of Hungarj be^oiid the Danube. 

" }fee eomilem almega(\ se, ut Ter. Enn. 2, 3, 84, " fodla nt eunwdio 
probes," C «. te Ovid. A. A L 121, "Si qna repugnarat nimium comi- 
temqne nef^arat," se. Oselu. 

*' Eoii Ummdian. In the end oTQie fear TZ1, ^!iis GbUqb mandied 
with an army to succeed Cornelius in the government of BgTpti and u 
he wanted a Beet for his expedition against the Arabians, he oidered a 
number of sMpa to bo built in the ports of the Red Sea. As this army 
alarmed all the countries of the East, so the Romans had Uie greatest ez> 
pectations that it would revenge all the insults which the repubLo bad 
received from the Partbians, Sah. 

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Tsia is a jojrAil occasion to sacrifice both with incense and 
music of the lyre, and the votive blood of a heifer to the gods, 
the guardians of Nomida; who, now r;;tunung in safety from 
the extremest part of Spain, imparts many embraces to his 
beloved companions, but to none more than his dear Lamia, 
mindfbl of his childhood spent under one and the same 
governor, and of the gown, which they changed at. the same 
time." Let not this joy^ day be without a Cretan mark of 
distinction;" let us not spare the jar brou^t forth [fixim the 
cellar]; nor, Salian-like, let there be any cessation of feet; 
nor let the toping Damalis conquer Bassua in the Thradan 
Amystis;" nor let there be roses wanting to the banquet, 
nor the ever-green parsley, nor the ahort-hved lily. All the 
company will fix their dissolving e^ea on Damalis ; bnt she, 
more luxuriant than the wanton ivy, will not be separated 
from her new lover. 



Now, my companions, is the time to carouse, now to heat the 
groimd with a light foot : now is the time that was to deck 

" It is probable Uiat this ode was written in tho year 730, when Nn- 
mida returned with Angustua from the war of Spain, and we naj judge 
with how much tenderness Horace loved his friends, when he celebrated 
th«r return with sacrifices, songs, and dances. Sah. 

" Muialaque simid logte. At the age of seventeen the Roman youth 
pat on the toga, and were no tcmger under the tutor's power. The toga 
was a largo mantle worn over the (untca, and different in length, color, 
and omamenla, according to the fortune or profession of the wearer. Sa.». 

" Oswii ne careai. Aa challr was ftmnd in great abundanco in Crete, 
the ancients used to say proverbially, a Cretan marki for any marlt of joy 
and happiness; on the contrary, their unlucky days were said to be 
marked with black LAun. 

" Threidd Amystidt. This term is Graelc, and sigmfles a oostom 
among the Thraoians of driulting a certain measure of wine, without 
dosing the lips, or taking breath. Lamb. 

" At the first announcement of the victory at Actium, Horace en- 


«razzzvix ODES OF HOBAGB. 37 

Hi» couob of the gods with Salian" dainties. Before this, it 
vas impious to produce the old Cxcuban stored up by your 
ancestors ; while the queen, with a contamioated gang of 
creatures, noisome through distemper, was prepariog giddy 
destruction for the Capitol aud the subversion of the empire, 
being weak enough to hope for any thing, and intoxicated 
with her prospering fortune. But scarcely a single ahip 
preserved from the flames" bated her fury ; aud Cxata brought 
down ber mind, inflamed with E^ptian wine, to real f^rs, 
close pursuing her in her flight from Italy with his galleys 
(as the hawk pursues the tender doves, or the nimble hunter 
the hare in the pimns of snowy jEmon), that he might throw 
into chains" this destructive monster [of a woman] ; who, 
eoeking a more generous death, neither had an effeminate 
dread of the sword, nor repaired with her swift ship to bid- 
den shores. She was able also to look upon her palace, lying 

courages bis companions to givo froo reiua to joj and hilarity, jet etill 
to honor and admire the noble spirit and bold resoiutionTif the ill-fated 
Cleopatra. With the true spirit of a Roman citizen be is silent of hiS fellow 
Koman, Aritonj. The aanal^ too, hod not proclaimed war against him, 
but against Cleopatra, and Augustus triumphed not ostensibly over his 
fallen colleague in the triumvirate, but Qver au Egyptian queen. It was, 
indeed, his intereat, that men should speedily for^t that bis ibrmer ftiend 
and relative had been, by him, forced to death, and that in the glare of 
victory the Romans should be Bartered, not alarmed. 

The tidings of the death of both were brought to Rome, in the autumn 
of A. r 0. 724, by U. Tulliua Cicero, the son of the orator and then 
Oiinsal Suffecimi; and tliaC this is one of the earheet lyric e'en] positions ol 
Horace is probable, as well from its subject as by the irregularity of its 
composition, such as the synaJephe iu v. 6, and neglect of the cajsura in 
vs. 6 and 14. Atfrno». 

** The Salii were pneata of Mars, instituted by Numa Pompilius, twelve 
in number, of the senatorial rsjik ; Iheir number was doubled by TuUua 
Soetilius. These, armed with a brazen helmet, belt, and breastplate, 
went through the city with a constant even pace, dancing to the sound of 
musical instruments. Their solemn processions were very magnificent. 
Hence the proverb Dapes SaHarea, for a grand entertainment. 

" Ab igrUbia. The fleet of Antony, even after his flight, made such 
tm obstinate resistance, Uiat Augustus was obliged to send for fire flvm 
bis camp to destroy it. 

" Darel uf tatoM. Octavius had given particular directions to Pro- 
euleius and Epaphroditus to take Cleopatra alive, that ho might make 
himself master of her treasures, aud have the gk>r; (tf leading tier in tri- 
umph. Justly sensible <^ this ignomiuy, she liad reserved a dagger ibr 
her U0t extremities, and when she saw Proculeius enter, she raiud it to 
stab buTselfl but be dexterously wrenched it from her. Lxua 

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88 ODKS OF HORA.CB. bookl 

in ruins, with a countenance unmoved, and courageous enou^ 
to handle exasperated asps, that she mi^ht imbibe in her body 
the deadly poison, being more reeolved by having pre-meditated 
her death : for she vras a woman of such greataess of soul, aa 
to scorn to be carried off in haughty triumph, like a privata 
pwaom. by rough libumianB." 


BoT, I detest the pomp of the Persians ; chq>lets, which are 
woven with the rind of the Uuden, displease me ; ^ve up the 
search for the place where t^e latter rose abides. It is my 
particular desire that you make no laborious addition to the 
pl^a myrtle; for mjTOe is neither unbecoming you a servant, 
aor me, while I quaff under this mantling vine. 

** Siting Libamu. Tbe poet mentions tbose vessels, not only becaoBs 
they were pwiicularlj aerviceable in g^iiig tbe vicWry, but in compli- 
ment to bis patron litocenss, wbo commanded tbat sqiutdron. Sajt. 

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You art treating of the civil commotion,' which began from 
the consulship of Metellus,* and the causes,' and the errota, 
aad tha operations of the war, and the game that fortune 
played, and the pernicious confederacy of t£e cbiefe, and arms 
stained vith blood* not yet expiated — a work fnll of danger 
and hazard : and you are treMlng upon fires, hidden under 
deceitful ashee: let therefore the muse that presides over 
seTcre tragedy, be for a while absent from the theaters; 
ehortly, when diou hast completed the narrative (^ the public 

' Caius AaiTiiiu Poltio was a person who made a, very consider^le 
flgare in the coort of Augustus. As he was distinguished by his valor 
and conduct, he bad frequentlj tha command of the annieB giveo him. 
He vanquished the Dalmatiana, and triumphed over them. He was no 
lesB eminent for his learniug, than fbr his warlike accampUshments. 

' " From the coneuWiip «rf Metellus." The narrative of Pollio, con- 
sequent]}', began with the tbrmation of t'lo government denominated (al- 
though erroneous]?, since it w»° riO mojwfroftu) the first triumvirate, by 
CEBsar, Pompey, and Crasaus, a. r. 0. 694, in the consulabip of Q. Cieciliue 
Metellus Celer, and L. Afranius. This maj well be coasiderod as the 
genu of the civil ware that ensued, and which blazed Ibrth with diiy ten 
years later. The BomaM marked the year by the namea of Ihe consuls, 
and he who has most auflrages, etc, was placed flret Antsoh. 

■ Omiaa, i «. the death of Crassus, the death of Julia, and the am- 
bition and rivalry of Cssor and Pompcy. Okeu. The term viiia has 
here a particular reference to the rash and unwise plans of Pompey and 
Ms IbUowera, and, also, to the mismanagement of Crasaus in hia expedi- 
tion against the Partbiana. M'Caol. 

* Ctiu>riina,i.^ "blood ahed often and In many places;" thus at/iara 
is used by Hie Tragedians, as Mach. SuppL 262 : 

nainuJv aljiUTi^ /uiia/iaair. MVWL. 

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40 * ODES OP HORACE. book n. 

eSiurB, you eball resume yowc great work in the tri^c style of 
^thens,* O Pollio, ihou eicelleDt succor to sorrowiu^ defend- 
ants and a consuldag senate ; [Pollio,] to whom &e laurel 
produced immortal honors in the Dalmatian triumph. Even 
now you etan our ears with the threatening mtmnur of horns : 
DOW the clarions sound ; now the glitter of arms aSrights the 
flying steeds, and dazzles the sight of tho riders. Now I seem' 
to hear* of great commanders besmeared with glorious dust, 
and the whole earth subdued, except the stubborn soul of 
Oato.' Juno, and every other god propitious to the Africaoa, 
impot«nt]y went off, leaving that land unrevenged; but soon 
offered' the descendants of tho conquerors, as sacriSces to tho 
wanes of Jugurtha.' What plain, enriched by Latin blood, 
be.trs not record, by its numerous sepulchers, of our impious 
battles, and of the sound of the downfall of Italy, heard even 
by the Modes t What pool, what livers, are imconscious of 
our deplorable warl What sea have not the Daunian"* 
slaughters discolored ! What shore is unstained by our 
blood ? Do not, however, rash muse, neglecting your jocose 
strains, resume the task of Cean plaintive song," but rather 
with mo seek measures of a lighter style" beneath some love- 
sequestered grotto." ■ 

* The coOmrma {iio66pvo^) ia here put flj^rativcly for tragedy. 
12. Cteropio. Equivalent to AUiee, and alladiag to Cecropa as the 
(bunder rf Athens. Anthos. 

* On this zeugma see my notes on .^sch. Prom. 22, ed. Bobn. 

' Cato of Utica, so remarkable for his virtue, and the atreDuoua oppod- 
tion he made to tyranny. After the defeat of Pompoy, be waa shut up 
by Gssarin Utica, where, rather ttiau fall iato the hands of the conqueror, 
and aurvive the ruin of hia country, ho alow himself Watson. 

* SeUuUt iaferias, Tho word rettviit ia here taken in the same sense 
■a in the proverb ^r pari referre, and inferias alludes (o a custom of the 
ancients, who aacriflced a number of prisoners upon the tombs of their 
gener^ Toa. 

' Jugurtha, a king of Kumidia, who being engaged in war with the 
Romana, waa taken by Sylla, and led In triumpli by Marina. Waibon. 

"i.e. Roman. c£ Od. i. 22, 13. 

" Owe retraetea mantra natniix. J&aio ia a word properly signifying 
the song which was sung at fiinerals by the moumerB, But hj Nixnia, in 
this passage, the poet intends the goddess Nseoia, who presided over teais, 
lamentations, and funorala Dac. 

" Ovid, Met. 10, 150, "Cecioi plectra graviore Gigantas — Nuncopua 
est leriore lyra." OasLU. 

" DioniBO «li antro. Although Dione was the mother of Tenns, yet 
Venus herself is called by that name. The poet tberefbre invites hia 

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CBiapDs Sallubtius," thou foo to bullion," unless it d&- 
rires splendor from a moderate enjoyment, there is no luster 
in money concealed in the niggard earth. Proculeius" shall 
live an extended age, conspicuous for fatherly affection to 
Iwothera ; surviving fame shall bear him on an untiring wing." 
'''^Tou may possess a more extensive dominion by controlling a 
craving disposition, than if you could unite Libya to the dis- 
tant Gadcs, and tho natives of both the Carthages were sub- 
ject to you alone. The direful dropsy increases by self- 
indulgence, nor extinguishes its thirst, unless the cause of the 
disorder has departed from the veins, and tho watery languor 
from the pallid body. Virtue, differing ftwm the vulgar, ex- 
cepts Phraates" though restored to the throne of Cyrus, 
from the number of tho happy ; and teaches the populace to 
disuse lalse names for things, by conferring 'the kingdom and 
9 safe diadem and the perpetud" laurel upon him alone, who 
can viev large heaps of treasure with undazzlcd eye. 
moaeinto tbe caveof Venus, there to sing of love and gallantry in a tone 
less elevated, Uviort pUclro, and forbids ber Co imitate the plaintive 
strains of SJmonidos. Laub. 

'* Tacitus, in tbe third bookof his Annals, bath given us a veiy finished 
picture of this Sallusl. Ho was grand-nephew to the ereellent author of 
the Roman History, who adopted him, and left him bis name and fortune. 

" Tbe construction is; "inimice, lamnce, nisi [lamna] spleudeat." 

" ProcnleiuB. He hod two brothers, Terentius and Licinius. Teren- 
tins was made consul elect in the Tear seven huodred and thirty, but died 
before ha could enter upon his office. LiciDius untbrtonalely engaged 
himself in a conspiracj against Augustus, nor could all tbe interest of 
Proculeius and Ufeceoas, who had married their sister Terentia, preaerve 
him from banishment. An old commentator relates a particular story, 
which greatlj enlightens this passage : he says, that Proculeius divided 
his patrimony with bis brothers, whose fortunes were rained in the civil 
wars. Dao. 8ak. 

" For this periphroais cT. Od, 3, 11, 10; "metuitque tangi," Virg, 

" Phraates, a king of the Parthians, who slew bis own fkther Orodaa, 
thir^ brothers, and bis eldest son. He was expelled the kingdom by his 
mlg'ecte, and afterward re-established by the Scythians in the year of 
Rome 728. Watsok. 

" Bo "propria munera," Sat iL 2, B; "da propriam dommo." Yiig. 
^s iiL 65. Obblli. 

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Dbllids,** since thon art bom to die, be mindflil to pro- 
MTve a temper of mind even in lames of difficulty, as well as 
restnuDed oom insolent exaltation in proeperity: whether 
&ioa dial t lead a life of continual sadness, or throngh happy 
days r^iale thyself with Falemian wine of the old<«t date," 
at ease reclined in some grassy retreat, where the lofty pine 
and hoary poplar deUght to interweave their boughs into 
a hospitable shade, imd the dear current with troubling 
surface purls along the * meandering rivnlet. Hither order 
[yoor slaves] to bnng the wine, and the perfumes, and the 
too short-lived flowers of the grateful rose, while fortune, and 
BgQ, and the sable threads of the three sisters permit thee^ 
Yon must depart firom your namerons purchased groves;**^ 
from your house .also, and that villa, which the yellow Tiber 
washes, you must depart: and an heir shall possesB these 
high-piled riches. It is of no consequence wfaeQier you bb 
the wealthy descendant of ancient Inachus, or whether, poor 
and of tlie most ignoble race, you live without a covering 
from the open ^r, since you are the victim of merciless 
Pluto. We are all driveii toward the same quarter : the lot 
of all is shaken in the nm ; destined sooner or later to come 
forth, and embat^ us in [Charon's] boat for eternal exile. 

'° Dellina wu a tme picture of inoonstanc;. After Cssst'b death ha 
cbanged hia party fbur times in the space ot twelve jears, fhim whence 
Ues^Ja used pleasantly to call him ditaltarem btHorvm HvOium, in allu- 
Bion to a custom of the ancient cavalry, who had two borseB, and vaulted 
from one 1« the other, aa tbey were tired. The peace that succeeded the 
civil wars, gave bim an opportunity of eatsblkhiog his sfliurs, which 
naturaliy must have been g[reatly disordered bysomanvctiangeB. At this 
time Horace wrote this ode, in which be instructs him in the purest 
maxims of Epicurean philotophj. Sah. 

" " With the old Falernian," L e. the choicest wine, which was placed 
ia the furthest part of the vault or crrpt, marked with its date and growth. 
SiOa. Thus Catullus, Irviii. 28, "de meliore nota;" and Curiua, ap. 
(Sc viL S9, " Sulpicii Buccesgori, nos de meliore uota commenda." Some 
insert only a comma after Faimi, and thus join the succeeding strophe 
to Uiis, "Sed propter meliorem totius peHodi coostructionem praetan 
videtar distinctio nostra." Orell. U'Caul. 

" "Bought upon all sides." Ahtbon. 

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1st not, XanthiaB Fhoceus, jonr pas«on for your mmd 
but yoti out of countenance ; before your time, the slave 
Briseis" moved Uie haughty Achilles by her snowy com- 
plesjon. ITie beauty of the captive TecmeBsa" smote her 
master, the Telamonian Ajax ; Agamemnon, in the midst of 
victory, burned for a ravished ^i^ : when the barbarian 
txQO^ fell by the hands of their Thessalian conqueror, nod 
Hector," ranquished, left Troy more easily to be destroyed by 
the Greeiana, You do not know that perchance the beautifiil 
Phyllis has parents of condition happy enough to do honor 
to you their son-in-law. Certainly she must be of royal 
race," and laments the unpropitionsness of her femily-gods. 
Be confident, that your beloved is not of the worthless crowd ; 
nor that one so true, so unmercenary, could possibly he born 
^f a mother to be ashamed of I can commend arms, and &ce, 
and well-made legs, quite chastely : avoid being jealous of one, 
whose age is hastening onward to bring its eighth iQatrum" 
to a close. 

" Bris^H. Her true- Dame was Hippodamia, but sbe was called 
Briseit^ after her &tber Brises, the priest of Apollo. She was taken cap- 
tive at I^aessuB hy the Greeks, and fell to the sbore of AchUlea. 

•* Tecmeasa, a captive Trojan mwd. Watsoit. 

" Hector, the boo of Priam, the most valiant of the Trojans, who, after 
defending his country t«D years against all the attacks of the Greeks, fell 
at length by the hand of Achilles, who dragged his body thrice round the 
wails of Troy, and afterward sold it to his &ther FHam. Watson. 

'* There is considerable irony in this staoza, " most undoubtcdlj ahe 
is the daughter of somo Eastern monarch, assuredly she laments the 
BBverity of untoward fate." To the words regium gema, some eom- 
mentatora supply est, but the words are governed by morel. Anthoit. 

" A lustrum was a period of five years, bo that the poet must now have 
been in hia fortieth year, and the ode must bars been composed about 
729 or 730, A. XJ, c. The phrase daudere tustmm ia uaed by Horace, 
purposely lo avoid the regular phrase amdere tialram, which would be 
unsuited to this careless ode, and which properly refers to the sacrifice 
called StKvetaarilia or Solilaarilia, which cbited the census, the review of 
the people taking place every lustnun, or at the end of ever five yearSi 

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Not yet is she fit to be broken to tbe yoke ; not yet is 
Bbe equal to tbe dutiea of a partner," nor can she support 
tbe weight of the bull impetuously rushing to enjoyment. 
Your heifer's solo inclination is about verdant fields, one 
while in running streama soothing the grievous heat ; st 
another, highly delighted to frisk wilh the ateeriings in the 
moist willow-ground. Suppress your appetite for the im- 
mature grape ; shortly variegated autumn will tinge for thee 
the livid clusters with a pur^e hue. Shortly she shall follow 
you ; for her impetuous time runs on, and shall place to her 
account those years of which it abridges you ; shorUy Lalage 
with a wanton assurance will seek a husband, beloved in a 
higher degree than the coy Fholoo, or even Chloris ; shining 
as brightJy with her fair shoulder, as the spotless moon upon 
the midnight sea, or even the Gnidion Gygea, whom if you 
should intermix in a company of girls, the undiscenuble 
difference occa^oned by his flowing locks and doubtfiil 
countenance would wonderfully impose even on sf^;acioua 


Septiuius," who art ready to go with me, even to Gades, and 
to the Cantabrian, still untaught to bear our yoke, and the in- 
hospitable Syrtea, where the Mauritanian wave perpetually 
boils: may Tibur, founded by a Grecian colony, be the 
habitation of my old age ! There let there be an end to my 
fadgues by sea, aud land, and war ; whence if the cruel fei^a 

" Or rather, "yoke-fellow." 
' " Septimius, a Roman knight, and lyric aud traf^ poet ; lie was one 
^of Horaco'a school companions, and bad been a TcJlow-soldier with him 

in tbe army of Bnitua and Cassius, and had tbe good Gntune also id> b» 

teceived into tbe ikvor of Augnstus. W.iTSO-v. 

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debar me, I will seek the river of Galesus," deligbtful for 
sbeep covered wilii sldnB," aod the countries reigned over by 
Lacedaemonian Fhalaotus." That comer of the world smiles 
in my eye beyond all others ; where the honey yields not to 
the Hymettian, and the olive rivals the verdant Venafrian : 
where the temperature of the air produces a long f^riog and 
mild winters, aod Aulou friendly to the fruitful vine, envies 
not the Falemian grapes. That place, and those blest heights," 
eolicit you and me ; there you snail bedew the glowing aabee 
of your poet friend with a tear due [to his memory]," 


TBO0, often reduced with me to the last extremity in the war 
which Brutus carried on, who has restored thee as a Roman 
dtizen," to the gods of thy country and the Italian air, Pom- 

" Galesus, a river of Calabria, that runs into the tej of Tarentoin, 
about five miles from the ci^: its waters are beautiiid, and current 
slow; whence Horace says it is ^^roeable to the sheep. Watsoh. 

" Pdiilis ovibtu. The sheep of Tarentum and Attica had a wool so 
fine, that they were covered with skins to preserve it from the indemency 
of the weather. Pliny says, these covertures were brought from Arabia. 

" Alluding to the stoi? of Fhalantus and the Partbenii. Phalantus 
was cxpcUod &om Lacediemon (b. c. 100) under the following circum- 
stances : While the Spartans were absent during the If eseenian wars, 
their ladies, either ordered, aa some traditions liave it, or of their own 
ftee will, elevated their alavos to the ranlt of temporaiy huabaniia. The 
oKpring of these connections, denominatod the Paithenii, were expelled 
by the Spartaos on th^ return, and under Phalautua, their leader, they 
colonized Tarentum, so called fivm Tnias, a reputed son of Keptune. 

" CE Virg. G. iv. 461. "Rhodopei» arceB''="the heights of Rho- 

" Ddnia tparge). These words, cam Jarrymta pomit, are frequently 
fonnd in ancient epitaphs, and io tho um a Uttle bottle filled with tear?, 


" The name Quiritem here implies a tbll return to all the rights and 
privil^ca of citizenship which had been forfeited by his bearing ai 
against the established authority of -- ^ '—- ' • 

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46 0DB9 OF HORACE. book 

pejr, thou first of tny compatiioua ; with whom I have fre- 
queatJy broken the tedious dav in drinking, having my hair, 
ahiiuDg with the Syrian maloWhrun), crowned {with flow- 
ers] 1 Together with thee did I experience the Ibattlo of] 
Fbuippi" and a precipitate flight, having HhamefuUy enough 
left my shield; when valor was broken, and the most dar- 
ing" smote the squalid earth with their faces. But Mercury" 
swift conveyed me away, terrified as I was, in a thick cloud 
through the midst of the enemy. Thee the reciprocating sen, 
with his tempestuous waves, bore back again to war. Where- 
fore render to Jupiter the offering that is due, and deposit your 
hmbs, wearied with a tedious war," under my laurel, and sparo 
not the casks reserved for yon. Hll up the polished bowls with 
care-dispelling Massic : pour out the perfumed ointments from 
the capacious shells. Who takes care to quickly weave tho 
chaplets of fresh parsley or myrtle ? Whom shall the Venus" 

** Phllippi, a city of Macedonia on the borders of Thrace, &mous for 
the overthrow of Brutus and CasBioB bj Augustna. Watsos. 

".Minaceg. After the battle of Philippi, in which Oetavina was routed 
b^ BratuB, hia aoldlera demaoded, in a mutiooua manner, to be led 
against the enemy; they complained tbat tboj should beconBoed within 
Uieir camp, wben the forces of Octavius, broken by tbeir late defeat, aod 
oppressed by famine, might easily be conquered. Brutus, at last, fatally 
gave way to their temerity and impatience, for which the poet gives 
them tbe epithet minacet. 

" Mercury. He here alludea to the fights described by Homer, 
where the gods SDrrouod tboso they ore williag t« save with a thick 
cloud, and carry them off from the futy of their enemiea This is here 
ascribed Ut Hercary, as the father of eloquence, and the protector of 

" Five years, inapartyalways unfortunate, migbt well seematedious 
and fatiguing waHore. 8in. 

" The ancienta at their foasra uppohited a pereon to preside by throw- 
ing tlia dice, whom they called arbilar biberuli {rTB/inantupxrK), " maater 
of the feast." He directed every thing at pleasure. In playing at games 
of chance they used three feiMnc, and four tali The tettera bad six 
sides, marked I. II. III. IT. T. TI. The (alt had four sides, longwise, 
for the two ends were not regarded. On one side was marked one point 
(unto, an ace, called Caais), and on the opposite side six (Senio), while 
on the two other sides were three and fbur llcraia a qualemio). The 
highest or most tbrtunate throw waa called Vtnut, and determined the 
director of the feast. It was, of the («sen*, three siies : of the laii, when 
all of them came out diCTerent numbers. The worst or lowest throw was 
termed Canis, and was, of the tessera, three aces ; and of tha taU, when 
they were all the same. AMtHOM. 

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0D« TiiL H. 0DE3 OF HORA.CK 4^ 

prononnce to be master of the revel ! In wild carouse I will 
become frantic as the Bacchanalians. T h deligfatfiil to me 
to play the ma/lnian^ on the leception of my friends. 

TO BAftlNE. 

I7 any punishment, Barine, for jour violated oath had ever 
been of prejudice to you : if you had become less agreeable by 
the blacicnees of a smgle tooth or nail, I might believe you. 
But you DO sooner have bound your perfidious bead with vows, 
but you shine out more chnnmng by far, and come forth the 
pubbc care of our youth. It is of advantage to you to deceive 
the buried ashes of your mother, and the silent const ellatjons 
of the night, together with all heaven, and the gods free from 
chill dea^. Venus herself, I profess, langhs at this; the 
good-natured n^phs laugh, and cruel Cupid, who is per- 
petually sharpening hia burning darts on a bloody whetstone. 
Add to this, that ul our boya are growing up for you ; a new 
herd of slaves b growing up ; nor do the former ones quit the 
house of their impious mistress, notwithstanding they often 
have threatened it The matrons are in dread of you on ac- 
count of their young ones ; the thrifty old men are in dread of 
you ; and the girls but just married are in distress, lest your 
beftuty should slacken [the affections of] their husbands. 

TO Trrus VALams. 

Showkbs do not perpetually pour down upon the rou^ fields, 
nor do varying hurricanes fi)rever harass the Caspian Sea; 
nor, my friend Valgus, does the motionless ice remun fixed 
throughout all the months, in the regions of Armenia ; nor do 
the Garganian oaks [always] labor under the northerly winds, 
nor are the ash-trees widowed of their leaves. But thou art con- 
tinually pursuing Mystcs, who is taken from thee, with mDiini- 

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. nor do the effects of thy love for him cease at 
the risiDg of Vesper," or ^heu he flies the rapid approach of 
the suD. But the aged man who lived three generations, did 
not lament the amiable Antilochus all the years of his life: 
nor did his parents or his Trojan sisters perpetually bewail 
the blooming Troilus. At length then desist &om thy tender 
complaints ; and rather let us sing the fresh" trophies of 
Augustus Csesar, and the Frozen Niphates, and tlie river 
MeduB," added to the vanquidied nations, tolls more humble 
tides, and the Gelonians riding within a prescribed boundary 
Id a narrow tract of laud. 

LiciNins,*' you will. lead a more correct course of life, by 
neither always pursuing the main ocean, nor, while you cau- 
tiously are in dread of storms, by pressing too much upon the 
hazardous shore. Whosoever loves the golden mean, is secure 
from the sordidness of an antiquated cell, and is too prudent to 

" Ve^pero. This star was called Lucifer in the morning, and Vesper 
in the eveDiDg. Fban'. 

" This eTpeditioD of Augustus was the moat gloriousof Ms whole life. 
He not only made the Roman name K> be revered to the utmost bounds 
or Asia and Africa, in imposing conditions of peace upon the Indians and 
.^thiopiaoB ; be not only conarmed tho repose of tlie empire, by establlsb- 
tng in Greece, Sicily, and Asia Minor a stable and unifonn government, 
and ordering Armenia, Cilicia, and Arabia in favor oT princea attached to 
the interest of the republic; but humbled the pride of the ParthianB, by 
obliging Pbraates to reatore the Roman ei^les and prisoners, which were 
taken thirty years before, and to pull down the trophies that Orodes had 
erected for the defeat of Craaaua. To perpetuale the memory of tbia 
success, he struck a medal with thia inscription, pro sigkis !t£CEPTia. 
Sas. • 

" By the river Medus, Horace means the Parthians, as he would dls- 
tingui^ the Armenians by Niphates. Buphraies dictiis est primim Media. 
And probably the Tigris ia here called Hipbates, as it rises out of a 
mounlain of that name. Sah. 

" This DciniuB, according V> Dacier, is thesame with Lioinius Varro 
Uurena, the brother of Proculeiua, and Terentia, the wife of ll»cenaa. 
Ue entered intoaconspiracy against Augustus, with FlaviusCepio, in the 
yearof the city 731. 


ftaxL ODES OF HORA.CE. 49 

have a palac« that might expose him to envy. The lofty pine 
ia more frequently agitated with winds, aad high towers fall 
down with a heavier ruin, and lightnings strike the summits 
of the mount^na. A well-provided breast hopes ia adversity, 
and fears in prosperity. T is the same Jupiter, that brings 
the hideous winters back, and that takes tbem away. If it is 
ill with us now, it will not be so hereafter. Apollo sometimesl 
rouses tbe «lent lyric muse, neither does he mways bend his 
bow. In narrow drcumstaaces appear in high spirits, and 
undaunted. In the same manner you will prudently contract 
your sails, which are apt to be too much swollen in a prosper 


QtnRTitrs Hibpihds, forbear to be inqni^tive what the 
Cantabrien, and the Scythian, divided from na by the inter- 
posed Adriatic, ia meditating; neither be fearfdlly solidtons 
for the necessaries of a life, which requires but a few things. 
Youth and beauty fly swift away, while sapless old age expels 
the wanton loves and gentle sleep. The same glory does not \ 
always remain to the vernal flowers, nor does the ruddy moon 
shine with one continued aspect ; why, therefore, do you fatigue 
your mind, unequal to eternal projects ? Why do we not ra^er 
(while it is in our power) thus carelessly reclining under r lofty 
plane-tree, or thb pino, with our hoary looks made fragrant by 
roses, and anointed with Syiian perfume, indulge ourselves with 
generotis wine ? Bacchus dissipates preying eawa. What slava 
is here, instantly to cool some cups of ardent Falemian in the 

S casing stream ! Who will tempt the vagrant wanion Lyde 
■om her house ! See that you bid her h^cten with her ivory 
lyre, collecting her hair into a graceful knot, after the fashion 
of a Spartan maid." 

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Bo not in^t that the long wars of fierce Numaoda," or the 
formidable Aiinibal, or the Sicilian Sea impurpled with Gar- 
tha^aian blood, should be adapted to the tender lays of tho 
lyre : nor the cruel Lapithje, nor HjI»ub excessive in wine, 
aoA the earth-born youths, subdued by Herculean force, from 
whom the splendid habitation of old Saturn dreaded danger. 
And yOQ yourself, Mascenas, with more propriety shall re- 
count the battles of Cssar, and the necks of haughty lings 
led in triumph through the streets in historical proee. It was 
the muse's will that I should celebrate the sweet strains of 
my mistress Lycimnia," that I should celebrate her bright- 
darting eyes, and her hreast laudably faithful to mutual love : 
who can with a grace introduce her foot into the dance, or, 
sporting, contend" in rdllery, or joiu arms with the bright 
virgins on the celebrated Diana's festival. Would you, ptfie- 
cenas,] change ono of Lyclmnia's tresses for all the rich 
Achsmenes possessed, or the Mygdonian wealth of ferdla 
Phrygia, or all the dwellings of tho Arabians replete witk 

*< NamanUa, a citj in Spun, now called Garra; : with a garrison ol 
4000 men, it held out fourteen years ai^inst a RiorDan armj of 40,000 
men | at iast, being sore pressed by Scipio, and like to perish by famine, 
they gathered all tiieir goods together, and setting them on fire, they 
threw themselves afterward into the flames. Watsoh. 

*' Terentia, tho passionately-loved wife of the jealous Mteceoaa, is, 
doubtless, intended. When tho poots wished to avoid the direct nomi- 
nation of an individual, they generally coined some word corresponding 
in meter and number of syllablos with tho proper name of the person, 
as here Lycimnia = Terentia. Thus also Persiua, " Auriculas asini Midas 
rex babel," where Midaa is — Nero, .as Plania is = Delia, in Hbullus, 
etc. ; Mallhima in Serm. i. S, is for Meecataa, etc- A freed-woman could 
not be intended, from the oppression " nee ferre pedem dedecuit Qhoris," 
(br none but females of the highest rank took part in these sacred dances. 
Whbeler. " Neque enim perieulum erat, ue inter «irgives letUa «altare 
cnivis faemiuED didecori esset, ezcepta forte Livia August! vet Terentia 
MKcenatis, vel Octavin aliave ex nobilissimis quarum inf>a dignitatem 
•j] esse severioribns videri potest." Oaixti, 

*' By the word certare, the poet alludes to a custom among the Oreeka 
am] Romans of disputing the prize of raillery on their festival days. It 
appears by a passage in Aristophanes, that the victors in these disputea 
were publicly crowned by the Greeks. Dac 

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treasures ! Especially when she turns her neck to meet your 
bunting kisses, or with a gentle cruelty denies, what she would 
more delight to have ravished than the petitioner— or some- 
tjmea eagerly autici|ttite3 to snatch them h«%lf. 

O tree" ho planted thee on an unlucky day whoever did 
it first, and with ilu impious hand rai.'^d thee for the destnic- 
tioQ of posterity, and tlie scandal of the Fillage. I could be- 
lieve that he had broken his oira fu:her's neck, and stained 
his most secret apartmints with (ha midnight bIood'° of Lis 
guest He was wont to handle Colchian poisons, and what- 
ever wickedness is any where conceived, wno planted in my 
field thee, a eorry log ; thee, ready to fall on the head of thy 
inofiensive master. What we ought to be aware of, no man 
is sufficiently cau^ous at all hours. The Carthaginian sailor 
thoroughly dreads the Bosphorus ; nor, beyond that, does he 
fear a hidden fate from any other quarter. The soldier dreads 
the arrows and the fleet retreat of the Parthian ; the Parthian, 
chuns and an Italian prison ;" but the unexpected assault of 
death has carried off, and will cany off, the worid in general. 
How near was I seeing the dominions of black Proserpine," 
and .lEacus" sitting in judgment ; the separate abodes alfo of 
the pious, and Sappho complaining on her jEolian lyre of her 

*> The coDEtrncHon is, "ille et ne&sto te pos. die, Quicunqua primura 
posuit, at (po9tea) produxit soar, aumu." OrbllI. 

^" i. e. the blood of hia gueat, slain at midnight. 

«1 The term Tobar appsare to allude particularly to the well-known 
pnson at Rome, called T^ianum. It was oriK'nallj built by Ancua 
Martins, and afterward enlarged b; Serviiia Tulliue, whence that part 
pf it which was under ground, and built by him, received the name o( 
IWiatmm. Ed, Dubl. 

" Proserpine, the daughter of Jupiter and Ceres, whom Pluto stole 
and carried away with him out of Sicily. Horace here uses " Regna 
AirvK Proserpince," the realma of black Proserpine, instead of"AirTa 
E^na Proserpime," the black realms of Poaerpine. Wamon. 

" JBacus was the son of Jupiter and jEgina, and btber of Peleus and 
Telamoo. Hia reputation for justice was so great, that after his death 
he was established one of the infernal judges along with Mtnos and 
Bhadamanthus. Watsoh. 

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82 0DB8 OF HOaACB. Boocn 

own oooiitiT-daoiaels ; mnd thee, AJcens, Bounding in fuller 
■trane on toy golden harp the distressea of exile, and the dis- 
Ireaaes of war. IIk ghosts admire them both, while thOT' ntter 
atrains worthy of a sacred silence ;** but the crowded multitude, 
oressiog with their shoulders, imbibes, with a more greedy ear, 
Inttles and banished tyrants. What wonder} Since the 
maoy-headed monster, astonished at those lays, hanga down his 
aable ears ; and the snakes, entwined in the hur of the furies, 
are soothed. Moreover, Prometheus and the sira of Pelope are 
deluded into an insensibili^ of their torments, by the melodious 
sound : nor is Orion any boger eolicitouB to harass the lions, 
^ the fearfiit lynies. 

TO posrninTS. 

Alas t my Fostumos, my Fostumus, tlie fleeting years glide 
on ; nor wiU piety cause any delay to wrinkles, and ad- 
randng old age, and insuperable death. Tou could not, if 
you were to sacrifice every passing day three hundred bulls, 
render pro|Htioua pitiless Fluto, ■ who confines the thrice- 
monstrous Geryon and Tityns" with the dismal Stygian 
stream, namely, that stream which is to be passed over by all 
who are fed by the bounty of the earth, whether we be Mnga 
at poor hiods. In vain shall we be free from sanguinary ' 
Mars, and the broken billows of the hoarse Adriatic; iu vain 
shall we be apprehen^ve for ouiselves" of the noxious South, 

t* SacTo HlenHo. AttheancientsacredriteB themostprofoandailenca 
was required Horn sU who stood arounil, both out of respect to the dei^f 
whom they were worsbiping, as also lest some ill-omened espreesion, 
casuallj uttered by aoy ooe (tf the crowd, should mar the solemoities ot 
the day. Heooe the phrase " sacred alienee^" t)ecamB eventually equiva. 
lent (o, and is hare used geoerall; a^ " the deepest silence." Thus 
Anthon : — a preferable explanatioii is, " snited to that hallowed region 
of silence." "Sacris sedibus, quas umbrae aileutee iocolunt, Elyido." 
Orell. CotDp JEa. vl 264, "Dmbneqne silentea;" 443, "BilentDni 
concilium," Wbbbler. 

'^ Tilyia, the son of Jupiter by Ekna, of such a ^gantic Aza, Uiat 
hi» bnAi was, according to the poets, nine acres in length. Watsos. 

" '■ Tl» ccmstnictioD meluemus ixrporibas is more correct thun uoMn 
Ian corfaribua, unless we regard it as twofold. Orblll 

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in the time of autumn. The black Cocytus wanderiog with 
languid current, aud the infamous race of Danaus," and Sisy- 
phus," the son of the ./Golua, doomed to eternal toil, must be 
visited ; your laod and house and plea«ng wife must be left, 
nor shall any of those trees, wtiich you are nursing, follow 
you, their master for a brief space, except the hated cypresses ; 
a worthier heir shall consume your Ceecuban wines now 
guarded with a biudred keys, and shall wet the pavement with 
the haughty wine, more exquidte than what graces pontifical 


The polflce-like edifices will in a short time leave but a few 
acres for the plow ; ponds of wider eitent than the Lucrine 
lake will be every where to be seen ; and the barren plane-tree 
will supplant the elms. Then banks of violets, and myrtle 
groves, and all the tribe of nos^;ays** shall diffuse their odors 
in the ohve plantations, which were fruitfiil to their preceding 
master. Then the laurel with dense bonghs shall exclude the 
burning beams. It was not so prescribed by the institutes of 
Romulus, and the uoshaven Gato, and ancient custom. Their 
private income was contracted, while that of the community 
was great. No private men were then possessed of galleries 
measured by ten-feet rules, which collected the shady northern 
breezes; nor did the laws permit them to reject the casual 
turf [for their own huts], though at the same time thcv 
obliged them to ornament m the most sumptuous manner, with 
new stone, the buildings of the public, and the temples of the 
gods, at a common expense. 

■T Daaaus. He had d&j daughters, called the Danaidea, who, b; tbeir 
fcther'fl comcnanil, killed in one night all their husbands. Watsoii. 

ra asyphns, the moat cuniiiDg of all mortals, who, fbr his robberies 
and impious arts, was coDdemued to roll a stone up-hill, which immedi- 
ately rolled down again; therefbre Vii^ll calls it "non exuperabilb 
■Bxom," orthe iDsurmountablo stone. Gleorg. Lib. v. 39. Waisoh. 

M LnzoB odorum." ScaOL. 

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0DB3 07 BORAOB. 

> OBOBFinrB. 

O Orosphus, he that is caught in the wide .^^ean Sea, when 
a black tempfst has obscured the moon, and not a star appean 
with steady hght for the manners, supplicatea the gods fot 
tepose : for repose, Thrace furious in war ; the quiver-graced 
Medes, for repose neither purchasable by jewels, nor ^ pur- 
ple, nor by gold. For neither regal treasures nor the con- 
sul's ofScer can remove" the wretched tumults of the mind, 
nor the cares that hover about splendid ceilings. That man 
lives happily on a little, who can view with pleasure the old- 
&shioned family salt-cellar on bis fri^al board; niither anx- 
iety nor sordid avarice robs him of gentle sleep. Why do 
we, brave for a short season, aim at many tbiogs ! Why do 
we chan^ our own for dimales heated by another sun t Who- 
ever, bj^ becoming an exile from his country, escaped likewise 
from himself! Consuming care boards even brazen-beaked 
ships ; nor docs it quit the troops of horaemeo, for it is more 
fleet than the stags, more fleet than the storm-driTtDg east 
wind. A mind that is cheerful in its present sta.'e, will £sdaiD 
to be solicitous any further, and can correct the bittets of Ufe 
with a placid smile. Nothing is on all bands completely 
blessed. A premature death carried off the celebrated Achilles ; 
a protracted old age wore down Tithonus ; and time perhaps 
may extend to me, what it shall deny to you. Around you 
a hundred flocks bleat; and Sicilian heifers low ; for your use 
the mare, fit for the harness," neighs ; wool doubly dipped in 
the African purple-dye clothes you ; on me undeceitful ute has 
bestowed a small country estate, and the slight inspiration f^ 
the Grecian muse, and a contempt for the malignity of the 

■• One part of the Ilctort office was, to remove the crowd, and open a 
way fbr the magistmteB ; from whence the poet hath taken tii'm beautLAil 
iiD^;e. Dac. 

'■ Apia qtiadrigia, " Bom for the charioi" The poet morely wiahee to 
express the generoiis properties of the Boimal. The ancient gave the 
preference in respect or swiftness to mores. The term quadriste properly 
denotes a chariot drawn by four horses, or mares. The Romans always 
yoked the animals that drew their race-cbariota ahreast 

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Why do8t thou kill me with thy complaints ! Tia neither 
agreeable to the gods, nor to me, thnt thou ehoutdest depart 
first, O Mtecenas, thou grand ornament and pillar of my b^ts. 
Alas I if an untimely blow hurry away thee, a part of my soul, 
why do I the other moiety remain, my value lost, nor any longer 
whole f That [fatal] day shall bring destruction upon ua both. 
I have by no means taken a false oath :" we will go, we will 
go, whenever thoa shalt lead the way, prepared to be fellow- 
travelers in the last journey. Me nor the breath of the 
fiery Chimffira, nor hundred-handed Gyges, were he to riae 
again, shall ever tear from thee : such is the will of powerful 
Justice, and of the Fates. "Whether Libra or malignant 
Scorpio had the ascendant at my natal hour," or Capricon 
the ruler of the west«m wave, our horoscopes ^ree in a won- 

^ The constitation of Mxcenas, Datarallf weak, had been imp^red by 
effeminacy sod luxurious liTing. " He had labored," obaervea Mr. Don- 
lop, "from his youth under a perpetual fever ; and for many yaais be- 
(bre bis death he suffered much trom watchfuhiess, which was greatly 
aggravated bj hla domestic chagrins. Mteceoaa was fond orufe and en- 
joynent; onl^f life even without enjoymeul. He cootesaed, in some 
verses preserved by Seneca, that ho woilld wish to live even under every 
BCcauulation of physical calamity. (SeaecaEpiaL 101.) Hence be anx- 
ionslj resorted to different remedies for the cure or relief of this distress- 
iQg malady. Wino, aoR music souuding at a distance, and various other 
contrivances, were contrived in vain. At length Antonius Muaa, the 
imperial physician, obtained for him some alleviation of his complaint 
by means of the distant murmuring of folliug water. But all these re- 
Boarces at last fitiled. The nervous and feverish disorder with which he 
was afflicted increased so dieadChlty, that for three years before his death 
be never closed his eyes." (History of Koman Literature, vol. iii p. 42, 
Lond, ed.) Atnaon. 

" Ferfidum Sacramenbi/m. Horace alludes here to an oath of fidelity 
taken by soldiers when they have enlisted, and although there bo not a 
formal oath expressed, yet it is included in 
nio dies utramque 
Ducet ruinam. Cauq. Dao. 

'* Para vioUnlior natalie )u)rcB. Para here signifles what the Greeks 
call /inipa, that part of the sign which appears above the horizon at ttie 
moment of birth; for every sign is divided into several parts, whidi 
make as many horoscopes, called by the poet SalaUa Horn. Die. 

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H 0DB3 OF HOBACH. Bocs a 

derfiil m&nner. Thee tbe benign protection «^ Jupiter, ehin- 
ing with friendly aspect, rescued from the baleful influence 
of impious Satum, and retarded the mage of precipitate des- 
tiny, at the tJDio the crowded people with resounding ap- 
plaoses thrice hailed you in the theater : me the trunk of a 
tree, falling upoa my skull, would hare dispatched, had not 
Faanna, the protector of men of genius, with his right hand 
warded off the blow. Be thou mindful to pay the victims and 
the Totive temple ; I will sacrifice an humble lamb. 

Nob ivory, nor a fretted ceiling adorned with gold, glitters 
in my house: no Hymettian beams" rest upon pillars cut 
out of the entreme parts of Africa; nor, a pretended heir, 
have I possessed myself of the palace of Attalus," nor do 
ladies, my dependants, spin Laconian purple for my use. But 
integrity, and a liberal vein of genius, are mine : and the man 
of fortune makes his court to me, who am but poor. I im- 
portune the gods no. further, nor do I require of my friend in 
Ewer any laiger enjoyments, sufficiently happy'with my Sa- 
le &rm alone. Day ia driven on by day, and the new moons 
hasten to their wane. You put out marble to be hewn, though 
with one foot in the grave; and, unmindfiil of a sepulcber, 
are building houses ; and are busy to extend the shore of the 
sea, that beats with violence at Baife," not rich enough with 

<> Architravea, rormeil of tbe white maibls of Hjmattus, a mountain 
□ear Athens. Ooblu. 

" The did commentators ami Craqnins imagine, that there ia a stroke 
of satire here, by which the poet would Jusinuste, that the Roman peo- 
ple had fraudulently obtained them the will b; ivhich Attalua made 
them bis heirs. But this unknov™ heir was undoubtedly Aristonicus, 
who, aft^r tho death of Att&lus, seized upon the throne, defeated Ucia- 
ius CrasauB, and being conquered by Perpenna, was carried to Rome, 
uid strangled in prison b; order of tbe senate. ToRR. 

■7 Baiic, a city of Campania, near the sea, situated between Puteoli 
and Ficenum. People were tbnd of building here, because of the bciauty 
of the phice. Here are many hot watery pleasant and whaleaome. 


tam^a. 0DB8 OF HOBAOB. 5) 

the ahora of the nuiiiland. Why is it, that through avarice 70a 
even pluck np the landmarks ctf your neighboi^ ground, and 
treepasa beyond the bounds of your clients ; and wife and 
hust>and are turned ont, bearing in their boeotn their honee- 
hold gods and their destitute children ? Nevertheless, no court 
more certainly awaita its wealthy lord, than the destined limit 
of rapacious Pluto. Why do you go on ! The impartial earth 
is opened equally to the poor and to the sons of kings ; nor 
has the life^u&rd ferrynuin of bell, bribed with gold, re-con- 
ducted the artful Prometheus. He confines proud Tantalus, 
and the race of Tantalus ; he condescends, whether invoked or 
not, to reUeve the poor freed from their labors. 

A iinsiaAiai^ ob nuramo tawa. 

I BAW Bacchus (believe it, posterity) dictating strains among 
the remote rocks, and the nymphs letuning them, and the ears 
of the goat-£xited satyrs all attentive. Evce ! my mind trem- 
bles wiui recent dread, and my soni, replete with Bacchus,** 
has a tumultuous joy, Evce ! ** spare me, Bacchus ; spare me, 
thou who art formidable for thy dreadfiil thyrsus. It is 
granted me to sing the wanton Bacchanalian priestess, and 
uie fountain of wine, and rivulets fiowios with milk, and to 
tell again of the honeys distilling from the hollow trunks. It 
is granted me likewise to celebrate the honor added to the 
constelladons by your happy spouae,'* and the palace of Pen- 

•* BaccfaoB, the son of Jupiter bjr Semele. He was taken ont oT his 
mothav and sewed into Jufriter'a tbigh till ripa fbr birth. He was tbe 
god of wine, WiTBON. 

*■ Eva was a word used by the priests of Bacchns when they celebrat- 
ed his mysterieB, being taken from his name Evius, which was ^veu by 
JafHter in that war which the paata wafted against heaven. Watbok. 

fv Ariadne, daughter to Uinoa, kicft of Crete, who, tbr the love she 

had to Theseus, gave him a clew to guide him through the mazes of tbe 

t^yrintb. Shaaccompaniedhim a9farastheia!andNasoB,orDiony^ 

wbOTeTheseusmost nngratetullylellher; but Bacchus, pitying her, took 


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Ibeus^' demolished with no Ijglit ruin, adlI the perdition of 
tliradan Lycurgus." You command the livers, you the bar- 
buiau sea. You, moist with wine, on lonely mouDtain-tops 
bind the bair of your Tbracian priestesGcs with a knot of 
ripers without hurt You, when tbe impious band of ^ants 
tcaled the realms of father Jupiter through the sky, repelled 
Rhoetus, with the paws and horrible jaw of the lion-shuie 
[you had assumed]. Thou, reported to be better fitted for 
^nces and jokes and play, you were accounted insuffiaeut 
for fight ; yot it then appeared, you, the same deity, was the 
mediator of peace and war. Upon you, ornamented with 
'our golden horn, Cerberus inuoceutly gazed, gently waging 
lis tail ; and with his triple tongue licked your feet and kgs, 
you returned. 

I, A two^ormed poet, will be conveyed through the liqmd dr 
with no vulgar or humble wing ; nor will I loiter upon 
earth any longer; and superior to envy, I will quit cities. 
Not I, even I, the blood of low parents, my dear Miecenaa, 
shall die; nor shall I be restrained by the Stygian wave. At 
this instant a rough skin settles upon my ankles, and all up- 
wards I am transformed into a white bird, and the downy 
plumage arises over my fingers and shoulders. Now, a me- 
lodious bird, more expeditious than the Dsdalean Icarus, I 
will visit the shores of the murmuring Bosphorus, and the 
Gffituleaa Syrtes, and the Uyperborenn plains. Me the Col- 

her into heaven, made her hU wife, and presented ber with a diadem, 
sparkling with seven stars, colled Gnosis Corooa. Watson. 

" PentheuB, a king (rf Thebes, who, for slighting the rights of Bac- 
chus, WHS torn in pieces by his own mother, Bistere, and aunt. Watsos. 

II Lycargus, a king of Thrace, who, finding his people too much ad- 
dicted to wine, (H'dered all the vines of the country to be rooted up. 
JuBtm, l>ool{ iii. Therefore Bacchus made him mad ; ho that he cut off 
his own l^iB. There was another of the same name, the famous SnartaQ 
Isw-^ver. Watson. 

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chian and the Dacian, who liides bis fear of the Manian co- 
liort, and the remotest Gelonians,^' Bhall kttow : me the learned 
Spaniard" shall study, and he that drinks of the Rhone. Let 
there be no diigea," nor uDtnanl; lamenlations, nor bewailings 
at m^ imaginarj funeral ; Buppress your crying, and forbear 
the superfluous honors of a sepulcher. 

" Oeloai, a people of Scytbia, otherwise called Gebo. They used to 
paint themselves, to become more terrible to tbeir eaemies ; vheDce Yir- 
gU calls them " pictos GeloBOB." Geor. ii. IIB. They ue thought to be 
now the LitbuaoiBiiB. Watsoh. 

" In the time of Aiigustus learning and the sciences flourished ia 
Spain, whither they were carried from Asia, and where the Roman colo- 
lues contributed gjeatly to their encouragement. Dac. 

IS Ad imitation of Ennius' epitaph, p. 161, ed. Heasel i 

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I ABomKATB the unitiidated vulgar, uid keep them at a <£»• 
tance. Preserve a religious silence : I, the priest or the Muses, 
ang to virgioB and boys verses not heard Defore. The domi- 
luon of dread sovereigns is over their own subjects ; that of 
Jupiter, glorious for his conquest over the giants, nho shabea 
alt nature with hia nod, is over sovereigns themselves. It 
happens that one man arranges trees, in regular rows, to a 
greater extent than another; this man comes down into the 
Campus [Martius]' as a candidate of a better fomily ; another 
vies with him for morals and a better reputation ; a third has 
a superior number of dependants ; but Fate, by the impartial 
law of nature, is allotted both to the conepii-nous end tne ob- 
scure ; the edacious urn keeps eveiy name in motion. Sid- 
liau dtunties will not force a delicious reliEh to that man, 
over whose impious neck the naked sword bangs : the songs 
of birds and the lyre will not restore his sleep. Sleep disdains 
not the humble cottages and shady bank ot^ peasants ; he dis- 
d^ns not Tempe, &nned by zephyrs. Him, who desires but 
ft competency, neither the tempestuous sea renders anxious, 
nor the mahgn violence of Arcturus setting,* or of the rising 

> Setting Arcturus, a conatellation of fburteen stars, which follow the 
ITrsiia Miqor, whence it has its name. It is (hougbt, both at ri»Dg and 
settiDg, to cause tenpeats. The ancients have observed its rising to be 
in the middle of September, and its setUng in the banning of October. 

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Kid ; not his vineyarda beaten dowD with hail, and a deceidiil 
farm ; his plantatioas at one season blaming the raina, at 
anolher, the influence of the constellations parching the 
grounds, at another, the severe winters. The fishes perceive 
die seas contracted, by the vast foundations that have been 
hud in the deep : hither numerous undertakers with their men, 
and lords, disdunful of the land, send down mortar: but 
anxiety and the threats of conscience* ascend by the same way 
as the possessor ; nor does gloomy care depart from the brazeit- 
beaked galley, and she mouute'bebind the horseman. Since 
then nor Phrygian marble, nor the use of purple mom 
dazzling than the sun, nor the Falernian vine, nor the Peraan 
nard, composes a troubled mind, why should I set about a 
lofty edifice* with columns that excite envy, and in the 
modem taste ! Why should I exchange my Sabine vale for 
wealth, which is attended with more trouble ! 


Let the robust youth learn patiently* to endure pin<:hbig 
irant in the active exercise of arms ; and as an expert horse- 
maa, dreadful for his spear, let him harass the fierce Parthi- 
ana; and let him lead a life exposed to the open air, and 
bmiliar with daneers. Him, ' the consort and marriageable 
virgin-daughter ot some warring tyrant, viewing from the 
hostile wall:, may sigh — Alas ! let not the affianced prince, in- 
experienced as he is in arms, provoke by a touch this terrible 
lion, whom bloody rage hurries through the midst of slaughter. 
It is sweet and glorious to die for one's country ; death even 
pursties the man that flies from him ; nor does he ^Htre thb 
trembling knees of efieminate youth, nor the coward back. 
Virtue, unknowing of base repulse, shines with immaculate 
honors ; nor does she assume nor lay aside the ensigns of 

* Mina, " intern» propter bcioora commiBsa." Orblli. 

' Atrium was properly a great hall, in which the Romans placed tha 
Btaluaa of their ancestors, received their clients, and porfbrmed all their 
domestic duties. It is here used fbr the whole dwelliDg. Er Ddsldi. 

' Amitx, i. e. " with a mind well-disposed toward toil," and heno^ 
" patiently, willinglj." Obelu. 

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62 0DE3 OF HORACE. boot nt 

her digmty,* at the veering of the popular sir. Virtue, 
throwing open hesren to those who deserve not to die, directs 
her progress through paths of difficulty,' and spurns with a 
rapid wing groveling cowards and the slippery earth. There 
is likewise a sure reward for faithfbl silence. I will prohibit 
that man, who shall have divulged the sacred rites of my»- 
terious Ceres, from being under the same roof with me, or 
from eettiog sail with me in the same fragile bark : for 
Jupiter, when slighted, often joins a good man in the same 
fat« with a bad one. Seldom hath punishment, though lame^ 
of foot, ^ed to overtake the wicked. 


Not the rage of the people pressing to hurtful measurea, not 
the aspect of a threatening tyrant can shake &om his settled 
purpose the man who is just and determined in his resolu' 
lion ; nor can the south wind, that tumultuous ruler of the 
restless Adriatic, nor the mighty hand of thundering Jove ; if 
a crushed world should fall in upon him, the ruins would 
strike him undismayed. By this character* Pollux,'" by this 

' Literall7, " the &BOeB." 

' Literally, " a forbidden track." 

< Julius Cseaar. accordiD^ to Suetonius, hod formed a desi^ of trans- 
porting the seat of empire to Troy or Alexandria, after having exhausted 
Italy of its treasures and inhabiCaDls. This was strongly reported a Uttle 
before tho dictator was put to death; and, as Augustus seemed willing to 
enter into all tho schemes of his predecessor, and as Troy was usually es- 
teemed the Beat of tho Julian fiimily, the Romans were approhensive 
that ho had resolved to cany this project into ezecutioo. It is certain, 
that both Julius Caesar aad Augustus, on many occasions, showed a 
very remarkable inclination id iiivor or Troy : the Srst ordered it to bo 
rebuilt ; tho second settled a colony there ; and tbey bath granted it 
considerable privileges. Thus the report, concerning the dicCator'a 
inCentioD, might naturally make the peopln attentive lo the actioos 
of his successor; and their apprehensions mi);ht have engaged the 
poet to write this ode, in which he boldly attempts to dissuade Augustus 
irom his design by representing Juno, in a full assemhly of the gods, 
threatening the Romans with her resentment, if they should dare to re- 
build the walls of a city which had been always an object of her dia- 
pleasnie and revenge. 

' Bdc aiie,'] «perj, "by using this same constaoey." ORELLt. 

■0 Pollux, tho son of J'lpitcr and Ledi,Bnd twin brother of Castor ; oi. 

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the wandering Herculee, arrived at tbo stany citadels ; among 
whom Augustus" has now taken his place, and quafib n«ctar 
with empurpled lips. Thee, father Bacchus, meritorious for 
this virtue, thy tigers carried, drawing the yoke with intract- 
able neck ; by this Romulus escaped Acheron on the horses of 
Mars — Juno" having spoken what the gods in full conclave 
approved: "Troy, Troy, a fatal and lewd judge," and a 
forewn woniau, have reduced to ashes, condemned," with ila 
inhabitanta and fraudulent prince, to me and the chaste 
Minerva, ever since Laomedon" disappointed the gods of the 
sripulated reward. \ow neither the infamous guest of the 
Lacediemonian adulteress shines ; nor does Priam's perjured 
&mily repel the warlike Grecians by the aid of Hector, and 
that war, spun out to such a length by our lactions, has sunk 
to peace. Henceforth, therefore, I will give up to Mars both 
my Ditter resentment, and the detested grandson," whom the 
T^an princes bore. Him will I suffer to enter the bright 
re^ons, to drink the juice of nectar, and to be enrolled among 
the peaceful order of gods. As long as the exteudve sea rages 

■a others, the son of T;fndaru3, whence tbe brotbera are called Tjn- 
daridte. He and liis brother were immortal by turns. He was tanvHis 
for boibg, and Castor for horsomanahip. Thoy Seed the seas of pirates, 
and were therefore worshiped as the gods of the sea. Watsov. 

>' Divine honors were decreed to Augustus in the year 725, and the 
poet here appoints him a seat in heavoo among the heroes, who were 
deified for their resolution and constancy, to show that his statue was 

Kced in Rome with those of Pollux, Hercules, and Bacchus. Tbe 
mans painled the &eea of these atatuea with vermilion, from whenco 
Dacier thiuks that Horace hath token this expression, purptireo ore. 
Others understand the rays of light, with which the gods are represented i 
yet moK naturally it seems lo mean a glowing of hrightoess, without re- 
sard to any particular color, for the word parpurmi is often thus used 
by the beat authors. AsTirgil. jnirpurmm num. Fbah. 

" Juno, see E IL Ode i Watson. 

■> Atladiug to tbe judgment of Paris. CC Tii^. Ma. \. 26 aq. 

" DamitaiM was a term of the Soman law, which a^judg^ an io' 
solvent debt'»' lo bis creditors in which seose it is here used, to expreoa 
the ooademaatioD of the Trcgans to the reseatmeut of Juno and Minerva. 

" Laanudon. The aocienta relate that Neptune and Apollo assisted 
him in buildio); the walls of Troy, but that ho defrauded them of the 
wages he promised them for so doin)^. Waisok. 

" Romulus was the grandaon of Juno by her sou Mars, and detested 
by the goddess because a Trojaa priestess waa his mother. Kepoa, in 
the time of pure Latinity, always signified a grandson, and QuiDtiliao 
Drat used it for a nephew. Sam. 

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94 ODES OF HOBAOB. booehl 

between Troy and Rome, let tbem, ezilei, reign happy in any 
other part of the world : as long as cattle trample upon the 
tomb of Priam and Faris, and wUd beasts conceal their young 
ones there with impuni^, may the Capitol remain in splendor, 
and may brave Rome be able to give laws to the conquered 
Medea. Tremendous let her extend her name abroad to the 
extremest boundaries of the earth, where the middle ocean 
separates Europe from Africa, where the swollen Nile waters 
the plains ; more brave in despising gold as yet undiscovered, 
and BO best situated while hidden in tbe earth, than in forcing 
it out for the osea of mankind, with a hand ready to make 
depredations on every thing that is sacred. Whatever end of 
the world has made re^tance, that let her reach with faer 
anns, joyfully alert to visit even that part where fiery beats 
rage madding ; that where clouds and rains storm with un- 
moderated fury. But I pronounce this fiUe to the warlike 
Romans, upon this condition ; that neither through an escesa 
of piety, nor of confidence in their power, they become in- 
clined to rebuild the houses of their ancestors Troy. The 
fortune of Troy, reviving under unlucky auspices, shall be le- 

J sated with l^entable destmction, I, the wife and sister of 
upiter, leading on the victorious bands. Huice, if a brazen 
wall should arise by means of its founder Phtebus, thrice 
should it bU, demolished by my Grecians ; thrice should the 
c^>tive wife bewwl her husband and her children." These 
ihemes ill suit the merry lyre. Whither, muse, are you go- 
ing t — Cease, impertinent, to relate the language of the gtMs, 
and to debase great things by your trifling n 

Dbsoehd Irom heaven, queen Calliope, and come sing with 
your pipe a lengthened strain ; or, if you had now rather, with 
your clear voioe, or on the harp or lute of Fhcebus. Do ye 
near ) or does a pleasing frenzy delude me f I seem to 
hear [her], and to wander [with her] along the hallowed 
groves, through which pleasant rivulets and gales make their 

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voodland doves, famous in slory, covered with green I 
in the Apulian Vultur, just without the limits of my native 
Apulia ; so that it was matter of wonder to all that inhabit 
the neat of loftj" Acherontia, the BautJne Forests, and the 
rich 8oU of low Fercntum, how I could sleep with my body 
«afe from deadly vipers and ravenous bears ; how I could be 
covered with aacred laurel and myrtle heaped together, thou^ 
a child, not animated without the [inspiration of the] gods. 
Yours, O ye muses, I am yours, whether I am elevated to the 
Sabine heights ; or whether the cool Pneneste, or the sloping 
Tibur, or tue watery B^se have delighted me. Me, who am 
attached to your fountains and dances, not the anuy put to 
,< flight at Fhilippi," not the ex^rable tree, nor a Fatinums in 
/' the Sicilian Sea has destroyed. / While you shall be with me, 
with pleasure will I, a sailor, dare the raging Bosphonia ; or, 
a traveler, the burning sands of the Assyrian shore :" I will 
visit the Britons inhuman to strangers," and the Concanian 
delighted [with drinking] the blood of horses : I will visit the 
quivered Geloni, and the Scythian river" withont hurt. You 
entertained lofty" Ciesar, seeking to pnt an end to his toils, 
in the Pierian grotto, as soon as he nad distributed in towns 

" £(orace calls Acheroulia a Qest, because it was siCuated upon rocks, 
on the fifntieiB of Lucauis. Cicero aays or Ulyssea, " bo powerful is tlM 
love of our couritiy, that this wisest of the Greeks preferred hjs Itbaca, 
fixed, like a nesl, upon rocks, to the eDJo^raeut of immortalitj," Dia 

19 Tbe poet here collecla three facta, to show that the gods porticularij' 
'watched over hU preservation. He fled Iroiii the battle of Pbiiippt Id 
Hi; he avoided the fall of a tree, 734; and ha was preserved from 
abipwreck, probably, io'the year 116, when he went aboard tbe fleet 
with UteceiiaB, to pass over into Sicily against Pompey. S4M. 

'* Assyria, properly spealung, is an inland country, and tiir distaut 
from the sea ; it is therefore used by tbe poet for Syria, which extends 
itself aloi^ the shore as far as Babylon. Such liberties are usual to tbe 
poets. Dac. San. 

>" Upon the authority of the scholiast Aeroa. tbe oommenlators be- 
lieve tbat the Britons sacrificed strangers to the gods. 

2' The commentators here understand the Tanais ; but tbe poet seems 
rather to speak of the Caspian Sea, which ia also called Scylhtcua firms. 
The Latins, in imitation of tbe Greeks, make use of the word amaia in- 
stead of mars. Dio. 

^ Dacier and Sanadon, in opposition ia all tbe commentolcrs, a^f^ 
that this epithet is here used (or aiamnHS, that it reibrs to aima in tl'e 
Ibr^-Beoond line, and that they are both derived Svm tbe verb aiert. 

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M ODES OF HORACE. book nt 

kia troops, wearied by campaigning :" you administer [to 
him] moderate counsel, and graciously rejmce at it when ad- 
mimstered: fWe are aware Low he, who nilea the inactive 
earth and the stormy main, tbe cities also, and the dreatr 
realms [of hell], and alone governs with a right«(His sway both 
gods and the Duman multitude, how he to^ off the impious/ 
Ittans and the gigantic troop by his falling thunderbolts. 
That horrid youth, trusting to the strength of their arms, and 
the brethren proceeding to place Pelion upon shady Olympus, 
had brought great dread [even] upon Jove. But what could 
l^phogua, and the strong Mimas, or what Porphyrion with 
his menacing stature ; what Rhcetus, and Enceladus, a fierce 
darter with trees uptorn, avail, though ruling violently 
agunst tbe sounding shield of Pallas t At one part stood the 
eager Vulcan, at another the matron Juno, and be, who is 
never desirous to lay aside his bow from his shoulders, Apollo, 
the god of Delos and Patara, who bathes bis flowing hair in 
the pure dew of Castalia, and possesses the groves of Lycia 
and nis native wood. Force, void of conduct, falls by its own 
\ weight ; moreover, the gods promote discreet force to tiirtber 
advantage ; but the same beings detest forces, that meditate 
every kind of impiety. Tbe hundred-handed Gyges is an 
evidence of the sentiments I allege : and Orion, the tempter of 
the spotless Diana, destroyed by a vii^n dart The earth, 
heaped over her own monsters, grieves and lamenta her off- 
spring, sent to murky Hades by a thunderbolt ; nor dgee- the 
active fire consume JStna that is placed over it, nor does tbe 
vulture desert the liver of iucoutjnent Tityus, being stationed 
there as an avenger of bis baseness ; and three hundred 
chains confine tbe amorous Pirithous. 

>> It is a noble eacominm of Augustus, that he was fkti^ad with 
conqaest, which ho was always wiliuig to end by an hoDorable peace. 
Piso huriag happily terminatod the Thntciao war iu 743, Augustus re- 
turned to Rome in the begioniDg of the year Ibtlowidg, with Tiberius 
and Drusus, who had reduced the Gormaos, the Daciaos, and other 
nations bordering upon tbe Dauube. The empire being thus i«t peace, 
Augustus eiacuted a decree of the senate to ^ut tbe temple of Janus. 
This naturally supposes tba disbandiug of his armies, of which Horace 
Qieaks. Sur. 

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We believe" trom hie thundering that Jupiter has domini 
in the heavens : Augustus shall be esteemed a preseot dei _ , 
the Britons and temble Farthians being added to the empire. 
What I has any eoldier of Craasua lived, a degraded husband 
with a barbarian wife ? And has {0 [corrupted] senate, and 
degenerate morals !) the Marsian and Apulian, unmindful of 
the sacred bucklers, of the [Roman] name and gown, and of 
eternal Vesta, grown old in the lands of hostile fitthers-in- 
law, Jupiter" and the city being in safety t The prudent 
mind of Regulus bad provided i^ainst this, dissenting" from 
ignominious terms, and inferring from such a precedent de- 
struction to the succeeding ^e, if the captive youtb were not 
to perish unpitied. I have beheld, s^d he, the Roman stand- 
ards affixed to the Carthaginian t«mplea, and their arms taken 
away from our soldiers without bloodshed. I have beheld 
the arms of our citizens bound behind their free-bom backs, 
and tbe gates [of the enemy] unsbut, and the fields, which 
were depopulated by our battles, cultivatod auew. The 
" In the year of Borne 731, Phraates received his son, who was 
detained as a bostage at Roma, ttota Augustus, on the express condition 
that ha would restore the RoniFin Btandards taken from the army of 
Cmasua. Phraatea however considered that distance waa safety, and 
accordingly Doglected to fulfill his engagement, until a rumor prevailed 
that Augustus would no longer be trifled with, and had already adtanoed 
as far aa Syri^ with tlia intention of renewing tbe war. By policy then 
the Htandards were restored, yet the vanity of the Romans transformed 
this peaceable transaction into the result of a violent warfare, and accord- 
inglyit was celebrated by triumphal arches, monuments and coins. Wh. 
"History, with correct aimplidty, assures us (F. H. 228), that. in B, 0. 
23, Tiridates b^ng then at Rome, on an embassy arriving &am Phraates, 
Augustus seized Uie occasion, among other points, to demand the restitu* 
tion of tbe standards ; and lo tlie natural expectation of prompt compU- 
ance, which such a demand would create, Mr. Chnton thinks may be re- 
ferred this splendid stanza, when hope Is at once converted into certainty." 


" " Oredidimu^, i e. semper, atque etiam nunc credimua." Orelli. 

" Jove. "Salvo capitolio," ScnOL. 

" We have adopted the reading of MSS. with the interpretation of 
John, "of Begulus dissenting IVom this base proposal, and dedxicinQ 
from this precedent destruction for all futnrit7," etc Wbbbleb. 

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SB 0DB8 OF HOBAOE. book in 

soldier, to be sure, ntmomed b;^ gold, will return a braver 
fellow! — No — you add loss to initun}'; [for] ueiUier does th% 
wool once Btnitied by the d^ of the sea-weed ever resume its 
lost color; oor does genuine valor, when ouue it bas failed, 
care to resume ils place in those who have deeenerated through 
cowardice. If the hind, diaeotan^ed from Sie tliick-set toils, 
ever fights, then indeed shall he be valorous, who has in- 
trusted himself to fiuthlese foes ; and he shall trample upon 
the GarthaginiaQS in a second war, who dastardly bas felt the 
thongs wilii his arms tied behind him, and has been afraid of 
death. He, knowing no other way to [observe his life, has 
confounded peace wiUi war. O scandal 1 O mighty Carth^, 
elevated to a higher pitch by Italy's disgraceful down&ll ! He 
{S^ultui) is reported to have rejected the embrace of his 
virtuous wife and his little sons like one degraded ;" and to 
havo sternly fiied his manly countenance on the ground, 
until, as an adviser, by his counsel he confirmed the waver- 
ing senators, and amid his weeping friends hastened away, a 
glorious exile. Notwithstanding he knew what the barbarian 
execulJoner was providing for him, yet he pushed from his 
opposing kindred and the populace retarding his return, in 
no other manner, than if (after he had quitted the tedious 
business of his client^ by determining their suit) he was only 
going to the Venafrian plains, or the Lacedemonian Ta- 

Tboc shalt atone, Roman, for the eina of your ancestora, 
though innocent, till you shall have repaired the temples and 
tottering shrines of the gods, and their statues, defited with 
Gooty smoke. Thou boldest sway, because thou bearest thy- 
self subordinate to the gods ; to this source refer every under- 
taking; to this, every event The gods, because neglected, 
have inflicted many evils on calamitous Italy. Already has 

'a of liberty o 

AmODg the 


man, ODES OF HORA.OE. 09 

Moneeses," and the band of Pacorus, twic« repeUed our in. 
suspicious Attacks, and exulta in having added the Boman 
spoils to their trivial collars. Tbe Daciau end .ifkhiopian" 
have almost demolished the city engaged in civil broiU, the 
one fonnidable for his fleet, the other more expert fc* miseile 
aiTows. The times, fertile in wickedness, have in the fiist 
place polluted the marriage slAte, and [thence] the issue and 
fomiliea. From this fountain perdition being derived, has 
overwhelmed the naljon and people. The marriageable 
virgin delights to be taught the Ionic dances," and even at 
this lime is trained up in [seductive] arts, and cherishes un- 
chaste desires from her very infancy. Soon after she courts 
younger debauchees when her husband is in his cups, nor has 
she any choice, to vhom she shall privately grant ber forbidden 
pleasures when the lights are removed, but at the word of 
command, openly, not without the knowledge of her hosband, 
she will come forth, whether it be a fector that calls for her, 
or the captain of a Spanish ship, the extravagant purchaser 
of her disgrace. It was not a youth bom from parents like 
these, that stained the sea with Carthaginian gore, and slew 
Pyrrhua, and mighty Antiochus, and terrific Annibal ; but a 
aianly progeny of rustic soldiers, instructed to turn the glebe 
with Sabine spades, and to carry clubs cut [out of the woods] 
at tLe pleasure of a rigid mother, what time the sun shifred 
the shadows" of the mountains, and took the yokes from the 

*■ AOiidiug to two Farthian commanders who hod proved victorious 
over Uie Romaas. Moiuesea, more commonly known bj the name of 
Snrena, Is the same that defeated Crassua. Pacorus was the son of 
Orodes, the Parthian moaarch, and defeated Didiua Saza, the lieutenant 
of Uark Antonv. MotuEsei, here, is a proper Dame, but Surena is an 
oriental term of dignity, indicating the person next in aulhorit; to the 

" We are not to understAud this pass^e as if the Dacians and 
.Ethiopians had twice attempted to doatroy the city of Rome. Horace 
means the army of Antony and Cleopatra, which waa chleSy composed 
of ttiose nationa Bond. 

" The lonians were the moat voluptuous people of the world ; their 
music, their dances, and their poetry were formed with a peculiar eoft- 
ne«a end delicacy. Even their laoghter bad aomel^ing bo dissolute, that 
'luviiic /e^c became a proverb. Tbe poet menliona the marriageable 
vii^D, because it was shameftil for a ^rl of that age to learn to dauco. 
That exercise was only permitted during their injkncy. Todd. 

" The inn changea ^e shadowa, in proportion as he declines to his 

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fO ODES OF HORACE. dooehl 

weatied osen, bringit^ on the pleasant hour with his retreat- 
ing chariot. What does not wasting time destroy ) The ace 
of our fatbeis, votm than oar gr^uiures, produced us still 
more fli^tious, us, who are about to produce an ofispring 
more vicious [even than ouraelvee]. 

Wht, Asterie, do you weep for Gyges, a youth of inviola- 
hie constancy " whom the kindly lephyrs" will restore to 
you in the beginning of the spring, ennched with a Bithyniaa 
caigo?" Driven as far as Oricum by the southern winds, 
after [the rising] of the Goat's tempestuous constellation, he 
sleepless passes the cold nights in abundaut weeping [for 
Tou] ; but the agent of his anxious landlady slyly tempts nini 
by a thousand methock, informing him that [his mistress], 
Chloe, b ^gbing for him, and burns with the same love that 
thou haatfor him. He remonstrates with him how a perfidious 
woman urged the credulous Prstus, by false accusations, to 
hasten the death of the over-chaste Bellerophon. He tella 
how Peleua was like to have been given up to the infernal 
regions, while out of temperance he avoided the Magneuan 
Hippolyte : and the deceiver quotes histories to him, that are 
lessons for sinning." In vain ; for, heart-whole as yet, he 
receives his woids deafer than the Icariau rocks. But with 
regard to you, have o care lest your neighbor Enlpeus prove 
too pleasing. Though no other person equally ekillftil to guide 

setting. Id the moming be directs them to tbe west, in the eveaing to 
the east Tomt. 

" " Fide" is the ancient (brm of the genitive. See OrelU 

" Tbe poet does not mean that this wind shall bring Gjges home, for 
it was directlfCODtriuytohiB return to Italy, but that in general it opens 
Uie seas, and encoun^ee navigation, by restoring Tair weather. Torr 

" Tojs of iroD, steel, ailver, and gold, wtiich tbe BiChynians made with 
great neatness. Fbancib. 

*' Chloe's confidant, not being able lo testify Gyges into compliance^ 
b; tbe dangers to which tbeee two heroes were exposed Ibrtheircliastitj, 
strives to seduce bim b; examples of those who had yielded upon easier 
teima Toaa 


ODBTin. 0DB8 OF HORACE. >]i 

the steed, is conspicuous in the course, nor does any one with 
equal swiftness swim down the Etrurian stream, yet secure 
your house at the very approach of ni^ht, nor look down into 
the Btreeta at the sound of the doleful pipe ; and remain 
inflexible toward him, though he often upbraid thee with 

M^CBNAS, learned in both languages," you wonder what 
I, a single man, have to do on the calends of March ; what 
these flowers mean, and the censer replete with frankincense, 
and the coals laid upon the lire tuTi. I made a vow of a 
joyous banquet, and a white goat" to Bacchus, after having 
been at the point of death hy a blow from a tree. This day, 
sacred in the revolving year, shall remcve ttio cork fastened 
wilh pitch" from that jar, which was set to inhalo the smoke 

" A (festival was observed, with much religious pomp, upon the first 
of Uarcb, by the Roman ladies, in memory of tile day when the Sabine 
women, having reconciled thf ir husbands with their fathers, dedicated a 
temple to Juno. They oBfered sacrificoa and Bowers to the goddess in 
that very temple, and wailed at home the rest of the day, to receive the 
presents which their friends and husbands mode them, as if to thank 
thorn fbr that happy mediation. Prom hence the calends of March were 
called Ifalrtinalia, or JfaironaSea feria; and, while the wives perfbrmed 
their offerings to Juno, their husbands sacrificed to Janus. ToRit. Dac. 

" Sermonea, in the language of Horace, signifies books and Uteralj 
compoutiooa It ia here used in the same eenae; fortho surprise of 
Mfficenae, at seeing a bachelor preparing a sacrifice on the first of Uarcli, 
arises fTom his knonlodge of the religious rites and customs of Greece, 
by his being master of the books and learning of both languages. San. 

" The ancients usually sacrificed to the gods the beasts which thej 
bated. Thus a goat is sacrificed to Bacchus, because it destroyed the 
vine. The victims of the celestial gods were white, those of tbe infernal 
duties were black. Cb0Q. 

" When the wine vessels were filled, and the disturbance of the liquor 
had subsided, the covers or stoppers were secured with plaster, or a coat- 
ing of pitch mixed with the ashes of the vine, go as to exclude alt com- 
munica^on with the external air. Atler this, the wines were mellowed 
by the application of smoke, which was prevented, by the ample coating 
of pitch or plaster on the wine vessel, from penetrating so fhr as to vitiate 
the genuine taste of the liqnor. Previously, however, to depouting the 

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in the consnlship of Tnllus. Take, mr Mscenas, a hundred 
cupa OQ account of the eafety of your friend, and continue the 
wakeful lamps eveo to da)'4ifflit : all clamor and pasaon be 
far away- Foe^ne your political cares" nith r^rd to the 
state : the army of the Dacian Cotison is defeated ; Uie trouble- 
some Mede" is quarreling with himself in a horrible 
[civil] war : the Cantabrian, onr old enemy" on the Spanish 
coast, is subject to us, though conquered by a long-disputed 
victory: now, too, the Scythiana are preparing to quit the 
Seld with their uabent bows. Neglectful," as a private pei^ 
son, forbear to be too solicitous lest the community la any 
wise suffer, and joyfully seize the boons of the present boor, 
and qtut serious a^rs. 

HoKACB. As long as I was agreeable to thee, and no other 

amplione 13 the wine-vault or apotheca, it was usual to put upon them a 
label or mark icdicative of tlio viotages, and of the aatnesof the consula 
in Buthority at the time, in order that, when thej were taken out, their 
age and growth might be easily recognized. If \>j the consulship of 
TuUuB, mentioned in the text, bo meant that of L. Volcatius Tullus, who 
bad M. jEmilius Lepidusfor liis colleague, a. u. C. 688, and if the present 
ode, as would nppoar fiom verse IT seqq'., was composed 1. IT. c. 734, 
the wiae oETered b^ Horace to his friend must hare been more than 
(brtv-eix years old. Anthon. 

' Augustus was not jet returned from hts eastern expeditjon, and 
when Agrippa went to Spain, Fannonia, and Syria, Mceceuas possessed 
alooe the government of Rome aud Italy, uutil September, 738, when be 
resigned it to Staljliua Taurus, that he might follow Augustus into Oanl 
ToRR. San. 

" The submission which Fbraates made to Augustus, was as much an 
cRM of bis politica as of his fears. Detested Tor hia cruelties, he en- 
deavored to support himself against bis own subjects by his alliance 
with tbe Bomans, aud when be rendered to Augustus the Boffian 
Etanduda aud prisoners, be delivered Ibur sous oud four grandsons to 
him, to preserve them from the insurrections of his own people. Sam. 

" The war ia Spain cootinued more than 200 years belbre the Canta- 
brians were perfectly subdued, and Strnbo judiciously remarks, that it 
proceeded from their not opposing tbeir whole force at once to the 
Romans. San. 

•* Xigligens: "securua, non timena." Schol 

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«nx. ODES OF HOKA.0K Is 

youth more favored was wont to fold hia anna aiound tiij 
snowy neck, I lived happier than the Persian monarch." 

Ltdia. As lor^ as uiou hadst not a greater flame for any 
other, nor was Lydia below Chloe [in thine afiections], I 
Lydia, of distinguiahed fame, flourished more emiaent than 
the Roman Sia. 

HoR. The Thmcian Chloe now commands me, skillfiil in 
sweet modulations, and a mistress of the lyre ; for whom I 
would not dread to die, if the fates would spare her, my sur- 
viving soul. 

Ltd. Cal^s, the son at the Thurian Omitus, inflames me 
with a mutnal fire ; for whom I would twice endure to die, if 
Uie fates would spare my surviving youth. 

Hon. What! if our former love returns, and unites by a 
brazen yoke us once parted t What if Chloe vrith her golden 
lochs be shaken off, and the door again open to slighted Lydia. 

Lyd. Though he is &irer than a star, thou of more levity 
than a cork, and more passionate than the blustering Adriatic ; 
with thee I should love to live, with thee I would cheerfully die. 

O Ltcb, had yon drunk from the remote Tanais, in a state of 
marriage with some barbarian, yet you might be sorry to ex- 
pose me, prostrate before your obdurate doors, to the north 
winds that have made those places their abode. Do you hear 
with what a ncnse your gate, with what [a noise] the grove, 
planted about your elegant buildings, rebdlows to the winds t 
And how Jupiter glazes the settled snow with Ms bright in- 
fluence ) Lay aside disdain, offensive to Venus, lest your rope 
^ould run backward," while the wheel is revolving. Your 

" The kinga of Persia, in the times of Horace, might more properij be 
called goveniorB, as they were in Bubjeclion to the Parthians. The poet 
thetefbre means the ancient kings of Persia, such as Cytiia or Dariiis, 
who were called kings of kings ; and whose riches and power gave birth 
to the proverb, " Happier than the king of Persia." CboO, 

" An allosioa tosome mechanical contrivance forraising iieavywfflghts, 
and wbich conusts of a wheel with a rope passing in a grove along ita 

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74 ODES 07 BOBAOB. booeiii 

^miieiiiaii fether did not beget you to be as inaccessible as 
Penelope to your wooers. O though neither jireseuta, nor 
prayers, nor the violet-tinctured paleness of your lovers, nor 
your husband smittea with a musical courtezan, bend you to 
jnW; yet [at length] spare your suppliants, you that are not 
softer than the sturdy o^ nor of a ^ntler dispoution than 
the Africas serpents. This «de [of mine] will not always be 
able to eadure your tbioshold, and the rain. 

Mkrcurt, for under thy instruction the ingenious Ajnphion 
moved rocks by his voice, you being his tutor; and thongn iny 
harp, sUlled in sounding, with seven strines," formerly 
neiUier vocal nor pleasing, but now asreeable boto to the tables 
d the wealthy and the temples [of uie gods}; dictate meas- 
ures to which Lyde may incline her obstinate ears, who, Uke 
a filly of three years old, plays and frisks about in the spar 
cioua fields, inexperienced in nuptial loves, and hitherto unnpe 
for a brisk husband. You are able to draw after you tigers 
and attendant woods, and to retard rapid rivers. To your 
blandishments the enormous porter of the [infemall palace 
jdelded, though a hundred serpents fortity his head, and a 
pestilential steam and an infectious poison issue from his triple- 
tODgued mouth. Moreover, Ixion and Tityus smiled with s 
reluctant aspect : while you soothe the daughters of Danaus** 

outer edge. Sbould tbe wdght of the mass that is to be raised prove too 
heavy, the rape, unable to reBist, saaps asuader, and Siea back, b^g 
drawn down by the bodj intended to be elevated. Antboh. 

" Diodorus tella us, that the IjTe had at first but bur strings, acconUug 
to the number of aeasons, or quarters of the heavens. MacrotnuB in- 
forms ns, that it was afterward, in view to the number of the planet^ 
mounted witb seven Btrings; from whence Pindar calls it tbe seven- 
ton^ed Ittb. Fran. 

"* Dan^des; tbe daughters of Danans He was the brother of E^yptns, 
king of Egypt He came into Greece, and baying ezpeLed Stbenelus, 
fixed at Ar(^ He had My daughters, wbo were married to tbe fllW 
sons of BgyptuB, whereof all, except Uypermoestra, by their bther^ 
command, dew their husbands upon the wedding-night ; for wbicb tbey 
were condemned in bell to Gil a tab with water, tbe bottom of wbicb waa 



with yonr delightAil harmony, their verael for some lime re- 
mained diy. Let Lyde hear of the crime, and the well-known 
punishment of the virgins, and the cask emptied by the waier 
streaiuiog through the bottom, and what lasting fates await 
their misdeeds even beyond the grave. Impious! (for what 
greater impiety could they have committed )) Impious ! who 
could destroy their bridegrooms with the cruel sword ! Ooe 
out of the many, worthy of the nuptial torch," was nobly false 
to her peijured parent, and a maiden illustrious to all posterity ; 
she, who s^d to her youthful husband, " Arise ! arise I lest an 
eternal sleep be given to you from a hand you have no suspicion 
of; disappoint your &ther-in-Iaw and my wicked sisters, who, 
like lionesaes having possessed themselves of calves (alas^! 
tear each of them to pieces; T, c^ softer mold than they, will 
neither strike thee, nor detain the in my custody. Let my 
father load me with cruel chains, because out of mercy I spared 
my unhappy spouse; let him transport me even to the extreme 
Numidian plains. Depart, whither your feet aud the winds 
carry you, while the night and Venus are favorable : depart 
with Happy omen ; yet, not forgetAiI of me, engrave my mourn- 
ful story on my tomb.'"* 

TO heobuijE. 

It is for unhappy maidens neither to i^ve indulgence to love, 
nor to wash away cares with delicious wine ; or to be dis- 
pirited out of dread of the lashes of an uncle's tongue." Hie 

pierced, and full of baloa, that it could not retain SI17 ; b/ which moans 
their ld>or waa perpetually renewed. Watbon'. 

** This expreBSion is taken raetaphorically Ibr the mortiage; because 
In the nuptial cerenonies the bride was conducted in the night to the 
bridegroom's honse by the light of torches. San. 
fi° Ovid (Her. ziv. 129) Bupphes the epitaph : 

Scriptaque sont titnio nostra sepnlchra btevi : 
"'Exol H}^nnnostra pretium pieUtia iniquum 
Qoam mortein fratri depulit, ipM tiUit." Ahthoh. 
*' Among the Bomana, uncles bad a great power over their nsphewat 

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76 0DB8 OF BOBAOB. book m 

winged boy of Venus, Neobule, has deprived you of your 
B[niidle and your webs, and the beauty of Hebnig" from IJpam 
of inclinstion for the labors of induBtrioiu Minerra, after he 
has bathed his anointed shoulders in Oit waters of the Hber ; a 
better horseman than Bellerophon himself, neither conqaered 
at boxing, nor by want of swiftness in the race : he is also 
aldlled to strike with his javelin the sti^ flying through the 
open plwDs in fiightened herd, and active to aurpnae the wild- 
boar lurking in the deep thicket 

O IHOD fountun of Bandusia, clearer than glass, worthy of 
delicious wine," not unadorned by flowers ; to-morrow thou 
shalt be presented with a kid, whose forehead, pouting with 
new horns, detennines apon both love and war in vain ; for 
this of&pnng of the wanton flock shall tinge thy cooling 
streams with acarlet blood. The severe season of the burning 
dog-star can not reach thee ; thou afibrdest a refreshing' cool- 
ness to the oxen £itigued with the plow-share, and to the 
ranging flock. Thou also shall become one of the fiunous 
fountains, through my celebrating the oak that covers the 
hollow rock, i^ence thy pratthng rills descend with a 

and AH thoy were not usnallj so indulgent as fathers, their severity pass- 
ed into a. proverb. Toaa. 

»> fleftrt. The name of a river (as above EnipeuB. Od. iiL 7, 23), is 
attributed to a lover, jet the addition of his country's name indtcaites 
gome individual easily recognizable. Anthoh. 

'3 Ovid represents Numa sacriQcing to a fbuntain, and pladns round 
it goblets crowned with flowers, a particular not mentioned by Horace, 
dtho<^;h it was, periiapB, a usual part of the solemnity, intended to in- 
vite Ibe divinity to drink. Dac. 

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Auocsrus Cabab, ye people who was lately said, like 
another Hercules, to have sought for the laurel to be pur- 
chased only by death, revisits his domestic gods, victonoua 
from the Spanish shore. Let the matron {Ltvia), to whom 
her husband alone is dear, come forth in pubUo processiou, 
having first perfonned her duty to the just gods;" and (Oe- 
tavia), the aster of our glorious general ; the moUiers also of 
the maidens and of the youths just preserved from danger, 
becomingly adorned with supplic&tory filtets." Ye, O young 
men, and young women lately married, abstain from ilP 
omened words. This day, to me a real festival, shall ejcpel 

floomy cares ; 1 will neither dread commotions," nor violent 
eath, while Cfesar is in possession of the earth. Go, slave, 
and seek for perfume and chaplets, and a cask that remem- 
bers the Maruan war," if any vessel could elude the vaga- 
bond Spartacua." And bid the tunetiil Nesera make haste to 

s< Augostoa left Eomo In tho month of Juno, 121, for his BriUah ei- 
pedition ; but satiaSed with the Hubmiasion or that people, he tamed his 
arrDB a|;ainst the Spaniards, and did not return to Rome until the jear 
730. TORR. 

sj The gods are here styled "juat" from their granting to Augustas 
the success which his valor deserved. This, of course, is mere flattery. 
Augustus was never remarkable either for personal braveiy or military 
talents. AnTHOtf. 

" The Roman ladies uaoaUj bound their beads, as a mark of their 
chasti^, with fillets, which common women durst not wear. Bat Horace 
rather means the sacred vaoJs with which thej- covered Iheir heads and 
hands in sacriflcea, public pnijers, and processions upon eittaordinai; 
occaaiona. Dao. 

" By tumullus the poet mennB the dvU wars, and b? «i. all foreign 
wars. He with reason apeaka of the tranquillity of (he Roman empire ; 
for Anguatns a second time shut the temple of Jauus when he returned 
Erom Spain. ToRR. 8*v. 

*B liiia war was called the Social and Italian war, which Horace calls 
Uarsian, because it was begun by the Maru ; and aa the memory of this 
war was marked on the cask, for which the poet sends his slaves, the 
wine must have been nxty-eight years old. Sah. 

•* Spartacus, a gladiator, and Thrainan by birth, who, putting him- 
self at 0ie head of a small number of gladiators, whom he bod drawn 

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n ODES 07 HOBACB. BOosm 

collect into a knot ber auburn bair; but if any delay should 
happen from the surly porter, come away. Hoary hair mol- 
lifies minds that are food of strife and petulant wrangling. 
I would not have endured this treatment, warm with youth in 
the consulship of FlanGUS." 


YotT wife of the indigent Ibycus, at len^ put an end to your 
wickedness, and your infamous practices. Cease to sport 
amons the damsels, and to diffuse a cloud among bright con- 
stellations, now on the verge of a timely death. If any thing 
will become PhoIoS, it does not you Chloria, likewise. Your 
daughter with more propriety attacks the voung men's apart- 
ments, like a Bacchanalian roused up by tne rattling timbreL 
The love of Nothus makes her frisk about like a wanton she- 
goat The wool shorn near the fiunoua Luceria becomes you 
now antiquated: not musical instruments, or the damask flower 
of tha rose, or hogsheads drunk down to the lees. 


A BRAZSN tower, and doors of oak, and the melancholy watch 
of wakefiil dogs, had sufficiently defended the imprisoned 
Danae°' from midnight gallants, had not Jupiter and Venus 

out or the haU of one Lentulna, at Capus, and increasing his troop by a 
giTOt namber of slaves, who doily Socked to bim, and ranged Uiemaelves 
ander his banners, ravaged all Itaij. Watboh. 

"» Munatius Plancus was conaul in the year when the battle of Phil- 
Ippi was fouKhtt when our poet appeared in the cause cflitwrtj, and was 
a tribune under Brutus. Bond. 

" Danae, the daughter of JVcrisius, king of tbe Aleves. Be being 
fbrewaraed by the oracle, that he ehould be slain by his own grandson, 
end haviDg no other daughter but this Dauae, be caused her to be shut 
up in a strong lower, and auffcrcd none to come near her. But all these 

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tmaxn. ODES OF HORi.GE. ^0 

lauffhed at Aerisius, the anxious keeper of the iminnred 
maiden: [for they well knew] that tlie way would be Bafe 
and open, after the god had transformed Mmaelf into a bribe. 
Gold delights to penetrate through the midst of guards, and to 
break through etone-walls, more potent than the thunderbolt. 
Hie fiimily of the Grecian augur" perished, immersed in de- 
atniction oa account of lucre. The man of Macedon" cleft 
the gates of (he cities and subverted rival monarchs by bribery. 
Bribes enthrall fierce captains of ships. Care, and a thirst for, 
greater things, is the consequence of increasing wealth. There-' 
tote, Mfficenas, thou glory of the [Roman] knights, I have 
justly dreaded to raise the far-conspicuous nead. As much 
more as any man shall deny himself, so much more shall he 
receive from the gods. Naked as I am, I seek the camps of 
those who covet nothing ; and as a deserter, rejoice to quit the 
side of the wealthy: a more illustrious possessor of a con- 
temptible fortune, than if I could be said to treasure up in 
my granaries all that the industrious Apulian cultivates, poor 
amid abundance of wealth. A rivulet of clear water, and tt 
wood of a few acres, and a certain prospect of my good crop," 

precautions were of no eS'ect ; for Prcetus, tbe king's brother, finding 
means to corrupt the guards, got access fo Danaii, who did not long re- 
sist his solicitattoDs : which, as soon as her father knew, he caused her 
to be shut up in a chest, and cast her into the sea, with her son Perseus. 
Bat being found bj a poor fisherman of Apulia, she was carried to king ' 
Pilumaos, who afterward married her. When her son PerseuB cama 
to be of age, and had cut oSt the Crorgoa's head, be went to Argos, and 
turned bis grand&ther Acriaiua into a stone. Watson. 

•* EriphUe discovered to her brother Edrastus, where her husband 
Amphiaraua had concealed himsetC that he might not be obl^ed to go to 
the war of Thebes, irom whence he knew that he should never return. 
She received a necklace of pearl aa the price of her treachery; and Am- 
phiaraus went to the siege, where he was slain. Her son Alcmceoti, in 
revenge fi^ his &thor, put her to death, and he was aRerward killed by 
bis uacle in vengennoe for their sister. Thus Horace justly says, that 
the avarice of one woman was the min of the whole family. Laub. 

" Philip was advised by the oracle of Apollo to Bght with golden 
Bpeara, and it was one of his maxims, that no fortress was impregimble 
into which an ass couJd enter laden with gold. Fban. 

'< Segetis fidei. This passage is particularly difficult, yet deserves to 
be carefully exfJained. First, rivtts, sylxa. and fides are cjl to be applied 
to one common verb/oUii, n manner of writing very usual in Horace. 
Secondly, Afr ca is governed both of imperh and sorte. /Wgens imperio 
Africee is a paraphrase for the proconsul of Africa, and sort AJriece sig- 
nifies the proconnulahip or government of that province. The Latins 

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are bles^ngs unknown to him wbo glitters in the proconsnl- 
«hip of fertile Afriui: I am more happily drcumstanced. 
Though neither the Calabrian bees produce honey, nor wine 
ripens to apj for me in a Formian cask, nor rich fleeces in- 
creases in Gnllic pastures ; yet distressM poverty is remote ; 
nor, if I desired more, would you refuse to grant it me. I 
shall be better able to extend my small revennes," by contract- 
ing my desires, than if I could join the kingdom of Alyattes 
to the Phrygian pidna. Much is wanting to tboee who covet 
much. Tis well with him to whom G^ baa given what is 
necessary with a sparing hand. 


O .Mliub, who art nobly descended from the andeQl Lamas 
(forasmuch as they report, th»t both Iho first of the Lamian 
famUy had their name hence, and all the race of the descend- 
ants through faithful records derives its origin from that 
founder, who is B«d to have possessed, aa prince, the Formian 
walls, and Liris gliding on the shores of Karica — an exten- 

nsuttlly said sot» Africa ; sort Macedonia ; aora Provinciamm ; beoausa 
their govemmeDta were determined by lot. Lastly, faUii does uot signify 
laiet or ignoraiur, but apinione juii decipit. Tbe terms boingi'thus es:- 
pluned, tbe constructioQ muat be tbus, ager meut Sabinns beaiior Africd 
sorte obieTild faUit Africa proctmmlein. The proconsu! was indebted to 
chance for his magistracj' ; Horace owed bis Iknn to the friendship of 
Mtecensa. The proconsul believes bimself more bappj than Horace ; but 
he is deceived, bocaoae bo is ignorant, that great revenues and happi- 
ness are vety different things. Perhaps our poet intended a stroke ol 
satire upon the person who was then governor of Africa, and who might 
have owed, like him, bis fortune to Msecenaa. Beiti.. Sam. See Orelli 
and M'Caul. 

t5 VtctigaUa porrigam. "We shall only be capable of explaining this 
passage by regularly pursuing the poet's reasoning. " By contraeting 
my desires I shall more Isi^ty extend my little fortune, than if 1 could 
nnite the kingdoraaofLydia and Phrygia under my government." YecH-- 
galia signifies the revenues or income of an estate, and may not im- 
properly be used for the eatale itseli; which the poet thus enlar^s by 
contractir^ his desires. The word porrigere frequently eigniflee, in tho 
best authors, to extend, to stretch out, to enlarge. Foan. 

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ot>BxynL ODES OP HORACB. 81 

Mve potentate). To-morrow a tempest eent from the east 
shall strew the grove with many leaves, and the shore with 
useless sea-weed, unless that old prophetess of rain, the rareu, 
deceives me Hie up the diy wood, while you may ; to- 
morrow you shall indulge your getiius with wine, and with a 
fiig of two months old, wiUi your slaves dismissed from their 

O FAUHts, thou lover of the flying nymphs, benignly traverse 
my borders and sunny fields, and depart" pn^itious to the 
young o&pring of my flocks ;" if a tender kid M [a victim] 
to tbee at the completion of the year, and plenty of wines be 
not wanting to the goblet, the compamon of Venus, and the 
nncient altar smoke with liberal perfiime. AH the cattle sport 
in the grassy plain, when the nones of December return to thee; 

" The poet invokea ihs presence of Faunus, and seeks to propiKate 
the bTor oftba god toward his fields aodSocltB. He then describes the 
rustic hilarity of the da?, made sacred, at the commeDCemeni of winter, 
to this mral divitiitf. Faunus had two festivalB (Fdunalia), one on the 
None (5th) of December, ailer all the produce of the year bad been 
stored BiWaj, and when the god was invoked to protect it, and to give 
health and fecundity to the flocks aud herds ; aud another in the ban- 
ning of the spring, when the same deity was propitiated by sacrifices; 
that he might preserve and foster the grain committed to the earth. This 
second celebration took place on the Ides (13th) of February. AhthON. 

•' The Romans believed, that many of their g;odB passed their winter 
in one country and their summer in another. Faunus was of this num- 
ber. He went from Arcadia to Italy the 13th of February, and returned 
the Sth of December. His depiuture and return were celebrated with 
sacrifices, and probably this ode was written fbr his December festival, 
from whence the poet says abetu. D*c. 

•> FOmia wqutit aittmnis. The vulgar believed that this god sent 
phantoms and specters to disturb (heir inftnta in the night ; mid upon 
this Ibundation the commenlators imagine that Horace eutreaU bim to 
spare the children of bis domestics. But by aiumnis, the poet means 
the yonnglinga of his flocks, which had most occasion for the protectiMi 
of the god, to preserve them against the inclemency of the spproachmg 

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82 ODES OF HORACE. bookul 

Uie Tillage keeping holiday enjoys leisure in the fields, together 
with the oien free from toil. Hie wolf wanders among the 
fearless hunba ; the wood scatters its rural leaves for thee, and 
the laborer rejoices to have beaten the hat«d ground in triple 


How far Codrus, who waa not atctiA to die for his country, 
is removed Irom Jnachus, and the rac« of .i^laciis, and the bat- 
tle also that were fought at eacred Troy — [these subjects] you 
descant upon ; but at what price we may purchase a hogshead 
of Chian ; who shall warm the water [for bathing] ; who finds 
a house : and at what hour I am to get rid of these Fehgnian 
colda, you are ulent Give me, boy, [a bumper] for the new 
moon in an instant, gi?e me one for midnight, and one for 
Murena" the augur." Let our goblets be mixed up with three 

•» A party of ftiends, among whom was Horace, intended to celebrate, 
bj a fbsBl of coatribution [{pavof), the recent appomtmeDt of Murena to 
the office of augar. Telepbus, one of the number, was conspicuoos fbr 
his literary labors, and had been for some time occupied in composing a 
biatory of Greece. At a meeting of these friends, held, as a matter of 
course, in order to make arrangements for the approadiing banquet, it 
may be supposed that Telephus, wholly engrossed with his pursuits, had 
introduced some topic of an historical nature, much (o the annoyance of 
the bard. The latter therefore breaks out, as it were, with an cxhorta- 
tion to his companion, to abandon matters so foreign to the subject under 
discussion, and attend to tbii^ of more immediate importance. Pres- 
ently, lancpiig himself already in the midst of Uie feasts, he issues his 
edicts as symposlarch, and regulates the number of cups to be drunk in 
honor of the Uoon, of Night, and of the augur Murena. Then, as if 
impatient of delay, be bids the music begin, and orders the roses to be 
scattered. The ode terminates with a gay allusion to Telephus. Anth. 
This ode was evidently written before 132, in which year Murena, with 
Fanuius Cepio, conspired against Augustus. Orell. 

'" Murena This is the same Lucinius Murena, who was brother-in- 
law (o M^cenas, and afterward conspired against Augustus. Watson. 

" The college of augurs was inatituted at Home by Numa. They 
were at first only four in number, all patriciana The commons being 
afterward admitted to the same honor, ihey were increased to nine. In 
Sns, Sylla added air more, and made the number fifteen. It was an 

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or nine cups, according to every one's disposition. The en- 
raptured bard, who delights ia the odd-numbered muses, shall 
call for brimmers thrice three. Each of the Graces," in con- 
junction with the naked sisters, fearful of broils, prohibits up- 
ward of three. It is my pleasure to rave;" why cease the 
breathings of the Phrygian flute ! Why is the pipe hung up 
with the silent lyre! I hate your niggardly handfuls: strew 
roses freely. Let the envious Lycus hear the jovia! noise ; and 
let our fair neighbor, ill-suited to the old Ljcus, [hear it,] The 
ripe Rhode aims at thee, Telephus, smart with thy bushy locks ; 
at thee, bright as the clear evening star ; the love of my Gly- 
. cera slowly consumes me. 


Do you not perceive, O Pyrrhus, at what hazard you ai» 
taking away the whelps from a Gutulian lioness ! In a little 
whileyou, a timorous ravisher, shall fly from the severe en- 
gagement, when she shall march through the opposing band 
of' youths, re-demanding her beauteous Nearchua ; a grand 
contest, whether a greater share of booty shall fall to thee or 
to her ! In the mean time, while you produce your swift arrows, 
she whets her terrific teeth ; while the umpire of the combat is 
reported to have placed the palm under his naked foot, and re- 
freshed his ehoulder, overspread with hia perfumed locks, with 
the gentle breeze : just Euoh another was Nireus, or he that 
was ravished from the watery Ida." 

office of tlie higlieat consideration, because it was in their power to ren- 
der fruitless &U Cbe reeoluticHis and debates of the senate and people. 

" Oralia: "tres Gratia; juncbe." Od. iv. 7, 5, "Gratia cum nym- 
phia gemiuisque sororibus." Od. i. 30, 6, "solutis Gratue zonis." 

'3 Insanire jvxaL Horace now leaves tbo two modest Graces, and 
rises in liiB good-humor ; Tor, atler having; ordered a certaio number of 
glassea. he now driuks without number or measure. CauQ. 

'> Mouut Ida : a hi)i:h hill in Pbr^a, uot far from Troy, famous Ibr 
the controversy of Pallaa, Juno, and Yenus, about the apple of discord, 
which was adjudged to Venus by Paris. Watso». 

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THOD goodly cask, that waet brought to light at the same 
time with me in Uie consulship of MatiUus, whether thou coti- 
tuneet the occasion of complaint, or jests, or broils and mad- 
dening amours, or gentle sleep ; under whatever title thou pre- 
serrest the choice Massic, worthy to be removed on an auspi- 
cious day ; descend," Corvinus bids me draw the mellowest 
wine. He, though he is imbued in the Socratic lectures, will 
not morosely reject thee. The virtue even of old Cato is re- 
corded to have been frequently warmed with wine. Thou ap- 
pliest a gentle violence to that dispoeitiou, which is in genend 
of the rougher cast. Thou revealest the cares and secret de- 
igns of the wise, by the assistance of meiry Bacchus. You 
restore hope and spirit to anxious minds," and ^ve horns" to 
the poor ntan, who after [testing] you neither dreads the dia- 
dems of enraged monarchs, nor the weapons of the soldiers. 
Thee Bacchus, and Venus, if she comes in good-humor, and the 
Graces loth to dissolve the knot [of their union]," and living 
lights shall prolong, till returning Phoebus puts the stars to 

O TiRoni, protectress of the mountains and the groves, thou 

'I The Komans had their wine-celliirs at the top of their houses^ that 
their winea might ripen sooner by the anioke. Cruq. 

" Tbrmenfttm bigenio admovt$. "You oBer an agreeable violence to 
the mind." It is a meb^hor talien ftoxa war, when a (own was assault- 
ed with batteries sud machinea. Others uuderBtand it of giving tlie tor- 
tore to criminats to Ibrce a secret from them, and I>octor Bentlej explains 
it, as if wine gave an eloquence and facility to the most heav;, barren 
understanding. Fban. 

" The expression conrna addii is one of a provertial character. Con- 
BUlt note on Ode ii. 19, 29. The " horn" was the symbol of power among 
all the esstom nations. See 1 Samuel, ii. 1 ; Luke L G9. Antbom. 

w i, e. "never dissolving it" Eurip. Hippol. 1141, x^'^'t mfuj^'ot 

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thre&jbnned goddess, vho thrice iavobed," hearest young 
women in labor, and saveat them from death ; eacred to tnee oe 
tbia pine that overehadows my villa, which I, at the completion 
of every year, joyful will present with, the blood of a bosr^ig, 
juat meditating bis oblique attack. 

Mr roslic Phidyle, if you raise your suppliant hands" to heav- 
en at the new moon, and appease the household gods with 
frankincense, and this year's fruita," and a ravening awine ; the 
fertile vine shall neidier feel the pestilential south-west, nor tha 
com the barren blight, or your dear brood the sickly season in 
the fruit-bearing autumn," For the destined victim, which is 
pastored in the snowy Algidus among the oaks and holm trees, 
or thrives in the Albauan meadows, with its throat shall stain 
the axes of the priests. It is not required of you, who are 
crowning our little gods with rosemary and tho brittle myrtle, 
to propitiate them with a great slaughter of sheep. If an in- 
nocent hand touches a clear, a magnificeut victim does not pa- 
cify the offended Penates more acceptably, tiian a consecrated 
cake and crackling salt. 

'■ Tfcr voeala. Horace mentions the number three, because it was al- 
wtiya a mysterious number, or because women in labor invoked the god- 
dess by tbree principal nsmea In [be next line sbe ia callod irifiirmii, 
as she was Luna in heaven, Diana upon earth, and Proserpine in hell; 
from whence aha whs painted with three heads, one, of a lion, another, 
of a bnU, and the third of a dog. Sam. 

"• This wa3 the usual gesture of the ancients when they, prayed ; but 
with this diEference, that when they addressed themselves to the celestial 
gods thef held the palms of their hands upward, as if to receive a 
blessing; but turned them toward the earth in their prayers tothein< 
fernd gods, as if to avert an evil. CauQ. 

<i Soma, i. e. " spites homoUnis, hujus annL" Orelii. 

«a " Adqus"— " tempeataa." Cf. Epod. a 39, Virg. EcL iiL 87. 

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. Thouqh, more vealtby than tho unrifled treasures of th» 
Arabiana and ricb India, you ebould possess yourself by your 
edifices" of the whole Tyrrbeoiau and Apuban seas; yet, if 
crael fate fixes its adamaatjue grapples upon tbe topmost roo&, 
sball not disengage your mind from dread, nor your life 
tbe snares of deatb." The Sc^tbians that dwell in tho 
plains, wbose carts, according to tbeir custom, draw tbeir va- 
grant habitations, live in a better manner ; and [so do^ (be 
rough Get», whoso uncircumscnbed acres produce fruits and 
com free to all, nor is a longer than annual tillage agreeable, 
and a successor relieves bim who has accomptisbed bis labor by 
an equal right. There the guiltless wife spares her motherless 
step-children, nor does tbe portioned spouse govern her hus- 
band, or put any confidence in a sleek adulterer. Tbeir dower 
is the high virtue of their pareota, and a chastity reserved from 
any other man by a steadfast security ; and it is forbidden to 
sin, or tbe reward is death. if there be any one willing to 
remove our impious slaughters, and civil rage ; if he be desirous 
to be written fATHEn of tub statb, on statues [erected to him], 
let him dare to curb insuperable licentiousness, and be eminent 
to posterity; since we (0 injustice !) detest virtue while living, 
but invidiously seek for her after sue is taken out of our view. 
To what purpose are our woeful complaints, if sin is not cut 
off with punishment t Of what efficacy are empty laws, with- 
out morals ; if neither that part of tbe world which is ^ut in 
by fervent beats, nor that side wbJch borders upon Boreas, 
and snows hardened upon the ground, keep off tbe merchant ; 

'^ It appears by tho twonty-aixth verse, that this ode wsa wntCea be- 
fore the year 724, which end ?d the civil wars; at least it preceded the 
oipeditiOD of Arab» ia 72T. San. 

X* The term ca-merUa, quasi cadimenia, literally rneans " stones for fill- 
ing- up." Here, bowever, it reftra to the atructurea reared on these arti- 
ficial foundations. 

"5 The poet here represents death armed with a net, which ho throws 
over tbe heads of those whom be attacks. This image is take» from the 
gladiators called Retiarii, whose antagonists bad the figure of a 6sh 
iipon a helmet, trora wheuce they used in their combats lo sing " Nod to 
oeto, piscem peto? Quid me fijgi^ Qallo?" Dau 

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^d] the expert sailors, get the better of the horrible seas! 
Poverty, a great reproach, impels us both to do and to suffer 
any thing, and deserts the path of difficult virtue. Let os, 
then, cast our gema and precious stones and useless cold, 
the cause of extreme- evil, either into the Capitol, whither 
the acclamations and crowd of applauding [citiz«Ds] «dl ub, 
or into the adjoining ocean. If we are truly penitent for 
our enormities, the very elements of depraved lust are to be 
erased, and the miLds of too Boft a mold should be formed 
by severer studies. The noble youth knows not how to keep 
his seat on horseback" and is afraid to go a himting, more 
skilled to pla^ ^if you choose it) with the Grecian trochus," 
or dice, prohibited by law ;" while the father's peijured faith 
can deceive his partner and fiiend, and he hastens to get 
money for an unworthy heir. In a word, iniquitous wealth 
increases, yet something is ever wanting to the incomplete for- 



WHrrHEK," Bacchus, art thou hurrying me, replete with 

*• To romcd; this evil, Augustua revived the laock-flghts, which were 
carried by Ascaniua to Itolj, and ifhich afterward continued to the time 
rf Clandiaa Cffisor, Fram. 

" At the Grecian trocbua. It was formerlf thought that this waa 
the same with the plBi7 of tlie top, or rather that of billiards ; but this 
uotion ia now generally exploded. The trochus was propodj an iron 
hoop, of Bye or sii feet diameter, set round with rings. Keonet, in his 
Roman Antiquities, tells us, that the boj^ and young men used to whirl 
this along, as our children do wooden hoops, (Erecting it with a rod of 
Iron, having a wooden handle ; which rod the Grecians called iiaHlii, 
and the Romans radius. There was need of great dexterity to guide 
the hoop right. In the mean time, the rings, by the cliMtering which 
they made, not only gave the people notice to keep out of Ihe way, but 
contributed very raodi to the boys' diversion. Watsos, 

" AU games of hazard were forbidden by several laws, except during 
the Saturnalia. Pban. 

* As to the date of this ode, we can only be aaaured, that it was oom- 
poeed before the consecration of Octavius, and poriiajia it was written 
U» bla consecration, in the year 125. Sak. 

■* The poet, Tocovering from llie strong inQuance of the god, and sui^ 

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jcna influence f Into wlut groves, into what recesses am I 
diireD, actuated with uncommon spirit} In what caverns, 
meditating the immortal honor of illustrious Ciesar, shall I bo 
heard enrolling him among the stars and the council of Jove ! 
I will utter something extraordinary, new, hitherto unsung by 
any other voice. Thus -the sleepless Bacchanal is struck with 
enthusiasm, casting her eyes upon Hebrus,and Thrace bleached 
with snow, and ^odope traversed by the feet of barbarians. 
How am I delighted in my rambles, to admire the rocks 
and the desert grove ! O lord of the Naiads and the Bac- 
chanalian women, who are able with their bauds to over- 
throw lofty ash-trees ;" nothing little, nothing low, nothing 
mortal wiU I sing. Charming is the hazard, Bacchus, to 
accompany the god, who binds his temples with the verdant 

I LATELY lived a proper person for girls, and campaigned it 
not without honor ; but now this wall, which guards Ute left 
ude of [the statue] of sea-born Venus, shall have my arms" 

Teying with alarm the arduous natare of the theno to which be haa 
dared to approach, compares himself to the Bacchant, whom the steru 
power of the deit/, which she serves, has driveii onward, in that blind 
career, through msa}' a atraage Eud distant region, Awakeninf; Aom 
the deep slumber into which exhausted nature had at length been com* 
pelled to sink, she finds hersalfl when returning recollection o 

n-topa, far fVom her n 

.^ m ^ent wonder on the prospect before her; the dark Hebnis, tha 

saow-dad fields of Thrace, and the diaia of Rhodope reariog ila sum- 
mits to the dries. Few passages can be cited from any ancient or mod- 
ern writer containing more of the true spirit of poetry. Anthon. 

« Probably alluding lo the story of Pentheus. Cf. Eur. Bacch. 1109. 

*9 Ovid tells us, that ever? lover is a soldier, mUiSat amnU airums ; and 
as the ani^onta were accustomed to consecrate their arms to Uars, when 
they quitted the trade of war ; so the poet here dedicatee to Tenoa his 
lyre, his torches, and bows. He hangs up his midnight anna upon the 
eastern wall of lier temple, on the lelt side of the goddess ; for the sta- 
tues of the gods were placed in such a manner as to lacjc toward Uie 
south ; so tiiat the east, which was always esteemed the happy quarter 
at the heavens, was upon their lell haad. Liua 

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and my lyre discharged from warfare. Here, here, deposit 
the Bhining flambeaux, and the wrenching irons, and the bows, 
that threatened the resisting doors. O thou goddess, who pos- 
seBsest the blissful Cv]»^ and Memphis free ftom Sithooian 
eonw, O aueeu, ^ve the haughty Chloe oitc cut with your high- 
raised lash. 


Let the omeu of the ucUsy screech-owl and a pregnant bitch, 
or a tawny wolf running down frem the Lanuvian fields, or a 
for with whelp conduct the impious [on their way] ; may the 
serpent also break their undertaken journey, if, like an arrow 
athwart the road, it has frightened the horses. What shall I, 
a provident augur, fear! I will invoke from the east, with 
my prayers, the raven foreboding by hia croaking, before 
the bird which presages impending showers, revisits the stag' 
nant pools. Mayest thou be hapjjy, O Galatea, wheresoever 
thou choosest to reside, and live mmdfiil of me : and neither 
the unlucky pye nor the vagrant crow forbids your going on. 
But you see, with what an uproar the prone Orion hastens on: 
I know*' what the dark bay of the Adriatic is, and in what 
maoner lapyx, [seemingly] serene, is guilty. Let the wives 
and children of our enemies feel the blind tumults of the 
rising south, and the roaring of the blackened sea, and the 
shores trembling with lis lash. Thus too Europa" trusted 
her fair side to the deceitful boll, and bold as she was, turned 
pale at the sea abounding with monsters, and the cheat now 
become manifest. She, wno lately in the meadows was busied 

•> Horace knew tha Adriatic Sea in bta voyage to Athena, when be 
went to studj phikoophj there ; and a Becond time, in hia return to 
Italy, aRer the battle of PhilippL ?ban. 

°> Galatea was preparing to embark, because the skiea were serene, 
and the seas calm; but Horace tells her that Europa was deceived bj 
the some serenit; of the skies and caloineas of the aeas ; that she aoon 
had reason to repent of her boldaesa, when she saw nothing round ber 
but stars and waves. Such is the force and justness of the comparisoo. 

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90 f^OSB OP HOBACS. book lu 

about flowns, and a composer oT the chalet meet for nytnpha, 
saw DOthing in the dusky night but st^ and water. Who 
as soon aa she arrived at Crete, powerful with ila huodred 
cildes, cried out, overcome with rage, " O &lher, name aban- 
doned by thy daughter !" O my duty ! Whence, whither 
am I come ) One death is too little for viigins' crime. Am 
I awake, while I deplore ray base offense ; or does Bome vain 
phantom, which, est^ing" from the ivory gate, brings on a 
dream, impose upon me, still free from guilt ! Was it better 
to travel over the tedious waves, or to ^ither the fresh flow- 
era t If any one now would deliver up to me in my anger 
this infamous bull, 1 would do my utmost to tear him to pieces 
with steel, and break off the horns of the monster, lately so 
much beloved. Abandoned I have left my father's house, 
abandoned I procrastiDate my doom. if any of the gods 
hear this, I wish I may wander naked among lions : before 
foul decay seizes mj comely cheeks, and moisture leaves this 
tender prey, I desire, in all my beauty, to be the food of 
tigers." "Base Europa," thy absent father u^es, "why do 
you hesitate to die f you may strangle*' your neck suspended 
from this ash, with your girdle that has commodiouely at- 
tended you. Or if a precipice, and the rocks that are edged 
with death, please you, come on, commit yourself to the rapid 
st«rm ; unless you, that are of blood-royal, had rather card 

Cir mistress's wool," and be given up as a concubine to some 
bariau dame." As she complained, the treacherously' 

smiling Venus, and her son, with his bow relaxed, drew near. 

Presently, when she had sufficiently rallied her, " Refrain (she 
cried) from your rage and passionate chidinga, since this de- 
tested bull shall surrender his horns to be torn in pieces by 

" "Filisi" is a Gredsm for "afilia." 

" Dreame of falsehood, according to Homer, passed through an ivorr 
gate in the inTemal world; and those of truth througb a gate of horn. 

" Hanging was the common death of ancient heroines in tragedy and 
history. Arsace, in Heliodorus; Jocasta and Antigone, in Sophocles; 
Fhteua, iD-Euripides; Amata, in Yirgil; and the wife of Mitbridates in 
Flutarcb, died in this manner. Dac. 

w Feimtm was properly a certain quantity of wool, which was every 
day given to female ^ves for their task. It was weighed, from whence 
it was called ptrtmm, which allerward became a name for ai^y r^ruiar 
and ordinary worl;. From hence the proverb persobien ptruwirt lo dc 
our duty. CauQ. 

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ODi zzrm. zxn. OSES OF HORACE. 91 

Tou. Are you ignorant, that you are the wife of the iunuci- 
ble JoTe ! Cease your sobbing ; learn duly to support your dis- 
tdnguiahed good fortune. A divi^on of the world shall beai 

ODE xxvm. 

What can I do better on the festal day of Neptnne I Quick- 
ly" produce, Lyde, the hoarded Csecuban, and make an attack 
upon wisdom, ever on her guard. You perceive the noontide 
is on its decline ; and yet, as if the fleeting day stood still, yon 
delay to bring out of the store-house the loitering cask, [that 
bears its date] from the consul Bibulus. Wo will sing by 
turns, Neptune, and the green locks of the Nereids ; you shall 
chant, on your wreathed lyre, Latona and the darts of the 
nimble Cynthia ; at the conclusion of your song, she also [shall 
be celebrated], who with her yoked swans risils Gnidos, and 
the shining Cyclades, and Paphos : the night also eball be cele- 
brated in a suitable lay. 

O MiECKUAs, thou prt^ny of Tuscan Unes, there has been a 
long while for you in my house some meUow wine in an un- - 
broached"* ht^bead, with rose-flowers and expressed essence 
for yonr hair. Disengage yourself firom any uiing that may 
ret^ you, nor contemplate the ever marshy Tibur, and the 
sloping fields of .^ula, and the hills of Telegonus the parri- 
cide. Leave abundance, which is the source of daintiness, 
and yon pile of buildings approaching near the lofty clouds : 
cease to admire the smoke, and opulence, and noise of flour- 

■ "Strenua" is taken adverbially,^:" nctively." 
'" ThB ancJeDtB placed their casks upon the bottom, and were there- 
(bre obliged to bend them forward when they poured out their wine. 
Oadum vertfre and eratsraa verlere ore ezprea^ns of the same kind. 

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ishiog Rome.' A change is frequently agreeable to the 
rich, and a cleanly meal in the little cottage of the poor has 
smoothed an anxious brow without carpets or purple. Now 
the bright father of Andromeda displays his hidden fire ; now 
Procyon rages, and the conetellation of the ravening Lion, as 
the sun biings round the thirsty season. Now the weary 
shepherd with his languid flock seeks the shade, and the river, 
and the thickets of rough Sylranus ; and the silent bank is 
free firom the wandering winds. You regard what constdtu- 
don may suit the state, and are in an anxious dread for Rome, 
what preparations the Seres and the Bactrians subject to 
Cyrus, and the &ctiou3 Tanais' are making. A wise deity 
shrouda in obscure darkness the events of the time to come, 
and smiles if a mortal is solicitous beyond the law of nature. 
Be mindful to manage duly that which is present What re- 
mains goes on in the manner of the river, at one time calmly 
gliding iu the middle of its ehannel to the Tuscan Sea, at 
another, rolling along corroded stones, and stumps of trees 
forced away, and catUc, and houses, not without the noise of 
mountains and neighboring woods, when the merciless deluge 
enrages the peaceful waters. Tlint man is master of him- 
self and shall live happy, who hcs it in his power to say, 
" I have lived to-day : to-morrow let the Sire invest the 
heaven, either with a black cloud, or with clear sunshine; 
nevertheless he shall not render ineffectual what is past, nor 
undo or annihilate what t)io fleeting hour has once carried off. 
Fortune, happy in the execution of her cruel office, and per- 
sisting to play her insolent game, changes uncertain honors, 
indulgent now to me, by and by to another. I praise her, 
while she abides by me. If she moves her fleet wings, I re- 
sign' what she has bestowed, and wrap myself up in my 

' We nay compute how great the noise of a city must have been, 
which reckoned tbree millioua of inhabitants ; whose circuit, according 
to Pliny, including the suburbs, was forty-eight miles; and where tbe 
houses might he raised seven stories, each of them ten feet high. Lam- 
pridiua tells ns, that Heliogabalus collected ten thousand pound weight 
of cobwebs in Rome. Fbam. 

^ Tbe Scythians and Sarmatians, who bordered upon this river, were 
frequently engaged in wars with each other, from wheoca the poet calls 
it discoTB. Laiib. 

' Jiesigno qxi/B dedii — is a figurative expression. Besignare properly 
signiQea to 'unseai or open, in opposition to sigjua-e. 1 1 is here to be un- 
derstood, redden, restituere, to restore. LauS. 

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virtue, and court honest poverty without a portion. It is no 
buncess of mine, if the mast groan with the African Btdnufi, to 
have recourse to piteous prayers,' and to make a bargain with 
my VOW3, that my Cyprian and Syrian merchandize may not 
add to the wealth of the insatiable sea. Then the gale and the 
twin Pollux will carry me safe in the protection of a skis' with 
two oars, through tlie tumultuous iV^ nn Sea. 

I BAVB completed a monument more lasting than brass, and 
more sublime than the regal elevation of pyramids, which 
neither the wasting shower, the unavailing north wind, nor an 
innumerable succession of years, and the night of seasons, shall 
be able to demolish. I shall not wholly die ; but a great part 
of me shall escape Libitina.' I shall continually be renewed in 
the praises of posterity, as long as the priest shall ascend the 
Capitol with the silent [vestal] virgin. Where the rapid 
Aufidus shall murmur, and where Daunus,' poorly supplied 
with water, ruled over a rustic people, I, exalted from a low de- 
gree, shall bo acknowledged as having originally adapted the 
.^k>lic verse' to Italian measures. Melpomene, assume that 
pride which your merits have acquired, and willingly crown my 
bait with tiie Delphic laurel. 

a the goddess wbo preai<]ed c 
Vemu in^ma or EpUyn^ia, in Bome sndent epitaphs, and reckoned 
among the infernal deities. A place in Borne, as the aneient Scholiast 
inibnns us, was called Libitirta, where the undertaker lived, who received 
a certain piece of money for every person who was burled, from whence 
tliej knew the number of their dead. Francis. 

* This Daunus - was the son of PQumnus and Danae. He reigned 
over Dauuia, and gave his name to the country. Watsos. 

'' Id this poem, which ought to be the last of his lyric works, the poet 
sbewH that ho has prosorccd his resolution of imitating Alcieus and 
S^ipbo, which he mentioned in hia first ode. Nor is it probable, that 
he could have so frequently boasted of beiagthe first who termed hi msctf 
upon an imitation cd* the Grecian poets, if the public had not in general 
acknowledged his claim. Sah. 

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OP Tits 



AiTBR a long cessatioD, O Venus, again are jou sliniDg np 
tumults } Spare me, I beaeech you, I beseech yon. I am not 
the man I was under the dominion of good-natured' Cynsra. 
Forbear, cruel mother of soft desires, to bend one border- 
ing upon fifty, now too hardened for soft commands ; go, 
wSther the soothing prayers of youths, invoke you. More 
seasonably may you revel in the house of Faulus M azimus, 
flying' thither with your splendid swans, if you seek to in- 
flame a suitable breast For he is both noble and comely, 
and by no means silent in the cause of distresst^d defendants, 
and a youth of a hundred accomplish menis ; he shall bear the 
ensigns of your warfare far and wide; and whenever, more 

' B(m<t. Horace appears to mtimate by this epithet, that tbe a^C' 
tion entartamed Ibr bim b^ Cynara, was rather pure and disinterested 
than otberwiso. Tbe word is olten used in tbe sense of "generous," 
"unrapseioua." Comp. TibulL iL i, 4B, "At bona, qute nee avara firit." 

' PtiTpuTde aies otoTibiii. The allnsion is to the chariot of Tcnu^ 
drawn by awana : and bence the lenn oju is, by ft bold and beautiftd 
figure, applied to tbe goddess herself meaning literally "winged" As 
regards parpurei), it must be remarked that the ancients called any 
strong and vivid color by the name t^parpwtus, because that was their 
richest color. Thus we have purpurea cottux, puTpwetui eapiBue, lumm 
juvenke purpuream, etc Compare Tirgil, Mn. I 691, Albinovanus (El. 
ii. G2) even goes so far aa to apply the term to moio. IHie usage of 
modem poetry is not dissimilar. Thus Spencer, " The Morrow neit ap. 
peared with purple hair;" and Milttrn, "waves his purple wings." Sa 
slso Gray, "The bloom of young desire and purple light of love,'* 



prevuling tban the ample presents of a rival, he shall laugli 
[at bis expense], he shall erect thee in marble under a citroa 
dome near the Albau lake. There you shall smell abundant 
frankmcense, and shall be channed with the mixed mofdc of 
the lyre and Berecynthiaa pipe,' not without the flageolet. 
There the youths, together with the tender maidens,' twice a 
day celebrating your ditiDity, shall, Saliau-like, with white 
foot thrice shake the ground. As £>r me, neither woman, nor 
youth, nor the fond hopes of mutual inclination, nor to con- 
tend in wine, nor to bind my temples with fresh flowers, de- 
light me [any longer]. But why ; oh 1 why, Ligurinus, does 
the tear every now and. then trickle down my cheeks f "Why 
does my fluent tongue fatter between my words with an un- 
seemly silence ! ^ee in my dreams by night I clasp, caught 
[^in my arms] ; thee flying across the turf of the Campus Mar- 
tius ; theo I pursue, cruel one, through the rolling waters. 


WaoETER endeavors, Ililus, to rival Hndar, makes an 
effort on wings fastened with wax by art Dsedalean,* about 

* The music in tbe temples was usuaUy composed of a voic^ one lyre, 
□Ds or two flates, and a flageolet. There was at Delosastatue of Apollo^ 
vbo held in his left hand his bow and arrows, and on his right the three 
Graces, each with on instrument in her hand. The first held a. ijn, the 
second, a Qageolet, and the third, a Qule. Frincis. 

* The ancients bad not an^ children educated to »ng in their temples, 
nw emplojed any theatrical performers, but chose from the best families 
a certain number of young people of both sexes, who sung until others 
were elected to succeed them. Dao. 

i Julius AntoDius, to whom tbe present ode is addressed, was the 
second son of M. Antonins the triumvir, by Fulvia, bom about a. tr. c. 
TIO. He was brought up by Octavia, whose daughter Marcella he mai^ 
ried. He was honored with the prtetorship, *. v. c 741, and the con- 
EuUte, in. In 762, he was guilty of a gross outrage on the family of 
AugnstDS, by committing adultery with Julia JuUa was banisbed, con- 
sequently, to the island Pandateria, and Julius put himself to death by 
order of Augustas. "lulius Antomus rogaverat Horatium, ut scripta 
Findari Gneca in laudem Cf^ris transferet." Scxou Ajnaas. 

' IKcdalns. A most ingenious artiflcer, bo famous, that when we would 

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to commnmcato bis name to the glassy sea. Like a river 
pouring dona from a motmtain, which sudden raios have in- 
creased beyond it» acccuslomod banks, such the deep-mouthed 
Pindar rages and nashes on immeaaurable, sure to merit 
Apollo's laurel, whether he rolls down new-formed phrases 
through the daring dithyrnmbic, and is borne op in numbers 
exempt from rule : whether he sings the gods, and Mugs, the 
offiipnng of the goda, by whom the Centaurs perished with a 
just destruction, [by whom] was quenched the flame of the 
dreadful Chimiera; or celeDrates those whom the palm, Jin 
the Olympic games] at Elis, brings home exalted to tbe skies, 
wrestler or steed, and presents them with a gift preferable to 
s hundred statues: or deplores some youUi, snatched [by 
death] from his moumfiil bnde — he elevates both his strength, 
and courage, and golden morals to the stars, and reacnes nim 
from the murky grave.' A copious gale elevates the Krcean 
swan, O Astomos, as o^n as he soars into the lof^ regions 
of the clouds : but I, after the custom and manner </ the Ma- 
tinian bee, that laboriously gathers the grateful thyme, I, a 
diminutive creature, compose elaborate verses about the grove 
and the banks of the watery Tiber. You, a poet of subumer 
style, shall sing of C»sar, whenever, gracefiil in his well- 
earned laurel, he shall drag the fierce Sygambri' along the 
sacred hill ; Csesar, than whom nothing greater or better the 
fates and indukcnt gods ever bestowed on the earth, nor will 
bestow, thouen the times should return to their primitivo 
gold. You snail dng both the festal days, and tbe public re- 
joicings on account of the prayed-for return' of lie brave 

commeDd a thiti^ Ibr tbe curioust>«s3 of the work, we use tbe proverb 
Dadcdi opera. He lived in Crete, at the court of king Uinoa, by whoae 
(H^er lie made the celebrated labTTintb, Into which be was put himself; 
because he had discovered tbe windiogs and intricacies of it to Theseus. 

' i e. from oblivion. 

s Sicamiiroa. This triurapb, which the poet promiaea, and which was 
designed for the return of Augustus, was never carriad Into execution. 
To avoid the honors intended for him, he entered Rome in tbe n%tit, 
without iuformiug the senate of his arrival. He went the next day to 
the Capitol, and, taking tbe laurels off hia statues, placed them et the 
feet of Jupiter. 

* During the absence of Augustus vows were made to tbe gods for 
hia return, which the new consuls repealed in 141 by decree of the 
senate, as spears by medals and inscriptions. Tosa. 

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Augustus, and the forum free from law-suits. Then (if I can 
offer any thing worth hearing) a considerable portion of mj 
voice shall join [the gener^ acclamationl, and I will sing, 
happy at the reception of CBBsar, " glonous day, O worthy 
thou to be celebrated." And while [the procession] moves 
along, shouts of triumph we will repeat, shouts of triumph the 
whole city [will raise], and wo will offer frankincense to the 
iudulgeDt gods. Thee ten bulls and as many heifers shall 
absolve ; me, a tender steerling, that, having left his doro, 
thrives in spacious pastures for the discharge of my vows, re- 
sembling [by the horns on] his forehead the curved light of 
the moon, when she appears of three days old, in which part 
he has a mark of a snowy aspect, being of a dun color over 
the lest of his body. 


H tm , Melpomene, upon whom at his birth thou hast once 
looked with favoring eye, the Isthmian contest shall not ren^ 
der eminent as a wrestler ; the swill horse shall not draw him 
triumphant in a Grecian car; nor shall warlike achievement 
show" him in tlie Capitol, a general adorned with the Delian 
laurel, on account of his having quashed the proud threats of 
kings : but such waters as flow through the fertile Tiber, and 
the dense leaves of the groves, shall make him distinguished 
by the ^Eolian verse. The fiona of Rome, the queen of cities, 
deign to rank me among the amiable hand of poets ; and now 
I am less carped at by the tooth of envy. O muse, regulating 
the harmony of the elided shell ! O thou, who canst imroediate- 
W bestow, if thou please, the notes of the swan upon the mute 
&h ! It is entirely by thy gift that I am marked out, as the 

'" The word oslendet is borrowed from the ceremonies and solemnities 
which were made for poiup and ostentation. The conqueror was shown 
in bis >numpfa in tbe coital of the empire, where he received the homage 
of th« world. Osientionala mila, signifies a soldier dressed tbr a re- 
view j osteationaie vesUmenfum is the habit which ho wore. Tokb. 

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Btringer of the Roman lyre, by the fingers oT passengers ;" 
that I braathe, and give pleasuiB (if I give pleasuNj, is yours. 

Lixk" us the winged minister of thunder (to whom Jupiter, 
the fiovereign of the gods, has assigned the dominion over the 
fleeeting birds, having experienced h:3 fidelity in the afiair of 
the beauteous Ganymede), early youth and hereditary vigor 
have impelled from his nest unknowing of toil ; and the ver- 
nal winds, the showers being now dispelled, taught him, still 
timorous, unwonted enterprises : in a bttle while a violent im- 
pube dispatched him, as an enemy i^;ainst the sheepfolda; 
now an ^petite for food and fight has impelled him upon the 
reluctant serpents ; — or as a she^ost, intent on rich pastures, 
has beheld a youg lion hut just weaned from the udder of hia 
tawny dam, ready to bo devoured by his newly-grown tooth ; 
such did the Rhnti and the Vindelici behold Dnisus carrying 
on the war under the Alps ; whence thb people derived the 
custom, which has always prev^led among uem, of arming 
their right hands with the Amazonian ax, I have purposely 
omitted to inquire : (neither is it possible to discover every 
thing.) But those troops, which had been for a long while and 
extensively victorious, being subdued by the conduct of a 
youth, perceived what a disposition, what a genius rightly 
educated under an auspicious roof) what the fairly afiection 
of Augustus" toward the young Neros, could efiect. The 

■■ CC Fers. Sat. I 23, "At pulcbrom est digito monstrari, et dicier 
Hie «at" 

" Ths victory of Dnisua over the Vindelici was gained in the month 
or August, T39; but it was not celebrated until the return of Augnstus 
in UarDfa, 741. Horace was then 63 years of age. S*n. 

" The (Hder of construction is as follows: " Qualem olim juventas et 
pstrius vigc^ propulit nido inscium labomm oliCem mimstmrn fUminis, 
cui Jupiter, rex deoram, permisii regnum in vagas aves, expertus (euta) 
Sdelem in flavo Ganjmede, venti, vemisque cimbia jam remotis. docuere 
paventem insolitoe niaus; moz vi vidua impetus, etc. — ((a^em) Vindelici 
videre Drusum gerentem bella snb B^is AJpibua." Ahtbon. ' 

'* I^beriu* Nero died in the bwdo year in whicb he had yiddsd hui 

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ODBiv, 0DE3 OF HOEACE. 99 

brave are generated by the brare nnd good; there is in eteere, 
there is in horses, the virtue of their eires; nor do the cou- 
rageous eagles procreate the uawarlike dove. But learning im- 
proves the innate force, and good discipline confirms the mind : 
whenever morals are deficient, vices disgrace what is naturally 
good. "What thou owest, O Rome, to the Neros," the river 
Mctaurus" is a witness, and the defeated Asdrubal, and that 
day illustrious by the dispelling of darkness from Italy, and 
which first smiled with benignant victory ;" wheh the tmiblo 
African rode through the Latiun cities, like a fire through the 
pitchy pines, or the cast wind through the Sicilian waves. 
After this the Romas youth increased continually in success- 
ful exploits, and temples, laid waste by the impious outrage 
of the Carthaginians, had the [statues of] their gods set up 
agwn. And at length the perfidious Hannibal said ; "We, like 
stags, the prey of rapacious wolves, follow of our own accord 
those, whom to deceive and escape is a signal tnunjph. That 

wifa Livia to Augastus, and by bis last will named that prince* not only 
a guardian of Tiberius, who was then four jeaia old, butof Drusus, who 
was bom tbree months after his mother was married to Augustus Iq this 
manner the emperor was a, second &tber to both the Neros. Ed, Dubl. 
i* Claudius Nero, being encamped in Lucania, in view of Hannibal, 
went with sii thousand foot and a thouaanii horse to join his eolleaguf 
SaJinater, and oppose the passage of Aadrubal, who was bringing a con- 
siderable re-onforcemcnt to his brother. This diligencB preEerved Italy; 
for Asdrubal was defeated near the river Metaums ; and Nero, returning 
to his camp before the Carthaginians perceived that he had been absent, 
ordered Asdrubal's head to be thrown into Hannibal's camp, who cried 
out, " AgTiOBCO (brtunam Carthaginis," I acknowledge the tiite of Car- 
Horace has chosen this action, not only because it was one of the must 
important performed by the family, but because Drusua and Hbenua 
were descended from both those consula Ed. Dubl. 

I* The rieer MtUmna. Aedrubal, who was brother to Hannibal, and 
the same who bad defeated the two Scipioa in Spain, was sent from Csr- 
thage, with a powerful re-enforcement, to join his brother in Italy. 
Claudius Nero, who was then encamped in Lucania, in ^ght of Hannibal, 
privately left his camp with 6,000 toot and ),000 horse, and arriving in 
a few days in Uoibria^ joined bis colleague Livius Salioator, who march- 
ing on together, and meeting with Asdrubal at the river Metauras, 
defeated and slew him. Nero immediately returned, nor did the Cartha- 
ginians know of his departure, till he bad caused the bead of Asdrubal 
\f> be thrown into their camp. Watson. 

" Jlmd riMt adani. Adorea was properly a distribution of conk, 
which was made to tbs soldiers after a victory, from whence it waa uaod 
for victoiy itsett Fa*». 

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nation, which, toesed in die Etrurian «avea, bravely trans- 

Carted their gods, and boqs, and aged fathers, from the 
arned Troy to the Italian citica, lil^ an oak lopped by 
sturdy axes in Algidum abounding in dusky leaves, through 
losses and throu);k wounds derives strength and epirit from 
the very steel. The Hydra" did not with more vigor grow 
upon Hercules grieving to be overcome, nor did the Colchians, 
or the Ecbionian Thebes, produce a greater prodigy. Should 
you sink it in the depth, it will come out more bcantiful : 
should you contend with it, with great glory will it overthrow 
the conqueror unhurt before, and will fight battles to be the 
talk of wives. No longer can I Bend boasting messengers to 
Carthage :" all the hope and success of my name is (alleii, is 
(idlen by the death of Asdnibal. There is nothing, but what 
t^e Claudian hands" will perform ; which both Jupiter defends 
with hia propitious divinity, and sagacious precantitm conducts 
through the sharp trials of war." 

TO AUOuaTta. 

SBST guardian of the Roman" people, born under propidous 
gods, already art thou too long absent : after having promised 

" Two prodigies, perfbctly alike, wore porfbrmed in two different 
couatriea. Jason sowed the teeth of a dragon in Colchis, and Cadmus 
did the same in Boeotia two hundred years oiterwiu'd. Ibe teeth were 
instantly transTornied into men, who destroyed each other. Echion, 
with four others, who remained of those sown by Cadams, assistetJ liiin 
in building the walls of Thebes, from whence the poet calls it £^1011101 
T/ieha. Cruo. 

» After the battle oT Cannie, Hannibal sent his brother Mago to Car- 
thage with the news of his victory. He talked in very pompous terms 
of Hannibal's success, and ordered all the rings which hod been taken 
f^om the Ronrnn knights to be thrown before the gate of the senate- 
house, that the senators might compute from thence the number of the 
sJajQ. To this stoiy the poet alludea Laub. 

s° It is no loni;er Hannibal who speaks, but the poet, who resumea the 
subject of hia ode ; nor are these words to be applied only to Claudius . 
.JJsro, bat to all his descendants, and particularly to Drusus. ToBB. 

"1 CC Virg. Mv. vii. 877, "Bomula leUus." 

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a mature arrival" to the Bacred council of the senators, return. 
Restore, O excellent chieftain, the light to thy coimtiy ; for, 
like the spring, wherever thy countenance has ahone, the 
day passes more agreeably for the people, and the sun has a 
snpenor luster. As a mother, with vows, omens, and prayers, 
cdls for her bod (whom the south wind witli adverse gales 
detains from his Bweet homo, staying more than a year hc- 
yond the Carpathian Sea), nor turns aside her looka from the 
curved shore ; in hke manner, inspired with loyal wishes, his 
country Beeks for Cffisar. For, [under your auspices,] the ox 
in safety traverses the meadows : Ceres nourishes the ground, 
and abundant Prosperity : the sailors skim through the calm 
ocean: and Faith is in dread of being censured. The chaste 
family is polluted by no adulteries : morality and the law 
have got the better of that foul crime ; tho child-bearing 
women are commended for an ofi&pring resembling [tho 
father; and] punishment presses as a companion upon guilt 
Who can tear the Parthian t" Who, the frozen Scythian? 
Who, Uio progeny that rough Germany produces, whilo 
Csesar is in safety ! Who cares for the war of fierce Spain ! 
Every man puts a period to the day amid his own hills, and 
weda the vme to the widowed elm-trees ; hence he returns 
joyful to his wine, nnd invites you, as a deity, to his second 
course ; thee, with many a prayer, thee ho pursues with wine 
poured out [in libation] from the cups ; and joins your divinity 
to that of his household gods, in the sacne manner ns Greeco 
was mindful of Castor and the great Hercules. May yon, 
excellent chieftain, beEtow a lasting festivity upon Italy ! 
This is our language, when we ore sober at the early day ; 
this is our language, when wo have well drunk, at the time 
the sun is beneath the ocean. 

" Augustus WBa absent from It 
his promise of a speedj rotum n 

i> Augustus had either subdued, or reduced to peace tho whole east, 
north, and west The east is mariced by Pertbia; the north by Scjthia 
and Germany; and tbe west b; Spain, Dion reckons the reducdon of 
Spain, bj sending coloniea thither, to be one of theh^piest successes of 
Auguatua in this expedition. San. 

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Tbod god, vhom the o^pring of Niobe" enwrienced as 
avenger of a presumptuous (ongne, and the ravtalier Titjus, 
and also the Theasali&n Achilles, almost the coaqneror of lofty 
Troj, a warrior superior to all others, bat uoequal to thee; 
though, son of the sea-goddess, Thetis, he shook me DardaBimi 
towers, warring with his dreadful spear. He, as it were a 
pine smitten with the burning ax, or a cypress pioatrated by 
the cast wind, fell extended far, and reclined his neck in the 
Trojan dust Ho would not, by being shut up in a [wooden] 
horse, that belied the sacred rights of Minerva, have surprised 
the Trojans reveling in an evil honr, and the court of Priam 
(nakiog meiry in &a dance; but openly inexorable to his cap- 
(ives, (oh impious ! oh !) would have burned Bpeechless babes 
with Grecian fires, even him concealed in his mother's womb : 
had not the father of the gods, prevailed upon by thy en- 
treaties and those of the beauteous Venus, granted to the af- 
foira of ^neas walls founded under happier auspices. Thou 
lyrist Fhtebus, tutor of the harmonious Thalia, who bathed 
thy locks in the river Xanthus, O deUcato Agyieus, eupport 
the dignity of the Latian muse. Phcebus gave me genius, 
Phcebua the art of composing verso, and the lille of poet. Ye 
viigins of the first distinction, and ye youths horn of illus- 
trious parents, ye wards of the Deliaa goddess, who stops with 
her bow the flying lynxes, and the stags, observe the Lesbian 
measure, and the motion of my thumb; duly celebrating the 
son of Latona, duly [celebrating] the goddess that enlightens 
the night with her fining crescent, propitjous to the truits, 
and expeditious in rolling on the precipitate months. Shortly 

'* This Niobe, Bays Larnbiiius. was the daughter of Tantalus, and wife 
of Amphion king of Thsbes She had twelve childrcD, six males snd 
as many females, of which Bhe was bo prood, aa to reproach Latona for 
having only two, Apollo and Diana. The goddcBS, provoked at her in- 
solence, complained to her own children, who hilled all those of Niobe ; 
Apollo, tbe males, and Diana, the females. Niobe, overwhelmed with 
grief for her loss, dissolved into tears. Jupiter, compassionating her 
miseries, converted her into a stone; from which were said to issue 
several springs of water. "Wateos. 

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ft bride you will say: "I, skilled in the measures of the poet 
Horace, recited an ode which was acceptable to the gods, 
when the secular period" brought hack the festal days." 


Thb snovs are fled, the herbage now returns to the fields, and 
the leaves to the trees. The earth changes its appearance, 
and the decreasing rivers glide along their banks ; the elder 
Grace, together with the Nympha, and her two aistera, ven- 
tures naked to lead eflf the dance. That jou are not to ex- 
pect things permanent, the year, and the hour that hurries 
away the agreeable day, admonish ua. The colds are miti- 
gated by the zephyrs : the summer follows close upon the 
spring, shortly to die itself, as soon as fruitiiU autumn ahal] 
have shed its fruits : and anon sluggish winter rettime again. 
Nevertheless the quick-revolving moons repair their wanings 
in the ekies ; but when we descend [to those regions] where 
pious jEneas, where Tullua and the wealthy Ancus ^a^o 
gone before ua], we become dust and a mare shade. Who 
knows whether the gods above will add to this day's reckon- 
ing the apace of to-morrow! Every thing, which you shall 
indulge to your beloved soul," will escape the greedy hands 
of your heir. When once, Torquatus," you shall bo dead, 

" The Secular games wore celebrated once every hundred and ten 
fears. Before the Julian reformatioD of tha caleudar, the Romau was a, 
lunar year, which was broui;;ht, or was meant to be brought, into harmony 
with the solar year, by the insertion of an intercalary mouth. Joseph 
Scalifror has shown that the pnnciplo waa to intercalate a month, alter- 
nately of twenty-two and twenty-three days, every other year during 
periods of twenty-two years, in each of which periods such an intercalaiy 
month was inserted ten times, the last ttmnium being passed over. As 
Bve yeaia made a2ujfrum,saflvo of these periods made a saxuttim of ono 
hundred and ten years. (Scatlger de EmendaL Temp. p. 80 sqq. Nieh- 
buhr's Roman History, vol. i. p. 334, Hare and Thirlwall's transL) 
Anthov. "' i. e. thyaelC See OrellL 

" Torquatus was descended from Manlios, who, in a combat at Anlo, 
defeated Uncogala the Gaul, and took a gold chaiu from hia neclc 

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104 ODES OF HORACE. book it. 

and Minos shall hare made his awful decisions conceniiiig 
you; not your family, not your elomience, not your piety 
shall reslora you. For neither con Diana free the chaste 
Hippolytus" from itrieroal darkness; nor is TheBeua" ablo 
to break off the Lethfean fetters from his dear Hrithous.** 

TO lURcins 

CiNSOBiNtis, liberally would I present my acquiuataQce 
with goblela and beautiful vases of brass; I would present 
them with tripods, the rewards of the brave Grecians : nor 
wonld you bear off the meanest of my donations, if I were 
licb in those pieces of art, nhich either Farrfaasius" or Sco- 

*> Hippolftum. What the poet sajs or Hippolytua contradicts tke 
(able ; and what he adds of Theseos and Pirithoua destroys his reasoa- 
ing; nnce, although Theseos could not bring Pirittaous from hell, yet 
Herculpa delivered llieseuB. Horace, throngh this whole ode, speaks 
like an Epicurean ; aud, according to Epicurus, alt the popular opinions 
concerning Hippolytua, Theseu^ Firithous, and many othels, were all 
pure chinueraa and &.blca. Sah. 

" Theseus, the son or ^Ggeus, king of Athens, and .libera. He was 
related to Hercules, whose actions he imitated. Ho slew the Minotaur 
in Crete, and conquered the Amazon^ and took their queen, Hippolyte, 
to wife, by whom he had Hippolytus. He subdued Thebes, worsted the 
Centaurs, and did other tamoua actions. He and Pirithous were a, noble 
pair of friends. Ho died in tho island of Paroa. Watson. 

" Pirithoua, the son of Ixion, who assisted Thesoua against tho Cen- 
taurs. They defloendod both together into hell, to ciny off Proserpine ; 
but were detained prisoners. Hercules descending some time alter, and 
resolving to deliver these two princes, took Theseus by tho hand, who 
did the same to Pirithous; but an earthquake happening, by which they 
were separated., Theseus only escaped, and Pirithous was left Watson. 

" CensorinuB. This was Caius Marcius Censorinus, who was consul 
with Asinius Gallus, in the year of tho city 746. Ha was greatly esteemed 
at Rome, and accompanied Cains Cxsar, the grandson of Augustus, into 
Syria, whero he died, sight years after the death of Horace. Watsos. 

" ParrhasiuB was an Epho^an ; he flourished about 400 b. c. He is 
celebrated for iiis admirable representation of a curtain, before the vino 
and grapes of Zeuxia, which deceived even the artistical eyes of the lat- 
ter. Scopaa was a native of Pares, bom Olymp. 97. A Tenua, Phatitou, 
and Apolio, are mentionod among his chief productions ; but he is chiefly 

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ODE Tin. Odes of hobacb. xos 

pas produced ; the latter in statuary, the former in liquid 
colors, eminent to portray at one time a man, at another a 
god. But I have no store of this sort, nor do your circum- 
stances or iuclination require any such curiosities as theee, 
YoQ delight in verses : verses I can give, and set a value 
on the donation. Not maibles engraved with public inscrip- 
tions," by means of which breath and life returns to illustri- 
ous generals after their decease ; not the precipitate flight of 
Hannibal, and his menaces retorted upon hia own head :" not 
the flames of impious Carthage * * * *" more eminenlly set 
forth his praises, who returned, having gained a name from 
conquered Africa," than the Calabrian muses ; neither, should 
■writings be silen^ would you have any reward for having done 
■well. "What would (he son of Mars and Ilia be, if invidious 
silence had stifled the merits of Romulus ? The force, and 
fevor, and voice of powerful poets consecrate jEacns, 
snatched from the Stygian floods, to the Fortunate Islands. 
The muse forbids a prdscworthy man to die : the mnae con- 
fers the happiness of heaven. Thus laborious Hercules has 
a place at the longed-for banquets of Jove: [thus] the sons 
of Tyndarus, that bright constellation, rescue shattered ves- 
sels from the bosom of iha deep: [and thus] Bacchus, his 
temples adorned with the verdant vine-brancii, brings the 
prayers of his votaries to successful issues. 

1 in depictJDf; Bac- 
t inventor flnxit," not 
"apectaDdaa exposuit," Antbok. 

" Nolat. These are probably abbreviations, but are used here for in* 
acnptions ; such as S. P. Q. R. (br Senalaa Papidiague Romawu. ToHn. 

'* RejecUxqyie retrorsam mince. The tbreata of HanDibal, driven back 
from Italy, when he was obliged to fly to the defense of Carthage. Bonn. 

" On this lacuna see the commenWtors. 

" Komen ab AfrhA hicraba. Scipio was the first of the Romans who 
was honored witb the name of a conquered country. Sempronius Grtc- 
chna must bo an unsuspected witness to his character, when he SB,y% that 
he subdued Africa; delbated in Spain four of tbe most fiuuous Cartha- 
ginian generals; took Syphax prisoner in Numidia; ranquished Han- 
nil)al; rendered Carthage tributary to Rome, and obliged Antiochus la 
retire on the other aide of Mount Taum^ Tonn. 

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Lest you for a moment imagine that those words will be lost, 
which I, bom on the far-resounding Aufidus, utter to be 
sccompanied with the lyre, by arts hitherto undivulged — If 
Mffionian Homer possesses the first rank, the Pindaric and 
Cean muses, and the menacing strains of Alcseus, and the 
majestic ones of Stesichorus," are by no means obscure : 
neither, if Auacreon long ago sportfully sung any thing, has 
time destroyed it: even now breathes the love and live the 
ardors of the ./Eolian maid, committed to her lyre. The 
Lacedeemonian Helen ia not the only fair, who I:as been in- 
flamed by admiring the delicate ringlets of n gallant, and 
garments embroidered with gold, and courtly accomplish- 
ments, and rettnne: nor was Teucer the first that leveled 
arrows from the C^donian bow : Troy was more than once 
harassed : the great Idomeneus and Sthenelus were not the ' 
only heroes that fought battles worthy to be recorded by the 
muses: the fierce Hector or the strenuous Deipbobus were 
not the first that received heavy blows in defense of virtuous 
wives and children. Many brave men lived before Agamem- 
non : but all of them, unlamented and unknown, are over- 
whelmed with endless obscurity, because they were destitute 
of a sacred bard. Valor, uncelebrated, differs but lit^e from 
cowardice when in the grave. I will not [therefore], # 
LoJlius, pass you over in sdence, uncelebrated in my writmgs, 
or suffer envious forgetfulness with impunity to seize so many 
toils of thine." You have a mind ever prudent in the con- 

" LoUius. This LoUius is ths same with him to whom he addresses 
the 2d sod ISth Epistles of the First Book. Be was consul with Q. 
.Smiliua Iiepidiia in the T32d year of the city. Watoom. 

" StesLchorua was of Himera in Sicily, and flourished about 610 years 
befbre Cliriat. Watson. 

" %ive iuaa potior labores, Lallias commaDded the Romsn legions in 
Germany, Thrace, and Galatia, In the German war ho lost the eagle of 
the fifth legion, and his defeat was called the Lollian slaughter. LMana 
eladeB ; but he soon revenged the aDhiDt, and obliged the QennaiiH to 
repass the Bhine, to demand a peace, and deliver bostagesi Fran. 

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dact of afiairs, and steady alike amid success and trouble : 
you are an avenger of avaricious fraud, and ptoof agmnst 
money, that attracts every thing; and a consul not of one 
ye&r only, but as often as Uie go<^ and upright magistrate baa 
preferred the honorable to Uie profitable, and has rejected 
with a disdainful brow the bribes of wicked men," and tri- 
umphant through opposing bands has displayed his arms. You 
cannot with propriety call him happy, that possesses much ; 
he more justly claims the title of happy, who understands how 
to make a wise use of the gifts of the gods, and how to bear 
severe poverty ; and dreads a reproachful deed worse than death ; 
such a man as this is not afi-aid to perish ia the defense of his 
dear friends, or of his country. 


O CKiTBL still, and pofent in the endowments of beauty, when 
HI unexpected plume shall come upon your vanity, and those 
' ' ' your shoulders, shall fall off, and 

' " to the bioesom of the 

damask rose, changed, Ligurinus, shall turn into a wrinkled 
face ; [then] will yon say (as often as you see yourselfj 
[quite] another person in the looking-glass), Alas I why was 
Dot my present inclination the same, when I was young ) Or 
why do not my cheeks return, unimpaired, to these my pre- 

*' " BaieetB with disdainful brow the bribea of the guilty ; aniJ, vie- 
toriOQS, makes for himself a way hj his own arms amid oppoBini:; 
crowds." £ScpItn(i( nta arma may be readered more literallf, tliougli 
leas intoUigibl^, " displays hia arma." Tho " opposing crowda" are the 
difflcnlties that beset the path of the upright man, aa well from the in- 
berent weokaesB of hia own nature, ea Ihim the arts of the flatterer, and 
themachinatioBs of secret foea. Calling, howoTer, virtue and finnnesi 
o bis lud, he employs these arms of purest temper against the hoat that 
'a Mm, and comes off victorious fi-om the coufiict. Ed. Ddbl. 

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Fhvlub, I hare a caak full of Abaoian wine, npward of 
niae years old ; I have parsley in mj garden, for the weaving 
of ohaplets ; I have a store of ivy, with which, when you have 
bound your hair, you look bo gay ; the house ehines cheerfully 
with plate : the utar, bound with chaste vervain, longs to be 
sprinkled [with the blood] of a sacrificed lamb : all hands are 
busy : gir^ mingled with boys fly about from place to place : 
the flames quiver, rolling on their summit the sooty smoke." 
But yet, that you may know to what joys you are invited, the 
Ides are to be celebrated by you, the day which divides 
April," the month of eea-bom Venus ; [a day,] with reason 
to be solemnized by mc, and almost more sacred to me than 
that of my own birth ; since from this day my dear Maicenas 
reckons his flowing years. A rich and buxom g^rl hath pos- 
sessed herself of Telephus, a youth above your rank; and 
she holds him fast by an agreeable fetter. Consumed Phae- 
ton strikes terror into ambitious hopes, and the winged 
Pegasiia, not sfomaching the earth-horn rider Bellerophon, 
affords a teirible example, that you ought always to pursue 
things that are suitable to you , and that you should avoid a 
disproportjoned match, \ff tbiDkitig it a crime to entertain a 
hope beyond what is allowable. Come then, thou last of my 
lovea (for hereafter I shall bum for no other woman), learn 
with me such measures, as thou mayest recite with thy lovely 
voice ; our gloomy cares shall be mitigated with an ode. 

" Tbe Greeks and Romans appear to have been acquainted with 
the use ofchimneTB. Tho nwre common dwellings had merely an open- 
ing in liie roof, which allowed the smoke to escape ; the better class o( 
edifices were warmed by means of pipes enclosed in the walls, and 
which commuaicatel with a lai^ stove, or several smaller ooes, con- 
stracted in the earth under the building. Anthon interprets vortice, 
"from the house-top;" but the explanation of Orellius is preferable, 
"fuaum celcmiDQ torqucntea ac glomcractfa, ita ut ejus verticem 
ofl3daot" M'Caui. 

*' Mertiem Feneris, April was called the month of Venus, because 
her grand festival began on the first da; of that month. San. 

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Tbk 'Diraciati breezes, attendants on the spriDg, vbich 
moderate the deep, now fill the sails ; now neither are the 
meadows etiff [with frostl, nor roar the rivers swollen witili 
winter's snow. The nnnappj bird, that piteously bemoans 
Icjs, and is the eternal di^ace of the house of Cecrops" 
(becanse she wickedly revenged the brutal lasts of kings), now 
builds her nest. The keepers of the sheep play tunes upon 
the pipe amid the tender herbage, and delight that god, 
whom flocks and the shady hills of Arcadia delight The time 
of year, O Virgil, has brought on a drought : but if you de- 
sire to quaff wine from (he Oalenian press, you, that are a 
constant companion of young noblemen, must earn your liquor 
by [bringing some] spikeitard : a small box of spikenard snail 
draw out a cask, whicn now lies in the Sulpician stere-house," 
bounteous in the indulgence of fresh hopes and efficacious 
in washiag away the bitterness of cares. To which joys it 
vou hasten, come instantly with your merchandize ; I do not 
intend to dip you in my cups scot-free, like a man of wealth, 
in a bouse abounding with plenty. But lay aside delay, and 
the desire of gain ; and, mindful of the gloomy [funeralj 
flames, intermix, while you may, youi grave studies with a 
little light gayety : it is delightful to give a loose on a proper 

" Oecropia domus. Cecrops was founder and first king of Athens ; 
from him his successors, although not of his familj, took the title of Ce- 
cropida. Horace therefore uses Ihe house of Gecrops for the kiagi of 
Athena in general; thus wa saj the Plt^mUsiar tho kings of Egypt, and 
Ifte Casara Ibr Ihe emperors of Rome. Torr. Dac 

*< Sidpidia horeis. In the year 633 tho Ramans began to drink old 
wine, and several public-housea were erected where it was boM. These, 
which Horace mentions, either belonged to Sulpicius, or perhaps were 
built upon his entale. Suipicia for Sulpiaana korrea. Sak. 

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Thb gods have heard my prayerti, O Lyca ; Lyc«, the gods 
hftve heard my prayers, you are become an old voman, and 
yet you would fain seem a beauty ; and you wanton and drink 
in an audai^oua manner; and when drunk, solicit tardy Cupid, 
with a quiverinff voice. He basks in the charming cheeks of 
the bloomiag Cnia, who is a proficient on the lyre. The teas- 
ing urchin flies over blasted oaks, aud starts back at the sight 
of you, becanse foul teeth, because wrinkles and snowy hur 
render you odious. Now neither Coan purples nor sparkling 
jewels restore those years, which winged time has inserted in 
the public annals. Whither is your beauty gone ) Alas I or 
whiUier your bloom? Whither your graceftil deportment! 
What have you [remaining] of her, of her, who brealned loves, 
and ravished mo from myself! Happy nest to Cynara, and 
distinguished for an aspect of graceful ways: but the fates 
granted a few years only to Cynara, intending to preserve for a 
long time Ljcc, to rival in years the aged raven: that the fer- 
vid young fellows might see, not without excessive laughter, 
that lorch, [which once bo brightly scorched,] reduced to ashes. 

TO AUGOsTtrs. 

What zeal of the senators, or what of the Koman people, by 
decreeing the most ample honors, can eternize your virtues, 
Augustus, by monumental" inscriptions and lasting records! 
O thou, wherever the sun illuminates the habitable regions, 
greatest of princes, whom the Vindelici, that never ex- 
perienced the Roman sway, have lately learned how power- 
mi thou art in wari For Drusus, by means of your soldiery, 
has more than once bravely overthrown the Genauni, an 
implacable race, and the rapid Brenci, and the citadels sit' 

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Dated on the tremendous Alps. The elder of ihc Neros 
HOOD after fought a terrible bnUle, and, under your pro- 
pitious auspices, smote the ferocious Rhceti : how worthy 
of admiration in the field of battle, [to see] with what de- 
stnictioD he oppressed the brave h^rts ^voted to Tolun- 
tary death: just as the soDth wind harasEes the untame- 
able waves, when the dance" of the Heiades cleaves the 
<:louds ; [so is he] strenuous to annoy the troops of the enemy, 
nnd to drive his eager steed through the midst of flames. 
Thus the bull-formed Aufidus, who washes the dominions bt 
the Apulian Daunus, rolls alone;, when he rages and meditates 
nn horrible deluge to the cultivated lands; when Claudius 
overthrew with impetuous might, the iron ranks of the bar- 
barians, and by mowing down both front and rear strewed 
the ground, victorious without any loss; through you sup- 
plying them with troops, you with councils, and your own 
guardian powers.** For on that day, when the suppliant 
Alexandria opened her ports and deserted court, fortune, pro- 
pitious to you in the third lustrum, has put a happy period to 
the war, and has ascribed pr^se and wished-lor honor to 
the victories already obldned. O thou dread guardian of 
Italy and imperial Rome, thee the Spaniard," till now un- 
conquered, and the Mede, and the Indian, thee the vagrant 
Scyuiian admires; thee both the Nile, who conceals his foun- 
tain heads, and the Danube ; thee the rapid Tigris ; thee the 
monster-bearing ocean, that roars against the* remote Britons; 
thee the region of Gaul fearless of death, and that of hardy 
Iberia obeys; thee the Sicambrians, who delight in slaughter, 
laying aside their anus, revere. 

** See mj note on ^sch. Ag. 4, ed. Bolin. 

•• Tuosprid>mie Dioas. Since the Rbcetiaos were defeated opon th« 
same da/ in which Augustus entered Alexandria fifteen jears befbre, the 
poet concludes that the same gods had crowned both expeditions with 
success. Thaa bj this h^p; circumstance he transrers Ihe gloiy of 
Tiberim to the emperor, and recals to his remembrance a da; whidt 
made him master of the world by endinji; the civil wars. The senate 
had decreed that the daj, upon which Alexandria was taken, should be 
numbered among their sacred festivals. Thisdaj was probably tlio 2E»th 
ofAupiat. 72i DAa Si». 

*'' Oaniaber not atUe damabilii. This epithet msjr be extended to the 
Uedes and Indiana ; Gir although these nations had been often defeated, 
yet they were never entirely subdued until the year 134, when they 
were conquered by Agrippa, Dac, 

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112 ODES OF HOBjLCB. bo(»:it. 



Ph<ebcs cbid in'>, Trhcn I was meditating to dug of battles 
and conquered cities on the lyre ; that I migbt not set my lit- 
tle sails along the lyrrhenian Sea. Your nge, O Cxsar, has 
both leatored plenteous crops to the fields, and has brought 
back to our Jupiter the standards torn from the proud pillars 
of the Parthiana ; and has shut up [the temple] of Janua" 
[founded by] Romulus, now free from war ; and has imposed 
a due discipline upon headstrong licentiousness, and has ex- 
tirpated crimes, and recalled the ancient arts ; by which the 
latin name and strength of Italy have increased, and the 
fame and majesty of the empire ia eilended from the sun's 
western bed to the east While Ciesar is guardian of afiairs, 
neither ciril rage nor violence shall disturb tranquillity ; nor 
hatred which forges swords, and seta at varifmce unhappy 
states. Not those, who drink of the deep Danube, shall now 
break the Julian edicts : not the Get^, not tho Seres, cor tho 
perfidious Persians, nor those bom upon the river Tanaia. 
And let us, both on common and festal days, amid the ^fts 
of joyous Bacchus, together with our wives and families, having 
first duly invoked the gods, celebrate, after tho manner of our 
ancestors, with sSnga accompanied with Lydian pipes, our late 
valiant commanders ; and Troy, and Anchises, and the oflspring 
of benign Venus. 


• " TliB temple of Janus was open in war aud closed in peace. It had 
been closed previous to the reign of Augustus, □□cein the days of Numa, 
and a, second time at the conclusion of the first Funic war. Under Au- 
gustus it was closed thrice ; once in a. v. c, 72d, after the overthrow of 
Antony (compare Oroaius, S, 2-2, and Dto Cassius, G6, 23), agunin A. u. c. 
729, after the reduction of the Cantabri (compare Dio Cassius, 53, 26), 
and the third time, when the Dacians, Dalmatians, and some of the Ger- 
man tribes were subdued by Tiberias and Dnisus. (Compare Bio Cas- 
sius, 54, 36.) To this last Horace is here Bupposed to allude. We have 
retMoed Janum Quirini, i, e. Jamim Qairiiium. When the temple o! 
Janua was the third lime closed is not clearly known. Some, wi'-h Uasson, 
ret^r it to tho year lii, others to 748. Horace ^peara to allude merely 
to the Tact of its having been closed IvHee. Ahtron and li'Ctxiu 

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Thou wilt go," my friend Maecenas, with Uburiaa' galleys 
amonff the towering forts of ships, ready at thine own [hazard] 
to undergo any of Cteaar's dangers. What shall I do ! To 
whom life may be agreeable, if you survive ; but, if other- 
wise, burdensome. Whether Bhall I, at your command, pnr- 
EUe my ease, which can not be pleasing unless iu your com' 
pany t Or ehall I endure this toil with such a coun^e, as 
becomes uaeffeminate men to bear i I will bear it ! and with 
en intrepid soul follow you, either through the summits of tho 
Alps, and tho inhospitable Caucasus, or to tbo furthest western 
bay. Yoti may afik bow I, unwarlike and infirm, can assist 
your labors by mine I While I am your compaoion, I shall 
be in less anxiety, which takes possession of the absent iu a 
greater measure. As the bird, that has unfledged young, is 

' Ibis. As soon as Mrecenoa had received orders to hold hiDiaelf id 
readiueSB to go aboard the fleet of Octaviua, be imparted the news tu 
Horace, and at Ihe eanie time declared to him, tbat he would not permit 
him to make this voj^ie with him. 

This ode was written in T33, and it shows, through tho whole, a dis- 
interested affection and gratitude. Sah. 

» iifrumfa. Plutarch, speaking of this battle, says, that when one of 
Antony's ships was aurrouoded by four or five Liburnion galleys, it look- 
ed Lke an assault of a town. FJorus, describing tho vessels of Antony, 
Bays, tbat they had from siz to nine rowers lo every oar ; that they car- 
ried towers and bridges of such prodigious height, as to look like castles 
sod towns : that the seas groaned beneath their weight, and the winds 
labored to pusb tbem forward. Horace calls these towers pivpugnactiia 
navimn, and Virgil calls the vessels which bore them turrUaa pupp«t, 
towered ships. Bn. Dubuk. 

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in a greater dread of serpents* approaches, when ibey are left : 
— not that, if she should be present when they came, she 
could render moro help. Not only this, but every other war, 
shall be cheerfully embraced by me for the hope of yonr 
favor ; [and this,] not that my plows should labor, yoked to a 
greater number of mine own oxen ; or that my cattle before 
the scorching dog-4tar should change the Calabrian* for the 
LOcanian* pastures : neither that t^ white country-box should 
equal the Circiean walla of lofty 'nisottlum.' ■ Your generosi- 
ty has enriched me enough, and more than enough : I shall 
never wish to amass, what either, like the miser Chremes, 
I may bury in the earth, or luxuriously squander, like a 


HAPpr the man,* who, remote from business, after the man- 

> Feaavt Calabria. The wealthier Romaas bad different pastures tot 
Bommer aod winier. The poorer sort sent their Socks into the public 
rastiirea, pajing a certain rent to the &rmera of the revenues. Thus 
Calabria was chosen for its warmth and temperature in winter, and Lu- 
cania (or ila coolneas aad verdure in summer, occasioned by its moun- 
tains. -But the difficutty of the sentence depends upon the constructioEi, 
which must bo directlj contrary to the poet's amtngement of the words. 
Midat Laeana Gabibris pasaas, for mtiiol CoUibra, jxucua hacaiiis. In 
tho same manner in the first book, JfuKiJ hasn^em Lyaxo, fbr TatOai 
Li/cieam Lucretiii. ScHOL. 

■• Ijioania, a country of Italy, in the kingdom of NmiIbs, between 
Apulia and the Tuscan Sea, famous for pastures. Calabiia, the most 
southern part of the Itingdon of Naples, called also Magna Grtecia; 
lying between tlie Siciliao and looian Seas; it brings forth fruit twice in 
a year. Watsos. 

s Tuaoulum is a city of Italy, about twelve miles ftean Rome, built on 
an eminence, where many of the Roman nobility, and Virgil, and Horace 
also, had couctry-seaiB. Waibos. 

' The object of the poet is to show with how much difficulty a covet- 
ous man disengages himself tVom the love of riches. He, therefbre, sup- 
poses an usurer, who is persuaded of tho happiness and traoquillity of a 
. countiy life, to have (bnned the design of retiring into the country and 
renouncing his former pursuits. The latter calls in his money, and is 
ready to depart, wlien his ruling passion returns, and once more plimgea 
him in the vortex of gain. Antii, 


(oan. EF0DB3 OF HORACE. 115 

ner of the ancient race of mortal^ cultivates bis paternal lands 
with hia own oxen, disengaged from every kind of usury; ho 
19 neither alarmed by the horrible trump, as a soldier, uor 
dreads he the angry sea ; he shuns both the bar and the prond 
portals of citizens io power. Wherefore he either weds the -' 
lofty poplars to the mature branches of the vine ; and, lopping 
off the useless boughs with his pruning-knife, ho ingrafts 
more froitful ones : or he takes a prospect of the herds of his 
lowing cattle, wandering about in a lonely vale; or stores his 
honey, pressed \ftom we combs], in clean vessels ; or shears 
his tender sheep. Or, when autumn has lifted up in the fields 
hb head adorned with mellow fruits, bow does he rejo)ce,t 
while he gathers the grafted pears, and the grape that vies 
with the purple, with which he may recompense thee, O 
Priapus, and thee, father Sylvanus, guardian of his bound- 
aries ! Sometimes he delights to lie under an aged holm, some- 
times on the matted grass : meanwhile the waters glide along 
in their deep channels ; the birds warble in tLe woods ; and 
the fountains murmur with their purling streams, which in-^ 
vites gentle slumbers. But when the wmteiy season of ihe 
tempestuous air prepares rains and snows, he either drives the 
fierce boars, with many a d<^, into the intercepting toils ; or 
spreads his thin nets with the smooth pole, as a snare for the 
voracious thrushes ; or catches in his gin the timorous hare, 
or that stranger the crane,* [dearang rewai'ds [for his labor]. 
Among such joys as these, who does not forget those mis- 
chievous amines, which are the property of love. But if a 
chaste wife, assisting on her part [in the management] of the 
house, and beloved children (such as is the Sabine,' or the 
Bun-bumed spouse of the industrious Apulian), piles up the 
sacred hearth with old wood,* just at the approach of her 
weary husband; and, shutting up the fruitful cattle in the 

I Et advenam gnem. Cranes came to Italy and Oroeca in winter tac 
the warmth of the climate ; fh>m whence Plmj calls them HyemU adiie- 
(Hu, the stnmi^rs or winter. Lahb. 

» Saiiaa qaalu. The Sabinea possessed the middle of Italy. Thej 
were a fru)^ and laborious people, and thsir wives were remarkable for 
chastity and modesty, domestic housewifery, and conjugal fidelity. Crcq. 

< Sacrum vetuatis extntoL The cooHtruction is reveraed ; Extratrt Ug' 
Au^/ixnim, for actniffre ligjia injoco, or euperjbco. This flrs was called 
lacrtd, because it was consecrated to Vesta and the household gods, 
whose statues \rore phtced round it Cbuq. 

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110 EP0DE3 OF HORACE- oca to. 

woven hurdles, mi Iks dry tlieir distended nddera: and, drair- 
ing this year's wine out of n well-seasoned ciisk, prepares tbe 
uubought collation : not the Lucrine oysters" could delight toe 
more, nor the turbot, nor the scar, should the tempratuoua 
winter drive any from the eastern floods to this sea ; not the 
turkey, nor the Asiatic wild-tbwl, can come into my stomach 
more agreeably, than the olive gathered from the richest 
branches from the trees, or the sorrel that loves the meadoms, 
or mallows salubrious for a sickly body, or a lamb slain at the 
feast of Terminus, or a kid rescue! from the wolt Amid these 
dainties, bow it pleases one to see the well-fed sheep hastening 
home ! to see the weary oxen, with drooping neck, dra^ng 
the inverted plowshare ! and slaves, the test of a rich family, 
ranged about the smiling household gods ! When Alfius, the 
usurer, now on the point of tuminp; countryman, had said this, 
he collected in all his money on the Ides; and endeavors to put 
it out again at the Calends. 

Ip any person at any time with an impious hand has broken 
his aged father's neck, let him cat" garliCf more baneful than 
hemlock. Oh ! the hardy bowels of the mowers ! What 
poison is this that rages in my entrails ) Has viper's blood, in- 
fused in these herbs, deceived me ? Or has Canidia dressed 
this baleful food 1 When Medea, beyond all the [other] Ar- 
gonauts, admired their handsome leader, she anointed Jason 
with this, as he was going to tie the untried yoke on the 
bulls : and having revenged herself on [Jason'sJ mistress, by 
maldng her presents besmeared with this, she flew away on 

'^ Lturina eonekylia. Conchylia is a general word for all kinds of 
Bhell-fleh. The Romans at first loved the oysters of the Lucrine Lake ; 
afterward thej preTeired those of Bruadusium and Tarentum ; at leng;th 
all others wore insipid to them c^ccept those of the Atlantic Ocean. Aa 
these expenses became excessive, the censors were oblijjed to forbid 
either fowl or sliell-Gsli to bo brouglit from countries BO distiiit. Dac. 

II "Edit is. preferable to edat; for the anotenta used edim, tda ediU' 
SOHOL. Soo Orelli, 

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her winged dragon. Never did the steaming influeuce of any 
constellation bo raging as this rest upon the thirsty Appniia : 
neither did the gift [of De^anira^ burn hotter upon the 
ehonldere of laborious Hercules. But if ever, focetibus Mtecenas, 
yoa should have a. desire for any sut^h stuff again, I wish that 

?^our girl may oppose her hand to your kiss, and lie at the 
tirthcst part of the bed. 

As CTeat an enmity as is allotted by nature to wolves and 
lambs, [so great a one] have I to you, you that are galled at 
TOur back with Spauish cords," and on your legs with the 
hard fetter. Though, purse-proud with your liches, you strut 
along, yet fortune does not alt«r your birth. Do you not ob- 
serve while you are stalking along the sacred way with a robe 
twice three ells long, how the most open iodignation of those 

>' The mimuacripta inBcribe this ode in Menam libertum. Sextus Ue- 
nss was a freed man of Coeias Pompeius, and during five or ax ;eat8 
of the triumvirate bad made liimself considerable both to Octaviua and 
Pompey, by betrajring each of tbom in their turn, fiom wbence Afpian 
calls bim Oie dmibU betrayer. 

Id 714 ho commanded Pompe J 's fleet; ravaged llio bonlcrs oTTuseany, 
took Sardinia, and reduced Rome to audi extremity, by EbutliDg up the 
sea, that be compelled tbe Romans to demand a peace from Pompey. In 
116, Meoas became suspected by Pompey, who commanded him to give 
an account of his adrnmiatraticm. He r^uaed to obey ; put the persons 
to death whom Pompey had sent; and surrendered bimeeif lo Oclaviua, 
witb his ships, his troops, and the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. The 
triumvir received him with open arms, and put him on board his fleet in 
quality of lieutenant to CalvJsiua Sabinus. He there behaved himself 
with so much courage and conduct, in the expeditions of the following 
year, that, inflamed with bis success, and angry that ho had not the su- 
preme command, be returned lo Pompey. 

In 718, discontented that he was not regarded equally to his merit, he 
ranged himselfl with a large number of vessels, on tbe side of Oclavius, 
who had made him some advantageous offers, yet never employed him 
afterward but with much reserve. Ho was killed tbe following year in 
sea-fight. Ed. Dubuk. 

" Iberida funibus. A Spanish herb, called sparium, had fibers sa 
pliant and strong, that ropes were made of it ; from whence a Spanish 
cord became a general name. ToBK. 

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that pass and repass turns their Iwks on thee I T^ua fel- 
low, [say thej,] cut with the triumvir's whips," even till the 
bradle was sick of his office, plows a thousand acres of Fater- 
nian land," and wears out the Appian road with his nags ; and, 
in despite of Otho," aita in the first rows [of the circus] as a 
knight of distinction. To what purpose is it, that so many 
brazen-beaked ships of imraetise bulk should be led out uraJnst 
lurates and a band of slaves, while this fellow, this is a nulitaiy 
tiibnne t 


Cut oh, by all the gods in heaven, who rule the earth and 
human race, what means this tumult!" And what the hideous 
looks of all these [hags, fixed] upon me alone ! I conjuro 
thee by thy diildren (if invoked Lucina waa ever present at 
rjiy real birth of thine), I [conjure] thee by this empty honoi 
of my purple," by jupit«r, who must disapprove these 

" Settat flageliig biumviralibut. There were three judges in Rome, 
who took cognizance of nil petty crimes, and who ordered Blavea and 
thieves to be cbastised in their presence. The person i^inat whom this 
ode was written bad ^one through this discipline, until tbo beadle, who 
used to proclaim the ^ult for which the criminals were punished, was 
tired of Liis office. PTcaxnia ad faaidiwi. 

" Arai JWenii, etc Here arc two reasons for this popular indigna- 
tion, that this follow should possess a thousand acres of land, when tbo 
ancient laws allowed the Roman citizen do more than seven ; and that 
these thousand acres should lie in such a countrj as CatDpaDia ; a coun- 
try so fertile, that Bacchus and Ceres were said to hnvo disputed the 
possession of it. ToRn. Dao. 

■* According to the law of L. Roscius Otho, passed A. u. C. 686, four- 
teen rows of benches, iramodialelj over the otchestra, a place where the 
senate sat, were appropriated in the theater and amphitheater for the ac- 
commodation of the Ifnights. As the tribunes of the soldiers had an 
equal right with the Equites. they were entitled to seals in this same 
quarter ; and hence the individual to whom the poet alludes, though of 
servile origin, boldly takes his place on the foremost of the eqaestrinn 
benches, nor fears the law of Otho. AJfTHOH, 

" TumiMaa. This word, in a moral sense, cardes always an idea of 
a criminal conspiracy. The boy aces a sentence of death in the eyes of 
the witches. ToRa 

" Per hoc inane purpura dieui. ChQdrcn of q^iality woro a robe \iot- 

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proceedings, nby dost thou look at me as a BtetMoother, or as 
a wild beast etricken with a dart ! While the Doj* made these 
complaints with a faltering voioe, he stood with hia bandages" 
of distinction taken from him, n tender frame, such as might 
eo&ea the impious breasts of the cruel Thracians; Canima, 
having interwoven her hair and uncombed head with little 
vipers, orders wild" fig-trees torn up from graves, orders 
funend cypresses and eggs besmeared with the gore of a loath- 
some toad, and feathers of the noctunMl screech-owl, and thosft 
herbs, which lolchos, and Spain, fniitliil in poisons, transmits, 
and bones snatched from the mouth of a hnnny bitch, to be 
bnmed in Colchian flames. But Sogaua, tucked up for ex- 
pedition, sprinkling the waters of Avemus all over the house, 
bristles up with her rough hair like a sea-urchin, or a boai 
in the chase, Veia, deterred by no remorse of conscience, 
groaning with the toil, dug up the ground with the sharp 
spade ; whore the boy, fixed in, might long be tormented to 
death at the sight of food varied two or three times in a day : 
while he stood out with his face, just as much as bodies su9« 
pended by the chin [in swimming] project from the water, 
that hia parched marrow and dried liver might be a charm 
for lore ; when once the pupils of hia eyes had wasted away, 
fixed on the forbidden food. Both the idle Naples, and eveiy 
neighboring town believed, that Folia of Ariminum, [a vritch] 
of masculine lust, was not absent: she, who with her Thes- 
salian incantations forces the charmed stare and the moon 
fi^m heaven." Hero tho fell Canidia, gnawing her unpaired 

flered with purple, until they were flftoen jear^ of ngc. Tlio boy, there- 
fore, conjures Canidia by this robe, which showed his youth and quality, 
which was in itself csteeined sacrad, and should theretbre protect him 
fhim danger. The Romins, with regard to this robe, used the expres- 
sion mqjealaa paeritia, the m^eety of childhood. Toan. Dag. 

i> Coneiilil imignibtu rapiia. Hia robe and bulla (which was hung 
round his neck, and made of gold or silver in form of a heart) are by the 
poet called intignia. 

*" Jubel «pufcrit eaprijicoa eniim. Here Canidia calla for the drugs 
that witches were supposed to use iu compo«ng their philters. She 
commands the wild flg-trse to be brought, because it beam neither fruit 
nor Qower, and is esteemed unlucky and ill-omened. To make tbe 
charm more powerful, it must grow in a burjing-place, and bo torn up 
by the roola. Dac. 

" That the moon could be brought down hj magic woa a oommon 
superstition among the ancients, and the Thesaalians were thought to b« 
poascssed of this art more than wiy other people. Anthon". 

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120 EPODES OF HORACE. oimr. 

ibomb widi lier livid teeth, nhat said she ? or what did she 
not mr t ye faithful witoesaes to my proceedings. Night 
and Diana, who presidest over silence, w-ben the secret ntes 
are celebrated : now, now be pieeent, now torn your anger 
and power again^ the booses of our enemies, while the savage 
wild beasts He hid in (he woods, dissolved in sweet repose ; 
let the dogs of Suburra (which may be matter of ridicule for 
every body) bark at the sged profligate, bedaubed with oint- 
ment, such as my bands never made any more exquisite. 
"What is the matter 1 Why are these compositions less effica- 
dous than those of the barbarian Medea t by means of which 
she made her escape, after having revenged herself on [Ja- 
son's] hanghty mistress, the daughter of the mighty Oeon ; 
«hen the garineDt, a gift that was infected with venom, took 
off bis new bride by ils inflammatory power. And yet im> 
herb, nor root hidden in inaccessible places, ever esc^ied my 
notice. rNevertbeless,] he sleeps in the perfumed bed of 
every harlot, from his foigetiulnees [of me J. Ah ! ah ! he 
walks free [from my powerj by the charms of some more 
knowing witch. Varus, (oh you that will shortly have much 
to lament I) yon shall come back to me by means of unusual 
spells ; nor shall you return to yourself by all the power of 
Marsian enchantments." I will prepare a stronger philter : 
I will pour in a stronger philler for you, disdainful as you 
are; and the heaven ^aII subside below the sea, with the 
earth extended over it, sooner than you shall not bum with 
love for me, in the same manner as this pitch [burns] in the 
sooty flames. At these words, the boy no longer [attempted], 
OS before, to move the impious hags by soothing expressions ; 
but, doubtful in what manner he ^ould break silence, uttered 
Thyestean imprecations. Potions [said he] have a great 
efficacy in confounding right and wrong, but are not able to 
invert the condition of human nature ; I will persecute you 
with curses; and execrating detestation is not to be expiated 
by any victim. Moreover, when doomed to death I shall have 
expired, I will otlcnd you as a nocturnal fury ; and, a ghost, 
I will attack your faces with my hooked talons (for such is 

" ifarHs vocibta. The Marsi liad the SBme character of witc'bcmft 
in Italy, aa the Theaaaliana had in Greece. But they particularly oweJ 
their repatatiOQ to Uaisns, the fuunder of their natkui, trbo was the aoa 
•f Ciico. 

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the power of those divinities, the Manes), and, brooding upon 
your restless breasts, I will deprive you of repose by terror. 
The mob, from village to village, assaulting you on every 
tdde with stones, ghall domolish you filthy hags. Finally, the 
wolves and Esquiline" vultures shall scatter abroad your un- 
buried limbs. Nor shall tliis spectacle escape the observation 
of my parents, who, alas ! must survive me. 


O cnB, thou coward ag^nst wolves, why dost thou perseent« 
innocetit Btrangers ! Why do you not, if you can, turn your 
empty yelpings hither, and attack me, who will bite again ! 
For, like a Molossian," or tawny Laconian dog, that is a 
friendly assistant to shepherds, I will drive with erected ears 
through the deep snows every brute that shall go before me. 
You, when you nave filled Ine grove with your fearfid barfe- 
ing, you smell at the food that is thrown to you. Have a 
care, have a care ; for, very bitter against bad men, I exert 
my ready horns uplift; like him that was rejected as a son- 
in-law by the perfidious Lycambes, or the sharp enemy of 
Bupalus. What, if any our attack me witli malignant tooth, 
shall I, without revenge, blubber like a boy ! 

^ EsquiUaa aHlea. The Esquilian Hill was a place of public execu- 
tions, and the poor of Rome were buried tbere, in ditehes called puUetM. 
The birds, wbicb came to this hUl, to prej upon carcasses oT criminal^ 
are called Esqu^ince alita. CruQ. 

'< The Uokiasiati and Lacooiao dogs were of a robust make, and valu- 
able as well in hunting wild beasts, as in deTeadiuK the flocks ETOni noc- 
turnal thieves, Mid from the attacks of wolves. The Moloaai occupied 
tbe north-eaatera part of Epinis. Virgil (Geor. iiL 405) charactemes 
both flpecisa. "Vdoces Spartie catulos a^-emque Moloesum Pasce sero 
pingui. Shakespeare praises tbe [bmior. if. NiD. iv. 11 : 

Uj turanda are bred out of the Spartan breed. Aumov. 

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Whrhzb, wbitlier, impious men are yon rushing f Or why 
are the swotiIb drawn,*' that were [so lately] sheathed t b 
there too little of Roman blood Bpilled' upon land and seat 
[And thia,] not that the Romans might bum the proud 
towers of envious Carthage, or that the Britons, hitherto un- 
assailed, might go down the sacred way bound in chains :" 
but that, agreeably to the wishes of the Parthians, this city 
may fall by its own might. This custom [of warfare] never 
obtained oven among either wolves or savage Eons, unless 
against a different species. Does bUnd phrenzy, or your 
superior valor, or some crime, hurry yon on at this rate i 
Give answer. They are silent: and wan paleness infects 
tb&r countenances, and their stricken souls are stupefied. 
Hiis is the case : a cruel &tali^ and the crime of fratricide 

*> After the defeat of Brutus and CassiuB, the death of Sextos Pom- 
pmQS, and the reeigiiation of L^idoa, Octavius and Aotoay aJone re- 
mained in a condition or diepnting tbe sovereign power. Sometimes 
Octavia, sometimes their CMnmon frteods recondled them ; but, at length, 
they came to an open rupture, in the year 122, when bU the forces irf the 
republic were armed to ^ve the last Btroke to Roman liberty. During 
t^ee preparatioii^ Horace composed five or six odes on this satject. 
His desigD here ii^ to represent to both parties the horrors at their 
criminal dissension^ wMdi threoteoed their conufbo countiy witii total 
niin. San. 

« EnM» eonditi. Peace had sheathed tbelr swords ever since tbe 
death of Sextos Pompeius, that is, for more than twoysars. San. 

" Deacmderet liom tbe lop of the sacred street they went down* 
ward to the (brum, and the way fh>m theuce ascended to the CapitoL 
This ascent .was called (Mivus CapiioUvas. Lahb. 

" Iniadui Britannue, Julius CieBar was the first of the Romans who 
carried his arms into Britain ; and, although SnetiMias tella us that he 
obliged the Britons to give hostages, and imposed tributes upon them, 
yet we may say that he rather opened a way fbr his successors into the 
island, than that he conquered it ; or periiapa it was never totally sub- 
dued by the Romans. In the time of Horace, the reduction of this people 
was coDStdered as a new conqoeet^ reserved for the anna oT Angnstua, 
ftom whence the poet here calls them inlaeti, as he always mentions 
them with epithets of terror, whidl represent them as a nation formidable 
to the Romans, even in the highrat strength and glory of their republic. 
Ed. Ddbuh. 

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(HavOLix. EF0DB3 OF HOBACE. 123 

have disquieted the Romaas, from that time when the blood 
of the innocent Remus, to be expiated by his deeceudantB, vaa 
spilled upon the earth. ' 


Cam you, grown rank with lengthened age, ask what nn- 
nerves my vigor) When your teeth are black, and old oge 
withers your brow with wrinkles : and your back sioks 
between your staring hip-bones, hke that of an unhealthy 
cow. But, forsooth ! your breast and your fallen chest, full 
well resembling a broken-backed horse, provoke me ; and a 
body flabby, and feeble knees supported by swollen legs. 
May you be h^py : and may triumphal statues adorn your 
laneral procession: and may no matron appear in public 
abounding with richer pearls. What follows, because the 
Stoic treatjses** sometimes love to be on silken pillows! Are 
unlearned constitutions the less robust! Or are their hmbs 
less stout ! But for you to ruse an appetite, in a stomach 
that is nice, it is necessary that you exert every art of 


Whbw, O happy Miecenas, shall I, ovei^oyed at Ciesar's 
being victorious, drink with you under the stately dome (for 
so it pleases Jove) the Caicuban reserved for festal entertain' 
ments, while tlie lyre plays a tune, accompanied with flutes, 
that in the Doric, these in the Phrygian measure i As lately, 

" "It wasacommon castom to place sneh books oa the piltows, that, 
when the favored one came, tlie lady might pretend that philoeophy , not 
pleasure, was the abject of her attaation." Sohol. 

" The date of this piece can not be disputed, since the battle of Acthnn, 
whichis thosaljjectof it, nasfought jntbe ISth orSeptember, 1S3. SiK 

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wbeo Uie Neptunian admiral, driven from tha boo, and his 
navy bnmed, fled, after having menac«d. those chains to 
Rome, which, like a friend, he had taken off from perfidious 
slaves." The Roman soldiers (alas! ye, our posterity, will 
deny the tact), enslaved to a woman, carry paliaadoea and 
arms, and can be Bubservient to haggard eunuchs; and among 
the military atandards, oh shame! the sun beholds an [^^yp- 
tian] canopy." Indignant" at thia, the tiauls turned two 
thousand of their cav^y, proclaiming Ciesar : and the ship 
of the hostile navy, f^ing off to the feft, b'e by in port. Hail, 
god of triumph 1 Dost thou delay the golden cnariota and 
untouched heifers I Hail, god of triumph ! You neither 
brought back a general equal [to Csesarl, from the Jugurthino 
war ; nor ftom the African [war, him], whose valor raised 
him a monument over CartE^;e. Our enemy, overthrown 
both by land and sea, has changed his purple vestments for 
moumiog. He either seeks Crete, famous for her hundred 
cities, r^dy to sail with unfavorable winds ; or the Syrlts 
harateed by the south ; or else is driven by the uncertain sea. 
Bring hither, boy, larger bowls, and the Chian or Lesbian 
wine ; or, what may correct this rising qualm of mine, fill me 
out the Ctecuban. It is my pleasure to dissipate care and 
anxiety for Gssar'a danger with delicious wine. 

The vessel, that carries the loathsome Mievius, makes her 
depitrture under an unlucky omen. Be mindful, south 
wind, that you buffet it about with horrible billows. May the 
gloomy eas^ turning up the sea, disperse its c&bles and broken 
oars. Let the north arise as mighty as when he rives the 

■' Servia amictis perfidii. Pompey received ii]l the slaves who would 
enter into hia service, and the desertion was so great throngh Italy, that 
the vestals oObted sacriflces and prayers to prevent the coatiniiaQce of 
It. Sah. 

" The derivatioD of " caaoplam" is aoiusiDg, trora driving away gnat^ 
HjiwJiraf. C£ Orelli. 

" But Orelli reads "at hoc," with Pea. 



qnivering oaks on the lofty mountains ; nor let a friendly star 
appear through, the murky night, in which the baleful Orion 
seta : uor let him be conveyed in a calmer sea, than was the 
Grecian band of conquerors, when Pallas tnmad her rage 
from burned Troy to the ship of impious Ajax. Oh what a 
sweat is coming upon your sailors, and what a sallow paleuess 
upon you, and that Geminate wailing, and those prayers to 
uuregarding Jupiter ; when the Ionian bay, roaring with the 
tempestuous south-west, shall break your keel I But i^ ex- 
tended along the winding shore, you shall delight the cormo- 
rants as a dainty prey, a lascivious he-goat and an ewe-lamb 
shall be sacrificed to the Tempests. 

It by no means, O Pecdus, delights me as heretofore to write 
Lyrio verses, being smitten with cruel love : with love, who 
t^es pleasure to inflame me beyond others, either youths or 
maidens. This is &o tHrd December that has shaken the 
HeafyJ honors from the woods, since I ceased to be mad for 
Inachia. Ah me ! (for I am ashamed of so great a misfor- 
tune) what a subject of talk was I throughout the city ! I re- 
pent too of the entertainments, at which both a languishing 
and silence and sighs, heaved from the bottom of my breast, 
discovered the lover. As soon as the indelicate god [Bac- 
chus] by the glowing wine had removed, as I grew warm, 
the secrets of [my heart] from their repository, I made my 
complaints, lamenting to you, "Hns the fairest genius .of a 
poor man no weight against wealthy lucre! Wherefore, if a 
generous indignation boil in my breast, insomuch as to dis- 
perse to (he winds these disagreeable applications, that give 
no ease to the desperate wound ; the shame [of being over- 
come] ending, shall cease to contest with rivals cf such a 
Bort."" When I, with great gravity, had applauded these 
resolutions in your presence, being oniered to go home, I was 
carried with a wandering foot to posts, alas ! to me not 

" " JJnpaWiuj, qui inferiores quatn ego sunt." Ohelll 

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Mendly, and alaa! obdurate gatee, against which 1 bruised 
my loins and side. Now ray aflections for the delicate Lyciscus 
engross all my time : from them neither the unreserved admo- 
nitiona, nor the aerious reprehensions of other friends, can 
recall me [to my former taste for poetry] ; but, perhaps, 
either a new flame for some fidr diunsel, or lor some grao^iil 
youth who binds h» long hair in a knot," [may do ac' 


What would you bo at, you woman fitter for the swaiihy 
monsters t" Why do you send tokens, why billet>doux to me, 
and not to some vigorous youth, and of a taste not nice t Foi 
I am one who discems a polypus or fetid ramminess, however 
concealed, more quickly than the keenest dog the covert of 
the boar. What sweatiness, and how raak an odor every 
where rises from her withered limbs ! when she strives to lay 
her furious rage with impos^bititics ; now she has no longer 
the advantage of moist cosmetics, and her color appears as if 
stained with crocodile's ordure; and now, in wild impetuosity, 
she tears her bed, bedding, and all she has. She attacks even 
my loathings in the most angry terms: — "You are always 
less dull with Inachia than me: in her company you are 
threefold complaisance ; but you are ever unprepared to 
oblige me in a single instance. Lesbia, who first recommended 
you — so unfit a help in time of need — may she come to an 
ill end ! when Coan Amyntas paid me his addresses ; who ia 
ever as constant in bis f^r-one'a service, as the young tree to 
the hill it grows on. For whom were labored the fleeces of 
the richest Tyrian dye ) For you ? Even so that there was not 
one in company, among gentlemen of your own rank, whom 
his own wife admired preferably to you : oh, unhappy me, 
Whom yon fly, as the lamb dreads tlio fierce wolves, or the 
Bhe^;oata the lions!" 

"See OrellL Otters Interpret, "with loose cnrk." 
"i. e. elephaats. According to Isidonis, Orif;. 12, S, 14, the Indian* 
call an elephant "barms," its cry or voice "bariitoa" OnEiXL 

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(ffiiznLzrr. SPODES OF HORA.CK 

A BOKRiBLB tempest haa condensed the sky, and ahowers and 
mows bring down tbe atmoephero: now iix% sea, now the 
wooda bellow with the Tbracian nortb wind. Let us, my 
friends, take occasion bom tbe day ; and, w^bile our knees are 
vigorons, and it becomes us, let old age with his contracted 
forehead become smooth. Do jou produce the wine, that was 
pressed in the consulship of my Torquatns. Forbear to talk 
of any other matters. The dei^, perhaps, will reduce these 
[piesent evils] to your former (nappy] state by a propitdous 
doaoge. Now it is fitting both to be bedewed with Persian 
perfume, and to reUeve our breasts of dire rexations by the 
tyre, sacred to Mercury. Like as the noble Centaur, [Chiron,] 
sung to his mighty pupil : " Innncible mortal, son of the god- 
dess Theb's, £e land of Assaracus awaits yoo, which the 
cold currents of little Scamander and swilt-glidiiig Simols 
diiride : whence the &tal sisters have broken off your return, 
by a thread that can not be altered: nor shall your azure 
mother convey yon back to your borne. There [then] by vine 
and music, sweet consolations," drive away every symptom of 
hideous melancholy." 



ToTT kill me, my courteous Maecenas, by frequently inquiring, 
why a soothing indolence has diffused as great a degree of 
foreetiiilness on my inmost senses, as if I had imbibed with 
A thirsty throat the cups that bring on Lethean sliunbers. For 
the god, the god prohibits me from brin^n^ to a conclusion 
the verses I promised [you, namely those) iambics which I 

" Orelli haa complstelj establiabed tbia moaiiias of " alloquiu," from 
Vttna L. L. e, S GT ; CatuU. S ; Ovid. Triat L 8, 17. 

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128 EPODES OF HORACE. otixxr. 

had be^n. In the «tmo moniier they report tliat Anacreoa 
of Teioe bunied for the Samiaa Balhylfus; nho often lamented 
his love to an inaccurate measure on a hollow lyre. You are 
violently in love yourself; but if a fairer flame did not bum 
besieged Troy, rejoice in your lot Phryne, a freed-woman, 
and not content with a sngle admirer, consumes me. 

It was night, and the moon shone in a serene sky among the 
leaser stars ; when yon, about to violate the divinity of the 
great gods, swore [to be true] to my requests, embracing me 
with your pliant arms more closely than the lofty oak is clasped 

Sthe ivy ; that while the wolf should remain an enemy to 
I flock, and Orion, unpropitious to the sailors, should trou- 
ble the wintery sea, and while the air should fan the unshorn 
locks of Apollo, [so long you vowed] that this love should be 
mutual. O Nejera, who shall one day greatly grieve on ac- 
count of my merit : for, if there is any thing of manhood in 
Horace, be will not endure that you should dedicate your 
nights coutinually to another, whom you prefer; and exas- 
perated, he will look out for one who will return his love : 
and, though an unfeigned sorrow should take possession of- 
you, yet my firmness shall not give way to that beauty which 
has once g^ven me disgust** But as for you, whoever you 
be who are more successfid [than me], and now strut proud 
of my misfortune ; though you be rich m flocks and abundance 
of land, and Pactolus" flow for yon, nor the mysteries of Py- 

" Dam pecori Ivpvi. This was probably the form of the oath whieli 
Boraca dii^tated to Neiera, aud by which he would iaaiuoate that earth, 
air, and skiaa should be avengoca of her peijurj, as they wero witnesses 
of her oath. ToRB. 

" jScTiiei offeaeiB. The ancient commentator justly remarks, that this 
epithet qfftiisa is a passive, with an active signification. Oleosa forma 
therefore signifies /orrnn, gius me offendil. Ed. Ddbl, 

'° A river in Lydi». It rises in Mount Tmolus, runs into the Hermua, 
and fioTTS along with it to the .^geaa Sea, not &r from Smyrna. In 
the time of Cro^sus, this rirer rolled from the mountaina a kind of gold- 
sand, wliich WHS the chief cause of that king's immense riches. Watsos. 

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ODBzn. 5P0DB3 OF HOBAOK 129 

thagoras," boro again, escape you, and you excel Nireus in 
beautT ; alas ! you shall [hereafter] bewail her love tranBferred 
elsewhere : but I shall laugh in my turn. 


Now IB angllier age worn away by civil wars," and Rome 
herself falls bv her own strength. Whom neither the border- 
ing Marsi coufd destroy, nor the Etrurian band of the men- 
acing Porsena, nor the rival valor of Ci4}ua, nor the bold 
Spartacus, and the Gauls perfidious with their innovations : nor 
did the fierce Germany subdue with its blue-eyed youth, nor 
Ann ibal, detested by parents; but we, an impious race, whose 
blood is devoted to perdition, shall destroy her: and this land 
shall again be possessed by wild beasts. The victorious bar- 
barian, alas ! shall trample upon the ashes of the city, and the 
horsemen shall smite it with the sounding hoofs; and (horrible 
to see !) he shall insultingly disperse the bones of Romulus, 
which [as yet] are free ftom the injuries of wind aud sun. Per- 
haps you all in general, or the better part of you, are inquisi- 
tive to know, what may bo expedient, in order to escape [such] 
dreadfiil evils. There can he no determination better than 
this ; namely, to go wherever our feet will carry us, wherever 
the south or boisterous south-west shall summon us through 
the waves; in the same manner as the Btat« of the Phocieans*' 

*' Nee le PyOiagoras. noraos may mean natural philosophy, of which 
Pythagoras was nonsordidut auclor; or partievilarly his doctrince of the 
metempsycliosis, from whence he calls him renatus. Ed. Dcbl. 

" BeUis eivilibua. Tha civil ware between Marius atid Sylla, which 
b^an in 666, were never perfectly eitinguiahod tintil the death of Antony, 
T21. Horaee tberelbre saya, that this was the second age of those wars, 
because they had commenced in the preceding century. Ed. Dobl. 

" Exseerata. The Phocteans being besieged by Harpagus, general of 
the Peraans, demanded one day's truce to dotiberate upon the preposi- 
tions which he bad sent to them, and desired that he would draw off his 
army from their walls. As soon as Harpagua had consented, they car- 
ried their most valuable effects, their wires and children, aboard their 
ships. Then throwing a man of glowing iron into the sea, they bound 
themselves by oath never to return to their country until that mass should 
iis« to the aumco of the water. From hence a Grecian proverb, " Aa 

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fled, a^r having uttered execrations [agunat such as ahonld 
return], and left their fields and proper dneliings and temples 
to be inhnbited hj boars and ravenous wolves. Is this agree- 
able! has any one a better scheme to advise! Why do we 
delay to go on shipboard under an auspidous omen ! But 
first let us swear to these conditions — the stones shall swim 
upward, lifted from the bottom of the sea, as soon as it shall 
not be impious to return ; nor let it grieve us to direct our 
sails homeward, when the Po shall wa^ the t(^ of the Ma- 
tinian summits ; or the lofty Apennine shall remove into the 
sea, or a miraculous appetite shall unite monsters by a strange 
kind of lust; insomuch that tic;eTB may delight to couple with 
hinds, and the dove bo polluted with the kite; nor the simple 
herds may dread the brindled lions, and the he-goat, grown 
smooth, may love the briny main. After having sworn to 
these things, and whatever (Jse may cat off the pleasing hope 
of returning, let us go, the whole city of us, or at least that 

5 art which is superior to the illiterate mob : let the idle and 
espairing part remain upon these inau^icious habitations. 
Ye, that have bravery, away with efienunate ^e^ and fly 
beyond the Tuscan shore. The ocean encirchng the land 
aw^ts us; let us seek the happy plains, and prospering 
islands, where the untilled land ycarl;^ produces com, and the 
unpnined vineyard punctually flourishea ; and where the 
branch of the never-failing olive blossoms forth, and the pur- 
ple fig adoms its native tree : honey distills from the hollow 
oaks ; the light water bounds down from the high mountains 
with a murmuring pace. Tliere the she-goats come to the 
milk-paiU of their own accord, and the friendly flock return 
with their udders distended ; nor does the b«ir at evening 
growl about the sbeepfold, nor does the ri^ng ground swell 
with vipers: and many more things shall we, happy [Romans], 
view with admiration : how neither the rainy east lays waste 
the corn-fields with profiise showers, nor is the fertile seed 
burned by a dry glet>e ; the king of gods moderating both 
[extremes]. ITie ■ pine rowed by the Argonauts never at- 
tempted to come hither ; nor did the lascivious [Medea] of 

Icm^ aa tho PhocKin mass of iron shall continue at the bottom of the 
ocean." Their stoiy ia told by Herodotus and Strabo. Dublin Enrroa. 
Orelli observes that exseeraia is the middle voiee,=ciu» h diri» dy 

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(ra^zvn. EPODES OF HORACE. 131 

Colohia B6t her foot fin tlus place]: hither the Sidonian 
mariners never turned their eadl-yards, nor the toiling crew of 
Ulysses. No contagious dialempers hurt the flocks ; nor does 
the fiery violence of any constellation scorch the herd. Ju- 
piter set apart those shores for a pious people, when he debased 
the golden age with brass : with brass, then with iron be hard- 
ened the ages ; from which there shall be a happy escape for 
the good, according to my predictions 


Now, now I yield to powerful science ; and suppliant beseech 
thee by the dominions of Proserpine, and by the inflexible 
dirinitj of I>iana, and by the books of incantations able to call 
down the stars displaced from the firmament; O Ganidia, at 
leneth deast from thine imprecations, and quickly torn, turn 
bacK thy ma^cal machine." TelephoB** moved [with com- 
pasaon] the grandson of Kereus, agdnst whom he am^antly 
had put his troops of Mysians in battle-array, and against 
whom he had darted his sharp javelins. The iVojan matrons 
embalmed the body of the man-slaying Hector, which had 
been condemned to birds of prey, and doga, after king [Pri- 
am], having left the walls of the dty, prostrated himself; 
aiaa ! at the feet of the obstinate Achilles. The mariners of 
the indefatigable Ulysses put off their limbs, bristled with 
the hard skins [of swine], at the will of Circe : then their 
reason and voice were restored, and their former comeHness 

** Oilamgue retro. Propertius and Martial mentloD a msgiosl inatra- 
ment called rhombiis. Theocritus Bad Ludon tell us, that it was made 
of brass ; and Orid says, it was turned rouud by straps of leather, with 
which it was bound. This is probablj the same instrument which Horace 
calls Utrbo, acd be beseeches Canidia to torn it backward, as if to correct 
the &tal efieda which it produced in its natural couise. ToBB. 

" Telephus was king of Mysia. When the Greeks entered his conntiy, 
in their passage to Troy, he opposed them rigorously ; bnt being wounded 
by Achilles, he was told by the oracle, that he could onij be cured by 
the same weapon with which he was wounded. He i^tplied to Achilles, 
who, scraping his lance, poured the filings into his wound. Pliny msntioos 
B picture, in which Achillee was painted performing the cure. "Lua, 

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ISa EPODEa OF HOBACE. ddezvii, 

to th«r coiiutenancea. I have suffered punishment enough, 
and more than enough, on thj account, tbon so dearly he- 
lored by the aailora and factors. My vigor is gone awa^, 
and my ruddy complexion has left me ; my bones are covered 
vith a ghastly bUq ; my hair with your preparations is grown 
hoary. No ease respites mo from my sunenngs : night presses 
npon day, and day wpon night : nor is it in my power to re- 
lieve my lungs, which are strained with gaspinfr. Wherefore, 
\vretch that I am, I am compelled to ori^it (what was denied, 
by me^ that the charms of the Sammtes discompose the breast, 
and the head splits in sunder at the Marsian incantations. 
What wouldst thou have more ! sea ! O earth ! I bum in 
such a degree as nether Hercules did, besmeared with Ihe 
black gore of Nessus, nor the fervid flame burning in the 
Sicilian .£tiia. Yet you, a laboratory" of Colchian poisonB, 
remun on fire, till I, [reduced to] a diy ember, ehatl be 
waFted away by the injurious winds. What event, or what 
penalty awaits mef Speak out: I will with honor pay the 
demanded mulct; ready to mate an expiation, whether you 
should require a hundred steers, or choso to be ' celebrated on 
a lying lyre. You, a woman of modesty, you, a woman of 
probity, shall traverse the stars, ns a golden constellation. 
Castor and the brother of the great Castor, offended at the 
in&my brought on [their sister] Helen, yet overcome by en- 
treaty, restored to t£e poet his eyes that were taken away 
irom him. And do you (for it 'is in your power^ extricate me 
&am this frenzy ; you, that are neither defiled by &mily 
meanness, nor skillful to disperse the ashes of poor people," 
after they have been nine days Interred.** You have an hos- 

" OJicina. The aocient Scholiaat has wbH explained this passage, 
ipnam Canidiam officinam venenonim diserti dirit ; Horace calls hia witeh 
a abop or poiBons, as we call a learned man a liviog libntiy. Fran. 

" Sepukhrw pawptrwn. Acroii well remailcB, that Horace 011I7 meaos 
the aepulchers of the poor, since those of the rich were surrounded with 
walla, to protect thera from the sacrilege of sorcerers Fhah. 

" IfovmdifUes pvivern. Servius, in his ootoa upon the GAh book of 
Virgil's ^Dsid, saya, that a dead body was preserved seven days, burood 
on ttie eighth, and ictorred on the ninth ; and that Horace intended these 
eeremonies in the present paaaage. This explication, although coutra- 
dicted by Acron, has been received by our ablest commentators; yet 
there is little probability that such ceremonials were observed in the 
funerals of poor people, of whom alone the poet speaks here. Ha seems 
ratber to mean, that these witches dug up the ashes of the dead nine 

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pitable breast, and unpolluted hands; and Pactumeius is your 
Bon, and tbee the midwife has tended; nnd, whenever you 
bring forth, you spring «p with unabated vigor. 

Wmr do you ponr forth your' entreaties to ears that are 
closely shut [against them] ! The winlerj- ocean, with its 
briny tempests, does not lash rocks more deaf to tbo cries of 
the naked mariners. What, shall you, without beine made 
an example of, deride the Cotyttian mpleries," sacred to un- 
restrwned love, which were divulged [by you]t And shall 
you, [assuming the ofBce] of Pontiff [with regard lo niy] 
Esquihan incantations, fill the citjf with my name unpunished! 
What did it aviul mo to have enriched the Paliguiau sorceress 
[with ray charms], and to have prepared poison of greater 
expedition, if a slower fate awaits you than is agreeable to my 
wishes t An irksome life shall ba protracted by you, wtctca 
as you are, for this purpose, that you may perpetually be able 
to endure new tortures. Tantalus, tbo perfidious sire of 
Pelops, ever craving after the plenteous banquet [which is 
always before himji wishes for respite; Prometheus, chained 
to ttie vulture, wishes [for rest]; Sisyphus wishes to place 
the stone on tbo summit -of the mountain : but the laws of 
Jupiter forbid. Thus you shall desire at one time to leap 
down from a high tower, at another to lay open your breast 
with tho Noric sword ; and, grieving with your tedious indis- 
poation, shall tie nooses about your neck in vaiu. I at that 
tiuie will ride on your odious shoulders ; and tlie whole earth 

days after they were interred ; and porhnps tJio number nine might have 
hiid somewhat mysterious in it, whioli w^ tliought to give force to their 
enchantments. The laws of tho twelve tables had notbiog determined 
caaceming the number of dnys which a corpse should bo kept belore it 
was to be carried out to buriul. S*H. 

" Riitrii Ootijtlia vulgcUa. — Colyttia wlgaida ridendo propoineris. 
Cotjs, or Cotytto, was tlio goddess of impurity ; and although she did , 
not preside over assemblies of witches, yet, as there were many vile and 
infaJiiouBlseremonies practiced in tliem, the poet satirically makes Canidia 
rnlt them the feosta of Cotys. Better to esplain bis design, ho odds liberi 
Capidiaia tacnan, mysteries of a licentious and unbounded love. A 
Koman proverb calls a person of dissolute and vicious maanen^ Colyoa 
coi^vbemalia, a companion of Cotys. POLtTlAN. 

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134 BP0DB8 OF HORACE. odsxth. 

aball aclmowledge my unexampled power. What efaall I, 
who can give motion to waxen images (aa yon yourself in- 
quuitive as you are, were convinced of) and snatch the moon 
mm heaven by my incantations ; I, who can raise the dead 
after they are burned, and duly prepare the potion of love, 
shall I bewail the «vent of my art having no efficacjr apoa 
you I 

b, Google 


Fhcxbcb, and tbou Diann, GOvereiga of tbe woods, ye illu»- 
trills omameDta of the heavens, oh ever worthy of adoration 
and ever adored, bestow what we pray for at this eacred 
season: at which the Sibylline verses have given direcdons, 
that select virgins and chaste youths Bhould ait^ a hymn to 
the deities, to whom the seven hills [of Rome] are accept- 
able. genial sun,' who in your splendid car draw forth 
and obscure the day, and who arise another and the same, 
may it never be in your power to behold any thing more 
glorious than the city of Rome ! Dithyia, of lenient power 
to produce the timely birth, protect the matrons [in labor] ; 
whether you choose the title of Lucina, or Genitalis. 
goddess, multiply our offspring ; and prosper the decrees of 
the senate in relation to the joining of women in wedlock, 
fuid the matrimoniid law' about to teem with a new race ; that 

> Abne SoL It was a snporstitious custom of the heathen in thdr 
hTions, to give the go6B all their diflerent names, fbr fear of omitting any 
that nigbt ba more agreeable. In tbis piece, tbe bojs call the son cf 
Latoaa, F!if^, aime Sol, ApoUo, Amur, demraa areii, acceplui novem 
ConuEtiu; and the girls call the sister of this god, Ililhya, Lvdna, Gent- 
taii», tidtrwn regina, Diarta, and Luna. Fbah. 

' Lege mariM. In the year 736, Augustus made a law de inanUaidi» 
ordiT^nis, in Trhich he proposed rewards to those who would many, and 
punl^ments or fines for those who continued ia cehbaoy. In 182, lio 
majle another law, \tj the conaula Marcus Papiua Mntilus, and Quintua 
Poppeus SecunduB. The first called the Julian, the aecond, the P^ian 
law. They were ipteuded to restore to Rome the number of her citizens 
which had been greatly lessened during tbe civil wars; yet Augustus 1H1I7 
revived tttose ancient ordinances which expressly commanded the ceoson 

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tho itated rsTolution of a hundred and ten years* may bring 
back the hymns and the games, three times by bright day- 
light restored to in crowds, and as often in the welcome 
nigbL Aad you, ye fetal sisters, infallible in having pre- 
dictod what is eitablished, and what the settled order of 
things preserves, ndd propitious fates to those already past 
Let the earth, fertile in fniits and flocks, present Ceres with a 
sheafy crown : may both salubrious rains and Jove's air cher- 
ish the young blood! Apollo, mild and gentle with your 
sheathed arrows, hear tho suppliant j^onths : moon, thou 
homed queen of stars, hear tlio virgins. If Rome be your 

not U> permit tbe citizens to Lve unmarried. CaiSia ease prohU/eitio. 
Tbose laws as eqaallf regarded men as women ; but the cboir of virgins 
naturally mealioa that sex alone of wbich the; themselves are a part 

' Undatoa deaa per aAwa. Tberewerosmong tboI^tiDstwoopUjioos 
concorniDg the duration of an age. Before the time of Augustus it 
reckoned exactly a hundred years, and tbe SibylUno Oracle, which then 
Bubaistad, mariced precisely the same number. The fifth secular gomes 
gave occasion to a new opinion. Augustus, persuaded that it was of great 
ooosequence to tbe state not to omit the celebration of this resttval, gave 
order to the Sibylline priests to consult at what time of tbe current nge it 
ought to ba celebrated. Tbey perceiving that it had been ueglected in 
705, under Julius Cseasr, were anxious to find some way of coveriiijj 
their fault, that they might not be thought answerable for all the calami- 
ties of the dvil war Three things made their imposture easy. They 
were the sole depositaries of the SibylliuQ books ; the world was not in 
general agreed upon the year by which the games should be regulated ; 
audit was divided even upon the date of those in wliich they had formerly 
been celebrated. The priests did not fkil to take advantage of this 
diversity of sentimenta to flatter AmzobIos, by persuading him that this 
secular year regularly fell upon 13T, To this purpose they published 
commsntariea upon the Sibylline books, in which they proved by the very 
wordsof the Sibyl (though with soma alteration from their ancient read- 
ing), that Bu age ought to contra a hundred and ten years^ and not a 
hundred oaly. 

The authority of these priests being inflnitely respected by a super- 
stitious people, instantly put this falsehood into the place of truth, with- 
out any person daring to contradict it, since it was forbidden, npon pain 
of death, to commnnicaCc the books of tho Sibyls. The Prince, charmed 
to see that the gods had reserved to hia time the celebration of so groat a 
^tival, immediately supported the imposture by his edicts to authorize 
the discovery of the priests. Whether Ja flattery or credulity, the poet 
gave himself to the public opinion ; and indeed he must, with a very bad 
grace, have followed the ancient system in a poem composed by order of 
Auguatua, and sung in the presence of that prince, and of the priests in 
the name of the whole empire. Fran. 

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work, and the Trojan troops arrived on tlio Tuscan shore (the 
part, commanded [by your oracles] to change their- homes 
and city) by a successful navigation : for whom pious .Maess, 
surviving his country, secured a free passage uirough Troy, 
burning not by hia treachery, about to give them more 
ample poaseasiona than tliose that were left behind. 
ye deities, grant to the tractable youth probity of manners; 
to old age, ye deitJea, grant a pleasing retirement; to the 
Roman people, wealth, and pri^ny, and every kind of glory. 
And may tue illuatrioua iasue of Auchises and Venus, who 
worshipa you wilh [offerings of] white bulla, reign superior 
to the warring enemy, merciful to the prostrate. Now the 
Parthian, by sea and land, dreads our powerful forces and the 
Roman aies : now the Scythians beg [to know] our com- 
iniiuds, and the Indians but lately so arrogaiit. Now truth. . 
imd peace, and honor, and ancient modesty, and neglect«d 
virtue dare to return, and happy plenty appears, with her horn 
full fo the brim. Phccbus, the god of augury, and con- 
spicuous for hia ehinning bow,' and dear to the nine muses, who 
by his salutary art sooflies the wearied limbs of the body ; if 
lie, propitious, surveys the Palatine altars — may he prolong 
the Roman a&oirs, and the happy state of Ituly to anothee 
lustrum, and to an improving age. And may Diana, wl'^o 
possesses Mount Aventine and Algidus, regard the prayers of 
the Quindecemvirs,' and lend a gracious ear to the auppUeationa 

* Atiffur et /aigerUe, etc Torrentiua obaervea that Horace has col- 
lected, ia these tool varsea, tbo four principal attributea of ApoUo; 
divinatioQ, archeiy, music, and pliyaic 

= Qmndeeim viroruTn. The oraclea, whicli concerned the Roman em- 
pire, were anciently put into a coffer of alone, and deposited in » anbter- 
raDeona place in tbe Capitol. They were intrusted to the care.of two 
priests colled duumviri $aerorum, whose piincipal business was to con- 
sult thoae books oo all occasions of the state, but never witbout a decree 
of the senate. Tarquin added two officers, maintained at tbo public ex- 
pensa, to assist and watch over them in their ministry. In 388, were 
added eight persona to the two first, and the nnmber was afterward 
augmented to SHeen, from whence they were colled Decemviri and 
Quindeceraviri, which last name remained when they were multiplied to 
forty, and even to aiity. Caesar added a sixteenth, and the senate per- 
mitted Augustus to enlarge the number as he pleased. 

The C^itol having- been burned in 671, the Sibylline bocks perished 
In the Are. Sylla rebuilt the Ciqjitol, and the senate sent three deputies 
into I(mia to collect whatever verses of the Sibyl Eritria traditioD had 
preserved, which were almost a thousand. Augustus gathered in Aaia 

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of the youths. W«, tbo choir taught to siiig the praises o( 
Fhnbas and IHans, bear home with us a good and cert^n h<^ 
that Jupiter, and all the other gods are aensible of these our b^>- 

IGoar, in tbe iaUnda of the ^geao Sea, in Africa, and the colotiiea <^ 
Italf , more Uuui two thousand volumea of Qreek and Latin veiBea, whicb 
paued under tito nsme oT the Sibyls ; and having bumed all that tba 
lirieets Judged ^>oaTpbal, be jdaced them, with those which he toc^out 
of the Cqiitol, nnderthe base of Apollo's Bt^ue, in the temple whicbha 
had erected to that god. Thef continued in this state to the times oT 
Honoring who ordered Stilicon to bum all that remained of theae pre- 
tended ^fUine verses, f uir. 

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That aJi, bid eapecidlly Ou coveloas, IMnk Oteir <nm amdiiion Ou hardat 

How comes it to pass, MeeeenaB, that no one lives content 
with his condition, whether reason gave it him, or chance 
threw it in his way ; [but] prases those who follow different 
puisuite ! "0 happy meruiants T says the soldier, oppressed 
witli years, and now broken down in his limbs throueii excess 
of labor. On the other ude, the merchant, when the south 
winds toss his ship [cries], " Warfare is preferable ;" for 
why ! the engagement is begmi, and in an insttmt there comes 
a speedy death or a joyfdl victory. The lawyer prdsea the 
fermer'a state when the client knocks at his door by cock- 
crow. He who, having entered into a recognizance,' is dragged. 
from the country into the city, cries, " Those only are happy 
who live in the city." The otier instances of this kind ftney 
are so numerous) would weary out the loquscioua Fabius ;* 
not te keep you in suspense, hear to what an issue I will bring 
the matter. If any ^d should say, " Lo 1 I will effect what 
you desire ; you, that were just now a soldier, shall be a mer- 

1 DaUs vadibui. In some suit, the &nner had given bail for his at- 
tendance on tbe day appointed tbr the tnai. The persons wbo had bound 
themselves as bail far his appearance, are called vadea. The derivation 
«rtbe word is supposed to be vadere, 'to go," because the person who 
procures such peisons to answer for his appearance, is allowed to go na- 
til the dsj of the trial. MiDACL. 

* It is not known to whom Horace alludes. The Scholiast ioibnas ns 
that there was a knight of this name, a partisan of Pompey's, who had 
written some treatises on the doctrines ot the Stoics, and who, he says, 
argncii sometimes with Horace tor the truth of the principles of that sect 

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cbant ; you, lately a kwyer [shall be] a farmer. Do ye depart 
one way, and ye another, having exchanged the parts [you are 
to act in life. Hov now I Why do you stand t" They are un- 
willing ; and yet it is in their power to be happy. What reason 
can be assigned, but that Jupiter should deservedly distend both 
his cheeks in indignation, and declare that for the future he 
wiU not be so in lulgent as to lend an ear to their prayeis ! But 
further, that I may not run over this in a laughing manner, 
like those [who treat] on ludicrous siibjectfl (though what hin- 
ders one being merry, while telling the truth ? as good-natured 
teachera at first give cakes to their boys, that they may be will- 
ing to learn their first rudiments: raillery, however, apart, let 
us investigate serious matters) He that turns the heavy glebe 
with the hard plowshare, this fraudulent tavern-keeper,' the sol- 
dier, and the sailors, who dauntless run through every sea, pro- 
fess that they endure toil with this intention, that as old men 
they may retire into a secure resting-place, when once they hav« 
gotten together a sufficient provision. 

Thus the little ant (for she is an example), of great industry, 
carries in her mouth whatever she is able, and adds to the heap 
which she piles up, by no means ignorant and not careless for 
the future. Which [ant, nevertheless], as soon as Aquarius 
saddens the changed year, never creeps abroad, hut wisely makes 
use of those stores which were provided beforehand : while 
neither sultry summer, nor winter, fire, ocean, sword, can drive 
you from gain. You surmount cvmv obstacle, that no other 
man may be richer than jourselt Wnat pleasure is it for you, 
trembling to deposit aa immense weight of silver and gold ia 
the earth dug up by stealth J* Because, if you should lessen it, 
it may be reduced to a paltry farthing. 

But unless that be the case, what beauty has an accumulated 
hoard ! Though your thrashinjr-floor should yield" a hundred 
thousand bushels of com, your helly will not on that account 
contain more than mine : just as if it were your lot to cany on 
your loaded shoulder the basket of bread among slaves, you 
would receive no more [for your own share] than he who bore 

s .ffii;=:"cuiuBniodi quotidie rides." Obklll See the other com- 
. * i. e. to Wdo it. 

» literally, "wear," "rub." There is an eUipseoT "a," osiaSat. L 
B; il 4, 293; Yirg. JEa. vL 31, MCaul. 

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no part of the burthen. Or tell me, what ie it to the purpose 
of that man, who lives within the compass of nature, whether 
he plow a hundred or a thousand acres t 

" But it is still delightful to take out of a great hoard." 

"While you leave us to take as much out of a moderate sloro 
why should you extol your granaries, more than our cora- 
bastets i As if you had occasion for no more than a pitcher or 
^lasa of water, and should say, " I had rather draw [so muchj' 
iTom & great river, than the very same quantity from this little 
fountain." Hence it comes to pass, that the rapid Aufidus 
carries away, together with the bank, such men as an abundance 
more copious than what is just delights. But he who desires 
only so much as is sufficient, neither drinks water fouled with 
tlie mud, nor loses bis life in the waves. 

But a great majority of mankind, misled by a wrong desire, 
cry, " No sum is enough ; because you are esteemed in pro- 
portion to what you possess." What can one do to such a 
tribe as this! Why, bid them be wretched, since their inclina- 
tion prompts them to it. As a certain persou is recorded [to 
have lived] at Athens, covetous and rich, who was wont to de- 
Bpise the talk of the people in this manner : "The crowd hiss 
me ; but I applaud myself at home, as soon as I contemplate 
my money in my chest." The thirsty Tantalus catches at the 
streams, which elude his lips. Why do you laugh ! The nrme 
changed, the tale ia told of you. You sleep upon your bags, 
heaped up on every side, gaping over them, and are obliged lo 
abst^n from them, as if they were consecrated things, or to 
amuse yourself with them as you would with pictures. Are 
you ignorant of what value money has, what use it can afford ! 
Bread, herbs, a bottle of wine may be purchased ; to which 
[itecessaries], add [such others], m, being withheld, human na- 
ture would be uneasy with itself. What, lo watch half dead 
witii terror, night and day, to dread profligate thieves, fire, and 
your slaves, lest they should run away and plunder yon ; is this 
delightful ! I should always wish to be very poor in possessions 
held upon these terms. 

But if your body should be disordered by being seized with 
a cold, or any other casualty should confine you to your bed, 
have you one that will abide by you, prepare medicines, entreat 
the physician that be would set you upon your feet, and restOTj. 
yoa to your children and dear relations 1 


143 8ATIBES OF HORACE. book v. 

Neither vour wife, nor your son, deaireB your recovery ; al! 
TOUT neighoors, acquaiaUucea, [nay the very] boys and girls 
hate you. Do you wonder that no one tendera you the affec- 
tion which you do not merit, since you prefer your money to 
every thing else t If yon think to retain, and preserve sa friends, 
the relations which nature gives you, without taking uiy pains ; 
wretch that you are, yon lose your labor eijually, as if any one 
should train an ass to be obedient to the rein, and run in 
the Campus [Martius], Finally, let there be some end to 
your search ; and, as your riches increase, be in less dread of 
poverty; and b^n to cease from your toil, that being ac- 
quired which you coveted ; nor do as did one Umidius (it is 
no tedious story), who was so rich that he measured his money, 
■o sordid that he never clothed himself any better than a 
slave ; and, even to his last momenta, was in dread lest want of 
bread should oppress him : but his freed-woman, the bravest 
of all the daughters of Tyndarus,* cnt him in two with a 

" What therefore do you persuade- me to t That I should 
lead the life of Nnvius, or in such a manner as a Nomen- 

You are going [now] to make things tally, that are contra< 
dictory ia Uieir natures.* When I bid you not be a miser, 1 
do not order you to become a debauchee or a prodiral. 
There is some difference between the case of Tan^ and lus 
BOD-in-law ViselUus : there is a mean in things ; finally, then 
are certain boundaries, on either side of which moral rectitude 
can not exist, I return now whence I digressed. Does no 
one, after the miser's example, like his own station, but rather 
praise tiiose who have different pursuits ; and pines, because 
nis neighbor's she-goat bears a more distended udder; nor 
considers himself in relation to the greater multitude of poor ; 
but labors to surpass, first one, and then another! Thus the 
licher man is always an obstacle to one that is hastening [to 
be rich] : as when the courser whirls along the chariot, dis- 

* As if she bad been another GjtsemDestrs, the daughter <rf''iyidarus, 
who cut off her hoaband'a head with an ax. FbrUsrima J^tuiariilanan, 
trom the accusative of T^ndarit, viz. J^ndarida, comes the noun 3\ n- 
darida, Tundarida, ete. Watson. 

' Pugnanlia fnmiilms adversis meaoa what we ei:pre8a by "dionietri- 
catly opposite." The aUusion in froiUibua adversia is to a fight between 
bolls or nuns, who butt each other with their heads. M'CAti. 

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nuEsed from the place of Rtardog ; the charioteer presses upon 
those horses which outstrip his ovn, despising him that is left 
behind coming on among the last. Henc« it is, that we rarely 
find a man who can say he has lived happy, and content with 
his past life, can retire from the world like a satisfied gnesL* 
Enough for the present : nor will I add one word more, lest 
you ^ould snspect that I bace plundered the escrutoire of tha 
blear«yed CrispiDUS. 

Sad men, lofttn Ihey avoid eaiain vices, fall into iAeir opposiU fxtrema. 

The tribes of female fiute-plajers,* quacks, Ti^ants, mimics, 
blackguards ;'° all this set is sorrowiul and dejected on ac- 
count of the death of the »nger Tigellius ; for ne was liberal 
Eiward them]. On the other hand, this man, dreading to 
called a spendthrift, will not give a poor friend wherewithal 
to keep off cold and pinching hunger. If ^ou ask him why 
he wickedly consumes the noble estate of his grandfather and 
fether in tasteless gluttony, buying with borrowed money all 
sorts of dainties ; ho answers, oecause he is unwilling to bo 
reckoned sordid, or of a mean spirit ; he is praised by some, 
condemned by others. Fufidius, wealthy in lands, wealthy in 
money put out at interest, is afr^d of having the character 
of a rAe and spendthrift. This fellow deducts 6 per cent 
interest" from the principal [at the time of lending]; and, 

' or. Lucret. ilL 951, " Cur non, ut plenaa vita conviva rooedia?" Sea 

» AnJMbaiantm, "WomeQ who played on the flute." It is derived 
from a Syrian word ; fbr the people of that country usually excelled in 
this metrumODt. Pharmacopoia is s geaeral name for all who deal in 
spices, eesence, and perfumes. ToBB. 

>o Mtndid, mima, baHatronei. The priests of IsLs aad Cybele were 
beggars by profession, and under the vaolof religion were oltei gniKy of 
the most criminal excesses. Mimte were players of the moat debaached 
aod dissolute kind ; and balalronti, in gener^ signifies all sconadrels, 
bnSbons, and psrsaiteB, who bad tbeir name, according to the old com- 
mentator, fVom Serrilioa Balatro. Batatrmia Aoc geaia amm, tor mnn* - 
lux baiaiTimvm geiuti, is a remarkable sort of construction. Torb San. 

<' Qu»uu hie aqnti mtrcedes exaeeat. Capdia the principal; fn«riMS 
the iDterest ; and aeatcan is to deduct tbe interest befin^ the money is 

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tU SATIBK8 0? EOBAGE. book I 

tlie mon desperate in Lis circnmstaiices any ooe k, the more 
severely be pinche* him : be bants out tbe names" of young 
fellowB tbat bare just put ob the toga virilis under rigid fa- 
tben. Who does not cry out, Boveieign Jupiter I nben he 
bai beard [of such knave^] t But [you will saj, peihapa,] 
thia man expends upoo himself in proportion to his gain. 
You can hardly believe hon little a friend be is to himself: 
insomuch diat the &ther, vhom Terence's comedy introduces 
as living miserable after be bad caused his eon to run away 
from him, did not torment himself worse than he Notv if 
an^ one should ask, " To what does this matter tend !" To 
this : while fools shun [one sort of] vices, they fall upon their 
opposite extremes. Malthinus walks with his garmenls trail- 
ing upon the ground ; there is another droll fellow who [goes] 
with them tucked up even to his middle ; Rufillus smells like 
perfume ilaeH Gorgoniua lito a he-goat. There is no mean. 
There are some who would not keep company with a lady, 
unless her modest garment perfectly conceal her feet. An- 
other, agwn, will only have such as take their station in a 
filthy brothel. When a certain noted apark came out of a 
stew, the divine Cato [greeted] him with this Ecntence : 
" Proceed (says be) in your virtuous course. For, when 
once foul lust has inflamed the veins, it is right for young 
fellows to come hither, in comparison of their meddling with 
other men's wives." I should not be wiUing to be commended 
on such terms, says Cupiennius, an admirer of the silken vail. 

Ye, that do not wish well to the proceedings of adulterers, 
it is worth your while to hear how they are hampered on all 
sides ; and that their pleasure, which happens to Inem but sel- 
dom, is interrupted with a great deal of pain, and often in tbe 
midst of veiy great dangers. One has thrown himself head- 
long from the top of a house ; another has been whipped al- 
Icnt For instance, Fufidiua lent a hunilied pounds, and at tlie end of 
tbe moDtb the txirrower was to pay him a hundred and five, principal 
and interest But he gives ooly ninety-five pounds, deducliog; bis inter- 
cat when he lends the money, which thus increases in twenty months 
equal to his principal The laws allowed a usury called usura ctniesima, 
which doubled tbe capital sum in a, hundred montba, or eight years and 
four months. Tors. 

" JTomwia aedatia: Hbmen signifies a debt, because (he borrower 
gave the lender a note of acknowledgment lor tbe money, signed with 
bis name. The laws forbade lending money to minora, or pertons undra 
the age of twenty-five years. Cruq. 

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ai.1. n. BATIBES OF HORACK 145 

most to death : a third, in his flight, has &]len into a merdleai of thieves : another haa paid a fine, [to avoid] cwrporal 
unishment] : the lowest servants have treated another wit^ 
a vilest iadigoitios. Moreover, this misfortune happened to 
a certain person, he entirely lost his maohood. Every body 
Biud, it was with justice : Galba denied it 

But how much safer is the traffic among [women] of the 
second rate I I mean the freed-women : after which Sallus- 
tiuiS is not less mad, than he who commits adultery. But if 
he had a nund to be good and generous, as iar as his estate 
and reason would direct him, and as far as a man might be 
liberal with moderation ; he would give a sufficiency, not 
what would bring upon himself ruin and iufamy. However, 
he hugs himself in this one [consideration] ; this he delights 
in, this he extols : "I meddle wiLli no matro:." Just as Mar- 
Bfflus, the lover of Origo," he who gives his paternal estate 
and seat to an actress, says, " I never meddle with other men's 
wives." But you have witb actresses, you have willi common 
strumpets : whence your reputation derives a greater per- 
dition, than your estate. What, is it abundantly suffident to 
avoid the person, and not the [vice] which is universally 
noxious f To lose one's good name, to squander a fathers 
effects, is in all cases an evil What is the difference, [then, 
with regard to yourself] whether you sin with the person of 
a matron, a maiden, or a prostitute V 

Villius, the son-in-law of Sylla (by this tide alone he was 
Diisled), suffered [for his commerce] with Fausta an adequate 
and more than adequate punishment, by being drubbed and 
stabbed, while he was shut out, that Longarenus might 
enjoy her within. Suppose this fyoung man's] mind had ad- 
dressed him in the words of his appetite, perceiving such 
evil consequences : " What would you have ! Did I ever, 
when my ardor was at the highest, demand a woman de- 
scended from a great consul, and covered with robes of 
quality r What could he answer? Why, "the girl was 

" Origo. There lived in Horace's time three fiunous ooDrtesans at 
Boms; Origo, Cytberis, and Arbuscola, all comedians. The poet was 
probably aoquaint^d wltb them alL We are at a loss to know who 
Uarsieiia was. Watson. 

'< Ibgald. Aprostituto. Women of this kind were obliged, ' wlien 
they went abnmd, to wear a robe, called laga. The resemblance of it to 
the robe worn by men, made it a mark of infamy. FaiN. 

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146 SATIRES OP HORAOB. booxi. 

mmug from an illnstriotis father." But bov much better 
tliingi, and how di&rent from this, does nature, abounding 
in stores of her own, recommend ; if you would only make a 
proper use of them, and not confound what is to be avoided 
with that which is desirable I Do you think it is of do cod- 
seqnence, whether your distresses arise from your own fault 
or from [a r«al deficiency] of things t Wherefore, that you 
may not repent [when it is too late], put a stop to your pur- 
suit after matrons ; whence more trouble is derived, than you 
can obtain of enjoyment ftwm success. Nor has [this par- 
ticular matron], amid her pearls and emeralds, a softer thigh, 
or limb» more delicate than yours, d^rinthus ; nay, the pros- 
titutes are frequently preferable. Add to this, that [the pros- 
titute] bears about her merchandize without any varnish, and 
openly shows what she has to dispose of; nor, if ^o has aught 
more comely than ordinary, does she boast and make an os- 
tentation of it, while she is industrious to conceal that wbich 
is offensive. This is the custom with men of fortune : when 
they buy horses, thy inspect them covered : that, if a beauti- 
ful forehand (as oft«D) be supported by a tender hoof, it may 
not take in the buyer, eager for the bargain, because the back 
ia handsome, the head little, and the neck stately. This they 
do judiciously. Do not you, [theref(>ro, in the same mannen 
contemplate the perfections ot each [tiur one's] person wi^ 
the eyei of Lynceus ; out be blinder than Hypsiea, when you 
survey such parts as are deformed, [You may cry out,] " O 
what a leg ! 0, what delicate arms !" But [you suppress] that 
she is low-hippod, short-waisted, with a long nose, and a 
eplay foot. A man can see nothing but the &ce of a matron, 
who carefully conceals her other charms, unless it be a C&tia. 
But if you will seek after forbidden charms (for the [circum- 
stance of their being forbidden] makes you mad after them), 
surrounded as they are with a fortification, many obstacle* 
will then be in your way : such as guardians, the sedan, 
dressers, parasites, the long robe banging down to the ankles, 
and covered with an upper garment ; a multiplicity of cir- 
cnmstances, which will lunder you from having a fiiir view. 
The other throws no obstacle in your way ; through the 
silken vest you may discern her, almost as well as if ene was 
naked ; that she has neither a bad leg, nor a disagreeable foot, 
you may survey her form perfectly with your eye. Or would 

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you choose to have a trick put upon you, and your money ex- 
torted, before the goods are shown yon ? [But perhaps you 
will sing to me these verses out of CallimachuB/j As the 
huntsman pursues the hare in the deep snow, but disdains to 
touch it when it is placed before him : thus sings the rake, 
and applies it to himself; my love is like to this, for it passes 
over an easy prey, and pursues what flies from it. Do you 
hope that griei^ and uneasiness, and biUer anxieties, will be 
expelled from your breast by such verses as these t Would it 
not be more profitable to inquire what boundary nature has 
affixed to the appetites, what she can patiently do without, 
and what she would L^m9nt the deprivation of, and to separate 
what is solid Irom what is vain J What ! when thirst parches 
your jaws, are you solicitous for golden cups to drink out of} 
What ! when you are hungry, do you despise every thing hue 
peacock and turbott When your passions are inHamed, and a 
common gratification is at hand, would yon rather be con- 
sumed with desire than possess it ? I would not : for I love 
such pleasures as are of easiest attainment. But she whose 
language is, " By and by," " But for a small matter more," " If 
my husband should be out of the way," [ia only] for pelit- 
maitres: and for himself, Fhilodemus says, he chooses her, 
who neither stands for a great price, nor delays to come when 
she is ordered. Let her be fair, and straight, and eo &r decent 
as not to appear desirous of seeming fairer than nature has 
made her. When I am in the company of such an one, she. is 
my nia and iEgeria; I give her any name. Nor am I ap- 
prehensive, while I am m her company, lest her husband 
should return from the country ; the door should be broken 
open ; the dog should hark ; the house, shaken, should re- 
sound on all sides with a great noise ; the woman, pale [with 
fear], should bound away from me ; lest the m^d, conscious 
[of guiltl, should cry out, she is undone ; lest she should be 
in apprenension for her limbs, the delected wife for her por- 
tion, I for myself; lest I must run away with my clothes all 
loose, and bare-footed, for fear my money, or my person, or, 
finally my character Bhouid be demolished. It is a dreadful 
thing to be caught ; I could prove this, even if Fabius were 
the judge. 

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Ttes ia a fault common to all singers, that among tlieir friends 
they never are iocliDod to taug when they are asked, [but] 
nnaeked, they never demat. Tigeiliua, that Sardinian, had 
this [fault]. Had GKsar, who could have forced him to com- 
pliance, besought him on account of his lather's friendship 
and his own, ne would have had no success; if he himself 
was disposed, he would chant lo Bacche over and over, from 
the beginning of an entertainment to the veiy conclusion of 
it ;" one while at tLe deepest pitch of his vdce, at another 
time with that which auBwers to the highest string of the 
tetrachord." There was nothing unifonn m that felfow ; fre- 
quently would he nin along, as one flying from an enemy ; 
more frequently [be walked], as if he bore (In procession] tie 
sacrifice of Juno :" he had often two hundred slaves, often 
but ten : one while talking of kings and potentates, every 
thing that was magnificent; at another — "Let me have a 
three-le^;ed table, and a cellar of clean salt, and a gown which, 
though coarse, may be sufficient to keep out the cold.'' Had 
you given ten hundi'ed thousand sesterces" to this moder- 

" literally, " from ths egg to the apples," fbr eggs were serred flrst, 
•ad fhilt lost. 

M The fbur strings of this InstrumeDt were called by the Qreeks uirurq 
(tt^tmnti), napvituT^ (mAsuma), Uafxti^n} (jpeite ima), and fi^ni (Ima). 
niiia the nimma vox, which answers to the highest sOing, stanma 
chorda, must signify the bass, and ima vox, that striliea the same tone 
with ima chorda, must signify the treble. " — F. iSutnmd should be joined 
with chordd, not voce. O. *CilartL Bentley remarks Uiat this is a (b- 
rensio word, and can not be put for Ttcilartt, besides that eitare loBacchi 
ia not Latin. He reada iltrarei. The Librarians wrote ter, eer, and Ur, 
in a compendious forra thus ' over its natural place, thus the word 
ITARET, with a circumBex over I, and hence CITARET. iCCAUL. 

" This grave and solemn march, although a rclif^oua ceiemony in its 
place, yet, when improperiy used, is affectation and impertlneoee. The 
solemnity of this procession became a proverb, 'Hpaioi> fiaSiitiv, to tnaik 
like Juno. ToRR, 

" The «wfffrJium. among the Romans was about II. 169. of our money, 
and cont^neid a thousand juteriitl Their manner of reckoning was this: 
when a numeral noun agreed in gender and number with aetlertiiui, it 

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ta.m. 8ATIBES OF HOKACB. 149 

ate man wbo was content with huch nnall ntattera, m five 
days' time there would be nothing in his bags. He sat up at 
nights, [even] to day-light ; he snored out all the day. Never 
was there any thing bo inconsistent with itself Now some 
TOrson may say to me, " What are you ! Have you no &ultB f 
Yes, otheiB ; but others, and perhaps of a less culpable na- 

When Menios raited at Novius in his absence : " Hark ye,' 
says a certain person, "are you ignorant of yourself! or do 
you think to impose yourBelf upon us a person we do not 
know !" " Aa for me, I forgive myself" quoth Mienius. This 
is a foolish and impious self-love, and worthy to be sdgma- 
tized. When vou look over your own vices, winking at £em, 
as it were, with sore eyes ; why are you with regard to those 
of your frienda as sharp-fflght«d as an eagle, or the Epidaurian 
serpent f But, on the o4er hand, it ia your lot that your 
friends should inquire into your vices in turn. [A certain 
person] is a Uttle too hasty in hb temper; not well calculated 
Ktr the sharp-witted sneers" of these men : he may be made 
a jest of because his gown hangs awkwardly, he \st, the same 
time] being trimmed in a very made manner, and his wide 
shoe hardly sticks to his foot. But he is so good, that no 
man can be better; but he is your friend: but an immense 
genius is concealed under this unpolished person of his. Fi- 
nally, sift yourself thoroughly, whether nature has ori^nally 
sown the seeds of any vice in you, or eveu an ill habit [has done 
it]. For the fern, fit [only] to be burned, overruns the ne- 
glected fields. 

Let us return from our digreesion. As his mistress's dis- 
agreeable failings escape the blinded lover, or even give him 
pfeaaure (as Hi^iia's wen does to Balbinus), I could wish that 

denoted precisely so many eatertii, as dtcem laftrtii, jnst Hi many ; but 
if the noun was joined to tbe genitive pinral of ateirlHU, it signiOed so 
man; thousands ; as decern teaUrtium, ten thousand «esietiii. If the ad- 
verb numeral was joined to the genitive plural, it denoted so man/ hun- 
dred thousand, as deeiea aeaieriium, ten bundled thousand aalertii, 
Scnnetimes they put tbe adverb by itself and sometimee added tbe nu- 
meral uoon to it ; as m this place deda ceitlerta, leu hundred leaterUa, or 
ten hundred thousand tealeriiL Watsok. 

'* AeuHa narilnii, is the direct oppo^tiou to «oriiu» obeii), which the 
LatinB used to signify a, stupid person, who wants the natural qaidcness 
and sharpneaa of the senses. San. 

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we «rred ia thu manner wtth r^^ard to fneDdahip, and that 
▼iTtoe bad affixed a reputable appellation to sncb an error. 
And aa a btlier ought not to contemn hU son, if he has any 
defect, in the anme manner we ought not [to contemn] our 
frieod. The &lber calls his squiutiD^ boy, a pretty leering 
it^ue ; and if any man has a Uttle despicable brat, such as the 
abortive Sisyphus** fonnerly was, he calls it a sweet moppet : 
this [child] with distOTted legs, [the lather] in a foiKUing 
Toice calls one of the Vari ; and another, who is club-footed, 
he calls a Scaurus." [Hina, doee] this fnend of yours live 
more sparingly than ordinarily t liet him be styled a man of 
frugality. Is another impertinent, and apt to brag a little t 
He requires to bo reckoned entertaining to his friends. But 
[another] ia too rude, and takea greater liberties than are fit- 
ting. Let him be esteemed a man of sincerity and brave^. 
Is be too fiery, let him be numbered among persons of epint. 
This mctlt'id, in my opinion, both unites menda, and pre- 
serves tliem in a state of union. But we invert the very vir- 
tues thomsclves, and are desirous of throwing dirt upon the 
untainted vessel. Doee a man of probitv live among us! he 
is a person of singular diffidence ;" we give him the name of 
a dull and fat-headed fellow. Does ^is man avoid every 
snare, and lay himself open to no ill-deeigning villain ; since 
we live amid such a race, where keen envy and accusations 
are flourishing! Instead of a sensible and wary man, we call 
him a disguised and subtle fellow. And is any one more open, 
[and less reserved] than usual in such a degree as I oiften 
have presented myself to you, Msecenas, so as perhaps imper- 
tinently to interrupt a person reading, or musing, with any 
kind of prate t We cry, "[this fellow] actually wants com- 

*° Si^buB. Tba dwarf of Mark Antony the triumvir. He was of a 
diminutivo stature, scsrcely two feet high, but of a verj acute wit ; 
whence be ^t the namo of Sisjphua ; for Sisjphus was so Kuarksble 
S}T hia dexterity and cumiiDg, that Siayphi arte» came to be a proverb. 

>' BaSnitil Scauram. Rutgeraius ioformB us that all these names, 
iSfroAo, Fixtaa, Pullof, FartM, and Scattrvt are Bumames of illUBlnous 
Roman families, from whence fathers gave them to their children, to 
cover tbeir deformities with names of digoitj. This is one of many 
beauties in the original, which it ia impossible to preserve in a transla- 
tion. Fban. 

M But Orelli inlerprels " demisaus" to mean " abjectus, pusiUi anioiJ," 
See his Judicious note. 

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mon sense."" Alas ! how indiscreetly do ve ordain a seven 
law against ourselves ! For no one is bom without vices ; he 
is the beet man who is encumbeied with the least. When my 
dear friend, as is just, wei^s nay good qualities against my 
bad ones, let him, if he is willing to be beloved, turn the scale 
to the majority of the fonner (if I have indeed a majority of 
good qniuitiesj, on this condition, he shall be placed in the 
same balance. He who requires that his friend should not 
take ctfeuee at his own protuboTances, will excuse his friend's 
little warts. It is fair that he who entreats a pardon for his 
own faults, should grant one in his turn. 

Upon the whole, forasmuch as the vice anger, aa well as 
others inherent in foolish [mortals], can sot be totally eradi^ 
cated, why does not human reason make use of its own 
weights aud measures ; and so punish faulta, as the nature of 
the thiug demands ! If any man should punish with the cross 
a slave, who being ordered to take away the dish should 
gorge the half-eaten fish and warm sauce ;" he would, among 
people in their senses, be called a madder man than Labeo." 

M Ownmtmf »en»a-plani eartt He wants on understanding that dia- 
tingnishea the commOD decencies to be observed in addressing: the great 
Sudi was the Qmmwai aenma among the Romans, for wliich we have 
no expression in Englisb. SU in beaeficio senaus communis : lempta, 
toeum, persoTua etteivit. Seneca. Qua vertanlur ia ctmiueludiiK rti- 
puttiea; in sensu hominum communi, in aatarii, in moribaa, compra- 
A^ndcnda eate vraUrri pulo. Cicero de Oral«re. Bemt. 

Lord Shaftesbarr explains the «enma communu in Jnvenal, Oiai tma» 
tcAicA r^/arde the common good, Oie pubtic vietfare. A sense, according to 
the ingenious author, seldom found among the great 
Baro enimferme * 

» The second part of the satire begins here. The Stoics called all 
vicious people Jools, aiultaa. Quaienvs is Q^uently used by our poet tbr 

nunn, since ihat. Fran. 

> ApttJum^tw Hgurrieritjtu. Horace, to excuse the slave, BayH, that 
me sauce was jet warm, tepiAim, and therefore more tempting. For the 
same reason, he says, the &sh was halfeaten. Cruq. 

» Labeoae inaanior. The Scholiasts, commentators, and interpreters 
tell na, that Horace means Marcus AntiBtius Labeo, who, in the spirit of 
liberty, frequently opposed Augustus in the senate, when he attempted 
any idCerationa in the stata Agiiaiiat earn iiberiaa ntmtti et vecors, Rays 
Sensca ; which might justly render him odious to Augustus. But what- 
ever respect our poet had for his emperor, yet we never find that ha 
treats the patrons of lihert; with outrage. Nor can we wall imagine that 

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1S2 BATIBB8 OF HOBACE. book l 

How nmcb more irrational and heinous a crime is thia 1 YoQr 
friend has been gwltj of a Btnal) error (wliioh, imlem you 
toT^ve, you OQght to be reckoned a boot, ill-^iatared fellow), 
you hate and avoid him, as a debtor does Ruso ;" who, wheu 
the woeful calenda come upon the uufortuoate man, unless he 
procures the interest or capital by book or by crook, is com- 
pelled to hear his miserable stories with his neck stretched 
out Uke a slare. [Should my friend] in his liquor water my 
couch, or has he thrown down a jar carved by the hands of 
Evander :" shall he for this [trifling] affiur, or becMise in bis 
hunger he has taken a chicken before me out of my part of 
the dish, be the less agreeable fHend to met [If so], what 
could I do if he was guilty of theft, or had betrayed tilings 
committed to him in confidence, or broken hie word. They 
who are pleased [to rank all] faults nearly on an equality, are 
troubled when they come to the truth of the matter : sense 

he dare thus emellj brand a maa of LaI>eo'B abilities, riches, power, and 
emplopoents in the state ; to whom Augnstua himself offered the consal- 
ship. Probably the person hero intended was publicly known to have 
been (fuilty of Bome folly not unlike what our poet roeationg. Dr. Bentley 
hath found a Labienus ia the time of Augnskis, whose character fits this 
passage extremely well ; and whom he ^arefbre recommends to a place 
bi the text Pban. 

I' The altemative with Rnsowaa either rain troai extortico, or misery 
fh>m listening to his writings. If bis wretched creditors could not pay 
him, then they were condemned to hear him read his woAs. Perhaps 
some might prefer con»dering hiiloriia used in the sense of " tedious 
nanat^an," end reibr it to the long schedule of the items in his account. 
*AvdiL Asinios Follio first introduced the custom of redting one's own 
compositions st Borne. M'Caul. 

» Evandri maaibua triitcm. — T&molutn, e/^tUum, fabrieaiam. Stat 
radioa trivere rotis, Tirgil. Viirum aiiiid flain figwatur, aiiud tomo 
teritur, Flin. But as the Latins used tbe word ioreamata to signify any 
woi^ either turned or wrought by the chisel, because they were made 
by the same workmen, Sbds&d thinks the poet probably means, that 
this plate was engraved with an instrument. The Scholiast tells usi 
that this Evander was carried from Athens to Rome by Mark Antony, 
and that he excelled in sculpture and engraving. They who believe that 
Horace means king Evander, would not only persuade us that this plate 
must have been preserved bo man^^ ages by some nncoromon good for- 
tune, bat have unluckily placed a vessel so valuable on a monarch's 
table, whose palace was a cottage, his throne a chair of ordinair wood, 
his bods made of leaves or rushes, and his tapesMy the skins of beasts. 
Rea inopa Evandrus luAAaL Dr. Bentley denies that the Latins ew 
used trUum to signify caiaban, peifeclam, and ho therefore recommeiTS 
lorlum to us, on the authority of an ancient manuscript FRUi. 

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and moraUtjr are against theni, and utility iteel^** Ibe mothei 
almost of right and of equity. 

When [rude] animals, thej^ crawled" forth upon the first- 
formed earth, tiio mute and dirty herd fought with their naila 
and fists for their acorn and caves, afterward with cluba, and 
finally with arms which experience had forged : till tbej found 
out words and names, by which they ascertaiaed their language 
and sensations ; thenceforward they began to absl^n from war, 
to fortity towns, and establish laws : that no person should be 
a thie^ a robber, or an adulterer. For before Helen's time 
there existed [many] a woman who was the dismal cause of 
war : but those fell oy unknown deaths, whom pursuing un- 
certain Tenery, as the bull in the herd, the strongest slew. 
It must of necessity be acknowledged, if you have a mind to 
turn over the leras and annals of the world, that laws were 
invented from an apprehendon of the natural injustice [of 
mankind]. Kor can nature separat« what is unjust from what 
is just, in the same manner aa she distinguishes what is good 
from ita reverse, and what is to be avoided from that which 
is to lie sought : nor will reason persuade men to this, that he 
who breaks down the cabbage-stalk of his neighbor, sins in 
as great a measure, and in the same manner, as he who st«ala 
by night things consecrated to the gods. Let there be a set- 
tled standard, that may infiict adequate punishments npon 
crimes; lest you should persecute any one with the homble 
thong, who is only deserving of a slight whipping. For T am 
not apprehensive, that yon should correct with the rod one 
that deserves to suffer severer stripes; since you assert that 
pilfering is an equal crime with highway robbery, and direaten 
that you would prune off with an undistinguishing hook little 
and great vices, if maukind were to give you the sovereignty 
over them. If he be rich, who is vrise, and a good snoe- 

» Horace oodeavors to prove, acoonjing to the doctrine of Epicoms, 
that justice and iojuBtice arise oalj frosa laws, and that laws have no 
other fbundatioD than public utility, by which he means tho hsppincaa of 
dvil iodetj. On the contrarj', the Stoics aaeerted, that justice and in- 
justice have tbeir first principles in nature itself and the Qrat appearance 
of i'eason in the mind of man. Sxv. 

1 Ciim prorepseranL This expression is extremely proper for the 
BTstem of Epicurua, who believed that the first race of men rose out of 
the earth, in which they were formed by a mixture oT heat and moia. 
(ure. ToBB. 


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]t(4 BATIRB8 07 ROKACK. bookl 

roak», Rod «tone handsome, and a king, why do you wish for 
that which jon are poaaeaaed of ) You do not - andentaad 
what Ghryappoa," uie father [of jour sect], says: "The 
wise man never made himaelf shoes nor sUppera : neverthe- 
leta, the wiae man la a shoemaker." How bo ! In the same 
manner, though Heimc^nes be silent, he is a fine singer, 
notwithstanding, and an excellent mudcian: as the aubtle 
[lawyer] AlfenuB,!' after every instrument of his calling was 
thrown aside, and his shop shut up, was [still] a buber ; 
(huB is the wise man of all trades, thus is he a king. O great- 
est of great kings, the wa^ish bop pluck you by the beard ; 
whom unleas you restrain with your ataS, you will be jostled 
by a mob all about you, and you may wretchedly bark and 
burst your lungs in vain. Kot to be tedious : while you, my 
king, shall go to the farthing balL, and no guard ehail attend 
you, except the absurd Crispinus; my dear friends will both 
pardon me in any matter m which I shall foolishly o^nd, 
and I in turn will cheerfully put up with their faults; and, 
thou^ a private man, I shall live more happily than you, 

The poets EupoJis, and Cratinus, and Aristophanes, and 
others, who are authors of the ancient comedy," if there was 

" Chrjaippua ia here pleaaaatl; colled father, because be waa the Qrst 
who explained, in this absurd manDer, these excellent precepls of Zeno, 
which teach ua, that wisdom sals above kings; and that the throne she 
offers to us is preferable to that of the greatest moiiarchs. Torb. 

'» AlfenuB Varus, a ahoeaiaker of Cremona, who, growing out of con- 
ceit with his employment, quitted it, and came to Rome ; where attend- 
ing the lectures of Seriius Sulpicius, a celebrated professor of Uw, be 
made so great profidence in that science, that he bood came to be 
esteemed oneoftbe ablest lawjersofhis time, and bis nanie often occurs 
In the Pandects. He was afterword advanced to the highest bonora of 
the empire; (br wefiodhmicoBaulinOieyearorthecitjTBB. Ed. DireL. 

^ GimuBdia priica. Comedy was divided into ancient and modem. 
In the first, the subject and the names of the aclora wore real In the 
•eoond, the drama was formed on hiatoiy, but the names of the actors 

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any person desening lo be distjngnished for being a rascal or 
a tbie^ an adulterer or a cut-throat, or in any shape an in- 
&mouB fellow, branded him with great freedom. 'Upon these 
[models] Luciliua entirely depends, having imitated them, 
changing only tbeir feet** and numbers ; a man of wit, of great 
keeuieBB," inelegant in the composition of verse : for in this 
respect he was feulty ; he would often, as a great feat, dictate 
two hundred verses m an hour, standing in 3ie same position.' 
As he flowed muddily, there was [always] something that one 
would wish to remove ; he was verbose, and too lazy to en- 
dure the fetigue of writing — of writing accurately : for, with 
regard to the quantity [of his worts], I make no account of 
it. See ! Crispmus diallenges me even for ever so little a 
wager." Take, if yon dare, take your tablets, and I will take 
mine ; let there be a place, a time, and persons appointed to 
see &ir play ; let ua see who can write the most, llie gods 
have done a good part by me, since they have framed me of an 
himible and meet disposition, speaking but seldom, briefly : 
but do you, [Crispinus,] as much as you will, imitate air 
which b shut up in leathern bellows, perpetually puffing 
till the fire softens the iron. Fannius is a nappy man, who, 
of his own accord, has presented his manuacnpta" and pic- 
ture [to the Palatine Apollo] ; when not a soul will peruse 

were inventeil In the tliird, both the aloiy and actors were formed hj 
the poet Ed. Duel 

" Jfirioiia pediias. Enniusand Pacuvius had written salires before 
Lacilius. He was rather tbe resturer than JnvenWr of this kind of 
poetiy; he fbrmed himself upon Ihe Grecian comedy, and only changed 
the measure of his verse, heiameter for iambioa. Fean. 

w Enim>c(<e noro. Of a sagacious, penetrating genius, to diacoror the 
follies of manklad, and of an agreeable, spirited, raillery, to turn thorn 
into ridicule, /icefti». Such is the character of Luoilius ty Cicero and 
QmntH'iaa perarhanum &nd abandi salia. Fbait. 

" Jfinimo me provocai. We should underataud pigtiore or preHo; 
nor is there any instance in the Latin tongue ofprouocaT-e jniaimo digilo, 
as the comiaentators exploit it. A man well assured of the truth ot 
what he asserts, is willing to bet a l&rge wager against a amoll one, 
which Horace means by minimo provacare. Sak. 

" Uttro ddaiie eapsis. When a poet was generally esteemed, his 
works and his statue were placed in the public libraries. But Horace 
congratulates Fannius upon the happiness of finding a method of immor- 
talizing his name, without being obliged Co pass through the usual forms. 
Ha thought he had a right lo take an honor, which ho was conscious he 
deserved, and perbaps imagined it a proper manner of resenthig tlio 
poblie insensibility of his merit Dac. Sa». 

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my wridnga, who am afraid to rehearse in public, on this 
accouDt, because there are cerlaiD persons who can by no 
means relish this kind [of satiric wnting], as there are very 
many who deserve censure. Single any man out of the crowd ; 
he either labors uuder a covetous dispositdon, or under wretched 
ambition. One is mad in love with married women, another 
with youths ; s third tibe splendor of silver captivates : Albius 
is in raptures with brass ; another exchanges uis merchandize 
from the rising sun, even to that with which the western re~ 
gions are warmed : but he is burred headlong through dan- 
gers, as dust wrapped up in a wbirlwind ; in dread lest he 
should lose any thing out of his capital, or [in hope] that be 
may increase his store. All these are afraid of verses, they 
hate poets. " He has hay on >js bom," [they ciy ;] avoid him 
at a great distance : if he can but raise a laugh tor bis own 
diversion, be will not spare any friend : and whatever he has 
once blotted upon his paper, be will take a pleasure in letting 
all the boys and old women know, as they return fiYnn the 
bakehouse or the lake." But, come on, attend to a few words 
on the other side of the questioiL 

In the first place, I will except myself out (tf the number 
of those I would allow to be poets : for one must not call it 
sufficient to tag a verse : nor if any person, bke me, writes in 
a style bordering on conversation, must you esteem him to be 
a poet. To him who has genius, who has a soul of a diviner 
cast, and a greatness of expression, ^ve the honor of this ap- 
pellation. Od this acount some have raised the question, 
whether comedy be a poem or not ; because an animated spirit 
and force is neither in the style, nor the subject-matter: 
bating tbat it diSera from prose by a certjun measure, it is 
mere prose. But [one may object to this, tbat even in comedy] 
as inflamed father rages, because hia dissolute son, mad after 
a prostitute mistress, refiises a wife with a large portion ; and 
(wnat is im egregious scandal) rambles about drunk with 
flambeaux by day-light Yet could Pomponius, were his 
father alivo, near less severe reproo&! Wherefore it is not 

^' Jhnmin haiel in eomu. A inetapborical eTpression taken from a 
custom or tj'ing bstj on the horns or a mischievoua bull. Tbe laws of the 
Twelve Tables ordered, that tbe owner of the beaat should pay for what 
damages it comioitted, or deliver it to the persoo iojured. " Si quadrupa 
paaperiem &xit, dominus sarcilo, noxuve dedito. Ed. Dubl. 

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suffiaent to vrite verses merely in proper language; which, 
if you take to pieces, any person may storm in the eame man- 
ner as the father ia the play. If from these verses which I 
writ« at this present, or thorn that Lucilius did formerly, yon 
take away certain pauses and measores, and make that word 
which was first in order hindermost, by placing the latter 
[words] before those that preceded [in the verse] ; you will not 
discern the IJmbs of a poet, when puUed in pieces, in the same 
manner as you would were you to transpose ever so [these linee 
of £nnius] ; 

So far of this matl«r ; at another opportunity [I may in- 
vestigate] whether [a comedy] be a true poem or not : now I 
shall only consider this point, whether this [satiric] kind of 
wriUng be deservedly an object of your suspicion. Sulcius 
the virulent, and Gaprius hoarse with their maliguancy, walk 
[openly], and with their libels too |in their hands] ; each of 
them a singular terror to robbers: but if a man lives honestly 
and with clean hands, he may despise them both. Thougn 
you be like highwaymen, Coelus and Byrrhus, I am not [a 
common accuser], like Caprius and Sulaus ; why should you 
be afr^d of me? No shop nor stall holds my books, which 
the sweaty hands of the vulgar and of Hermc^nes llgellius 
may soil. I repeat to nobody, except my intimates, and that 
when I am pressed ; nor any where, and before any body. 
There are many who recite their writings in the middle of 
the forum ; and who [do it] while bathing : the closeness of 
the place, [it seems,] gives melody to the voice. This pleases 
coxcombs, who never consider whether they do this to no 
purpose, or at an unseasonable time. But you, says he, de- 
light to hurt people, and this you do out of a mischievous 
disposition. From what source do you throw ihia calumny upon 
me! Ia any one then your voucher, with whom I have lived! 
He who backbites his absent friend ; [nay more,] who doea 
not defend, at another's accusing him; who affects to raise 
lond laughs in company, and the reputation of a funny fellow 
who can feign things he never saw ; who can not keep secrets ; 

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ha is ft dangerooB man : be yon. Soman, aware of him. Yon 
may crflen see it [even in crowded companiee], where twelre 
Mip together on tEree couches ; one of which shall delight at 
anjr rate to atpene the rest, esoeot him who AirniBhes the 
bMh ;** and him too afterward in nia liquor, when trnlh-tell- 
iag Bacchus opens the secrets of his heart Yet this man 
seems entertaining, and well-bred, and franl to yon, who are 
an enemy to the malignant: but do I, if I have langhed be- 
cause the fop Rufillns smells all pfo^umes, and Goi^nius, 
like a he-goat, appear invidioaB and a snarler to you! 
If hj any means mentioa happen to be made of the thefts 
of Petillius Ci4>iloliDUs" in your company, you defend 
him after your manner: [as thus,] Capiiolinus has had me 
for a companion and a friend from cbQdhood, and being k^ 
plied to, has done many things on my account : and I am glad 
that he lives seciue in the dty; but I wonder, notwithstand- 
ing, how he eraded that sentence. This is the very essence 
of blacl malignity," this is mere malice itself: which crime, 
that it shall oe far remote from my writings, and prior to 
them from my mind, I promise, if I can take upon me to prom- 
ise any thing sincerely of myself If I shall say any thing 
too freely, if perhaps too ludicrously, you must favor me by 
your indulgence with this allowance. For my excellent 
&ther inured me to this custom, that by noting each particular 
vice I might avoid it by the example [of others]. When he 
exhorted me that I should live thriftily, frugally, and G0Dt«ut 
with what he had provided for me ; don't you see, [would he 
«ay,] how wretchedly the son of Albius lives t and how mis- 
erably Barrusf A strong lesson to hinder any one from 
squandering away his patrimony. When ho would deter me 
from filthy fondness for a light woman : [take care, stdA he,] 
that you do not resemble Secfanus, That I might not follow 
adulteresses, when I could enjoy a lawM amour : the character, 

*" Prater sum, gniprabtt ayuom. Their boat, who provided watertbr 
the batb ; a, part of their entertainment to express the whole. 8ah. 

<i The andont commentHt«r tells us, that Petillius was governor of the 
Capitol, from whence he was called Capitolinus; that he was accused of 
stealing a Ko'tlBn crown of Jupiter, and acquitted by the bvor of Aa- 
gUBtua. If there be any truth in this story, for we know not where the 
commentator found it, he wsa more prolmblj samamed tnxa bis tbel^ 
than tor bis government of the CapitoL Fran. 

*' Properly, "the juice of the cuttle-flah." 

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cried be, of Trebonius, who was caught in the &ct, is by no 
means creditable. The philoeopber may tell you the reasons 
for vhat is better to be avoided, and what to be pursued. It 
is sufficient for me, if I can preserve the morality traditional 
from my forefathers, and keep your life and reputation in- 
violate, BO long as you stand in need of a guardian : so soon 
as a^ shall have strengthened your limbs and mind, you will 
Bvim without cork. lu tbis manner he formed me, as yet a 
boy: and whether he ordered mo to do any particular tbing: 
Tou have an authority for doing this : [tben] he instanced 
some one out of the select magistrates :" or did he fori)id me 
[any thing] ; can you doubt, [asys he,] whether this thing be 
dishonorable, and against your interest lo be done, when this 
person and the other is become such a burning shame for his 
bad character [on these accounts] ? As a neighboring 
funeral dispirits aick glutlors, and through fear of death forces 
them to have mercy upon themselves ; so other men's dis- 
graces often deter tender minds from vices. From this [method 
of education] I am clear from all such vices, as bring destruc- 
tion along with them : by lighter foibles, and such as you may 
excuse, I am possessed. AJid even fipom these, jjerhaps, a 
maturer e^, the sincerity of a friend, or my own judgment, 
may make great reductions. For neither when I i m in bed, 
or in the piazzas, am I wanting to myself: this way of pro- 
ceeding is Detter ; b^ doing such a tntng I shall live more 
comfortably ; by tbis means I shall render myself agreeable to 
my friends ; such a transaction was not clever ; wnat, shall I, 
at any time, imprudently commit any thing like it ? These 
things I resolve in silence by myselt When I have any 
leisure, I amuse myself with my papers. This is one of those 
lighter foibles [I was speaking of] : to which if you do not 
grant your indulgence, a numerous band of poets shall come, 
which will take my part (for we are many more in number)," 
and, like the Jews, we will force you to come over to our 
numerous party. 

" Unum exjviiicibus seleciis. Tho most smiQetit, and of greatest au- 
tfaoritj, among (be senatcrial order ; an order called Saneiuaimus. Tor- 
rentiuH thinks the poet meana the judges, whom the ptsstor chose out of 
all degreea of tho msgiatracy, to relieve and assist him in bis office. Sut 
this good father would probabl? have taken bis examples out of a more 
numerous, yet not less venerable order. Dac. 

" SeeOrellL 

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Haviho left miglily Rome, Aiic.ia received mo in but a mid- 
dlioff inn : HelioJoras the rhetorician, moat learned in th» 
Greek Inn^niage, was lay fellow-traveler : thence ne pro- 
ceeded to Forum-Appl, stuffed with Bailors and surly land- 
lords. This stage, but one for better travelers'* than we, 
b«ng laggard we divided into two ; tLe Appian way is less 
tiresome to bad travelers. Here I, oa account of the water, 
which was moat vile, proclaim war against my belly, noting 
not without impatience for my companions while at supper. 
Now the night was preparing to spread her shadows upon the 
earth, and to display the constellations in the heavens. Then 
our slaves began to be liberal of their abuse to the watermen, 
and the watermen to our slaves. "Here bring to." "You 
are stowing in hundreds ; hold, now sure there is enough." 
Thus while the iare is paid, and the mule &st«ned, a whole 
hour is passed away. The cursed gnats, and frogs of the 
fens, drive off repose. While the waterman and a passenger, 
well-soaked with plenty of thick wine, vie with one another 
in singing the praises of their absent mistjesses : at length 
the passenger being fatjgued, begins to sleep ; and the lazy 
waterman ties the baiter of the mule, turned out a-grazing, to 
a stone, and snores, lying flat on his back. And now the day 
approached, when we saw the boat made no way; until a 
choleric fellow, one of (he passengers, leaps out of the boat, 
and drubs the head and sides of both mule and waterman with 
a willow cudgel. At last we were scarcely set ashore at the 

« Oclaviua and Antonj, both aspiring to the sovereign power, must 
neceaaarilf have had frequent quarrels and disBSDaions. Tbeir reconcili- 
ations were of short contiauance, because the; were in^cere. Among 
maaj neii^Ciations, undertaken by their commoa friends to recondle 
them, history nientionB two more particukrlj. The first in the year 714, 
the other in 717, wbieh was concluded by the mediation of Octsvia, an^ 
to which our poet was carried by Maecenas. 8:lH. 

" Friecinclig. Prepared for traveling, i. e. aiiita pracKtcta, "to those 
who were better travelers than we were." iVtietncluf means having 
the dress tucked ap, that it may not prevent exertion. Hence usad Tot 
"diligent," "active." CompareSat iL 8, 10. U'Caul. 

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fouFth hoar." We wash our faces and hands in thy water, O 
Feronia. Then, hariog dined, we crawled oa three miles; 
and arrive under Anxur, which is built upon rocks that look 
white to a great distance. Miecenas was to come here, as was 
the excellent Cocceius, both sent embassadors on matters of 
great importance; having been accustomed to reconcile friends 
at Tariance." Here, having got sore eyes, I was obliged to . 
use the black ointment. In the mean time came Mncenaa, 
and CocceiuB, and Fonteius Capito" along with them, a man 
of perfect polish,** and iutimate with Mark Antony, no man 

Without regret we passed Fundi, where Aufidius Luscus 
was pnetor," laughing at the honors of that crazy scribe," 

" Qaartd hard. The Romans during more than ibur hundred Euid Bttj 
jears never had namee for the hours of the day. The twelve tables di- 
vided it into three parts; tlie riaiug bud, the setting suu, and mid-d^. 
The hours of night and day were equal in number through the year ; but 
from spring to autumn, those of the day were longer than those of Che 
night, and fium September to March the hours ofnight were longest. Sak. 

<^ Three particulars demonstrate that this journey was to the second 
conference at Brundusium. Fonteius is here joined with Meecenas and 
Oocceius, hut was not engaged in the Srst. The poet says, that MEecenaa 
and Coflceius bad been before employed to reconcile OctaTius and An- 
tony, sotiH, which must necessarily suppose the flrsl congress in 114, 
when Horace had not been introduced to Miecenaa. Hassoh. 

*> Fonteius Capito. Probably the tiitber of bim who was consul two 
years before the death of Augustus. He was here of the party of An- 
tony, and Miecenas on the side of Augustus. Cocceius was by way 
of an arbitistor between them, to settle their differences. Smno foxiai 
oA mufuem, a complete man, every way accomplished. Watsos. 

'^ AdMngvx^nfaciMahom^. This QguraCivo expression is taken from 
engravcra in wood or marble, who used to pass tlieir nail over the work, 
to know whether it were well polished. Erasmus. 

" Pn^oTt. The colonies and municipal towns had the same dignities 
and magistracies as the city of Rome ; senators, pnelors, qnaatora, and 
sdilea. It is difficult to know whether Fundi had a pnetor cbosen out 
of her own citizens, or whether be was sent from Kome; ToBB. 

<i Priania Bcribct. Horace calls these robes pramia acriba, because 
the secretaries in colonies and municipal towns were frequently raised to 
the dignity of the prgelorahip. The toga pralexia was a robe bordered 
with purple. Tunica clatata was a vest with two borders of purple hud 
like a lace upon the middle or opening of It, down to the bottom ; in such 
a manner as that when the vest was drawn close or buttoned, the two 
purple borders joined and seemed to be but one If these borders were 
large, the vest was called lalu3 clawa, or Itmicalatidavia; iflbey were 
narrow, then it was named angtutia clavus, tunica angtaticlavia. Theee 
two sorts of tunics wore worn to distinguish the magistrates in theu' em- 

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102 BATtEBS OF HOBA.OK bookl 

his pnetexta, Uticlave, and pan of incense." At our next 
stage, being weary, we tarry in the city of the Mamurtae," 
Mureiut complimenting us with his house," and Cupiio with 
bis kitchen. 

The next day arises, by much th« mo«t agreeable to all : 
for Plotius, and Varius, and Vitvil met us at Sinuessa ; Bonis 
more candid ones than which the world never produced, nor 
is there a person in the world more bound to them than my- 
self. Oh what embraces, and what transports were there I 
While I am in my senses, nothing can I prefer to a pleasant 
friend. The village, which is next adjoining to the bridge of 
Campania, accommodated us with lodging [at ni^t]; and 
the public officers" with such a quantity of fuel sjtd salt as 
they are obUged to [by law]. From this plac« the mnlee de- 
posited their pack-saddles at Capua betimes [in the morning]. 
Mecenas goes to play [at tennis] ; but I and vir^l to our re- 
pose : for to play at tennis is hurtful to weak eyes and feeble 

From this place the villa of Cocceius, situated above tha 
Caudian inns, which abounds with plenty, receives us. Now, 
my muse, I beg of you briefly to relate the eugagem^ ot be- 
tween the buffoon Sarmentus and Messiua Cicimis; and from 
ploTmentB, aud were ver^ different fhim those worn by the common 
people, tunieaio p<^)eSo, which were closed before, and without any pur- 
ple border. They were called Anwcn rwte. San, 

s» iVmuBjue ftottJJum, A pan for incense,- O^quentlj carried before 
the emperors, of those poGseesed of the sovereign authority. Ed. Ddbl. 

^t The stroke of satire here is of a delicate and almost imperceptible 
malignity. Formise, the city which Horace means, belonged to tlie La- 
mian bmily, whose antiquity whs a great honor to it But our poet 
paraphrases it by the nune of a peraon, who was bom there, and who 
has made his country liuuous in a very different manner. Mamurra was 
a Roman knight, who was infamous for bis n^ine, luxury end debauch- 
ery. CB,tu]laa ca]]» hiia Decocior Formiamu, Torb. 

" Uurona was brother of Licymnia, married afterward to Mttcenaa. 
He was condemned to deaUi for conspiriag against Augustus. Variua 
and Plotius Tacca were the persona to whom Augustas intrusted the 
correction of the jEneid, after Virgil's death, but with an order not to 
make any additions to it FaiN. 

" Parochi Before the consulship of Lucius Posthumius, the magis- 
trates ofRome traveled at the public chaise, without being bnrtheusomo 
to the provinces. Atlerward commissaries were appointed in all the 
great roads to defi^y all expenses of those who were employed in the 
business of ttie state. Thoy were obliged, by the Lex Julia de prooindi^ 
to provide lodging, fire, salt, hay, straw, etc. ED. DVBL. 

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-what aaceetiy descended each began the contest The illu»- 
trioiia race of Messiua — Oscan ;" Sarmentus's mistress is still 
alire. Sprung from such families as these, they came to the 
combat. First, Sarmentus: "I pronounce thee to have the 
look of a mad horse." We laugh ; and Messiua himself [says], 
*' I ac<«pt your challoDge :" and wags his head. " O P' cries 
he, " if the horn were not cut off your forehead, what would 
you not do ; nnce, maimed as you are, you bully at such a 
rate '!" For a foul scar has dtsgraoed the left part of Mes- 
sius's bristly forehead. Cutting many jokes upon hia Cam- 
panian disease, and upon his face, he desired nim to exhibit 
Polj^hemus's dance :" that he had no ocoaaon for a mask, 
or the tragic buskina. Cicimis [retorted] lai^ly to these: 
he asked, Mether he had consecrated his onain" to the house- 
hold eonia according to hia vow ; though he was a scribe, [he 
told Dim] his mistress's property in nim was not the less. 
Lastly, he asked, how he ever came to run away; such a lank 
toeager fellow, for whom a pound of com [a-day] would be 
ample," We were so diverted, that we contmued that supper 
to an unusual length. 

Hence we proceed straight on for Beneventum ; where the 
bustling landlord almost burned himself, in roasting some lean 

>' Oaci is a nominative case, and we most cooHtrue it, Osd sunl daram 
genai Mani. The Oscans gave to Uesaiua bis illustrious birtb, a suffi- 
cient proof that he wsa an inikmous scoundrel The people who iahstv 
itod tliia part of Campania were guilt? of ereorable debaucheries. Sas. 

*' SaUaret till Cydopa. The raillery is founded on his gigantic sizo, 
and the villaiuous gash that Mosaius bad on bis forehead, which made 
him look so lil<e a Folypbemus, that he might dance the part without 
buslfins or a mask. To dance a Cyclops, a Glaucus, a Ganymede, a Leda, 
was an expression ibr representing their story by dancing. Ed. DDBC 

s» Don^aetjamne caleaam. Only the vilest slaves, or those who worked 
to the country, were chained. It appears by an epigram of Martial, that 
when they were set at liberty, they consecrated their chains to Saturn, 
because EJaver; was unknown under his reign. But when Messiua asks 
SarmentuB whether bo had dedicated his chain to the Dii Lares, he would 
reproach him with being a fugitive. These gods were invoked by trav- 
elers, because they presided over highways, from whence they were 
called vialef. They themselves were always represented like travelers, 
as if they were ready to leave the house ; sticdncii. Or Sarmeniua was 
a slave so vile that he knew no other gods, but those who stood on the 
hearth, and which it was Ilia employment to keep clean. D*c. 

<" By the laws of the twelve tables, a slave was allowed a ponnd of 
com a day. " QiU earn vinctum habeUt, Lbraa fiuria in (Ues dato." 

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1S4 8ATIBE8 OF HORA.CR. book t 

thrufiliea: for, the fire falling through the old kitchen [floor], 
the spreading flame made a great prt^resa toward the highest 
part of the roo^ Then you might have seen the hungry ^esta 
and frightened slaveg snatching tbeir sapper out [of the flamesi, 
and every body endeavoring to extinguish the fire. 

After this Apulia began to discover to me her well-known 
mountains, which the Atabulus scorches [with his blasts] : 
and through which we should never have crept, unless tlie 
neighboring village of TrivicuB had received us, not without 
a smoke that brought tears into our eyes; oocasioned by a 
hearth's burning some green boughs with the leaves upon them. 
Here, Ule a great fo<u as I was, I w^t till midmght for a 
deceitful mistress : steep, however, overcomes me, while medi- 
tating love; and disagreeable dreams make me ashamed of 
myself and every thing about me. 

Hence we were bowled away in chaises twenty-four miles, 
intending to etop at a little town, which one can not name in 
a verse, but it u easily enough known by description." For 
water is sold here, though the worst in the world; bat 
their bread is exceeding fine, inasmuch that the weary traveler 
is used to carry it wilbogly on his shoulders; for [the bread] 
at Canusium is gritty ; a pitcher of water is worui no more 
[than it is her^: which place was formerly built by the 
valiant Diomedes. Here Yarius departs dejected from his 
weeping friends. 

Hence we came to Rubi, fitti^cd : because we made a long' 
journey, and it was rendered still more troublesome by the 
rains. NeJ-t day the weather was better, the road worse, 
oven to the very walla of Barium that abounds in fish, hi 
the next place ^nada, which [seems to have] been built on 
troubled waters, gave us occasion for iests and laughter ; for 
they wanted to persuade us, that at this sacred portal the in- 
cense melted witnout fire. Ihe Jew Apella may believe this, 
not L Tor I have learned [from Epicurus], that the gods dwell 
in a state of tranquillity ; nor, if nature effect any wonder, that 
the anxious gods send it from the high canopy of the heavens. 

Bnmdusium ends both my long journey, and my paper. 

" Thia (as tho SchoL informs us) was Equotuticum. The reason that 
K can not occur ia dactylics ia, tha.t the first is abort, anA tho next two 
■;Uabl«e long, while the peaaltimate ia short Were tho first long, there 
could be DO difficulty about introducing it. M'Caul. 



Of true KobUitg. 

Not Mtecenas, though of all the Lydiana" that ever inhab- 
ited the Tuscan territoriee, no one ia of a nobler femilj than 
yourself; and thou^ you havo ancestors both on father's and 
mother's side, that in timeB past have had the command of 
mighty legions ; do you, as the generality are wont, toss up 
your nose at obscure people, such as me, who had [only] a 
freed-man" for my father : since yon affirm that it is of no 
c^Miaequence of what parents any man is bom, so that he be 
a man of merit. Tou persuade yourself, with truth, that before 
the dominions of Tullius, and the reign of one bom a 
slave, frequently numbers of men descended &om ancestors 
of no rank, have both lived as men of merit, and have been 
distinguished by the greatest honors ; [while] on the other 
hand Lcevinns, the descendant of that &mous Valerius, by 
vhoee means Tarquinius Superbos was espelled &om his 
kingdom, was not a farthing more esteemed [on account of 
his family, even] in the jnt^ment of the people, vrith whose 
dispodtion you are well acqu^nted ; who often foolishly be- 
stow honors on the unworthy, and are &om their stupidity 
slaves to a name : who are struck with admiration by inscrip- 
□ODS and statues. What is it fitting for us to do, who are far, 
very far removed from the vulgar [in our sentiments] ! For 
grant it, that the people had rather confer a dignity on L»- 
vinns than on I>ecius, who is a new man ; and the censor 

** Lydomm quicguid Elruaeos. Ur. Dacior, upon the aii^le autborit}' 
of DioDTBiua HalicamaeseiwiB, asserts that tha Tuscans wera not de- 
scended ttom the Ljdiang. Yet Horace had a poetical right to the tra- 
dition, as it was generallj believed, althoaj^h it might possibt; be Iklse. 
Bnt it is Bupported bj Herodotus, TuUy, Virgil, Strabo, Serrius, Pliny, 
Taxatus, TeUeioa, Seneca, Plutarch, Valerius Uaximus, SIUbb, and Sta- 
tins. San. 

<3 Id the first ages of the republic libertimu and tiberlifilmt had the 
same significatioD ; but some time belbre Cicero, as wa ara informed hy 
SoetoniDs, the manner of speaking was changed, and fi^im thence libertui 
and lB)eitiB,u3 were used as aynonymotiB terms to sigoi^ a man who was 
nude free. San. 

** Licaisse. Leevinua is here pleasantly set up to auction, fat Uoen 
was the term used to signify raising the sale. Toer. 

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Appius would expel me [the seiiAte-hougel, because I «as 
not sprung from a sire of distinction : and tEat too deservedly, 
inasmucli as I rested not coatent in my own condition. Bat 
g^oiy drags in her dazzling car the obscare as closely fettered 
8S those of nobler birth. What did it profit you, TuUiua, 
to resume the robe that you [were forced] to lay aside, and 
become a tribune [again] ) £nvy increased upon you, which 
had been less, if you had remained in a private station. For 
when any craiy fellow has laced the middle of his leg with 
the sable buskins," and has let flow the purple robe from his 
breast, he immediately hears : " Who is this man t Whose son 
is he r* Just as if there be auy one, who labors under the 
same distemper as Barrus does, so that he is ambitious of being 
reckoned handsome ; let him go where he will, he excites cun- 
outy am )n^ the girls of iDquiring into particulars ; as what 
sort of fiu!^, leg, foot, teeth, hair, be has. Thus he who engages" 
to his citizens to t^ce care of the city, the empire, find Italy, 
and the sanctuaries of the gods, forces every mortal to be so- 
licitous, and to ask from what sire he is descended, or whether 
he is base by the obscurity of his mother. What f do you, 
the son of a Synia," a Dama, or a Dionysus, dare to cast 
dowa the citizeoa of Rome from the [Tarpeian] rock, or de- 
liver them up to Cadmus [the executioner]! But, [you may 
say,] my colleague Novius sits" below me by one degree: 
for he ii only what my father was. And therefore do you 
esteem yourself a Panlua or a Messala I But he (Novius), if 
two hundred carriagea and three funerals were to meet in the 
forum, could make noise enough" to drown all their boms and 
trumpets :'* this [kind of merit] at least has its weight with us. 

" The buskins worn by aonatora were black, and aooietimea white; 
tho3s of the cnrule magistrates mere red. Tore. 

^ Sic qui promittU, This was the fbrm of a senator's and a loagiB^ 
trate'a oath. CatTQ. 

" Syj-i, Dairue, out Diimysi. These three names are the names of 
slaves. Danvas or Dama is a contmctioQ of Demeiriia ; Syria ia fm- 
quentlf the alavo in cooiedj. Dac. 

■3 S&del is a laiv word, properly applied to aenators, prastors, and other 
judges when aeated on the Iwnch, in eieoution of their ofBoe. Torb. 

" Magna sonainL Fuaerals usually passed throi^h the forum, aod 
Novius could pronounce an oration with a voice of thunder. Horace 
lauglia at his being made a senator for an accomplishment which couli] 
only entitle him to the oKce of a crier. D*c. 

7v Trumpets were used at the funerals of men, and flutes at those of 

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Not I retam to myself, who am descended from a fpeed- 
man ; whom every body nibbles at, as being descended from a 
freed-maQ. Now, because, M»cenas, I am a constant guest of 
jours ; but formerly, because a Roman legion was under my 
command, as being a military tribune. This latter case is dif- 
ferent from the fonner: for, though any person perhaps might 
justly envy me that post of honor, yet could he not do so with 
regard to your being my friend ! especially as you are cautious 
to admit such as are worthy ; and are far from having any sin- 
ister ambitious views. I can sot reckon myself a lucky fellow 
on this account, as if it were by accident that I got you for my 
friend ; for no kind of accident threw you in my way. That 
best of men, Virgil, long ago, and after him, Varius, told you 
what I was. When first I came into your presence, I spoke a 
few words in a broken mimner (for childish hashfulness hin- 
dered mo from speaking more) ; I did not tell you that I was 
the issue of an illustrious father : I did not [pretend] that I rode 
about the country on a Satureian horse, but plainly what I real- 
ly was ; you answer (as your custom is) a few words : I depart : 
ftnd you re-invite me afler the ninth month, and command me 
to bo in the number of your friends. I esteem it a great thing 
that I pleased you, who distinguish probity from baseness, not 
by the illustriousness of a father, hut by the purity of heart and 

And yet if my disposition be culpable for a few faults, and 
those small ones, otherwise perfect (as if you should condemn 
moles scattered over a beauUtiil skin), if no one can justly lay 
to my chai^ avarice, nor sordidness, nor impure haunts; ii^ 
in fine (to speak in my own praise), I live undefiled, and in- 
nocent, and dear to my friends ; my father was the cause of 
all this : who though a poor man on a lean farm, was unwill- 
ing to send me to a school under [the pedant] Flavius, where 
great boys, sprung from great centurions, having their sat- 
chels and tablets swung over their left arm, used to go with 
money in their hands the very day it was due ;" but had the 

children. The twelve tables confiQeil thom to ten in uumber. " Dcccro 
tibiciDes adhibeto, hoc plus ne Tacito." En. Dudl. 

" Octanie r^erenia iililna cera, Tbe Romans had manj stated times of 
paying their achoolmaster)i. Some ImaitiDO it was at ths boginiiin^, others 
st the end of the year, oral tho grand restival of Minerva, called cfuin^aa- 
Irof, OT guinquatria, which began the IStb of March. But the JfinmniJ 
ttion given to the master was not a salary, but a voluntary prcsont. 

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108 SATIEBS OF HORACE. book l 

■pint to bring me & child to Rome, to be tAnght those arte 
whicb any Bmiuui knight and senator can teach his own chil' 
dren. So that, if any person had conadered my dress, and 
the elaves who attended me in so populous a city, he would 
> have concluded that those expenses were auppUed to me out of 
I some hereditary estate, i^e himself of all others the most 
/ ^thful guardian, was constantly about eveiy one of my pre- 
ceptors. Why ^ould I multiply words! He preserved mo 
chaste (which is the first honor of virtue) not only from 
every actual guilt, but Ukewise from [every] foul imputation, 
nor was be mnid lest any should turn it to uia reproach, if T 
shoold come to follow a budness attended with small profits, 
in capadty of an auctioneer, or (what he was himself) a tax- 
gatherer. Nor [had that been the case] should I have com- 
plained. On this account the more praise is due to him, and 
Rom me a greater degree of gratitude. As long as I am in 
my senses, I can never be ashamed of such a i^er as this, 
and therefore shall not apolt^ze [for my birth], in the man- 
ner that numbers do, by affirming it to be no &ult of theirs. 
Hy language and way of thin^ng is fiir difierent from such 
persoDs. For if nature were to m^e us from a certain term of 
years to go over our past time again, and [suffer us] to choose 
other parents, such as every man for ostentation's sake would 
wish for himself; I, content with my own, would not assume 
those that are honored with the ensigns and seats of state ; 
[for which I should seem] a madman iu the opinion of tiie 
mob, but in yours, I hope a man of sense ; because I should 
be uBwilliug to Hust^u a troublesome burden, being by no 
. means used to it For I must [then] immediately set about 
I acquiring a lai^r fortune, and more people must be compli- 
' mented ; and this and that companion must be taken along, 
so that I could neither take a jaunt into the country, or a jour- 
ney by myself; more attendants and more horses must be 
fed ; coaches must be drawn, Now, if I please, I can go as 
far as Tarentum on my bob-tailed mule, whose loins the port- 

This word baa no paiticular (brce here. It merely meima that the Idea 
were eight da/a from the Nonea. With regard to idibw> comp. Sat. L 3, 
87. M'Caul. It appears from a passage of Martial that the Koman 
Tenths had full fuur months' vacaUoD ; hence Octonia idibas denote the 
period of tuition : trance "briDging the money for eight months' mstniC- 
Won." Whebleb. 

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manteau galls with his weight, as does the horseman his shout- 
dere. No one will la^ to mj charge euch sordidneas as ha 
may, Tullius, to you, when five slaves follow you, a pnetor, 
along the Tibuituui way, carrying a travelitig Utehen, and a - 
vessel of wine. Thus I live more comfortAbly, illustrious 
senator, than you, and than thousands of others. Wherever I 
have a fancy, I walk by myself : I inquire the price of herbs 
and bread : I travcrso the tricking circus," and the forura 
often in the evening: I stand listening among the for- 
tune-tellers : thence I take myself home to a plate of onions, 
pulse, and pancakes. My supper is served up Ey three slaves; 
saA a white stone slab supports two cups and a brimmer : 
near the salt-cellar stands a homely cruet " with a little bowl,^ 
earthen-ware from Campania. Then I go to rest; by no 
means concerned that I must rise in the morning;, and pay a 
visit to the statue of Marias," who denies that he is able to 
bear the look of the younger Noviua. I lie a-bed to tbo fourth 
honr ; after that I take a ramble, or having read or written 
what may amuse me in my privacy, I am anointed with oil, 
but not with such as the nasty Nacca, when he robs the lamps. 
But when the sun, become more violent, has reminded me to 
go to bathe, I avoid the Campus Martius" and the game of 
nand-ball. Having dined in a temperate manner, just enough 
to hinder me fivsm having an empty stomach, dunng the rest 
of the day I trifle in my own house. This ia the life of those 
who are ft-ee from wretched and burdienaomo ambition : with 
such things as these I comfort mjrself, in a way to live mora 

" He calls the circus /aSocem, deceiriLg, because diTiners, fortune- 
lellers, interpretera of dreams, aatrologeis, and impontors of all «orts 
nsii^; asaemble there. Torkbb. 

" EchiDo vilia. We can not precisely delermine what the guttas aod 
tahiraa were. Ur. Dacier tbinkH the fliiit was a little um. out of which 
they poured water into a basin, ediiraa, to wash their hands. En. DuBL. 

" Marsyas^ a satyr, who, challenging: Apollo to a trial of ddll In music, 
was overcome and Sayed alive by the god. A statue was erected to him 
in the ibrum, apposite to the rostra where the judgei determined caosos, 
and the poet pleasantly says, it stood in such an attitude as showed its 
indignatioD to behold a man wbo had been a slave, now sittmg amonp: 
the magistrates of Rome. The satyr (bigels, in bis resentment of such 
K sight, the paju of being fiayed alive. Torr. 

" Fagio coflipum, lufumfue tngonem, Campni is the Ganynu MaUlu, 
and lams Irigon was a game played witb a ball, otherwise called kaai 
IrigonalU, l)ecaase tbe players stood in a triangla Martial ■peak* of it 
In more than one place. FkaH. 

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deligtilAill}' than if m^ grandlaUier had been a qtUBBtor, and 
&tber and unde too. 

Bi fttnnomutp dttcribet a iqudbbk Mvixt Bvpilius and Pertiu». 

In what manner the mongrel Persius" revenged the filth and 
venom of Rupilius, Buroained King, is I thit^ known to all 
the blind men and barbers. Thia Perans, being a man of 
fortune, had very great butaneaa at Clazomen», and, into the 
bargain, certain troublesome litigations wtth King ; a hai^ened 
fellow, and one who was able to exceed even King in viru- 
lenco ; confident, blustering, of such a bitterness of speech, 
that be would outstrip the Siscnns" and Barri, if ever bo well 

I return to King, After nothing could be settled betwixt 
them (for people among whom Averse war breaks out, are 

Eroportionably vexatious on tie same account as they are 
rave. Thus between Hector, the son of Priam, and the bigb- 
Sirited Achilles, the rage was of so capital a nature, that only 
e final destruction [of one of tbem] could determine it ; on 
no other account, than that valor in each of them was consum- 
mate. If discord seta two cowards to work ; or if an engage- 
ment happens between two that are not of a match, as that of 
Diomed and the Ljcian Glaucus; the worse man will walk off, 
[buying his peace] by voluntarily sending presents), when Bru- 
tus held ns prator the fertile Asia, this pair, Eupilius and Per- 
sius, encountered; in such a manner, that [the gladiators] 

'" Ibrida Fertia», Persius was a Greek bj his iather, end an Italian 
by his mother. The Homana gave the name of Ibrida to those whom 
pareDta were of different nations, or different conditions. Toaa. 

TT Comeliua SiBeaoa being reproached bj the senate with the l>ad con' 
dact of bis wife, replied, " I married her bj the advice of Augnatna," 
Insinuating, Au^stus tiad oblii^d him to many her, that be m^ht 
have a more easy commerce with her, Titus Veturius Barras, havmg 
ruined himself by his extravagance, woe put to Aealh for violatii^ a 
veBtal virgin. Ed. DnBL. 

" Marcus Brutus and Casaiaa were pr^tors of Rome when CEeaar was 
put to deatii. In 711 Brutua went to take posaesaion ofhis Macedonian 
govemment, and pniUyr may be understood proprator: ft manner or 
Speaking of which there are many examples, San. 

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BacchiuB aod Bithus" were not better matched. Impetuoiu 
they huny to the cause, each of them a fine sight. 

Fersius opens his case ; and is laughed at by all the aasem- 
bly ; he extols Brutus, and ejitols the guard ; he styles Bmtus 
the Eun of Asia, and his attendanta he s^les salutary stars, all 
except King ; that he [he says,] came like that dog, the con- 
stellation hatefiil to husbandman : he poured along like a wintery 
flood, where the ax seldom comes. 

Then, upon his running on in bo smart and fluent a manner, 
the Pr»neatine [king] directs some witticisms squeezed from the 
vineyard," himself a hardy vine-dresser, never defeated, to whom 
the passenger had often been obliged to yield, bawling cuckoo 
with roaring voice. 

But the Grecian Fersius, as soon as he had been well sprin- 
kled with Italian vinegar, bellows out : O Brufua, by the great 
gods I conjure you, who are accustomed to take oflf Bngs," why 
do you not dispateh this King ? Believe me, this is a piece of 
work which of right belongs to you. 


JVJopus coToptains ihal the Esquilian mount is infisied ut'A Aa 
incantaiiata of aorcerases. 

FoRMBBLT I was the trunk of a vdld fig-tree, an uselss log :" 
when the artificer, in doubt whether he should make a stool 
or a Friapus of me, determined that I should be a god. 
Henceforward I became a god, the greatest terror of tbievea 

i> The Sfholiast tolls U9, that Bithus and Baccbius were two gladiatora, 
who certainlj put to doath whoever fought wtlh thsm. Thej afterward 
engsgod together, and both expired on tbe stage. Ed. £iubl. 

^° Horace means a particular kiad of vine, arbjisUva, that grew round 
trees, in wMch the people who gathered the grapes stood exposed to tbe 
raillery of the travelers. Iq each an attitude our drnia Viademiator bad 
often appeared. All sort of injurious language was allowed during the 
vint^e ; a custom that still continues in Naples. Dac. 

" Lucius Junius Brutus ozpellod TarquioiuB Superbus. Marcus Bru- 
tus &eed his country Irom the impGrial power of Julius Cs^sar. From tbe 
introductioQ of this, wo may conjecture that Horace, at tlio time of writ- 
ing this satire, bad not yet espoused the side of Auguatu.i, H'Caui. 

*' The wood of a fig-tree was very little used, on account rf its teit 
tlenen. ScaoL. 

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nd birds ; for my right hand reatraiiiB thievea, and a bloody- 
looking pole stretched out from my fnghtM middle : but a 
reed fixed upon the crown of my head terrifies the mischievons 
Unfe, imd hinders them frcHn settling in these new gar- 
deos." Before this the fellow-slave bore dead conises thrown 
oat of their narrow cdts to this place, in order to be depodted 
in paltry coffins. This plaee stood a common sepulcher for 
tbe miseraUe mob, for the bnffoou PantoUbus, and Nomen- 
tatms the ralce. Here a column assgned a thousand feet" [of 

rnd] in front, and three bondred toward the fields: that 
barial-ploce should not descend lo the heirs of tbe es- 
tate. Now one may live in the Esquiate," [sin(>« it is made] 
a healthy place ; aud walk upon aa opeu ten»ce, where lately 
the melancholy passengers beheld the ground finghtfnl widi 
white bones ; though both the thieves and wild beasts accus- 
tomed to Infest this place, do not occasion me so much care 
and trouble, ss do [these h^s], that turn people's minds by 
their incantations md drugs. These I can not by any means 
destroy nor hinder, but that they will gather bones and noxious 
herbs, as soon as the fleeting moon" has shown her beauteous 

I myself saw Canidia, with her sable gamient tucked up, 
walk with bare feet and disheveled b^r, yelling together wiUi 
the elder Sagana, Paleness had rendered both of them hor- 
rible to behold. They began to claw up the earth with their 
nails, and to tear a black ewe-lamb to pieces with their teeth. 

** OctsvioB, wiUin^ to correct tbe inlbction of this hill, which was ft 
eommoti burial-place Ibr all the poor of Borne, got the consent of the 
•mate and people to give part of it to Uiecenas, who bailt a magnifleant 
house there mth verj extenuve gardens. Hence tbe poo'. csIIb them. 
not* flortfe Sak. 

'* MBe pedes in fmde. Such was the title of the grave-yard, pre- 
served on a. pillsr of stone, ^p^ia, to show its extent, and lo declora it 
was never to return to the heirs of the estate. Wa have numberless in- 
scriptims d* this kind, Ita nb ttHQtrAH D3 HOUIKB PAxiLLa kostbx 


Ik Pbontb Lat. pbd. SX. bt mb. II. Is aor. loso. pbd. SX. In 
fronts signifies to Ike road; in agro, lo Ihe^^da. Dabat is fbr indicahal, 
teatabatter. Torel 

M The air was afterward so health}', that Augustus was carried thither 
when be was ill. ToRa. 

" The mooD pre^ded over bH enchantmeDts, and was believed to be 
niost bvorable when in the full, dfeomm 03, because she tbnn inSised a 
stronger spirit inla the magical herbs. Torr. 


Bi.t.vm. 8A11BEB C^ HOBAOE. 173 

The blood vas poured into a ditch, that theoc» they mieht 
charm out the shades" of the dead, ghosts that were to give 
them answers. There was a woolen effigy" too, another of 
wax : the woolen one larger, which was to inflict puoishmeQt 
on the little one," The wasen stood in a suppliant posture, 
as ready to perish in a servile manner. One of the bags in- 
vokes Hecate, and the other fell liaiphone. Then might you 
see serpents and infernal bitches" wander about ; and tho 
moon with blushes hiding behind the lofty monuments, that 
she might not bo a witness to these doings. But if I lie, even 
a little, may my head he contaminated with the white filth of 
ravens; and may Julius, and the effiiminate Miss Pediatous," 
and the knave Voranus, come to water upon me, and befoul 
me. Why should I mentioa every pflrticular ! viz. in what 
manner, speaking; alternately with Sa^na, the ghosts uttered 
dismal and piercmg shrieks ; and how by stealth they laid in 
the earth a wolf's beard, with the teeth of a spotted snake ; 
and how a great blaze flamed forth from the wasen image ? 
And how I was shocked at the voices and actions of these 
two furies, a spectator however by no means incapable of re- 
venge t For from my cleft body of fig-tree" wood I nttared 
a loud noise with as great an explosion as a burst bladder. 
But they ran into the city: and with exceeding laughter and 
diversion might you have seen Caaidia's artificial teeth, and 

" Black victims alone wero sacrificed to tlie iofernal gods, dot was 
any ttuag supposed more delicloug to the soula of the departed tiiao 
blood. They could not foretell any future events, or answer saj ques- 
tions, until the^ had drank of it tnysses was obliged to draw bis sword 
to fiigiitea tbem away from the blood be had pourad into the trendi lor 
iirewas. Dao. 

S3 The imi^ of wool reprcflented the person thej were wiUiag ibould 
survive the o3ier represented bytbatorwax, 'Tisfbrthis reason that 
the images were made of difiereat materials, that their Iktaa mi^t be 
di^feat WiTSOS. 

" This little Bguro probably ropreaented Darius, who had tbrsaken 
Caoidia, aa we find in the fitth epode. San. 

*> The serpents were Ibremiiaers oT TisiphoDo, and the bitches foretold 
that her inremal majesty was comiug-. Toan, 

" Jidita et /ragilis Pediaiia. We know not who Julius was. Pedj- 
atiua was an intamous Roman knight, whom Horace, tbr his eOeminac}', 
■^Ua Pediatia. Thus Aristophanoa calls CleonymUS Clamyrna ; Sostri- 
tui, SoatTota, Cnctf. 

*■ Ficas, i. «. I, an image made of tho tmneas ficidnjia. The heat mado 
the wood crack with a noise, whidi put (be wilcbes to flight. M'Cadl. 

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fu&'s towering Ute of fitke hair fitlliog off, and the herb^ 
the «DchantML bracelets from her arms. 

Bsdeteribe» hii ti^firinsijnm Oi* ViqweOy of on im/paHiuttt flSoa. 

■ I WAS accideutAllj going along the Via Sacra, meditating on 
some trifle or other, as is my custom, and totally intent upon 
it. A certain person, known to me bj name only, runs up ; 
and, having seized my hand, " How do yon do, my dearest 
fellow r " Tolerably well," say I, " as times go ; and I wish 
you every thing you can desire." When he still followed me ; 
" Would you any thing T"' said I to him. But, " You know 
me," says he: "1 am a man of learning." "Upon that ac- 
count," says I : " you will have more of my esteem." Wanting 
sadly to get away from him, sometimes I walked on apace, 
now and Uien I stopped, and I whispered something to my boy. 
Wlicn the sweat ran down to the bottom of my ankles. O, 
said I to myself, Bolanus," how happy were you in a head- 
piece! Meanwhile he kept prating on any thing that came 
ut^rmost, praised the streets, the city; and, when I made 
him no answer; "You want terribly," said he "to get away; 
I perceived it long ago; but you effect nothing, f shall still 

1 Namqmd via. Danatos tells ua in a remark npoD b. passage in Ter- 
ence, that it WHS a polite customsiy manner of speaking among tbe 
Bomans, that they migbt not seem to take their leave too abmpU;, to 
say Bt parting, "numquidvui}" as in modern pEirase, "have you bqj 
commaads?" "Abituri, ne id durS facerenC, 'numquid vis' dicebant 
his, quibuscum conatitisaent." Ed. Duel 

H Bolanus was a vcrf irritable persoo. SoHOL. Horace then pro- 
nounces Iiim «refrri fiUann ; Tor were he but in this fellow's company, 
he would break out into a Btonn or paaaion that would drive bim away. 
It appears more humorous to suppose him a beav;, stupid person, so 
diathetic that not cvon this fellow would annoy him, f. gunilarly 
Demea in Terent. Adelpb. v. S, exclaJiuH, 

" fortunatus, qui istoo animo sles ; 

Ego sentio." M'Caul. 

Bolanits was a sureanio of the Tettii derived from Bola, a town of ths 
.^oi. — CWeM f^icem. Thus /latapK" at Tjf TzafifiT/aiac, and Tirg. 
Geor. L 211, "felioes operum dies." Wbeeleb. 

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BtJck close to you ; I shall follow you hence : where are you 
at present bound for?" "There is no need for your being 
carried so' much about : I want to see a person, who is uu- 
kaown to you ; he lives a great way off across the Tiber, jiat 
by Cessar's gardens." "I ha7e nothing to do, and I am not 
lazy; I will attend you thither." I hang down my ears like 
an ass of surly disposition, when a heavier load than ordinary 
is put upon his back. He begins again ; " If I am tolerably ■ 
acquMnfed with myself, you will not esteem Viscus or Varius 
as a friend, more than mo ; for who can write more verses, or 
in a shorter time than I ! Who can move his limbs with softer 
grace [in the dance] ? And then I sing, so thfit even Hermo- 
genes may envy." 

Here there was an opportunity of interrupting him. "Have 
you a mother, [or any] relations that are interested in your 
welfare!" "Not one have I; I have buried them all." 
" Happy they ! now I remain. Dispatch me : for the fatal 
moment is at hand, which an old Sabine sorceress, having 
shaken her di\'ining urn," foretold when I was a boy; 'This 
child, neither shall cruel poison, nor the hostile sword, nor 
pleurisy, nor cough, nor the cripnling gout destroy : a babbler 
shall one day demolish bim ; if lie be wise, let him avoid talk- 
ative people, as soon as he comes to man's estate.'" 

One fourth" of the day being now passed, we came to Vesta's 
temple; and, ai good luck would have it, he was obliged to 
appear to his recogniaznee ; which unless he did, ho must 
have lost his cause. "If you love me," said he, "step 
in here a little," " May I die ! if I be either ablc-to stand it 
out,'' or have any knowledge of the civil laws : and besides, 

*^ The diviDatioD was pertbrmed m Ihia manner. A number of letten 
and entire words wero thrown into an urn and ah^™ together. "When 
they were well mixed, the? were poured out, and iranytbini; intelligible 
appeared in thsm, f^om thence the witch formed hor divinution and 

" The first hour of the day among the Romans answered to our 
Biitb. Martial says the Jjourts were open at nine o'clock, "eseroet 
raucos tertia cansidicos ;" it was, tberefore, more than an hour alter their 
opening, that Horace passed by the temple of Testa. 

" Jiri valeo stare. Horace uses the law terms, " respondere, adesse, 
■tare, rem relinquere." The first signifies to appear before a judge upon 
a summons ; the second was properly to attend on the person who ap- 
peared, and to support bis cause ; the third marks the p^isturo in whi^ 

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I am in a huny, you know whither." " I am in doubt what 
I shall do," aaia he ; " whether desert you or ray cauae." 
" Me, I beg of you." " I will not do it," said he ; and begau 
to take the lead of me. I (as it is difficult to contend witli 
one's master) follow him. " How stands it with Maecenas 
and you !" Thus he begins his prate aeain. " Ho is one of 
few intimates,*' and of a very wise way of thinking. No man 
ever made use of opportunity with more cleverness. You 
'should have a powenul assistant," who could play an under- 
part, if you were disposed to recommend this man ; may I 
perish; if you should not supplant all the rest !" " We do not 
jive there in the manner you imagine ; there is not a house 
that is freer or more remote from evils of this nature. It is 
never of any disservice to me, that any particular person is 
wealthier or a better scholar than I am : every individual has 
his proper place." " You tell me a marvelous thing, scarcely 
credible," " But it is even so." " You the mtwe inflame my 
desires to he near his peraon." "You need only be inclined to 
it : such is your merit, you will accomplish it : and he is 
capable of being won;'" and on that account the first access 

he stood, and Tdinquere caasan to suSer himeelf to be non-auited. for not 
appearing. Ed. Dcgl. 

« Fauamim Junaiaum. " A man of diacemmeot, who does not con- 
verse with the multitude," as in Terence, "hio bomoest perpaaconim, 
hominum." Seipio having engaged threeor four friends lo supwili him, 
and intending to makeaonio others, whooame to see him, stay withhim, 
Poatius whiapered him, " Consider, Seipio, what you arc doing ; this is 
a delicate fish, pattcorum Jiomitaim, and does not love a great deal of 
company." Ed. Ddbl. 

» Adjtdor was a person who assisted a player either with his voice or 
action, but in what manner is to us inconceivable, as we have nothing 
like it in our stage. Ferre aecundaa may be somewhat hotter eiplaioed 
by a passage in Cicero: " He will not exert bis utmost eloquence, but 
consult your honor and reputation, by lowering his own abilities and 
raising yours. Thus we see among the Grecian actt»^ that he who plays 
the second or third part, conceals his own power, that the priniMpal player 
may appear to the best ftdvontago." Ed. ruuL. 

Our inapertinent therefore promises Horace, that far from any des^n 
of supplanting him in the favor of M^cenas, he will be contented lo play 
the second part, and use his utmost abilities tormae our poet's character, 
as a principal actor. The reader may turn to the note on the twelfth 
line in the eighteenth efastle. Feah. 

1"» The poet says Macenaa was naturally easy to be eaiaed, but that 
a sense of his own weakness obliged him to pwird himself against the 
fltstnddresscaofastranfjor. ''EJ," for " idoo diffldles aditus primos habet, 

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to him he makes difljuult." " I will not be wanting to myself: 
I will corrupt hJa Bervauts with presents ; if I am excluded 
to-day, I will not desist ; I will seek opportunitita ; 1 will 
meet him in the public streela ; I will wait npon him home. 

t — "Tj ife allows notliing to mortals without greiit labor." While 

~ Ee was running on at this rate, lo ! Fnscus Aristius comes up, 
a dear friend of mine, and one who knows the fellow well. 
We make a stop. "Whence come yon J whither are you 
going r he asks and answers. I began to twiteh him (fey the 
elbow], and to take hold of his arms [that were affectedly] 
passive, nodding and distorting my eyes, that he might Tescue 

• fire:" Cruelly arch he laughs, and pretends not fo take the 
hint : anger galled my liver. " Certainly," [said I, "Fuseus,] 

-> you said that you wanted to communicate something to me in 
private." "I remember it very well ; hut will tell it you at 
n better opportunity : to-day ia the thirtieth sahbath.' Would 
you affront the circumcised Jews !" I reply, " I have no 
scruple [on that account]." " But I have : 1 am something 
weaker, one of the multitude. You must forgive me : I will 
speak with you on another occasion." And has this sun arisen 
so disastrous upon me! The wicked rogue runs away, &nd 
leaves me under the knife. But by luck his adversary met 
him : and, " Whither are you going, you iufarooi» fellow i" 
roars he with a loud voice : and, " Do you witness the arrest V" 
quia est qui vinci poBsit :" aa in Terence, " eo tibi videtur feedna, ipm 
veetein Ulain oou babet." Bbht. 

1 The Jews began tb^ jear the first of Sept^iber, and celelwated 
tbeir pasdisl festival the Meeotb of April, in the Ihirtietb week, fima 
whence Horace calls it " trJceBima sabb^" It continued ei^ days, at 
which the two first and two last were observed with so mudi scdeinnitj', 
that it was not penuLtted even to taik of bueiaesB. Angurtus, in isut»- 

5 tion of Juliua Ciesar, allowod the Jews uncommon pcivU^^ 

1 Whon a man had g:iTeD bail iu a, court of justice, if he n^lected the 
t!nMert4q>earaiioo, be might be taJccn bf (orce before the pnetor. Bui 
the person who would srreet him was otdlged, before he used bim with 
violence, to have a witness of his capture, onMiari. This, however, could 
not be done without the consent of the witnesses ; he, therefore, wilUu^; 
offered the captor bis ear to toudi, who wss liable, if Ui«ee fonni were 

I not observed, to an action, iiguriarum acHoTiein. But tbievee and people 

of injamous characters were not treated with ao much fbrmali^. When 

t, a fellow in Plautua ories out, " Will jou not call a witness be&ne you 
seize me, nonoe antestaris?" he ia uiswered, " What, sh&U I toucti hi 
honeet man's ear lor such a scoundrel as you are ?" Hioy tells u^ the 
lowest part of the ear is the seat of memory, Horn whence cam* ttii* 
form of their laws. Fa^H 

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178 SAT1BB3 OF HORACE. bookl 

I assent' He hunies him into court: there ia a great cla- 
mor OQ both sides, a mob from all parts. Thus Apollo pre- 
•erved me.* 

To be sure I did eay, that the verses of Lucllius did not nm 
smoothly. Who ie eo foolish on admirer of Lucilius, thai he 
would not own this t But the samd writer is applauded id 
the same Satire,' on account of his baring lashed the town with 
great humor. Nevertheless grantjng nim tMs, I will not 
therefore give up the other [coosiderations] ; fot at that rate 
I might even admire the farces of Laberiu3,'as fine poems. 
Hence it b hj no means sufficient to make an auditor grin 
with laughter : and yet there is some dwree of merit even ia 
this. There is need of conciseness that Uie sentence maj run, 
and not embarrass itself with verbiage, that overloa<u the 
sated ear ; and sometimes a grave, frequently jocose style is 

■ OppoTio aarieulam. Such was the law t«rm, which one poet ver/ 
willm^f prooouaced, lo signiff the consent of the witness. 

* Horace BHcribes his rescue from the intruder to Apollo, as the patron 
of poets. Perhaps he alludes to the statue of that god, wliich was in the 
(brum, where the courts were held, and as it was a law proceeding that 
saved him from the garrubta, he ascribes his preservation to the god, that 
^Di his vicinity to the courts, was called juris peritui. Juven. L 113. 
Otellius considers reference to he made to Apollo, li^ifiicdicor, or diro- 
Tpoiraiot, and that the passage is fbundod on 11. T. 443'; rd> d* i^piraStv 
'AiroAXu. MKIIlITL. 

■ Lucilius bad his numerous admirera in Rome, who were greatly 
disobhged by the freedom with which onr poet had treated him in hiB 
fourth Satire. Horace was determined to support bis own judgment, 
and instead of making an i^logj, confinas what he had s^d, with his 
utmost force and address. Ed. Dublin. Kespecting the eight spurious 
verses usoall)' prefixed to this satire, soo OrelU's Excursus. 

' CCSatl. 

T Jftmt wore larces written purelj for diversiou and laughing. De- 
cimus Laberius was made a Roman knight by Julius Cssar. He had 
long mtdntained the first character in this kind of writing, but Publiua 
Syn» It last became his rival, and carried off ell the appUuse of tb« 
theater. FtUJt. 

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necessary, supporting the character ODe while of the orator, 
and [at another] of the poet, now and then that of a graceful 
rallier that curbs the force of his pleasantly and weakens it on 
purpose. For ridicule often decides matters of importance 
more_ effectually and in a better manner, than severity. Those 
poets' by whom the ancient comedy was written, stood upon 
this [foundation], and in this are they worthy of imitation : 
whom neither tne smooth-faced Hermogenea ever read, nor 
that bahoon who is skilled in nothing but ein^ng [the wanton 
compositions of] Calvus aad Catullus. 

But [Lucilius, say they,] did a great thing, when he icter- 
mixed Greek words with Jjstin. O late-learned dunces! 
What I do you think that arduous and admirable, which was 
done by Pitholeo the Rhodian ) But [still they cry] the style 
elegantlj^ composed of both tongues is the more pleasant, as 
if Palemian wine is mixed with Chian. When you make verses, 
I ask you this question ; were you to undertake the difficult 
cause of the accused Petillius, would you (for instance), for- 
get^! of your country and your father, while Pedius,' Popli- 
cola, and Corvinus* sweat through their causes in Latin, 
choose to intermix words borrowed from abroad, like the 
double-tongued Canusiuian." And as for myself, who was 
bom on this side the water, when I was about making Greek 
verses ; Romulus appearing to me after midnight, when dreams 
are true, forbade me in words to this effect ; " You could not 
bo guilty of more madness by carrying timber into a wood, 
than by desiring to throng in among the great crowds of 
Grecian writers." 

While bombastical Alpinus" murders Memnon, and whilb 

' Pedius. This is, without doubt, the son of that Q. Pedius whom 
Julius Cfesar made heir to the fourth part of his estate, and who was 
chosen consul with Octavius, in room of Hirtius and Fansa. Watsoh. 

* Corvinua Y. Messola Corvinus, no less distiaguiBhed by his 610- 
qaence than by hia noble birth. He was descended from the iamed Ta. 
leriua Poplicol». Watsos. 

I" Canusium was built b; Biomede. Its inhabitants, origiaallj Greeks, 
had preserved many words of their first language, wbiidi Iwii^ mixeJ 
with Latin, made a ridiculous, disagreeable jaigon. Virgil ibr the same 
reason, calls the Tyrians, " lyriosquo bilinguea." FaAN. 

" Alpinus. The most probable conjectures induce us to believe, that 
Horace means Furius Bibaculus, a poet of some reputation, and cot with- 
out merit. He describes bim in another Satire " piagui teatua omaao," 
and here he oalts bim " tut^dus," not only Qrom the Mnesa of his per- 

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180 8ATIBB8 07 HORACE. dock t. 

th« Rhine, I amuse myself 
3ei be recited ia the temple" 
[of Apollo], as coatesting for the prize when Tsrpa preudea 
as judge, nor can have a run over and over agaia represented 
in the theaters. You, O Fundanius," of all men breathing, 
are the most capable of pmttling tales in a comic vein, how 
an aitAil courtesan and a Davus mipoae upon an old CfaremeE : 
Pollio «ngs the actions of kin^ in iambic" measure ; tb< 
Bublime Varius compowa the manlj epic, in a manner that nc 
one can equal : to virgil the Muses, debghting in rural aceoe^ 
hare ijanted the delicate and the elegant. It was this kind 
[of asaric writing], the Atidnian Vairo and some others hav- 
ing attempted it without sncoege, in which I maj have some 
sl^t merit, inferior to the inventor : nor would I presumo 
to pull off the [laurel] crown placed up<»i his brow with 
great applause. 

But I said that he flowed muddily, frcqueDl.]y indeed bear- 
ing along more things which ought to bo takes away than 
left. Be it so ; do you, who are a scholar, find uo fault with 
any thing in mighty Homer, I prayt Does the tacetiouB Lu- 
dhua m^e no alterations in Oie tragedies of Accius 9 Doea 
not he ridicule many of EnniiiB' verses, which are too light for 
the gravity [of the subject] t When he ^leaks of himself 
by no means as superior to what he blames. What diould 
hinder me likewise, when I am reading the works of Lucilina, 
from inquiring whether it be his [genius], or the difficult 

BOD, bat the Satulencj of bis Btyl& Tbe aumame of Alplnua marks his 
being bom amoDg the Gauk, who Uved on the Alps; or, as Dr. B«itiey 
pleasantly underelands it, from a baons line, which onr poet laughs at 
in another place; "Jupiter bibemas cani nive eonspuit Alpes." "Ju- 
^ulat dam Uenuuma" ia a toa^ aud style of bcmbast in the true spihl 
w ridicule. 

■' Qua nee in jEde toneiU. The commentator tells tbat Augustua ap- 
pointed five ju^es, of whom Melius Tarpa was one, to distribute poeti- 
cal prizes, and determine what plays sbouM be t»esented on tbe stage. 
ToasiuB believea tbey were eatabushed lu imitati<Hl of the Siciliaos and 
Athenians. Mr. Dacier tbioks they were ctrntmned noder tbe reign of 
Dmnitiao. Ed. Duel. 

u Fuudaniue. He is known only by this elogiam of Horace, This 
passage refers to the Andria of Terence, where Chremce is deceived by 
theartaflceaofDavoB. 'WAifiOS. 

■• Pede ter pereuato. Hie tragic Iambics bad but three measure» each 
measure havmg two feet, from whence they were BOmetiraat oalled 

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nature of Ms subjoctt that will not suffer his vetoes to be more 
finished, and to run more Hinoothl;^ than if eotne one, thinkiiw 
it Buffident to conclude a something of six feet, be fond M 
writing two hundred verses before he eats, and as many after 
snpperl Such was the genius of the Tuscan Casdus, moK 
impetuous than a rapid nver; who, as it is reported, was 
burned [at the Ameral pile] with his own books" and pi4)ers. 
Let it 1:« allowed!, I aay, tiiat Lucilius was a humorous (md 
polite writer; that he was also more correct than [Eouius], 
the author" of a kind of poetry [not yet] well cultivated, nor 
atten^ted by the Greeks, and [more correct likewise] than 
the tnbe of our old poets ; but yet he, if he bad been brought 
down by the Fates to this age of ours, would have retrenched a 
great deal from bis writings : he would have pruned off every 
thing that transgressed t£e limits of perfectioa; and, in the 
composition of verses, would often have scratched hia head, 
and bit his nails to the quick. 

Vou that intend to write what is worthy to bo read more 
than once, blot frequently : and take no pains to make the 
multitude admire you, content \titb. a few [judicious] read- 
ers. What, would you be such a fool as to be ambitious that 
your verses should be taught in petty schools J That is not 
my case. It is enough for me, that the knight [Mxcenas] 
applauds : as the courageous actress, Arbuseula, expressed her- 
eeli, in contempt of the rest of the audience, when she was 
hissed [by the populace]. What, shall that gruhworm Pan- 
tilius" nave any effect upon me t Or can it vex me, that 
Demetrius carps at me behind my hack t or because the trifler 
Fanoius, that hanger-on to Hermogenes T^gellius, attempts 
to hurt me ! May Plotius and Varius, Miecenas and Virgil, 
Val|^us and Octavius" approve these Satires, and the excellent 

'I Tbe funeral piles on which dead t>i>dieB woro burned were made of 
wood. Casaius had written so much, that Horace aportively gives it as 
a rumor, that his hooka formed his fuaeral pile. M'Cacl. 

" There is a great variation in the interpretation of this paBsag& 
Ttiey maj be found collected in. M'Caul's notes. 

" Pentiliua. A buffoon, and a great enemj of Horace, whom he calls 
(^nie^ ao insect, out of conlempL Fanoius is the same of whom he 
apaaks in Satire iv. Watsoh. 

" Octavius. An excellent poet and historian. The Tisci were two 
brothere, and both senators. Bibulus was the son of him that had been 
consnl in G9S, and ServiuathesonofServiusSulpiciuSiwhocorTeBpoiidBd 

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Fdsciu likewise; and I could wish that both the Visci would 
join ID their commendations : ambition apart, I may mention 
you, O Poltio : you also, Messala, together with your brother ; 
and at the same time, you, Bibulus and Semos ; and alonj^ 
with these you, oaodid Fumine ; many othns whom, though 
men of learning ai)d my friends, I purposely omit — to whom 
I could wish these Satiree, such as tbey are, may cfive satis&c- 
tioD ; and I should be chagrined, if they pleaaed in a degree 
below my expectation. You, Demetrius, and you, llgeLuus, 
I bid lament among the forms of your female pupils. 

Go, boy, and instantly annex this Satire to the ei-d of my 

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Tbbbb are some persons to whom I seem too severe in [the 
writing of] satire, and to cany it beyond proper bouDos:' 
another set are of opinion, that all I have written is nerveless, 
and that a thousand verses Uke mine may be spim out in a 
day. Trebatius,* give me your advice, what I shall do. Be 
quiet. I should not make, you say, verses at all. I do say 
so. May I be hanged, if that would not be best : hat I can not 
sleep. Let those, who want sound sleep, anoiuted ewim thrice 
across the Tiber: and have their clay well moistened with 
wine over-night Or, if such a great love of scribbline hur- 
ries Tou on, venture to celebrate the achievements of Uie ic- 
vincible Ceesar, certain of bearing off ample rewards for your 

DcMrous I am, my good father, [to do this,] but my strength 
fuls me, nor can any one describe the troops bristled with 
speare, nor the Gauls dying on their shivered darts, nor the 

' UUra legem. The laws of the twelve tables punished these poetical 
slanderers with death ; but they were grown obsolete, and had lost groat 
part of their vigor, when they were renewed by Augustus. Dao. 

> Trebatius. This is C. Trebatius Testa, the most celebrated lawyer 
of that age, aa is evident from the letters which Cicero wrote to him. 
He was greatly in favor both with Julius Ofesar and Augustus. As he 
accompanied the first in his wars in Gaul, thirty years before this Satire ' 
was written, he must, by this time, bare been of aa advanced age. 
Horace applies to him as one of great authority, on account of his age 
and skill in the law. He was fiirther a good judge of raiUery, and had 
often used it with delicai^ and success. 'Watson'. 

' The Qauls of Aquttain having rebeUed 726, Octavins sent Ueesala, 

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wounded Parthian follioi; from his horse. Nevertheless you 
may describe bim just and brave, as the wise Lucilius did 
Srapio. I will not be wantius to myself, vhen an opportunity- 
presents itself: no versos of Horace's, unless well-timed, irill 
gain the attention of Cieaar ; whom, [like . a generous steed,] 
if you stroke awkwardly, he will kick back upon you, being 
at all quarters on his guard. How much better would this 
be, than to wound with severe satire Pantolabus tte buffoon, 
and (he rake Nomentanusl when every body is aJraid for 

himself, [lest he should be the next,] and hates you, thougli 

he is not meddled with. What shall I do ! Milonius falls a 
dancing the moment he becomes light-headed and warm, and 
the candles appear multiplied. Castor delights in horseman- 
ship : and he, who M>raag from the same eg^, in boxingr. As 
many thousands of people [as there are in the world], so 
many different inclinations are there. It delighta me to com- 
bine words in meter, after the manner of Lucilius, a better 
man than both of us.* He Ions ago communicated hie eecrete 
to his books, as to faithful fnends : never having recourse 
dsewhere, whether t^iinirs went well or ill with him : whcnco 
it happens, that the whole life of this old (poet] ia ae open to 
the view, as if it had been painted on a votive tablet Ilia 
example I follow, though in doubt whether I am a Luuanian 
or an Apulian ; for the Venusinian fiumars plow upon the^ 
bonndariea <^ both countries, who (as the ancient tradition has 
it) were sent, on iho expulsion cf the Samnites, for this pur- 
pose, that the enemy might not make incursions on the Ko- 
inans, through a vacant [unguarded frontier] : or lest the 
Apulian uation, at the tierce Lucanian, should make an inva- 
sion. But this pen of mine shall not wiUfuUy attack any man 
breathing, and snail defend me like a sword thai is sheathed 
in the scabbard ; which why should I attempt to draw, [while 
I am] safe from hostile villous ! O Jupiter, tathor and sove- 
reign, may my weapon laid aside wear away with ruai; and 
may no one injure me, who am desirous of peace t But that 

with the title of governor of the provinco, to reduce them to his obedi- 
ence. He mnquered them in the year tbllowing;, and had the honor of 
a trinmph the 25th of September. San. 

' Wben tbe Romans mentioned a man of great reputation, and whom 
example had a aort of authority, their usual expression iu conversation. 
trita, Who it /or belief, and more valuaHs Oum you or >n«. HcraxBa. 

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man who shall provoke me (I give notice, that it is better not 
to touch me) bWI weep [hia f^ly], and as a notorious charac- 
ter shall be sung through all the streets of Home. 

Cervius,' when he ia offended, threatens one with the lawa 

and the [judiciary] urn ; Canidia, Albutius' poison to those with 

whom she ia at enmity; Turius [threateDs] great damages,^ 

if you contest any thmg while ne ia judge. How eveiy'' 

animal' terrifies those whom he suspects, with that in which 
he is most powerful, and how strong natural instinct com- 
mands this, thus infer with me. — ^The wolf attacks with his teetii, 
the bull with his horns. Prom what principle is this, if not 
a suggestion from within? Intrust that debauchee Bceva 
with the custody of hia ancient mother ; his pious hand will 
c<Bnmit no outrage. A wonder indeed ! just aa the wolf does 
not attack any one with his hoof, nor the bull with his teeth; 
but the deadly hemlock in the poisoned honey will take off the 
old dame. 

That I may not be tedioua, whether a placid old age awaits 
me, or whether death now hovers about me with his sable 
wings ; rich or poor, at Kome or (if fortune should so order 
it) an eiile abroad ; whatever be the complexion of my life, I 
will writ«. my child, I fear you can not be long-lived ; and 
that Bome creature of the great ones will strike you with the 
cold of death.' What ) when Lucilius had the courage to be 
the first in compoang veraes after this manner, and to pull 

> A crimmal was acquitted or coDdemned by the number of Totes, 
which the judges threw into a judicial? um. Tirgil tclla U9 this custom 
was obseryed among the dead, "qiuesitor Minos umam movet" Torb. 

• Horace's weapon is satiro. This he will use ag^DSt his eneoues, 
jost as every one, qtut vaiei, tuspedos ferret, and according to the dictates 
of nature, which prompt her creatures to make use of the arms which she 
has given them, i. e. ne Umgut/ifacia/m, he will write. Ed. Dubl. 

Mirum, etc Ironicallj' saJd, for it is not minim vi neqae calce luput 
qaenqaant itegve deiiie petal boa, fbr dente lupm, coma tauma petit 
Horace means that Scteva's not polluting hia right hand with the blood 
of his mother ia no more wondcmil than that a wolf does not attack a 
person ealce, or ao ox, denie, Bentlej's conjecture miniTa si ia specious. 
Similarlj we have Tereat. Andr. iv. i, 16; Uimm vera, imptideatur 
mulier sifacit meret/rix. M'Caul. 

'if." teat some one of 3raur powcrihl frionda conceive a ooliiDess 
toward you, and deprive you of bis (Kendship." So Peraius i. 101, " Sed 
quid opaa Seneras mordaci radere vero Auriculas ? Vide sia no majorum 
tibi (brte Limina ct rigcscuut." Ohelll 

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off that mask,* by means of which each mao strutted in puUio 
viev with a fair outside, though foul within; was ubUob, 
and he who derived a wetl-deserved title from the deetracdoD 
of Carthage, o&nded at his wit, or were thev Iiurt at Metel- 
lu3 being lashed, or Lupus covered over with his lampoons f 
But he took to task the heads of the people, and the people 
themselves, class by class;* in short, ho spared none but 
virtae and her friends. Yet, when Ihe valorous Scipio, and 
the mild philosophical Lcelius, had withdrawn themselves 
from the crowd and the public scene, they used to divert 
themselves with him, and joke in a free manner, while a few 
vegetables were boiled [for supper]. Of whoever rank I am, 
though betow the estate and wit of Luciliu^yet envy must 
be obliged to own that I have lived well with ghsat men ; and, 
wantJDjr to fasten her tooth upon some weak part, will strike 
it ^amst the solid:" unless you, learned 'Trebatius, disap- 
prove of any thing [I have said]. For my part, I can not 
make any objection to this. But however, tliat forewarned 
may be upon your guard, lest an ignorance of our sacred 
should bring you into trouble, [be sure of this :] if any 
person" shall make scandalous verses gainst a particular 
man, an action lies, and a sentence. Granted, if they are 
scandalous : but if a man composes good ones, and is praised 
by such a jndge as Ctesar ! If a man bnrks only at him who 
deserves his invectives, while he himself is unblamable ? 

" Detraliera peUem. A figurative esprossion taken ^m tlic stage. 
The BDcieDt masks were of skins. Dac. 

» The great men, and people of whatever tribe. It ia plain from what 
remaiaa to us of LucUlus, ttiat ho did oot spare the great. Beaiilea Me- 
tellus and Lupus already mentioned, he attacked also Mutius Scsvola, 
Titus AlbutiuB, Torquatus, Marcus Carbo, Lucius Tubulua, Pnblins 
QaJlouiua, Coiua Casaius, Lucius Cotta, Cloiiiua Asellus, Quiatus Opi- 
mius, Nomentanua, Cains Ceciliua Index, Trebelliua, Publius Pavus 
Tuditanua. And not satiafled with this, ho rua througli all the thirty- 
five tribes, oue ailer another. Watson. 

'" In allusion to the foble of the serpent and the file. 

" Si mala amdideril. Trebatius with much solemnity rites the laws 
of the twelve tables as his last argument. A lawyer could produce 
nothing more strong, and Horace being unable to delend himself by a 
direct answer, finds a way of getting out of the difficulty by playing on 
the words malum carmen, and giving them a diff^nt sense frcuo what 
they had in Ihe text of the law. Ed. Dubu 

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The process will be canceled" with laughter : and you, boDg 
dismissed, may depart in peace. 

On Frugality. 

What and how great is the virtue to live on a titile (this is 
no doctrine of mine, but what Ofellus the peasant, a philosO' 

!)her without rules" and of a home-spun" wit, taught me), 
earn, my good friends, not among dishes and splendid tables ; 
when the eye is dazzled with the vaia glare, and the mind, 
intent upon false appeaxances, reftises [to admit] better things; 
but here, before dinner, discuss Ibia point with me. Why so J 
I will inform you, if I can. Etsiv corrupted judge examines 
badly tie tnith. After hunting the hare, or being wearied 
1^ an unruly horse, or (if the Roman exercise fatigues yoa, 
accnstomed to act the Greek) whether the swift ball, while 
eagerness soflens and presents your perceiving tlie severity 
of the game, or quoits (smite the yielding air with the quoit) 
when exercise has worked otT squeamishness, dry and hungry, 
[then let mo see you] despise mean viands ; and don't dniik 
any thing but Hymettian honey qualified" with Falemian 

1' Ibfruto are tbe procosa and inlbrmatton laid befbre the judge, which, 
sajB tha poet, shall be l^m in piecea Dacier observes, that this Udq is 
an imitation of AriBtophanes, where a Either dissuades his son from aa 
excess of wine, by representiDg to him a thousand disorders which it 
occanons ; quarreling, breaking bousea open. No, sajs the bod, this 
never bs^^iena when we converso with meo of honor ; fbr either they 
irill satl^ tbe people whom thej have offeoded, or turn tbe oCr^ into 
ridicule, and by some happy jest make the judges, and even the prosecn- 
tora, laagb. The process is dismissed, and jou escape without being 
punished. En. Duel. 

" A}mormis. " A philosopher without rules." OtelluB was au Epi- 
curean without knowiug it, but his morality was in a medium between 
the ve^y rigid and very diKolute followers of that sect D*a 
. » Minerva preaides over spiuniug, hence this proverbial expression 
fbr "of a thick thread," i. t. of a coarse texture. This Gc Ep. Fam. 
ii. 12, Oaoo^Sio. M'Caul. 

" DOuia. This mixture was called tnuZmm, mead. OfbDa s^a: 
Xton't drijok any thiag but mead made of tlie best bonef and the best 

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«ine. Your butl«r is abroad, snd the tempestuous lea pre- 
aerves the fish bj its winteiy Btorms : bread and salt will diffi- 
dently appease an iinportuiiat« stomach. Whence do yon 
think this happens! and how is it obtained! The u>Qsummate 
pleasure is not in the costly flavor, but in yourself. Do you 
seek for sauce by sweating;. Neither oysters, nor scar, nor the 
frr-fetehed laeois," can give any pleasure to one bloated and 
pale through mtemperance. Nevertheless, if a peacock" were 
served up, I should hardly be able to prevent your gratifying 
the pal^ with that, rather than a pullet, since you are 

n'udiced by the vanities of things; because the scarce bird 
ought with gold, and displays a fine sight with ila painted 
tail : as if that were any thing to the purpose. What, do you 
eat that plumage, which you extol { or hag the bird the same 
beauty when drassedt Since however there is no difiereuce in 
the meat, in one preferably to the other; it is msnifegt that 
Tou are imposed upon by the disparity of their appeaiances. 
Be it sc. 

By what ^t are you able to disUnguish, whether this lupus, 
that now <^ns its kws before na, was taken in the liber, 
or in the sea! whether it was toesed between the bridges, or 
at the mouth of the Tuscan river! Fool, you praise a muUet, 
that weighs three pounds ; which you are obliged to cut into 
small pieces. Outward appearances lead you, I see. To 
what intent then do yon c(mt«mn large lupuses! Because 
truly these are by nature bulky, aud those very light. A hun- 

wine. Dibare is apdied lo those things wliioh ore melted bj the addi- 
tion of fluid. Thus Virg. Get». L 3*1, 

Cni tu lacte &t03 et tnitl dilue Boccho. 
And Sat. ji. 3, 214, 

Diloit inBlgnem baccam. U'C^UL. 

" Lagoii. We do not find this word ia any oCher authw. It was 
probablj a foreign bird, whose flesh tasted and looked like that of a 
hare; atavonte dish among tho Romans. Oatrea is of two u'lhiblea, 
•s in Tirgil, " Bis pittrlte cecidere manus : quiu protenus omnui. 

'1 Quintus Uort^nsiua was the first who g:aye the Eomons a taste for 
peacocks, and it soon became so Siehionable a dish, that all the people of 
fortune had it at their tables. Cicero verj plessiuitlf says, he bad the 
boldness to invite Hirtius to sup with him, even without a peacock. 
"Sed vide audaciam, etiam Hirtio c<EDam dedi sine pavone." M, 
Aufldius Latro made a prodigious Ibrtuofi bj liittening them (at «alo. 
Bd Dddl. 

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U*. It SATIBBS 07 EORAOB 18ft 

gry Bfomach seldom loathes coninion victuals. that I could 
Bee a swingeing mullet extended on a swingeing dish I criei 
that gullet, which is fit for the roraciona hiupies themselvee. 
But O [&ay I] je soathem blasts, he present to t^nt the delica- 
cies of the [^utlona] : though the boar and turbot newly taken 
are lauk, when suiieittng abundance provokes tne sick 
stomach ; and when tie sated guttler prefers luraips and 
sharp elecampane. However, all [appearance of] poverty is 
not quite banished from the banquets of our noble» ; for there 
is, even at tliis day, a place for paltry eggs and black olives." 
And it was not long ago, since die table of Gallonius, the auc- 
tioneer, was rendered infamous, by having a sturgeon [served 
up whole upon it]. What ) waa the sea at that Ume less nu- 
tntive of turbotsJ" The turbot was secure and the stork 
unmolested in her nest ; till the pnetorifw [Semproniusl th« 
inventor,'" first taught you [to eat them]. Therefore, it any 
one were to give it out that roasted cormoranla are delicious, 
the Roman youth, teachable in depravity, would acquiesce 
in it. 

In tbc judgment of Ofellue, a sordid way of living will differ 
widely from frugal simplicity. For it is to no purpose for 
you to shun that vice [of luxury] ; if you perversely fly to 
the contrary extreme. Avidienus, to whom t£e nickname of 
I>og ia applied with propriety, eats olives of five years old, 
and wild cornels, and can not bear to rack off his wine unless 
it be turned sour, and tlie smell of his oil you can not endure : 
which (though clothed in white he celebrates the wedding 

" (Xivea, intended for the table, were gathered wbea they began to 
ripen and tum black. Cacg. 

'» The tanciiUl, feshionablo taste is bat of short «mtinuance; that of 
nature is uoalierable. Yea are now as tbndoTturlKit as Gallonius was of 
sturgeon. But were there no turbota in his time 7 Certaialj' there were j 
bat no coiicconib bad made them &£hionabie, and the prxtor decided in 
favor of sturgeon. Another glutton brought turbota and storks into 
vogue, and perhaps we only wait for a thM man of taste to assore om, 
that a roasted connonmt is inQoitely more delicious than sturgeons, tor- 
bol«, or storks. Dia 

"> Theatorksbuiltthoirneatsin safety until the time of Augustus, when 
your pnEtor taught you to eat them. Aainius Semproniua, or, according 
to othare, Rutilius Eufiis, when candidate for the praitorahip, entertained 
the people witli a dish of atorka. But the people, accortiing to an ancient 
epigram, revenged the death of the poor birds by reth^ng the pnetorBhi[i 
to their mnrdercr. From this rcCusal the poet pleasantly calls bim pW' 
lor. TOB& 

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190 SATIRES OF HOBAGE. bookil 

festiral," his birth-day, or any other festal daye) he pours out 
himself by little and little from a horn cruet, that holds two 
pounds, upon his cabbage, [but at the same tame] is lamb 
enough of his old vin^^. 

what manner of living therefore shall the wise man put in 
practJM, and nhich of these examples shall he copy ? On one 
aide the wolf presses on, aad the dog on the other, as the saying 
k. A person will be accounted decent, if he offends not by 
MrdidnesB, and is not despicable through either extreme of con- 
doct. Such a man will not, after the example of old Albutius, 
he savage while be assigns to his serrauts their respective 
offices ; nor, like simple Nasvius, will he oSst greasy water to 
his company : for this too is a great fault 

Now learn what and how great benefits a temperate diet 
will brina; along with it In the first place, you will enjoy 
good health ; for you may believe how detrimental a diversity 
of things is to any man, when you recollect that sort of food, 
which by ita simplicity aat so well upon your stomach eome 
tim; ^;o. But, when you have once mised boiled and roast 
together, thrushes and shell-fish; the sweet juices will turn 
into bile, and the thick phlegm will bring a jarring upon the 
stomach. Do not you see, how pale each guest nses firom a 
perplexing variety of dishes at an entertainment Beside 
this, the body, overioaded with the debauch of yesterday, de- 
presses the mind along with it, and dashes to the earth that 
portion of the divine spirit" Another man, as soon as he 
has taken r quick repast, and rendered np his hmbs to re- 
pose, rises vigorous to the duties of his calling. However, 
ho m:iy sometimes have recoarse to better cheer; whether the 
returnmg year shall bring on a festival, or if he have a mind 

"' Repotia was a festival the day after the nuptials, when tiiej drank 
and ato whatever remained of yesterday's eutertainraent, ^ia iUrum po- 
larelur. The conalruction is remarkable, dlios dierum fisloa, for alioi ^> 
«X diebm fisti suiU. Albalui, white was usually the color of the Koman 
robe even at funeral feasts. Ipse, ia a circumstaDce that Btrongly marks 
the avarice of Avidienus. Afraid that hia guests or bis servaate should 
be too profuse of hia oil, he pours it himselC The poet tells ua, his bot- 
tle was of two pounds weight, as if it were his whole store, although Eke 
was extremely rich ; and the vessel was of horn, that it might last a long 
time. All these partioulara are in character. Toeb. San. 

sj Diviare partmdam aunt. To raise the nobleness of the mind, Horace 
has borrowed the language of Plato, who says, that it is a portion of the 
univeraal soul of the world, that is, of the divinity himaelE Sait. 

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to re&esti hia impaired body ; and when years Bhall approaeh, 
and feeble age require to be used more tenderly. But as for 
you, if a troublesome habit of body, or creeping old age, 
should come upon you, what addition can be made to that 
soft indulgence, which you, now in youth and in health, 
anticipate ! 

Our ancestors praised a boar when it was stale: not be- 
cause they had no noses ; hut with this view, I suppose, that 
a victor coming later than ordinary [might partake of it], 
though a little musty, rather than the voracious master should 
devour it all himself while sweet. I wish that the primitive 
earth had produced me among such heroes as these. 

Have you any regard for reputation, which affects the hu- 
man ear more agreeably than music? Great turbota and 
dishes bring great disgrace along with them, together with 
expense. Add to this, that your relations and neighbors 
■wilt be exasperated at you, while you will be at enmity with 
yooraelf and desirous of death in vain, since you will not in 
your poverty have three farthings left to purchase a rope 
withal. Trausius, you say, may with justice be called to 
account in such language as this; but I possess an ample 
revenue, and wealth sufficient for three potentates. Why 
then have you no better method of expending your super- 
fluities? Why is any man, undeserving [of distressed cir- 
cnmstancea], in want, while you abound ? How comes it to 
pass, that tne ancient temples of the gods are Mling to ruin? 
Why do not you, wretch that you are, bestow something on 
your dear country, out of so vast a hoard 1 What, will mat- 
ters always go well with you alone i thou, that hereafter 
shalt be the great derision of thine enemies ! which of the 
two shall depend upon himself in exigences with most cer- 
tainty! He who has used his mind and high-swollen body 
to redundancies ; or he who, contented with a little and provi- 
dent for the future, like a wise man in time of peace, shall 
make the nec«Esary preparadons for war ! 

That you may the more readily give credit to these thinn^ : 
I myself, when a little boy, took notice that this OfcUus aid 
not use his unencumbered estate more profusely, than he does 
now it is reduced. You may see the sturdy husbandman 
laboring for hire in the land [once his own, but now] as- 

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in SATIBBS or HOBAOB. book a. 

tagatd [to others]," irith bis cattle and children, talUng to 
thia effect ; I nerer ventured to eat any thiii|; on a worb-day 
except pot-herbs, with a hock of Btnoko-dned bacon. And 
«hen a friend come to visit me after a long absence, or a 
neighbor, an acceptable guest to me reetiiu; from nork on 
account of the rain, we lived welt ; not on fiahea fetched from 
the city, but on a pullet and a kid: then a dried gra^, and 
a nut, with a la^ fig," set off our aecond couree. After 
this, it was our diversion to have no other regulation in our 
cups, save that against drinking to excess :" Uien Ceres wor- 
shiped [with a libation], that the com might arise in lofly 
sterna, smoothed with wine (he melancholy of the contracted 
brow. Let fortune rage, and stir up new tumults : what can 
she do more to impair my estate f How much more savingly 
have either I lived, or how much less neatly have you gone, 
my children, since ^is new possessor came? For nature has 
appointed to be lord of this earthly property, neither him, nor 
me, nor any one. He drove us out : either iniquity or ignor- 
ance in the quirks of the law shall [do the same by] Mm : 

" Mdato m agtOo. OTeUns was involved in the same disgrace and 
ruin as Yirgil, Tibutlus, and Propertius. Tli^r estates were siveo by 
Octavius to the vetorana who had served against Brutus end CassJus in 
the battle of PhilippL That of orellua waa givea to Umbrenus, who 
hired its fbrmer master to till the ground for him, mercede coloniim. As 
each soldier hod a certain number of acres, the land was measured, *nt- 
lalo agaUo, before it was divided. Frah. 

>* Daplice, a kind of loxge fig, called Marisca. Tdknbb. B. £ a M- 
fida. ScH. CauQ. D. Figs were split into two parts, and when dried, 
served up mengii tectindia. MYlAtTL. 'The last ia proved to be the coi^ 
rect inlerpretalion from PaUad. R.R,iv. 10,36: "Subinde flcns, sicut 
est diviso, vertatur, ut flconun coria aiceeotor et pulp» tunc duplicatie 
in cistellis servontur aut loculia," Wheblbr. 

^ It waa cuatomaiy with the Romans to appoint aome person tnagialer 
bibendi, who directed the number of cups to be taken, and the toaata, 
eta Ofella says there was no snch person appointed, biit that the only 
preaidsnt that thej had at their table was cu^, i.e. " excess." Ead& 
person took as much as be pleaaed, restricted only by the feeling that 
ezceu waa culpable. The ancienta had a Indus, which was intended to 
prevent the intoiicatioo that might arise from being obliged to obey the 
magitler bihindi in taking the number of cups which he directed. The 
person who (aliqad in re peccdrat} violated any of the convivial laws or 
customs, was paniafaed by being obliged to drink a cupful, poeuh muila- 
iaiw, BO that aa no one drank but tboae who committed some breach of 
the laws, bibere pceme el dedecora esstl, «on invUationa out magisl^i 
ThuB ctiipa was magisira bibendi. Tdbncb. 

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certainly in the end hia long-lived heir shall expel him. Now 
this field under the denomination of Umbreniia', lately it was 
Ofellus', the perpetual property of no man ; for it turns to my 
use one vhile, and by and by to that of another. Where- 
fore, live undaunted ; and oppose gallant breasts against the 
strokes of adversity. 

ii paradox of Aa 

Yop write so seldom, as not to call for parchment four times 
in the year, busied in reforming your writings, yet are you 
angry with yourself, that indulging in wine and sleep yon pro- 
duce nothing worthy to be the suQect of conversation. What 
will be the consequence % But you took refuge here, it seems, 
at the very celebration of the Saturnalia, out of sobriety, 
lactate therefore something worthy of your promises : be^n. 
There is nothing. The pens are found £iult with to no pur- 
pose, and the harmless wall, which must have been built un- 
der the displeasure of gods and poete, suffers [to no eudj. 
But you had the look of one that threatened many and excel- 
lent things, when once yotir villa had received you, free from 
employment, under its warm roof. To what purpose was it 
to stow Plato upon Menander! Eupolis, Archilochus ( For 
what end did you bring abroad such companions! What! 
are you setting about appeasing envy by deserting virtue! 
Wretch, you will be despised. That guilty Siren, Sloth, must 
be avoided ; or whatever acquisitions you have mode in the 
better part of your life, must with equanimity be given up. 
May the gods and goddesses, O Damasippus, present you with 
a iWber for' your sound advice 1 But by what means did you 
get so well acquainted wiQi me f Since all my fortunes were 
diasipated at the middle of the Exchange," detached irom all 
business of my own, I mind that of other people. For 

M Tbe name of Janus was sometimea ^vea to those great arcades 
wbich crosBed the streets of Boms. livy tells us there were three oT 
them erected ID the lamm, the middleof which Horace means, aod wMch 
be distinguiahea from tbe Janiis twimma and Jaaai imui. Ed, Ddbl. 

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formerly I used to take a delight in iDquiring, in what vase 
the CTatty Si83^hus might have washed hia feet; what wai 
carved in an unworkmanlike manner, and what more roa^ly 
cast than it ought to be ; being a connoisBeur, I offered a hao- 
dred thousand sesterces for such a statue ; I was the only man 
who knew bow to purchase gardens and fine seats to the best 
advsutage : whenco the crowded ways gave me the surname 
of Mercurial." I know it well; and am amazed at your 
being cured of that disorder. Why a new disorder expelled 
the old one ia a marvelous manner ; as it is accustomed to 
do, when the pain of the afflicted side, or the head, is turned 
upon the stomach ; as it is with a man in a lethargy, when he 
turns boier, and attacks his physician. As long as you do 
nothing like this, be it even as you please, my good friend, 
do not deceive yourself; you likewise are mad, and it is 
almost "fools all,"" if what Stertinius insists upon has any 
truth in it ; from whom, being of a teachable disposition, I 
derived these admirable precepts, at the very time when, hav- 
ing given me consolation, he ordered me to cnltivato a philo 
Bophical beard, and to return cheerfully from the Fabrician 
bridge. For when, my afiairs being desperate, I had a mind 
to throw myself into the river, having covered my head" [for 
that purpose], he fortunately" was at my elbow; and [a<l- 
dressed me to this effect] : Take care," how you do any thin^ 

^ J&rcuriale, Damaaippus, ever in character, boasts of a surname, 
wbich was given him in raiUety. Mercuij waa the goi of commerce, 
and when a raaii had en uaconimon skill in buying and «elliog-, be was 
uflually called HercarialU, or favoriie of ifercury. A number of mer- 
chants, in 269, formed tbemselv&s into a body with this title, and de<]i- 
cated a templo to the god. En. Dubl, 

^ It was an absurd and ridiculous maxim among the Stoica, that «11 
vicious people were equally fools and nadmeD, iV^^doea not tbeoielbra 
lessen the unirereality of the proposition, for the Latins ftequendy usa 
jTope aui/ere fbr eemper, In the next line, ft is not sud in any manner 
of doubt, but haa the Ibrce of an affirmative. Fran, 

" They who devoted tbemselvea to death for the good of their eounr 
try, covered tbeir heads with their robe ; and it is pleasant enough to 
see Damasippus doing Uia^ in an excess of despsic and folly, which 
Deciua did in a transport of religion and generosity. This Image gives 
rise to the raillery of Stertinius, when Jie says, "nil verbi, pereas quin 
fortiter. addam." San. 

*■ Dexter,— OppoTlanns, propitm. The right waa tj the ancients 
ssCeemed the lui^y side. 

" Cave taxis. The Stoics despised death when itwaa bonoreblo or na. 

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nnwortliy of yourself; a false shame, says h«, afflicts you, who 
dread to be esteemed a madmao among madmeQ. For in the 
first plaoe I will inquire, what it is to be mad : and, if thia 
distemper be ia you exclusively, I will not add a single word, 
to prevent you from dying bravely. 

The school and sect of Chryaippus" deem every man mad, 
whom vicious folly or the ignorance of truth drives blindly 
forward. This definition takes in whole nations, this even 
'great kings, the wise man [alone] excepted. Now leam, why 
all tliose, who have fixed the name of madman upon you, sn 
as senseless as yourself. As in the woods, where a mistake 
makes people wander about from the proper path ; one goea 
out of the way to the right, another to the left ; there is tha 
same blunder on both sides, only the illusion is in different 
directions: in this manner imagine yourself mad; so that he, 
who derides you, hangs hia tail" not one jot wiser than your- 
sel£ There is one species of folly, that dreads things not in 
the least formidable ; insomuch that it will complain of fires, 
and rocks, and rivers opposing it in the open pfein ; there is 
another different from this, but not a whit more approaching 
to wisdom, that runs headlong through the midst of flames 
and floods. Let the loving mother, the virtuous sister, the 
father, the wife, together with all the relations [of a man pos- 
sessed with this latter fbllyj, cry out : " Here is a deep ditch ; 
here is a prodigious rock; take care of yourself:" he would 
give no more attention, than did the drunken Fu£ns" soma 

cessary, but to droWD himself in despair was a viUsinons deaUi fbr a phi- 
losopher. But the pleasantly of the scene is, that Stertinios is going to 
cooriiice him lie is a, fool, and then advises him not to do any tmng 
which maj dishonor hia character. Sah. Dao. 

^ Ckrysippi poTtictu. The J'or'inu was a fernous gallery at AUieas, 
where Zeno hold hia school, which, from the Greek word Sroa, Forticus, 
took the name of Stoic, Sah 

33 Catidam traJiat, Ametaphor, aatheoldcommeDtatorwellobserves, 
taken from a cuslom among chUdreo, who tied a tail behind a person 
whom the; had amind to laugh at Fram. 

^ ^fiiu waa BD actor wbo, playiog the character of Ilione, was sup- 
posed to be asleep, when the choat of her son Poljdore caUed to her, 
" Dear mother, bear me." Fuflua, having dniok too much, fell really 
asleep; and Catienus, who played Polydore, having called to hiro, witt^ 
out waking him, the whole bouse, as if each of them was a Catienos, 
cried out, " Dear mother, hear me." Ibe number of twelve hundred is 

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tim« asos when he overslept the charact«r of Qione, twelre 
huDdred CatUni at the aame time roaring out, mothtr, I 
call yov to my aid. I will demonstrate to you, that the 
eaneralit^ of all mankind are mad in the commisaion of eome 
foUy similar to this. 

Damasippus is mad for purchasing antique stalnea ; but is 
Damasippus' creditor in his Benses} Well, suppose I should 
say to you: receive this," which yon can never repay: vrill 
you be a madman, if you receive it; of would you be more 
absurd for rdecling a booty, which propitious Mercury offers! 
* Take bond, Uke the banker Nenus, for ten thousand ses- 
terces; it will not «gnify: add the forms of Cicuta," so 
versed in the knotty points of law: add a thousand obliga- 
tions : yet this wicked Proteus will evade all these ties. When 
you shall drag him to justice, laughing as if his cheeks were 
noue of his own ;" he will be transformed into a boar, some- 
times into ft bird, sometimes into a stone, and when he pleases 
a plensanl exsKaration. Accins or Pacuvius -wrote a tragedj on the 
8(017 °^ nione, and tbe whole pass^^ U preserved to us in Cicero; 
" Mater, te adpello, tu quiB somno curain sospenstun leva^ 
Neque te mei miseret, surge et sepeli natum 
Priusquam term voluciesque." Prah. 

*> StertiDJua goes on to prove, not only tbat Damasippoa Is not a fool, 
tn buying statues, sioce be does not paj for tbem, bat tiiat he would be 
a (bo) indeed, to reTuse the &vor wiuch Mercucj offers him, in the cre- 
dulity of PeriliiuH. Cia 

■• iSbritere is sometimes used in the sense " to acknowledge the receipt 
el a sum borrowed;" hence aome have eappoaed that the meamog- hero 
is icribe te decern seslertia accepisse a Nerio, as said ^ij Oamasippus' 
creditor. Thus, Jftrtm is a baoltor, with whom DamasippuB' rawlitcr 
n'erilliua) had lodged hia money, and in whose books Damasippua, when 
dewing the ten seatertia, was required to acknowledge {aeriher^ the re- 
oeipt of 80 amch money. But I prefer Gesner's inlerpretalion. »cn'6e 
iicem tabulae a NtTio, i.e. " draw out ten bonds with all the niceties 
of Senuj," a usurer, well known for his care in wording the bonds, so 
that there could be no evasion. U'CAri. 

"' OiGuta was an old notary, who knew toowell the practice of bonds, 
to neglect any cIbusbs or forms, capable of flndiog tbesa engagementa. 
Such is ths G>rce of nodww. TiAnla are the bonds or contracts^ from 
whence notaries were called tabuioHi. Ed. Dobl. 

'^ People are not usually too careful of what belongs to others, from 
whence this kind of proverbial expression, " laughing with aoother man's 
dieeks." Dacier very well cdraerres. that our poet bath translated it 
from Homer, when he eays of Penelope's lover^ 

OS S ^da yvcS^ioici ytXuav [UAapiaim. 

Odtss. Uh. IX. V. 846. 

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into a tree. If to conduct one's affairs badly be tbe p&rt cf a 
Hie madman ; and the reverse, that of a man well in his senses ; 
brain of Perillius (believe me), who orders you [that sum of 
money], which you can never repay, is much more unsound 
£tban yours]. 

Whoever grows pale with evil ambition, or the love of money : 
whoever is heated with luxury, or gloomy superstition, or any 
other disease of the mind, I command him to adjust his garment 
and attend : hither, all of ye, come near me in order, while I 
convince you that you are mad. 

By &r the largest portion of hellebore is to be administered 
to the covetous : I know not, whether reason does not consign 
all Antieyra to their use. The heirs of Staberiua engraved 
the sum [which he left them] upon his tomb : unless they had 
acted in this manner, they were under an obligation" to ex- 
hibit a hundred pur of gladiators to tlie people, beude an eU' 
tertainment accoraing to the direction of Airius ; and as mnch 
com as is cut in Africa. Whether I have willed this rightly or 
wrongly, it was my will ; be not severe against me, [cries the 
testator]. I imagine the provident mind of Staberius foresaw 
this. What then did he mean, when he app<nnted by will that 
Us heirs should engrave the sum of their patrimony upon his 
tomb-stone ! As long as he lived, he deemed poverty a great 
vice, and nothing did he more industriously avoid : insomuch 
that, had he died less rich by one farthing, Uie more iniquitous 
would he have appeared to himselt For every thing, virtue, 
fame, ^loiy, divine and human affairs, are subservient to the 
attractioD of riches ; which whoever shall have accumulated, 
shall be illustrious, brave, iuat — What, wise too ) Ay, and a 
Idng, and whatever else he pleases. This he was in hopes 
would greatly redound to his praise, as if it had been an acqui- 
dtion of his virtue. In what respect did the Grecian Aristip- 
pus" act Uke this ; who ordered nia slaves to throw away his 

** Damnaii jwpuJo. AUading to the tbnn of tlie will, in which tba 
testator reqaired any thing of tus tieir, Hebss duinas bsto. 

<* Aristippos was the chief of the C^recaic sect He held that plea*- 
ore was the mmnuaa ftonum, and virtue oalj valuable as it was a means 
of gaining that pleasure. Epicums was perfectly rigid when compared 
to his master Aristippua, and bj our author's manner of mentioning him 
in man/ parts of his works, we toay believe he was no enemy to bo con- 
venient a philoeaphy. Staberios, who Was a Stoic, has given an ill- 
natnred turn to Uiis story, whici is niuch commeniled by Oioero ; for 
Aristippns had only one ^ve, wliom be commaocled to ttuow KWtj aa 
much Ot his money as was too heavy to carry. Dao. 8.i((, 

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IQS S4TraBS OF HOIUCB. booeil 

Sold in tiie roidit of Libya ; because, encnmbered with the bur- 
en, thej traveled too slowly t Which is the greater madman 
of tiieae two ? An example is notbinff to the purpose, that de- 
cides one controTeray by creating ano£er. ff any person were 
to buy lyres, and [when he had bought them] to stow them in 
oue place, though neither addicted to the lyre nor to hay 
one muse whataoeTer : if a man were [lo buy] parine-kiiivea 
and lasts, and were no shoemaker ; aails fit for navigation, and 
were averse to merchandisiug ; he would every where deserved- 
ly be styled delirious, and out of his senses. How does ho 
differ from these, who hoards up cash and gold land] knows 
not how to use tlkem when accumulated, and is afraid to touch 
them as if thej were consecrated t If any person before a great 
heap of com should keep perpetual watch with a long club, 
and, though the owner of it, and hungry, should not dare to 
take a single grain from it ; and should rather feed upon bitter 
leaves : if^ while a thousand hogsheads of Chian, or old Faler- 
nian, is stored up within (nny, tliat is nothing — three hundred 
thousand), he drink nothing, but what is mere sham vinegar : 
again — if, wanting but one year of cigh^, he should lie upon 
straw, who has bed-clothes rotting in his chest, the food of 
worms and moths ; he would seem mad, belike, but to few per- 
sons: because the greatest part of mankind labors under the 
same malady. 

Thou dotard, hateful to the gods, dost thou guard [these 
possessions], for fear of wanting thyself: to the end that thy 
son, or even the freedman thy heir, should guzzle it all up 1 
For how little will each day deduct from your capital, if you 
beriu to pour better oil upon your greens and your head, filthy 
vnh scurf not combed out! If any thing be a suffideucy, 
wherefore are you guilty of perjury [wherefore] do yon rob, 
and plunder from all quarters ! Are you in your senses ! If 
you were to begin to pelt the populace ■with stones, and the 
slaves, which you purchased witti your money ; all the very 
boys and girls will cry out that you are a madman. When 
you dispatch your wife with a rope, and your mother with poi- 
son, are you right in your head! Why not ) You neither did 
this at Argos, nor slew your mother with the sword as the mad 
Orestes did. What, do you imagine that he ran mad after be 
had murdered his parent; and uaat he was not driven mad by 
the wicked Furies, before he warmed his sharp steel in his 

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motber'a throat t Nay, from the time that Orestes ia deemed 
to liave been of a dangerous dispoaitioD, be did nothing in 
fact that you can blame ; he did not dare to offer violence 
with hia flword to Pylades, nor to his aister Electra ; he only 

fave in language to both of them, by calling her a Fury, and 
Im some other [opprobrious name], which nia violent cboler 

C^imiua, poor amid wker and gold hoarded up within, who 
used to drink out of Campanian ware Veientine" wine on holi- 
days, and mere dregs on common days, was some time ago 
taken with a prodigious lethargy ; insomuch that his heir was 
already scounng about his coffers and keya, in joy and tri- 
nmph. Hjb physician, a man of much di»iatch and fidelity, 
raises him in this manner : be orders a table to be brought, 
and the hags of money to be poured out, and several persona to 
approach in order to count it : by this method be seta the man 
upon his legs again. And at the same time he addresses him 
to this effect Unless you guard your money your ravenous 
heir will even now ca^ off Siese [treasures] of yours. What, 
while I am alive ! That you may live, therefore, awake ; do 
thia. What would you have me do ! Why your blood will 
^1 you that are so much reduced, unless food and some great 
restorative be administered to your decaying stomach. Do you 
heritate! come on; take this ptisan" made of rice. How 
much did it coat ! A trifle. How much then ? £jgbt asses. 
Alas ! what does it matter, whether I die of a disease, or by 
tbed and rapine ! 

Wbo then is sound t He, who ia not a fool. What is the 
covetous man t Both a fool and a madman. What — if a man 
be not covetous, ia he immediately [to be deemed] soimd t By 
no means. Why so. Stoic t I will tell you. Such a patient 
(suppose Graterua [the physician] said this) is not sick at the 
neut. Is he therefore well, and shall be get up ! No, he will 
forbid that ; because his side or his reins are harassed with an 
acute disease. [In like manner], such a man is not peijured, 

<> Tbis wine wss or a very poor kind. See Lamb and OrellL 
<' /ftmniirtttm. The dimiDutiva from pieana, uabusked barlej or 
rice, IVom nriaau, lando, tandeado deeortico. Here it means a decoction, a 
kind of gruel madeoToryia, rice. IfCAUL. Bice was not then cultivBt- 

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nor aoidid; kt lum then Bacrifio« s lu^ to hia pnmitious** 
household gods. But he is ambilious and assuming. Let him 
make a voyage [then] to Auticjra. For what is the difference 
whether yon fliug whaterer you have into a gul^ or make no 
nse of your acouisidons ) 

SemuB Oppidius, rich in the possesion of an ancient estate, 
is reported when dying to have divided two &nns at Canusima 
between his two sons, and to have addressed the boys, called to 
Ms bed-side, [in the following manner] : When I saw you, Aa- 
Jus, carry your playthings and nula carelessly in your bosom, 
fand] to give them and game them away; you, Tiberius, count 
them, and anxious hide them in holes ; I was afhud lest a mad- 
nees of a different nature should possess you : lestyon [Aulus], 
should follow the example of Nomentanus, you, [ifberius], that 
of Ciouta. Wherefore each of you, entreated by our household 
gods, do yoD (Aulus) take care lest you lessen ; you (liberius) 
lest you make that greater, which your &ther thioki and the 
purposes of nature determine to be sufficient Further, lest 
glory should entice you, I will bind each of you by an oath : 
whichever of you sliall be an jedile or a prtetor, let him be 
excommunicated and accursed. Would you destroy your effects 
in [latgeesea of] peas, beans, and lupines,*' that yon may stalk 
in the circus at large, or stand in a statue of brass, O madman, 
stripped of your paternal estate, stripped of your money? 
To the end, forsooth, that you may gain those applauses, 
which Agrippa" gains, like a cunning foi imitating a generous 

<■ All the good and bad accidents tliat happened in fkniliee wera gen- 
erally attributed to the domeeUc gods, aod as these gods ware tbe sons 
of the goddess of madness, they were particularly worshiped by persons 
disordered ia their underetaoding. Stertinius therefore advises tbe man, 
who, by the favor of these gods, is neither peijured nor a miser, grate- 
fally to sacrifice a swine to tbem, which was their usual sacrifice. 
"Fmge Lares, avidiqae porcA" Od. xxiiL lib. il Toaa. 

" Distributiooa of these were frequently made to the people by can- 
didates for oEBcea, or by the tedilea at the celebration of tbe games, etc. 
Oppidius asks whether bis son would ba so mad as to squander hia prop- 
erty in laj^eases, for the sake of obt^ning an oCBce in the state. Comp, 
Pers. Sat. v. 177 : 

"T^la et cicer inpterelaiKi 

Riianti populo, nostra i 

t> This compliment to Agrippa is introduced with great ar^ as if tt 

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O Agamemnon, why do you prohibit any one from bury- 
ing" Ajax ! I am a king, I, a plebeian," make no further' in- 
quiry. And I command a just thing ; but, if I seem unjust to 
aDy one, I permit you to speak your sentiments with impunity. 
Greatest of kings, may the gods grant tiat, after the taking of 
Troy, you may conduct your fleet safe home : may I tibeu 
have the liberty to ask queetioiui, and reply in my turn 1 
Ask. Why does Ajax, the second hero after Achillea, rot 
[above ground], so often renowned for having saved the Gre- 
cians ; that Friam and Priam's people may exult in his being 
uuburied, by whose means bo many youths have been deprived 
of their country's rites of sepulture. In his madness be killed 
a thousand sheep, crying out that he was destroying the iar 
mous Ulysses and Menelaus, together with me. When you at 
Aulis substituted your sveet daughter in the place of a heifer 
before the altar, and, impious one, sprinkled her head with 
the salt cake; did yon preserve soundness of mindt Why 
do you ask t What then did the mad Ajax do, when he slew 
the flock with his sword ) He abstained from any violence to 
hia wife and child, though he had imprecated many curses oa 
the sons of Atreus : he neither hurt Teucer, nor even Ulysses 
himselt But I, out of prudence, appeased the gods with blood, 
that I might loose the ships detained on aa adverse shore. 
Yes, madman 1 vrith your own blood. With my own [indeed], 
but I was not mad. Whoever shall form images foreign from 
reality, and confused in the tumult of impiety," will always be 
reckoned disturbed in mind : and it will not matter, whether 
he go wrong through folly or through rage. Is Ajai delirious, 

escaped accndeDtall/, and it ia anlivened hj a compariBOD, short but no- 
ble. Although A^ppa had been consul in 711, yet he condescended 
to accept the office ofcedile in 120, whan he entertained the people with 
a ma^iflceuce and expense beyond what tbej had ever seen. San. 

« Here opens another scene, in which a king and a Stoic are engaged, 
and in which the philoaopber proves in good form, that this greatest of 
monarcbB is a fbol and a madman. The debate arises (mm an incident 
in a play of Sophoolea, in which Agamemnon reliiBeB to let Ajai be bu- 
ried. SAtr. 

" Agamemnon finding his answer, lam a Icing, a little too tyrannical, 
edds, our decree woe just Perhaps the humility of the philosopher, either 
ironical or serious, in seeming to allow hia royal manner of deciding the 
question, extorted this condescenaion fbim the monarch. Ed. Duhl. 

<^ i c. the perturbatioQ of mind leading to the commission <^ impious 
deeds. OmLLL 


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while he kills the hannleas lambat Are yon right in jom 
head, when you willfully commit a crime for emp^ titlea ! 
And is your Heart pure, while it ia awolleu with the vice )" f 
any person should take a delieht to cany abont with him in 
his sedan a pretty lambkin ; ana should provide clothes, should 
provide maids and gold for it, as for a duigbter ; should call it 
Rafa and RufiUa, and should deatine it a wife for aome stont 
hosbaad ; the prtetor would take power from him being In- 
terdicted, and uie management of uim would devolve to hia 
relations, that were in their senses. What, if a man devote 
his daughter instead of a dumb lambkin, is he right of 
mind ) Never say it Therefore, wherever there is a foolisk 
depravity, there will be the height of madness. He who is 
wicked, will be frantic too : BelToua, who delights in blood- 
shed, has thundered about him, whom precarious fiuue has cap- 

Now, come on, arr^gn with me luxury and Komentanua ; 
for reason will evince uat foolish speadtbrifl» are mad. This 
fellow, as soon as he received a thousand talents of patrimony, 
issues an order that the fishiaoDger, the finiiterer, the poid~ 
terer, the perfumer, and the impious gang of the Tuscan alley, 
sausage-maker, and buffoons, the whole shambles, together 
with ^n Velabrunt, should come to his house in the morn- 
ing. What was the consequence) They came >n crowds. 
The pander makes a speech ; " Whatever I, or whatever each 
of these has at home, believe it to be yours : and ^ve your 
order for it either directly, or to-morrow." Hear what reply 
the conuderate youth made : " You sleep booted in Lucamau 
snow, that I may feast on a boar : you sweep the wintery seas 
for fish : I am indolent, and unworthy to possess so much. 
Away with it : do you take for your share ten hundred 
thousiind sesterces ; you as much ; you thrice the sum, from 
whose house your spouse runs, when called for, at midrught." 
The son of .lEwpus, [the actor] (that he might, forsooth, 
swallow a million of sesterces at a draught), dissolved in 
vinegar a precious pearl, which he had taken from the ear 
of Mctella : how much wiser was he [in doing this,] thaa if 
he had thrown the same into a rapid river, or the common 
sewer) The progeny of Quintius Arrius, an illustrious pair 
of brothers, twins in wickedness and trifling and the lovs 
<* i & of raadncm. 

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of depravity, used to dine upon nigHtingalea bou^t at ft 
vast expense: to whom do these belong! Are they in their 
senses f Are they to be marked with chalk, or with 
charcoal J" 

If an [aged person] with a long beard should take a de- 
light to build baby-hoDses, to yoke mice to a go-cart, to play 
at odd and even, to ride upon a long cane, madness must be 
Us motive. If reason shall evince, that to be in tove is a 
more childish thing than these; and that there is no differ- 
ence whether yon play the same games in the dust as when 
three years old, or whine in anxiety for the love of a harlot: 
I beg to know, if you will act as die reformed Poleraon" ^d 
of old t Will you lay aside those ensigns of your disease, 

said to have privately torn the chaplet from his neck, after 
he was corrected by the speech of his fasting master} When 
you o^r apples to an angry boy, he revises them : here, take 
thera, you UtUe dog ; he denies you : if you don't give them, 
he wants them. In what does an excluded lover differ [from 
lucb a boy] ; when he argues with himself whether he should 
go or not to that very place whither he was returning with- 
out being sent for, and cleaves to the hated doors! "What 
shall I not go to her now, when she invites me of her own 
accord t or shall I rather think of putting an end to my 
pains t She has excluded me ; she recalls me : shall I re- 
tnm! No, not If she would implore me." Observe the 
■errant, not a little wiser : " O master, that which has nei- 
ther moderatioQ nor conduct, can not be guided by reason or 
method. In love these evils are inherent ; war [one while], 
then peace agdn. If any one should endeavor to ascertain 
these things, tbat are various as the weather, and fluctuating 

x> A. proverbial eTprea^on. Are the/ to be acquitted or condenmed T 
Are they wise or foolish ? 

" PalemoD was a young Athenian, who, runmng one day through the 
streets, inflamed with wine, had the curiosity ta go into the school of 
XBDOoralea to hear liim. The philosopher daiterously turned hia dis- 
course upon sobriety, aod spoke with so much force, that Folemon from 
that moment rcnouniv^d his intemperance, and pursued his studies witli 
Bach application, as to succeed Senocratea in his BObool. Thus, as Ta- 
lerius Maiimus remarks, being cured by the wholesome medicine cFono 
oration, he became a celebrated philosopher, from an infamous prodigaL 

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by blind chance ; he will make no more 
should eel aboat raving by right i 
when, picking the pippins" fioro the Picenian apples, you 
lejoice if haply you have hit the raulled roof; are you your- 
aelft What — when you strike out bltering accents from 
your antiquated palate, how much wiser ore you than [a 
child] that builds little houses t To the folly [of love] add 
blootuhed, and atir the fire with a sword." 1 ask yoo, when 
Marius lately, after be had stabbed Hellas, threw himself 
down a precipice, was he raving mad t Or will you absolve 
the man from the imputation ot a disturbed mind, and con- 
demn him for the crime, acconiing to your cnstom, imposing 
on thiogs names that have an affimty in «gnification! 

There was a certain freedman, who, an old dwd, ran abont 
the streets in a momii^ fasting, with his hands washed, and 
priced thus : " Snatch me alone from death" (adding some 
solemn vow), " me alone, for it is an easy matter for the gods :" 
this man was sound in both his ears and eyes ; but his master, 
when he sold him, would except his understanding, unless he 
were fond of law^suita.** This crowd too Chrysppus places 
in the fruitful family of Meuenius. 

O Jupiter, who givest and takest away great afflictions, 
(cries the mother of a boy, now lying sick a-bed fbr five 
tnoQthB), if this cold quartan ac^e should leave the child, in 
the morning of that day on which you enjoin a fast," be shall 
stand naked in the Tiber, ^ould chance or the physician 
relieve the patient from bis imminent danger, the infatuated 

** The allaaioD is to a babit of detenninii^ the good or bad fbrtane of 
lore bj trjing to strike the cetluig of a room with the pippins ofifiplea. 
Tbef were raised by presaog them betwecc the first tno fingers. If 
they Blnick the ceiling, it waa considered a good onieii. Whebleb. 

*' Ignum gtadio Krutar^, a proverbia] precept of PjthagoraB, " Do not 
stir the flra with a sword." Our poet uses it as en ea8f transi^on fh>m 
ths toWj to the madness of lovers. We shall have another proverb in 
tbe same sense, " Oleum adde camina" Crdq. San. 

H por an action would la; against those wbo gave a &lse character 

'* Tbe Romaos had regular &s(s in honor of Jupiter, which were nsa- 
allj celebrated on Thursday, which waa consecraled to that god. Tbey 
began on the eve ; and the next morning, which was properly the &st- 
day, was observed with great rigor and aualerity. Arialophanea, in hia 
Clouds, introduces tbe chorus, compIainiDg tbat they had a fast, rather 
than a feast ; which was observed on the third d^ of tba festival of 
Ceres. Dac. Sah. 

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mother vill destrc^ [the bOT] placed on the cold bank, and 
will bring back the fever. With what aisorder of the mind is 
she Btricsen ! Why, with a superstitioue fear of the gods. 

These arms Stertinius, tbe eighth of the wise men, gave to 
me, as to a friend, that for the future I might not be roughly 
accosted without avenging myself. Whosoever shall call me 
madman, shall hear as much from me [in return] ; and shall 
kaia to look back npon the bag that hauga behind nim.** 

O Stoic, so may you, after your damage, sell all your mer- 
chaudJse tie better : what (oily {for, [it seems,] there are 
more kinds than one) do you think I am infatuated witht For 
to myaelf I seem sound. What — when mad Agave cames 
the amputated head of her unhappy son, does she then seem 
mad to herself! I allow myself a fool (let me yield to the 
truth) and a madman likewise : only declare this, with what 
distemper of mind you think me afflicted. Hear, then : in the 
first place you build ; that is, though irom top to bottom yon 
are but of the two-foot size you imitate the tall : and you, the 
same person, laugh at the spirit and strut of Turbo in armor, 
too great for his [little] body: how are yon less lidicnlous 
than himt What — is it fitting that, in every thing libecenas 
does, yon, who are so very much unlike him and so much his 
inferior, should vie with him t The young ones of a frog be- 
ing in her absence crushed by the foot of a cal^ when one of 
them had made his escape, he told his mother what a huge 
beast had dashed his brethren to pieces. She began to a^ 
how big ? Whether it were so great 1 puffing nerself up. 
Greater by halt What, bo big ! wnen she had swelled her- 
self more and more. If you should burst yourselti says he, 
you will not be equal to it. This image bears no great dis- 
similitude to you. Now add poems (that is, add oH to the 
fire), which if ever any man in his senses made, why so do 
you. I do not mention your horrid rage. At leMth, have 
done — your way of living beyond your fortune — conmie your- 
■elf to your own afiairs, Damasippus — those thousand passions 
for the &ir, the young, -lliou greater madman, at last, spare 
thy inferior. 

'' Hetpicen igneto. This passage may be explaiaed hj the flClj-thinl 
Tine, eavdam Irahat, or by tbe &bla, which bstb that Jupiter threw over 
the shoulder ofeverj monal two bags ; that the Ikulta ofhta aeighbor were 
put into the bag before him, and Ms own into tliat behind him. FaiK, 

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Wbbkcb, and whither, Catius ! I hare not time [to converse 
with you], being deurous of impreeuug oa mv memory some 
new precepts; sach as excel Pythagoras, and him that was 
accused hy Anytus," and the Itjamed Hato. I acknowledge 
my offense, «nee I have interrupted you at so unlucky a 
juDCture : but grant me your pardon, good dr, I beseech you. 
If any thing should have slipped you now, you will presently 
recollect it : whether this talent of yours be of nature, or of 
art, you are amazing in both. Saj, but I was aniioos, how 
I might retain all [these precepts]; as being things of a 
delicate nature, and in a delicate style. Tell me the name of 
this man ; and at the same time whether he is a Roman, or a 
foreigner ? As I have them by heart, I will lecite the pre- 
cepts : the author shall be concealed. 

Bemember to eerye up those e^a that are of an oblong 
make, as being of sweeter flavor and more nutritive than the 
round ones : for, being tough-shelled, they contain a maid 
yelk. Cabbage that grows in dry lands, is sweeter than 
that about town : nothing is more insipid than a garden mudt 
watered. If a viator should come unexpectedly upon you in 
the evening, lest the tough old hen prove disagreeable ~lo his 
palate, yon must learn to drown it in Falemian wine mixed 
[with water] :" this will make it tender. The mushroomg 
that grow in meadows,** are of the best kind : all others are 
dangerously trusted. That man shall spend his summera 
healthy who shall finish his dinners with mulberries" black 
[with ripeness], which he shall have gathered from the tree 

" Anyiigve ream, Socrates, wben AnyCus and Melitus accused. 

» Bat Bentlej is doubtless right in reading " muerto" for " mislo." 

" Notbii^ is more ^Ise. The best mushrooms, generally speaking;, 
are tbose gathered in woods, heaths, or downs. They are more whtda 
some and better flavored than tbose of meadows. Tobb. Dac. 

" The ancients hud only one meal, but they who conld not wiut Ibr 
supper usually eat bread, figs, grapes, or mulberries in the moraiDg, 
Bat OUT doctor, who loved to dine in form, tai^t aootber method, and 
in contradiction to Galea and the faculty, wotjd have his disciples eat 
mulberries after dinner. En. Duel. 

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before the aim becomes violent. Aufidina uaeiJ to mix boney 
witb strong Falernian injudiciously ; because it is right to 
commit nothing to the emptor veins, but what Is emollient : 
joa will, with more propriety, wash your stomach with eoh 
mead. If your belly ^ould be hard bound, the limpet and 
coarse cocKles will remove ohstrnctions, and leaves of the 
amall sorrel; but not without Coan white wine. The in- 
creasing moons swell the lubricating shell-fish. But every sea 
is not productive of the ezquiute sorts. The Lucriue muscle 
is better than the Baian mures: [The best] oyslera come 
from the Circsean promontory ; cray-fish from Misenum : the 
soft Tarentum plumes herself on her broad escalops. Let no 
one presumptuously arrogate to himself the science of ban- 
queting, unless the nice doctrine of tastes has been previously 
considered by him with exact system. Nor is it enouch to ' 
sweep away a parcel of fishes from the expensive stalls, ^hile 
he remains] ignorant for what sort stewed sauce is more 
proper, and what being roasted, the sated guest will presently 
replace himself on his elbow. Let the boar from Umbria, and 
that which has been fed with the acorns of the scarlet oak, 
bend the ronnd dishes of him who dislikes all flabby meat : 
for the Lanrentian" boar, &ttened with flags and reeda, ia 
bud. The vineyard does not always afl'ord the most eatable 
kids. A man of sense will he fond of the shoulders of a 
pregnant hare. What is the proper age and nature of fish 
and fowl, though inquired after, was never discovered before 
iny palate. There are some, whose genius invents nothing 
but new kinds of pastry. To waste one's care upon one thinff, 
is by no means sufficient; just as if any person should use all 
his endeavors for this only, that the wine be not bad ; quite 
careless what oil he pours upon his fish. If you eet out 
Massic" wine in &ir weather, should there be any thing thick 
in it, it will be attenuated by the nocturnal air, and the smell 
unfriendly to the nerves will go ofl' : but, if filtrated through 
linen, it will lose its entire flavor. He, who skilUully mixes 
the Siurentine wine with Falemian lees, collects the sedi- 
ment with a pigeon's egg : because the yelk sinks to the hot- 

" All people of taste have ever oateemed boars fed in marsby ground 
as of hifcber flavor, although Catiua ia of auother opinion. Dao. 

•1 Pliny adviaes, that all the b«flt Campanian wines sbould be exposed 
night and day to the bud, moon, raio, and winds. £d. Ddbl. 

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SOS 8ATIBB8 OF HOBi.GR book a. 

tom, nJHng down willi it all th« hetercweneotis parts. You 
nuj rouH the jaded bHter with roasted BDrimps and African 
cockles ; for lettuce after wine floats upoo the soured stom- 
ach : by ham preferably, and by sausages, it craves to be 
restored to its t^petite : nay, it will prefer every thing which 
is brought smoking hot from the naaty ealjng-houaes. It is 
worth wliile to be acquaiiited with the two kinds of sauce. The 
simple conMats of sweet oil ; which it will be proper to mix 
with rich wine and pickle, but with no other pickle thaa that 
by which the Byzantine jar has been tainted. When this, 
mingled with shredded herbs, has boiled, and sprinkled wil^ 
Corycian saffron, has stood, you shall over and above add 
wh^ the pressed berry of the Venafran oUve yields. The 
Hburtian yield to the Ficenian apples in juice, though they 
excel in look. The Venusian gr^te is proper for [preserving 
in] pots. The Albanian you had netter harden in the soioke. 
I am found to be the first that served up this grape with ap- 
ples in neat Uttle side-plates, to be the first [Ukewine that 
served up] wine-Ieea imd herring-brine, and white peppei 
finely mixed with black salt It 13 an enormous fault to be- 
stow three thousand sesterces on the fish-market, and then to 
cramp the roving fishes in a narrow dish. It causes a great 
uausea in the stomach, if even the slave touches the cup with 
greasy hands, while he Ucks up snacks, or if offensive grime 
has adhered to the ancient goblet In trays, in mats, in E>aw- 
dust, [that are so] cheap, what great expense can there be I 
But, if they are neglected, it is a heinous shame. What, 
should you sweep Mosaic pavements with a dirty broom made 
of p^m, and throw Tynan, carpets over the unwashed furni- 
ture of your couch ! fo^tting, that by how much less care 
and expense these things are attended, so much the more 
justly may [the want of them] be censured, than of those 
things which can not be obtained but at the tables of tho 

Learned Catius, entreated by our friendship and the gods, 
remember to introduce me to an audience [with this great 
man], whenever ■ you shall ^ to him. For, though by your 
memory you relate every thmg to me, yet as a relater you 
can not delight me in so high a degree. Add to this the coun- 
tenance and deportment of the man ; whom you, happy in 
having seen, do not much regard, because it has been your 

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lot : but I bave no small solicitude, that I may approach the 
distant fountain-heads, and imbibe the precepts of [such] a 
blesaed life. 

Ztt a kumoroui dialogtte bebntta Uh/Mes ami T&esiaa, I14 ecpofa those aria 
mhich thefortunt htmien make tae 0/ in order to be unpointed the htirt 
1^ rich old men. 

Bkbiss what you have told me, O 'KresiaB, answer to thia 
petition of mine : by what arts and eipedienfa may I be able 
to repair my ruined fortunes — why do you laugh J Doea it 
already seem little to you, who are practiced in deceit, to be 
brought back to Ithaca, and to behold [again] your family 
household gods ( you who never speak fidsely to any one, 
you see how naked and destitute I return home, accordmg to 
your prophecy: nor is either my cellar, pr my cattle there, 
unembezzled by the suitors [of Penelope]. But birth and 
virtue, unless [attended] with substance, is viler than seBi> 

Since (circumlocutions apart) you are in dread of poverty, 
hear by what means you may grow wealthy. If a thrush, or 
any [nice] thing for your own private [eating], shall be ^ven 
you ; it must wing way to that place, where shines a great 
fortune, the possessor b«ng an old man ; delidous apples, and 
whatever damties your weU-cultivated ground brings forth for 
you, let the rich r"»" , as more to be reverenced than youl 
household god, taste before him : and, though he be peijured, 
of no &mi1y, stained with his brother's blood, a runaway; if 
he desire it, do not refuse to go alon? with him, his compan- 
ion ou the outer side." What, shall I walk cheek by jole 
with a filthy DamasJ I did not behave myself in that man- 
ner at Troy, contending always with the best. You must 
then be poor, I will command my sturdy soul to bear this 
evil ; I have formerly endured even greater. Do thou, O proph- 
et, teh me forthwith how I may amass richea, and heaps of 

" Gomet taierior. In walking with a comyaniou, the side which is 
moat eipoaed was caUed the outer aide. When three people walk to- 
gether, the middle is, for the same reasoo, the most honorable place, and 
& therefbra alw^a given to the person of moat tUstinctioc, tnt«ni>r com«s. 

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210 SATIEES OF EORi.CB. book u 

moDey. lu troth I have told vou, and tell you sgain. Use 
your craft to lie at cutch for the last wills of old dws : nor, 
if one or two cunning cha[is escape by biting the bait off the 
book, either lay aude hope, or qnit the art, tlion^ disap- 
pointed in your aim. If an affair, either of little or great con- 
sequence, shall be contested at any time at the bar ; whicb- 
«rer of the parties live wealthy without hwa, should he be 
a rogue, who daringly tales the law of a better man, be tbou 
his adrocate : despue the citizen, who is superior in reputa- 
tion, and [the justness of] his cause, if at home be has a eon or 
a ftuitful wife. [Address him thus:] "Qnintus, for instance, 
or Publius" (debcate ears delight in the prefixed name}, youi 
virtue has made me your friend. I am acquainted with iho 
precarious quirks of the law ; I can plead causes. Any one 
fiball sooner snatch my eyes frotn me, than he shall despise 
or defraud you of an empty nut. This is my care, that you 
}oee nothing, that you be not made a jest of." Bid him go 
b<Hne, and make much of himself. Be his solicitor yourse^: 
perserere, and be steadfast : whether the faring dc^-star 
shall cleave the in&nt statues ; or Furius, destined vrith bis 
greasy pauncb," shall spue white sno wover the wintery Alps. 
Do not you see (shall some one say, jog^ng the person that 
stands nest to him by the elbow) how inde&tigftble be is, how 
serviceable to bia friends, bow acute ? [By this means] more 
tunnies shall swim in, and your fish-ponds will increase. 

Further, if any one in affluent circumstances has reared" 

** <}uinie, puia, aui PuMi. A slave was no sooner made free, than be 
qualified himself witb a suraame, aucb as Marcus, Quintua, PubHus, 
wMcfa carried a sort of dignity with it. The BomauB saluted each other 
hj their surntunes. Ed. Dubl. 

" Piagia leaiiu omaao. Furius, in apoem on the Gallic war, had said, 
" Jupiter hiberoas canA nive coDspuet Alpes." Horace applies it to the 
author himself adding " pingui tentus omaso" in ridicule of bis appear- 
ance. " Furius poeta immanis ventris, qui nivem spumam («pufum) 
Jovis dixit. Ideo hoc ^us persooEe dedit, tanquam ipse spuat" 8ch. 
Act. Orelli considers three several passages of Furius to be referred to; 
" rubra canicuJa Bndit infkntcs statuas," is a passage in which Furius de- 
Bcribea a statuary, and thought he had a happy expression in infamies, 
since statues are iIj-^Iuitoi By "pingui tentus omaai," some general 
opposed to CEesar is described as a voracious harbariau. " Hibemaa," 
etc, formed the first lioe of his poetical history of Cssar. Wbeeler. 

" SuifoAis. A word takec from a Roman custom of laying their 
new-bom in^ts od the ground, and educating only those the father 

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an ailing Bon, lest a too open complaisance to a single man 
should detect you, creep gradually into the hope [of succeed- 
ing liim], and that you may be eet down as Becond heir; and, 
if any casually should dispatch the boy to Hudes, you may 
come into the vacancy. This ^o Beldom fails. Whoever 
delivers his will to you to read, be mindful to decline it, and 
push the parchment from you : [do il] however in such a 
manner, that you may catch with an oblique glance, what the 
first page" intimates to be in the second clause : run over 
with a quick eye, whether you are sole heir, or co-heir with 
many. Sometimes a well-seasoned lawyer, risen from a 
Quinquevir," shall delude the gaping raven ; and the fortune- 
hunter Nasica shall be laughed at by Coraims. 

What, art thou in a [prophetic] raving ; or dust thou play 
upon We designedly, by uttering obacuritiea ? O son of Laertes, 
whatever I shall say will come to pass, or it vrill not :** for the 
great Apollo pves me the power to divine. Then, if it is 
proper, relate wiat that tale means. 

At that time when the youth dreaded by the Farthiais, an 
oS&pring derived from the noUe JEneaa, shaU be mighty by 
land and sea ; the tall daughter of Naaica, averse to pay the 
sum total of his debt^ shall wed the stout Coranus. liien the 
Bon-in-law shall proceed thus : he shall deliver his will to his 
&ther-in-law, and entreat him to read it; Nasica will at length 
receive it, afier it has been several times refused, and silently 
peruse it ; and will find no other legacy left to him and his, 
except leave to lament. 

" Prima eera signifies the first page of the will, in which the testator's 
name was written. Secamio versa was tbe second line, wbicb contained 
the names of the heirs and co-heirs. Ed. Dtbl. 

" lbs qainqaeviri were a kind of tip-staff or t>ailiff| in tbe colonies and 
municipal towns. A man who bad i^aased through these little oCBces 
may well be supposed to be sufficiently knowing in what we call the 
msctlce, and from this body public notaries and registers were chosen. 
Horace therefore means, by seriba recocbu, a notarj sufflcientlj refined 
in tricks and cunning of the law. Becocdit is properly double-dyed, that 
hath fuUf taken its color. Go. Dubl. 

'* Qaxdquid dicam, aid erit, aut turn. It is weil disputed, whether 
these words be apokeo in jest by TIrcsiaa, to rally the monarch who con- 
sults him, or whether he I'M carelessly niscorers bis real opinion or bis 
art There is' an acknowledged ambiguity and doubts meaning in his 
expression, nndor which, peiiiaps, tbe poet disguises his own sentiments 
of the diilJ of these diviners, and the frequent ambiguity of tbetr answeia 
Ed. Dcbl. 

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212 SATIRES OF HORACK dcx)e n. 

To these rdirectiom I have already given], I Bnbjoiti the 
[following]: if haply a canning womaD or a f.eedmaii have 
the man^meDt of an old dnvoler, join with them as an 
assodate : P"^'*» them, that you may be praised in your 
absence. Thia too is of service ; but to storm [the capital] 
itself excels this method by tai. Shall he, a dotard, scribble 
wretched verMs' Applaud lliem. Shall he be given to 
pleasure t Take care [you do not suffer him] to ask jon : 
of your own accord complusantly deUver up your Penelope 
to him, as preferable [to yourself]. What— do yon think so 
sober and so chaste a woman can be brought oyer, whom [so 
many] wooers could not divert from the right course t 
Became, forsooth, a parcel of young fellows came," who were 
too parumonious to give a great price, nor so much dearons 
of an amorous intercourse, as of the kitchen. So &r your 
Penelope is a good woman : who, had she once tasted of one 
old [doting gallant], and shared with yoti the profit, like a 
hound, will never be frighted away from the reekmg skin \a{ 
the new-killed game]. 

"n^t I am going to tell you happened when X was an old 
tnan, A wicked hag at Thebes was, according; to her wiU, 
carried forth" in thia manner : her heir bora her corpse, 
anointed with a large quantity of oil, upon his naked shoul- 
ders ; with the intent that, if possible, she might escape from 
him even when dead : because, I im^ne, he had pressed 
upon her too much when Uving. Be cautious in your ad- 
dresses : neither be wanting in your pains, nor immoderately 
exuberant. By garrulity you will offend the splenetic and 
morose. You must not, however, be too silent. Be Davus 
in the play ; and stand with your head on one side, much like 
one who is in great awe. Attack him with complaisance : if 
the air freshens, advise him carefully to cover up his precious 
head: disengage him horn the crowd by opposing your 
shoulders to it : closely attach your ear to him, if chatty. Is 

" AUboagli Tiresiaa gives UlTSBes no better reason tot hie wile's 
virtue dian the avarice of ber lovers, jet the monarch hears Mm 
padentlj, since even this reason proves her suffidently viitaooa. Our 

Cprobablj toolf the hint of this passage trom Homer, who makes 
dope reproach her wooers with tbeir want of generosity, and never 
having made her anj presenta. The next Lne is ahnoat f Vanfiation 
from 3ie Odyssey. Daa 
^' Slata. Carried out to tha Aioeral pila Ter. Andr. L E^trtut, Imi». 

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y he immoderately fond of being prmsed ! Pay him bome, till 
he «hall cry out, with his hands lifted up to heaven, " £iiouo;h :" 
and puff up the Bwelling bladder with tumid apeechea. When 
he Bhal! have [at last] released you from your long servitude 
and anxiety ; and being certainly awake, you shall hear [this 
article in hia will] ! "Let Ulysses be heir to one fourth of my 
estate:" "is then my companion Damas now no morot 

^ "Where shall I find one so brave and so iaithiul V Throw 
out [something of tiiis kind] every now and then : and if you 
can a little, weep for him. It, is fit to disguise your coun- 
tenance, wMcb [otherwise] would betray your joy. Ab for 
the monument, which is left to your own discretion, erect it 
without meanness. The neighborhood will commend the 
funeral handsomely performed. If haply any of your co-heirs, 
being advanced in years, should have a dangerous cough ; 

'■• whether he has a miud to be a purchaser of a &rm.or a house 
out of your share, tell him, you will ^come to any terms he 
shall pr^ose, and] make it over to him gladly for a trifling 
sum." But the imperious Proserpine drags me hence. Live, 
and prosper. 

1 oppoaUvm to the 

This was [ever] among the number of my wishes : a portion 
of ground not over large, in which was a garden, and a foun- 
tain with a continual stream close to my bouse, and a little 
woodland besides. The gods have done more abuudautty, 
and better, for me [tbau tois]. It is well : son of Maia," 

" Nwmmo addicere. 'When a counl«rffait sale was made of any thing 
left by will, the forms or law were tflbe otMerved. The buyer and seller 
went to a public officer called LSbripmt, or keeper of the scales; and 
the purchaser, in the presence of witnesses, put a piece of money inl« the 
scales, which the seller took out, and the sale was afterward deemed 
legal "Nummo addicere" means here "to sell for nothing." Dac. 

'" Maid note. He addresses his prayer to Mercury, not only because 
this god was a patron of poels in general, and that our poet, as we find 
in his Odes, was particularly obliged \o hia protection, but because be 
presided over iuduatry and merchandize, as Hercules did over any sud- 
dSKi, soddeatal increase of riches. Besides, he was a rural deity, from 

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S14 SA.TniBa OF HOBA.CE. soocit 

I mk noUung mora uve that you Toald render these doiia- 
tiooa laating to me. If I have neither made my estate larger 
hy bad moana, nor am in a vay to make it less by vice <x 
misconduct; if I do not foolishly make any petition of this 
aort— "Oh that that neighboring angle, which now spoils the 
rwularity" of my field, could be added I Oh that some ao- 
cident would discover to me an urn [full] of money ! as it 
did to him, who having found a treasure, bought toat very 
ground he before tilled in the capacity of an hired servant, 
enriched by Hercules' being his friend ;" if what I baye at 
present satisfies me grateful, I supplicate you with this prayer : 
make my cattle &t for the use of their master, and every thing 
else, except my ^nius :" and, as you are wont, be present 
as my chief guardian. Wherefore, when I have removed my- 
self from the dty to the mountains and my castle," (what can 
I polish, jreferably to my satires and prosaic muse )")Aieitiiet 
evd ambiiion destroys me, nor the heavy" south wind,/nor the 
sickly autumn, the gain of baleful Libitina. 

Father of the morning," or Jonua, if with more pleasure 

wheuce, as Docier obsorres, the poet recommends the preservatioD of 
bis cattle to him, in the fourteenth veno. Ed, Ddbl. 

" DenorinaU We do not flud thia word in any other author. 

" Bt ciBlera prater itigenivm. The Latins, in speaking of stjle, faava 
expressions not unlike this, "pingue et adip^um diceodi genua; poeta 
pinguEB quiddam sommCes." Tbia plajing on the double meaning or the 
word is much in uur author'a manner. Besides, Mercury was a good- 
humored god, who understood raillery, "de Dis non tristibua." Yet, 
fbr fear tlie deity should underataod the word cetera in its full extent, 
and without any exception, tbe petitioner pleasantly guards against the fitt 
nssa of bia understanding. Sa.». 

" In Oram. He considers bis country-house as a citadel inaccessibla 
to the cares that besieged him at Borne. 8am. 

" Maadqae pukstri. The niuae of satire, if such an expression maybe 
allowed, is a muse on foot She borrowed nothing from poetry but ths 
measures of her verses, the only particular in which she diSfers &om 

" Plaminun, Thia epithet very well expresses the wcughi of air in 
autumn, when tho south wind waa usually attended at Rome with pesti- 
lential disorders. Our poet's country-houae waa covered by mounlaina, 
in sach a manner, that be had nothing to fear from its bad effects. 

■e prc^rly beg^a here* aud all b 

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thou hearest thyself [called by that name], from whom men 
«MHumence the toils of business, and of life (such is the will of 
the gods), be thou the banning of my song. At Rome you 
hurry me away to be bail ; " Away, dispateh, fyou cry,] lest 
tmy one should be beforehand with you in doing that friendly 
office :"*° I must go, at all events, whether the north wind 
sweep the earth, or winter contracts the snowy day into a '■ 
. narrower circle." After this, having uttered in a dear and 
determinate manner [the legal fonn], which may be a detri- 
ment to me, I must bustle through the crowd ; and must dis- 
obUge the tardy. "What is your will, madman, and what 
are you about, impudent fellow!" So one accosts me with 
his passionate curses. " You jostle every thing that is in 
your way, if with an appointment iiill in yonr mind you are 

Cling away to Mcecenas." This pleases me, and is like 
ley : I will not t«ll a lie. But by the time I reach the 
gloomy Esquilite, a hundred affaita of other people's eooom' 
pass me on every side : " Roscius be^ed that you would be 
with htm at the court-house" to-morrow before the second 
hour." " The seoretariea" requested you would remember, 
Quintus, to return to^y about an affair of public concern, 
and of great consequence." " Get Maecenas to put his signet" 

** To Bbow that all his distreBsea be^n with the morning, the poet io- 
troducea Janus, the god of the mormng, pressing them upon him, JTrg» 
aim Aqmlo, etc. Dac. 

" AUcriore diem. The northern part of the circle which the sun de- 
scribes in Hammer is more distant trom our earth than the eouthem part, 
which he describes in winter. From hence our days are shorter io winter 
tban in aummor, and he may therefore be poetical) y said to drive the daj 
to a smaller course. Horace calls this circle "interiorera gyrum," bja 
figure taken frooi chariot races, in which the driver wlio turned nearest 
the goal marked a narrower circle, and was therefore called "interior 
quadriga," with r^ard to those who wero obliged to take a larger com- 
pass, "eiteriorea." Toaa. 

" Ad PuteaL He deacribea a part of the forum by a monument 
erected there to show that the place had been struck with thunder. 
Some of the prstors held a kind of sessions there to decide private 
causes. Tore. 

" Horace had purchased an employment of register or secretarj to 
the treasury; from whence be is deared to return early from Miecenas 
to (Hmsutt about some important affair that conccraed the whola body. 
To an. 

" Tmprimat his, cara. Dion informs la, that M^cenaa waa intrusted 
with the great aeal of the Roman Empire, and was a kiud of Lord High 
Chancellor to Ai^;uatuB. Ed. DtniL. 

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to theae tableU." Bhould one uy, " I will endeavor at * 
it :" "If fou will, yon can," adda he ; and is more earnest 
The MTenth jtai approaching to the eishth is now elapsed, 
from the time that Mnoenas b^an to re^on me in the num- 
ber of his friends ; only thus (ta, as one he wonld like to take i 
tioaa with him in his chariot, when he went a journey, and i 
to whom he wonld trust auch kind of trifles as these : " What | 
is the hourr " Is Qallina, the Thracian, a match for [the \ i 
gladiator] SymsP "The cold morning air be^ns to piuch 
Qioee that are ill provided against it ;" — and such things aa 
are well enough intrusted to a leaky ear. For all this lime, 
every day and hour, I have been more Bubjected to envyJ 
Our son of fortune here, says every body, witnessed the 
shows in company with [Mtecenas], and placed with him in 
I the Campus ItaTtius." Does any disheartemng report spread 
'fitxn the rostrum through the streets, whoever comes m my 
way cousulta me [coaceming it] : " Good sir, have you (for 
you must know, smce you approach nearer the gods) heard 
any thiiu; relating to the Daciaos C^ I " Nothing at all for 
J my part," [I reply], " How yon ever are a sneerer P " But 
' may all the gods torture me, if I know any thing <rf the mat- 
ter." " What t will CBEsar give the lands" he promised the 
soldier», in Sicily, or in Italy)" Aa I am swearing I know 
nothing about it, they wonder at me, [thinking] me, to be 
sure, a creature of profound and eatraordinary secrecy, 

Among things of this nature the day is wasted by me, 
mortified as I am, not without such wishes as these : rural 
retirement, when shall I behold thee ! and when shall it be 

M The Dae 
ta 123, and O „ . „ 

tbty demanded by their embassadors. He wsa obliged to send Ustfms 
Orassus agtunat them the year following;. San. 

" Octaviua promised tie soldiers who had served ucder him in re* 
ducing Sicily, that be would divide soma of tbe coniiuered lands among 
them. But tbe war ta which ho was engaged against Antony obliged 
him tn defer tbe divi«on, and immediately alter tbe battle or Actium, 
the troops, which be bad sent to Bnindusium, muttaied on this occaskm. 
He went himself to stop the bogiDning of a revolt, which might bave 
been attended wiUi most dangerous consequences. This affidr was all 
tbe news at Rome when onr poet wrote the present 3atii«. 

Sicily was called Triquetra from its triaugulaj' flgura, and in some 
■ndent coins it is represented under the Sgure of a woman with thrae 
Isf^ Daci Sjk. 



in my power to pass through the pleasioff oblivion of a lifo 
full of solicitude, one while with the books of the ancients, 
another while in Bleep and leisure f when ehall the bean 
related to Pythagoras," and at the same time herbs well larded 
with &t bacon, be set before me ! O evenings, aad suppera 
fit for gods ! with which I and my friends re^o ourselves in 
the presence of my household gods ^ and feed my saucy slaves 

iwith viands, of which libations have^ been :nade. The guestj 
according to every one's incUnadon, takes off the glasses of 
different sizes, free from mad laws: whether one of a strongl 
constitution chooses hearty bumpers ; or another more joyously 
gelfl mellow with moderate ones. Then conversation arisea, 
not concerning other people's villas and houses, nor whether 
liCpos dances well or not ; but we debat« on what ia more to 
onr purpose, and what it ia pernicious not to know — whether 
men are made happier by riches or by virtue ; or what leads 
hb into intimacies, mterest or moral rectitude ; and what is 
the natnre of good, and what its perfection. Meanwhile, my 
neighbor Cervius prates away old stories relative 1« the sub- 
ject. For, if an^ one ignorantly commends the troublesome 
riches of Aurelius, he thus begins:/" On a time a counfry- 
mouse is reported to have received a city-mouse into his poor 
cave, an old host, his old acquaintance ; a blunt fellow and at- 
tentive to his acquisitions, yet so as he could [on occasion] 
enlarge his narrow soul in acta of hospitality. What need of 
many words ? He neither grudged bim the hoarded vetch^ 
nor the long oats ; and brining in his mouth a diy plum, and 
nibbled scraps of bacon, presented them to him, being desir- 
ous by the variety of the supper to get the better of the dainti- 
ness of hb guest, who hardly touched with his delicate tooth 
the several things : while the fother of the family himself^ ex- 
tended on fresh straw, ate a spelt and darnel, leaving that 
which was better [for his guest]. At length the citizen ad- 
dresung him, ' Friend,' says ne, ' what delight have you to live 
laboriously on the ridge of a rugged thicket ! Will yon not 

" It was one of PTtliagoras' precepts, tliat beaus should not be used 
■a food by aay of his disciples, lest in the course of transformation the 
Mul of some relative ^ould be placed thereiD, and thus the impiety (as 
Luciao. UicyU., represents it) be aa great aa that of eating humao fleatu 
Henee Hor^ hnmorouslf calls the bean " Pfthagorte cogoata." Then 
are various reasons aasigned fbr tbe origin of tbis precept ilVuih. 

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218 SATIKra OF HOKAOB. booeil 

prefer men and the dty to the eaTsge woods I Take my ad- 
rice, wid go ftloDff witL me: sioce mortal Ures are allotted to 
all lerreatrial am mala, nor is there any esct^ from death, 
either for the great or the small Wherefore, my good frieod, 
while it is in your power, live happy in joyans drcmnataaces : 
Utq mind^ of how brief an exutence you are.' Soon aa 
theee n»eeohea hni wrought upon the peasant, he leaps nimbly 
from his cave : Uience they both pursue their intended joamey, 
bwig defdrons to steal under the city walls by ni^t. | And 
now the night possessed the middle region of the heavens, 
when each of them set foot in a gorgeons palace, where car- 
pets dyed with crimson grain glittered apon ivory couches, 
and many baskets of a magnificent entertunment remained, 
which had yesterday been set by in baskets piled upon one 
another. Alter he nad placed the peasant then, stretched at 
ease, upon a splendid carpet ; he bustles about like an adroit 
host, and keeps brining up one dish close upon another, and 
with an affected civility performs all the ceremonies, first 
tasting of every thing he serves up. He, reclined, rejoices in 
the change of nis situation, and acts the part of a boon com- 
panion in the good cheer : when on a sudden a prodi^ooa 
rattling of the folding doors shook them both mim their 
couches. Terrified they b^an to scamper all about the room, 
and more and more heartless to be in confusion, while the 
lofly house resounded with [the harking of] mastiff d<^; 
npon which, says the country-mouse, 'I have no desire for 
a life like this ; and so farewell : my wood and cave, secure 
from surprises, shall with homely tares comfort me.' " 

I HAVB a long while been attending [to yon], and would faja 
speak a few words [in return ; but, being] a slave, I am 

^ Tba particulArde»gnof the Saturnalia was to represent thateqnalit)-, 
which reigned among mankind in the reign of Saturn, when they lived 
according 1« the laws ot nature, without distinction of conditions. Horace 
here introducea a alare, asserting that a wise man alone is free, and thai 



afraid. Wliat, Davus ? Yea, Davtu, a futhful servant to his 
iiiast«r'* and an honest one, at least enfflcieutlj so ; that is, 
for j^u to think his life in no danger. Well (sinc« onr an- 
cestors voidd have it so), nse the freedom of December: 
speak on. 

One part of mankiDd are fond of their vices witli some con' 
stancy and adhere to their purpose : a conuderable part fluc- 
tuates; one while embracing the right, another while liable 
to depravity. Priscus, fretjuently OMerved with three rings, 
sometimes with his l«ft hand bare," lived so irregularly that 
he would change his robe every hour ; from a magnificent 
edifice, he would on a sudden hide hiniaelf in a place, whence 
a decent freedman conld scarcely come out in a decent man- 
ner ; one while he would choose to lead the Kfe of a rake at 
Rome, another while that of a teacher at Athens ; bora under 
the evil influence of every VertiunnuB." That hufibon, Vo- 
lanerins, when the deserved gout had crippled his fingers, 
maintained [a fellow] that he had hired at a d^lr pnce, who 
took up the dice and put them into a box for him : yet by 
how much more constant was he in hie vice, by bo much less 
vrretched was he than the former person, who is now in diffi- 
culties by too loose, now by too tight a rein. 

" Will you not tell to-day, you varlet, whither such wretched 
mnff as this tends )" " Why, to yon, I say." "In what re^ 
spect to me, scoundrel )" " You praise the h^tpiness and 

f the ancient [Roman] people ; and ye^ if any god 
were on a sudden to reduce you to tnem, you, the same man, 

real liberty coosiats in not obeying our passioiiB, or b^x enslaved to vice- 
He boldl/ reproaches his master with hts foulta and fbuiea. His reaaun- 
iug U BO Qstural, sensible, and preaaiiig, that Horace, not being able to 
answer him, at lost loses bis teciper, and is obliged to make use of men- 
aces ta silence him. DAa Sah. 

"* Fhigi gvod tit tan» ; hoc at. The common people have always 
imagined that persons of eminent merit do not live so long as others. 
From thence the proverb, " Too witty to live loog." Tobb. 

>" Lava Friicua inani. Before the time of Horace it was ioiamous to 
wear more tbati one ring, and when thoy began to wear more, they car- 
ried tbem only on the left hand, which was less exposed to public view, 
as if they would seem ashamed of such mariig of effeminacy. Bond. 

" Vertunma tuUu iniqais. Vertumnns presided over the r^^ular sea- 
sons of the year, established by the laws of nature. Priscua vraa there- 
(bra born in despite of the god, because all his changes were an effect of 
oddbesB and whim. Horace multiplies this god, Verhtmni, flrom the dit 
ferent Ibnns under which he was represented. BosD. San. 

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vonld eanestly beg to be excused; diher beoanae 70a are ' 
itot reallf of opinion tli&t what you bawl about is right ; 01 
because 70U are irreeotute in defending the right, and hesi- 
tate, in Tain detdrous to extract your foot from the mire. At 
Rome, joQ long for the country ; when you are in the couu- 
trj, fickle, you extol the absent ci^ to the skies. If h^ly 
yon are invited out nowhere to supper, you praise your quiet 
dish of regetables ; and aa if vou ever go abroad upon coro- 
pnluon, you think yourself so ni^py, ana do so hng yourself 
that you are obligM to drink ont nowhere. Should Miecenaa 
lay bis commnnda on you to come late, at the first lighting 
up of the lamps, as his guest ; ' Wilt nobody bring Uie oil 
with more expedition 1 Does auy bodj hear !' You stutter 
with a mighty bellomng, and stonn with rage. MJtvius, and 
the buffoons [who eipmiled to sup with you], depart, after 
having uttered curses not proper to be repeated. Any one 
may say, for I own [the truth], that I am easy to be seduced 
by my appetite ; I snuff up my nose at a savory smell : I am 
weak, lazy ; and, if you have a mind to add any thing else, I 
am a sot But seeing you are as 1 am, and perhaps something 
worse, why do you willfully call me to an account, as if you 
were the better man ; and, with specious phrases, disguise 
Tonr own vice ! What, if you are found out to bo a greater 
fool than me, who was purchased for five hundred dracWas ? 
Forbear to terrify me with your looks ; restrain your hand 
end your anger, while I relate to you what Crispinus' porter 
taught me. 

"Another man's wife captivates you; a harlot, Davus: 
which of us sins more deserviijgly of the cross f When keen 
nature infames me, any common wench that picks me up, 
dismisses me neither dishonored, nor caring whether a richer 
or a handsomer man enjoys her next Yon, when you have 
cast off your ensigns of dignity, your equestrian ring and 
your Roman habit, turn out from a magistrate a wretched 
Dama," biding with a cape your per^med head : are you not 
really what you personate ! You are introduced, apprehensive 

" Davns calls bis master a judge, because Augustus bad granted him 
the privilege of wearing a ring and a robe, called ADgusticlavium. Thus 
he was in some measure incorporated into the bod; <^ Bomtui knights, 
whom Augustus appointed to determine civil oanasa D^a by "Dtuna* 

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■AT, Tn. SATIBEa OF fiOBAOZ. 221 

[of conaequencee] ; and, as yon are altercating witli your 
pasnoDH, your bonea shake with fear. What is the difference 
vrhether you go condemned [like a gladiator], to be galled 
vitli Bcourges," or slain with the sword ; or be closed np in a 
filthy chest, where ^e nuudl conscious of her mistress' crime, 
has stowed you ! Has not the husband of the o^nding dame 
a jnat power over both ; against the seducer eren a juster I 
But she neither changes Eer dress, nor place, nor sins to 
that ezcesa [which you do] ; since the woman is in dread of 
TOM, nor gives any credit to you, though yon profess to love 
her. You must go under the yoke knowingnr, and put all 

Cir fortune, your life, and reputation, t^^ther with your 
bs, into the power of an enraged husband. Have you 
escaped ! I suppose, then, you will oe afraid [for the future] ; 
and, being warned, will be cautious. No, you will seek occa- 
sion when Tou may be again in terror, and again may be like- 
ly to perish. O BO often a slave [ What beast, when it has 
once escaped by breaking its toils, absurdly truata itself (o 
them again ! Yon say, " I am no adulterer." Nor, by Her- 
cules, am I a tbief^ when I wisely pass by the diver vases. 
Take away the danger, and vagrant nature will spring forth, 
when restrwnta are removed. Are you my superior, subject- 
ed as you are, to the dominion of so many things and per- 
sons,, whom the pnetor's rod," thou|^ placed on your head 
three or four times over, can never free from this wretched so- 
lidtade I Add, to what has been said above, a thing of no 
lees weight; whether he be an underling," who obeys the 
master-ebve (as it is your custom to afBrm), or only a fellow- 
slave, what am I in respect of you! You, for example, who 
have the command of me, are in subjection to other things, and 
are led abont, like a puppet movable by means of wires not its 

" Uri virgie. The people who sold tbetaselyes to a master of gladiv 
tiVB, engaged in a Tona or bond, called auetaramtnium, to eoBet metj 
thing, sword. Ore, whips, chains, and death. The/ were then received 
into the professioii, and Bt7led aueloraU. From thence the terms came 
to be used for oil kinds of infomouB engagements. Tobb. 

M Vindida was a rod, wbicb the lictor hiid on the head of a person 
whom the praetor made free. Plantus calls it fuUica. 

» Nam mt vicarinf. The Romans generaUj had a maatar-slava in 
everf ftmlty, termtt atiimeie, and aU other sUivee were called hy one 
common name, viearii. The Snit, who commands, is not lea a da** 
than those who obey. SaH. 



" Who tben is free f The wise maii, who has dominion ' 
<ms himself; whom neither porerty, nor death, nor chains 
affiight; brave in the checking of his appetites, and in con- 
temnioK faonon; and, perfect m himael^ polished and round 
u ft globe,** ao that nothing {rom without can lettird, io coq- 
■eqnence of its smoothness ; against whom misfortoDe ever ad- 
▼uoes inefiectnallf. Can joo, out of these, rectwnize any 
thing applicable to yourself) A woman demands fire talents 
ct yon, plagues yoo, and after yon are turned out of doors, 
bedews you with cold water : she calls you again. Rescue 
your neck irom this vile yoke ; come, say, I am free, I am 
Ree. Yoo are not able : for au implacable master oppresses 
yonr mind, and cl^ts the eharp epurs to your jaded appetite, 
and forces you on though Teluclant WlieD you, mad one, 
quite languish at a pictare by Fanaias ;" how are you less to 
blame than I, when I admire the combats of Fwvins and 
Rntuba and Placideianos, with their bended knees, painted in 
crayons" or charcoal, as if the men were actual^ engaged, 
and push and parry, movingt heir weapons 1 Davus is a 
scoundrel and a loiterer ; but you have the character of an 
exquisite and expert connoisseur in antiqoities. If I am al- 
lured by a smoking pasty, I am a good-for-nothing fellow: 
does your great virtue and soul resist delicate entertai omenta ! 
Why is a tenderness for my belly too destructive for me t For 
my Dsck pays for it How do you come off with more im- 
punity, since you banker after such dunties as can not be had 
for a little expense ! Then those delicacies, perpetually taken, 
pall upon the stomach ; and your mistaken feet refiise to sup- 
port your sickly body. Is that boy guilty, who by night 
pawns a stolen scraper for some grapes! Has he nothing ser- 
vile about him, who in indulgence to his guts sells his estates! 
Add to this, that you yourself can not be an hour by yourself 
nor dispose of your leisure in a right manner ; and Miun your- 
self as a fugitive and vagabond, one while endeavoring with 

•• lira alque TVtandv$. The roetaplior is taken from a globe, and our 
vices are those iDeqaaUtiea vrhicb stop ua in our course of virtae. Ed. Dcbu 

X Pauaias was a famous Qower-pa inter. Lucullus gave a tbousaod 
crowns for a picture, in which he drew his mistress Glyoera ritting, «id 
Bisking a wreath offlowers. He was a cnteDiporarf of .^pelles. En. DcBi. 

'' Masters of gladiators bang the pictures of their best champioii^ 
■ooh as Fulvius, Butubo, or Placideiannsiatthedawof thelwuse wber« 
ttiey Ibo^t Ed. Ddbl. 

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wine, ftuother while with Bleep, to cheat care — in vain : for the 
gloomy companion presses upon you, and pursues you in your 

" Where can I get a stone f " What occasion is there for 
it!" "Where aome darts t" "The man is either mad, or 
r^flt^ng verses." "If you do not take yourself away in an in- 
stant, you shall go [and make] a ninth laborer" at my Sahine 

A marl diacnption of a miier ridieulou^y acting Ott «xtravaganL 

How did the entertainment of that happy fallow Nasidienus 
[>lea8e yon t for yesterday, as I was seeking to make you my. 
guest, you were said to be drinking there from mid-day."* 
Ut pleased me sol, that I never wa» liappier in my life. Say 
(if it be not trouhleaome) yriuA food firat calmed your raging 

In the first place, there was a Lncanian boar, taken when 
the gentle south wiud blew,' aa the father of die entertain- 
ment affirmed ; around it sharp rapes, lettuces, radishes ; such 
things as provoke a languid appetite ; skirrets, anchovies, 
dru;s of Coan wine. These once removed, one ^ve, tacked 
high with a purple cloth,* wiped the maple table, and a 
second gathered up whatever 1^ useless, and whatever could 
offend Uie guests;' swarthy Hydaspes advances like an 

■■ Acctda opera. Optra for aervtu. Slaves who were employed In 
tUIing their lands were generally chained, so that the threat was enongh 
to alajm Davus, sod cad the conversation. Dao. 

"" Naaidieaas, to give tmoBelf on air of a rake^ dines tliree or fbtir 
hours beftire the usual time ; or perhaps Foodanlus wonld instnnato that 
this was too solemn a feast Ibr vulgar hours. Bn. Dcbl. 

' Either hj bupDg it cheap, or keeping it too long, the boar was 
tainted; Irat onr boat would insinuate that it had a particular flavor, 
bjr being taken when the wind was south, which made it delicate and 
tender. En. Ditbl. 

' The table was made of maple, a cheap and common wood; but 
Nasidienna, in an air of polite extravagance, makes the slaves wipe it 
with a purple napkin. Dac 

' Tbu was the pretense, that nothing might offend his gueat^ but 
bis design was that nothing might be Icet Dag. 

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Attic maid m& Ceres' sacred ritee, bearing winea of Cteoo- 
bnm; Alcon brings tboae of Chios, undamaged by the aea.* 
Here the master [cries], " Maecenas, if Alb&n or Falemian 
trine delight you more than tixoe» already brought, we have 

Ill-&ted riches I Bat, Fandanias, I am impatient to knov, 
who were sharers in ihia feast where yon Urea so well. 

I was highest, and next me was viscua Huriniia, and be- 
low, if I remember, was Varius ; with Servilius Balatro, Vi- 
bidius, whom M»cenas had brought along with him, unbidden 
guesta Above pfasidienus] himself was Nomentanua, below 
him Porcius, riificulous for swallowing whole cakes at once. 
Nomentanus [was present] for this purpose, that if any thing 
should chance to be unobserved, he might show it with his 
pointing finger. For the other company, we, I mean, eat [pro- 
miscuously] of fowls, oystera, fish, wluch had concealed in 
them a jmce Ear di^rent firom the known : as presently ap- 
peared, when he reached to me the enlmls of a pUuoe and of a 
turbot, Guch as had never been tasted before. Aiter this he in- 
formed me that honey-apples were most ruddy when gathered 
under the waning inoon. What difference this makes you will 
hear best from himselt Then [says] Vibidius to Balatro ; " If 
we do not drink to his cost, we shall die in his debt ;" and he 
calls for larger tumblers. A paleness changed the countenance 
of our host, who fears nothiog so much as hard drinkers ; either 
because they are more freely censorious ; or because beatjng 
wines deafen the subtle [judgment of the] palate. Tiludius 
and Balatro, all following their example, pour whole casks into 
Alliphanians ;* the guests of the lowest couch did no hurt to 
the flagons. A lamprey is brought in, extended in a dish, io 
the midst of floating Crimps. Whereupon, " This," savs the 
master, " was caught when pr^nant ; which, after having 
young, would have been leas dehcate in ita flesh." For theee 
a sauce is mixed up ; with oil which the best cellar of Venafhun 
pressed, with piclde from the juices of the Iberian fish, with 
wine of years old, but produced on this side the sea, while 

* It was customary to rail sea-water with the strong winBs ofOreeoe; 
but Fundanins^ when he tells ub that the wine Alcon carried bad not 
a drop of water in it, would have us underatand that tbia wine bad never 
crosraed the seas, and that it was an Italian wine which Naaidienus recran- 
meuded for Cfaiao. Laub. 

> Large cups, so called &om Alli£e, a town of Saninluia. SOSOL. 



it ia boiling {e&er it is boiled, the Chian wine enits it bo well, 
that DO other does better than it) with white pepper, and vinegar 
wbich, by being vitiated, turned Bour the Methymuesa gr^>e. 
I first showed the way to etew in it the green rockets and bit- 
ter elecampane : Cartillue, [to stew in iM the sea-urchins nn- 
washed, as being better than the pickle which the sea shell-fish 

In the mean time the suspended tapeatrr made a heavy 
downfall upon the dish, bringing along with it more black 
duat than the north wind ever raises on the plains of Cam- 
pania. Having been fearfiil of sometiiiDg worae, as soon as 
we percdve there was no danger, we rise up. Rufiis, hang- 
ing nia head, began to weep, as if his son had come to an nu' 
timely death : what would have been the end, had not the 
discreet Nomentanus thus raised his friend ! " Alas ! for- 
tune, what god is more cruel to ns thaa thou t How dost 
thou always take pleasure in sporting with human aSairs !" 
Taring could scarcely smother a laugh with his napkin. Ba- 
latro, sneering at every thing, observed: "This ia the con- 
dition of human Ufe, and therefore a suitable gloiy will never 
answer your labor. Must you be rent and tortured with all 
manner of anxiety, that I may be entertained sumptuously ; 
lest burned bread, lest ill-seasoned soup should he set before 
us; that all your slaves should wait, properly attired and 
neat? Add, beudes, these accidents; if the hangings should 
tumble down, as just now, if the groom sUpping with his foot 
should break a dish. But adversity is wont to disclose, pros- 
perity to conceal, the abilities of a host as well as of a general." 
To this Ifasidienus : " May the goda give you all the bless- 
ing^ whatever you can pray for, jon are so good a man and 
so civil.a guest ;" and caJla for his sandals.* Then on every 
couch you might see divided whispers buzzing in each secret 

I would not choose to have seen any theatrical entertain- 
ments sooner than these things. But come, recount what 
yon laughed at next. While Tibidius is inquiring of the 
slaves, wneiher the flagon was also broken,' because cups were 

' That be might rise fh>m table. The g;iiesta laid their alippeni at tbe 
end of tbe bed when tbey went to supper, Tobb. 

T Vibidius asks whether tbe groom bad broken the bottle at the esm» 
time that be broke tbe dish, tbrgvoque oertaiulf refbrs topaimam laptiu 

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SS9 8ATIBB8 OS HORAOa sook n 

not bionglit when b« called for them ; and while a lao^ is 
oontinned on feigned pretences, Balatro aecondin^ it ; you, Kaa- 
^ennB, reUim with an altered countenance, as if to repair youi 
ill-f<wtnne by art. Then followed the slaves, bearing on a large 
charger the several limbs of a orans besprinkled with much 
■alt. not without flour, and the liver of a white gooee fed with 
bttening figs, and the wings of hares torn of^ as a much daia- 
tiOT dish than if one eats them with the loins. Then we saw 
Uaokbirda also set before us with scorched breasts, and ring- 
doves without the rumps: delicious moraela ! did not the master 
give HI the history of their causes and natures : whom we in 
teveuge Aed from, so as to taste nothing at all ; as if Ganidia, 
mora venomous than Afrioao eerpents, had ptnsoned them with 
her breath. 

fttmjat OQMO. He SMms to insiiitiBte that Naaidienag tiad given ordoa 
to hJa alsTM Dot to be in too much Iiaate topippl/ tb«guGBtawitb,wlne, 
but to lot UMn 0*11 fi» it more than onoe. Obuq. Dac; 





MiSCBHAB, the subject of my earliest song, justly entitled to 
my lateet, doat thou seek to «ugage me agaiu in iLe old lists,' 
having been tried BofBciently, and now [veeented with tlM 
foils P My age is not the same, nor is my genius. Yeianitn, 
his anna ^consecrated on a pillar of Hercules' temple,* live» 
ann^y retired iu the conotiy, that he may not form tJie ex- 
tremity of the sandy amphitheater so onen supplicate the 
people's &Tor.' Some one seems frequently to ring in my 

1 Horace b^iaatowiile BtaboatfbDr^iid-tweDtyyeBrBof age, and be 
U now past flfty, which he expraases by anliguo tudo, in allnaion to the 
schools, where the gladiators performed their exercisea. JDntt mar be 
understood either for a poetical geoius, or «a inclination to poeOj. 
Bah. DAa 

> DoTiatam jam rude. The poet compares himself with a Radiator ; 
hence tbe use here ol the terms of that art. A gladiator, who had been 
relieved from the naceeaitf of a^ipearing befbre the public — who had re- 
ceired his diacharge — is said to be «femifus ndt, and called rudiariia. 
The rudii with which he was preseDled, as an embleia of freedom, was 
a rod, or wooden sword. M'CAOt. 

' After Harcul^ had wandered through the world-deBtroyiDg monsten^ 
he was received bj Qreece and Italj among the gods who presided over 
athletic eiercisee. There was generfUlj a temp^ of this god near th^ 
amphitheaters, in which the ceremonies of recdviDg a new glai^ator 
into the compaDj were performed. From thence the custom ot couse* 
crating their arms to Hercules. Frah. 

* Horace would authorize his resolution of writiiig no more, h/ the 

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pnrified ear ! " Wuelv in time dimiua the aged courser, lest, 
ao object of deriaion, he miHcany at last, and break his wind." 
Now therefore I Uj aside both versea, and all other aportira 
mattera; mj studv and inqniiy is after wbat is true and 
fitting, and I am wbolly engaged in this : I lay up, and collect 
rules which I may be able hereafter to bring into .oae. And 
lest you should perchanc« ask under what leader, in what 
house [of philosophy], I enter myself a pupil : addicted to 
«wear imphcitly to the ipee-dizits' of no puticular master, 
wherever the weather drives me, I am carried a gnesL One 
while I become active, and am plun^ in the wavce of state 
affairH, a maintainer and a rigid partisan of strict virtue; then 
again I relapse insensibly into Arislippus' maxims,* and tat' 
dearor lo adapt circumstances to myself, not myself to cir- 
cumstances. As the night seems long to those with whom a 
mistress Las broken her ^pointment, and the day slow to 
those who owe their labor; as the year moves lazy witli 
minors, whom the harsh guardianship of their mothers coo- 
fines; BO all that time to me flows tedious and distastefid, 
which delays my hope and design of strennonsly executing 
that which is of equal benefit to the poor and to tbe rich, 
which neglected will be of equal detriment to young and tn. 
old. It remains, that I conduct and comfort myself by these 
example oT Teianius, wbo, bavisgr often fbught with success, was now 
retired into the couotry, detennined never to expose himself on the stage 
again ; for if a gladiator, wbo had obtained his discbai^e^ ever engaged 
a second time, he was (>bliged to have a eeeond dismission, and going to 
the end oTthe stage, exircma arena, implored tbe people lo give him his 
(teedom. Cruq. 

' Jaratt in verba nagi)i*ri. Similarly, Epod. 16, in verba jurant mea. 
BoldieTe jurabani in verba impemleria, when entering on service; whence 
some think Horace alludes to this ; others suppose Uie relkence is to the 
great respeot paid to Pythsgoras bj bis disciples, so that tbe words ipt» 
dixit were sufficieat to decide ajiy question. M'GAnL. 

■ Tbis natunillf fbllows the tbree preceding linea Horace oonld not 
long l)e reconciled to the two former sj>Btems; one required too mudi 
action, the other too much severity; anil neither of thom wasagreeablo 
to his inclination. The morals of Aristippus, who founded the Epicarean 
sect, were more to his taste ; but as this philosophy was very severely 
treated by tbe Stoics and CyciCH, the poet pleasantly says, he was obliged 
with privacy, yurtim, to Ibllow its doctrines. Sah. 

Horace, by the word furlim, might probably mesD, that he did not 
pass, at once, from the sentiments of Zeoo to those of AnsdppuB, as it 
were &am one extreme to anotber, but by degrees, and insensibly. Dia 
This latter view is correct Ed. DDBL. 

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prindples : your ught is not bo piercing as diat of Ltdmur ; 
you will not however therefore despise being anotat«ij, if you 
«re sore-eyed : nor because you despair of the muscles of the 
invincible Glycon,' will you be careless of preserving your body 
from the kootty gout There is some point to which we may 
reach, if we can go no further. Does your heart bum with 
avarice, and a wretched demre of more ) Spells there are, and 
incantations, with which you may mitigate this piun, and rid 
yourself of a great part of the distemper. Do yon swell with 
the love of praise t There are cert^n purgations which can re- 
store you, a certain treatise being perused thrice with purity of 
mind. The envious, the choleric, the indolent, the slave to 
wine, to women — none is so savage that he can not be tamed, if 
be will only lend a patient ear to discipline. 

It is virtue, to fiy vice ; and the highest wisdom, to have 
lived free from folly. Tou see with what toil of mind and 
body you avoid those things which yon believe to be the 
greatest evils, a small fortune and a shameful repulse. An 
active merchant, you run to the remotest Indies,' fleeing 
poverty through sea, through rocks, through flames. Ana 
will yon not learn, and hear, and be advised by one who is 
wiser, that you may no longer re^nl those things which yon 
foolidily admire and vrish for ! What Uttle champion of the 
villages and of the streets would scom bang crowned at the 
great Olympic* games, who had the hopee and happy oppor- 

^ Tbe oommeiitatorB tell us, from Diogenes Laertius, that GiTcon was 
' aphilosopber who bad mads himself Gunoua bj his dezteritj and skill in 
athletic exercises. But mora probablj the poet alluded to a sUtue, 
whidi is still preserved in Rome, and of nhiiA Montfkucon speaks tbus ; 
Hnx^es of I^mese, the finest of all, ia a master-piece of sri It ia the 
peribrouuice of Gl/oon the Atheniaji. who hath immortalized hia name 
07 putting it at Uie bottom of tbis admirable alatue. It is a common 
language to BB7 or pictures and statues, lAaiiaa Tiliaa; this on Ap^ea. 

' Befbre the reduction of Egypt and Arabia, tbe passage to India was 
unknown to tho Romans. SU^bo tells us that while .iGhua Qallua 
governed BgTpt, in the Tear 7ST, a fleet oT twentj-six merchantmen set 
sail from tba Red Sea fbr India. The Romans, attentive to their in- 
tereata, Sattered by an immense proSt arising (hini thia trade, and 
allured by the rich and beautiful merchandize which it brought home, 
applied themselves earnestly to this commerce, from whence the poet 
reproaofaes tbem with ezceeaive covetousnaas. San. 

' Horace, iu imitation of Pindar, calls tbe Olympic gamel " magna,* 
great, because they were the most &mous ol ail that were celebrated in 

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S80 KFISTLBS 07 HORACB. boocl 

tuni^ <rf viotoiy without toil 1 Slv«r ia len Taliuble tluta 
gold, gold than virtue. " citiiena, dtiieia, money ia to be 
souglit fiiBt; virtue aAer riches :" this the highest Janoa'* 
&om the lowest iamilcat«s ; young men and old repeat these 
tnaTim»^ haviDg their bac« and aocount-books hung on the 
left arm. You have bou^ have breeding, have eloquence and 
honor: yet if «x or seven thousand sesterces be wanting to 
complete jour four hundred thoasaDd, yon shall be a ple- 
beian." But boys at play" cry, " You shall be king, if yoa 
will do right." Let tLis be a [man's] brazen wall, to be 
conscioua of no ill, to turn pale with no guilt. Tell me, pray, 
is the Roscian law best, or the boy's song which offers the 
kingdom to them that do right, sung by the manly Curii and 
Camilli t Does he advise you best, who says, " Make a 
fortune ; a fortune, if you can, honestly ; if not, a fortune by 
any means" — that you may view from a nearer bench tiie 
tear-moving poems of Puppius : or he, who still animates and 
enables you to stand free and upright, a match for haughty 

If now perchance the Roman people should ask me, why I 
do not enjoy the same sentiments with them, as [I do the 
same] portjcoes, nor pursue or fiy from whatever they admire 
or dislike ; I will reply, as the cautious fox once answered the 
sick lion : " Because ihe foot-marks alt looking toward you, 

Greece. " Coronari Oljmpia" may be considered aa a Greek phrase^ or 
we may understand inter or ad. "Yincere Oljmpia" is found in Ennina, 
«ud " qui Pylhia, lathraia, Nemaa, Olynipia vicit," in Festns. Tore. 

10 Tbe Latins Bometimea gave the naoie oT " Janus" to those grand 
arcades which croased their streets, like triumphal arches, and undn 
which they walked. They had many of this kind in the difTeient streets 
of Rome^ but we are expressly told by Livy, that there were three in the 
forum. " Forum porticibus tabemisque claudeodom, et Janos tres 
Sidendoa locavere." Here the banker^ merchanta, and usurers had 
^ir shops. San. 

11 Pldi3 «ru. Horace here speaks according to the law of Boadus 
Ottio, by which a Homsn knight was to be possessed of four hundred 
tbouaand sesterces (about 3,126J. of our money), and a senator, of eight 
hundred tbousand. Augustus aHerward raised the sum to twelve bnii- 
died thousand. A sesterce is here computed at one penny, half-peoay, 
Girtbing, half-farthing of our monej. Ed. Ditbl. 

■> We can not justly say what this game was. Torrenlius, with raudi 
probability, conjectures that it was the Urania of the Greeka in which 
a ball was thrown into the air. and the boy who Btruok it oftenest, be- 
Ibre it M (o the ground, was called king of the game. En. DuBb. 



And none from you, afirieht me." Hoii art a monster witli 
DUUiy heads. For what shall I follow, or whom ! One set of 
men delight to fana the public revenues : there are aomo, 
who would inveigle covetous widows with sweet-meats and 
fruits, and insnare old men, whom they would send [like fiabl 
into their ponds: the fortunes of many grow by concealed 
usuiT> But be it, that di&rent men are engaged in difierent 
employmenta and purauils : eaa the same persons continue an 
hour t'other approving the same things t If the man of 
vealth has s^d, "No bay in the world outshiues delightful 
Baiss," the lake and the sea presently feel the eagerness oftheir 
impetuous master ; to whom, if a vicious humor gives tho 
omen, [he will cry,] — "to-morrow, workmen, ye shall convey 
hence your tools to Teanum," Has ho in his hall the genial'* 
bed? He saya nothing is preferable to, nothing better than a 
Mngle life, if he has not, he swears the married only are hap- 
py. With what noose can I hold this Proteus, vaiyiug thus 
uis forms ! What does the poor man ! Laugh [at him too] : 
is be not forever chan^ng his garrets, beds, bams, barbers} 
He is as much surfeited in a hired boat, as the ricb man is, 
whom his own galley conveys. 

If I meet you with my hair cut" by an uneven barber, you 
laugh [at me] : if I chtmce to have a ragged shirt under a 
handsome coat, or if my disproportioued gown fits me ill, you 
laugh. What J^do you doj, when my judgment contradicts 
itself f it despises what it before desired; seeks for that 
which lately it neglected ; is all in a ferment, and is incon- 
sistent in the whole tenor of life; pulls down, builds up, 
changes square to round. In this case, you think I am mad 

" The nQpt[a] bed was consecrated to Ganim, the god of oatars, who 
pre^ded over the birth of htmian kind. It was placed in tbe " aula," 
or " Btrium," the ball, where tbe statues of tbe ancestors of the femily 
were ranged, and where the women generaUj sat, to let tbe public be 
witnesses al their domestic inttostry. " Matres &mtli^ veBtne in atrils 
operontur domonim, ittdostrias tesUficuutes suas." Amobius. Bn. 

'< Oaraiui. This !s the reading; of all tbe matiUBcripts. Tbe BomuiB 
used "curare capiUos" for "tondere, secare;" "cura" and "curatio 
eapiUnrum" (br " oapQlorum sectio" and " lonaura." " Curtatlis," whioh 
bath been received by very many editors, is entirely useleas, and can bj 
no means agree with the poet's thought. He is not ridiculous beoause 
the barber bath cut his lulr too short, but be(»uae be bath cut it one 
equally, " iniequalia tonsor." Bbnt. Cini. Bun. 

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in the common my, and jou do not ho^ nor believe that I 
stand ia need of a pb}^oian, or of a guardian assigned by the 
pnetor; though you are l2ie pation of my afEurs, and are dis- 
gusted at the ill-paired nul of a iiiend that depends upon yon, 
titat rererea yoo. 

in a word, the wise man is inferior to Jupiter alone, is rich, 
free, honorable, handsome, lastly, king of Hugs ; above all, be 
frsuond, nnleas when phlegm is tronUesome." 


Wbile you, great LoUius, declaim at Rome, I at Pneneete 
hare perased over again the writer of the Trojan war ; who 
teaches more clearly, and better than Chrysippns and Grantor, 
what is honorable, what ahameflil, what profitable, what not 
BO. If nothing hinders yon, hear why I have thus concluded. 
^Rie story is wnich, on ac<»unt of I^ris's intrigue, Greece is 
stated to be wasted in a tedious war with the tMibarians, con- 
tains the tumults of foolish princes and people. Aut«nor 
gives his opinion for cutting off the cause of the war. What 
does Paris ! He can not be brought to comply, [thongh it be 
in order] that he may reign safe, and live niq>py. Neetor 

" This ridicule will appear in a strongef light bj reading a, paasage of 
B[nctetui^ which hath been preserved to us bj Arrian. " Can there be 
a provideBce," cries so Epicureau, "or could it su^r this continoal 
deflnxioD to torment me UiosT" " Slave as thou art," says Epicnms, 
" whj are jou fbnned with hands? Were thej not given you to wipe 
your nosaf" "Tea; but were it not better," answers Oie disdpl^ 
" that there was DO such thing as phl^pn in theworldt" "And iait 
not better," replies Epicurua, " to wipe your nose, than deny the being 
of providence?" Fbah. 

>* LollioB, who waa consul in the year T36, had two sons, one afwhom 
was the &tber of tbo empress LoUi» Paulina. Horace wntes this epistle 
to the elder brother, Maxime LolU, and while be directs him in what 
manner to read Homer, he )^vea him some excellent precepts to guard 
him against envy, avarice, d^t>auchery, and auger. So. Ddbl. 

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labors lo compose the diflterenoeB between AcMlle» and Aga- 
memnoD ; love inflames one ; rage both in common, ^e 
Greeks avtfkr for whut their princes act foolishly." Within the 
walls of Bium, and without, enonnitieB are committed hj eedi- 
tion, treachery, injustice, and lust, and rage. 

Again, to show what virtoe and what wisdom can do, he 
has propounded Ulyeses an instructive pattern : who, having 
subdued Troy, wisely got an insight into the constitutions and 
customs of many nations ; and, while for himself and his as- 
sociates he is contriving a return, endnred many hardshipe on 
the spacioos sea, not to be sunk by all the waves of adversity. 
Ton are well acqu^nted with the songs of the Sirens, and 
Circe's eups : of which, if he had foolishly and greedily dnink 
fJong with his attendants, he had been an ignominious and 
senseless slave under the conmiand of a prostitute : he bad 
lived a filthy dog, or a hog delighting in mire. 

We are a mere number and bom to consume tiie fruits of 
the earth ; like Penelope's suitors, useless drones ; like Alci- 
nous' youth, employed above measure in pampering th«r bo- 
dies ; whose gloiy was to sleep till mid-day, and to lull their 
cares to rest by tiie sound of the harp. Robbers rise by night, 
that they may cut men's throats ; and will not you awake to 
save yourself! But, if you will not when you are in health, 
you will be forced to take exercise when you are in a dropsy ; 
and unless before day yon call for a book with a light, nnleaa 
you brace your mind with study and honest employments, you 
will be kept awake and tormented with envy or with love. 
For why do you hasten to remove things that hurt your eyes, 
but if any thing gnaws your mind, defer the time of curing it 
from year to year t He has half the deed done, who has made 
a beginning. Boldly undertake the study of true wisdom: 
begin it fomiwith. He who posftiones the hour of living well, 
like the hind [in the &ble], waits till [all the water in] the 
river be run <m: whereas it flows, ana will flow, ever roll- 
ing on. 

Money is sought, and a wife fruitful in bearing children, 

"' ThepeoplesufferforthofoUyortheirkingi. Thus in the Iliad, the 
dispute between Ai^memnon and Achillea caasea the latter ta witbdrav 
bimself and hia lorcea from taking any active, part in the war, and the 
reaolt is that the Grecians are routed and driven within tiieir eotreDCb- 
tnenta bj the Trtjaos. IfCAUL 

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284 SPIBTLES OF EOEAOE. book i. 

and wild woodlamlB ue reclaimed by the plow. [To what 
end all tbia t] He, that has got a competency, let him wish 
for no more. Not a house and &rm, nor a heap of brasa 
and gold, can remove fevera from the body of their eick mas- 
ter, or carea from bia mind. The poeaeeeor must be well, if 
be thinks of enjoying the things which he has accumulated. 
To him that is a alave to desire or to fear, house and estate 
do jnst as much good as paintings to a sore-eyed person, fo- 
mentationa to the gout, music to ears afflicted with collected 
matter. Unless the reesel be sweet, whatever you pour into 
it tnma sour. Despise pleasures : pleasure bought with pun 
is hurtfiil. Tbe ooretoos man ia ever in want : set a certain 
limit to your wiaLea. The envioua person wastes at the 
thriving condition of another: Sicilian t3rrantB" never in- 
vented a greater tonnent than envy. He wbo will not curb 
b» paasion, wilt wiah that undone which Ma grief and resent- 
ment snggested, while he violently plies bia revenge with un- 
aated rancor. Rage b a short madness. Rule your passion, 
which commands, if It do not obey ; do you rest) ain it with a 
bridle, and with fettere. The groom forms the docile horse, 
while his neck is yet tender, to go the way which his rider 
directs him : the young hounid, from the time that he barired 
at the deer's skin in the hall, campaigns it in tbe woods. Now, 
while yen are young," with an untainted mind imbibe instrno 
tion : now apply yourself to the best [masters of morality]. A 
cask will long preserve the flavor^ with which when new it was 
once impregnated. But if you lag behind, or vigorously push 
on before," I neither wait for the loitCTer, nor strive to overtake 
tbo^ that precede me. 

" Snch aa Phalaris, AgsthodeB, soil the IHiniy^L The asTing waa 
ahnoat proverbial CC Cicer. Ace S, 66, "Sicilia tulit quondam multos 
et crudelea tyrannos." Obblu. 

It These expreeaiooa of ramu, puro pectore, and pver, can be justly ap- 
plied oolj h) B, yoath. The yoni^ier LoUiua went with Auguatua to the 
war of Spain, wbenhe was about sixteen years of age, aa we shall find in 
the eighteeuth Epistle, which is atJdreased to him. San. 

* ff you will run the race of wisdom with me, let us run together; for 
if joa either stop, or endeavor to get before me, I ahall neither wait for 
you, nor strive to overtake you. When we enter the liata of virtue, to 
wait for those behind ua is indolence ; too earnestly to punnie Chose be> 
fi>ra ua ii envy. loss. DAa 

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TO JTuns yLOEua." 

I LOKO to tnow, Julius Florus, in what regions of ihe earth 
Claudios, the step-eon of Augustus, ia waging war. Do 
Thrace and Hebnu, bound with icy chains, or the narrow 
sea running between the neighboring towers," or Asia's 
fertile pliuns and hills detain youi What works is the studi- 
003 train planning t In this loo I am anxious — who takes 
upon himself to write the military achievements of Angus- 
tus V Who diffuses into distant ages his deeds in war and 
peace t What ia Tilina about, who ahortly will be celebrated 
by every Roman tongue ; who dreaded not to drink of the 
landaric spring, daring to disdain common waters and open 
streams : how does he do ! How mindful is he of Die! Does 
he employ himself to adapt Iheban measures to the Latin 
lyre, under the direction of hia muse! Or does he st<«m 
and swell" in the pwnpona style of tragic art ! What is my 
Celsua doing ! He has been advised, and the advice is stiU 
often to be repeated, to acquire stock ot his own, and forbear 
to touch whatever writings the Palatine Apollo has received : 

>' Florus attended Tiberius in his Dalmatian expedition. This prince 
continued some jears visiting and regulating ttie Eastern provinces, until 
he tud orders (o lead hia troops into Armenia, while Augustus proposed 
to march against the Parchians through Syria. Our poet here mariis (be 
route of Hberius through Thrace, the Hellwpont, and Asia Minor, and 
thus makes his epistle a kind of public, historical monument We may 
flx the date of this epistle in the year 7S3. Sah. 

*a Vi'inas iiUer aarmtia birres. Musteua names two cities, Seetos 
and Ab^dos, on Che opposite shores of Europe and Asia 

^ Quid atudiosa cokors. The yountr gentlemen who attended Tiberius 
in this expedition, at once to ibrm bis court and to guard his person, 
were men of letlere and genius, from whence tbey are called "studioaa 
cohora." Fran. 

>* k & nae a lofty style, more or leas prone to exacnrcration. Tbephrass 
Is derived tnm the saying of Aristophanes conceniiDg the prologu«e of 
Buripids^ XvtiOtm' dirwXrac. Ban. 1208. Qrelll 

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lest, if it clutnce that tli« flock of lurds aliould some time or 
other come to d«Dand their feathers, he, hke the dair Btri[^»ed 
of his stolen colors, be exposed to ridicule. What do yoa 
yourself undertake t What thyme are you busy hovering 
about f Your genius is not stnall, is not uncultivated nor in- 
elegantly roug^. Whether you edge your tongue tor [plead- 
ing causes," or whether you prepare to give counsel m (he 
ciril lav, or whether you compose some lovely poem ; yon 
will bear off the first priae of the victorious ivy. If now you 
could quit the cold fomentatioDS of care;" whithersoever 
heavenly wisdom would lead yon, you would go. Let us, both 
small and great, push forward in this work, in this pursuit : if to 
our country,if to ourselves we would Uve dear. 

Tou must also write me word of this, whether Munatius is 
of as much concern to you as he ought to be t Or whether the 
ill-patched reconcihation in vun closes, and is rent asunder 
again f But, whether hot blood, or inexperience in things, ex- 
asperates yon, wild as coursers with unsubdued neck, in what- 
ever place you live, loo worthy to break the fraternal bond," 
& devoted heifer is feeding agiunst yonr return. 

» Whether 70a tana your elaqneace fbr th« public pleadings at the 
bar, or give advice and counsel to jour clients. Civiai jura r«aponiler« 
para», wbicb oar poet in another place ezpreasea, "Clientia prMnere 
jura." Toaa. 

■■ The commentator thinks that ambiUoii, riches, power, were those 
cold remedies that Horace meaos, which only soothe, not allay the dis- 
temper. But, since he baa not mentioned what thej were, we can onlj 
sa; that Florus could not mistake them, and consequently most have fell 
the moral which the poet drawe &om thorn. Kd. Duhl. 

*T Pratemam rurnpere fad^u. This does not sa;, as it is generallj 
miderslood, that they were really brothers, but that they lived in ao union 
inch as ought to be preserved between brothers. There was not at this 
time any person at Borne who bore the name or Julius, except At^;ustU4 
whose ^milywas greatly distinguished &om that of Munatius; nor does 
It appear that Munstios ever took the surname of Florua. Mr. Dacier 
imagines, with reason, that Florus was of some priudpal &mily, whom 
Julias Cteear permitted to take his name, when tie made them citizens 
cX Rome. Tacitus speaks d tliree Jolii in Oallia Belgica in the time 
of Tiberius, one of whom was called Florus. From whence it ia not , 
improbable that the person to whom this letter ia written, wis oT that 
natii». BoDBLuuB. Six. 

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ALBTtTS, thoa candid critic of 1117 discourses, what sball I saj' 
you are now doing in the country about Pedum } Writing 
what may excel the works" of Cassius Fstmeusis; or eann- 
teriiig eileutly among the healthful grores, concerning your- 
self about every thing worthy a wise and good man! You 
were not a body without a mind. The gods have given you 
a beantifiil form, the gods [have given] you wealth, and the 
&cul^ of enjoying it. 

What greater blessing could a nurse solicit for her beloved 
child, than that he might be wise, and able to express his 
eenUmenta ; and tliat respect, reputation, health might happen 
to him in abundance, and decent living, with a nevei^iailing 

In the midst of hope and care, in the midst of fears and dis- 
quietudea, think every day that shines upon yon is the last 
Jllius] the hour, which shall not be expected, will come upon 
you an agreeable addition. 

When yon have a mind to laugh, you shall see me &tand 
sleek with good keeping, a hog of ^icurus' herd. 


Mt invUt* him to afivgal mfertaimneitt, but a citanly and dterfiU sua 

I» you can repose yourself as my guest upon Archias"* 
^ couches, and are not afraid to make a whole meal on all sorts 

* Oputeuh. The term alludes only to bis lesser writiDRS, audi as ele- 
gifia, epigrams, ete. Thoa Pliny, Epist viil 21 : "Uber mit et opuaculis 
Tama et metiis." The other interpretation arose from the coniouDdiDg 
of Qutiii» Fannemi» with CoMius Btruscm. Whisleb. 

■> Such is the reading of »11 the mamucripts; "priscorum qnaatum 

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of hertia from b moderate i^Bh ; I vill expect you, Torqnatos, 
at my hoOM about sun «et. You shall dnnk wine poured in- 
to tbe v«Me] in the second conaolship of l^urnH,** produced 
between the fenny Mintunue and Petrinnm of Sinueass. If 
you have any thinp better, send for it ; or bring yonr com- 
manda. Brigfat slimes my hearth, and my furniture is clean 
for you already. Dismisa airy hopes, and conteata about 
riches, and Mosohua'" causfc To-morrow, a festal day on 
account of Cesar's birth," admits of indulgence and repose. 
We shall have free liberty to prolong the summer eveniog 
with friendly convenation. To what purpose have I fbrtone, 
if I may not use it t He that is sparing out of regard to his heir, 
and too ni^ardly, is next nei^bor to a madman. I will begin 
to drink and scatter flowers, and I will endure eren to be ac- 
counted foolish. What does not wine freely drunken enter- 

nUqoe Mt codicum," u,ja Dr. Bentle; ; and both the ScboUaets tall m; 
thiit Archlaa waa a person who mode beds of a lower, shorter ktiuL 
'Btmdm, Arehaieia baa the second syllable long; nor ia it, indeed, a Latin 
word. Ed. Ditbl. 

" The second cooplahip oT Tauros was in the year 128, so tbat this 
wine must be four or B\t yeors old 8ah. 

" The Soiioliasts inform us, that Uosidius waa a rbetoriciao oT Ferga- 
mua, whoaa deTense Torquatus undertook when he was accused of pois- 
oning. Ed. Vubu 

» Cras nolo Cixaare. Dacier and Uaeson are berc^ in Dr. Bentlej'a 
language, upon another occasion, at daggers^drawing, digiaditaiiur, 
in defense of Julius Csaar and Augustus. The latter was bom the 
twenty-third oT September, which could not be justly «tiled a sum- 
mer's night, lestivam noclcTii. Tbe other on the twelith of July. Two 
years alter his death, the triumvirs ordered thai his birthday should be 
celebrated by the people crowned with laurel, and that whosoever ne- 
glected it sliould be devoted to the vengeance^^f Jupiter and the deceased 
god himself But, as the Apollinarian games were annually celebrated, 
and that it was forbidden to mix the festivals of any other god with those 
■rf Apollo. Cffisar's birthday waa ordered to be solemnized on the lltb. 
Thus wo have not only the year and month, but the very day when this 
letter was written, the 10th of July. l.D. Duel. 

This opinion is at least as old as Porphyrion, who says, " Divi Csaaris na- 
talem signillcat" Torrentius thinks Horace means tfie birth of some young 
prince, grandson of Angnatns, which the words will indeed very wall bear. 
/fata Guare, (br ob C^jorem recem natajn. To give this oonjectoro a 
kind of certainty, Rodelliua and Mr. Sanadon proclaim this festival in 
honor of Caus Cieaar, eldest roc of Agrippa and Julia. But ChIub was 
bom in Ota beginning of September, and the critics probably forgot the 
circumstance of lengthening the summer nigfat. En, Dubl. Orelli dei 
termines in bvor of Angnstut. 

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prise ) It discloses secrete ; commaDds our hopes to be ratified ; 
pushes the dastard on to the fight ; removes the pressure from 
troubled minds; leaches the arts. Whom have not plentiful 
cups made eloquent I Whom hare they not [made] free and 
6a»y nnder pinching poverty ! 

i, who am both the proper pewon and not unwilling, am 
chwged to take care of these matters; that no dirty covering 
on the couch, no foul napkin contract your nose into wrinkles ; 
and that the cup and the dish may show you to yourself; that 
there be no one to carry abroad what is said among faithful 
friends ; that eouals may meet and be joined with equals. I 
will add to you Butra, and Sepdcius, and Sabinus, unless a bet- 
ter entertainment and a mistress more agreeable detain him. 
There is room" also for many introductions : but goaty rammi' 
ness is offenave in over-crowded companies. 

Do you write word, what number you would be ; and setttpg 
aside business, through the back-door give the slip to your 
client who keeps guard in your court 

Thai a wue man is in Ume wilh ttoihing bat viriae. 

To admire nothing is almost the one and only thing, Numi- 
cdus, which can make and keep a man happy. There are 
who view this sun, and the stars, and the seasons retiring at 
certain periods, untainted with any fear. What do you think 
of the gifts of the earth ? What of the sea, that enriches the 
remote Arabians and Indians ! What of scenical shows, the 
applause and &vors of the kind Roman) In wliat manner 
do you think they are to be looked upon, with what ^pre- 

" Loan tet et plwibta ttmbria. It was a dviiity paid to an iuvit«d 
guest among the ancients, to let him know, whatever stranger came with 
him should be welcome. This was done, sajs Plutarch, in imitation of 
those who, sacrificing to some god, sacriQced at the same time to all the 
gods that Inhabited the temple in which he was worshiped, although 
the; did not call any of them by their names. FftAK. for "umbri^* 
cC 8at a 8, 22. 

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I coantenuice ! He tlut dieAda the rerene of 
thwe, admires them ttlmoet in llie asme way as he Uiat deeiFes 
tbem ; fear alike disturbs both ways ; an unforeseen turn of 
things eipially terrifies each of tltem : let a man rejoice or 
grieve, desire or fear ; what mattera it — if^ whaterer he per- 
oeives better or worse than his ezpectaticais, with downcast 
kfok be be stupefied in mind and Dodyl Let the wise man 
bear t&e name of fool, the just <rf unjust ; if he pursue virtue 
itself beyond proper bounds. 

Go now, look with transport upon silver, and antique mar- 
ble, and brazen statues, and the arts : admire gems, and Ty- 
rian dyes : rejoice, that a thousand eyes are fixed upon ynu 
while you speak : industnous repair early to the forum, late 
to your house, that Mutus may not reap more gr^ [than 
Tou] from his lands gained in dowry, and (unbecoming, sinoe 
h^wrung from meaner parents) that be may not be an object 
of admiration to you, rather than you to him. Whatever is 
in the earth, time will bring forth into open day light ; will 
bury and bide things, that now shine brigbt«st. "When 
Agrippa's portico," and the Appian way, shall have beheld 
you well blown ; still it remains for yon to go where Numa 
and Ancus are arrived. If your side or your reins are af- 
flicted with an acute disease, seek a remedy from the disease. 
Would you Uve b&ppily! Who would not I If virtue" alone 
can confer this, i^scarding pleasures, strenuously pursue it Do 
you think virtue mere words, as a grove is trees ! Be it your 
care that no other enter the port before yon ; that yon lose 
not your traffic with Cibyra, with Bithynia. Let the round 
sum of a thousand talents be completed ; as many more ; 
further, let a third thousand succeed, lutd the part which may 
square the heap. For why, sovereign money gives a wife 
with a [large] portion, and credit, and friends, and family, 

** Fortieus Agrippa. It was called the arcade of good luck, ParHau 
borti evailia, and situated uear the Pantbeon, at the entrance of the Gam- 
pus MortiuB. This Epistle must have been written after the year 129, 
wheo the arcade was Bniabed. En. Dubu 

>s If ricbes and houors can not cure the bodj.mncblesBcan they cure 
the (Usorders of the souL But if you think that rdigion and virtue are 
mere creatures of our imagination, then pursue the pleasures of life ; giva 
a loose to the paasiona ; and enter into trade, that jou may get wealth to 
support thern. Fsan. . 

" ^ohnuioreaiidjaailrarewerB terrosoftheTresBury toMgnifyacran- 
pleto sum. Cicero sayB, qvadrart lalertia. Ed. Dubl. 

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and beanty; and [the goddesses], Persaaraoti and Venus, 
grace the well-mone^ man. The king of tlie Cappadociana," 
neb in daves, is in want of coin ; be not you like him. Ln- 
culluB, as they say, being asked if he could lend a hundred 
cloaks for the stage," " How can I so many V sdd he : " yet 
I will see, and send as many as I have ;" a little after he 
vrites that he had five thousand cloaks in hia house ; they 
might take part of them, or all. It is a scanty house, where 
there are not many things superfluous, and which escape the 
owner's notice, and are me gain of pilfering slaves. E then 
wealth alone can make and keep a man happy, be first in be- 
ginning thb work, be laat in leavlDg it off. If appearances 
and popularity make a man fortunate, let ua purchase a slave 
to dictate [to us] the names [of the citdzens], to jog ns on 
tlie leit-side, and to make ua stretch our hand over obsta- 
cles :" " This man has much interest in the Fabian, that in 
the Veline tiibe ; thi» will ^ve the fasces to any one, and, in- 
de&tigably active, snatch the curute ivoir from whom he 
pleases ; add [the namee of] father, brother : according as 
the age of each is, so courteously adopt him. If he who 
feasts well, lives well ; it is day, let us go whither our appe- 
tite leads ns : let ua fish, let ua hunt, as did some time Gar- 
mlius : who ordered his toils, hunting-spears, slaves, early in 
me monung to pass through the crowdea forum and the peo- 
ple : that one mule among many, in the sight of the people^ 
might retiun loaded with a boar purchased with money. L^ 
*us bathe with an indigested and fiiU-swollen stomach, forget- 

" Theee peotde were so bom for slavery, that when the Bomana aC- 
tered them freedom tbey reTuaed it, and said, tbey vere not able to sup- 
port liberty. Thej were so poor, that in the time of Lucullus an ox WM 
sold fbr four pence, and a man tbr about sixteen pence. But they loved 
their slavery and poverty with the same ardor with which others pursue 
liberty and riches. All things cooaidered, aaya Mr. Sonadon, they were 
perbapa more happy. A remark well worthy of a Cappadodon or a 
Frenchman. Frah. 

^ These robes were probably wanted fbr somo such entertaioment 
■a we find in the fliat Bpiatle of the second Book ; though Plutarch tells 
na, Horace calls them five thousand, that he may enliven his tale by 
anch an exas^^eration. fbr the real number waa two hundred. 

" l^antpondera /kxtramporrigere. The streeta of Rome were crowd- 
ed with coaches end wagons .- the Nomenclator, qui diOet tiomina, dL- 
recta hia master to turn these impedimenta to hia advantage, by making 
an acquaintance with those who are stopped with him, or by crosaing 
to tnoee who sre on the other aids of the way. - Sam. 

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243 BFISTLB8 OF HOEACB. kwk i, 

ting what is becoming, what not ; deserving to be enrdled 
among the citizens of Ckk ;** like the depraved crew of UlTsses 
of IthkcA, to whom forbidden pleasure was dearer than th^r 
oonntrf. It, as Mimnemras" things, nothing is pleasant with- 
oat love and mirth, live in love and mirth. 

Live : be happy. If yon know of any thing preferable to 
thsM maxima, caitdidly commuiicate it : if not, with me make 
nseof theee. 


TO mxckvab" 

Ml apologm* to Maemtu/or hit long abaenet from Borne ; a3\d adenoa^ 
eiga hiafavort to him in mch a taiameT ai to declare Uberij/ pre/erablt 
to aii other bleatinga. 

Havino promised you that I would be in the country but 
five days, talse to my word, I am absent the whole of August" 
Bnt, if you would have me live sound and in perfect health, 
the indulgence which you grant me, Maecenas, when I am ill, 
yoa will grant me [also] when I am afraid of being ill : while 
[the tdme of] the first figs, and the [autumnal] heat graces 
the undertaker with his black attendsiits ; while every father 
and mother turn pale with fear for their children ; and while 
over-acted diligence,*' and attendance at the forum, bring on 

*° The CieriteH having received the vestal virgioa and tutelary goda of 
Borne wben it was sadml by the Ganle^ the Booians in gratitade gave 
them tbe privileges of citizens. But having engaged ia the cause of Tar- 
qain, they were deprived of tbe right of voting at electioiis, and s partic 
nltf roll was made br their names, to which those of other iobmoTis 
dtizens were afterward added. From thence came a manner of speak- 
ing, "dignusCieritam tabulia: Ccerite ceril dignL" ToBB. 

<' MimnermuBwaaanlonian poet, who lived about six hundred years be- 
fore the Christian era. He had a pecoliar happiness in descriptioos of teo- 
demesB, pleasure, and love. HisHtylewaseasy, rich, and florid. Ed. Dttbl. 

" This epistle was probably wiittOQ in 131, when our author vraa 
In Ilia forty-second year. 8*K. 

*' SextiUm. The Romans began their year at March, fVom whence the 
siith month was called Sextilis, even after January and Pebraary were 
added to the calendar of Romulus. It afterward took tbe name of 
Augustus, " mensis Augustus," as the month before was called " menaia 
JoliuB," from Julius Ci^ar. Ed. Dubl. 

" (^doea stdiMaa. 'That earnestness aad so^duity of making ooi 

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ferers and imseal wills." But, if the winter shall scatter saow 
upon the Alban fields, your poet will go down to the sea-dde, 
and be careful of himself and read Enndled up ;" you, dear 
friend, he will rerisit with the zephyrs, if you will give bim 
leave, and with the first swallow. 

You have made me rich, not in the manner in which the 
Calabrian host bids [hia vuest] eat of his pears. " Eat, pray, 
sir." " I have had enough," " But take away with you what 
quantity you will." "You are very kind."" "Yon will 
cany tbem no disagreeable presents to your little children." 
" I am as much obliged by your offer, as if I were sent away 
loaded. " " As you please : you leave them to be devoured 
to-day by the bogs." The prodigal and fool gives away what 
be despises and hates ; the reaping of favors like these 
produced, and ever will produce, ungrateful men. A good 
and wise man professes himself ready to do kindness to the 
deserving ; and yet is not ignorant, how true coins differ from 
lupines." I will also show myself deserving of the honor 
of being grateful. But if you would not have me depart anv 
whither, you must restore my vigorous constitution, the black 
locks [that grew] on my narrow forehead : you must restore 

court to ttie great. OpeUa firtntis, the pleadings, and business of tha 
courts. Dao. 

» death ;" for wiHs wero never 

plained by differ? 

preasion taken fW>[n a, mariner's furling the sails in a tempest The poet 
must tben mean, that he wilt read with less application and earoeetneu 
"et sibi parcel" Othersbelieve, that he would image tons a man chillea 
with cold, who collects and brings himself into 1^ compass "frigore 
duplicatus." SanadoD translates it, "shut up, and wamlf clothed," 
against the severity of the weather. Yet in hia notes he thinks «miradB» 
may signify "contracCo in loco; in auguslo couclavi" because small 
apartments are less cold, and consequently more proper lor winter. E^n. 

" Bene and bmigTii were words of politeness and modesty amonK Uia 
Bomans, aa xa^c and inaivu among the dreeks when they refused any 
thing oCTered to tbem. Dac. 

" Lupina, a sort of pulse, used for play-house money. FUntns In bit 
PcennluB, Act iii. scene 3 ; 

AOAU. Agile, inspicite; onrum est COL. Profect6, spectatorea, comk. 
cam. Macerato hoc pingues Gunt auro in Barbaric boves. — Agam. 

"AOAM. Hold; see; itisgotd. Col. Yea, truly, the gold of comedy. 
This is the gold, with which, when it is woU watered, they fatten oxen 
in Italy." Ed. Dcbl. 



to me (be power of talkitig pleasantly : you must restore to me 
the art of lauffbing with t>«x>ming ease, and whiuitig orer my 
liquor at the jilting of l&e wanton Cynora. 

A thin field-mouse had by chance cre^t througli a narrow 
cranny into a chest of gnun; and, having feastod itself in 
ran attempted to come out again, with its body now stuffed 
full. To which a weasel at a distance wies, " If you would 
eecape thence, repair lean to the narrow hole which you en- 
tered lean." If I be addressed with this similitude, I reugn 
all ; neither do I, sated witb delicaciea, cry up the calm re- 
pose of the vulgar, nor would I change my liberty and eaae 
for the riches <x tbe Arabians. You nave often commended 
me tot being modest ; when present you heard [&om me the 
appellations of] king and father, nor am I a word more 
■paring in your absence. Try whether I can cheerfiilly re- 
store what you have given me. Not amiss [answered] Tele- 
machuB, son of the patient Ulysses : " The country of Ithaca 
is not proper (or horses, as being neither extended into cham- 

fiMgn fields, nor abounding wi£ much grass : Afrides, I will 
save behind me your gifts, [which are] more proper for your- 
aelf." Small things best suit the small. No longer does im- 

?jrial Rome please me, but unfrequented Tibur, and unwarliko 

Hiilip, active and strong, and &med for pleading causes, 
while returning from his emplovment about the eighth hour, 
and now of a great age, complaining that the Connie were 
too tax distant from the forum ; spied, as they say, a person 
clean shaven in a barber's empty shed, composedly paring his 
own nuls with a knife. " Demetrius," [says he,] (this slave 
'lexterously received bis master's orders,) "go inquire, and 
bring me word from what house, who he is, of what fortune, 
who is his father, or who ia his patron." He goes, returns, 
and relates, that "he is by name Vulteius Mssna," an anc* 
tdoneer, of small fortune, of a character perfectly unexcep- 
tionable, that he could upon occaraon ply busily, and take his 
ease, and get, and spend ; delighting m bumble companions 

" VvUeivm nomine Jfanom. B7 these words Philip nigbt know he 
was a stranger ; that he had been made free, and that his patron's name 
was Tnlteius. Slaves hod no snmame ; but wban (hey were mode 
free, the]' took the names or sumameB of their patK»a, to which the^ 
added those cf their Blavery. Sah. 

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and a settled dwelling, and (after busineea ended) in the ehawi, 
and the Campus Martina." 

"I would inquire of him himself all this, which you report; 
bid him come to enp with me." Meena can not believe it : he 
wonders silently within himself. Why many words ) He 
answers, " It ia kind." " Can he deny me t" " The rascal 
denies, and disregards or dreads you." In the morning Philip 
comes unawares upon Yulteiua, as be is selling brokery-gooda 
to the tunio'd populace, and salutes him first. He pleads to 
Philip hia employment, and the confinement of his business, 
in excnse for not having waited upon him in the morning; 
and afterward, for not seeing him first. " Expect that I 
will excuse you on this condition, that you sup with me to- 
day." " As you please." " Then you will come after the 
ninth hour: now go, strenuously increase your stock," When 
they were come to supper, having discoursed of things of a 
public and private nature, at length he is dismissed to go to 
sleq). When he had often been seen to repdr like a fish to 
the concealed hook, in the morning a client, and now as a con- 
stant guest ; he is desired to accompany [Philip! to hia country- 
seat near the city, at the proclaiming of the Latin feativala," 
Mounted on horseback, he ceases not to cry up the Sabine 
fields and air. Philip sees it, and smiles : and, while he is 
seeking amusement and diversion for himself out of every 
thing, while he makes him a present of seven thousand ses- 
terces," and promises to lend him seven thousand more : he 
rrsuades him to purchase a '&rm : he purchases one. That 
may not detain you wilh a long story beyond what is neces- 
sary, from a smart cit he becomes a downright rustic, and 
prates of nothing but furrows and vineyards; prepares his 
elms; is ready to die with eager diligence, and grows old 
through a pasfflonate desire of possessing. But when his 
sheep were lost by theft, his goats by a distemper, his harvest 
deceived his hopes, his ox was killed with plowing; fretted 
with these losses, at midnight he snatches his nag, and in a 

s" Indictie LaUrmt. Philip ooold go to the country oalj in the holidays. 
They were called indieltB or amcqiliva, because they were not celebrated 
upon any stated days, which they called staia^, but appointed at the 
pleasure of the consuL They were instituted in honor of Jupiter, in 
memory of a peace concluded beween Torquinius Superboa aud tha 
people of Latium. Fran. 

I' Dma teplem ionat aesleriia. About B4t, 13i. Sti of our 1110007. 

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tnnion makes his way to Pbilip'a hooBe. Whom as soon ■■ 
Ftiilip beheld, rough aod imshaTeD, " Vulteius," aaid he, "yon 
seem to me to be too laborious sod earnesL" " In truth, patron," 
teplied he, "you would call me a wretch, if you would apply to 
me my true name. I beseech and comnre you then, by your 
geniuB and your riffht hood and your houBenold gods, reetoie 
me to my former life." As soon as a nun perceivea, how much 
the things he has discarded excel those which he pnranea, let 
him return in time, and resume those which he relinqtushed. 

It ia a truth, that every one ought to measure himself by his 
own proper foot and standard. 



Mr muse at my request, ^ve joy and wish success to Celsus 
Albinovauus, the attendant and the secretary of Nero. If he 
shall inquire, what I am doing, say that I, though promising 
many and fine things, yet live neither well [according to the 
rules of strict philosophy], nor a^%eably ;" not because the 
hail has crushed my vines, and the neat has nipped my olives ; 
nor because my herds are distempered in oMant pastures; 
but because, less sound in my mind than in my whole body, I 
will hear nothing, learn nothing which may relieve me, 
diseased as I am; that I am <£spleaeed witii my &ithfut 
physicians, am angry with my friends for" being industrious 
to rouse me from a fatal lethargy; that I pursue things 
which have done me hurt, avoid things which I am petsuadM 
would be of service, inconstant aa the wind, at Rome am in 
love with Tibur, at Tibur with Rome. After this, inquire 
how he does; how he man^;es hia business and himself; now 

>< Vivere nee rect) nee suaviier. This diatinctioQ ia of pure Epicurean 
morality. Heeli vivere, to live aooordiftg to the rules of virtue ; vivcrt 
mavUer, to hare no other guidonoe for our actioua but pleasure and our 
pssraons. Gc. Dobl. 

*> Our mt fimeaio. Tbe poet uses ntr for g>id4 and it is too lematk» 
Ue to be psBsed over. Ed. Dobl. 

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he pleases the youog priiic« Hod his sttendattto. If be shall 
say, well ; first congratulate him, then remumber to whisper 
this adtnoaitjon in his ears : Aa 70U, Celaus, bear your for- 
tunes, BO will we bear you. 

Se recommentb Sept^niw to him. 

Or all the men in the world Septimius sarelv, Claudius, 
knows how much r^rd you have for me. For when he 
requests, and hy his entreaties in a manner compels me, to 
undertake to recommend and introduce him to you, aa one 
worthy of the confidence and t&e household of Nero, who is 
wont to choose deservin|; obiecta, thinking I discharge the 
office of an intimate fUend ; he sees and knows better than 
myself what I can do. I said a great deal, indeed, in order 
that I might come off excused : but I was afraid, lest I should 
be suspected to pretend my interest was less than it is, to be a 
Assembler of my own power, and ready lo serve myself alone. 
So, avoiding the reproach of a greater &ult, I have put in for 
the piize of town-hred confidence.'' If then you approve of 
modesty being superseded at the pressing entreatdes of a friend, 

'* Among an the duties of civil life, there is not anj that requires more 
disCTetioa and delicacy, Ulan that of recommeniiing a fViend, espociaJI/ 
toasuperior. TWs letter is a proof of tile remarlt. Tiie poetwaacom- 
polled to write hy a sort of violent impMtunit^, wliicti jet ia not inex- 
cusable in Septimius, peiBuaded as be was of our author's interest with 
Tibenus. There ia'throi^h the whole letter a certain happy misture of 
that inanl7 zeal, which a &iend has a nght to demand, and that modest 
respect due to a great priooe. It may be a pleasure to the reader to 
know, that it bad all the Buccess it deserved, for Septimius was after- 
ward honored with the confidence and affection both of Tibenus and 
Augustus. We may date the letter in 732, far Tiberius was sent the 
year before to visit and regulate the government of the eastern provinces. 

0* After all the disputed explanations of this expres^n, I think there 
is but little difficulty in understanding a " gentlemanly confldence," a 
freedom from maavau horUe, as the quaJity to which the poet lays clainL 
The iQvase Is perhaps slightly ininieaL 

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«tad thii persoD among your retinue, kud beliera him to be 
bnve and good. 

I jUiutius ruBCCS. 

Wk, who lore the coudItt, salute Fuscus that loves the town ; 
in this point alone {l>eing] much unlike, but in other things 
ahnoet twins, of brotherly sentiments: whaterer one denies, 
the other too [deatea] ; we assent t^wether : like old and con- 
stant doves, jou keep the nest ; I pruse the rivulets, the 
rocks ovemovm with moss, and the groves of the deli^tfiil 
countty. Do you ask why ! I live and reign, as soon as I 
have quitt«d those things which yon extol to the sides with 

i'oytiil applause. And, like a priest's fugitive slave, I reject 
iscious wafers ;" I desire plun bread, iraich is more agree- 
able now than honied cakes. 

If we must lire suitably to nature, and a plot of ground is 
to be first sought to raise a house upon, do yon know any 
place preferable to the blissful country t Is uieie any spot 
where the winters are more temperate t where a more agree- 
able breeze moderates the r^e of the Dog-etar, and the sea- 
son of the Ijon, when ODce that furious sign has received the 
scorching sua ? Is there a place where envious care less dis- 
torbs our slumbers t Is the grass inferior in smell or beauty 
to the Ijbyan pebbles f" Is the water, which strives to burst 
the lead in the streets, pnrer than that which trembles in 

» The priest's slave, who is tirad of living on the delicacies offered to 
his mastePi god, runs away ftom his service, that he may gat a little 
common bread : thus our poet would retreat from tbe f^lse taste and 
relish of town pleasures to the simple and natoral enjojmsDts of tbe 
countiy. En. DtTBL. 

" Than tbe teaselated or mosaic pavements made of Numidian marble. 
M. Lepidus was the first who introduced the Numidian marble at Eome, 
Bir which he was Beverel;" censored. Plio. xxxri 6. LapiOi, X<0o- 
oTpuTo, axe tbe small pieces which were airaiiged so as to form Qmna 
on the pavement, as pebbles, or sheUs of differeat colors, are si 
uaed at present lo form the floor of sQmmBi>.hoasea. WOavu 

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nmrmurs down its sloping uhaaneU Why, Irees are nureed 
along the variegated columos [of the city] ; and that bouse 
IB commended, which has a prospect of distant fields. You 
may drive out nature with a foTk," yet still she will return, 
and, insensibly victorious, will bret^ through [men's] im- 
proper disgusts. 

Not he who is uuable to compare the fleeces that drink up 
the dye of Aquinum with the Sidouian purple, will receive a 
more certain damage and nearer to bis marrow, than he who 
shall not be able to distinguish ^Ise from true. He who has 
been overjoyed by prosperity, will be shocked by a change of 
circumstances. If you admire any thing [greatly], you will 
he unwilling to resign it Avoid great things ; under a 
mean roof one may outstrip kings, and the favorites of 
kings, in one's life. 

■Ihe stag, superior in fight, drove the horse from the com- 
mon pasture, till the latter, worsted in the long contest, im- 
plored the aid of man and received the bridle ; but after he 
had parted an esulting conqueror from his enemy, he could 
not snake the rider from his nack, nor the bit from his mouth. 
So he who, afraid of poverty, forfeits his liberty, more valuable 
than mines, avaricious wretch, shall cany a roaster, and shall 
eternally be a slave, for not knowing how to use a little. 
When a man's condition does not suit him, it will be as a shoe 
at any time ; which, if loo big for his foot, will throw him 
down ; if too little, will pinch him. [If yon are] cheerful 
under your lot, Aristius, you will live wisely j nor shall you 
let me go uncorrected, if I appear to scrape together more 
than enough and not have done. Accumulated money is the 
master or slave of each owner, and ought rather to follow 
than to lead the twisted rope." 

These I dictated to thee behind the moldering temple of 
Yacuna ;" in all other things happy, except that thou wast 
not with me. 

M iitpeBa/orca. A proverbial expression for removing, patting away, 
nbaC we dislike or despise, derived fiom tbe use of the fork in the &jiii- 
yard. The Greek eipression is, iitpdvoic lidciv. Comp. Lucian. Timon., 

s> Ibrtum digaa aequi. A metaphor taken from beasts that are led 
with a cord. Pcrsiua hath used tbe same figure, "funem reduco." San. 

ra Vacona was the goddess of VBcations, whose f^tival was celebrated 

in December. There are still some lemaiDS of her temide on our poet's 


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AdoMwrJn; lo recaU him laA lo Borne from Atia, vKiOwr Aa had no- 
tnaied Otroitgh !iu atarimai of Oie civil vxirt, Ju adeite» him loeaiet/u 
di&jwietade of hit mind not bj/ the lengOi of hit jovimeg, bttt by forming 
hit mind into arighl iitpotiHon. 

What, Bullatiua, do you think of Chios, and of celebrated 
Lesbos I" What of neat Samoa t" What of Sardis, the royal 
residenca of Croesus ! What of Smyrna, and Colophon ! Are 
they greater or less than thdr &me ? Are they ^ contempti- 
ble in companeon of the Campus Martius and the rirer li- 
ber ? Does one of Attains' cities enter into your wish ) Or 
do you admire Lebedus, through a surfeit of the sea and of 
travelina; ! Yov know what Lebedus is ; it is a more nnfre- 
quent«d town than Gabii and Eideme; yet there would I be 
williug to live; and, forgetJul of my friends and forgotten by 
them, view from land Neptune" ra^ng at a distance. But 
neither he who comes to Rome from Capua, bespattered with 
rain and mire, would wish to live in an inn ; nor does he, who 
has contracted a cold, cry up stoves and bagnios as completely 
furnishing a happy life : nor, if the violent south wind has 
tossed you in the deep, vrill you therefore sell your ship on 
the other side of the .^ean" Sea. On a man sound in 

estate. He dates bis letter behind ttiis temple, to insult Aristius with 
that idleaeSB and libertj which he enjoyed in the country, in oppositioa 
to the busineaa and conOnement of Bomft ToBB. 

" Sotaqve Lesboa. The island in the ^gean, south oTTenados. Ita 
priDcipal towns were Uitylene and Uethymna. ItwaaRo&i,notsomuch 
on aoconnt of its eioelleut wine, as that it was the birthplace of Sappho 
Bod AlcnuB. Ed. Dosl. 

'3 Conciana Samoa. To the soath-esBt of Chios, well known as the 
fitvorite island of Juno ; and as the birthpUce of PythagontB. The epi- 
thet concinna, mat, refers, perhaps, to the character of the buildings and 
appointments at As chief city, which also was called Samoa. Ed. Dusl. 

•3 IfepUaeamprocul e lerrd. This image perfectly well represents the 
condHion of Rome and Italy. A sea agitated by tempests, is a natural 
figure of a state distracted by the intentions of on iat^tine war. Sin. 

"" j^atimmare. The Archipelago between Europe and Asia, said by 
some to derive its name &om ^geus, the &ther of Theseus, who flung 
himself into it from the promontory ofSunium, when ho saw black sail! 

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mind" Rhodes and beautiful Mitvlene hare such an effect, 
ks a thick cloak at the summer solstice, thin draweis in snowy 
-weather, [bathing in] the Tiber in winter, a fiie" in ihe 
month of August. While it is pennitted, and foitune prc- 
Berres a benign aspect, let absent Siimos, and Chios, and 
Rhodes, be commended bv you here at Rome. Whatever pros- 
perous hour Froridence bestows upon you, receive it with & 
thankiul hand: and defer not [the enjoyment of ] the com- 
forts of life, till a year be at an end ; tnat in whatever place 
jou are, yon may say you have lived with satis£iction. For 
if reason and discretion, not a place that commands a prospect 
of the wide-extended sea, remove our cares ; they change tlieir 
cUmate, not their disposition, who run beyond the sea : a busy 
Idleness harrasses us : by ships and by chariots we seek to live 
ii^pily. What you seek is here [at home], is at Ulubis, if 
a just temper of mind is not wanting to yon. 


Under Ou (xpptaranct ofpraisvtg (he mtm'a forsimony, ht archiy ndiaiia 
it; in^vdwxa OToaphtutakim,aTidcoTiclttdeivrilhafewartii:tai^naiia 
amceming the lUyman affiari. 

O Iccius, if you rightly enjoy the Sicilian products," which 

you collect" for Agrippa, it is not ijossible fiat greater aiBu- 

. ence can be given you by Jove. Away with complMnts! for 

that man is by no means poor, who has the ose of everj thing 

in the vessel which was returning to Creto. Othera gave different deri- 
TStioaB. Ed. Ddbl. 

'^ " Incolumi, integro, buub mentis homini." ScHOl- 

■■ Oairaima was a room exposed to tbe south, snd conCrived in BQch a 
manner as to collect tbe rajH of tbe sun in winter. It was caJted hdia- 
camitaa and lolariitm. Ed. Dubl. 

" JVucMfrM Agrippa Sictiii». Augustus was obliged to Agrippa Ibr 
the reduction of Sicily, and gave him, in ackaowtedgment, an estate 
tiiere, to wbich Iccius was agent or farmer. His father had been gov- 
ernor rf the iBland (bur-and-twetily years before. Ed. Duel. 

B Quct coUigia. This ezpression and tbe last line of the letter seem 
to say that it was harresC-time, both in Sicily and Italy, wbich will more 
exactly direct us to fix the date of it. Sah. 

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be wants. If it ia veil with your belly, jaar back, and yoiu 
feet, regal wealth can add nothing greater. If perchance ab- 
stemions amid profusion you live upon salad and shell-fish," 
you will continue to lire in such a manner, eren iT* presently 
fortune shall flow apon you in a rirer of eold : either because 
money can not change the natural dispontion, or because it ia 
your opinion that all things are inferior to virtue alone. Can 
we wonder that cattle feed upon the meadows and corn-fields 
of Democritus," while bis active soul is abroad [traveling] 
without his bodyf* When you, amid such great impurity 
and infection of profit, have no taste for any thing trivw, 
but still mind fonlyl snblime things f what causes restnun 
the sea, what rules the year, whether the stars spontancDusly 
or by direction wander about and are erratic, what throws ob- 
scurity on the moon, and what brin^ out her orb, what is the 
intention and power of the jarring harmony of things, wheth- 
er Eknpedocles or the clever Stertinius be in the wrong I 

However, whether you murder fishes, or onions and garlic, 

•• Orelli mamtaina that the mtOe is intended, wbich tbe ItalianB, even 
at the present da;, are wont to cook at spriog tine, while its leaves ars 
tender. Plin. -rii , 16 : Urtica mdpieru rtaeei veri, non tn^nUo, mat 
tistHam r^igioioin eibo (3t ad peOandoa lolua anst morhu. The Urtica 
Marina belongs to the genua Midusa, and was oolj served up at the most 
ezpensivs banquets. Serbia tl Urtica are joined as SiiviB ttvvercus, Od. 
i. la, 1. FloreamiBecoIorvmLiUaqM, Ovi±Uei. I. 261. Wbeeijs. 

'" Sic viva prolenua, idle. Ui here signifies quamvia, which only can 
ttetermioe the sense. ProUmis is for uno todangtie ienert, in one crai' 
tinned, unbroken length. Toeb. See Orelli. 

Ti "ttiiB comparison hath much ironical pleasanti;. Democritus was 
so engaged !□ his philosophical speculations, that he left his eetatea prey 
to bis neighbors. But the eevere and frugal lifeoflcciua rotelinm very* 
different principles. He denied himself onlj those pleasures which his 
avarice would not allow him to purchase. But Tirtue, says oar laugb- 
ing poet, was a source of real wealth to him, and he wanted only those 
ri^ea which bis Stoical wisdom had taught him to despise. San. 

^ The Platonics, explaining the powers of the eoul, talk as if tbey 
could reoUj, by strength of imagination, separate the soul from tbe 
bodj, and raise it above all earthly ideas. Aristophanes, to ridicule this 
lai^age, introduces Socrates, telUng his disciples that he could uev« 
have penetrated into things sublime, but bj mixing his most refined 
ideas with air most like them. He then pleasantlf advises them not to 
restndn tbeir imsf^atton, but to let it soar, like a butteifl/, which bojs 
tie to a thread. Fbak. 

T* It was now seventeen jears since Iccius had quitted philosophy 
for the army ; but, as his Arabian expedition had not tbe success it 
promised, our new soldier returned to his Qrst prolhssion. Sah. 

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wceive Pompeina Grosphua ; and, if he asks any favor, grant it 
him frankly : Groephus will desire nothing but what is right 
and just. The proceeds of friendship are cheap, when good 
men want any thing. 

But that you may not be ignorant in what «tuation the Ko- 
man a&iia are ; the Cantabnans" have &]len by the valor of 
Agrippa, the Armenians by that of Ciaudina Nero : Phraates 
has, suppliant on his knees," admitted the laws and power of 
Ctesar, Golden plenty has poured out the fruits of Italy from 
«foil horn. 


As on your setting out I frequently and lully gave you in- 
BtTncdons, Vinnius, that you would present these volumes to 
Augustus sealed up" if he shall be in health, if in spirits, 
fin^y, if he shall ask for them : do not offend out of zeal to 

Ti Ganlaber. A nation of Spain (iuhabiUDg what is oaw Biscay, and 
part of Aeturiss), dlslia^uished for tha Bpirited oppoBition which thi^j 
made to the Romaua. Id a. v. o, 129 AugusCus, in person, lieaded on 
expedition to punish them, but no sooner had he left their country than 
this warlike people reasserted their independence. Horace allades here 
(and also Carm. ili. S, 22, Canfaber serd domitus cofend) to the cbastise- 
mant wluch (hey received from Agrippa, i. ir. c 73*. M'Cadl. 

1° Qeailnu minor. The poet only means that Phraates was rednced 
to the lowest suhmissionii to purchase the protection of Aagustua against 
hia own subjects. Dacior nnderstands the words literally, and that 
Oxaarit means Tiberius, from whose hand the Parthian monarch received 
his <xowa. But is it uot astonishing Oiat Velleins Fatercnlua, alwayi 
diqMSed to flatter Tiberius, bath forgotten a circumstance so glorioua to 
bim, and that we have not the least marka of it in any other his- 
torian. S\s. 

"" Our poet sent Augustas not only the letter addressed to bim (the 
first of the second Book), but also tbe last odes and last epiatlea be bad 
written. He calls these pieces volumina, because they were separately 
/oiled up ; and he dedres Vionlua to present them sealed, liiat tbey 
might not be exposed to the impertinent curiosity of the court Bddxll. 

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264 EPISTLBS OF HOIU.CE. book i: 

me, and iBduBtrioiuily bring an odium upon mr books []by 
beiiig] BO agent of violent officiousness. If haply the heavy 
load of my paper should gall you," cast it from you, rather 
than throw doirn your pack in a rough manner where you are 
directed to cany it, and turn your paternal name of A^na 
into a jest, and make yourself a conunon story. Make use of 
your vigor over the mils, the livera, and the fens. As soon 
as yoa have achieved your enterprise, and arrived there, yoa 
must keep your burden in this position ; lest you happen to 
canr my bundle of books under your arm, as a clown does a 
lamb, or as drunken I^rrhia [in the play does] the balls of 
pil&nd wool, or as a tribe-guest" his sUpperswith bis fuddling- 
cap. You must not tell publicly, how you sweated with carry- 
ing those verses, which may detain the eyes and ears of C»sar. 
S^dted with much entreaty, do your best, finally, get you 
gone, &rewell : take care you do not stomble, and break n^ 



SrKWARn of my woodlands and Uttle farm that restores me to 
myself which you despise, [though formerly] inhabited by five 
&milies, and wont to send five good senators to Varia : let us 
try, whether I with more fortitude pluck the thorns out of my 
niind, or vou out of my groimd : and whether Horace or his 
estate be la a better condition. 

Though my affection and solicitude for Lamia, mourning 

^ Augustus had tallied Horace for the ahortneas of his epistles, "vs- 
Ten mihiTideris iie m^ores libetli tui Bint quimipsees;" you saemafiaid 
that your letters should bo longer than you are. The poet therefbre 
saada a number of them together that be might makeup in weight what 
he wanted in length. Ed. Dubl. 

"" Conviva Iribulit. AthenseuB tells us, tliat people of the earns tribe 
had entertainments, called cutue IhiatiB (probably not unlike our modem 
clubs), which were regulated by laws. The guealB carried their bonnete, 
to preserve them from tlie weather ; and slippers to put on when thsy 
went into the house of the master of the fbasL En. DuBL. 

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tp.xir. EPISTLES OP HOEACB. 265 

for his brother, lAmentiug incODBolablv for his brotiier'e loe^ 
detain me ; nevertheteaa my heart and bouI" carry me thither 
and long to break throogh those barriers that obatmct my way. 
I pronounce him the happy man vho dwells in the countJT, 
you him [who lives] in tne city. He to whom hia nei^- 
Dor's lot is agreeable, must of GonseqneQce disSke his own. 
Each of us ia a fool for mijuetly blaming the innocent placet 
The mind ia in &itlt, which oerer escapes from itself. When 
you were a drudge'* at every one's beck, you tacitly prayed 
for the country : and now, [being appointed] my etewanl, yoa 
wish for the city, the shows, and the baths. You know I am 
consistent with myself^ and lodi to go, whenever disagreeable 
business drags me to Rome. We are not admireis of the 
same thipgs : hence you and I disagree. For what you reckon 
desert and inhospitable wilds, he who is of my way of think- 
ing calls dehghtful places; and diatikea what you esteem 
pleasant. The bagnio, I perceive, and the greasy tarem raise 
your inclination for the city : and this, because my little spot 
will sooner yield frankincenGe and pepper than grapea; nor in 
there a tavern near, which can supply you with wine ; nor 
a minstrel harlot, to whose thrumming you may dance, com- 
bersome to the gronnd; and yet you exercise vi-ith plow- 
shares the fallows that hare been a long while i:ntoucbed, 

Tou take due care of the ox when unyoked, and give him 
Lis fill with leaves stripped [from the boughs]. Ihe sluice 
gives an addiLional trouble to an idle fellow, which, if a shower 

lall, must be taught by many a mound to spare the sunny 

Come now, attend to what hinders our agreeing. [Me,] 
whom fine garments" and dressed locks adorned, whom you 

"" When tlie Ladns use ramt animtagae or mou animi, they would 
express all tbe thcnlciea of tbe souL Msna regards tbe superior Bod in- 
teltgeut part, tmimua the senailde and inTerior, tbe source of the passJoiH. 

" Xediastimifwiui asUveorthe lowest kind, who had no regular serv- 
ice appointed fbr him, but waited upon otlier slsvee in tbe vQeat emploj- 
menCs. Among other directioDs given bjCato to his sou, when he went 
to tbe aruiy, " HJe imperator, tu ill! oc ceteris Uediaatitius." Bd. Dubl. 

" Horace, to render the comparison between himself and his slave 
mora just, draws a picture of the life they passed in their youth at Boms, 
ne coDfetees that his own conduct bad not been extremely regular, yat 
that of his slave, who was probably tbe confidant of his pleasures, had 
Dot bscn more wise. But while the master renounces tbe iblliee of his 

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256 BPISTLBS OF HOBACB. booe i. 

know to hare pleased venal Cynara vithout a present, whom 
[you have seen] quaff flowing Falemian from noon — a Ehort 
supper [now] delicto, and a nap upon the green ttuf by the 
Bti«am aide : nor is it a shame to nave heen gay, but not to 
break off that gaye^. There there is no one who reduces" 
my poaseBsiona with envious eye, nor poisons them with ob- 
•core malice and biting slander ; the neighbors smile at me re- 
' moving clods and stones. You had rather be munching your 
duly allowance with the slaves in town ; you earnestly pray 
to be of the number of these : [while myj cunning foot-boy 
envies you the use of the firing, the flocks, and the garden. 
The lazy ox wishes for the horse's trappings: the horse 
vriabes to go to plow. But I shall be of opinion, that each 
of them ought contentedly to exercise that art which he ua- 


It is your part," Vala, to write to me (and mine to give 

youth, though without blushing for thorn, the servant would continue in 
them as long as be lived. Dag. 

>> lAmai. Limw oculU aspiixre tdigwrm, to look askow, or ashance ; 
but the Latins never used limare in that aeaae. The Scholiaat expltdns 
the word timat by dtterit, immimtit, fbr it was a superatitloD among the 
anoienta, as Dacier observes, that an envious eje could leeeen what it 
looked at, and corrupt our eojojmeDt of it En. DuB. "]imat"="quaBi 
lima atCorit, at.Mnuars couatur." Obblli. 

sa QtuB sit }iiems Vdia, etc. Th» anaQgement in this Bpistle is very 
intricate. The Brst twenty-flva lines fonn one strained hyperbaton. Ths 
natural order is : 

26. Scribere ta nobis, tibi nos acoedere par est, 

Qua sit hiems Teli^ quod ccelnm, Vala, Sdami; 
Quorum homlnum regio, et qualis via; ( ■ ) 

II. Mq'or utrum populum fhimenti copia pascat ; 
CoUectosoe bibant imbres, puteosae perennes 
Jups aqute ; ( ) 

32. Tractus uter plurea lepores, uter educet apros; 
Utra ma^ pisces et ochinos lequora celent, 
Pinguia ut inde domum possim Fha^ixque revertE. IfCiui. 

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credit to your information) what sort of a winter it is at Velia, 
what the air at Salemum, what Mnd of inhabitants the 
conntiy conmsts of, and how the road is (for Antonius Musa" 
|pronoimcea] Baise to he of no service to me ; yet makes me 
obnoziouB to the place, when I am bathed in cold water" 
even in the midst of the frost [by his prescription]. la tralh, ■ 
the village murmors at their myrtle-groves bemg deserted, , 
and the sulphurous waters, s^d to expel lingering disorders 
from the nerves, despised; envying those invahda, who have 
the courage to expose their head and breast to the Clndan 
springs, and retire to Gabit and [such] cold countries. My 
course must be altered," and my horse driven beyond hia ac- 
customed stages. Whither are you going) will the angry 
rider say, pulling in the left-hand rein," I am not bound Jbr 
Cum» or Baise : — but the horse's ear is in the bit) [Ton 
must inform me likewise] which of the two people is sup- 

^* Aatoniua Musa was a fVeeman of Augustus, and brother of Euphor- 
hxiB, phTsician to king Jaba. He bad the happiness or curing Augustus 
of a distemper, which his other phyaiciaDB thought desperate, and this 
cure raised both the Gicnlty and its profeasora out of contempt The 
prince and people contended in bonoiiag a man who bad reatared a life 
so valuable to the state. He was rewarded with a considerable sum of 
nonej ; he was exempted from all public tares ; he was made A*ee of 
Rome, allowed to wear a gold ring, and bis statue was placed next to 
that of .^^aculapius. These glorious distinctions were not confined to 
bim alone, hnt extended to all of tbe profession, and the disciples of Hip- 
pocrates were then first allowed the privileges and immunities of a Boman 
citizen. The cold bath was now prescribed for all disorders, but the 
same prescription vhich bad cured Augustus, having tmbappilj killed 
Marcellua, the science of phTsic, and the people who practiced it, fell 
into their original contempt Alter tbia example, we may behove, that 
Horace would not be willing to run the same hazard, and tberelbre we 
maj naturally date this letter in the beginning of 131, six or seven 
months alter tbe recovery of Augustus, which happened in August Sak. 

*^ This does not suppose tliat be had already gone into the oM batb, 
but that he proposed i^ and was yet undetermined between that cd' Sal- 
emum and Velia. " Perlnor" does not mark a past action, but the pres- 
ent disposition, as if he had said, " cCuu in eo anm nt perloar." Sah. 

M JfutaTidus toctia «s(. " We mast go no mote to Baite ;" where the 
poet bad frequently been. Sanadon blames this apostrophe ; fiir although 
a rider naturally enough may sometimes talk to bis horse, yet an author 
can hardly be supposed to sit down to write to him. 

»1 ^the entrance into Campania tbe road divides; the right leads to 
Cuma and B^ce ; tbe left to Capua, Saleroum, sod Velia. The horse is 

King to bis usual stage at Bai«, but Horace turns Mm to tbe left, to tbe 
icanian road. TOKIb 

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ported by the greatest abundance of com ; whether they drink 
rain-water collected [in regerroira], or from perennial wells of 
never-fiulin); water (for as to the wine of that part I ^ve my- 
Mlf no trouble ; at my countiy-seat I can dispense and bear 
with any tiling : but when I have arrived at a sea-port, I inu'st 
upon that which is generous and mellow, such as may drive 
■war my carea, such as may flow into my veins and animal 
Bjunta with a rich supply of hope, such as may supply me with 
words, anch as may mue me appear young to my Lucanian 
mistress). Which tract of land produces most hares, which 
boars : which seas harbor the meet fishes and sea-urchins, that 
I may be able to return home thence in good case, and like a 

When MnniuB, having brapely made away with his paternal 
and maternal estates, began to be accounted a merry fdlow — a 
vagabond droll, who had no certain place of living ; who, 
when dinoeriess, could not distinguish a fellow-oitiEcn from an 
enemy ; unmerciful in forging any scandal against any per- 
son ; the pest, and hurricane, and gulf of the market ; what- 
ever he could get, he gave to his greedy gut. This fellow, 
when he had extorted little or nothing from the favorers 
of his iniquity, or those that dreaded it, would eat up whole 
dishes of coarse tripe and lamb's entrails ; as much as would 
have sufficed three Dears ; then truly, pike] reformer Bestiua," 
would he say, tliat tJie bellies" of ei&avagsnt fellows ou^t 
' to be branded with a red-hot iron. The same man [how- 
ever], when he bad reduced to nnoke and ashes*' whatever 
more considerable booty he had gotten ; 'Faith, sud he, I do 
not wonder if some persons eat up their estates ; since nothing 
is better than a fsit thrush, nothing fiuer than a large sow's 
paunch. In fact, I am just such anotlier myself; for, when 

» Crvquiua happily enteied into the spirit of this passage, when he 
mideistood Bestiua as a person of difltereiit character &om that of 
Mssnius. Our commentators have not orJy mistaken the sense of tb^ 
author, but subatitated Htenius, in direct contradiction to all the mann- 
scripts, in tbe place of Beatius. Corrtd/ir hath been ludcily preserved 
In a manuscript extremely ancieu^ and wall agrees with the charac- 
ter of Cornelius BestiuB, whom Parsius mentions as rematfcable for a 
severity of manners. Fbah. 

B* The Greeks and Romans branded the belly oTa gluttonous slave ; the 
feetofafiigitive; the bands of a thief ; andthetongueof abahblOT. Dio. 

•° Verleratinfufmaaaceinerem. A proverbial eipresHion, as if amoka 
and ashes were all the remains of the large estate he '-"' ■" 


SF.xn, &PI8TLE8 OF HORACR 259 

matters are a little deficient, I commend the bqu^ and homely 
fue, of sufficient resolution amid mean provisions ; but, if 
any thing be oflered better and more delicate, I, the same indi- 
vidual, cry out, that ye are wise and alone live well, wbose 
wealth and estate are conspicuous from the elegance of your 


Be deaeribet to Quineliue Ote fom^ iHaaiiim, and advaniaga of liia coatt- 
try-Kouie : Oiea declare» lAtd probily comitti in fht amacimitntaa of good 
wori»; Ulmij/, in probity. 

Aax me not, my best Quincdus, whether my farm maintains 
its master widi cornfields, or enriches" him with olives, or 
with fruits, or meadow land, or the elm-tree clothed with 
vines : the shape and situation of my ground shall be described 
to you at large. 

There is a continued range of mountains, except where 
they are 8q>arated by a shadowy vale ; but in such a manner, 
that the approaching sun views it on the right aide, and de- 
parting in his flying car warms the left. You would com- 
mend its temperature. What ) If my [very] briers produce 
in abundance the ruddy cornels and damsens ! If my oak 
and holm-tree accommodate my cattle with plenty of acorns, 
and their master with a copious shade 1 You would say that 
Tarentum, brought nearer [to Rome], shone in its verdant 
beauty. A fountain too, deserving to ^ve name to a rivei, 
insomuch that Hebrus does not surround Thrace more cool or 
more limpid, flows salubrious to the infirm head, salnbrioas 

" We may suppose, that Qtiinctiiis had odea raUied our poet on the 
^tuatioD, extent, and ravenuea of tiia estate. After havii^ satisfied all 
hia qnestioDi in vei^ few words, he throws himself into the moral, and 
touches upon certain points, probably of much importaaoB to Qoiic. 
tins ; but all is pleasing, iuterestiag, and instructive. The name of 
Augustus in the twenty-ninth line is a prool| that the letter was writ- 
ten after the year T28. Sak. 

•* OpulerUel is pnrely a country word deriTed from op», terra. It !• 
not easy to say whether Horace invented the word, but at least he gave 
it credit, and it was afterward used by Columella. Sah. 

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to the bowels. These aweot, yea now (if you irill credit me) 
these delightful retreats preserve me to you in a state of health 
[even] in the September season. 

You lira well, if you taice care to support the chstaatet 
which you bear. IjOng ago, all Rome haa proclaimed you 
happy ; but I am apprehensire, lest you should give more credit 
concerning youiBelf to any one than jonrself ; and lest yon 
should imagine a man happy, who differs from the wise and 
good ; or, because the people pronounce you sound and per- 
fectly weU, lest you dissemble uie lurking fever at meal-times, 
imtil a trembling seize your greased hands. The false mode«ty 
of fboh conceals uloers [raSier than have them cured]. If 
any one should mention battles which you had fought by land 
and sea, and in such expreemona as these should soothe your 
listening ears : " May Jupiter, who consults the safely both of 
'ou and of the dty, keep it in doubt, whether die people 
>e more solidtous for your welfare, or yon for the people's ;" 
you might perceive these encomiums to belong [only] to Au- 
gustus : when you suffer yourself to be termed a philosopher, 
and one of a refined hfe ; say, pr'ythee, would you answer [to 
tliese appellations] in your own name 1 To be sure — I uke 
to be called a wise and good man, as well as you. He 
who gave this character to-day, if he will, can take it away to- 
morrow ; as the same people, if they have conferred the con- 
sulship on an unworthy person, may take it away from him : 
■ " Resign ; it is ours," they cry : I do resign it accordingly, 
and eh^rined withdraw. Thus if they should call me rogue, 
deny me to be temperate, assert that I had strangled my 
own father with a nalter ; shall I be stung, and change 
color at these false reproaches I Whom does mise honor de- 
light, or lying calumny terrify, except the vicious and siekly- 
mmded ( Wio then is a good man ! He who observes the 
decrees of the senate, the laws and rules of jostdce ; by whose 
arbitration many and important disputes are decided ; by 
whose surety private property, and by whose testimony causes 
are safe. Yet [perhaps] his own family and all the neidibor- 
hood observe tbis man, specious in o fair outside, [to be| pol- 
luted within. If a slave should say to me, " I have not com- 
mitted a robiiery, nor nin away ;" " You have your reward ; 
you are not galled with the lash," I reply. " I have not killed 
any man ;" " You shall not [therefore] feed the carrion crows 



on the cross." I am & good mat), and thril^y ; your Sabioe 
friend denies, and contradicts the fact For the waij wolf 
dreads the pit^I, and the haifk the suspected snarefl, and the 
li^ the concealed hook. The good, [on the contrary,] hate to 
sin from the love of virtue ; you «ill commit no crime merely 
for the fear of pnoiehment. Let tiere be a prospect trf escap- 
ing, you Trill confound sacred and prolaue thmga together. 
For, when from a thousand bushels of beans yon filch one, the 
loas in that caae to me is less, but not your villainy. The hon- 
est man, whom every forum and every court of justice looks 
upon with reverence, whenever he makes an atonement to the 
gods with a swine or an os ; after he has pronounced in a clear 
distinguishable voice, " O lather Janus, O Apollo ;" moves his 
lips as one afraid of being heard ; " O fair Lavema" put it in 
my power to deceive ; grant me the appearance <^ a just and 
upright man: throw a cloud of night over my frwtds." *I do 
not see how a covetous man can be better, how more free than 
a slave, when he stoops down for the sake of a penny, stuck in 
the road [for sport]." For he who will be covetous, will also 
be anxious : but be that lives in a state of anxiety, will never 
in my estimation be free. He who is always in a buiry, and 
immersed in the study of augmenting his fortune, has lost the 
arms, and deserted the post of virtue. Do not kill your captive, 
if you can sell him : he will serve you advantageously : let 
him, being inured to drudgery, feed [your cattle], and plow ; 
let him go to sea, and winter in the midst of the waves ; let , 
Mm be c^ use to the market, and import com and providons. 
A good and wise man" will have courage to say, "Penthens, 
king of Thebes, what indignities will you compel me to Buf- 

> Id a religion where every ooe made his own gods, it was natural 
that tbieves and robbers, being persecuted upon earth, should sedi the 
asnHtaDceof soma divinity in heaven. That horror with which tbeyara 
usiulij r^aided, ou^t to have extended to the goddess who traa their 
proteotreea ; but as she was also the guaniiaa of tliase who woold not 
have their designs discoTered, she was publicly worshiped, and her 
votaries were c^ed " IdTemiocei." Torr. Sah. 

M Comp. Pera. Sat. v. 3, Impie laU) flxum jntiia iranteendere nun- 
«Htm. The alloaion Es to a tridc of boys pladng money on the ground, 
either fixed so tight ttiat it can not be removed, or secured by a strii^, 
by which they withdraw it when any passenger stoops to take it up. 

" A really good man is he, whom the loss of fortune, liberty, and life, 
can not deter (kun doing his duty. The poet, with an unexpected spirit 

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fer and endure. ' I will take away tout goods :' mj cattle, 
I Buppoae, mj land, my morabtes and money : yon may take 
them. 'I will confine yon with hand-cii& and fetters un- 
der a merciless jailer,' The deity himself will diaiihar^ n)^ 
whenever I pleaae." Id my opinion, this is his meamng ; I 
will die." Death" is the ultimate boundary" of human mit- 


TO 8C.«TA. 

Thatalifi'fJxaiaaaUpreferaJ^toaprivaletmdinacfineorte; Otefrkad- 
thip*OfgrvU men if a latuiable acqataiiion, j/tt their /avora are ever to be 
tobcitedieiih modufy and eaalim. 

Thouob, Scseva, you have sufficient prudence of your own, 
and well know how to demean yourself toward your superiors ; 
[yet] hear what are the sentiments of your old crony, who 
himself Gtill requires teaching, just as if a blind man should un- 
dertake to show the way : however see, if even I can advance 
any thing, which you may think worth your while to adopt as 
your own. 

If pleasant rest, and sleep till seven o'clock, delight yoti ; 
if dust and the rumbling of wheels, if the tavern offend yon ; 
I shall order you off for Ferentinum. For jo^ are not the 
property of the rich aloue : nor has he lived ill, who at bis 

and address, bnngs a god upon the st^e under the character of this good 
man. Tha whole passage is almost an exact traostation of ascene is the 
Bacchactaa or Euripides. Frak. 

« This could not be the sense of Bacchus in Euripides, because he 
would have Pentheos acknowledge him a god, and of consequence im- 
mortaL Horace therefore leaves the Grecian poet, and expluns the words 
conformably to his own design of showing that the fear even of death is 
cot capable of shakiug the courage of a good man, or obliging him to 
abaudon the cause of virtue. San. 

'^ This does oat mean, as it is generally understood, that death is an 
end of all thiogs, but of all our misibrtuues. Remm for remm maiarum, 
as in Virgil, "iesd, rerum, sunt laciymie rorum, trepidic rerum. Eu; 

^ Lin«a, a treuohdrawn round the arena, to mark the coursafortbosa 
who euCerad the lists. Torr. Saji. 

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birth and at bis death has passed nnaodced." If yoa are dis- 
posed to be of semce to your friends, and to treat yourself 
■with somewhat more indiUgence, you, being poor, must pay 
your respects to the great"* Aristippus, if he could dine to 
his satisfaction on herbs, would never frequent [the tables] of 
the great If he who blames me, [replies Anstippua,] Imew 
how to live with the great, he would scorn his vegetables. 
Tell me, which maxim and conduct of the two yon approve ; 
or, fflnce you are my junior, hear the reason why Anstippus' 
opinion is preferable ; for thus, as they report, he baffled the 
snarling cynic : " I play the buffoon for my own advantage,' 
you [to please] the populace. This [conduct of mtne] is bet- 
ter and far more honorable ; that a horse may carry, and a 
great man feed mo, pay court to the great ; you beg for refuse, 
an inferior to the [poor] giver ; though you pretend you are 
in want of nothing.'" As for Arisfippus, every complexion' 
of life, every station and circumstance sat gracefully upon him, 
aspiring in general to greater things, yet equal to the present : 
on the other hand, I shall be much surprised, if a contrary way 
of life should become [this cynic], whom obstinacy clothes with 
a double rag.' The one will not wait for his purple robe ; 

•• Cfl Eur. Iph. Aul. IT, iijJjJ J dvipuv o[ dKiviwov ^iov t^ttripai/ 
ilywJr. uiJ.t^f. Ohelll 

'" A<xtdea mmuj ad nnctain. People of easy Ibrtunea never lay down 
at the table without perfuming ttiemselvea with essences ; ftom whence 
the words ani*ii and siccaa were used to signify a rich and a poor man, 

' Aristippus does not acknowledge he was a bufibon, but mikes use of 
the term to insult Diogenes, and deiteroualy puts other words of civiier 
meaning into the place <^ it, when he speaks of bimseif — O^iitm facto. 
Hy buERranery, saya he, procures me pro&t and honor; yours leaves 
jou in meauness, indigence, nasCiness, and coutompt. My dopendeoca 
18 OD kings, to whom we are born in subjection ; you ore a slave to the 
people, whom a wise man should despise. Sah. 

a Aristippus pays his court to Dionysius, without making any request- 
CiogeDesaabseveu the vUestthiDgs from the vUest of people. He would 
excuse himself, by saying he aslts only because what he asks is of little 
value; but, if the person who receives an obhgation is inferior, at that 
time, to the person who bestows it, he ia inferior in proportion to the 
meanness of the Cisor be receiver Dac. 

' Omnia Ariatippain decuit color. Mr. Sanadon understands color fbr 
drat or hobiL Tou are the only person, says Plato to Aristippus, who 
can appear equally well-dressed in a coarse cloth, as in purple, 

< Hiiilici panTio. A Greek poet calls Diogenes, 

'O |3iMTpo^apof, iiirloii/iaro;, lUOepa^oOKOS, 

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bnt Snmei in aaj thing, will go ttinn^h the most frequent' 
ed places, and without awkwudnen support eiUier chano- 
ter: the odier will ahuu the cloak wioi^t at Miletus with 
greater aversion than [the bite of] dog or viper : he will die 
with oold,* unleea you restore him his ra^^ garment : restore 
it, and let tiim live like a fool as be i& To perform exploits, 
and show the citiiens their fi>e8 is chains, reaches the throne 
of Jnpiter, and aims at celestial honors, lo have been ac- 
ceptable to the great, is not the last of praises. It is not every 
man's lot to gain Corinth.' He [prudently] sat stall, who was 
afraid lest he should not succeed : be it so ; what then ! Was 
it not bravely done by him, who carried his point? Esther 
here therefore, or nowhere, b what we are investigating, 
I^ one dreads the burden, as too much for a podllammous 
soul and a weak constitution; the other undertakes, and carries 
it through. Either virtue is an empty name,' or the nan who 
makes the experiment deservedly daims the honor and the re- 

The man wAo corrie» a cudgel, totor* a douHe coai, and /ttds upon air. 
Tbia last expresaioa maaoB a soptuB^ who, according to Aiistopfaanea, 
livee upon the clouds. However, Horace probably meant only a double 
mantle, or one as tbick aa two; a coarse, heavy coat, in opposition to 
purpurmtn amictum. Serrius ezplaias dupjtcem tx iuamrw rgecit amtc- 
(urn, in Virgil, in the same manner. Ed. Dubl 

* AristippuB engaged Diogenes to go with Mm Into the batb, and, 
coming Qrat out of the water, took the cynic's mantle, and left him his 
purple robe. But Diogenes declared be would rather go naked ont of 
the bath tban pat it on. DaO. 

* Suidaa intorma us, that the danger and difSculty of going into the 
ports of Ooriutb gave rise to a proverb. Horace makes use of it, to abow 
that all people have not talents proper tbr aucceeding in a court, and to 
raise tbe glorj of those who have courage to attempt and addresa to con- 
mier the difBculties there. Others apply the proverb to Jiais, a famous 
CoriDthiaQ courtezan ; but such an application is too light and trivial Bar 
the Bolemnity of these lines, nor ia it just to the poet'a thought If money 
could purchase her favors, it reqoired no great degree of courage to at- 
tempt tfaem. Bim. 

' This is tbe dedsion which necessarily resolts from the proo& The 
poet introduces s person, who may be supposed to object that, if it be so 
difficult to succeed at court, a wise man hod better not attempt it " 3e- 
dit, qui timuit." Horace adcnowledgea tbe fbrce of this objection, " esto, '' 
but draws from it a very different conclusion ; that; if there be difficulty 
DT danger, he certainly deserves the highest praise who tnes to succeed, 
"ezperiens vir;" and, if virtue be any thing more than a cbimerica! 
naOie, he may with justice claim a reward proportionable to bia merit, 
"rectfi petit." En. Dubl. 



Hose who meDtjon uothiog of their poverty before their 
lord, will gain more than tbe importunate. There ia a great 
difference between modestly accepting, or seizing by violence. 
Bat this was the principle and source of every uiing [which I 
sliced]. He who says, " My sister is without a portion, my 
mother poor, and my estate neither saleable nor sufficient for 
my support," cries out [in effect], " Give me a morsel of bread :" 
another whines, " And let the platter be carved out for me with 
half a share of the bounty."' But if tbe crow could have fed 
in silence, he would have had bett«r fare, and much less of 
quarreling and of envy. 

A companion taken [by his lord] to Brundusium, or the 
pleasant Surrentuni, who complains of the ru^edness of the 
roads and the bitter cold and rains, or laments that his chest 
is broken open and his provisions stolen ; resembles the well- 
known tricks of a bariot, weeping frequently for her necklace, 
frequently for a garter forcibly taken from her; so that at 
length no credit is given to her real griefs and losses. Nor does 
he, who has been once ridiculed in Qie streets, care to lift up a 
vagrant* with a [pretended] broken leg; though abundant tears 
should flow from him ; though, swearing by holy Osiris," ho 
says, " Believe me. I do not impose upon you ; O cruel, take 
up the lame." "Seek out for a stranger,"" cries the hoarse 

* This importonole not only leases his patron with perpetual requests, 
but provokes others to make (he same demaoda. The poet compares them 
to beggars in the street, and gives the same language, for " quadra" 815- 
nifies the plate upon which tbej received ihm bread at a public diatri. 
butioD. ED. DtTBL. 

• Planum. In Greek this signifies a vagabond. Decimus Laberiua 
Brat Latinized it, aed Aulus Oellius blaiues tbe boldDess of it. But Ci- 
cero and Horace refute tbs censure of the grommariaiL BOHD. 

'° Osiris was the god of vagabonds, aad brother of Tas, whose power 
of healing distempers was so universally believed, that, as Juvenal ei- 
preeses it, she roaintained the painters by votive pcturea to her honor, 
" Fictorea qui ueecit ab laida paaci?" Toaa. 

'> Thia was a trick so treqnent amoDg beggars, that it produced a prov 
arb, "ToUattequinonnovit." BnDtlBL. 

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If I rightly know your temper, most ingenuous Lolliua, you 
will beware of imitating a flatterer, while you profess yourself 
a friend. As a matron is unlibe and of a different aspect from 
a strumpet, bo will a true fnend differ from the toad-«ater. 
IVre is an oppodte vice to this, rather the greater [of 
the two] ; a clownish, inelegant, and disagreeable bluntness, 
which would recommend itself by an unshaven face and black 
teeth ; while it deures to be termed pure freedom and true «n- 
cerity. Virtue is the medium of the two vices ; and equally 
remote fix>m either. The one is over-prone to complairance, 
and a jester of the lowest couch," he so reverences the rich 
man's nod, so repeats his speeches, and cal«hes up his fidling 
words ; that you would tale him for a school-boy saying hS 
lesson to a ri^d master, or a player acting an underjmt ; an- 
other often wrangles about a goat's hair, and armed engages" 
for any trifle : " That I, truly, should not have the first credit ; 
and tbat I should not boldly speak aloud, what is my real sen- 
liment — [upon auch terms], another life would be of no value." 
But what ia the subject of this controversy J Why, whedier 
[the gladiator] Castor or Dolichos be the cleverer fellow ; wheth- 
er the Minuctan," or the Appian, be the better poad toBrundu- 

■' Imi derimr Ucti, i. t„ a buSbon, who is invited to an entertunment 
fbr the amuBement of tbe host and his gueals, that never baa an gpinion 
of bis own, but merely Hupports tbe sentiments of others, and serves oa 
an auxiliary to his host, when he f^ila in eonversation Imi—lecU reTera 
to the place where siu^ persons were stationed ; sclL on the lowest conch. 
Hence in Sat ii. S, 40, Nomeatanus and Porcius, Nasidienus' jesters, are 
termed "im[lectj convivs." M'CAtrL. 

" But, says Torren tins, " they who divide the word propagnai, to oon- 
Btrue it pugnat pro imgia, lose tlie beauty of the passage : mtgis armaiua, 
armed with trifles and noDsense." So also OrellL 

II There were two roads to Bome from Brundusium, the Appian, which 
went aloiu; tbe Tuscan Sea ; and the Minucian, which crossed over tho 
country of tbe Sabines and Samnitea, jtuning the Apjuan road at Bono- 

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Him whom pernicious lust, whom quick-dispatching dice 
strips, whom vanity dresses out and perfiimea beyond his 
abilities, whom insatiable hunger and thirst after money, 
whom a shame and averraon to poverty possess, bis rich 
friend (though furnished with a half-score more vices) hatfii 
and abhors; or if he does not hate, governs him; and, like a 

Eious mother, would have him more wise and virtuous than 
imself; and says what is nearly true: "My riches (think 
not to emulate me) admit of extravagance ; your income is 
but small: a scanty gown becomes a prudent dependant: 
cease to vie with me." Whomsoever Eutrapelus had a mind 
to punish, he presented with costly garments. For now [said 
he] happy in his fine clothes, he will assume new schomes 
and hopes ; he will sleep till daylight ; prefer a harlot to his 
honest-calUng ; run into debt ; and at last become a gladiator, 
or drive a gwdener's hack for hire. 

Do not you at any tame pry into his secrets ; and keep close 
what is intrusted to you, though put to the torture, by wine 
or passion. Neither commend your own inclinations, nor 
find &ult with those of others ; nor, when he is disposed to 
hunt, do you make verses. For by such means the amity of 
the twins Zetbus and Am phion, broke off; till the lyre, dis- 
liked hy the austere brother, was silent. Amphion is thought 
to have given way to his brother's humors ; so do vou yield 
to the gentle dictates of your friend in power ; as often as he 
leads forth his doga into the fields and his cattle laden with 
^tolian nets, arise and lay aside the peevishness of your un- 
mannerly muse," that you may sup together on the delicious 
&re purchased by your labor ; an exercise habitual to the 
manly Romans, of service to their fame and life and limbs : 
especially when you are in health, and are able either to excel 
the dog in swiftness, or the hoar in strength. Add [to this], 
that there is no one who handles martial weapons more grae» 
fully. You well know, witb what acclamations of the spec- 
tators you sustain the combats in the Campus Martius : in fine, 

ventum. This last had its name trom tbe codbuI, Tiberias Minucius, 
who made it in 41S, seven Tears ^l«r that of Appios. Sak. 

" Senwn depone Oamantt. The mose is here called t'tiAumofKE, 
tcoxa tbe peevishness of poets when thej ara interrupted in their poetical 
studies; Of because they generally love soUtude and n ' 
company. Torr. 

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H jret a hoy," roa endured a bloody campMgn and the Can- 
tabrian wars, beneath a commander, who is now repladng 
the Btandards [recovered] from the Parthian temples :" and, 
if any thing is wanting," aasigns it to the Boman arms. And 
that you may not withdraw younelf^ and inexcusably be 
^Ment ; though you are careful to do nothing out of measure 
and moderation, yet yon sometimes amuse yourself at your 
MHiDlzy-seat. The [mock] fleet divides the little boats [into 
two sqaadrons] : the Acdaa sea-fight" is represented by boys 
ttnder your direction in a hostile form : your brother is tike 
foe, your lake the Adriatic ; till rapid victory crowns the one 
or the other with her bays. Your p^itron, who will perceive 
that you come into his taste, will applaud jonr sports with 
both his hands." 

Moreover, that I may advise you (if in aught you stand in 
need of an adviser), take great circumspection what yon say 
to any man, and (o whom. Avoid an inquisitive impertinent^ 
for such a one is also a tattler, nor do open ears taithflilly 

■• Lollins, to whom Horace writes, was with Augustus ia his expedi> 
tioo against the CaDtabrians, when he wu verjr ;oung, paer. But 
Augustus departed Troni Jtome in 12T, when LoIUub, the father, bad 
been some years in Galatia, where he was governor after the death of 
Amjntaa, whose kingdom became a province of the Boman empire- 
He returned to Rome in T33, and entwed upon his consulahip in the 
beginning of the jear Ibllowiog. It is, therefc^ impossible that he 
oouid have been with Augustus iu the war of Spain, and consequentljr 
this letter could not have been written to lum. Cabdihai, Noubis. 

IT All our commeutators agree, that refigit ia in almost all the manu- 
scripts. It is of more than ordinaTj value, because it determines the 
precise date oT this £|Natle in 734, wbeu Phraates restwed the Roman 
eagles to Auguatua Horace was then fbr^-fiva Tears of age- 
's ITaac el ai quid abal. Nunc roust be construed with r^gii, as ap- 
pears by the beat copies ; " sic enim distinguunt potiora exemplaria." 

" This little aea-%ht is well introduced by our poet, and does mndi 
honor to IioUius. Augustus, iu memory of the battle of Actiam, insti- 
tuted a tournament, nnder the name of Actian games, which were 
annually celebrated every lat of August. Sanadon thinks it probable, 
that this naval eQgBj^nient of LoUius gave the Romans a first idea of 
those naumachia, with which they were afterward entertained by their 
emperors. Frait. 

^" A metaphorioal manner of speaking, taken (h>m the arena. When 
n gladiator was thrown In %fatii^, the people asked his lifb by turning 
down th«r thumbs, or his death by lifting them up. "Citm (bveanma 
polllcsi premere etiam proverbio jubenur." Pun. Tokr. 

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-' xvm. EPISTLES OP HOBACE. 269 

.vtain what is intnutad to them ; and a word, once Bent abroad, 
flies irrevocably. 

Let no slave within the marble threshold of your honored 
Mend inflame your heart ; iest the. owner of the beloved 
damsel gratify you with so trifling a present, or, mortifriiig ly> 
-• your wi^es], torment you [wiih a retiisal]. 

Look over and over again [into tho merits of] such a one, 
as you recommend ; lest afterward the faults of others strike 
you with shame. We are sometimes imposed upon, and now 
and then, introduoe an unwortby person. Wherefore, once 
deceived, forbear to defend one who suffers by hia own bad 
conduct; but protect one whom you entirely know, and with 
confidence guard iiim with your patronage, if false accusations 
attack him : who being bitten witii t)ie tooth" of calumny, do 
you not perceive that the same danger is threatening yout 
For it is your own concern, when the adjoining wall is on fire: 
and flames neglected are wont to gain strength. 

The attending of the levee of a friend in power seem» do- 
lighliii! to the unexperienced; the experienced dreads it. Do 
you, while your vessel is in the main, ply yonr business, lest a 
chan^ng gale bear you back again. 

The melaQcholy hate the merry, and the jocose the melan- 
choly ; the volatile [dislike] the sedate, the indolent the stirringr 
and vivacious : the quaffers of pure Falemian from midnight 
hate one who shirks nis turn; notwithstanding you swear you 
are afraid of the iiunes of wine by night. IMspel gloominess 
from your forehead : the modest man generally carries the look 
of a sullen one ; the reserved, of a churl. 

In every thing you must read and consult the learned, by 
what meana'you may be enabled to pass your life in on agree- 
able manner : that insatiable desire may not agitate and tor^ 
ment you, nor the fear and hope of things that {ire but of 
little account: whether learning acquires virtue, or nature 
bestows it ! What lessens cares, what may endear you to 
yourself! What perfectly renders the temper calm ; honor, 
or entici^ lucre, or a secret passage and the path of an un- 
noticed life t 
* For my part, as often as the cooling rivulet Digentia re- 

" Dentt Themiao. Tbeoa was ^ Grecian poet, so remarkable for the 
•overity and acrimony of bis writings, that his name gave riss to a prov- 
erb, (jew T^hamiwu. Dac. 

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freshes DM (Digentis, of which Mandela drinks, a village 
vrrinkled with cold) ; what, m^ friend, do you think ore my 
Bendments, what do you imagine I pray for ! Why, that my 
fortune may remain as it is now ; or even [if it be aomethin^ 
leas : and tliat I may live to myself what remains of my time, 
if the gods will that aught do remain : that I may have a good 
store of books, and com provided for tlie year; lest I fluctuate 
in suspense of each uncertain hour. But it i« Bufficieut to sue 
to JoTO [for these externals], which he gives and takes away 
[at pleasure] ; let him ^rant life, let him grant wealth : I my- 
self irill provide equammity of temper. 



Oleaknbd Mncenas," if you believe old Cratinus,"no verses 
which are written by water-driokers can please, or be long- 
lived. Ever since BaivihuB enlisted the bram-sick poets among 
the Satyia and the Fauns, the sweet muses have usually smelt 
of wine in the morning. Homer, by his excessive praises of 
wine, is convicted as a booser : father Ennius himself never 
sallied forth to sing of arms, unless in drink. " I will condemn 
the sober to the bar and the pnelor's bench," and deprive the 
abstemious of the power of singing." 

As soon as he gave out this edict, the ixieCs did not cease 
to contend in midnight cups, and to smell of them by day. 

•) Doete Mteeema. This ia not an expressiOD of Sattety, for MteceaaB 
bad not only verj considerable abilitieB fbr the fleld and tbe qoqqcU, but 
was reall7 a man or learning. Ed. DtrisL. 

»> Cra^Dus loved wine to such an excess, that Aristophanes tella ua 
be died with grief at aeeiag a h<^abead broken and the wine runnmg 
oat. Ed. Dubl. 

" I^bnimpukalqiie Libonia. TorrenUus first perceived that these words 
could not be apokeo either bj Cratinua or Eoniua, wbo wore both dead 
long before IJbo waa bom ; nor by Bacchus, who surelv would not have 
waited so long to publish a decree, which the nB»geeof eo mwiy poets 
bad already established ; nor by UEEcenaa. unless we rnad ediati la^ 
paOere», contrary to ^ the manuscripts. Ed. Diie!-. 

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rip. zn. EPISTLES OF HORACE. 271 

What ! if any eavage, by a stern countenanco and bare feet, 
and the texture of a scanty gown, should imitate Cato; will 
he represent the virtue and morals of Calo! The tongue 
that imitated Timagenes was the destruction of the Moor," 
while be affected to be humorous, and attempted to seem elo- 
quent. The example that is imitable in iu faults, deceives 
[the ignorant], Soh ! if I was to grow up pale by accident, 
[these ]K)3taalera] would drink the blood-tHinning cumin." 
O ye imitators, yo servile herd, how often your bustlings have 
stirred my bile, now oflen my mirth I 

I WAS the original, who set my free footsteps upon the 
vacant sod ; I trod not in the steps of others. He who de- 
pends upon himself^ as leader, commands the swarm. I fiist 
showed to Italy the Parian iambics: following the numbers 
and spirit of Archilochus," but not his subject and style, 
which afflicted Lycambes. You must not^ however, crown 
me with a more sparing wreath, because I was afraid to alter 
the measure and structure of hie verse : for the manly Sappho 
governs her muse" by the measures of Archilochus, so does 

>> larbita, Bars the ScholiasC, was & Moor, wlioae name was Cordu^ 
wbo attempting' [n vala to imitate the wit and pleasanCrj of Timagene^ 
fttmosl burst with despair aniS vexation, invidid quodaTnmodo rup&u est 
Timageaea was a rbelorician of Alexandria, who, having provoked Au- 
gustus by too great a freedom of raillery, was forbidden to enter th» 
palace. In resentment of such an affront bo burned a history which be 
had written of that emperor's life. Fran. 

" Diosoorides assures ua, that cumin will make people pale who drink 
it, or wash themselves with it Fliny says it was reported, that tbe dis- 
ciples of Porciua IiStro, a famous master of the art of speaking, used it 
to imitate that paleness which be bad contracted by his studies. FauL 

'r Horace tells us he had imitated Archilochus in taking fhim Mm 
some particular measure, and if we may judge from the fragmeiits of the 
Grecian poet which remain to us, these three following verses are some 

" Pulyis Gt umbra sumus." 
"Exitio est avidnm mare nautis." 
" TItm summa brevis spem nos vetat incboare longam." 
Canidia, Casdns Severus, and some others, must acknowledge thai 
Horace had but too well imitated the satire and severity of Archilochns, 
although ho did Dot servilely follow his expreesiona, or allow himsell 
that bitterness which made Lycambes and his dai^hter Neobule bang 
themselvee. San. 

^ Sappho et Alatus Miiaam tuam temperant pede Archilechi ; tOii km- 
jtrat BigniSea, "to mix," not, as is generally understood, "to solYen," 
or " make muaical," for tho verses of Arcluloebus were more violent and 

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272 EPISTLES OF HORAOb. booki. 

Alcseus ; but differing from him ia the materials and diaposi- 
tion [of his lines], neither does he seek for a &ther-in-law 
whom he mar defame with his fatal lampoons, nor does he 
tie a rope for his betrothed spouse in scandalous verse. Him" 
too, never celebrated by any other tongue, I the Roman lyrist 
first made known. It delights me, as I bring out new pro- 
ductions, to be perused by the eyes, and held m the hands of 
the ingenuous. 

Would yon know why the ungrateful reader extols and is 
food of many works at borne, uuiostly decries them without 
doors ! I hunt not alter the applause of the inconstant vnl- 
gar, at the expense of entertainments, and for the bribe of a 
worn-out coat : I am not an auditor of noble writers, nor a 
Tindictive reciter, nor condescend to court" the tribes and 
desks of the grammarians. Hence are these tears. K I say 
that " I am ashamed to repeat my worthless writings to 
crowded theaters, and give an air of consequence to trifles :" 
"You ridicule us," says [one of them], " and you reserve those 
pieces for the ears of Jore : you are confident that it is you 
alone that can distill the poetic honey, beautiful in your own 
eyes." At these words I am afraid to turn up my nose ; and 
lest I should be torn by the acute nails of my adversary, 
"This place is disi^reeable," I cry out, "and I demand a 
less harmonious than those of Alcieua or Rappho. The}' took from him 
several sorts of versa for their odes, and Horace, bj their example, hath 
taken froni each of them whatever might enrich hia Latin Lyric poetry. 

*• Horace can only mean Alcseus. He hath ah-eady said he was the 
flist Roman who had imitated in Latin the iambics of Arcbilochus, sod 
it were ridiculoas to repeat it within oighc or nine verses. When be 
says, "Latinus fldicen," be not only marks hia being a lyrio poet him- 
seit, but that the writer whom he hod imitated was bo likowiae, which 
can not bo said of Arcbilochus, who was never reckoned in their number. 
This reason will be more sensible, if we examine the difTerent expresaioos 
of Ilomce with attention. He tells us that ho was the first Rooian Lytic 
poet who bad imitated Alcsua, " hunc ego, noa alio dictum priiis oro, 
LaCinus fidicen;" and ten verses before this he says bo was the firat who 
showed the iambics of Archilochus to the Latins, "Parios e^ primus 
iambos ostendi Latio." It is remarkable, that alttiough Horace did not 
imitate Sappho less than Archilochus and Alcteus, jet be does not Bay 
ha was the flrat of the Bomana because Catullus and some ethor Latin 
poeta bad written Sapphic verses before him. Bent. 

^" Horace laughs at the meanness of a bad poet who pays his court to 
schoolmasters, that they may give his worksalittle reputation by making 
their scholara read them. ToBB. 

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0. zz. BPIS!FIiBS OF EOBACE. 273 

prorogation" of the contest" For contest is wont to beget 
trembJing emulation and strife, and strife cruel enmities and 
Ainereal war. 


Tn vain Re endeavor» to retain kis booh, deairoua e/geUi»g airoad; tdl* it 
what WoabU it is to undergo, and imparts eom» Oiing) to be aaid of him 
to foiterity. 

YoD seem, my book, to look wistfully at Janus and Vertum- 
nus ;" to tbe end that you may be set out for sale, neatly 
polished by the pumice-stone of the So«i." You hate keys 
and seals, which are agreeable to a modest [volume] ; you 
grieve that you arc shown but to a few, and extol public 
places ; though educated in another manner. Away with you, 
wbither you are so solicitous of going down :" there will -be 
no retumiug for you, when you are once sent out "Wretch 
that I am, what hare I done ! What did I want 7" — you will 
&ay : when any one gives you ill treatment, and you know 

" Diladia ptWGO. The Latios used ddvdere, to leave off pUtyivg. 
From thenca come dUndia, to si^ify a space of time and intennisaioD Ot 
Qghting given to the gladiators durii^ the public games. Horace there- 
tbra p1eaaaiitl7 begs be maj have time allowed him to correct his verses, 
before ho mounts the sta^ anri plajs Ibr the prize in public Frav. 

^ la 733, Horace published a collection of his Epistles and Satires, 
tnd probably placed this Epistle at the head of them, fVom whence 
QanadoD places it as a preface to his moral pooCiy. Under an allegolj of 
a child, UQwilliDgly coallned in bis lather's house, and wishing for Sbertj, 
the poet gives his book some critical advice, which maj be ^ tnucb im- 
portance to authors io general. The character he draws of himself is 
natural, and nothing is disguised by modesty or vanity. Fmw, 

>3 Vertummtm Jamanqiie. Yertumnus, according to the Scholiast, 
was the god who presided over buying and selUug, from whence ha had 
a statue aad temple in the tbrum. 

'< The Sosii were n plebeiaa fhtnily, well. known in Rome, two 
brothers of which distinguishetl themselves by the correctness of their 
books and the beauty of the Grinding. Couuekt. 

» The fbrum was situated between the hills on which Borne was built, 
ihim whence we frequently And «n JOnan tteeeiukre in Cicero and 
Seneca. The present reading is of all tba manuBcripts. Bent. Cuk, 


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2f4 EPISTLES OF HOBiCE. booei 

that 70U will b« squeezed into small compass," as soon as the 
o^r reader is satiated." Bui, if the augur be not prejudiued 
by reseatment of your error, you shall be caressed at Borne 
[only] till your youth be passed." When, thumbed by the 
hands ot tiio vulgar, you begin to groir, dirty; either tou 
shall in wlence feed tae grovelling book-worms, or you ^tall 
make your escape to Utica, or sb^ be sent bound to Berda. 
Your disregarded adviser shall then laugh [at you] : as he, 
who in a passion pushed his refractory ass over the precipice. 
For who would save [an ass] against his will ! This too 
awaits you, that faltering dotaee shall seize on you, to teach 
boys their rudimenta in the ^irts of the city." But when 
the abating warmth of the sun" shall attract more ears, you 
shall tell them, that I was the sou of a flreedman, and extended 
my wings beyond my nest ; so that, as much as you take 
away from my family," you may add to my merit : that I was 
in favor with the first men in the state, both in war and 
peace ; of a short stature, gray before my time, calculated for 

■I In breve io cogi. In arctam vohtinm amlrcJii. The poet threatens 
hia book, that it shall be rolled up as if coademned never to be read 
again- Tke boolcs of the ancients were written on skins of parchment, 
which thej were obliged to unfold and extend when thef designed to 
read. Torb. 

*' The lover here sigtiifies a paaiioiiate reader; he seizes a book with 
rapture; runs it over in haste ; bis curiosity b^na to be satisfied; bia 
aMwUte is cloyed ; ho throws it away, and never opens it agmn. 'Eras. 

w Novelty is a kind of youth, which gives to every thing b certain 
grace and value. Few books have a privilege of not growing old. In 
geuOTa], their youth is oitremely short, and scarce divided from their 
age. Sak. 

" There were schools in the most frequented parts of the dty, where 
profesaora of abihties and reputation eKpliuoed the Iraat Greek and Latin 
authors. Cbildreo wore taught to read in the suburbs, whither Horace 
piesages bU book should be banished in its old age. This prediction 
should bo cooaidered as a modest pleasantij, for our poet knew too well 
the value of his works to be a&ad of such a destiny, Toeb. Sak. 

"> Sol tepidia. M. Dacier and the rest of the commentatora under- 
stand the middle of the day, when the sun is moat violent ; but this was 
a time when people usually retired into their houses to avoid the heat. 
iSM tqiidaa may therefore mean the mildness and moderate wannthof 
evening, when men of letters assembled, either in the public walks or 
■hops of booksellers, to read any works lately published. Sah. 

" Nature made Horace the son of a public crier, but his own nerit 
made him the companion of an emperor, and sained him the friendship 
orthegreatestgSs wellas mosti:^;aniouamenofthe Augnstaaage. Fkak. 

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BUstaJning heat," prune to passion, yet so as to be booh ap- 
peased. If any one should chance to inquire my ^e ; let 
nim know that I had completed four ^mes eleven Decembers, 
in the year in which LoUius admitted Lepidus" as his 

<^ Wo inaj remark, in many places of hia works, that our poet waa 
Yerj sensible to cold ; that ia nioter be neat to tbe sea-coast, aad that 
he was particularly fbnd of Tarentum ia that Beason, because it was 
milder there. We maj likewiae underatand the worda of hia eierciaea 
in the Campus Martius, as in his Odes paiieas ptiiBeria alque aolia, but 
the former Bsnao is mora natural &^^s. 

<* Augustus being in the year 133 in Sicily, tho senate made him an 
oSfer of the consulship, wbicli he refused. This refusal and bis absence 
occasioned a very strongly disputed election between Lepidus and Silanua, 
who pretended to fit! bis place. Au^stua sent for them into Sicily, and 
forbade them to return to Rome uutil the election was ended. By this 
means Lollitia, who had been appointed colleague with Ai^ustus, easily 
carried tho votes in favor of Lepidua, which Horace means by the word 
duxU. Our poet waa born on the 8th of December, CSS, and ooaso- 
quanlJy hia forty-fourth year ended 7^3. SiH. 

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SiNCB you alone support bo many and such weighly concerns, 
defend Itoly with your arms, adorn it by your virtue, reform 

■ Augustus hsd written to Horace to reproach bim for not havii^ 
addressed any part of his works to bim. Kdow, sa;s he, that 1 am angiy 
with 70U ; or are 70U spprehenrive it shall iDJure jonr reputatioo with 
posterity, that tou have been one of my friends? These reproaches, 
probably, occasioned this EfNStle, which is justly ranked among' the best 
perfbrmancea of our author, and not unworthy of a prince of superior 
genius, doUcate taste, and more than common erudition. It may be 
divided into four parts. In the first, the poet examinea the comparison 
between ancieiita and moderns, which had been a matter of dispute in 
almost all ages. He then shows, that novelty is the mother of ail polite 
aria, especially of poetry, that divine art, which deserves the greatest 
pruses and greatest rewards. In the third part he treats of the theater, 
and the difficulty of succeeding there. In the last, he would inform 
princes how much tbey are interested to animate an emulation among 
Epic and Lyric poets, who have it in their power to make them immortal. 
These different parts are enlivened by a continual criticism upon the 
manner in which the Bomacs judged of poets, and by many reSections, 
equally useliil and agreeable, upon the origin and progress of poetry. 

The date of this Epistle is determined by so many facts, and so strongly 
marked, thst it is unaccountable how it hath been mistakeo. It mentions 
the divine boaora paid to Augustus in 726: the sovereign authori^ 
which he received &omthe senate in 727 : the reduction of the Partbians 
in 734: the laws which he made (br the relbrmation of manners in 137: 
the conquests of Tiberius and DruBUS in 739, 742, 743, and shutting the 
temple of Janus in 744, when this letter was written, and when Horace 
was in his flf^-second year, about two years betbre bis death. Fran. 

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it by yonr laws ; I should ofieud, O Cssar, against the public 
interests, if I were to trespass upon your time wilt a loDg 

Bomulos, Aod father Bacchus, and Gaetor and PoUua, after 
great achievemenis, received into the temples of the gods, 
while they were improving the world and human nature, com- 
posing fierce dissensions, settling property, building cities, la- 
mented that the esteem which Uiey expected was not paid in 
proportion to their merits. He who crushed the dire Hydra, 
and subdued the renowned monsters by his forefirted labor, 
found envy was to bo tamed by death [alone]. For he bums 
by his very splendor, whose superiority is oppressive to the 
arts beneath him :' after his decease, be shall oe had in bon- 

" The poet is thought to begin with apolt^iung for the ehortaes! <ff this 
EpieUe. And jet it is one of the kingeat he ever wrote. How is this iacan- 
ustencj' to be reconciled 1 The case, I believe, was Mui. Tho genius of 
epialolary writing demands, that the Eubjec^nmtter be not abruptly de- 
livered, or haatily obtruded on the pereon addressed ; but, as tho law of 
decorum prescribes (for the nilo holds in wriliiig, as in conversation), be 
gradually and TeapeclfuUy introduced to hio). This obtains more par- 
ticularly in applications to the great, and on important subjects. But now 
the poet, being to address liis prince on a point of no sm^l delicacy, and 
on which be loresaw he should have occasion to bold bim pretty long, 
prudently contrives to get as soon as pcasible into his subject; and. to 
that end, hath the art to convert tho very trausgreesion of this rule into 
the juatest and most beautiful complimenl 

liat cautious preparation, which Is ordinarily requisite ia our np- 
proachea to greatness, had been, the poet observes, in the present case, 
tughly unseasonable, as the boaineas and interests of the empire must, in 
the mean time, have stood still and been suspondod. By termone, then, 
we are to understand, not the body of tho Episllo, but the proem or in- 
troduction only. The body, as of public concern, might bo allowed to 
engage, at full length, the omperor'a attention ; but the introduction, con- 
sisting of ceremonial only, tho common good required him to shorten as 
much as possible. It was no time fur using an insignificant preamble, or, 
in our English phrase, of making long speeches. This reason, too, is 
founded, not merely in the elevated rtuik of the emperor, but in the po- 
cuhar diligence and solicitude wUb which, history tells us, he endeav- 
ored to promote, by various ways, the interests of bis country. So that 
the complimeet ia as just as it is polito. It may be tUrther otoeived, that 
termoisused in Horace to signify the ordinary style of conversation (sea 
1 Sat. 3. 66, and i, 42), and therefore not improperly denotes the &milUar- 
ity of the epistolary address, which, in its easy expression, so nearly ap- 
proaches to it. Euro. 

» I have partly followed Anthon, but the variety of interpratations in 
this passage is most perplesing. See M'Caat's notes. 

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279 BPQTLBS OF HORACE. bookil 

or. Oa jaa, while present' among us, we confer mature 
honors, and rear altars where your name is to be sworn by ; 
confessing that nothing equal to you has hitherto risen, or 
will hereafter rise. But this your people, wise and just in one 
point (for preferring you to our own, you to the Grecian 
heroes), by no means estimate other things with like proportion 
and measure : and disdain and detest evety thing, but what 
ihey aee removed from earth and already i^ne by ; such favor- 
ers are they of antiquity, as to assert diat the Muses [them- 
selves] upon Mount Alba, dictated the twelve tables, forbidding 
to transgress,* which the decemviri ratified; the leagues of our 
kings concluded with the Gabii, or the rigid Sabinea; the 
recwds of the pontifices, and the ancient volumes of the 

If, because the most ancient writings of the Greeks are also 
the beat,' Roman authors are to be weighed in the same scale, 

< We arc not to wooder at this and the like extiavagancsa of adnlation 
in the Augustan poets. They liad ample authoritf tbr what the; did of 
this sort We know that altars were decreed and erected to the emperor 
I^ the (^DmmaDd of the senate, and that he was publicly invoked, as an 
established tutolaiy divinity. But the seeds of the corruption had been 
sown ouch earher. For we fiod it sprung up, or rather (as of all the ill 
weeds, which tbo teeming soil of human depravity throws forth, nnna is 
more thrivingf and grows ^ter than this of flatter;) flourishing at its 
hoigbt, in tho lyranny of J. Cffisar, Balbus, in a letter to Cicoro (Bp. ad 
Att. 1, ix.) "swears by the health and safety of Ceesai:" "itn, incolumi 
Cfesare, moriar." And Dio tolls us (L. zliv.) that it was, by the express 
injanctton of tiie senate, decreed, even in Ciesar's life-time, that tho Ro- 
mans should bind themselves by this oath. The senate also (ns we leani 
from Uie same writer, L. xliii.) upon tho rocoiving the news of his defeat 
of Pofflpey's sons, caused bis statue to bo set up, in tho temple of Room- 
jus, with this inscription, PEO IHVICTO. IluiiD. 

* Tho laws of tho twelve tables, which Horace hero means, might not 
want olegaoce of expression, with regard to the time whou they were 
written. TbD treaty of peace between Tarquinius Superbus and tho Gabii 
was recorded on a bull's hide stretched upon a piece of wood caUed Cty- 
peum, and wo may believe the stylo was answerablo to tho paper. The 
Sibylline books, which regulated all the ceremonies of religion ; and the 
works of poets in the flrst infancy of the Latin tongue, might have been 
venerable lor their antiquity, but could not be mi^els of good writing- 

• r 

the n;._ 

contrary to all experience and common sense, and is directly confuted by 
the hisloiy of the Greek learning. What he allows is, the superioHty of 
the oldest Greek writings extant, which is a veiy different thing Tb« 



tliere b no need we should say much : there is nothing hard 
in the in»de of an olive, nothing [hard] ii) the ontside of a 
nut. We are arrived at the highest pitch of success [in arts] : 
we paint, and Nng, and wrestle more skiiltully than the 
annointed' Greeks. If length of time makea poems better, as 
it does wine, I would fain know how many years will stamp 
a value upon writings. A writer who died a hundred years 
'ago, IB he to be reckoned among the perfect and ancient, or 
among the mean and modem authora t Let, some fixed period 
excluae all dispute. He is an old and good writer who com- 
pletes a hundred years. What 1 oue that died a month or a 
year later, among whom is he to be ranked ) Among the old 

turn of his ailment confines ua to this sense. For be would atiow the 
fijly of concluding the same of the old Roman writers, on their first rude 
attempla to copy the finished models of Greece, as of the old Greek writ' 
ers themselves, who were ruroished with the means of producing those 
models by long disciptina and cnltivatioa. This appears, certainly, from 
what ibllows : 

" TcDimns ad Bummum fbrtunEB ; pingimus atque 

Paallimua et luctamur Achivis doctiCiB unctia. 

The design of which hath been entirely overlooked; ibr it hath l>een 

taken only for a general expression of Iklsehood and absurdity, of just the 

same import as the proverbial line, 

"Nil intra est oleam, nil extra est in nucc duiL" 
Whereas it was designedly pitched upon to convey a particular illuetra- 
tion of the very absurdity in question, and to show the maintainers of it, 
&om the nature of thingi how senseless their portion was. It ia to this 
purpose: "As well may it be pretended that we Romans surpass the 
Greeks in the arts of painting, music, and the ezercises of the palcitra, 
which yet it ia confessed we do not, as that our old writers suTpasa the 
modern. The absurdity, in either case, is the same. For, as the.Grceks, 
who had long devoted themaelvea, wiUi great and continued application, 
to the practice of these arts (which is the force of the epithet uncti, here 
given Qjem), must ior that reason carry the prize from tlie Romans, who 
have taken veiy little pains about them ; so, the modem Romans, who 
have for a. long time been studying the arta of poetry and composition, 
must needs excel the old Roman writers, who had little or no acquainf 
ance with those arts, and had been trained by no previous discipline to 
the exercise of them." Hum». 

T Unciis, This is by no means a general, unmeaning epithet ; but Is 
beautifully chosen to express the unwearied aasiduity of the Greek artists. ' 
For the practice of anointing being essential to their agonistic trials, the 
poet elegantly puts the attending circumstance for the thing itself And 
so, in speaking of them as uadi, he does the same as if he had called 
them "the industrious, or exercising Greeks;" which was the very idea 
his argument required him to auggeat to us. Bvbd. 

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poets, or among thoea whom both tho present ago and pos- 
terity will diadainfullf reject f He mny fairly be placed 
among the aocients, who is youiwer either by & ahort month 
only, or even by a whole year, f take the advantage of this 
concession, and pull away by little and Uttle, as [if Uiey were] 
the hairs of a horse's tail : and I take away a single one, and 
then again another single one ; till, like a tumbling heap,* 
[my adversary], who has recourse to annals and estimates ex- 
cellence by the year, and admires nothing but what Libitina* 
has made sacred, falls to the ground. 

Ennius" the wise, the nervous, and (as our critius say) a 
second Homer, seems lighUy to regard what becomes of his 
promises and Pythagorean dreams. Is not Njevius" in peo- 
ple's hands, and sticking almost fresh in their memory! So 
sacred is every ancient poem. As often as a debate arises, 
whether this poet or the other be preferable ; Facuvius bean 
away the character of a learned, Aocius, of a lofty writer ; 
Afranius' gown" is said to have fitted Menander ; Plautus, to 
hurry after the pattern of the Sicilian Epichamius ; Cascihus, 
to excel 'in gravity, Terence in contrivance. These mighty 
Rome learns by heart, and these she views crowded in her 
narrow theater ; these she esteems and accounts her poets 
from Livy" the writer's ago down to our time. Sometimes 

s Hatioae rueniia acervi. This ailment, caUed «oriie», from a Greek 
word oupdf, signifjiiig a heap, is composed of many propositions verj- 
little difforont from cacti oMier, and chained togetlicr in audi a, manner, 
thai beginning witli a sensible, incontestible trutli, tliej load bj degrees 
to a concluBion evidently false. Fran. 

» Tiie ^ddeas of funerala. Or. Sat. ii 6, 19. 

'^ Eonius, who boasted hi[nBeiraiiother Homer; who, when alive, was 
anxious to preserve this mighty character, is no longer disquieted about 
bis reputatiOD. Death has consecrated hia name ; the critics confirm his 
title; hia promises are fulfilled, sod his opinion of a transmigration of 
souls is no longer a dream, as bis enemies pretond. Pobphteiok. 

" The commentalors are much divided whether these words are spoken 
by Horace or the parson who disputes with him. Bentley, Cunningham, 
and SanadoD read them with a point of interrogation. " Is not Ntevius 
in Che hands of everj reader, and do wo not repeat his works as if he 
was a modem?" Fbak. 

'^ Aftani toga. A new and happy expression, alludinf; to the subjects 
of his comedies, which were formed on the maQuera and customs of tho 
ItomanB, and played in Roman dresses. They were therefore called 10- 
i/atix. as the Grecians w^k paJliaia. Frak. 

" Liviua Andronicus, Che most ancient of the Latin poets, brought his 
first play upon the stage in 614. Sam. 

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the populace eoe right ; somolinies they are wrou^. If they 
admire aod extol the ancient poets go as to prefer nothing 
before, to compare nothing vith them, they err ; if they think 
and allow that they express some things in an obsolete, most in 
a stiff, many in a careless manner ; Uiey both think Bensibly, 
and A^ee with me, and determine with the assent of Jove him- 
selC Not that I bear an ill-will against Liry's epics, and would 
doom them to destruction, which I rememl>er the severe Or- 
Ulins taught me when a boy ; but they should seem correct, 
beautiful, and very little short of pettect, this I wonder at ; 
among which if by chance a bright expression shines forth, 
and if one line or two [happen to be] somewhat terse and 
musical, this unreasonably carries off and sells the whole poem. 
I am disgusted that any thing should be found fault with, not 
because it is a lumpish composition or inelegant, but because 
it is modem ; and that not a favorable allowance, but honor 
and rewards" are demanded for the old writers. Should I 
scruple, whether or not Atta'a drama trod the saffron and 
flowers" in a proper manner, almost all the &thers would cir 
out that modesty was lost; since I attempted to find fault 
m& those pieces which the pathetic .i£sopus," which the 
skillful Roscius acted : either because ihey eeteem nothing 
riffbt, hut what has pleased themselves ; or because they 
think it disgraceful to submit to their juniors, and to confess, 
now they are old, that what they learned when young is de- 
serving only to be destroyed. Now he who extols Numa's 

^* EoHortm el prtemia. The rewards and honors which this disputant 
demands for his tavoriCo aadentB, were, having their works placed, ajid 
tbeir statues erected, in the Ubrarj of Apollo. Dac 

" FerfUmed waters were scattered tluvugb the Bomaa theaters, uid 
the stage was covered willi Sowers, to which Horace pleaaaotl; allude^ 
when he supposes the plays ot Atta limping over the sti^ like their 
lamo author. Titus Quiatiua had the sumamo of Atta given him, which 
^gniUes a man who walks on tip-toe. We are obliged to Scalar Ibr 
ducorering the beauty of this passage. Frah. 

■* .£3opus excelled in tragedy, from wheqce Horace calls him gravis, 
pathetic. Rosciua had a tivoly, natural, Ikmiliar manner of spiking, 
proper fbr comedy. He composed a book upon theatrical eloquence, in 

amiable character : " he was so excellent an actor, that he alone seemed 
worthy to appear upon a stage ; but he was a man of so much probitj 
that bo alone should never bayo appeared there." Frak. 

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262 EPISTLES OF HOBA.CE. book □. 

Saliau" bymn, and would alona seem to nudersUnd that 
which, as well as me, he is ignorant of, does not &vor and 
applaud the buried geniuses, but attacks ours, enviously hating 
us modems and every thing of ours. Whereas if novelty 
had been detested by (he Greeks as much as by us, what at 
this tjmo would there have been ancient ) Or what wonld 
tbere have been for common use to read and thumb, common 
to every body. 

When first Greece, her wars being over, began to trifie> 
and through prosperity to glide into folly ; she glowed with 
the love, one wbile of wrestlers," another while of horses ; 
was fond of artificers in marble, or in ivory, or in brass; 
hung her looks and attention upon a picture ; was delighted 
now with mu^cians, now with tragedians ; as if an infant 
girl, she sported under the nurse ; soon cloyed, she abandoned 
what [before] she earnestly desired. What is there that 
pleases or is odious, wLicb you may not think mutable I 
This effect had happy times of peac«, and favorable gales 
[of fortune]. 

At Rome it was long pleasing and customary to be up early 
with open doors, to expound the laws to clients ; to lay out 
money cautiously upon good securities :'* to hear the elder, 
and to tell the younger by what means their fortunes might 
increase and pernicious luxury be dimioished. The inconstant 
people have changed tbeir mind, and glow with a universal 
«rdor for learning : young men and grave fathers sup crowned 
irith leaves, and dictate poetry. I myself^ who affirm that I 

1' Saiiait Smna carmm. Huma composed 117111118 in hoDOr of Uajs, 
tvhicli were sung bj his priests. They were called axamenia, because 
they were written upon tables of wood, ore». The lauguage of tbeoi 
was grown eo du4t and obsolete, that Cicero confesses he did not under- 
stand them ; and Quintiliau says, in his time they were scarce intelligible 
to the priests themselves. Fran. 

'^ Tbo Greeks were so passioiiately food of these athletic exercises, 
that Herodotus tells us they would not discontinue them, even during 
the most destructivo ware ; and Plutarch assures us, that the BomaDs at 
his time were persuaded that nothing contributed more to reduce them 
to slavery than their love for these diversions. Fban. 

" OatUos ruimiaibas rectis. "Csutinummi," sums of money lent upon 
good security. Thus the Latins used -'oautum tcmpus, eauta sumnia, 
cautum chirographum." By "certis nominibus" are to be uoderatood, 
solvent debtors, as in Cicero, " bona nomimi." TOBB. 

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write no verses, am fouod more false than the Partbiaos :'* 
and, awake before tho sua is nsen, I call for my pen and 

papers aDd desk. He that is l^orant of a ship is afraid to 
work a ship ; none but be who has learned, dares ndminister 

Eivea] southern wood to the sick; physicians undertake what 
elongs to physicians; mechanics handle tools; but we, un- 
learned andlearaed, promiscuously write poems. 

Yet how great advantages this error and this slight mad- 
ness has, thus compute : tho poet's mind is not easily covet- 
ous ; fond of verses, he studies this alone ; be laughs at losses, 
flights of slaves, fires ; be contrives no fraud against his 

Eartner, or his young ward; be lives on husks, and brown 
read ; though dast^dly and unfit for war, he is useful at 
home, if you allow this, that great things may derive assist- 
ance from small ones. The poet fashions the child's tender 
and lisping mouth, and turns his ear even at this time from 
obscene language ; afterward also he forms his heart with 
friendly precepts, the corrector of his rudeness, and envy, and 
pasdon; be records virtuous actions, he instructs the rising 
age with approved examples, be comforts the indigent and the 
sick. Whence should the virgin, stranger to o husband, with 
the chaste boys, learn the solemn prayer, bad not the muse 
mven a poet ! The chorus entreats the divine aid, and finds 
flie gods propitious ; sweet in learned prayer, they implore 
the (taters of the heavens ;" avert diseases, drive off impend- 

1° The BomBDB had trequeot esperiejtce of ParthiaD perfld;. 3nob 
was their amusing Craasua with a treaty of peace, and cutting his army 
in pieces. Eveo their manner of fljing when they fought, was a kind ol 
military lie and imposture, which spoke the character w the nation ; nor 
is it an ill resemblance of a poet who renounces rhyming, yet coatinues 
to write. Crqq. 

31 Id the time oT a general drought, sacrifice^ called aguilicia, were 
pwrfbrmed to Jupiter to implore rain. The people walked bareGwted 
m processioQ, and bymas were sung by a chorus of boys and girls. But 
to reduce the god to a necessity of hearing them, they rolled a great 
sloes, called lapis maiudis, tlirough the streets, being persuaded it hod a 
virtue orbriugiog down rain. But the priests never brought forth this 
miraculous stone, until they were tolerably well assured of the success. 
T^es and Baccis, Bceotian and Etruscan soothsayers, had remarked, 
that the fil>ei8 oF the sacrifices vrere of a yellow color, when the wind 
turned to rain after a long drought, and oraered the water-steuea to be 
then immediately rolled. "Fibnejeciuorissandaracci colons dumfiian^ 
moaates tunc verrere opus est petraa," Such miraclea required ancb art 
to support them. Fbjlh. 

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ing dangera, obtain boUi peace and ^eara enriched with fruits. 
With BODg the gods above are apposed, with song the goda 

Our andent swains, stoat and hap^j with a tittle, after the 
grain was laid np, regaling in a festival season their bodies 
and even their minds, patient of hardships through the hope 
of their ending, with their slaves and futhfiil wife, the part- 
ners of their labors, atoned with a hog [the goddess] 
Earth, with milk Silvanus, with flowers and wine the genius 
that reminds us of our short life. Invented by this custom, 
the Fescennine" licentiousness poured forth its rustic taunts 
in alternate stanzas ; and this liberty, received down through 
revolving years, sported pleasingly ; till at length the bitter 
niUeiy o^au to be turned into open r^e, and threatening 
with impunity to stalk through reputable funitiea. They, who 
soared from its bloody tooth smarted with the pain ; the 
unhurt likewise were concerned for the common condition : 
further also, a law and a penalty" were enacted, which for- 
bftde that any one should be stigmatized in lampoon. Through 
fear of the bastinado, they were reduced to the necessity of 
changing their manner, and of praising and delighting. 

Captive Oieece took captive her fierce conqueror, and in- 
troduced her arts into rude Latium. Thiu flowed off tbd 

x The peasants of Latium bad as liUle regard to modesty in their di> 
Telsions, aa the Tuscans had in their verses. Fescenina was a town in 
Etruiia, whose inhabitants, id all their public entertainments, and in their 
marriage festivals especially, were not ashamed of licentious and obscene 
expressions in the veises pronounced on such occssiona. When the 
Rcnnans began to fbrm their stage, as the Tuscans were &nious for danc- 
ing, and theatrical representations, a company of Ihem were sent for to 
Rome in the year 342. They did not spealc, because the Bomans did 
not understand their language, but they supplied their want of ^leech 
by a kind of dumb declamatiou. By their dancdug, gesture, and move- 
ments, regulated by the soand of the flute, they presented every thoi^ht 
and sentiment to the eyes of the spectators, I'rom these beginnings the 
Boman theater arose. San. 

u This law was thus expressed, " Si occent^asit malum carmen, sive 
ODndidiysel, qaod infamiom taxit Bagiliumque alteri. capital eslo." If 
any one sing or compose verses injurious to the reputation or honor of 
another, let him be punished with death. This law was made in 302, 
which is a proofi says Mr. Sanadon, that the Romans wrot« verses in the 
first age» of tiieir state. The poets &om thence changed their tone 
fhr t^r ofbelng beaten to death. Tbepnoishment was ^ed JFWUan'i 
tun. Fbas 

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rough Satumiau numbers, and delicacy expelled ihe rank 
venom : but for a long time there remained, and at this day 
remain traces of rusticity. For late [the Komau writer] ap- 
plied his genius to the Grecian pages ; and enjoying rest afl«r 
the Punic wars," began to search what useful matter Sophocles, 
and Thespis, and .lEschylus afforded : he tried, too, if he could 
with dignity translate their works ; and succeeded in pleasing 
himself being by nature [of a genius] sublime and strong : 
for he breathes a spirit tragic enough, and dares successfully ; 
but fears a blot, and thinks it di^aceful in his writings. 

Comedy is believed to require the least pains, ^cause it 
fetches its subjects from common life ; but the less indul- 
gence it meets with, the more labor it requires. See bow 
Plautus" supports the character of a lover under age, how 
that of a covetous father, how those of a cheating pimp: 
how Dossennus exceeds all measure in his voracious parasit^ ; 
with how loose a sock he runs over the stage : for he is glad 
to put the money in his pocket, after this regardless whether 
his play stand or fall. 

Hiro, whom glory in her airy ear" has brought upon the 

'I In 614, a jear after the Cist Punic war, Livlua AndroDicus first 
broagW a play divided Into acts upon the Roman stage. The republic 
then enjoyed sa untveissl pence, fbr the teiople of Janus was abut in 
619. DAa 

^ Our best interpreters imagine that Horace praises Plautus and Dos- 
sennns, Bud proposes them as eiamples worthy of OUT imitation in the 
beautiful chaniciera in their plays. On the eoutrory, Horace, better to 
«liow the dilBcultj of succeeding in comedy, is willing to mark Eome of 
the faults which the best theatrical poets have committed. Plautus, 
who succeeded so well in the plots and intrigues of bis plays, is ve^" un- 
happy in his characters, which are generally either too tame, or too much 
outraged. Dossennus was in great reputation for the morality ot his plays, 
US appears by bis epitaph, "Hospes, reaiste, et sopbiam Dossenoi lege;" 
but his characters were of one uniaried kind, and only fit for Ihe diver- 
NOQ of the crowd. Horace pleasantly marks this negUgence bj sajin)^ 
he waJked over the stage with bis comic slippers loose and untied. 
Heinsiub. Dac. 

" Quem bdit ad menam veniao gloria curru, aanimat Jentua spectator, 
etc There is an exquisite spirit of pleasantry in these lines, which hath 
quite evaporated in the hands of the critita. These bave gravely supposed 
them to come from the person of the poet, and to contain bis serious ceo- 
siire of the vanity of poetic fame. Whereas, t>eBidea the manifest Aaurditjr 
of the thing, its inconsistency with what is delivered elsewhere on tbia 
subject (A. P. V. 324), where the Greeks are commended dk being " piie- 
ter laudem nullius avaii," absolutely requires us to understand ibem ea 

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Btage, the careleu spectator dispirits, tho attentive renders 
more diligtoit : bo slight, so small a matter it is, which over- 
tttma or riuBfss a miad covetous of pr^se ! Adieu the ludicrous 
budnesa [of dramatic writing], if applause denied brings me 
bftck maa^r, bestowed [makes me] full of flesh and spirits. 

This too frcoudutlf drives away and deters even an adven- 
torous poet 1 that they who arc in number more, in worth and 
rank inferior, unlearned and foolish, and (if the eaueslrian 
'n the midst of tne play, 

these the mob delight. 
ights is now transferred 

order dissents) ready to fall to blows, ii 
call for either a bear or bosers ; for i 
Nay, even all the plea 

from the ear to the uncertain eye, and their vain amusements. 
The curtains" are kept down for four hours or more, while 
troops of horse and companies of foot flee over the stage : next 
ia dragged forward the fortune of kings, with their bancs bound 
behind them ; chariots, litters, carriages, ships" hurry on ; cap- 
tive ivory, captive Corinth, ia borne along. Democritus, if he 
were on earth, would laugh ; whether a panther a different 

tmKeading from an objector ; wlio, aa the poet hath veiy satiricallj cod- 
trivad, la left to ezposo himseir in the veiy terms of hja □bjection. He 
tad juBt been blaminx the venalitj' ot the Itoman dramatic writers. They 
hadahown themselves more soUcitous about filling their poctets, than de- 
serving tha rcpuCatioQ of good poets. And, instead of insisting further 
on tha eicellenco of this latter motive, be stops short, and brings in a 
b^ poet himself to laugh at it. 

"And what then," says he, "yon would have us yield ourselves to the 
very wind and gust of praise ; and, dropping all interior considerationa, 
drive away to the expecting stage in the pu&d car of vainglory? For 
what7 To ba dispirited, or blown up with air, as the ci^ricioua spectator 
shall think Bt to enforce or withhold his inspirations. And is this the 
mighty baoeflt of your vauntod passion for fkmo? Ho; threwell the 
stage, if Uia breath of others is that on which the «lly bard is to depend 
for the contraction or enlargement of his dimonsiona" Hoan. 

^ Aaitea. Tho curtain, in the sndent theater, when the play began, 
or. upon extraordinary occasions, hotwoon tho acta, was let down anil 
placed under the stage. Thus they said " toUere aulsa" when the play 
was done, and " premere aulcea" when it began and the actors appe^vd. 
We say just the contrary, Fran. 

^ Ships either iu picture, says the old commentator, or drawn along 
the Tiber, which was not far from Pompey's theater. Dacier thinks, 
there were anhterranoan conduits, which poured forth such a sea of wa- 
ter, that a naval combat might be represented on it. Indeed, if we believe 
the prodigioua accounts giveu by historians of the magniBcence and ex- 
pense of the Roman shows, public entertainments, andtriomphs, notbiag 
of this kiod can appear incredible to ua However, as tbe towns in this 
prooesMon were built of ivory, we may believe the ships were pietures 

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genus con^ieed*' with the camel, or a whitA elephant at- 
tracted the eye of the crowd. He would view the people 
more attentively ihaa the sports themselves, as affording him 
more stranffe sights than the actor ; and for the writers, he 
would think they told their s:»ry to a deaf aas. For what 
voices are able to overbear the din with which our theaters 
resound ) You would think the groves of Garganus, or tie 
Tuscan Sea, was roaring ; with so great noise are viewed the 
shows and contrivances, and foreign riches : witb which llie 
actor being daubed over, as soon as he appears upon the stage, 
each right hand encounters with the lefL Has he s^d any 
thing yet ) Nothing at all. What then pleases ! The cloti 
imitating [the color of] violeta, with the dye of Tarentum. 

And, that you may not think I enriouBly praise those kinds 
of writing which I decline undertaking, when others handle 
them well: that poet to me seems able to walk upon an ex- 
tended rope," who with hia fictions" grieves my sou!, en- 
rages, soothes, fills it with false terrors, as an enchanter; and 
sets me now in Hiebes, now in Athens." 

But of those too, who had rather trust themselves with a 
reader, than bear the disdain of an haughty spectator, use a 

^ IHverntm con/asa genut, " Faathera camelo coaflisa, diversum ta- 
men ah utroque Eenoa" is tho coustruction. Tli^a creature was flist 
stiown to the peo^e bj Juliua Ceesar, as a tame ti^r was hy Auguatua. 

"" Tho Eomttns, who were immoderalely addicted to Bppclacles of 
every kind, had in particular esteem ths/imambidi, or ropo-danceni; 
" Ita populuB studio stupidus in funambulo 
Animum occupiraL" Pbol. is HbOTB. 

Frnm tlia admiration of whose tricks tJie ezpresaion " iro per extentnm 
funBai* came to denote, proverbially, an uncommon degree of eioellenco 
and perfection iu anf thiag. The allusion is here made with much 
pleasantrf, as the poet had just been rallTiag their Ibndnesa for these 
extraordinary achievements. Huao. 

" Qui pntas inaniter angU. The word ihoniter, as well as faiait, 
applied in the IblloniDg line to Itrronbaa, would expreea that wondroDs 
force of dramatic representation, which compels us to tak^ part In feigned 
adventures and situations, as if they were real; and eterciaeB the paa- 
Biona with the same violence in remote, &ncied sceues, aa in the present 
distresses of real life. Ensn. 

" We must understand this of different plays, for the Greek and Ro- 
man sta)^ by no means allowed that change of aceces which is indulged 
to an English theater. Ai^s, Thebes, Athens, according to the ezprea- 
ffOD of Torrcntioa, were the dwelling-houses of tragedy. Fiuy. 

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little care ; if you would fill with \xxAs [the library yon bare 
erected], an offeriug worthy of Apollo, aad add an incentive 
to the poets, that with greater eagemew they may apply to 
verdant Helicon. 

We poets, it is true (that Lmay hew down my own vine- 
yards), oHen do ourselves many mischiefs, when we present 
a work to you while tlioughtful or fatigued ; when we are 
pained, if my friend has dai^ to 6nd bult with one line ; 
when, unasked, we read over aman passages already repe^ed : 
when we lament that our labors do not appear, and our 
poems, spun out in a fine thread : when we hope the thing 
will come to this, that as soon as you are ^prised we are 
pemiing verses, you will kindly of yourself send for ns, and 
secure us from want, and oblige us to write. But yet it is 
worth while to know, who shall be the priests" of your virtue 
Bignalized in war and at home, which is not to be trusted to 
an unworthy poet A favorite of king Alexander the 
Great" was that Chcerilus, who to his uncouth and ill-formed 
verses owed the many pieces he rec^ved of Fhilip's royal 

" jEiiiuoi. Since tba timo that Ai^^nstiis had received divine 
honors, our poet looked upon his actiooB as things sftcred. His virtue 
is now become a goddess, and hath a temple consecrated to her, and 
poets are the guardians of it and ofits m;ateries. Sucli is the meaning 

^ This pnuse of Augostus, arisiiig Oom the comparison of his charao- 
tor with that of Alexander, ia extremely fine. It has' been observed of 
the Macedonia», by bis historians and pan^TristB, that to the atera virtues 
(^tba conqueror, he had joined the softer eccompliehments of the virtu- 
oso, in sjustdiscercmetit and love of poetry and of the elegant arts. The 
one was thought cle^r, from his admiration and study of Homer ; and the 
other, from his fkmouf edict concerning ApeUes and Lysippus, could not 
be denied. Horace finds means to turn botli these drcumBtancea in his 
etoij to the advantage of his prince. 

IVom hifl eitravagant pay of such a wretched versifier as Chcerilus, ho 
would insinuate that Alexander's love of the muae was. in tact, but a 
blind, unintelligent impulse toward glory. And, from his greater skill 
in the arts of sculpture and of painting than of verse, he represents him 
as more concerned about the drawing of his figure than the portraiture 
of his manners aud mini Whereas Augustus, by hisliberalities to VariuB 
and Tirgil, had discovered the truest taste in the ait fi^m which he ex- 
pected immortality; and, in trusting to that as the chief instrument of 
his fame, had confessed a, pnor regard to those mental virtues which are 
the real ornament of huroaoity, before that look of terror, and air ana 
atUtudo of victory, in which the brute violence of Alexander most do- 
Itsbtod to bo shown. Hdbd 

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coin. But, as ink when touc'ued leaves behind it a mark and 
a blot, so writers aa it were Btain ehiiiing actions with fool 
poetry. That same king, who prodigally bought so dear so 
ridiculous a poem, by an edict forbade that any one beside 
Apelles should paint him, or that any other than Lysippos 
ehoald mold brass for the likeoess of the valiant Alexander. 
But should you call that faculty of his, so delicate in discern- 
ing otht;r arts, to [judge of] books and of these gifts of the 
muses, you would swear he had been born in tka gross air of 
the Boeotians. Yet neither do Virgil and Varius, your beloved 
poets, disgrace your judgment of them, and the presents which 
they have received wilh great honor to the donor ; nor do the 
features of illustrious men appear more lively when expressed 
by statues of brass, than their manners and minds expressed 
by the works of a poet. Nor would I rather compose such 
tracts as these creeping on the ground, than record deeds of 
arms, and the situationa of countnes, and rivers, and forts reared 
upon mountains, and barbarous kingdoms, and wars brought 
to a conclusion through the whole world under your auspices," 
and the barriers that cfuifine Janus the guardian of peace, and 
Rome dreaded by the Parthians under your government, if I 
were but able to do as much as I could wish. But neither 
does your majesty" admit of humble poetry, nor dares my 
modes^attempt a subject which my strength is unable to sup- 

KrL Yet oiHciousness foolishly di^uste the person whom it 
'es ; especially when it recommends itself by numbers, and 
the BXt [of writing.] For one learns sooner, and more will- 
ingly remembers, that which a man derides, than that which 
he approves and venerates. I value not the zeal that g^ves 
me uneasiness ; nor do I wish to be set out any where in 

^ The wars beii^ ended through the Koman empire under the aus- 
pida of Aufi^uBtua, that ib, hj hia Uoutenants, he shut the («mple of Janus. 
But the two Srst times that he bad shut tbis temple, in 125 and 130, he 
had cominajided in person. Historians iafonn ua, that it was open (roa 
132 to 144, when it was shut oa occasion of the victoiies orTiherinsand 
DrasnB I and that it was again opened at the end of the same year, and 
nevoT ahnt during the lile of Auguatua. In this year we ma/ date tha 
present epistle. San. 

" Majataa. Id the time of the republic, thla title wus given to the 

bod/ of the people and the principal magiatratea ; but when the sovereign 

powerwaaplaced!naaingleper80ii,tbe title of majesty was given to him 

■od to bis house, " Uajestas August! ^ majeatas divinm domtis." Dao, 


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vax" widi & &c« formed for the worse, nor to be celebrated in 
ill-composed verses ; lest I blush, when presented with the 

res gift ; tuid, exposed in an open box along with my ikuthor, 
conveyed into tne street that selis frankimiense, and spices, 
and pepper, and whatever is wrapped up in Impertinent writ- 

Florcs, faithful friend to the good and illustrious Nero, 
if by chance any one should offer to sell you a boy born at 
Tibur and Gabh, and should treat with you in this manner; 
" This [boy who is] both good-natured and welI-&vorod from 
head to foot, Ehall become and be yours for eight thou- 
sand sesterces ; a domestic slave, ready in his attendance at 
his master's nod ; initiated in the Greek language, of a ca- 
pacity for any art ; you- may shape out any thing with [such] 
moist clay ; besides, he will sing in an artleea manner, but 
yet entertaining to one drinking. Lavish promises lessen 
credit, when any one cries up extrava^ntly the wares he has 
for sale, which he wants to put off. No emergency obliges 
me [to dispose of him] : though poor, I am in nobody's debt 
None of the chapmen would do this for you ; nor should every 
' ' ■ readily receive the same lavor from me. Once, [in 
"■ ' [loitered" on an errand] ; and (as it happens) 

" Horace, with much solemn pi easaotrj, talks as if he were a man vbo 
deferred a statue to be erected to his honor, or was to be madethe hero 
of an epic poem- In the next line ho seems determined to refuse any 
honors that migbt be paid him by a fiilsome poetical Batterer, and is 
justly apprehensive of bein;; carried with his author to wrap up frankio- 
cenae and spioee it vico (ktmrio. Fran. 

»> Cessavit This word, which properly sig[niflca (o loiter, nmissi el 
oscitanter agera, gives only a, general idea of a trivial fault, but tbis idea 
is determined hyfuga iu the second line following. The lad is ibuiid to 
be a common ft^tive, a fault so considerable, that a mercbaut was 
obliged to mention it particularly, or the sale was void. FsAir. 

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ody r» 
eed,] I 


alwcondei), being aftaid of the lash tliat hangs in the etaip- 
case." Give me your money, if thia runaway trick, wbieb I 
have expected, does not ofiend you." In my opinion, the man 
may take his price, and be secure from any punishment : yon wit- 
tingly purchased a good-for-nothing boy : the condition of tho 
contract" was told you. Novertheless yon prosecute this man, 
and detain him in an unjust suit. 

I told you, at your setting out, that I was indolent :" I told 
you I was almost incapable of such offices : that you might 
not chide me in angry mood, because no letter [from me] came 
to hand. What then have I profited, if you neverthelesa 
arraign the conditions that make for me t On the same score 
too you complaJQ, that, being worse than my word, I do not 
send you the verses yon expected. 

A soldier of LuculSus, [having run through] a great many 
hardships, was robbed of his collected stock to a penny, as he 
lay snoring in the night quite fatigued ; after this, like a 
ravenous wol^ equally exasperated at himself and the enemy, 
eager, with bis hungry fangs, he beat off a royal guard from a 
post (as they report) very strongly fortified, and well suppUed 
with stores. Famous on account of this exploit, be is adorned 
with honorable rewards, and receives twenty thousand ses- 
terces into the bai^^n. It happened about ttiis time that his 
officer being inclined to batter down a certain fort, began to 
encourage the same man, with words that might even have 
given courage to a coward : " Go, my brave fellow, whither 
your valor calls yon : go with prosperous step, certain to re- 
ceive ample rewards of your merit. Why do you hesitate 1 
Upon thia, be arch, though a rustic ; " Ho who has lost his 
purse," will go whither you wish," says he. 

» The canatniction ia, taluit metixra hohma pendentia in tcati». ^at 
their alaves might have the piiniahment alwajs before their ejea, the 
whip was hung on the Btaircaso. Toaa. Bac 

" Lex doea not here signirj lam, bnt the fbmi, the conditioti of the 
lurgain when the sole was made, du num?n<u, excepia nihil it si fvga 
Ue£u, without which, the merchant was liable to an action, actitmtm 
redhihitoriam during six months. Ed. Bnii. 

" The first of seven reasons, which Horace gives for not writing, is 
bis natural indolence. lie second ta an allusion to the story of LdcuUub 
ilia soldier; tbat a poet of an ea^ fbrtune should write verses onl; for 
hia amusement. Sak. 

** The ancients carried their money in a puree tied to their glrdlee^ 
from whence we find in Plautus, " sector zonBrias," a cut^urae. Alex. 

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It wu mj lot to have Rome for my Dnrae," and to be in- 
■tructed nkoQ the Iliad] bow much the exasperated Achillea 
pKJadioecl the Greeks. Good AtheoB" give ma wme addi- 
tioDal leanuDg : that ia to say, to be able to distinguish a right 
line from a curre, and seek afler truth in the groves of Ac»- 
demns." But the troublesome times rentovcd me from that 
plesant spot; and the tide of a civil war carried me away, 
nneiperienoed as I was, into anns, [into arms] not likely to 
be a match for the sinews of Agiutus Cssar. Whence, as 
soon as [the battle of] Philippi dismissed me in an abject 
eoniition, with my wings clipped, and destitute both of house 
and land, daring poverty" u^;«d me on to the composition of 
verses : but now, naving more than is wanted, what medicines 
would be efficacious enough to cure my madness, if I did not 
think it better to rest than to write verses. 

The advancing years rob us of evety thing : they have 
taken away my mirth, my gallantly, my revelings, and pW : 
they are now proceeding to force poetry from me. Wliat 
would you have me do ! 

In short, all persons do not love and admire the same things. 

■nder Sererus, used to say, a soldier iB never afraid but when he is well 
armed, well clothed, well fed, aed has money in hip purse. When he is 
poor aad hungrv, ha is fit for ao; despernte action. Fbam, 

<^ Honioe went to Home in 696, when be was about seventeen or eight' 
•en years oft^^ and read humsnity under OrbUiua Pupillua. Sah. 

** He went to Athens in 709, when he was nineteen years old, to 
itndj philosophy. His reading Homer, and bis btber's instmctioDS, hiul 
already much improved him, but at Athens he acquired something more ; 
for he not only studied other parts of philosophy there, but learned mo- 
ralicy by reasoning and prineiples. Sas. 

*' The name of Acadsmua ia one of those which the BCJenccs have 
oooaecratod to immortality with the greatest Justice. He was a rich 
Athenian, who in his tegard for philosophy, left to the philosopheia, br 
holdiog their assemblies, a fine house al Athens, adorned with a mag- 
niflcent gallery, a number of statues, and a park, planted with tree& 
Plato had his school there, from whom the philosophers of his sect were 
called Academicians. Horace characterizoa this school by what dis- 
tinguished it from all others; its not brasting that it had found trntb, 
but only professing to search for it, " quferere verum." ToRR. 

*' We must not understand these words literally, as if Horace never 
wrote verses before the battle of Philippi, but that he didnot apply his ge- 
niua to poetry, as to a profession, before that time. Thosatire "Proscripti 
Regis Rupili," was ^parently written while he was in Brutus'a army. 
This frank confession of his miatbrtunee has much sincerity, and he make* 
It mora willingly, since it turns to the glory of Augustus. DaO, 

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a ode : ooe man is pleased with iambics ; 
tbe manner of Bion, and vi- 
rulent wit. Three gnests scarcely can be found to agree, 
craving rery difierent dishes with various palate. What shall 
I g^vel What shall I not give ) You forbid, what another 
demands : what you desire, that truly is sour and disgustful to 
the [other] two. 

Befode other [difficulties], do you think it practicable for 
me to write poems at Rome, amid so many solicitudes and 
so many bUgues ) One calls me as his security, another to 
hear his works, all business else apart ; one lives on the 
mount of Quirinua, the other in the extremity of the Aven- 
tine ; both must be waited on. The distances between ibem, 
you see, are charmingly commodious." " But the streets are 
clear, so that there can be no obstacle to tbe tbougbtfiil." — A 
builder in heat hurries along with his mules and porters : tbe 
crane whirls aloft at one time a stone, at another a great piece 
of timber: the dismal iimerals dispute the way with the un- 
wieldy carriages : here runs a mad dog, there rushes a sow 
begrimed with mire. Go now, and meditate with vourseU 
your harmonious verses. All the whole cboir of poets love the 
grove, and avoid cities, due votaries to Bacchus" delighting 
m repose and shade. Would you have me, amid so great 
noise both by night and day, [attempt] to mng, and trace tbe 
difficult footsteps of tbe poets } A genius who has chosen 
qniet Athens for his reffldence, and has devoted seven years 
to study, and has grown old in books and study, frequently 
walks forth more dumb than a statue, and shakes the people s 
sides vrith laughter : here, in the midst of the billows and 
tempests of the city, can I bo thought capable of connecting 
words likely to wake the sound of the lyre f 

At Rome there was a rhetorician, brother to a lawyer ; [so 
fond of each other were they,] that they would hear nothing 
but the mere praises of each other : insomuch, that the latter 
appeared a Gracchus to tiie former, the former a Mucins" to 

*' These bills were at the extremities of Borne north atid south, from 
whence the poet Ironically says " humami commoda, no unreasonable 
distance." Ed. Duel. 

*^ The poets sacrificed to Bacchus every year in the month of Ifu^h. 
His festival was called Liberaiia, and Ovid tella ua be bad irequently 
assisted at them. The summits of PamasBUB were consecra^Dil lo that god. 

•' Commentators have caused some conflision here b; not percsiving 

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S94 BPiaTLES OF EORi.CE. book lb 

tlie latter. Wh^ should this frenzy affect th« obstrepeioiu 
poeta in a leas decree t I write odea, another elegies : a work 
wonderftil to behold, and buraiehed by the nine mnees I Ob- 
serve first, with what a &stidious air, vith what importance 
we survey the temple [of Apollo] vacant for the Roman poeta. 
In the next place you may follow (if you are at leisure) and 
hear what each produeea, and wherefore each weaves for Lim- 
self the crown. Like Samnite gladiators in alow duel, till 
candle-light, we are beaten and waste out tbe enemy with 
equal blows : I came off AIckus, in hia suffrage ; he ia mine, 
who ) Why who but Callimacbust Or, if be seems to make 
a greater demand, he becomes Uimnermus, and grows in &me 
by the chosen appellation. Much do I endure in order t« 
pacify this passionate race of poets, when I am writing ; and 
submissive court the applause of the people ; [but,] naviDg 
finished my studies and recovered my senses, I me same man 
can now boldly stop my open ears against reciters. 

Hioee who make bad verses are laughed at: but they are 
pleased in writing, and reverence themselves; and if you are 
utent, they, happy, fall. to pr^^ng of their own acconi what* 
ever they have written. But he who desires to execute a 

Eenuine poem, will with his papers assume the spirit of an 
onest critic : whatever words snail have but little cleameea 
and elegance, or shall be without weight and held unworthy 
of estdmatjou, he will dare to displace : though they may re- 
cede with reluctance, and Btill remun in the sanctuary of 
Vesta : those that have been lon^ hidden from the peopfe he 
kindly will drag forth, and bnng to light those expressive 
denominations of things that were used by the Catos and 

to what Mucius refereace ia nmde. Tbere were three celebrated lawyen 
□r this name, P. Uuciua 8c(evola, and two Q. iiaai ScuvoIk, P. Hil- 
das Scievola, consul A. u. C. 620, the same jeai that Tiberius Qraccbua 
was tribune, is the person hero mentionei Q. Mucius Scffivola, son of 
that PubliuB, and called b/ CrasBus, Cic da Orat. i. 39, " Jurisperitonun 
eloquentiasiaiuB, eloquenUmn jurisperitisaimu^" was the coUeague of 
Crassus in the consulship, x. v, c. 658, while the Q. Mucius Soevola 
under wiiose care Cicero was placed by his father ou assiimiuff the (oga 
viriiia, was tbe saa-ia-law of Lielius, and the father-in-law of L. Crassus 
the orator. Bcntlej' in^sCs that he should read Crassus for Gracchus. 
Crassus and Scffivola were cotemporarieB, and coUeaffues in tribunate, 
censorship, and cousuUhip, A. r. c. 659. Gracchus was much senior to 
UuciuB, and inferior io him in eloquence. Crassus and Mudua snppoit 
the dialogue in the first book of Cic. de Otat. ItCaui. 



Getli^ of ancieiit times, thoogli now defonned dust and 
neglected age presses upon them : he will adopt new words, 
wmcli use, the parent [of language], shall produce : forcible 
and perspicuous, and beuing the utmost similitude to a limpid 
streain, ne will pour out his treaaurea, and enrich. Latium 
witli a compreheosire language. The luxuriant he will lop, 
the too harsh he will soften with a sensible cultivation : those 
Toid of expression be will discard : he will exhibit the appear- 
AQoe of one at play ; and will be [in his invention] on the rack, 
like [a dancer on tiie stage], who one while afiects the motions 
of a aa^, at another of a clumsy cydops. 

I had rather be esteemed a foolish and dull writer, while 
mj fiuilts please myself or at least escape my notice, than be 
wise and smart for it There lived at Argos a man of no 
mean rank, who imi^ned that he was hearing some admir- 
able tragedians, a joyfiil Hitt«r and applauder in an empty 
theater : who [nevertheless] could support the other duties of 
life in a just manner ; a truly honest neighbor, an amiable 
host, tind toward his wife, one who could pardon his slaves, 
nor would rave at tlie breaking of a bot^e-seal : one who 
[had sense enough] to avoid a precipice, or an open well. 
TliiB man, being cured at the expense and by the care of his 
relations, when he had eipelled by the means of pure helle- 
bore the disorder and melancholy humor, and returned to 
himself; " By Pollux, my triends (said he), you have do- 
stroyed, not saved me ; from whom my pleasure is thus taken 
away, and a most agreeable delusion of mind removed by 

In a word, it is of the first consequence to be wise in the 
rejection of trifles, and leave childish play to boys for whom 
it is in season, aad not to scan words to be set to music for 
the Roman harps, but [rather] to be perfectiy an adept in the 
numbers and proportions of real life. Tlius therefore I com- 
muue with myself^ and ponder these things in silence : " If 
DO quantity of water would put on end to your thirst, yon 
would toll it to your physicians. And is there none to whom 
you dare confess, that the more you get the more you crave I 
If you had a wound which was not relieved by a plant or 
root prescribed to you, you would refuse bemg doctored 
with a root or plant that did no good. You have heard 
that vidoua folly left the man, on whom the gods confened 



wealth ; and though you are nothing wiaer, unoe you become 
richer, will you nevertheleas luo the same monitors as before t 
But could riches make you wise, could they mate you lees 
covetous and mean-spiriied, you well might blush, if there lived 
on earth one more avaricious than yonrselt" 

If that be any man's property which he has bought by the 
.pound and penny," [and] there be aome things to whidi (if 
'you give credit to the lawyers) possession gives a clMm," 
[then] the field that feeds you is yonr own ; and Orbius' 
steward, when he harrows the com which is soon to give you 
flour, finds you are [in effect] the proper master. You give 
your money ; you receive grapes, puUeta, eggs, a hogdiead of 
strong wine : certainly in this manner you oy little and Uttle 

Eurchase that fitrm, for which perhaps the owner paid three 
undred thousand sesterces, or more. What does it signify, 
whether you live on what was paid (or the other day, or a 
long while ago f He who purchased the Aricinian and Vei- 
entine fields some time since, sups on bought vegetables, how- 
ever he may think otherwise ; boils his pot with bought wood 
at the approach of the chill evening. But he calls all that 
his own, as far as where the planted poplar prevents quarrels 
among neighbors by a determinate limitation: as if any 
thing were a man's property, which in a moment of the fleet- 
ing hour, now by solidtations, now by sale, now by violence, 
and now by the supreme lot [of aU men], may change masters 
and come into another's jurisdiction. Thus since the per- 
petual possession is given to none, and one man's heir urges 
on another's, as wave impels wave, of what importance are 
houses, or granaries ; or wnat the Lucanian pastures jcaned to 
the Calabnan ; if ^tdes, inexorable to gold, mows down the 
great together with the smalt ? 

Gems, marble. Ivory, Tuscan" statues, pictures, silver- 
plate, robes dyed with GetuUan purple, there are who can 

'" L&nl meraiiuT ei are. In the reign ot ServiuB Tullus, the Romana 
weighed their mone^befbre witDeaaes, in a bargain of buying and setliiig. 
When this custom was afterward diai^ied, yeC the aome expreasion con- 
tinued. Ed. Dcbl. 

'I ilaitcipal tieus. To prevent the perpetual vcxatdonB of law-Euita, the 
laws wisely established, that possession and enjoj^neiit for a certain num- 
ber of jeara should cDi^rm a, title and ascertain Ihe properl^af an estate. 
TbiB right or prescription was called ttsucajiio. Ed. Dubl. 

" The TuscaoB were fhmoua for making statues and vases of e*rth and 

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not acquire; and there are others, who are not Bolidtous 
of acquiring. Of two brothers, why one prefers loimging, 
play, and perfume, to Herod'a rich palm-tree groves ;" why 
the other, nch and uneasy, from tha tinng of the light to the 
evening ^ade, subdues hia woodland with fire and steel : our 
attendsdit genius knows, who governs the planet of our na- 
tivity, the divinity [that preBidesl over human nature, who 
dies with each individnaJ, of various complexion, white and 

I will use, and take out from mj moderate stock, as much 
as my exigence demands : nor will I be under any apprehen- 
sions what opinion my heir shall hold coQceming me, when 
he shall find [I have left him] no more than I had given me. 
And yet I, the same man, shall be inclined to know how far 
an -open and cheerful person differs from a debauchee, and 
how greatly the economuit differs from the miser. For theie 
is some distinction whether yon throw away your money in a 
prodigal manner, or make an entert^nment without grudging, 
nor toil to accumulate more ; or rather, as formerly in Mioerr^s 
holidays," when a school-boy, enjoy by starts the short and 
pleasant vacatian. 

Let sordid poverty be far away. I, whether borne in a 
large or smalt vessel, let me be borne untform and the same. I 
am not wafted with swelling sail before the north wind blow- 
ing fiur: yet I do not bear my course of life against the ad- 
copper gilt, with which tbey decorated their temples and apartments. 
Veatea, in the next line, not only tdgniSea clothes, but all sorts of tapes' 
trj, carpets, etc ; and, to show how unneceBsarj these ornaments an, 
the poet says there are many people who never pve themseivea any 
trouble or coDcem about them. 3aii. 

'3 Judea was famous Ibr its woods of palm, from whence Herod drew 
a considerable rovenue. He began to reign in 717 ; be reigned seventeen 
years, and died m T50, between the 13th and 28th of Mardi, three monthr 
after the birth of our Saviour. San. 

M Festit qttingui^rilfua. According to the mythological traditioni, Ui- 
nerva came intotbe world the 19th d* March, and therefore that day was 
consecrated to her. Four days atterward there was another festival, 
called iubilueirium aacronan, the purification of the musical ■□Btruments 
nsed in the sacrifices. These two feetivala were afterward united, by 
including the three days which Beparal^d thom, and they were QMm 
liiencB «died quitigtuitrua or qtangtuUria, This festival was a joyflil va- 
cation for Bchool'boys, and same of them divoned themselves at their 
master's expense, by speading their MJoerval, a present sent to hin, in 
moaev by their parents. Dac Sab. 

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T«iBe south. In force, ff^nius, fignie, virtne, station, estate, fLe 
last of the fint-rate, (jetj still before those of the last. 

You are not covetous, [you say] : — go to. — What then t 
Have the rest of your vices fled from you, together with this f 
Is your hreast free from vain ambition t Is it free from the 
fear of death and from aneer! Can you laugh at dreams, 
magic terrors, wonders, witdiee, nocturnal goblins, and Thes- 
sahan prodi^es ? Do you number your birth-days with a 
grateful mind ! Are you foigiving to your friends t Do you 
grow milder and better as old age approaches ! What profits 

Ea only one thorn eradicated out of many? If you do not 
ow how to live in a right manner, make way for those that 
do. You have played enough, eaten and drunk enough, it ia 
time for you to walk off: lest having tippled too plentifullT, 
that age which plays tlie want»n with more propriety, shoiud 
ridicttk and drive you [off the stage]. 





Ir ft painter' Bhould wish to unite a horse's neck to a human 
head, uid spread a variety of plumage over limbs [of di&rent 
«uimalsj taken from every put [of nature],* so that what is 
a beautiful woman in the upper part terminates nnd^tlj in 
an ugly fish below ; coula you, my friends, refrain from 

■ AH that OUT poet eajrs here maj be referred, in general, to tbree 
beads, the fitble, the uaanerB, and the diction. We Bhould take notice 
that this piece particularly regards epic and dnunatic poetry, and that our 
author only occasionallj mentions any other land. 

The most important precept for the composition of a poem is unity and 
■implicitj of design. There should be only one action, lo which aJ! the 
incidents ought to refer ; and thia point of perfection, every regular work 
requires. To show the necessity ofthi» rule, Horace compares an irreg- 
■aiar poem to pictures formed by a wiid assortment of many parts en- 
tirely unlike each other. Every part, considered in ilseUj may have ita 
proper, natural perfection, vrhile their union produces nothing bnt what 
IS monstrous and ridiculous. Fran. 

The critic's rules must bo taken either, 1. from the general standiag 
laws of composition ; or, 2. from the peculiar onea, appropriated to the 
kind. Now the direction to be fetched from the former of these sources 
will of course precede, as well on account of its superior dignity, as that 
the mind itself delights to descend Irom uoiversals to the consideration of 
particulars. Agreeably to this rule of nature, the poet, having to correct, 
\a the Roman drama, these three points, 1. a niscoodoct in the disposir 
tion; 2. an abuse of language; and, 3. a disregard of the peculiar char- 
acters and colorings of ita different species, hath chosen to do this on 
principles of universal nature; which, while they inclade the case of the 
drams, at the same time extend te poetic composition at large. These 
prefatory, universal observations being delivered, he then proceeds, with 
advanlage, to the second source of this art, viz., the consideration of the 
laws and rules peculiar to the kind. HnRD. 

■ But Orelli mM« rightly treats "eollatis membris" as the ablative 

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laughter, weie you admitted to such a eight ! BelieTe, ye 
Pisoa, the book wilt be perfectly like such a picture, the ideas 
of which, like a sick man's dreams, are all vam and fictitioos : 
BO that neither head nor foot can correspond to any one fonn. 
" Poets and paiotcre [you will say] have ever had equal au- 
thority for altemplJiig any thing." We are conscious of this, 
and this privilege we demand and allow in turn : but not to 
Buch a degree, that the tame shoiUd assodate with the savage ; 
nor that serpents should be coupled with birds, lambs with 

In pompous introductions,' and such as promise a great 
deal, it generally happens that one or two verses of purple 
patch-work, that may make a great show, are tagged on ; aa 
when the grove and the altar of Diana and the meandering of 
a current hastening through pleasant fields, or the river 
Rhine, or the r^nbow is described. But here there was no 
room for these [fine things] : perhaps, too, you know how to 
draw a cypresa :' but what is that to the purpose, if he, who 
ia painted for the given price, is [to bo represented as] swim- 
ming hopeless out of a Bhipwrect ! A large vase at first was 

■ These preparatory observations, Fonoeraing the laws of poetic com- 
position at lai^, have bcien thought to glance more partic\^Iy at the 
epic poetry which was not improper: for, 1. the drams which he was 
tixiat to criticise, had its rise and origin traia the «poa. Thus we are told 
by the ^at critic, that Homer was the flrst who invented dramatic iml- 
tationa /lovoi — Sri /ii/njaci; tpa/iariKac iirolr/ac. 2. The several cen- 
sures, here pointed at the epic, would bear still more direcUy against the 
tragic poem ; it being more glaringly inconsistent with the genius of the 
drama to admit of foreign and digressivo omomenta, than of the extended, 
episodical epo/Hzio. For both these reesons, it was altogether pertinent 
to the poet's purpose, in a cnticiam on the drama, to expose the vicious 
practice of the epic models. Thoogh, to preserve the unity of his piece, 
and for a further reason (see note on v. 1), he hath artfbUy done this 
onder the cover of general critidam. Hdhd. 

* Boughs of cypresa were carried in funeral processions, and placed 
before the houses of the great, upon particular occasions of sorrow, 
Bt nan plebeioi lofim iestata cupressja. Lucan. From hence, perhaps, 
this tree was usually drawn in votive tablets ; in pictares carried by 
b^llgars, to excite charity ; and in those used by lawyers in coorta of 
jostice, to ruse the compsssion of the judges, by representing the dia- 
treases of theh* clionta. A painter wight, by frequent practice, excel in 
drawing a tree for which there was such demand ; and he therelbre 
Bbaurdlydetermioestoahoffhia skill upon all occssiona, even by painting 
it in the middle of the ocean, and maldog it overahadow the atorm. The 
' ' -a nnderstaod this passage in a diS^rent manner. Frah- 



defflgned : why, as the wheel revolves, turns out a little pitcher I 
In a word, be your subject what it will, let it J)e. merely simple ^ 
and uniform. 

The great majority of ua poets, fother, and youths worthy 
such a father, are misled by tbe appearance of rieht. I labor 
to be concise, I become obscure : nerves and spirit fhil him, 
that Mms at the easy : one, that pretends to be sublime, proves 
bombastjcal : he who is too cautious and fear&l of the storm, 
crawls along the ground : he who wants to vary his subject 
in a marvelous manner,* paints the dolphin in the woods, the 
boar in the sea. The avotdtug of an error leads to a &ult, if it 
lack skill. 

A statuary about the ^milian school shall of himself, with 
siDguIar skill,' both exprera the nails, and imitate in brass tiie 
flexible bair ; unhappy yet in the main, because he knows not 
how to finish a complet« piece, I would no more choose to be 
such a one as this, bad I a miod to compose any thing, than to 
live with a distorted nose, [though] remarkable for black eyes 
and jetty hair. 

Ye who write, make choice of a subject suitable to your i/ 
abiliti«;"and revolve in your thoughts a conmderabTe time 
what your strength' declines, and what it is iMa u> support. 
Neither elegance of style, nor a perspicuous disposition, shall 
desert the man, by whom the subject matter is chosen ju- 

^ The word proHgiaiiier apparently refers to that flcUtions monstnr, 
under wbidi the poet allusiveir shadows out the idea of abstuil and ia- 
consistent composition. The application, bdvever, differs ia this, that, 
whereas the moaster, there pdnted, was intended tr expose the extrava- 
gance of putting together incongruous parts, withoi l Kaj reference to a 
whole, this prodigy is designed to clianioterize a whale, but deformed bf 
the ill-judged position of its parts. The farmer is lilce a monster, whose 
several membara as of right belonging to different auimals, could by no 
dlspositioo be m^e to constitute one coneistent animal The other, like 
a landscape which hath no objects nbsoluCety irrelative, or irredudble to 
a whale, but which a wrong position of the parts only renders prodigious. 
Send the boor to tbe woods, and the dolphin to the waves; and tJM 
painter might show them both on the same canvas. 

Each is a violation of the law of unity, and a real mooaler: the one, 
because it contains an assemblage of natural incoherent parts \ the other, 
because its parts, though in themselves coherent, are misplaced and dis- 
jointed. HOBD. 

' "tTnus"=''prfeter c^teros," "melius qnam reliqui omnes." OaDiX 
Tbe r^ing before Bentley was "imus." 

' Literally, "shoulders," a phrase derived from wrestlers. 

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This, or I am mistaken, will constitute the merit and beauty 
of arrangement, that the poet iust now my what ought just 
now to Im said, put off most of his thoughts, and waive them 
for the present 

In the choice of his worda, too, the author of the projected 
poem must be delicate and cautious, he must embrace one and 
reject another : jou will express youraelf eminentlj' well, if a 
dezterooi combination should ^ve an air of novelty to a well- 
known word. If it happen to be necessair to explain some 
abatrose subjects by new invented terms ; it will follow that 
yon most frame words never heard of br the old-&shioned' 
Ceth^ : and the license will be granted, if mod^ily-used : 
and new and lately-fonned words will have authority, if they 
descend from a Greek source, with a slight deviation. But 
why should the Romans grant to Flutus and Cndlius a priv- 
ilege denied to Vii^l and Varius ! Why should I be envied, 
if I have it in my power to acquire a few words, when the 
language of Cato and Enniua baa enriched our native tongue, 
and produced new namee <^ things t It has been, and ever 
will be, allowable to coin a word marked with the stamp in 
present request At leaves in the woods are changed with 
the fleeting yean ; the earliest &11 off first : in this manner 
words pensh with old age, and those lately invented flourish 
and thrive, Uke men in the time of youth. We, and our works, 
are doomed to death: whether Neptune,* admitted into && 
continent, defends our fleet from the north winds, a. kingly 
work ; or the lake, for a lon^ time unfertile and fit for oars, 
now muntains its neighbonng cities and feels the heavy- 
plow ; or the river, taught to run in a more convenient 

■ Cmdttlii. Having th» tunic tigbtened bj the ductus, or wearing the 
dnetuB inBtead of the tunic, as appearH to have been the custom of tbe 
andent Romans. Thti was a vest which passed round tbe waiat, and 
extended down to ttie [bet Tbat it was an ancient vesture may appear 
from its being used by the Luperd. Comp. Ovid. Fast v. 101. As it 
did not embuTSBS the motion of the arms, even after the tunic bocams 
part of tbe dress, it was sametimes substituted ibr it by those who had 
occasion to use much bodily ozertion. Hence eiruiuii» is supposed tty 
some to have it meaning here similnr to tbat of itKcincliu, " active^ in- 
dustrious." Othora explain the word as rolhrring to that airangement c^ 
the toga called " doetuB Gabinua." M'Caot. 

* Agrippa opened a communication between tbe Lncrine and AveruJan 
Lakes in 711, and built a mi^iScent haven there, which he named 
Portlns Julius, En honor of Augustus, who was at that time onlr oallei; 
Julius C)cCaviBUuB. S.ui. 

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chaimel, has chaaged its course which was so destractiTe" 
to the fruits. Mort^ works must perish : much less can the 
honor and el^ance of lan^age be long-lived. Many words 
shall revive," which now have fallen off; aDd many which 
are now in esteem shall foil o^ if it be the will of custom, 
in whose power is the decidon and right and standard of 

Homei has iDStnicted us in what measure tlie achieve- 
ments" of kings, and chie&, and direM \rat might be '■ 

Plaintive struns ori^nallj were appropriated to the mi- 
equal numbeis [of the elegiac]:" afterwMd [love and] suc- 
cessful desires were includei Yet what author first published 
humble" elegies, the critics dispute, and the controversy still 
waits the determinaiion of a judge. 

1* The ScholUst inlbrms uB,that Agrippa openedacfuial to recavethe 
waters of tho Tiber, which had overflowed the countrj. 

>' This revival of old words is one of tbose niceties in compositioD, not 
to be attempted by any but great maateni. It ma; be dooo two ways : 
1. byreatoring sudi terms as are grown entirelj obsolete ; or 2. by select- 
ing out of thoee which have still a Gurrency, and are not qnite laid aside, 
BU(di as are most Ibrcible and eipresaive. These choice words, among 
such as are stiU in use, I take to be those which are employed by the old 
writers ia somo peculiarly atroo^ and energetic sense, yet so ^ a with good 
advantage to be copied by the moderoa, without appearing barbarous or 
aObcted. (See Bor. lib. ii. ep. E v. 115.) The other use of old terms, 
«. e. when become obsolete, be s^a, most be made parcf, more aparinglj. 


'* The purport of these lines (ttom v. 13 to S6), and tbeir connection 
with what follows, hatb not been fully seeo. Tbey would eipiesa this 
jiceneral proposition, '' That the several kinds of poetry easeutially differ 
from each other, as may be gathered, not solely from their different sub- 
jects, but their different measures ; which good sense, and an attention 
to the peculiar natures of each, instructed the great inventors and mas- 
ters of them to employ. The use made of this propositiou is to infer, 
" That therefore the Ulce attention should be had to the diCTerent species 
of the some kind of poeti? (v. 89, etc), as io the case of tragedy aitd 
comedy (to which the application is made), whose peculiar diOereDces 
and correspoadences, as resulUog tcom the natures of each, should, in 
agreement to the universal law of decorum, be exactly known and dili- 
gentlr observed by the poet" Hcbd. 

" Elegy was at Srst only a lamentation Ibr the death of a peison be- 
loved, and probably arose (Km the death of Adonis. It was afterward 
^iplied to the joys and grieft of lovers. Toaa. 

" The pentameter, which Horace calls "pxiguum," because it has a 
tbot less than the hexameter. For the same reason he says, " venibus 
impariterjunctis," Daa 

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Rage armed Arclulocbns with the iambic cf his own in- 
yention. The eock and the majestic buskin assumed this 
measure as adapted for dialogue, and to silence the ncnse of 
the populace, and calculated for actJon. 

To celebrate gods, and the Bons of gods, and the victoriona 
wrestler, and the st«ed foremost in die race, and the iu- 
dination of Toutbs, and the free joys of wine, the muse has 
allotted to Uie lyre. 

If I am incapable and unskillfal to observe the distinction 
described, and the compleiions of works [of genius], why am 
I accosted by the name of " Poet (" Why, out of felse modesty, 
do I prefer being ignorant to being learned ) 

A comic subject will not be handled in tragic Terse :" in 
like manner the banquet of Thyestes will not bear to be held 
in familiar verses, and such as almost suit the sock. Let 

" ladigaabir Oan, elc — Ccena Thyeata. " U met lo souper de ThTeste 
pour toatM Bortas de tragedies," says M. Dader, with whom agrees the 
whole band of aommeDtatora: but whj this subject stuiuld be singled out, 
aa the representativa of the net, is nowhere expli^cd by any of them. 
We may be sure, it was net taken up at random. The reason was, that 
the Thyestes of Ennius was peculiarly chargeable with the &ult here 
censured ; aa is plain from a curiona passage in the Orator, where Cicero, 
speaking of the loose numtiers of certain poets, observea this, in particu- 
lar, of the tragedy of Ibyestea, "3imQia sunt quiedam apud nostros: 
velut in Thyeste, 

Qneainam te esse dicamf qui tardi in senactute^ 
et qwe sequaatar : quag, nisi cunt tibicen Bcceassrit, oratiane aunt soIqIib 
■im^imK :" which cbanicler exactly agrees to this of Horace, wherein 
the lang:uage of that play is censured, as flat and prosaic, and bardlj 
HsiDg ^lOTe the plain narrative of an ordinary couveraatJon in comedy. 
This allusion lo a particular play, written by one of their best poets, and 
frequently exhibited on the Bomao stage, gives great force and spirit to 
the precept, at the samo time that it oiemplifioa it in the happiest man- 
ner. It aeema further probable to me, that the poet also designed an in- 
direct compliment to Tariua, whose Thyestea we are told (QuinctiL L x. 
ft 1) was not inferior to ony tragedy of the Greeks. Thia double inten- 
tion of these linea well auiCed to the poet's general aim, which is seen 
through all his critical works, of beating down the oioessive admiration 
of the old poets, and of asserting and advancing the just bonora of the 
deserving moderns. It may further be observed, that the critics have not 
bit the force of the words expani and narrari in thia precept. They are 
admirably chosen to express the two faults condemnodr the flrst imply- 
ing a kind of pomp and ostentation in the language, which is thartji^ 
improper for the low subjects of comedy; and the latter, as I have hinted, 
a flat, prosaic expression, not above the cast of a common nairstive, and 
tberefbra equally unfit for tragedy, Hnno. 

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«ach peculiar spedes [of writiDg] fill vnth deconim its proper 
place. Nevertheless Bometimes oven comedy exalts ber voico, 
and passioaate Cbremes rails in a tumid strain; and a tragic 
writer generally espresees grief in a prosaic style. Telepmis 
and FeTens, when they are both in poverty and exile, throw 
aside tiheir ruits and dgautic expressions it Uiey have a mind 
to move the heart of the spectator with their complaint. 

It is not enough that poems be beautiful;" let them be 
tender and affecmtg, and bear away the soul of the auditor 
whithersoever they please. As the human ooantenance smiles 
on those that smile, so does it sympathize with those that 
weep, li you would have me weep you must first express 
the passion of grief yourself; then, Teiephus or Pelens, yout 
misfortunes hurt me : if you pronounce tbe parts assigned you 
ill, I Aall either fall asleep or lau^. 

Pstbetio accents suit a melancholy countenance ; words AiU 
of menace, an angry one ; wanton expressions, a sportive look ; 
and serious matter, an austere one. For nature forms us first 
within to every modification of drcumstances ; she delights or 
impels us to anger, or depresses us to the earth and afflicts us 
with heavy sorrow : then expresses those emodons of the 
mind by the tongue, its interpreter. If the words be dis- 
cordant to the station of the speaker, the Roman knights and 
plebiana will raise an immoderate laugh. It will make a 
wide difierence, whether it be Davus that speaks, or a hero ; 
a man well-stricken in years, or a hot young fellow in his 
bloom ; and a matron of distinction, or an officious nurse ; a 
roaming merchant, or the cultivator of a verdant little farm ; 
a Colchian, or an Assyrian ; one educated at Thebes, or one 
at Argos. 

You, that write, either follow tradition," or invent such I/ 

■• Nan tails tet ptdchra, etc. Beutley otjacta to pulehra because 
this, he eays, is a general term indudisg under it eveiTBpedee of beauty, 
and Uiercfore that of duleia or tbe affeding. As if general terms were 
DOt frequently restrained and determined to a peculiar sense by tbe con- 
text But the great critic did not sufficietly attend to the connection, 
which, as F. Roberl«lluB, in bis paraphrase on the epistle, well observes, 
stands thus: "It is not enongb, that tragedies liavo thai kind of beauty 
which arises from a pomp and splendor of diction, they must also be 
paUietic or sfTecting. HcBO. 

■' The connection lies thus: langoage must agree with character,' 
character with fame, or at least with ita^ HcBC 

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fables as aie congruoua to themselves. If as poet you ham 
lo repTcseot the renowned Achilles ; let him be ind^otigaUd, 
wrathi'ul, iaexorable, cooTBgeous, let him deny tliat lawa wera 
made for him, let him arrogate every thing to force of arms. 
Let Medea be fierce and untractable, Ino an object of pi^, 
Iiion perfidious, lo wandering, Orestes in distress. 

If you ofier to the stage any tlaag unattempted, and ventoro 
to form a new character; let it be preserved to the last" 
such as it set out at die beginning, aai be conustent with 
itself. It is difficult to write with propriety" on enbiecte lo 
which all writers have a conunon claim ; and you wiui more 
prudence wiU redura the Hiad into acta, than if von first in- 
troduce arguments unknown and never treated of before. A 
public Btoiy will become yonr own pn^rty," if you do not 
dwell upon the whole circle of events, which is paltiy and 
open to every one ; nor must you be so fsithfiil a translator, as 
to take the paiuB of rendering [the oiiginal] word for word; 
nor by imitating tiirow yourself into straits, whence eitlier 
shame or the rules of your work may forbid you to retreat. 

" Ths njle is, as appears fram the reason of the thing, and from Aris- 
totle, "Let a uniformity of character be presenred, or at least a coDsiBt- 
BDOy," i. «. either let the manners be exactly the same lh>m the begin- 
ning to the end of the play, as those of Uedea, for instance, and Orestes ; 
or, if any change be necessary, let it be such as may ooosist with, and be 
easily reconciled to, the manners formerly attributed, as is Been in ttie 
case of Electra and Iphigenia. Husn. 

" D^giciU atproprii! commimia dicert. Lambin's comment is, "Com* 
mnnia hoc loco appellat HoTatins argumenta &bularum i nullo adbuo 
tractsta: et ita,quEecuivisexpo^taBuut etiu medio qaadanmadopcsitB, 
quaai vacua et i, nemine occupala." And that this is the true meaning 
of comniiinta is evidently fixed by the woids ignola iadietagu^ wliicb are 
explanatory of it Hurd. 

^PuUvcamoteriuisJustthereverseofwhat the poet had before styled 
eommunia : the Utter meaning such saljecla or cbatacters as, though by 
their nature left in common to all, had jet, in tact, not been occuixed t^ 
any writer; the former, those which had aJready been made public by 
occupation. Ju order to acquire a property iu sutijecta of this sort, tlie 
poet directs ns to observe the three following cautions; 1. Not to ftrflow 
the trite, obvious round of the orinnal work; i. e. not servilel]' and 
scrupulously to adhere to its plan of method. 2. Not to be tramjatora, 
instead of imitator^ i. e. if it shall be thought fit to imitate nore ex- 
pressly any part of the original, to do it with freedom and spirit, and 
without a slavish attachment to the mode of expression. 3. Not to adopt 
any particular incident that may occur in the i^oposed model, which 
(ulher decency or the natore of the work wonld reject. Hubd. 

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Nor mnst you make such an exordium, u fhe Cjclic" 
writer of old : " I will sing the fate of Priam, aud the noble 
war." What will this boaster produce worthy of all this 
gaping I The mountains are in labor, a ridiculous mouse 
will be brought forth. How much mote to the purpose he, 
who attempts nothing improperly? "Sing for me, my muse, 
the man 1^0, alter ue lame <d the destruction of Troy, sur- 
veyed the manners aud cities of many men." He meditates 
not [to produce] smoke from a flash, but out of smoke to 
elicit fire, that he may thence bring forth his instances of the 
maireloua with beauty, [snch as] Antiphates, Scylla, the 
Cyclops, and Chaiybdis. Nor does he date Diomede's return 
from Heleager's death, nor trace the rise of the Trojao war 
trom [Leda's) eggi : he always haateoB on to the eveut ; and 
hurries away his reader in the midst of interesting circum- 
stances, no otherwise than as if they were [already] known ; 
and what be despairs o^ as to receiving a polish from his 
touch, he omits ; and in such a manner fonns his fictions, so 
intermingles the false with the true, that the middle is not in- 
couustent with the beginning, nor the end with the middle. 

Do ]rou attend to what I, and the public in my opinion, W^ 
expect from you [as a dramatic writer]. If you are desirous 
of an applauding spectator, who will wait for [the falling of) 
the curtain, and till tjje chorus calls out "your plaudits; the 
maimers of every age must be marked by you, and a proper 
decorum assigned to men's varying dispositions and years. 
The boy, who is juat able to pronounce his words, and prints 
the ground with a firm tread, delights to play with his fel- 
lows, and contracts aud lays aside ^ger without reason, and 
is subject to change every hour. The beardless youth, his 
guardian being at length discharged, joys in horses, and dogs^ 
and the verdure of the sunny Campus Martius; pliable as wax 
to the bent of vice, rough to advisers, a slow provider of use- 
fol things, prodigal of his money, high-spirited, and amorous, 
and hasty m deserting the ot^ects of bis pasdon. [After 

^ Ssriplar cyeUcui. Some author of tba q/dia, deBcrib«d above, 1, 133. 
The cbiaT Cjclic poems are the tbllowing; 1. ru Kvipia, of Stasinua 
or Hegesinua. 2. The Aiflioirif of Arctinus. 3. The 'lAiir /iixptl. by 
Leaches. 4. The 'IXiov vip7i( of Arctinus. 6. The Nnnrni attributed 
to Agias. 6. The Tri^cyopia of Ei^ammon, These were collected, 
more for the salce of philologj than poetry, b; the Alexandrine gram- 
marians. M'Caul. 

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UuB,1 our inclinatioiia Wng dumged, the age and ipirit of 
manoood seeks after wealto, and [higli] ooimectioiiB, is snl>- 
■ervient to poinU of honor; and is cautious of committiii^ 
aaj action, which be would subeequenlly be induatrious to 
correct. Many inconveniences encompass a man in years; 
either because he seeks [e^rly] for gtaa," and abatms from 
what be has gotten, ana is afiwd to m&ke use of it ; or be- 
cause he transacts every thing in a timorons an& dispassioData 
manner, dilatory, slow in hope, remiss, and greedy of futurity. 
Peensb, queniious, a panegyrist of former times when be was 
a boy, a chostiseT and censnrer of his juniors. Our adToncing 
years" bring many advantages along with them. Many our 
declining ones take away. That the parts [therefore] belong- 
ing to age may not be given to youth, and those of a man 
to a boy, we must dwelt upon those qualities which are joined 
and adapted to each person's age." 

An action is either represented on the stage, or being done 
elsewhere is there related. The things which enter by the 
ear affect tbe mind more languidly, than such as are sub- 
mitted to the &itbfnl eyes, and what a spectator presents to 
himself. Yon must not, however, bring upon the stage 
things fit only to be acted behind tbe scenes : and you must 
take away from %new many actions, wbich elegant descrip- 
tion" may soon after deliver in presence [of the spectator^. 
Let not Medea murder her sons before the people; nor the 
execrable Atreus openly dress human entrails ; nor let Progue 
be metamorphosed into a bird, Cadmus into a serpent. What- 
ever you show to me in this manner, not able to give credit 
to, I detest. 

" " Qunrit"=" quKStus fadt," as in Vii^. Georg. L "In medium 

''3 He retunis to bis first division of bumaD life into two parts. " Anni 

'a reckoned tbe former 
hj addition: tbe latter bj subtraction. The French hare an ezpresaioa 
like this of "recedentos anuL" Tbey say, "est sur Bonretour," "be is 
upon his return," when a person is declininft in years. Sac. 

" Semptr in aijwieiis. " Adjuncta avo," evory thing which attends 
age ; " apta sevo," every thing proper tc it 

^ Fscandia pr<tstn/i. The recital of an actor present, which ought to 
be made with all the pathetic; "(acuodia;" or a recital instead of the 
action, " &cun<lia &cti vicaria, qnn rem quasi oculia prtcsentem aistit." 

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Let a play which would be inquired after, and though Been, 
represented anew, be neither shorter nor longer than the fifth 
act. Neither let a god interfere, unless a difficulty worthy a 
god's unraveling should happen; nor let a fourtb person be 
officious to speji," 

Let the chorus" sustain tho part and manly" charact«r of 
an actor : nor let them sing any thing between the acta which 
is not conducive to, and fitly coherent with, the main design. 
Let them both patronize the good," and give them friendly 

•< The poet does not forbid «fourth person to apeak, hnt would have 
him Bay very little, as the Scholiast uaderstands tbe precept Indeed, a 
conversation of three people is most agreeable, because it is leas confused 
and less divides the attentioii of an audience. Bodell. 

" The chorus was not introduced between the aott, merely to relieve 
the andieneo, but had a part in the play, and concurred with the other 
actors to cany on the plot, and snpport the probabihty of it The Chori- 
pbsus, or first person of the chorus, entered in the acts, and sptdce for 
all those of whom the cborus was composed; "offlcinmque virile de- 
fendaL" The chorus filled up, the infervals of the acts with their songs, 
which were composed of reSections upon what was past, or their appre- 
hensions of what might happen. Fraw. 

s» Offieinmgve virile. Heiosiua takes virile adverbially, for virililer. 
But this is thought harsh. What hinders, but that it ma; be taken ad- 
jeotively? And then, agreeablj to his interpretation, "officium virile" 
wiUmeBnastrenuous,dil^ont office, such as beeomeeaperson interested 
in the pn^resa of the aeliou. The precept is leveled ag^ainst the prac- 
tice of those poets wba, though they allow the part of a persona dTomatit 
to tJie chorus. ;et for the ni<fflt part make it BO idle and insignificant a 
one, as is of little consequence in tba representation ; by which means 
the advantage of probability, intended to be drawn fiom this use of the 
chorus, is, in great measure, fbrleited. Emtn. 

» The chorus, Bays the poet, is to take the side of the good and virtu- 
ous; i. e. (see note on v. 193), is always to sustain a moral character. 
But this will need some ezplsjiatioD and restriction. To conceive aright 
of its oCSce, we must suppose tbe chorus to be a number of persons, hj 
aomo probable cause assembled together, as witnesses and spectators of 
the great action of the drama. Sucb persona, as they can not be wholly 
nninterested in what passes before them, will very naturally bear some 
share in the representation. Thia will principally consist in dechuing 
their sentiments, and indulging their reSections freely on tbe several 
events and distresses ea they shall arise. Thus we see Ibe moral at 
tributed to the chorus, will be no other tban the dictates of plain sense; 
such as must be obvious to every thinking observer of the action, who is 
under the infiuence of no peculiar partiahticB from aflecUon or interest 
Though even these may be supposed, in cases where the character to- 
ward which they draw is represented as virtnons. 

A chorus, thus constituted, must always, it is evident, take the part of 
virtue; hocause this 's the natural, and almost necessary determinatioa 

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advice, and reflate the pasuonate, and love to appease thoaa 
vho swell [with rage] :** let them praise the repast of a 
short meal, the saluta^ effects of justice, lavs, and peace 
with her open gates ; let them conced what is told to them ia 
confidence," and BuppUcate and implore the gods that proa- 

?3rity may return to the wretched, and abandon the haughty, 
he flute," (not as now, begirt with brass and emulous of 

of mankind, ia aL ages and natioiuj whon acting A'eely and oncoa- 
■tratned. HcBC 

" I read " pacare tumentes," with Bentlej, Orelli, and othera. 

■< Tbe ChoriptueuB was present through tho whole play, and was oflea 
neoBBSarily intruatad with the secretB of the pereona of the drama. To 
preserve tbe probabUity, the poeta chose a chorus, that was obliged by 
tiieir OWD interest to keep those secrets, and without acting contrary to 
their dutj. Euripides hath greatly offended against this precept Dac. 

» Tilna non ni nunc oritJudo), etc (From v. 202 to v. 220.) This is 
one «d'thosj many passages in tbe epistle about which the critics have 
•aid a great deal, without explaining any thing. Id support of what I 
taeau to olTdr, as the true iuterpretaUon, 1 obsm'Q, 

L That the poet's intention cert^olj was, not to censure tbe false re- 
flnemeats of their stage music ; but, m a short iligreesiTe history (sacb 
as tbe didactio G>na will aomotimes require), to describe the rise and 
progress of [he true. TfaisI collect, 1. From the ezpres^on itself which 
can Dot, witboQt vJolenco, be understood, in any other way. For, as to the 
words liceilia aaipracepi, wliich have occasioned much of the difficulty, 
the first means a freer use, not a liceotiouBnesB properly BO-colled ; and 
the other only expresses a vehemence and rapidity of language, naturally 
productive of a quicker elocution, such as must of course attend the 
more numerous harmony of the lyre : not, as iL Dacier translates it, 
" une eloquence temerairo et outr^e," an extravagant straining and a& 
feotation of style. 2. From the reason of the thing, which makes it in- 
credible that the music of the theater should then be most complete, 
when tbe times were barbarous, and entertainmeDta of this kind little 
encouraged or understood. 3. From the character of that music itself; 
lor the rudeness of which, Horace, in effect, apologizes, in defending it 
only on the score of the imperfect state of the stage, and the simpMty 
of its judges. This then beiug clear, I observe, 

IL Tbat those two verses, 

"Indoctus quid enim snperet liberque labonim, 
Rusticua urbano confusus, turpis honeeto 7" 
are, as they now stand, utterly iuexplicable. This hath appeared long 
since, from the G^itless labors of the critics, and, above all, of lambin, 
one of the beet of them, who, after several repeated efforts to elucddate 
this place, leaves it Just as dark and unintelligible as he found it. The 
interpretation, without them, standa thus; "The tibia," says tbe poet, 
" was at first low and simple. The first, as best agreeing to the then 
state of the stage, which required only a soft musio to go along with and 
assist the chorus, there being no large and crowded tiieatera- to fill in 

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the trumpet, but) slender and of eimple form, with few stopc^ 
was of service to accompany and as^t the chorus, and with 
its tone was suffident to fill the rows that were not as yet too 
crowded, where an audience, easily numbered, as being small 
and sober, chaste and mod^ met together. But when the 
Tictorious Romans began to extend their territories, and an 
ampler wall encompa^ed the city, and their genius was in- 
dulged on festivals by drinking wine in the day-time without 
censure ; a greater freedom arose both to the numbers [of 
poetry], and the measure [of muaicj." For what taste could 
an unlettered clown and one just dismissed from labors have, 

those days. Aod thelatter, as suitiog best to the then state of the timet, 
whose simplicity and frugal manners exacted the severest torn peraece, as 
in ever; thiog else, so in their dramatic ornaments and decorations But, 
when conquest had enlarged the territory and widened the walls of Borne, 
and, in consequecce (hereof, a social spirit had dispelled that severity <A 
manners, by the introduction of frequent festival solemnities, tben, as 
was natural to eipect, a freer aad more varied harmony took place. And 
thus it was, that the iibicen, the musician who played to the declamation 
In the acts, instead of the rude and «mpler strain of the old times, gave 
a richuesB sad variety of tone ; and instead of the old inactive posture, 
added the grace of motion to his art. Just in the same manner," con- 
tinues he, " it happened to the lyre, tl t. the music in the chorus, which 
origiDallj, as that of the iiliia, was severe and simple ; but, by d^;rees, 
acquired a quicker and more ezpressiro modulation, such as correspond- 
ed to the more elevated and passionate turn of the poet's style, and the 
diviner enthuffiasm of his sentiment." HcRD. 

*3 Aceesnl mantriiique modiaque iicentia major. H. Dacier is out again, 
when he takes Iicentia major in a bad sense, as implying "lasctret^," a 
culpable and hcentious reflnement. The license here spoken o^ with re- 
gard Co numbers and sounds, like Chat in another place, which respects 
words (1. 61), is one of those which is allowed, when swnpla pudetOer. 
The comparative miyor, which is a palliative, shows this ; and is further 
justified by a like passage in Cicero de Orators (I. iiL c. iS), where, 
speaking of this very hceose in poetry, he observes, that out of the hsroio 
and iambic measure, which was at first strictly observed, there arose by 
d^rees the aoapaist, " procerior quidam numerus, et ills hcentior et di- 
Titior ditbyrajnbuB;" evidently not eoodemning this change, but oppos- 
ing it to the rigorous and conQned measures of the elder poet But the 
expression itself occurs in the piece entitled " Orator," m which, com- 
paring the freedoms of the poetical and oratorical style, "in ei" {i. e. 
poetica), says he^ "licentiam statuo majorom esse, qmlm in nobis Ihcien- 
doruDi jnegendorumque verbonim." The poet says this lioense extend- 
ed " nameris modisque," the former of which words will express that 
license of ntfter spoken cf by Cicero, and which is further explained, 
T. 2!16, etc., where on account is given of the improvement of the iamlne 
verse. Husn. 



vhen m company with the polite ; the base, with the man of 
LoDor t Thue the musici&n added" new moTemeuts and a 

" Sie priaca — art! libicett, etc — Sicfidibua etiam, etc Thia ia the ap- 
jdication of what bath been stud, m geDeral, coaoeming the refinement 
□f theatrical ipuBic to the case of tragedj. Some commentators saj, and 
to corned/. Bat in thig the/ mistake, as will appear preeentlj. U- Da- 
der bat^ I know not what conceit about a comparison betwixt the Soman 
and Greek stage. Hia reason is, that the Ijro was used in the Greek 
chorus, as appears, he says, (h>m Sophocles playing upon this instnunent 
himself in one of his tragedies. And was it not used loo in the Boman 
chorus, as appear» fKim Nero's playing upon it in sereral tragedies ? But 
the learned critic did not apprehend this matter. Indeed, fiom the cau- 
tion with which hia guides, the dealers in antiquities, always touch thia 
point, it should seem Uuit they too had no very clear conception otii. 
The case I take to have been this : the tibia, as being most proper to 
accompany the declamation of the acts, eanianii snccinere, was constantly 
employed, as well in the Roman tragedy as comedy, Tliis appears ft-om 
many authorities. I mention only two from Cicero. " Quam multa (Acad. 
1. iL 7) qme nos fugiunt In cantu, eicaudiuntin bo genere osercitati; Qui, 
primo indatn tibicioia,. Antiopam esse aiunt aut Andromachem, ci^m noe 
ne Buspicemur quidem." The other ia still more erpress. In hia piece 
entitled " Orator," speaking of the negligence of the Roman writers in 
respect of numbers, he observes, that there were even many passages in 
their tragedies, which, unless the tibia played to them, could not 'be dis- 
tinguished from mere prose : " qiue nisi ciim tibicen accesserit, orationi 
sint Bolutte similhma." One of these passages is ezpressely quoted Irom 
Thyeste^ a tragedy of Enniua, and, as appears from the measure, taken 
out of one of the acts. It is clear, then, that the tibia was certainty used 
in the declamation of tragedy. But now the song of tho trsgic chorus, 
being of the nature of the ode, of courae required Jidei, the Ijre, tho 
peculiar and appropriated instrument of the lyric muse. And thia is 
clearly collected, if noi&onieipresg testimonies, yet from some occasiooal 
hints dropped by the ancients. For, 1. The lyre we are told (Cic. do 
Leg. iL 9 and 16), and ia agreed on all hands, was an instrument of the 
Roman theater ; but it was not employed in comedy. Thia we certainly 
know from the shore accounts of the music prefixed to Terrence's plays. 
3. Further, the tibKcn, aa we saw, accompanied the declamation of the 
acts in tragedy. It remains, then, that the proper place of the lyre v/aa, 
where one should naturallj look for it, in the songs of the chorus ; but 
we need not go further than this very passage for a proof It ia ou- 
queationable, that the poet is here speaking of the chorus only, the fol- 
lowing lines not admittieg any other possible interpretation. 'Bjjidi^at, 
then, it is necessarily understood the instrument peculiarly used in it In 
thia view, the whole digression is more pertinent and connects better. 
The poet bad before been speaking of tragedy. All bis direcUons, &om 
1. 100, respect this species of tho drama only. The application of what 
he hEUl said concerning music ia then most naturally made, 1. To tho 
tibia, the music of the ads; and, 2. To Jules, that of the choir; thus cos- 
flniDghimaelf, as the tenor of tliis part required, to tragedy only. Hence 
is aaea the mistake, not only of M. Dacier, whose comment is io every 

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luxuriance to tho nncient ait, and strutting backward and for- 
ward, drew a length of traia over the stage ; thus likewise new 
notes were added to the severity of the lyre, and precipi(at« elo- 
quence produced an unusual language [in the theater] : and 
Uie sentiments [of the chorus, then] expert in teaching useM 
things and prescient of futurity, differ hardly from tho oracular 

"Die poet, who first tried his skill in tra^ Terse for the 
paltry [prize of a] goat, soon after exposed to view wild 
satyrs naked," and attempted rwlleiy with severity, still pre- 
serving the gravity [of tragedy] : because the spectator on 
festivals, when heated with wino" and disorderly, was to be 

view insupportable ; but, aa was biuted, oT Hemfflua, Lombln, and othei^ 
who, with more {Hobabilitj, explained tbia of the Roman traged/ and 
comedy. For, though Ubia might be allowad to stand for comedj', as 
opposed t« tragadia (as, in foct, 'we And it in II. Bp. 1. 98), that bdng 
^ only iostrument empl07ed la it ; yet, in speaking expresslj tf the 
music of tbe stage, Jida could not detemiinatelj' enough, and in ooutra- 
diatinction to libia, denote that of tragedy, it being a ' ' ' ' 

solely or principally in the chorus, of whuji tbe context ahows, he aloue 
■peaks. It is further to be observed, that in the application here made, 
besides the music, the poet takes in the other Improvements of the tra^ 
ehorus, these happening, as from the nature of the thing the; must, at 
Lhe same time. Hcan. 

" SeaiaiUa IMphti. SeTUeatia is properly an aphorism taken from 
life, bri^y representing either what is or what ought to be tbe condnct of 
it : " Oratia sumpta de vitft, quae ant quid ait aut quid ease oporteac in ritA, 
breviter ostendit." (Ad Hereoo. Bhet L iv.) These aphorisms are here 
mentioned, aa constituting the peculiar praise and beauty of the choms. 
This is duel; observed, and was intended to convey an oblique censure 
on the practice of those poets, who stuQ* out eveiy part of the drama alike 
with moral sentences, not considering that the only proper receptacle d 
them is the chorus, where indeed they have an extreme propriety, ft 
being the peculiar ofQce and character of the choms to moralize. Eubd. 

" There was a kind of tragic comediea among the Greeks, which Ibey 
called Satyrs, bocausa the <£nrus was formed of Satyra, who sung the 
prwses of Bacchus between the acts, anda^datbousondlowpleasantries. 
The only piece of this kind remaining to ua is the CycloiM of Euripides 
in which niyases is the principal actor. Tbe Bontans, in imitation of the 
Greek Satyrs, bad their AleScauc, so called th>m Al^ tbe dty whera 
the; were first played. Nak. 

" Potus a telex. Tbe lines. 

VSNv I observed, certaioly misplaced. They should, I tbmk, c 

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amiued with captivating aliowa and agreeable novelty. But 
it will be expedient so to recommend the bantering, so the 
Tallying Batvra, so to tuni earnest into jest ; that none who 
bIuJi be exhibited as a god, none who ia introduced as a hero 
latelj" conspicuous in regal purple and gold, may deviate in- 
to tae low style of obscare, mechanical shops; or, [on the 
Cfaitrary,] while he avoids the ground, affect cloudy mist and 
empty jargon. TVagedy" disdaiung to prate f<Hth trivial 
verses, like a matron commanded to dance on the festival 

bere, where their sense is extremely pertinent The poet bad been 
flpeakin^ of the satyTic draaia, which, says he, was added to the tragic, 
" b6 quid 
Illecebris erat, et gratA noTitate moraodus 
Spectator, functusqae sacris, et potos, et exlex." 
But why, it might be asked, thin compliance, in so talse a taste, with a 
drunkeo, lawlesa rabble ? The answer is natural and to the purpose^ 
" Because their theaters neoessrarily consiflled of a inixed assembly, every 
part of which was to be c<Hia[dered in the public diveisiong." The ques- 
tion then bath an extreme propriety, 

"Indochis quid enim saperet llberque labomnt, 
Bostlcus urbauo conTusus, tmpia hoaesto?" 
The tTaiicjit and Iirtim demanded the satyrib piece. It waetbenecessaiy 
result of this mizutre ; aa, to gratily the better sort, the tirbanm and Ao~ 
natta, the tragic drama was exhibited. It is some prejudice in faror of 
this conjecture, that it explains to us, what would otherwise appear Teiy 
strange, that such gross ribaldry, as we know the Alellanes consisted o^ 
could erer be endimjd by the politest age of Roma But scenical repre- 
seutatioDH being then intended, not aa in our days, fbr the entertainment 
of the bettor sort, but on certain great Bolemnities, indifferently for tho 
diversion of the whole city, it became necessary to consult tbe taste of 
the multitude, as well aa of tboso, quffna est eqwa tipaier el ret. Huao. 
°^ This proves that the same ack)r, as M. Dader observes, who had been 
an Orestes ortllyssee in the tragic part, played the same chraiactor in the 
comicv or, AleOana. Thus Plautus in the prologue to his Menechmee, 
"this town, during this play, shall be Epidamnmn, and when it has been 
acted, it may be any other dty. As in a company of players, tbe same 
person shall, at diObrent times, be a pander, a youth, an old man, a b^ 
gar, a king, a parasite, a soothsayer." St Jerome hath finely imitat^ 
this passage; "ourvicesobligeuatoplaymany cbaracters,(brevery vice 
wears a different mask. Thus in a theater, the same person plays a robust 
and nervoos Hercules, a dissolute Venos, and a furious Cyclops." F&an. 
" Indigna trOfQcedia versta. Horace means the Aldiamx, which were 
in so much esteem, that the persons, who acted in them, were not ranked 
with the comedians, nor were obl^;ed to unmask on tbe stage wh«) 
tbey played ill, as others were ; and, as a peculiar bonor, they were 
allowed to enlist in the army. Therefore low and trivial TOM* wen 
beneath the dignity of tbe AUSana. Dao. 

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dA^B," will assume aa air of modesty, eren in the midst of 
irimtoa Batjre. As a writer of satire, ye Pisos, I shaJI never 
be fond of unomamented and reining t«rms :" nor eball I ta- 
bor to differ BO widely from the complexion of tragedy, as to 
make no distinction, wbetlier Davns he the speaker. And the 
bold Pythias, who gwned a talent by gulling Simo ; or Silenua, 
the guardian and attendant of hia pnpil-god | Bacchus], I 
would so execute a fiction** taken from a well-known story, 
that any body might entertain hopes of doing the same thing; 
bnt, on trial, should sweat and labor in Tain. Such power has 
a just arrangement and connection of the parts: such grace 
may be added to subjects merely common. In my judgment 
the Fauns, that are brought out of the woods, should not be too 
gamesome with their tender Htrains, as if they were educated in 
Uie city, and almost at the bar; nor, on the other hand, should 
blunder out their obscene and scandalous speeches. For [at 
such stuff] nil are offended, who have a horse," a fi^er, or an 

*' YoQug women w^re naiialljr chosen to douce in bonor of the gods, 
bnt in Bome fbativtils, as in that of the great g:oddesa, tbs pontiflE obliged 
married women to dkoce. Hence the poet Bafsjusia. Sic. 

*' Sominantia verba. What tie Greeks call «upia, as if they were 
masters of the thing the/ would eipresa- as we say InEnglisli, "colliDg 
tbioga by Iheir proper names." Fttun. 

** Ttna precept (from t. 210 to 244) is analogous to that beibre given 
(v. 129) coQceming tragedy. It directs (o form the Satyre oat of a 
known subject The reaaoos are, io general, the same for both. Only 
one seems peculiar to the Satyrs. For, the cast of Iham being necessarily 
romaotlo, and the persons those &ntaatia beioga called satTTS, the rd 
i/aiiin', or probable, will require the subject to have gained a popnlar 
belief without wliich the representation must appear unnaturaL Now, 
these Buly'ects which have gaiued a popular belief, in coosequence of (Hi 
trsditjon, and their fk^ueut celebration in the poets, are what HoracQ 
calls ncia ; just as newly invented subject^ or, which comes to tbe same 
thing, such as had not been employed by other writers, indicia, he, on 
a like occasion, terms igrtola. The connection hes thua. Having men- 
tioned SileDUB in v. 239, one of the commonest charact«rs In this drama, 
an objection immedialely oQeTB itself; " But what good poet will engage 
in subjects and characters so trite and hackneyed ?" The answer ia, 
"ex Doto Sctum carmen sequar," i e. however trite and well known thit 
and some other cbaractera, esaential to tbe Satyr, are aod must be; yet 
wilt there be still room for Action and geuiua to show itself The oon- 
duct and disposition of the play may be wholly new, and above theability 
of common writeis, "tantUDi series jonctoraqua pollet" Eited. 

<> (ittibua at equua, etc., the knights who have a horse, kept at pnblio 
expense; "qmbna est pater," people at birtb, patricians; "quibos en 
res," they who have wealth, and ai« therefitra distinguished from knigbM 
tod pa^idans. Dac. 

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estate : dot will they receiye with appTobadtm, nor {^ve t^ 
\aanA crown, u the purchasers of parched peas and nata an 
delighted with. 

A long Bf Uable pat after a ehort one is termed aa iambus, 
a lively mtsasure, whence also it commanded the name of 
trimeters to be added to iambics, though it yielded six beats 
of time, bfeing smilar to itaelf iVom fist to last Not long 
ago, that ii might come somewhat slower and with more maj- 
e«ty to the «ar, it obligingly and contentedly admitted into its 
paternal herit^ the steaduist spondees ; agreeing bowerer, by 
social league, that it was not to dej^ &om the second** 
and fourth place. Bat this [kind of measniel rarely makes 
its appearance in die notable* trimeters of Accius, and brands 
the verse uf Ekmins brought upon the stage with a clumsy 
weight of spondees, with the imputation of being loo preiM{Htate 
and careless, or disgracefully accuses him of ignorance in his 

It is not eveiT judge that discerns inharmonious verses, and 
an undeserved indulgence is [in this case] granted to the Bo- 
man poets. But shall I on this ac<;ount run riot and write U- 
c«ntiousIyt Or should not I rather suppose, diat all the world. 
V are to see my faulls ; secure, and cautious [never to errj but 
with hope of being pardoned t Thongh, perhaps, I have mer- 
ited no praise, I have escaped censure. 

Ye [who are desirous to escelj tnm over the Gredan models 
y by nignt, turn them by day. But our ancestors commended 
both the numbers of Flautns, and his strokes of pleasantry ; 
too tamely, I will not say foolishly, admiring each of them ; if 
you and I but know how to distinguish a coarse joke from a 
smirt repartee, and understand the proper cadence, by [uung] 
our fingers and ears. 

Thespis*' is said to have invented a new Mud <rf tragedy, 

<* The iambic yields onlj the odd places t« the spondee, the Oral, 
third, and filth, but preserves the second, fburth, and sixth fbr itse]£ . 
This mixture renders the verse more noble, and It maj be still triTaeter, 
the sacond foot being iambic The comic poets, better to disguise their 
verse, and make it appear more lilie common conversation, inverted tbe 
tn^c order, and put spoDdeee in the even places. Die 

*^ Ironicallj spoken, 

" Theapia. A native of Icarins, a village in Attica, to whom tbe in- 
vention of tbe drama bos been ascribed. Before his time there were no 
performera except tbe chorus. He led the way to tbe focmatioa of a 
dramatic plot and language, by directing a paoss in tbe perRmnBime ot 

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and to have carried his pieces about in carts, which [certain 
BtroUers], who had their faces besmeared with lees of wine, 
sang and acted. After him j£schj>lu3, the inventor of the 
vizafd mask and decent robe, laid the stage over with boards 
of a tolerable size, and taught to speak in lofty tone, aad strut 
in the buskin. To these succeeded the old comedy, not with- 
out considerable praise : but its personal freedom degenerated 
into excess and violence, worthy to be regulated by law ; a law 
was made ac<iordiDgly, and the chorus, the right of abusing be- 
ing taken away, disgracefully became silent. 

Our poelfl cave left no sjwciea [of the art] unattempt«d ; 
nor have those of them merited the least honor, who dared 
to forsake the footstep of tbe Greets, and cele brate_ do- ^ 
mesUc facts ; whether they have' Instructed "ui^in tragedy, 
or comedy," Nor would Italy be raised higher by valor 

the chorus, during which he came Ibrward and recited with gesliculatioD 
a mjthotogical storj. Comp. note EpisLii. 1. 163. H'Caul. Tbe date is 
thus given by the Par. Chron. Boeckh. ; 'A^ oi Qcam; 6 TroaiTjjt U^miiX 
vptiTOC flr Mi6ttU [Jp]"!/"! i" u]aT[ct gal iyidn 6 [rlfxlyac \u6yov] 
in; HHn[iiA] - up^ovTof 'A%'n/9i].,. vaiov roi wporipoo. "Quod 
ad aatium attinel, consislcnduni sane in Oljmp. 61, eiusque tribiis 
priorihus Bnnis." Boeukb. in Chr. Wbedler. 

" Vsl gtii prcelexlas, vel gni docuere togaias. There hath been much 
diCBcultj here in settliug a very plain point. The question is, whether 
prteteiAu maana tragedy or a species of oomedy. The answer is very 
clear from Diomedes, whose account is, ia short, this: " Ibgalas is a geu- 
eral term tor all sorts of Latin plaj's adopting the Roman customs and 
dresses ; as PalUata is for all adopting tlie Grecian, Of tbe Ibgala, the 
several species are, 1. Prat&da or pralaUata, in which tbe Romau kings 
or generats were introduced, and is so called because the praiexla was 
the distiognishing habit of Buch pereoDS; 2. IhieniaTTO, frequently Called 
Togaia, Ibougb that word, as we have seen, bad properly a larger seuss. 
3. AleSana. 4. Planipedit." He next marks the difference of these 
several sorts of tbe Togabs (ram the similar correHpondiDg ones of the 
PaSiaia, which are these : 1. " Traetedia, absolutely so styled. 2. Co- 
mcedia. 3. Satyri i. Mipif." (These four sorts of the PalUala were 
also probably ia use at Rome ; certainly, at least, the two tbrmer.) It 
appears then fronith enco, that priitexiata was properly the Roman trag- 
edy. But ho adds, " Tbgala priElexiala A tragoMiid diferi;" and it ia 
also said, " h be mdy Uke tragedy, tragadiis iimil.'s." What is this differ- 
ence and this likeness? The explaaalion tbllows. "Heroes ore intro- 
duced into tragedy, such as Orestes, Chryses, and the hke. In the pne- 
lexlala, Brutus. Decius, or Marcellus." So then we sea when Grtedan 
characters wore ielroduced, it was called simply froffiEiiia,' when Roman, 
prmlexlata; yet both, tragedies. Tbe sole difTerence lay in the persona 
being foreign or domestio. The oorrespondenee in every other respect 

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and feats of arms, than by its language, did not the &tigii6 
and tedionaneBs of using the file disgust every one of our 
poetA. Do you, the descendants of Fonipilius, reject that 
poem, which many days and many a blot Have not t«n times 
subdued to the most perfect accuracy. Because Democritus 
believes that genius is more succcesfiil than wretched art, and 
excludes from Ilelicon all poets who are in their Benses, a 
ffreat number do not care to part with their niuls or beard, 
frequent places of solitude, shun the baths. For he will ac- 
quire, [he thinks,] the esteem and title of a poet, if he neither 
Bubmiti his head, which is not to be cured by even three An- 
ticyras, to Lidnius the barber. What an unlucky fellow am 
I, who am purged for the bile in spring-time ! Else nobody 
would compose better poems ; but the purchase is not wortli 
the expense. Therefore I will serve instead of a whetstone, 
which though not able of itself to cut, can mate steel sharp : 

'' so I, who can write no poetiy myself^ will teach the duty and 
bu«ne3s [of an author] ; whence he may be stocked with rich 
Tnaterials ; what nounsbes and forms the poet ; what gives 
grace, what not; what is the tendency of excellence, what that 
of error. 
, ' To have good sense, is the first principle and fountain of 

^ writing well. The Socratic papers will direct you in th« 
choice of your subjects; and words will spontaneously accom- 
pany the subject, when it is well conceived. He who has 
learned what he owes to his country, and what to his friends; 
with what affection a parent, a brother, and a stranger, are to 
be loved ; what is the duty of a senator, what of a judge ; 
what the duties of a generd sent out to war ; he, [I say,] 
certainly knows how f o give suitable attributes to every char- 
acter. I should direct the learned imitator to have a regard 
to the mode of nature and manners, and thence draw his ex- 
pressions to the life." Sometimes a play, that is showy with 

was exact Tlie same is observed of the RoDun comedj ; when it adopted 
Greek characters, it was called «munjia ; when Romui, iogata labsmaria, 
or togala, simply. Hvkd. 

48 Truth, in poetiy, Dieaoa such an expression as confttrms to the gen- 
eral nature of things ; falsehood, that wbich, however suitable to tbe 
particular instance in view, doth yet not correspond to such general na- 
ture. To attain to this truth ofoTpressionia dramatic poetry two thing» 

«prescribed: 1. A diligent study of the Socratic phikisophy; and, 2, 
■y knowledge and comprehension of human liib. The flrat, be- 

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>n-places," and where the manners are well marked, 
though of no elegance, without force or art, ^ces the people 
much higher delight and more effectually commands their at- 
tention, than verse void of matter, and tuneful trifles. 

To the Greeks, covetous of nothing but pnuse, the muse 
gave genius ; to the Greeks the power of espressing them- 
selves in round periods. The Koman youth learn by long com- 
putation to subdivide a pound into an hundred parts. Let 
the son of Albinus tell me, if from five ounces one be subtracted, 
what remains 1 He would have said tJie third of a pound. — 
Bravely done ! you will be able to take care of your own af- 
fairs. An ounce is added : what will that be I Half a pound. 
oaQBe it is the peculiar distinction or this school " ad veritaCem vita pro- 
pius accedere." (Cic. de. Or. L SI.) And tha latter as rendering the 
imitation more uaiversall; striking. Hnnn. 

*' Interdam apedosa loeis, etc The poet's science in ethics will prio- 
cipallj show itself ia tbese two ways : 1. in furnishing proper matter for 
genaral rsSection on human life and conduct; and, 2, in a due adjust- 
ment of the manners. By the formor of these two applications of moral 
knowlei^ a play becomes, what the poet calls, speciosa tocie, i. «. (for 
the term is borrowed ilvm tho rhetcricians) striking in its morai topics : 
a merit of tha highest importance on the andent stage, and which, if 
prudently employed in subserviency to the latter more essential requisite 
of the drama, a just espresaion oftlie manners, will deserve to be so re- 

C id at all times, and on every theater. The danger is, lest a studied, 
amatory moral, affectedly introduced, or indulged to access, should 
pr^udice the natural exhibition of the characters, and so convert the 
uu^e of human life into an unafTecting, pliilosophical dialogue. 

Jo. Mtralque recti Jabi^ etc. This judgmentofthepoet.inrcgardol 
the superior eEQcacy of manners, is gener^y thought to be contradicted 
by Aristotle; who, in treating this subject, o1>serves, "that let a piece be 
ever so perfect ia tha manners, sentiments, and style, it will not so well 
answer the end and purpose of tragedy, as if defective in these, and 
fioishod only in the feble and composition." M. Dacier thinks to clear 
this matter by saying, "that what Aristotle remarks holds true of tragedy, 
but not of comedy, of which alone Horace is hero speaking." But grant- 
ing that the srtillcial contexture of the (able is less necessary to the ^r- 
fection of comedy than of tragedy, yot, the tenor of tbis whole division, 
exhorting to correctness in general, makes it unquestionable that Horace 
must intend to include both. The case, as it seems to me, is this. Tlie 
poet is not comparing the respective importance of the table and manners, 
but of the manners and diction, under this word including also numbers. 
He gives them tho preference not Co a good plot, nor even to fine senti- 
ments, but to vtrataiaopeerenimnugieqiit aanora. The art he speaks ot, 
is the art of expressing the thoi^h ta properly, gracefuDy, and harmonious- 
ly: the pondiu is the force and eneiw of good versification Tenusisa 
general term including both kinds of beauty, ^ihida does not pean the 
&ble (in distinction from the rest), but simply a p'lay. Husn. 

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When this Bordii) rast** and hankeno^ after wealth has oiic« 
tainted their minds, can we eipect that such yerees Ehonld be 
DUtdo as are worthy of being anmnted with the oil of cedar, 
and kept in the well-poliahed cypress !" 

Poets wish either to profit or to delight; or to deliver at 
once both the plcasnies and the necessaries of life. Whatever 
precepts you give, be concise ; that docile minds may soon 
comprehend what is said, and fwthfully retain it. All super- 
flaons instrnctions flow from the too fiill memory. Let what- 
ever is imagined for the sake of entertainment, hare as much 
likeness to truth as possible ; let not your play demand belief 
for whatever [absurdities] it is inchnable [to exhibitj : nor 
take out of a witch's belly a living child that she had dined 
upon. The tribes of the seniors rail against every thing that is 
void of edification: the exalted knights disregard poems which 
are austere. He who joins the instructive with the agreeable, 
carries off every vote,' by delighting and at the same time ad- 
monishing the reader. This book gains money for the Sosii ; 
this crosses the sea, and continues to its renowned author a 
lasting duration. 

Yet there are faults, which we should be ready to pardon: 
for neither does the string [always] form the sound which the 
hand and conception [of the performer] intends, but very often 
returns a sharp note when he demands a flat ; nor will the 
bow always hit whatever mark it threatens. But when there 

«" .Mrago d curapreuli eHm eemd I'm&wrt^ etc. This love of gain, to 
which Horace imputes the imperfect state of tbe Komau poetry, bath 
been unifbrml/ assigned, bj tbe wisdom of ancient times, as the speciQc 
bane of arts and letters. LmginuB and Quinctilian account, Sraai hence, 
fbr the decay of eloquence, Galen of physic, Petronios of paintiDgi and 
PhD7 of tlie whole circle of the liberal arts. For being, as Longinns 
calls it, fo^T/iia /uKpOTtoidi', a disease wbicb narrows and contracts the 
soul, it must, of course, restrajn ttie generous eObrta and oxpanaioDS of 
geuius ; cramp tbe free powers and enorgiea of the mind, aud render it 
unapt to open itself to wide views, and to the projecHon of great, eitan- 
Btve desigoa It is bo in its consequences. For, as one says elegantly, 
when the passion of avarice grows general in a country, tbe templee of 
hoDor are soon pulled down, and all men's sacrifices are made to Kirtooe. 

51 Topresorvo their books, the ancients rubbed them with oil of cedar, 
and kept them in cases of cypress, because those kinds of wood were not 
liable to corruption. Nas. 

" Omne tuiH puTtctum. Alluding to the manner of voting at the 
Fomitia by putting a poiut over the name of a candidate. 

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is a great majority of beauties in a poem, I will Dot be offended / 
with a few blemishes, which either inattention has dropped, / 
or human nature has not sufficiently provided against. What 
therefore [is to be determined in this matter] ! As a tran- 
Ecriber, if he still commits the some lanlt though he has been 
reproved, is without excuse ; and the harper who always 
blunders on the same string, is sute to be laughed at ; eo he 
who is excessively deficient becomes another Chterilus ; whom, 
when I find him tolerable in two or three places, I wonder at 
with laughter; and at the same time am I grieved whenever , 
honest Homer grows drowsy ( But it ia allowable, that sleep 1/ 
should steal ujion [the progress of ] a long work. 

As is painting, so is poetry : some pieces will strike you 
more if you stand near, and some, if you are at a greater dis- 
tance: one loves the dark ; another, which is not alraid of the 
critic's subtle judgment, chooses to be seen in the light ; the 
one has pleased once , the other will ^ve pleasure if ten times 

O ye elder of the youths, though you are framed to a right 
judgment by your father's instructions, and are wise in your- 
self yet take this truth along with you, [and] remember it ; 
that in certain things a medium and tolerable degree of emi- 
nence may be admitted : a counselor and pleader at the bar 
of the middle rate ia far removed from the merit of eloquent 
Hessala, nor has so much knowledge of the law as Casselius 
Aulns, but yet he is in request ; [but] a mediocrity in poets" 
neither gods, nor men, nor [evenj the booksellers' shops have 
endured. As at an agreeable entertainment discordant mu^c, 
and muddy perfume, and poppies mixed with Sardinian" honey 
^ve offense, because the supper might have passed without 
them; so -poetry, created and mvent^ for the delight of our 
souls, if it comes short ever so little of the summit, sinks to 
the bottom. 

S3 This judgmeDt, however sovere it maj Beeoi, is accordiag to (he 
practice of the best critics. We have a remarlcable instaDce in the case 
oT^poflDnttu Rhodiun, who though, in the judgment of Quinctilian, the 
author or no coDl«mptible poem, ;et on account of that equal uiedi- 
ocritj which every wtiero prevails in him, was struck out of the list of 
food writers by such aovereign judges of poetical merit as Ariatopiianes 
sDd Aristarcliua. (Quinct. L. x. c. I.) Husn. 

>t Sardinia was full of bitter berba, trora whence the honey was bittet 
While popp; seed, roasted, was mingled with honey by U 



He who does not nnderehind th« game, abataioH from the 
we^H>aa of the Campus Martiua : and the unaUUful in the 
tennis-ball, the qucnt, and the troquea keeps himself quiet ; 
lest the crowded ring should raise a langh at his expense : 
notwithstanding this, he who knows nothing of verses pre- 
sumes to compose. Whj not ! He is free-horn, and of a good 
bmily ; above all, he is registered at an equestrian sum of 
moneys, and clear from every vice. You, [I am persuaded,] 
will neither say nor do any thing in opposition to Minerva :" 
such is your judgment, such your disposition. Bnt if ever 
wem shall write any thing, let it be submitted to the ears of 
V Metius [Tarpa], who is a judge, and your father's, and mine ; 
and let it be suppressed till the ninth year, ^our papers being 
liud up within your own custody. You will have it m your 
power to blot out what you have not made public : a word 
once sent abroad can never return. 

Orpheus, the priest and interpreter of the gods, deterred 
the savage race of men from slaughters and inhuman diet ; 
hence said to tame tigers and furious lions : Amphion too, the 
builder of the Theban wall, was said to give the stones mo- 
tion with the sound of his lyre, and to lead them whitber^ 
soever he would, by engaging persuasion. This was deemed 
wisdom of yore, to distingui^ the public from private weal ; 
things sacred fiom things profane ; to prohibit a promiscuous 
commerce between the sexes ; to give laws to married people ; 
to plan oat cities ; to engrave laws on [lables of] wood. 
Thus honor accrued to divine poets, and their songs. After 
these, excellent Homer and Tyrtteus animated the manly mind 
to martial achievements with their verses. Oracles were de- 
livered in poetry, and the economy of life pointed out, and 
the favor of sovereign princes was solicited by Pierian" 

)' laviid — Minervd. Cicero, de OS L 31, eipiaina this phrase; "ad- 
veraanto et repugnante naturi" And yet tho meaning here is not very 
arident. Does Horace saj tliat joung Fiso will neither do nor say anj 
thing coDtrarj to hia natural ondowmenla ; implying that be will not 
attempt poetiy, as his abilities are inadequate? Or does he mean 1« com- 
pliment him on hia capabilities, by saying that there is nothing which he 
will attempt, in wbiiih genius will cot favor and assist bim? The latter 
appears to be the correct interpretation. Thus the obvious meaning of 
iiwiti Jfinervd is — Minerva refieiog her assistance, or discountenancing 
(be attempt; and the interpretatioti — natural endowments leflislng tbsii 
assistance, or marring the eflbrt 

^ i, A, BtrainB of the mus'eB, aurnamed Fieddes 

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BtraiD», ^mes were insdtnted, and a [cheerful] period put to 
t!ie tedious labors of the day ; ["''s I remii^ yon of^ leat 
haply you should be ashamed of the lyric muse, and Apollo 
the god of Bong. 

It has been made .1 question, whether good poetry be de- 
rived from nature or from art. For my part, I can neither 
conceive what study can do witbout a neb [natural] veio, 
nor what rude genius can avail of itself: so much does the 
one require the assistance of tho other, and so amicably do 
they conspire [to produce the same effect]. Ho who ia in- 
dustrious to reach the wiahed-for goal, has done and suffered 
much when a boy ; be has sweated and shivered with cold ; 
ho has abstained from love and wine ; he who sings the Py'^'^'i 
strains," was first a learner, and in awe of a master. But [in 
poetry] it is now enough for a man to say of himself : " I make 
admirable verses : a murrain seize the hindmost : it is scandal- 
ous for me to bo outstripped, and iairly to acknowledge that I 
am ignorant of that which I never learned," 

As a crier who collects the crowd together to buy his 
goods, so a poet rich in land, rich in money put out at inter- 
est, invites flatterers to come [and praise his works] for a re- 
wud. But if he be one who is well able to set out an 
elegant table," and ^ve security for a poor man, and relieve 
him when entangled In gloomy law-suits; I shall wonder if 
with his wealth he can distinguish a true friend from a &]se 
one. You, whether you have made, or intend to make, a 
present to any one, do not bring him full of joy directly to 
your finjahed verses : for then he will cry out, " Charming, 
excellent, judicious," he vrill tunt pale ; at some parts be wSl 
even distill the dew from bia friendly eyes; he vrill jump 
about; he will beat the groimd [with ecstasy]. As those 
who mourn at funerals for pay, do and say more than those 

f Pytkia. rantica, songs like the hymns which were sung in honor of 
Apollo, by the chorus in BOine comedies. A player, called Pythanles, 
played during the intervals when the chorus left off singing. 

ss But compare IfCaul's note ; " Tlnclum. A savory dirfi, a delicacy, 
Comp. note, Epist i. 15, 44, and IT, 12. Thus Pers. Sat L fiO: 'Cali- 
dum Bcis jymere sumeo, Scis comilein horridulum triti doaare lacenid,' 
etc., where tcia is a kind of comment onpoaait here aa coiutum sttmen on 
tmelum. Comp. also Sat. vi. 16: 'aut ccenare sine undo.' Gesner and 
Doering, however, eicpUin vneiam as used for cowrivam (note, Epist L 
IT, IS), mi ponere tbr coliocare^ to {dace at tablo on a couch." 

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Uut ue afflicted from their hearts ; so the shun admirer is 
more moved than he that pruses with sincerity. Ceitain 
iitiga are laid to ply with ftequent bumpers, and by wine 
maxe trial of a man whom they are sedulous to know, 
whether he be worthy of their friendship or not. Thus, if 
you compose verses, let not the fos's conuealed intentions im- 
pose upon yon. 

If you had recited any thing to Quintilius, he would say, 
"Alter, I prav, this and this:" tf you replied, you could do 
it DO better, having made the experiment twice or thrice in 

rain ; he would order you to blot out, and once more apply to 
the anvil your ill-formed verses : if you choose rather to de- 
fend than correct a fault, Le spent not a word more nor fruits 
less labor, but you alone might be fond of yourself and your 
own works, without a rival. A good and senuble man will 
censure »; iritleaa verses, he will eondemn the ru^ed, on the 
incorrect he will draw across a black stroke with liis pen; he 
will lop off ambilious [and redundant] ornaments ; be will 
make him throw light on the parts that are not perspicuous; 
he will arrtugn what is expressed ambiguously ; he will mark 
what should DO altered ; [in short,] he will be an Ariatarchns :" 
he will not say, " Why should I give my friend offense about 
mere trifles!" These trifles will lead into mischief of serious 
consequence, when once made an object of ridicule, and used 
in a sinister manner. 

Like one whom an odious plague or jaundice, fanalio 
phrensy or lunacy, distresses ; those who are wise avoid & 
mad poet, and are afraid to touch him ; the boys jostle bim, 
and the incautious pursue him. If, like a fowler intent upon 
his gnme, be should fall into a well or a ditch while he belches 
out his fustian verses and roams about, though he should cry 
out for a long time, " Gome to my assistance, O my country- 
men ;" not one would give himself the trouble of tiiHug bim 
up. Were any one to take puns to give him aid, and let 
down a rope; "How do you know, but he threw himself 
in hither on purpose t" I shall say : and will relate the 
death of the Sicilian poet. Empedocles, while he was ain- 
't Ariatarcbus was a critic, who wroteabovefourscorevolumesof com- 
ments OD tba Qreek poets. His criticisms on Homer were so much 
esteemed, tbat no line was thought genuine until he had acknowledged 
It Hs was surosmed the prophet or diviner, for bis sagseity. Fsan. 

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bilioua of being esteemed on immortal god, in cold blood 
IJetwed into burning jEtna." Let poet» have the privilege 
and license to die [as they please]. He who saves a man 
ag^nat bis will, does the same with him who kills him 
[sg^nst his will]. Neither is it the first time that he has 
Den&ved in this manner ; nor, were he to be forced fiom his 
puiposea, would he now become a man, and hy aside his dc^' 
sire of such a famous death. Neither does it appear suffi- 
cientlTt why he makes verses : whether he has defiled his 
&thers aahea, or sacrilegiously removed the sad enclosure" 
t^ the vindictive thunder : it is evident that be is mad, and , 
like a bear that has burst through the gatea clodng bis den, ' 
thia nntnerciful rehearser chases the learned and unlearned. 
And whomsoever he seizes, he fastens on and assassinates with 
recitation: a !eech that will not quit the skin, till satiated 
with blood." 

•• Ardentem/rigichi» jEtnam inailaiL " In ooM blood, deliberatel]>." 
Honee, l>v plsring on tbe words arderUam frigiiba, wouM show that he 
did not buieve the B(ot7, and told it as one of tbe traditions, which poets 
may use wHhcnt being obliged lo vouch the truth t^them. The pleas- 
ant coDtinaee, wben he sajs, it is murder to hinder a poet tiom IdUing 
tuuself ; a mazini, which could not be said seriously. Bah, 

<' An trislt bi^mtal What crime must that man have committed 
whom the goda in vengeance bave poeansed with a tnadueea irfwri^g 
TersesT Bidmiai was a place atruck with lightning, which the amapices 
parilied and ccnseorated with a saoriBoe of a aheep, iiifnKaJ. It waa 
an act of aacrilege ever to remove the bounds of it, tnnnere bidentaL 

" In Qoncludii^ tbe annotations on tbe Art of Poetry, I most beg 
to recommend to the reader's notice my tranalation of AiiatDtle'a 
Foetift with a collection of notes, as tbe two treaUaea oontiibote to each 
other's iUostraUon in tbe fiiUeat extent 




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