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Full text of "The complete works of Michael Drayton, now first collected"

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THE COMPLETE WORKS OP 

MICHAEL DRAYTON, 

at 

NOW FIRST COLLECTED. 

WITH INTRODUCTIONS AND NOTES BY 

THE REV. RICHARD HOOPER, M.A. 

VICAR OF UPTON AND ASTON UPTHORPE, BERKS, 
AND EDITOR OF CHAPMAN'S HOSIER, SANDYS' POETICAL WORKS, ETC. 




VOLUME I.—POLYOLBION. 



LONDON: 

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 

SOHO SQUARE. 

187G. 



?RZZSJ~ 
Al 

im 

v./ 



%0 
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS, 

ALBEET EDWARD, 

PRINCE OF WALES, K.G. 



SIE, 



By your gracious permission, I dedicate to you the 
present edition of the Complete Works of Michael 
Drayton, now first collected. 

Drayton was not only a great Poet, but great in 
many styles of Poetry ; and one work of his may be 
pronounced unique. His Poly-Olbion is a wonder- 
ful description of that Happy Island, over which (at 
some distant day, we trust) you will, in the course of 
Divine Providence, be called upon to exercise your 
sway. 

The Author felt the greatness of his subject, and 
esteeming it, as it justly is, a work worthy to be laid 
at the feet of a Prince, dedicated it to two of your 
illustrious predecessors in your noblest title, the 
Princes Henry and Charles of Wales. 



The Poet, however, little thought that the day would 
arrive when another Prince of Wales, in the person 
of Your Royal Highness, would graciously accept 
his work ; nor could he have dreamed that the realms 
which you may be called upon to 'rule far exceed the 
wildest visions of poet's brain. 

SIR, when you have visited that glorious empire to 
which you are now setting forth, may you return to 
the home of your birth to find that amid all the vast 
possessions of the British Crown there is no spot 
where you are more loyally loved and revered than the 
Harry Island which Michael Drayton has so faith- 
fully depicted. 

Your Royal Highness's 

Most faithful and devoted servant. 
Richard Hooper. 

Upton, Berks, 
September, 1875. 






4 





ADVERTISEMENT. 

HE Editor feels that an apology is due, not only 

to the public, but to the publisher and printer, 

for the delay in the production of this work. 

He trusts, however, that the present three volumes will 

prove with what care and accuracy the Edition is being 

prepared. 



Upton, Berks, 
September, 1875. 



INTRODUCTION. 

OLDSMITH, in his "Citizen of the World," 
makes the Chinese Philosopher visit West- 
minster Abbey. " As -we walked along to a 
particular part of the temple, 'there,' says the gentleman 
(his guide) pointing with his finger, ' that is the Poets' 
Corner ; there you see the monuments of Shakespeare, 
and Milton, and Prior, and Drayton.' 'Drayton,' I 
replied, ' I never heard of hini before, but I have been 
told of one Pope, is he there V " * 

A recent eminent writer -f- has inferred from this that 
the fame of Drayton had sunk so low that he was com- 
paratively unknown, or at least that he was unknown to 
Goldsmith. But Goldsmith, though a charming writer, 
was very ignorant of our older literature. In fact, m 
Goldsmith's time, the star of Pope was in the ascendant, 
and that alone was considered poetry which had the 
ring and epigrammatic smoothness of the school of the 
writers of the Augustan age, as the days of Queen Anne 
have been styled. The elder Disraeli has observed * 

* Citizen of the World, vol. i. p. 44, ed. 1762 (the 1st), 
t Dean Stanley. £ Amenities of Literature. 



x INTRODUCTION. 

that " Dr. Johnson and the critics of his day were wholly 
unacquainted with the Fathers of our poetry ;" and no 
better proof can be given of Johnson's vitiated taste 
than that he preferred the miserable (and now deservedly 
neglected) translation of Tasso by Hoole ("a gentleman 
long-known and long-esteemed in the India House," as 
he calls him) to that by Edward Fairfax, which is con- 
fessedly one of the finest versions in the English lan- 
guage. Nor was the ignorance of Drayton's merits con- 
fined to Goldsmith and his contemporaries. 

The writer of the article ' Drayton' in Aikin's General 
Biography (which Mr. Gifford styles " a worthless com- 
pilation") mentions that the poet's works were re- 
printed in folio and 4 vols. 8vo. in 1748 — 53, and 
expresses his opinion that they were not worth republi- 
cation. That edition, it is true, fell still-born from the 
press, but probably from its incompleteness and inac- 
curacy. Yet Mr. Disraeli, no mean authority, says 
" Drayton is worthy of a complete edition of his works.""* 
His merit, too, is now generally acknowledged, and he 
takes a conspicuous stand amongst that "race of giants" 
who clustered round the towering figure of Shakespeare. 
It is probable that much of the neglect of his works 
may be attributed to their great extent, and that had he 
written less he would have been better known ; and 
again, as many of his poems are historical, they are 
likely to be of less interest to the general reader. It 
* Ameuitica of Literature. 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

cannot be denied also that his diction is somewhat in- 
volved, and his works require attention and study. But 
the same may he said of many of his contemporaries. 
Some of his lighter efforts are exquisite, and ho has 
written in so many styles that the possessor of his v. orks 
has a continual source of enjoyment. " The merits of 
Drayton as a poet are very great. His historical poems 
have about them a heavy magnificence, the most gor- 
geous images and the boldest descriptions follow in 
stately array, clothed in well-turned and appropriate 
verse, but unfortunately the obscurity of diction renders 
them unattractive. * * * * Drayton has left one 
work which, in its way, has never been surpassed — a 
short fairy poem called, ' Nyrnphidia.' A more elfin 
work than this could not be penned : the author 
has contrived to throw himself into the feelings of 
the diminutive beings whom he represents. His de- 
scription of helmets made of beetles, ear-wigs being 
used as chargers, and other oddities of a like nature, dis- 
play the very highest powers of fancy : a Lilliputian air 
breathes through the whole performance. Had Drayton 
written nothing but ' Nyrnphidia,' he would deserve im- 
mortality." * 

It may be thought that I savour too much of the ad- 
vocate in pleading the cause of the author whose 
works I am anxious to re-introduce to the reader, if I 
•express my opinion that Drayton is undoubtedly one of 
* English Cyclopaedia, Art. " Drayton." 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

the greatest poets of the Elizabethan or any period, but 
I shall fortify my opinion by that of two writers whose 
knowledge of early English literature is entitled to our 
highest respect. 

Mr. Payne Collier, in a very beautiful edition of some 
of Drayton's earlier poems, printed for the Eoxburghe 
Club in 1856, puts Shakespeare entirely out of the ques- 
tion, in considering the rank that the poets of Elizabe- 
than times are entitled to hold with reference to each 
other. The same pre-eminence, he thinks, is due to 
Spenser, though on different grounds ; and Ben Jonson's 
claims to admiration for strength of thought, vigour of 
expression, and learning, can hardly be disputed. With 
these exceptions, Mr. Collier enquires what place Michael 
Drayton occupies among the secondary poets when he 
lived. " At the head of these," he says, " he has un- 
questionably the right to stand. He is inferior to Daniel 
in smoothness of versification, and, perhaps, in grace of 
expression, but he much exceeds him in originality of 
conception, and in force and variety of style. Drayton 
has written ill in no species of poetical composition, and 
he lias written well in most. He tried many, and he 
excelled, more or less, in all he tried." 

I think this a fair estimate of our poet's merits, though 
I am inclined to question his inferiority, as a poet, to 
Ben Jonson. 

The late Rev. Joseph Hunter, whose inestimable MS. 
Collections on our Poets are now in the British Museum 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

(Addit. MSS. 24,493), says :— " I see not why Drayton 
should not now be placed, as he was by his contempo- 
raries, in the first class of English Poets : not primus 
inter pares, but he who produced such beautiful Lyric and 
Pastoral and Heroic poems, ought not to be placed only 
in the second rank. One proof of his claim to this high 
distinction is, that while so many of his contemporaries 
are forgotten, and their works known only to the few 
antiquaries who cultivate this field of literature, the 
name of Drayton is still, like Shakespeare and Milton, 
a household word; his memory is kept alive by the 
popular voice, and few are they who have not been 
more or less delighted with his verse." I am afraid 
that the last sentence is a little overstrained. The 
"popular voice" is unfortunately, in many cases, vox ei 
prceterea nihil. People are unwilling to betray their 
ignorance, and therefore use Drayton's name, as many 
do Spenser's and Milton's, without much familiarity 
with his works. They are not, perhaps, quite so igno- 
rant as Goldsmith's Chinese philosopher, as to say, 
" Drayton ! I never heard of him before," but I really 
believe that the grand domain of Michael Drayton is a 
terra incognita to multitudes who have heard his name. 
But there are many reasons for this. Drayton's works 
in their original editions are scarce and expensive, and 
the only pretended complete edition (that of the middle 
of the last century), besides its inaccuracy and unin- 
viting form, is now only to be purchased at a great 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

price. They are to be found, it is true, in the large 
collections of Chalmers and others, but such voluminous 
works are not in every one's library. Nor is the text 
in these collections to be trusted. No poet ever altered 
his works so frequently as Drayton. Each succeeding 
edition (with but few exceptions) differed materially 
from its precursor. Nor were his second thoughts 
always the wisest. A thorough edition of Michael 
Drayton's works, then, requires much painstaking col- 
lation, and indication of the poet's change of mind. 
And such, if I am spared, will be the form in which the 
present Complete Edition will appear. Of each of the 
works, however, which comprise the present volumes, 
there was published in the author's lifetime but one 
edition, so there were no variations to be noted. It was 
thought expedient to print the " Polyolbion" first, as 
the greatest, and best-known, of Drayton's works, and 
the "Harmony of the Church" has been added as the 
first production of his pen, at least as far as is known. 
Of this latter little work the history is curious. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Payne Collier (Roxburghe Club, 1856), 
on February 1st, 1591, the printer, Richard Jones, 
entered it at Stationers' Hall:— 

" Primo Februarii [1590-1] 
Richard Jones. Entred fur his Copie &C The Tri- 
umphea of the Churche, conteyning the spirituall songes 
an.] holie liimnes of godlie men, Pafcriaikes and Pro- 
phettes vj d ." 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

It is more than probable, says Mr. Collier, that at 
this date the work had passed through the press, but 
.perhaps the title-page had not been worked off, or 
finally agreed on, for when it came out it was called 
" The Harmonie, &c." In the books of the same Com- 
pany there is another memorandum of still more im- 
portance, dated in the same year, which proves that, for 
some reason or other not assigned, all the copies of the 
book had been seized by public order ; that Bishop, the 
stationer, had bought them, with other works in the 
same predicament ; but that the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury had issued his warrant for forty copies to be de- 
livered to him, and that they remained at Lambeth 
under the care of Dr. Cosen. The note in the original 
register runs thus : — 

[1591] 

" "Whereas all the seized Bookes mentioned in the last 
accompte before this, were sould this yere to Mr. Byshop, 
Be it remembered that fortye of them, being Harmonies 
of the Churche, rated at ijs le peece, were had from him 
by warrante of my lordes grace of Canterburie, and 
remayne at Lambithe with Mr. Doctor Cosen : and for 
some other of the said bookes, the said Mr. Bishop hath 
paid inli as appeareth in the charge of this accompte, 
and the residue remayne in the Hall to th' use of Yar- 
rette James." 

"The books seized," adds Mr. Collier, " during the 
year were sold, doubtless, to Bishop on the undertaking 
that he should destroy them ; but as what is above 



xvi LXTRODUCTiOtf. 

called "the last accompte before this" is not extant, it 
is impossible to ascertain the character of the books 
seized with Drayton's. It will be seen that the Arch- 
bishop had forty copies — the rest probably were de- 
stroyed by Bishop and Yarrette James." 

Why it was destroyed does not appear, and what 
became of the Archbishop's copies, is equally unknown, 
with the exception of oiie, which is in George IIL's 
Library in the British Museum, and had belonged to 
Archbishop Whitgift. From that unique copy Mr. 
Dyce printed his edition for the Percy Society, and 
Mr. Collier his for the Eoxburghe Club. Drayton never 
reprinted it himself, either from the somewhat unin- 
telligible suppression just noticed, or that he did not 
deem it worthy of the later efforts of his muse. Nor is 
there — which is remarkable — any allusion in his sub- 
sequent works to this strangling in the birth, as it were, 
of his earliest production. He is ready enough to com- 
plain of ill-usage, especially in his advances to King 
James I., as may be seen in his Epistle to Iris friend 
George Sandys, the poet ; but nowhere do we find any 
reference to the suppression of the " Harmony of the 
Church." As I shall discuss this question more at 
large in my biography of the poet, I may merely men- 
tion that the existence of the book was probably un- 
known till discovered by modern research, and its first 
re-publication is due to the exertions of my late dear 
friend, the Ilcverend Alexander Dyce. The veteran 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

Elizabethan scholar, Mr. Payne Collier, whose friendship 
I equally prize, followed in his steps, and the present 
text is a careful collation of their labours with the 
unique copy in the British Museum, the orthography 
only being modernized. It is the first time that the 
work has been published in a collected edition of 
Drayton's Poems. 

On the " Poly-olbion " a volume might be written. 
" This extraordinary poem," says Mr. Disraeli,* " remains 
without a parallel in the poetical annals of any people ; 
and it may excite our curiosity to learn its origin. The 
genealogy of poetry is often suspicious; but I think 
we may derive the birth of the 'Poly-olbion' from 
Leland's magnificent view of his designed work on 
1 Britain,' and that hint expanded by the 'Britannia' of 
CAMDEN, who inherited the mighty industry without the 
poetical spirit of Lelaxd: Drayton embraced both. The 
1 Poly-olbion/ which is a stupendous work, is a choro- 
graphical description of England and Wales ; an amal- 
gamation of antiquarianism, of topography, and of his- 
tory; materials not the most ductile for the creations 
of poetry. This poem is said to have the accuracy of a 
road-book; and the poet has contributed some notices 
which add to the topographic stores of Camden ; for this 
has our poet extorted an alms of commendation from 
such a niggardly antiquary as Bishop Nicholson, who 
confesses that this work affords 'a much truer account 

* Ameuities of Literature. 

6 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

of this kingdom than could be well expected from the 
pen of a poet.' 

"The grand theme of this poet was his fatherland! 
The muse of Drayton passes by every town and tower ; 
each tells some tale of ancient glory, or of some ' worthy ' 
who must never die. The local associations of legends 
and customs are animated by the personifications of 
mountains and rivers ; and often, in some favourite 
scenery, he breaks forth with all the emotion of a true 
poet. The imaginative critic has described the excur- 
sions of our muse with responsive sympathy. ' He has 
not,' says Lamb, 'left a rivulet so narrow that it may 
be stepped over, without honourable mention, and has 
associated hills and streams with life and passion be- 
yond the dreams of old mythology.' 

" But the journey is long, and the conveyance may be 
tedious ; the reader, accustomed to the decasyllable or 
heroic verse, soon finds himself breathless among the 
protracted and monotonous Alexandrines, unless he 
should relieve his ear from the incumbrance by resting 
on the caesura, and thus divide those extended lines by 
title alternate grace of a ballad-stanza."* 

Ellin , in his "Specimens of the Early English Poets" 
(vol. ii. p. 301, ed. 1801) says, "His Poly-olbion is cer- 
tainly a wonderful work, exhibiting at once the learning 
of an historian, an antiquary, a naturalist, and a geo- 

* From Drayton's punctuation, preserved is the present edition, 
it will be .-:eeu that this was his design, 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

grapher, and embellished by the imagination of a 
poet." 

In the " Historical Essay," prefixed to the four-volume 
edition of Drayton's Works in 1753, which is generally 
supposed to have been superintended by the antiquary 
William Oldys, it is observed : — " It is not easy to con- 
ceive a harder task than that which our author imposed 
upon himself when he set about this undertaking ; and 
yet it would be full as great a difficulty to imagine a 
thing of this kind brought to a higher degree of perfec- 
tion. This will appear still more wonderful to the 
critical and learned reader, when he considers the time 
in which it was written, and how few helps the author 
had towards completing so vast a design, in comparison 
of what he might have had if he had lived in later times. 
The true way of judging of the merit of this book, is to 
compare it with Camden's celebrated work in prose, 
from whence it will appear how little Mr. Drayton bor- 
rowed from others, and what infinite variety of curious 
facts he inserted from our old manuscript History, and 
how judiciously they are applied. We need not, there- 
fore, be surprised that not only writers next in point of 
time, such as Weaver and Fuller, borrow from lnm so 
largely, but the later antiquaries, such as Musgrave, 
Kennet, Wood, and Hearne, cite him as a most authentic 
author." 

It would be impossible now to trace the sources of 
Drayton's vast information. That he was a mere copyist 



xx INTRODUCTION. 

of printed books we can hardly suppose, as tlie illus- 
trious Selden would scarcely have deigned to illustrate 
the first eighteen songs with his learned notes had the 
teubject-matter appeared before. There is something 
specially nasty in Bishop Nicholson's sneer, " The first 
eighteen of these songs had the honour to be published 
with Mr. Selden's Notes, the other twelve being hardly 
capable of such a respect." Why Selden should not have 
continued his illustrations, one cannot say. Possibly 
the author was so dissatisfied with the slow sale of the 
First Part, that he did not ask his friend to contribute 
more of his learned time to a work which had been so 
singularly neglected; but the last twelve songs are fully 
equal in historical research and poetic beauty to their 
predecessors. 

Drayton had hoped, and very justly, that the nobles 
and gentlemen of England would have (to cpiote Mr. 
Disraeli) " felt a filial interest in the tale of their father's, 
commemorated in these poetic annals, and an honoural tie 
pri<Je in their domains here so graphically pictured. 
But no voice, save those of a few melodious brothers, 
cheered the lonely lyrist, vim had sung on every moun- 
tain, and whose verse had (lowed with every river." 
That the work was greatly neglected, and that the 
author felt its neglect severely, may be seen by his 
Preface to the Second rail; but had Drayton lived 
some half century later, lie would have seen that liis 
lot was shared by oi fame lie might himself 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

envy. But there were consolations for the neglected 
poet. In Professor Masson's late charming volume, 
xl Drummond of Hawthornden," will Le found a glowing 
description of the friendship of Drayton and his Scottish 
friend. In p. 80, amongst Drummond's " Characters of 
Several Authors," we find: — "Drayton's Poly-olbion is 
one of the smoothest pieces I have seen in English, 
poetical and well-prosecuted ; there are some pieces in 
him I dare compare with the best Transmarine Poems. 
The 7th song pleaseth me much; the 12th is excellent; 
the 13 th also (the discourse of hunting passeth with 
any poet) ; and the 18th, which is the last in this edi- 
tion of 1614." Drummond's friendship with Drayton 
will fall more property within the province of our bio- 
graphical notice, but we may allude to one or two of 
his letters. " I long," says he, " to see the rest of your 
Poly-olbion come forth, which is the only epic poem 
England, in my judgment, hath to be proud of ; to be the 
author of which I had rather have the praise than, as 
Aquinas said of one of the Fathers' commentaries, to 
have the seignory of Paris." It would appear that 
Drayton was seeking an Edinburgh publisher for his 
Second Part, and he complains of the ill-usage he had 
received at the hands of the London booksellers. " How 
would I be overjoyed," says Drummond, "to see our 
North once honoured with your Works as before it 
was with Sidney's.* Though it be barren of excellency 

* The third edition of Sidney's Arcadia was "published at Edin- 
burgh in 1599. 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

in itself, it can both love and admire the excellency 
of others." 

On the 14th of April, 1619, Drayton writes to Drum- 
mond : — " I thank you, my dear sweet Drumniond, for 
your good opinion of Poly-olbion. I have done twelve 
books more ; that is, from the 18th Book (which was 
Kent, if you note it) all the East parts, and North to 
the River Tweed ; but it lieth by me, for the booksellers 
and I are in terms. They are a company of base knaves, 
whom I both scorn and kick at." However, he had at 
length succeeded in getting a London publisher, and the 
concluding Twelve Songs appeared in 1G22, as the 
reader may see by the facsimile title to the Second Part 
in these volumes. 

Little more need be said of this truly great work, 
or, as its author styles it, " Herculean toil." The title 
may puzzle some readers. The Greek words poly- 
olbion mean very happy, and the allusion is to Albion, 
which is supposed by some writers, (but erroneously) 
to be derived from Olbion, happy. Drayton, how- 
ever, probably meant it as a punning allusion to 
All )ion. 

The indefatigable Mr. Hunter found a passage in 
Xenophon's Cyropai-dia (Lib. i. cap. v.) which he thinks 
might have suggested the idea to Drayton, but this is 
questionable, though Drayton was undoubtedly a man 
of learning. The passage is as follows : — "'A\\d vo/xl- 
%ovTt<; Kal ovtoi id iroXtfiiKa dyadol <yev6fi€voi, IIOATN 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

MEN OABON, TroWrjv Se evSai/xovlav, fieyaXas Se ri- 
fias Kal clvtois Kai tj) iroXei Trepi,a.y\rav" 

The text of the present volumes is a most careful 
collation of the original folio of two parts. The ortho- 
graphy has been modernized, but not in the case of 
proper names, or in that of rare and antiquated words. 
The original punctuation of Drayton has been adhered 
to, at the suggestion of one of the most eminent scholars 
of the day. Selden's laborious and learned notes have 
been most carefully revised, and are now probably for 
the first time presented to the reader in a correct form 
They were most carelessly reprinted in Wilkins's Edi- 
tion of Selden's works. To annotate Drayton's Poly- 
olbion would be a work of immense labour, and would 
swell the volumes into an unwieldy form, even if it 
were possible (which may be well doubted) to do the 
work at all satisfactorily. Such notes would embrace 
every subject — history, topography, antiquities, and ob- 
jects of natural history — which the author has written 
upon — and many volumes would be required even for 
the notes alone. It has, therefore, been considered ex- 
pedient to present the reader with the work as Drayton 
left it, i.e., with Selden's notes only attached to it. The 
obsolete words in Drayton are comparatively few, and 
the Editor proposes, on the completion of the Edition, 
to give a glossarial Index to the whole works. 

The future volumes will each be complete in itself, 
with a separate Introduction, and a thoroughly new 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



biography will accompany the last volume, and thus, if 
the Editor be spared, will be given for the first time a 
complete edition (as Disraeli said he deserved) of the 
entire Works of Michael Drayton, Esquire.* 

* Drayton was very proud of his title of Esquire. He was an 
Esquire to his friend Sir Walter Aston at the installation of the 
latter as a Knight of the Bath, on the Coronation of King James 
1st, July 25th, 1603. 




POLY- OLBION. 




UPON THE FRONTISPIECE. 



|HROUGH a Triumphant Arch, see Albion plac'd, 
In Happy site, in Neptune's arms einbrac'd, 
In Power and Plenty, on her Cleeuy Throne 
Circled with Nature's Garlands, being alone 
Styl'd tli' Ocean's* Island. On the Columns been 

(As Trophies rais'd) what Princes Time hath seen 

Ambitious of her. In her younger years, 

Vast Earth-bred Giants woo'd her : but, who bears 

Inf golden field the Lion passant red, 

Eneas' Nephew (Brute) them conquered. 

Next, Laureate Ccesar, as a Philtre, brings, 

On's shield, his GrandameJ Venus : Him her Kings 

Withstood. At length, the Roman, by long suit, 

Gain'd her (most part) from th' ancient race of Brule. 

Divorc'd from Him, the Saxon§ sable Horse, 

Borne by stern Hengist, wins her : but, through force 

Guarding the \\Norman Leopards bath'd in yules, 

She chang'd her love to Him, whose line yet rules. 

• Insula Ccpruli. 

t So Ifavillan and Upton anciently delivered. I justify it not ; yet, as well as 
others can his other attributed Anna, 1 might. 

t Object not, that it should be the Bogle, because it is now borne by the Empe- 
rors ; and that sorno Heralds ignorantly publish it, as./, ('w.iar's Coat, double headed. 
They move me not ; for plainly the Bugle \v;ih single at that time (unless you call 
it <>iwm7>» ItuCTiAiia iidu/iuf, as Pindar doth Jove's Eagle) and but newly used among 
the Itrmians (first by Marius) us their Standard, not otherwise, until afterwards 
Constantine made it resect the two Empires : and since, it hath been borne on a 
Shield. I took Venus proper to him. for that the stamp of her face (she being hia 
ancestor Mntat his mother) in his coins is frequent : and can so maintain it hero 
fitter than many of those invented Coats (without colour of reason) attributed to 
the old Heroes. As for matter of Armory, Venus being a Goddess, may be as good 
Bearing, if not better than Ataianta, which, by express authority of Euripides, warn 
borne in the Theban war by Parlltenopceua. 

§ Sengilt hath other Arms in some traditions, which are to bo respected as old 
wives fictions. His name expresses a Horse, and the Dukes of Saxony are suid to 
have borne it anciently, before their Christianity, Sable: therefore, if you giv« 
Mm any, with most reason lot him havo this. 

|| The common Blazon of the Xorman Arum justifies it. And, if you please, »ec 
fur it tu the XI. Cunto. 



A 

CH OROGRAPHIC ALL 

DESCRIPTION OF ALL 

THE TRACTS, RIVERS, 

MOVNTAINS, FORESTS, 

and other Parts of this Renowned 
Ifte of Great Britain, 

With intermixture of the nioft Remarkeable 

Stories, Antiquities, Wonders, Rarities, Pleafures, 

and Commodities of the fame. 

Diuided into two Bookes; the latter containing 
twelue Songs, neuer before Imprinted. 

Digefted into a Poem 
By 
Michael Drayton, Efquire. 

With aTable added, for direction to those Occurrences 

of StoryandA ntiquitie,\vhere.unto the Course of the 

Volume easily leades not. 




LONDON, 

Printed for Iohn Marriott, Iohn Grifmand, 
and Thomas Dewc. 1622. 




TO THE HIGH AND MIGHTY 

HENRY 
PRINCE OF WALES. 

jHIS First Part of my intended Poem I consecrate 

to your Highness : in whom (beside my particular 

zeal) there is a natural interest in my Work, as 

the hopeful Heir of the Kingdoms of this Great 

Britain, whose Delicacies, Chorographical Description, and 

History be my subject. 

My soul, which hath seen the extremity of time and for- 
tune, cannot yet despair. The influence of so glorious and 
fortunate a Star may also reflect upon me : which hath 
power to give me new life, or leave me to die more willingly 
and contented. 

My Poem is genuine, and first in this kind. It cannot 
want envy ; for, even in the birth, it already finds that. 
Your gracious acceptance, mighty Prince, will lessen it. 
May I breathe to arrive at the Orcadcs (whither in this kind 
1 intend my course, if the Muse fail me not) I shall leave 
your whole British Empire, as in this First and Southern 
part, delineated. 

To your Highness, 

Tlie mo 7 ■'' i t 

Michael Drayton, 



BRITAIN, behold here portray' d to thy sight 
Henry, thy best hope, and the world's delight ; 
Ordain'd to make thy eight Great Henries nine : 
Who, by that virtue of the treble Trine, 
To his own goodness (in his being) brings 
These several Glories* of th' eight English Kings : 
1 Deep knowledge, 2 Greatness, 3 Long life, 4 Policy, 
5 Courage, "Zeal, "Fortune, 8 Awful Majesty. 
He like great Neptune on three ^Seas shall rove, 
And ride three Realms, with triple power, like Jove. 
Thus in soft peace, thus in tempestuous wars, 
Till from his foot his fame shall strike the stars. 



* The several happinesses of the eight Henries. 
t The West, North, and East Ocean. 




TO THE GENERAL READER. 

jN publishing this Essay of my Poem, there is this 
great disadvantage against me; that it cometh 
out at this time, when Verses are wholly deduced 
to chambers, and nothing esteemed in this lunatic Age 
but what is kept in cabinets, and must only pass by 
transcription. In such a season, when the idle humorous 
world must hear of nothing that either savours of anti- 
quity, or may awake it to seek after more than dull and 
slothful ignorance may easily reach unto, these, I say, 
make much against me ; and especially in a Poem, from 
any example, either of Ancient or Modern, that have proved 
in this kind, whose unusual tract may perhaps seem diffi- 
cult to the female sex ; yea, and, I fear, to some that think 
themselves not meanly learned, being not rightly inspired by 
the Muses : such I mean, as had rather read the fantasies of 
foreign inventions, than to see the Parities and History of 
their own Country delivered by a true native Muse. Then, 
whosoever thou be, possest with such stupidity and duln 
that, rather than thou wilt take pains to search into ancient 
and noble things, choosest to remain in the thick fogs and 
mists of ignorance, as near the common lay-stall of a city, 
refusing to walk forth into the Ternpe and fields of the 
Muses, where through most delightful groves the angelic 
harmony of birds shall steal thee to the top of an easy . 

b 



xxxiv TO THE GENERAL READER. 

where, in artificial caves, cut out of the most natural rock? 
thou shalt see the ancient people of this Isle deliver thee 
in their lively images : from whose height thou mayest be- 1 
hold both the old and later times, as in thy prospect, lying 
far under thee ; then conveying thee down by a soul-pleas- 
ing descent through delicate embrodered Meadows, often 
veined with gentle gliding Brooks ; in which thou mayest 
fully view the dainty Nymph 3 in their simple naked beau- 
ties, bathing them in crystalline streams ; which shall lead 
thee to most pleasant Downs, where harmless Shepherds 
are, some exercising their pipes, some singing roundelays to 
their gazing flocks. If, as I say, thou hadst rather (because 
it asks thy labour) remain where thou wert, than strain 
thyself to walk forth with the Muses, the fault proceeds from 
thy idleness, not from any want in my industry. And to 
any that shall demand wherefore having promised this 
Poem of the general Island so many years, I now publish 
only this part of it ; I plainly answer that many times I had 
determined with myself to have left it off, and have neg- 
lected my papers sometimes two years together, finding the 
times since his Majesty's happy coming-in to fall so heavily 
upon my distressed fortunes, after my zealous soul had la- 
boured so long in that which, with the general happiness of 
the kingdom, seemed not then impossible somewhat also to 
have advanced me. But I instantly saw all my long-nou- 
rished hopes even buried alive before my face : so uncertain 
(in this world) be the ends of our clearest endeavours. 
And whatever is herein that tastes of a free spirit, I thank- 
fully confess it to proceed from the continual bounty of my 
truly noble friend Sir Walter Aston ; which hath given me 
the best of those hours, whose leisure hath effected this 
which I now publish. Sundry other Songs I have also, 
though yet not so perfect that I dare commit them to pub. 



TO THE GENERAL READER. xxxv 

lie censure ; and the rest I determine to go forward with, 
God enabling me, may I find means to assist my endeavour. 
Now, Reader, for the further understanding of my Poem, 
thou hast three especial helps : First, the Argument to 
direct thee still where thou art, and through what Shires 
the Muse makes her journey, and what she chiefly handles 
in the Song thereto belonging. Next, the Map, lively de- 
lineating to thee every Mountain, Forest, Eiver, and 
Valley ; expressing, in their sundry postures, their loves, 
delights, and natural situations. Then hast thou the Illus- 
tration of this learned Gentleman, my friend, to explain 
every hard matter of history, that, lying far from the way 
of common reading, may (without question) seem difficult 
unto thee. Thus wishing thee thy heart's desire, and com- 
mitting my Poem to thy charitable censure, I take my 

leave. 

Thine, as thou art mine, 

Michael Drayton, 



62 



TO MY FRIENDS, 

THE CAMBRO-BRITANS. 



MA 



have you without difficulty understand, how vn this my 
intended 'progress through these united kingdoms of 
Great Britain i" have placed your and (I must con- 
fess) my loved Wales, you shall perceive, that after the Three 
first Songs, beginning with our French Hands, Jernsey and 
Jersey, with the rest, and perfecting in those first Three the sur- 
vey of these six our most Western Countries, Cornwall, Devon, 
Dorset, Hamp, Wilt, and Summerset, J then make over 
Severne into Wales, not far from the midst of her Broadside 
that lieth against England. I term it her Broadside, because it 
lieth from Shrewsbury still along with Severne, till she lastly 
turn sea. And to explain two lines of mine (which you shdl 
find in tlie Fourth Song of my Poem, but it is the First of 
Wales) which are these, 

And ere Seven Books have end, I'll strike so high a string, 
Thy Bards shall stand amaz'd with wonder whilst I sing. 

ikmg of Seven Boohs, you sliall understand that I continue 
W'al.s through so many; beginning in the Fourth Song (, 
the Nymphs < I ad "//'/Wales contend for the Isle of 
Lundy) and ending in the Tenth; striving,as my much-loved 
(the learned) Bumfrey Floyd, in his description (/Cambria to 



TO THE CAMBUO-BMTAys. 



vw'vn 



Abraham Ortelius, to uphold her ancient bounds, Severne, 
i Dee, and therefore have included th parts of tJws< three 
English Shires of Gloster, Worster, and Sallop, that lu on the 
West of Severne, within their ancient media r Wales. In w 
if I have not done her right, the want is in my abUUty, not in 
my love. Andbesi<<> my natural inclination to love antiquities 
(which Wales may highly boast of) I confess the free and g 
company of that true lover of his Country (as of all ancient and 
noble things) Mr. John Williams, his Majesty's Goldsmith, my 
and worthy friend, hath made me the more seek into the 
antiquities of your Country. Thus wishing your favourable con- 
struction of these my faithful endeavours, I bid you farewell. 

Michael Drayton. 





From the AUTHOR of the ILLUSTRATIONS. 

ERMIT me thus much of these Notes to my 
Friend. What the Verse oft with allusion as 
supposing a full-knowing Reader, lets slip; or 
in winding steps of personating fictions (as some- 
times) so enfolds, that sudden conceit cannot abstract a 
form of the clothed truth ; I hare, as I might, illustrated*. 
Brevity and plainness (as the one endured the other) I have 
joined; purposely avoiding frequent commixture of different 
language, and whensoever it happens either the page or 
margin (specially for Gentlewomen's sake) summarily interprets- 
it, except where interpretation aids not. Being not very pro- 
digal of my Historical faith, after explanation, I oft adven- 
ture on examination, and censure. The Author, in passages 
of first inhabitants, name, state, and monarchic succession in 
this Isle, follows Geffrey ap Arthur, Polyzhronicon, Matthew of 
Westminster, and such more. Of their Traditions, for that 
one so much controverted, and by Cambro-llrJtons still main- 
tained, touching the Trojan Brule, I have (but as an advo- 
cate for the Muse) argued ; disclaiming in it, if alleged 
for my own opinion. In most of the rest, upon weighing 
the Reporters' credit, comparison with more persuading 
authority, and synchronism (the best touch-stone in this 
kind of trial) I leave note of suspicion, or add conjectural 
amendment : as, for particular examples among other^ ia 



TO THE READER. xxxix 

Brennus mistook by all writers of later time, following Jus- 
tin's Epitome of Trogus, ill-conceived ; in Robert of Sirup- 
ham's Story of K. Wulplier's murdering his children, in 
Rollo first D. of Normandy his time ; none of them yet rec- 
tified (although the first hath been adventured on) by any 
that I have seen ; and such more. And indeed my jealousy 
hath oft vexed me with particular inquisition of whatsoever 
occurs bearing not a mark of most apparent truth, ever 
since I found so intolerable antiehronisms, incredible re- 
ports, and Bardish impostures, as well from ignorance as 
assumed liberty of invention in some of our Ancients ; and 
•read also such palpable fauxeties of our Nation, thrust 
into the world by later time; as {to give a taste) that of 
Randall Higden affirming the beginning of Wards in 6 Hen. 
Ill ; Polydore's assertion (upon mistaking of the Statute of 
1 Hen. VII.) that it was death hij the English laics for any man 
to wear a vizard, with many like errors in his History, of 
our Trials by 12 Shrives, Coai of the Kingdom, Parliaments, 
and other like ; BartoVs delivering the custom in this Isle 
to be quod Primogenitus succedit in omnibus bonis.* The 
Greek Chaloondylas his slanderous description of our usual 
form of kind entertainment to begin with the wives' cour- 
teous admission to that most affected pleasure of lascivious 
fancy (he was deceived by misunderstanding the reports of 
our Kissing Salutations,^ given and accepted amongst us 
with more freedom than in any part of the Southern world, 
erroneously thinking, perhaps, that every Kiss must be 

* Ad C. de summ. Trinit., lib. 1, num. 42. 

t Union blandientis, ad pulsion lingua long& mellifum. Apuleius 
De Aar. Asm. 6. Ami yon may remember (as like enough he did) that 
in Plautus ( 'urriil. (Jul ml* vidian pamjif salti m uvuviiun ; and such 
more in other wanton poets ; with the opinion of Baldus, that a 
kiss in those Southern Nations is sufficient consent to imperfect 
espousals, nothing of that kind, but copulation, with us and our 
neighbouring Dutch being so. 



xl TO THE HEADER. 

thought seconded with that addition to the seven promised 
by Mercury in name of Venus to him that should find 
Psyche; or as wanton as An his /j,avbaXur6v) ; and 

many untruths of like nature in others. Concerning 
the Arcadian deduction of our Bi itisk Monarchy ; within 
that time, from Brute, supposed about 2850 of the world 
then Judge of Israel) unto some 54 before Christ. 
(about when Julius Ccesar visited the Island) no relation 
extant which is now left to our use. How then are 
they which pretend chronologies of that age without any 
fragment of authors before Gildas, Taliessin, and Neni 
(the eldest of which was since 500 of Christ,) to be credited? 
For my part, I believe as much in them as I do the finding 
of Hiero's shipmast in our mountains,* which is collected 
upon a corrupted place in Athcnmis cited out of Moschion ; 
or that Ptolemy Philadelph sent to Reutka King of Scots 
some 1900 years since, for discovery of this Country, 
which Claude Ptolemy afterward put in his Geography ; or, 
that Julius Ccesar built Arthur's Hqff&n in Stirling sheriff- 
dom ; or, that Britons were at the Rape of Hesione with 
Hercules, as our excellent wit Joseph of Excester (published 
falsely under name of Cornelius Nepos) singeth : which are 
even equally warrantable as Ariosto's narrations of persons 
and places in his Rowlands ; Spenser's Elfin Story ; or Rablais 
his strange discoveries. Yet the capricious faction will (I 
know) never quit their belief of wrong; although some 
Elias or Delian diver should make open what is so inquired 
after. Briefly, until Polybiu*, who wrote near 1800 since 
(for Aristotle m$l K6s(i,e is clearly counterfeited in title) no 
Greek mentions the Isle; until Lucretius (somv 100 years later) 
no Roman hath expressed a thought of us; until Ca 

* ' Kv roTf 5p«R riJc 'Rpirui *■'£'> <ivrJ r» Itytrriaii/i;, (JUSB nonipij verioc 
videtur lectio. 



TO THE LEADER. xli 

Commentaries, no piece of its description was known that 
is now left to posterity. For time therefore preceding 
Ccesar, I dare trust none ; but with others adhere to con- 
jecture. In ancient matter since, I rely on Tacitus and Dio 
especially, Vbpiscus, Capitolin, Spartian (for so much as they 
have, and the rest of the Augustan story) afterward Gildas, 
Nennius (but little is left of them, and that of the last very 
imperfect), Bede, Asserio, Cthelwerd (near of blood to King 
Alfred), William of Malmesbury, Marian, Florence of Worcester 
(that published under name of Florence hath the very sylla- 
bles of most part of Marian the Scot's Story, fraught with 
English Antiquities ; which will show you how easily to 
answer Buchanan's objection against our historians about 
Athelstan's being King of all Albion, being deceived when 
he imagined that there was no other of Marian but the 
common printed Chronicle, which is indeed but an epitome 
or defloration made by Robert of Lorraine, Bishop of Here- 
ford under Hen. I.) and the numerous rest of our Monkish 
and succeeding chronographers. In all, I believe him 
most, which, freest from affection and hate (causes of cor- 
ruption) might best know, and hath with most likely asser- 
tion delivered his report. Yet so that, to explain the 
Author, carrying himself in this part an Historical, as in 
the other a Chorographical Poet, I insert oft, out of the 
British Story, what I importune you not to credit. Of that 
kind are those Propftecies out of Merlin sometime inter- 
woven ; I discharge myself, nor impute you to me any 
serious respect of them. Inviting, not wresting in, occa- 
sion, I add sometime what is different from my task, but 
such as I guess would anywhere please an understanding 
reader. To aid you in course of Times, I have in a fit 
place drawn Chronologies, upon credit of the Ancients ; and, 
for matter of that kind, have admonished (to the Fourth 



xffi TO THE READER. 

Canto) what as yet I never saw by any observed, for wary 
consideration of the Dk nysian Cycle, and misinterpreted 
root of his Dominical year. Those old Rhymes, which 
(some number) you often meet with, are offered the wil- 
linger, both for variety of your mother tongue, as also, 
because the Author of them, Robert of Gloster, never yet 
appeared in common light. He was, in time, an age be- 
fore, but in learning and wit, as most others, much be- 
hind our worthy Chi nicer : whose name by the way occur- 
ing, and my work here being but to add plain song after 
Muses' descanting, I cannot but digress to admonition of 
abuse which this learned allusion in his Troilus by igno- 
rance hath endured : 

31 am till <Sotr mrr better mtntt sentj 
Sit Dulcarnon right at mi) totts zxxtj.* 

It's not Necham, or any else, that can make me entertain 
the least thought of the signification of Dulcarnon to be 
Dythagwas's sacrifice after his geometrical theorem in 
finding the squares of an orthogonal triangle's sides, or 
that it is a word of Latin deduction ; but indeed by easier 
pronunciation it was made of Dzvrhharnain, i.e., Tivo-horned : 
which the Mahometan Arabians use for a root in calculation, 
meaning Alexander, as that great Dictator of knowledge 
Joseph Scalicjer (with some ancients) wills, but, by warranted 
opinion of my learned friend Mr. Lydyat in his Emendatio 
Temporum,\ it began in Seleucus Nicanor, 12 years after 
Alexander's death. The name was applied, either because 
after time that , llexander had persuaded himself to be Jupi- 
ter Mammon's son, whose statue was with rami horns, both 
his own and his successors' coins were stamped with horned 
images : or else in respect of his 1 1 pillars erected in the 
* Chaucer explained. t Epocha Seleucidarum. 



TO THE READER. xliii 

East, as a Nihil ultra* of his Conquest, and some say be- 
cause he had in power the Eastern and Western world, sig- 
nified in the two Horns. But, howsoever, it well fits the 
passage, either, as if he had personated Creseide at the 
entrance of two ways, not knowing which to take ; in like 
seuse as that of Prodicus his Hercules, Pythagoras his Y, or 
the Logicians' Dilemma express ; or else, which is the truth 
of his conceit, that she was at a nonplus, as the interpre- 
tation in his next staff makes plain. How many of 
noble Chaucer's readers never so much as suspect this his 
short essay of knowledge, transcending the common road 1 
and by his Treatise of the Astrolabe (which, I dare swear, 
was chiefly learned out of Messaludah) it is plain he was 
much acquainted with the Mathematics, and amongst their 
authors had it. But, I return to myself. From vain 
loading my margin with Books, Chapters, Folios, or Names 
of our Historians, I abstain : course of Time as readily 
directs to them. But, where the place might not so easily 
occur (chiefly in matter of philology) there only (for view 
of them which shall examine me) I have added assisting 
references. For most of what I use of chorography join 
with me in thanks to that most learned Nourice of An- 
tiquity 

rov rig xui ryfkoQi vdimv • 



Ti/aoL avrip dyad6g,f- 



* Christman, Comment, in Alfragan, cap. 11. Lysimachi Cornu- 
nm apud Cat. Ehodigin. Antiq. lect. 20, cap. 12, hie getiuina inter- 
pretation 

t Of whom even every ingenious stranger males honourable men* 
tion. Comitem vero ilium Palatiuum B. Vitum Hasingstochh'ut. 
(cuius Historic magnam partem quasi Bfpy ai£ovroc, chorographica 
substructio pleraque ad antiquitatis amussim, ab eruditissimo hoc suo 
populari accepta, ne dicam suppilata, est) adeo inhumanum fuisse 
miror, ut bono nierontein nou tain libenter agnoscat, quaui L'lariss. 



xliv TO THE READER. 

my instructing friend Mr. Camden, Clarenceidx. From him 
and Girald of Cambria also comes most of my British. And 
then may Mercury and all the Muses deadly hate me, when, 
in permitting occasion, I profess not by whom I learn ! 
Let them vent judgment on me which understand : I jus- 
tify all by the self authors cited, crediting no transcri 
but when of necessity I must. My thirst compelled me al- 
ways to seek the fountains, and by that, if means grant it, 
judge the rivers' nature. Nor can any conversant in let- 
ters be ignorant what error is ofttimes fallen into by trust- 
ing authorities at second hand, and rash collecting (as it 
were) from visual beams refracted through another's eye. 
In performance of this charge (undertaken at request of 
my kind friend the Author) brevity of time (which was 
but little more than since the Poem first went to the 
press) and that daily discontinued, both by my other most 
different studies seriously attended, and interrupting busi- 
ness, as enough can witness, might excuse great faults, espe- 
cially of omission. But, I take not thence advantage to 
desire more than common courtesy in censure. Nor of this, 
nor of what else I heretofore have published, touching 
Historical deduction of otur Ancient Laws,* wherein I escape 
not without tax, 

Sv/nt quibus ii\ Ide&rqwe obscurior, hoc est 

Evandri cum Matre loqui, Faunisque, Numaque, 
Nee seeks' ac si auctor Saliaris Carmmis essem. 

I have read in Cicero, AgeUius, Lucian's Lexiphanes, and 
others, much against that form. But withal, this later 

Viri syllabis et inventis codicem suuni srepius perquam ingrate suf- 
farcinet. Atque id fere genus Plagiarios, rudes omnind, et apovaovt 
et Vernaenloa oimirum Noatratea jam nunc imponere sarcinam video 
adignanter c-t ringor. 
• * Janus Anglornm. 



TO THE READER. xlv 

age (wherein so industrious a search is among admired 
ruins of old monuments) hath, in our greatest Latin cri- 
tics Hans Douz, P. Merula, Lipsius, and such more, so re- 
ceived that Sainrnian language, that, to students in philo- 
logy, it is now grown familiar ; and (as he saith*) Verba a 
reinstate repetita non solum rnagnos assertores habent, sed etiam 
afferunt orationi majestatem aliguam, non sine delectatione. Yet 
for antique terms, to the Learned, I will not justify it 
without exception (disliking not that of Phavorin, Five 
moribus prceterilis, louuere verbis prcesentibus ; and, as coin, 
so words, of a public and known stamp, are to be used), 
although so much as that way I offend is warranted by 
example of such, of whom to endeavour imitation allows 
me more than the bare title of Blameless. The purblind 
ignorant 1 salute with the English of that monitory epi- 
gram 

'Ei d's yi sru/Airav 

N^/g s£ug Moug'zojv, gtyov a /ajj vossig.f 

Reprehension of them, whose language and best learning 
is purchased from such volumes as Rablais reckons in S. 
Victors Library, or barbarous glosses, 

Quam nihil ad genium, Papiniane, tuuml 

or, which are furnished in our old story, only out of the 
common Polychronicon, Caxton, Fabian, Stow, Grafton, Lan- 
quet, Cooper, Holingshed (perhaps with gift of understanding) 
Polydore, and the rest of our later compilers ; or, of any 
adventurous Thersites daring find fault even with the very 
Graces, in a strain 

Corn i"i. quod vincatque, tubas 

* Quintilian. 

+ If thou hast no faste in learning, meddle no mart with what thou 

it HVt. 



xlvi TO THE READER. 

I regard as metamorphized Lucius his looking out at win* 
dow; I slight, scorn, and laugh at it. By paragraphs (§) in 
the Verses you know what I meddle with in the Illustra- 
tions ; but so that, with latitude, the direction admonishes 
sometimes as well for explaining a following or preceding 
passage, as its own. Ingenuous Eeaders, to you I wish your 
best desires. Grant me too, I pray, this one, that you read 
me not, without comparing the Faults escaped.* I have col- 
lected them for you. Compelled absence, endeavoured 
dispatch, and want of revises soon bred them. To the Au- 
thor, I wish (as an old Cosmographical Poet did long since 
to himself) 

'AXX<£ (101 V/MVUV 

'Avtuv Ik iiaxagm avrd^iog zir) apoiBfi.f 

To Genthicomen and their Loves is consecrated all the Wooing 
Language, Allusions to Love-Passions, and sweet Embracements 
feigned by the Muse amongst Hills and Rivers. Whatsoever 
tastes of Description, Battle, Story, abstruse Antiquity, and 
(which my particular study caused me sometime remember) 
Law of the Kingdom, to the more Severe Reader. To the 
one, be contenting enjoyments of their auspicious desires ; 
to the other, happy attendance of their chosen Muses. 

From the Inner Temple, May 9, 1G12. 

* These have been amended in the present edition, 
t That the godlike sort of men may worthily gv* rdon his labours. 

Dion. Perieg. 1185. 



A TABLE 

TO THE CHIEFEST PASSAGES 

IN THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Which, "worthiest of ohservation, or inserted by digression, are 
not directed unto by the course of the volume. 

[In the present edition the references are to the lines of the Songs in 
the Illustrations.] 



A. 

Aber ... ... viii., 43. 

Abjuration, and somewhat of its 
form anciently xvii., 128. 

^Etius, Consul, and reason given 
by conjecture why so called, at ing 
not in the Itouian Fasti of that 
year ... v., 168, n. 

Alban (St.) ... xi., 360. 

Albertus Miraeus, his imposture in 
th> late published Xotitia Episco- 
patuum. 

Albion derived ... i., 410. 

Alexander's worth abused in most 
ignorant verse of the Monkish 
times ... ... iv., 286. 

America {now called) discovered in 
part 400 years since by a British 
Prince ix., 320. 

Andredswald ... xvii., 370. 

Angel's prophecy to Cadwallader 
ii., 152. 

Antiochus, his victorious seal 

ix., 417. 

Apollo, the same with Belin or 
Belen, and a British qod 

viii., 100; ix., 417. 

Archery in tlte English of ■ 

iv., 388. 

A rden Forest ... xiii., 15. 



Arms and Crests, their beginning, 
by authority of Herodotus and 
Strabo ... ... iv., 252. 

Arms of England, Leopards xi. , 31. 

Arthur, begotU n, a/ul how, i., 190 ; 
his Camelot, and other places of 
lezvous of his Knights, iii. , 
395; iv., 302; his Shield, iv., 
252 ; Conquests and Seal, ibid ; 
his Tomb, and form of it, iii., 
307. 

Arundel ... xvii., 426. 

Arviragus, wJiencehewas viii., 310. 

Aschenaz, likely t/ie same with 
Tuiscon, called by some Tuisto 
iv., 375. 

Assuerus Cordonnier, quern Dom. 
Nost. Jes. Christi Passionem 
vidisse, et misere et peregri etiam 
ad nostrum usque cevum vixisse, 
vagante faun'i traditum est i., 86. 

Au guy 1' an neuf, like to our 
Wass-haile ... ix., 417. 



B. 



iv., 267. 



Badon 

Band ... ... vii., 7. 

;or ... ... xi., 305. 

Barditus and Barrhitus in Tacitus 
vl, 217. 



xlviii 



A TABLE. 



Bards, iv., 177 ; Qwxr power, vi., 
217. 

Barons to Earls xi., 9. 

Bastards ... i., 190 ; iv., 410. 

Bath, how feigned to have been 
made, and tin true cause iii., 206. 

Beda dispunctio ... xi., 379, n. 

Beds of Aristotle's time i., 147- 

Bclatucadre, a British god 

viii., 100. 

Belin, see Apollo. 

Bend Sinister ... iv., 410. 

Bo vis of Southampton ii., 232. 

Birds o/"Ganymed ... iv. , 14. 

Bishoprics and Archbishoprics^/?/'.^ 
instituted here ... viii., 314. 

Bishoprics of Oxford and Peter- 
borough ... xi., 403. 

Black hair in women ... ii. , 43. 

Bladud ... iii., 206; viii., 61. 

Boadicea, her names several, and 
death viii., 217. 

Brass, in old weapons, and the chief 
$ anciently used ... vi., 231. 

Brennus and Belinus, their story ex- 
ited, and declared against vulgar 
ikings ... viii., 100. 

Brention, what in Messapian 

i., 506. 

Britain's name conjectured from like- 
lihood ... ' ... i., 410. 

Britain, the greatest of Isles, x., 220. 

Britain, if anciently joined to (Jaul 
xviii., 720. 

Britain in France, whence so called 
ix., 203. 

British Armoric and our Welsh, 
like ... ... viii.. .'!."»7. 

h Blood Royal from Gruffith 
ap Lhewelina«"iTyddour, v., 56. 

British Speech called Crooked < rreek 
iii., Is.".. 

British Isles, first mentioned in 
Polybius, i., 410 ; dt 
from Britain, among the Latins, 
first in Lucretius, \ L, 306. 

British Poets, meetings, trials of 
pa ins, and such like, with their 
forms of verses ... iv., 177, 



Britons ware not long hair ; against 

Csesar ... ... viii., 24!). 

Britornart, what in the Cretic 

tongue ... ... i., 410. 

Brute ( for this time) maintai 

312 ; x., 244. Sis 

name, i., 3:;7- 
Bubastis, what in .Egyptian 

viii., 15S. 
Burien Trophy ... i., 130. 

C. 

CTaUair Arthur ... iv., 302, n. 

CadwaUader and Cedwalla, if tlie 
same, ix., 206 ; if he were Chris- 
tian before lope Sergius gam him 
name of Peter ; his epitaph, ibid. 

Cffisar's Commentaries ... x., 261. 

Ctesar, how far he came into Britain 
x., 261. 

Caer-Leon, whence called \\ 

Caer-Merdin ... ,~ iv., 331. 

Caer-Paladour ... ... ii. , 149. 

Caligula's phantastique, turning his 
army to gather cockles viii., 207. 

Cambridge's Antiquity... xi., 400. 

Camelot iii., 39?. 

Candles, hated by King Ethclred, 
and why ... ... xiii.,35S. 

Caradoc Lhan-carvan am 

viii., 11. 

Carpenwald for Eorpenwald 

xi., 379. 

Chad (St.) xi., 334. 

Charta de Foresta am* 

ing io truth of antiquity, xvi.. '.17. 

Chedder Cleeves iii., 

Chichester, xi., 219 J the Bishopric 
then Selsey, where 

it was first founded ... ix., 206. 

Christianity, when first received in 
Britain, iii., 307 ; viii., 314. 
Scots, viii., 314. 

Christianity, first among the En- 
glish, xi*, I '.17 -ussex, 
xi., 219; and see for that in others 
Heptarchy, xi., 379. 

Christian King, first in Britain 

viii., 314. 



TO THE CIIIEFEST PASSAGES. 



xlix 



Chronology, and computation in our 
Stories observed, with an admoni- 
tion of that kind upon the Diony- 
sian account ... iv., 390. 

Chronology of Welsh Princes from 
Arthur to Edward I. ... ix., 445. 

Thurch liberties granted ... xi., 350. 
'larence, when first made a Duke- 
dom, with a shameful lie laid on 
George Duke of Clarence by 
Francis Matenesi, a Divine, and 
Professor of Story and Greek in 
Cologne at this present j which is 
also slanderously reported among 
Rablais his tales. But it uorse 
becomes a professed historia 
Matenesi is ... xvii., 280. 

eiauDf) Offa ... viii., 11. 

Climate, how it alters the inhabitants' 

■ quality j., 255. 

Colchester ... viii., 323. 

Colony f/Maklon ... viii., 269. 

Combat 'twixt Henry of Essex and 
Robert of Montfort under Henry 
II. ix., 299. 

Commission to enquire of the Cus- 
toms of Wales ... ix., 272. 

Conquerour, William, had as well 
right by blood as sword to the 
Crown; and his protestation at his 
death ... ... iv., 410. 

Constantine the Great, a Briton 
born, against Lijjsius and others 

viii., 323. 

Consnlis nomen Scriptoribus revi 
citerioris IUustrem tantummodd 
Bsepius denotavit ... v., 108, n. 

( 'oral, black in tin: Dorset sea, ii. , 43. 

Corn, in i,m-; tong i., 500. 

Cornelius Xepos de Bello Trojano, 
jujed to Joseph o/Excester 
vi, 306. 

Cornwall, the old name, i., 239; 
the later, i., 506. 

Councils General. Our Bishops wont 
to go to them in some number. 
Mow their decrees bound us 

viii., 329. 



Counties of Lancaster, Durham, 

and others, when began xi., 408. 
Counts Palatine, and t/ie rea 

their name ... xi., 9. 

County Court ... xi., 40o. 

Courts of the Welsh Princes 

ix., 445. 
Coventry freed of impost by Godiva 

riding through it naked, xiii., 269. 
Coway stakes ... viii., 203. 
VJTramaboo and ISutlrraboo, where 

>/-Hen. VIII. read Hen. VI 1. 
iv., 215. 
Crests, their beginnings ... iv., 252. 
Crotjgetl, why we use the name to 

the Welsh ... ix., 321. 

Crowns and Diadems ... vii., 7. 
Cumry, Cinibri, &c, vi., 22S ; 

viii., 107. 
Cuno ... ... viii., 100. 

Cymbrica Chersonesus viii., 107. 

D. 
Danes and Dangelt, against the re- 
ceived opir .... i., 520. 
Danes murdt red over all England in 
one day, xii., 370. Their g 
ment here, ibid. 
Days of our Weeks, how and < 

d xi., 17S. 

Defender of the Faith, win 
how received to the Royal ti 
xvii.. 
Devonshire, ... i., 239. 

Dewy (St.) of Wales, his biri 
time ... iv., 215 ; v., 
Diana, a deity among the British 

viii., 12'). 
Diana Arduenna ... xiii., 15. 

ian accompt ... iv., 
Distinctio Aquilse ... ii., 
Dragon born 

iv.. 
Dreux in France, chief place of the 

Druids' < 
Drinking to the Health of Mis- 
tresses, i ... ix., 417. 
Druids, theii . i., 29; 



i 



A TABLE 



their opinion of Transmutation, i., 
40; those of Britain taught Gaul, 
vi., 211; of (heir Name, Profes- 
sion, Place of Pesidence, Sacri- 
fice, Subversion, and Pictures, 
largely in, ix., 417; of their Wri- 
ters and Language, and whether 
i> were Greek, x., 267. 

Sruttcnfnss ... ix., 417. 

Dusii apud D. Augustinum 

v., 168. 

Dutch, whence ... iv., 375. 

Outrun tCIivjijU x.,82. 



Eagle's prophecies ii., 152; v. , 56. 
Earls ... ... xi., 406. 

Earls' power in their Counties an- 
' ,'/ ... ... xiii., 269. 

Edgar roivcd over Dee by viii. Kings 

x., 212. 

Edgar, xii., 120; his wives, xii., 

368. 
Edmund (St.) ... xi., 268. 

Edward (St.) ... xii., 358. 

Elephants. One at Coway stakes 
w th Julius ( teesar, by authority of 
Polysenus, i., 474; more brought 
■'■>• r by ( llaudius, ibid. 
lEnglc-lont, the name hotojirst 

i., 549 j xi., 379. 
Englishmen called Inclins 

viii., 323. 
fecfed with 
ity by conflui nee of Aliens 

x., 212. 
us de ultra Mare, xvii., 12S. 
I ifter pains of childbirth) 
j\n ition 

xii., 120. 
Ethelred ... xii .. 



Famine and Pestilenc 

xi., 218. 
: ithes, by a 
listi' • aaompt the same ... ix., 206. 
Fl< mings planted in England 

iv., 87. 



Fortunate Isles, and a Donatio 71 
from the Pope by that name how 
interprt U d ... i., 26. 

Forty Days, a time limited in our 
Common Law in Abjuration, 
Quarentine, &c. ... xvii., 128. 

Fountain ebbing and flowing oppo- 
sitt 'y to the sea's course ... x., 133. 

Franks comprehend in name among 
the Turks, and in the Oriental 
stories, (///Europeans viii., 323. 

French, why they would not at fi>'st 
t women's government 

xvii., 207. 

French, custom at birth of the Daul- 
phin ... ... ibid. 

Frenchman, a name heretofore for 
ad Aliens ... ix., 190. 

Froome, in old Saxon fair 

iii., 279. 

G. 

Galfredus Monumethensis, cor- 
rect us ... viii., 305. 

Gaul taught the British Lawyers 

vi., 211. 

Generation, how much that time 
anciently comprehended ... i., 29. 

Genius to every Country ... i., 1. 

George (St.) the English Patron, his 
time, actions, and name, iv., 215 ; 
hit cross, viii., 314. 

Germans, their quality ... xi., 3S8. 

Gcscclcb aft £ Gioro.cn stbtli 

iv., 216. 

Giants ... i., 474 ; viii.. 23. 

Glastenbury ... iii., 307. 

Greek, if used among the old Cauls 

and Britons ... x., 267 . 

> in England iii , ls.">. 

Greeklade ... iii., 

H. 

Hair, long, > \ong the Jhi- 

tons, against vulgar tradition 

viii., 249. 

Hardin I ... ii., 149. 

Barp ... vi., 106. 

Bawks ... ... v., 304. 



TO THE CHIEF EST PASSAGES. 



Hawthorn, blossoming on Christmas- 
day, as report wanders ; bat the 
truth is, that it blotsometh indeed 
in winter, not observing any 
ticular day, no more than the Wal- 
nut-tree in the Abbey observes S. 
Barnabie's [although that goes for 
truth in report also) .. iii., 307- 

Healths in drinking ... ix., 417. 

Heil, a Saxon god ... ix., 417. 

Hel, what in Punic ... viii., 100. 

Helen, mother to Constantine the 
Great ... viii., 323; ix., 95. 

Henry VIII., his book against Lu- 
ther in the Vatican xvii., 336. 

Heptarchy of the Saxons, chrono- 
logically disposed ... xi., 379. 

Hide of land ... xi., 334. 

Higre ... ... vii., 10. 

Hills before Noah's Flood ix., 109. 

Histories, which most, and how, to 
be respected ... i., 312. 

Homage to Edgar by viii. Kings 

x., 212. 

Homage, unmannerly ... iv., 401. 

Homer, what part of the world he 
knew ... i., 464; vi., 366. 

Hours Planetary ... xi., 178. 

H umber ... ... viii., 43. 

Huntingdon's Story and Epigrams 
xii., 120. 

I. J. 

Jehan le Breton amende, viii., 329. 
lnclins for Englishmen, viii., 323. 
Ingulphus emendat us ... xi., 350. 

3£n ts Gum i., 410. 

Johannes Buttadeus, et Josephus 

(Jhartophylaceus. Vide Assue- 

rum. 
John's (King) actions ... xvii., 164. 
Joseph of Arimathea ... iii., 307- 
Joseph of Kxcester ... vi., 306. 
Joseph Ncaliger ... ix., 206. 
Ireland anciently a Seminary of 

Learning ... ... i., 86. 

Irish Saints ... ... i., 86'. 

Isis' hair ... ... ii., 43. 



Isles, newly out of the sea, ii., 210 ; 
belong to the next Continent, ix., 
409. 
Isles, of them Britain the greatest 

x., 220. 
Ismunsull ... iii., 48. 

Julis Hoif, built by whom, x., 267. 
Jutland, how named of old 

viii., 107. 

K. 
Kent and Christendom ... xi., 197. 
Kentish men's prerogatives and liber- 
ties ... xviiL, 735, 73S. 
King's Evil ... xi., 416. 



Ladies sat not with kniyhts, but in a 
several conclave ... iv., 302. 
Laws of Molmutius, viii., 129 ; 
West-Saxon, Danish, and Mer- 
cian, ibid. 
Laws of Howel Dha ... viii., 272. 
Laws, Roman, used in this dole, 
against common assertion, 

viii.. 269. 

Laws made in General Councils, how 

tin y bound us ... viii., 329. 

Learning, among the Briions very 

ancient ... x., 242. 

Lechlade ... ... iii., 185. 

"Libit aniricn ... viii., 357. 
Leicestershire, Earls hereditary 
< ^/V Saxons ... xiii., 269. 
Lent, institution of it, and tin 

xi., 207. 
Leopards, the Coat of England 

xi., 31. 
Ley, divided into ' 

iig Alfred ... xii., Mil. 

T.\)\n, what ... viii., 158. 

Lheweliu, last P> ince o /'Wales 

ix., 332. 
Limen in Sussex, where note 

xviii., 71. 

Lipsius, deceived alma/ bearing the 

Dragon ... ... iv., 252. 

Lisbon derived vi., 336. 

</ 2 



Hi 



A TABLE 



Livy, v/ptm n phee of him a conjec- 
ture viii., 200. 

London, derived, viii., 158; Us 
walls, ibid. 

London, once an Archbishopric 

viii., 314. 

Ludwal end Howel the same 

viii., 11 ; ix., 70. 

Luther, written against by K. Hen. 
VIII xvii., 336. 

M. 

Madoc, about 400 pears since dis- 
covered part of the West Indies 
ix., 320. 
Magna Charta/>-«< by King John ; 
of it see there more ... xvii., 175. 
Main- Amber ... i-> 130. 

Malmesburiensis emendatus 

viii., 11 ; xi., 46. 

Man, the name of that Isle mistook 

by Polydore and Boethilis ; and 

of it more ... ix., 390 ; 417. 

Marches of Wales, and LL. 

Marchers ... vii., 7 ; viii., 11. 

Mares, conceiving of the wind 

vi., 366. 
Marianua Scotus epitomized ^Ro- 
bert of Lorraine, Bishop of Here- 
ford iv., 390. 

Marsilles built ... x., 267. 

Matth. Paris ribi restilutus 

xvii., 120. 
Merc and Mercury ... iii., 48. 
Merlin, his place and prophecies, >.. 
14 ; his conception, v., 168; his 
birth, iv. , 331 . 
Michael's Mount ... i-> 100. 
Mistletoe, how sacred among the 

Druids ix., 417. 

{PonmamCumbTT? ... ix., 390. 
Monks of old and later U 

Morgain le Fay ... &-. 307. 
Municipium ... xvi., 43. 

Music of the Welsh, iv., 177 ; vi., 
106, 217. 



n. 



Names, proper, of like signification in 
several tongues .. i-> 410. 

Names, very different inform, spoken 
in different tongues ... iv., 375. 

Names of Kings national, viii., 100. 

Names of Cities from Goddesses 

viii., 158. 

Nations that came in with the 
Saxons ... .... i-> 549. 

Navy of 3600 sh ips ... xii. , 356. 

Neustria ... i v -> 401. 

New Forest made by Will. Conq., 
not Rufus .. ii., 200; xvii., 120. 

Nile ... ••• ... L '*J°/ 

Norman Story examined, xhi., 414. 

Norman Conquest, rightful or other- 
wise ... ■•• xvii > 11G - 

Normans and Normandy, their be- 
ginning and contingency of Blood 
Royal with the English, iv., 410. 

North- Wales, the chief of Wales. 

ix., 326 ; 445. 

O. 
Oak, used by the Druids, and to 

crown the infernal deities, ix., 417. 
Ockey Hole, see Wockey. 
Offa's Dike ... vm., 1L 

Order of the Carter, iv., 215 ; xv., 

315. And thereof the Alcantara, 

( 'alatrava, &c. 
Osteomantie, or Divination by bones 
v., 265. 
Oxford University, iii., 1S5 ; viii., 

61. 

Oxford's Antiquity ... xi., 403. 

P. 

Palatine Earls ... xi., 9. 

University ' ted, vi., 211. 

Parthians, whence natned iv., 390. 

ine hawks ... v., 304. 

their entry, when first men* 

tioned iu Roman writers 

viii., 305. 
Piers Plowman ... vii., 53, 

Plantagenest ... iv., 435. 



TO THE CHIEFEST PASSAGES. 



liii 



Plato and Plutarch commended spe- 
cially to Christ by a Grecian of 
middle times ... i., 40. 

Poets, see British. 

Pr«comes Angliae ... xiii., 6. 

Prediction by a bone of a shoulder of 
mutton ... ... v., 265. 

Prophecy of the name of Britain 

v., 56, x., 14. 

Prophecy of Britain by a Sibyl 

viii., 323. 

Quarentine q/7/«; Widow, xvii., 128. 

R. 

Recovery of lands upon title before 

the Conquest ... xvii., 116. 

Red Sea, uhy so called ... i., 410. 

Rereward by prerogative due to 

Wiltshire, Devonshire, a>id 

Cornish men ... xviii., 738. 

Rivers, divers of the same name in 

Wales, and so in England 

vi., 355. 
Rivers running through others un- 
mixed ... ... ix., 48. 

Rivers running under the earth 

xvii., 59. 
Robert of Swaphain's Story an- 
swered ... ... xi., 334. 

Robert Duke oj Normandy 

xvii., 128. 
Rollo of Normandy, iv., 401 ; and 
the Story of him examined 

xiii., 414. 
Roman Story for this Isle, vi. , 306. 
Roses, White and Red in the factions 
of York and Lancaster 

xvii., 268. 
Rother, the liiver in Sussex 

xviii., 71. 
Round Table Knights ... iv., 302. 
Ruan, 1700 years of age ... i., 86. 



S. 



Sagaris, a weapon 
Sajjque Law 



iv., 388. 
;vii„ 207. 



Salisbury Church built ... Hi., 13. 

Salomon's physics suppressed by 
Ezekias ... ... x , 244. 

Salt ... ... xi., G4. 

Sainantei and Semni ... L, 61. 

Sangluc in Battell ... xvii., 444. 

Saturn bound in chains in some 
Horthem Isle, and narration of 
other matters touching the inhabi- 
tants ... ... i., 29. 

Satyrs, whence so named ... vii., 33. 

Saxons, why so called, thdr first 
coming, and the cause, against com- 
mon opinion ... iv., 388. 

Sceptre, first in Henry III. seal 

ii., 152. 

Scots, their name from Scythians, 
and these from shooting viii., 36. 

Scythians, their worth ... viii., 379. 

Seals first in England ... iv., 2S6. 

Selsey, and first Bisho}) there 

xi.,219. 

Sepulchre of Christ. ... i., 474. 

Shaftesbury called S. Edward's 

ii., 149. 

Sheep, clotlied to save their u-ool 

vii., 158. 

Shires, when first England was di- 
vided into ... xi., 406. 

Shires, their number ... xi., 406. 

Shirives ... ... xi., 406. 

Shrew, that name applied to the 
quieter sex ... v., 168, n. 

Sicily, whence named ... xviii., 720. 

Solent Sea ... ii., 149. 

Sphyromachus instituted that the 
two sexes should sit in d\ 
rooms ... ... iv., 302. 

Spot's History suspicious, xviii., 7-*^ r '. 

Stamford University ... viii., 61. 

Statute of Marlbridge amended 

Nvi., 97. 

Sterling, whence called xvii., L64, 

Stethua ... ... iv., 177. 

Stone, whereon our Kings art 
crowned ... xvii., 1S8. 

Stonehenge, and stones of vnor • 

weight iii. . 43. 

d-3 



liv A TABLE TO THE CHIEFEST PASSAGES. 



Stuarts, their name ... v., 56. 
Sun's declination ... xiv., 177. 

T. 
Taliessin Ben Beirdh ... iv., 115. 
Tenure per sergeant iam capiendi 
Lupos ... ... ix., 76. 

Testament of Will. Conq. 

xvii., 116. 

Thames, his course and flood from 

the Ocean ... xvi., 47 ; xvii., 72. 

Thanes ... ... v., 35. 

Third part of the Comities' profit to 
/Ac Earl ... xiii., 269. 

Thomas de la More emendatus 

iv., 14. 
Tithes, paid by the Heathens 

ix., 206. 
Tithes and First-fruits, (by a Ca- 
balistic accompt) tlie same ... ibid. 
Tithes of Time in Lent ... xi., 207. 
Tours, built ... i., 464. 

Trinoda Necessitas, in old Charters 
xi., 350. 
Tropelophorus,«;r Grseco Menologio 
m Baron ii Martyrologio 

iv., 215. 

Tuisco, the same as Aschenaz, and 

Author of the Dutch ... iv., H7.~>. 

Tame of the Shrife ... xi., 406. 



Verlam xvi. 

Vice-comes and Vice-dominus 



43. 

. 406. 

Virgins, consecrate to chastity in the 
Semes ... ... i., 61. 

Villeins in England before the Con- 
quest xviii., 735. 

Utmost Ends of the Earth ... i., 29. 



W. 

Wales, tripartite!;/ divided, iv., 85 ; 
vii., 7 ; but chief of it North- 
Wales, ix., 32b', 445 ; annexed 
to England being governed by our 
Laws before, vii., 7 ; how much 
subject to England before Ethv. I. , 
ix., 14 ; ix., 272, 326, 332. The 
Principality given first, ix., 332. 

Walsingham locus in Hypodygmate 
Neustrise sibi restitutio ... i. , 26. 

(®as-f)ctl and Bltniuf)cil ix., 417. 

Ways of Molmutius ... xvi., 97. 

Welsh, why so called ... ix., 190. 

White-hart silver ... ii., 77. 

Wife discovering (but unwittingly') 
her own falsehood to her husband 
v., 265. 

Wight, why the Isle so called xviii, 
720. 

Wild beasts into Islands, xviii., 720. 

Wilfrid xi., 219- 

Wines made in England, xiv., 176 ; 
vhy not now, ibid. 

Winifred's Well ... x., 139. 

Wives' tongues cut out in Bretagne 
viii., 357. 

Wockey Hole .. iii., 262. 

W'oden and Wodensdike 

iii., 48; xi., 174. 

Wolves destroyed ... ix., 76. 

Women, why they reign not m 
France ... xvii., 207. 

Wonders of England ... iii., 262. 

Wulpher's murder of his children, 
suspected as a false report by 
Robert of Swaphain ... xi. , 334. 



York, first Saxon Bishop xi., 314. 
York and Lancaster's factions 

xvii., 268. 



POLT-OLBIOK 



THE FIRST SONG. 



The Argument. 

The sprightly Muse her icing displays, 

And the French Islands first surveys ; 

Bears xip with Neptune, and in glory 

Transa nds proud Cornwall's Promontory ; 

There crowns Mount-Michael, and descries „ * 

How all tko8( Riv( n tsfatt and rise ; 

Tin a takes in Tamer, as she bounds 

The Cornish and Devonian grounds. 

And whilst the Devonshire-Nymphs relate 

Their loves, their fortunes, and (.state, 10 

Dert undi rtah Hi to revive 

Our Brute, and sings his first arrive : 

Then Northward to the verge she bends, 

And her first Song at Ax she ends. 

F Albion's glorious Isle the wonders whilst I write, 
The sundry varying soils, the pleasures infinite, 
(Where heat kills not the cold, nor cold expells 
the heat, 

The calms too mildly small, nor winds too roughly great. 
Nor night doth hinder day, nor day the night doth wrong, s 
The summer not too short, the winter not too long) 

VOL. i. l 




2 POLY-OLBION, 

What help shall I invoke to aid my Muse the while ? 
Thou Genius of the place (this most renowned Isle) 
Which livedst long before the all-earth-drowning Flood, 
Whilst yet the world did swarm with her Giganticbrood, 10 
Go thou before me still thy circling shores about, 
And in this wand'ring maze help to conduct me out : 
Direct my course so right, as with thy hand to show 
Which way thy Forests range, which way thy Rivers flow ; 
Wise Genius, by thy help that so I may descry is 

I low thy fair Mountains stand, and how thy Valleys lie ; 
From those clear pearly Cleeves which see the morning's pride. 
And check the surly imps of Neptune when they chide, 
Unto the big-swoll'n waves in the Iberian^ .stream, 
Wnere Titan still unyokes his fiery-hoofed team, 20 

And oft his flaming locks in luscious nectar steeps, 
When from Olympus' top he plungeth in the deeps : 
That from th' Armoric' 2 sands, on surging Neptune's leas, 
Through the Hibernic Gulf (those rough Vergivian seas) 
My verse with wings of skill may fly a lofty gait, 25 

§ As Amphitiite clips this Island Fortunate, 
Till through the sleepy main to Thuly 3 I have gone, 
And seen the frozen Isles, the cold Deucalidon,* 
A mongst whose iron rocks grim Saturn yet remains, 
Bound in those gloomy caves with adamantine chains. 30 

Ye sacred Bards, 5 that to your harps' melodious strings 
Sung th' ancient Heroes' deeds (the monuments of Kings) 
And in your dreadful verse ingrav'd the prophecies, 
The aged world's descents, and genealogies ; 
If, as those DruiM taught, which kept the British rites, S6 
A 'id dwelt in darksome groves, there counsellingwith sprites, 

1 The Western or Spanish Ocean. 2 The coast of Little Britaine in 
:! The furthest tale in the British Ocean. [France. 

4 The Sea upon the North of Scotland. 
4 The old Briti h Poets. c .Priests among the ancient Britons. 



THE FIRST SONG. 

(But their opinions fail'd, by error led awry, 

As since clear truth hath shew'd to their posterity") 

When these our souls by death our bodies do forsake, 

§ They instantly again do other bodies take ; + 1 

I could have wish'd your spirits redoubled in my breast, 

To give my verse applause, to time's eternal rest. 

Thus scarcely said the Muse, but hovering while she bung 
Upon the Celtic 1 wastes, the Se^-Nymphs loudly sung : 
ever-happy Isles, your heads so high that bear, ■»:. 

By nature strongly fenc'd, which never need to fear 
On Neptune's wat'ry realms when Eolus raiseth wars, 
And ev'ry billow bounds, as though to quench the stars : 
Fair Jersey first of these here scatt'red in the deep, 
Peculiarly that boast'st thy double-horned sheep : io 

Inferior nor to thee, thou Jernsey, bravely crown'd 
With rough-imbattl'd rocks, whose venom-hating ground 
The hard'ned emeril hath, which thou abroad dost send : 
Thou Ligon, her belov'd, and Serb, that dost attend 
Her pleasure ev'ry hour ; as Jcthow, them at need, 
With pheasants, fallow deer, and conies, that dost feed : 
Ye Seven small sister Isles, and Sorlings, which to see 
The half-sunk seaman joys, or whatsoe'er you be, 
From fruitful Aurney, near the ancient Celtic shore. 
To Ushant, and the Seams, whereas those Nuns of yore eo 
§ Gave answers from their caves, and took what shapes they 
Ye happy Islands set within the British Seas, [please : 

With shrill and jocund shouts, th' unmeasur'd deeps awake, 
And let the Gods of sea their secret bow'rs forsake, 
Whilst our industrious Muse great Britain forth shall bring, 
Crown'd with those glorious wreaths that beautify the 

Spring ; 
And whilst green Th tis 1 Nymphs, with many an amorous lay 
Sing our invention safe unto her long-wish'd Bay. 

1 The French Seas. 

1-2 



4 Pr.LY-OLBIOX, 

Upon the utmost end of Cormvatt's furrowing beak, 
Where Bresan 1 from the land the tilting waves doth break ; 
The shore let her transcend, the promont 2 to descry, 7i 

Ami view about the Point th' unnumb'red fowl that fly. 
Some, rising iike a storm from off the troubled sand, 
Seem in their hovering flight to shadow all the land ; 
Some, sitting on the beach to prune their painted breasts, 75 
As if both earth and air they only did possess. 
Whence, climbing to the cleeves, herself she firmly sets 
The Bourns, the Brooks, the Becks, the Rills, the Rivelets, 
Exactly to derive ; receiving in her way [Bay, 

That straight'ned tongue of land, where, at Mount-Michael' s 
Rude Neptune, cutting in, a cantle forth doth take ; si 

And, on the other side, Hayle's vaster mouth doth make 
A chersonese thereof, the corner clipping in ; 
Where to the industrious Muse the Mount doth thus begin : 
Before thou further pass, and leave this setting shore, 85 
§ Whose towns unto the Saints that lived here of yore 
(Their fasting, works, and pray'rs, remaining to our shames,) 
Were rear'd, and justly call'd by their peculiar names, 
The builders honour still ; this due and let them have, 
As deign to drop a tear upon each holy grave ; so 

Whose charity and zeal instead of knowledge stood : 
For surely in themselves they were right simply good. 
ll\ credulous too much, thereby they offended heaven, 
In their devout intents yet be their sins forgiven. 
Then from his rugged top the tears down trickling fell ; 95 
And, in his passion stirr'd, again began to tell [pass, 

Si range tilings, that in his days Time's course had brought to 
That forty miles now sea. sometimes firm fore-land was ; 
Aud that a forest then, which now with him is flood, 
§ Whereof he first was call'd the Hoar-Rock in the Wood; 100 

1 A small island upon the very point of Cornwall. 
i A bill lying out, as an elbow of land, into the sea. 



THE FIRST SONG. 

Relating then how long this soil had lain forlorn, 

As that her Genius now had almost her forsworn, 

And of their ancient love did utterly repent, 

Sith to destroy herself that fatal tool she lent 

By which th' insatiate slave her entrails out doth draw, 105 

That thrusts his gripple hand into her golden maw ; 

And for his part doth wish, that it were in his povv'r 

To let the ocean in, her wholly to devour. 

Which Hayle doth overhear, and much doth hlame his rage, 
And told him (to his teeth) he doted with his age. no 

For Hayle (a lusty Nymph, bent all to amorous play, 
And having quick recourse into the Severn Sea, 
With Neptune s pages oft disporting in the deep ; 
One never touch'd with care ; but how herself to keep 
In excellent estate) doth thus again intreat : 115 

Muse, leave the wayward Mount to his distemp'red heat. 
Who nothing can produce but what doth taste of spite : 
I'll shew thee things of ours most worthy thy delight. 
Behold our diamonds here, as in the quarrs they stand. 
By Nature neatly cut, as by a skilful hand, 120 

Who varieth them in forms, both curiously and oft ; 
Which for she (wanting pow'r) produceth them too soft, 
That virtue which she could not liberally impart, 
She striveth to amend by her own proper art. 
Besides, the seaholm here, that spreadeth all our shore, viu 
The sick consuming man so pow'rful to restore : 
Whose root th' eringo is, the reins that doth inflame 
So strongly to perform the CijlJicrcean game, 
That, generally approv'd, both far and near is sought. 
§ And our Main-Amber here, and Burien Trophy, though , 
Much wrong'd, nor yet preferr'd for wonders witli the ret I . 

But the laborious Muse, upon her journey prest, 
Thus uttereth to herself: To guide my course aright, 
What mound or steady mere is offered to my sight 



.6 rOLY-OLBION, 

Upon this outstretch'd arm, whilst sailing here at ease, 135 
Betwixt the Southern waste, and the Sah-irdan seas, 

I view those wanton brooks, that, waxing, still do wane ; , 
That scarcety can conceive, but brought to bed again ; 
Srarce rising from the spring (that is their natural mother) 
To grow into a stream, but buried in another ? ho 
AYhen Chore doth call her on, that wholly doth betake 

II srself unto the Loo ; transform'd into a lake, 
Through that impatient love she had to entertain 

The lustful Neptune oft ; whom when his wracks restrain, 
Impatient of the wrong, impetuously he raves ; 115 

And in his rageful flow, the furious King of waves 
Breaks foaming o'er the beach, whom nothing seems to cool, 
Till he have wrought his will on that capacious pool : 
Where Menedge, by his brooks a chersonese 1 is cast, 
Widening the slender shore to ease it in the wast ; im> 

A promont jutting out into the dropping South, 
That with his threat'ning cleeves in horrid Neptune's mouth, 
1 brides him and his pow'r ; nor cares how him he greets. 
Next Boseland (as his friend, the mightier Menedge) meets 
( treat Neptune when he swells, and rageth at the rocks 155 
(Set out into those seas) inforcing through his shocks 
Those arms of sea, that thrust into the tinny strand, 
By their meand'red creeks indenting of that land, 
Whose fame by ev'ry tongue is for her minerals hurl'd, 
Near from the mid-day's point, throughout the Western world. 
Here Vale, a lively flood, her nobler name that gives iei 
To F/iiiiimdli ;'■'■ and by whom, it famous ever lives, 
Whose entrance is from sea so intricately wound, 
Her haven angled so about her harb'rous sound, 
That in her quiet Bay a hundred ship- may ride, 
Vet not the tallest mast be of the tall'st descried; 

1 A place almost invirrmeil with water, well-nigh an island. 
5 Tho bravery of Flamovth (i.e. Falmouth,) Haven. 



THE FIRST SONG. 7 

Her bravery to this Nymph when neighb'ring rivers told. 

Her mind to them again she briefly doth unfold : 

Let Camell 1 of her course and curious windings boast, 

In that her greatness reigns sole mistress of that coast 1:0 

'T wixt Tamer and that Bay, where Htujle pours forth her pride: 

And let us (nobler Nymphs) upon the mid-day side, 

Be frolic with the best. Thou Foy, before us all, 

By thine own named Town made famous in thy fall, 

As Low, amongst us here ; a most delicious brook, l:^ 

With all our sister Nymphs, that to the noon-sted look. 

Which gliding from the hills, upon the tinny ore, 

Betwixt your high-rear'd banks, resort to this our shore : 

Lov'd streams, let us exult, and think ourselves no less 

Than those upon their side, the setting that possess. iso 

Which Camell overheard : but what doth she respect 
Their taunts, her proper course that loosely doth neglect 1 
As frantic, ever since her British Arthur's blood 
By MorclreaVs murtherous hand was mingled with her flood. 
For, as that river best might boast that Conqueror's breath, 
So sadly she bemoans his too untimely death ; isg 

Who, after twelve proud fields against the Saxon fought, 
Yet back unto her banks by fate was lastly brought : 
As though no other place, on Britain's spacious earth, 
§ Were worthy of his end, but where he had his birth : 190 
And careless ever since how she her course do steer, 
This mutt'reth to herself, in wand'ring here and there : 
Ev'n in the agedst face, where beauty once did dwell, 
And nature (in the least) but seemed to excell, 
Time cannot make such waste, but something will appear. 
To show some little tract of delicacy there. we 

Or some religious work, in building many a day, 
That this penurious age hath suffer'd to decay, 

1 This hath also the name of Alan. 



S POLY-OLBIOX, 

Some limb or model, dragg'd out of the ruinous mass, 
The richness will declare in glory whilst it was : 200 

But time upon my waste committed hath such theft, 
That it of Arthur here scarce memory hath left. 

The Mneston'd Trophy thus whilst she doth entertain, 
Proud Tamer swoops along, with such a lusty train 
As fits so brave a flood two Countries that divides : 205 

So, to increase her strength, she from her equal sides 
Eeceives their several rills ; and, of the Cornish kind, 
First taketh Aire in ; and her not much behind 
Comes Kensey; after whom, clear Enhin in doth make, 
In Tamer's roomthier banks their rest that scarcely take. 210 
Then Lyner, though the while aloof she seem'd to keep, 
Her Sovereign when she sees t'approach the surgeful deep, 
To beautify her fall her plenteous tribute brings. 
This honours Tamer much; that she whose plenteous springs, 
Those proud aspiring hills, Bromicel/y and his friend 215 

High Bonder, from their tops impartially commend, 
And is by Carcic's' 1 muse the river most renown'd, 
Associate should her grace to the Devonian ground. 
Which in those other brooks doth emulation breed. 
Of which, first Car comes crown'd, with osier, segs, and reed : 
Then Lid creeps on along, and, taking Thrushd, throws 221 
Herself amongst the rocks ; and so incavern'd goes, 
That of the blesseVl light (from other floods) debarr'd, 
To bellow under earth she only can be heard, 
As those that view her tract seems strangely to affright: 22s 
So Toory straineth in ; and Plym, that claims by right 
The christ'ning of that Bay, which bears her nobler name. 
Upon the British coast, what ship yet ever cam-'. 
That not of Plymouth hears,- where those brave Navies lie, 
From cannons' thund'ring throats that all the world defy / 

1 A worthy gentleman, who writ the description of Cornwall. 
1 Thfl nraiRfl of I'lvinuiit.h. 



THE FIRST SONG. 

"Which, to invasive spoil when th' English list to draw, 231 
Have check'd Iberia's pride, and held her oft in awe: 
Oft furnishing onr dames with India's rar'st devices, 
And lent us gold, and pearl, rich silks, and dainty spices. 
But Tamer takes the place, and all attend her here, 235 

A faithful bound to both ; and two that be so near 
For likeliness of soil, and quantity they hold, 
Before the Roman came ; whose people were of old 
§ Known by one general name, upon this point that dwell, 
All other of this Isle in wrastling that excell : 240 

With collars be they yok'd, to prove the arm at length, 
Like bulls set head to head, with mere deliver strength : 
Or by the girdles grasp'd, they practise with the. hip, 
The forward, 1 backward, falx, the mare, the turn, the trip, 
When stript into their shirts, each other they invade 245 
Within a spacious ring, by the beholders made 
According to the law. Or when the ball to throw, 
And drive it to the goal, in squadrons forth they go ; 
And to avoid the troops (their forces that foreday) 
Through dikes and rivers make, in this robustious play ; 250 
By which the toils of war most lively are exprest. 

But Muse, may I demand, Why these of all the rest 
(As mighty Albion's eld'st) most active are and strong ? 
From Corin - came it first, or from the use so long 1 
§ Or that this foredand lies furth'st out into his sight, 255 
Which spreads his vigorous flames on ev'ry lesser light ? 
With th' virtue of his beams, this place that doth inspire : 
Whose pregnant womb prepar'd by his all-pow'rful fire, 
Being purely hot and moist, projects that fruitful seed 
Which strongly doth beget, and doth as strongly breed : 260 
The well-disposed heav'n here proving to the earth 
A husband furthering fruit, a midwife helping birth. 

1 The words of art in wrastling. 

8 Our first ereat wrastler arriving here with Brute. 



10 P0LY-0LBI0N, 

But whilst ill' industrious Muse thus labours to relate 
Those rillets that attend proud Tamer and her state, 
A neighbourer of this Nymph's, as high in fortune's grace, 265 
And whence calm Tamer trips, clear Toivridge in that place 
Is poured from her spring ; and seems at first to flow 
That way which Tinner strains ; but as she great doth grow 
Rememb'reth to fore-see what rivals she should find 
To interrupt her course : whose so unsettled mind 270 

Ock coming in perceives, and thus doth her persuade : 
Now Nejititne shield (bright Nymph) thy beauty should 

be made 
The object of her scorn, which (for thou canst not be 
Upon the Southern side so absolute as she) 
Will awe thee in thy course. Wherefore, fair flood, recoil ; 
And, where thou may'st alone be sov'reign of the soil, jto 
There exercise thy pow'r, thy braveries and display. 
Turn Toivridge, let us back to the Sabrinian sea, 
Where Thetis' handmaids still in that recourseful deep 
With those rough Gods of sea continual revels keep ; 'jso 
There mayst thou live admir'd, the Mistress of the Lake. 

Wise Ock she doth obey, returning, and doth take [gales. 
The Taive: which from her fount fore'd on with amorous 
And eas'ly ambling down through the Devonian dales, 
Brings with her Moult and Bray, her hanks that gently 
bathe ; 285 

Which on her dainty breast, in many a silver swathe, 
She bears unto that Bay, where Barstable beholds 
How her beloved Tawe clear Toivridge (here enfolds. 

The confluence of these brooks divulg'd in Dertmoore, bred 
Distrust in her sad breast, that she, si) largely spread, 290 
And in this spacious Shire the neer'st the centre set 
< >f any place of note ; that, these should bravely get 
The praise from those that Sprung out of her pearly lap ; 
Which, nourish'd and bred up at her most plenteous pap, 



THE FIIiST SONG. 1 1 

No sooner taught to dade, but from their mother trip, 295 

And, in their speedy course, strive others to outstrip. 

The Yalme, the Avme, the Aume, by spacious Dertmoore fed, 

And in the Southern sea being likewise brought to bed ; 

That these were not of pow'r to publish her desert, 

Much griev'd the ancient Moor : which understood by lh rt 

(From all the other floods that only takes her name, soi 

And as her eld'st (in right) the heir of all her fame) 

To shew her nobler spirit it greatly doth behove. [move : 

Dear mother, from your breast this fear (quoth she) re- 

Defie their utmost force: there's not the proudest flood, 305 

That falls betwixt the Mount and Exmore, shall make good 

Her royalty with mine, with me nor can compare : 

I challenge any one, to answer me that dare ; 

That was, before them all, predestinate to meet 

My 2?nfam-founding Brute, when with his puissant fleet 310 

At Totnesse first he touch'd : which shall renown my stream 

§ (Which now the envious world doth slander for a dream.) 

Whose fatal flight from Greece, his fortunate arrive 

In happy Albion here whilst strongly I revive, 

Dear Harburne at thy hands this credit let me win, 315 

Quoth she, that as thou hast my faithful handmaid been ; 

So now (my only brook) assist me with thy spring, 

Whilst of the god-like Brute the story thus I sing: 

When long-renowned Troy lay spent in hostile fire, 

And aged Priam's pomp did with her flames expire, 320 

Apneas (taking thence Ascanius, his young son, 

And his most rev'rend sire, the grave Anchises, won [shores; 

From shoals of slaught'ring Greeks) set out from Simois' 

And through the Tyrrhene Sea, by strength of toiling oars, 

Raught Italy at last ; where King Latinus lent 

Safe harbour for his ships, with wrackful tempests rent : 

When, in the Latin Court, Lavinia young and fail 

(Her father's only child, and kingdom's only heir) 



12 POLY-OLBION, 

Upon the Troian lord her liking strongly plac'd, 

And languish'd in the fires that her fair hreast imbrac'd : 

But Turmis (at that time) the proud Rutulian King, 331 

A suitor to the maid, JEneas malicing, 

By force of arms attempts his rival to extrude : 

But, by the Teuerian pow'r courageously subdu'd, 

Bright (Ji/therea's son the Latin crown obtain'd ; 335 

And dying, in his stead his son Ascanius reign'd. 

§ Next Silvius him succeeds, begetting Brute again : 

Who in his mother's womb whilst yet he did remain, 

The Oracles gave out, that next-born Brute should be 

§ His parents' only death : which soon they liv'd to see. 340 

For, in his painful birth his mother did depart ; 

And ere his fifteenth year, in hunting of a hart, 

He with a luckless shaft his hapless father slew : 

For which, out of his throne, their king the Latins threw. 

Who, wand'ring in the world, to Greece at last doth get. 345 
Where, whilst he liv'd unknown, and oft with want beset, 
He of the race of Troy a remnant hapt to find, 
There by the Grecians held ; which (having still in mind 
Their tedious ten years' war, and famous heroes slain) 
In slavery with them still those Troians did detain : 3.00 

Which Pyrrhus thither brought (and did with hate pursue, 
To wreak Achilles' death, at Troy whom Paris slew) 
There by Pandrasus kept in sad and servile awe. 
Who, when they knew young Brute, and that brave shape 

they saw, 
They humbly him desire, that he a mean would be, x,b 

From those imperious Greeks, his countrymen to free. 

He, finding out a rare and sprightly youth, to fit 
His humour ev'ry way, for courage, pow'r, and wit, 
Assaraeus (who, though that by his sire he were 
A prince amongt the Greeks, yet held the Troians dear j 



THE FIRST SONG. 13 

Descended of their stock upon the mother's side : 
For which he" by the Greeks his birth-right was denied) 
Impatient of his wrongs, with him brave Brute arose, 
And of the Troian youth courageous captains chose, 
Kais'd earthquakes with their drums, the ruffling ensigns rear ; 
And, gathering young and old that rightly Troian were, 366 
Up to the mountains march, through straits and forests 

strong : 
Where, taking-in the towns, pretended to belong 
Unto that Grecian 1 lord, some forces there they put : 
Within whose safer walls their wives and children shut, 370 
Into the fields they drew, for liberty to stand. 

Which when Pandrasus heard, he sent his strict command 
To levy all the pow'r he presently could make : 
So to their strengths of war the Troians them betake. 374 

But whilst the Grecian guides (not knowing how or where 
The Teucrians were entrench'd, or what their forces were) 
In foul disord'red troops yet straggled, as secure, 
This looseness to their spoil the Troians did allure, 
Who fiercely them assail'd : where stanchless fury rap'd 
The Grecians in so fast, that scarcely one escap'd : 3so 

Yea, proud Pandrasus flight himself could hardly free. 
Who, when he saw his force thus frustrated to be, 
And by his present loss his passed error found, 
(As by a later war to cure a former wound) 
Doth reinforce his pow'r to make a second fight. 3S5 

When they whose better wits had over-match'd his might, 
Loth what they got to lose, as politicly cast 
His armies to entrap, in getting to them fast 
AnUgonus as friend, and Anaclet his pheere 
(Surpris'd in the last fight) by gifts who hired were a*> 

Into the Grecian camp th' insuing night to go, 
And feign they were stoln forth, to their allies to show 
1 Assaracus. 



H P0LY-0LB10N, 

How they might have the spoil of all the Troian pride ; 

And gaining them belief, the credulous Grecians guide 

Into th' ambushment near, that secretly was laid : 896 

So to the Troians' hands the Grecians were betray'd ; 

Pandrasus self surpris'd ; his crown who to redeem 

(Which scarcely worth their wrong the Troian race esteem) 

Their slavery long-sustain'd did willingly release : 

And (for a lasting league of amity and peace) <oo 

Bright Innogen, his child, for wife to Brutus gave, 

And furaish'd them a fleet, with all things they could crave 

To set them out to sea. Who launching, at the last 

They on Lcrgecia light, an isle ; and, ere they past, 

Unto a temple, built to great Diana there, 405 

The nohle Brutus went ; wise Trivia x to enquire, 

To show them where the stock of ancient Troy to place. 

The Goddess, that both knew and lov'd the Troian race, 
Reveal'd to him in dreams, that furthest to the West, 
§ He should descry the Isle of Albion, highly blest ; 410 

With Giants lately stor'd ; their numbers now decay'd : 
By vanquishing the rest his hopes should there be stay'd : 
Where, from the stock of Troy, those puissant kings should 

rise, 
Whose conquests from the West the world shouldscant suffice. 

Thus answer'd, great with hope, to sea they put again, no 
And. Bafely under sail, the hours do entertain 
With sights of sundry shores, which they from for descry : 
And viewing with delight th' Azarian Mountains high, 
One walking on the deck unto his friend would say 
(As I have heard some till) 'So goodly J,l,i lay.' 420 

Thus talking mongst themselves, tiny sun-burnt Afric keep 
Upon the lee-ward still, and (sulking up the deep) 
F<>r Mauritania make : where put ting-in, they find 
A remnant (yet reserv'd) of th' ancient Dardan kind, 

1 One of the titles of !><• 



THE FIRST SOXG. 15 

By brave Anterior brought from out the Greekish spoils 42s 
(0 long renowned Troy ! of thee, and of thy toils, 
What country had not heard ?) -which, to their General, then 
Great Corineus had, the strong'st of mortal men : 
To whom (with joyful hearts) Diana! s will they show. 

Who eas'ly being won along with them to go, 430 

They altogether put into the wat'ry plain : 
Oft-times with pirates, oft with monsters of the main, 
Distressed in their way ; whom hope forbids to fear. 
Those Pillars first they pass, which Jove's great son did rear, 
And cuffing those stern waves, which like huge mountains roll, 
(Full joy in ev'ry part possessing ev'ry soul) 436 

In Aquitaine at last the Ilion race arrive. 
Whom strongly to repulse, when as those recreants strive, 
They (anchoring there at first but to refresh their fleet, 
Yet saw those savage men so rudely them to greet) 440 

Qnshipp'd their warlike youth, advancing to the shore. 
The dwellers, which perceiv'd such danger at the door, 
Their King Groffarins get to raise his pow'rful force : 
Who, must'ring up an host of mingled foot and horse, 
Upon the Troians set; when suddenly began 445 

A fierce and dangerous fight: where Corineus ran 
With slaughter through the thick-set squadrons of the foes, 
And with his armed axe laid on such deadly blows, 
That heaps of lifeless trunks each passage stopp'd up quite. 

Groffarius having lost the honour of the fight, 450 

Repairs his ruin'd pow'rs ; not so to give them breath : 
When they, which must be freed by conquest or by death, 
And conquering them before, hop'd now to do no less, 
(The like in courage still) stand for the like success. 
Then stern and deadly war put on his horrid'st shape ; 455 
And wounds appear'd so wide, as if the grave did gape 
To swallow both at once ; which strove as both should fall, 
When they with slaughter seem'd to be encircled all : 



16 POLY-OLBIOK, 

Where Turon (of the rest) Brute's sister's valiant son, 

(By whose approved deeds that day was chiefly won) 460 

Six hundred slew outright through his peculiar strength : 

By multitudes of men yet over-press'd at length. 

His nobler uncle there, to his immortal name, 

§ The city Turon built, and well-endow'd the same. 

For Albion sailing then, they arrived quickly here 465 

(0 ! never in this world men half so joyful Avere, 

"With shouts heard up to heav'n, when they beheld the land) 

And in this very place where Totncss now doth stand, 

First set their gods of Troy, kissing the blessed shore ; 

Then, foraging this Isle, long-promis'd them before, 470 

Amongst the ragged cleeves those monstrous Giants sought : 

Who, of their dreadful kind, t' appall the Troians, brought 

( i-reat Gogmagog, an oak that by the roots could tear : 

§ So mighty were (that time) the men who liv6d there : 

But, for the use of arms he did not understand 475 

(Except some rock or tree, that, coming next to hand, 

He ras'd out of the earth to execute his rage) 

He challenge makes for strength, and off'reth there his gage. 

Which Corin taketh up, to answer by-and-by, 

Upon this son of earth his utmost pow'r to try. 480 

All doubtful to which part the victory would go, 
Upon that lofty place at Plymouth call'd the Hoe, 
Those mighty wrastlers 1 met ; with many an ireful look 
Who threat'ned, as the one hold of the other took : 
But, grappled, glowing fire shines in their sparkling eyes. 485 
And, whilst at length of arm one from the other lies, 
Their lusty sinews swell like cables, as they strive : 
Their feet such trampling make, as though theyfore'd to drive 
A thunder out of earth : which Btagger'd with the weight : 
Thus, cither's utmost force urg'd to the greatest height. 490 

1 The description of the wrastling betwixt Corincm and Guyinagog. 



THE FIRST SONG. 17 

Whilst one upon his hip the other seeks to lift, 

And th' adverse (by a turn) doth from his cunning shift, 

Their short-fetch'd troubled breath a hollow noise doth make, 

Like bellows of a forge. Then Covin up doth take 

The Giant twixt the grayns ; and, voiding of his hold, m<~, 

(Before his combrous feet he well recover could), 

Pitch'd head-long from the hill ; as when a man doth throw 

An axtree, that, with sleight deliver'd from the toe, 

Roots up the yielding earth : so that his violent fall, 499 

Strook Neptune with such strength, as shoulder'd him withal] ; 

That where the monstrous waves like mountains late did 

stand, 
They leap'd out of the place, and left the bared sand 
To gaze upon wide heaven : so great a blow it gave. 
For which, the conquering Bride on Covineus brave 504 

This horn of land bestow'd, and mark'd it with his name ; 
§ Of Covin, Cornwall call'd, to his immortal fame. 

Clear Devi delivering thus the famous Bride's arrive, 
Inflam'd with her report, the straggling rivulets strive 
So highly her to raise, that Ting (whose banks were blest 
By her beloved Nymph, dear Lemon) which addrest 510 
And fully with her self determined before 
To sing the Danish spoils committed on her shore, 
"When hither from the East they came in mighty swarms, 
Nor could their native earth contain their numerous arms, 
Their surcrease grew so great, as forced them at last ms 
To seek another soil (as bees do when they cast) 
And by their impious pride how hard she was bested, 
When all the country swam with blood of Saxons shed : 
This River (as I said) which had determin'd long 
§ The deluge of the Danes exactly to have song, 
It utterly neglects ; and studying how to do 
The Dert those high respects belonging her unto, 



IS POLY-OLBION. 

Inviteth goodly Ex, who from her full-fed spring 

Her little Barlee hath, and Dunsbrook her to bring 524 

From Exmore: when she yet hath scarcely found her course, 

Then Creddy cometh in, and Forto, which inforce 

Her faster to her fall ; as Ken her closely clips, 

And on her Eastern side sweet Lcman gently slips 

Into her widen'd banks, her sovereign to assist ; 

As Columb wins for Ex, clear Wever and the Clist, 530 

Contributing their streams their Mistress' fame to raise. 

As all assist the Ex, so Ex consumeth these ; 

Like some unthrifty youth, depending on the Court, 

To win an idle name, that keeps a needless port ; 

And raising his old rent, exacts his farmers' store 535 

The land-lord to enrich, the tenants wondrous poor ; 

Who having lent him theirs, he then consumes his own, 

That with most vain expense upon the Prince is thrown : 

So these, the lesser brooks unto the greater pay ; 

The greater, they again spend all upon the sea : 540 

As, Otrey (that her name doth of the Otters take, 

Abounding in her banks) and Ax, their utmost make 

To aid stout Deri, that dar'd Brute's story to revive. 

For, when the Saxon first the Britons forth did drive, 

Some up into the hills themselves, o'er Severne shut : 545 

Upon this point of land, for refuge others put, 

To that brave race of Brute still fortunate. For where 

Great Brute first disembark'd his wand'ring Troians, there 

§ His offspring (after long expulst the inner land, 

When they the Saxon power no longer could withstand) 550 

Found refuge in their flight ; where Ax and Otrey first 

Gave these poor souls to drink, oppress'd with grievous thirst. 

Here I'll unyoke awhile, and turn my steeds to meat : 
The land grows large and wide : my team begins to sweat. 






ILLUSTRATIONS. 




F in prose and religion it were as justifiable, as in 

poetry and fiction, to invoke a Local power (for 

anciently both Jews, Gentiles, and Christians have 

supposed to every Country a singular Genius 1 ) 

I would therein join with the Author. Howsoever, in this 

and all 1% hog uo^/6/M:3a:* and so I begin to you. 

26. As Amphitrite clips this Island fortunate. 

'When Pope Clement VI. granted the Fortunate Isles to 
Lewis Earl of Cleremont, by that general name (meaning 
only the Seven Canaries* and purposing their Christian 
conversion) the English Ambassadors at Eome seriously 
doubted, 2 lest their own country had been comprised in 
the donation. They were Henry of Lancaster Earl of Derby, 
Hugh Spenser, Ralph Lord Stafford, the Bishop of Oxford, and 
others, agents there with the Pope, that he, as a private 
friend, not as a judge or party interested, should determine 
of Edward the Third's right to France; where you have this 

1 Rabbin, ad 10. Dan. ; Macrob. Satnrnal. :? can. 9. ; Symmach. 
Epist. 40. lih. 1.; D. Th. 2. dist. 10. art. 3.; alii. 

* God afore. 

2 Rob. Avesburiens. A. xvn. Ed. 111. 



20 POLY-OLBION, 

Embassage in Walsingham} correct Regnum Anglice, and 
read Franc ice. Britain's excellence in earth and air (whence 
the Macares, 2 and particularly Crete, among the Greeks, had 
their title) together with the Pope's exactions, in taxing, 
collating, and pro vising of benefices (an intolerable wrong 
to lay-men's inheritances, and the Crown revenues) gave 
cause of this jealous conjecture ; seconded in the conceit of 
them which derive Albion from oApiog •* whereto the Author 
in his title and this verse alludes. But of Albion more 
presently. 

•20. Amongst whose iron rocks grim Saturn yet remains. 

Fabulous Jupiter s ill dealing with his father Saturn is 
well known ; and that after deposing him, and his privities 
cut off, he perpetually imprisoned him. Horner^ joins ,/ 
with him, living in eternal night about the utmost ends of 
the earth : which well fits the more Northern climate of 
these Islands. Of them (dispersed in the Deucalidonian Sea) 
in one most temperate, of gentle air, and fragrant with 
sweetest odours, lying towards the Northwest, it i 
reported, 4 that Saturn lies bound in iron chains, kept by 
Briareus, attended by spirits, continually dreaming of 
ter's projects ; whereby his ministers prognosticate the 
secrets of Fate. Every thirty years, clivers of the adjacent 
Islanders, with solemnity for success of the undertaken 
voyage, and competent provision, enter the vast seas, and 
at last, in this Saturnian Isle (by this name the Sea 5 is called 
also) enjoy the happy quiet of the place ; some in studies 
of nature, and the mathematics, which continue ; others in 

1 Bypodigmatia Neuatriae locus emendatus, sub anno l."»l 1. 
- Pompon. Mela 1. 2. c. 7. 

1 1 
3 [Had ". et Beaiod. in Theogon. 
* Plutar. de Facie in Orbe Lunse. et 1. de defect Oracul. 
5 Kpovioi' r i\ayog, 



THE FIRST SONG. 21 

sensuality, which after thirty years return perhaps to their 
first home. This fabulous relation might be, and in part is, 
by Chymiques as well interpreted for mysteries of their 
art, as the common tale of Daedalus' Labyrinth, Jason and 
his Argonautics, and almost the whole chaos of Mythic in- 
ventions. But neither Geography (for I guess not where 
or what this Isle should be, unless that des Macrceons 1 which 
Pantagruell discovered) nor the matter-self permits it less 
poetical (although a learned Greek Father 2 out of some 
credulous Historian seems to remember it) than the Elysian 
fields, which, with this, are always laid by Homer about 
the Kiura, x-zhara yu'trig ;* a place whereof too large liberty 
was given to feign, because of the difficult possibility in 
finding the truth. Only thus note seriously, that this revo- 
lution of thirty years (which with some latitude is Saturn's 
natural motion) is especially 3 noted for the longest period, 
or age also among our Druids ; and that in a particular 
form, to be accounted yearly from the sixth moon, as their 
New-year's-day : which circuit of time, divers of the ancients 
reckon for their generations in chronology ; as store 4 of 
authors show you. 

40. They instantly again do other bodies take. 

You cannot be without understanding of this Pythagorean 
opinion of transanimation (I have like liberty to naturalize 
that word, as Lipsius had to make it a Roman, by turning 
fisrsfb^v^uitiif) if ever you read any that speaks of Pythagoras 

1 Rabelais. 

2 Clem. Alexandrin. Stromat. 6. Odyss. d. Iliad. 9. 

* Utmost ends of the earth. Upon affinity of this with the Cape 
de Finisterre, Goropius thinks the Elysian lields were by that Pro- 
montory of Spain, vide Strab. lib. y. 

3 Plin. Hist. Nat. 16. cap. H. 

4 Enstat. ad Iliad a. Herodot. lib. a. Snid. in ytvea. Censorin. de 
Die Nat. cap. 17. 

t A passing of souls from one to another. 



22 POLY-OLBION, 

(whom, for this particular, Epiphanius reckons among his 
heretics) or discourse largely of philosophical doctrine of 
the soul. But especially, if you affect it tempered with in- 
viting pleasure, take Lucian's Cock, and his Negromancy ; 
if in serious discourse, Plakh Phmlon, and Phcedrus with 
his followers. Lipsius doubts 1 whether Pythagoras received 
it from the Druids, or they from him, because in his travels 
he conversed as well with Gaulish as Indian Philosophers. 
Out of Ccesar and Lucan inform yourself with full testimony 
of this their opinion, too ordinary among the heathen and 
Jews also, which thought our Saviour 2 to be Jeremy or Elias 
upon this error ; irreligious indeed, yet such a one, as so 
strongly erected moving spirits, that they did never 

redituros par cere vitas, * 

but most willingly devote their whole selves to the public 
service : and this was in substance the politic envoyes 
wherewith Plato and Cicero concluded their Common- 
wealths, as Macrolius hath observed. The Author, with 
pity, imputes to them their being led away in blindness of 
the time, and errors of their fancies ; as all other the 
most divine philosophers (not lightened by the true word) 
have been, although (mere human sufficiencies only con- 
sidered) some of them were sublimate far above earthly 
conceit : as especially Hermes, Orpheus, Pythagoras (first 
learning the soul's immortality of Pherecydes* a Syrian), 
Seneca, Plato, and Plutarch; which last two, in a Greek 
hymn of an Eastern Bishop, 4 are commended to Christ for 
such as came nearest to holiness of any untaught Gentiles. 
Of the Druids more large in fitter place. 

Physiolog. Stoic. 1. 3. dissert. 12. 

Justin Martyr, dialog. 

Spare in spending their lives, which they hoped to receive again. 
8 Cicer. Tnscnlan. 1. 
* Joann Euchaitens. jamprideni Etoniffl Greece editus. 



THE FIRST SONG. 23 

61. Gave answer from their caves, and took what shapes they please. 

In the Sea/me (an Isle by the coast of the French Bretaigne) 
Nine Virgins, consecrate to perpetual chastity, were priests 
of a famous oracle, remembered by Mela. His printed books 
have Gallicenas vocant ; where that great critic Turneb reads 
Galli Zenas* or Lenas vocant. But White of Basingstoke will 
have it Cenas,f as interpreting their profession and religion, 
which was in an arbitrary metamorphosing themselves, 
charming the winds (as of later time the Witches of Lap- 
land and Finland), skill in predictions, more than natural 
medicine, and such like ; their kindness being in all chiefly 
to sailors. 1 But finding that in the Syllies were also of both 
sexes such kind of professors, that there were Samnitce, 2 
strangely superstitious in their Bacchanals, in an Isle of 
this coast (as is delivered by Strabo), and that the Gauls, 
Britons, Indians (twixt both whom and Pythagoras is found 
no small consent of doctrine) had their philosophers (under 
which name both priests and prophets of those times were in- 
cluded) called Samancei, 3 and Semni, and (perhaps by corruption 
of some of these) Samothei, which, to make it Greek, might 
be turned into Semnothei : I doubted whether some relic of 
these words remained in that of Mela,* if you read Cenas or 
Senas, as contracted from Samancei ; which by deduction 
from a root of some Eastern tongue, might signify as much 
as what we call Astrologers. But of this too much. 

se. Whose towns unto the Saints that lived here of yore. 

Not only to their own country Saints (whose names are 
there very frequent) but also to the Irish; a people 

* The Gauls call them Jupiter's Priests or Bawds. f Vain. 

1 Solin. Polyhist. cap. 35. 

2 'Aftv'tTat Dionys. Afro in nipujy. multis. n. pro arbitrio anti- 
quorum S. litera adest vel abest. vide Casaubon. ad a. Strab. 

:f Origen. Kara K(A<r. lib. «. Clem. Alex, strom. a. & ft. 1 
Laert. lib. «. 4 Conjecture upon Mela. 



24 POLY-OLBION, 

anciently (according to the name of the Holy Island} given' 
to Ireland) much devoted to, and by the English much re- 
spected for their holiness and learning. I omit their fabulous 
vra, niece to Xoab, their Bartholan? their Euan, who, as 
they aftirm, first planted religion, before Christ, among 
them : nor desire I your belief of this Ruaris age, which 
by their account (supposing him living 300 years after 
the Flood, and christened by Saint Patricfy exceeded 1700 
years, and so was elder than that impostor, whose 3 
feigned continuance of life and restless travels, ever since 
the Passion, lately offered to deceive the credulous. Only 
thus I note out of le, that in the Saxon times, 

it was usual for the English and Gaulish to make In html, as 
it were, both their University and Monastery, for studies of 
learning and divine contemplation, as the life of GUdas 4 also, 
and other frequent testimonies discover. 

i io. From which he first was call' J the Hoar-rock in the wood. 

That the ocean (as in many other places of other countries) 
hath eaten up much of what was here once shore, is a com- 
mon report, approved in the Cornish name of S. MichaeFs 
Mount ; which is (Cnrrg (Cob)* in (Cloiny i.e., the hoar-rock 
in the wood. 

. tnd our Main-Amber here, and Burien trophy 



Main-Amber, Le., Ambrose's stone (not far from ]'< nsans), so 
it that many men's united strength cannot remove it, 

1 Festo Aviriin [nsula sacra dicta Sibernia. 
3 Girald. Cambrens. diet. 3. cap. 2. 

■ Asauerus < lordonnier (dictus in historic < rallied Victoria ante fcrien- 
niuiii eilita '/' la paix, &c.) cuius parti lentur Josephus 

rtophylaciua (referente Episcopo Armeniaco apud Matth. Paris 
in lien. 3.) e Joannes ille (Guidoni Bonato in ia sic indi- 

iutta-deua. 
; In Bibliothec, Floriacena. edit, per Joann, a liosco. 
rew I Rescript. Corn. Lib. 2. 



THE FIRST SONG. 25 

yet with one finger you may wag it. The Burien trophy is 
10 stones, circularly disposed, and, in the middle, one much 
exceeding the rest in greatness : by conjecture of most 
learned Camden, erected either under the Bonians, or else 
by King Athelstan in his conquest of these parts. 

190. Were worthy of his end, but ivhere he had his birth. 

Near Camel, about Camblan, was Arthur* slain by Mordred, 
and on the same shore, East from the river's mouth, born in 
Tintagel castle. Gorlois Prince of Cornwall at Uther-Peiv- 
dragon's coronation, solemnized in London, upon divers too 
kind passages and lascivious regards twixt the King and 
his wife Igeme, grew very jealous, in a rage left the court, 
committed his wife's chastity to this castle's safeguard ; and 
to prevent the wasting of his country (which upon this 
discontent was threatened) betook himself in other forts to 
martial preparation. Uther (his blood still boiling in lust), 
upon advice of Ulfin Rhicaradoch, one of his knights, by 
Ambrose Merlins magic personated like Gorlois, and Ulfin 
like one Jordan, servant to Gorlois, made such successful 
use of their imposture, that (the Prince in the mean time 
slain) Arthur was the same night begotten, and verified 
that NJtto/ n toXXo! yvrjGiuv a/isivovsg] 1 although Merlin by the 
rule of Hermes, or astrological direction, justified that he 
was conceived three hours after Gorlois' death ; by this shift 
answering the dangerous imputation of bastardy to the 
heir of a crown. For Uther, taking Igeme to wife, left 
Arthwr his successor in the Kingdom. Here have you a 
Jupiter, an Alcmena, an Amphiiryo, a Sosias, and a Mercury ; 
nor wants there scarce anything, but that truth-passing 
reports of poetical bards have made the birth an Hei 

* Dictua hinc in Merlini vaticinio, Apt r Corriubice. 
1 Euripid. Andre-mack. Bastards are ofttimes bettor than legiti- 
mates. 



26 POLY-OLBION, 

239. Known by one general name upon this point that dwell. 
The name Dumnonii, Damnonii, or Danmonii, in Solinus 
and Ptolemy, comprehended the people of Devonshire and 
Cornwall: -whence the Lizard-promontory is called Damnium 
in 1 Martian Heracleotes; and William of Malmsbury, Florence of 
Worcester, Roger of Hoveden, and others style Devonshire by 
name of Domnonia, perhaps all from Duff ncint, i.e., low 
valleys in British ; wherein are most habitations of the 
country, as judicious Camden teaches me. 

255. Or that this foreland lies furth'st out into his sight, 

Which spreads his vigorous flames 

Fuller report of the excellence in wrastling and nimble- 
ness of body, wherewith this Western people have been, 
and are famous, you may find in Careiv's description of his 
country. But to give reason of the climate's nature for this 
prerogative in them, I think as difficult as to show why 
about the Magellanic Straits they are so white, about the 
Cape de Bum Spi ranza so black, 2 yet both under the same 
Tropic ; why the Abyssins are but tawny Moors, when as in 
the East Indian Isles, ZeUan and Malabar, they are very black, 
both in the same parallel ; or why we that live in this 
Northern latitude, compared with the Southern, should not 
be like affected from like cause. I refer it no more to the 
Sun than the special horsemanship in our Northern rru n, the 
nimble ability of the Irish, the fiery motions of the French^ 
Italian jealousy, Gt man liberty, Spanish puffed-up vanity, or 
those different and perpetual carriages of state-government, 
haste and delay,* which, as in-bred qualities, were remarkable 
in the two most martial people of Greece. The cause of 
Ethiopian blackness and curled hair was long since judiciously 

1 to Safiviov aapov. 
itro. 

8 Thucydid. a et passim, de Athcn. et Lacedsem.; et de Thebis et 
Cbalcide. v. Cohunell, i. de Ko Rustic, cap. 4. 



THE FIRST SONG. 27 

fetched 1 from the disposition of soil, air, water, and singular 
operations of the heavens ; with confutation of those which 
attribute it to the Sun's distance. And I am resolved that 
every land hath its so singular self-nature, and individual 
habitude with celestial influence, that human knowledge, 
consisting most of all in universality, is not yet furnished 
with what is requisite to so particular discovery : but for 
the learning of this point in a special treatise Hippocrates, 
Ptolemy, Budin, others, have copious disputes. 

312. Which 7WIV the envious world doth slander for a dream. 
I should the sooner have been of the Author's opinion (in 
more than poetical form, standing for Bride) if in any Greek 
or Latin story authentic, speaking of JEneas and his planting 
in Latium, were mention made of any such like thing. To 
reckon the learned men which deny him. or at least permit 
him not in conjecture, were too long a catalogue : and 
indeed, this critic age scarce any longer endures any nation 
their first supposed Author's name; not Italus to the Italian, 
not Hispalus to the Spaniard, Bato to the Holland, ,-, Brabo 
to the Brabantine, Francio to the French, Celtcs to the Celt, 
Galathes to the Gaul, Scota to the Scot ; no, nor scarce Ro- 
mulus to his Rome, because of their unlikely and fictitious 
mixtures : especially this of Brute, supposed long before the 
beginning of the Olympiads (whence all time backward is 
justly called by Varro 2 unknown or fabulous) some 2,700 and 
more years since, about Samuel's time, is most of all doubted. 
But (reserving my censure) I thus maintain the Author : 
although nor Greek nor Latin, nor our country stories of 
Bede and Malmesbury especially, nor that fragment yet re- 

1 Onesicrit. ap. Strabon. lib. is. 

2 Ap.Censorin. de Die Nat. cap. 21. Christoph. Heluici Chrouologiam 
sequimur, ut aceuratius temporum subduotioni hoc loci incumbamua 
res postulat ; verum et tile satis accurate, qui Sanv 

a.m. 3S50. lxaiit iniquo computo pesuit. 



28 POLY-OLBION, 

maining of Gildas, speak of him ; and that his name were 
not published until Gcffmy of Monmouth's edition of the 
British story, which grew and continues much suspected, in 
much rejected ; yet observe that Taliessin, a great Bard, 1 
more than 1 ,000 years since affirms it ; Nen n ius(in some copies 
he is under name of Gildas) above 800 years past, and the 
Gloss of Samuel Beaulan, or some other, crept into his text, 
mention both the common report, and descent from sEneas; 
and withal (which I take to be Nennius's own), make him 
son to one Isicio or Hesichio (perhaps meaning Aschenaz, of 
whom more to the Fourth Song) continuing a pedigree to 
Adam, joining these words : This Genealogy I foumd by tra- 
dition of the ancients, which were first inhabitants of Britain? 
In a manuscript Epistle of Henry of Huntingdon* to one 
Warin, I read the Latin of this English : " You ask me, Sir, 
why omitting the succeeding reigns from Brute to Julius Csesar, 
/ begin my story at Csesar 1 I answer you, that neither by word 
nor writing, could I find any certainty of those times ; although 
with diligent search I oft inquired it, yet this year in my journey 
towards Rome, in the Abbey of Beccensam, even with amazement, 
I found the story of Brute :" and in his own printed book he 
affirms, that what Bede had in this part omitted, was sup- 
plied to him by other authors ; of which Girald seems to 
have had use. The British story of Monmouth was a trans- 
lation (but with much liberty, and no exact faithfulness) of 
a Welsh book, delivered to Geffrey by one Walter Arch- 
deacon of Oxford, and hath been followed (the translator 
being a man of some credit, and Bishop of S. Asaph's, under 
King Stephen) by Ponticus Virunnius an Italian ; most of our 

1 Io. Pris. def. Hist. Brit. 

2 Ex vetustiss & iiL-i-puli-lur MS. Nennio sub titulo Gildsa. 

:t [ib. de Btunmitatibus rerum <]iii In est uistoriarum in .MS. Hun- 
tingdon began bis History at Csesar, but upon better inquisition 
added Brute. Librum ilium, in quem disse, Nenniuxn fuisse 

obsignatis fenne tabulis sum potxs .Miserere. 



THE FIRST SONG. 29 

Country Historians of middle times, and this age, speaking 
so certainly of him, that they blazon his coat 1 to you, Two 
Lions combatant, and crowned, Or, in afield gules ; others, Or, 
a Lion passant gules; and lastly, by Doctor White of Basing- 
stoke, lately living at Doway, a Count Palatine, according to 
the title bestowed by the Imperials* upon their professors. 
Arguments are there also drawn from some affinity of the 
Greek 3 tongue, and much of Troian and Greek names, with 
the British. These things are the more enforced by Cambro- 
Jjiitons, through that universal desire, bewitching our Europe, 
to derive their blood from Troians, which for them might 
as well be by 4 supposition of their ancestors' marriages with 
the hither deduced Roman Colonies, who by original were 
certainly Troian if their antiquities deceive not. You may 
add this weak conjecture ; that in those large excursions of 
the Gauls, Cimmerians, and Celts (among them I doubt not 
but were many Britons, having with them community of 
nation, manners, climate, customs ; and Brennus himself is 
affirmed a Briton) which under indistinct names when this 
Western world was undiscovered, overran Italy, Greece, and 
part of Asia, it is reported 5 that they came to Troy for safe- 
guard ; presuming perhaps upon like kindness, as we read 
of twixt the Troians and Romans, in their wars with Aniio- 
ehus 6 (which was Loving respect through contingence of blood) 
upon like cause remembered to them by tradition. Briefly, 
seeing no national story, except such as Thucydides, Xeno- 
phon, Polybius, Ccesar, Tacitus, Procopius, Cantacuzen, the late 
Guicciardin, Commutes, Macchiavel, and their like, which 
were employed in the state of their times, can justify them- 
selves but by tradition ; and that many of the Fathers and 
Ecclesiastical Historians, 7 especially the Jewish Rabbins 

1 Harding. Nich. Upton, cle re militari. 2. 

- C. tit. cle professorib. 1. unica. 3 Girald descript. cap. 15. 

4 Camden. 5 Agesianax ap. Strab. lib. iy. 6 Trog. Pomp. lib. 31. 

7 Melchior Canus lib. 11. de Aut. Hist. Hum. de his plnrima. 



30 poly-olpion, 

(taking their highest learning of Cabala but from antique 
and successive report) have inserted upon tradition many 
relations current enough, where Holy Writ crosses them 
not : you shall enough please Saturn and Mercury, presidents 
of antiquity and learning, if with the Author you foster this 
belief. Where are the authorities (at least of the names) of 
Jannes and Jambres, 1 the writings of Enoch, and other such 
like, which we know by divine tradition were 1 The same 
question might be of that infinite loss of authors, whose 
names are so frequent in Stephen, Athenceus, Plutarch, Cle- 
mens, Polybius, Linj, others. And how dangerous it were to 
examine antiquities by a foreign writer (especially in those 
times) you may see by the Stories of the Hebrews, delivered 
in Justin, Strabo, Tacitus, and such other, discording and con- 
trary (beside their infinite omissions) to Moses 1 infallible 
context. Nay he with his successor Joshua is copious in 
the Israelites entering, conquering, and expelling the Gerge- 
sites,* Jebusites, and the rest out of the Holy Land; yet no 
witness have they of their transmigration, and peopling of 
Africa, which by testimony of two pillars, 2 erected and en- 
graven at Ti/ngis hath been affirmed. But you blame me 
thus expatiating. Let me add for the Author, that our 
most judicious antiquary of the last age, John Leland, s with 
reason and authority hath also for Brute argued strongly. 

:).■;?. Next, Sylvius him succeeds 

So goes the ordinary descent ; but some make Sylvius son 
to Apneas, to whom the prophecy was given : 

Serum Lavinia coniunx 
Educet sylvis regem regumque pari ul< m. ' 
As you have in Virgil. 

i ( >rigen. ad ::.">. Matth. * Sec the Sixth Song. 

- Procopiue de Bell. Vandilic. lib. S. 3 Ad Cyg. Cant. 
4 .iEiicid. vi. vt ibid. Serv. Honoratus. 

After thy death Livinia hriuga 
A king born in the woods, father of kings. 



THE FIRST SOya, 31 

340. Bis parent's only death •" 



From these unfortunate accidents, one 1 will have his 
name Brotus, as from the Greek figorbg, i.e., mortal; but rather 
(if it had pleased him) from fibrosis, i.e., bloody. 

410. He should descry the Isle of Albion, highly blest ; 
His request to Diana in an hexastich, and her answer 
in an ogdoastich, hexameters and pentameters, discovered 
to him in a dream, with his sacrifice and ritual ceremonies 
are in the British story : the verses are pure Latin, which 
clearly (as is written of Apollo' 1 ) was not in those times 
spoken by Diana, nor understood by Brute : therefore in 
charity, believe it a translation ; by Gildas a British Poet, 
as Virunnius tells you. The Author takes a justifiable 
liberty, making her call it Albion, which was the old name 
of this Isle, and remembered in Pliny, Marcian, the book 
irsgl xo'ff/iou, falsely attributed to Aristotle, Stephen, Ajpulems, 
others ; and our Monk of Bimf calls Henry the Fifth 

Protectour of Brute's Albion, 

often using that name for the Island. From Albiuu, 
daughter to Dioclesian* King of Syria, some fetch the name : 
others from a lady of that name, one of the Danaids; 
affirming their arrival 5 here, copulation with spirits, and 
bringing forth Giants ; and all this above 200 years before 
Brute. But neither was there any such King in Syria, nor 
had Dana/us (that can be found) any such daughter, nor 
travelled they for adventures, but by their father were 
newly married, 6 after slaughter of their husbands : briefly, 
nothing can be written more impudently fabulous. Others 

1 Basingstoch. lib. 1. 2 Cicer. de Divinat. lib. 2. 

3 Io. Lidgat. lib. cle Bell. Troian. 5. et alibi Bsepius. 

4 Chronic. S. Albani. 5 Hugo dc Genes, ap. Harding, cap. 3. 
8 Pausanias in Laconic. 



32 POLY-OLBION, 

from King Albion, Neptme's son; from the Greek oXjSiog* 
others, or from (I know not what) OliUus a Celtish King, 
remembered by the false Manethon. Follow them rather, 
which will it ab albis rupibus,i whereby it is specially con- 
spicuous. So was an Isle in the Indian Sea called Leuca, 
i.e., white, and another in Pontus, 1 supposed also fortunate 
and a receptacle of the souls of those great heroes, Peleus 
and Achilles. Thus was a place by Tyler called Albiona, 2 
and the very name of Albion was upon the Alps, which from 
like cause had their denomination ; Alpum in the Sabin 
tongue (from the Greek aXtpov), signifying white. Some 
much dislike this derivation, because 3 it comes from a tongue 
(suppose it either Greek or Latin) not anciently communi- 
cated to this Isle. For my part, I think clearly (against 
the common opinion) that the name of Britain was known 
to strangers before Albion. I could vouch the finding 4 of 
one of the masts of Iliero's Ship h roTg 0^61 r^g Bisraviag,^ 
if judicious correction admonished me not rather to read 
Bgsrr/anSjs, i.e., the now lower Calabria in Italy, a place above 
all other, I remember, for store of ship-timber, commended 5 
by Alcibiades to the Lacedcemonians. But with better surety 
can I produce the express name of Betravuxuv vtjoc>jv,§ out of 
a writer that lived and travelled in warfare with Sripio ; 
before whose time Scylax (making a Catalogue of twenty 
other Isles) and Herodotus (to whom these Western parts 
were by his confession unknown) never so much as speak 
of us by any name. Afterward was Albion imposed upon 

* Happy. t From White Cliffs. 

1 nctfju t<)v \(vki)v Ukti)u uti Euripides in Andromacha, magis 
vcllem, quam O&vfKa ut rd nafjioTi Ktvuint ni \tvica TtrvnTui, (juud 
canit I HonyaitiB Afcr. 

- Strabo lib. i. et Sixt. Pompeius in Alpum. 

:| Jlunif. Lbuid. iu Breviar. 4 Moschion ap. Allien. Deipnosoph, c 

J In the Hills of Britany. B Thucydid. Hist. 6. g British Isles. 

Polyb. Hiot, y. qui Jul. Cssarem 2W. Eerme annos antevertit. 



THE FIRST SONG. 33 

the cause before touched, expressing the old British name 
Shtis-gutn :* which argument moves me before all other, for 
that I see it usual in antiquity to have names among 
straugers in their tongue just significant with the same in 
the language of the country to which they are applied ; 
as the Red Sea is (in Strabo, Curtius, Stephen, others) named 
from a King of that coast called Erythrozus (for, to speak of 
red sand, as some, or red hills, as an old writer, 1 were but 
refuges of shameful ignorance), which was surely the same 
with Esau, called in Holy Writ JEdom ,- 2 both signifying 
(the one in Greek, the other in Hebrew) red. So the River 
Nile* in Hebrew and Egyptian called iirw, i.e., black, is 
observed by that mighty prince of learning's state, Joseph 
Scaliger, to signify the same colour in the word Aiyjnriog, 
used for it by Earner ; 4 which is inforced also by the black 
Statues 5 among the Greeks, erected in honour of Nile, named 
also expressly Melas : 6 so in proper names of men ; Simon 
Zelotes,'' in Luke, is but Simon the Canaanite, and 'rdoyevris in 
Orpheus the same with Moses ; Janus with Oenotrus: and in 
our times those Authors, Melanchthon, Magirus, Theocrenus, 
Pelargus, in their own language but Swertearth, Cooke, Foun- 
tain tic Unit, Storke. Divers such other plain examples 
might illustrate the conceit; but, these sufficient. Take 
largest etymological liberty, and you may have it from 
Ellarirban? i.e., the White Isle, in Scottish, as they call their 
Albania ; and to fit all together, the name of Britain from 
JJjith-tms, i.e., the Coloured Isle in Welsh ; twixt which and 

* The White Isle. 

1 Uranius in Arabic, ap. Steph. Trtpl tto\. in EpvOpd. 
- Gen. 36. Num. 20. 3 Jesai. 23. Jirm. 2. 

1 <Uyss. S. — klyvTTToio SiintTto^ TToTufiino. forte tamen, Huvius 
^Egypti, ut Hebrseis onvmro Gen. 15. commat. 17. 
5 Pausan. Arcadia //. 
8 I'Ystus in Alcedo. 
1 Nebrissens. in quinyuagen. cap. 49. 
8 ( 'aimlen. 
vol. i. 3 



34 POLY-OLBION, 

the Greek Bgurox, 1 or Bgur/on (used for a kind of drink 
nearly like our beer), I would with the French ForcakUus 
think affinity (as Italy was called Oenotria, from the name 
of wine) were it not for that Bgurov may be had from an 
ordinary primitive, or else from BsiOu, i.e., sweet (as Soli nu s 
teaches, making Britomarf signify as much as Sweet Virgin) 
in the Cretic tongue. But this is to play with syllables, and 
abuse precious time. 

464. The City Turon built 



Understand 'lours upon Loire in France, whose name and 
foundation the inhabitants refer 2 to Turnus (of the same 
time with jEneas, but whether the same which Virgil speaks 
of, they know not) : his funeral monuments they yet show, 
boast of, and from him idly derive the word Torneaments, 
The British story says Brute built it (so also Nennius) and 
from one Turon, Brute's nephew there buried, gives it the 
name. Homer is cited for testimony : in his works extant 
it is not found. But, because he had divers others (which 
wrongful time hath filched from us) as appears in Herodotus 
and Suidas, you may in favour think it to be in some of 
those lost ; yet I cannot in conscience offer to persuade you 
that he ever knew the continent of Gavl (now, in part, 
France) although a learned German 3 endeavours by force of 
wit and etymology, to carry Ulysses (which he makes of 
Elizza in Genesis) into Spain, and others before him 4 (but 
falsely) into the Northern parts of Scotland. But for Homer's 
knowledge, see the last note to the Sixth Song. 

1 Vocabulo Bpvrov usi sunt iEachylua, Sophocles, Bellanicus, Ar- 
chilochus, Hecatseus ap. Athenaeum Deipnosoph. 10. avri r<>v xpiOivov 
oivov ejusdem fere naturae cum Sytho & Curmithe apud Dioscoridem 

lib. Of Cap, <tt£ ft rrT,). lui'tr tt.ioii to Aoinr. 

2 Andre dn Ghesne en Lea Recherchez dea villea I. oa. L22. 

: ' Groropius in Sispanic.4. nde Strab. Geograph. y. et alios de Oly- 
sippone, 

1 Solin. Polyhist. cap. 35. 



THE FIRST SONG. 35 

474. So mighty were that time the 'men that lived there : 
If you trust our stories, you must believe the land then 
peopled with Giants, of vast bodily composture. I have 
read of the Nephilim, the Bephaiim, Anakim, Og, Goliath, and 
other in Holy Writ : of Mars, Tityus, Antceus, Turnus, and 
the Titans in Hunter, Virgil, Ovid ; and of Adam's stature 
(according to Jewish fiction 1 ) equalling at first the world's 
diameter : yet seeing that Nature (now as fertile as of old) 
hath in her effects determinate limits of quantity, that in 
Aristotle's time 2 (near 2,000 years since) their beds were but 
six foot ordinarily (nor is the difference, twixt ours and 
Greek dimension, much) and that near the same length was 
our Saviour's Sepulchre, as Adamnan informed King A If rid r 
I could think that there now are some as great statures as 
for the most part have been, and that Giants were but of a 
somewhat more than vulgar excellence 4 in body, and martial 
performance. If you object the finding of great bones, 
which, measured by proportion, largely exceed our times, I 
first answer, that in some singulars, as monsters rather than 
natural, such proof hath been ; but withal, that both now 
and of ancient time, 5 the eye's judgment in such like hath 
been, and is, subject to much imposture ; mistaking bones 
of huge beasts for human. '' Claud ius brought over his 
elephants hither, and perhaps Julius Ccesar some, (for I have 
read 7 that he terribly frighted the Britons, with sight of 
one at ( 'oway stakes) and so may you be deceived. But this 
is no place to examine it. 

1 Rabbi Eleazar ap. Riccium in epit. Talmud, cseterum in hac re 
allegoriam vide ap. I). Cyprianum Serm. de montib. Sina & Sion. 

- Uoor}\,]ii. /tii\. ict. :! Bed. Hist. Keelesia.st. •"). cap. IT. 

4 'Ei>iityt9si< Kai iTriarofifvot iroKefioi'. Barnch. cap. y. Consule, si 
placet, Scaliger. Exercitat. Becan. becceselan. •_'.; Augustin. Civ. Dei 
L5. cap. i':>. ; Clement. Rom. Etecognit. 1.; Lactant.; &c. 

" Sueton. < Ictav. cap. 72. 

8 Dio Cass. lib. t 

7 Polysen. Strategemat. 7. Ln Csesare. 

3—2 



36 POLY-OLBION, 

506. 0/Corin, Cornwall call'd, to his immortal fame. 
So, if you believe the tale of Covin, and Gogmagog : but 
rather imagine the name of Cornwall from this promontory 
of the Land's End ; extending itself like a horn, 1 which in 
most tongues is Corn, or very near. Thus was a promon- 
tory in Cyprus, 2 called Cerastes, and in the now Candy or 
Crete, and Gazaria, (the old Taurica Chersonesus) another 
titled KomZ /jAtcwtov* and Brundusium in Italy had name from 
Brendon or Brention, 2 i.e., a Hart's-head, in the M 
tongue, for similitude of horns. But Malmesbury* thus : 
They are called Cornewalshmen, because being seated in the 
Western part of Britain, they lie over against a horn (a pro- 
montory) of Gaul. The whole name is, as if you should 
say Corm-wales; for hither in the Saxon conquest the British 
called Welsh (signifying the people, rather than strangers as 
the vulgar opinion wills) made transmigration : whereof an 
old Rhymer : 5 
Che bduc tfi.it bier of horn btlcbefc, as in Cornboatle anti 

Smalts, 
JSrutons ncr namore ijcluprU, ac 2Halriis nuns* 
Such was the language of your fathers between 300 and 
400 years since : and of it more hereafter. 

oj the Dane exactly to Jmve song. 
In the fourth year of Brithric,* King of the West 6 
at Portland, and at this place (which makes the fiction 
proper) three ahi] Pirates entered : the King's 

Lieutenant offering inquisition of their name, state, and 
cause of arrival, was the first English man, in this first 

1 Cornugallia dicta < lonio, aliis. 

- Strabo lib. >'. & /.; Steph.; Mel.; I '1 in. ; Geographi passim. 

* Ram's head. 

;; Seleucus ap. Steph. Bptvrjjc. et Said, in Bptvi 

* De Gest. Reg. 2. c;ii». 0. * K>>l>. Glocestrens, 
6 Amu. 787. 



THE FIRST SONG. 37 

Danish invasion, slain by their hand. Miserable losses and 
continual, had the English by their frequent irruptions from 
this time till the Norman Conquest ; twixt which intercedes 
279 years : and that less account of 230, 1 during which 
space this land endured their bloody slaughters, according 
to some men's calculation, begins at King Ethdulph ; to 
whose time Henry of Huntingdon, and Roger of Hoveden, refer 
the beginning of the Danish mischiefs, continuing so intoler- 
able, that under King Ethelred was there begun a tribute 
insupportable (yearly afterward exacted from the subjects) 
to give their King Swain, and so prevent their insatiate rapine. 
It was between 30 & 40 thousand pounds 2 (for I find no 
certainty of it, so variable are the reports) not instituted 
for pay of Garrisons, imployed in service against them (as 
upon the misunderstanding of the Confessor's Laws some ill 
affirm) but to satisfy the wasting enemy ; but so that it 
ceased not, although their spoils ceased, but was collected 
to the use of the Crown until King Stephen promised to 
remit it. For indeed S. Edward upon imagination of seeing 
a devil dancing about the whole sum of it lying in his 
treasury, moved in conscience, caused it to be repaid, and 
released the duty, as Ingulph Abbot of Croivland tells you : 
yet observe him, and read Florence of Worcester, Marian the 
Scot, Henry of Huntingdon, and Roger Hoveden, and you will 
confess that what I report thus from them is truth, and 
different much from what vulgarly is received. Of the 
Danish race were afterward three Kings, Cnut, Hardcnut, and 
Harold the First. 

549. His offspring after long expids'd the inner land. 
After some 1,500 years from the supposed arrival of the 

1 Audacter lege ducentos vice tov trecentos in fol. 237. Hovedeni, 
cui prologum libro quinto H. Huntindon. commitfcas licet. Dangelt 

showed against a common error, both in remission and institution. 

2 Mariano JSeoto 30.000. libra.', ct Florentio Wigorn. 



38 POLY-OLBION, 

Troians* their posterity were by incroacliment of Saxons, 
Jutes, Angles, Danes (for among the Saxons that noble D<m^ 
wills that surely Danes were) Frisians- and Franks driven 
into those Western parts of the now Wales and Cornwales. 
Our stories have this at large, and the Saxon Heptarchy ; 
which at last by public edict of King Ecbert was called 
Gnjle-lonb. But John Bishop of Chartres* saith it had that 
name from the first coming of the Angles; others from 
the name of Hengisfl (a matter probable enough) whose 
name, wars, policies, and government, being first invested 
by Vortigern in Kent, are above all the other Germans most 
notable in the British stories: and Harding 

%)c callrU it Engestes lanfc, 
©EUuch aftcrbjarfc baas shotted, anO callrtjr (SnglantJ. 

Hereto accords that of one of our country old Poets :• 

Engisti lingua canit insula Bruti.\ 

If I should add the idle conceits of Godfrey of Viterbo, draw- 
ing the name from I know not what Angri, the insertion of 
L. for B. by Pope Gregory, or the conjectures of unlimitable 
phantasy, I should unwillingly, yet with them impudently. 



* Chronologiam hue spectantem consulas in illustrat. ad. 4. Cant. 
' Jan. Douz. Annal. Holland. 1. & 6. 

2 Procopius in frag. S. lil>. Gothic, ap. Camden. Name of England. 

3 Policratic. lib. 6 cap. 1 7 

4 Chronic. S. Albani. ; Hector. Boot. Seotor. Hist. 7. 
■'• 1. Grower Epigram, in Confess. Amantis. 

f Britain sings in Hengist's tongue. 




THE SECOND SONG. 



The Argument. 

The Muse from Marsh wood way commands, 

Along the shore through ChesilPs sands: 

117/' re, 0V( rtoii'd, her heat to coot, 

She l>ti<lns her in the pleasant Poole : 

Thence, over-land again doth scour, * 

To fetch in Froome, and bring down Stoure ; 

Falls with New-forest, as she sings 

The wanton Wood-Nymphs? r< vt ttings. 

Whilst Itchin, in her lofty lays, 

Chants Bevis of South-hampton's praise, 

She Southward with her active flight 

Is wafted to the Isle of Wight, 

To see the rutte the Sea-gods keep : 

There swaggering in the Solent deep. 

Thence Hampshire-ward her way she bends ; 

And visiting her Forest-friends, 

Near Salisbury her rest doth lake : 

Which she her second pause doth make. 

A.RCH strongly forth my Muse, whilst yet the tem- 
perate air 
Invites us, eas'ly on to hasten our repair, [great) 
Thou powerful God of flames (in verse divinely 
Touch my invention so with thy true genuine heat, 




40 P0LY-0LBI0X, 

That high and noble things I slightly may not tell, 

Nor light and idle toys my lines may vainly swell ; 

But as my subject serves, so high or low to strain, 

And to the varying earth so suit my varying vein, 

That Nature in my work thou may'st thy power avow ; 

That as thou first found'st Art, and didst her rules allow, 10 

So I, to thine own self that gladly near would be, 

May herein do the best, in imitating thee : 

As thou hast here a hill, a vale there, there a flood, 

A mead here, there a heath, and now and then a wood, 

These things so in my Song I naturally may show ; 15 

Now, as the mountain high ; then, as the valley low : 

Here, fruitful as the mead ; there as the heath be bare ; 

Then, as the gloomy wood, I may be rough, though rare. 

Through the Dorsdian fields that lie in open view, 
My progress I again must seriously pursue, 20 

From Marshwood's fruitful Vale my journey on to make : 
(As Pha'bus getting up out of the Eastern lake, 
Refresh'd with ease and sleep, is to his labour prest ; 
Even so the labouring Muse, here baited with this rest.) 
Whereas the little Lim along doth eas'ly creep, 25 

And Car, that coming down unto the troubled deep, [bank, 
Brings on the neighbouring Bert, whose batning mellow'd 
From all the British soils, for hemp most hugely rank 
Doth bear away the best; to BerPport which hath gain'd 
That praise from every place, and worthily obtain'd 30 

Our cordage 1 from her store and cables should be made, 
Of any in that kind most fit for marine trade : 
Not sever'd from the shore, aloft where Chesill lifts [drifts, 
Her ridged snakedike sands, in wrecks and smould'ring 
"Which by the South-wind rais'd, arc heav'd on little hills:35 
"Whose valleys with his flows when foaming Neptune fills, 

1 By Act of Parliament, 21 Hen. 8. 



THE SECOND SONG. 41 

Upon a thousand swans* the naked Sea-Nymphs ride 
Within the oozy pools, replenish'd every tide : 
Which running on, the Isle of Portland pointeth out ; 
Upon whose moisted skirt with sea-weed fring'd about. 
The bastard coral breeds, that, drawn out of the brack, 
A brittle stalk becomes, from greenish turn'd to black : 
§ Which th' ancients, for the love that they to Isis bare, 
(Their Goddess most ador'd) have sacred for her hah'. 
Of which the Ndides, and the blue Nereids 1 make 45 

Them tawdries 2 for their necks : when sporting in the lake. 
They to their secret bow'rs the Sea-gods entertain. 
"Where Portland from her top doth over-peer the main; 
Her rugged front empal'd (on every part) with rocks, 
Though indigent of wood, yet fraught with woolly flocks :ao 
Most famous for her folk excelling with the sling, 
Of any other here this Land inhabiting ; 
That therewith they in war offensively might wound, 
If yet the use of shot invention had not found. [path : 

Where, from the neighbouring hills her passage Wey doth 
Whose haven, not our least that watch the mid-day, hath sc 
The glories that belong unto a complete Port ; 
Though Wey the least of all the N aides that resort 
To the Dorsetiam sands from off the higher shore. 

The Froome (a nobler Flood) the Muses doth implore eo 
Her mother Blackmore's state they sadly would bewail ; 
Whose big and lordly oaks once bore as brave a sail 
As they themselves that thought the largest shades to spread : 
But man's devouring hand, with all the earth not fed, 
Hath hew'd her timber down. Which wounded, when it fell, 
By the great noise it made, the workmen seem'd to tell 

* The beauty of the many swans upon the Chesills, noted in this 
poetical delicacy. 

1 Sea-Nymphs. 

2 A kind of necklaces worn by country wenches. 



i2 POLY-OLBIOX, 

The loss that to the Land would shortly come thereby, 
Where no man ever plants to onr posterity : 
That when sharp Winter shoots her sleet and hardned hail, 
Or sudden gusts from sea the harmless deer assail, to 

The shrubs are not of pow'r to shield them from the wind. 

Dear Mother, quoth the Froome, too late (alas) we find 
The softness of thy sward continued through thy soil, 
To be the only cause of unrecover'd spoil : 
When scarce the British ground a finer grass doth bear ; 75 
And wish I could, quoth she, (if wishes helpful were) 
§ Thou never by that name of WMte-hart hadst been known, 
But styled Black/more still, which rightly was thine own. 
For why, that change foretold the ruin of thy state : 
Lo, thus the world may see what 'tis to innovate. so 

By this, her own nam'd Town* the wand'ring Froome had 
And quitting in her course old Dorcester at last, [pass'd : 
Approaching near the Poole, at Warham on her way, 
As eas'ly she doth fall into the peaceful Bay, 
Upon her nobler side, and to the Southward near, 85 

Fair Purbeck she beholds, which nowhere hath her peer, 
So pleasantly in-isl'd on mighty Neptune's marge, 
A Forest-Nymph, and one of chaste Diana's charge, 
Imploy'd in woods and launds her deer to feed and kill : 
§ On whom the wat'ry God would oft have had his will; go 
And often her hath woo'd, which never would be won; 
But, Pwbeck (as profess'd a huntress and a nun) 
The wide and wealthy Sea, nor all his power, respects: 
Her marble-minded lu-east, impregnable, rejects 
The ugly orks, 1 that for their lord the Ocean woo. 95 

Whilst Froome was troubled thus where nought she hath 
The Piddle, that this while bestirr'd her nimble feet, [to do, 
In falling to the Poole her .sister Froome to meet, 

• Frampton. 

1 Mousters of the sea, su])]"'-',! Neptune's Guard. 



THE SECOND SOXG. 43 

And having in her train two little slender rills 

(Besides her proper spring) wherewith her hanks she fills,ioo 

To whom since first the world this later name her lent, 

Who anciently was known to he instyled Trent, 1 

Her small assistant hrooks her second name have gain'd. 

Whilst Piddle and the Froome each other entertain'd, 

Oft praising lovely Poole, their best-beloved Bay, 105 

Thus Piddle her bespake, to pass the time awa)^ : 

"When Poole (quoth she) was young, a lusty sea-born lass, 

Great Albion to this Nymph an earnest suitor was ; 

And bare himself so well, and so in favour came, 

That he in little time, upon this lovely dame, 110 

§ Begot three maiden Isles, his darlings and delight : 

The eldest, Brunkseij call'd ; the second, Fursey hight ; 

The youngest and the last, and lesser than the other, 

Saint Helen's name doth bear, the dilling of her mother. 

And, for the goodly Poole 2 was one of T/ietis' train, 115 

Who scorn'd a Nymph of hers her virgin-band should 

stain, 
Great Albion (that forethought, the angry Goddess would 
Both on the dam and brats take what revenge she could) 
I' th' bosom of the Poole his little children plac'd : 
First Bruriksey ; Fwrsey next; and little Helen last ; 120 

Then, with his mighty arms doth clip the Poole about, 
To keep the angry Queen, fierce AmpMtrite, out. 
Against whose lordly might she musters up her waves ; 
And strongly thence repuls'd (with madness) scolds and 

raves. 
"When now, from Poole, the Muse (up to her pitch to get) 
Herself in such a place from sight doth almost set, ijo 

As by the active pow'r of her commanding wings, 
She (falcon-like) from far doth fetch those plenteous springs, 

1 The ancient name of Piddlt . ' The story of Poole. 



44 POLY-OLBION, 

Where Stour* receives her strengtli from six clear fountain s fed : 
Which gathering to one stream from every several head, 130 
Her new-beginning bank her water scarcely wields ; 
And fairly ent'reth first on the Dorsetian fields : 
"Where GUUngham with gifts that for a god were meet, 
(Enamell'd paths, rich wreaths, and every sov'reign sweet 
The earth and air can yield, with many a pleasure mixt) 135 
Receives her. Whilst there pass'd great kindness them be- 
The Forest her bespoke : How happy floods are ye, [twixt, 
From our predestin'd plagues that privileged be ; 
Which only with the fish which in your banks do breed, 
And daily there increase, man's gourmandize can feed ? ho 
But had this wretched age such uses to imploy 
Your waters, as the woods we lately did enjoy, 
Your channels they would leave as barren by their spoil, 
As they of all our trees have lastly left our soil. 
Insatiable Time thus all things doth devour : 115 

Whatever saw the sun, that is not in Time's pow'r 1 
Ye fleeting streams last long, outliving many a day : 
But, on more stedfast things Time makes the strongest prey. 

§ Now tow'rds the Solent sea as Stour her way doth ply, 
On Shaftsbwry (by chance) she cast her crystal eye, 150 

From whose foundation first, such strange reports arise 
§ As brought into her mind the Eagle's prophecies ; 
Of that so dreadful plague, which all great Britain swept, 
From that which highest flew to that which lowest crept, 
Before the Saxon thence the Briton should expell, 155 

And all that thereupon successively befell. 

How then the bloody Dane subdued the Saxon race ; 
And, next, the Norman took possession of the place: 
Those ages, once expir'd, the Fates to bring about, 
The British line restor'd ; the Norman linage out. no 

* Stour riaetfa from six fountains. 



?; THE SECOND SONG. 45 

§ Then, those prodigious signs to ponder she began, 
Which afterward again the Britons' wrack fore-ran ; 
How here the owl at noon in public streets was seen, 
As though the peopled towns had waydess deserts been. 
And whilst the loathly toad out of his hole doth crawl, 165 
And makes his fulsome stool amid the Prince's hall, 
The crystal fountain turn'd into a gory wound, 
And bloody issues brake (like ulcers) from the ground ; 
The seas against their course with double tides return, 
And oft were seen by night like boiling pitch to burn. i:w 

Thus thinking, lively Stour bestirs her tow'rds the main ; 
Which Lidden leadeth out : then Dulas bears her train 
From Blackmore, that at once their wat'ry tribute bring : 
When, like some childish wench, she loosely Avantoning, 
With tricks and giddy turns seems to in-isle the shore, its 
Betwixt her fishful banks, then forward she doth scour, 
Until she lastly reach clear Alen in her race : 
Which calmly coineth down from her dear mother Chase, 1 
Of Cranburn that is call'd ; who greatly joys to see 
A riveret born of her, for Stour's should reckon'd be, iso 
Of that renowned flood, a favourite highly grac'd. 

Whilst Cranburn, for her child so fortunately plac'd, 
With echoes every way applauds her Alans state, 
A sudden noise from Holt 2 seems to congratulate 
With Cranburn for her brook so happily bestow'd : i ss 

Where to her neighb'nng Chase, the courteous Forest show'd 
So just conceived joy, that from each rising hurst, 3 
Where many a goodly oak had carefully been nurst, 
The Sylvans in their songs their mirthful meeting tell ; 
And Satyrs, that in slades and gloomy dimbles dwell, too 
Run whooting to the hills to clap their ruder hands. 

As Holt had done before, so Canford's goodly launds 

1 Cranburn Chase. 
i Holt Forest. 3 A wood in English 



46 POLY-OLBION 

(Which lean upon the Poole) enrich'J with coppras veins, 
Kejoice to see them join'cl. When down from Sarum Plains 
Clear Avon coming in, her sister Stour doth call, ws 

§ And at New-forest's foot into the sea do fall, 
Which every day bewail that deed so full of dread 
Whereby she (now so proud) became first forested : 
She now who for her sight even boundless seem'd to lie, 
§ II cr being that receiv'd by William's tyranny ; 200 

Providing laws to keep those beasts here planted then, 
Whose lawless will from hence before had driven men; 
That where the hearth was warm'd with Winter's feasting fires, 
The melancholy hare is form'd in brakes and briars : 
The aged ranpick trunk where plow-men cast their seed, 205 
And churches overwhelm'd with nettles, fern, and weed, 
By Conquering Willvim first cut off from every trade, 
That here the Norman still might enter to invade ; 
That on this vacant place, and unfrecpiented shore, 
New forces still might land, to aid those here before. 210 
But she, as by a King and Conqueror made so great, 
By whom she was allow'd and limited her seat, 
Into her own-self praise most insolently brake, 
And her less fellow-Nymphs, New-forest thus bespake : 
1 Thou Buckholt, bow to me, so let thy sister Bere ; 
Chute, kneel thou at my name on this side of the Shiere : 
Where, for their goddess, me the Dryads* shall adore, 
With Waltham, and the Bere, that on the sea worn shore, 
See at the Southern Isles the tides at tilt, to run ; 

Ami Woolmer placed hence upon the rising sun, 
With Ashholt thine ally (my Wood-Nymphs) and with you, 
Proud Pwmber tow'rds the North, ascribe me worship due. 
Before my princely state let your poor greatness fall ; 
And vail your top-: to me, the Sov'reign of you all. 

1 The forests of Hampshire with their situations. 
1 Nymphi that live and die with oaks. 



THE SECOND SONG. 47 

Amongst the Rivers, so, great discontent there fell. 225 
Th' efficient cause whereof (as loud report doth tell) 
Was, that the sprightly Test arising up in Chute, 
To I/chin, her ally, great weakness should impute, 
That she, to her own wrong, and every other's grief, 
Would needs be telling things exceeding all belief: 230 

For, she had given it out South-hampton should not lose 
§ Her famous Bevis so, wer't in her power to choose ; 
§ And, for great Arthur's seat, her Winchester prefers, 
Whose old Round-table yet she vaunteth to be hers : 
And swore, th' inglorious time should not bereave her 
right : 235 

But what it could obscure, she would reduce to light. 
For, from that wondrous Pond 1 whence she derives her head, 
And places by the way, by which she's honored ; 
(Old Winchester, that stands near in her middle way, 
And Hampton, at her fall into the Solent sea) 240 

She thinks in all the Isle not any such as she, 
And for a demi-god she would related be. 

Sweet sister mine (quoth Test) advise you what you 
do ; 
Think this : For each of us, the Forests here are two : 
Who, if you speak a thing whereof they hold can take, 245 
Be't little, or be't much, they double will it make : 
Whom Hamble helpeth out ; a handsome proper Flood, 
In courtesy well-skill'd, and one that knew her good. 

Consider, quoth this Nymph, the times be curious now, 
And nothing of that kind will any way allow. 250 

Besides, the Muse hath next the British cause in hand, 
About things later done that now she cannot stand. 

The more they her persuade, the more she doth persist ; 
Let them say what they will, she will do what she list. 

1 A pool mar unto Alresford, yielding an unusual abundance of 
water. 



48 POLY-OLBION, 

She styles herself their Chief, and swears she will com- 
mand ; 255 
And, whatsoe'er she saith, for oracles must stand. 
Which when the Rivers heard, they further speech forbare. 
And she (to please herself that only seem'd to care) 
To sing th' achievement great of Bevis thus began : 

Redoubted Knight (quoth she) ; most renowned 
man ! 200 

Who, when thou wert but young, thy mother durst reprove 
(Most wickedly seduc'd by the unlawful love 
Of Mordv/re, at that time the Almoin Emperor's son) 
That she thy sire to death disloyally had done. 

Each circumstance whereof she largely did relate ; 265 

Then, in her song pursu'd his mother's deadly hate : 
And how (by Saber's hand) when she suppos'd him dead, 
Where long upon the Downs a shepherd's life he led ; 
Till by the great recourse, he came at length to know 
The country there-about could hardly hold the show 270 

His mother's marriage feast to fair South-hampton drew, 
Being wedded to that lord who late her husband slew : 
Into his noble breast which piere'd so wondrous deep, 
That (in the poor attire he us'd to tend the sheep, 
And in his hand bis hook) unto the town he went; 275 

As having in his heart a resolute intent 
Or manfully to die, or to revenge bis wrong : 
Where pressing at the gate the multitude among, 
The porter at that place his entrance that forbad 
(Supposing him some swain, some boist'roua country-lad 
Upon the lnad he Lent so violent a, stroke, 
That the poor empty skull like some thin potsherd broke, 
The brains and mingled blood were spertled on the wall. 
Then hasting on he came into tin- upper hall, 
Where murderous Mordure sate embraced l>y his bride : t 285 



THE SECOND SONG. 49 

Who (guilty in himself) had he not Bevis spied, 

His bones had with a blow been shatt'red : but, by chance 

(He shifting from his place, whilst Bevis did advance 

His hand, with greater strength his deadly foe to hit, 

And missing him) his chair he all to shivers split : 200 

Which strook his mother's breast with strange and sundry 

fears, 
That Bevis, being then but of so tender years, 
Durst yet attempt a thing so full of death and doubt. 
And, once before deceiv'd, she newly cast about 
To rid him out of sight ; and, with a mighty wage, 
Won such, themselves by oath as deeply durst ingage, 
To execute her will : who shipping him away 
(And making forth their course into the middand sea) 
As they had got before, so now again for gold 
To an Armenian there that young A kicks sold : 300 

Of all his gotten prize, who (as the worthiest thing, 
And fittest where-withal to gratify his king) 
Presented that brave youth ; the splendour of whose eye 
A wondrous mixture show'd of grace and majesty : 
Whose more than mandike shape, and matchless stature, 

took 305 

The king ; that often us'd with great delight to look 
Upon that English Earl. But though the love he bore 
To Bevis might be much, his daughter ten times more 
Admir'd the goddike man : who, from the hour that first 
His beauty she beheld, felt her soft bosom pierc'd 
With Cupid's deadliest shaft; that Josian, to her guest, 
Already had resign'd possession of her breast. 

Then sang she, in the fields how as he went to sport, 
And those dainn'd Paynims heard, who in despiteful sort 
Derided Christ the Lord ; for his Redeemer's sake 315 

He on those heathen hounds did there such slaughter make, 

VOL. 1. 4 



50 POLY-OLBION, 

That whilst in theirl 'lack months their blasphemiestheydrew, 
They headlong went to hell. As also how he slew. 
That cruel Boar, whose tusks turn'd up whole fields of grain, 
(And, rooting, raised hills upon the level plain ; 320 

Digg'd caverns in the earth, so dark and wondrous deep 
As that, into whose mouth the desperate Roman* leap) : 
And cutting off his head, a trophy thence to bear; 
The foresters that came to intercept it there, 
How he their scalps and trunks in chips and pieces cleft. 
And in the fields (like beasts) their mangled bodies left. 
As to his further praise, how for that dangerous fight 
The great Armenian King made noble Bevis Knight: 
And having raised pow'r, Damascus to invade, 
The General of his force this English hero made. 330 

Then, how fair Josia/n gave him Arundell his steed, 
And Mwglay his good sword, in many a gallant deed 
Which manfully he tried. Next, in a buskin'dt strain, 
Sung how himself he bore upon Damascus* Plain 
(That dreadful battle) where with Bradamond he fought ; 
And with his sword and steed such earthly wonders wrought, 
As even amongst his foes him admiration won ; 
[ncount'ring in the throng with mighty Radison ; 
And lopping off his arms,_th' imperial standard took. 
At whose prodigious fall, the conquer'd foe forsook 
Tin' field ; where, in one day so many peers they lost, 
So brave commanders, and so absolute an host, 
As to the humbled earth took proud Dam ISCUS down, 
Then tributary made to the Armenian Crown. 
And how at his return, the king (for service done. 
The honour to his reign, and to Armenia won) 
In marriage to this Earl the Princess Josian gave ; 

■ ( 'in-/ ius t that for his country's Bake bo lavished his life. 
t Lofty. 



THE SECOND SO 51 

As into what distress him Fortune after drave, 
To great Damascus sent ambassador again ; 
"When, in revenge of theirs, before by Bt vis slain, 
(And now, at his return, for that he so despis'd 
Those idols unto whom they daily sacrific'd : 
Which he to pieces hew'd and scattered in the dust) 
They, rising, him by strength into a dungeon thrust : 
In whose black bottom, long two serpents had remain V 
(Bred in the common sewer that all the city drain'd) 
Empois'ning with their smell ; which seiz'd him for their 

prey : 
With whom in struggling long (besmear'd with blood and 

clay) 
He rent their squalid chaps, and from the prison 'scap'd. 

A.s how adult'rous Joure, the King of Mambrant, rap'd ■ ■ 
Fair Josian his dear love, his noble sword and steed : 
Which afterward by craft, he in a palmer's weed 
Recover' d, and with him from Mambrant bare away. 
And with two lions how he held a desperate fray, 
Assailing him at once, that fiercely on him Hew : 
Which first he tam'd with wounds, then by the necks the m 

drew, 
And 'gainst the hard'ned earth their jaws and shouldrr.s 

burst ; 
And that (Goliah-like) grelit Asmpart infore'd 
To serve him for a slave, and by his horse to run. 

At Colein as again the glory that he won 370 

On that huge Dragon, like the country to destroy ; 
\\ hose sting strook like a lance : whose venom did destroy 
As doth a general plague : his scales like shields of brass ; 
His body, when he mov'd, like some unwieldy mass, 
Even bruis'd the solid earth. Which boldly having song, 875 
\\ ith all the sundry turns that might thereto belong, 
\\ hilst yet she shapes her course how he came back t" show 

4-2 



52 POLY-OLBION, 

What pow'rs he got abroad, how them he did bestow j 
In England here again, how he by dint of sword 
Unto his ancient lands and titles was restor'd, 
New-forest cried, enough : and Waltham with the Bcre, 
Both bade her hold her peace ; for they no more would hear. 
And for she was a flood, her fellows nought would say; 
But slipping to their banks, slid silently away. 

When as the pliant Muse, with fair and even flight, 385 
Betwixt her silver wings is wafted to the Wight; 1 
That Isle, which jutting out into the sea so far, 
Her offspring traineth up in exercise of war ; 
Those pirates to put back that oft purloin her trade, 
Or Spaniards, or the French attempting to invade. 
Of all the Southern Isles she holds the highest place, 
And evermore hath been the great'st in Britain's grace : 
Not one of all her Nymphs her sov'reign favoreth thus, 
Imbraeed in the arms of old Ocean"*. 
For none of her account so near her bosom stand, 
'Twixt Penwith's 2 furthest point and Goodwin's 2 queachy sand, 
Both for her seat and soil, that far before the other, 
Most justly may account great Britain for her mother. 
A finer fleece than hers not Lemster's self can boast, 
Nor Neicport for her mart, o'ermatch'd by any coast. 400 
T<> these, the gentle South, with kisses smooth and soft, 
Doth in her bosom breathe, and seems to court her oft. 
Besides, her little rills, her in-lands that do feed, 
Which with their lavish streams do furnish every need ; 
And meads, that with their fine soft grassy towels stand 
To wipe away the drops and moisture from her hand, 
And to the North, betwixt the fore land and tin- firm, 
She hath that narrow Sea, 8 which we the Solent term : 

1 [sle of Wight, - The forelandB of Cornwall and Kent. 

• I la- Si,', hi. 



THE SECOND SONG. 53 

"Where those rough ireful tides, as in her straits they meet, 
With boist'rous shocks and roars each other rudely greet : 410 
Which fiercely when they charge, and sadly make retreat, 
Upon the bulwark'd forts of Burst and Calshof beat, 
Then to South-hampton run : which by her shores supplied 
(As Portsmouth? by her strength) doth vilify their pride ; 
Both roads that with our best may boldly hold their 
plea, 4is 

Nor Plimmouth's self hath born more braver ships than they ; 
That from their anchoring bays have travailed to find 
Large China's wealthy realms, and view'd the either Ind, 
The pearly rich Peru ; and with as prosperous fate, 
Have borne their full-spread sails upon the streams of Pint- . 
Whose pleasant harbours oft the seaman's hope renew, 4-ji 
To rig his late-craz'd bark, to spread a wanton clue ; 
"Where they with lusty sack, and mirthful sailors' songs, 
Defy their passed storms, and laugh at Neptune's wrongs : 
The danger quite forgot wherein they were of late ; 425 

Who half so merry now as master and his mate } 
Ami victualling again, with brave and man-like minds 
To seaward cast their eyes, and pray for happy winds. 
But, partly by the floods sent thither from the shore, 
And islands that are set the bord'ring coast before : 430 

As one amongst the rest, a brave and lusty dame 
Call'd Portsey, whence that Bay of Portsmouth hath her name: 
By her, two little Isles, her handmaids (which compar'd 
With those within the Poole, for deftness not out-dar'd) 
The greater Haling bight : and fairest though by much, 4:r> 
Yet Thorney very well, but somewhat rough in touch. 
Whose beauties far and near divulged by report, 
Ami by the Tritons 3 told in mighty Neptune's court, 

1 Two castles in the sea. : Portsmouth, 

6 .Neptuue's Trumpeters. 



54 P0LY-0LB10X, 

Old Proteus 1 hath been known to leave his finny herd. 
And in their sight to sponge his foam-bespawled heard no 
The sea-gods, which about the wat'ry kingdom keep, 
Have often for their sakes abandoned the deep ; 
That Tlietis many a time to Neptune hath complain'd, 
How for those wanton Nymphs her ladies Avere disdain'd : 
And there arose such rut th' unruly rout among, >r> 

That soon the noise thereof through all the ocean rong. 

§ When Porfsey, weighing well the ill to her might grow, 
In that their mighty stirs might be her overthrow, 
She strongly strait 'neth-in the entrance to her Bay ; 
That, 2 of their haunt debarr'd, and shut out to the sea 
(Each small conceived wrong helps on distemper'd rage.) 
No counsel could be heard their choler to assuage : 
"When every one suspects the next that is in place 
To be the only cause and means of his disgrace. 
Some coming from the East, some from the setting sun, 455 
The liquid mountains still together mainly run ; 
Wave woundeth Avave again ; and billoAv billow gores ; 
And topsy-turvy so, fly tumbling to the shores. 
From hence the Solent sea, as some men thought, might stand 
Amongst those tilings which Ave call Wonders oj our Land. 

When towing up that stream/' so negligent of fame, 461 
As till this very day she yet conceals her name ; 
By Bert and Waltham both that's equally imbrac'd, 
And lastly, at her fall, by Tichfield highly grac'd. 
Whence, from old Windsor hill, and from the aged Stone s 
The Muse those Countries sees, which call her to be gone. 
The Forests took their leave : Bere, Chute, and Buckholt, bid 
Allien ; so Wolmer, and SO Ashholt, kindly did. 

1 Proteus, a Sea-god, changing himself into any shape. 
- A poetical description of the Solent ISea. 
:! Tichfield River. 

4 Another little hill in Hampshire. 



THE SECOND SON;. 55 

And Pamber shook her head, as grieved at the heart ; 
When far upon her way, and ready to depart, m 

As now the wand'ring Muse so sadly went along, 
To her last farewell, the goodly Forests sung. [brought, 

Dear Muse, to plead our right, whom time at last hath 
Which else forlorn had lain, and banish'd every thought, 
When thou ascend'st the hills, and from their rising shrouds 
Our sisters shalt command, whose tops once touch'd the 
clouds ; 470 

Old Arden 1 when thou meet'st, or dost fair Sherwood 2 see, 
Tell them, that as they waste, so every day do we : 
A\ ish them, we of our griefs may be each other's heirs ; 
Let them lament our fall, and we will mourn for theirs. 4S0 

Then turning from the South which lies in public view. 
The Muse an oblique course doth seriously pursue : 
And pointing to the Plains, she thither takes her way ; 
For which, to gain her breath she makes a little stay. 

1 The great and ancient forest of Warwickshire. 

2 The goodly forest by Nottingham. 




ILLUSTRATIONS. 



jHE Muse, yet observing her began course cf Choro- 
graphical longitude, traces Eastward the Southern 
shore of the Isle. In this second, sings Dorset 
and Hantshire ; fitly here joined as they join 

themselves, both having their South limits washed by the 

British Ocean. 




43. Which th' Ancients, for the love that they to Isis bare. 

Juba remembers alike 1 coral by the Troglodytic Isles (as 
is here in this Sea) and styles it Isidis plocamos.* True 
reason of the name is no more perhaps to be given, than 
why Adiantum is called Capillus Veneris, orSengreene Barba 
.funis. Only thus: You have in Plutarch and Apuleius such 
variety of Isis 1 titles, and, in Clemens of Alexandria, so large 
circuits of her travels, that it were no more wonder to hear 
of her name in this Northern climate than in /Egypt: es- 
pecially, we having three rivers of note 2 synonymous with 
her. Particularly to make her a Sea-goddess, which the 
common story of her and Osiris her husband (son to chain. 
and of whom Bale dares offer affirmance, that in his travel- 
ling over the world, he first taught the Britons to make beer 



1 Apnd I'lin. Bist.*Nat. lib. 13. cap. 25. 
Onse. Lelaud. ad Cyg. L'unt. 



[i is hair. 



THE SECOND SOXG. 57 

instead of wine) does not : his Pclagia* after Pausanias' 
testimony, hath an old coin. 1 The special notice which 
Antiquity took of her hair is not only shewed by her attri- 
bute- of Ay T/'/c&y,o;,t but also in that her hair was kept as 
a sacred relic in Memphis* as Geryon's bones at Thebes, the 
Boar's skin at Tegea, and such like elsewhere. And after 
this to fit our coral just with her colour, ASthiopicis solibus 
Isis furva,% she is called by Arnobius. i Gentlewomen of 
black bair§ (no fault with brevity to turn to them) have no 
simple pattern of that part in this great Goddess, whose 
name indeed comprehended whatsoever in the Deity was 
feminine, and more too ; nor will I swear, but that Ana- 
creon (a man very judicious in the provoking motives of 
wanton love) intending to bestow on his sweet mistress that 
one of the titles of women's special ornament, Well-haired,^ 
thought of this, when he gave his Painter direction to 
make her picture black-haired. But thus much out of 
the way. 

77. Thou never by that name 0/ White-hart hadst been knoum. 
Very likely from the soil was the old name Blackmore, 
By report of this country, the change was from a white hart, 
reserved here from chase, by express will of Hen. III. and 
afterward killed by Thomas de la Lyml, a gentleman of 
these parts. For the offence, a mulct imposed on the pos- 
sessors of Blackmore (called white-hart^ silver) is to this day 
paid into the Exchequer. The destruction of woods^[ here 
bewailed by the Muse, is (upon occasion too often given) 

* Isis of the Sea. 1 Goltz. Thes. Antiq. t Loosehaired. 

'-' Philostrat. in the, 3 Lucian. in tiie. 

% .Ethiopian sun-burnt. * Advers. Gent. 1. § Black-hair. 

|| K.<fA,\(-A('iK'«/i(>r. and >ca\\i<T(t>vf)i>r, i.e., well-haired, and p 
footed ; two special commendations, dispersed in Creek poets, joined 
in Lucilius. 

Camden. % Destruction of woods. 



58 POLY-OLBION, 

often seconded : but while the Muse bewails them, it is 
Marsyas and his countrymen that most want them. 

"i. On whom the wat'ry God would oft have had his will. 

Purbecke (named, but indeed not, an Isle, being joined to 
the firm land) stored with game of the forest. 

Thence alluding to Diana's devotions, the Author well 
calls her an Huntress and a Nun. Nor doth the embracing 
force of the ocean (whereto she is adjacent) although very 
violent, prevail against her stony cliffs. To this purpose 
the Muse is here wanton with Neptune's wooing. 

no. That he in little time upon this lovely dame, 

Begat three maiden Isles, his darlings and delight. 

Albion (son of Neptune) from whom the first name of this 
Britain was supposed, is well fitted to the fruitful bed of 
this Poole, thus personated as a Sea-Nymph. The plain 
truth (as words may certify your eyes, saving all impro- 
priety of object) is, that in the Poole are seated three Isles, 
Brunhsey, Fursey, and S. Helen's, 1 in situation and magnitude, 
as I name them. Nor is the fiction of begetting the Isles 
improper ; seeing Greek antiquities 2 tell us of divers in the 
Mediterranean and the Archipelago, as Rhodes, Delos, If lira, 
the Echinades, and others, which have been, as it were, 
brought forth out of the salt womb of Amphiti'ite. 

149. Now towards the Solent Sea, as Stour her way doth ply, 

On Shaftesbury, &c. 
The strait twixt the Wight and Ihn>l.<Jiir<-, is titled 
in Bede's story, Pelagus I<ihi<Hni,< m mill 'mm, quod vocatur, 
Solent; 3 famous for the double, and thereby most violent 

1 [ales newly out of tie' Sea. 

- Lucian I >i ,-l1« »^. ; Pindar. Olymp. '(,.; Strab.; Pausanias. 

J A dea three miles over, called Solent: Lib. 4. Hist. Eccles. cap. 10. 



THE SECOND SONG. 59 

floods of the ocean (as Scylla and Charybdk twixt Sicily and 
Italy in Homer) expressed by the Author towards the end 
of this Song, and reckoned among our British wonders. Of 
it the Author tells you more presently. Concerning Shaftes- 
bury (which, beside other names, from 1 the corpse of St. 
Edward, murdered in Corfe Castle through procurement of 
the bloody hate of his stepmother JElfrith, hither translated, 
and some three years lying buried, was once called St. 
Edwardfs) you shall hear a piece out of Harding: 

©aire 2 ftalatrourr that noto ts sHiafttsburij 
iKUhcrc an Jhtgcll sjmhc stttmg on the toall 
ffilthtlc tt bias m faorlu'ng obcr all. 
Speaking of Rudhudibras his fabulous building it. I recite it, 
both to mend it, 3 reading Stglf for Jlngcll, and also that it 
might then, according to the British story, help me explain 
the Author in this. 

152. As brought into her mind the Eagle's prophecies. 
This Eagle (whose prophecies among the Britons, with the 
later of Merlin, have been of no less respect than those of 
llnris were to the Greeks, or the Sybillines to the Romans) 
foretold of. a reverting of the Crown, after the Britons, 
Saxons, and Normans, to the first again, which in Hen. VII., 
grandchild to Owen Tyddour, hath been observed 4 as fulfilled. 
This in particular is peremptorily affirmed by that Count 
Palatine of Basingstoke. Et aperte dixit tempws aliquandofon 
ut Britannium imperium denuo sit ad veteres Britannos post 
Saxonas et Normannos reditwum,* are his words of this 
Eagle. But this prophecy in manuscript I have seen, and 

1 Malmes. 6. Lib. 2. de Pontific. S. Edward's. 979. 
- ( lamden takes this ( lair for Bath. 

:! Harding amended. 

4 Twin, in Albionic. '->. See the Fifth Son-. 

* He plainly said that there would he a time of this reverting of 
the Crown. 



60 POLY-OLBION, 

without the help of Albertus' secret, Canace's ring in Chaucer, 
or reading over Aristophanes' Comedy of Birds, I understood 
the language; neither find 1 in it any such matter expressly. 
Indeed as in Merlin you have in him the White Dragon, the 
Bed Dragon, the Black Dragon, for the Saxons, Britons* Nor- 
mans, and the Fertile Tree, supposed for Unite, by one that 
of later time hath given his obscurities interpretation 1 : in 
which, not from the Eagle's, hut from'-' an Angelical voice, 
almost 700 years after Christ, given to Cadwallader (whom 
others call Cedwalla) that restitution of the Crown to the 
Britons is promised, and grounded also upon some general 
and ambiguous words in the Eagle's text, by the Author 
here followed ; which (provided your faith be strong) you 
must believe made more than 2,500 years since. For a 
corollary, in this not unfit place, 1 will transcribe a piece 
of the Gloss out of an old copy, speaking thus upon a 
passage in the prophecy: Henricus TV. (he means Hen. III. 
who, by the ancient account in regard of Henry, son to 
Henry Fite-lempresse, crown'd in his father's life, is in Bracton 
and others called the Fourth) concessit mane, jus et clameum, 
pro se et heredibus suis, quod habuit in Ducatu Normannice im- 
perpetuum. Tunc fractum fuit ejus sigillum et mutatum ; 
nam prius tenebat in sceptro gladium, nunc t< net virgam ; qui 
gladius fuit de conquestu Ducis WUlielmi Bastardi, et ideo (licit 
Aquila, separabitur gladius h sceptro. Such good fortune 
have these predictions, that either by conceit (although 
strained) they are applied to accident, or else ever reli- 
giously expected ; as Buchanan of Merlin's.* 

1 Distinct. Aquil. Sceptonise. 

2 A prophecy of an angel to < ladwallader. 

:i A sceptre instead oi a sword first in ll<». the Third's seal, but 
believe him not; tin' seals "■> tl> for it : and 

even in King Arthur's, l.<!<nt<l Bays, there was a fleury sceptre; but 
that perhaps as Feigi 

* Hist. Scot. Lib. 5. in Congallo. 



THE SECOND SONG. 61 

161. Then those prodigious signs to ponder she began. 
I would not have you lay to the Author's charge a justifi- 
cation of these signs at those times : but his liberty herein 
it is not hard to justify, 

Obseditque frequens castrorum limina bubo : 

and such like hath Stilus Italicus before the Roman over- 
throw at Canna ; and Historians commonly affirm the like; 
therefore a Poet may well guess the like. 

106. And at New-forest foot into the sea doth fall. 
The fall of Stour and Avon into the ocean is the limit of 
the two shires, and here limits the Author's description of 
the first, his Muse now entering New-forest in Hantshire. 

2oo. Her being that receiv'd by William's tyranny. 
New forest (it is thought the newest in England, except 
that of Hampton Court, made by Hen. VIII.) acknowledges 
William her maker, that is, the Norman Conqueror. His 
love to this kind of possession and pleasure was such, that 
he constituted loss of eyes 1 punishment for taking his 
Venery : so affirm expressly Florence of Worcester, Henri/ of 
Huntingdon, Walter Mopes, and others, although the Author 
of Distinetio Aguilce^ with some of later time, falsely laid it 
to William Rufjis his charge. To justify my truth, and for 
variety, see these rhymes, 2 even breathing antiquity : 

(Same of bounties he louche t'nou, nntj of hit'lti best, 
HniJ is* forest, anti ts tootles, anil tnest the niuie forest, 
Chat is in £uthamtesstre, bor thulhc he lobetie mob) 
Uixto astoveti uiell mttlt bestes, antl lesej: mitt gret luou : 

1 Muttli. Paris post Hen. Huntingdon. And under Will, ll.it was 
capital to steal deer. 
- Robert Glocestrens. * His. f With. J Pastures. 



G2 POLY-OLBION, 

2Jor he cast out of house ants horn of men a great route, 
EntJ binom* their lontJ thritti mile antJ more thcrcaboutc, 
£ln»j matjr it all forest antj le3c the bests bor to fctre, 
©f £oucr men trisrritCiJ he nom let el hetje : 
Chcrttore therein brll ntonn mischcuincr, 
SlniJ is sone bias thereine issote CLlilliam the reft -&mtj,t 
3ntj is o{ sone, that hct Hichartt, caght there is Sreth also, 
SnU Htchartl is oj ncueu, hrec there is neck thereto, 
!Hs he roij an honteth anU -prrauntrt his horse s'prrntf, 
(The bnright t&o to nonet* wen to such mesauntre trrnfc. 

But to quit you of this antique verse, I return to the 
pleasanter Muse. 

•232. Her famous Bevis so wert in her power /</ choose; 
About the Norman invasion was Bevis famous with title 
of Earl of Southampton ; Duncton in Wiltshire known for his 
residence. What credit you an; to give to the hyperboles 
of Itchin in her relation of Bevis, your own judgment, and 
the Author's censure in the admonition of the other rivers 
here personated, 1 presume, will direct. And it is wished 
that the poetical Monks in celebration of him, Arthur, ami 
other such Worthies had contained themselves within bounds 
of likelihood; or else that some judges, proportionate to 
those of the Grecian Games, 3 (who always by public autho- 
rity pulled down the statues 2 erected, if they exceeded the 
true symmetry of the victors) had given such exorbitant 
fictions their desert. The sweet grace of an incbanting 
Poem (as inimitable Pindar affirms 3 ) often compels belief* 
hut so far have the undigested reports of barren and Monk- 
ish invention expatiated out of the lists of Truth, that from 

* Took. t Shot by Walter Tin//. X Hia own. 

1 'l&Wavodtxai. l Lucian. irtpl iikov. 

'■'■ Olymp. « et Num. £. aufin it K/V-j-rrci wapayoiva nt'Omg. 



THE SECOND SONG. 63 

their intermixed and absurd fauxeties hath proceeded doubt ; 
and, in some, even denial of what was truth. His sword is 
kept as a relic in Arundel Castle, not equalling in length 
(as it is now worn) that of Edward the Thirds at West- 
minster. 

233. And for great Arthur's seat her Winchester prefers,^ 

Whose old Round Table yet, &c. 
For him, his Table, Order, Knights, and places of their 
celebration, look to the Fourth Song. 

447. When Portsey weighing well the ill to her might grow. 

Portsey an Island in a creek of the Solent, coming in by 
Portsmouth, endures the forcible violence of that troublesome 
sea, as the Verse tells you in this fiction of wooing. 



THE THIRD SONG. 



The Argument. 

In this Third Song, great threat'nings are, 

And tending all to Nyinphish war. 

Old Wansdike i/ttereth words of hate, 

Depraving Stonendge's estate. 

('/' ar Avon and fair Willy strivt , 

Each pleading her prerogative. 

The Plain the Forests doth disdain .' 

The Forests rail upon the Plain. 

The Must then seeks tin Shire's extremes, 

To find the Fountain of great Tames ; 

Falls don-/' with Avon, and descri s 

Both Bath's and Bristow's braveries : 

Thai views the Sommersetian soil ; 

Through Marshes, Mines, and Moors doth toil, 

To Avalon to Arthur's Grave, 

Sadly hi iuoan'd of Ochy Cave. 

Then with delight she bravely brings 

The princely Parret from her springs 

Preparing for the learned plea 

(The next Song J in (he Severne Sea. 

P with the jocund lark (too long we take our rest) 
Whilst yet the blushing dawn out of the cheerful 

East 

Is ushering forth the day to light the Muse along ; 
Whose most delightful touch, and sweetness of her song, 

VOL. I. 5 




66 POLY-OLBION, 

Shall force the lusty swains out of the country-towns, 5 

To lead the loving girls in daunces to the downs. 

The Nymphs, in SelwoocVs shades and Braderis woods that be, 

Their oaken wreaths, Muse, shall offer up to thee. 

And when thou shap'st thy course tow'rds where the soil 

is rank, 
The Sommcrsetian maids, by swelling Sabryn's bank 10 

Shall strew the ways with flowers (where thou art com- 
ing on) 
Brought from the marshy-grounds by aged Avalon. 1 

§ From Sarum thus we set, remov'd from whence it stood 
By Avon to reside, her dearest lovM Flood : 
Where her imperious Fane 2 her former seat disdains, 15 

And proudly overtops the spacious neighbouring Plains. 
What pleasures hath this Isle, of us esteem'd most dear, 
In any place, but poor unto the plenty here 1 
The chalky ChUtern 3 fields, nor Kelmarsti self compares 
With Everley* for store and swiftness of her hares : 20 

A horse of greater speed, nor yet a righter hound, 
Not anywhere twixt Kent and Calidon b is found. 
Nor yet the level South can shew a smoother race, 
Whereas the ballow* nag outstrips the winds in chace; 
As famous in the West for matches yearly tried, 
As Grarterley, 6 possess'd of all the Northern pride : 
And on his match as much the Western horseman lays, 
As the rank-riding Scots upon their Galloway^. 1 

And as the Western soil as sound a horse doth breed, 
As doth the land that lies betwixt the Trent and Tweed: so 



1 Qlastenbury. ■ The goodly Church at Salisbury. 

:t Two places famous for hares, the one in Buckinghamshire, the 
other in tforth-hamptonshire. 
* Eherley warren of hares. ' The furthest part of Scotland. 

■ Gaunt, ,; \ famous Yorkshire horse-race. 

7 The hest kind of Scottish Dags. 



THE THIRD SONG. 67 

No hunter, so, but finds the breeding of the West, 

The only kind of hounds, 1 for mouth and nostril best ; 

That cold doth seldom fret, nor heat doth over-hale ; 

As standing in the flight, as pleasant on the trail ; 

Free hunting, eas'ly check' d, and loving every chace ; 35 

Straight running, hard, and tough, of reasonable pace : 

Not heavy, as that hound which Lancashire doth breed ; 

Nor as the Northern kind, so light and hot of speed, 

Upon the clearer chase, or on the foiled train, 

Doth make the sweetest cry, in woodland, or on plain. 40 

Where she, of all the Plains of Britain, that doth bear 
The name to be the first (renowned everywhere) 
§ Hath worthily obtained that Stonendge there should 

stand : 
She, first of Plains ; and that, 2 first Wonder of the Land. 
She Wansdike also wins, by whom she is imbrac'd, 45 

That in his aged arms doth gird her ampler waist : 
Who (for a mighty Mound sith long he did remain 
§ Betwixt the Mercians rule, and the West-Saxons' reign, 
And therefore of his place himself he proudly bare) 
Had very oft been heard with Stonendge to compare ; 50 

Whom for a paltry Ditch, when Stonendge pleas'd t' upbraid, 
The old man taking heart, thus to that Trophy said : 

Dull heap, that thus thy-head above the rest dost rear, 
Precisely yet not know'st who first did place thee there ; 
But traitor basely turn'd, to Merlin's skill dost fly, 55 

And with his magiques dost thy Maker's truth belie : 
Conspirator with Time, now grown so mean and poor, 
Comparing these his spirits with those that went before; 
Yet rather art content thy builders' praise to lose, 
Than passed greatness should thy present wants disclose. 00 
111 did those mighty men to trust thee with their story, 
That hast forgot their names, who rear'd thee for their glory: 

1 The Western hounds generally the best. 
3 Stonendge the greatest Wonder of England. 

5-2 



68 POLY-OLBIOX, 

For all their wondrous cost, thou that hast serv'd them so, 
What 'tis to trust to tombs, by thee we eas'ly know. 

In these invectives thus whilst Wansdike doth complain,65 
He interrupted is by that imperious Plain, 1 
§ To hear two crystal Floods to court her, that apply 
Themselves, which should be seen most gracious in her eye. 

First, Willy boasts herself more worthy than the other, 
And better far deriv'd ; as having to her mother 70 

Fair Selicood, 2 and to bring up Diver 3 in her train ; 
Which, when the envious soil would from her course restrain, 
A mile creeps under earth, as flying all resort : 
And how clear Nader waits attendance in her court ; 
And therefore claims of right the Plain should help her 
dear, 75 

Which gives that Town 4 the name; which likewise names the 

The Eastern Avon vaunts, and doth upon her take [Shire. 
To be the only child of shadeful Sure make : 5 
As Amhraye's ancient flood ; herself and to enstyle 
The Stoncndge's best-lov'd, first wonder of the Isle ; so 

And what (in her behoof) might any want supply, 
She vaunts the goodly seat of famous Suhbury ; 
Where meeting pretty Bourne, with many a kind embrace, 
Betwixt their crystal arm s they clip that loved place. 

Report, as lately rais'd, unto .these Rivers came, *=. 

§ That JJaf/tr's char Avon (wax'd imperious through her 

fame) 
Their dalliance should deride ; and that by her disdain, 
Some other smaller Brooks, belonging to the Plain, 
A question seem'd to make, whereas the Shire s< tit forth 
Two Avons, which should he the Flood of greatest worth; 90 

1 Salisbury Plain. 

- A , i.\t Wiltshin and Somerset 

<>•,,,, ■ , ill. 

4 Wilton of H Ulie, and li Uishm ol Wilton. 

5 A Forest in Wiltshire, as the Map will tell you. 



THE THIRD SONG. 69 

This stream, which to the South the Celtick 1 Sea doth get, 
Or that which from the North saluteth Somerset. 

This when these Rivers heard, that even but lately strove 
Which best did love the Plain, or had the Plain's best love, 
They straight themselves combine: for Willy wisely weigh'd, 
That should her Avon lose the day for want of aid, 96 

If one so great and near were overpress'd with pow'r, 
The foe (she being less) would quickly her devour. 
As two contentious Kings, that, on each little jar, 
Defiances send forth, proclaiming open war, 100 

Until some other realm, that on their frontier lies, 
Be hazarded again by other enemies, 
Do then betwixt themselves to composition fall, 
To countercheck that sword, else like to conquer all : 
So falls it with these Floods, that deadly hate do bear. 105 
And whilst on either part strong preparations were, 
It greatly was suppos'd strange strife would there have been, 
Had not the goodly Plain (plac'd equally between) 
Forewarn'd th«m to desist, and off their purpose brake : 
When in behalf of Plains thus (gloriously) she spake : no 

'-' Away ye barb'rous Woods j how ever ye be plac'd 
On mountains, or in dales, or happily be grac'd 
With floods, or marshy fells,* with pasture, or with earth 
By nature made to till, that -by the yearly birth 
The large-bay'd barn doth fill, yea though the fruitfull'st 
ground. 115 

For, in respect of Plains, what pleasure can be found 
In dark and sleepy shades 1 where mists and rotten fogs 
Hang in the gloomy thicks, and make unstedfast bogs, 
By dropping from the boughs, the o'ergrown trees among. 
With caterpillars' kells, and dusky cobwebs hung. 120 

The French Sea, as you have in the note before. 
- The Plain of Salisbury's speech in defence of all Plain*. 
* B°ogy places. A word frequent in Lancashm . 



70 POLY-OLBION, 

The deadly screech-owl sits, in gloomy covert hid : 
"Whereas the smooth-brow'd Plain, as liberally doth bid 
The lark to leave her bow'r, and on her trembling wing 
In climbing up tow'rds heav'n, her high-pitch'd hymns to 

sing 
Unto the springing day ; -when 'gainst the sun's arise las 
The early dawning strews the goodly Eastern skies 
With roses everywhere : who scarcely lifts his head 
To view this upper world, but he his beams doth spread 
Upon the goodly Phi ins ; yet at his noonsted's height, 
Doth scarcely pierce the brake with his far-shooting sight. 1:10 

The gentle shepherds here survey their gentler sheep : 
Amongst the bushy woods luxurious Satyrs keep. 
To these brave sports of field, who with desire is won, 
To see his greyhound course, his horse (in diet) run, 
His deep-mouth'd hound to hunt, his long-wing'd hawk to fly, 
To these most noble sports his mind who doth apply, 130 
Besorts unto the Plains. And not a foughten Field, 
Where Kingdoms' rights' have lain upon t^ie spear and 

shield, 
But Plains have been the place; and all those trophies high 
That ancient times have rear'd to noble memory ; 140 

As, Stonendge, that to tell the British Princes slain 
By those false Saxons' fraud, here ever shall remain. 
It was upon tin- Plain of Mamre (to the fame 
Of me and all our kind) whereas tin' Angels came 
To Abraham in his tent, and there with him did feed; 145 
To Sara his dear wife then promising the Seed 
By Whom all nations should so highly honor' d be, 
In which the Son of God they in the flesh should see. 
But Forests, to your plague there soon will come an Age, 
In which all damned sins most vehemently shall rage. 150 
An Age ! what have I said I nay. Aires there shall rise, 
So senseless of the good of their posterities. 



THE THIRD SONG. 71 

That of your greatest groves they scarce shall leave a tree 
( By which the harmless deer may after shelter'd be) 
Their luxury and pride but only to maintain, 15s 

And for your long excess shall turn ye all to pain. 

Thus ending ; though some hills themselves that do apply 
To please the goodly Plain, still standing in her eye, 
Did much applaud her speech (as Haradon, 1 whose head 
Old Ambry still doth awe, and Bagden from his stead igo 
Surveying of the Vies, whose likings do allure 
Both Otddbry and Saint Anne ; and they again procure 
Mount Marting-sall : and he those hills that stand aloof, 
Those brothers Barlunj and Badbtvry, whose proof 
Adds much unto her praise) yet in most high disdain 105 
The Forests take her words, and swear the prating Plain, 
Grown old, began to dote ; and Savernake so much 
Is galled with her taunts (whom they so nearly touch) 
That she in spiteful terms defies her to her face ; 
And Aldbwne with the rest, though being but a Chace, i"u 
At worse than nought her sets : but Bradon all-afloat 
When it was told her, set open such a throat, 
That all the country rang. She calls her barren jade, 
Base quean, and riv'ld witch, and wish'd she could be made 
But worthy of her hate (which most of all her grieves) 175 
The basest beggar's bawd, a harbourer of thieves. 
Then Peusham, and with her old Blackmore (not behind) 
Do wish that from the seas some sultry Southern wind, 
The foul infectious damps and pois'ned airs would sweep, 
And pour them on the Plain, to rot her and her sheep, iso 

But whilst the sportive Muse delights her with these 
She strangely taken is with those delicious springs [things, 
Of Kennet rising here, and of the nobler stream 
Of Isis setting forth upon her way to Tame, \u 

1 Divers hills near and about Salisbury Plain. 



72 POLY-OLBION, 

§ By Gh-eeldade ; whose great name yet vaunts that learned 
Where to great Britain first the sacred Muses song ; [tong, 
Which first Avere seated here, at Isis' bounteous head, 
As telling that her fame should through the world be spread ; 
And tempted by this flood, to Oxford after came, 
There likewise to delight her bridegroom, lovely Tame : 190 
Whose beauty when they saw, so much they did adore, 
That Greeldade they forsook, and would go back no more. 
Then Bradon gently brings forth Aeon from her source : 
Which Southward making soon in her most quiet course, 
Receives the gentle Calm : when on her rising side, 195 

First Blackmoore crowns her bank, as Peusluun with her pride 
Sets out her murmuring shoals, till (turning to the West) 
Her Somerset receives, with all the bounties blest 
That Nature can produce in that Bathonian Spring, 199 

Which from the sulphury mines her med'cinal force doth 

bring ; 
As Physic hath found out by colour, taste, and smell, 
Which taught the world at first the virtue of the Well ; 
What quickliest it could cure : which men of knowledge 

drew 
From that first mineral cause : but some that little knew 
(Yet felt the great effects continually it wrought) 205 

§ Ascrib'd it to that skill, which Bladud hither brought, 
As by that learned King the Baths should be begun ; 
Not from the quick'ned mine, by the begetting sun 
Giving that natural pow'r, which by the vig'rous sweat, 
Doth lend the lively Springs their perdurable heat 219 

In passing through the veins, where matter doth not need ; 
Which in that minerous earth Lnsep'rably doth breed ; 
So Nature hath purvey'd, that during all her reign 
The Baths their native power for ever shall retain : 
Where Time that City built, which to her greater fame, ivo 
Preserving of that Spring, participates her name ; 



THE THIRD SONG. 73 

The tutelage whereof (as those past worlds did please) 

1 Some to Minerva gave, and some to Hercules : 
Proud Phoebus? loved Spring, in whose diurnal course, 

§ When on this point of earth he bends his greatest force, 
By his so strong approach, provokes her to desire ; 221 

Stung with the kindly rage of love's impatient fire : 
Which boiling in her womb, projects (as to a birth) 
Such matter as she takes from the gross humorous earth ; 
Till purg'd of dregs and slime, and her complexion clear, 225 
She smileth on the light, and looks with mirthful cheer. 

Then came the lusty Froome, the first of Floods that met 
Fair Avon ent'ring into fruitful Somerset, 
With her attending Brooks ; and her to Bath doth bring, 
Much honoured by that place, Minerva s sacred Spring. 230 
To noble Avon, next, clear Chute as kindly came, 

2 To Bristoiv her to bear, the fairest seat of Fame : 
To entertain this Flood, as great a mind that hath, 
And striving in that kind far to excel the Bath. 

As when some wealthy lord prepares to entertain 235 

A man of high account, and feast his gallant train, 

Of him that did the like, doth seriously enquire 

His diet, his device, his service, his attire ; 

That varying everything (exampled by his store) 

He every way may pass what th' other did before : 24a 

Even so this City doth ; the prospect of which place 

To her fair building adds an admirable grace ; 

Well-fashion'd as the best, and with a double wall, 

As brave as any town ; but yet excelling all 

For easement, that to health is requisite and meet ; 

Her piled shores, to keep her delicate and sweet : 

Hereto, she hath her tides ; that when she is opprest 

With heat or drought, still pour their Hoods upon her breast 

1 Minerva and Hercules, the protectors of these fountains. 
- The delicacies of Bristow. 



74 POLY-OLBIOX, 

To Meridvp then the Muse upon the South inclines, 
Which is the only store, and coffer of her mines : 250 

Elsewhere the fields and meads their sundry traffics suit : 
The forests yield her wood, the orchards give her fruit. 

As in some rich man's house his several charges lie, 
There stands his wardrobe, here remains his treasury ; 
His large provision there, of fish, of fowl, and neat ; 255 

His cellars for his wines, his larders for his meat ; 
There banquet-houses, walks for pleasure ; here again 
Cribs, graners, stables, barns, the other to maintain : 
So this rich country hath, itself what may suffice ; 
Or that which through exchange a smaller want supplies. 260 

Yet Ochjs dreadful Hole still held herself disgrae'd, 
§ "With th' wonders* of this Isle that she should not be 

plac'd : 
But that which vex'd her most, was, that the PeaMsh Cave 1 
Before her darksome self such dignity should have ; 
And th' Wyches 2 for their salts such state on them should take ; 
Or Cheshire should prefer her sad Deaih-boding-lake r see 

And Stonendge in the world should get so high respect, 
Which imitating Art but idly did erect : 
And that amongst the rest, the vain inconstant Dee, 4 
By changing of his fords, fur one should reckon'd be; 
As of another sort, wood turn'd to stone j 5 among, 
Th' anatomized fish,' 1 and fowls 7 from planchcrs sprong : 
And on the Cambrian side those strange and wondrous 

Springs ; 8 
Our beasts that seldom drink ; a thousand other things 

* A catalogue of many wondera of tliis I. ami. 

1 The Devil's Arse. ' Thi Ball wells in Cheshire. 

:1 BruertorCs Pond. * A river by Westchester. 

5 By sundry soils of Britain. 

,; Our pikes, ripped and sewed-up, live. 

7 Barnacles, a bjrd breeding upon old BhipB, 

B Wondrous Springs in Wales. '•' Sheep, 



TEE THIRD SONG. 75 

Which Ochy inly vex'd, that they to fame should mount, 2:5 
And greatly griev'd her friends for her so small account ; 
That there was scarcely rock, or river, marsh, or mere 
That held not Ochtfs wrongs (for all held Ochy dear) 
§ In great and high disdain : and Froome for her disgrace 
Since scarcely ever wash'd the coal-sleek from her face ; 2so 
But (melancholy grown) to Avon gets a path, 
Through sickness fore'd to seek for cure unto the Bath : 
§ And Chedder, for mere grief his teen he could not wreak, 
Gush'd forth so forceful streams, that he was like to break 
The greater banks of Ax, as from his mother's cave 285 

He wand'red towards the sea ; for madness who doth rave 
At his drad mother's wrong : but who so woe begone 
For Ochy, as the Isle of ancient Avalon ? 
"Who having in herself, as inward cause of grief, 
Neglecteth yet her own, to give her friend relief. 290 

The other so again for her cloth sorrow make, 
And in the Isle's behalf the dreadful Cavern spake : 

three times famous Isle, where is that place that might 
Be with thyself compar'd for glory and delight, 
Whilst Glastenbwy stood ] exalted to that pride, 295 

Whose Monastery seem'd all other to deride ? 
( ) who thy ruin sees, whom wonder doth not fill 
With our great fathers' pomp, devotion, and their skill ? 
Thou more than mortal pow'r (this judgment rightly weigh'd) 
Then present to assist, as that foundation laid ; 300 

On whom, for this sad waste, should Justice lay the crime 1 
Is there a pow'r in Fate, or doth it yield to Time 1 
( )r was their error such, that thou could'st not protect 
Those buildings which thy hand did with their ?eaJ erect? 
To whom didst thou commit that monument to keep, 305 
That sufFreth with the dead their memory to sleep 1 
§ When not great Arthur's Tomb, nor holy Joseph's 1 Grave, 
From sacrilege had power their sacred bones to save ; 
1 Joseph of Arimathcea 



76 POLY-OLBIOX, 

He who that God-in-man to his sepulchre brought, 

Or he which for the faith twelve famous battles fought. 310 

What ] Did so many Kings do honour to that place, 

For avarice at last so vilely to deface ( 

For rev'rence to that seat which hath ascribed been, 

Trees 1 yet in winter bloom, and bear their summer's green. 

This said, she many a sigh from her full stomach cast, 315 
Which issued through her breast in many a boist'rous blast ; 
And with such floods of tears her sorrows doth condole, 
As into rivers turn within that darksome hole : 
Like sorrow for herself, this goodly Isle doth try ; 
§ Imbrac'd by SelwoocPs sun, her flood the lovely Bry, 320 
On whom the Fates bestow'd (when he conceived was) 
He should be much belov'd of many a dainty lass ; 
Who gives all leave to like, yet of them liketh none : 
Ihit his affection sets on beauteous Avalon ; [do prove 

Though many a plump-thigh'd moor, and full-flank'd marsh 
To force his chaste desires, so dainty of his love. 326 

First 2 Sedgemore shews this flood her bosom all imbrac'd, 
And casts her wanton arms about his slender waist : 
Her lover to obtain, so amorous Awlnj seeks \ 
And Gedney softly steals sweet kisses from his cheeks. 330 
One takes him by the hand, intreating him to stay : 
Another plucks him back, when he would fain away: 
But, having caught at length, whom long he did pursue, 
Is so intranc'd with love, her goodly parts to view, 
That alt'ring quite his shape, to her he doth appear, 
And casts his crystal self into an ample mere: 
But for his greater growth when needs he must depart, 
And forc'd to have his love (though with a heavy heart) 
As he his back doth turn, and is departing out, 
The batning marshy Brent environs him about: mo 

1 The wondrous tree ;it Olastenbury. 
s Fruitful Moora on the banks of Bry. 



THE THIRD SONG. 77 

But loathing her imbrace, away in haste he flings, 
And in the Severne sea surrounds his plenteous springs. 

But, dallying in this place, so long why dost thou dwell, 
So many sundry things here having yet to tell ? 
Occasion calls the Muse her pinions to prepare. 345 

Which (striking with the wind the vast and open air) 
Now, in the finny heaths, then in the champains roves ; 
Now, measures out this plain ; and then surveys those groves; 
The batfull pastures fenc'd, and most with quickset mound, 
The sundry sorts of soil, diversity of ground ; 350 

Where ploughmen cleanse the earth of rubbish, weed, and filth, 
And give the fallow lands their seasons and their tilth : 
Where best for breeding horse ; where cattle fitt'st to keep: 
Which good for bearing corn ; which pasturing for sheep : 
The lean and hungry earth, the fat and marly mould, 355 
Where sands be always hot, and where the clays be cold ; 
With plenty where they waste, some others touch'd with want : 
Here set, and there they sow; here proin, and there they plant. 

As J Tilts/tire is a place best pleas'd with that resort 
Which spend away the time continually in sport ; 300 

So Somerset herself to profit doth apply, 
As given all to gain, and thriving housewifry. 
For, whereas in a land one doth consume and waste, 
'Tis fit another be to gather in as fast : 
This liketh moory plots, delights in sedgy bow'rs, 3g; 

The grassy garlands loves, and oft attir'd with flow'rs 
Of rank and mellow glebe : a sward as soft as wool. 
With her complexion strong, a belly plump and full. 

Thus whilst tlie activeMusestrainsout these various things, 
< Hear Parret makes approach, with all those plenteous springs 
Her fruitful banks that bless; by whose monarchal sway, xi 
She fortifies herself against that mighty day 
Wherein her utmost power she should he fore'd to try. 
For, from the Druids' time there was a prophecy, 



78 POLY-OLBION, 

That there should come a day (which now was near at hand 

By all forerunning signs) that on the Eastern strand, 878 

If Parrefl stood not fast upon the English side, 

They all should be suppress'd : and by the British pride 

In cunning overcome ; for why, impartial Fate 

(Yet constant always to the Britons crazed state) 380 

Forbad they yet should fall ; by whom she meant to show 

How much the present Age, and after-times should owe 

Unto the line of Brute. Clear Barret therefore press'd 

Her tributary streams, and wholly her address'd 

Against the ancient foe : First, calling to her aid 385 

Two Rivers of one name; 2 which seem as though they-stay'd 

Their empress as she went, her either hand that take. 

The first upon the right, as from her source doth make 

Large Muchelney an Isle, and unto Ivell lends 

Her hardly-rend'red name : That on her left, descends 390 

From Neroetis neighbouring woods ; which, of that forest 

Her rival's proffer'd grace opprobriously doth scorn, [born, 

She by her wand'ring course doth Athdney in-isle : 

And for the greater state, herself she doth instile 

§ The nearest neighbouring Mood to Arthur's ancient seat, 395 

Which made the Britons? name through all the world so 

Like Camdot, what place was ever yet renown'd? [great. 

AYhere, as at Carlion, oft, he kept the Table-round, 

Most famous for the sports at Pentecost so long, [sprong. 

From whence all knightly deeds, and brave achievement- 

As some soft-sliding rill, which from a lesser head an 

(Yet in his going forth, by many a fountain fed) 

Extends itself at length unto a goodly stream ; 

So, almost through the world his fame flew from this realm ; 

That justly I may charge those ancient Bards of wrong, 405 

So idly to neglect hi.s glory in their song. 

1 A supposed prophecy upon Parrel. 

- Ivel: from which tin- town Ivel is denominated. 



THE THIRD SONG. 79 

For some abundant brain, there had been a story 
Beyond the Blind-man's 1 might to have inhanc'd our glory. 

Tow'rds the Sabrinian sea then P arret setting on, 
To her attendance next comes in the beauteous Tone, 410 
Crown'd with embroid'red banks, and gorgeously array'd 
With all th' enamell'd flowers of many a goodly mead : 
In orchards richly clad ; whose proud aspiring boughs 
Even of the tallest woods do scorn a jot to lose, 
Though Sehcood's mighty self, and Neroch standing by : 415 
The sweetness of her soil through every coast doth fly. 
"What ear so empty is, that hath not heard the sound 
Of Taunton's fruitful Beam f- not match'd by any ground ; 
By Athelney 3 ador'd, a neighbourer to her land : 
Whereas those higher hills to view fair Tone that stand, 420 
Her coadjuting Springs with much content behold : 
Where sea-ward Qitantock stands as Neptune lie controll'd, 
And Blackdoum inland born, a Mountain and a Mound, 
As though he stood to look about the country round : 
But P arret as a Prince, attended here the while, 425 

Inrich'd with every Moor, and every inland Isle, 
Upon her taketh state, well forward tow'rds her fall : 
Whom lastly yet to grace, and not the least of all, 
< 'omes in the lively Carre, a Nymph most lovely clear, 
From Somerton sent down the Sovereign of the Shire ; 430 
Which makes our Parrel proud. And wallowing in excess, 
AVhilst like a Prince she vaunts amid the wat'ry press, 
The breathless Muse awhile her wearied wings shall ease, 
To get her strength to stem the rough Sabrinian seas. 

1 Homer. 2 One of the fruitful places of this land. 
3 Interpreted the Noble Isle. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 




ISCOXTINUIXG her first course, the Muse returns 
to Somerset and Wiltshire, which lie twixt the 
Severne and Hamishire; as the song here joins 
them. 



13. From Sarum thus v< set, removM from whence it stood. 

Old Salisbury Mated North-east from the now famous 
Salisbury, some mile distant, about Richard Cceur de Lion's 
time had her name and inhabitants hither translated, upon 
the meeting of Avon and Aderborn ; where not Long after 
Bhe enjoyed, among other, that glorious title of admiration 
fin- her sumptuous Church-buildings. Of that, one of my 
authors 1 thus : 

in thr gear* of grace 



Ebjflf hiinbrcfc antj to anb tbacnti in the baire place 

©f the noble iilunstre of £alcsbtui hit IciUc thr berate 

Stone 
Chat me not in (Christinbom bairorc tooth non. 
Cher tons iJanbulf the ILegat, nnb as hent of eehon, 
}i c leiUe biuc the berate stones: as bor the Jjopc put on, 

1 Rob. < ; I"' i fcr< as, 



THE THIRD SONG. 81 

Che other faor bre* nonge 13 mg, the thriVUe as me sene 
3!or the gotie (Erie of i&altsburt JLJtltTliam+ the SLoncjespet, 
£he berth bor the Contesse, the btfte he leiUe tho 
Slot- the Ut'shojp; of £?alesbuti, an& he tte Utile na mo. 

This work then began, was by Robert of Bingham, next suc- 
ceeding Bishop to that excellency, prosecuted. 

43. Hath worthily obtain 1 d that Stonehenge there should stand. 

Upon Salisbury Plain stones of huge weight and greatness, 
some in the earth pitched, and in form erected, as it were 
circular ; others lying cross over them, as if their own poise 
did no less than their supporters give them that proper 
place, have this name of Stone-henge ; 

But so confus'd that neither any eye 

Can count them just, nor reason reason try, 

What force brought them to so unlikely ground. 

As the noble Sidney 1 of them. 

No man knows, saith Huntingdon^ (making them the first 
wonder of this Land, as the Author doth) how, or ^vhy, 
they came here. The cause thus take from the British 
story : Hengist under colour of a friendly treaty with Vorti- 
gem at Amesbury, his falsehood's watchword to his Saxons 
(provided there privily with long knives) being Nimep youp 
rexer, 3 there traitorously slew G60 noble Britons, and kept 
the King prisoner. Some thirty years after King Ambros 
(to honour with one monument the name of so many mur- 
dered Worthies) by help of Uter-pen-dragon's forces and 
Merlin's magic, got them transported from off a plain (others 
say a hill) near Naas* in Kildare in Ireland, hither, to re- 

* Ben. III. f Wilhelm. de Ionga spatha. J Richard Poore. 

1 In his .Sonnets. - EKstor. lib. 1. 3 i.< ., Take your swords. 

* Girald. Cambrensia Topograph. Hib. dhst. 2, cap. 16. Chorea 
gigantum. 

VOL. I. 6 



82 POLY-OLBION, 

main as a trophy, not of victory, but of wronged innocency. 
This Merlin persuaded the King that they were medicinal, 
and first brought out of the utmost parts of Afrique by 
Giants which thence came to inhabit Ireland. Non est ibi 
lapis qui medicamento caret, 1 as in Merlin's person Geffrey of 
Monmouth speaks ; whose authority in this treacherous 
slaughter of the Britons, I respect not so much as X< rutins, 
Molmesbury, Sigebert, Matthew of //'< , and others, 

who report it as I deliver. Whether they be naturally solid, 
or with cement artificially composed, I will not dispute. 
Although the last be of easier credit ; yet I would, with 
our late Historian Jlltitc, believe the first sooner, than that 
Ulysses' ship was by Neptune turned into one stone, as it is 
in the Odyssees, and that the JEgyptian King Amasis had a 
house cut out in one marble (which, by Herodotus' descrip- 
tion, could not after the workmanship have less content 
than 2,394 solid cubits, if my Geometry fail me not) or 
that which the Jews 2 are not ashamed to affirm of a stone, 
with which King Og at one throw from his head purposed 
to have crushed all the Israelites, had not a lapwing strangely 
pecked such a hole through it, that it fell on his shoulders, 
and by miracle his upper teeth suddenly extended, kept it 
there fast from motion. It is possible they may be of some 
such earthy dust as that <>f Puzzolo, and by jflHtna, which 
cast into the water turns stony, as Pliny after Strabo of 
them and other like remembers. And for certain 3 1 find it 
reported, that in Cairnarvan upon Snowdon Hills is a stone 
(which miraculously somewhat more than sixty years since, 
raised if -elf out of a lake at the hill's foot) equalling a huge 
house in greatness, and supposed nut moveable by a thousand 
yoke oi ox( n. For the form of bringing them, your opinion 

1 Nut Hue uf the Btones but i unewhat in Phj 

s Apud Monster, ad Deuter. :;. [f among them there oe a whet- 

. ic! the .lew have it. 

3 Powe] ad lil>. '_'. cap. 9. Girald. [tinerarii. 



THE TRIED SONG. 83 

may take freedom. That great one which Hercules 1 is wondered 
at for the carriage was but a cartload, 2 which he left for a 
monument in Otranto of Italy: and except Geffrey of Mon 
mouth, with some which follow him, scarce any affirm or 
sjieak of it, nor Nennius, nor Malmesbury ; the first living 
somewhat near the supposed time. 

4s. Betwixt flic Mercian rule, and the "West-Saxons' reign. 

So thinks our Antiquary and Light of this Kingdom • 
that, to be a limit of those two ancient states, sometime 
divided by Avon, which falls into Seveme, Wansdike crossing 
the Shire Westward over the Plain was first cast up. 3 FPodens- 
. the old name, is supposed from Woden ; of no less (if 
not greater) esteem to the Saxons, than Arsaces, Pelops, Cad- 
m us, and other such, to their posterity ; but so that I guess 
it went but for their greatest God Mereury (he is called 
rather Wonden from Win, that is, gain, by LipsiUs*) as the 
German and English antiquities discover. And very likely. 
when this limit was made, that in honour of him, being by 
name President of ways, and by his office of Heraldship 
Pacifi . i.e., Peacemaker, 5 as an old stamp titles him, they 
called it Wodensdike ; as not only the Greeks 6 had their 
'EofiaT thodioi TiTgayXu^Tvsg (statues erected) for limits and 
direction of ways, and the Latins their Terminus, but the 
ancient Jews also, as upon interpretation of nO^HOU 7 in the 
Proverbs, i.e., into an heap of Mercury (in the Vulgate) for a 
heap of stones in that sense, Gorqpius in his hieroglyphics 
affirms, somewhat boldly deriving Mercury from rtltrc, 
which signifies a limit in his and our tongue, and so fits 
this place in name and nature. Stonhenge and it not im- 

it. -toi davfi. iiKovay.. - a/ia£a7o£. 

1 ■ oden or VVonden. * Ad Germ. Tacit. 
Inmunrull. Sax. Mercury. Adam Bremens. cap. 5. and hence 

1 Pausao. Bsepms; et Theocrit. ltd. *t. " Proverbs 26. v B 

G 2 



84 POLY-OLBION, 

properly contend, being several works of two several 
nations anciently hateful to each other ; Britons and Saxons. 

67. To Jiear two crystal floods to court her which apply. 

Willibourne (by the old name the Author calls her U'Uhj) 
derived from near Sehcood by Warmister, with her creeky 
passage, crossing to Wilton, naming both that town and the 
shire, and on the other side Avon taking her course out of 
Savernake by Marleborow through the shire Southward, 
washing Ambresbury and the Salisburies (New Salisbury being 
her Episcopal city) both watering the Plain, and furnished 
with these reasons, are fitly thus personated, striving to en- 
dear themselves in her love : and prosecuting this fiction, 
the Muse thus adds : 

•so. How that Bathe's Avon wax'd imperious through her fame. 

Divers rivers of that name have we ; but two of eminent 
note in Wiltshire: one is next before shewed you, which 
falls through Dorset into the Ocean ; the other here men- 
tioned hath her head in the edi?e of Glocester : and with her 
snaky course, visiting Mahnesbu.ry, Chippenham, Bradford, 
and divers towns of slight note, turns into Somerset, passes 
linfli, and casts herself into Severne at Bristow. This com- 
pendious contention (whose proportionate example is a 
special elegancy for the ex pressing of diversity, as in the 
Pastorals of Theocritus and Virgil) is aptly concluded with 
that point of ancient politic observation, 1 that Outward com 
mon fear is the surest baud of friendship. 

185. To Greeklade wlwse great name yet '■mints that learned t.ong. 

The History of Oxford in the Proctors' book, and certain 
old verses, 2 kept somewhere in this tract, affirm, that with 
Brute came hither certain Greek Philosophers, from whose 

1 In Thucydid. '-t. Li v. ■ Leland. ml Cyg <!;uit. in Iside. 



THE THIRD SONG. 85 

name and profession here it was thus called, and as an 
University afterward translated to Oxford (upon like nota- 
tion a company of Physicians retiring to Lechlade 1 in this 
shire, gave that its title, as I. Rous adds in his story to 
Hen. VII.). But Godwin and a very old Anonymus, cited 
by Br. Tuim, refer it to Theodore of Tarsus in Cilicia (made 
Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Vitalian under Ecgbert,King 
of Kent) very skilful in both tongues, and an extraordinary 
restorer of learning to the English-Saxons ; That he had 
(among other) Greek schools, is certain by Bede's affirmation 
that some of his scholars understood both Greek and Latin 
as their mother language. Richard of the Vies 2 will that 
Penda, King of Mercland, first deduced a colony of Cambridge 
men hither, and calls it Crekelade, as other Kirklade with 
variety of names : but I suspect all ; as well for omission of 
it in best authorities, as also that the name is so different 
in itself. Grecolade was never honoured with Greek schools, 
as the ignorant multitude think, saith Leland, ? affirming it 
should be rather Credade, Lechelade, or Lathlade. Nor me- 
thinks (of all) stands it with the British story,* making the 
tongue then a kind of Greek (a matter, that way reasonable 
enough, seeing it is questionless that colonies anciently de- 
rived out of the Western Asia, Peloponnesus, Hellas, and 
those Continents into the coast whence Brute came, trans- 
ported the Greek with them) that profession of Grecians 
should make this so particular a name. 

200. Ascrib'd to that high skill which learned Bladud brought. 

You are now in Somersetshire. I doubt not but the true 
cause is that which is ordinary of other hot springs ; not 

1 i.e., The Physician's lake. 

" Apud. Cai. de antiq. Cantabrig. lib. 2. et Cod. Nig. Cantabr. 
apud aut. assert, antiq. Oxon. 

a A<1 Cyg. Cant, in Iside et Isid. vad. 

* Curvus Grajcus serine- Britajmieus. Galfred. Moniuneth. lib. 1. 



86 POLY-OLBION, 

the sun's heat (saving the Author's opinion, which hath 
warrant enough in others) or agitation of wind, as some 
will ; but either passage through metallic, bituminous, and 
sulphurous veins, or rather a real subterranean fire, as Em- 
pedocles 1 first thought, and with most witty arguments (ac- 
cording to the poetical conceit of Typhon, 2 buried in Prochyta; 
whereto Strabo refers the best Baths in Italy) my learned 
and kind friend Mr. Lydiat, that accurate Chronologer, in 
his ingenious Philosophy, hath lately disputed. But, as 
the Author tells you, some British vanity imputes it to 
BhuhuTs art, which in a very ancient fragment of rhymes* 
I found expressed: and if you can endure the language and 
fiction you may read it, and then laugh at it. 

Cluo tunne there bctf) of bras, 

!Hntt other tluo imaheU of cjlaS 

§ci\c Scats there hutfj time 

SniJ other tftmg unahe'b lut'th (jinnc : 

(Qut'eh brt'mSton in them also. 

Wlill) totlli fier t'malutJ thereto : 

Sal gemma; antf sal petrse, 

Sal armonak there tS ehc 

Sal albrod antt sal alkine 

Sal Geminse ii mtncjeti luttft ft tin, 

Sal Comin anti sal almetre bitirl)t 

Chat bornetl) both Bay anti night, 

91 this »s tn tfjc tonne ttio 

ftntl other things many mo, 

!Hnto borncth/.both night anti Han, 

Chat neuer quench it ne may 

ffn bour luclssprings the tonnes Itggctft 4 

Qs the $htluSophcrS bd St'ggcth 

1 Senec. Natural. Qusast. lil>. '\. cap. 24. 
1 Pindar. I'yth. «. :! K\ antiq. sched. 
* See the Author's Eighth Song. 



THE TIIIED SONG. 87 

Ojc I)ftc foitftiu, the hater without, 

fflahttl) it hot al about 

Che turn uu-lspiings eavneth mere 

&nt( the otljcr tluo brth- timet cine* 

Chere is mahctt full tun'S 

Chat |ungs hath iclupcB is. 

Che rich Tung Bladud 

Che |ungS Sonne Lud 

8ntj when he mahcB tfjat bath hot 

flnK tf him failrtf ought 

(9f that that Shoultt thereto, 

f^crhencth What he inoultf tjo 

dfrom Bath to London he InoultJ flee 

ftno thitltte Ua» Sclfc agatne bee 

Sntt fetch that thereto bind, 

$?c Was quiche, anti smith fell 

Cho the master luaS fccfc 

Bnrj is soule toentf to the <®uetJ 

jFor gotf ne was not nut nuore 

iltov octh Suffice him biuore. 

I will as soon believe all this, as that S. Devi 1 or Julius 
Ccesar 3 (who never came near it) was author of it, or that 
he made Knights of the Bath. They are not wanting which 
have durst say so. 

220. When on this point of earth, he lends his greatest force. 

From eight in the morning till three (within which time 
the sunbeams make their strongest angles of incidence) it 
purges itself (as boiling) of unclean excrements, nor then 
doth any enter it ; which the Muse here expresses in a fer- 
vent sympathy of love twixt the Water and the Sun, and 

1 Bal. cent. 1. 2 Malniesbury, lib. 2. Pontifio. 



88 POLY-OLBION, 

the more properly because it had the name of 1 Aqwz 
Soils.* 

262. With th' wonders of the Isle that she should not be plac'd. 

Wockey holef (so called in my conceit, from }>ocg T 2 which 
is the same with ]>ic, signifying a hollow or creeky passage) in 
Mendip Hills by Wells, for her spacious vaults, stony walls, 
creeping labyrinths, unimaginable cause of posture in the 
earth, and her neighbours' report (all which almost equal 
her to that Grotta delta Sibylla 3 in the Apenin of Marca An- 
conitana, and the Dutch song of little Daniel) might well 
wonder she had not place among her country wonders. 4 
One that seems to increase Samuel Beaulan upon Nennius, 
reckons thirteen by that name, but with vain and false 
reports (as that of the Bath to be both hjpt and cold, accord- 
ing to the desire of him that washes) and in some the 
Author of Polychronicon follows him ; neither speaking of 
this. But the last, and Henry of Huntingdon, reckon only 
four remarkable ; the Peake, Stonhenge, Cliederhole, and a 
hill out of which it rains. That wonder of human excel- 
lence, Sir J'/ii/ij) Sidney, to fit his Sonnet, makes six ; and to 
fit that number conceitedly adds a froward, but chaste, 
Lady for the seventh. And the Author here tells you the 
chief est. 

279. that Froome for her disgrace 

Since scarcely ever wash'd the coalsleck /row her face. 

Out of Mendip Hills Froome springeth, and through the 
Coalpits after a short course Eastward turns upward to 
Bathe's .iron. The fiction of her besmeared face happens 
the better, in that Froome, after our old mother language, 

1 Antoninus in Itinerario. * Wat< is of the Sun. 

+ ( »r, Ochy. ' Beat, Rhenan. lib. 2. Rer. Germanic. 

s Ortclius Tbcat. Mundi. * The wonders ot fflngland. 



THE THIRD SOXG. 89 

signifies fair, as that paradoxical Becanus, 1 in exposition of 
the Egyptian Pyromis in Herodotus, 2 would by notation 
teach ns. 

283. And Chedder for mere grief his teen he could not wreak. 

Near Axbridge, Chedder Cleeves, rocky and vaulted, by 
continual distilling, is the fountain of a forcible stream 
(driving twelve mills within a mile's quarter of its head) 
which runs into Ax derived out of Wockey, 

307. When not great Arthur's Tomb, nor holy Joseph's Grave. 

Henry the Second in his expedition towards Ireland enter- 
tained by the way in Wales with Bardish songs, wherein he 
heard it affirmed that in Glastenbury (made almost an Isle 
by the River's embracements) Arthur was buried twixt two 
pillars, gave commandment to Henry of Blois then Abbot, 
to make search for the corpse: which was found in a wooden 
coffin (Girald saith oaken, Leland thinks alder) some sixteen 
foot deep ; but after they had digged nine foot, they found 3 
a stone on whose lower side was fix'd a leaden cross (crosses 
fixed upon the tombs of old Christians were in all places 
ordinary) with his name inscribed, and the letter side of it 
turned to the stone. He was then honoured with a sump- 
tuous monument, and afterward the sculls of him and his 
wife Guinever were taken out (to remain as separate relics 
and spectacles) by Edward Longshanks and Elianor. Of 
this, Girald, Leland, Prise, divers others (although Folydore 
made slight of it) have more copious testimony. The Bards' 
Songs suppose, that after the Battle of Cainlan in Cornwall, 
where traitorous Mordred was slain, and Arthur wounded, 
Morgain le Fay, a great Elfin Lady (supposed his near kins- 
woman) conveyed the body hither to cure it ; which done, 
Arthur is to return (yet expected) to the rule of his country. 

1 Hermatheu. lib. 5. s Eutorpe. 3 Chronicon. Glasconiens. 



90 POLY-OLBION, 

Read these attributed to the best 1 of the Bards, expressing 
as much : 

Morgain suscepit honore, 



Tuque suis thalamis posuit super aurea regem 
Fulcra, manuque sibi detexit minus honestd, 
Tnspexitque diU: tandemque redire salutem 
Posse sibi dixit, si secum tempore i 
Esset, et ipsius vellet medicamine fungi. 

English in metre for me thus by the Author : 

Morgain with honour took, 



And in a chair of State doth cause him to repose ; 
Then with a modest hand his wounds she doth unclose : 
And having search'd them well, she bad him n it to doubt, 
He should in time be cur'd, if he would stay it out, 
And would the med'eine take that she to him would give. 

The same also in effect, an excellent Poet 2 of his time 
thus singing it. 

fl?f t5 a iiuurr nounrK tit Fairie, 

illttl) ^renter antJ s'luottJ antf luttft ftfe regally 

£hall resort a<5 itott) anti ^oueiatcrne 

(Dut of Fairie anti tetcrnc tit Britaine: 

!3nD rep aire agatnc the Round Table 

I3n prophesy Merlin s'rt the Kate, 

Smoitg £rtnce4 iiit'ng; incomparable 

?i?t$ seat agamc to^Carlion to translate 

Che Parchas s'lifTien s'ponne to bis 1 fate 

?l)ts (!3pitaph* leroi'Orti) So rettatnc 

Sjcrc lictlj K. Arthur tl)at shall ran epic againe. 

1 Talicssin. ap. Pris. defens. hist. Brit. 

- Dan Lidgat. lib. 8. van. Boccat. cap. 24. Nsenias ad lias refert 
AlanuB de LnBulia illud Merlini vaticwium. Exitus ejus dubius erit. 
*Micjacet Arihurus, Rex quondam, Rexquefuturus. 



THE THIRD SOXG. 91 

"Worthily famous was the Abbey also from Joseph of 
Arimathea (that, Euc^/awv (SouXsurjjs,* as S. il/ar/j calls him) 
here buried, which gives proof of Christianity in the Isle 
before our Luc/ us. 1 Hence in a Charter of liberties by Hen. 
II. to the Abbey (made in presence of Heraclius Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, and others) I read, Olim a quibusdam mater 
sanctorum dicta est, ah aliis tumulus sanctorum, + quam ab ipsis 
discipulis Domini edificatam ct ab ipso Domino dedicatam primb 
?e venerabilis habet antiquorum authoritas. It goes for 
current truth that a Hawthorn thereby on Christmas day 
always blossometh :' 2 which the Author tells you in that, 
in winter, &c. You may cast this into the account 
of your greatest Wonders. 

320. Imbrac'd by Sel wood's son her flood the lovely Bry. 

s yood sends forth Bry, which after a winding course 
from Bruton, (so called of the River) through part of Sedg- 
more, and Andremore, comes to Glastenbury, and almost 
inisles it ; thence to Gedney Moor, and out of Brent marsh 
into Sever ne. 

. TJu nearest neighbouring floods to Arthur's ancient seat. 

By South Cadbury is that Cam lot ; a hill" of a mile com- 
pass at the top, four trenches circling it, and twixt every of 
them an earthen Avail ; the content of it, within, about 
twenty acres, full of ruins and relics of old buildings. 
Among Roman coins there found, and other works of anti- 
quity, Stow speaks of a silver Horseshoe there digged up 
in the memory of our fathers : Dii boni (saith Leland) 
quot hie profundissimarum fossarum/ quot hie egestm terra 
valla I quce demum praxipitia I atque ut paucis finiam, videtur 

* Noble Counsellor. 

1 First Christianity in Britain : but see the Eighth Song. 
t It was called the mother and tomb of the Saints. 

* A Hawthorn blossoming in Winter. 



02 



POLY-OLBION, 



mihi quidem esse et Artis el Natwce miraculum* Antique re- 
port makes this one of Arthur's places of his Round Table, 
as the Muse here sings. But of this more in the next 
Canto. 

* The workmanship of the Ditches, Walls, and strange steepness 
of them, makes it seem a wonder of Art and Nature. 




THE FOURTH SONG. 



The Argument. 

England and Wales strive, in this Song, 

To whether Luntly doth belong : 

When either's Nymphs, to clear the doubt, 

By Mux'"- mean to try H out. 

Of mighty Neptune leave they ask * 

Each one betakes ht r to In r task ; 

The Britons, with tht Harp and Crowd: 

Tin English, both with still and loud. 

The Britons elm nut King Arthur's glory : 

The English sing their Saxons' story. w 

The Hills of Wales their weapons take, 

And are an uproar like to make, 

To keep the English part in awe. 

Tin re's heave and shore, and hold and draw ; 

Tlml Sevurnt: can tin in scarce divide, is 

Till Judgment may the Cause decide, 

HIS while in Sabrin's Court strong factions strangely 
grew, 
Since Cornwall for her own, and as her proper due, 
Claim' d Luiulij, which was said to Cambria to 
belong, 
\\ ho oft bad sought redress for that her ancient wrong : 




94 POLY-OLBION, 

But her inveterate foe. borne-out by England's might, s 

O'ersways her weaker pow'r ; that (now in cither's right) 
As Severne finds no Flood so great, nor poorly mean, 
But that the natural Spring (her force which doth main- 
tain) 
From this 1 or that she takes ; so from this faction free 
(Begun about this Isle) not one was like to be. 10 

This Lundy is a Nymph to idle toys inclin'd ; 
Ami. all on pleasure set, doth wholly give her mind 
To see upon her shores her fowl and conies fed, 
§ And wantonly to hatch the lards of Ganyrned. 
< )f traffic or return she never taketh can- : 
Not provident of pelf, as many Islands are : 
A lusty blacfc-brow'd Girl, with forehead broad and high, 
That often had bewitch'd the Sea-gods with her eye. 
Of all the inlaid Isles her sovereign > vi rm keeps. 
That bathe their amorous breasts within her secret dee]-. 
(To love her Barry* much and Silly though she seem, 
The Flat Holme and the Steep as likewise to esteem) 
This noblest British Nymph* yet likes her L/>> 
And to great Neptune's grace prefers before the rest. 

Thus, Cambria 3 to her right that would herself restore, . 
And rather than to lose L ria, 4 looks for more ; 
Tin' Nymphs of either part, whom passion doth invade, 
To trial straight will go, though should dissuade: 

But of the weaker sex. the most part lull of spleen, 
And only wanting strength to wreak their angry teen, 
For -kill tin ii chalL nge make, which every one profest, 
And in the learned Arts (of knowledges the 1,. 
And to th' heroic spirit most pleasing under sky) 
Sweet Music, rightly match'd with heavenly Poesy, 

1 From England or Wales, 

i lea lying within Severne. ' Severnjt. 

3 W ' En 



THE FOURTH SOXG. 95 

In which the} 7 all exceed : and in this kind alone 35 

The)- conquerors vow to be, or lastly overthrown. 

Which when fair Sabrine saw (as she is wondrous wise) 
And that it were in vain them better to advise, 
Sith this contention sprang from countries like allied, 
That she would not be found t' incline to either side, 40 
To mighty Neptune sues to have his free consent 
Due trial they might make : When he incontinent 
His Tritons sendeth out the challenge to proclaim. 

No sooner that divulg'd in his so dreadful name, 
But such a shout was sent from every neighb'ring Spring, 45 
That the report was heard through all his Court to ring : 
And from the lamest Stream unto the lesser Brook, 
Them to this wondrous task they seriously betook : 
They curl their ivory fronts : and not the smallest Beck 
But with white pebbles makes her tawdries for her neck; 50 
Lay forth their amorous breasts unto the public view, 
Enamelling the white, with veins that were as blue ; 
Each Moor, each Marsh, each Mead, preparing rich array 
To set their Rivers forth against this general day. [shove 
'Mongst Forests, Hills, and Floods, was ne'er such heave and 
Since Albion wielded arms against the son of J" 5C 

When as'the English part their courage to declare, 
Them to th' appointed place immediately prepare. 
A troop of stately Nymphs proud Avon with her brings 
(As she that hath the charge of wise Mil erva's Springs 2 ) eo 
From Mendip tripping down, about the tinny Mine. 
And Ax, no less imploy'd about this great design, 
Leads forth a lusty rout ; when Bry, with all her throng 
(With very madness swoll'n that she had stay'd so long) 
Comes from the boggy nieivs and queachy fens below ; <* 
That Parrel (highly pleas'd to see the gallant show) 

1 Albion, X ">. waned with Here 

1 The Baths. Ail the e Rivera you may Bee in the Third Song. 



96 BOLY-OBBION, 

Set out with such a train as bore so great a sway, 
The soil but scarcely serves to give her hugeness way. 

Then the Devonian Tawe, from Dertmore deck'd with pearl, 
Unto the conflict comes : with her that gallant Girl to 

§ Clear Towridge, whom they fear'd would have estrang'd her 
Whose coming, lastly, bred such courage in them all, [fall : 
As drew down many a Nymph from the Comubian shore, 
That paint their goodly breasts with sundry sorts of ore. 

The British, that this while had stood a view to take rs 
What to her utmost pow'r the public foe could make, 
But slightly weigh their strength : for by her natural kind, 
As still the Briton bears a brave and noble mind ; 
So, trusting to their skill, and goodness of their cause, 
For speedy trial call, and for indifferent laws. s-o 

At length, by both allow'd, it to this issue grew ; 
To make a likely choice of some most expert crew, 
Whose number coming near unto the others dower, 
The English should not urge they were o'erborne by power. 
§ Yet hardly upon Powse they dare their hopes to lay, 
For that she hath commerce with England every day : 
^ Nor Rosse ; for that too much she aliens doth respect; 
And following them, foregoes her ancient dialect. 
The Venedotian Floods, 1 that ancient Briton* were, 
The Mountains kept them back, and shut them in the rear : 
But Brecknock, long time known a country of much worth. >i 
Unto this conflict brings her goodly Fountains forth : 
For almost not a Brook of Morgany, nor Gwent, 2 
But from her fruitful womb do fetch tin ir high descent. 
For Brecon, was a Prince once fortunate and great 
(Who dying, lent his name to that his nobler seat) 
With twice twelve daughters blest, by one and only wife: 
Who for their beauties rare, and Banctity of life, 

1 floods of North Wales. '-' Glamorgan and Monmouth Shire$. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 97 

To Rivers were transform'd;* whose pureness cloth declare 

How excellent they were, by being what they are : 100 

Who dying virgins all, and Rivers now by fate, 

To tell their former love to the unmarried state, [bear : 

To Severm shape their course, which now their form doth 

Ere she was made a Hood, a virgin as they were. 

And from the Irish seas with fear they still do fly : 105 

So much they yet delight in maiden company. 

Then most renowned JFales, thou famous ancient place, 
Which still hast been the Nurse of all the British race, 
Since Nature thee denies that purple-cluster'd vine, 
Which others' temples chafes with fragrant sparkling wine ; 
And being now in hand, to write thy glorious praise, 111 
Fill me a bowl of meath, my working spirit to raise : 
And ere Seven Books have end, I'll strike so high a string, 
Thy Bards shall stand amaz'd with wonder whilst I sing ; 
§ That Taliessen, once which made the Rivers dance, us 
And in his rapture rais'd the Mountains from their trance, 
Shall tremble at my verse, rebounding from the skies, 
Which like an earthquake shakes the tomb wherein he lies. 

First our triumphing Muse of sprightly Uske shall tell, 
And what to every Nymph attending her befell : 120 

Which Cray and Camlas first for Pages doth retain ; 
With whom the next in place conies in the tripping Brcanc, 
With Isker; and with her comes Hodny fine and clear, 
Of Brecknock best belov'd, the Sovereign of the Sheere : 
And Grout], at an inch, waits on her Mistress' heels. 
And ent'ring (at the last) the Monumcthian fields, 
Small Fidan, with Cledaugh, increase her goodly menie, 
Short Kebby, and the Brook that christ'neth Abergeny. 

With all her wat'ry train, when now at last she came 
Unto that happy Townt which bears her only name, 

A supposed metamorphosis of Brecan's daughters. 
t Monmouth. 
VOL. i. 7 



9S P0LY-0LB10N, 

Bright Birihin, with her friend fair Ohnj, kindly meet her : 
Which for her present haste, have scarcely time to greet 

her: 
But earnest on her way, she needsly will be gone ; 
So much she longs to see the ancient Carleon. 
When Avon cometh in, than which amongst them all 135 
A finer is not found betwixt her head and fall. 
Then Ebwith, and with her slides Srowy ; which forelay 
Her progress, and for Uske keep entrance to the sea. 

When Munno, all this while, that (for her own behoof) 
From this their great recourse had strangely stood aloof, uo 
Made proud by Monmouth's name appointed her by Fate, 
Of all the rest herein observed special state. 
For once the Bards foretold she should produce a King, 1 
Which everlasting praise to her great name should bring, 
Who by his conquering sword should all the land surprise. 
Which twixt the Penmenmaur* and the PyrenP lies : no 

She therefore is allow'd her leisure ; and by her 
They win the goodly Wye, whom strongly she doth stir 
Her powerful help to lend : which else she had denied, 
Because herself so oft to England she allied : 150 

But being by Munno made fur Wales, away she goes. 
Which when as Throggy sees, herself she headlong throws 
Into the wat'ry throng, with many another Rill, 
Repairing to the Welch, their number up to fill. 
That Remny when she saw these gallant Nymphs of Gw\ nt, 
On this appointed match, were all so hotly bent, 
Where she of ancient time had parted, as a mound, 
The Miiiuiiiiitlihtri fields, and Glamorganian ground, 
Intreats the Taffe along, as gray as any glass : 
With whom clear Cunno comes, a lusty Cambrian lass: leo 

1 Henry the Fifth, Btyled of Monmouth. 
- A maritime hill in Uaernaroan Shire. 
; Hills dividing Spain and France. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 99 

Then Elwy, and with her Ewenny holds her way, 
And Ogmore, that would yet be there as soon as they, 
By Avon called in : when nimbler Neath anon [known ; 

(To all the neighbouring Nymphs for her rare beauties 
Besides her double head, to help her stream that hath 165 
Her handmaids, Melta sweet, clear Hepseg, and Tragath) 
From Brecknock forth doth break; then Dvlas and Cledaugh, 
By Morgany* do drive her through her wat'ry saugh 1 ; 
With Taivy, taking part t' assist the Cambrian power : 
§ Then Lhu and Logor, given to strengthen them by Goicer. 
'Mongst whom, some Bards there were, that in their 
sacred rage iri 

Recorded the descents, and acts of every Age. [string ; 

Some with their nimbler joints that strook the warbling 
In fing'ring some unskill'd, but only us'd to sing 
Unto the others harp : of which you both might find irs 
Great plenty, and of both excelling in their kind, 
§ That at the Stethva oft obtain'd a victor's praise, 
Had won the Silver Harp, and worn Apollo s bays : 
Whose verses they dedue'd from those first golden times, 
Of sundry sorts of feet, and sundry suits of rhymes. L8 i 

In Englins 2 some there were that on their subject strain ; 
Some Makers that again affect the loftier vein, 
Rehearse their high conceits in Cowiths : other-some 
In Owdells theirs express, as matter haps to come ; 
So varying still their moods, observing yet in ail 
Their quantities, their rests, their ceasures metrical : 
For to that sacred skill they most themselves apply, 
Addicted from their births so much to poesy, 
That in the mountains those who scarce have seen a book, 
Most skilfully will make, as though from Art they tcok. 190 

* Glamorgan. l A kind of trench. 

- Crnglini, Cotm'thS, ailtJ !Hlutlclte, British forms of verses. 
Sec the Illustrations. A word, use 1 by fcb.3 Ancients, signifying to 
versify, 



100 POLY-OLBION, 

And as Loegria spares not anything of worth 
That any way might set her goodly Rivers forth, 
As stones by nature cut from the CornuMan strond, 
Her Dertmore sends them pearl ; llock-vincent diamond : 
So Cambria of her Nymphs especial care will have. 195 

For Conwy sends them pearl to make them wondrous brave; 
The sacred Virgin' s-w ell, 1 her moss most sweet and rare, 
Against infectious damps for pomander to wear : 
And Golddift' 1 of his ore in plenteous sort allows, 
To spangle their attires and deck their amorous brows. 200 

And lastly, holy Dee (whose pray'rs were highly pris'd, 
As one in heavenly things devoutly exercis'd : 
Who, changing of his fords,"' by divination had 
Foretold the neighbouring folk of fortune good or bad) 
In their intended course sith needs they will proceed, 20s 
His benediction sends in way of happy speed. 
And though there were such haste unto this long-look'd hour, 
Yet let they not to call upon th' Eternal Pow'r. 
For, who will have his work his wished end to win, 
Let him with hearty prayer religiously begin. no 

"Wherefore the English part, with full devcut intent, 
In meet and godly sort to Glastenbury sent, 
Beseeching of the Saints in Avalon that were, 
There off ring at their Tombs for every one a tear. 
§ And humbly to Saint Gewge their Country's Patron pray, 
To prosper their design now in this mighty day. 210 

The Britons, like devout, their messengers direct 
To David, that he would their ancient right protect. 
'Mongst HatterilFs lofty hills, that with the clouds are crown'd, 
The Valb-y Ewias* lies, immur'd so deep and round, 220 

As they below that Bee the mountains vise so high, 
Might think the straggling herds were grazing in the sky : 

1 Saint Winifrid'a Well, - A glistering Rock in Monmouthshire, 
3 See the Eighth Song. ' [n Monmouthshire. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 101 

Which in it such a shape of solitude doth bear, 

As Nature at the first appointed it for pray'r : 

Where, in an aged Cell, with moss and ivy grown, 225 

In which not to this day the sun hath ever shone, 

That reverend British Saint, in zealous ages past, 

To contemplation liv'd ; and did so truly fast, 

As he did only drink what crystal Hodney yields, 

And fed upon the Leeks he gather'd in the fields. 230 

In memory of whom, in the revolving year, 

The Welch-men on his day that sacred herb do wear : 

Where, of that holy man, as humbly they do crave, 

That in their just defence they might his furtherance have. 

Thus either, well-prepar'd the other's pow'r before, 235 
Conveniently being plac'd upon their equal shore ; 
The Britons, to whose lot the onset doth belong, 
Give signal to the foe for silence to their song. 

To tell each various strain and turning of their rhymes, 
How this in compass falls, or that in sharpness climbs, 240 
(As where they rest and rise, how take it one from one, 
As every several chord hath a peculiar tone) 
Even Memory herself, though striving, would come short : 
But the material things Muse help me to report. 

As first, t' affront the Foe, in th' ancient Britons right, 245 
With Arthur they begin, their most renowned Knight ; 
The richness of the arras their well-made Worthy 1 wore, 
The temper of his sword (the tried Escalahoure) 
The bigness and the length of Rone, his noble spear ; 
With J'l/ii/rin his great shield, and what the proof could bear; 
His baudric how adorn'd with stones of wondrous price, 251 
§ The sacred Virgin's shape he bore for his device ; 
These monuments of worth the ancient Britons song, [long, 

Now, doubting lest these things might hold them but too 

1 Arthur, one of the Nine Worthies. 



102 BOLY-OLBION, 

His wars they took to task ; the land then overlaid 

With those proud German powers : when, calling to his aid 

His kinsman Howell, brought from Brittany the Less, 

Their armies they unite, both swearing to suppress 

The Saxon, here that sought through conquest all to gain. 

On whom he chane'd to light at IAncolne: where the plain zeo 

Each-where from side to side lay scatter'd with the dead. 

And when the conquer'd Foe, that from the conflict lied, 

Betook them to the woods, he never left them there 

Until the British earth he forc'cl them to forswear. 

And as his actions rose, so raise they still their vein 265 

In words, whose weight best suit a sublimated strain. 

§ They sung how he himself at Badon bore that day, 
When at the glorious goal his British sceptre lay : 
Two days together how the battle strongly stood : 
Pendragon's worthy son, 1 who waded there in blood, 270 

Three hundred Saxons slew with his own valiant hand. 

And after (call'd the Bid and Irish to withstand) 
How he by force of arms Albania overran, 
Pursuing of the Bid beyond Mount Calidon : 
There strongly shut them up whom stoutly he subdu'd. 275 

How GUlamore again to Ireland he pursu'd, 
So oft as he presum'd the envious Bid to aid : 
And having slain the King, the Country waste he laid. 

To Goth-land how again this Conqueror maketh forth 
With his so prosp'rous pow'rs into the farthest North : 
Where, Tseland first he won, and Orkney after got. 

To Norway sailing next, with his dear Nephew Lot, 
V>y deadly dint of sword did Rkoll there defeat : 
And having plac'd the Prince on that Norwegian seat, 
Hew this courageous King did Denmarke then control : 286 
That scarcely there was found a Country to the Pole 

1 King Arthur. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 103 

That dreaded not his deeds, too long that were to tell. 

And after these, in France th' adventures him befell 
At Paris, in the lists, where he with Flollio fought ; 
The Emperor Leon's power to raise his siege that brought. 290 

Then bravely set they forth, in combat how these Knights 
On horseback and on foot perform'd their several fights : 
As with what marvellous force each other they assaiFd, 
How mighty Flollio first, how Arthur then prevail'd ; 
For best advantaged how they traversed their grounds, _ • 
The horrid blows they lent, the world-amazing wounds, 
Until the Tribune, tir'd, sank under Arthur's sword. 

Then sing they how he first ordain' d the Circled-board, 
The Knights whose martial deeds far fam'd that Tabl&round; 
Which, truest in their loves; which, most in arms renown'd: 
The Laws, which long upheld that Order, they report; 301 
§ The Pcntecosts prepar'd at Carleon in his Court, 
That Table's ancient seat ; her Temples and her Groves, 
Her Palaces, her Walks, Baths, Theatres, and Stoves : 
Her Academy, then, as likewise they prefer : 
Of Camilot they sing, and then of Winchester. 
The feasts that underground the Faerie did him make, 
And there how he enjoy 'd the Lady of the Lake. 

Then told they, how himself great Arthur did advance, 
To meet (with his allies) that puissant force in Fram , 
By Lucius thither led ; those armies that while-ere 
Affrighted all the world, by him strook dead with fear : 
Th' report of his great acts that over Europe ran, 
In that most famous Field he with the Emperor wan : 
As how great Python's self he slew in his repair, 
Who ravish'd Howell's niece, young Helena the fair ; 
And for a trophy brought the Giant's coat away 
Made of the beards of Kings. Then bravely chanted they 
The several twelve pitch' d Fields he with the Saxons fought: 
The certain day and place to memory they brought ; 



104 POLY-OLBION, 

Then by false Mordred"s hand how last he chanc'd to fall, 
The hour of his decease, his place of burial. 

When out the English cried, to interrupt their song : 
But they, which knew to this more matter must belong, 
Not out at all for that, nor any whit dismay'd, 325 

But to their well-tun'd Harps their fingers closely laid : 
Twixt ev'ry one of which they plac'd their country's Crowd, 
And with courageous spirits thus boldly sang aloud ; 
How Merlin by his skill, and magic's wondrous might, 
From Ireland hither brought the Stonendge in a night : sso 
§ And for Carrnarden's sake, would fain have brought to 
About it to have built a wall of solid brass : [pass, 

And set his Fiends to work upon the mighty frame ; 
Some to the anvil : some, that still infore'd the flame : 
But whilst it was in hand, by loving of an Elfe 385 

(For all his wondrous skill) was cos'ned by himself. 
For, walking with his Fay, her to the rock he brought, 
In which he oft before his nigromancies wrought : 
And going in thereat his magic to have shown, 
She stopp'd the cavern's mouth with an inchanted stone : an 
AVhose cunning strongly crost, amaz'd whilst he did stand, 
She captive him convey'd unto the Fairie Land. 

Then, how the laboring spirits, to rocks by fetters bound, 
With bellows' rumbling groans, and hammers' thund'ring 
A fearful horrid din still in the earth do keep, [sound, 

Their Master to awake, suppos'd by them to sleep ; :i< 

As at their work how still the grieved spirits repine, 
Tormented in the fire, and tired at the mine. 

When now the British side scarce finished their sons, 
But th' English, that repin'd to be delay d so long, 85Q 

All quickly at the hint, as with one free consent, 
Strook up at once and sung each to the instrument ; 
(Of sundry sorts that were, as the musician likes) 
On which the practis'd hand with peifect'st fing'ring strikes, 



THE FOURTH SO KG. 105 

"Whereby their height of skill might liveliest be exprest. 366 
The trembling I/ute 1 some touch, some strain the Viol best 
In sets which there were seen, the music wondrous choice : 
Sume likewise there affect the Garriba with the voice, 
To shew that England could variety afford. 
Some that delight to touch the sterner wiry Chord, 300 

The Cijthron, the Bandore, and the Theorbo strike : 
The Gittern and the Kit the wand'ring Fiddlers like, 
So were there some again, in this their learned strife 
Loud Instruments that lov'd ; the Comet and the Fife, 
The Hoboij, Sagbut deep, Recorder, and the Flute : zoo 

Even from the shrillest Shawm unto the Cornamute. 
Some blow the Bagpipe up, that plays the Country-round: 
The Tiber and the Pipe some take delight to sound. 
Of Germanie they sung the long and ancient fame, 
From whence their noble Sires the valiant Saxons came, sro 
Who sought by sea and land adventures far and near ; 
And seizing at the last upon the Britons here, 
Surpriz'd the spacious Isle, which still for theirs they hold : 
As in that Country's praise how in those times of old, 
§ Tuisco, Gamers son, from unbuilt Babe/* brought 375 

His people to that place, with most high knowledge fraught, 
And under wholesome laws establish'd their abode ; 
Whom his Tudeslci since have honor'd as a God : 
Whose clear creation made them absolute in all, 
Retaining till this time their pure original. 3so 

And a*s they boast themselves the Nation most unmix'd, 
Their language as at first, their ancient customs fix'd, 
The people of the world most hardy, wise and strong; 
So gloriously they show, that all the rest among 
The Saxons of her sorts the very noblest were : 
And of those crooked skaines they us'd in war to bear, 

1 The sundry Musics of England. * Gen. xi. S, 9. 



106 P0LY-0LBI0N, 

Which, in their thund'ring tongue, the German*, Handseax 

name, 
§ They Saxons first were call'd : whose far-extended fame 
For hardiness in war, whom danger never fray'd, 
§ Allur'd the Britons here to call them to their aid : 390 
From whom they after reft Loegria as their own, 
Brute's offspring then too weak to keep it being grown. 

This told : the Nymphs again, in nimble strains of wit, 
Next neatly come about, the Englishmen to quit 
Of that inglorious blot by Bastard William brought sos 

Upon this conquered Isle : than which Fate never wrought 
A fitter mean (say they) great Germany to grace ; 
To graft again in one two remnants of her race : 
Upon their several ways, two several times that went 
To forage for themselves. The first of which she sent 400 
§ To get their seat in Gaul: which on Nuestria light, 
And (in a famous war the Frenchmen put to flight) 
Possess'd that fruitful place, where only from their name 
§ J Call'd North-men (from the North of Germany that came. 
Who thence expell'd the Gauls, and did their rooms supply) 
This, first Nuestria nam'd, was then call'd Normandy. we 
That by this means, the less (in conquering of the great) 
Being drawn from their late home unto this ampler seat, 
Residing here, resign'd what they before had won; 
§ -That as the Conqueror's blood, did to the conquer'd run 
So kindly being mix'd, and up together grown, 111 

As sever'd, they were hers; united, still her own. 

But these mysterious things desisting now to show 
(The secret works of heaven) to Ion-- descents they go : 
How Fiji! rul (the Sire of Edward the last. King 11:, 

Ofth' English Su.raa lane) by nobly marrying 



1 The Normans ami the Saxons of one lilu.nl. 

'-' The Normana lust that name, ami became English. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 107 

With hardy Bkliard's heir, the Norman Emma, bred 
Alliance in their bloods. Like Brooks that from one head 
Bear several ways (as though to sundry seas to haste) 
But by the varying soil, hit' one again are cast : i>» 

So chanced it in this the nearness of their blood. 
For when as England's right in question after stood, 
Proud Harould, Goodwin's heir, the sceptre having Avon 
From Edgar Etheling young, the outlaw'd Edward's son ; 
The valiant Bastard this his only colour made, 425 

With his brave Norman powers this kingdom to invade. 
Which leaving, they proceed to pedigrees again, 
Their after-Kings to fetch from that old Saxon strain ; 
From Margarii that was made the Scottish Malcorris Bride, 
Who to her Grandsire had courageous Ironside : 430 

Which outlaw'd Edward left ; whose wife to him did bring 
This Margarii Queen of Scots, and Edgar Etkeling: [gave 
That Margarii brought forth Maud; which gracious Mah 
To Henry Beuclark's bed (so Fate it pleas'd to have) [spare : 
§ Who him a daughter brought; which heaven did strangely 
And for the special love he to the mother bare, 436 

Her Maude again he nam'd, to th' Almoin Emperor wed : 
Whose Dowager whilst she liv'd (her puissant Ccesar dead) 
She th' Earl of Anjou next to husband doth prefer. 
The Second Henry then by him begot of her, 440 

Into the Saxon Line the sceptre thus doth bring. 

Then presently again prepare themselves to sing 
The sundry foreign Fields the Englishmen had fought. 
Which when the Mountains saw (and not in vain) they thought 
That if they still went on as thus they had begon, 44s 

Then from the Cambrian Nymphs (sure) Eundy would be won. 
And therefore from their first they chalh-ng'd them to fly ; 
And (idly running on with vain prolixity ) 
A larger subject took than it was fit they should. [hold. 

But, whilst those would proceed, these threat'ning them bo 



108 POLY-OLBIOX. 

Black-Mountain 1 for the love he to his Country bare, 451 

As to the beateous Ushe, his joy and only care, 

(In whose defence t' appear more stern and full of dread) 

Put on a helm of clouds upon his rugged head. 

Mouwhdcny doth tbe like for his beloved Tawe : «6 

Which quickly all the rest by their example draw : 

As Hatterdl in the right of ancient Wales will stand. 

To these three Mountains, first of the Brekinnian band, 

The Monumctliian Hills, like insolent and stout, 

On loft} r tip-toes then began to look about ; 400 

That Skeridvaur at last (a Mountain much in might, 

In hunting that had set his absolute delight) 

Caught up his Country-hook f nor cares for future harms, 

But irefully enrag'd, would needs to open arms : 

Which quickly put Penvayle 3 in such outrageous heat, 465 

That whilst for very teen his hairless scalp doth sweat, 

The Blorench looketh big upon his bared crown : 

And tall Tomb&rlow seems so terribly to frown, 

That where it was suppos'd with small .ado or none 

Th' event of this debate would eas'ly have been known, 470 

Such strange tumultuous stirs upon this strife ensue, 

As where all griefs should end, old sorrows still renew : 

That Severne thus forewarn'd to look unto the worst 

(And finds the latter ill more dang'rous than the first) 

The doom she should pronounce yet for awhile delay'd, 4?5 

Till these rebellious routs by justice might be stay'd ; 

A period that she put to my discourse so long, 

To finish this debate the next ensuing Song. 

1 These and the rest following, the faniousest Hills in Bircknockc, 
Glamorgan, and Monmouth. 

'-' Welch-hook. 3 So named of his hald head. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 




VER Seveme (but visiting Lundey, a little Isletwixt 
Hartland and Goven Point) you are transported 
into Wales. Your travels with the Muse are 
most of all in Monmouth, Glamorgan, and the 



South maritime Shires. 



14. And wantonly to luiich the Birds of Ganymed. 
Walter Baker a Canon of Osney (interpreter of Thomas de 
la Moore's Life of Edward the Second) affirms, that it com- 
monly breeds Conies, Pigeons, et struconas, quos vocat Alex- 
n ml a- Xcchamus (so you must read, 1 not Nechristum, as the 
Franefort print senselessly mistook, with Conday for Lundey) 
Ganymedis ares. What he means by his Birds of Ganymed, 
out of the name, unless Eagles or Ostriches (as the common 
fiction of the Catamite's ravishment, and this French Latin 
word of the Translator, would) I collect not. But rather 
read also Palamedis aves, i.e., Cranes) of which Necham? 
indeed hath a whole chapter : what the other should be, 
or whence reason of the name comes, I confess 1 am igno- 
rant. 



1 Tho. dc la Moore cmeiulatus. 



De rerum natura. lib. 1. 



110 POLY-OLBION, 

7i. Clear Towridge whom they fear'd would have estranged her 

fall. 

For she rising near Hartland, wantonly runs to Hatheriay 
in Devon, as if she would to the Southern Ocean ; but re- 
turning, there at last is discharged into the Severne Sea. 

85. Yet hardly upon Powse they (hire their hopes to lay. 
Wales, had her three parts, 1 Noiihwales, Southwales, and 
Powis. 2 The last, as the middle twixt the other, extended 
from Cardigan to Shropshire : and on the English side from 
Chester to Hereford (being the portion of Anarawd, son to 
great Roderique) bears this accusation, because it compre- 
hends, for the most, both Nations and both tongues. But 
see for this division to the Seventh Song. 

s:. Nor Rosse/or that too much she aliens doth respect. 
Under Henry I. a Colony of Flemings driven out of their 
country by inundation, and kindly received here in respect 
of that alliance which the King had with their Earl (for 
his mother Mamie, wife to the Conqueror, was daughter to 
Baldwin Earl of Flanders) afterward upon difference 'twixt 
the King and Earl Robert, were out of divers parts, but 
.■specially Northumberland, where they most of all (as it 
seems by Hoveden) had residence; constrained into Rosse* 
in Penbroke, which retains yet in name and tongue express 
notes of being aliens to the Cambro-Britons. See the Author 
in his next Song. 

lir,. Thai Taliessen once which made the Pavers da 
Taliessin (not Telesin, as Bale calls him) a learned Bard, 

1 Girald. Descript. cap. 2. et Powel ad Caradoc. [yinoharuan. 

- Tripartite division of Wales. 
So caUecl perhaps because it is almost misled within the Sea, and 
Lhogor as Rosay in Scotland, expressing almost an Isle. Buchanan. 
Hist. 3. in Eugenio l. 



THE FOCI; Til SOXG. Ill 

styled 13en JSfirUh, 1 i.e., the Chiefest of the Ba/rds, Master to 
Merlin Sylvester, lived about Arthur's reign, whose acts his 
Muse hath celebrated. 

170. With Lhu and Lhogor given, to strengthen them by 

Gower. 
Twixt Neth and Lhogor in Glamorgan is this Gower, a little 
province, extended into the sea as a chersonese ; out of it 
on the West, rise these two Rivers meant by the Author. 

177. That at the Stethva oft obtained a victor's praise. 
Understand this Stethva to be the meeting of the British 
Poets and Minstrels for trial 2 of their Poems and Music 
sufficiencies, where the best had his reward, a Silver Harp. 
Some example is of it under Rees ap Griffith, Prince of Soutli- 
wales, in the year 1 1 70. A custom so good, that, had it 
been judiciously observed, truth of Story had not been so 
uncertain : for there was, by suppose, a correction of what 
was faulty in form or matter, or at least a censure 3 of the 
bearers upon what was recited. As (according to the 
Roman use) it is noted, 4 that Girald of Cambria, when he 
had written his Topography of Ireland, made at three several 
days several recitals of his three distinctions in Oxford; of 
which course some have wished a recontinuance, that either 
amendment of opinion, or change of purpose in publishing, 
might prevent blazoned errors. The sorts of these Poets 
and Miustrels out of Doctor Poivefs interserted annotations 
upon Caradoc Lhancceruan, I note to you ; first Beirdhs, 
otherwise Pryduids (called in Athenasus, Lucan, and others, 

1 Pris. in descript. WalHse. 
Antiquis hujuamodi certamina fuisse docemur a scholiast, Aris- 
fcoph. et 1>. Cypriano Serm. de aleator. 
■ ; Censure upon books published. 
; Camd. in tSpist. Fulconi Grevil. ad edit. Anglic. Norm., &c. 



112 POLY-OLBIOX, 

Bards) who, somewhat like the 'Pa-vj^ou among the Greeks, 
*fortia virwum illustrium facta heroicis composita versibus cum 
dulcibus lyrce modvlis cantitarunt, 1 which was thechiefest form 
of the ancientest music among the Gentiles, as Zarlino- hath 
fully collected. Their charge also as heralds, was to describe 
and preserve pedigrees, wherein their line ascendent went 
from the Petruccius to B. i!/., thence to Sylvius and Ascanius, 
from them to Adam. Thus Girald reporting, hath his B.M. in 
some copies by transcription 3 of ignorant monks (forgetting 
their tenent of perpetual virginity, and that 4 relation of Theo- 
dosius) turned into Beatam Mariamf, whereas it stands for 
Belinum Magnum (that was lleli, in their writers, father to 
Lud and Cassibelin) to whom their genealogies had always 
reference. 5 The second are which play on the Harp and 
Crowd; their music, for the most part, came out of Ireland 
with Grufjtth ap Conan Prince of Northwales, about King 
Stephen's time. This Gruffith reformed the abuses of those 
Minstrels by a particular statute, extant to this day. The 
third are called Atcaneaid; they sing to instruments played 
on by others. For the <£nglnns, (Tounths and ^toDlS;' 1 the 
first are couplets interchanged of sixteen and fourteen feet, 
called iUalaUtrics and $3cnscls, the second of equal tetra- 
meters, the third of variety in both rhyme and quantity. 
Subdivision of them, and better information may be had 
in the elaborate institution of the Cumraeg language by 
David ap Rees. "Of their music anciently, out of an old 

Did sing the valiant deeds of famous men to the sweet melody 
of the Harp. 
1 Amnrian Marcelin. Jlist. 15. • Parte seconda, cap. 4 et 5. 

'■'■ Dav. Powel. ad Girald. descript. cap. '.i. 
* Suid. in lij". . t S. Mary. 

For the Harp and other music instruments, their form and 
antiquity, see to the Sixth Song ; whether a special occasion com- 
pelled it. 
« Quantity of the Bards verses. 
Form of the British Music. 






THE FOURTH SONG. L13 

writer read this : Non uniformiter, ut alibi, sed mvltiplicitt r 
multisque modis et modulis cantilenas emittunt, adeb ut, tnirbd 
canentiwm, guot videos capita tot audias carmina, discriminaqiu 
wcum varia, in unam denigue, sab B. mollis dulcedine blandd, 
consonantiam et organicani convenientia melodiam. A good 
musician will better understand it, than I that transcribe 
it. But by it you see they especially affected the mind- 
composing Doric (which is shewed in that of an old author, 1 
affirming that jj^sgwtfswg %aj<>'* the Western people of the 
world constituted use of music in their assemblies), though 
the Irish' 2 (from whence they learned) are wholly for the 
sprightful Phrygian. See the next Canto. 

215. And humbly to S. George their Country's Patron pray. 
Our Author (a judgement-day thus appointed twixt the 
Water-Nymphs) seems to allude to the course used of old 
with us, that those which were to end their cause by 
combat, were sent to several Saints for invocation, as in 
our Law-annals 3 appears. For S. George,\ that he is patron 
to the English, as S. Denis, S. James, S. Patrick, S. Andrew, 
S. Antony, S. Mark, to the French, Spanish, Irish, Scotish, 
Italian, Venetian, scarce any is that knows not. Who he 
was, and when the English took him, is not so manifest. 
The old Martyrologies give, with us, to the honor of his 
birth the 23rd of April. His passion is supposed in Diocle- 
tian's persecution. His country Cappadoce. His acts are 
divers and strange, reported by his servant Pasicrates, Si- 
meon Metaphrastes, and lately collected by Sarins. As for 
his Knightly form, and the Dragon under him, as he is 

1 Marcian. Heracleot. in irfpniyt)oti. 
* To make them gentle-natured. 
- Girald. Topog. (list. .'?. cap. 11. 
3 30 Ed. III. foL 20. 

t Tropelophorus dictus in MenologioGra'co apud Baronium, i 
To7r^Xo06poc sive 'Ipon-aio^opoc, quid n. Tropelophoraa? 

VOL. I. b 



114 P0LY-0LB10N, 

pictured in Beryth, a City of Cyprus, with a young maid 
kneeling to him, an unwarrantable report goes that it was 
for his martial delivery of the King's daughter from the 
Dragon, as Resume and Andromeda were from the AY hales by 
Hercules and Perseus. Your more neat judgements, finding 
no such matter in true antiquity, rather make it symbolical 
than truly proper. So that some account him an allegory 
of our Saviour Christ ; and our admired Spenser 1 hath made 
him an emblem of Religion. So Chaucer to the Knights of 
that Order. 

but for (Bofcs alrasancr 

3ntJ his mother, antt in sirjnifianec 
Chat vt hen of &* ©corges litieric 
Docth him scrttirc antJ fAnightln obeisance 
JFor (Christs cause is his, toell hnomen vzt. 

Others interpret that picture of him as some country or city 
(signified by the A'irgin) imploring his aid against the Devil, 
charactered in the Dragon. Of him you may particularly 
see, especially in UsaanVs Martyrology, and Baronius his 
annotations upon the Roman Calendar, with Erhard Celly 
his description of Frederick Duke of WitU mberg's installation 
in the Garter by favour of our present Sovereign. But 
what is delivered of him in the legend, even the Church of 
Rome 2 hath disallowed in these words; That not so modi as 
any scandal may rise in the Holy Roman Church, the jxtssions 
■ i S. George, and sunt like, supposed to be written by heretics, 
are not read in if. But you may better believe the Legend, 
than that he was a Coventry man born, with his Caleb Lady 
of the woods, or that he descended from the Saxon race, 
and such like ; which some English fictions deliver. His 
name (as generally 8 also s. Mauria and S. Sebastian) was 
anciently called on by Christians as an advocate of victory 

1 Faery Q. lib. 1. 

2 C. Sancta Rom, ESccles. •'!. dist. 15. GelasiuB PP. 

: Ord. Rom, de divin. officiis apnd Baron'mm in Martyrolog. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 115 

(when in the Church that kind of doctrine was) so that our 
particular right to him (although they say King Arthur 1 
bare him in one of his Banners) appears not until Edward 
III. consecrated to S. George the Knightly Order of the 
Garter, soon after the victory at Calais against the F, 
in which his invocation was ?|a J*. CUiaarB, ?l?a £?. 
©corcre. Some authority 3 refers this to Richard Cceur de 
Lion, who supposed himself comforted by S. George in his 
wars against the Turks and Hagarens. But howsoever, since 
that he hath been a Patron among others, as in that of 
1 He III.'s institution 4 of the quadripartite Society of 
S. George's shield, and more of that nature, you find. And 
under Hen. VIII. it was enacted, 5 that the Irish should 
leave their tCromaboo and JSutlcraboo, words of unlawful 
patronage, and name themselves as under S. George and the 
King of England. More proper is S. Dewy (we call him 
S. David) to the Welsh. Beports of him affirm that he was 
of that country, uncle to King Arthur {Bole and others say, 
gotten upon Melaria a hun, by Xantus Prince of Cardigan) 
and successor to Dubrice Archbishop of Caer-leon upon Uske 
(whereto a long time the British Bishoprics as to their 
Metropolitic See were subject) and thence translated with 
his nephew's consent the Primacy to Menevia, which is now 
S. // vies iu Penbroke* He was a strong oppugner of the 
Pelagian heresy. To him our country Calendars give the 
1st of March, but in the old Martyrologies I find him not 
remembered : yet I read that CalvxivA II." first canonized 
him. See him in the next Canto. 

1 Harding, cap. 72. 

- Th. de Waking, an. 1350, and 24 Ed. III. Fabian puts it 
before this year, but erroneously. 

■' Ex antii). MS. ;ip. Camd. in Berkscir. 

4 H8S. Die qp scflsch aft s.Gcorgcu sthilts. Martin. Cms. Annal. 
Su v .•. part. 'V lib. !». 

• 10 Hen. VIII. in Statutis Hibernicis. 

6 Polychronic. lib. 1. cap. 52. 7 Bal. (cut 1. 

S— 2 



116 POLY-OLBION, 

252. The sacred Virgin's shape he hare, for his devit < , 
Arthur's shield 1 Pridicen (or his Banner) had in it the 
picture of Oust Lady, and his helm an ingraven Dragon. 
From the like form was his father called Uter-pen-dragon. 
To have terrible crests or ingraven beasts of rapine (Hero- 
dotus and Strabo fetch the beginning of them, and the bearing 
of arms from the Carious) hath been from inmost antiquity 
continued; 2 as appears in that epithet of Tooyo'/Jpug, proper 
to Minerva, but applied to others in Aristophanes, and also 
in the Tlieban war. 3 Either hence may you derive the 
English Dragon 4 now as a supporter, and usually pitched in 
fields by the Saxon, English, and Norman Kings for their 
Standard (which is frequent in Hoveden, Matthew Paris, and 
Florilegus) or from tho Romans, who after the Minotaur, 
Horse, Eagle, and other their antique ensigns took this 
beast ; or else imagine that our Kings joined in that gene- 
ral consent, whereby so many nations bare it. For by 
plain and good authority, collected by a great critic,- 1 you 
may find it affirmed of the Assyrians, Indians, Scythians, 
P&rsians, Dacians, Romans; and of the Greeks too for their 
shields, and otherwise : wherein Lipsius unjustly finds fault 
with Isidore, but forgets that in a number of Greek authors 6 
is copious witness of as much. 

267. They sing how if himself at Badon bare the a 
That is Baunsedovme in Somerset (not Blackmore in York- 
shire, as Polydore mistakes) as is expressly proved out of a 
MS. GfUdas, 1 different from that published by Joswlin. 

' Ninnius. Histor. Galfred. lib. G. cap. 2. et lib. 7. cap. 2. 
1 Beginning <>. anna and crests. 

Eachyl. Sept. <•. Theb. ; Euripid. in PheeniaB. 
4 The Dragon Bupporter and Standard oi England 

' Lips. <'<nii. ad I'ulyb. 4. dissert. .".. 

,; Pindar. Pythionic. ti8. tj.; Homer. Iliad. X.j Said Epaminond.; 

Scut. Here; I'lutareb. l.ysaud.; Euripid. in Iph. in Aul. 
7 < 'amden. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 117 

286. That scarcely (here was found a country to the pole. 
Some, too hyperbolic, stories make him a large conqueror 
on every adjacent country, as the Muse recites : and his 
seal, which Leland says he saw in Westminster Abbey, of 
red wax pictured with a Maun J, bearing a Cross in his left 
hand (which was first Justinian's 1 device ; and surely, in 
later time, with the seal counterfeited and applied to Arthur: 
no King of this Land, except the Confessor, before the 
Conquest 2 ever using in their Charters more than subscrip- 
tion of name and crosses) and a Sceptre fkury in his right, 
calls him Britannia?, Galilee, Germanics, Daeice Lnperator* 
The Bards' songs have with this kind of unlimited attri- 
bute so loaden him, that you can hardly guess what is true 
of him. Such indulgence to false report hath wronged 
many Worthies, and among them even that great Alexander 
in prodigious suppositions (like Stiehus 3 his Geography, lay- 
ing Pontes in Arabia) as Strabo often complains ; and some 
idle Monk of middle time is so impudent to affirm, that at 
Babylon he erected a column, inscribed with Latin and Greel 
verses, as notes of his victory ; of them you shall taste in 
these two : 

Anglicus et Scotus Britonum superque caterva . 
Irlandus, Blander, Cornwallis, et quoque Norguey. 

Only but that Alexander and his followers were no good 
Latinists (wherein, when you have done laughing, you may 
wonder at the decorum) I should censure my lubberly versi- 
fier to no less punishment than Marsyas his excoriation. 
But for Arthur, you shall best know him in this elogy. 

1 Suid. in Justinian. - No seals before the Conquest. 

:! Ingulphua. 

* Emperor of Britain, Gaul, Qt rmany, and Danmarkej for so tbey 
falsely turned Dado, 

3 riant, in Sticlio. 



118 POLY-OLBION, 

1 This is that Arthur of whom the Britons even to this day speak 
so idly; a man right worthy to have been celebrated by true story, 
not false tales, seeing it was he that long time upheld his declining 
country, and even inspired martial courage into his countrymen;' 
as the Monk of Malrnesbury of him: 

302. The Pentecost prepared at Caer-leon in his Court. 

At Caer-leon in Monmouth, after his victories, a pompous 
celebration was at Whitsontide, whither were invited divers 
Kings and Princes of the neighbouring coasts ; he, with 
them, and his Queen Guinerer, with the ladies, keeping 
those solemnities in their several conclaves. 1 For so the 
British story makes it according to the Troian custom, that 
in festival solemnities both sexes should not sit together. 
Of the Troians I remember no warrant for it : but among 
the Greeks one Sphyromachus 2 first instituted it. Torneaments 
and jousts were their exercises, nor vouchsafed any lady 
to bestow her favour on him which had not been thrice 
crowned with fame of martial performance. For this order 
(which herein is delineated) know, that the old Gauls (whose 
customs and the British were near the same) had their 
Orbicular 3 tables to avoid controversy of precedency (a form 
much commended by a late writer 4 for the like distance of 
all from the salt, being centre, first, and last of the furni- 
ture) and at them every Knight attended by his Esquire 
(ovr\opo£ovvrs6* Athenceus 5 calls them) holding his shield. 
Of the like in lieu. III. Matthew Paris, of Mortimer's at 
Kelmgworth, under Edw. I. and that of Windsor, celebrated 
by Edw. III. Walsingham Bpeake. Of the Arthurian our 

1 Knights and Ladies sab in sev< ral rooms. 
Scholiast, ad Aristophan Eccles.j et Suidas. 

:t Round Tables. ' Ge b. Holograph. lib, 3. cap. 9. 

* Armigeri, which is expressed in the word Schilpora in Paul 
Warnfrea lib. 2. die gest Longobard. cap. 28. 
5 Deinnosoph. lib. 4. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 119 

Histories have scarce mention. But Havillan's Architrenius, 
Robert of Gloucester, John Lidgat Monk of Bury, and English 
rhymes in divers hands sing it. It is remembered by Leland, 
Camden, Isolate ran, Philip of Bergomo, Lily, Aubert Miree, 
others, but very diversely. White of Basingstoke defends it, 
and imagines the original from an election by Arthur and 
Howell King of Armoric Britain of six of each of their 
worthiest Peers to be always assistant in council. The 
antiquity of the Earldom of Mansfeld 1 in old Saxony is 
hence affirmed, because Heger Earl thereof was honoured in 
Arthur's Court with this order; 2 places of name for resi- 
dence of him and his Knights Avere this Caer-leon, Winchester 
(where his Table is yet supposed to be, but that seems of 
later date) and Camelot in Somerset. Some put his number 
twelve. I have seen them anciently pictured twenty-four 
in a poetical story of him ; and in Denbighshire, Stoiv tells 
us, in the parish of Lansawmn on the side of a stony hill is" 
a circular plain, cut out of a main rock, with some twenty- 
four seats unequal, which they call Arthurs Round T< 
Some Catalogues of arms have the coats of the Knights 
blazoned ; but I think with as good warrant as Rablais 3 can 
justify, that Sir Lancelot du Lac flays horses in hell, and 
that Tous les chevaliers de la Table ronde estoient poures gaigne- 
deniers (/runs la rame pur passer les rivers de Oocyte, Phlegeton, 
Styx, Acheron, ct Lethe quand Messieurs les diables se veidt nt 
esbatre sur I'eau come font les Basteliers de Lyon et Gondolu rs de 
Venise. Mais pour chacune passade Us n'ont qu'un m 
sur le soir quelque morceau de pain chaumeny* Of them, their 

1 Hoppenrod et Bpangberg. apud Ortelium in Mansfeld. 

2 Many places in Wales in lulls and rocks, honoured with Arthur's 
name, i'ris. Defeus. Hist. Brit. <fcc. CFadatr JUtfiur, i.e., Arthur's 
(hair in Brecknock. Girald.Itin. Camb. cap. 2. &o. 3rtf)urs Oben in 
Stirling of Scotland. 3 Iivre 2. chapit. 30. 

* The Knights of the Round Table use to ferry spirits over Styx, 
Acheron, and other rivers, ;m>\ for their faro have a iillii> on the 
and a piece of mouldy bread. 



120 POLY-OLBION, 

number, exploits, and prodigious performances you may- 
read Carton's published volume, digested by him into twenty- 
one books, out of divers French and Italian fables. From 
such I abstain, as I may. 

33i. And for Caermardhin's sake 

Two Merlins 1 have our stories: One of Scotland commonly 
titled Sylvester, or Caledonius, living under Arthur ; the other 
Ambrosius (of whom before) born of a Nun (daughter to the 
King of Southwales) in Caermardhin, not naming the place 
(for rather in British his name is Merdhin) but the place 
(which in Ptolemy is Maridunum) naming him ; begotten, 
as the vulgar, by an Incubus. For his burial (in supposition 
as uncertain as his birth, actions, and all of those too fabu- 
lously mixed stories) and his Lady of the Lake, it is by liberty 
of profession laid in France by that Italian Ariosto 2 : which 
perhaps is as credible as some more of his attributes, seeing 
no persuading authority, in any of them, rectifies the un- 
certainty. But for his birth see the next Song, and, to it, 
more. 

375. Tuisco Gomer's son from unbuilt Babel Irony///. 
According to the text, 3 the Jews affirm that all the sons of 
Noah were dispersed through the earth, and every one's name left 
to the land which he possessed. Upon this tradition, and false 
Berosvrf testimony, it is affirmed that Tuisco (son of Noah, 
gotten with others after the Flood 4 upon his wife Arezia) 
took to his part the coast about Rhine, and that thence 
came the name of Teutschland and Teutsch, which we call 

Dutch, through Germany. S > 6 make him the same with 

Gomer, eldest son to Japhet (by whom these parts of Europe 
were peopled) out of notation of his name, deriving Tuiscon 
or Tuiston (for so Tacitus calls him) from €hr-hootJt-Bon, 

1 Girald. [tiner. Camb. :'-. cap. 8. 

- Orland. Fnrios. cant. :'.. SeeSpenser'e Faery <,>. lil>. .'?. cant. 3. 

:t Gen. 10. * Minister. Cosm. lib. 3. ' Goropiua in tndoscythio. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 121 

i.e., the el&cst Sonne. Others (as the Author here) suppose 
him son to Gomer, and take 1 him for Aschenaz (remembered 
by Moses as first son to Gomer, and from whom the Hebrews 
call the Germans Aschenazim 2 ) whose relics probably indeed 
seem to be in Tuisco, which hath been made of Aschen either 
by the Dutch prepositive article Ute or lie, as our the (accord- 
ing to Derceto for Atergatis, 3 which should be Adardaga in 
Ctesias ; and Danubius for Adubenus in Festus, perhaps 
therein corrupted, as Joseph Scaliger observes; as Theudibald 
for Ildibald in Procqpius; and Diceneus for Ceneus among the 
Getes) or through mistaking of N* for u or n in the Hebrew, 
as in Rhodanim "\ for n 4 being Dodanim, and in Chalibes and 
Alybes for Thalybes from Tubal by taking n or tf for n; for 
in ruder manuscripts by an imperfect reader, the first 
■mistaking might be as soon as the rest. I conjecture it the 
lather, for that in most Histories diversity with affinity 
twixt the same-meant proper names (especially Eastern as 
this was) is ordinary; as Megabyzus in Ctesias is Bacabasus 
in Justin, who calls Aaron, Areas, and Herodotus's Smerdis, 
Mergidis; Asarhadon, Coras and Esther in the Scriptures, are 
thus Sardanapalus, Cyrus, and Amestris in the Greek stories; 
Eporedorix, Ambiorix, Ariminius, in Ccesar, and Sueton, sup- 
posed to have been Frederigue, Henry, Herman : divers like 
examples occur; and in comparison of Arrian with Q. Cur- 
tins very many ; like as also in the life of S. John the 
Evangelist, anciently written 5 in Arabic you have Asubasi- 
anvusu, Thithimse, Damthianvusu for Vespasian, Titus, Domi- 
tian, and in our stories Androgens for Ccesafs Mandubratius. 
From Tuisco is our name of Tuesday; and in that too, 

1 Jodoc. Willich. Comm. ad Tacit. Germaniam. et Pantaloon lil>. 1. 
Prosopograph. 
- Elias Levit. in Thisb.; Arias. Mont, in Pi 
:i Strab. HI). £. <(■'. et it. de aliis quae hie congerimua. 
1 Broughton in concent, prsef. 
5 Pet. Kirsteniua Grammatics Arabics subjunxit. 



122 POLY-OLBION, 

taking the place of Mars (the most fiery Star, and observe 
withal that against the vulgar opinion the planetary account 
of days is very ancient 1 ) discovers affinity with Aschenaz, in 
whose notation (as somebody* 2 observes) CN signifies fire. 

3ss. They Saxons first icere catt'd 

So a Latin rhyme in Emjelhuse 3 also ; 

V ','V" brevis gladius a/pud illos Saxa vocatur, 
Untie sibi Saxo nomen traxisst putatur. 

Although from the Sacans or Sagans a populous nation in 
Asia (which were also Scythians, and of whom an old Poet, 4 
as most others in their epithets and passages of the Scy- 
thians, 

T6%a 2axa/ ^Gskv-j; a l ar,y.irig aXXog Y/.'s^'/oi 
To^'z-jr/;:, ou yd* oft dipt: ave/iuXia fia~K/.iw* 

A faculty for which the English 5 have had no small honour 
in their later wars with the French) both Goropius with long 
argument in his Becces< lana, our judicious Camdi it and others 
will have them, as it were, Sacai! s-sons. According here- 
to is that name of Sacasenaf which a colony of them gave 
to part of Armenia and the Sasones 1 in Scythia on this side 
of Imaus. Howsoever, the Author's conceit thus chosen is 
very apt, nor disagreeing to this other, in that some com- 
munity was twixt the name of Sacce or Sagos, and a certain 
sharp weapon called Sagaris, used by the Am cans, 

and Persians, as the Greek stories s inform us. 

1 Scalig. in prolegom. ad Emendat. Temp. 
- Melancthon ap. Becan. in [ndoscyth. 
3 Ap. Camdenum. ' 1 > i « • 1 1 \ -. . Afer. in Perieg. 730. 

* The shooting Saca none can teach them Art : 
For what they Loos'd at, never 'scapes their dart. 
' 'I'll'' lui'ilish from their <n ijinal, excellent Archers. See .the 
Eighth Soi 
'■ Strabo, lib. tq. 7 Ptolem. Geograph. lib. t. cap. i$. 

s Herodot. Polyhymn. j Xenoph. Anab. 4.; Strabo, lib. i.e. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 123 

390. The Britons here allur'cl to call them to their aid. 

^lost suppose them sent to by the Britons much subject 
to the irruptions of Picts and Scots, and so invited hither for 
aid : but the stories of Gildas and Kennius have no such 
thing, but only that there landed of them (as banished their 
country, which Geffrey of Monmouth- expresses also) three 
long boats in Kent with Horse and Hengist Captains. They 
afterward were most willingly requested to multiply their 
number by sending for more of their countrymen to help 
King Vortigem, and under that colour, and by Ronix (daugh- 
ter to Hengist, and wife to Vortigem) her womanish subtlety, 
in greater number were here planted. Of this, more large in 
every common story. But to believe their first arrival 
rather for new place of habitation, than upon embassage of 
the Britons, I am persuaded by this, that- among the Cim- 
brians, Gauls, Goths, Dacians, Scythians, and especially the 
i s (if Strabo deceive not ; from whom our Saxons) with 
other Northern people, it was a custom upon numerous 
abundance to transplant colonies : from which use the Par- 
thians (sent out of Scythia, as the Romans did their Ver 
I retain that name, signifying banished (says Trogus;) 
not unlikely, from the Hebrew Paratz, 4 which is to sep vraU , 
and also to multiply in this kind of propagation, as it is used 
in the promise to Abraham, and in Isay's consolation to the 
Church. Here being the main change of the Rritish name 
and State, a word or two of the time and year is not un- 
timely. Most put it under 4-49 (according to Bede's copies 
and their followers) or 450 of Christ ; whereas indeed 1>\ 
apparent proof it was in 428 and the 4th of Valentinian 
the Emperor. So Prise and Camden (out of an old fragment 

1 See the Eighth Song. 

2 Justin. HI). 24. et41. ; Herodot. Clio. ; Walsingh. Hypodig. Neust. ; 
Gemeticens. lib. 1. cap. 4. Sabinis et Grsecis morem hunc tuisse me 
mini legisse me apud varronem et Columellam. 

;< Peatus in eod. ct Mamertinis. * sn9. Gen. 28. 14. ; Jesai. 54. .'i 



124 POLY-OLBION, 

annexed to Nennius) and, before them, the Author of Fasci- 
culus T> mponm have placed it. The error I imagine to be 
from restoring of worn-out times in Bede and others, by 
those which fell into the same error with Florence of Wor- 
r and Marian the Scot, who begin the received Christian 
accompt but twelve years before the Passion, thereby omit- 
ting twenty-two. For although Marian's published Chro- 
nicle (which is but a defloration 1 by Robert of Lorraine 
Bishop of Hereford under ll< n. I. and an epitome of Marian) 
goes near from the ordinary time of Incarnation under 
Augustus, yet he lays it also, according to the Roman Abbot 
Dionysius, in the twenty-third year following, which was 
rather by taking advantage of Dionysius his error than 
following his opinion. 2 For when he (about Justinian's time) 
made his period of 532 years of the Golden Number and 
cycle of the Sun multiplied, it fell out so in his computation 
that the fifteenth Moon following the Jews' Passover, the 
Dominical letter, Friday, and other concurrents according 
to Ecclesiastical tradition supposed for the Passion could 
not be but in the twelfth year 3 after his birth (a lapse by 
himself much repented) and then supposing Christ lived 
thirty-four years, thirty-two must needs be omitted ; a col- 
lection directly against his meaning, having only forgotten 
to lit those concurrents. This accompt (in itself, and by 
the Abbot's purpose, as our vulgar is now, but with some 
little difference) erroneously followed, I conjecture, made 
them, which too much denied correction, add the supposed 
Evangelical twenty-two years to such times ;is were hefore 
true; and so came l_ s to he 1 I'.i and 150 which WhiU <>l 
Basingstoke (although aiming to he accurate) unjustly follows. 
Subtraction of this number, and, in some, addition (of addi- 
tion you shall have perhaps example in amendment of the 156 

Malmesb. Iil>. 1. de Pontificib. 
>ur < 'hronologies. 
L de Midle 1 1 '-'. lib. 5. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 125 

year for King Lucius his letters to PP. Eleutherius) will rec- 
tify many gross absurdities in our Chronologies, which are 
by transcribing, interpolation, misprinting, and creeping in 
of anti-chronisms, now and then strangely disordered. 

401. To get their seed in Gaul which on Nuestria light. 
And a little after, 

C(dVd Northmen from the North of Germany thai came. 

"What is now Normandy is, in some, styled Neuskia and 
Nuestria corruptly, as most think, for Westria, that is JEJHrst- 
rtch,* i.e., the West Kingdom (confined anciently twixt the 
Mense and the Loire), in respect of Eustrtch or ©ostrich, 
i.e., the East Kingdom, now Lorraine, upon such reason as 
the Archdukedom hath his name at this day. Polio, son of 
a Danish Potentate, accompanied with divers Dane*, Nor- 
wegians, Scythians, Goths, and a supplement of English, which 
he had of King Aihelstan, about the year 900, made trans- 
migration into France, and there, after some martial dis- 
cords, honored in holy tincture of Christianity with the 
name of Robert, received 1 of Charles the Simple with his 
daughter (or sister) Gilla this Tract as her dower contain- 
ing (as before) more than Normandy. It is reported, 2 that 
when the Bishops at this donation required him to kiss the 
King's foot for homage, after scornful refusal, he commanded 
one of his Knights to do it ; the Knight took up the King's 
leg, and in straining it to his mouth, overturned him 3 ; yet 
nothing but honourable respect followed on either part, 

4io. Tluit as the Conqueror's blood did to tlie conquered run. 

Our Author makes the Norman Invasion a re-uniting of 

severed kindred, rather than a conquest by a mere stranger, 

taking argument as well from identity of countryship (being 

all Germans by original, and the people of the Cimbrica ' % r- 

■ Westrich. > Paul. /Emilius, Hist. Franc. 3. 

- Gruil. Gamiticens. lib. 2, cap. 17. 3 An unmannerly homage. 



120 



POLY-CLBION, 



nis, 1 now Danmarch, anciently called Saxons), as from 
contingency of blood twixt the Anglo-Saxon Kings, and the 
Norman Dukes thus expressed :* — 




1 M.ircian. Heracleot. in jrepwrX ft. 
Gemiticens. lib. 7. cap. 36. et ub. .*>. cap. Ks. 



THE FOURTH SONG. 127 

Object not that Duke Robert got the Conqueror upon Ar- 
ietta (from whom perhaps came our name of Harlot) his Con- 
cubine, nor that 1 Consanguinitatis et adgnationis jura a pain 
tantum et legitimis nuptiis oriuntwr* as the Civil Law, and upon 
the matter the English also, defines ; but rather allow it by 
law of Nature and Nobility, which justifies the bastard's 
bearing of his father's coat, distinguished with a bend sinis- 
ter : Nicholas Upton calls it Fissura, eb quod finditur apatrid 
h&reditate; 2 which is but his conceit: and read II liter's tract 
de libera hominis nativitaie, where you shall find a kind oi 
legitimation of that now disgraceful name Bastard; which 
in more antique times was, as a proud title, inserted in the 
style of great and most honourable Princes. Pretending 
this consanguinity, S. Edward's adoption, and King Harold's 
oath, aided by successful arms, the Norman acquired the 
English Crown 3 ; although William oi Poitiers* affirms, that 
on his death-bed he made protestation, that his right was 
not hereditary, but by effusion of blood, and loss of many 
lives. 

«:>. Who him a daughter brought^ which Heaven did strangely 
spare. 

After composition of French troubles Hen. /., returning 
into England^ the ship, wherein his sons William and 
Richard were, twixt Barbefleu and Southhampton was cast 
away, so that Heaven only spared him this issue Maude the 
Empress, married, at last, to Geffrey I'lantagenest Earl of 
Anjou, from whom in a continued race through Hen. II. 
(son to this Man,], ) until Rich. III. that most noble surname ' 
possessed the royal Throne of England. 

1 ff. unrte cognati, 1. 4. spurius. et tit. de grail, affin. I. 4. non 
facile. § 8. sciendum. 

[light of blood and kindred comes only bj lawful marriage. 
- A division, because he is separated from his father's inherrl 
L066. ■* Eistor. Cadomens. s Plantazenest. 



THE FIFTH SONG. 



The Argument. 



In this Song, Severne gives tlie doom 
What of her Lundy should •'■ 
And whilst the nimble Cambrian Rills 
Dane,- hy-day-gies amongst tin Hills, 
Tin Muse them to Carmarden brii 

Merlin's wondrous birth ••-/» sings. 
From tin nrc to Penbrooke she doth make, 
To see how Milford statu doth take : 
Tli scattered Islands there doth tell: 
And, visiting Saint David's I 
port In r el/ tin short s 
Preparing ' 




^CAY Sabrine, as a Queen, miraculously fair, 
Is absolutely plac'cl in her Emperial Chair 
y Of crystal richly wrought, that gloriously did shine, 
Her grace becoming well, a creature so divine : 
And as her god-like self, so glorious was her throne, 
In winch himself to sit great Nepturu had been known ; 
Whereon there were ingrav'd those Nymphs the God 

wooed, 
And every several shape wherein for love he sued ; 
Each daughter, her estate and beauty, every son ; 
Y\ hat Nations he had rul'd, whta Countries he 

VO!.. I. y 



130 P0LY-0LBI0N, 

No fish in this wide waste but with exceeding cost 

Was there in antique work most curiously imbost. 

She, in a watchet Aveed, with many a curious wave, 

Which as a princely gift great Amphitrite gave ; 

Whose skirts were to the knee, with coral fring'd below is 

To grace her goodly steps. And where she meant to go, 

The path was strew'd with pearl : which though they orient 

were, 
Yet scarce known from her feet, they were so wondrous clear : 
To whom the Mermaids hold her glass, that she ma , 
Before all other Floods how far her beauties be : 20 

Who was by Nereus taught, the most profoundly wise, 
That learned her the skill of hidden prophecies, 
By Thetis' special care ; as Chiron x erst had done 
To that proud bane of Troy, her god-resembling son. 
For her wise censure now, whilst every listening Flood 
(When reason some-what cool'd their late distemp'red mood) 
Inclosed Scvcrne in ; before this mighty rout, 
She sitting well-prepar'd, with count'nance grave and stout, 
Like some great learned Judge, to end a weighty cause, 
Wdl-furnish'd with the force of arguments and laws, 30 
And every special proof that justly may be brought ; 
Now with a constant brow, a firm and settled thought, 
And at the point to give the last and final doom : 
The people crowding near within the pest'red room 
A slow soft murmuring moves amongst the wond'ring throng, 
As though with open ears they would devour his tongu< 
So Severne bare herself, and silence so she wan, 
\\ lien to th' assembly thus she seriously began : 

My near and loved Nymphs, good hap ye both betide : 
Well Britons have ye sung; you English, well replied : jo 
Which to succeeding times shall memorise your stories 
To either Country's praise, as both your endless glories. 

1 Chiron brought up Achilles, bod to ThetU. 



THE FIFTH SONG. 131 

And from your list'ning ears, sith vain it were to hold 

What all-appointing Heaven will plainly shall he told, 

Both gladly he you pleas'd : for thus the Powers reveal, r. 

That when the Norman Line in strength shall lastly fail 

(Fate limiting the time) the ancient Briton race 

Shall come again to sit upon the sovereign place. 

A branch sprung out of Brute, th' imperial top shall get, 

Which grafted in the stock of great Plantagenet, 50 

The Stem shall strongly wax, as still the Trunk doth wither: 

That power which bare it thence, again shall bring it thither 

By Tailor, with fair winds from Little Britaine driven, 

§ To whom the goodly Bay of Milford shall be given ; 

As thy wise Prophets, Wales, fore-told his wish'd arrive, 55 

§ And how Lewelliris Line in him should doubly thrive. 

For from his issue sent to Albany before, 

"Where his neglected blood his virtue did restore, 

He first unto himself in fair succession gain'd 

The Stewards' nobler name ; and afterward attain'd ' 

The royal Scottish wreath, upholding it in state. 

This Stem, to Tu Jar's 1 join'd (which thing all-powerful Fat ■ 

So happily produc'd out of that prosperous Bed, 

Whose marriages conjoin'd the White-rose and the Red) 

Suppressing every Plant, shall spread itself so wide, 

As in his arms shall clip the Isle on every side. 

By whom three sever'd Realms in one shall firmly stand, 

As Brita /^-founding Brute first monarchiz'd the Land ; 

And Cornwall, for that thou no longer shaft contend, 

But to old Cambria cleave, as to thy ancient friend. 

Acknowledge thou thy brood of Bride's high blood to be . 

And what hath haptto her, the like t' have chanc'd to thee; 

Tin- Britons to receive, when Heaven on them did low'r, 

Lo gria forc'd to leave; who from the Saxons' pow'r 

1 James the Fourth, sirnamed Steward, married Margaret, eldest 
daughter to Henry the Seventh, King of England. 

•.) •_• 






132 POLY-OLMOX, 

Themselves in deserts, creeks, and mount'nous wastes be- 
stow'd, '■> 

Or where the fruitless rocks could promise them abode : 
Why strive ye then for that, in little time that shall 
(As you are all made one) be one unto you all ; 
Then take my final doom pronounced lastly, this ; 
That Lundij like allied to Wales and England is. so 

Each part most highly pleas'd, then up the session brake : 
"When to the learned Maids again Invention spake : 
ye Pegasian Nymphs, that, hating viler things, 
Delight in lofty Hills, and in delicious Springs, 
That on Pierus 1 born, and named of the place, so 

The Thracian Pimpla love, and Pindus often grace ; 
In Aganippa's Fount, and in Castalia's brims, 
That often have been known to bathe your crystal limbs; 
Conduct me through these brooks, and with afast'ned clue, 
Direct me in my course, to take a perfect view 
Of all the wand'ring streams, in whose entrancing gyres, 
Wise Nature oft herself her workmanship admires 
(So manifold they are, with such meanders wound, 
As may with wonder seem invention to confound) 
That to those British names, untaught the ear to please. 
Such relish I may give in my delicious lays, 
That all the armed orks of Neptune's grisly band, 
With music of my verse, amaz'd may list'ning stand ; 
As when his Tritons' trumps do them to battle call 
Within liis surging lists to combat with the whale. 

Thus, have we over-gone the Glamorganiaii Go 
Whose promontory (plac'd to check the ('nan's pow'r) 
Kept Severne yet herself, till, being grown too great, 
She with extended arm.- unbounds her ancient seat: 
And turning la itly sea, 2 resigns unto the main 
What sovereignty herself but lately did retain. 

1 The Seats of the Mu '-' Severtu turned sea. 



THE FIFTH SONG. 133 

Next, Loglwr leads the way, who with a lusty crew 

(Her wild and wand'ring steps that ceaselessly pursue) 

Still forward is inforc'd : as, Amond thrusts her on, 

And Morlas (as a maid she much relies upon) no 

Intreats her present speed ; assuring her withall, 

Her best-beloved Isle, Bachannis, for her fall 

Stands specially prepar'd, of everything supplied. 

When Guendm with such grace deliberately doth glide- 
As Tovy doth entice : who setteth out prepar'd n.1 
At all points like a Prince, attended with a Guard : 
Of which, as by her name, the near'st to her of kin 
Is Toothy, tripping down from Verivin's rushy lin, 1 
Through Rescob running out, with Pescover to meet 
Those Rills that Forest loves ; and doth so kindly greet, 120 
As to intreat their stay she gladly would prevail. 
Then Tranant nicely treads upon the wat'ry trail : 
The lively skipping Brane, along with Girdhrkk goes ; 
In Tovy's wand'ring banks themselves that scarcely lose, 
But Mvdny, with Cledaugh, and Sawthy, soon resort, 125 
Which at Langaddock grace their Sovereign's wat'ry Court. 

As when the servile world some gathering man espies, 
Whose thriving fortune shows, he to much wealth may rise, 
And through his Prince's grace his followers may prefer, 
Or by revenue left by some dead ancester ; 
All lowting low to him, him humbly they observe, 
And happy is that man his nod that may deserve : 
To Tovy so they stoop, to them upon the way 
Which thus displays the Spring within their view that lay. 

Near Denevoir, the seat of the Demetian King,* lss 

Whilst Cambria was herself, full, strong, and flourishing, 
There is a pleasant Spring, that 2 constant doth abide 
Hard-by these winding shores wherein we nimbly slide; 

1 A pool or watery moor. * Of So 

- Ebbiu'' ami flowing with the S 



134 POLY-OLBION, 

Long of the Ocean lov'cl, since his victorious hand 

First proudly did insult upon the conquer' d Land. 140 

And though a hundred Nymphs in fair Demetia be, 

Whose features might allure the Sea-gods more than she, 

His fancy takes her form, and her he only likes 

(Whoe'er knew half the shafts wherewith blind Cupid strikes?) 

Which great and constant faith, show'd by the God of Sea, 

This clear and lovely Nymph so kindly doth repay, ua 

As suff'ring for his sake what love to lover owes, 

With him she sadly ebbs, with him she proudly flows, 

To him her secret vows perpetually doth keep, 

Observing every law and custom of the Deep. 150 

Now Tovy toward her fall (Langaddock overgone) 
Her Dvlas forward drives : and Cothy coming on 
The train to overtake, the nearest way doth cast 
Ere she Carmarden get : where Gwilly, making haste, 
Bright Tovy entertains at that most famous Town 
Which her great Prophet 1 bred, who Wales doth so renown : 
And taking her a liar}), and tuning well the strings, 
To princely Tovy thus she of the Prophet sings : 

Of Merlin and his skill what region doth not hear? 
The world shall still be full of Merlin everywhere. 100 

A thousand lingering years his prophecies have run, 
And scarcely shall have end till Time itself be done : 
Who of a British Nymph was gotten, whilst she play'd 
With a seducing Spirit, which won the goodly maid ; 
(As all Demetia through, there was not found her peer) h 
Who, being so much renown'd for beauty far and near, 
( rreat Lords her liking sought, but still in vain they prov'd: 
§ That Spirit (to her unknown) this Virgin only lov'd ; 
Which taking human shape, of such perfection secm'd, 
As (all her suitors scorn'd) she only him esteem'd. 170 

Who, feigning for her sake that he was come from far, 
1 Merlin, born in < 7a< r-nn nl-lthi. 



THE FIFTH SONG. ' 135 

And richly could endow (a lusty batcheler) 

On her that Prophet got, which from his Mother's womb 

Of things to come foretold until the general Doom. 

But, of his feigned birth in sporting idly thus, 
Suspect me not, that I this dreamed Incubus 
By strange opinions should licentiously subsist ; 
Or, self-conceited, play the humorous Platonist, 
"Which boldly dares affirm, that Spirits themselves supply 
With bodies, to commix with frail mortality, iso 

And here allow them place, beneath this lower Sphere 
Of the unconstant Moon, to tempt us daily here. 
Some, earthly mixture take ; as others, which aspire, 
Them subtler shapes resume, of water, air, and fire, 
Being those immortals long before the heaven that fell, 135 
Whose deprivation thence determined their hell : 
And losing through their pride that place to them assign'd, 
Predestined that was to man's regenerate kind, 
They, for th' inveterate hate to his election, still 
Desist not him to tempt to every damned ill : 190 

And to seduce the spirit, oft prompt the frailer blood, 
Inveigling it with tastes of counterfeited good, 
And teach it all the sleights the soul that may excite 
To yield up all her power unto the appetite. 
And to those curious wits if we ourselves apply, 
Which search the gloomy shades of deep Philosophy, 
They Reason so will clothe, as well the mind can show, 
That contrary effects from contraries may grow ; 
And that the soul a shape so strongly may conceit, 
As to herself the-while may seem it to create ; 
By which th' abused Sense more easily oft is led 
To think that it enjoys the thing imagined. 

But, toil'd in these dark tracts with sundry doubts repleaf , 
Calm shades, and cooler streams must quench this furious 
heat : 



136 POLY-OLBION, 

Which seeking, soon we find where Cowen in her course, 205 

Tow'rds the Sabrinian shores, as sweeping from her source, 

Takes Towa, calling then Karhenny by the way, 

Her through the wayless woods of Cardiffe to convey ; 

A Forest, with her floods inviron'd so about, 

That hardly she restrains th' unruly wat'ry rout, 210 

"When swelling, they would seem her Empire to invade : 

And oft the lustful Fauns and Satyrs from her shade 

Were by the streams entic'd, abode with them to make. 

Then Marias meeting Tan; her kindly in doth take : 

Cair coming with the rest, their wat'ry tracts that tread, 215 

Increase the Coicen all ; that as their general head 

Their largess doth receive, to bear out his expence : 

Who to vast Neptune leads this Courtly confluence 

To the Penbrokian 1 parts the Muse her still doth keep, 
Upon that utmost point to the Iberian Deep, 
By Cowdra coming in : where clear delightful air 
(That Forests most affect) doth welcome her repair ; 
The Heliconian Maids in pleasant groves delight : 
(Floods cannot still content their wanton appetite) 
And wand'ring in the Avoods, the neighbouring hills bel<>w. 
With wise Apollo meet (who with his ivory bow, 
Once in the paler shades, the Serpent Python slew) 
And hunting oft with him, the heartless deer pursue ; 
Those beams then laid aside he us'd in heaven to wear. 
Another Forest Nymph is Narber, standing near ; 
That with her curled top her neighbour would astound, 
A \Yhose Groves once bravely grae'd the fair J'< nbrokian ground. 
When Albion lure beheld on this extended land, 
Amongst his well-grown woods, the shag-hair d Satyrs stand, 
(The Sylvans' chief resort) the shores then sitting high, •_■:•.; 
Which under water now bo many fadoms lie: 
And wallowing porpice sport and lord it in the flood, 
1 Passage into Penbrohesh 



THE FIFTH SOXG. 137 

Where once the portly oak, and Iarge-limb'd poplar stood: 
Of all the forest's kind these two now only left. 
But Time, as guilty since to man's insatiate theft, 
Transferr'd the English names of Towns and households 

hither, 
A\ ith the industrious Dutch since sojourning together. 

When wrathful Heaven the clouds so liberally bestow'd, 
The Seas (then wanting roomth to lay their boist'rous load) 
T pon the Belgian Marsh their pamp'red stomachs cast, 
That peopled Cities sank into the mighty waste. 
The Flemings were inforc'd to take them to their oars, 
To try the setting Main to find out firmer shores ; l 
When as this spacious Isle them entrance did allow, 
To plant the Belgian stock upon this goodly brow : 250 

These Nations, that their tongues did naturally affect, 
Both generally forsook the British Dialect : 
As when it was decreed by all-foredooming Fate, 
That ancient Borne should stoop from her emperious state, 
With Nations from the Xorth then altogether fraught, 
Y\ hich to her civil bounds their barbarous customs brought, 
Of all her ancient spoils and lastly be forlorn, 
From Tyber^s hallowed banks to old Byzantium 2 borne : 
Th' abundant Latin then old Latium lastly left, 
Both of her proper form and elegancy reft, 
Before her smoothest tongue, their speech that did prefer, 
And in her tables fixt their ill-shap'd character. 

A divination strange the Dutch made-English have, 
Appropriate to that place (as though some Power it gave) 
§ By th' shoulder of a Bam from off the right side par'd, 
Which usually they boil, the spade-bone being bar'd : 
Which then the Wizard takes, and gazing thereupon, 
Things long to come foreshows, as things done long agone; 

1 The I lolony of Fit mings here planted. See to the Fourth Sor 
- Now ( 'onstantinople. 



138 POLY-OLBION, 

Scapes secretly at home, as those abroad, and far ; 
Murders, adulterous stealths, as the events of war, -270 

The reigns and death of Kings they take on them to know: 
Which only to their skill the shoulder-blade doth show. 

You goodly sister Floods, how happy is your state ! 
Or should I more commend your features, or your fate ; 
That MUford, which this Isle her greatest Port doth call, 276 
Before your equal Floods is lotted to your fall ? 
Where was sail ever seen, or wind hath ever blown, 
Whence Peribrooke yet hath heard of Haven like her own i 
She bids Dungleddy dare Iberia's* proudest Road, 
And chargeth her to send her challenges abroad 280 

Along the coast of France, to prove if any be 
Her Mil ford that dare match : so absolute is she. 
And Clethj coming down from Wrenyvaur her Sire 
(A hill that thrusts his head into th' etherial lire) 
Her sister's part doth take and dare avouch as much : 286 
And Percily the proud, whom nearly it doth touch, 
Said, he would bear her out; and that they all should know. 
And therewithal he struts, as though he scorn'd to show 
His head below the heaven, when he of MUford spake : 
But there was not a Port the prize durst undertake. 
So highly MUford is in every mouth renown'd, 
No Haven hath ought good, in her that is not found 
Whereas the swelling surge, that, with his foamy head, 
The gentler-looking land with fury menaced, 
With his encount'ring wave no longer there contends \ 
But sitting mildly down like perfect ancient friends, 
I'nmov'd of any wind which way soe'er it blow, 
And rather seem to smile, than knit an angry brow. 
The ships with shatt'red ribs scarce creeping from the seas, 
On her sleek bojsom ride with such deliberate ease, 300 

As all her passed storms she holds but mean and base, 

oai/n. 



THE FIFTH SOXG. 139 

So she may reach at length this most delightful place, 
By nature with proud cleeves invironed about, 
'§ To crown the goodly Road: where builds the Falcon stout, 
Which we the Gentle call : whose fleet and active wings, 305 
It seems that Nature made when most she thought on Kings : 
Which manag'd to the lure, her high and gallant flight 
The vacant sportful man so greatly doth delight, 
That with her nimble quills his soul doth seem to hover, 
And lie the very pitch that lusty bird doth cover ; 310 

That those proud eyries, 1 bred whereas the scorching sky 
Doth singe the sandy wilds of spiceful Barbary ; 
Or underneath our Pole, where Norway's Forests wide 
Their high cloud-touching heads in Winter snows do hide, 
Out-brave not this our kind in mettle, nor exceed 315 

The Falcon, which sometimes the British cleeves do breed : 
Which prey upon the Isles in the Vergiviam waste, 
That from the British shores by Neptim are imbrac'd ; 
Which stem his furious tides when wildliest they do rave, 
And break the big-swoln bulk of many a boist'rous wave; 320 
As, calm when he becomes, then likewise in their glory 
Do cast their amorous eyes at many a promontory 
That thrust their foreheads forth into the smiling South ; 
As Bat and Sheepy, set to keep calm Milford's mouth, 
Expos'd to Wry if line's power. So Greskolme far doth stand: 
Scalme, Stockhofone, with Saint Bride, and Gatholme, 2 nearei 

land, 
(Which with their veiny breasts entice the Gods of sea, 
That with the lusty Isles do revel every day) 
As crescent-like the land her breadth here inward 1 tends, 
From Miifiini, which she forth to old Mem via sends ; 
Since, holy David's seat; which of especial grace 
Doth lend that nobler name to this unnobler place. 

1 The places from whence the highest ll\ii- Hawks are brought. 
- The Islands upon the point of Penbrookesltire. 



140 POLF-OLBION. 

Of all the holy men whose fame so fresh remains, 
To whom the Britons built so many sumptuous Fanes, 
This Saint before the rest their Patron still they hold : 
§ Whose birth, their ancient Bards to Cambria long foretold; 
And seated here a See, his Bishopric of yore, 
Upon the farthest point of this unfruitful shore ; 
Selected by himself, that far from all resort 
With contemplation seern'd most fitly to comport ; !40 

That, void of all delight, cold, barren, bleak, and dry. 
Xo pleasure might allure, nor steal the wand'ring eye : 
Where Ramsey with those Rocks, in rank that ord'red stand 
Upon the furthest point of Davidfs ancient Land, 
Do raise their rugged heads (the seaman's noted marks) 845 
Call'd, of their mitred tops, The Bishop and Ms Clarks ; 
Into that channel cast, whose raging current roars 
Betwixt the British, sands and the Hibernian shores: 
Whose grim and horrid face doth pleased heaven neglect, ' 
And bears bleak Winter still in his more sad aspect : 
Yet Gwin and X< vern near, two fine and fishful Brooks, 
Do never stay their course, how stern soe'er he looks ; 
Which with his shipping once should seem to have commerst, 
Where Fiscard as her Hood doth only grace the first. 
To N't wport falls the next : there we awhile will rest ; 355 
Our next ensuing Song to wondrous things addrest. 




ILLUSTRATIONS. 




F you ever read of, or vulgarly understand, the form 
of the Ocean, and affinity twixt it and Rivers, you 
cannot but conceive this poetical description of 
Severne; wherein Amphitrite is supposed to have 
given her a precious robe : very proper in the matter-self, 
and imitating that Father of the Muses 1 which derives 
Agamemnon's Sceptre to him by descent joined with gift 
from Jupiter, Achilles' armor from Vulcan's bounty, 7/ ' 
Nep from the Egyptian Polydamna, and such like, 

honoring the possessor with the giver's judgment, as much 
as with the gift possessed. 

54. To whom the goodly Bay o/Milford should b 

At Mil ford Haven arrived Henry Karl of Bichmont, aided 
with some forces and sums of money by the /■'■ tries 

VIII. but so entertained and strengthened by divers of his 
friends, groaning under the tyrannical yoke of Rich. III. 
that, beyond expectation, at Bosworth in Leicester, the day 
and Crown was soon his. Every Chronicle tells you more 
largely. 

1 Iliad. /3. et it. 



142 POLY-OLBIOX, 

so. And how Lhewelin's line in him should doubly thrive, 

Turn to the Eagle's prophecies in the Second Song, where 
the first part of this relation is more manifested. For the 
rest, thus : About our Confessor's time, Macbeth King of 
Scotland 1 (moved by predictions, affirming that, his line 
extinct, the posterity of Banqhuo, a noble Thane of Loqhua- 
brie, should attain and continue the Scottish reign) and, jealous 
of others' hoped-for greatness, murdered Banqhuo, but missed 
his design; for one of the same posterity, Fleanch son to 
Banqhuo, privily fled to Gryffith an Lhewelin then Prince of 
Woks, and was there kindly received. To him and Nesta the 
Prince's daughter was issue one Walter. He (afterward for 
his worth favourably accepted, and through stout perform- 
ance honourably requited by Malcolm!) III.) was made Lord 
High Stewart of Scotland ; out of whose loins Robert II. was 
derived : since whom that royal name hath long continued, 
descending to our mighty Sovereign, and in him is joined 
with the commixed Kingly blood of Tyddour and I'lantagencst. 
These two were united, with the White and Bed 1 loses* in 
those auspicious nuptials of Henry the Seventh and Eliza- 
beth daughter to Edward IV. and from them, through the 
Lady Margaret their eldest daughter, married to James the 
Fourth, his Majesty's descent and spacious Empire observed 
easily shows you what the Muse here plays withal. The 
rest alludes to that; Cambria shall be glad, Cornwall shall 
Nourish, ami the Isle -dad/ be styled with Unite's name, and the 

1 Hector Boet. lib. 12 et Buchanan, in reg. 85. et 86. lib. 7. qui 
eosdem sevo criterion Stuartoe ait dictos, quoa olim Thanos nunuupa- 
bant. Thani verb quaeatorea erant regii per interpretationem, uti 
Boetius. Certe in Cnartfl ills qufl ]'ur< Henrico II. ob- 

Btrinxit WMielmua Scotorum Rex, leguntur inter t< itea II illielmus dt 
Cure;/ Seneschallus, WUlielmus Films Aldelmi Seneschallua, Aluredw 
de Sancto Martino SeneBchallus, OUbertua Motet Seneschallus, nnde 
honorarium Euisse hoc nomen paret. Eorum bini desunt apud Hoye- 
denum, verum ex vetustLss. ononymo MS. excerpsi. 

* York and Lancaster. 






THE FIFTH SOXG. 143 

nann of strangers shall perish: as it is in Merlin's pro- 
phecies. 

108. That Spirit to her unknown this Virgin only loifd. 

So is the vulgar tradition of Merlins conception. Un- 
timely it were, if I should slip into discourse of spirits' 
faculties in this kind. For my own part, unless there be 
some creatures of such middle nature, as the Babbinic con- 
ceit 1 upon the Creation supposes; and the same with ffesiod's 
Nymphs, or Paracelsus his Non-adams, I shall not believe 
that other than true bodies on bodies can generate, except 
by swiftness of motion in conveying of stolen seed some 
unclean spirit might arrogate the improper name of gene- 
ration. Those which S. Augustine* calls Dusii,* in Gaul, 
altogether addicted to such filtbiness, Fauns, Satyrs and 
Sylvans have had as much attributed to them. But learn 
of this, from divines upon the Beni-haelohim in Holy Writ, 3 
passages of the Fathers upon this point, and the later 
authors of disquisitions in Magic and Sorcery, as Bodin, 
Wier, Martin del Bio, others. For this Merlin (rather Merd- 
as you see to the Fourth Song, his true name being 
Ambrose) his own answer to Vortigem was, that his father 
was a Boman Consul* (so Nennius informs me) as perhaps it 
might be, and the fact palliated under name of a spirit ; 
as in that of Ilia supposing, to save her credit, the name of 
Mars for Bomulus his Father. But to enterlace the polite 
Muse with what is more harsh, yet even therein perhaps 
not displeasing, I offer you this antique passage of him. 

1 Rabbi Abraham in Zerror Hammor ap. Munst. ad 2. Genes. 
Lib. 15. de Civ. Dei cap. 23. 

* Porte Druaii (quod vult Bodinus lib. 2. cap. 7. Daemonoman.) 
quasi Sylvani. aut Dryades. :! Gen. (i. 2. 

4 Illustrea saepius viroa indigetant historic] nostri Consules, unde 
et Mtium adloquuntur Saxones Cos., quem tametsi Consulem fuisse 
haut asscrcnt Fasti, illustriss. tamen et in republic^ nobilissimum 
Procopii aliorumque Historise Gothicse produnt. 



144 POLF-OLBION, 

^hc messagers to Kermerdin comr 

Slntt hou chilttrcu btuorr the natc jslciiijr hii toke gome 

Cho settc on to another,* Htcrlm bat is thr 

Choii fatterlese ssrrbjc,t ton misttostou me [fillc 

2Ior icham of 3iungrs icome antt then nart nought boorih a 

2Jor thou nattttrst ncttcrc nannc fatter, thcrruorr holtt the 

<Eho thr messngcrs hurttr this hit astuntc there [stillc 

3ntt essic at mm aboute boat thr chiltt bocre 

Hit srttr that he ne hatt nrucrc fatter that me mighic 

bnttcrstonttc 
&ntt 19 mottcr au lungs ttoughtcr baas of thulfcc lontt 
Sntt bocnett at 5\ Metres in a nonnerte there. 

His mother (a Nun, daughter to Pubidius King of Mathraval, 

and called Matilda, as by poetical authority 2 only I find 
justifiable) and he being brought to the King, she colours 
it in these words : 

bihanne tch ofte boas 

3Jn chambrc mitt mine fellators, therr come to me hi cas 
3 suithe bair man mitt alle, antt bi clttpt me bid sofir, 
Sflntt semblance matte baire nnou, antt cust me bjeil ofte. 

and tells on the story which should follow so kind a preface, 
Bui enough of this. 

265. %By th* shoulder of a Ram from offth ide par'd. 

Taki this as a taste of their art in old time. Under 
Hen. 11. mi! William M<ni<jaii<t, A ;i Gentleman of those parts, 
finding by his skill of prediction that his wife had played 

1 See to the Tenth Song. * Durbitius dictua Galfredo, 

| .s///< '<■ now n word applied to ivish sex, but in Chaucer, 

Lidgat, ami Qower, to tin' quieter also. 

- 8pen r\ Faery Q. lib. .!. cant. 3. J Ostcomantie. 

'■* Girald. Itin. 1. cap. 1 J. 

Quae te dei i pit, 

Quserere Bollicite quod reperire turn 

'I'h. Mor. Epig. 



THE FIFTH SONG. 145 

false with him, and conceived by his own nephew, formally 
dresses the shoulder-bone of one of his own rams ; and 
sitting at dinner (pretending it to be taken out of his neigh- 
bour's flock) requests his wife (equalling him in these divi- 
nations) to give her judgment ; she curiously observes, and 
at last with great laughter casts it from her : the Gentle- 
man, importuning her reason of so vehement an affection, 
receives answer of her, that, his wife, out of whose flock 
the ram was taken, had by incestuous copulation with her 
husband's nephew fraughted herself with a young one. Lay 
all together, and judge, Gentlewomen, the sequel of this 
cross accident. But why she could not as well divine of 
whose flock it was, as the other secret, when I have more 
skill in Osteomanty, I will tell you. Nor was their report 
less in knowing things to come, than past ; so that jealous 
Pcmurge in his doubt de la Coquage* might here have had 
other manner of resolution than Rondibilis, Hippothade, 
Bridoye, Trorillogan, or the Oracle itself, were able to give 
him. Blame me not, in that, to explain my author, I insert 
this example. 

304. To crown the goodly Road, where built that Falcon stout. 

In the rocks of this maritime coast of Penbroke are eyries 
of excellent Falcons. 1 Henri/ the Second here passing into 
Ireland, cast off a Nonvay Goshawk at one of these : but 
the Goshawk taken at the source by the Falcon, soon fell 
down at the King's foot, which performance in this ramage, 
made him yearly afterward send hither for Eyesses, as 
Girald is author. Whether these here are the Haggarts 
(which they call Peregrins) or Falcon-gentles, I am no such 
falconer to argue ; but this I know, that the reason of the 
name of Peregrins is given, for that they come from remote 

* Of Cuckoldry. RaMais. 1 Hawks. 

VOL. I. 10 






UG POLY-OLBIOy. 

and unknown places, 1 and therefore hardly fits these : but 
also I read in no less than Imperial authority, 2 that Pere- 
grins never bred in less latitude than beyond the seventh 
climate, Dia Riphceos, which permits them this place ; and 
that, of true Falcons-gentle an eyrie is never found but in a 
more Southern and hotter parallel : which (if it be true) 
excludes the name of Gentle from ours, breeding near the 
ninth, per Fiostochium. And the same authority makes them 
(against common opinion) both of one kind, differing rather 
in local and outward accidents than in self-nature. 

8.0. IFJiose birth the ancient Bards to Cambria long foretold. 

Of S. Dewy and his Bishopric you have more to the 
Fourth Song. He was prognosticated" above thirty years 
before his birth; which with other attributed miracles (after 
the fashion of that credulous age) caused him be almost 
paralleled in Monkish zeal with that Holy John which, un- 
born, sprang at presence of the Incarnate Author of our 
Redemption. The translation of the Archbishopric was also 
foretold in that of Merlin : 4 Menevia shall put on the Pall of 
Caer-leon ; and the Preacher of Ireland shall was dumb by an 
infant growing in the womb. That was performed when S. 
Patrick, at presence of Melaria then with child, suddenly lost 
use of his speech ; but recovering it after some time made 
prediction of Deity's holiness, joined with greatness, which 
is so celebrated. Upon my Author's credits only believe me. 

1 Albert, de Animal. 23. cap. 8. 
• Frederic. II. lil>. 2. de arte Venand. cap. 4. 
: Monnmeth, lib. 8. cap. 8.; Girald, Han. 2. cap. 1.; 13al. cent. 1. 
Vita S. Dewy. 

4 Alan, de Insul. 1 ad. Proph. Merlin. 



-§>: 



THE SIXTH SONG. 



The Akgument. 

With Cardigan the Muse proceeds, 
And fells what rare things Tivy breeds : 
Next, proud Plynillimon she plyes ; 
Where Severne, Wy, and Rydoll rise. 
With Severne she along doth go, 
Her Metamorphosis, to show ; 
And makes tlie wand' ring Wy declaim 
In honour of the British name : 
Then musters all the wat'ry train 
That those two Rivers entertain : 
And ri, wing how those Billets creep 
From shore to the Vergivian Deep, 
By Radnor and Mountgomery then 
To Severne turns her course again : 
And bringing all their Biverets in, 
There ends ; a new Song to begin. 

[ITH I must stem thy stream, clear Tivy, yet before 

The Muse vouchsafe to seize the Car&iganian shore, 

She of thy source will sing in all the Cambrian coast ; 

AVhich of thy castors once, but now canst only 1 • 

The salmons, of all Floods most plentiful in thee. 6 

Dear Brook, within thy banks if any Powers there be ; 

10—2 




148 POLY-OLBIOX, 

Then Naiads, or ye Nymphs of their like wat'ry kind, 
(Unto whose only care, great Neptune, hath assign'd 
The guidance of those Brooks wherein he takes delight) 
Assist her : and whilst she your dwelling shall recite, 10 
Be present in her work : let her your graces view, 
That to succeeding times them lively she may show ; 
As when great Albion's sons, which him a Sea-Nymph brought 
Amongst the grisly rocks, were with your beauties caught, 
(Whose only love surpris'd those of the Phlegrian 1 size, 15 
The Titanois, that once against high Heaven durst rise) 
"When as the hoary woods, the climbing hills did hide, 
And cover'd every vale through which you gently glide ; 
Ev'n for those inly heats which through your loves they felt, 
That oft in kindly tears did in your bosoms melt, 20 

To view your secret bow'rs, such favour let her win. 

Then Thy cometh down from her capacious lin, 
Twixt Mirk and Brenny led, two handmaids, that do stay 
Their Mistress, as in state she goes upon her way. 

Which when Lanbeder sees, her wondrously she likes : o;» 
"Whose untam'd bosom so the beauteous Tivy strikes, 
As that the Forest fain would have her there abide. 
But she (so pure a stream) transported with her pride, 
The offer idly scorns ; though with her flattering shade 
The Sylvan her entice with all that may persuade so 

A Water-Nymph ; yea. though great Thetis' self she were : 
But nothing might prevail, nor all the pleasures there 
Her mind could ever move one minute's stay to make. 

Mild Mathern then, the next, doth Tivy overtake : 
Which instantly again by DiUor is supplied. 35 

Then, Reach and Kerry help: twixt which on either side. 
To Cardigan she comes, the Sovereign of the Shere. 
Now Tivy Let us tell thy sundry glories here. 

When as the salmon seeks a fresher stream to find 

1 Giants. 



THE SIXTH SONG. 149 

(Which hither from the sea comes yearly by his kind, 10 
As he in season grows) and stems the wat'ry tract 
Where Tivy, falling down, doth make a cataract,* 
Forc'd by the rising rocks that there her course oppose, 
As though within their bounds they meant her to inclose ; 
Here, when the labouring fish doth at the foot arrive, 45 
And finds that by his strength but vainly he doth strive, 
His tail takes in his teeth j and bending like a bow, 
That's to the compass drawn, aloft himself doth throw : 
Then springing at his height, as doth a little wand, 
That bended end to end, and flerted from the hand, 
Far off itself doth cast ; so doth the salmon vaut. 
And if at first he fail, his second summersaut 1 
He instantly assays ; and from his nimble ring, 
Still yarking, never leaves, until himself he fling 
Above the streamful top of the surrounded heap. 

More famous long agone, than for the salmons' leap, 
For beavers Tivy was, in her strong banks that bred, 
Which else no other brook of Britain nourished : 
Where Nature, in the shape of this now-perish'd beast 
His property did seem t' have wondrously exprest; 
Being bodied like a boat, with such a mighty tail 
As serv'd him for a bridge, a helm, or for a sail, 
When kind did him command the architect to play, 
That his strong castle built of branched twigs and clay : 
Which, set upon the deep, but yet not fix6d there, 
He eas'ly could remove as it he pleas'd to steer 
To this side or to that ; the 'workmanship so rare, 
His stuff wherewith to build, first being to prepare, 
A foraging he goes, to groves or bushes nigh, 
And with his teeth cuts down his timber: which laid-by, :o 
He turns him on his back, his belly laid abroad, 

Falling of water. 
1 The word iu tumbling, when one castetb himself over as 



150 POLY-OLBIOX, 

When with what he hath got, the other do him load, 
Till lastly by the weight, his burthen he have found. 
Then, with his mighty tail his carriage having bound 
As carters do with ropes, in his sharp teeth he gript 73 

Some stronger stick : from which the lesser branches stript, 
He takes it in the midst ; at both the ends, the rest 
Hard holding with their fangs, unto the labour prest, 
f 5 oing backward, to vv'rds their home their loaded carriage led, 
From Avhom, those first here born, were taught the useful 
sled. so 

Then builcled he his fort with strong and several fights ; 
I lis passages contriv'd with such unusual sleights, 
That from the hunter oft he issued undiscern'd, 
As if men from this beast to fortify had learn'd ; 
§ Whose kind, in her decay'd, is to this Isle unknown. 86 
Thus Tirij boasts this beast peculiarly her own. 

But here why spend I time these trifles to areed % 
Now, with my former task my Muse again proceed, 
To show the other Floods from the Cerettick 1 shore 
To the Verrjivian Sea contributing their store : '.>o 

With Bidder first begin, that bendeth all her force 
The Arron to assist, Arth holding on her course 
The way the other went, with Worry which doth win 
Fair Istwid to her aid ; who kindly coming in, 
Meet- Bydoll at her mouth, that fair and princely maid. 

Union's dear child, deliciously array'd, 
As fits a Nymph so near to Severm and her < k >ueen. 
Then come the sister Salks, as they before had seen 
Those delicater Dames so trippingly to tread : 
Then Kerry ; Cletur next, and Kviwer making head too 

With Eflion, that her like clear Learnt brings by her. 

Ptynillimon's high praise no longer Muse defer : 
What once the Druids told, how great those Floods should be 

1 Of Cardigan, 



THE SIXTH SONG. 151 

That here (most mighty Hill) derive themselves from thee. 
The Bards with fury rapt, the British youth among, io:> 

§ Unto the charming Harp thy future honor song 
In brave and lofty strains ; that in excess of joy, 
The beldam and the girl, the grandsire and the boy, 
With shouts and yearning cries, the troubled air did load 
(As -when with crowned cups unto the Elian 1 God no 

Those Priests his orgies held ; or when the old world saw 
Full Phcebe's face eclips'd, and thinking her to daw, 
Whom they supposed fall'n in some inchanted swound, 
Of beaten tinkling brass still ply'd her with the sound) 
That all the Cambrian hills, which high'st their heads do bear 
With most obsequious shows of low subjected fear, no 

Should to thy greatness stoop : and all the Brooks that be 
Do homage to those Floods that issued out of thee : 
To princely Screrne first ; next, to her sister Wye, 
Which to her elder's Court her course doth still apply. 120 
But Rydoll, young'st, and least, and for the other's pride 
Not finding fitting roomth upon the rising side, 
Alone unto the West directly takes her way. 
So all the neighboring Hills Phjnillimon obey. ' 
For, though Moyhadiam, bear his craggy top so high, 12s 

As scorning all that come in compass of his eye, 
Yet greatly is he pleas'd Plynillinuai will grace 
Him with a cheerful look : and, fawning in his face, 
His love to Severnc shows as though his own she were, 
Thus comforting the Flood : *0 ever-during heir iso 

Of Sabrine, Locrine's child (who of her life bereft, 
Her ever-living name to thee fair River left) 
Brute's first begotten son, which Gwendolyn did wed ; 
But soon th' unconstant Lord abandoned her bed 
(Through his unchaste desire) for beauteous Elstred's love. 
Now, that which most of all her mighty heart did move, 
1 Bacchus. * The Story of Severne. 



152 POLY-OLBION, 

Her father, Cornwall's Duke, great Covinous dead, 

Was by the lustful King unjustly banished. 

When she, who to that time still with a smoothed brow 

Had seem'd to bear the breach of Locrine's former vow, 140 

Perceiving still her wrongs insufferable were ; 

Grown big with the revenge which her full breast did bear, 

And aided to the birth with every little breath 

(Alone she being left the spoil of love and death, 

In labour of her grief outrageously distract, i« 

The utmost of her spleen on her false lord to act) 

She first implores their aid to hate him whom she found ; 

Whose hearts unto the depth she had not left to sound. 

To Cornwall then she sends (her country) for supplies : 

Which all at once in arms with Gwendolyn arise. 150 

Then with her warlike power, her husband she pursu'd, 

Whom his unlawful love too vainly did delude. 

The fierce and jealous Queen, then void of all remorse, 
As great in power as spirit, whilst he neglects her force, 
Him suddenly surpris'd, and from her ireful heart 
All pity clean exil'd (whom nothing could convert) 
The son of mighty Brute bereaved of his life ; 
Amongst the Britons here the first intestine strife, 
Since they were put a-land upon this promis'd shore. 
Then crowning Madam. King, whom she to Locrine bore, 100 
And those which serv'd his Sire to his obedience brought ; 
Not so with blood suffic'd, immediately she sought 
The mother and the child : whose beauty when she saw, 
Had not her heart been flint, had had the power to draw 
A spring of pitying tears ; when, dropping liquid pearl, 1 or. 
Before the cruel Queen, the Lady ami tin- Girl 
Upon their tender knees begg'd mercy. Woe for thee, 
Fair Elstred, that thou should'st thy fairer Sabrirn see, 
Ab she should thee behold tin- prey to her stern rage, 
Whom kingly Locrine's death Buffic'd not to assuage : 170 



THE SIXTH SONG, 153 

Who from the bord'ring cleeves thee with thy mother cast 
Into thy christ'ned flood, the whilst the rocks aghast 
Resounded with your shrieks • till in a deadly dream 
Your corses were dissolv'd into that crystal stream, 
Your curls to curled waves, which plainly still appear it;. 
The same in water now, that once in locks they were : 
And, as you wont to clip each others neck before, 
Ye now with liquid arms embrace the wand'ring shore. 

But leave we Severne here, a little to pursue 
The often wand'ring Wye (her passages to view, iso 

As wantonly*she strains in her lascivious course) 
And muster every flood that from her bounteous source 
Attends upon her stream, whilst (as the famous bound 
Twixt the Brecknokian earth, and the Eadnorian ground) 
She every Brook receives. First, Clarwea cometh in. w, 
With Clarwy : which to them their consort Eland win 
To aid their goodly Wye ; which, Ithon gets again : 
She Dalas draws along : and in her wat'ry train 
Clowedock hath recourse, and Comran ; which she brings 
Unto their wand'ring flood from the Eadnorian Springs : 
As Edwy her attends, and Matchwy forward heaves 
Her Mistress. When, at last the goodly IFye perceives 
She now was in that part of Wales, of all the rest 
Which (as her very waist) in breadth from East to West, 
In length from North to South, her midst is every way, 105 
From Severne's bord'ring banks unto the either Sea, 
And might be term'd her heart. The ancient Britons here 
The River calls to mind, and what those British were 
Whilst Britain was herself, the Queen of all the West. 

To whose old Nation's praise whilst she herself addri ' 
From the Brecknokian bound when Irvon coming in. 
Her Dulas, with Corn/march, and Wevery that doth win, 
Persuading her for them good matter to provide. 
The Wood-Xymphs so again, from the Eadnorian side^ 



154 POLY-OLBION, 

As Kin] nor, with Blethaugh, and Knuckles Forests, call 205 
To Wye, and bad her now bestir her for them all : 
For, if she stuck not close in their distressed case, 
The Britons were in doubt to undergo disgrace. 
That strongly thus provok'd, she for the Britons says : 
What spirit can lift you up, to that immortal praise 210 

§ You worthily deserve? by whom first Gaul was taught 
Her knowledge : and for her, what nation ever wrought 
The conquest you achiev'd 1 And, as you were most drad, 
So ye (before the rest) in so great reverence had 
Your Bards which sung your deeds, that where *stern hosts 
have stood 215 

With lifted hands to strike (in their inflamed blood) 
§ One Bard but coming in, their murd'rous swords hath staid ; 
In her most dreadful voice as thund'ring Heaven had said, 
Stay Britons : when he spake, his words so pow'rful were. 

So to her native Priests, the dreadless Druids here, 220 
The nearest neighboring Gaul, that wisely could discern 
Th' effect their doctrine wrought, it for their good to learn, 
Her apt and pregnant Youth sent hither year by year, 
Instructed in our Rites with most religious fear. 
And afterward again, when as our ancient seat 225 

Her surcrease could not keep, grown for her soil too great, 
(But like to casting bees, so rising up in swarms) 
§ ( fur Cyrnbri with the Gauls, that their commixed arms 
Join'd with the (Herman Powers (those Nations of the North 
"Which overspread the world) together issued forth : 280 

§ Where, with our brazen swords, we stoutly fought, and long; 
And after conquests got, residing them among, 
First planted in those pails our brave courageous brood, 
Whose natures so adher'd unto their ancient blood, 
As from them sprang those Priests, whose praise so far did 

SOUlld, 286 

Through whom that Rpacious Gaulw&s after so renown'd. 



THE SIXTH SONG. 155 

Xor could the Saxons' swords (which many a ling'ring year 
Them sadly did afflict, and shut us Britons here 
Twixt Severne and this Sea) our mighty minds deject ; 
But that even they which fain'st our weakness would detect, 
Were forced to confess, our wildest beasts that breed 241 
Upon our mighty wastes, or on our mountains feed, 
Were far more sooner tam'd, than here our Welch-men were : 
Besides, in all the world no Nation is so dear 
As they unto their own ; that here within this Isle, 245 

Or else in foreign parts, yea, forced to exile, 
The noble Briton still his countryman relieves ; 
A Patriot, and so true, that it to death him grieves 
To hear his Wales disgrac'd : and on the Saxons 1 swords 
Oft hazardeth his life, ere with reproachful words 250 

His Language or his Leek he'll stand to hear abus'd. 
Besides, the Briton is so naturally infus'd 
With true poetic rage, that in their 1 measures, art 
Doth rather seem precise, than comely ; in each part 
Their metre most exact, in verse of th' hardest kind. 255 
And some to rhyming be so wondrously inclin'd, 
Those numbers they will hit, out of their genuine vein, 
Which many wise and learn' d can hardly e'er attain. 

memorable Bards, of unmix' d blood, which still 
Posterity shall praise for your so wond'rous skill, 260 

That in your noble Songs, the long descents have kept 
Of your great Heroes, else in Lethe that had slept, 
With theirs whose ignorant pride your labours have disdain'd; 
How much from time, and them, how bravely have you gain'd ! 
Musician, Herald, Bard, thrice may'st thou be renown'd, 265 
And with three several wreaths immortally be crown'd ; 
Who, when to Pmibrooke call'd before the English King, 
And to thy powerful Harp commanded there to sing, 

1 Seo to the Fourth Song. 



15G POLY-OLBION, 

Of famous Arthur told'st, and where lie was interr'd ; 
In which, those retchless times had long and blindly err'd, 
And ignorance had brought the world to such a pass 271 
As now, which scarce believes that Arthur ever Avas. 
But when King Henri/ 1 sent th' reported place to view, 
He found that man of men; and what thou said'st was true. 
Here then I cannot choose but bitterly exclaim 275 

Against those fools that all Antiquity defame, 
Because they have found out, some credulous ages lay'd 
Slight fictions with the truth, whilst truth on rumour stay'd : 
And that one forward Time (perceiving the neglect 
A former of her had) to purchase her respect, 
With toys then trimm'd her up, the drowsy world t' allure, 
And lent her what it thought might appetite procure 
To man, whose mind doth still variety pursue ; 
And therefore to those things whose grounds were very true, 
Though naked yet and bare (not having to content 2S5 

The wayward curious ear) gave Active ornament ; 
And fitter thought, the truth they should in question call, 
Than coldly sparing that, the truth should go and all. 
And surely I suppose, that which this froward time 
Doth scandalize her with to be her heinous crime, 290 

That hath her most preserv'd: for, still where wit hath found 
A thing most clearly true, it made that fiction's ground : 
"Which she suppos'd might give sure colour to them both: 
From which, as from a root, this wond'red error grow'th 
At which our Critics gird, whose judgments are so strict, 201 
And he the bravest man who most can contradict 
That which decrepit Age (which forced is to lean 
Upon Tradition) tells ; esteeming it so mean, 
As they it quite reject, and for some trilling thing 
(Which Time hath pinn'd to Truth) they all away will fling. 

1 // 



THE SIXTH SONG. 157 

These men (for all the world) like our Precisians be, i 

Who for some Cross or Saint they in the window see 

"Will pluck down all the Church : Soul-blinded sots that creep 

In dirt, and never saw the wonders of the deep. 

Therefore (in my conceit) most rightly serv'd are they 

§ That to the Roman trust (on his report that stay) 

Our truth from him to learn, as ignorant of ours 

As we were then of his ; except 'twere of his powers : 

Who our w r ise Dm ids here unmercifully slew ; 

Like whom, great Nature's depths no men yet ever knew, 310 

Nor with such dauntless spirits were ever yet inspir'd ; 

Who at their proud arrive th' ambitious Ilomans fir'd 

When first they heard them preach the soul's immortal 

state ; 
And ev'n in Rome's despite, and in contempt of Fate, 
Grasp'd hands with horrid death: which out of hate and 

pride :,r. 

They slew, who through the world were rev'renced beside. 

To understand our state, no marvel then though we 
Should so to Co sar seek, in his reports to see 
What anciently we w r ere ; when in our infant war, 
Unskilful of our tongue but by interpreter, 
He nothing had of ours which our great Bards did sing, 
Except some few poor words ; and those again to bring 
Unto the Latin sounds, and easiness they us'd, 
By their most filed speech, our British most abus'd. 
But of our former state, beginning, our descent, 
The wars Ave had at home, the concpiests where we went, 
He never understood. And though the Romans here 
So noble trophies left, as very worthy were 
A people great as they, yet did they ours neglect, 
Long-rear'd ere they arriv'd. And where they do object. 
The ruins and records we show, be very small 
To prove ourselves so great : ev'n this the most of all 



158 POLY-OLBIOX, 

('Gainst their objection) seems miraculous to me, 

That yet those should be found so general as they be ; 

The Roman, next the Pict, the Saxon, then the Dane, 335 

All landing in this Isle, each like a horrid rain 

Deforming her ; besides the sacrilegious wrack 

Of many a noble book, as impious hands should sack 

The centre, to extirp all knowledge, and exile 

All brave and ancient things, for ever from this Isle : s 10 

Expressing wondrous grief, thus wand'ring Wye did sing. 

But, back, industrious Muse ; obsequiously to bring 
Clear Severne from her source, and tell how she doth strain 
Down her delicious dales ; with all the goodly train, 
Brought forth the first of all by Brugan : which to maki 
Her party worthy note, next, Bulas in doth take. 
Moylvadicm his much love to Severne then to show, 
Upon her Southern side, sends likewise (in a row) 
Bright Biga, that brings on her friend and fellow Floyd ; 
Next, Dungum; Bacho then is busily imploy'd, :;:o 

Tarranon, Carno, Halves, with Becan, and the Piue, 
In Severne's sovereign banks that give attendance due. 

Thus as she swoops along, with all that goodly train. 
Upon her other bank by Newtoume : so again 
§ Comes Dulas (of whose name so many Kivers be, 355 

As of none others is) with Male, prepar'd to see 
The confluence to their Queen, as on her course she makes : 
Then at Mountgomery next clear Kcnnct in she takes; 
"Where little Fledding falls into her broader bank ; 
Fork'd 7'"//'/'v//.bringing Tar, and Tanot: growing rani 
She plies her towards the Poole, from the.Gomerian fields . 
Than which in all our 1 Tales, there is no country yields 
An excellenter horse, so full of natural fire, 
As one of Phoebus' steeds had been that stallion's sire, 
Which first their race begun; or of th' Asturian kind, 
§ Which some have held to be begotten by the wind, 



THE SIXTH SONG. 



L59 



Upon the mountain mare : which strongly it receives, 
And in a little time her pregnant part upheaves. 

But, leave we this to such as after wonders long : 
The Muse prepares herself unto another Song. 




ILLUSTRATIONS. 




FTER Pembroke in the former Seng, succeeds here 
Cardigan; both washed by the Irish Seas. But, 
for intermixture of rivers, and contiguity of 
situation, the inlands of Montgomery, Radnor, and 
Brechioclx are partly infolded. 

85. Whose kind, in her decay'd, is to this Isle unknown. 

That these Beavers were in Tivy frequent, anciently is 
testified by Sylvester Girald? describing the particulars, 
which the Author tells you, both of this, and the Salmons ; 
but that here are no Beavers now, as good authority of the 
present time- informs you. 

loc. Unto the charming liar}) thy future honor song. 

Of the J lords, their Singing, Heraldship, and more of 
that nature, see to the Fourth Song. Ireland (saith one 3 ) 
the Harp and Pipe, which he calls tympanum: Scotland 
the Haip, Tympan, and chorus; Wales the Harp, Pipe, and 
Chorus. Although Tympanum ami Chorus have other signi- 
fications, yet, this Girald (from whom I vouch it) using 

1 Topograph. Bib. (list. 1. cap. 21. Itin. Cam. 2. cap. 3. 

2 Powel. et Camden. ■ Girald Topograph. 3. dist. cap. 11. 



THE SIXTH SONG. 161 

these words as received, I imagine, of S. Hierome's Epistle 
to Dardanus, according to whom, for explanation, finding 
them pictured in Ottomar Luscinius his Musurgy, as several 
kind of Pipes, the first dividing itself into two at the end, 
the other spread in the middle, as two segments of a circle, 
but one at both ends, I guess them intended near the same. 
But I refer myself to those that are more acquainted with 
these kind of British fashions. For the Harp his word is 
Cithara, which (if it be the same with Lyra, as some think, 
although urging reason and authority are to the contrary ) 
makes the Bards' music, like that expressed in the Lyric 1 : 

bibam, 

Sonante mistum tibiis carmen bjra, 
Hdc Doriiim, Mis Barbarum. 

Apply it to the former notes, and observe with them, that 
the Pythagoreans 2 used, with music of the Harp (which in 
those times, if it were Apollo's, was certainly but of seven 
strings 3 ) when they went to sleep, to charm (as the old 
Scots were wont to do, and do yet in their Isles, as Bucha 
affirms) and compose their troubled affections. Which I 
cite to this purpose, that in comparing it with the British 
music, and the attributes thereof before remembered out ot 
Heracleotes and Girakl, you may see conveniency of use in 
both, and worth of antiquity in ours ; and as well in Pipet 
as Harp, if you remember the poetic story of Marsyas. And 
withal forget not that in one of the oldest coins that hav< 
been made in this Kingdom, the picture of the reverse is 
Apollo having his Harp incircled with Cimobelini's name, then 

1 Horat. Epod. 9. " Plutarch, de Isid. et Osiride. 

3 Horat. Carm. III. od. 11; Homer in Hym. ad Herm; Serv. Hono- 
rat. ad IV. /Encid. (ubi testudinein prim6 trium chordarum, quam ;. 
Mercurio Caducei pretio emisse Apollinem, septemque discrin 
vocum addidisse, legimus, et videndua Diodor. Sicul. lib. a.) ande 

ErrrdyXiorjaui-, ' l]lTT<ii!,0(>yyoc;, etc. dicitUT 6r 

4 Hist. Scot. 4. in Fethelmacho. 

VOL. j. 11 



162 POLY-OLIJIOX, 

chief King of the Britons ; and for Belin and Apollo, see to 
the Eighth Song. 

211. By whom first Gaul was taught her knowledge. 

Understand the knowledge of those great Philosophers, 
Priests, and Lawyers called Druids (of whom to the Tenth 
Song largely). Their discipline was first found out in this 
Isle, and afterward transferred into Gaul ; whence their 
youth were sent hither as to an University for instruction 
in their learned professions : Ccesar 1 himself is author of as 
much. Although, in particular law-learning, it might seem 
that Britain was requited, if the Satirist- deceive not in 
that ; 

Gallia causidicos doniif f anemia Britannos.* 

Which, with excellent Ldpsius, 3 I rather apply to the dis- 
persion of the Latin tongue through Gaul into this Province, 
than to any other language or matter. For also in Agricola's 
time, somewhat before, it appears that matter of good lite- 
rature was here in a far higher degree than there, as Tacitus 
in his life hath recorded. Thus hath our Isle been as 
Mistress to Gaul twice. First in this Druidian doctrine, 
next in the institution of their now famous University of 
rn ris; which was done by Churlemainef through aid and 
industry of our learned Alcuin (lie is called also Allan, and 
was first sent Embassador to the Emperor by Offa King of 
Mercland) seconded by those Scots, John Mailros, Claudius 
('him nl, ami Raban Ma urus. 6 But I know great men permit 
it not ; nor can I see any very ancient authority for it, but 
infinite of later times; so that it goes as a received opinion; 

1 Comment. G. - Juvenal. Satir. 15. 

* Eloquent Qaul taughl the British Lawyers. 
De pronuntiat. rect. Lat. hng. cap. .'1. v. Vighum ad instit. 
tit. quit), nor i b1 pennies, fac, test. 
1 University of Parte instituted. Circa 790. 5 Balseus cent. 1. 



THE SIXTH SONG. 1G3 

therefore without more examination in this no more fit 
passage, I commit it to my Reader. 

217. One Bard but coming in their murd'rous swords hath staid. 

Such strange assertion find I in story of these Bards 
powerful enchantments, that with the amazing sweetness of 
their delicious harmonies, 1 not their own only, but withal 
their enemies', armies have suddenly desisted from fierce 
encounters ; so, as my author says, did Mars reverence the 
Muses. This exactly continues all fitness with what is 
before affirmed of that kind of Music ; twixt which (and all 
other by authentic affirmance) and the mind's affections 
there are certain- Mz/x^aara,* as in this particular example 
is apparant. But how agreeth this with that in Tacitus* 
which calls a musical incentive to war among the Germans, 
Barditus ? Great critics would there read Barrhitus,* which 
in Vegetius and Ammian especially, is a peculiar name for" 
those stirring up alarms before the battle used in Human 
assaults (equal in proportion to the Greeks' a/.a7ay;j.6;, the 
Irish Kerns' Pharroh, and that Finland's Song of the Normans, 
which hath had his like also in most nations). But, seeing 
Barrhitus (in this sense) is a word of later time, and scarce 
yet, without remembrance of his naturalization, allowed in 
the Latin; and, that this use was notable in those Nortlierns 
and Gauls, until wars with whom, it seems Rome had not 
a proper word for it (which appears by Fest us Pom.peius, 
affirming that the cry of the army was called Barbaricum) 1 
should think somewhat confidently, that Barditus (as the 
common copies are) is the truest reading/' yet so, that Bar- 

1 Diodor. Sicul. de gcst. fabulos. antiq. lib. <>. 

- Aristot. Polit. ;/. cap. <r. * Imitations. 

3 Locus Taciti in de morib. Germ. 

* Lips, ad Polyb. 4. Dialog. I L. 

■• Bardus Oallice et Britannicb Cantor. Fest. et vide Bodin. Meth. 
Hist. cap. 9. qui Robartrum Dagobartum et Bimilia vocabula nine 
(male ver6) deducit. 

11—2 



104 POLY-OLBION, 

rhitus formed by an unknowing pronunciation is, and, by 
original, was the self-same. For that IApsius, mending the 
place, will have it from Barctt in Dutch, which signifies, To 
cry out, or from Har Har (which is as Haron in the Norman 
customs and elsewhere) or from the word Bc.irc for imita- 
tion of that beast's cry, I much wonder, seeing Tacitus makes 
express mention of verses harmonically celebrating valiant 
performers, recital whereof hath that name Barditus, which 
to interpret we might well call Staying. But to conjoin 
this fiery office with that quenching power of the Bards, 
spoken of by the Author, I imagine that they had also for 
this martial purpose skill in that kind of music which they 
call Phrygian, being (as Aristotle says) 'Ogyiusnxri, Hadr-iyJ,, 
■/.al 'Evfoveiaarixij, i.e., as it were, madding the mind with 
s] (rightful motion. For so we see that those which sing the 
tempering and mollifying Paeans 1 to Apollo, the r^vtXKot and 
xctXkfrixog after victory, did among the Greeks in another 
strain move with their Pceans to Mars, their "Ooi)ia, and 
provoking charms before the encounter ; and so meets this 
in our Bards dispersed doubtless (as the Druids) through 
Britain, Gaul, and part of Germany, which three had es- 
pecially in warfare much community. 

Our Cimbri with the Gauls 

National transmigrations touched to the Fourth Song 
give light hither. The name of Cimbri (which most of the 
learned in this later time have made the same with Cim- 
merians, Cumerians, Cambrians, all coming from Gomer* 
Japhefs son, to whom with his posterity was this North- 
western part of the world divided) expressing the Welsh, 
calling themselves also illumrin The Author alludes here 
to that British army, which in our story is conducted under 
Brenrms and Belinus (sons to Mol/mutvus) through Gatd, and 

1 Suid. in tlatav. " Genes. 10. 



THE SIXTH SONG. 165 

thence prosecuted, what in the Eighth Song and my notes 
there more plainly. 

231. Where, with our brazen swords 

The Author thus teaches you to know, that, among the 
ancients, Brass, not Iron, was the metal of most use. In 
their little scythes, wherewith they cut 1 their herbs for 
inchantments, their Priests' razors, plowshares for describ- 
ing the content of plotted cities, their music instruments, 
and such like, how special this metal was, it is with good 
warrant delivered : Nor with less, how frequent in the 
making of swords, spears, and armour in the Heroic times, 
as among other authorities that iu the encounter of Diomedes 
and Hector 2 manifesteth : 

TXdyydr] 6' arro yjcXxo^i yjif.yJjz* 

Which seems in them to have proceeded from a willingness 
of avoiding instruments too deadly in wounding ; For from 
a styptic faculty in this, more than in Iron, the cure of 
what it hurts is affirmed more easy, and the metal itself 
<paP(Aay.ud7i;i as Aristotle 3 expresses. But that our Britons 
used it also it hath been out of old monuments by our most 
learned Antiquary 4 observed. 

806. That to the Roman trust (on his report that stay). 

For indeed many are which the author here impugns, 
that dare believe nothing of our story, or antiquities of 
more ancient times f but only Julius Cwsar, and other 
about or since him. And surely his ignorance of this Isle 

1 Sophocles; Carminius; Virgil, ap. Macrobium Saturnal. lib. 5. 
cap. 19.; I'ausan. in Laconic, y. et Arcadia >/. ; Samuel, lib. 1. cap. 17 
- Iliad. X. # Brass rebounds from Brass. 

■(■ Of remedial power. 3 Problem. «. Sect. Xc. 

4 Camd. iu Coruub. 5 Sec for tbis more in the Tenth Song. 



166 POLY-OLBION, 

was great, time forbidding him language or conversation 
with the British. Nor was any before him of his country, 
that knew or meddled in relation of us. The first of them 
that once to letters committed any word deduced from 
Britain's name was a philosophical Poet 1 (flourishing some 
fifty years before Ccesar) in these verses : 

Nam quid Britannum caelum differrt \ 

Et quod in ASgypto'st qua mundi claudicat axis? 

In the somewhat later Poets that lived about Augustus, as 
Catullus, Virgil, and Horace, some passages of the name 
have you, but nothing that discovers any monument of this 
Island proper to her inhabitants. I would not reckon Cor- 
fu lius Nepos among them, 2 to whose name is attributed, in 
print, that polite Poem (in whose composition Apollo s< 
to have given personal aid) of the Troian war, according to 
Dares the Phrygian's story j where, by poetical liberty, the 
Britons are supposed to have been with Hercules at the rape 
oiHesione: I should so, besides error, wrong my country, 
to whose glory the true author's name of that book will 
among the worthies of the Muses ever live. Read but these 
of his verses, and then judge if he were a Barnaul : 

Sine remigis usu 

Non nosset Memphis Romam, non Indus Hiberum, 
Non Scytlui Cecropidem, non Nostra Britannia Gall 

And in the same book to Baldwin Archbishop of Canterbury: 

At tu dissimulis longe cuifronte si 

Sanguinis egregii lucrum, pacemgue litatd 

Emptam animd Pater illepius, summumgue cacumen 

In curam venisse velit, cut cederet ipsi 

Prorsus, vel proprias lulus sociaret habenas. 

1 Lucret. de Eter. Nat. (!. 

- Cornelius Nepos challenged to an English wit. 



THE SIXTH SONG. 16 \ 

Of him a little before : 

quo pmside floret 



Cantia* et la prisons respired libera leges. 

Briefly thus: the Author was Joseph of Excester (afterward 
Archbishop of Bourdeaux) famous in this and other kind of 
good learning, under Hen. II. and Rich. I. speaking among 
those verses in this form : 

Te sacrce assument acies divinague bella. 
Tunc dignum majore tuba, tunc pectore ioto 
Niiar, el imm nmm mecum spargireper orbem. 

Which must (as I think) he intended of Baldwin whose 
undertaking of the Cross and voyage with Cceur de Lion into 
the Holy Land, and death there, is in our Stories 1 ; out of 
which you may have large declaration of this holy father 
(so he calls Tho. Becket) that bought peace with price of his - 
life; being murdered in his house at Canterbury, through 
the urging grievances intolerable to the King and laity, his 
diminution of common law liberties, and endeavoured dero- 
gation, for maintenance of Romish usurped supremacy. For 
these liberties, see Muffin w Paris before all other, and the 
Epistles of John of Salisbury j l but lately published ; and, it 
you please, my Janus Anglorum, where they are restored 
from senseless corruption, and are indeed more themselves 
than in any other whatsoever in print. But thus too much 
of this false Cornelius. Compare with these notes what i> 
to the First Song of Britain and Albion ; and you shall see 
that in Greek writers mention of our Land is long before 
any in the Latin : for Polybius that is the first which men- 

* Ita legendum, 11011 Taniia aut ' ;i ineptiunt qui 

pho uoatro niereuti suam inviderunt coronam i:i Codice I 
excuse 

1 i lhron.ii i I l-irald. 1 1 in. ( lamb. 2. cap. 1 !. 

- Sarisburiena. Epist. 1 J'J. '210. 220. et 268. 



168 POLY-OLBIOX, 

tions it, was more than one hundred years before Lucretius. 
The Author's plainness in the rest of Wit's Song to this 
purpose discharges my further labour. 

355. Comes Dulas, of whose name so many rivers be. 

As in England the names of Avon, Ouse, Stoure, and some 
other ; so in Wales, before all, is Dulas, a name very often 
of rivers in Radnor, Brecknock, Caermardhin, and elsewhere. 

. Which some have held to be begotten of the wind. 

In those Western parts of Spain, Gallicia, Portugal, and 
Asturia many Classic testimonies, both Poets, as Virgil, 
Silius Ttalicus, Naturalists, Historians, and Geoponics, as 
Varro, Columel, Pliny, Trogus, and Solinus, have remembered 
these mares, which conceive through fervent lust of Nature, 
by the West wind; without copulation with the male (in 
such sort as the Ova subventanea 1 are bred in hens) but so 
that the foals live not over some three years. I refer it as 
an Allegory 2 to the expressing only of their fertile breed 
and swiftness in course ; which is elegantly to this purpose 
framed by him that was the father 3 of this conceit to his 
admiring posterity, in these speaking of Xanthus and Balius, 
two of Achilles' horses : — 



ToOg iT-y.s ZttpvgtfJ u^ij-tj) "Apttwu Tlobdiyy;, 
BoGXOfievTl /.a/ucLvi tatcc Uov 'tly.ia.vo7o.* 

Whence withal you may note, that Homer had at least 
heard of these coasts of Spain, according as upon the con- 



1 uirip'ffiia, windy eggs, bred without a Cock. 
' .lustin. Hist. lib. 44. 
1 Iliad, xvi. 150. 
These did fly like the wind, which swift Podarge fordid to their 
-in- Zephyrus, feeding in a meadow by the ocean. 



THE SIXTH SONG. 



109 



jectures on the name of Lisbon, the Elysium, and other such 
you have in St rah". 1 But for Lisbon, which many will have 
from Ulysses, and call it Ulixbon, being commonly written 
Olisippo or Ulisippo in the ancients, you shall have better 
etymology, if you hence derive and make it "0>.&j SW«i/,* as 
it were, that the whole tract is a Seminary of Horses, as a 
most learned man 2 hath delivered. 

i reograph. a. 
* "o.Xtoc' '1-TTwi'. Ptolern.to. iota sublato, vera restat lectio. 
1 Paul. Merul. Cosmog. part 2. lib. 2. cap. 26. 




THE SEVENTH SONG. 



The Argument. 

The Musefrom I iambria comes again, 
To view the Forest of fair Deane ; 
•v es Severne ; wht n the higre takes her, 
Howfi vt r-lih the sickness shakes her ; 
Makes mighty Malverne speak his mind 
In honour of the Mountain-kind ; 
Tin iii< wafted with a merry gale, 
Sees Lemstrr, and the Golden Vale; 
Sports with tJu Nymplis, themselves that ply 
At th! wedding of the Lug and Wy; 
Viewing the Herefordian pride 
Along on Severne's setting side, 
That small WIgorniaii part surveys: 
Winn: fir awhili herself sht stays. 

IC4H matters call our Muse, inviting her to see 
As well the lower Lands, as those where lately she 
The Cambrian Mountains dome, and (looking from 
aloft) 
Survey'd coy Severne's course : but now to shores more soft 
She shapes her prosperous sail; and in this lofty Song, 
The Herefordian Floods invites with her along, [waste, 

§ That fraught from plenteous Powse, with their superfluous 
Manure the batfull March, until they be imbrac'd 




172 POLY-OLBION, 

In Sabrin's sovereign arms : A\dth whose tumultuous waves 
§ Shut up in narrower bounds, the higre wildly raves; 10 
And frights the straggling flocks, the neighbouring shores to 
Afar as from the main it comes with hideous cry, [fly, 

And on the angry front the curltid foam doth bring, 
The billows 'gainst the banks when fiercely it doth fling; 
Hurls up the slimy ooze, and makes the scaly brood is 

Leap madding to the land affrighted from the flood ; 
O'erturns the toiling barge, whose steersman doth not lanch, 
And thrusts the furrowing beak into her ireful panch : 
As 1 when we haply see a sickly woman fall 
Into a fit of that which we the Mother call, 20 

When from the grieved womb she feels the pain arise, 
Breaks into grievous sighs, with intermixed cries, 
Bereaved of her sense ; and struggling still with those 
That 'gainst her rising pain their utmost strength oppose, 
Starts, tosses, tumbles, strikes, turns, touses, spurns, and 

sprawls, 25 

Casting with furious limbs her holders to the walls ; 
But that the horrid pangs torment the grieved so, 
One well might muse from whence this sudden strength 

should grow. 
Here (Queen of Forests all, that West of Severne lie) 
Her broad and bushy top Decme holdeth iq) so high, 30 

The lesser are not seen, she is so tall and large. 
And standing in such state upon the winding marge, 
§ Within her hollow woods the Satyrs that did won 
In gloomy secret shades, not pierc'd with summer's sun, 
Under a false pretence the Nymphs to entertain, 
Oft ravished the choice of Sabrin's wat'ry train ; 
And from their Mistress' banks them taking as a prey, 
Unto their woody caves have carried them away: 

1 A Simile expressing the bun or Mgn 



THE SEVENTH SONG. 173 

Then from her inner groves for succour when they cried, 

She retchless of their wrongs (her Satyrs' scapes to hide) to 

Unto their just complaint not once her ear inclines : 

So fruitful in her woods, and wealthy in her mines, 

That Leden which her way cloth through the desert make, 

Though near to Deane allied, determin'd to forsake 

Her course, and her clear limbs amongst the bushes hide, 15 

Lest by the Sylvans (should she chance to be espied) 

She might unmaid'ned go unto her Sovereign Flood : 

So many were the rapes done on the wat'ry brood, 

That Sabrine to her Sire (great Neptune) forc'd to sue, 

The riots to repress of this outrageous crew, 50 

His armed orks he sent her milder stream to keep, 

To drive them back to Deune that troubled all the deep. 

§ Whilst Malverne (king of Hills) fair Severm overlooks 
(Attended on in state with tributary Brooks) 
And how the fertile fields of Hereford do lie, 55 

And from his many heads, with many an amorous eye 
Beholds his goodly site, how towards the pleasant rise, 
Abounding in excess, the Vale of Eusham lies, 
The Mountains every way about him that do stand, 
Of whom he's daily seen, and seeing doth command ; 
On tiptoes set aloft, this proudly uttereth he : 

Olympus, fair'st of Hills, that Heaven art said to be, 
I not envy thy state, nor less myself do make ; 
Nor to possess thy name, mine own would I forsake : 
Nor would I, as thou dost, ambitiously aspire 65 

To thrust my forked top into th' etherial fire. 
For, didst thou taste the sweets that on my face do breathe, 
Above thou wouldst not seek what I enjoy beneath : 
Besides, the sundry soils I everywhere survey, 
Make me, if better not, thy equal every way. 
And more, in our defence, to answer those, with spite 
That term us barren, rude, and void of all delight ; 



174 POLY-OLBION, 

"We Mountains, to the land, like warts or wens to be, 

By which, fair'st living things disfigur'd oft they see ; 

This strongly to perform, a well-stuff d brain would need. :; 

And many Hills there be, if they this cause would heed, 

Having their rising tops familiar with the sky 

(From whence all wit proceeds) that fitter were than I 

The task to undertake. As not a man that sees 

Mounchdenny, Blorench Hill, with Breedon, and the Clees, 

And many more as great, and nearer me than they, 

But thinks, in our defence they far much more could say. 

Yet, falling to my lot, This stoutly I maintain [Plain, 

'Gainst Forests, Valleys, Fields, Groves, Rivers, Pasture, 

And all their flatter kind (so much that do rely 

Upon their feedings, flocks, and their fertility) 

The Mountain is the King : and he it is alone 

Above the other soils that Nature doth inthrone. 

For Mountains be like Men of brave heroic mind, 

With eyes erect to heaven, of whence themselves they find ; 

AVhereas the lowly Vale, as earthly, like itself, 

Doth never further look than how to purchase pelf. 

And of their batfull sites, the Vales that boast them thus, 

Ne'er had been what they are, had it not been for us : 

For, from the rising banks that strongly mound them in, 95 

The Valley (as betwixt) her name did first begin : 

And almost not a Brook, if she her banks do fill, 

Hut hath her plenteous spring from Mountain or from Mill. 

If Mead, or lower Slide, grieve at the room we take, 

Know that the snow or rain, descending oft, doth make 100 

The fruitful Valley fat, with what from us doth glide, 

Who with our Winter's waste maintain their Summer's pride. 

And to you lower Lands if terrible we seem, 

And cover'd oft with clouds ; it is your foggy steam 

The powerful Sun exhales, that in the cooler day loi 

Unto this legion com'n, about OUT tops doth stay. 



THE SEVENTH SUM; 175 

And, what's the Grove, so much that thinks her to he grac'd, 

If not ahove the rest upon the Mountain plac'd, 

Where she her curled head unto the eye may show 1 

For, in the easy Vale if she be set below, no 

What is she but obscure ? and her more dampy shade 

And covert, but a den for beasts of ravin made 1 

Besides, we are the marks, which looking from an high, 

The traveller beholds ; and with a cheerful eye 

Doth thereby shape his course, and freshly doth pursue us 

The way which long before lay tedious in his view. 

What Forest, Flood, or Field, that standeth not in awe 
Of Sina, or shall see the sight that Mountain saw ? 
To none but to a Hill such grace was ever given : 
As on his back, 'tis said, great Atlas bears up heaven. 120 

So Liit n iiis by the wise Endt/mion 1 is renown'd ; 
That Hill, on whose high top he was the first that found 
Pale Phoebe's wand'ring course ; so skilful in her sphere, 
As some stick not to say that he enjoy 'd her there. 

And those ( 'haste Maids, begot on Memory by Jove, ur> 
Not Tempe only love delighting in their Grove ; 
Nor Helicon their Brook, in whose delicious brims, 
They oft are us'd to bathe their clear and crystal limbs : 
Hut high Parnassus have, their Mountain, whereon they 
Upon their golden lutes continually do play. 130 

Of these I more could tell, to prove the place our own. 
Than by his spacious Maps are by Ortellius shown. 

For Mountains this suffice. Which scarcely had he told; 
Along the fertile fields, when Malveme might behold 
The Herefordian Floods, far distant though they be : 1 
For great men, as we find, a great way off can see. 
first. Frame with forehead clear, by Bromyard that doth glide; 
And taking Loilui in, their mixed streams do guide, 

1 Endymion fnuml out the course of the Moon. 



176 POLY-OLBIO.X. 

To meet their Sovereign Lug, from the Radnor ian Plain 
At Prestayn coming in; where he doth entertain m 

The Waddl, as along he under Derfold goes : 
Her full and lusty side to whom the Forest shows, 
As to allure fair Lug, abode with her to make. 

Lug little Oney first, then Arro in doth take, 
At Lemster, for whose wool whose staple doth excell, 145 
And seems to overmatch the golden Phrygian fell. 
Had this our Colchos been unto the Ancients known, 
When Honor was herself, and in her glory shown, 
He then that did command the Infantry of Greece, 
Had only to our Isle adventur'd for this Fleece. 

Where lives the man so dull, on BritaMs further si. 
To whom did never sound the name of Lemster Ore? 1 
That with the silkworm's web for smallness doth compare : 
Wherein the winder shows his workmanship so rare 
A- doth the fleece excel, and mocks her looser clew ; 15s 
As neatly bottom'd up as Nature forth it drew ; 
Of each in high'st accompt, and reckoned here as fine, 
§ As there th' Aptdian fleece, or dainty Twtwtyne. 
From thence his lovely self for Wye he doth dispose, 
To view the goodly flocks on each hand as he goes ; tea 

And makes his journey short, with strange and sundry talcs 
Of all their wondrous things; and, not the least, of Wales; 
Of that prodigious Spring (him neighbouring as he past) 
That little fishes' bones continually doth cast. 
Whose reason whilst he seeks industriously to know, to 
A great way he hath gone, and //< reford doth show 
Her rising spires aloft ; when as the princely Wye, 
Him from his Muse to wake, arrests him by and by. 
Whose meeting to behold, with how- well-ord'red gran 
Each other entertains, how kindly they embrace; 170 

1 The excellency of Lemster wool. 



THE SEVENTH SONG. 177 

For joy, so great a shout the bordering City sent, 

That with the sound thereof, which thorough Haywood went. 

The Wood-Nymphs did awake that in the forest won ; 

To know the sudden cause, and presently they ron 

With locks uncomb'd, for haste the lovely Wye to see i:; 

(The Flood that grac'd her most) this day should married be 

To that more lovely Lug ; a Eiver of much fame, 

That in her wandering banks should lose his glorious name. 

For Hereford, although her Wye she hold so dear, 

Yet Lug (whose longer course doth grace the goodly Sheere, 

And with his plenteous stream so many Brooks doth bring) 

Of all hers that be North is absolutely King. 182 

But Marcely, griev'd that he (the nearest of the rest, 
And of the Mountain-kind) not bidden was a guest 
Unto this nuptial feast, so hardly it doth take, 
As (meaning for the same his station to forsake) 
§ Inrag'd and mad with grief, himself in two did rive ; 
The trees and hedges near, before him up doth drive. 
And dropping headlong down, three days together fall : 
Which, bellowing as he went, the rocks did so appall, ioo 
That they him passage made, who cotes and chapels crushM: 
So violently he into his valley rush'd. 
But Wye (from her dear Lug whom nothing can restrain. 
In many a pleasant shade, her joy to entertain | 
To Rosse her course directs; and right her name* to show. 
Oft windeth in her way, as back she meant to go. 196 

Mt ander, who is said so intricate to be, 
Hath not so many turns, nor crankling nooks as she. 

The Herefordian fields when well-near bavin- pass'd, 
As she is going forth two sister Brooks at last 
That soil her kindly sends, to guide her on her way ; 
Neat Gam ir, that gets in swift Garran : which do lay 



* Wye or Ghffy, so called (in the British) of her sinuosity, or fcurnin ; 
vol. i. L2 



17$ POLY-OLBION, 

Their waters in one bank, augmenting of her train, 
To grace the goodly Wye, as she doth pass by Deane. 

Beyond whose equal spring unto the West doth lie 20^ 
The goodly Golden Vale, whose luscious scents do fly 
More free than Hyhlas sweets; and tvvixt her bordering hills, 
The air with such delights and delicacy fills, 
As makes it loth to stir, or thence those smells to bear. 
Th' He&perides scarce had such pleasures as be there : 210 
Which sometime to attain, that mighty son of Jt 
One of his Labors made, and with the Dragon strove, 
That never clos'd his eyes, the golden fruit to guard ; 
As if t' enrich this place, from others, Nature spar'd : 
Banks crown'd with curled Groves, from cold to keep the 

Plain, 2i.% 

Fields batfull, flow'ry Meads, in state them to maintain ; 
Floods, to make fat those Meads, from marble veins that 

spout, 
To show the wealth within doth answer that without. 
So brave a Nymph she is, in every thing so rare, 
As to sit down by her, she thinks there's none should dare. 
And forth she sends the Dovre, upon the Wye to wait. 221 
Whom Munno by the way more kindly doth intreat 
(For Ezkle, her most lov'd, and Olcoris only sake) 
With her to go along, till Wye she overtake. 
To whom she condescends, from danger her to shield, 
That th' Monwmethian parts from th' Herefordtan field. 
Which manly Malvern sees from furthest of the Sin 
On the Wigornian waste when Northward looking near, 
On Corswood casts his eye, and on his home-born Chase, 1 
Then constantly beholds, with an unusual pace m 

Tearne with her tribute come unto the Cambrian Queen, 
Near whom in all this place a River's scarcely seen, 

1 Malm 1 a ( 'luise. '-' Sevt 1 ne. 



THE SEVENTH SONG. 179 

That dare avouch her name ; Teame scorning any spring 
But what with her along from Shropshire she doth bring, 
Except one nameless stream that Malvern sends her in, 235 
And Laughern though but small; when they such grace that 

win, 
There thrust in with the Brooks inclosed in her bank. 
Teame lastly thither com'n with water is so rank, 
As though she would contend with Sabrine, and doth crave 
Of place (by her desert) precedency to have : 240 

Till chancing to behold the other's godlike grace, 
So strongly is surpris'd with beauties in her face 
By no means she could hold, but needsly she must show 
Her liking • and herself doth into Sabrine throw. 

Not far from him again when Malvern doth perceive 245 
Two hills, winch though their heads so high they do not 

heave, 
Yet duly do observe great Malvern, and afford 
Him reverence : who again, as fits a gracious Lord, 
Upon his subjects looks, and equal praise doth give 
That Woodberry so nigh and neighbourly doth live 250 

With Abberley his friend, deserving well such fame 
That Saxton in his Maps forgot them not to name : 
Which, though in their mean types small matter doth appear, 
Yet both of good account are reckon'd in the Sheere, 
And highly grac'd of Teame in his proud passing-by. 

When soon the goodly JVyre, that wonted was so high 
Her stately top to rear, ashamed to behold 
Her straight and goodly woods unto the fornace sold 
(And looking on herself, by her decay doth see 
The misery wherein her sister Forests be) 260 

Of Erisicthon's end begins her to bethink, 1 
And of his cruel plagues doth wish they all might drink* 

1 A Fable in Ovid's Metamor. 

12—2 



180 POLY-OLBIOX, 

That thus have them despoil' d : then of her own despight ; 

That she, in whom her Town fair Bi udley took delight, 

And from her goodly seat conceiv'd so great a pride, ito 

In Severne on her East, Wyre on the setting side, 

So naked left of woods, of pleasure, and forlorn, 

As she that lov'd her most, her now the most doth scorn ; 

With endless grief perplex'd, her stubborn breast she strake, 

And to the deafened air thus passionately spake : -i~o 

You Dryades, that are said with oaks to live and die, 

Wherefore in our distress do you our dwellings fly, 

Upon this monstrous Age and not revenge our wrong 1 

For cutting down an oak that justly did belong 

To one of Ceres' Nymphs, in Thessahj that grew 

In the Dodonean Grove (0 Nymphs !) you could pursue 

The son of Perops then, and did the Goddess stir 

That villainy to wreak the Tyrant did to her : 

Who with a dreadful frown did blast the growing grain, 

And having from him reft what should his life maintain, 

She unto Scythia sent, for Hunger him to gnaw, 

And thrust her down his throat, into his stanchless maw : 

Who, when nor sea nor land for him sufficient were, 

With his devouring teeth his wretched flesh did tear. 

This did you for one Tree: but of whole Forests they zt 
That in these impious times have been the vile decay 
(Whom I may justly call their Country's deadly foes) 
'Gainst them you move no Power, their spoil unpunish'd g 
How many grieved souls in future time shall starve, 
For that which they have rapt their 1 leastly lust to serve ! 290 

We, sometime that the state of famous Britain were, 
For whom she was renown'd in Kingdoms far and near, 
Are ransack'd; and our Trees so hack'd above the ground, 
That, where their lofty tops their neighbouring Countries 

crown'i], 
Their trunks (like aged folks) now bare and naked stain I 



THE SEVENTH SONG. 



181 



As for revenge to heaven each held a withered hand : 
And where the goodly herds of high-palm' d harts did gaze 
Upon the passer-by, there now doth only graze 
The gall'd-back carrion jade, and hurtful swine do spoil 
Once to the Sylvan Powers our consecrated soil. 300 

This utter'd she with grief: and more she would have'spoke : 
When the Salopian Floods her of her purpose broke, 
And silence did enjoin ; a list'ning ear to lend 
To Seveme, which was thought did mighty things intend. 




ILLUSTRATIONS. 




HE Muse yet hovers over Wales, and here sings the 
inner territories, with part of the Seveme story, 
and her English neighbours. 

7. That fraught from plenteous Powse ivith their superfluous waste 
Manure the batfull March 

Wales (as is before touched) divided into three parts, 
North- Wales, South- Wales, and Powise; 1 this last is here 
meant, comprising part of Brecknock, Radnor, and Mont- 
gomery. The division hath its beginning attributed to the 
three sons of Roderic the Great, 2 Mervin, Cadelh, and Anarawt, 
who possessed them for their portions hereditary, as they 
are named. But out of an old book of Welsh laws, David 
Powel affirms those tripartite titles more ancient. I know 
that the division and gift is different in Caradoc Lhancarvan 
from that of Girald ; but no great consequence of admitting 
either here. Those three princes were called in British 
Wt tritbogsoc ZEalncthtoc,* because 3 every of them ware upon 
his bonnet or helmet, a coronet of gold, being a broad lace 

1 Tripartite division of Wales. 

- Girald. Camb. Descript. cap. 2. dccc.lxx.vi. 

* The three crowned Princes. 

3 D. Powel. ad Caradoc. Lhancarvan. 



THE SEVENTH SONG. 183 

or head-band, indented upward, set and wrought with pre- 
cious stones, which in British or Welsh is call'd tEalacth, 
which name Nurses give to the upper band on a child's head. 
Of this form (I mean of a band or wreath) were the ancientest 
of crowns, 1 as appears in the description of the Cidaris, and 
Tiara of the Persians in Ctesias, Q. Curtius, and Xenophon, the 
crowns of oak, grass, parsley, olives, myrtle, and such, among 
the Greeks and Romans, and in that express name of Diadema, 
signifying a Band, of which, whether it have in our tongue 
community with that Banda, derived out of the Carian 2 into 
Italian, expressing victory, and so, for ominous good words, 
is translated to Ensigns and Standards (as in Oriental Stories 
the words Baudot, and Bavdotpooog often show) I must not here 
inquire. Molmutius first 3 used a golden Crown among the 
British, and, as it seems by the same authority, Athelstan 
among the Saxons. But I digress. By the March under- 
stand those limits between England and Wales, which con- 
tinuing from North to South, join the Welsh Shires to Here- 
ford, Shropshire, and the English part, and were divers 
Baronies, divided from any Shire until Hen. VIII. 4 by Act of 
Parliament annexed some to Wales, other to England. The 
Barons that lived in them were called Lord Marchers, and 
by the name of Marchiones, 5 i.e., Marquesses. For so Roger 
of Mortimer, , 6 James of Audeleg, Roger of Clifford, Roger of 
Leiburn, Haimo L Estrange, Hugh of Turbervil (which bj< sword 
adventured the ransom of Henry III. out of Simon of Mont- 
fort his treacherous imprisonment, after the Battle of Lewes) 
are called Marchiones Walliaz;* and Edward III. created 

1 Crowns, Diadems, Band. 

2 Stephan. ittpt no\. 'A\a€avSa. v. Gorop. Becceselan. 2. et Pet. 
Pithsei Adversar. 2. c. 20. de Banda, cni et Andatem apud Dionem 
conferas, et videsia si in altero alterius reliquiae. 

8 Galfred. Monumeth. lib. 1. et 9. 

* 27. Hen. 8. cap. 26. v. 28. Ed. 3. cap. 2. 

5 Lib. Rub. Scaccar. 6 Matth. Westmonast. lib. 2. 

* Marquesses, or Lord Marchers of Wales 



184 POLY-OLBION, 

Roger of Mortimer Earl of March, as if you should say, of the 
Limits twixt Wales and England, iWarc, or i^lerc, signifying 
a bound or limit ; l as to the Third Song more largely. And 
hence is supposed the original of that honorary title of Mar- 
quess, which is as much as a Lord of the Frontiers, or such 
like ; although I know divers other are the derivations 
which the Feudists 2 have imagined. These Marchers had 
their laws in their Baronies, and for matter of suit, if it had 
been twixt Tenants holding of them, then was it commenced 
in their own Courts and determined ; if for the Barony 
itself, then in the King's Court at Westminster, by Writ 
directed to the Sheriff of the next English Shire, adjoining, 
as Glocester, Hereford, and some other. For the King's Writ* 
did not run in Wales as in England, until by Statute the 
Principality was incorporated with the Crown ; as appears 
in an old Report 3 where one was committed for esloigning a 
ward into Wales, extra yotestaicm Regis under Hen. III. 
Afterward Edw. I. 4 made some Shires in it, and altered the 
customs, conforming them in some sort to the English, as in 
the Statute of Ruthlan you have it largely, and under Edw. II. 
to a Parliament 5 at Yorlce were summoned twenty-four out 
of North- Wilts, and as many out of South-Wales. But not- 
withstanding all this, the Marches continued as distinct; and 
in them were, for the most part, those controverted titles, 
which in our Law-annals are referred to Wales. For the 
divided Shires were, as it seems, or should have been sub- 
ject to the English form ; but the particulars hereof are unfit 
tor this room : if you are at all conversant in our law, I send 
you to my margin ; 6 if not, it scarce concerns you. 

1 For the Limits see to the next Song. 

'- \il Const. Fend. '_'. tit. quia dicatur Dux el Jnrisconsulti Bcepius. 

Bui Bee '" Hi'- Ninth Song more particularly. 
• L3. Il> n. :;. tit. Gard. 147. 4 Stat. Etuthland. 12. Ed. 1. 

I l. Ed. '_'. dors, claus. mem. 13. 
,; Vid. is. Ed. •_'. tit, Assi.su 382. 13. Ed. 3. Jurifldict.23. 6. Ih 
b. 34. I- Ed. 3. f. 14. et Bsepiua in annalibua Juris nostri. 



THE SEVENTH SONG. 185 
the higre icildhj raves. 



This violence of the waters' madness, declared by" the 
Author, is so expressed in an old Monk, 1 which about four 
hundred years since, says it was called the Higre in English. 
To make more description of it, were but to resolve the 
Author's poem. 

33. Within her hollow woods the Satyrs that did icon. 

By the Satyrs ravishing the Sea-Nymphs into this mari- 
time Forest of Deane (lying between Wye and Severnc in 
Glocester), with Severne's suit to Neptune, and his provision 
of remedy, you have, poetically described, the rapines which 
were committed along that shore, by such as lurked in these 
shady receptacles, which he properly titles Satyrs, that name 
coming from an Eastern* root, signifying to hide, or lie hid, 
as that all-knowingt Isaac Casaubon hath at large (among 
other his immeasurable benefits to the state of learning) 
taught us. The English were also ill-intreated by the Welsh 
in their passages here, until by Act of Parliament remedy 
was given ; as you may see in the Statute's 2 preamble, which 
satisfies the fiction. 

53. Whilst Malverne King of Hills fair Severn e overlooks. 

Hereford and Worcester are by these hills seven miles in 
length confined; and rather, in respect of the adjacent vales, 
than the hill's self, understand the attribute of excellency. 
Upon these is the supposed Vision of Piers I ''""■/nun, done, as 
is thought, by Robert Langland, 3 a Shropshire man, in a kind 
of English metre : which for discovery of the infecting cor- 
ruptions of those times, I prefer before many more seemingly 

1 (riiil. Malmesbur. lib. 4. de Gest Pontiticum. * -inc. 

t TlavnTiorinxioi'. lib. de Satyra. Merit" indigetatur hoc epitheto 
doctissimus a doctissimo Dan. Beinsio in annot. ail Boratmm. 

'-' Stat. *.>. llui. ti. cap. ,">. 3 About time of Edward 111. 



186 



POLY-OLB. 



serious invectives, as well for invention as judgment. But 
I have read that the author's name was John Malverne, a 
Fellow of Oriel College in Oxford, who finished it in xvi. 
Edw. III. 

las. As there tK Apulian fleece, or dainty Tarentine. 

In Apuglia and the upper Calabria of Italy, the Wool hath 
been ever famous for finest excellence : l insomuch that for 
preserving it from the injury of earth, bushes, and weather, 
the shepherds used to clothe their sheep with skins ; and 
indeed was so chargeable in these and other kind of pains 
about it, that it scarce requited cost. 

is7. himself in two did rive. 

Alluding to a prodigious division of Marcly hill, in an 
earthquake of late time f which most of all was in these 
parts of the Island. 

1 Varr. tie Re Paistic. 2. cap. 2. ; Columell. lib. 7. cap. 4. 2 1575. 




THE EIGHTH SONG. 



The Argument. 

The goodly Severne bravely sings 

The noblest of her British Kings ; 

At Ca?sar's landing what we were, 

And of the Roman Conquests here: 

Then shows, to her dear Britons' fame, 

How quickly christned they became; 

And of their constancy doth boast, 

In sundry fortunes strangely tost: 

Then doth the Saxons' landing tell, 

And how by th m the Britons fell ; 10 

Cheers the Salopian Mountains high, 

That on the West of Severne lie : 

Calls down each Riveretfrom her spring, 

Their Queen upon her way to bring : 

Whom down to Bru&e the Muse atU rids: 

Where, leaving her, this Sony she ends. 

Salop when herself clear Sabrine comes to show, 
And wisely her bethinks the way she had to go, 
South-westward casts her course; and with an 
amorous eye 
Those Countries whence she came, survey eth (passing by) 
Those lands in ancient times old Cambria claim'd her due, 5 
For refuge Avhen to her th' oppressed Britons Hew ; 




188 POLY-OLBION, 

By England now usurp'd, who (past the wonted meres, 
Her sure and sovereign banks) had taken sundry Sheeres, 
Which she her Marches made : whereby those Hills of fame 
And Rivers' stood disgrac'd ; accounting it their shame, 10 
§ That all without that Mound which Mercian Offa cast 
To run from North to South, athwart the Cambrian waste, 
Could England not suffice, but that the straggling Wye, 
"Winch in the heart of Wales was sometime said to lye, 
Now only for her bound proud England did prefer. is 

That Severn/-, when she sees the wrong thus off'red her, 
Though by injurious Time deprived of that place 
Which anciently she held : yet loth that her disgrace 
Should on the Britons light, the Hills and Rivers near 
Austerely to her calls, commanding them to hear ->o 

In her dear children's right (their ancestors of yore, 
Now thrust betwixt herself, and the Vinjician shore, 
§ "Who drave the Giants hence that of the earth were bred, 
And of the spacious Isle became the sovereign head) 
What from authentic books she liberally could say. 25 

Of which whilst she bethought her, Westward every way, 
The Mountains, Floods, and Meres, to silence them betake : 
When Sererne lowting low, thus gravely them bespake : 

How mighty was that man, and honour'd still to be, 
That gave this Isle his name, and to his children three so 
Three Kingdoms in the same ! which, time doth now deny, 
With his arrival heir, and primer monarchy. 

Lo'egria? though thou canst thy Locrme eas'ly lose, 
Yet Camnbria? him, whom Fate her ancient Founder chose, 
In no wise will forego ; nay, should Albania 3 leave 35 

§ Her Albanact for aid, and to tin- Scythian cleave. 
And though remorseless Home, which first did us enthrall, 
As barbarous but esteem'd, and stick'd not so to call; 

1 England, " Wales. 3 Scotland. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 189 

The ancient Britons yet a sceptred King obey'd 

§ Three hundred years before Rome's great foundation laid ; 40 

And had a thousand years an Empire strongly stood, 

Ere Cccsar to her shores here stemm'd the circling flood ; 

§ And long before, borne arms against the barbarous Hun, 

Here landing with intent the Isle to over-run : 

And following them in flight, their General Humber drown'd 

In that great arm of sea, by his great name renown'd ; 45 

And her great Builders had, her Cities who did rear 

With Fanes unto her Gods, and Flamins 1 everywhere. 

Nor Troynovant alone a City long did stand ; 

But after, soon again by Ebrank's pow'rful hand 50 

Yorke lifts her Towers aloft : which scarcely finish'd was, 

But as they, by those Kings ; so by Rudhudibras, 

Kent's first and famous Town, 1 with Winchester, arose : 

And other, others built, as they fit places chose. 

So Britain to her praise, of all conditions brings ; 
The warlike, as the wise. Of her courageous Kings, 
Brute Gr< 1 - 'Meld: to whose name we providence impute, 
Divinely to revive the Land's first Conqueror, Brute. 

So had she those were learn'd, endu'd with nobler parts : 
As, he from learned Greece, that (by the liberal Arts) 
§ To Stamford, in this Isle, seem'd Athens to transfer; 
Wise Blaclud, of her Kings that great Philosopher; 
Who found our boiling Baths ; and in his knowledge high, 
Disdaining human paths, here practised to fly. 

Of justly- vexed Leire, and those who last did tug 
In worse than civil war, the sons 3 of Gorboibi<j 
(By whose unnatural strife the Land so long was tost) 
I cannot stay to tell, nor shall my Britain boast ; 
But, of that man which did her Monarchy restore, 
Her first imperial Crown of gold that ever wore, 70 

' 1'riests among idolatrous Gfentilee. Cant* rbury. 

:i F* rrex ami /'•■ 



190 POLY-OLBION, 

And that most glorious type of sovereignty regain'd ; 
Mvlmuiius: who this Land in such estate maintain' d 
As his great bel-sire Brute from Albion's heirs it won. 

§ This grand-child, great as he, those four proud Streets 
begun 
That each way cross this Isle, and bounds did them allow. : 
Like privilege he lent the Temple and the Plow : 
So studious was this Prince in his most forward zeal 
To the Celestial power, and to the Public weal. 

Belinus he begot, who Dacia proud subdu'd ; 
And Brennus, 1 who abroad a worthier war pursu'd, so 

Asham'd of civil strife ; at home here leaving all : 
And with such goodly Youth, in Germany and Gaul 
As he had gather'd up, the Alpine Mountains pass'd 
And bravely on the banks of fatal Allia chas'd 
The Romans (that her stream distained with their gore) 85 
And through proud Rome, display'd his British ensign bore: 
§ There, balancing his sword against her baser gold, 
The Senators for slaves he in her Forum sold. 
At last, by pow'r expell'd, yet proud of late success, 
His forces then for Gi-eece did instantly address; 90 

And marching with his men upon her fruitful face, 
Made Macedon first stoop; then Thessaly, and Thrace; 
His soldiers there enrich'd with all Peonia's spoil ; 
And where to Greece he gave the last and deadliest foil, 
In that most dreadful fight, on that more dismal day, 
O'erthrew their utmost prowess at sad Tkermopyla . 
And daring of her Gods, adventur'd to have ta'en 
Those sacred things enshrin'd in wise Apollo's Fane: [word, 
To whom when thund'ring Eeav< a pronounc'd her fearfull'.-t 
§ Against the J>i/j>/iiu/i Power he shak'd his ireful sword. 100 

As of the British blood, the native Ccmbri here 
(So of my Cambria call'd) those valiant Cymbri were 

1 Belinus ;iml Brennus. 



TIIE EIGHTH SONG. 101 

(When Britain with her brood so peopled had her seat. 

The soil could nob suffice, it daily grew so great) 

Of Demnarke who themselves did anciently possess, 105 

And to that strait'ned point, that utmost chersoness, 

§ My Country's name bequeath'd; whence Cymbrica it took: 

Yet long were not compris'd within that little nook, 

But with those Ahiuiine pow'rs this people issued forth : 

And like some boist'rous wind arising from the North, no 

Came that unwieldy host ; that, which way it did move, 

The very burthenous earth before it seem'd to shove, 

And only meant to claim the Universe its own. 

In this terrestrial Globe, as though some world unknown, 

By pampered Nature's store too prodigally fed 115 

(And surfeiting there-with) her surcrease vomited, 

These roaming up and down to seek some settling room, 

First like a deluge fell upon lllyricum, 

And with his Roman pow'rs Papyrius over-threw ; 

Then, by great Belus* brought against those Legions, slew 120 

Their forces which in France Aurelius Scaurus led ; 

And afterward again, as bravely vanquished 

The Consuls Ccepio and stout Manlius, on the Plain, 

Where Rhodanus was red with blood of Latins slain. 

In greatness next succeeds Belinus worthy son. 
Gurgustus : who soon left what his great Father won, 
To Giujnteline his heir : whose Queen, 1 beyond her kind, 
In her great husband's peace, to shew her upright mind, 
§ To wise Molmutitts' laws, her Martian first did frame : 
From which we ours derive, to her eternal fame. 130 

So Britain forth with these, that valiant Bastard brought, 

Morindus, Danius' son, which with that Monster 2 fought 

Bis subjects that devour'd ; to shew himself again 

Their Martyr, who by them selected was to reign. 

* A great General of those Northern Nations. 1 Martia 

2 A certain Monster often issuing from ^the Sea, devoured divers 
of the British people. 



192 POLY-OLBION, 

So Britain likewise boasts her Elidure the just, 130 

Who with his people was of such especial trust, 
That (Archigallo fall'u into their general hate, 
And by their powerful hand depriv'd of kingly state) 
Unto the Eegal Chair they Elidure advanc'd : 
But long he had not reign'd, ere happily it chanc'd, 140 

In hunting of a hart, that in the forest wild, 
The late deposed King, himself who had exil'd 
From all resort of men, just Elidure did meet; 
Who much unlike himself at Elidurus' feet, 
Him prostrating with tears, his tender breast so strook, 14;, 
That he (the British rule who lately on him took 
At th' earnest people's pray'rs) him calling to the Court, 
There Archigallo s wrongs so lively did report, 
Eelating (in his right) his lamentable case, 
With so effectual speech imploiing their high grace, 150 

That him they re-inthron'd ; in peace who spent his days. 

Then Elidure again, crown'd with applausive praise, 
As he a brother rais'd, by brothers was depos'd, 
And put into the Tow'r : where miserably inclos'd, 
Out-living yet their hate, and the Usurpers dead, 1 ie 

Thrice had the British Crown set on his reverend head. 

When more than thirty Kings in fair succession came 
Unto that mighty Lud, in whose eternal name 
§ Great London still shall live (by him rebuilded) while 
To Cities she remains the Sovereign of this Isle. ico 

Aim! when commanding Rome to Ccesar gave tin; chi 
Her Empire (but too great) still further to enlarge 
With all beyond the Alps ; the aids he found to pass 
From these parts into Gaul, shew'd here some Nation was 
Undaunted that remain'd with Rome's so dreadful name, m 
That durst presume to aid those she decreed to tame. 
Wherefore that matchless man, whose high ambition wrought 
Beyond her Empire's bounds, by shipping wisely sought 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 193 

(Here prowling on the shores) this Island to descry, 
What people her possess'd, how fashion'd she did lie : ito 
Where scarce a stranger's foot defil'd her virgin breast, 
Since her first Conqueror Brute here put Ins powers to rest ; 
Only some little boats, from Gaul that did her feed 
With trifles, which she took for niceness more than need : 
But as another world, with all abundance blest, irs 

And satisfied with what she in herself possest ; 
Through her excessive wealth (at length) till wanton grown, 
Some Kings (with other lands that would enlarge their own) 
By innovating arms an open passage made 
For him that gap'd for all (the Roman) to invade. iso 

Yet with grim-visag'd war when he her shores did greet, 
And terriblest did threat with his amazing fleet, 
Those British bloods he found, his force that durst assail, 
And poured from the cleeves their shafts like show'rs of hail 
Upon his helmed head ; to tell him as he came, lss 

That they (from all the world) yet feared not his name : 
Which their undaunted spirits soon made that Conqueror 

feel, 
Oft vent' ring their bare breasts 'gainst his oft-bloodied steel ; 
And in their chariots charg'd : which they with wondrous 

skill 
Could turn in their swift'st course upon the. steepest hill, 190 
And wheel about his troops for vantage of the ground, 
Or else disrank his force where entrance might be found : 
And from their armed seats their thrilling darts could throw ; 
Or nimbly leaping down, their valiant swords bestow, 
And with an active skip remount themselves again, i" 

Leaving the Roman horse behind them on the plain, 
And beat him back to Gaul his forces to supply ; 
As they the Gods of Rome and Caesar did defy. 

Cassibalan renown'd, the Britons' faithful guide, 
Who when th' Italian pow'rs could no way be denied, 200 

vol. 1. 13 



194 POLY-OLBION, 

But would this Isle subdue ; their forces to fore-lay, 
Thy forests thou didst fell, their speedy course to stay : 
§ Those arm6d stakes in Tames that stuck'st, their horse to 
Which boldly durst attempt to forage on thy shore ; [gore 
Thou such hard entrance here to Ccesar didst allow, 205 

To whom (thyself except) the Western world did bow. 
§ And more than Ccesar got, three Emperors could not win, 
Till the courageous sons of our Cunobt I'm 
Sunk under Plailtius' sword, sent hither to discuss 
The former Roman right, by arms again, with us. 210 

Nor with that Consul join'd, Vespasian could prevail 
In thirty several fights, nor make them stoop their sail. 
Yea, had not his brave son, young Titus, past their hopes, 
His forward Father fetch'd out of the British troops, 
And quit him wondrous well when he was strougly charg'd, 
His Father (by his hands so valiantly enlarg'd) aw 

Had never more seen Rome ; nor had he ever spilt 
The Temple that wise son of faithful David built, 
►Subverted those high walls, and laid that City waste 
Which God, in human flesh, above all other grac'd. 220 

No marvel then though Rome so great her conquest thought, 
In that the Isle of Wight she to subjection brought, 
Our Belgce * and subdued (a people of the "West) 
That latest came to us, our least of all the rest ; 
When Claudius, who that time her wreath-imperial wore, 225 
Though scarce he shew'd himself upon our Southern shore, 
It scorn' d not in his style ; but, due to that his praise, 
Triumphal arches clahn'd, and to have yearly plays; 
The noblest naval crown, upon his palace pitch'dj 
As with the Ocean's spoil his Rome who had enrich'd. JoO 

Her Caradock (with cause) so Britain may prefer ; 
Than whom, a braver spirit was ne'er brought forth by her : 

* A people then inhabiting Hamp, Dorset, Will, and Somerset shiree. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 195 

For whilst here in the West the Britons gather'd head, 
This General of the rest, his stout SUv/res 1 led 
Against Ostorius, sent by Ccesar to this place 235 

With Home's high fortune (then the high'st in Fortune's 

grace) 
A long and doubtful war with whom he did maintain, 
Until that hour wherein his valiant Britons slain, 
He grievously beheld (o'erprest with Bormm pow'r) 
Himself well-near the last their wrath did not devour. 240 
When (for revenge, not fear) be fled (as trusting most, 
Another day might win, what this had lately lost) 
To Cartismandua, Queen of Brigants 2 for her aid, 
He to his foes, by her, most falsely was betray'd. 
Who, as a spoil of war, t' adorn the Triumph sent 215 

To great Ostorius due, when through proud Borne he went, 
That had herself prepar'd (as she had all been eyes) 
Our Caradock to view j who in his country's guise, 
§ Came with bis body nak'd, bis hair down to his waist, 
G irt with a chain of steel ; his manly breast inchas'd 250 
With sundry shapes of beasts. And when this Briton saw 
His wife and children bound as slaves, it could not awe 
His manliness at all : but with a settled grace, 
Undaunted with her pride, he look'd her in the face : 
And with a speech so grave as well a prince became, 255 
Himself and his redeem'd, to our eternal fame. 

Then Rome's great Tyrant* next, the last's adopted heir, 
That brave Suetonius sent, the British coasts to clear ; 
The utter spoil of Mon? who strongly did pursue 
Unto whose gloomy strengths, th' revolted Britons flew) ;6o 
There ent'ring, be beheld what strook him pale with dread ; 
The frantic British froes, their hair dishevelled, 

1 Those of Monmouth, and the adjacent Shires. 

2 Those of Yorkshire, and thereby. * Nero. 

3 Anglesey, the chief place of residence of the Druids. 

16-2 



196 P0LY-0LB10N, 

With fire-brands ran about, like to their furious eyes ; 
And from the hollow woods the fearless Druides ; 
Who with their direful threats, and execrable vows, 265 

Inforc'd the troubled heaven to knit her angry brows. 

And as here in the West the Romans bravely wan, 
So all upon the East the Britons over-ran : 
§ The Colony long kept at Mavldon, overthrown, 
Which by prodigious signs was many times fore-shown, 2V0 
And often had dismay'd the Roman soldiers : when 
Brave / oadicia made with her resolved'st men 
To Firolam 1 ; whose siege with fire and sword she plied, 
Till levell'd with the earth. To London as she hied, 
The Consul coming in with his auspicious aid, a75 

The Queen (to quit her yoke no longer that delay'd) 
Him dar'd by dint of sword, it hers or his to try, 
With words that courage show'd, and with a voice as high 
(In her right hand her launce, and in her left her shield, 
As both the battles stood prepared in the field) 280 

Incouraging her men : which resolute, as strong, 
Upon the Roman rush'd ; and she, the rest among, 
Wades in that doubtful war : till lastly, when she saw 
The fortune of the day unto the Roman draw, 
The Queen (t' out-live her friends who highly did disdain, 
And lastly, for proud Rome a Triumph to remain) 2St> 

§ By poison ends her days, unto that end prepar'd 
As lavishly to spend what Suetonius spar'd. 

Him scarcely Rome recall'd, such glory having won, 
But bravely to proceed, as erst she had begun, 290 

Agrkola, here made her great Lieutenant then : 
Who having settled Mm, that man of all her men, 
Appointed by the powers apparently to see 
The wearied Britons sink, and eas'ly in degree 

1 By Saint Alban's. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 197 

Beneath his fatal sword the Ordovies 1 to fall 2tts 

Inhabiting the West, those people last of all 

Which stoutl'est him with-stood, renown'd for martial worth. 

Thence leading on his powers unto the utmost North. 
"When all the Towns that lay betwixt our Trent and 7> 
Suffic'd not (by the way) his wasteful fires to feed, 300 

He there some Britons found, who (to rebate their spleen, 
As yet with grieved eyes our spoils not having seen) 
Him at Mount Grampus 2 met: which from his height beheld 
Them lavish of their lives ; who could not be compell'd 
The Roman yoke to bear : and Galgams their guide 305 

Amongst his murthered troops there resolutely died. 

Eight Roman Emperors reign'd since first that war began ; 
Great Julius Co?sar first, the last Domitian. 
A hundred thirty years the Northern Britons still, 
That would in no wise stoop to Rome's imperious will, 310 
Into the strait'ned land with theirs retired far, 
In laws and manners since from us that different are ; 
And with the Irish Pi>1, which to their aid they drew 
(On them oft breaking in, who long did them pursue) 
§ A greater to us in our own bowels bred, 315 

Than Rome, Avith much expense that us had conquert'-d. 

And when that we great Rome's so much in time were 
grown, 
That she her charge durst leave to Princes of our own, 
(Such as, within ourselves, our suffrage should elect) 
§ Arviragus, born ours, here first she did protect; 320 

Who faithfully and long, of labour did her ease. 

Then he, our Flamins' seats who turn'd to Bishops' sees 
Great Lucius, that good King : to whom we chiefly owe 
§ This happiness we have, Christ Crucified to know. 

As Britain to her praise receiv'd the Christian faith, 325 
After (that Word-made Man) our dear Bedeemer's death 
1 Xorth-wales men. s In the midst of Scotland. 



198 POLY-OLBION, 

"Within two hundred years ; and His Disciples here, 
By their Great Master sent to preach Him everywhere, 
Most reverently receiv'd, their doctrine and preferr'd ; 
Interring him, who 1 erst the Son of God interr'd. 330 

So Britain's was she born, though Italy her crown'd, 
Of all the Christian world that Empress most renown'd, 
§ Constantius' worthy wife ; who scorning worldly loss, 
Herself in person went to seek that Sacred Cross, 
"Whereon our Saviour died : which found, as it was sought, 
From Salem? unto Rome triumphantly she brought. 33c 

As when the Primer Church her Councils pleas'd to call, 
Great Britain's Bishops there were not the least of all ; 
§ Against the Arian Sect at Aries having room, 
At Sardica again, and at Ariminwm. 340 

Now, when with various fate five hundred years had past, 
And Borne of her great charge grew weary here at last ; 
The Vandals, Goths, and Huns, that with a powerful head 
All Italy and France had well-near over-spread, 
To much endanger'd Borne sufficient warning gave, 345 

Those forces that she held, within herself to have. 
The Roman rule from us then utterly remov'd. 

Whilst, we, in sundry Fields our sundry fortunes prov'd 
With the remorseless Pict, still wasting us with war. 
And 'twixt the froward sire, licentious / r ortiger, 350 

And his too froward son, young Vortimer, arose 
Much strife within ourselves, whilst here they interpose 
By turns each other's reigns ; whereby, we weak'ned grew- 
The warlike Saxon then into the land we drew ; 
A nation nurs'd in spoil, and fitt'st to undergo 366 

Our cause against the Pict, our most inveterate foe. 

When they, which we had liii'd for Boldiers to the shore, 
Perceiv'd the wealthy Isle to wallow in her store, 

1 Joseph of Arimati ' Jtrusalem. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 199 

And subtly had found out how we infeebled were ; 
They, under false pretence of amity and cheer, soo 

The British Peers invite, the German healths to view 
At Stonehenge ; where they them unmercifully slew. 

Then, those of Brute's great blood, of Armor let possest, 
Extremely griev'd to see their kinsmen so distrest, 
Us off'red to relieve, or else with us to die : 36» 

We, after, to requite their noble curtesie, 
§ Eleven thousand maids sent those our friends again, 
In wedlock to be link'd with them of Brute's high strain ; 
That none with Brute's great blood, but Britons might be 

mixt : 
Such friendship ever was the stock of Troy betwixt. 370 

Out of whose ancient race, that warlike Arthur sprong : 
Whose most renowned Acts shall sounded be as long 
As Britain's name is known : which spread themselves so wide, 
As scarcely hath for fame left any roomth beside. 

My Wales, then hold thine own, and let thy Britons stand 
Upon their right ; to be the noblest of the land. 370 

Think how much better 'tis, for thee, and those of thine, 
From Gods, and Heroes old, to draw your famous line, 
§ Than from the Scythian poor ; whence they themselves 

derive 
Whose multitudes did first you to the mountains drive. 380 
Nor let the spacious Mound 1 of that great Mercian King 
(Into a lesser roomth thy burliness to bring) 
Include thee ; when myself, and my dear brother Dee, 1 
By nature were the bounds first limited to thee. [near, 

Scarce ended she her speech, but those great Mountains 
Upon the Cambrian part that all for Brutus were, -s*?. 

With her high truths inflam'd, look'd every one about 
To find their several Springs ; and bade them get them out, 

1 The ancient bounds of Wales. 



200 P0LY-0LBI0N, 

And in their fulness wait upon their sovereign Flood, 

In Britain's ancient right so bravely that had stood. 390 

When first the furious Teame, that on the Cambrian side 
Doth Shropshire as a meere from Hereford divide, 
As worthiest of the rest ; so worthity doth crave 
That of those lesser Brooks the leading she might have ; 
The first of which is Chin, that to her mistress came ; 395 
"Which of a Forest * born that bears her proper name, 
Unto the Golden Vale and anciently allied, 
Of everything of both, sufficiently supplied, 
The longer that she grows, the more renown doth win : 
And for her greater state, next Brad/kid bringeth in, 400 
Which to her wider banks resigns a weaker stream. 

When fiercely making forth, the strong and lusty Teame 
A friendly Forest-Nymph (nam'd Mocktry) doth imbrace, 
Herself that bravely bears; twixt whom and Bringwood-Chase, 
Her banks with many a wreath are curiously bedeckt, 405 
And in their safer shades they long-time her protect. 

Then takes she Oney in, and forth from them doth fling : 
When to her further aid, next Boire, and Warren, bring 
< Hear Quenny; by the way, which Stradbrooke up doth take : 
By whose united powers, their Teame they mightier make : 
Which in her lively course to Ludlowe comes at last, 411 
"Wit to Carre into her stream herself doth head-long cast. 
With due attendance next, comes Lcdvieh and the lUica. 

Then speeding her, as though sent post unto the Sea, 
Her native Shropshire leaves, and bids those Towns adieu, ir. 
Her only sovereign Queen, proud Sevcrnr to pursue. 

When at her going-out, those Mountains of command 
(The Clecs, like loving twins, and Stitterston that stand) 
Trans-Severn6d, behold fair England tow'rds the rise, 
And on their setting side, how ancient Cambria lies. 420 

* Clun Forest. 



THE EIGHTH SOXG. 201 

Then Stipperston a hill, though not of such renown 
As many that are set here tow'rds the going down, 
To those his own allies, that stood not far away, 
Thus in behalf of Wales directly seem'd to say : 

Dear Corndon, my delight, as thou art lov'd of me, 425 
And Breedon, as thou hop'st a Briton thought to be, 
To Cortock strongly cleave, as to our ancient friend, 
And all our utmost strength to Cambria let us lend. 
For though that envious Time injuriously have wrong 
From us those proper names did first to us belong, 430 

Yet for our Country still, stout Mountains let us stand. 

Here, every neighbouring Hill held up a willing hand, 
As freely to applaud what Stipperston decreed : 
And Hockstow when she heard the Mountains thus proceed, 
"With echoes from her Woods, her inward joys exprest, 435 
To hear that Hill she lov'd which likewise lov'd her best, 
Should in the right of Wales, his neighbouring Mountains 

stir, 
So to advance that place which might them both prefer ; 
That she from open shouts could scarce herself refrain. 

When soon those other Rills to Severne which retain, 440 
And 't ended not on Tea me, thus of themselves do show 
The service that to her they absolutely owe. 
First Camlet cometh in, a Mowdgomerim maid, 
Her source in Severne 's banks that safely having laid, 
Mele, her great Mistress, next at Shrewsbury doth meet, 445 
To see with what a grace she that fair Town doth greet ; 
Into what sundry gyres her wondered self she throws, 
And oft in-isles the shore, as wantonly she flows ; 
Of it oft taking leave, oft turns it to imbrace ; 
As though she only were enamour'd of that place, 4»» 

Her fore-intended course determined to leave, 
And to that mostdov'd Town eternally to cleave : 
With much ado at length, yet bidding it adieu, 



£02 



P0LY-0LBI0K. 



Her journey towards the Sea doth seriously pursue. 
"Where, as along the shores she prosperously doth sweep, 455 
Small Marbrooke maketh-in, to her inticing deep. 
And as she lends her eye to Bruge's* lofty sight, 
That Forest-Nymph mild Morffe doth kindly her invite 
To see within her shade what pastime she could make : 
"Where she, of Shropshire; I my leave of Severne take. 4co 

* Briuje-Xorth. 




ILLUSTRATIONS. 




TILL are you in the Welsh March, and the Choro- 
graphy of this Song includes itself, for the most, 
within Shropshire s part over Severne. 

11. That all without the Mound that Mercian Offa cast. 

Of the Marches in general you have to the next before. 
The 1 particular bounds have been certain parts of Dee, Wye, 
Severne, and Offals Dike. The ancientest is Severne, but a 
later is observed in a right line from StrigoU-Castle* upon 
Wye, to Chester upon Dee, which was so naturally a Mere 
between these two Countries Wales and England, that by 
apparant change of its channel towards either side supersti- 
tious judgment was used to be given of success in the fol. 
lowing year's battles of both nations ; whence perhaps came 
it to be called Holy Dee, as the Author also often uses. 
Twixt the mouths of Dee and Wye in this line (almost one 
hundred miles long) was that Offo'si Dike cast, after such 
time as he had besides his before-possessed Mercland, ac- 
quired by conquest even almost what is now England. King 

1 Caradoc Lhanearvan in Conan Tindaethwy. Girald. Itinerar. 2. 
cap. 11. et Descript. cap. 15. 
* By Chep8tOW in Monmouth. 

t UauBJ)-Offa. See to the Tenth Song for Dee. A.D. ISO. 



204 POLY-OLBION, 

Harold 1 made a law, that whatsoever Welsh transcended this 
Dike with any kind of weapon should have, upon apprehen- 
sion, his right hand cut off; Athelsian after conquest of 
Hoicel Dha, King of Wales, made Wye limit of North-Wales, 
as in regard of his chief territory of West Saxony (so affirms 
Malmesbury), which well-understood impugns the opinion 
received for Wye's being a general Mere instituted by him, 
and withal shows you how to mend the Monk's published 
text, where you read Ludwalum regem omnium U'aUensium, 
et Constantinvm regem Scotorum, ceclere regnis compulit* For 
plainly this hudwal (by whom he means Hoicel Dim, in other 
Chronicles called Huwal) in ^///aV.^M's lifetime was not King 
of all Wales, but only of the South and Western parts with 
Poiois, his cousin Edwatt Voel then having North-Wales; 
twixt which and the part of Howell conquered, this limit 
was proper to distinguish. Therefore either read Occident a- 
liv/m WaUensiumf (for in Florence of Worcester and Uoger of 
Hoveden that passage is with OccidentaVium Britonnum%) or 
else believe that Malmesbury mistook Hoicel to be in Athel- 
staii s time, as he was after his death, sole Prince of all 
Wales. In this conjecture I had aid from Lhancarvan's His- 
tory, which in the same page (as learned Lhuid's edition in 
English is) says, that Athelstan made the Kiver Cainbia§ the 
frontier towards Cornwall ; but there, in requital, I correct 
him, and read Tambra, i.e., Tamar, dividing Devonshire and 
Cornwall; as Malmesbury hath it expressly, and the matter- 
self enough persuades. 

23. Who drove the Giants hence, that of the earth were bred. 

Somewhat of the Giants to the First Song ; fabulously 

1 Higden. in Folyclmmic. 1. cap. 43. 

* Ho compelled Lvdwall E£ing "t' All Wales, ami Constantine King 

of Srots to leave their Crowns. Emendatio Historiaj Malniesburien- 
sis. lib. 2. cap. (i. 

f West-Wales. 926. 

% West-Britons. < 'aratacus Lancarbeusis in Edwa.ll. Voel Correctua. 

§ Cambulaii or L'aind. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 205 

supposed begotten by Spirits upon Dioclesian's or Dan 
daughters. But here the Author aptly terms them bred of 
the earth, both for that the antiquities of the Gentiles made 
the first inhabitants of most countries as produced out of 
the soil, calling them Aborigines and Avro^dovsg, as also for 
imitation of those epithets of Trfytvug, and ILjXoyoW among 
the Greeks, Term filii among the Latins, the very name of 
Giants being thence' 2 derived, — 

Ovvixa yrjC, eyevovro xu! ai/Marog ovoccvioio. 

Which misconceit I shall think abused the Heathen upon 
their ill-understanding of Adam's creation 3 and allegoric 
greatness, touched before out of Jewish Fiction. 

36. Her Albanact ; for aid, and to the Scythian cleave. 

Britain's tripartite division by Brute's three sons, Logrin, 
Comber and Albanact, whence all beyond Seveme was styled 
Cambria, the now England Loegria, and Scotland Albania, is 
hero showed you : which I admit, but as the rest of that 
nature, upon credit of our suspected Stories followed with 
sufficient justification by the Muse ; alluding here to that 
opinion which deduces the Scots and their name from the 
Scythians. Arguments of this likelihood have you largely in 
our most excellent Antiquary. I only add, that by tradition 
of the Scythians themselves, they had very anciently a gene- 
ral name, titling them Scolots 4 (soon contracted into Scots), 
whereas the Grecians called the Northern all Scythians, 5 per- 
haps the original of that name being from Shooting ; for 
which they were especially through the world famous, as 
you may see in most passages of their name in old Poets ; 

1 Callirnach. in Hymn. Jovis. 

s Orpheus ap. Nat. Com. Mytholog. 6. cap. 21. 

* Because they were bred of earth, and the dew of heaven. 
3 mix terra. * Herodot. Melpomene. & 

* Ephor. ap. Strab. a. See to the Fourth Son^. 



206 P0LY-0LBI0N, 

and that Luriaris title of Toxaris, is, as if you should say, an 
Archer. For, the word shoot being at first of the Teutonic 
(which was very likely dispersed largely in the Northern 
parts) anciently was written nearer Schyth, as among other 
testimonies, the name of Scyte jinjeji, 1 i.e., the shooting finger, 
for the forefinger among our Saxons. 2 

40. Three hundred years before Rome's great foundation laid. 
Take this with latitude : for between /Eneas Sylvius King 
of the Latins, under whose time Brute is placed, to Numitor, 
in whose second year Rome was built, intercedes above 
three hundred and forty, and with such difference under- 
stand the thousand until Ccesar. 

43. And long before borne arms against the barbarous Hun. 

Our stories tell you of Humber King of Huns (a people, 
that being Scythian, lived about those parts 3 which you now 
call Mar delle Zabach) his attempt and victory against Alba- 
nact, conflict with Logrin, and death in this River, from 
whence they will the name. Distance of his country, ami 
the unlikely relation weakens my historical faith. Observe 
you also the first transmigration of the Huns, mentioned by 
Procopius, Agathias, others, and you will think this very 
different from truth. And well could 1 think by conjectine 
(with a great Antiquary 4 ) that the name was first (or thence 
derived) #)<iln-cn or £lber, A ' which in British, as appears by 
the names Abergevenni, Abertewi, Aberhodni, signifying the, 
fall of the River Gevenni, Tewi, Rhodni, is as much as a 
River's "mouth in English, and lits itself specially, in that 

1 Iu tm Scyce forsan reliquiajv ocabuli r-urp, i.e., arcw, et puncto- 
rumvariatione, Sagittarius. v.Goropium Ueccoselan. b. sive Arua^uiiic. 
: Alured. leg. cap. 40. 
:! Agathias, hl>. t. Meeotidia Palus. 

* Leland. ad Cyg. Cant, in Hull. 

* Abus dictum isthoc iustuarium Ptolemaeo. 
£ Girald. ltiuerar. cap. 2. et 4. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 207 

most of the Yorkshire Rivers here cast themselves into one 
confluence for the Ocean. Thus perhaps was Severne first 
Hafren, and not from the maid there drowned, as you have 
before ; but for that, this no place. 

6i. To Stamford in this Isle scemld, Athens to transfer. 

Look to the Third Song for more of Bladud and his Baths. 
Some testimony is, 1 that he went to Athens, brought thence 
with him four Philosophers, and instituted by them a Uni- 
versity at Stanford in Lincolnshire ; But, of any persuading 
credit I find none. Only of later time, that profession of 
learning was there, authority is frequent. For when through 
discording parts among the Scholars (reigning Ed. III.) a 
division in Oxford was into the Northern and Southern faction, 
the Northern (before under Hen. III. also was the like to 
Northampton) made secession to this Stamford, and there 
professed, until upon humble suit by Robert of Stratford, 
Chancellor of Oxford, the King' 2 by edict, and his own pre- 
sence, prohibited them ; whence, afterward, also was that 
Oath taken by Oxford Graduates, that they should not pro- 
fess at Stamford. White of Basingstoke otherwise guesses at 
the cause of this difference, making it the Pelagian heresy, 
and of more ancient time, but erroneously. Unto this refer 
that supposed prophecy of Merlin : — 

Doctrinal studium quod nunc viget ad Vada Bourn* 
Antefinem scecli celebrabitur ad Vada Saxi.t 

Which you shall have Englished in that solemnized marriage 
of Thames and Medway, by a most admired Muse 3 of our 
nation, thus with advantage. 

1 Merlin. apu<l Hard. cap. 2.">. ex iisdem et Bal ens. 

* Jo. Cai. Antiq. (.'ant. "J. Br. Twin. lib. 3. Apo og. Oxon. jj. 1 15, et 
seqq. * Oxen-ford. t Stamford. 

* Spens. Faery Q. lib. 4. Cant. 11. Stanz. 35. 



208 POLY-OLBION, 

And after him thefatall Welland ivent, 
That, if old saives prove true (which God forbid) 
Shall droicne all Holland* ivith his excrement, 
And shall see Stamford, though now homely hid, 
Then shine in learning more than ever did 
Cambridge or Oxford, England's goodly beanies. 

Nor can you apply this but to much younger time than 
Bladud's reign. 

74. As he those four proud Streets began. 

Of them you shall have better declaration to the Six- 
teenth Song. 

87. There balancing his sword against her baser gold. 

In that story, of Brennus and his Gauls taking Rome, is 
affirmed, that by Senatory authority P. Sulpitius (as a Tri- 
bune) was Committee to transact with the enemy for leaving 
the Roman territory ; the price was 1 agreed one thousand 
pounds of gold ; unjust weights were offered by the Gauls, 
which Sulpitius disliking, so far were those insolent con- 
querors from mitigation of their oppressing purpose, that 
(as for them all) Brennus to the first unjustice of the balance 
added the poise of his Sword also, whence, upon a murmur- 
ing complaint among the Romans, crying Vce victis,f came 
that to be as proverb applied to the conquered. 

ioo. Against tlie Delphian power yet shak'd his ireful sword. 

Like liberty as others, takes the Author in affirming that 
Brennus, which was General to the Gauls in taking Rome, to 

* The maritime part of Lincolnshire, where, Wetland a River. 

1 l.iv. dec. lil>. 6. ; Plutarch, in Camillo. 

f Win to tin' conqw red. v. vero Stephan. Forcatulum lib. 2. de Gall. 
Phflosoph, qui ba;c inter examinandumfudt, ast cum aliis, in historia 
jp.su lapsus est. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 209 

be the same which overcame Greece, and assaulted the 
Oracle. But the truth of story stands thus : Rome was 
afflicted by one Brennus about the year 1 360 after the build- 
ing, when the Gauls had such a Cadmeian victory of it, that 
fortune converted by martial opportunity, they were at last 
by Camillus so put to the sword, that a reporter of the 
slaughter was not left, as Livy and Plutarch (not impugned 
by Polybius, as Pohjdore hath mistaken) tell us. 2 About one 
hundred and ten years after, were tripartite excursions of 
the Gauls; of an army under Cerethrius into Thrace; of the 
like under Belgius or Bolgius into Macedon and Ilhjricum; of 
another under one Brennus and Acichorius into Pannonia. 
What success Belgius had with Ptolemy, surnamed Khuwog,* 
is discovered in the same authors 3 which relate to us Brennus 
his wasting of Greece, with his violent, but somewhat volun- 
tary, death ; but part of this army, either divided by mutiny, 
or left, after Apollo's revenge, betook them to habitation in" 
Thrace about the now Constantinople, where first under their 
King Comontorius (as Pohjbius, but Livy saith under Lut\ 
and Lorrtnorius, which name perhaps you might correct by 
Polybius) the)' ruled their neighbouring States with imposi- 
tion of tribute, and at last, growing too populous, sent (as 
it seems) those colonies into Asia, which in Gallogrcecia* left 
sullicient steps of their ancient names. My compared classic 
authors 5 will justify as much; nor scarce find I material oppo- 
sition among them in any particulars; only Tragus, epito- 
mized by Justin, is therein, by confusion of time and actions, 

1 Balicarnasa. any. a. ; Liv. •">. 

'-' Vid. Jo. Pris. lJeiens. J list. Brit, qui nimiuin hie errore involatas. 

* Thunderbolt. 3 Pausanias in Phocic. * Strab. lib. ijS. 

'' Polyb. 1. ti, (3, 8. et 9. et Liv. dec. 1. lib. 5. dec. 4. lib. 8.; Strab. 
('.; Pausan, Phocic. l.;Appian. Illyric.j Justin. 1 i 1 » . 24et25.j Plu- 
tarch. Camillo. Cseterum plerisque Delphisinjei b£ i Phoebo grandine 
peremptia, qui fuerunt, reliquoa in . Kiryptuin conductos sub Btipeu- 
diis Ptolemsei Philadelphi meruisse ait vetus Scholiastee Grsec, ad 
Hymn. CctMimach, in Delum. 

VOL. i. 14 



210 POLF-OLBIOX, 

somewhat abused; which hath caused that error of those- 
which take historical liberty (poetical is allowable) to affirm 
Brennus which sacked Rome, and him that died at Delphos, 
the same. Examination of time makes it apparently false ; 
nor indeed doth the British Chronology endure our Brennus 
to be either of them, as Polydore and Buchanan have ob- 
served. But want of the British name moves nothing 
against it ; seeing the people of this Western part were all, 
until a good time after those wars, styled by the name of 
Gauls or Celts; and those which would have ransacked the 
Oracle are said by Callimachus to have come 

Which as well fits us as Gaul. And thus much also observe, 
that those names of Brennus and Belmus, being of great 
note, both in signification and personal eminency ; and, 
likely enough, there being many of the same name in Gaul 
and Britain, in several ages such identity made confusion in 
story. For the first, in this relation appears what variety 
was of it : as also Hrenhtn and Brrmtm in the British are 
but significant words for King; and perad venture almost as 
ordinary a name among these Westerns, as Pharaoh and 
Ptolemy in JEgypt, Agog among tin; Amalekites, Arsaces, 
Nicomedes, Alevada, S<ij>hi, Ccesar, Oiscing, among the Par- 
tkians, Bithynians, Thessalians, Persi and our 

Kentish Kings, which the course of History shows you. For 
the other, yon may see it usual in names of their old Kings, 
as Qassi-Belin in Ccesar, Cuno-Belin and Cym-Belin in Tacitus 
and Dio. and perhaps Cam-Baules in Pausanias, and Belin 
(whose steps seem to be in Abellius 1 a Gaulish, and Beta- 

* From the utmost V. 

1 Veb. [nactdpt. in Cumbria, e\ atrad J< : ad Anson. 1. cap. 

9. etvid. Rhodigin. lib. 17. cap. 28. Plurade Belino, Bive Beleno, i.e., 

. I; kiI 'I'm' Gallico, Pet. Pithaeus Advere. Subsec. lib. I. cap. 3. qui Bele- 

iiiini 77(i(ia tv 'Ko/f-d • i <■ Phoebi epitheton autumat. vide notasCamd. 

nmiamata ; ct dob ad < ant. I \. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. ' 211 

iucadrt a British, God) was the name among them of a wor- 
shipped. Idol, as appears in Ausonius; and the same with 
Apollo, which also by a most ancient British coin, stamped 
with Apollo playing on his Harp, circumscribed with 
C V 'N - B E L I N, is showed to have been expressly 
among the Britons. Although I know, according to their 
use, it might be added to Cuno (which was the first part of 
many of their regal names, as you see in Cuneglas, Cyngeto- 
rix, Congolitan, and others) to make a significant word, as if 
you should say, the yellow King; for Belin in British is yellow: 
But seeing the very name of their Apollo so well-fitted with 
that colour, which to Apollo* is commonly attributed (and 
observe that their names had usually some note of colour in 
them, by reason of their custom of painting themselves) I 
suppose they took it as a fortunate concurrence to bear an 
honored Deity in their title, as we see in the names of 
Merodach and EvU-Merodach among the Babylonian Kings 
from Merodach? one of their false gods; and like examples 
may be found among the old Emperors. Observe also that 
in British genealogies, they ascend always to Belin the Great 
(which is supposed Heli, father-to Lud and Cassibelin) as you 
see to the Fourth Song ; and here might you compare that 
of II el- in the Punk tongue, signifying Phoebus, and turned 
into Belus ; but I will not therewith trouble you. Howso- 
ever, by this I am persuaded (whensoever the time were of 
our Belinus) that Bolgus in Pausanias, and Belgius in Jit 
were mistook for Belinus, as perhaps also Prausus in Strabo 
(it. supplying 3 ofttimes the room of (3.) generated of Brennus 
corrupted. In the story I dare follow none of the modem 
erroneously-transcribing relaters or seeming correctors, but 

* aovOoc WiroWtav. J Jirme. cap. 50. 

- Csel. Ethodig. Antiq. Lect. 1. cap. G. 

3 Eustuth. ad Dionys. Perieg. uti A^n-pn?, di-i rou "A/<£pag et 
N/Jtoi nperavvuai drri roii BptravviKai. 

II 2 



212 POLY-OLBIOX, 

have, as I might, took it from the best self- fountains, and 
only upon them, for trial, I put myself. 

lor. whence Cymbrica it took. 



That Xorthern promontory now Jutland, part of the 
Danish Kingdom, is called in Geographers Cymbrica Cherso- 
, from name of the people inhabiting it. And those 
which will the Cymbrians, Cambrians, or Cumrians, from 
Camber, may. with good reason of consequence, imagine that 
the name of this Chersonese is thence also, as the Author 
here, by liberty of his Muse. But if, with Gorqpius, Camden, 
and other their followers, you come nearer truth and derive 
them from Gomer* son to Japhel, who, with his posterity, 
had the North-western part of the world ; ther^ shall you 
set, as it were, the accent upon Chersonese giving the more 
significant note of the Country ; the name of Cymbrians, 
< 'immerians, Cambrians, and Cv/m/rians, all as one in substance, 
being very comprehensive 1 in these climates ; and perhaps, 
because this promontory lay out so far, under near sixty 
latitude (almost at the utmost of Ptolemy's geo- 
ihy) and so had the first Winter days no longer than 
between five and six hours, therein somewhat (and more 
than other neighbouring parts of that people, having no 
particular name) agreeing with Homer's 2 attribute of dark- 
to the Cimm rians, it had more specially this title. 

129. To wist Molmutius' laws her Martian first did frame. 

Particulars of Molmutius 1 laws, of Church-liberty, freedom 

of ways, husbandry, and divers other, are in the British 
story, affirming also that Q. Martia made a Book of Laws, 

* Transmutation <>f <:. into ft was, anciently, often and esq 
Lip«iiM shews, lib. de pronnnciat. Ling. Latin, cap. !•'!. 
1 Plutarch, in Mario.; ,t ETerodot. lib. <?. 
< Myss. A. 'Hcpi Kni it'pcXy KiKaXvfifiivot. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 213 

translated afterward, and titled by King Alfred M< jtcenlaje. 1 
Indeed it appears that there were three sorts of laws* in 
the Saxon Heptarchy, Mepcen-laje, Daii-laje ^pertraxen-lage 
i.e., tlie Mercian, Danish, and West-Saxon law; all which 
three had their several territories, and were in divers things 
compiled into one volume by Cnut, and examined in that 
Norman constitution of their new Common-wealth. But 
as the Danish and West-Saxon had their name from particu- 
lar people; so it seems, had the Mercian from that Kingdom 
of Mercland, limited with the Lancashire River Mersey to- 
ward Northumberland, and joining to Wales, having either 
from the River that name, or else from the word Manc,t 
because it bounded upon most of the other Kingdoms ; as 
you may see to the Eleventh Song. 

las. in whose eternal name, 



Great London still shall lice- 



King LuoVs re-edifying Troynovant (first built by Brute) 
and thence leaving the name of Caer Lud, afterward turned 
(as they say) into London, is not unknown, scarce to any 
that hath but looked on Ludgate's inner frontispice ; and 
in old rhymes 2 thus I have it expressed : 

vLtlalls+ he (ftc make al abotite anti pates! &p anft tfoun 
3 no after Lud that luas t'S name he dupeoe it Luda towne. 
Cljc hertc pate of the toun that gut fittmt there ano i$ 
?t?e let hit cluptc Ludgate after is clue name iujiss. 
8>c let him tho he to as oeo burie at thulhe gate 
Ojcreuorc put after htm me clupeth tt Ludegate. 

1 Gervas. Tilburiensis de Scaccario. 

* Look to the Eleventh *ong. 

t A limit or bound. - Rob. Glocestrens. 

J But it is aflSrmed that Bang Coil's daughter, mother to Constan- 
tim the Great, walled this first, and Colchester also. Huntingdon 
lib. 1. et Simon Dunelmens. ap. Stow, in notitia Londini. 1 shall 
presently speak of her also. 



214 POLY-OLBION, 

Cfte totm me clupcth tlj a t \i untie rout!) 

3ntf nolu me rlupetl) it London that is lighter in the mouth. 

<3nto new Troy it het eve, anTJ nou it is So ago 

€^I)at London it is nolu iclupeu ano niorth euere mo» 

Judicious reformers of fabulous report I know have more 
serious derivations of the name : and seeing conjecture is 
free, I could imagine, it might be called at first Hhan Sien, 
i.e., the Temple of Diana, as HhansSetoi, lihan j&tephan, 
HLhan $atirni Oauiur, iLhan Hair, i.e., S. Devoy's, S. Stephan's, 
S. Patent the Great, S. Mary ; and V&rulam is by H. Lhwid, 
derived from Oerdhan, i.e., the Church upon the Biver Ver, 
with divers more such places in Wales : and so afterward 
by strangers turned into Londinium, 1 and the like. For, 
that Diana and her brother Apollo (under name of Belin) 
were two great Deities among the Britons, what is read 
next before, Ccesar's testimony of the Gauls; and that she 
had her Temple there where Paul's is, relation in ( 'amden 
discloses to you. Now, that the antique course was to title 
their Cities ofttimes by the name of their power adored in 
them, is plain by Beth-el among the Hebrews, Heliopolis 
(which in Holy Writ 2 is call'd WOtr-nO) in AEgypt, and the 
same in Greece, Phoenicia, elsewhere ; and by Athens named 
from Minerva. But especially from this supposed deity of 
Diana (whom in substance Homer no less gives the epithet 
of 'Egucr/VroA/s* than to Pallas) have divers had their titles : 
as Artemisium in Italy, and Eubcea, and that Bubastis :i in 
AEgypt, so called from the same word, signifying in AEgyptian, 
both a Cat and Diana. 

203. Those armed stakes in Thames 



He means that which now we call Coway stakes by Ole- 

1 London derived. 2 Jirme. cap. 43. comm. ult. 

* Patron of Cities, v. Homer. Hymn. ad. Dian. 
3 Stephan, irtpi 7roA. in BoySjig. Herodo$. lib. (3. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 215* 

lands, where only, the Thames being without boat passable, 
the Britons fixed both on the bank of their side, and in the 
water, sharp 1 stakes, to prevent the Romans coming over ; 
but iu vain, as the stories tell you. 

■207. And more them Caesar got, three Emperors could not win.. 
Understand not that they were resisted by the Britons, 
but that the three successors of Julius, i.e., Augustus, Tibe- 
rius, and Caligula, never so much as with force attempted 
the Isle, although the last after King Cunobelin's son Admi- 
nius his traitorous revolting to him, in a seeming martial 
vehemency, made 2 all arm to the British voyage, but sud- 
denly in the German, shore (where he then was) like him- 
self, turned the design to a jest, and commanded the army 
to gather cockles. 

249. Came with his body nak'd, his hair dozen to his waist. 

In this Caradoc (being the same which at large you have 
in Tacitus and Din, under name of Caratacus and Cataracus 
and is by some Scottish Historians drawn much too far 
Northward) the author expresses the ancient form of a 
Briton's habit. Yet I think not that they were all naked, 
but, as is affirmed 3 of the Gauls, down only to the navel; 
so that on the discovered part might be seen (to the terror 
of their enemies) those pictures of beasts, with which 4 they 
painted themselves. It is justifiable by CcBsar, that they 
used to shave all except their head and upper lip, and wore 
very long hair ; but in their old coins I see no such thing 
warranted : and in later times 5 about 400 years since, it is 
especially attributed to them that they always cut their 
heads close for avoiding Absalon's misfortune. 

1 Bed. lib. 1. cap. 2. 

- Sueton. lil>. 4. cap. 44. et 4(5.; ct Dio Cassius. 

3 Polybiua Hist. y. * Sulin. Polyhist. cap. 3.">. 

Girald. Descript. cap. 10. 



216 POLY-OLBION, 

260. The Colony long kept at Maldon 

Old Historians and Geographers call this Camalodunum, 

which some 1 have absurdly thought to be Camelot in the 
Scottish Shrifedom of Stirling, others have sought it else- 
where : but the English Light of antiquity (Camden) hath 
surely found it at this Maldon in Ess* x, where was a Romish 
Colony, as also at Glocestcr, Chester, York, and perhaps at 
ColcJu sler? which proves expressly (against vulgar allowance) 
that there was a time when in the chiefest parts of this 
Southern Britany the Romzn laws were used, 3 as every one 
that knows the meaning of a Colony (which had all their 
riohts and institutions deduced 4 with it) must confess. This 
was destroyed upon discontentment taken by the Icens and 
Trinobants (now Norfolk, Suffolk, Middlesex, and Essex men) 
for intolerable wrongs done to the wife and posterity of 
Prasutagus King of the Icens by the Romans, b which the 
King (as others in like form) thought, but vainly, to have 
prevented by instituting Nero, then Emperor, his heir. The 
signs, which the Author speaks of, were, a strange, and, as 
it were, voluntary falling down of the Goddess Victory's 
statue, erected by the Romans here ; women, as distracted, 
Binging their overthrow ; the ocean looking bloody ; un- 
couth howlings in their assemblies, and such like. Petilius 
Cerealis, Lieutenant of the Ninth Legion, coming to aid, 
lost all his foot-men, and betook himself with the rest to his 
fortified tents. Lut for this read the history. 

277. By poison end her d<n/.< 

So Tacitus; but Dio, that she died of sickness. Her 

1 Hector. Boet. lib. 3. '-' Antiq. [nscript. Lapidete. et Numm. 

3 V. Fortescut. de laud. Leg. , 17. et Vitum Basingstoch. 

lib. 4. not. 36. ffomewi Lam i used in Britain. 

* Agellius lib. 10. cap. 13. ° Tacitus. Annul. 14.; Dio. lib. £. 



THE EIGll Til SONG. 2 1 7 

name is written diversely Voadicia, Boodicia, Boiahiica, and 
Boudicea : she was wife to Brasutagus, of whom last before. 

305. A greater foe to us in our own bowels bn d. 

Every story 1 of the declining British state w T ill tell you 
what miseries were endured by the hostile irruptions of Scots 
and Bids into the Southern part. For the passage here of 
them, know, that the Scottish stories, which begin their 
continued Monarchic government at Ferguze, affirm the Bids 
(from the Scythian territories) to have arrived in the now 
Jutland, and thence passed into Scotland some 250 years 
after the Scots first entering Britain, which was, by account, 
about 80 years before our Saviour's birth, and thence con- 
tinued these a State by themselves, until King Kenneth 
about 8-40 years after Christ utterly supplanted them. 
Others, as Bede and his followers, make them elder in the 
Isle than the Scots, and fetch them out of Behind ; the ' 
British story (that all may be discords) says, they entered 
Albania under conduct of one Boderic their King (for so 
you must read in Monmouth* and not Bondric, as the print 
in that and much other mistakes) and were valiantly op- 
posed by Marias then King of Britons, Boderic slain, and 
Cathenes given them for habitation. This Marius is placed 
with Vespasian, and the gross differences of time make all 
suspicious • so that you may as well believe none of them, 
as any one. Rather adhere to learned Camden, making the 
Bids very genuine Britons, distinguished only by accidental 
name, as in him you may see more largely. 

1 Pictorum in Britannia (|>ntius I'ictoitnm, ita nam k'uitur) primtte 
meminit Etomanorum Panegyristes ille inter alius, qui Constantinum 
encomiia adloquitur, et, si placet, adeas Humfred. Lhuid. Brev. Brit, 
et Buchanan, ub. 2. Rer. Scotic. ant Camdeni Scotos et Pictos. Rob. 
( rloceatrensi dicuntur ^Jnais. 

* Galfredua Monumethensia correctus, et ibidem vice roS M 
marius lege Vestinaria. 



218 POLY-OLBION, 

sio. Arviragus of ours first taking to protect. 

His marriage with (I know not what) Genissa, daughter 
to Claudius, the habitude of friendship twixt Rome and him., 
after composition with Vespasian then, under the Emperor, 
employed in the British war, the common story relates. 
This is Armitagus, which Juvenal 1 speaks of. Polydore refers 
him to Nero's time, others rightly to Domitian, because in- 
deed the Poet- then flourished. That fabulous Hector Boetius 
makes him the same with Phasuiragus, as he calls him, in 
Tacitus ; he means Prasutagus, having mis-read Tacitus his 
copy. 

::n. This happiness we have Christ Crucified to know. 

Near 180 after Christ (the chronology of Be de herein is 
plainly false, and observe what I told you of that kind to 
the Fourth Song) this Lucius upon request to Pope Eleu- 
therius received at the hands of Fugatius* and Damianus, 
Holy Baptism ; yet so, that by Joseph of Arimathea (of 
whom to the Third Song) seeds of true Religion were here 
before sown : by some I find it, without warrant, 4 affirmed 
that he converted Arviragus, 

&ntt crane him thru a shilde of Silucr white, 
!H Crosse 5 enfclonrr anD ouci tijroart full perfect, 
Q[l)t$t armed lucre uSctf through, all Britatne 
Jfor a common Signe cad) man to hnoui ijtss nation 
jfrom enemies, luljiclj nolo ujc call certaine, 
sj>. Georges amies 

But thus much collect, that, although until Luciuswe had 
not a Christian King (for you may well suspect, rather 

1 S.itir. 4. - Suiilas in Juvenali. 

:i These names arc very differently written. 
4 Ex Nennio Barding. cap. 48. Ast Codices ii, quos consuluisse 
me Nennii antiquos contigit, huiusce rei parum Bunt memores. 

6 S. (irun/t '.s cross. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 219 

deny, for want of better authority, this of Arwragus) yet 
(unless you believe the tradition of Gundaser 1 King of Indy, 
converted 2 by S. Thomas, or Abagar 3 King of Edessa, to 
whom those letters written, as is supposed, by our Saviour's 
own hand, kept as a precious relic in Constant inople* until 
the Emperor Isaacius Angdus, as my authors say, were sent) 
it is apparent that tlds Island had the first Christian King in 
the world, and clearly in Europe, for that you cite not Tibe- 
rius his private seeming Christianity (which is observed out 
of Tertullian) even in whose time also Gildas affirms, Britain 
was comforted with wholesome beams of religious Light. 
Not much different from this age was Donald first King 
Christian of the Scots ; so that if priority oft-time swayed 
it, and not custom (derived from a communicable attribute 
given by the Popes) that name of Most Christian should 
better fit our Sovereigns than the French. This Lucius, by 
help of those two Christian aids, is said to have, in room, 
of three Arc\\-Fla?nins and twenty-eight Flamins (through 
whose doctrine, polluting sacrifices and idolatry reigned 
here instead of true service) instituted three Archbishoprics 
at London, York, and Caer-leon upon Usk, and twenty-eight 
Bishoprics; of them, all beyond Hwmber subject to York; 
all the now Wales to Caer-leon; to London, the now England 
with Cornwall. And so also was the custom in other 
Countries, even grounded upon S. Peter's own command, to 
make substitution of Arch-bishops or Patriarchs to Arch- 
Flamins, and Bishops to Flamins, if you believe a Pope's 5 
assertion. For York, there is now a Metropolitan See ; 
Caer-leon had so until the change spoken of to the Fifth 
Song ; and London, the Cathedral Church being at S. PeU r's 

1 First Christian King in the world. 

3 Abdiaa Hist. Apostolic, lib. 9. Euseb. lib. 1. cap. 13. 

3 Nicet. Cboniat. in Andronic. Comnen. lib. 2. 

4 Nicephor. Callist. lib. 2. cap. 7. et 8, 

5 Distinct. 80 c. iu illis. Clemens PP. 



220 POLY-OLBION, 

in Cornhill, until translation of the pall 1 to Canterbury by 
Augustine, sent hither by Gregory the First under King 
Ethelbert, according to a prophecy of Merlin, that Christianity 
should fail, and then revive when the See of Loudon did adorn 
Canterbury, as, after coming of the Saxons, it did. This 
moved that ambitious Gilbert of Folioth Bishop of London to 
challenge the Primacy of England ; for which he is bitterly 
taxed by a great ( !lerk 2 of the same time. If I add to the 
Br if is] i glory that this Lucius was cause of like conversion 
in Bavaria and Rhetia, I should out of my bounds. The 
learned Mark Velser, and others, have enough remem- 
bered it. 

323. Constantius' 'worthy wife 



That is Helen* wife to Constantius or Constans Chlorus the 
Emperor, and mother to Constantine the Great, daughter to 
Coile King of Britain, where Constantine was by her brought 
forth. 4 Do not object Nicephorus Callistus that erroneously 
affirms him born in Drepanum of Jiifhiini-t, or ////. Fiimic/us 5 
that says at Tarsus, upon which testimony (not uncorrupted) 
a great Critic hath violently offered to deprive us both of 
him and his mother, affirming her a Bithynian; nor take 
advantage of Cedrenus, that, will have Dacia his birth-soil. 
But our Histories, and, with them, the Latin Ecclesiastic 
relation (in passages of her Invention of the Cross, and 
such like) allowed also by Cardinal Baronius, make her 
thus a British woman. And for great Constantine's birth in 
this land you shall have authority; against which I wonder 

1 V. Kenulph in Epist. ad Leonem PP. apud <!. Mahnesb. lib. 1. 
ill- reg. et I. de Pontine, vide Basingstoch. Hist. 9. not. II. Stowe 
Survey of London, pag. -47'.*. 

Joann, ( larnoten -. in Epi -t"!. 272. 
1 //ill a mother to Constantine. ' Constantint born in Britain. 

Mat hi ■-■■ a. lil>. I . cap. I. 
,; Lips, de Rom. magnitud. li'/. I. cap. II. nimium lapsus. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 221 

how Lipsvus durst oppose his conceit. In an old Panegj 
rist, 1 srjeaking to Constantine : Liberavit Hie (lie means hia 
father) Britannias servitute, tu etiam nobiles illic oriendo ft 
cisti ;* and another, fortunata et nunc omnibus h itior terris 
Britannia, quce Constantinum Ccesarem prima vidisti.f These 
might persuade that Firtnicus were corrupted, seeing they 
lived when they might know as much of this as he. Nir 
cephorus and Cedrenus are of much later time, and deserve 
no undoubted credit. But in certain oriental admonition^'- 
of State (newly published by John Meursius Professor of 
Greek story at Leyderi) the Emperor Constantine Porphyroge- 
netes advises his son Romanus, that he should not take him 
a wife of alien blood, because all people dissonant from the 
government and manners of the Empire by a law of ' 
stantine, established in S. Sophie's Church, were prohibited 
the height of that glory, excepting only the Franks, allowing 
them this honour or/ %a\ abrhg rr,v ysvsaiv uto rZ>v roiovrm 
Isyj (t,6gm,% which might make you imagine him born in 
Gaul ; let it not move you, but observe that this Porphyro- 
genetes lived about 700 years since, when it was (and among 
the Turks still is) ordinary with these Greeks to call a all 
(especially the Western) Europeans by the name of Franks.* 
as they did themselves Bomans. Why then might not vi e 
be comprehended, whose name, as English, they scarce, as 
it seems, knew of, calling us Inelins ; 5 and indeed the inde- 

1 Panegyric, dixerint licet, Maximia/no, etc. 

* He freed Britain of bondage, Thou ennobledst it with thy birth. 

t happy Britain that first of all sawest Constantine. Panegyric. 
i em. ( 'onstantino. 

- Constantin. Porphyrogenet. de administ. imperio. cap. 29. Jo. 
Levinreum ad Panegyric. 5. liaut multum hlc moramur. 

X Because he was bora in those parts. 

:t Histor. Orientales passim et Themata Constantini, cum supra 
citato libro. 

1 Europeans called Franks. 

5 Nicet. Choniat. -. Isaac. Angel. §. nit. "lyKXtroi. 



222 P0LY-0LB10X, 

finite form of speech, in the author I cite, shews as if he 
meant some remote place by the Franks, admitting he had 
intended only but what we now call French. If you can 
believe one of our countrymen 1 that* lived about Hen. II. 
he was born in London ; others think he was born at York : 
of that, I determine not. Of this Helen, her religion, 
finding the Cross, good deeds in walling London and Col- 
chester (which in honour of her, they say, bears a Cross 
between four Crowns, and for the Invention she is yet cele- 
brated in Holy-rood day in May) and of this Constantine her 
son, a mighty and religious Emperor (although I know him 
taxed for no small faults by Ecclesiastic writers) that in 
this air received his first light and life, our Britons vaunt 
not unjustly : as in that spoken to King Arthur. 2 

J3olo it worth t'enttefc that £tfctlc the £acre s'etle Irittore 
Chat that £SolH of Brutaine thie men he nbore 
Cl)at SSoltfe fotnne the aunipnt of Rome ; of tioeue yoo it ii 
3S of Bely* antl Constantin, anfc tljou ait the thvetltJe v lots. 

For this Sibylle who she was, I must take day to tell you. 

829. Agamst the Arian Sect at Aries having ronnc. 

In the Second Council 3 at Aries in Provence, held under 
Constantine and Sylvester,^ subscribed the name of Restitutes 
Bishop of London, the like respectively in other Councils 
spoken of by the Author. It is not unfit to note here that 
in later time the use hath been (when and where Rome's 
Supremacy was acknowledged) to semi always to Genera] 
Councils, out of every Christian State, some Bishops, Ab- 
bots and Priors; and 1 find it affirmed by the Clergy under 
Hen. II. 4 that, to a General Council, only four Bishops are 

1 <;. Steplianides de Londino. Baaingstoch. Hist. G. not. 10. 

- Rob. Glocestrens. * B* lirau. 

3 l. Tom. Concil. ' Roger Hoveden. fol. 3:52. 



THE EIGHTH SONG. 22 3- 

to be sent out of England. So, by reason of this course 
added to State-allowance afterward at home, "were those 
Canons received into our law ; as of Bigamy in the Council 
of Lyons, interpreted by Parliament under Ed. I. ; of Plu- 
ralities in the Council of Lateran, held by Innocent III. 
reigning our King John ; and the law of Latpse in Benefices 
had so its ground from that Council of Lateran in 1179 
under Alexander the Third, whither, for our part, were 
sent Hugh Bishop of Durham, John Bishop of Norwich, 
lioberl Bishop of Hereford, and liainold Bishop of Bath, with 
divers Abbots, where the Canon 1 was made for presentation 
within six months, and title of Lapse, given to the Bishop 
in case the Chapter were Patron, from the Bishop to them 
if he were Patron ; which, although, in that, it be not law 
with us, nor also their difference between a lay 2 and eccle- 
siastic patron for number of the months, allowing the lay- 
man but four, 3 yet shews itself certainly to be the original ■ 
of that custom anciently and now used in the Ordinary's 
collation. And hither Henry of Bracton* refers it expressly ; 
by whom you may amend John le Briton., 5 and read Lateran 
instead of Lyons about this same matter. Your conceit, 
truly joining these things, cannot but perceive that Canons 
and Constitutions, in Pope's Councils, absolutely never 
bound us in other form than, fitting them by the square of 
English law and policy, our reverend Sages and Baronage 
allowed and interpreted 6 them, who in their formal Writ- 7 
would mention them as law and custom of the Kingdom, 
and not otherwise. 

1 G. Neubrigens. (cujus editionem nuperam et Jo. Picardi annota- 
tiones consulas) lib. :J. cap. '.'•>. et Hovedenus habent ipsas, quae sunt, 
Constitntiones. a Extravag. Concess. prsebend. c. 2. 

:i (i. Decret. tit. jure, patronat. §. Verum. c. unic. 

1 Lib. 4. tract. •!. cap. 6. 

■' Brittonua emendatus cap. tits acuuiom 92, 

6 I). Ed. Coke. lil>. tie jure Regis ecclesia 

7 Regist. Grig. £ol. 42. 



224 POLY-OLBION, 

857. Eleven thousand maids sent those our friends '"join. 

Our common story affirms, that in time of Gratian the 
Emperor, Gonan King of Armoric Britain (which was tilled 
with a Colony of this Isle by this Conan and Maximus, 
otherwise Maximian that slew Gratian) having war with 
the neighbouring Gauls, desired of Dinoth Eegent of Corn- 
wall, 1 or (if you will) of our Britain (by nearness of blood, 
so to establish and continue love in the posterity of both 
countries) that he might himself match with Dinottis daugh- 
ter Ursula, and with her a competent multitude of Virgins 
might be sent over to furnish his unwived Batchelors : 
whereupon were 11,000 of the nobler blood with Ursula 
and 00, oo(j of meaner rank (elected out of divers parts of 
the Kingdom) shipped at London 2 for satisfaction of this re- 
quest. In the coast of Gaul, they were by tempest dispersed; 
some ravished, by the Ocean; others for chaste denial of 
their maiden-heads to Guaine and Melga, Kings of Huns 
and Picts (whom Gratian had animated against Maximus, as 
usurping title of the British Monarchy) were miserably put 
to the sword in some German coast, whither misfortune 
carried them. But because the Author slips it over with a 
touch, you shall have it in such old Verse, as I have. 8 

Chts mattJcns mere rjfjaTjrcSJ antj to London come 

iilani lucre glafc thcrcf auTj mcl sorri 0omc 

Chat hit 1 ssolfc of lontjr bjcnttc anU nrti est hor 5 frenfc rsr 

!HntJ some to Irsc hor mattjrnhoU bn'ues hor to he. 

Clio hit mere tn sst'fcs iiDo, antj in thr sc bet* lucre 

£o grct tempest thn* come that fcrof hem here antj there. 

£o that the mrstcftel" afcictncfc hjere in the se 

SlntJ to other lontis some r-tjrtue that ne come nener age." 

■ t" the Ninth Song, 
I. ut Bee to the Fourteenth Song, of Coventry. 

I renB. J 'J hey. ■ Their. 

6 M(..-,t part. gain. 



THE EIGHTH SOXG. 225 

21 lung there tons of 5?ungrn, G-uaine boas his name, 

Hnfcr Melga iu Picardie 1 that couthe titou of fame, 

Che boaters bor to iofct abottte the sc hii boere 

3 comjjante of this mawtiens so that hit met there, 

Co hor folte hit boolfcc home nunc 2 and hor men als? 

9c the man&cns boolfc rather trie than conccntn thereto 

Cho toende borth the luther 3 men and the maidens slob 

echone 
Jj'o that to the lasse Brutaine there ne come aliue none. 

Some lay all this wickedness absurdly (for time endures 
it not) to Attil(is i charge, who reigned King of Hums about 
450 (above sixty years after Gratian) and affirm their suffer- 
ing of this (as they call it) martyrdom at Cologne, whither, 
in at the mouth of Rhine, they were carried ; others also 
particularly tell you that there were four companions to 
Ursula, in greatness and honour, their names 5 being Pyn- 
nosa, Cordula, Eleutheria, Florentia, and that under these 
were to every of the 11,000 one President, Iota, Benignd, 
dementia, Sapient ia, Carpophore,, Columba, Benedicta, Odilia, 
Gelyndris, Sibylla, and Lucia ; and that, custom at Cologne 
hath excluded all other bodies from the place of their 
burial. The strange multitude of 71,000 Virgins thus to 
be transported, with the difference of time (the most excel- 
lent note to examine truth of history by) may make you 
doubt of the whole report. I will not justify it, but only 
admonish thus, that those our old Stories are in this fol- 
lowed by that great Historian Baronms, allowed by Francis de 
Bar, White of Basingstoke ; and before any of them, by that 
learned Abbot TrUemius, beside the Martyroiogies, which 
to the honour of the 11,000 have dedicated the 11th day 

1 OfthePicts. - Them take. 3 Lew.l. 

* Hector. Boet. Hist. Scotic. 7. ox antiquioribus, verum falsi rcis 

5 Usuard. Martyrolog. 21. Octob. 

TOL. I. 



m P0LY-0LB1ON, 

of our October. But indeed how they can stand with what 
in some copies of Nennius 1 we read, I cannot see : it is 
there reported, that those Britons which went thither with 
Maximus (the same man and time with the former) took 
them Gaulish wives, and cut out their tongues, lest they 
should possess their children of Gaulish language ; whence 
our Welsh called them afterward 3ld)tt*(K!lrtiton,* because 
they spake confusedly. I see 2 that yet there is great affinity 
twixt the British Armoric, and the Welsh) the first (to give 
you a taste) saying, $>on tall pchuntt £ou en ffaott, the other, 
Crn tntJ m - hum uolmt jm v lufocHU for Our Father which art 
m heaven; but I suspect extremely that fabulous tongue- 
cutting, and would have you of the two, believe rather the 
Virgins, were it not for the exorbitant number, and that, 
against infallible credit, our Historians mix with it Gratian's 
surviving Maximus ; a kind of fault that makes often the 
very truth doubtfuL 

$69. Than from the Scythian poor whence they themselves ierm, 

He means the Saxons, whose name, after learned men, is 
to the Fourth Song derived from a Scythian nation. It 
pleases the Muse in this passage to speak of that original, 
as mean and unworthy of comparison with the Troktn 
British^ drawn out of Jupiter's blood by Venus, A aclases, and 
JEncas ; I justify her phrase, for that the Scythian w as in- 
deed poor, yet voluntarily, not through want, living com- 
monly in field-tents; and (as our Germans in Tacitus) so 
Stoical, as not to care for the future, having provision for 
the present, from nature's liberality. But, if it were worth 
examining, you might find the Scythian as noble and worthy 

1 Sunt enim antiqui codices quibus hoc merito deest, nccnon ut 
glossema ill ml non irreptasse, scutiro sum poti . 
• Half-ailent. 
' Paul. MeruL Cosmog. part. 2. lib. 3. cap, 15. 



THE EIGHTH SOXG. 227 

a nation as any read of ; and such a one as the English and 
others might be as proud to derive themselves from, as any 
which do search for their ancestors' glory in Troian ashes. 
If you believe the old report 1 of themselves, then can you 
not make them less than descended by Targitaus from Jupi- 
ter and Borysthems ; if what the Greeks, who, as afterward 
the Romans, accounted and styled all barbarous except 
themselves ; then you must draw their pedigree through 
Agathyrsus, Gelonus, and Scytha, from Hercules ; neither of 
these have, in this kind, their superior. If among them, 
you desire learning;, remember Zamolxis, Diceneus, and Ana- 
charsis before the rest* For although to some of these 
other patronymics are given, yet know that anciently (which 
for the present matter observe seriously) as all, Southward, 
were call'd ^Ethiopians ; all Eastward, Indians; all West, 
Celts; so all Northerns were styled Scythians; as Ephxrrus 1 
is author. I could add the honourable allegories, of those 
their Golden Yoke, Plough, Hatchet, and Cup sent from 
heaven, wittily enough delivered by Goropius, 3 with other 
conjectural testimonies of their worth. But I abstain from 
such digression. 

1 Herodot. Melpom. S. 2 Apucl Strab. lib. a. 

3 Amazonia. Becceselan. 3. 



END OF VOL. I. 



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